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Smiths onian year 

197 A 

Smithsonian Year • 7974 


Secretary S. Dillon Ripley cuts an anniversary cake at a ceremony in the Smithsonian 
Castle on February 26, 1974, commemorating his decade of service as director of the 
Smithsonian Institution. Among others who joined in the celebration are former 
Secretary Alexander Wetmore, Mrs. Ripley (center), and Mrs. Reginald Bragonier. 


Smithsonian Year • 1974 




JUNE 30, 1974 

Smithsonian Institution Press • City of Washington • 1974 




^ve o^ 

Smithsonian Publication 5229 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 67-7980 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C., 20402— Price $6.65 (paper cover) Stock Number: 4700-00323 

Smithsonian Year • 7^74 


The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 1846 
in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson of Eng- 
land, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of 
America "to found at Washington, under the name of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion 
of knowledge among men." After receiving the property and accept- 
ing the trust. Congress incorporated the Institution in an "establish- 
ment," whose statutory members are the President, the Vice 
President, the Chief Justice, and the heads of the executive depart- 
ments, and vested responsibility for administering the trust in the 
Smithsonian Board of Regents. 


Richard M. Nixon, President of the United States 

Gerald R. Ford, Vice President of the United States 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States 

Henry A. Kissinger, Secretary of State 

William E. Simon, Secretary of Treasury 

\ James R. Schlesinger, Secretary of Defense 

William B. Saxbe, Attorney General 

Rogers C. B. Morton, Secretary of Interior 

Earl L. Butz, Secretary of Agriculture 

Frederick B. Dent, Secretary of Commerce 

Peter J. Brennan, Secretary of Labor 

Caspar W. Weinberger, Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare 

James T. Lynn, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 

Claude S. Brinegar, Secretary of Transportation 

Board of Regents and Secretary • June 30, 1974 


Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, Chancellor 

Gerald R. Ford, Vice President of the United States 

J. William Fulbright, Member of the Senate 

Henry M. Jackson, Member of the Senate 

Hugh Scott, Member of the Senate 

George H. Mahon, Member of the House of Representatives 

William E. Minshall, Member of the House of Representatives 

John J. Rooney, Member of the House of Representatives 

John Paul Austin, citizen of Georgia 

John Nicholas Brown, citizen of Rhode Island 

William A. M. Burden, citizen of New York 

Robert F. Goheen, citizen of New Jersey 

Crawford H. Greenewalt, citizen of Delaware 

Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of Washington, D.C. 

A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., citizen of Pennsylvania 

Thomas J. Watson, Jr., citizen of Connecticut 

James E. Webb, citizen of Washington, D.C. 


Warren E. Burger, Chancellor (Board of Regents) 

William A. M. Burden 

Caryl P. Haskins 

James E. Webb (Chairman) 

THE SECRETARY S. Dillon Ripley 




David Challinor, Assistant Secretary for Science 
Charles Blitzer, Assistant Secretary for History and Art 
Paul N. Perrot, Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs 
Julian Euell, Assistant Secretary for Public Service 
T. Ames Wheeler 
Peter G. Powers 


Smithsonian Year • 1974 







59 Center for the Study of Man 

61 Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 

65 Fort Pierce Bureau 

68 National Air and Space Museum 

74 National Museum of Natural History 

95 National Zoological Park 

107 Office of International and Environmental Programs 

112 Radiation Biology Laboratory 

124 Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

129 Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, Inc. 

132 Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 


V 145 Archives of American Art 

147 Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design 

150 Freer Gallery of Art 

154 Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

162 Joseph Henry Papers 

163 National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 

164 National Collection of Fine Arts 

170 National Museum of History and Technology 

187 National Portrait Gallery 

191 Office of Academic Studies 

193 Office of American Studies 



200 Conservation-Analytical Laboratory 

202 National Museum Act Program 

204 Office of Exhibits Central 

204 Office of Museum Programs 

206 Office of the Registrar 

207 Smithsonian Institution Archives 

208 Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

214 Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 


220 Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

222 Division of Performing Arts 

225 Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

227 Office of Public Affairs 

232 Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars 

235 Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. 

239 Smithsonian (magazine) 

240 Smithsonian Associates 

247 Smithsonian Institution Press 


251 Support Activities 

262 Financial Services 

267 Office of Audits 

269 International Exchange Service 

270 Smithsonian Women's Council 





292 Members of the Smithsonian Council, June 30, 1974 
294 Academic Appointments, 1973-1974 

303 Smithsonian Associates Membership, 1973-1974 

311 Progress on Building Construction, Restoration, and Renovation 

313 Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program Grants Awarded 

in Fiscal Year 1974 

316 News Releases, Radio Programs, and Leaflets Issued 

by the Office of Public Affairs in Fiscal Year 1974 

329 Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press 

in Fiscal Year 1974 

336 Publications and Selected "Contributions of the 

Smithsonian Institution Staff in Fiscal Year 1974 

408 Visitors to the Smithsonian Institution in Fiscal Year 1974 

409 Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1974 

434 List of Donors to the Smithsonian Institution in Fiscal Year 1974 


Smithsonian Year -1974 



Joseph Henry and his family in 1862 outside the Castle where he lived for twenty- nine years, 
in the park — the "people's park" — now the familiar Mall, and still the people's park. > 

A Decade of ''Increase and Diffusion" 


This is the tenth Annual Report of the Institution which I have had 
the honor to prepare. In these years it has been a surcease to find how 
stable the aspects of the Smithsonian have been which match the 
needs of the people. "Increase and diffusion/' that tantalizing phrase, 
continues to be our watchword. We attempt to adhere steadily to cer- 
tain goals, and to eschew transitory fads. 

This past year in Washington has been one of a kind of misty sus- 
pension, like the haze that hangs over the river bottom in the early 
mornings spring and fall, in our famous marshes of reclaimed land, 
known as 'Toggy Bottom." This curious state of suspense has been 
somewhat akin to sitting in an operating theatre, although the sur- 
geons were invisible and the body only faintly lighted in a penumbral 
shade, waiting for the eclipse to go away. Day by day there were con- 
flicting sounds, adumbrations which swirled about us through the 
medium of the news. The shadows lengthened during the year as if 
the operation was too long and the body might turn into a cadaver. 
But later the pall eased, we breathed again, realizing that the patient 
would recover, the body politic was alive after all. For in the process 
we all survived. The surgery had not really been directed entirely to 
any one person. It has been a kind of psychosurgery or mental vivi- 
section directed at us all, and in the end we may have emerged better, 
we hope, for the ordeal. From the Smithsonian towers we can docu- 
ment the events, hopeful that in time we can present an objective vi- 
sion of this segment of the history of our times for those who come to 
see and learn from our "diffusion." 

In science the Smithsonian's research, our "increase," continues in 
the study of the natural world about us, the objects of creation on the 
land, the seas, and the phenomena they enclose; and the planets, the 

measuring of our Earth against them, the Sun and its effect upon us/j 
and the steady tabulation of the phenomena of outer space. 

In history we continue with our encyclopaedic endeavors in the 
history of American culture and the preservation of that history; 
whether by conserving the objects or the processes of creation which 
they represent. 

In art we continue to follow our mandate to preserve, collect, ex- 
hibit, and encourage the study of American art, its roots in the rest of 
the world, and its current evolution. With the present interest of our 
government in sponsoring and supporting the arts and humanities, a 
new partnership, in theme at least, begins to emerge. Although sepa- 
rate, the Smithsonian maintains common interests and close ties withi 
the National Endowments for the Arts and for the Humanities. Both 
share common tasks, and both work together progressively through 
the Federal Council on the Arts and the Humanities. This is especially 
important in the forthcoming events of the Bicentennial years. In ad- 
dition there is much to interest the Endowments in the new art mu- 
seum opening on the Mall in October, 1974, and in the burgeoning; 
studies in art and art history being undertaken by the various Smith- 
sonian enterprises, as well as in the living Folk Festivals. What a, 
celebration of the American Spirit these Endowments have become, 
and how vital their part in encouraging American creativity as well as; 
cultural history and research! 

All of which is to say that like the Endowments the Smithsonian is< 
alive and well, whether in science or in art, and that each year its; 
purposes and its services are becoming increasingly apparent and: 
comprehensible to our people. As the Institution becomes more un- 
derstood so the morale of its staff improves. We all realize the impor- 
tance to our citizens of what we are doing, and this improves our own" 
quality and our dedication. So be it. j 

As we become more important to people, our visitors increase, ouri 
memberships in the Associates increase, our magazine and related^ 
publications and benefits reach out further and further (our member-? 
ships now are 622,000) and so our responsibilities to be true to ouri 
goals and to increase and diffuse knowledge become more evident. 
Our obligations to ourselves for standards and quality have not*' 
changed, but these very traditions of ours become more visible. As;, 
this happens, we pay a kind of penalty — that of being noticed. For 
years I had thought many of the things that the Smithsonian just, 

4 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

went on doing quietly and competently were underappreciated and 
in effect undervalued. Our knowledge about the environment of the 
planet and our knowledge of the solar system seemed to me so com- 
prehensive that I was disturbed that more people did not know about 
all this, or that only those in cloistered circles were party to our work 
and failed to noise it abroad. Now with our new exposure there is by 
contrast a penalty to popularity. It is what I used to call "joining the 
cold shower club." By becoming noticed one becomes the subject of 
curiosity, sometimes the object of criticism, or even envy (if doing 
things well). We are, I am sure, prepared to pay the penalty for con- 
tinuing to do well what we are charged with doing, and to that we can 
say, amen. 

Suffice it to affirm that we will continue to prepare to play host to 
an increment of several million visitors a year who come in spite of 
the obstacles of traffic, outmoded transportation, increasing costs, 
and stultifying living and travel handicaps. And we will continue to 
fight for their right to come in spite of obstacles placed in their way 
by time and circumstance. For we know that it is in the interests of 
the people and their increasing desire to know themselves that they 
should come and see our Institution, and we know that in this we 
Kave the support and the enthusiasm of the Congress who continue 
to find the work of the Smithsonian refreshing.^ 

Last year I wrote a good deal about the Bicentennial and the Smith- 
sonian's essential activities in the long-past Centennial of 1876, 
Vleanwhile, sparked by the new administration under John Warner, 
the 1976 Bicentennial approaches with every breath we breathe, and 
bur own preparations for '76 wax apace. Our first major Portrait Gal- 
ery exhibition has opened to critical acclaim. Our renovations of the 
\rts and Industries Building have started in order to make it an evoc- 


^ Professor Wilcomb Washburn reminds me of a diary entry of Congressman 
ienry L. Dawes of Massachusetts who came to Washington to serve in 1852, 
ind speaks of the Institution — 

"The Smithsonian Institute is the noblest of all monuments ever erected in 
he United States. Washington lives in the affections and reverence of his coun- 
rymen justly before all others and the great monument going up to his memory 
s in a corresponding degree an object of interest. (The Washington Monument 
vas still under construction.) But the Institute is at once a monument and an 
ingine of power, a fountain of knowledge, a bulwark for the preservation of 
he liberties Washington bequeathed. It has been founded and is rising in grand 
ofty proportions 'for the diffusion of knowledge among men.' And so long as 
t shall fulfill its mission fears are idle — Man will be free." 

Statement hy the Secretary I 5 

ative setting of what the Centennial of 1876 was all about. Addition- 
ally we are planning on a strong effort to accon^modate our visitors 
with guidance, information, food, protection, and a sense of wel- 
come and enthusiastic reception. i 

A whole series of things — exhibits, happenings, publications, tes- I 
taments to human curiosity, and just plain fun — will be awaiting ; 
them in 1976, not least of which will be an entire new museum dedi- i 
cated to America's single and most salutary technological achieve- ; 
ment, an achievement which has helped to expand and rework our ; 
culture in all its ramifications, the conquest of air and space. Can | 
there be any insentient people alive today in this country who do not 
realize that the conquest of air, and now of space, has changed our 
perspectives, our culture, indeed our ethos? In essence increasingly 
rapid modes of flight have abolished time, pressed the concept of 
communications close to human tolerance through the continuing 
evolution of the computer, helped to abolish faith, and prepared us 
for a new and as yet uncharted way of viewing the human condition. 

America, I hope, will be thinking of 2076 by the time the Bicenten- 
nial comes along. And in that connection we might as well have a 
look at the panorama showing how we reached our present predica- 
ment. Our untrammeled will to succeed, to better our style of life 
through our communication and transport, has put us where we are. 
We could call our Air and Space Museum last year's Pandora's Box, 
and looking in visualize what we had better do about next year's. For 
we have not stopped the clock in the past, and if we are to slow it ; 
down in the future we will have to realize what has been happening 
to make so much of that future inevitable. In his recent (1974) short 
book, Robert Heilbroner questions the continued hegemony of 
organized science under the present threat of a new Dark Age for our \ 
civilization. That we face the possibility of a new Dark Age in history 
is evident to many. As an ecologist, I have found the recent discus- 1 
sions of economists and social scientists on the subject of the inter- 
dependence of population trends and the use of natural resources, | 
agriculture, industrial growth, and pollution, a kind of coming home 
to roost, neo-Malthusian thinking caught up with Volterra-Gause 
hypotheses of strategies of competition in nature. Heilbroner believes 
that science and technology have developed in an inimical manner to 
foster runaway population, cataclysmic wars, and environmental 
degradation without compensating restraints and standards, includ 

6 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

ing moral and ethical controls. He postulates that religion will and 
must rise again to insure the reawakening of civilization itself. As 
with a see-saw, he envisages science losing its paramountcy as reli- 
gion arises once more. This to me is overly simplistic. An economist 
can afford perhaps to be an agnostic, but most philosophically in- 
clined scientists — physicists (who perforce must be philosophers), 
molecular biologists, and the best of the ecologists — will tell you that 
they hold to an essential faith in laws of creation, which are indeed 
the moral and ethical presumption on which religion is based. What- 
ever limits to creation we may have plumbed, it is a popular fiction 
to assume that in the process scientists have destroyed our faith. 

All of which is not to say that it is not worthwhile to have men of 
the caliber of Heilbroner, as social scientists, becoming aware of eco- 
logical principles. Jan Tinbergen, winner of the Nobel prize in eco- 
nomics, told me recently that he owed a great part of his somewhat 
unorthodox theoretical assumptions to new insights he had gained 
from his brother Nikolaas, a Nobel prize winner in biological medi- 
cine, who is a pioneer in the study of the behavior of animals under 
field conditions, away from laboratory controls, where they are 
guided by and demonstrate ecological principles. It is sad that the 
social sciences have classically paid so little attention to the broad 
truths of ecology. 

In the past year we had the novel experience of the turning off of 
the taps which supply our gasoline pumps, and Americans — repre- 
senting six percent of the world's population but conditioned to 
gobbling up nearly forty percent of the world's resources — are just 
now beginning to get the message. Our massive indifference to in- 
ternational bureaux and offices talking about one-world politics, eco- 
nomics, and world interdependence has been conditioned over the 
years by the perfect conviction that being an American is a natural 
condition v 'hich we assume carries with it all the perquisites of tech- 
nological superiority over our fellow inhabitants of the planet. No 
matter that there are inequities in the United States itself — we know 
that also — but what many citizens, temporarily enraged by such in- 
equities, overlook is our commonly held assumption, all of us, that 
the automobile and the open road, the shopping center, and the fan- 
tastic and dazzling distribution of material goods at all levels is a 
natural right. As Americans, either richer or poorer, we have it way 
over eighty percent of the rest of the people of the world. 

Statement by the Secretary I 7 

Whether we deserve it all or not seldom gives us pause, although 
last winter's threat of gas rationing was at least a temporary aberra- 
tion in the hiatus between winter holidays and summer vacation. 
Now that the gas taps have turned on again, it is easy to believe that 
all's right with the world once more. It is easy to forget the unpleas- 
antness of the spectre of declining resources. 

In this state of vague malaise the conviction has come to many 
younger and also minority group members that the survival of the 
Republic is uncertain. Whereas historians or political scientists glori- 
fied the successes of America, based on the application of intelli- 
gence, others such as Jean-Fran(;:ois Revel now describe what is hap- 
pening in America as a revolution, which indeed it is. But we can take 
heart in his definition of revolution, provided ethics survive, for in 
the process we may approach a truer mode of life and an understand- 
ing of what we are about. I have written before of what the Smith- [ 
sonian could provide as a means of exhibiting this process of under- 
standing. I feel it could be done in what I have called a Museum of 
the Family of Man, a synthesis of thinking about man's place in the 

People in the United States have come full circle in their ideas. Two 
generations ago and more the thought was that this new frontier, this 
boundless Nation, would serve as a melting pot wherein all would 
be remade into an indigenous American mold. Here all the nations 
would provide of their best, most daring, and adventurous spirits, 
who, in this heady atmosphere of opportunity, would become 
blended into what de Tocqueville and others thought of as the new 
American breed. 

The romantic spirit, descendant of the philosophical idealism of 
the spirit of the revolutions, took no account of the remainder of the 
native Americans, that remnant which thoughtful men at the time of 
the Nation's Centennial had feared would have gone extinct by the 
twentieth century. Nor were the blacks or Mexican-Americans con- 
sidered. Eighty years later, by the 1930s, the Indian population was 
recovering from its doldrums of the turn of the century, the Mexican 
and Latin American minorities were increasing in the Southwest and 
in the eastern urban centers, and the blacks — Raymond Pearl had 
prophesied that the black population would disappear for genetic 
reasons in two hundred years or so. Instead of homogenization we 
now, approaching our Bicentennial, celebrate ethnic diversity and 

8 / Smithsotzian Year 1974 

cultural pluralism. Whether our blacks or other minority types with 
recognizable physical features disappear or not is moot. Black is 
beautiful and the liberated American today eschews the melting pot 
and embraces the reawakened realization that traditions of old ways 
persist in the New World, that song, dance, drama, the arts, lan- 
guage — all the stuff of culture — continue to exist, to be perpetu- 
ated in strongly persistent patterns. We cannot entirely forget our 
cultural heritage even as a multiplicity of physical types remains 
permanent in our midst. Perhaps then we have learned a lesson that 
biologists of years ago would have been tempted to support, that 
blending inheritance is far more rare than the persistence of basic 
traits and types, and that cultural patterns mirror in their persever- 
ance these physical verities. 

Under the circumstances, it is appropriate that the Smithsonian, 
too, should come full circle. We can create a summing up of the 
American experience, a synthesis of all that we have learned, the in- 
teractions of man on this part of the planet, the interface between 
ourselves and our environment. A Museum of the Family of Man 
then would include certain demonstrable American themes, includ- 
ing the history of the United States folk, who had come here, when 
and how, and how this had changed the land and sea and air, its past 
and present face. Hopefully, such an illumination of our times could 
i include, with the aid of computer systems and current technology, an 
i informed projection of our evolution, both physically and culturally, 
into the future, our own "Brave New World." 

More importantly, as my colleague Under Secretary Brooks has 
emphasized, such a museum must suggest the continuing process of 
man's evolution as a creator. As he phrases it, "From all the testa- 
ments of man's creativity, we can recognize at least two kinds of 
multi-millennial chains of men and women who have created things, 
technique^;, or concepts relating to the physical world. The first kind 
is in its important phase pre-literate and inventive; it has evolved the 
basic physical conditions of human society and survival — as for in- 
stance the cultivation of grains, domestication of animals, shelter, 
mobility, etc. The second kind of succession is post-literate and con- 
ceptual; it has evolved understanding of the world, the universe, 
man's own nature, and the structures of thought itself. The two have 
common ground but different approaches to understanding, and de- 
serve equal honor. They proceed in common from man's bio-psycho- 

Statement by the Secretary I 9 

logical heritage — his visual brain, manual dexterity, capacity for use 
of symbols and language." 

To suggest the process means, of course, to avoid the static quality 
of museums encompassed in arrays of finite objects, but rather to 
formulate a kind of multimedia display, "engaging the viewer's own 
processes of thought and imagination." The process is a speed-up 
process too. From the unique fact that evolution provided the tools, 
man's ability to communicate effectively, and the evolution of man- 
ual dexterity, has come the unfolding of brain integration in these 
functions. Each system has buffered and supported the other, devel- 
oping an end product unlike any other known on the planet. Thus 
the diverging into the two types of creativity: the technologies of sur- 
vival and the evolution of thought. In this latter aspect of creativity 
there are the social inventions: "elaborations upon the family, the 
tribe, the state, the organs of justice, legislation, administration, 
caste, class, trade, education, war." Then there is the invention of 
social institutions, "and the creators who formulated social thought 
and promoted social action." These historical creations are all rooted 
in man's biological heritage as well, and of course have speeded up 
enormously along with the evolution of technology. 

In any discussion of process it is instructive to speculate about the 
possibility, achieved five years ago, of landing a man on the moon. 
Although the technologies existed to create orbiting machines in 
space, James Webb has pointed out to me that the human factor, the 
men who could manipulate the machines effectively enough to land 
themselves on the lunar surface, and then blast off again to join up 
with their circling companion, must have been brought up from 
childhood in an atmosphere where the commonplaces of advanced 
technology all worked. Communication by telephone, for example, is 
randomly so taken for granted in the U.S.A., because the telephones 
work so relatively perfectly, that we are brought up and accustomed 
to have perfect transmittal of ideas or mechanical concepts in using 
them. We do not have to have meetings or conferences face to face. 
Our generations of people are thus habituated for learning and the 
transfer of vital information in a way that a considerable part of the 
rest of the world's population is not, or has not been until very re- 
cently indeed. Thus the time lags implicit in technological condition- 
ing and familiarity make for different phased levels of assimilation 
of the processes of learning. The chances, therefore, are that only 

10 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

one particular segment of peoples or culture may be capable of land- 
ing on the moon at any one time. And I might add, at the risk of 
sounding complacent or overweening, that even the prospect of a 
perfect link-up in space as between the products of two cultures, our 
own and the U.S.S.R.'s, may be more difficult because of the back- 
ground and training of the participants than our global strategists 
and politicians would wish. 

This is one example of a truism in contemplating the history of the 
family of man. No one group or segment of man, through the biolog- 
ical and physical phenomena of geographical isolation, is exactly like 
any other at points in time, as well as through the panorama of his- 
tory, thus horizontally as well as vertically in a diagrammatic sense. 
No museums have ever entirely encompassed all of the philosophical 
and moral and physical implications which have resulted in our com- 
plex world. It is a new way of looking at a subject that goes back to 
ideas expressed in the last century, vested in the creation of the 
Musee de I'Homme in Paris in 1877. Unfortunately the Musee de 
I'Homme was an anthropology museum, and as I have said else- 
where,^ until very recently it had been thought, rather uncomfort- 
ably, that anthropology, being a kind of biological discipline, should 
concentrate on early man and the present so-called primitive races 
of man, leaving Western civilization to the classicists and the stu- 
dents of folk history and the decorative arts. This situation has now 
begun to change. In Washington we are thinking of drawing from 
everything that our museums, whether of natural history, history of 
science, culture and technology, or art museums, are exhibiting, each 
in its own way. We are concerned here with a new concept, a syn- 
thesis of the whole family of man and how it got that way. 

Interestingly enough we are not alone in this idea. We claim no 
hegemony, of course. At the 1974 meeting of the International Coun- 
cil of Museums held in Copenhagen, Mme. Nelly Motrocilova of the 
Academy in Moscow, speaking on June 3rd, announced that the 
U.S.S.R. too was thinking of the creation of a Museum of Man. 
Suffice it to say that we shall be threshing out this concept over the 
next year or two with ourselves, our committees such as the Smith- 
sonian Council, and individual colleagues, with the hope that eventu- 

Ripley, Dillon. The Sacred Grove. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1969, p. 79. 

Statement by the Secretary 1 11 

ally we can present a plan to the Congress for a new kind of museum 
which could somehow embody the dreams of their constituencies 
across this land, the realization by people of the United States that 
their strength lies in the strength of their origins, their diversity and 
the pride, courage, and hope that this can and must give them. Let 
there be no despair then but a reasoned pride, measured with cour- 
age and tempered with the sobering responsibilities that such self- 
knowledge brings. The soothsayers and necromancers of today 
adjure the young to think of themselves first, to cultivate their id, to 
think first of "happiness" in a subjective sense. They have forgotten, 
and the young with them, that they are not alone, but that within 
themselves rests all the history of man. 

The Institution's "increase," its research progress in history, the 
arts, and the sciences, is listed in Smithsonian Year 1974. Suffice it 
to say that both in astronomy and astrophysics, work under Director 
George Field is taking form in programs of great promise, particu- 
larly in regard to new observations of the Sun made during the flight 
of the Orbiting Space Laboratory in the past year. Additionally, suc- 
cessful research and construction proceeds in concert with the Uni- 
versity of Arizona on the multiple-mirror telescope. In the National 
Museum of Natural History a vigorous new array of exhibits is in 
the planning stage under the direction of Dr. Porter Kier. Temperate 
and tropical environmental studies are being vigorously pursued at 
our stations in the United States as well as in Panama. 

In the latter, significant efforts to enhance the staff as well as the 
inventory-taking capability of the stations should begin to narrow 
the gap between what we know about the New World tropics and 
what limits to tolerance they possess in the face of man's destructive 
abilities. For in the vast New World tropics where, contrary to con- 
ventional wisdom, perhaps only ten percent of the land is susceptible 
to agriculture, there is precious little time to measure the norms of 
the tropical environment. Human population pressure is seeing to 
that, be it for better or worse. Few biologists could argue that any- 
thing that is happening in the tropics today is for the better, but their 
voices will not be heard in the tendentious political clamour of the 
developing world. At the very least we hope that the data we gather 
will serve as a guide to the essential diversity of the tropical environ- 
ment and as an indicator for the future of the riches we seem about 
to forsake so willfully. The recent remarks on May 29th by the new 

12 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

President of Venezuela, Carlos Andres Perez, concerning that coun- 
try's proposed national policy on conservation of natural resources 
are splendid, however. If Latin America, with some of the poorest 
soils in the world, could heed President Perez' speech then biologists 
could breathe easier. 

Finally in the realm of science, a great step forward this past year 
has been the beginning of the National Zoo's breeding project and 
reserve at Front Royal, Virginia. Here is a conservation project in a 
superb setting, which we hope will become a model of its kind, with 
room for cooperation with zoological societies all over the country. 

In history our staff has collected the Institution's first Pulitzer 
prize in the person of Professor Daniel Boorstin and his third volume 
on The Americans: The Democratic Experience. All of us can take 
pride in the outstanding historicoliterate achievements of this fa- 
mous historian, who has resumed work as a Senior Historian after 
four busy years as Director of the National Museum of History and 
Technology. In this latter capacity he has been succeeded by another 
eminent historian. Professor Brooke Hindle, sometime Dean, Arts 
and Sciences, University College, at New York University, and head 
of that university's Department of History for many years. Mr. 
Hindle is particularly an historian of science, and his coming is a 
matter of great joy to all of us. 

In the Museum of History and Technology this year we have also 
celebrated the creation of the Dwight D. Eisenhower Institute for 
Historical Research — a center for studies in the origins of war and 
peace, headed by Professor Forrest C. Pogue, one of the preeminent 
military historians of our time. This is a splendid augury for the Na- 
tional Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board and may well be its 
most salient contribution to the preservation of military history. 

In the past year the Freer Gallery has celebrated its semicentennial 
with three splendid exhibitions accompanied by internationally at- 
tended symposia, as well as the publication of lucid and beautifully 
illustrated catalogues, and with the awarding of three Freer medals. 
No one could fail to be heartened by the renewed interest in Chinese, 
Japanese, and Islamic art which these exhibitions underscored. Over 
200 scholars and students attended the colloquia, which were in- 
tensely interesting and of high scholarly caliber. A symptom of the 
universal importance placed on art in Japan was a special visit during 
his stay in Washington by Prime Minister K. Tanaka. 

Statement by the Secretary 1 13 


The National Portrait Gallery continued its striking series of his- 
torical exhibits with a splendid exhibition and accompanying histori- 
cal resource document, a catalogue on the Black Presence in the 
American Revolution. Once again the Portrait Gallery has charted a 
new and authoritative course in untraveled seas. I believe it is ob- 
vious by now to most historians that this technique of exhibition and 
wholly definitive catalogues is a new and unsuspected teaching tool 
to remind us, as I have said earlier, that within us all resides the 
history of man. 

The National Collection of Fine Arts has continued its imaginative 
program of exhibits, including a revealing one on the history of the 
plastic arts in recent time in the Pacific Northwest. I personally was 
much moved by the evidence from the paintings of the expression 
via palette tonalities of the difference between living in Oregon and 
in Washington. Even in abstracts or in interiors the painters were 
reflecting a subtle neo-tradition not only of style but of color, evi- 
dence of the mood and atmosphere, the light and color of the two 
States. What reflections cannot be drawn on the origins of ethnicity, 
of phenotypic differences, of cultural subspeciation in such 

A delightful footnote to the history of American art was the ex- 
hibition of the work of "Lilly Martin Spencer: The Joys of Senti- 
ment," the catalogue of which contains a brilliant introduction by 
Director Joshua Taylor. The ncfa's collection of American portrait 
miniatures, one of the best in this country, was placed on permanent 
exhibition through the generosity of the Trustees of the Merrill 
Trust. A special gallery designated the "Doris M. Magowan Gallery 
of Portrait Miniatures" will exhibit these portrait miniatures for the 
first time.x 

The substantial completion of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculp- 
ture Garden in this past year has signaled the arrival of the mam- 
moth collections of art in Washington and their incipient debut in 
their new public setting, an event long awaited. We anticipate for- 
mally opening the museum on October 1, 1974. This museum should 
help to illuminate Joseph Henry's theme that the Mall is indeed a 
people's park, a place of delight for citizens. The gloomy myths 
about the sacred sward and the hallowed ground were no more a 
part of the original concept of the Republic than any other Victorian 

Statement by the Secretary I 15 

conceits. The Mall is for all of the citizens of the United States and 
by no means a cemetery. 

In this past year an additional West Coast branch of the Archives 
of American Art has been opened by our energetic director, WilHam 
Woolfenden, and the Presidency has been assumed by Dr. Irving 
Burton after three years of devoted work by Howard Lipman, who 
now becomes President of the Board of the Whitney Museum of 
American Art in New York. We are deeply grateful to all these able 
workers in the collation of the history of American art. 

The Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design in 
New York continues with its reconstruction plans for the Carnegie 
Mansion, for which over $1 million has already been raised. Under 
the energetic chairmanship of Lewis A. Lapham, who has succeeded 
Thomas J. Watson, Jr., as Chairman of the National Associates 
Board, a subcommittee has been formed to enlist the support of New 
York members, residents, and their wives to complete the reconstruc- 
tion of the site for our National Museum of Design. 

Nearer at home our management enterprises and our reexamina- 
tion of our structure proceed apace. In any sensible organization 
there must come periodic assessments of where one is and where one 
is going. In the process of keeping track of our "fragmented parts 
which make a whole," as Joshua Taylor has described us, we periodi- 
cally check the pace of our development. Are we running ourselves 
ragged with too many activities? Can we achieve the discipline to 
confine ourselves to our stated goals before natural accumulations 
run away with us? For in the sense of our museums and collections, 
the Smithsonian is a growth industry. Perhaps museums are one of 
the only legitimate growth industries left? I think we can manage to 
stay the course by perceiving common themes that unite us intellec- 
tually, and not simply approach efficient controls as an administra- 
tive function. For in our hope to "increase and diffuse knowledge 
among men" lies an ideal as well as a responsible charge. We monitor 
the processes continually, firm in our determination to illuminate 
that ideal. 

In the realm of "diffusion," this past year has seen the Smithson- 
ian undertake a new series of television programs under the direction 
of David Wolper, with sponsorship by the du Pont Company. The 
first program on matters of Smithsonian interest is expected to be re- 

16 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

leased in November, 1974. In all of these enterprises with new at- 
tempts to increase and diffuse knowledge an enormous amount of 
credit is due to the staff of this Institution, which in its many ramifi- 
cations continues its devotion and effective assistance to our cause at 
all levels. 

As part of the Smithsonian Product Development program, re- 
ports indicate that in addition to previously approved craft items, 
there will be authentic reproductions of pewter, silver, and textiles, 
all based on existing Smithsonian documentation. 

During the past year I have lost two of my friends. For the ten 
years of my tenure I have had the perfect conviction of longevity, se- 
cure in the belief that my three predecessors would be continually 
available as counsellors and reminders of the continuity of our hopes 
for the Institution. As I have noted in Smithsonian (November, 1973, 
and February, 1974), Dr. Wetmore and I have lost our two col- 
leagues. Dr. Leonard Carmichael, my predecessor as Secretary, on 
September 16, 1973, and Dr. Charles G. Abbot, his immediate prede- 
cessor as Secretary, on December 17, 1973. Together we had seemed 
a continuous chain, reaching back in time to when the Republic itself 
was less than a century old. They had helped and encouraged me to 
celebrate our own Smithson bicentennial in 1965, the 200th Anniver- 
sary of our Founder's birth, a noble occasion reminding us all of the 
academic and intellectual links of institutions like our own around 
the world. We mourn their passing and the loss of contact with the 
past which always helps to prepare us for the premonitions of the 


Statement by the Secretary 1 17 

Charles Greeley Abbot, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1928-1944. 
Leonard Carmichael, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1953-1964. 

Board of Regents 

The board of regents held three meetings in fiscal year 1974. The 
autumn meeting, convened on September 21, 1973, was designated 
The Leonard Carmichael Memorial Meeting in honor of Dr. Car- 
michael, the seventh Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. As an 
appropriate tribute to his memory, the Regents unanimously de- 
clared that the auditorium of the National Museum of History and 
Technology, constructed during his tenure, hereafter be known as 
the Leonard Carmichael Auditorium. A ceremony dedicating the Au- 
ditorium was held on January 21, 1974, presided over by the Chan- 
cellor, accompanied by music and with tributes from Dr. John Har- 
per, Rector of St. John's Church, Dr. Melvin Payne, President of the 
National Geographic Society, and the Secretary. 

The new Chairman of the National Board of the Smithsonian As- 
sociates, Mr. Lewis A. Lapham succeeding Mr. Thomas J. Watson, 
Jr., was assured of enthusiastic support by the Regents, who en- 
dorsed the concept that the Institutional Development Committee of 
the National Board of the Smithsonian Associates undertake the 
Cooper-Hewitt capital fund raising as its first effort. 

Dr. Fred L. Whipple, Director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory from 1955 to 1973, retired in July, 1973, and is to con- 
tinue his work as Senior Research Scientist. The Regents voted to 
award him the Henry Medal in recognition of his important contri- 
butions to the Institution. 

Mr. Gordon N. Ray, Chairman of the Smithsonian Council, who 
was present, briefly reviewed the activities of the Council since its 
inception, citing its membership, its considerations, and conclusions. 
The Board of Regents thanked Mr. Ray for his efforts and conveyed 
appreciation to the Council members for their interest and work in 
behalf of the Institution. 

The appointment of James H. Billington as Director of the Wood- 
row Wilson International Center for Scholars was announced. 

The death of Mrs. Marjorie Merriweather Post, a great benefactor 
of the Smithsonian Institution, occurred on September 12, 1973. A 

Statement by the Secretary I 19 

Smithsonian Committee was organized to work with the representa- 
tives of Mrs. Post's estate and foundation to facilitate an orderly 
transfer of the property and collections bequeathed to the Smith- 

Subsequently the Board of Regents, their wives, members of the 
National Board of the Smithsonian Associates, and the Chairman 
of the Smithsonian Council gathered for the presentation of the 
James Smithson Benefactor Medallion to Thomas J. Watson, Jr., 
for his important contributions to the Smithsonian Institution. 

The January 25, 1974, meeting of the Board of Regents was desig- 
nated The Charles Greeley Abbot Memorial Meeting in tribute to 
the Smithsonian Institution's fifth Secretary, whose death occurred 
in December at the age of 101. Appropriately, the Radiation Biology 
Laboratory will bear Dr. Abbot's name henceforward, since this as- 
pect of the Institution's research owes its genesis, in 1929, to Dr. 

The meeting took place at the Fort Pierce Bureau of the Smith- 
sonian Institution located at Fort Pierce, Florida, including the 
Harbor Branch Laboratory, as well as the research barge and the RV 
Johnson. Secretary Ripley explained the history of the Fort Pierce 
Bureau, its programs, and its plans for the future. A tour of the facili- 
ties included brief talks by staff members, a tour of the model shop, 
inspection of the submersible, and a demonstration of the launch and 
recovery of the submarine. 

It was with great reluctance that the Executive Committee ac- 
cepted the decision of Crawford Creenewalt not to stand for reap- 
pointment after serving for eighteen years as an outstanding and 
distinguished Regent. 

The Regents accepted the Acee Blue Eagle collection of paintings 
and artifacts in order to foster interest in and understanding of 
American Indian art and culture. It will be housed in the Anthropo- 
logical Archives of the Department of Anthropology of the National 
Museum of Man. 

The Smithsonian was granted a permit by the General Services 
Administration for use of the former Beef Cattle Experiment Station 
at Front Royal, Virginia; the National Zoological Park plans initially 
to utilize this reserve for a breeding project. 

The spring meeting of the Board was held in the Regents' Room of 
the Smithsonian Building on May 14, 1974. A Nominating Commit- 

20 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

tee appointed by the Chancellor submitted its recomnnendation for a 
new Citizen Regent and for reappointment of two other Citizen Re- 
gents whose terms were to expire. Joint resolutions were recom- 
mended to be introduced in the Congress for these appointments. 

The Board authorized acceptance of a Zeiss planetarium instru- 
ment, a Bicentennial gift from the Federal Republic of Germany. 
This will be installed in the National Air and Space Museum to simu- 
late the wonders of space and is expected to be operating when the 
Museum opens in July, 1976. The instrument is to be named in 
honor of the late Albert Einstein. 

The Regents received the report of the second Smithsonian Priori- 
ties Conference convened at the Belmont Conference Center on Feb- 
ruary 19-21, 1974, which pointed out in detail the progress of Smith- 
sonian programs in the past year, and recommended additional steps 
to be taken in administration and management within the Institu- 
tion. Coupled with this were copies of a new survey of buildings and 
facilities owned or occupied by the Institution. 


Statement by the Secretary I 21 

Visitors to the Smithsonian Museum Shops. 

Smithsonian Year • 1974 


Continued sound progress was shown in Smithsonian finances in 
fiscal year 1974. Thanks to increased federal support and further im- 
provement in results of the Institution's own educational and reve- 
nue-generating efforts, we were able to cope satisfactorily with the 
large inflation-bred rise in costs of salaries, supplies, and services, 
and, at the same time, to strengthen our current operating funds 

Added federal appropriations enabled us to increase needed 
museum protection and other support services and to step up prepa- 
rations for our important 1976 Bicentennial commitments. These in- 
cluded steady progress on construction and future exhibits for the 
new National Air and Space Museum and a beginning on a major 
long-term reconstruction of National Zoological Park facilities. An 
additional $l-million gift from the donor of the collections permitted 
completion of the construction of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculp- 
ture Garden. Other gifts and grants for specific purposes funded a 
wide variety of research and exhibit activities. 

There remains an urgent need for major outside contributions in 
support of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and De- 
sign and a large number of other specific projects. Also, the Institu- 
tion's endowment funds — always far from adequate for an Institu- 
tion of this size — experienced during the year a worrisome drop in 
value. In other respects, however, Smithsonian finances can be said 
to have improved substantially in fiscal year 1974. Full detail of these 
results is provided below. 


Overall Sources and Application of Financial Support 

The total financial support available to the Institution from all 
sources is shown in Table 1. These figures do not include the finances 
of the National Gallery of Art, the John F. Kennedy Center for the 
Performing Arts, and the Woodrow Wilson International Center for 
Scholars, which are all related legislatively to the Smithsonian but 
whose financial and administrative affairs are for the most part sepa- 
rately managed under independent Boards of Trustees. 

Total funds for operating purposes rose to $82,681,000 in fiscal! 
year 1974, an increase of $10,607,000 over the preceding year. Fed- 
eral appropriations of $65,063,000 accounted for 7?>.7 percent of the 
total, research grants and contracts 12.1 percent, and nonfederal in- 
come 9.2 percent; this ratio of support was roughly the same in fiscal 
year 1973. In addition. Congress provided $21,860,000 in construc- 
tion funds for continuing work on the National Air and Space Mu- 
seum, for repairs to other Smithsonian buildings, and for the Na- 
tional Zoological Park, principally for "Lion Hill," a major beginning 
on the long-term renovation plan of Zoo facilities. 

In Table 2, these revenues from all sources (excluding construction 
funds and the Special Foreign Currency Program) and their applica- 
tion to individual Smithsonian bureaus and activities are shown in 
considerable detail, demonstrating the complexity of funding result- 
ing from the variety of resources and the large number of diversified 
services provided. 


Federal appropriations for operating purposes totaled $65,063,000 i 
including $1,695,000 for the Smithsonian Science Information Ex- 
change, a separately incorporated organization, and $4,500,000 for ; 
the Special Foreign Currency Program (in the blocked currency of ■ 
certain foreign countries). The Special Foreign Currency Program! 
administers grants to United States universities and similar organi- ■; 
zations for research studies in Egypt, India, Pakistan, Poland, Tu- 
nisia, and Yugoslavia (see Table 3). This program included a special 
$1,000,000 amount (to be renewed for three additional years) to al- 
low United States participation in unesco's international campaign . 
to preserve archeological monuments on the Island of Philae in 


24 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Table 1. Overall Sources of Financial Support 

[In $l,000's] 

Sources FY 1971 FY 1972 FY 1973 FY 1974 


Federal appropriation: 

Salaries and expenses $36,895 $44,701 $51,633 $58,868 

Smithsonian Science Information 

Exchange * 1,600 1,600 1,695 

Special Foreign Currency 

Program 2,500 3,500 3,500 4,500 

Subtotal $39,395 $49,801 $56,733 $65,063 

Research grants and contracts 9,312* 8,088 8,996 9,996 

Nonfederal funds : 

Gifts (excluding gifts to endowments) 

i Restricted purpose 1,880 1,598 2,901 1,970 

Unrestricted purpose 304** 26** 33** 275** 

Income from endowment and 

current funds investment 

Restricted purpose 1,372 1,573 1,736*** 1,750 

Unrestricted purpose 330 334 436 747 

Revenue producing activities (net) (534) (141) 170 1,770 

Miscellaneous 406 482 1,069 1,110 

Total nonfederal funds 3,758 3,872 6,345*** 7,622 

Total Operating Support $52,465 $61,761 $72,074 $82,681 


ederal Construction Funds: 

National Zoological Park $ 200 $ 200 $ 675 $ 3,790 

National Air & Space Museum ... -0- 1,900 13,000 17,000 

Hirshhorn Museum 5,200 3,697 -0- -0- 

Restoration& Renovation of Bldgs. 1,725 550 5,014 1,070 

Total Federal Construction Funds $ 7,125 $ 6,347 $18,689 $21,860 

rivate Plant & Land Acquisition Funds: 

Copper-Hevvitt Museum $ — $ 700 $ 106 $ 262 

Hirshhorn Museum — — — 1,000 

Chesapeake Bay Center 25 386 149 70 

Total Private Plant and Land 

Acquisition Funds $ 25 $ 1,086 $ 255 $ 1,332 

* Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, Inc., funded by National Science Foundation contract 
in fiscal year 1971 ($1,400,000) and thereafter by direct federal appropriation. 

• Excluding gifts to Asso»:iates (included under Revenue Producing Activities). 

» Includes $225,000 of fiscal year 1973 income transferred from Endowment Fund No. 3 for this 
purpose in fiscal year 1972. 

Financial Report I 25 

Table 2. — Source and Application of Operating Funds for 
Year Ended June 30, 1974 

(Excludes Special Foreign Currency Funds, Plant Funds, and Enodwments) 

[In $l,000's] 

Nonfederal funds 





Fed- fed- 
eral eral Gen- 
funds funds eral 


Spe- Grants 
cial and 
pur- Gen- con- 
pose eral tracts 


1 July 1973 $ 0$ 5,120 $2,292 $ $201 $2,546 $ 81 


Federal Appropriations . . . $60,563 

Investment Income $ 2,497 $ 744 $ - $ 3 $1,750 $ 

Grants and Contracts 9,968 - _ _ _ 9^958 

Gifts 2,505 151 260 124 1,970 

Sales and Revenue 12,615 - 12,473 142 

Other 970 284 2 138 546 

Total Provided $60,563 $28,555 $1,179 $12,735 $407 $4,266 $ 9,968 

Total Available $60,563 $33,675 $3,471 $12,735 $608 $6,812 $10,049 



Environmental Science $ 1,316 $ 1,158 $ 14 $ - $ 5 $ 107 $ 1,032 

Natl. Museum of Nat. 

Hist 8,040 1,055 41 - 43 161 810 

Natl. Zoological Park 4,565 46 19 - - 21 6 

Fort Pierce Bureau - 1,032 24 - - 1,008 

Science Info. Exchange .... 1,695 - - _ _ _ _ 

Smithsonian Astroph. 

Observatory 3,207 5,844 18 - 7 210 5,609 

Radiation Biology Lab 1,294 95 - - - 9 86 

Smithsonian Tropical 

Research Inst 1,002 70 1 - 47 4 18 

Interdisciplinary Communi- 
cations Program - 894 22 - 1 30 841 

Natl. Air and Space 

Museum 2,633 108 3 - 59 24 22 

Other Science 1,132 1,041 118 - 1 114 808 

Total 24,884 11,343 260 - 163 1,688 9,232 

History and Art: 

Natl. Portrait Gallery 1,122 62 22 - 25 1 14 

Natl. Collection of 

Fine Arts 1,653 ■ 79 8 - 34 35 2 

Freer Gallery of Art 274 1,134 - - - 1,134 

Natl. Museum of History 

and Technology 4,334 398 46 - 11 222 119 

Table 2. Source and Application of Operating Funds for 

Year Ended June 30, 1974 — continued 

[In $i,ooo's] 

Nonfederal funds 




Fed- fed- 
eral eral 
funds funds 

Reve- Spe- Grants 

nue cial and 

Gen- pro- pur- Gen- con- 

eral ducing pose eral tracts 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum . . . 174 266 4 - - 237 25 
Archives of American 

Art 238 203 - - - 203 

Bicentennial of the 

American Revolution . . . 1,746 - - _ _ _ _ 

Hillwood - 210 - - - 210 

Hirshhorn Museum 1,326 82 82 _ _ _ 

Other History and Art 1,263 63 5 - - 19 39 

Total 12,130 2,497 167 - 70 2,061 199 

Public Service: 

Revenue Producing Activities 

Smithsonian Press 800 200 - 200 _ _ _ 

Performing Arts 422 1,083 - 493 - 107 483 

Other - 10,342 - 10,272 - 9 61 

Anacostia Museum 317 21 18 - - 3 - 

Reading Is Fundamental, 

Inc - 532 - - - 533 

Other Public Service 1,157 83 72 - - 5 6 

Total 2,696 12,262 90 10,965 - 657 550 

Museum Programs: 

Libraries 1,165 2 - — - 2 — 

Exhibits 1,063 26 - - 13 2 11 

Natl. Museum Act 

Programs 684 — - _ _ _ _ 

Other Museum Programs . . 1,409 87 45 - 6 36 - 

Total 4,321 115 45 - 19 40 11 

Buildings Management and 

Protection Services 11,839 9 9 _ _ _ _ 

Administration 4,693 3,386 443 461 13 331 2,138 

Overhead Recovered - (3,345) (402) (461) (13) (331) (2,138) 

Transfers for Designated 

Purposes - 1,026 (208) 1,770 (104) (436) 4 

Total Funds Applied $60,563 $27,293 $ 404 $12,735 $148 $4,010 $9,996 


30 June 1974 $ 6,382 $3,067 $ $460 $2,802 $ 53 

Table 3. Special Foreign Currency Program, 

Fiscal Year 1974 Obligations 

[In $i,ooo's] 

atic & Astro- 
Environ- physics & Grant 

mental Earth Museum Adminis- 
Country Archeology Biology Sciences Programs tration Totalh. 

India $ 125,470 $ 112,650 $31,369 $ 8,679 $48,081 $ 326,24 

Pakistan 92,661 223,383 - 950 - 316,99 

Poland 311,750 68,726 38,645 8,576 670 428,36 

Tunisia 96,661 544,107 16,250 40,343 5,668 703,02 1^ 

Egypt 1,619,172 115,046 401 34,370 - 1,768,98 

Yugoslavia 85,908 400,905 _ _ _ 486,81 

Total $2,331,622 $1,464,817 $86,665 $92,918 $54,419 $4,030,44 

Excluding these special-purpose appropriations for the Science In- 
formation Exchange and the Foreign Currency Program, federal op- 
erating funds amounted to $58,868,000. This is $7,235,000 more 
than fiscal year 1973, but $4,180,000 (58 percent) of this substantial 
increase is attributable solely to meeting the costs of federal pay 
raises of various categories beyond the Institution's control. The bal- 
ance of the increase, $3,055,000, went primarily to three high- 
priority program objectives. These were (1) preparation of exhibits 
and related work of the National Air and Space Museum scheduled 
to open in its new building on the Mall on July 4, 1976; (2) develop- 
ment of special Washington, D. C, and national Bicentennial activi- 
ties; and (3) phased strengthening of supporting services such as 
museum object conservation; reference and research libraries; auto- 
matic data processing applications to research, collections, and 
administrative activities; and buildings and facilities care and protec- 
tion. Allocation of the appropriations for operating purposes (ex- 
cluding the Foreign Currency Program) by broad activity areas over 
the past several years is shown in Table 4. 

It may be of interest to note that in performance terms about $12.6 
million of the fiscal year 1974 appropriation was spent on basic re- 
search in art, history, and science; $4.2 million on the acquisition 
and management of collections (only a few hundred thousand dollars 
of this were available for the purchase of objects) ; $7.1 million for 


28 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


Table 4. Application of Federal Appropriations 
Fiscal Year 1971 through Fiscal Year 1974 

(Excluding Special Foreign Currency Program) 
[In $l,000's] 

Area FY 1971 FY 1972 FY 1973 FY 1974 

Science $13,495 $18,365* $20,329* $24,884* 

History and Art 5,878 

Public Service 1,442 

Museum Programs 3,744 

Administration 3,051 

Building Maintenance and 

Protection 9,285 10,442 11,982 11,839 

Total $36,895 $46,301 $53,233 $60,563 













Includes $1,600,000 (FY 1972 and FY 1973) and $1,695,000 (FY 1974) for the Smithsonian Sci- 
ence Information Exchange, Inc., which had been funded prior to 1972 by grants from the 
National Science Foundation. 

I the design, production, installation, and upkeep of exhibits; and $2.7 
: million for various aspects of public and scholarly education and ori- 
ientation. These program output areas total about $26.6 million. Sup- 
iport areas total about $34 million, of which $13.0 million was for 
t the care of buildings, $7.8 million was for protection and security, 
.and the balance was for other important administrative and support 


(Construction funding in fiscal year 1974 amounted to $4,860,000, 
rplus $17,000,000 to meet progress payments under the contract au- 
:thority provided in the fiscal year 1973 Appropriation Act for the 
construction of the National Air and Space Museum. The new ap- 
rpropriatiori provided primarily for the construction of the exciting 
mew lion and tiger exhibit at the National Zoological Park and fur- 
ther planning efforts aimed at implementing the approved master 
plan for the complete renovation of the Zoo. This funding also pro- 
> vided relatively minor amounts for repairs and improvements to 
other Smithsonian facilities such as safety and access improvements 
to the Mount Hopkins Observatory road in Arizona. 

Financial Report I 29 


Grants and contracts from federal agencies once again contributed in 
a major way to the Institution's research programs, predominantly 
in scientific disciplines. $9,996,000 of these funds was expended in 
fiscal year 1974, up from $8,996,000 in fiscal year 1973. The major 
recipient, accounting for over half of the total expenditures, con- 
tinued to be the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, with grants from the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration for such projects as the monitoring of 
Comet Kahoutek, meteor studies, and design of hydrogen maser 
systems. Other projects ranged from ecological studies in South 
America and Asia to research on American folklore. Table 5 shows 
the major granting agencies to the Smithsonian over a four-year 
period, representing several hundred different grants and contracts 
each year. 


Originally established entirely with funds from Mr. Smithson's be- 
quest, the Institution has, over a long period of years, derived an in- 
creasing proportion of its support from federal appropriations as it 
was entrusted with more national collections and expanded its re- 
search and public exhibitions. 

It is now an important goal of Smithsonian administration to bol- 
ster the Institution's private resources in line with or exceeding the 
growth of its federal support, in order to restore a better balance be- 
tween the two, thereby helping to preserve its uniquely flexible and 
independent character among national establishments. Despite the 
many serious economic uncertainties of this past 12-month period, 
fiscal year 1974 results were in line with this goal. Receipts (includ- 
ing those for operating purposes, land acquisition, and building con- 
struction) from gifts, investment income, revenue-producing activi- 
ties, fees, and other revenues all increased to record levels, with the 
total equaling $8,954,000 (not including $105,000 gifts to endow- 
ment funds). Of this total $5,598,000 was designated for specific 
restricted purposes; this latter amount was fractionally higher than 
in fiscal year 1973, while income for unrestricted purposes rose from , 
$1,013,000 to $3,356,000 (see Table 6). J 

30 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Table 5. Grants and Contracts 
[In $l,000's] 

Federal Agencies FY 1971 FY 1972 

Atomic Energy Commission $ 91 $ 73 

Department of Commerce 166 392 

Department of Defense 843 916 

Department of Health, Education 

and Welfare 409 411 

Department of Interior 258 247 

Department of Labor 3 11 

Department of State 176 195 

National Aeronautics and Space 

Administration 4,930 4,605 

National Endowments for the 

Arts and Humanities - 35 

National Science Foundation .... 2,028* 560 

Other 408 643 

Total $9,312 $8,088 

FY 1973 ]^ 1974 

$ 76 

$ 72 



















* Includes funding for Sniithsonian Science Information Exchange, Inc. of $1,400,000. 

Table 6. Total Private Funds Income Fiscal Year 1974 

[In $l,000's] 


Revenue sources 

General & 

revenue Special 
producing purpose* 



For Operating Purposes: 

Investments $ 744 

Gifts 151** 

Revenue Producing Activities . . 1,770 

Concessions and miscellaneous. . 284 

Total Operating Funds . . $2,949 

For Plant: 

Gifts — 

Hirshhci'n Museum $ — 

Chesapeake Bay Center — 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum — 

Total Gifts $ 

Miscellaneous — 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum $ — 

Total Plant $ 

Grand Total $2,949 

$ 3 










$ - 







$ - 
$ - 




* Classified as Restricted Funds in previous years; represents unrestricted income designated 
by management to be used only for specific purposes. 

** Excluding $260,000 gifts to Associates (included under Revenue Producing Activities) and 
$105,000 gifts to Endowment Funds. 


The substantial increase in unrestricted general purpose private 
funds in fiscal year 1974 was extremely welcome and enabled the 
Institution for the first time to reserve private monies for plant im- 
provements not believed to be obtainable from federal appropria- 
tions but which will enhance our ability to serve the public and 
which may, at the same time, lead to increased private support in the 
years ahead. The build-up of the general unrestricted fund balance 
to a more adequate level of $3,067,000 also means that portions of 
any similar gains in future years may also be used for this purpose 
or to strengthen our present low endowment reserves. 

As may be seen in Table 7, the increase in income before transfers 
to other funds, equaling $2,336,000 in fiscal year 1974 compared to 
$688,000 in fiscal year 1973, arose in part from a jump in investment 
income but, more importantly, from successful results of our educa- 
tional and revenue-producing activities. There was, at the same time, 
a somewhat offsetting rise in administrative costs, partly from salary 
and other administrative cost increases (including an initial charge 
of $198,000 to establish a reserve for employees' accrued annual 
leave), but also reflecting greater assistance to a number of bureaus 
for special needs and urgent research projects. 

The increase in investment income this year resulted primarily 
from the build-up in working capital and advance Smithsonian mag- 
azine subscription monies which made more funds available for in- 
vestment in high quality short-term issues at prevailing high interest 
rates. As may be noted on the Balance Sheet, page 48, current fund 
investments equaled $8,298,000 as of June 30, 1974, compared to 
$6,223,000 a year earlier; of the former amount, $6,600,000 was 
invested in very high grade, short-term securities and bank certifi- 
cates of deposit. 

The Smithsonian magazine was responsible for the largest share 
of the net gain from revenue-producing activities. As shown in Table 
8, its income for the year rose to $1,327,000, from $330,000 in the 
previous year. At June 30, 1974, there were 622,000 National Asso- 
ciate members and subscribers to the magazine, making it one of the 
fastest growing publications in the Nation. The Associates program 
also contributed heavily to this year's gains, with net income of 
$263,000, versus a slight loss in fiscal year 1973. The Resident Asso- 

32 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Table 7. Unrestricted Private Funds 
General and Revenue Producing Activities 

(Excluding Special Purpose Funds and Gifts to Endowment) 

[In $l,000's] 

Item FY 1971 FY 1972 FY 1973 FY 1974 


General Income: 

Investments $ 334 $ 334 $ 436 $ 744 

Gifts 304 26 33 151 

Concessions and miscellaneous. . 215 197 374 284 

Total General Income 853 557 843 1,179 

Revenue Producing Activities: 

Smithsonian Magazine (209) 2 330 1,327 

Other 10 74 (43) 263 

Shops (80) 19 47 226 

Press (159) (111) (109) (89) 

Performing Arts (78) (50) (65) 104 

Product Development — - 69 37 

Other Activities (18) (75) (59 ) (98 ) 

Total Activities (534) (141) 170 1,770 

Total Income 319 416 1,013 2,949 


Administrative Expense 2,681 2,956 3,097 3,957 

Less Administrative Recovery . . . 2,254 2,639 2,772 3,345 

Net Administrative Expense ... 427 317 325 612 

Net Gain (Loss) before Transfers (108) 99 688 2,337 

Less Transfers: 

To Plant - - - 1,134 

To Endowment 21 21 21 121 

Other (Net) 21 17 124 307 

Net Gain (Loss) after Transfers (150) 61 543 775 

Ending Balance $1,720 $1,781 $2,292* $3,067 

N; ■ 

* Adjusted to reflect reclassification to Plant Funds of $32,000 net investment in capitalized equipment. 

ciates program continues to furnish great benefits to the Washing- 
ton, D.C., community with its offering of classes, study trips, lec- 
tures, and exhibit openings; the Foreign Study Tours program has 
likewise gained enthusiastic acceptance. 

Financial Report I 33 

Table 8. Revenue Producing Activities for Fiscal Year 1974 

[In $l,000's] 


sonian Per- Product 
Museum Maga- forming develop- 
Item Total Shops Press* zine Other Arts ment Other** 

Sales and 

Revenues 12,473 2,141 111 7,127 1,778 597 107 612 

Less Cost of 

Sales 6,918 1,211 83 4,426 886 145 - 167 


Income 5,555 930 28 2,701 892 452 107 445 

Gifts 260 - - - 260 

Other Income ... 2 -- - - — - 2 


Income . . . 5,817 930 28 2,701 1,152 452 107 447 

Expenses 3,586 604 105 1,174 820 314 64 505 


Costs 461 100 12 200 69 34 6 40 

Income (Loss) 


Transfers 1,770 226 (89) 1,327 263 104 37 (98) 

Less Transfers 28 - (5) - - - 33*** - 

Net Income 

(Loss) 1,742 226 . (84) 1,327 263 104 4 (98) 

* The privately funded activities of the Press as opposed to the federally supported publication of 
research papers. 
** Includes Traveling Exhibitions, Belmont Conference Center, Photo Sales, "Commons" Restaurant, 

Center for Short-Lived Phenomena, Special Publications, and Television Programs. 
*** This includes allocations to the Press and other Smithsonian bureaus participating in this pro- 

The profitability of the Museum Shops also increased dramati- 
cally, from $47,000 in fiscal 1973 to $226,000 in fiscal 1974, due in 
large measure to improved management practices and increased em- 
phasis on higher quality merchandise relevant to the collections ex- 
hibited in the various Smithsonian museums. As with the Product 
Development Program, which transferred $33,000 of royalities to in- 
dividual bureaus, income from the Museum Shops will in the future 
be shared with the museums for their use in public education pro- 
grams and purchases for the cpllections. 

The Performing Arts Division produced an extremely successful 
record album, the History of Jazz, which enabled them to show a 
gain of $104,000 in this fiscal year, as opposed to a deficit of $65,000 

34 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

in fiscal year 1973. Another "bestseller" was the guidebook. Seeing 
the Smithsonian, developed by the Smithsonian Press and Product 
Development Offices in cooperation with the cbs Publishing Com- 
pany; its sales added substantially to the profitability of the Museum 

As any surplus funds accrue from project receipts of the shops or 
the Associates program an appropriate effort is made to return this 
in kind to the public in the form of improved public facilities, im- 
proved public reference books or publications, and improved public 
exhibits. As an example, the unusually large net gain in unrestricted 
private funds in fiscal year 1974 coincided with urgent requirements 
for construction funds, necessitating transfers of $1,134,000 to the 
Institution's plant funds, with other transfers to Special Purpose 
funds. Restricted Funds, and Endowment Funds bringing total trans- 
fers to $1,561,000 (see Table 7). Of the transfers to plant funds, 
$365,000 was set aside to redesign and reconstruct the museum shop 
in the National Museum of History and Technology. Another $500,- 
000 was reserved for a part of the costs of the proposed construction 
of additional public service facilities in the West Court of the Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History. Finally, $150,000 was transferred 
to cover a part of the cost of a visitor's study center at the Chesa- 
peake Bay Center for Environmental Studies, and $119,000 was 
transferred for computer and equipment purchases. Other transfers 
from unrestricted funds include allocations toward operations of the 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum ($178,000), special research grants to 
Smithsonian scientists ($49,000), and transfers to Endowment 
($121,000) which includes a bequest of $100,000 from the estate of 
Paula Lambert. 

A new category of unrestricted private funds ("Special Purpose") 
is set out separately this year, namely, those which are legally un- 
restricted but which have been designated by management to be re- 
served for specific uses (see Table 6). These accounts, previously 
treated as a part of Restricted Funds, include, for example, receipts 
from parking at the Zoo (reserved to aid future construction of addi- 
tional parking facilities for visitors), and revenues from various 
minor enterprises in individual museums (e.g., charges for tour- 
guide audiophone equipment, etc.) and related expenditures of these 
monies, chiefly for improvement of exhibits. As of June 30, 1974, 
balances of these funds totaled $460,000, an increase of $259,000 in 
the year. 

Financial Report I 35 

Table 9. Restricted Operating Private funds, 

* Fiscal Year 


[In $l,000's] 



fers in 



' halanct 
end of 
) year 






Archives of American Art. . 

... $ 1 

$ 19 


$ 206 

$ 203 

$ 9 

$ 12 

$ 205 

American Banking Exhibit 









American Maritime Hall . 









Cooper-Hewitt Museum: 









Funds for Collection 
and other Special 
Purpose Funds 







-ort Pierce Bureau 









-reer Gallery 

















leading is FUNdamental . 

. . — 











Total Restricted Funds . 

. . $1,750 



* Excluding Grants and Contracts 

shown in TabI 

e 5 and also Restric 

:ted Plant Funds inc 

uded in 

Table 6. 




The Restricted Private Funds of the Institution, which support a 
wide variety of activities even beyond the major ones highUghted in 
Table 9, received $4,266,000 for operating purposes in fiscal year 
1974. The Freer Gallery of Art and the Fort Pierce Bureau depend 
primarily on income from their endowment funds, while the Cooper- 
Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design and the Archives of 
American Art, although receiving some federal support, must look 
to gifts, grants, memberships, and various money-raising efforts for 
their principal operating funds. In addition, it was necessary to 
transfer $178,000 of private unrestricted funds to Cooper-Hewitt in 
fiscal year 1974 to eliminate operating deficits accumulated over this 
and previous years. 

In September 1973, at the death of Mrs. Marjorie Merriweather 
Post, the responsibility for her "Hillwood" estate and the extraordi- 
nary collections it contains passed to the Smithsonian. A trust fund 

36 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

was provided by her will for the maintenance and operation of Hill- 
wood, but the estate had not yet been settled at year-end; part-year 
income and expenditures for this new project are reflected in the Re- 
stricted Private Funds table. 

The National Museum of History and Technology is conducting a 
fund-raising campaign, with strong support from industry, to enable 
creation of a new exhibit "Hall of American Maritime Enterprise" 
devoted to national marine history. As of June 30, 1974, $166,000 
had been raised with additional pledges received of over $100,000. 

A gift of $1 million was received from Joseph H. Hirshhorn in 
fiscal year 1974 to be used to complete construction of the Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden, due to open to the public in October 
1974. This gift is reflected in the restricted gifts total in Table 6 in 
the category of Plant Funds along with other gifts and miscellaneous 
revenues for the new Chesapeake Bay Center building ($70,000) and 
renovation of the Carnegie Mansion for the Cooper-Hewitt Museum 


The Smithsonian endowment includes three separate investment 
funds: the Freer Fund, whose income is used solely by the Freer Gal- 
lery of Art; Endowment Fund No. 3, which supports oceanographic 
research at the Fort Pierce Bureau in Florida; and the Consolidated 
Fund, which is an investment pool of all other Smithsonian restricted 
and unrestricted endowment funds, although distinct administration 
and accounting is maintained on each individual fund. Changes in 
market values of these funds since 1970, reflecting additions from 
donations and reinvestment of income, limited withdrawals, and 
changes in securities valuations are shown in Table 10. 

Table 10. Market Values of Endowment funds 
\ [In $l,000's] 

Fund 6/30/70 6/30/71 6/30/72 6/30/73 

Freer $14,987 $18,805 $21,973 $18,279 

Endowment No. 3 . . 5,433 12,331 14,641 13,196 

Consolidated 8,998 11,470 13,287 12,393 

Total $29,418 $42,606 $49,901 $43,868 




Financial Report / 37 

As detailed in previous Smithsonian Annual Reports, the invest- 
ment of these three endowments is managed by three professional 
advisory firms, under the close supervision of the Investment Policy 
Committee and the Treasurer, and subject to policy guidelines set by 
the Smithsonian's Board of Regents. Under the Total Return policy, 
adopted for all funds by the Board of Regents in 1972, the income 
to be paid each fund in the subsequent fiscal year is determined each 
March 31 by computing 4V2 percent of the running five-year average 
of market values. By selecting a fixed rate of return, regardless of 
what the actual yield may be, the investment advisors are free to 
choose the most attractive securities without being limited by the 
need to achieve a specified dividend and interest income level and 
at the same time Smithsonian budgeting procedures are simplified. 

Table 11. Changes in Endowment Funds for Fiscal Year 1974 

[In $l,000's] 

Market Gifts Interest Income Decline Market 

value and and paid Sub- in market value 

Fund 6/30/73 transfers dividends* out total value 6/30/74 

Freer Fund . . . 

Fund No. 3 . . 


Total** . . 



$ - $ 670 $ 876 $18,073 $3,823 $14,250 



520 12,821 1,693 11,128 









$ (3) 






* Income earned less managers' fees. 

** Not including Endowment Funds of $1,000,000 held in U.S. Treasury, carrying 6 percent interest, 
nor minor amount of miscellaneous securities treated separately. 

As shown in Table 11, the market values of the endowment funds 
suffered badly in fiscal year 1974, sharing fully in the general stock 
market decline. This fall in market values will have the effect in fiscal 
year 1975 of reducing the Total Return income to the Freer and Con- 
solidated Funds to somewhat below the level of fiscal year 1974, al- 
though still higher than prior years. 

38 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


Gifts, bequests, and reinvestment of income in certain restricted 
funds added $297,000 to the Consolidated Fund, and a transfer of 
$300,000 was made from Endowment Fund No. 3 to permit comple- 
tion of the RV Johnson submarine tender as well as to cover costs 
relating to the entrapment of the submersible Johnson-Sea-Link in 
June 1973. Income totaling $1,948,000, net of managers' fees, was 
paid out under the Total Return policy described above; this was 
$355,000 in excess of dividend and interest yield on these Endow- 
ment Funds in the year. Market valuations and income of the indi- 
vidual restricted funds participating in the Consolidated pool are 
shown in Table 12, and detail on the funds by types of securities held 
is given in Table 13. A listing of the individual investments held in 
the various endowment funds at June 30, 1974, may be obtained 
upon request to the Treasurer of the Institution. 

Accounting and Auditing 

The Private Trust Funds of the Institution, as well as the accounts of 
Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, Inc., the Smithsonian 
Research Foundation, and Reading-Is-Fundamental, Inc., are audited 
annually by independent public accountants. Their report for fiscal 
year 1974 on the Smithsonian is contained in the following pages, 
including a comparative balance sheet and a statement of changes in 
the various fund balances. Extensive changes in accounting treat- 
ment of a number of items in accordance with new guidelines estab- 
lished by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants 
have been referred to at length in the Notes to these statements and 
are reflected in the tables in this report dealing with Unrestricted and 
Restricted Private Funds. 

The Defense Contract Audit Agency annually performs an audit 
on grant and contract monies received from federal agencies. In addi- 
tion, the federally appropriated funds of the Institution are subject 
to audit by the General Accounting Office. The internal audit staff 
continues to conduct audits throughout the wide range of Smith- 
sonian activities and contributes greatly to smooth administrative 
and financial management. 

Financial Report I 39 

Table 12. Consolidated Fund, June 30, 1974 



Funds participating in pool 

Book value 


Market 1974 pended 

value Net income balance 



Abbott, William L 211,924 

Archives of American Art 21,986 

Armstrong, Edwin James 4,133 

Arthur, James 62,497 

Bacon, Virginia Purdy 184,850 

Baird, Spencer Fullerton 57,364 

Barney, Alice Pike 44,821 

Barstow, Frederic D 2,032 

Batchelor, Emma E 67,414 

Beauregard, Catherine 

Memorial Fund 77,837 

Becker, George F 317,610 

Brown, Roland W 51,303 

Canfield, Frederick A 59,323 

Casey, Thomas Lincoln 25,489 

Chamberlain, Frances Lea 44,007 

Cooper, C. Arthur, Curator's Fund . . 2,840 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 158,973 

Desautels, Paul E 1,463 

Div. of Mammal Curator Fund 3,366 

Div. of Reptiles Curator Fund 1,006 

Drake, Carl J 283,815 

Dykes, Charles 87,541 

Eickemeyer, Florence Brevoort 16,988 

Guggenheim, David and Florence . . . 238,898 
Hanson, Martin Gustav and 

Caroline Runice 18,077 

Henderson, Edward P. Meteorite Fund 623 

Hillyer, Virgil 13,365 

Hitchcock, Albert S 2,464 

Hrdlicka, Ales and Marie 95,780 

Hughes, Bruce 29,910 

Johnson, E. R. Fenimore 16,361 

Kellogg, Remington, Memorial 48,275 

Lindsey, Jessie H 587 

Loeb, Morris 177,619 

Long, Annette E. and Edith C 848 

Lyons, Marcus Ward . 8,778 

Maxwell, Mary E 30,650 

Myer, Catherine Walden 41,084 

$ 3,809,559 $219,510 $ 



















































































































40 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Table 12. Consolidated Fund, June 30, 1974 — continued 



Funds participating in pool 

Book value 

Market 1974 pended 

value Net income balance 

Nelson, Edward William $ 37,315 $ 38,911 $ 1,987 $ 

Noyes, Frank B 1,976 1,831 112 1,237 

Pell, Cornelia Livingston 15,091 13,414 818 5,849 

Petrocelli, Joseph, Memorial 11,582 13,033 665 8,540 

Ramsey, Admiral and Mrs. 

DeWitt Clinton 527,193 387,110 23,857 15,467 

Rathbun, Richard, Memorial 21,648 19,220 1,172 11,701 

Reid, Addison T 36,166 31,982 1,951 2,852 

Roebling Collection 188,656 210,194 10,730 1,059 

Roebling Solar Research 50,163 41,324 2,521 962 

Rollins, Miriam and William 298,674 296,708 14,862 

Ruef, Bertha M 63,809 45,991 2,101 2,809 

Smithsonian Agency Account 186,886 138,087 7,417 

Sprague, Joseph White 2,179,658 1,785,177 89,418 1,746 

Springer, Frank 28,025 31,366 1,601 20,767 

Stevenson, John A 9,525 8,522 435 - 

Strong, Julia D 20,348 18,061 1,101 4,559 

T.F.H. Publications, Inc 13,539 9,554 523 9,816 

Walcott, Charles D 191,293 185,590 9,296 11,323 

Walcott, Charles D. and Mary Vaux 719,110 804,766 41,084 20,114 

Walcott Botanical Publications 90,618 97,623 4,984 15 

Zerbee, Francis Brinckle 1,483 1,649 84 1,718 

Total Restricted Funds $ 7,204,659 $ 6,361,980 $332,666 $295,370 

Total Consolidated Funds $11,821,050 $10,171,539 $552,176 $295,370 


Financial Report I 41 

Table 13. Endowment and Similar Funds Summary of Investments 

Book value Market value 

Accounts 6/30/74 6/30/74 


Freer Fund: 

Cash $ 544,442 $ 544,442 

Bonds 2,755,871 2,559,139 

Convertible Bonds 1,657,791 1,360,919 

Stocks 11,264,712 9,785,271 

Total $16,222,816 $14,249,771 

Consolidated Funds: 

Cash $ 91,898 $ 91,898 

Bonds 2,981,194 2,785,227 

Convertible Bonds 

Stocks 8,747,958 7,294,414 

Total $11,821,050 $10,171,539 

Endowment Fund No. 3: 

Cash $ 108,931 $ 108,931 

Bonds 2,996,566 2,916,807 

Convertible Bonds 202,878 159,155 

Stocks 9,423,532 7,944,033 

Total $12,731,907 $11,128,926 


Cash $ 731 $ 731 

Bonds 9,769 9,100 

Common Stocks 3,322 8,373 

Total $ 13,822 $ 18,204 

Total Investment Accounts $40,789,595 $35,568,440 

Other Accounts: 

Notes Receivable $ 49,966 $ 49,966 

Loan to U.S. Treasury in Perpetuity 1,000,000 1,000,000 

Total Other Accounts $ 1,049,966 $ 1,049,966 

Total Endowment and Similar Fund Balances .... $41,839,561 $36,618,406 

42 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Donors to the Smithsonian 

The Smithsonian Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts and be- 
quests received during fiscal year 1974 from the following: 

$100,000 or more: 

American Bankers Association 
The Atlantic Foundation 
Hillwood Trust 

Mr. Joseph H. Hirshhorn 
Estate of Paula C. Lambert 
The Majorie Merriweather Post 
Foundation of D.C. 

