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BOSTON 
PUBLIC 
tlBRARY 




SMITHSONIAN 
_ YEAR 

1969 



Smithsonian Year 
1969 



ANNUAL REPORT OF 

THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FOR THE YEAR ENDED 30 JUNE 1969 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PRESS 

City of Washington 

1969 






SMITHSONIAN PUBLICATION 4765 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Qovenunent Printing OflSce 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $3.00 



The Smithsonian Institution 

The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 1846 
in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson, of England, 
who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of America 
"to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge 
among men." In receiving the property and accepting the trust, Con- 
gress determined that the federal government was without authority to 
administer the trust directly, and, therefore, constituted an "establish- 
ment," whose statutory members are "the President, the Vice President, 
the Chief Justice, and the heads of the executive departments." 

The Establishment 

Richard M. Nixon, President of the United States 

Spiro T. Agnew, Vice President of the United States 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States 

William P. Rogers, Secretary of State 

David M. Kennedy, Secretary of the Treasury 

Melvin R. Laird, Secretary of Defense 

John N. Mitchell, Attorney General 

Winton M. Blount, Postmaster General 

Walter J. Hickel, Secretary of the Interior 

Clifford M. Hardin, Secretary of Agriculture 

-^ Maurice H. Stans, Secretary of Commerce 

George P. Schultz, Secretary of Labor 

Robert H. Finch, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare 

George W. Romney, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 

John A. Volpe, Secretary of Transportation 



Board of Regents and Secretary 

30 June 1969 



Presiding Officer ex officio 



Richard M. Nixon, President of the 
the United States, Chancellor 



Regents of the Institution 



Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of 

the United States, Chancellor 
Spiro T. Agnew, Vice President of 

the United States 
Clinton P. Anderson, Member of 

the Senate 
J. William Fulbright, Member of 

the Senate 
Hugh Scott, Member of the Senate 
Frank T. Bow, Member of the House 

of Representatives 
Michael J. Kirwan, Member of the 

House of Representatives 
George H. Mahon, Member of the 

House of Representatives 
John Nicholas Brown, citizen of 

Rhode Island 
William A. M. Burden, citizen of 

New York 
Crawford H. Greene walt, citizen 

of Delaware 
Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of Wash- 
ington, D.C. 
Thomas J. Watson, Jr., citizen of 

Connecticut 



Executive Committee 



Chancellor (Board of Regents) 
Clinton P. Anderson 
Caryl P. Haskins (Chairman ad 
interim) 



The Secretary 



S. Dillon Ripley 



Assistant Secretaries James Bradley, Assistant Secretary 

Sidney R. Galler, Assistant Secre- 
tary (Science) 
Charles Blitzer, Assistant Secretary 

(History and Art) 
William W. Warner, Assistant Sec- 
retary (Public Service) 
A listing of the professional staff of the Smithsonian Institution, its 
bureaus, and its offices appears in Appendix 4. 



Contents 



Page 

The Smithsonian Institution in 

Board of Regents and Secretary iv 

Statement by the Secretary 1 

Financial Report 35 

Office of Academic Programs 49 

Science 57 

National Museum of Natural History 59 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 171 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 219 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 235 

National Zoological Park 245 

Office of Oceanography and Limnology 271 

Office of Ecology 289 

Center for the Study of Man 313 

Center for the Study of Short-Lived Phenomena 319 

History and Art 323 

National Museum of History and Technology 325 

Freer Gallery of Art 375 

National Collection of Fine Arts 387 

National Portrait Gallery 405 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 435 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design 443 

National Air and Space Museum 463 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 477 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 483 

American Studies Program 485 

The Joseph Henry Papers 489 

special Programs 491 

Office of the Director General of Museums 493 

Office of Exhibits Programs 497 

Conservation-Analytical Laboratory 513 

Office of the Registrar 517 

Traveling Exhibition Service 52 1 



Page 

Public Service and Information Activities 529 

Smithsonian Associates 531 

Office of Public Affairs 539 

Office of International Activities 549 

Division of Performing Arts 555 

Smithsonian Museum Shops 559 

Belmont Conference Center 563 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 565 

Smithsonian (Magzizine) 569 

Archives 571 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 573 

International Exchange Service 577 

Information Systems Division 581 

Smithsonian Institution Press 591 

Science Information Exchange 605 

Administrative Management 609 

National Gallery of Art 62 1 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 645 

Appendix 661 

1 . Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program 663 

2. Members of the Smithsonian Council 667 

3. Academic Appointments 673 

4. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution 683 



VI 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 

S. Dillon Ripley 



Statement by the Secretary 



IN AN AGE OF FRAGMENTATION, when there seem to be more nations 
and nationalities than ever before, when scientists and artists aHke 
are concerned with myriad specialties and subsects, how may the 
Smithsonian live up to its mandate? There are curious countervailing 
currents at large in the world today. On the one hand the knowledge 
of things — technological and scientific — is growing exponentially and 
forcing all of us apparently to live more and more in an homogenized 
state as we become universally more dependent on our crutches, in- 
dustrial and private power, communications and transportation. On 
the other hand the spirit of independence, of "doing your own thing" 
at all levels from individuals to communes, tribes and on to nations, is 
having a strong revival. Beyond producing discontent and tension, will 
these antagonistic currents finally clash, or will they seek out an integra- 
tive middle course? Can man live with himself and still be part of a 
world community? 

At the Smithsonian we seek to study and hope to explain areas 
which can increase man's knowledge of his environment as well as his 
knowledge of himself. From the point of view of environment the single 
most important need of humans today is a grasp of the patterns, the 
Functioning of ecosystems, the total environmental milieu in any one of 
Dur major climatic zones. On this understanding our physical future 
depends. 

The nature' of man continues to evade definition, although we seem 
to come closer each year. It is worth pointing out in this regard, as 
aryl Haskins, the President of the Carnegie Institution, did recently, 
that man's innate mental equipment is still superior to any known 
computer and that no one has been able to invent a single interlocking 
jystem with as many as ten billion discrete units, or the equivalent of 
the neural potential of a single human brain. 

In many ways this Institution's history of research and study has been 
helping to set the stage for some of the most engrossing and enthralling 
achievements of the present. Let us at least as Americans take credit 
For some triumphs in this age of questioning and confusion. We can 
single out one supreme feat of the past year, the flight around the 
noon — the dawn of a new age — followed in July by a very tangible 

1 



2 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

triumph indeed. That prescient moment this past year was the one dur- 
ing which perhaps half the world's human population watched, in ap- 
parently full realization of what was happening, while a foot in a clumsy 
shoe and then a leg encased in wrappings, but obviously a human leg, 
emerged from the bulky shadows in the television screen, and edged 

its way downward into bright light toward what moonground, 

grayish-white and staring as if in some deathly lamplight. The light — 
twenty times brighter than that we see at the time of the full moon — 
was earthlight. And so man touched the lunar surface and the rest of 
us saw it and felt it palpably. Through the astronauts all of us have 
now somehow touched the moon. 

There was a new truth in all this besides the touch, the contact. That 
was the screen. It was more real to watch it than to read about it. 
We are perhaps in the beginning of an age when the printed wordi 
will suddenly be less like holy writ. All of us have been brought up to 
believe printed words. From the Bible, or religious writing of some sortt 
right on, we are educated to believe what we read. In the welter off 
ignorance in which we exist, we still feel that to obtain facts one only 
need use his training, and so we read history as written by historians, andl 
we read newspapers for instant facts. We use words in the same way, 
words like "war," "love," and "country." We use words like "environ- 
ment," "race," and "enemy," and we think they have a meaning even 
though they are incapable of providing one to our senses. When we use 
such words — even though they are mere ideas or generalities — and 
when we believe exactly what we read we are proving a rather sad 
point about education and textbooks today, namely that, as Jules Henr) 
puts it, much of education serves to confirm us in a state of legitimate 
social stupidity. It is hard to conceive of this as a goal of education, 
even though Henry appears to believe this is all some sort of plot. 
At the same time, constant repetition of slogan phrases — like so many 
sieg heih — as well as the numbing belief that what we read is true 
even if our senses tell us otherwise, does tend to create a penumbra, 
a twilight zone in which the reassurances of conformity can dwell. 

When they turned homeward the astronauts affirmed that our planet 
earth had a warm and receptive look. Not only was it this earth of ours, 
"this precious stone set in a silver sea," but it was the only planet around 
which looked colorful and homey. Home is the hunter, home from 
outer space. Neil Armstrong reminded us in a moving phrase that the 
effect of that noble adventure for him had been to generate the hope 
that as man sets out to know more about space, he may come in the 
process to learn somewhat more about himself. 

In this moment of shared pride and renewed dedication, we of the 
Smithsonian have our own small part. We can identify ourselves as 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 5 

concerned with the origins of this whole vast achievement. Charles D. 
Walcott, fourth Secretary of the Smithsonian, worked for the passage 
of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics enabling act of 
1915, served as Chairman of its first executive committee until 1917, and 
as a member of the committee until his death in 1927. The National 
Advisory Committee was transformed into the National Air and Space 
Administration in 1958. From such small beginnings, organized by Wal- 
cott as a mark of scientific respect to his predecessor, former Secretary 
Samuel P. Langley, have sprung the whole vast panoply of nasa — this 
creator of the "Spirit of Appollo" as President Nixon has termed it. 

We live in a biological universe, that of the earth, and so far as we 
know it is the only one we will ever live in. Our own age of enlighten- 
ment, our own mastery of facts as distinct from ideals or slogans, has 
shown us that everything in the cosmos — from heavenly bodies to 
human beings — has developed and continues to develop through evo- 
lutionary processes. Thus theoretical biology now pervades all of west- 
ern culture indirectly through the concept of progressive historical 
change. Man and his culture have evolved simultaneously, certainly 
after some finite point, if not before. Increases in brain size must have 
occurred simultaneously with the unfolding of patterns of social behav- 
ior. Primitive forms of art, of religion and even forms of scientific dis- 
covery also must have played their part in affecting the development of 
neural processes and capacity, and their integration. New reaction pat- 
terns provide physiological adaptations to man's own evolving culture. 
What would seem to be almost certain is that the various components 
of human culture are now required, not only for the survival of man 
but also for his existential realization. In our biological universe, man's 
continuing evolution helps create his evolving culture, and thereby the 
two become interdependent, even as they continue to evolve. 

A truism in evolutionary studies is the presence of diversity at all 
levels of systems. In this past year, the Smithsonian opened the first Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery, a long-awaited event, achieved only with the will- 
willing cooperation of some of the Nation's great art galleries, and 
friendly private collectors, for famous portrait paintings have long since 
been gathered up largely into state and local historical collections or pri- 
vate institutions. The successful opening exhibition of the Gallery was 
centered around the theme — what is the American, this man evolved in a 
New Land? What is this new creation, this "promiscuous breed," as 
Oscar Handlin called Americans in his introduction to the catalogue of 
the exhibition? Only a few were left out in this rich brew of portraits. 
There were few poor men, no beggarmen to speak of, and perhaps only 
a thief or two. 



4 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1969 

But the exhibition did give a clue to the student of p>opulations. A 
variety of disparate types of populations, set down in a variety of hetero- 
geneously diverse environments, has demonstrated another truism in 
evolution theory. Even though the original individuals may have sepa- 
rate origins, there is a tendency for a continuing interplay both within 
and without, so that segregated, small groups tend to develop small 
cultural as well as physical resemblances. These resemblances aggregate 
into regional resemblances. These last may eventually aggregate into 
traits of culture, or character, which do in fact produce recognizable 
characteristics. So subspecies are born, of geographical isolation, and 
resulting cultural and physical resemblances in spite of a wide diversity 
of original genetic combinations. At the same time other changing 
influences may be at work to break down and recombine these combi- 
nations, and so the melting pot continually forms and reforms, blending 
and blurring the evolving differences. 

Looking at this splendid panorama of Americans, one does receive an 
impression that at least in past years our people had developed a certain 
series of recognizable types with regional overtones. The New Eng- 
lander has some shared resemblances with northeastemers. The south- 
eastern mountains have their types, and the Texans are characteristic 
with shared resemblances to the southwest in general. The differing 
nationalities have preserved many of their customs as well as certain 
morphological minor differences. Racial differences seem to have been 
on a submerging course. Indian tribes have been slowly and steadily 
losing their distinctness, sometimes stampeding themselves in the race 
to be like everyone else. Negroes, following the predictions of Raymond 
Pearl, have been gradually integrating and assimilating themselves into 
the rest of the general population, especially in cities as they migrated 
from the farms until recently. Now it remains to be seen if this gradual 
evolutionary process can be arrested by a conscious effort of will by 
racists among the blacks. Our great new National Portrait Gallery, so 
ably started under the direction of Charles Nagel, and now to be con- 
tinued under his talented successor, Marvin Sadik, is thus a scholarly 
resource for the other branches of the Smithsonian in history and 
anthropology as well as in portraiture. Its exhibits and its collections 
extend in cross currents throughout the Institution. 

In the meantime it would seem as if a portrait gallery or any art mu- 
seum is in some ways more closely akin to what people accept nowadays 
as the new inculcation by television, than it is to the previous learning by 
reading and writing. Perhaps TV and museums are more closely allied 
than we think. The new generation's familiarity with ingestion by TV 
may serve to habituate them to museum-like education. If this be so, 
let us hope that museums realize it before someone else takes them over. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 

The two basic themes which can be demonstrated in a museum setting 
are perhaps central to our survival on our homey planet. On the one 
hand there is man's evolving culture, so closely tied in with man's own 
physical evolution. That culture can be demonstrated more effectively 
by the use of objects than in almost any other way. And it is that very 
culture which plays such a fundamental role in our second great theme, 
man's relation to his environment and the biosphere — that small existing 
envelope of available land, water, and air within which we can survive. 
For the present phenomenon is that our culture and our environment are 
no more at war with each other on terms of rough equality, but that 
rather our material culture is in danger of destroying our old presumed 
enemy, nature. 

Americans especially have been brought up to be at war with nature, 
beginning with a European heritage in which it was assumed that nature 
itself was an enemy against whose onslaughts one built houses and walls, 
made fires, hunted wild animals, and ate whatever could be wrenched 
out of the soil. Having hacked and burned our way across the frontier, 
having been prompted to do this by everything from poetry and English 
literature (whose word pictures constantly remind us to fear nature) 
to our new technological culture, we have at last turned the scales. 
As Ian McHarg and others have recently reminded us, we are about 
to dominate and subjugate nature and in the process destroy it. Can we 
demonstrate these facts through visual means, so long as people are 
more or less unimpressed by reading about them? Can we teach j>eople 
to care about their future enough to stop the present relentless pro- 
gression into war, starvation, or suffocation? How can we learn enough 
about ourselves to stop in time? 

During this past winter, the Smithsonian celebrated the third of its 
annual symposia, this one on recent advances in the understanding of 
social behavior of higher animals. The implications to be drawn from the 
symposium, titled "Man and Beast," were fairly clear, even though no 
one assumed that primate behavior research can tell us all we need to 
know about man's behavior. Quite obviously it cannot, and yet the con- 
ference was a fine escape from anthropocentrism. There are many things 
that other creatures from ants to birds to baboons can tell us, which can 
serve as guides along the way to knowing ourselves. The event was a 
splendid one, well attended, and the speakers were greeted with enthusi- 
! asm not always reserved for such occasions. Much of the credit for all of 
! this must go to Wilton Dillon who took over the complex organi- 
zation of seminars for us during the past year. 

I This seminar revealed a characteristic of the Smithsonian. A meeting 
such as this, assaying relations between human social behavior and prin- 
ciples drawn from the scientific study of animal behavior, seems instantly 



b SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

to knit together so many common concerns from within the Institution's 
disparate bureaux. The field is one in which the Smithsonian's Tropical 
Research Institute in Panama has done leading work for many years. In 
addition the Office of Ecology, the National Zoological Park, and the 
Primate Biology Program of the Museum of Natural History have all 
been involved creatively. 

From 13 through 16 May the eleven speakers, several hundred in- 
vited participants, and stafT members widely drawn from the Smith- 
sonian explored the extent to which aggression, cooperation, competition, 
and territoriality were common to man and other species. The sympo- 
sium yielded a rich perspective on the emergence of cultural factors 
whose operation attenuates the influence of our biological heritage, cor- 
recting an overemphasis attributed to innate behavior by a number of 
popular writers. The opening academic procession represented sym- 
bolically the fulfillment of the ideal of a scholarly community which the 
succeeding days of seminars, colloquia, formal papers, and social events 
realized in strikingly tangible manner. We are most grateful to the 
Russell Sage Foundation, The Grant Foundation, the Alfred P. Sloan 
Foundation, The Commonwealth Fund, and other contributing sponsors, 
and also to the inspiring chairmanship of Dr. Alex A. Kwapong, Vice 
Chancellor of the University of Ghana, who so ably presided. The pro- 
ceedings of the symposium will shortly appear from the Smithsonian 
Institution Press under the title Man and Beast: Comparative Social 
Behavior. 

An aspect of the Smithsonian's ideal of functioning as a community 
of scolars consists of improving communication among the complex of 
universities and research establishments in the Washington area. In 
July 1968 we inaugurated a regular bulletin. The Washington Academic 
Calendar, listing seminars and lectures being given throughout the 
metropolitan area. This bulletin is mailed as a service to university and 
independent laboratory stafT members. The mailing list for the Calen- 
dar, which now contains more than 6,000 names, will serve as the nu- 
cleus of a continuing file of Washington area academic interests, listing; 
recipients by discipline and institutional affiliation. We hope eventually 
to be able to correlate the pattern of academic events with the array of 
interests in the city and its institutional patterns — a study, as it were, of 
the academic ecology of an urban area. 

As a visible manifestation of our function as a community I can think 
of no better indication than the award, in a pleasant ceremony before 
the Joseph Henry statue, on 5 June 1969, of Certificates of Academic 
Achievement to postdoctoral associates and graduate students on ap- 
pointments from the Office of Academic Programs. Not a degree, and 
awarded with advance approval of each student's university, the Cer- 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 7 

tificate attests to the satisfactory completion of an assignment chosen 
by the student himself in consultation with a supervisor. Professor Henry 
understood the Smithsonian to be a "College of discoverers," with stu- 
dents participating intensively in its work. To the extent that we have 
helped to perpetuate his concept of the Institution as an auxiliary aca- 
demic establishment we have helped to underscore one very important 
objective of the Institution. Despite the monolithic tendency of our 
federal government to wish to centralize and combine efforts and funds 
continually in the name of efficiency, the administration of pure research 
tends to elude such neat solutions. In connection with work on the 
President's Marine Sciences Council, all the members were asked to 
comment on the council report at the end of 1968. I was struck by the 
reference to the importance of small independent institutions such as 
the Marine Biological Station at Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Like the 
MBS, as it is called, the Smithsonian operates independently on its own 
small budget, but serves as part of an interlocking network of a national 
community of scholars. Dr. Leland Haworth, then Director of the 
National Science Foundation, when writing to Vice President Agnew 
on 10 March 1969 in regard to oceanographic research, said (speaking 
of Woods Hole) ; "we can see merit in having such independent research 
organizations." The same seems to apply to the Smithsonian. 

Our symposia can thus serve as points of focus for a wide range of 
associated Institution activities, from seminar series to exhibits, from 
productions for the media to special publications. The coming year will 
be devoted in large measure to studies of cultural change and displays 
bearing upon this theme. In the year following we hope to conduct an 
intensive examination of the impact of technology upon society, in- 
cluding a major exhibition on technology and art, the preparation of 
curriculum materials for educational institutions, and a large number 
of scholarly sessions devoted to detailed aspects of this general theme. 
In this way we begin to bind together the different parts of the assem- 
blage and orchestrate a theme uniting their efforts toward a given end. 
A second major goal is to achieve reinforcement within our arrays of 
reference resources. A curator's expertise and personal knowledge, built 
up over a lifetime of study, represent an information resource, as do the 
books and reprints he has gathered around himself; then, as in an outer 
concentric circle, come the ordered materials of a collection. We are 
purposefully seeking ways to conduct these activities so that each rein- 
forces the others to the maximum practical extent. Not books separate 
from objects; not specialized information services separate from either, 
but rather integrated reference systems which can unite all three. The 
Smithsonian's uniqueness and value depends upon our success in being 
a different kind of marshalling center where recorded knowledge gives 



8 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

wide access to pertinent inquiry and is not regarded as a burdensome 
encumbrance or permitted to weigh down our ventures into ideas. 

Out of this springs a kind of neo-economy. Our collections in biolog- 
ical and geological materials — often gathered at random — may by their 
very size and multiplicity end up being our single most important asset. 
Our data bank of specimens, even though we may not today be able to 
extract the ideal information we need, may turn out in a hundred years 
to represent four or five times the genetic diversity then available to us, 
for by that time seventy-five to eighty percent of the species of living 
animals or plants may be extinct. 

The very variety of resources of the Institution may have begun to 
work against effectiveness in our exhibits. Too many aspects of a given 
subject may be out of sight in other buildings where they are excluded 
from consideration in preparing exhibits. This year I have appointed a 
special commission to reappraise the exhibits function within the Insti- 
tution and seek ways to unify our presentations, to make them more 
responsive to visitors' interests and more appealing to all of our citizens. 
Exhibits that merely display objects from the collections, individually 
labeled and placed behind glass, reinforce the fragmentation of the 
Smithsonian, while those whose aim is to interpret a wider domain of 
knowledge help to realize its converging interests. 

Cohesive programs must be given concerted management. This year 
an enormously important step was taken in re-establishing the position 
of Treasurer of the Institution as a central office to oversee budgeting, 
control, planning, development, and fiscal management. The Office of 
Programming and Budget has begun an intensive analysis of the use 
of Institution resources — both public and private — in the context of a 
statement of objectives and the analysis of functions. We have been for- 
tunate indeed that T. Ames Wheeler, formerly of the Allegheny- 
Ludlum Steel Corporation, joined the Smithsonian staff as Treasurer in 
September 1968. Under his care both public and private funds can be 
marshalled to achieve true effectiveness. 

This has been a year of continued questioning in America — insistent, 
sometimes shrill, penetrating, skeptical, above all, iconoclastic. Critics 
charge the entire educational system with grave deficiencies, doubt the 
wisdom of our acceptance of technology, and find all too small a return 
from massive social investments in government programs. The Smith- 
sonian has not been invaded by angry protesters or disrupted by dissi- 
dents but it cannot escape the need, which is becoming so general in 
our time, to subject its activities to the most searching review and to 
reappraise its objectives in the light of the more rigorous expectations 
of the day. No institution is too venerable or too valuable to be exempted 
from such scrutiny. In government jargon the phrase is, "let us get back 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY y 

to the base." An "open" university such as ours should thrive on 
self-examination. 

The first thing we must expect from any institution is that it frame 
socially valuable objectives and conduct its affairs in accord with them. 
Yet charitable and governmental establishments are shaped in large 
measure by past legacies. Once-plausible aims may shrink with time 
into nostalgic obsolescence. Bureaux, divisions, working groups, com- 
mittees, and a host of other administrative entities are set up within 
institutions, given separate charters, and thereafter pursue independent 
and conflicting courses until what was meant to be an orderly flotilla 
comes to resemble a park basin cluttered with children's toy boats of 
every conceivable description in total disarray. The word institution 
comes from the Latin verb statuere, to set up, implying an end in view. 
Only as ends are served can an institution be maintained as a viable 
whole whose parts, like those of any functioning organism, must be 
interdependent. 

To many people the Smithsonian Institution must seem improbably 
heterogeneous, built up over the years like a midden heap of collected 
objects, many priceless and all interesting. As I have suggested, the 
collections may be priceless but they are not the institution any more 
than buildings are a university. It is the scholars who for one reason or 
another have been attracted to us, full time or part time, as permanent 
or transient workers, who can perhaps learn to grasp the meaning of the 
collections. By being in touch with real objects and by being attentive to 
the real situations in which these objects were placed or developed, 
perhaps our scholars can develop what Kant, speaking of the spon- 
taneous interplay of our own intellectual powers, called the "synthetic 
unity of aperception." This is learning, and curators are capable of this 
even if teachers are not always so. But if a curator understands such a 
situation in nature or in a culture coherently and wholly, then he is 
better as a teacher than most teachers. 

The whole problem of teaching today revolves around whether 
teaching really teaches people how to learn, or whether it comes down 
to getting people out of schools fast, having coerced them through fear 
and competitive pressure into getting meaningless diplomas. Recently 
graduate students in a survey conducted by the American Political 
Science Association have been complaining about college work per- 
formed under a climate of "threat and fear." Learning to learn must 
certainly be a failure if it merely means aping the teacher, becoming an 
"apple-polisher," or picking up the innate structure of a teacher's 
behavior. Or is that really what we all should do in order to get on in 
life? I am inclined to think not, as I doubt that we can survive this way. 

Museums teach us about real things, which is one reason why young 

366-269 O— 70 2 



10 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

people like them. They also tend to put things in perspective, in a his- 
torical context, which young people tend not to learn in other ways. One 
failure of teaching in the social sciences has been to eliminate dates as 
having any contextual value. Thus the steppingstones which an earlier 
generation memorized, from the defeat of the Persian fleet at Salamis 
right onward, tend to be left out. The Persian fleet might have been 
defeated at the Battle of the Coral Sea for all young people today know. 
One of the failures of TV is also in the scale of time. Everything is 
instant. It is happening now in an existential manner, which fails to 
convey reality. 

Museums offer an opportunity for training in reality which few 
pedagogues suspect or know. Musuems are open universities. Only ex- 
amples really count, especially when they can be grasped in the round. 
How then can young people plan for the future without tenable exam- 
ples and a historical context? Planning is probably the most important 
aspect of the future, along with the understanding of ecosystems. It 
would seem that we may be heading into a form of civil war as far as 
planning is concerned. Education today being reductionist in emphasis, 
technology being dominant and reductionist in principle, there can per- 
haps be no solution so long as our economics persists as it does. The quiet 
voices of rational and studious students of the environment will prob- 
ably not suffice. We may well be swept aside by the groundswell of opin- 
ion of those — from militant students on through the middle-aged mid- 
dle class living in quiet desperation — who, mindful of the futility of 
growing old, finally reject our social and economic goals based on sub- 
jective private initiative. 

One major task of this Institution should be to exf)eriment with 
learning techniques. If this research could ever produce a method to 
create a sense of reality, and to awaken interests in people, then the 
Smithsonian would indeed have lived up to its mandate. 



HISTORY AND ART 

Another notable event of this year besides the op>ening of the Portrait 
Gallery has been the ground-breaking ceremony for the Joseph H. Hirsh- 
horn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Authorized under the 90th Con- 
gress, the building with its sculpture garden should be completed in 
another two years. The ceremony was performed 8 January 1969 by 
President Johnson, the Smithsonian's Chancellor, Chief Justice Earl 
Warren, and the Secretary before a distinguished audience of members 
of Congress, the Administration and the world of art. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 11 

To the superlative collection of fine art he has donated to the United 
States for the benefit of the people, in 1969 Mr. Hirshhom's continued 
generosity resulted in the addition of more than five hundred new 
paintings and sculptures — an average of over ten new works each week 
received, cataloged, and stationed by Abram Lerner and his staff of three. 
Since November 1966, the date of Mr. Hirshhorn's gift, his generosity 
has led to the acquisition of outstanding new paintings and sculptures 
valued at over one million dollars each year, in addition to the one mil- 
lion dollars he has agreed to donate for future purchases upon the 
opening of the Hirshhom Museum. 

In this first year since its opening, exhibitions have been a major 
part of the activity of the National Collection of Fine Arts in trying out 
its new space. The first of these areas to be developed has been the low- 
vaulted, crypt-like spaces of the Granite Gallery, which proved ad- 
mirably suited to the bronze sculpture of an exhibition of the works of 
Alexander Archipenko. 

A major achievement of the year was the retrospective exhibition of 
paintings, drawings, and photographs by Charles Sheeler organized by 
the NCFA staff, with its full and richly documented catalog as a per- 
manent reminder of the exhibition and as a scholarly reference. The 
Sheeler exhibition continued with showings at the Philadelphia Museum 
of Art and at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York. 

During the year David Scott — who had done so much to help in the 
installation of the National Collection in its new quarters and who had, 
with the NCFA staff done a great deal to attract interest to the collec- 
tions — resigned. Robert Tyler Davis, a new member of the staff as assis- 
tant director, took over as acting director, until late summer 1969, when 
the appointment of Joshua Taylor, Professor of the History of Art at the 
University of Chicago and a specialist in the history of American Art, 
was announced. 

During the year negotiations have proceeded to bring the Archives 
of American Art to a new headquarters within the Smithsonian in 
Washington, part of a proposed network of art historical reference 
centers to be planned across the nation. This enormous resource, when 
added to the holdings in the Smithsonian, will go far toward making 
the National Collection what it should be, the heart of a documentation 
and research center in the history of our own indigenous art. 

Efforts of the Museum of History and Technology to expand the 
scope of our activities beyond those traditional to museums have been 
reflected in a number of directions. Under contract the Museum has 
undertaken the collection of data on Afro-American history, and has 
made a small beginning in the collection of materials for exhibition 
in this field. A 19th-century sharecropper's cabin has been acquired and 



12 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

is presently being installed as part of an exhibit of the history of American 
Negro culture. In other areas of ethnic cultural history our staff has 
conducted research on the church of San Xavier del Bac (circa 1783) 
near Tucson, Arizona, and on early pottery making in California. A 
shopfront from a gold-rush period community near San Francisco is 
presently being put on exhibit. The Museum has undertaken a program 
of research and recording in the folk music of an eastern mountain com- 
munity at Galax, Virginia. 

The Computer History Project, supported by the American Federa- 
tion of Information Processing Societies, is now in its second year, under 
the direction of Dr. Uta Merzbach. This project comprehends the 
collection of documents and tape-recorded interviews with persons 
important in the development of the computer. Another major project 
in its second year is the New England Textile Mill survey. A report of 
the first summer's work, chiefly at Manchester, New Hampshire, was 
published this year. 

This year our National Museum of History and Technology wel- 
comes a new Director, Professor Daniel Boorstin, Preston and Sterling 
Morton Distinguished Service Professor of Ancient History, of the 
University of Chicago, and one of our most eminent living American 
historians. The pleasant coincidence that Professor Boorstin has also 
been reappointed to President Nixon's Commission on the American 
Revolution Bicentennial, affords us additional opportunity to cooperate 
closely with the Commission on plans for the Nation's observance of 
renewed dedication to our founding principles of liberty and equality 
before all men. 

This has been a year of program formulation for the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum of Design in New York. A lease has been arranged with the 
Carnegie Corporation, owner of the Andrew Carnegie mansion on 
Fifth Avenue at Ninety-first Street, and it is hoped that the Museum 
will be installed there in its own quarters by 1971. 

The kinds of programs and services offered by the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum bring to the Smithsonian new educational opportunities in 
the world of design. In today's ever-rapidly evolving concept of fashion 
and beauty, the need for a museum showcase, in which an endlessly 
rich variety of historical decorative arts material can be drawn upon, 
utilized, and enjoyed, provides a springboard which the Smithsonian can 
be influential in offering guidelines to more beautiful design in everyday 
life. The Museum's future move to upper Fifth Avenue will place us 
on New York's "Museum Row." Thus we hope the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum will be able eventually to assume its proper place as a show- 
case of international reputation in the world of design. Particular thanks 
are owing to the newly formed Advisory Board under Mrs. Alice M. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 13 

Kaplan, in recognition of the hard work, enthusiasm, and generous con- 
tributions, both in time and money, that it has made in reestablishing 
the Cooper-Hewitt Museum as a new, visible entity in New York. 

One of the ways in which the Smithsonian increases knowledge is by 
stimulating those not on its staff to work on intellectual problems that 
need solving. The Smithsonian is able to do this not only by offering 
visiting appointments to outside scholars but by training graduate stu- 
dents from universities with whom it maintains a relationship. The 
Smithsonian has for many years guided small numbers of graduate stu- 
dents in the sciences. More recently it has provided advanced training 
for graduate students in the humanities, most notably through its Amer- 
ican Studies Program, now in its fourth year of operation. Graduate 
students in American history and American studies from four univer- 
sities are this year pursuing courses of study under Smithsonian advisors. 
Most of them are not receiving fellowships or scholarships from the 
Smithsonian. Some are writing dissertations which when completed 
will enlarge important areas of human knowledge and, in many cases, 
interpret Smithsonian collections to the scholarly world for the first 
time. By such means the Smithsonian with a minimum expenditure can 
obtain a maximum effect in carrying out its historic mission. 

Under the direction of our discerning editor, Nathan Reingold, the 
Joseph Henry Papers staff has come nearly to the end of its extensive 
search, in domestic and foreign archives, for documents on the life and 
work of the first Secretary. Some 16,000 documents are in hand. The 
staff is now beginning to edit material for the first volume (of an antici- 
pated twenty on Henry's years in Albany, New York (1797-1832), 
where he educated himself, began his teaching career, and carried out 
some of his most important work in electromagnetism. 

In April 1969 Congressional Regent Frank T. Bow introduced House 
bill H.R. 10001 incorporating the Smithsonian's legislative proposal to 
provide for the establishment of a National Armed Forces Historical 
Museum Park and study center to be designated the Dwight D. Eisen- 
hower Center for Historical Research. The proposal also includes 
authority for the Board of Regents and the Secretary of the Interior 
to enter into an agreement for the joint use of lands now under the 
jurisdiction of the Department of the Interior as the site for the museum 
park. This legislation seeks to fulfill the goals of three presidentially 
appointed panels of distinguished Americans, including the current 
National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board, dedicated to the con- 
viction that an armed forces museum can be, as the late President 
Eisenhower put it, "a dynamic educational venture . . . [making] 
. . . substantial contribution to our citizens' knowledge and understand- 
ing of American life." 



14 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

The choice of President Eisenhower's name for the proposed study 
center is most appropriate in that it was he who in 1958 convened the 
President's Committee on the Armed Forces Museum under the chair- 
manship of former Chief Justice Earl Warren. The recommendations 
of this Committee led to enactment of Public Law 87-186, establishing 
a permanent Advisory Board and providing the concept on which the 
pending legislation is based. Indeed, only a few weeks before his death, 
President Eisenhower in a letter to our Chancellor reiterated his com- 
mitment to a national armed forces historical museum and study center. 

Our hopes for the Eisenhower Center received a most substantial 
boost during the year, when the American Military Institute placed on 
long-term deposit with the Smithsonian its large and valuable library. 
The collection contains more than 15,000 volumes concentrated on 
military history and other areas of social sciences having relevance to 
military affairs. The ami collection will serve most admirably as the 
nucleus around which to build the sort of reference library which will 
be indispensable to the Center. 

Two major events in the areas of air and space during the year focused 
public attention on the National Air and Space Museum. The first was 
the celebration — in collaboration with the United States Navy — of the 
fiftieth anniversary of the first transatlantic flight by the NC-4, in May 
of 1919. The second was the build-up of activity throughout the year 
of the Apollo Program in preparation for the moon landing, including 
the successful circum-lunar flights of Apollo 8, 9, and 10. 

Although the NC-4 had been in the Smithsonians' custody for many 
years, it has recently been in protective storage, pending the avail- 
ability of a new building large enough to house it. The Navy's request 
for its public display during the month of May 1969 necessitated an 
accelerated restoration program. The job was completed, and the air- 
craft was ready for public display on the Washington Mall for the entire 
month. Many thousands of visitors were thus reminded of its famous 
flight across the Atlantic, now fifty years ago. 

With the accelerating interest in the Apollo program as it approached 
its great objective of a manned lunar landing our 1967 Agreement with 
NASA began to pay significant dividends. The opportunity to see full- 
scale Saturn and Apollo artifacts — including Apollo 4 (with the related 
F-1 and J-2 engines), plus "Surveyor" and the Lunar Orbiter — all of 
which would have been impossible without our close cooperation with 
NASA — attracted thousands of visitors to the South Hall of the Arts 
and Industries Building. These large hardware items were exhibited in 
a setting of space-oriented TV display, photography, paintings and 
sculpture which were continuously updated to keep visitors informed 
of significant events as they occurred. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 15 

In addition the operation of the nasa agreement has brought into 
the Air and Space Museum's inventory a large amount of material for 
future use, from which can be drawn display material for loans to other 
museums. During the year such Smithsonian artifacts were on display 
in London, Lucerne, Barcelona, Munich, Tokyo, and Brisbane, as well 
as in a number of cities of the United States. 



SCIENCE 

Scientific activities of the Smithsonian commence locally with the 
National Museum of Natural History and spread out widely in fields 
as superficially diverse as astrophysics and ecology. In this past year, 
the Natural History Museum has acquired a Scanning Electron Micro- 
scope (sem) a major step in the planned research activities of our 
staff. This marvelous new instrument is able to magnify the images 
of tiny objects from 20 to 140,000 times and with several hundred times 
greater resolution than the conventional light-optical system. For the 
first time, the basic architecture of thousands of species of organisms, 
can be seen and studied as whole individuals, whereas formerly elabo- 
rate sectioning and replication techniques were required. 

The SEM which was developed at Cambridge University in Eng- 
land represents a major breakthrough in the field of microscopy. In 
only four years since it became commercially available, it has become 
a dominant research tool in such diverse fields in biology as pollen 
analysis, microfossil identification, and textile fiber-wear studies. In one 
area of basic research being done at the Smithsonian, Dr. R. H. Ben- 
son is using the sem for the study of the history of a minute fossil 
crustacean, the ostracode, which has lived on the floor of the deep 
ocean basins. His recent discovery of these microfossils in the rocks of 
the Alps suggests new dimensions to the ocean that once separated 
Europe from Africa during the time when dinosaurs dominated the 
landscape. The sem allows for much greater precision in the identi- 
fication and analysis of the living as well as fossil deep-sea ostracodes. 
Through their study it is hoped that massive movements of the ocean 
floor, which took place during the formation of mountain systems, can 
be discovered. This instrument will be available for use, when needed, 
by scientists in all departments of the Museum, many of whom have 
already made plans to use it in their research. 

One does not ordinarily imagine collaboration between researchers 
in volcanology and archeology but a joint field effort of the Depart- 
ments of Anthropology and Mineral Sciences is underway to establish 
the historical background for the eruption of Mt. Arenal in Costa 



16 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Rica last year, as well as to study the volcanic phenomena it presented. 

Similarly, the sedimentologists in the Department of Paleobiology 
have collaborated with Mineral Sciences to contribute to a rapidly 
growing accumulation of evidence favoring the theory of continental 
drift. The spatial relationships between sedimentary rocks and the 
crustal ones along the mid-Atlantic Ridge have clearly indicated the 
phenomenon of sea-floor spreading. 

Meanwhile two teams of Smithsonian investigators, one at Cam- 
bridge in the Astrophysical Observatory, the other at the Natural His- 
tory building in Washington are preparing for interdisciplinary research 
on lunar samples, one of soil, the other of rock, jointly to be studied by 
geochemists, meteorists, petrologists, and physicists. 

A signal triumph this year has been that of G. Arthur Cooper who 
has successfully devised means of sampling the entire brachiopod fauna 
of the Glass Mountain beds of the Permian era. His work will have 
significant consequences for all students of population biology as well 
as for paleontologists. 



ECOLOGY 

The Smithsonian's concern with ecology spreads across a number 
of scientific disciplines as well as organizations and finally comes home 
to rest in the social sciences, within the purview of our new concern 
in post-doctoral research. The Office of Ecology participates directly 
in research, sponsors other research, and is related to other departments 
and offices through interdisciplinary programs. On its own, the Office 
has participated in investigations of the ecology and ethology of wild 
elephants in Ceylon. 

In the past year emphasis was placed on studies of the population 
dynamics, inter- and intra-specific competition, food habits, patterns 
of movement and land use, reproduction state, and the density of 
habitat usage. Also in Ceylon, the basic structure of the domestic 
elephant reproductive cycle was worked out for the first time. 

As Smithsonian participants in the International Biological Program 
(iBP), Lee Talbot and Raymond Fosberg assisted with an inventory 
of Pacific islands and parts of islands as preserves of rare scientific 
resources. Areas are being listed for consei-vation where they have been 
relatively uninfluenced by human activity and contain unique flora 
and fauna. As a result of the ibp conservation section meetings on Palau 
and Guam, data have been assembled and will be published. 

Requests for advice and consultation on ecological problems were 
answered from the National Park Service and the United States Fish 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 17 

and Wildlife Service of the Department of Interior; the Pacific Science 
Board, the Environmental Sciences Board, and the Division of Behav- 
ioral Sciences of the National Academy of Sciences and the National 
Research Council; the Office of Science and Technology, the Depart- 
ment of Defense, the Department of Agriculture, the Congress, and 
such international organizations as the International Union for Con- 
servation of Nature and Natural Resources, the International Council 
for Bird Preservation, the World Wildlife Fund, the United Nations, 
and the Pacific Science Association. 

The Chesapeake Bay Center for Field Biology completed one level 
of its laboratory building and operated as a research arm of the Smith- 
sonian through a consortium with the Johns Hopkins University and 
the University of Maryland. Studies of the physical conditions and the 
populations of organisms in the estuary continued. Dr. Charles South- 
wick of the Johns Hopkins University found that the Rhode River 
estuary apparently was heavily enriched in September. Drs. William 
D. McElroy (on leave as Director of the National Science Foundation), 
Howard H. Seliger and William G. Fastie, also of Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, began measurements of the night and day patterns of bio- 
luminescence as an index of primary productivity. In the past year a 
further effort to raise funds for land acquisition for this most valuable 
field station has met with remarkable success. Nearly fifty percent of 
our goal of $800,000, to increase our holdings on the western shore of 
Chesapeake Bay to some 2000 acres, has been met. We are deeply 
grateful to the farsighted foundations; the Ford Foundation, The Re- 
search Corporation, the Scaife Foundation, the Old Dominion Foun- 
dation, the Fleischmann Foundation, and the Prospect Hill Foundation; 
all of whom have helped us in our project to create a national resource 
in ecological research, not only near Washington but also as part of a 
network of comparative study areas, an environmental consortium of 
universities and private and public institutions from Massachusetts to 
the Caribbean and Panama. Dr. George Watson completed a three- 
year study of the productivity of breeding ospreys at Poplar Island, 
a Chesapeake Bay Center property near the eastern shore of the Chesa- 
peake Bay. The osprey population is believed to be holding its own 
in the Bay despite its susceptibility to pesticides. Whistling swans mean- 
while are being studied by Dr. William J. L. Sladen of Johns Hopkins. 
More than half of the North American population of these birds winters 
m the bay. Studies of their local and long distance movements, feeding 
ecology, social behavior, and diseases are being achieved by observation 
of unmarked, conspicuously dyed, and radio-tagged birds. 



lo SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

HYDROBIOLOGY 

In oceanography and limnology, direct observations of plants and 
animals living on the bottom of the shallow ocean and in the upper 
pelagic areas received considerable attention during the year. A wide 
spectrum of activities ranged from sponsorship of a special Edwin A. 
Link lecture on underwater man by Jon Lindberg and Dr. Joseph B. 
Maclnnis and the oflFering of diver-training courses to field investigations 
using scuba apparatus, submersible diving chambers, and small research 
submersibles. A multidisciplinary study of sharks and the coral reef 
environments was undertaken under the sponsorship of Edwin A. Link, 
Seward Johnson, William Mote, Ocean Systems Inc., and the Smith- 
sonian Institution in February and March of 1969. Five small vessels 
and a submersible diving chamber were assembled ofT British Honduras 
for the project known as shark 1969. 

Sponsorship through working group 23 of the Scientific Committee 
on Ocean Research of the International Council of Scientific Unions 
resulted in a definitive study of plankton preservation being under- 
taken at the Smithsonian. Dr. Hugh Steedman of the University of 
Bath spent the months of July, October, November, March, and June 
planning and conducting experiments at the Smithsonian Oceano- 
graphic Sorting Center. Plankton preservation has sometimes been 
excellent and sometimes unsatisfactory using the traditional preserva- 
tives under differing field conditions. Histochemical and other work on 
carefully preserved collections will provide information on the causes 
of the variable results. Tests will be made to attempt to find better 
preservatives. 

An "Ocean Acre" research program has been initiated by Drs. William 
Aron, Robert Gibbs, and Clyde Roper in cooperation with the Navy 
Underwater Sound Laboratory, the University of Rhode Island, and 
the Naval Oceanographic Office. Four cruises, using navy ships Gilliss, 
Sands, and Trident of the University of Rhode Island, were undertaken 
during this fiscal year. The area selected for achieving a fuller under- 
standing of its total biology is southeast of Bermuda in water depths 
greater than 2000 meters. Preliminary analyses of the distributions of 
cephalopods and fishes reveals variations in their migratory behavior 
patterns which may be associated with sound-scattering layers. 

This year was one of great progress in converting the older manual 
records of the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center into an auto- 
matic data-processing system. Specimen labels are prepared in an auto- 
matic typewriter system which simultaneously produces duplicate labels 
and punches the data on paper tape. This tape is converted to magnetic 
tape automatically and goes into storage with a minimum of error. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 19 

Nearly all of the several years production of Antarctic data covering 
thirteen million specimens has been entered in the machine system. 

Installation of basic petrographic laboratory equipment was com- 
pleted in the Sorting Center. A specimen inventory has been prepared 
to meet the needs of specialists interested in specific mineralogic, tex- 
tural, or lithologic features of oceanic rocks. As a backup for the speci- 
mens being distributed, a major catalog of oceanic rocks has been pro- 
duced to include all that have been described in the scientific literature. 
Specific mineral groups and lab information in the literature may be 
found through the catalog. 



RADIATION BIOLOGY AND ASTROPHYSICS 

The Radiation Biology Laboratory of the Institution has participated 
actively in interdisciplinary ecology during the year. Under the Labora- 
tory, the third seminar series sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution 
and the Consortium of Universities of the Washington Metropolitan 
Area was introduced on 6 February by Dr. Sidney Caller, Assistant 
Secretary for Science. The Seminar in Environmental Biology was pre- 
sented for graduate credit and attracted large audiences of students and 
other interested people from the community. Thirteen lectures were 
presented by authorities in ecology and environmental biology from 
all over the United States, with topics ranging from arid-land to arctic 
ecology and from fresh-water productivity to aspects of controlled 
environments for space biology. 

For the past year the Smithsonian Radiation Biology Laboratory has 
recorded continuous daily measurements from sunrise to sunset of 
several color components of the white-light spectrum in those wave- 
bands that control growth and development of plant and animal orga- 
nisms. This is the only complete set of data of this kind obtained for 
biologists to use in studying photobiological responses. Under the joint 
sponsorship of the Smithsonian Institution and the National Physical 
Laboratory of Israel, a station in Jerusalem has begun operation to 
obtain similar information for that latitude. The measurements from 
the two stations will provide comparative records on ratios of color 
bands present in natural incident daylight and resultant cycles of growth 
and reproduction, leading to new interpretations of the effects of 
light stimuli as a factor in the environment controlling physiological 
development. 

In the course of recording measurements of normal incident solar 
radiation at the Smithsonian, it was discovered that the amount of the 
sun's energy falling on Washington, D.C., now is approximately fifteen 



20 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

percent less that that measured and recorded here by Dr. C. G. Abbot 
in 1907 at the same time of the year. Measurements are continuing to 
be taken and efforts are in progress to confirm the preliminary data. 
The results should be of the greatest interest to those ecologists con- 
cerned with the energy-exchange phenomena between biological sys- 
tems and the atmosphere, as well, indeed, to urban planners concerned 
with human health. 

During the past year the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena, an 
organization set up by the Astrophysical Observatory, participated in 
127 geological, astrophysical, and biological events including 21 major 
earthquakes, 18 volcanic eruptions (one involving the birth and disap- 
pearance of an island), 21 fireballs, 11 major oil spills, 9 fish kills, 4 
rare-animal migrations, 3 freshly fallen meteorite recoveries, the dis- 
covery of a stone-axe tribe, and several dozen other land and marine 
ecological events. 

The Center assisted in the coordination of activities for reconnais- 
sance missions and scientific field expeditions to the Femandina Caldera 
collapse in the Galapagos Islands, the Mt. Arenal volcanic eruption 
in Costa Rica, the Cerro Negro volcanic eruption in Nicaragua, the 
Applachian squirrel migration in the eastern United States, the Mt. 
Merapi volcanic eruption in Indonesia, and the Pueblito de Allende 
meteorite shower in Mexico. 

During the Apollo 1 1 Manned Lunar Mission, the Center arranged 
communications between 207 astronomical observers in thirty countries 
and maintained daily contact with the Manned Spacecraft Center, 
NASA, at Houston, Texas. Reports from ground-based observers were 
relayed to the msc for transmittal to the astronauts en route to and 
orbiting the moon ; this mission provided an opportunity for astronauts 
to confirm (by observation and photography) ground-based observa- 
tions of transient lunar events. 

The Center has established an effective global reporting network 
of 1510 scientists in many disciplines and from 118 countries. 

During the past year the Center issued 127 event notification reports, 
764 event information reports, 16 final event publications, and 11 
preprints of scientific papers on the preliminary results of field 
investigations. 

By all odds it would seem the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena 
(a Gilbertian title if ever there was one) is here to stay. In addition 
to its brainchild, the Smithsonian's Astrophysical Observatory has had 
a notable year. On 23 October 1968, the Observatory opened its Mount 
Hopkins, Arizona, facility, a celebration presided over by Representative 
Morris K. Udall of Arizona. The station will have a tracking camera, 
a pulsed ruby-laser ranging system, a 12-inch telescope already installed 



I 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 21 

preparatory to a 60-inch telescope for investigation of stellar and 
planetary atmospheres, and a 10-meter light collector designed for the 
detection of gamma rays from celestial sources. In conjunction with 
NASA, experiments have been started at Mount Hopkins to establish 
criteria for the selection of sites for future ground-based astronomy 
research. 

On 7 December 1968, the National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration launched the second Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 
(OAO-2) from Cape Kennedy, Florida. The two-ton satellite con- 
tained two major scientific experiments, including Project Celescope, 
a Smithsonian-designed, television-telescope system for observing stars in 
ultraviolet light. 

One week later, at 2:49 a.m., 14 December, the Celescope cameras 
made the first ultraviolet photographs of the heavens, showing three 
6th-magnitude stars in the constellation Draco. 

Between launch and the end of June 1969, the Celescope experi- 
ment obtained nearly 2500 photographs of stars. Although one camera 
has stopped operating and the three remaining systems are experiencing 
some loss of sensitivity owing to prolonged exposure to space radiation, 
the Celescope experiment is expected to continue to return valuable 
scientific data for several more months. 

An early evaluation of the photographic data indicates that very few 
of the stars measured by Celescope are appreciably brighter than 
expected. Also, about twenty percent of the objects found by Celescope 
near the plane of the Galaxy do not appear in identification atlases, 
whereas nearly every object more than ten degrees from the plane 
does. Presumably, the extra stars are mostly faint O and B stars; but, 
additional ground-based observations may be necessary to confirm this 
theory. 

The optical tracking network of the sag participated in all the 
Apollo manned-spacecraft missions during this period. 

The most spectacular result of this participation occurred on 21 
December 1968, when the sag camera station at Maui, Hawaii, photo- 
graphed the burn of the booster rockets that injected the Apollo 8 
spacecraft into the translunar phase of its flight to the moon. The same 
day, the sag tracking station at San Fernando, Spain, photographed 
the cloud of excess fuel dumped by the Apollo 8 spacecraft some 30,000 
miles from earth. 

On 4 March 1969, the sag stations at Hawaii and Mount Hopkins 
again photographed an Apollo 9 fuel-release cloud at a distance of 
approximately 70,000 miles from earth. The photographs of these fuel 
dumps proved highly valuable to nasa engineers and scientists attempt- 
ing to understand the behavior of liquids in space. 



22 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

TROPICAL BIOLOGY 

Environmental studies continued at an increased rate at the Tropical 
Research Institute in Panama. The nation's unique tropically based 
laboratory has been working on interspecific and intraspecific competi- 
tion in terrestrial and marine organisms. An event of the past year, 
tragic yet perhaps fortuitous was the grounding of oil tanker Witwater 
off the Galeta Station of the Institute on the Atlantic coast of the Canal 
Zone. Research on recovery rates of marine organisms subjected to oil, 
may prove to be beneficial in the long run to studies of oil spills, bound 
to become more frequent round the world as time goes on. Meanwhile 
comparative base-line studies in tropical ecosystems remain our primary 
goal for this Institute. 

For many years a large but rather scarce impressive looking, spiny, 
poisonous, multi-armed starfish has been observed from the coral reefs 
of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and from the Red Sea to Hawaii. 
Little was known of its habits, life history, or ecology. It is commonly 
known as the Crown of Thorns Starfish, zoologically as Acanthaster 
planci. 

In 1960, near Green Island on Australia's Great Barrier Reef, a 
sudden population explosion occurred. Acanthaster began to swarm in 
large numbers over the reefs, and was seen to feed on the living coral 
animals, leaving nothing but the bare limestone skeletons. Under the 
stress of hunger, as their food supply diminished, the starfish changed 
from nocturnal habits to venturing out in broad daylight in their search 
for food. 

Large areas of the famous Great Barrier Reef were changed from 
living animal communities to masses of bare dead limestone skeletons. 
All of the multitudes of animals that depend directly or indirectly on 
the corals for food were starved out of the affected areas. These include 
large numbers of fish, lobsters, crabs, and other economically important 
reef animals. 

Two years ago a similar outbreak occurred on the reefs that line the 
coast of Guam in the western Pacific. Here it spread rapidly until at 
last report, an area twenty-six miles off the Guam coast was practically 
stripped of living corals. More recently outbreaks have been reported 
from a number of other areas in the Trust Territory of the Pacific 
Islands administered by the United States. 

The citizens of Guam, fearing the loss of the reefs, brought the catas- 
trophe to the attention of an International Biological Program meeting 
on island conservation problems (November 1968), which included two 
Smithsonian biologists. Subsequently the Interior Department under- 
took a crash survey of the situation in Micronesia to develop a synoptic 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 23 

picture of the phenomenon and try to isolate the causal factors. This 
investigation now being conducted by Westinghouse Ocean Research 
Laboratory, includes three Smithsonian marine scientists, Dr. Porter 
Kier, Dennis M. Devaney, and Thomas F. Phelan, as well as other 
United States and foreign experts. These men are specialists, some of 
the very few in the nation, and the Smithsonian is proud to be able to 
participate in such an important study. Potentially a starfish explosion 
could undermine and destroy fringing reefs throughout the Pacific 
threatening the entire economy of the area. Fortunately present evidence 
indicates that the starfish can conquer coral reef animals only in areas 
that have been disturbed by dynamiting. Controls can presumably be 
worked out to prevent man's wreaking further hardship upon himself 
and his environment for short-term gains. 

Interdisciplinary research continues to develop effectively within the 
Natural History and Anthropology disciplines. Not only has primate 
biology proved a useful bridge between these broad areas of science, but 
also geology and paleoclimatology are closely related to archeological 
research in Central and South America. 

Of great interest in this connection is the work of Drs. Evans and 
Meggers of the Anthropology staff, with Dr. Melson of the Mineral 
Sciences division, in dating volcanic ash falls and determining special 
characteristics and age of volcanic activity at El Arenal, Costa Rica, 
and Quijos Valley, eastern Ecuador, with the archeological specimens 
from levels in the sites that had been covered by volcanic materials. 

Similarly petrographic studies have been made, especially by electron 
microprobe analysis, of obsidian artifacts that had been used in obsidian 
dating of the archeological cultures from sites in the Quijos Valley to 
determine unique features of composition that might be affecting the 
hydration rates. Through this technique new information on dating for 
archeology and volcanology has been obtained. 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

One of the aims of the National Zoological Park is to have a truly 
professional staff. The addition of a pathologist, Robert M. Sauer 
VMD, has been a step toward achieving this goal. We now have a 
trained zoologist at the head of the department of living vertebrates, 
another in charge of the bird collection, another heads the reptile 
division, and still another has been appointed as assistant to Dr. John 
F. Eisenberg in the scientific research department. 

The National Zoo has continued its efforts to protect and conserve 
v/ildlife and natural resources. In addition to cooperating with national 



24 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

and international organizations devoted to wildlife protection, the Zoo 
has made its special contribution. The International Union for the 
Conservation of Nature publishes a list of rare and endangered species 
throughout the world. The list mentions golden marmoset, orangutan, 
scimitar-horned oryx, Pere David's deer, Laysan duck, Hawaiian duck, 
and Swinhoe's pheasant. Each of these has been born or hatched at 
the National Zoological Park during the past year. 



PUBLIC SERVICES 

Through the impetus established several years ago by the Institution's 
undertaking to direct and coordinate research for United States anthro- 
pology and biology programs overseas, using dollar equivalents of stated 
excess currencies, the Smithsonian has been able to help more than 
forty-four American learned institutions and universities in the conduct 
of original research. 

The initial implementation of the Smithsonian's role as executive 
agent for the Iran-United States science cooperation agreement occurred 
this year with the exchange of visits between Dr. Faryar, Underminister 
of Science and Education in Iran, and the Director of the Office of 
International Activities. Methods of disseminating research plans of 
scientists from each country interested in cooperative work have been 
established and efforts are now underway to locate funding sources. 

The Smithsonian's expertise in assessing the environmental conse- 
quences of an isthmian sea-level canal was recognized by the appoint- 
ment of Dr. David Challinor of our Office of International Activities 
to the National Academy of Sciences special Committee on Ecological 
Research for the Interoceanic Canal. 

During the past year Morocco was added to the list of "excess" cur- 
rency countries and already several projects have been initiated by 
Smithsonian scientists for work there. The addition of Morocco has 
been particularly welcome because of the pending removal of Tunisia 
and Ceylon from the list of countries in which the Smithsonian's Foreign 
Currency Program operates. 

The Smithsonian Associates membership now stands at 9,200 com- 
pared with 6,500 a year ago. This includes individuals, double and 
family membership, meaning that our memberships serve approximately 
20,000 people. Our renewal average stands at a phenomenal 89 percent. 

Some of the Associates activities have included luncheon talks on 
collecting (painting, sculpture, prints, drawings, ceramics, glass, andj 
furniture) now in its third year. Once again this has proved extremel) 



f 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 



25 



popular with 375 members attending the talks each month over a 
period of six months. 

The Ancient Crafts Revived series was oversubscribed. Our work- 
shops included batik, weaving, mosaic, stained glass, bookbinding, paste 
paper, marble-and-paste, cloisonne, enamel, plique-a-jour, decoupage 
and tole. For the first time this series was offered to young people (ten 
to thirteen years). The classes included enameling, puppet making, 
papier mache, wire sculpture, Egyptian paste, and paper weaving. 

A particularly memorable event was that of the New York Chamber 
Soloists' performance of music from the Court of the Sun King, Louis 
XIV, with recitations from Moliere, Racine, and La Fontaine given 
by Jean Louis Barrault and Madaleine Renaud. 

This year marks the signing of an official agreement between Mrs. 
Merriweather Post, to whom the Institution owes so much, and the 
Smithsonian on the maintenance of her wonderful house, "Hillwood." 
The tours to Hillwood have had a continuous waiting list and are 
repeated as often as possible. 

One of the most popular activities in which the Smithsonian has 
engaged continues to be its division of Performing Arts. To bring the 
instruments out of glass cases, to evolve the magic of folk crafts and 
music, all this is to communicate directly to all people. How better can 
our Institution demonstrate the worth of collecting things. 

Our highlight of the year was the Festival of American Folklife 
which was enhanced this past year by the addition of several continuing 
programs. To the half million people who attended the four-day festival 
of craft demonstrations and concerts we added five programs con- 
ceived for the National Park Service's "Summer in the Parks." These 
mobile art demonstrations, jazz concerts, folk concerts, puppet theater, 
and film theater, traveled to twenty different city parks over a period 
of ten weeks. 

The Smithsonian libraries continue to command a high priority in 
our efforts to increase the Institution's research and education capability. 
Many times throughout the year various departments of the Institution 
assisted in financing the purchase of library materials vital to the sup- 
port of their research programs. The professional staffs of the museums 
and the libraries displayed their mutual concern for maintaining the 
high quality of the libraries' collections by working diligently together 
to use their limited funds for the purchase of only those titles that were 
of immediate and long-term importance to research. The same coopera- 
tion, along with strong policy guidance and management by the office 
of the Director of Libraries was applied to the negotiations and acquisi- 
tions of five gift collections of research materials that contribute directly 
to current bureau programs. This ability to attract donors remains one 

366-269 O— 70 3 



26 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

of the most essential characteristics of the libraries. Even without a full- 
time team of specialists, the libraries have been able to continue the 
Inevitable introduction of automation of library processing routines, 
albeit rather slowly. 

The libraries' training program concentrated on improving the data- 
processing skills of their staff members at various organizational levels. 
With the assistance of the Information Systems Division, the libraries 
attained a design for an automated serials purchase system and have 
begun data input for the creation of machine-readable records. Still 
ahead, but very much in the libraries future. Is work on a system for the 
integration of files of information in the literature with those pertaining 
to specimens and artifacts In the museums, to create a totally responsive 
and integrated computerized information storage and retrieval system. 

Computers comprise one of the most important frontiers of science 
today. The science of computer technology offers a means whereby the 
storage of data accumlating throughout the museum complex may be 
reduced to useful information. In recognition of this fact, the Informa- 
tion Systems Division has continued to develop computerized systems 
and techniques to make information more available. The expanding 
volume of information, the Increasing complexity of concepts, and the 
demands for rapid application of knowledge to useful ends require an 
increasing coordination of effort In the management of information. 

Efforts this year revolved around enlarging the area In which the 
Information Systems Division's technology could be put to use. In a 
cooperative effort with historians, researchers, and scientists our 
computers and the technical expertise of our staff are joined to solve 
problems. Like all technical contributions thus far Invented by man, 
computers represent an extension of man's physical and mental capabili- 
ties. Calculations, comparisons, and In-depth analysis that would 
ordinarily cost many man hours, or even years of toil, can now be 
accomplished in seconds with the help of a computer programmed to 
the particular need. A few examples of this may be seen In the systems 
developed this year for resarch in the fields of biology, paleobiology, 
anthropology, botany, and the fine arts where time consuming tasks of 
sorting, analyzing, and coordinating have been conducted by the com- 
puter, freeing scientists and researchers to pursue more Intellectual 
activities based upon the information supplied by the automated process- 
ing of data. 

This was a year of major progress, for the Institution as a public 
communicator. It began with establishment of the si motion picture 
unit through a contract with Eli Productions. At the end of the year 
we were engaged in discussions with the Corporation for Public Broad- 
casting to support a number of productions. Including our long-sought 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 27 

definitive visitor's orientation film. This obviously flowering relationship 
with the CPB is built upon a foundation with three primary components : 
intellectual resources, the national collections, and a demonstrated 
film-making capability. 

Another aspect of film and television programs was represented by 
the continuing conversations in which the Institution has been involved 
over a period of months with regard to increasing our contribution to 
public television in Washington and throughout the nation. Public tele- 
vision, which itself is in an early stage of development in most parts of 
the United States, appears to be moving toward a real accomplishment 
with the support of the new Corporation for Public Broadcasting, as 
well as from foundations and private companies. The Smithsonian, 
with a continuing concern for the diffusion of knowledge dating to its 
very origin, looks with great interest on future developments in this 
area. 

In the closely related field of educational radio, the Smithsonian 
moved energetically during this year, once again combining an enhance- 
ment of its own in-house capabilities and a most gratifying relationship 
with the public broadcasting community. An educational radio service 
designated "Radio Smithsonian" was established and began the con- 
tinuing process of producing and making available recorded material 
covering the full range of the Smithsonian's enlightening and exciting 
activities. 

Coupled with development of the Smithsonian magazine, this evolu- 
tion of our radio, television, and film programs helps to bring a new 
dimension to the Institution in its ability to create channels from its vast 
academic-cultural reservoir to people in their homes throughout the 
nation. 

Turning to another aspect of our public affairs, I believe it is clear 
that the Smithsonian has during the past several years once again 
assumed the central status within the Washington community, and 
indeed the national community, that it occupied at least until the end 
of the 19th century. There is a broad body of evidence that this is the 
case. The Inaugural Ball for President Nixon in January, for example, 
echoed the earlier inaugural festivities for President Garfield at the 
A & I Building. Not only was the Museum of History and Technology 
the scene of one of this year's Inaugural Balls and other such celebra- 
tions marking the start of a new administration, but the Institution was 
also the scene of a number of farewell events for top officials in the 
outgoing administration, including several members of the Cabinet, 
and an unofficial farewell for President and Mrs. Johnson themselves. 

Every department in the Cabinet held at least one, and in most cases 
several, conferences, meetings or other events at the Smithsonian this 



28 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

year, as did fourteen other governmental agencies ranging from the 
FBI to the Weather Bureau to the Peace Corps. Fourteen foreign 
nations — geographically ranging from Ceylon to Brazil to the Nether- 
lands — sponsored or played a principal role in exhibitions or other 
events. A considerable number of major national corporations, par- 
ticularly in the areas of advanced technological and communication 
fields, sponsored events in relation to Smithsonian exhibits or other 
activities. 

Can it be that the Smithsonian has a mission to make a real contri- 
bution toward public understanding through a union of exhibits and 
TV, as I have suggested earlier? Once television can be related to 
everyday learning, once open education is understood for what it is, I 
suspect that pedagogues will realize that like a mystical third eye — 
the Buddhist concept of the survival of the pineal neural apparatus — 
we may be able to translate aperceptive techniques into reality. 

At present TV is merely floating on the edge of aperception, and 
making money. But perhaps, that pale cyclopean staring eye, possessed 
subjectively by everyone, in kitchen, bedroom, or parlor can be realized 
to be merely in its infancy, the tin lizzie of what it could be for the 
future, wedded to a continuing series of object-oriented exercises in a 
neighborhood museum. 

It is the mission of the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service (sites) to make the museum experience a living one to mil- 
lions who do not come to the central setting. 

A recent check of contracts with educational institutions in the 
United States revealed that sites had sent exhibitions to 240 schools, 
universities, or junior colleges in all of the fifty states in the last eighteen 
months. It is becoming increasingly clear that sites could render much 
greater service all over the country if some subsidy could be found to 
finance exhibitions for very small communities which cannot secure 
the prorated costs of the most modest exhibitions. As a conservative 
estimate, however, more than three and a half million people saw 
Smithsonian traveling exhibits in the United States and Canada in 
1969. These exhibits were of painting, sculpture, architecture, photog- 
raphy, history, science, decorative arts, and children's art. 

An extension of the Mall institutions has been the Anacostia Neigh- 
borhood Museum, described in detail in last year's report. 

This concept of neighborhood museums located in large urban cen- 
ters where massive social, economic, and political problems abound, 
gives direction and purpose to every division previously situated in the 
central museum complex. The natural scientist, historian, anthropol- 
ogist, and ethnologist can make their research and exhibits relevant 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 29 

to current human situations. The neighborhood museum must meet the 
practical needs of its community; indeed, its existence is predicated 
upon the proposition that there are close-up, person-to-person tech- 
niques to meet critical neighborhood needs. The neighborhood museum 
must attract a significant number of neighborhood people at all levels 
to insure its involvement and strengths. It should also make every effort 
to analyze and interpret the history of its community. 

This past year the educational programs, directed by Miss Zora 
Martin, covered a broad spectrum from guiding children and adults 
through exhibits and workshops for Community Reading Assistants of 
the Anacostia Model School Project to special science units led by a 
part-time teacher on loan from the District of Columbia Board of 
Education. 

In February of this year, the educational staff provided a well- 
organized series of lectures, discussions, films, and dramatic perform- 
ances for our celebration of Negro History Week. In addition to this, 
the staff provided guided tours for the exhibit "The Sage of Anacostia," 
a graphic history of the Afro-American featuring the life of Frederick 
Douglass. This was the most successful exhibit executed by the Anacostia 
Museum and, undoubtedly, one of the most informative. It was attended 
by approximately twenty-seven thousand metropolitan area school 
children. 

This year also saw the establishment of the museum's Research Center 
and Library for the purpose of furthering the development of the neigh- 
borhood museum concept. The center will serve not only the needs of 
Anacostia but a wider area as well. The Research Center and Library 
is directed by Larry Erskine Thomas, the museum's research and design 
coordinator. The development of this research facility will enable the 
community, the general public, and all who make use of its services to 
understand the true significance of the black man's social and cultural 
environment and his influence on the progress of a great nation. The 
Center has already consulted with and provided services to a wide 
variety of museums and organizations as they seek to reshape their 
programs and exhibits. 



ASSOCIATED ACTIVITIES 

The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars was estab- 
lished by Act of Congress (P.L. 90-637) on 24 October 1968, to be 
be "a living institution expressing the ideals and concerns of Woodrow 
Wilson. . . . symbolizing and strengthening the fruitful relation 



30 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

between the world of learning and the world of public affairs." Congress 
placed the Center in the Smithsonian Institution under the administra- 
tion of its own fifteen-man Board of Trustees, subsequently appointed 
by President Johnson and President Nixon. 

The Trustees met at the Museum of History and Technology on 
6 March 1969, and created an executive committee consisting of 
Messrs. Humphrey, McPherson, Moynihan, Ripley, and Rogers. In 
addition, they approved the selection of Mr. Benjamin H. Read, for- 
merly Executive Secretary of the Department of State, as acting 
director, and accepted with thanks temporary quarters in the Smith- 
sonian Institution Building. 

Concurrently, a contract has been let with Smithsonian Institution 
planning funds under which the Urban Design and Development Cor- 
poration, a new District of Columbia nonprofit corporation established 
by the American Institute of Architects and headed by Mr. Ralph G. 
Schwartz, will explore the feasibility of the recommended site for the 
Center on the future Market Square at 8th Street and Pennsylvania 
Avenue. The feasibility study is due on 1 September 1969. 

The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars has obtained 
a $45,000 grant from the Ford Foundation to permit it to get started, 
and an initial appropriation request of $100,000 for fiscal year 1970 
has been submitted to the Congress. 

A milestone in the life of our affiliated Institution, the National 
Gallery of Art, has been the retirement, after thirty years of devoted 
service of John Walker, the Gallery's second Director. The Smithsonian 
through its Secretary has served on the Gallery's guiding Board since 
its inception, and has watched with marvelling eyes, sometimes tinged 
with human envy, the remarkable development of the collections under 
his able hands. Would that other art collections in this city had been 
able so to increase their holdings! 

To his ability, must be added Mr. Walker's prescience in the guidance 
of the Gallery's assistant director. Carter Brown, who now succeeds him. 
We salute Carter Brown as a brilliant successor to the indefatigable 
John Walker. 

The "topping out" of the Kennedy Center's massive steel framework 
in September launched a year of continuing tangible progress for the 
John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. As the steel contract 
was completed, the contract for the erection of hundreds of tons of the 
marble from Italy for the building's facing began, and the Center took 
on a new look. 

Although construction proceeded at a good pace, the Kennedy Center 
has not been immune to the meteoric rise in construction costs. In 



I 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 31 

October, Roger L. Stevens, Chairman of the Board of Trustees, 
announced that an additional $ 1 5 million was needed in order to com- 
plete the building. In the spring, after a private fund-raising campaign 
was well along, Representative Kenneth Gray introduced H.R. 11249 
in the House of Representative providing for an increased matching 
federal grant to the Kennedy Center and an increased loan from the 
United States Treasury. 

Plans for the Center's opening early in 1971 progressed as George 
London assumed his position as Artistic Administrator last September. 
In December it was announced that the American Ballet Theatre, one 
of world's foremost dance groups, would be the Center's resident ballet 
company. 

Perhaps the most historic moment of the year was the announcement 
last October that the Center's Theater would be named in honor of 
General and Mrs. Dwight D. Eisenhower. It was President Eisenhower, 
of course, who initiated the Center in 1958. 

More than a score of ancillary activities will be reported on in later 
pages, not least of which is the development of the museum shops pro- 
gram, the continued planning for a conservation-analytical laboratory 
of major national proportions and our traditional program of exchange 
of information through the publication of books and research reports, 
the shipping of documents, and the maintenance of a conference center 
at Belmont. 

To the vital participation of the Regents this past year should be 
added the special news of the reappointment for a six-year term of Mr. 
John Nicholas Brown, citizen of Rhode Island, and the new appoint- 
ment of Mr. Thomas J. Watson Jr., citizen of Connecticut. 

These multifarious extensions of a central theme to "increase and 
diffuse knowledge" are part of the Smithsonian. They form a core 
of the knowledge industry which we attempt to generate. It will be 
imperative in years to come that young people keep up with the chang- 
ing world of technocracy. But this cannot be done by slave driving 
pedagogical means. It must be done by waves of ambient illumination. 
I do not know that this principle has been grasped as yet by sociologists 
or economists. It has been intuitively grasped by the so-called "media" 
professionals, but without a strong sense of commitment, except the 
laws of individual enterprise. These are to some extent outmoded, how- 
ever, hence the conflict and the tension of everyday life. It is our hope 
in the Smithsonian to bridge this intelligence gap, for this surely we 
owe, as a consequence of our original creation. 



32 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

THE BOARD OF REGENTS 

The annual meeting of the Board of Regents was held on 15 January 
1969 at Hillwood, the home of Mrs. Marjorie Merriweather Post. Hill- 
wood has been deeded to the Smithsonian Institution and the transfer 
of the property and collections was formally accepted on this date by 
Secretary Ripley on behalf of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

The spring meeting of the Board of Regents was held on 21 May 
1969 in the Fine Arts and Portrait Galleries Building. This meeting 
was the last one to be attended by Earl Warren, retiring as Chief Justice 
of the United States and Chancellor of the Board of Regents. The 
Regents unanimously voted the following resolution, a copy of which 
was presented to Mr. Warren: 

Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States and Chancellor of 
the Smithsonian Institution: Your fellow regents wish to express their 
deepest appreciation for your devoted friendship and extend to you 
their warmest good wishes for the years ahead. 

/s/ S. Dillon Ripley 
Secretary 



FINANCIAL REPORT 

T. Ames Wheeler 
Treasurer 



Financial Report 



While the Smithsonian is a private institution, its private financial 
resources are distinctly limited. Operating costs of its museums, art 
galleries, and educational and research centers are largely met by annual 
federal appropriations. The same is true for necessary construction 
programs and, through the government of the District of Columbia, for 
support of operations of the National Zoological Park. In addition, 
federal appropriations of "excess" foreign currencies are granted to the 
Smithsonian for the purpose of financing academic grants to various 
universities and educational institutions throughout the United States 
to enable the latter to carry out research studies in the related overseas 
nations. 

As a private educational and research institution, the Smithsonian 
may and sometimes does receive a substantial volume of gifts, grants, 
and contracts from private individuals and foundations and from fed- 
eral agencies for the acquisition of collection items or the performance 
of specific projects in areas of special Smithsonian capability. These 
cover such diverse fields as the tracking of satellites in outer space, and 
underwater exploration for oceanographic research and ecological stud- 
ies here and abroad. Finally, earnings on the Smithsonian's endowment 
funds provide private fund income of moderate proportions. 

For the year ended 30 June 1969, this category of financial support 
for Smithsonian operating expenses may be summarized as follows: 

Federal appropriations 

Salaries and Expenses — normal activities $26, 443, 000 

Special Foreign Currency Program 2,316,000 

District of Columbia — Operation of National Zoological Park 2, 528, 000 

Research grants and contracts (federal and private) 11, 400, 000 

Private funds 

Gifts (excluding gifts to endowment funds; entire amount 1, 987, 000 

restricted to specific projects and hence unavailable for 

general operating purposes) 

Income from endowments and current fund investments 1, 365, 000 



Total: $46,039,000 

In addition, federal appropriations to finance construction projects 
were received as follows: 

35 



36 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

National Zoological Park $ 300, 000 

Restoration and Renovation of Buildings 400, 000 

Toward construction of Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and 2, 000, 000** 

Sculpture Garden 

Total: $ 2,700,000 

**Plus $12,197,000 as contract authorization 

Financial statements for the private funds, as audited by independent 
public accountants, are shown below together with a statement of gifts 
received in the current fiscal year. 

The gifts received for both endowment and immediate program pur- 
poses have been extremely helpful and are again gratefully acknowl- 
edged. Major contributions included the $685,000 of funds received 
from Cooper Union and the Committee to Save Cooper Union Museum 
in connection with the Smithsonian assumption of responsibility for that 
Museum; $150,000 from the Scaife Family of Pittsburgh and $75,000 
from the Old Dominion Foundation for the Chesapeake Bay Center 
project; Ford Foundation grants of $208,500 and $45,000, respectively, 
for "Reading Is Fun-damental" and the new Woodrow Wilson Center 
for International Scholars; $230,000 from the Morris and Gwendolyn 
Cafritz Foundation for the new Calder setting on the Mall; and a 
bequest of $235,000 and a valuable collection of hemiptera-heteroptera 
from the Carl Drake estate. 

The Smithsonian has been fortunate in securing increases in its 
federal appropriations for operating purposes in recent years. For its 
normal activities in fiscal year 1969, however, the increase amounted 
merely to about eight percent. Increasingly severe federal budgetary 
restraints are now seriously limiting efforts to keep up with the inflation- 
ary rise in salaries and supplies, to meet the difficulty of accommodating 
steadily rising numbers of visitors to our museums, and to maintain even 
minimum support of research and educational projects. 

Under these circumstances, private-fund support becomes doubly 
valuable. The book value of private Smithsonian endowment funds 
increased during the fiscal year by $1,740,000 (principally $1,250,000 
gain on sales of securities and $437,000 from gifts), to a total of 
$26,490,000 on 30 June 1969 (market value $31,800,000). The income 
from roughly one half of these endowment funds is directed to the sup- 
port of the Freer Gallery, and income from another one fourth of the 
funds is restricted to other valuable endeavors in specific fields of re- 
search and education. The remaining funds ($6,414,000) are unre- 
stricted as to use of income; together with other investments in current 
fund accounts they produce about $400,000 of income annually. 

These private funds, even in such limited amounts in relation to the 
overall operating requirements of the Institution, are extremely valuable 
in permitting experimental improvements, change, and modernization 



FINANCIAL REPORT 37 

in a variety of operating programs. It is essential to the future success 
of the Institution that such private fund income be substantially in- 
creased if the Smithsonian is to fulfill its mandate and keep abreast 
of rapidly changing needs. 

Some examples of a few specific large requirements for the immediate 
future include purchase funds to expand our Chesapeake Bay Center 
for Field Biology which is conducting fundamental ecological studies. 
In addition we need building renovation and operating funds for the 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design in New York 
City. Finally we need funds to expand the Smithsonian Associates pro- 
gram on a national scale. This pressing need for additional private 
support has not previously been made known to our friends and well- 
wishers. To this end, therefore, there has now been initiated an 
expanded program to attract important private financial support. The 
Institution will seek directed and unrestricted gifts, grants, and bequests 
from private individuals, foundations, and corporations. Some success 
has already been achieved. We intend to work harder. 

Financial Statement 

For the Year Ending 30 June 1969 

The Smithsonian Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts and 
bequests received from the following : 

$100,000 or more: 

Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Mrs. Marjorie Merriweather Post 

Foundation The Scaife Family of Pittsburgh 

The Ford Foundation 

$10,000 or more: 

American Federation of Information Old Dominion Foundation 

Processing Society Russell Sage Foundation 

American Petroleum Institute Hattie M. Strong Foundation 

Frank Caplan Irwin-Sweeney-Miller Foundation 

John A. du Pont Tai Ping Foundation 

Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Charles Ulrick and Josephine Bay 

Foundation Foundation, Inc. 

J. Seward Johnson Howard Weingrow 
National Geographic Society 

$1,000 or more: 

Allison Division, General Motors American Council of Learned 

Corporation Societies 

American Committee for International Andrew Archer 

Wildlife Protection R. Arundel 



38 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



Mrs. Edward Ayers 

Robert Baker 

Bell Aerospace Corporation 

The Louis and Henrietta Blaustein 

Foundation 
Estate of Mrs. Bliss 
Boeing Company 
Capital Cities Broadcasting 
Coca Cola Company 
Columbia Broadcasting System 
The Commonwealth Fund 
Corn Refiners 
Clarence A. deGiers 
Mrs. Robert Dunning 
Earth Science Imports 
Martin Ehrmann 
William Elkins 
Harvey Firestone 
Foundation for Voluntary Service 
Garrett Corporation 
Geigy Chemical Corporation 
General Dynamics 
General Electric Company 
Grant Foundation 
Grumman Aircraft Corporation 
Hughes Aircraft Corporation 
International Business Machines 

Corporation 
International Music Council 
International Telephone and 

Telegraph Corporation 
James Ellwood Jones 
Junior League 
Francis Keppel 

Hoffmann LaRoche Foundation 
J. Lavalend 
Dr. George Lawrence 
M. Lebowitz 
Eli Lilly & Company 
Charles A. Lindbergh 



Ling-Temco-Vought Aerospace, 

Incorporated 
The Link Foundation 
Litton Industries 
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation 
Louwana Fund, Incorporated 
Marriott Foundation 
L. Marschael 
Mead Corporation 
Fearson Meeks 
The Merck Company 
Irene Morden 
National Home Library 
Olympia Airways 
Sidney Printing & Publishing 

Company 
Josephine Bay Paul and C. Michael 

Paul Foundation 
Charles Pfizer Company 
Population Council 
Raytheon Company 
Research Corporation 
Herbert and Nannette Rothchild 

Foundation 
Ryan Aeronautical Foundation 
Tom Sawyer 

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation 
Sperry Rand Corporation 
Dr. Walter Stryker 
Eugene Thaw 

Allen Tucker Memorial Fund 
United Aircraft Corporation 
University of Michigan 
Lila Acheson Wallace Foundation 
Washington, D.C., Library 
The Washington Post 
Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 
Weedon Foundation 
Westinghouse Corporation 
Xerox Corporation 



$500.00 or more: 

Acquavella Gallery 

Walter Annenberg 

John Beck 

Bell & Howell Foundation 

Leigh Block 

George Brown 

William A. Burden 

H. Curtis 

C. Douglas Dillon 



Mrs. Robert Dranign 
Electric Indicator Company, 

Incorporated 
H. Elwell 

Fairchild Hiller Corporation 
Faoun 

Dr. Gordon D. Gibson 
Arnold Gingrich 
Cecil Green 



FINANCIAL REPORT 39 

Wenner-Gren Foundation Martha Love 

Donald Hall Arjay Miller 

Gordon Hanes J. Irwin Miller 

Henry Heinz J. Jefferson Miller 

Mrs. Oveta Gulp Hobby Roy Neuberger 

Hughes Tool Company North American Rockwell 

Edgar Kaiser Pan American Airways 

Kamen Corporation PRD Electronics, Incorporated 

Alice Kaplan Reader's Digest 

David I. Kreeger Dr. Harold Rehder 

Estee and James Lauder David Rockefeller 

Dorothy Lee Shorewood Products 

The Lilliputian Foundation Arthur O. Sulzberger 

James Ling Joseph Wilson 

John Loch Anne Windfohr 

We also gratefully acknowledge other contributions in the amount 
of $16,655.92 received from 201 persons during 1969. 

Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. 

CERTIFIED PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS 

10 25 CONNECTICUT AVENUE, NW 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 2 0036 

The Board of Regents, 
Smithsonian Institution: 

We have examined the balance sheet of private funds of Smith- 
sonian Institution as of June 30, 1969 and the related statement of 
changes in fund balances for the year then ended. Our examination 
was made in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, 
and accordingly included such tests of the accounting records and 
such other auditing procedures as we considered necessary in the 
circumstances. 

In our opinion, the accompanying statement of changes in fund bal- 
ances presents fairly the operations of the unrestricted funds of Smith- 
sonian Institution for the year ended June 30, 1969, in conformity with 
generally accepted accounting principles ; and, with respect to all other 
funds, subject to the matters referred to in note 1, the accompanying 
balance sheet of private funds and the related statement of changes in 
fund balances present fairly the assets and fund balances of Smithsonian 
Institution at June 30, 1969, and changes in fund balances, resulting 
from cash transactions of the private funds for the year then ended, all 
on a basis consistent with that of the preceding year. 

Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. 

October 27, 1969 



40 



Current funds: 
Cash: 

In U.S. Treasury 

In banks and on hand 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1969 

SMITHSONIAN 
BALANCE SHEET OF PRIVATE 

Assets 



$492, 380 
577, 687 



Total cash 
Receivables : 
Accounts 

Advances — travel and other 
Reimbursements — grants and contracts 

Inventories at net realizable value 

Investments — stocks and bonds at cost (market 

value $3,030,124) 
Prepaiid expense 
Equipment — museum shops (less accumulated 

depreciation of $26,407) 

Total current funds 

Endowment and similar funds: 
Cash 

Notes receivable 
Investments — stocks and bonds at cost (market 

value $29,281,837) 
Loan to U.S. Treasury in perpetmty 
Real estate (at cost or appraised value at date of 

gift) 

Total endowment and similar funds 
See accompanying notes to financial statement 



$268, 120 

156, 963 

1, 261, 875 



1, 070, 067 



1, 686, 958 
618, 804 

3, 250, 305 
19, 907 

86, 397 

$6, 732, 438 



98, 932 

99, 128 

23, 955, 702 
1, 000, 000 

1, 336, 175 

$26, 489, 937 



FINANCIAL REPORT 41 

INSTITUTION 
FUNDS, 30 JUNE 1969 

Liabilities and Fund Balances 
Current funds: 

Accounts payable $667, 754 

Accrued liabilities 39, 972 

Unrestricted fund balance 2, 851, 41 1 

Restricted fund balance: 

Gifts $1, 074, 983 

Grants 1, 034, 867 



Contracts 270, 087 



2, 379, 937 



Unexpended income: 

Freer 472, 272 



Other 321,092 793,364 



Total current funds $6, 732, 438 



Endowment and similar funds: 

Endowment funds — income restricted: 

Freer 13,170,032 

Other 6, 905, 852 



20, 075, 884 
Current funds reserved as an endowment — income 

unrestricted 6, 414, 053 



Total endowment and similar funds $26, 489, 937 

Commitment (note 2) 



366-269 O — 70- 



42 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



SMITHSONIAN 

Statement of Changes 

Year Ended 



Current funds 




Total current 


Unrestricted 




funds 


funds 


Balance at beginning of year 


$5, 491, 751 


$3, 086, 153 


Adjustment: to reflect unexpended funds held by 






principal investigators 


220, 117 


10,718 


Adjusted balance at beginning of year 


5,711,868 


3, 096, 871 


Additions : 






Grants and contracts — net of refunds 


11,398,918 . 




Investment income 


1, 302, 532 


379, 150 


Gifts and bequests 


1, 986, 830 


181, 143 


Gross profit on sales 


413,561 


413,561 


Rental 


1, 118,951 


1, 118,951 


Dues and fees 


904, 957 


904, 957 


Reimbursement from grantors or contractors 


16, 632 


(109,989) 


Other 


503,813 


304, 002 


Net gains on sales and exchanges of investments 


62, 098 


62, 098 


Total additions 


17,708,292 


3, 253, 873 


Deductions: 






Salaries and benefits: 






Administrative 


3, 138, 543 


3, 138, 543 


Research 


6,069,693 . 




Purchases for collection 


764, 833 


210, 175 


Travel and transportation 


689, 020 


132, 274 


Equipment and facilities 


723, 286 


63, 518 


Supplies and materials 


668, 776 


268, 436 


Rents and utilities 


918,468 


319,566 


Communication 


297, 243 


102,416 


Contractual services 


3, 118,926 


1, 272, 522 


Computer rental 


918, 039 


40, 068 


Depreciation 


21,462 


21, 462 


Admin, expenditures applicable to other funds 




(2, 196, 569) 


Total expenditures 


17,328,289 


3,372,411 


Transfers to (from): 






Income added to principal 
Transfers for designated purposes 


(49, 614) . 






(109,377) 


Transfers to endowment funds 


(17,545) 


(17,545) 


Total transfers 


(67, 159) 


(126,922) 


Balance at end of year 


$6,024,712 


$2,851,411 



See accompanying notes to financial statements. 



FINANCIAL REPORT 



43 



INSTITUTION 
in Fund Balances 
30 June 1969 



Current funds— 


-Continued 


Endowment and similar ^ 




Restricted funds 


funds 


Gifts, 

Grants, and 

Contracts 

$1, 526, 607 
191, 030 


Unexpended 
irwome 

$878, 991 
18, 369 


Total 
endowment and 
similar funds 

$24, 749, 750 


Endowment 
funds 

$18, 553, 392 


Current funds 

reserved as 

an endowment 

$6, 196, 358 










1,717,637 


897, 360 


24, 749, 750 


18, 553, 392 


6, 196, 358 


11,398,918 












923, 382 








1, 805, 687 


419, 507 


419, 507 














126, 621 










99, 408 


100, 403 


3,330 
1, 250, 191 


(77) 
1, 035, 903 


3,407 
214, 288 








13,430,634 


1, 023, 785 


1, 673, 028 


1, 455, 333 


217,695 




5, 659, 758 


409,935 

301, 269 

48, 724 

31, 883 

46, 059 








253, 389 








508, 022 








627, 885 








354, 281 








598, 902 








183, 469 


11,358 
141, 733 








1,704,671 








877,971 


















2, 117,504 


79,065 
















12, 885, 852 


1, 070, 026 


















(49, 614) 
(8,141) 


49, 614 


49, 614 




117,518 






17,545 


17,545 










117,518 


(57, 755) 


67, 159 


67, 159 








$2, 379, 937 


$793, 364 


$26, 489, 937 


$20, 075, 884 


$6,414,053 



44 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Summary of Grants and Contracts 
Year Ended June 30, 1969 

Department of Health, Education, Total Grants Contracts 
and Welfare $272, 397 $272, 397 



Department of Defense 1,667,184 50,616 $1,316,568 
National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration 7,265,134 4,900,423 2,364,711 
National Science Foundation 2, 098, 267 120, 391 1, 977, 876 
Other 320,635 131,423 189,212 



Total Grants and Contracts $11, 623, 617 $5, 475, 250 $6, 148, 367 



Summary of Endowment and Similar Funds Investments 
Book Values at June 30, 1969 

Consolidated 

Total Fund Freer Fund 

Short-term bonds $2,650,279 $1,096,371 $1,553,908 

Medium- term bonds 1,361,226 617,060 744,166 

Long-term bonds 8, 518, 126 3, 1 13, 624 5, 404, 502 

Preferred stocks 878,151 565,840 312,311 

Common stocks 10,534,534 5,381,263 5,153,271 



Totals $23, 942, 316 $10, 774, 158 $13, 168, 158 



Other Stocks & Bonds 13, 386 



Total $23, 955, 702 



Note 1 . Basis of Accounting. — The accounts for unrestricted funds are maintained 
on the accrual basis of accounting. Accounts for other funds are maintained on the 
basis of cash receipts and disbursements, except that reimbursements for work 
performed pursuant to a grant or contract are accrued and certain real estate is 
carried at cost or appraised value as explained below. 

Except for certain real estate acquired by gift or purchased from proceeds of gifts 
which are valued at cost or appraised value at date of gift, land, buildings, furniture, 
equipment, works of art, living and other specimens, and certain other similar 
property, are not included in the accounts of the Institution; the amounts of 
investments in such properties are not readily determinable. Current expenditures 
for such properties are included among expenses. The accompanying statements 
do not include the National Gallery of Art, the John F. Kennedy Center for the 
Performing Arts, nor other departments, bureaus and operations administered by 
the Institution under Federal appropriations. 

Note 2. Commitment. — Pursuant to an agreement, dated October 9, 1967, 
between the Institution and The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and 



FINANCIAL REPORT 



45 



Art, the Institution acquired, on July 1, 1968, all funds belonging to The Cooper 
Union for use exclusively for museum purposes, and certain articles of tangible 
personal property as defined in the agreement. 

The agreement provides, among other covenants, that the Institution will 
maintain a museum in New York City and has pledges in excess of $800,000 for the 
support of such a museum. During the year pledges of $200,000 were collected. 



OFFICE OF ACADEMIC 
PROGRAMS 

Philip C. Ritterbush 
Director 



i 



The Office of Academic Programs 

Philip C. Ritterbush, Director 



LEARNING IS INTENSELY INDIVIDUALISTIC. Yet teaching is aliiiost al- 
J ways offered to groups. Formal education is organized for economy 
of teaching effort, not for maximum learning. Like the formal set-piece 
battle, which was the only way some generals knew how to fight, the 
formal curriculum too often reflects the inability of faculties to teach in 
any other way. The course given in sequence to a group of students 
marching through it in tight formation for some predetermined interval 
is obsolete. And so are school tours in museums if children are made to 
stop obediently at successive stations to absorb doses of facts soon to 
be forgotten. Educational programs must afford proper scope to the 
rhythms of interest and respond to the directions of curiosity prompting 
each student. 

The basis of higher education within the Smithsonian is the mature 
scholar conducting research in a field and helping to guide the efforts 
of a student seeking greater competence. Starting this year, applicants 
for educational appointments at the Institution have been asked not 
only for records of previous achievement but also for essays specifying 
their intellectual goals, enabling prospective supervisors to judge which 
students will most benefit from the Smithsonian. Terms of admission 
and the award of fellowship support are determined by steering com- 
mittees of professional staff members, to whom these powers have been 
delegated for the first time this year. Within each major field of study, 
programs of associated tutorials and seminars are being developed to 
foster more intensive exchanges of ideas and to serve community interests 
of investigators whose work is related. 

The summary of higher education for academic year 1968-69 is given 
by each discipline, as follows: 

In American Studies the equivalent of fourteen credit hours of instruc- 
tion has been offered, including the graduate-level survey course in 
American material culture, conducted by Harold Skramstad, a teaching 
associate whose extensive knowledge of our nation's development has 
enabled him to draw widely on Smithsonian resources. Of the twenty- 

49 



50 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1969 

six professional staff members whose primary concern is American his- 
tory, four hold ancillary university appointments. 

In Anthropology a total of thirty-two credit hours (equivalent) of 
instruction has been offered and three PhDs and two master's degrees 
have been earned from the universities of students holding academic 
appointments. Of eighteen professional staff members, two hold univer- 
sity appointments. 

A program in Cultural Studies is being established to serve the Insti- 
tution's scholarly enterprises in art and music history and the study of 
folk culture. Three PhDs have been earned in this area and one master's 
degree, while the equivalent of twenty-one credit hours of instruction 
has been offered by a total of twenty-three professional staff members. 
Dr. William Gerdts has been appointed a teaching associate and has 
conducted a graduate seminar on 19th-century American art in the 
National Collection of Fine Arts. 

In Environmental Biology, with twenty-three professional staff mem- 
bers, of whom five hold joint university appointments, the equivalent 
of eight credit hours of instruction has been offered, including the third 
year of the spring lecture course in environmental biology, conducted in 
cooperation with the D.C. Consortium of Universities. 

In Evolutionary and Behavioral Biology (Tropical Zones), the grow- 
ing interest of biologists in unique tropical ecosystems and evolutionary 
patterns has resulted in a group of excellent students taking advantage 
of consultation with the Panama staff of seven scientists, of whom one 
held a university appointment. Seven PhDs have been earned and a 
total of forty-three credit hours (equivalent) of instruction have been 
offered. 

In Evolutionary and Systematic Biology, comprising the biological re- 
search departments of the National Museum of Natural History and 
sixty-five investigators, with twenty-four Iiolding university appoint- 
ments, the level of instruction offered has been equivalent to ninety- 
four credit hours. Six PhDs and two master's degrees have been earned. 
Dr. Richard Boardman has conducted a widely praised seminar on 
bryozoa, covering techniques of study as well as analyses of fine 
structure. 

In the History of Science and Technology, defined broadly to include 
technology as applied to social needs such as agriculture, coinage, and 
the postal system, the Institution employs thirty investigators, of whom 
three hold university appointments. The equivalent of nineteen credit 
hours of instruction has been offered and one PhD has been earned. 

Museum Studies comprises three broad concerns of the modem mu- 
seum: display systems including communications arts, reference sys- 
tems including data management, and preservation systems including 



OFFICE OF ACADEMIC PROGRAMS 



51 



all aspects of the analysis of materials. The program being developed in 
this area looks beyond traditional approaches to museum training to- 
ward a wider academic foundation. Internships at the grade level for 
academic credit are now regularly arranged with George Washington 
University and the University of Maryland. 




Miss Joyce Perry, participant in the 0£Bce of Academic Programs' 1969 Summer 
Institute in Museum Display Systems has a lively discussion with a group of 
inner-city sixth graders as part of an experiment In pupil reactions to museum 
objects. Data obtained will be used in the development of new teaching exhibits 
at the Smithsonian. 



Almost any curator might be counted as a potential contributor to 
the study of these practical museum arts, as well as a dozen or so staff 
members for whom they are the primary professional commitment, as 
is true for conservators and reference system analysts. One PhD and 
one master's degree have been earned. Dr. Robert Organ, director of 
the Conservation Analytical Laboratory, has offered a course of lectures 
on chemistry. The equivalent of eighteen credit hours of instruction 
has been offered. Two staff members hold university appointments. 

In the Physical Sciences, forty-seven of seventy research staff members 
have held academic appointments, reflecting the close interdependence 
of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and Harvard University. 



52 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Fourteen PhDs have been earned and two master's degrees. In all, the- 
equivalent of 188 credit hours of instruction has been offered. 



SCHOOL SERVICE PROGRAMS | 

The Smithsonian's school tour program has provided almost 1,6001 
escorted tours, serving more than 45,000 school students, in the Na- 
tional Museum of History and Technology, the National Museum of 
Natural History, and the National Air and Space Museum. At the Na- 
tional Collection of Fine Arts 135 tours have been provided, serving 
4,050 pupils. Tours at the National Zoological Park have numbered 
165, serving 9,390 children. Of these, 130 tours have been prescheduled, 
and 35 have been unscheduled classes that docents have been able tO' 
assist once they arrived at the Zoo. 

These tours have been made possible through the volunteer activities 
of about 150 women recruited from many parts of the Washington 
metropolitan community. By giving, on the average, one morning a week 
during the school year, the volunteer docents are able to offer a wide 
variety of tours in eighteen areas of the Smithsonian Institution. 

A central scheduling office has now been set up for the tours, allow- 
ing the instructor staff to devote more time to special class visits and 
the production of educational materials. Mrs. Joan Madden has joined 
the staff as Volunteer Representative and has greatly improved all as- 
p>ects of scheduling. The number of volunteer docents has more than 
doubled this year and the school tour total has increased by 235 per- 
cent. Far more important than numbers have been the efforts to trans- 
form the tours into freer learning experiences. Within the National- 
Collection of Fine Arts, for example, young children are encouraged to 
act out their responses to works of painting and sculpture. Under the 
guidance of Miss Susan Sollins the docents have worked up a remark- 
able improvisational tour. 

Exciting new departures in education were discussed for the entire 
cadre of docents in a day-long meeting in May 1969: "Museum Edu- 
cation Day," which brought six inspiring speakers, who described ways 
to use the museum as an effective environment for visual learning. At 
an appreciation ceremony in June 1969 the docents were given a de- 
lightful concert on period musical instruments, a wonderful example 
of the museum come alive, which is of course the mission they seek to 
perform for youngsters. 

The Division of Elementary and Secondary Education "Tailored 
Tour" program has seen much activity during the year. This program, 
one which provides carefully custom-designed museum experiences 



OFFICE OF ACADEMIC PROGRAMS 53 

planned in terms of specific needs of subscribing school groups, has 
continued to gain popularity among teachers and curriculum specialists 
in the Washington, D.C., public, private, and parochial school com- 
munity. During the year approximately 1,260 pupils representing forty- 
two schools have taken part in the program. Slightly more than fifteen 
percent of the Office of Academic Programs instructional staflF time has 
been spent in planning sessions with classroom teachers and in direct 
teaching of visiting classes. Eight volunteer docents have been involved 
|in implementation of certain of these special museum experiences when 
the design was one that touched upon museum exhibits within the 
scope of their general preparation. 

In addition to a museum staflF of instructors available to consult with 
school people, the availability of two classrooms in the Division of Ele- 
mentary and Secondary Education complex in the National Museum of 
Natural History makes the tailored tour concept functional. This facility 
permits discussions, use of various types of media, participation of visit- 
ing resource persons, demonstrations, creative activities (such as clay 
modeling, painting, creative writing), and other teaching and learning 
techniques to be planned as part of a comprehensive teaching plan. 

Groups participating in the tailored tour program during the past 
year include the Model Schools Innovation Team, Pupil Personnel 
Department Tutorial Program, United States Department of Labor 
Day Nursery School, and Project Headstart. 

The school service program introduces groups of young Americans 
to educational opportunities outside of school that will be available 
to them for life. In hopes of improving the effectiveness of museums 
in providing educational experiences, the Institution has issued an in- 
vitation to encourage research by psychologists and others into the learn- 
ing process as it may actually be observed in our halls and galleries. 
Effective learning necessarily involves pupils in active responses and 
free discussion of exhibits, which can be studied for clues to questions 
of interest and comprehension. To see children come alive with the 
joy of knowing is to share in a museum's greatest success. But as Hans 
Zetterberg argues in his recent book. Museums and Adult Education, 
there has been far too little discerning study of who comes to see what 
and how they profit by it. Here the Smithsonian has a special responsi- 
bility to sponsor studies that will be of value throughout the world of 
education. An experimental student information guide program and an 
invitational conference on innovation and relevance in museum exhibits 
are other special activities devoted to this objective, which will also be 
of primary concern within the higher education program in museum 
studies. 



54 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

An acute shortage of financial resources has blocked expansion of 
education programs for the past three years. Outside support from the 
National Science Foundation, the National EndowTiient on the Hu- 
manities, the Junior League of Washington, and the Home Library 
Foundation has helped to maintain the program level. Support for the 
Third International Symposium has been generously provided by the 
sponsors. The United States Congress has approved a centralization 
of educational funding within the Office of Academic Programs, which 
is expected to result in better communication of student numbers and 
program needs. More effective administrative procedures for scheduling 
school tours, for making appointments in higher education, and for 
certifying instruction to universities have been worked out and put into 
effect, made possible by an unusually dedicated staff. Wilton S. Dillon, 
a versatile social anthropologist who has seen distinguished service with 
the Phelps-Stokes Fund and the National Academy of Sciences, became 
Director of the Division of Seminars in January 1969. He is ably as- 
sisted by Mrs. Ruth Frazier. David Chase and Mrs. Grace Murphy 
direct the production of the Washington Academic Calendar and other 
special projects in urban and environmental affairs. Edward Davidson, 
a paleontologist who has done much of the work for his doctorate within 
the National Museum of Natural History, has joined the Division of 
Graduate Studies as a Program Associate, bringing to it an intimate 
knowledge of Smithsonian research. 

Director Ritterbush has joined the deliberations of the working 
group on intellectual institutions of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences-sponsored Commission on the Year 2000 and also a com- 
mission on governance of universities cosponsored by the Academy and 
the Danforth Foundation. He also has organized a symposium on the 
relations of art and science to biological form for the annual meeting 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, has pre- 
sented a number of scholarly papers, has addressed the sesquicentennial 
of the University of Cincinnati ("The Educated Man in the Year 
2000"), the silver anniversary observance of the National Science 
Teachers' Association ("Science Teaching and the Future"), and has 
consulted on education with the governments of Israel and the United 
Kingdom. 



Staff Publications 

Dillon, Wilton S., Gifts and Nations. Foreword by Talcott Parsons. The 
Hague and Paris: Mouton and Ecole Pratique des Hautes fetudes, 1968. 

Ritterbush, Philip C, The Art of Organic Forms. Washington, D.C.: Smith- 
sonian Institution Press, 1968. 



I 



OFFICE OF ACADEMIC PROGRAMS 55 

. "Environment and Historical Paradox." Yearbook of the Society for 



General Systems Research ( 1968), volume 13. 
. "The Biological Muse." Natural History (October 1968), volume 77, 



number 8, pages 26-31. 
. "The Educated Man in the Year 2000." American Oxonian (January 



1969), volume 56, number 1, pages 1-13. 
. "The Educated Man in the Year 2000." Vital Speeches (1 March 1969), 



volume number 10, pages 295-300. 



SCIENCE 

Sidney R. Galler 
Assistant Secretary 



366-269 O — 70- 



National Museum of Natural History' 

Richard S. Cowan, Director 




ONE NEEDS TO HAVE ONLY SOME AWARENESS of the WOrld atOUnd 
him — and a conscience — to recognize that enormous, often 
traumatic, changes of many kinds are demanding attention. Demands 
for change in social institutions, reversal of environmental degradation, 
and changing values in the face of rapid scientific and technological 
advances provide us with challenges well beyond anything that has ever 
been faced by civilized man. Directly and indirectly, the disciplines of 
natural history can, and must, contribute to the solution of these prob- 
lems. The first step in the application of science to human problems is 
that scientists must care, must be concerned. The research staff of this, 
the largest natural history museum in the country, increasingly reflects 
a growing involvement with today's problems in today's world. 

Perhaps the single concern of greatest magnitude is the accelerating 
impact of man on his surroundings or, in many cases, the actual destruc- 
tion of the environment. Formal direct action, through participation 
in organizations of national and international scope, is evidenced by our 
participation in such undertakings as the International Biological Pro- 
gram, the Charles Darwin Station in the Galapagos Islands, the joint 
effort with British scientists to protect the biota and habitats of Aldabra 
Island. At the personal level, however, numerous individuals of the 
research staff at the year's end were : ( 1 ) planning a colloquium on the 
threatened biota of Hawaii; (2) organizing preliminary exploratory 
field studies of a starfish population explosion that threatens the coral 
Pacific islands; (3) preparing for a reconnaissance of the Marshall 
Island Test Area; (4) developing plans for massive biological research 
programs in Southeast Asia that can serve as the foundation for an 
expanded standard of living for the people of that area; (5) completing 
plans for large-scale systematic studies in collaboration with ecologists, 
geneticists, physiologists, and others concerned with the complexity and 



^ Formerly Museum of Natural History. Name change eflfective 24 March 1969. 

59 



60 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

potentials of the tropical forest ecosystem; and (6) conducting experi- 
ments similar to those that will be used in our studies of the first lunar 
samples. 

If one is truly involved in current problem-solving, he realizes that 
today's research programs, by themselves, do not provide for the future, 
even if they were adequate to meet today's problems (and they are not) . 
This realization has produced an involvement by the Museum staff in 
educational activities far beyond all expectations of a few years past. 
High school students, doctoral degree candidates, scores of volunteer 
workers of all ages, and serious visiting researchers use the facilities of 
the Museum in ever-growing numbers. It is noteworthy that they come 
not only because of the more than fifty million specimens that serve 
as the documentation base for a full panoply of research but also 
because of a vital research climate in the Museum. 

With the increase of interdisciplinary use of the collections-tool, there 
has been generated a vast demand for the information they contain. If 
museums are to continue to serve a vital role in the biological research 
process, they must contribute fully to the research-educational process 
by making the collections and their accompanying data more accessible 
to the community of scholars. Rising costs of collections maintenance — 
along with large numbers of new materials obtained in the course of 
major, large-scale biological programs — have discouraged, or even pre- 
vented, museums from fulfilling this function as adequately as required. 
Electronic data-processing techniques, though costly both in time and 
money provide the means by which museums may meet these problems. 
Under the direction of Donald F. Squires,- pilot studies have been under- 
way for the last two years with the support of the Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare (hew) and with the collaboration of the 
Smithsonian's Information Systems Division. The information that com- 
prises the data base is derived from the collections of sea birds, marine 
crustaceans, and rocks. Data recorded in the field and in the laboratory 
are prepared in machine-readable form as a part of the specimen 
documentation process, read into a computerized system of storage, 
and retrieved according to the requirements of the researcher. The sys- 
tems devised are now being applied in other parts of the collections by 
the Museum and the future expansion into many of the national 
collections is a long-term, high-priority objective that may serve as a 
model for the entire museum community. 

Application of the techniques of data processing to the enormous 
bibliographic needs of biology is a closely related goal that is also being 



* Formerly deputy director of the Museum but now in charge of the marine 
research programs at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 61 

Studied for future development. Already, the data base may be queried 
successfully in specific areas, and at the end of the year a study was 
underway of the economic factors involved — how much it costs to put a 
set of data in the base and to retrieve that information. 

One final example of the Museum's deep commitment to the study 
of fundamental human problems is provided by a Smithsonian-National 
Institutes of Health program initiated several years ago to study the 
occurrence of cancer-like, abnormal growths in lower animals. The 
project has much potential significance to other larger, broad-gauged 
research programs in the Museum, as well as to medical research on 
tissue abnormalities. The implications and accomplishments of this pro- 
gram are described later in this report by the project director, John C. 
Harshbarger. 

While major concepts in the understanding of disease processes (par- 
ticularly in infectious disease, immunity, and genetics) have been made 
in studies of the lower animal phyla, much of the work has been done 
by independent investigations widely separated in time and location, 
and very little coordinated support for bio-medical research has been 
extended to animals below mammals. 

In the field of oncology (the study of tumors) the paucity of informa- 
tion regarding neoplasms in invertebrates has stimulated a search for 
anti-tumor materials in these animals and some success has been 
reported. 

The thymic-dependent defense system of cellular immunity, which 
phylogenetically appeared at about the level of the cyclostomes (lam- 
preys) , is claimed by some researchers to have evolved because of the 
survival value it provided as a surveillance system against aberrant (neo- 
plastic) cell populations. Neoplasia, therefore, must not have been much 
of a threat to primitive animals and should be rare in the lower phyla 
today. 

The majority opinion, however, as to why neoplasia seems rare in 
invertebrates and cold-blooded vertebrates is that these tumors are 
seldom recognized and the small size of many of these animals dis- 
courages autopsy even when illness and death is observed. Moreover, 
there has been little attempt to survey lower animal populations specif- 
ically for neoplasia since many zoologists discard abnormal specimens 
in favor of more normal ones for study. 

There was no center for the collection and study of the pathology 
of animals in the lower phyla until 1965, when the Registry of Tumors 
in Lower Animals was activated by the National Cancer Institute at 
the National Museum of Natural History under a contractual arrange- 
ment. The primary objectives of the Registry are : ( 1 ) to collect and 
study neoplasms and related disorders of growth and form in inver- 



62 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

tebrate and cold-blooded vertebrates, (2) to serve to collect the per- 
tinent tumor-related literature, and ( 3 ) to serve a liaison role among the 
various workers in the field. Another, secondary objectve of the Registry 
is to carry out field collect'ons of neoplasms where these are of special 
interest to pathologists. A study of epithelial papillomas of the mouth — • 
enzootic in white croakers off the coast of California — is in progress. 
A study of invertebrates exposed to radioactive fallout at the Bikini 
Atoll has just been initiated. 

The Registry now has 244 accessions, only about one fourth of which 
have been classified as neoplasms. Another fourth are problematic lesions 
of indeterminate nature, illustrating the degree of difficulty experienced 
in identifying disease processes in unfamiliar species. One half of the 
specimens represent inflammatory, parasitic, reparative, developmental, 
and other types of non-neoplastic phenomena. 

One of the most valuable of the Registry's accomplishments has been 
the organization of an international symposium conducted at the Smith- 
sonian Institution 19-21 June 1968. This was the first such symposium 
devoted entirely to neoplasms of invertebrates and cold-blooded 
vertebrates and the proceedings will be published {National Cancer 
Institute Monograph 31 ) . 

Largely as a result of the Registry's efforts, a reevaluation of the oc- 
currence of tumors is being made. It is now recognized that neoplasms 
occur in the vertebrates as low as the cyclostomes and that neoplasms 
apparently comparable to those in mammals occur in insects and 
mollusks. For example, in two laboratories transplantable, although 
not invasive, growths have been found in the fruit fly, Drosophila 
melanogaster. These tumors arise from the continual proliferation of 
imaginal disk cells that have lost their ability for maturation. Another 
transplantable tumor of Drosophila arises in the larvae of a specific 
strain. In this case the larval neuroblast cells proliferate rapidly, in- 
vade, and replace the host tissues. Because of the wealth of knowledge 
of Drosophila genetics and the occurrence of polyteny in the salivary 
gland chromosomes, these transplantable tumors are likely to become 
valuable tools for the cancer researcher and the developmental biologist. 

Since naturally occurring leukemias, epitheliomas, and a variety of 
mesench\Tnal tumors have been found in oysters, mussels, clams, snails, 
and crabs, one can begin to see potential advantages of cancer research 
on these lower animals. Suspicion has been raised, for example, that 
environmental factors will be found to explain the high incidence of 
some neoplasms in particular populations of a species, which factors 
may be of importance in explaining the distribution of cancer in human 
populations. We already know that the epizootic of liver cancer in 
hatchery-reared rainbow trout led to the discovery that aflatoxin, the 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 63 

by-product of a fungus, was its cause, and aflatoxin is now under care- 
ful scrutiny as a possible carcinogen in man. A similar situation is the 
association of a herpes-like virus with the Lucke renal tumor (adeno- 
carcinoma) of frogs. This animal system is being used to obtain infor- 
mation that may be useful in explaining the association of a similar 
virus with the leukemic disease in Africans known as Burkitts' 
lymphoma. 

With the growth of aquaculture as a means of food supply, pathology 
of marine animals is becoming a growing science. As greater numbers 
of animals come under careful observation, it is inevitable that new 
epizootics of neoplasia will be discovered and will require investigation 
of their relationship to human disease. 

Investigation of the natural occurrence of neoplasms in the lower 
phyla eventually may enable us to make some generalizations concern- 
ing trends toward higher incidences of neoplasia in species of more 
recent evolutionary origin, in species with more numerous systems, or 
in species with greater degree of specialization in particular organs and 
tissues. A board overview of neoplasia on the phylogenetic scale is not 
now possible, for the current state of knowledge covers less than three 
percent of the animal species on earth and only about twenty percent 
of evolutionary time. 

The relationship of carcinogenesis to immunologic effectiveness is a 
question that may prove more readily answerable by investigating lower 
animals. The invertebrates offer special advantages because they do not 
produce humoral antibodies — by classical definitions — but they do have 
cellular responses that are effective in "recognizing" foreign cells and 
may be eflfective in "recognizing" tumor antigens. Since these animals 
lack antibody formation as a complicating factor, they represent a 
simplified experimental system for study of cellular immunological 
mechanisms. 

The study of neoplasia in lower animals has enormous potential. The 
Tumor Registry has taken the lead by putting together a collection of 
specimens which demonstrate that neoplasms exist widely in the animal 
kingdom. Primarily through this collection and the symposium held 
last year, considerable interest has been stimulated throughout the 
world. We should now proceed to use populations with endemic neo- 
plasms to answer some of the pertinent questions of etiology and the 
influences of environmental factors, as well as to expand our knowledge 
of tumor formation in the lower animal phyla. 

Although today's problems seem staggering, they may be viewed as 
opportunities for extending man's understanding of the natural world, 
which is the ultimate objective of the National Museum of Natural 
History. 