$10,000 or more: 

Alcoa Foundation 

American Philosophical Society 


The Arcadia Foundation 

Estate of William A. Archer 

Batelle Memorial Institute 

Dr. William H. Crocker 

John Deere Foundation 

The Henry L. and Grace Doherty 

Charitable Foundation, Inc. 
Doubleday & Company, Inc. 
Exxon Corporation 
Max C. Fleischmann Foundation 
The Ford Foundation 
Ford Motor Company 
Mary L. Griggs and Mary G. Burke 

The Daniel and Florence Guggenheim 

Dr. and Mrs. Herbert E. Hawkes 
Charles Hayden Foundation 
William Randolph Hearst Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry J. Heinz II 
Mrs. Ethel R. Holmes 
Houston Endowment, Inc. 

International Business Machines 

Interdisciplinary Communication 

Associates, Inc. 
J. M. Kaplan Fund, Inc. 
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel E. Koshland 
Mr. Edwin A. Link 
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation 
Eugene and Agnes E. Meyer 

The Mobil Foundation, Inc. 
The Ambrose Monell Foundation 
National Geographic Society 
New York State Council on the Arts 
Edward John Noble Foundation 
Phillip Morris Incorporated 
Janet Neff Charitable Trust 
Estate of Marjorie Merriweather Post 
Rockefeller Brothers Fund 
Estate of Gertrude Sampson 
Mississippi State Historical Museum 
Miss Alice Tully 

The Thomas J. Watson Foundation 
United Seamen's Service 
Weatherhead Foundation 
World Wildlife Fund 

$1,000 or more: 

Mr. Max Abramovitz 
American Express Foundation 
American Council of Learned 

American Federation of Information 

Processing Societies, Inc. 
The American Foundation 

American Institute of Marine 

American Metal Climax Foundation 
Arthur Anderson and Company 
Astillero Nacional 
Bankers Trust Company 

Financial Report I 43 

$1,000 or more — continued: 

Barra Foundation 

Mr. Hilary Barratt-Brown 

Mrs. Evelyn F. Bartlett 

The Bedminster Fund, Inc. 

Beneficial Fund, Inc. 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker 

Ms. Beulah Boyd 

Mr. John Nicholas Brown 

Mr. David K. E. Bruce 

The Burroughs Wellcome Fund 

Mr. and Mrs. Douglass Campbell 

Caterpillar Tractor Company 

Celanese Corporation of America 

Charron Foundation 

General Claire Lee Chennault 

Mrs. Frances K. Clark 
The Coca Cola Company 
Committee for Islamic Culture 
Continental Oil Company 
Mr. and Mrs. Raymond E. Cox 
Mrs. Alice Crowley Trust 
Cultural Council Foundation 
Ms. Priscilla Cunningham 
Ms. Aileen Curry-Cloonan 
Dana Corporation Foundation 
Mrs. John Dimick 

Cleveland H. Dodge Foundation, Inc. 
Earhart Foundation 
The Edipa Foundation, Inc. 
El Paso Natural Gas Company 
Dr. William L. Elkins 
Elsa Wild Animal Appeal 
Mr. Alfred U. Elser, Jr. 
Entomological Society of America 
The Eppley Foundation for Research 
Mrs. Ruth M. Epstein 
Fieldcrest Mills, Inc. 
First National Bank of Miami 
General Electric Company 
General Telephone & Electronics 

Mrs. Rebecca D. Gibson 
Mr. Alfred C. Glassell, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Joshua A. Gollin 
Mrs. Katherine Graham 
Great Lakes Aircraft Co. 
Mr. Felix Guggenheim 

Mr. M. D. Guinness 

Mrs. David L. Guyer 

Hallmark Educational Foundation 

Mr. Wallace K. Harrison 

Hiram Walker & Sons, Inc. 

Hoover Foundation 

Institute of International 

International Association of Plant 

International Rectifier Corporation 
International Telephone and 

Telegraph Corporation 
The Island Foundation 
Janss Foundation 
The Johnson Foundation, Inc. 
J. D. R. 3rd Fund, Inc. 
Mr. James Ellwood Jones, Jr. 
Mrs. Merri Jones 
Mrs. Ruth Cole Kainen 
Atwater Kent Foundation, Inc. 
Mr. and Mrs. Judd Kessler 
Keystone Shipping Co. 
Kidder Peabody Foundation 
Mr. Irving B. Kingsford 
Dr. and Mrs. Robert Kinnaird 
Kominers, Fort, Schlefer & Boyer 
Mr. Edward F. Kook 
Mr. David Lloyd Kreeger 
S. S. Kresge Company 
Mr. and Mrs. Rodney M. Layton 
Lilly Endowment, Inc. 
Mr. Charles A. Lindbergh 
Mr. Harold F. Linder 
The Link Foundation 
Mrs. Elizabeth Lorentz 
The Lykes Foundation, Inc. 
Maritime Overseas Corporation 
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Marsteller 
Townsend B. Martin Charitable 

Mr. and Mrs. John Mayer 
McDonald's Corporation 
Mr. Forrest L. Merrill 
Mobil Foundation, Inc. 
Mr. and Mrs. Harry C. Nail, Jr. 
National Bank of Detroit 
National Council on Productivity 

44 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

$1,000 or more — continued: 

National Research Council 
National Steel and Shipbuilding 

Northrop Corporation 
Northwest Industries Foundation, Inc. 
Olin Corporation Charitable Trust 
Ourisman Foundation, Inc. 
Palisades Foundation, Inc. 
Mr. Perry R. Pease 
J. C. Penney Company, Inc. 
The Pioneer Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. Feodor U. Pitcairn 
Polaroid Foundation, Inc. 
Dr. and Mrs. John A. Pope 
Propeller Club of U.S., Port of 

New York 
R. J. Reynolds Industries, Inc. 
Miss Esther M. Ridder 
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph C. Rinzler 
Dr. 5. Dillon Ripley 
Mr. and Mrs. William G. Roe 
Schubert Foundation 
Miss Elsie Shaver 
Shipbuilders Council of America 
Sidney Printing and Publishing Co. 

Stacks Coin Company 

Miss Elizabeth Stein 

Mrs. Alice T. Strong 

Sumner Gerard Foundation 

Todd Shipyards Corporation 

T.R.W. Foundation, Inc. 

Trust of Georgia Foundation 


University of Michigan 

Mr. Arthur K. Watson 

Mr. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 

Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation 

Mr. Christopher A. Weeks 

Mr. Kermit A. Weeks 

Miss Leslie Anne Weeks 

Wells Fargo Bank 

Wenner-Gren Foundation 

Mr. and Mrs. Albert Whiting 

Elsie de Wolfe Foundation, Inc. 

Women's Committee of the 

Smithsonian Institution 
Woodheath Foundation, Inc. 
Charles W. Wright Foundation of 

Badger Meter, Inc. 
Wunsch American Foundation 

$500 or more: 

American Airlines, Inc. 


AVCO Corporation 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank C. Baldwin 

Mr. Harry Hood Bassett 

Mr. Arthur W. Bedell 

Brotherton-DiGiorgio Corporation 

Mr. and Mrs. C. Emery Buffum 

Mrs. W. Randolph Burgess 

Mr. Carter Cafritz 

Charities Aid Fund 

China Airlines 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward T. Choy 

Mr. R. Coaley 

Mr. Sheldon R. Coons 

Mr. John M. Crawford, Jr. 

Dr. and Mrs. Willis N. Dickens 

Mrs. Helen W. Edey 

Educational Audio Visual, Inc. 

Emery Air Freight 

Mr. and Mrs. Ralph H. Fisher 

Mr. Robert B. Flint 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Fuller III 

Dr. and Mrs. Carl E. Gericke 

The B. F. Goodrich Company 

Guide Foundation 

Edith G. Halpert Foundation 

Mrs. Francis Head 

Institute of Psychiatry and 

Foreign Affairs 
The IX Foundation 
S. C. Johnson and Son, Inc. 
Mr. E. P. Jones 
Josten Fund, Inc. 
Mr. James G. Kenan 
Mr. and Mrs. Fleming Law 
James A. MacDonald Foundation 
The Magnavox Foundation 
Mrs. Margaret McClellan 
Ellen McCluskey Associates 

Financial Report I 45 

$500 or more — continued: 

Mr. and Mrs. John McGreevey 

Mr. Henry P. Mcllhenny 

Mr. and Mrs. K. M. McLaren 

Dr. and Mrs. Leo A. McNalley 

Mr. Robert L. McNeil, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter W. Meiers 

Mrs. Constance L. Mellen 

Mr. Paul Mellon 

Dr. and Mrs. Matthew Michiewicz 

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur H. Miller 

Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Nath 

The Nature Conservancy 

Nautilus Foundation, Inc. 

Mr. Otto Natzler 

Mr. Edward Neinken 

Mr. Mortimer Neinken 

PACCAR Foundation 

Mr. Carl H. Pforzheimer, Jr. 
Mr. John Shedd Reed 
Dr. Ira Rubinoff 
Santa Fe Industries, Inc. 
The Norine and Ottilie 

Schillig Foundation, Inc. 
Mr. Sidney N. Shure 
Shuttleworth Carton Co. 
Mr. Robert H. Smith 
E. R. Squibb and Sons, Inc. 
Mr. and Mrs. Irwin R. Stone 
Levi Strauss Foundation 
Strayer College 
Mr. and Mrs. John L. Tishman 
Mr. Chi-Chuan Wang 
Mr. and Mrs. Harold I. Westcott 
Winn-Dixie Stores, Inc. 

We also gratefully acknowledge other contributions in the amount 
of $229,197.80 received from more than 5,000 contributors in fiscal 
year 1974. 

46 / Smithsonian Year 1974 




WASHINGTON, D. C. 20036 

The Board of Regents 
Smithsonian Institution: 

We have examined the balance sheet of the Private Funds of Smith- 
sonian Institution as of June 30, 1974 and the related statement of 
changes in fund balances for the year then ended. Such statements 
do not include the accounts of the National Gallery of Art, the John 
F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, nor other departments, 
bureaus and operations administered by the Institution under Fed- 
eral appropriations as detailed in note 3 to the financial statements. 
Our examination was made in accordance with generally accepted 
auditing standards, and accordingly included such tests of the ac- 
counting records and such other auditing procedures as we consid- 
ered necessary in the circumstances. 

In our opinion, the aforementioned financial statements present 
fairly the financial position of the Private Funds of Smithsonian 
Institution at June 30, 1974 and the changes in its fund balances for 
the year then ended, in conformity with generally accepted account- 
ing principles which, except for the changes referred to in note la 
to the financial statements, with which we concur, have been applied 
on a basis consistent with that of the preceding year. 


September 5, 1974 

Financial Report I 47 


Balance Sheet 

June 30, 1974 

(with comparative figures for 1973) 

Assets 1974 1973 



In U. S. Treasury $ 139,352 293,324 

In banks and on hand 651,485 413,499 

Total cash 790,837 706,823 

Investments (note 2) 8,298,318 6,223,305 

Receivables : 

Accounts, less allowance for doubtful accounts 

of $200,000 ($194,486 in 1973) 1,247,671 935,486 

Advances — travel and other 203,705 172,568 

Reimbursement — grants and contracts 2,261,103 1,061,872 

Due from agency funds 136,151 - 

Total receivables 3,848,630 2,169,926 

Inventories 780,054 602,254 

Prepaid expenses 420,272 456,659 

Deferred expenses 1,208,561 769,670 

Total current funds $15,346,672 10,928,637 


Cash and receivables for securities sold 506,035 359,353 

Notes receivable 49,966 51,486 

Due from current funds 239,967 - 

Investments (note 2) 40,043,593 41,266,827 

Loan to U. S. Treasury in perpetuity at 6% 1,000,000 1,000,000 

Total endowment and similar funds $41,839,561 42,677,666 


Due from current funds 1,934,519 938,480 

Real estate (note 5) 4,847,870 3,471,825 

Equipment, less accumulated depreciation of 

$409,830 ($303,385 in 1973) (note 4) 237,025 328,107 

Total plant funds $ 7,019,414 4,738,412 


Investments 10,000 - 

Due from current funds 213,100 130,814 

Total agency funds $ 223,100 130,814 

See accompanying notes to financial statements. 


Balance Sheet 

June 30, 1974 
(with comparative figures for 1973) 

Liabilities and Fund Balances 1974 1973 


Accounts payable and accrued liabilities $ 2,596,331 1,701,665 

Due to plant funds 1,934,519 938,480 

Due to agency funds 213,100 130,814 

Due to endowment and similar funds 239,967 - 

Deferred income: 

Magazine subscriptions 3,645,757 2,746,892 

Other 334,955 290,560 

Total liabilities 8,964,629 5,808,411 

Fund balances: 

General purpose 3,066,594 2,292,017 

Special purpose 460,544 201,491 

Total unrestricted 3,527,138 2,493,508 

Restricted 2,854,905 2,626,718 

Total fund balances 6,382,043 5,120,226 

Total current funds $15,346,672 10,928,637 

Fund balances: 

Endowment 34,999,970 35,844,768 

Quasi-endowment : 

Restricted 2,286,057 2,304,158 

Unrestricted 4,553,534 4,528,740 

Total quasi-endowment 6,839,591 6,832,898 

Total endowment and similar funds $41,839,561 42,677,666 


Note payable (note 4) 191,843 295,761 

Mortgage notes payable (note 5) 349,617 432,534 

Accrued liabilities 36,832 - 

Fund balances: 
Acquisition fund: 

Unrestricted 933,661 

Restricted 964,026 938,480 

1,897,687 938,480 

Investment in plant 4,543,435 3,071,637 

Total plant funds $ 7,019,414 4,738,412 


Due to current funds 136,151 — 

Deposits held in custody for others 86,949 130,814 

Total agency funds $ 223,100 130,814 

Statement of Changes in Fund Balances 

Year ended June 30, 1974 

Total Total 

current unrestricted 
funds funds 


Auxiliary enterprises revenue $12,615,044 12,615,044 j 

Federal grants and contracts 9,967,552 —f 

Investment income (net of $108,752 management 

and custodian fees) 2,158,982 729,476 

Gains (losses) on sale of securities (16,243) (16,243 

Gifts, bequests, and foundation grants 2,503,499 533,824 

Additions to equity in real estate and 

capitalized equipment (including $110,000 of 

land acquired in prior year) — 

Rentals, fees, and commissions 618,773 618,773 

Other — net 753,409 207,308 

Total revenue and other additions 28,601,016 14,688,182 


Research and educational expenditures 12,662,553 695,060 

Administrative expenditures 3,386,476 916,804 

Auxiliary enterprises expenditures 10,619,160 10,619,160 

Expended for real estate and equipment — 

Retirement of indebtedness — 

Interest on indebtedness — 

Depreciation — 

Total expenditures and other deductions 26,668,189 12,231,024 


Mandatory — principal and interest on note (103,917) (103,917) 

Portion of investment gain appropriated 355,376 34,321 

For plant acquisition (1,015,000) (1,015,000) 

Income added to endowment principal (71,106) - 

Appropriated as quasi-endowment (100,446) (100,446) 

For designated purposes (35,917) (238,486) 

Endowment released 300,000 — 

Net increase in activities — — "' 


Total transfers among funds — additions (deductions) . . . (671,010) (1,423,528); 

Net increase (decrease) for the year 1,261,817 1,033,630 

Fund balances at June 30, 1973 5,120,226 2,493,508 

Fund balances at June 30, 1974 $ 6,382,043 3,527,138 

See accompanying notes to financial statements. 

50 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Current funds 


general Activities purposes Restricted 


and similar 


Plant funds 

Acquisition in plant 

12,473,118 141,926 


259,881 123,357 




- 106,994 
2,224 31,287 


,546,231 12,735,223 406,728 13,912,834 


- 1,583,504 
144,859 (5,261) 

1,332,361 1,578,243 

- 123,824 11,967,493 
461,298 12,532 2,469,672 
10,503,508 115,652 












































• — 











































; 242,556 
; 774,577 

















Financial Report I 51 

Notes to Financial Statements 

June 30, 1974 

1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies 

a. Accrual Basis — The financial statements of Smithsonian Institution have 
been prepared on the accrual basis, except for depreciation accounting as 
explained in note Ig below, and are in conformity with generally accepted 
accounting principles included in the recently issued American Institute of 
Certified Public Accountants Audit Guide "Audits of Colleges and Univer- 
sities". In accordance with the requirements of the Guide, annual leave 
and interest income on endowment and similar fund investments have 
been accrued at June 30, 1974 and, in addition, certain changes in financial 
statement classification have been adopted. The effect of such changes in 
classifications on beginning fund balances is as follows: 

Endowment and 
similar funds 

Current funds q^^^,-. p;^„f ^ge«cj/ 

Unrestricted Restricted Endowment endowment funds funds 

Balance at 
June 30, 1973 
as previously 
reported $2,323,958 3,897,908 36,913,730 5,763,936 3,039,291 

Reclassify fund 
restricted for 
and acquisi- 
tion of real 
estate - (938,480) - - 938,480 

Reclassify funds 
that are inter- 
nally restricted 
by the Insti- 
tution 201,896 (201,896) - _ _ _ 

Net assets 
transferred to 
plant fund (32,346) _ _ _ 32,346 

Reclassify mis- 
funds to 
agency status - (130,814) _ _ _ i30,814 


endowments - - (1,068,962) 1,068,962 - - 

Balance at 
June 30, 1973 
as restated $2,493,508 2,626,718 35,844,768 6,832,898 4,010,117 130,814 

Current funds used to finance the acquisition of plant assets and for pro- 
visions for debt amortization and interest are accounted for as transfers 
to the plant fund. 

Fund Accounting — In order to ensure observance of limitations and re- 
strictions placed on the use of the resources available to the Institution, 
the accounts of the Institution are maintained in accordance with the prin- 

52 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

ciples of "fund accounting". This is the procedure by which resources for 
various purposes are classified for accounting and reporting purposes into 
funds that are in accordance with activities or objectives specified. Separate 
accounts are maintained for each fund; however, in the accompanying 
financial statements, funds that have similar characteristics have been com- 
bined into fund groups. Accordingly, all financial transactions have been 
recorded and reported by fund group. 

Within each fund group, fund balances restricted by outside sources are so 
indicated and are distinguished from unrestricted funds allocated to spe- 
cific purposes by action of the governing board. Externally restricted funds 
may only be utilized in accordance with the purposes established by the 
source of such funds and are in contrast with unrestricted funds over which 
the governing board retains full control to use in achieving any of its 
institutional purposes. 

Endowment funds are subject to the restrictions of gift instruments requir- 
ing in perpetuity that the principal be invested and the income only be 
utilized. Also classified as endowment funds are gifts which will allow the 
expenditure of principal but only under certain specified conditions. 

Unrestricted quasi-endowment funds have been established by the govern- 
ing board for the same purposes as endowment funds, any portion of such 
funds may be expended. Restricted quasi-endowment funds represent giftt 
for restricted purposes where there is no stipulation that the principal be 
maintained in perpetuity or for a period of time, but the governing board 
has elected to invest the principal and expend only the income for the pur- 
pose stipulated by the donor. 

All gains and losses arising from the sale, collection, or other disposition 
of investments and other noncash assets are accounted for in the fund 
which owned such assets. Ordinary income derived from investments, re- 
ceivables, and the like, is accounted for in the fund owning such assets, 
except for income derived from investments of endowment and similar 
funds, which income is accounted for in the fund to which it is restricted 
or, if unrestricted, as revenues in unrestricted current funds. 

All other unrestricted revenue is accounted for in the unrestricted current 
fund. Restricted gifts, grants, endowment income, and other restricted re- 
sources are accounted for in the appropriate restricted funds. 

c. Investments are recorded at cost or fair market value at date of acquisition 
when acquired by gift. 

d. Inventories are carried at lower of average cost or net realizable value. 

e. Income and expenses in respect to the Institution's magazine and associates' 
activities are deferred and taken into income and expense over the appli- 
cable periods and are reported in the activities section of the current 
unrestricted funds. 

f. Endowment and Similar Fund Investments — The Institution utilizes the 
"total return" approach to investment management of endowment funds 
and quasi-endowment funds. Under this approach, the total investment 
return is considered to include realized and unrealized gains and losses in 
addition to interest and dividends. In applying this approach, it is the Insti- 
tution's policy to provide 4V2% of the five year average of the market value 
of each fund (adjusted for gifts and transfers during this period) as being 
available for current expenditures; however, where the market value of 
the assets of any fund is less than 110% of the historic dollar value (value 
of gifts at date of donation) the amount provided is limited to only interest 
and dividends received. 

Financial Report I 53 

g. Plant Fund Assets — Plant fund assets are recorded as follows: 

Museum shop and computer equipment purchased with Private Funds is 
capitalized in the plant fund at cost, and is depreciated on a straight-line 
basis over an estimated useful life of five years. 

Real estate (land and buildings) are recorded in the plant fund at cost, 
to the extent that restricted or unrestricted funds were expended therefor, 
or appraised value at date of gift, except for gifts of certain islands in 
Chesapeake Bay, Carnegie Mansion, and Hillwood Estate which have 
been recorded at nominal values. Depreciation on buildings is not re- 

All the other land and buildings (principally acquired with Federal funds), 
fixtures, equipment, works of art, living or other specimens are not re- 
flected in the accompanying financial statements. 

Funds, previously recorded in the current funds group, whose purpose is 
for construction and acquisition of plant assets, have been reclassified to 
plant funds. 

h. Agency Funds — The agency funds group consists of funds held by the 
Institution as custodian or fiscal agent for others. 

i. Pension Costs — All pension costs are funded as accrued. 

2. Investments 

Quoted market values and carrying values of investments (all marketable 
securities) of the funds indicated were as follows: 

Endowment and similar 

Total investments 

June 3C 

), 3974 

June 3D 

1, 2973 





$ 8,298,318 












Total investment performance is summarized below: 

Net gains (losses) 


Unrealized gains (losses) : 

June 30, 1974 $(327,230) 

June 30, 1973 (145,079) 

Increase in unrealized 

gains (losses) for year (182,151) 
Realized net losses for year . . . (16,243) 

Total net losses for year $(198,394) 

Endowment and 
similar funds 








Assets of the endowment and similar funds having a carrying value of 
$11,845,384 are pooled on "a market value basis (consolidated fund) with 
each individual fund subscribing to or disposing of units on the basis of 

54 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

the value per unit at market value at the beginning of the calendar quarter 
within which the transaction takes place. Of the total units each having a 
market value of $84.60 ($105.22 in 1973), 67,856 units were owned by en- 
dowment, and 52,665 units by quasi-endowment at June 30, 1974. 

3. Related Activities 

Federal appropriations, which are not reflected in the accompanying finan- 
' cial statements, provide major support for the operations and administration 
of the educational and research programs of the Institution's many mu- 
seums, art galleries and other bureaus, as well as for the maintenance and 
construction of related buildings and facilities. In addition, land, buildings 
and other assets acquired with Federal funds are not reflected in the accom- 
panying financial statements. 

The following Federal appropriations were received by the Institution for 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1974 : 

Operating funds $60,562,900 

Special foreign currency program 4,500,000 

Construction funds 21,860,000 


4. Note Payable 

The note payable in the principal amount of $191,843 ($295,761 in 1973) 
which is non-interest bearing, is secured by computer equipment and is 
payable in monthly installments of $7,993 to June 30, 1976. 

5. Mortgage Notes Payable 

The mortgage notes payable are secured by first deeds of trust on property 
acquired in connection with the Chesapeake Bay Center. The details of the 
mortgage notes payable are as follows: 

June 30, 

1974 1973 

Mortgage note, payable in semi-annual installments 
of $13,300, plus interest at the prevailing prime 
rate at the due date of the installment payment 
but not less than 8%, due July 1, 1980 $172,900 199,500 

6% mortgage note payable, due in monthly install- 
ments of $451 including interest, due November 1, 
1989 36,717 33,034 

6% mortgage note, payable in semi-annual install- 
ments of $10,000, plus interest, due November 7, 
1979 110,000 140,000 

7% mortgage note, payable in annual installments 

of $30,000, plus interest, due November 1, 1974 30,000 60,000 

$349,617 432,534 

6. Pension Plan 

The Institution has a contributory pension plan providing for the purchase 
of retirement annuity contracts for all employees meeting certain age and 
length of service requirements. Under terms of the plan, the Institution 
contributes the amount necessary to bring the total contribution to 12% of 
the participants' compensation subject to social security taxes and to 17% 
of the participants' compensation in excess of that amount. The total pen- 
sion expense for the year was $729,068 ($688,782 in 1973). 

Financial Report I 55 

The Queen of Thailand and His Excellency The Ambassador of Thailand are greeted by 

Dr. Edward S. Ayensu (right). Chairman of the Department of Botany and then Acting 

Director of the National Museum of Natural History, and Mr. Meredith Johnson (left). 

Special Events Officer, upon their visit to the Museum. 


Smithsonian Year • 1974 


The past year in Science was characterized by a steady progress 
toward the goals outhned at the first institutional priorities confer- 
ence at Belmont in 1973. In addition, efforts were directed to re- 
appraising and redefining certain management structures in order to 
find new and better methods to build on to traditional strengths. 
This effort is in line with the discussions resulting from the Institu- 
tion's second priorities conference last February. 

The Museum of Natural History focused attention this past year 
on its educational role, exploring new avenues to enrich the visitors' 
experience. The formation of an in-house exhibits committee was a 
first step in the Museum's desire to seek new directions in exhibitry. 
The opening of the Touch Exhibit focused the public's attention on 
alternate methods to the traditional museum experience. 

The National Zoological Park obtained a permit to the former 
Army Remount Station at Front Royal, Virginia, for use as a breed- 
ing farm, especially for endangered species. The new facility, it is 
hoped, will allow for increased propagation of rare animals, away 
from the limited space of Rock Creek Park. 

Early in the fiscal year, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observa- 
tory joined with the Harvard College Observatory to form the Cen- 
ter for Astrophysics. The new arrangement has led to more flexibility 
in personnel and programs, increasing joint resources for maximum 

The Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies continued 
to progress toward a goal of increased educational opportunities for 
neighboring schools and disadvantaged urban youth. A new build- 
ing, which will house the educational and visitor orientation activi- 
ties, was planned and bids were received for the work. The new 



building will release office and lab space now jointly used for re- 
search and educational activities. Another program undertaken was 
the Information Transfer Program which translates scientific results 
into forms that can be useful to planners and government officials. 
Money for this program was made available from the Edward John 
Noble Foundation. 

The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (stri) underwent 
a change of directorship this past year with the return of Dr. Martin 
Moynihan to his research as Senior Scientist at stri. He was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. Ira Rubinoff, who previously served as Assistant 
Director at the facility. The research undertaken at stri continued 
to be primarily concerned with basic scientific questions of the evo- 
lutionary and ecological adaptations of tropical organisms. An in- 
creased education program was undertaken with grants received 
from the Henry L. and Grace Doherty and Edward John Noble 

The National Air and Space Museum's new building continued on 
schedule and within the budget began to rise and take form on the 
Mall this past year with much of the staff's time being spent on the 
preparation of exhibits that will be displayed in the new quarters. 
The formation of the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies in the 
Museum provides the basis for a scientific research arm in lunar 

The Office of International and Environmental Programs was es- 
tablished this past year combining the Offices of International 
Activities and Environmental Sciences. The new Office is designed 
to further increase opportunities for the Smithsonian to conduct re- 
search abroad in its traditional strengths in collection-based natural 
history to the comparatively new area of environmental studies. 
Wymberley Coerr, a career foreign service officer who served as 
Ambassador to Ecuador and Uruguay, was appointed to head the 

In the past year, Smithsonian support of conservation in the Gala- 
pagos Islands has increased substantially in response to a significant 
rise in the number of contributions earmarked for Galapagos work. 
Aided by the Research Station's new director, Craig MacFarland, 
administration and equipment have been markedly strengthened, 
and research expanded to include a marine biological survey, to help 
determine the limits of the National Park. In addition, two Smith- 

58 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

sonian research teams have recently visited the islands, one to con- 
tinue studies of volcanic activity of Isla Fernandina and the other to 
begin a study of finches and orb-weaving arachnids. Educational 
programs in the islands were augmented by the Smithsonian helping 
to fund a volunteer from the Catholic Institute for International Re- 
lations, who is teaching biology, natural history, and conservation 
as well as aiding in the marine survey. Additionally, a Sl-Peace 
Corps volunteer is working on the design of exhibits to the new 
Van-Straelen musuem/lecture hall, which will provide natural his- 
tory instruction for both tourists and Galapaguefios. 

The Smithsonian once again played a significant role in national 
and international affairs. Smithsonian scientists and administrators 
provided representatives and advisory services to the Council on 
Environmental Quality, the Department of the Interior, the Institute 
of Ecology, the First International Congress of Systematic and Evo- 
lutionary Biology, the Asia Society, the Bahamas National Trust, and 
the World Wildlife Fund. The staff has traveled to diverse places in 
the United States and abroad including the Bahamas, the United 
Kingdom, Switzerland, India, and Nepal. Smithsonian scientists con- 
tinued their fruitful collaboration with foreign institutions on every 
continent and provided technical assistance on environmental 

Details of these concerns and scientific accomplishments in other 
areas of research by the individual bureaus, in fiscal year 1974, 

Center for the Study of Man 

Over the past year the Center for the Study of Man has expanded 
and sharpened its research activities in the human sciences. From 
August 26 to September 2, 1973, three conferences organized by the 
Center were held in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. Two more conferences 
were held during the same period at Chicago, Illinois. Immediately 
following these meetings each of the conferences reported its find- 
ings to the assembled attendees at the IXth International Congress 
of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences meeting in Chicago, 
Illinois, from September 3 to 10. The 5 sessions organized by the 

Science I 59 

Center for the Study of Man were: (1) cross-cultural uses of can- 
nibus; (2) cross-cultural uses of alcohol; (3) examination of a gen- 
eral theory of cultural transmission; (4) cultural consequences of 
population change; and (5) economic development in seven selected 
American Indian groups. Each of these research projects was an out- 
come of the Center's program to relate anthropology and the human 
sciences to modern worldwide problems. All reports are now in one 
or another stage of preparation for publication. 

Specifically, the cannibus report is in press, and it constitutes the 
first well-documented report of cannibus usage on a worldwide 
basis. The coverage is not complete, but it constitutes a beginning 
and lays the groundwork for an accelerated growth of knowledge 
in the immediate future. The papers in the alcohol volume, also in j 
press, testify to the increasing worldwide sophistication of human j 
scientists about alcohol usage and its perception in cultures around 
the world. The general theory of cultural transmission considers 
education as a special case. Because Western-style formal education 
is so pervasive, it is especially important to learn more about other 
perspectives on cultural transmission. The results of the conference 
on population are in press, but the project is not yet complete. A 
number of participants from developing countries met in Bucharest, 
Rumania, in August to go over papers that have come out of the j 
Oshkosh and Chicago meetings. The American Indian economic de- 
velopment study is in press and should appear within a year. 

Manuscripts for the forthcoming encyclopedic Handbook of 
North American Indians continue to arrive daily. The editorial office, 
with the assistance of volume editors in various parts of the country, 
is editing these works for publication in 1976. 

The Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies, under 
the direction of Dr. Roy Bryce-Laporte, has been supervising re- 
search in Costa Rica and Panama. In particular, it has focused on the 
West Indian adaptation and experience in both of these countries. 
It has also been reviewing policy implications of migration and 
some contemporary perspectives on alienation. 

In June 1974, a National Anthropological Film Center was estab- 
lished within the Center for the Study of Man. It is charged with the 
preservation and study of" visual information on vanishing and 
changing ways of life. 

60 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 

The three programs of the Chesapeake Bay Center for Environ- 
mental Studies — scientific research, information transfer, and en- 
vironmental education — were marked by expansion and innovation 
during 1974. 

At the 2500-acre Center near Annapolis, a long-term study of the 
Rhode River watershed continues with nsf-rann (National Science 
Foundation-Research AppUed to National Needs) as the major 
source of funding. The current grant extends through September 
1974 and was made through the Chesapeake Research Consortium, 
composed of the Smithsonian Institution, the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, the University of Maryland, and the Virginia Institute of 
Marine Science. 

Thirteen NSF-funded projects are underway at the Center. They 
are part of the Consortium's effort to determine the environmental 
impact of alternate levels of sewage effluent loading in specified parts 
of the Bay. 

The Center's contribution is to provide understanding of the bio- 
logical functioning of an ecosystem and from this to devise methods 
for determining the impact of sewage effluent. Projects include in- 
vestigations of the amount of groundwater and runoff in the Rhode 
River watershed, the circulation patterns of the estuary, and the 
water exchange with the Bay. Water samples collected at stations in 
the estuary are analyzed for chemical content. 

Stream gauging wiers were constructed during the year to record 
the volume of water flowing from five subwatersheds and to take 
volume-integrated water samples. Scientists at the Center analyze 
these samples for total phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic carbon, 
and suspended sediment. 

With the aid of computer printouts of aerial photographs, scien- 
tists are developing a key for identifying salt-marsh vegetation. 
Funding is provided through the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration as part of a remote sensing project underway at the 
Center since 1970. This year the Center began preparing land-use 
maps of the Rhode River watershed based on these photographs. The 
maps will be a valuable tool for a number of investigators and for 
agencies concerned with the environment. 

Science I 61 

Since the beginning of the fiscal year, college students, under the 
supervision of the Assistant Director, have conducted a survey of 
the recreational use of the Rhode River. 

Two staff members are studying the mammals of Poplar, Coaches, 
and Jefferson Islands. Owned by the Smithsonian and administered 
by the Center, these islands off Talbot County on Maryland's East- 
ern Shore are eroding at different rates and offer an unusual oppor- 
tunity to study the effect on mammal populations of rapidly dimin- 
ishing habitats in a closed system. 

Among the Center's continuing studies is "Population Dynamics 
in Breeding Birds," begun in 1968 and projected for a 20-year period. 
Objectives include the determination of species succession resulting 
from successful changes in vegetation. 


Funded with a grant from the Edward John Noble Foundation, the 
Information Transfer Program has as its goal the translation of sci- 
entific results into forms which can be used by planners, government 
officials, and resource managers who make decisions that affect the 
Bay. In addition, the program makes environmental information 
available to organizations and individuals. 

Projects undertaken this year include a survey of environmental 
organizations in the Chesapeake Bay area. An environmental infor- 
mation specialist sought to determine the issues that most concern 
these organizations and the extent of their contacts with State offi- 
cials and legislators. She also evaluated the effectiveness of the orga- 
nizations and interviewed scientists to find out what lines of com- 
munication exist between them and the general public. 

The Center co-sponsored with the Anne Arundel County Chapter 
of the Chesapeake Bay Foundation preliminary meetings which re- 
sulted in the formation of the South County Citizens League, 
composed of representatives of citizens associations. The purpose is 
to unite organizations and individuals in the intelligent examination 
of probable future issues in order to influence public policies and 

An all-day workshop on environmental problems was arranged 
for the Maryland League of Women Voters and attended by repre- 
sentatives of a number of organizations and agencies. 

62 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

The Rhode Worker, added to the Chesapeake Bay Center's fleet during the 
year, is used for projects related to the NSF-funded Rhode River Research 
Program. One of these projects is "Nutrient Studies on the Rhode River 
Ecosystem," in which samples from 13 stations in a freshwater creek and the 
estuary are tested for 16 qualities, either at the collection site or in the 
laboratory below. 


A description of the Center's tours and programs was distributed in 
the area, faciUtating scheduHng and resuhing in an increased num- 
ber of requests for this service. 

The Center chartered a bus through a nonprofit hne sponsored by 
the Community Action Agency and arranged to bring a different 
group of sixth graders from five local schools to the Center each 
week for "The Living Community," a project that stresses the inter- 
relationship of living things. Before each visit, a staff member made 
a preparatory presentation in the classroom. 

The Rhode River Environmental Education Project, one of the 
Center's most ambitious educational efforts, got underway in the I 
fall of 1973 after a successful pilot program. With the cooperation 
of the YMCA of Metropolitan Washington, a different group of tenth 
graders from 16 District of Columbia schools resided for four days 
at a YMCA camp adjoining the Center. The students used the Center 
for field work, and college students served as counsellors. The cur- 
riculum, designed by the Assistant Director and an Education Spe- 
cialist, focused on man's relationship to his environment. 

The Summer Ecology Program, an intensive course for school 
children from the elementary grades through high school, was initi- 
ated in the summer of 1973 and will continue in 1974. College stu- 
dents who plan to teach the natural sciences instruct the children. 
The program provides the instructors with teaching experience and 
the children with an enriching supplement to their school work. 

The Center arranged an all-day workshop for science teachers 
from all over the country who were enrolled in a summer institute 
sponsored by the National Science Foundation. Similar workshops 
are planned for the summer of 1974. 

Continuing education activities include opportunities for college 
students to work with staff scientists on specific projects and pro- 
viding speakers for schools, colleges, and organizations. 


The Center's full-time staff numbered approximately 40 at the close 
of the fiscal year. Among the additions were Dr. Barbara Rice, 
Research Speciahst with the' Remote Sensing Project; Dr. Maria 
Faust, Biologist; Dr. Tung Lin Wu, Chemist; Dr. John Falk, Educa- 

64 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

tion Coordinator; Marjorie Beane, Environmental Information Spe- 
cialist; and Lynne Mormann, Education Specialist. 

Some 40 additional researchers are actively engaged in projects 
at the Chesapeake Bay Center, including principal investigators for 
the Rhode River Research Program from the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity and the University of Maryland. 

Ground was broken in the spring for a combined Visitor Center 
and Education Building scheduled for completion in the fall. This 
will be the first new structure to be built at the Center since its 
establishment in 1965. 

The Center procured seven house trailers to alleviate a shortage 
of space for offices, laboratories, and dormitory facilities. 

A 28-foot fiberglass cabin cruiser, the Rhode Worker was added 
to the Center's fleet. Purchased with funds from the nsf-rann grant, 
this boat is used for projects included in the Rhode River Research 
Program. Five other boats, including the 46-foot Java, are docked at 
the Center's pier. 

Fort Pierce Bureau 

The primary research emphasis by the Fort Pierce Bureau this year 
is the Indian River Study, a consortium effort initiated in Septem- 
ber of 1973, with a grant from the Atlantic Foundation. The Smith- 
sonian's 130-foot-floating-laboratory barge is the focal point for the 
Study, the chief aims of which are to obtain baseline information on 
the diversity of organisms and quality of their environment, sources 
of pollution and their effects on organisms, and a predictive capa- 
bility of both short- and long-term effects on man-induced changes. 
To date, over 500 sampling stations have been occupied on 22 off- 
shore cruises by the RV Cosnold, 10 cruises have been made in the 
Indian River lagoon on a specially modified houseboat research ves- 
sel to make in situ environmental measurements, and fish and ben- 
thic samples have been repetitively collected at 36 stations and 4 
transects within the Indian River. 

Life-history studies of marine animals have continued through 
the second year with stress on reproductive biology, developmental 
patterns, and larval development of unsegmented marine worms of 

Science I 65 

the phylum Sipuncula. More than 20 larval sipunculans of unknown 
species have been collected from the Gulf Stream off Fort Pierce, 
Florida; these have been raised in the laboratory and studies made of 
their morphology by use of scanning electron microscopy and histo- 
logical procedures. Developmental patterns emerging from this work 
promise to have important implications for and understanding of the 
interphyletic and intraphyletic relationships of these organisms. 

The former Coast Guard cutter, Hopley Yeaton, was christened 
officially the RV Johnson on Saturday, January 26, 1974, by Mrs, 
J. Seward Johnson during an open-house celebration at Link Port, 
Florida. An estimated 1500 visitors attended the ceremony to view 
the Bureau's 125-foot vessel, a tender to the research submarine 
Johnson-Sea-Link, which can be launched and recovered rapidly by 
a hydraulic crane located at the aft end of the ship. The "mother 
ship"-submersible-lockout diver system will be used on missions 
this coming year to explore, photograph, and sample the continental 
shelf adjacent to the Indian River. 

Since the unfortunate entrapment of the Johnson-Sea-Link off the 
Florida Keys in June 1973, considerable effort has been devoted at 
Link Port to developing rescue systems for small research sub- 
marines and to modifying several safety and life-support systems on 
the Johnson-Sea-Link. A surface rescue craft, under construction, 
will support a cable-controlled unmanned submersible equipped 
with television and manipulator that can free an entrapped object 
from a depth in excess of 1000 feet. A second submarine, Johnson- 
Sea-Link II, should be finished by the end of 1974 — a sister sub- 
mersible with lockout capability can be viewed as an excellent rescue 
mechanism. Already implemented on the Johnson-Sea-Link are an 
improved high-capacity and high-volume carbon-dioxide scrubber, 
remote read-out gauges in the pilot's sphere for carbon dioxide and 
oxygen sensing and monitoring instruments employed in the diving 
compartment, and redesigned attachment points for handling lines, 
which employ the break-away concept and eliminate hooks. 

During the past several months, two successful cruises have been 
completed to the Bahamas to train the respective crews of the sup- 
port ship RV Johnson and submarine Johnson-Sea-Link as a total 
system, to launch and recover the submersible from anchor or 
underway and in a sea state of Beaufort Force 5, to complete training 
of two qualified submarine pilots, and to perform shallow submarine 

66 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

S. Dillon Ripley giving dedication address at the commissioning of the Smith- 
sonian's RV Johnson at Fort Pierce, Florida, on January 26, 1974. Below: Smith- 
sonian's RV Johnson in the Indian River as she departs with the Johnson-Sea- 
Link submersible for a training mission in the Bahamas, March 18, 1974. 







■ Bi 




and lockout operations under day and night conditions. This con- 
scientious training program, incorporating all aspects of submersible 
operations, diving and support-equipment handling under the able 
management of an Operations Director, is the most effective pro- 
cedure of reducing the accepted level of risk involved in submarine 

National Air and Space Museum 

The progress made in building construction, exhibits, staffing, and 
research in 1974 leaves little doubt that the National Air and Space 
Museum is fast becoming one of the most important and exciting 
bureaus of the Institution. 

The construction of the new museum building, which is on sched- 
ule, is almost 50 percent complete. The contracts for structural steel 
and metal decks have been closed out. The marble contract is 65 
percent complete. Glass curtain walls and skylights are being 
installed. By the end of summer, the building will be completely 
enclosed, which will permit interior work without regard to the 
elements. As originally forecast, the staff will move into the building 
in the summer of 1975 and the building will open in July 1976. 

The building will contain 25 major exhibition halls and 2 presen- 
tation centers; the development of exhibits for these halls has been 
the major thrust of the museum during 1974 and will continue to 
be through 1976. The goal for the opening of the building is to have 
"core" quality exhibits in approximately 50 percent of the available 
space with well-displayed objects in the remainder of the halls. 

During 1974 the following major exhibits were completed: 

"Air Traffic Control" — an exhibit which explains the complex 
equipment and competent personnel who perform behind the scenes 
in our air traffic network. 

"Exhibition Flight" — this exhibit tells the story with artifacts, 
film, and photos of how exhibition flight caught the imagination of 
the American public and popularized flying. 

"Life in the Universe" — this exhibit examines the birth and death 
of stars and galaxies; the nature of life and its chemical building 
blocks; the tools being used to find life; how this life may have 
evolved, what forms it may have taken, and how we might commu- 
nicate with it. 

68 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Construction moves apace on the new National Air and Space Museum scheduled 

to open July 4, 1976. 

In addition to the major exhibits, the following special exhibits 
were mounted in 1974 : 

"Copernicus" — prototype telescope of nasa's Orbiting Astro- 
nomical Observatory during the 500th anniversary of Copernicus, 
the father of modern astronomy. 

"Skylab" — America's first experimental space station. 

"Aerobatics" — featuring the U.S. World Championship Aero- 
batics team and one of their aircraft, the Pitts Special. 

"Santos-Dumont" — observing the centenary of the birth of this 
pioneer aircraft designer, aeronaut, aviator, and astronomer. 

"Wright Brothers Wind Tunnel" — exhibiting on the 70th anni- 
versary of powered heavier-than-air flight a replica of the wind 
tunnel with daily demonstrations of its use as a precursor to the first 
powered flight. 

"Space and Artists" — continuing displays of paintings of space 
and aviation art. 

"First World Flight" — traces the first round-the-world flight 
through photographs and drawings superimposed over a map of the 
route taken by the pilots in 1924. During the 6-month circumnavi- 
gation of the world, the crews endured hardships of extreme cold 
and heat, accidents, and mechanical failures. The flagplane, Chicago, 
was completely restored by the nasm and is the centerpiece of the 
exhibit, in the rotunda of the Arts and Industries Building. 

Fiscal year 1974 brought the beginning of a formal program of 
research to the museum. A Department of Science and Technology 
was created and staffed with two senior personnel. The implementa- 
tion of the NASM Science and Technology research program has begun 
with an analysis of the history and validity of design criteria in use 
in the air and space industry. A Center for Earth and Planetary 
Studies was established under the leadership of one of the foremost 
lunar geologists in the world. At the same time, nasa's comprehen- 
sive lunar scientific photograph collection and records were trans- 
ferred to the museum. The Center has already published several 
scientific articles. In cooperation with nasa, a lunar mapping pro- 
gram is ongoing. Moreover, the Center Director occupies one of 
seven seats on the International Astronautical Union (iau) Task 
Group on Lunar Nomenclature. 

Exhibits-related research is-a major nasm activity with the various 
curatorial departments performing artifact documentary research. 

70 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


The story of how exhibition flight captured the imagination of the American 
public and popularized flying is told in the National Air and Space Museum's 
exhibit, "Exhibition Flight," that opened in March 1974. Below: Another exhibit, 
"Air Traffic Control," that opened in November 1973, explains the complex 
equipment and competent personnel who perform behind the scenes in air traffic 


prerestoration curatorial research, and historical research. The nasm 
Exhibits Division is developing several research programs concerned 
with the reliability of exhibits components, new exhibits techniques, 
novel film transport systems, etc. 

The large size of today's flying machines, coupled with an ever 
accelerating pace of aerospace technology, results in tremendous 
pressure on curators to increase the size of their collections. At the 
same time, however, the available storage space is not increasing at 
the same pace. Therefore, in January 1974, an Acquisition Policy 
Statement was issued for use by the curatorial staff of the nasm. 
Briefly, the policy indicates that each major addition to the collection 
should be balanced, wherever possible, by an equivalent deletion or 
loan. It also places the responsibility for the final approval of the 
acquisitions of major new artifacts with the Director of the museum. 
Prior to 1974, the curatorial staff approved acquisitions and the 
Director approved loans. This policy has now been reversed. 

At the time the acquisition policy was enacted, the museum began 
an all-out effort to review and, where possible, dispose of surplus 
artifacts, particularly engines, archival material, aircraft models, 
aircraft, and space material. To date: 

1. Fifty engines have been transferred or loaned. 

2. Approximately 12,000 cubic feet of miscellaneous material, 
including books, periodicals, photographs, records, and other docu- 
ments have been declared surplus or duplicate material and trans- 
ferred to other institutions. This included over 3,500 periodicals. 

3. A complete inventory of the model aircraft collection (num- 
bering over 1,000 models) is under way. The information will be 
computerized so that the collection can be studied from various 
criteria such as scale, aircraft type, condition, etc. 

4. Twenty-eight astronautic artifacts have been deaccessioned 
and disposed of. 

During fiscal 1974, the Presentations and Education Division was 
organized with responsibility for developing and implementing three 
programs: the education program of the museum, Spacearium pro- 
grams, and programs for the nasm Theater. 

The education program includes lectures, tours, and other activi- 
ties to assist individuals and groups in using the museum, its re- 
sources, and publications for effective learning about air and space 
and related subject matter. In fiscal 1974, 168 tours were conducted 
by 13 docents and volunteers for over 5000 students. 

72 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

During fiscal 1974, a small planetarium began an ongoing opera- 
tion in the Air and Space Building as an experimental laboratory to 
prepare for the larger Spacearium. Programs were given to general 
visitors and to a few visiting school classes, and special classes were 
conducted in this facility for the Smithsonian Associates. 

Two pilot programs were initiated in fiscal 1974 at the Silver 
Hill facility. The first was an adult night class for those who might 
build and fly their own airplanes, and emphasized safe and rational 
design, engineering, and maintenance. The second program was 
designed to teach inner-city children the basic skills required to build 
and maintain aircraft, including welding, sheet metal and fabric 
work, engine overhaul, etc. Both programs were well received and 
will be expanded in the future. 

For the second year the museum, in conjunction with the Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory, hosted an astronomy lecture 
series. While the first series in 1972 attempted to assess man's cur- 
rent knowledge of the solar system as seen from the planet Earth, 
the second series, "Beyond the Planets," surveyed our Galaxy and 
the Universe from the vantage point of the Sun. The series, consist- 
ing of eight lectures by some of America's outstanding astronomers, 
was received with enthusiasm by standing-room-only crowds. 

As a special event, the museum sponsored a poetry reading and 
discussion by Apollo 15 Astronaut Alfred Worden. Astronaut 
Worden was warmly received as he read selections from his book 
of poems. Hello Earth, Greetings From Endeavor, and discussed his 
feelings and emotions that prompted him to compose each of the 
poems. The readings were illustrated by color panoramas made 
during Apollo 15's epic journey to the Moon. 

Members of nasm's Advisory Board are: 

S. Dillon Ripley, Chairman (ex officio) 
Brigadier General James L. Collins, USA 
Major General Edward 5. Fris, U5MC 
Vice Admiral William D. Houser, USN 
Rear Admiral Robert H. Scarborough, USCG 
Major General M. R. Reilly, USAF 
Brigadier General Gustav Lundquist, FAA 
WiUis H. Shapley, NASA 


Mrs. Olive Ann Beach 

Lieutenant General William E. Hall, USAF, Retired 

Edwood R. Quesada 

Science I 73 

National Museum of Natural History 

There was a bustle of activity on the Museum's first floor in early 
1974 as carpenters, scientists, designers, and other Museum crafts- 
men worked to complete "Ice Age Mammals and the Emergence of 
Man," the first of a series of new exhibits that will enrich consider- 
ably the Museum's educational impact. Long-range plans call for the 
overhaul and rejuvenation of one permanent exhibit hall every year 
through 1979. All of these new halls will be thematically structured 
to convey clearly to the public concepts of evolution that are funda- 
mental to an understanding of the natural world. 

To accomplish this change the Museum has departed from its 
traditional practice of building an exhibit hall around a single depart- 
mental discipline. The Ice Age Hall formerly housed a paleontological 
exhibit devoted to Pleistocene mammals. Its replacement is multi- 
disciplinary, blending objects from the paleontology, mineral science, 
and anthropology collections, into a thematic context that describes 
the great physical and biological events of the Ice Age, including the 
development of the continental glaciers, the evolution of large 
mammals, the extinction of many of them, and the arrival of man. 

The new multidisciplinary thematic exhibits that are in the process 
of design and production are the result of an entirely new approach 
to exhibits at the Museum. An advisory committee of Museum scien- 
tists, headed by Dr. Leo J. Hickey, has been set up as a liaison 
between the Museum's professional staff and its exhibits office, 
directed by Harry T. Hart. A close working relationship has been 
established that is responsible for the excellence of the new Ice Age 
Hall and the promise of the Museum's Bicentennial exhibit, "Our 
Changing Land." 

"Our Changing Land," now under development, will chronicle 
environmental change in the Washington, D.C., area since the arrival 
of man, stressing what has happened since the founding of the 
Nation, and explaining the main ecological processes related to the 
change and what options there may be for the future. The ground 
floor of the north wing is being prepared for this exhibit. 

In addition to renewal of permanent halls and the development of 
the Bicentennial exhibit, a variety of other exhibit events made 1974 
at the Museum an extraordinarily active and vigorous year. 

74 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Dr. Porter Kier (left). Director of the National Museum of Natural History, 
presents an award to David J. Hasinger for making significant additions to the 
scientific collections of the Museum. Mr. Hasinger is Director of Paul and 
Beckman, Inc., Philadelphia electronics manufacturer. 

Curious children and adults were crowding into the Museum's 
recently opened Discovery Room where they were urged to keep 
their hands on and not off the exhibits. Elephant tusks, coral, petri- 
fied wood, wooly mammoth teeth, and hundreds of other natural 
history specimens, ordinarily out of reach behind glass or railings 
in museums, could be grasped, turned over in the hand at one's 
leisure, and studied with a magnifying glass. If requested, one of the 
room's docents would make available books and film loops to help 
take a person farther down the path of discovery. The room added 
a permanent new dimension to the Museum's offerings. 

In another area of the Museum, visitors were experiencing the 
wonder of setting foot in the interior of a tropical rain forest, one of 
nature's most complex environments. Modeled of papier-mache and 

Science I 75 

- ft**:4 

'*' *%.^ 

.'- -^z; 





0^ .> 

^ ^^_^:'.,^ ^*^C?^-^ 

..^- .■ . .» ^r V 

The monkey climbing the vines and the trees and dense foHage of the rain forest 
are part of an ecological exhibit, "It All Depends," which shows that all environ- 
mental elements are interdependent for survival. Opposite: A Neanderthal burial 
scene from the exhibit, "Ice Age Mammals and the Emergence of Man." 

M ^ 


', .^^^^^^^^^ 




^M^'^'-tff '^ 

j^' i 

^^■^^l^-^ ^ >l 





•^ -Wx/cr^ 

One of the drawings by children in the "Save the Whales" exhibition at the 
National Museum of Natural History. 

plastic, after sketches and photographs taken in the Panama and 
South American jungles, the exhibit's trees, foliage, and vines were 
enclosed in a mirrored ceiling-high silo. Walking into this dimly lit 
enclosure, visitors had the illusion that they were in the center of a 
vast tropical forest — with trees rising 80-100 feet above their heads. 
This simulated forest was the heart of a larger ecological exhibit, 
'"It All Depends," which made the point that all elements in the 
environment are dependent upon each other for survival. 

Looking alertly out from an "arctic ice floe" in the west end of the 
Life in the Sea Hall was an imposing new Museum presence, a 
mounted specimen of that largest of the fin-footed aquatic animals — 
the sea walrus. Beneath its icy perch a visitor could see an informative 
film about it and other pinnipeds, a family of mammals that besides 
the walrus includes the seal and the sea lion. In a narration inspired 
by the Lewis Carroll verse, "The Walrus and the Carpenter," actor 
Cyril Ritchard could be heard addressing a pinniped, "I would like 
to talk to you, about how you live, where you live and the things 
you like to do." 

The Museum once again made clear its opposition to the un- 
limited killing of members of that other great family of sea mammals. 

78 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Child examining fossils in the newly opened Discovery Room, where the 
curious may keep their hands on and not off the exhibits. 

the cetaceans, to which belong the porpoises, dolphins, and whales. 
In May and June it was host to an exhibition organized by Project 
Jonah's International Children's Campaign to Save the Whales. 
Drawings by elementary school children from the District of Co- 
lumbia and its suburbs protesting the killing of whales were hung 
side-by-side with works by young artists from other cities in Amer- 
ica and foreign countries. 

Two other colorful and notable exhibits in the Museum's foyer 
area were the offshoot of the field research trips of two of the 
Museum's scientists. One was a display of large, dye-transfer color 
prints of tropical blossoms photographed in Africa and South Amer- 
ica by Dr. Edward S. Ayensu, Chairman of the Museum's Depart- 
ment of Botany (supplemented with pictures by the Museum's 
scientific photographer, Kjell B. Sandved), the other placed on view 
ethnological materials from the eastern Himalayan country of Bhu- 
tan, collected by Dr. Eugene I. Knez, the Museum's Curator of 
Asian Anthropology. This exhibit was planned to coincide with the 
June coronation of Bhutan's 19-year-old king, and included the 
display of photographs, paintings, textiles, costumes, copper, gold 
and silver vessels, religious objects, basketry, and pottery. Among 

Science I 79 

the lenders to the exhibit was Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon 
Ripley, who has made several expeditions to Bhutan. 

Two Museum physical anthropologists, Drs. J. Lawrence Angel 
and Douglas H. Ubelaker, in separate paleodemographic studies in 
the Old and New Worlds, are amassing evidence of how environ- 
mental conditions influenced the health, longevity, and evolution 
of prehistoric man. 

Working closely with archeologists who have unearthed grave 
sites, the two scientists make measurements of ancient skeletal 
material. From this they can assemble a body of statistics about an 
ancient community that includes the size of its population, the age 
composition, birth rate, sex ratio, number of children born, family 
size, and critical effects of diseases such as arthritis and malaria — 
all of which are determined by diet, climate, living habits, and 

Dr. Angel's work over the last decade has been concentrated on 
Eastern Mediterranean burial sites such as Catal Hiiyiik, Turkey, 
where a population of early neolithic hunting farmers and traders, 
living in a compact pueblo-like community, had conquered the peril 
of a high child mortality rate — probably caused by malaria — by 
evolving a culture that venerated and protected women. This had 
lengthened the lives and childbearing years of the women. The 
population of the community had increased as a result, and it had 
become possible for the women to make a rich contribution to the 
community's art, crafts, and religious activities, while the men were 
hunting and trading. 

The People of Lerna: An Analysis of a Prehistoric Aegean Popu- 
lation, published by the Smithsonian Institution Press, is Dr. Angel's 
study of a site situated on the Bay of Argos, Greece, where archeolo- 
gists found 235 Bronze Age graves, covering a span of 25 generations 
(2000-1600 B.C.). 

The demographic profile Dr. Angel constructed showed that adults 
in Lerna (which he estimated had about 800 persons living in it 
during the Middle Bronze Age) had an average life expectancy of 
34 years — 37 for men, 31 for women. The average woman bore 
about five children — 2.2 of which grew to adulthood (15 years of 
age). On the basis of that birth rate the population was increasing, 
doubling every 7 to 10 generations. This was a remarkably successful 
adaptation to the handicapping diseases afflicting the community. 

80 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Mask from the exhibition "Bhutan: The Land of Dragons." 

Malaria, in particular, had a crippling impact, just as it had had 
at Catal Hiiyiik. The changeover from a hunting to a farming culture, 
which had begun in the Mediterranean between 9000 to 6500 B.C. 
with the disappearance of the big game herds, had drawn early 
farming populations to sites like Lerna where the soil was soft and 
the forests not established. But these well-watered marshy areas that 
favored farming also favored the Anopheles mosquito and the result 
was that malaria, especially the type known as falciparum malaria, 
was rampant. The physical debilitation caused by this disease 

Science I 81 

plagued and weakened Lerna for most of its prehistoric period (the 
average stature of the Lerna men was only 5' 5V2'' and women, 
5' V4 ") . It was not until later when Greek communities learned how 
to drain their marshes to gain better control of irrigation and water 
supply that the numbers of malaria-carrying mosquitos were re- 
duced, a development reflected in the stature and longevity of the 

Dr. Angel's colleague, Douglas Ubelaker, has been analyzing 
skeletal material from a large pre-Columbian cemetery in the 
Hacienda Ayalan, Guayas Province, on the south coast of Ecuador, 
dating to a.d. 1300, where 50 large ceramic urns, each containing 
up to 20 skeletons, were uncovered. 

With the approval of the Ecuadorian Government all of this 
material was shipped back to the Museum, where now, highly 
accurate microscopic methods of determining age by osteon counts 
were conducted. The results were startling. The population had an 
average adult age at death of about 67 years, with many individuals 
living into the eighth and ninth decade, a much higher figure than 
one would expect for a prehistoric population. 

It can be explained by the fact the site provided excellent nutrition. 
The people took crops from the land and exploited fresh- and salt- 
water food resources. Many of the diseases that historically lower 
life expectancy (syphilis, malaria, measles, mumps, smallpox) either 
were nonexistent or were not severe problems until the Spanish 
arrived. Furthermore, there is some evidence of remarkable con- 
temporary longevity along that part of the coast that may have 
extended back into prehistory. 

Stands of Japanese Ma-dake timber bamboo (Phyllostachys 
bambusoides) are flowering throughout America, a cyclical phenom- 
enon that takes place only at intervals of 120 years and is as rare to 
botanists as Halley's comet is to astronomers. Drs. Thomas R. 
Soderstrom and C. E. Calderon, Museum scientists, have been 
monitoring this dramatic botanical event. Last year they asked for 
help from readers of Smithsonian magazine and the Smithsonian's 
Environmental Alert Network, which alerted high school science 
classes all over the country. Hundreds of persons, young and old, 
responded by mailing in dried specimens of flowering branches of 
the bamboo plant and along with it information about precisely 
where it was collected and photographs and short histories of the 

82 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Dr. Thomas R. Soderstrom, Curator of Grasses, Department of Botany, 
examining specimens of flowering bamboo. 

Stands from which it came. With these data, Drs. Soderstrom and 
Calderon were able to draw up a map that pinpoints Ma-dake stands 
in at least 22 states, showing its heaviest concentrations on the West 
Coast, from Washington to California, and in the southeastern Gulf 

Science I 83 

The flowering of Ma-dake is always followed by the death of the 
plant's culms (stems), and this was verified by the volunteer observ- 
ers. In cases where the flowering and death cycle had taken place in 
the late 1960s, they noticed that the old rhizomes (underground 
stem masses) were regenerating themselves and producing many 
new but weak, contorted shoots. Drs. Soderstrom and Calderon 
point out that it may take 6 or more years before large, normal 
shoots are again grown, and perhaps 15 years before the bamboo 
clump is in the same condition prior to flowering. In Japan Ma-dake 
is used as a raw material for the construction of homes, furniture, 
farm implements, baskets, and even food, and it is easy to under- 
stand why the cyclical flowering there is considered nothing less 
than a disaster. 

All of the Ma-dake stands do not flower simultaneously because 
there are a number of time-oriented, hereditary lines, consisting of 
segregated progeny, distributed throughout the world. Each of these 
hereditary lines is on a 120-year cycle. These cycles began to come 
to completion in the late 1950s, but most of them in America have 
done so in the late 1960s. Drs. Soderstrom and Calderon predict 
that the present flowering will end shortly, but will begin again in 
the 2070s, continue through the 2080s, and terminate in the 2090s. 

The covered jars in Dr. Donald R. Davis's laboratory are full of 
blotched and discolored leaves on which one can see curious lines. 
Some of the lines are crooked, some are coiled in a serpentine man- 
ner, and others strike out in every direction from a central patch, 
creating a star-shaped pattern. The leaves were collected by Dr. 
Davis from the Great Dismal Swamp in Virginia, but they could 
just as well be from almost any garden, park, or forest in America, 
The marks on the leaves are the work of leaf miners, insect larvae 
of minute size that can infest every leaf of a plant or tree and do 
enough aggregate damage to kill their host. In Canada, the miners 
have been so destructive to spruce and fir trees in the Western 
Provinces in the last few years that the Government has initiated 
a biological study of these insects in hopes of finding a means of 

Last year. Dr. Davis, Curator at the Museum's Department of 
Entomology, began work on a biosystematic study directed 
specifically at four important families of leaf-mining Microlepidop- 
tera (Eriocraniidae, Nepticulidae, Heliozelidae, and Gracillariidea). 

84 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Dr. Donald R. Davis, Curator of Lepidoptera, Department of Entomology, 
examining leaves with tell-tale markings left by leaf miners. 

Mining behavior of almost every description, ranging from the most 
highly specialized to some of the most primitive forms, is practiced 
within these four groups. 

One of the things Dr. Davis wants to do through his study of 
these families is to trace the evolutionary history of mining. Re- 
cently, Dr. Leo J. Hickey, a Museum paleobotanist, found a Nepticu- 
lid leaf mine on a lower Cretaceous Angiosperm leaf, a discovery 
that extends this basic ecological association between plants and 
insects back nearly 110 million years. Dr. Davis is now examining 
the Smithsonian-U.S. Geological Survey collection of Cretaceous 
and early Tertiary Angiosperms for further evidence of early Lepi- 
doptera leaf-mining injury. 

The mined leaves that Dr. Davis collects on trips to habitats like 
the Great Dismal Swamp and the Great Smoky Mountains are 
brought back to his Museum laboratory so that the miner larvae 
can be reared, identified, and closely observed. Dr. Davis plans 
studies of all phases of their life cycle, including oviposition, larval 
development, mine morphology, pupation, and adult behavior. He is 
also interested in correlating the systematics and behavior of the 
moths with that of their plant hosts. Why does a particular species 
of miner often only feed on a particular species of plant? 

But before such intriguing biological questions can be seriously 
studied, basic taxonomic revisions must be prepared. Much of the 
classification of the four families was done in the nineteenth century, 
an age when moth investigators described the color and venation 
of wings — but little else. The skeleton, which is now recognized 
as the best part of the insect on which to base a taxonomic diagnosis, 
was often ignored. Dr. Davis has had to start out by eliminating 
the confusion this has created. He is now assembling comprehensive 
illustrated texts to facilitate rapid, accurate identification for the 
approximately 365 presently recognized North American species and 
the more than 100 new species that have come to light in his studies. 

What will happen if the sea-level canal the U.S. Government has 
proposed constructing sometime in the future across the Isthmus of 
Panama mixes the animal and plant groups of the Atlantic and 
Pacific sides? Scientists say that serious ecological disruptions could 
follow. Dr. Meredith L. Jones, Curator of Worms in the Museum's 
Department of Invertebrate Zoology, saw several years ago that the 
lack of fundamental knowledge about the communities of marine 

86 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

animals that live in the shallow waters on both sides of the isthmus 
would make it extremely difficult to assess the nature of these dis- 
ruptions after they occur. Well-documented collections were needed 
to provide a benchmark for future investigations. To assemble these. 
Dr. Jones organized the Museum's Panama Biota Program. 

The original qualitative collecting method involved hand-picking 
the organisms from the surface of a sieve that had been used to 
process an undetermined amount of sediment. Dr. Jones and his 
colleagues devised a quantitative method that they are now using 
to get true samples of the density and diversity of invertebrate 
organisms living in Panama's coastal waters. Collections are made 
while the tide is still high. Standing in water that is anywhere from 
ankle to waist deep, the scientists drive a cubical stainless steel 
jacket, that has an area of 1/20 of a square meter, 8 inches down 
into the mud. Then they slide a shovel under the jacket, draw it out 
of the bottom, sieve the sample, and bottle all of the residue. In 
typical samples taken the new way, the yields comprised an average 
of about 1800 specimens per square meter on a clean sand beach on 
the Atlantic coast, about 6400 specimens per square meter on a 
muddy sand beach on the Pacific, and about 46,000 specimens per 
square meter in an Atlantic turtle-grass bed. 

Five samples are usually taken at each collection station in order 
to insure that contrasting microenvironments within a habitat are 
represented. An effort has also been made to take samples at each 
station at every season of the year. 

At the Museum, a technician-student has been making quantita- 
tive counts of invertebrate life forms in each sample, classifying the 
animals by families. There is such an abundance of life in each 
sample that processing it takes the technician six full days of work. 
When Dr. Jones examines the worms in a sample to identify them 
at a species level, six more days of work are involved. He estimates 
that it will take him three to four years to get through all of the 
samples that have been collected. 

If a sea-level canal should be constructed. Dr. Jones is satisfied 
that now scientists will be able to go back to the same site, make new 
collections, and then make comparisons that will show them what is 
happening, and enable them to predict what will happen next and 
if it will be beneficial or harmful. If the sea-level canal is never 
constructed. Dr. Jones believes the Program is still well worthwhile. 

Science I 87 

It is accumulating collections of unique value in an area of tremen- 
dous biological interest. 

The present Panama Canal with freshwater lakes situated mid- 
way along its length has proved a highly effective barrier to the 
passage of marine life from one side of Central America to the other. 
So a scientist's curiosity is aroused when a marine fish native to the 
Pacific shows up in the Caribbean. Dr. Victor G. Springer, Curator 
of Fishes in the Museum's Department of Vertebrate Zoology, re- 
cently looked into the matter of a tropical Indo-West Pacific blenniid 
fish population living off Trinidad and the Atlantic entrance to the 
Canal. Was it a relic population that was once distributed through- 
out the world's tropic waters or had it been artificially introduced, 
conceivably through the Canal? 

The facts argued against its being a relic population. Members of 
the blenniid family speciate rapidly and no blenniid species is found 
in both the eastern Pacific and western Atlantic Oceans, which were 
last connected 2 to 4 million years ago. If the fish had once been 
widely distributed in the tropics, its Indo-West Pacific and Caribbean 
populations would have evolved into different species since the rise 
of the isthmus. Dr. Springer concluded that it must have been arti- 
ficially introduced into the western Atlantic, probably by the dis- 
charge of ballast or bilge waters of ships. The fish is small and 
found in abundance around docks where it can easily be sucked 
into a ship's ballast tanks. Other small marine fish have been picked 
up in this way, taken thousands of miles, released when the ship 
discharged its bilge waters, and established breeding populations. 
But this is the only instance of a fish being introduced in this way 
into the Caribbean. 

Did the ships that brought the fish to the Caribbean enter through 
the Canal? Dr. Springer thinks not. Ships coming across the Pacific 
discharge their bilge-ballast water before they enter the Canal; that 
being the case, the fish should be established on the Pacific side of 
the Canal. But it has never been found there or anywhere else in the 
eastern Pacific, but it does occur at the Atlantic entrance to the 
Canal. Trinidad is where the fish has its principal Caribbean popula- 
tion and where it was first collected in the Atlantic in 1930. Dr. 
Springer believes that instead of coming across the Pacific, the fish 
arrived in Trinidad from the Indo-West Pacific via the Atlantic 
before the Canal was first opened in 1914. 

88 / Smithsonian Year 1974 




Dr. Meredith L. Jones, Curator of Worms in the Department of Invertebrate 
Zoology, examining specimens in a sieve. 

Omobranchus punctatus, subject of study by Dr. Victor G. Springer, Curator of 
Fishes in the Department of Vertebrate Zoology. 

The trail led Dr. Springer to the East Indian coolie trade that flour- 
ished between Calcutta and Madras, on the east coast of India, and 
the West Indies islands in the years from 1838 to 1914 and 1917. In 
that period, thousands of coolies arrived on ships that traveled from 
India to the Caribbean around southern Africa. It is Dr. Springer's 
view that the coolie trade vessels were the vehicles that introduced 
Omobranchus punctatus into the western Atlantic. 

Garnet can be yellow, orange, red, lilac or purple, depending on 
its chemical composition and upon the temperature and pressure 
conditions under which it formed in the earth. It has long been 
known by scientists that this colorful mineral occurs in varying 
quantities in kimberlite pipes, the bodies of igneous rock that are the 
primary source of diamonds. But the fact that there was a high or 
low concentration of garnet in a pipe did not seem to indicate one 
way or the other if there was an abundance or dearth of diamonds 
present. Last year, however. Dr. George S. Switzer, Curator of Min- 
eralogy in the Museum's Department of Mineral Science, discovered 
that certain lilac-colored garnets have special compositional charac- 
teristics that make it possible to say that if they are present in a 
pipe, it is a diagnostic indication that diamonds are likely to be found 
there in economic quantities. 

These garnets are formed — as diamonds are — in the earth's 
upper mantle at a depth of 100-150 miles. When molten kimberlite 
forces its way to the surface at velocities estimated to be on the order 
of 300-400 feet per second, it sometimes brings both of these min- 
erals up with it from the earth's interior. The garnet is found in the 
pipes in rocks called xenoliths (eclogites and periodites) and some- 
times in diamonds as minute inclusions. Because of its occurrence in 
diamonds, all of the garnet was thought by some scientists to have 
crystallized (reached equilibrium) at the same time, place, and tem- 
perature as the diamonds. Another school of thought, however, 
held that the garnets in kimberlite xenoliths crystallized at lower 
temperatures than garnet inside the diamond. 

These two opposing views were tested by Dr. Switzer in a detailed 
study of the garnet in the Finsch kimberlite pipe, one of the richest 
diamond mines in South Africa. Finsch is also rich in garnet. It 
makes up 90 percent of the mineral concentrate recovered there dur- 
ing the diamond extraction process. 

Dr. Switzer brought back to the Museum a handful of garnet 

90 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


Dr. George S. Switzer, Curator of Mineralogy, Department of Mineral Science, 

using the electron microprobe. 

grains of all colors that had been recovered at Finsch in the extraction 
process. He sorted 300 of these on the basis of color into eight cate- 
gories and analyzed them on the Department's electron microprobe, 
which can identify and quantify the elements within each grain. 

The results showed that some of the grains of lilac-colored gar- 
nets — magnesum rich and calcium poor — had a chromium con- 
tent that placed them within the compositional field of the garnets 
previously only reported as inclusions in diamonds. Dr. Switzer, who 
is now testing garnets from other kimberlite pipes, believes that the 
presence of lilac-colored diamond of this special composition is diag- 
nostic of the presence of diamond in a pipe, but it is not known yet 
if there is any quantitative relationship. 

Science I 91 

Dr. Daniel J. Stanley is holding a sediment core from the Mediterranean. 

Dr. Daniel J. Stanley, Geological Oceanographer and Curator in 
the Museum's Department of Paleobiology, is helping piece together 
a detailed knowledge of the physical processes that shape the Medi- 
terranean region, a project that often finds him out on an oceano- 
graphic vessel taking sediment cores from the Mediterranean Sea 
bed. The recent development of deep-sea drilling technology as well 
as submersibles — deep-sea* cameras, underwater television, and 
very high resolution seismic profilers — have made it possible for 

92 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

•^View toward the north from the summit of the Rock of Gibraltar showing the 
powerful nearshore currents flowing parallel to the coast in the westernmost 
Mediterranean Sea. The concrete revetment in the foreground is a rain-water catch- 
ment structure. Below: Wind is a significant agent for transporting sediment to sea 
in the Mediterranean Sea. The photograph taken in April 1973 near Pointe des 
Pecheurs on the northern coast of Morocco shows silt- and sand-size material being 
blown out to sea by a powerful Sirocco wind. 

.-^ ~X 

him and other scientists to carry out revolutionary studies that make 
it apparent that the configuration of the Mediterranean Sea, as we; 
know it today, is a geologically recent phenomenon. 

This emerging picture of geologic change includes Dr. Stanley's 
discovery of sedimentological evidence for the existence of a large 
emerged land mass present in the area now occupied by the Ligurian 
Sea (between the Riviera and Corsica, in the western Mediterranean) 
until early Tertiary time. Seismic studies of the present Ligurian Sea 
floor, and examination of exposed sediments found in the French 
Maritime Alps, Corsica, and the northwestern Apennines of Italy, 
confirm that this land mass foundered and became submerged after 
the Oligocene. 

Finding specimens of exposed ancient sedimentary deposits — 
now uplifted to 10,000 feet above sea level in the mountain chains 
that surround the Mediterranean — is one part of Dr. Stanley's i 
work that does not require advanced technology. For this. Dr. Stan- 
ley depends upon his keen geologist's eye and his skill as a mountain 

The publication in 1973 of the 765-page bilingual volume The 
Mediterranean Sea: A Natural Sedimentation Laboratory, edited by 
Dr. Stanley and Drs. Gilbert Kelling and Yehezkiel Weiler, was the 
result of Dr. Stanley's determination to achieve a needed multi- 
disciplinary and multinational synthesis of current research in sedi- 
mentation and related fields in the Mediterranean and circum- 
Mediterranean. The book has contributions by 85 specialists from 
15 countries, all of whom participated in a symposium organized by 
Dr. Stanley in 1971 at the VIII International Sedimentological Con- 
gress in Heidelberg. 

The book includes an outline of criteria for a needed international 
effort to find out what happens to pollutants when they are intro- 
duced into the Mediterranean, where they go, and what their conse- 
quences are. It calls for the construction of monitoring stations to 
detect and map sediment and pollutant dispersal and depositation; 
aerial flights and space-satellite photography to monitor the dis- 
charge of sediments from river mouths, and rates of serious erosion 
along selected coastlines (such as the Nile Delta area affected by the 
Aswan Dam); and, finally, more deep-sea drilling to resolve addi- 
tional questions of the Mediterranean's geological and stratigraphic 

94 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

National Zoological Park 

The National Zoological Park is accelerating its change from cages 
for containment of species to open arenas for awareness of the rela- 
tionship of all living things; from a consumer of animals out of the 
wild into a conservator and producer of animals and into a major 
zoological resource of animal knowledge that can be disseminated 
around the world. 

In fiscal year 1974, the Zoo advanced efforts to establish new 
standards of excellence and responsibility in all areas of zoological 
park programs with concurrent courses of action: 

Rebuilding yesterday's zoo for tomorrow's purpose. 

Marshalling the most creative contributions of all staff members. 

Launching necessary programs in off-site breeding and research. 

Studying the relationships of animals to one another, to place and 
to time — and in time for survival. 

Coordinating resources in forms that will reach people of all ages 
and walks of life. 

Parent and four young barn owls which were hatched in the tower of the 
Smithsonian Castle. (Photograph by M. J. Johnson, NZP) 

Science I 95 


Perhaps the Zoo's most notable achievement since its founding in 
1890 was receiving, in January 1974, a permit for 3200 acres of 
land in Front Royal, Virginia, that formerly served successively as a 
United States Army Remount Depot for horse breeding, and the 
United States Department of Agriculture as a Beef Cattle Experi- 
ment Station. 

The acquisition of this propagation and research facility — to be 
known as the National Zoological Park's Research and Conservation 
Center — will mark the end of the long search for a country facility 
which could be used to breed and maintain animal herds in sufficient 
numbers to insure their continuation as a viable, social, and genetic 
group. The educational mission of the National Zoological Park 
located in the valley of Rock Creek in Washington precludes the use 
of vast amounts of land for a single species so that it is not able to 
maintain ongoing herds of animals with proper age-pyramid and 
genetic mixture. Considering the worldwide shrinking of land areas 
available to wild animals, the increased hazards of disease, poach- 
ing, and land degradation by humans, the plight of many animals is 
indeed precarious. It is hoped that by establishing herds of threat- 
ened and endangered species at the Research and Conservation Cen- 
ter, in some cases through collaboration with other zoos in the United 
States, the Zoo will have a steady and reliable source of animals as 
well as a source for continuing zoological research on behalf of these 

The development of the Research and Conservation Center will 
be deliberately paced, and future reports will carry information con- 
cerning its advancement. This year the Zoo was able to enclose 80 
acres of rolling pasture for the first two resident groups of animals 
— Scimitar-horned Oryx and Pere David's Deer. 

The Front Royal Center will be an extension of the Rock Creek 
Park facility with major input in the first few years from the Offices 
of Animal Management, Animal Health, Zoological Research, Con- 
struction Management, and Facilities Management. Public informa- 
tion efforts at the Center focus now on the animal's needs for isola- 
tion and space. Low-key programs in conservation, education, and 
natural viewing will be planned for coexistence with the principal 
mission in future years. When we speak of the National Zoological 

96 I Smithsonian Year 1974 

Aerial view of research and breeding farm at Front Royal, Virginia, recently 

acquired by the Zoo. 

Park, we are now referring to 3400 acres in two locations but with 
one purpose, one management, and one organization. 


The most interesting and exciting animal event was the birth of an 
Indian Rhinoceros in January, marking the first successful breeding 
of this endangered species in the Western Hemisphere. This achieve- 
ment was the result of almost two years of concerted and integrated 
efforts by the scientific research staff, curators, keepers, and even 
volunteers who remained in the Zoo after hours to monitor the male's 
and female's activities during mating and later at birth. Therefore, 
the Zoo not only gained a 127-pound male (named Patrick in honor 


Patrick, Indian rhinoceros. Rhinoceros unicornis, born to Rajkumari and Tarun 
on January 30, 1974. Patrick is the'first live Indian rhinoceros born in captivity 
in the United States. 

98 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

of Daniel Patrick Moynihan, our United States Ambassador to In- 
dia), but also a wealth of valuable data on courtship, mating, and 
parturition behavior. At six months of age, we estimate Patrick's 
weight to be about 350 pounds; however, he is too rambunctious to 
get onto the scales. 

Among the antelope, the most outstanding birth was that of a 
lovely female calf to Kanitia, the imported Bongo; and the hope of 
a second-generation birth on her mother's side to Nyandarua, Kan- 
itia's offspring of two years ago. Nyandarua was the first Bongo 
bred and born in captivity in the world. 

The lesser pandas gave birth to their second pair of kits on the 
next to last day of the fiscal year so were not mentioned in last year's 
report, and as if to catch us again, their pair from the year before 
provided the Zoo with young on the night of June 30, 1974. 

The white-cheeked gibbon family produced a fine offspring to the 
delight of the staff and the visitors; and for the first time at the 
National Zoological Park, the binturongs produced young, which 
are being closely studied both for their growth and development as 
well as their behavioral relationship with the mother. The golden 
marmoset program continues to go well in terms of understanding 
the tie-in of behavior and reproduction. The Zoo now has 20 ani- 
mals with birth this year of a first set of second-generation offspring 
as well as a set of twins from a wild-caught pair. 

Ling-Ling and Hsing-Hsing, the giant pandas, continue to thrive 
and hold the interest of the visiting public, behaving in their new 
yards rather like children released from school because of snow — 
rolling, somersaulting, playfully demolishing snowmen made for the 
occasion by the keepers. They are still unquestionably the most 
popular animals at the Zoo. Ling-Ling, the female, now weighs 250 
pounds and Hsing-Hsing, the male, weighs 264 pounds. Studies on 
their behavior, vocalization, social relationships, and general habits 
are continuing with the assistance of volunteers from the Friends of 
the National Zoo to the scientific research staff and to the keeper 
and curatorial personnel. This April, Ling-Ling came into estrus, 
and we all had high hopes that there would be a breeding, particu- 
larly with the promising experiences of last year. However, although 
the animals got along well with the normal amount of premating, 
roughhouse play, vocalizations, and general juvenile nonsense, there 
was no actual breeding. No doubt this has been a further learning 

Science I 99 

experience for the male, but it appeared to be a frustrating experi- 
ence for the female. There are hopes for a breeding in the fall season, 
but if not then perhaps next spring when they are both older and 
wiser from their two encounters. 

Despite the move of the white tigers (Mohini and Rewati) to Chi- 
cago's Brookfield Zoo and the white-gene carrying Ramana and 
Kesari to the Cincinnati Zoo to allow replacement of the old Lion 
House, the latter pair added a new chapter to the breeding program 
by producing four cubs, three of which are white. A normal-colored ^i 
male, along with a white male were taken from the mother for hand- 
rearing and are doing well under the expert care of the Cincinnati 
staff, and the same can be said for the two, unsexed animals who 
remain with their mother, Kesari. Unfortunately, the sire Ramana 
passed away the week before with a chronic kidney condition, which 
is so often seen in the big cats between 10 or 12 years of age. These 
four new cubs give great hope for continuing the line of white tigers 
and should be a stellar attraction when the "Dr. William M. Mann 
Lion and Tiger Exhibit" is completed, hopefully in early 1976. 

Among the outstanding bird hatchings can be counted the con- 
tinuation of the Bornean Great Argus Pheasant breeding program 
with the successful raising of 12 of these young birds. Rivaling the 
success of this program was the raising of three Nene Geese for the 
first time in the history of the Zoo. Other outstanding hatchings 
include three Stanley's Cranes, ten Rheas, and three American 

Among the reptiles, the most notable breeding was of the Bur- 
mese pythons in which three clutches were laid and 45 young snakes 
were hatched. This program was of great scientific interest as incu- 
bation of the eggs was carried out both artificially and naturally. In 
the latter case the females coiled around the egg masses, maintaining 
the proper body heat by rhythmic muscle twitchings. This process 
was of great interest to the visitors and particularly so since electrical 
sensors were connected to recording thermometers to trace tempera- 
ture fluctuations. 

The breeding program at the National Zoological Park is pro- 
gressing quite well, space permitting, and the efforts of the scientific 
research department's behavioral studies, the contributions from the 
animal health department on nutrition, preventive medicine, as well 
as the diligent endeavors of the animal management department are 

100 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Burmese pythons. Python molurus bivittatus, incubating their clutches of eggs. 
The probes under the pythons are attached to a telethermometer in order to 
determine the body heat. Of the total of 71 eggs laid, 20 hatched. 

Science I 101 

beginning to pay off. At the present tinne, 66 percent of all mammals 
exhibited at the Zoo are captive born either here or at other zoos. 
Approximately 30 percent of the mammals species, 14 percent of 
the bird species, 8 percent of the reptile and amphibian species in 
the collection are breeding. This is a slight but significant increase 
over previous years. 

While it is pleasant to report on significant births, note must also 
be taken of deaths, and four famous old-timers at the Zoo have 
passed on. Pokodiak, a female hybrid bear (Alaskan Brown X Polar 
Bear), born in 1936, died in April at the age of 38 years. She is the 
last of the National Zoological Park's famous hybrid bears which 
had such an eminently popular appeal due to their great size and 
unusual family background. Biggy, the 14-foot saltwater crocodile, 
one of the largest crocodilians in captivity, died this March after 
42 years on exhibition. He was a spectacular animal and well beloved 
by his visitors. The Silver-crested Cockatoo, Richard, originally 
known as Jacob, died in February. This bird was brought back from 
Sumatra as a mature bird by Dr. Mann with the 1937 National 
Geographic/Smithsonian Institution Expedition. He had been for 
many years in the home of a Dutch plantation owner and spoke a 
smattering of Dutch and Indonesian. He was a great delight to the 
visitors, being an excellent talker. He soon learned English, and one 
of his favorite phrases, "open the door, Richard," gradually brought 
about his change in name by which in later years he was known. 
This bird was thoroughly imprinted on human beings and would 
have nothing to do with his feathered kin, preferring the company 
of humans; for this reason since 1965 he was exhibited in the Ele- 
phant House to the delight of thousands of children if not to the 
delight of the hippopotamuses, his nearest neighbors. His maniacal 
laughter, joyous whistling, and general rowdiness will be missed. He 
has been replaced by an Amazon parrot, who was given to the Zoo 
as a pet similarly imprinted. 

The animal health programs have continued with ongoing investi- 
gative research. With the addition of an assistant veterinarian, the 
program has been greatly accelerated, including initiation of a train- 
ing course for Animal Keepers to expand their ability to recognize 
deviation from healthful behavior and habits which may signify the 

102 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


One of seven smooth-fronted caiman, Paleosuchus trigonatus, imported from 
the Amazon Basin for a breeding program as well as adding a new species 

to the collections. 

existence of potential health problems. The death rate has lessened 
slightly and significant improvements are anticipated in the future. 
Investigations into collection-based health problems were multi- 
plied to include : 

1. A study of avian orthopedics because existing fracture repair 
techniques fall short of preventing shattering in weakened bones. 
The techniques currently being tested consist of multiple pins and 
external fracture fixation. 

2. A study of avian hematology to increase knowledge of the 
sources of avian diseases, a field heretofore not well studied even 
though species of birds represent the largest proportion of our col- 
lection. Diagnostic techniques involving use of blood serum constitu- 
ents have been virtually unknown in birds. The study thus far indi- 
cates that white blood cell level might be an effective indicator of 
infectious diseases which respond to antibiotic treatment. A paper 
has been prepared and submitted for publication. 

Science 1 103 

3. A Tiger Virus Disease study has been started to isolate the viral 
agent believed, as a result of tissue alterations identified through 
light microscopy, to be the possible cause of white tiger cubs' deaths 
earlier in the year. 

Studies continued into avian tuberculosis, selenium-vitamin E de- 
ficiency, chromosome studies for taxonomic designation, sable blood, 
reindeer metabolism, and the important area of establishing normal 
blood values for exotic species. The office has cooperated in the de- 
velopment of capture equipment and participated in field trials of 
newly developed immobilizing agents. 

This unit has established a series of seminars for veterinarians on 
the East Coast that are involved in exotic-animal medicine, and this 
long-felt need for the improvement of exotic-animal medicine has 
been well received by the participants. 


The Office of Zoological Research, under Dr. John Eisenberg, 
achieved notable progress on 24 projects in field mammalian ecology, 
reproduction, behavioral analysis, and nutritional analysis. As one 
arbitrary measure of success, 28 original contributions were pub- 
lished in the department's six years of history to 1972, and 43 titles, 
with 9 more now in press, since then. Nine graduate students and 
two postdoctoral students from six universities were guided and 
supported in 1974. 

Field efforts in the neotropics by Dr. G. C. Montgomery illumi- 
nated the importance of the significant biomass contributions of the 
three-toed sloth and of the lesser anteater, as well as to improving 
chances for their eventual captive acclimatization. Other studies inte- 
grated with the National Museum of Natural History and the Smith- 
sonian Tropical Research Institute advanced with respect to a host 
of rodent and primate species. 

Methods for scoring the behavior of female mammals as they pass 
through estrus were developed by Dr. Devra Kleiman. Behavioral 
changes associated with estrus in the tigress were published for the 
first time. The role of olfaction as a mediator of reproductive behav- 
ior in the binturong was published. The propagation of the golden 
marmoset in the second generation was accomplished by Dr. Klei- 
man and associated staff. The analysis of reproductive behavior of 
the lesser panda and factors contributing to reproductive success in 

104 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

the giant panda were described. The reproductive behavior and cy- 
cHng in the Indian rhinoceros was worked out by Dr. H. K. Buechner 
and associates. Dr. Buechner also initiated a long-term study on the 
determination of estrus and sexual behavior in the sable antelope. 

Studies on reproduction in caviomorph rodents have proceeded 
in the Zoo collection resulting in the first establishment of captive 
colonies of two — Octodontomys gliroides and Pediolagus salini- 
cola — and the Zoo being in position to rear successfully two more. 
The breeding of Carollia perspicillata, a species of fruit bat, was a 
milestone study in the effective management of Chiropterans. 

Recognizing the importance of olfaction and the role of olfactory 
signals in the priming and triggering of sexual behavior, several 
rodent species have been explored by Dr. Michael Murphy, includ- 
ing wild stocks of the golden hamster and three genera of cavio- 
morph rodents. 

Aspects of animal communication, the genesis of social bonds, 
and the structure of mammalian societies have been under intensive 
investigation with self-evident applications to animal management. 
For example, efforts in 1974 show that the success of second-genera- 
tion breeding in the golden marmoset hinges upon an understanding 
of the formation of social bonds and the role of early experience in 
the participation of rearing young. Through analysis, such as are 
currently being carried on in the Zoo and in parallel in the field, an 
understanding and interpretation of communication in, for example, 
the spider monkey now becomes possible. 

Dr. Eisenberg and his associates were deeply involved guiding the 
success of the Thirteenth International Congress of Ethology held 
in August with George Washington University and the Smith- 
sonian Institution being the co-hosts. Scientists from many differ- 
ent nations attended, resulting in an exciting exchange of stimulating 
scientific information. 


As mentioned previously the old Lion House has been demolished 
and the new exhibit will begin construction early in July. The char- 
acter of "lion house hill" is changing and for the definite advantage 
of the big cats and their visiting public. The old Monkey House is 
being renovated at this time and should be completed early in the 
next calendar year. This house, built in 1904, will be modernized 

Science I 105 

to have 12 glass-fronted, larger inside exhibit cages and the corre- 
sponding number of outside cages. The selection of monkeys will 
be fewer than were exhibited before, but they will be in larger family 
groups. The old, small-cat house generally referred to as the "puma 
house" has been removed and plans are being prepared for its re- 
placement by a series of free standing corn-crib-type cages to house 
the lesser cats, such as pumas, lynx, and servals. The dog line below 
the sea lion pool has also been removed with anticipated replacement 
next year by fewer but larger compounds. 

Plans are proceeding for the renovation of the outside Elephant 
House yards as well as of the outside cages around the Bird House. 
New cheetah facilities are being presently constructed just north of 
the sea lion pool. This will consist of spacious double enclosures 
that will give the cheetahs a much larger area in which to run. This 
will also allow separation of the males and females and it is hoped 
will enable the establishment of a breeding program for these lovely 
cats. In this vein the Zoo has secured, on breeding loan, a pair of 
cheetahs from the Baltimore Zoo and a second pair from the Chey- 
enne Mountain Zoo in Colorado Springs. Based on recent success of 
cheetah breedings at the San Diego Zoo and Lion Country Safari, it 
is hoped that a rotating encounter program can be established be- 
tween the males and the females which will result in successful 


In 1974, an effort was launched to bring progress in graphics, ex- 
hibits, education, and information up to the pace now being set by 
the Zoo's sound and progressive programs in animal management, 
animal health, and zoological research. The Visitor Services Group, 
led by an assistant director, assembled the Office of Graphics and 
Exhibits, Education and Information, and the Protective Services 
with the mission of providing the Zoo visitor good guidance and 
opportunities for quality educational experiences, and a high degree 
of public service and accommodation. This effort coordinates with 
the Friends of the National Zoo as they continue to carry the Zoo's 
educational programs to the visitors, to the local school systems, 
and surrounding community. 

The information and education staffs are being increased, and 
exhibits came under the control of an experienced and creative de- 

106 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

signer in order to bring the interpretive program up to highest stand- 
ards. This person will also work closely with the designers, Wyman 
and Cannon, Inc., contracted with under a matching grant from the 
National Endowment for the Arts to develop a Master Graphics 
Plan and Design Manual for the Zoo. 

Another important new service for both the employees and visi- 
tors was the appointment of a Health and Safety Officer, with in- 
creased emphasis on providing this vital area of visitor services. 

Management efforts in general in fiscal 1974 focused on building 
up understanding and administrative capability at the level of the 
operating offices assembled into the Animal Programs Group, Visi- 
tor Services Group, and Central Services Group. Central manage- 
ment was reduced to a handful of people working to help guide the 
growth and progress of the ambitious and spirited Zoo staff. 

Office of International and Environmental Programs 

The new Office was established on October 15, 1973, combining the 
Offices of International Activities and Environmental Sciences. It is 
designed to further increase opportunities for the Smithsonian to 
conduct research abroad through the application of its traditional 
strengths in collection-based natural history to ecosystem-oriented 
studies in the tropics. A new International Environmental Science 
Program, incorporating the former programs in Oceanography, Lim- 
nology, and Ecology, was initiated at the end of the fiscal year. The 
previous program categories are used below to describe studies 
conducted during 1973. 

The Office also continues to provide support to United States re- 
search institutions, including the Smithsonian, through Foreign 
Currency Program grants, and service to other Smithsonian units 
through the Liaison Section of the International Activities Program. 

The Center for Short-Lived Phenomena, an independent unit of 
the Office in Cambridge, Massachusetts, provides for the rapid com- 
munication of technical data on natural and environmental phe- 
nomena of short duration through a global network of scientific 

Wymberley Coerr, formerly Ambassador to Ecuador and Uruguay, 
was appointed to head the new Office. 

Science 1 107 

A series of ecological assessment studies in foreign countries, ad- 
ministered by the Office and supported by the Agency for Inter- 
national Development, was completed during the year. The studies 
included an analysis of the effect of oil pollution on marine orga- 
nisms in Indonesia, a review of the environmental consequences of 
rapid urbanization in a developing country (Seoul, Korea), and the 
ecological impact of Lake Volta in Ghana, the world's largest man- 
made lake. A 4-year study for the purpose of predicting the spread 
of waterborne diseases, particularly schistosomiasis, with the im- 
poundment of the Mekong River and its tributaries, was completed. 


During their combined 15 years of operations the Smithsonian's two 
oceanographic sorting centers have processed bulk marine samples, 
monitored and assessed marine pollution, and conducted baseline 
and environmental prediction studies. In the past year, the centers 
have processed more than 8 million specimens for specialists and 
reference collections. Much of the material processed by the Oceano- 
graphic Sorting Center in Washington involved Arctic and Antarctic 
biological samples in cooperation with the nsf Office of Polar Pro- 
grams. The biological and environmental data accompanying these 
samples have been computerized. 

Over 3000 specimens at the Mediterranean Marine Sorting Cen- 
ter have become a part of the Reference Collections of Mediterra- 
nean Marine Biota. Sorted specimens are divided equally and 
deposited in the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History 
and the Institut National Scientifique et Technique d'Oceanographie 
et de Peche. 

The Existing Conditions of the Biota of the Chesapeake Bay 
Project for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is providing informa- 
tion on the most important species of Chesapeake Bay, descriptions 
of community structure, and analyses of water quality criteria. An 
interim report was submitted in October, and the final report will 
be submitted during the fiscal year 1975. Coordination responsibili- 
ties of the report on the effects of Tropical Storm Agnes were also 
performed for the Corps. 

The second year of a United States-Yugoslav aquatic study, en- 
titled "Limnological Investigations of Lake Skadar," was success- 
fully completed in cooperation with the Limnology Laboratory of 

108 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

the Biological Institut of Titograd. Extensive progress was made in 
adequately equipping the laboratory and in sampling and analyzing 
the preliminary research results. Manuscripts are in progress and 
in press. 

Development of comprehensive biological studies of marine and 
freshwater ecosystems in Egypt and Pakistan is proceeding. A post- 
impoundment ecological assessment of the Nam Ngum Reservoir 
in Laos was initiated in May 1974. 

Liaison with other Smithsonian Institution aquatic sciences was 
continued, as was representation on various committees and coun- 
cils concerned with oceanography and limnology. 


An evaluation of environmental resources was undertaken in a study 
for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in connection with the Corps' 
responsibility for preserving natural, historical, and cultural aspects 
of America's natural heritage. The project involved a comprehensive 
review of current environmental inventories and literature on re- 
quirements for such inventories, a critique of pilot environmental 
reconnaissance inventories, and preparation of guidelines for agen- 
cies conducting statewide inventories of critical environmental areas. 
The guidebook deals with key issues and decisions that must be 
resolved in conducting the inventories and suggests methodology 
for delineating areas of critical environmental concern. 

The Smithsonian Center for Natural Areas assists, through eco- 
logical studies, in planning and establishing priorities for the selec- 
tion and preservation of ecologically significant areas. Natural areas 
include habitats of threatened species of plants, animals, and com- 
munities; important breeding and overwintering areas; sites of 
unique interest for research or education interests; and archeological 
and related locations that should be preserved. The Center has de- 
veloped a quantitive evaluation technique of ecological indicators 
as a scientifically valid basis of assigning priorities for acquisition of 
permanent nature reserves by procuring agencies. 

The Center published a 2-year, natural-areas study of the Chesa- 
peake Bay region. The Nature Conservancy, co-sponsor of the study, 
intends to use the findings as one basis for procurement and desig- 
nation as protected areas sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed 
regarded as ecologically significant. 

Science I 109 


The Center prepared an inventory of ecologically representative 
sites within the Atlantic Coastal Region, together with descriptions 
and recommendations to assist the National Park Service in desig- 
nating sites for its Registry of Natural Landmarks. 

The Center is helping to assess the ecological consequences of 
activities at U.S. Air Force Bases in the continental United States in 
order to offer a scientific basis for suggesting improvements in con- 
servation practices. A comprehensive survey was made for the Air 
Force of the existing data on the flora and fauna of Johnston Atoll 
in the Pacific, including both terrestrial and marine organisms. The 
baseline information was compiled for an evaluation required for 
an environmental impact statement for the islands. 

The Center for Natural Areas, with approval of the Smithsonian, 
was incorporated as an independent organization during fiscal 1974. 
The Center's studies henceforth will be supported by grants and 
contracts from foundations, charitable trusts, federal, and state 

The Smithsonian-Peace Corps Environmental Program provides 
assistance in two general areas. It develops Peace Corps projects 
and assignments dealing with environmental and natural resource 
problems in the developing countries and recruits and places appli- 
cants skilled in the environmental biological sciences. Over 700 
applications were received in fiscal 1974, and 207 volunteers with 
environmental skills were assigned to 28 countries. The volunteers 
were requested directly by the host governments for assignment to 
scientific and natural conservation programs. 


As a part of the new Office of International and Environmental Pro- 
grams, the International Activities Program has undergone no sub- 
stantive changes in its functions. 

As its major responsibility, the International Activities Program 
administers the Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program. This Pro- 
gram awards grants to support the research interests of American 
institutions, including the Smithsonian, in those countries where the 
United States holds "excess" amounts of local currencies, derived 
largely from sales of surplus agricultural commodities under Public 
Law 480. Qualifying countries, where the Treasury Department 
deems United States holdings of these currencies to be in excess of 

110 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

normal federal requirements, are presently India, Pakistan, Burma, 
Egypt, Tunisia, Guinea, and Poland. The Smithsonian received a 
fiscal 1974 appropriation of $4.5 million in "excess" currencies for 
the support of grants in the disciplines of archeology and the anthro- 
pological sciences, systematics and environmental biology, astro- 
physics and the earth sciences, and museum-related fields. During 
its first decade of operation, the Foreign Currency Program has 
awarded more than $24 million in foreign currency grants to more 
than 70 institutions in 32 states and the District of Columbia, in- 
volving some 220 museums, universities, and research institutions. 
Within the framework of the Program, the Smithsonian made ar- 
rangements in fiscal 1974 for the United States to contribute $1 
million in support of unesco efforts to save the submerged temples 
at Philae, Egypt. The Program participated in interagency negotia- 
tions leading to the establishment of a United States-Yugoslav Joint 
Board of Scientific and Technical Cooperation. This Board makes it 
possible to extend the period for which support will be available for 
already approved United States-Yugoslav cooperative research proj- 
ects, including Smithsonian research in limnology and Smithsonian 
Foreign Currency-supported archeological research. 

The International Liaison Section continues to provide other 
Smithsonian units with assistance in international matters involving 
travel and projects abroad. It coordinated the travel and research 
arrangements of the many foreign scholars visiting the Smithsonian, 
and it makes arrangements for other foreign visitors. A growing 
area of liaison responsibility is in special programs for foreign re- 
search cooperation. These include promoting Smithsonian scientific 
and scholarly cooperation with the People's Republic of China and 
under binational arrangements with Israel and Germany. 


The Center operates a worldwide electronic alert system for rapid 
communication of scientific data on natural and environmental phe- 
nomena of short duration. During the year the Center reported 155 
short-lived events that occurred in 44 countries, islands, and ocean 
areas. Scientific field teams investigated 120 of the events. The re- 
porting network consists of about 2000 scientists, scientific research 
institutions, and field stations located in 138 countries throughout 
the globe. 

Science I 111 

Scientists and other subscribers to the Center's service receive in- 
formation on significant changes in biological, ecological, and geo- 
physical systems, including rare or unusual animal migrations, 
population increases, and mortalities, major floods, forest fires, and 
pollution events, such as oil and chemical spills, gas and radioactive 
substance leaks, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides, and 
occasional astrophysical events, such as meteorite falls and fireballs. 

The Center has enlarged its International Environmental Alert 
Network to include more than 60,000 secondary school and univer- 
sity students in over 800 schools throughout the United States and 
Canada, Puerto Rico, Brazil, Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Rumania, Jor- 
dan, Lebanon, Ghana, Korea, Singapore, Tanzania, Sudan, Sri 
Lanka, South West Africa, England, Greece, Saudi Arabia, Cyprus, 
Zambia, France, The Netherlands, and Kenya. 

Services under contract were provided to the United Nations En- 
vironment Program; the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and 
Cultural Organization; the United States National Aeronautic and 
Space Administration; and the United States Environmental Protec- 
tion Agency. 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 

The importance and significance of energy as the driving force of 
our technological society became abundantly clear in 1974 as politi- 
cal and economic forces displaced familiar use patterns. Thus, the 
laboratory's charter "to study the role of sunlight in maintaining 
life on the earth" anticipated current concerns by almost a half cen- 
tury. In fact, the purposes and objectives of the laboratory become 
increasingly important as the world's population grows, and its food 
needs and requirements for diminishing fossil-fuel resources expand. 
During fiscal 1974 the laboratory emphasized several major areas 
of research on aspects of solar radiation that influence biological 
systems: (1) measuring the solar energy received at the earth's sur- 
face, its quantity, quality, and duration, since these parameters 
establish the starting point for all aspects of photobiology; (2) the 
biochemistry and biophysics of energy storage (photosynthesis) and 
the structures (pigments and membrane systems) involved in cap- 

112 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

turing the sun's energy; (3) the regulation of the use of this stored 
energy by Hving organisms in response to complex signals of light, 
temperature, or gases in the environment; and (4) the use of the 
photosynthetic products to date the time when objects of biological 
origin were last alive and in equilibrium with the environment 
(carbon dating). 


Measurements of solar energy were recorded from a monitoring 
network including four locations: Barrow, Alaska; Flamenco Island, 
Panama; the National Physical Laboratory in Jerusalem, Israel; and 
at Rockville, Maryland. This network covers the Northern Hemi- 
sphere reasonably well and records at three-minute intervals the 
energy received in six color bands, as well as the total energy from 
the ultraviolet short wavelength limit to the infrared (2.8 microns), 
where the energy per photon is no longer capable of driving photo- 
chemical reactions. 

From this enormous volume of data have been extracted many 
useful pieces of information. For example, the area required for 
suitable collectors to provide the necessary energy to heat or to air 
condition buildings may be 'calculated or estimates of the upper 
limits for plant growth in an area may be computed. 

In addition, some data implicate solar ultraviolet with skin cancer 
incidence. Particularly, as more and more supersonic transport air- 
craft are flown, it is postulated that the fuel exhausts will catalyze 
the breakdown of the protective ozone screen in the atmosphere, 
which limits the amount of ultraviolet penetrating to the earth's 
surface. In cooperation with the Air Resources Laboratories of 
NOAA, a scanning radiometer was stationed at Tallahassee, Florida. 
This instrument measures narrow bandwidths of ultraviolet in the 
erythemal (region of sunlight that causes skin reddening) band and 
these data are being tested to see if a correlation exists between 
quality and quantity received and the incidence of skin cancer (as 
measured by the National Cancer Institute) in Tallahassee, 

Another important factor in solar irradiance measurements is the 
primary standard to which all measurements are referred. The 
Smithsonian has a long history of developing standards, and this 
year a symposium was held for international authorities on solar 
instruments and measurements to discuss and evaluate the initiation 

Science 1 113 

Spectral radiation monitoring by the Radiation Biology Laboratory at the 
Pacific entrance of the Panama Canal. The units shown are pyranometers 
mounted on the roof of the monitoring site. 

and worldwide use of a uniform and precisely defined measuring 
scale. While there is, as yet, no consensus as to the best scale system, 
at least intercomparison may now be made in a more rational man- 
ner. The papers presented at this symposium will be published as a 
Smithsonian publication. 

In order to pursue the importance of light on plant growth, four 
large growth chambers were installed in which the major parameters 
regulating plant growth can be controlled. These include the nutrient 
and root media, the atmospheric media and the light environment. 
Plants are grown on soil or artificial substrate systems (nutriculture). 


Light in the environment also may regulate the rate of synthesis 
of cell components or the rate of metabolism and growth of plant 
parts. Such light signals must be absorbed by pigment molecules to 
be effective. During the past year the laboratory has been isolating 
and purifying the pigment ph'ytochrome. By hydrolyzing it in vari- 
ous ways and determining the amino-acid composition of the various 

114 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


# i^aflM 

The Radiation Biology Laboratory scanning radiometer used to monitor the 
erythemal band of daylight. The unit shown monitors 5 nm bands of energy 
from 285 nm to 320 nm in Tallahassee, Florida. 

Instruments used for measuring solar radiation. The instrument in the rear is 
the Smithsonian standard water-flow. The other instruments, from left to 
right, are a Smithsonian modified 1905 Angstrom normal incidence pyrhelio- 
meter, an Abbot pyranometer, a modified Abbot pyranometer and an Abbot 
silver disk pyrheliometer. The pyranometers are used to measure radiation 
from the sun and sky while the pyrheliometers and the water-flow measure 
only radiation from the sun (direct solar beam). 

peptides produced, information has been obtained about the mole- 
cular weight and the chemical structure of this protein pigment. 

The phytochrome pigment was isolated from dark-grown rye seed- 
lings. After purification, electrophoresis, and gel permeation chroma- 
tography of the undenatured protein indicated a molecular weight 
of about 400,000 daltons. Disc gel electrophoresis in detergents 
indicated a principal product was formed with a molecular weight 
of about 120,000 daltons. Cleavage of the protein was performed 
with cyanogen bromide, which reacts with methionine residues. 
This produced five peptides: one of 15,000 daltons, a chromopeptide 
containing the light-absorbing portion (11,000 daltons), one about 
8000 daltons, and two smaller ones. These data are consistent with 
the 13S phytochrome being composed of one species of protomer 
having a molecular weight of 42,000 and 4 methionine residues 
per protomer. 

Another approach to the molecular function of phytochrome is 
the determination of the dependence of physiological responses upon 
the dose of light given. For a number of flowering plants, such as 
peas and mustard, dose-response curves were determined, as well 
as changes in the dose-response curves following sequential expo- 
sures to light. In addition, the capacity for rapid chlorphyll accumu- 
lation was measured. Data indicate that the physiologically active 
form of phytochrome produced by the first red exposure migrates 
to a membrane surface, which results in more light being required 
for a given response. But once light is absorbed, it is more effective 
because the active molecule is already attached to a membrane in- 
volved in the response. 

For photosynthesis to occur efficiently, the incident sunlight must 
be absorbed in all wavelength regions. Algae have solved this prob- 
lem by forming special pigment protein complexes known as phyco- 
bilisomes. These complexes trap the light energy and transfer it to 
a "reaction center," where it is used to produce energy-rich com- 
pounds. Phycobilisomes can be isolated and then dissociated into 
their component parts. A model has been developed this year that 
describes at the molecular level the spatial arrangement of at least 
four pigments involved and their attachment to the photosynthetic 

The chloroplasts of higher plants also trap light energy and 
convert it to chemical energy. Formation of chloroplasts and the 

116 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

maintenance of chloroplast structure is a fascinating problem that is 
attracting considerable attention. Making the proteins for a func- 
tional chloroplast requires cooperation between nuclear and chloro- 
plast genetic systems. That is, the genetic material for and the 
synthesis of certain chloroplast proteins are located in the nucleus 
and cytoplasm respectively, while the genetic material for and the 
synthesis of other chloroplast proteins are located in the chloroplast. 
Part of the chloroplast protein synthesis occurs on chloroplast 
photosynthetic membranes. 

During the past year, a system was developed in which biosyn- 
thesis of chloroplast photosynthetic membranes could be studied in 
vitro. In actively growing cells of the alga Chlamydomonas, a large 
portion of chloroplast ribosomes exists attached to the photosyn- 
thetic membranes. Electron micrographs of isolated membranes show 
that some of the ribosomes are bound as polyribosomes. When the 
membranes are dissolved by detergent, these polyribosomes can be 
recovered and account for more than half of the ribosomes bound to 
the membranes. These results suggest that the membrane-ribosome 
association functions in protein synthesis, because polysomes occur 
when active protein synthesis takes place. This assumption was 
confirmed by the finding that the isolated membrane-ribosome 
association will carry out protein synthesis. This protein synthesis 
reaction depends on the presence of the ribosomes attached to the 
membranes. It is inhibited by chloramphenicol, not by cyclohexi- 
mide, as is expected for protein synthesis by chloroplast ribosomes. 
The protein synthesis reaction requires an energy generation system 
and a soluble cell extract. The reaction is inhibited by ribonuclease. 
These properties indicate that the protein synthesis reaction is car- 
ried out by the isolated membranes. 

Blue light regulates the biosynthesis of yellow pigments, such as 
the vitamin A precursor, ^-carotene. At least eight different caro- 
tenoids are synthesized after light exposure of dark-grown mycelial 
pads of the bread mold Neurospora crassa. The photoinduction of 
these pigments can be divided into at least three phases : (a) a rapid 
light reaction, (b) a period of protein synthesis, and (c) accumulation 
of the carotenoid pigment. 

The effect of temperature on these processes has been studied 
this year. The light reaction, of course, is temperature-independent, 
but synthesis immediately following light exposure has an optimum 

Science 1 117 

near 6°C. These data, as well as studies with inhibitors of protein 
synthesis, indicate that the light reaction produces an inducer that 
activates a gene. The genetic code in the activated gene specifies the 
amino-acid sequence of an enzyme required for carotenoid biosyn- 
thesis. This enzyme is apparently absent in dark-grown cultures. 
Furthermore, physiological evidence indicates that the inducer is 
lost from the carotenoid-synthesizing system in a temperature- 
dependent competitive reaction. 

In addition, four different types of mutant strains of Neurospora 
were produced from wild type by uv light: albinos, which do not 
make pigment even in the presence of light; yellow-orange mutants, 
which synthesize a different distribution of pigments; mutants in 
which the sensitivity of carotenoid synthesis to temperatures above 
6°C has been reduced; and mutants which can make pigment in the 

The activities of many enzymes in organisms from bacteria to 
man appear to be under the control of cyclic-AMP (adenosine mono- 
phosphate). For example, in man the hormones epinephrine or glu- 
cagon stimulate the synthesis of cyclic-AMP, which in turn activates 
a series of enzymes required for starch breakdown. Evidence has 
been obtained that animal cells that have been transformed by a 
virus to cancerous cells have lower than normal cyclic-AMP levels. 
There is evidence in frogs and rats that light controls the level of 
cyclic-AMP. We have obtained evidence that such a control system 
exists in Neurospora and may be part of the mechanism for photo- 
induction of carotenoid synthesis. Since cyclic-AMP probably regu- 
lates the activities of many different enzymes in Neurospora, then 
control of the level of cyclic-AMP by light should regulate a number 
of biochemical pathways besides carotenoid synthesis. Such a control 
mechanism can be conveniently studied in Neurospora and the 
results used to predict the type of control system that operates in 
higher organisms. 


Light acts not only as a carrier of information for regulating metabo- 
lism but is also absorbed and stored as chemical energy, along with 
the production of oxygen as a byproduct (photosynthesis). If leaves 
of plants are exposed to low temperatures (chilling), there is an 
inhibition in the rate of fixation of carbon dioxide. In addition, the 

118 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

oxygen-evolving power of leaves after cold storage is regulated by 
mangano-protein in the chloroplast thylakoids. Since a great deal of 
the world's agriculture and the distribution of wild plant populations 
are limited by temperature, it is important to determine the portion 
of the photosynthetic mechanism directly affected by chilling. 
Plants that were grown under very warm conditions (30 °C) were 
exposed to a succession of days and nights of cool (10°C day, S^C 
night) temperatures, and the ability of whole leaves to take up 
carbon dioxide was measured. Within 24 hours after exposure to 
low temperature, the plants' capacity to take up carbon dioxide at 
warm temperatures was reduced by about 25 percent. Longer expo- 
sure to low temperature brings with it further reduction in carbon 

The process of photosynthesis involves considerably more than 
carbon dioxide assimilation, and in order to determine which of the 
many steps is affected by changes in temperature, a partitioning of 
the process was attempted. Photosynthetic cells from the leaf were 
separated from the remaining nonphotosynthetic tissue. Active 
whole cells were obtained which retain the capacity to evolve oxygen 
using light. Exposure of plants to chilling temperatures, however, 
does not consistently affect the capacity of cells extracted from these 
plants to evolve oxygen. Sometimes there is a substantial reduction 
in oxygen evolution and sometimes only minor change. The reason 
for this variability is as yet unknown. 

Measurements have been made of the total productive capacity 
for communities of plants in a salt marsh in the Chesapeake Bay. 
It has been assumed that salt marshes contribute substantially to 
their neighboring estuaries and are consequently essential to the 
maintenance of life in the estuaries. Assimilated carbon in the marsh 
is exported to the estuary; however, most data for this assumption 
are based upon an incomplete examination of the capacity of the 
marsh to take up and metabolize carbon! A plastic chamber to 
enclose a section of the marsh community has been constructed in 
conjunction with a continuous flow, infrared, gas-analysis system 
to monitor the net carbon dioxide exchange over the marsh com- 

In addition to net carbon dioxide exchange, a method has been 
evaluated for determining the amount of green matter in a marsh 
without the necessity of destroying any of the community being 

Science 1 119 

f 0- 


Plastic chamber for measuring net carbon dioxide exchange over a marsh 
community on an estuary of the Chesapeake Bay. Carbon dioxide concentra- 
tion is determined in air as it enters and leaves the chamber. Below: Radio- 
meter device for measuring reflectance of red and far-red light from a marsh 
community. Reflectance measurements are used in estimating the standing 
crop biomass. 

/^X^i»*iE^J"»' ;r ■** 

studied. The method depends upon the fact that green plants reflect 
red light less than they reflect far-red radiation (light that is at and 
just beyond the sensitivity of the human eye). The seasonal change 
in reflectance of these two bands of light was found to change as 
the total amount of green matter in the stand of plants changed. 
This method was originally developed to study productivity of 
prairie communities, but the method appears to work in marshes. 
A correlation was found between the reflectance measurements and 
direct measurements of biomass obtained by cutting and weighing 
samples. Thus, a rapid, nondestructive assay of growth in marshes 
can be obtained. The method also has the advantage that the equip- 
ment is portable and, thus, usable in remote locations. 

The growth of plants in an estuarine environment is sometimes 
limited by phosphorus cycling in the tidal environment. Phosphorus 
flux rates and phosphorus cycling in situ in the tidal marsh, mud 
flat periphyton, and plankton communities of the Rhode River sub- 
estuary of Chesapeake Bay were measured. Techniques employed 
included phosphorus-32-orthophosphate uptake and chase kinetics. 

Higher Members 
of the Food Chain 

Orgonic-P '*" 


1 ! 

,,1'Phytoplankton \ 

\ V*- lAA \ 

Bacteria * ^'^^Z^ *. 

o,. z^**- Dissolved 

^^ /^ Ortho-P 




Bottom Sediments 

Current concept of the pathways of estuarine plankton phosphorus cycling. 
Processes stopped by enclosing a sample in a bottle are indicated as dashed 
arrows. Heavy lines indicate major processes. Phosphate uptake by phyto- 
plankton requires light energy and the presence of iodoacetic acid (lAA) 
inhibits direct biological uptake of orthophosphate. 

Science 1 121 

analysis of specific and total activity in various metabolically mean- 
ingful phosphorus fractions, detailed chromatographic fractionation, 
continuous-flow pulse-labeling of plankton, direct microscopic 
examination of microbial communities, and phosphorus-33 micro- 
autoradiography. From these data the major pathways of phosphorus 
cycling in estuarine plankton were constructed. The heavy arrows 
are believed to be main pathways. Microbiological data, as well as 
the size classing and inhibitor data, support this picture. Thus, 
orthophosphate is taken up mostly by bacteria that are mainly on 
the surfaces of suspended sediments and detritus, but phytoplankton 
also take up some orthophosphate in the light. The bacteria and 
phytoplankton are then eaten by filter feeders, especially ciliate 
protozoans. These in turn release most of the phosphorus as dis- 
solved orthophosphate and organic phosphorus. 

In addition, the phosphorus cycling in a deciduous forest when 
subjected to various levels of mineral nutrient loading was measured. 
Phosphorus loading of the leaf-litter zone beneath beech trees in 
Maryland was varied from the "natural" level (3 to 12 mg P.m~^* 
day~^) to 430 mg P.m~^*day~^ above the natural level. Phosphorus- 
32 was used to measure rates and to determine pathways of phos- 
phorus cycling. Upon increased loading, the phosphorus content of \ 
the litter increased fourfold and then stabilized. When this loading 
was discontinued, the phosphorus content of the litter declined to 
the original level. Phosphorus not assimilated by the leaf litter 
moved rapidly through the soil both vertically and horizontally. 
Forest trees obtained most of their phosphorus from the litter zone. 

Sometimes the effects of a sudden dramatic changes in energy 
flow in the environment can be assayed. Such a dynamic stress 
occurred in tropical storm Agnes. Although the storm center cir- 
cumnavigated the Rhode River estuary, the salinity reached a 
minimum about two weeks later because of flooding by the Susque- 
hanna River. This event was coincident with the year's highest water 
temperature (30-31 °C) and resulted in severe mortalities in the ' 
biota. Periphyton (attached microbial communities) experienced a 
nearly complete die-off. High levels of sediments and of nutrients, 
especially nitrate and total- phosphorus, were delivered to Rhode 
River by the bay proper and from local runoff. These nutrients 
were deposited in Rhode River bottom sediments. This reservoir 
released nutrients a year later, especially at a time of low dissolved 

122 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

oxygen in the bottom water and of intensive dinoflagellate blooms. 
In a 13-day period it is estimated that over 900 Kg phosphorus was 
released from the bottom sediments. Thus, even though the effects 
were indirect from tropical storm Agnes, they were large. 


Because all living things are in equilibrium with the carbon dioxide 
in the atmosphere, and this equilibrium is fixed at the time of death, 
with the radioactive carbon^'* gradually decaying away as the sample 
ages, it is possible to determine the age of biological specimens back 
to about 40,000 years by measuring their radioactive carbon^'* con- 
tent. From data taken from the remains and artifacts of archaic 
populations, it is possible to explore the relationships between 
changing environments and changing cultures. 

I From such artifacts a chronological framework is being con- 
structed for populations in North America. In cooperation with 
anthropologists, geologists, and palynologists the time period 6000 
B.c to 2000 B.C. has been examined for northeastern North America. 
f Of particular interest is the date of entry of man into the New 
World. In cooperation with the University of Alaska, dating of 
■selected archeological and geological sites discovered during con- 
} struction of the Alaska pipeline have been accomplished. Recent 
[findings published by the Scripps Institution, using the determina- 
I tion of racemic mixtures of aspartic acid, indicate that man was 
i present in North America at least 50,000 years before the present. 
[However, dates from the North Slope in our laboratory confirm 
' occupation of more than 10,000 years ago. 

Thus, the requirement for more energy to drive our technology 
that resulted in the need for the Alaska pipeline has yielded as a 
secondary scientific benefit an indication of man's early history in 
the New World. 


Lectures and invited symposium talks were presented by the staff 
to more than 30 research institutions and universities, both nation- 
ally and internationally. Hundreds of reprints of published data 
were distributed to interested professional colleagues, and several 
staff members taught seminars and courses in their professional 

Science I 123 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

On July 1, 1973, the Smithsonian Institution and Harvard University 
established at Cambridge, Massachusetts, a Center for Astrophysics 
to coordinate the related research activities of the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory (sao) and the Harvard College Observa- 
tory (hco) under a single director. 

At that time, George B. Field, Professor of Astronomy at Harvard 
University, became the director of the joint facility and of both 
observatories, succeeding Fred L. Whipple of sao and Alexander i 
Dalgarno of hco. | 

The creation of this new consolidated science program, drawing • 
on the resources of the Smithsonian Institution and Harvard Univer- 
sity to achieve scientific excellence, is both a response to the new 
research goals and opportunities of the present and a reflection of 
traditional ties of the past. 

During the past decade, astrophysics has experienced an explosion 
of ideas. New windows on the universe have been opened by the 
discovery of radiation in unexpected bands of the electromagnetic 
spectrum. And the expanded use of rocket, balloon, and satellite 
experiments has allowed observation of this radiation from above 
the earth's obscuring atmosphere. Gamma rays. X-rays, ultraviolet 
light, and infrared radiation are all now observed almost as routinely 
as radio and visible waves. Each new spectrum window has revealed 
a vast and varied universe filled with objects defying the imagina- 
tion: quasars, pulsars. X-ray and gamma-ray stars, black holes, and 
neutron stars, as well as massive interstellar clouds of dust particles 
and complex molecules. 

When it was founded by Samuel Pierpont Langley in 1890, the 
goal of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory was the increase 
and diffusion of knowledge about the earth and its immediate as- 
tronomical environment. This goal remains unchanged today; how- 
ever, the technological developments in observational techniques 
and data analysis, coupled with unusual advances in theoretical 
astronomy, now allow Smithsonian scientists to expand their 
astronomical horizons to the very edge of the universe. 

Two major scientific problems are at the core of this expanded 
astronomical research program. The first is the evolution of matter, 
starting with the explosive beginning of the universe some 20 billion 

124 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


years ago. After the formation of galaxies and stars, some matter 
collapsed into those exotic and unusual objects known as quasars, 
neutron stars, and black holes. 

i The extreme physical conditions existing in these objects severely 
test all the fundamental principles of modern physics. Obviously, 
the evolutionary processes forming stars and galaxies hold clues 
to how the universe began — and how it may end! 

The second problem concerns the cosmic matter that has cooled 
sufficiently for molecules and solid particles to form. The conden- 
sation of materials accompanying the formation of stars like our 
own sun apparently results in the formation of planets and the 
eventual emergence of life. Through continued studies of this matter 
in space, as well as of the sun, planets, and earth, sao scientists 
seek to understand the processes that led to the origin of life in the 

The solution of these two problems in modern astronomy can be 
achieved only through the concerted efforts of a variety of investi- 
gators using a diversity of approaches. For example, the study of 
matter under extreme conditions can be approached through high- 
energy astrophysics, solar and stellar physics, or optical astronomy; 
while the study of solid particles can be approached through infra- 
red and radio astronomy, planetary sciences or geoastronomy. 
Theoretical and laboratory studies underlie each approach. Each 
approach also requires quite different research tools, ranging from 
rocket, balloon, and satellite detectors for gamma-ray and X-ray 
astronomy, to shock-tube and radiation laboratories and computers 
for molecular and atomic physics. 

The complexity of modern astronomical research thus demands 
the consolidation of efforts whenever possible. The Center for 
Astrophysics is designed for this purpose — to draw on the differ- 
ent strengths of the Smithsonian and Harvard observatories. The 
once loose groupings of scientists and projects are now concentrated 
in eight divisions representing the major approaches to the dual 
problems of cosmic evolution and life in the universe. 


The laboratory and theoretical program of this division are closely 
related to other experimental and observational programs at the 
Center. Specifically, this group is concerned with the chemical re- 

Science / 125 

actions occurring in planetary atmospheres and interstellar clouds 
Major efforts include the development of model potential methods ;| 
in theoretical atomic physics, the calculation of atomic transition 
probabilities, and the application of laser techniques to atomic and 
molecular spectroscopy. The measurements resulting from the 
spectroscopic research will play a critical role in the interpretation 
of data returned from other Center space programs. 


This division continues sao's long-term program to study earth 
dynamics, the upper atmosphere, and earth's gravitational field. 

In cooperation with scores of other organizations around the 
world, the earth dynamics program is building the large data base 
necessary to define the kinematics, bulk dynamics, and mass distri- 
bution of the earth. The program depends heavily on sao's sophisti- 
cated laser and camera satellite-tracking network, supported by the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

The upper atmospheric research program uses computer analysis 
of the anomalies in satellite orbits to develop accurate models of 
the earth's gravity field and to define the forces exerted by both 
sunshine and earthshine. 

A gravitational redshift project will utilize an extremely accurate, 
rocket-borne, maser clock, paired with a similar ground-based 
instrument, to test the equivalence principle of Einstein's Theory 
of Relativity in the gravitational field of the earth. 


The Center is emerging as a national leader in the field of high- 
energy astronomy, and particularly X-ray research, through its 
participation in the NASA-sponsored series of high-energy astronomi- 
cal observatories (head). Major efforts are directed toward con- 
struction and planning of experiments aboard the heao-b, now 
scheduled for launch in 1975 as the first true space observatory 
capable of high angular resolution X-ray observations. This satellite 
will permit the first studies of the X-ray structure of extended objects 
and complex sources. In the meantime, the division continues its 
analysis of data obtained by-UHURU satellite, the pioneering experi- 
ment in this field. This effort has led to the first identification of a 
probable "black hole" in the constellation Cygnus. 

126 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Ground-based observations at Mt. Hopkins have led to the detec- 
tion of gamma-ray emissions from the Crab Nebula. 


This division's activities fall in four related areas : studies of infrared 
emissions from galaxies and H II regions; studies of the spectra of 
stars and circumstellar materials; analysis of the spectra of inter- 
stellar materials and planetary atmospheres; and optical studies of 
emission from X-ray sources and pulsars. Observations are made 
with Center instruments at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona; Agassiz Station, 
Massachusetts; and Boy den Station, South Africa; as well as with 
instruments at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, Arizona, and 
the Hale Observatories, California, and their respective Southern 
Hemisphere installations at Cerro Tololo and Las Campanas, Chile. 
The Harvard component of these observing programs is supported 
by the National Science Foundation (nsf). 

This division's observational capabilities will be greatly enhanced 
by the addition of a large telescope of revolutionary design. This 
multiple-mirror telescope (mmt) combines six 72-inch mirrors in a 
hexagonal array around a central core to produce an instrument with 
the light-gathering capacity of a conventional 176-inch telescope. 
The MMT is now under construction jointly by sao and the University 
of Arizona. 


Traditionally, sao has been a recognized leader in the study of the 
smaller bodies of the solar system. Vigorous programs involving 
geochemical and petrological analyses of lunar and meteoritical 
samples continue, as does the remote sensing of planets, satellites, 
and asteroids, largely supported by nasa. 

Observations of comets, combined with computer analyses of 
their orbits and laboratory studies of their physical properties, also 
continue. During the past year, the Center served as a major clearing- 
house for information related to the international program to observe 
and study Comet Kohoutek. Theoretical work in this field is being 
supported through Harvard by nsf. 

The Center's radio astronomy program results from the strong 

Science 1 127 

efforts begun at the Harvard College Observatory with nsf support. 
It includes capability in both the centimeter and the millimeter 
wavelength bands of the radio spectrum. Laboratory facilities sup- 
port the observational program by measuring properties of spectral 
lines in these wavelengths. This combined effort has identified sev- 
eral new interstellar molecules. 

A cooperative program continues with the University of Texas 
to conduct observations in the 2- and 3-millimeter wavelength 


The Center's unusually strong program in this field is founded on 
the observational data provided by the Harvard solar satellite pro- 
gram and the theoretical work done by sao scientists in the develop- 
ment of model stellar atmospheres. The extensive data produced 
by the Harvard experiment aboard nasa's Skylab satellite should 
provide the basis for several years of analysis and interpretation 
leading to a new understanding of the energy-generation processes 
in the outer layers of the sun. The broad range of SAO-developed 
computer programs and theoretical techniques is being applied to 
the interpretation of ultraviolet solar and stellar observations, both 
from Skylab and other satellites such as Copernicus. In addition, 
the successful flight of a balloon-mounted 40-inch infrared telescope 
in early 1974 demonstrated the feasibility of further large-aperture 
flights for broadband photometry and mapping, multiband and 
galactic sources. This project was a joint venture of sao, hco, and 
the University of Arizona. 


If the Center is distinguished by its broad spectrum of astrophysical 
problems under investigation, then it is the theoretical effort that 
serves as the catalyst encouraging active and fruitful interrelation- 
ships among different approaches to similar problems. Thus, the 
objectives of this division are to establish and maintain expertise 
in those areas of physics underlying the applications to astrophysics, 
to create active research areas along a broad front, and to alert the 
Center staff of new directions in astrophysics. Most important, 
perhaps, this division plays a major role in the Center's commitment 
to astronomy education: identifying, encouraging, and training new 

128 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

iastronomers, as well as bringing talented students and younger pro- 
fessionals into its research program. Much of this division's effort 
is also supported by nsf. 

The pooling of Smithsonian and Harvard scientific resources in 
a Center for Astrophysics seems an appropriately modern and 
rational adaptation to the times. Oddly enough, it is more the natural 
evolution of the long relationship between the two organizations. 
Since 1955, when the headquarters of sao moved to the grounds of 
the Harvard College Observatory in Cambridge, the two observa- 
tories have pursued astronomical research in close collaboration, 
with many members of the Smithsonian staff holding joint appoint- 
ments at Harvard and using University-owned facilities. 

The ties between Harvard and Smithsonian, however, reach back 
into the nineteenth century, when Harvard alumnus and United 
States President John Quincy Adams urged both his alma mater 
and his Congress to establish jointly an astronomical observatory 
to serve the nation, preferably under the aegis of the Smithsonian 

Echoing this call for joint academic-government action, Joseph 
Henry, first Secretary of the Institution, later urged that any observ- 
atory established by the Smithsonian should be "closely connected 
with some well-endowed and well-established college or university." 

Nearly a century and a half have passed, but the dreams of both 
Joseph Henry and John Quincy Adams are finally realized in the 
Center for Astrophysics. This cooperative venture has great impli- 
cations for the future, not only because it may serve as a guide for 
other similar pairings of private and public institutions, but also 
because the basic goals it pursues must surely affect all aspects of 
human life — from genetics to energy production. 

Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, Inc. 

This year has been an important one for the Smithsonian Science 
Information Exchange (ssie) as it actively began its efforts to move 
from a national center for information about ongoing research to one 
more international in terms of coverage and use of its services. The 
Exchange, which has provided services to foreign users over the 

Science 1 129 

years, has now begun to seek and include input on research in 
progress overseas in a more concerted way, while at the same time ! 
it has also increased its coverage at the national level. 

Many of the problems now confronting our own government are I 
of equal concern to other countries, and these new national priorities 
require a knowledge of ongoing research in other countries as well. 
Such information will ultimately be available through the Exchange > 
as present plans to increase its coverage develop over the next few I 
years. Efforts to increase coverage in such major areas as agricultural 
research, cancer, energy and environmental research are already 
underway, supported by both federal and nonfederal organizations 
as well as through the help of both national and international 

The Exchange is presently exploring all feasible ways for collect- 
ing or developing access to a comprehensive record of worldwide 
scientific and technical research and development work in progress 
and to exercise vigorous United States leadership in creating a sys- 
tem for storing and exchanging such information with initial efforts 
directed toward those programs of primary national interest. These 
are at least seven data bases of ongoing research currently in exist- 
ence in other countries and many others are being developed. Input 
or exchange from these as well as selected input in specialized areas 
of interest from other countries will enhance the value of the 
Exchange's data base to both scientists and research managers in 
the United States. Many of the systems currently in existence are 
based on systems that were developed along the lines of the 
Exchange's system following visits to the ssie. Compatibility between 
systems will be encouraged wherever possible to facilitate exchange 
of information. 

As a consequence of its efforts in the fiscal year 1974, the Ex- 
change has increased foreign input and established methods for 
increased use of the Exchange by foreign scientists. To illustrate 
the latter, an agreement has been reached with the Institute for 
Documentation in the Federal Republic of Germany which will 
provide support for the use of ssie services by a large number of 
German scientists over an initial one-year period. The project will 
provide an opportunity for. a large number of German research 
investigators to observe firsthand the value of learning before publi- 
cation what their colleagues in the United States are doing in areas 

130 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

of research closely paralleling their own efforts. It may also expedite 
development of similar systems such as ssie in Germany as well as 
lead to more cooperative efforts on problems of similar interest and 
an exchange of ongoing research information. 

The Exchange has continued to explore and implement techniques 
for increased utilization of its information by coupling it with biblio- 
graphic information including both scientific journal literature and 
technical reports. These efforts include the use of publications con- 
taining the combined information as well as coupling of information 
obtained directly from the ssie data base with that from other 
information systems, thus providing users of such material with the 
latest in both published and ongoing research information. Discus- 
sions have taken place with several Federal data-base systems to 
expand this approach and offer remote on-line searches of selected 
portions of the Exchange's data base. 

Considerable progress has been made in the development and 
testing of a new machine-aided indexing system. This system, which 
was designed to help the Exchange's staff of professional scientists 
and engineers cope with the increasing volume of information com- 
ing into the Exchange, will also be of interest and value to other 
information systems of a similar nature. The system is not intended 
to replace the scientific expertise necessary for maintaining a high 
quality of indexing but rather complements it by picking up routine 
terms that are readily identifiable, freeing the scientists to concen- 
trate on the more important aspect of conceptual indexing. Publica- 
tion of the technique will be made following more extensive testing 
of the system in the coming year. This project is another example 
of the Exchange's continuing effort in research and development 
designed not only to improve the ssie's system but make such 
developments available by publication for use throughout the infor- 
mation community. 

The Exchange as a result of offering new services and expanding 
previously available ones has shown an increase in use in fiscal 1974 
primarily as a result of making more scientists aware of the Ex- 
change's services. The response by many users to the Exchange's 
Newsletter has been excellent in terms of increased subscriptions 
and products ordered through this organ. The Exchange's continu- 
ing user-evaluation program indicates that it is providing a highly 
useful and important service. The Exchange has also developed 

Science 1 131 

closer liaison with Federal agencies to increase their utilization of 
ssiE services in the management of their own research programs 
particularly in areas of high national interest. 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

This year marked a change in the administration of the Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute. Dr. Martin H. Moynihan, in order to 
devote his full time to research, resigned to become a senior scientist 
at the Institute after directing this bureau for 16 years. During this 
period he guided stri's growth from a biological preserve and small 
field camp on Barro Colorado Island to a research institute with a 
worldwide reputation. During Dr. Moynihan's tenure the permanent 
professional staff increased from 1 to 15, and the geographic scope 
of their investigations extended from Barro Colorado Island and 
the surrounding forests to adjacent areas of Central and South 
America, and then to intertropical comparisons in Gabon, Ceylon, 
India, Madagascar, Malaya, and New Guinea. Moynihan supported 
a program of student fellowship at both the pre- and post-doctoral 
level and encouraged a steadily increasing number of scientific 
visitors from around the world. 

The research of the institute's staff closely reflects the depth and 
diversity of Dr. Moynihan's own scientific interests, which in the 
last 15 years have ranged from the behavior, evolution, and ecology 
of such diverse groups as birds, primates, and cephalopods. Research 
on the latter group was facilitated by the development of a marine 
research program and stri marine laboratories on both the Atlantic 
and Pacific coasts of Panama. 

Ira Rubinoff was appointed the new Director, and A. Stanley 
Rand has assumed the responsibilities of Assistant Director of stri. 

The development of stri research program was paralleled by an 
increase in facilities and support staff. These include, new animal- 
keeping facilities, air-conditioned laboratories, sea-water systems, 
research vessels, and an excellent tropical biology library, which 
now includes over 14,000 volumes and served approximately 4000 
patrons in fiscal 1974. 

Research at stri continue? to be primarily concerned with basic 

132 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

scientific questions of the evolutionary and ecological adaptations 
of tropical organisms. 

Two new scientists joined our staff in the fiscal year 1974. Olga F. 
Linares is an anthropologist studying human paleoecological proc- 
esses and contemporary subsistence adaptations to the American 
and African tropics. Alan P. Smith, a plant ecologist, has accepted a 
joint appointment with stri and the University of Pennsylvania. He 
will examine the physiological adaptations to seasonality of plants 
on Barro Colorado Island. 

Scientists at stri continued their studies concerning a variety of 

R. L. Dressier spent several weeks in field work in Mexico study- 
ing orchids and their pollinators. He published two books: Orqui- 
deas de las Americas (with Mariano Ospina H.), the first general 
reference book on American orchids in Spanish, and The Genus 
Encyclia in Mexico (with Glenn E. Pollard), the first detailed treat- 
ment of that group. A Spanish edition of the latter volume will be 
published shortly. 

Pollination of Polycynis barbata by Eulaema speciosa. When the male bee 
lands on the lip to gather the perfume, its weight pulls the flower down and 
the curved column touches the dorsal surface of the bee, depositing pollen. 
Pollination results if the bee already carried pollen from another flower. 

Science 1 133 

The history of coral reefs off both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts 
of Panama are being investigated by Peter Glynn and his associates. 
They are taking core samples through the reefs in order to determine 
the age of the reefs and their species composition at different levels. 
Reefs in Panama have been found to be about 6000 years old. Over 
the past 1000 years significant changes in coral populations have 
occurred on a Caribbean fringe reef, but the causes of these changes 
are not presently known. 

J. Graham studied the diving capability of the sea snake Pelamis 
platurus, which is common along the Pacific Coast of Panama, and 
found that while the snake has some of the typical adaptations found 
among vertebrate divers, it can also respire aquatically. J, H. Gee 
of the University of Manitoba spent a sabbatical year at stri and 
collaborated with Graham and F. S. Robison in a study of buoyancy 
adjustment during diving of sea snakes. 

E. Leigh took a field trip to the Amazon region of Peru to con- 
tinue his comparative studies of the structure of tropical forests. 

M. Moynihan and A. Rodaniche have continued their studies on 
the social behavior of the Caribbean squid Sepioteuthis sepioidea 
and have begun observations on a number of Pacific Ocean cephalo- 
pods. M. Moynihan has completed his book The New World Pri- 
mates, which should be published shortly. 

A. S. Rand continues his analysis of the displays of species of 
Anolis. He began to develop the first animated lizard display film, 
which will provide a tool for dissecting displays into their compo- 
nents and analyzing the functional aspects of these components. 

Michael and Barbara Robinson continued studies of the ecology 
and behavior of tropical spiders. They investigated the ontogeny of 
predatory behavior in orb-web spiders, demonstrated by deprivation 
experiments that the spiders' ability to discriminate between certain 
types of prey is not dependent on previous experience and is, there- 
fore, not learned. In New Guinea, the Robinsons resumed studies of 
the defensive behavior of the rich orthopteroid fauna of the island. 
The latter studies suggest that the evolution of defensive behavior in 
these insects has been strongly influenced by the presence of a 
unique assemblage of predatory nocturnal marsupials. 

R. Rubinoff continues her studies of the behavior of the sea 
urchin Diadema antillarum and has succeeded in demonstrating a 
social component to their "clumping" behavior. 

134 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Excavating a small village site dating from A.D. 300 in Cerro Punta, 
Volcan Bani area, western Panama. 

Scarus ghobban and Acanthurus friosfegMS, Pacific Panama. 





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Virtually all of the Swainson's Hawks in the United States pass 
through Panama during migration, as do large numbers of other 
North American hawks and vultures. By photographing the sky 
along the migration routes, Neal Smith has begun to evaluate the 
abundance and population characteristics of these hawks. These data 
should provide a useful index of the environmental quality of the 
North American nesting areas of these birds. 

N. Smythe, in addition to his work with the Environmental Sci- 
ences Program, continues his studies of mammalian behavioral 

H. Wolda continued his studies of fluctuation in abundance of 
insect species. The moth Zunacetha annulata, which had a major 
outbreak in 1971, had a somewhat smaller outbreak in 1973. Species 
of the homopteran genus Empoasca had major peaks in abundance 
in March-April in the last three years and were virtually absent in 
the same period in 1974. The cicada Fidicina mannifera was much 
less abundant in 1973 than in 1972, as evidenced by monitoring the 
sound, number of pupal cases, and by light-trap data. Among the 
important factors influencing these fluctuations are the strategies of 
the species in dealing with unpredictable patterns of rainfall and 
dry season. 

C. Birkeland is comparing the community structure and dynamics 
of benthic marine populations on the coasts of Panama. 

D. Meyer continues his studies of crinoid populations in collabo- 
ration with B. Macurda of the University of Michigan. 

P. Campanella has examined territorial behavior of four species 
of dragonflies. Males of some species show a high degree of mating 
site specificity, which appears to be related to population density and 
availability of suitable ovipositing sites. Territory sizes are reduced 
and spatial overlap is avoided by using the ponds at different times 
of the day. 

M. May has continued studies on the effects of heat exchange, 
heat production, and thermal tolerance in dragonflies of such factors 
as body size, temporal and spatial distribution patterns, and various 
energy-using activities. 

R. Warner began an investigation of the adaptive significance of 
intersexuality commonly found in coral-reef fishes. He is correlating 
population structure and behavior with the dynamics of sex change 
in these fishes. 

136 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


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Juvenile ocelot on Barro Colorado Island. 

Red spider monkey on Barro Colorado Island. 

Censuses of Polistine wasps were carried out for a second year in 
Costa Rica by D. Windsor. He has shown that in response to the 
poorer foraging conditions and higher predator pressures of the dry 
season there is an increase in the number of females per nesting 
attempt. These and other observations indicate that sociahty has 
evolved to aid reproduction during periods of poorer environmental 

The carnivores of the New World tropics are poorly known, par- 
ticularly when compared with those of Africa and Asia, where recent 
studies on mongoose, lion, hyena, and tiger have been published. 
R. F. Ewer has been at stri for the past year as a visiting senior 
scholar. She has been studying the ethology of two neotropical cats 
(ocelots and jaguarundis) and two mustelids (tayras and grisons). 
Particular attention has been devoted to studying social and prey- 
capturing behavior. 

D. Robertson, supported by a Commonwealth Science and Indus- 
trial Research Organization (csiro) fellowship, is studying the 
patterns of spawning activities in Thallasoma bifasciatum and its 
relationships to hermaphroditism in this species. 

Y. Lubin completed her study of the nonadhesive orb-webs of 
Cyrtophora moluccensis and is now collaborating with G. Mont- 
gomery on a radio-tracking study of tamandua. 

In fiscal 1974 the Smithsonian Institution's Environmental Sci- 
ences Program continued ecological monitoring at the three stri 
sites in Panama. This interbureau effort in the tropics currently in- 
volves the cooperation of about 10 principal investigators from 
four bureaus. Spectral quality of solar radiation is being measured 
at Flamenco Island. On Barro Colorado Island the emphasis is on 
the tropical forests. We are beginning to understand the way in 
which year-to-year fluctuations in climate, particularly in the 
amount and distribution of rainfall, affect the plants and their re- 
sponses, in turn, affect the animals. At Galeta, studies are proceed- 
ing on the reef flat. Interest focuses on the causes of unpredictable 
periods of reef exposure and the impact these have on the intertidal 
community and its recovery patterns. 

STRI sponsored a workshop on the problems and strategies of 
seedlings in tropical forests. Eight scientists from four countries par- 
ticipated in a three-day meeting on Barro Colorado Island (bci). 

This year grants were obtained from the Henry L. and Grace 

138 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Doherty and the Edward John Noble foundations for the purpose 
of providing short-term fellowships to assist students in tropical re- 
search. A number of students from United States and Panamanian 
universities have already begun research supported by these funds. 

A number of our staff engaged in formal teaching this year. 
O. Linares taught Anthropology at the University of Texas. J. Gra- 
ham taught in the Fundamental Ecology course of the Organization 
for Tropical Studies. P. Campanella gave a course in Ecology at the 
Canal Zone College, and M. Robinson taught Invertebrate Behavior 
at the University of Papua and New Guinea. 

Use of STRi facilities continues to increase, stri was host to 722 
scientific visitors from 111 universities and other organizations. 
These visitors represented 28 states and Puerto Rico as well as 21 
countries from the Old and New Worlds. Twenty of these visitors 
spent a full year at stri. The appointment of M. Quinley in February 
as part-time docent has enabled us to initiate tours of stri by pri- 
mary and secondary school and university groups. 

During 1974 major redevelopment of the bci waterfront area was 
begun. The old boathouse was demolished, dredging has been com- 
pleted, and the driving of new piles is scheduled. A new boathouse 
and bulwark are planned. A small dormitory has been provided for 
the Pacific Coast marine facilities. 

Renovation of the new Tivoli laboratory has been initiated. The 
building has been reroofed, the exterior painted, and work has be- 
gun to install the first seven laboratories. 

Science 1 139 

Mr. Joseph H. Hirshhorn, who gave his great collections of sculpture and paintings to the 
Nation, receives the James Smithson Society Medallion from Secretary Ripley. 

Smithsonian Year '1974 


In singling out a few particularly noteworthy events of the past 
year one runs the risk of paying too little attention to the continu- 
ing, quiet achievements that in the long run are perhaps more im- 
portant. The temptation to stress dramatic change at the expense of 
often undramatic continuity is familiar to every historian, and to 
every writer of annual reports. 

Before succumbing to the temptation, then, we should at least 
begin by saying that the past year was marked by steady growth 
and consolidation within each of the Institution's history and art 
bureaus, and by encouraging signs of continuing cooperation among 
them. Without exception, collections were improved both by acqui- 
sition and by conservation; control over collections was strength- 
ened by better cataloguing and storage techniques; new exhibitions 
were mounted with satisfying regularity; research and publication 
continued in the best Smithsonian tradition; and programs of public 
education made our collections and our research more accessible to 
thousands of children and adults. 

The gradual growth of cooperation among our history and art 
bureaus is another very welcome aspect of continuity rather than of 
dramatic change. The joint appointment of a Curator of American 
Art by the Freer Gallery of Art and the National Collection of Fine 
Arts will strengthen both museums and will bring the Freer's im- 
portant collection of American paintings into the mainstream of 
scholarly activity. The Renwick Gallery of the National Collection 
of Fine Arts, our museum-without-a-collection, continued to make 
imaginative use of objects from the collections of the Museum of 
Natural History and the Museum of History and Technology in illu- 
minating exhibitions on the subject of design. The establishment in 
the Museum of History and Technology of the Dwight D. Eisen- 


hower Institute for Historical Research, and the appointment of Dr. 
Forrest Pogue, the distinguished biographer of General George C. 
Marshall, as its first director is the result of happy and fruitful col- 
laboration between that museum and our National Armed Forces 
Museum Advisory Board. With the cooperation of the National Por- 
trait Gallery, the Archives of American Art will soon be able to open 
an exhibition gallery in the Old Patent Office building, allowing the 
public to see for the first time some of the treasures in its vast docu- 
mentary collections. These developments, none of which is likely to 
earn headlines, are evidence that the varied entities that compose the 
Smithsonian Institution have the will and the means to work to- 
gether toward a common purpose. 

We must now duly note, on the other hand, that the past year did 
not lack its share — indeed, perhaps more than its share — of dra- 
matic events. 

After what seemed to be years of delay and frustration, the Gen- 
eral Services Administration declared that the Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden was "substantially complete." The difference 
between this somewhat mysterious technical determination and the 
existence of a museum ready for the public is considerable; the first 
three months of the next year will be a time of unceasing activity for 
the museum's staff and the Institution's support facilities. 