64 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1969 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Specimen Transactions — Fiscal Year 1969 
(Prepared by Office of the Registrar) 







Ex- 


Trans- 










New 


changed 


ferred 


Re- 


Lent 




Departments 


acces- 


with other 


to other 


ceived 


for 


Identi- 




sions 


mstitu- 
tions 


govern- 
ment 
agencies 


on loan 


study 


fied 


Anthropology 


79 


325 





47 


458 


4, 176 


Botany 


225 


8,892 


428 


4,984 


23, 580 


8,025 


Entomology 


412 


3,274 


4 





61, 143 


11,352 


Invertebrate 














Zoology 


392 


2,331 





4,535 


12,039 


37, 272 


Mineral Sciences 


333 


6,095 


82 


10 


686 


388 


Paleobiology 


145 


2,651 





856 


11,537 


4,800 


Vertebrate Zoology 


184 


849 





2,155 


25, 276 


75, 368 


Totals 


1,770 


24,417 


514 


12,587 


73, 576 


141,381 



Specimens in the National Collections 10 June 1969 



Department of Anthropology : 
Archeology 
Ethnology 
Physical Anthropology 



Additions 
4,471 
2, 125 
39 



Totals 
815,575 
195, 935 

37, 929 



Totals 


6,635 


1,049,439 


Department of Botany: 
Cryptogams 
Ferns 
Graisses 


8,556 
2,239 
2,441 


552, 434 
265,461 
403, 936 


Phanerogams 
Plant Anatomy 


32, 895 
1,989 


2, 114,001 
50,771 


Totals 


48, 120 


3, 386, 603 


Department of Entomology: 

Total in former Division of Insects, 1963 




15,978,513 


Totals for new divisions, since 1963: 






Coleoptera 

Hemiptera and Hymenoptera 
Lepidoptera and Diptera 
Myriapoda and Arachnida 


165, 149 

131,981 

127,982 

2,913 


723, 390 
595,071 
569, 278 
440, 095 


Ncuropteroids 


32, 585 


406, 280 



Totals 



460,610 18,712,627 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 65 

Additions Totals 

Department of Invertebrate Zoology: 

Crustacea 24,129 1,594,328 

Echinoder ms 1 9, 1 05 1 1 1 , 065 

Mollusks 20,513 10,114,238 

Worms 44,087 716,343 

Totals 
Department of Mineral Sciences: 
Meteorites 
Mineralogy 
Petrology 

Totals 
Department of Paleobiology : 
Invertebrate Paleontology 
Paleobotany 
Sedimentology 
Vertebrate Paleontology 

Totals 
Department of Vertebrate Zoology: 
Birds 
Fishes 
Mammals 
Reptiles and Amphibians 

Totals 

Grand Total 

OFFICE OF SYSTEMATICS 

Because of general budgetary restrictions in the National Museum of 
Natural History, much of the activity of this Office has been directed 
toward support of systematic research within the Museum, especially 
innovative techniques. 

The Office has continued to assist with the development and applica- 
tion of data-processing technology to research problems by its support 
of the type-registry project in the Department of Botany. The location 
and status of type collections of plants constitute information that con- 
ventionally requires a large investment of time and effort. The avail- 
ability of a unified, computerized data-base — including such informa- 
tion from the major botanical collection-centers — can ultimately release 
very significant amounts of professional research time for more produc- 
tive activities. 

The Office has joined the Office of Ecology in sponsoring an inter- 
national research study of a group of grasses, involving investigations 



107, 834 


12, 535, 974 


248 


11,393 


5,415 


167, 639 


3,753 


303, 198 


9,416 


482, 230 


56, 532 


13,452,756 


614 


6, 138 





1,908 


5,653 


58, 687 


62, 799 


13,519,489 


8,440 


537, 084 


23, 509 


2, 108, 958 


25, 946 


411,300 


1,612 


172,609 


59, 507 


3,229,951 




52,916,313 



66 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



of their cytology, karyology, anatomy, and morphology. Such broadly 
based projects have a large potential significance for an understanding 
of the evolution and relationships of this, the largest and economically 
most important flowering plant family. 

The single most externally directed activity of the Office has been 
the organization and execution of the third Summer Institute in System- 
atics, held 23 June- 11 July 1969. Again the National Science Founda- 
tion jointly supported this highly successful series with the Office of 
Systematics. The Society of Systematic Zoology and the Smithsonian 
Institution were cosponsors and the Institute was held at the Smith- 
sonian. The best, most provocative speakers available presented "lec- 
tures" on a wide range of subjects : "The Current Diversity of System- 
atic Methods and Philosophy" (Charles D. Michener), "Statistical 
Approaches to Phylogenetic Approaches" (Lynn H. Throckmorton), 
"Growth and Form in Systematics" (Stephen J. Gould), "Molecular 
Systematics" (Morris Goodman), "Ecological Strategies and the Evolu- 
tion of Ectoparasites" (Rodger D. Mitchell), "Behavioral Studies and 
Systematics" (Howard E. Evans), and "Experimental Zoogeography" 
(Daniel SimberlofT) . In addition to the twenty-five selected partici- 
pants, many of the systematists from the Museum, from government 
agencies, and from the Washington academic community attended 
some or all of the sessions. As usual, the presentation of continuing 
research projects by many of the participants in informal afternoon 
and evening seminars was one of the important benefits. 

Finally, the Ofhce of Systematics has joined the National Museum 
of Natural History in providing funds for the purchase of an exciting 
new research tool, the scanning electron microscope, which was ordered 
near the end of the year. Researchers in paleobiology, invertebrate 
zoology, and botany, among others, eagerly await its arrival for appli- 
cation in their studies. 

Future efforts of the Office will be directed toward the establishment 
of palynological research in the Museum and to the expansion of exper- 
imental approaches to both the gathering and use of biological data 
for solving the complex interrelationships of the natural world about us. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

On 29 October 1968, the Office of Anthropology resumed its status 
as the Department of Anthropology. 

At the end of the year the River Basin Surveys were transferred to 
the National Park Service as the result of negotiations between that 
agency and the Smithsonian. Although administratively separate hence- 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



67 




Long strips of floating artificial Islands on Dal Lake, Kashmir, on which 
watermelons, melons, cucumbers, and tomatoes are grown. 



forth, many of its records and files have been added to the Smithsonian's 
National Anthropological Archives. Smithsonian anthropologists will 
continue to provide scientific advice and on occasion may conduct re- 
search studies under contract with the Park Service. 

Departmental chairman Saul H. Riesenberg spent the summer of 
1968 in research on Micronesian ethnohistory in the documentary ar- 
chives of museums, historical societies, and libraries at New Bedford, 
Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, and Providence. Most of the rest of 
the year has been devoted to the description of the native systems of 
navigation and to a remarkably involuted and circumlocutory mode 
of speech and oral literature that occurs on Puluwat in the Caroline 
Islands, where Riesenberg had done field work two years before. 

Henry B. Collins, archeologist emeritus, has been engaged in organiz- 
ing his Eskimo archeological materials from the Canadian Arctic for 



68 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




William C. Sturtevant collecting ethnobotanical specimens on a floating 
artificial island on Dal Lake, Kashmir. 



incorporation in the Museum collections. This is an extensive collection 
of prehistoric Dorset and Thule culture artifacts of stone, bone, ivory, 
baleen, wood, and other material resulting from four seasons' excava- 
tions, conducted jointly with the National Museum of Canada at old 
sites near Resolution Bay, Cornwallis Island, Northwest Territories. 

Aided by a grant from the Wenner-Gren Foundation, senior eth- 
nologist John C. Ewers has studied early examples of Plains Indian 
painting and carving in museums in Paris, Stuttgart, Offenbach- Main; 
Toronto and Calgary in Canada; and Rochester, New York. These 
studies have been important in enlarging and revising his standard 
work. Plains Indian Painting (1939), out-of-print for more than a 
decade. The data will also be used in preparing a pioneer work on 
Plains Indian carving. 

A large part of a manuscript dealing with archeological field re- 
searches during 1964-67 in central and southwestern Kansas has been 
completed by senior archeologist Waldo R. Wedel. Concerned largely 
with the historical and environmental background and with general 
descriptions of the sites involved, the results of the four field seasons 
of work will be combined into one monograph focused on the human 
ecology and prehistory of the region, complementing his introductory 
monograph on Kansas archeology published in 1959. The nature and ex- 
tent of cultural contacts between the prehistoric and early historic Indian 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 








Farmer collecting weeds and mud from the bottom of Dal Lake, Kashmir, for 
use as mulch on floating artificial islands. 

populations of Kansas and their contemporaries in the Pueblo Indian 
communities in the Rio Grande valley of New Mexico are becoming 
clearer as the research in Kansas goes forward. There are archeological 
indications that the semi-arid southwestern section of the state may have 
been of greater importance to nonhorticultural, hunting peoples in pre- 
historic times than it was to maize-growing peoples; farther east, with 
increased rainfall and improved conditions for growth of domestic crops, 
the reverse appears to have been true. 

A research paper has been accepted for publication, based on studies 
some years ago by Wedel and the late John R. Swanton, that presents 
the documentary evidence concerning the route of the first European 
exploring expedition under Coronado into central Kansas in 1541. Two 
other manuscripts by Wedel are nearing completion — one dealing with 
the hafting of stone scraper blades as revealed for the first time by 
direct evidence gathered during 1965 field work, the second with 
Pueblo trade pottery in the central Plains and its cultural and chrono- 
logical implications. 

Associate curator Eugene I. Knez has consulted with Sindhi scholars 
and officials in the Lower Indus Valley, West Pakistan, to obtain views 
and suggestions for initiating a binational research program on the 
social implications of disappearing traditional crafts, industries, and 
technologies. Most of the sketches, based upon field drawings, for his 



'^ SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

manuscript An Illustrated Study of Korean Material Culture, have been 
compared by Knez in the South Korean village previously studied with 
the original objects. Supplementary information and maps have been 
obtained to update the presentation of land ownership. His current 
research activities include the preparation of a report on Ensign John 
B. Bernadou, usn, a pioneer ethnographer in Korea, and a brochure 
on Sindhi textiles, costumes, and accessories of West Pakistan. 

Associate curator William Trousdale, who has served as assistant 
director of the University of Michigan Expedition to Qasr al-Hayr in 
central Syria, has worked on preparation of preliminary reports of the 
third season of excavations that took place in June of 1968. He has been 
in the field again this year for the fourth season of work at this early 
Islamic site. He also has completed research on Hellenistic bronze mir- 
rors in Egypt, at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, and at the Greco- 
Roman Museum in Alexandria. During the early part of the year, he 
conferred with government officials in Kabul, Afghanistan, on plans 
to conduct an ecological project in southwestern Afghanistan and con- 
tinued his preliminary survey of this region. In September 1968 he 
visited Bhutan to explore the possibility of arranging an exhibition of 
the arts and crafts of that country to be shown at the Smithsonian and 
at other American institutions. During the year Trousdale has completed 
revision for publications of a work on the origin and diffusion of the 
equestrian long iron sword in Asia. He also has completed papers on 
Chinese jade, a folk tradition in Afghanistan reflected in a peculiar 
manner of clipping donkey manes, and an inscribed Achaemenian stone 
weight from the 6th-century-B.c. reign of Darius I, the first identifiable 
Achaemenian find from Afghanistan. 

In July 1968 Curator Clifford Evans and Research Associate Betty J. 
Meggers, directors of the archeological survey of Brazil, with support 
of the Smithsonian Research Foundation and in collaboration with 
the Patrimonio Historico e Artistico Nacional and the Conselho 
Nacional de Pesquisas, convened the eleven Brazilian survey partici- 
pants for a two-week working seminar at the Museu Paraense Emilio 
Goeldi in Belem. This second seminar of the program was held at the 
end of the third year of field work to review current scientific results 
and to select the regions for the remaining two years of field work. By 
the end of the third year, twenty-three detailed regional chronologies 
had been constructed, permitting relative dating of more than a thou- 
sand archeological sites and extending from the pre-ceramic through the 
Neo-Brazilian periods. A volume of preliminar)' reports by the survey- 
participants, based on the second year of field work, appeared as a 
publication of the Museu Goeldi in May 1969. A general summary of 
the archeological cultures recognized and their distribution in time and 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 71 

space has been accepted by American Antiquity. A resume of the results 
was given at the 34th Annual Meeting of the Society for American 
Archaeology in 1969. 

In August 1968 Evans and Meggers met with Peruvian archeologists, 
Ramiro Matos M., Heman Amat O., and Hermilio Rosas L. in Lima 
and Huancayo to review the results of the archeological survey train- 
ing program for the central and north highlands of Peru, with special 
reference to the Formative Period. Preliminary work has revealed 
important early archeological sites in highland valleys at distinct alti- 
tudes and in special ecological niches. A grant from the National 
Geographic Society to the Smithsonian Institution for the Andean 
Project in May 1969 will permit the work to move ahead. Evans and 
Meggers went to Peru in late June 1969 to consult with the three 
archeologists to coordinate the field research and to work out fiscal 
matters. 

Himha Wedding, an edited film in color and with commentary and 
natural sound effects, derived from motion picture footage, slides, and 
tapes obtained by curator Gordon D. Gibson during field work among 
the Himba people in South-West Africa, was produced in 1969 under 
Gibson's direction. This ethnological document has been shown to 
audiences at the annual meeting of the American Athropological Asso- 
ciation in Seattle and at an anthropological film festival at Temple 
University in Philadelphia. An annotated bibliography of anthropologi- 
cal bibliographies of Africa, prepared under Gibson's direction and now 
in press, provides information on more than 800 listings of references 
on the peoples, cultures, languages, history, and related human aspects 
of Africa. This compilation is expected to be especially useful in the 
development of programs of African studies at both the imiversity and 
secondary school levels. At the year's end, he was writing up ethno- 
graphic materials derived from field work, collated with such data as 
is available from the published literature, on the Gciriku, a little-known 
Bantu people who occupy the banks of a section of the Okavango River, 
where it forms the boarder between Angola and South-West Africa, 

Curator Richard B. Woodbury spent the summer of 1968 in New 
Mexico doing research on the changing patterns of land use and 
resource exploitation in the Zuni Valley, in collaboration with Mrs. 
Woodbury. He has completed three manuscripts, which have been 
accepted for publication. At the end of July 1969, he left the Smith- 
sonian to become chairman of the Department of Anthropology at the 
University of Massachusetts. 

The first half of the year has been spent by associate curator Paul H. 
Voorhis at the Mesquakie Indian settlement near Tama, Iowa, study- 
ing the language of the Mesquakie Indians. He has spent the remainder 



72 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Farmers spreading earth on a field on a nonfloating artificial island, Dal Lake, 

Kashmir. 



of the year analyzing the data collected and preparing it for publication. 

After a year's sabbatical leave as Fulbright Lecturer at Oxford Uni- 
versity, curator William G. Sturtevant returned by way of Germany 
(for the International Gongress of Americanists at Stuttgart-Munich), 
India (where he conducted brief field work on a system of artificial- 
island agriculture in Kashmir), and Japan (to attend the International 
Gongress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences in Tokyo- 
Kyoto) . The remainder of the year has been spent in Washington on 
research, and on planning connected with the new Smithsonian Genter 
for the Study of Man. 

The first season of an archeological survey of Nejran, a major wadi 
in the southernmost region of Saudia Arabia, has been completed by 
curator Gus W. Van Beek. The purpose of the project is to determine 
the extent to which the pre-Islamic civilization — often referred to as 
Himyaritic Gulture — penetrated this region from its center in Yemen 
and South Yemen, and to assess the degree of its influence on the local 
cultures of the Asir (along the Red Sea coast) and Nejran. Further- 
more, the project should shed light on man's use of his environment 
by probing the nature and means of subsistence and the efTects of trade. 
Altogether, four pre-Islamic town sites have been recorded, three of 
which are new discoveries; in addition, a mountain fortress of the same 
period has been discovered in the Asir. The remains of ancient rock-cut 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



73 




Brazilian archeologists and Smithsonian coordinators Evans and Meggers 
attending the second seminar of the National Archeological Survey of Brazil 
Research Program, held at the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi in Belem, Para, 
Brazil, July 1968. 



sluices for water control were investigated, and several hundred pre- 
Islamic rock drawings and inscriptions were recorded. Field work 
resumed in the autumn of 1969 in the wadies and on the plateau to 
the north of Nejran. En route from his field work, Van Beek examined 
ten archeological projects, financed by the Foreign Currency Program, 
in Egypt and in Israel ; he has prepared an evaluation of these projects 
for the Office of International Activities of the Smithsonian Institution. 

During the year, Van Beek, in collaboration with Mrs. Colyn Van 
Beek, completed nearly one half of the manuscript and about one third 
of the drawings of a volume entitled The Timna' Temple. This volume 
is to be published by the Johns Hopkins Press in the Arabian Publica- 
tion series of the American Foundation for the Study of Man. 

Associate curator Robert M. Laughlin has made two field trips to 
Chiapas, Mexico, to prepare maps from aerial photographs of 
Zinacantan, Chiapas. Working with local informants, he has pinpointed 
on the maps 1,200 place names occurring in the community. This 
material will form part of a Tzotzil-English, English-Tzotzil ethno- 
graphic dictionary that now contains over 30,000 entries and that 
presently is being prepared for computerization and editing prior to 
publication. 

366-269 O — 70 6 



74 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

In August 1968, associate curator William H. Crocker presented 
two papers on taboo practices of the Canela Indians of Brazil to the 
38th International Congress of Americanists in Stuttgart, Germany. 
He then visited several museums in Western Europe in search of Canela 
artifacts produced in earlier periods, and in February 1969 he went on 
sabbatical leave to prepare for final field work with this savanna tribe 
of the Brazilian planalto, which he has been studying since 1957. 

Senior Physical Anthropologist T. D. Stewart, participated by invita- 
tion in a sympKDsium on Pleistocene Man in Asia, during the VIII 
International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 
in Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan. He gave a paper on the evolution of man 
in Asia, and in the section on museology he also spoke concerning 
methods used for exhibiting physical anthropology in the National 
Museum of Natural History. 

By arrangement with the Support Services, Department of the Army, 
Stewart organized a seminar on Personal Identification in Mass Dis- 
asters, which was held in the National Museum of Natural History in 
December 1968. The 105 registrants included, in addition to some of 
the country's top forensic pathologists, a number of officers engaged in 
identification work in United States Army Mortuaries around the world. 

At the request of the National Park Service, Stewart assisted Erik K. 
Reed, Park Service research anthropologist, in the identification of the 
skeletal remains (which were believed to have been molested) of 
Osceola, the leader of the Seminole uprising in the late 1830s. Osceola 
died a captive in January 1838 at Fort Moultrie, Charleston, South 
Carolina, shortly after George Catlin painted the portrait owned by the 
Smithsonian. Upon opening the grave, the investigators found the 
skeleton to be in a good state of preservation and to conform to the 
available descriptions of Osceola. 

In April 1969, Stewart presented a paper on the Laguna Beach man 
at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthro- 
pologists in Mexico City. The human skull described in this study is 
the most ancient thus far recognized in America; the Carbon- 14 age of 
17,150 ± 1,470 years was obtained from the bone collagen by Rainer 
Berger of the University of California at Los Angeles. 

Curator J. Lawrence Angel's research on paleodemography and dis- 
ease in the eastern Mediterranean has concentrated on extending the 
story of man's biological adaptation from the critical hunting-to-farm- 
ing period transition up to the beginning of large cities. After the decline 
in health of the early farming period, with its new disease incidence, 
especially malarias, there was a considerable and steady improvement 
from the third millennium to the first millennium b.c. Longevity rose, 
despite stresses of childbearing ; the death ratio of infants to adults 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



75 




Peruvian archeologists participating in Andean Archeological Project with one 
of three vehicles given to the Smithsonian Institution by the Kaiser Jeep 
International Corporation for use on the project. 



dropped; stature increased almost to the modern level; arthritis and 
dental disease decreased; and anemia almost vanished, indicating dis- 
appearance of falciparum malaria. This real biological advance was 
reached at the time when the Olympic Games began and city states 
flourished and struggled. Diet was adequate, with importation of grain 
from rich soils in the Ukraine and adequate local pasturage still avail- 
able for domestic animals. Population density was not overwhelming and 
the socio-economic problems of slavery and warfare were relatively new 
stimuli. With the development of cities like Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, 
and Ephesus, health declined again. In the Eastern Mediterranean, 
longevity, juvenile deaths, dental disease, and anemia all have returned 
to approximately their higher Bronze Age levels. One of the villains 
certainly is malaria. 

In the bone biology laboratory, with support of a National Institutes 
of Health grant entitled "Developmental Variations in Human Osteon 
Chemistry," the amino-acid analyzer nears completion, awaiting delivery 
of a specially sensitive recorder for signals of color-intensity changes as 
these traverse the spectrophotometer. When the laboratory is fully 
equipped, it will be possible to determine the amino-acid composition of 
single, excised osteons. Besides the application of this technique to the 



76 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Study of age change, which Donald J. Ortner and David Von Endt are 
developing, determination of changes in the ratio betwen amino acids 
should provide a measure of time in dating of buried skeletons, espe- 
cially where the protein is relatively protected, as in the enamel of 
teeth. 

Ortner, currently completing his requirements for the PhD degree 
in physical anthropolgy at the University of Kansas, is working on the 
developmental phases of the osteon in their relation to efifects of age, 
disease, and dietary deficiency in individuals ranging from birth to old 
age. Pilot research, which indicates that the frequency of difTerent types 
of osteon is affected predictably by these three factors, opens new areas 
of research in evaluating health status in ancient populations. This 
research also will aid identification of unknown skeletons in forensic 
osteology by helping to identify dietary or disease influences on the 
physiological aging processes. 

David W. Von Endt has focused on a third problem: to determine 
the effect of external conditions on the rapidity of protein breakdown 
and nitrogen loss from human bone buried for periods ranging from 
several months to millennia. This project, supported by a Smithsonian 
Research Foundation grant, depends upon strict standardization of the 
Kjeldahl-Nesslerization method. Mrs. Barbara Fairfield has set up a 
standard curve for known amounts of nitrogen with proper statistical 
limits, has tested against this curve bone samples ranging from fresh 
bone to archeological samples, and has started burial simulation experi- 
ments using varying dry or wet heat levels to simulate decay over long 
periods of time. With a theoretical nitrogen-decay curve, nitrogen 
values from Byzantine, Roman, and Middle Bronze Age skeletons, as 
well as those from wet sites in prehistoric Turkey and the eastern United 
States, can be compared. Empirical observation on preliminary curves 
last fall suggests that nitrogen loss is retarded under arid conditions in 
Egypt and the southwestern United States. 

Associate curator Lucile St. Hoyme has completed a manuscript on 
the origins of New World diseases in which she has presented evidence 
that organisms causing pathological changes in prehistoric American 
Indian bones are probably native to the New World and not brought 
with man from the Old. She also has begun the statistical analysis of a 
large series of Maroon men, women, and children living in Mooretown, 
Accompong, and other communities in Jamaica, measured in 1966 in 
cooperation with Jane Philips of Howard University. Toward the end 
of the year she was working with Richard T. Koritzer, a local practicing 
dentist, on a survey of the etiology of caries, periodontal disease, and 
other dental problems in American Indian, Egyptian, and other crania 
in our collections. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 77 

M. Yasar Iscan from Ankara University is the first recipient of the 
Ales Hrdlicka Memorial Scholarship. During the last half of the year 
he has conducted a study of race differences in the pelvis, using skeletal 
material from the Terry collection, which is an assemblage of remains 
of people with birth dates ranging from the mid 19th century to about 
1920. The results confirm the sensitive response of pelvic depth to nutri- 
tion and show race differences that have not been clear before. 

George Metcalf, museum specialist in the Anthropology Processing 
Laboratory, supervised the excavation of a site in the near vicinity of 
Volcan Arenal, Costa Rica, with the joint support of the National 
Geographic Society and the Smithsonian Institution. He accompsuiied 
William Melson, Department of Mineral Sciences, who is engaged in a 
study of this volcano, which erupted last year for the first time in re- 
corded history. It is hoped that data from the excavation of the site, 
which was buried by an ash fall of a previous eruption, will allow dating 
of the eruption that buried it. 

Research associate Theodore A. Wertime was in the field from 29 July 
to 26 September 1968 with a team of experts on a pyrotechnical recon- 
naissance of Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey, a project that was financed 
by a National Geographic Society grant and a foreign currency grant 
from the Smithsonian Institution. The specialists from several different 
countries included geologists, archeologists, metallurgists, a ceramicist, 
and a glass expert. The team inspected old mines where gold, iron, lead, 
zinc, and copper had been obtained in the countries visited. They pro- 
cured metallurgical samples and slags at premodern smelting sites, ob- 
tained old glass samples for analysis, and observed the survival of ancient 
technologies and crafts in bazaars and small villages. The significance 
of this pyrotechnological reconnaissance and the need to expand the 
work into more detailed research projects is just now being realized as 
some of the reports are being prepared. 

The study of disappearing traditional crafts, small household indus- 
tries, and technologies of South Asia has continued in collaboration with 
the University of New South Wales, AustraUa, supported by funds 
from Public Law 480, the Department of Anthropology of the National 
Museum of Natural History, and the Department of Industrial Arts 
of the University of New South Wales. Two independent field teams 
have operated this year. One was in Ceylon, under the direction of 
Leslie M. Haynes with J. M. Waddell as associate investigator, in coop- 
eration with the National Museums of Ceylon and other officials. Field 
data and craft objects have been collected, reflecting the arts and tech- 
nologies that are rapidly changing as a result of industrialization and the 
large tourist influx. Official Ceylonese bureaus have been very interested 
in the practical aspect of the research in order to upgrade and to make 



78 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

more authentic and accurate the crafts and arts of the various ethnic 
and caste groups. In addition to Sinhalese crafts, attention will have to 
be given to those of the minority groups, such as the Tamils and the 
Muslims. Significant collections have been obtained for both the Uni- 
versity of New South Wales and the Department of Anthropology. 

The other team has spent a second field season in Pakistan, directed by 
Donald M. Godden, assistant to the late Hans Wulff, with his co- 
investigators, Charles Walton and Roswitha Wulff. Official cooperation 
has been excellent, for the provincial government of West Pakistan 
appointed a full-time staff member, who served as guide, interpreter, 
and consultant, and the West Pakistan Small Industries Corporation 
appointed a full-time liaison officer. Some of the most significant data 
has come from northern states such as Swat and Peshawar. Fifty-eight 
crafts have been investigated, a total of 339 artifacts have been col- 
lected for the Smithsonian, and another representative collection has 
been made for the University of New South Wales. 

Research associate Victor A. Nufiez Regueiro from Argentina has 
spent the full year at the Smithsonian working with Evans and Meggers 
as a fellow of the Guggenheim Memorial Foundation. He has com- 
pleted the classification and has prepared a monograph on material 
acquired during earlier field work in the Provinces of Misiones and Cor- 
rientes, Argentina, in collaboration with the archeological studies going 
on in Brazil under the Smithsonian direction of Evans and Meggers. 
His site sequence correlates excellently with datable colonial European 
artifacts from the sites, as well as with various dates in Spanish historical 
documents. 

Research associate Edwin N. Wilmsen, with National Science Foun- 
dation support, has conducted a comprehensive study of the collections 
and field data from the seven years' work by the late Frank H. H. 
Roberts, Jr., at the Lindenmeier site, Colorado. This is the largest and 
best documented, but unstudied, body of material from an "early man" 
site in the United States. Wilmsen will complete the work at Ann Arbor 
where he will become curator of archeology at the University of 
Michigan. 

Research associate Olga Linares de Sapir has actively renewed her 
earlier interest in the archeology of Panama and nearby regions. With 
the appearance of two publications, her monograph Cultural Chronology 
of the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama and her article "Ceramic Phases for 
Chiriqui, Panama and Their Relationships to Neighboring Sequences," 
the significance of this area to a better understanding of aboriginal cul- 
tural development of Central America has been revealed. 

The monograph An Archeological Survey of Southwest Virginia, 
resulting from the research conducted by research associate C. G. Hoi- 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 79 

land, has been completed and accepted for publication in Smithsonian 
Contributions to Anthropology. Holland also has conducted an archeo- 
logical survey of the reservoir for two dams to be built by the Appala- 
chian Power Company on the New River in southwest Virginia and 
northwest North Carolina. 

Ecuadorian archeologist Pedro I. Porras G. has spent a year in the 
department with the support of the American Philosophical Society 
and the Guggenheim Foundation. During this period he has classified, 
analyzed, and described archeological materials excavated in the Baeza 
region, Province of Napo-Pastaza, and in the Ecuadorian highlands. 
The former area is significant because it sheds Hght on cultural connec- 
tions between the highlands and eastern lowlands in pre-European 
times. The abundance of obsidian artifacts and chipping debris from 
the archeological sites, as well as a series of charcoal samples, has pro- 
vided a basis for testing the correlation between these two independent 
methods of dating and the relative sequence established by ceramic 
seriation. Colonial pottery at several sites links the prehistoric with the 
historic occupation, which is well documented by 16th-century chroni- 
cles. A monograph on this culture, known as the Cosanga Phase, is being 
prepared in collaboration with Evans and Meggers for publication. 

Numerous college and high school students have worked on research 
projects with staff members. John Bear, senior at the University of 
Pennsylvania, has worked as a National Science Foundation summer 
fellow to complete his report on Iron Age skeletons from Afghanistan; 
D. Gentry Steele, a doctoral candidate at the University of Kansas, as 
an NSF summer research fellow advised by T. D. Stewart, has worked 
on the estimation of stature from incomplete long bones, using land- 
marks on identified bones of people of known stature in the Terry col- 
lection; Mrs. Catherine Wimsatt Mecklenberg (University of Wash- 
ington), research fellow under Lucile St. Hoyme in the Summer Re- 
search Assistant Program of the Smithsonian Research Foundation, has 
worked on demographic and population analysis of a Virginia Indian 
cemetery, interrelating cultural customs, disease, nutrition, and physical 
differentiation in a study used as a master's thesis. 

Michael Blakey, sophomore student at Coolidge High School sup- 
ported by a research grant from the American Dental Association 
through Howard University, has worked on a correlation of dental and 
facial structure with diet in American Indians from Florida (Canav- 
eral) and New Mexico (Hawikuh), with the advice of Donald Ortner. 
Reed A. Mathis, junior at Langley High School supported by the nsf 
American University Training Program for high school students, has 
worked with J. Lawrence Angel on aging and sexing techniques as 



80 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

observable in sorting the Terry collection, and occasionally he has as- 
sisted in the bone biology laboratory. 



The Collections 

Among the larger and more important collections accessioned and 
placed in storage for study during the fiscal year is one illustrating the 
traditional crafts of Iran, and another of the same type from West 
Pakistan. Both were collected by a team headed by the late Hans Wulff 
and Donald Godden of the University of New South Wales, Australia. 

Also worthy of mention is a collection of 521 African objects collected 
by Miss Genia de Galberg and one of 31 ethnological specimens of 
carved wood from New Guinea. Three other important ethnographic 
collections from Africa have been acquired : Walter Deshler of the Uni- 
versity of Maryland has assembled examples of Tuareg clothing for the 
Smithsonian Institution during a trip to the central Sahara; Miss Janet 
Stone has sold to the Museum a group of carvings and ornaments that 
she had acquired in Mali and Ivory Coast; and Miss Katherine Lavery 
has donated a portion of her collection of masks and sculptures from 
Upper Volta. A particularly important collection accessioned during the 
past year has been that made by Province M. and Eleanor R. Henry 
from the Paiwan and Atayal tribes of Taiwan. These are particularly 
valuable in that the objects are accompanied by unusually complete data. 
Also accompanied by complete records is a collection, mainly clothing, 
made in several highland communities in Ecuador and archeological 
collections from the Valdivia, Machalallila, Guangala, and Jambali cul- 
tures of coastal Ecuador. Tv^^o other large, documented collections are 
the Phebus collection of 2,912 items from California and the Hruschka 
collection, 984 items, from Prince Georges, Charles, and St. Marys 
counties, Maryland. The collections of named types of southwestern 
sherds has been increased by additions from Mesa Verde National Park, 
Gran Quivera National Monument, Jemez State Park, and from Casas 
Grandes, Chihuahua, Mexico. Eleven accessions of skeletal material 
have been added to the collections of Physical Anthropology during the 
year. 

In the Conservation and Restoration Laboratory more than 1,200 
specimens have been processed. Both Joseph Andrews and Mrs. Bethune 
Gibson have received certificates for completion of a course in the 
chemistry of conservation. At the end of the year, Mrs. Gibson was in 
London attending a course sponsored by the British Council on the con- 
servation of antiquities. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 81 

Effective 1 November, 1968, the archives of the former Bureau of 
American Ethnology and the former Smithsonian Office of Anthropology 
were designated the Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological 
Archives. This documentation center will preserve, and encourage the 
preservation elsewhere, of records that document anthropological re- 
search and the history of anthropology. The Archives now serve as a 
repository for field notes, photographs, and personal papers of anthro- 
pologists throughout the world, whatever their topical or geographical 
specialties, as well as the records of anthropological societies and 
organizations. 



Exhibits 

At the request of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, 
curator Van Beek prepared an exhibition of pre-Islamic South Arabian 
Art, which was shown there from 23 March to 10 May 1969. The 
objects were selected from the finest collection of South Arabian an- 
tiquities in the world, owned by the American Foundation for the 
Study of Man (Wendell Phillips, President). This collection is on loan 
to the Smithsonian Institution for purposes of research and exhibition. 

During the winter and spring Van Beek coordinated activities and 
arrangements as curator-in-charge of the mammoth exhibition, "Mas- 
ada." The Washington showing is jointly sponsored by the Washington 
Jewish Foundation and the Smithsonian Institution with active support 
by the Embassy of Israel. The exhibition deals with events that took 
place at the Herodian fortress overlooking the Dead Sea in Israel, 
where in a.d. 73 a group of 953 Jewish zealots chose to commit suicide 
rather than submit to Roman slavery or death. It weaves together the his- 
torical narrative of the contemporary Jewish historian Flavius Josephus 
with the results of the archeological excavations and vividly presents 
the story of Masada by means of graphics, objects, models, slides, and 
tape recordings. In addition, a portion of the exhibition deals with finds 
recovered from caves on the west side of the Dead Sea from the period 
of the Second Jewish Revolt, a.d. 132-135. The exhibition was opened 
formally by Chief Justice and Smithsonian Chancellor Earl Warren, 
who was presented a bronze plaque in honor of his indefatigable service 
in the cause of human freedom and the furtherance of civil rights. 

A new exhibit on Yoruba textiles and clothing has been conceived and 
written by Mary S. Thieme. Mrs. Thieme, who was granted a Museum 
internship for the year by the National Foundation for the Arts and 
Humanities, prepared her script under the general scientific supervision 



i 



82 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

of Gordon Gibson. The exhibit was installed in the Hall of the GulturesI 
of Africa and Asia in June 1969. 

Much of John C. Ewers' time during the winter and spring has been 
devoted to planning two special exhibitions. One, entitled "Jean Louis 
Berlandier, a French Scientist among the Indians of Texas 140 Years 
Ago," opened in March 1969 to coincide with the publication by the 
Smithsonian Institution Press of Berlandier's The Indians of Texas in 
1830. A larger exhibition, "The Indomitable Major John Wesley Powell, 
Scientific Explorer of the American West," will comprise the Smith- 
sonian's major contribution to the observance of the Powell Centennial 
Year of 1969. It will present Powell's remarkable and varied career as 
an important contributor to both basic and applied science and as a 
scientific administrator in government. 



Staff Publications 

Angel, J. Lawrence. "Human Remains at Karataj." In Machteld Mellink, 
"Excavations at Karatas-Semayuk, 1967." American Journal of Archaeology 
(1968), volume 72, pages 260-263, plate 86. 

. "Human Skeletal Remains from Slovenia." In Hugh Hencken, editor, 

"Mecklenberg Collection, Part I." American School of Prehistoric Research 
Bulletin 25 (1969), pages 75-108. 

Crocker, William H. Review article: Indians of Brazil in the Twentieth Cen- 
tury, Janice H. Hopper, editor and translator. Journal of Inter-American 
Studies (October 1968), volume 37, number 4, pages 662-668. 

Crocker, William H., and E. R. Sorenson. Canela Dancing and Fish Festival 
Rites: Northern Brazil (Forest), 1964. Research Cinema Film 64-CRO-l. 
Archives for the Study of Child Growth and Development in Primitive Cul- 
tures, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, 1968. 

Evans, Clifford. Obituary: "James Alfred Ford: 1911-1968." American 
Anthropologist (December 1968), volume 70, number 6, pages 1161-1167. 

Evans, Clifford and Betty J. Meggers. "Archeological Investigations on the 
Rio Napo, Eastern Ecuador." Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology 
(1968), volume 6, xvi4-127 pages, 80 figures, 94 plates, 11 tables. 

. "Introdu^ao." Programa Naciona) de Pesquisas Arqueologicas, Re- 

sultados Preliminares do Segundo Ano 1966-67. Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, 
Publicagoes Avulsas No. 10 (1969), Belem, pages 7-10. 

Ewers, John C, editor and author. Introduction and concluding chapters. In 
The Indians of Texas in 1830 by Jean Louis Berlandier. xii + 209 pages, 20 
color plates, 39 figures. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1969. 

. "Thomas M. Easterly's Pioneer Daguerreotypes of Plains Indians." 

Bulletin Missouri Historical Society (July 1968), pages 329-339, 8 plates. 

Friedman, Irving, and Clifford Evans. "Obsidian Dating Revisited." Science 
(15 November 1968), volume 162, pages 813-814. 

Goldstein, Marcus S. "Anthropological Research, Action, and Education in 
Modern Nations: With Special Reference to the U.S.A." Current Anthro- 
pology (1968), volume 9, number 4, pages 247-269. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 83 

Knez, EugenEj I., with Chang-su Swanson. A Selected and Annotated 
Bibliography of Korean Anthropology. 235 pages. Seoul, Republic of Korea: 
National Assembly Library, 1968. [Entries in Korean, Japanese, or Chinese, 
with English.] 

Laughlin, Robert M. "The Tzotzil." Pages 152-194, volume 7, in Handbook 
of Middle American Indians, E. Z. Vogt, editor. Austin: University of Texas 
Press, 1969. 

."The Huastec." Pages 298-311, volume 7, in Handbook of Middle 

American Indians, E. Z. Vogt, editor. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1969. 

Linares de Sapir, Olga. "Cultural Chronology of the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology (1968), volume 8, xiii+119 pages, 
55 figures, 20 plates, 12 tables. 

. "Ceramic Phases for Chiriqui, Panama and their Relationship to 

Neighboring Sequences." American Antiquity (April 1968), volume 33, num- 
ber 2, page 216-225. 

"Diola Pottery of the Fogny and the Kasa." Expedition, The Bulletin 



of the University Museum, volume 11, number 3, pages 2-11, 1969. 

Meggers, Betty J. ["Prehistoric New World Cultural Development."] Pages 
5-95, part 3, volume 3, in History of Mankind: Cultural and Scientific De- 
velopment UNESCO 1968. [Greek Language edition.] 

. Obituary: "James A. Ford, 1911-1968." Etnia, (1968), Olavarria, Pcia, 

de Buenos Aires, number 8, pages 3-5. 

. [Translated from Portuguese.] The Civilizational Process by Darcy 



Ribeiro. Foreword (pages V-X) by Betty J. Meggers. ::viii+201 pages, 3 fig- 
ures. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. 
. "Prefacio a Edi^ao Norte-Americana." In O Processo Civilizatorio by 



Darcy Ribeiro. Pages 5-11. Rio de Janeiro, 1968. 

"Greeting on Behalf of the English-speaking Countries." XXXVII 



Congreso Internacional de Americanist as, Actas y Memorias. Volume 1, pages 
XLV-LXVI. Buenos Aires, 1968. 

Meggers, Betty J., and Clifford Evans. "Speculations on Early Pottery Dif- 
fusion Routes Between South and Middle America." Biotropica (June 1969), 
volume 1, number 1, pages 20-27. 

Metcalf, George. "A Mail Shirt of the Fur Trade Period." Museum of the 
Fur Trade Quarterly (1968), volume 4, number 4, pages 2-8. 

. "Some Notes on an Old Kiowa Shield and Its History." The Great 

Plains Journal (1968), volume 8, number 1, pages 16—30. 

. "Archeology: Western Hemisphere." Page 82 in The Americana An- 



nual. New York, 1969. 
Metcalf, George, and Stephen F. de Borhegyi. "Un Hacha Tallada Poco 

Frecuente de Kaminaljuyu." Anthropologia e Historia de Guatemala (1967) 

[March 1969], volume 19, number 2, pages 15-19. 
Moody, Louise, and C. G. Holland. "Archeological Folklore in Piedmont 

Virginia." Quarterly Bulletin, Archeological Society of Virginia. (September 

1968), volume 23, number 1, pages 31-36. 
Riesenberg, Saul H. "The Native Polity of Ponape." Smithsonian Contribu- 
tions to Anthropology (1968), volume 10, viii+115 pages, 4 figures, 12 plates, 

5 tables. 
. "The Tattooed Irishman." Smithsonian Jou>rnal of History (spring 

1968), volume 3, number 1, pages 1—18. 



84 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



Stewart, T. D. "Human Behavior in the Fossil Record." The Torch (1968), 

volume 41, number 3, pages 15-18. 
. "Notes on the Human Bones Recovered from Burials in the McLean i 

Mound, North Carolina." Southern Indian Studies (1968), volume 18 [for- 

October 1966] pages 67-87. 
. "Fossil Evidence of Human Violence." Trans-action (1969), volume 6, 

number 7, pages 48-53. 

-, and Lawrence G. Quade. "Lesions of the Frontal Bone in American 



Indians." American Journal of Physical Anthropology (1969), volume 30, 
number 1, pages 89-1 10. 

Sturtevant, William C, and Samuel Stanley. "Indian Communities in the 
Eastern States." The Indian Historian (1968), volume 41, number 3, pages 
15-19. 

ToBiN, William J. "An Atlas of the Comparative Anatomy of the Upper End 
of the Femur, Part I : Further Evidence and Confirmation of Wolff's Law of 
Bone Transformation." Clinical Orthopaedics (1968), number 56. 

Trousdale, William. "The Crenelated Mane: Survival of an Ancient Tradi- 
tion in Afghanistan." East and West (1968), volume 18, numbers 1-2, pages 
169-177. 

Van Beek, Gus W. Hajar Bin Humeid: Archeological Investigations at a Pre- 
Islamic Site in South Arabia. 421 pages, 69 plates, 135 figures. Baltimore: The 
Johns Hopkins Press, 1969. 

. Survey and Bibliography on Arabian Archeology, 1966 Council of Old 

World Archaeology Survey and Bibliographies. Western Asia (1969), area 15, 
Number III, pages 3-5, 5-7. 

Wedel, Waldo R. "Some Thoughts on Central Plains-Southern Plains Archeo- 
logical Relationships." The Great Plains Journal (1968), volume 7, num- 
ber 2, pages 53-62. 

. "After Coronado in Quivira." Kansas Historical Quarterly (1968), 

volume 34, number 4, pages 369-385. 

Wedel, Waldo R. "A Shield and Spear Petroglyph from Central Kansas: Some 
Possible Implications." The Plains Anthropologist (1969), volume 14, num- 
ber 44, part 1, pages 125-129. 



Papers, Lectures, and Seminars 

Angel, J. Lawrence. "Demography and Health in Bronze Age Greece." Torch 
Club of Washington, Washington, D.C. 24 September 1968. 

. "Evaluation of Evidence from the Skeleton." Armed Forces Institute of 

Pathology, Fifth Forensic Dentistry course under Colonel WilHam G. Sprague. 
Washington, D.C. 7 October 1968. 

. "Skeletal Identification and Demography." Graduate Colloquium in 



Anthropology at University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 1 1 Octo- 
ber 1968. 

. "Early Man's Adaptation to Disease." George Washington University 

Medical School Anatomy Department Seminar, Washington. D.C. 7 November 
1968. 

. "Ancient Demography and Health." Catholic University Anthropology 

Seminar, Washington, D.C. 12 November 1968. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 85 
. "Early Man's Adaptation to Disease." Symposium on Urban Anthro- 



pology, Santa Fe, New Mexico. 18-20 November 1968. 

-. "Early Man's Adaptation to Disease." Symposium on Man Adapting 



to the City, 67th Annual Meeting of American Anthropological Association, 
Seattle, Washington. 21-24 November 1968. 

Workshop participation in Seminar on Personal Identification in Mass 



Disasters. (Organized by Dr. T. D. Stewart at Smithsonian Institution by 
arrangement with the chief of Support Services, Department of the Army.) 
Washington, D.C. 11 December 1968. 

"The Role of Disease in Human Evolution." Luncheon talk, Armed 



Forces Institute of Pathology, at Officers' Club, Walter Reed Army Hospital, 
Washington, D.C. 16 January 1969. 

"Biological Relations of Egyptian and Eastern Mediterranean Popula- 



tions During Predynastic and Dynastic Times." Symposium on Population 
Biology of the Early Egyptians at Castle Montaldo, Torino, Italy. 15-18 April 
1969. 
. "Skeletal Identification." Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Annual 



Course in Forensic Pathology, Washington, D.C. 20 May 1969. 

Crocker, William H. "The Canela (Brazil) Taboo System: A Preliminary 
Exploration of an Anxiety-reducing Device" and "Observation Concerning 
Certain Ramkokamekra-Canel (Brazil) Indian Restrictive Taboo Practices." 
38th International Congress of Americanists in Stuttgart, Germany. August 
1968. 

Evans, Clifford. "The Organization and Development and Progress of the 
National Program of Archeology in Brazil." Joint Annual Meeting of Kent 
County Archaeological Society, Delaware and the Sussex Society of Archaeol- 
ogy and History, Delaware, at Dover, Delaware. April 1969. 

Evans, Clifford, and Betty J. Meggers. "Brazihan Archaeology in 1968." 
34th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin. 1-3 May 1969. 

Ewers, John C. "Plains Indian Proteges of White Artists During the 19th Cen- 
tury." 38th International Congress of Americanists in Stuttgart, Germany. 
August 1968. 

. "The First Century of the White Artists' Record of the Blackfoot Indians, 

1832-1932." Annual Meeting of the Glenbow-Alberta Institute. September 
1968. 

. Participation in a symposium on Indian Oral History, Annual Meeting 

of the Western History Association in Tucson, Arizona. October 1968. 

Gibson, Gordon D. Introduction and discussion, Himba Wedding, a motion 
picture, shown at 67th Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Associa- 
tion, Seattle, Washington, November 1968; also Anthropological Film Festival, 
Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, April 1969. 

Knez, Eugene I. "Cultural Change in Japan and Korea." (Under the auspices 
of the American Anthropological Association Visiting Lecturer Program.) 
Allegany Community College, Cumberland, Maryland. April 1969. 

. "Religious Orientation in East Asian Cultures." (Same program as 

above.) Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. May 1969. 

Laughlin, Robert M. "What's in a Name: An Underground View." Joint 
Anthropology-Linguistics Department Colloquium, Cornell University, Ithaca, 
New York. 9 December 1968. 



I 



86 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



Meggers, Betty J. "The Oldest Pottery in the New World." Joint Annual Meet- 
ing of Kent County Archaeological Society, Delaware and the Sussex Society 
of Archaeology and History, Delaware, at Dover. April 1969. 

St. Hoyme, Lucile E. "Opportunities in Physical Anthropology." Goucher Col- 
lege Jobs and Careers Forum, Baltimore, Maryland. 29 January 1969. 

. Seven lectures. (Under the auspices of the American Anthropological 

Association Visiting Lecturer Program.) Mary Washington College, Fredericks- 
burg, Virginia. 28-29 April 1969. 

Stewart, T. D. "The Evolution of Man in Asia as Seen in the Lower Jaw." 
International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Tokyo, 
Japan. 3-10 September 1968. 

. "The Method of Showing Physical Anthropology in the U.S. National 

Museum." International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological 
Sciences, Tokyo, Japan. 3-10 September 1968. 

"Laguna Beach Man Re-examined in the Light of Direct C-14 Dating." 



American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Mexico City. 10-12 April 

1969. 
. "Ales Hrdlicka's Place in the Field of Human Evolution." Joint Atlantic 

Seminar in the History of Biological Sciences, Washington, D.C. 22 March 

1969. 
Sturtevant, William C. "Agriculture on Artificial Islands in Burma, Kashmir, 

and Elsewhere." International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological 

Sciences, Tokyo, Japan. 6 September 1968. 
. "Does Anthropology Need Museums?" Biological Society of Washing- 
ton Autumn Meeting, Washington, D.C. 11 October 1968. 

"Force and Constraint in Acculturation Programs." American Anthro- 



pological Association Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. 22 November 1968. 
'Iroquois Ritual." Philadelphia Anthropological Society. 6 December 



1968. 

. "Semiology and Material Culture." Anthropology Seminar, State Uni- 
versity of New York, Albany. 10 December 1968. 

. "Iroquois Ritual." Anthropology Seminar, Southern Illinois University, 

Carbondale. 11 March 1969. 

Trousdale, William. "The Ruins of SIstan." Archeologlcal Institute of America, 
at Pittsburgh; at the Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Penn- 
sylvania; at Lancaster, Pennsylvania; and at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
February 1969. 

. "The Archeologlcal Exploration of Afghanistan." Archeologlcal Institute 

of America, at Pittsburgh; at the Pennsylvania State University, University 
Park, Pennsylvania; at Lancaster, Pennsylvania; and at Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania. February 1969. 

Van Beek, Gus W. "Frankincense and Myrrh in Ancient South Arabia." Royal 
Ontario Museum and Scarborough College of the University of Toronto, 
Canada. October 1968. 

. "Dido's Heritage: A Survey of Tunisian Archaeology." Walters Art 

Gallery, Baltimore, Maryland. April 1969. 

Woodbury, Richard B. "Twenty-eight Centuries of Irrigation at Tehuacan, 
Mexico"; "Social Science and the Utilization of Arid Lands." International' 
Conference on Arid Lands in a Changing World. June 1969. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



87 



RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

Research and laboratory activities at the Lincoln, Nebraska, head- 
quarters have continued during the year at an attenuated pace owing 
to reduced staff and budget. The large-scale program of field records 
microfilming initiated in fiscal 1968 has been completed after photo- 
graphing and indexing over 3,700 sites. Laboratory personnel have con- 
tinued processing specimens that now number well over 1.75 million. 
Staff archeologists have concentrated on interpretation and synthesis 
of data from a number of major excavated sites, chiefly in the Dakotas, 

Five monographs by River Basin Surveys scientists have appeared in 
the Publications in Salvage Archeology: "Big Bend Historic Sites," by 
G. Hubert Smith, delineated certain aspects of early social and com- 
mercial history of central South Dakota; "Bibliography of Salvage 
Archeology in the United States," by Jerome E. Petsche, was published 
with the fiscal aid of the American Council of Learned Societies and the 
Committee for the Recovery of Archaeological Remains; "The La 
Roche Site," by J, J. Hoffman, discussed late prehistoric cultural con- 
tinuities in the middle range of the Missouri River; "Big Horn Canyon 

Smithsonian River Basin Surveys field crew making initial excavation of 
House 6 at the South Cannonball Site in North Dakota. The village site Is about 
500 years old. 




SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



.■4. 






rrinm/a 




Advanced stage of excavation of the pit of House 6 at the South Cannonball 
Site. Postholes that once held posts forming a wall of the house have been 
cleared of their earth fill. House 6 was a large semi-subterranean lodge with a 
rectangular plan. 



Archeology," by Wilfred M. Husted, synthesized Paleoindian and later 
data from north central Wyoming and suggested correlations over a wide 
area of western United States; and "The Grand Detour Phase: Early 
Village Sites in the Big Bend Reservoir, South Dakota," by Warren 
W. Caldwell and Richard E. Jensen, reported the finding at several 
early village sites and formulated a regional sequence from the data. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 89 






'fc;:^^-/ ■/ 







Smithsonian River Basin Surveys excavators exploring postholes, pits, and 
other features near the entryway at the front of House 6 at the South Cannonball 
Site, North Dakota. 

Four River Basin Surveys field parties have operated within the Mis- 
souri Basin during the year : 

1. A three-man party has spent three weeks in shoreHne survey of 
Big Bend Reservoir, South Dakota, in order to locate newly exposed 
sites and survey damage to known occupations. This activity has been 
carried out in cooperation with the South Dakota State Historical Society 
and the W. H. Over Dakota Museum of the University of South Dakota. 
New information has been gathered that appears to show a potential 
relationship between prehistoric occupations, soil horizons, and climatic 
interpretations. 

2. One man has spent two days surveying prehistoric hunting camps 
in the southern Couteau du Missouri of South Dakota to assess their 
relationship to major village sites in Fort Randall Reservoir. 

3. An eight-man party has spent nine weeks in the third and final 
season of excavation at South Cannonball Village in the upper Oahe 
Reservoir of North Dakota. Two additional structures, one of possible 
ceremonial function, have been uncovered, as well as several interhouse 
utility and storage areas. The accumulated data from this site promises 

366-269 O— 70 7 



90 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




:|V.!.' 



Completed excavation of House 7 at the South Cannonball Site. Pestholes and 
pits are exposed on the old house floor of this semi-subterranean structure. 



to reveal important information regarding early village horizons on the 
Northern Plains. 

4. Again in cooperation with the W. H. Over Dakota Museum^ a 
fourth party has made test excavations at Ludlow Cave, South Dakota, 
to determine feasibility of re-investigation. Tests have revealed that the 
critical cave deposits are far too despoiled to warrant further action. 
The same party has spent one week in a shoreline reconnaissance of 
Bowman-Haley Reservoir, North Dakota, pursuing previous investiga- 
tions of McKean Complex occupations in this area. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 91 

For the second consecutive year two Smithsonian Institution-National 
Science Foundation undergraduate summer research assistants have 
participated in River Basin Surveys field operations. The students, from 
the University of North Carolina and Wake Forest University, were 
assigned to the field party excavating the South Cannonball Village, 
where they gained a thorough grounding in excavation technique, 
methodology, and management of site data. At the end of the season 
they returned to Lincoln, where they familiarized themselves with 
technical operations of the laboratory and office. A manuscript com- 
piled by si-NSF summer research assistants last year was published 
during the year as an article in the Plains Anthropologist; it described 
a salvaged site in Oahe Reservoir and synthesized the data with previous 
reports. 

At the close of the year the field season was well underway. One 
archeologist, on detail with the National Park Service, conducted nine 
days of excavation at Fort Laramie, Wyoming, with a five-man crew 
for the purpose of salvaging remains in advance of construction. A nine- 
man crew, under the direction of an archeologist on detail to the 
National Park Service, was engaged in major excavations at Fort 
Union, North Dakota, preparatory to reconstruction of this famous 
historic trading post. 



Staff Publications 

Caldwell^ Warren W., with Richard E. Jensen. "The Grand Detour Phase: 
Early Village Sites in the Big Bend Reservoir, South Dakota." Smithsonian 
Institution, River Basin Surveys, Publications in Salvage Archeology (1969), 
number 13, 140 pages. 

Hoffman, J. J. "The La Roche Site." Smithsonian Institution, River Basin Sur- 
veys, Publications in Salvage Archeology (1968), number 11, 123 pages. 

Husted, Wilfred M. "Bighorn Canyon Archeology." Smithsonian Institution, 
River Basin Surveys, Publications in Salvage Archeology (1969), number 12, 
138 pages. 

JoHNSTON;, Richard B. "Archaeology of Rice Lake, Ontario." National 
Museum of Canada Anthropology Papers (1968), number 19, 49 pages. 

Smith, G. Hubert. "Big Bend Historic Sites." Smithsonian Institution, River 
Basin Surveys, Publications in Salvage Archeology (1968), number 9, 111 
pages. 

BOTANY 

The main thrust of research in the department continues to center on 
tropical floras. Curator J. J. Wurdack has nearly completed a study of 
the Melastomataceae for the Flora de Venezuela. He has also completed 



92 SMITHSONUN YEAR 19 69 

revisions of the Polygalaceae and Melastomataceae of Guayana and the 
Brazilian Planalto and Tibouchina sect. Barbigerae. The flora of 
Santa Catarina, Brazil, and preparation of manuscript on the Bromeli- 
aceae for Flora Neotropica contiune to occupy the attention of senior 
botanist L. B. Smith. A revision of the Acanthaceae for the Flora of 
Santa Catarina has been completed by assistant curator D. Wasshau- 
sen. These long-term studies have clarified the taxonomy and evolution 
of several large tropical families. 

The largest of all plant families, the Compositae, is being studied by 
associate curator H. E. Robinson and collaborator R. M. King by an 
application of micro-morphological research techniques. A number of 
previously unrecognized relationships have led to the description of 
both new species and new genera. Research associate J. Guatrecasas 
has continued field and herbarium studies on the flora of Golombia, 
especially the Compositae, with emphasis on cytological surveys. 

Further expanded studies on the flora of Dominica have been made 
possible through the generosity of Mrs. William J. Morden. A Morden- 
Smithsonian expedition of three weeks' duration has surveyed the newly 
developed logging areas, with Mrs. Morden, D. H. Nicolson, R. 
DeFilipps, and M. E. Hale participating. It is hoped that a basic under- 
standing of vegetational change after logging can be gained that will 
lead to more intelligent land utilization. Gurator M. E, Hale has made 
the first extensive lichen collections. Surprisingly, two crustose families, 
the Graphidaceae and Thelotremataceae, comprise almost half of the 
lichen flora and show a high degree of speciation. Under the Bredin- 
Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica, D. H. Nicolson 
and collaborator R. DeFilipps have made considerable progress on the 
final manuscript of the Dominican flora. 

Botanical interests in Old World tropical plants by the staff are 
increasing: D. H. Nicolson has visited Mysore State in India to initiate 
a collaborative project with G. J. Saldanha. Gurator V. Rudd has begun 
a revision of Geylonese legumes in preparation for field work there. 
Associate curator T. R. Soderstrom has begun to make similar back- 
ground studies of the grasses of Geylon. Three staff members have 
worked in Africa: associate curator W. R. Ernst has carried out some 
field work in Morocco and explored possibilities of future involvement 
in the flora of North Africa. T. R. Soderstrom has collected grasses in 
Tunisia and consulted with local botanists in developing a program on 
agrostology. Associate curator E. S. Ayensu has conducted field work 
in Tunisia and Ghana in continuation of his anatomical studies on the 
yam family (Dioscoreaceae) . 

Associate curator Stanwyn G. Shetler has nearly completed his mono- 
graph on the variation and evolution of the circumpolar Campanula 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 93 

rotundifolia complex and intensified his planning efforts, as project 
secretary, for the long-term Flora North America Project. General proj- 
ect definition has been completed in order that the necessary resources 
could be sought; the pilot phase of the automated bibliography, includ- 
ing the perparation of a trial data base and full documentation, has 
been completed; a computer analysis has been made of worldwide 
herbarium resources, and the main results of this study are being 
published. 

Associate curator E. S. Ayensu has assembled equipment needed for 
the newly developed technique of cinematography for study of stem 
anatomy. Successive serial sections of stems are photographed with a 
movie camera and made into a film. Analysis of the four-minute film 
strips has helped unravel complex nodal anatomy of xylam and phloem 
glomeruli in the yams and related monocotyledons. Associate curator 
R. H. Eyde has begun collaboration with C. C. Tseng of Windham 
College, Vermont, on a comparison of floral structures in the Araliaceae, 
which it is anticipated will lead to a better understanding of the evolu- 
tionary relationships of the family. 

Curator C. V. Morton has finished a major work on the ferns of the 
Galapagos Islands. He spent June 1969 furthering studies on fern type 
specimens at herbaria in England. 

Curator M. E. Hale has begun a monographic revision of the lichen 
family Graphidaceae with research assistant B. J. Moore. The basic 
approach is to analyze a large, highly speciated group by comparing 
morphological and chemical features. Thin-layer chromatography is 
being employed and microscopic sections of fruiting bodies have been 
prepared. 

Research associate F. Raymond Fosberg, assisted by Marie-Helene 
Sachet, has been engaged in various activities concerning insular floras 
and ecology, ranging from the western Indian Ocean eastward to the 
Marquesas and Hawaiian islands. The new genus Lebronnecia (Mal- 
vaceae), discovered during the course of these investigations and almost 
extinct in its native habitat in the Marquesas Islands, has been success- 
fully brought into cultivation in Tahiti and is now flowering. It will 
now be possible to go much further in clarifying relationships of the 
genus than has been possible from material heretofore available for 
study. 

Fosberg was chairman of the meeting on conservation in the Pacific 
Islands held by the Conservation-Terrestrial Section of the International 
Biological Program in Palau and Guam in November 1968. Attention 
was focused at the meeting on a number of serious threats to both ter- 
restrial and marine island ecosystems and strong recommendations were 
made to the governments involved to take remedial measures. A pro- 



94 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1969 




Botanists and entomologists collecting in Colombia. 

posal was advanced to preserve as scientific reserves a number of unin- 
habited islands under international jurisdiction. 

Work is progressing on the floras and vegetation of Aldabra and 
neighboring atolls in the western Indian Ocean, where a surprising 
number of new plants and interesting distributional relationships have 
been revealed. Other coral island studies are in progress and fifteen 
numbers of the Atoll Research Bulletin have been edited and published, 
making recent information available to students of coral islands and 
reefs. The scope of the Bulletin has been broadened somewhat to 
include tropical oceanic islands other than low coral islands. 

The revision of Trimen's Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon is making 
substantial progress. Ten specialists have worked in the field during 
the year and important collections have resulted. A number of drafts 
and one final manuscript have been submitted. 

Dieter Mueller-Dombois, of the Ceylon Ecology Project, has com- 
pleted his own studies, resulting in vast amounts of information es- 
pecially on Ruhuna and Wilpattu national parks and on the "patana" 
grasslands of the Ceylon mountains. Vegetation, soils, geological, and 
animal activities maps of the two national parks have been prepared and 
are in course of publication. A climatic map of the island, with ac- 
companying text, has been published. 

The department has been host to two postdoctoral fellows, Hui-Lin 
Li (Morris Arboretum, Philadelphia), who is completing studies on the 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 95 

flora of Taiwan, and Elias de la Sota (La Plata, Argentina), who is 
studying the ferns of Argentina. 

The staff has continued to participate in Smithsonian Associates 
activities, this year emphasizing a series of nature walks coordinated by 
S. G. Shetler. 

A one-day conference was held in the department in early May 1969 
on automation of herbarium collections. Six participants from large 
herbaria (T. Crovello, H. Irwin, W. H. Lewis, J. Mickel, D. J. Rogers, 
and J. Soper) attended and ten others joined the discussions. This is 
the first time that such a group has assembled to broadly assess the 
status and possible directions of automation in the herbarium. 

The Flora North America Editorial Committee met for four days in 
late April and early May 1969. Discussions centered on progress so far in 
literature automation (S. G. Shetler) and the overall philosophical base 
for the flora (P. Raven) . Organizational problems also were discussed. 



The Collections 

Field work by staff members has been carried out in Columbia (J. 
Cuatrecasas, H. R. Soderstrom), in Dominica (D. H. Nicolson, M. E. 
Hale), in Mexico (V. Rudd), in Morocco (W. R. Ernst), in Tunisia 
(E. S. Ayensu, T. R. Soderstrom) , and in the United States and Canada 
(M.E.Hale). 

Additions of Old World collections have continued in significant 
quantities: 1,474 Nepalese plants (through P. R. Pande), 1,278 Tai- 
wanese plants (through Hui-Lin Li) , 1,067 samples of Austrahan woods, 
1,329 African collections, and 895 Philippine plants. Important collec- 
tions of Neotropical plants have been received in exchanges with the 
New York Botanical Garden, the University of California at Los Ange- 
les, Stanford University, Texas Research Foundation, Gray Herbarium, 
and the Field Museum. 

A continuing problem has been the curating of the large new ac- 
cessions. While 26,550 specimens have been mounted during the year, 
approximately 38,000 that should be mounted have been received, leav- 
ing an unmounted backlog of about 12,000 specimens. 

All outstanding loan records have now been computerized to provide 
more complete access and flexibility in updating. Exchange records are 
being treated in a similar way in order to gain a better overall view of 
the directions of our exchange program. 

The Type Register, a cooperative, long-term, computer-based project 
to collect all available information on the types in the herbaria of the 
United States, has received support from several sources during the 



96 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Crustose lichen on a felled tree in Dominica. 

year. More than 2,000 entries are on magnetic tape and another 3,000 
wait for input. A trial sending to other herbaria of the information 
on types of Mimulus species has been made to prove out the systems 
design. Response has been generally favorable and the broad design of 
the project is being reassessed for future development. 

Finally, the extensive and valuable research materials of the great 
tropical family Piperaceae (peppers) have been received as a bequest 
from T. G. Yuncker, through his wife. 

Staff Publications 



Ayensu, Edward S. "Aspects of the complex nodal anatomy of the Dioscorea- 
ceae." Journal of the Arnold Arboretum (1969), volume 50, number 1, pages 
124-132, 5 plates. 

. "Leaf Anatomy and Systematics of Old World Velloziaceae." New 

Bulletin (1969), volume 23, number 1, pages 315-335, 4 plates. 

Brizickv, G. K. and W. L. Stern. "Notes on the distribution and habitat of 
Columellia." Journal of the Arnold Arboretum (1969), volume 50, number 1, 
pages 76-79. 

Gamargo, F. G., and Lyman B. Smith. "A New Species of Ananas from Vene- 
zuela." Phytologia (1968), volume 16, number 6, pages 464, 465, plate 1. 

Guatrecasas, J. "Dos araliaceas nuevas de Golombia." Collectanea Botanica 
(1968), volume 7, pages 221-226. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 97 
. "Paxamo Vegetation and Its Life Forms." Colloquium Geographicum 



(1968), volume 9, pages 163-186. 
ErnsTj Wallace R. "(239) Proposal to Conserve the Generic Name 7650." 

LamouTouxia H. B. K., 1818 (Scrophulariaceae), against Lamourouxia C. A. 

Agardh, 1817 (Delesseriaceae)." Taxon (1968), volume 17, number 4, pages 

449, 450. 
Eyde, Richard H. "The Peculiar Cynoecial Vasculature of Cornaceae and Its 

Systematic Significance." Phytomorphology (1968), volume 17, number 1-4, 

pages 172-182. 
Farr, Marie L. "Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: 

Myxomycetes from Dominica." Contributions from the United States National 

Herbarium ( 1969), volume 37, part 6, pages 397-439. 
FosBERG, F. R. "Systematic Notes on Micronesian Plants, 3." Phytologia (1968), 

volume 15, number 7, pages 496-502. 
. "A Pragmatic Approach to the Practical Vegetation Mapping." Geo- 

botanical Mapping (1967), pages 9-17 [in Russian]. 

"Observations on Vegetation Patterns and Dynamics on Hawaiian and 



Galapageian Volcanoes." Micronesica (December 1967), volume 3, pages 129- 
134. 

"Succession and Condition of Ecosystems." The Journal of the Indian 



Botanical Society (1967), volume 46, number 4, pages 351-355. 

"Polypodium Vulgare on Long Island." American Fern Journal (Octo- 



ber-December 1968), volume 58, number 4, pages 153-154. 
. "Studies in Pacific Rubiaceae: VI-VII." Brittonia (October-December 



1968), volume 20, pages 287-294. 

-. "Some Relations between Ecosystem Size and Cultural Evolution." 



Pages 702-704 in Proceedings of the Symposium on Recent Advances in Tropi- 

calEcology (January 1967), Varanasi, 1968. 
FosBERG, F. R., and Marie-Helene Sachet. "Wake Island Vegetation and 

Flora, 1961-1963." Atoll Research Bulletin (30 March 1969), volume 123, 

pages 1-15. 
Hale, Mason E. "Biochemical Systematics in Lichens: Another Viewpoint." 

International Lichenological Newsletter (1968), volume 2, number 1, pages 

1-3. 
. "Single Lobe Growth Rates in Parmelia caperata" [abstract]. Association 

Southeastern Biologists Bulletin ( 1969), volume 16, page 53. 
King, Robert M., and Harold E. Robinson. "Studies in the Compositae- 

Eupatorieae, VIII: Observations on the Microstructure of Stevia." Sida 

( 1968) , volume 3, number 4, pages 257-269. 
. "Macvaughiella King & Robinson, Nomen Novum for Schaetzellia Sch.- 

Bip., Not Klotzsch (Compositae)." Sida (1968), volume 3, number 4, page 

282. 
Knoblock, Irving W., and David B. Lellinger. "A New Species of Cheilanthes 

from Mexico." American Fern Journal (1969), volume 59, number 1, pages 

8-10. 
. "Cheilanthes castanea and Its Allies in Virginia and West Virginia." 

Castanea ( 1969), volume 34, number 1, pages 59-61. 
Lellinger, David B. "A Note on Aspidotis." American Fern Journal (1968), 

volume 58, number 3, pages 140, 141. 
. "Notes on Ryukyu Ferns." American Fern Journal (1968), volume 58, 

number 4, pages 155-158. 



! 



98 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 
. "The Identity of Polypodium salicifolium Vahl." American Fern Journal 



(1968), volume 58, number 4, page 179. 
. "The Correct Name for the Button Fern." American Fern Journal 



(1968), volume 58, number 4, page 180. 
Morse, Larry E., John H. Beaman, and Stanwyn G. Shetler. "A Computer 

System for Editing Diagnostic Keys for Flora North America." Taxon (1968), 

volume 17, pages 479-483. 
Morton, C. V. "A Proposal to Emend Article 7 of the Code." Taxon (1968), 

volume 17, number 2, page 236. 
. "Proposal for an Addition to Article 26 of the Code." Taxon (1968), 

volume 17, number 2, pages 236, 237. 

"Proposed Addition to the 'Guide to the Citation of Botanical Litera- 



ture'." Taxon (1968), volume 17, number 2, page 237. 

-. "The Genera, Subgenera, and Sections of the Hymenophyllaceae." Con- 



tributions from the United States National Herbarium (1968), volume 38, 
number 5, pages 153-214. 
. "A Typification of Some Subfamily, Sectional, and Subsectional Names 



in the Family Malpighiaceae." Taxon (1968), volume 17, number 3, pages 
314-324. 
. "The Correct Name of a Common Tropical American Oleandra." 



American Fern Journal (1968), volume 58, number 3, pages 105-107. 
. "The Fern Collections in Some European Herbaria." American Fern 



Journal ( 1968), volume 58, number 4, pages 158-168. 
. "A New Name for Columnea costaricensis Raymond." The Gloxinian 



(1969), volume 19, number 2, page 17. 
. "The Fern Collections in Some European Herbaria, IL" American Fern 



Journal (1969), volume 59, number 1, pages 11-22. 
NicoLsoN, Dan H. "The Genus Xenophya Schott (Araceae)." Blumea (1968), 

volume 16, number 1, pages 115-118. 
. "The Genus S pathiphyllum in the East Malesian and West Pacific 

Islands (Araceae)." Blumea (1968), volume 16, number 1, pages 119-121. 
."A Revision of Amydrium (Araceae)." Blumea (1968), volume 16, 



number 1, pages 123-127. 
Nicolson, D. H., and Tirtha B. Shrestha. "Gamopetalae and Monochlamy- 

deae." Pages 1-80, part II, in Keys to the Dicot Genera in Nepal. Kath- 

mandu, Nepal: Ministry of Forests, 1968. 
Rhyne, Charles F., and Harold E. Robinson. "Struveopsis, a New Genus of 

Green Algae." Phytologia (1968 [1969]), volume 17, number 7, pages 467-472. 
Robinson, Harold E. "Notes on Bryophytes from the Himalayas and Assam." 

Bryologist (1968), volume 71, number 2, pages 82-97. 
RuDD, Velva E. "A New Ormosia (Leguminosae) from Peru." Annals of the 

Missouri Botanical Garden ( 1968), volume 55, page 79. 
. "Leguminosae of Mexico - Faboideae, 1 : Sophoreae and Podalyrieae." 

Rhodora ( 1968 ) , volume 70, number 784, pages 492-532. 
. "Mimosa bahamensis, a Bahama-Yucatan 'D'lsixinct.'''' Phytologia (1969), 



volume 18, number 3, pages 143-146. 

Sachet, Marie-Helene. "List of Vascular Flora of Rangiroa." In D. R. Stod- 
dart, "Reconnaissance Geomorphology of Rangiroa Atoll, Tuamotu Archi- 
pelago." Atoll Research Bulletin (1969), 125, pa^es 33-44. 

. "Coral Islands as Ecological Laboratories." Micronesica (1967), volume 

3, number 1, pages 45-49. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 99 

Shetler, Stanwyn G. "Flora North America Project." Annals of the Missouri 
Botanical Garden (1969), volume 55, pages 176-178. 

. "The Crisis of Herbaria" [abstract].' Association of Southeastern Biol- 
ogists Bulletin (1969), volume 16, page 67. 

Shetler, Stanwyn G., editor, assisted by Larry E. Morse, James J. Crockett, 
Shigeko I. Rakosi, and Elaine R. Shetler. Preliminary Generic Taxon Catalog 
of Vascular Plants for Flora North America, iv + 69 pages. Washington, D.C.: 
Smithsonian Institution, 1969. [Computer-printed and photocopied for dis- 
tribution by Flora North America Project.] 

Smith, Lyman B. "Nidumea, a New Bigeneric Hybrid." Bromeliad Society Bul- 
letin (1968), volume 18, number 3, pages 62, 63. 

: "Tillandsia Subgenus Allardtia." Bromeliana of the Greater New York 

Chapter of the Bromeliad Society (1968), volume 5, number 5, pages 26-29, 
16 figures. 

. "Notes on Bromeliaceae, XXVHL" Phytologia (1968), volume 16, num- 
ber 6, pages 459-463, plate 1. 

. "The Identification of Sterile Bromeliaceae." Bromeliad Society Bulletin 



1968), volume 18, number 4, pages 87-89. 
. "Tillandsia Subgenus Pseudo-Catopsis." Bromeliana of the Greater New 



York Chapter of the Bromeliad Society (1968), volume 5, numbers 8 and 9, 
pages 48-52. 
. "Margaret Mee's Bromeliad Paintings." Bulletin of The National Capital 



Area Federation of Garden Clubs (1969), volume 16, number 4, pages 1, 10. 
1 plate. 
. "Notes on Bromeliaceae, XXIX." Phytologia (1969), volume 18, number 



3, pages 137-142. 

Smith, Lyman B., and Robert J. Dow^ns : "Xyridaceae." Flora Brasilica (1968), 
volume 9, part 2, pages 1-215, figures 1-1288. 

SoDERSTROM, T. R. Appendix III, "Impressions of Cereals and Other Plants 
in the Pottery of Hajar Bin Humeid." Pages 399-402, 5 plates, in Van Beek, 
Hajar Bin Humeid, Investigations at a Pre-Islamic Site in South Arabia. Balti- 
more: The John Hopkins Press, 1969. 

Stern, W. L. "Kleinodendron and Xylem Anatomy of Cluytieae (Euphor- 
biaceae)." American Journal of Botany (1967), volume 54, pages 663-676. 

. "The Expert on Wood." Bulletin of the International Wood Collectors 

Society (1968), volume 21, pages 130-132. 

• . "Discussion of 'Comparative Morphology in Systematics' by Walter J. 

Bock in Systematic Biology." Pages 448—452 in Proceedings of an International 
Conference Conducted at the University of Michigan, 1967. Publication 1692. 
Washington, D.C. : National Academy of Sciences, 1969. 

. "George Konstantin Brizicky, a Personal Evaluation." Taxon (1968), 



volume 17, pages 661-662. 

Stern, W. L., H. B. Gillenwater, Gerald Eason, A. Garcia-Quintana, and 
R. S. Cail. "Lindane and Dichlorvos for Protection of Herbarium Specimens 
against Insects." TaATon ( 1968), volume 17, pages 629-632. 

Stern, William L., George K. Brizicky, and Richard H. Eyde. "Compara- 
tive Anatomy and Relationships of Columelliaceae." Journal of the Arnola 
Arboretum (1969), volume 50, number 1, pages 36-75. 



100 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

WuRDACK, J. J. "Melastomataceae." In Stcyermark, "Contribuciones a la flora 
de la Sierra de Imataca, Amataca, Altiplanicie de Nuria y region adyacente 
del Territorio Federal Delta Amacuro al Sur de Rio Orinoco." Acta Botanico. 
Venezuelica ( 1968), volume 3, numbers 1-4, pages 146-148. 

. "Certamen Melastomataceis, XIII." Phytologia (1969), volume 18, 

number 3, pages 147-163. 



Papers, Lectures, and Seminars 

Ayensu, Edward S. "Current Program on the Anatomy of Monocotyledons." 
Botanical Society of Washington, D.C. November 1968. 

. "The Optical Shuttle Analysis of the Complex Vascularity in Plants 

with Special Reference to the Yams and Other Monocotyledons." University 
of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. October 1968. 

Eyde, R. H. "Fossil Record of Alangiaceae." Annual meeting of American 
Institute of Biological Sciences, Columbus, Ohio. September 1968. 

HalEj M. E. "The Smithsonian Type Project in Botany." Duke University, 
Durham, North Carolina. November 1968. 

. "Single Lobe Growth Rates in Parmelia caperata." Association of South- 
eastern Biologists, Memphis, Tennessee. April 1969. 

LellingeRj D. B. "Proposals toward an Automated Index of Pteridophyte 
Names and Type Specimens." Annual meeting of American Institute of 
Biological Sciences, Columbus, Ohio. September 1968. 

Shetler, S. G. "Report of Electronic Data Processing Activities in American 
Society of Plant Taxonomists (aspt)." Round Table on Information Prob- 
lems in the Biological Sciences, annual meeting of American Institute of 
Biological Sciences, Columbus, Oho. September 1968. (Official representative 

for ASPT.) 

. "Harebells, Environment, and Arctic Adaptation." Botanical Society 

of Washington, D.C. October 1968. 
. "Flora North America Project." Symposium on the Practical Values 



of Systematics, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri. October 1968. 
. "The Future of the Herbarium." Symposium on Natural History 



Collections: Past, Present, and Future, Biological Society of Washington, 
D.C. October 1968. 
. "The Golden Age of the Herbarium." Joint Atlantic Seminar in the 



History of Biology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. March 1969. 
. "Flora North American — A Computer-Age Flora." Seminar, Depart- 



ment of Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio. March 1969. 
. "The Crisis of Herbaria." Annual meeting of of the Association of 



Southeastern Biologists, Memphis, Tennessee. April 1969. 
. "Potomac Spring Wildflowers." Evening lecture to Smithsonian Insti- 



tution Associates, Washington, D.C. April 1969. 
. "Plants and Soil." Smithsonian Institution Associates Ecology Course, 



Washington, D.C. April 1969. 
. "The Appalachians — Geology, Natural History, and Folklore." Lecture 



to Smithsonian Institution Associates Appalachian Tour, Cumberland, Mary- 
land, May 1969. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 101 
. "Report on Smithsonian Institution Activities in Data Processing with 



Respect to Museum Collections." Working Party of International Council of 

Museums (icom), London, England. June 1969. 
WuRDACK, J. J. "Botanical Exploration of Northern Peru." Audubon Natural 

History Society, Washington, D.C. January 1969. 
. "Plants of the Flatrocks of Southeastern United States." Potomac 

Chapter, American Rock Garden Society, Reston, Virginia. February 1969. 



ENTOMOLOGY 

Planning and supervision of the move of the Department of Ento- 
mology from the Lament Street building to the Natural History Build- 
ing has seriously impaired research productivity during the year. 
Personnel of the Divisions of Coleoptera, of Lepidoptera and Diptera, 
and of Hemiptera and Hymenoptera have devoted large blocks of time 
to planning for renovation of assigned areas, packing, moving, and 
unpacking of collections and equipment at the new location. Approxi- 
mately a third of the staff and collections remain to be moved during 
next year. In spite of the time lost to the move, the Department has had a 
reasonably productive year: staff specialists have published thirty-one 
papers totaling more than five hundred pages. 

The Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program Advisory Council has 
recommended approval of the departmental proposal for a four-year 
biosystematic study of selected groups of Geylonese insects. If the 
project is approved by the Ceylonese government, the field work will 
begin during the next fiscal year. 

Curator Oscar L. Cartwright has continued his revisional studies in 
the scarabaeid subfamily Aphodiinae and has made progress on several 
faunal studies of other scarabaeids. Much of Paul Spangler's time has 
been devoted to planning and supervising the divisional move to the 
Natural History Building, but he has made some progress on his water- 
beetle studies. In February 1969 he began nearly seven months of field 
studies on water beetles in a number of countries in South America and 
the West Indies. 

Associate curator Richard C. Froeschner has spent three months 
studying lace-bug types in museums in ten European countries to con- 
firm or correct the generic assignment in connection with his manual 
of world genera, on which substantial progress has been made; he also 
has continued work on certain families of Hemiptera for the report on 
the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica. 

Chairman Karl V. Krombein has completed a paper on North 
American cuckoo wasps describing two new genera and a new species 
with biological notes. He also has devised a new trap to attract wood- 



102 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



nesting solitary wasps and bees and has made satisfactory field tests 
of it during a three-week period at the Archbold Biological Station in. 
Florida. Gerald I. Stage has analyzed initial population samples of 
Lysimachia pollinators in the local area and has realized progress on 
three manuscripts dealing with pollinators and pollination of Eucnide 
and Mentzelia. 

Senior entomologist J. F. Gates Clarke has completed his large sys- 
tematic and ecological survey of the lepidopterous fauna of Rapa 
Island. He left in May 1969 for four months of museum study in 
Leiden and London in connection with a similar treatment of the 
microlepidopterous fauna of the Marquesas Islands. 

Associate curator Donald R. Davis has substantially advanced his 
monograph of Nearctic Tineidae and has nearly completed the re- 
vision of American Incurvariinae. His tineoid studies have been ad- 
vanced by two months of study at the British Museum. 



W. Donald Duckworth and 
graduate assistant, R. E, Dietz, 
collecting insects in rain forest 
near Florencia, Colombia. 




NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 103 

Associate curator W. Donald Duckworth has expanded his studies 
of stenomid reclassification by investigating genera of the Old World 
Tropics in order to assess the zoogeographical trends. His pioneering 
work on the Neotropical fauna has been advanced greatly by three 
months of collecting in Colombia, Venezuela, and Guyana. 

In the relatively limited time available after moving his division, 
William D. Field has made some progress on revisions of the butterfly 
genera Phulia and Vanessa and has added 5,000 entries to his catalog 
of New World Lycaenidae. Field, with the assistance of divisional 
preparator Vira Milbank, has added 5,600 titles to the divisional 
bibliography of Lepidoptera. 

Summer fellow Robert E. Dietz IV, working under Duckworth, has 
completed research on the ctenuchid genus Horama for his MS degree 
at Cornell University. 

Ralph E. Crabill has made collections and ecological observations of 
centipedes during two field trips in eastern Tennessee and adjacent areas 
and to type localities in Virginia and North Carolina. Crabill has com- 
pleted a number of manuscripts during the year and has nearly finished a 
generic reclassification of the Mecistocephalidae and a faunal study of 
the Nepalese centipedes. 

Oliver S. Flint, Jr., has made substantial progress on a revision of a 
subfamily of Central American microcaddisflies and on faunal reports 
of large collections of caddisflies from the Amazon basin, Surinam, and 
Chile. An early collecting trip of two weeks in southern and central 
Arizona has provided Flint an opportunity to obtain valuable specimens 
and information concerning the relationship of the Arizona fauna with 
related areas in Mexico. His previous studies of West Indian caddisflies 
were aided at the end of the year by four weeks of collecting in Puerto 
Rico and the Dominican Republic. 

The talented stafT artists, Mrs. Elsie H. Froeschner and Andre Pizzini, 
have provided illustrations for a number of manuscripts, but the depart- 
ment still lacks adequate support in this area to match the research 
productivity of its specialists. 

The Southeast Asia Mosquito Project (seamp) , a cooperative Smith- 
sonian and Department of the Army project under the direction of 
Botha de Meillon, has continued work on the systematics of mosquitoes 
of that vast and medically important area. Prior to his retirement, 
John E. Scanlon collected mosquitoes in Southeast Asia and studied 
types of Oriental anophelines at the British Museum. E. L. Peyton and 
Yiau-Min Huang also have studied the mosquito collections at the 
British Museum, seamp consultants Peter F. Mattingly, Kenneth L. 
Knight, J. Bonne- Wepster, J. M. Klein, Thomas Zavortink, and John F. 



104 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69. 



Reinert have continued their taxonomic studies of various mosquito 
genera. 

Several resident research associates have continued to work actively 
on systematic studies in their own areas of interest. Mrs. Doris H. Blake 
has nearly completed her worldwide revision of the chrysomelid genus 
Metachroma, and visited the Museum of Comparative Zoology twice 
during the year to study types. K. C. Emerson has made progress on 
taxonomic studies of the Anoplura of Nepal, Nigeria, Madagascar, 
Senegal, Pakistan, and Botswana and of the Mallophaga of Nepal, Vene- 
zuela, and Southeast Asia; many of the specimens have been collected 
by personnel of the Division of Mammals. C. F. W. Muesebeck has 
completed his large revision of the Nearctic species of the braconid genus 
Orgilus and has continued his valued services as translation editor of 
the Russian journal Entomological Review. Robert Traub has continued 
his work on the ecology of viral and rickettsial infections based on the 



Richard S. Cowan, W. Donald 
Duckworth, Thomas R. Soder- 
strom collecting insects and 
plants in rain forest near 
Florencia, Colombia. 




NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 105 

rodent hosts and their ectoparasites. He hypothesizes that these data can 
be used to determine the geographic extent of scrub typhus infection 
and to indicate where it may be expected to occur. He is also collab- 
orating on the preparation of a glossary of scientific terms for the Cata- 
logue of the Rothschild Collection of Fleas and has spent three months 
collecting mammals and their ectoparasites in New Guinea. 

Departmental specialists have received several honors and awards. 
Duckworth was elected vice chairman of Section A (Systematics, Mor- 
phology, and Evolution) at the annual meeting of the Entomological 
Society of America. Spangler has been elected vice president of the 
Society for Study of Goleoptera. Stage has been appointed to a three- 
year term as secretary of the Society of Systematic Zoology. Krombein 
has been elected president of the Entomological Society of Washington, 
reelected vice president of the Washington Biologists' Field Club, and 
has been appointed a chief biomedical scientist in the United States 
Air Force Reserve. 



The Collections 

The National Collection of insects has received more than 460,000 
specimens during the year, bringing the total holdings to 18,712,627. 
As usual, many of the new accessions have been of great significance in 
that they filled gaps in regional representation, contributed directly to 
continuing research programs of staff members and associates, consisted 
of reared specimens with associated immature stages, or were of eco- 
logical importance because of associated data on habitat, relationships 
with other organisms, and so forth. 

There have been some extremely valuable accessions from staff mem- 
bers as a result of past field work. Notable among these are 10,953 
specimens from Argentina and Chile collected by Oliver S. Flint, Jr.; 
10,788 from Arizona collected by Flint and A. S. Menke, usda (United 
States Department of Agriculture) ; 13,609 from the Marquesas Islands 
by J. F. Gates Clarke and Thelma Clarke; and 2,679 from Plummers 
Island, Maryland, by Paul J. Spangler. Flint's Chilean caddisflies have 
been put to immediate use in his continuing study of the Chilean fauna, 
and the Arizona specimens have provided valuable insights into the 
relationship between the Arizona and Mexican faunas. The Clarkes' 
accession have been particularly strong in Microlepidoptera and espe- 
cially important because of the material reared by Mrs. Clarke; he is 
currently engaged in working up the Marquesan fauna through study 
of types in the Leiden and British museums. 

366-269 O— 70 S 



106 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Several accessions have been most welcome inasmuch as they consti- 
tute material from areas previously represented very poorly, if at all, 
in the National Collection. A collection of Philippine mosquitoes from 
Francisco Baisas, consisting of 6,700 adults and 4,000 slides, has been 
of immediate use to seamp's research program on Southeast Asia mos- 
quitoes and has been particularly valuable because of the number of 
associated immature stages. Gerald I. Stage has donated 1,395 bees 
from all over the world, a gratifying addition because a large number of 
species have not been in the collection before. Mrs. Mary H. Ripley has 
collected 884 insects in Bhutan, most of them moths very meticulously 
prepared. Curtis W. Sabrosky, usda, and Krombein have obtained a 
small but useful lot of some 2,500 specimens in the Uzbek Soviet Social- 
ist Republic. The Reverend Rufus H. LeFevre has contributed 794 
beetles, bugs, and moths collected during his missionary service in China. 
T. H. Davies has continued to favor the Department with New Zealand 
insects, this time with a lot of 668 specimens, mostly Lepidoptera. 

SEAMP has received 72 lots of mosquitoes, comprising 23,391 adults 
and 16,134 slides. 

From USDA the Department has received by transfer 73,550 speci- 
mens. As always, this has been a particularly noteworthy addition be- 
cause so many of the specimens represent species not previously in the 
collection, or bear associated host data, or consist of reared series of im- 
mature and adult stages. This particular transfer has included some 
7,000 specimens, mostly Coleoptera, from H. P. Lanchester. Other 
colleagues in usda have made personal donations that include 2,928 
specimens from W. W. Wirth, mostly Diptera from the northwestern 
United States; 4,000 Microlepidoptera by Ronald W. Hodges from 
Arizona, Florida, Michigan, and New York; and 888 water beetles 
from Robert Gordon. 

Several research associates have enriched the collections by continued 
donation of material. F. S. Blanton has deposited 5,000 specimens of 
Ceratopogonidae, K. C. Emerson has sent in more than 2,000 slides of 
Mallophaga and Anoplura from his personal collection and from the 
Department of the Army, and H. F. Loomis has added types and other 
material of millipedes. 

Lack of space precludes mention of numerous other individual and 
institutional donors who have made generous contributions of speci- 
mens; several, however, are so outstanding they merit special recognition. 
David G. Hall has donated some 18,000 Sarcophagidae, the result of a 
lifetime of systematic work on these economically important flesh flies, 
and a technical library on them requiring twenty feet of shelf space; the 
specimens include some 24 holotypes, more than 600 paratypes, and 
represent nearly 1,500 species. Dorald A. Allred has sent nearly 35,000 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 107 

insects in numerous orders taken during faunal and ecological surveys 
of the Nevada test site study areas. William Rosenberg has donated 
nearly 6,000 Scarabaeidae from all over the world, an indispensable 
adjunct to Cartwright's taxonomic studies in this family. Mr. and Mrs. 
George Lacy have sent 3,800 specimens from British Honduras, mosdy 
Coleoptera. Vincent D. Roth has furthered Flint's Arizona studies by 
a gift of some 2,000 caddisflies. Joseph W. Adams has made special 
efforts and has collected about 2,000 insects on flowers in Pennsylvania; 
the insects and associated flower-visiting data will be most useful in the 
pollination studies by Stage and other staff members. 

When Department specialists are in the field, they do not limit their 
collecting activities to just the group of insects in which they are particu- 
larly interested but make a strong effort to obtain specimens in other 
groups on which their colleagues have research projects. For example, 
Flint as a specialist on one group of aquatic insects, the caddisflies, 
makes every effort to collect other groups of aquatic insects, thus for- 
warding Spangler's research interests on water beetles. Spangler's and 
Flint's collecting of nocturnal beedes and caddisflies at lights also yields 
many specimens of moths for the lepidopterists. Spangler's lot of 2,500 
insects from Plummers Island is not very large, but it is significant 
because it consists of specimens obtained by operation of a Malaise trap 
for a ten-day period, the first time that this collecting technique has 
been employed for more than a day at a time at that famous biological 
preserve in the metropolitan Washington area. This Malaise trap ma- 
terial has provided eleven new Plummers Island records among the 
wasps to add to the 274 species previously known from the area. 

The departmental preparator's unit — consisting of Ron Faycikj Marc 
Roth, and Gary Hevel — has continued its devoted service in the process- 
ing of back lots not accessioned in previous years and in handling in- 
coming lots. They have accessioned thirty-three lots consisting of nearly 
93,000 specimens and have sorted and distributed them to the appro- 
priate divisions. In addition, they have mounted some 40,000 specimens 
that have not yet been accessioned. The major part of their effort, how- 
ever, during the year has been directed toward assistance in preparing 
collections for the move from the Lamont Street building to the Natural 
History Building. Roth and Faycik, working with Mrs. Vira Milbank, 
the divisional preparator, have transferred all of the Lepidoptera from 
about 500 nonstandard drawers into usnm drawers and cases in prep- 
aration for the move. After the collections were moved, they assisted in 
getting cases installed in the proper systematic arrangement. 

In the Division of Coleoptera, Gloria House, the divisional preparator 
has processed nearly 78,000 specimens, sorting 30,000 to family, mount- 



108 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

ing 5,500, labeling 34,500, and transferring 28,000 from temporary 
storage containers to usnm drawers. Mrs. Janice White, a part-time 
preparator, has processed 29,000 specimens, sorting 1 2,800 to order and 
family, mounting 7,400, labeling 5,600, and transferring 15,000 to usnm 
drawers. Miss Ludmila Kassianoff, divisional preparator in Hemiptera 
and Hymenoptera, has made a great reduction in the large backlog of 
unmounted, unlabeled specimens that have accumulated over the years. 
In Lepidoptera and Diptera, Mrs. Milbank, in addition to her many 
services preparing collections for the move, has incorporated the large 
exchange shipment from the National Museum of Kenya, consisting of 
8,900 specimens and 5,700 species, of which 2,600 have not been repre- 
sented previously by named material. Crabill, assisted by Mrs. Sophie 
Lutterlough, divisional preparator in Myriapoda and Arachnida, has 
continued the restoration work on older collections, rehousing specimens 
in fresh alcohol, remounting old slides, treating desiccated specimens 
in vacuo with trisodium phosphate, and verifying unsuspected type- 
specimens; Crabill also has continued his attempts to develop a hydro- 
philic mounting medium for slide mounts more satisfactory than the 
standard Hoyer's formula. Mrs. Nancy Heath, divisional preparator in 
Neuropteroids, working part time, has continued the program of re- 
mounting and relabeling the Odonata collection, and also has mounted 
many thousands of small or fragile specimens collected in Africa by 
Krombein and Spangler. 

Several miscellaneous projects have been completed or begun during 
the year. Concurrently with the move of the Division of Coleoptera, the 
extremely valuable Casey collection of Coleoptera has once more been 
moved into a separate "Casey Room" along with associated reprint and 
map files. Old manuscripts and associated historical materials from two 
pioneer federal entomologists, C. V. Riley and Townsend Glover, have 
been sent to the Smithsonian Archives for cataloging and safekeeping. 

Negotiations have been instituted with several other institutions look- 
ing toward the extended long-term loan deposit in the Smithsonian of 
collections in which the Institution has current research efTorts and 
where the lending institution has no specialist and, reciprocally, similar 
long-term loan deposits of Smithsonian materials in other institutions 
having a specialist where the Institution has none. Such deposits will 
be undertaken only under the most careful stipulations providing for 
jjroper curatorial care of the loans, access to the collections by interested 
and qualified third parties, and recall of the collections when the lending 
institution obtains a specialist in that group or when the borrowing in- 
stitution no longer has a specialist in the grouj). 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 109 

A NEW TRAP-NESTING TECHNIQUE FOR WASPS 




Trap Components and Habitats. — (a) On the left, the routed-out channel for 
the nest with its plastic and wooden strips unattached; in the center, the plastic 
strip taped into position; on the right, the completed trap with the wooden 
strip attached by rubber bands to form a light-tight cavity in which nesting 
can occur, (b) A bundle of traps suspended from a dead limb, (c) Individual 
traps suspended from the framework supporting a cultivated tropical bush. 




^U^:, 




Grass-carrying Wasp with Its Prey, a Bush Cricket. — (a) At the entrance of 
the nest, (b) tunneling through the closing plug, (c) dragging the cricket into 
the brood cell, (d) ovipositing on the prey, (e) closing the plug. Note the 
earlier nrev. a shield-back katydid. 




f 














^ 




ii^^i...j^*«" 


|||lii iF" — 


,_.-"»- ^ : X 


.9 












g^HBBi 








Larval Development in a Nest. — (a) The newly hatched larva, 11:30 a.m., 
18 April; (b) 8:20 a.m., 19 April; (c) 7:35 p.m., 19 April; (d) 11:55 a.m., 
20 April, the larva has eviscerated the prey, (e) Brood chamber at 12:25 a.m., 

20 April; (f) 8:00 p.m., 20 April; (g) 11:50 a.m., 21 April; (h) 8:00 p.m., 

21 April; (i) 4:05 p.m., 22 April, the larva pulling out strands of Spanish moss; 
(j) 8:00 a.m., 24 April, spinning cocoons in the moss. 



112 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Staff Publications 

Cartwright, Oscar L. "Mark Robinson (1906-1965)." Entomological News 

(1969), volume 79, number 10, pages 285-286. 
Clarke, J. F. Gates. "Neotropical Microlepidoptera, XVII: Notes and New 

Species of Phaloniidae." Proceedings of the United States National Museum 

(1968), volume 125, number 3660, 58 pages, 4 plates, 30 figures. 
Crabill, Ralph E. "Concerning the Evolution of the Oryinae, with Description 

of a Primitive New Genus." Entomologische Mitteilungen (1968), volume 3, 

number 61, pages 243-248. 
. "Two New Species of Mesoschendyla from the Old World Tropics, with 

Key to their Congeners." Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines ( 1968), 

volume 77, numbers 3-4, pages 283-288. 
. "Revised Allocation of a Meinert Species, with Proposal of a New 



Eurytion." Psyche (1968), volume 75, number 3, pages 228-232. 
. "A New Oryid Genus and Species from Africa, with Notes on Evolution 



within the Family." Entomological News (1968), volume 79, number 9, pages 
248-253. 
. "A Bizarre Case of Sexual Dimorphism in a Centipede, with Conse- 



quent Submergence of a Genus." Entomological News (1968), volume 79, 
number 9, page 286. 
. "Revision of Arenophilus, with Proposal of a New Species and Key to 



All Species." Entomological News (1969), volume 80, number 1, pages 7-11. 
. "On the True Identity of Chomatophilus, with Description of a New 



Species, and with Key and Catalogue of All Sogonid Genera." Proceedings of 
the Entomological Society of Washington (1968), volume 70, number 4, pages 
323-331. 
. "On the True Identities of Tuoba and Nesogeophilus." Proceedings of 



the Entomological Society of Washington (1968), volume 70, number 4, page 
345. 
. "Revisionary Conspectus of Neogeophilidae, with Further Thoughts on 



Phylogeny and Description of a New Species." Entomological News (1969), 
volume 80, number 2, pages 38—43. 

Davis, Donald R. "A Revision of the American Moths of the Family Carpo- 
sinidae (Lepidoptera: Carposinoidea) ." United States National Museum Bul- 
letin (1969), 289, 105 pages, 122 figures, 11 maps. 

Delfinado, Mercedes L., and Elaine R. Hodges. "Three New Species of the 
Genus Tripteroides, Subgenus Tripteroides Giles." Proceedings of the Ento- 
mological Society of Washington (December 1968), volume 70, number 4, 
pages 361-375. 

Duckworth, W. D. "Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Do- 
minica: West Indian Stenomidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) .'' Smithsonian 
Contributions to Zoology (1969), number 4, pages 1-21. 

Emerson, K. C. "The Host of Stachiella retusa martis Wemeck (Mallophaga: 
Trichodectidae) ." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 
( 1 968 ) , volume 70, page 191. 

Emerson, K. C, and K. C. Kim. "Records of Anoplura from South-West 
Africa." Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society (1968), volume 41, 
pages 509-510. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 113 

Emerson, K. C, and Borge Peterson. "Mallophaga Collected by the Moona 
Dan Expedition in the Bismark and Philippine Islands." Entomologiske Med- 
delelser ( 1968), volume 36, pages 338-340. 

Emerson, K. C, and Roger D. Price. "A New Species of Dennyus (Mallophaga: 
Menoponidae) from the Malaysian Spine-tailed Swift." Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington (1968), volume 81, pages 87-89. 

. "A New Species of Parafelicola (Mallophaga: Trichodectidae) from 

Mozambique." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington (1968), 
volume 81, pages 109-110. 

"A New Species of Rhynonirmus from Thailand (Mallophaga: Phil- 



opteridae)." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington (1968), 

volume 70, pages 184-186. 
Flint, Oliver S., Jr. "The Caddisflies of Jamaica (Trichoptera)." Bulletin, 

Institute of Jamaica, Kingston (1968), science series, number 19, 68 pages. 
. "New Species of Trichoptera from the Antilles." Florida Entomologist 

(1968), volume 51, pages 151-153. 

-. "Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica, 9: The 



Trichoptera (Caddisflies) of the Lesser Antilles." Proceedings of the United 
States National Museum (1968), volume 125, number 3665, 86 pages. 

-. "Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, VII: Trichoptera from Masatierra, 



Islas Juan Fernandez." Revista Chilena de Entomologia (1968), volume 6, 
pages 61-64. 

"Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, VIII: The Immature Stages of 



Barypenthus claudens (Trichoptera: Odontoceridae)." Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington (1969), volume 71, pages 24-28. 

Froeschner, Richard C. "Telamona archboldi, a New Treehopper from Florida 
(Hemiptera: Membracidae)." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of 
Washington (June 1968), volume 70, pages 154-155. 

. "Burrower Bugs from the Galapagos Islands Collected by the 1964 Ex- 
pedition of the Galapagos Scientific Project (Hemiptera: Cydnidae)." Pro- 
ceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington (June 1968), volume 70, 
page 192. 

-. "Notes on the Systematics and Morphology of the Lace Bug Subfamily 



Cantacaderinae (Hemiptera: Tingidae)." Proceedings of the Entomological 
Society of Washington (September 1968), volume 70, pages 245-254. 

-. "Lace Bugs Collected during the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biologi- 



cal Survey of Dominica, B. W. I. (Hemiptera: Tingidae)." Great Basin 
Naturalist (December 1968), volume 28, pages 161-171. 

Huang, Yiau-Min. "Neotype Designation for Aedes {Stegomyia) albopictus 
(Skuse)." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington (December 
1968), volume 70, number 4, pages 297-302. 

Kim, K. C, and K. C. Emerson. "Description of Two Species of Pediculidae 
(Anoplura) from the Great Apes (Primates, Pongidae)." Journal of Para- 
sitology (1968), volume 54, pages 690-695. 

. "New Records and Nymphal Stages of the Anoplura from Central and 

East Africa, with Description of a New Hoplopleura Species." Revue de 
Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines (1968), volume 78, pages 5-45. 

Krombein, Karl V. "A Fifth Species of Nitela from North America (Hymenop- 
tera: Sphecidae)." Le Naturaliste canadien (1968), volume 95, pages 699-702. 



i 



114 

SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Oman, Paul, and Karl V. Krombein. "Systematic Entomology: Distribution 
of Insects in the Pacific." Science (5 July 1968), volume 161, pages 78-79 

Peyton, E. L, and R. H. Hochman. "A Revised Interpretation of the Proctiger 
of Male Uranotaenia with a Related Note on Hodgesia." Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington (December 1968), volume 70 number 4 
pages 376-382. 

SCANLON, John E., E. L. Peyton, and Douglas J. Gould. "An Annotated 
Checkhst of the Anopheles of Thailand." Thai National Scientific Papers, 
(1968), fauna series number 2, pages 1-35. 
Snyder, Thomas E. "Second Supplement to the Annotated, Subject-heading 
Bibliography of Termites, 1961-1965." Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 
(1968), volume 152, number 3, 188 pages. 
Spangler, Paul J. "A New Species of Laccobius from the Greater Antilles 
(Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Wash- 
ington (1968), volume 81, pages 751-754. 

. "Biosystematic Studies of African Water Beetles." American Philosophical 
Year Book 1968 (1969), pages 334-336. 
Thorp, Robbin, W., and Gerald I. Stage. "Ecology of Andrena placida with 
Descriptions of the Larva and Pupa." Annals of the Entomological Society of 
America (November 1968), volume 61, number 6, pages 1580-1586. 
Traub, R. "Smitella thambetosa, N. Gen. and N. Sp., a Remarkable 'Helmeted' 
Flea from New Guinea (Siphonaptera, Pygiopsyllidae ) with Notes on Con- 
vergent Evolution." Journal of Medical Entomology (1968), volume 5 pages 
375-404. 

. "Evansipylla thysanota, a New Genus and New Species of Flea from 

Nepal. (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae)." Journal of Medical Entomology 
(1968), volume 5, pages 411-421. 
Traub, R., M. Nadchatram, and P. Lakshana. "New Species of Chiggers 
of the Subgenus Trombiculindus from Thailand (Acarina, Trombiculidae- 
Leptotrombidium) :' Journal of Medical Entomology (1968), volume 5 pages 
363-374. 
Traub, R., and C. L. Wisseman, Jr. "Ecological Considerations in Scrub 
Typhus, 1 : Emerging Concepts." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 
( 1 968 ) , volume 39, pages 209-2 18. 
. "Ecological Consideration in Scrub Typhus, 2: Vector Species." Bul- 
letin of the World Health Organization (1968), volume 39, pages 219-230. 
. "Ecological Consideration in Scrub Typhus, 3 : Methods of Area Con- 
trol." Bulletin of the World Health Organization (1968), volume 39, pages 
231-237. 



Papers, Lectures, and Seminars 

Krombein, Karl V. "Smithsonian Entomological Explorations in Africa." De- 
partment of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh. 18 No- 
vember 1968. 

Stage, Gerald I. "The Other Bees: Vicarious Snooping into their Private Lives." 
Catholic University Chapter of the Society of Sigma Xi. 7 May 1969. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 115 

INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

The Department has made considerable progress in several important 
areas of activity. Most notable has been its continuing expansion of the 
use of computer techniques for accomplishing curatorial tasks, thus 
freeing valuable time for research and other functions. The year has 
also seen a further broadening of the systematic investigations that its 
members carried forward. 

As partial results of his two-year visit to Hawaii, New Zealand, and 
Australia in 1967-68, J. Laurens Barnard has completed and submitted 
for publication two manuscripts on the shallow-water gammaridean 
amphipods of Hawaii and New Zealand. In addition to his research 
and field activities, Barnard has served as secretary for the Americas of 
the Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands. 

In October and November 1968 Thomas E. Bowman visited the Indian 
Ocean Biological Centre at Ernakulam as a consultant on Crustacea 
and began a project with H. E. Gruner to prepare a synopsis of the 
families and genera of hyperiid amphipods. 

A survey of the littoral and sublittoral marine and freshwater shrimps 
of the Caribbean has been considerably advanced by Fenner A. Chace, 
Jr. ; a manuscript on a new genus and five new species of shrimps from 
the \vestem Atlantic has been completed as part of this study. The ex- 
tensive report on the freshwater and terrestrial decapods of the West 
Indies, by Chace and Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., also has been published 
during the year. Studies on the crayfishes and their entocytherid ostracod 
associates, particularly those from the southeastern United States, have 
been continued by Hobbs, who has completed a major study on the dis- 
tribution and phylogeny of the seventy-two species of Cambarus. His 
Georgia field studies in April 1969 resulted in the collection of several 
important species. 

Investigations on parasitic copepods and their hosts have been carried 
out by Roger F. Cressey, Jr., who also has served as editor for the Pro- 
ceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. With Bruce R. CoUette, 
of the Ichthyological Laboratory, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, 
Cressey has completed a detailed study of the host-parasite relation- 
ships bet\veen needlefishes and their parasitic copepods. He also has 
completed a study with Ernest Lachner, Division of Fishes, on the rela- 
tionship between parasitic copepods and echinoid fishes. 

A computerized checklist of genera and higher taxa and a bibliography 
of marine nematodes has been prepared by W. Duane Hope and re- 
search associate D. G. Murphy, in collaboration with the Information 
Systems Division in a form suitable for publication by photo-offset. In 
addition, Hope has continued studies with the electron microscope on 



116 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

the cuticle and somatic musculature of marine nematodes, studies that 
are expected to help clarify phylogenetic relationships within the group. 
During the year Hope has been appointed associate of the Graduate 
Faculty of Rutgers University. 

Studies on myodocopid Ostracoda based on collections from the Peru- 
Chile Trench, the Antarctic Ocean, and the Philippine Islands have 
been completed by Louis S. Komicker. During the year Komicker has 
participated in a survey of the marine animals from the coastal shelf of 
Cyprus, sponsored by the Smithsonian and the Hebrew University, 
Israel. He served as chief scientist for part of the cruise. 

The possibility of using differences in enzymal mobilities to elucidate 
systematic interrelationships of the polychaetous annelids has led Mere- 
dith L. Jones to study enzymes of worms from Florida and Woods Hole; 
part of the summer of 1968 was spent at Woods Hole pursuing this study. 
Jones also has presented a paper on boring of mollusk shells by the 
sabellid worm Caobangia at the annual meeting of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science. Study by Jones of collections 
from Southeast Asia suggests that at least four species comprise Cao- 
bangia, which previously was believed to be monotypic. 

Systematics of Indo-West Pacific stomatopod crustaceans have been 
continued by R. B. Manning, who has completed a review of Protosquilla 
and allied genera in the family Gonodactylidae and also a review of 
Harpiosquilla, family Squillidae. With the help of Mrs. Drina Byer, a 
computer-generated catalog of the type specimens of stomatopods in 
the National Collections has been prepared. 

Relationships of American and Asiatic hydrobiid mollusks, based on 
gross anatomy, have been investigated by J. P. E. Morrison ; the hydro- 
biids serve as the intermediate hosts of human Asiatic Schistosomiasis. 
Morrison also has initiated a study of western Atlantic species of Donax. 

David L. Pawson has completed a review of the holothuroid fauna of 
New Zealand and has continued work on the systematics of echinoids 
and holothurians collected during the International Indian Ocean Expe- 
dition and the United States Antarctic Research Program investigations. 
In collaboration with G. Donnay, Carnegie Institution, the structure of 
calcite crystals in echinoderms has been studied. 

A monographic study on the scaled polychaetes of the superfamily 
Aphroditoidea has been initiated by Marian H. Pettibone, who has com- 
pleted reviews of several genera, as well as members of the family 
Eulepethidae. She also has described new, errant polychaetes from the 
Siboga Expedition, based on a draft manuscript prepared by the late 
H. Augener. 

Harald A. Rehder has continued his long-term investigation of the 
zoogeography of the littoral mollusks of Polynesia, a vast area in the 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 117 

tropical Pacific Ocean bounded by the Cook Islands, Palmyra Island, 
and Easter Island. In June 1969 Rehder traveled to the central Pacific 
to conduct field work necessary for the study. 

A comparative study of the development of tropical sipunculid worms 
of the genera Lithacrosiphon, Aspidosiphon, Phascolosoma, Sipunculus, 
and Siphonosoma is being carried out by Mary E. Rice; field investiga- 
tions have been conducted in Miami, Puerto Rico, and Curasao. A 
study on the structure of possible boring organs in sipunculids was 
presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science in December 1968. 

Representatives of several families of pelagic cephalopods have been 
investigated by Clyde F. E. Roper ; reports on representatives of the fam- 
ilies Cycloteuthidae and Joubinoteuthidae from the North Atlantic have 
been completed in collaboration with Richard Young. Roper has par- 
ticipated in two cruises off Bermuda as part of the Ocean Acre project, 
a long-term study (sponsored by the United States Navy) of the sys- 
tematics and ecology or organisms occurring in a column of water under 
a one-degree square of ocean surface. A cross-indexed bibliography of 
cephalopod literature and a catalog of cephalopod names have also 
been initiated during the year. 

Joseph Rosewater has continued studies on the worldwide Periplo- 
matidae and the Indo-Pacific Littorinidae and Cerithiidae, based on 
materials studied in American, European, and Australian museums, 
and during field work in the Indo-Pacific. The fii"st portion of a mono- 
graph on the Littorinidae should reach completion in 1969. He also has 
served as president of both the Bibliological Society of Washington and 
the American Malacological Union during the year. 

Investigations on the systematics and physiological ecology of sponges 
from the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas are among the studies 
conducted by Klaus Ruetzler during the year; in this connection, he 
has visited Barbados, Colombia, and several places in the Mediterranean 
Sea as well. Current projects include a review of the genus Ircinia in 
the Caribbean and investigations of symbiotic associations between algae 
and sponges. 

Research associates in residence and visiting research associates also 
have made significant contributions to departmental research programs : 
Roman Kenk has completed a review of the genus Planaria as part of 
a long-term study of the freshwater triclad turbellarians of North 
America; Isabel Canet [Perez Farfante] has continued investigations on 
American penaeid shrimps and has completed an important manu- 
script that should simplify identification of juveniles of certain species 
of Penaeus from the western Atlantic; Dennis M. Devaney has studied 
the systematics and biology of chilophiurid ophiuroids and, as a partici- 



I 



118 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

pant in the "1969 Shark" expedition to British Honduras, he has initiated 
a study of the larvae development of the brittlestar Ophiocoma pumila. 
Departmental research activities also have been enhanced by the in- 
vestigations of three graduate students in residence: Jackson E. Lewis 
(Tulane University), studying calappid crabs under the guidance of 
Fenner A. Chace, Jr., has completed a manuscript on reversal of sym- 
metry in chelae of crabs of the genus Calappa; Nancy Cramer (George 
Washington University) has completed her doctoral dissertation under 
the supervision of Meredith L. Jones; and Catherine Kerby (George 
Washington University) has conducted studies of the life history of a 
polychaete under the guidance of Mary Rice and Meredith L. Jones. 



The Collections 

Among the more important activities for which the Department is 
responsible are the care and development of the National Collections. 
The extensive collections of invertebrates other than insects, now com- 
prising in excess of twelve million specimens, are the focal point for 
departmental research activities, as well as a major source of basic data 
on invertebrates. All too often the collections and activities pertaining 
to them are ranked below other kinds of endeavors, including research 
and education in the broadest sense, in spite of the fact that the collec- 
tions provide the basis for many staff research projects and are the main 
reason for the large numbers of students and senior visitors who use the 
facilities each year. 

Emphasis on research as the primary activity of the professional staff, 
broadening of the Institution's educational activities, and severe restric- 
tions on budget and personnel combined during the past year to increase 
the work load of each curatorial unit in the Department. Government- 
wide personnel ceilings have precluded filling several technical and 
clerical positions and, in spite of efforts by. the curatorial staff, who have 
assumed the burden of curatorial activities formerly carried out by the 
professional staff, the backlog of materials awaiting processing and 
identification has grown. 

During the year a catalog of type specimens of echinoids in the Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History and the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology at Harvard, prepared by museum specialist Maureen Downey, 
has been published. A similar catalog on ophiuroid type-specimens by 
Miss Downey is in press, and catalogs of asteroid and holothurian types 
are in preparation by Miss Downey and David Pawson, respectively. 

Large collections of sponges and echinodenns from the Caribbean 
and the Indian Ocean have been received from Paul R. Burkholder, 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 119 

Lament Geological Observatory; 5,700 specimens of echinoids and holo- 
thurians from the Indian Ocean and the Antarctic have been received 
from the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center; and over 2,000 
specimens of sponges, coelenterates, echinoderms, moUusks, and tunicates 
have been received from the Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center. Dur- 
ing the year the collections of recent bryozoans have been transferred 
from the Division of Echinoderms to the Division of Invertebrate 
Paleontology. 

The collection of Mollusks has been enriched by the addition of 2,855 
specimens of nudibranchs from the northeastern United States, Alaska, 
and Thailand, from the estate of the late George M. Moore, University 
of New Hampshire ; this gift from the Moore estate also includes a series 
of transparencies of living nudibranchs. More than 1,600 specimens of 
mollusks from the Indo- Pacific region have been obtained on exchange 
from the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University. Rolf 
Brandt, seato Median Research Laboratory, has donated 2,150 speci- 
mens of land and freshwater mollusks from Thailand, greatly enhancing 
the division holdings of mollusks from Southeast Asia. 

Under a contract with the Department of Agriculture, museum spe- 
cialist Walter J. Byas has continued identification of specimens of mol- 
lusks intercepted at United States ports of entry. As a result of this 
service, a useful reference collection of exotic mollusks potentially haz- 
ardous to crops or as vectors of parasites and diseases is being accumu- 
lated. A project has been initiated to prepare the cephalopod collection 
for cataloging and entry of specimen-associated data into the computer 
in a system similar to that being used for Crustacea. 

In the Division of Worms, Frances Paulson and George Ford have 
combined efforts to streamline the cataloging operation and have suc- 
ceeded in making substantial progress in cataloging current material, 
as well as identified lots in the backlog. Technician Vernetta Williams 
has worked primarily on the slide collection, including preparation of 
slide mounts of interstitial organisms and sorting of nematodes. The 
addition of 25,000 nematodes to the collections each year from various 
sources has added significantly to the Division work load. 

The single largest addition to the collection of worms has been a 
valuable series of oligochaetes from the estate of the late William R. 
Murchie, comprising over 24,000 specimens and 3,000 slides of sections. 
Other additions include approximately 7,000 specimens of annelids from 
Florida, the West Indies, and Central and South America, collected by 
David W. Kirtley, and 6,000 marine nematodes from the Antarctic, col- 
lected by James Lowry, Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences. 

During the past year there have been many notable additions to the 
collection of Crustacea. Major additions have been to the crayfish col- 



120 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

lections, through the efforts of Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., who has made 
extensive collections in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Georgia, as well as 
through the generosity of many colleagues from other institutions. In 
addition, the crustacean holdings have been enhanced by the addition 
of a large collection of freshwater ostracods from the estate of the late 
Edward Ferguson, Lincoln University. Arthur G. Humes, Boston Uni- 
versity, has deposited more than 2,900 commensal copepods from 
Madagascar, most of them representing types. 

Specialist H. B. Roberts, who has assumed the major portion of de- 
capod identifications, has initiated an important exchange of types with 
the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, through Mme Danielle 
Guinot-Grmek. He also has begun a reorganization of the crustacean 
reprint collection. Specialist C. Allan Child, whose primary responsibility 
is the cataloging operation in Crustacea, has assembled data for a cata- 
log of types of the Pycnogonida. Specialist Roland Brown has assumed 
the role of departmental coordinator for purchasing, for development 
and maintenance of curatorial supplies and equipment, and for meeting 
visitors' equipment needs. 



Staff Publications 

Barnard, J. Laurens. "Gammaridean Amphipoda of the Rocky Intertidal of 
California: Monterey Bay to La Jolla." United States National Museum Bul- 
letin (1969) number 258, 230 pages. 

. "The Families of Genera of Marine Gammaridean Amphipoda." United 

States National Museum. Bulletin (1969) number 271, 535 pages. 

-, and W. Scott Gray. "Introduction of an Amphipod Crustacean into 



the Salton Sea, CaHfornia." Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of 
Science (1968) volume 67, number 4, pages 219-232. 
. "Biogeographic Relationships of the Salton Sea Amphopod, Gammarus 



mucronatus Say." Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Science 

(1969), volume 68, number 1, pages 1-9. 
Boss, Kenneth J., Joseph Rosewater, and Florence A. Ruhoff. "The 

Zoological Taxa of William Healey Dal!." United States National Museum 

Bulletin (1968) number 287, 427 pages. 
Bowman, Thomas E., and Louis S. Kornicker. "Sphaeronella hebe (Cope- 

poda: Choniostomatidae), a Parasite of the Ostracod, Pseudophilomedes 

ferulana." Crustaceana (1968), volume 15, part 2, pages 113-116. 
, and Austin Long. "Relict Populations of Drepanopus bungei and 

Limnocalanus macrurus grimaldii (Copepoda: Galanoida) from Ellesmere 

Island, N.W.T." Arctic (1968), volume 21, number 3, pages 172-180. 
, Rudolph Prins, and Byron F. Morris. "Notes on the Harpacticoid 



Copepods Attheyella pilosa and A. carolinensis, Associates of Crayfishes in the 
Eastern United States." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 
( 1968), volume 81, pages 571-586. 



lATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 121 

jHACE, F. A., Jr. "A New Crab of the Genus Cycloes (Crustacea; Brachyura; 
Calappidae) from Saint Helena, South Atlantic Ocean." Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington (1968), volume 81, pages 605-612. 

. "Unknown Species in the Sea." Science (1969), volume 163, page 1271. 

. "A New Genus and Five New Species of Shrimps (Decapoda, Palaemoni- 

dae, Pontoniinae) from the Western Atlantic." Crustaceana (1969), volume 
16, part 3, pages 251-272. 

-, and HoRTON H. Hobbs, Jr. "Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological 



Survey of Dominica: The Freshwater and Terrestrial Decapod Crustaceans of 

the West Indies, with Special Reference to Dominica." United States National 

Museum Bulletin (1969) number 292, 258 pages. 
Hressey, R. F. "Caligus hobsoni, a New Species of Parasitic Copepod from Cali- 
fornia." Journal of Parasitology (1969), volume 55, number 2, pages 431-434. 
Dartnall, Alan J., David L. Pawson, Elizabeth C. Pope, and Brian J. 

Smith. "Replacement Name for the Preoccupied Genus Name Odinia Perrier, 

1885 (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)." Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of 

New South Wales (1969), volume 93, part 2, 1 page. 
Deevey Georgiana B. "Bathyconchoecia, a New Genus of Pelagic Ostracod 

(Myodocopa Halocyprididae) with Six New Species from the Deeper Waters 

of the Gulf of Mexico." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 

(1968), volume 81, pages 539-570. 
Donnay, Gabrielle, and David L. Pawson. "X-ray Study of Echinodermata." 

Acta Crystallographica (1969), volume A25, page S 11 [abstract]. 
Downey, Maureen. — See Gray, I. E., Maureen E. Downey, and M. J. Cerame- 

Vivas. 
Forstner, Helmut, and Vilaus Ruetzler. "Two Temperature-Compensated 

Thermistor Current Meters for Use in Marine Ecology." Journal of Marine 

Research ( 1969), volume 27, pages 263-271. 
Gray, I. E., Maureen E. Downey, and M. J. Cerame- Vivas. "Seastars of 

North Carolina." United States Fisheries Bulletin (1968), volume 67, number 

1, pages 127-163. 
HiGGiNS, R. P. "Indian Ocean Kinorhyncha, 2: Neocentrophyidae, a New 

Homalorhagid Family." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 

(1969), volume 82, pages 113-128. 
Hobbs, Horton H., Jr. Crustacea: Malacostraca. Keys to Water Quality 

Indicative Organisms. Pages K1-K36. Washington, D.C.: Federal Water 

Pollution Control Administration, United States Interior Department, 1969. 
. "Procambarus villalobosi, un nuevo cambarino de San Luis, Potosi, 

Mexico (Decapoda, Astacidae." Anales del Instituto de Biologia, Universidad 

Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (1969), Serie Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, 

volume 38, number 1, pages 41-46. 

"Two New Crayfishes of the Genus Cambarus from Georgia, Kentucky, 



and Tennessee, (Decapoda, Astacidae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society 
of Washington ( 1968), volume 81, pages 261-274. 
, and Margaret Walton. "New Entocytherid Ostracods from the 



Southern United States." Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science, 
Philadelphia (1968), volume 120, number 6, pages 237-252. 
-See Chace, F. A., Jr., and Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. 



Holt, Perry C. "The Genus Pterodrilus (Annelida: Branchiobdellida)." Pro- 
ceedings of the United States National Museum (1968), volume 125, number 
3668, pages 1-44. 

366-269 O — 70 9 



122 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



HoLTHUis^ L. B., and Raymond B. Manning. "Stomatopoda." Pages R535- 
R552, figures 343-363, in Moore, R. C, editor. Treatise on InvertebraU 
Paleontology, part R, Arthropoda 4, volume 2, ii, pages R399-R651 Geologi-t 
cal Society of America and University of Kansas, 1969. 

Hope, W. Duane. "Fine Structure of the Somatic Muscles of the Free-living 
Marine Nematode Deontostoma californicum Steiner and Albin, 1933 (Lepto-' 
somatidae)." Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 
(1969), volume 36, number 1, pages 10-29. 

, and D. G. Murphy. "Rhaptothyreos typicus n. g., n. sp., an Abyssal 

Marine Nematode Representing a New Family of Uncertain Taxonomit 
Position." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington (1969) 
volume 82, pages 81-92. 

-See Wright, K. A., and W. D. Hope. 



Jones, Meredith L. "Paraonis py go enigmatic a, new species, a new Annelic 

from Massachusetts (Polychaeta: Paraonidae)." Proceedings of the Biological 

Society of Washington ( 1968), volume 81, pages 323-334. 
, Joel Hedgpeth, and Cadet Hand. "Pinuca Hupe in Gay, 185' 

(Echiuroidea) ; Proposed Suppression under the Plenary Powers." Bulleti 

of Zoological Nomenclature (1968), volume 25, parts 2 and 3, pages 100-102 
KoRNicKER, Louis S. "Bathyal myodocopid Ostracoda from the Northeasterr. 

Gulf of Mexico." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington (1968) 

volume 81, pages 439-472. 
. "Station Data on Ostracoda Collected by the 'Travailleur' and 'Talis-- 

man' (1881-1883)." Crustaceana (1969), volume 16, part 1, pages 111-112 

2 tables. 

and William R. Bryant. "Sedimentation on Continental Shelf oi 



Guatemala and Honduras." American Association of Petroleum Geology 
Memoir (1969), II, pages 244-257. 

-See Bowman, Thomas E., and Louis S. Kornicker 



Lewis, Jackson E. "Reversal of Asymmetry of Chelae in Calappa Weber 
1795 (Decapoda: Oxystomata) ." Proceedings of the Biological Society o] 
Washington (1969), volume 82, pages 63-80. 

Manning, Raymond B. "Three New Stomatopod Crustaceans from the Indo- 
Malayan Area." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington (1968), 
volume 81, pages 241-250. 

. "Notes on Some Stomatopod Crustacea from Southern Africa." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Zoology (1969), number 1, pages 1-17. 

-. "Notes on the Gonodactylus Section of the Family Gonodactylidae 



(Crustacea, Stomatopoda), with Descriptions of Four New Genera and a. 

New Species." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington (1969), 

volume 82, pages 143-166. 
. "Stomatopod Crustacea of the Western Atlantic." Studies in Tropical 

Oceanography (1969), number 8, pages viiiR-380. 

. — See Holthuis, L. B., and Raymond B. Manning. 

. — See Tirmizi, Nasima M., and Raymond B. Manning. 



, and R. Serene. "Stomatopoda. Prodromus for a Check List of the 

Non-Planctonic Marine Fauna of South East Asia." Singapore National 
Academy of Science, Special Publication (1968), number 1, pages 113-120. 

Meyer, M. C. "Moore on the Hirudinea with Emphasis on His Type-Speci- 
mens." Proceedings of the United States National Museum (1968), volume 
125, number 3664, pages 1-32. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 123 

Morrison, J. P. E. "The Zoogeography of the Freshwater Cave Snails of the 

Family Hydrobiidae." Abstract mimeographed for 3rd European Malacological 

Congress, Vienna, Austria, 2-6 September 1968. 
. "Spiroglyplics : A Study in Species Association." American Malacological 

Union, Annual Report 1968, pages 45-46. 
Pawson, David L. "A New Psolid Sea Cucumber from the Virgin Islands." 

Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington (1968), volume 81, pages 

347-350. 
. "Echinoderms." Australian Natural History (1968), volume 16, number 

4, pages 129-133. 
. "Some Holothurians from Macquarie Island." Transactions of the Royal 



Society of New Zealand (1968), Zoology, volume 10, number 15, pages 141- 
150, 13 figures. 

"Holothuroidea: Distribution of Selected Groups of Marine Inverte- 



brates in Waters South of 30° S Latitude." Pages 36-38 in folio 11, Antarctic 
Map Folio Series. American Geological Society, 1969. 
. "Echinoidea." Pages 38-40 in folio 11, Antarctic Map Folio Series. 



American Geological Society, 1969. 
. "Astrothrombus rugosis Clark, New to New Zealand, with Notes on 



Ophioceres huttoni (Farguhar), Hemilepis norae (Benham) and Ophiurogly- 

pha irrorata (Lyman) (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) . New Zealand Journal 

of Maine and Freshwater Research (1969), volume 3, number 1, pages 46-56. 

. See Dartnall, Alan J., David L. Pawson, Elizabeth C. Pope, and Brian 



J. Smith. 
. — See Donnay, Gabrielle, and David L. Pawson. 



Pettibone, Marian H. "Review of Some Species Referred to Scalisetosus Mcin- 
tosh (Polychaeta, Polynoidae ) ." Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington (1969), volume 82, pages 1-30. 

. "Remarks on the North Pacific Harmothoe tenebricosa Moore (Poly- 
chaeta, Polynoidae) and Its Association with Asteroids (Echinodermata, 
Asteroidea) ." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington (1969), 
volume 82, pages 31-42. 

. "The Genera Polyeunoa Mcintosh, Hololepidella Willey, and Three 



New Genera (Polychaeta, Polynoidae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society 

of Washington (1969), volume 82, pages 43-62. 
Rehder, Harold A. "The Marine Molluscan Fauna of the Marquesas Islands." 

American Malacological Union, Annual Report (1968), pages 29-32. 
. "Volutocorbis and Fusivoluta, Two Genera of Deepwater Volutidae 

from South Africa." The Veliger (1969), volume 11, number 3, pages 200- 

209, plates 40-43. 
. "New Species and Subgenera of Volutidae ( Fulgorariinae ) from the 



South China Sea and Japan." Venus: The Japanese Journal of Malacology 
(1969), volume 27, number 4, pages 127-132, 7 plates. 

Roper, Clyde F. E. — See Young, Richard E., and Clyde F. E. Roper. 

Rosewater, Joseph. "Review: An English-Classical Dictionary for the Use of 
Taxonomists." Systematic Zoology (1968), volume 17, number 3, page 334. 

. "Notes on Periplomatidae (Pelecypoda: Anomalodesmata) with a Geo- 
graphical Checklist." American Malacological Union, Annual Report (Decem- 
ber 1968), pages 37-39. 



^24 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

"Gross Anatomy and Classification of the Commensal Gastropod, Cal- 



endoniella montrouzieri Souverbie, 1869." The Veliger (1969), volume 11 
number 4, pages 345-350. 

-See Boss, Kenneth J., Joseph Rosewater, and Florence A. Ruhoff. 



RuETZLER, Klaus. "Fresh-water Sponges from New Caledonia. Cahien 
O.R.S.T.O.M. (1968), series hydrobiologique, volume II, number 1, pages 
57-66. 

. See Forstner, Helmut, and Klaus Ruetzler. 

. — See Towe, Kenneth M., and Klaus Ruetzler. 

Ruhoff, Florence A. — See Boss, Kenneth J., Joseph Rosewater, and Florence 
A. RuhoflF. 

SCHMITT, Waldo L. "Colombian Freshwater Crab Notes." Proceedings of the* 
Biological Society of Washington (1969), volume 82, pages 93-111. 

TiRMizi, Nasima M., and Raymond B. Manning. "Stomatopod Crustacea fromi 
West Pakistan." Proceedings of the United States National Museum (1968), 
volume 125, number 3666, pages 1-48. 

Tow^E, Kenneth M., and Klaus Ruetzler. "Lepidocrocite Iron Mineraliza-^ 
tion in Keratose Sponge Granules." Science (1968), volume 162, pages 268- 
269. 

Wright, K. A., and W. Duane Hope. "Elaborations of the Cuticle of AcanthouA^ 
chus duplicatus Wieser, 1959 (Nematoda: Cyatholaimidae) as Revealed by 
Light and Electron Microscopy." Canadian Journal of Zoology (1968), vol-i 
ume 46, number 5, pages 1005-1011. 

Young, Richard E., and Clyde F. E. Roper. "A Monograph of the Cephalo- 
poda of the North Atlantic: The Family Cycloteuthidae." Smithsonian Con- 
tributions to Zoology (1969), number 5, pages 1-24. ^ 

Lectures 

Barnard, J. Laurens. "The Warm-Temperate Intertidal Fauna." Australiam 
Society for Marine and Freshwater Research, Perth. August 1968. 

Bowman, Thomas E. "Modern Systematics." Indian Ocean Biological Centre, 
Ernakulam, India. November 1968. 

. "Calanoid Copepod Distribution off the Southeastern Coast of the 

United States." Biology Club, Sacred Heart College, Thevara, India. Novem- 
ber 1968. 

-. "The Distribution of Calanoid Copepods between Cape Hatteras andl 



Mid-Florida." Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomons, Maryland Mayi 
1969. 

Cressey, Roger F. "A Survey of Marine Organisms." Smithsonian Associates, 
Washington, D.C. April 1969. 

. "Intertidal Marine Organisms." Smithsonian Associates, Washington, 

D.C.April 1969. 

. "Open-Ocean and Decp-Water Marine Organisms." Smithsonian Asso- 
ciates, Washington, D.C. May 1969. 

. "Symbiosis in the Marine Environment." Smithsonian Associates, Wash- 
ington, D.C. May 1969. 

Hope, W. Duane. "Structure of the Nervous Systems of Nematodes." National 
Institute of Neurological Diseases and Strokes, National Institute of Health, 
Bethesda, Maryland. February 1969. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 125 
. "Occurrence Tomofilaments and Microtubules in the Hypodermis of the 



Marine Nematode Deontostoma calif or nicum." Helminthological Society of 
Washington, Washington, D.C. April 1969. 

Jones, Meredith L. "On the Biology of Caobangia (Polychaeta: Sabellidae)." 
Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods 
Hole, Massachusetts. July 1968. 

. "On the Reproduction and Reproductive Morphology, inter alia, of 

Streblospio benedicti Webster." Systematics-Ecology Program, Marine Bio- 
logical Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. July 1968. 

. "Boring of Shell by Caobangia spp. in Freshwater Snails of Southeast 



Asia." Symposium on Penetration of CaCOa Substrats by Lower Plants and 
Invertebrates, Dallas, Texas. December 1968. 
. "A Review of the Polychaetous Annelids." Sarah Lawrence College, 



Bronxville, New York. January 1969. 
. "A Review of the Polychaetous Annelids." Universidad Antonoma de 



Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. February 1969. 

-. "On the Use of Electrophoretic Patterns in Systematics of the Poly- 



chaeta." Institute of Marine Science, Miami, Florida. March 1969. 
. "The Adventures of El Terrifico and the Caobangia." Goucher College, 



Towson, Maryland. April 1969. 

. "Marine Ecology." Smithsonian Associates, Washington, D.C. April 1969. 

. "Electrophoretic Patterns As Another Systematic Tool-A Help or a 



Hindrance." Department of Invertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Nat- 
ural History, Washington, D.C. April 1969. 

Manning, Raymond B. "Automation and Museum Collections." Special Sym- 
posium on Natural History collections, Biological Society of Washington. 
October 1968. 

— . "Branches of a Museum - Location, Organization, and Goals." Sym- 
posium on Museums, Virginia Academy of Science. May 1969. 

Morrison, Joseph P. E. "Rare and Endangered Brackish Water Mollusks of 
North America." American Malacological Union 34th Annual Meeting, Corpus 
Christi, Texas. 16 July 1968. 

. "Spiroglyphics - A Study in Species Associations." American Mala- 
cological Union 34th Annual Meeting, Corpus Christi, Texas. 17 July 1968. 
-. "The Zoogeography of the Freshwater Cave Snails of the Family Hydro- 



liidae." Third European Malacological Congress, Vienna Austria. 6 September 
1968. 
. "Sexual Dimorphism in Freshwater Mussels." New York Shell Club. 



12 January 1969. 

Rehder, Harald a. "The Marine Mollusks of the Marquesas Islands." 34th 
Annual Meeting American Malacological Union, Corpus Christi, Texas. 
17 July 1968. 

. "The Marine Mollusks of the Marquesas Islands." New York Shell Club. 

9 March 1969. 

Rice, Mary E. "Structure of Possible Boring Organs in Sipunculids." Sym- 
posium on Penetration of CaCOo Substrata by Lower Plants and Invertebrates, 
Dallas, Texas. December 1968. 

Roper, Clyde F. E. "A Survey of the Mollusca." Regional Academic Marine 
Program, Adult Lecture Series, Kittery, Maine. November 1968. 

. "Multidisciplinary Oceanographic Cruises." Mathematics-Science Cen- 
ter, Richmond, Virginia. July 1968. 



126 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

. "Cephalopoda." Philadelphia Shell Club. February 1969. 

. "History of Biological Oceanography." Smithsonian Associates, Sea 



Life Classes. 22 March 1969. 

"Cephalopoda." Smithsonian Associates, Sea Life Classes. 17 May 1969. 



RosEWATER, Joseph. "Malacological Collections - Development and Manage- 
ment." Special Symposium on Natural History Collections of the Biological 
Society of Washington. October 1968. 

. "Notes on Periplomatidae (Pelecypoda: Anomalodesmata) with a Geo- 
graphical Checklist." American Malacological Union, 34th Annual Meeting. 
July 1968. 

"Expedition to Barrow Island, Western Australia (to Perth for Peri- 



winkles)." San Antonio and South Padre Island, Texas, Shell Clubs, February 
1969. 



VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

Research in the Department of Vertebrate Zoology represents a com- 
bination of museum-based systematic revisionary and monographic 
studies and field-oriented ecological, behavioral, and life history studies. 
Because correct identification of animals and knowledge of their re- 
lationships is fundamental to further studies, such identification aides 
as handbooks and manuals are part of the Department's scientific effort. 

Systematic revisions and monographs have been prepared in three 
of the divisions, with the greatest emphasis on fishes, of which perhaps 
only one half of the world's species are known. Victor G. Springer has 
completed research for a revision of the blenniid fish genus Ecsenius and, 
with W. F. Smith-Vaniz, a graduate student at the University of Miami, 
a synopsis of the blenniid tribe Salariini. 

W. Ralph Taylor has continued his long-term studies of the marine 
family Ariidae and a study of hybrids of the freshwater family 
Ictaluridae. 

Stanley H. Weitzman has nearly completed a comprehensive study on 
the evolutionary relationships of the stomiatoid fish families Gonosto- 
matidae, Maurolicidae, and Sternoplychidac. In addition, he has under- 
taken further studies on the anatomy and relationships of the fish 
suborder Characoidei. Han Nijssen of the Zoological Museum of the 
University of Amsterdam is collaborating with him in a study of the cat- 
fish genus Corydoras. Visiting research associate Ambat G. K. Menon 
of the Zoological Survey of India returned to Calcutta in July 1968 after 
completing a worldwide revision of the flatfish genus Cynoglossus. 

Robert H. Gibbs, Jr., has continued studies of bathypelagic stomiatoid 
fishes, completing a worldwide systematic and zoogeographic study of the 
genus Stomias and preliminary systematic \vork on the genus Batho- 
philus. He has also nearly completed work on the family Astronesthidae. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 127 

He has supei^vised the predoctoral research of Richard H. Goodyear, a 
graduate student at George Washington University, on studies of the 
family Malacosteidae. Gibbs' work on flying fishes has resulted in the 
preparation of a manuscript on the genus Cypselurus from the eastern 
tropical Atlantic, and he is working on flying fishes for the multi-volume 
Fishes of the Western North Atlantic. The Smithsonian has been desig- 
nated by the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization 
(fag) as world center for deposition of tuna-like fishes. Gibbs serves 
as chairman of the fag working group on tuna taxonomy, of which 
Research Associate Bruce CoUette is a member. Their definitive paper 
on the "Comparative Anatomy and Systematics of the Tunas, Genus 
Thunnus" has been recognized \vith an award as an outstanding scien- 
tific contribution by both the Smithsonian and the Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries. 

Richard L. Zusi has completed work with Joseph R. Jehl, Jr., of the 
San Diego Natural History Society, on the relationships of three species 
of the little-known shorebirds in the monotypic genera, Phegornis, 
Aechmorhynchus, and Prosohonia, utilizing new evidence from anatomy 
and downy young. S. Dillon Ripley, assisted by Gorman M. Bond, has 
begun intensive work on a monograph of the rails of the world. J. 
Fenwick Lansdowne has completed ten of a series of forty plates to 
illustrate the monograph. Research associate Richard C. Banks is con- 
tinuing his systematic studies of the tinamous. Charles J. La Rue has 
continued his systematic study of skull morphology in the Ciconiiformes 
for his PhD dissertation at the University of Maryland under Zusi's 
direction. 

Charles O. Handley, Jr., has worked on revisions of bat genera. He 
has completed the free-tailed bats, Molossops, and is continuing re- 
visions of the long-tongued bats, Leptonycteryis, and, with Kay Ferris, 
the white-lined bats, Vampyrops. Duane A. Schlitter has continued 
work on his doctoral dissertation at the University of Maryland on a 
revision of the rodent subgenus Gerbillus under Henry W. Setzer. John 
R. Napier and his wife have ahiiost completed research on color varia- 
tion in coat color of the squirrel monkeys. During visits to museums in 
the United States and Europe this year, he has accumulated data for a 
long-term research project on limb proportions of primates. 

Systematic studies of vertebrates often entail gathering information 
on ecology and behavior in the field that may be used in conjunction 
with morphological and anatomical characters studied in the laboratory. 
In addition to observations and photographic or sound recordings, other 
highly sophisticated technical equipment or instruments have been used 
in some studies in the department. 



128 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Gibbs has collaborated with Clyde Roper of the Department of In- 
vertebrate Zoology and other biologists and oceanographers at the Uni- 
versity of Rhode Island, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, and the United 
States Navy in "Ocean Acre," an intensive study of life histories, vertical 
distribution, and migration of midwater fishes and other organisms in a 
single small area southwest of Bermuda. He has participated in two 
cruises supported by a grant from the Office of Naval Research. Speci- 
mens from the cruises are being sorted and identified prior to intensive 
systematic study. 

Ernest A. Lachner has spent most of the year on sabbatical leave study- 
ing the breeding behavior of chubs of the genus Nocomis in several 
streams in the eastern and midwestern United States. He has demon- 
strated that numerous intergeneric hybrids involving Nocomis as one 
parent are the result of the chubs' tolerance of other fishes, such as dace, 
at their nests. Because both species utilize the same rock pile for spawn- 
ing, chance cross-fertilizattion may take place. Based on his field work, 
he has nearly completed several parts of a major monograph on the 
ecology, behavior, distribution, and systematics of chubs. With Roger 
Cressey of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology, he has completed a 
paper on the relation between diskfishes or sharksuckers of the family 
Echeneiidae and their parasitic copepods, which also serve as their food. 

George R. Zug joined the department in January 1969 as assistant 
curator in the Division of Reptiles and Amphibians. He has revised for 
publication his dissertation on locomotion and morphology of the pelvic 
girdle and hind limbs of cryptodiran turtles and is currently analyzing 
color patterns in snakes in relation to their ecology. 

Zusi has finished a paper on the feeding niche and adaptations of the 
Trembler (Mimidae) of the Lesser Antilles, based on his field work in 
Dominica. He has pointed out that the species represents an ecological 
counterpart of some ovenbirds and woodhewers of the mainland. Paul 
Slud has terminated research in the Museum on methods by which to 
conduct avifaunal surveys in the field. Next year he intends to apply this 
study to field work in comparing representative avifaunas in Brazil and 
Costa Rica and to relate them numerically to their respective 
environments. 

Jan Reese, a student at Chesapeake College, has completed a manu- 
script on his six-year population study of Ospreys in Talbot County, 
Maryland, in consultation with George E. Watson. This Maryland popu- 
lation is reproducing at a rate well above that of other known popula- 
tions in the United States, most of which currently have little success in 
breeding. 

Research Associate Crawford Greencwalt's book, Birdsong: Acoustics 
and Physiology, has been published by the Smithsonian Institution Press. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



129 




\f ter spawning, a male Bluehead Chub, Nocomis leptocephalus, carries stones in 
lis mouth to his gravel nest in a tributary of the James River in western Vir- 
ginia. Most of the other smaller fishes over this nest represent a spawning school 
]i Mountain Redbelly Dace, Chrosomus oreas. Ernest Lachner's field observa- 
tions have shown that such compatible associations of breeding populations of 
:hubs and other cyprinid fishes is a primary factor for the high incidence of 
natural intergeneric hybrids. 

His laboratory analysis of recorded bird voices has provided new insight 
into sound production by birds. He has demonstrated conclusively that a 
single song may be produced by sounds from two vocal sources in the 
bird. 

For many years Charles Handley has been studying die flora and fauna 
of Assateague Island off the Eastern Shore of Maryland and Virginia. 
Assisted by his wife, he is attempting to define the biotic communities 
and assess the impact of a growing tide of human visitors on the biotic 
communities and their components. Handley also has studied population 
dynamics and ecology of forest bats at Belem, Brazil. By marking more 
than 1,500 individual bats, he has accumulated much information on 



130 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

vertical and horizontal distribution and habitat selection. With a re- 
capture rate of about ten percent, he has been able to demonstrate 
nocturnal movements of considerable distance. 

Using night-vision equipment on loan to the Smithsonian from the 
Department of Defense, research associate Arthur M. Greenhall hi 
been studying the feeding behavior of vampire bats in Mexico. Thj 
FAO-sponsored research may have considerable economic importance' 
throughout Latin America, where vampires feed on the blood of cattle 
and may transmit rabies to human beings. 

James A. Peters has continued development of time-share computers 
for research use, including a program for biogeographical analysis. He 
gave a short course in use of the telephone-terminal computer in June 
1969 to various other vertebrate zoologists interested in inter-museum 
data communication. With Richard Van Gelder of the American 
Museum of Natural History, he has established the first link in an inter- 
museum computer network. Through their joint effort, the first national 
meeting of the Museums and Universities Data, Program, and Informa- 
tion Exchange (mudpie) group was held in New York. 

Major interdisciplinary programs involving ecological studies of 
mammals and birds and their role in the dispersal of viruses and other 
diseases through ectoparasites are under way in northern South America. 
Africa, the Pacific Ocean, and southeast Asia. The programs involve 
local field collaborators as well as laboratory-based entomologists and 
virologists in several countries. 

Charles Handley's research team has concluded three years of field 
work on the distribution and ecology of mammals in Venezuela. Sys- 
tematic studies of the vertebrates have begun, and visiting research as- 
sociate Ralph Wetzel of the University of Connecticut has developed a 
statistical technique for the recognition of taxa. Several hundred thou- 
sand ectoparasites collected in the field have been distributed to special- 
ists in the United States, Latin America, Japan, and Taiwan. 

Three field teams of mammalogists have worked in Ghana, the Ivory 
Coast, Upper Volta, and South Africa under the direction of Henry 
Setzer. More than 60,000 mammal specimens have been collected under 
this African project in the last three years. Approximately twenty-five 
papers on preliminary studies of ectoparasites and virology have been 
published. In the future, all data on specimens will be automated in 
order that host identification lists may be sent out to parasitologists as 
soon as the mammal specimens are cataloged. 

The Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program, directed by research 
associate Philip S. Humphrey, has continued surveying bird populations 
and movements in the Pacific Ocean. Intensive studies at selected islands 
have been accompanied by shipboard studies in the central Pacific and 



INATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 131 

oflF the west coast of North America. A survey of the birds at Eniwetok 
and other atolls in the Marshall and Gilbert islands has resulted in 
A. Binion Amerson's comprehensive report on "The Ornithology of the 
Marshall and Gilbert Islands." Long-term studies of bird populations 
have continued on Sand Island in Johnston Atoll and on Kure Atoll and 
French Frigate Shoals in the Hawaiian Leewards, with major emphasis 
on breeding biology and population dynamics through banding. More 
than 33,000 birds have been banded this year. Two long-distance re- 
coveries involved an Elegant Tern banded in San Diego and recovered 
on Sand Island and a Common Tern banded on Long Island, New York, 
and recovered in the Bay of Panama. Since February 1969 emphasis on 
field work has been greatly reduced and the major eflFort is now directed 
toward preparation of comprehensive island and species reports. 

Site-oriented ecological studies have been under way at the Area de 
Pesquisas Ecologicas do Guama (apeg) in Belem, Brazil since 1963 in 
collaboration with the Brazilian Institute de Pesquisas e Experimentagao 
Agropecuarias do Norte, the Belem Virus Laboratory, and Yale Univer- 
sity. Humphrey has served as principal investigator on t^vo of the proj- 
ects and is a member of the commission for coordination of research ac- 
tivities in APEG. Data from the study area have been computerized in a 
system of ten-meter grids, and information on vegetation, soil, clima- 
tology, and the fauna, based on the same grid, is being collected. Thomas 
E. Lovejoy, a graduate student at Yale University, is studying the 
ecology and epidemiology of birds captured in mist nets set at varying 
heights in the Belem forest. 

Bird banding and collection of ectoparasites and blood samples have 
continued in the Middle East by two field parties of the Palearctic 
Migratory Bird Survey under the direction of George Watson. Approxi- 
mately 20,000 birds have been banded and more than a thousand blood 
samples have been returned to Yale University for virus testing. Anti- 
body formation in response to a new virus has been demonstrated. 

Another bird migration study is underway in India in collaboration 
with the Bombay Natural History Society under Salim Ali and the Mi- 
gratory Animal Pathological Survey under Elliott McClure. Recoveries 
in the Soviet Union of waterfowl banded at Bharatpur in Rajajastan 
have demonstrated several migration routes over the Himalayas. The 
Poona Virus Laboratory took blood samples and ectoparasites from 500 
birds trapped at Bharatpur in the spring of 1969 to survey the potential 
for virus transmission by the migrants. 

Because of the department's concern for conservation and interest in 
studies of migratory birds in the Far East and the Pacific basin, Watson 
and research associate John W. Aldrich have participated in a meeting 
of ornithologists in Tokyo to explore the possibility of a migratory bird 



132 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Author George Watson and artist Bob Hines examine plates and specimens for 
the Handbook of Antarctic Birds. 



treaty with Japan similar to those that the United States already has in 
effect witli Canada and Mexico. Another meeting will take place in 
Washington, D.C. 

Handbooks and identification manuals can stimulate interest in a 
group of animals or a geographic region and identify problems for in- 
tensified study. Thus, the production of such compilations is often a 
foundation for future research. Several projects of this type have been 
completed or have seen substantial work in the Department this year. 

George Watson, assisted by J. Phillip Angle and Peter C. Harper, has 
completed the species-account section for a research handbook on Ant- 
arctic birds. These researchers have worked concurrently on a set of 
distribution maps of Antarctic birds for the Antarctic Folio Series, 
assisted by visiting research associate Roberto Schlatter, a graduate 
student from Chile at the Johns Hopkins University. Watson has been 
assisted by Betty Jean Gray, a student at Mt. Holyoke College, in work 
on the warblers, Sylviinae, for Peters' Check-list of the Birds of the 
World. 

Volumes one and two of the Handbook of the Birds of India and 
Pakistan, by S. Dillon Ripley and Salim Ali, have been published and 
at least two more are in press. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 133 

Twenty-seven sections of the Smithsonian Preliminary Identification 
Manual to African Mamm.als have been completed under the editorship 
of research associate J. A. J. Meester of Pretoria, South Africa. Two 
other Smithsonian identification manuals, on the mammals and the 
reptiles of Vietnam, which were written by United States Navy medical 
personnel stationed at the Museum, will be published by the Smithsonian 
Institution Press in the near future. James Peters and his collaborators, 
Roberto Donoso-Barros of Chile and Braulio Orejas-Miranda of Uru- 
guay, have finished the Catalogue of Neotropical Squamata, which will 
be submitted to the Smithsonian Institution Press for publication. 

The Primate Biology Program is concerned both with research and 
education. A significant proportion of director John R. Napier's time 
this past year has been spent on the educational aspects of the program. 
During the fall he gave lecture and demonstration courses in primate 
biology at the following institutions in London : The London School of 
Economics, the Institute of Archeolog>', and the Royal Free Hospital of 
Medicine. In December 1968 the London office, the Unit of Primate 
Biology (Smithsonian Institution) , moved to its new quarters at Queen 
Elizabeth College at the University of London. After Napier returned 
to Washington during the winter, he presented a weekly lecture series 
on "Roots of Mankind" to the Friends of the National Zoo. These 
lectures will be published as a book by the Smithsonian Institution Press. 



The Collections 

Work by Olga Rybak and Shirley Artis on entering specimen data on 
seabirds has progressed through the hew contract in the Division of 
Birds under the supervision of George E. Watson and David Bridge. 
Information on all National Museum specimens of the orders Sphenis- 
ciformes, Procellariformes, and Pelecaniformes has been recorded, 
punched, and entered into the computer. The marine species of Charad- 
riiformes remain to be entered. All new specimens collected by the 
Palearctic Migratory Bird Survey and the orders Tinamiformes, Gavii- 
formes, and Podicipediformes also have been entered. To provide infor- 
mation of future use in computerization of bird specimens, Richard C. 
Banks is making a survey of collections in the United States for the 
American Ornithologists' Union. 

The Division of Mammals will utilize the bird data format and, for 
the time being, the same computer program for entering mammal col- 
lection records. A numericlature of mammals of the world has been pre- 
pared by various specialists under the supervision of Henry W. Setzer, 
and data entry should begin in the summer of 1969. 



134 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Large segments of the National Collection of mammals have been 
moved this year — some of them twice. Marine mammals and ungulates 
first were moved to the Smithsonian storage facility at Silver Hill, Mary- 
land, and then transferred to better quarters in Alexandria, Virginia, 
where hopefully a Marine Mammal Study Center will be established 
next year. Computerization of data on these specimens stored "off 
campus" will facilitate their use until the new Center can be adequately 
staffed. The primate and carnivore collections have been moved to new 
locations in the Natural History Building to clear space for the return of 
the Department of Entomology from Lamont Street. The ungulate 
skeletons and the alcoholic collection have been reorganized. The divi- 
sional administrative record-keeping system — especially that dealing 
with accessions, loans, and other specimen transactions — has been 
streamlined. 

Accessions of note in the Division of Mammals are: 11, 150 specimens 
received through the Venezuelan Project; 14,500 mammals from west- 
ern and southern Africa received through the African Mammal Project; 
50 porpoises from the west and south coasts of South Africa from K. S. 
Norris, Oceanic Institute, Honolulu; 75 porpoises of the genus Stenella 
from W. F. Perrin, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, La Jolla, Cali- 
fornia; 1,656 mammals from Brazil through the Belem Virus Labora- 
tory, Rockefeller Foundation; 6,000 bats from Colombia from C. J. 
Marinkelle, Universidad de Los Andes, Bogota; over 200 East African 
monkeys from Cynthia Booth, Tigoni Primate Research Center, Limuru, 
Kenya; several hundred fluid-preserved specimens from the anatomical 
research collection of W. C. Osman Hill, Yerkes Regional Primate 
Center, Atlanta, Georgia; and a type of the bat Antrogous pallidus 
ohscurus from R. H. Baker, Michigan State University, East Lansing. 

Among the accessions to the National Collection of birds are repre- 
sentatives of two newly described species: a peculiar swallow Pseudo- 
chelidon sirintarae, from Thailand, whose only close relative is an 
African species, donated by Frank G. Nicholls and Kitti Thonglong\'a ; 
and an antpitta, Grallaria eludens, from Peru received on exchange 
from George Lowery. Also received are eggs of the Gray Gull, Larus 
modestus, from Chile donated by George M. Moffett, Jr., and casts of 
California Condor bones from Stanton Cave, Arizona, given by Paul 
Parmalee. 

Large collections of bird skins have been received from the eastern 
Mediterranean through the Palearctic Migratory Bird Survey; from 
North America through the Fish and Wildlife Service, including collec- 
tions donated by Bert Roberts and Elizabeth P. Bartsch; and from the 
Pacific Ocean through the Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program. 
Important additions to the skeleton and spirit collections, besides speci- 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 135 

mens obtained by the Palearctic Migratory Bird Survey, include birds 
from Antarctica, collected by George E. Watson and J. P. Angle, and 
from Churchill, Manitoba, collected by Richard L. Zusi. 

The Division of Reptiles and Amphibians has received two collections 
from Thailand totaling 492 specimens, donated by Sergeant Kenneth 
T. Nemuras, usaf, and Major John E. Scanlon, usa. The Smithsonian 
Oceanographic Sorting Center has transferred 130 specimens from the 
Indian Ocean to the Division. A sizable collection of South American 
reptiles has been given by Roberto Donoso-Barros. A collection of 32 
Haideotriton wallacei, a rare subterranean salamander, and 26 paratypes 
of the salamander Typhlotriton braggi have been given by David Lee 
and Jeffrey Black, respectively. The North Carolina State Museum has 
transferred five types of emydine turtles. Specimens cataloged this year 
total 1,962. 

Important accessions in the Division of Fishes have been a 5^2 -foot 
specimen of a coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae, donated by H. N. 
Schnitzlein, Department of Anatomy, University of Alabama Medical 
Center; more than 10,000 fishes from the Tropical Atlantic Biological 
Laboratory, United States Department of the Interior, Fish and Wild- 
life Service, Miami, Florida, through Fred Berry; marine fishes from 
Kenya received through Wolfgang Klausewitz, Senckenberg Museum, 
Germany; and freshwater fishes from western Africa through Tyson 
Roberts, Stanford University. 



Staff Publications 

Amerson, a. Binion, Jr. "Ornithology of the Marshall and Gilbert Islands." 

Atoll Research Bulletin (1969), number 127, 348 pages. 
. "Tick Distribution in the Central Pacific as Influenced by Sea Bird 

Movement." Journal of Medical Entomology (1968), volume 5, number 3, 

pages 332-339. 
Banks, Richard C. "Relationships of the Avifauna of San Esteban Island, 

Sonora." Condor ( 1969), volume 71, pages 88-93. 
. "The Peregrine Falcon in Baja California and the Gulf of California." 

Pages 81-91, chapter 6, in Peregrine Falcon Populations: Their Biology and 

Decline. Edited by Joseph J. Hickey. University of Wisconsin Press, 1969. 
, and Wayne H. Bohl. "Pentland's Tinamou in Argentina (Aves: Tina- 



midae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington (1968), volume 
81, pages 485-490. 
, and Robert L. Brownell. "Taxonomy of the Common Dolphins of the 



Eastern Pacific Ocean." Journal of Mammalogy (1969), volume 50, number 2, 

pages 262-271. 
Campden-Main, Simon. "The Subspecies of Calliophis maculiceps (Giinther)." 

British Journal of Herpetology (1969), volume 4, number 3, pages 49-50. 
. "Bibliography of the Herpetological Papers of Frank Wall (1868— 

1950)." Smithsonian Herpetological Information Service (1969), pages 1—7. 



136 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

ClapPj Roger B. "Additional New Records from the Phoenix and Line Islands." 

Ibis (1968), volume 110, pages 573-575. 
. "The Birds of Swain's Island, South-Central Pacific." Notornis (1968), 

volume XV, number 3, pages 198-206. 

-, and Douglas C. Hackman. "Longevity Record for a Breeding Great 



Frigatebird." Bird Banding (1969), volume 40, number 1, page 47. 
, and Robert L. Pyle. "Noteworthy Records of Waterbirds from Oahu." 



Elepaio (1968), volume 29, number 5, pages 37-39. 

Cohen, Daniel M. "Names of Fishes." Commercial Fisheries Review (1969), 
volume 31, number 5, pages 18-20. 

, and Samuel P. Atsaides. "Additions to a Revision of Argentine 

Fishes." Fishery Bulletin, United States Fish and Wildlife Service (1969), 
pages 13-36. 

Davis, Edward L. "Bats and Bat Banding." Atlantic Naturalist (1968), volume 
23, number 4, pages 209-210. 

Davis, William P., and Daniel M. Cohen. "A Gobiid Fish and a Palaemonid 
Shrimp Living on an Antipatharian Sea Whip in the Tropical Pacific." Bulle- 
tin of Marine Science (1969), volume 18, number 4, pages 749-761. 

De Long, Robert L., and Max C. Thompson. "Bar-tailed Godwit from Alaska 
Recovered in New Zealand." Wilson Bulletin (1968), volume 80, number 4. 
pages 490-491. 

Fain, Alex., and A. Binion Amerson, Jr. "Two New Heretomorphic Deuto- 
nymph (Hypopi) (Acarina: Hypoderidae) from the Great Frigatebird (Fre- 
gata minor)." Journal of Medical Entomology (1968), volume 5, number 3, 
pages 320-324. 

GiBBS, Robert H., Jr. "Photonectes munificus, a New Species of Melanostomiatid 
Fish from the South Pacific Subtropical Convergence, with Remarks on the 
Convergence Fauna." Contributions in Science, Los Angeles County Museum 
(1968), number 149, pages 1-6. 

, and Michael A. Barnett. "Four New Stomiatoid Fishes of the Genus 

Bathophilus with a Revised Key to the Species of Bathophilus." Copeia ( 1968), 
number 4, pages 826-832. 

Goodyear, Richard H. "Records of the Alepocephalid Fish, Photostylus pycnop- 
terus, in the Indian and Pacific Oceans." Copeia (1969), number 2, pages 
398-400. 

Greenewalt, Crawford H. Birdsong: Acoustics and Physiology. 194 pages. 
Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. 

Greenhall, Arthur M., and John L. Paradiso. "Bats and Bat Banding." 
Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Resource Publication (1969) number 
72, 48 pages. 

Handley, Charles O., Jr. "Ungulata." Pages 366-367, volume 27, in Encyclo- 
pedia Americana. 1968. 

— . "Capturing Bats with Mist Nets." Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wild- 
life Resource Publication ( 1969), number 72, pages 15-19. 

Hubbard, John P., and Charles Seymour, III. "Some Notable Bird Records 
from Egypt." Ibis ( 1968), number 110, pages 575-578. 

Lachner, Ernest A., and Martin L. Wiley. "Populations of the Polytypic 
Species Nocomis leptocephalus (Girard) with a Description of a New Sub- 
species." Abstracts of Papers Presented to the 49th Annual Meeting of the 
American Society of Ichtherologists and Herpetologists (1969), pages 38-39. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 137 

Maa, Tsing C. "Records of Hippoboscidae (Diptera) from the Central Pacific 
Ocean." Journal of Medical Entomology (1968), volume 5, number 3, 
pages 325-328. 

Manville, Richard H. "Meet the Mammals at Woodend." Atlantic Naturalist 
(1968), volume 23, number 4, pages 204-208. 

Paradiso, John L. "Canids Recently Collected in east Texas, with Comments 
on the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf." American Midland Naturalist (1968), 
volume 80, number 2, pages 529-534. 

, and Donald Schierbaum. "Recent Wolf Record from New York." 

Journal of Mammalogy (1969), volume 50, number 2, pages 384-385. 

Peters, James A. "Computer Techniques in Systematics, Discussion." In "Syste- 
matic Biology," pages 610-613, of Proceedings of an International Conference, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan, June 14-16, 1967. National Academy of Science, 1969. 

. "A Replacement Name for Bothrops lansbergii venezuelensis Roze, 1959 

(Viperidae, Serpentes)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 
( 1968), volume 81, pages 319-322. 

"Report of ATB ad hoc Editorial Evaluation Committee, 1967-1968." 



A TB Newsletter ( 1 968 ) , number 1 1 , pages 19-21. 
. "Herpetology in Modern China." Copeia (1969), number 1, pages 214- 



215. 

"Rare and Endangered Reptiles and Amphibians of the United States." 



Pages 1-16 in Rare and Endangered Fish and Wildlife of the United States. 
Revised edition. Research PubHcation 34. Washington, D.C.: Department of 
Interior, 1969. 

Peterson, Richard S., Carl L. Hubbs, Roger L. Gentry, and Robert L. De 
Long. "Habitat, Behavior, Numbers, and Identification of the Guadalupe Fur 
Seal." Journal of Mammalogy (1968), volume 49, number 4, pages 665-675. 

Pine, Ronald H. "Stomach Contents of a Free-tailed Bat, Molossus ater." 
Journal of Mammalogy (1969), volume 50, number 1, page 162. 

Ripley, S. Dillon. "Comments on the Little Green Heron of the Chagos Archi- 
pelago." /fcii (1969), volume 111, pages 101-102. 

, and Salim All Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Volume 1. 

380 pages. Bombay: Oxford University Press, 1968. 

— . Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Volume 2. 345 pages. 



Bombay: Oxford University Press, 1969. 
, and Gerd Heinrich. "Comments on the Avifauna of Tanzania II." 



Postilla ( 1969), volume 134, 21 pages. 
Setzer, Henry W. "The Genus Acomys." Pages 1-4, section 21, jn Preliminary 

Guide to the Mammals of Africa. Washington, D.C.: United States National 

Museum, 1968. 
Sibley, Fred C, and Robert W. McFarlane. "Gulls in the Central Pacific." 

Pacific Science (1968), volume 23, number 3, pages 314—321. 
Slaughter, Robert H., and Stewart Springer. "Replacement of Rostral 

Teeth in Sawfishes and Sawsharks." Copeia (1968), number 3, pages 499-506. 
Springer, Stewart. "Triakis fehlmanni, a New Shark from the Coast of 

Somalia." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington (1968), vol- 
ume 81, pages 613-624. 
, and Richard A. Waller. "Hexanchus vitulus, a New Shark from the 

Bahamas." Bulletin of Marine Science (1969), volume 19, number 1, pages 

159-174. 

366-269 O — 70 10 



138 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Springer, Victor G. "Osteology and Classification of the Fishes of the Family 

Blenniidae." United States National Museum Bulletin (1968), number 284, 

85 pages. 
Watson, George E., and J. Phillip Angle. "Adelie Penguin with Three 

Chicks." Antarctic Journal, (1968), volume 3, number 5, page 221. 
, and Betty Jean Gray. "Replacement Name of Acrocephalus agricola 

brevipennis (Severtzov) ." Bulletin of the British Ornithologists Club (1969), 

volume 89, number 1, page 8. 
— •, and Alexander Wetmore. "The Generic Name for the Dovekie or 



Little Auk." Bulletin of the British Ornithologists Club (1969), volume 89, 
number 1, pages 6-7. 

Weitzman, Stanley H. "A List of Fishes from Duxbury Reef, Marin County, 
California." (Pages 54-55) in The Conservation of Marine Animals on Dux- 
bury Reef. California State Lands Commission and Marin County Board of 
Supervisors, 1969. 

Wetmore, Alexander. "The Birds of the Republic of Panama, Columbidae 
(Pigeons) to Picidae (Woodpeckers)." Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collec- 
tions (1968) volume 150, part 2, 605 pages. 

Zusi, Richard L. " 'Ploughing' for Fish by the Greater Yellowlegs." Wilson 
Bulletin (1968), volume 80, number 4, pages 491-492. 



Papers, Lectures, and Seminars 

Aldrich, John W. "Endangered Species Research of the Bureau of Sport Fish- 
eries and Wildlife." Audubon Naturalistic Society of the Central Atlantic 
states. October 1968. 

Handley, Charles, O., Jr. "Distribution and Ecology of Bats in a Tropical 
Forest." University of Virginia. July 1968. 

. Biological Explorations in Arctic America." University of Virginia. 

July 1968. 

. "Behavior in Whales and Porpoises." University of Virginia. August 



1968. 
. "Fire and Mammals." Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, Talla- 



hassee, Florida. April 1969. 

LachneRj Ernest A. "The Kinds of Exotic Fishes and Other Organisms In- 
troduced into North American Waters." Conference on exotic fishes and related 
problems, American Fisheries Society and American Society of Ichthyologists 
and Herpetologists. February 1969. 

Napier, John R. "Primate Biology and Human Evolution." Series of 30 lec- 
tures, University of London. September-December 1968. 

. "Roots of Mankind." Series of six lectures. Friends of the National 

Zoo. January-March 1969. 

Peters, James A. "Time-sharing Computers and Systematics." University of 
Colorado. October 1968. 

. "Approaches to Computerization of Systematic Keys." California State 

College at FuUcrton. October 1968. 

. "Problems in the Use of the Methods of Numerical Taxonomy in 



Biogeographical Analysis." University of Southern California, Los Angeles. 
October 1968. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 139 
. "The Role of Time-share Computers in Research." Los Angeles County 



Museum of Natural History. October 1968. 

-. "Practical Applications of Systematic Keys and Key Construction." Fif- 



teenth Annual Symposium on Systematics, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. 
Louis. October 1968. 

"Modelos y computadores en la investigacion zoologica." Cuarto Con- 



greso Latinoamericano de Zoologia, Caracas, Venezuela. November 1968. 
"Past, Present and Future of a Museum and University Data, Program, 



and Information Exchange." First mudpie (Museum and Universities Data, 

Program, and Information Exchange) Conference, American Museum of Na- 
tural History. June 1969. 
Watson, George E. "Birds of the Antarctic." American Association for the 

Advancement of Science, Lancaster Branch, Franklin and Marshall College. 

January 1969. 
Weitzman, Stanley H. "Evolution and Relationships of Deep Sea Stomiatoid 

Fishes." Systematics Group, American Museum of Natural History. June 1969. 
. "The Usefulness of Gross Anatomical Characters in the Classification of 

Characoid Fishes." American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. 

June 1969. 
Zusi, Richard L. "The Role of Collections in Ornithological Research." The 

Bibliological Society of Washington symfKDsium on natural history collections. 

October 1968. 
. "Habits of the Trembler {Cinclocerthia ruficauda) on Dominica." 

Cooper Ornithological Society, Tucson. April 1969. 



MINERAL SCIENCES 

Research einphasis within the Department has undergone reevalua- 
tion during the year, and significant redirection of parts of our program 
has been accompUshed. The expanded interests and activities of the Di- 
vision of Petrology have been recognized by the addition of "and Vol- 
canology" to its title. Staff members have investigated five important 
eruptions during the year, and the program in submarine geology has 
been expanded. Research on meteorites and tektites has continued at a 
high level, stimulated in part by contracts from the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration for preparation for the examination of lunar 
samples. The fall of the Allende, Mexico, meteorite in February 1969 — 
a meteorite of rare type recovered in large amount — was promptly in- 
vestigated in the field and laboratory by staff members. Additional 
research centering around the study of the Foote Lithium Mine in North 
Carolina has been undertaken and important new observations are being 
made. Some progress has been made in the area of electronic data stor- 
age and retrieval. 

Investigation of the complex mineral suite that occurs at the Foote 
Mineral Company spodumene mine, Kings Mountain, North Carolina, 
has been continued during the year by John S. White, Jr., in collabora- 



140 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Devastation caused by the violent explosions of Arenal Volcano on 29 and 
30 July 1968. This eruption has been studied extensively by W. G. Melson, 
who has made three expeditions to the volcano in the past year. 



tion with Peter B. Leavens of the University of Delaware and Richard 
W. Thomssen, visiting research associate, Smithsonian Research Founda- 
tion. A continually growing number (now about ten) of new mineral 
species are being described for publication as separate papers. A mono- 
graph that will contain descriptions of some eighty to ninety minerals 
found at the mine, and giving their paragenesis, is under preparation. 
A description of one of these, switzerite, a new manganese, iron phos- 
phate, has already been published. The description of a new tin silicate 
is nearly completed and an abstract of the paper has been submitted to 
the International Mineralogical Association New Mineral Names Com- 
mission for prepublication approval. Work on the rare mineral lithio- 
phosphate has also been completed by White. Included among the new- 
species under study are two other tin minerals and several manganese, 
iron phosphates. An April 1969 collecting trip to the Foote mine has 
resulted in the addition of many specimens to the collections that will 
be of value in the continuing studies. 

R. W. Thomssen has undertaken research in connection with a pre- 
doctoral internship on a project concerning the systematic variations in 
the compositions of femic minerals in some porphyry copper deposits. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 141 

Primary and secondary biotite micas from different porphyry copper 
deposits have been examined with the electron microprobe. Significant 
variations of Fe, Mg, and Ti have been found in step-scan analytical 
traverses across the biotite flakes. Preliminary considerations of the 
compositional data indicate that, as time passes, the solutions from 
which the biotite crystals are precipitating are enriched in Fe and Ti 
with respect to Mg. Near the end of crystallization of biotites a pro- 
nounced reversal in the relative amounts of these elements took place. 
Research is continuing in an effort to evaluate this phenomena and to 
relate the biotite composition variations to the whole rock and minerali- 
zation histories. 

George Switzer has continued his studies of eclogite and other ultra- 
mafic nodules from South African kimberlite pipes. He has completed 
studies of the glass phase observed in kyanite eclogites from the Roberts 
Victor mine, and these studies are being extended to include a similar 
glass phase observed in other eclogite specimens from the same locality. 
As part of this study, a large number of electron microprobe analyses 
are being made of the major constituents of these nodules: garnet, 
omphacite, olivine, diopside, enstatite, and chrome diopside. This 
analytical data is being supplemented when necessary by partial wet 
chemical analyses by Eugene Jarosewich. 

Also under investigation by Switzer are specimens of andradite garnet 
on serpentinite matrix dredged from the mid-Atlantic Ridge by Wil- 
liam G. Melson, the first observed occurrence of this mineral assemblage 
from this area. 

Chemical and metallographic studies by Roy S. Clarke, Jr., continue 
on the Campo del Cielo, Argentina, meteorites and related meteorites in 
the hexahedrite-octahedrite composition range. Particular emphasis is 
being placed on the role of phosphorus in the development of these 
temperature-dependent structures and the interrelationships between 
the minerals schreibersite and cohenite. A better understanding of the 
low-temperature cooling history of iron meteorites should result. Studies 
on several pallasite meteorites and the new Allende, Mexico, meteorite 
are also in progress. The oxidation state in synthetic glass systems of 
tektite composition is being studied too in the expectation of obtaining 
information on metallic spherules in tektites. 

Kurt Fredriksson has spent five months at the Manned Spacecraft 
Center, nasa, Houston, Texas, assisting in preparation for the antici- 
pated lunar samples. He also worked with the staff from the Geology 
Branch at Houston on southwest Texas ashflow rocks and on glass 
particles resembling micro-tektites from recent volcanic ashes from 
Hawaii and Surtsey. 



142 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, in eruption November 1968. Lavas and ash 
from this eruption are under study by W. G. Melson, who was at the volcano 
in November. 



New instrumentation and techniques for nondispersive x-ray analysis 
have been studied by Fredriksson and a system has been adapted to the 
electron probe. The technique allows very rapid phase identification or 
qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis of small multicomponent sys- 
tems. Of special interest seems to be the possibility to analyze small 
compositional differences (±0.2 weight percent) in various minerals, 
e.g., proton bombardment-induced oxygen deficiency in mineral phases 
from the surface of the moon. 

Fredriksson also visited India in January 1969 in order to coordinate 
an extensive investigation of the Lonar Lake, a crater-like depression in 
central India, suspected to be an astrobleme. En route to India he 
studied the Mt. Mayon and Taal volcanoes in the Philippines and also 
visited the Merapi Volcano in central Java immediately after its Janu- 
ary eruption. These studies have been carried out in cooperation with 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 143 

the Smithsonian Center for Short-Lived Phenomena and the results 
have been communicated to interested scientists through the Center. 

Fredriksson's work on detailed phase composition in meteorites has 
continued and a system for automatic data processing for all kinds of 
meteorite research data has been worked out. Once implemented, this 
system will not only facilitate "bookkeeping" in regard to the collection 
but also will provide a powerful research tool. 

Robert F. Fudali has continued experimental work bearing on crys- 
tallization sequences of natural basalts and andesites and chemical 
trends of the residual liquids. He also has continued study of the rela- 
tions between divalent iron, trivalent iron, oxygen fugacity, and total 
chemical composition of a given rock. This work involves subjecting 
powdered samples of different rocks to extreme temperatures (800- 
1300° C.) and very low oxygen partial pressures (lO'^ to 10"^° atmos- 
pheres) to observe how variations in these two parameters change the 
character of the resulting mineral assemblage. 

Fudali has spent three weeks in Mauritania, primarily examining two 
large circular features — Richat and Semsiyat domes. In the past these 
have been suspected of being the root structures of ancient meteorite 
craters. Extensive petrographic work has been performed on the re- 
turned rocks in an effort to determine the nature of these domes. Based 
on the complete lack of any effect in the rocks that can be attributed 
to the shock waves that are generated by a meteorite impact, it has been 
concluded that these features are not meteoritic in origin but must in- 
stead result from unusual endogenic processes. 

Curator emeritus Edward P. Henderson has conducted detailed 
studies of four iron meteorites of the rare ataxite group. In cooperation 
with Ananda Dube of the Geological Survey of India, he has studied 
the meteorite that fell at Muzaffarpur, India, on 11 April 1964. The 
other meteorites, Del Rio, Nordheim, and Monahans, are all from Texas 
and have been studied in cooperation with Virgil Barnes of the Univer- 
sity of Texas and Elbert King of the Manned Spacecraft Center, nasa, 
Houston, Texas. 

Eugene Jarosewich and Joseph Nelen have provided a number of 
high-quality quantitative chemical and electron-microprobe analyses 
essential to the research programs not only of the Division of Meteorites 
but also of the Department of Mineral Sciences as a whole. Jarosewich 
has performed complete analyses of seven stony meteorites and several 
inclusions from meteorites (in cooperation with Anana Dube of the 
Geological Survey of India), two stony meteorites (in cooperation with 
K. Keil of the University of New Mexico), and one silicate inclusion 
sample from the Weekaroo Station iron meteorite (in cooperation with 
Edward Olsen of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago) . 



144 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



Extensive work on the Allende, Mexico, meteorite has been completed 
in cooperation with the staff of the Division of Meteorites. Four rocks 
from the Arenal Volcano, Philippine Islands, have been analyzed, as 
well as several minerals, and a number of partial analyses on various 
materials. Nelen has done extensive electron microprobe work on several 
meteorites in cooperation with Kurt Fredriksson; F. Kraut of the 
Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, and G. Kurat of the Naturhist- 
otisches Museum, Vienna, Austria. Detailed microprobe work has 
been performed on the Allende, Mexico, meteorite in cooperation with 
the staff of the Division of Meteorites. Joseph Nelen also has studied 
ignimbritic rocks, the distribution of carbon in meteorites, and has done 
developmental work on an automatic data-processing procedure for the 
meteorite collection. Much of Nelen's effort also has gone into coopera- 
tive work with Fredriksson and the Manned Spacecraft Center, nasa^ 
Houston, Texas, in preparatory work for the study of the returned 
lunar samples. 

Brian Mason has continued to work on the phase composition of 
stony meteorites and has complemented this work with a study of ultra- 
basic xenoliths from an extinct volcanic pipe near Kakanui, New Zea- 
land. These xenoliths probably crystallized within the earth's mantle, 
the material of which may resemble meteorite compositions. Similarities 
and differences between analogous compositions of terrestrial and 
extraterrestrial derivation are significant for the elucidation of tempera- 




Records of microearthquakes 
created by the advancing lava 
flow at Arenal Volcano, Costa 
Rica. Record obtained by W. 
G. Melson during an expedi- 
tion cosponsored with the Na- 
tional Geographic Society in 
March 1969. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



145 




Lava flow (background) and memorial to eighty people who perished in the 
1968-69 eruption of Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica. This eruption, an unusually 
explosive one, is still under study by W. G. Melson. 



tures and pressures of crystallization. In collaboration with E. P. Hen- 
derson, Mason has investigated the Australian tekites collected during 
their expeditions in 1963-1965 and 1967. He reported on this work to 
the Third International Tektite Symposium in New York in April 1969. 

Vagn F. Buchwald, on leave from the Department of Metallurgy, 
Technical University of Denmark, has been a research associate in 
the Division of Meteorites for this past year and will be with the Divi- 
sion for another year. He is working with the Smithsonian collection 
of iron meteorites in order to compile a modem handbook of the 
metallography and chemistry of iron meteorites. Photomicrographs, 
critical historical data, and a list of references will be included. This 
work will be a major contribution to the study of these meteorites and 
will greatly increase the information on the collection available in pub- 
lished form to scientific colleagues. 

Research in the Division of Petrology and Volcanology has focused 
on studies of rocks from the deep sea floor and their implications on 
sea-floor spreading and continental drift. Considerable study also has 
been directed toward certain recent volcanic eruptions. The latter 



146 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 





Caldera of Isla Fernandina Volcano, Galapagos, before (upper) and after (lower) 
its great collapse in 1968. This event has been investigated by a number of 
scientists, including Thomas Simkin, research associate, Division of Petrology 
and Volcanology. 



research has continued to receive much assistance from the Smithsonian 
Center for Short-Lived Phenomena. 

The Division has planned and carried out a geophysical investigation 
of the remarkable Juan de Fuca Ridge, a highly active zone of sea-floor 
spreading that is but several hundred miles west of Oregon and Wash- 
ington. The study has been conducted on one of the finest oceano- 
graphic vessels in the United States, the United States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey ship Oceayiographer. This ship, equipped with some 
of the most modern geophysical gear, including a narrow-beam echo 
sounder, and staffed with excellent officers and men, has led to a num- 
ber of important discoveries: (1) recognition of new evidence for the 
hypothesis of sea-floor spreading and continental drift, (2) the nature 
and probable delineation of the seaward extension of the San Andreas 
fault, and (3) collection of a wide variety of volcanic roc its, some of 
which reflect the very young age of the median part of the Juan de Fuca 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



147 



Ridge. The dredging has been unusually successful. Thirteen of fifteen 
dredges have yielded rock samples. This extensive collection is a valuable 
source of materials for detailed petrographic and geochemical informa- 
tion of the makeup of oceanic crust and thus is one of the division's 
major accessions. This study, carried out in conjunction with Jason 
Morgan and John Duncan of Princeton University, has included 
William G. Melson and Harold Banks of the Division's staff and 
Thomas Simkin of the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center and 
a research associate in the Division of Petrology and Volcanology. 
Interagency cooperation has been a key part of the success of this study, 
with the Environmental Science Services Administration providing 
both technical advice and ship support. 

Melson has continued his studies of rocks from the mid-Atlantic 
Ridge, which are cooperative studies with the Woods Hole Oceano- 
graphic Institution and Oregon State University. 

One of the outstanding achievements of the year has been the 
National Science Foundation-funded deep-sea drilling program, a joint 
effort of a number of oceanographic institutions. Numerous holes have 
been drilled to relatively shallow depths in the Atlantic Ocean and 
Caribbean and core recovery has been remarkably successful. Although 

An Allende, Mexico, meteorite individual found in the field 13 February 1969, 
five days after it fell. The specimen was found by a schoolboy, one of a group 
organized by Brian Mason and Roy S. Clarke to search for the meteorite. 
(Knife handle shows scale.) 




^'M-- 















148 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

intended for recovery primarily of sedimentary materials, the drill has 
penetrated a short distance into underlying basaltic lavas at a number 
of stations. These lava samples, whose preliminary study is being per- 
formed under the advisory panel on petrology on which Melson serves, 
provide important information on the older lavas of the midocean 
ridge system. The results of the sedimentary drilling support the theory 
of sea-floor spreading and provide unusually complete stratigraphic 
sections for paleontologic and other studies. 

Two eruptions have been the focus of much field and laboratory 
investigation. The devastating explosive eruption of Arenal Volcano, 
Costa Rica, in 1968 and 1969 has been investigated by Melson and 
Simkin. The 1968 eruption and collapse of the caldera of the great 
shield volcano of Isla Femandina, Galapagos, has been studied by 
Simkin. 

Arenal Volcano emitted a series of both laterally and vertically 
directed explosions that devastated about eight square miles and killed 
some eighty people in less than three days. Subsequent investigations 
have shown that the eruption can be classified as nuees ardentes of the 
explosion type and that Arenal Volcano, deemed to be extinct prior to 
the eruption, had erupted last around a.d. 1500. Arenal and presum- 
ably many other assumed extinct explosive volcanoes have very long 
periods of repose between eruptions, periods that may range upward 
from 500 years. 

There have been two expeditions to Arenal — in July and August of 
1968 under Smithsonian sponsorship, and in March 1969 under cospon- 
sorship of the National Georgraphic Society. The field data and samples 
are still under study, but preliminary results were preprinted and dis- 
tributed by the Smithsonian Center for Short-Lived Phenomena shortly 
after the first expedition. Howard Waldron of the United States 
Geological Survey participated in the first expedition and acted as team 
leader of the three scientists (Waldron, Melson, and Simkin) dis- 
patched by the United States at the request of the President of Costa 
Rica. The scientific aspects of the two expeditions will soon be described 
in a manuscript in preparation by Melson. 

Dating of the prehistoric eruptions has been a key part in the study 
of Arenal Volcano. Clifford Evans and George Metcalf of the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology have provided dates on artifacts buried by prior 
eruptions and the Smithsonian Institution Radiocarbon Laboratory has 
provided dates on trees buried by a prehistoric eruption. 

In early June 1968 remote sensing devices throughout the hemisphere 
indicated unusually explosive volcanic activity in the Galapagos Islands. 
A small expedition was organized by the Smithsonian, including biolo- 
gists R. I. Bowman and P. A. Colinvaux, and geologists Keith A. How- 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 149 

ard of the United States Geological Survey and Tom Simkin, a research 
associate in the Division of Petrology and Volcanology. With the ex- 
cellent help of the United States Air Force, the group reached the island 
of Femandina three weeks after the start of activity. They found that 
the central caldera, an area approximately two miles in diameter near 
the summit of Volcano Femandina, had subsided roughly 100 feet upon 
the withdrawal of lava from a large chamber within the volcano. Such 
subsidence is not uncommon in the geologic record, but this event is 
the largest known since the Katmai (Alaska) activity of 1912. Rock 
avalanches down the oversteepened sides prevented descent to the floor 
of the caldera, but observations from the rim showed that the floor was 
little distui'bed and fracturing was restricted to within one-fourth mile 
of the elliptical boundary fault. The volume of volcanic ash was small 
and no lava was extruded within the caldera although lava flows on the 
outer flanks preceded the collapse. Laboratory work is continuing on 
materials collected during field work in the summer 1968 and follow-up 
studies of the collapse are planned. 

In addition to the major programs of research, a small amount of 
laboratory study has been devoted by Melson to experimental reduction 
of basaltic magma by graphite, a study aimed at clarification of the 
conditions and products of such reductions. 

Philippa Black, a visiting post-doctoral associate from the University 
of Auckland, New Zealand, has been studying the chemistry, mineral- 
ogy, and phase relations of the blueschist facies. The so-called eclogites 
commonly recorded in glaucophane schist terrains have been proven to 
be part of the normal blueschist facies. Relations between calcic and 
sodic amphiboles have been studied, and the partitioning of elements 
between the two amphibole phases has been shown to be a potential 
geothermometer. Papers are in preparation on the occurrence of a new 
omphacitic pyroxene and a previously unrecorded member of the sodic 
amphibole series. 



The Collections 

The meteorite and tektite collections have continued to grow during 
the year at an encouraging rate. A large slice of the Mount Padbury, 
Western Australia, mesosiderite has been obtained by exchange with the 
Kalgoorlie School of Mines, Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. Specimens 
of the Boaz, Alabama, iron meteorite have been obtained by gift and 
exchange from Oscar Monnig of Fort Worth, Texas. Impactite speci- 
mens from Kofels crater, Austria, have been obtained by exchange with 
the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. Impact glass from AouUouel 



150 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



,^;i^; TPl^r-.? 










Large individual Allende, Mexico, meteorite specimens with Hidalgo del Parral, 
Chihuahua, Mexico, in the background. These specimens were brought to 
Washington by Roy S. Clarke and Brian Mason within eleven days of the fall. 
Material from this collection has been distributed internationally for study to 
all investigators requesting samples. 



crater, Mauritania, and a suite of rock specimens from Richat Dome, 
Mauritania, have been obtained for the collection by R. F. Fudali. An 
important collection of australites from Motpena Station, Parachilna, 
South Australia, has been added to the collection as a gift of Richard 
Craigie. A major exchange has been completed during the year with 
the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. Particularly important 
specimens obtained in this transaction are specimens of the Indarch and 
Mighei meteorites from the Soviet Union, the Barratta meteorite from 
New South Wales, and the Agen and Vouille meteorites from France. 
Small specimens from two new falls have been obtained. The Juro- 
manha, Portugal, meteorite is a new and unusual iron that fell on 
14 November 1968. A small study specimen has been obtained through 
the cooperation of the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena and the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. A fragment from the Schenec- 
tady, New York, meteorite, a fall of 12 April 1968, has been obtained 
as a gift from Robert L. Fleischer, General Electric Company, 
Schenectady. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



151 




Brian Mason (center) in San Juan, Chihuahua, Mexico, on 17 February 1969, 
nine days after the AUende, Mexico, meteorite fall. He is holding a large 
Allende individual just found nearby in a plowed field. Gunther Schwartz (left) 
and Charles Tugas (right) of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's 
Prairie Network Meteorite Recovery Project look on. 



The Allende, Mexico, meteorite fall of 8 February 1969 undoubtedly 
is one of the great meteoritic events of our time. Brian Mason and Roy S. 
Clarke, Jr., visited the fall area east of Parral, Mexico, in February 
1969. They have been successful in obtaining several hundred kilograms 
of this new, rare-type meteorite. More of this valuable material is being 
obtained through various channels. The collection not only is large but 
also it is representative of the strewnfield which is at least 45 km in 
length, and perhaps amounts to 200 square kilometers. The event 
was brought to the Division of Meteorite's attention by the Center for 
Short-Lived Phenomena. Cooperation with the Center has greatly aided 
the investigation. The Division also has worked cooperatively with the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Prairie Network Project on dis- 
tribution of material in the field and phenomena of the fall. 

A review of the specimen inventory of the Division of Petrology and 
Volcanology has been completed and it has been decided that a number 
of improvements are in order. The automatic-data processing (adp) of 
specimen information, a pilot program that began two years ago, is 
still under way. The retrieval system is now operational, but much more 
information must be processed and added to the data bank before it is 
fully useful. Much progress has been made and use of the adp system 
will soon be routine. This will solve one of the most difficult curation 



152 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



problems in rapid location of critical specimens for particular research 
projects. 

The research potential of the collections has been further increased by 
choosing certain areas for intensive development. These are the reference 
collections of deep-sea rocks and the volcanologic collections. In addi- 
tion, much time has been devoted to requests for important specimens 
in other areas of basic research in petrography. The United States 
Geological Survey recently has instituted new mechanisms for routine 
transfer of its important mineral and rock specimens. This is significant 
because most of the petrology research collections have come, and must 
continue to come, from the United States Geological Survey. 



There have been a number of noteworthy additions to the collections 
during the past year : 



73 chemically analyzed igneous rocks. Silver 
Peaks, Colorado 

Extensive collection of ultrabasic and associ- 
ated rocks, Southern Appalachians 

1968-69 eruptives and prehistoric eruptives; 
hypersthene-augite lavas and ash and nu- 
merous basic plutonic xenoliths, Arenal 
Volcano, Costa Rica 

Basaltic lava and ash and acid xenoliths, 
Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, 1968 
eruption 

Andesitic lava and ash specimens, Merapi 
Volcano, Indonesia, 1969 eruption 

Samples of a complex basalt-mugearite sill. 
Piton des Neiges Volcano, Reunion Island, 
Indian Ocean 

50 chemically analyzed rock and ore samples, 
Ore Knob Sulfide Deposits, Tennessee 

Basaltic and other lava and ash samples, De- 
ception Island, Antarctica, 1968 eruption 

Volcanic rocks from the floor of the Northeast 
Pacific 



United States Geological Survey 
Ross Johnson 

United States Geological Survey 
David Larrabee 

Collected for the Museum by 
W. G. Melson 



Collected for the Museum by W. 
G. Melson 

Collected for the Museum by 
K. Fredriksson 

University of Edinburgh, 
Scotland 

B. G. J. Upton 

University of North Carolina 

Paul D. Fullagar 

Instituto Antartico, Argentina 

R. N. M. Panzarine 

Collected for the Museum by 
United States Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey and StafT, Division 
of Pathology and Volcanology 
Staff 



A new area has been added to the reference collection : the Volcano- 
logic Study collection. This includes films, specimens, and geophysical 
records pertaining to volcanic eruptions. Material for this collection 
comes from Smithsonian expeditions, donations, and from the Smith- 
sonian Center for Short-Lived Phenomena. Much interest has been gen- 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 153 

erated in this collection, particularly in the films, which include a num- 
ber of unique sequences of rare types of volcanic eruptions. 

The mineral and gem collections have continued to grow at a satis- 
factory and predictable rate. Growth and improvement during the year 
has maintained the mineral collection in its leading position for research 
and exhibition among world collections. A very active program of ex- 
changes has been continued with other institutions and with individuals. 
This has made it possible to keep up with newly discovered research 
specimens as well as with extraordinary display pieces not available 
through any other channels. Several species new to science and new 
to the collection have been added, including weloganite, rodaguilarite, 
raguinite, lithiophosphate, manganoan goldmanite, yamatoite, and 
braitschite. Some of the additions have been new type specimens, in- 
cluding magadiite, kenyaite, goldmanite, iowaite, hexastannite, humber- 
stonite, and karelianite. Roebling endowment funds as usual have been 
used primarily for acquiring new specimen materials for the research 
collection. One notable exception is the finest specimen known of the 
rare mineral legrandite. Canfield endowment funds have been used to 
obtain several fine display specimens, including an extremely large Japa- 
nese twin crystal of quartz from Brazil and a fine crystal of a new dis- 
covery of tanzanite, a gem variety of zoisite, from Tanzania. 

The gem collection has been enriched by several excellent gems, in- 
cluding a 122.7-carat tanzanite, the largest known. Chamberlain endow- 
ment funds have greatly improved representation in the collection of 
the new gemstone tanzanite by the purchase of an 18.16-carat cat's-eye 
stone. Mrs. Kathryn Everhart has donated a beautiful white opal 
cabachon weighing 345 carats. Harry Winston, Inc., has given a magnifi- 
cent 858-carat emerald crystal from the Gachala mine in Columbia. It is 
the finest emerald crystal on public exhibit anywhere. 



Exhibits 

R. F. Fudali has completed scripts for three exhibits in the Hall of 
Meteorites, and production should be finished during this year. One 
exhibit is composed of pictures of the lunar surface taken by the un- 
manned Lunar Orbiter Spacecraft; one is an exhibit describing the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Prairie Network; and one is 
an exhibit on ancient meteorite impact craters. When these are opened, 
they will complete the Hall of Meteorites, which was formally opened 
two years ago. 

366-269 O — 70 11 



154 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Paul E. Desautels has continued his work on the preparation of scripts 
and exhibit materials for the new Physical Geology Hall. He also has 
arranged for some changes in the gem displays. New cases for tanzanite, 
the Bismark sapphire, and the Gachala emerald have been installed and 
improvements have been made in other exhibit cases. 



Staff Publications 

CiFELLi, R., R. Blow, and W. G. Melson. "Paleocene Sediments from a Frac- 
ture Zone in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge." Journal of Marine Research (1968), 
volume 26, pages 105-109. 

Desautels, P. E. The Mineral Kingdom. 251 pages. New York: Grosset and 
Dunlap, 1968. 

Fredriksson, K. "Standards and Correction Procedures for Microprobe Analy- 
sis of Minerals." Pages 305-309 in Proceedings of the IV International Con- 
ference on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis. Paris : Hermann, 1968. 

, J. Nelen, and B. J. Fredriksson. "The LL-Group Chondrites." Pages 

458-466, volume 30, in Origin and Distribution of the Elements. L. H. Ahrens, 
editor. London: Pergamon Press Ltd., 1968. 

Jarosewich, E., and B. Mason. "Chemical Analyses with Notes on One Meso- 
siderite and Seven Chondrites." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (1969), 
volume 33, pages 41 1-416. 

Mason, B. "Meteorites, Stony." Pages 966-972 in International Dictionary of 
Geophysics. 1968. 

. "Kaersutite from San Carlos, Arizona, with Comments on the Para- 
genesis of This Mineral." Mineralogical Magazine (1968), volume 36, pages 
997-1002. 

. "Eclogitic Xenoliths from Volcanic Breccia at Kakanui, New Zealand." 



Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology (1968), volume 19, pages 316-327. 
. "Australian Meteorite Expeditions." National Geographic Research Re- 



ports (1968), pages 189-201. 

Melson, W. G. "Note on the Petrography of Potsherds from Hajar Bin Humeid." 
Pages 409-413 in Investigations of Pre-Islamic Site, by Gus van Beek. Balti- 
more: Johns Hopkins Press, 1969. 

, G. Thompson, and T. van Andel. "Volcanism and Metamorphism in 

the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 22°N." Journal of Geophysical Research (1968), 
volume 73, number 18, pages 5925-5941. 

MoRELAND, G. C. "Preparation of Polished Thin Sections." American Mineralo- 
gist ( 1 968 ) , volume 53, pages 2070-2074. 

SwiTZER, G., and W. G. Melson. "Partially Melted Kyanite Eclogite from the 
Roberts Victor Mine, South Africa." Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth 
Sciences ( 1969), number 1, 9 pages. 

. "Diamonds: Is the Supply Running Out." Jewelers' Circular-Keystone 

(1968), volume 139, number 2, pages 44-47, 66-68. 

Thompson, G., W. G. Melson, R. Cifelli, and V. T. Bowen. "Lithified Car- 
bonates from the Equatorial Atlantic." Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 
(1968), volume 38, number 4, pages 1305-1 3 17. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 155 

Papers, Lectures, and Seminars 

Clarke, Roy S., Jr. "Comments on Cohenite and Schreibersite in Iron Meteor- 
ites." 31st Annual Meeting, the Meteoritical Society, Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts. 9-11 October 1968. 

, and E. Jarosewich. "Classification and Bulk Chemical Composition of 

the Campo del Cielo, Argentina, Meteorite." 31st Annual Meeting, the Meteor- 
itical Society, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 9-11 October 1968. 

, E. Jarosewich, B. Mason, and J. Nelen. "The Allende Meteorite." 



American Geophysical Union Meeting, Washington, D.C. 24 April 1969. 

Duncan, J., J. Morgan, W. G. Melson, T. Simkin, and H. Banks. "Bath- 
metry of the Juan de Fuca Ridge : Independent Evidence of Sea-Floor Spread- 
ing." American Geophysical Union Meeting, Washington, D.C. April 1969. 

Fredriksson, K. "The Sharps Chondrite-New Evidence on the Origin of 
Chondrules and Chondrites." International Symposium on Meteorite Re- 
search, Vienna, Austria. August 1968. 

. "A Model for Chondrule Formation." 31st Annual Meeting, the Meteor- 
itical Society, Cambridge, Massachusetts, October 1968; Australian National 
University, Canberra, January 1969; University of Stockholm, February 1969. 

. "The Origin of Chondrites." Rice University Graduate Seminar, Hous- 



ton. November 1968. 
. "Meteorites, Impactites, Ignimbrites and the Moon." Geological Survey 



of India, Calcutta. January 1969. 
. Introductory crystallography and mineralogy graduate seminars. Tata 



Institute for Fundamental Research, Bombay. February 1969. 
. "The Origin of Chondrites." Asterreichisches Mineralogischen Gesell- 



schaft, Vienna. February 1969. 
. "Meteorites." University of Stockholm. February 1969. 



Howard, K. A., and T. Simkin. "1968 collapse of Femandina Caldera, Galapagos 
Islands." American Geophysical Union, Meeting, Washington, D.C. April 
1969. 

Mason, B. "Occurrence, Distribution, and Age of Australian Tektites." Arizona 
State University, Tempe. February 1969; Third International Tektite Sym- 
posium, Corning, New York, April 1969. 

. "Recent Advances in Meteorite Research." Pennsylvania State Univer- 
sity, University Park, October 1968; Bryn Mawr University, Bryn Mawr, Penn- 
sylvania, November 1968; Southwest Center for Advanced Studies, Dallas, 
Texas, November 1968; Rochester Academy of Science, Rochester, New York, 
March 1969. 

"The Allende Meteorite." Geological Society of Washington, Washing- 



ton, D.C, April 1969; Smithsonian Associates, Washington, D.C, May 1969. 

Melson, W. G., T. Simkin, R. Fiske, J. G. Moore, and R. Decker. "Major 
Volcanic Eruptions of 1968: Preliminary Contributions to Petrology and 
Volcanology." American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C, April 1969. 

, J. G. Moore, and E. Jarosewich. "Petrology of the Nuees Ardentes 

Deposits of Mayon Volcano, Philippine Islands." Geological Society of Amer- 
ica Meeting, Mexico City. November 1968. 

Thompson, G. T., W. G. Melson, and V. T. Bowen, "Bathymetry and Petrol- 
ogy of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 4°S: Implications on the Nature of the 
Oceanic Crust." American Geophysical Union, Meeting, Washington, D.C. 
April 1969. 



156 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

PALEOBIOLOGY 

Activity in the Department has continued to be marked by a primary 
emphasis in research and an increased participation in educational activ- 
ities. The Departmental staff of seventeen scientists, joined by more 
than twenty research associates affiliated with university faculties or 
the United States Geological Survey, are closely integrated in investiga- 
tion that includes almost all aspects of paleobiology and related geolog- 
ical sciences. 

Walter H. Adey has concluded extended field investigations of the 
crustose coralline algae of the North Atlantic. He has spent three years 
studying the systematics and ecology of the corallines. Distributional pat- 
terns of species have been traced on the shelf areas from the mid-Atlantic 
states north through the Maritimes to Greenland, Iceland, and south 
to Spain. His recent activities have been centered in the Baltic area 
where scuba diving has been used along the coast of Norway and the 
northern coast of Europe. These data will serve for compilation of a 
monograph on the North Atlantic genera. 

Automatic data processing has been utilized by Nicholas Hotton 
III to determine statistical parameters of osteological variation in the 
skulls of living lizards. The study is now sufficiently far advanced to 
suggest modification of taxonomic procedures with respect to South 
African dicynodont reptiles. It appears that some of the characters 
studied in lizards serve to distinguish genera but not species within a 
genus. The osteological differences, however, in both lizards and dicyno- 
donts by which genera are recognized are so marked and so readily in- 
terpreted as adaptive that use of quantitative procedures is not necessary 
for generic description. Another group of characters does serve to dis- 
tinguish between species of the same genus but, when pooled with extra- 
generic data, fails to distinguish between certain species of closely related 
genera. Theoretically, this suggests that either there is a great deal of 
adaptive parallelism among species of different genera of lizards or that 
such minor osteological features are not under strong selective pressures 
and vary more or less at random from population to population. 

Whatever the interpretations, the taxonomic result is the same. With 
the characters in question, the investigator cannot use more standard 
procedures of obtaining clusters that he can call species and clusters of 
clusters that he can call genera. In order to use osteological characters 
to distinguish species in these animals, the genera must be determined 
first. The strongly adaptive basis upon which reptilian genera are estab- 
lished suggests that this procedure will be effective in dealing with the 
dicynodonts. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



157 




A twice-weekly seminar was organized by bryozoan workers in the Department 
of Paleobiology in the spring of 1968 and is continuing on a year-round basis. 
Regular members during the past year include permanent stafif A. H. Cheetham 
and R. S. Boardman, predoctoral fellows O. B. Nye and Raman Singh of the 
University of Cincinnati, T. G. Gautier of the University of Kansas, R. W. Hinds 
of Columbia University, R. J. Scolaro of Tulane University, and United States 
Geological Survey geologists O. L. Karklins and Helen Duncan. During the 
year the seminar has been addressed by twelve visiting bryozoologists, including 
Patricia L. Cook of the British Museum (Natural History), who is shown above 
lecturing to the group during her three-month visit to the Department. Seminar 
subjects have been wide ranging, from the details of bryozoan morphology to 
the philosophy of evolutionary systematics. The seminar functions most success- 
fully as a testing ground for new ideas resulting from continuing research of its 
participants. Ideas are presented, discussed, and modified by the seminar and 
made available to all participants to use if acceptable and as appropriate to 
individual projects. The seminar is, in effect, a research procedure that multiplies 
the individual efforts of its members. 



158 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Foraminiferal species recovered from the estuarine Choptank River of Mary- 
land's Eastern Shore have been maintained successfully in a culture laboratory 
for more than two years. The program is directed by Dr. Martin A. Buzas, 
who is currently involved in studies of distributional pattern and other ecologi- 
cal factors concerned with low-salinity foraminifera. Laboratory technician 
Miss Brenda Williams is shown transferring specimens. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 159 

Erie G. Kauffman has continued research in four major areas of 
paleontology and stratigraphy: (1) evolution, functional morphology, 
biostratigraphy, and paleoecology of select Mesozoic-Cenozoic bivalve 
lineages; (2) systematic, evolutionary, and ecologic study of the dom- 
inant Mesozoic bivalve family Inoceramidae ; (3) lithostratigraphic and 
biostratigraphic studies of Mesozoic rocks in the western interior United 
States; and (4) paleontology and stratigraphy of the Caribbean 
Cretaceous. Completed studies on the Mesozoic and Cenozoic 
Thyasiridae, Cretaceous Inoceramidae, and Paleogene Astartidae and 
Crassatellidae demonstrate the evidence of detailed evolutionary patterns 
and processes in fossils and equate biological aspects of living and fossil 
populations. Studies dealing with inoceramids have resulted in the first 
biostratigraphic zonation of North American and Caribbean forms, with 
zonal durations approaching a quarter of a million years. The ultra- 
structure of inoceramid and related shells has demonstrated the pres- 
ence of daily and tidal growth increments discernible as far back as the 
Jurassic. Prismatic calcite and biologic response are shown to be tools in 
defining earth-moon relationship during post-Paleozoic time. 

Kauffman' s western interior studies have aided in a redefinition of 
the biostratigraphic system for the Cretaceous and is now centered on 
analyzing lithologic and biologic facies for faunal zones. More than 
one hundred zones are now recognized, and integration with radio- 
metric data gives durations of 120,000 to 500,000 years per zone. 

Studies of functional morphology, mode of growth, and evolutionary 
systematics of cheilostome Bryozoa have been continued by Alan H. 
Cheetham. By applying multivariate statistics and cluster analysis to a 
lineage of specialized cheilostomes, the poricellariids, Cheetham has been 
able to recognize the evolution of dimorphic characters from "random" 
intracolony variation in phenotypes. He is attempting to determine the 
extent to which this kind of variation is the precursor of polymorphism 
by extending the analysis to related lineages. In another study he is 
establishing the dependence of colony form on morphologic structure of 
individuals in cheilostomes from moundlike accumulations of earliest 
Tertiary age in southern Scandinavia. 

Cheetham has completed, with Richard S. Boardman, a review of 
skeletal growth, intracolony variation, and evolution in Bryozoa, in 
which major differences in the method of colony growth in different 
bryozoan groups have been suggested to have phylogenetic and tax- 
onomic significance. Several students working toward graduate degrees 
under the direction of Boardman and Cheetham have participated in 
biweekly seminars that have been well attended by visiting researchers. 
Educational activities have included four full-time predoctoral fellows 



160 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

and a number of visiting students in bryozoology. This concentration 
is indicative of the expanded staff participation in education. 

Martin A. Buzas is currently completing a study on the homogeneity 
of species distribution in Rehoboth Bay, Delaware. Sixteen stations, 
each ten meters apart, have been sampled with five replicates each. 
These data are being statistically analyzed by using the facilities of the 
Smithsonian Information Systems Division at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. In another study, the distribution and abundance of Foramini- 
fera in the Pleistocene of Maryland are being examined quantitatively. 
Comparison of spatial distribution, density, relative abundance, and 
diversity with other Pleistocene and Holocene faunas is under way 
through utilization of the information function and multivariate 
statistical techniques. A study is being made with T. G. Gibson of 
foraminiferal diversity based on several hundred samples from the Arctic 
to the Gulf of Mexico in water depths up to 5000 meters, using the 
Shannon-Weiner information function and a measure of species 
equitability. 

Thomas Waller has completed a study of the evolution of the most 
common groups of scallops — living and fossil — found along both coasts 
of North America. By means of a detailed, automated morphological 
study of the living bay and calico scallops and their fossil ancestors, it has 
been possible to demonstrate that during the past eighteen million years 
the group displayed examples of convergence, extinction, and adaptation 
in response to changing geologic and hydrographic conditions. It also 
has been shown that the group has evolved more rapidly on the eastern 
side of North America than on the western side. The computer pro- 
grams written for the scallop study have been modified in order to 
make them adaptable to the analysis of shape and growth in a wide 
variety of organisms. 

Dominant patterns of sedimentation in deep Mediterranean basins 
are being examined by Daniel J. Stanley. Sedimentary deposits ob- 
served in these modem basins are being compared with those of similar 
ancient marine rocks, known as flysch, exposed in the Alps, Carpathians, 
and other mountain belts of the world. As part of this study Stanley 
has participated on a seismic and core-collecting cruise sponsored by 
NATO in the Alboran Sea between Morocco and Spain. He is also com- 
pleting a preliminary regional reconnaissance of the recent marine geo- 
logical history of the Mediterranean Sea and is making detailed studies 
of the Wilmington submarine canyon off the east coast of the United 
States. Projects in the canyon and adjacent slope, partly supported by 
the United States Coast Guard, include an evaluation of sediment 
texture and structures as influenced by such factors as bottom currents 
and the influence of bottom-living organisms. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 161 

The Collections 

The departmental collections have been strengthened by the great- 
est increase in many years of specimens from important foreign locali- 
ties. StafT field excursions have added to previously weak parts of both 
the invertebrate and vertebrate collections, while exchanges and pur- 
chases through contacts made at foreign universities and museums sur- 
pass any such activities in the Department's recent history. 

Porter M. Kier has visited many type-localities in England and 
southern France while completing a tour at Cambridge University as a 
Guggenheim Fellow. He was accompanied and guided by research 
associate Anthony Coates through parts of France, accumulating large 
collections of Mesozoic and younger invertebrates. The coelenterates 
and echinoderms among these materials are particularly important as 
they represent many species new to the Museum collections. In southern 
France, Alan Cheetham has made extensive collections of Tertiary and 
Upper Cretaceous Bryozoa from the Aquitaine Basin. Cheetham also 
has visited localities in Italy, Denmark, England, and — of particular 
importance — the area between the Holy Cross and Carpathian Moun- 
tains in Poland. Samples prepared from these collections have yielded 
many topotype suites of species. 

In company with colleagues from the Carnegie Museum and the 
University of Utrecht, Clayton Ray has collected Pleistocene mammals 
in Sardinia, Sicily, Malta, and Mallorca. The most significant acquisi- 
tion has been a series of specimens of the extinct artiodactyl Myotragus 
halearicus from Mallorca, received from William Waldren. 

Other valuable collections include general invertebrates from the 
Cretaceous of the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico by Erie G. KaufFman ; 
fossil deep-sea ostracoda from localities in India, Israel, Czechoslovakia, 
Yugoslavia, Turkey, Cyprus, and Sicily by Richard Benson ; Brachiopods 
from England and Poland by G. A. Cooper; moUusks from the Carib- 
bean by Thomas Waller ; and a major collection of f usulinid foraminif- 
era from the upper Paleozoic of Yugoslavia, Tunisia, Cyprus, and Tur- 
key collected for the Museum by Raymond C. Douglass and Merlynd 
Nestell. In total, these field collections will produce thousands of speci- 
mens new to the Museum. 

The most outstanding single foreign collection has been added by 
purchase as a gift of the Walcott Fund. It is composed of more than 
6,000 specimens, most of them carefully prepared, which represent one 
of the finest collections ever made from the classic Jurassic sequence of 
the Swiss Jura. The collection represents more than forty years of work 
by the collector, Zuber Oberle, and is meticulously labeled and docu- 
mented. The brachiopods and sponges are of exceptional importance 



162 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Museum specialists assemble a composite skeleton of the wooly mammoth from 
remains found in the frozen muck deposits in the vicinity of Fairbanks, 
Alaska. 



while the cephalopod species represented are used as a standard 
throughout the world. This magnificent addition to the invertebrate 
collection will aid in better fulfilling the responsibility of the Museum as 
a repository of material used for cosmopolitan studies by staff and pro- 
fessional visitors from throughout the world. Most of the species are 
new to the collections and previously have been represented only sparsely 
in any American collections. 

Exchanges with the British Museum resulting from trips funded by 
the Walcott bequest have been arranged by Frederick Collier, Porter 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



163 




Museum technician Sigmund Sweda exposes the skeleton on an extinct peccary, 
one of four individuals — probably a family — found together in a wind-blown 
dust deposit near Hickman, Kentucky. The animals are thought to have died 
by suffocation during an Ice Age dust storm. A mounted skeleton of the same 
species, from Pennsylvania, is in the right background. 



Kier, and G. A. Cooper. Several thousand specimens have been trans- 
ferred in this program. Many new species of mollusca, brachiopods, and 
echinoderms from Great Britain have been added to the collections and 
the possibility of further exchanges is being arranged. 

Notable additions to the collections from domestic sources include 
tens of thousands of specimens comprehending thousands of type speci- 
mens transferred from the United States Geological Survey or received 
from researchers throughout the country. The Walcott bequest has 
provided for a number of outstanding purchases or collecting trips. 
These include the purchase of more than 12,000 deep-sea ostracodes 
recovered from cores provided by Lamont Laboratories. The cores have 
been taken from stations all over the world and represent an unprece- 
dented sampling of these microfossils from depths as great as 4,000 
meters and an age of more than 20 million years. Ostracodes are the 
only group of higher invertebrates found in deep-sea sediments that 
have a good fossil record with the resulting potential for geologic cor- 
relation of time and environmental boundaries. Other significant addi- 



164 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

tions include 24,000 Silurian and Devonian brachiopods from Nevada 
and Southern California donated by research associate A. J. Boucot, 
and more than 5,000 invertebrates from the Paleozoic of Oklahoma, 
Mississippi, and Ohio made by G. A. Cooper and Thomas Phelan. The 
paleobotanical collections have received many type specimens, includ- 
ing palynomorphs from the Middle Cretaceous of Peru, the holotype of 
Williamsonia nizhonia Ash with thirteen cuticle preparations, speci- 
mens of Cretaceous algae from the Black Escarpment and Israel, and 
others of importance. 

Intensified collecting of fossil marine mammals and less-abundant 
vertebrates from the classical Miocene localities of southern Maryland 
has produced numerous additions to the fossil vertebrate collections. 
Close cooperation by residents and amateur collectors has enabled 
early recovery of many pieces before weathering damage can occur. 
Albert Myrick has represented the Department in organizing a volun- 
teer collecting team and clearinghouse for information regarding new 
exposures. Rare specimens added through these efforts include frag- 
mentary mandibles of Hadrodelphis calvertense, about two dozen por- 
poise skulls, several turtle and fish specimens, posterior rami of both 
mandibles of the rare Miocene peccary Desmathyus, and an unerupted 
gomphothere molar. Other notable additions include snake vertebrae 
from a Eocene-Bashi formation and a cast of the skeleton of Paleopara- 
doxia from the Museum of Paleontology, University of California, 
Berkeley. 

The Division of Sedimentology has acquired bottom-grab and dredge 
samples and deep-sea cores from the continental slope and rise in the 
vicinity of the Wilmington Canyon collected on joint Smithsonian- 
United States Coast Guard cruises. Sediment samples added to the col- 
lection include those obtained in coastal environments of North Caro- 
lina (collected in conjunction with the University of South Carolina) 
and in the Hatteras abyssal plain (collected on joint Smithsonian- 
United States Coast Guard and navoceano cruises) . Also received are 
bottom samples collected on the continental shelf of Argentina as part 
of a cooperative project with the National Oceanographic Committee 
of Argentina, the Hydrographic Service of Argentina, the United 
States Coast Guard, and George Washington University. 

Curation of the collections continues to center on the processing of 
type specimens. In all divisions there has been movement toward 
eventual automatic data processing, but type specimens must be fully 
curated and verified against published descriptions and illustrations 
before information can be put into any automatic system. The paleo- 
botanical type-collections and fossil vertebrate types are not seriously 
backlogged in initial processing, but fossil invertebrate type specimens 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 165 

continue to be received at an increasing rate. More than forty papers, 
including some six to seven thousand specimens, have been processed 
this year by cataloger (Mrs.) Beverly Tate. The procedures in recording 
invertebrate specimens have been altered by changing to loose-leaf 
catalogs with typewritten entries. The information in this form will be 
more accessible for entry into an automated system and is more rapidly 
recorded. 

Several collections have been rearranged to facilitate storage or to 
improve use and accessibility. The Paleozoic bivalve moUusks have 
been moved into a biologically arranged system comprising several 
thousand species, and the first biologically arranged Mesozoic ammonite 
and bivalve collections have been formed. A start has been made on a 
complete revision of the fossil mammal collection to be based on a 
faunal-stratigraphic plan. 

The greatest demand on collections and laboratory facilities of the 
Department have involved the increased use of predoctoral and post- 
doctoral fellows and visiting scientists and students. Ten study kiosks 
and increased desk space in the range areas, as well as increased labora- 
tory space and equipment, have been almost constantly in use. 



Exhibits 

Major emphasis in the Vertebrate Paleontology laboratories has con- 
tinued to be placed on preparation of specimens for exhibition. Work 
has continued on several individual glyptodonts, on a comp>osite skeleton 
of wooly mammoth, and on a family group of peccaries. A second 
mounted individual of the giant ground sloth Eremotherium has been 
completed. 

Special attention in field work has been given to the acquisition of 
specimens for exhibition. Large collections of the extinct lagomorph 
Prolagus sardus have been made in Sardinia. Several skeletons have 
been mounted by Daniel Opplinger at the Carnegie Museum under 
the direction of Mary R. Dawson. One of these will be provided for 
exhibit at the Smithsonian. Materials of extinct dormice and of Myotra- 
gus halearicus also have been obtained in the Mediterranean for future 
exhibit. 

The Division of Paleobotany is cooperating with the Department of 
Mineral Sciences in the construction of a Carboniferous swamp diorama 
in the Hall of Physical Geology. Consultation with artists of the exhibits 
staff also has involved the illustration of Mesozoic plants to be presented 
in mural form in the dinosaur hall. 



166 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Staff Publications 

Adey, Walter H. "The Distribution of Crustose Corallines on the Icelandic 
Coast." Scientia Islandica ( 1968), Anniversary Volume 1968, pages 16-25. 

Benson, Richard H. "Post-Paleozoic Ostracoda." Moore, R. C, "Developments, 
Trends, and Outlooks in Paleontology." Journal of Paleontology (1968), 
volume 42, pages 1351-1352. 

BoARDMAN, R. S. "Potential Use of Paleozoic Bryozoa in Subsurface Explora- 
tion." Atti della Societd Italiandi Scienze Naturale e del Museo Civico di 
Storia Naturale di Milano ( 1968) , volume 108, 4 pages. 

. "Colony Development and Convergent Evolution of Budding Pattern 

in "Rhombotrypid" Bryozoa." Atti della Societd Italian di Scienze Naturale 
e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano ( 1968) , volume 108, 6 pages. 

, and A. H. Cheetham. "Bryozoa" in R. C. Moore, 'T)evelopments, 



Trends, and Outlooks in Paleontology." Journal of Paleontology (1968), 
volume 42, pages 1352-1353. 
, and A. H. Cheetham. "Skeletal Growth, Intracolony Variation, and 



Evolution in Bryozoa: A Review." Journal of Paleontology (1969), volume 
43, number 2, pages 205-233, 8 figures, 4 plates. 

BuzAS, M. A., and T. G. Gibson. "Species Diversity: Benthonic Foraminifera in 
Western North Atlantic." Science (1969), volume 163, pages 72-75. 

Cheetham, A. H. "Evolution of Zooecial Asymmetry and Origin of Poricel- 
lariid Cheilostomes." In Proceedings of the First International Bryozoology 
Association Conference, Milan, Italy, 12-16 August 1968. Atti della Societd 
Italiana di Scienze Naturale e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano 
(1969), volume 106, pages 1-17. 

, J. B. RucKER, and R. E. Carver. "Wall Structure and Mineralogy of 

the Cheilostome Bryozoan Metrarabdotos." Journal of Paleontology (1969), 
volume 43, pages 129-135, 26 plates, 1 figure. 

CiFELLi, Richard. — See Thompson, G., V. T. Bowen; W. G. Melson; and 
R. Cifelli. 

Cooper, G. A., and R. E. Grant. "New Permian Brachiopods from West Texas." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology (1969), number 1, 20 pages, 5 
plates. 

Dane, C. H., E. G. Kauffman, and W. A. Cobban. "Semilla Sandstone, a New 
Member of the Mancos Shale in the Southeastern Part of the San Juan Basin, 
New Mexico." United States Geological Survey Bulletin (1968), 1254F (Con- 
tributions to Stratigraphy), 21 pages, 4 figures. 

Gazin, C. Lewis. "A Study of the Eocene Condylarthran Mammal Hypsodus." 
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections (1963), volume 153, number 4, pages 
1-90, figures 1-10, plates 1-13. 

. "A New Primate from the Torrejon Middle Paleocene of the San Juan 

Basin, New Mexico." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 
( 1968), volume 81, pages 629-634, figures 1-3. 

Hazel, J. E., and T. R. Waller. "Technical Comment: Stratigraphic Data and 
Length of the Synodic Month." Science (1969), volume 164, pages 201-202. 

James, N. P., and D. J. Stanley. "Sable Island Bank off Nova Scotia: Sedi- 
ment Dispersal and Recent History." Bulletin of the American Association of 
Petroleum Geologists (1968), volume 52, pages 2208-2230. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 167 

Kauffman, Erle G. "Cretaceous Thyasira from the Western Interior of North 
America." Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections (1967), volume 152, num- 
ber 1, 159 pages, 18 figures, 5 plates, 7 tables. 

. "Notes on the Cretaceous Inoceramidae of Jamaica." Geonotes, Jamaica 

Geological Survey (1967), 15 pages, 1 table. 

Kauffman, Erle G. "Coloradoan Macroinvertebrate Assemblages, Central 
Western Interior, United States." Pages 67-143, 12 figures, in Paleoenviron- 
ments of the Cretaceous Seaway in the Western Interior: A Symposium. E. G. 
Kauffman, H. E. Kent, editors. Golden: Colorado School of Mines, 1967. 

• , and Kent, H. C, editors. Paleoenvironments of the Cretaceous Seaway 

in the Western Interior: A Symposium. 217 pages, illustrated. Golden: Colo- 
rado School of Mines, 1967. 

Kauffman, Erle G. "Form, Function, and Evolution." In Treatise on Inverte- 
brate Paleontology, edited by R. C. Moore. 147 pages, 17 figures. 1969. 

Kier, Porter M. "Echinoids from the Middle Eocene Lake City Formation of 
Georgia." Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections (1968), volume 153, number 
2, 45 pages, 44 figures, 10 plates. 

. "The Triassic Echinoids of North America." Journal of Paleontology 

(1968), volume 42, number 4, pages 1000-1006, 1 figure, plates 121-123. 

' Nor tone chinus and the Ancestry of the Cidarid Echinoids." Journal of 



Paleontology (1968), volume 42, number 5, pages 1163-1170, 3 figures, plates 
151-153. 

Newell, N. D., and E. G. Kauffman. "Bivalvia." In Moore, R. C, editor, "De- 
velopments, Trends, and Outlooks in Paleontology." Journal of Paleontology 
(1968), volume 42, number 6, pages 1367-1368, 2 figures. 

Pierce, J. W., and James H. Howtard. "An Inexpensive Portable Vibrocorer." 
Journal of Sedimentary Petrology (1969), volume 39, pages 385-390. 

, and Frederic R. Siegel. "Qualification in Clay Mineral Studies of 

Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks." Journal of Sedimentary Petrology (1969), 
volume 39, pages 187-193. 

Ray, Clayton E., Alexander Wetmore, David H. Dunkle, and Paul Drez. 
"Fossil Vertebrates from the Marine Pleistocene of Southeastern Virginia." 
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections (1968), volume 153, number 3, 25 
pages, 2 figures, 2 plates. 

, Donald Willis and John C. Palmquist. "Fossil Musk Oxen of Illi- 
nois." Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science (1968), volume 61, 
number 3, pages 282-292, 5 figures. 

SiEGEL, Frederic R., Jack W. Pierce, Carlos M. Urien, and Irving C. Stone. 
"Clay Mineralogy in the Estuary of the Rio de la Plata, South America." 
International Geological Congress (1968), volume 8, pages 51-59. 

Stanley, D. J. "Graded Bedding-sole Marking-graywacke Assemblage and Re- 
lated Sedimentary Structures in Some Carboniferous Flood Deposits, Eastern 
Massachusetts. In symposium volume, "Continental Sedimentation, North- 
eastern North America," Klein, editor. Geological Society of America Special 
Paper (1968) number 106, pages 211-240. 

. "Reworking of Glacial Sediments in the North West Arm, a Fjord-like 

Inlet on the Southeast Coast of Nova Scotia." Journal of Sedimentary Petrol- 
ogy (1968), volume 38, pages 1224-1241. 

, and D. J. P. Swift. "Bermuda's Reef-front Platform: Bathymetry and 

Significance." Marine Geology (1968), volume 6, pages 479-500. 



168 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 
, G. Drapeau and A. E. Cok. "Submerged Terraces on the Nova Scotian 



Shelf." Zeitschrift Geomorphologie (1968), volume 7, pages 85-94. 

Stanley, D. J. "The Atlantic Continental Shelf and Slope of the United States: 
Color of the Sediments." United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 
(1969),529-D, 15 pages. 

Stanley, D. J., and G. Kelling. "Photographic Investigation of Sediment Tex- 
ture, Bottom Current Activity, and Benthonic Organisms in the Wilmington 
Submarine Canyon." United States Coast Guard Oceanographic Report 
(1969), 22. 

Thompson, G., V. T. Bowmen, W. G. Melson, and R. Cifelll "Lithified Car- 
bonates from the Deep Sea of the Equatorial Atlantic." Journal of Sedimentary 
Petrology ( 1968), volume 38, number 4, pages 1305-1312. 

Waller, T. R. "Two FORTRANII Programs for the Univariate and Bivariate 
Analysis of Morphometric Data." United States National Museum Bulletin 
(1968) number 285, 55 pages, 2 figures. 

Wing, Elizabeth S., Charles A. Hoffman, Jr., and Clayton E. Ray. "Verte- 
brate Remains from Indian Sites on Antigua, West Indies." Caribbean Journal 
of Science (1968), volume 8, numbers 3 and 4, pages 123-139, 4 figures. 



Lectures 

Benson, Richard H. "Evolution of the Deep-Sea Ostracode Fauna." University 

of Leicester, England. October 1968. 
. "Adaptive Radiation among Marine Ostracodes." Hebrew National 

University, Jerusalem, Israel. February 1969. 
. "Scanning Electron Microscopy in Micropaleontology." State University 



of Indiana and Bowling Green University. March 1969. 

"Evolution in the Deep Sea." State University of Indiana and Bowling 



Green University. March 1969. 
. Lectures on Marine Geology. Smithsonian Associates, Smithsonian In- 



stitution, Washington, D.C. April 1969. 

Cheetham, Alan H. "Adaptive Morphology of Danian Cheilostome Bryozoa, 
Mineralogic." Geologic Museum, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Sep- 
tember 1968. 

, with R. S. BoARDMAN. "Recent Developments in Bryozoology." Paleon- 

tological Society of Washington. November 1968. 

"Morphology and Evolution of Cheilostome Bryozoa." Department of 



Geology, George Washington University. December 1968-January 1969. 

Hotton, Nicholas, III. "Theories Relating to Vertebrate Extinction." Mary- 
land Academy of Sciences. October 1968. 

. "Whatever Became of the Dinosaurs?" Montgomery County Gem and 

Mineral Society. February 1969. 

Hueber, Francis M. "Plants through Time." First-year botany students, Uni- 
versity of Maryland. 16 and 17 December 1968; 7 and 8 May 1969. 

. "Studies in the Devonian Floras of Australia." Staff-student seminar, 

Botany Department, University of Connecticut. 17 March 1969. 

Kauffman, Erle G. "Biostratigraphy and Assemblages of Antillean Cretaceous 
Bivalves." Fifth Caribbean Geological Conference, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands. 
5-12 July 1968. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 169 
. "Cretaceous Biostratigraphy of Western Interior United States." Geo- 



logical Society of America annual meeting, Mexico City. November 1968. 

"Evolutionary Studies in Paleontology"; "Macroinvertebrate Assem- 



blages of the Western Interior Cretaceous." Waynesburg College. December 
1968. 

Eight field trips w^ith lectures in paleontology. Smithsonian Associates, 



Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. April, May, October, November 
1969. 

Adult education class in paleontology involving ten lectures. Smithsonian 



Associates, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. November 1968-Janu- 
ary 1969. 

"Geological Interpretation of Cretaceous Macroinvertebrate Assem- 



blages." Southwest Center for Advanced Studies. 25 March 1969. 

"Cretaceous Biostratigraphy of the Western Interior United States; 



Concepts and Methods of a New System." Southwest Center for Advanced 
Studies. 26 March 1969. 

"Major Evolutionary Patterns of Cretaceous MoUusks of the Western 



Interior." Paleontological Society of Washington. 16 April 1969. 
, "Evolutionary Studies of Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic Bivalvia." Smith- 



sonian Mollusc Seminar. 20 March 1969. 

"Cretaceous Biostratigraphic System, Western Interior United States." 



Yale University. 3 March 1969. 
. "Evolutionary Studies of Cretaceous Bivalves." Yale University. 4 March 



1969. 
. "Cretaceous Macroinvertebrate Assemblages, Western Interior United 



States." Yale University. 6 March 1969. 
. Smithsonian Docent Classes: "Systematics," 20 October 1968; "Bio- 



stratigraphy," 21 November 1968; "Paleoecology," 19 December 1968; "Evo- 
lution," 13 January 1969; "Smithsonian Research in Paleontology," 17 March 
1969. 

. "Fossils and Earth History." Hardy School. 17 January 1969. 

. "Ancient Environments." Maryland Academy of Science. 18 March 



1969. 

"Cretaceous Biostratigraphy of the Western Interior United States; 



Concepts and Methods of a New System." Indiana University. 7 January 1969. 
KiER, Porter M. "Seminar in Functional Morphology and Paleoecology." Uni- 
versity of Rochester. December 1968. 
Ray, Clayton E. "Collecting Fossil Vertebrates in Cave DeF>osits in the United 

States and in the Antilles." William Pengelly Cave Studies Association, Buck- 

fastleigh, Devon, England. September 1968. 
Stanley, Daniel J. "Marine Geology of the Continental Margin off Nova Scotia, 

Canada." Lubbock, Texas, Geological Society; National Science Foundation 

Sedimentological Seminar, Minas Basin, Nova Scotia ; Department of Geology, 

University of Illinois. 1968. 
. "Marine Geology of the Wilmington Submarine Canyon." Institute of 

Oceanography, Old Dominion University; Offshore Exploration Group, Esso 

Production Research Company, Houston, Texas. 1969. 
. "Color of Sediments on the Atlantic Continental Margin of the United 

States and Southeastern Canada." Annual Meeting NE Section, Geological 

Society of America, Washington, D.C. 1968. 
366-269 O — 70 12 



170 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 
. "The Ten-Fathom Terrace on Bermuda: A Potential Datum for Meas- 



uring Crustal Mobility and Eustatic Sea-Level Changes in the Atlantic." Fifdi 
Caribbean Geological Conference, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands. 1968. 

-. "Bioturbation and Organisms: Their Effect on Sedimentation in Some 



Submarine Canyons." Third European Symposium on Marine Biology, Archa- 
chon, France. 1968. 

"Flyschoid — Not Flysch — Sedimentation on the Outer Atlantic Margin 



off North America." Annual Meeting, Geological Association of Canada, Mon- 
treal. 1969. 

Stanley, D. J., P. Fenner, G. Kelling, and D. J. P. Swift. "Underwater 
Television as a Tool for Mapping the Outer Continental Margin." NE Sec- 
tion, Geological Society of America, Albany, New York. 1969. 

Stanley, D. J., and G. Kelling. "Interpretation of a Levee-like Ridge and 
Associated Features, Wilmington Submarine Canyon." Eastern United States 
of America Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Symposium, Ville- 
franche, France. 1968. 