The closing months of the past year also saw the accomplishment 
of a major part of what must surely be the largest shipment of art in 
the history of this country. With remarkable smoothness, at least 
from the point of view of one observing with admiration from some 
distance, the great Hirshhorn collections of sculpture and painting 
were moved from various sites in New York City and Connecticut 
to their home in and about the museum and sculpture garden on the 

This was also the year in which the Museum of History and Tech- 
nology gained a new director, and the Institution shared in the re- 
flected glory of its first PuHtzer Prize. The prize winner was Daniel 
Boorstin, for The Democratic Experience, the concluding volume of 
his trilogy The Americans. Upon becoming a Senior Historian, Dr. 
Boorstin was succeeded in the directorship of the Museum of History 
and Technology by Dr. Brooke Hindle, a distinguished historian of 
early American science and technology. An outstanding scholar who 
has long been associated with museums, and whose university ex- 
perience includes service as a departmental chairman and a dean. Dr. 

142 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Brooke Hindle (center)^ new Director of the National Museum of History and 
Technology, listens as Assistant Secretary for History and Art Charles Blitzer 
(left) compliments Senior Historian Daniel Boorstin, winner of the Pulitzer Prize 
for his book The Democratic Experience, concluding volume of his trilogy The 


Hindle brings to his new position the experience, the talents, and the 
enthusiasm required for the directorship of the world's most visited 

The geographical scope of the Smithsonian was expanded during 
the past year by the opening of the West Coast regional center of 
the Archives of American Art. These centers, which now exist in 
Detroit, New York, Boston, and San Francisco serve both as regional 
research centers in which scholars may have access on microfilm to 
the entire holdings of the Archives, and as the foci of the Archives 
national collecting program. Often housed in contributed space — 
we are indebted to the DeYoung Museum for the new center — and 
staffed by only two or three people, these centers have an extraordi- 
narily positive effect on the study of the history of American art 
in their regions. 

After many years of activity behind the scenes, carried forward 
with the generous support of the Congress, the Smithsonian's pro- 
gram of activities for the Bicentennial of the American Revolution 
produced its first public manifestation in 1974 : the exhibition at the 
National Portrait Gallery entitled "In the Minds and Hearts of the 
People — Prologue to the American Revolution: 1760-1774." En- 
thusiastically reviewed by the press, and editorially commended by 
The Washington Post, this exhibit is the first in a series of exhibits, 
publications, and festivals with which the Institution will mark our 
Nation's two-hundredth birthday. It is also pleasant to be able to 
report here that the National Collection of Fine Arts, which had suf- 
fered patiently the inconveniences of subway construction outside 
its walls for several years, now enjoys once again the use of all its 
galleries and of its front door. With the reinstallation of the Lincoln 
Gallery, and the completion of galleries for miniatures and non- 
American works, the ncfa is now able to show its collections and to 
mount temporary exhibitions more appropriately and handsomely 
than ever before. 

In short, then, the past year has been one of steady growth punc- 
tuated by occasional, dramatic leaps forward. Between milestones — 
such as the fiftieth anniversary of the Freer Gallery last year, the 
opening of the Hirshhorn Museum next year, and the expected open- 
ing of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum the year after — the real progress 
takes place. 

Finally, we must sorrowfully record the death during the past year 

144 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

of Mrs. Marjorie Merriweather Post, one of the Institution's greatest 
benefactors, and of Miss Elisabeth Houghton, a beloved and valued 
member of the Board of Trustees of the Hirshhorn Museum. Each 
will be remembered by the Smithsonian and by the public for her 
contributions to our collections and museums. 

Archives of American Art 

With five regional offices in full operation for the first time, the 
Archives experienced an unusually active year in both acquisitions 
and use of its resources. Among the larger and more significant col- 
lections of papers received were those of the New York sculptor 
Paul Burlin, the painters Frank Duveneck, Barry Faulkner, and 
Henry Varnam Poor, the painter and designer Gyorgy Kepes, and 
the Detroit collector Hawkins Ferry. Records of three major art 
galleries — Doll and Richards in Boston and the Rose Fried and 
Maynard Walker Galleries in New York — were also accessioned. 
The work of Walter Heil, Douglas MacAgy, and Alan Solomon, all 
nationally prominent administrators and exhibition organizers, is 
reflected in large groups of personal and professional papers. Insti- 
tutional records made available for microfilming by the Archives 
included those of the Cranbrook Academy and the Allen Memorial 
Museum in Oberlin, Ohio. 

Three particularly interesting smaller groups of papers are a long 
series of letters from Alfred Stieglitz to Arthur Dove, written in the 
1920s and 1930s; 15 Maurice Prendergast letters to a friend and 
collector, Mrs. Oliver Williams, and a diary kept by the New York 
dealer WilUam Macbeth in the 1870s and 1880s. 

Thirteen hundred calls for documentation offered by the Archives 
were made by visiting researchers at all regional offices, an increase 
of one hundred over fiscal 1973 in spite of several weeks of interrup- 
tion in service in the New York office. Over a thousand letters of 
inquiry were answered and 520 rolls of microfilm were lent out 
through interlibrary loan. The latter figure represents a 25-percent 
increase over the previous year. 

The Archives' New York office underwent a major renovation in 
the fall and held an opening reception, with a display of documents, 
in its new quarters on the ground floor at 41 East 65th Street, in late 
November 1973. Another display of documents was arranged in 

History and Art 1 145 

March 1974 in connection with a reception held to explain the 
Archives to New York art dealers. An exhibition of letters from 
Fitzwilliam Sargent containing passages on the growth and educa- 
tion of his son John Singer Sargent was displayed at the Washington 

The Archives Oral History Program continued its activities dur- 
ing the year. Twenty-one interviews with artists were taped and 
33 tapes were transcribed. A grant from the Andrew W. Mellon 
Foundation, received in December, will enable the Archives to work 
off a backlog of 165 untranscribed tapes. As an aid to researchers, 
the Archives published a descriptive guide to 306 transcripts of 
interviews conducted between 1958 and 1971, 

The Archives was the subject of three articles, one written by 
Russell Lynes and published in American Heritage; one by David 
Sokol published in Art in America, November-December 1973; and 
a third by Garnett McCoy published in Manuscripts, Summer 1974. 
In addition, 32 books, articles, and exhibition catalogues published 
during the year acknowledged assistance from Archives resources. 
Among these were James R. Mellow, Charmed Circle; June L. Ness, 
Lyonel Feininger; Richard G. Coker, Portrait of an American Painter: 
Edward Gay; Marguerite Zorach, The Early Years, 1908-1920 (Na- 
tional Collection of Fine Arts); Robert Loftin Newman (National 
Collection of Fine Arts); Vorticism and Its Allies (Arts Council of 
Great Britain); and Jacob Lawrence (Whitney Museum of Ameri- 
can Art). 

Members of the Archives of American Art Board of Trustees are: 

Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth, Chairman Robert L. McNeil, Jr. 

Irving F. Burton, President Abraham Melamed 

Mrs. Alfred Negley, Vice President Mrs. Dana M. Raymond 
Mrs. E. Bliss Parkinson, Vice President Mrs. William L. Richards 

Henry DeF. Baldwin, Secretary Chapin Riley 

Joel Ehrenkranz, Treasurer Stephen Shalom 

Edmond duPont Edward M. M. Warburg 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn George H. Waterman III 

James Humphry III S. Dillon Ripley, ex officio 

Miss Milka Iconomoff Charles Blitzer, ex officio 

Gilbert H. Kinney founding trustees 

Howard W. Lipman Lawrence A. Fleischman 

Harold O. Love -' Mrs. Edsel B. Ford 

Russell Lynes E. P. Richardson 

146 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Members of the Archives of American Art Advisory Committee are: 

James Humphry III, Chairman Abram Lerner 

Milton W. Brown A. Hyatt Mayor 

Anne d'Harnoncourt Barbara Novak 

Lloyd Goodrich Jules Prown 

Eugene C. Goossen J. T. Rankin 

James J. Heslin Daniel J. Reed 

John Howat Charles van Ravenswaay 

Bernard Karpel Marvin S. Sadik 

Edgar Kaufmann, Jr. Joshua C. Taylor 

John A. Kouwenhoven William B. Walker 

Karl Kup Richard P. Wunder 
Eric Larrabee 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 

of Decorative Arts and Design 

, Renovation activity has begun at the Carnegie Mansion and the first 
phase should be completed by July of 1975. The collections and exhi- 
bitions will be installed and the Museum will reopen to the public in 
the winter of 1975-1976. 

During the past year the Museum organized a major exhibition of 
over 300 drawings, textiles, and wallpapers entitled "The Art of 
Decoration: Drawings and Objects from the Cooper-Hewitt Mu- 
seum" at the Brooklyn Museum. A lecture series was given by the 
staff in conjunction with this exhibition, A second exhibition, of 
Winslow Homer drawings, was shown at the Columbia Museum of 
Art and the Telfair Academy in Savannah. In addition, objects from 
the collection were included in exhibitions at 23 institutions includ- 
ing the Metropolitan Museum of Art, National Gallery of Art, Balti- 
more Museum, Art Institute of Chicago, Pennsylvania Academy, 
Princeton University, Harvard University, Amherst College, Rice 
University, Finch College, and Pratt Institute. Exhibitions of nine- 
teenth-century American drawings and new acquisitions in textiles 
were shown briefly in the Carnegie Mansion. 

The collections were enriched by 671 items. The most outstanding 
gifts were the "Martin Scrapbook" containing samples of eighteenth- 
century French block-printed fabrics and Indian chintzes, a gouache 

History and Art 1 147 

drawing by Gino Severini, 8 nineteenth-century colored engravings 
of political cartoons, a nineteenth-century American cast-iron man- 
tel, 2 cast-iron baluster panels designed by George G. Elmslie, a 
fashion drawing by Erte, 2 wallpapered folding screens, a collection 
of turn-of-the-century embroideries and embroidered samplers from 
the Eva Johnston Coe Collection. A total of 1562 objects were cata- 
logued and 280 costumes were sent to the Smithsonian in Washing- 
ton on long-term loan. 

The William H. Goodyear collection of architectural photographs 
was transferred to the Cooper-Hewitt Library from the National 
Museum of History and Technology. John Maximus gave another 
portion (1919 items) of his classified pictorial reference library. The 
Color and Light Archive was enlarged with a gift of 1293 items on 
color by Mrs. L H. Godlove. 

A beginning was made toward the formulation of an Environmen- 
tal Design collection dealing with the processes of design — how 
design has been influenced by natural, technological, and cultural 
forces, how it affects the human being physically and psychologi- 
cally, and how it shapes landscapes and lifestyles. A meeting of 40 
leading architects, designers, planners, and educators was held to 
advise on the development of this collection. 

The Museum is presently conducting a study to determine the 
kinds of information designers need, the format of such an informa- 
tion system, and its use by professionals and the public. In order to 
facilitate research and to save wear and tear on fragile objects, a 
color slide catalogue of the collections was begun. This project has 
been generously supported by the National Endowment for the Arts, 
New York State Council, and the Mary Duke Biddle Trust. Slides 
of over 6500 items have been made to date, as well as a slide kit 
of embroideries. An anonymous gift was received to make a proto- 
type film on traditional crafts in danger of disappearing. 

A series of lectures entitled, "The Fin de Siecle Medici: Carnegie 
and the Designer" was held in the Carnegie Mansion. Billy Baldwin, 
the famous New York interior designer, gave 4 lectures on "Decorat- 
ing Today." Five lectures and a colloquium were given for the mem- 
bership and 19 additional lectures were given by curators at other 
museums. The children's workshops continued, and a tour was orga- 
nized to see the furnishings and windows for Louis Comfort Tif- 
fany's famous chapel in the workshop where they are being restored. 

148 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

New York Waterfront, 1926-1940, a hanging by Lydia Bush-Brown (Mrs. 
Francis Head), who recently presented it to the Cooper-Hewitt Museum of 
Decorative Arts and Design. 

An American cast-iron, mid-nineteenth century mantel with Eglomise panels, one of 
a pair. Its height including shelf is SeVi inches; its height to the top of the arch is 
36 inches; width of the arch is 35 inches, and length of the shelf is 71 inches. This 
mantel was given to the Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design by 
Mrs. Whitney Atwood. 

Three members of the curatorial staff, Elaine Evans Dee, Milton 
Sonday, and Catherine Lynn Frangiamore, received foundation 
grants for research outside of the Museum. Mrs. Frangiamore's book 
on wallpapers used in America will be published by Praeger next 
spring. The staff was enlarged by two: Dorothy Twining Globus, 
who joined the Museum's permanent exhibition staff, and Arete 
Swartz, from the Victoria and Albert Museum, who worked in the 
education department on a one-year grant. Twenty scholars studied 
the collections, and 7 student interns received training. Special lec- 
tures were given for visiting classes from New York University, City 
University of New York, the Art Students League, Pratt Institute, 
and Yale University. 

The Museum held an extremely successful benefit auction under 
the chairmanship of Mrs. H. J. Heinz II. All of the items were do- 
nated expressly for the sale by collectors, dealers, and other friends 
of the Museum. A total of $125,000 was raised for the building fund. 
Grants were received from the Charles Hayden Foundation, Janet 
Neff Charitable Trust, Maya Corporation, Elsie de Wolfe Founda- 
tion, and New York Community Trust, and an additional $72,000 
was raised, largely from corporations and individual designers for a 
Study Center in memory of Doris and Henry Dreyfuss. 

Freer Gallery of Art 

During fiscal year 1974 the Freer Gallery of Art celebrated its fiftieth 
anniversary. To mark that occasion, the Gallery presented three 
special exhibitions: "Japanese Ukiyoe Painting," "Chinese Figure 
Painting," and "Ceramics from the World of Islam." The Gallery 
published illustrated catalogues for each exhibition and organized 
international symposia devoted to analysis of the three different 
themes. Approximately 200 scholars and students participated in 
each of the three programs. These anniversary activities and publi- 
cations, which focused on the arts of the Far and Near East, sum- 
marized a half century of acquisitions and research. 

On May 2, 1973, the Freer Medal was presented to the Japanese 
specialist. Professor Tanaka Ichimatsu; on September 17, 1973, the 
recipient was the noted museologist and historian of Chinese art. 

150 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Prime Minister Tanaka of Japan (second from right) watches intently as Harold P. 
Stern, Director of the Freer Gallery of Art, unrolls a treasured painted scroll. Prime 
Minister Tanaka visited the Freer Gallery of Art July 30, 1973. 

w ^ 


Empress Farah of Iran is shown a part of the Freer Gallery of Art's Persian 
collection by Dr. Harold P. Stern, Director, and Dr. Esin Atil (right). Curator of 
Near Eastern Art. Looking on is Karim Pasha Bahadori of the Empress' staff. 

Japanese pottery urn. Jomon period, prehistoric; its height is 19% inches and its 
rim diameter is 12 Va inches. Freer Gallery of Art, 74.5. 

Mr. Laurence Sickman; and on January 16, 1974, the award was 
given to the renowned Near Eastern scholar. Professor Roman 
Ghirshman. The three men were honored as recipients of the Freer 
Medal for their "distinguished contribution to the knowledge and 
understanding of Oriental civilizations as reflected in their arts." 

Construction of a specially designed X-ray room and installation 
of initial X-ray equipment will enable the Freer Conservation Labora- 
tory to keep pace with its steadily increasing activities. This essential 
equipment will considerably facilitate the examination of objects in 
the Collection and those being considered for study or purchase. In 
addition, two X-ray diffraction cameras and tracks will be used to 
identify pigments and corrosion products. 

In the course of fiscal 1974, the Collection has expanded by the 
accession of 36 objects. Of those, several fine items were acquired 
by gift from the estates of Mrs. Agnes E. Meyer and Mr. Myron 
Bement Smith. Other objects of importance were presented by Mrs. 
Anna Chennault and Mr. Yoichi Nakajima. 

Harold P. Stern, Director, participated in the seventh meeting of 
the United States-Japan Conference on Cultural and Educational 
Interchange in Tokyo on June 17-20. Thomas Lawton, Assistant 
Director, and W. Thomas Chase III, Head Conservator, were among 
the 12 members of the American Art and Archaeology Delegation 
who visited the People's Republic of China from November 10 
through December 9, 1973. 

Special exhibitions at the Freer Gallery were "Turkish Art of the 
Ottoman Period" (August 1, 1973, through December 19, 1973), 
"Chinese Figure Painting" (September 11, 1973, through November 
30, 1973), and "Ceramics from the World of Islam" (January 17, 
1974, through June 30, 1974). 

Rutherford J. Gettens joined the staff of the Freer Gallery of Art 
on October 1, 1951.During the more than 20 years of his association 
with the Gallery, he was instrumental in establishing the Technical 
Laboratory and in maintaining its high level of research. His publi- 
cations on problems relating to pigment analysis and on the fabrica- 
tion of Chinese bronze vessels achieved an international reputation 
for him and the Laboratory. After his retirement in 1968, Mr. Get- 
tens remained active in the position of Research Consultant. His 
unexpected death on June 17, 1974, at the age of 74, is an irreplace- 
able loss. 

History and Art I 153 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

The public opening of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 
is scheduled for October 1, 1974. 

Final plans were developed for the inaugural exhibition, utilizing 
scale models, photographic aids, and full-scale mock-ups in styro- 
foam of monumental pieces of sculpture, to help determine place- 
ment of works in the outdoor sculpture garden and plaza. 

Production was completed on postcards, reproductions, and color 
slides illustrating outstanding works from the Collection which will 
be available to the public in the Museum shop. 

It was a year marked by the transfer of the Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden (hmsg) offices and personnel from New York 
to temporary quarters in the Arts and Industries Building in July 
1973; and then to the new building on December 27, 1973. Beneficial 
occupancy of the new Museum was accepted by the Smithsonian on 
March 29, 1974. 

On April 17, 1974, title to the extensive collections included in 
the Agreement of May 17, 1966, passed from Mr. Joseph H. Hirsh- 
horn to the Smithsonian Institution. This action was immediately 
followed by implementation of previously established plans for 
moving the Collection. 

The substantial task of moving the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculp- 
ture Garden collections to Washington, D.C., from various points 
including New York City, Greenwich, Connecticut, and Toronto, 
Canada, was commenced on April 14, 1974. The move was accom- 
plished on schedule, with pieces in the opening exhibition being in 
the vanguard in order to permit the Exhibits and Design staff to 
begin the installation. A 

In 1974 the inaugural book/catalogue went to press. This 750- 
page volume includes 1001 paintings and sculptures which are docu- 
mented and reproduced — 296 in color. The foreword is by S. Dillon 
Ripley, Secretary of the Smithsonian, with an introduction by 
Abram Lerner, Director of the Hirshhorn Museum, and essays by 
six outstanding art scholars. These complement the selected com- 
mentaries and historical data, and make up a scholarly and stimulat- 
ing volume. A souvenir booklet. An Introduction to the Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden, is also in production. 

Looking beyond the Museum's opening, research was begun on 

154 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

|li4«l'' I11IIIV III* »HI 

i « ■ Tl T 1 1 

The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

Head (Elegy), 1952, by Dame Barbara Hepworth. Mahogany and string, 
16% X 11 X 7V2 inches. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 5215. 


Waterfall, circa 1943, by Arshile Gorsky. Oil on canvas, 38 x 25 inches. 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, JH64.200. 


Houses of Parliament, 1881, by Winslow Homer. Watercolor on paper, 
IzVz X 19y2 inches. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, JH58.6. 

Circe-Rapport de Contreras, circa 1965, by Joseph Cornell. Collage, 8V2 x IIV2 inches. 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, JH67.78. (Photograph by Geoffrey Clements) 

The Hostess, circa 1918, by Elie Nadelman. Painted cherry wood, 32V2 x 9*A x I3V2 inches. 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, S286. (Photograph by Robert E. Mates) 

the program of future exhibitions. A series of research exhibitions 
were planned, as well as a program for research fellows. In fiscal year 
1974, too, documentation and cataloguing of the permanent collec- 
tion progressed. 

During this period the staff paused to mourn the passing of two 
dedicated individuals who contributed greatly to the planning and 
development of the Museum's programs: On March 2, 1974, the 
staff was saddened to hear of the death of Miss Elisabeth Houghton, 
a member of the Museum's Board of Trustees and a lifelong cham- 
pion of civic causes. She was one of the original members of the 
Board, having been appointed by President Nixon in 1971. On Sep- 
tember 6, 1973, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden lost 
the invaluable collaboration of Mr. Douglas MacAgy, who super- 
vised the preliminary design of our inaugural exhibition. Mr. Mac- 
Agy 's contribution was outstanding and his previous experience 
with the National Endowment for the Arts was of great help in our 
initial planning. 

The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden has been most suc- 
cessful in recruiting qualified and outstanding personnel in the pro- 
fessional field to fill new positions, and to replace those who have 
left our ranks: The Board of Trustees, at their April 4, 1974, meeting, 
voted to appoint Miss Anne d'Harnoncourt to the Board for a term 
expiring in 1980. At this meeting the Honorable Daniel P. Moynihan 
was reelected Chairman, and Dr. George Heard Hamilton was re- 
elected Vice Chairman. 

The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden staff was aug- 
mented by the following appointments: Stephen E. Weil, Deputy 
Director; Charles W. Millard, Chief Curator; Charles Froom, In- 
stallation Designer; Edward Lawson, Chief, Education Program; 
Mary Ann Tighe, Education Specialist; and Douglas Robinson, 

"Inside the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden," a special 
series of lectures on the Museum and its collections began on January 
21, 1974, with a talk by the Director on "Joseph H. Hirshhorn, Col- 
lector." This series, begun at the request of the Resident Associates 
program, had an enrollment of thirty-eight subscribers. Its nine lec- 
tures included a talk on the installation of the Inaugural Exhibition 
by Charles Froom, Installation Designer, and Cynthia McCabe dis- 
cussing the content of the opening exhibition. Other talks included 

History and Art I 159 


^ -tfe 

Choir Girls by William Edmondson. Limestone, 14 x 17 x 6 inches. 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 568.29. 

"A Tour of the Museum and Sculpture Garden" by Cynthia McCabe 
and Edward Lawson; "Thomas Eakins and the Painting of Late 19th- 
century America" by PhylUs Rosenzweig; "Pioneers of Modern 
American Art" by Inez Carson; "Aspects of 20th-century Sculp- 
ture" by the Director; "The New York School: Pollock, Rothko, and 
de Kooning" by Edward Lawaon; and "Op, Pop, and Other Recent 
Trends" by Mary Ann Tighe. 

160 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

The Museum continued to respond to requests and inquiries from 
scholars and researchers and maintained its policy of lending out- 
standing works of art to national and international exhibitions. More 
than 235 requests for research information were answered by the 
Department of Painting and Sculpture. Fifty paintings and sculp- 
tures were loaned to 25 museums, galleries, and institutions. 

The Alberto Giacometti Retrospective at the Solomon R. Guggen- 
heim Museum, New York, from April 5 to June 23, 1974, included 
the sculpture "Seated Women" from the Hirshhorn Museum Col- 
lections. Other artists whose works have been borrowed for exhibi- 
tions in Spring 1974 are: Karl Knaths (International Exhibitions 
Foundation, Washington, D.C., tour); Zoltan Kemeny (Foundation 
Maeght, Paris); Horace Pippin (Delaware Art Museum, Wilming- 
ton); Jacob Lawrence (Whitney Museum of American Art, New 
York, and tour) ; and Mark Tobey (National Collection of Fine Arts, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 

Among recent volumes which reproduced paintings and sculpture 
from the Collections are: American Masters: The Voice and the 
Myth by Brian O'Doherty (New York, Random House), Elie Nadel- 
man by Lincoln Kirstein (New York, Eakins Press), Grandma Moses 
by Otto Kallir (New York, Harry N. Abrams), and Henry Moore in 
America by Henry J. Seldis (New York, Praeger). 

Formal training sessions for 75 volunteer docents were begun by 
the HMSG Education Department on January 15, 1974, to continue 
thru May 28, to be followed by an intensive training period in the 
Museum galleries. The training course is made up of slide lectures 
and demonstratioins, and will involve extensive work in the galleries 
with the paintings and sculpture. 

The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden's Board of Trust- 
ees is made up of the following members: 

Daniel P. Moynihan, Chairman Theodore E. Cummings 

George Heard Hamilton, Vice Chairman Anne d'Harnoncourt 
H. Harvard Arnason Taft B. Schreiber 

Leigh B. Block Hal B. WaUis 

Chief Justice of the United States Warren E. Burger, ex officio 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution S. Dillon Ripley, ex officio 


Brian O'Doherty William C. Seitz Joshua C. Taylor 

History and Art I 161 

Joseph Henry Papers 

The research and editing for the second volume of The Papers of 
Joseph Henry are now very close to completion. The volume, docu- 
menting Henry's career from the end of 1832 through 1835, will 
introduce Henry to his new environment at Princeton, follow his 
activities as Professor of Natural Philosophy at the College of New 
Jersey, and detail the resumption of his electrical research, mainly 
on self-induction. One of the highlights of the volume will be an 
extensive run of documents from the first of three laboratory note- 
books kept by Henry at Princeton and the Smithsonian, and now 
preserved in the Smithsonian Archives. The notebooks reflect the 
pace and style of Henry's daily research as well as the evolution of 
his scientific ideas over several decades. The documents in the second 
volume also portray the dramatic expansion of Henry's scientific 
role and associations during his early Princeton years, while shed- 
ding new light on scientific centers like Philadelphia. 

While the regular collecting and research activities of the project 
go on, preparations are now being made for seeing the second vol- 
ume through the Smithsonian Press and for the editing of volume 
three of our series, documenting, among other events in Henry's 
life, his 1837 trip to Europe. His diary from that journey, marking 
Henry's formal introduction to the international science scene, pro- 
vides an extraordinary record of transatlantic communication in sci- 
ence. Plans are also underway for the editing of a special volume of 
lectures and essays by Joseph Henry, based upon manuscripts from 
throughout his career. It is hoped that this special volume, treating 
topics such as Henry's philosophy of science, will appeal to a wide 
audience, both scholarly and popular, and will perhaps be found 
suitable for classroom use at the college and graduate levels. 

Significant progress was also made in organizing and cataloguing 
the Joseph Henry Library, Henry's personal reference collection. A 
wide-ranging collection with numerous rare volumes, the Library is 
an invaluable resource for appreciating Henry's scientific develop- 
ment and scientific literature of the day. Plans are now going for- 
ward to publish an annotated catalogue of the collection for the 
general use of historians. 

The project continues to sponsor and participate in various Smith- 

162 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

sonian educational activities. Visiting scholars continued to exploit 
the Henry Papers' collections and resources. Nathan Reingold's 
seminar on the nineteenth century had another successful year. 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 

With the approval of the National Armed Forces Museum Advisory 
Board, the Smithsonian Institution entered into a cooperative agree- 
ment with the Department of the Interior. The agreement provides 
a basis upon which the Smithsonian may fulfill its responsibilities 
under the Act of August 30, 1961 (75 Stat. 414, 20 USC 80-80d). 
Under the agreement the two agencies may work jointly in advanc- 
ing outdoor museum programs, short term and long term, to illumi- 
nate historical American attitudes toward matters of national defense 
and past contributions by the Armed Forces to American society 
and culture. 

Representatives of the National Park Service and the staff of the 
National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board pursued planning 
for a special Bicentennial program to dramatize the spirit of the 
American people in the struggle for independence. The program is 
to be presented to the public at Washington, D. C, during the 
summer of 1976. It will portray the life of the citizen-soldier of the 
American Revolution through the medium of living history. The 
program will take place out of doors. 

The National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board at the close 
of fiscal year 1974 consisted of the following members. 

The Honorable John Nicholas Brown, Chairman 

The Honorable Earl Warren 

Secretary of Army 

Secretary of Navy 

Secretary of Air Force 

Lieutenant General Milton G. Baker, Retired 

Robert C. Baker 

The Honorable Alexander P. Butterfield 

William H. Perkins, Jr. 

Secretary of Defense, ex officio 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 

History and Art 1 163 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

All of the activity of the National Collection of Fine Arts (ncfa) is 
directed toward educational goals — if enjoyment and appreciation 
can be included with the pursuit and refinement of knowledge as 
part of artistic education. Although some 1556 paintings, sculptures, 
and graphic works were added to the Collection this year (the Col- 
lection now numbers about 17,000), and study continues to refine 
the computerized listings and to improve accessibility, collecting is 
only one aspect of a complex program. Since the museum believes 
that the circumstances under which a work of art is encountered 
has much to do with an awareness of its qualities, great effort has 
been made to present each of the over 900 works from the collection 
now on display to its best advantage for the modern viewer. This 
has required, in addition to a continuing conservation and reframing 
program, the careful design of each area to create not a synthetic 
historical past but a convincing artistic present. This year the totally 
reorganized Lincoln Gallery was reopened, the Doris M. Magowan 
Gallery of Portrait Miniatures was completed, and a new gallery 
was established for some of the museum's other-than-American 
works, including a fine Rubens and a recently identified Guercino. 
Including the Renwick Gallery, about 78,000 square feet of gallery 
space is now open to the public. Part of that space is reserved for 
temporary exhibitions which carry out the ncfa's concern for the 
reexamination of little-known aspects of American art as well as 
occasional tribute to acknowledged masters. Of the 21 exhibitions 
planned and produced by the staff this year (in all, 25 were pre- 
sented) some were studies of individual artists ranging from the less 
well known including Margarite Zorach and Herman Webster to the 
distinguished ceramists Gertrude and Otto Natzler and the eminent 
painter Mark Tobey. Especially popular was an exhibition of draw- 
ings on Smithsonian letterhead made by Saul Steinberg while in 
residence at the Smithsonian in 1967. Investigating special themes 
were such exhibitions as "A Measure of Beauty," "Shaker," and 
"Art of the Pacific Northwest from the 1930s to the Present." As 
one in a series calling attention to artistic quality in works from other 
Smithsonian Collections, "Boxes and Bowls" was mounted at the 
Renwick Gallery, affording 'a new look at historical works from 
several Northwest Coast Indian groups. Publications, either major 

164 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

After having been closed for four years because of excavations for the subway, the 
National Collection of Fine Arts' remodeled main entrance at Eighth and G Streets 
is now open. (Photograph by Lowell A. Kenyon) 

Installation of statues of Peter Paul Rubens and Esteban Murillo in second floor 
niches on the outside of the Renwick Gallery completes restoration of that building. 
The sculptures duplicate originals by Moses Ezekiel that occupied the niches in the 
late nineteenth century. Professor Renato Luccheti made these copies by casting the 
originals which are now at the Norfolk Botanical Gardens. 

Card Rack, by John Frederick Peto (1854-1907). Oil on canvas. 
Gift of Nathaly Baum in memory of Harry Baum. 

A drawing made by Saul Steinberg at the Smithsonian in 1967. 


monographs or smaller catalogues, were issued in association with 
almost all exhibitions. 

Exhibitions from abroad shown at the Renwick Gallery included 
paintings from Pakistan and a retrospective of two hundred years 
of Royal Copenhagen porcelain. Ten exhibitions provided by the 
National Collection were in circulation to other countries during the 
year, among them "Made in Chicago" (works by Chicago artists) 
which traveled through South America and "Fabric Vibrations," an 
exhibition originating at the Museum of Contemporary Crafts, 
which circulated in Southeast Asia, carrying the modern craft of tie 
dye to its ancient home. 

The many established activities for making the museum accessible 
to a wide public continued with an expanded Department of Educa- 
tion. Young visitors expressed pleasure with the new children's 
gallery, "Explore." Students continued with the Discover Graphics 
program and a group of high-school-age "junior interns" enlivened 
many activities of the museum. Education of a different kind was 
carried on by six doctoral fellows and two senior fellows engaged 
in research on American art. To such scholars, ncfa's rapidly ex- 
panding Bicentennial Inventory of American Painting before 1914 
will be of great help when ready for use in 1976. The National Col- 
lection of Fine Arts joined with the University of Delaware in the 
spring to organize a symposium on late nineteenth-century Amer- 
ican art. Throughout the museum during the year were university 
students learning the various processes of museum operation as 
interns, helping to keep the entire staff aware that learning and 
teaching go hand in hand. 

Members of the National Collection of Fine Arts Commission are: 

H. Page Cross, Chairman 

George B. Tatum, Vice Chairman 

S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary 

Mrs. Elizabeth Brook Blake 

Thomas S. Buechner 

David E. Finley 

Lloyd Goodrich 

Martin Friedman 

Walker Hancock 

Barlett H. Hayes, Jr. 

August Heckscher 

Thomas C. Howe 

Mrs. Jaquelin H. Hume 

168 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

David Lloyd Kreeger 
Abram Lerner, ex officio 
Henry P. Mcllhenny 
Ogden M. Pleissner 
Harold Rosenberg 
Charles H. Sawyer 
Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth 
Otto Wittman 


Alexander Wetmore 
Paul Mellon 
Stow Wengenroth 
Andrew Wyeth 

Improvisational dance led by a Decent at the National Collection of Fine Arts. 

National Museum of History and Technology 

On January 23, 1974, the National Museun\ of History and Tech- 
nology entered its second decade. Marking its tenth anniversary. 
Chief Justice and Smithsonian Chancellor Warren Burger with 
Secretary Ripley named the Museum's auditorium in memory of 
Leonard Carmichael, the Secretary whose vision and determination 
had brought about the planning, approval, and construction of this 
Museum. At the Museum's dedication 10 years earlier. President 
Lyndon Johnson had expressed his belief that "this Museum will do 
that which causes us all to celebrate; it will excite a thirst for knowl- 
edge among all people." Since its founding, the National Museum 
of History and Technology has welcomed nearly 55 million visitors. 
Yearly attendance has grown steadily, now reaching 7 million per 
year. Last April, visitor attendance topped the million mark, making 
the highest monthly attendance ever registered in a Smithsonian 
building. Attendance is expected to be vastly increased during our 
second decade as the Nation carries out its Bicentennial celebrations. 

On the first of October 1973, Dr. Daniel J. Boorstin moved from 
the directorship of the Museum to the post of Senior Historian in 
the National Museum of History and Technology, a position which 
allows him to devote more of his energies to research and writing. 
In May 1974, Dr. Boorstin received the Pulitzer Prize for History 
for The Americans: The Democratic Experience, the final volume in 
his trilogy on the American people. The writing of this volume had 
been completed during the four years of his directorship. 

Dr. Boorstin's successor. Professor Brooke Hindle, was appointed 
after nomination by museum curators and began his tenure in Feb- 
ruary. A faculty member of the New York University since 1950, 
his two most recent posts have been as Dean of the University 
College of Arts and Science and Head of the University Department 
of History. Known for his distinctive works. The Pursuit of Science 
in Revolutionary America 1735-1785; David Rittenhouse: A Biog- 
raphy; and Technology in America: Needs and Opportunities, Dr. 
Hindle is presently editing a volume which summarizes the confer- 
ence he planned for Sleepy Hollow Restorations on "America's 
Wooden Age." His present research assesses the role of industrial 
fairs in advancing the technology of their time. His particular focus 
has been the Centennial Exposition of 1876 — from which the 

170 / Smithsonian Year 1974 



Mrs. Nancy Kissinger (center) on a recent visit to the National Museum of History 
and Technology with the wives of the foreign ministers from Latin America is 
shown a collection of yellow-glazed English Earthenware by Paul V. Gardner, 
Curator, Division of Ceramics and Glass. 

Oiling and cleaning of the machinery in the Power and Tool Halls is an important 
phase of the daily routine before volunteers operate equipment for their lectures and 
demonstrations. Marjorie Miller, a National Museum of History and Technology 
Docent volunteer is one of several skilled in this challenging task, which always 
brings an interested audience. 

Smithsonian Institution drew its first significant holdings of 
machinery and technological artifacts, now housed in this Museum. 

Several series of public lectures were continued from last year 
with considerable success as an important form of contact with thes 
visiting public and outreach to the Washington community. The 
National Museum of History and Technology in its second series of 
Frank Nelson Doubleday Lectures considered "Creativity and Col- 
laboration," looking at the special opportunities and pressures of 
our age to collaborate, and asking how particular collaborations — 
in industry, scientific research, the media, city planning, and govern- 
ment — had affected creativity and brought about growth and 
change. Speakers were Japanese industrialist Akio Morita, President 
and co-founder of Sony Corporation; Nobel Prize- winning biologist 
James Dewey Watson, whose collaboration with Francis Crick 
resulting in an understanding of DNA was heralded as one of the 
most dramatic research breakthroughs of modern times; British 
Broadcasting Corporation's Managing Director of Television Huw 
Wheldon; Israeli-born Canadian architect Moshe Safdie, designer 
of Habitat; and Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Caspar 
W. Weinberger. Each lecturer also took part in a luncheon seminar, 
allowing for an open exchange of ideas among curators, the lecturer, 
and special guests. Doubleday and Company has renewed its grant 
for a third year of lectures in "The Frontiers of Knowledge" series. 

The Museum also continued a series of lectures with the U.S. 
Postal Service relating to new postage stamp issues. Extremely 
popular lectures included "The Continental Congresses" and "Rise 
of the Spirit of Independence." First Day ceremonies were held for 
the block of eight 10-cent stamps commemorating the Universal 
Postal Union Centennial. 

In addition to these evening lectures, the Museum has provided, 
since last January, weekly daytime Museum Talks by curators and 
qualified museum aides, technicians, and specialists. When moved 
from Saturdays to Tuesdays at lunchtime, these slide talks have 
drawn large audiences both of Museum visitors, neighboring gov- 
ernment employees, and Museum staff. The lectures reflect both the 
Museum's varied collections and current staff research projects. 
Some of the most exciting presentations have included demonstra- 
tions of historic objects front our collections, from the early sound- 
amplifying devices of inventor Elisha Gray, a contemporary of 

172 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Alexander Graham Bell, to the operation of the common printing 

The primary efforts of all staff during the past year have been 
spent in readying the National Museum of History and Technology's 
five major exhibitions for the Bicentennial period. The first, opening 
this coming September 20th on the lower level, is an exhibition on 
the two-hundred-year history of American clothing. "Suiting Every- 
one," the story of America's transition from homespun or tailor- 
made garments to ready-to-wear, is an interdisciplinary exhibit, 
bringing together the Division of Costume and Furnishings, whose 
costume collection was greatly enriched by a massive clothing appeal 
this year; the Division of Textiles, which offers the machines and 
textiles of manufacture; and the Division of Military History, which 
has supplied examples of early mass-produced clothing — soldiers' 
imiforms. A major new installment of the National Museum of 
History and Technology's political history wing is scheduled for 
opening the middle of next year. The theme of "A Nation of Na- 
tions," pluralism in American life, is particularly suited to this 
Museum, which has become the repository for many thousands of 
artifacts which were family heirlooms, treasured possessions, and 
creations of American people of every ethnic, racial, and religious 

Considerable staff attention was directed to restoration work on 
the exhibition "1876 — A Centennial," an exciting project which 
will transform a portion of the Arts and Industries Building into a 
microcosm of the Philadelphia Exposition of 1876 capturing the 
festive and optimistic spirit of America on its one-hundredth birth- 
day. This exhibit will manifest the exuberance of a Victorian extrav- 
aganza, an atmosphere of organized chaos, with all spaces dominated 
by an enormous variety of material objects. Finally, Vladimir and 
Elvira Clain-Stefanelli, Curators of the Division of Numismatics, are 
preparing a special exhibition on the history of American banks and 
banking, supported by the American Bankers Association, to open 
in September of 1975. 

This year the Dwight D. Eisenhower Institute for Historical 
Research, a study and conference center which will make important 
contributions to national study and evaluation of the Armed Forces, 
their importance in war and in maintaining peace, was brought to 
full realization with the appointment of Dr. Forrest C. Pogue, Direc- 

History and Art 1 173 

tor of the George C. Marshall Research Library in Lexington, 
Virginia, and widely known biographer of George Marshall, to the 
directorship of the new Institute. 

As part of the Institution's overall decentralization program, the 
National Museum of History and Technology assumed the admin- 
istration of its own Office of Exhibits and Building Management 
Division. From the Smithsonian's decentralization of the Office of 
Primary and Secondary Education has come a new approach to the 
Museum's education responsibilities, which have been formalized 
in a new Division of Public Information and Education. In addition 
to conducting tours and developing visitor programs, the Office will 
establish a visitor center on the Museum's first floor to orient the 
visitor and answer pubHc inquiries. This past year a staff associate 
was hired to adapt museum exhibits and activities to the needs of 
the handicapped. The staff associate, being herself handicapped, 
concentrated her efforts on developing tours for the blind and deaf 
with great success. Experiments were conducted with Braille labels 
and subtitled films, and the results will be incorporated into future 
exhibit planning. Alice Reno joined the staff in late spring as Super- 
visor of the Division. 

And on a playful note, the National Museum of History and 
Technology displayed in each public restroom an exhibit panel 
tracing with graphics the history of "Bathrooms in America." It 
leaves visitors contemplating the chamber pot and closestool of 
earlier days, with a sense of the full impact of technology on the 
American way of life. 

Locating and collecting objects and memorabilia for Bicentennial 
exhibitions was by far the dominating activity of the Museum's staff 
this past year as progress continues simultaneously on four major 
subject exhibitions. 

The Division of Costume and Furnishings initiated an unusual 
collecting effort for the exhibit, "Suiting Everyone," utilizing a news 
release and list of items needed for display. The response was over- 
whelming, resulting in the acquisition of a large number of items of 
clothing from 1920 to 1970 that ranged from representative clothing 
worn by the majority of Americans to examples produced by the 
industry's greatest designers. 

The preparation of the exhi-bition has benefited enormously from 
the valuable assistance provided by a panel of advisors from the 

174 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Rearrangement of the reference collections of the Division of Textiles has resulted 
in more adequate storage of the Division's extensive collections of quilts, sam- 
plers, and rugs, making them more accessible to the staff and visiting students 
and scholars. 

Indigo blue glazed wool quilted counterpane made by Esther Wheat of Conway, 
Massachusetts, for her dower chest. Late eighteenth century. Division of Textiles, 
National Museum of History and Technology. 

fashion community. Given the incredible breadth of the Smithsonian 
collections and the interdisciplinary perspective gained from the 
participating Museum staff, the exhibit promises to have a profound 
impact on the future study of American clothing and its industry. 

The full staff of the Division of Political History devoted its 
major effort to the forthcoming exhibition hall to be entitled "We, 
the People." They have been engrossed in the challenging task of 
selecting and acquiring objects illustrating the role of American 
government in the lives of the American people. Objects have been 
collected from resources within the Museum as well as from other 
Smithsonian and Federal agencies. Conservation of the First Ladies' 
Gowns also continued, bringing the total number of First Lady 
patterns now completed to twenty. In cooperation with the Division 
of Textiles, the skirt of the dress of Martha Washington was 
restored as the first project in a long-term program for the conserva- 
tion and restoration of the First Ladies' Gowns. As part of this 
program, Barbara Coffee, Museum Specialist in this Division, re- 
ceived a grant from the Secretary's fund to explore costume preser- 
vation and restoration being done in museums in England, The 
Netherlands, and in Sweden. 

The new Henry R. Luce Hall of News Reporting continued to 
draw enthusiastic crowds, and plans are now underway by the 
Smithsonian to produce a film and a traveling exhibit based on the 
Hall. Two exhibitions have been shown in the Hall's Print Gallery: 
"Prang's American Chromos," showing the step-by-step production 
of a twenty-six color lithograph; and "Anatomy of a Gallop," a 
comparison between the lithographs by Currier and Ives of racing 
horses and the contemporary photographs by Muybridge of the 
same subject. 

The Division of Medical Sciences devoted considerable effort to 
the preparation of the exhibit "Triumph Over Disability" in the 
Hall of Health. The exhibit was made possible by a grant from the 
American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Each Friday, films 
and lectures on the subject are offered in the Leonard Carmichael 

Several major exhibits were closed and dismantled this past year 
in preparation for Bicentennial activities. This necessitated the re- 
moval and temporary storage of thousands of valuable objects, a 
project that required the involvement of more than half the Mu- 

176 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


•■f -, ,; 







An important acquisition by the Division of Political History, National Museum of 
History and Technology, this past year was a fine watercolor portrait of Benjamin 
Franklin by Rembrandt Peale. 

scum's divisions and staff. The "Growth of the United States/' "Art 
and Spirit of a People," "American Costume/' and "Historic Ameri- 
cans" were among the halls closed, as well as the special exhibits 
"Music Machines" and "A Children's World/' 

Several large objects were removed to other more visible areas, 
including the relocation of the John Bull locomotive. Granite blocks, 
especially cut for the purpose, support pieces of the original rail 
used in 1831 under the engine. 

The main focus of attention for "1876: A Centennial Exhibit" is 
upon the restoration of objects and cases of the period that will be 
utilized within the displays. The restoration and refurbishing of 
those objects that were displayed nearly one hundred years ago, for 
which a unique restoration task force has been organized within the 
Museum, are proceeding on a scale unprecedented in the history of 
the Institution. 

Since that facet of the Centennial which had the largest public 
impact was the overwhelming array of machinery and power equip- 
ment, the Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering has a pri- 
mary involvement in it. Robert M. Vogel, Curator of Heavy Ma- 
chinery and Civil Engineering, is co-curator in charge, and Edwin A. 
Battison, Curator of Light Machinery, has responsibility for the 
machine-tool exhibits. 

The practicality of the exhibition was founded primarily upon the 
vast collection of Centennial memorabilia carefully preserved and 
housed in many parts of the Institution. The machinery and models 
will form the nucleus of the exhibition, supplemented by other fine 
examples of the types exhibited at the Philadelphia Exposition. 

For many months, members of the staff have traveled to record 
centers, archives, and libraries, conducting research, recording and 
photographing available documentary evidence in support of the 
present restoration. Factories and industrial firms on the verge of 
demolition have been contacted in an effort to locate furnishings and 
fittings so very vital to achieving the atmosphere of 1876. 

Restoration of this equipment is being performed in three separate 
shops created for this purpose under the general supervision of 
William K. Henson, Supervisor of the Science and Technology De- 
partment's Technical Laboratory. 

The main facility, headed by Museum Specialist Charles E. Den- 
nison, is responsible for the restoration of machinery such as ma- 

178 / Smithsonian Year 1974 








Objects exhibited at the International Exhibition of 1876 held in Philadelphia are 
being restored to original appearance and condition in the Technical Laboratories 
of the National Museum of History and Technology, as part of the preparation for 
the Bicentennial exhibit. 

Specialist at the National Museum of History and Technology Silver Hill restoration 
facility clean the colorful artwork uncovered during cleaning of a huge steam- 
powered refrigeration compressor for the Bicentennial exhibit "1876 — A Centennial." 

chine tools, fittings, and steam engines of sizes that can be accommo- 
dated in the basement shops of the Museum. Here, objects are first 
disassembled, marked, chemically cleaned, and restored to original 
condition with close adherence to all available published references 
and illustrations. All broken parts are repaired, and missing parts 
are duplicated to permit each object to not only look but perform 
as new. 

Machines and tools too large and cumbersome for the in-house 
shop are restored at a newly created second facility at Silver Hill 
under the supervision of Museum Technician William T. Tearman. 

A shop on the fifth floor of the National Museum of History and 
Technology serves as the third restoration facility for relatively 
small objects, at present principally a selection of the hundreds of 
patent models exhibited at the Philadelphia Fair, and the cutting and 
sewing of small intricate sails for many of the ship models. 

One of the most interesting phases of the work that has spread 
excitement throughout the entire staff has been that concerned with 
the stripping of layers of decorative paint and the detective work 
necessary to repaint and decorate the finished items. An example is 
the Linde-Wolk steam engine recently acquired by the Institution 
from the American Brewery in Baltimore, Maryland. When the Tech- 
nical Laboratory personnel commenced their routine documentation 
of the colors and designs applied to the engine over the years — 
stripping away each successive coat of paint, taking record photo- 
graphs, and tracing the decorative patterns — they discovered among 
its dozen discrete layers of paint an intricate panorama of delicately 
shaded flowers and exquisite filigrees. While the notion of such 
painstaking art work on a huge industrial engine may now seem 
anomalous, in an earlier era it clearly was considered a proper ad- 
junct. When completed, the engine will be repainted and decorated 
as it was many years ago. 

To assist with the unprecedented workload imposed by the res- 
toration program for "1876," six additions were made to the crew; 
each new man boasts some specialized aptitude or skill essential to 
the successful consummation of the program. Among other individ- 
ual projects are the refurbishment of a 42-foot span from a Howe 
truss bridge and a group of components salvaged from the Girard 
Avenue Bridge in Philadelphia — a bridge built at the time of the 
Centennial and dismantled a few years ago. 

180 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Research and work on furnishings and other phases of the exhibi- 
tion are proceeding under the direction of Cultural History Curator 
Rodris Roth and Museum Technician Susan Myers. William Miner 
of the Office of Exhibits is overall coordinator of the project. 

Highlighting the activities of the Division of Musical Instruments 
was a program produced for the Renwick Gallery entitled "Ameri- 
can Music and Ballroom Dance, 1840-1860," utilizing wind instru- 
ments and a Chickering piano of the period. Cynthia Hoover, James 
Weaver, and Robert Sheldon edited the music. Restoration projects 
completed included the production of measured drawings for the 
1760 Stehlin harpsichord, preparation of wind instruments for the 
"American Music" performance, and work on a 1794 Broadwood 
grand piano. Thomas Wolf, keyboard instrument maker, joined the 
staff as the first participant in a two-year program for training of con- 
servators of musical instruments, a service offered for the first time 
by the Institution and the only program of its kind in the country. 

The Division of Numismatics was joint host, with the American 
Numismatic Society, of the 1973 International Numismatic Con- 
gress which met for the first time in the United States in September 
1973, Opening in New York City, the Congress moved to Washing- 
ton, where numerous papers were presented in the Museum to an 
attendance of 329 numismatists and guests representing 32 coun- 
tries. A special exhibition of medals commemorating the battles of 
the American Revolution was produced by the Division with an 
interpretative publication. A derivative of the Congress was a three- 
volume Survey of Numismatic Research, of which Mrs. Elvira Clain- 
Stefanelli was the editor of the section on medals. 

In November, the Division of Naval History co-sponsored the 
American Meeting of the Society for the History of Discoveries in 
concert with the Library of Congress and the U.S. National Archives. 
Featured were sessions on the exploration of the Americas and on 
cartographic resources from the era of the American Revolution. 

On May 30, the Secretary presented to Dr. Vladimir Clain- 
Stefanelli and to Mrs. Elvira Clain-Stefanelli the Exceptional Service 
Gold Medal Award "in recognition of the successful acquisition and 
display of the Josiah K. Lilly Collection of gold coins and their many 
other achievements and accomplishments in the numismatic world 
and for their tireless devotion to the development of one of the 

History and Art I 181 

world's finest numismatic collections." In September, Dr. and Mrs. 
Clain-Stefanelli were awarded the 1973 Leonard Forrer Medal by 
the International Association of Professional Numismatists "for 
their work for the increase and diffusion of knowledge in the field 
of numismatics." 

Peter C. Marzio, Associate Curator of the Division of Graphic 
Arts, received a Fulbright Research Grant which enabled him to 
study nineteenth-century American artists in Rome during most of 
the past year. Bernard S. Finn, Curator of Electricity, spent a sab- 
batical leave in London where he helped prepare a special exhibition 
and booklet on submarine telegraphy at The Science Museum, en- 
titled "Leave It to the Mermaids," in which technical developments 
were placed in their social context. The exhibit included objects from 
a number of museums, the Smithsonian Institution, corporations 
and individuals in the United States as well as in Great Britain. Jon 
B. Eklund, Curator of Chemistry, was on a year's leave of absence, 
during which he was Visiting Professor of Chemistry at the New 
York Historical Association at Cooperstown. 

Another recipient of an award was Harold D. Langley, Curator of 
Naval History, who received a research grant for work in the col- 
lections of the American Antiquarian Society on early American 
flags and newspaper sources for American reaction to the Peace of 
Ghent in 1815. Robert M. Vogel, Curator of Mechanical and Civil 
Engineering, conducted a week-long seminar at Cooperstown deal- 
ing with the techniques of field recording, photography, map inter- 
pretation, and site analysis relating to historic and industrial arche- 
ology. He also assisted in organizing a symposium celebrating the 
250th Anniversary of the Carpenters' Company of Philadelphia, 
"Building Early America," presenting a paper on materials handling 
and steam excavation. Senior Scientific Scholar Robert P. Multhauf 
also participated in the conference as well as in a colloquium at the 
Burndy Library in Connecticut on the relationship between science 
and technology. 

In December 1973, William Seale joined the staff as Curator in 
the Division of Ethnic and Western Cultural History. His fields of 
activity include the history of American architecture and the mate- 
rial culture of the south-central and southeastern United States dur- 
ing the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He was co-author of a 
survey of the state capitol buildings of the United States. During the 
year, three new chairmen were appointed to the Museum's depart- 

182 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Chair used by Henry Clay in the Senate of the United States. Acquired by the 
Division of Political History, National Museum of History and Technology. 

Portion of the payroll of the Continental Gondola Philadelphia donated by the 
Trustees of the Fort Concho Museum of San Angelo, Texas. The discovery of the 
payroll of Captain Benjamin Rue and his 43-man crew now opens the entire 
human dimension of this remarkable vessel from 1776. 

i.-^ .a 

/■• i?.. • I- — -< — '-< ■ 

t|2r:;S2 :f-:-:si.- jn^-i^ if-p-s 

- r- 


ments: Dr. Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli became Chairman of the De- 
partment of Applied Arts; John T. Schlebecker, Jr., was designated! 
Chairman of the Department of Industries; and Richard E. Ahlborn 
became Acting Chairman of the Department of Cultural History. 
Another staff appointment was that of Donald H. Berkebile, who 
was promoted to the position of Assistant Curator in the Division 
of Transportation. 

Sami K. Hamarneh, specialist in medieval Arabic medicine and 
pharmacy, lectured on a variety of subjects in India, Pakistan, and 
Japan. Hamarneh also visited museums throughout the northeastern 
United States and participated in the annual meeting of the Ameri- 
can Institute of the History of Pharmacy. During April and May 
1974, he visited Jordan and participated in a conference at the Uni- 
versity of Jordan. Later, he visited Cairo, where he completed re- 
search on his book. The Physician, Therapist and Surgeon Ihn al- 
Quff, which has since been published in Cairo. 

Cooperation with organizations concerned with preservation and 
history continued this year, with the Division of Mechanical and 
Civil Engineering as corporate and editorial headquarters of the 
Society for Industrial Archeology. Curator Robert M. Vogel serves 
as editor of the Newsletter, the only international publication in the 
field. John H. White, Jr., Curator of Transportation, is editor of the 
semiannual Railroad History; and John T. Schlebecker, Jr., Curator 
of Agriculture, and G. Terry Sharrer, Curator of Manufacturing, 
jointly edit the quarterly Living Historical Farms Bulletin. Robert P. 
Multhauf continues as editor of ISIS and as advisory editor for the 
Dictionary of Scientific Biography and the Dictionary of American 
History. He was recently appointed a member of the Historical 
Advisory Committee of nasa. 

The collections were enriched with a variety of objects ranging 
in size from a 1926 Huber steam traction engine to an extremely 
rare case bottle dated 1788 made at the Amelung Glass Factory of 
Frederick, Maryland. An interesting collection of over 200 mill- 
stones dating from 1748 to 1920 was acquired, including stones for 
grinding materials ranging from grain to paint pigments. Collec- 
tively, they represent an industry that no longer exists except as a 
historical curiosity. 

The robe worn by Chief Justice John Jay and the Senate chair 
used by Henry Clay became part of the collections of the Division 

184 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

1926 Huber Steam Traction Engine. Division of Agriculture and Mining, National 
Museum of History and Technology. This late model steamer, distinguished by its 
return flue boiler, was added to the Museum's holdings of full-size original farm 
machines, completing the collection of major tractor types in the United States. 

Renovation of exhibit space for Bicentennial exhibits required the relocation of a 
number of national treasures, such as the John Bull locomotive. 




of Political History, together with several hundred political campaign 
objects presented by Ralph E. Becker. A large and important collec- 
tion of early photographic materials relating to the scientific investi- 
gations of Professor John W. Draper, one of the first American re- 
searchers to use photography as an investigative tool in scientific 
investigations, was also acquired. 

A particularly valuable document, the original payroll of the Con 
tinental gondola Philadelphia, was received through the generosity! 
of the Trustees of the Fort Concho Museum at San Angelo, Texas. 
This provides a new and human dimension to the history of this 
national treasure. Also received was a specialized group of East 
Asian paper currencies containing several thousand Chinese notes. 
Combined with the Oriental coins already owned by the Division of 
Numismatics, these materials form one of the most important refer- 
ence collections for the student of Oriental monetary history. 

Among other significant items received were a rare eighteenth- 
century indigo blue glazed wool counterpane and a number of horse- 
drawn vehicles required to complete portions of the tranportation 
collection, including a 1900 truck, an 1890 laundry wagon, a 1929 
Cunningham touring car, and two horse-drawn cotton pickers. A 
fine collection of scales and balances was received from the City of 
Baltimore, together with instruments from the National Weather 

Baseball and archery collections, which were acquired this past 
year, have developed a relatively new area of collection activity. 

Daguerreotype copy by Professor J. W. 
Draper from an original he made about 
1840. The original is one of the earliest 
photographic portraits made in America. 
Division of Political History, National 
Museum of History and Technology. 

186 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

National Portrait Gallery 

The year began with the opening on the Fourth of July of a major 
exhibition entitled "The Black Presence in the Era of the American 
Revolution, 1770-1800," which consisted of more than 250 items: 
paintings, prints, broadsides and books, documents and letters, 
and three-dimensional objects. Professor Sidney Kaplan of the 
University of Massachusetts prepared both the exhibition and its 
catalogue, a 270-page volume containing 100 black and white 
illustrations and 8 in color, published for the National Portrait 
Gallery (npg) by the New York Graphic Society in association 
with the Smithsonian Institution Press. Professor Kaplan, who 
took a year's leave of absence from his post at Amherst College 
to come to Washington, was the first of many scholars, experts 
in their fields, whom we hope to call upon in connection with 
special exhibitions and publications. "The Black Presence," like 
all the Gallery's major exhibitions, also was accompanied by an 
illustrated booklet and a teacher's guide, prepared especially for 
the secondary-school level. This publication, 72 pages in length 
and illustrated with 50 reproductions, was written by the Associate 
Curator of Education, Mrs. Lisa W. Strick. 

A two-gallery exhibition, mounted to commemorate the 150th 
anniversary of the Monroe Doctrine on December 3, was orga- 
nized by a member of the staff of the Catalog of American Por- 
traits, Gerald Z. Levin, who also prepared its 128-page catalogue. 
The installations of this and "The Black Presence" exhibition were 
designed by Joseph Michael Carrigan, Chief of Exhibit Design and 

A small exhibition dealing with the presidential portraiture of 
Abraham Lincoln, centering on a full-length portrait of Lincoln 
by William F. Cogswell, lent by the White House, was prepared 
by two NPG interns, Richard Beard and Kenneth Yellis, who spent 
a year with us under a grant from the National Endowment for 
the Humanities. Beard and Yellis, who received their Master's 
Degrees in History from Emory University and the University of 
Rochester, respectively, were selected from nearly 100 candidates 
who applied for these internships designed to acquaint the recipi- 
ents with various phases of work encountered in a history museum. 

Several special portrait presentations also took place during the 

History and Art I 187 



Cole Porter by Soss Melik. National Portrait Gallery (NPG.74.32). 


Merriwether Lewis, engraving by Saint Memin. One 
of 761 rare eighteenth- and nineteenth-century en- 
graved portraits given by Paul Mellon to the National 
Portrait Gallery. 

Bust of President Lyndon B. Johnson by Jimilu Mason. Mrs. Lyndon B. 
Johnson and Senator Hubert Humphrey spoke at the presentation ceremony. 

year. The most notable of these was of a bust of President Lyndon 
B. Johnson by Jimilu Mason, an event at which Mrs. Johnson and 
Senator Hubert Humphrey spoke. 

In the past twelve months, more than 33,000 adults and young 
people were served in the Gallery and in schoolrooms by our Edu- 
cation Department — an increase of 300 percent over last year. 

The Historian's Office and the Curatorial Department were 
mainly involved in the preparation of the first two in a series of 
the Gallery's three Bicentennial exhibitions, "In the Minds and 
Hearts of the People: Prologue to the American Revolution, 1760- 
1774," and "The Dye is Now Cast, 1774-1776." The former, which 
opened on June 14, will be discussed in greater detail in next year's 

History and Art I 189 

That this was a banner year for the Gallery in terms of acquisi- 
tions to the permanent collection is evidenced by the addition of 
817 portraits, 761 of which were engravings by Charles Balthazar 
Julien Fevret de Saint-Memin. Presented by Paul Mellon, this col- 
lection represents the most munificent benefaction received by the 
National Portrait Gallery since its inception. Originally owned by 
Saint-Memin himself, these portraits, executed between 1796 and 
1814, constitute a remarkably diverse representation of major 
figures of the early Federal Republic, including Presidents Wash- 
ington, Jefferson, and Madison; Paul Revere; Aaron Burr; Ben- 
jamin Rush; John Marshall; Charles Willson Peale; Stephen De- 
catur; Mother Seton; Meriwether Lewis; and William Clark. An- 
other important gift was a portrait of Richard Henry Lee by 
Charles Willson Peale, presented by Duncan C. Lee and his son 
Gavin Dunbar Lee. Most notable among the year's acquisitions by 
purchase were the only known life portrait of the first Speaker 
of the House of Representatives Frederick Muhlenberg by Joseph 
Wright, Dolley Madison (at the age of 83) by William S. Elwell, 
a bust of Ralph Waldo Emerson by Daniel Chester French, a bronze 
relief of President Theodore Roosevelt executed from life in 1906 
by Sally James Farnham, and a group of drawings by Soss Melik 
including likenesses of Sherwood Anderson, Cole Porter, and 
Thomas Wolfe. 

The National Portrait Gallery Commission is composed of the 
following members : 

John Nicholas Brown, Chairman 

Whitfield J. Bell, Jr. 

Ralph Ellison 

David E. Finley 

Wilmarth Sheldon Lewis 

Robert L. McNeil, Jr. 

Andrew Oliver 

Jules D. Frown 

E. P. Richardson 

Robert Hilton Smith 

Chief Justice of the United States, ex officio 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 

Director, National Gallery of Art, ex officio 

190 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Office of Academic Studies 

The Office of Academic Studies, under the direction of the Board 
of Academic Studies, conducts Smithsonian programs in higher 
education and research training. The foremost objective of the 
programs is to provide the framework within which each visiting 
student and investigator can confront individually the opportunities 
for the pursuit of knowledge represented in the Smithsonian's 
collections and its research and technical staff. In the arts, humani- 
ties, and sciences, students at all postsecondary levels study under 
the guidance of the Smithsonian's professional research faculty. 

Predoctoral and postdoctoral fellows undertake research train- 
ing in their specialties, bringing in their inquiries great intellectual 
stimulation and adding immeasurably to the vitality of the research 
climate. Predoctoral fellows generally consult Smithsonian re- 
sources necessary to their dissertations but not available at their 
universities. Postdoctoral fellows, usually recent recipients of the 
doctorate, seek advanced research training and the opportunity to 
expand studies begun at the university. During the academic year 
1973-1974, 21 predoctoral and 24 postdoctoral fellowships were 
awarded to support these activities in most of the museums, labora- 
tories, and field stations of the Institution. 

Five students, in an earlier stage of graduate study than the 
predoctoral fellows, have received fellowships supported jointly 
by their home universities and the Smithsonian's National Air 
and Space Museum to study aspects of the social and technological 
impact of space exploration. Although pursuing degrees in different 
disciplines at different Washington-area universities, the students 
worked with each other as well as their Smithsonian advisor in 
the development of their individual projects. 

Fellowship appointments for directed research are provided for 
two to three months to graduate and undergraduate students, to 
offer them new perspectives on the purposes of research and to 
provide them access to sources and materials not encountered by 
them in their university-based studies. Some students pursue in- 
terests previously developed, but many explore areas of knowledge 
wholly new. For example, a summer spent at the Smithsonian 
might allow a first-year graduate student to reflect on the full 
range of alternatives in his chosen field of knowledge, and to de- 

History and Art 1 191 

fine his future graduate course of study based on a better under- 
standing of what he finds both practical and interesting. During 
1973-1974 such awards were made to 21 graduate and under- 
graduate students; 4 of the undergraduates were supported under 
a grant from the National Science Foundation. 

Other students, often undergraduates, by preference undertake 
studies at the Smithsonian which provide broader exposure than 
research training. They are participants in a program for museum 
study, a program offering them a chance to learn in the working 
museum or laboratory or field environment rather than the tradi- 
tional classroom atmosphere, to take part in the ongoing work, 
of the Institution while pursuing a project that interests and I 
challenges them. Most students in the program are awarded aca- 
demic credit by their home universities, where the student's per- 
formance meets the educational standards set by the Smithsonian 
and the standards and requirements imposed by the university. 
During the past year, 13 participated in museum-study projects 
under the close supervision of Smithsonian staff members. 

In other undergraduate programs, two members of the Smith- 
sonian staff taught regular courses in their specialties in the Uni- 
versity of Maryland's program in the history of science and tech- 

Seeking other ways to encourage the interchange of ideas and 
the exchange of information. Academic Studies supports visitors 
to the Institution for very brief periods of study, research, and 
consultation with the staff. The range of purposes and levels of 
accomplishment of these visitors reflect the diversity of the Smith- 
sonian itself, for they may be graduate students or distinguished 
senior scholars and scientists, from the United States or abroad, 
and their interests lead them to all areas of the Smithsonian. They 
come here for their individual purposes, as short-term visitors, or 
as participants in specialized seminars. This year support was pro- 
vided for 32 short-term visitors, and for one seminar, conducted 
by Dr. William Fitzhugh of the Smithsonian's Department of 
Anthropology, on the topic of the Maritime and Moorehead 
Archaic cultures of northeastern North America. 

192 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

, Office of American Studies 

The Office of American Studies conducts a formal graduate pro- 
gram in material culture of the United States which is directed to 
the original Smithsonian purpose: "the increase and diffusion of 
knowledge." Graduate students from area universities participated 
in the program, gaining academic credit toward advanced degrees 
at those universities. 

The course in "Material Aspects of American Civilization" was 
taught by Dr. Washburn (with the assistance of curators and others 
inside and outside the Smithsonian). A seminar in Museum Visitor 
Behavior was conducted by Robert A. Lakota and the staff of the 
Psychological and Sociological Studies Program of the Office of 
Museum Programs. A seminar in the decorative arts was conducted 
by Patrick Butler III, Honorary Smithsonian Research Associate. 
Arthur C. Townsend, Executive Secretary, Maryland Historical 
Trust and Honorary Smithsonian Research Associate, repeated his 
seminar in Great Plains history. A Work-Study Program in His- 
torical Archeology, offered by the St. Mary's City Commission 
in cooperation with the American Studies Program of the Smith- 
sonian, George Washington University, and St. Mary's College 
of Maryland, was held from June 17 to August 23, 1974, with 
participation by graduate students and Smithsonian staff members. 
In addition to these formal seminars, supervision of individual 
reading and research projects, thesis direction, and preparation of 
comprehensive examinations were undertaken by the director and 
cooperating Smithsonian staff members. 

Staff publications for 1973-1974 are listed in Appendix 8. 

History and Art 1 193 

^-^L^'""" ■yn-- 

Sbj^" % i i4il>. ' 


The western towers of the Smithsonian's castle, looking toward the Potomac River. 

Smithsonian Year • 7^74 

Preservation, study, and interpretation are key functions in any 
museum or museum system. The care with which objects are 
registered, examined, and treated; the thoroughness with which 
they are studied and the clarity with which they are presented and 
interpreted to the pubHc are gauges to a museum's ultimate ex- 
cellence. Yet, many of these functions take place away from public 
view, with the attendant consequence that they are often funded 
with inadequate resources or carried out in inadequate spaces. This 
has intermittently occurred at the Smithsonian. The enormous 
growth of activities which has developed in the last decade, the 
acquisition of new collections, the founding and construction of 
new museums as well as new fields of research which have opened 
could well have justified, in the eyes of some, a slackening of efforts 
and a shifting of resources to some immediately more glamorous 
result. It is a measure of the historical commitment of the Institu- 
tion to the search of excellence that this has not been the case. 

The last few years have seen increased emphasis given to de- 
veloping the infrastructure in the fields of conservation, libraries, 
archives, and more recently in registration. In these key areas major 
progress was made in fiscal year 1974, 

The Smithsonian Library, which is as old as the Institution 
itself, has undergone careful in-house examination and assessment 
of its program and activities, aimed at refining its processes, maxi- 
mizing its resources and responding more promptly to the needs 
of the Institution and of the scholarly fraternity. Cooperation with 
other libraries — federal, state, and private — has led to a pilot 
program in computerized cataloguing which will vastly improve 
the rate of processing as well as its quality. The needs of the rare 
book collections, the ferreting out of uncatalogued rare materials. 


and developing procedures for their conservation and restoration 
have all made major strides. Greater attention has been paid to 
the needs of Bureau libraries and to assisting them in responding 
more promptly and fully to the requirements of their constituency. 
Steps were taken which will lead to the complete cataloguing of 
the important library of the National Air and Space Museum by 
the dedication of its new building in July 1976. 

The Archives of the Institution, concerned primarily with its 
history and the history of scholarship within it, have been brought 
to virtually full intellectual control. Inventorying of archival re- 
sources has progressed and computer systems have been developed 
for their cataloguing in close cooperation with curatorial depart- 
ments and the central and bureau libraries. 

Conservation, an ever present, indeed a growing concern to all 
museums, has been further strengthened by enlarging the amount 
of space allotted to the Conservation Analytical Laboratory, by 
the purchase of more sensitive and highly specialized equipment, 
and by the active recruitment of additional staff members. In spite 
of the progress made, far more needs to be done. The present 
capacity is hardly able to keep up with immediate, emergency 
needs, let alone allow for the constant review required by such 
varied collections as those possessed by the Institution. To maxi- 
mize resources, avoid the possibilities of duplication, and to focus 
more clearly on the needs, a Conservation Council was created 
which regularly will assemble key conservators of all Smithsonian 
museums. In addition, the staff of the Conservation Analytical 
Laboratory has been active in assisting training organizations in 
developing, as rapidly as possible, the additional professionals 
which are urgently needed not only by the Institution but by 
museums throughout the country. Conservation is more than the 
monitoring of conditions and finding palliative methods to remedy 
the desecrations of time or of man. It is also basic research in the 
properties of materials and in the manners in which these materials 
have been assembled by nature or by man. The Conservation 
Analytical Laboratory has been under increasingly steady pressure 
to provide technical data to bolster the hypotheses of historical re- 
search or stylistic development. 

The processing of objects .either belonging to the Institution or 
sent to the Institution for study or exhibition has been thoroughly 

196 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

reorganized. A registration capability is being developed in each 
of the Smithsonian museums that did not have it so that each can 
achieve more expeditious and accurate control on the whereabouts 
of their holdings and, perhaps more important, monitor their con- 
ditions in more efficient ways. A Registrarial Council has been 
created to develop the required parameters. 

The foundations have been laid for the development of a Cen- 
tral Registrar's Office that will help coordinate the growth of the 
registrarial department in each of the museums, avoid duplications, 
attain coherence in methods, and help develop basic retrieval sys- 
tems which, eventually, may be coordinated with regional, national, 
or, indeed, international data networks. The collections of the 
Institution represent a data bank unequaled anywhere. The poten- 
tial of mastering a substantial portion of this wealth by the means 
of computers has already been demonstrated in discrete areas. 

Museums which are essential for the transmittal to the future 
of the heritage of the past must, however, be of service to the 
present. There is no contradiction in these terms as long as there 
is a clear understanding of goals and integrity in their pursuit. 

Exhibition is a key function for a museum. In this area, also a 
major reorganization has brought to each museum intellectual and 
physical control over the resources with which it can interpret 
its holdings. Certain museums and bureaus, either too small to have 
an exhibition resource of their own or that have too infrequent 
need for such specialized capabilities, are served by the recently 
developed Office of Exhibits Central. Some of its specialized shops, 
virtually unmatched for their abilities, particularly in the area 
of modeling and plastics, serve the entire family of Smithsonian 
museums. This office also has more general workshops which pro- 
vide design and construction capabilities to those units that do not 
have exhibit departments. The reorganization of the Office of 
Exhibits has led to closer cooperation between design and cura- 
torial staffs. 

The Office of Exhibits Central and the exhibit offices in various 
museums are contributing and participating in the psychological 
studies conducted by the Office of Museum Programs. These stud- 
ies are specifically designed to acquire more information about 
museums as a learning environment and to developing more re- 
sponsive methods for orientation of the museum visitor. These 

Museum Programs 1 197 

studies, which are now coming to fruition, will undoubtedly result 
in new exhibit concepts and forms of presentation. Their timeliness 
is evident since the Institution is gearing toward an unprecedented 
efflorescence of exhibition activities which will culminate in the 
Bicentennial Year. 

For the past decade, the Institution has recognized that it had a 
duty to assist those less wealthy institutions around the country 
in presenting to their public a richer fare. This concern took on 
concrete and permanent form with the development of the Smith- 
sonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. This has made 
available hundreds of exhibitions of high quality, at modest cost, 
to museums, historical societies, colleges, universities, and cultural 
centers. The efficacy of sites had, in the last few years, been 
increasingly jeopardized as costs increased and borrowing organi- 
zations were unable to assume the rental fees which were neces- 
sary for a break-even program. Federal funding of sites, for the 
first time in fiscal year 1974, has helped to maintain a balance. 
Between now and the end of the Bicentennial Year, approximately 
250 new exhibitions will be developed on various subjects con- 
cerned with history, art, and science. Major emphasis has and will 
be given to incorporating into traveling exhibitions Smithsonian 
concepts and, where appropriate, objects so that the Institution's 
resources on the Mall can be shared more broadly with the Nation 
at large. Many of these new exhibitions will be built by the Office 
of Exhibits Central, to concepts and specifications provided by 
SITES. To increase the educational usefulness of these exhibitions, 
kits of educational materials, designed for schools, will be pre- 
pared and an increasingly large number of sites exhibitions will 
be accompanied by didactic materials which will be geared to vari- 
ous levels so that the broadest benefit can be derived by their 

Assisting museums in developing the expertise of their staff 
or in solving special problems has been another historic service of 
the Institution. In the last few years, it has been rationalized by 
the Office of Museum Programs through the presentation of work- 
shops, available free of charge to museum personnel from across 
the country. This program, increased in effectiveness in 1974, will 
be broadened in the years ahead. Disseminating knowledge on 
conservation through expertly prepared series of slide lectures is 

198 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

another service recently developed. This will be supplemented by 
upward of 40 video-taped programs on the basic principles of con- 
servation and conservation practice. These programs will be avail- 
able to museums, historical societies, and other interested groups. 