. "Neocurrent Trends and Structural Control of Sedimentation in the 

Wilmington Submarine Canyon." Annual Meeting sepm, Dallas, Texas. 1969. 

Stanley, D. J., P. Swift, and N. Silverberg. "Late Quaternary Progradation 
on the Outer Continental Margin off Nova Scotia." Annual Meeting, Geologi- 
cal Society of America, Mexico City. 1968. 

and R. Unrug "Coarse-channelized Deposits and Other Indicators of 

Slope and Base-of-Slope Environments in Ancient Marine Basins." Society 
of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists research symposium "Criteria 
for Recognizing Sedimentary Environments in the Stratigraphic Record." 
Dallas. 1969. 



Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

Fred L. Whipple, Director 




FOR THE FIRST TIME, THIS REPORT of the work conductcd by the 
Astrophysical Observatory is limited to a close view of only a few 
of the numerous areas in which great progress has been made during 
the current year. This new policy permits examination in subsequent 
years of other areas selected so as to give a full view of Observatory 
activities in a sequence of four or five annual reports. The titles of staff 
papers presented or published, as listed at the end of this report, give 
a thumbnail sketch of the research completed. 

No significant policy changes in the Observatory research program 
have been initiated this year except that unusual effort has been ex- 
pended toward the most efficient utilization of brainpower, funds, and 
facilities with the goal of uncovering as much knowledge and under- 
standing as possible about the universe in which we live and about 
man's interrelationships with this universe. 



GEODESY AND EARTH PHYSICS FROM SPACE 

For a multitude of his enterprises, man must know the coordinates 
of points on, above, or below the earth's surface. Points on the earth 
are not, of course, fixed in space and time. The earth-moon system 
moves in its orbit about the sun while the earth and moon follow orbits 
about their center of mass and while the earth rotates about a slowly 
changing axis. Also, locations on the surface change because of processes 
within the solid, liquid, and gaseous domains of the earth. To this com- 
plex dynamical system, man has added spacecraft that sense the details 
of the system without themselves influencing its workings. 

Fundamental physics asserts that the only way to mark a point is by 
reference to objects possessing mass. But all objects with mass are 

171 



172 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

attracted mutually in accordance with the laws of gravitation, and these 
laws dominate in governing the complex motions in which the earth 
and its sateUites participate. Hence, the mass distribution and the gravi- 
tational field of the earth are fundamentally linked to the problem of 
locating points. 

Traditionally, relative positions and gravity on the surface of the 
earth, the motions of the earth, and the associated physical processes are 
recognized as principal objectives of branches of the geosciences and 
astronomy. 

These disciplines have the common characteristic that they are based 
upon measurements of distance and direction and their time dependence. 
The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory has pioneered in the ap- 
plication of space technology to a broad span of related metric problems. 



Evolution of Instrumentation and Techniques ^ 

Preparations to observe artificial satellites and to calculate their posi- 
tions were important aspects of the first satellite programs. By the time 
satellites became a reality, special cameras developed under the direc- 
tion of Fred L. Whipple were ready to photograph an illuminated 
satellite against the star background. These Baker-Nunn cameras de- 
signed for SAO produce camera-to-satellite directions accurate to a few 
seconds of arc. For a typical orbit, this angular uncertainty corresponds 
to a positional uncertainty of a few tens of meters. Radio doppler tracking 
also began with the first United States satellite; this technique as per- 
fected by the Applied Physics Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity has demonstrated accuracy comparable to that of camera 
tracking. 

During most of the first decade of the space age, the 10-meter ac- 
curacy characterizing the various photographic and doppler systems 
surpassed the precision with which their data could be fitted by theory. 

By about 1966, agreement between theory and data came into sight, 
and interest in improved tracking systems grew. 

Ranging to satellites with light pulses from a ruby laser was perhaps 
the first new technique promising 1 -meter resolution or better.^ For this 
system, the satellites need carry only retroreflectors in the form of cube- 
cornered mirrors. At this writing, six satellites with retroreflectors are 
in orbit, and several laser systems, including three at sao sites, are op- 
erating, typically at the 1 -meter accuracy level. No major obstacles seem 
to stand in the way of 10-centimeter accuracy in a few years. 

A second instrumentation breakthrough is long-baseline radio inter- 
ferometry over thousands of miles, with independent atomic clocks.' 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 



173 




\ Baker-Nunn photograph of S4-B fuel venting 30,000 miles above earth. 



rhe SAo-Harvard radio telescope is being equipped for these measure- 
ments. As with any interferometer system, the fundamental measure- 
ment is a range difference that can be translated into an angle relative 
to the baseline. 

The use of an altimeter on a satellite is an old idea that now seems 
nmely for implementation. As currendy conceived by the National 
\eronautics and Space Administration, this third instrumentation ad- 
/ance would use radar techniques over the ocean to attain meter-or- 



174 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

better accuracies. Other systems being readied include devices to com- 
pensate for surface forces on a satellite and instruments for satellite-to- 
satellite tracking, sao is preparing techniques to analyze data from such, 
systems. 



Evolution of Geodetic Applications ^ 

In 1964, with the establishment of the National Geodetic Satellite 
Program, a set of national objectives was adopted, embracing goals rea- 
sonably attainable with the systems then available. As currently formu- 
lated, the two major objectives are (1) the establishment of a unified 
world datum referenced to the center of mass of the earth, in which 
about ninety station locations are to be jx)sitioned with an accuracy off 
ten meters, and ( 2 ) the determination of values of the coefficients of the 
spherical-harmonic representation of the gravitational field of the earth 
to the 15th degree and order. 

The objectives of the national program now seem within sight of 
fulfillment. Results at sao reported during 1969 by Kurt Lambeck estab- 
lish a world datum as required by the first objective and give positions 
of some forty stations. Geopotential coefficients determined during this 
year by Edward M. Gaposchkin of sao and Yoshihide Kozai of sao 
and Tokyo University nearly satisfy the second objective. These results 
are being compiled in the new Smithsonian Institution Standard Earth. 

Thought and action toward other applications and objectives have 
begun, stimulated in part by the progress toward the announced national 
objectives. An equally significant stimulus has been the instrumentation 
progress sketched above. 



Geopotential and Mass Distribution ^ 

The gravitational potential of the earth is a manifestation of the mass 
distribution within the earth. As determinations of the potential improve 
and as they come to represent smaller features of the field, their implica- 
tions for geology rise sharply. Over the oceans, very fine geoid detail 
from a satellite altimeter can have great geological significance for large 
regions of the earth that have had little study. 



Earth Tides ^ 

Earth tides due to the sun and moon are prime examples of 
phenomena whose investigation by satellite techniques became possible 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 175 

only when orbit determination attained accuracies of a few seconds of 
arc. In principle, at least two aspects of earth tides can be studied. 

The most obvious effect is the motion of a tracking instrument as its 
foundation rides with the tides in the solid earth. The radial deformation 
of the earth under conditions of maximum change has a range of some 
thirty centimeters. Motions of this amplitude should be detectable by 
the most precise tracking instruments, but a suitable observing campaign 
has yet to be mounted. Robert Newton of the Applied Physics Labora- 
tory and Kozai have detected the satellite orbital perturbations cor- 
responding to the mass displacement. Analyses by both authors have 
obtained a measure of the gross elastic properties of the earth. 

The elastic coefficients derived from satellite orbits agree reasonably 
with the value derived from astronomical observations and the theory 
of the Chandler wobble of the earth's pole. 



Polar Motion * 

The earth rotates about an axis that continually changes. First, the 
direction of the angular momentum vector in space has a 26,000-year 
cycle caused mainly by torques from lunar and solar gravitational inter- 
actions with the oblateness of the earth. This is called astronomical 
Drecession and nutation. 

Second, the axis about which the earth rotates at any instant, ex- 
pressed relative to body-fixed coordinates, performs a precession. This 
"an have an amplitude of roughly 0.5 arcsec. The motion involves two 
periods, one of twelve months and the other of about fourteen. 

Third, the position of the principal axis of inertia for the earth, 
i.e., its current rotation axis, is not necessarily fixed relative to some set 
oi axes attached to the earth. Besides the obvious possibilities of mass 
displacement in the fluid domains of the earth, there recently has been 
a suggestion that mass displacements associated with earthquakes may 
:ontribute observable changes. 

Satellites offer several new but untried avenues for further investi- 
gations of polar motion. If the conventional corrections for polar motion 
are not introduced into the analysis of satellite observations, station 
positions should show an apparent variation corresponding to the wobble 
of the earth beneath the satellite. Polar-motion measurements of 
iuperior accuracy may result from long-baseline interferometry with 
independent atomic clocks at two or more radio telescopes. 

An exciting possibility from satellite observations concerns the deter- 
mination of the location of the principal axis with maximum 



176 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

moment of inertia, using analysis techniques developed for geopotential! 
determinations. 



Rotation of the Earth * 

The rate of rotation of the earth about its instantaneous axis is not 
a constant when measured against atomic clocks; that is, the sidereal 
length of the day is not constant. There is some possibility that those 
variations may be determined from the satellite analyses themselves. 
It is more likely that improved techniques, such as long-baseline radio 
interferometry, will eventually provide refined tabulations. 

Satellite techniques may also contribute to an understanding of the 
origin of these variations. There may be mass displacements that change 
the moment of inertia of the earth, and these changes should be 
accompanied by changes in the geopotential coefficients. 



Crustal Motions ^ 

An attempt to measure the relative motion of crustal blocks, i.e. 
continental drift, is by far the most difficult task seriously contemplated 
for techniques of satellite geodesy. Yet this phenomenon is one of the 
most actively discussed today in earth science. Two recent global modeh 
can be applied to predict the relative horizontal velocities that mighl 
be expected for any two points on the earth's surface. These have beer 
applied to sag sites by Paul A. Mohr. The maximum rate is about ten 
centimeters per year. Because laser and interferometer techniques arc 
approaching this accuracy and because an observing campaign could 
cover several years, measurement of crustal block motion is a reasonable 
goal for the second decade of the space age. 



Ocean Profile * 

In the open ocean, the sea level averaged over wave structure should 
be an equipotential surface within an uncertainty of a few meters. 
Dynamical variations due to tides, currents, cyclones, and similar 
phenomena of great interest in oceanography seem to have amplitudes 
of less than a few meters. Hence, the use of satellite-borne altimeters 
to sense sea level might progress through two phases. In the first, the 
equipotential surface corresponding to mean sea level would be deter- 
mined to an accuracy of one meter or better. In the second phase, 
refined altimeters would probe dynamical changes in the ocean surface. 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 177 

Coordinated Observation Campaigns ^ 

Clearly, the problems discussed above are intimately interrelated in 
complex ways, and certainly there are other related topics not discussed 
here that will emerge later with major importance. Many investigations 
3f a broad range of questions can be based on the same observational 
naterial if the design of the observing campaign anticipates this need. 
\lso, some of the investigations may require coordinated observations 
Vom quite different instruments — e.g., laser networks and radio inter- 
erometers. Still further, most of the topics are global in scope and there- 
ore require that observing sites be well distributed geographically. 
The organization of a coordinated observation and analysis eiTort of 
he scale required is a formidable problem in itself, to which sag is 
low expanding its attention. 



MAJOR METEORITE RECOVERIES OF 1968-69 

The scientific value of information gathered from a meteorite is 
neatly enhanced if the object can be analyzed within a few weeks or 
ven a few days after its fall. Such material fresh from interplanetary 
pace contains traces of radioactivity that afford unique information 
bout the solar system's history. 

This past year has been an unusually productive one for scientists 
iterested in the quick recovery of meteorites. Four large meteorites 
lave been recovered, each within a few days of its fall. 

On Friday, 12 April 1968, at 8:30 p.m., a meteorite struck the roof 
f the home of Joseph W. Kowalski in Schenectady, New York, splinter- 
ig a portion of the eaves and rebounding onto the ground. Mr. Kowal- 
ki, who was watching television at the time, heard what he later 
iescribed as a sound "like a firecracker going off in the attic." Two 
ays later, on returning home from church, he observed the broken 
aves, noted the nature of the damage, searched the grounds adjacent 
D his home, and recovered from alongside his house a single chrondritic 
tone meteorite of mass 283.3 grams. Its exterior consists primarily of 

dull black fusion crust plus a fracture surface that was apparently 
'roduced by breakup in the atmosphere. 

During its existence in space (in this case, as a small body of one- 
leter radius or less), a meteoroid is exposed to cosmic rays, which 
ause nuclear reactions and produce radioactive and stable atomic 
pecies. After it has fallen, however, the meteorite is protected from 
osmic rays by the earth's atmosphere and there is little subsequent 
iotope production. From laboratory measurements of a stable product 



178 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1969 

and a radioactive one, it is possible to determine the duration of cosmic- 
ray exposure, which is called the exposure age. 

Edward L. Fireman ° has measured the cosmic-ray exposure age of 
this meteorite and has placed it at 31.4 million years. This age plus 
measurements of the densities of cosmic-ray tracks in olivine and 
pyroxene crystals at four positions in the meteorite give evidence that 
the specimen came from a depth between 5 and 10 centimeters in a 
preatmospheric body of greater than 15-centimeter radius. The 
uranium /helium-4 and krypton /argon-40 ages, which are 4.1 billion 
years and 4.35 billion years, respectively, indicate that the meteorite 
underwent very little heating in space since it became solid. 

On 14 November 1968, at about 6 p.m., a 25-kilogram iron meteorite 
fell only thirty meters from where a farmer was standing in a field neai 
Alandroal, Portugal. Robert A. Citron, director of the Smithsoniar 
Center for Short-Lived Phenomena, learned about this fall on 2 Decem- 
ber and arranged for a specimen to be sent to sao for analysis.® T 
arrived on 14 December, only thirty days after the fall. The meteorite 
is called both Alandroal and Juromenha. 

Matthias F. Comerford has investigated its metallography '' and ha 
found that if the object had ever had the octahedral pattern normall' 
expected of iron meteorites, the pattern had been destroyed by at least ; 
single-stage melting event and more probably by a two-stage melting 
freezing plus deformation-and-annealing history. His investigation ha 
further indicated that the structure of the meteorite is similar to tha 
of the Washington County iron, which is an unusual meteorite becaus' 
it has 8.7 percent nickel but no Widmanstatten pattern, a distinctiv 
crystallization feature usually found in irons. 

Because study of Alandroal began only one month after fall, certain o 
the short-lived radioactivities could be measured with considerable ac 
curacy, giving new information about cosmic rays in interplanetar 
space. Fireman has measured the argon-37, argon-39, and tritium radio 
activities and the rare-gas content.^ He has found that the argon-37, 
argon-39 ratio in Alandroal is the lowest ever measured in an; 
meteorite. 

From this ratio. Fireman has found that the exposure age of Alan 
droal is 33 million years. This means that Alandroal was covered witl 
protective material until 33 million years ago, when it collided with an 
other body or otherwise had its protective covering ripped away am 
the present meteoritic material exposed to space. Another conclusioi 
is that the cosmic-ray flux per unit time bombarding Alandroal durinj 
the fifty days before the meteorite struck the earth was only half as grea 
as the average flux during the last 400 years. This ratio means that th< 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 



179 



cosmic- ray flux at 3 ± 1 astronomical units from the sun is twice as high 
as at 1 astronomical unit. 

Less than three months later, on 8 February 1969, at 1:05 a.m., a 
spectacular fireball lit up the sky over Arizona, New Mexico, and north- 
em Mexico. A shower of stones fell over an area of approximately 100 
square miles around Pueblito de AUende in Southern Chihuahua, Mex- 
ico, approximately twenty miles east of the city of Hidalgo del Parral. 

When news of this event reached sag, the Center for Short-Lived 
Phenomena immediately alerted the Air Force. A B-57 aircraft fol- 
lowed the winds over the Gulf of Mexico for seven hours to collect 
airborne dust ablated from the meteoroid. Citron quickly located peo- 
ple who had recovered specimens and he notified scientists of the fall. 
Charles A. Tougas and Gunther Schwartz traveled to the site to obtain 
trajectory data; from these data and from the distribution of material 
on the ground, Richard E. McCrosky has been able to deduce that the 
preatmospheric mass of the meteorite exceeded twenty tons.^ 

An intensive study of a piece of this meteorite has been carried out by 
Ursula B. Marvin, John A. Wood, and John S. Dickey, Jr.^ It has 
proved to be a rare type III carbonaceous chondrite containing 
:hondrules and irregular masses that depart radically in mineralogy and 
chemistry from the matrix and from the bulk composition of other stony 



Dr. Fireman examines the meteorite Pueblito de AUende in his laboratory. 




180 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

meteorites. Patches of material abnormally rich in aluminum have been 
discovered, along with one mineral (hercynite, FeAl204) new to meteo- 
rites. Also a melilitic glass has been found that is new to meteorites. 

Fireman has determined from the neon in Allende that the cosniic-ray 
exposure age of this meteorite is five million years. Evidently this is the 
interval since it broke out of a larger object during a possible collision 
in space. The exposure ages of other carbonaceous chondrites range 
from 0.2 to 50 million years. 

The most unusual feature of the rare gases contained in Allende is 
the isotopic composition of the xenon in the chondrules. Chondrules 
are spherical globules, a few millimeters in diameter, of what looks like 
rock that once was melted but is now embedded in a fine-grained dust- 
like matrix. Fireman has found that the xenon in the chondrules is 
practically pure xenon-129, with only 1/100 as much xenon-132. This 
is in sharp contrast to the xenon in the earth's atmosphere, where these 
two isotopes are nearly equally represented. Excesses of xenon-129 have 
been found in other chondrules, but never so pronounced as in the 
present case. The xenon-129 is believed to have arisen from the long- 
extinct radioactive isotope of iodine- 129, which was created when the 
elements were formed. If this is true, then to have contained such a high 
amount of xenon-129, the chondrules of Allende must have been 
formed very soon after the creation of the elements. 

To judge from the amount of material recovered, Pueblito de Allende 
has the distinction of being the largest carbonaceous chondrite known. 
The first known meteorite of this type fell near Alais, France, on 15 
March 1806, only a few years after scientists accepted the reality of 
"stones from the sky." Allende is the 27th carbonaceous chondrite found. 
Since the total weight of material in collections from the 26 previous 
cases is only slightly greater than 100 kilograms, the world supply of 
carbonaceous chondrite matter has been more than quadrupled by the 
addition of over 350 kilograms recovered from this meteorite. 

On 25 April 1969, a farmer saw a large fireball streak across the sky 
near Belfast, Ireland. It was seen to fall in a bog in Sprucefield, and 
several pieces of the meteorite were recovered. A sample has been ana- 
lyzed by Fireman for radioactive and stable lare-gas isotopes. The radio- 
activities of argon-37 and argon-39 have been measured in the magnetic 
and nonmagnetic phases. The argon-37/argon-39 ratio gives a value of 
0.90 ±0.009 for the iron phase, which is considerably higher than the 
ratio measured in Alandroal. Since Sprucefield and Alandroal both fell 
during the same period of the same solar cycle, Sprucefield's orbit must 
have been different from that of Alandroal. In order to have a higher 
argon-37 /argon-39 ratio, Sprucefield's orbit must have had a smaller 
semimajor axis. The stable rare-gas isotopes of helium, neon, and argon 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 181 

are very low, indicating that the meteoroid was recently heated. The 
exposure age of 1.6 million years obtained from helium-3 and neon-21 
is less than one tenth the age obtained from xenon- 126, which is 20 
million years. This recent heating is in accord with an orbit with a small 
semimajor axis. 

Several of the analyses of these meteorites have been made in part 
with special equipment designed and built by sag for the study of 
lunar samples, beginning in the fall of 1969.^ ^ 



ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PROCESSES 

In a very general sense, the study of atomic and molecular processes 
refers to the collisions of an atom, molecule, electron, or proton with 
another such particle. Because of the quantal nature of these particles, 
a variety of interesting effects can be observed. 

The knowledge both of the different types of atomic and molecular 
processes and of the rates at which these reactions proceed is essential 
to the basic understanding of many aspects of modern science and tech- 
nology. There are numerous applications in astrophysics, geophysics, 
aeronomy, meteors, controlled fusion, magnetohydrodynamic power 
conversion generators, plasma motors, and gas lasers that impose 
stringent requirements on both identifying and determining accurate 
probabilities of various atomic and molecular processes. For example, 
the impact of atoms evaporated from a meteor with the atmospheric 
atomic and molecular constituents causes the optical and ionization 
phenomena produced when a meteor enters the upper atmosphere. In 
addition, the ionosphere of the earth is produced mainly by the ioniza- 
tion of the neutral-particle constituents of the atmosphere by solar ultra- 
violet radiation. This ionization process leads to the production of free 
electrons and positive ions, which cause excitation of the neutral par- 
ticles, with the subsequent emission of light (dayglow) . Knowledge of 
atomic and molecular processes further enhances our understanding 
of such fields as health physics and biochemistry. 

Alex Dalgamo and his group have carried out theoretical studies of 
a wide range of collision processes involving the interaction of radiation 
with electrons, atoms, and molecules found in the atmospheres of the 
planets, in the solar corona, and in the interstellar medium. ^° Space 
science has opened up a new, wide field of observation in the far ultra- 
violet where these processes produce direction radiation. 

One of the areas of atomic and molecular physics to which they have 
given special attention is the absorption of ultraviolet radiation by 
helium and hydrogen molecules. In addition to their importance to 



182 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

molecular spectroscopy, the absorption processes in hydrogen provide! 
an efficient mechanism for the dissociation of a hydrogen molecule into 
two hydrogen atoms. The calculation by Arthur C. Allison of accurate 
transition probabilities for the Lyman and Werner systems is the neces- 
sary first step in the calculation of the dissociation of molecular hydrogen 
by radiation with ultraviolet wavelengths around 1000 angstroms. The 
cross sections he has computed have been used in a discussion of the? 
abundance of hydrogen in the atmosphere of Venus. Kenneth M. Sando> 
has completed a detailed analysis of both the absorption and the emis- 
sion of radiation in specific helium transitions that have been studied in: 
the laboratory. Dalgamo and his group have also begun a study of! 
the quadrupole emission spectrum that results from the primary ultra- 
violet absorption. 

Further, this group has continued studies of the processes controlling 
the decay of excited states of the helium-like ions in the solar corona* 
and has completed the first purely theoretical predictions of the proba- 
bilities of intercombination of spectral transitions. Gordon W. F. Drake 
has carried out variational calculations to determine accurately the rates* 
of these radiative processes as a function of nuclear change. He also has 
calculated spin-orbit mixing parameters and relativistic corrections ta 
the energy levels. In addition, he has developed a theory of induced" 
radiative deactivation of metastable ions by collision with charged par- 
ticles. This theory has been used to obtain results for the metastable 
helium-like ions. 

The group also has explored the effects of collision-induced fine- 
structure transitions that give rise to infrared emission. Robert H. G, 
Reid has devoted particular attention to this work and has been in- 
volved in the development of a new theoretical formulation that predicts 
the occurrence of oscillations in the collision probabilities arising from a< 
resonance-like phenomenon. 

Methods for calculating the effects of collisions between electrons 
and heteronuclear molecules such as cn and oh have been developed 
this year. Calculations on cn have been completed. 

Several members of this group have continued fundamental studies 
of the quantum mechanics of atomic and molecular structure. By means 
of extension of the z-expansion technique to high order, Drake has 
provided accurate wavefunctions for the entire isoelectric sequence 
in a single calculation. Paul Blanchard has carried out a theoretical 
investigation of quantum defects in 2- and 3-electron atomic systems 
with the aid of the z-expansion perturbation theory, as developed by 
Dalgamo and David Layzer (of Harvard College Observatory). 
Michael Jamieson has completed his PhD dissertation, entitled Time- 
Dependent Hartree-Fock Theory, on this subject. Dalgamo believes 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 183 

that this construction of a general form of perturbation theory shows 
much promise as a procedure for studying correlation effects. 

Investigations of collision broadening effects in the wings of spectral 
lines have continued. Sando has begun a study of the contribution to the 
absorption in the Lyman-alpha wing. Dalgarno and his coworkers have 
completed a study of the luminosity appearing in the upper atmosphere 
of the planet earth as a consequence of collisions of the fast photo- 
electrons released by the action of solar ultraviolet radiation. 

M. Raymond Flannery and Hiram Levy II have continued their 
studies of atomic and molecular processes as they relate to meteor 
trails." They have developed an analytic form for the interaction matrix 
elements in the hydrogen-hydrogen collision system and have prepared 
impact-parameter calculations of cross sections for the excitation of both 
atoms. 

Flannery has continued investigations of various recombination 
mechanisms that contribute to the electron loss from a meteor trail. 
The rate of decay of the radar echo from the meteor trail gives a meas- 
ure of the decrease of electron concentration in the trail. 

Levy is currently working on two calculations of particular impor- 
tance. The first is a method for determining first Born-wave excitation 
and ionization cross sections for the collision of two atoms. The second 
calculation involves multistate impact-parameter cross sections. 

Theoretical studies of atomic and molecular processes are supported 
not only by laboratory work but also by means of astronomical instru- 
ments and space experiments. 

Anthony R. Lee and Nathaniel P. Carleton have completed a series 
Df laboratory measurements on the excitation by electron impact on 
the ions of calcium, barium, and strontium. Thus far, there have been 
no laboratory measurements of this collision process, which is vitally 
important in the formation of the spectral lines of these ions. 

Ashok Sharma, Wesley A. Traub, and Carleton also have been con- 
structing a three-etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer system for high- 
resolution spectrometric work at Agassiz Station and at Mount Hop- 
kins.^^ This instrument is designed to be very flexible in terms of wave- 
length coverage and resolving power, having specially designed reflecting 
coatings on the etalons. It will be used to continue the program of high- 
resolution planetary spectroscopy that is currently under way, with in- 
vestigations of methane rotational temperature on Jupiter and of photo- 
chemical processes involving oxygen on Venus and Mars. A search is 
also planned for deuterium in the spectrum of Jupiter and in certain 
planetary nebulae. 



jg^ SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

STUDYING THE SUN 

The sun, a star among unimaginably many others, is uniquely close. 
We can observe what it is and how it behaves much more thoroughly 
than we can any other star. Yet the data we have already accumulated 
raise at least as many questions as they answer, for they reveal the enor- 
mous complexity of the solar atmosphere. Theoretical studies have 
now progressed to the point where they account for many separate solar 
phenomena, but many of the most fundamental aspects of the sun re- 
main unexplained. Familiar examples include sunspots and the solar 
corona, the origins of which are still not understood, sao is contributing 
heavily to our understanding of these and related phenomena. 

Exciting new observations of the infrared region of the spectrtim of 
sunspots are now available. This material is being obtained by Robert W. 
Noyes and Donald N. Hall (the latter of the Harvard Astronomy De- 
partment) , who have jointly initiated a major program of high-resolution 
infrared spectroscopy of sunspots, using the vacuum spectrograph at 
the McMath Solar Telescope of Kitt Peak National Observatory. 

These infrared observations have enabled Noyes and Hall to make the 
first identification of solar fluorine in the form of hydrofluoric acid 
molecules in sunspots. They also have mapped the first-overtone spec- 
trum of carbon monoxide to very high quantum numbers and have ob- 
tained high-resolution observations of highly excited levels of overtone 
bands of oh. They are in the process of extending their observations 
farther into the infrared with a new infrared spectrograph under con- 
struction at Kitt Peak National Observatory. 

In order to interpret the new sunspot data, Noyes has begvm to cal- 
culate theoretical sunspot models, using a computer program developed 
by Owen Gingerich and Duane F. Carbon at sao. There has resulted a 
rather precise value for the abundance of fluorine in the sun as well as 
information on sunspot structure. 

Solar physicists have long worked to establish satisfactorily how the 
temperature varies with height in the sun's atmosphere. The procedure 
is as follows: The details of many observed features of the radiation 
from a star, such as the continuous spectrum or individual absorption 
lines, are determined in part by the star's temperature structure. Using 
theories that specify how the spectrum and the temperature structure 
are related, we build computer programs to calculate (hypothetical) 
model solar atmospheres and synthetic solar spectra. With such programs 
we attempt, largely by trial and error, to construct a temperature struc- 
ture that causes the model to give rise to synthetic spectra that agree in 
all essential details with the observed ones. The more complete our 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 



185 




The solar corona photographed during an eclipse. 



observational material, the better fixed are the details of the temperature 
structure. 

New observations have been obtained by the Harvard College Ob- 
servatory spectroheliometer on board the fourth Orbiting Solar Ob- 
servatory (oso).^^ These data have enabled Harvard and Smithsonian 
scientists to make new studies toward understanding the structure of the 
upper solar atmosphere. Gingerich, in part jointly with Noyes and 

366-269 O— 70 13 



186 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Yvette Guny, has used new data to derive a new empirical model of the 
temperature structure of the solar atmosphere. 

Because of its position outside the atmosphere, oso 4 has provided 
new observations in the far ultraviolet spectrum of the sun's hydrogen. 
Any model of the solar atmosphere should not only reproduce this spec- 
trum at any point of the sun's disk but also give its variation from center 
to limb. Noyes and Wolfgang Kalkofen, using the latter's model atmos- 
phere program, have obtained for the low solar chromosphere a tempera- 
ture and density structure that produces correctly the general features 
of this radiation: emission of the continuum radiation from a region 
where the kinetic temperature is about 8500 °K, with a decrease in the 
intensity for wavelengths near the head of the continuum as we look 
from the center to the limb (limb darkening), and a corresponding in- 
crease (limb brightening) at shorter wavelengths. Eugene H. Avrett, 
using a program he and Rudolf Loeser have been developing over sev- 
eral years, also has tried to obtain a temperature structure conforming 
to the observed Lyman radiation ; his results differ from those of Noyes 
and Kalkofen. Reasons for the discrepancy may become clear as Avrett's 
work continues. 

Casual observation discloses that neither the sun's atmosphere nor 
those of other stars resemble what we must assume in our calculations : 
a series of flat layers of unlimited extent, the same everywhere, and never 
changing. Even this apparent simplicity has necessitated several decades 
of development of mathematical procedures, much of it here at sao, to 
allow us to compute effectively. But we need to treat more complex 
geometries: in the large, atmospheres are shells, not planes; in the 
small, the shapes of relevant segments are more complex still. And we 
need to take inhomogeneities and dynamics into account: We can ob- 
serve atmospheric motions, such as convection currents and flares in 
the sun, and motions of entire atmospheres, in pulsating stars. Sunspots 
remind us that the solar atmosphere is not the same everywhere. 



THE CELESCOPE EXPERIMENT" 

Until very recently, astronomers have been forced to conduct their 
observations from the bottom of the earth's atmosphere, which signifi- 
cantly limits the accuracy, sensitivity, and scope of their observations. 
Important classes of objects, such as the x-ray stars, lay undiscovered 
pending man's ability to place the necessary instruments above the 
absorbing layers of the atmosphere. In order to confirm and refine 
the relevant theoretical concepts, important physical processes, such as 
those occurring in the atmospheres of the hotter stars, require observa- 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 



187 




Model of OAO 2 showing Celescope experiment. 



tions in that part of the ultraviolet spectrum that is totally absorbed by 
the atmosphere. Studies of remote galaxies, needed for refining our 
theories of the universe, have been hampered by the blurring efTects of 
the atmosphere. Studies of faint objects have been hindered by the 
brightness of the surrounding sky. Understanding of the sun requires 
that it be studied in the ultraviolet and x-ray regions of the spectrum 
and that it be studied with higher resolution than any available from 
the ground. Seen from the highest mountains, not even the sun is bright 



188 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

enough to provide detectable radiation below a wavelength of 2850 
angstroms. 

Some of these observational handicaps are being overcome by Project 
Celescope. That experiment, initiated by Whipple and carried out under 
the direction of Robert J. Davis, is addressed primarily to the study ol 
the atmospheres of the hotter stars by means of photometric measure- 
ments in those regions of the ultraviolet that are accessible only from 
above the earth's atmosphere. Named for its pioneering as a truly celes- 
tial telescope, the Celescope concept originated from a series of meet- 
ings in February 1958 involving the scientific staffs of Harvard College 
Observatory and Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Project Cele- 
scope has been supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration as part of their Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (oao) 
program. Other experimenters in the program are the University of 
Wisconsin, Goddard Space Flight Center (gsfc), Princeton University, 
and University College in London. The program reached a climax on 
7 December 1968, when nasa launched the second oao, containing 
the SAO Celescope experiment as well as that of Wisconsin. 

The manner chosen for accomplishing the primary mission of the 
Celescope project is to conduct a sky survey, with reasonable photo- 
metric accuracy, in four ultraviolet bands. One of the most important 
aspects of this survey is the generation of a catalog containing ultraviolet 
photometric data for the 25,000 or more stars expected to be observed. 

Description and Operation of Celescope 

The Celescope instrument consists of four 12.5-inch f/2 Schwarz- 
schild telescopes that focus starlight on ultraviolet-sensitive television 
cameras. Each telescope covers one of four separate bands of wave- 
lengths centered at 2600, 2300, 1600, and 1500 angstroms. The 440- 
pound optical assembly is housed in a cylinder 57 inches long and 40 
inches in diameter. From this, a ten-foot cable leads to 87 pounds of 
electronic gear inside a 9 x 16 x 26-inch box. 

The four telescopes are identical, with the central 6.25 inches of 
each 12.5-inch primary mirror obscured by its secondary. The image is 
focused on the ultraviolet-sensitive surface of a special television camera 
tube called a Uvicon. Although the field of view on the photocathode 
is 2.8 degrees, not all of it is covered by the television raster, so the 
usable field is about 2 degrees on a side. Each telescope assembly has 
an additional optical system to focus light from a calibration lamp upon 
the photocathode. 

For the Celescope experiment, two kinds of Uvicons were specially 
designed with sensitivity from 1050 to 3200 angstroms and from 1050 to 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 189 

2150. By means of appropriate filters, the four wavelength ranges are 
achieved. Also, each field of view is divided into two halves of different 
wavelength sensitivity by means of a semicircular arrangement of the 
filters in front of the cathodes, thus enabling each wavelength to be 
recorded on two cameras. 

Although the experiment requires 54 commands to operate the elec- 
tronics, no mechanical adjustments are needed in flight. The telescopes 
have been designed to remain in satisfactory focus under all antici- 
pated conditions. The Uvicon tubes produce single-frame pictures, 
rather than a continuous "motion picture" such as is customary in com- 
mercial television. To produce one such frame, 17 diflFerent commands 
must be transmitted to the satellite at carefully controlled time inter- 
vals. Each frame, relayed to earth by digital code, is equivalent to a scan- 
ning raster of 256 lines with 256 elements in each. The reliability testing 
of this system was under the direction of Yasushi Nozawa. 

The Celescope experiment is operated primarily in real time, since 
the command and data-storage systems on board oao 2 do not have a 
large memory. Telling the spacecraft what to do is not an easy task. 
Several different kinds of commands can be sent to the experiment 
itself and many to the spacecraft. There are signals to control the 
storage of engineering telemetry data; commands to turn on backup 
subsystems should primary systems fail; commands to select analog, 
digital, or stored digital modes of operation ; operating instructions for 
the camera whose video signal is being fed into the system; operating 
controls for the voltages on each camera; and calibration commands. 
The spacecraft itself can be told to connect or disconnect Celescope 
power and can be given commands to store or transmit Celescope and 
other data. 

To convert the signals received on the ground into meaningful meas- 
urements of ultraviolet flux, all optical parts have had to be carefully 
calibrated — an extensive and critical undertaking. 

The Celescope equipment can observe about 0.8 percent of the entire 
sky per week. Since only half of the oao's time will be used by the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, a complete survey would 
take more than four years. This is considerably longer than the expected 
lifetime of either the spacecraft or the experiment. Hence, Smithsonian 
scientists plan to concentrate on a set of fifty sky regions that should 
provide a reasonable statistical sampling of stars. 

The oao 2 satellite carries an orientation and stabilization system that 
guides on stars. Its six 2-axis trackers can be set on appropriate stars as 
the spacecraft is turned to observe a desired area. The experiments 
on board oao 2 may never be allowed to point directly at the sun, nor 
may the paddles carrying the solar-power cells turn away from the 



190 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

sun. These constraints mean that the observing program must be care- 
fully planned well in advance. This task is being performed under the 
direction of William A. Deutschman. 



Determination of Stellar Atmospheres 

One of Celescope's goals is the measurement of the brightnesses of at 
least 25,000 main-sequence early-type stars in four spectral bands. The 
datum of interest is the shape of the spectral-energy distribution curves 
of the different types of stars. Only for the atmospheres of main- 
sequence early-type stars do we now have a reasonably clear picture of 
what to expect. As was the case with the great sky surveys of the past — 
for example, the Henry Draper Catalogue and the Palomar Sky Atlas — 
we plan to acquire our data by sampling the entire available portion 
of the celestial sphere and thus increase our chances of making impor- 
tant unexpected discoveries. We have planned our instrumentation and 
observational program in order to balance the payload limitations of 
Gelescope with these scientific objectives. 

Experiments from rockets and satellites have already given astrono- 
mers a considerable amount of observational information concerning 
ultraviolet stellar spectra. These observations indicate ultraviolet fluxes 
that for most stars are consistent with the most recent theories of stellar 
atmospheres and interstellar absorption, but interesting exceptions are 
numerous. 

Observation of the ultraviolet fluxes from the hot stars is of great 
importance to theoretical astrophysics. One goal of Gelescope is to 
strengthen the observational foundation and to chart the path for 
observing programs and instrumentation for future, more specialized 
satellites now being planned. 



Observations 

As of 30 June 1969, we had scheduled 3,000 pictures in 1,000 
different positions and had obtained 2,500 pictures in 900 different 
positions. The reliability and performance of the Gelescope experiment 
in orbit have followed almost exactly the prelaunch predictions. Our 
first pictures, obtained during checkout, indicated that all cameras met 
or exceeded performance specifications. Three of the cameras continue 
to obtain valuable scientific data, with all four wavelength bands still 
in use; one camera failed after 77 days in orbit. The three cameras still 
in use are exhibiting loss of sensitivity, owing partly to the effects of 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSIGAL OBSERVATORY 



191 




Celescope pictures of the Sword of Orion. 



192 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

space radiation on our optics and partly to the effects of prolonged 
operation on the performance of the camera tubes. The present per- 
formance of the equipment is such that we expect to continue receiving 
useful scientific information from the Gelescope experiment for several 
more months. 

The accompanying figure is a sample of the pictures now being 
received from Gelescope. The 5-second exposures show the stars in the 
Sword of Orion, with the Orion Nebula surrounding Theta Orionis, 
the third bright star from the top of the picture. Since these are 
extremely hot young stars, of spectral types B and O, they appear 
brighter in the shorter wavelengths (Camera 4) than in the longer 
wavelengths (Cameras 1 and 3) . 

The Orion Nebula is one of the brightest objects we have observed 
to date. On the 60-second exposure (frame d), it is strongly over- 
exposed. The bright background in the upper portion of the 60-second 
exposure is hydrogen Lyman-alpha light, sunlight scattered by the earth's 
atmosphere into the otherwise dark night sky. 

An early evaluation of the results indicates that very few of the 
stars measured by Celescope are appreciably brighter than expected. 
Although many stars lie below the normal spectrum-color relationships 
predicted for the Celescope ultraviolet color system, those measurements 
that we have reviewed in detail have been for the most part consistent 
with a straightforward interpretation such as interstellar reddening or 
known spectral peculiarities. About twenty percent of the objects found 
by Celescope near the plane of the Galaxy do not appear in our identi- 
fication atlas, whereas nearly every object more than 10 degrees from 
the plane does. Presumably, the extra stars are mostly faint O and B 
stars, but additional analysis of ground-based photographs and addi- 
tional measurements using ground-based telescopes will be needed before 
we can be certain. 

The reduced data will be distributed, beginning early next year, as a 
series of Celescope Observational Data Reports. Full interpretation of 
these data must, of course, await completion of analysis for the bulk of 
the observational material, since most of the scientific value of broad- 
band photometric measurements such as those provided by Celescope 
depends on the intercomparison of the results from measuring large 
numbers of stars, rather than on the separate measurements of individual 
stars. 

NOTES 
^Supported by grant NGR 09-015-002 from the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration (nasa). 
- Supported by nasa contract NSR 09-015-039. 
* Supported by nasa contract NSR 09-015-079. 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 193 

* Supported by nasa contract NSR 09-015-054. 
^ Supported by nasa grant NGR 09-015-004. 

* Supported by grant 1 105 from the Smithsonian Research Foundation. 
^Supported by contract DA-31-124-ARO-D-473 with the United States 

Army. 

* Supported by nasa contract NAS 9-8105. 

* Supported by nasa contract NAS 9-8106. 

"Supported by contract F 19628-68-C-0234 from the United States Air 
Force. 
" Supported by nasa contract NSR 09-015-033. 
^ Supported by nasa grant NGR 09-015-047. 

" Supported by nasa grant NASw-184 to Harvard College Observatory. 
" Supported by nasa contract NAS 5-1535. 



STAFF CHANGES 

During the year, the staff of the Observatory have welcomed physicists 
Michael R. Pearlman, Irwin Shapiro, and Richard B. Wattson; astrono- 
mers Frederick Chaffee and Lawrence W. Mertz; and geologists John S. 
Dickey, Jr., and Benjamin Powell. 

The Observatory also has continued its program of postdoctoral 
fellowships in cooperation with the National Academy of Sciences- 
National Research Council. Robert H. G. Reid, Gordon W. F. Drake, 
and M. V. Krishna Apparao have had their fellowships renewed. David 
Hearn is the new appointee. Wattson has completed his fellowship and 
has accepted an appointment to our staff. Michel Henon has returned 
to France, and Zdenek Ceplecha to Czechoslovakia. 

Resignations have been received from Yvette Cuny, Bishun Khare, 
Walter Kohnlein, Barbara Kolaczek, Anthony R. Lee, Robert H. 
McCorkell, James Pollack, Carl Sagan, and Ashok Sharma. Sagan, 
Khare, and Pollack have taken positions at Cornell University; Cuny 
has returned to France; Kohnlein is studying in Germany; and Kolaczek 
has gone back to Poland. 

Appointed as research associates are Zdenek Ceplecha and Carl 
Sagan, 



Staff Publications and Papers 

Allison, A. C. See also Dalgarno and Allison; Dalgarno, Crawford, and Allison. 
. "A Program to Calculate Franck Condon Factors." Computer Physics 

Communications (1969), volume 1. 
Apparao, M. V. K. "Pulsars as Possible Sources of Cosmic Radiation." Bulletin 

of the American Physical Society (1968), volume 13, page 1433. 



194 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 
. "Upper Limits on Low Energy Cosmic Ray Photons and Heavy Nuclei in 



Interstellar Space." Nature (1968), volume 220, pages 1015-1016. 

"Upper Limits on Universal Microwave Radiation Below X=1.7 mm." 



Nature (1968), volume 219, pages 709-710. 
. "Implications of Observations of Very High Energy Gamma Rays from 



Pulsars." Nature (1969), volume 221, page 645. 
. "Very Heavy Nuclei in Cosmic Rays." Sky and Telescope (1969), vol- 



ume 37, pages 23-24. 

Athay, R. G., E. H. Avrett, H. A. Beebe, H. R. Johnson, A. I. Poland, and 
Y. CuNY. "Calculations of Solar Hydrogen Lines: Comparative Solutions for 
a Standard Line Transfer Problem." Pages 169-212, in Resonance Lines in 
Astrophysics. Boulder, Colorado: National Center for Atmospheric Research, 
1968. 

AvRETT, E. H. See also Athay, Avrett, Beebe, Johnson, Poland, and Cuny. 

. "Questions of Consistency and Convergence in the Solution of Multi- 
level Transfer Problems." Pages 27-63, in Resonance Lines in Astrophysics. 
Boulder, Colorado: National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1968. 

Benima, B., J. R. Cherniack, B. G. Marsden, and J. G. Porter. "The Gauss 
Method for Solving Kepler's Equation in Nearly Parabolic Orbits." Publica- 
tions of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (1969), volume 81, pages 121- 
129. 

Brow^nlee, D. E., p. W. Hodge, and F. W. Wright. "Upper Limits to the 
Micron and Submicron Particle Flux at Satellite Altitudes." Journal of Geo- 
physical Research (1969), volume 74, pages 876-883. 

Carbon, D., O. J. Gingerich, and D. W. Latham. "Model Atmospheres for 
Cool Dwarf Stars." Pages 435-455, in Low-Luminosity Stars, edited by S. S. 
Kumar. New York: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Inc., 1968. 

Carleton, N. p. See also Lee and Carleton. 

, W. Liller, and F. L. Roesler. "A Search for Stellar Carbon Dioxide." 

Astrophysical Journal (1968), volume 154, pages 385-387. 

, A. Sharma, R. M. Goody, W. L. Liller, and F. L. Roesler. "Measure- 



ment of the Abundance of CO2 in the Martian Atmosphere." Astrophysical 

Journal (1969), volume 155, pages 323-331. 
Ceplecha, Z. See McCrosky and Ceplecha. 

Cherniack, J. R. See also Benima, Cherniack, Marsden, and Porter. 
, and E. M. Gaposchkin. "Computer Derivation of Short-Lived Lunar 

Perturbations." XII Plenary Meeting of cospar, Prague, May 1969. 
Colombo, G. See Franklin and Colombo. 
CoMERFORD, M. F. "Phosphidc and Carbide Inclusions in Iron Meteorites." 

Atomic Energy Agency International Symposium on Meteorite Research, 

Vienna, August 1968. 
. "Alandroal: An Anomalous 'Ataxite'." 50th Annual Meeting of the 

American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., April 1969. 
, and P. S. DeCarli. "The Effects of Explosive Shock and Annealing in 



Meteoritic Alloys and Iron-Silicon Single Crystals." 7th National Fall Meeting 
of the American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, December 1968. 
, J. J. Ryan, and P. J. Fopiano. "Shock Loading of Iron-Silicon Single 



Crystals." Spring Meeting of the Metallurgical Society of aime, Pittsburgh, 
May 1969. 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 195 

CoNTi, P. S., and S. E. Strom. "The Early A Stars, III: Model-Atmosphere 
Abundance Analysis of Four Field Stars." Astrophysical Journal (1968), vol- 
ume 154, pages 975-982. 

Cook, A. F. See Franklin and Cook. 

CuNY, Y. See Athay, Avrett, Beebe, Johnson, Poland, and Cuny. 

Dalgarno, a. See also Drake, Victor, and Dalgarno; Lane and Dalgarno; Reid 
and Dalgarno; Victor and Dalgarno. 

: "Radiative Transitions." Pages 161—198 in Atomic Physics, edited by 

B. Bederson, V. W. Cohen, and F. M. J. Pichanick. New York: Plenum 
Publications, 1968. 

. "Inelastic Collisions at Low Energies." Canadian Journal of Chemistry 



(1969), volume 47, pages 1723-1729. 
— — . "Infrared Day and Night Airglow of the Earth's Upper Atmosphere." 



Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1969), volume 
A264, pages 153-160. 

-, and A. C. Allison. "Band Oscillator Strengths of the Lyman System 



of Molecular Hydrogen." Astrophysical Journal {Letters) (1968), volume 
154, pages L95-L97. 

-, O. H. Crawford, and A. C. Allison. "Low Energy Electrons in Polar 



Gases." Chemical Physics {Letters) (1968), volume 2, page 381. 
, and A. S. Dickinson. "Hydrogen Ion Cooling in Helium Gas." Planetary 



and Space Science (1968), volume 16, pages 911-914. 
, and G. W. F. Drake. "Two Photon and Forbidden Single Photon Tran- 



sition Probabilities in Helium-Like Ions." Memoires de la Societe Royale des 
Sciences de Liege (1969), volume 54, pages 69-77. 

-, G. W. F. Drake, and G. A. Victor. "Nonadiabatic Long-Range Forces." 



Physical Review ( 1968), volume 176, pages 194-197. 
, and S. T. Epstein. "Sum Rules for Variational Wavefunctions." Jour- 



nal of Chemical Physics (1969), volume 50, pages 2837-2841. 
, M. B. McElroy, M. H. Rees, and J. C. G. Walker. "The Effect of 



Oxygen Cooling on Ionospheric Electron Temperatures." Planetary and Space 
Science (1968), volume 16, pages 1371—1380. 
, and E. M. Parkinson. "Properties of the Lithium Sequence." Physical 



Review (1968), volume 176, pages 73-79. 

and R. H. G. Reid. "Excitation of Forbidden Lines by Dissociative 



Recombination." Memoires de la Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege (1969), 
tome XVI, pages 157-159. 
, and G. A. Victor. "Van der Waals Coefficients for the Ground and 



Metastable States of He and Li*." Journal of Chemical Physics (1968), vol- 
ume 49, pages 1982-1983. 

Davis, R. J. "Far-Ultraviolet Photometry of Stars Obtained with the Celescope 
Experiment in OAO-2." American Astronomical Society Meeting, Hawaii, 
March-April 1969; American Physical Society Meeting, Washington, D.C., 
April 1969; International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 36, Lunteren, 
Holland, June 1969. 

Deutschman, W. a. "Ultraviolet Intensities of Stars Observed in Vela by the 
Celescope Experiment on the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory." American 
Astronomical Society Meeting, Hawaii, March-April 1969. 

Dickey, J. S., Jr. See also Marvin, Wood, and Dickey. 

. "Exsolution in Aluminous Pyroxenes" [abstract]. Transactions of the 

American Geophysical Union (1969), volume 50, page 358. 



196 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Dickinson, D. F. See Litvak, Zuckerman, and Dickinson; Penzias, Jefferts, 
Dickinson, Lilley, and Penfield; Zuckerman, Ball, Dickinson, and Penfield. 

Drake, G. W. F. See also Dalgarno and Drake; Dalgarno, Drake, and Victor. 

. "Singlet- Triplet Mixing in the He Sequence." Physical Review (1969), 

volume 181, pages 23-24. 

G. A. Victor, and A. Dalgarno. "Two-Photon Decay of the Singlet 



and Triplet Metastable States of Helium-Like Ions." Physical Review (1969), 

volume 180, pages 25-32. 
Fazio, G. G., H. F. Helmken, G. H. Rieke, and T. C. Weekes. "A Search for 

Discrete Sources of Cosmic Gamma Rays of Energies near 2x10" eV." 

Astrophysical Journal Letters (1968), volume 154, pages L83-L89. 
, H. F. Helmken, G. H. Rieke, and T. C. Weekes. "Upper Limits to 

Gamma Ray Fluxes from Three Pulsating Radio Sources." Nature (1968), 

volume 220, pages 892-893. 
Fireman, E. L. See also McCorkell, Fireman, D'Amico, and Thompson. 
. "Ar^'', Ar^^, and H' in the Alandroal Meteorite." 50th Annual Meeting 

of the American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., April 1969. 
. "Freshly Fallen Meteorites from Portugal and Mexico." Sky and Tele- 



scope (1969), volume 3 7, pages 2 7 2-2 75. 

-, and J. DeFelice. "Rare Gases in Phases of the Deelfontein Meteorite.' 



Journal of Geophysical Research (1968), volume 73, pages 6111-6116. 

Flannery, M. R. "Theoretical and Experimental Three-Body Ionic Recombina- 
tion Coefficients." Physical Review (Letters) (1968), volume 21, pages 1729- 
1730. 

. "Impact Parameter Treatment of H-H Excitation Collisions, I: Two- 
State Approximation." Physical Review (1969), volume 183, pages 231-240. 

. "Notes on Three-Body Ionic Recombination." Journal of Chemical 



Physics (1969), volume 50, pages 546-547. 
Flannery, M. R., and D. R. Bates. "Three-Body Ionic Recombination at 

Moderate and High Gas Densities." Journal of Physics B (1969), volume 2, 

pages 184-190. 
Flannery, M. R., and H. Levy, II. "H-H Interaction Potentials." Journal of 

Physics B (1969), volume 2, pages 314-321. 
. "Simple Analytic Expressions for General Two-Center Coulomb Inte- 
grals." Journal of Chemical Physics (1969), volume 50, pages 2938-2940. 
Franklin, F. A., and Colombo, G. "A Dynamical Model of Saturn's Rings." 

Symposium on Nongravitational Forces and Evolutionary Problems in the 

Solar System, Rome, November 1968. 
Franklin, F. A., and A. F. Cook. "A Search for an Atmosphere Enveloping 

Saturn's Rings." Icarus (1969), volume 10, pages 417-420. 
Gaposchkin, E. M. See also Chemiack and Gaposchkin. 
. "Improved Values for the Tesseral Harmonics of the Geopotential and 

Station Coordinates." XII Plenary Meeting of cospar, Prague, May 1969. 
, and L. Sehnal. "Air Drag and Solar Radiation Pressure Effects on 



Close Earth Satellites." XII Plenary Meeting of cospar, Prague, May 1969. 
, and J. P. Wright. "Measurable Effect of General Relativity in Satellite 



Orbits." Nature (1969) , volume 221, page 650. 
Gingerich, O. J. See also Carbon, Gingerich, and Latham; Strom, Gingerich, 

and Strom. 
. "The Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams." Physics Today 

(1968), volume 21, pages 36-40. 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 197 
. "Model Atmospheres for Cool Stars." Pages 83—89, in Infrared Astron- 



omy, edited by P. J. Brancazio and A. G. W. Cameron. New York: Gordon 
and Breach Science Publishers, Inc., 1968. 

"Stellar Astronomy." Pages 272-274, in Science Year: The World Book 



of Science Annual. Chicago: World Book Encylopedia, Inc., 1968. 
, and E. Poulle. "Les Positions des Planetes au Moyen Age: Application 



du Calcul Electronique aux Tables Alphonsines." Comptes Rendus de I'Acad- 
emie des Incriptions et Belles Lettres ( 1968), pages 531—458. 

Goldberg, L., R. W. Noyes, W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, and G. L. 
WiTHBROE. "Ultraviolet Solar Images from Space." Science (1968), volume 
162, pages 95-99. 

, R. W. Noyes, W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, and G. L. Withbroe. 

"The Results and Interpretation of Some of the Harvard oso-iv Observations." 
Advanced Space Experiments (1969), volume 25, pages 531-532. 

Goldstein, S., S. Cuperman, and M. Lecar. "Numerical Experimental Check 
of Lyden-Bell Statistics for a Collisionless One-Dimensional Stellar System." 
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (1969), volume 143, 
pages 209-221. 

Grossi, M. D. See also Harrington, Grossi, Goff, and Langworthy; Pearlman 
and Grossi; Shear, Bravoco, Grossi, and Langevin. 

. "Preliminary Results of a Satellite-to-Satellite Long-Range Propagation 

Experiment Conducted at HF and VHP in the Lower Ionosphere." Fall 
meeting. United States National Committee/Union Radio Scientifique In- 
ternationale, Boston, September 1968. 

Hamid, S. E. "First-Order Planetary Theory" [abstract]. Astronomical Journal 
( 1968), volume 73, pages S181-S182. 

, B. G. Marsden, and F. L. Whipple. "Influence of a Comet Belt 

Beyond Neptune on the Motions of Periodic Comets." Astronomical Journal 
(1968), volume 73, pages 727-729. 

Harrington, J. V., M. D. Grossi, R. W. Goff, and B. M. Langworthy. 
"Radio Occulation Measurements of Planetary Atmospheres and Ionospheres 
from an Orbiting Pair." American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics 
7th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, New York, January 1969. 

Hawkins, G. S. Splendor in the Sky. Revised edition. New York: Harper & 
Row, 1969. 

Hearn, D. R. "Consistent Analysis of Gamma-Ray Astronomy Experiments" 
[abstract]. Bulletin of the American Physical Society (1968), volume 13, page 
1435. 

. "Consistent Analysis of Gamma-Ray Astronomy Experiments." Nuclear 

Instruments and Methods ( 1 969 ) , volume 70, pages 200-204. 

Helmken, H. F. See Fazio, Helmken, Rieke, and Weekes. 

Hodge, P. W. See also Brownlee, Hodge, and Wright; Wright and Hodge. 

. "The Radial Distribution of H II Regions in Spiral Galaxies." Astro- 
physical Journal ( 1968), volume 155, pages 417— 427. 

. "Some Optical Properties of Seyfert Galaxies and Related Objects." 



Astronomical Journal (1968), volume 73, pages 846-847. 

. Concepts of the Universe. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969. 

. "Distribution of H II Regions in Irregular Galaxies." Astrophysical 



Journal ( 1969), volume 156, pages 847-852. 
, "H II Regions in Twenty Nearby Galaxies." Astrophysical Journal, 



Supplement Number 157 (1969), volume 18, pages 73-83. 



198 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 
, and D. E. Brownlee. "Meteor Physics and the Density of Particles at 



Satellite and Balloon Altitudes." Pages 116—17, in Space Research IX, edited 
by K. S. W. Champion, P. A. Smith, and R. L. Smith-Rose. Amsterdam: 
North-Holland Publishing Company, 1969. 

-, and R. W. Michie. "The Structure of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies of the 



Local Group." Astronomical Journal (1969), volume 74, pages 587-596. 
, and F. W. Wright. "Evolution of the Cluster System of the Large 



Magellanic Cloud" [abstract]. Astronomical Journal (1968), volume 73, page 
S184. 

-, and F. W. Wright. "Studies of the Large Magellanic Cloud, X: Pho- 



tometry of Variable Stars." Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Number 153 
(1968), volume 17, pages 467-490. 

-, and F. W. Wright. "Studies of Particles for Extraterrestrial Origin, 6: 



Comparisons of Previous Influx Estimates and Present Satellite Flux Data." 
Journal of Geophysical Research (1968), volume 73, pages 7589-7592. 

-, and F. W. Wright. "A Semiempirical Estimate of the Micrometeorite 



Flux at the Earth's Surface and Its Implications." Icarus (1969), volume 10, 
pages 214-219. 

Hummer, D. G., and G. B. Rybicki. "Line Formation in Differentially Moving 
Media with Temperature Gradients." Pages 213-223, in Resonance Lines in 
Astrophysics. Boulder, Colorado: National Center for Atmospheric Research, 
1968. 

, and G. B. Rybicki. "Redshifted Line Profiles from Differentially Ex- 
panding Atmospheres." Astrophysical Journal (1968), volume 153, pages 
L107-L110. 

Jacchia, L. G. "The Neutral Atmosphere Above 200 km." Pages 478-486, in 
Space Research IX, edited by K. S. W. Champion, P. S. Smith, and R. L. 
Smith-Rose. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1969. 

. "Recent Advances in Upper Atmosphere Structure." XII Plenary Meet- 
ing of cosPAR, Prague, May 1969. 

-, J. W. Slow^ey, and I. G. Campbell. "A Study of the Semi- Annual Den- 



sity Variation in the Upper Atmosphere from 1958 to 1966, Based on Satellite 

Drag Analysis." Planetary and Space Science (1969), volume 17, pages 49-60. 
Kalkofen, W. See also Peterson and Kalkofen; Noyes and Kalkofen. 
. "Mapping Methods in Radiative Transfer." Pages 65-77, in Resonance 

Lines in Astrophysics. Boulder, Colorado: National Center for Atmospheric 

Research, 1968. 

"The Simultaneous Solution of Strongly Coupled Transfer Equations." 



Pages 3-26, in Resonance Lines in Astrophysics. Boulder, Colorado: National 
Center for Atmospheric Research, 1968. 

Krook, M., and G. B. Rybicki. "Radiative Transfer in Fluctuating Media." 
Transport Theory, Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society Sym- 
posium in Applied Mathematics (1968), volume 1, pages 237-248. 

KuRUCZ, R. L. See also Maran, Kurucz, Strom, and Strom. 

. "A Matrix Method for Calculating the Source Function, Mean Intensity, 

and Flux in a Model Atmosphere." Astrophysical Journal (1969), volume 
156, pages 235-240. 

Lambeck, K. "A Hypothetical Application for the Geometric Method of Satellite 
Geodesy." Australian Surveyor (1968), volume 22, pages 281-309. 

. "Scaling a Spatial Triangulation with Laser Range Measurements." 

Studia Geophysica et Geodetica ( 1968) , volume 12, pages 339-349. 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 199 

. "Comparisons and Combinations of Geodetic Parameters Estimated from 



Dynamic and Geometric Satellite Solutions and from Mariner Flights." XII 
Plenary Meeting of cospar, Prague, May 1969. 
. "Position Determination from Simultaneous Observations of Artificial 



Satellites: An Optimization of Parameters." Bulletin Geodesique (1969), 
number 92, pages 155-167. 
. "A Spatial Triangulation Solution for a Global Network and the Posi- 



tion of the North American Datum within It." Annual Meeting of the Ameri- 
can Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., April 1969. 

Lane, N. F., and A. Dalgarno. "Electron Cooling by Vibrational Excitation of 
O2." Journal of Geophysical Research (1969), volume 74, pages 3011-3012. 

Latham, D. W. See also Carbon, Gingerich, and Latham. 

. "Some Performance Data for Eastman Kodak Ila Emulsions." Astro- 
nomical Journal (1968), volume 73, pages 515-517. 

Lecar, M. See also Goldstein, Cuperman, and Lecar. 

. "An Exactly Soluble Problem of Radiative Transfer without Redistribu- 
tion in Frequency in an Inhomogeneous Atmosphere." Journal of Quantitative 
Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (1969), volume 9, pages 1017-1024. 

Lee, a. R., and N. P. Carleton. "Excitation of N2'^ Ions by Electrons at Near 
Threshold Energies." Physics Letters (1968), volume 27A, pages 195—196. 

Lehr, C. G. "Geodetic and Geophysical Applications of Laser Satellite Ranging." 
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Symposium on Geoscience 
Electronics, Washington, D.C., May 1969. 

, L. A. Maestre, and R. R. Dow^ner. "Laser Ranging to Satellites: 

The Smithsonian System on Mt. Hopkins." Conference on Refraction Effects 
in Geodesy and Electronic Distance Measurement, University of New South 
Wales, November 1968. 

, and M. R. Pearlman. "Laser Ranging to Satellites." XII Plenary 



Meeting of cospar, Prague, May 1969. 
, M. R. Pearlman, M. H. Salisbury, and T. F. Butler, Jr. "The Laser 



System at the Mount Hopkins Observatory." International Symposium on 
Electromagnetic Distance Measurement and Atmospheric Refraction, Boulder, 
Colorado, June 1969. 
, M. R. Pearlman, J. L. Scott, and J. Wohn. "Laser Satellite Rang- 



ing." Symposium on Laser Applications in the Geosciences, Douglas Advanced 

Research Laboratories, Huntington Beach, California, June 1969. 
Levy, H., II. See Flannery and Levy. 
Lilley, a. E. See Palmer, Zuckerman, Penfield, Lilley, and Mezger; Penzias, 

JefFerts, Dickinson, Lilley, and Penfield; Zuckerman, Palmer, Penfield, and 

Lilley. 
Litvak, M. M., B. M. Zuckerman, and D. F. Dickinson. "Conditions for 

Microwave Radiation from Excited OH A -Doublet States." Astrophysical Jour- 
nal (1969), volume 156, pages 875-886. 
Lundquist, C. a. "Geodesy." American Association for the Advancement of 

Science General Symposium on Space Applications, Dallas, December 1968. 
. "Photometry from Apollo Tracking." XII Plenary Meeting of cospar^ 

Prague, May 1969. 
Maran, S. p., R. L. Kurucz, K. M. Strom, and S. E. Strom. "The Rocket 

Ultraviolet Spectra of A Stars." Astrophysical Journal (1968), volume 153, 

pages 147-150. 



200 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Marsden, B. G. See also Benima, Ghemiack, Marsden, and Porter; Hamid, 

Marsden, and Whipple. 
. "Reports on the Progress of Astronomy. Gomets." Quarterly Journal of 

the Royal Astronomical Society (1968), volume 9, pages 304-321. 
. "Gomets and Nongravitational Forces. II." Astronomical Journal 



(1969), volume 74, pages 720-734. 

Marvin, U. B., J. A. Wood, and J. S. Dickey, Jr. "Alumina-Rich Phases in 
the Pueblito de AUende Meteorite." 50th Annual Meeting of the American 
Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., April 1969. 

Mathur, N. G. See also Swenson and Mathur. 

. "Design of a Gorrelator Supersynthesis Array." Institute of Electrical 

and Electronics Engineers International Antennas and Propagation Sympo- 
sium, Boston, September 1968. 

"A Pseudodynamic Programming Technique for the Design of Gorre- 



lator Supersynthesis Arrays." Radio Science (1969), volume 4, pages 235-243. 

McGoRKELL, R. H., E. L. Fireman, J. G. D'Amico, and S. Thompson. "Radio- 
active Isotopes in Hoba West and Other Iron Meteorites." Meteoritics (1968), 
volume 4, pages 1 13-122. 

McGrosky, R. E., and Z. Geplecha. "Photographic Networks for Fireballs." 
Atomic Energy Agency International Symposium on Meteorite Research, 
Vienna, August 1968. 

Megrue, G. H. "A Report for the International Union of Geological Sciences on 
the Symposium on Meteorite Research." Geological Newsletter (1968), vol- 
ume 4, pages 12-15. 

. "Distribution and Origin of Primordial Helium, Neon, and Argon in 

the Fayetteville and Kapoeta Meteorites." Pages 809-817, in Meteorite Re- 
search, edited by P. M. Millman. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Gompany, 
1969. 

Menzel, D. H. "Long Period Variables and Planetary Nebulae." International 
Astronomical Union Symposium No. 34 (1968), pages 279-281. 

. "The Nature of Solar Flares." Pages 183-187, in Nobel Symposium 9. 

Mass Motions in Solar Flares and Related Phenomena, edited by Y. Ohman. 
Stockholm: Almquist and Wiksell, 1968. 

. "The Role of Magnetic Fields in the Origin and Structure of Planetary 



Nebulae." International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 34 (1968), 
pages 386-389. 
. "Galendars and the Meaning of Leap Year." Highlights for Children 



(1969), volume 24, page 38. 
. "The Moon as an Abode of Life?" Proceedings of the American Philo- 



sophical Society (1969), volume 113, pages 102-126. 
. "Oscillator Strengths, f, for High-Level Transitions in Hydrogen." 



Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Number 161 (1969), volume 18, pages 
221-246. 
. "Radio Emission from High-Level Transitions in Hydrogen." Philo- 



sophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1969), volume A264, 
pages 249-250. 
. "Temperature Distribution of the Moon." Philosophical Transactions of 



the Royal Society of London (1969), volume A264, pages 141-144. 
. "Venus Past, and the Distance of the Sun." Proceedings of the American 



Philosophical Society (1969), volume 113, pages 197-202. 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 201 
."What Day is Today?" Highlights for Children (1969), volume 24, 



pages 16-17. 
. "What We Hope to Find on the Moon." Highlights for Children 



(1969), volume 24, pages 6-7. 

-, and J. M. Pasachoff. "On the Obliteration of Strong Fraunhofer Lines 



by Electron Scattering in the Solar Corona." Publications of the Astronomical 
Society of the Pacific (1968), volume 80, pages 458-461. 

-, and J. M. Pasachoff. "Polarization of the Corona." Sky and Tele- 



scope (1968), volume 36, pages 380-381. 

-, and J. M. Pasachoff. "Sun." Pages 2171-2175, volume 12, in Above 



and Beyond. Encyclopedia of Aviation and Space Sciences. Chicago: New 

Horizons Publishers, Inc., 1968. 
Mercer, R. D., and J. M. Pasachoff. "Ninety Minutes of Totality!" Sky and 

Telescope (1969), volume 37, pages 20-22. 
MoHR, p. A. "Annular Faulting in the Ethiopian Rift System." Bulletin of the 

Geophysical Observatory of Addis Ababa (1968), volume 12, pages 1-9. 
. "The Cainozoic Volcanic Succession in Ethiopia." Bulletin Volcano- 

logique (1968), volume 32, pages 5-14. 
. "Potash-Bearing Evaporites, Danakil Area, Ethiopia — A Discussion on 



the Paper by J. G. Holwerda and R. W. Hutchinson." Economic Geology 
(1968), volume 63, pages 572-573. 
, and P. GouiN. "Gravity Traverses in Ethiopia." Bulletin of the Geo- 



physical Observatory of Addis Ababa (1968), volume 12, pages 27-56. 
, and M. J. LeBas. "Feldspathoidal Rocks from the Ethiopian Cainozoic 



Volcanic Province." Geologische Rundschau (1968), volume 58, pages 273- 

280. 
Morrison, D. See also Sagan and Morrison. 
. "Martian Surface Temperatures" [abstract]. Astronomical Journal 

(1968), volume 73, page S109. 
. "Venus: Absence of a Phase Effect at a 2-Gentimeter Wavelength." 



Science (1969), volume 163, pages 815-817. 
, and E. H. Greenberg. "Hypersensitization of Infrared-Sensitive Photo- 



graphic Emulsions." Astronomical Journal (1968), volume 73, pages 518-521. 
, and N. D. Morrison. "A Photometric Study of BV 357." Astronomical 



Journal (1968), volume 73, pages 777-780. 
, and C. Sagan. "Interpretation of the Mircowave Phase Effect of Mer- 



cury" [abstract]. Astronomical Journal (1968), volume 73, page S27. 
NoYEs, R. W. See also Goldberg, Noyes, Parkinson, Reeves, and Withbroe; 

Pasachoff, Noyes, and Beckers. 
. "Infrared Intensity Distribution at the Solar Limb in the 20-Micron 

Region." Pages 77-80, in Infrared Astronomy, edited by P. J. Brancazio and 

A. G. W. Cameron. New York: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Inc., 

1968. 
. "The Solar Continuum in the Far-Infrared and Millimetre Regions." 



Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1968), volume 
A264, pages 205-208. 
Noyes, R. W., L. Goldberg, W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, and G. L. 
Withbroe. "Preliminary euv Spectroheliograms from oso-iv" [abstract]. 
Astronomical Journal (1968), volume 73, page S73. 
36&-269 O — 70 14 



202 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 
, and W. Kalkofen. "Observations and Interpretation of the Solar 



Lyman Continuum." Solar Physics Meeting of the American Astronomical 
Society, Pasadena, California, February 1969. 

NozAWA, Y. "Characteristics of a Television Photometer." 4th Symposium on 
Photoelectric Image Devices, London, September 1968. 

. "Problems Encountered during Development of an Astronomical Tele- 
vision System for an Earth-Orbiting Observatory." World Conference on 
Space Technology, Crete, May 1969. 

Palmer, P., B. Zuckerman, H. Penfield, A. E. Lilley, and P. G. Mezger. 
"Determinations of Helium Abundance from Radiofrequency Recombination 
Lines." Astrophysical Journal (1%9), volume 156, pages 887-901. 

Pasachoff, J. M. See also Menzel and PasachofF; Mercer and Pasachoff; Pol- 
lack and Pasachoff . 

. "Comments on Inclined Spectral Features." International Astronomical 

Union Symposium Number 35 (1968), pages 245-246. 

"Quasar." Pages 1870-1871, volume 10, in Above and Beyond. The 



Encylopedia of Aviation and Space Sciences. Chicago: New Horizons 
Publishers, Inc., 1968. 
. "X-Ray Star." Page 2533, volume 14, in Above and Beyond. The Ency- 



clopedia of Aviation and Space Sciences. Chicago: New Horizons Publishers, 
Inc., 1968. 
, R. W. Noyes, and J. M. Beckers. "Spectral Observations of Spicules 



at Two Heights in the Solar Chromosphere." Solar Physics (1968), volume 5, 
pages 131-158. 
, and J. B. Pollack. "Stars." Pages 2159-2163, volume 12, in Above and 



Beyond. The Encyclopedia of Aviation and Space Sciences. Chicago: New 
Horizons Publishers, Inc., 1968. 

-, and J. I. Silk. "The Interpretation of the Absorption-Line Red-Shifts 



in the Solar Spectrum." Solar Physics (1968), volume 4, pages 474-475. 
Pearlman, M. R. See also Lehr and Pearlman; Lehr, Pearlman, Salisbury, and 

Butler; Lehr, Pearlman, Scott, and Wohn. 
, and M. D. Grossl "The Long Base Radio Interferometer and Methods 

for Refractive Corrections." International Symposium on Electronic Distance 

Measurement and Atmospheric Refraction, Boulder, Colorado, June 1969. 
, and M. H. Salisbury. "The sao Facilities." 2nd Conference on Lidar 



Probing of the Atmosphere, Brookhaven, New York, April 1969. 

Penzias, a. a., K. B. Jefferts, D. F. Dickinson, A. E. Lilley, and H. 
Penfield. "A Search for Line Emission from Singly Ionized Hydrogen Mole- 
cules." Astrophysical Journal (1968), volume 154, pages 389-390. 

Peterson, D. M., and W. Kalkofen. "Balmer Lines in Early-Type Stars." 
Pages 169-212, in Resonance Lines in Astrophysics. Boulder, Colorado: 
National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1968. 

Pollack, J. B. See also Pasachoff and Pollack; Wood, Wattson, and Pollack. 

, and J. M. Pasachoff. "Milky Way." Pages 1706-1707, volume 9, in 

Above and Beyond. The Encyclopedia of Aviation and Space Sciences. Chi- 
cago: New Horizons Publishers, Inc., 1968. 

, and C. Sagan. "The Case for Ice Clouds on Venus." Journal of Geo- 



physical Research (1968), volume 73, pages 5943-5949. 
, and C. Sagan. "Nongrey Greenhouse Calculations of the Venus Atmos- 



phere" [abstract]. Astronomical Journal (1968), volume 73, page S32. 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSIGAL OBSERVATORY 203 
, and C. Sagan. "An Analysis of Martian Photometry and Polarimetry." 



Space Science Reviews (1969), volume 9, pages 243-299. 

-, and A. T. Wood, Jr. "Venus: Implications from Microwave Spectros- 



copy of the Atmospheric Content of Water Vapor." Science (1968), volume 
161, pages 1125-1127. 

Reid, R. H. G. See also Dalgarno and Reid. 

, and A. Dalgarno. "Fine Structure Transitions and Shape Reso- 
nances." Physical Review Letters (1969), volume 22, pages 1029-1030. 

RiEKE, G. H. See also Fazio, Helmken, Rieke, and Weekes. 

, and T. C. Weekes. "Production of Cosmic Gamma Rays by Compton 

Scattering in Discrete Sources." Astrophysical Journal (1969), volume 155, 
pages 429-437. 

RoLFF, J. "Central Bureau for Satellite Geodesy Report." United Nations Con- 
ference on the Exploration and Peaceful Use of Outer Space, Vienna, August 
1968. 

RybickIj G. B. See Hummer and Rybicki; Krook and Rybicki. 

Sagan, C. See also Morrison and Sagan; Pollack and Sagan. 

SagaNj C. and D. Morrison. "The Planet Mercury." Science Journal (1968), 
volume 4, pages 72-77. 

Sehnal, L. See Gaposchkin and Sehnal. 

Sharma, a. I. See Carleton, Sharma, Goody, Liller, and Roesler. 

Shear, I., R. R. Bravoco, M. D. Grossi, and P. E. LANGEViN.'Trofile Inversion 
Processing of Radio Occulation Data for the Determination of Planetary 
Atmospheres and Ionospheres." California Technology-Jet Propulsion Labora- 
tory Conference on Scientific Applications of Radio and Radar Tracking in 
the Space Program, Pasadena, California, April 1969. 

Silk, J., and J. P. Wright. "The Gravitational Collapse of a Slowly Rotating 
Relativistic Star." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (1969), 
volume A143, pages 55-71. 

Slowey, J. See Jacchia, Slowey, and Campbell. 

Strom, K. M. See Maran, Kurucz, Strom, and Strom; Strom, Gingerich, and 
Strom; Strom and Strom. 

Strom, S. E. See also Conti and Strom; Maran, Kurucz, Strom, and Strom. 

. "Model Atmospheres for RR Lyrae Stars." Astrophysical Journal 

(1969), volume 156, pages 177-182. 

, O. J. Gingerich, and K. M. Strom. "On the Composition of Sirius 



Revisited." The Observatory (1968), volume 88, pages 168-172. 
, and K. M. Strom. "Effect of Silicon Opacity on B and A Star 



Atmospheres" [abstract]. Astronomical Journal (1968), volume 73, pages 
S203-S204. 
, and K. M. Strom. "Model Atmospheres for RR Lyrae Stars" [abstract]. 



Astronomical Journal (1968), volume 73, pages S203-S204. 
, and K. M. Strom. "The Effect of Lyman-Alpha Wing Opacity on 



the Temperature Scale and Helium Content for Subdwarfs." Astrophysical 
Journal (1969), volume 155, pages 363-365. 
, and K. M. Strom. "Effect of Silicon Opacity on B- and A-Star 



Atmospheres." Astrophysical Journal (1969), volume 155, pages 17-26. 
SwENSON, G. W., Jr., and N. C. Mathur. "The Interferometer in Radio 
Astronomy." Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engi- 
neers (1968), volume 56, pages 2114-2130. 



204 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 
, and N. C. Mathur. "On the Space-Frequency Equivalence of a Cor- 



relator Interferometer." Radio Science (1969), volume 4, pages 69-71. 

Truran, J. W., W. D. Arnett, S. Tsuruta, and A. G. W. Cameron. "Nucleo- 
synthesis in Supernova Explosions." Pages 77-89, in Proceedings of the Sym- 
posium on the Origin and Distribution of the Elements, edited by L. H. 
Ahrens. London: Pergamon Press, 1968. 

Tsuruta, S. See also Truran, Arnett, Tsuruta, and Cameron. 

. "Equilibrium Composition of Matter at High Densities." Pages 161-168, 

in Nucleosynthesis, edited by W. D. Arnett, C. J. Hansen, J. W. Troran, and 
A. G. W. Cameron. New York: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Inc., 
1968. 

-. "Neutrino Processes in White Dwarf Stars." Colloquium at the Institute 



for Fundamental Physics, Kyoto, April 1969. 
. "Neutron Star Models." Tokyo Astronomical Observatory Seminar, 



Tokyo, April 1969. 
. "On Neutron Stars and Pulsars," Astronomy Seminar, Tokyo, April 



1969. 
. "On Neutron Stars and Related Problems." Physics Colloquium in 



Nagoya University, Nagoya, April 1969. 

"URCA Shells in White Dwarfs." Joint Colloquium of Astronomy and 



Physics, Seattle, Washington, May 1969. 
, and A. G. W. Cameron, "urca Shells in White Dwarf Stars." Ameri- 



can Astronomical Society Meeting, Hawaii, April 1969. 

Usher, P. D., and C. A. Whitney. "Non-Linear Pulsations of Discrete Stellar 
Models. I. First-Order Asymptotic Theory of the One-Zone Model." Astro- 
physical Journal (1968), volume 154, pages 203-214. 

Victor, G. A., and A. Dalgarno. "Dipole Properties of Molecular Hydrogen." 
Journal of Chemical Physics (1969), volume 50, pages 2535-2539. 

Wattson, R. B. See also Wood, Wattson, and Pollack. 

. "An Investigation of a Gray, Optically Thick Planetary Atmosphere in 

Radiative-Convective Equilibrium." Astrophysical Journal (1968), volume 154, 
pages 987-998. 

Weekes, T. C. See Fazio, Helmken, Rieke, and Weekes; Rieke and Weekes. 

Whipple, F. L. See also Hamid, Marsden, and Whipple. 

. "On Fundamental Scientific Advances Resulting from the Space Pro- 
gram. Pages 9-23, in Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bio- 
astronautics and the Exploration of Space, edited by C. H. Roadman, H. Strug- 
hold, and R. B. Mitchell. San Antonio: Southwest Research Institute, 1968. 
-. "A Radio Telescope and the Heiligenschein. Sky and Telescope (1969), 



volume 37, page 85. 

Whitney, C. A. See Usher and Whitney. 

Wood, A. T., Jr., R. B. Wattson, and J. B. Pollack. "Venus: Estimates of 
the Surface Temperature and Pressure from Radio and Radar Measure- 
ments." 5ct>nc« (1968), volume 162, pages 114-116. 

Wood, J. A. See Marvin, Wood, and Dickey. 

Wright, F. W. See also Brownlee, Hodge, and Wright ; Hodge and Wright. 

. Celestial Navigation. Cambridge, Maryland: Cornell Maritime Press, 

Inc., 1969. 

, and P. W. Hodge. "Distribution of the Ages of Star Clusters in the 

Large Magellanic Cloud" [abstract]. Astronomical Journal (1968), volume 
73, page S210. 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 205 
, and P. W. Hodge. "A New and Unusual Variable Star in the Large 



Magellanic Cloud." Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 
(1969), volume 81, pages 238-247. 

Wright, J. P. See Gaposchkin and Wright; Silk and Wright. 

Yen, J. L., B. ZucacERMAN, P. Palmer, and H. Penfield. "Detection of the ^irs/z 
J = 5/2 State of OH at 5-Centimeter Wavelength." Astrophysical Journal {Letters) 
(1969), volume 156, pages L27-L32. 

ZucKERMAN, B., I. A. Ball, D. F. Dickinson, and H. Penfield. "Time Varia- 
tions in Galactic OH Emission Sources." Astrophysical Letters (1969), volume 3, 
pages 97-101. 

ZucKERMAN, B., P. Palmer, H. Penfield, and A. E. Lilley. "Detection of Micro- 
wave Radiation from the ^7ri/2, J = 1/2 State of OH." Astrophysical Journal {Letters) 
(1968), volume 153, page L69. 



Special Reports 

Through its Special Report series, the Observatory distributes cata- 
logs of satellite observations, orbital data, and scientific papers before 
journal publication. 

281 (15 July 1968). "The CoupUng of Matter and Radiation in Cosmology," 
by H. E. Mitler. 

282 (18 July 1968). "The Celescope Experiment," by R. J. Davis. 

283 (1 August 1968). "A Measurable Effect of General Relativity in Satellite 
Orbits," by E. M. Gaposchkin and J. P. Wright. 

284 (15 August 1968). "Martian Surface Temperatures," by D. Morrison. 

285 (3 September 1968) . "First-Order Plenetary Theory," by S. E. Hamid. 

286 (20 September 1968). "Selenocentric and Lunar Topocentric Coordinates 
of Different Spherical Systems," by B. Kolaczek. 

287 (30 September 1968) . "Satellite Orbital Data," No. 0-18. 

288 (4 October 1968). "Photographic Networks for Fireballs," by R. E. 
McCrosky and Z. Ceplecha. 

291 (30 December 1968). "Analysis of the cpl System, I.," by M. R. Schaffner. 

292 (31 January 1969). "Thermal Models and Microwave Temperatures of the 
Planet Mercury," by D. Morrison. 

293 (3 February 1969). "The Balmer Lines in Early-Type Stars," by D. M. 
Peterson. 

294 (10 February 1969). "Possible Geopotential Improvement from Satellite 
Altimetry," by C. A. Lundquist and G. E. O. Giacaglia; "Numerical Definition 
of Localized Functions on a Sphere," by K. Hebb and S. G. Mair. 

295 (28 February 1969). "Revised Values for Coefficients of Zonal Spherical 
Harmonics in the Geopotential," by Y. Kozai. 

297 (10 March 1969). "Tabulation of Further Measures of the Composition of 
Dust Particles Related to the Problem of the Identification of Interplanetary 
Dust," by F. W. Wright, P. W. Hodge, and C. C. Langway, Jr. 

299 (27 May 1969). "Influence of a Cometary Belt on the Motions of Uranus 
and Neptune," by S. E. Hamid. 

301 (30 June 1969). "Further Study of Inelastic II F-2 Apogee Burn," by 
M. R. Wolf. 



206 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

CARLTON W. TILLINGHAST 

Carlton W. Tillinghast, Jr., author of the following paper and assistant 
director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, died of cancer on 
27 July 1969. He was 36 years old. 

In the spring of 1969, Carl was participating in a graduate seminar on 
science and public policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, 
Harvard University. This essay, prepared for that seminar, is a product 
and expression of a federal-university relationship that deeply interested 
him. The paper offers his evaluation of this type of relationship, which 
may promise much for the future of scientific and scholarly research. We 
present it here as the last document of a man dedicated to ministering to 
the needs of the scientific community. 

Carl joined the Astrophysical Observatory in 1959 as administrative 
chief of the Computations Division. His earlier training and experi- 
ence proved to be of substantial value. After graduation in 1955 from a 
special five-year program conducted jointly by Cornell University and 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he became an analytical 
nuclear engineer for Pratt and Whitney Aircraft. Two years later, he 
served for six months as a second lieutenant with the United States Army 
Signal Corps. From 1957 to 1959 he was a research engineer at Mitre 
Corporation. 

At SAO he first directed the complex activities of a staff of thirty in 
operating the Observatory's computer. His outstanding success led a 
year later to his appointment — at the age of 27 — as assistant director for 
Management. 

He early determined that his first responsibility was to relieve the 
scientists of administrative burdens. To that end, he developed a series 
of service units, such as business, contracts, personnel, and editorial and 
publications, and staffed them with men and women of exceptional 
qualifications. Together, they developed a policy of strong group respon- 
sibility and individual freedom and initiative. 

Carl participated in the planning of new scientific programs so that he 
might better anticipate and meet their new administrative needs. Al- 
though his technical background enabled him to appreciate many of 
the complexities of these programs, Carl strenuously refrained from en- 
tering the area of science development. 

His greatest strength was in his relations with others. He was con- 
cerned with people as people, not as boxes in an organization chart. 
Through this concern he communicated his own strength and self- 
assurance, his creative and imaginative thinking, his understanding — and 
he inspired those qualities in others. 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 207 

In nominating him for a special Smithsonian award that he received in 
1963, Dr. Fred L. Whipple wrote that "because of his effectiveness and 
wise counsel on administrative matters, scientists have been enabled to 
devote the fullest possible attention to scientific research. By his example, 
Tillinghast has instilled in all levels of his staff a challenge to initiative 
and achievement. He has developed an effective staff, made significant 
administrative and budgetary improvements, and given maximum sup- 
port to the Observatory's scientific achievement." 

Carl is survived by his wife Suzanne and four children. Their loss and 
the Observatory's are inestimable. 



JOINT GOVERNMENT-UNIVERSITY 
LABORATORIES IN THE UNITED STATES* 

Carlton W. Tillinghast 



Introduction 

Joint government-university laboratories have existed in this country 
since about 1955 and have emerged as a distinct class of research estab- 
lishment. Now they are coming in for considerable attention from the 
government. This paper is addressed to the questions: What are joint 
laboratories? Why do they succeed? Where do they fit into the overall 
government research picture? And what will they mean, in the long run, 
to the government and to universities? 



What Are Joint Laboratories? 

As defined here, a joint laboratory is a federal laboratory located on a 
university campus and staffed and operated by federal personnel working 
together with university faculty and graduate students. Two good ex- 
amples are the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (jila), 
operated by the National Bureau of Standards and the University of 
Colorado, and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (sao) at 
Harvard University. I would guess there are only a very few tens of such 
laboratories in the United States today. However, the number is growing. 

The purposes of a joint laboratory are research and teaching. The 
government is interested mainly in research, and the university, presum- 

* Prepared for Seminar in Science and Public Policy, John Fitzgerald Kennedy 
School of Government, Harvard University, May 1969. 



208 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

ably, in both teaching and research. The goals of the government and 
of the university and to various extents their organizations can remain 
separate, yet by working together both parties can achieve more than they 
ever could separately. Their roles as government and university are not 
incompatible. In fact, they are complementary. Staff and facilities are 
shared on both sides. Government scientists typically hold joint academic 
appointments and teach and supervise graduate students to the extent 
of the university's needs and their own desires. 

It should be understood that a joint laboratory is not a method of 
funding university research. There need be no financial transaction at 
all between the government and the host university. It is simply a work- 
ing partnership between two scientific organizations. 

The government's original motive in creating joint laboratories was 
probably to go where the scientific action was and to improve its recruit- 
ing position and the professional contacts open to its staff. The uni- 
versities probably saw it as a chance to increase their faculty, laboratory, 
and fellowship resources. 

The initiatives to establish joint laboratories were taken independently 
by the federal agencies and the universities concerned. Nobody noticed 
what was happening on a government-wide basis. Even laboratories 
like the two mentioned above, which early had scientific contacts with 
one another, were largely unaware of their organizational similarities. 
Now this situation is beginning to change. The Federal Council for Sci- 
ence and Technology (fcst) has studied and reported on the benefits 
of close affiliation between federal laboratories and universities, and sev- 
eral agencies have consciously begun to copy the prototypes in establish- 
ing new joint laboratories. 



Why Do They Succeed? 

The Federal Council's attention and the fact that government agen- 
cies that already have them are creating new ones imply that joint 
laboratories have been successful. Many people feel that they have been 
exceptionally so. A task force of the fcst found that among 76 federal 
laboratories of all types, those with close university relationships had a 
"purpose, an alertness, an enthusiasm, a striving for excellence, a dedica- 
tion, a feeling of accomplishment coupled with unlimited potential con- 
tribution, a vibrant participation at the advancing frontiers of science, 
an excitement, a sense of life and involvement" that were seldom found 
elsewhere. Although apparently this is a statement on morale rather 
than on performance, nevertheless it constitutes a strong endorsement. 



' SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 209 

There are some obvious reasons why joint laboratories should suc- 
ceed. Shared staff and facilities, as well as recruiting advantages, fall 
into this category. But they fail to explain the extent to which joint 
laboratories seem to have succeeded. Nothing mentioned so far would 
necessarily explain why a direct link with a university should make a 
government laboratory notably more effective than it would have been 
otherwise. Are scientists and administrators overreacting to a novel 
situation, or are there basic reasons why joint laboratories should stand 
out from other forms of research organization? Indeed, there seem to 
be two such reasons. 

First, consider the framework in which the conventional government 
laboratory operates. Scientific research is an intellectual business, while 
related activities, such as granting research funds to investigators, are 
administrative. Science succeeds only through its intellectual perform- 
ance. Heretofore, the government laboratory has operated as part of 
the executive branch of the government or, if not as part of it, at least 
entirely within it. The government is organized to govern, not to foster 
free inquiry and intellectual creativity. In fact, the approaches needed 
for the two kinds of activity are somewhat incompatible. 

The university, on the other hand, is specifically designed to impart 
knowledge and to stimulate scholarship. Success varies, but the basic 
goal of the whole system is scholarship. 

This is not to say that government research cannot succeed. Its 
history in this country is longer than that of academic research. Given 
the right leadership and what the fcst has called adequate "buffering" 
from the bureaucratic structure, it has produced some outstanding 
results. But other things being equal, a university today may offer a 
more congenial research atmosphere than the government can. Thus, 
the location of a federal laboratory is important. Its superficial structure 
and operations depend very little on where it is, but to enjoy certain 
indirect environmental benefits, it must be implanted in the university 
culture. 

Fortunately, the government can achieve its scientific goals in such 
an environment without compromising itself in the process. There is 
no basic incompatibility between government research and the univer- 
sity. Rather, the government's scientific goals fall outside the original 
goals for which government as we know it was designed. 

The second basic reason for the success of joint laboratories is less 
obvious. It is the presence of graduate students. Some government 
scientists do not want to teach and are in the government for just that 
reason. But the whole scientific organization gains in vitality by having 
students. The scientists who teach find it valuable to have to go back 
over essentials. For the rest of the staff, there is the benefit of even the 



\ 



210 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

informal contacts with vigorous, inventive young minds. The physicist 
Leopold Infeld once said that the ideal scientific meeting would include 
three groups of scientists : the older ones, for their breadth of view ; the 
heavily productive middle-aged group; and students, for their un- 
fettered creativity. The same is true of the university community. 

In short, universities provide an excellent environment for scientific 
research; and students, who are commonly viewed as beneficiaries of 
government-university research, in fact catalyze it. 



Joint Laboratories in the Federal Research Picture 

In a sense, joint laboratories are a logical extension of the govern- 
ment's long dependence on academic relationships. Visiting appoint- 
ments, for instance, while representing transaction at arm's length as 
far as interorganizational relationships go, have nevertheless been a 
source of strength to federal groups such as the Geological Survey. 
Among other benefits, joint laboratories increase the opportunities for 
these varied contacts outside the government. A laboratory affiliated 
with one university may well have more contacts with staff members of 
other universities than it would have otherwise. 

As part of the federal government's in-house research effort, joint 
laboratories do not compete directly with sponsored research at univer- 
sities and university consortia, nonprofit corporations, and the so-called 
federal-contract research centers. However, the joint-laboratory concept 
might sometimes provide the government with a viable in-house alter- 
native where it would otherwise have to turn to outside contracting. 

Whether a given research program should be done by the govern- 
ment or contracted out depends on long-range scientific and social goals 
as well as on immediate research objectives. It also depends on the 
availability of qualified federal personnel. Joint laboratories help to 
nurture the government's limited human resources. At a time when 
contractors and industry are attracting scientific talent away from the 
government, it is important to note that certain features of a joint lab- 
oratory can go a long way to make a federal scientific career as attractive 
as any other. 

The Bureau of the Budget and the General Accounting Office have 
recommended that the government consider the establishment of 
special institutes for research. In effect, these institutes would be govern- 
ment corporations designed to provide administrative flexibility and 
a degree of independence while retaining public accountability and 
control. Each one would have its own board of directors, but would 
be under the ultimate control of a cabinet officer or agency head. 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 211 

Although mainly intended as alternatives to existing arrangements 
for contract research, institutes could do the work of in-house federal 
laboratories, too. Either way, they could be affiliated with universities. 
A research institute could in fact embody the joint-laboratory concept, 
whatever it was called. Of course, from the legislative point of view, it 
would be easier simply to set up a joint laboratory without resorting to 
the institute mechanism. 

Although the institutes were first suggested in 1962, nothing has come 
of them yet. One reason is that some of the ills they were intended to 
cure have been handled in other ways. The idea behind the institute 
was flexibility. But flexibility, properly employed, may be more a state 
of mind than a system of rules. 

We tend to admire flexibility in other organizations at those points 
where we find our own organization inflexible. There are usually two 
sides to the matter. Government scientists at a university are sometimes 
surprised to find that their own rules are more flexible than those of 
the university. Here, as elsewhere, complementarity is one of the 
strengths of the joint laboratory. Together, the government and vmi- 
versity groups can capitalize on their respective flexibilities. 

When should the joint-laboratory approach be used by a government 
agency? Three principal considerations are the following: 

1. A joint laboratory should be used where intellectual creativity is 
important to the government's operation. This could be true for either 
basic or applied research. 

2. It may be feasible only when the principal experimental facilities 
and the objects of experimentation can be taken to the university. 

3. It will probably work well only when the government's activities 
are compatible with the nature of a university. For instance, a develop- 
ment activity with heavy subcontracting or a classified research project 
might not be sm table. 

The first point is the most important for the government to consider. 
An agency may fear that its laboratory will become the captive of the 
university and be diverted from its own mission or from the control of 
the agency. Or there may be a question as to whether applied research 
will do as well at a university as would basic research. The real question, 
though, is whether an element of creative thinking is required that the 
university connection will foster. 

The best arrangements are those in which the government and the 
university have complementary strengths as well as aspirations, not 
simply as to subject matter but also as to the way they approach it. For 
instance, a university department's approach may be intensive, whereas 
the government's interest in the same subject may be extensive, as in the 
contrast between specific topics in biology and the same topics from the 



212 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

broader viewpoint of ecology. Or it may be the other way around. In 
short, the dimensions of their two interests should combine so as to 
expand their joint effect. 

Instead of the government going to the university, could the univer- 
sity come to the government? That is, could teaching and research at 
a government laboratory away from the campus result in the same 
benefits that the government would enjoy on campus? Probably not, 
although there would surely still be some advantages. The university 
might benefit more than the government would, since the federal scien- 
tists would not be an integral part of the university community. How- 
ever, the location of a large fixed government experimental facility may 
preclude campus location or may at least dictate a more gradual move 
into the university community. 

Many universities operate federal-contract research centers. The 
question may arise whether one of these could serve as the contact point 
between an in-house government laboratory and the university. It would 
seem unlikely. A contract laboratory, while legally part of the university, 
is usually somewhat remoyed from its intellectual life. It is the direct, 
intimate contact with teaching and academic research that imparts the 
special vitality typical of the best joint endeavors. 



Problems for the Government 

Once the decision has been made to join forces with a university, the 
government laboratory and parent agency will face the problem oi 
adapting to a new situation. However, problem and opportunity may 
go hand in hand, for it was the very hope of change and improvement 
that led the government into the merger. 

The most important problems usually concern the government's per- 
sonnel policies. Whether it had moved to the campus or not, the govern- 
ment would sooner or later have had to face most of them. University 
affiliation merely hastens the confrontation. For instance, there is the 
problem of whether to permit teaching as a part of a government 
scientist's official duties. It can be done, but it need not be. An alternative 
is to give him leave without pay, and let the university make up the 
difference. Such monetary and other incentives should be adequate but 
not so high as to create the feeling that every government scientist musK 
teach in order to advance his career; if that happens, the government 
loses a recruiting advantage, for some scientists dislike teaching. 

Questions of conflict of interest and dual compensation will arise, 
involving, for example, outside consulting and publication, two areas 
where federal and academic traditions differ widely. But these problems 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 213 

are coming up even within long-established government research centers 
and have to do mostly with general changes in accepted standards of 
practice. 



Long-Range Benefits to the Government 

An effective relationship with a university will in the end not only 
improve the performance of the laboratory concerned but also have a 
favorable effect on the sponsoring government agency. The latter will be 
felt in at least three ways : 

First, like any in-house laboratory, the joint laboratory will provide 
a useful source of technical-management personnel for the parent 
agency. This can be important in this day of contract research programs, 
which require extensive government overseeing but at the same time 
compete with the government for the services of the very managers who 
could provide it. 

Second, mission-oriented agencies commonly give little thought to 
the educational side of the science policy problems between government 
and academia. Direct cooperation through the government-university 
laboratories will make a growing number of people in the agencies more 
aware of the academic viewpoint and generally more aware of the whole 
outside world. Both government and university horizons are broadened 
through collaboration. 

Third, the university environment may reveal certain truths about 
research administration that the agency can put to use elsewhere. The 
government's growing appreciation of the importance of students to 
research is a case in point. 



Effect on the University 

The principal benefits to the university are in the increased staff and 
facilities available for its teaching, plus the heightened intellectual stim- 
ulus that comes from having a larger group of scientists working together. 
Moreover, the government laboratory brings with it new contacts with 
the outside scientific world, for students and faculty alike. And in 
almost every joint program, the government provides added opportu- 
nities for scholarships and fellowships for the students. These are imme- 
diate and apparent benefits. 

The problems are more subtle and will take longer to reveal them- 
selves. They have to do with balance within the university and eventually 
with the nature of the university itself. 



214 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

The university's internal equilibrium may be affected not simply by 
joint laboratories but also by its whole range of contacts with the govern- 
ment. A Harvard study identified the following areas where imbalance 
could occur owing to government influence: It could occur among 
various fields of learning, between teaching and research, and between 
tenure and nontenure faculty at the university. 

The danger is real. This year, half the astronomy courses offered at 
Harvard are taught by Smithsonian people, who also teach courses in 
other fields such as physics and the history of science. From the educa- 
tional point of view, this is a desirable use of resources. More scientists i 
are teaching more students. But from Harvard's point of view, the 
present astronomy program depends not only on government funds, 
(which it may have through other sources) , but also on the presence of ai 
government scientific staff. 

The joint laboratory may have another, qualitative effect on the- 
university. Owing to its diflFerent ancestry, it will probably be more 
operationally inclined than its university counterpart. It is not unusual? 
for a federal laboratory to have a supporting-to-professional staff 
ratio of five to one, which is higher than that of most academic depart- 
ments or laboratories. The university does have a maintenance andf 
administrative staflF, but it is more or less separated from the academic 
department. The government organization, on the other hand, is rela- 
tively homogeneous. It is aware of itself as a group and accustomed to 
working as a group. While it is presumably only the federal scientific 
staff that is integrated with the academic community, the obvious pres- 
ence of the federal supporting staff may make the university feel ita 
academic environment is being weakened. 

The source of the disparity is historical. The university was originally 
a group of scholars, to which administrators were added as they became- 
necessary. The government, on the contrary, was first an administration, 
to which scholars were added as they became necessary. Whereas many ai 
university department is built around a few key faculty members, the 
government laboratory, even where it is locally a very scholarly effort, 
has to be operationally self-sufficient in many ways that the academic 
department does not. It has been said that the government must pay 
attention not only to the top of the pyramid of scientific activity, but to 
the entire base required to support the pinnacle of scientific excellence. 

Now it may be argued that tomorrow's science will be achieved 
through large organizations and not by individuals alone and that 
therefore exposure to a supporting bureaucracy is consistent with the 
full education that the universities ought to be giving in science. One 
wonders, though, whether that part of a modern scientific education 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 215 

belongs in the faculty of science, or in the business school, or in the 
government department, or in the university at all. Today, most things 
are done through organizations, and the same logic applied to other 
faculties in the university might lead to an odd institution indeed. Is 
education for the "real" world most efficiently achieved by isolating 
the university in the traditional way or by bringing some of the real 
world into the university? Note that bringing the outside world into the 
university is a different matter from sending students outside the uni- 
versity to gain practical experience as an adjunct to their education. The 
problem of science as science, versus science as a corporate effort, is an 
interesting one that remains to be resolved. 

It leads to the even more interesting question of whether the joint 
laboratory is in fact the forerunner of a whole new class of cooperative 
undertakings that may change the very nature of the university. The 
joint laboratory results from the government and the university sharing 
an interest in a particular field, in this case scientific. Since scholarship 
of all kinds is becoming increasingly important to the government's 
own operations, there is no reason to think that the joint-laboratory 
concept will not be extended to other fields as well. In fact, universities 
already have various institutes, advanced-study centers, and the like 
that resemble joint laboratories or their immediate precursors. Con- 
ceptually, there is very little difference between the reasons for the exist- 
ence of a joint laboratory and the reasons why, let us say, the Department 
of State might be interested in working together with a foreign-studies 
program at a university. The principle would hold for any field of 
knowledge. 

If government research and study groups become common on the 
university campus, then the university will change. For the first time, it 
will have a third active constituency in its midst, in addition to the 
faculty and students who were there before. Government researchers — 
physicists, economists, sociologists, and others — will serve on university 
committees, will vote with the faculty, and in general will become full- 
fledged members of the university community. This is already happening 
through the joint laboratories. 

Again, this is not necessarily bad. But it is different. Some may view 
it as a natural corollary to the pervasive influence the academics now 
have on the government. Like it or not, the seeming anomaly of govern- 
ment on campus can be no surprise to anyone who thinks about it. For 
the first time in history, the government is becoming a user, not merely 
a patron, of scholarship, which in modem times has until now been the 
preserve of the universities. Clearly, either the government or the 
universities as we know them must change. In fact, both are changing. 



216 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Conclusion 

Joint laboratories seem to be here to stay. They will affect the future 
both of government research and of universities. 

If anything, we may wonder why they did not come sooner. Their 
advent now may be due to the science explosion in the government and 
the universities, or to the improved transportation and communications 
that encourage decentralization of the government, or to the big- 
science trend that makes collaboration the price of progress, or toi 
all three. Or it may reflect a growing realization of the shortcomings of( 
bureaucracy, which science needs but from which it also suffers; uni- 
versity relationships may be part of the cure. 

As strictly functional management is now obsolete in almost every, 
modern organization, so may be strictly governmental laboratories. Eveni 
for hard-core mission-oriented research, new arrangements may serve* 
better than the old ones. 

For whatever reason joint laboratories have come, the time iss 
propitious. United States science policy is in a period of consolidation 
and reassessment. Joint laboratories may yield some useful answers to 
questions of science organization. 

There is a tendency, in press releases and in public statements, tc 
treat government-university collaboration and shared government facil- 
ities as cases of the government helping the universities, albeit in the 
national interest. There is more to it than that. At the working level, 
in terms of scientific output, the government benefits tremendously. In 
fact, the opportunities and the problems on both sides go far deeper 
than the sharing of equipment and personnel. 

The question may be raised whether similar cooperation between; 
government and industry would work as well as it does between the: 
government and universities. Perhaps so. University-industry labora- 
tories exist in this country, and they are common abroad. However, 
there is one important difference between government and the univer- 
sities, on the one hand, and industry on the other. Money is important 
to all of them. Good research management always means getting the 
most research for the dollar. But industry uses its research to maximize 
its dollars, whereas the government and the universities must use 
their dollars to maximize their research. This is an important distinc- 
tion. It is not clear what differences it might create between a govern- 
ment-industry laboratory and a government-university laboratory, but 
it may prove significant that the government and the universities are 
on the same side of the fence in this case. 

The separations and distinctions between government, higher educa- 
tion, and private enterprise are lessening all the time. In planning for 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 217 

science, we must ask not only whether it is government or private, but 
who does the best in a particular field. Where are the standards high? 
Who, private or public, has what the nation needs? Flexibility and en- 
lightened administration and policy making are difficult to attain, but 
they are what we need. Success in a complex world will depend not 
simply on our brains, or education, or expensive equipment, but also 
on our ability to combine them effectively through what might be called 
our organizational skills. 

Joint laboratories are a form of research integration between the 
government and the university sectors. We can think of the scientific 
community as having those two sectors, plus the foundations and non- 
profit groups, industrial research, and the amateurs (who still dominate 
certain narrow fields) . To make the best use of our national scientific 
resources, we must encourage their free interaction. Probably only the 
government is in a position, through policy, to integrate the research 
activities of all five sectors. Joint laboratories may be an important step 
in that direction. 



366-269 O — 70 15 



Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 
Martin H. Moynihan, Director 




THE SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE performs field 
Studies and experimentation in order to better understand the 
biological processes and evolutionary outcome of competitions for scarce 
space and resources. With the main thrust of research by the Institute 
addressing the evolution of ecological adaptations and patterns of be- 
havior, its efforts are being enhanced greatly by extended comparative 
research on these responses in difTering New and Old World tropical 
habitats. By research at carefully selected locations in Central and 
South America, Africa, southern Asia, and the Pacific Ocean, the 
Institute's biologists and students are adding important dimensions of 
understanding to the wealth of data assembled in Panama. 

Progress has been made by the Institute in strengthening the man- 
agement of its field stations and resources in order to be better prepared 
for future growth and to take advantage of opportunities for collabora- 
tive research and advanced education. 

The library, the area's finest on tropical biology, along with admin- 
istrative headquarters, conference rooms, and laboratories for perma- 
nent staff and several interns, has been housed in a newly acquired 
building on Ancon Hill, overlooking Panama City. 

In Cali, Colombia, only one hour by air from Panama, a small sub- 
station has been established in cooperation with the Museo Depart- 
mental de Historia Natural, directed by Dr. Carlos Lehmann. Space 
is available for several scientists and students to use the structure as a 
base camp from which to study habitats ranging from the low, wet 
forests of Buenaventura to the nearby Andean heights. 

Increased cooperation with universities has taken several forms. A 
cooperative arrangement with the University of Pennsylvania will be 

219 



220 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

initiated in the fall of 1969 by one of the Institute's biologists, Dr. 
Michael H. Robinson, who will lecture at the university. Plans have 
been completed for a joint Princeton University-Smithsonian Tropical 
Research Institute appointment for Dr. Egbert G. Leigh, who specializes 
in mathematical theories of evolution and community ecology. Othei 
cooperative arrangements are being developed. 

Having, thus, consolidated its gains in a number of areas, the Institute 
is now prepared to extend its research into new directions in the months 
ahead. 



Research 

The research activities of the bureau include both the studies of 
staff scientists, interns, and fellows, and those of visiting investigators 
from other institutions. The following tabulation shows the number of 
visiting researchers, roughly divided into academic categories, for whom 
the bureau has provided appreciable support during the past fiscal year. 



Senior scientists 


63 


Graduate students 


89 


Undergraduate students 


27 


Secondary school students 


12 


Postdoctoral fellows 


2 


OAS fellow 


1 


Others 


76 


Seminar participants 


400 



Total 670 

The number of senior scientists is somewhat smaller than in previous 
years because it reflects a longer average period of stay for an individual 
researcher. 

The scope of the research by visiting scientists has been quite broad. 
Some examples are cited below. 

How species of butterflies belonging to a Mullerian mimic associa- 
tion — hence all distasteful and very similar in appearance — discriminate 
visually between each other has been a subject investigated by Thomas 
Eisner, Jeffrey Camhi, and Herbert Rosenberg of Cornell University. 
Using a portable television camera that records ultraviolet radiation, 
Eisner has showed that the various species within a particular mimetic 
association have very different and diverse patterns under ultraviolet, a 
portion of the energy spectrum to which their vertebrate predators are 
blind. Thus, these distasteful insects present a single pattern that pre- 
sumably their predators can easily learn to avoid, but a diversity of pat- 
terns to themselves in a code unbreakable by their predators. 

Robert MacArthur, Henry Horn, and Steven Fretwell of Princeton 



SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



221 




The STRI laboratory-ofiBce building in Ancon, Canal Zone, 



University have sought to test the predictive efficiency of several theo- 
retical models of animal population biology. They have compared sev- 
eral groups of animals living in certain habitats on islands in the Bay 
of Panama with those in similar habitats on the mainland forty miles 
away. Comparisons such as these are particularly revealing. By their 
very number and diversity in size, shape, and ecology, islands provide 
ideal natural experimental situations in which evolutionary hypotheses 
may be tested rapidly. 

With much interest now focused on the possible biological effects that 
may result from the construction of a sea-level canal in Central America, 
a number of investigators have come to the marine laboratories to make 
Atlantic-Pacific comparisons of their special groups. Among these are 
Neal Powell and Arthur Clarke of the National Museums of Canada, 
who have compared the species composition and ecology of several 
groups of marine animals living at both ends of the present canal. Powell, 
a bryozoan specialist, has completed a similar study at the Suez Canal, 



222 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




In the basket of the United States Air Force's strato tower sixty feet above the 
ground, Neal Smith is examining the contents of nests in an oropendola colony. 



through which Red Sea and Mediterranean organisms only recently 
have begun to move. 

An oil spill that occurred near the Galeta Island marine laboratory 
has provided Jeremy Jackson of Yale University with a before-and-after 
comparison in his study of species diversity in the fauna associated with 
Thalassia beds in the Caribbean. The effects of this oil spill — today an 
all-too-frequent disaster — are under analysis. 



SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



223 



The familiar white-faced monkey (Cebus capucinus) has been the 
research subject of three investigators. John Oppenheimer of Johns 
Hopkins University has continued his two-year study in the wild of the 
complex social behavior of this species. On the other hand, intern Mark 
Bernstein has analyzed the abnormal behavior patterns (quirks) of caged 
Cebus emphasizing the possible signal function of these quirks. Juan 
Delius, University of Durham, has made a detailed analysis of the 
vocalizations associated with one particular social situation in this 
species with the aim of continuing this analysis of causal mechanisms 
through neurophysiological techniques. 

The staff has continued to concentrate on aspects of evolution, ecology, 
and behavior, combining experimental analysis in the laboratory with 
observations in the field under natural conditions both in the Old and 
New World tropics. 

Marine invertebrate laboratory added to growing complex on Panama Bay. 




>S>I*^ 



224 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




The newly opened STRI residence-laboraory in Cali, Colombia. 

Moynihan has furthered his studies of the evolution of social behavior 
among primates and birds in the Andes and the upper Amzizonian 
region. 

Robert L. Dressier has continued his studies of orchid pollination, 
largely through sampling euglossine bees, and the orchid pollinaria that 
they carry, with terpenoid and aromatic "baits." Extensive collections 
have been made in Costa Rica and Brazil that will permit better under- 
standing of evolution within these bees and among the orchids that they 
pollinate. 

Although the upwelling of cold water in the Bay of Panama has been 
quite restricted this year and phytoplankton production correspondingly 
reduced, Peter Glynn has found that barnacle and oyster growth is sur- 
prisingly high, suggesting that water temperature may be more important 
in influencing growth than fluctuations in food supply. Glynn's studies 
of fouling, particularly from algae, in marine animals has suggested that 



SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



225 



this fouling may be a severe problem for many organisms. He indicated 
that many of the behavioral and morphological features of animals like 
isopods, previously thought to be antipredator devices, may indeed be 
primarily antifouling adaptations. His analysis of plankton samples 
from coral communities in Puerto Rico showed that reefs do accrue a 
substantial net gain of diatoms and zooplankton, a point not demon- 
strated previously. Glynn also attended a symposium on coral reefs at 
Mandapam Camp, India, and made a preliminary analysis of the exten- 
sive reefs near Nossi Be, Malagasy Republic. 

A. Stanley Rand has continued his studies of animal communication 
in the West Indies, Colombia, and Panama. His analysis of the visual 
communication system in anoline lizards and the vocal communication 
in frog choruses has shown that the two systems have a surprisingly high 
level of redundancy. This is perhaps a result of the high degree of "noisi- 
ness" of their particular communication channels. In June 1969 Rand 
visited the symposium on evolution in the tropics held by the Association 
for Tropical Biology in Puerto Rico. 

Paramo vegetation at 11,000 feet in the central Andes near Cali, Colombia, 
showing the characteristic composite Espeletia. 




226 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69; 

As part of his long-term investigations of predator-prey interactions, 
Michael H. Robinson, in collaboration with Heath Mirick, a summer 
intern, and Barbara Robinson, has extended his studies of predatory 
behavior in orb-web spiders to include four additional genera. In collab- 
oration with Laurence Abele of Florida State University, he has begun 
a study of Panamanian crabs. They have found one particularly fasci- 
nating form of defense that occurs in at least two genera of land crabs. 
The crab attacks a predator with its claws, causes the claw to break ofT 
its own body, and retreats to safety while the predator deals with the 
detached but still attacking appendage. In November 1968 Robinson 
attended the Fourth Latin American Congress of Zoology in Caracas, 
Venezuela. 

Ira and Roberta Rubinoff have completed their analyses of isolating 
mechanisms in the marine fish Bathygobius. They have demonstrated 
that species from both coasts of the Isthmus will interbreed even though 
the species have been isolated for between two and five million years 
and are morphologically quite different. Mrs. Rubinoff has extended 
the investigation of isolating mechanisms to include invertebrate groups 
and has begun a study of social behavior in the sea urchin Diodema. The 
two scientists journeyed to Israel, where they visited many laboratories 
and met with a number of other scientists. A focus of common interest 
has been the migration of animals through the Suez and Panama canals. 

Neal Smith has completed a five-year experimental study of the evo- 
lution of adaptations for and against brood parasitism by four species 
of oropendolas and the avian parasites. 

Does the appearance (structure) of a mature forest reflect mainly 
the conditions of its physical environment or the characteristics of the 
plants that happened first to colonize it? What aspects of a forest's 
appearance can be predicted from ecological considerations and what 
aspects reflect accidents of history? (For example, what is the explana- 
tion for the dominance of Dipterocarps in Malaya?) Attempting to 
answer such questions, Egbert Leigh has studied selected forests in the 
Ivory Coast, Madagascar, India, Malaya, and New Guinea. Leigh, who 
will continue this research in those areas as a member of the stri 
staff, has found that lowland forests around the world are quite similar 
structurally, but that montane forests differ radically in this respect. 
Oddly, of several major structural features of these forests such as tree 
height and amount of ground cover, leaf size is the feature that best 
correlates with altitude. 

Postdoctoral fellows Christopher Smith and Robert Ricklefs have 



Montane forest at 7000 feet in the western Andes near Cali, Colombia. 



%^- 






lf€'^»-^ 



-£!% 



228 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



been in residence at stri during part of last year. Smith has completed 
his investigations of energy budgeting by howler monkeys (Alouatta) and 
Ricklefs has finished his analysis of breeding strategies in tropical birds. 

Yoshiki Oniki of Brazil has worked on Barro Colorado Island under 
the auspices of the joint Smithsonian-Organization of American States 
cooperative program. She is studying the reproductive biology of one 
of the forest antbirds. 