The study of the museum as a learning environment, referred to 
above, has led to staff participation in several seminars, and a 
series of short articles were published in Museum News. A major 
monograph by Dr. Chandler Screven, The Measurement and Facili- 
tation of Learning in the Museum Environment: An Experimental 
Analysis, is under preparation for publication by the Office of Mu- 
seum Programs. 

The National Museum Act, first funded in fiscal year 1972, 
continued to be administered by the Office of Museum Programs 
and chaired by the Assistant Secretary. The contribution of the 
Act to professional enhancement has been universally recognized 
and has been most visible in the number of workshops, funded 
under the Act, that have been held around the country under the 
auspices of the American Association of Museums, the American 
Association for State and Local History, or other organizations. 
Developing new training programs and attracting talented new 
minds to the profession are challenges which museums must meet. 
The Act has provided a mechanism to assist in these developments 
and in carrying out special research on museum problems and 

Renovation and restoration of the Arts and Industries Building, 
in preparation for the Bicentennial Year, is another major respon- 
sibility of the Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs. This 
building, the second structure on the Mall built for the Smith- 
sonian Institution, was opened to the public in 1881. It was erected 
to house the vast collections which were acquired after the closing 
of the centennial exhibit of 1876 at Philadelphia. 

Appropriately, the first major exhibition to be shown in the 
renovated Arts and Industries Building will be devoted to the 
recreation, in capsule form, of the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibit. 
That summary of the Industrial Revolution's accomplishments 
and the Western Hemisphere's no doubt will be the cause of much 
nostalgia and pride. 

The Assistant Secretary has continued to represent the Secre- 
tary on the Advisory Council for Historic Preservation and on its 

Museum Programs 1 199 

International Centre Committee. He participated actively in a num- 
ber of professional organizations notably as Vice-President of the 
American Association of Museums, Vice-Chairman of the Inter- 
national Council of Museums Committee of the aam, and Chairman 
of the AAM Professional Relations' Committee. 

He was elected a member of the Council of the International 
Centre for the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property, 
Rome, and Vice-President of the International Council of Museums, 

Conservation- Analytical Laboratory 

The activities of the Conservation-Analytical Laboratory (cal) 
support researches in many areas of the Smithsonian — some 30 
Divisions in any one year. It would not be proper to reveal some 
of these in advance of publication by the principal investigator. 
Others follow. 

CAL has investigated the use of neutron-activation and electron- 
microprobe analysis of various panes of glass in a medieval window 
for the purpose of detecting replacements, investigating early tech- 
nology, and with a view to attributing panes to particular work- 

An analysis has been recently published on the ink of the Vin- 
land Map. Another interpretation of the results appeared possible. 
The possibility has been investigated, using microchemical, micro- 
scopic and X-ray diffraction techniques. 

Elemental analyses of majolica ware have revealed the possibility 
of distinguishing between Spanish and Colonial-Mexican origins 
for particular specimens. 

New X-ray fluorescence equipment for the rapid analysis of 
objects has been installed and is being brought into service. Some 
early results in the difficult field of analyzing liquid measures made 
of pewter have indicated distinct differences in composition for 
measures of English and Scottish origin. 

An iron ball, golf-ball size, that sounded musically when it was 
struck, was submitted for suggestions about its nature. X-radiog- 
raphy discovered a sounding spiral-wire and loose ball inside. 

200 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

A view of the X-ray Laboratory, Conservation-Analytical Laboratory, Smith- 
sonian Institution. On the left a pewter vessel is exposed to a beam of 
X-radiation and gives out secondary radiation characteristic of the elements 
present within it. This secondary radiation is received by a solid-state detector 
kept cold by a Dewar vessel of liquid nitrogen. The energy-dispersed spectrum 
is displayed on a monitor screen (on the right hand side of the picture) above 
a control panel. The spectra from two different samples can be stored in 
separate memories and displayed together for comparison by using the control 
panel, which can also superimpose markers on the screen representative of 
various elements. The operator is seated at a Telex keyboard, which is used 
to communicate with the mini-computer behind it. Results of computations 
made upon data obtained from the display screen are. printed out on paper 
from the roll. 

Examination of samples provided from Eastern gongs has re- 
vealed a metallurgical structure that has received very little notice 
in the literature. 

A Peale drawing submitted for treatment was found by exami- 
nation in infrared light to contain an earlier version. Careful pho- 
tography using infrared light has now enabled exhibit of both 
versions, possibly drawn by father and son. 

An important payroll had been written in iron-gall ink on paper 
so very acid that washing was desirable. Tests of the ink-line re- 
vealed that it could be damaged by water, so a safer washing pro- 
cedure was devised. 

A series of elaborate Western saddles in decaying condition, 
embellished with silver and other threads and metallic plaques, 
have presented numerous technical problems of identification and 
treatment in the course of cleaning and repair for exhibition. 

Close examination of an eighteenth-century harpsichord-stand 
preliminary to restoration revealed several phases of earlier 

National Museum Act Program 

The National Museum Act, authorized in 1966, received an appro- 
priation of $901,000 in fiscal year 1974. In accordance with the 
legislation, the National Endowment for the Arts and the National 
Endowment for the Humanities each received $100,000 from the 
above sum. Under the legislation, the Smithsonian may grant funds 
to specific projects that advance the museum profession at large, 
either through research, training, or publication. Every proposal 
funded must clearly describe how it will upgrade the museum 
profession — its techniques, approaches, and methods. 

A total of 182 applications were received and reviewed by the 
Advisory Council who recommended funding for 64 projects. The 
Advisory Council consists of museum professionals representing 
different aspects and areas of the museum field — art, science, 
history, education, conservation, and exhibition. The Council mem- 
bers in 1974 were: William T. Alderson, Director, American Asso- 
ciation of State and Local History; Charles E. Buckley, Director, 

202 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

St. Louis Museum of Art and President, American Association of 
Museums; W. D. Frankforter, Director, Grand Rapids Public 
Museum; Lloyd Hezekiah, Director, Brooklyn Children's Museum; 
Lawrence J. Majewski, Chairman, Conservation Center, Institute 
of Fine Arts, New York University; Giles W. Mead, Director, Los 
Angeles County Museum of Natural History; T. Miake, Director 
of Programs, Ontario Science Museum; Arminta Neal, Curator 
of Graphics Design, Denver Museum of Natural History; Barnes 
Riznik, Vice President, Old Sturbridge Village; Frank Taylor, 
Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution; Vernal T. Yadon, 
Director, Pacific Grove Museum of Natural History; and Paul N. 
Perrot, Chairman, and Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs, 
Smithsonian Institution. 

In 1974, the Advisory Council added a new program — Travel 
Grants for Beginning Professionals. Persons who have been gain- 
fully employed by the profession for not more than four consecu- 
tive years and not less than one year are eligible for grant con- 
sideration under this program. The objective of this program is 
to provide individuals with the opportunity to broaden their knowl- 
edge and acquaint themselves with specific operations in other 
museums and institutions. Twenty-seven grants were awarded in 
this area. 

Special attention was given to Research in Conservation Tech- 
niques and Materials. Six projects were funded in this category 
including. Dating by Thermoluminescence, the Use of Trialkoxy- 
alkylsilanes for the Conservation of Stone, and Control of Shock 
and Vibration of Objects in Transit. 

The National Museum Act continues its strong support for publi- 
cations to distribute technical information on a broad scale. In 
addition to support for technical articles as a supplement to Museum 
News, two books. Museum Trustees Handbook and Rene d' Harnon- 
court: His Art of Installation, and a monograph. Collective Bargain- 
ing in Museums were funded. 

Seminars, especially those providing in-service training to mem- 
bers of the profession, received special emphasis. Eighteen work- 
shops covering such topics as museum education, fund raising, 
registration methods, zoo management, administration, publication 
programs, docent programs, museum architecture, and Bicentennial 
program planning were a part of the seminar program. 

Museum Programs I 203 

Office of Exhibits Central 

The newly established Office of Exhibits Central (oec) assisted 
almost every office of the Smithsonian Institution during its first 
full year of operation. The Special Exhibit Resources Group — 
which includes the Models, Plastics, and Restoration Shops and 
Freeze Dry Laboratory, the Motion Picture Unit, Museum Light- 
ing Office, Audio Visual Unit, and Exhibits Editor's Office — 
provided service and consultation in their specializations on a wide 
variety of projects to each Smithsonian Museum on the Mall. The 
Central Design and Production Group greatly increased the sup- 
port of programs for the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Ex- 
hibition Service, the National Zoological Park, and the Division 
of Performing Arts' Festival of American Folklife. Both groups 
with the administrative staff of the oec developed shop facilities 
and procedures during this period and continued to refine operations 
to meet the increasing needs of Smithsonian bureaus and offices. 

The Twenty-fourth Street facility was activated for fabrication 
and graphic production and is now fully operational. The Adminis- 
trative, Design, and Editor's offices are located in the Arts and 
Industries Building and the Special Resources shops and labora- 
tories continue to function in their former locations at the National 
Museum of Natural History, and the National Museum of History 
and Technology. 

The Office of Exhibits Central recorded 156 project requests in 
its first year and completed 95 of these. Of the balance, several 
are long-range or Bicentennial programs of the Institution. Main- 
taining a philosophy of operational flexibility and improving an 
ability to perform unique tasks wherever needed, the oec is devel- 
oping plans and activities with its client organizations within the 
Institution for both long-range and specialized exhibition services. 

Office of Museum Programs 

The Office of Museum Programs, as part of the Office of the 
Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs, is an aggregate of 
programs responsible for coordinating activities related to training 

204 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

in muscology and museography, and the development of new tech- 
niques relating to museum administration and practices. Presently, 
the office maintains three major programs — the Museum Work- 
shop Program, the Conservation Information Program, and the 
Psychological Studies Program. 

The Museum Workshop Program offers workshops, seminars, 
and training courses to any individual gainfully employed by a 
museum. Each workshop, taught by Smithsonian staff, is devoted 
to specific methods or problems. Enrollment is limited, and instruc- 
tors try to concentrate on the particular needs of each participant. 
Special attention is usually given to the problems of the small 
museum's budget, services, and facilities. Workshops offered this 
year featured: exhibit design, graphics techniques, silk screening, 
label writing, editing and production, fabrication and installation 
methods, model-making, freeze-drying, membership programs, 
traveling exhibitions, development and financial planning, and 
psychological methods. 

The Conservation Information Program is another service de- 
signed to make the knowledge and facilities of the Smithsonian 
accessible to as large an audience as possible. The program 
acquaints small museums, interested organizations, and individuals 
with selected theoretical and practical principles currently practiced 
in the field of museum conservation. This information — in the 
form of video-taped programs and slide lectures accompanied by 
tape commentaries — is lent, free of charge, to all who request it. 
To date, the Conservation Information Program, in cooperation 
with the Smithsonian Institution Conservation-Analytical Labora- 
tory, has produced 4 slide presentations on the curatorial care of 
objects and 10 more are being prepared during the next year. Some 
selected subjects include: dry methods in the cleaning of prints, 
drawings, and manuscripts; proper mounting and matting of 
drawings, and manuscripts; proper mounting and matting of paper; 
the protective lining of a wooden storage drawer for textiles and 
costumes; and the wet cleaning of antique cotton, linen and wool. 

The Psychological Studies Program provides both direct and 
evaluative services to the Smithsonian Institution and engages in 
applied behavior research for broader application to museum pro- 
fessional practices. The staff designs and tests museum behavior 
studies which aid (1) the study of the museum as an institution for 

Museum Programs I 205 

the preservation, interpretation, and exhibition of objects, and (2) 
the construction of several practical and effective visitor-behavior 
projects employing some of the methods of social science that the 
museum professional can undertake in his own museum or gallery. 
The Psychological Studies Program analyzes visitor behavior, 
especially that of communication. Investigations gauge the educa- 
tional effectiveness of exhibits and exhibit techniques. The Program 
is also concerned with the problem of visitor orientation, that is, 
how to initiate the visitor into the museum experience for optimum 
use of his time and interests. The primary testing grounds for 
research activities have been the National Museum of Natural 
History, the National Museum of History and Technology, and the 
Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts. Subjects 
examined in nmnh were: the relative effectiveness of different ex- 
hibit halls; visitor characteristics most likely to determine visitor 
behavior; and the relationship between the physical layout, famil- 
iarity and attractiveness of exhibit halls, and the visitors' behavior 
within them. At nmht, the staff analyzed traffic flow, crowding, 
attraction and holding power of exhibits, orientation within the 
gallery, the effectiveness of different kinds of labels, use of facili- 
ties, and causes of visitor fatigue. Visitor learning and ways of 
facilitating it were tested for two years at the Renwick. 

Office of the Registrar 

The Smithsonian is evaluating and improving its registration sys- 
tem. The Office of the Registrar, which dates back at least to the 
1880s once kept records on all specimens and administered all 
shipping for the Smithsonian. New museums, increases in curatorial 
staff, and increased accession rates have outpaced the development 
of the Central Registrar's office. Presently actions are underway to 
break with old traditions. During 1973, the Council of Registrars, 
which represents most museums in the Smithsonian complex, made 
thorough studies of several registration problems and made exten- 
sive reports to the Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs. 
These recommendations are the initial steps toward beneficial 
change in the Institution's registration system. 

206 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Although yet a vision rather than a reaUty, the new order of 
registration at the Smithsonian is discernible, and it is the goal 
toward which present activities are directed. Each museum will 
have a registration staff adequate to ensure proper documentation 
of all acquisitions and to work with curators and conservators to 
ensure the security and availability of specimens. The Central 
Registrar will have several functions. As the senior registrar, he 
will assist museums with their registration problems and he will 
develop new registration techniques as required by the complexities 
of the national collections. Most important of all, the Central 
Registrar will take an Institution-wide view of the national collec- 
tions and the systems which protect and service these resources. 

Thus, the primary achievement of fiscal year 1974 was careful 
development of goals. 

Smithsonian Institution Archives 

During fiscal 1974 the Smithsonian Archives continued its efforts 
to gain intellectual control of Archives throughout the Institution. 
Work continued on records of the National Museum of Natural His- 
tory, where an intensive survey revealed that some 6.5 million docu- 
ments remain unprocessed and in need of archival preservation. 

The National Museum of History and Technology presents an 
archival challenge unique among Smithsonian bureaus, because it 
is the only bureau which maintains a major manuscript collecting 
program in addition to creating its own administrative records. 
During 1974 the Archives staff began a major effort to aid in the 
care and preservation of those materials. A consultant employed by 
the Archives surveyed the records and manuscript holdings of the 
Science and Technology Department, and submitted a report to the 
Director of the National Museum of History and Technology, 
which will serve as the basis for policy decisions defining the role 
of the Archives in the National Museum of History and Technology. 

The Archives made provisions to care for the records of the 
National Collection of Fine Arts and the National Portrait Gallery, 
as well as the National Air and Space Museum. 

Museum Programs I 207 

Many other ongoing programs continued, with emphasis on mi- 
crofilming and efforts to develop computerized finding aids to the 
Archives' holdings. Arrangement and microfilming of the accession 
records continued and the specimen catalogues of several divisions 
in the National Museum of Natural History were filmed. 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

Nineteen seventy-four was a year of staff participation and a year 
of experimentation in new forms of operations and services. During 
the first half of the year the Libraries' staff took part in a study of 
the Libraries' management. A report was submitted to the Director 
of Libraries in January 1974, and after discussions with the staff, 
the Director of Libraries accepted more than fifty of the study's 
recommendations. The recommendations are being implemented by 
the Libraries' administrators. An Implementation Assessment 
Group, appointed to monitor the progress of implementation, is to 
make periodic reports to the Director of Libraries and to the staff. 
This management study introduced an atmosphere of staff partici- 
pation in decision making. 

The most promising technical development was the Libraries' 
experiment with the Ohio College Library Center (oclc) on-line 
cataloguing system. This system produces catalogue cards for- 
matted to Smithsonian specifications faster and more efficiently 
than the previously used manual procedures. Furthermore, the oclc 
system, which provides on-line access to a large and growing 
bibliographic data base, has facilitated the process of ordering 
library materials. The introduction of this system has effected some 
experiments in workflow and staffing patterns to permit more 
efficient use of personnel. The staff is now assessing the effective- 
ness of the OCLC system and is planning for expansion of automated 

Throughout the year, bureau and branch librarians met to dis- 
cuss common problems. For the first time, librarians responsible for 
the development and maintenance of library collections in various 
bureaus and departments participated in the allocation of book and 
binding funds for the Libraries. The Deputy Assistant Director for 

208 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Bureau Services has initiated cooperative efforts to formulate a 
library collection development policy for the Institution. 

Services to users have been augmented. For example, the 
National Air and Space Museum Library produces a current aware- 
ness list; users in the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and 
Radiation Biology Laboratory Libraries are provided with individ- 
ually profiled current awareness services; librarians at the National 
Zoological Park and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute index 
relevant literature for their users. 

Librarians serving bureaus and departments of the Institution 
have been attempting to become more closely involved with pro- 
grams and plans of the bureaus which they serve. The National 
Air and Space Museum librarian serves as Chairperson of the 
NASM Collection Development Committee; both the National Air 
and Space Museum and National Collection of Fine Arts/National 
Portrait Gallery librarians attend staff meetings held by their 
bureau directors; at the request of the National Museum of History 
and Technology librarian, a library committee of curators has been 
formed to advise the bureau librarian. 

In spite of a limited budget for the purchase of books and 
journals, the Libraries continued to acquire many of the materials 
required to support Smithsonian Institution programs. To a large 
extent, important gifts and the Libraries' well-established exchange 
program made this possible. The year saw exchange programs 
initiated with the People's Republic of China and with the Museums 
and Monuments Office in Ghana. 

The binding and preservation program of the Libraries has been 
hampered for a number of years by lack of adequate funds. In 
anticipation of increased support, binding and preservation needs 
have been assessed. The program to identify and preserve rare 
books in the Institution continued. 

One area of concern expressed in the Libraries' management 
study was the personnel program. As a result, some changes in 
personnel policies and staffing are being tested and a Staff Develop- 
ment Committee has been appointed. 

The Libraries supported staff participation in continuing educa- 
tion and professional activities such as seminars, conferences, 
meetings, and training courses. Twenty-six Libraries' staff members 

Museum Programs I 209 

attended training courses funded by the Libraries. Several staff 
members have received outstanding professional recognition. 
Catherine Scott, nasm bureau librarian, is a member of the Board 
of Visitors of Catholic University of America Library and a member 
of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. 
William Walker, ncfa/npg librarian, is Vice Chairman Elect of 
the Art Libraries Society of North America (arlis/na). Elaine Sloan, 
Assistant to the Director for Planning and Research, received a 
Ph.D. in Library and Information Services from the University of 
Maryland. Dr. Russell Shank, Director of Libraries, completed his 
term as President of the Association of College and Research 1 
Libraries and was elected Vice President, President Elect of the 
United States Book Exchange. Dr. Shank was the recipient of a 
fellowship from the Council of Library Resources and was granted 
sabbatical leave by the Smithsonian from February to September, 
1974, to study the implications of telecommunications policy for 
libraries and information resources. Jean Chandler Smith, Assistant 
Director for Bureau Services, was appointed Acting Director of 

Among the many distinguished visitors to the Smithsonian 
Institution Libraries was a delegation of heads of libraries from 
the People's Republic of China. The Libraries provided graduate 
library school students opportunities for study and field work. As 
part of a training program, two American Indians from Navajo 
Community College Library worked in the Anthropology, nmht, 
and NASM Libraries. 

Major Purchases by Smithsonian Institution 
Libraries, Fiscal Year 1974 

Audubon, John James. The Birds of America; from original drawings, by 
John James Audubon. London, 1827-1838. New York, Amsterdam, 
Johnson Reprint Corporation, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, 1971-1974. 
Facsimile edition. 4 volumes. 

City Directories of the United States. Segment I. City Directories of the 
U.S., through 1860. (microfiche) 

Segment II. City Directories of the U.S., 1861-1881. Parts I-IV. (micro- 

Author and Classified Catalogues of the Royal Botanic Gardens Library. 
Kew, England, 1973. 

210 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

The beautiful National Collection of Fine Arts / National Portrait Gallery Library. 

Rare Books Purchased by Smithsonian Institution 
Libraries, Fiscal Year 1974 

Aldrovandi, Ulysses. De quadrupedibus solidipedibus. Bologna, 1639. 
Aldrovandi, Ulysses. Quadrupedum omnium historia. Bologna, 1621. 
Bauhin, Johann. Historia plantarum universalis. Ebrovdni, 1650-51. 3 

Belidor, Bernard Forest de. Nouveau cours de mathematique a I'usage de 

I'artillerie et du genie. Paris, 1757. 
Bell, William A. New Tracks in North America. London, 1869. 2 volumes. 
Benkard, Ernst. Das Selbstbildnis vom 15. bis zum Beginn des 18. Jahr- 

hunderts. Berlin, 1927. 
Bien and Sterner. New rail road map. New York, 1855. 
Boulter, Daniel. Museum Boulteranium. A catalogue of the curious and 

valuable collection of natural and artificial curiosities in the extensive 

museum of Daniel Boulter. Yarmouth . . . London, [1910]. 
Bruff, J. Goldsborough. Cold rush. The journals, drawings and other 

papers of J. Goldsborough Bruff . . . April 2, 1849-July 20, 1851. New 

York, 1944. 
Caesius, Bernardo. Mineralogia sive naturalis philosophiae thesauri. Lug- 

duni, 1637. 
Clap, Thomas. The annals or history of Yale-College in New Haven. New 

Haven, 1766. 
Delius, Christoph Traugott. Anleitung zu der Bergbaukunst nach ihrer 

Theorie und Ausubung. 2d. edition. Vienna, 1806. 2 volumes of text, 1 

volume of plates. 
Ehrenberg, Christian Gottfried. Uber noch zalreich jetz lebenden thier- 

arten der kreidebildung. Berlin, 1840. 
Euler, Leonard. Introduction a I'analyse infinitesimale. Paris, 1796. 2 

Findley, William. History of the insurrection in the four western counties 

of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, 1796. 
Forbes, James. Hortus Woburnensis. London, 1833. 
Foullon, Abel. Descrittione, et uso dell'holmetro. Venice, 1564. 
Fregoso, Battista. De dictis factisque memorabilibus collecteana. Milan, 

Fremont, John Charles. Memoirs of my life. Chicago, 1867. Volume 1. 
Galucci, Giovanni Paolo. Theatrum Mundi et Temporis. Venice, 1589. 
Grant, Mrs. Anne McV. Memoirs of an American lady. London, 1808. 2 

Ingen Housz, Johann. Versuche mit pflanzen. Vienna, 1786. 2 volumes in 

Instruction sur les mesures deduites de la grandeur de la terre. . . . Paris, 

[1794]. (An II de la Republique, une et indivisible). 
Klein, Jacob Theod. Naturalis dispositio echinodermatum. Danzig, 1734. 

212 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Leonicenus (Nicolaus). De serpentibus opus singulare ac exactissimum. 

Bologna, 1518. 
Le Vaillant, Fran<;;ois. Voyage de M. he Vaillant dans I'interieure de 

I'Afrique. . . . Paris, 1790. 2 volumes. 
Lunel, Godefroy. Histoire naturelle des poissons du bassin du Leman. 

Geneva, 1874. 
McCrady, Edward. The history of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775- 

1780. New York, 1902. 
. The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1780-1783. New 

York, 1902. 
. The history of South Carolina under the Proprietary Government, 

1670-1719. New York, 1901. 

The history of South Carolina under the Royal Government, 1719- 

1776. New York, 1899. 

Mahan, Alfred Thayer. Sea power in its relations to the War of 1812. 
Boston, 1905. 2 volumes. 

[Massachusetts Colony]. The votes and proceedings of the freeholders and 
other inhabitants of the town of Boston, in town meeting assembled. 
. . . Boston, [1772]. 

Morison, Robert. Plantarum umbelliferarum distributio nova. Oxford, 

Muller, Otho Friderich. Zoologia danica seu animalium Dabiae et Nor- 
wegiae. . . . Copenhagen, 1788. 4 volumes. 

Musschenbroek, Pierre Van. Essai de physique. Leyden, 1751. Volumes 
1 & 2. 

Paris, Edmond. Le Musee de Marine du Louvre. Paris, 1883. 

Paris, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. Instruction pour les voyageurs et 
pour les employees dans les colonies sur la maniere de recuellir, de con- 
server et d'envoyer les objets d'histoire naturelle. Paris, 1818. 

Pinset, R., & D'Auriac, Jules. Histoire du portrait en Prance. Paris, 1884. 

Porta, Giambattista. Phytognomonica. Frankfurt, 1591. 

Portis, L. De sestertio ponderibus et mensuris antiquis libri duo. Venice, 

Stuart, James. Three years in North America. Edinburgh, 1833. 2 volumes. 

Veth, J. Portretstudies en silhouetten. Amsterdam, 1914. 

Voet, Joannes. Catalogues systematicus coleoptorem. The Hague, [1804]- 
1806. 2 volumes. 

Woodward, John. An essay toward a natural history of the earth and ter- 
restrial bodies. . . . London, 1695. 

Zonca, Vittorio. Novo teatro di machine et edificii. Padua, 1656. 

Museum Programs I 213 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 

The Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (sites) cir- 
culates more shows on more subjects to more people than anyone 
else. It is unique in that it circulates exhibitions of history, science, 
and technology in addition to exhibitions on art. 

This past year, several new initiatives were undertaken as a re- 
sponse to the needs of sites' customers. Each new effort had to be 
oriented philosophically and financially to the Smithsonian's effort 
to increase as well as diffuse knowledge. 

This year, sites received its first direct federal appropriation. Ful- 
filling a promise to Congress, appropriated funds were directed 
toward keeping rental fees within the range of medium and small 
institutions that count on the Smithsonian for high quality exhibi- 
tions. Further, federal funds were used to improve exhibition quality 
by expanding programming and educational activities suggestions 
to more effectively use the circulating shows. 

The primary responsibility for the development of these materials 
is being pursued by a Program Coordinator, a new position on the 
Traveling Exhibition Service staff. It has been determined that there 
are far too many projects for one such position and plans have been 
made to add more persons in the future. 

sites representatives were present at each of the six regional meet- 
ings of the American Association of Museums this year. Inquiries 
about sites' program and consultation to others on the travel of 
shows were provided. A significant amount of foreign as well as 
domestic travel was undertaken to assure that sites standards were 
upheld in the preparation of shows for travel. In addition to many of 
the 50 states and Puerto Rico, sites staff worked with exhibition 
sources in Sweden, Belgium, Denmark, Austria, Great Britain, Nor- 
way, Israel, Australia, and New Zealand. Four members of the sites 
staff attended the American Association of Museums national meet- 
ing in Fort Worth, Texas, and a delegate was sent to the International 
Council of Museums meeting in Copenhagen. 

A Bicentennial Exhibitions effort was launched this year with the 
assignment of two full-time -staff members to this program. Two 
exhibitions especially mounted for the Bicentennial began their tours. 

A major program to improve sites' exhibition offerings in science 

214 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

was begun. A National Science Foundation grant to develop a series 
of exhibitions with the topic of "Understanding the Environment" 
provided the major impetus for the program. 

A week-long workshop on the travel of exhibitions was held at 
SITES headquarters in April 1974, Nine representatives from mu- 
seums in the United States, one from Puerto Rico, and two from 
Canada participated. 

SITES concluded the year having booked over 600 exhibitions 
viewed by an estimated 4,800,000 persons. There are now 2,600 
institutions on sites mailing lists. At the end of the year, 109 exhibi- 
tions were in circulation. During the twelve-month period, 28 exhi- 
bitions were produced for tour and 3 were refurbished for extended 

In fiscal year 1974, approximately $250,000 in grants, gifts, and 
contracts were received to develop exhibitions and educational pro- 
grams. With the federal appropriation, these funds had the effect of 
making sites exhibitions more accessible than ever before. 

Exhibitions Beginning Tours in Fiscal Year 1974 

Civil Engineering in Switzerland 

Huddinge Hospital : A Public Environment 

Below Man's Vision 

Antwerp's Golden Age 

Children in Bondage 

Manuscripts of the American Revolution 

American Coverlets (two versions) 

Our Only World (six copies) 

Witness To Our Time 

Kurt Kranz : Bauhaus and Today 

In Beauty It Is Begun 

Mary Bruce Sharon: An American Primitive 

200 Years of Royal Copenhagen Porcelain 

Chinese Export Porcelain 

Folk Paintings from Dalarna 

Next Door, Down the Road, Around the Corner (two copies) 

Objects for Preparing Food 

Eighth Dulin Print and Drawing Competition 

The Five Sense Store: An Aesthetic Design for Education 

Permutations: Earth, Sea, Sky (30 works on paper, by Lawrence Calcagno) 

Exhibitions Refurbished for Extended Tours 

Alvar Aalto 

Handicrafts of the Southeast 

Shout in Silence 

Museum Programs I 215 

^: I 


Valerie Lee Sedano, a handicapped National Museum of History and Technology 
Staff Associate for Education, employs sign language to describe for deaf children 
the Museum's largest "touch-it" object, the 280-ton "1401" locomotive. 

Smithsonian Year '1974 

During the past 12 months an exciting fermentation has begun in 
the area of Public Service. This activity is in response to the impact 
of a larger public interest in a more extensive Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, and, in equal measure, to a notably more discerning public 
interest in the educational potential of the Smithsonian museums 
and galleries, and their programs. In building the resources and the 
organization to meet these challenges, the Public Service divisions 
are helping to bring into balance the Institution's fulfillment of Mr. 
Smithson's mandate for the diffusion of knowledge as well as its 

For, basically, the role of Public Service is education, and Smith- 
sonian educational activity has been mushrooming as the desire of 
the American public of all ages to be educated has burgeoned in one 
of the liveliest social phenomena of our time. During the year, 21 
Smithsonian bureaus conducted specifically educational programs 
which reached a total of close to 300,000 people. These were by no 
means all Public Service functions, but all complemented the direct 
educational role of the Office of Public Service. Our view, in fact, is 
that our major museum and gallery directors are the best qualified 
to develop education programs related to their collections or re- 
searches. In consequence, we decentralized the Office of Elementary 
and Secondary Education and thereby made people and money avail- 
able for the establishment of education speciahst positions and sup- 
porting sections in all of the principal museums and galleries. A 
comparable reorganization is being considered for the Office of 
Public Affairs; in addition, the funds formerly allotted to the Smith- 
sonian Institution Press and divided by the Director of the Press 
among interested bureaus will henceforth be distributed directly to 


bureau chiefs so that each may determine his own publishing priori- 
ties. Such changes permit us to reorganize the central offices of the 
Office of Elementary and Secondary Education and ultimately of 
the Office of PubHc Affairs so that their efforts can be focused on 
Institution-wide requirements. 

The twin challenges posed by Smithsonian growth and by the ap- 
proach of the Bicentennial have stimulated every one of the Public 
Service divisions, as will be evident in the following accounts. At 
the end of fiscal 1974 Smithsonian (magazine) circulation and Na- 
tional Associate membership exceeded 600,000 and was steadily 
climbing; Resident Associate membership topped 20,000; Division 
of Performing Arts-produced Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz 
had sold 30,000 copies; and a striking further demonstration of 
public enthusiasm for Office of Public Service programs was evident 
in the long queues which formed before each of the 7 daily show- 
ings of the Ascent of Man film series, arranged by the Office of 
PubUc Service Free Film Theatre. In addition, not only the Public 
Service bureaus but the entire Institution is preparing for the antici- 
pated results of the Smithsonian television series which will begin in 
the fall of 1974 and will bring Smithsonian treasures and Smith- 
sonian interests to 20 to 40 million television viewers across the 
Nation. Every increase in public interest in the Smithsonian gener- 
ates a requirement for service to that public, whether it be the 
development of new educational facilities or simply the organization 
and staffing of an office to reply to the increase in letters of inquiry 
or suggestion addressed to the Smithsonian. 

Fiscal year 1974 did bring one reduction in the organizational 
makeup of the Office of Public Service with the very appropriate 
transfer of the Office of International Activities to the Office of the 
Secretary for Science. 

Finally, the Office of Public Services wishes to express its warm 
appreciation to the 1120 dedicated members of the Smithsonian vol- 
unteers and the 530 Smithsonian volunteer docents who gave so 
much of their time and service to the Institution during 1974, and 
without whose help "Smithsonian Public Service" would have a far 
more limited connotation. 

218 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


r ^ 

A contemplative visitor to the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum's exhibit, "Africa: 
Three Out of Many — Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria." 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

The Anacostia Neighborhood Museum now in its sixth year has 
continued to enrich the experience of museum visitors with a 
variety of exhibits and educational programs. 

The year was highhghted by a series of major exhibitions. "The 
Evolution of a Community, Part 11" communicated areas of con- 
cern that were relevant to all urban communities. It represented the 
shared feelings of the people of Anacostia concerning housing, 
unemployment, education, drug abuse, and crime. "Africa: Three 
Out of Many" represented the African language of art in its three- 
dimensional forms of sculpture and masks. The art, the religious 
inspirations, history, and culture depicted the people of Ethiopia, 
Ghana, and Nigeria — the three countries selected from many 
African nations. 

The Barnett-Aden collection of paintings, sculptures, and prints 
was shown. The collection reflected the talents and concerns of an 
exciting group of American arid Afro- American artists who emerged 
from the period which historians call the "Harlem Renaissance." 

220 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Exhibits at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, "Africa: Three Out of 
Many — Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria" (opposite page) and "The Barnett-Aden 
Collection" held January 20 to May 6, 1974, attracted many visitors. The latter 
proved to be an important art event in the Metropolitan area. 

A variety of educational programs and films of popular interest 
were given during each exhibit and throughout the year. Over 
40,000 children and teenagers participated in these activities. 

The Mobile Division continues to take the museum to the 
people. Portable exhibits, teaching aids, demonstrations, and a 
Speakers' Bureau are all included in its outreach program. 

The history of the Anacostia community is presently being 
researched for a publication entitled Anacostia Story, which is 
being prepared for the Bicentennial. Anacostia Neighborhood 
Museum is also looking forward to completion in 1974 of the 
construction of an Exhibits Design and Production Laboratory 
where, in addition to the preparation and production of exhibits 
for the Museum, an exhibits training program will train minority 
members in the arts and crafts of museum design and production. 
This laboratory, when in operation, will provide improved facilities 
for experimentation in exhibit design and production, which has 
been a goal of the Museum since its inception. 

Public Service I 221 

Division of Performing Arts 

Expanding the Institution's role as conservator and preserver of the 
Nation's creative forces, the Division of Performing Arts presented 
the Seventh consecutive Festival of American FolkHfe, which has 
become the largest summertime event in the Nation's Capital, and 
six different series and numerous individual events during the 
winter programs. 

During the 1973-1974 season, 15,000 people attended concerts 
offering a range of creative musical expressions from baroque to 
bluegrass, as well as the second season of Jazz Heritage Concerts. 
Such artists as Leon Fleisher and the Theater Chamber Players, 
Bill Monroe and the Blue Grass Boys, Earl Brown, Earl Hines, and 
Carmen McRae were presented. Most concerts were preceded by 
free public workshops. To cope with capacity audiences, work- 
shops had to be moved from the Hall of Musical Instruments to 
the Baird Auditorium midway through the season. 

A new recording program instituted by the Division issued a 
historic first, the Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz, a boxed, 
six-record set including 85 selections from 17 record companies. 
The set was produced by Martin Williams, Director of the Jazz 
Program. Receiving critical acclaim and an unprecedented number 
of orders, the Collection is now in its third printing. 

The Smithsonian Resident Puppet Theater, one of two con- 
tinuously operated puppet theaters in the country, attracted 3000 
visitors each week to three different shows: Patchwork, an impro- 
visational series with music, Pinocchio, a new version of the classic, 1 
and What If?...,a puppet science-fiction fantasy. The Perform- 
ing Arts Division contributes to a "lively mall" area through the 
operation of the carousel and the original old-time popcorn 

Performing Arts shares the American experience in its many 
creative forms with museum visitors and people across the Nation 
through the Smithsonian Touring Performance Service, offering 
performances not available through commercial management to 
museums, colleges, universities, and cultural centers. The 1973- 
1974 season saw 51 performances sent to 23 states, by the Smith- 
sonian Puppet Theater, The American Folklife Company, High- 

222 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

The 50-acre expanse between the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument is 
the site of the Festival of American Folklife, July 3-14. Called the "Axis of the Nation" 
by Pierre L'Enfant, the greensward will see 700 participants and draw a projected 1.5 
million visitors to the "Festival of the Common Man" in 1976. Below: Visitors join in 
singing and dancing in the Tribute to Tamburashi. The 1973 Festival marked the first 
participation by a foreign government — Yugoslavia. 

tyO^,.&.<:2^ ^^^^2^. •^^^'3i5rj^^ 


Letter to a Docent from an elementary school student. 

Students from Devonshire Elementary School in Fairfax County 
participate in Museum Education Day 1974. 

woods String Band, Horace Silver, Jean Ritchie, and others. A post- 
Festival tour of Serbo-Croatian musicians traveling to ethnic 
comnrunities in 6 cities became a pilot project which will service 
increased requests from state and local communities for Smith- 
sonian aid in booking Bicentennial programs. 

The Seventh Festival of American Folklife featured a new site, an 
expanded schedule, and new themes leading to a season-long Bicen- 
tennial Festival in 1976. The 1973 presentation focused on four 
theme areas that would be expanded for the Bicentennial: Old 
Ways in the New World, Working Americans, Native Americans, 
and Regional America. The Smithsonian was joined by the National 
Park Service as a co-sponsor. Called the "great national family 
reunion," the Festival attracted 1.3 million visitors, who came to 
learn more about themselves and about others from the United 
States and around the world. 

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

Fiscal year 1974 has brought new directions and new challenges to 
the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education. As recently 
redefined, the Office is now a service unit, charged with giving 
assistance, upon request, to the Bureau education offices of all of 
the Smithsonian museums, the Chesapeake Bay Center for Environ- 
mental Studies, and the National Zoo. 

A primary responsibility of the Office of Elementary and 
Secondary Education (oese) is to encourage cooperation and ex- 
change of information among the Smithsonian education offices 
and between those offices and the District of Columbia area 
schools. Toward this end, a number of efforts are underway. Two 
publications — a monthly newsletter. Let's Go, and an annual 
brochure. Learning Opportunities for Schools — inform teachers of 
Smithsonian programs and other activities of particular interest to 
young people and contain suggestions for using museums as 
educational resources. The publications are sent free of charge to 
over 1300 area schools. In addition, an annual Museum Education 
Day is held for teachers, school administrators, and museum educa- 
tors. This year's event, which took place at the National Portrait 
Gallery and the National Collection of Fine Arts, presented a 

Public Service I 225 

selection of art, history, and science programs offered to school 
groups by the various education offices. A folk-music workshop, a 
Japanese tea ceremony, and a reenactment of the trial of aboli- 
tionist John Brown were among the programs demonstrated. A 
highlight of the day was a live animal demonstration by special 
guests from the Boston Museum of Science. Portions of Museum 
Education Day were filmed by wtop-tv and shown on "Eye- 
witness News." 

Teachers are reached also by a summer workshop program, now 
in its third year, which drew 34 participants from Montgomery 
County and the District of Columbia in 1973. The workshops 
enable teachers to develop curriculum units to be used in conjunc- 
tion with museum visits. One manifestation of the workshops is 
presently in evidence in a Montgomery County fourth-grade class- 
room, where students have created an exhibit of American Indian 
crafts and are learning traditional methods of pottery-making and 
weaving in connection with visits to the National Museum of 
Natural History. Altogether, an estimated 1500 students have been 
engaged in art, history, and science projects during the 1973-1974 
school year as a result of the summer workshops. 

In 1973-1974, the energy crisis brought a disappointing 26 per- 
cent decrease in the number of school tours scheduled by this 
office for the Mall museums. The decline was represented by 2187 
tours given to 50,865 children. Nonetheless, classes came from as 
far away as Cherry Hill, New Jersey, and Athens, Georgia, for the 
National Museum of Natural History's Early Man tour; and the 
number of outreach programs given in area classrooms jumped an 
encouraging 18 percent, serving a total of 9,438 children through 
357 presentations. 

An expanding force of volunteer docents, now numbering 326, 
has been recruited and trained by oese. To augment their regular 
training, the docents were able to attend two seminar lecture series 
in 1973 — one in American studies and the other in the natural 
sciences. Good indicators of the success of the docents in inspiring 
young visitors to think about the exhibits and draw conclusions 
from what they see are the comments the students make in the 
course of their guided tours. The following are a few of the 
comments recently overheard on a Colonial Life tour in the 
Museum of History and Technology : 

226 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Fourth-grade boy: "Suppose you couldn't learn how to do all 
those things that needed to be done. What would have happened 
to you?" 

Third-grade girl: "There's one reason I'd sooner have lived back 
in those days than now, and that's because back in those days you 
could be proud of what you did." 

Fourth-grade girl : "When so much is up to you, I guess you sort 
of want to work hard at it because it makes you feel good to do it 

For the past 4 years, a learning /service experience for teenager 
volunteers has been provided through oese's summer "Info" pro- 
gram. In June, July, and August of 1973, more than 100 high 
school students, selected and trained by oese, conducted visitors 
through the Mall museums. 

Several new programs are now in the planning stages. An 
audiovisual presentation orienting teachers to Smithsonian educa- 
tion service is being considered, as are continuing teacher work- 
shops beginning with the 1974-1975 school year. Through work- 
shops, publications, and related activities the Office of Elementary 
and Secondary Education will continue to serve the Smithsonian's 
education offices and Washington area schools. 

Office of Public Affairs 

In this technological age Americans receive more and more of their 
information and education from various forms of the electronic 
media. This fact alone poses new challenges to the museum 
community as well as to a diverse academic institution such as the 
Smithsonian, which has a charter to disseminate, as well as to 
increase, knowledge among mankind. 

Audio and film recordings are the staples of the electronic 
media, but they require time, energy, imagination, skill, and heavy 
budgetary commitments to produce in a professional and meaning- 
ful manner. Yet, in the years to come, they will be as significant 
and lasting, perhaps, in the Smithsonian's archives as many editions 
of the printed word. 

Public Service I 1T7 

An upcoming series of major prime-time television specials, 
based upon the activities of the Smithsonian Institution, thrust a 
significant new role on the Office of Public Affairs in fiscal 1974. 
The Office became the coordinator of an allied effort of scientists, 
administrators, historians, and other Smithsonian professionals 
and the writers, producers, and other creative talents of the 
David L. Wolper organization. The goal of this joint effort is to 
bring home the richness and variety of the Institution's knowledge 
to millions of Americans who might not otherwise have had an 
opportunity to become aware of the Smithsonian's interests. 

In addition to preparations for this 1974-1975 Smithsonian 
series, to be broadcast on the cbs television network as a presenta- 
tion of the DuPont Cavalcade of television, the growth of the 
Smithsonian during the year placed other new demands on the 
Office of Public Affairs to provide a wide range of public informa- 
tion activities. The Office was heavily involved in preparations for 
the expanded Festival of American Folklife on the Mall, the new 
product development program, the planned opening of the Hirsh- 
horn Museum and Sculpture Garden in the fall of 1974, and the 
Bicentennial, as well as in providing services to the ongoing 
Smithsonian programs of research, collections, and exhibits. 

A telecommunications coordinator was selected from more than 
300 applicants to oversee preparations for the Smithsonian's new 
television series and the Institution's other public efforts in the 
audiovisual media. The telecommunications staff of the Office of 
Public Affairs cooperated with numerous television, film, and radio 
producers planning programs based on Smithsonian activities, in 
addition to working with a producer who expects to air three 
significant television specials on the Smithsonian during the 1974- 
1975 season. Several documentary films on various aspects of the 
Smithsonian were also developed. "Radio Smithsonian" continued 
to produce a weekly half-hour radio program which during the 
past year was carried by some 95 radio stations Nationwide. 

During the past year the News Bureau of the Office of Public 
Affairs wrote and distributed 311 news releases and responded to 
hundreds of requests from the wire services, newspapers, maga- 
zines, and the public for information on Smithsonian activities. A 
sampler of press clippings reflecting representative press interest 

228 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

"Radio Smithsonian" with Radio Production Specialist Paul Johnson at the controls. 

The Old Patent Office Building was commemorated as a National Historic Landmark in 
a ceremony held April 3, 1974, in the courtyard of that building, which houses the 
National Collection of Fine Arts and the National Portrait Gallery. Shown affixing the 
plaque are Harry Jordan, Assistant to the Director of NCFA; Mrs. Richard Nixon; and 
Secretary Ripley. Others present for the ceremony included, from left, Meredith 
Johnson, Office of Public Affairs; Mrs. David E. Finley; Ronald Walker, Director of the 
National Park Service; David E. Finley, Commissioner of NCFA and NPG; Charles 
Blitzer, Assistant Secretary for History and Art; Joshua Taylor, Director of NCFA; 
Mrs. Ripley; and Marvin Sadik, Director of NPG. 

in the Smithsonian was initiated. Some 2.5 milUon building guides 
and brochures were also produced by the Office. 

The Office continued to produce the Smithsonian Torch, a news- 
paper for the Institution's employees, the widely circulated monthly 
Smithsonian Calendar of Events, and the quarterly Smithsonian Re- 
search Reports which has been requested by the scientific communi- 
ties of a number of other nations. The publication. Increase and 
Diffusion, was revised and brought up to date. 

Current information on daily events and exhibits was provided 
by the recorded telephone service Dial-a-Museum. From informa- 
tion furnished by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 
Dial-a-Phenomenon service provided information enabling callers 
to locate and observe artificial satellites as well as to identify 
celestial bodies. 

The Special Events staff assisted in the planning, preparation, and 
coordination of approximately 600 events during fiscal 1974, 
including lectures, conferences, symposia, openings of exhibitions, 
press previews, concerts, luncheons, dinners, and receptions. 

The staff participated in arrangements for tours for the new wife 
of the Secretary of State; the wives of visiting Latin American 
foreign ministers; the Empress of Iran and her three children; Prime 
Minister Tanaka of Japan; and, during the Festival of American 
Folklife, the Secretary of Labor, President of the afl-cio, and the 
mainland China mission to Washington. 

Other events in which the staff participated were Mrs. Nixon's 
installation of the Department of the Interior's historic site plaque 
at the National Collection of Fine Arts National Portrait Gallery 
building's courtyard. Speaker Carl Albert's presentation of a portrait 
of himself, and Mrs. Johnson's presentation of a bust of President 

The Special Events staff was also responsible for arrangements 
when a group of Congressional wives honored Mrs. Gerald Ford 
in the Commons, with an evening of entertainment by the British 
Players. The Secretaries of Commerce and Treasury and the Direc- 
tor of the Environmental Protection Agency hosted parties and 
tours for several Soviet Union delegations; and the Secretary held 
the biennial Diplomatic Dinner at the Renwick Gallery for the heads 
of 18 foreign missions and a Fourth of July party for other diplo- 
mats on the terrace of the Museum of History and Technology to 
watch the Monument fireworks. 

Public Service I 231 

Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars 

Improving public understanding of the work of academic special- 
ists continued to serve as the goal of educational experiments of 
the Office of Seminars in 1974. Its privately supported programs 
reflect the spirit of the classic series Smithsonian Contributions 
to Knowledge, initiated by Secretary Joseph Henry in 1847. 
("Knowledge should not be viewed as existing in isolated parts 
but as a whole, each portion of which throws light on all the 
other . . .") Mainly, the office prepares for publication — and other- 
wise helps disseminate, through seminars, symposia, television, and 
radio — the fruits of scholarly investigations and insights about 
the ideas, customs, skills, and art of various cultures and civiliza- 
tions. It calls upon the Smithsonian's own talents and combines 
these with resources of other museums, the government, corpora- 
tions, foundations, universities, research institutions, and profes- 
sional societies. 

The Cultural Drama, for example, was published in 1974. An 
illustrated collection of essays on modern identities and social fer- 
ment, the volume features an introduction by Secretary S. Dillon 
Ripley and a prologue calling for use of the American Bicentennial 
observance to celebrate cultural diversity and find a new national 
metaphor to replace "the melting pot." The Charles F. Kettering 
Foundation and the Rockefeller Brothers Fund provided support 
for the 1970 symposium out of which the book developed. 

Also linked to the Bicentennial are plans started in 1974 for a 
symposium, "Kin and Communities: The Peopling of America," 
scheduled for May 1976 as a scholarly prelude to the Smithsonian 
Institution National Park Service Festival of American Folklife. 
The symposium is being organized in liaison with other units of 
the Smithsonian and in cooperation with the Department of His- 
tory, American University, among other external organizations. 
Consultants include Dr. Robert Coles, psychiatrist. Harvard Uni- 
versity; Eli Evans, author of The Provincials; Dr. Albert Gollin, 
Bureau of Social Science Research, Inc.; Dr. David Goslin, sociolo- 
gist. National Academy of Sciences; Dr. Margaret Mead, American 
Museum of Natural History ;"and Allon Schoener, author of Portal to 
America: The Lower East Side, 1870-1925. 

232 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Margaret Mead, distinguished anthropologist and curator emeritus, American Museum 
of Natural History, discusses "New Initiatives in Environmental Renewal" at the 
Smithsonian's sixth seminar in its series on Voluntarism and the Public Interest in 
American Society as John Milton, Director, threshold International Center for Environ- 
mental Renewal (left) and Lee Talbot, Senior Scientist, Council on Environmental 
Quality, listen. 

William H. Crocker, Associate Curator, Latin American Anthropology (left) and Wilton 
S. Dillon, Director of Seminars (right) receive artifacts presented to the Smithsonian by 
the Choco Indian Tribe, brought to the Institution by H. Morgan Smith, Arctic Desert 
Communications, Maxwell Air Force Base (center), who coordinates tribal participation 
in Air Force survival training programs. 

Secretary Ripley's suggestion that the Smithsonian sponsor a 
Museum of the Family of Man to complete a chain of museums 
or exhibition centers on the Mall prompted a cooperative educa- 
tional project involving the Smithsonian and the College of Archi- 
tecture, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacks- 
burg, Virginia. Seminars and interviews were organized for faculty 
and students to improve their knowledge of the workings of mu- 
seums as preparation for their conceptualizing and designing a 
museum of mankind as a classroom exercise. Students' reports, 
sketches, construction models, videotapes, and other materials will 
be given to the Smithsonian. 

"Voluntarism and the Public Interest in American Society," an 
invitational seminar series, continued into 1974 with future pro- 
grams being planned in cooperation with the National Commis- 
sion on Private Philanthropy and Public Needs headed by John 
Filer, chairman, Aetna Life and Casualty Company. Sponsored 
jointly with the Office of Development, the series spanned two 
years of twelve programs involving foundation officers, tax lawyers, 
government officials, scholars, and leaders of voluntary associa- 
tions. The Non-Profit Report, Museum News, and Foundation News 
have published reports of the series. David L. Sills, editor of the 
International Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, serves as editorial 
consultant in planning an eventual volume of the papers and dis- 
cussions. Speakers in 1974 included Margaret Mead leading a 
discussion on "New Initiatives in Environmental Renewal," Barry 
Commoner speaking on "The Scientist's Responsibility Toward 
a Society in Crisis," and participants in an all-day workshop on 
"What Can Be Done About the African Drought?" 

"Innovation in Technology" is the theme of a two-part video 
taped seminar produced in 1974 by the Office of Seminars in co- 
operation with the National Academy of Engineering and the 
Exxon Corporation. Intended to stimulate classroom discussions 
in schools of management and engineering, as well as those in the 
humanities, the taped program included materials from engineers' 
presentations during the Copernicus symposium and subsequent 
commentaries by such interpreters of technology as Stephen 
Schwartz, Claire Nader, Don Walsh, Frank Piasecki, Robert 
Multhauf, and T. Dixon Long. 

234 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

The office also continued to work closely with seminar and 
symposium planning of the Woodrow Wilson International Center 
for Scholars, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, and 
the National Air and Space Museum. 

The celebration of the quincentennial of the birth of Nicolaus 
Copernicus continued with the Office of Seminars assisting Pro- 
fessor Owen Gingerich in his editing of the forthcoming Smith- 
sonian Press book The Nature of Scientific Discovery, based on the 
1973 symposium; laying the groundwork in Warsaw for an even- 
tual Polish-language edition to be published in cooperation with 
the Polish Academy of Sciences; cosponsoring with the Smith- 
sonian's Division of Performing Arts a presentation at the Institu- 
tion of Jerzy Grotowski, Poland's avant-garde actor-director; and 
distributing to science attaches in American embassies copies of 
the prize-winning Leonard Baskin Copernicus poster designed by 
Stephen Kraft. The London periodical Encounter and The Bulletin 
of Atomic Scientists have published essays contributed to the 
Gingerich volume by Werner Heisenberg and Gerald Holton. The 
Folger Shakespeare Library, in planning its 1974 Petrarch cele- 
bration, drew upon the Smithsonian's experience with Copernicus, 
and the office continued to work closely with the Copernicus So- 
ciety of America in responding to numerous inquiries of scholarly 
and ethnic communities seeking information on Copernicus and 
Renaissance culture. Moreover, the office helped to facilitate new 
showings of Jacob Bronowski's BBC-Time-Life documentary film 
series The Ascent of Man, originally premiered in Washington 
during the Smithsonian-National Academy of Sciences observance 
of Copernicus Week. 

Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. 

A new year and a new president began concurrently as Dr. Sidney 
Nelson assumed the presidency of Reading Is Fundamental, Inc., in 
August 1973. 

By May 1, 1974, the number of active Reading Is Fundamental 
(rif) programs (162) and developing programs (68) totaled 230. 
At the same time in 1973, this total was 139, of which 111 were 
active programs. These programs are all voluntary regional efforts 

Public Service I 235 

which call on rif Headquarters for program guidance, but depend 
on their own resources for staffing funds. As a result of endorse- 
ment by their national organizations, American Association of 
University Women (aauw) chapters now sponsor 24 local pro- 
grams, and the Jaycees, 8. Without such a national imprimatur, local 
Junior Leagues sponsor 9 rif programs — a marked increase over 
last year. Junior Women's Clubs sponsor 11 local rif programs. 

During fiscal 1974, a growing number of interracial and black 
service organizations took local rif programs as their principal 
cause. These include the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority; Jack & Jill, 
Inc.; Negro Business and Professional Women; National Council of 
Negro Women; links; the Urban League and Urban League Guilds. 

Endorsement from the Office of Education has led to the support 
of 50 local programs — 25 under Title I and 25 Right-to-Read pro- 
grams. The largest single program supported by federal funds 
(Emergency School Assistance Act) was the Brooklyn, New York, 
program involving 50,000 children in 100 schools in kindergarten 
through the third grade. Over 10,000 requests for rif's services 
were received from throughout the United States as a result of an 
article which appeared in the February 1974 Reader's Digest, en- 
titled "A Reading Program That Works." 

Major activities of rif's central office involved the preparation 
of a RIF handbook on starting and conducting a local rif program 
in the field, a national workshop which brought together 56 project 
directors and staff from 15 states to share experiences and ideas, 
a broad gauge assessment of the number and character of local rif 
programs, public education through a national public service adver- 
tising campaign, and the publication and distribution of a newsletter. 

The major source of rif's current support, a three year grant of 
$1,150,000 from the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation, will termi- 
nate in 1975. With this in view, the Board of Directors under the 
able leadership of Mrs. Robert S. McNamara, initiated a four-year 
campaign to solicit funds from foundations, corporations, and 
interested individuals. 

The Carnegie Corporation of New York agreed to fund a national 
evaluation of the impact of the Reading Is Fundamental program. 
The sum of $106,655 was appropriated to the Graduate School and 
University Center of the City University of New York for this 

236 / Smithsonian Year 1974 




Linda Johnson Robb (left) and Julie Nixon Eisenhower examine some printed materials 
shown them by Dr. Sidney Nelson, President of Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. 

Covers of three recent issues of Smithsonian. 

Smithsonian fl 

A new expanded rif program for the Capital was launched under 
the leadership of Mrs. Elliott L. Richardson and Mrs. Joseph J. 
Sisco. Funds for the program which will serve 30,000 children dur- 
ing the next three years have been provided by the Morris and 
Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation, the Eugene and Agnes E, Meyer 
Foundation, the National Home Library Foundation, and the Hattie 
M. Strong Foundation. 

Smithsonian Magazine 

It has been the aim of the magazine, Smithsonian, over the past 
4 fiscal years to provide a publication — as a benefit for National 
and Resident members of Smithsonian Associates — which would 
be attractive to readers with a high educational level and to adver- 
tisers who deal in quality products. Everything seemed to come 
together in fiscal 1974. 

When the magazine reached 600,000 net paid circulation, it 
found itself in an eminent position among the traditional "class" 
magazines, double the circulation of American Heritage, Natural 
History, Harper's, and Atlantic Monthly, and larger than Scientific 
American and the New Yorker. 

During the year, the magazine was recognized as an important 
national publication by two major newsweeklies. Time and News- 
week, which took note of the magazine's success and heralded it for 
its editorial excellence. Most critics, in print and by word of mouth, 
praised the magazine for its variety, its writing, and the beauty of 
its illustrations. 

Smithsonian's circulation increased 33 percent and its advertising 
revenue 85 percent in fiscal 1974 despite a softening of the econ- 
omy. The magazine has carried a rich and varied selection of 
advertisements from major companies in the United States, as 
well as numerous travel and consumer goods offerings. A random 
sampling from one issue, for example, shows, among others, adver- 
tisements from Kodak, General Electric, General Motors, Bergstrom 
Paper, Hueblein, General Telephone and Electronics, Alcoa, Na- 
tional Distillers, Atlantic Richfield, Smith-Corona, Western Electric, 
Guerlain, Bethlehem Steel, Exxon, DeBeers, and Franklin Mint. 

Public Service I 239 


The editorial content itself dealt with the subjects of previous 
years: stronger and stronger articles on conservation and energy; 
treatments of museum spectaculars around the world in-depth — 
for example, the tapestry treasures at the Metropolitan and the 
beauty of Chinese art at the Musee du Petit Palais; stimulating 
articles on natural and hard sciences such as the mystery of the 
"black holes" in space, articles on Smithsonian gems and model 
planes, Japanese traditions, and the ivory-billed woodpecker. . , . 

The magazine also continued to give candid and intimate views 
of history, especially American history. The series "America Two 
Hundred Years Ago," a month-by-month narrative of the events 
preceding the American Revolution, became a nationwide favorite. 

In Smithsonian Year 1969 it was predicted that the magazine 
would pay its way in the third year of publication. The prophecy 
was correct — so accurate that in 1974 the magazine will make a 
significant contribution to the general operating funds of the 
private sector of the Institution. 

At any given time it is, of course, impractical to predict future 
degrees of inflation and possible recessions, which will have to be 
faced. Certainly, production costs have been going up. However, 
one can predict confidently that, both with regard to the Institution 
and to the areas in which the Institution is interested, the editorial 
challenges will be met and the quality will continue to improve. 
And it is the policy of Smithsonian's management, both editorially 
and in the business areas, to remain flexible and resourceful. 

Smithsonian Associates 

The Smithsonian Associates experienced an extraordinary growth 
this year in membership numbers and in program activities. Na- 
tional membership increased from 450,000 to 600,000. Resident 
membership grew from 15,000 at the end of fiscal year 1973 to 
22,000 at the end of fiscal year 1974, representing 44,000 individ- 
uals in the Washington metropolitan area. 

Heightened interest in Associate membership can be attributed 
to a number of factors, not the least of which is greater program 
visibility through the Smithsonian (magazine), the monthly As- 

240 / Smithsonian Year 1974^ 

Robert Tuck shows a young student a live snake in Associates' amphibian 
and reptile course. Below: Charles Handley, Curator of the Division of 
Mammals, leads a workshop for students who learn how to dissect, stuff, and 
mount museum specimens. 

jHfi'- i . /. 












Creative weaving on portable free looms constructed in class is demonstrated on 
the lawn outside the Castle by Ronald Goodman. Below: An attentive Associate rigs 
a sailboat he constructed in a Young Associates model sailboat class. Instructor 
Bertholdt Schmutzhart is at right. 

sociate newsletter, the Smithsonian Calendar of Events, and con- 
tinuous media coverage. 

The pubhcation of an all-purpose brochure describing the Na- 
tional and the Resident Associate programs has proved to be a 
useful tool to clarify the opportunities of each type of membership. 

Cultural and educational programs of the Resident program 
include four semesters of classes a year, family events, symposia on 
provocative subjects, films, lectures, field trips, behind-the-scenes 
tours, and activities for young people. This year emphasis has 
switched from a few lecture classes in the arts, sciences, and hu- 
manities, with a multitude of crafts classes, to a balanced class pro- 
gram of over 65 classes per semester, with an average of 22 lecture 
classes for adults taught by Smithsonian and visiting scholars, studio 
classes, and children's classes. Average enrollment for these classes 
was 2300 per semester. 

Children's activities and classes have expanded and participation 
has been stressed. The scholarship program that enables inner-city 
children to attend Young Associate classes reached a new high of 
307 enrollees. This project was begun and funded by the Women's 
Committee of the Associates. Implementation of a "Family Events" 
page in the monthly newsletter expresses concern for and interest 
in family activities. 

The number of day tours and overnight tours quadrupled. 
Special events increased from 45 to 86. Free events rose from 30 to 
43 with attendance of 23,500. 

Cooperation with divisions and bureaus within the Institution, 
and other cultural, educational, and civic organizations increased. 
For the first time the Resident Associate program conducted a 
Membership Workshop, attended by representatives of 23 museums 
from all over the country. Two programs received support from the 
National Endowment for the Arts. The scope of the film series 
and festivals increased. Four major film series and two festivals of 
prize-winning noncommercial films were held. Poetry readings by 
distinguished poets were added to the long Hst of program activities 
and many distinguished guests from outside the family of Smithso- 
nian scholars and performers who gave lectures or led discussions. 

The Resident program contributed over $27,000 to the unre- 
stricted private funds of the Institution without increasing dues 
or the prices of events. Especially popular this year were the Giants 

Public Service I 243 

of Contemporary Architecture class in which architects and archi- 
tectural historians discussed outstanding masterpieces; Yehudi 
Menuhin's lecture on "Creativity" where Associates sat spellbound; 
Judith Crist's films of the seventies; Don a Hardhat, a tour of the 
Washington Metro subway system now under construction; and 
Shroeder loves Beethoven, a special Christmas party for Young 

More than 750 Associates participated in 20 Domestic and 
Foreign Study Tours to such places as Georgia to study the culture 
of Indian moundbuilders; to Big Cypress Swamp in the Florida 
Everglades to study flora and fauna; and to Ethiopia and Kenya to 
study ancient and contemporary cultures. One particularly success- 
ful and exciting trip was a cruise to the lagoons and coast of Baja 
California in search of whales, sea elephants, and sea lions. 

The Contributing membership, for individuals who donate $50 
or more annually, grew from 200 to 380 contributors. Added 
benefits for contributing members included a selection of exhibition 
catalogues and a reception to meet Brooke Hindle, new director of 
the National Museum of History and Technology. 

At Christmas, the Women's Committee of the Smithsonian 
Associates sponsored their third successful Christmas Dance. The 
dance was staged around the African bush elephant in the National 
Museum of Natural History. Proceeds were given to the Insect Zoo, 
an exhibition of live insects, which the Committee has supported 
for 3 years, and to the scholarship fund of the Resident program. A 
larger portion of this year's proceeds will establish an experimental 
exhibit for handicapped visitors to the National Museum of Natural . 

The National Board of the Smithsonian Associates, a group 
composed of 26 industrial and citizen leaders, met in October 19731 
and adopted a set of bylaws. The Board was largely responsible for; 
stimulating corporate support to the Institution in excess of: 
$100,000 for fiscal year 1974. I 

One of the greatest services to the Institution is performed byj 
the Associates Reception Center. Serving as the central visitor 
information office for Associates and for the public, the Center has! 
greatly strengthened its ability to respond to increasing demands 
for informational assistance. Over 13,000 pieces of mail requesting 

244 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Kite Day, co-sponsored by the Resident Associate Program and the National Park 
Service, an annual happening on the Mall climaxes a three-session Kite Carnival 
including a lecture and workshop. Paul E. Garber (left). Historian Emeritus of the 
National Air and Space Museum, is the originator and beloved major domo of the 
event. (Photograph by Paul Feinberg) 

Display featuring Smithsonian titles in the window of Brentano's 
Fifth Avenue store in New York. 

everything from general information for visiting purposes to 
specific technical data were answered; 125,000 phone inquiries 
representing a 100-percent increase in traffic over the previous 
12-month period were also channeled through the Center. Over 
5000 Associate families from across the country registered in the 
Center's guest book — a figure which reflects only one-third of all 
the Associates actually seeking the Center's assistance. 

Ninety additional information volunteers were recruited, trained, 
and scheduled by the Center, enabling double coverage at several 
information desks and the assumption of the additional responsi- 
bility of maintaining an information desk at the Renwick Gallery. 
The significance of voluntarism as an important Smithsonian re- 
source was more widely recognized this year through an Institution- 
wide survey conducted by the Center. The survey found that 1120 
volunteers contributed 105,000 hours of service, an equivalent of 77 
man-years of labor worth $914,000. 

For the National membership, a comprehensive Guide to the 
Nation's Capital and the Smithsonian Institution was produced in 
cooperation with Smithsonian and appeared in the April issue as 
the magazine's first supplement. 

Smithsonian Institution Press 

I As the official publications arm of the Smithsonian, the Smith- 
sonian Institution Press is responsible for the editing, design, pro- 
duction, and distribution of more than oae hundred scholarly 
monographs, scientific reports, definitive art catalogues, and infor- 
mational brochures each year. Although, in most cases, the Press 
staff does not do the actual writing, it does professionally assist its 
authors in all the necessary steps in editorial and design consulta- 
tion while the manuscript is in preparation, in review of the final 
draft (including all illustrative material), in substantive editing, 
copy preparation for the printer, design, layout, paste-up, produc- 
tion supervision, and in delivery of the finished product to the 
author and to thousands of libraries, scholars, and members of an 
interested audience here in Washington and throughout the world. 

The Press staff has taken satisfaction from its behind-the-scenes 
share in the laudatory reviews which have appeared in respected 

Public Service I 2^7 

journals, together with praise from the academic community, for 
Smithsonian pubhcations issued during the year — notable among 
which were Continental Drift, by Ursula Marvin of the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory, and The Papers of Joseph Henry, 
edited by Nathan Reingold. 

There are times, too, when honors redound more directly to the 
work of the Press staff. This has been such a year. At the eleventh 
annual blue pencil awards presentation of the Federal Editors 
Association the Smithsonian Institution Press won 6 editorial 
awards — more than any agency or department of the United 
States Government. The awards were presented to Louise Heskett 
for the Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution 
1770-1800 by Sidney Kaplan (National Portrait Gallery); Nancy L. 
Powars for Windows in the Sea by Marion Clayton Link (Fort 
Pierce Bureau); Joan B. Horn for Report of the Mohawk-Hudson 
Area Survey edited by Robert M. Vogel (National Museum of 
History and Technology); Louise Heskett for Air Traffic Control: 
The Uncrowded Sky by Glen A. Gilbert (National Air and Space 
Museum); Ernest E. Biebighauser for Continental Drift: The Evolu- 
tion of a Concept by Ursula B. Marvin (Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory); and to John S. Lea for Form and Tire: Natzler Ceram- 
ics 1939-1972 by Otto Natzler (National Collection of Fine Arts- 
Renwick Gallery). 

Louise Heskett was the recipient of the first Editor-of-the-Year 
award made by the Federal Editors Association. 

Careful editing must be wedded to good design before a manu- 
script can be sent to the printer, and the Press' dedicated design 
staff has also been honored during the year. In the 1974 annual 
exhibit of the Art Directors Club of Metropolitan Washington, 
which embraces both governmental and commercial graphic design, 
Stephen J. Kraft was awarded the Gold Medal for Steinberg at the 
Smithsonian (National Collection of Fine Arts), and also received 
Awards of Merit for President Monroe's Message (National Portrait 
Gallery) and Nicholas Copernicus (Office of Seminars). Shaker 
(National Collection of Fine Arts-Renwick Gallery), designed by 
Crimilda Pontes, has been chosen by the Association of American 
University Presses for excellence of design and production. It will be 
on display at major universities throughout this country and, under ' 

248 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

the sponsorship of the United States Information Agency, in 26 
countries abroad. 

The Press' major effort in fiscal 1974 has been in marketing and 
distribution, where exciting new programs for reaching a much 
broader audience for Smithsonian pubhcations — both Federal and 
private — have been developed. Cooperating in these efforts are the 
American Library Association, Xerox University Microfilm, Micro- 
filming Corporation of America, the Superintendent of Documents, 
and some of the country's leading bookstore chains. 

During the year, production costs of 124 publications were 
funded by Federal appropriations in the amount of $358,000; 
7 trade publications were supported wholly by Smithsonian private 
funds in the amount of $105,700. The Press and the Superintendent 
of Documents shipped, on order and subscriptions, a total of 
157,410 publications and 386 records. In addition, 1,506,972 art 
catalogues, brochures, leaflets, and miscellaneous items were 

A full list of Smithsonian Institution Press publications for fiscal 
year 1974 may be found in Appendix 7. 

Public Service I 249 

Secretary Ripley and David L. Wolper sign contract for cooperative production of an 
upcoming series of major prime-time television specials, based upon the activities of the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Smithsonian Year * 1974 


The smooth operation of a vast institution such as the Smithsonian 
depends in large measure on its administrative management. The 
IjSmithsonian Institution — so viable in the civilizing process — must 
rlhave a firm basic administrative structure that is far-seeing yet effi- 
cient and reliable, if it is to fulfill its well-known mandate not only 
to disseminate knowledge but to increase knowledge. The reports 
which follow concerning the Smithsonian's Support Activities, 
Financial Services, Office of Audits, and International Exchange 
Service recount an impressive array of activities in fiscal year 1974. 

Support Activities 

To augment his immediate staff of one Administrative Officer, the 
Director of Support Activities filled two other positions during the 
/ear, a Special Assistant for programming and budgeting activities, 
and a Programs Manager for special projects such as Smithsonian- 
wide programs in energy conservation, environmental protection, 
and employee/visitor parking. 

The Smithsonian's justification in the fiscal year 1975 budget 
request for additional support resources was well received. This im- 
portant recognition stems from the program and priorities approach 
developed during the conference at Belmont in February of last 
year. Support activities across the Institution are moving forward 
in terms of obtaining more resources as well as in terms of rede- 
fining responsibilities of bureau directors for various support serv- 
ices provided in their respective buildings. Though this is encourag- 
ing, it is realized that the Institution still has some distamce to go in 


achieving its objective to provide quality support for all programs. 

Many plans for Bicentennial requirements were completed during 
the year, and support was given to some programs already under 
way. Essential additional resources will be sought in the next 
budget cycle, the last opportunity to obtain adequate logistical 
support to carry through the Bicentennial programs. 

Brief summaries of the major activities of the organizations in 
the central support group are given below. 


Information Systems Division develops and coordinates the use of 
automatic data processing support throughout the Institution. 
Advances continued to be made through computer utilization in the 
areas of administration, management of the national collections, 
and scientific research. Research was conducted in optical character 
recognition for entering data directly from a printed page, terminal 
devices to enable telephone communication with the computer, and 
computer output to microfilm and microfiche, as well as plotted 
maps and other graphic presentations. 

Individual research assistance to curators and scientists expanded 
and broadened in scope as the Division made available additional 
mathematical techniques and software packages. New develop- 
ments and refinements enhanced support for the management of 
the national collections in history, art, and science. A recently 
developed, but not yet completed, generalized information man- 
agement package called selgem has aroused much attention within 
and outside the Institution because of its potential as a standard for 
the computerized management of collections. The Division pub- 
lishes information about the selgem system in its technical bulletin, 
Smithsonian Institution Information Systems Innovations. The "In- 
novations" series acquaints the reader with automated systems and 
procedures specifically designed to solve collection and research 
problems in museums and herbaria. 


The three major responsibilities of the Management Analysis Office 
(mao) are: providing management advisory and analysis services; 
making comprehensive reviews of proposed management issuances 

252 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

and coordinating their publication; and administering a forms man- 
agement program. 

In the first three quarters of the year, over 75 individual staff 
analyses and studies were completed, the majority of which cul- 
minated in management issuances covering new or revised policies 
and procedures on a variety of subjects. 

In this same period, the Forms Management Section provided 
service to over 84 units of the Smithsonian. Unavoidable delays 
occurred in the implementation of the adp program developed to 
support the management and control of Smithsonian forms. It is 
hoped that this program will be in successful operation by the third 
quarter of the forthcoming fiscal year. 

In March, mao acquired Videotype (word processing) equipment 
with which Smithsonian's management issuances and other admin- 
istrative documents can be prepared more efficiently and faster. 
This new technological development in the field of automatic typ- 
ing can enhance not only mao's productivity but also that of the 
Institution as a whole. 


Progress in the Smithsonian Institution's Equal Employment Op- 
portunity Program continued. Compliance with the complaints pro- 
gram was outstanding as complaints were processed without delay. 
The precomplaint counseling program, established in late 1972, 
functioned effectively. Of the more than 150 employees counseled, 
9 formal complaints were filed and 8 were investigated. Of these 8, 
2 were adjusted satisfactorily. Only 1 complaint proceeded to a 
hearing. The number of employees counseled, compared with those 
who filed formal complaints, demonstrates graphically the value of 
the complaints system. 

A Sixteen-Point Program Coordinator was appointed and trained, 
and Upward Mobility Programs were implemented in the National 
Museum of Natural History and the Office of Plant Services. 

The first member of a minority in a supergrade was appointed 
Assistant Secretary for Public Service and member of the Secre- 
tary's Executive Committee. 

The Office of Personnel Administration's training course, "The 
Supervisor's Role in eeo," established last year, continued. Over 

Administrative Management I 253 

105 on-board and new supervisors have received this training, and 
others will be scheduled to attend the monthly sessions. Eventually 
all Smithsonian supervisors will take this course. 

The Women's Program evolved successfully. Bylaws were ap 
proved for the Women's Council; Council membership increased: 
from 9 to 15; and Smithsonian's Women's Week, held for the first 
time in October 1973, will be an annual event. 


The 1973 Priorities Conference at Belmont set forth the "need fori 
support activities to be organized and motivated to provide the bestt 
delivery of services to the program units and their managers." Ini 
addition, the conference discussions focused on the "creation off 
better Institutional and bureau administrative awareness to accom- 
modate anticipated future growth as a requirement." Thus, based 
upon the theme of the conference and succeeding executive deter-- 
minations, the Office of Facilities Planning and Engineering Services 
(oFPEs) was estabUshed on October 26, 1973. 