Visiting fellow Thomas Croat, of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 
has reached the last phases of field work for compiling a new flora of 
Barro Colorado Island. The new version should be particularly useful 
to nonbotanical scientists for it will include keys to fruits and other 
vegetative structures not normally included in such guides. 

Predoctoral interns and associates also have conducted a variety of 
research projects. 

Jeffrey B. Graham of Scripps Institution of Oceanography has studied 
the effects of temperature on the physiology of marine fishes from both 
sides of the Isthmus. He found that Pacific populations of Rypticus, 
Apogon, and Bathygobius show greater temperature tolerance and 
maintain higher rates of oxygen consumption than Atlantic populations. 

Barro Colorado Island, Canal Zone 
Annual Rainfall 1925-1968 





Total 


Station 




Total 


Station 


Tear 


inches 


average 


Tear 


inches 


average 


1925 


104.37 




1947 


77.92 


107. 49 


1926 


118.22 


113.56 


1948 


83. 16 


106. 43 


1927 


116.36 


114.68 


1949 


114.86 


106. 76 


1928 


101.52 


111.35 


1950 


114.51 


107. 07 


1929 


87.84 


106. 56 


1951 


112.72 


107. 28 


1930 


76.57 


101.51 


1952 


97.68 


106. 94 


1931 


123. 30 


104. 69 


1953 


104.97 


106. 87 


1932 


113.52 


105. 76 


1954 


105. 68 


106. 82 


1933 


101.73 


105. 32 


1955 


114.42 


107. 09 


1934 


122. 42 


107. 04 


1956 


114.05 


107. 30 


1935 


143. 42 


110.35 


1957 


97.97 


106. 98 


1936 


93.88 


108. 98 


1958 


100.20 


106. 70 


1937 


124. 13 


110. 12 


1959 


94.88 


106. 48 


1938 


117.09 


110.62 


1960 


140.07 


107.41 


1939 


115.47 


1 10. 94 


1961 


100.21 


106. 95 


1940 


86.51 


109. 43 


1962 


100.52 


107. 07 


1941 


91.82 


108. 41 


1963 


108. 94 


107. 10 


1942 


111. 10 


108. 55 


1964 


113.25 


107. 28 


1943 


120. 29 


109. 20 


1965 


92.80 


106. 91 


1944 


111.96 


109. 30 


1966 


111.47 


106.80 


1945 


120.42 


109. 84 


1967 


85.88 


106.40 


1946 


87.38 


108. 81 


1968 


88. 12 


105. 99 



SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



229 



This seems reasonable since the range of environmental vicissitudes is 
greater in the Pacific. 

A year-long study of avian diversity by James Karr, University of 
Illinois, has shown more species and, surprisingly, more individuals per 
unit area in tropical forest-edge and forest habitats than in structurally 
similar temperate habitats. But in grasslands, the avifaunas of tropical 
and temperate areas do not differ as significantly as those in structurally 
more complex habitats. 

Norris H. Williams, University of Miami, has analyzed the nature 
of the pollination relationship between wasps and orchids of the genus 
Brassia. He also has continued biochemical and morphological studies 
of Brassavola that will result in a redefinition of this genus. 

The effects of fish predation on zooplankton populations in a lacus- 
trine ecosystem has been the subject of Thomas Zaret's study. Zaret, 
from Yale University, has found that the planktivorous fish Thyrinops 
chagresi maintains a balanced polymorphic situation in the cladoceran 
Ceriodaphnia cornuta. 

Comparison of 1967 and 1968 Rainfall 
(in inches) 





To 


tal 




Tears 




Accumulated 








1968 excess 


of 


Station 










excess or 


Month 


1967 


1968 


or deficiency 


record 


average 


deficiency 


January 


0.49 


0.09 


-0.40 


43 


2. 17 


-0.40 


February 


0.51 


1.79 


-f-1.28 


43 


1.27 


+0.88 


March 


0.52 


3.59 


+3.07 


43 


1. 19 


+3.95 


April 


4.38 


0.61 


-3.77 


44 


3.43 


+0. 18 


May 


6.28 


11.54 


+5.26 


44 


10.79 


+5.44 


June 


13.54 


10.21 


-3.33 


44 


10.94 


+2. 11 


July 


8.74 


6.54 


-2.21 


44 


11.38 


-0.09 


August 


10.94 


15.87 


+4.93 


44 


12.51 


+4.84 


September 


6.98 


7.08 


+0. 10 


44 


10. 18 


+4.94 


October 


11.87 


18.66 


+6.79 


44 


13.74 


+ 11.73 


November 


15. 15 


10.32 


-4.83 


44 


17.91 


+6.90 


December 


6.48 


1.82 


-4.66 


44 


10.30 


+2.24 


Year 


85.88 


88. 12 


+ 2.24 




105. 99 


-17.87 


Dry Season 


5.90 


6.08 


+0. 18 




8.06 


-1.98 


Wet Season 


79.98 


82.04 


+2.06 




97.93 


-15.89 


Education 















The educational activities of the Institute are not confined to helping 
and guiding university visitors, resident interns, assistants, and research 
fellows. Extensive seminar programs are offered by the Institute. These 
are usually attended by staff and students from other institutions in 



230 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



the Republic of Panama and the Canal Zone, including the Middle 
America Research Unit, the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory, the Uni- 
versity of Panama, the Canal Zone Junior College, the Canal Zone 
hospitals, the United States Army Tropic Test Center, and the Inter- 
Oceanic Canal Study Commission. During this past year, ten seminars 
have formed a symposium concerned with the phenomenon of seasonal- 
ity in the tropics. The following tabulation is a partial listing of the 
subjects covered in the past year. 



Christopher Smith, stri (postdoctoral 

fellow ) 
Robert Ricklefs, stri (postdoctoral 

fellow) 
Michael H. Robinson, stri 



A. Stanley Rand, stri 
Peter Glynn, stri 

Christopher Smith, stri (postdoctoral 
fellow ) 

James R. Karr, stri (University of 
Illinois) 

Robert Ricklefs, stri (postdoctoral fel- 
low) 

Charles Elton, Oxford University 

Michael H. Robinson, stri 

Jeffrey Graham, stri (Scripps Insti- 
tute) 

Thomas Eisner, Cornell University 
Juan D. Delias, University of Durham 
Charles Leek, Cornell University 

Mark Bernstein, stri (University of 

Pennsylvania) 
Peter Marler, Rockefeller University 
Thomas Zaret, stri (Yale University) 
Don Wilson, University of New Mexico 

Elwynn Taylor, Washington University 

Owen Sexton, Washington University 

Douglas Futuyma, University of Michi- 
gan 



Primary Productivity and Plant Cycles : 
Some Theoretical Considerations 

Significance of Fluctuations in Ter- 
restrial Invertebrate Cycles 

Possible Factors Influencing the Long- 
Term Strategies of Terrestrial In- 
vertebrates 

Evolution of Terrestrial Vertebrate 
Cycles and Breeding Strategies 

Marine Seasonality: Cycles in the Ma- 
rine Environment 

Seasonality and Species Diversity: Fu- 
ture Prospects and Related Problems 
Avian Species Diversity in Various 
Habitats in Panama 

Adaptive Significance of Reproductive 
Strategies of Birds 

Comparisons between Tropical Forests 
and Temperate Forests 

The Strategy and Tactics of Predation 
by Orb- Web Spiders 

A Comparative Study of the Effects of 
Temperature on the Metabolism of 
Tropical Marine Fishes 

Studies in Insect Communication 

Stochastic Analysis of Behavior 

Strategies Employed by Fruit-Eating 
Birds 

Abnormal Social Responses or "Quirks" 
in Cebus Monkeys 

Bird Song : A Problem in Development 

The Hydrobiology of Gatun Lake 

Reproduction in the Neotropical Bat 
Myotis nigricans 

Delimitation of Energy Strata in Tropi- 
cal Forests 

Habitat Structure and Diversity in 
Anuran Breeding Habits 

Genetic Response to Inter-Specific 
Competition 



• 



SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 231 

Norris Williams, stri (University of Pollination of Brassia Orchids by Wasps 

Miami ) 
Peter Glynn, stri Fouling and Survival in Marine Or- 

ganisms - A Hypothesis 
James R. Karr, stri (University of Comparisons of Avian Aggregations in 

Illinois) Temperate and Tropical Habitats. 



Acknowledgments 

The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute can operate only w^ith 
the excellent cooperation of the Canal Zone government and the 
Panama Canal Company, the United States Army and Navy, and the 
government authorities of the Republic of Panama and the Republic 
of Colombia. Thanks are due especially to General Robert W. Porter, 
Jr., former Commander United States Armed Forces, Southern Com- 
mand; Executive Secretary of the Canal Zone Paul M. Runnestrand 
and his staff; Dr. Carlos Lehmann V., Director of the Museo de Historia 
Natural in Cali, Colombia; Colonel W. F. Bradbury, Post Commander, 
Fort Amador, Canal Zone; Commander James Cox, Commanding 
Officer, Naval Security Group; the customs and immigration officials 
of the Canal Zone; Captain Kenneth Roscoe, Senior Assistant Port 
Captain, Cristobal, Canal Zone; K. E. Biglane, Federal Water Pollution 
Control Administration; Dr. R. C. Pierson, Canal Zone Veterinary 
Hospital ; Colonel Clarence Little, Air Force Research Liaison ; Gotfred 
P. Nelson, Air Force Civil Engineering, Howard Air Force Base, Canal 
Zone ; and C. C. Soper of Eastman Kodak Company. 



Staff Publications and Papers 

Chescher, Richard H. "Lytechinous williamsi, A New Sea Urchin from 

Panama," Breviora (1968), number 305, pages 1-13. 
Dressler, Robert L., C. H. Dodson, H. G. Wells, R. M. Adams, and N. H. 

Williams. "Biologically Active Compounds in Orchid Fragrances." Science 

(1968), volume 163, pages 1243-1249. 
Glynn, Peter W. "A New Genus and Two New Species of Sphaeromatid 

Isopods from the High Intertidal Zone at Naos Island, Panama." Proceedings 

of the Biological Society of Washington (1968), volume 81, pages 587-604. 
. "Ecological Studies on the Associations of Chitons in Puerto Rico 

with Special Reference to Sphaeromid Isopods." Bulletin of Marine Science 

(1968), volume 18, number 3, pages 572-626. 
Hladik, Annette, and C. M. Hladik. "Rapports tropiques entre vegetation et 

primates dans la foret de Barro Colorado (Panama)." La Terre et la Vie, 

volume 23, number 1, pages 25-117. 
Karr, James R. "Habitat and Avian Diversity on Strip-Mined Land in East- 
Central Illinois." Condor (1968), volume 70, number 4, pages 348-357. 



232 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Leck, Charles. "A Feeding Congregation of Local and Migratory Birds in 
the Mountains of Panama." Bird Banding (1968), volume 59, number 4, 
page 318. 

Menzies, Robert J. "Transport of Marine Life between Oceans through the 
Panama Canal." Nature (1968), volume 220, number 5169, pages 802-803. 

MoYNiHAN, Martin H. "The 'Coerebini': A Group of Marginal Areas, 
Habitats, and Habits." The American Naturalist (1968), volume 102, number 
928, pages 573-581. 

Oppenheimer, John R. "Behavior and Ecology of the White-Faced Monkey 
Cebus capucinus, on Barro Colorado Island, Canal Zone." PhD Dissertation, 
University of Illinois, Urbana, 1968. 

Oppenheimer, John R., and George W. Barlow. "Dynamics of Parental Be- 
havior in the Black-Chinned Mouthbreeder Tilapia melanotheron (Pisces: 
Cichlidae)." Zeitschrift fiir Tier psychologic (1968), volume 25, number 8, 
pages 889-914. 

Rand, A. S. "Desiccation Rates in Crocodile and Iguana Eggs." Herpetologica 
(1968), volume 24, number 2, pages 178-180. 

. "A Nesting Aggregation of Iguanas." Copeia (1968), volume 1968, 

number 3, pages 552-561. 

. "Competitive Exclusion Among Anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae) on Small 



Islands in the West Indies." Breviora ( 1969), number 319. 
. "Leptophis ahaetulla Eggs." Copeia (1969), volume 1969, number 2, 



page 402. 
Rand, A. S., and Stephen S. Humphrey. "Interspecific Competition in the 

Tropical Rain Forest: Ecological Distribution among Lizards at Belem, Para." 

Proceedings of the United States National Museum (1968), volume 125, 

number 3658, pages 1-17. 
RiCKLEFs, Robert. "Patterns of Growth in Birds." Ibis (1968), volume 110, 

number 4, pages 4 1 9-45 1 . 
. "On the Limitation of Brood Size in Passerine Birds by the Ability of 

Adults to Nourish Their Young." Proceedings of the National Academy of 

Science (1968), volume 61, number 3, pages 847-851. 
Robinson, Michael H. "The Defensive Behaviour of the Javanese Stick Insect 

Orxines macklotti De Haan, with a Note on the Startle Display of Metriotes 

diodes Westw. ( Phasmatodea, Phasmidae) ." Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 

( 1968) , volume 104, pages 46-54. 
. "The Startle Display of Balboa tibialis (Brunner) (Orth., Tetigonii- 

dae)." Entomologist's Monthly Magazine (1968), volume 104, pages 88-90. 
. "The Defensive Behavior of Pterinoxylus spinulosus Redtenbacher, a 



Winged Stick Insect from Panama (Phasmatodea)." Psyche (1968), volume 
75, number 3, pages 195-207. 
. "The Defensive Behavior of the Stick Insect Oncotophasma martini 



(Griffini) (Orthoptera: Phasmatidae)." Proceedings of the Royal Entomologi- 
cal Society of London (1968), volume 43, numbers 10-12, pages 183-187. 
. "Predatory Behavior of Argiope argentata (Fabricius)." American Zool- 



ogist (1969), volume 9, pages 161-173. 
. "Defences against Visually Hunting Predators." Evolutionary Biology 



(1969), volume 3. 
Rubinoff, Ira. "Central American Sea-Level Canal: Possible Biological Effects." 
Science ( 1968), volume 161, pages 857-861. 



SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 233 

RuBiNOFF, Roberta W. "The Evolution of Isolating Mechanisms in Bathygo- 

bius." American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists meeting in New 

York City, June 1969. 
RuBiNOFF, Roberta W., and Ira Rubinoff. "Observations on the Migration 

of a Marine Goby through the Panama Canal." Copeia (1969), volume 1969, 

number 2, pages 395-397. 
. "Tisch-Austauschzwischen Atlantik and Pazifik durch den Panama- 

kanal." Umschau (1969), volume 4, page 121. 
Silveira, Estanislau K. p. da. "Notas Sobre a historia natural do Tamandua 

Mirim {Tamandua tetradactyla chiriquensis J. A. Allen 1904, Myrmecopha- 

gidae) com Referencias a Fauna do Istmo do Panama." Vellozia (December 

1968), number 6, pages 6-3 1 . 
Smith, Neal G. "The Advantage of Being Parasitized." Nature (1968), volume 

219, number 5155, pages 690-694. 
. "Polymorphism in Ringed Plovers." Ibis (1969), volume III, number 2, 

pages 177-188. 
. "Provoked Release of Mobbing - A Hunting Technique of Micrastur 



Falcons." Ibis (1969), volume III, number 2, pages 241-243. 
."Avian Predation of Coral Snakes." Copeia (1969), volume 1969, 



number 2, pages 402-404. 
Williams, Norris H., H. G. Hills, and C. H. Dodson. "Identification of Some 
Orchid Fragrance Components." American Orchid Society Bulletin (1968), 
volume 37, pages 967-971. 



366-269 O — 70 16 



Radiation Biology Laboratory 

W. H. Klein, Director 




THE LIFE CYCLES OF ORGANISMS ate intricately associated with the 
environmental signals that influence their morphological and 
physiological development mechanisms. Growth and development of 
higher plants are regulated and controlled by solar radiant energy, a 
major factor of the environment, in two general ways: by the conver- 
sion, through photosynthesis, of large amounts of radiant energy to 
chemical energy; and by the activation of reproduction, differentiation, 
and morphological development by means of radiation-sensitive regula- 
tory systems. These systems may further be subdivided on the basis of 
spectral characteristics into one group responsive mainly to the blue and 
ultraviolet portions of the electromagnetic spectrum and into another 
group responsive mainly to the red and far-red portion of the spectrum. 
The research of the Radiation Biology Laboratory is directed toward 
understanding the cellular and subcellular mechanisms and processes 
by which organisms utilize this radiant energy from the sun for their 
growth and development. This research has been directed into three 
main areas in regulatory biology : ( 1 ) the physiology, ( 2 ) the biochemi- 
cal processes of developmental responses to light, and (3) the measure- 
ment of solar radiation. In addition, this laboratory also maintains a 
carbon-dating facility for archeological and anthropological research and 
also for research in and development of carbon-dating techniques. 



Regulatory Biology - Physiology 

The excised apex of the com coleoptile has been used for studies of a 
phytochrome-mediated growth response. A five-second 660 nm ir- 
radiation causes a 50 percent enhancement of the growth rate in subse- 

235 



236 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

quent darkness. This increased rate of growth is established within 30 
seconds and persists for several hours in the dark, but it is largely nulli- 
fied by an exposure to several minutes of 730 nm irradiation. Continuous 
measurements of growth have been made with a transducer-type auxa- 
nometer. No concurrent change in respiration can be detected with the 
Warburg respirometer or oxygen electrode. Several chemicals have been 
tested in an eflFort to prevent specifically the irradiation-enhanced growth 
without affecting the basal growth. The most promising substance dis- 
covered so far is 4-fluorophenylalanine. 

RNA synthesis in Tradescantia pollen tubes has been measured by 
tritiated uridine incorporation and subsequent autoradiography. Pollen 
tubes from pollen that had been pretreated with 730 nm radiation have 
incorporated 60 percent more uridine than dark controls. 

Experiments upon the genetic control of photoperiodism in corn have 
been initiated. Two corn varieties, short-day (id mutant) and long- 
day (Gaspe Flint) are being used. It appears that a single gene con- 
trols the short-day response, but further characterization of the two 
varieties with respect to their true photoperiodic response is necessary. 



Regulatory Biology - Biochemical 

Studies on plastid protein synthesis in vitro have been continued. Study 
of etioplasts in a crude preparation has shown that the etioplast is the 
likely site of amino acid incorporation. Illumination of leaves stimulates 
the ability of plastids isolated from them to incorporate amino acid into 
protein. Fourfold stimulation occurs within six hours of illumination. 
The maximum increase is reached between six and eighteen hours and 
remains constant to thirty-six hours. At this time the ability of plastids 
to incorporate amino acid into protein decreases sharply, as does the rate 
of chlorophyll accumulation by leaves. The observed difference in rates 
of incorporation carried out by etioplasts and chloroplasts is not owing to 
a difference in ability of etioplasts and chloroplasts to generate ATP 
(adenosine triphosphate) in the light, or to the presence of factors 
in homogenates of etiolated leaves that destroy incorporation ability, 
or to large differences in pool size of amino acid between etioplasts and 
chloroplasts. The results suggest that plastid amino acid incorporation 
(protein synthesis) increases sharply during light-dependent plastid 
growth and differentiation and again decreases after growth and dif- 
ferentiation are complete. 

The photosynthetic enzyme ribulose diphosphate carboxylase appears 
to be one of the chloroplasts stroma proteins that can be synthesized by 
chloroplasts. Crude chloroplast preparations incorporate radioactive 



RADIATION BIOLOGY LABORATORY 



237 



leucine into the enzyme; however, only a small fraction (about 2 per- 
cent of radioactivity incorporated into protein is incorporated into this 
enzyme. Whole leaf cells and cytoplasmic ribosomes do not contribute 
to incorporation into the enzyme. Chloramphenicol inhibits incorpora- 
tion into this enzyme in vitro. This result confirms and amplifies previ- 
ously published results that have shown that chloramphenical inhibits 
ribulose diphosphate carboxylase formation in vivo. In view of what is 
now known about the selectivity of chloramphenicol for inhibiting pro- 
tein synthesis occurring on 70 S (chloroplast, mitochondrial, bacterial) 
ribosomes, and the demonstration that chloroplasts incorporate amino 
acid into ribulose diphosphate carboxylase, it is likely that this enzyme 
is synthesized by the chloroplast. 

Studies on the in vivo localization and in vitro characterization of 
phycobiliproteins in red and blue-green algae have been continued. The 
phases pursued are : ( 1 ) to determine the effect of particular phycobili- 
proteins on in vivo phycobilisome structure, and (2) the structural 
characterization of phycoerythrin in order to study this relationship with 
phycocyanin within the phycobilisomes. 

Our previous work on fixed chloroplasts has shown that the struc- 
ture of the phycobilisomes (phycobiliprotein aggregates) differs in cells 
that have different phycobilins. These data suggest that the type of 
phycobiliprotein present determines the shape of the phycobilisomes. To 
study the variation in shape, Tolypothrix tenuis has been used because 
the phycocyanin to phycoerythrin ratio can be ezisily varied. The first 
phase of the work, showing that phycobilisomes are present, has been 
completed. 

Electron microscope studies of three blue-green algae — fresh water 
T. tenius and Fremyella diplosiphon, and an oscillatoria-like marine 
algae — have revealed structures on the lamellae that correspond to the 
phycobilisomes of red algae. As in the red algae the phycobilisomes are 
attached on the outer side of each lamellae, i.e., the side facing away 
from its own membrane pair. 

The photosynthetic accessory pigments, phycoerythrin and/or phyco- 
cyanin, are major components of the phycobilisomes. The spatial rela- 
tionship of these phycobiliproteins is of interest because phycocyanin 
appears to be a necessary intermediate in the energy transfer from phyco- 
erythrin to chlorophyll a located in the underlying photosynthetic 
lamellae. In order to differentiate between the phycobiliproteins, phyco- 
erythrin has been isolated from the red alga Porphyridium cruentum 
and its structure has been compared with that of phycocyanin, which 
has been studied previously by other investigators. Phycoerythrin has 
been found to be a compact particle essentially cylindrical in shape with 
no obvious regular substructure. Individual particles have an average 



238 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

en face diameter of 101 A and height of 54A when stained with phos- 
photungstic acid. An approximate molecular weight of 270,000 has been 
obtained, which agrees with published molecular weight values obtained 
by other methods. 

Phycocyanin in its most stable form has been reported to be composed 
of six distinct subunits in the shape of a ring with an outer diameter of 
about 130A. Because phycoerythrin has a smaller diameter and lacks a 
central hole and distinct subunits, the pigments can be differentiated. 
Since phycocyanin and phycoerythrin are structurally distinguishable, 
it should now be possible to determine the arrangement of these pig- 
ments within the phycobilisomes. 

Studies of the molecular properties of purified phytochrome have 
been extended with special emphasis upon quaternary structure and 
chromophore structure. Phytochrome extracted from etiolated oat or 
rye shoots exists as a mixture of two aggregates. About two thirds of the 
phytochrome exists as a 13 S hexamer (large aggregate) , which is almost 
totally excluded by Sephadex G-200 and is below the middle of the 
fractionation range of Sepharose 4B. The remaining one third of the 
phytochrome exists as a 9 S tetramer (small aggregate) , which is in the 
middle of the fractionation range of Sephadex G-200. These two aggre- 
gates have similar properties with respect to dark reversion kinetics and 
light reaction (quantum efficiency) kinetics. From chromophore degra- 
dation studies, the bile-type chromophore appears identical in the Pr 
form with that of phycocyanin. The structure of the I ring is modified 
in the Pfr form of phytochrome. A covalent linkage to the protein is 
proposed for both forms of phytochrome bile pigment. 

A new improved method for the isolation of intact rhapidosomes has 
been developed. Rhapidosomes are subcellular particles produced by 
the marine blue-green alga Saprospira grandis. They are primarily pro- 
tein in composition and are sometimes associated with nucleic acids. 
Reasonably pure preparations have been obtained. They have a buoyant 
density of 1.32 in cesium chloride and an isoelectric point at pH 3.8. 
Electron microscopy has revealed many details of the fine structure, 
previously unreported. This structure consists of repeated patterns of 
protein subunit arrangement in the particle. 



Measurement of Solar Radiation 

Equipment for detecting and recording continuously "total sky" radi- 
ation in various wavelength regions of the spectrum has been in opera- 
tion. The data have not been completely analyzed, but the occurrence 
of considerable oscillation in various parameters over both short and 



RADIATION BIOLOGY LABORATORY 239 

long time periods has been detected. For example, on clear days the 
ratio of red to far- red energy (600-700 nm/700-800 nm) remains 
above 1.5, while on cloudy days, with as much as 90 percent reduction in 
total energy, the ratio shifts and oscillates between 0.5 and 1.5. This type 
of change may contribute significantly in accounting for variations in 
biological responses that have been observed in controlled environments. 

A number of photomorphological responses in plants are being 
examined. Stem elongation of Black Valentine bean and Wintex barley 
is greater after six weeks (irrespective of day length) when grown under 
a red/far-red ratio of 1 : 1 than under a ratio of 30 : 1 or under green- 
house conditions. In Black Valentine bean, this response appears due 
solely to the elongation of internodes, since the total number of nodes 
per plant is the same in the different conditions. The comparative 
flowering responses of soybean (short-day) and barley (long-day) indi- 
cate that soybean is less dependent on far-red light than barley. 

Germination responses of Arahidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. (race BL— 1 ) 
is predetermined by the spectral quality of light received by the parent 
plant. This preconditioning effect occurs in the floral stalk region. The 
effect of spectral quality on the dark-germination response is expressed 
directly and only during seed maturation in the parent plant. 



Carbon Dating 

The function of the Carbon Dating Laboratory is twofold: "service 
dating" for departments of the Institution, including analyses of sam- 
ples submitted and advice on interpretation of those results; research 
toward improvement of the techniques of radiocarbon dating and in 
original studies of particular interest to the research staff of the 
laboratory. 

Dating time is reckoned in "counting days," defined as those available 
counting periods of not less than 1000 minutes nor more than 2000 
minutes each. Of necessity, the installation, repair, servicing, and 
maintenance of laboratory equipment limits the number of counting 
days available. This year approximately 600 counting days have been 
available with three detectors in use. 

Service dating of materials for members of the Institution have 
resulted in the dating of 116 samples, each of them requiring a minimum 
of two counting days to insure statistical validity. In addition, 110 
counting days have been spent on modem calibration standards, and 
154 counting days on background measurements. The unusual number 
of these latter measurements has been required to maintain accuracy 
and reliability of measurements in the face of unexpected dust and 



240 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

vibration conditions during the renovation of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Building. These conditions became so extreme during the third 
quarter that all dating was discontinued for the rest of the year. 

In order to eliminate the increasing difficulty of obtaining commercial 
hydrogen free of radioactive contaminants, a hydrogen generation 
system has been installed in the laboratory. "Dead" water from a 
Pleistocene-age source on the DelMarVa peninsula is used in this 
electrolysis system to produce radioactive-free hydrogen for use in the 
conversion of carbon dioxide sample gas to methane counting gas. 
Initial tests of the hydrogen have indicated a very low background with 
this method, and the system is now in routine operation. 

To produce samples of greater purity in less time, the combustion 
and purification system has been redesigned and construction of the new 
unit is now nearly complete. The system utilizes stainless steel tubing 
with demountable fittings for ease of cleaning, includes two radon- 
extraction units, and functions as a totally self-contained unit. 



Staff Activities 

A series of seminars on Environmental Biology has been held in 
cooperation with the consortium of Washington area universities. 
The series has been presented for graduate credit and average attend- 
ance per lecture has been 150 persons. The speakers and their topics: 
"Pattern and Process in Competition." Richard S. Miller, School of 

Forestry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 6 February 1969. 
"Some Aspects of Estuarine Ecology." Rezneat M. Darnell, Department 

of Oceanography, College of Geosciences, Texas A&M University, 

College Station, Texas. 13 February 1969. 
"Fresh Water Productivity." David G. Frey, Department of Zoology, 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. 20 February 1969. 
"Arid Lands." Charles H. Lowe, Department of Biological Sciences, 

College of Liberal Arts, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. 

27 February 1969. 
"Radioisotopes and the Dynamics of Forest Ecosystems." Stanley I. 

Auerbach, Radiation Ecology Section, Health Physics Division, Oak 

Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 6 March 1969. 
"A Species Population in a Temperate Ecosystem." John E. Cantlon, 

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Michigan State Univer- 
sity, East Lansing, Michigan. 13 March 1969. 
"Evolutionary Significance of Abundance." Lawrence B. Slobodkin. 

Department of Biological Sciences, State University of New York at 

Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York. 20 March 1969. 



RADIATION BIOLOGY LABORATORY 



241 



"Distributional History and Ecology of Some Parasites and Their Hosts 

in the Arctic." Robert L. Rausch, Chief, Zoonotic Disease Section, 

Arctic Health Research Center, U.S. Public Health Service, College, 

Alaska. 27 March 1969. 
"Patterns and Processes of Some High Mountain Ecosystems." William 

S. Osbum, Jr., Environmental Sciences Branch, Division of Biology 

and Medicine, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, D.G. 

10 April 1969. 
"Life and Energy." David M. Gates, Missouri Botanical Garden and 

Department of Botany, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri. 

17 April 1969. 
"Comparative Systems Analysis of Food Chain Dynamics." Bernard C. 

Pattern, Department of Zoology, The University of Georgia, Athens, 

Georgia. 24 April 1969. 
"Some Aspects of Controlled Environments for Space Biology." Orr E. 

Reynolds, Director, Bioscience Progiams, National Aeronautics and 

Space Administration, Washington, D.G. 1 May 1969. 
"Future of a Changing World." Lamont C. Cole, Department of 

Zoology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 8 May 1969. 

During the year, plant physiologist H. Drumm from the University 
of Freiburg, Germany, has been working with M. M. Margulies on 
protein synthesis in etioplasts. J. J. Zwolenik, associate director of the 
Chemical Dynamics Program, National Science Foundation, has been 
working on the physical chemistry and photochemistry of phytochrome 
with D. Correll as a collaborator for the past year. Assistant director 
W. Shropshire has been on sabbatical leave at the University of Frei- 
burg, Germany. 

Members of the staff have attended symposia, meetings of national 
scientific societies and international conferences, have journeyed to 
universities to present seminars and to carry on joint research projects, 
have participated in various panels and committees of scientific agencies 
and organizations, and have attended science courses. Some of the 
special activities are as follows : 

In August 1968, W. Shropshire, W. H. Klein, J. Brown, M. Mar- 
gulies, R. L. Weintraub, and H. Drumm attended the annual meeting 
of the American Society of Plant Physiologists in Amherst, Massachu- 
setts. Dr. Margulies presented a paper entitled "Synthesis of Ribulose 
Diphosphate Carboxylase by Chloroplasts in Vitro." Also in August, W. 
Shropshire, E. Gantt, J. L. Edwards, M. Margulies, W. H. Klein, H. 
Drumm, R. L. Weintraub, and D. L. Correll attended the Fifth Inter- 
national Congress on Photobiology at Dartmouth College in Hanover, 
New Hampshire, presenting a number of short papers. W. Shropshire 
chaired a symposium on phototropism. During that time, W. H. Klein 



242 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

and W. Shropshire attended executive committee meetings of the 
American Society of Plant Physiologists. 

In September 1968, E. Gantt attended the American Institute of 
Biological Sciences meetings at Columbus, Ohio, and presented a paper 
entitled "Isolation of Phycobiliproteins." 

In November 1968, H. Drumm, R. L. Weintraub, and E. Gantt 
attended the meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology, and E. 
Gantt presented a paper entitled "Electron Microscopy of Phycoery- 
thrin" at Boston, Massachusetts. R. Weintraub also attended nih Panel 
Committee Meetings at Woods Hole, Massachusetts. T. Ma attended 
the Annual Meeting of the Genetics Society of America and presented 
a paper entitled "Far-red Light Induced rna Synthesis in the Mitotic 
Generative Cell of the Pollen Tube of Tradescantia" in Boston, 
Massachusetts. 

In December 1968, R. Stuckenrath went to the University of Pennsyl- 
vania at Philadelphia to attend a symposium on prehistoric settlement 
patterns in the New World. He also attended a Columbia University 
seminar on archeology of Europe and the Near East, a special session 
on computers in archeology. M. M. Margulies conducted a seminar 
"Protein Synthesis by Plastids in Vitro" to the Biochemistry Depart-' 
ment, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

In January 1969, R. Stuckenrath went to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
to attend a meeting of Trustees of Philadelphia Anthropological Society 
at the University Museum. Also in January, W. H. Klein and B. Gold- 
berg went to Eppley Laboratories, Newport, Rhode Island, for discus- 
sions regarding the construction of solar radiation instruments, a seminar 
series, and also to discuss the next meeting of the Solar Radiation So- 
ciety to be held in Washington, D.C., in 1971. W. H. Klein has been 
elected a director of the Society and appointed to the Editorial Board. 
Also in January, D. L. Correll attended a short course on gas chroma- 
tography ofTered by the Washington Gas Chromatography Society. 

In February 1 969, Dr. Klein went to Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 
Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to attend a study group briefing on the agricul- 
tural aspects of the proposed nuclear powered agro-industrial complex 
project designed to establish food production centers in warm arid areas 
adjacent to the sea and utilizing nuclear energy for providing desali- 
nated water. 

In March 1969, E. Gantt gave a seminar entitled "Phycobiliprotein 
Localization in Red and Blue-Green Algae" and consulted with Dr. 
Thomas Brown at the Charles F. Kettering Research Laboratory in 
Yellow Springs, Ohio. 

In April 1969, R. Stuckenrath visited the Ohio Wesleyan University 
Carbon Dating Laboratory for discussions involving pretreatment prob- 



I 

RADIATION BIOLOGY LABORATORY 243 

lems and vegetation sequences in the northeastern portion of the United 
States. B. Goldberg went to the National Physical Laboratory, Jerusalem, 
Israel, to calibrate solar-radiation detectors and to initiate beginning 
of acquisition of spectral radiation data. 

In May 1969, J. Mielke and A. Long went to Resolute Bay, Canada, 
to conduct paleoclimatic studies on EUesmere Island, Northwest Terri- 
tories. W. H. Klein gave a seminar to staff and graduate students of the 
Biology Department of Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, 
and attended the Annual Meeting of the Northeastern Section of the 
American Society of Plant Phsyiologists in Amherst. He served as chair- 
man for the Cellular Radiobiology Session at the Radiation Research 
Society meeting in Cincinnati, Ohio. M. Margulies presented a lecture 
on "Chloroplast Protein Synthesis in Vitro" at the Biological Labor- 
atory, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

In June 1969, R. Stuckenrath made an archeological survey trip in the 
area around Claysville, Pennsylvania, to investigate a logical site for a 
natural migration route through the Western Appalachians and to 
search for sites suitable for environmental-archeological correlations. 
E. Gantt and M. Margulies attended the Gordon Conference on 
Photosynthetic Organelles held at Holdemess School, Plymouth, New 
Hampshire. 



Staff Publications 

CoRRELL, D. L. "Rhapidosomes : 2'-0-methylated Ribonucleoproteins." Science 
(1968), volume 161, pages 372-373. 

CoRRELL, D. L., J. L. Edwards, W. H. Klein, and W. Shropshire, Jr. "Phy- 
tochrome in Etiolated Annual Rye, III: Isolation of Photoreversible Phyto- 
chrome." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (1968), volume 168, pages 36-45. 

Correll, D. L., J. L. Edwards, and W. Shropshire, Jr. "Multiple Chromo- 
phore Species in Phytochrome." Photochemistry and Photobiology (1968), 
volume 8, pages 465-475. 

Correll, D. L., E. Steers, Jr., K. M. Towe, and W. Shropshire, Jr. "Phyto- 
chrome in Etiolated Annual Rye, IV : Physical and Chemical Characterization 
of Phytochrome." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (1968), volume 168, pages 
46-57. 

Gantt, E., and S. F. Conti. "Ultrastructure of Blue-Green Algae." Journal of 
Bacteriology ( 1969), volume 97, pages 1486-1493. 

Ma, Te-Hsiu. "Effect of Irradiated Glucose Solution on Mitotic Chromosomes 
of Vicia and Tradescantia." Radiation Botany (1968), volume 8, pages 307- 
315. 

Mielke, J. E., and A. Long. "Smithsonian Institution Radiocarbon Measure- 
ments, V." Radiocarbon (1968), volume 11, pages 162-182. 



244 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Nebel, B. J. "Action Spectra for Photogrowth and Phototropism in Protonema 
of the Moss Physcomitrium turbinatum." Planta (1968), volume 81, pages 
287-302. 

Steiner, a., L. Price, K. Mitrakos, and W. H. Klein. "Red Light Effects on 
Uptake of "C and ^P into Etiolated Corn Leaf Tissue during Photomor- 
phogenic Leaf Opening." Physiologia Plantarum (1968), volume 21, pages 
895-901. 



National Zoological Park 

Theodore H. Reed, Director 




WITH AN EXPANDED PROFESSIONAL STAFF and a Supporting cast 
of dedicated keepers, police, maintenance men, gardeners, fiscal 
and clerical workers, the National Zoological Park has made steady 
progress toward its objective — "the advancement of science and the 
instruction and recreation of the people." The collection has prospered, 
visitors have come by the millions, more than ever before in the Zoo's 
history, scientific research and cooperative undertakings with govern- 
ment agencies and other institutions here and abroad have moved for- 
ward. It has been a good year for the Zoo. 

Status of the Collection 



I 







30 June 


1969 








Phylum 
Chordata 


Class 
Mammalia 


Orders 
14 


Families 
46 


Species or 

subspecies 

196 


Indi 


viduals 
593 




Aves 


25 


98 


428 


1, 


373 




Reptilia 

Amphibia 

Pisces 


3 
2 
3 


29 

12 

4 


155 

34 

6 




547 

100 

9 


Arthropoda 


Insecta 

Crustacea 

Arachnida 






3 

1 




96 

1 


Mollusca 

Annelidae 

Coelenterata 


Gastropoda 
Polychaeta 
Anthozoa 






1 
3 
1 




1 

5 

1 


Totak 


52 


194 


828 


2, 


726 












245 



246 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1969 

To these figures should be added the 24 species, comprising 109 
individuals of small mammals under the care of the research division — 
and not always on exhibition — for a grand total of 852 species and 
2,835 individuals. 

Certain tabulated, statistical, and other information formerly con- 
tained in Smithsonian Year now appears as appendices to the separate 
of this report (available on request from the Director of the National 
Zoological Park) . This information includes: 

Visitor statistics and other operational information. 

Report of the veterinarian, augmented by case histories and autopsy reports. 

Report of the pathologist. 

Complete lists of (a) animals in the collection on 30 June 1969; (b) all births 
and hatchings during the year; and (c) changes in the collection by gift, pur- 
chase, or exchange. 

On 28 October 1968, while making a routine test on an orangutan 
named Susie, the Zoo veterinarian, Clinton W. Gray, discovered that 
she reacted positively to a skin test for tuberculosis. Mildly alarmed, 
he then tested the other seven members of the great ape colony and 
found that five of the eight reacted positively. Precautions that have 
been taken include giving every Zoo employee a skin test, sealing off 
the great ape quarters from the public, and treating the orangutans, 
gorillas, and chimpanzees with daily doses of the anti-TB drug isoniazid. 

On 13 February 1969 a clinic for apes was set up in the small mammal 
house. Dr. Gray and pathologist Dr. Sauer, assisted by medical teams 
from George Washington University, who brought along a mobile x-ray 
unit, have conducted the schedule of procedures that include x-ray, 
blood tests, ppd injections, skin biopsies, and chromosomal analyses. 

Archie, the huge male orang, put on a good show. When the syringe 
from the tranquilizer gun struck his shoulder, he felt it, removed it, 
tasted it, and smelled it. Then he lumbered over to the bars and handed 
it to Dr. Gray before succumbing to the anesthetic. Interested doctors 
and their assistants agree the most dramatic part of the smooth-running 
procedure occurred when the big gorilla Nikumba, weighing 450 
pounds, thundered around in his cage trying to avoid the tranquilizing 
syringe. The winsome award goes to the baby orangutan. 

Results of all the tests show that the animals and the human em- 
ployees are clean, and the quarantine on the big apes has been lifted. 

Another problem has concerned the female white rhinoceros Lucy. 
A malformation of her horns had long been a matter of concern to Zoo 
officials, and when an infestation of maggots was discovered at the base 
of one horn, steps had to be taken. On 6 June 1969 Lucy was given one 
milligram of M99. She was immobilized in fourteen minutes. The base 
of the horn was cleaned with peroxide and both horns were removed. 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 



247 




Rewati, Mohini Rewa's white cub, at three weeks of age when her eyes were 
beginning to open. (Photograph by Donna Grosvenor.) 



248 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




The new Hospital-Research Building in the process of construction. 

Dr. Gray used a hand saw on the upper horn and a power saw on the 
lower, and the rough edges were filed smooth. The animal now presents 
a much neater and healthier appearance, and it is hoped that the horns 
will grow out straight after this surgery. 

Births 



While it can hardly be called a population explosion, except possibly 
in the bird house, the increase in the collection during the year has been 
highly gratifying. Efforts to secure mates for single animals have paid 
off handsomely. The first baby colobus born in the National Zoo made 
his appearance in February 1969. Although the parent monkeys are 
coal black with a white fringe around the face, the young one was 
entirely white at birth and remained so for the first two months. Another 
white baby is the female cub of Mohini, the celebrated white tigress, 
who surprised everybody by presenting the Zoo with two babies on 
13 April 1969. One cub had her coloring, the other was normal tiger 
orange. The orange baby was defective and lived only 48 hours (an 
autopsy showed brain damage). The white cub, named Rewati by the 
Indian Ambassador, was removed from the mother after two weeks and 
reared in the director's home. Rewati is now on exhibition in the lion 
house. 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 



249 




The portable x-ray machine, operated by Edward Eccard of George Wash- 
ington University's Medical Center, is in position for filming the inunobilized 
orangutan, Archie. Dr. Gray is pushing some of the thick shaggy hair out of 
the way. (Evening Star photographer Owen Duvall.) 



The rare and lovely African black- footed cats had kittens; an orang- 
utan was born on 28 March 1969 and is being reared in the home 
of Mrs. Louise Gallagher, who has previously raised three gorillas and 
three chimpanzees for the Zoo. The Barbary ape colony has increased 
to the point where it equals, if not surpasses, the famous colony on 

366-269 O — 70 17 



250 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1969 




Nickie Gorilla, greatly overlapping a man-size stretcher, is being x-rayed at 
the end of a ninety-day treatment for tuberculosis. While immobilized, the great 
apes were also injected with tuberculosis antigens; gastric and blood samples 
were taken as well as skin biopsies and other samples for chromosome study. 
{Evening Star photographer Owen Duvall.) 



Gibraltar. Two scimitar-horned oryxes and a Pere David's deer were 
bom. 

In the bird house, kookaburras and tinamous have continued to multi- 
ply. Two Stanley cranes hatched, and a roadrunner was hand-reared. 
Birds on the list of endangered species that have hatched at the Zoo 
include the Laysan duck, Hawaiian duck, and Swinhoe's pheasant. A 
count made on 25 May 1969 showed that 996 eggs had been laid since 
1 January 1969. Of course, not all of them hatched, and of those that 
did, not all the chicks survived, but the figure is impressive. 

The reptile division is proud of the fact that the African pit viper, 
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, has had eight young, a first for the 
National Zoo. 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 



251 



Gifts 

Among the outstanding gifts of the year have been a pair of kiwis, 
the remarkable flightless bird of New Zealand, carefully protected in its 
native land. On 10 October 1968, the Prime Minister, the Right Honor- 
able Keith Holyoake, presented the birds to the "people of the United 
States from their friends the people of New Zealand." Because the birds 
are nocturnal, a special cage in the bird house has been modified for 
them. It is kept dark during the daytime so that they will move about 
and search for food during visitors' hours, and then it is lighted at 
night. The birds have adapted well to this arrangement. 

A welcome gift from the Maryland State Fish and Wildlife Commis- 
sion, in Hancock, consists of 1 7 American wild turkeys. These have been 
released in the Park, where they will maintain themselves under natural 
conditions. 



The Right Honorable Keith Holyoake, Prime Minbter of New Zealand, with 
one of the pair of kiwis presented to the people of the United States from the 
people of New Zealand. 




252 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




A close-up of New Zealand's rare bird, the kiwi. The kiwi is Hightless and tail- 
less but lays an egg that is the largest in proportion to the bird's size of any 
other egg in the world. A four- to five-pound kiwi will lay an egg weighing 
14 to 16 ounces. {Evening Star photographer Owen Duvall.) 



I 



I 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 



253 



Gifts other than animals included a bequest of $5,000 from the 
estate of Mildred B. Bliss. The money is to be used "for the betterment 
of the conditions of animals in the National Zoological Park," and has 
been deposited in the trust funds of the Smithsonian Institution until 
a decision is reached on how to use it most wisely. Another contribution 




Black-and-white colobus monkey mother and her baby. Although the baby likes 
the security of her mother's arms, here she leaves to do a little investigating 
on her own. 



254 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



has come from Reader's Digest in the amount of $150 for the purchase 
of animals. 

Jacob Lipkin, a noted sculptor, has given the Park a 1,000-pound 
statue of a bear. The sculpture is rendered in pinkish-brown Italian 
marble and has been installed just inside the Connecticut Avenue 
entrance to the Zoo. 

As a gesture of goodwill to our Latin American neighbor, the Na- 
tional Zoo has sent a young, Zoo-bom Nile hippopotamus to the zoo 
in Santiago, Chile. Braniff International most generously transported 
the animal free of charge, and Estela, as she was named, received 
tremendous publicity when she arrived in Chile. 

The American alligator has been hunted for its hide until it is on 
the verge of extinction. In Mississippi it has been completely eliminated. 
When the National Zoological Park consulted the Department of the 
Interior in regard to surplus alligators in its collection, it was learned 
that the Fish and Wildlife Service wanted to reintroduce the alligator 
into the Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge near Starkville, Mississippi. 
The Zoo accordingly has turned over three specimens to help in this 
project. 




The parent blue, or Stanley, cranes with their fast-growing chicks. 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 




Two of the Zoo's three sable antelope pose majestically in their secluded corral. 



Purchases 

Once again, attention has been focused on building up the Zoo's 
collection of antelope and deer. A trio of magnificent sable antelope 
has been acquired, and three females have been added to the growing 
herd of Pere David's deer, a species that no longer exists in the wild. 
For the first time in more than thirty years, Eld's deer is on display. 
This small (45 inches high at the shoulder) denizen of southeastern 
Asia is also known as the thamin or Burmese brow-antlered deer, and 
the Zoo has been fortunate enough to secure two males and a female. 
It is rare in the wild and even rarer in captivity; the only sizable herd 
is in the Paris Zoo. 



Exchanges 

In order to maintain a representative collection and to improve 
breeding potentials, zoos occasionally exchange animals. From Busch 
Gardens in Tampa, Florida, the National Zoo has received two stately 
Victorian crowned pigeons. From the Jersey Zoo in the Channel Islands 
have come three Cereopsis geese and an African giant civet. The Na- 
tional Zoo has sent two spider monkeys to the zoo in Calcutta, India, 



256 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1969 



and has received from them a hanviman langur. American wild turkeys 
and crested wood partridges have been sent to Jean Del2u:our in 
Cleres, France, who in turn has sent the National Zoo a Rothschild's 
mynah. Other exchanges have been made with the Taronga Park Zoo 
in Sydney, Australia; the Max-Planck Institut in Wuppertal, Germany; 
and the Royal Zoological Society in Glasgow, Scotland. 



Removals 

The most serious loss of the year has been the death of Moka, the 
female gorilla who had given birth to three ofTspring. Moka and her 
mate Nikumba came to the Zoo in 1955 as youngsters, gifts from Russell 
Arundel of Warrenton, Virginia. Moka weighed twenty pounds and 
Nikumba seventeen. By 1961 they were mature animals and in that 
year Moka gave birth to Tomoka, a male, which is still living in the 
National Zoo. In 1964 she produced Leonard, who was later sent to the 
Toronto Zoo, and in 1967 Inaki, a female, was bom. Clinical and 
pathological findings have shown that Moka died of a form of hepa- 
titis. She was approximately fifteen and a half years old. 



One of the trio of Burmese brow-antlered deer — only the males have the unique 
rocker-shaped antlers. There are no other branches to the antlers except at 
the forked ends, which may produce several points. 




NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 



257 




The Zoo's herd of three scimitar-horned oryx has been increased with the birth 
of two calves — a male and a female. 



Another old-timer that died during the year was a spectacled bear 
[Tremarctos ornatus) received on 3 March 1947. It died on 19 March 
1969, after more than twenty- two years of captivity — possibly a record 
for the species. 



Office of Pathology 

For more than a hundred years the pathologist has spearheaded 
medical research. Information pertaining to disease has been observed 
at autopsy and tissues have been further examined by the use of the 
light microscope. In recent years many techniques and instrximents 
have been found that greatly facilitate the procurement of information. 
Examples include the fluorescent, phase, and electron microscopes, as 
well as histochemical and immunopathologic procedures. 

The knowledge of disease in exotic animals today stands in about the 
same position as did human medicine more than a hundred years ago. It 
is the practice at the National Zoological Park to perform autopsies on 
all animals and then examine tissues under the light microscope. While 
much information can be gleaned by these processes, the Zoo today is 
fortunate that it can profit from the technical progress of recent years 



258 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




The greater kudu family: Mike, Melda, and daughter Mini, with pregnant 
Kitty in the background. 



by being able to use the more sophisticated techniques to carry a prob- 
lem to a more nearly complete solution. 

The Office of Pathology was born in August 1968 with the arrival at 
the National Zoological Park of a veterinary pathologist, Dr. Robert M. 
Sauer, from the staff of the University of Pennsylvania. During the 
next few months a laboratory was designed and equipped in a new but 
temporary building on a hill in the hardy-hoofed stock area. During 
February 1969 a histologic technician, Robert C. Childs, was appointed 
and the laboratory began to function. Upon completion of a research 
and hospital building, the entire operation will be moved permanently 
into this new facility. 

By definition the function of a pathologist is to study all disease proc- 
esses by all available techniques, including the traditional gross post- 
mortems. The philosophy of the Office of Pathology is that service to 
the National Zoo is best achieved through a program of professional 
education and research. To this end, working agreements in compara- 
tive pathology have been established with the veterinary section of the 
Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (afip) and the School of Medicine 
of George Washington University. At the present time, eight veterinary 
officers from afip are participating in the program. They perform the 
autopsies and carry all cases to completion. The protocols are reviewed 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 



259 



with the trainee by pathologists at the Zoo and afip before being acces- 
sioned into the records and retrieval systems of both institutions. 

George Washington University Medical School has furnished the 
Zoo with a resident veterinary pathologist, Dr. Bernard G. 2k)ok, for- 
merly with the Angell Memorial Animal Hospital in Boston. His func- 
tion is the investigation of conditions of potential biomedical impor- 
tance. Both of these nzp pathologists hold professorial positions on the 
George Washington University faculty and will participate in academic 
courses during the coming year. A seminar course in comparative pathol- 
ogy will be conducted at nzp during the fall of 1969. 

Two undergraduate students have been accepted into a summer 
research program, Howard M. Laten of Baldwin Wallace College will 
work in the field of microbiology, and James S. Harper m of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania will conduct a survey of enteric pathogens 
among the collection. 

The teaching and research program has been broadened by the 
inclusion of material from domestic species obtained from a surgical 
biopsy service that is being rendered for practicing veterinarians in the 
District of Columbia and tri-state area. 

Current research projects include: (1) studies on necrotic entero- 
hepatitis in reptiles; (2) light and electron microscopic studies on inclu- 
sion bodies found in reptiles; (3) studies on an idiopathic demyelinating 



A four-day-old roadrunner chick, hatched at the Zoo, showing the shiny black 
skin, which is covered with wiry natal "hairs." (Photo by Constance P. 
Warner.) 




260 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




The nestling gape shows a bright red mouth and white hard palate. The white 
gape marks in the center of the mouth help the parent birds to put the food 
in the right place. (Photo by Constance P. Warner.) 



disease of primates; and (4) studies on spontaneous goiter of streaked 
tenrecs {Hemicentetes semis pinosus) . 



Information and Education 

During the year the Information-Education Section has completed 
785 laminated reptile and bird labels and 240 metalphoto labels for 
mammal and other signs. Children from twenty-seven recreation areas 
have been taken on guided tours during the "Summer in the Parks" 
program and two special tours have been arranged for mentally or 
physically retarded children. Forty-five special guests or dignitaries have 
been given personally escorted tours of the Zoo. The section has assisted 
with press, radio, and television coverage of Zoo activities on thirty- 
three different occasions and has disseminated information on natural 
history and the National Zoo by telephone and correspondence. Special 
exhibits were prepared for the Secretary's Reception prior to the "Man 
and Beast" Symposium. An exhibit installed in the lion house displays 
the various awards and medals that have been presented to the Zoo. 

Tiger Talk, the Zoo's newspaper, was discontinued in October 1968 
because of a shortage of help. Highlights of the National Zoo has been 
rewritten twice during the year. All "care" sheets have been reviewed 
and are in the process of being updated. A brief history of the Zoo and a 
history of the construction of the Zoo have been completed. 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 



261 



Miss Marion McCrane, zoologist, resigned as head of the Informa- 
tion and Education Section on 1 December 1968, and Mrs. Sybil E. 
Hamlet became acting chief of the section. 



Conservation 

The director. Dr. Reed, has continued his service as president of the 
Wild Animal Propagation Trust (wapt). This organization, chiefly 
through specialist committees, promotes the captive breeding of rare 
and endangered species. The Orangutan Committee has had consider- 
able success in arranging transfers, deposits, and sales between zoos to 
increase breeding potential. The National Zoo is nominal owner of three 
male orangutans made available to other zoos through wapt. The 
newly organized Giant Tortoise Committee is gathering information 
on the management and propagation of Galapagos tortoises, and plans 
are being made for a large new breeding compound in Hawaii. Other 
committees are concerned with such species as the golden marmoset and 
Arabian oryx. Future wapt plans include establishment of breeding 
herds on farms or ranches. 

Assistant director John Perry has continued service as a member of 
the Survival Service Commission (International Union for Conser- 
vation of Nature — iucn) and chairman of the Endangered Species 



At two weeks, the chick is almost completely feathered. Its feet have grown 
and changed color, and it is now able to run about. There are still some 
remnants of the natal "hairs." (Photo by Constance P. Warner.) 




262 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




One of the Zoo's two corncrib cages which, although relatively inexpensive, 
are sturdy, well built, and provide ample room for small groups of monkeys. 



Subcommittee of the American Association of Zoological Parks and 
Aquariums (aazpa) . In September 1968 he represented iucn at the 
World Biosphere Conference held at unesco headquarters in Paris. The 
Survival Service Commission frequently is consulted by various govern- 
ments on matters of wildlife management and protection. It also initi- 
ates projects designed to save critically endangered wildlife species. 

Dr. Reed and Mr. Perry represented wapt and aazpa in House and 
Senate hearings on endangered species legislation. Similar legislation 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 



263 



failed of passage in 1968. Since then, private talks with industry groups 
that had opposed the bill led to technical amendments and a change of 
positions. All of the witnesses appearing in 1969 have favored passage. 

As a result of these talks, fur industry representatives have proposed 
continuing cooperation with iucn. Industry leaders recognize that over- 
exploitation of any fur-bearing animal can have only damaging effects 
on their business. Perry was named to represent iucn in preliminary 
conversations with the International Fur Trade Association in London. 

In November 1968 Perry returned to Brazil at the invitation of the 
Brazilian Academy of Sciences to participate in a symposium on wildlife 
conservation. A Brazilian law adopted in 1967 declares all wildlife to be 
national property. Special regulations now protect such endangered 
species as the giant otter and golden marmoset against commercial 
exploitation. 

While in Brazil, Perry visited the site of an experimental project 
which the National Zoo is assisting in the state of Sao Paulo. A Bra- 
zilian scientist, Dr. Paulo Nogueira Neto, believes the African eland 
would adapt to the southern Brazilian savannas and become a valuable 
source of animal protein. The National Zoo is assisting Dr. Nogueira in 
obtaining elands. The first two were shipped to Sao Paulo in January 
1969. The experimental site is a large fenced enclosure on Dr. 
Nogueira's property near Campinas. 

The Zoo is continuing to give priority attention to breeding of the 
rare and endangered species in its collection. Notable births and hatch- 
ings of such species in fiscal year 1969 have included the golden mar- 
moset, two scimitar-homed oryxes, orangutan, Pere David's deer, 
Laysan duck, Hawaiian duck, and Swinhoe's pheasant. 



Friends of the National Zoo 

The Friends of the National Zoo (fonz) have had an active and 
profitable year. Dispensing machines for animal food have been in- 
stalled, three on the bear line, two near the monkey house, and two 
outside the elephant house. The machines are a gift from Roland 
Lindemann of the Catskill Game Farm, Catskill, New York, and they 
make it possible for visitors to buy the proper sort of food to feed the 
animals. Money received from this source goes into the fonz educa- 
tional fund. 

The Friends have sponsored two lecture series, both being held at 
night in the elephant house. The first has consisted of six talks on "Our 
Wild Animal Resources." The series was opened by Secretary Ripley. 
Other speakers have been Emily Hahn, Dr. Theodore H. Reed, Dr. 



264 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Rhino Dillon then (7 September 1967, at one week) and now 
weight: 75 lb. (est.) 1,500 lb. (est.) 

height at shoulders: 24 J^" 4' G'/j" 

length, head to tail: 44" 7' 10" 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 265 

Charles J. Stine of Johns Hopkins University, Dr. WiUiam J. L. Sladen, 
also of Johns Hopkins University, and Larry Collins of the National 
Zoological Park. These lectures are free and are offered to members 
and their guests. A subscription lecture series on "The Roots of Man- 
kind" has been given by Dr. John R. Napier, director of the Primate 
Biology Program in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of 
Natural History. 

A group of about twenty members of fonz has served as volunteer 
tour guides. During the school year, from the first of October 1968 to the 
middle of June 1969, the guides conducted 9,300 children in organized 
classes around the Zoo — a tremendous boon to the Zoo staff. Other 
activities have included a nighttime "preg-watch" of 160 hours during a 
false pregnancy of Mohini, the white tigress, 80 hours with a pregnant 
leopard, sponsoring an art show participated in by school children of 
the Metropolitan area, publication of the newsletter Spots and Stripes, 
operating the kiosk, and conducting an information booth on busy 
weekends. 

A night tour of the Zoo, attended by over 800 members and guests, 
was made on 17 June 1969, and the annual meeting was held in the 
elephant house on 30 June 1969. The annual Mohini award has been 
presented to Marion McCrane Wolanek, formerly a zoologist on the 
Zoo staff. 



Construction and Improvements 

Work has continued on the hospital and research building. It has 
been exciting to watch this dream facility take shape from a bare patch 
of ground to the lovely one-story building that it is now. At the close of 
the year the building is 90 percent completed and the Zoo is looking 
forward to an early fall occupancy. 

This year the District of Columbia Department of Sanitation has 
started work on the final sewer connection so that the Zoo will no longer 
contaminate Rock Creek. A previously constructed sewer system had 
eliminated 75 percent of the Zoo's outflow into Rock Creek. 

Design work has continued on the multiclimate house complex and 
on the development of the central part of the Zoo from the small mam- 
mal house down to the Harvard Street crossroads, in order to have a 
cohesive plan to submit to the various reviewing boards. 

In this year's budget there is an item of $200,000 to provide con- 
tinual heating for all Zoo buildings. (The existing boiler plant now pro- 
viding heat has outlived its usefulness.) Also included in the budget is 
an item of $200,000 for renovation and repair of those facilities in the 

366-269 O— 70 18 



266 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



Mrs. Soedjatmoko and Galuh, wife and daughter of the Indonesian am- 
bassador, admire the 22-day-oId Manis orangutan. (Photograph by Donna 
Grosvenor) . 




NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 



267 



H 




■ 


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■■ 


■ 




9 


bn^ 


■1. ^ 


H 


^B 


r 




^ 

> 


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Elephant keeper-trainer Al Perry giving a "love pat" to Shanti following the 
training period. Both the African and Asiatic elephants are given obedience 
training twice daily. (Daily News photographer GeofiFrey Gilbert.) 



Zoo that must be worked on before the phased reconstruction program 
is started. This has resulted in the initiation of many small projects 
needed to maintain the present physical plant. 



Research 



Overseas travel and research have played an important part in the 
activities of scientific research department personnel this year. On 10 
June 1968 Dr. John F. Eisenberg, resident scientist, departed for a year's 
stay in Ceylon to undertake intensive ecological and ethological investi- 
gations of the Ceylonese elephant, including a study of the reproductive 
physiology of domestic Ceylonese elephants. Eisenberg also has con- 
tinued studies, with the other members of his research team in Ceylon, 
on the comparative ecology and behavior of Ceylonese primates. 

On 22 January 1969 L. Collins left for an eight- week trip to New Zea- 
land and Australia on a grant from the Arundel Foundation. Objectives 
of this trip are : ( 1 ) to investigate the possibilities of obtaining certain 



268 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



specimens indigenous to these countries, (2) to collect care and mainte- 
nance data on captive monotremes and marsupials, ( 3 ) to confer with 
Australian zoologists currently working with the Dasyuridae in con- 
junction with research being carried out at present with this marsupial 
family at the National Zoological Park, and (4) to establish a trading 
rapport between the National Zoological Park and zoos in New Zealand 
and Australia. 

On 9 February 1969 L. Collins was named zoologist in the depart- 
ment, and on 6 April 1969 Mrs. W. Holden was named administrative 
assistant to the resident scientist. 

During the latter part of April 1969, Dr. P. S. Watts, director, Division 
of Animal Sciences, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Sciences, Ade- 
laide, South Australia, visited the department and discussed with Larry 
Collins several aspects of the investigations in progress pertaining to 
the breeding of dasyurid marsupials under captive conditions. 

On 2 June 1969 Miss R. Aulisio, a senior biology major at St. 
Joseph's College, Emmitsburg, Maryland, was appointed as a visiting 
scientific research assistant by the Office of Academic Programs, 
Smithsonian Institution. Miss Aulisio has initiated an intensive investi- 
gation into the reproductive physiology and reproductive behavior of 
solenodons, Solenodon paradoxus, and pacaranas, Dinomys branickii. 

During the past year. Dr. Eisenberg has held the following seminars : 
"Studies on the Ungulates in Ceylon's National Parks" at the Medical 
Research Institute, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 7 May 1969; and "Com- 
munication in Hemicentetes semis pinosus" at the University of New 
South Wales, Department of Zoology, Sydney, Australia, 29 May 1969. 
In addition, Eisenberg taught a class in ecology at the University of 
Ceylon, Peradeniya, for the month of November 1968. 



A curious and brightly colored 
Asian amphibian, the homed 
toad Megaphrys monticola. 




NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 269 

Two 16-mm movie films have been made this year by Larry Collins. 
One illustrates several behavioral aspects of Dasyuroides byrnei; the 
other film depicts locomotion, grooming, and feeding in the red kanga- 
roos, Macropus rufus. In addition, films are currently being made of 
the maturation and developmental behavior of a white Bengal tiger 
cub, Panthera tigrina, male-female encounter behavior of the Zoo's two 
white rhinoceroses, Ceratotherium sinum cottoni, and behavior films 
of all specimens of the marsupial family Dasyuridae. 

Studies on the following research projects are currently being pursued : 

1. The social behavior and ontogeny of behavior among selected species of 
caviomorph rodents (with N. Smythe, University of Maryland). 

2. Predatory behavior of the Viverridae (with C. Wemmer, University of 
Maryland ) . 

3. General behavior of Macaca sylvana (with W. Dittus, University of 
Maryland). 

4. General behavior of Proechimys (with E. Maliniak) . 

5. Reproductive behavior and maturation in the dasyurids (with L. Collins 
and £. Maliniak). 

6. Gestation periods in the Rodentia, Marsupialia, and Insectivora (with 
E. Maliniak and L. Collins) . 

7. Reproductive behavior of Solenodon paradoxus (with R. Aulisio) . 

8. Reproductive behavior and reproductive physiology of Dinomys branickii 
(with R. Aulisio). 

9. Care and maintenance procedures used with captive monotremes and mar- 
supials (with L. Collins). 

10. Communication in selected species of tenrecs (with E. Gould, Johns Hop- 
kins University). 



Staff Publications 

EisENBERO, J. F. "Animal Sociology." Encyclopaedia Britannica (1969), volimie 

20, pages 804-818. 
. "Behavior Patterns." Chapter 12 in Biology of Peromyscus (Rodentia) , 

edited by John A. King. Special Publication Number 2. American Society of 

Mammalogists, 1968. 
EiSENBERG^ J. F., and N. Muckenhirn. "Reproduction and Rearing of Ten- 

recoid Insectivores in Captivity." International Zoo Yearbook (1968), volume 

8, pages 106-110. 



Office of Oceanography and Limnology 
I. E. Wallen, Head 



THE OFFICE OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND LIMNOLOGY foCUSCS the nCcds 
and capabilities of specimen-oriented oceanographers throughout 
the world into national goals. 

The Office has continued to work closely with the staff of the Na- 
tional council on Marine Resources and Engineering Development. 
Representation has been maintained on four of the five standing com- 
mittees of the Council and with nearly all of the panels, working groups, 
and task forces generated during the year's activities. Close association 
also has been maintained with the National Commission on Marine 
Sciences, Engineering and Resources, not only on an ad hoc advisory 
basis but also by assigning William Aron to the commission staff for 
one month to assist in the completion of its final report. The com- 
mission has recognized the substantive contribution of the Smithsonian 
Institution to marine research and specifically has recommended that 
the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center be adequately funded 
to permit it to keep pace with the growing volume of and need for 
marine data. 

To assist in improving the freshwater research opportunities of 
Smithsonian scientists and to include in the national effort facilities 
for freshwater research, comprising the National Museum of Natural 
History, the Chesapeake Bay Center for Field Biology, and the Smith- 
sonian Oceanographic Sorting Center, this Office has been invited to 
serve on the Federal Council for Science and Technology interagency 
Committee on Water Resources Research. Additionally, the Office, at 
the request of the National Water Commission, has provided this newly 
appointed presidential commission with advice and assistance. 

The Office has worked closely with each of the government agencies 
concerned with aquatic research. Particular emphasis has been placed 
on programs involving the direct intrusion of man into the sea. The 
implementation of this aspect of the Office activity has included a wide 
spectrum of activity ranging from joint sponsorship of a special Edwin 
A. Link Lecture by Jon Lindbergh and Joseph B. Maclnnis which was 
attended by a standing-room-only crowd of more than 1,200 people, to 

271 



272 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

several field investigations, such as Project Shark 1969, a multidiscipli- 
nary study of a coral reef environment achieved mainly by diving from 
a submersible chamber. Shark 1969 has been sponsored by Seward 
Johnson, Edwin Link, William Mote, and the Smithsonian Institution. 

Dr. Robert Higgins, formerly of the Marine Biological Laboratory in 
Woods Hole, joined the Office as staff oceanographer in November 
1968. A specialist in kinorhynchs and tardigrades, Dr. Higgins provided 
assistance in program development, particularly to the underseas activi- 
ties, before leaving for Tunisia in June 1969 to relieve Dr. Neil Hulings 
as the director of the Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center. 

Activities in the international area also have commanded considerable 
attention by the Office. L E. Wallen has been named National Corre- 
spondent for the United States to the Cooperative Investigations of the 
Mediterranean, a major expedition of the Intergovernmental Oceano- 
graphic Commission of unesco. Another loc-sponsored expedition, the 
Cooperative Investigations of the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions 
has taken Wallen and Higgins to the University of Mexico to advise on 
the establishment of a regional sorting center. Investigative trips to de- 
velop the use of Public Law 480 (excess currencies in marine research) 
have been made under the aegis of the Office to Poland, Yugoslavia, 
and Egypt by various staff scientists. The Office has participated in the 
preliminary planning for the International Decade of Ocean Explora- 
tion (idoe) with William Aron participating in the National Academies 
of Sciences and Engineering planning workshop and Robert Higgins 
serving on the Marine Sciences idoe working panel. 



RESEARCH ACTIVITIES 

Dr. Aron spent most of August 1968 in Israel, dividing his time 
between field work in the Gulf of Eilat and the Red Sea and attendance 
at the International Limnological Congress in Jerusalem. The field 
program included midwater trawling on both sides of the Straits of 
Tiran, some benthic sampling in these same areas, and considerable 
shore collecting on the reefs. Included in the field party were Dr. Eugenie 
Clark of the University of Maryland, a group of technicians and gradu- 
ate students of The Hebrew University, and Mr. Menachem Ben-Yami 
of the Sea Fisheries Research Station in Haifa. 

The collections of midwater fishes taken during this expedition have 
been returned to the Smithsonian and have been studied jointly by 
Aron and Richard Goodyear of the National Museum of Natural 
History. A joint paper by them has been accepted by the Israel Journal 



OFFICE OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND LIMNOLOGY 273 

of Zoology for the issue commemorating the 60th birthday of Professor 
Heinz Steinitz of Hebrew University. 

During this project to study the role of the Suez Canal as a pathway 
for the movement of biota between the Red and the Mediterranean 
seas, several scientists have visited Israel for research. They include 
Louis Komicker and Thomas Bowman of the Smithsonian, E. Bousfield 
and Neil Powell of the Canadian National Museum, and M. Neushul 
of the University of California at Santa Barbara. As a result of his field 
investigations, Neushul has presented a collection of identified algae to 
the Botany Department of the National Museum of Natural History. 

A panel of scientists consisting of Ernst Mayr of the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology (chairman), Marta Vanucci of the University 
of Sao Paulo, Allyn Seymour of the University of Washington, Gregory 
Sohn of the United States Geological Survey, and Karl Wilbur of Duke 
University and the Ford Foundation visited Israel in April 1969 to 
review the Suez migration studies. The panel has urged the continuation 
of the program and has cited its importance as a model and pilot project 
for needed research on the proposed Isthmian Sea Level Canal in 
Central America. 

Dr. William Melson was chief scientist on a geophysical cruise on the 
pride of the United States oceanography fleet. Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey vessel Oceanographer, for two weeks in October 1968. Drs. Melson 
and Simkin from the Sorting Center and scientists from Princeton, the 
University of Washington, Oregon State University, and Scripps Institu- 
tion of Oceanography participated in the cruise, which was highly suc- 
cessful. Dr. Melson has contributed a new idea of local sea-floor spread- 
ing that involves bilaterally symmetrical features on either side of the 
Juan de Fuca Ridge. The Coast and Geodetic Survey has been very com- 
plimentary in its remarks on the cruise and of the immediate prepara- 
tion of a useful report. The survey has offered full cooperation to Dr. 
Melson's group in meeting future requirements for ship time. 

During the period 15 February- 16 March 1969, a major underwater 
expedition took place off British Honduras under Office sponsorship. 
Using funds and direct support from Mr. Seward Johnson and direct 
support by Messrs. Edwin A. Link and William Mote, five ships and an 
underseas vehicle ads iv were assembled to engage in underwater inves- 
tigations of varied nature. Known as Shark 1969, the expedition grew 
from a proposal of Perry Gilbert from the Mote Marine Laboratory at 
Cape Haze, Florida. Dr. Gilbert, Mr. William Evans of the Naval 
Underseas Research and Development Laboratory, and others con- 
tributed a study of shark behavior using a "bite meter" developed by 
Evans. Walter Starck has studied coral reef fishes and has tried out a 
new scuba apparatus that he and John Kan wisher have invented. 



274 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Kanwisher accompanied the expedition. Dr. Dennis Devaney, post- 
doctorate specialist at nmnh has studied invertebrate behavior, Mr. 
Winston Miller of British Honduras has worked on lobsters, Dr. Robert 
Wilce of the University of Massachusetts has done research on algae, 
and Mr. Robert Wicklund of the Bureau of Sports Fisheries and Wild- 
life has experimented on the vertical transfer of fishes for pressure 
effects. Dr. Joseph Maclnnis of Ocean Systems, Inc., again has served 
as the expedition doctor and hzis done some photography. Two profes- 
sional photographers from Hollywood have participated in recording 
the activity. 

Drs. Richard Benson and William Aron made a trip to India in 
January 1969, accompanied by Dr. Edward Brinton of the Scripps 
Institution of Oceanography. Consultations with Dr. N, K. Panikkar 
led to development of a proposal to use Indian rupees for a series of 
biological and geological cruises from Goa to the middle of the Arabian 
Sea. These cruises would develop information on the productivity of 
the shallow-to-deep-water transect at various seasons. Discussions with 
Dr. B. R. Seshachar, Head of the Indian International Biological Pro- 
gram, have led to approval by the University of Madras to host a sym- 
posium on sipunculids to be organized by Dr. Mary Rice in the Division 
of Worms. This will be the first international symposium on this group 
and should be an important step toward improved research output by 
the participating scientists. Discussions also have proceeded on the possi- 
bility of establishing a study of a coral reef, cooperatively with other 
United States and Indian scientists. 

The Vetlesen Foundation has continued its support of Miss Julie 
Booth's activities on the Great Barrier Reef. Miss Booth has worked at 
Fairfax and Hook Islands, where she has made interesting observations 
on turtles, corals, birds, and other reef occupants. She is sending back 
specimens of the flora and fauna for the Smithsonsian collections. 

For Project Tektite, nasa. Navy, Interior, and General Electric have 
installed an underwater house off St. John, Virgin Islands. With advice 
and assistance from this Office, Tektite has been used in studies of man 
in isolation but in touch with the world by telephone, television, and 
radio. The instrumented facility, installed at a 42-foot depth, for two 
months served as home for four scientists. Support of Smithsonian 
activities in Tektite has been obtained from the Tai Ping Foundation. 
As a result of these actions, the Smithsonian has been invited to partici- 
pate in Tektite II, scheduled for early 1970. 

Ecological studies on Puerto Rican coral reefs were carried out by 
Peter Glynn during a three-month period beginning in September 1968. 



OFFICE OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND LIMNOLOGY 275 

Main emphasis was given to metabolic measurements of key species 
associated with Pontes patch reefs. The food habits of some species, as 
well as their reproductive activities, was investigated. Further observa- 
tions on the feeding behavior of the chiton commensal Dynamenella 
perforata (Isopoda) were made in order to clarify the intimacy of this 
relationship. 

A plan for an international decade of ocean exploration has been 
developed through the Marine Sciences Council to represent federal 
aspirations in ocean explorations during the next ten years. Dr. M. A. 
Buzas has served as the Office representative on the task group that 
assembled this plan and has contributed significantly to its development. 

As Chairman of the United States Observer Delegation and United 
States National Correspondent, I. E. Wallen attended in October 1968 
the Monaco meeting of the International Commission for the Scientific 
Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea (icsem). Substantial attention 
was paid to an approved International Cooperative Investigation of the 
Mediterranean. This study will be coordinated by a three-man group 
from the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of unesco 
(Dr. Federov), the General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean of 
FAO (Dr. Charbonnier), and icsem (Dr. Cousteau). An international 
coordinator. Dr. J. Joseph, was named and four scientific committees 
have been chosen. An assistant coordinator for each committee will 
live in Monaco for the duration of the study, which began officially in 
October 1969 and will last for five years. There has been substantial 
interest on the part of Smithsonian oceanographers in participating in 
the study; the Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center will be the official 
specimen center. 

Dr. Hugh Steedman of England spent the months of July, October, 
November 1968, March, and June 1969 planning and conducting experi- 
ments to be performed in international studies of plankton preservation. 
His travel to the Sorting Center was paid by the Scientific Committee 
on Ocean Research of the International Council of Scientific Unions, 
and his local expenses by the Smithsonian. Dr. Beers of the Scripps Insti- 
tution of Oceanography will collect plankton for the initial studies, 
which are expected to be duplicated in Tunisia. Plankton preservation 
sometimes has been excellent and sometimes very unsatisfactory with 
similar preservatives. Histochemical work on preserved materials will 
permit analyses of the reasons for such variation. 

On 13 December 1968 a small oil tanker, Witwater, was moving oil 
from a refinery a few miles south of the Panama Canal Zone to the 
Zone when it broke up about three miles from the Smithsonian Tropi- 
cal Research Institute (stri) marine station at Galeta Island. About 



276 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1969 

15,000 barrels of a mixture of bunker c oil and diesel oil were spilled 
and another 20,000 barrels gradually leaked into the Atlantic. Much 
of the oil drifted toward Galeta Island. Although some 500 barrels of 
the onshore flow was burned, the oil was distributed into the mangrove 
areas. An accumulation of oil near the stri facility evidently began 
killing crabs and other marine organisms. This spill is being studied 
by STRI personnel for its effect on the marine facility. 

Femandina Island in the Galapagos provided the setting for a spec- 
tacular and rare volcanic event in July 1968. A Smithsonian expedition, 
mounted under the leadership of Dr. Thomas Simkin of the Smithsonian 
Oceanographic Sorting Center, spent a month in the Galapagos study- 
ing the volcano itself and the geological and biological effects on the 
crater lake and the surrounding ocean. This eruption was most unusual 
in that it involved the collapse" of a significant portion of the caldera, 
part of which sank more than 300 meters. During his return trip. Dr. 
Simkin made observations, as a member of a Presidential mission, on 
the volcanic eruption in Costa Rica. 

Drs. Thomas Goreau and Maxwell Doty of Jamaica and Hawaii, 
respectively, represented the Office and Drs. Talbot and Fosberg the 
Smithsonian at a meeting in Koror, Palau, in November 1968. The 
International Union for the Conservation of Nature (iugn) considered 
setting aside island preserves for scientific use. This meeting was of 
great interest in the Office's own efforts toward the establishment of 
international marine preserves. The Office expects to work closely with 
IUGN, the Pacific Science Board, and other groups to set aside a system 
of international scientific preserves before their eventual exploitation. 

Dr. Carl George, formerly of the American University, Beirut, Leb- 
anon, has had support from excess currencies and this Office for a 
tour of the Nile River in Egypt, from Aswan to Alexandria, to gather 
data concerning the changes in the Mediterranean fisheries owing to 
construction of the Aswan Dam. The data were gathered in anticipation 
of a meeting at Airlie House in December 1968. Secretary Ripley spoke 
then of the environmental consequences of a possible interoceanic sea- 
level canal and gave examples from the Suez Canal studies. Environ- 
mental prediction is being considered by current planners for engineering 
modification of the environment. As an outcome of this trip, a proposal 
by Dr. George has been accepted to investigate the effects of the Aswan 
on some of the lower Egyptian lakes. 

Interest in Mediterranean geology led Dr. Daniel Stanley to par- 
ticipate in a NATO-sponsored cruise of Paolina I, an Italian vessel in the 
western Mediterranean in January 1969. Dr. Jack Pierce used Coast 
Guard vessel Kane for a sediment cruise off North Carolina. 



OFFICE OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND LIMNOLOGY 277 

Coast Guard vessel Rockaway was used by Dr. Dan Stanley in 
three two-week cruises for studies of the nature and origin of Wilmington 
Canyon. These large ships were provided by the Coast Guard as a 
very substantial contribution to Smithsonian Oceanography. 

Drs. Neil Hulings and Jose Stirn of the Mediterranean Marine 
Sorting Center visited Morocco in December 1968 to plan for a ship 
expedition to gather biological and geological data and specimens for 
our researches. The cruises across the Moroccan shelf started in June 
and continued through July 1969. 

As a part of the effort to gain support for Smithsonian systematics, 
a series of field guides has been sponsored for sale or distribution to 
the general public and to the mission agencies. Dr. George Watson has 
been the most productive along this line with his Preliminary Field 
Guide to the Birds of the Indian Ocean, Seabirds of the Tropical Atlan- 
tic Ocean, and Seabirds of the Tropical Pacific Ocean. He is preparing a 
similar book on Antarctic birds. Dr. Robert Gibbs joined Dr. Bruce 
Collette of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries in producing Preliminary 
Field Guide to the Mackerel- and Tuna-like Fishes of the Indian Ocean 
(Scombridae). Recently Dr. Horton Hobbs authored Keys to Water 
Quality Indicative Organisms and Peter Glynn (stri) produced with 
Robert Menzies The Common Marine I so pod Crustacea of Puerto Rico: 
A Handbook for Marine Biologists. Support for these efforts has come 
from the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, the National Science Foun- 
dation, this Office, and the National Museum of Natural History. 

The Ocean Acre program, a joint study by Drs. Aron, Gibbs, and 
Roper and scientists from the United States Navy Underwater Sound 
Laboratory, the Naval Oceanographic Office, and the University of 
Rhode Island, has included four cruises using vessels Gilliss and Sands 
of the navy and the University of Rhode Island's research vessel Trident. 
Preliminary analysis of the distributions of cephalopods and the meso- 
and bathypelagic fishes taken during these cruises reveals variations in 
the migratory behavior patterns between species that may be associated 
with different sound-scattering layers. The area selected for the intensive 
studies comprising the program is southeast of Bermuda in water 
depths greater than 2000 meters. Material collected during these cruises 
has been made available to other interested scientists including Thomas 
Hopkins of the University of South Florida, who is working on feeding 
behavior of fishes, Daniel Cohen of the Bureau of Commercial Fishes, 
who works on argentenoid fishes, and S. Van Der Spoel of the Zoological 
Museum of Amsterdam, who studies the pteropods and heteropods. 



278 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1969 

SMITHSONIAN OCEANOGRAPHIC 
SORTING CENTER 

The Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center (sosc) began serv- 
ing the marine sciences community in December 1962. The Center re- 
ceives, sorts, records, curates, and distributes biological and geological 
specimens collected by oceanographic expeditions in all seas. By ful- 
filling the role of a central processing laboratory, sosc reduces the ef- 
fort and time needed to distribute this great variety of specimens to 
interested specialists. 

The collections of biological and geological materials, which have been 
received at sosc during the six and a half years of operation, have come 
from 83 sources, sosc does not accession the material in the sense of ac- 
quiring it permanently. A reference number is assigned, however, and 
the data are entered into a permanent system. 

Upon request, sorted groups are distributed according to the commit- 
ments made by expedition leaders and principal investigators. Requests 
for noncommitted specimens are referred to one of a series of seven ad- 
visory committees for review and recommendation. Records are kept 
on the distribution of all specimens, research results, publications, and 
the final deposition of specimens. 

After discussions with the National Institutes of Health, a simple 
agreement resulted in its purchase of nearly $5,000 worth of supplies for 
the Sorting Center. In exchange for the supplies sosc has provided forty 
species of marine organisms in quantities of one kilogram or more. 
Shortly after this agreement was reached. Dr. H. A. Fehlmann and Mr. 
Ernani Menez of the sosc staff and Mr. Victor Haley, an sosc techni- 
cian, collected in Antarctica on board the National Science Foundation 
vessel Hero, with a Bureau of Commercial Fisheries team based in the 
state of Washington. Dr. Fehlmann made cold-water collections, and 
then stopped in Panama for warm- water collections. Common species 
are sought for unusual chemicals. 

sosc personnel have included sixteen federal employees and about 
twenty positions on private funds. In maintaining this level of private- 
roll employees, forty-one persons have been supported and trained 
during the year. Several terminations have resulted from reduction in 
contract funds by the National Science Foundation. 

Owing to the specific nature of sosc's work, nearly every new techni- 
cian must undergo a few months of intensive on-the-job instruction in 
the careful handling, identification, and recording of the broad array of 
specimens to be processed. This training is conducted in the individual 
sections since each of sosc's sections has unique problems and solutions. 
Training consists of closely supervised performance, interspersed with 



OFFICE OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND LIMNOLOGY 279 

lectures and discussions by consultants, and with the continual use of 
general identification manuals, some of which have been prepared by 
sosc. A valuable adjunct to sosc^s training efforts is its modest 
library. Each year new acquisitions of books, reprints, journals, and charts 
add to the library's scope and usefulness. Training is open ended, al- 
though, after about three months, a new technician is able to work with 
a minimum of supervision. Whether a technician remains at sosc, trans- 
fers to the National Museum of Natural History, or joins another 
agency, sosc training has contributed toward making him a valuable 
member of a needed, skilled labor force. 

Early in 1969, the Smithsonian Institution agreed to accept fifteen 
young persons as sosc trainees through the United Planning Organiza- 
tion's Neighborhood Youth Corps. They were assigned to the several 
sections of sosc and for six months learned the particular and varied 
skills needed to process specimens. Several trainees are expected to reach 
a level of competence enabling them to remain indefinitely on the techni- 
cian staff at the Center. Supplementary support has been received from 
the National Science Foundation to allow trained technicians to act 
as instructors to the youth group and to provide laboratory equipment. 

Nine temporary students were assigned to work in four sosc sections. 
Three of the students were participants in the Ninth Summer Science 
Research Program for Senior High School Students sponsored by the 
American University. One student was awarded a Summer Undergradu- 
ate Research Assistantship from the Smithsonian Institution's Office of 
Academic Programs. Five students were volunteers or were supported 
by private funds. Aside from routine work in the algae, geology, plank- 
ton, and vertebrate sections, all students undertook special projects 
related to their studies. 

Under a contractual agreement with nsf, the Sorting Center main- 
tains a file on all biological and geological specimens collected from the 
Antarctic by United States investigators. The collections processed at 
sosc, combined with Antarctic collections held at other institutions 
throughout the United States and some foreign countries, have provided 
a wealth of data. In 1966 sosc began to design an automatic data- 
processing system to permit rapid storage and retrieval of this 
information. 

By the beginning of the year the first phase of the records system was 
in operation, and the sorting records were being integrated with the 
routine preparation of specimen labels. The labels, containing essential 
information, are prepared on automatic typewriter systems, which simul- 
taneously punch the data onto paper tape. Data from the paper tapes 
are edited and transferred to magnetic tape for permanent storage. Bulk 
listings of all records or queries for records that satisfy specified param- 



280 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

eters can be retrieved. The versatility of the records system permits 
inclusion of records on collections from any source while maintaining 
the identity of collections processed at sosc. 

Most of the efforts of the past year have been invested in preparing 
labels and records for tape storage, processing the backlog of Antarctic 
records from manual files, and designing and implementing other phases 
of the records system. Over 40,000 items have been recorded in the year. 
More than half of the records have been from the backlog of previous 
years. Current production includes preparation of labels, inventory cards, 
and punched paper tapes for each sorted taxonomic group. Treatment 
of the backlog requires only the production of a paper-tape record. Each 
record is equivalent to one lot of sorted specimens. The backlog of 
records on Antarctic specimens processed at sosc prior to July 1968 
covered over thirteen million specimens from usns Eltanin Cruises 
8-30 taken by Lamont Geological Observatory (lgo) and Texas A&M 
(tam) and those taken by the University of Southern California 
(use) and sosc on Cruises 1-22. These collections include over 
4,000 pelagic and benthic samples. Nearly all the use and sosc 
collections that have been sorted and the lgo and tam samples from 
Cruises 8-2 1 are now recorded on magnetic tape. 

The first phase of the data-processing system records specimens identi- 
fied only to taxonomic levels higher than species. These higher categories 
are suitable for identification of the groups processed and distributed by 
sosc and for similarly processed collections at other institutions. A 
second phase of the system, begun this year, will incorp>orate records on 
specimens after they are studied and identified to species level by special- 
ists. Programming for this inventory is under a special contract with 
Mr. Fred Krazinsky, who will continue to assist sosc with development 
of the system. When programming for the species inventory is completed, 
both inventories can be collated or queried, or both, to retrieve all 
available information on any sample or sets of samples regardless of 
the level to which the specimens have been classified. Initial testing 
of the species inventory is complete and related programming is 
under way. 

Reduced data sheets are prepared by the records section for some col- 
lections for which only the original field logs are available. These data 
summaries facilitate the distribution of information to specialists who 
receive specimens and to others who are interested in the collections. 
Reference information and cruise tracks are used to verify the accuracy 
of the data ; units of measure are converted to standard units. Reduced 
data sheets have been prepared for seven collections during the year. 

sosc designs, produces, and distributes data forms for vessels 
involved in the United States Antarctic Research Program (usarp). 



OFFICE OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND LIMNOLOGY 281 

After consultations with marine biologists and studies of forms used by 
other institutions and agencies operating research vessels, a sample num- 
bering system and preliminary forms for biological samples were agreed 
upon in September 1968 during the usarp Orientation Session for 
participants. 

A supply of sosc-usARP forms has been distributed to usns 
Eltanin, research vessel Hero, and usc&gs Glacier. The forms are 
printed in triplicate. One copy will be returned to sosc, where the 
data will be used in cruise reports. Suitable means of publication are 
being investigated. The use of the forms and systematic processing of 
the data will improve the collection and retention of data, and will add 
to the scientific value of the marine specimens that are collected at 
considerable cost and effort. 

During the past year, the basic concept of "sea floor spreading" has 
received striking confirmation from many and varied investigations and 
now has moved from the status of hypothesis to theory. This new concept 
carries sweeping new implications for all parts of earth science and has 
stimulated a remarkable surge of geologic interest in the wet two thirds 
of the globe, sosc has responded to this increased interest by expand- 
ing its geology section and by consolidating operations of this section 
during the past year. 

The sosc geology section acts as a clearinghouse that inventories 
and then distributes incoming collections. Careful inventory is an essen- 
tial part of efficient distribution because it makes each valuable collection 
available to a wide group of specialists and because it provides each 
specialist with prompt retrieval of the desired portion of the collections. 
Incoming collections may consist of sea floor (a) samples, (b) photo- 
graphs, or (c) information. Operations on these collections consist of 
(a) receiving, (b) processing or inventorying, and (c) distributing per- 
tinent parts of the collections to appropriate specialists. Despite this 
burgeoning interest in marine geology, many oceanic rocks sit unde- 
scribed on warehouse shelves, others remain uncollected by vessels lack- 
ing petrologists to study them, and still others are thrown back over the 
side when they appear in a biological collection. The aim is to rescue as 
many of these samples as possible, identify and inventory them, and 
make them available so that any specialist interested in specific litholo- 
gies, locations, minerals, features, or associations can request appropriate 
material for detailed examination and the increased understanding 
of the oceanic crust. 

Installation of basic petrographic laboratory equipment at sosc, 
begun in late 1967, was completed during the past year. The lab now 
contains a diamond-bladed saw for cutting rocks, grinding laps, micro- 
scopes for optical examination of the resulting thin-sections, and refer- 

366-269 O — 70 19 



282 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

ence works to assist identifications. In addition, materials and equipment 
are available for chemical staining of rock slices and for semiautomatic 
photomicrography. Basic drafting equipment for mapmaking has been 
added. 

A major catalog of all oceanic rocks has been produced to include 
all that have been described in the scientific literature. The bibliographic 
search has located over 200 papers that mention oceanic rocks and these 
have been abstracted in catalog form so that rocks of a particular region, 
depth, topographic feature, or lithology can be easily located. Specific 
mineral groups and lab information (e.g., age determinations, optical 
data) in the literature may be found through the catalog, which provides 
a reference for all those interested. The catalog was circulated as a 
preprint and submitted for publication at the end of the report year. 
Supplements to the catalog will be added as required. 

Two inventory systems have been developed for the rock samples of 
the usARP program. The first treats the sample as a whole, and the 
second treats individual specimens. The sample inventory lists the 
following on a single-page computer readout: (1) sample numbers; 
(2) location data, including topographic features (e.g., ridge crest, 
seamount) ; (3) sampling history; (4) pertinent supplementary data 
gathered from bottom photographs (at sosc) and seismic reflection 
profiles (obtained from Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory) ; 
(5) physical data of sample: weight, number, and estimated propor- 
tion of sample falling into various categories of rounding, size, and 
surface markings; (6) lithologies of sample: estimated proportions 
falling into twenty-three broad lithologic categories; (7) lab work 
done on the specimen (s) ; and (8) present location of sample. These 
data summarize the major features of the whole sample, give some 
basis for estimation of the proportion of ice-rafted erratics, and place any 
given specimen into the context of the full sample collected from that 
locality. This inventory will be distributed as a sample catalog to inter- 
ested specialists. 

The specimen inventory is based on the petrographic examination of 
individual specimens. It is designed to meet the needs of specialists 
interested in specific mineralogic, textural, or lithologic features. 

In December 1968, a trip was made by various staff members to 
Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory in order to obtain seismic 
profile records and bathymetric data from Eltanin for use with bottom 
photograph and dredge programs. Some knowledge of surrounding 
topography and underlying sediment thickness is important in assessing 
the likelihood that rock samples from a particular dredge are ice-rafted 
erratics or represent true submarine outcrops. Such knowledge is like- 
wise valuable to interpreters of bottom photographs who can, for 



OFFICE OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND LIMNOLOGY 283 

instance, apply scale measurements to objects photographed once the 
interpreters are assured of a nearly horizontal floor at the photo station. 
These records have now been scanned and the data entered into 
the sample inventory. For any camera or sampling station the local 
topography can be categorized and the apparent distance to the nearest 
steep slope (i.e., nearest source of locally derived rock) can be indicated. 

The collection of deep-sea photographs at sosc has passed 12,000 
during the past year. Two basic operations are performed with these 
photographs : ( 1 ) routine printing, distribution, and inventory of incom- 
ing photographs ; and ( 2 ) filling of specific requests, utilizing the inven- 
tory system for photographs of specific organisms, bottom features, or 
localities. Requests for bottom photographs during the year have been 
up fifty percent over the previous year and the total number of prints 
distributed has nearly doubled. Although the greatest number of orders 
is in the request category, routine printing takes up a great bulk of 
processing time. Five custom enlargements are made of each photo- 
graph and as many as 7,600 prints have been required for a single 
Eltanin cruise. 

The major geological collection received this year is 2,500 pounds 
of rocks taken by Eltanin from 224 localities on her first thirty-two 
cruises. This collection reached sosc in January 1969. A collection of 
thirty- three sediment cores from Florida was received in February 1969 
from the Coastal Engineering Research Center (gerc) of the Army 
Engineers. These cores will be followed by additional collections from 
the Atlantic coast as the cerc research program proceeds. A small 
collection of rocks taken by usns Kane has been submitted for identi- 
fication by Dr. Martin Weiss of the Naval Oceanographic Office. 

During the year 4,216 negatives have been received from Eltanin, 
115 from Glacier, and 10 from Hero. The Lamont tripod camera now 
in use on Eltanin takes repeated frames of the same scene, and not 
all frames need to be printed; however, a grand total of 4,341 negatives 
have been received by sosc, a figure that greatly exceeds receipts of 
previous years. 

Distribution of rock specimens has been limited pending completion of 
the sample inventory of Eltanin rocks. The catalog review, however, has 
been circulated to a list of 200 specialists interested in oceanic rocks and 
simultaneously has been submitted for publication. A similar catalog 
lists received copies of the Eltanin collection inventory. 

Curatorial responsibilities are a fundamental concern to sosc. All 
specimens are processed and cared for in proven and acceptable ways. 
It is universally recognized, however, that relatively little is known about 
the theory and practice of curating marine organisms and that currently 
acceptable procedures are very likely not the best. Recently, sosc began 



284 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1969 

an active program of investigating fixatives and preservatives for 
marine specimens. Dr. H. F. Steedman, histochemist and Working 
Group 23 member, came from Bath University, England, in July 1968 
to establish curatorial experiments at sosc. He returned to sosc in 
October 1968, in February 1969, and again in May and June 1969. 
Dr. Steedman has spent more than six months at sosc. A number of 
plankton collections have been made, and a large assortment of chemi- 
cals, supplies, and equipment have been obtained by sosc for Dr. 
Steedman's experiments. 

A series of experiments has been planned to cover all possible aspects 
of zooplankton preservation. The series includes about forty separate 
experiments. The progression of the work has depended on a supply 
of plankton collected expressly for this project. Some twenty-five liters 
of concentrated zooplankton are needed for a single array of experiments. 
The quantity of plankton obtained by April 1969 was sufficient for four 
of the series. 

Formerly at the Smithsonian as a graduate student at George Wash- 
ington University working with Dr. Thomas Bowman of the National 
Museum of Natural History, Dr. John McCain joined the permanent 
staff of the Sorting Center 1 March 1969. As his first assignment. Dr. 
McCain continued to make collections on the National Science Founda- 
tion Antarctic vessel Hero during March 1969. Formerly on the staff 
of the Oregon State University Marine Laboratory at Newport, he will 
be assistant supervisor for Benthic Invertebrates. 

sosc has provided sorted specimens to 322 specialists, who represent 
141 institutions or agencies in 32 states and territories of the United 
States and 26 foreign countries. The Center has received 478 collections 
from 83 sources. 

During the past year, sosc has sorted 2,871,448 specimens and has dis- 
tributed 771,014 specimens in 405 shipments. The total number of 
specimens sorted by sosc since 1963 exceeds 20 million; over 7 million 
specimens have been distributed in 2,159 shipments. In addition to ship- 
ments of specimens, sosc has dispatched nearly 300 support shipments 
consisting of supplies and collecting gear for expeditions, cruise reports, 
data summaries, and charts. 

Members of the sosc staff have participated in six cruises and expedi- 
tions and have attended six scientific meetings. Since 1963, sosc per- 
sonnel have participated in thirty-six cruises and expeditions, with an 
involved time of 1,682 man days, sosc has filled the part of director 
of the Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center, Salammbo, Tunisia, since 
its beginning in November 1966. Scientific meetings have drawn sosc 
staff on 33 occasions, with a participation time of 207 man days. Fifty- 



OFFICE OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND LIMNOLOGY 285 

four other trips, for consultation, correction of records, and visits to 
museums have required 464 man-days. Thus, sosc personnel have 
spent nearly nine man years away from the Center. 

A major source of supplies and equipment for sosc has been United 
States government excess property. This source is unpredictable but 
a variety of useful items has been obtained. In many cases useful 
material has been transferred to other sections of the Smithsonian 
Institution. Since 1963, sosc has obtained excess property valued at 
over $500,000. Most of this has been used by the Center, but about 
ten percent has been transferred for use elsewhere in the Institution. 

sosc has received more than one hundred visitors from various parts 
of the United States and from several foreign countries. 



MEDITERRANEAN MARINE SORTING CENTER 

The staff of mmsc consists of twenty-nine persons and all but two are 
Tunisians. The professional and technical staff consists of four super- 
visors, three assistant supervisors, and fifteen technicians. The admin- 
istrative staff consists of six persons. 

During the past year mmsc has utilized the services of consultants 
from thirteen countries (Yugoslavia, Algeria, Malta, Canada, England, 
Italy, United States, Switzerland, France, Libya, Lebanon, Cyprus, 
and Austria) in the training of the scientific staff and in mmsc activities. 
Mme J. H. Heldt of Tunisia has served as consultant to the Plankton 
Division during the first four months. 

Several consultants to mmsc have lectured in the Faculty of Sciences 
of the University of Tunis, mmsc also has cooperated in the Third 
Cycle Program in Oceanography of the Faculty of Sciences. 

During the period covered by this report, mmsc has received 27 col- 
lections including 981 samples from ten countries including Cyprus, 
France, Greece, Italy, Libya, Malta, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey, and 
Yugoslavia. The type and source of the collections received are as 
follows : 

Plankton (6 collections including 194 samples) 
24 samples from Italy (N. Delia Croce, University of Genoa) 
29 samples from Greece (V. Kiortsis, University of Athens) 
79 samples from Cyprus (A. Demetropoulos, Fisheries Department) 
18 samples from Yugoslavia (collected by mmsc during training cruise) 
21 samples from Greece (V. Kiortsis, University of Athens), 
24 samples from the open Mediterranean (collected by J. Stirn on Atlantis II) 

The Benthos Division has received a total of twelve collections, three 
for the Macrobenthos Section and nine for the Meiobenthos Section, 
totaling 283 samples. 



286 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1969 

Macrobenthos Section 
93 samples from Yugoslavia 

Meiobenthos Section 

6 samples from Malta (H. Micalef, Royal University of Malta) 
3 samples from Morocco (collected by mmsc personnel) 

7 samples from Italy (G. Bonaduce, Naples Zoological Station) 
60 samples from Italy (G. Fierro, University of Genoa) 

9 samples from Yugoslavia (collected by mmsc personnel) 
107 samples instop and mmsc collections and France (P. Vitiello, Endoume 

Marin Station) 

Fish Division (4 collections) 

311 samples from Libya (J. Norris, Tobruk) 
101 samples from Yugoslavia (collected by mmsc personnel) 
116 samples from Yugoslavia (Institute of Sea Research, Portoroz) 
47 samples from Tunisia (instop) 

Algae Division (5 collections) 

106 S£unples from Turkey (N. Zeybek, University of Ege) 
1 sample from Morocco (collected by mmsc personnel) 
7 samples from Yugoslavia (Institute Sea Research, Portoroz) 
1 sample from Tunisia (instop) 
63 samples from Italy (collected by mmsc personnel) 

During the period covered by this report, sorting has been completed 
of 31 collections and 2,186 samples. From these, 1,427,312 specimens 
have been sorted. By Division, the sorting is as follows : 





Collections 


Samples 


Specimens 


Plankton 


6 


195 


897, 098 


Macrobenthos 


8 


1,388 


46, 597 


Meiobenthos 


6 


69 


472, 223 


Fish 


4 


311 


811 


Algae 


7 


223 


10,583 


Totals 


31 


2, 186 


1,427,312 



MMSC has shipped 1,057,641 sorted specimens to collectors, specialists, 
and museums during the year. By Division, the number of specimens 
shipped is as follows : 



Plankton 


863, 379 


Benthos 


193,012 


Macrobenthos 


10,576 


Meiobenthos 


182,436 


Algae 


873 


Fish 


337 



OFFICE OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND LIMNOLOGY 287 

Museum collections were sent to: 

Specimens 
Tunisian Oceanographic Institute 420 

The Paris Museum of Natural History 130 

U.S. National Museum of Natural History 6, 333 

The American Cooperative School in Tunis 42 

A total of sixteen specialists in eight different countries have received 
specimens from mmsc for study. The countries include Great Britain, 
Switzerland, France, Canada, United States, Denmark, and Italy. Five 
collectors have received specimens sent to mmsc for sorting. 

In addition to sorted specimens sent for study, a total of 153 samples 
of plankton residue and 15 samples of sediment have been sent by mmsc. 

MMSC formally has received 26 requests for 27 taxa during the past 
year. All of the requests have been approved by the appropriate Special- 
ist Advisory Committees for mmsc. Sixteen specialists have received 17 
taxa for study. The remaining requests will be fulfilled when specimens 
become available. At the present time, about 15 additional requests are 
expected or are in the process of being evaluated by Specialist Advisory 
Committees. 

During the year, the staff of mmsc has visited institutions, labora- 
tories, and government officials in Algeria, France, Italy, Libya, 
Monaco, Morocco, United States, and Yugoslavia. 

Scientific meetings and courses attended by mmsc personnel include 
the Third European Symposium on Marine Biology, a meeting on 
Plankton Indicators in the Mediterranean, the International Commis- 
sion for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea, and a 
Course in Marine Algology in Sicily. 

Four MMSC staff members have participated in a training cruise in 
the Adriatic Sea. The primary objective has been to study methods of 
collecting, processing, and preserving specimens in the field. 

A cooperative program between Mohammed V University, Rabat, 
the Institute of Fisheries, Casablanca, and mmsc to survey the marine 
fauna and flora of Moroccan waters on both sides of the Straits of 
Gibraltar was begun in June 1969. Dr. Stim is field project leader for 
this program, and all of the male scientific staff of mmsc will participate 
in the two-month survey. 

Two new programs — the sorting of fish eggs and larvae and of the 
stomach contents of fishes — have been initiated on a limited basis. 



288 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Staff Publications and Papers 

Aron, Willum, and Sneed Collard. "A Study of the Influence of Net Speed 

Catch." Limnology and Oceanography (1969), volume 14, number 2, pages 

242-249. 
BiRDSONG, Ray S., and Leslie W. Knapp. "Etheostoma collettei, a New Darter 

of the Subgenus Oligocephalus from Louisiana and Arkansas." Tulane Studies 

in Zoology and Botany (1969), volume 15, number 3, pages 106-112. 
GehringeRj Jack W., and William Aron. Field Techniques: Zooplankton 

Sampling. 1969. 
Landrum, Betty J. "Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center Provides Mul- 
tiple Services to Research." National Oceanographic Data Center Newsletter 

(1968), volume 9, number 68, pages 1-4. 
. "Innovations in the Antarctic Records Program." Antarctic Journal 

of the United States (1968), volume 3, number 5, page 210. 
SiMKiN, Thomas E., with K. A. Howard. "Caldera Collapse in the Galapagos 

Islands, 1968." Special Papers of the Geological Society of America (1968), 

page 280. 
SiMKiN, Thomas E., with J. R. Duncan, W. J. Morgan, W. G. Melson, 

H. Banks, and D. Gottfried. "Juan de Fuca Ridge Bathymetry: Independent 

Evidence of Sea-Floor Spreading." Transactions of the American Geophysical 

Union (1969), volume 50, page 185. 
Simkin, Thomas E., with W. G. Melson, R. S. Fiske, J. G. Moore, and 

R. N. Decker. "Major Volcanic Eruptions of 1968: Preliminary Contributions 

to Petrology and Volcanology, 1969." Transactions of the American 

Geophysical Union (1969), volume 50, page 344. 
sosc Staff. "Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center Expands Its usarp 

Activities." Antarctic Journal of the United States (1968), volume 3, number 

5, page 209. 
. "The Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center." The Science Teacher 

(1969), volume 36, number 3, pages 29-31. 
Wallen, I. E. "Cooperative Systematic Studies in Antarctic Biology." Antarctic 

Journal (1968), volume 3, number 5, pages 166-167. 
. "Non-Oil Trade and Resources." Pages 107-110 in Middle East 

Focus: The Persian Gulf. Princeton University, 1969. [Also delivered as a 

lecture 24 October 1968.] 

"Participation in usarp Expedition." Antarctic Journal (1968), volume 



3, number 5, page 162. 

"Materials Problems in the Utilization of Marine Biology Resources." 



Ocean Engineering (1969), volume 1, pages 149-157. 

"Smithsonian Activities in Education." Symposium on Education and 



Federal Laboratory University Relationships, Federal Council for Science and 
Technology, 29-31 October 1968. 
Wallen, I. E., H. A. Fehlmann, and C. Stoertz. "The Smithsonian Oceano- 
graphic Sorting Center." Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 
(1968), volume 58, pages 191-200. 



Office of Ecology 

I. E. Wallen, Acting Head 



THE SMITHSONIAN OFFICE OF ECOLOGY was established in 1965 to 
assist in expanding the research opportunities of scientists in the 
National Museum of Natural History, the Smithsonian Tropical Re- 
search Institute, the Radiation Biology Laboratory, and the Chesapeake 
Bay Center for Field Biology, and to aid in the coordination of eco- 
logical activities with other United States agencies. During this year, 
the program has continued to be directed toward major problem areas 
in ecosystem research. Studies of endangered species, of the biology of 
natural areas, of principles of vegetation change, and of behavior in 
populations of wild animals have been emphasized in worldwide investi- 
gations. The expanding need for participants in ecological research has 
led to changes in the assignments of Drs. Helmut K. Buechner and Lee 
M. Talbot. Dr. Buechner, who has served as head of the Office since its 
inception, has been appointed a senior scientist in the Office. He will 
pursue research on the ecology of ungulates with emphasis on African 
species. Dr. Talbot, who has served as deputy head of the Office and 
coordinator of International Affairs since May 1968, will conduct re- 
search as resident ecologist in the Office. He will continue his interest 
in Asian and African game preser\^es and assist Secretary Ripley in 
liaison with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and 
Natural Resources and numerous other international conservation 
activities. 

Requests for advice and consultation on ecological problems have 
been received from the National Park Service and the Fish and 
Wildhfe Service of the Department of the Interior; the Pacific Science 
Board, the Environmental Sciences Board, and the Division of Be- 
havioral Sciences of the National Academy of Sciences-National Re- 
search Council; the Office of Science and Technology; the Department 
of Defense ; the Department of Agriculture ; the Department of State ; 
Congress; and a variety of international organizations including 
UNESCO, FAO, UNDP, and IBP. The Office has participated in appro- 
priate ways on many of the committees and panels of these groups and 

289 



290 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



\ "**• . •iff*' 









*^ I'iMii '#' 



.^^SC'«*. 







■ill':- 


'*. ■ 



Poplar Island In Talbot County showing the rapidly eroding shoreline. 



has worked closely with them in the development of cooperative inter- 
national projects. 

During the year Dr. Buechner has continued to serve as an observer 
on the Federal Council for Science and Technology Committee on 
Environmental Quality, which has been in existence since 1967. This 
committee has facilitated communications between federal agencies 
on activities concerned with the environment, concentrating primarily 
on problems of pollution. The commitee is expected to continue to 
function and will complement the President's newly created Environ- 
mental Quality Council. 

Most ecological research and theory has been based on the North 
Temperate Zones of Europe and North America. With the rapid in- 
creases in human population, technology, and consequent development 
activities, an increasingly urgent need exists for basic and applied 
research on ecosystems in all parts of the world. 

Concern has been expressed for information about the quality of 
the environment and for the development of sufficient ecological data 



OFFICE OF ECOLOGY 291 

for American and international projects. An objective of the Office 
is to develop and facilitate research in ecosystem science to meet these 
needs. An associated objective is the provision of appropriate research- 
related training opportunities. 

One of the primary responsibilities of the Office of Ecology has been 
to develop meaningful research opportunities for Smithsonian affiliated 
scientists. Ecosystem research requires integrated studies involving a 
number of disciplines, and cooperative and collaborative programs have 
been emphasized with appropriate institutions and individuals from 
the United States, from the host nation, and from other countries and 
international agencies. 

During this period, primary attention has been devoted to the devel- 
opment of research programs in Ceylon, India, Tunisia, Indonesia, and 
the Mekong Basin. Attention also has been given, however, to explora- 
tion and development of research opportunities in Poland, Morocco, 
and Brazil. 



RESEARCH ACTIVITIES 

In considering the conservation of nature and natural resources, the 
Office focuses the attention and capabilities of the Smithsonian on 
environmental problems such as the prediction of the consequences of 
environmental modifications, pollution, and the establishment of parks 
and reserves. A close working relationship has been maintained and 
strengthened with the various organizations concerned with interna- 
tional conservation, including the International Union for Conservation 
of Nature and Natural Resources (iucn) , the International Council for 
Bird preservation, the Fauna Preservation Society, the Conservation 
Foundation, the World Wildlife Fund, the International Biological Pro- 
gram (iBp), and the Pacific Science Association. Scientists of the Smith- 
sonian have participated actively in the works of the iucn Commissions, 
including the International Commissions on Ecology, National Parks, 
Survival Services, and Education. Dr. Talbot assists the conservation 
work of the ibp, collaborating with E. M. Nicholson, convener of the 
Terrestrial Conservation Section, in the establishment of a worldwide 
network of research preserves and in developing international coopera- 
tion toward the scientific conservation of natural resources. 

In connection with the Smithsonian's contribution to the ibp, Lee 
Talbot and Raymond Fosberg have participated in the ibp Pacific Is- 
lands Conservation Program. This program includes an inventory of 
Pacific islands or parts of islands which, because they have been rela- 
tively uninfluenced by human activity and contain unique flora and 



292 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




The forest of Chestnut Oak {Quercus prinus) on Fox Point. This forest has 
been little disturbed down through the history of human occupation. 



fauna, require protection as rare scientific resources; an evaluation of 
the conservation requirements of these areas; and consequent prepara- 
tion of recommendations on island protection and associated conserva- 
tion problems. At a meeting in November 1968 in the Palau Islands and 
Guam, data were assembled and the resultant inventory, descriptions, 
and recommendations are currently in press. Talbot continued these dis- 
cussions at the Pacific Science Association Intercongress meeting in 
Malaya in May 1969. In response to another request for assistance in 
conservation in the Asia Pacific region, Dr. Talbot helped develop and 
conduct, in March 1969, an international conservation conference in 
Hong Kong, which addressed itself to environmental problems induced 
by increasing organization. 

Assistance has been given to the Office of Science and Technology in 
American preparations for the unesco International Conference on the 
Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conser\'ation of the Resources 
of the Biosphere. In Paris, in September 1968, Dr. Talbot represented 
the Smithsonian in the United States delegation to the conference. 

Arrangements were made with the Oliver Foundation, the Smith- 
sonian Excess Currency Program, unesco, and the iucn for Mr. 



OFFICE OF ECOLOGY 



293 



Wayne A. Mills to spend six months in Asia, starting in June 1969, 
serving as the iucn Regional Representative and coordinating Smith- 
sonian support of the 11th Technical Meeting and the 10th General 
Assembly of the iucn, which was held in New Delhi 24 November-1 De- 
cember 1969. Mr. Mills collected and distributed research data pertinent 
to the discussions and field studies. 

Dr. Buechner completed preparations for a project that was launched 
in the summer of 1969 to explore the feasibility of using satellites to 
track free-ranging animals and obtain physiological data. Elk were 
instrumented in the Jackson Hole area of Wyoming and will be followed 
for about one year, using the Nimbus B-2 satellite system. Frequent 
ground observations will verify locations and transmit observations of 
behavior. The experiments will provide a basis for testing the satellite 
tracking technique while at the same time producing useful informa- 
tion on the behavior of elk in relation to weather, seasonal changes, 
migration stimuli, herd composition, habitat requirements, and range 
condition. 

Dr. F. S. L. Williamson, director of the Chesapeake Bay Center for 
Field Biology, visited Poland in November 1968 to examine ibp field 
sites and stations where research parallel to that planned for the Bay 
Center is being conducted and to explore the possibilities of collabora- 
tion. On his return he stopped over in Great Britain to tour Oxford 
University's Wytham Woods Station with Charles Elton. In July and 
August of 1968, Mr. Elton visited Belem, Brazil, as a Smithsonian Fellow 
to study certain aspects of the population density and species diversity 
of the rain-forest fauna. Results of the study are being compared with 
data from Wytham Woods, which he has studied intensively for more 
than twenty years. 

Dr. Williamson also has made two field trips to Alaska in connection 
with studies of the species composition, population density, ecological 
and geographic distribution, breeding biology, and feeding ecology of 
the birds of Amchitka Island. The Office has provided assistance to 
Dr. Stanwyn Shetler, Department of Botany, for a survey trip to Alaska 
in connection with a planned study of pollination systems in the Arctic. 

Through a contract with the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 
support has been given to a series of studies on various aspects of ecology. 
Twelve scientists have participated in the program, seven of whom have 
conducted their research at the Smithsonian's Barro Colorado Island 
in Panama. Dr. Juan Delius of the University of California at San 
Diego has visited Barro Colorado Island to record observations on the 
behavior of various neotropical primates. 

Dr. Thomas Eisner of Cornell University has investigated a variety 
of insects and other invertebrates known to produce defensive secre- 



294 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




The shoreline of Cheston Peninsula seen across the waters of the Rhode River. 
The conspicuous stand of Loblolly Pines (Pinus Taeda) was planted in 
1933. 



tions. Efforts have been made to gather secretions in amounts sufficient 
for subsequent chemical analysis at Cornell, and experiments have been 
set up in both the field and laboratory aimed at determining the effec- 
tiveness of the materials. The animals studied include onychophora, 
opilionina (Gonyleptidae), tenebrionid and scarabaeid beetles, heli- 
coniid butterflies, and ozaenine beetles. Dr. Robert Enders of Swarth- 
more College has studied the rate of erosion in a drainage basin on the 
island to obtain final data for a proposed publication on 40 years of 
changes in the mammalian fauna and ecology of Barro Colorado. Mr. 
Douglas Futuyma of the University of Chicago has assessed the potential 
of Barro Colorado Island and neighboring environments for studies of 
the magnitude and periodicity of fluctuations in arthropod populations. 