OFPES serves the Smithsonian by providing professional advice 
and counsel to the Secretary, Executive Committee, and Bureau 
Directors on matters pertaining to new construction and develop-, 
ment of the physical plant. Operational services furnished by ofpes 
include: (1) facilities planning and architectural review, (2) engineer- 
ing and design development, and (3) construction contract manage- 
ment and cost evaluation. Projects planned, developed, and man- 
aged by OFPES are accomplished primarily through the contract and 
procurement cycle, requiring extensive technical analysis and prepa- 
ration of detailed plans, drawings, and specifications to attain maxi- 
mum dollar return. During the year, ofpes processed, reviewed, 
managed, or provided assistance for new construction projects for 
the Institution totaling $65 million. In addition, projects of an alter- 
ation, improvement, or restoration-renovation nature in the scope 
of ofpes' activities during fiscal year 1974 entailed the expenditure 
of $5.5 million. 

The more significant new construction projects in progress or 
completed during the year were: the National Air and Space Mu- 
seum, scheduled for completion in fiscal 1976; the Hirshhorn 

254 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


'Museum and Sculpture Garden due to be completed early in fiscal 
year 1975; storage and program facilities at the Silver Hill com- 
plex; decking ranges in the Arts and Industries building to provide 
additional square footage; and the Exhibit Design and Prodliction 
Laboratory at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. Major altera- 
tion, improvement, or restoration-renovation projects either initi- 
ated or completed during the year were: Arts and Industries build- 
ing restoration and central air conditioning; Center for the Study of 
Man administrative area; renovation of the third floor and the 
Seventh Street corridor and air conditioning for the Fine Arts and 
Portrait Galleries; escalators for the Natural History building; and 
numerous other projects involving various galleries, exhibit areas, 
and special-purpose spaces for all major museums, ofpes also proc- 
essed approximately 75 construction-oriented projects, with the 
load projected to increase significantly during the coming years. In 
• addition to specific projects completed during the year, ofpes con- 
■ tributed to the long-range project-development program, particu- 
: larly in the development and design areas, including the Museum 
Support Facility, Nation of Nations exhibit. Bicentennial planning, 
: South Yard development, and the Jefferson Island bulkhead project. 


Among the services provided by the Office of Personnel Adminis- 
tration are manpower analysis, recruitment and placement, com- 
pensation programs, training and career development, employee 
relations, labor-management relations, and special responsibilities 
in assuring equal opportunity. In addition, the Office bears respon- 
sibility for the implementation of new laws or policy, such as the 
Fair Labor Standards Act, Public Law 93-259. 

Each of the major program areas experienced an increase in activ- 
ity deriving from the general growth of the Institution. Active 
recruitment for new positions took place; a new, more formal, 
position-classification program was begun; position-management 
studies in the National Museum of Natural History were under- 
taken; and a number of employee problems were resolved. Upward 
mobility assistance to employees was provided in several of the 
museums through plans developed in conjunction with line man- 
agers. These plans were devised to maximize individual skills 

Administrative Management I 255 

through training, job design, and other techniques, with particular 
emphasis on releasing employees from dead end or otherwise 
unsatisfying jobs. | 

Other positive approaches were taken to serve both managers 
and employees, notably those efforts extended by the task force to 
implement the reorganization of the former Buildings Management 
Department. Here, techniques were used which attempted to bring 
together to the greatest extent possible the needs of the Institution 
with the interests of individual employees. 

Labor-management relations continued to function in a healthy 
way. Negotiations to modify an existing agreement were begun in 
one bargaining unit, and consultations and meetings were carried 
out in all units according to public policy and specific contracts. The 
grievance procedure negotiated in the union contracts was utilized 
in several instances, as both labor and management became ac- 
customed to joint problem solving. 

Twelve top managers received extended, in-depth, executive- 
development training. Approximately 300 supervisors received in- 
house training in two courses, the first dealing with the dynamics 
of interpersonal relationships and the second with the role of the 
supervisor in equal employment opportunity. In addition, a survey 
of supervisory skills was undertaken in order to plan for future 
training needs. 


The Office of Plant Services was established in November 1973, 
following the restructuring of the former Buildings Management 
Department. The new office is responsible for maintenance and 
repair of the Smithsonian physical plant; operation of utilities sys- 
tems; maintenance of communication, transportation, mail and 
messenger, and horticultural programs; grounds maintenance; and 
storage of the Smithsonian collections. It also is establishing and 
implementing standards of maintenance for the entire Institution. 
The Crafts Services Division of the new office completed the 
following major projects during the year: restoring the fire-dam- 
aged Belmont Conference Center; constructing a new staff and 
public restaurant facility in 'the Fine Arts and Portrait Galleries; 
providing support to the Festival of American Folklife; completing 
modernization of the photographic laboratory. Arts and Industries 

256 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

'building; remodeling the Conservation Analytical Laboratory, His- 
tory and Technology building; and installing a complete new light- 
ing system in Building 10, Silver Hill Facility. 

In late March, the Communications and Transportation Services 
Division was delegated the responsibility for the Smithsonian Mail 
and Messenger Service. Planning for the future of this major serv- 
ice was begun in April and is expected to result in better utilization 
of resources, more efficient use of monies, and higher level service 
to the user. 

Plans to relocate the Automotive Equipment Repair Shop from 
Building 1 to Building 7 at Silver Hill were completed during the 
year. When the relocation is accomplished in late 1974, a higher 
level of productivity is anticipated through the use of a more suit- 
able work area. 

The Horticultural Services Division undertook a number of Bi- 
centennial projects during 1974, including design of a Victorian 
Garden for the South Yard, design for plantings in the Arts and 
Industries Conservatory, a State flower and State tree project, and 
a nursery-greenhouse operation. A National Horticultural Advisory 
Committee of prominent horticulturists and botanical garden and 
arboretum directors was established to assist in long-range pro- 

I gramming, planning, and evaluation of future horticultural opera- 

, tions of the Smithsonian. 

For the Warehousing Services Division, the first priority in 1974 
was the cleanup of existing warehousing problems in Building 3, 

' Alexandria, Virginia, and at the Silver Hill Facility in Maryland. In 
addition to assisting in office moves, the Division has been identi- 
fying storage and service problems, and training personnel in 
proper management of storage facilities. 


The Office of Printing and Photographic Services was established 
July 1, 1973, by combining the Photographic Services Division with 
the activities and personnel of the Smithsonian Institution Print 
Shop (Museum Branch, GPO) and the Duplicating Section. A 
color-processing facility was installed and, by September, is ex- 
pected to be in full operation. The adp production reporting system 
was activated and, as in 1973, the production of photographic 
materials increased greatly. 

Administrative Management I 257 

Again this year, the volume of photographic assignments in- 
creased. Approximately 4000 feet of movie film were taken of 
various Smithsonian special events and construction sites. In addi- 
tion, millions of pieces of documentary materials remain to be 
microfilmed. Modern lighting equipment was installed in the History 
and Technology building studio. This improvement enhanced the 
Branch's capability to use special lighting techniques and effects for 
photographing accurately and artistically objects in the national 

A large project of 11,176 black-and-white prints was completed 
for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior, and 
5588 new film negatives were made. New equipment was obtained 
for the copy and printing sections. A new color section was estab- 
lished with the purchase and installation of color equipment in the 
Arts and Industries building laboratory which was renovated for 
this purpose. 

To support the adp program, new forms were developed for ob- 
taining caption data from the scientists and curators. Now 9485 
index cards are available for retrieving information, and the most 
popular subjects are filed and indexed by organization unit, subject 
matter, and key words. The Library Branch worked on 6900 re- 
quests, including retrievals, inquiries, captions, and negative num- 
bers; 3900 feet of movie film were filed; and 980 negatives (4'' x 5'') 
of portraits and passports of Smithsonian officials are filed for ready 

More than 10,000 requests received from students, educators, 
scientists, and the general public were handled this year. In maxi- 
mizing "the diffusion of knowledge" through the visual media, an 
all-out effort was initiated to produce "SI Aids for Educational and 
Cultural Enrichment." Initially, these will be in the form of slide/ 
lectures for use in primary and secondary education. Staff members 
throughout the Institution and the Volunteer Ladies Committee of 
the Smithsonian Associates are participating actively in this pro- 
gram. In conjunction with the Smithsonian Museum Shops, slides 
in sleeves illustrating aircraft in the National Air and Space Mu- 
seum and animals at the National Zoo were produced for sale. As 
the slide program expands in the future, objects from other Smith- 
sonian museums will be incloded. 

258 / Smithsonian Year 1974 



Examining Indian photographs from the National Anthropological Archives are Augus- 
tine Smith (left), a Laguna, and Lorraine Bigman, a Navajo, participants in a three- 
nionth program, exposing them to Smithsonian historical material relating to American 
Indians, as well as introducing them to library and archival training. This pilot program 
is jointly sponsored by the Cultural Studies Section of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and 
the Smithsonian's National Anthropological Archives and the Office of Academic 
Studies. (Photograph by Vincent P. Connolly) 


The Office of Protection Services instituted daily safety and fire 
inspection tours and monthly fire equipment inspections. Prior to 
letting of contracts, the Health and Safety Division is reviewing 
all contemplated construction changes to consider safety and fire 
provisions for exits, lighting, floor surfaces, stairs, and ramps, and 
for fire detection/suppression needs. 

The Smithsonian Institution was nominated for the President's 
Safety Award for 1973. The Smithsonian has been nominated 7 
times for this coveted honor and has won it twice. The Award for 
1972 was presented this year by Secretary of Labor Brennan on 
the President's behalf to Paul N. Perrot, Assistant Secretary for 
Museum Programs, who accepted for Secretary Ripley and the 
Smithsonian. This was in recognition of the reduction of Smith- 
sonian's accident rate over a 3-year period and notably by 12 per- 
cent in 1971-1972. On March 5, 1974, Under Secretary Robert A. 
Brooks, in turn, presented the award to Richard L, Ault, Director 
of Support Activities. 

During the year, 8 new exhibit halls requiring guard service were 
opened to the public. Guards were furnished for 186 special events 
held in various Smithsonian buildings. Among the prominent activ- 
ities in which the guards participated were the visits of the President 
of Pakistan and the Empress of Iran. These participations included 
the security and escort of distinguished guests and the security 
activities of personnel present on the occasions. 

During the year, 56 guard force personnel completed the basic 
security course including First Aid and Weapons Qualification and 
were commissioned as Special Policemen. 

In October 1973, a special operational element designated as the 
Outpost Detachment was activated and given the protection respon- 
sibility for the Renwick Gallery, Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, 
and the facilities at Silver Hill, 24th Street, and Lamont Street. The 
desired objective of improving security at these outlying establish- 
ments is realized by the permanent assignment of personnel who 
make daily supervisory inspections of every location on each relief. 
The supervisors also are responsible for inspecting the quality of 
security at separate locations where protection is carried out pri- 
vately by the occupants or by contract security agencies. As addi- 

260 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

tional facilities are established that are not large enough to warrant 

activation of a new guard company, they too will be added to the 

Outpost Detachment's area of responsibility. 

All first- and second-line supervisors have completed the equal 

employment opportunity supervisory training course. During the 

year, through reassignment and/or employment, 26 women were 

accepted for employment as security guards. 



The Supply Division continued to experience increased procure- 
ment and contracting work loads primarily due to the general ex- 
pansion of the Smithsonian Institution and its many related activi- 
ties, and all indications point to future accelerated growth in both 
of these responsibilities. 

The major procurements for the new Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden were accomplished during the year. Contracting 
is well under way for the special requirements and exhibits planned 
for the National Air and Space Museum which will open in 1976. 

The Division also assumed responsibility for all construction 
contracted during the year, and its most significant accomplishment 
was the contract for major renovation of the Arts and Industries 
building which was in progress at year's end. 

The Division continued to be an active participant in the acquisi- 
tion of useful excess Government property to satisfy the needs of 
the Institution's many organization units. Excess property acquired 
this year was more than $500,000. 


Again this year, the Travel Services Office (tso) experienced 
growth in all its major activities; i.e., air and rail reservations 
booked were up 40 percent; travel itineraries issued up 30 percent; 
transportation requests prepared up 25 percent; and the cost of 
transportation purchased from appropriated and nonappropriated 
funds was some 40 percent higher than last year. 

In addition to furnishing travel services, advisory services and 
detailed planning data were provided for the annual Festival of 
American Folklife, for national and international conferences, and 
for meetings and archeological expeditions in Yugoslavia, Israel, 
Egypt, and Greece. 

Administrative Management I 261 

Of particular interest this year was a Travel Seminar sponsored!! 
by the Accounting Division for administrative staff of the Smith 
sonian. At the request of the Chief Accountant, the Chief of Tsol 
participated in the training sessions and explained the role of her! 
office in providing travel services for official Smithsonian travelers. 1 

During the year, a closer liaison had to be maintained with the 
airlines to accomplish increasingly complex travel performed for 
the Foreign Currency Program of the Office of International and 
Environmental Programs. 

Financial Services 


The Treasurer has overall responsibility for the financial assets of I 
the Smithsonian Institution. This includes the budgeting and ac- 
counting of federal appropriations, the fiscal administration of 
grants and contracts, and the monitoring of revenue-producing ; 
activities; further detail on these activities is given in the reports- 
which follow on the Office of Programming and Budget, the Ac- 
counting Division, the Grants and Insurance Administration Divi- 
sion, and the Business Management Office. 

Working closely with the Investment Policy Committee of the 
Board of Regents, the Treasurer oversees the management of the' 
endowment funds of the Institution by three professional advisory 
firms, and is also responsible for the short-term investment of cur- 
rent funds excess to immediate operating needs. Details on these 
funds and the other financial resources of the Institution can be 
found in the Financial Report at the front of this volume. 


The Office of Programming and Budget participates in program plan- , 
ning for the Institution and, to carry out these plans, is responsible | 
for the formulation, presentation, implementation, and review of 
operating and construction budgets of appropriated and nonappro- 
priated funds. About $100 million from many different sources were 
involved this year. Details on these sources and their use may be 
found in the Financial Report. The Office works in close associa- 
tion with all operating and managerial levels of the Institution. 

262 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

During the year, the staff of seven persons engaged in the follow- 
ing activities. Detailed fiscal 1974 operating budgets and associated 
staffing plans for both federal and nonfederal funds were developed 
with some 75 individual organization units and programs. These 
ranged from the major museums and research laboratories to small 
service and staff offices. Subsequently, throughout the year, these 
budgets and plans were monitored and reviewed with the perform- 
ing units to assure that program plans were accomplished within 
approved amounts. The uncertainty at the beginning of the year as 
to whether several legislated pay raises would be financed with sup- 
plemental appropriations required special efforts to assure the wisest 
application of financial resources. 

Based on the decision reached at the February 1973 Belmont Con- 
I ference on Goals and Priorities (in which the Office was heavily 
involved) that emphasis must be given to strengthening the support 
1 functions of the Institution, such as collections conservation and 
, protection of buildings, the Office developed and presented to the 
President's Office of Management and Budget a completely revised 
format for the fiscal year 1975 budget. As compared with the tradi- 
tional organizational unit presentation, the new format was pro- 
grammatic in nature designed to show clearly the base capability 
and resource requirements of the support functions as well as the 
equally high priority of our Bicentennial Program commitments. 
This budget presentation was received very favorably by the Office 
of Management and Budget and resulted in the Smithsonian being 
allowed to seek substantial additional appropriations for these needs 
from the Congress. The Office of Programming and Budget prepared 
and submitted to the Congress budget justifications and supporting 
documentation and prepared for and participated in the budget 
hearings before the House and Senate Appropriation Committees. 
Similar work was carried out on the fiscal year 1974 pay supple- 
mental appropriation. 

At the same time, the Office of Programming and Budget devel- 
oped a more formal system for planning and goal-setting by each 
Smithsonian organization unit — now required by the expansion of 
the Institution, by the increasingly decentralized nature of much of 
its activity, and by the growing complexity of administering its 
diversified organizations. 

Administrative Management I 263 

In addition to the above Institution-wide responsibilities, the 
Office of Programming and Budget also engaged in a number of 
special projects. It was involved intensively in the formulation and 
management review of fiscal years 1974 and 1975 budgets for the 
proposed Millwood Museum. It developed a comprehensive Institu- 
tion-wide exhibition plan, schedule, and budget. An inventory of 
Smithsonian buildings and facilities was prepared for the Board of 
Regents. Finally, the Office played major roles in the reorganizations 
of the Office of Exhibits and the Buildings Management Department. 


The Accounting Division regularly handles and accounts for all 
funds of the Institution, both federal and nonfederal, including pay- 
rolls, payments for materials and services, and receipts from a great 
variety of sources, and in addition provides over 600 financial reports 
monthly to Institutional managers at unit and headquarters levels. 

Continuing the accounting services improvement program during 
fiscal 1974, the Accounting Division staff initiated and, with the 
assistance of other offices, conducted seminars on time-keeping and 
payroll, procurement and payment procedures, travel and voucher- 
ing procedures, and financial reporting. These seminars were at- 
tended by 200 Smithsonian administrative personnel including 
officers, assistants, clerks, and secretaries. With the assistance of 
our computer specialists, the Accounting staff installed a key-to- 
disc data entry system to replace an inefficient card and paper tape 
system eliminating repetitious data processing and adding beneficial 
controls. The new system became operational May 1, 1974, with full 
implementation projected January 1, 1975. Additionally, installation 
in fiscal year 1974 of a new personnel time reporting procedure is 
also serving to speed and improve accuracy of payroll preparation. 


The Grants and Insurance Administration Division is responsible 
for administration of gifts, grants, and contracts received by the 
Institution. In addition, this Division administers the Institution's 
risk management and insurance program. The Division provides 
administrative, management, and fiscal services to Smithsonian re- 
searchers and the business representatives of granting agencies, as 

264 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

well as the controls necessary to assure that funds are expended in 
accordance with appropriate regulations and contract terms. 

During the past year the Division has continued its excellent ad- 
ministration in the gift, grant, and contract area and at the same 
time has expanded its operations in the risk management and insur- 
ance area. This expansion has entailed the initiation of risk manage- 
ment surveys of various organizations and bureaus of the Smith- 
sonian to identify risk and recommend ways of alleviating and 
protecting against such risks. In addition, collections insurance cov- 
erages throughout the Institution have been consolidated, resulting 
in reduced work loads and the saving of considerable funds through 
premium reductions. 


In addition to having overall responsibility for the Museum Shops, 
the Product Development Program and the Belmont Conference 
Center, which are described below, the Business Management Office 
also advises other Smithsonian bureaus on the negotiation and 
monitoring of revenue-producing concessions and contracts. During 
the past year, for example. Business Management assisted on such 
diverse projects as the contracts for educational sound systems in 
the National Museum of Natural History and the Hirshhorn Mu- 
seum, the competitive solicitation of food service and parking con- 
cessionaires for the new National Air and Space Museum, and the 
construction of a new restaurant in the National Collection of Fine 
Arts and National Portrait Gallery building. The efforts of this office 
are an important element in the improvement of the Institution's 
nonfederal resources. 

Museum Shops 

The past year was one of growth and change for the Museum Shops. 
For the first time sales climbed above $2 million, and net income 
reached the quarter-million mark. More importantly, 1974 saw the 
laying of groundwork which will produce far greater benefits to our 
Museums and visitors in the future. 

Recognizing that the Shops should provide a means for a visitor 
to extend his museum experience, selection and display of merchan- 
dise has been drastically changed to provide increased educational 
values and a greater reflection of the museum in which a shop is 

Administrative Management I 265 

located. A leading architectural firm with extensive museum experi- 
ence was retained to redesign completely the main shop in the 
National Museum of History and Technology — a project scheduled 
for completion by December 1974. 

A number of important organizational changes were also made, 
with each shop manager being delegated responsibility for a specific 
area. A new position of Controller was created to provide greater 
inventory control and reports for management guidance. The Dis- 
play Department was reorganized, and a new position was created 
in the Buying Department. 

Product Development Program 

The Product Development Program originated from efforts to im- 
prove the quality and relevance of items handled in the Museum 
Shops and as a means to bring to audiences other than the 
Smithsonian's Washington visitors the educational values of the 

As a part of this program. Tonka Corporation — a leading U.S. 
toy manufacturer with whom an agreement has been in effect since 
1972, and under which it will manufacture and sell, in close coordi- 
nation with Smithsonian, a line of museum-related products — in- 
troduced in fiscal year 1974 a series of diorama kits with a Smithso- 
nian theme. These hobby/craft products effectively enable the 
builder to recapture a moment in history by creating an entire scene. 
Each kit is accompanied by a 24-page booklet containing detailed 
information on the historical period. 

Similar agreements were reached during fiscal 1974 with three 
additional corporations. The first of these was with the Fieldcrest 
Company, which is developing bedspreads, quilts, comforters, blan- 
kets, sheets, and towels based on designs found in the Smithsonian 
collection items. Its trade introduction in May was well received, 
and products will reach the market in the fall of 1974. Another agree- 
ment was with the Stieff Company for a line of silver and pewter 
reproductions. The third was with the F. Schumacher Company, a 
producer of decorative fabrics and wall coverings. 

Fiscal year 1974 also saw the introduction of Seeing the Smith- 
sonian, the official guidebook to the Institution, in four foreign 
languages — French, German, Japanese, and Spanish. Mr. Kenneth 
Rush, then Deputy Secretary of State, spoke at the introductory 

266 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

ceremony. Due to the generosity of CBS/Publishing Group, the 
publisher of the guidebook. Seeing the Smithsonian is now available 
in braille at designated locations. 

Belmont Conference Center 

The Belmont Conference Center, located between the District of 
Columbia and Baltimore near Interstate 95, provides an attractive, 
secluded, gracious, and exclusive retreat unusual in the Eastern Cor- 
ridor. Its easy access to the Baltimore-Washington airports, as well 
as to automotive arteries, impresses upon its guests the enjoyable 
paradox of a rural setting with the conveniences of urban proximity 
but without its complexities. One of the major advantages of Bel- 
mont is its use by only one group at any one time; schedules are so 
arranged as to avoid the overlap and attendant discomforts often 
encountered in other conference centers and hotels. Since its open- 
ing in 1967, conference operations have been directed toward the 
needs of small groups which require a location unencumbered by the 
normal intrusions associated with offices. The 240-year-old manor 
house, with 365 surrounding acres of lawns, forests, and fields, 
provides a working retreat for the productive groups which keep 
returning to the Center. 
f Belmont can accommodate 24 in-house residents, with facilities 
for 10 to 12 additional guests, speakers, or observers for meals and 
meeting sessions. This limiting size factor ensures that each confer- 
ence has the undivided and individual attention of the entire staff, 
as well as the opportunity for unusually close interaction within the 
meeting group itself. Of the 80 or so meetings which Belmont hosts 
in a year, approximately 60 percent are from federally-funded agen- 
cies; the balance includes those from foundations and other philcin- 
thropic organizations, professional, religious, and social groups, 
corporations and private industry, and universities and colleges. 

Office of Audits 

During fiscal year 1974, the Office of Audits issued audit reports on 
the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, the Smithsonian Research 
Foundation, the National Zoological Park, the Chesapeake Bay Cen- 
ter for Environmental Studies, Mail Management, the Mediterranean 

Administrative Management I 267 




Belmont Conference Center. 

Marine Sorting Center, the Smithsonian Institution Press, the Travel 
Services Office, and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 
Audit recommendations made in these reports have resulted in im- 
proved management procedures and controls, sometimes pointing to 
potential dollar savings. 

In addition, the Office of Audits completed various pre-award and 
post-audits of contracts, and closed out 26 foreign currency grants 
in the amount of $1 million. 

International Exchange Service 

The International Exchange Service is the one program bureau in 
the support activities group. In 1851, the Smithsonian Institution 
established the international exchange system to provide a means 
for exchanging current Smithsonian publications for the trans- 
actions and proceedings of institutions in other countries. Other 
learned bodies in the United States were allowed to participate by 
exchanging their publications with those of foreign organizations. 
This program has continued through the years and, by this method, 
many colleges, universities, scientific societies, and medical and 
dental libraries exchange their current and duplicate publications 
with similar organizations in other countries. 

During the year, over 700,000 pounds of publications were re- 
ceived from more than 250 organizations in the United States for 
transmission through the Service to over 100 countries. Publica- 
tions weighing approximately 500,000 pounds were forwarded by 
ocean freight to 38 exchange bureaus in 32 countries. Approxi- 
mately 250,000 pounds of publications were mailed to the intended 
recipients in countries that do not have exchange bureaus. 

Publications weighing approximately 90,000 pounds were re- 
ceived from exchange bureaus in other countries for distribution in 
the United States. 

Over 700,000 official United States publications weighing ap- 
proximately 350,000 pounds were received for 91 organizations in 
62 countries in exchange for the official publications of those 
countries. The daily issues of the Congressional Record and the 
Federal Register were exchanged with 126 foreign libraries in 62 
countries for the parliamentary journals of these countries. 

Administrative Management I 269 

Smithsonian Women's Council 

The Smithsonian Women's Council was established by the Secre- 
tary in 1972 to represent to the Smithsonian's leadership the con- 
cerns of women at the Institution regarding employment and related 

During its first full term of existence in 1973-1974, the Council 
undertook several major projects. Its Child-care Committee acted 
on indications from employees that employer child-care assistance 
was of concern to them and on the evidence that Smithsonian 
resources could make special contributions to the development 
and education of children in general through progams conducted 
for employees' children. Based on information from a wide variety 
of sources, the Women's Council prepared a proposal in the fall 
of 1973 for an experimental program, providing for hiring a spe- 
cialist in child care and development programming. After an initial 
assignment of designing an information-exchange service for em- 
ployees concerned with child care, the specialist would move on 
rapidly to the development and execution of a summer educational 
program for school-age children and finally the presentation of 
recommendations for the Smithsonian's future role in the care 
and education of its employees' children. Administrative and finan- 
cial elements were settled during the following winter and in the 
late spring of 1974 recruiting for the position of Child-care Coor- 
dinator began. The Assistant Secretary for Public Service assumed 
overall responsibility for the program with assistance from an ad- 
visory board representing the Women's Council and the Offices 
of Museum Programs, Personnel Administration, Equal Oppor- 
tunity, and the Treasurer. 

Another Council committee, formed to study patterns of recruit- 
ment, employment, and promotion at the Smithsonian, analyzed 
the Smithsonian's Merit Promotion Program and the skills-file 
method currently in use in internal recruiting for clerical and sec- 
retarial positions and offered recommendations for elimination of 
inequities in these systems and improvement of their operation. 
The report and recommendations were submitted to the Directors 
of Personnel Administration and Equal Opportunity in April 1974. 

Other committees of the Council have been and are engaged in 
widely varied activities. One conducted studies and analysis of the 

270 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

: Institution's Upward Mobility Program and submitted to Person- 
nel Administration and Equal Opportunity recommendations for 
significant changes and expansion in that area. Another committee 
sponsored a lecture on "The Job Jungle" by career-development 
expert Alexander Methven, which drew 170 employees and guests. 
Yet another committee is developing plans for a rich variety of 
programs and exhibits to mark Women's Week in August 1974. 

Administrative Management I 271 


Houses in Provence (detail), by Paul Cezanne. National Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D.C., Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon (2655). 

Smithsonian Year • 1974 



The national gallery of art, although formally established as a 
bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, is an autonomous and sepa- 
rately administered organization. It is governed by its own Board 
of Trustees, the statutory members of which are the Chief Justice 
of the United States, Chairman; the Secretary of State; the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury; and the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, all ex officio; and five general trustees. Paul Mellon continued 
as president of the Gallery and John Hay Whitney as vice president. 
The other general trustees continuing to serve were Dr. Franklin 
D. Murphy and Stoddard M. Stevens. In March 1974, Mr. Lessing 
J. Rosenwald resigned after ten years as a trustee; Mr. Carlisle H. 
Humelsine, President of Colonial Williamsburg, was elected to 
succeed him. 

During the fiscal year 1974 the Gallery had over 1,263,690 

A number of important works of art were acquired. Of particular 
note were the paintings: Paul Cezanne's Houses in Provence and 
Paul Gauguin's Te Pape Nave Nave, gifts of Mr. and Mrs. Paul 
Mellon, The year was also noteworthy because of the acquisition 
of numerous and important sculptures including Pietro Tacca's The 
Pistoia Crucifix, Antonio Canova's Hercules Slaying Lichas, two 
works by Foggini: Bacchus and Ariadne and Venus and Cupid, and 
two highly significant twentieth-century works: Wilhelm Lehm- 
bruck's Seated Man and Alberto Giacometti's The Invisible Object. 

In the graphic arts the Gallery added 96 drawings, 306 etchings 
and 2,057 prints to its collections, with many outstanding works, 
spanning six centuries from The Adoration of the Magi by the 


Master E S, to a comprehensive collection of the works of M. C. 

Notable exhibitions held at the Gallery included: "Etchings by 
Rembrandt" and "Prints of the Italian Renaissance" (both continued 
from fiscal year 1973). "American Impressionist Painting," "Six- 
teenth Century Italian Drawings from the Collection of Janos 
Scholz/' "American Art at Mid-Century I," "Francois Boucher in 
North American Collections: 100 Drawings/' "Nineteenth-Century 
Sculpture" and "Recent Acquisitions and Promised Gifts: Sculpture, 
Drawings, Prints." A particularly innovative major exhibition was 
opened in May 1974, "African Art and Motion," which through the 
objects shown, video tape and recordings of ceremonial African 
dancers and music, presented an integrated experience in the culture 
of sixteen African countries. 

The Gallery's multimedia education program. Art and Man, pub- 
lished in cooperation with Scholastic Magazines, Inc., reached 4,000 
classrooms in every state of the country. 

The total number of bookings of Extension Service materials, 
film strips, slide lectures, and films was 29,999. The total estimated 
attendance covering all 50 states and many foreign countries and 
United States military installations abroad was nearly five million. 

Total attendance at talks given by the Gallery's Education Depart- 
ment and at the programs presented in the auditorium was 120,338. 
These included the regularly scheduled auditorium lectures and 
films, the Introduction to the Collection, the Tour of the Week, and 
Painting of the Week. There were 35 guest lecturers including the 
twenty-third annual A. W. Mellon Lecture in the Fine Arts, Pro- 
fessor H. W. Janson, who gave a series of six lectures entitled 
"Nineteenth-Century Sculpture Reconsidered"; and A. B. de Vries, 
Director Emeritus of the Mauritshuis (Royal Gallery of Paintings), 
the Kress Professor in Residence. 

The newly recruited Conservation Department, working without 
the benefit of the expanded laboratory facilities still in the planning 
stage, concentrated on a survey of the Gallery's Northern European 
paintings with particular attention to those of Vermeer. 

The Gallery's art research project at Carnegie-Mellon University 
in Pittsburgh neared its twenty-fifth anniversary and continued its 
work in nuclear methods of analysis and mass spectroscopy. Under 

274 / Smithsonian Year 1974 



( ^i4-;- SB 





> "<t 


National Gallery of Art East Building and connecting link, now under construction. 
(Photograph by Stewart Bros. Photographers, Inc.) Below: Construction shown from 
Pennsylvania Avenue and Fourth Street. 



a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts, matched by 
private donors, a three-year project was launched to produce a 
series of handbooks on the characterization and analysis of artists' 
pigments' sources and ages. Both projects are under the direction 
of Dr. Robert M. Feller. 

In contrast to the previous year (1973), which saw much activity 
in terms of new staff, new acquisitions, and new procedures, the 
Library this year concentrated on stock-taking, classification and 
reclassification, inventory, and reorganization. The complete inven- 
tory is the first to be undertaken in the Library's thirty-three-year 
history. A total of 3,973 books and pamphlets were added to the 
collection, 2,070 purchased, 1,195 received as gifts, and 708 obtained 
via exchange; 74,128 new photographs were added to the Photo- 
graphic Archives. 

During the year the Gallery produced three exhibition catalogues 
on the Sixteenth Century Italian Drawings from the Collection of 
Janos Scholz, Frangois Boucher in North American Collections: 100 
Drawings, and Recent Acquisitions: Sculpture, Drawings, Prints. 
As an alternative to a catalogue for the "American Art at Mid- 
Century I" exhibition, a portfolio of thirty-three, 8" x lO" full-color : 
reproductions with text was produced — a first for the National i 
Gallery. Two posters were also produced for sale. Continued public 
interest in the Gallery's reproductions, postcards, and art books was ] 
evidenced by the patronage of 292,883 people in person and 8,736 
by mail. i 

The Concert Programs continued with 40 Sunday evening con- 
certs in the East Garden Court which were well attended and also 
broadcast live on a local am-fm station. 

The past year has seen the dramatic thrust of the East Building 
from the ground to levels ranging from the third to the sixth floor. 
In May the first exterior marble was set. Occupation and opening 
exhibits are planned for the summer of 1977. 

Substantial progress was also made on the "Connecting Link" 
area between the East and West Buildings. A radically revised plaza 
design was developed, with glass tetrahedrons forming architectural 
sculpture on the plaza and 'serving as skylights for the concourse 
level below. This portion of the work, including an enlarged cafe- 
teria, will be open to the public in the summer of 1976. 

276 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


I American Glass : Watercolors from the Index of American Design 
Continued from previous fiscal year through July 10^ 1973 

Etchings by Rembrandt 

Continued from previous fiscal year through August 14, 1973 

Prints of the Italian Renaissance 

I Continued from previous fiscal year through October 7, 1973 

American Impressionist Painting 
July 1 through August 26, 1973 

Venetian Views : Etchings by Canaletto and Whistler 
July 12 through December 26, 1973 

Sixteenth Century Italian Drawings from the Collection of Janos Scholz 
September 23 through November 25, 1973 

American Art at Mid-Century I 

October 28, 1973, through January 6, 1974 

Francois Boucher in North American Collections: 100 Drawings 
December 23, 1973, through March 17, 1974 

American Textiles : Watercolors from the Index of American Design 
December 26, 1973, through the end of the fiscal year 

Nineteenth-Century Sculpture 
March 10 through May 27, 1974 

Art in the Age of Francesco Petrarca 
April 6 to 13, 1974 

African Art and Motion 

May 5, 1974, through the end of the fiscal year 

A Salute to Mozart: French Eighteenth Century Prints 
May 9 to 29, 1974 

Recent Acquisitions and Promised Gifts: Sculpture, Drawings, Prints 
June 2, 1974, through the end of the fiscal year 

National Gallery of Art I 277 

Dramatic night photograph of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. 


Smithsonian Year • 1974 



Faced with the perennial challenge of surpassing previous efforts, 
the Kennedy Center opened its third season with an unprecedented 
four-week festival: Shakespeare and the Performing Arts. In keep- 
ing with basic philosophy that Center festivals must make an artistic 
statement of unique importance, the month-long celebration was 
designed to illustrate Shakespeare's profound influence on all as- 
pects of the performing arts. 

Utilizing virtually every part of the building, the festival included 
drama, dance, opera, symphony and chamber concerts, jazz, and 
film. The Center's unique structure, with four theaters under one 
roof, provided an extraordinary opportunity for comparative study, 
as, for example, Macbeth was presented in its traditional dramatic 
form in the Eisenhower Theater, while Verdi's operatic adaptation 
was simultaneously staged in the Opera House, and two different 
film interpretations were offered in the American Film Institute 
Theater. Similarly, readings from Shakespeare were coupled with 
stunning ballet passages they have inspired. 

During a special opening salute, activity extended even beyond 
the walls of the Center, as Handel's Water Music was performed 
antiphonally by musicians on the river terrace and on a barge afloat 
the Potomac. 

Participating in the festival were such outstanding performers 
as Dame Peggy Ashcrof t. Sir Michael Redgrave, Maurice Evans, Zoe 
Caldwell, Christopher Plummer, Charlton Heston, Natalia Maka- 
rova, and Cleo Laine. 


The artistic and popular success of the festival opening carried 
over and remained constant throughout the season that followed. 
Audience support surpassed all previous years as over 1.7 million 
people attended performances, and the vitality of the performing 
arts in Washington was graphically illustrated by the fact that the 
Opera House was in full operation for 50 weeks, the Eisenhower 
Theater for 52 weeks, and the Concert Hall for 52 weeks. 

The season ultimately included: 125 performances of dance, by 
distinguished companies from around the world; 160 symphony 
concerts, including 129 by the resident National Symphony Orches- 
tra; 42 performances of 15 operas; 37 recitals; 30 chamber concerts; 
23 choral concerts; 44 concerts of popular music, folk, jazz, and 
rock; and 671 performances of drama and musical comedy. 

In an expanded schedule, the Opera Society of Washington pre- 
sented a total of five productions, including the American premiere 
of Monteverdi's // Ritorno D'Ulisse, and the New York City Opera's 
annual spring visit featured peformances of seven different works. 

In addition to return engagements of the American Ballet Theatre 
and the National Ballet, the Center welcomed for the first time the 
New York City Ballet and Britain's Royal Ballet. 

Theatrical highlights included a standing-room-only, post-Broad- , 
way engagement of Tennessee Williams' A Streetcar Named Desire, 
with Lois Nettleton and Alan Feinstein; shattering performances by 
Colleen Dewhurst and Jason Robards in Eugene O'Neill's A Moon 
for the Misbegotten, directed by Tony Award-winner Jose Quintero; 
Deborah Kerr's recreation of her London triumph in Frank Harvey's 
The Day After the Fair; David Turner's The Prodigal Daughter, 
starring Wilfred Hyde-White; Kate Reid's moving performance in 
Brian Friel's The Freedom of the City; Anthony Quayle's powerful 
portrayal of a contemporary Russian writer in Henry Denker's 
The Headhunters; the premiere of Erich Maria Remarque's Full 
Circle, directed by Otto Preminger; and Samuel Taylor's delightful 
comedy. Perfect Pitch, with Tammy Grimes and Jean-Pierre \ 

In a unique arrangement, and what is hoped will prove the first ' 
of many such examples of mutual cooperation between the Center 
and American colleges and universities, the entire cast of The Head- 
hunters spent a week performing at the University of Tennessee, 
prior to opening in Washington. During their stay in Knoxville, ' 

280 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

director-star Anthony Quayle and others associated with the pro- 
duction conducted a series of seminars and workshops which were 
open to the entire academic community. Of particular significance 
was the fact that students and faculty of the drama department 
were able to observe work on professional production, prior to its 
opening in their theater. 

The most significant theatrical event of the season, and the Cen- 
ter's most ambitious undertaking since the 1971 opening of Leonard 
Bernstein's Mass, was the American premiere of Tom Stoppard's 
Jumpers. In a dazzling display, Stoppard combined both physical 
and philosophical gymnastics to produce one of the most literate 
and entertaining plays the theater has witnessed in the past decade. 
Directed by Peter Wood and starring Brian Bedford and Jill Clay- 
burgh, Jumpers played the Eisenhower for an unprecedented eight 
weeks and went on to a limited Broadway engagement. 

During the course of the season, the Center also presented a 
delightful series of musicals — including revivals of two classics : 
The Pajama Game, with Barbara McNair, Cab Calloway, and Hal 
Linden, and Good News, with Alice Faye and John Payne — Stephen 
Sondheim's award-winning A Little Night Music, and a highly 
successful engagement of / Do! I Do!, starring Carol Burnett and 
Rock Hudson. 

Of particular artistic importance was the presentation in May 
of a three-week Mozart Festival, conceived and developed by the 
Center's Music Director, Julius Rudel. A series of 44 performances, 
14 of which were free, illustrated the full range of Mozart's genius 
and featured both familiar works and lesser known, rarely per- 
formed selections. Highlighting the festival was the American 
premiere of a revised edition of the opera Idomeneo. 

In a special community outreach, festival programming included 
a number of outstanding concerts at the Smithsonian and in area 
churches, and in conjunction with the Center's activities, the Music 
Critics Association conducted institutes dealing with Mozart authen- 
ticity, special Mozart performance problems, and Mozart opera. 

The following month, in a dramatic three-century leap, the Cen- 
ter played host to Art Now '74, a celebration of contemporary 
American art and artists. Art Now, produced by the Artrend Foun- 
dation, utilized the entire roof terrace level and focused primarily 
upon performance and post-object art, stressing the most adven- 

Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 281 

A free public performance by the Festival Winds during the Mozart Festival. 
(Photograph by Richard Braaten) Below: Isaac Stern and friends in the Kennedy 
Center Concert Hall. From left to right, Isaac Stem, Jaime Laredo, and Leonard 
Rose. (Photograph by Richard Braaten) 

[turous of current art trends. Interdisciplinary in nature, it included 
the visual arts, dance, music, video, film, theater, and works outside 
the realm of conventional classification. 

j Throughout the year, the Center's vitally important educational 
Irole expanded through the continued growth of the Alliance for Arts 
Education (aae). The Alliance, a joint project of the Center and the 
Office of Education, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 
was established in 1973, to make the Center's programs, facilities, 
and services more accessible to students as participants and per- 
formers; to stimulate, at local, state, and regional levels, quality 
jprograms in which all the arts are included as an integral part of 
!the education of all students; and to establish the Center as a focal 
point for strengthening the arts in education at all levels. 

With the support of representatives of the President's Advisory 
Committee on the Arts, the Friends of the Kennedy Center, and 
national, state, and local officials, the Alliance established com- 
mittees in over 40 states. These state committees provide a forum 
and a communication center for arts and education organizations 
iworking to achieve the objectives of aae programs. In the fall 
of 1973, a Center-hosted aae conference provided a unique oppor- 
tunity for significant exchange between educators and arts adminis- 
trators from all 50 states. 

As a part of an Alliance "showcase" series, several states pre- 
sented outstanding representative educational programs at the 
Center during the spring. These included an appearance of 
the Golden Spike Youth Orchestra of Utah, a poets-in-the-schools 
project from New York, an exhibition of photographs and poems by 
Sioux Indian children of South Dakota, and a workshop on the arts 
jfor the mentally retarded. A total of 17 showcase activities are 
scheduled for the summer of 1974. 

The sixth annual American College Theatre Festival, presented 
by the Center and the Smithsonian and produced by the American 
Theatre Association, brought ten of the Nation's finest college 
productions to the Eisenhower Theater during a two-week period 
in April. As a part of a new play writing project, two original stu- 
dent works were among the productions staged. 

In cooperation with the Music Educators National Conference, 
the AAE is developing plans for an American University Music 
Festival, to be similar in scope to the College Theatre Festival. 

Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 283 

In addition to its AAE-oriented activities, the Center welcomed 
over 55,000 Washington-area school children to a series of special 
performances sponsored by the wives of Cabinet members and 
performing arts organizations within the city. 

The ongoing Special Ticket Program enabled over 135,000 people 
to attend regular Center performances at half-price. The program, 
which is available to students, the handicapped, retired people 
living on fixed incomes, limited-income groups, and military per- 
sonnel in grades E-1 through E-4, reflects the Center's concern 
that its performances be accessible to all, regardless of economic 

Under the chairmanship of Mrs. J. Willard Marriott, the 121- 
member President's Advisory Committee on the Arts continued to 
advise and assist in Center activities. During the year, the Advisory 
Committee was particularly active in fund-raising activities and 
in the development of the Alliance for Arts Education. 

The Friends of the Kennedy Center, established as an auxiliary 
organization in 1966, grew to include over 10,000 members from 
all parts of the country. Volunteers from the Friends have gener- 
ously contributed thousands of hours of time and effort, con- 
ducting public tours, managing souvenir stands, and providing 
hospitality and other services to Center operations and functions. 
Working closely with the National Park Service, the Friends have 
provided visitor services to over two million sightseers annually. 
Activities of the Friends are directed by Mrs, Polk Guest, who has 
served as chairman since 1967. 

Charged by Congress with responsibility for maintaining the 
Center as a national memorial, the National Park Service has car- 
ried out vital maintenance, security, and information functions. 
The daily efforts of National Park Service personnel within the 
building and throughout the 17-acre site add immeasurably to the 
enjoyment of sightseers and theatergoers alike. 

During its three years of operation, the Center has housed com- 
panies headed by universally recognized theatrical personalities as 
well as little-known college ensembles. Plays, operas, and ballets 
have been created and molded within its walls. As the fourth 
season approaches, with concrete plans and ambitious goals reach- 
ing well into the future, the Center and its role as a living memorial 
continue to evolve. 

284 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Although organizationally a bureau of the Smithsonian, the Cen- 
ter is administered separately by a 45-member Board of Trustees, 
composed of 30 members appointed by the President to ten-year 
overlapping terms, 9 members, ex officio, from pertinent Federal 
and District of Columbia agencies, 3 members appointed from the 
Senate, and 3 from the House of Representatives. Members of the 
Board at the close of fiscal year 1974 are as follows: 

Roger L. Stevens, Chairman 

Richard Adler 

Ralph E. Becker 

Terrel H. Bell 

Mrs. Donna Stone Bradshaw 

J. Carter Brown 

Mrs. Edward F. Cox 

Ralph W. Ellison 

Mrs. J. Clifford Folger 

The Honorable Abe Fortas 

The Honorable Peter H. B. 

The Honorable J. William Fulbright 
Mrs. George A. Garrett 
Leonard H. Goldenson 
H. R. Haldeman 
Mrs. Rebekah Harkness 
Mrs. Paul H. Hatch 
Frank N. Ikard 

The Honorable Edward M. Kennedy 
The Honorable Thomas H. Kuchel 
Gustave L. Levy 
Mrs. Michael J. Mansfield 
Mrs. J. Willard Marriott 

Harry C. McPherson, Jr. 

George Meany 

Robert L Millonzi 

The Honorable L. Quincy Mumford 

The Honorable Charles H. Percy 

The Honorable John Richardson, Jr. 

The Honorable S. Dillon Ripley 

The Honorable Teno Roncalio 

Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. 

Mrs. Jouett Shouse 

Mrs. Stephen E. Smith 

Henry Strong 

William Hammond Thomas 

The Honorable Frank Thompson, Jr. 

Benjamin Arthur Trustman 

The Honorable John V. Tunney 

Jack Valenti 

Ronald H. Walker 

The Honorable Walter E. Washington 

Lew R. Wasserman 

The Honorable Caspar W. 

Mrs. Jack Wrather 

Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 285 

.%.44pir m 


Library of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 
with a conference in session. 

Smithsonian Year '1974 





Late in 1968, the Congress determined that the official national 
memorial to the 28th President of the United States should be — 
uniquely among monuments to heads of state anywhere in the 
world so far as we are aware — a "living memorial." 

The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars seeks 
to commemorate both the scholarly depth and the public concerns 
of Wilson through a program of advanced research and communi- 
cation between the world of ideas and the world of affairs. Center 
activities and aims can be discussed in terms of the three basic 
ingredients of higher learning in a democracy: people, ideas, and 
communication — people who can think, ideas that matter, and 
communication that gets through. 

Finding and supporting the gifted individual to conduct research 
on subjects of fundamental importance is the primary concern 
of the Center. The majority of Center fellows are selected on the 
basis of open competitions, which are held twice yearly. Last year 
the program accommodated 48 fellows and 5 guest scholars from 
14 countries. Since the Center commenced its activities three years 
ago, it has welcomed 118 fellows from 27 countries for ranging 
scholarly research, along with 34 shorter-term guest scholars. The 
Center has had almost as many foreign as American fellows — 
bringing them together in a small group of no more than 40 at any 


given time. If the company and its perspective are global, the scale 
is human and the enterprise hopefully humane. 

In its selection procedures the Center relies deeply on panels 
whose composition reflects the fact that higher scholarship in 
America is heavily concentrated in universities. Fellowships are 
not, however, confined to academics and are not designed for the 
perfection of narrow specialties or private languages. Any scholar 
with a major project in view that can make fruitful use of the 
rich resources of the Washington area is welcome to apply. Fellow- 
ships are awarded by three broad divisional panels: Natural Re- 
sources and Political Economy; Social Studies; and Historical and 
Cultural Studies. 


Since the Center is free from traditional academic calendars and 
departmental structures and deals only in free, individual research, 
the opportunities are rich for the imaginative and cross-disciplinary 
scholar and for a creative mix of specialties and backgrounds. The 
Center is attempting to encourage depth in its scholarship by focus- 
ing on the historical, philosophical, and comparative dimensions 
of questions that matter for civilization. 

Much of the work at the Center has taken place in special subject 
areas within the broader scholarly divisions — research on pat- 
terns of sustainable economic growth and on the law of the sea 
and uses of the oceans within the division of natural resources 
and political economy, and studies of problems of the international 
order and the American system of government within the social 
studies division. Two new special programs in the latter division 
will bring (1) distinguished historians from abroad to work in 
Washington on the American Revolution as a world event, and 
(2) thoughtful practitioners from state and local governments in 
the United States to write a series of studies on the problems and 
prospects of the American federal system. 

While there are clusters of scholars with such common interests, 
the unifying force within the Center is the common scholarly com- 
mitment of fellows, guest s'cholars, and senior staff alike to what 
Wilson himself once described as "the passionate search for dis- 
passionate truth." 

288 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


Attempts to communicate between the world of ideas and the 
world of public affairs arise from the commission to serve as a 
"living memorial" to a President who bridged both worlds. The 
Center has the opportunity to perform a kind of switchboard 
function, making connections between the research materials of 
the Washington area, people at the Center, and the public sector 
in Washington. 

On the basis of past experience and present assets, the Center 
has sought recently to encourage both broadened dialogue between 
scholarship and the public sector and expanded use of the un- 
matched scholarly resources of the Washington area. Evening dia- 
logues, colloquia on work in progress, and occasional conferences 
are sponsored by the Center as ways of communicating scholarship 
within and beyond the Washington community — above and be- 
yond the publishing of the scholarly writings undertaken and 
produced by Center fellows. 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars I 289 

Smithsonian Year • 1974 

1. Members of the Smithsonian Council, June 30, 1974 P«ge 292 

2. Academic Appointments, 1973-1974 294 

3. Smithsonian Associates Membership, 1973-1974 303 

4. Progress on Building Construction, Restoration, 311 
and Renovation 

5. Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program Grants Awarded 313 
in Fiscal Year 1974 

6. News Releases, Radio Programs, and Leaflets Issued by the 316 
Office of Pubhc Affairs in Fiscal Year 1974 

7. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press 329 
in Fiscal Year 1974 

8. Publications and Selected Contributions of the 336 
Smithsonian Institution Staff in Fiscal Year 1974 

9. Visitors to the Smithsonian Institution in 408 
Fiscal Year 1974 

10. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1974 409 

11. List of Donors to the Smithsonian Institution 434 
in Fiscal Year 1974 


APPENDIX 1. Members of the Smithsonian Council, June 30, 1974 

Dr. Roger D. Abrahams. Chairman, Department of English, Professor of Eng- 
lish and Anthropology, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 

Dr. H. Harvard Arnason. Art Historian, River Road, Roxbury, Connecticut 
(Honorary Member). 

Professor George A. Bartholomew, Department of Zoology, University of Cali- 
fornia, Los Angeles, California. 

Dr. Muriel M. Herman. Civic, art, and college affairs, "20 Hundred" Nottingham 
Road, Allentown Pennsylvania (Honorary Member). 

Dr. Herman R. Branson. President, Lincoln University, Pennsylvania (Honorary 

Professor Archie F. Carr, Jr. Department of Biology, University of Florida, 
Gainesville, Florida. 

Professor Carl W. Condit. Center for Urban Affairs, Northwestern University, 
Evanston, Illinois. 

Mrs. Camille W. Cook. Assistant Dean, University of Alabama School of Law, 

Professor Fred R. Eggan. Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, 

Dr. Donald S. Farner. Chairman, Department of Zoology, University of Wash- 
ington, Seattle, Washington (Honorary Member). 

Professor Anthony N. B. Garvan. Chairman, Department of American Civiliza- 
tion, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Honorary Mem- 

Dr. Murray Gell-Mann. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Cali- 

Dr. Peter C. Goldmark. Goldmark Communications Corporation, Stamford, 

Dr. Frank B. GoUey. Executive Director, Institute of Ecology, University of 
Georgia, Athens, Georgia. 

Dr. Philip Handler. President, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. 

Dr. David Hawkins. Director, Mountain View Center for Environmental Educa- 
tion, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. 

Professor Nathan I. Huggins. Department of History, Columbia University, 
New York City. 

Dr. Jan LaRue. Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Music, New York 
University, New York City (Honorary Member). 

292 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Dr. James L. Liverman. Director, Division of Biomedical and Environmental 
Research, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, D.C. 

Dr. Clifford L. Lord. President, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York 
(Honorary Member). 

Dr. Giles W. Mead. Director, Los Angeles County, Museum of Natural History, 
Los Angeles, California. 

Professor Charles D. Michener. Lawrence, Kansas (Honorary Member). 

Dr. Peter M, Millman. Ontario, Canada (Honorary Member). 

Dr. Ruth Patrick. Chairman of the Board, The Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Professor Norman Holmes Pearson. Department of English and American Stud- 
ies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 

Dr. Gordon N. Ray. President, John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, 
New York City. 

Mr. Philip C. Ritterbush. Center for the Study of Popular Education and 
Recreation, Wallpack Village, New Jersey. 

Mr. Harold Rosenberg. Art Critic, New Yorker Magazine, New York City. 

Mr. Andre Schiffrin. Managing Director, Pantheon Books, New York City. 

Mr. George C Seybold. President, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachu- 
setts (Honorary Member). 

Professor Cyril Stanley Smith. Institute Professor, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Professor John D. Spikes. Salt Lake City, Utah (Honorary Member). 

Professor Stephen E. Toulmin. Professor in the Committee on Social Thought, 
University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. 

Mrs. Barbara W. Tuchman. Author, New York City. 

Dr. William Von Arx. Senior Scientist, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 

Professor Warren H. Wagner, Jr. Ann Arbor, Michigan (Honorary Member). 

Dr. Rainer Zangerl. Chairman, Department of Geology, Field Museum of 
Natural History, Chicago, Illinois (Honorary Member). 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council I 293 

APPENDIX 2. Academic Appointments, 1973-1974 


Smithsonian Fellows pursue research problems in Smithsonian facilities and 
collections in collaboration with professional staff members. Asterisks indicate 
Fellows whose research was supported through a grant for American Indian 
Studies awarded by the National Endowment for the Humanities for tenure 
at the Smithsonian Institution. 

Program in American and Cultural History 

Helen L. Horowitz. A study of American zoos as cultural institutions, with 
Dr. Lillian B. Miller, Department of History, National Portrait Gallery, from 
September 1, 1973, through December 31, 1973. 

Program in Anthropology 

Juan R. Munizaga. A study of physical anthropology of pre-Columbian popula- 
tions, with Dr. Donald J. Ortner, Department of Anthropology, from August 
15, 1973, through August 14, 1974. 

Douglas R. Parks. A study of Pawnee-Arikara linguistics and ethnohistory, 
with Dr. John C. Ewers, Department of Anthropology, from August 1, 1973, 
through July 31, 1974. 

Katherine M. Weist.* Collection and initial analysis of the historical materials 
pertaining to the Indians of Montana, with Dr. William C. Sturtevant, Depart- 
ment of Anthropology, from September 1, 1973, through May 31, 1974. 

Thomas R. Wessel.* Investigation of the means by which the Bureau of Indian 
Affairs developed and implemented government policies under the Dawes Act, 
with Dr. John C. Ewers, Department of Anthropology, from September 1, 1973, 
through May 31, 1974. 

John E. Yellen. Examination of archaeological and ethnographic materials from 
South Africa, with Dr. Clifford Evans, Department of Anthropology, from 
September 15, 1973, through January 31, 1975. 

Program in Astrophysics 

Marie E, Hallam. Development of a Lunar thermal evolution model, with Dr. 
John Wood, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from September 1, 1973, 
through August 31, 1974. 

Program in Earth Sciences 

Aurelio De Gasparis. Crystalline inclusions of ferromagnetic materials in tek- 
tites, with Dr. Brian H. Mason, Department of Mineral Sciences from January 
1, 1974, through December 31, 1974. 


294 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Anthony C. Onyeagocha. Petrochemistry of the Galapagos volcanic rocks, with 
j Dr. Thomas Simkin, Department of Mineral Sciences, from July 1, 1973, 
through June 30, 1974. 

' Program in Environmental Sciences 

Ilan Golani. Non-metric analysis of the display of the Tasmanian Devil through 
the use of movement notation, with Dr. John Eisenberg, National Zoological 
Park, from July 1, 1973, through June 30, 1974. 

Cornelis W. Raven. Physiology of phytochrome-controlled reactions, with Dr. 
Walter A. Shropshire, Radiation Biology Laboratory, from September 1, 1973, 
through August 31, 1974. 

Tung-Iin Wu. A study of dissolved matter and organic matters in estuary en- 
vironments, with Dr. Francis S. L. Williamson, Chesapeake Bay Center for 
Environmental Studies, from June 15, 1973, through June 14, 1974. 

Program in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

Ginter Ekis. A study of _ systematics, natural history, and zoogeography of 
Colyphus, with Dr. Terry Erwin, Department of Entomology, from July 1, 1973, 
through June 30, 1974. 

Thomas H. Fraser. Contributions toward a revision of the pantropical Cardinal 
Fish genus Apogon, with Dr. Ernest A. Lachner, Department of Vertebrate 
Zoology, from November 1, 1973, through October 31, 1974. 

Helen A. Kennedy. Systematic study of New World generic relationships in 
Marantaceae, with Dr. Lyman B. Smith, Department of Botany, from January 
1, 1974, through December 31, 1974. 

Frederick H. C. Hotchkiss. A study of the phylogeny of the Asteroidea with 
Asteroids collected during the International Indian Ocean Expedition, with 
Dr. David L. Pawson, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, from October 15, 
1973, through October 14, 1974. 

Heinz A. KoIImann. A study of the paleobiology of Mesozoic Gastropods, with 
Dr. Erie G. Kauffman, Department of Paleobiology, from June 4, 1973, through 
June 3, 1974. 

Katherine S. Ralls. A study of sexual dimorphism in antelopes, with Dr. Rich- 
ard W. Thorington, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, from September 1, 
1973, through August 31, 1974. 

Edgardo J. Romero. A study of fossil angiosperm leaves by the leaf architec- 
tural method, with Dr. Leo J. Hickey, Department of Paleobiology, from Feb- 
ruary 1, 1974, through January 31, 1975. 

Adam Urbanek. A study of the ultrastructure of invertebrates with organic 
skeletons, with Dr. Kenneth M. Towe, Department of Paleobiology, from Sep- 
tember 1, 1973, through November 10, 1973. 

Program in the History of Science and Technology 

Elaine H. Koppelman. The career of British mathematician, J. J. Sylvester, with 
Dr. Uta C. Merzbach, Department of Science and Technology, from Septem- 
ber 1, 1973, through August 31, 1974. 

Appendix 2. Academic Appointments I 295 

Michael M. Sokal. Analytic and narrative biography of James McKeen Cattell, 
with Dr. Audrey B. Davis, Department of Science and Technology, from Sep- 
tember 1, 1973, through August 31, 1974. 

Patricia S. Watlington. A study of agriculture in early Kentucky, 1775-1820, 
with Dr. John T. Schlebecker, Department of Industries, from September 1, 
1973, through August 31, 1974. 

Program in Tropical Biology 

Paul J. Campanella. Study of evolution and diversity of mating strategies in 
New World tropical odonates, with Dr. Martin Moynihan, Smithsonian Tropi- 
cal Research Institute, from November 1, 1973, through October 31, 1974. 

Donald L. Kramer. A comparative study of food selection in some tropical 
fishes feeding on detritus and aufwuchs, with Dr. Martin Moynihan, Smith- 
sonian Tropical Research Institute, from October 1, 1973, through September 
30, 1974. 

Michael L. May. A study of temperature responses of tropical dragonflies, with 
Dr. Michael H. Robinson, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from Janu- 
ary 1, 1974, through December 31, 1974. 

Robert R. Warner. Field and laboratory analysis of the evolutionary and eco- 
logical significance of hermaphroditism, with Dr. Ira Rubinoff, Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute, from September 15, 1973, through September 14, 

Donald M. Windsor. A study of the evolution of sociability in polybiine wasps, 
with Dr. Neal G. Smith, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from Septem- 
ber 1, 1973, through August 31, 1974. 


Program in American and Cultural History 

Curtis M. Hinsley. The science of man: anthropology in Washington, D.C., 
1880-1910, with Dr. Nathan Reingold, Joseph Henry Papers, from July 1, 1973, 
through June 30, 1974. 

Eunice E. Mason. Historical-cultural study of the West Indian immigrants to 
the Panama Canal Zone, with Dr. Roy Bryce-Laporte, Research Institute on 
Immigration and Ethnic Studies, from November 15, 1973, through November 
14, 1974. 

Anne D. Shapiro. Uses and performance practices in popular and folk music 
of 18th-century America, with Mrs. Cynthia Hoover, Department of Cultural 
History, from December 15, 1973, through December 14, 1974. 

Susan M. Strasser. The effects of household technology on the roles of women 
in America, with Miss Rodris Roth, Department of Cultural History, from 
September 1, 1973, through August 31, 1974. 

Program in Anthropology 

Robert S. Corruccini. Research on'variation humanoid dentition and on varia- 
tion between populations of Virginia Indians, with Dr. Donald J. Ortner, 
Department of Anthropology, from February 1, 1974, through January 31, 1975. 

296 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Laura J. Greenberg. Structural analysis of design, specifically Pueblo pottery 
patterns, with Dr. William C. Sturtevant, Department of Anthropology, from 
September 1, 1973, through August 31, 1974. 

Kiyoshi Yamaura. A study of the Eskimo harpoon heads and their history, with 
Dr. William W. Fitzhugh, Department of Anthropology, from July 1, 1973, 
through June 30, 1974. 

Program in Astrophysics 

Thomas E. Cravens. Study of atomic collisional processes of interest to astro- 
physics, with Dr. Alexander Dalgarno, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observa- 
tory, from September 1, 1973, through May 31, 1974. 

Jean W. Goad. A spectroscopic study of the kinematics in the Sb galaxy M81, 
with Dr. Rudolph E. Schild, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 
September 1, 1973, through May 31, 1974. 

Carlton R. Pennypacker. Infrared search for pulsars and study of optical 
pulsars with Dr. Costas Papaliolios, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 
from September 1, 1973, through June 30, 1974. 

Kenneth P. Topka. Theoretical and observational research in relativistic as- 
trophysics, cosmology, stellar structure, evolution, and the interstellar medium, 
with Dr. Alexander Dalgarno, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 
September 1, 1973, through May 31, 1974. 

William E. Wiesel. Research on the statistics of the two-body and restricted 
three-body gravitational problems, with Dr. Myron Lecar, Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory, from September 1, 1973, through May 31, 1974. 

Michael Zeilik. Infrared astronomy of H II regions, with Dr. Giovanni Fazio, 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from September 1, 1973, through 
June 30, 1974. 

Program in Earth Sciences 

William T. Potts. A study of Palestinian early Bronze Age ceramics, composi- 
tion, and technology, with Dr. William G. Melson, Department of Mineral 
Sciences, from September 1, 1973, through August 31, 1974. 

Program in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

Robert E. Dietz. Study of biosystematics of the genus Macrocneme Hubner, 
with Dr. W. Donald Duckworth, Department of Entomology, from August 15, 
1973, through February 14, 1974. 

Cynthia L. Lewis. Study of reproduction and development in the Gooseneck 
Barnacle, Pollicipes polymerus, with Dr. Thomas E. Bowman, Department of 
Invertebrate Zoology, from July 1, 1973, through June 30, 1974. 

C. P. Sreemadhavan. Study of leaf morphology in angiosperm systematics, with 
Dr. Leo J. Hickey, Department of Paleobiology, from September 1, 1973, 
through August 31, 1974. 

Robert E. Vorek. Study of functional morphology of primate foot including 
osteometric and myological analysis of the feet of various members of the 
anthropoidea, with Dr. Richard W. Thorington, Department of Vertebrate 
Zoology, from August 1, 1973, through July 31, 1974. 

Appendix 2. Academic Appointments I 297 

Bruce R. Wardlaw. Study of biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Gerster 
Formation (Upper Permian) in Nevada and Utah, with Dr. Richard E. Grant, 
Department of Paleobiology, from September 1, 1973, through May 31, 1974. 

Program in the History of Art 

Karen M. Adams. Study of the iconography of the Negro in 19th-century 
American painting and literature, with Dr. Lois M. Fink, National Collection 
of Fine Arts, from September 21, 1973, through September 20, 1974. 

Peter P. Morrin. Study of the art, teaching, and theory of Hans Hofmann, with 
Dr. Lois M. Fink, National Collection of Fine Arts, from December 1, 1973, 
through July 31, 1974. 

Linda H. Skalet. A study of the role of the private collector and collection in 
American art history, with Dr. Lois M. Fink, National Collection of Fine Arts, 
from January 1, 1974, through December 31, 1974. 

Roberta K. TarbelL A catalogue raisonne of the carved sculpture of William 
Zorach, with Dr. Lois M. Fink, National Collection of Fine Arts, from July 1, 
1973, through June 30, 1974. 

Barbara B. ZabeL A study of the impact of science and technology on modern 
art, 1900-1915, with Dr. Lois M. Fink, National Collection of Fine Arts, from 
September 1, 1973, through August 31, 1974. 

Judith K. Zilczer. A study of the aftermath of the Armory Show; American 
art theory and criticism, 1913-1923, with Dr. Lois M. Fink, National Collection 
of Fine Arts, from August 1, 1973, through July 31, 1974. 

Program in the History of Science and Technology 

Saroj K. Ghose. A study of the introduction and development of the electric 
telegraph in India, with Dr. Bernard S. Finn, Department of Science and Tech- 
nology, from July 1, 1973, through June 30, 1974. 

Paul A. Hanle. A study of the origins of and influences on the early statistical 
physics research of Erwin Schrodinger, 1910-1925, with Dr. Paul Forman, De- 
partment of Science and Technology, from September 1, 1973, through August 
31, 1974. 


Asterisks indicate students whose research was supported by Grant GY-10578 
from the National Science Foundation's Undergraduate Research Participation 

Program in American and Cultural History 

Russel W. Chamberlayne, George Washington University. General survey of 
museum textile handling and research methods, with Mrs. Rita Adrosko, 
National Museum of History and Technology. 

Sandra K. Lund, Gallaudet College. General archival studies, with Mr. Richard 
Lytle, Smithsonian Archives. 

Gerald J. Rosenzweig, Gallaudet College. General archival studies, with Mr. 
Richard Lytle, Smithsonian Archives. 

298 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Program in Anthropology 

Lorraine Bigman, Navajo Community College, Arizona. General anthropologi- 
cal archival studies, with Dr. Herman Viola, National Museum of Natural 

Katherine M. Condli£fe, George Washington University. Analysis of Bushman 
camps, with Dr. John Yellen, National Museum of Natural History. 

J. Richard Haefer, University of Illinois. Study of Plains Indians musical in- 
struments, with Dr. John Ewers, National Museum of Natural History. 

Afifa Hassan, Southern Methodist University. Studies on bone material using 
X-ray electron microscope and microprobe, with Dr. Donald Ortner, National 
Museum of Natural History. 

David Kiyaga-Mulindwa, Johns Hopkins University. Correlation of linguistic, 
archaeological, ethnographic, and oral data in reconstructing the Iron Age cul- 
tures of East and Central Africa, with Dr. Gordon Gibson, National Museum 
of Natural History. 

Joseph M. Konno, Rider College, New Jersey. A study of Puluwatan naviga- 
tional lore, with Dr. Saul Riesenberg, National Museum of Natural History. 

James H. Nottage, University of Wyoming. Study of Plains Indians material 
culture, with Dr. William Sturtevant, National Museum of Natural History. 

Peter W. Ochs, Jewish Theological Seminary. Transcription and analysis of 
Puluwatan oral navigational lore, with Dr. Saul Riesenberg, National Museum 
of Natural History. 

Arlyn H. Sharpe, University of Maryland. Studies in the ethnographic collec- 
tion, v/ith Dr. Eugene Knez, National Museum of Natural History. 

Augustine Smith, Navajo Community College, Arizona. General anthropologi- 
cal archival studies, with Dr. Herman Viola, National Museum of Natural 

Deborah R. Van Brunt, Yale University. Project on North American Indians, 
with Dr. William Sturtevant, National Museum of Natural History. 

Program in Earth Sciences 

Katherine DuVivier, Williams College. Project to develop an experimental 
touch exhibit, with Dr. Harold Banks, National Museum of Natural History. 

Lana M. Everett,* Swarthmore College. Bibliographic cataloguing for Charles 
Darwin Foundation and also Galapagos Islands research, with Dr. Thomas 
Simkin, National Museum of Natural History. 

Lee M. Gray,* Colgate University. Classification of Permian brachiopods from 
Pakistan, with Dr. Richard Grant, National Museum of Natural History. 

Bonnie B. Robinson,* Oberlin College. Petrological study of historic lavas 
from Cascade Mountains to South America, with Dr. James Powell, National 
Museum of Natural History. 

Jo Ann Rosenfeld,* Johns Hopkins Medical School. Study of fossil marine 
mammals with Dr. Clayton Ray, National Museum of Natural History. 

Appendix 2. Academic Appointments I 299 

Program in Biology 

Trudie L. Blackwell, Clemson University. Study of zoo animal medical pro- 
cedures, with Dr. Clinton Gray, National Zoological Park. 

Fred B. Blood, Virginia Commonwealth University. Study of Unionid fauna of 
Atlantic Central Virginia, with Dr. Joseph Morrison, National Museum of 
Natural History. 

Philip D. Perkins, University of Maryland. Study of taxonomy of larval stages 
of Hydrophilidae and Hydraenidae, with Dr. Paul Spangler, National Museum 
of Natural History. 

Marceile B. Riddick, Virginia Commonwealth University. Collection of fresh 
water mussels in Virginia, with Dr. Joseph Morrison, National Museum of 
Natural History. 

Program in the History of Science and Technology 

Roy S. Klein, Case Western Reserve University. Study of the development of 
American steel industry using the Smithsonian's Alexander Holley drawings, 
with Dr. Otto Mayr, National Museum of History and Technology. 

Elizabeth C. Luebbert, Wellesley College. Work on the Computer History Proj- 
ect, with Mr. Henry S. Tropp, National Museum of History and Technology. 

Anne M. Millbrooke, Boise State College. Processing and handling materials 
associated with the Joseph Henry Papers, with Dr. Nathan Reingold, Joseph 
Henry Papers. 

Patricia A. Mooney, University of Cincinnati. Study with the Joseph Henry 
Papers, with Dr. Nathan Reingold, Joseph Henry Papers. 

Robert Rosecrans, Yale University. Research into the origins of pediatrics as a 
speciality in the United States at the turn of the 20th century, with Dr. Audrey 
Davis, National Museum of History and Technology. 

Janet E. Surkin, University of California. Research for the Joseph Henry 
Papers, with Dr. Nathan Reingold, Joseph Henry Papers. 

Program for Museum Interns 

This program is supported by a grant from the National Endowment for the 

Richard E. Beard, Emory University. Training in museum curatorship, with 
Mr. Marvin Sadik, National Portrait Gallery. 

Kenneth A. Yellis, University of Rochester. Training in museum curatorship, 
with Mr. Marvin Sadik, National Portrait Gallery. 

Program for Cooperative Education Students 

Brenda Lynch, Antioch College. Development of a media program involving 
both photography and videotaping of museum activities relating to or of use 
for the educational department, with Mrs. Teresa Grana, National Collection 
of Fine Arts. 

Edward J. Weisenbach, Antioch College. Applications of media in museum 
programs, with Mrs. Teresa Grana, National Collection of Fine Arts. 

300 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Program for Cooperative Fellows 

John F. Commander, University of Maryland. Preliminary research into appli- 
cations of aeronautical and space-related scientific and technological develop- 
ments to Earth-bound uses, with Dr. Louis Bucciarelli, National Air and Space 

Theodorus Costopoulos, George Washington University. Investigation of how 
power engineering has been affected by technological developments within the 
air and space industry, with Dr. Louis Bucciarelli, National Air and Space 

Ronald E. Jutila, Georgetown University. Investigations of spin-offs of space 
travel technology as they benefit Earth-bound apparatus, with Dr. Louis Buc- 
ciarelli, National Air and Space Museum. 

Richard B. LeBaron, George Washington University. Study of some of the gen- 
eral societal effects of air and space technology in terms of attitude shifts and 
cultural impacts, with Dr. Louis Bucciarelli, National Air and Space Museum. 

James D. Maloney, George Washington University. Study to determine which 
future energy source developed from the space program would be best invest- 
ment for future payoff in meeting and relieving some of the energy shortage, 
with Dr. Louis Bucciarelli, National Air and Space Museum. 

^ Program in Museum Study 


Jane Adams. Organized and indexed photos and slides from the Pakistan An- 
cient Technology Program, with Dr. Owen Rye, National Museum of Natural 

Amanda Brown, New College, Florida. Assisted in arrangement of anthro- 
pological archival materials, also reference and correspondence regarding In- 
dian Art, with Mr. James Glenn, National Museum of Natural History. 

Marianna Doyle, Dunbarton College. Undertook the duties of a Museum Tech- 
nician in the Department of Invertebrate Zoology, with Dr. Thomas Bowman, 
National Museum of Natural History. 

Dale Gnidovec, Muskingum College. Worked toward familiarization with vari- 
ous ancillary aspects of museum work anticipating going on to more advanced 
level, with Dr. Nicholas Hotton, National Museum of Natural History. 

Lois Hentzschel, Dunbarton College. Trained to learn all facets of museum 
operations, specifically registration, exhibit, and conservation procedures, with 
Mr. Lloyd Herman, Renwick Gallery. 

Michel Monsour, Tulane University. Engaged in photographing Washington 
Victorian townhouses threatened with demolition in the vicinity of Judiciary 
Square and Dupont Circle, with Mr. James Goode, Smithsonian Institution 

Nancy Moore, University of Maryland. A general examination of Greek coins, 
dealing with a number of problems encountered in research in this area, with 
Dr. Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli, National Museum of History and Technology. 

Karen L. Moss, University of Massachusetts. Sorting and organizing the re- 
serve collection from China, with Dr. Eugene Knez, National Museum of Natu- 
ral History. 

Appendix 2. Academic Appointments I 301 

Dennis Mroczkowski, George Washington University. Research on and iden- 
tification of Zouave uniforms and research on U. S. Army field uniforms, 1940- 
1953, with Mr. Donald Kloster, National Museum of History and Technology. 

Dante Querdo, University of Massachusetts. Research to prepare an annotated 
bibliography of all manuscripts, publications, and specimens relating to James 
Smithson, the founder of the Smithsonian, with Mr. James Goode, Smithsonian 
Institution Building. 

Nancy Reichman, New College, Florida. Tabulating and preparing a large body 
of unpublished data on American Indians from the 1970 census and research on 
Indians east of the Mississippi River and correspondence with a number of 
Eastern states offices in obtaining data on the legal status of present-day Indians 
in those states, with Dr. Samuel Stanley, National Museum of Natural History. 

Anita Rolle, College of Notre Dame of Maryland. Cataloguing a collection of 
early 20th-century dressmaking fabrics, with Mrs. Rita Adrosko, National Mu- 
seum of History and Technology. 

Nancy Welch, University of Massachusetts. Independent study project on mu- 
seum education, with Mrs. Teresa Grana, National Collection of Fine Arts. 

302 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

APPENDIX 3. Smithsonian Associates Membership, 1973-1974 

SPONSOR MEMBER ($10,000 and up) Mr. Henry J. Heinz II 

PATRON MEMBERS ($5,000 and up) 

Mr. William Blackie 
Mr. Paul L. Davies 

Mr. Mandell Ourisman 
Mr. Arthur K. Watson* 

FOUNDER MEMBERS ($1,000 and up) 

Mr. Hilary Barratt-Brown 
Mr. Halleck Lefferts 

Mr. Judd Kessler 
Mr. Albert Whiting 


Mr. Arthur R. Armstrong 

Mr. and Mrs. James C. Barbour 

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. Bedell 

Mr. and Mrs. C. Emery Buffum 

Mr. Carter Cafritz 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold H. Hallock 

Mrs. A. Arlene Hershey 

Mr. and Mrs. John McGreevey 

Mr. John Shedd Read 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Whitney 

Mr. Julius Wile 

DONOR MEMBERS ($100, and up) 

Mrs. Howard Ahmanson 

Mrs. Alice Lloyd Allen 

Mr. Ivan Allen, Jr. 

Mr. John D. Archbold 

Mrs. Robert Low Bacon 

Mr. Charles E. Baker 

Dr. and Mrs. Robert C. Bast, Jr. 

Mr. Eduardo Battistella 

The Most Reverend William W. Baum 

Mrs. and Mrs. Walter Beck 

Miss Margaret E. Biehl 

Mr. and Mrs. Reed A. Blackwell 

Mr. and Mrs. J. B. Bogan 

Mr. John Bohorfoush 

Mr. Albert J. Bows 

Mr. Maxwell Brace 

Mr. and Mrs. Montgomery S. Bradley 

Mrs. Kendall E. Bragg 

Mr. J. Bruce Bredin 

Mrs. William C. Brewer 

Mrs. J. C. Brown 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas H. Buchanan 


Mr. Walter C. Buhler 

The Honorable William A. M. Burden 

Mrs. Jackson Burke 

Dr. and Mrs. J. A. Burwell 

Mr. E. T. Bryan 

Colonel and Mrs. D. Harold Byrd 

Mrs. James MacGregor Byrne 

Dr. and Mrs. Charles Cabaniss 

Mr. and Mrs. Conrad Cafritz 

Dr. Francis E. Cake 

Mr. C. H. Candler, Jr. 

Mrs. I. W. Caplitz 

Mr. Charles C. Caro 

Dr. and Mrs. Eugene J. Cetmar 

Mr. and Mrs. James G. Chandler 

Mr. and Mrs. David G. Chapman 

Mr. and Mrs. G. Howland Chase 

Mrs. Pricilla Meek Christy 

Miss Irene Clark 

Mrs. C. J. Clifford 

Captain Terrence L. Cohill 

Miss John Collett 

Appendix 3. Smithsonian Associates I 303 

Donor Members ($100 and up) continued 

Mr. Robert M. Comly 

Mrs. Mary Faye Craft 

Mrs. Horace Craig 

Mrs. Philip Crawford 

Mrs. U. Haskill Crocker 

The Honorable and Mrs. Hugh 5. 

Miss Viola E. Cureton 
Dr. and Mrs. Gilbert Dalldorf 
Mrs. D. Innes Dann 
Mr. and Mrs. James Dawson 
Dr. Lewis Hillard Dennis 
General Jacob L. Devers 
Mr. and Mrs. Bern Dibner 
Mr. and Mrs. Allen T. Dittman 
Dr. and Mrs. Lowell R. Ditzen 
Captain and Mrs. Robert F. Doss 
Miss Claire A. Dye 
Mr. and Mrs. Bryan N. Eagle 
Mrs. Tom J. Eals 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Eames 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Earnest 
Mr. Gerald S. Eilberg 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Barton Elliotte 
Miss Ann Erdman 
Miss Gretchen Estel 
Mr. James E. Farrell, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Waldron Faulkner 
Miss Judith R. Fetter 
Mrs. R. A. Fewlass 
Dr. Leo S. Figiel 
Lieutenant Colonel and 

Mrs. James Fischer 
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph H. Fisher 
Mrs. Lillie Fitzgerald 
Rear Admiral and Mrs. Francis Fleck 
The Honorable and Mrs. Edward Foley 
Mrs. Rowland G. Freeman 
Miss Margaret Mary Frowe 
Mr. and Mrs. Geoffrey Fuller 
Miss Joyce Fuller 
Mr. Walter 5. Furlow 
Mr. and Mrs. Sebastian Gaeda 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Gardner 
Mrs. T. Fleetwood Garner 
Mr. T. Jack Gary 
Mr. W. E. Gathright 
Mr. and Mrs. Carl S. Gewirz 
Mr. Philip M. Gignaux 
Mr. and Mrs. O. Rundle Gilbert 
Mr. and Mrs. T. K. Glennan 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Glover III 
Colonel and Mrs. Julius Goldstein 

Mrs. Katherine Graham 

Mrs. Beatrice B. Gray 

Dr. Shelia H. Gray 

Mr. Hix H. Green, Jr. 

Dr. and Mrs. Benjamin Greenberg 

Mr. and Mrs. Homer Gudelsky 

Mrs. Glenn R. Hall 

Mr. Courtnay C. Hamilton 

Miss Francis G. Hamilton 

Mr. and Mrs. Earl Hamner 

Mr. Gordon Hanes 

Miss Morcella R. Hansen 

Miss Clare Hardy 

Dr. Mary Hardy 

Mrs. Barbara Harrison 

Mrs. Fred H. Harsh 

Miss Katherine Hart 

Mr. and Mrs. Carleton Hascall 

Mrs. Bruce Hassinger 

Mrs. J. R. Haynes 

Mrs. Patrick Healy 

Mr. W. J. Henderson 

Mrs. John L. Hess 

Miss Ingeborg Hochhausler 

Mr. Walter J. Hodges 

Mrs. Kenneth M. Hoeffel 

Miss Novella Hollifield 

Mr. Roger E. Holtman 

Mr. Arthur A. Houghton 

Miss Elizabeth Houghton* 

Lieutenant Colonel and 

Mrs. S. S. Houston 
Mr. W. Barrett Howell 
Mrs. Edward F. Hutton 
Miss Barbara D. Hyde 
Mr. and Mrs. Frank N. Ikard 
Mrs. Mary Ellen Johansen 
Mrs. Paul C. Johnson 
Mr. and Mrs. William C. Keller 
Miss Irene Kent 
Mr. Walter H. Kidd 
Mrs. John Kimball 
Mr. and Mrs. William R. Knowlton 
Mr. and Mrs. Philip Knox, Jr. 
Mr. Harold C. Kohfeld 
Colonel and Mrs. Charles W. Kouns 
Mrs. Paul H. Krauss 
Mr. and Mrs. David Lloyd Kreeger 
Mr. Peter Kussi 
Mrs. Percy L. Kynaston 
Mr. and Mrs. S. J. Lanaham 
Mr. and Mrs. Anthony A. Lapham 
Mrs. Oscar Lasdon 


304 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Dr. K. C. Latven 

Mr. and Mrs. Larry Laughlin 

Mrs. Sylvia Laurenti 

Mr. and Mrs. Fleming Law 

Mrs. Fleming Law Sr. 

Mrs. Mortimer C. Lebowitz 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Lee 

Miss Marguerite Lehaurin 

Mr. and Mrs. G. Carroll Lindsay 

Mr. and Mrs. Owen S. Lindsay 

Mr. and Mrs. Ray Lindsay 

Mr. and Mrs. Daniel P. Loomis 

Mrs. Irving Lord 

Miss Kate Lord 

Mr. J. Victor Lowi 

Mr. and Mrs. William J. Lusk 

Mr. Edmond C. Lynch 

Mr. and Mrs. Alex C. Maclntyre 

Mr. and Mrs. Kurt Mann 

Mrs. Julia O. Martin 

Mr. and Mrs. Leaton E. Martin 

Mr. Donald L. McCathran 

Dr. and Mrs. Martin E. McCavitt 

Mr. and Mrs. George McGhee 

Reverend Brian A. McGrath 

Mrs. Frank E. McKee 

Mr. and Mrs. John H. McLaren 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard McLaughlin 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter L. McManus 

Mr. and Mrs. Leo A. McNalley 

Mr. Edward J. McNally 

Mr. Frederick A. Melhado 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold W. Metz 

Mr. and Mrs. E. Miller 

Mrs. Nicholas Molodovsky 

Mrs. William Mordin 

Mr. James Morgan 

Mr. and Mrs. Wendell Morris 

Mr. and Mrs. Carl J. Mulert 

U. V. Musico Foundation 

Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Nath 

Dr. and Mrs. Pierce Noble 

Mr. Gerson Nordlinger, Jr. 

Mrs. Janet B. Nunnelley 

Mr. Robert O'Brien 

Mr. and Mrs. Bernard O'Conner 

Mrs. Eugene O'Dunne 

Mr. Michael O'Keefe 

Mr. Pietro Orcino 

Mrs. Dawson Painter 

Dr. Joy Palm 

Mr. G. P. Pancer 

Miss Katherine Pantzer 

The Honorable and Mrs. Jefferson 

Miss Ruth Uppercu Paul 

Professor Norman H. Pearson 

Mr. and Mrs. Edmond Pendleton 

Mr. Alfred H. Peterson, Jr. 

Mr. Tucker W. Peterson 

Mrs. Charles Emory Phillips 

Mr. Abe Pollin 

Miss Katherine Anne Porter 

Mrs. T. Randolph Potter 

Mr. and Mrs. Prado 

Mrs. Harry A. Precourt 

Dr. and Mrs. Jerold Principato 

Miss Nancy J. Pritchard 

Mrs. Richard Quaintance 

Dr. and Mrs. Ernest Rafey 

Mr. and Mrs. Sargetn M. Reynolds 

Miss Jane Rinke 

Mr. James H. Ripley 

Mr. Donald H. Robinson 

Mr. and Mrs. John L. Rogers 

Mrs. John S. Rudd 

Mr. William R. Saloman 

Mr. Michael F. Sawyer 

Mr. R. E. Schoenfeld 

Mrs. Jerome Schwabe 

Mr. and Mrs. William H. Scully 

Mr. James G. Shakeman 

Mr. and Mrs. Donald W. Shaw 

Mr. and Mrs. Cecil F. Shelton 

Mr. and Mrs. Neil R. Smith 

Mrs. Page W. Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Smith 

Mrs. Margery N. Snyder 

Miss Irene M. Sorrough 

Dr. and Mrs. T. Dale Stewart 

Mrs. Catherine C. Stimpson 

Mrs. David Stockwell 

Mr. and Mrs. David C. Stonerod 

Mrs. Arthur H. Sulzberger 

Mrs. Edward C. Sweeney 

Mrs. Martha Frick Symington 

Mr. James B. Taylor 

Mr. and Mrs. George Teale 

Mr. and Mrs. W. P. Thielens 

Mr. Joseph A. Thomas 

Mr. and Mrs. A. I. Thompson 

Mrs. Anna Thornberry 

Mr. and Mrs. David G. Townsend 

Mr. and Mrs. Philip Tracey 

Dr. and Mrs. J. S. Tressler 

United Steelworkers of America 

Miss Eva B VanSchaack 

Mr. G. Duane Vieth 

Mr. and Mrs. Julius Wadsworth 

The Honorable and Mrs. James Webb 

Mr. Jervis B. Webb 

Mrs. John Webber 

Appendix 3. Smithsonian Associates I 305 

Donor Members ($100 and up) continued 

Mr. and Mrs. William S. Weedon 
Mrs. Norma Christine Wertz 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Whitney 
Miss Edith S. Wicksell 
Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Wiggins 
Mr. and Mrs. Alanson Willcox 
Mrs. Harry G. Wilson 
Mrs. William E. Wilson 

Mrs. David Wilstein 

Mrs. Mark Winkler 

Mrs. Jean Winslow 

Mr. and Mrs. Curtin Winsor, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter T. Wojno 

Mr. Herman Wouk 

Mr. Thomas Ziebold 


Reverend and Mrs. F. Everett Abbott 

Mr. Allan Akman 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley N. Allan 

Mr. Richard Lee Angle 

Mr. and Mrs. Rudolph Arkins 

Asian Gem Distributors, Ltd. 

Mr. and Mrs. John W. Auchincloss 

Mr. and Mrs. E. R. Atkinson 

Mr. Joseph Baker 

Mrs. Carol P. Banks 

Mr. Jeffery O. Barnes 

Mr. Harry C. Bauer 

Mr. and Mrs. Martin E. Bayol 

Mr. and Mrs. Ralph E. Becker 

Mr. and Mrs. James H. Berkey 

Dr. and Mrs. James F. Bing 

Mr. Richard Lee Birchler 

Mr. Robert D. Blake 

Mr. Frank Bliss, Jr. 

The Honorable Francis P. Bolton 

Mr. and Mrs. Philip Bonsai 

Mr. Warick P. Bonsai 

Mr. and Mrs. William J. Bowman 

Mr. and Mrs. John F. Boyd 

Mrs. Eugenie Rowe Bradford 

Mr. Raymond A. Brady 

William L. Brannon, Jr., M.D. 

Colonel Richard Brown 

Mr. David M. Brown 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold D. Brown 

Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Brown 

Mr. Donald J. Bruckmann 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Bruning 

Mr. and Mrs. Frederick B. Bryant 

Mr. Alvin J. Buchanan, Jr. 

Mr. Wiley T. Buchanan, Jr. 

Mr. L Townsend Burden 

Mrs. Therese Burleson 

Mrs. Henry A. Caesar 2nd 

Mr. Terrence L. Cahill 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert M. Calland 

Mr. Anthony C. Cambell 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank Caplan 

Mr. Philip L. Garret 

Mr. and Mrs. Douglas H. Carter 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank Gary 

Mr. Sebastino J. Castro 

Mr. K. Dexter Cheney 

Mr. and Mrs. Timothy W. Childs 

Mr. Edward J. Cohen 

Mr. Robert M. Comly 

Mrs. Ethel Conlisk 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Corbet 

Miss Patricia E. Coyle 

Mr. and Mrs. William B. Culver 

Captain and Mrs. Victor Delano 

Mr. R. Samuel Dillon, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ewen C. Dingwell 

Mr. Alden Lowell Doud 

Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Drummond 

Mr. James M. Duncan III 

Mr. Philip A. Dusault 

Miss Fredette S. Eagle 

Colonel and Mrs. Kenneth Edwards 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Eichholz 

Mr. Truxtun Emerson 

Miss Ann Erdman 

Mr. Timothy Evans 

Mr. S. Joseph Fantl 

Mr. and Mrs. Irving Fiest 

Dr. and Mrs. A. L. Fjordbotten 

Mrs. Julius Flieschmann 

Mrs. Maury Forman 

Mrs. Rockwood Foster 

Dr. Donald E. Frein 

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur H. Fribourg 

Mr. and Mrs. William G. Gaede 

Mr. John W. Galston 

Mr. Barry K. Gibson 

Dr. and Mrs. Roy S. Gillinson 

Mr. Moses J. Gozonsky 

Mr. and Mrs. John Grattan 

Miss Estelle M. Greenhill 

Mr. and Mrs. Gerald B. Greenwald 

Dr. and Mrs. James B. Gregory 

Miss Jeanne Griest 

306 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Miss Margaret Groben 

Mrs. C. B. Groce 

Miss Virginia H. Groomes 

Mr. and Mrs. Ernest W. Grove 

Mr. and Mrs. Alvin Guttag 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard H. Hagemeyer 

Mr. Irving B. Harris 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Hart and Family 

Mr. Philip H. Haselton 

Mr. and Mrs. R. Glenn Hawthorne 

Mr. Ronald E. Haydanek 

Mr. and Mrs. Randolph A. Hearst 

Dr. and Mrs. L. M. Hellman 

Mr. Frederick R. Henley 

Mrs. Ernest L. Hermann 

Mr. and Mrs. Blair Higinbotham 

Mr. and Mrs. John B. Holden 

Mr. and Mrs. Rez D. Hopper 

Mrs. Linda B. Howard 

Mrs. Henry H. Hoyt 

Mr. John Baird Hudson 

Mr. and Mrs. James H. Hughes 

Mr. and Mrs. William R. Hunter 

Mr. and Mrs. Claude Hurd 

Mr. and Mrs. James D. Hurd 

Dr. and Mrs. Ralph T. Jans 

Mr. W. N. Jersin 

Mr. and Mrs. David D. Johnson 

Dr. Donald A. Johnson 

Colonel and Mrs. F. M. Johnson, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Albert Jung 

Mr. W. John Kenney 

Mrs. Marie Kent 

Herbert Kersten, M.D. 

Mr. Charles T. Kindsvatter 

Dr. Harold King 

Mrs. Viola R. King 

Mrs. C. Edwin Kline 

Mr. and Mrs. J. K. Knee 

Mr. Lawrence J. Korwin 

Mr. Bogumil Kosciesza 

Mr. and Mrs. R. L. Kranker 

Dr. and Mrs. Wolfgang H. Kraus 

Mrs. Paul H. Krauss 

Miss S. Victoria Krusiewski 

Mr. John T. Lawrence 

Miss Gertrude Leach 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard M. Lederer 

Mr. Howard R. Leederman 

Mr. Andrew Leonard 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold R. Leuba 

Mr. William C. Lewis 

Miss Jane T. Lingo 

Miss Patric G. Link 

Mr. and Mrs. Sol M. Linowitz 

Adgate A. Lipscomb and Son 

Kathleen E. Lloyd, M.D. 

Mrs. Demarest Lloyd 

Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Low 

Mr. Harry Lunn 

Mr. and Mrs. R. S. Lusk, Jr. 

Mr. Robert E. Lynch, Jr. 

Mr. Frank R. Lyons 

Mrs. J. Noel Macy 

Mrs. James T. Magee 

Mrs. Katherine Magraw 

Mr. and Mrs. Gershom R. Makepeace 

Major and Mrs. George S. Mansfield 

Mr. Charles L. Marks 

Mr. and Mrs. Leonard H. Marks 

Mr. Howard J. Mason, Jr. 

Dr. and Mrs. Francis Mayle, Jr. 

Captain and Mrs. Charles McCall 

Mr. and Mrs. J. W. McEachren 

Mr. Edward J. McNally 

Dr. and Mrs. Edgar M. McPeak 

Mrs. R. B. Menapace 

Mrs. Ida C. Merriam 

Mr. and Mrs. Norman J. Mersamer 

Mr. and Mrs. Dennis M. Michael 

Mr. E. P. Moore 

Mrs. W. Gillespie Moore 

Dr. and Mrs. James Moulthrop 

Mr. and Mrs. James H. Muncy 

Miss Lee Muth 

Mr. Bruce H. Nelson 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Newby 

Mr. and Mrs. Barry Newton 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Lloyd Niles 

Mrs. F. C. Noble 

Mr. and Mrs. C. Norden and Family 

Mr. Newbold Noyes 

Mr. Robert O'Brien 

Major General & Mrs. Thetus C. Odom 

Mrs. John B. Ogilvie 

Mr. Thomas O'Hare 

Mr. Michael O'Keefe 

Mr. Kenneth B. Osmun 

Mr. and Mrs. David J. R. Pales 

Miss Patricia C. Patch 

Mr. Harry A. Paynter 

Mr. William A. Paznekas 

Mr. C. Wesley Peebles, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. Pence, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. George E. Perez 

Miss Jo Perrill 

Mr. Tucker W. Peterson 

Captain and Mrs. Phillips 

Mr. Joseph B. Phillips 

Mrs. Ogden Phipps 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Pierce 

Mr. W. Sutton Potter 

Appendix 3. Smithsonian Associates I 307 

Donor Members ($50 and up) continued 

Mr. Donald H. Price 

Mr. Douglas S. Price 

Mr. and Mrs. Mark Ragel 

Mr. Conrad Raker 

Colonel J. V. Rambeau 

Mr. Michael Raoul-Duval 

Mrs. Albert J. Redway 

Dr. Michal J. Rielly 

Mr. John M. Rhodes 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter E. Richards 

John E. Richardson, M.D. 

Mr. and Mrs. Eugene H. Rietzke 

Mrs. David Roberts III 

Miss Silvia G. Roberts 

Mr. and Mrs. F. L. Robertson 

Dr. and Mrs. S. David Rockoff 

Mr. and Mrs. Milton E. Rose 

Mr. and Mrs. Newell Rossman 

Mr. Robert J. Rovang 

Mrs. John Barry Ryan 

Dr. and Mrs. Abner Sacks 

Dr. and Mrs. David L. Salmon, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank Sanger, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. David Sapadin 

Mr. B. Francis Saul 

Mr. S. M. Saul 

Mrs. Francis B. Sayre, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Louis Schleiffer 

Mr. Alan N. Schneider 

Dr. and Mrs. Saul Schwartzback 

Mr. J. J. Selfridge 

Mr. G. William Shea 

Mrs. Bernice Sherwin 

Dr. and Mrs. George L. Sigalos 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard R. Sigmon 

Mr. Jack Silberman 

Mr. and Mrs. David P. Skinner 

Mr. Sanford Slavin 

Colonel and Mrs. C. Haskell Small 

The Honorable and 

Mrs. Gerald C. Smith 
Mr. and Mrs. Joe Pitts Smith 
Mr. Lamar A. Smith 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert T. Smith 
Miss Shirley A. Smith 
Mr. and Mrs. Larry Snodgrass 
Mr. J. Morse Sonith 

Mr. Harold A. Soulis 

Commander and Mrs. Lane L. Spencer 

Mr. Raymond Staples 

Mrs. Beck Stein 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard L. Sugarman 

Mr. David Sutherland 

Mr. and Mrs. John R. Sutter 

Mrs. Mary Davidson Swift 

Mr. and Mrs. George M. Szabad 

Mr. Joseph M. Tessmer 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank B. Thomson 

Mr. and Mrs. B. W. Thoron 

Miss Linda Tiexera 

Mr. Stirling Tomkins 

Mr. John E. Toole 

Mr. and Mrs. A. Buel Trowbridge 

Mr. and Mrs. E. Russell True, Jr. 

Truland Foundation 

Mr. and Mrs. George E. Tuttle 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard C. Van Dusen 

Dr. and Mrs. Philip Varner 

Miss Joan Nancy Vorobey 

Mr. and Mrs. A. E. P. Wall 

Dr. and Mrs. Edmond Walsh 

General and Mrs. L. A. Walsh, Jr. 

Dr. and Mrs. Henry P. Ward 

Dr. and Mrs. Robert B. Watson 

Mr. Ridley Watts 

Mr. David Wechsler 

Mr Thomas R. Weinel 

Mr. Ernest G. Weiss 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Westreich 

Mrs. Edwin N. Wheeler 

Mr. and Mrs. Donald L. White 

Mr. and Mrs. Dallas R. Wicker 

Mr. and Mrs. Warren Wiggins 

Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Wiley 

Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Wilkinson 

Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Wilson 

Mr. and Mrs. Edwin F. Wilson 

Mr. and Mrs. Luke W. Wilson 

Mrs. Orme Wilson 

Mr. David L. Wood 

Mrs. Leslie H. Wyman 

Mr. Robert C. A. Zetro 

Mr. and Mrs. James R. Zuckerman 


The Institution gratefully acknowledges the generosity and enthusiasm of the 
following individuals who became Life Members during the years 1965 through 
1971, when life memberships in Smithsonian Associates were available. 

308 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

FOUNDER MEMBERS ($1000 and up) 

Mr. Irwin Belk 

The Honorable and Mrs. 

David K. E. Bruce 
Mrs. Morris Cafritz 
The Honorable Douglas Dillon 
Mr. Charles E. Eckles 

The Honorable and Mrs. 

John Clifford Folger 
Mr. Cornelius Van S. Roosevelt 
Mr. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 
Mr. P. A. B. Widener 
Mr. and Mrs. Sidney S. Zlotnick 


Mrs. Anna Bing Arnold 

Mrs. Theodore Babbitt 

Mr. Joel Barlow 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard Barnes 

Mr. William R. Biggs 

Mr. George A. Binney 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph D. Blatt 

Miss Fay Boyle 

Mrs. L. Roosevelt Bramwell 

Mr. A. Marvin Braverman 

Mr. and Mrs. John Nicholas Brown 

Mr. Bertram F. Brummer 

Mrs. Leon Campbell, Jr. 

Mrs. Leonard Carmichael 

Dr. Rita Chow 

Clarke and Rapuano Foundation 

(Mr. Gilmore D. Clarke) 
Mrs. Frances A. Davila 
Mr. Newell W. Ellison 
Mr. and Mrs. Alfred U. Elser, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard S. Friedman 
Mr. Richard F. Fuller 
Mr. and Mrs. Hy Garfinkel 
Mr. George A. Garret 
Mr. Carl S. Gewirz 
Mr. and Mrs. Crawford Greenewalt 
Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert C. Greenway 
Mr. William H. Greer, Jr. 
Mr. Melville B. Grosvenor 
Mr. and Mrs. Homer Gudelsky 
Mr. Gilbert Hahn 
Mr. Laurence Harrison 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Hirshhorn 
Mr. and Mrs. Christian Hohenlohe 

Mr. Philip Johnson 

Miss Brenda Kuhn 

Mr. Harold F. Linder 

Colonel and Mrs. Leon Mandel 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Willard Marriott 

The Honorable William McC. 

Martin, Jr. 
Lieutenant Commander and Mrs. 

P. J. Maveety 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon 
Miss Katherine A. A. Murphy 
Neuberger Foundation Incorporated 

(Roy R. and Marie S. Neuberger) 
Duke of Northumberland 
Dr. and Mrs. Melvin M. Payne 
Miss Lucy M. Pollio 
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Powers 
Miss Elsie Howland Quinby 
Dr. and Mrs. S. Dillon Ripley 
Mr. and Mrs. Seymour J. Rubin 
Mr. H. C. Seherr-Thoss 
Mrs. Jouett Shouse 
Dr. and Mrs. Carl Swan Shultz 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Smith 
Mr. Robert T. Smith 
Miss Sally Sweetland 
Mr. and Mrs. Bertrand L. Taylor III 
Mrs. Clark W. Thompson 
Mrs. Carl Tucker 
Mr. Alexander O. Vietor 
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Warner 
Dr. Alexander Westmore 
Mr. and Mrs. W. Bradley Willard 
Mrs. Rose Saul Zalles 


The Smithsonian Institution thanks the following business organizations for 
i their understanding and generous support of the Institution's research and 
education programs through membership in the Smithsonian Associates. 

American Express Badger Meter, Inc. 

American Metal Climax Foundation, Inc. Caterpillar Tractor Co. 
Arthur Andersen and Company Celanese Corporation 

AVCO Corporation The Coca Cola Company 

Appendix 3. Smithsonian Associates I 309 

Corporation Memberships (Continued) 

Continental Oil Company 

Dana Corporation 

Deere & Company 

El Paso Natural Gas Company 

The First National Bank of Miami 

The B. F. Goodrich Company 

International Business Machines 

International Telephone and Telegraph 

S. S. Kresge Company 
The Magnavox Company 
Mobil Oil Corporation 
Philip Morris Incorporated 

National Bank of Detroit 

Northwest Industries, Inc. 

Olin Corporation 


R. J. Reynolds Industries, Inc. 

Levi Strauss & Co. 

TRW Inc. 

Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line 

Trust Company of Georgia Foundation 
Hiram Walker & Sons Inc. 
Wells Fargo Bank 
Winn-Dixie Stores, Inc. 


This body was created in October 1971 to assist the Institution in the pursuit 
of certain of its aims for the decade of the 1970s, particularly in the develop- 
ment of its relations with industry. While the Institution hopes to advance its 
goals in public education and environmental studies through increased private 
support, it seeks, in turn, to serve the educational and community interests of 
its Corporate Members. We are grateful for the energy and concern shown by 
the members of the Board. 

Lewis A. Lapham, Chairman 
Harry Hood Bassett 
William Blackie 
John W. Brooks 
Richard P. Cooley 
Joseph F. Cullman 3rd 
Harry B. Cunningham 
Paul L. Davies 
Leonard K. Firestone 
Charles T. Fisher III 
G. Keith Funston 
Alfred C. Glassell, Jr. 
Mrs. David L. Guyer 
Ben W. Heineman 

Henry J. Heinz II 
William A. Hewitt 
Frank Y. Larkin 
George C. McGhee 
Mrs. Robert S. McNamara 
Ruben F. Mettler 
Roger Milliken 
Charles M. Pigott 
Mrs. Malcolm Price 
Francis C. Rooney, Jr. 
Merritt Kirk Ruddock 
Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 
James O. Wright 


310 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

APPENDIX 4. Progress on Building Construction, Restoration, 
and Renovation 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. The construction of the Exhibit Design and 
Production Laboratory is 40 percent complete with the entire project due to 
be finished in the fall of 1974. 

Arts and Industries Building. Contract was awarded for the restoration and 
air conditioning of the building, and 5 percent of the construction work, 
which began in March 1974, has been completed. In addition, fire protection 
systems, exterior lighting, and restroom facilities were completed. The restora- 
tion and renovation project is scheduled for completion in the third quarter of 
fiscal year 1976. 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies. Construction of the Visitor 
Center and Dormitory was initiated in the last quarter with completion sched- 
uled for the fall of 1974. The Jefferson Island renovation and bulkheading de- 
sign work reached the 95 percent completion stage, and the construction 
contract award and beginning of work will occur late this fiscal year. 

Fine Arts and Portrait Galleries. Design of the exterior lighting plan is 90 
percent complete. The third floor renovation is 30 percent complete with the 
first floor corridor renovation 95 percent complete. Staff and public lunchroom 
construction was completed, and these facilities are expected to be operating 
by the end of this fiscal year. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Construction is approximately 95 
percent complete with the public opening scheduled for the late fall of 1974. 

History and Technology Building. The execution of the exterior lighting plan 
was completed. North terrace and roof repairs were finished. Design for the 
Library addition is progressing, as is the design for the remodeled Conserva- 
tion Analytical Laboratory. Construction for the latter is scheduled for 
completion in the fall of 1974. 

National Air and Space Museum. Construction is 45 percent complete with the 
scheduled opening to the public set for July 4, 1976. Initial occupancy is 
scheduled for the late summer of 1975. 

National Zoological Park. Construction of the Monkey House and Cheetah 
facility are 25 percent completed in accordance with the Master Plan. During 
the year, demolition of the Lion House took place and construction will be 
initiated in the first quarter of next fiscal year. Projected completion of the 
new facility is scheduled for the third quarter of fiscal year 1977. Also, in 
conjunction with the Master Plan, the general services and parking facility 
design is 95 percent completed. Still in the design stages are the Elephant Yard 
and Bird Area. Appropriations for design and site development of the Con- 
servation Center, Front Royal, Virginia, Master Plan will be included in the 
fiscal year 1976 budget request. 

Appendix 4. Progress on Building Construction I 311 

Natural History Building. Constuction of administrative and production space 
is 30 percent complete for the Center for the Study of Man. Design of the 
building's exterior lighting plan was completed and also the specifications for 
the Library expansion. Contract awards are expected to be made in the first 
quarter of fiscal year 1975. 

Silver Hill Facility. Construction work on Building 24 was initiated and is 
75 percent completed. Building 25 construction is 15 percent completed. Both 
buildings should be finished by the fall of 1974. 

Smithsonian Institution Building. Humidification system installation was com- 
pleted. The planning and design phase of the South Yard development and 
restoration is underway. 

Bicentennial Exhibit Construction. Demolition and construction will begin in 
the first quarter of next fiscal year for the "Nation of Nations" exhibit in the 
History and Technology building. Construction was started for the "Of the 
People, By the People, For the People" exhibit for the History and Technology 
building. Design was completed for the "Ecology 200" exhibit for the Natural 
History building. In the Arts and Industries building, the planning is nearing 
completion for the exhibit of the re-creation of the Centennial. All exhibit! 
projects are scheduled for completion prior to the Bicentennial. 

312 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

APPENDIX 5. Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program Grants 
Awarded in Fiscal Year 1974 


American Institute of Indian Studies, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Continued 
support for administration, Benares Center for Art and Archeology, and re- 
search fellowships (India). 

American Museum of Natural History. New York, New York. Excavation at the 
Harappan site of Allahdino in the Malir Area, Karachi District, Pakistan. 

American Research Center in Egypt, Princeton, New Jersey. Continued support 
for a program of research and excavation in Egypt: support for operation of the 
Cairo Center, fellowship support, maintenance of archeological research at the 
site of Hierakonpolis (Nekhen) in Edfu District, survey of Arabic scientific 
manuscripts in Cairo, maintenance of a stratified pharonic site in the Egyptian 
delta at Mendes, Akhenaten Temple project, research in modern Arabic litera- 
ture, continuation of an epigraphic and architectural survey at Luxor of the 
Oriental Institute, feasibility of clearing, conserving, and recording the tomb of 
King Ramesses II in the Valley of the Kings, an egyptological conference, 
editing the Nag Hammadi codices. 

Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts. Archeological excavations at Stobi 

Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Washington, D.C. A corpus of 
the ancient mosaics of Tunisia. 

Smithsonian Institution, Department of Anthropology, Washington, D.C. 
Helmand-Sistan projects: studies of historical ecology. 

Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas. The Pleistocene sediments of the 
Nile Valley, Egypt. 

State University of New York at Buffalo, New York. Investigations on the 
Neolithic sites in Southeastern Poland. 

University of California, Berkeley, California. Archeological excavations at the 
Harappan Seaport of Balakot, Pakistan. 

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Excavations in Diocletian's 
Palace at Split, Yugoslavia. 

University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. Research and study of Early 
Medieval Polish archeology. 

University of Pennsylvania, University Museum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
The Dira Abu el-Naga project (Egypt). 

University of Pennsylvania, University Museum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
Excavation within the town and harbour site of Malkata, Western Thebes 


Appendix 5. Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program I 313 


Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Biochemical investi- 
gations of diploid and triploid frogs of the Rana esculenta complex (Poland). 

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. Exploitation of habitats by chemi- 
cally differentiated races of morphologically uniform lichen-forming fungi 

Harvard University, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts. Study of the dentition of Cretaceous mammals of Mongolia (Poland). 

Howard University, Washington, D.C. Cenozoic mammals of Pakistan. 

Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, Washington, D.C. Revision of 

Trimen's Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon. 

Smithsonian Institution, Department of Paleobiology, Washington, D.C. Com- 
parative study and geography of selected Devonian and Permian corals in 
Poland and the U.S.A. 

Smithsonian Institution, Office of International and Environmental Programs, 

Washington, D.C. Limnological investigations of Lake Ohrid (Yugoslavia), 
limnological investigations of Skadar Lake (Yugoslavia), Mediterranean Marine 
Sorting Center (Tunisia). 

Smithsonian Institution, Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Canal Zone. 
Ecology of freshwater lakes in Panama (Poland). 

Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas. Mammals of the Adriatic islands and 
adjacent mainland of Yugoslavia. 

University of California, Berkeley, California. A biosystematic comparison of 
the siphonocladales (Chlorophyta) (Tunisia). 

University of California, Berkeley, California. Comparative study of Late 
Cretaceous Mongolian and North American mammals (Poland). 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Systematic studies of the mol- 
luscan genus Bulinus in Africa and adjacent regions (Egypt). 

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. The evolution of optimal reproductive 
strategies (India). 

Utah State University, Logan, Utah. Systems analysis of the PreSaharan eco- 
system of Southern Tunisia. 

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Paleoanthropology, paleontology, 
and stratigraphy of Neogene localities in Pakistan. 


Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. Studies in Lake of Tunis. 

Smithsonian Institution, Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts. Operation of the Uttar Pradesh State Observing Station at Naini Tal 

Smithsonian Institution, Department of Mineral Sciences, Washington, D.C. 
Lonar Meteorite Crater project (India). 

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Color magnitude diagrams for . 
young star clusters in magellanic clouds (Poland). 

314 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


Smithsonian Institution, Department of Science and Technology, Washington, 
D.C. Publication in Islamic medicine in the thirteenth century (Egypt). 

Smithsonian Institution, Office of Museum Programs, Washington, D.C. Publi- 
cation of ICOM's The Protection of Cultural Property: handbook of national 

Smithsonian Institution, Traveling Exhibition Service, Washington, D.C. Study 
and exhibition of Wissa Wassef tapestries from Egypt. 

Appendix 5. Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program / 315 

APPENDIX 6. News Releases, Radio Programs, and Leaflets Issued 
by the Office of Public Affairs in Fiscal Year 1974 


Musical Director Will Speak in Associates Series July 12 
Jonas Mekas Film Will Open Associates Summer 

James Billington Will Direct Wilson Center for Scholars 
Have ESP? July Smithsonian Offers Do-It- Yourself Tests 
Finest Known Model Rocket Collection Given to 

National Air & Space Museum 
Grand Style Prints, Objects on View at National 

Collection of Fine Arts 
Display Sale of George Ohr Pottery Complements 

Renwick Gallery Exhibit 
N.Y. Light Ensemble Will Perform in Smithsonian 

Associates Program 
"Antwerps's Golden Age" Highlights Smithsonian's 

Summer Road Shows 
Visitors and Press Hall National Portrait Gallery's 

Exhibition Tracing Involvement in the Founding Years 

of the Republic 
Exhibit Will Commemorate Centenary of Pioneer 

Aeronaut Santos-Dumont 
Payroll of Revolutionary Man-Of-War To Join 

Philadelphia at Smithsonian 
Associates Schedule Free Film on Sundays 
Smithsonian Stieff Sign Agreement for Line of Silver, 

Pewter Products 
Connecticut Firm Gives Museum Early Naval Uniforms 

Officers Uniforms 
"New Images 1839-1973" Compares Early Photo 

Techniques, Modern Counterparts 
Performing Arts Variety Offered at Smithsonian 
Renwick Gallery To Exhibit "American Glass Now" 
Women's Liberation at the Smithsonian 
The Energy Crisis May Change Our Architecture 
Ten Traveling Exhibitions Circulated by Smithsonian 
Music from Marlboro To Open Washington Season 

Oct. 20 
Smithsonian Puppet Theater Premieres "Patchwork" 
23rd National Exhibition of Prints at NCFA To Reflect 

Artistic Trends 
Smithsonian Award To Philadelphia Man 

July 3, 1973 
July 3, 1973 

July 9, 1973 

July 6, 1973 

July 12, 1973 

July 12, 1973 

July 12, 1973 

July 13, 1973 

July 13, 1973 

July 17, 1973 

July 18, 1973 

July 19, 1973 

July 19, 1973 
September 13, 1973 

September 14, 1973 

September 14, 1973 

September 17, 1973 
September 17, 1973 
September 19, 1973 
September 19, 1973 ' ; 
September 24, 1973 
September 27, 1973 

September 20, 1973 
September 20, 1973 

September 21, 1973 ^ 

316 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Neglected 19th Century American Painter Being Afforded 

Major Exhibition at NCFA 
Smithsonian Associates Offer Fall Trips to Historical 

Associates Fall Film Series To Feature Baillie Festival 
Michael Huxley Named To Science Post 
Director Jerzy Grotowski To Speak at Smithsonian 
Inflatable Rubberized Airplane To Be Presented to Air 

Smithsonian Seeks Donations of Clothing Circa 1920-1970 
U.W. Workshop's Spanish Connection Yields Exhibition 

of Prints at NCFA 
Movable Concert on Modern Music Will Be Performed 

in 3 Galleries at NCFA 
Pacific Northwest Indian Boxes, Bowls Will Be Exhibited 

at Renwick Gallery 
4 Scholars To Give Free Lectures at NCFA on American 

Sculpture for Period 1830-1930 
Wymberley Coerr Will Direct New Office of International 

Environmental Programs 
Collector Will Discuss Russian Abstract Art in Free Lecture 
Open House at NCFA Gives Public Chance To Go 

Behind the Scenes of Art Museum 
Major Smithsonian Exhibition Traces History of 

Rehabilitation Medicine 
Smithsonian Will Produce Birthday Tribute to Gershwin, 

Todd Duncan 
Energy Crisis May Make Windmills Turn Again 
Shaker Furniture, Drawings Will Be Shown at Renwick 

Exhibit Opening Nov. 2 
Marguerite Zorach : The Early Years, 1908-1920 
Artists, Verda, Olmera Peters Illustrate Tribal Costumes 

of Southern Africa 
Smithsonian Will Present Bill Monroe, Bluegrass Boys, 

Guest Fiddlers Nov. 11 
Smithsonian To Host Performances by Kathakali Troupe 

Nov. 19 & 20 
Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz Now Available 
Earl Hines Will Perform in Jazz Heritage Concert 
Associates Offer Poetry Readings 
Needlework Highlighted in New Smithsonian Tour 
Art of the Pacific Northwest: From the 1930's to the 

Theater Chamber Players in Residence at the 

Meyer Foundation Gives Grant for Freer Program 
Princeton Scholar Will Lecture on Two Freer Gallery 

Outstanding Naturalist Photographer Will Show Latest 

Film November 12 

September 26, 1973 

October 2, 1973 

October 4, 1973 

October 9, 1973 

October 10, 1973 

October 10, 1973 

October 11, 1973 
October 12, 1973 

October 12, 1973 

October 12, 1973 

October 12, 1973 

October 12, 1973 

October 18, 1973 
October 18, 1973 

October 19, 1973 

October 19, 1973 

October 5, 1973 
October 24, 1973 

October 10, 1973 
October 10, 1973 

October 29, 1973 

October 30, 1973 

October 30, 1973 

October 31, 1973 

October 31, 1973 

November 2, 1973 

November 6, 1973 

November 6, 1973 

November 7, 1973 
November 7, 1973 

November 7, 1973 

Appendix 6. Office of Public Affairs I 317 

NCFA Woodcuts Exhibit To Survey New Developments 

in Old Medium 
Unsung Aspect of Aviation-Air Traffic Control Will Get 

Its Day in New Smithsonian Institution 
Sony President Will Open Doubleday Lecture Series 
National Zoo's Giant Pandas Get New Outdoor Play 

Highlights of Articles in Current Smithsonian Research 

American Music Group To Perform 19th Century 

American Music 
Musical Fantasy Adapted From Peking Opera To Be 

Performed at Smithsonian 
"Ascent of Man" Film Series To Premiere at Smithsonian 
Hirshhorn Museum Recruiting Volunteers for Docent 

Smithsonian Acquires Historic Diesel Engine 
Exhibit at NCFA of Rediscovered Paintings Will Show 
Marguerite Zorach as Innovator 

Art Portfolio DAT at NCFA Brings College to Students 
200 Years of Royal Copenhagen Porcelain 
Stars Fell on Talladego — Article Proposes New State 

Portrait Gallery Exhibit Commemorated 150th 

Anniversary of Monroe Doctrine 
"Creep" Slowly Tearing California Town in Two 
Smithsonian Associates Will Mark Turkish Republic's 

50th Birthday 
Smithsonian To Present Homage to Poet W. H. Auden 
John E. Graf, Former Smithsonian Assistant Secretary 
Renwick Gallery To Ring in Christmas With Free 

Handbell Concert Dec. 11 
Oberlin Baroque Ensemble Will Perform at Smithsonian 

Institution December 7 
Cecil Taylor To Speak, Perform at Jazz Heritage Series 

Dec. 16 
Art Museums Open Restaurant 
Charles DeVault to Coordinate TV Projects for 

Coloring the Smithsonian To Go on Sale December 10 
Smithsonian Guidebook Now Available in Four Foreign 

Language Editions 
Christmas Gift Idea from Smithsonian Resident Puppet 

Group Tours of Shaker Exhibition Now Available at 

Renwick Gallery 
Smithsonian, Alva Sign Contract for Reproductions 
Display of Islamic Ceramics Will Conclude Freer 


318 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

November 7, 1973 

November 7, 1973 

November 8, 1973 
November 13, 1973 

November 13, 1973 

November 14, 1973 

November 15, 1973 

November 16, 1973 
November 20, 1973 

November 20, 1973 
November 20, 1973 
November 20, 1973 
November 21, 1973 
November 21, 1973 
November 21, 1973 

November 12, 1973 

November 26, 1973 
November 26, 1973 

November 26, 1973 
November 26, 1973 
November 29, 1973 

November 30, 1973 

November 30, 1973 

December 5, 1973 
December 5, 1973 

December 7, 1973 
December 7, 1973 

December 12, 1973 

December 13, 1973 

December 17, 1973 
December 17, 1973 

NCFA to Show Saul Steinberg Drawings 
Statement by S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the 

Smithsonian Institution on the Death of Charles 

Greeley Abbot 
NCFA to Show Joseph Cornell Boxes 
Smithsonian Puppet Theater Extends Patchwork 

Through Jan. 6 
Associates Will Present Production of Virginia Folk 

Tales for Children 
Two "Distinguished Scholars" Among 18 Fellows Named 

by Woodrow Wilson Center 
Western Wind Group To Perform Early American Music 

Jan. 7 
Theater Chamber Players Reschedules Concert for 

January 14 
Johnson-Sea-Link Panel Submits Report to Smithsonian 

Michael Stephans, Karl Berger To Perform Their Works 

at Smithsonian January 11 
Smithsonian Winter Courses Range From Architecture 

to Pantomime 
Anacostia Museum Will Show Barnett-Aden Art 

'Bigfoot" Legend Still Persists 163 Years After First 

Anthropologist Will Lecture January 15 on Supernatural 

World of Ancient Maya 
Freer Lecturer to Discuss Ceramics Art of the Khmers 
Kyne's Consort Will Perform Concert of 16th Century 


Think 68 Is Cold? Don't Try Siberia 
'American Self-Portraits" Will Open at National Portrait 

Gallery Feb. 1 
Contemporary Paintings From Pakistan Will Be 

Exhibited at Renwick Gallery 
Exhibit Will Feature Works by 12 Major Photographers 
Memo to Editors: Tenth Anniversary of National 

Museum of History and Technology 
Renwick Gallery Schedule Free Talks on Shaker Religion 

and Architecture 
: Smithsonian's 3rd Annual Musical Weekend in 

Washington Scheduled for May 10-12 
Memo to Editors: National Museum of History and 

Technology Auditorium Named for Leonard Carmichael 
Cajun Musicians, Mountain String Band To Perform in 

Concert at Smithsonian 
Work of Expatriate American Artist To Be Shown at 

National Collection 
Biologist Watson Will Speak in Doubleday Lecture 
National Zoo Will Establish Breeding Farm in Front 


December 17, 1973 
December 17, 1973 

December 19, 1973 
December 19, 1973 

December 14, 1973 

December 20, 1973 

December 20, 1973 

December 20, 1973 

December 27, 1973 

December 26, 1973 

December 27, 1973 

January 2, 1974 

January 2, 1974 

January 4, 1974 

January 4, 1974 
January 7, 1974 

January 7, 1974 
January 8, 1974 

January 9, 1974 

January 9, 1974 
January 9, 1974 

January 14, 1974 

January 13, 1974 

January 14, 1974 

January 17, 1974 

January 17, 1974 

January 18, 1974 
January 21, 1974 

Appendix 6. Office of Public Affairs I 319 

"Anatomy of a Gallop" Contrasts Portrayals of Running 

Dr. Joshua Taylor To Give Lecture on Pacific Northwest Art 
R. V. Johnson Will Be Launched January 26 at Ft. Pierce, Fla. 
National Portrait Gallery Receives Pearl Buck Portrait 
Smithsonian Publishes Definitive Monograph on 19th 

Century Artist Robert Loftin Newman 
Explore Gallery for Children Opens at National 

Collection of Fine Arts 
National Collection of Fine Arts to Survey Pacific 

Northwest Art of Last Four Decades 
Smithsonian Publishes Catalog on Art of Pacific 

Theater Chamber Players Will Present Second Concert at 

Smithsonian Feb. 4 
Walter Hopps To Give Free Lecture on Artist Joseph 

Cornell at NCFA 
Environmental Law Conference To Be Held in San 

Freer Lecturer to Discuss Imagery on Iranian Vessels 
Museum Director To Give Talks in Luncheon Series 
Air Force Chamber Players Will Present All Debussy 

Concert at Renwick Gallery 
Associates Will Present Two Events for Black History 

Week, Feb. 10-16 
Smithsonian To Present Second Series of Guggenheim in 

Lectures in Astronomy 
There's a Good Time Coming March 10, 11, 12 at 

Placing of 2 Large Statues Will Complete Exterior 

Restoration of Renwick Gallery 
Pinocchio Opens February 6 at Smithsonian Puppet 

Out of Gas? Let Puppet Theater Come to You 
Establishment of "Seven Sisters" Was Milestone for 

Women's Rights 
Four Staff Changes Are Announced by National 

Collections of Fine Arts 
Smithsonian Completes World Survey of Pollution 

Monitoring Programs 
Michael Straight Will Talk at Renwick Gallery on 

Government's Role in Environmental Design 
Lionel Hampton To Appear at Smithsonian February 17 
"Music From Marlboro" at Smithsonian March 2 
Ann Van Devanter Will Discuss Self-Portrait Painters 

in Free Lecture at National Portrait Gallery March 3 
Jacob Bronowski Will Be Present for 2 "Ascent Of Man" 

James Weaver Will Perform Bach Clavierubung 

Feb. 22-25 

320 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

January 21, 1974 

January 21, 1974 
January 21, 1974 
January 23, 1974 
January 24, 1974 

January 24, 1974 

January 24, 1974 

January 24, 1974 

January 24, 1974 

January 24, 1974 

January 25, 1974 

January 25, 1974 
January 25, 1974 
January 28, 1974 

January 28, 1974 

January 29, 1974 

January 30, 1974 

January 30, 1974 

January 31, 1974 

February 1, 1974 
February 5, 1974 

February 1, 1974 : 

February 7, 1974 • 

February 7, 1974 . 

February 12, 1974 i 
February 12, 1974.1 
February 12, 1974 I 

February 14, 1974 I 

February 15, 1974 '< 

d. m 

Film Festival To Highlight Work by Czech Filmmakers 
8th Annual Festival of American Folklife Scheduled for 

Two Weeks on the National Mall, July 3 through 14 
Los Angeles Mayor Bradley Will Speak at Smithsonian 
Smithsonian Exhibit Depicts Culture "Land of Dragons" 
March Smithsonian Offers Energy Conservation Tips 
Anacostia Extends Barnett-Aden Show 
Biologist Barry Commoner To Speak at Smithsonian 
Associates Offer Lecture Series on Oriental Rugs 
Third Frank Nelson Doubleday Lecture To Be Held 

March 7 
Ralph Stanley and the Clinch Mountain Boys in Concert 

at the Smithsonian March 10 
Carmen McRae To Perform at Smithsonian March 17 
National Portrait Gallery Publishes Catalog To 

Accompany Exhibition on Monroe Doctrine 
New "Discovery Room" Brings Museum Objects Out of 

Leonard Rapport Will Deliver First 1974 Philatelic Lecture 
Smithsonian To Begin Evening Hours April 1 
Freer Lecturer To Discuss Japanese Visual Poetry 
Rare Tourmaline Crystals Presented to Smithsonian 
Memo to Editors 

Smithsonian Offers Tour of Ceramics & Glass Halls 
One-Million-Dollar "Hope Diamond" Sent to 

Smithsonian by $145.26 Metered Postage 
Invitation to a Movie Premiere 
Free Talk on Collector John Gellatly Will Be Given at 

National Collection 
Religious Folk Art on View at Renwick as Tribute to the 

Arts of the Americas 
Tribute to Mark Tobey 

Annual Kite Competition March 23 at Monument 
Smithsonian Institution Announces New Series of 

Specials for the DuPont Cavalcade of Television, 

David L. Wolper To Produce 
National Portrait Gallery To Present First Major 

Smithsonian Bicentennial Exhibition 
Marlboro Musicians To Perform at Smithsonian April 6, 

Air and Space Museum Will Bring Back Age of 

Barnstorming in New Exhibit 
Paul Mellon Presents 761 Saint-Memin Portraits to 

Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery 
An Invitation to an Afternoon of American Music 
An Invitation to a Lecture on Art 
Ancient Cities, Psychical Medicine, Antique Organs & 

the Cosmos Among Smithsonian Courses 
Smithsonian To Open New Ecology Exhibit 
The Story of a Building — NPG 

February 19, 1974 
February 19, 1974 

February 21, 1974 
February 21, 1974 
February 22, 1974 
February 25, 1974 
February 25, 1974 
February 26, 1974 
March 1, 1974 

March 3, 1974 

March 3, 1974 
March 4, 1974 

March 5, 1974 

March 5, 1974 
March 6, 1974 
March 7, 1974 
March 11, 1974 
March 7, 1974 
March 7, 1974 
March 8, 1974 

March 13, 1974 
March 14, 1974 

March 14, 1974 

March 14, 1974 
March 15, 1974 
March 18, 1974 

March 18, 1974 

March 27, 1974 

March 22, 1974 

March 24, 1974 

March 25, 1974 
March 26, 1974 
March 27, 1974 

March 28, 1974 
March 29, 1974 

Appendix 6. Office of Public Affairs I 321 

Smithsonian To Recall Historic Flight with Display of 

Douglas World Cruiser 
Former Hermitage Curator Will Speak on Arms & 

Armour in Its Collections 
Associates Lecture Series Examines "What's New at 

Editors' Advisory: "Alternative World Model System" 

Press Conference 
Panel To Discuss Pennsylvania Avenue in Illustrated 

Presentation at Smithsonian 
Science Information Exchange Offers New Monthly Service 
Associates Guide Offers Tips to Washington, D.C. Visitors 
National Collection of Fine Arts Opens Gallery Devoted 

to Portrait Miniatures 
Architect Moshe Safdie To Deliver Doubleday Lecture 

at Smithsonian 
Renwick Exhibition Will Survey 200 Years of Royal 

Copenhagen Porcelain Creativity 
Smithsonian Jazz Concert Marks Tribute to Ellington 
Press Advisory: Museum Education Day 
Bathrooms in America — Exhibit Shows How Far We've 

Gloria Steinem Will Speak in Popular Culture Series 
Dr. Jdenek David Appointed New Librarian for Woodrow 

Wilson Center for Scholars 
Smithsonian Associates Schedule Theater Production 

for Children 
Birth of Twins [Golden Lion Marmosets] at National 
Zoological Park Milestone in Effort to Save Endangered 
White House Portrait of Lincoln Highlights National 

Portrait Gallery Exhibition 
Smithsonian Offers New Tours for Groups 
Smithsonian Anthropologist Will Lecture on Northwest 

Coast Indian Boxes, Bowls 
National Collection of Fine Arts Plans Gala for Children 

on May 18 
Museum Showing Collages by Anne Ryan 
Washington Print Club Will Hold 5th Biennial Exhibition 

at NCFA 
1st Open Boomerang Tournament in U.S. Is Scheduled by 

Smithsonian on May 18 
Smithsonian Boomerang Workshop To Give Enrollees 

Happy Returns 
Associates Schedule Lecture on Life &. Thoughts of Buddha 
Theater Chamber Players May 6 Performance To Feature 

American Premiere of Choral Work 
3 Experts To Discuss Options for Dealing with Energy 

The Smithsonian Comes to Brentano's 

April 1, 1974 

April 1, 1974 

April 2, 1974 

April 3, 1974 

April 4, 1974 

April 4, 1974 
April 8, 1974 
April 8, 1974 

April 8, 1974 

April 8, 1974 

April 10, 1974 
April 11, 1974 
April 11, 1974 

April 11, 1974 
April 12, 1974 

April 15, 1974 

April 15, 1974 

April 18, 1974 

April 19, 1974 
April 22, 1974 

April 22, 1974 

April 22, 1974 
April 22, 1974 

April 23, 1974 

April 23, 1974 

April 23, 1974 
April 24, 1974 

April 24, 1974 '] 

April 24, 1974 

322 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Smithsonian, Fieldcrest Sign Agreement for Manufacture 

of Textile Products Based on Institution's Collections 
Johns Hopkins Study Suggests That Emotional Clues 

Exist To Predict Susceptibility to Cancer, 

Other Disorders 
Renwick Gallery Will Survey What's New in 

Top Work in Exhibit Is Cited 
Final Jazz Heritage Concert of 1973-74 Season To 

Feature Jim Hall Duo and Jimmy Guiffre 
Portraits of Speakers of the House on View at the 

National Portrait Gallery 
Children's Art Depicts Concern for Whales 
Associates Display Winning Photographs 
Mozart Concerts at Smithsonian To Feature Original 

"What If ..." A Comic Space Fantasy To Open Previews 

May 8 at Smithsonian Puppet Theater 
Anacostia Museum Will Show Art by D.C. School 

Walter Terry, Charles Guggenheim Will Lecture on 

Ballet, Filmmaking 
Museum Reopens Its Main Entrance 
Caspar Weinberger Will Deliver Final "Creativity and 

Collaboration" Lecture 
Tribute to Mark Tobey Opens at National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
National Portrait Gallery Receives Portrait of Richard 

Henry Lee 
NPG To Unveil President Lyndon Johnson's Favorite 

Portrait of Himself 
Mississippi Traditions To Be Featured at Folklife Festival 

on Mall July 3-7 
Greever Allan Will Deliver Second 1974 Philatelic Lecture 
Houston Endowment Grant To Fund Directory of 

Medical Artifacts 
Wilson Center Offers Fellowships to Eleven Scholars for 

Communications Workers Featured at Festival of 

American Folklife 
Stephen Weil Appointed Deputy Director of Hirshhorn 

Hirshhorn Museum Names Charles Millard Chief Curator 
Bicentennial Exhibition Opens at National Portrait 

Gallery June 14 
Smithsonian Seeks Teen Volunteers 
Sports, Crafts, Learning Center in Festival of American 

Theater Chamber Players Will Perform World Premiere 

Graziano Concerto 

April 25, 1974 
April 25, 1974 

April 29, 1974 

April 29, 1974 
April 29, 1974 

May 1, 1974 

May 1, 1974 
May 2, 1974 
May 3, 1974 

May 3, 1974 

May 6, 1974 

May 9, 1974 

May 9, 1974 
May 13, 1974 

May 13, 1974 

May 16, 1974 

May 20, 1974 

May 21, 1974 

May 20, 1974 
May 22, 1974 

May 28, 1974 

June 4, 1974 

May 31, 1974 

May 30, 1974 
May 31, 1974 

May 31, 1974 
May 31, 1974 

June 3, 1974 

Appendix 6. Office of Public Affairs I 323 

Institute in Jazz Criticism Scheduled Sept. 23-Oct. 2, in 

Smithsonian Article Reexamines Ocean's Potential for 

Food, Fuel 
Smithsonian's Hirshhorn Museum Opens October 5, 1974 
Press Review, National Portrait Gallery June 13 
Volunteers Needed for Smithsonian Insect Zoo 
"Shoo Bird" Protects From Migrating Birds 
Participants From Nine Nations Will Show "Old Ways 

in the New World" at Festival 
Tea Chest 
New "African Diaspora" Presentation of Festival To 

Show Black Culture from U.S., Trinidad, Africa 
Press Preview, Festival of American Folklife 
Art Conservation Methods Explored in NCFA Exhibit 
NCFA Exhibition Examines American Prints 1920-1940 
Smithsonian Guidebook Produced in Braille 
Summer Courses for Young People Range from 

Dinosaurs to Videotape 
$ Million Equivalent Contributed to UNESCO for 

Egyptian Monuments 
Associates Offer Classes, Studio Courses for Summer 
Festival To Introduce New Children's Area 
Portland Zoo a School for Its Animal Residents 
Duke Ellington You've Probably Never Heard 

June 3, 1974 

June 3, 1974 

June 6, 1974 

June 6, 1974 

June 7, 1974 

June 10, 1974 

June 10, 1974 

June 11, 1974 
June 13, 1974 

June 14, 1974 
June 18, 1974 
June 18, 1974 
June 18, 1974 
June 26, 1974 

June 21, 1974 

June 21, 1974 
June 25, 1974 
June 26, 1974 
June 27, 1974 


July 1. "Man and African Wildlife." A discussion featuring John Owen, form- 
erly Director of National Parks in Tanzania, and Helmut Buechner, Senior 
Scientist at the National Zoo in Washington. 

July 8. "Concert," featuring two rarely performed works by Georg Philipp 

July 15. "Life with the Bushmen." John Yellen, a pre-doctoral fellow at the 
National Museum of Natural History, recalls his experiences while living for 
two years with the Bushmen of southern Africa. , 

"The Giant Timber Bamboo." Two Smithsonian scientists tell the story of an 
unusual species of bamboo that blooms only once every 120 years, and is now 
in bloom in the United States. I 

July 22. "Indians in Washington." Dr. Herman Viola of the National Anthro- \ 
pological Archives describes how the American Government used diplomacy 
rather than force, in dealing with the Indians in the early 19th century. 

"The Black Presence in the Era of the Revolution." A look at a neglected part 
of our history, with Sidney Kaplan, professor of Afro-American Studies at the 
University of Massachusetts. 

July 29. "Great Tenor Sax Men." Another program in the "Radio Smithsonian" 
jazz series, with Martin Williams, Director of the Smithsonian's Jazz Studies 

324 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

August 5. "Giants of the Ocean." A look at whales, focusing on the efforts 
being made to protect them and studies of how they live. 

August 12. "Concert." A program of baroque music, presented by the Smithson- 
ian's Division of Musical Instruments. 

August 19. "Art in America." A discussion featuring Walter Hopps, Visiting 
Curator at the National Collection of Fine Arts, and Val Lewton, an artist on 
the National Collection staff. 

"What Good Are the Moon Rocks?" A talk with Farouk El Baz, Research Direc- 
tor at the National Air and Space Museum. 

August 26. "The Literary Scene," surveyed by Saul Bellow, author of Herzog 
and Henderson, the Rain King. 

"A Dissent on Modern Farming." Botanist Hugh litis of the University of Wis- 
consin explains why he thinks today's farming methods may be ecologically 

September 2. "Concert," featuring music of the Middle Ages and the Renais- 
sance, performed by Les Menestriers, a young group from France. 

September 9. "The 1973 Festival of American Folklife," Part I. A sampling of the 
people and music that make the Folklife Festival one of the Smithsonian's 
most popular events. 

September 16. "The 1973 Festival of American Folklife," Part II. 

September 23. "The 1973 Festival of American Folklife," Part III. 

September 30. "It Talks, It Whispers, It Sings." A look at the history of the 

October 7. "Exploring Natural History." A talk with Porter Kier, new Director 
of the National Museum of Natural History. 

"The Rise of the Spirit of Independence." A look at the importance of commu- 
nication in the days preceding the American Revolution. 

October 14. "Concert," featuring Judith Norell, harpsichord, and Bruce Brewer, 
tenor, performing music of Jean-Philippe Rameau and Andre Campra. 

October 21. "Hammarskjold, the Man." A look at the late Secretary-General 
of the United Nations, "an austere and enigmatic man," with Ambassador and 
Mrs. Rajushwar Dayal, who were among Hammarskjold's closest associates. 

October 28. "New Perceptions in Music." A conversation with Earle Brown, 
internationally recognized contemporary composer and conductor. 

November 4. "The Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz," Part I. Martin Wil- 
liams, Director of the Smithsonian's Jazz Studies Program, spotlights a new 
album issued by the Institution's Division of Performing Arts. 

November 11. "The Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz," Part II. 

November 18. "Renewing the Environment." A discussion featuring anthropolo- 
gist Margaret Mead, who's taken an active interest in ecology, and John Milton 
of Threshold, a new non-profit environmental foundation. 

"Beetle-Mania." Two coleopterists. Prof, Carl Lindroth of Sweden and Dr. 
Terry Erwin of the Smithsonian, explain why they study beetles and what 
they've learned from them. 

November 25. "Protecting a Paradise." A look at the efforts under way to pro- 
tect the environment of American Samoa, with its governor, John Hayden, and 
Smithsonian botanist Arthur Dahl. 

Appendix 6. Office of Public Affairs I 325 

"History in Stone." Mrs. Jane Fawcett, Organizing Secretary of the Victorian 
Society of Great Britain, describes the fight to save England's historic buildings. 

December 2. "Bill Monroe in Concert." The father of bluegrass music performs 
with his group. The Bluegrass Boys, and two guest fiddlers, Charlie Smith and 
Tater Tate. 

December 9. "A Visitor from Bhutan." A talk with Mynak Rimpoche, a Buddhist 
lama who heads the National Museum of Bhutan, in the Himalayas. 

"Exploring the Depths." Smithsonian oceanographer Daniel Stanley describes 
the dangers of pollution in the seas. 

December 16. "The Shaker Way." A look at the life and crafts of the Shaker 
religious sect. Guests include Mrs. Faith Andrews, a leading expert on Shaker 
culture, and Sister Mildred Barker, one of 14 remaining Shakers. 

December 23. "Wilson's Living Memorial." Dr. James Billington, new Director 
of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, talks about plans for 
the Center's future. 

"Fighting Lassa Fever." Smithsonian curator Henry Setzer describes the efforts 
to curb Lassa fever, a serious disease carried by African rats. 

December 30. "Concert," featuring 19th century American vocal music, per- 
formed by the American Music Group. 

January 6. "The Ascent of Man." British mathematician and philosopher Jacob 
Bronowski discusses his thoughts on the history of man and science, as reflected 
in a new film series having its American premiere at the Smithsonian. 

January 13. "The New Immigrants." Dr. Roy Bryce-LaPorte, Director of the 
Smithsonian's new Institute for Immigration and Ethnic Studies, describes the 
lot of West Indian immigrants in the United States. 

"Exhibits on the Move." A look at the Smithsonian's efforts to "take the mu- 
seum to the people." 

January 20. "Concert," featuring baroque music performed on authentic instru- 
ments by the Oberlin Baroque Ensemble. 

January 27. "A New Look at Learning." New trends in education, discussed by 
Dr. Samuel Gould, Chairman of the Commission on Non-traditional Study. 

"China Looks at Her Past." A talk with Dr. Thomas Lawton, Deputy Director 
of the Smithsonian's Freer Gallery, who recently spent a month exploring art 
and archeology in the People's Republic. 

February 3. "Concert," featuring music of America performed by the Western 
Wind and the Paul Hill Chorale. 

February 10. "The Maya and the Supernatural." The spiritual world of the 
ancient inhabitants of Mexico is discussed by Professor Michael Cole of Yale 

February 17. "A New Animal Farm." John Perry, Assistant Director for Conser- 
vation of the Smithsonian's National Zoo, talks about the zoo's new breeding 
farm at Front Royal, Virginia. 

"A Bus for Culture." A look at New York City's culture bus, a new idea for 
getting visitors to museums. 

"Schistosomiasis : A Tropical Threat." A report on the efforts to curb a disease 
possibly more serious than malaria. 

February 24. "Science: The Real World." Nobel Prizewinning biologist James 
Dewey Watson offers his candid thoughts on what he calls "the sociology of 

326 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

"Homage to Docents." A look at the Smithsonian's volunteer teaching guides. 

March 3. "String Bands: Two Traditions." A concert featuring old-time moun- 
tain music, performed by Creed, Cockerham, and Patterson, and Louisiana 
Cajun music, played by the Balfa Brothers. 

March 10. "Anthropolgy for Today." Dr. Sam Stanley, Program Coordinator for 
the Smithsonian's Center for the Study of Man, describes how the Center works 
on current human problems. 

"Pacific Northwest Art." A lively and diverse art scene, explored by Rachael 
Griffin of the Portland Art Museum and Dr. Martha Kingsbury of the Univer- 
sity of Washington. 

March 17. "Television: On the Other Side." The British approach to television, 
discussed by Huw Wheldon, Managing Director of BBC-TV. 

"Woodrow Wilson's Legacy," viewed by former ambassador George Kennan 
on the 50th anniversary of Wilson's death. 

March 24. "A Conversation with Barry Commoner." 

Also, "How Much Growth is Enough?," with growth specialist Chester Cooper, 
a fellow of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. 

March 31. "Concert," featuring the Baroque Ensemble of the Juilliard School, 
under the direction of Albert Fuller. Works include the Overture to "Zais," by 
Jean Philippe Rameau, and the Trio Sonata from the Musical Offering, by 
J. S. Bach. 

April 7. "Reflecting on History." Dr. Brooke Hindle, new director of the Na- 
tional Museum of History and Technology, Describes his plans for the mu- 
seum's future, and specifically for observing the Bicentennial. "The Scope of the 
Universe." An infinite subject, discussed as finitely as possible by Dr. Myron 
Lecar of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. 

April 14. "Disaster in the Sahel." A look at the severe drought in the Sahelian 
zone of Africa and at research aimed at staving off such calamities. 

April 21. "It All Depends." Smithsonian scientists Tom Soderstrom and Don 
Duckworth describe the interdependence of living things, as reflected in the 
tropical rain forest, the earth's most fragile eco-system. 

April 28. "A Bluegrass Workshop," featuring Ralph Stanley and His Clinch 
Mountain Boys, performing at the Smithsonian. 

May 5. "Unearthing the Past." Gus Van Beek, Curator of Old World Anthro- 
pology at the National Museum of Natural History, talks about his exciting 
excavations at Tell Jemmeh in Israel. 

"On Creativity." Excerpts from a talk by violinist Yehudi Menuhin. 

"Humanizing Architecture." A talk with Moshe Safdie, creator of the innova- 
tive "Habitat," seen at Expo 67. 

May 12. "Concert," featuring recorder virtuoso Frans Brueggen and harpsi- 
chordist Alan Curtis. 

May 19. "The Smithsonian Now and Tomorrow." A conversation with S. Dillon 
Ripley, who recently completed ten years as Secretary of the Smithsonian, 

"To Save Wild Animals." Thomas Lovejoy of the World Wildlife Fund and 
Anne LaBastille of the Smithsonian talk about the increasing threats to the 
world's wildlife. 

May 26. "The Great Louis Armstrong." Martin Williams, director of the Smith- 
sonian's Jazz Studies Program, looks at one of the giants of jazz. 

Appendix 6. Office of Public Affairs I 327 

June 2. "Looking for Life in the Universe." Dr. George Field, director of the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, talks about possible evidence for life 
beyond earth. 

"Abraham Lincoln: The White House Years," discussed by Rick Beard and Ken 
Yellis, developers of a National Portrait Gallery exhibition focusing on Lincoln. 

June 9. "Concert," featuring music of Mozart, performed by Jean Hakes, so- 
prano, Sonya Monosoff, violin, and Malcolm Bilson, piano. 

June 16. "Boomerangs: Many Happy Returns." Benjamin Ruhe, a boomerang 
expert and former Smithsonian staff member, tells about the lore of boomerangs. 
"Mexico: A Writer's View." A talk with the distinguished Mexican novelist 
Carlos Fuentes. 

June 23. "First Flight Around the World." A look at the flight of the Douglas 
World Cruisers, which made the first circuit of the globe in 1927, with Maj. Gen. 
Leigh Wade, USAF Ret., who was one of the pilots. 

"Creative Government." A conversation with Secretary of Health, Education, 
and Welfare Caspar Weinberger. 

June 30. "Duke Ellington You've Probably Never Heard Before." Martin Wil- 
liams, Director of the Smithsonian's Jazz Studies Program, spotlights some un- 
familiar pieces by the Duke. 



References to Cultural Histories of the United States 73-5 

First Ladies Dolls Bibliography 73-6 

Photos of Clothing, Accessories of Presidents 73-7 

Numismatic Dealers in New York City 73-8 

Publications on Fishes — Indopacific Freshwater and Marine 73-9 

Sources for Wildlife Pictures 73-10 

First Ladies Hall Photos 73-11 

Inaugural Photos (objects and illustrations) 73-12 

Bibliography on the American Indian 73-13 

Bibliography on American Ceramics 74-1 

Bibliography on Indians of North America 74-2 

Sources of Information for Careers in Biology, Conservation 

and Oceanography 74-3 

Objects Associated With Revolutionary Era (list of photos) 74-4 

Selected Readings on the First Ladies of the White House (revision) 74-5 

Bibliography on American Antique Furniture 74-6 

328 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

APPENDIX 7. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press 
in Fiscal Year 1974 



Joel E. Arem. Man-Made Crystals. 112 pages, 25 color and 48 black-and-white 
illustrations. December 1973. Cloth: $15.00; paper: $5.95. 

David Edward Finley. A Standard of Excellence: Andrew W. Mellon Founds the 
National Gallery at Washington. 200 pages, 42 black-and-white illustrations. 
May 30, 1974. Cloth: $7.50. 

Glen A. Gilbert. Air Traffic Control: The Uncrowded Sky. xvi + 111 pages, 6 
color and 183 black-and-white illustrations. July 17, 1973. Cloth: $12.50. 

Frank M. Hull. Bee Flies of the World: The Genera of the Family Bombyliidae. 
xii -)- 687 pages, color frontispiece, 1111 figures. November 12, 1973. Cloth: 

Marion Clayton Link. Windows in the Sea. 198 pages, 15 color and 52 black- 
and-white illustrations. Reprint. October 1973. Cloth: $12.50. 

Ursula B. Marvin. Continental Drift: The Evolution of a Concept, vii -f 239 
pages, 102 figures. Revised reprint. June 10, 1974. Cloth: $12.50. 

Vladimir Simosko and Barry Tepperman. Eric Dolphy: A Musical Biography 
and Discography. Foreword by Martin Williams, x -f- 132 pages, 17 black-and- 
white illustrations. March 1974. Cloth: $10.00. 


Barbara Brand. The Story of Belmont. 16 pages, 13 black-and-white illustra- 
tions. March 1974. Paper: $1.25. 

Larry R. Collins. Monotremes and Marsupials: A Reference for Zoological Insti- 
tutions. 323 pages, 56 figures. August 10, 1973. Paper: $4.20. 

Sidney Kaplan. The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution, 
1770-1800. National Portrait Gallery. 258 pages, 98 figures. Published by the 
New York Graphic Society, Ltd., in association with the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Press. 1973. Cloth: $15.00; paper: $7.50. 

The American Experience: Smithsonian Institution American Revolution Bicen- 
tennial Program. 50 pages. February 6, 1974. 