Dr. John D. McCrone of the University of Florida has worked with 
the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Dr. Michael Robinson 
on various aspects of the pre-capturing behavior of the spiders Argiope 
argentata and Nephila claripes. A brief survey tour to examine the 
opportunities for research on the species diversity of amphibians in 
Panama has been made by Dr. Eric R. Pianka of Princeton University. 
Dr. Herbert Rosenberg of Cornell University has conducted a prelim- 
inary study on certain aspects of the predator-prey relationships of 
various arthropods. 

Support has been given for Dr. James Peters of the Reptile Depart- 
ment to visit several of the larger collections of reptiles in Latin 
America and examine their holotypes. Mr. Timothy C. Williams of 



OFFICE OF ECOLOGY 295 

Rockefeller University has been assisted in his study of the nocturnal 
behavior of bats. Support has been provided for Dr. Ernest J. Hugghins 
of South Dakota State University to study the zoogeographical rela- 
tionships of South American fishes as indicated by their parasites. Dr. 
Ke Chung Kim of Pennsylvania State University has visited the Pribilof 
Islands to conduct research on the ectoparasites of the northern fur 
seal. 

In cooperation with ibp, support has been provided for Dr. Donald 
W. Rennie of the State University of New York at Buffalo to conduct 
research on the physical fitness, work capacity, and respiratory functions 
of Eskimos in Wainwright, Alaska. The study has been coordinated with 
a multidisciplinary investigation of health, child growth, genetics, and 
ecology of Eskimos under the direction of Drs. Frederick Milan and 
William S. Laughlin of the Department of Anthropology, University of 
Wisconsin. With the support of the Office, Mr. Nicholas Smythe, a stu- 
dent of the National Zoological Park's Dr. John Eisenberg, has con- 
ducted field research on the behavior and ecology of the caviomorph 
rodent Dolichotis patagonum in Argentina. Assistance has been provided 
for Dr. Cleofe E. Calderon to collaborate with Dr. Thomas S. Soder- 
strom of the Botany Department in an interdisciplinary study of the 
insect pollination of rain-forest grasses. 

Korea 

The preliminary phase of a program of ecological studies in Korea, 
sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and the Air Force Office of 
Scientific Research, drew to a close in September 1968. A general de- 
scription of the vegetation, animal life, soils, physiography, and climate 
of the study area, which is just south of the Demilitarized Zone and 
contiguous with it, has been completed. The reports of individual re- 
search projects, conducted over a period of two years by thirteen Korean 
scientists and their twenty-one student assistants, have also been re- 
ceived. A five-year plan has been developed that calls for the establish- 
ment of a Korean Center for Environmental Studies to advance, through 
research and education, the understanding of the ecological systems 
within this developing country. 

Ceylon 

Smithsonian studies of the ecology and ethology of elephants in Ceylon 
have continued with Dr. Fred Kurt concentrating in Ruhunu (Yala) 
National Park and Mr. George McKay surveying the adjacent areas of 
Lahugala and Gal Oya National Park. In Ruhunu, comparative studies 



296 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

are underway on the population dynamics of elephants and their poten- 
tial competitors for food and living space (buffalo, sambar deer, axis 
deer, and wild swine) . Research on the role of waterholes, which serve 
as a focus for inter- and intraspecific competition, with reference to 
the ecology and behavior of elephants and ungulates, is also in progress 
at this site. 

In the Gal Oya Valley, the study includes the catchment area of 
Senanayake Samudra and totals 720 square miles, most of which is 
forest savanna and monsoonal forest with an estimated elephant popu- 
lation of 300 to 330. Research emphasis at this site is on food habits 
and patterns of movement. 

In late June of 1968 Dr. John F. Eisenberg and family began an 
eleven-month residence in Ceylon. His primary research effort has been 
directed toward the third and last national park that has not been sur- 
veyed by the team. This park, named Wilpattu, has presented some 
difficulty. Since it is densely forested, direct observation is somewhat 
impeded. Nevertheless, the study of the area has provided valuable com- 
parative data concerning the land-use patterns of the elephant. Refine- 
ment of field-censusing techniques has been an early objective. The 
final census information on the numbers of each age and sex class will 
be combined with estimates of abundance in different habitats to de- 
lineate such population parameters as the reproductive state of the 
population, the density of habitat usage, and the degree of competition 
with other species. 

Two supplementary studies were initiated in August 1968. The first 
involved Mr. A. P. W. Nettasinge in a survey of the elephant popula- 
tion in the Maheveli Ganga basin northeast of Polonnaruwa. The sec- 
ond study required the participation of Drs. J. B. Jayasinghe and Jainu- 
deen of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ceylon, Pera- 
deniya. Together with Dr. Eisenberg, they have attempted to breed 
domestic elephants in order to determine such basic physiological data 
as periodicity of oestrus, duration of oestrus, physiological manifestations 
of oestrus, and sexual behavior patterns of the male and female. The 
experiment has never been scientifically conducted in Ceylon. Two fe- 
male elephants were successfully bred with one male during December 
1968, January and February 1969, and a preliminary review of the data 
obtained seems to indicate that the basic structure of the elephant re- 
productive cycle has been worked out for the first time. Further tests 
are urgently needed as well as laboratory tests on the hormonal content 
of the blood in pregnant, nonpregnant, and oestrus females. 

In collaboration with the team of zoologists, Dr. Dieter Mueller- 
Dombois, a botanist and plant ecologist, also supported by a Smithsonian 
PL 480 grant, has led his team in the continuation of its studies. A 



OFFICE OF ECOLOGY 



297 




Muddy Creek, the principal freshwater source to the estuary as it flows between 
Corn Island (distant) and Fox Point (foreground). 



vegetation map of Ruhuna has been prepared. The scale ( 1 : 31,680) al- 
lows for distinguishing several herbaceous physiognomic types, a fact that 
has provided a meaningful frame of reference for the animal studies. 
An access-systems map is also being prepared. This map will show the 
roads and trails, artificial waterholes and dikes, major rock outcrops, 
lagoons, and sample plot locations of the plant, ecological, and animal 
activity surveys. If suitable data are obtained, they will also show the 
elephant's specific home ranges. 

A major environmental influence on the vegetation of the park is the 
large animals — elephant, buffalo, axis deer, sambar deer, and wild boar. 
Conversely, the vegetation types are expected to exert an influence on 
the daily and seasonal distribution of the animals. To explore these rela- 
tionships, a new method to assess the animal activity patterns is being 
developed and tested. Dr. Mueller-Dombois, in addition to help with the 
identification of plants used as food by the animals, is studying the rate 
and pattern of grass recovery in areas grazed by telephants in an attempt 
to gauge the carrying capacity of the nonwoody vegetation. 

366-269 O— 70 20 



298 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

In addition to these studies, a preliminary investigation of the relation- 
ships between man and domestic elephants has been continued by Dr. 
Eisenberg and Dr. Suzanne Ripley. The purpose of this project has 
been to lay the groundwork for intensive study of the interspecific social 
adaptation of man and tame elephants in Ceylon. Major orientations of 
the investigation are : ( 1 ) to relate knowledge about the ecology and be- 
havior of wild elephants to the taming transitions and human society, 
and (2) to relate the above to the sociocultural roles of elephants at 
present and in historical perspective in Ceylon within the general con- 
text of South Asia. Present emphasis is on the collation of the results of 
interviews with owners of tame elephants and with mahouts and the 
initiation of a bibliographic search in connection with the historical 
dimension of the study. 

Under the direction of Eisenberg and Ripley, studies on the ecology 
and behavior of the Ceylonese primates has continued. The ultimate 
objective of this program is to determine the modes of exploitation of 
the environment by the different species and races of primates by relat- 
ing data on ecology, sociology, energy budget, and form and function to 
relevant variations in the environment. In order to set up comparisons 
based on habitat differences, some basic knowledge of climatic and 
vegetational variations must be assumed, and in this connection, Dr. 
Mueller-Dombois and his associates have provided valuable assistance. 
With the results of their work on climate, vegetation, and soils in 
Ruhunu National Park, it has been possible to launch comparative, 
intraspecific studies now in progress on Perslytis entellus (common 
langur) . Special problems have been raised since the early 1960s regard- 
ing the population dynamics of this species in India, especially with 
reference to habitat richness, population density, group size and com- 
position, and the role of aggression in spacing. It is anticipated that 
data from the Smithsonian project will prove to be helpful. 



India 

During the year, the Office has developed two research projects in 
India, both based on reserves and both in collaboration with Indian 
institutions. 

The Gir Forest project is a comprehensive series of interdisciplinary 
studies on the indigenous flora and fauna, the human inhabitants and 
their livestock, and various associated environmental factors. The Gir 
Forest is a surviving relic of an environment that formerly existed over 
much of that part of the Indian subcontinent, and it offers unique op- 



OFFICE OF ECOLOGY 



299 




This field on Java Farm was previously a pasture, but was abandoned twenty- 
five years ago. Such fields are undergoing rapid changes in plant and animal 
composition and are a valuable research asset. 



portunities for research. Following up earlier work there, Dr. Lee M. 
Talbot visited the area in November 1968 and secured Indian institu- 
tional approval and sponsorship for development of a research center 
in the Gir and a research program based on it. 

With Dr. Talbot serving as project coordinator, field activity during 
the year has been conducted by Paul W. Joslin on the social behavior 
of the Asiatic lion {Panthera leo persica) , a species whose range 
once extended through the Middle East and much of the Indian sub- 
continent but today is found only in the Gir. Fewer than 175 of the ani- 
mals are alive today, and the influence of cattle on the area is rapidly 
decreasing the lion's habitat. K. T. B. Hodd, a botanist, is conducting 
vegetation studies designed to discover the causes of vegetation deteriora- 
tion. Grazing intensity is being monitored and studied through the use 
of enclosures and experimental control plots. These studies will produce 
broad conclusions applicable to the management and conservation of 
the area. 

Professor Ramdeo Misra, head of the Department of Botany at 
Benares Hindu University, one of the leading centers for plant ecology 
in India, has visited the Smithsonian and other institutions in the United 



300 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

States to discuss the possibilities for cooperative ibp research projects 
in his country. As a result of this visit a cooperative ecological research 
program has been developed with Dr. Frank B. Golley, executive direc- 
tor of the Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia. The project in- 
volves study of the productivity and mineral cycling of deciduous forest, 
grassland, and cropland in the Chakia District of India. In March 1969 
on behalf of the Smithsonian, Dr. Golley visited the research area in 
India for further planning for the project. 

Following completion of his work on the Smithsonian Elephant Proj- 
ect in Ceylon, Dr. Fred Kurt made a one-month research visit to India 
to obtain comparative data on the elephants of Mysore Province. 

Tunisia 

Development has been continued of a long-term research program 
involving a pre-Saharan ecological research station in southern Tunisia. 
Desertization is a key environmental problem in this area, with a loss of 
lands and of productivity for humans, a loss of flora, fauna and habitat, 
and associated problems of use, management, and conservation of nat- 
ural resources in general. 

During the year. Dr. Talbot has made two visits to the area to complete 
research plans with representatives of the Tunisian government, fao, 
UNESCO^ the French National Center for Scientific Research, and the 
United Nations Development Fund (undf) . Approval of the plan has 
been given by the Tunisian authorities and a request made to the undf. 
Research has been started by French scientists, and, in April 1969, Dr. 
Thomas Soderstrom made a survey trip, resulting in the development 
of a plan for research on grasses. 



East Africa 

On behalf of the Office, Dr. Walter Leuthold has conducted a study 
of the most suitable areas in East Africa for ecological and behavioral 
studies of individual species of ungulates, particularly those on which 
little or no ecological research has been conducted to date. Dr. 
Leuthold's final report was submitted in August 1968. Current infor- 
mation is given on the game areas of Kenya, on research carried out in 
the past, and on that which is at present under way. Summaries are in- 
cluded of the programs of existing research institutions. 



OFFICE OF ECOLOGY 301 

Morocco 

Arrangements have been made for Dr. Wallace Ernst, associate 
curator in the Department of Botany, and Dr. Robert Omduff of the 
University of California in Berkeley to visit Morocco to investigate the 
possibilities for collaborative ecological research. 

Pakistan 

In November 1968 Dr. Talbot visited Pakistan to explore possibilities 
for collaborative research and to identify personnel and procedures. A 
research project has been developed on the ecology of the wild boar 
{Sus scrofa cristatus) of West Pakistan, a species of ecological and 
economic interest because of the damage it does to agricultural crops. 
Dr. M. I. R. Khan, director of the Pakistan Forest Research Institute, 
and Professor R. D. Tabor of the University of Washington will con- 
duct the research. 



Mekong Basin 

One of the world's largest river basin programs is being studied for 
development in the four riparian countries of the lower Mekong Basin : 
Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Nearly thirty countries and a 
variety of international organizations are cooperating on a program that 
eventually will involve a series of main river dams, plus more than twenty 
tributary dams, with vast irrigation projects and power plants. To date 
virtually all the feasibility studies and preconstruction research has 
involved engineering and economics, to the exclusion of considerations 
of sociological and ecological consequences. Under arrangements made 
with the Southeast Asia Development Advisory Group (seadag), 
Smithsonian ecologists Raymond Fosberg, David Challinor, and Lee 
Talbot, assisted by Dr. Richard van Cleve of the University of Wash- 
ington, made an ecological survey of selected areas of the Mekong 
during the summer of 1969 to identify and plan the longer-term research 
needed to predict the consequences of the dam construction and irriga- 
tion projects. The survey will identify and develop a description of 
needed research projects. 



Indonesia 

In response to a request from the National Academy of Sciences, the 
Office has assisted United States aid and Indonesian authorities in the 



302 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1969 

development of plans for a Southeast Asian Regional Study Center for 
Biological Research and Training (biotrope) to be located in Indo- 
nesia. The plan, approved by Southeast Asian authorities, calls for 
initial projects involving ecological research on coral reefs, man-made 
lakes, and tropical forests. It is in part an extension of prior research in 
Indonesia carried out by Fosberg and Talbot. 



CHESAPEAKE BAY CENTER FOR FIELD BIOLOGY 

Under the direction of Dr. Francis S. L. Williamson, the Chesapeake 
Bay Center for Field Biology (cbcfb) has accelerated its program and 
progress in close cooperation with the Johns Hopkins University and the 
University of Maryland. Some major administrative accomplishments 
have been the restructuring of the Articles of Operation and their ratifi- 
cation by the Scientific Advisory Committee. This document, together 
with newly developed and appropriate forms for the use of facilities, a 
fee schedule, and a format for research proposals, should aid in the 
proper functioning of the Center. The Scientific Advisory Committee 
has been enlarged by the addition of members from Duke, North 
Carolina State, and Cornell universities. These members increase the 
scientific scope of this important body, which is central to scientific pro- 
gramming at the Center. 

One of the objectives of the Center is to plan for the protection, 
improvement, and establishment of sound practices in soil conservation 
and land management of the Center and its watershed. In accordance 
with this objective the Center has entered into a conservation agree- 
ment with the Anne Arundel Soil Conservation District, and a lease 
has been developed for the farming of its agricultural lands. To further 
this objective. Dr. Williamson has become a member of the Anne 
Arundel County Committee for the Maryland Environmental Trust, 
and the Mayo Civic Association. Other land-management plans are in 
active progress. 

The renovation of one level of the main laboratory and office build- 
ing has been completed, and the first two laboratory cubicles have been 
constructed on the lower level. A detailed proposal for facilities 
developed has been prepared, and this document currently serves as 
the guideline for continuing construction. 



Research 

The major emphasis of research at the Center has been in studies of 
the adjacent estuary (Rhode River), terrestrial situations, diseases of 



OFFICE OF ECOLOGY 303 

plants and animals, archeological findings, and the history of land use. 

EsTUARiNE Studies. Measurements have been made of physical 
parameters and of the populations of organisms occupying different 
trophic levels in the estuary. 

Dr. Charles H. South wick of Johns Hopkins University has con- 
tinued his monthly measurements of temperature, salinity, light pene- 
tration, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients such as 
ammonia-, nitrate-, and nitrite-nitrogen, polyphosphates, orthophos- 
phates, and total phosphates. The results of these measurements have 
revealed that while the Rhode River has been generally in a healthy 
condition and had normal nutrient levels in July and August 1968, an 
increase in ammonia nitrogen and phosphates occurred in September 
1968. When compared with September 1968 samples taken in the Back 
River estuary, one mile below the outfall of effluents from the Baltimore 
sewage treatment plant, ammonia nitrogen level in the Rhode River 
was higher: 1.3 ppm as opposed to 0.8 ppm. The fact that 2 ppm of 
this nutrient may indicate a detrimental water quality condition points 
to the need for studies of the land-water interface and of the movements 
of materials of diverse sorts into the estuary. The principal contrasting 
types of land-use — rural versus heavily urbanized — that characterize the 
opposite shores of the estuary, encourage this important comparison. 

The nutrients in the estuary support the lowest trophic level in that 
ecosystem — the plankton — now under study by Drs. William D. 
McElroy, Howard H. Seliger, and William G. Fastie of Johns Hopkins 
University. An intensive, long-term investigation of primary production 
began in late winter when sampling revealed very low levels of phyto- 
plankton and only moderate levels of zooplankton. Studies of seasonal 
succession are under way, together with bioluminescence, which was 
first detected in June 1968. The night and day patterns of intensities of 
bioluminescence may provide an index of primary productivity although, 
due to faunal diversity, the system in this estuary is a very complex one. 

Monitoring of fish populations has continued under the direction of 
Dr. South wick. Sampling at three Rhode River localities (Fox, Sellman, 
and Muddy Greeks) has been done with nylon graded-mesh gill nets. 
Netting in August and September 1968 revealed dense populations of 
Alosa sapidissima, Pomatomous saltatrix, Leiostomus zanthurus, and 
Fundulus species. The results of sampling at the Genter are being com- 
pared with those from other estuaries with adjacent land areas diflfer- 
ently utilized and whose characteristics of water quality and plankton 
biota may differ. These comparative areas include the highly eutrophic 
Back River. Three studies of estuarine birds, the Osprey, the Whistling 
Swan, and waterfowl populations are also imder investigation. 



b 



304 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Dr. George E. Watson and Mr. Jan Reese of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution have completed a three-year study of the productivity of breeding 
Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) at Poplar Island, that portion of the Center 
in Talbot County, Maryland, on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake 
Bay. This cosmopolitan species is dwindling in numbers, and, in North 
America, has almost disappeared from some northern areas. Unsuccess- 
ful reproduction and the encroachment by man upon the nesting areas 
are factors influencing this decline. The Ospreys on Poplar Island, a 
part of one of the largest colonies along the east coast, have averaged 
thirty nests per year for three years. The birds prefer standing dead 
trees for nest sites, but their availability has decreased due to loss by 
shore erosion, and the birds have been forced to nest on lower sites. 
Although other Osprey populations have reproductive rates too low for 
normal annual recruitment, this colony is now producing about one 
fledgling per active nest. This number is about three times the rate in 
Connecticut, where few eggs now hatch. Pesticides, particularly chlori- 
nated hydrocarbons such as dot, are strongly indicated as the cause 
of the general decline in breeding success; for example, Connecticut 
birds have five to ten times more pesticide residues in their body tissues 
than the Maryland birds. Eggs taken from Connecticut nests have pro- 
duced few young when placed in Mar)'land nests although a reverse 
switching has produced normal numbers of young in Connecticut. 

Studies of the Whistling Swan {Olor columhianus) at the Center, on 
the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay, and on their northern breeding 
grounds were begun in 1967 by Dr. William J. L. Sladen of Johns 
Hopkins University and are continuing as a major project. Over half of 
the North American population of these birds, in excess of 50,000, winter 
in the bay, and annual counts indicate that their numbers are increasing. 
The objectives of the study, local and long-distance movements, feeding 
ecology, social behavior, and diseases are being achieved by observations 
of both unmarked and conspicuously dyed birds, tracking of birds carry- 
ing small transmitters, and autopsies of diseased birds (see below) . The 
results of this study include evidence of fidelity to precise wintering 
areas between years, the exact nature of local, premigratory movements, 
and — through observations of color-marked birds in Pennsylvania, New 
York, Wisconsin, North Dakota, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and 
on the breeding grounds in the Northwest Territories — the timing, 
course, and altitude of long-distance flights. Thus, by utilizing the tech- 
niques of conspicuous dyeing and biotelemetry, this swan is proving to 
be an ideal model for migratory studies of waterfowl. These studies 
shed much light on the hazards posed by these birds to commercial 
aircraft and on their important role in the ecology of the local estuarine 
ecosystem. 



OFFICE OF ECOLOGY 305 

The cooperation of neighbors in permitting the Center to purchase 
rights to shooting blinds along the shoreline of their respective properties 
again has provided a twelve-mile sanctuary for wintering waterfowl. Mr. 
John Moore of the Baltimore Zoological Society has conducted a band- 
ing program on Fox Point and other localities, thus providing informa- 
tion on composition of the wintering duck population: at Fox Point 
approximately 300 Lesser Scaup [Aythya affinis) , 16 Ruddy Ducks 
{Oxyura jamaicensis) , and 18 Canvasbacks [Aythya valisineria) . Four 
pairs of Ring-necked Ducks {Aytha collaris) have been collected for the 
Baltimore Zoological Society collection. The Ruddy Duck is especially 
abundant as is the Mallard [Anas platyrhynchos) , but the number of 
Canvasbacks is down from those seen in previous years. 

Terrestrial Studies. Investigations in the land areas adjacent to 
the estuary have centered around vertebrate populations, especially birds 
and rodents, although studies of the flora are continuing. 

New additions to the vascular flora of the Center have been made by 
Mr. Daniel Higman, staff botanist, and collections have been begun on 
the Star Company land (south of Java Farm) . This interesting property 
includes an extensive freshwater marsh containing a plant community 
unlike any other at the Center. Collections from this marsh are being 
studied. Ten additional vascular plants have been identified, bringing 
the total for the Center to 568 species. 

The Center, with its mosaic of vegetation types, is ideally suited for 
the studies of avian populations being conducted by Dr. Williamson. 
The goals are the gathering of data on species composition, density, 
breeding biology, the spatial and temporal structuring of populations, 
and their interrelationships. The initial study area of seventy-five acres, 
located in mature deciduous woodland, contains four rows of eleven mist 
nets each, spaced at 50-meter intervals. The rows are 100 meters apart. 
The marking and releasing of over 500 breeding birds, combined with 
censuses of singing males, has provided the basic data. Forty-two species 
of birds have been recorded in the climax forest during the reproductive 
season, and the numbers and distribution of breeding pairs have been 
recorded. In addition to their intrinsic ecological interest, these results 
provide baseline data of considerable value for long-term study of the 
effects of varying patterns of land use in adjacent areas — including the 
use of diverse chemicals — on the large avian populations that comprise 
an important trophic level in the forest ecosystem, essentially that of 
anthropod predators. 

Studies of the foraging ecology of the most abundant and important 
insectivorous bird at the Center, the Red-eyed Vireo ( Vireo olivaceous) , 
have been completed by Mrs. Penny Williamson of Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity. Observations of this species at the Patuxent Wildlife Research 



306 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Center and the cbcfb, have revealed a spatial dichotomy in the for- 
aging areas of the structurally similar sexes, with only about a 35 percent 
overlap. The males forage higher than the females, and particular, non- 
random sequences of movements are employed to maintain this separa- 
tion. Thus, the small territory (1.3-1.7 acres) of this extremely abun- 
dant species can be seen to actually consist of a cylinder extending from 
the forest canopy to the low understory. One associated vireo ( V. griseus) 
is generally separated from V. olivaceous by habitat, and another, V. 
flavifrous, overlaps in habitat and behavior but possesses structural 
differences indicating different prey preferences. Other foliage-gleaning 
insectivorous birds occupying the same forests have been included in the 
study, and have been found to possess their own particular foraging 
ecology (niche exploitation patterns). This type of study is basic to an 
understanding of the use of space by primary and secondary consumers 
and the functioning of the forest ecosystem. 

The studies of Dr. Southwick on population dynamics of the White- 
footed Mouse {Peromyscus leucopus) , on a 17-acre island in the estuary, 
are now in the third year. Population size and age composition of thisi 
population have proven unstable. The numbers declined markedly im 
1967 but rose sharply in 1968. This long-term study of population fluctu- 
ations of a small rodent, confined in areal space, is now complicated by' 
the recent discovery on the island of the House Mouse {Mus musculus) 
and the Rice Rat {Oryzomys palustris) . 

Disease Studies. The work of several investigators has been con- 
cerned with the role of diseases in affecting the welfare of plant and 
animal populations. Diseases of infinite variety, involving intricate host- 
parasite relationships, are a significant part of the biology of virtually 
every organism, and yet their function in the regulation of numbers, 
through either proximate or ultimate effects, remains with few excep- 
tions essentially unknown. 

A long-term study of poxvirus disease in the Starling {Sturnus vul- 
garis) at the Center and in nearby Pennsylvania has been completed, 
at least in its broad aspects, by Dr. Williamson. In the field, data, 
gathered on the prevalence of the disease during three consecutive' 
epizootics have revealed that greater than 50 percent of the population 
(regardless of sex or age) may be infected at one time, coincident with 
the gathering of the birds into the communal roosts of winter. These 
roosts are formed during that period of the year when environmental 
conditions (snow, low temperature) are most unfavorable for the birds. 
It is believed that transmission occurs via direct contact between indi- 
viduals and that the virus enters through injured skin surfaces or intact 
mucosa. Indirect evidence of mortality under natural conditions has 
been obtained. In birds experimentally inoculated intradermally there 



OFFICE OF ECOLOGY 307 

is a incubation period of about seven days following which the disease 
manifests itself by the production of caseous, proliferating lesions. The 
appearance of the lesions is preceded by multiplication of the virus in 
the liver, lungs, and spleen where there are associated histopathological 
changes. This disseminating form of pathogenesis has not been previ- 
ously described in poxvirus diseases of birds. The course of the disease 
is three to five weeks. The disease kills some Starling under experimental 
conditions and this fact, coupled with the indirect evidence of mortality 
in those naturally infected, indicates the possible importance of this 
infection in the welfare of Starling populations. Mr. C. John Ralph, a 
predoctoral student, will continue experimentation with this disease. 

A study of the incidence of blood parasites in birds of the deciduous 
forest by Dr. Paul E. M. Fine, University of Pennsylvania, School of 
Veterinary Medicine, has resulted in valuable baseline data for more 
detailed investigations. Blood smears have been taken from 353 birds 
(42 species), and 182 infections in 129 birds (36.5 percent) have been 
disclosed. Eighteen infections are confirmed as Plasmodium, 64 are 
either Haemaproteus or Plasmodium, 31 are Haemaproteus, 15 were 
Leucocytozoon, 35 are Trypanosoma, and 19 are Lankesterella. Forty- 
five of 60 Red-eyed Vireos (75 percent) have been infected with one or 
more species of parasites, and multiple infections are common. Similarly, 
29 of 39 Cardinals {Richmondena cardinalis) , 74 percent, have been 
infected. Subinoculation of 19 Canaries with blood from Red-eyed 
Vireos have revealed that most of the questionable Plasmodium, or 
Haemaproteus infections in that bird are with the latter parasite. The 
Cardinal had high levels of both Leucocytozoon and Haemaproteus. 
Studies of the epizootiology of Haemaproteus in the Red-eyed Vireo, 
a migrant, and Leucocytozoon in the Cardinal, a permanent resident, 
have been begun, and point toward local transmission. The pathogenic- 
ity of these parasites is difficult to assess, but it seems probable that they 
may be of importance to the welfare of avian populations under par- 
ticular conditions. 

In conjunction with the work on the Whistling Swan, in Chesapeake 
Bay, studies have been continued by Miss Barbara Holden and Dr. 
Sladen on infections with the heart worm {Sarconema eurycerca) . This 
parasite is common in the swans overwintering in the bay and is known 
to be pathogenic and capable of causing mortality. It is suspected that 
light infections may not be deleterious, but further study of the relation- 
ship of infection to behavior, particularly to migration, is under way. 

Miss Suzanne Bayley of Johns Hopkins University has continued her 
research on the distribution, abundance, and diseases of Eurasian Mil- 
foil {Myriophyllum spicatum) in several estuaries in the bay, including 
Rhode River. This plant declined significantly (95 percent) between 



308 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

1965 and 1967. The decline has been associated with Lake Venice and 
northeast diseases, and the latter has been shown to be infectious and 
transmissable in the laboratory. The inoculum, a filtrate free of bacteria, 
indicates that the etiologic agent is a virus or virus-like particle. Further 
studies are underway in an attempt to more clearly characterize this 
agent. In September of 1967 the plants again increased and flowered in 
several areas of the bay, and these remnant populations may be disease- 
resistant. Especially interesting is the recent data collected on the rapid 
reestablishment of native plants (especially Elodea canadensis, Pota- 
mogeton pectinatus, P. perjoliatus, and Ruppia maritina) . The abun- 
dance and health of Myriophyllum spicatum may markedly affect the 
functioning of entire estuarine ecosystems, and thus the significance of 
this research cannot be underestimated. 

Archeology. Field work at the Center on aboriginal culture has 
been continued by Dr. Henry T. Wright of the University of Michigan. 
The objectives remain those of providing information on the age, size, 
and characteristics of the sites, in order to allow for explanation of pre- 
historic cultural developrnent in the middle Chesapeake Bay region. 
An excavation at the site, "Smithsonian Pier West," has revealed a large 
shell heap that was occupied during the transition from the Middle to 
Late Woodland periods, about a.d. 500 to 1000. Deer bones dominate 
the animal remains, and fragments of pine, oak, and ash (not now 
found together) have been recovered. Excavation of this and other 
sites reveals that if we are to add substantially to knowledge concerning 
seasons of occupation, proportions of tool types, or the contribution 
of various foods to the diet, a sample of small excavation units from 
each site will be necessary. Some 35 to 40 sites now have been located 
on the lands comprising the Center, dating back to 500 b.c. 

Land-use History. In any effort to understand the present nature, 
distribution, and abundance of plant and animal communities at the 
Center, the nature of the soils supporting them, the drainage patterns, 
and the history of sedimentation with its associated estuarine changes, 
it is essential to have detailed information on the history of previous 
land use. This fact extends to prehistoric management of the land and 
especially to that since the arrival of western man. Mr. Daniel Higman 
of the Center staff" has continued his studies in this area, and the data 
are now in manuscript form. Prior to human settlement, the Chesa- 
peake Bay area was covered by a heterogeneous hardwood forest whose 
structure and ecology have been tentatively reconstructed. The arrival of 
settiers in the period 1649-1652 presaged a general devastation of the 
plant and animal communities of the region. There followed three fairly 
well-defined periods with particular sequences of land use : the Exploi- 
tation Period (1650-1775), the Reconstruction Period (1775-1850), 



OFFICE OF ECOLOGY 309 

and Variegation Period (1850-p resent). The first of these was one of 
uncontrolled change in the forest characterized by the establishment of 
large plantations for the cultivation of tobacco. The soils were depleted 
and severely eroded and virtually all presettlement forest was eventually 
cleared. 

In 1680 and 1704 the Virginia and Maryland Assemblies passed legis- 
lation to control indiscriminate clearing and associated erosion and 
silting, and the Maryland Assembly passed a further, similar law in 
1735. The Revolutionary War and the end of the British tobacco trade 
ended the Exploitation Period, at which time it seems reasonable to 
assume that the presettlement forest and its associated fauna had been 
almost totally destroyed in the bay area. The Reconstruction Period was 
marked by a greater cultivation of grain crops for home markets (forced 
at least in part by two wars, 1775 and 1812) and the transition from 
large plantations to small, self-sufficient farms. This trend, with concur- 
rent improvement in cultivation methods, soil conservation, and the 
growing of varied crops, was interrupted by the Civil War and subse- 
quent depression but has continued until the present day. There is now, 
late in the Variegation Period, an increasing concern for proper land 
use, and the plans for future use of the Center reflect this concern. 



Education 

The program of education at the Center has developed rapidly in three 
major areas: the use of the cbcfb for teaching basic ecological principles 
as a part of organized university courses, the training in ecology of 
undergraduate and graduate students through specific research projects, 
and a general interpretive program for various school groups and orga- 
nizations concerned with the promotion of conservation of natural 
resources. 

Organized University Courses. Three courses at the Johns Hop- 
kins University have been in part conducted at the Center : Pathobiology 
I, the Biology of Populations; Pathobiology 18, Field Studies in Ecol- 
ogy and Behavior; and Biology 307, Advanced General Biology (essen- 
tially ecology) . Similarly, the courses at the University of Maryland that 
utilize the Center are: Zoology 182, General Ecology; Zoology 235, 
Comparative Behavior; and Entomology 15. The Animal Ecology 
course. Biological Science 143, at the George Washington University, 
and the General Biology Course at St. John's College have conducted 
their field trips at the cbcfb. The Ornithology course, 1-151, at the 
United States Department of Agriculture Graduate School also has 
used the Center. 



310 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Undergraduate and Graduate Students. Graduate students 
from Johns Hopkins University, including Mrs. Penny Williamson, Miss 
Suzanne Bayley, Mr. David Ainley (feeding ecology of Whistling Swans) , 
and Mr. David Dyer (ecology of the Diamond-backed Terrapin), have 
conducted studies at the Center. The National Science Foundation, 
through a cooperative program with the Smithsonian Institution, has 
supported the avian ecology work of Mr. Paul Fine of Oberlin College, 
Miss Mary Faegin of Duke University, and Mr. William Wiggin of 
Colorado State University. Mr. William Zimmerman (artist) has pro- 
vided his own support for work at the Center on his portfolio of paint- 
ings of North American waterfowl. The Department of Vertebrate 
Zoology has provided support for the training of Mr. Sherif Terwik 
(Egypt) in the techniques of mist-netting birds and in the collection 
of ectoparasites and blood samples. This training has been done in 
cooperation with the Palearctic Migratory Bird Survey. 

The Interpretive Program. Interpretive services have been pro- 
vided for the Maryland Ornithological Society, the Smithsonian Asso- 
ciates, The Delaware Natural History Society, the Research Division of 
the National Fisheries Center, and the Senior Science Seminar students 
from Yorktown High School, Arlington, Virginia. Lectures on the ecol- 
ogy of the Center, its programs and plans, have been given to the Mayo 
Civic Association, the Phi Sigma Society at the University of Maryland, 
and to the Ad Hoc Committee for review of Smithsonian programs in 
ecology. Additionally, a brochure on the Center has been prepared for 
general distribution and should be of great assistance in making the 
Center better known around the country. 



Gifts and Grants 

Two generous grants from the Old Dominion Foundation and the 
Scaife Family of Pittsburgh have been made to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion for land acquisition at the Center. The McCollum-Pratt Institute 
at Johns Hopkins University has made funds available to assist in 
the development of research facilities. 



Staff Publications and Papers 

Bayley, Suzanne, Harvey Rabin and Charles H. Southwick. "Recent De- 
cline in the Distribution and Abundance of Eurasian Milfoil in Chesapeake 
Bay." Chesapeake Science (1968), volume 9, number 3, pages 173-181. 

Buechner, Helmut K. "Herbicidal Control of Vegetation." Enciclopedia 
Delia Scienza e Delia Tecnica Mondadori (1969), pages 86-90. 



OFFICE OF ECOLOGY 311 

BuECHNER, Helmut K., and Frank B. Golley, editors. IBP Handbook No. 7: 
a Practical Guide to the Study of the Productivity of Large Herbivores, viii + 
308 pages. Oxford and Edinburgh: International Biological Programme, Black- 
well Scientific Publications, 1968. 

Holden, Barbara L., and William J. L. Sladen. "Heart Worms, Sarconema 
eurycerca, Infection in Whistling Swans, Cygnus columbianus, in Chesapeake 
Bay." Bulletin Wildlife Disease Association (1968), volume 4, pages 126-128. 

Talbot, Lee M. "Ecological Consequences of Development of Masailand." 33 
pages. Conference on the Ecological Aspects of International Development, 
The Conservation Foundation, Airhe House, Warrenton, Virginia, Decem- 
ber 1968. 

. "The Wildlife Society and the lUCN." The Wildlife Society News (1968), 

volume 115, page 10. 

"Major Factors Affecting Parks in Southeast Asia." 12 pages. Con- 



ference on Development and Conservation of the Countryside, University of 
Hong Kong, March 1969. 
. "An International View of the Role of Wildlife in the Biology and Con- 



cept of Wilderness." 7 pages. Eleventh Biennial Wilderness Conference, San 
Francisco, March 1969. 

"The Wail of Kashmir: Man's Impact on the Land." Pages 50-51 in 



Garrett Hardin, editor. Population, Evolution and Birth Control. San Fran- 
cisco: Freeman and Co., 1969. 

-. "Ecological Implications of Pa Mong Project and the Lessons of Tropical 



Reservoirs." 8 pages. Southeast Asia Development Advisory Group, New York 
City, May 1969. 
. "Highlights of Conservation in the International Program in the Asia 



Pacific Region." 7 pages. Inter-Congress Conference of the Pacific Science 
Association, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, May 1969. 
. "The Role of Multi-Resource Inventories and Resource Capability 



Planning in International Development." Pages 51-57 in Resources Inven- 
tories for Economic Development. Washington, D.C. : Association of American 
Geographers, Mid-Atlantic Division, January 1969. 
Talbot, Lee M., and Martha H. Talbot. "Southeast Asia Project-Parks and 
Wildlife Survey." Pages 162-163 in F. Vollmar, editor. The Ark Under Way. 
Morges, Switzerland : The World Wildlife Fund, 1968. 



Center for the Study of Man 

Sol Tax, Acting Director 



ON 5 JUNE 1968, SECRETARY RIPLEY announced the establishment, 
effective 1 July 1968, of the Center for the Study of Man in the 
Smithsonian Institution. From its inception, the Center has been re- 
sponsible for most of the cooperative research and information programs 
formerly administered by the former Office of Anthropology. This re- 
sponsibility is part of its broader mission, namely, to coordinate and 
carry out programs involving research, education, and service to facili- 
tate the study of man on a worldwide scale. 

On 13 May 1969, the Center completed a three-day meeting at the 
Smithsonian Institution. This was the first formal gathering to which all 
the center members were invited. The meeting was significant for a 
number of reasons. First, the membership confirmed its establishment 
as an international body to coordinate a worldwide development of the 
human sciences as they impinge upon species-wide social problems of 
mankind. 

Second, the membership agreed that it was particularly appropriate 
for the Center to be located in the Smithsonian Institution, whose long 
tradition of international, nongovernmental research assures the freedom 
and independence of such a worldwide scholarly enterprise. 

Third, the membership recommended the establishment of an ap- 
propriate building in Washington to house the Center, with facilities 
both for research and for museum functions, the two under a single direc- 
tor. This proposed "Museum of Man" would be devoted exclusively to 
the sciences of man, as they deal with all cultures and peoples from the 
earliest times to the present. 

Finally, the membership discussed present and future programs of 
the Center and agreed to develop for their next meeting a seminar to 
explore the past, present, and potential relevance of anthropological 
knowledge to major problems which beset mankind. 

Throughout the past year, the Center has continued to be responsible 
for a number of programs. It also has developed some new ones. 

Work on a new, revised handbook or encyclopedia of North American 
Indian history and cultures has continued in the planning stage — for 
366-269 O — 70 21 313 



314 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Hunting and Fishing Rights session, American Anthropological Association 
annual meeting, November 1968, in Seattle, Washington. 



Center for the Study of Man Program Coordinator, Samuel Stanley (bottom 
right), representing the Smithsonian Urgent Anthropology Program at a 
Conference on Urgent Research in Social Anthropology at the Indian Institute 
of Advanced Study in Simla, India, July 1968. 




CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF MAN 315 

example, several specialists have been consulted by editor Sturtevant on 
mapping of the areal subdivisions of the continent suitable for organiz- 
ing the encyclopedia's contents. In November 1968, Tax and Stanley 
organized the special session on Indian hunting and fishing rights for 
the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association in 
Seattle, where a panel of experts — economists, lawyers, anthropologists, 
and conservationists — discussed the specific problems of fishing rights in 
the Pacific Northwest. A number of Indians participated in the session 
and materials were developed that can be incorporated into one of the 
volumes of the encyclopedia. 

The Center has continued its coordination of urgent anthropology 
through its support of communication and research. The program for 
supporting field studies of scientifically important peoples, on an urgent 
basis, has operated throughout the year. Nine grants have been made 
covering research in seven countries. In July 1968, Stanley was invited 
by the Indian Institute for Advanced Study to attend a week-long con- 
ference at Simla. In September 1968, Tax, Reining, and Sturtevant 
attended a conference in Tokyo during the Vlllth International 
Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences. Questions of 
determining policy for international research were discussed at length. 
A summary of both conferences was reported by Reining for Current 
Anthropology. 

During the past year a current bibliography of all anthropological 
publications has been developing as a responsibility of Laughlin. This 
program has begun to produce bimonthly lists of journal contents and 
current books. As the procedures become more established and routin- 
ized, the program will be computerized. 

A computerized directory of anthropologists and anthropological in- 
stitutions is immediately planned. Experience in preparing this directory 
will be useful in a feasibility study of electronic data processing for a more 
comprehensive directory and bibliography. The development of this 
program will lead to rapid increases in the rate and quantity of informa- 
tion exchange in the human sciences. 

Center for the Study of Man 

Members 

Dr. Fredrik Barth Dr. Henry B. Collins 

Institute of Social Anthropology Department of Anthropology 

Christiesgate 15 Smithsonian Institution 

Bergen, Norway Washington, D.C. 20560 



316 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1969 



Dr. John C. Ewers 

Department of Anthropology 
Smithsonian Institution 
Washington, D.G. 20560 

Dr. Gordon D. Gibson 
Department of Anthropology 
Smithsonian Institution 
Washington, D.G. 20560 

Dr. Dell H. Hymes 
Department of Anthropology 
University of Pennsylvania 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 

Dr. Robert M. Laughlin 
Department of Anthropology 
Smithsonian Institution 
Washington, D.G. 20560 

Dr. Glaude Levi-Strauss 
Laboratoire d'Anthropologie Sociale 
1 1 , place Marcelin-berthelot 
Paris 5, France 

Dr. Ghie Nakane 

Institute of Oriental Gulture 

University of Tokyo 

Bunkyo-ku 

Tokyo, Japan 

Dr. J. R. Napier 
Unit of Primate Biology 
Smithsonian Institution 
Queen Elizabeth Gollege 
Gampden Hill Road 
London W.8 England 

Dr. Douglas W. Schwartz 
School for American Research 
Post Office Box 1554 
Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 



Dr. Surajit G. Sinha 

Indian Institute of Advanced Study 

Rashtrapati Nivas 

Simla 5, India 

Dr. M. N. Srinivas 
Department of Sociology 
University of Delhi 
Delhi 7, India 

Dr. T. Dale Stewart 
Department of Anthropology 
Smithsonian Institution 
Washington, D.G. 20560 

Dr. George W. Stocking, Jr. 
Department of History 
University of Ghicago 
Chicago, Illinois 60637 

Dr. William G. Sturtevant 
Department of Anthropology 
Smithsonian Institution 
Washington, D.G. 20560 

Dr. Sherwood L. Washburn 
Department of Anthropology 
University of Galifomia 
Berkeley, Galifomia 94720 

Dr. Wilcomb E. Washburn 
Department of American Studies 
Smithsonian Institution 
Washington, D.G. 20560 

Dr. Waldo R. Wedel 
Department of Anthropology 
Smithsonian Institution 
Washington, D.G. 20560 



Staff Publications and Papers 

Reining, Priscilla. "Social Factors Influencing Food Production in an East 

African Peasant Society." In Peter McLoughlin, editor. Food Production in 

Africa. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1969. 
Stanley, Sam. "Why American Folklife Studies?" Page 12 in 1968 Festival of 

American Folklife. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1968. 
. "Smithsonian Urgent Anthropology Program." Gonference on Urgent 

Research in Social Anthropology at the Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 

Simla, India. July 1968. 



CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF MAN 317 
. "The Smithsonian Institution's Role in Folk Life Studies." American 



Folklore Society, Bloomington, Indiana. November 1968. 

-, co-organizer (with Sol Tax). "Experimental Session: American Indian 



Hunting and Fishing Rights." 67th Annual Meeting American Anthro- 
pological Association, Seattle, Washington. November 1968. 

"Mankind: An Anthropological Perspective." Conference on Oppor- 



tunities for Intercultural Education, Washington, D.C., March 1969. 
Stanley, Sam, and William C. Sturtevant. "Indian Communities in the 

Eastern United States." Indian Historian (June 1968), volume 1, nvunber 3, 

pages 15-19. 
Tax, Sol. "Anthropologists: Are They Modern Medicine Man?" Chapter 

(pages 3-16) in Anthropological Backgrounds of Adult Education. Boston: 

Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults at Boston University, 

1968. 

. "Amerindian." In European edition. Encyclopaedia Brittannica, 1968. 

, editor. The Draft: A Handbook of Facts and Alternatives. 497 pages. 



Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1967 [also in paperback and 
national debate edition]. 
, editor. The People vs. The System, A Dialogue in Urban Conflict. 515 



pages. Chicago: Acme Press, 1968. 

"Self and Society." In Claremont Reading Conference, Thirty-Second 



Yea-rbook, Malcolm P. Douglass, editor. Claremont: Claremont University 
Center, 1968. 

-. "Society, The Individual and National Service." Current History (Au- 



gust 1968), pages 78-83, 109. 
. Chairman, "Urgent Anthropology Session." 9th International Congress 



of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Tokyo, Japan. September 1968. 
Chairman, "Experimental Session : American Indian Hunting and Fish- 



ing Rights." 67th Annual Meeting American Anthropological Association, 
Seattle, Washington. November 1968. 

. "American Indians." Luther College, Decorah, Iowa. March 1969. 

Chairman, "Problems of Research Across National Boundaries." Society 



for Applied Anthropology, Mexico City, Mexico. April 1969. 

"Can Man Invent His Future?" Action People series produced by the 



Stone-Brandel Center in cooperation with wttw (Channel 11) Chicago. 
18 February 1969. 

-. "The University of Chicago Round Table, wttw (Channel 1 1 ) Chicago. 



31 March 1969. 

. "Perspectives." Two programs on American Indians syndicated by the 

American Broadcasting Company. April 1969. 



Center for the Study of Short-Lived 
Phenomena 

Robert Citron, Director 



DURING THE YEAR, THE CENTER has investigated 127 geological, 
astrophysical, and biological events, including 21 major earth- 
quakes, 18 volcanic eruptions (one involving the birth and disappearance 
of an island), 21 fireballs, 11 major oil spills, 9 fish kills, 4 rare-animal 
migrations, 3 freshly fallen meteorite recoveries, the discovery of a stone- 
axe tribe, and 3 archeological events urgently requiring investigation. 

Field investigators have traveled to 74 of the 127 events. Of the in- 
vestigations, 68 were local or regional and included participation by 
other agencies, institutions, or foreign governments ; 6 were Smithsonian- 
sponsored reconnaissance missions or field expeditions that together 
involved eighteen scientists from five countries and eight institutions. 

Center participation in these events has included professional con- 
tacts in the event areas, obtaining information on the events, interview- 
ing reliable witnesses, collecting photographic and cinematographic 
documentation, and issuing written materials to correspondents of the 
Center around the world. 

The Center has assisted in the coordination of activities for recon- 
naissance missions and scientific field expeditions to the Fernandina 
Caldera collapse, Galapagos Islands; the Mt. Arenal volcanic eruption, 
Costa Rica; the Cerro Negro volcanic eruption, Nicaragua; the Appa- 
lachian squirrel migration in the eastern United States; the Mt. Merapi 
volcanic eruption, Indonesia; and the Pueblito de Allende meteorite 
shower in Mexico. 

The Center has obtained photographic and cinematographic docu- 
mentation and sample specimens on a number of occasions. Center or 
Smithsonian archives now contain over 10,000 feet of color motion 
picture film on five volcanic eruptions and the Appalachian squirrel 
migration, 3,500 color and black-and-white photographs obtained on 
seven field expeditions and reconnaissance missions, more than 2,000 

319 



320 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Chinandega footprints, Chinandega, Nicaragua, discovered October 1968. 
Footprints made by prehistoric man, covered with volcanic ash and sub- 
sequently exposed by erosion. (Photo courtesy Professor Gladys Quant, 
Department of Biology, National University of Nicaragua.) 



high-resolution aerial photographs of the Mt. Mayon volcanic-eruption 
activity taken during a six-week period by the United States Air Force, 
color motion picture and aerial photographs taken during the eight- 
week period of Cerro Negro volcanic activity, a number of stereo aerial 
photographs of volcanic eruptions, and specimens of eruption products, 
lava, bombs, ash, and — in some instances — biological specimens from 
most of the major volcanic eruptions of the year. 

During the Apollo 10 Manned Lunar Mission, the Center arranged 
communications between 187 astronomical observers in thirty-one coun- 
tries and maintained daily contact with the Manned Spacecraft Center, 
NASA, at Houston, Texas. Reports from ground-based observers were 
relayed to the msc for transmittal to the astronauts en route to and 
orbiting the moon; this mission provided an opportunity for astronauts 
to confirm (by observation and photography) ground-based observations 
of transient lunar events. 

The Center has established an effective global reporting network of 
over 2,000 correspondents in many disciplines and from 118 countries. 
Correspondents are individual scientists, scientific institutions, and field 
stations that cooperate with the Center by reporting events, obtaining 




Cerro Negro volcanic eruption, Nicaragua, 14 November 1968. (Photo courtesy 
Professor Robert Decker, Dartmouth College, New Hampshire.) 



322 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Ocean Eagle oil spill, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 3 March 1968. Eflfect of oil 
on marine life. A team of marine biologists from the Department of Marine 
Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, studied the eflfects of the oil and detergents, 
used to emulsify the oil, on the marine flora and fauna. (Photo courtesy 
Dr. Cirame Vivas, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico.) 



follow-up information about events that occur in their areas, traveling 
to events occurring in their areas to make up-to-date reports to the 
Center, and occasionally providing assistance to research teams. They 
also receive Center reports on short-lived events of interest to them. 

The Center has issued 127 event notification reports, 764 event in- 
formation reports, 16 final event publications, and 11 preprints of 
scientific papers on the preliminary results of field investigations. 

The Center now participates in an average of one new event every 
two and a half days and currently issues event notification and informa- 
tion report cards at a rate exceeding 45,000 per month to interested 
scientists around the world. 



HISTORY AND ART 

Charles Blitzer 
Assistant Secretary 



National Museum of History and Technology 

Robert P. Multhauf, Director 




FOR OVER A DECADE THIS MUSEUM has been concerned with the 
solution of a somewhat unusual problem — preservation of the 
material record of a science that is essentially new but developing with 
such a rapidity that it forces the historian to accelerate his deliberation. 
The material record of technological innovation in the steam engine 
and the electric telegraph can be assembled in leisurely fashion. This 
is clearly not the case with the record of scientific and technical devel- 
opment in nuclear energy. In the following section, the Museum pro- 
gram for collection in this field is described by its initiator, Dr. Philip 
Bishop. 



THE NUCLEAR ENERGY COLLECTIONS 

In 1942, a group of scientists led by Enrico Fermi brought together 
in a squash court almost a century of probing into the structure of 
matter. Their success with Chicago Pile No. 1 opened a new era in 
research. The crash program called Manhattan, which produced the 
bombs that fell on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, yielded a more peaceful 
fallout at the end of World War II when the great emergency labora- 
tories began the transition to pure research and to the study of ways 
in which to apply the newfound knowledge to peaceful uses. As the 
wartime teams broke up, some members returned to their universities 
to pursue research in some specialized aspect of the subject, others went 
to industrial firms to concentrate on the design of more complicated 
equipment for themselves and other researchers, and yet others re- 
mained with the government-supported laboratories — all of these 

325 



326 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 





An aerial view of the National Museum of History and Technology featuring 
the new Constitution Avenue fountain and the Calder stabile. (Photo by Henry 
Alexander and Richard Hofmeister.) 



specialists experimenting, synthesizing, and probing ever deeper into the 
new mysteries. 

Nuclear physics became part of the everyday life of America. When 
the wartime story could be revealed, the public was assailed by a new 
vocabulary that rapidly passed into the vernacular of the daily news- 
paper and weekly magazine. New words were coined daily to cover the 
findings of the scientists, who themselves kept going deeper and deeper 
into their specialized fields until soon they, like the public, were losing 
any knowledge they might have had about the sources from which the 
new knowledge had been derived. 

In 1956, the Museum accepted the challenge of collecting the artifacts 
and recording the history of this exciting revolution in science in a period 
when many of the barriers between chemistry and physics as separate dis- 
ciplines had been broken down and when specialized laboratories were 
preoccupied with particles of matter that had no mass but that literally 
could pass through the earth. The task facing the Museum became one 
of discrimination, to find memorabilia of those fundamental experiments 
that represented the turning points in the development of nuclear 
science. 

The Museum was fortunate in securing as consultant, the nuclear 
physicist Dr. Clyde R. Cowan, Jr., of the Catholic University of 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 



327 



America. Co-discoverer of the neutrino, he is a highly specialized re- 
search scientist with unusually broad experience in both physics and 
chemistry. Collaboration between scientist and curator, pursuing a kind 
of Socratic dialogue, resulted in a model for a collecting program that 
would establish a coherent, if simplified, account of the origins of the 
search for means to harness the power of the nucleus. This model has 
proved to be remarkably efTective and, aided by considerable good for- 
tune, the Museum has been able to prevent laboratories from can- 
nibalizing classic equipment that had been responsible for many 
great discoveries. 

Most of the early work that was to lay the foundations for nuclear 
physics took place in Europe, especially at the Cavendish Laboratory of 
Cambridge University and at the Sorbonne in Paris, where the original 
pioneering equipment is preserved. Geissler's vacuum tube (1855) and 
Crooke's improvement on it (1875) provided the apparatus that made 
possible the subsequent work of Thomson, Rutherford, and others, 
culminating in the last decade of the 19th century in the series of 
climactic discoveries mentioned below. Since much of the apparatus 
used in these experiments fortunately has been preserved in European 
museums, it has been possible for this Museum to obtain precise replicas. 

The first fruit of the vacuum tube was the discovery of x-rays by 
Roentgen in 1895. A tube made by Roentgen is in the Museum's col- 



Given to the Smithsonian Institution by The Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz 
Foundation, this forty-foot jet-black stabile by Alexander Calder has been 
erected in a reflecting pool on the west terrace of the National Museum of 
History and Technology at 14th Street. (Photo by Henry Alexander ana 
Richard Hofmeister.) 




328 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




With its delightfully intricate spray patterns, this latest example in fountain 
technology is an exciting visual experience at the north entrance of the 
Museum. (Photo by Henry Alexander and Richard Hofmeister.) 



lection, as is another, made in the United States almost immediately 
after the publication of Roentgen's work. The latter, produced at the 
Catholic University of America, was demonstrated for William Howard 
Taft (then the United States circuit court judge for the sixth district), 
who was able to see the bones of his hands. A group of discoveries, all 
of them of fundamental purpose and, like x-rays, the result of experi- 
ments with the vacuum tube, was made around the turn of the century 
^y J- J- Thomson and Ernest Rutherford at Cambridge, at the same 
time that Becqueral and, soon after, the Curies were identifying the 
phenomenon of radioactivity at the Sorbonne. The Cavendish Labo- 
ratory made for the Museum a replica of Thomson's experiment in 
which he distinguished the electron as a particle and established the rela- 
tion between the charge on the electron to its mass. Another replica 
from the same source is of the tiny brass chamber with which Ernest 
Rutherford studied alpha particles and — from their behavior when they 
struck gold foil — evolved the concept of the nucleus. Later he was to 
observe in the same chamber the first nuclear transformation when alpha 
particles penetrated the nucleus of nitrogen, reacted with it, and trans- 
muted it to oxygen and a fast proton. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 329 

These fundamental experiments led to Chadwick's discovery in 1932 
of the neutron, the first step to the realization in 1939 that the nucleus 
of uranium could be split into two more or less equal parts by exposing 
it to neutrons. This later discovery by Meitner and Frisch was confirmed 
by Mme Juliot-Curie in Paris and in the independent work of Bohr 
and Fermi at Columbia University. It was the technique of slowing 
down neutrons in nitrogenous matter evolved by Fermi in 1934 that 
contributed significantly to these experiments. This work is represented 
by a radon beryllium source presented to the Museum by Fermi's asso- 
ciate Emilio Segre, then at the University of Rome. 

Meanwhile, the men experimenting with the bombardment of the 
nucleus needed to find particles with higher energy than that observed 
in the alpha particles emitted by naturally radioactive elements. The 
Museum has collected a replica of the cloud chamber developed by 
C. T. R. Wilson that from 1894 permitted scientists to measure the 
charges on atomic particles and to observe collisions with atomic nuclei. 

Cockcroft and Walton at Cambridge devised a voltage multiplier to 
accelerate protons (ionized hydrogen atoms), and by 1932 they had 
achieved the first nuclear reaction brought about by artificially accel- 
erated particles and without any form of natural radioactivity. The 
Museum has a replica of this apparatus from the orginal in the Science 
Museum in London as well as the original Van de Graaff electrostatic 
accelerator built in 1932 by M. A. Tuve at the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington. This machine, the first to attain one million volts, followed 
quickly after Van de Graaff's table-top demonstration of the principle 
at Princeton. Tuve's accelerator was used later to measure the forces 
that bind nuclei together. 

These voltage accelerators had their limitations, and it was the work 
of the team headed by E. O. Lawrence and M. Stanley Livingston at 
Berkeley, California, that was to give the nuclear physicist even better 
tools with which to bombard the nucleus. The Lawrence Radiation 
Laboratory and the Museum are collaborating in the construction of a 
replica of the first cyclotron (1931) . The "Ds" from the 27-inch model 
(1933) have been collected by the Museum as well as the torpedo and 
"Ds" of the cyclotron built by Dunning at Columbia University, repre- 
sentative of a series of big machines built in the early 1940s by American 
universities. The problem of accelerating electrons that are much lighter 
than protons was met by Donald W. Kerst's betatron of 1940, which is 
now in the Museum. 

The linear accelerator developed from the work of Wideroe (1928) 
was also the subject of experiments in the 1930s, but it was not to reach 
its major development until after World War II. One of these accel- 
erators, constructed by Luis Alvarez and his associates at the Radiation 

366-269 O — 70 22 



330 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Albert Einstein, bronze, Robert 
Berks. (Gift of Mrs. Leo Pollak 
in 1954.) 



Installation of the Tuve Van 
De Graaff electrostatic generator 
in the National Museum of 
History and Technology. 




NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 



331 




Synchrocyclotron (1946) built by E. M. McMillan at Berkeley. View of the 
vacuum chamber ("Ds") with upper coil removed. The Museum has retained 
only token sections of the 4300-ton magnet, parts of which are seen in the 
photograph. 



Linear accelerator (1947) built by L. W. Alvarez at Berkeley to produce high- 
energy protons. The Museum has preserved two 7-foot sections of the vacuiun 
chamber and related equipment. 




332 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




One 60-millionth of an ounce 
of plutonlum 239 with its dis- 
coverers, Glenn T, Seaborg and 
Emilio Segre. The sample, on 
the disc at Dr. Seaborg's finger 
tip, is in the original cigar box 
in which it was placed after the 
discovery in 1940. 



Laboratory of the University of California, has been preserved in part 
in the Museum. Another (complete except for some parts of the giant 
magnets), built at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory of the Univer- 
sity of California by Edwin M. McMillan (1945-1948), is the syn- 
chrocyclotron used in the discovery of the neutral pi-meson, the first of 
many new particles produced in these large machines. 

The most spectacular result of the use of the high-energy accelerators 
was the discovery of radioactive elements with extremely short half- 
lives. The first of these, neptunium, was produced by McMillan and 
Abelson in 1940 at Berkeley by bombarding uranium with neutrons 
produced in a cyclotron. The second, plutonium 238, was found in 1940 
by deuteron bombardment of uranium in the Berkeley 60-inch cyclo- 
tron. Its heavier isotope, plutonium 239, was found soon after. Its dis- 
coverers Glenn T. Seaborg and Emilio Segre have deposited with the 
Museum a sample of plutonium 239 weighing about one 60-millionth 
of an ounce. The sample, an invisible smear on a disc of platinum, rests 
in the original cigar box in which it was stored after the conclusion of 
the experiment. One of the balances used in measuring this infinitesimal 
quantity also is reserved for the Museum. 

The Seaborg-Segre experiment had as its direct consequence the deci- 
sion to construct at the University of Chicago the first nuclear reactor. 
Fermi's work was the climax of a great number of experiments. As early 
as 1934 Fermi had produced nuclear reactions in many elements with 
nuclear bombardment, and in 1939 Meitner and Frisch in Germany, 
Mme Joliot-Curie in France, and Fermi and Bohr at Columbia Uni- 
versity observed fission of the uranium nucleus with the release of energy. 
Malcolm Henderson's apparatus with which he measured this energy 
in 1940 is, in effect, the forerunner of the great nuclear power plants of 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 



333 



today and fortunately was preserved at the Catholic University of 
America and has been given to the Museum. 

Fermi had worked out his theory of the method to achieve a sus- 
tained nuclear reaction by mathematical means and, later, by experi- 
ments involving the stacking of large numbers of uranium blocks in 
which his team had placed lumps of uranium metal and uranium 
oxide. A number of these subcritical piles had been made before that 
final experiment under the bleachers of Stagg Field at the University 
of Chicago. Layer after layer of graphite was stacked, with the uranium 
arranged to form a lattice. As the pile grew, measurements of neutron 
flux were made showing that criticality (the point at which the fission 
chain would grow instead of die out) was being approached. Calcula- 
tions showed that when the fifty-sixth layer was reached the great mo- 
ment would be imminent. On 2 December 1942 the first controlled 
chain reaction began. 

The graphite used by Fermi was used again and again when Chicago 
Pile No. 1 was dismantled, and eventually it was brought to the Mu- 
seum, where the pile has been re-erected insofar as surviving nonradio- 
active components permit. A sample of the original fuel, Fermi's 
neutron chopper, and the pile-oscillator used in subsequent experi- 
ments have also been added to the collections. 



Fermi's Chicago Pile No. 1. The first nuclear reactor (1940), re-erected by 
the Museum. The small model at left represents the scene on 2 December 1942 
when the reactor first went critical. 




NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 335 

The search after World War II for ways in which to apply wartime 
discoveries to peaceful uses has resulted in a whole range of nuclear 
reactors. Their size obviously has prevented the collection of any of the 
early experiments in this direction, but two interesting items have been 
found that represent their wide scope. 

In 1955, the Atomic Energy Commission lent two tons of uranium 
and two grams of radium beryllium to New York University to enable 
engineering students to experiment with nuclear reactions below the 
level of a full chain reaction. This subcritical reactor was assembled in 
a $25 pickle or olive barrel and was used until the early 1960s when 
the whole assembly was given to the Museum. At the other end of the 
scale were the experiments carried out at Los Alamos and elsewhere 
with the object of developing a reactor small enough to be a power 
source in a space vehicle. A replica of one product of Project Rover at 
Los Alamos, Kiwi A, was made by the laboratory for the Museum. The 
name, derived from the New Zealand flightless bird, was given because 
at this stage of development the reactor was tested on the ground on a 
special railroad track. 

Most reactors are built with heavy shielding to protect nearby work- 
ers from radiation. A "naked" reactor, called obviously Godiva, was 
developed at Los Alamos so that observations could be made of the 
eff"ects of nuclear bursts on materials and equipment. After a thousand 
such tests in the Pajarito canyon near Los Alamos, New Mexico, Godiva 
was deliberately destroyed, but the laboratory has made a replica for 
the Museum. The duplicate differs from the original in the one impor- 
tant respect that the fuel used is uranium 238 instead of uranium 235, 
thus making it safe for public demonstrations. 

Scientists are searching for an alternative source of energy to be found 
in the fusion of the nuclei of the isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium, and 
tritium. If and when it becomes possible to achieve and sustain by elec- 
trical means the extremely high temperatures generated in a nuclear- 
fission explosion, an inexhaustible source of energy will be obtainable 
from the deuterium in the waters of the ocean. The demonstration 
device used in early experiments by Lyman Spitzer at Princeton, called 
the Stellarator, has been given to the Museum. One of the latest experi- 
ments at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory also has been preserved. 
In this experiment, called Scylla, the first authenticated thermonuclear 



Pile oscillator used in early fission reactors for ascertaining the absorptive 
power of various nuclei for neutrons (neutron cross section). Developed at 
Argonne National Laboratory by Alexander Langsdorf (1945). 




Kiwi A (1965), cutaway rep- 
lica showing fuel elements of 
experimental nuclear engine for 
space vehicles. A product of 
project "Rover" of Los Alamos 
Scientific Laboratory. This was 
the first of a series of test de- 
signs. Its operating power was 
70 megawatts. 



reaction took place, culminating the work of James Tuck and his 
associates. 

Finally, the Museum has been interested in collecting original equip- 
ment associated with the application of isotopes to the service of man. 
The most interesting example was found, on the eve of its dismember- 
ment, in the original equipment used by W. F. Libby to prove the pos- 
sibility of dating natural material by reference to the content of the 
carbon 14 isotopes. 

RESEARCH 



Cultural History 

Under contract, Carroll Greene, Jr., has undertaken and largely 
completed a study of existing exhibitions relating to Afro-American his- 
tory and of materials still extant for the preservation of a record of 
Negro history in the United States. Richard Ahlbom continued his study 
of Spanish-American culture, on which he published a monograph, 
"The Penitente Moradas of Abiquiu," last year. He is presently studying 
the religious art of San Xavier del Bac (circa 1783), near Tucson, Ari- 
zona. J. Scott Odell is engaged in a program of interviews and record- 
ings of folk musicians in the area of Galax, Virginia. 

For some years Edgar Howell, with the assistance of Donald Kloster, 
has been engaged in a history and catalog of the dress of the United 
States Army, of which our collection is the most comprehensive in ex- 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 



337 



istence. The first publication, dealing with military headgear in use 
prior to 1854, appeared this year, and Mr. Howell occupied his sab- 
batical leave with research for the next volume in this series. 

Three staff members are engaged in research in American furniture. 
Betty Walters has completed a study of Indiana cabinetmakers, Anne 
Golovin has in progress a study of the furniture makers of Washington, 
D.C., and Rodris Roth is investigating American furniture as it was 
represented in the Philadelphia Exposition of 1876. 

Two staff members are engaged in research in the history of music in 
the United States. Cynthia A. Hoover has finished a paper on J. Norton, 
a trumpeter of the early 19th century, and John Fesperman has com- 
pleted a manuscript analysis of the John Snetzler organ in our collec- 
tion. This organ, built in 1761, was first owned by Samuel Bard, best 
known as surgeon to George Washington. 

Claudia Kidwell is studying 19th-century dressmaker's drafting tools 



Lady Godlva, a reactor without shielding, used to study efiFects of nuclear 
bursts on materials and equipment, shown on location in maximum isolation 
at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of the University of California before the 
deliberate destruction of the reactor in 1957. 




338 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Mass spectrometer developed at Harvard University 1932-1936 by Kenneth 
T. Bainbridge. With this apparatus Bainbridge determined the isotopic mass 
of the heavier isotope of hydrogen, deuterium, discovered by H. C. Urey in the 
same period. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 



339 



[l 


ItjI .1, 


i 


1 


1 



4f>^ 



-■) 



..^- 





^^<^ \ 



A 



x. 




/ 



M> 



Conservator Scott Odell applies gold leaf over gesso to front pipes for restoration 
of chamber organ by John Snetzler, London, 1761. 



in the collection as a probable link between the "art" of dressmaking 
and the "ready-to-wear" industry. As participant in a program of re- 
search on the Museum's textile collections, Rita Adrosko is engaged in 
a study of woven patterned shawls of the 19th century. 

In connection with the political campaign of 1968 and the subse- 
quent inauguration, two large special exhibits have been shown in the 
Museum. The curators responsible, Margaret Klapthor and Herbert 
Collins, used the occasion to undertake a general survey of the extant 
memorabilia of past inaugural ceremonies. Anne Serio has used the 
Museum's Harry T. Peters' collection of American lithographs to por- 
tray the convention of the Free Soil Party of 1848 as it was represented 
in political cartoons. Keith Melder is on sabbatical leave in the study 
of the feminist movement in the United States. 

Studying as a by-product of archeological work in Alexandria, Vir- 
ginia, C. Malcolm Watkins and Richard Muzzrole are engaged in the 



340 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Chamber Organ, John Snetzler, London, 1761 
(restoration completed in June 1969). 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 



341 




"The Quest for the Presidency" exhibition on the third floor of the National 
Museum of History and Technology, as displayed from 1 7 August to 1 December 
1968. 



Archeological aide Richard Muzzrole shows Mr. V. Ward Boswell of Alexandria, 
Virginia, a piece of kiln furniture from the Henry Piercy pottery (active 
1792-1801) located on his property. 




342 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

preparation of a history of pottery making in that colonial town. Mr. 
Watkins, with the collaboration of Joan Pearson Watkins, also has com- 
pleted a study of the pioneer pottery of California as part of a larger 
study of the material culture of California in the gold-rush period. 



Archeology 

Philip Lundeberg and Alan Albright have conducted a survey of 
underwater sites in Lake Champlain, a project that was sponsored by 
the National Geographic Society as part of the continuing study of 
Benedict Arnold's squadron during the northern campaign of 1776. In 
a continued program of underwater exploration in the Caribbean, 
Mendel Peterson has participated in the investigation of a wreck site in 
the Florida Keys that probably represents the large Spanish ship St. 
Joseph, which sank in 1773. 

JefTerson Miller has completed a monograph on the ceramic remains 
excavated at Fort Machilimackinac, Michigan, a fort that was active 
during the period 1715-1780. 



Numismatics and Philately 

In cooperation with Adon A. Gordus, University of Michigan, the 
Division of Numismatics is engaged in the analysis by neutron-activation 
of a number of Sassanian, Arab, and Indo-Sassanian silver coins. In 
cooperation with the Society of Philatelic Americans, the Division of 
Philately is preparing a catalog of its library to be published in install- 
ments by the Society journal and finally as a book. 

The Postal History Society of the Americas has awarded John Mc- 
Cusker, Smithsonian Fellow, a gold medal for his research on the 18th- 
century British-American mail packets. 



Applied Art 

Paul Gardner has completed a book-length biography of Frederick 
Carder, founder of the Steuben Glass works. Nearly completed is a mon- 
ograph on the inventions of the pioneer photographer W. H. Fox 
Talbot. The letter, by Eugene Ostroff, will be accompanied by a catalog 
of the photographs and other materials dating from 1835-77, which 
remain at the home of Fox Talbot, Lacock Abby, Wiltshire. 

Elizabeth Harris is engaged in the extension of her catalog and his- 




Examples of feed-back devices in the museum: (top left) Arc-lamp regulator, 
{top right) Parsons turbine-generator with electrical solenoid operating steam 
valve, {bottom left) Earliest American example extant of Watt-type governor, 
{bottom right) 1864 patent model of centrifugal pendulum (Watt-type) governor 
with proportional and integral responses. 



344 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Original galvano model for Christian 
Gobrecht's famous "defiant eagle" de- 
sign, circa 1838. First known use of 
electro-deposition processes in United 
States coin manufacturing techniques. 
(Donated by Messrs. Stack, New York 
City.) 



tory of the photomechanical print, of which the Museum has the most 
comprehensive collection in existence. As completed last year, this 
study covers the period 1840-1880. 



History of Science 

Silvio A. Bedini has completed a book-length manuscript dealing 
with early American navigational instruments. The study of the char- 
acteristics of early electrical instruments, using modem measuring ap- 
paratus, is a continuing project in the Division of Electricity, where 
Bernard Finn published an article last year on the performance of early 
telephones in our collection. This year he has studied the performance 
of 18th-century static electricity machines and has presented his findings 
to the International Congress of the History of Science in Paris. 

Deborah Warner is engaged in a study of celestial cartography 
through the analysis of published star charts from the period 1500- 
1800. Robert Multhauf has continued on sabbatical leave his study of 
the role of science in the industrialization of chemistry. Audrey Davis 
has completed a dissertation, "The Circulation of the Blood and Medi- 
cal Chemistry in England, 1650-80," as a requirement for a PhD at 
Johns Hopkins University. 



History of Technology 

The Computer History Project, supported by the American Federa- 
tion of Information Processing Societies, is now in its second year under 
the direction of Uta Merzbach. This project comprehends the collection 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 



345 




"Masse d'Or," struck circa 1296-1310 
by Philip IV of France, referred to as 
the largest French medieval gold coin. 
Reflecting Gothic artistic develop- 
ments, its issuance was the result of 
the French war against England in 
Gascony and Flanders. (The Josiah 
K. Lilly, Jr., Collection.) 



of documents and tape-recorded interviews with persons who are im- 
portant in the development of the computer. 

Robert Vogel is in the second year of a survey of early New England 
textile mills as part of a larger program in industrial archeology. A re- 
port of the first summer's work, chiefly at Manchester, New Hampshire, 
was published this year. 

Several book-length studies in the history of transportation are com- 
plete or nearly so. These include George Hilton's history of the cable 
railway in America, John White's history of American railroad cars 
during the period of wood construction, and Donald Berkebile's diction- 
ary of the terminology of the carriage builder. Melvin Jackson has sub- 
mitted to a publisher a study of the Woolwich cannon foundry, research 
that is based on drawings made by members of the Dutch family Ver- 
bruggen between 1772 and 1782. 

Other individual projects are a history of feedback mechanisms, as 
they are illustrated in this Museum's collections, by Otto Mayr; a study 
of the development and use of the spinning wheel in America by 
Grace Cooper ; and a comparative history of the development of electric 
lighting in the United States, England, and Germany by Thomas 
Hughes. 

Edwin Battison has been awarded a citation by the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution for his activity in selecting for translation Russian works on the 
history of technology. Mr. Battison's contribution, as the citation states, 
is virtually to revolutionize the knowledge of the English reader of 
early technology in Russia. In the course of the year, Mr. Battison also 
has completed a documentary film on the manufacture of ax handles 
by using primitive equipment that includes the pattern lathe of the 
type developed by Thomas Blanchard about 1840. 

366-269 O — 70 23 



346 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




A catalog of philatelic publications being compiled by the research staff of the 
Division of Postal History will be published by the Society of Philatelic 
Americans. 



THE COLLECTIONS 



Department of Applied Arts 



The Josiah K. Lilly collection of gold coins, which was acquired 
this year, is the most important single acquisition ever received by the 
Numismatic Division. This collection includes a virtually complete series 
of official issues of the United States and an unparalleled series of 
pioneer and territorial issues. The Latin American section is outstand- 
ing for its nearly complete series of Spanish colonial issues from 
Mexico, Peru, Chile, and Bolivia. Other numismatic rarities have been 
received from Mrs. Henry Norweb, Mr. and Mrs. Mortimer L. Neinken, 
Dr. Sidney A. Peerless, and, through their continued generosity, from 
Mr. Willis H. DuPont and members of the Stack family of New York. 
From the latter, the Department has received the original galvano model 
for Christian Gobrecht's famous "defiant eagle" design (circa 1838), 
the first known example of the use of electro deposition processes in 
coin manufacture in the United States. 

The Mergenthaler Linotype Company has presented to the Museum 
linotype machines of 1889 and 1961, the former the oldest surviving 
example of the machine with which Otmar Mergenthaler of Baltimore 
replaced hand with machine typesetting and the latter the current model 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 



347 



of the same type of machine. Such "hot metal" typesetting machines 
are now in competition with photocomposition machines, of which an 
example, the Mergenthaler "Linofilm," also has been received. In the 
field of printing, an example of the Hoe drum-cylinder printing press 
of 1879 has been received from Judd and Detweiler, Inc., a press that 
was the mainstay of newspaper publishers in the last four decades of 
the 19th century. 

In connection with a research project dealing with the movement 
and handling of mail, the Department has assembled a collection of 
objects ranging from a letterbox of Boyd's City Express (New York) 
of the 1840s, given by Leo Scarlet, to the "Transorama" mail-sorting 
machine installed in 1957 at Silver Spring, Maryland. More conven- 
tional additions to the philatelic collections have included materials 
related to Palestine under Turkish rule, from Sidney N. Shure, and 
the personal philatelic collection of Amelia Earhart, including a number 
of rare covers, given by Mrs. Elsie M. Williamson. 

Of a number of other important objects received in the Department, 
the most remarkable perhaps are examples of collodion microfilm pelli- 
cles, which during the seige of Paris (1870) in the Franco-Prussian 
war, had been sent by pigeon post. The Division of Textiles has received 
from Glemson University a 40-saw coton gin (circa 1825-50) as well as 



19th-century cotton gin (gift of Clemson University). 



f~£^.^l 







348 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



a primitive Churka-type roller gin presented by Alfred Pendleton. Mr. 
and Mrs. James G. Stahlman have presented an example of the historic 
Breeches Bible of 1587, so called from a distinction made in the raiment 
of Adam and Eve: the "aprons" woven from fig leaves (as later trans- 
lated in the King James Version) were rendered by the translators in 
1587 as "breeches." 

The range of acquisitions during the year perhaps is best illustrated 
by the diamond-encrusted (450 diamonds) medal Order of the Golden 
Fleece, made in 1849 by order of the Prince of Lobkowitz, Duke of 
Raudnitz, and the "Bible quilt," depicting stories from the Old and 
New Testaments, which was exhibited in the Athens, Georgia, Cotton 
Fair of 1886 by an elderly Negro farm woman identified only as 
Harriet. The former was given by Mrs. Marjorie Merriweather Post; 
the latter, by Mr. and Mrs. H. M. Heckman. 

The work of the textile laboratory has been extended to include the 
scientific cleaning of multiple-unit items such as early embroidered and 
hooked rugs. 



Department of Cultural History 

The colonial and federal period collections have been enriched by a 
gift from the Maryland Historical Society: ballroom paneling from 
John Frederick Amelung's late 18th-century mansion in Frederick 




Tape loom, English, late 18th 
century, a rare example from 
the collection and currently a 
research project of Rita J. 
Adrosko. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 



349 



County, Maryland, which overlooked the site of his ambitious but ill- 
fated "New Bremen Glassmanufactory." From the same period, in Alex- 
andria, Virginia, the archeological activity of Richard Muzzrole has 
yielded kiln-site artifacts of the pottery of Henry Piercy (1793-1801). 

Similar in its range of interest and usefulness is Frederick Maloney's 
gift of a pipe-pressing machine, together with molds and pottery pipe 
bowls, from a 19th- and early 20th-century pottery and pipe factory in 
Pamplin, Virginia. 

The Copp collection, one of the most notable extant collections of 
materials representing the history of a single family, has been aug- 
mented by the receipt of Johathan Copp's "great chair" (as described 
in his 18th-century inventory) from Miss Catherine B. Avery. A pictorial 
record of Negro life in rural Florida in the 1930s has been provided 
in seven oil paintings given by the artist, Henry Hutchinson Shaw; 
and the collection of Spanish-American materials has been augmented 
by a figure of the flagellated Christ, Jesus Nazareno, made in New Mex- 
ico about 1900. 

The most notable acquisition in the field of American culture for the 
post-Civil War era has been a 60,000-piece pictorial center table, to- 
gether with tools, inlay fragments, and awards pertaining to the maker, 
Peter C. Glass, a German-American master of inlay furniture. The table 
was the gift of Mrs. Frank Vidano. 

A complete remodeling of the reference area of the Division of Musical 
Instruments has provided continuous glass enclosures with the result 
that instruments now are immediately visible. Use of the Termatrex 
data-retrieval system, a continuing project directed by Betty J. Walters, 



Order of the Golden Fleece, 
containing approximately 450 
diamonds. This outstanding his- 
torical piece was made in 1849 
by order of Prince Lobkowitz, 
Duke of Raudnitz. Some of its 
parts, including the fleece as 
such, may date from the 18th 
century. (Donated by Mrs. 
Merri weather Post.) 




350 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



Museum technician Ulysses G. 
Lyon removes a pipe bowl from 
the mold of a pipe-pressing ma- 
chine that museum technician 
Richard Drake has just opened. 
(Gift of Fred Maloney.) 




has comprehended 8500 specimens in this department, greatly facilitat- 
ing the effort to improve the accessibility and documentation of the 
collection. 



Department of Industries 

The Division of Transportation has acquired two hundred original 
drawings, prepared for the Bureau of American Fisheries between 1865 
and 1885, that deal with fishing techniques and apparatus. Since the 
marine transportation collections of this museum, as originally assem- 
bled by the United States Fish Commission, predecessor of the Bureau 
of Fisheries, were oriented toward fishing vessels, this acquisition aug- 
ments one of the strongest features of the collections. 

Added to the ceramics collections are two rare examples from the 
celebrated Chelsea pottery, the most important English producer of 
porcelain in the 18th century. The superb quality of this soft-paste por- 
celain is well depicted in these two decorative pieces, one an owl with 
foliage and the other a canary with leaves and flowers. Both represent 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 



351 



the period of finest work at Chelsea (about 1750). Other important 
pieces received include an 18th-century Liverpool plate, from Dr. Lloyd 
E. Hawes, and a magnificent glass globlet decorated with a German 
townscape, from Mr. and Mrs. Rudolph Strasser. As in previous years, 
Dr. Hans Syz has added to the important collection that bears his name. 

The gift of a 1905 Mercedes sports touring car, by Frederic Gibbs, in- 
troduces the first foreign vehicle into the automobile collection. Limita- 
tion of this collection to American vehicles results partly from lack of 
space, but primarily it reflects the extreme rarity of European vehicles of 
very early date. The 1905 Mercedes represents something of a culmina- 
tion in the ingenuity of the early designer in both style and capability. 

A planned series of models illustrating the development of the street 
railway car has been completed with acquisition of the model of a 
Chicago street car of 1910. Similarly, a gift by the Norfolk and Western 
Railway, a model of their eight-wheel switching locomotive number 244, 
has completed a series planned, at the opening of this Museum, of rep- 
resentative American locomotives. Number 244 is in fact the last steam 
locomotive built in the United States for domestic service. 

A project is in progress for documentation of ship plans in the collec- 
tion by the use of modem data-retrieval methods. 




"Celery Pickers," one of a series of paintings depicting Negro life in rural 
Florida in the 1930s (given by the artist Harry Hutchison Shaw). 



352 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 








Letter from Commodore John Paul Jones to Marquis de Fleury regarding the 
future "Marine Force" of the United States. 



Department of National and Military History 

The Department has received memorabilia of the presidency ranging 
from the administration of George Washington to that of Richard Nixon, 
the most important items being a portrait of Mrs. Benjamin Harrison 
by Lilly Martin Spencer, presented by Mrs. Donald R. Gates, and the 
gavel used at the 1968 Republican National Convention, presented by 
Congressman Gerald R. Ford. Other notable acquisitions in this cate- 



English commemorative glass 
goblet with an image of John 
Wilkes holding the "Bill of 
Rights" with garlands on each 
side, circa 1760 (possibly New- 
castle), height IP/^ inches, 
diameter of bowl 5*4 inches, 
diameter of foot 5 inches. 




gory are the carriage used at the White House by President Grant, gift of 
Pearson S. Meeks, and specimens of the state china used at the White 
House by President Lyndon Johnson. 

To the collection of materials representing political and social move- 
ments has been added a number of objects associated with the Poor 
People's Campaign of 1968, including a family-unit dwelling from 
"Resurrection City," which was presented by the Southern Christian 
Leadership Conference. 

A truly remarkable acquisition has come to the Department in a group 
of seven commissions issued to William Sylvester between 1744 and 
1781. These range from a commission for coroner in the "County of 
Plimouth," Massachusetts Bay, dated 6 February 1744, signed by 
W. Shirley, and bearing the seal of King George H, to a commission for 
justice of the peace of Cumberland County, Province of Massachusetts 
Bay, dated 18 October 1781, signed by John Hancock and John Avery, 
and affixed with the seal of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Most 
interesting of the group is a printed commission bearing the seal of 
Massachusetts Bay on which the letterhead of George HI has been 
scratched out and "The Government and People of Massachusetts Bay, 
New England" has been written in its place. This commission, appoint- 
ing Sylvester justice of the peace of Cumberland County, is signed by 
Samuel Adams and fifteen members of the Council of Safety and is 
dated 7 September 1776. 



354 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Siphon recorder used as 
a telegraph receiver on 
Atlantic cables in the 
1890s. 



Oldest of the year's military and naval acquisitions is an Admiralty- 
style model of the 50-gun ship-of-the-line, H.M.S. Falkland, which was 
built at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1695. The model is based on 
dockyard plans taken off about 1 700. Contributing an item for the fol- 
lowing century, the family of William H. McKay, Jr., has presented 
a letter dispatched in 1787 by John Paul Jones to the Chevalier de 
Fleury, who fought at Yorktown and was the only foreign officer 
awarded a medal by the Continental Congress during the American 
Revolution. 

The nineteenth century has been represented by a number of weapons 
received, including an early production model of the breech-loading 
pistol invented and manufactured by Alonzo Perry in 1855. The latter 
item was presented by Glen C. Perry, grandson of the inventor, and by 
Cleveland Lane. The collections relating to both World Wars have been 
augmented by such varied acquisitions as a group of 175 glass-plate 
negatives of American submarines of World War I, given by the Old 
Dartmouth Historical Society, and the "tanker's jacket" worn by Gen- 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 355 

eral of the Anny Omar Bradley when he commanded the Twelfth Army 
Group in Europe in 1945. 

In the program for underwater exploration, trading artifacts, includ- 
ing ax and mallet heads, augurs, blocks and sheaves, and fragments of 
smoking pipes, have been recovered from the sites of the Warwick 
(wrecked in 1619) and the Virgina Merchant (wrecked in 1660), both 
of which, en route to Jamestown, sank off Bermuda. 

Archeological activity in Alexandria, Virginia, and Fort Michili- 
mackinac, Michigan, has yielded artifacts that are reported under 
"Research" for Cultural History. The work of the preservation labora- 
tory has been facilitated by technical changes that make possible several 
simultaneous electrolytic reductions in the preservation of submerged 
objects and by the volunteer work of Mrs. Florence Homey in the res- 
toration of ceramic artifacts. 



Department of Science and Technology 

The most important accession of the year probably is a collection of 
about 200 pieces of apparatus given by Western Union International 
from its cable stations in Newfoundland. Together with other materieds 
already on hand, these items give the Department an almost complete 
cross section of apparatus used in the hundred-year history of trans- 
atlantic telegraphy. 

Accessions in the field of mathematics have ranged from a seven- 
teenth-century compendium of ivory and gilt brass, comprising two 
sun dials, a lunar dial, and a compass rose, to a digital computer system 



Unusual 17th-century German astronomical compendium made 
of ivory and gild bronze and signed by Hans Ducher. 



356 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



This early- 17th-century table 
clock is the work of David Ram- 
say, one of England's greatest 
clockmakers, who served as 
clockmaker to both James I and 
Charles I and as foundation 
master of the Clockmakers 
Company, when it was founded 
in 1631. Several watches by 
Ramsay are known but only one 
other clock, which is in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum. 
An inscription (below) on the 
interior plate, "George Wash- 
ington," in an 18th-century 
hand has not been positively 
identified as that of the first 
president. 




of 1958. Among the more noteworthy pieces are a logic machine made 
by Benjamin Burack in the 1930s and a photoelectric serial-lag correlator 
made by Gordon Gibson in the 1940s. 

In the departmental reorganization, which is represented for the first 
time in this report, the collections relating to nuclear energy have been 
transferred to the Department of Science and Technology. A decade of 
collecting activity in the field is reported by Philip Bishop in the intro- 
duction to the Museum report. Dr. Bishop's continued efforts during the 
year have led to notable additions to the collection : the proton nuclear 
accelerator of 1956-57, which is associated with the Nobel Prize work 
of Luis W. Alvarez, and "Scylla I," the first thermonuclear reactor for 
peaceful purposes, developed at the University of California, to which 
we are indebted for the acquisition. 

The Department also has received, from a pioneer developer of the 
electron microscope, L. Marton, a reproduction of his first instrument, 
made in Belgium in 1932. In addition, the Department has acquired 
two of the earliest instruments developed in this country after Dr. Marton 
had joined RCA in 1938. One of these, from Colorado State University, 
is from the first group of six instruments produced by RCA after 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 357 

J. Hillier had joined and continued the project. Representing a slightly 
later date is another instrument received from the United Shoe Ma- 
chinery Corporation. 

Individual objects of particular significance received this year are a 
David Ramsay table clock of about 1630, which is one of the oldest 
English clocks extant, a nuclear magnetic resonance cavity, from E. M. 
Purcell and R. B. Pound, which was used in experiments for which 
Purcell shared a Nobel Prize with Felix Bloch in 1952 (a magnet rep- 
resenting some of Bloch's later work was received last year) . Some of 
the first microbalances used in the United States have been received 
from Mrs. Wilbur Patterson. 

Specimens in the National Collections 

10 June 1969 
(Prepared by Office of the Registrar) 





Additions 


On hand 




in 1969 


totals 


Department of Armed Forces History 






Military History 


1,720 


46, 945 


Naval History 


1,338 


15, 173 


Totals 


3,058 


62, 118 


Department of Arts and Manvifactures 






Agriculture and Forest Products 


33 


10, 724 


Ceramics aind Glass 


213 


19, 466 


Graphic Arts 


7,207 


61,374 


Manufactures and Heavy Industries 


507 


36, 943 


Textiles 


197 


36, 800 


Totals 


8, 157 


165, 307 


Department of Civil History 






American Costume 


139 


13, 177 


Cultural History 


573 


27, 177 


Musical Instruments 


23 


80 


Numismatics 


18, 804 


345, 925 


Philately and Postal History 


56, 889 


11,714,945 


Political History* 


1, 156 


38, 179 


Totals 


77, 584 


12, 139,483 


Department of Science and Technology 






Electricity 


189 


8,416 


Mechanical and Civil Engineering 


266 


13,033 


Medical Sciences 


76 


37, 029 


Physical Sciences 


144 


4,876 


Transportation 


34 


43, 220 


Totals 


709 


106, 574 


Grand Totals 


89, 508 


12,473,482 



*Count for American Costume Section separated from Political History in 1968. 



358 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



Specimen Transactions, Fiscal Year 1969 
(Prepared by Office of the Registrar) 



Departments 


New 
acces- 
sions 


Re- 
ceived 
on loan 


Exchanged 
with other 
institu- 
tions 


Trans- 
ferred 
to other 

govern- 
ment 

agerwies 


Lent for 
study to 
investi- 
gators 

and other 
institu- 
tions 


Speci- 
mens 

identi- 
fied 


Armed Forces History 


141 








1 


34 


564 


Arts and Manufac- 














tures 


177 


1 


1 





178 


685 


Civil History 


606 


197 


740 


500 


1,322 


2,304 


Science and Tech- 














nology 


140 


385 








133 


5 


Totals 


1,064 


583 


741 


501 


1,667 


3,558 



EXHIBITS 



No substantial progress has been made during the year on exhibitions 
of the collections, but a number of outstanding special exhibits encom- 
passing a wide variety of subject matter have brought significant por- 
tions of the national collections to public attention. 

The most timely exhibit of the year has been "The Quest for the 
Presidency," an extensive presentation of the history of political cam- 
paigning, that opened 17 August at the height of the 1968 presidential 
campaign. Prepared by Herbert R. Collins, the campaigning memora- 
bilia featured broadsides, buttons, banners, and ballots from the time 
of George Washington to Lyndon B. Johnson. In addition to this history 
of political organizations, techniques of individual candidates were 
represented. 

This production was followed by "Hail to the Chief," a spectacular 
exhibit on the history of presidential inaugurations that opened 8 Jan- 
uary. Prepared by Margaret B. Klapthor, the exhibit presented in his- 
torical content treasured memorabilia ranging from the balcony railing 
from which Washington took his oath of office to the gowns worn at 
several inaugural balls. Taped recordings of campaign songs and silent 
movies recreated inaugurals of presidents from McKinley to Coolidge. 
As a supplement, a display of the historical development of the Inaug- 
ural Medal was prepared by Mrs. Elvira E. Clain-Stefanelli especially 
for the inaugural ceremonies held in the Museum in January 1969. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 



359 




After a concert in the National Museum of History and Technology in honor 
of the Music Council of UNESCO and the International Association of Music 
Libraries, 18 September 1969 (left to right): Carole Bogard, soprano; Judith 
DavidofiF (holding Barak Norman gamba of 1718); Sonya MonosofiF (holding 
Marshall violin of 1759); James Weaver, harpsichordist; Walter Trampler 
(holding Aman viola d'amore of 1705). 



Only surviving example of the so- 
called half doubloon, struck by 
Ephraim Brasher in 1787. Living in 
New York at No. 5 Cherry Street, 
this goldsmith was at one time a next- 
door neighbor to George Washington. 
(This is the earliest among the 
United States gold coins in the Josiah 
K. Lilly, Jr., Collection.) 




360 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 







Applique Bible quilt depicting stories 
from the Old and New Testaments, 
made by an elderly Negro farm woman 
named Harriet, from the outskirts of 
Athens, Georgia, and exhibited in the 
Athens Cotton Fair of 1886. 



Undoubtedly the most dramatic of the Musuem's special exhibits has 
been the display, also prepared by Mrs. Clain-Stefanelli, of the entire 
collection of 6,135 gold coins assembled by the late Josiah K. Lilly 
and presented to the Smithsonian. 

The Division of Graphic Arts and Photography has produced a retro- 
spective display of lithographs, etchings, and silkscreen prints of Raphael 
Soyer, an exhibit of drawings of Austin, Texas, rendered by Edgar 
Dorsey Taylor, and a print show of "High School Graphics," the latter 
of which was organized jointly by the Division of Graphic Arts and 
Photography, the Washington Print Club, and the District high schools 
in an attempt to foster print making as a part of the school curriculum. 



Demonstration of Hall Neurairtome, used for cutting and drilling bone. 




NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 



361 




Half of a special exhibit on radio patent controversies that opened in October 
1968 at a meeting of the Antique Wireless Association. 



A new series of photographic print exhibitions entitled "Women, 
Cameras, and Images" was inaugurated in December 1968 by the same 
Division, along with an Imogen Cunningham retrospective exhibit. 
"The Lingering Shadow," a display of photographs from the national 
collections representing outstanding technological and artistic accom- 
plishments was opened in June 1969. 

Two exhibits of industrial art produced by the Division of Manufac- 
tures have included a selection of art works on "The Coke Push" and a 
series of oil paintings of "Abandoned Mine Scenes" by Carol Riley. 

The development of the cotton gin from the use of the simple roller 
gin in the East to the 19th-century American spiked-tooth gin has been 
the subject of a display installed by the Division of Textiles with live 
demonstrations of the equipment. A 19th-century "Bible quilt," which 
incorporated eleven vignettes from Old and New Testament stories has 
been a display of considerable interest. 

A series of special exhibit cases featuring recent gifts to the collec- 
tions have been initiated during the year in an effort to inform visitors 
of the wide range of the Museum's collections and to acknowledge do- 
nors' gifts of Museum objects. These displays have proved to be ex- 

36&-269 O — 70 24 



362 

Northern Liberties Fire Com- 
pany scene about 1855, oil 
painting by John Shreeve. 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




tremely successful and the program will be continued with the periodic 
addition of new units. 

In the Hall of Medical Sciences a display of modern developments 
in surgical instrumentation has featured instruments driven by com- 
pressed air for operating at ultra-high speed, instruments that were 
designed and produced by Dr. Robert Hall and now are widely used to 
perform difficult operations not previously possible. 

"Patent Controversies in the History of Radio" was prepared for the 
convention of the Antiques Wireless Association in October 1968, and 
a special exhibit was prepared to commemorate the Golden Spike cere- 
mony on its anniversary in May 1969. 

A special exhibit commemorating "Human Rights Year" has been 
installed in the Hall of Historic Americans, where the continuing strug- 
gle for human rights in America is depicted. Articles on display range 
from materials relating to Abolition, Emancipation, the Women's Rights 
movement, and the efforts of Negroes from 1830 to 1968 to gain full 
rights, the latter climaxed by a memorial to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 

For the first time, a large group of rare and historic p>ostage stamps 
and covers from the national collection have been included in a sig- 
nificant international philatelic exhibition in a foreign nation: the 
Division of Philately and Postal History participated in efimex '68 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 



363 




Transcontinental railroad special case placed on exhibit May 1969 in the 
Railroad Hall, to mark the centennial of its opening. 



364 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

[Exposicion Filatelica Intemacional Mexico] in Mexico City in Novem- 
ber. Several philatelic exhibits were prepared in cooperation with foreign 
embassies, including an exhibit of the stamps of Malta that featured 
original artwork, proofs, and other rarely seen Maltese philatelic mate- 
rials, a collection loaned by the Federal Republic of Germany to com- 
memorate the twentieth anniversary of Germany's government, an 
exhibition of stamps of the nations of the African and Caribbean Com- 
monwealth, and a significant display of stamps, as issued by various 
countries, honoring the late Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 



STAFF PUBLICATIONS 

Office of the Director 

Bedini, Silvio A. "The Unfinished Utrecht Quadrant." Technology and Culture 

(July 1969), volume 10, number 3, 7 pages, 2 illustrations. 
. "The 17th Century Table Clepsydra." Physis (1968), volume X, fascicle 

1, pages 25-52, 13 illustrations. 
MuLTHAUF, Robert P. Foreword. In Alchemy and the Occult: A Catalogue 

of Books and Manuscripts from the Collection of Paul and Mary Mellon. 

Volume 1. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1968. 



Department of Applied Arts 

Christian, Pauline B. Annotated List of Photographs in the Division of Agri- 
culture and Forest Products. 126 pages. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian In- 
stitution Press, 1968. 

Glain-Stefanelli, Elvira. "L'fivolution artistique de la medaille aux Etats 
Unis." Medailles (Paris, 1968), volume 31, number 1, pages 14-20. [Also an 
English summary on pages 21-23.] 

Clain-Stefanelli, Vladimir. "History of the National Numismatic Collections." 
Paper 31 in Contributions from The Museum of History and Technology. 
(United States National Museum Bulletin 229) 108 pages. Washington: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. 

Haberstich, David E. "Gide and the Fantasts: The Nature of Reality and 
Freedom." Criticism (Spring 1969), volume XI, number 2, pages 140-150. 

. "Women, Cameras, and Images I: Imogen Cunningham." 2 pages. 

Washington, D.G.: Smithsonian Institution Press, November 1968. [Exhi- 
bition catalog leaflet.] 

KoFFSKY, Peter. "Letter from Home Propaganda." Linn's Weekly Stamp News 
(26 May 1969), volume 42, number 14, p. 29. 

. "Porto Rico Internal Revenue Taxes and Stamps." Scott's Monthly 

Stamp Journal (June 1969), volume 50, number 4, pages 118-119, 122. 

McCusker, John J. "New York City and the Bristol Packet: A Chapter in 18th- 
century Postal History." Postal History Journal (July 1968), volume 13, 
number 2, pages 15-24. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 365 

NoRBY, Reidar. "An Answer to the Stamp Theft Problem." The Texas Philat- 
elist (April 1968), volume 15, number 4, pages 8-12. [Reprinted from The 
Posthorn (February 1968), volume 25, number 1, pages 1-6.] 

. "Finnish 'Colonists' in Sweden." American Swedish Historical Founda- 
tion Yearbook 1967. Pages 40-41. Philadelphia: American Swedish Historical 
Foundation, 1968. 

[Translation from Norwegian and editorial preparation of:] "Norway - 



The Stereotyped Stamps of 1883-85" by T. Soot-Reyn. The Posthorn (June 
1968), volume 25, number 3, pages 56-66. 

"Project Smithsonian - A Review and RepKJrt, and Plan for Next Move." 



Scandinavian Scribe (July 1968), volume 4, number 8, pages 142-46. 

'Gummy Observations." Scandinavian Scribe (July 1968), volume 4, 



number 8, pages 153-55. [Also reprinted in Western Stamp Collector (17 
August 1968), page 13, under title "NH, OG, NG, LH, and Other Sticky 
Words"; also reprinted, in Dutch, in Het Noorderlicht (January 1969), volume 
5, number 2, pages 35-37.] 

-. "Counterfeit Overprints, on Danish Newspaper Stamps." Scandinavian 



Scribe (August 1968), volume 4, number 9, pages 165-68. 
. "Project Smithsonian." The Posthorn (August 1968), volume 25, num- 



ber 4, page 78. 

-. "The Scandinavian Stamp Lexicon." Scandinavian Scribe (1968), 



volume 4, pages 109-12, 127-34, 149-52, 169-72, 185-88, 203-06; (1969), 
volume 5, pages 7-10, 23-26, 39-42, 59-62, 79-82. 
. "Project Smithsonian - Additional Progress Report." Scandinavian 



Scribe (March 1969), volume 5, number 3, page 37. 
. "Scandinavian Varieties." Scandinavian Scribe ( February- April 1969), 



volume 5, numbers 2-4, pages 29, 47, 69. 
. "Smithsonian's Role in Philately - A Reply to the Critics." Scandinavian 



Scribe (April 1969), volume 5, number 4, pages 54—56 and 20-page supplement. 
[Also reprinted in SPA Journal (June 1969), volume 31, number 10, pages 
594-603.] 

-. "Two Early Letters from Sweden - A Glimpse into the Past." COMPEX 



1969 Directory. Pages 93-98. Chicago: Combined Philatehc Exhibitions of 

Chicagoland, Inc., 1969. 
OsTROFF, Eugene. Photographic Aspects of Radiography. Revised. 24 pages. 

Ilford, Inc., 1968. 
ScHEELE, Carl H. "One Judge's Views: The Annual Duck Stamp Contest." 

Insight (January 1969), pages 3-4. 
. "The Smithsonian Institution and Philately." The Collectors Club 

Philatelist (May 1969), volume 48, number 3, pages 143-44, 146. 
. Address at opening of special exhibition at National Museum of His- 



tory and Technology in "Federal Republic of Germany's 20th Anniversary 
Exhibition in Washington, D.C." Stamps (7 June 1969), volume 147, number 
10, pages 505-07. 



Department of Cultural History 

Ahlborn, Richard E. "The Ecclesiastic Silver of Colonial Mexico"; "Domestic 
Silver of Colonial Mexico." In 1968 Winterthur Conference Report: Spanish, 



366 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

French and English Traditions in the Colonial Silver of North America (Henry 
Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, 1969), pages 19-31; 31-46. 

GoLoviN, Anne C. "Audubon's 'Hooping Crane'." The Smithsonian Journal of 
History (fall 1967), volume II, number 3, pages 12-1 A. 

KiDWELL, Claudia B. "Women's Bathing and Swimming Costume in the United 
States." Paper 64 in Contributions from the Museum of History and Tech- 
nology (United States National Museum Bulletin 250). Pages 1-32, illus- 
trated. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. 

Welsh, Peter C. "Introduction." In "An Improved Method of Tanning 
Leather," by David Macbride. The Smithsonian Journal of History (winter 
1967-1968), volume II, number 4, pages 67-76. 



Department of Industries 

Bishop, Philip W. "L' Introduction des techniques modernes sur le Nouveau 

Continent." In Histoire Generale des Techniques, Maurice Daumas, editor. 

Volume III, pages 808-819. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1968. 

. Petroleum. 31 pages. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1969. 

. "John Wesley Hyatt and the Discovery of Celluloid." Plastics World 

(October 1968), volume 26, pages 30-38. 
Chapelle, Howard I., and Lieutenant Colonel M. E. S. Laws, R.A. (Ret.). 

"H.M.S. DeBraak: The Stories of a Treasure Ship." Smithsonian Journal of 

History (winter 1967-1968), volume 2, pages 57-66. 
Geoghegan, William E. "The Auxiliary Steam Packet Massachusetts." Nautical 

Research Journal (spring 1969), volume 16, number 1, pages 27-37. 
Geoghegan, William E., Thomas W. Green, Captain R. Steensen, RDN, 

and Frank J. Merli. "The South's Scottish Sea Monster." American Nep- 
tune (January 1969), volume 29, number 1, pages 5-29. 
Hilton, George W. The Night Boat. 271 pages. Berkeley: Howell-North 

Books, 1968. 
. The Transportation Act of 1958. x + 272 pages. Bloomington and 

London: Indiana University Press, 1969. 
. "The Hosmer Report: A Decennial Evaluation." ICC Practitioners' 



Journal ( 1969) , volume XXXVI, pages 1470-1486. 

"Introduction." In John A. Droege, Passenger Terminals and Trains. 



pages i-iv. 1916. [Reprinted by the Kalmbach Publishing Company, 1969.] 

Miller, J. Jefferson, II. "Canadian Views on English Transfer-Printed Earth- 
enware." Canadian Antiques Collector (October 1968), pages 10-14. 

. "Unrecorded American Views on Two Liverpool-Type Earthenware 

Pitchers." Winterthur Portfolio (1968), volume 4, pages 109-117. 

Oliver, Smith Hempstone, and Donald H. Berkebile. The Smithsonian 
Collection of Automobiles and Motorcycles. 164 pages, 126 illustrations. Wash- 
ington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1969. 

ScHLEBECKER, JoHN T. To Walk Into the Past: Living Historical Farms. 32 
pages. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. 

. "The Symposium on 18th-Century Agriculture, October 1967." Agricul- 
tural History (January 1969), volume 43, pages 1-3. 

, editor. "Eighteenth-Century Agriculture, A Symposium." Agricultural 



History (January 1969), volume 43, 214 pages. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 367 
. "The Great Holding Action: The NFO in September 1%2." Reprint. 



Pages 359-372 in Readings in Collective Behavior, Robert R. Evans, editor. 

Chicago: Rand McNally, 1969. 
Summons, Terry. "Animal Feed Additives." Agricultural History (October 

1968), volume 42, pages 309-313. 
Wessel, Thomas R. The Honey Bee. Information Leaflet 482. Revised edition. 

16 pages. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. 
. "Roosevelt and the Great Plains Shelterbelt." Great Plains Journal 

(spring 1969), pages 57-74. 
White, John H. "The Cincinnati Inclined Plane Railway Company: The Mount 

Auburn Incline and the Lookout House." The Cincinnati Historical Society 

Bulletin (spring 1969), volume 27, number 1, pages 7-23. 
. "Facing on a Single Track . . . Jupiter and 119." Trains (May 1969), 

pages 48-50. 

'The Cuyahoga Steam Furnace Company." Smithsonian Journal of 



History (spring 1968), volume 3, number 1, pages 59-76. [Issued June 1969.] 



Department of National and Military History 

Brooks, Philip C, Jr. "Rolls-Royce and the Smithsonian." The Flying Lady 

(January 1969), number 69-1, pages 1128-1129. 
. "Inaugural Committees, Yesterday and Today." In The Inaugural Story. 

Pages 22-23. 1969 Inaugural Committee with American Heritage Magazine, 

1969. 
How^ELL, Edgar M. "An Artist Goes to War: Harvey Dunn and the A.E.F. War 

Art Program." Smithsonian Journal of History (winter 1967-1968), volume 2, 

number 4, pages 45-56. 
Howell, Edgar M., and Donald E. Kloster. United States Army Headgear 

to 1854, Catalog of United States Army Uniforms in the Collections of the 

Smithsonian Institution. (U.S. National Museum Bulletin 269). 75 pages. 

Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1969. 
Lundeberg, Philip K. "The Museum Perspective." Military Affairs (1968), 

volume 32, numbers 2-4, pages 76-78, 143-146, 201-202; (1969), volume 33, 

number 1, pages 267-269. 
Peterson, Mendel. History under the Sea: A Manual for Underwater Explora- 
tion. 208 pages. Third edition. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 

1969. 
. "Magnetic Search for Bermuda Wrecks." Explorers Journal (December 

1968) , volume XL VI, number 4. pages 266-274. 
Peterson, Mendel, and John Ellis. "Bermuda's History under the Sea." 

Oceans (February 1969), volume 1, number 2, pages 28-39. 



Department of Science and Technology 

Finn, Bernard S. "Electron Theories of Conduction in the 19th Century." 
Actes du Xle Congres International d'Histoire des Sciences (1968), volume 3, 
pages 398-401. 



368 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Hamarneh, Sami K. "The Climax of Medieval Arabic Professional Pharmacy." 
Bulletin of the History of Medicine (fall 1968), volume 42, number 5, pages 
450-461. 

VoGEL, Robert M. The New England Textile Mill Survey I - Report on the 
First Summer's Work of the New England Textile Mill Survey. 38 pages, 23 
illustrations. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution, Division of Mechani- 
cal and Civil Engineering, 1969. 

Warner, Deborah J. Alvan Clark & Sons: Artists in Optics, vi + 120 pages, 28 
figures. (United States National Museum Bulletin 274). Washington, D.C: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. 



PAPERS, LECTURES, AND SEMINARS 

Office of the Director 

Teaching 

Multhauf, Robert P. "An Introduction to the History of Science." Year 
course (three credit hours), George Washington University. 

. "Readings in the History of Science." One term (three hours, one 

student), George Washington University. 

Lectures 

Bedini, Silvio A. "Hardware of History — Artifacts of Colonial American Sci- 
ence." Special Libraries Association, at the Museum, 19 March 1969. 

Multhauf, Robert P. "Adrift in a Sea of Saltpeter." Chemistry Group, Brook- 
haven National Laboratory, 30 April 1969; Corning Section, American Chemi- 
cal Society, 5 May 1969. 



Department of Applied Arts 

Lectures 

Adrosko, Rita J. "American Textiles, 1750-1850." School of Architecture, 
Columbia University, March 1969. 

. "Looms." Textiles Department, Moore College of Art, March 1969. 

. "Dyes from Nature." Potomac Craftsmen, Washington, D.C, May 1969. 

. "Museums as a Classroom Resource." American Home Economics As- 
sociation Convention, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, June 1969. 

-. "Woven Textiles in 18th-century America." College of Home Economics, 



University of Maryland, at the Museum, June 1969. 
Clain-Stefanelli, Elvira. "The Artistic Evolution of the American Medal." 

Associates of the Smithsonian Institution, 11 June 1968. [Not reported in 

Smithsonian Year 1968.] 
. "The Coinage of Italy Throughout the Ages." Montgomery County 

[Maryland] Coin Club, 16 October 1968. 

Opening address. Inauguration of Israel Numismatic Society of Wash- 



ington, 24 November 1968. 



' 



p 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 369 
. "United States Inaugural Medals." Radio broadcast in Romanian lan- 



guage for Voice of America, January 1 969. 

Opening address. Second Annual Washington Numismatic Forum, at 



the Smithsonian, 1 March 1969. 
. "The American Medal." New York Numismatic Coin Club, 14 March 



1969. 

"Josiah K. Lilly, Coin Collector." 14th Metropolitan Numismatic Con- 



vention, New York City, 12 April 1969. 

Clain-Stefanelli, Elvira, and Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli. Television pro- 
grams on the Josiah K. Lilly Collection for Time-Life, Inc., with Don Mac- 
Kinnon, taped 31 October and 8 November 1968. 

Clain-Stefanelli, Vladimir. "The Significance of the Josiah K. Lilly Col- 
lection." Georgia Numismatic Association Convention, 3 August 1968. 

. "Christian Gobrecht and His Work." Middle Atlantic Numismatic 

Convention, Philadelphia, Pennsyvlania, 24 October 1968. 

"Historically Significant Pieces in the J. K. Lilly Collection." Second 



Annual Washington Numismatic Forum, at the Smithsonian, 1 March 1969. 
Participant in panel discussion "Numismatics at the University as Part 



of a College Curriculum." Central States Education Forum, Chicago, Illinois, 

3 May 1969. 
Cooper, Grace R. "Smithsonian Institution, Mecca on the Mall." Alumnae 

Association, College of Home Economics, University of Maryland, April 1969. 
. Planning and leading of one-day seminar, "Textiles and Clothing in 

the Museum Collections." Part of graduate course "The Role of the Federal 

Goverrunent in the Textile and Clothing Industries," University of Maryland, 

June 1969. 
Haberstich, David. "Early Photographic Patents." Photographic trade show 

and lecture series "Photography in 1969" sponsored by Fuller and d' Albert, 

Washington, D.C., April 1969. 
NoRBY, Reidar. "Early European Stamps and Their Printing Methods, Using 

the Norwegian 1863-66 Issues as Examples." Philatelic Society, Washington, 

D.C., 23 October 1968. 
. "Smithsonian's Research Facilities and Reference Collections-and Their 

Availability." North Jersey Scandinavian Collectors Club, Upper Montclair, 

New Jersey, 20 November 1968. 
. "Methods and Techniques for Comparing Details on Classic Postage 



Stamps, As Developed by the use of Smithsonian Instruments." North Jersey 
Scandinavian Collectors Club, Upper Montclair, New Jersey, 20 March 1969. 

OsTROFF, Eugene. "Photomechanical Reproduction." Society of Photographic 
Science and Engineers, Washintgon, D.C., Chapter, 23 April 1968. 

. "The Invention of Photomechanical Reproduction." American Associ- 
ation of Museums — Annual Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, 24 May 
1968. 

-. "Photography and Printers' Ink." International history of photography 

symposium sponsored by Czechoslovakian Academy of Sciences, 21 April 1969. 
I Scheele, Carl H. "The National Postage Stamp Collection and PhilateHc Ex- 
hibition at the Smithsonian." Silver Spring [Maryland] Philatelic Society, 
October 1968. 

. "Philatelic Activities of the Smithsonian Institution." Dolly Madison 

Stamp Club of McLean, Virginia, February 1969. 



370 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 
. "The Philatelic Collection and Facihties of the Smithsonian." Falls 



Church Philatelic Society, Virginia, April 1969. 
. "Outstanding Philatelic Materials and the Work of the Division of 



Philately." Library of Congress Recreation Association Stamp Club, May 
1969. 



Department of Cultural History 



Teaching 

Ahlborn, Richard E. "Spanish-American Building Technology." Graduate 
seminar on architectural restoration and preservation, Columbia University, at 
the Museum, February 1969. 

GoLoviN, Anne C. Discussion (in the hall) of the Growth of the United States 
exhibit. Graduate students from Hagley Program and Winterthur Program in 
Early American Culture, University of Delaware, April 1969. 

Roth, Rodris. "Material Objects as Documents." Discussion session, under- 
graduate class. Fine Arts Department, George Washington University, in the 
Museum, Cultural History reference collection rooms, April 1969. 

Watkins, C. Malcolm. "The Role of the Object in the History Museum." 
Half-day lecture and discussion session, part of docents training course, Oak- 
land Museum Association, Oakland, California, September 1968. 

Lectures 

Ahlborn., Richard E. "A Survey of Religious Medals in Smithsonian Collec- 
tions and in Spanish-American Archeological Sites." Annual Meeting of Soci- 
ety of Historical Archaeology, 8 January 1969, Tucson, Arizona. 

. "The Colonial Arts of Spanish America." History class. University of 

Maryland, 5 May 1969. 

. "The Arts of Mexico Since Independence." University of Maryland, 



5 May 1969. 

GoLoviN, Anne C. "Techniques of Construction in the Ipswich House Exhibited 
in the Growth of the United States Halls." Graduate seminar on architectural 
restoration and preservation, Columbia University, at the Museum, April 1969. 

Greene, Carroll, Jr. Afro-American artifacts. Bibliographic workshop on Negro 
resources, Howard University, at the Museum, August 1969. 

'—. Participant in panel "New Urban Opportunities for Museums." 64th 

annual meeting of American Association of Museums, San Francisco, 27 May 
1969. 

Kidwell, Claudia. American costume. Founder's Day Dinner, American Asso- 
ciation of University Women, Hagerstown, Maryland, Branch, 18 March 
1969. 

Roth, Rodris. "Furniture at the Centennial." New Hampshire Historical So- 
ciety, Concord, New Hamphire, March 1969. 

Watkins, C. Malcolm. "Utensils of the Pioneer" (including a later class tour 
of Hall of Everyday Life in the American Past). Adult education extension 
course on pioneer life. Northern Virginia Community College and Pioneer 
America Society, Falls Church, Virginia, April 1969. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 371 

Department of Industries 

Lectures 

Gardner, Paul V. "The Stourbridge Heritage." Ninth Annual Seminar on 
Glass, Corning Museum of Glass, October 1968. 

Jackson, Melvin H. "Marine Technology and the Age of Exploration." Series 
of lecture seminars. University of Pennsylvania, fall term 1968. 

Schlebecker, John T. "Comparison of Shenandoah Valley Farming in 1850 
and 1969." Paper, special meeting. National Trust for Historic Preservation, 
Grove Plantation, Middletown, Virginia, May 1969. 

White, John H. "Public Transport in Washington before the Great Consolida- 
tion of 1902." Paper, Smithsonian-George Washington University Summer 
Seminar, August 1968. 



Department of National and Military History 

Teaching 

Langley, Harold D. Diplomatic History of the United States; Rise of the 
/\mencan City; American Age of Enterprise; Historical Methods Seminar; 
Jacksonian America Seminar. Courses, Catholic University of America, Wash- 
ington, D.C., 1968-69. 

LuNDEBERG, Philip K. Reading course in American Military History. American 
Studies Program, Smithsonian Institution, in association with George Wash- 
ington University, 1968-69. 

Lectures 

Albright, Alan B. "The Preservation of Artifacts from under Water." Wash- 
ington Regional Conservation Guild, February 1969; National Park Service 
Headquarters, Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, April 1969. 

. "Electronic Survey of the Bermuda Coast." National Museum of Natural 

History and National Museum of History and Technology, March 1969; St. 
Mary's Historical Commission, St. Mary's, Maryland, May 1969. 

Collins, Herbert R. "Campaigning for the Presidency." Talbot County 
[Maryland] Historical Society, October 1968. 

. "The Quest for the Presidency." Southern Pennsylvania Council for 

Social Studies, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, October 1968. 

. "Political Campaign Collection at the Smithsonian Institution." Charles 



County [Maryland] Historical Society, October 1968. 

— . "History of Presidential Campaigning." Chester County Historical So- 



ciety, West Chester, Pennsylvania, October 1968. 

"Campaign Techniques of the 19th and 20th Century." History Depart- 



ment, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, February 
1969. 
Klapthor, Margaret B. "Costume of the 1930s." Chicago Historical Society 
and Chicago Fashion Group at opening of special exhibit "Costume of the 
1930s," April 1969. 



372 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 
. "Dress of the First Ladies of the White House" (including tour). Wives 



of District Commissioners of Internal Revenue during annual conference, 
September 1968. 
. "An Afternoon with the First Ladies." National convention of National 



Association of Counties in Washington, D.C., March 1969. 
. "The Smithsonian Institution Presents George Washington." Congres- 



sional Club, Washington, D.C., February 1969. 

Langley, Harold D. "The Negro in the Armed Forces: A Historical Perspective 
from the Revolution to Vietnam." Teachers Institute, Board of Education, 
Baltimore, Maryland, December 1968. 

Lundeberg, Philip K. "Sea Power Prior to and During World War I." United 
States Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island, December 1968. 

. "The Evolution of American Naval Construction: The National Col- 
lection of Warship Models." Pennsylvania Military College, Chester, Pennsyl- 
vania, February 1969. 

Peterson, Mendel. "History under the Sea." Washington Club, Washington, 
D.C., January 1969; Ohio Council of Skindivers, Canton, Ohio, January 1969; 
The Military Order of the World Wars, Washington, D.C., February 1969; 
American Society of Arms Collectors and Adult Education Program, Mont- 
clair, New Jersey, March 1969. 

Van der Sloot, R. B. F. (of Dutch Army and Arms Museum, Leiden) and J. B. 
KiST (of Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam). "The Personal Armament of Dutch 
Citizens of Substance in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century As Shown 
in Dutch Museums and Illustrated in Dutch Portraits." American Society of 
Arms Collectors, at the Smithsonian, March 1969. 



Department of Science and Technology 

Teaching 

Cannon, Walter F. "Some Problems of Methodology in Nineteenth-Century 
History of Science." Lecture, history seminar. University of Maryland, Feb- 
ruary 1969. 

Eklund, Jon B. "Rational Chemistry before Lavoisier." Lecture, undergraduate 
course. University of Maryland, February 1969. 

. "Quantitative Chemistry and Atomic Theory in the Early Nineteenth 

Century." Lecture, history seminar, University of Maryland, March 1969. 

Hamarneh, Sami K. "The Natural Sciences in Medieval Islam." Semester 
course. University of Pennsylvania, spring 1969. 

VoGEL, Robert M. "Industrial Archeology." Field trip, Smithsonian American 
Studies Program, October 1968. 

. "Historic Architecture." Seminar session, Columbia University, Novem- 
ber 1968. 

Warner, Deborah J. "Astrophysics." Course for young people, given twice, 
Smithsonian Associates, fall 1968. 

Lectures 

Cannon, Walter F. "Methodology in History of Science." Lecture, faculty semi- 
nar, Department of History and Philosophy of Science, Cambridge University, 
England, April 1969. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 373 

Eklund, Jon B. "Weights and Measures in the Eighteenth Century." National 
Scale Men's Association, Washington, June 1969. 

Finn, Bernard S. "The Influence of Experimental Apparatus on Eighteenth 
Century Electrical Theory." Twelfth International Congress of the History 
of Science, Paris, August 1968. 

Hamarneh, Sami K. "History of Pharmacy and the Smithsonian Collections." 
Southern School of Pharmacy, Mercer University, Atlanta, Georgia, Decem- 
ber 1968; at McDowell Museum, Danville, Kentucky, December 1968. 

. "Origins of Arabic Medicine." Department of Oriental Studies and De- 
partment of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Pennsylvania, 
March 1969. 

. "Arabic Medicine and Its Impact on Teaching and Practice of the Heal- 



ing Arts in the West." Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, April 1969. 
. "Greek Pharmacy in Perspective." American Institute on the History of 



Pharmacy, Montreal, Canada, May 1969. 
SivowiTCH, Elliot. "Mechanical Television Systems." Annual meeting, Antique 

Wireless Association, Washington, October 1968. 
VoGEL, Robert M. "The Use of Archeology in Historic Preservation." Pennsbury 

Forum, October 1968. 



MUSICAL EVENTS 

10 July 1968 through 28 August 1969. Tower music, weekly. 

8 September 1968. Special concert for International Music Council of 
UNESCO and International Association of Music Libraries: Judith 
Davidoff, viola da gamba; Sonya MonosofT, violin; Walter Trampler, 
viola; Carole Bogard, soprano; James Weaver, harpsichord (instru- 
ments from Smithsonian collection used: Barak Norman viola da 
gamba, Marshall violin, Dodd bow, Stehlin harpsichord) . 

28 October 1968. Gustav Leonhardt, harpsichordist (using Smith- 
sonian's Stehlin harpsichord) . 

13-15 November 1968. August Wenzinger and Hannelorre Mueller, 
violas da gamba; Robert Conant, harpsichord; Hans-Martin Linde, 
flute and recorder (Smithsonian's Stehlin harpsichord used). 

18 November 1968. Concentus Musicus (Italian harpsichord of 1693 
used) . 

14 January 1969. Jean Hakes, soprano; Stoddard Lincoln, piano 
(Schmidt piano of 1788 used) . 

4 February 1969. Hugues Cuenod, baritone; Raymond Lynch, lute. 

3 March 1969. Danzi Quintet. 

11 March 1969. Sonya MonosofT, violin; James Weaver, harpsichord 
(instruments from Smithsonian collection used: Marshall violin, 
Dodd bow, Vuillaume violin [first public use], Stehlin harpsichord, 
and Schmidt piano) . 



374 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



22 April 1969. Alarius Ensemble (Stehlin harpsichord and DeQuocd 

harpsichord of 1694 [first public use] used) . 
6 May 1969. Jean-Louis Barrault, Mme Renaud, New York Chamber 

Soloists (in cooperation with Smithsonian Associates) . 



I 



Freer Gallery of Art 

John A. Pope, Director 




As SET FORTH IN MR. FREER^s WILL, the function of the Freer Gallery 
l\ of Art is twofold. In the first place, it is a center for research 
in the civilizations of the East; this research is the basic function of 
the staff. In addition to the Freer collections and library, materials 
for this research are available in libraries and museums in this country 
and abroad and in many archeological and historic sites in Asia, Africa, 
and elsewhere. Members of the staff travel as necessary to make use of 
these resources and to discuss problems with colleagues elsewhere who 
have similar interests. Results of this research are published intermit- 
tently either in the Freer Gallery of Art Occasional Papers or in the 
Freer Gallery of Art Oriental Studies as well as in outside scholarly 
journals. 

The second function of the Gallery is to continue adding oriental 
objects of the finest quality to the collection whenever they become 
available. In the course of the travel mentioned above, all staff mem- 
bers keep their eyes open for objects that might be considered for pur- 
chase. The facilities of the Gallery are always at the disposal of visiting 
scholars who may wish to use them; and under established scholarship 
programs students are given encouragement and supervision in the 
advanced study of the history of oriental art. 



Grant 

The Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation has continued its notable and 
important contribution to the Gallery for library acquisitions. 

375 




Bronze, Japanese (Yayoi pe- 
riod, 2nd-3rd centuries A.D.): 
Dotaku with six rectangular 
panels on each side framed by 
crosshatched borders, broad 
thin flange with eighteen cir- 
cular protrusions (of which 
eleven remain) on the narrow 
edge and over the top (68.73). 



The Collections 



Among the twenty important works of art added to the collections 
by purchase, five may be singled out for illustration and comment here. 
A Japanese bronze bell-shaped object known as a dotaku and dating 
from the late Yayoi period, third century a.d., is the largest and one of 
the finest examples outside of Japan (68.73) . Also Japanese is the paint- 
ing of the Secret Five Bodhisattvas of the Shingon Sect of Buddhism 
dating from the early Kamakura period about the year a.d. 1200 (68.75) , 
Two important Chinese acquisitions date from the Ming dynasty. A 
covered stem-bowl of blue and white porcelain bears the mark of the 
Hsiian-te reign (1426-1435) (68.77ab). Representing a slightly later 
period is a carved lacquer box showing figures in a garden before a pal- 
ace carved with extreme delicacy in dark chocolate brown lacquer 
against a ground of the more usual cinnabar red, also richly carved 
with the conventional patterns for land, sea, and sky. Signed by the 
carver, it is closely related in style and technique to a published dish 
that bears a date corresponding to a.d. 1489 (68.76ab). A cylindrical 
mug of Turkish pottery from Iznik has a curious flat handle cut with 
sweeping curves at top and botton. The decoration, in turquoise and co- 
balt blue with touches of red, shows a helter-skelter arrangement of 
sailing dhows among cypress-covered islands, on each of which is a 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 



377 



pavilion and a large bird completely out of scale with the rest of the 
composition. It dates from the last quarter of the 16th century (68.68) . 
Also purchased for the collections are the following : 

Bronze 

Japanese, Tumulus period, circa a.d. 6th century: Mirror with six bells (68.71). 
(68.71). 

Lacquer 

Chinese, Sung dynasty, a.d. 10th-14th centuries: Dish with flattened foliate 
rim, cavetto fluted to match inside and out; deep chocolate brown with some 
lighter areas (68.67). 

Painting 

Japanese, Namboku-cho-Ashikaga period, a.d. 14th century, Muromachi Sui- 
boku school, attributed to Makuan (died about 1348) : Kannon seated on a 
rock; ink on silk panel (68.61 ) . 

Japanese, Ashikaga period, a.d. 14th-17th centuries, Kano school, by Kano 
Motohide, flourished early 16th century: Mongol hunting scenes, ink or pa- 
per (68.62) ; one of a pair of six-panel screens (68.63). 

Japanese, Edo period, a.d. 17th-19th centuries, Ukiyoe school, by Katsushika 
Hokusai (1760-1849) : Figures picnicking beneath an old pine tree; "Hyaku- 
nin Isshu Ubaga Etoki" series, poem by Fujiwara no Okikaze, Poem 34; ink 
on paper (68.64). 

Japanese, Edo period, a.d. 17th-19th centuries, Shijo school, by Watanabe 
Kazan (1793-1841): Portrait of Sato Issai; ink and color on silk (68.66). 




Painting, Japanese (early Kamakura period, 
A.D. 1185-1249, Buddhist school): Painting 
in ink and colors on silk with touches of 
gold, the Five Secret Bodhisattvas {Go- 
himitsu Bosatsu) of the Shingon Sect of 
Japanese Buddhism (68.75). 



366-269 O— 70- 



-25 



378 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Pottery, Chinese (Ming Dynasty, 
Hsuan-te, A.D. 1426-1435): Stem 
bowl with cover, fine-grained white 
porcelain, transparent glaze, under- 
glaze blue, floral scrolls between 
conventional borders, six-character 
Hsiian-te mark, horizontally from 
right to left in main band on bowl 
(68.77 a-b). 



Japanese, Edo period, a.d. 17th-19th centuries, Nanga school, by Nakaba- 

yashi Chikuto (1776-1853): Landscapes, ink and slight color on paper 

(68.69) ; one of a pair of six-panel screens (68.70). 
Japanese, Ashikaga period, a.d. 14th-17th centuries, Tosa school, by Tosa 

Hirochika (flourished 1457-1465) : Horse training, black ink and light colors 

on paper, handscroU (68.72). 



Pottery 

Chinese, Sung dynasty, a.d. 10th- 13th centuries: Northern celadon bowl vnth 
slightly curved sides, wdde mouth and small foot, grooved outside lip; kiln grit 
adheres inside foot; buff grey porcelanous clay with oUve green celadon glaze, 
carved lotus scroll in interior (68.65) . 

Chinese, Ming dynasty, a.d. early 15th century: Large celadon fish with flat- 
tened foliate rim and broad unglazed band inside foot; fine grained gray 
porcelain with thick, even, deep gray-green glaze; cavetto fluted inside and 
out (68.74). 

Turkish, Iznik, circa a.d. 1540-1555. Dish with everted flattened rim and low 
foot with flat unglazed footrim; buff-colored faience clay with transparent 
glaze over white slip and painting in turquoise, cobalt blue and red with 
drawing in black; floral medallions and scrolling leaves on scale ground, tre- 
foils around rim with blue blossoms, and black scrolls on white ground out- 
side (69.1). 

Turkish, Iznik, circa a.d. 1560-1570: Jug with pear-shaped body and curving 
handle; buff-colored faience clay with transparent glaze over white slip and 
painting in cobalt blue, red and green and drawing in black ; horizontal bands 
of trefoils, blossoms, cloud collars, and overlapping petal band in green (69.2). 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 



379 



Stone Sculpture 

Indian, Kushan period, a.d. 2nd century: Nagaraja (Serpent King), lower 
torso of mottled red sandstone; from Mathura, Central India (69.3). 



Care of the Collections 

The technical laboratory has examined, cleaned, and repaired, as 
necessary, thirty-two Freer objects and has examined forty-nine under 
consideration for purchase. Also, nineteen objects from other museums 
and individuals have been examined or repaired. The laboratory 
examines objects by microscopic, microchemical, x-ray diffraction, 
ultraviolet light, wet-chemical analysis, and various other methods. Dur- 
ing the year the technical laboratory has been used in consultant work 
for other galleries and museums. 

Restorer Takashi Sugiura and his assistants, Makoto Souta and Kumi 
Kinoshita, have repaired, restored, or remounted forty-two Chinese and 
Japanese paintings and screens. Illustrator F. A. Haentschke has re- 
mounted forty-four Persian, Indian, and Turkish paintings. 

Museum specialist Martin P. Amt has made 143 exhibition changes: 
5 American, 72 Chinese, 39 Japanese, 17 Korean, and 10 Near Eastern. 
All the necessary equipment for these changes has been provided by 
tlie cabinet shop under the direction of building superintendent Russell 
C. Mielke, who also has maintained the building in its usual immaculate 
and sound condition. 



Pottery, Turkish (Iznik, late 16th 
century A.D. ) : Tankard with angular 
handle, buff-colored soft clay, thin 
transparent glaze, polychrome design 
of sailing dhows, castles on rocks, 
birds, etc. (68.68). 




380 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Lacquer, Chinese (Ming Dynasty, late 15th century A.D.): Round covered box 
with design in carved dark brown lacquer against a ground of carved red 
lacquer, scene of a moon palace with figures in a garden, horizontal zones with 
separate scenes, fabulous beasts, and floral scrolls surrounding the main scene 
on both the cover and body of the box (68.76 a-b). 



Curatorial Activities 



Director John A. Pope has continued his studies on the history of 
the early export trade in Chinese porcelain and also on the history 
of porcelain manufacture in Japan. In connection with the former, the 
papers read at the Manila Trade Pottery Seminar (18-25 March 1968) 
began to come in with the authors' additional commentaries, and the 
transcripts of the daily sessions were sent from Manila in February. 
This material is now being edited with a view to publication. 

In October 1968, Pope represented the Freer Gallery of Art at the 
opening of the Toyokan, the new Museum of Far Eastern Art at the 
Tokyo National Museum, Japan. While in Japan he also spent further 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 381 

time studying the kiln sites of Saga Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, 
where the history of Japanese porcelain began in the 1 7th century, a.d. 

Pope has been appointed by the Board of Overseers of Harvard Col- 
lege, Harvard University, as a member of the committe to visit the 
Department of East Asian Civilizations. Pope has continued in his ap- 
pointments by the University of Michigan as Research Professor of 
Oriental Art, College of Literature, Science and the Arts, and by the 
Trustees for Harvard University as a member of the Board of Advisors 
of Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. He has continued 
serving in honorary posts and duties assumed in previous year. 

Assistant Director Harold P. Stem has organized and completed 
work on an exhibition entitled Master Prints of Japan, which was held 
at the art galleries of the University of California at Los Angeles under 
the sponsorship of the UCLA Art Council from 13 April to 25 May 1969. 
As one of the most comprehensive exhibitions ever undertaken in the 
field of the early Japanese woodblock, only the finest examples were 
shown. Stern wrote a book to accompany the show that was published 
by Harry N. Abrams, Inc., of New York. To select the examples for the 
exhibition and to write the book, he studied hundreds of prints in both 
public and private collections. The thoroughly illustrated volume serves 
as a general guide for scholars as well as laymen. 

Plans for two volumes dedicated to the Chinese and Japanese art 
in the Freer Gallery have been initiated. Together with the other mem- 
bers of the Freer staff, Stem has worked on the selection and the editing 
of the text. In addition he has continued his research on Japanese paint- 
ings and drawings in European and British collections as an adjunct to 
a major project of a full catalog of Japanese paintings of the Ukiyoe 
school in the Freer Gallery of Art. The Gallery holdings in this area are 
among the largest and finest in existence. Because of great public inter- 
est in Japan, negotiations have been started on issuing as a separate 
volume the portion of this study relating to Hokusai. 

During late October 1968, Stem participated in a symposium entitled 
"Challenge of the East" at Dana College, Blair, Nebraska. He has given 
many lectures during the year and has continued his work as a trustee 
and member of the Executive Committee of the Japan-America Society 
of Washington. He also has continued serving in honorary posts and 
duties assumed previously. 

Thomas Lawton, associate curator of Chinese art, has prepared the 
descriptive texts for two volumes that illustrate selected examples from 
the Chinese and Japanese collections. He has continued to organize 
a Gallery handbook. Hin-cheung Lovell, assistant curator of Chinese 
art, and Lawton are engaged in research on the paintings in the col- 
lection. Special attention is being given to the Gallery's large collection 



382 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

of Che School paintings; a catalog and special exhibit of these paintings 
are planned. In May and June 1969, Lawton spent six weeks studying 
public and private collections of Chinese art in Europe. He has accepted 
the invitation of the National Palace Museum in Taiwan to serve as 
vice-executive secretary of the International Conference of Chinese 
Painting to be held at the National Palace Museum in June 1970. He 
also has been appointed an honorary lecturer in the Department of the 
History of Art at the University of Michigan and has continued serving 
in the honorary posts and duties assumed previously. 

W. Thomas Chase, head conservator of the technical laboratory, has 
continued to assist Rutherford J. Gettens, research consultant, in the 
preparation of manuscript and proof for the forthcoming publication 
on technical studies of Chinese bronze ceremonial vessels in the Freer 
and of a manuscript on two Chinese bronze weapons with meteoritic iron 
blades. Chase has continued the investigation of Chinese bronze belt- 
hooks for a projected publication. 

During 1969 Chase has held the post of a member of the Executive 
Council, Washington Region Conservation Guild, and has continued 
serving in the honorary posts and duties assumed in previous years. 

Rutherford J. Gettins, research consultant for the Freer technical 
laboratory, has begun work on a systematic and intensive study of 
the technical aspects of the large collection (nearly 400) of Japanese 
paintings of the Ukiyoe school housed in the Freer. Each painting is first 
subjected to a condition study, then samples of pigment, mediums, and 
support materials are taken for identification purposes. Elisabeth West 
FitzHugh, formerly an analytical chemist with the laboratory, is assist- 
ing Gettens. This work is done in cooperation with Harold P. Stem, 
assistant director of the Freer Gallery of Art, who plans to publish a 
catalog of the Freer Ukiyoe collection. 

Joseph M. Upton, formerly research assistant at the Center for Mid- 
dle Eastern Studies, Harvard University, is under contract with the 
Freer and is engaged in translating from German and cataloging and 
organizing the material Professor Ernst E. Herzfeld presented to the 
Smithsonian Institution for the Freer Gallery of Art on his retirement 
from the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton University, in 1946. 
Professor Herzfeld's archives consist of his working materials accumu- 
lated during a lifetime of study of the cultures of the Near East and 
their environment from prehistoric times to the recent past. With these 
materials maintained at the Freer, Upton's endeavors will make the rec- 
ords usable and available to scholars. The archives constitute one of the 
few extant comprehensive bodies of basic source material for the study 
of the history, art, religion, geography, and languages of the Near East. 

Josephine Hadley Knapp, research assistant, is engaged in pottery 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 



383 



Study and research and in arranging and cataloging the study collec- 
tion of Far Eastern pottery, which consists chiefly of shards from kiln 
sites and other sources. The large collection includes a wide range 
of examples of export wares from approximately the 10th century a.d. to 
modem times, wares that have been found in many regions of the world 
from the Pacific islands and Asia to Africa and the Americas. She was 
formerly assistant in the Department of Far Eastern Art and a staff lec- 
turer at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 



Staff Changes 

W. Thomas Chase was appointed head conservator of the technical 
laboratory in July 1968. 

Josephine Hadley Knapp was appointed research assistant in July 
1968. 

Thomas Lawton was appointed associate curator of Chinese art 
in August 1968, and Hin-cheung Lovell reported for duty as assistant 
curator of Chinese art in December 1968. 

Under contract with the Freer, Joseph M. Upton is translating and 
organizing Professor Ernst E. Herzfeld's archives, and Mrs. Elisabeth 
West FitzHugh is assisting Rutherford J. Gettens in the study of the 
technical aspects of the Japanese paintings of the Ukiyoe school at the 
Freer. 

Morris Rossabi completed his one-year predoctoral research internship 
at the end of June 1969. 



Library 

Library acquisitions this year include 369 volumes, 743 photographs, 
and 2,317 slides. 

A total of 570 scholars, students, and visitors have used the library 
for research. 

As in the past, the generous gifts from the Kevorkian Foundation 
and the Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation have allowed the purchase 
of additional titles. 

From the Kevorkian Foundation grant : 

Archdologische Mitteillungen Aus Iran. Berlin, 1929-38. 
Herzfeld, E. T-he Persian Empire. Wiesbaden, 1968. 

Baudier, M. The History of the Imperiall Estate of the Grand Seigneurs. London, 
1635. 



384 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1969 

From the Weedon Foundation grant : 

Ming-mo ssu-seng hsuan-chi: Pa-ta-shan-jen, Shih-t'ao, Shih-ch'i, Chien-chiang. 

Hong Kong, 1968. 
Ukiyoe. Nihon Keizai Shimbun Sha: Tokyo, 1969. 
Fukushoku-shi Zue. Inokuma Kaneshige: Osaka, 1969. 



Public Services 

During the past year the Gallery was closed on Mondays from 21 
October 1968 to 7 April 1969, as well as on Christmas Day. With the 
resumption of a regular seven-day-week schedule, the hours have been 
changed from 9:00 a.m.^:30 p.m. to 10:00 a.m.-5:30 p.m. The total 
number of visitors for the year was 179,374. The highest monthly at- 
tendance was 25,983 during April. There have been 2,664 visitors who 
came to the office to consult with staff members, to obtain general in- 
formation, to submit objects and inscriptions for examination and trans- 
lation, to obtain permission to photograph or sketch in the Gallery, to 
use the library, or to examine objects in storage. Staff members have 
examined 4,782 objects and 972 photographs, and have translated 1,011 
Oriental inscriptions for individuals and institutions; objects in storage 
have been shown to 643 persons. By appointment 60 groups, totaling 
1,192 persons, have been given docent service in the galleries by staff 
members; thirteen groups totaling 173 persons have been given docent 
service in the storages. Among the visitors have been 280 distinguished 
scholars in Far and Near Eastern art (128 from other nations) or per- 
sons holding official positions in their own countries who came to study 
objects, museum practices, and administration. 

The Sixteenth Annual Series of Illustrated Lectures on Oriental Art, 
held in the auditorium, have included : 

"Wang Hui's Metamorphosis, A Problem in Chinese Painting." Professor Wen 
Fong, Princeton University, 8 October 1968. 

"Decorative Taste in Japanese Pottery." Usher P. Coolidge, formerly at Fogg 
Museum of Art, 12 November 1968. 

"China's Imperial Art Patrons." Thomas Lawton, Freer Gallery of Art, 14 Jan- 
uary 1969. 

"The Art of the Satavahana Period, 2nd Century B.C. to 3rd Century A.D." 
Wayne Begley, University of Iowa, 11 February 1969. 

"Mughal Jades." John Irwin, Victoria and Albert Museum, 20 February 1969. 

"Mount Sinai: A Crossroads of Cultures." Professor Kurt Weitzmann, Princeton 
University, 11 March 1969. 

"Chinese Sources of Early Timurid Painting." Dr. Ernst Grube, Columbia Uni- 
versity, 8 April 1969. 

The auditorium has been used by ten organizations for twenty meet- 
ings with a total of 2,389 persons attending. 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 385 

The photographic laboratory, under the supervision of Raymond 
Schwartz, has processed a total of 22,778 items during this past year, 
including negatives, photographs, color slides, color sheet films, and 
polaroid prints. These have included both Freer Gallery objects and 
objects submitted from other sources. 

The sales desk has sold 124,476 items consisting of 4,784 publications 
and 119,692 reproductions (including postcards, stationery, slides, trans- 
parencies, photographs, prints, and reproductions in the round) . During 
the year an additional five reproductions in the round and three new 
jigsaw puzzles have been offered for sale. 



Staff Publications and Papers 

Ars Orientalis (1968), volume 7, 12 articles, 179 pages, 81 plates, text illustra- 
tions. Smithsonian Institution Publication 4759. 

Chase, W. Thomas. "The Technical Examination of Two Sasanian Silver 
Plates." Ars Orientalis (1968), volume 7, pages 75-93. 

■ . "Further Notes on the Technical Examination of Two Sasanian Silver 

Plates." Second Annual Sasanian Silver Conference at Case Western Reserve 
University, Cleveland, Ohio, 6 March 1969. 

-. "Spectographic Analysis of Sasanian Silver." Second Annual Sasanian 



Silver Conference at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, 

7 March 1969. 
Lawton, Thomas. Review: A Short History of Chinese Art by Michael Sullivan. 

Artibus Asiae (1968), volume 30, numbers 2/3, pages 262-263. 
. "Early Chinese Landscape Painting." George Washington University, 

Washington, D.C., 19 February 1969. 
Pope, John A. "Oriental Influence in Early America." Williamsburg Antiques 

Forum, Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia, 7 February 1969. 
. "The Collections of the Freer Gallery of Art." Friends of the American 

Museum in Britain, Freer Auditorium, 14 February 1969. 

"New Light on Ri Sampei." American Oriental Society, New York City, 



25 March 1969. 
Stem, Harold P. Master Prints of Japan. New York City: Harry N. Abrams, 

Inc., 1969. 
. "Challenge of the Eaist — Characteristics of Japanese Art." Dana College, 

Blair, Nebraska, 22 October 1968. 
. "Popular Painting of Tokugawa Japan." Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha, 

Nebraska, 24 October 1968. 
■ . "Masterpieces of the Japanese Woodcut." Art Council, University of 

California at Los Angeles, 15 April 1969. 



National Collection of Fine Arts 

David W. Scott^ Director* 




THIS HAS BEEN THE FIRST YEAR FOR NCFA sinCC the Opening of itS 
spacious new quarters in the former Patent Office Building. Each 
day the staff has glowed with pride and delight in the new spaces, and, 
at the same time, has been shadowed by new problems of communica- 
tion and organization. Old friends in the collection of paintings took on 
new life in new surroundings and were supplemented by generous gifts 
and loans. 

Outstanding among the ten special exhibitions at ncfa during the first 
new year have been the exhibition of the works of Charles Sheeler, an 
artist who enjoyed the warmth of popular and critical response to his 
work, and the American entry in the Venice 34 international exhibi- 
tion, which was chosen to demonstrate the continuing vitality of the 
figurative tradition in recent American art. 

The ncfa Print Department selected thirty-five prints from its per- 
manent collection for an exhibition of wpa prints done at the New York 
City Graphic Arts Workshop during the period of 1935 to 1943. 

The International Art Program of ncfa, in its efforts to present abroad 
a full picture of American achievements in the visual arts, has covered 
a variety of exhibitions, from The Disappearance and Reappearance of 
the Image (which drew 35,000 viewers in Bucharest in 16 days) through 
Creative Printmaking in Action, a unique print workshop traveling in 
Pakistan, Iran, Lebanon, Jordan, and Turkey, to The New Vein, now 
in Latin America, showing the works of young, relatively unknown 
artists. 



*Resigned 31 May 1969. Robert Tyler Davis appointed acting director 1 June 
1969. 

387 



388 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Alexander Calder's The Spiral in the great courtyard. 



New programs inaugurated at ncfa during its first year include : The 
Creative Screen, art films and films on art (shown four times a month, 
this series has had an audience of 4,000 since the beginning of the pro- 
gram in October 1968) ; a graduate seminar on themes in 19th-century 
American art with the second semester on neoclassic American sculp- 
ture, given by Professor William Gerdts; the Art Information Guide 
program; Indoctrination for usia cultural attaches in American art; 
a lecture series; docent tours; and a grant to Art Quarterly. 

The Department of 18th- and 19th-century Painting and Sculpture 
has continued research on its cataloging project. 

A Junior Museum was opened 1 May 1969. Here children are intro- 
duced to the art galleries through special sculpture that is enchanting 
to their age group. 

The Renwick Committee has been set up as an interdepartmental 
committee of Smithsonian staff to facilitate drawing on the entire re- 
sources of the Institution to provide exhibitions and activities for the 
Renwick Gallery. Robert Tyler Davis has been appointed chairman of 
the committee. The members are: Carl Fox, Richard H. Howland, 
Richard Virgo, J. Jefferson Miller II, Christian Rohlfing, Lisa Suter 
Taylor, William Trousdale, Wilcomb E. Washburn, and C. Malcolm 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 



389 



Watkins. Ex-officio members are: Charles Blitzer, Frank A. Taylor, and 
Donald R. McClelland. 

The exterior restoration of the Renwick Gallery has been completed 
insofar as money has been appropriated. Plans are being made for 
completion of interior facilities with the help of Hugh Jacobsen, Wash- 
ington architect, and William Pahlman, New York interior designer. 
If additional money becomes available, it is hoped that the Gallery will 
open in the winter of 1970. 

NCFA celebrated its first anniversary in the new building on 3 and 4 
May 1969 with an open house for the neighborhood and friends of the 
Museum. Posters, fliers, and news releases advertised the weekend an- 
niversary, and four workshops were set up in the courtyard by artists 
Clifford Chieffo, Un'ichi Hiratsuka, Lloyd McNeill and Lou Stovall, 
and Jack Perlmutter. Movies were shown every half hour, and music 

(Left) Madonna and Child by Peter Paul Rubens (Gellatly collection). 
(Right) X-ray of Madonna and Child shows the Madonna's right hand was 
first painted under the Child's right arm, and part of the drapery was 
painted out. 




390 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Alexander Archipefiko: NCFA exhibition, 11 July-18 August 1968. 

was furnished by the District of Columbia Youth Symphony Orchestra, 
the University of Maryland Trio, and the Tommy Gwaltney Quintet. 

In September 1968 Mr. Robert Tyler Davis came to ncfa to be 
assistant director. Trained at Harvard, where he earned both his ab 
and ma, Mr. Davis has had many years of museum experience, having 
been director at the Portland, Oregon, museum and the Montreal 
Museum of Fine Arts. He organized the James Deering estate "Vizcaya" 
at Miami, Florida, as the Dade County Art Museum. He has also been 
professor of fine arts at McGill University and at the University of 
Miami. Since his arrival here, Mr. Davis has organized a curatorial 
committee with weekly meetings for exchange of information and dis- 
cussion of problems, and has guided several other projects. 

Dr. Scott resigned as director, effective 31 May 1969, and Mr. Davis 
was named acting director as of 1 June. 



Smithsonian Art Commission 



Meetings of the Smithsonian Art Commission were held in December 
1968 and in May 1969. One recommendation for the Regents to consider 
is that the Commission's name be changed to the National Collection 
of Fine Arts Commission. Members heard a report from a committee 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 



391 



set up in its own group on the role of the ncfa. The committee of 
distinguished professionals reaffirmed the belief that the collections of 
the ncfa should be exclusively American and that the program should 
emphasize research, making use of senior fellows invited for periods of 
one to five years, and interrelating the research with exhibition and 
teaching functions. The report commented on the major contributions 
to the collections from private collectors, foundations, and artists. These 
contributions should continue to be encouraged and supplemented with 
funds for purchase from private sources. 

The Collections 
Gifts and transfers received during the year include: 



Artist 

Warren Brandt 
Jimmy Ernst 
Michael Goldberg 
Anne Goldthwaite 
Gyorgy Kepes 
George Luks 
Maurice Prendergast 

Romaine Brooks 
Werner Drewes 



Alexander Calder 



Title 

Paintings 
The Dining Room 
Nightnoon 
Landscape 
Cabin in Alabama 
Monument 
Morning Light 
Park Scene, Trees 

Prints and Drawings 
35 drawings The artist 

59 woodcuts The artist 

84 lithographs Atelier Mourlot 

Sculpture 
The Spiral The artist 



Donor 

Grace Borgenicht Gallery 

Mr. and Mrs. Jimmy Ernst 

Bernard Linn 

Miss Lucy Goldthwaite 

Eric F. Green 

Mr. and Mrs. Louis Sosland 

Mrs. Eugenie Prendergast 



A special collection of sketches, books, notebooks, engravings by Marguerite 
and William Zorach, and plaster casts by William Zorach, has been received as a 
gift of the Collection of Tessim Zorach. 

Among purchases made the past year are: 



Artist 

James Hamilton 

Stanton Macdonald-Wright 

Benjamin West 



Title 

Paintings 
Rip van Winkle, The Legend of Sleepy Hollow 
Raigo 
Helen Brought to Paris 

Sculpture 
Fisher Girl 



William Randolph Barbee 

The Registrar reports as follows : 

Accessions. 42 paintings, 17 sculptures, 749 prints and drawings, and 138 
miscellaneous. 



392 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Alexander Archipenko: NCFA exhibition, 11 July-18 August 1968. 



Loans to the Collection. 404 works to the National Collection of Fine 
Arts and 127 works returned to their lenders. 

Outgoing Loans. To government offices; 506 lent, 278 returned; to other 
institutions: 68 lent, 108 returned. 

Special Exhibitions at ncfa. Received: An American Collection, 129; 
Lila Katzen, Light Floors, 41; WPA Print Exhibit, 35; The Graphic Art of Win- 
slow Homer, 114; Rico Lebrun, 207; The American Poster, 121; Yasuo Kuni- 
yoshi, 85; The Art of Tibet, 116; Les Levine TV Sculpture, 1; Henry Ossawa 
Tanner, 79. Returned: Alexander Archipenko, 118; Charles Sheeler, 167; An 
American Collection, 129; WPA Print Exhibit, 35; Lila Katzen, Light Floors, 
41; Venice 34, 70; The Graphic Art of Winslow Homer, 114; Rico Lebrun, 207; 
Charles Sheeler, 123; European Painters Today, 82; The American Poster, 121. 

The lending program, from July through December 1968, organized 
a number of special exhibits for the White House and other federal 
agencies. An inventory of the collection on loan (more than 1000 works 
of art) was completed prior to the change in federal administration. 
The associate curator organized an exhibition from the Barney collec- 
tion of the work of Edwin Scott (1863-1929), which was exhibited at 
the Central Intelligence Agency in October 1968, and he organized an 
exhibition of paintings by the Ceylonese artist Justin P. Daraniyagala, 
which opened at the Smithsonian in January 1969. Eighty-three works 
of art have been presented during the year for expert consultation. 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 



393 




Charles Sheeler: NCFA exhibition, 10 October-24 November 1968. 



European Painters Today: NCFA exhibition, 8 April-1 June 1969. 




NS****^ 




366-269 O— 70 26 



394 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Since January three special exhibitions have been arranged at the 
White House, and numerous loans have been made to principal govern- 
mental offices. 

The Conservation Laboratory has made a study of documentation 
techniques. Color photomicrography, infrared photography, and other 
aspects of photo-documentation have been explored. An investigation 
of infrared luminescence and infrared color photography has been 
begun as a further aid in documentation of the condition of art objects 
and in selecting pigments for analysis. 



Exhibitions at the Museum 

Alexander Archipenko 1 1 July - 18 August 1968 

A retrospective exhibition including 67 sculptures, 29 drawings, and 
22 prints ; organized by the Art Galleries of the University of California 
at Los Angeles. 

An American Collection: The Roy R. Neuberger Collection 

15 August - 25 September 1968 
A selection of 126 paintings and sculptures, primarily by contemporary 
American artists, from one of the largest and most important private 
collections in the United States; organized by the Museum of Art, 
Rhode Island School of Design. 

WPA Prints 1935-1943 1 October - 21 December 1968 

An exhibition of 35 prints selected from ngfa's permanent collection by 
Jacob Kainen, curator of prints and drawings. 

Charles S heeler 10 October - 24 November 1968 

A major memorial retrospective exhibition organized by ncfa; shown 
also at the Philadelpia Museum of Art and at the Whitney Museum of 
American Art in New York City. The 135 paintings and drawings shown 
were selected by Harry Lowe and Abigail Booth, curator and assistant 
curator of exhibits, respectively; the 35 photographs by Sheeler also 
included in the exhibition were selected by Charles Millard, former direc- 
tor of the Washington Gallery of Modem Art. A major catalog publica- 
tion accompanied the exhibition. 

The Figurative Tradition in Recent American Art 

19 December 1968-2 February 1969 
The exhibition presented by the United States at the 34th International 
Art Exhibition, Venice, the Biennale of the summer of 1968; selected 
by Norman Geske, director of the University Art Galleries, University 
of Nebraska, Lincoln; organized by ngfa's International Art Program. 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 



395 




The Disappearance and Reappearance of the Image: lAP exhibition, Sala 
Dalles, Bucharest, Romania, January 1969. 



The New Vein: lAP exhibition on tour of major museums in Latin America. 




396 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

The Graphic Art of Winslow Homer 

9 January - 23 February 1969 
A catalogue raisonne in exhibition form of Homer's work in printmak- 
ing media; photographs of his paintings related to the prints also were 
shown ; organized by the Museum of Graphic Art, New York City. 

Rico Lebrun 

30 January - 16 March 1969 
A retrospective exhibition including 45 paintings, 135 drawings, and 27 
sculptures; organized by the Los Angeles County Museum. 

European Painters Today 

9 April -1 June 1969 
Eighty-five paintings by forty-nine contemporary, European-based art- 
ists, selected by an international jury of museum directors; sponsored 
by the Mead Paper Corporation. 

The American Poster 

25 April -15 June 1969 
A historical survey of the art of the poster in America comprised of 
106 items; selected by Margaret Cogswell, deputy chief of the Interna- 
tional Art Program ; organized by the American Federation of Arts. 

Yasuo Kuniyoshi 

9 May- 29 June 1969 
A retrospective exhibition including 43 paintings and 46 prints and 
drawings; organized by the University Gallery, University of Florida 
at Gainesville. 



International Art Program 

On 27 January 1969, in the Bucharest daily Informatia, Romania's 
leading art critic wrote : 

The American exhibit is a blend of prestigious achievement and questing experi- 
ments. They [the artists] look for new premises and methods of expression in the 
borderland between art and life, and also between art and non-art. They open 
doors which could lead far, enriching and giving new patterns to existence. 

The critic, Petru Comarnescu, was commenting on an exhibition of 
American painting since 1945, The Disappearance and Reappearance 
of the Image, which drew 35,000 viewers in Bucharest during a sixteen- 
day showing early this year. The exhibition, organized by the Interna- 
tional Art Program, contains one hundred works by 19 artists, a retro- 
spective of the vitality and creativity of recent American painting. For 
the Romanian audience, the opportunity to view the work of such artists 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 



397 



Archipenko — International Vi- 
sionary: Opening of exhibition 
at Musee Rodin, Paris, 11 
March 1969. Curator of Ex- 
hibits Harry Lowe and Am- 
bassador Sargent Shriver hold- 
ing Archipenko catalog. 




Printmaker Michael Ponce de 
Leon and student in workshop, 
lAP Project 67-17, in Karachi, 
Pakistan. 




398 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

as Jackson Pollack, Jasper Johns, Barnett Newman, Roy Lichtenstein, 
and Helen Frankenthaler was unique and significant. The exhibition 
was shown subsequently in Cluj and Timisoara, Romania, and in Bra- 
tislava and Prague, Czechoslovakia. Its final appearance will be in 
Brussels in October 1969. 

The International Art Program has sought to broaden the perspective 
and increase the impact of its exhibitions through the use of supple- 
mental programing. Traveling curators who accompany the large exhi- 
bitions conduct lecture discussion programs in connection with the exhi- 
bition and exchange ideas, in private conversation and through symposia, 
with local artists and museum personnel. Programs of experimental films 
have accompanied exhibitions of contemporary art, and well-designed 
presentations of historical memorabilia have been used in connection 
with others. By helping the foreign audience appreciate not only the 
works of art but the context in which they are produced and their rela- 
tionship with earlier and later periods, such supplementary programs 
contribute significantly to a full understanding of the content and mean- 
ing of the exhibitions. 

Another new program concept is demonstrated by Creative Print- 
making in Action, a unique print workshop now in the Middle East. 
This workshop has been conceived as a means of exploring with for- 
eign artists the recently developed possibilities of an art form with which 
many are not familiar. The aim is the creating of a working environ- 
ment where artists are stimulated to experiment and where a genuine 
exchange of ideas is the inevitable result. The workshop, now in its 
second year of activity, has been held in Pakistan, Iran, Lebanon, Jor- 
dan, and is now ready to move into Turkey. 

One of tap's chief undertakings during this year has been the planning 
and reorganizing of the American exhibition for the X Sao Paulo Bienal, 
scheduled to be shown in Washington in February 1970. This exhibi- 
tion is an exploration of new trends in art and technology and is 
conceived as an artistic entity in itself rather than as a gathering of 
individual art works. Professor Gyorgy Kepes, the Commissioner for the 
Exhibition, has said: 

We hope to go beyond the limitations of the private studios and turn the total 
environment, both social and physical, into our common workshop. Our new 
scale of interest moves us away from isolated creative acts toward interdependent 
creative actions, aiming to bring greater integrity and quality to our man-made 
landscape and to our social-cultural behavior. 

In its eflforts to present a full picture abroad of American achieve- 
ments in the visual arts, iap continues to stress the showing of works of 
young, relatively unknown artists. This has been done in both editions of 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 399 

the exhibition The New Vein (now circulating in Europe and Latin 
America) and will also be the case in an exhibition of small sculptures 
that lAP is now organizing for the Near East. 



Curatorial and Other Staff Activities 

The Department of 18th- and 19th-century Painting and Sculpture 
has completed files for the miniature collection, the review and recatalog- 
ing of European painting collections, and new files for pre-20th-century 
American and European painting and sculpture collections. 

The principal work of the Contemporary Art Department during 
the past year has been the preparation of the Milton Avery exhibition, 
which opened 12 December 1968, the choosing of 140 paintings, draw- 
ings, and prints, and the writing of the introduction to the catalog. This 
is to be the major exhibition of the forthcoming season in the modem 
American field. The Mary Cassatt catalogue raisonne has been com- 
pleted and has been submitted to the Smithsonian Institution Press for 
publication. The curator, Adelyn D. Breeskin, and her assistant, Jan K. 
Muhlert, have juried about six art exhibitions both in and out of the city 
and have given many lectures. Among the lectures given by the curator 
have been a series of six for the Smithsonian Associates, monthly talks 
on Contemporary American art to the Department of State Foreign 
Service wives, three lectures to the Art Club of Greenwich, Connecticut, 
two lectures in Omaha, Nebraska, two in Indianapolis, and one at 
Martha's Vineyard. She also advised on the preparations of the Henry 
O. Tanner exhibition that opened 23 July 1968. 

The curator of prints and drawings, Jacob Kainen, has continued his 
research on American prints and drawings and on the work of Stanley 
William Hayter and his influence on 20th-century printmaking. Mr. 
Kainen has juried the Art Show at the National Institute of Health and 
an exhibition for the Print Club of Philadelphia. He has lectured in the 
"Masters in Depth" Smithsonian Associates Lecture Series, has partici- 
pated in a symposium on art collecting at Winston-Salem, North Car- 
olina, and has spoken at the opening of the Gorky exhibition at the 
University of Maryland on "Memories of Arshile Gorky," Mr. Kainen 
also has attended the meetings of the Directors and Executive Com- 
mittee of the Print Council of America. He has written the foreword 
for the forthcoming publication of John Sloan's Prints by Peter Morse 
and an introduction to the catalog for the Werner Drewes Woodcuts 
exhibition. The Drewes exhibition was selected by research assistant 
Caril D. Dulcan, who also compiled material for the catalog. 



400 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



iMJWMMMWM 1 1 MIIHIjlllllW I— «— — 8K 




Artist Lloyd McNeill and assistant Lou Stovall in workshop during activities 
celebrating NCFA's first anniversary (photo by Michael Robbins). 



Activities of the curator of exhibits and staff have included exhibi- 
tions by Harry Lowe and Abigail Booth: Charles S heeler at the Na- 
tional Collection of Fine Arts, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the 
Whitney Museum of American Art from 10 October 1968 through 
27 April 1969. By Val Lewton: one-man show of his paintings, Towson 
State College, Towson, Maryland ; one-man show of his paintings, Wood- 
row Wilson High School, Washington, D.C. Other exhibitions designed 
by Harry Lowe have included: Alexander Archipenko, for the Rodin 
Museum, Paris, and The Nelson A. Rockefeller Collection of Mexican 
Folk Art, for the Museum of Primitive Art, New York City. Lectures 
by Harry Lowe: "Collecting: A Philosophy," repeated with variations 
five times; luncheon-seminar series on collecting, sponsored by Smith- 
sonian Associates (held in six sections) ; "Destruction as an Art Move- 
ment," Auburn University Arts Festival, Auburn, Alabama. He has 
planned and led a Smithsonian Associates Art Tour to New York City. 
Abigail Booth has given a talk, "The NCFA-History, Development, and 
Current Direction," to the Art League of Northern Virginia, Alexandria, 
Virginia. Jurying by Harry Lowe has included : Mid-States Art Show, 
Evansville (Indiana) Museum of Arts and Sciences; 1968 Area Artists 
Exhibition, Roanoke (Virginia) Fine Arts Center; Festival of States 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 



401 



Jack Perlmutter begins his 
demonstration during open 
house, 3-4 May 1969, in the 
courtyard of NCFA (photo by 
Michael Robbins). 



m m ^^ 




Art Show, St. Petersburg, Florida; and Latin American Arts, Carroll 
Reece Museum, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennes- 
see. Val Lewton has juried the city of Alexandria's Outdoor Art Fair. 
Harry Lowe attended the College Art Association annual meeting, Bos- 
ton; and Abigail Booth attended the College Art Association annual 
meeting, Boston, and the American Association of Museums annual 
meeting, San Francisco. 

Donald McClelland, former associate curator of the Lending Program, 
is now associated with the Renwick Gallery, where he is concerned with 
the Gallery's development. He has given the following lectures: "What 
is American in American Art," to the Smithsonian Information Guides, 
18 July 1968; "Washington, the New Art Scene," to the International 
Platform Association, 23 July 1968; "American Prints," to the Docent 
Training Seminar, 27 September 1968; "The Arts in America 1860- 
1960," to the Mississippi Art Association, Jackson, Mississippi, 6 October 
1969; "Washington, the New Art Scene," at Millsaps College, Jackson, 
Mississippi, 6 October 1968; "Washington and the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution," at Trinity College, Washington, D.C., 10 December 1968; "The 
Arts in American 1850-1950," a series of eight lectures at Catholic 
University of America, Washington, D.C., February and March 1969; 
and "Washington, the New Art Scene," at the City Art Gallery, York, 
England, 26 April 1969. He juried The International Platform Associ- 



402 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

ation Art Exhibit, Washington, D.C., July 1968; The Mississippi Art 
Association Area Exhibition 7 October 1968; and the Fairfax County 
Art Association, 15 November 1968. He attended the College Art Asso- 
ciation, Boston, 31 January and 1 February 1969 and the Department of 
Agriculture Graduate School Fine Arts board meeting, 14 March 1969. 

Jan Keene Muhlert, assistant in the Department of Contemporary 
Art and Lending Program advisor, has taught a ten-week course, 
"Understanding Contemporary American Art," for Smithsonian Associ- 
ates and has juried shows for the Academy of Arts, Easton, Maryland 
("Annual Art Festival"), George Washington University, Washington, 
D.C. ("Spring Art Festival"), and the Job Corps, Washington, D.C. 
("First National Job Corps Art Competition"). She has concentrated 
her research activities on works done in the 1930s under the Works 
Progress Administration and, in preparation for a future exhibition, is 
studying the large collection of paintings, watercolors, and prints by 
William H. Johnson. Since January 1969, Mrs. Muhlert has been re- 
sponsible for the Lending Program, organizing three special exhibitions 
in the White House and arranging numerous loans to principal gov- 
ernmental offices. 

The Art Information Guide program, an innovation of the Office of 
Academic Programs, completed its first year on 6 May 1969 under the 
direction of Pat Chieffo. Students from every major university in the 
United States have been encouraged to apply and have been carefully 
selected to participate in this unique program. The function of the 
program is to introduce art students to museum work and to prepare 
them to function as information guides so that they may aid the public 
in its quest for knowledge on American art. 

During the summer program at the National Collection, the guides 
are expected to receive as well as to give information. Seminars of ex- 
tremely high caliber are arranged for them, but they also must do 
thesis-quality research on their own. The guides carry information-re- 
quest slips, which they supply to visitors when they are unable to an- 
swer a question about any of the paintings. They must then research 
the question, type a reply, and mail it to the questioner. The Art Infor- 
mation Guide program during its first fiscal year has established for our 
Museum the image of a friendly place that welcomes and assists visitors. 
The program has aided as well as trained young scholars and it has 
become an excellent means by which public and guides can seek both 
education and art. 

The Editorial Office has done the initial editing of the Mary Cassatt 
catalogue raisonne, has edited the Werner Drewes and the Henry O. 
Tanner exhibition catalogs, and has updated both the gallery plan 
giveaway and the story of the building for reprinting. Drafting of cata- 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 403 

log prefaces, quarterly reports, and the ncfa section of Smithsonian 
Year 1969 have been completed, and editorial assistance has been given 
for articles to be published in Americas, Antiques, Art Quarterly, Arts, 
and The Living Wilderness. Technical assistance has been given in secur- 
ing printing of invitations and posters and in arranging for the use of 
ncfa prints in the Labor Department's monthly Labor Review. The 
Editorial Office also has engaged in various miscellaneous projects in- 
cluding the initiating and writing of Artyfacts, a weekly information 
sheet for the ncfa staff, the designing of an organization chart, the 
devising and supervising of coverage by junior staff of the second floor 
galleries in the absence of guards, the gathering of all publications 
throughout the building into locked storage with a system to control 
dissemination, and the supplying of copies of all past catalogs for ncfa 
archives. 



Research 

The Department of 18th- and 19th-century Painting and Sculpture 
has completed its review and recataloging of the European painting 
collections, has completed research on nine paintings by Thomas Dewing 
and on the cataloging of the Blakelocks, and has continued work 
on the Ryders and on the William T. Evans and Hiram Powers 
correspondence. 

In the Department of Contemporary Art, research has continued on 
three artists of the earlier part of this century whose works will be ex- 
hibited at a future date : W. H. Johnson, Romaine Brooks, and H. Lyman 
Sayen. 

The Department of Prints and Drawings has continued research on 
American prints and drawings, particularly on the work of Stanley 
William Hayter and his influence on 20th-century printmaking. New 
research is being done on innovative prints produced with various forms 
of plastic. 

Four graduate seminar reports prepared by students are on file at 
ncfa: The Effect of the Civil War on American Sculpture by Judith 
Sobol (George Washington University), William Rimmer by Ellen 
Myette (GWU), Images of Lincoln in Sculpture by Joyce De Palma 
(GWU), and Critical Attitudes Toward Neo-classical Sculpture by Jef- 
fry Brown (University of Maryland) . 

The Library's project to update the Library of Congress Fine Arts 
classification schedule, "Class N," has continued. The Librarian en- 
rolled in a two-week Institute on Modem Archives Management. 



404 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Staff Publications 

Booth, Abigail, editor. Catalog of the exhibition, biographical notes, bibliog- 
raphy, and exhibitions list. In Charles Sheeler. 156 pages, 170 illustrations. 
Washington, D.C. : National Collection of Fine Arts and the Smithsonian 
Institution Press, 1968. 

Breeskin, Adelyn D. Introduction. In Mary Cassatt among the Impressionists. 
Omaha, Nebraska: Joslyn Art Museum, 1969. 

Kainen, Jacob. Foreword. In Andrew Stasik. Catalog for the exhibition. Prague, 
Czechoslovakia, 1968; San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1968. 

. Foreword. In reprint of The Art of Graveing and Etching, 1662, by 

William Faithorne. New York City, 1969. 

WPA Graphics Art Project in New York City. National Council on the 



Arts. New York City, 1969. 
. Introduction. In Photography in Printmaking. Associated American 



Artists Catalogue. New York City, 1968. 
. Foreword. In Moritz Daniel Oppenheim. Portfolio of reproductions, 



A. Rothman Fine Arts. New York City, 1969. 
. Introduction. In Paintings of Fran Kleinholz. Miami: University of 



Miami Press, 1968. 
. Introduction. In Richard Upton. Catalog for an exhibition. Saratoga 



Springs, New York: Skidmore College, 1969. 

Lowe, Harry. Introduction to the exhibition. In Charles Sheeler. 156 pages, 170 
illustrations. Washington, D.C: National Collection of Fine Arts and the 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. 

McClelland, Donald. Catalog listing and commentary. In The Art of Justin 
Daraniyagala. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibi- 
tion Service, 1968. 

• . Comments about the Artist Edwin Scott. For the Barney Exhibition. 

Washington, D.C: Central Intelligence Agency, 1968. 

."Perspective Soudanaise." Topic (1968), United States Information 



Agency, number 30. 

Scott, David W. "The National Collection of Fine Arts." Antiques (Novem- 
ber 1968), volume 94, number 5. 

. Foreword. In Charles Sheeler. 156 pages, 170 illustrations. Washington, 

D.C: National Collection of Fine Arts and The Smithsonian Institution Press, 
1968. 

Publications prepared under the auspices of the National Collection 
of Fine Arts are as follows : 

Charles Sheeler. Foreword by David W. Scott; introduction to the exhibi- 
tion by Harry Lowe; catalog of the exhibition and biographical notes by 
Abigail Booth essays by Martin Friedman, Bartlett Hayes, and Charles Mil- 
lard. 156 pages, 170 illustrations. Washington, D.C: National Collection of 
Fine Arts and Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. 

Entries written for publication in the Funk and Wagnall's Standard Reference 
Encyclopedia, the Institute of Contemporary Art concert program, Smith- 
sonian Research Opportunities, and the International Directory of Art. 

Six Christmas cards and nine 4 x 6-inch postcards, illustrated with reproduc- 
tions from ncfa's permanent collection. 



National Portrait Gallery 

Charles Nagel, Director* 




C C A NNUIT COEPTIS" OR "hE HAS FAVORED OUR UNDERTAKING" might 

l\. aptly be applied to 1968, the year of fruition for the National 
Portrait Gallery. For the year 1962, when the Congressional Act cre- 
ating the Gallery was passed, or 1964, when the Commission was formed, 
the director appointed, and the business of the Gallery begun, gave evi- 
dence of little more than the preliminary creakings of machinery that 
eventually produced the event of greater significance : the actual open- 
ing of the Gallery to the public. 

This is not to underestimate the value of the earlier years or the wis- 
dom of those who gave generously of their time and knowledge in the 
pursuit of the goal: the creation of a National Portrait Gallery worthy 
to house the likenesses of America's great. Without the seasoned counsel 
of the Commission, during the sometimes tedious but more often 
excitingly experimental sessions — ^with the Gallery still in only a plan- 
ning state — its eventual consummation could never have taken place. 



Exhibitions 

To celebrate properly the propitious occasion of its formal opening, 
the permanent collections of the youthful Gallery obviously were lack- 
ing both in size and quality. It was therefore decided by a special ad hoc 
committee on the opening exhibitions to gather together the most dis- 



*Retired 30 June 1969. 

405 



406 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

tinguished likenesses available of great Americans in all walks of life, 
whether from public or private collections. 

The response to requests for loans was phenomenally generous, rang- 
ing from Lord Primrose's famous "Lansdowne" portrait of Washington 
by Gilbert Stuart for the presidential series to the distinguished and 
hitherto almost unknown likeness of Joseph Smith by an anonymous 
artist, a unique treasure lent for the more general show by the Reor- 
ganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. 

The title adopted for the main exhibition was This New Man — A 
Discourse in Portraits. Both title and central theme were taken from 
Michel-Guillaume Jean de Crevecoeur's Letters from an American 
Farmer, wherein he inquired: "What then is the American, this new 
man?" 

To illustrate the thesis, 133 items were borrowed, of which five were 
genre pictures, and with these were shown 36 portraits from the Gallery. 
Many media were represented: oil on canvas, ivory, and wood; chalk 
on paper and ivory; charcoal on paper; pastel on paperboard; pencil 
and ink cartoons; daguerreotypes; photographs; and sculptures in 
marble, bronze, and plaster. 

Established artists, both domestic and foreign, with a few of lesser 
reputation were called upon to illustrate the theme. All portraits shown 
complied with the conditions of the permanent collection: that the 
sitter be deceased at least ten years. 

A comprehensive exhibition was presented to the public in a tasteful 
and professional installation by exhibits curator Riddick Vann and his 
staff. Critical response to the exhibition naturally varied. Any disap- 
pointments — and there were disappointments — came from an apparent 
lack of understanding of what was being attempted. This was a theme 
show in which the sitter was deemed to be of the greatest importance. 
The portraits of those who had made major contributions to the history 
and culture of the country were presented in categories other than a time 
sequence. This made for a spirited exhibition with comparisons that 
were frequently most stimulating. It was by no means an art show and, 
when reviewed as such, a false impression was created. If a critic, 
however, became interested in the sitters rather than the artists, as 
happened fortunately in several important instances, the resulting 
comments were both knowledgeable and cogent. 

The staff had embarked on this undertaking fully aware of the risks 
involved but in the firm belief that this was the sort of exhibition the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery should initiate. On the whole, newspaper, mag- 
azine, television, and radio coverage of the National Portrait Gallery 
opening and the accompanying exliibitions were both extensive and 
favorable. The concept of such a gallery for the United States has been 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 



407 




President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. With sketches for group portrait made 
at Yalta, 1945, by Douglas Chandor (1897-1953) (NPG 68.49). 



indorsed without exception by the communications media. Particular 
praise was given the Congress for saving the magnificient Old Patent 
Office Building from destruction and to the Smithsonian Institution for 
converting it into a handsome home for two of its museums: the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery and the National Collection of Fine Arts. 

Two spirited catalogs, This New Man and Presidential Portraits, pre- 
pared by the assistant director and the Historian's Department, accom- 
panied the two exhibitions and will long outlast the all-too-brief visit of 
the likenesses they described. 



408 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

President James Madison. At- 
tributed to Chester Harding 
(1792-1866) (NPG 68.50). 




The formal opening was preceded on 4 and 5 October 1968 by a 
successful symposium, "The American, This New Man," with the fol- 
lowing participants : Daniel J. Boorstin, professor of American History, 
University of Chicago, and director-designate of the National Museum 
of History and Technology ; Marcus F. Cunliffe, professor of American 
Studies, University of Sussex, England; and Margaret Mead, curator 
of Ethnology, American Museum of Natural History. Secretary Ripley 
introduced the first session and Benjamin Townsend, assistant director 
of the Gallery, served in the capacity of mediator. For this event, the 
Gallery is indebted to the imaginative generosity of Time, Inc. 

The opening ceremonies, with addresses by Secretary Ripley and 
Mayor Washington, were held in the courtyard of the Fine Arts and 
Portrait Galleries Building on a cool and clear Saturday evening, 5 Oc- 
tober 1968, followed by an opening for the Smithsonian Associates the 
next day. The public opening took place on Monday, 7 October. Pre- 
ceding the opening ceremonies out-of-town guests were entertained at 
private dinners organized by a committee of volunteers under the chair- 
manship of Mrs. Robert Kintner. 

Two more special exhibitions have been featured during the year. The 
first, entitled A Nineteenth-Century Gallery of Distinguished Americans, 
opened 20 February 1969. It sought to honor a pioneer portrait painter 
and engraver of Philadelphia, James Barton Longacre (1794-1869), 
for his important work in the publication, from 1834 to 1879, of a four- 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 409 

President John Quincy Adams. 
By George Caleb Bingham 
(1811-1879) (NPG 69.20). 




volume work entitled A National Portrait Gallery of Distinguished 
Americans. In this exhibition, conceived wholly by the curator Mr. 
Stewart, who was also the author of the accompanying catalog, an effort 
was made to assemble not only the engravings of Longacre but also 
source materials of him and others used for those engravings. The re- 
sulting exhibition has been a fascinating study of how one of the earliest 
gatherings of likenesses of those judged great in the second quarter of 
the nineteenth century was undertaken and brought to a fruition that 
elicited popular acclaim. 

The lending of a large amount of original material by Dr. Andrew 
Longacre and members of the Longacre family, descendants of the artist, 
have given the exhibition its particular charm and interest. Many of the 
engravings shown have come from the extensive print collections trans- 
ferred to the Gallery as gifts from the Metropolitan Museum of Art's 
Joseph Verner Reed Collection and from the Robbins Print Collection, 
Arlington, Massachusetts. In this same exhibition, a bronze version of 
the bust of Lyndon Baines Johnson by Jimilu Mason also was shown 
as a loan from the artist. 

On 12 May 1969 the portrait of President Johnson by Peter Hurd 
was placed in the presidential alcove and given its first Washington 
showing. The reaction of the public to this generous gift to the Gallery 
by the artist was warm and enthusiastic. 

The second special exhibition, opening 22 May 1969, has been a 

366-269 O— 70 27 



410 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Mathew Pratt (1734-1805). 
Self-portrait painted in studio 
of Benjamin West, 1764. (NPG 
69.35). 




showing of many of the original works of art used through the yearS' 
on the covers of Time magazine. Worldwide in readership, Time is one 
of the few American publications that consistently uses for its covers, 
not the colored photograph brought to a unique perfection in our time 
yet still factual rather than interpretive, but drawings, paintings, and 
caricatures of the famous figures of our era. A group of these drawings, 
paintings, and sculptures related to figures prominent in American life 
comprise this highly successful and popular show. The Gallery is grate- 
ful to Time not only for delving into its archives to make these pictures 
available, but also for supplying the catalog and hosting the opening 
festivities. 

The National Portrait Gallery provided facilities for the ceremony 
held by the Post Office Department on 4 November 1968 in connection 
with the issuance of a stamp based on an npg portrait of Chief Joseph 
of the Nez Perce Indians by Cyrenius Hall. The stamp bore the legend 
"National Portrait Gallery" in honor of the recently opened museum. 
Several collateral descendants of the chief attended and added to the 
picturesque quality of the occasion. In the course of the year, a benefit 
dance for the Washington Hospital Center and the 75th Jubilee meeting 
of the Columbian Women of George Washington University have been 
held at the Gallery. 

For the nine months from 4 October 1968 to 30 June 1969 attendance 
has been 52,061, apart from the special events discussed above. 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 



411 



John Philip Sousa. By Harry 
Franklin Waltman (1871- 
1951). (Gift of the Sousa Cor- 
poration) (NPG 69.24). 




Organization 



The National Portrait Gallery Commission began the year with the 
following members : 

John Nicholas Brown, chairman, Catherine Drinker Bowen, Julian P. Boyd, 
Lewis Deschler, Edgar P. Richardson, David E. Finley, Wilmarth Sheldon Lewis, 
Richard H. Shryock, and Frederick P. Todd. Ex officio members: the Secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution, S. Dillon Ripley; the director of the National Gal- 
lery of Art, John Walker; and the Chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution, Earl 
Warren, Chief Justice of the United States. 

In the course of the year the resignations of the following members 
from the Commission have been accepted with regret: Julian P. Boyd, 
Richard H. Shryock, and Frederick P. Todd, whose work with the Com- 
mission came during the critical formative period; they will be greatly 
missed, for without their seasoned advice the Gallery could scarcely 
have begun to function as a museum. Jules D. Prown, curator of the 
Garvan and Related Collections of American Art at Yale; Andrew 
Oliver, New York attorney and authority on early American portrai- 
ture; and Whitfield J. Bell, Jr., librarian of the American Philosophical 
Society at Philadelphia, have been appointed members of the Commis- 
sion and are welcome additions to its deliberations. During the year, 
meetings have been held three times. 



412 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Otto Kahn. By Jo Davidson 
(1883-1952). (Gift of Mrs, 
John Barry Ryan) (NPG 
68.44). 



Two committees set up by the Commission are: The Acquisitions 
Committee: Edgar P. Richardson, chairman, David E. Finley, Wil- 
marth Sheldon Lewis, and Julian P. Boyd; ex-officio: Charles Nagel 
and Robert G. Stewart. The Ad Hoc Committee on the Opening Ex- 
hibition: Edgar P. Richardson, chairman; Edward H. Dwight, director 
of the Munson-Williams- Proctor Institute of Utica; ex officio: Charles 
Nagel, Daniel J. Reed, Robert G. Stewart, and Virginia Purdy. 



Personnel 



Daniel J. Reed, historian, who returned January 1969 from a year's 
leave of absence as deputy director of the National Advisory Commis- 
sion on Libraries, after a few months was appointed assistant archivist 
for Presidential Libraries in the National Archives. His experience, 
knowledge, and exuberant personality are sorely missed on the staff. 
J. Benjamin Townsend, assistant director, whose work on the opening 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 413 

exhibitions and particularly on the two catalogs This New Man and 
Presidential Portraits has been invaluable, left immediately after the 
Gallery was opened to return to his teaching post in the University of 
the State of New York at Buffalo. In the brief time he was here, Mr. 
Townsend brought to the Gallery a fresh point of view; the loss of his 
knowledge and sympathetic personality leaves a real gap in day-to-day 
deliberations. Thomas Girard, who with good humor, tact, and effi- 
ciency performed as registrar the gigantic task of moving and insuring 
all loans for the opening exhibitions, left after the opening of the 
Gallery to take up similar duties in the Joseph H. Hirshhom collection 
in New York City. He has been replaced in this important post by Jon 
Banning Freshour, formerly research assistant. Christiana Berryman, 
secretary to the administrative officer, resigned her post in fall 1968 and 
has been replaced by Barbara Faison. Also, Lewis Mclnnis, Kenneth 
Despertt, Adrienne Meier, and Mary Virginia Langston have resigned. 
Helen Romberger has joined the staff as secretary to the Conservation 
and Photographic Laboratories. Finally, the Curatorial Department 
has suffered a great loss in the departure to the Archives Bureau of Mrs. 
Violet Richardson, who had efficiently and pleasantly presided over its 
aflfairs in a manner that will make her greatly missed. She has been 
replaced by Mrs. Doris Rauch. 

A tragic motor accident late in August 1968 was responsible for the 
death of Thomas Winslow, library technician. One of the most promis- 
ing young members of the staff, he had served only a few weeks subse- 
quent to his appointment though he had been with the Gallery previously 
as a temporary employee. No one had exhibited more elan and promise 
in the performance of his duties. 

Many gaps in the staff need to be filled, but these appointments await 
the director's successor, Marvin S. Sadik, previously director of the Uni- 
versity of Connecticut Museum of Art at Storrs. Mr. Sadik is a graduate 
with honors from Harvard, where he also did his graduate work. He 
received his initial museum training as assistant to Francis Henry Taylor 
at Worcester. Immediately before going to Storrs, Mr. Sadik was 
director of the Bowdoin College Museum of Art in Brunswick, Maine. 
In his previous posts he has become known for a series of spirited exhi- 
bitions. He is the author of several distinguished catalogs, particularly 
one of the Bowdoin collection of family portraits at that college. He is 
young, experienced, venturesome, and, best of all, really interested in 
portraiture. The Gallery may look forward to an outstanding regime 
under his directorship. 

For its initial year of operation, the Gallery, with no formal educa- 
tional program because of austerity, has been fortunate from February 
to May 1969 in having, under the chairmanship of Mrs. Paul Johnston, 



414 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

a singularly gifted and faithful group of volunteer docents. Derived 
from the Ladies Committee of the Associates, these ladies have ad- 
dressed some 835 people in 185 public tours. Other volunteers have 
rendered invaluable service at the reception desk and in the Gallery 
shop. Contact with these groups has been ably coordinated by Miss 
Sandra Sharpe of the staff, who herself has substituted in several capac- 
ities when the need arose. 

Volunteers 

Docents Reception Desk 

Mrs. David Acheson Mrs. F. J. Crilley 

Mrs. Daniel E. Bergin Maria Franco 

Mrs. Crenshaw Briggs Mrs. Ruth Graham 

Mrs. Joseph V. Charyk 

Mrs. J. A. de Ganahl Gallery Shop 

Mrs. WilHam C. Grayson Mildred Archer 

Mrs. Charles Guggenheim Mrs. Austin Lowrey 

Mrs. Richard Helms 

Mrs. Paul Ignatius 

Mrs. S. Paul Johnston, chairman 

Mrs. Robert D. van Roijen 

Mrs. T. Ames Wheeler, vice chairman 

Assisting Mrs. Stephenson as volunteers in the print archives have 
been Miss Julia Loewe, Mrs. Charles Nagel, and Mrs. Stuart Symington. 
Thanks to these ladies, a total of 38,261 portrait prints and photographs 
have been sorted and accessioned. 

In the course of the year, the director has served as a member of the 
Smithsonian Academic Appointments Board, on the Educational Panel, 
and on the committee to select an Exceptional Service Award Medal. 
He has been a member of the Mt. Vernon Ladies Association's Advisory 
Board, a trustee of the Yale Associates in Fine Arts, a member of the 
American Association of Museums, and a member of the Art Museum 
Directors Association. 

On television, he has appeared with Jean Smith on nbc's "Today 
Show" and on wrc's "A Moment With" Deena Clark, while over the 
radio he has participated in interviews on the Gallery over usia's 
"Voice of America," wttg's "Panorama," and on wnyg with Ruth 
Bowman. 

He also has lectured on the Gallery at the City Art Museum of Saint 
Louis; the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; the Friends of Raynham Hall, 
Oyster Bay; the Washington Club; the Contemporary Club of Balti- 
more; the Colony Club, New York; and Berkeley College, Yale 
University. 



l4ATiONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 415 

Robert G. Stewart, curator, has continued to teach the museology 
program in conjunction with the Art Department of George Washing- 
ton University. 

Mr. Stewart and the director have addressed in the Office of Academic 
Programs a group of summer students inquiring into the history and 
purposes of museum exhibits: "The Art Gallery — Its History and 
Foundation." 

Monroe Fabian of the Curator's Department, has attended "Visual 
Arts in American Culture, 1725-1790," a seminar at the Henry Francis 
du Pont Winterthur Museum, 8-26 July 1968. He has delivered lectures 
to the Zonta Club of Washington, the Cosmopolitan Club of Washing- 
ton, and the Southhold Historical Society. 

At the beginning of the year the staff was occupied in the transporta- 
tion of more than 200 objects from individuals and institutions for the 
opening exhibition of the Gallery. In addition, transportation has been 
arranged for two other exhibitions: A Nineteenth-Century Gallery of 
Distinguished Americans and Portraits of American Newsmakers. 

Mrs. Purdy, keeper of the Catalogue, gave a paper at the annual 
convention of the American Association for State and Local History in 
a session entitled "Automation in Pursuit of History." She has spoken 
to the area chapters for both the Reference Division of the American 
Library Association and the American Studies Association about the 
developing Catalogue of American Portraits. She also has spoken on 
"Portraits as Historical Documents" at a membership meeting of the 
Colonial Dames of America in Chicago, Illinois. 

Mr. Walker, the librarian, attended an institute on "The Introduction 
to Modem Archives Management," held at the National Archives, 2-13 
June 1969. The following week (16-20 June) he served on the faculty 
of an Institute on Art Librarianship that was held at the State Univer- 
sity of New York at Buffalo, where he presented a paper on his work 
with the Library of Congress in revising the L.C. classification schedule 
for books on the fine arts, Class N. 

Mrs. Aleita Hogenson, reference librarian, attended the annual con- 
ference of the American Library Association at Atlantic City, New 
Jersey, 23-27 June 1969. Mrs. Shirley Harren, technical information 
specialist, attended the Special Libraries Association's annual meeting 
in Montreal, Canada, 1-6 June 1969. 



History Department and Catalogue of American Portraits 

Because the vacancy in the position of historian has not been filled 
and Mrs. Virginia C. Purdy, formerly assistant historian, has been made 



416 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

keeper of the Catalogue of American Portraits (cap), the Gallery has 
had no permanent professional staff in its History Department for the 
greater part of this year. 

The work of the Department has been carried on by two temporary 
research assistants under Mrs. Purdy's supervision. They have completed 
the research and writing still needed on the catalog This New Man, and 
one of them, Elizabeth T. Heck, has made an outstanding contribution 
to the opening exhibition by assuming responsibility for locating and 
arranging to borrow the associative objects that gave an additional 
dimension to the exhibition. 

Mrs. Beverly Cox has selected the sitters and supervised the historical 
arrangement of the exhibition of portraits from the permanent collec- 
tion that was hung in the second floor galleries in January 1969. She 
also has taken charge of the Gallery's biolographical file and has par- 
ticipated in book selection for the library. Both of these assistants have 
researched and written biographical material for exhibition captions for 
the permanent collection and the Longacre exhibitions as well as for the 
use of the Acquisitions Committee in making decisions on additions to 
the collection. 

The permanent staff of the Catalogue of American Portraits has con- 
sisted of the aforementioned keeper and two research assistants, Mrs. 
Mona Dearborn in art history and Miss Dorothy Brewer in American 
history. In addition there have been two temporary catalogers for part 
of the year. 

Working closely with the Information Systems Division, the cap staff 
has completed a pilot project to develop a format to prepare portrait 
information for automatic-data processing at the same time it is being 
entered into the manual file of the cap without sacrificing accuracy, 
careful documentation, and completeness in the manual file. The next 
steps will be the editing and committing to paper tape of all current 
and incoming records (some 25,000 at present) and the programming 
for indexing and eventual publication. 

Portrait surveys or cataloging projects have been undertaken in the 
past year in cooperation with the cap by some fifteen organizations of 
national importance. Much of this activity has originated with the or- 
ganizations involved because of their interest in the Catalogue. 

Mrs. Genevieve Stephenson serves in the dual role of reference librar- 
ian for the Catalogue of American Portraits and picture librarian for the 
Gallery's picture collection, which contains 38,261 prints and photo- 
graphs. Twenty-two scholars have used the manual file of the cap and 
the picture collection in the first five months of 1969, and ninety-eight 
reference requests have been answered by the staff by phone or by cor- 
respondence during the year. The picture collection has been augmented 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 417 

by 227 photographs transferred from Armed Forces History in the 
Division of Military History and approximately 4000 prints from glass- 
plate negatives of portraits taken between about 1912 and 1945 by 
Harris & Ewing, photographers in Washington, D.C. Harris & Ewing 
has lent the Gallery its microfilm and records for the period, and Miss 
Brewer has extracted from it data pertinent to the portraits of which 
the museum holds prints. About 600 of the glass-plate negatives have 
been retained. 



Library 

The chief visual enhancement of the library this past year has been 
the installation of antique gold carpeting extending the entire length of 
the main floor center. Not only handsome, it is also a practical addition 
that covers the much patched original marble flooring and cuts down im- 
measurably on the noise. The carpet was laid in time for the opening 
of the National Portrait Gallery. 

During the year the library acquired and is housing in the southeast 
section of the fourth floor stack area the files of the Prevention of 
Deterioration Center, which represents a ten-year project conducted by 
Dr. Carl J. Wessel and sponsored by the National Research Council. 
Since these files are of general interest to the Smithsonian, they may 
eventually be housed elsewhere in the Institution. On the top floor 
of the library, there are files of material of New Deal Art Projects 
operating between 1933 and 1943 and the Holger Cahill files, which 
consist of papers and photographs from the Washington office of the 
late director of the wpa federal art project. This material has been as- 
sembled and organized by Dr. Francis V, O'Connor, who has also written 
a handbook to facilitate the use of the files. 

Many professionals have visited the library during the year including 
members of Winterthur's Graduate Program, the Woodlawn Conference 
under the National Trust for Historic Preservation, the Reference Serv- 
ices Division of the Maryland branch of the American Library Associa- 
tion, a seminar group from the Fogg Art Museum, and individuals such 
as Mrs. Fredo Goldman, art reference librarian of the Johnannesburg 
Public Library; Dr. Jan Kriz of the Institute of History of Art, Prague; 
and Miss Helen Lowenthal of the Victorian Society of London. 

Handicapped with lack of staff, Mr. Walker and his assistants have 
continued to give first-rate service to the two musemns and to the public. 

A quick survey of countable activity in the library shows a total of 
2,050 visitors who used the library without reference assistance, 2,830 
requests for reference assistance, 2,159 loans to staff and other Smith- 



418 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

sonian bureaus, and 580 books borrowed from the Library of Congress. 

With a small acquisitions budget, the library is especially grateful for 
donations to the collections. The largest single gift for the year is that 
of Mrs. Adelyn Breeskin's personal library. 

Six publication exchange mailings, consisting of seven ngfa and five 
NPG titles, have been sent to 265 institutions, domestic and foreign. 



Conclusion and a Personal Word 
from the Retiring Director 

To sum up the present situation of the Gallery, the words of Secretary 
Ripley on the occasion of its opening may well be kept in mind: 

At first glance, the courage of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion in accepting the task of setting up a National Portrait Gallery can be 
measured only by mega-scale : mega-watts, mega-meters, or mega-tons. To found 
a portrait gallery in the 1960s — when American portraittire has already reached 
the zenith in price and the nadir in supply, when museums and halls of legislature 
of this country already possess most of the available portraits and sculpture of 
famous personages and are little likely to release them to a johmiy-come-lately — 
seems an act of bravery indeed. 

The positive nature of the act of the Regents is further evoked by the com- 
position of the National Portrait Gallery Commission. Scholars are preponderant 
on that Commission, and it is, therefore, an earnest of policy and plans to come. 
It is quite obvious that this National Portrait Gallery, in the very act of being 
created when it was, has already set its sights on being a different National 
Portrait Gallery. Scholarly it must be, concentrating on a dimension in historical 
biography and iconography largely left uncharted by the great historical and 
biographical source books of this nation. The opportunity is here, if it can be 
correctly measured, for setting forth on a series of profound and seminal cata- 
logs and historical studies in the field of likenesses of American personages 
never before marshalled or planned as a whole. Few tasks in American his- 
torical scholarship could be more challenging. The Gallery should be a center, 
as well, for original biographical studies by those historians, who might just 
happen to be interested in human beings rather than social institutions. 

If the National Portrait Gallery is to live up to its bold challenges, it must 
become one of the most exciting environments for scholars and the public 
alike in our Capital City. 

During these formative years, the writer, as a former art museum man, 
occasionally found himself sailing in uncharted waters. With the aid of 
a learned Commission, and a small but exceptionally bright and intelli- 
gent staff, however, the navigation during the Gallery's first five years 
has proved equal to the demands made upon it. Certainly those on 
the bridge never doubted an eventual landing at the appointed haven. 

These initial years have tested many of the possibilities of our building 
for the purposes of a museum. These will undoubtedly change and be 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 419 

modified as the Gallery expands and takes on new concepts and 
objectives. 

Imaginative and skilled leadership seems assured and, with this to 
count upon, plus five years of experience, the future of the Gallery will 
no doubt be secure. 

Much has been said and written about the early mention of estab- 
lishing a National Portrait Gallery. One such reference appears in 
The Plough Boy, an Albany, New York, agricultural journal edited by 
Solomon Southwick. Here under the nom de plume of "Henry Home- 
spun, Jr.," Southwick, in the issue of 4 March 1820, urges the estab- 
lishment of "a Gallery of National Portraits," wherein "the men of New 
Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island may hold converse with 
the spirits of their Langdons, their Franklins, their Greenes; and, here 
the Carolinian and Virginian may come to talk with the shade of 
Laurens of the mazes of diplomacy and that of Washington of the art 
of war." 

To have become, almost 150 years later, the first director of such a 
National Portrait Gallery has been for the writer an important, final 
professional task, and, as well, a great and memorable privilege, happily 
shared with a distinguished and understanding group of colleagues. 
In departing he salutes alike the Gallery, now launched in shipshape 
fashion, and its future filled with promise, Ave at que vale! 

Staff Publications and Papers 

Nagel, Charles. "The National Portrait Gallery. " Antiques (November 1968), 
volume 94, number 5, pages 726-729. 

. "The National Portrait Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution." Mu- 
seum Association of Great Britain, Museum Journal (March 1969), volume 
68, number 4, pages 156-159. 

PuRDY, Virginia, and Daniel J. Reed. Presidential Portraits. Edited and fore- 
word by J. Benjamin Townsend. Smithsonian Publication 4748. 75 pages, 
37 illustrations. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. 

Stewart, Robert G. "James Herring's Portrait of Noah Webster." Smithsonian 
Journal of History (fall 1967), volume 2, number 3, pages 70-72. 

. A Nineteenth-Century Gallery of Distinguished Americans. Foreword by 

Charles Nagel. 95 pages, 166 illustrations. Smithsonian Publication 4762. Wash- 
ington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1969. 

This New Man — A Discourse in Portraits. Edited by J. Benjamin Townsend; 
foreword by S. Dillon Ripley; introduction by Charles Nagel; essay by Oscar 
Handlin; text by History Department, National Portrait Gallery, 217 pages, 
162 illustrations. Smithsonian Publication 4752. Washington, D.C. : Smith- 
sonian Institution Press, 1968. 

A group of nine postcards, color reproductions of paintings in the Gallery's col- 
lection, published by Clarke & Way, Inc., for sale at the Gallery Shop. 



420 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



Loans to National Portrait Gallery 

1 July 1968-30 June 1969 

Paintings for This New Man, opening exhibition (total 1 34) 



Subject 

Adams, Samuel 
Addams, Jane 



Amherst, Jeffrey 
Asbury, Francis 

Astor, John Jacob 
Audubon, John James 

Barnum, Phineas T. 
Barton, Clara 
Belasco, David 

Bellows, George 

Belmont, August 
Berkeley, Sir William 
Boone, Daniel 

Bowditch, Nathaniel 
Brady, Mathew B. 

Brant, Joseph 

Brown, Charles Brockden 

Bryan, William Jennings 
Bryan, William Jennings 
Bryant, WUliam CuUen 

Bulfinch, Charles 
Burr, Aaron 

Calhoun, John C. 

Calvert, Charles 

Carnegie, Andrew 

Carroll, John 
Catlin, George 



Artist 
John Singleton Copley 
George deForest Brush 



Joseph Blackburn 
Charles Peale Polk 

John Wesley Jarvis 
G. P. A. Healy 

Thomas Ball 
J. E. Purdy 
Everett Shinn 

Robert Henri 

Unknown 
Sir Peter Lely 
Chester Harding 

Charles Osgood 
Charles Loring Elliott 

Ezra Ames 

William Dunlap 

Joseph Keppler 
Irving R. Wiles 
Frank Buchser 

Mather Brown 
John Vanderlyn 

G. P. A. Healy 

Godfrey Kneller 

Anders Zorn 

Gilbert Stuart 
William Fisk 



Channing, William Ellery Washington Alls ton 



Owner 
City of Boston 
Jane Addams' Hull 

House, University of 

Illinois 
Mrs. Frederick R. Pratt 
Methodist Historical 

Society 
Mrs. Peter A. Jay 
Museum of Science, 

Boston 
Tufts University 
Library of Congress 
Museum of the City of 

New York 
National Academy of 

Design, New York City 
August Belmont 
Maurice du Pont Lee 
Massachusetts Historical 

Society 
Peabody Museum, Salem 
The Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art 
New York State Historical 

Association 
Mr. and Mrs. F. Woodson 

Hancock 
Library of Congress 
Department of State 
Kunstmuseum, Basel, 

Switzerland 
Fogg Art Museum 
Yale University Art 

Gallery 
The Virginia Museum of 

Fine Arts 
The Enoch Pratt Free 

Library 
Museum of Art, Carnegie 

Institute 
Georgetown University 
National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
Museum of Fine Arts, 

Boston 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 



421 



Subject 
Clark, WUliam 

Cody, Buffalo Bill 
Colden, Cadwallader 



Artist 
John Wesley Jarvis 

Stacy 
Matthew Pratt 



Cooper, James Fenimore John Wesley Jarvis 

Copley, John Singleton Self-portrait 

The County Election George Caleb Bingham 



Cushman, Charlotte 



Thomas Sully 



Custer, George Armstrong Mathew Brady 



Davis, Jefferson 

Decatur, Stephen 
Dewey, John 
Dix, Dorothea Lynde 
Douglass, Frederick 
Douglass, Frederick 

Eakins, Thomas 

Edwards, Jonathan 



John Elder 

Gilbert Stuart 
Jacob Epstein 
Samuel Bell Waugh 
J. W. Hurn 
Unknown 

Self-portrait 

Joseph Badger 



Exhuming the First Ameri- Charles Willson Peale 
can Mastodon 



Field, Marshall 

Forrest, Edwin 
Franklin, Benjamin 

Fr6mont, John Charles 
Fulton, Robert 

Gallatin, Albert 



Leon-Joseph Florentin 

Bonnat 
David Johnson 
Mason Chamberlin 

Charles Loring Elliott 
Benjamin West 

Gilbert Stuart 



Garrison, William Lloyd Nathaniel Jocelyn 

Gibbons, James Cardinal Florence MacKubin 
Gompers, Samuel Moses Dykaar 



Gould, Jay 

Greene, Nathanael 
Hancock, John 
Hanna, Mark 

Harlow, Jean 



Attributed to Eastman 

Johnson 
Charles Willson Peale 
John Singleton Copley 
Anders Zorn 

Studio Still 



Owner 
Missouri Historical So- 
ciety 
Library of Congress 
New York Chamber of 

Commerce 
Yale University Art 

Gallery 
Private collection 
City Art Museum of 

St. Louis 
Library Company of 

Philadelphia 
Library of Congress 
The North Carolina 

Museum of Art 
Jonathan Bryan 
Mrs. John Dewey 
St. Elizabeths Hospital 
Library of Congress 
Rhode Island Historical 

Society 
National Academy of 

Design, New York City 
Yale University Art 

Gallery 
The Peale Museum 

Field Enterprises, Inc. 

National Gallery of Art 
Philadelphia Museum of 

Art 
The Brooklyn Museum 
New York State Historical 

Association 
The Metropolitan Museum 

of Art 
Mr. and Mrs. Garrison 

Norton 
Walters Art Gallery 
National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
National Trust for His- 
toric Preservation 
Montclair Art Museum 
City of Boston 
The Western Reserve 

Historical Society 
The Museum of Modern 

Art 



422 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



Subject 


Artist 


Owner 


Hearst, William Ran- 


Orrin Peck 


The Hearst Corporation 


dolph 






Hicks, Edward 


Thomas Hicks 


A. Aldrich Rockfeller 
Folk Art Collection 


Hill, James J. 


Henri Caro-Delvaille 


G. Richard Slade 


Homage to Eakins 


Raphael Soyer 


Joseph H. Hirshhorn 
Foundation 


Hopkins, Harry L. 


Reuben Nakian 


The Museum of Modern 
Art 


Houston, Sam 


Henry Dexter 


Texas Library and His- 
torical Commission 


Hughes, Charles Evan 


Philip de Laszlo 


Chauncey L. Waddell 


In the Land of Promise; 


Charles F. Ulrich 


Corcoran Gallery of Art 



Castle Gardens 
James, William 
Jones, John Paul 



K6sciuszko, Tadeusz 

Andrzej Bonawentura 
Lafayette, Marquis de 

La Guardia, Fiorello 
The Lasl Moments of 

John Brown 
Lee, Richard 

Lee, Robert E. 

Lewis, Meriwether 

Longfellow, Henry 

Wadsworth 
Mather, Increase 

Maury, Matthew 

Mayo, Charles Horace 
Mayo, William James 
Mellon, Andrew 
Melville, Herman 
Mencken, H. L. 

Meyer, Adolf 
Michelson, Albert 
Millikan, Robert 

Morse, Samuel F. B. 

Mott, Lucretia Coffin 



Ellen Emmet Rand 
Charles Willson Peale 



Benjamin West 

Charles Willson Peale 

Unknown 
Thomas Hovenden 

Attributed to Sir Peter 

Lely 
Frank Buchser 

Charles B. J. F. de 

Saint-M6niin 
James Buchanan Read 

Jan Van Der Spriett 

George W. L. Ladd 

Louis Betts 
Louis Betts 
Oswald Birley 
Asa W. Twitchell 
Nikol Schattenstein 

Hildegard Woodward 
Ralph Clarkson 
Holger and Helen W. 

Jensen 
Self-portrait 

Joseph Kyle 



Fogg Art Museum 

Independence National 
Historictd Park Col- 
lection 

Allen Memorial Art 
Museum 

Washington and Lee 
University 

Brown Brothers 

The Metropolitan Muse- 
um of Art 

Mrs. Cazenove Lee 

Kunstmuseum, Berne, 

Switzerland 
Missouri Historical 

Society 
Mrs. Thomas Curtis 

Massachusetts Historical 

Society 
The Mariners Museum, 

Newport News 
Mayo Foundation 
Mayo Foundation 
National Gallery of Art 
The Berkshire Athenaeum 
The Enoch Pratt Free 

Library 
Mrs. Julia L. Asher 
Harper Memorial Library 
California Institute of 

Technology 
Addison Gallery of 

American Art 
Mrs. Alan Valentine 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 



423 



Subject 
Muhlenberg, Frederick 

Augustus Conrad 
The Oregon Trail 

Osceola 

Paine, Thomas 
Palmer, Mrs. Potter 
Peale, Charles Willson 



Perry, Matthew C. 

Perry, Oliver Hazard 

Poe, Edgar Allan 

Priestley, Joseph 

Pulitzer, Joseph 
Raleigh, Sir Walter 

Revere, Paul 

Rittenhouse, David 
Rockefeller, John D. 

Rush, Benjamin 

Russell, Lillian 
Ruth, Babe 

Ryder, Albert Pinkham 
Saint-Gaudens, Augustus 

Schurz, Carl 

Sev^rard, William H. 

Sherman, Roger 

Sherman, William 

Tecumseh 
Sitting Bull 
Smith, Joseph 



Sousa, John Philip 
Stein, Gertrude 



Artist 
Joseph Wright 

Albert Bierstadt 

George Catlin 

John Wesley Jarvis 
Guerrino Guardabassi 
Self-portrait 

Unidentified Japanese 

artist 
John Wesley Jarvis 

W. S. Hartshorn 

Rembrandt Peale 

John Singer Sargent 
Unknown 

John Singleton Copley 

Charles Willson Peale 
Paul Manship 

Thomas Sully 

Adolfo Muller-Ury 
Unknown 

Self-portrait 
Kenyon Cox 

Arthur von Ferraris 

Frank Buchser 

Ralph Earl 

Frank Buchser 

D. F. Barry 

Unknown 



Harry Franklin Waltman 
Jacques Lipchitz 



Owner 
Mrs. George Brooke HI 

The Butler Institute of 

American Art 
National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
National Gallery of Art 
Potter Palmer, Jr. 
The Pennsylvania 

Acadeniy of the Fine 

Arts 
Library of Congress 

The Detroit Institute of 

Arts 
American Antiquarian 

Society, Worcester 
The New-York Historical 

Society 
Joseph Pulitzer, Jr. 
National Portrait Gallery, 

London 
Museum of Fine Arts, 

Boston 
University of Pennsylvania 
National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin 

Rush 
Jessica Dragonette 
Underwood & Under- 
wood Newsphotos, Inc. 
Private collection 
The Metropolitan Museum 

of Art 
National Carl Schurz 

Association, Inc. 
Kunstmuseum, Basel, 

Switzerland 
Yale University Art 

Gallery 
Swiss Confederation 

Library of Congress 
Reorganized Church of 

Jesus Christ of Latter 

Day Saints 
Mrs. Helen Sousa Abert 
The Baltimore Museum 

of Art 



424 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



Subject 
Sullivan, John L. 
Sullivan, Louis H. 
Sumner, Charles 

Sutter, John A. 



Artist 
J. M. Mora 
Frank A. Werner 
William Morris Hunt 

Frank Buchser 



ThomEis, Theodore Leopold SyfFert 

Thoreau, Henry David Benjamin D. Maxham 



Thorpe, Jim 
Twain, Mark 

Tyler, Royall 

Valentino, Rudolph 
Washington Irving and His 

Friends at Sunnyside 
Whistler, James Abbott 

McNeil 
White, William 

Whitman, Walt 

Whitney, Eli 

Wise, Isaac Mayer 



Unknown 
Charles N. Flagg 

Unknown 

Edward Steichen 
Christian Schussele 

William Merritt Chase 

Gilbert Stuart 

Thomas Eakins 

Samuel F. B. Morse 

Moses Jacob Ezekiel 



Owner 

Library of Congress 

Chicago Historical Society 

The Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art 

Museum der Stadt Solo- 
thurn, Solothurn, 
Switzerland 

The Orchestral Associa- 
tion, Chicago 

The Thoreau Society ; 
Concord Free Public 
Library 

Wide World Photos, Inc. 

The Metropolitan Muse- 
um of Art 

The Honorable William 
R. Tyler 

Edward Steichen 

Sleepy Hollow Restora- 
tions 

The Metropolitan Muse- 
um of Art 

The Pennsylvania Acad- 
emy of the Fine Arts 

The Pennsylvania Acad- 
emy of the Fine Arts 

Yale University Art 
Gallery 

Hebrew Union College 



Portraits for Presidential Portraits, opening exhibition (total 17) 



Subject 
Adams, John 

Adams, John Quincy 

Cleveland, Grover 
Coolidge, Calvin 



Hayes, Rutherford B. 

Jefferson, Thomas 
Johnson, Andrew 

Madison, James 
Monroe, James 
Polk, James K. 
Roosevelt, Franklin D. 



Artist 
Mather Brown 

Charles R. Leslie 

Anders Zorn 
Ercole Cartotto 



William Carl Browne 

Mather Brown 
Frank Buchser 

Gilbert Stuart 
Thomas Sully 
Miner K. Kellogg 
Douglas Chandor 



Owner 
Library of the Boston 

Athenaeum 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert 

Homans 
Richard Cleveland 
Phi Gamma Delta Fra- 
ternity, Washington, 
D.C. 
The Union League of 

Philadelphia 
Charles F. Adams 
Kunstmuseum, Basel, 

Switzerland 
T. J. Coolidge, Jr. 
West Point Museum 
Cincinnati Art Museum 
Mrs. Douglas Chandor 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 



425 



Subject 
Roosevelt, Theodore 



Taylor, Zachary 
Washington, George 



Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 



Artist 
Philip de Laszlo 



Attributed to Rembrandt 

Peak 
Jean Antoine Houdon 



John Ramage 
Gilbert Stuart 
Gilbert Stuart 



Owner 
The American Museum 

of Natural History, 

New York City 
Mrs. Thomas M. Waller 

The Pierpont Morgan 
Library, New York 
City 
Mrs. Andrew Van Pelt 
Lord Primrose, D. L 
National Gallery of Art 



Portraits for A Nineteenth-Century Gallery of Distinguished Americans (total 68) 



Subject 
Adams, Abigail 
Ames, Fisher 

Baldwin, Abraham 
Barney, Joshua 

Biddle, Nicholas 
Calhoun, John Caldwell 
Carroll, Charles 

Carroll, Charles 
Cass, Lewis 
Clay, Henry 



Artist 
Gilbert Stuart 
Gilbert Stuart 

Robert Fulton 
Jean Baptiste Isabey 

James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 
Attributed to Chester 

Harding 
Chester Harding 
James B. Longacre 
William James Hubard 



Clay, Henry James B. Longacre 

Crawford, William Harris John Wesley Jarvis 



Dickinson, John 
Gist, Mordecai 

Henry, Patrick 
Henry, Patrick 
Hosack, David 
Irving, Washington 
Jackson, Andrew 
Jackson, Andrew 
Jay, John 

Johnston, Josiah Stoddard 

Kenton, Simon 
Laurens, Henry 
Lee, Henry 
Livingston, Edward 
Longacre, James Barton 
(as a young man) 

36e-269 O — 70 28 



James B. Longacre 
Luther Terry 

James B. Longacre 
Lawrence Sully 
Thomas Sully 
Charles Robert Leslie 
James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 
Gilbert Stuart and 
John Trumbull 
Charles Bird King 

R. W. Morgan 
William G. Armstrong 
Gilbert Stuart 
James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 



Owner 
National Gallery of Art 
The Honorable Henry 

Cabot Lodge 
Andrew Longacre 
Daughters of the American 

Revolution Museum 
Andrew Longacre 
Andrew Longacre 
Mrs. Philip H. Clarke 

National Gallery of Art 
Andrew Longacre 
University of Virginia 

Museum of Fine Arts 
Andrew Longacre 
The Pennsylvania Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts 
Andrew Longacre 
Maryland Historical 

Society 
Andrew Longacre 
Amherst College 
John Hampton Games 
Mrs. E. DuPont Irving 
Mrs. William Hacker 
Andrew Longacre 
John Clarkson Jay 

Redwood Library and 

Athenaeum 
Mrs. Phillip Holt Lowry 
Andrew Longacre 
Carter Lee Refo 
Andrew Longacre 
Mrs. Milton Cornell 



426 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



Subject Artist 

McKean, Thomas Gilbert Stuart 

McMackin, Eliza Williams James B. Longacre 
Madison, Mrs. James Joseph Wood 



Marion, Francis 

Martin, Luther 
Martin, Luther 

Ogden, Aaron 

Penn, Admiral 
Perry, Oliver Hazard 

Pickens, Andrew 
Poinsett, Joel Roberts 

Ramsay, David 
Ramsay, David 
Rice, Daniel 
Stone, Thomas 
Summerfield, John (oil) 
Summerfield, John 

(drawing) 
Sumter, Thomas 

Unknown Gentleman, I 
Unknown Gentleman, II 
Unknown Gentleman, III 
Unknown Gentleman, IV 
Unknown Gentleman, V 

Unknown Gentleman, VI 
Unknown Gentleman, 

VIII 
Unknown Gentleman, 

IX 
Unknown Gentleman, X 
Washington, William 

Augustine 
Washington, William 

Augustine 
Webster, Daniel 
Webster, Daniel 
White, William 
Wilson, James 
Wilson, James 

Wirt, William 
Witherspoon, John 
Woodburt, Levi 



Attributed to James B. 

Longacre 
Henry Hoppner Meyer 
Unknown 

Asher Brown Durand 

James B. Longacre 
J. W. Jarvis 

Unknown 

James B. Longacre 

Charles Frazer 
James B. Longacre 
Unknown photographer 
James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 

William G. Armstrong 

after Rembrandt Peale 
James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 

James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 

James B. Longacre 

James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 

Charles Willson Peale 

James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 
Unknown 

James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 



Owner 
Mrs. Edward Wardell 
Andrew Longacre 
Virginia Historical 

Society 
Andrew Longacre 

Andrew Longacre 
Court House, Baltimore, 

Maryland 
The New-York Historical 

Society 
Mrs. Milton Cornell 
Art Commission, City 

of New York 
Francis Pickens Miller 
Library Company of 

Philadelphia 
Andrew Longacre 
Mrs. William Hacker 
Andrew Longacre 
Andrew Longacre 
Andrew Longacre 
Andrew Longacre 

Andrew Longacre 

Andrew Longacre 
Andrew Longacre 
Andrew Longacre 
Andrew Longacre 
Andrew Longacre 

Andrew Longacre 
Andrew Longacre 

Andrew Longacre 

Andrew Longacre 
Andrew Longacre 

Independence National 

Historical Park 
Andrew Longacre 
Andrew Longacre 
Andrew Longacre 
Andrew Longacre 
National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
Andrew Longacre 
Andrew Longacre 
Andrew Longacre 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 



427 



Subject 
Wythe, George 
Addendum 
Adams, John 
Boone, Daniel 
Gerry, Enbridge 



Artist 
James B. Longacre 

James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 
James B. Longacre 



Owner 
Andrew Longacre 

Andrew Longacre 
Andrew Longacre 
Andrew Longacre 



Portraits for Portraits of American Newsmakers (total 86) 
(All owned by Time-Life, Inc., who sponsored the exhibition) 



Subject 
Abrams, Creighton 
Bacall, Lauren 
Baez, Joan 
Baldwin, James 
Bernstein, Leonard 
Black, Hugo 
Brooke, Edward 
Buckley, William 
Bundy, McGeorge 
Carson, Johnny 
Cerf, Bennett 
Child, Julia 
Dennis, Sandy 
Dirksen, Everett 
Eisenhower, Dwight D. 
Eisenhower and Nixon 
Faulkner, William 
Finch, Robert 
Franklin, Aretha 
Fulbright, William 
Fuller, R. Buckminster 
Galbraith, John Kenneth 
Gardner, John 
Gleason, Jackie 
Goldwater, Barry 
Harriman, Averell 
Harris, Julie 
Hefner, Hugh 
Hope, Bob 
Hopper, Edward 
Hull, Bobby 
Humphrey, Hubert H. 
Javits, Jacob 
Johnson, Lady Bird 
Johnson, Lyndon 
Kennedy, Edward M. 
Kennedy, Ethel 
Kennedy, Jacqueline 
Kennedy, John F. 
Kennedy, Robert F. 



Artist 
Louis Glanzman 
Boris Chaliapin 
Russell Hoban 
Boris Chaliapin 
Henry Koerner 
Robert Vickrey 
Henry Koerner 
David Levine 
Robert Vickrey 
Robert Berks 
Pietro Annigoni 
Boris Chaliapin 
Boris Chaliapin 
Robert Vickrey 
Ernest Hamlin Baker 
James Chapin 
Robert Vickrey 
Vincent Perez 
Boris Chaliapin 
Robert Vickrey 
Boris Artzybasheff 
Gerald Scarfe 
Boris Chaliapin 
Russell Hoban 
Bernard Safran 
Boris Chaliapin 
Henry Koerner 
Mairisol 
Marisol 
James Chapin 
LeRoy Neiman 
Louis Glanzman 
Robert Vickrey 
Boris Artzybasheff 
Pietro Annigoni 
Ren6 Bouche 
Jan De Ruth 
Boris Chaliapin 
Pietro Annigoni 
Roy Lichtenstein 



428 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



Subject 
Kennedy, Robert F. 
Kerr, Jean 

King, Martin Luther, Jr. 
Kissinger, Henry 
Lindsay, John 
Lodge, Henry Cabot 
Lombardi, Vince 
Lowell, Robert 
Luce, Henry R. 
Mansfield, Mike 
McCarthy, Eugene 
McLain, Denny 
Merrick, David 
Monk, Thelonius 
Mosbacher, Emil Jr. 
Moynihan, Daniel P. 
Nixon, Pat 
Nixon, Richard M. 
Novak, Kim 
Oswald, Lee Harvey 
Parseghian, Ara 
Reagan, Ronald 
Rockefeller, Nelson 
Rockefeller, Winthrop 
Rogers, William 
Romney, George 
Roosevelt, Theodore 
Rowan and Martin 
Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr. 
Scranton, William 
Shriver, Sargent 
Simon, Norton 
Sinatra, Frank 
Stevenson, Adlai 
Streisand, Barbra 
Tillinghast, Charles, Jr. 
Truman, Harry S 
Updike, John 

Wallace, George and Curtis Lemay 
Warren, Earl 

Westmoreland, William C. 
Wilkins, Roy 
Williams, Tennessee 
Wyeth, Andrew 
Young, Whitney 



Artist 
Louis Glanzman 
Rene Bouche 
Robert Vickrey 
Louis Glanzman 
Henry Koerner 
Robert Vickrey 
Boris Chaliapin 
Sidney Nolan 
Robert Vickrey 
Boris Chaliapin 
David Stone Martin 
Robert Heindel 
David Stone Martin 
Boris Chaliapin 
Charles Lundgren 
Boris Chaliapin 
Robert Vickrey 
Boris Chaliapin 
Robert Vickrey 
Boris Artzybasheff 
Boris Chaliapin 
Marion Pike 
Henry Koerner 
Peter Hurd 
Boris Chaliapin 
Boris Chaliapin 
Aaron Bohrod 
Gerald Scarfe 
Boris Chaliapin 
Robert Vickrey 
Ben Shahn 
Bernard Safran 
Aaron Bohrod 
James Chapin 
Henry Koerner 
Peter Hurd 
Boris Chaliapin 
Robert Vickrey 
Robert Grossman 
Ernest Hamlin Baker 
Robert Berks 
Henry Koerner 
Bernard Safran 
Henriette Wyeth Hurd 
Boris Chaliapin 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 

Other Portraits on Loan to the Collection 
1 July 1968-30 June 1969 

Subject Artist Owner 



429 



Addams, Jane Unknown 

Johnson, Lyndon Baines Jimilu Mason 



William R. Glennon 
Jimilu Mason 



Loans from National Portrait Gallery to Other Institutions 
1 July 1968-30 June 1969 



Subject 
Anderson, Marian 

Audubon, James J. 
Barrow, Joe Louis 

Barnett, Claude 

Barthe, Richard 

Bethune, Mary McLeod 

Bolin, Jane M, 

Bontemps, Arna 

Bunche, Ralph 

Burleigh, Harry T. 

Campbell, William A 

Carson, Rachel 
Douglas, Aaron 



Artist 
Laura Wheeler Waring 

Unknown 
Betsy Graves 

Betsy Graves 

Betsy Graves 

Betsy Graves 

Betsy Graves 

Betsy Graves 

Betsy Graves 

Betsy Graves 

Betsy Graves 

Una Hanbury 
Betsy Graves 



Borrower 

Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
National Museum of 

History and Technology 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
National Museum of 

History and Technology 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 



430 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



Subject 
DuBois, W. E. B. 

Ericsson, John 
Fauset, Jessie R. 

Gershwin, George 
Granger, Lester 

Hastie, William H. 

Houston, Charles H. 

Ives, Herbert E 
Jefferson, Thomas 
Johnson, Charles S. 

Johnson, Mordecai 

Jones, John Paul 
Keller, Helen 
Lawless, Theodore 

McGIellan, George 
Mulzac, Hugh H. 

Patterson, Frederick D. 

Randolph, Asa Phillip 

Robeson, Paul 



Artist 
Betsy Graves 

Arvid Nyholm 
Betsy Graves 

Self-portrait 
Betsy Graves 

Betsy Graves 

Betsy Graves 

Chester W. Slack 

Michael Sokolniki after 
Tadeusz Kosciuszko 
Betsy Graves 

Betsy Graves 

J. E. Haid 
Jo Davidson 
Betsy Graves 

Julian Scott 
Betsy Graves 

Betsy Graves 

Betsy Graves 

Betsy Graves 



Borrower 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
National Museum of 

History and Technology 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
National Museum of 

History and Technology 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
National Museum of 

History and Technology 
National Museum of 

History and Technology 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
National Museum of 

History and Technology 
National Museum of 

History and Technology 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
National Museum of 

History and Technology 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 

Burlington County 
Community Action 
Program 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 



431 



Subject 
Sampson, Edith 



Artist 
Betsy Graves 



Schoenberg, Arnold Muriel Turnoff 

Sims, William Sowden Irving Ramsay 

Temple, Ruth Betsy Graves 



The Signing of the Treaty John C. Johansen 

of Versailles 
Thurman, Howard Betsy Graves 



Williams, Paul 



White, Walter 



Betsy Graves 
Betsy Graves 



Borrower 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
National Museum of 

History and Technology 
National Museum of 

History and Technology 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
National Museum of 

History and Technology 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 
Burlington County 

Community Action 

Program 



Portraits Added to Permanent Collection 



1 July 1968-30 June 1969 



Subject 
Adams, John Quincy 
Arthur, Chester A. 

Bell, Alexander Graham 
Black, Hugo L. 
Brennan, William J. 
Bromfield, Louis 
Brown, John 
Chase, William Merritt 
Clark, "Champ" (James 

Beauchamp) 
Debs, Eugene 
Duveneck, Frank 
Douglas, Stephen Arnold 
Douglas, William O. 
Draper, Ruth 

Everett, Edward 

Farragut, David Glasgow 

Fortas, Abe 
Frankfurter, Felix 



Artist 
George Caleb Bingham 
Matthew Wilson 

Moses Dykaar 
Oscar Berger 
Oscar Berger 
Zoss Melik 
J. C. de Blezer 
William Merritt Chase 
Michael Jacobs 

Louis Mayer 
William Merritt Chase 
Joseph Ternbach 
Oscar Berger 
Mary Foote 

Hiram Powers 

Attributed to William 

Swain 
Oscar Berger 
Oscar Berger 



Donor or fund 
Purchase 

Transfer, Harry S. 
Truman Library 
Transfer, ncfa 
Gift, Oscar Berger 
Gift, Oscar Berger 
Purchase 

Gift, Alfred Volkenberg 
Purchase 
Gift, Kimball Clark 

Purchase 

Purchase 

Gift, Joseph Ternbach 

Gift, Oscar Berger 

Gift, Mr. and Mrs. Franz 
Oppenheimer 

Gift, Mrs. Charles C. 
Glover, Jr. 

Transfer, nmht, Smith- 
sonian 

Gift, Oscar Berger 

Gift, Oscar Berger 



432 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



Subject 
Franklin, Benjamin 

Frost, Robert 



Frost, Robert 
Fulton, Robert 
Gilbert, Cass 
Hart, Moss 
Hampden (Doughtery), 

Walter 
Harlan, John M. 
Hemingway, Ernest 
Hill, James J. 
Hough, William Jarvis 
Irving, Washington 
Jackson, Andrew 

Johnson, Andrew 
Kahn, Otto 

Kane, Elisha Kent 

Kaufman, George 
Lewis, Sinclair 
Lindbergh, Charles A. 
Loomis, Eben Jenks 

McKinley, William 
Madison, James 

Marshall, Thurgood 
Mayo, William James 
and Charles Horace 



Meyer, Adolph 
Nagel, Charles 
Nathan, George Jean 
Pratt, Matthew 
Roosevelt, Franklin D. 
Sheridan's Ride 

Sherman, John 

Shreve, Henry Miller 

Sloan, John with Dolly 
Sloan, Robert Henri 
and Linda Henri 

Sousa, John Philip 



Artist 
Johann Martin Will 
after C. N. Cochin 
Jose Buscaglia 



Walker Hancock 
Jean-Antoine Houdon 
R. B. Brandegee 
Zoss Melik 
William Glackens 

Oscar Berger 

Zoss Melik 

Muller-Ury 

J. Brayton Wilcox 

Daniel Huntington 

James Barton Longacre 

Thomas Nast 
Jo Davidson 

Attributed to Giuseppe 

Fagnini 
Zoss Melik 
Zoss Melik 
J. Stubbs 
Edwin Burrage Child 

August Benziger 
Attributed to Chester 

Harding 
Oscar Berger 
An original composition 

(after two oil paintings 

by Louis Betts) by 

Charles J. Fox 
Hildegard Woodward 
Anders Zorn 
Zoss Melik 
Matthew Pratt 
Douglas Chandor 
Thomas Buchanan Read 

Henry Ulke 
Unknown 
John Sloan 



Donor or fund 
Purchase 

Gift, Banco Credito y 
Ahorro Ponceno, San 
Juan, Puerto Rico 

Gift, Walker Hancock 

Purchase 

Purchase 

Purchase 

Gift, Sansom Foundation 

Gift, Oscar Berger 

Purchase 

Gift, Jerome Hill 

Gift, Mrs. Violet Sheperd 

Purchase 

Gift, Swedish Colonial 

Society 
Purchase 
Gift, Mrs. John Barry 

Ryan 
Purchase 

Purchase 

Purchase 

Gift, George O'Connor 

Bequest, Mrs. Millicent 

Bingham 
Gift, Marieli Benziger 
Purchase 

Gift, Oscar Berger 
Gift, The Mayo Founda- 
tion 



Gift, Mrs. Julia Asher 
Gift, Charles Nagel, Jr. 
Purchase 
Purchase 
Purchase 

Transfer, nmht, Smith- 
sonian 
Gift, Mrs. Louis A. Bolin 
Purchase 
Purchase 



Harry Franklin Waltman Gift, The Sousa Corpora- 
tion 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 



433 



Subject 
Sousa, Mrs. John Philip 

Stewart, Potter 
Strong, Benjamin 

Sumner, Charles 

Tarkington, Newton 
Booth 

Taylor, Frederick Wins- 
low 

Warren, John Collins 

Warren, Earl 

White, Byron R. 

Whitney, William C. 

Wilson, Edith Boiling 
Gait 

Wollcott, Alexander 



Artist 
Harry Franklin Waltman 

Oscar Berger 
Gari Melchers 

Edgar Parker 
Walker Hancock 

Samuel Murray 

Francis Alexander 
Oscar Berger 
Oscar Berger 
Unknown 
Emil Alexay 

Zoss Melik 



Donor or jund 

Gift, The Sousa Corpora- 
tion 

Gift, Oscar Berger 

Gift, General Phillip B. 
Strong 

Purchase 

Gift, Walker Hancock 

Gift, Stevens Institute of 

Technology 
Purchase 

Gift, Oscar Berger 
Gift, Oscar Berger 
Gift, Michael Straight 
Gift, Alan Urdang 

Purchase 



Decorative Arts Added to the Collections 
1 July 1968-30 June 1969 



Object 
Pair of Ming vases 
Pair of eighteenth-century Holland Delft 

tobacco jars 
One nineteenth-century tole flower holder 
Pair of Japanese wood chests 
Pair of nineteenth-century hurricane shades 
Pair of nineteenth-century Chinese flower pots 
One eighteenth-century oval, Chinese platter 
One eighteenth-century Chinese plate, floral 

design 
Pair of carved Adam torcheres 



Donor 
Victor Proetz Fund 
Victor Proetz Fund 

Victor Proetz Fund 
Victor Proetz Fund 
Victor Proetz Fund 
Victor Proetz Fund 
Gift of Mrs. Alcott F. Elwell 
Gift of Mrs. Alcott F. Elwell 

Gift of J. Bruce Bredin 



Joseph H. Hirshhom Museum and Sculpture 

Garden 



Abram Lerner, Director 




IN 1968-1969 THE JOSEPH H. HiRSHHORN MUSEUM, Under Director 
Abram Lerner, has continued to move toward the realization 
of its primary goals: the development of plans for the opening of the 
new Museum on the Mall, the acquisition of new paintings and sculp- 
tures, and the maintenance of its services to scholars and institutions in- 
volved in the history of modern American and European art. 

On 8 January 1969 President Lyndon B. Johnson and Joseph H. 
Hirshhom broke ground for the Joseph H. Hirshhom Museum and 
Sculpture Garden. President Johnson, Mr. Hirshhom, Secretary Ripley, 
Chief Justice Earl Warren addressed the distinguished guests, who in- 
cluded Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, architects 
of the new Museum, the Smithsonian Institution Board of Regents, Con- 
gressional leaders, and prominent members of the government and the 
art world. Director Abram Lerner, assistant curator Cynthia J. Jaffee, 
historian Frances R. Shapiro, and registrar Thomas J. Girard repre- 
sented the Hirshhom Museum at the historic event. 

In his remarks at the ground-breaking ceremony, Mr. Hirshhom said 
in part: 

I have spent the greater part of my life with art, with artists, and as a collector 
of art. When I began to collect, it was considered absurd to believe that American 
art could ever achieve international significance, that it could ever become a vital 
art. 

It was an honor for me to give my art collection to the people of the United 
States. I think it is a small repayment for what this great nation has done for 
me and others who have come to this country as immigrants. 

435 



436 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Triptych - Inspired by T. S. Eliot's Poem "Sweeney Agonistes." By Francis 
Bacon (English, bom Dublin, 1909-), Oil and pastel on canvas, each (3) 
78 X 58 inches. 1967. 



JOSEPH H. HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN 



437 




Portrait of Philippe Soupalt. By Robert Delaunay (French, 1885-1941). OH 
paper, 51 X 76 J4 inches. 1922. 



438 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Le Questionnat. By Yves Tanguy (French, 1900-1955). Oil on canvas, 23 X 

32 inches. 1937. 

Whip Out. By Jules Olitski (American, 1926-). Aluminum with acrylic air- 
drying lacquer, 5 X 21 X 12 feet. 1968. 




JOSEPH H. HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN 439 



Sabine Houdon. By Jean- 
Antoine Houdon (French, 
1741-1828). Marble, 24 inches 
high. 1791. 




Woman with Baby Carriage. 
By Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 
1881-) . Bronze, 80 inches high. 
1950. 




440 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

The Collection 

In 1969 Mr. Hirshhorn's enthusiasm and generosity again led to the 
addition of over five hundred new paintings and sculptures to the super- 
lative collection of fine art he has donated to the United States for the 
benefit of the people. 

The more than twenty-five hundred sculptures in the Hirshhorn Col- 
lection range historically from antiquity to the works of today's young 
creators. Its fine representation of African art is highlighted by a superb 
group of Benin bronzes. Of its renowned European and American 
sculptures of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, one hundred forty 
monumental works are located at the Hirshhorn Sculpture Garden, 
Greenwich, Connecticut, where they were viewed in 1969 by partici- 
pants in twenty-four benefit tours for educational, cultural, and philan- 
thropic organizations. Among the outstanding sculptures acquired in 
1969 are: 

Artist Title 

Benin (Nigeria) Head of an Oba 

Calder, Alexander Mobile-Fleche 

Carpeaux, Jean-Baptiste Bust of Anna Foucart de Valenciennes 

Giacometti, Alberto Femme 1929 

Houdon, Jean-Antoine Sabine Houdon 

Magritte, Rene La Folie des Grandeurs 

Matisse, Henri Jeanette III 

Moore, Henry 3-Piece Sculpture: Vertebrae 

Nicholson, Ben White Relief, First Version, 1938 

Olitski, Jules Whip-Out 

Picasso, Pablo Woman with Baby Carriage 

Schoffer, Nicholas S patiodynamique 17 

The Collection's paintings focus on the 20th century. From the works 
of precursors such as Thomas Eakins and Winslow Homer to the can- 
vases of today, the course of painting in America is covered in depth. 
Complementing the American section is a strong selection of paintings 
by modem European masters and young contemporaries. Notable paint- 
ings added to the Collection in 1969 include: 

Artist Title 

Albers, Joseph Four Xs in Red 

Anuskiewicz, Richard Spectra Squared 

Bacon, Francis Triptych 1967: Inspired by T. S. Eliot's 

poem "Sweeney Agonistes" 
Bluemner, Oscar Morning Light (Dover Hills, October 

1916) 
Delaunay, Robert Portrait of Philippe Soupault 

Glarner, Fritz Relational Painting-Tondo #20 

Leger, Ferdinand Nu Sur Fond Rouge 

Newman, Barnett The Covenant 



JOSEPH H. HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN 



441 



Artist 
Noland, Kenneth 
Pascin, Jules 
Reinhardt, Ad 
Still, Clyfford 
Tanguy, Yves 



Title 
Via Breeze 

"Salon" at Marseilles 
Number 88 
Untitled, 1953 
Le Questionnat 



Artists 


Works on loan 


Balthus 


2 paintings 


Bissier, Jules 


2 paintings 



The Hirshhorn Collection is a major source for museums and art 
historians preparing retrospective exhibitions, biographies, or catalogue 
raisonnes of 20th-century artists. In 1969 numerous requests for research 
information, loans, and photographs have continued to be received 
and acknowledged by the staff. Visiting scholars, artists, and officials 
are received at the Collection office and warehouse in New York City. 
Despite the necessarily curtailed loan program, two hundred works 
from the Collection have been loaned to museums and galleries 
throughout the world. The following loans are representative: 

To exhibition 

Balthus Retrospective: Tate Gallery, 
London 

Bissier Retrospective: San Francisco 
Museum of Art; Phillips Gallery, 
Washington; Carnegie Institute, 
Pittsburgh; Dallas Museum of Fine 
Arts; Guggenheim Museum, New 
York City 

Broderson Retrospective: Fine Arts 
Gallery of San Diego 

"The Sculpture of Thomas Eakins" : 
Corcoran Gallery, Washington 

Levine Exhibition: California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor, 
San Francisco 

Sheeler Retrospective: National 
Collection of Fine Arts, Smithso- 
nian Institution; Philadelphia 
Museum; Whitney Museum, 
New York City 

Smith Retrospective: Guggenheim 
Museum, New York City 

Opening Exhibition: National 
Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian 
Institution 

Opening Exhibition: Gimpel & 
Weitzenhofer, New York City 

'Trom El Greco to Pollock": 
Baltimore Museum of Art 

"1968 Annual Exhibition of 

Contemporary American Sculp- 
ture" : Whitney Museum, New 
York City 
366-269 O— 70 29 



Broderson, Morris 
Eakins, Thomas 
Levine, David 

Sheeler, Charles 

Smith, David 
Soyer, Raphael 



12 paintings 
2 sculptures 
4 paintings 

1 painting 

4 sculptures 
1 painting 



Appel; LeBrocquy; 4 paintings; 

Rivers; Meadows sculptures 

Hopper; Kline; Marin 4 paintings 

de Moulpied ; Snelson ; 3 sculptures 
di Suvero 



442 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Ground-breaking ceremony, 8 January 1969: (left to right) Chief Justice 
Warren, Secretary Ripley, Mr. Hirshhorn, President Johnson. (Photo by Jack 
Rottier, National Park Service.) 



The Museum 



On 17 May 1966, the President requested that Congress enact leg- 
islation to authorize acceptance of the Hirshhorn Collection as a gift 
to the United States. By the Act of 7 November 1966 (P.L. 89-788, 89th 
Cong., S. 3389), Congress provided a site on the Mall — bounded by 
7th and 9th Streets SW, Independence Avenue, and Madison Drive — 
and provided statutory authority for the appropriation of construction 
and operating funds. 

On 12 July 1968, the 90th Congress provided contract authority as 
well as an initial appropriation of $2,000,000 for construction. The 
ground-breaking ceremony was held on 8 January 1969. Construction of 
the Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden is expected 
to commence next year. 



Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts 
and Design 

Richard P. Wunder, Director 



IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING the takc-ovcr of the Cooper Union Museum 
by the Smithsonian on 1 July 1968, the Museum's name was 
changed to Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design, thus honoring Peter 
Cooper, founder of the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science 
and Art, and his granddaughters, the Misses Sarah, Eleanor, and Amy 
Hewitt, who were the Museum's founders in 1897. An Advisory Board 
was established, bylaws drawn up, and members chosen from the Com- 
mittee To Save the Cooper Union Museum, headed by Henry Francis 
du Pont and other interested persons. Following Mr. du Font's death, 
Mrs. Jacob M. Kaplan, the Board's vice-chairman, was appointed to fill 
the vacant chairmanship. Members of the Advisory Board are as follows : 

Henry Francis du Pont, chairman* 

Mrs. Jacob M. Kaplan, chairman elect 

John B. Trevor, Jr., vice-chairman 

Mrs. Howard J. Sachs, secretary 

Mrs. Vincent Astor 

William A. M. Burden 

Mrs. Freda Diamond 

Albert Edelman 

William Katzenbach 

William C. Pahlmann 

Mrs. Bliss Parkinson 

Harvey Smith 

Mrs. Calvin Stillman 

Charles van Ravensway 

Frederick P. Victoria 

Alexander O. Vietor 

S. Dillon Ripley, ex officio 

During the year four full meetings and an equal number of ad hoc 
meetings were held. At the April 1969 meeting the name Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum of Decorative Arts and Design was approved. 

*Diedll AprU 1969. 

443 




"Please Be Seated," luncheon preview, benefit for the Cooper-Hewitt Museum 
of Design, sponsored by the New York Chapter of the National Home Fashions 
League Foundation, Inc., Hotel Pierre Grand Ballroom, New York City, 
13 November 1968. Left to right: S. Dillon Ripley, guest speaker; Henry 
Francis du Pont; Miss Jean Budde, vice president, National Home Fashions 
League; and William Katzenbach. 




Installation of "A Treasury of 
Design" exhibition mounted by 
the Cooper-Hewitt Museum of 
Design, in New York, showing 
a Shaker rocker and a "direc- 
tor's" chair designed by John 
Fitz Gildons; in the back- 
ground, a Swedish tapestry by 
Marta Fjetterstrom; and over- 
head, a French glass sunray 
chandelier. 



COOPER-HEWITT MUSEUM OF DECORATIVE ARTS AND DESIGN 



445 



In addition to work performed by staff members, the Museum has 
been fortunate to have the services of four faithful volunteers — Donald 
Gurney, Mrs. E. Elizabeth Page, Hubbell Pierce, and Mrs. Morton J. 
Seifter — who put in a total of 870 hours of work during the year. Special 
projects worked on by volunteers have included tabulating and checking 
of box and storage lists in the Department of Drawings and Prints and 
that of Textiles, affixing accession numbers and measuring of textiles, 
assisting at the reception desk and with record-keeping in the office of 
the Registrar, and maintaining and posting of mailing lists and donors 
lists. Through the dependability of its volunteer services, the Museum 
has been able to go forward with its housekeeping chores. 

Objects added to the Museum's collections have totaled 5,108, of 
which 4,707 have been received as gifts from 117 donors and 401 have 
been purchases. Three objects considered unrelated to the Museum's 
immediate needs have been eliminated from the collections by public 
auction sale. This growth of the collections represents more than twice 
the number of gifts received the previous year, though from nine fewer 
donors. Significant among those gifts received are : 



Decorative arts 

Inlaid marble and gilt bronze 
inkstand belonging to Mark 
Twain's parents-in-law 

Glass bottle by Ariel Bar-Tel 

Nineteenth-century Chinese 
spinach jade table screen 

Architectural fragment by Louis 
Sullivan 

Eighteenth-century South Ger- 
man ceramic stove 

3 nineteenth-century American 
leather-covered boxes 

Miniature labeled bandbox 

Eighteenth-century French bidet, 
stamped Baudin 

Nineteenth-century American 
bentwood rocking chair 

English Regency card table 

Eighteenth-century English plant 
stand; Ming Dynasty vase 
with eighteenth-century 
French bronze mounts; table 
designed by Elsie de Wolfe 

13 Philippine Moro culture 
boxes ; pair of eighteenth-cen- 
tury French doors; 15 Far 
Eastern porcelain and metal 
objects 



Donor 
Anonymous 

America-Israel Cultural Foundation 
Dr. and Mrs. Lewis Balamuth 

Davis Brody and Associates 

Miss Katharine Cornell 

Mrs. Paul G. Darrott 

Miss Elizabeth Dennison 
Mrs. W. G. Dunnington, Jr. 

George G. Fino 

Maurice M. Freidman 

Mr. and Mrs. Rodman A. Heeren 



Mr. and Mrs. Maxime Hermanos 



446 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Decorative arts Donor 

Japanese lacquer desk and 2 Mrs. Revell Hoover 

Chinese glass paintings 
3 ceramic bowls, New York, 1941 International Business Machines Corporation 
Contemporary American steel Interpublic Group of Companies, Inc. 

and glass table, director's 

chair, bookcase, and screen 
3 side chairs and writing desk Tetsuzo Inumara 

designed by Frank Lloyd 

Wright for the Imperial Hotel, 

Tokyo 
Glass necklace by Rene Lalique Jacques Jugeat 
Bronze cat by Antoine Louis Orrin W. June 

Barye 
American Shaker rocking chair; Mrs. Jacob M. Kaplan 

tortoise-shell box 
7 lengths of wallpaper; 150 casts Mrs. Germaine Little 

of ancient seals 

20 pieces of Chinese porcelain Paul Manheim 
and jade 

Seed picture; 3 constructions by Karl Mann 

Karl Mann 
Eighteenth-century French rock Frits Markus 

crystal chandelier 
5-piece suite of art nouveau Mrs. Peter J. Perry 

furniture 
47 pieces of twentieth-century James M. Osborn 

furniture 
Twentieth-century Italian glass Christian Rohlfing 

vase by Venini 

21 pieces of French furniture Mr. and Mrs. Forsythe Scherfesee 
(circa 1935) designed by 

Jean-Michel Frank 
35 pieces of miscellaneous In- Harvey Smitth 

dian, English, Spanish and 

Canadian furniture, tiles and 

metalwork; 272 samples of 

wallpaper 
Eighteenth-century Japanese Mrs. Calvin Stillman 

folding screen 
Eighteenth-century French Nev- Frederick P. Victoria 

ers figurine 
26 pieces of French eighteenth- Bequest of Mary Hayward Weir 

century furniture 
Chinese lacquer chest; lamp by Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Wiesenberger 

Tiffany and Co.; 6 English 

Georgian wine rinsers 



COOPER-HEWITT MUSEUM OF DECORATIVE ARTS AND DESIGN 447 

Drawings and prints Donor 

Costume design, Les Amies de Anonymous 

don Juan, by W. Gyarmathy 
335 drawings by Harriet Black- Miss Stell Andersen 

stone 
43 drawings for unexecuted en- Bernard Black and H. W. Nadeau 

gravings by Antonio Tempesta 
Study for a mural by Kenyon Allyn Cox 

Cox 
Drawing, If the Soap Falls Out Rube Goldberg 

of the Bathtub, by Rube Gold- 
berg 
2 wood engravings after Winslow Ben Goldstein 

Homer 

2 figure drawings by Hokusai; Mrs. Jacob M. Kaplan 
drawing by Johann Christian 

Schoeller 
395 French and American Mrs. Germaine Little 

twentieth-century designs for 

wallpaper 
Collage, Renissance Fagades, by Hubbell Pierce 

Hubbell Pierce 
10 watercolor renderings by Mrs. Henry Rogers Pyne 

Otto E. Gaertner 
27 designs for American wall- Harvey Smith 

paper; 84 designs for French 

nineteenth-century wallpaper 
12 etchings by Gerald K. Geer- Allen T. Terrell 

lings 
A-utograph manuscript, Le Loup- Bequest of Mary Hayward Weir 

garou, ou I'Hoste de Lemnos, 

France, 1707; 32 etchings by 

Edouard Chimot (1928) 
30 drawings by Ulfert Wilke Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Wiesenberger 

34 drawings by and 360 photo- Estate of Mrs. Ezra Winter 

graphs of the work of Ezra 

Winter 

Textiles Donor 

52 samples of Near Eastern car- Anonymous 

pets 
French eighteenth-century bed- Miss Alice B. Beer 

cover 
Loom, weaving materials, and Estate of Ethel Chase 

notebooks by Ethel Chase 
40 pieces of nineteenth-century Miss Ida-Gro Dahlerup 

Danish folk costumes 

3 Peruvian pre-Columbian Harry Dennis, Jr. 
textiles 

Eighteenth-century Chinese em- Mrs. Anne M. Ford 
broidered headboard 



448 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



Textiles 

6 eighteenth- and nineteenth- 
century EngUsh cottons; six- 
teenth-century Italian dam- 
ask; 3 EngUsh and Italian 
embroideries and 13 other 
textiles 

Seventeenth-century Brussels 
tapestry 

Sketch for an embroidered wall 
panel for the Ford Founda- 
tion Building, by Sheila 
Hicks 

587 samples of American early 
twentieth-century fabrics 

Eighteenth-century French ec- 
clesiastical cope 

19 Central European costume 
decorations 

182 miscellaneous textiles 

2 Near Eastern carpets 

11 contemporary African tex- 
tiles 

37 African and Asian textiles, 
mid-twentieth century 



Donor 
Mrs. Benjamin Ginsburg 



Mrs. William Ford Goulding 
Miss Sheila Hicks 

Mrs. Germaine Little 

Mrs. Robert Reichenbach 

Miss Agnes Sakho 

Harvey Smith 
Mrs. Edward Stern 
Mrs. Calvin Stillman 

Alan L. Wolfe 



Donors of objects to the Museum are as follows : 

Anonymous (2) 
Mrs. Daniel Putnam Adams 
Advisory Board of the Cooper-Hewitt Mu- 
seum of Design 
American Institute of Interior Designers 
America-Israel Cultural Foundation 
Miss Stell Andersen 
Mrs. Anne Arbuckle 
Dr. and Mrs. Lewis Balamuth 
Miss Muriel F. Barnes 
Miss Alice B. Beer 
Dr. Gertrude Bilhuber 
Bernard Black 

Estate of Mrs. Berthilde D. Bullowa 
Mrs. Xenia Cage 
Estate of Miss Ethel Chase 
Clarence House Fabrics 
Miss Lois Clarke 
Miss Katherine Cornell 
Peter Cotton 
AUyn Cox 

Mrs. Edna J. Curran 
Miss Ida-Gro Dahlerup 
Mrs. Paul G. Darrott 



COOPER-HEWITT MUSEUM OF DECORATIVE ARTS AND DESIGN 449 

Davis Brody and Associates, Architects 
Mrs. Mildred J. Davis 
Mrs. M. Walter Daub 
Harry Dennis, Jr. 
Miss Elizabeth Dennison 
Jack Denst Designs, Inc. 
Doyle, Dane, Bernbach, Inc. 
Mrs. W. G. Dunnington, Jr. 
George G. Fino 
Miss Eliane Flach 
Mrs. Anne McDonnell Ford 
Maurice M. Friedman 
Dr. George V. Gallenkamp 
Mrs. Benjamin Ginsburg 
Rube Goldberg 
Ben Goldstein 
Countess Alvise Gozzi 
Graf Wallpapers, Inc. 
Mrs. William Ford Goulding 
Mr. and Mrs. Rodman A. Heeren 
Mr. and Mrs. Maxime Hermanos 
Mrs. David Herselle 
Mrs. Thomas Hess 
Mr. and Mrs. R. W. Hickman 
Miss Sheila Hicks 
Mrs. Harry L. Holland, Jr. 
Mrs. Revell Hoover 

International Business Machines Corpora- 
tion 
Interpublic Group of Companies, Inc. 
Tetsuzo Inumaru 
Mrs. Deane F. Johnson 
Mrs. Orrin F. Judd 
Jacques Jugeat 
Orrin Wickersham June 
William Justema 
Mrs. Jacob M. Kaplan 
William Katzenbach 
Miss Amy R. Knox 
LaVerne International 
Derek Lee 
Mrs. C. W. Lester 
Mrs. Germaine Little 
Mrs. Willard E. Loeb 
Louis W. Bowen, Inc. 
McCann-Erickson 
Paul Manheim 
Karl Mann Associates 
Frits Markus 
Miss Marian Miller 
Bob Mitchell Designs 



450 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Mrs. Katherine S. Morrison 

Hugues-W. Nadeau 

National Collection of Fine Arts, Smith- 
sonian Institution 

James M. Osborn 

Mrs. Gary T. Peebles 

Mrs. Peter J. Perry 

Piazza Prints, Inc. 

Hubbell Pierce 

Anthony Putnam 

Mrs. Henry Rogers Pyne, in memory of 
her father, Otto Edward Philip 
Gaertner 

Viggo Bech Rambusch 

Miss Marion Rasnick 

Mrs. Robert Reichenbach 

Mrs. Addie Reinberger 

Mrs. Joseph E. Renier 

Mrs. Harold Roberts 

Ghristian Rohlfing 

Mrs. Minna Rosenblatt 

Miss Agnes Sakho 

Mr. and Mrs. Forsythe Scherfesee 

Mrs. Helen Segal 

Mrs. Morton J. Seifter 

Randolph Shaffer, Jr., in memory of 
Frederick S. Goe, Jr. 

Miss Paula Simmons 

Harvey Smith 

Thomas Smith, Inc. 

Mrs. J. S. Stein 

Mrs. Edward Stern 

Mrs. Galvin Stillman 

Allen T. Terrell, in memory of Glarence 
John Marsman 

Miss Janet Thorpe 

Ambassador and Mrs. Fumihiko Togo 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Nation- 
al Park Service 

United Wallpaper Co. 

Arnold Van Fossen 

Frederick P. Victoria 

Jan Vidra 

Dr. Karl Vogel 

L. J. Wallace 

Bequest of Mary Hayward Weir 

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Wiesenberger 

Donald N. Wilber 

Miss Jessie G. Willing 

Estate of Mrs. Ezra Winter 

Alan L. Wolfe 

Woodson Wallpapers, Inc. 



COOPER-HEWITT MUSEUM OF DECORATIVE ARTS AND DESIGN 451 

Donors to the Museum Library are as follows : 

Miss Edith E. Adams 

Albright-Knox Art Gallery 

American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc. 

Andrew Dickson White Museum of Art 

The Asia Society, Inc. 

Miss Alice B. Beer 

Bowdoin College Museum of Art 

Miss Martha Casamajor 

Estate of Miss Ethel Chase 

Christie, Manson and Woods 

ciBA Limited, Basle 

Colonial Williamsburg, Inc. 

Country Beautiful 

Cristal Lalique Paris 

Mrs. Mervyn Davies 

Dayton Art Institute 

Mrs. Elaine E. Dee 

Doubleday and Company 

Dover Publications, Inc. 

Mrs. Catherine L. Frangiamore 

Miss Margaret B. Freeman 

Moses F. Gantz 

M. M. Geflfen 

Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. 

Hearthside Press 

Houston Museum of Fine Arts 

International Business Machines Corpor- 
ation 

Institute de Investigaciones Esteticas, 
Mexico 

Isaac Delgado Museum of Art 

Istituto di Storia dell'Arte, Pisa 

Jewish Museum, New York City 

WiUiam Justema 

Kunstgewerbemuseum, Cologne 

Kunstindustrimuseet, Oslo 

Mrs. Germaine Little 

Los Angeles County Museum 

Donald D. MacMillan 

Merrimack Valley Textile Museum 

Musee d'Arts Decoratifs, Saumur 

National Collection of Fine Arts, Smith- 
sonian Institution 

New Haven Colony Historical Society 

Miss Patricia Nimocks 

Osterreichisches Museum fiir Angewandte 
Kunst 

Mrs. Merriweather Post 

Reinhold Book Corporation 

Harold Ritman 



452 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Royal Academy of Arts, London 

Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 

Max Saltzman 

Janos Scholz 

Charles Scribner's Sons 

Shelley Marks Company 

Harvey Smith 

Smithsonian Institution 

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum 

Milton F. Sonday, Jr. 

Miss Janet D. Thorpe 

Iwan Tirtaamidjaja 

University of Kansas Museum of Art 

Wadsworth Atheneum 

Leo Wallerstein 

Bequest of Mary Hayward Weir 

Whitworth Art Gallery 

Richard P. Wunder 

York Typesetting Company 

The release of funds designated for the purchase of objects — frozen 
over the five-year period of indecision regarding the Museum's future — 
has permitted the acquisition of a number of important objects for the 
collections as well as general reference books for the Library. Note- 
worthy purchases include : 

Decorative Arts 
French 20th-century glass chandelier in the form of a sunray 
Kinetic light sculpture by Chuck Prentise (1958) 
Composition in mercury, by Ronald Mallory (1969) 
Pair of Italian porcelain bowls by Richard-Ginori (1924) 
4 glass vases by Rene Lalique (circa 1925) 
Glass vase by G. Argy-Rousseau (circa 1925) 
Glass bowl by Decorchemont (circa 1925) 
Lamp with isinglass shade, glass base (circa 1925) 
Ceramic inkwell by Rookwood Pottery Co. ( 1903) 
181 pieces of 19th-century Italian jewelry by Carlo Giuliano and Augusto 

Castellani 
Cased glass vase by Daum (circa 1900) 
Wooden library steps by Charles C. Burke (1969) 
Blown glass vase by Julian Wolff (1969) 

Silver and plique-a-jour enamel bowl by Claire H. Strauss (1969) 
Silver and cloisonne enamel box by Hilda Kraus (1 969 ) 
2 enameled copper vases by C. Faure (circa 1925) 
Pate-de-verre dish by Henri Cros (circa 1895) 
Colored Orrefors glass dish by Sven Palmqvist (circa 1946) 
Oak cabinet with art nouveau metal hinges and mounts 
16th-century Italian ivory inlaid walnut cassone 

Drawing and Prints 
157 nineteenth-century American designs for printed cottons 
Japanese block print of two actors, by Kunisada 



COOPER-HEWITT MUSEUM OF DECORATIVE ARTS AND DESIGN 



453 



:tail of a painted and mor- rip^" <* ^FitJ*^ ^^"^^^ "^m ^ 

at-dyed cotton coverlet, Mad- fej|L *v*^ * ^ jAu^^' «' 

, India, first half of the 18th ^^ J^f. * ' .-*4. -^ j ^^^ 



Detail 

dant 

ras. 

century. ( Cooper-Hewitt Mu 

seum purchase.) 




2 costume designs by Storie 

2 animated cartoons for the film, The Yellow Submarine 

Drawings and Prints 
Woodcut, Print 13, by Akira Matsumoto 

Textiles 
12 eighteenth-century Indian painted and mordant-dyed cottons (bed hangings, 

bedcovers, and fragments) 
Seventeenth-century Spanish embroidery 
French Empire embroidered flounce 
Guatemalan head cloth 
English eighteenth-century silk 
2 Italian eighteenth-century bizarre silk fragments 
Tenth-century Persian silk twill 

English eighteenth-century copperplace printed cotton 

Lace construction, Do Not Rip Up My Little Universe, by Luba Krejci, 1964 
Twentieth-century Ghanese stamped cotton hanging 
Sixteenth-century Turkish velvet 
Sixteenth-century Persian velvet 

Recognizing the need for further development within certain areas 
in the collections and in anticipation of featuring Museum material in 
special exhibitions planned for the future, a considerable proportion of 
the available purchase funds have thus been utilized. The acquisition of 
twelve rare examples of painted cottons produced in India in the 18th 
century for the English and continental market makes this Museum's 



454 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1969 




Lamp-worked glass figurine, Nevers, France, mid- 
18th century. (Given to the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum by Frederick P. Victoria.) 



holdings one of the most complete in this area in the United States. It is 
anticipated that much of this material will be included in a special exhi- 
bition in process of being mounted jointly by the Royal Ontario Museum, 
in Toronto, and the Victoria and Albert Museum, in London, and 
shared, hopefully, with the Cooper-Hewitt Museum. In anticipation of 
the Museum's sponsoring a major exhibition of contemporary glass 
design, which will include key historical pieces as well, the Museum 
has been at pains to develop its glass collection with the purchase of 
French glass produced in the 1920s by a variety of designers and manu- 
facturers, the name of Rene Lalique being the most familiar today. By 
good fortune, the American agent for the Lalique factory, Jacques 
Jugeat, has shown his interest in the Museum by donating a unique 
carved glass necklace by Lalique, and in addition has promised the gift 
of a number of other important pieces of French glass. In observance 




(a) Gold brooch with carved sapphire cameo, framed by sapphires, diamonds, 
ruby and emerald chips, and a pendant sapphire drop weighing 13.5 carats, 
by Augusto Castellani, Rome, Italy, second half of the 19th century. (Cooper- 
Hewitt Museum purchase.) {b) Brooch of gold filigree and agates, by Augusto 
Castellani, Rome, Italy, second half of the 19th century. (Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum purchase.) (c) Pendant of enameled gold set with pearls, rose 
diamonds, and a star ruby, by Carlo Giuliano, England, second half of the 
19th century. (Cooper-Hewitt Museum purchase.) 



of the Museum's opening in its new quarters, in 1972, a spectacular 
jewelry exhibition is planned. This exhibition will focus upon an extra- 
ordinary group of 181 pieces by the 19th-century Italian designers, 
Carlo Giuliano and Augusto Castellani, which the Museum was fortu- 
nate to acquire en bloc. Nowhere else can the work of these two eminent 
designers be studied in such variety or depth. 

In addition to utilizing its own purchase funds for the acquisition of 
objects, three significant purchases have been made from other sources. 
The Advisory Board has made possible the purchase of a large and 
imaginative lace construction by the contemporary Czechoslovakian 
designer, Luba Krejci. With funds contributed by friends of the late 
Louisa Bellinger, a lifelong friend of the Museum and an eminent scholar 
in textile weaves, the Museum has acquired a rare 16th-century Persian 
velvet of pale green and gold hues that possesses all the beauty and sub- 
tlety of a Moghul miniature. From the celebrated Demidoff collection, 
the last remaining portion of which was auctioned off" in Florence, 
Italy, in April 1969, an important Italian 16th-century cassone inlaid in 
ivory has been purchased through funds raised at a special benefit spon- 
sored by the American Institute of Interior Designers. 

Eliminations from the collections of material considered as being no 
longer pertinent to the Museum's needs have been two paintings, views 
of Venice, by Luca Carlevaris (bequest of Annie Schemerhom Kane), 



456 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

sold at public auction by Sotheby and Company, London, and a French 
18th-century tall case clock (anonymous gift) , sold at public auction by 
Astor Galleries, New York. The Adrian Van Muffling collection of 
early aviation photographs has been transferred to the Air and Space 
Museum; 277 folders of clippings relating to the printing and paper 
trades and nine bound volumes of Numismatic Notes have been trans- 
ferred to the library of the Museum of History and Technology; and 
approximately 16,000 World War I cartoons clipped from newspapers 
and periodicals have been transferred to the Division of Political History, 
Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution. 

In preparation for the move and eventual reinstallation of the col- 
lections, an intensive repair and restoration program is under way. A 
total of 72 objects have been sent off premises for repair and a great many 
more are scheduled in the ensuing year. 

Cataloging has been completed on 823 objects in the collections, but 
with the acceleration in new acquisitions, it is apparent that, unless 
additional staff is provided, the cataloging of objects, which establishes 
factual information and assures its increased usefulness to the public, 
will fall behind schedule. This is a prime curatorial activity and responsi- 
bility that must be emphasized. 

During the year the Library has been enriched by the addition of 547 
books, of which 354 have come through gifts from sixty-five donors, and 
193 through purchase. The most important single gift has been that of 
124 general reference books, largely in the field of French 18th-century 
art, and 57 rare books, from the bequest of Mary Hay ward Weir. The 
rare books from the Weir estate include a number of fine bindings from 
the libraries of Cardinal Mazarin, Anne of Austria, the due d'Orleans 
and others, as well as illustrated works by Arthur Rackham, Kate Green- 
away, and W. Russell Flint. Significant purchases include Walter and 
Smith's A Guide to Workers in Metal, 4 volumes, Philadelphia, 1846; 
Kokuho, National Treasures of Japan, 6 volumes in twelve parts, Tokyo, 
1963-67; and Textiles in the Shosoin, 2 volumes, Tokyo, 1963. The last- 
named item has been acquired through funds generously contributed by 
Mrs. Vincent Astor. 

Six exhibitions have been held within the Museum during the year. 
Three, carried over from the previous year, are Early 20th Century 
Posters, a selection from the Philip Sills gift; Paintings by Winslow 
Homer from the Museum's collection; and Sketches by Frederic Edwin 
Church, seventy-six items from the Museum's extensive holdings. New 
exhibitions include: A Treasury of Design, 1963-1968 (24 October- 
22 March 1968-1969), in which 134 objects selected from among sev- 
eral hundred acquired by the Museum during the five-year period of 



COOPER-HEWITT MUSEUM OF DECORATIVE ARTS AND DESIGN 



457 



indecision has given recognition to its supporters during these difficult 
days and, at the same time, has pointed up the need by a design museum 
of diverse sorts of objects ranging from African beadwork necklaces to 
Matisse lithographs to contemporary Indian silks; Counterchange and 
New Color 26 April-24 May 1969), arranged by the New York Guild 
of Handweavers, has striven to give new dimension and design possi- 
bilities to basic weaves; and Contemporary Japanese Posters (9 June- 
29 August 1969), provided by the Japan Society, Inc., has comprised 
fifty-one posters by twenty-six Japanese artists and constitutes the first 
New York showing of this exhibition, many items of which have been 
shown originally in the Japan Pavilion of Expo 67 in Montreal. 

One ofF-premises exhibition, made up exclusively of items from the 
collections, has featured the original designs for the interior decoration 
of the Royal Pavilion at Brighton, England, assembled for and shown at 




Side chair with needlepoint 
embroidered silk upholstery, 
possibly Austrian, circa 1907. 
(Given to the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum by Mrs. Peter J. 
Perry.) 



366-269 O — 70 30 



458 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

the Art Museum of Princeton University from 15 April 1968 to 
11 March 1969. 

A total of 111 objects have been lent to the following twenty-two 
institutions: 

Number of 
Name of institution objects lent 

Northern Arizona University Art Gallery, Flagstaff, Arizona 1 

Museum of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg, Florida 1 

Parrish Art Museum, Southhampton, Long Island, New York 2 

Pen and Brush Club, New York City 1 

Museum of Contemporary Crafts, New York City 2 

Museum of Graphic Art, New York City, Traveling Exhibition 4 

The Jewish Museum, New York City 4 
Webb House, Wethersfield, Connecticut (to illustrate lecture by Erica 

Wilson Kagan) 4 

Textile Museum, Washington, D.C. 2 

The Grolier Club, New York City 5 

American Federation of Arts, New York City 3 

Arizona Costume Institute, Phoenix Museum of Art, Phoenix, Arizona 6 
Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Harvard University, Cambridge, 

Massachusetts 5 

Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 1 

Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, Massachusetts 3 

University of Michigan Museum of Art, Ann Arbor, Michigan 4 

Finch College Museum of Art, New York City 2 

Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, New Jersey 38 

The Lighthouse, Amateur Needlework of Today, Inc., New York City 3 

Hallmarks Cards, Inc., New York City 10 

Museum Section : Guild Hall, East Hampton, Long Island, New York 6 

Parke-Bemet Galleries, New York City 4 

The Museum has played host to a number of schools, organizations, 
and special groups, including the Japanese Sword Society, the New 
York Guild of Handweavers, New York University, Traphagen School 
of Fashion, New York School of Interior Design, Parsons School of 
Design, and ten other special groups. With the New York University 
Division of Continuing Education, the Museum has continued to coop- 
erate by providing a special series of twelve lectures during the Univer- 
sity's fall semester entitled "Textiles and Interior Design." As part of 
the course, two field trips have been arranged to textile and carpet design 
studios. The cost of the course has been underwritten in part by the 
Resources Council, Inc., and has been subscribed to by stylists, interior 
and general designers, and technicians, as well as by persons from other 
museums sharing an interest in the manufacture and use of textiles. 
Three of the lectures have been given by Museum staff members, the 
remainder provided by outside authorities on specified subjects. 



COOPER-HEWITT MUSEUM OF DECORATIVE ARTS AND DESIGN 459 




Necklace of glass carved in the shape of lovebirds on a silver link chain, de- 
signed by Rene Lalique, France, circa 1920. (Given to the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum by Jacques Jugeat.) 

Special events held outside the Museum have included two benefit 
luncheons, the proceeds of which have been turned over to the Museum. 
The occasion for one, sponsored by the National Home Fashions League 
and held at the Hotel Pierre on 13 November 1968, was a preview of 
"Please Be Seated," an exhibition of contemporary chairs organized 
and circulated by the Decorative Arts Program of the American Feder- 
ation of Arts in collaboration with the Museum. Secretary Ripley was 
the guest speaker. The other benefit luncheon was given at the Plaza 
Hotel on 20 March 1969 by the American Institute of Interior Designers. 

During the year the Museum has been visited by 6,908 persons, a 
marked decrease from that of the previous year when the attendance 
figures had been greatly increased both by the Mary Cassatt graphics 
exhibition and by the presence of the Four Winds Museum Theatre 



460 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

group, which gave a number of scheduled performances in the Museum's 
furniture galleries. In analyzing the attendance figures, it should be 
noted that 1,604, or somewhat more than one fourth of the visitors, 
have received special attention and services by staff in the Library and 
the departmental study rooms. Attendance figures by quarter (July- 
September, October-December, January-March, April-June) are as 
follows : 

1st 2nd 3rd 4th Total 



Library 


145 


209 


233 


169 


756 


Decorative Arts (and Wallpaper) 


17 


62 


227 


18 


*324 


Drawings and Prints 


12 


120 


95 


65 


292 


Textiles 


43 


39 


75 


75 


232 



Total consultations 217 430 630 327 1,604 

Total unattended visitors 1,146 1,416 1,231 1,511 5,304 



Total attendance 1, 363 1, 846 1, 861 1, 838 6, 908 

♦Includes 250 individuals personally conducted through the Museum by a 
curatorial staff member. 

Two special publications have been issued by the Museum : a six-page 
catalog, in mimeographed form, of the contemporary Japanese poster 
exhibition; and a folder describing the Museum's collections, history, 
and goals. In addition, special bibliographies have been prepared in 
conjunction with the "Textiles and Interior Design" course. Individual 
staff publications are as follows : 

Dee, Elaine E., Views of Florence and Tuscany by Giuseppe Zocchi 171 1— 1767. 

33 pages, 77 plates. Washington, D.C.: International Exhibitions Foundations, 

1968. 
Thorpe, Janet. "Damascening," "Patina," "Thomas Chippendale." 3 pages in 

Grolier's Encyclopedia International. New edition. New York: Grolier Society, 

1968. 

Staff activities are too numerous and varied to mention in detail. The 
Museum has been represented at seven professional conferences: 

Pennsbury Manor Fall Antiques Seminar, Morrisville, Pennsylvania 

Computer Conference, Metropolitan Museum of Art 

Williamsburg Antiques Forum, Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia 

New York State Council on the Arts, Museum Training Program on Registration 

Methods, Museum of Modern Art, New York City 
Special Libraries Association Annual Conference, Montreal, Canada 
Third Annual National Fund-Raising Conference, Statler Hilton Hotel, New 

York City 
Fifteenth Annual Winterthur Conference on Museum operation and connoisseur- 
ship, Winterthur, Delaware 



COOPER-HEWITT MUSEUM OF DECORATIVE ARTS AND DESIGN 461 

The director delivered a public lecture, "Challenges in. Historic Pres- 
ervation," before the Tennessee Federation of Historic Houses, Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, 15 November 1968; took part in a public report panel 
on the Survey of the Albany Institute of History and Art, sponsored by 
the New York State Council on the Arts, in Albany, New York. 1 1 No- 
vember; as a member of a committee of private citizens formed to save 
from demolition the Hudson County (New Jersey) Courthouse building, 
appeared before the Senate Appropriations Committee of the New 
Jersey State Legislature, at Trenton, New Jersey, 12 March 1969; and 
made a 15-minute TV tape on the Museum and its collections for 
the program "Surveying the Art Scene" on Channel 6, 21 May 1969. 
He also has served in the capacity of director of the Drawing Society, 
on the Board of Directors of the Museum of Graphic Arts, Inc., on the 
Advisory Committee of the Museum of American Folk Art, on that of 
the Archives of American Art, on the Consultative Committee of the 
Art Quarterly and on the Advisory Committee of the Resources Council, 
Inc. Within the Smithsonian he has served on the Editorial Policy Com- 
mittee of the Smithsonian Institution Press and on the Editorial Board 
of the Smithsonian Journal of History. 

Mrs. Blackv/elder has served as national chairman of the Membership 
Committee of the Special Libraries Association, Museum Division. 

Improvements made to the Museum's physical appearance and utility 
have been the construction of three administrative offices in the room 
that formerly served as a textile display gallery (the display area has 
been reinstalled in the north portion of the center gallery, heretofore 
reserved for special exhibitions) , and the closing in of a small portion of 
the Third Avenue hall to provide a place for maintenance staff to dress. 

Following a long and arduous search for a future home for the Mu- 
seum, a magnanimous offer has been made by the Carnegie Corpora- 
tion whereby the historic Andrew Carnegie Mansion and adjoining 
Carnegie-Miller house that fronts onto Fifth Avenue from 90th to 91st 
Streets are destined to be turned over to the Smithsonian, rent free, at 
the termination of the lease of the present occupants, Columbia Univer- 
sity's School of Social Research, 1 July 1970. With the opportunity to 
move to New York's "museum row," the Cooper-Hewitt Museum's 
collections and programs should receive even greater recognition. The 
Carnegie property will permit considerably greater expansion of its 
facilities for display and services offered to the design world in general. 
Anticipating the move to the new locale, the services of a competent 
architectural firm are being sought to effect the remodeling and changes 
necessary to adapt the existing structure to the Museum's collections and 
operation. At the same time, a professional fund raiser is being sought 
to administer the forthcoming fund-raising drive. 



462 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

The administrator spoke over Station wnyc on the Museum's pro- 
grams 1 July 1968; introduced "Unto Thee a Garden," presented by 
the Four Winds Museum Theatre at the Metropolitan Museum of Art 
27 October; served on a jury for the Artist-Craftsmen of New York 
annual exhibition 10 April 1969. He also has served on the Board of 
Directors of the Four Winds Museum Theatre and on the Board of 
Advisors of the Museum of Illustration Art. 

Mrs. Dee delivered a public lecture, "Pleasures and Palaces in 18th- 
Century Italy," at the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts in Richmond, 
6 January 1969. She also has served on the National Exhibitions Com- 
mittee of the American Federation of Arts. 

Miss Beer has given two public lectures, "Embroidery Designs in the 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum," at Old Sturbridge Village, Sturbridge, Massa- 
chusetts, 27 January 1969, and "17th- and 18th-Century Textiles Used 
in American Colonial Houses," at the Bowne House, Flushing, New 
York, 1 2 May. She also has served as a board member of the Embroiders' 
Guild. 

At the request of the Secretariat of the Smithsonian, and with the 
sanction of the Advisory Board, the fund-raising firm of Bowen, Gurin, 
Barnes, and Roche, Inc. has been engaged to solicit the opinions of 
various persons and to prepare a survey report, outlining procedures 
recommended for initiating a capital fund-raising campaign for the 
Museum. The findings have been encouraging, on the whole, and it 
has been deemed advisable to increase the Museum's publicity by 
focusing upon its image, purposes, programs, and needs, and to engage 
at once the services of an individual experienced in fund raising. 
During the ensuing year, it is the Museum's intention to eflFect these 
recommendations. 

Taken in retrospect, the year ending has been one of adjustment and 
challenge for everyone concerned with the Cooper-Hewitt Museum. 
An expression of deepest gratitude is due the members of the former 
Committee to Save the Museum for the financial support given that 
will assure continuance of the Museum's operation at least for the next 
two years. Thankful recognition is also owed the members of the 
Advisory Board for their untiring efforts in volunteering to assist with 
the formulating of a new image for the Museum, in bringing to it new 
friends, programs, ideas, and financial support. In the year ahead, the 
Museum must make every effort to project this new image on the New 
York scene as an important showcase of good design in everyday life. 



National Air and Space Museum 

S. Paul Johnston, Director 




FOR THIS MUSEUM — as wcll as for the country at large — the past 
twelve months will be remembered as "the Year of Apollo." The 
spectacular success of the four manned flights, beginning 11 October 
1968 and continuing with the close approach to the moon by Apollo 10 
in May 1969, was climaxed of course by the actual landing on the moon 
of Apollo 11 on 20 July 1969. 

Popular interest in these events has brought thousands of visitors to 
inspect the Saturn V rocket components, the Apollo 4 spaceship, and the 
full-scale engineering backup "Surveyor" and "Lunar Orbiter" vehicles 
exhibited in the South Hall of the Arts and Industries Building. These 
specimens have been displayed against a backdrop of space photography 
and space-oriented paintings and sculpture. During actual operations of 
the Apollo program, live television coverage was provided for visitors 
in the nasm Aerospace Art Galleries. 

The importance of these displays was demonstrated in the use of 
both the North and South Halls as a prime communications center by 
the major TV and radio networks during the two-day coverage of the 
progress of Apollo 11 toward the moon. 

The 1967 agreement between the National Air and Space Museum 
and NASA (National Air and Space Administration) already has paid 
substantial dividends and will continue to do so. It is hoped that the 
Smithsonian will be among the first to put samples of lunar material 
on public display. More than one hundred tons of rocket- and space- 
oriented specimens have been received at the Silver Hill facility, while 
hundreds of other items have been accessioned in situ at the several 
NASA centers and then put on loan to their original locations. This 

463 



464 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




The Navy flying-boat NC-4, which made the first transatlantic crossing by air 
in May 1919, is displayed on the Mall for the 50th Anniversary of its historic 
flight. 



transaction relieves the manpower and space shortage problem at the 
NASM storage facilities but at the same time guarantees control over 
future disposition. 

By June of 1969 a total of eighteen Mercury, ten Gemini, and two 
Apollo spacecraft, plus many space suits, rocket motors, and associated 
equipment has come into nasm inventories. Not all of these items 
have been flown. Some are test vehicles or backup hardware, but the 
Museum is acquiring an ever-increasing stock of equipment to imple- 
ment its own display requirements and to satisfy requests from other 
museums for specimens to be loaned. 

During the year, nasm Gemini spacecraft exhibits have been dis- 
played in Europe (London, Luzerne, Barcelona, and Munich) and in 
the Far East (Japan and Australia) . Major support planning is under- 
way for exhibition in Expo 70 at Osaka, Japan, in cooperation with 
usiA and the United States Department of Commerce. The assistant 
director (Astronautics), Frederick C. Durant, is responsible for the 
planning and coordination of staff personnel. An important by-product 



NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 



465 



of these programs has been financial support for his travel far beyond 
the museum's own budgetary capabilities. It has thus been possible to 
maintain contacts with other museums and to attend and to partici- 
pate in related scientific and technical meetings normally outside of the 
fiscal reach of nasm. 

In cooperation with the Public Relations Oflfice of nasa the Museum 
has provided space for public testing of nasa displays designed to be 
sent around the country and overseas as presentations to the general 
public of useful background material on space-related subjects. 

On the "air" side of the house, several events of great public interest 
have taken place during the year that also have added significantly to 
nasm's inventories and historical research capabilities and that have 
strengthened relationships with other goverment agencies. 

Fifty years ago (in May 1919) the United States Navy mounted an 
operation to fly aircraft across the Atlantic under its own power — a feat 
never before accomplished. A squadron of three- and four-engined Navy- 
Curtiss (NC) flying boats was activated on Long Island and launched 
across the ocean via Newfoundland and the Azores. One machine, the 
NC-4, made it all the way to Plymouth, England. 



The experimental high-speed (over 4500 mph) and high-altitude (over 
350,000 feet) X-15, presented by the United States Air Force, rests beneath 
the wings of the original Wright Brothers plane and the Spirit of St. Louis. 




466 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

The original NC-4 has been in the custody of the National Air 
Museum for many years, most of the time in storage warehouses. At the 
request of the Chief of Naval Operations, the reconditioning of the air- 
craft, beginning in July 1968, was accelerated. By late April 1969 it was 
assembled (under a 24-hour naval guard) on a Mall site to the west 
of the original Smithsonian Building. The Secretary of the Navy and 
the Secretary of the Smithsonian participated in the unveiling 
ceremonies. 

During the entire month of May the NC-4 attracted thousands of 
visitors. To most of them (now accustomed to daily transatlantic 
schedules) the remarkable exploit by the United States Navy in 1919 
was a forgotten bit of aviation history. Early in June, because no building 
is available to provide year-round protection to the NC-4, the aircraft 
was disassembled and returned to storage. The cost of site preparation, 
maintenance, and restoration, together with all public relations activi- 
ties associated with this display, has been borne by private subscription, 
and no federal money has been involved. 

Also in the spring of 1969, the museum received a long-sought speci- 
men from the United States Air Force, the Number 1 X-15, an experi- 
mental and high-speed research aircraft. This machine, which has flown 
higher (over 350,000 feet) and faster (over 4,500 miles per hour) than 
any other airborne vehicle, has been used by Air Force, Navy, and nasa 
pilots to explore the fringes of space. It was presented to the Museum 
by the Secretaiy of the Air Force. Installed in the North Hall, under 
the wings of the original Wright "Kitty Hawk" Flyer, it provides not 
only an astonishing contrast in design configuration and usage of mate- 
rials for the period of 1903-1969, but it also defines the total spectrum 
of manned flight. It is unlikely that any future attempt will be made to 
design an airborne vehicle to exceed its performance. 

An important policy decision, principally affecting the Museum's air 
activities, has been further implemented during the year: the placing of 
selected aircraft specimens on loan to qualified outside organizations for 
restoration and temporary display pending the availability of new facili- 
ties in Washington. A careful investigation of shop capability for pre- 
serving and restoring specimens to museum standards and the prepa- 
ration of complete restoration specification for the specimens selected 
are the prerequisites of such loans. In addition, during the course of 
this work, inspection visits by nasm personnel are made to insure that 
standards are being met. 

Under this program, one major specimen (Lockheed XC-35) is un- 
dergoing restoration in a commercial shop (supported by a Lockheed 
grant) ; two (Curtiss R3C-2 Racer and General Mitchell's SPAD-16) 
are at the Air Force Museum, Wright Patterson Air Force Base; three 



NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 467 

(Pfalz D-XII, SE-5, and Oscar II) are assigned to the Experimentsd 
Aircraft Association Museum; and one (Ryan FR-1) to the San Diego 
Aerospace Museum. The usual arrangement calls for restoration and a 
three-year exhibit period (renewable thereafter at one-year intervals) 
for each specimen. 

Although the greater part of nasm manpower at Silver Hill has been 
occupied with the restoration, installation, and re-storage of the Navy 
NC-4 flying boat during the year, considerable progress has been made 
on Project Shoplift. The new Building 22 has been completed and is ready 
for occupancy, and the installation of additional steel racks in Build- 
ings 8, 9, and 21 has greatly increased the total storage capacity. Al- 
though another twelve months will be needed before final arrangements 
are accomplished, the planned assignments of Building 20 as a staging 
and study area for restored aircraft, Building 21 for rocket and space- 
related material, and Building 22 for the storage (on pallets) of the most 
valuable aircraft specimens in the collection have made visible progress. 
The Preservation and Restoration Division has handled some 1,700 
specimens whose total weight has been in excess of 150 tons. 

Both the "air" and "space" components of the Museum have par- 
ticipated actively in a cooperative program with the Smithsonian Mu- 
seum Shops that has proved sufficiently successful to warrant reschedul- 
ing for the summer of 1970. The A&I Building sales shop adopted a 
model-building (airplane and rocket) theme for the period of June 
through August 1969. Drawing on nasm's extensive inventory of models 
of all kinds, the shop built a backup static display, supplemented by a 
model-building workshop manned by volunteers, that has attracted 
individuals of all ages and has produced a phenomenal turnover in the 
sale of model kits and related items. To launch the operation, model 
airplane and model rocket contests under the supervision of nationally 



The Apollo Exhibit in the South Hall gives visitors an opportunity to examine 
full-scale space artifacts, including Apollo 4, Lunar Orbiter, Surveyor, Saturn 
rocket engines, and a 35-foot model of the complete Saturn V booster. 




468 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




The opening of a cooperative program between the Smithsonian Museum Shops 
and NASM was marked by a day of aircraft and rocket model contests on the 
Mall. 




NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 



469 



recognized organizations were held on the Mall. These contests gen- 
erated a considerable degree of public attention. 

Kites, as another form of aircraft, attracted much public notice. 
NASM historian emeritus Paul Garber organized, implemented, and 
managed the Third Annual Kite Carnival, under the auspices of the 
Smithsonian Associates, on the Mall. His fame in this activity spread 
around the country to such a degree that he was in great demand by late 
spring to assist other organizations in kite making and kite flying. He 
gave sixteen lectures on the subject and managed kite contests all the 
way from San Antonio, Texas, to Boston, Massachusetts. 

Members of the professional and curatorial staffs have participated 
in technical and scientific meetings both in this country and abroad 
during the year. Frederick C. Durant chaired the second annual "His- 
tory of Astronautics" sessions at the New York meeting of the In- 
ternational Astronautics Federation. Louis S. Casey attended igom 



The facilities of the Historical 
Research Center have been 
augmented by carrels for visit- 
ing students with index files 
right at hand. 




470 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Apollo 8 Colonel Frank Borman addresses a capacity audience in the North 
Hall following his appearance before Congress. 



meetings in Germany and Canada. Serving as chairman-organizer of 
the newly formed International Association of Transportation Mu- 
seums, he has been elected a member of its board. 

Robert B. Meyer, Jr. and Casey have been active for the second year 
in Project 400, a curriculum-enrichment program in the District of 
Columbia public school system. Their program includes fundamental 
flight theory and actual familiarization flights for students and instruc- 
tors. Both men are active in local aeronautical and pilots' organizations. 

Specialized research programs are in progress in the Aeronautics and 
the Astronautics Departments. Casey is continuing his work on the early 
history of Curtiss and has made notable progress in a computerized list- 
ing of all aircraft in the collections of the known air museums of the 
free world. Meyer is engaged also in compiling a similar list for aircraft 
power plants. His investigation of the early work of a relatively little- 
known inventor, Matthew Sellers, has brought to light valuable addi- 
tions to our knowldege of developments in the first post-Wright years. 

Durant has continued his investigations of 19th-century Congreve 
and Hale rockets. He is studying clues and origins of spin-stabilized 
Hale-type rockets apparently used in the Chattanooga, Tennessee, area 
during the Civil War. He also has reviewed and authored major articles 
on "Rockets and Guided Missiles" and "Space Exploration" for the 



NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 471 

Encyclopaedia Britctnnica, "Principles of History of Space Explora- 
tion" for the Encyclopedia Americana, and encyclopedia yearbook arti- 
cles on "Earth-Oriented Satellites" and "Astronautics — 1968." astro 
research files have been augmented by over 200 historical photographs, 
a fact that makes nasm's collection the largest single source of such 
reference material. 

Apart from his special lectures on kites, Paul Garber has given, in 
cities all over the United States, 87 lectures on the history and develop- 
ment of flight. He is engaged also, under the auspices of the Navy 
Department, in video-taping a series of ten lectures covering aviation 
history. Copies of these tapes will be placed in nasm Research Center 
files. 

During the year, Robert Meyer has given, in the United States and at 
museums in western Europe, twelve illustrated lectures on the history 
of aircraft power plant development. 

The Historical Research Center (hrc) stafT has served 2,092 visitors 
and researchers and has answered 5,306 telephones and letter requests. 

Several outstanding collections have been received. Most prominent 
of these are the papers of Glenn H. Curtiss, gift from his son, and 
the Thomas Scott Baldwin photo albums and scrapbooks. Because of 
increased usage and added material, the reference area of hrc has 
been doubled in size. 

Regular monthly meeting have been held in hrc by the Antique 
Airplane Association, the American Aviation Historical Society, and 
the International Plastic Modelers Society. 

A program has been established with the Aero Club of Washington 
to obtain volunteer assistants to sort documentary material. 

A meeting of the International Council of Museums was attended 
by several staff members. Attendees represented the air and space 
museums of the United States and Canada. Other meetings have in- 
cluded the Northeast Aero Historians, at which an information display 
on hrc was exhibited. 

The weekly "lunch box seminars" have continued through the year. 
This program brings before the Smithsonian and nasm staff — plus 
neighboring, cooperating agencies that include the Department of 
Transportation, the National Aeronautical and Space Administration, 
and the Department of Defense — outside speakers discoursing infor- 
mally on subjects pertinent to the interests of nasm. As a fallout from 
this program many artifacts and documents have been added to nasm 
collections. 

A docents' training program in which all curatorial members of 
the staff participated has been established and includes nine docents who 



472 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



Secretary Ripley and Dr. Blitzer 
are introduced to some of the 
problems of aircraft restoration 
by Curator Louis Casey. 




have operated a scheduled program of tours ( for elementary and second- 
ary school students) through the Museum. 

The investigation of the impact of the Guggenheim-founded aeronau- 
tical laboratories and schools on the subsequent development of air and 
space technology has been continued by Guggenheim fellow Alexis Dos- 
ter. In conjunction with the project, visits have been made to the Gug- 
genheim schools at the Califomian Institute of Technology, Stanford 
University, the University of Washington, and the University of Michi- 
gan to assess their several contributions. Many tape-recorded interviews 
have been obtained from each of these visits. 

The Oral History Project of hrc has continued its program of con- 
ducting tape-recorded interviews with pioneers in the development of 
aviation. A master oral history bank has been established. This deposi- 
tory is designed to preserve historical recordings. Under the present pro- 
gram, cooperating agencies furnish tape recordings to be copied into the 
master bank. 

Additions to the collections received during the year have totaled 476 
specimens in 169 separate accessions listed below. Those from govern- 
ment departments are entered in the records as transfers; others have 
been received as gifts. 

Advanced Research Projects Agency: hibex flight vehicle (nasm 1962). 
Aerojet-General Corporation: Chamber assemblies (nasm 1967) ; injectors, cover 

and header, brackets, and plate (nasm 1972). 
Aeronca Company: Model aircraft, Aeronca C-3 (nasm 2084). 



< 



NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 473 

Air Force, United States: From Air Force Systems Command :X-1 5 aircraft, 
United States Air Force No. 1 rocket-p>owered plane (nasm 2125). From 
Headquarters, Washington, D.C. : Aircraft, Bell UH-13J, first presidential 
helicopter, used by President Dwight D. Eisenhower (nasm 1968). From 
Morton Air Force Base, California: Atlas missile guidance pod (nasm 1965). 

Air Mail Pioneers: Painting, "Old 249" mailplane (nasm 1963). 

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics: Aircraft model, Martin 
B-10 (nasm 2100). 

Army, United States: From Fort Eustis, Virginia: Aircraft parts, Hughes XV 
9A (nasm 1981). 

Baugh, P. J.: Sailplane, Sisu 1-A, used by Alvin H. Parker to make the first 
sailplane that flew in excess of 600 miles (nasm 1960). 

Bensen Aircraft Corporation: Bensen gyrocopter, "Spirit of Kitty Hawk," which 
set a total of twelve world and national records for autogyros in speed, dis- 
tance, and altitude (nasm 2122). 

Brussel-Smith, Bernard: Seventy-two block prints on aeronautical history (nasm 
2121). 

California State Legislature: Resolutions Number 213 and Number 236 com- 
mending the Air Mail Pioneers and John W. Hackbarth for the reconstruc- 
tion of the De Havilland 4B "Mailplane 249" (nasm 1980) . 

Carter, S/Sgt. Robert E.: Astronaut signatures (nasm 1959). 

Cooper, Eddie: Two wheels of De Havilland mailplane type (nasm 2089). 

Curtiss Wright Corporation: Aircraft, Curtiss Wright X-1 00 (nasm 1969). 

Dean, Hilliard: Painting, "Space Exploration" (nasm 2112). 

DesatofF, John: Painting, "Gemini" (nasm 2119). 

Doughty, Stewart E.: Machine guns, Hotchkiss .303 and Vickers bipod (nasm 
2127). 

Douglas Aircraft Company: Aircraft models, Douglas F5D and D 571/F4D 
(nasm 2094). 

General Services Administration: Three recognition aircraft models (nasm 
2091); aircraft model, Grumman F85-F (nasm 2102). 

Hendricks, James: Paintings, "Detail Lunar Surface H" (nasm 2116), "Lunar 
Orbiter 11" (nasm 2117). 

Hughes Aircraft Company: Space-probe model. Surveyor (nasm 2104). 

Johnson, Robert E.: Aircraft model, Curtiss 0-1 (nasm 2092). 

Lockheed Aircraft Corporation: Aircraft models, Lockheed L 2000 and super- 
sonic transport (nasm 2093). 

Lockheed California Company: Aircraft model, Lockheed YF-12A (nasm 
2096) ; three aircraft models of Lockheed supersonic transport (nasm 2097). 

McDonnell Aircraft Company: Paintings, "Orbital Workshop" and "Saturn 
IV Upper Stage" (nasm 2132). 

McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company: Wind-tunnel model kit (nasm 
2088). 

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc.: Oil paintings from the movie "2001: A Space 
Odyssey" (nasm 1983). 

Mion, Pierre, and Norman Rockwell: Painting, "Lunar Takeoff" (nasm 2113). 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration : From Manned Spacecraft Cen- 
ter, Houston, Texas: Gemini adapter sections (nasm 1966-A) ; Mercury 
trainer couch, ejection seats, space suits, Gemini parachutes and shingles 
(nasm 1971) ; space suit of astronaut Frank Borman, Apollo 8 (nasm 2133). 
From McDonnell Douglas Corporation: Hatch-release mechanism (nasm 
366-269 O — 70 31 



474 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



1964) ; miscellaneous hardware (nasm 1966) ; Gemini surplus property, in- 
cluding flight-plan and propellant quantity indicators, water-tank assembly, 
primary oxygen system, cabin and suit temperature indicators, and voice con- 
trol center (nasm 1970) ; pressure tank, grip assembly, thrust chambers, 
inner-window glass, docking-bar and water-tank assemblies, stop clock, heat 
exchanger, cannister, rotometer, and thrust chambers (nasm 1978). 

National Gallery of Art: Paintings, "Moppets and the Moon," 68 watercolors 
by school children from Brevard City, Florida; Peoria, Illinois; and Washing- 
ton, D.C. (nasm 2120). 

Navy, United States: From Naval Air Systems Command: Aircraft, McDonnell 
F4A "Sageburner" (nasm 2087). 

Peck, Edward: Model engine, Rogers 29 (nasm 2126). 

Puskas, John F. : Ceramic mosaic, "Nimbus I" (nasm 2118). 

Rhodes, Charles: Aircraft, ground effect machine (nasm 1982). 

Rindler, Robert, Sr.: Aircraft, 1922 Waco glider (nasm 2083). 

Rocket Development Corporation: Honeybee sounding rocket (nasm 1957). 

Rockwell, Norman: Paintings, "First Step on the Moon" (nasm 2114) ; "Astro- 
naut" (nasm 2115). 

Rowe, Captain Basil L.: Hinkel Trophy, 1924 (nasm 2106); Curtiss Trophy, 

1925 (nasm 2107) ; two 1926 Air Races plaques (nasm 2108) ; six 1924 and 

1926 National Air Races medals (nasm 2109). 

Sellers, Matthew Bacon: Collection that includes aircraft engines, propellers, 
propeller blades, wing ribs, fuel tank, and airfoil specimens (nasm 2110). 

Smithsonian Institution: From Department of Armed Forces History: Fifteen 
aircraft guns of World War I (nasm 2086) ; aircraft model, Northrop YB 35 
(nasm 2101). 

Topping, Incorporated: Helicopter model, Sikorsky HSS-2Z (nasm 2099). 

Treasury Department, United States: Spandau aircraft machine guns (nasm 
1961). 

United Air Lines: Model aircraft, Vickers Viscount V-700 (nasm 2085) ; Rolls- 
Royce turbojet engine, propeller, and spinner (nasm 2111). 

Voorhees, T. C: Engine, Curtiss Conqueror V-1 2 (nasm 2124). 

Wines, James P. : Naval aviator's wings (nasm 2082) . 

The Museum's Historical Research Center has been greatly enriched 
during the year with valuable research materials. The cooperation of 
the following persons and organizations is gratefully acknowledged : 

Air Force Association Diehl, William 
Air Force, United States Durant, F. C, III 
Air Transport Association of America Eariy Birds of Aviation, Inc. 
Albright, Sydney J. Fairchild Hiller Corp., Sherman Fair- 
Allegheny Airiines child Technology Center 
Avco Corporation Farquhar, H. D. 

Benas, Rose A. Field Enterprises Educational Corpor- 

Coast Guard, United States ation 

Caproni, Count Giovanni Flight Safety Foundation, Inc. 

Cash, Charles R., Jr. General Dynamics, Convair Division 

Cooper, J. Gookins, Herbert H. 

Curtiss, Glenn H., Jr. Guinnane, William J. 

Curtiss Wright Corporation Hall, Mrs. C. Wesley 

Custom Component Switches, Inc. Hegener, Henri 



NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 



475 



Heinen, Ken 

Hunsaker, Dr. Jerome C. 

International Business Machines 

Jsekoff, Michael 

Lockheed California Company 

Lockheed Georgia Company 

Lundahl, Eric 

Martin, Alice Connolly Walsh, estate of 

Morehouse, Mr. and Mrs. Harold 

Navy, United States 

Naval Aviation Safety Center, United 
States 

New Horizons Publishers, Inc. 

Rowe, Captain Basil L. 

Sanderson Films, Inc. 

San Diego (California) Aerospace Mu- 
seum 

Scott, Denham 



Shank, Mrs. Robert F. 

Smith, Earl L. 

Smith, Dr. Richard K. 

Stephens, James L. 

Teague, C. M. 

Tegler, John H. 

Time-Life Books 

Department of Transportation, United 

States Coast Guard Reserve 
Department of Transportation, Federal 

Aviation Agency Library 
United Air Lines 
Villard, Henry S. 
Walsh, Robert 
Weisinger, Joseph G. 
Westinghouse Electric Corporation 
Wigton, D. C. 



National Armed Forces Museum Advisory 

Board 

John H. Magruder III, Director 




ON 15 JANUARY 19 69, the Smithsonian Institution Board of Regents 
approved the submission of legislation to the Congress to pro- 
vide for the establishment of a National Armed Forces Historical 
Museum Park and a study center to be designated the Dwight D. Eisen- 
hower Center for Historical Research. This proposal was referred to 
General Eisenhower by the Chancellor and on 7 February 1969 the 
former president replied by letter, embracing the proposal but suggest- 
ing that no commitments be made involving expenditures of federal 
funds until such time as the new administration had an opportunity to 
assess its programs. On 3 February 1969, the Smithsonian's legislative 
proposal was submitted to the Bureau of the Budget, Executive Office 
of the President, for advice as to the relation of the proposal to the pro- 
gram of the Administration. Representative Frank T. Bow, on 14 April 
1969, introduced House Bill H. R. 10001, incorporating the Regent's 
recommendations and seeking authority for the Board of Regents and 
the Secretary of the Interior to enter into an agreement for the joint 
use of certain lands in the Fort Foote area of Prince George's County, 
Maryland, as the site for the museum park. The site would include lands 
already under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior and lands 
to be acquired under authority of the Capper-Cramton Act of 1930 and 
Section 19 of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1968. 

Subsequently — it appearing doubtful that the federal government 
would be able to acquire some of the anticipated park lands in the Fort 
Foote area as authorized under the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1968 — 
the Advisory Board staff, in close cooperation with the National Park 
Service, explored various alternatives with a view to rounding out the 

477 



478 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




rife. # 



Rear Admiral E. M. EUer, USN (Ret.), Director of Naval History, rings the 
engineroom gong of the U.S. monitor Tecumseh for the first time in 105 years. 
This gong was rung last the morning of 5 August 1864, when Tecumseh led 
Admiral Farragut's Gulf Squadron into Mobile Bay. Tecumseh fired the opening 
shot of the battle but was sunk by a Confederate torpedo (mine), prompting 
Farragut's immortal "Damn the torpedoes! Full ahead, Captain Drayton. Jewett, 
four bells!" Four bells referred to the traditional signal to the engineroom for 
full speed ahead. Tecumseh' s gong was retrieved during the summer of 1968 
while divers were examining the vessel's condition preliminary to raising her for 
permanent display in the proposed National Armed Forces Historical Museum 
Park. Observing Admiral Eller are (left to right) David Lloyd Kreeger, member, 
NAFMAB; Colonel J. H. Magruder HI, Director, NAFMAB; William H. 
Perkins, Jr., member, NAFMAB; Admiral Eller, representing the Secretary of 
the Navy; Smithsonian Secretary Ripley; and John Nicholas Brown, Chairman, 
NAFMAB. 



required acreage. At the suggestion of George B. Hartzog, Director, 
National Park Service, the Smithsonian is investigating the possibility 
of combining Fort Foote Park with another site under Department of 
the Interior jurisdiction — Jones Point Park, approximately 50.28 acres 
lying on the southern fringe of Alexandria, Virginia, across the Potomac 
and slightly upstream from Fort Foote. 

In the fall of 1968 the staflf supervised further engineering examina- 
tion of the Civil War monitor USS Tecumseh, lying on the bottom of 
Mobile Bay, Alabama, where she was lost in battle in 1864. The results 



NATIONAL ARMED FORCES MUSEUM ADVISORY BOARD 



479 




This view of cadet living quarters in West Point's central barracks was made 
about 1879. Ninety years afterward, as the historic building crumbled under the 
wrecker's ball, a victim of the Military Academy's expansion program, the 
Advisory Board staff dismantled and removed one of its original rooms for 
reconstruction in the proposed National Armed Forces Historical Museum Park. 



confirmed previous findings that Tecumselis structural condition is such 
as to permit her being raised intact and restored for eventual display 
in the proposed National Armed Forces Historical Museum Park. Work- 
ing in the area of the engine room, divers obtained a portion of a 
blower housing, pieces of cast-iron deck plate, and a section of the hull 
including wrought-iron exterior plating and a portion of a transverse 
frame. An analysis of these specimens by the Naval Research Labora- 
tory — published in NRL Memorandum Report 1987 — Examination of 
the Corrosion and Salt Contamination of Structural Metal from the USS 
Tecumseh, by H. R. Baker, R. N. Bolster, P. B. Leach, and C. R. Single- 
tery, Surface Chemistry Branch, Chemistry Division (Washington, 
D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory, March 1969) — indicated that the 
wrought-iron hull is in unexpectedly good condition. The report sug- 
gested techniques for treating the hull to remove scale and inhibit 
corrosion. 

During late April and early May 1969, as part of the Tecumseh 
project. Colonel Robert M. Calland, of the Advisory Board staff, in 
company with Robert M. Organ, Chief of the Conservation Analyti- 
cal Laboratory, United States National Museum, conducted on-site 



480 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Studies of significant ship restorations in Europe, notably, the Swedish 
sixteenth-century man-of-war Vasa at Stockholm, Viking ships at Copen- 
hagen, Lord Nelson's flagship HMS Victory at Portsmouth, and the 
nineteenth-century merchantman Cutty Sark at Greenwich. 

During November 1968, to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the World 
War I armistice, the Advisory Board sponsored a special exhibit of 
watercolor and oil paintings by a noted artist, the late Charles HofTbauer 
(1875-1957), who served in the French army during the conflict. The 
exhibit, made possible by the generosity of the artist's widow, attracted 
much favorable comment while dispalyed in the National Museum of 
History and Technology. 

Notable additions in fields such as ordnance, land vehicles, and air- 
craft have been made to the collections of military and naval objects 
being assembled by the Advisory Board staff for the proposed National 
Armed Forces Historical Museum Park — among them the last of the 
navy's flying boats, an early West Point barracks room, and a number of 
valuable artillery pieces. 

On 12 July 1968, a giant SP-5B Martin Marlin (often called a P5M) , 
last of a line of navy seaplanes spanning half a century, landed at 
Patuxent River Naval Air Station, Maryland, at the end of a sentimental 
farewell flight from North Island Naval Air Station, San Diego, Cali- 
fornia. Vice Admiral Thomas F. Connolly, Deputy Chief of Naval Oper- 
ations for Air, presented the forty-ton craft to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. Mr. John Nicholas Brown, Advisory Board chairman, noted in 
his acceptance speech that 

"the passing of the flying boat from the naval service is akin to the retirement 
of the horse from the cavalry .... The float plane holds a special significance — 
an historical nostalgia — to the sea service which no wheeled aircraft can ever 
replace .... In ceremonies ... at the commencement of this historic last 
flight, Admiral Karaberis [Commander, Fleet Air, San Diego] dedicated this 
P5M to the youth of America .... The words of Admiral Karaberis are 
especially appropriate to this plane's future with the Smithsonian." 

In June 1969, a cadet room, complete with furnishings, was dis- 
mantled and removed by the Advisory Board staflf from West Point's 
venerable central barracks, the home, during their cadet days, of such 
famous soldiers as Pershing, Patton, and MacArthur. The building, 
constructed during the period 1845-1851, is being torn down as part of 
the Military Academy's expansion program. The austere room, little 
changed throughout a century and more of constant use, will be re- 
constructed in the proposed Museum Park. 

During August 1968 the ordnance collection was enriched by fifteen 
artillery pieces of the Civil War and World War I periods and other 
historic materials, transferred to the Smithsonian by Major General 



NATIONAL ARMED FORCES MUSEUM ADVISORY BOARD 



481 




In July 1968 the United States Navy's last flying boat, an SP-5B Martin Marlin, 
left the fleet and joined the Smithsonian Institution, destined for future exhibit 
in the proposed National Armed Forces Historical Museum Park. As seen above, 
the giant seaplane begins her run down the sea lane in San Diego Harbor, Cali- 
fornia, en route to transfer ceremonies at Patuxent River Naval Air Station, 
Maryland, closing an era in naval aviation which began in 1912. 



Richard Snyder, the adjutant general of the commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania. 

The American Military Institute in June 1969 deposited its library of 
some 15,000 items with the Advisory Board. This valuable collection 
of books, pamphlets, and periodicals on mmierous aspects of military 
and naval historical and technical subjects will serve as the nucleus of 
the library of the proposed Dwight D. Eisenhower Center for Historical 
Research. 

Colonel John H. Magruder III, director, National Armed Forces 
Museum Advisory Board, has been making an extensive study of Admiral 
D. G. Farragut's Gulf Squadron in operations on the Mississippi River 
during 1862 and 1863. Evidence has come to light indicating that it was 
the audacious Farragut who, in the early spring of 1863, finally influ- 
enced General Ulysses S. Grant to forsake the fruitless attacks on Vicks- 
burg by way of the Yazoo River and to cross over the river below the 
Confederate stronghold to envelope it from the south and east. The 
decisive role played by the navy — both in Washington on the part of 
Secretary Gideon Welles and his able assistant, Gustavus Fox, and on the 
Mississippi by Farragut — has long been overlooked by historians. The 
discovery of hitherto unknown personal correspondence between Lieu- 



482 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

tenant Colonel John L. Broome, usmc (Farragut's Senior Marine Offi- 
cer) , Welles, and Admiral Walke, points to a new understanding of the 
impact that Farragut may have had on Grant's operations and ulti- 
mate strategy in bringing this historic siege to a victorious end for the 
Union. 

Major John M. Elliott, staff museum specialist, has conducted research 
in techniques and processes of reproduction-casting for museum pur- 
poses, lecturing on the subject at the aviation meeting of the Interna- 
tional Congress of Museums in May 1969. He has continued work on a 
book about protective coatings and markings of United States naval 
aircraft from 1921 to the present. 

Mr. James S. Hutchins, assistant director, has continued work on a 
book about the development of United States cavalry saddles and 
bridles, 1833-1916, and pursued his studies of the role of the armed 
forces in westward expansion and of the development of animal-drawn 
and animal-borne military transport and the field equipment of the 
individual soldier. 

Mr. James J. Stokesberry, staff historian, has continued research into 
the strategic, economic, and sociological aspects of naval ship design 
and naval operations during the American Civil War period, as exem- 
plified by the monitor Tecumseh. 



Staff Publications and Papers 

Elliott, John M. "The Marine Corps' First Fighter Squadron." Journal of 

the American Aviation Historical Society (fall 1968), volume 13, number 3, 

pages 225-226. 
Hutchins, James S. "The Dodge Blanket Roll Support, 1892-1909." Military 

Collector & Historian (fall 1968), volume 20, number 3, pages 92-95. 
Magruder, John H., III. "The Eagle, Globe, and Anchor." Marine Corps 

Gazette (November 1968), volume 52, number 11, pages 38-45. 
Stokesberry, James J. "USS Tecumseh : Treasure in Mobile Bay." U.S. Naval 

Institute Proceedings (August 1968), volume 94, number 8, pages 147-149. 
. "Military History is Social History." Seminar on museum and historical 

agency administration, 5 February 1969, State University College, Buffalo, 

New York. 



I 



Woodrow Wilson International Center 
For Scholars 

Benjamin H. Read, Director 



THE WOODROW WILSON INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR SCHOLARS WaS 
established by Act of Congress, approved on 24 October 1968 (P.L. 
90-637), to be a "living memorial expressing the ideals and concerns 
of Woodrow Wilson . . . symbolizing and strengthening the fruitful 
relation between the world of learning and the world of public affairs." 

Congress has placed the Center in the Smithsonian Institution under 
the administration of its own fifteen-man, mixed public and private 
Board of Trustees to be appointed by the President. The members of 
the Board appointed by President Johnson and President Nixon in 1969 
are: Hubert H. Humphrey, chairman; Allan Nevins, vice chairman; 
James MacGregor Burns, Ernest Cuneo, Robert H. Finch, Charles A. 
Horsky, Barnaby Keeney, Harry C. McPherson, Jr., Daniel Patrick 
Moynihan, L. Quincy Mumford, James B. Rhoads, S. Dillon Ripley, 
John P. Roche, and William P. Rogers. At its organization meeting in 
March 1969, the Board appointed Benjamin H. Read as acting director. 

In April of 1969 the Ford Foundation extended a $45,000 grant to 
cover the initial operating expenses of the Center. In addition, public 
appropriations have been requested to cover other early planning and 
operating costs. 

Chairman Humphrey and the acting director have been in correspond- 
ence with several hundred persons — educators, public officials, pro- 
fessional people, businessmen, and others — in every state and a number 
of countries to obtain advice and suggestions about the future sub- 
stantive role of the Center. Discussion meetings have been held in 
Washington and elsewhere for the same purpose. When the Board met in 
October 1969, it passed on a series of recommendations concerning the 
future goals and objectives of the Center. 

The Smithsonian Institution contracted with Mr. Ralph G, Schwarz, 
president of the Urban Design and Development Corporation, a non- 
profit District of Columbia corporation established by the American 

483 



484 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Institute of Architects, to study the feasibility of the recommended site 
for the Center on the proposed Market Square across Pennsylvania 
Avenue from the National Archives Building. This corporation reported 
its conclusions to Secretary Ripley and the Board of Trustees in Sep- 
tember 1969. 

On 28 April 1969 President Nixon's message to Congress on the Dis- 
trict of Columbia described the Center in the following terms: 

... a significant addition to Pennsylvania Avenue ... an appropriate memo- 
rial to a President who combined a devotion to scholarship with a passion for 
peace ... a center for men of letters and men of affairs . . . "an institution 
of learning that the 22nd century will regard as having influenced the 21st." 

These goals the center hopes to achieve. 



American Studies Program 

WiLCOMB E. Washburn, Chairman 



THE AMERICAN STUDIES PROGRAM of the Officc of American Studies 
has continued for the fourth consecutive year in cooperation with 
universities in the local area. Although the head of the program, Wil- 
comb E. Washburn, has been on sabbatical leave during much of the 
year, the program has been carried on under the administration of 
Harold Skramstad. An orientation seminar was given in the fall of 
1968. The subject of the course this year was "The Material Culture 
of Victorian Washington, 1850-1900." Students in the seminar were 
encouraged to continue with specialized research and reading courses 
in the spring semester. A seminar in "American Technology and Its 
Cultural Impact" was also given by Harold Skramstad during the spring 
semester. 

The American Studies Program now includes, in addition to entering 
graduate students taking the orientation seminar, advanced students 
preparing doctoral dissertations with Smithsonian advisors, as well as 
others who are preparing for comprehensive examinations at their 
respective universities in fields of specialization taken at the Smith- 
sonian, The total number of graduate students in the program this year 
is eighteen, of which nine were in the orientation seminar and ten were 
involved in advanced reading and research or preparation for their 
comprehensive examinations or doctoral dissertations. The students 
participating are from George Washington University, Georgetown Uni- 
versity, Catholic University, and the University of Maryland. Staff mem- 
bers of Smithsonian Institution museums have participated in the pro- 
gram, which has been organized and coordinated by the acting head 
of the Program. 

During the summer of 1968, Dr. Washburn and Mr. Skramstad par- 
ticipated, with historian Constance McLaughlin Green and planner 
Frederick Gutheim, in a joint Smithsonian-George Washington Uni- 
versity Summer Institute in American Studies on the subject of "The 
Growth and Emergence of Washington as the Nation's Capital." Fifteen 
students from all over the country participated in the seminar. 

485 



486 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

In July 1968 Mr. Skramstad organized the Smithsonian portion of an 
East- West Center Program in American Studies (offered in conjunction 
with George Washington University and the Library of Congress) for 
Oriental students in graduate school. 

During the year a Historical Laboratories Program has begun to 
evolve under the direction of Mr. Skramstad in which graduate stu- 
dents and staff could work together on common historical problems 
involving specific historical sites. Tentative arrangements are being 
developed so that St. Mary's City and Annapolis, Maryland, and Wash- 
ington, D.C. can serve as historical laboratories for studies in 17th-, 
18th-, and 19th-century American history. 

Dr. Washburn, during his sabbatical, has presented scholarly papers 
at the Colloquium on Early Brazilian History sponsored by the Instituto 
Historico e Geografico Brasileiro in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and at the 
International Meeting on the History of Nautical Science sponsored by 
the University of Coimbra, Portugal. In addition, he has commented 
on several papers on "Science in America: New Interpretations" at 
the annual meeting of the American Historical Association; has par- 
ticipated in a panel discussion at a Conference on the Legal Rights 
of Indians in the Twentieth Century, which was sponsored by the Law 
Schools of the University of North Dakota and the University of Mani- 
toba, at Grand Forks, North Dakota; and has presented a paper on ex- 
hibit techniques at a National Park Service Seminar at Grand Canyon, 
Arizona. 

Mr. Harold Skramstad has presented a paper on the subject of 
museum-university cooperation in higher education at a meeting of the 
New England Conference of the American Associations of Museums. 

During the year, Dr. Washburn was elected to membership in the 
American Antiquarian Society, was elected to the executive council of 
the American Studies Association as Member-at-Large for History, was 
named to the Board of Visitors of the Peabody Museum of Archeology 
and Ethnology at Harvard University, and was elected vice president of 
the Japan- America Society of Washington. 



Staff Publications 

Washburn, Wilcomb E. "Are Museums Necessary?" Museum News (October 

1968), volume 47, number 2, pages 9-10. 
. "Speech Communication and Politics." Today's Speech, the Journal of 

the Speech Association of the Eastern States (November 1968), volume 16, 

number 4, pages 3-16. 

-. "Examen Critique des Questions Cartographiques dans la Decouverte." 



Pages 77-87 in La Decouverte de L'Amerique, Proceedings of the 10th Stage 



AMERICAN STUDIES PROGRAM 487 

International D'Etudes Humanistes, Tours, 1966. Paris: Librairie Philosophi- 
que J. Vrin, 1968. 

"Temple of the Arts: The Renovation of Washington's Patent Office 



Building." AIA Journal (March 1969), volume 51, number 3, pages 54-61. 



The Joseph Henry Papers 
Nathan Reingold, Editor 



AT THE END OF THE YEAR the Henry Papers staff is ready to start 
L editing the first of a projected series of 20 volumes of previously 
unpublished documents of Joseph Henry, the early American physicist 
and first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. Devoted to the early, 
Albany, New York, period of Henry's life, this volume will contain 
approximately 340 documents by, addressed to, or referring to Henry, 
as well as several hundred items on the intellectual, social, and institu- 
tional environment in which Henry first attained prominence as an 
experimental physical scientist. 

Copies of these Albany documents and an additional 16,000 manu- 
scripts covering the entire range of Henry's long career have been 
acquired by an extensive canvass of domestic and foreign institutions by 
mail and by personal visit. While this hunt is far from complete, the 
project will shortly have in its possession not only all the known Albany 
period items but also most of the extant documentation for Henry's life 
at Princeton, 1832-1846. Although the Henry Papers staff has located 
many sources for Henry's Smithsonian period, 1846-1878, particularly 
the early formative years, the bulk of these manuscripts necessarily will 
remain unprocessed until the work of the early volumes are further 
advanced. All of the primary sources are being described and indexed 
by a computer system. 

The ultimate purpose of an edition of the Henry Papers is not the 
mere convenience of having source materials in readable form but that 
our knowledge and understanding of the past is significantly increased. 
So much fresh material has come to light that the staff faces an embar- 
rassment of riches in making the selection for the letterpress edition. 
While certain topics suffer, unfortunately, from the loss of documenta- 
tion, others are profusely illustrated by manuscripts of great intrinsic 
interest. The early Albany period lacks many key items of evidence on the 
origins and nature of Henry's early research. For the Princeton years, 
there are very many splendid manuscripts on Henry's intellectual devel- 
opment. Much has turned up on the growth of Henry's ideas on educa- 
tion, on scientific method, and on the history of the American scientific 

366-269 O— 70 32 489 



490 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

community in this period. Despite destruction in the fire of 1865, many 
items on Henry's concept of the Smithsonian Institution and on its 
operations in the early years have been located by the Henry Papers staff. 



Staff Publications and Papers 

Reingold, Nathan. "National Aspirations and Local Purposes." Transactions of 
the Kansas Academy oj Sciences (1968), volume 71, number 3, pages 235-246. 

• : "American Indifference to Basic Research, a Reappraisal." University of 

Illinois, Champaign, Illinois. May 1969. 

"Using a Computer in Historical Research." University of Illinois, 



Champaign, Illinois. May 1969. 



SPECIAL PROGRAMS 

Frank A. Taylor 

Director General of Museums 

and 

Director, United States National Museum 



Office of the Director General of Museums 

Frank A. Taylor, Director General of Museums 



AN IMPORTANT EVENT OF THE YEAR for the muscums of the United 
L States has been the publication of the Belmont conferees' report 
describing the urgent needs of America's museums. The Belmont Report 
outlines the opportunities museums have within their grasp to make 
outstanding contributions to the cultural and educational development 
of the United States and to improve the quality of life for all Americans. 
Ironically, its publication coincided with announcements by officials of 
several large cities of their intent to reduce or terminate the financial 
support of museums. 

The report states the problems museums face in meeting their respon- 
sibilities and recommends continuing studies of broad museum needs. 
For this purpose it speaks affirmatively of the National Museum Act as 
an authorized means to fund the studies required to develop justifica- 
tions and procedures to obtain new aid for museums. The accreditation 
of museums and the setting of standards of performance and eligibility 
to qualify them for public aid is a necessary and complex undertaking. 
The Smithsonian under the authority of the National Museum Act has 
responded to requests from the American Association of Museums 
(aam) for grants in aid of the Association's accreditation study. 

Similarly, the Smithsonian under the authority of the act has coop- 
erated with the Southeast Museums Conference in an experiment to 
improve the value of the annual meetings of regional conferences. The 
response to publication of the results of the two annual meetings has 
been so favorable that officers of other regional associations have re- 
quested advice and aid for developing similar meetings. At the request 
of AAM, the Smithsonian has made a grant to the Association to carry 
on the experiment in each of its six regional conferences. 

Smithsonian documentary resources required to respond to steadily in- 
creasing requests for information about museums and for advice and 
assistance in meeting museum problems have been enlarged this year. 
Substantial aid has been given to the final editing of the report on a 
museum questionnaire circulated two years ago. This report was pub- 
lished in the summer of 1969 by the Office of Education. 

493 



494 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

The Office of the Director General of Museums has responded to 
numerous requests for advice from university, city, and state museums 
involved in reorganizing or rebuilding their institutions. Smithsonian 
scientists, museum directors, exhibits specialists, conservators, and others 
have gone to these museums to advise on problems and plans. 

Officers and staff of the Smithsonian have cooperated with the 
director and officers of the American Association of Museums and the 
officers of the United States Committee of the International Council 
of Museums to establish a working relationship between the two groups 
for the benefit of domestic and foreign museums. Through the imagina- 
tive guidance of Peter Powers, Smithsonian general counsel, a permanent 
development secretary for icoM will join the headquarters stafT of aam. 
At the annual meeting of aam the director general participated in a 
panel discussion demonstrating to the American museum professionals 
the values of icoM for museums of Canada, Mexico, and the United 
States. He pointed out that strong representation of museums before 
international cultural and development organizations can have impor- 
tant consequences for the museums of the United States. The director 
and the general counsel attended the working sessions, the executive 
committee meetings, and the general assembly of the icom Triennial 
Conference in Germany as representatives of Secretary Ripley, who was 
elected vice president of icom. 

The director, in cooperation with the officers of the icom Inter- 
national Committee for Museums of Science and Technology, has con- 
tinued to plan a laboratory to be established in India to produce basic 
science exhibits designed to meet the specific needs of individual develop- 
ing countries. The Smithsonian Office of International Activities is co- 
operating in the support of a meeting to be held in Bangalore, India, 
to define the project in detail. 

Experimentation and investigation of the methods required to im- 
prove the impact of museum exhibits has continued during the year. 
The annual meeting of the Southeast Museums Conference mentioned 
earlier was based on the subject of exhibits evaluation and testing. This 
was followed by a seminar at the Smithsonian on museum communica- 
tion and the new techniques available to involve viewers with exhibits 
and to collect information about museum visitors and what they con- 
sider relevant to their interests. The visitors' survey is continuing, and a 
summer institute for selected undergraduates on the subject of exhibition 
objectives and methods was held under the direction of Peter Welsh. 
Conversations are continuing between the director of Academic Pro- 
grams and a number of university people to determine ways and means 
of producing exhibitions on issues and concerns of the times that will 



I 



OFFICE OF THE DEREGTOR GENERAL OF MUSEUMS 495 

permit the viewer to make choices of priorities and solutions, to see the 
consequences of his decisions, and to register his likes and dislikes. 

The Exposition Hall programs under the direction of Lloyd Her- 
man are providing opportunities for experimentation with exhibits of a 
temporary kind. At the request of members of the Federal City College 
faculty, classes on design and reporting have been held in the "Photog- 
raphy and the City" exhibition. The exhibition "The Concerned Photog- 
rapher" is being used as a test of the principle of charging admission 
to special exhibits. An exhibition surveying United States industrial 
design in 1968, co-sponsored by Industrial Design magazine, has been 
visited by industrial design classes from as far away as Baltimore. Film 
showings and a guest industrial design speaker have underscored the 
importance of good design in our environment. The premier exhibition 
of "Please Be Seated," tracing the history and evolution of the chair 
from 2000 b.c. to the present, has offered local art and history students 
opportunities for class visits and a "sketch-in" at the exhibit. The re- 
habilitation of public spaces and the general improvement of the ap- 
pearance of the Arts and Industries Building have continued. 

Laboratories and offices of the Smithsonian have provided instruction 
in museum practices for more than 500 museum personnel who came 
from other institutions to spend from a day to a year learning techniques 
of exhibition, conservation of museum objects, management of collec- 
tions, and administration. These visitors came from 35 states and 25 
foreign countries. Many attended on international travel grants pro- 
vided by international foundations. A number obtained college credit 
under cooperative arrangements between their universities and the 
Smithsonian Office of Academic Programs. 

Mr. Welsh participated on three occasions at the New York State 
Historical Association at Cooperstown in seminars on the use and pres- 
entation of nonverbal material in teaching social studies. In addition, 
he has taught a seminar in the Cooperstown Graduate Program that 
investigated the attitudes and values in American naive art. He con- 
tinues to serve as editor of the Smithsonian Journal of History. 

Planning for the Smithsonian's participation in the Bicentennial 
of the American Revolution, the events leading to it, and the subsequent 
development of the United States, has been accelerated through the 
efforts of John J. Slocum, a Foreign Service Information Officer detailed 
by the United States Information Agency in February 1969 to serve 
as Special Assistant for Bicentennial Planning. Mr. Slocum, has had 
extensive experience in international exhibitions and celebrations both 
in this country and abroad. 



496 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

He is now coordinating the plans of various Smithsonian offices and 
is serving as the haison officer between the Smithsonian and the Ameri- 
can Revolution Bicentennial Commission, other government agencies, 
and private organizations. 



Office of Exhibits Programs 
John E. Anglim, Chief 



SMITHSONIAN EXHIBITS HAVE ATTEMPTED to rcach the public at cvcry 
available level of communication, giving multidimensional per- 
sonalized meaning, in the sense of today, to the facts of history, and 
science, and technology. Under its chief, John E. Anglim, and assistant 
chief, Benjamin W. Lawless, the Office of Exhibits Programs has sought 
to develop an especially meaningful rapport between the exhibit and 
the visitor, inviting truly significant museum-to-visitor mutual 
involvement. 

Exhibits have had more impact, more relevance than ever before, 
seeking to tell their stories with candor and clarity. They have related 
the object to the visitor, the visitor to the object, the visitors to each 
other and to their predecessors. For only in this way can the real mean- 
ing of the historic, the scientific, the technological be understood. Only 
when the visitor can become personally involved with the exhibit will he 
gain a sense of himself, will he understand the object being exhibited. 
This has been the aim of the exhibits throughout the museums in 
1969 — those mounted by the staff assigned to the National Museum 
of History and Technology under the direction of Benjamin W. Lawless, 
chief, and Richard F. Virgo, chief of design; those by the staff at the 
National Museum of Natural History under the direction of James A. 
Mahoney, chief; and those by the staff of the National Air and Space 
Museum under the direction of Harry Hart, chief. 

Epitomizing especially this mutual involvement of visitor and object 
has been the spectacular exhibit "The History of Jazz," which filled the 
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum with visitors for six weeks during 
the winter and then went on to reopen in downtown Washington at 
the Corcoran Gallery of Art's new Dupont Center. Designer Kenneth 
Young of the exhibits staff, assigned to the National Museum of History 
and Technology, has summarized the purpose of the exhibit as giving 
the "feeling of jazz" by teaching (relating the history of jazz to the 
music of today) and by community involvement (the youngsters of 
Anacostia presented their own interpretation of jazz through a mural 
that they painted for the exhibit). In an Environment Room (using 

497 



498 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




The Lilly Collection of Gold Coins, designed by Steven Makovenyi (above), 
was one of the year's major exhibitions (photo courtesy Larry Stevens). 



Exhibits specialist Frank Caldwell mounts one of the 6,018 gold coins in the 
Lilly Exhibition (photo courtesy Larry Stevens). 




OFFICE OF EXHIBITS PROGRAMS 



499 



two films and six slide projectors) , visitors felt that they were actually 
walking amid a street-marching jazz band. They also saw musical instru- 
ments associated with the history of jazz: the trumpets of Dizzy Gil- 
lespie and Louis Armstrong. There were paintings from Birdland in 
New York portraying some of the greats of jazz: Sarah Vaughn, Count 
Basic, Billy Eckstine, Ella Fitzgerald, Earl Garner, and more. The total 
exhibit told the story of jazz in a vital, meaningful way that embraced 
the visitor; the Anacostia youngster became a part of it; it gave him a 
"sense of himself." 

This has been just one of the unprecedented number of special exhibits 
in which the Office of Exhibits Programs has sought to reach the 
Smithsonian's millions of visitors, and, at the same time, to insure that 
the museum represented and communicated with all Americans. Other 
exhibits so motivated have included "Human Rights," "Quest for the 
Presidency," "Hail to the Chief," "Women, Csuneras, and Images," and 
"Music Making Country Style" in the History and Technology Building; 
"Right to Existence," "African Interlude," and "Masada" in the 
Natural History Building; and the Saga of Anacostia" at the Anacostia 
Neighborhood Museum. 



Mrs. Samuel K. B. Asante of Ghana 
examines a work of sculpture in the 
"African Interlude" exhibit with Mrs. 
Willie Mae Pelham, museum aide in 
the Division of Cultural Anthropology. 



African Interlude, an exhibition of 
indigenous arts, artifacts, and tex- 
tiles from several African nations, 
attracted large crowds, including 
many youngsters. 




500 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



The exhibits of 1968-69 also have included "The Japan Expedition," 
designed by Lucius Lomax, handsomely commemorating Commodore 
Matthew Calbraith Perry's historic and successful mission to open Japan 
to United States trade in the mid 19th century. In the National Museum 
of History and Technology has been the immense Lilly Collection of 
Gold Coins, designed by Steven Makovenyi to present the 6,000 gold 
coins collected by Josiah K. Lilly, Jr. In the Arts and Industries Build- 
ing, which is being readied for its role as the Smithsonian's Exposition 
Hall, have been, among other exhibits : "Please Be Seated," encompass- 
ing the little-known history of the chair; the "Bolivian Exhibit," 
brought from HemisFair; "1968 Design Review;" and "Urban Design: 
Manhattan, West." 

All of these have been special exhibitions (as opposed to perma- 
nent)- — temporary and relatively low-cost. The Office of Exhibits Pro- 
grams has produced sixty-six of them in 1969 and has edited and printed 
labels for thirty-four more for the Traveling Exhibition Service. By 
their very nature, temporary shows are superbly valuable as experimen- 
tal vehicles. They permit the testing of ideas and philosophies, and me- 
chanical innovations as well, suggesting further development of those 
that prove good, and offering easy discard of those that do not. Expe- 
rience with the specials has been applied to the permanent exhibits as 
ways were continually explored to make permanent halls more flexible 
and more current to new concepts of science, history, and technology. 




Exhibits fabricators Herbert L. 
Brumback (left) and Olaf L. 
Leatherland construct coin cab- 
inets for the Lilly Collection. 
Utmost accuracy of measure- 
ment was required to insure the 
necessary tight seal (photo cour- 
tesy Larry Stevens). 




Yoruba Textiles and Clothing, a new exhibit in the Cultures of Africa and Asia 
Hall, was the project of a trainee whose nine-month fellowship permitted 
extensive study of exhibits techniques. 



A colorful woodblock print in The Japan Expedition depicts a "foreign ship and 
some of the people it brought," according to the Japanese legend at far right. 
Commodore Perry is represented in the upper row, extreme right (photo 
courtesy Mariners Museum) . 




«^ 









502 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Mrs. Terezia Takacs works on a» 
design for the philately special 
exhibit Commonwealth in Africa 
and the Caribbean. 




Workmen install a piece of pottery for Masada, a portrayal of one of the most 
dramatic episodes in Jewish history. 



OFFICE OF EXHIBITS PROGRAMS 



503 




Exhibits technician Nicholas Michnya Fisk University trainees learn silk- 
prepares a silk screen for an exhibits screening techniques in the History 
label (photo courtesy Larry Stevens). and Technology Exhibits laboratory. 



Karen Loveland, who heads the Exhibits film unit, directs shooting of a movie 
for The History of Jazz. Films such as this and other audiovisual projects have 
contributed much to a rapport with museum visitors. 



ppi^«^»ri^^i^* 




■pp 



Tfc 



-\ 




■■■ #1 



^fj(f^ 



m- f i :• 1 



3Hf 



HAIL TO THE CHIEF 




Hail to the Chief, a lively record of Presidential inaugurations, succeeded Quest 
for the Presidency, the story of America's colorful political campaigns. 



OFFICE OF EXHIBITS PROGRAMS 505 

Significant work has continued in the past year on thirty-two perma- 
nent and semipermanent halls, especially the Halls of Electricity, Autos 
and Coaches, and Iron and Steel in the History and Technology Build- 
ing, the Hall of Living Things in the Natural History Building, and 
(editing and printing for) the National Portrait Gallery. 

Air and Space exhibits, which reverted in 1969 to the Office of Ex- 
hibits Programs, have included the first Annual Aerospace Model Ex- 
hibit, with model-building demonstrations that continued through the 
summer; a presentation in the Arts and Industries Building of the exper- 
imental rocket plane X-15-1; and the exhibition on the Mall of the 
NC-4, commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the first transatlantic 
flight. 

Also among the exciting developments of the year have been the film 
and audiovisual programs, both undertaken to create more and increas- 
ingly efTective communications with visitors. Under the direction of 
Karen Loveland, the Film Unit made eleven movies, including two 
for the jazz exhibit; a lively film on pottery-making that now captures 
the visitor's attention as he approaches the Ceramics Hall ; and a movie 
in the Agriculture Hall that compares old and modern sawmills. 

The widely ranging audiovisual supplements developed under the 
direction of Eugene F. Behlen have added dimensions to exhibits 
throughout the museums: the "Star-Spangled Banner," narrated by 
Archibald MacLeish; various sounds of the Smithsonian, including the 
1401 steam engine, clocks and watches, tools, power machinery, and 
country music — all in the History and Technology Building; the ele- 
phant, whales, and porpoises, and many other sounds in the Natural 
History Building. Slide shows throughout the buildings now provide yet 
another facet to scores of exhibits. In 1969, twenty-eight new audiovis- 
ual programs have been installed. 

Now in the Natural History Building and soon to be installed in the 
History and Technology Building is the "By- Word" audio system, which 
provides additional information about exhibits to visitors renting head- 
sets. These curator-approved exhibits supplements, developed under 
the direction of senior museologist A. Gilbert Wright, further involve 
the visitor in the exhibit, often presenting unique sounds relevant to 
the subject as well as more detailed information than is possible in most 
exhibits labels. 

New organizations set up within the Office of Exhibits in 1969 have 
included a special unit under the direction of Harry Hart to produce 
traveling exhibits on Negro history — exhibits intended to show the right- 
ful role of the American Negro in the development of the nation. One 
such exhibit has been written by Joanne Lewis; another, now in pro- 

366-269 O— 70 33 



506 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

duction, was written and designed by Larry Thomas of the Anacostia 
Neighborhood Museum. 

Another new and vital organization, headed by Carl A. Alexander, is 
the training division to coordinate and conduct the many programs 
under w^hich the Office of Exhibits provides instruction for visiting stu- 
dents, grantees, and representatives of museums around the world. 
Many of the trainees are young people who offer the Smithsonian fresh 
approaches to the avenues through which the museum can communi- 
cate with its visitors. The students themselves are thoughtful and candid, 
eager to pierce through the myths of traditionalism as they seek out the 
facts of history. For example, a group of students from Fisk University 
enrolled in a formal twelve-week seminar with the Office of Exhibits 
in the summer of 1969. They chose Color Me Mankind as the subject 
of the exhibit that they produced. It was displayed first at the Smith- 
sonian, later at Fisk and elsewhere. 

In all, 26 persons from seven states and nine foreign countries have 
been trained a total of 6,065 hours in 1969, trainees that include the 
recipient of a special nine-month fellowship granted by the National 
Foundation of Arts and Humanities. The exhibit of Yoruba textiles 
developed by this student is now in the Cultures of Africa and Asia Hall 
in the Natural History Building. 

Participating in many of the training programs, as well as in the per- 
manent and special exhibitions, in By-word, in numerous tape record- 
ings, and in other exhibits-related material has been the Exhibits Edi- 
tor's office under the direction of Mrs. Constance Minkin. The writing, 
editing, and typographic services of this unit in 1969 have included the 
production of approximately 14,000 labels, ten leaflets, brochures, and 
directories, and the coauthorship of a popular publication supple- 
mentary to the Philately Hall. 

Also contributing to the exhibitions in both the Natural History and 
the History and Technology Buildings, as well as the many exhibits for 
other organizations in and outside the Smithsonian, have been the light- 
ing and special-efTects unit directed by Carroll B. Lusk, the freeze-dry 
laboratory directed by Rolland O. Hower, the sound-systems office, the 
horticultural section, the conservation laboratories, the plastic shops, the 
model shops, and the silk-screen facilities. William M. Clark, assisted 
by Stanley M. Santoroski, heads the production laboratory for the 
National Museum of History and Technology, while Frank A. Nelms, 
assisted by Charles W. Mickens, heads the laboratory for the Museum 
of Natural History. 







Visitors examine old political banners assembled for Quest for the Presidency, 
a colorful exhibit that highlighted the 1968 campaign. 



Human Rights Year (1968), a special exhibition in the Hall of Historic Ameri- 
cans, depicted the struggles of American women and of American Negroes in 
enlarging their basic human rights. 




508 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 



Special Exhibits 



History and Technology Building 



Exhibit 

Quest for the Presidency 

American Folk Craft Survivals 

Jet Surgery 

National Portrait Gallery 

Stencil Ornaments of Louis Sullivan 

Drawings by Edgar Dorsey Taylor 

Malta Stamps 

Patent Controversies in History of Radio 

Raphael Soyer's Prints 

Women, Cameras, and Images I (Cunningham) 

Puppet Theater I and II 

Abandoned Mine Scenes 

Recent Accessions III 

Memorial to General Eisenhower 

Music Making Country Style 

Townshend Act 

The Capitol of the Future 

High School Graphics 

Inaugural Medals 

Art and Astronomy 

Helium Centennial 

Anniversary of the Armistice 

Coins and Medals of Israel 

Reading is Fundamental 

Lilly Collection of Gold Coins 

Lingering Shadows 

Commonwealth in Africa and the Caribbean 

Ginning Cotton 

Hail to the Chief 

Human Rights 

Swiss Folk Art 

West German Stamps 

Golden Spike 

Coke Push 



Designer 
Alfred McAdams 
Deborah Bretzfelder 
Deborah Bretzfelder 
Kenneth Young 
Jerald Shelton 
Deborah Bretzfelder 
Deborah Bretzfelder 
Nadya Makovenyi 
Deborah Bretzfelder 
Nadya Makovenyi 
Terezia Takacs 
Terezia Takacs 
Deborah Bretzfelder 
Robert Widder 
William Haase 
Barbara Fellows 
Richard Virgo 
Barbara Fellows 
Robert Widder 
Kenneth Young 
Alfred McAdams 
Deborah Bretzfelder 
Steven Makovenyi 
William Haase 
Steven Makovenyi 
Nadya Makovenyi 
Terezia Takacs 
Jerald Shelton 
Alfred McAdams 
William Haase 
Barbara Fellows 
Terezia Takacs 
Kenneth Young 
Kenneth Young 



Natural History Building 



Berlandier in Texas 

Carl-Henning Pederson 

Birds of the Eastern Forest 

Masada 

African Interlude 



Joseph Shannon 
James Mahoney 
WilHam Haase 
William Haase 
James Speight 



OFFICE OF EXHIBITS PROGRAMS 

Natural History Building — Continued 



509 



Exhibit 

The Japan Expedition 
Right of Existence 
Man's New Environment 
Tibetan Carpets 
Daraniyagala Paintings 
Yoruba Textiles 



Designer 
Lucius Lomax 
James Speight 
Lucius Lomax 
Dorothy Guthrie 
Lucius Lomax 
Lucius Lomax 



Arts and Industries Building 



1st Annual Aerospace Modeling 

X-15-1 

Apollo 

Planetary Exploration 

Urban Design: Manhattan, West 

Concerned Photographer 

Please Be Seated 

Bolivia 



Harry Hart 
Harry Hart 
Harry Hart 
Harry Hart 
Richard Virgo 
James Speight 
Robert Widder 
Richard Virgo 



The Mall 
NC-4, First Transatlantic Flight Harry Hart 



Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 



The History of Jazz 
16 Washington Artists 

Sage of Anacostia 

All "27" of Me 



Kenneth Young 

Larry Thomas and James 

Mayo 
Larry Thomas and James 

Mayo 
Larry Thomas and James 

Mayo 



Other 

FBI Block (shown at D.C. National Bank) 
Chesapeake Bay Project (traveling) 
History of Photography (traveling) 
Printing of the Past (shown at National Press Build- 
ing, District of Columbia) 



Deborah Bretzfelder 
Morris Pearson 
Steven Makovenyi 
Deborah Bretzfelder 



National Portrait Gallery 
(editing and printing) 



This New Man 
Longacre Engravings 



510 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 
(editing and printing) 

The American Landscape — A Living Tradition 

Stitching 

Marine Combat Art — Viet Nam 

Hans Christian Andersen 

Discovering Color In Nature 

Japanese Dolls 

Colors and Patterns in the Animal Kingdom 

Paul Feeley : Watercolors and Drawings 

The Paintings and Drawings of Justin Daraniyagala 

UNESCO Reproductions of Paintings From 1900 to 1925 

Handicrafts of the Southeast 

The Color of Man 

German Posters 

Radius 5 

John Held Jr. : "The Roaring Twenties" 

Polish Children and UNICEF 

Toledo Glass National II 

Polynesian Art 

Silent Cities : Mexico and the Maya 

Easter Island 

Carl-Henning Pedersen 

Recent Graphics from Prague 

Preservation of Abu-Simbel 

Photo Graphics 

View from Space 

Moppets and the Moon 

Recent British Prints 

Stage Design by Stewart Chaney 

Embrodieries by Children of Chijnaya 

Southern Sculpture '67 

Visual Arts and the Deaf 

Yugoslav Naive Paintings and Sculpture 

Georgian Country Houses 

Icon-Idea 

Permanent Exhibitions in Progress 

History and Technology Building 

Exhibit Designer 

Graphic Arts Alfred McAdams 

Foucault Pendulum Jerald Shelton 

Petroleum Alfred McAdams 

Philately John Clendening 

Electricity Nadya Makovenyi 

Merchant Shipping Steven Makovenyi and 

Barbara Fellows 



OFFICE OF EXHIBITS PROGRAMS 511 

History and Technology Building — Continued 

Exhibit Designer 

Physical Sciences John Clendening and 

Kenneth Young 

Armed Forces John Clendening 

Agriculture Alfred McAdams 

Everyday Life in the American Past Deborah Bretzfelder 

Autos and Coaches John Clendening 

Light Machinery Jerald Shelton 

Growth of the United States Deborah Bretzfelder 

First Ladies Deborah Bretzfelder 

Medical Sciences Deborah Bretzfelder 

Ceramics Robert Widder 

Doll House Nadya Makovenyi 

Nuclear Energy Alfred McAdams 

Musical Instruments Richard Virgo 

Railroads Kenneth Young 



Natural History Building 

Hall of Living Things Joseph Shannon 

Cultures of Africa and Asia Lucius Lomax 

Life in the Sea Lucius Lomax 

Comparative Osteology Morris Pearson 

Physical Geology Dorothy Guthrie 

Paleontology Lucius Lomax 

Meteorites Dorothy Guthrie 

Physical Anthropology Joseph Shannon 

Gems Dorothy Guthrie 

Elephant Morris Pearson 

National Portrait Gallery 

(editing and printing) 
The Presidents 
"Permanent Exhibitions" 

National Air and Space Museum 
Various Harry Hart 

Audiovisual Installations 



History and Technology Building 

Women, Cameras, and Images (Cunningham) 

Music Making Country Style 

Quest for the Presidency 

Sounds of the Clocks, Light Machinery hall 

Ipswich House, Growth of the United States hall 



512 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 

Audiovisual Installations — Continued 

History and Technology Building — Continued 

Stereophonic Chairs, Musical Instruments hall 
Slide Presentation, Musical Instruments hall 
Kerr-McGee Drilling Rig, Petroleum hall 
Pottery Making, Ceramics hall 
Hail to the Chief 

Political Parade, Hall of Historic Americans 
Machine Shop, Tool hall 
Sawmills, Farm Machinery hall 

Natural History Building 

Whale and Porpoise Sounds, Life in the Sea hall 

The Japan Expedition 

Foyer 

Tibetan Rugs 

Right of Existence 

Masada 

African Interlude 

Volcano, Physical Geology hall 

Arts and Industries 

Photography and the City 
Museum Shops 
Bolivia 
Urban Design 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

Making of a Museum 
The History of Jazz 
Sage of Anacostia 

Other 

The History of Jazz, Corcoran Gallery Dupont Center 

Exhibits Films 

Film Installation or Purpose 

Pottery Making Ceramics Hall 

Jazz (two films) The History of Jazz 

Nehru Presented to Mrs. Nehru 

The Stamp Engraver as an Artist Philately Hall 

Endangered Species Right of Existence 

Volcanoes Physical Geology 

Docents Produced for Office of Academic Pro- 
grams 

Organic Forms Produced for Office of Academic Pro- 
grams 

Sawmill Agriculture Hall 

Moppets in Space Children's Film 

Hail to the Chief (Editing of Presidential Films) 



Conservation-Analytical Laboratory 
Robert M. Organ, Chief 



THE EXTREMELY VARIED ACTIVITIES of the laboratory staff fall, of 
course, into the two principal categories of conservation and 
analysis. 

Analytical work requested by curators for use in their own research 
and publications has continued steadily. 

The analytical methods in use are kept under review. At present, 
using available instruments, a method of quantitative analysis by x-ray 
fluorescence spectrometry is being developed that holds promise of 
being more generally satisfactory for museum needs than others that 
adequately serve industry. 

Analytical facilities are being extended into neutron-activation analy- 
sis, making use of the atomic pile at the National Bureau of Standards. 
Papers have been published already on the use of this method to dis- 
tinguish among excavated pots of the American colonial period those 
that were imported from England. Expansion of this work into studies of 
ancient glass is projected. 

Another project, carried out by a summer interne, has involved 
analysis by infrared spectrophotometry of samples of a blue Mayan 
pigment with the object of discovering its relationship to a blue pig- 
ment currently made and used by the Seri-Indians. This work has 
been part of a larger project, still incomplete, aimed at identifying 
the coloring factor in Maya Blue. 

About fifteen requisitions have given rise to more than eighty analyses 
of various degrees of complexity, ranging from spectrographic estima- 
tions (e.g.. Oriental bronze and Peruvian silver) of forty elements at 
a precision of ±50 percent of the quantity found to the simple identifi- 
cation of crystalline substances (e.g., pigments from paintings, corrosion 
crusts found on objects from underwater) . 

The problem of proper conservation of the millions of objects within 
the Smithsonian collections is immense and fragmented. 

In general, the Conservation-Analytical Laboratory has sought to keep 
itself widely and well informed about sources of deterioration and to 
convey relevant information, analytical data, and, in emergency, even 

513 



514 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 69 




Oval daguerrotype photograph (about 15 inches high) of former President 
Lyndon Johnson as a small boy aged four. As received (left), varnish and photo- 
graphic emulsion