The Honey Bee. National Museum of History and Technology. 20 pages, 7 illus- 
trations. Reprint. June 1974. 


Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1972. Vol- 
ume 1: Proceedings, xvi 4- 166 pages. December 1973. Paper: $1.80. 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 329 

Smithsonian Year 1973. Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for the 
"Year Ended 30 June 1973. viii + 343 pages. January 28, 1974. Paper: $3.00. 

Smithsonian International Exchange Service, 1973 Annual Report. 9 pages. May 
30, 1974. 

Statement by the Secretary. The Smithsonian Institution, 1973. "Look Backward, 
Lest you Fail to Mark the Path Ahead," and "Financial Report." iv + 44 pages. 
December 14, 1973. 


A Tribute to Mark Tobey, Catalogue of the exhibition. National Collection of 
Fine Arts. 112 pages, 6 color and 70 black-and-white illustrations. June 7, 1974. 
Paper: $5.85. 

Edward Deming Andrews, Janet Malcolm, A. D. Emerich, and A. K. Benning. 
Shaker: Furniture and Objects from the Faith and Edward Deming Andrews 
Collections Commemorating the Bicentenary of the American Shakers. Cata- 
logue of exhibition, Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts. 88 
pages, 1 color and 65 black-and-white illustrations. October 30, 1973. Paper: 

Robin Bolton-Smith and William H. Truettner. Lilly Martin Spencer: The Joys 
of Sentiment, 1822-1902. Catalogue of the exhibition. National Collection of 
Fine Arts. 254 pages, 5 color and 127 black-and-white illustrations. July 26, 
1973. Paper: $6.25. 

Audrey B. Davis. Triumph Over Disability: The Development of Rehabilitation 
Medicine in the U.S.A. Catalogue of Exhibition, National Museum of History 
and Technology. 52 pages, 97 black-and-white illustrations. October 23, 1973. 
Paper: $2.50. 

Rachael Griffin and Martha Kingsbury. Art of the Pacific Northwest from the 
1930s to the Present. Catalogue of the exhibition. National Collection of Fine 
Arts, 153 pages, 5 color and 138 black-and-white illustrations. February 1974. 
Paper: $4.10. 

In the Minds and Hearts of the People: Prologue to the American Revolution, 
1760-1774. Catalogue, National Portrait Gallery. 60 pages, 26 black-and-white 
illustrations. June 1974. Paper: $1.45. 

Marchal E. Landgren. Robert Loftin Newman, 1827-1912. Catalogue of the 
exhibition. National Collection of Fine Arts. 191 pages, 3 color and 240 black- 
and-white illustrations. March 18, 1974. Paper: $5.45. 

Gerald Z. Levin and Jeanette M. Hussey. President Monroe's Message: A Cata- 
log Accompanying an Exhibition Commemorating the 150th Anniversary of the 
Monroe Doctrine, 1823-1973. National Portrait Gallery. 128 pages, and 26 black- 
and-white illustrations. February 12, 1974. Paper: $3.45. 

Robert C. Mikesh and Claudia M. Oakes. Exhibition Flight. Catalogue of exhibi- 
tion. National Air and Space Museum. 60 pages, 81 black-and-white illustra- 
tions. December 13, 1973. Paper: $1.30. 

National Air and Space Museum: Pictorial guide to permanent exhibits. 36 
pages, 1 color and 35 black-and-white illustrations. July 1973. Paper: $1.00. 

Daniel Rhodes and Otto Natzlerr Form and Fire: Natzler Ceramics, 1939-1972. 
Catalogue of exhibition, Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine 
Arts. 124 pages, 39 color and 32 black-and-white illustrations. August 20, 1973. 
Paper: $4.00, 

330 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Steinberg at the Smithsonian: The Metamorphoses of an Emblem. A book of 
drawings by the artist for the exhibition at the National Collection of Fine Arts. 
43 pages, 9 color and 26 black-and-white illustrations. December 1973. Paper: 

Lisa W. Strick. The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution, 1770- 
1800. Catalogue of the exhibition. National Portrait Gallery. 76 pages, 1 color 
and 58 black-and-white illustrations. August 31, 1973. Paper: $2.05. 

Roberta K. Tarbell. Marguerite Zorach: The Early Years, 1908-1920. Catalogue 
of the exhibition. National Collection of Fine Arts. 77 pages, 3 color and 43 
black-and-white illustrations. December 6, 1973. Paper: $2.90. 

William H. Truettner and Robin Bolton-Smith. National Parks and the Ameri- 
can Landscape. Catalogue of an exhibition at the National Collection of Fine 
Arts commemorating the centennial anniversary of the National Parks system. 
148 pages, 3 color and 132 black-and-white illustrations. July 1973. Paper: $3.25. 


Folders, Flyers, Booklets, Records 

A Measure of Beauty: The Diffusion of Style in Early Nineteenth Century Amer- 
ica. Checklist of the exhibition. National Collection of Fine Arts. 10 pages, 1 
illustration. July 3, 1973. 

Africa: Three Out of Many: Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria. Foldout flyer. Anacostia 
Neighborhood Museum. 6 pages. September 17, 1973. 

Bicentennial Inventory of American Paintings Executed before 1914. Foldout, 
National Collection of Fine Arts. 6 pages. Reprint. February 20, 1974. 

The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution: 1770-1800. Folder. 
National Portrait Gallery. 4 pages, 2 illustrations. August 10, 1973. 

The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution, 1770-1800. Portfolio, 
teacher's guide. National Portrait Gallery. 12-page booklet with 5 black-and- 
white illustrations, 8 separate color plates, 8 biography sheets. September 17, 

The Catalog of American Portraits. Leaflet. National Portrait Gallery. 8 pages. 
October 18, 1973. 

Electricity and Physiology, Chemistry, Magnetism, Heat. Information folder. 
National Museum of History and Technology. 4 pages. Reprint. November 5, 

Let's Co To The Smithsonian: Bulletin for Schools. Folders. Office of Elemen- 
tary and Secondary Education. September 1973-June 1974. 

Let's Go to the Smithsonian: Learning opportunities for schools 1973-74. Port- 
folio. Office of Elementary and Secondary Education. 8-page booklet with 9 
black-and-white illustrations, 5 1-page inserts. September 17, 1973. 

Life in the Universe. Booklet. National Air and Space Museum. 10 pages. 5 illus- 
trations. June 10, 1974. 

Lilly Martin Spencer: The Joys of Sentiment. Checklist. National Collection of 
Fine Arts. 8 pages, 1 illustration. July 1973. 

Charles A. Lindbergh and the Spirit of St. Louis. Information leaflet. National 
Air and Space Museum. 6 pages, 2 illustrations. Reprint. May 16, 1974. 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 331 

Modern American Woodcuts. Checklist of the exhibition. National Collection of 
Fine Arts. 16 pages, 5 illustrations. December 10, 1973. 

Music Machines — American Style, Sounds of the Exhibition at the National 
Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution. Record, SSVa 
RPM, with jacket. October 1973. $1.50. 

National Air and Space Museum. Foldout building guide. Highlights of the ex- 
hibits and map. 10 pages, 10 illustrations. August 9, 1973. 

National Collection of Fine Arts. Foldout building guide. 8 pages, 5 illustrations. 
Reprint. October 25, 1973. 

The National Collection of Fine Arts: A Museum of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. Folder gallery guide. 4 pages. October 25, 1973. 

National Collection of Fine Arts and Renwick Gallery. Information for Docents. 
Portfolio with 20-page booklet. May 29, 1974. 

National Museum of History of Technology. Foldout building guides in French, 
Spanish, and German. Office of Public Affairs. 8 pages. January 1974. 

National Museum of Natural History. Foldout building guide. 9 pages. Reprint. 
September 17, 1973. 

National Museum of Natural History. Foldout building guides in French, Span- 
ish, and German. Office of Public Affairs. January 1974. 

National Portrait Gallery. Information folder. 4 pages. August 20, 1973. 

NCFA Calendar. July 1973-June 1974. 

Prang's American Chromos. Folder. Division of Graphic Arts, National Museum 
of History and Technology. 4 pages, 1 illustration. August 23, 1973. 

Robert Loftin Newman: 1827-1912. CheckHst. National Collection of Fine Arts. 
16 pages, 1 illustration. October 25, 1973. 

Selected Portraits of Prominent North American Indians. Information folder. 
National Anthropological Archives. 4 pages. Reprint. June 1973. 

Services of the National Portrait Gallery Education Department. Foldout flyer. 
5 illustrations. 8 pages. December 3, 1973. 

Shaker: Renderings of Textiles and Costumes from the Index of American De- 
sign. Booklet for the exhibition at the Renwick gallery. 8 pages, 16 illustra- 
tions. November 1, 1973. 

Shaker: The Heaven-Inspired Drawings. Booklet for the exhibition at the Ren- 
wick gallery. 8 pages, 1 illustration. November 1, 1973. 

Smithsonian Institution. Foldout guides in French, Spanish, and German. Office 
of Public Affairs. 10 pages, map, and illustrations. January 1974. 

Smithsonian Institution. Foldout guide. Office of Public Affairs. 12 pages, map, 
and illustrations. Reprint. March 15, 1974. 

Smithsonian Institution Workshop Series. Office of Museum Programs, Flyer 
folder. 6 pages. January 31, 1974. 

Vehicle Hall. Foldout guide to exliibit. Museum of History and Technology. 6 
pages, 3 illustrations. Reprint. October 18, 1973. 

Herman A. Webster Drawings, Watercolors, and Prints. Checklist of the exhibi- 
tion. National Collection of Fine Arts. 8 pages, 1 illustration. February 15, 1974. 

332 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Wiley Post's "Winnie Mae." Information leaflet. National Air and Space Mu- 
seum. 8 pages. Reprint. May 1974. 

The Wright Brothers. Information leaflet. National Air and Space Museum. 8 
pages, 4 black-and-white illustrations. Reprint. May 28, 1974. 



12. Stanwyn G. Shetler with Mary Jane Petrini, Constance Graham Carley, M. J. 
Harvey, Larry E. Morse, Thomas E. Kopfler, and Collaborators. "An Introduc- 
tion to the Botanical Type Specimen Register." vi -|- 186 pages, 3 figures and 
frontispiece. August 3, 1973. 

13. Daniel H. Janzen. "Swollen-Thorn Acacias of Central America." iii 4- 131 
pages, 119 figures, 10 tables. April 23, 1974. 


10. Louis H. Fuchs, Edward Olsen, and Kenneth J. Jensen. "Mineralogy, Mineral- 
Chemistry, and Composition of the Murchison (C2) Meteorite." iv + 39 pages, 
19 figures and frontispiece. August 14, 1973. 

11. Daniel J. Stanley and Peter Fenner. "Underwater Television Survey of the 
Atlantic Outer Continental Margin near Wilmington Canyon." ii + 54 pages, 
18 figures. August 2, 1973. 

12. Grant Heiken. "An Atlas of Volcanic Ash." iv + 101 pages, 15 figures, 33 
plates, 3 tables. April 12, 1974. 


15. G. Arthur Cooper and Richard E. Grant. "Permian Brachiopods of West 
Texas, II." vii -|- 233-793 pages, figure 40, plates 24-191. April 16, 1974. 

18. Robert J. Emry. "Stratigraphy and Preliminary Biostratigraphy of the Flag- 
staff Rim Area, Natrona County, Wyoming." iii + 43 pages, 19 figures and 
frontispiece. July 18, 1973. 

20. Adam Urbanek and Kenneth M. Towe. "Ultrastructural Studies on Grapto- 
lites, 1 : The Periderm and Its Derivatives in the Dendroidea and in Mastigo- 
graptus." iii -{- 48 pages, 2 figures, 30 plates, 2 tables. May 15, 1974. 


120. Jerry A. Powell. "A Systematic Monograph of New World Ethmiid Moths 
(Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea)." iv + 302 pages, 294 figures, 22 plates. September 
18, 1973. 

127. Arthur G. Humes and Jan H. Stock. "A Revision of the Family Lichomol- 
gidae Kossman, 1877, Cyclopoid Copepods Mainly Associated with Marine In- 
vertebrates." V + 368 pages, 190 figures. November 12, 1973. 

139. J. Laurens Barnard. "Gammaridean Amphipoda of Australia, Part II." v -|- 
148 pages, 83 figures. February 15, 1974. 

143. Florence A. Ruhoff. "Bibliography and Zoological Taxa of Paul Bartsch." 
With a Biographical Sketch by Harald A. Rehder. v + 166 pages. July 20, 1973. 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 333 

145. James A. Peters. "The Frog Genus Atelopus in Ecuador (Anura: Bufoni- 
dae)." iii + 49 pages, 31 figures. July 19, 1973. 

146. Thomas E. Bowman and Hans-Eckhard Gruner. "The FamiHes and General 
of Hyperiidea (Crustacea: Amphipoda." iv + 64 pages, 82 figures. December 
31, 1973. 

149. Michael H. Robinson and Barbara Robinson. "Ecology and Behavior of the 
Giant Wood Spider Nephila maculata (Fabricius) in New Guinea." iv + 76 
pages, 30 figures, 11 tables. December 31, 1973. 

150. Barbara Schuler Mayo. "A Review of the Genus Cancellus (Crustacea: Dio- 
genidae) with the Description of a New Species from the Caribbean Sea." iii -|- 
63 pages, 25 figures. August 31, 1973. 

151. J. Laurens Barnard. "Revision of Corophiidae and Related Families (Am- 
phipoda." iv + 27 pages, 1 figure. August 14, 1973. 

152. Storrs L. Olson. "Evolution of the Rails of the South Atlantic Islands (Aves: 
Rallidae)." iii + 53 pages, 8 figures, 11 plates. August 14, 1973. 

153. Isabel Perez Farfante and Harvey R. Bullis, Jr. "Western Atlantic Shrimps 
of the Genus Solenocera with Description of a New Species (Crustacea: Deca- 
poda: Penaeidae)." ii + 33 pages, 19 figures. August 2, 1973. 

154. Oscar L. Cartwright. "Ataenius, Aphotaenius, and Pseudataenius of the 
United States and Canada (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae)/' iv + 106 
pages, 24 figures, 3 plates. May 15, 1974. 

155. Richard Winterbottom. "The Familial Phylogeny of the Tetraodontiformes 
(Acanthopterygii : Pisces) as Evidenced by Their Comparative Myology." iv + 
201 pages, 185 figures. March 12, 1974. 

156. Leonila Alzate Corpuz-Raros and Edwin F. Cook. "A Revision of North 
American Capitophorus Van der Goot and Pleotrichophorus Borner (Homop- 
tera: Aphididae)." iv4- 143 pages, 494 figures. April 12, 1974. 

157. William D. Field, Cyril F. dos Passos, and John H. Masters. "A Bibliography 
of the Catalogs, Lists, Faunal and Other Papers on the Butterflies of North 
America North of Mexico Arranged by State and Province (Lepidoptera: Rho- 
palocera)." ii + 104 pages. February 20, 1974. 

158. Warren B. King, editor. "Pelagic Studies of Seabirds in the Central and 
Eastern Pacific Ocean." iv + 277 pages, 170 figures, June 12, 1974. 

159. John S. Stephens, Jr., and Victor G. Springer. "Clinid Fishes of Chile and 
Peru, with Description of a New Species, Myxodes ornatus, from Chile." iii + 
24 pages, 15 figures. January 21, 1974. 

160. John R. Holsinger. "Systematics of the Subterranean Amphipod Genus 
Stygobromus (Gammaridae), Part I: Species of the Western United States." iii 
+ 63 pages, 37 figures. March 12, 1974. 

161. Roger F. Cressey and Hillary Boyle. "Five New Bomolochid Copepods Para- 
sitic on Indo-Pacific Clupeid Fishes." ii -|- 25 pages, 73 figures. December 31, 

164. Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. "Synopsis of the Families and Genera of Crayfishes 
(Crustacea: Decapoda)." iii -f 32" pages, 27 figures. March 10, 1974. 

165. Klaus Riitzler. "The Burrowing Sponges of Bermuda." iii + 32 pages, 26 
figures. February 15, 1974. 

334 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

•168. Paul D. Hurd, Jr., E. Gorton Linsley, and A. E. Michelbacher. "Ecology of 
the Squash and Gourd Bee, Peponapis pruinosa, on Cultivated Cucurbits in Cali- 
fornia (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)." iii + 17 pages, 4 figures, 8 tables. May 23, 

171. D. M. Tattle, E. W. Baker, and M. Abbatiello. "Spider Mites from North- 
western and North Central Mexico (Acarina: Tetranychidae)." 18 pages, 28 
figures. May 15, 1974. 

174. Alejandro Villalobos Figueroa and Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. "Three New Crus- 
taceans from La Media Luna, San Luis Potosi, Mexico." iii + 18 pages, 8 figures. 
June 28, 1974. 


21. Grace Rogers Cooper. "Thirteen-Star Flags: Keys to Identification." vii + 
62 pages, 25 figures and frontispiece. November 6, 1973. 

24. Smith Hempstone Oliver and Donald H. Berkebile. "Wheels and Wheeling: 
The Smithsonian Cycle Collection." v + 104 pages, illustrated. April 23, 1974. 

25. John H. White, Jr. "American Single Locomotives and the 'Pioneer.' " v + 
50 pages, 52 figures and frontispiece. September 19, 1973. 

26. Robert M. Vogel, editor. "A Report of the Mohawk-Hudson Area Survey: 
A Selective Recording Survey of the Industrial Archeology of the Mohawk and 
Hudson River Valleys of Troy, New York, June-September 1969." ix -|- 210 
pages, 141 figures. September 25, 1973. 

27. Helen R. Hollis. "Pianos in the Smithsonian Institution." iv -|- 47 pages, 23 
figures. December 31, 1973. 


Volume 38, Part 6. C. V. Morton. "Studies of Fern Types, II." Pages 215-281. 
December 31, 1973. 

166-170. In one volume, as follows. November 23, 1973. 

166. Peter J. Vine. "Crown of Thorns (Acanthaster planci) Plagues: The Natural 
Causes Theory." 14 pages, 4 figures. 

167. R. Endean and W. Stablum. "A Study of Some Aspects of the Crown-of- 
Thorns Starfish (Acanthaster planci) Infestations of Reefs of Australia's Great 
Barrier Reef." iii -f 76 pages, 22 figures. 

168. R. Endean and W. Stablum. "The Apparent Extent of Recovery of Reefs of 
Australia's Great Barrier Reef Devastated by the Crown-of-Thorns Starfish, iii 
-f- 37 pages, 23 figures. 

169. Dennis M. Devaney and John E. Randall. "Investigations of Acanthaster 
planci in Southeastern Polynesia During 1970-1971." ii -|- 35 pages, 5 plates, 
13 figures. 

170. James A. Marsh, Jr., and Roy T. Tsuda. "Population Levels of Acanthaster 
planci in the Mariana and Caroline Islands, 1969-1972." 16 pages. 

171. Charles A. Ely and Roger B. Clapp. "The Natural History of Laysan Island, 
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands." xi -\- 362 pages, 42 figures, 83 tables, 32 ap- 
pendix tables. December 31, 1973. 

Appendix 7. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 335 

APPENDIX 8. Publications and Selected Contributions of the 

Smithsonian Institution Staff in Fiscal Year 1974 



Goode, James M. "The Outdoor Sculpture of Downtown Washington, D.C." 
Smithsonian Associates, July 5, 11, 18, 25, and August 1, 1973. 

. "The Military Sculpture of Washington, D.C." U.S. Marine Corps Gen- 
eral Officers Society, July 10, 1973. 

-. "The Architectural History of Georgetown, Washington, D.C." Ameri- 

can Bar Association, August 3, 1973. 

-. "The History of the Smithsonian Institution Building." Smithsonian 

Volunteers, September 12, 1973. 

-. "The Architectural History of Charlottesville, Virginia." International 

Numismatic Congress, September 16, 1973. 

"The Early Outdoor Sculpture of Washington, D.C, 1807-1870." The 

Caroline County Historical Society, Bowling Green, Virginia, September 30, 

"The Victorian Architecture of Downtown Washington, D.C." Univer- 

sity of Virginia School of Architectural History, October 12, 1973. 

-. "The Architectural History of Richmond, Virginia." Smithsonian Asso- 

ciates, October 19 and November 24, 1973. 

"The Architectural History of Lancaster, Pennsylvania." Smithsonian 

Associates, March 22, 1974. 

"The Georgian Architecture of Annapolis, Maryland." Smithsonian 

Associates, April 27, 1974. 

-. "Washingtoniana as a Field for Research." The Junior League of Wash- 

ington, D.C, May 16, 1974. 

"The Architectural History of the Smithsonian Institution Building.' 

The American Institute of Architects, May 21, 1974. 
. "The Victorian Furniture Collection in the Smithsonian Institution 

Building." The Citizens for Maine Preservation, Portland, Maine, June 16, 



Correll, David L., Maria A. Faust, and D. J. Severn. "Phosphorus Flux and 
Cycling in Estuaries." Presented at the Second International Research Con- 
ference, Myrtle Beach, S.C, October 1973. 

Cory, Robert L. "Changes in Oxygen Production in the Patuxent Estuary, Mary- 
land, 1963 through 1969." Chesapeake Science, volume 15, number 2 (1974), 
pages 78-83. 

Cory, Robert L., and Michael Redding. "Mortality of the Commercial Clam Mya 
Aernaria and Tropical Storm Agnes." Presented at the Chesapeake Research 
Consortium's Symposium on the Effects of Tropical Storm Agnes on the 
Chesapeake Bay Estuarine System, College Park, Md., May 1974. 

336 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

. "Tropical Storm Agnes and Water Quality of Rhode River." Presented 

at the Chesapeake Research Consortium's Symposium on the Effects of Trop- 
ical Storm Agnes on the Chesapeake Bay Estuarine System, College Park, 
Md., May 1974. 

Crawford, C. C, J. E. Hobbie and K. L. Webb. "The Utilization of Dissolved Free 
Amino Acids by Estuarine Microorganisms." Ecology, volume 55, number 3 
(1974), pages 551-563. 

Falk, John H. The Lawn. The Regents of the University of California, 63 pages, 

. Lawn Guide. The Regents of the University of California, 23 pages, 1973. 

. "Life in Early California: A New Approach to the Outdoor Field Trip." 

Science and Children, volume 11, number 3 (1973), pages 18-19. 

-. "Wheeling Your Way Through the Outdoors." Science and Children, 

volume 12 (1974). 

Kinsman, Dorothy L. "Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies." 
Maryland Conservationist, volume 50, number 1 (1974), pages 4-8. 


Collins, Michael. "Aerospace on the Mall." Aerospace, official publication of the 

Aerospace Industries Association, volume 11, number 2 (June 1973), pages 

Zisfein, M. B. [Book Review] "Our World in Space," Robert McCall and Isaac 

Asimov, Smithsonian Magazine, 1974. 
Zisfein, M. B., and D. S. Lopez. "Exhibition Flight." Introductory text, 13 pages. 

Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973. 

Aeronautics Department 

Mikesh, Robert C. "Aircraft in Museums Around the World." Sections 1 and 

2, second edition. (Multilith.) 
Mikesh, Robert C, and Claudia M. Oakes. "Exhibition Flight." 56 pages, 82 

figures, 1973. 

Astronautics Department 

Doster, Alexis, III. "Life in the Universe." Smithsonian Institution Press. 12 
pages, 5 illustrations. June 1974. 

Center for Earth and Planetary Studies 

El-Baz, Farouk. "The Moon: International Astronomical Union Symposium." 
D. Reidel, Holland, Icarus, volume 19, number 4 (1973), pages 614-615. 

. "Astrogeology. A Special Issue on Earth Science: The View from '74." 

Ceotimes, volume 19, number 1 (1974), pages 14-16. 

"The New Moon." 140th Annual Meeting of the American Association 

for the Advancement of Science, AAAS Program (1974), page 6. 

" 'D-Caldera': New Photography of a Unique Feature." Apollo 17 Pre- 

liminary Science Report, NASA SP-330, chapter 30, part D (1974), pages 30-13 
to 30-17. 

'Aitken Crater and Its Environs." Apollo 17 Preliminary Science Report, 

NASA SP-330, chapter 33, part B (1974), pages 32-8 to 32-12. 
EI-Baz, Farouk, and R. E. Evans. "Observations of Mare Serenitatis from Lunar 

Orbit and Their Interpretation." MIT Press, Proceedings of the Fourth Lunar 

Science Conference, volume 1 (1973), pages 139-147. 
Evans, R. E., and F. El-Baz. "Geological Observations from Lunar Orbit." Apollo 

17 Preliminary Science Report, NASA SP-330, chapter 28 (1974), pages 28-1 

to 28-32. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 337 

Mattingly, T. K., and F. EI-Baz. "Orbital Observations of the Lunar Highlands 
on Apollo 16 and Their Interpretation." MIT Press, Proceedings of the Fourth 
Lunar Science Conference, volume 1 (1973), pages 49-56. 

Ward, S. R, F. El-Baz, T. A. Maxwell, W. J. Peeples, and W. R. Sill. "Radar De- 
scription of Lunar Surface Features." Geological Society of America, Ab- 
stracts with Programs, volume 5, number 7 (1973), page 855. 


Durant, F. C, III. "Robert H. Goddard and the Roswell Years (1930-1941)." 
24th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, Baker, U.S.S.R., 
October 1973. 

Winter, Frank H. "Camera Rockets and Space Photography Before World War 
II." 24th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, Baker, 
U.S.S.R., October 1973. 

Zisfein, M. B. "The National Air and Space Museum." American Air Mail So- 
ciety Golden Anniversary, Washington, D.C., September 1973. 

. "The National Air and Space Museum." Aero Club of Buffalo, Buffalo, 

N.Y., October 1973. 

"Air Traffic Control." Smithsonian Associates, Washington, D.C., 

March 1973. 

-. "The National Air and Space Museum." Smithsonian Associates, Wash- 

ington, D.C., June 1974. 


Department of Anthropology 

Angel, J. Lawrence. "Human Skeletons from Grave Circles at Mycenae." Appen- 
dix, pages 379-397, in Crave circle B of Mycenae by George E. Mylonas. The 
Archaeological Society of Athens, 1973. 

. "Neolithic Human Remains." Appendix, pages 277-282, in "Excavations 

in the Franchthi Cave, 1969-1971, Part II," by Thomas W. Jacobsen. Hesperia, 
volume 42, number 3 (1973), pages 253-283. 

"Late Bronze Age Cypriotes from Bamboula." Appendix, pages 148- 

165, in Bamboula at Kourion by Jack L. Benson. Museum Monographs, Unr 
versity of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1973. 

"The Cultural Ecology of General Versus Dental Health." Chapter, 

pages 382-391, in Biology of human populations. Contributions to their struc- 
ture and dynamics (Bevolkerungsbiologie. Beitrage zur Struktur und Dyna- 
mik menschlicher Populationen in anthropologischer Sicht.), edited by Wolf- 
ram Bernhard und Anneliese Kandler. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1974. 
(Festschrift for Professor Use Schwidetzky). 

Angel, J. Lawrence, with Michael Finnegan and Henry W. Setzer. "Bones Can 
Fool People." F.B.I. Law enforcement bulletin, volume 43, number 1 (1974), 
pages 16-20, 30. 

William H. Crocker. "Xicrin-Brazil." Pages 22-31, volume 6 (Amazonia, Orin- 
oco, and Pampas), in Peoples of the Earth, editorial director, Tom Stacey. 
Danbury, Connecticut: The Danbury Press (Grolier Enterprises Inc.), 1973. 

. "Extramarital Sexual Practices of the Ramkokamekra-Canela Indians: 

An Analysis of Socio-cultural Factors." Pages 184-194 in Native South Ameri- 
cans: Ethnology of the Least Known Continent. Patricia J. Lyon, editor. Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts: Little, Brown & Company, 1974. [A republication from an 
obscure 1964 source.] 

338 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

,, Evans, Clifford, and Betty J. Meggers. "United States 'Imperialism' and Latin 
American Archeology." American Antiquity, volume 38 (1973), pages 257- 

'Imperialismo Norteamericano y Arquologia Latinoamericana." Boletin 

del Institute Montecristeno de Arqueologia, number 1, pages 11-13, Republica 
Dominicana, 1973. 

Ewers, John C. Artists of the Old West (enlarged and revised edition). 240 
pages, 194 illustrations, 44 in color. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and 

I Company, 1973. 

. Blackfeet and Gros Ventres Tribes in Northern Montana, 1888. Indian 

Claims Commission Testimony, Docket 279-A. 183 pages. Microfiche publi- 
cation. New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1973. 

-. Chippewa Cree and Little Shell Lands in Montana, 1888. Indian Claims 

Commission Testimony, Docket 221-B. 170 pages. Microfiche publication. 
New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1973. 

'Symbols of Chiefly Authority in Spanish Louisiana." Pages 272-284, 

2 plates, in The Spanish in the Mississippi Valley, 1762-1804, edited by John 
Francis McDermott. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1974. 

Fitzhugh, William. "Smithsonian Archeological Investigations on the Central 
Labrador Coast in 1973: A Preliminary Report." Canadian Archaeological 
Associations, Bulletin number 5 (1973), pages 77-90. 

. Culture History and Ecology of Prehistoric Maritime Cultures of Scan- 
dinavia. American Philosophical Society, Yearbook 1973 (1974). 

"Hound Pond 4: A Charles Complex Site in Groswater Bay, Labrador, 

Man in the Northeast, page 7, 1974. 

Knez, Eugene I. "A South Korean Village: Sam Jong Dong." Syracuse Univer- 
sity, Ph.D. dissertation, 1959: Human Relations Area Files, 1974. 

Laughhn, Robert M., with Brent Berlin, Dennis E. Breedlove, and Peter H. 
Raven. "Cultural Significance and Lexical Retention in Tzeltal-Tzotzil Ethno- 
botany." Pages 143-164 in Meaning in Mayan Languages; Ethnolinguistic 
Studies, edited by Munro S. Edmonson. The Hague: Mouton, 1973. 

Meggers, Betty J., and Clifford Evans (contributing editors). "Archaeology: 
South America." Handbook of Latin American Studies, number 35, pages 
46-69. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida Press. 1973. 

Ortner, D. J., and D. W. Von Endt. "Electron Probe Microanalysis of the Pri- 
mary Spongiosa in Human Feotal Bone." Ninth European Symposium on 
Calcified Tissues, Baden, Austria, October 1972. 

Stewart, T. Dale. "The Indians of the Americas : Myths and Realities." Revista 
Interamericana, volume 3, number 1 (1973), pages 42-54. 

Sturtevant, William C. "Studies in Ethnoscience." Pages 39-59 in Culture and 
Cognition: Readings in Cross-Cultural Psychology, edited by J. W. Berry and 
P. R. Dasen. London: Methuen and Company, Ltd., 1974. (A partial reprint of 
article first published in American Anthropologist, volume 66, number 3, part 
Z, 1964.) 

Trousdale, William. "Helmand-Sistan Project: Carved Decorative and Inscribed 
Bricks from Bust." Easf and West, new series, volume 22, numbers 1-2 (1972), 
pages 215-226. Rome, November 1973. 

Ubelaker, Douglas H. "The Reconstruction of Demographic Profiles from Os- 
sury Skeletal Samples: A Case Study From the Tidewater Potomac." Disser- 
tation Abstracts International, volume 34, number 6 (1973). 

Van Beek, Gus. "The Vaulted Assyrian Building at Tell Gemmah." Qadmoniot, 
volume 6, number 1 (1973), pages 23-27. 

Viola, Herman J. Introduction to a reprint of Thomas L. McKenney Memoirs, 
Official and Personal. University of Nebraska Press, 1974. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 339 

• . "Some Recent Writings on the American Indian." American Archivist, 

volume 37, number 1 (January 1974), pages 51-54. 

Von Endt, D. W., P. E. Hare, and D. J. Ortner. "Environmental Factors Which 
Affect Protein Decomposition in Archeological Specimens." Proceedings of 
the Society of American Archaeologists, volume 59 (1974). 

Department of Botany 

Ahmadjian, V., and M. E. Hale, editors. The Lichens. New York: Academic 
Press, 1973. 

Ayensu, Edward S. "Biological and Morphological Aspects of the Velloziaceae." 
Biotropica, volume 4, number 3 (1973), pages 135-149. 

. "Comments on Old and New World Dioscoreas of Commercial Impor- 
tance." Primer Simposio Internacional Sobre Dioscoreas, number 8, 1972 
(1974), pages 77-81. 

Bowers, Frank D., A. J. Sharp, and Harold Robinson. "Additional Mosses from 
Costa Rica and Mexico." The Bryologist, volume 76 (1973), page 447-449. 

Cowan, R. S. "Herbaria as Data-banks." Arnoldia, volume 33 (1973), pages 3-11. 

. "A New Swartzia from Suriname." Phytologia, volume 26, number 4 

(1973), pages 279-280. 

"A Revision of the Genus Bocoa (Caesalpinioideae-Swartzieae)." Pro- 

ceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 87, number 13 
(1974), 39 pages, 14 figures. 

Studies of Tropical American Leguminosae VII." Proceedings of the 

Biological Society of Washington, volume 86, number 39 (1973), pages 447- 

Cowan, Richard S., and Lyman B. Smith. "Rutaceas." Flora llustrada Catarin- 
ense, part 1, fascicle RUTA (November 1973), pages 1-89, plates 1-23. 

Cuatrecasas, J. "Miscellaneous Notes on Neotropical Flora IV." Phytologia, vol- 
ume 27, number 1 (1973), pages 41-57. 

. "Miscelaneous Notes on Neotropical Flora V." Phytologia, volume 27, 

number 3 (1973), pages 169-179. 

-. "Supplemental Characterization of Genus Pseudoconyza (Compositae, 

Inuleae-Plucheinae)." Phytologia, volume 26, number 6 (1973), pages 410- 

Cuatrecasas, J., and D. N. Porter. "A New Species of Brunellia from Panama." 

Phytologia, volume 26, number 6 (1973), pages 485-486. 
Culberson, C. F., and M. E. Hale, Jr. "4-0-Demethylnotatic Acid, a New Dep- 

sidone in Some Lichens Producing Hypoprotocetraric Acid." Bryologist, vol- 
ume 76 (1973), pages 77-84. 
, "Chemical and Morphological Evolution in Parmelia Sect. Hypotra- 

chyna: Product of Ancient Hybridization?" Brittonia, volume 25 (1973), 

pages 162-173. 
Dahl, Arthur L. "Benthic Algal Ecology in a Deep Reef and Sand Habitat off 

Puerto Rico." Botanica Marina, volume 16 (1973), pages 171-175. 

. "Biological Proportions." Science, volume 181 (1973), page 469. 

. "Surface Area in Ecological Analysis: Quantification of Benthic Coral 

Reef Algae." Marine Biology, volume 23 (1973), pages 239-249. 
Eyde, Richard H., and Judy T. Morgan. "Floral Structure and Evolution in Lope- 

zieae (Onagraceae)." American Journal of Botany, volume 60 (1973), pages 

Fosberg, F. Raymond. "Geomorphic Cycle on Aldabra — Hypothesis," Pages 

469-475 in C. Mukundan and C. S. Gopinadha Pillai, editors. Proceedings of 

the Symposium on Corals and Coral Reefs, 1969. Cochin: Marine Biological 

Association of India, 1972. 

340 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

. "The Name of the Octopus Tree." Baileya, volume 19 (1973), pages 

. "On Present Condition and Conservation of Forests in Micronesia." In 

Symposium: Planned Utilization of the Lowland Tropical Forests, August 
1971. Bogor, Indonesia: Pacific Science Association Standing Committee on 
Pacific Botany, 1973. 

'Sketch of the St. Croix Flora." In H. Gray Multer and Lee C. Gerhard, 

editors. Guidebook to the Geology and Ecology of Some Marine and Terres- 
trial Environments, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Christiansted: West Indies 
Laboratory of the Fairleigh Dickinson University, 1974. 

— . "Type Specimens of Buxus Sempervirens Linnaeus." Boxwood Bulletin, 

volume 13, number 2 (1973), pages 18-21. 

'Vascular Plants — Widespread Island Species." Pages 167-169 in A.B. 

Costin and R. H. Groves, editors. Nature Conservation in the Pacific. Can- 
berra: Australian National University Press, 1973. 

3sberg, F. Raymond, and Marie-Helene Sachet. "Past, Present and Future Con- 
servation Problems of Oceanic Islands." Pages 209-215 in A. B. Costin and 
R. H. Groves, editors. Nature Conservation in the Pacific. Canberra: Austral- 
ian National University Press, 1973. 

. "Remarks on Halophila (Hydrocharitaceae). Taxon, volume 22 (1973), 

pages 439-443. 

[ale. Mason E., Jr. "Studies on the Lichen Family Thelotremataceae 1." Phyto- 
logia, volume 26 (1973), pages 413-420. 

, "Growth." Pages 473-492 in The Lichens, edited by V. Ahmadjian and 

M. E. Hale. New York: Academic Press, 1973. 

"New Parmeliae (Lichens) from Africa. 2." Phytologia, volume 27 

(1974), pages 1-6. 

"Studies on the Lichen Family Thelotremataceae 2." Phytologia, volume 

27 (1974), pages 490-501. 
ing, R. M., and Robinson, H. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXII. 

A new species of Ferreyrella." Phytologia, volume 26 (1973), pages 167-169. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXIII. A new genus, Matu- 

dina." Phytologia, volume 26 (1973), pages 170-173. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXIV. The genera of Barro 

Colorado Island, Panama." Phytologia, volume 27 (1973), pages 233-240. 

-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXV. A new genus and spe- 

cies, Pseudokyrsteniopsis perpetiolata." Phytologia, volume 27 (1973), pages 

-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXVI. New species of Neomi- 

randea." Phytologia, volume 27 (1973), pages 245-251. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXVII. A new species of 

Oxylobus from Oaxaca, Mexico." Phytologia, volume 27 (1974), pages 385- 

'Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXVIII. New species of Ager- 

atum, Fleischmannia and Hebeclinium from northern South America." Phyto- 
logia, volume 27 (1974), pages 387-394. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXIX. Additions to the genera 

Cronquistianthus, Helogyne and Neocuatrecasia from Peru." Phytologia, vol- 
ume 27 (1974), pages 395-401. 

ellinger, David B. "Conrad Vernon Morton (1905-1972)." American Fern 
Journal, volume 63, number 3 (1973), pages 49-60. 

licolson, D. H., and R. A. Brooks. "Orthography of Names and Epithets: Stems 
and Compound Words." Taxon, volume 23, number 1 (February 1974), pages 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 341 

Nowicke, J. W. "Two New Species of Besleria (Gesneriaceae) from Panama." 
Brittonia, volume 26 (1974), pages 37-41. 

Read, Robert W. "The Ecology of the Palms." Principes, volume 18, number 2 
(April 1974), pages 39-50. 

. "Tillandsia adamsii, A New Jamaican Species." Phytologia, volume 28, 

number 1 (May 1974 ), pages 21-23. 

Robinson, H. "Additions to the Genus Tagetes (Helenieae, Asteraceae)." Phyto- 
logia, volume 26 (1973), pages 378-380. 

. "New Combinations in the Cactaceae Subfamily Opuntioideae." Phy- 
tologia, volume 26 (1973), pages 175-176. 

"Scanning Electron Microscope Studies of the Spines and Glochids of the 

Opuntioideae (Cactaceae)." American Journal of Botany, volume 61 (1974), 
pages 278-283. 

'Two New Species of Enlinia from the Southwestern United States (Dip- 

tera: Dolichopodidae)." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Wash- 
ington, volume 75 (1973), pages 419-422. 

Robinson, H., and R. D. Brettell. "A New Species of Senecio from Costa Rica." 
Phytologia, volume 26 (1973), page 454. 

. "Studies in the Senecioneae (Asteraceae). I. A New Genus, Pittocaulon." 

Phytologia, volume 26 (1973), pages 451-453. 

-. "Studies in the Senecioneae (Asteraceae). II. A New Genus, Nelsonian- 

thus." Phytologia, volume 27 (1973), pages 53-54. 

"Studies in the Liabeae (Asteraceae). I. A New Species of Liabum from 

Mexico." Phytologia, volume 27 (1973), pages 252-253. 

"Studies in the Senecioneae (Asteraceae). III. The Genus Psacalium." '' 

Phytologia, volume 27 (1973), pages 254-264. 

"Studies in the Senecioneae (Asteraceae). IV. The Genera Mesadenia, 

Syneilesis, Miricacalia, Koyamacalia and Sinacalia." Phytologia, volume 27 
(1973), pages 265-276. 

"Studies in the Senecioneae (Asteraceae). V. The Genera Psacaliopsis, 

Barkleyanthus, Telanthophora and Roldana." Phytologia, volume 27 (1974),! 
pages 402-439. 

"Tribal Revisions in the Asteraceae. V. The Relationship of Rigiopap- 

pus." Phytologia, volume 26 (1973), pages 69-70. 

"Tribal Revisions in the Asteraceae. VI. The Relationship of Eriachaen- 

ium." Phytologia, volume 26 (1973), pages 71-72. 

"Tribal Revisions in the Asteraceae. VII. The Relationship of Isoetop- 

sis." Phytologia, volume 26 (1973), pages 73-75. 

"Tribal Revisions in the Asteraceae. VIII. A New Tribe, Ursinieae." '! 

Phytologia, volume 26 (1973), pages 76-85. 

"Tribal Revisions in the Asteraceae. IX. The Relationship of Ischnea." '\ 

Phytologia, volume 26 (1973), pages 153-158. 

. "Tribal Revisions in the Asteraceae. X. The Relationship of Plagio*' 

cheilus." Phytologia, volume 26 (1973), pages 159-162. i 

. "Tribal Revisions in the Asteraceae. XI. A New Tribe, Eremothamneae 

Phytologia, volume 26 (1973), pages 163-166. 


Robinson, H., and J. Cuatrecasas. "Synopsis of the Genus Philoglossa (LiabiaC/'} 

Asteraceae." Phytologia, volume 26, number 5 (1973), pages 381-388. 
. "The Generic Limits of Pluchea and Tessaria (Inuleae, Asteraceae." 

Phytologia, volume 27, number 4 (1973), pages 277-285. 
Robinson, H., and C. DelgadiHo M. "Neosharpiella, a New Genus of Musd 

from High Elevations in Mexico and South America." The Bryologist, volumei 

76 (1973), pages 536-540. 

342 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Robinson, H., and C. F. Reed, "A New Species of Vernonia from Mexico." Phy- 
tologia, volume 27 (1973), page 52. 

Sachet, M.-H. "The Discovery of Lehronnecia kokioides." Bulletin, Pacific Trop- 
ical Botanical Garden, volume 3, number 3 (1973), pages 41-43. 

Sachet, M.-H., and F. R. Fosberg, "Remarks on Halophila (Hydrocharitaceae)." 
Taxon, volume 22, number 4 (1973), pages 439-443. 

Shetler, Stanwyn G. "Demythologizing Biological Data Banking." Taxon, vol- 
ume 23, number 1 (February 1974), pages 71-100. 

. "Nepenthales." In Encyclopaedia Britannica (March 1974). 

. "Sarraceniales." In Encyclopaedia Britannica (March 1974). 

Shetler, Stanwyn G., Robert W. Read (editors), Larry E. Morse, Fonda R. Hivick 
(assistant editors), Judith E. Monahan, and Thomas E. Kopfler (analyst/pro- 
grammers). "International Index of Current Research Projects in Plant Sys- 

1 tematics. Number 7." Flora North America Report, number 71 (December 

: 1973), xxii + 118 pages. 

Simpson, Beryl B. "Contrasting Modes of Evolution in Two Groups of Perezia 

j (Multisieae; Compositae) of Southern South America." Taxon, volume 22 
(1973), pages 525-536. 

. "Women in Botany." Plant Science Bulletin, volume 19 (1973), pages 


5kog, L. E. "Conrad Morton's publication on the Gesneriaceae." The Cloxinian, 
volume 24, number 2 (1974), pages 33-35. 

. "A New Colombian Species of Besleria (Gesneriaceae)." Phytologia, 

volume 27, number 6 (1974), pages 502-503. 

-. "Valid Publication of Nautilocalyx picturatus [Gesneriaceae]." Baileya, 

volume 19, number 3 (1974), pages 118-122. 
Smith, Lyman B. "Begonia of Venezuela." Phytologia, volume 27, number 4 
: (December 1973), pages 209-227, plates 1-9. 

. "Eizi Matuda." Journal of the Bromeliad Society, volume 24, number 2 

\ (1974), pages 59-62, 3 figures. 

"A New Bromeliad Monograph." Journal of the Bromeliad Society, vol- 

ume 23, number 4 (1973), pages 127-129. 

'Vriesea rubra, the Gay Deceiver." Journal of the Bromeliad Society, 

volume 24, number 1 (1974), pages 30-31, 2 figures. 

Smith, Lyman B., and Edward S. Ayensu. "Classification of the Old World 
Velloziaceae." Kew Bulletin, volume 29, number 1 (1974), pages 183-207. 

Soderstrom, T. R., and H. F. Decker. "Calderonella, a New Genus of Grasses 
and Its Relationship to the Centrostecoid Genera." Annals of the Missouri 
Botanical Garden, volume 60, number 2 (1973), pages 427-441. 

Steyskal, G. C, H. Robinson, H. Ulrich, and R. L. Hurley. "Hydrophorus Fallen, 
1823 (Insecta, Diptera, Dolichopodidae) : Request for Suppression Under the 
Plenary Powers of the Designation by Macquart, 1827, of H. Jaculus Fallen 
as Type of the Genus in Favour of H. Nebulosus Fallen in Order to Conserve 
Consistent Usage." Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 30 (1973), 

I pages 118-120. 

rhomas, John H., and Stanwyn G. Shetler. "Wallace Roy Ernst, 1928-1971." 
Madrono, volume 22, number 4 (October 1973), pages 207-213. 

Wasshausen, Dieter C. "Two Additional New Species of Aphelandra (Acan- 
thaceae)." Phytologia, volume 26 (1973), pages 393-396. 

. "New Combinations in Cultivated Justicia (Acanthaceae)." Baileya, 

volume 19 (1973), pages 1-3. 

Wurdack, John J. "Certamen Melastomataceis XXII." Phytologia, volume 26, 
number 6 (September 1973), pages 397-409. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 343 

. "Uma Nova Melastomataceae de Minas Gerais." Museu Botanica] 

Municipal, Curitiba, Parana, Brasil, Boletim, numero 10 (October 1973), pages; 

-. "Melastomataceae." Flora de Venezuela, volume 8 (December 1973), 

pages 1-819 (Memecyleae, pages 738-773 by T. Morley). 


Ayensu, Edward S. "Plant and Bat Interactions in West Africa." The 20th 
Annual Systematic Symposium in St. Louis, October 27, 1973. Similar lectures 
at the University of Ghana and the University of Cape Coast in November, i 

. "Edible and Sapogenin-Bearing Yams," The International Institute of 

Tropical Agriculture in Ibadan, Nigeria, and at the Crops Research Institute j 
in Kumasi, Ghana, November 1973. 

"Social Responsibilities of West African Science Association." Con 

ference in Dakar, Senegal, March 1974, 

"Orchids." Class to the Smithsonian Associates (6 lectures), January- 

February 1974. 

Eyde, Richard H. "The Bases of Angiosperm Phylogeny." At the annual meeting 
of the American Institute of Biological Sciences, Amherst, Massachusetts, 
June 1974, critically examined the contribution of interpretive floral anatomy 
to angiosperm phylogeny. 

. "Foibles, Fallacies, and Famous Figures in Floral Morphology." Botani- 
cal Society of Washington, December 1973. Address traced the history of : 
current theoretical difficulties in floral structure. Subsequently given to semi 
nar groups at the University of Delhi, India (February 1974), and at thet 
University of Hawaii (April 1974). 

Dahl, Arthur L. "The Roles of Algae in the Coral Reef Ecosystem: Generation \ 
and Control of Surface Area." International Symposium on Indo-Pacific . 
Tropical Reef Biology, June 1974. 

Fosberg, F. R. "Terrestrial Floras of Coral Islands." Second International Sym- 
posium on Coral Reefs, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, July 1973. 

. "Flora, Fauna and Ecology of Ceylon." The Asia Society. December 

1973. Similar lectures were given at the Brooklyn Botanical Garden and the f 
West Indies Laboratory of Fairleigh Dickinson University. 

"Ecology and Conservation of Aldabra Island." University of Rich- 

mond, March 1974. 

Hale, Mason E. "Use of the Scanning-electron Microscope in Lichen Research." 
Duke University, March 1974. 

. "Lichen Structures Viewed with the Scanning-electron Microscope." In- 
ternational Symposium, British Systematics Association, Bristol, England, and } 
at the University of Minnesota, April 1974. 

Nicolson, Dan H. Informal seminars on nomenclature, particularly determining 
gender of specific epithets and latinization of personal names. Four lectures 
on Greek in connection with determining gender of generic names. All these 
were done within the Department of Botany, Smithsonian Institution. 

Nowicke, Joan W. "Pollen Morphology as a Systematic Tool." University of \ 
Ceylon, July 1973. 

Read, Robert W. "Phalaenopsis and Other Orchid Things." National Capitol 
Orchid Society, September 1973. 

. "House Plants from African Violets to Zamia." Cheverly Garden Club, 

Maryland, October 1973. 

'Here a Palm, There a Palm." Balboa Park, San Diego, California, for 

the Western Chapter of the Palm Society, March 1974. An illustrated lecture 
on palms around the world, their variability and hardiness. 

344 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

. "Spring Flower Botany, or Basic Botany for Beginners." Classes for 

the Smithsonian Associates, April-June 1974. 
Shetler, Stanwyn G. "Botanical Exploration in Alaska." Summer program for 

exceptional high school students, Mary Baldwin College, Staunton, Virginia, 

July 11, 1973. 
. "Status of Flora North American Program." Special Interest Group on 

Flora North America, International Congress of Systematic and Evolutionary 

Biology (ICSEB), University of Colorado, Boulder, August 7, 1973. 

-. "Demythologizing Biological Data Banking." Symposium on "Computer 

Revolution in Systematics," ICSEB, August 10, 1973. 

"Problems of Handling Infraspecific Variation in a Floristic Data Bank. 

Special Interest Group on "The Taxonomic Treatment of Infraspecific In- 
formation," ICSEB, August 11, 1973. 

"A Generalized Descriptive Data Bank as a Basis for Computer-Assisted 

Identification." Symposium on "Automatic Identification," King's College, 
Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, September 28, 1973. 

"The Flora North America Information System." Symposium on use 

of EDP in the herbarium, sponsored by the NATO Eco-Sciences Panel and 
organized by the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, England, October 4, 1973. 
"The Pageant of Spring Wildflowers in the Potomac Valley." Lecture 

series jointly sponsored by the Audubon Naturalist Society of the Central 
Atlantic States and the Smithsonian Associates, National Museum of Natural 
History, Washington, D.C., February 18, 1974. 

"The Pageant of Spring Wildflowers in the Potomac Valley." Spon- 

sored jointly by the Audubon Naturalist Society and the Reston Homeowner's 
Association at Reston, Virginia, March 4, 1974. 

"Plant Exploration in Alaska." Photographers in Industry of Greater 

Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, March 20, 1974. 

"Plant Exploration in Alaska," Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy 

of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. March 28, 1974. 

Guest lecturer in course, "Introduction to Landscape Architecture." 

Continuing Education for Women Center, George Washington University, 

Washington, D.C.: 

. "The Landscape in the Ecosystem." January 24, 1974. 

. "The Ecological Values of Natural Green Space." January 31, 1974. 

Field trip to Suitland Bog, Suitland, Maryland, to demonstrate by ex- 

ample some of the ecological values of natural green space. February 16, 1974. 

Simpson, Beryl B. "Pleistocene Changes in the Montane Flora of South 
America." International Congress of Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 
in Boulder, Colorado, July 1973. 

. "The Late Tertiary and Cenozoic History of South America." Inter- 
national Conference on South American Biogeography, Harvard University, 
November 1973. 

Skog, Lawrence E. "Birds, Bats, and Gesneriads." Graduate seminar course at 
George Mason University, February 27, 1974, and again on May 29, 1974, at 
Northern Virginia Community College. 

. "Angiosperm Evolution in Response to Animal Pollinators." Plant mor- 
phology course at George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, May 6, 1974. 
"The genus Cesneria in the West Indies." National Convention of the 

American Gloxinia and Gesneriad Society at Hampstead, New York, June 29, 
Soderstrom, Thomas R. "Primitive Forest Grasses and Evolution of the Bam- 
busoideae." First International Congress of Systematic and Evolutionary 
Biology, Boulder, Colorado, August 1973. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 345 

. "Flowering Phenomena in Bamboos." University of Puerto Rico, Maya- 

guez, March 1974. 
Wurdack, John J. "Phytogeography of Tropical South America" and "Mela- 

stomataceae." Tropical Botany Course, Fairchild Tropical Garden, Florida, 

July 7, 1973, conducted jointly by Florida Atlantic University and Florida 

International University. 
. "Plants of the Venezuelan Andes." Botanical Society of Washington, 

February 5, 1974. 

Department of Entomology 

Baumann, Richard W. "Studies on Utah Stoneflies (Plecoptera)." Great Basin 
Naturalist, volume 33 (1973), pages 91-108. 

• . "New Megaleuctra from the Eastern United States (Plecoptera: Leuc- 

tridae)." Entomological News, volume 84 (1974), pages 247-250. 

Clarke, J. F. Gates. "Recent Smithsonian Accessions." Journal of the Lepidop- 
terists' Society, volume 27, number 3 (1973), pages 240-241. 

. "The Genus Eumarozia Heinrich (Olethreutidae)." Journal of the Lepi- 

dopterists' Society, volume 27, number 4 (1973), pages 268-274. 

Duckworth, W. Donald, and Thomas D. Eichlin. "New Species of Clearwing 
Moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) from North America." Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington, volume 75 (1973), pages 150-159. 

Erwin, Terry L. "Phylogenetic, Zoogeographic, and Bio-systematic Studies of 
Certain Carabid Ground Beetles. Grant No. 5795 — Penrose Fund (1970), 
$1,000." American Philosophical Society Year Book 1972 (1973), pages 362- 

. "Studies of the Subtribe Tachyina (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidiini), 

Part I: A Revision of the Neotropical Genus Xystosomus Schaum." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Zoology, number 140 (1973), 39 pages. 

-. "Carabid Beetles, Mountain Tops, and Trees." Proceedings of the En- \ 

tomological Society of Washington, volume 75, number 1 (1973), page 127. 
'A Supplement to the Bombardier Beetles of North and Middle 

America: New Records for Middle America (Coleoptera: Carabidae)." Cole- 
opterists' Bulletin, volume 27, number 2 (1973), pages 79-82. 

Field, William D. [Three Book Reviews] "African Butterflies." Bulletin of the 
Entomological Society of America, volume 19 (1973), pages 223-224. 

. [Four Book Reviews] Butterflies of the Australian Region by Bernard 

D'Abrera; Australian Butterflies by Charles McCubbin; Butterflies of Aus- 
tralia by Ian F. B. Common and Douglas F. Waterhouse; Jamaica and Its 
Butterflies by F. Martin Brown and Bernard Heineman. Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington, volume 75 (1974), pages 486-488. 

Field, William D., Cyril F. Dos Passos, and John H. Masters. "A Bibliography 
of the Catalogs, Lists, Faunal and Other Papers on the Butterflies of North 
America North of Mexico Arranged by State and Province (Lepidoptera: 
Rhopalocera)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 157 (1974), 
104 pages. 

Flint, Oliver S., Jr. "Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, XVI: The Genus Aus- 
trotinodes (Trichoptera: Psychomyiidae)." Proceedings of the Biological So- 
ciety of Washington, volume 86 (1973), pages 127-142. 

. "A Replacement Name for Smicridea (R.) minima Flint (Trichoptera: 

Hydropsy chidae)." Proceeding's of the Entomological Society of Washington, 
volume 75 (1973), page 219. 

-. "The Megaloptera of Chile (Neuroptera)." Revista Chilena de Entomol- 

ogia, volume 7 (1973), pages 31-45. 

346 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

. "The First Molannid Caddisfly from Ceylon, Molanna taprobane, New 

Species (Trichoptera: Molannidae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society 
of Washington, volume 86 (1973), pages 517-524. 

"Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, XVIII: New Species of Rhyaco- 

philidae and Glossosomatidae." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, num- 
ber 169 (1974), 30 pages. 

Harrison, B. A. "Anopheles (An.) reidi, a New Species of the Barbirostris 
Species Complex from Sri Lanka (Diptera: Culicidae)." Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington, volume 75 (1973), pages 365-371. 

."Notes on Some Mosquito Types Deposited in France." Mosquito Sys- 
tematica, volume 5 (1973), pages 277-279. 

Harrison, B. A., and R. Rattanarithikul. "Comparative Morphology of the Early 
Larval Instars of Aedes aegypti and A. seatoi in Thailand." Mosquito Sys- 
tematics, volume 5 (1973), pages 280-294. 

Harrison, B. A., J. F. Reinert, E. S. Saugstad, R. Richardson, and J. E. Farlow. 
"Confirmation of Aedes taeniorhynchus in Oklahoma." Mosquito System- 
atica, volume 5 (1973) pages, 157-158. 

Harrison, B. A., and J. E. Scanlon. "Anopheles (An.) pilinotum, a New Species 
Name in the aitkenii Complex for An. insulaeflorum from the Phihppines 
and Eastern Indonesia (Diptera: Cuhcidae)." Mosquito Systematics, volume 6 
(1974), pages 32-40. 

Harrison, B. A., J. E. Scanlon, and J. A. Reid. "A New Synonym and New Species 
Name in the Southeast Asia Anopheles hyrcanus Complex." Mosquito Sys- 
tematics, volume 5 (1973), pages 263-268. 

Hochman, Robert H., and John F. Reinert. "Undescribed Setae in Larvae of 
Culicidae (Diptera)." Mosquito Systematics, volume 6 (1974), pages 1-10. 

Huang, Y.-M. "A New Species of Aedes (Stegomyia) from Thailand and Notes 
on the mediopunctatus Subgroup (Diptera: Culicidae)." Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington, volume 75 (1973), pages 224-232. 

. "A Redescription of Aedes (Stegomyia) amaltheus (de Meillon and 

Lavoipierre) with a Note on Its Assignment to the aegypti Group of 
Species (Diptera: Culicidae)." Mosquito Systematics, volume 6, pages 27-31. 

Hurd, Paul D., Jr., A. E. Michelbacher, and E. Gorton Linsley. "Ecology of the 
Squash and Gourd Bee, Peponapis pruinosa, on Cultivated Cucurbits in Cali- 
fornia (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 
number 168 (1974), 17 pages. 

Krombein, Karl V. "Notes on North American Stigmus Panzer (Hymenoptera, 
Sphecoidea)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 
86 (1973), pages 211-230, 16 figures. 

. "A New Campsomeriella from New Ireland (Hymenoptera: Scoliidae)." 

Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, volume 75 (1973), 
page 373. 

"Systematics and Distributional Notes on Melanesian Cerceris (Hy- 

menoptera: Sphecidae)." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Wash- 
ington, volume 75 (1974 [1973]), pages 464-467, 1 figure. 

-. [Book review! "Hymenopterorum Catalogus. Pars 8, Palaeartic Eumeni- 

u I J J — — . ^^»*».w^»v, M. %*M.^J ^f ^ UAUV.M.A VAV. L^UAAlt^XtA- 

dae, by J. van der Vecht and F. C. J. Fischer." 1972. Bulletin of the Entomo- 
logical Society of America, volume 19 (1973), page 125. 

-. [Book review] "The African Compsomerinae (Hymenoptera, Scoliidae), 

by J. G. Betrem, 1972 (1971)." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of 
Washington, volume 75 (1973), page 250. 

. [Book review] "Wasps: An Account of the Biology and Natural History 

of Solitary and Social Wasps, by J. P. Spradbery, 1973." American Scientist 
volume 62, number 3 (1974), page 350. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publicatioris I 347 

Krombein, Karl V., James F. Mello, and James J. Crockett. "The North American 

Hymenoptera Catalog: A Pioneering Effort in Computerized Publication." 

Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, volume 20 (1974), pages 

24-29, 3 figures. 
Peyton, E. L. "The Identity of Aedes Species Unknown of Knight and Hull, 

1953." Mosquito Systematics, volume 5 (1973), pages 161-162. 
. "Notes on the Genus Uranotaenia." Mosquito Systematics, volume 5 

(1973), pages 194-196. 
Rattanarithikul, F., and B. A. Harrison. "An Illustrated Key to the Anopheles 

Larvae of Thailand." 42 pages. Bangkok: Jintana Printing Ltd. 
Reinert, J. F. "Aedes consonensis, a New Species of the Subgenus Neomacleaya 

from South Vietnam (Diptera: Culicidae)." Mosquito Systematics, volume 5 

(1973), pages 252-262. 

. "Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. XVIII. A 

Reconsideration of Diceromyia Theobald with the Inclusion of Aedes num- 
matus Edwards and Aedes pseudonummatus. New Species (Diptera: Culi- 
cidae.)" Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, volume 10 
(1973), pages 22-40. 

"Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. XIX. Botha- 

ella, a New Subgenus of Aedes Meigen." Contributions of the American 
Entomological Institute, volume 10 (1973), pages 1-51. 

"Terminology and Preparation Techniques of the Female Genitalia of 

Aedine Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)." Mosquito Systematics, volume 6 
(1974), pages 46-56. 

Sirivanakarn, S. "The Forms of Culex (Culex) bitaeniorhynchus Giles in South- 
east Asia." Mosquito Systematics, volume 5 (1973), pages 235-251. 

Sirivanakarn, S., and T. Kurihara. "A New Species of Culex, Subgenus Culicio- 
myia Theobald from Ceram, Indonesia (Diptera: Culicidae)." Proceedings 
of the Entomological Society of Washington, volume 75 (1973), pages 200-224. 

Spangler, Paul J. "Aquatic Coleoptera Collected by the Biospeleological Expedi- 
tions to Cuba by the Academies of Science of Cuba and Romania." Pages 
353-358 in Orghidian et al., Resultats des Expeditions Biospeologiques Cuban- 
Roumaines a Cuba 1. Bucarest, Romania: Editura Academiei Repuplicii So- 
cialiste Romania, 1973. 

. "The Bionomics, Distribution, and Immature Stages of the Rare Pre- 
dacious Water Beetle, Hoperius planatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)." Proceed- 
ings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 86, number 36 (1973), 
pages 423-434. 

"The Nomenclature, Bionomics, and Distribution of Notaticus fasciatus 

(Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Aubehydrinae)." Proceedings of the Biological So- 
ciety of Washington, volume 66, number 42 (1973), pages 495-500. 

"A Description of the Larva of Celina angustata Aube (Coleoptera: 

Dytiscidae)." Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, volume 63, 
number 4 (1974), pages 165-168. 

"The Rediscovery of Cylorygmus lineatopunctatus (Coleoptera: Hydro- 

philidae: Sphaeridiinae: Rygmodini)." Journal of the Kansas Entomological 
Society, volume 47, number 2 (1974), pages 244-248. 

Spangler, Paul J., and George W. Folkerts. "The Larva of Pachydrus princeps 
(Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washing- 
ton, volume 86, number 29 (1973), pages 351-356. 

. "Reassignment of Colpius inflatus and a Description of its Larva (Cole- 
optera: Noteridae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 
volume 86, number 29 (1973), pages 501-510. 

348 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Spangler, Paul J., and Robert D. Gordon. "Descriptions of the Larvae of some 
Predacious Water Beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)." Proceedings of the Bio- 
logical Society of Washington, volume 86, number 22 (1973), pages 261-278. 

Stewart, Kenneth W., Richard W. Baumann, and Bill P. Stark. "The Distribu- 
tion and Past Dispersal of Southwestern United States Plecoptera." Transac- 
tions of the American Entomological Society, volume 99 (1974), pages 507- 


Baumann, Richard W. "The Status of Neotropical Plecoptera." Lecture at Sym- 
posium, "Neotropical Aquatic Insects." Entomological Society of America, 
, Annual Meeting, November 28, 1973. 

Clarke, J. F. Gates. "Pacific Island Expeditions." Invitational lecture, second 
annual Robert A. Hefner Lecture in Zoology, Miami University, Oxford, 
Ohio, February 1974. 

Duckworth, W. Donald. "Habitat Considerations in the Study of Tropical 
Rain Forest Lepidoptera." Invitational lecture at symposium, "An Introduc- 
tion to the Neotropics." Lepidopterists' Society, Annual Meeting, June 23, 

Hurd, Paul D., Jr. "Status and Role of Systematics Collections in Entomological 
Research: National Collections." Invited Speaker. Entomological Society of 
America, Eastern Branch Meeting, November 1, 1973. 

. "Systematics Collections and Collection Management." Conference 

Speaker. Entomological Society of America, Annual Meeting, November 26, 

Krombein, Karl V. "Computerization and Publication of Hymenoptera of 
America North of Mexico — Synoptic Catalog." Contributed Paper. 1st Inter- 
national Congress of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology, August 6, 1973. 

. "Computerization of Catalog of North American Hymenoptera." Con- 
tributed Paper. Annual Meeting, Entomological Society of America, Novem- 
ber 28, 1973. 

"Biosystematic Studies of the Insects of Ceylon." Leader, invitational 

symposium. Entomological Society of Washington, December 6, 1973. 

-. "Military Entomology Support at the Smithsonian Institution." Invita- 

tional Address. Tri-Service Military Entomology Training Conference, Acad- 
emy of Health Sciences, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, February 5, 1974. 
Spangler, Paul J. "Adaptations of Insects to an Aquatic Environment." Invita- 
tional Lecture, Monthly Meeting of the Maryland Entomological Society^ 
Baltimore, Maryland, January 18, 1974. 

Department of Invertebrate Zoology 

Barnard, J. L. "Revision of Corophiidae and Related Families (Amphipoda)." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 151 (1973), 27 pages. 
. "Gammaridean Amphipoda from Australia, Part II." Smithsonian Con- 
tributions to Zoology, number 139 (1974), 148 pages. 

Bowman, T. E. "Two New American Species of Spelaeomysis (Crustacea: Mysi- 
dacea) from a Mexican Cave and Land Crab Burrows." Association for Mexi- 
can Cave Studies, bulletin 5 (1973), pages 13-20. 

. "The 'Sea-flea' Dolobrotus mardeni n. gen, n. sp., a Deep-Water Lobster 

Bait Scavenger (Amphipoda: Eusiridae)." Proceedings of the Biological So- 
ciety of Washington, volume 87, number 14 (1974), pages 129-138. 

Bowman, T. E., and H.-E. Gruner. "The Families and Genera of Hyperiidea." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 146 (1973), 64 pages. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 349 

Bowman, T. E., with J. R. Holsinger. "A New Troglobitic Isopod of the Genus 
Lirceus (Asellidae) from Southwestern Virginia, with Notes on its Ecology 
and Additional Cave Records for the Genus in the Appalachians." Interna- 
tional Journal of Speleology, number 5 (1974), pages 261-271. 

Bowman, T. E., with M. W. Johnson. "Distributional Atlas of Calanoid Cope- 
pods in the California Current Region, 1949 and 1950." California Coopera- 
tive Oceanic Fisheries Investigations, Atlas number 19 (1973), pages 1-239. 

Cressey, R., and H. Boyle. "Five New Bomolochid Copepods Parasitic on Indo- 
Pacific Clupeid Fishes." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 161 
(1974), 25 pages. 

Cressey, R., and C. Patterson. "Fossil Parasitic Copepods from a Lower Creta- 
ceous Fish." Science, volume 180 (1973), pages 1283-1285. 

Hobbs, H. H., Jr. "Three New Troglobitic Decapod Crustaceans from Oaxaca, 
Mexico." Association for Mexican Cave Studies, bulletin 5 (1973), pages 25- 
38, 8 figures. 

. "Two New Troglobitic Shrimps (Decapoda: Alpheidae and Palae- 

monidae)." Association for Mexican Cave Studies, bulletin 5 (1973), pages 
73-80, 3 figures. 

"New Species and Relationships of the Members of the Genus Falli- 

cambarus." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 86, 
number 40 (1973), pages 461-481, 4 figures. 

'Synopsis of the Families and Genera of Crayfishes (Crustacea: 

Decapoda)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 164 (1974), iii -|- 

32 pages, 27 figures. 
Hobbs, H. H., Jr., with H. H. Hobbs III. "The Genus Sphaeromicola (Ostracoda, 

Entocytheridae) in Mexico." Association for Mexican Cave Studies, bulletin 5 

(1973), pages 39-42, 1 figure. 
Hope, W. D. "Schistodera Cobb, 1920 (Nematoda: Enoplida), a Request for 

Suppression; Oxystomina Filipjev, 1921, Proposed for the Official List. Bulle- 
tin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 30, number 2 (1973), pages 102-103. 
. "Nematoda." Pages 391-469 in Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates, 

edited by Arthur C. Giese and John S. Pearse, volume 1. New York: Academic 

Press, 1974. 
Jones, M. L., and C. E. Dawson. "Salinity-Temperature Profiles in the Panama 

Canal Locks." Marine Biology, volume 21 (1973), pages 86-90, figures 1-4. 
Kirsteuer, E., and K. Ruetzler. "Additional Notes on Tubiluchus corallicola 

(Priapulida) Based on Scanning Electron Microscope Observations." Marine 

Biology, volume 20 (1973), pages 78-87, 6 figures. 
Kornicker, Louis S., and H. V. Howe. "First Report of the Suborder Myodo- 

copina (Ostracoda) from the Tertiary (Eocene, North Carolina) of North 

America." Journal of Paleontology, September 1973, pages 997-998, 1 figure. 
Perez Farfante, Isabel C, and Harvey R. Bullis, Jr. "Western Atlantic Shrimps 

of the Genus Solenocera, with Description of a New Species (Crustacea: 

Decapoda: Penaeidae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 153 

(1973), 33 pages. 
Rehder, Harald A. "Comment on the Proposals Concerning Family Names 

Cassidae and Harpidae. Z.N.(S) 1938." Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 

volume 30 (1973), page 1. 
. "Nipponaphera Habe, 1961 (Gastropoda) : Proposed Designation of a 

Type-Species under the Plenary Powers. Z.N.(S.) 2007." Bulletin of Zoological 

Nomenclature, volume 30 (1973), pages 37-38. 

"Paul Bartsch, 1871-1960." Pages 1-9 in Florence A. Ruhoff, "Bibliog- 

raphy and Zoological Taxa of Paul Bartsch." Smithsonian Contributions to ' 
Zoology, number 143 (1973). 

350 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


. Comments on the Type-Species of Lucina (Mollusca: Pelecypoda). 

Z.N. (S.) 2001. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 30 (1973), pages 

-. "The Family Harpidae of the World." Indo-Pacific Mollusca, volume 3 

(1973), pages 207-274, figures 183-247. 

"On the Genus Volutocorbis with Descriptions of Two New Species 

from South Africa." The Nautilus, volume 88 (1974), pages 33-37, figures 1-8. 
'Comment on the Request for the Designation of a Type-Species of 

Tutufa Jousseaume, 1881." Z.N.(S.) 2021. Bulletin of Zoological Nomencla- 
ture, volume 30 (1974), 2 pages. 
Rehder, Harald A., and Clifton S. Weaver. "A New Species of Volutocorbis 

from South Africa." The Nautilus, volume 88 (1974), pages 31-32, figures 1-8. 
Rice, M. E. "Morphology, Behavior, and Histogenesis of the Pelagosphera 

Larva of Phascolosoma agassizii (Sipuncula)." Smithsonian Contributions to 

Zoology, number 132 (1973), 51 pages. 
Roper, C. F. E. "Vertical and Seasonal Distribution of Pelagic Cephalopods in 

the Mediterranean Sea: Preliminary Report." Bulletin of the American Mala- 

cological Union for 1973 (1974), pages 27-30. 
Rosewater, Joseph. "A Source of Authors and Dates for Family Names of 

Gastropods." The Veliger, volume 16, number 2 (October 1973), page 243. 
■ . "More on Penis Shedding Among Littorina." New York Shell Club 

Notes, number 196 (November 1973), page 7. 

'Studies on Ascension Island Marine Mollusks." Bulletin of the 

American Malacological Union for 1973, pages 30-32. 

"Phylogeny of Littorinidae." The Littorinid Tidings. Occasional News- 

letter of the Littorinidae Research Croup, issue number 1 (1974), pages 10-11. 
Ruetzler, K. "Principles of Sponge Distribution in Indo-Pacific Coral Reefs." 

Proceedings of the Symposium on Corals and Coral Reefs, 1969, Marine 

Biological Association of India, pages 315-332, 6 figures, 5 tables, 1972. 
. "The Burrowing Sponges of Bermuda." Smithsonian Contributions to 

Zoology, number 165 (1974), 32 pages, 26 figures, 1 table. 
Ruetzler, K., and G. Rieger. "Sponge Burrowing: Fine Structure of Cliona lampa 

Penetrating Calcareous Substrata." Marine Biology, volume 21 (1973), pages 

144-162, 11 figures, 2 tables. 
Stansbery, D. H. "A Preliminary Report on the Naiad Fauna of the Clince 

River in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Virginia and Tennessee 

(Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae)." Bulletin of the American Malacological 

Union for 1972 (1973), pages 20-22. 

. "Why Preserve Rivers?" Explorer, volume 15, number 13 (1973), pages 


'Dams and the Extinction of Aquatic Life." Bulletin of the Garden Club 

of America, volume 61, number 1, (1973), pages 43-46. 

-. "Identification of Subfossil Shell from Salts Cave." Chapter 18 in P. J. 

Watson, editor. Archaeology of Salts Cave, Kentucky. 1974. 

-. "The Pleuroceridae and Unionidae of North Fork Holston River above 

Saltville, Virginia." Bulletin of the American Malacological Union for 1973 
(1974), pages 33-36. 
Williams, A. B. "Allactaea lithostrota, a New Genus and Species of Crab 
(Decapoda: Xanthidae) from North Carolina, U.S.A." Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington, volume 87, number 3 (1974), pages 19-26. 


Chace, Fenner A. (with Drs. Rosewater and Pawson) : Invertebrate Zoology 
Seminar on Ascension Island. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 351 

Hobbs, Horton H. "The Crayfish." Seminar for Science teachers in Fairfax 

Public School System, March 1974. 
. "Adaptations and Convergence in American Crayfishes." International 

Symposium on Crayfishes, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, April 8, 1974. 
Hope, W. Duane. "Gutless wonders of the deep." First International Congress 

of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology, Boulder, Colorado, August 6, 1973. 
Jones, Meredith L. "Gatun Lake as a Freshwater Barrier in the Panama Canal." 

American Malacological Union meetings, Newark, Delaware, June 26, 1973. 
. Marine Biology Class, University of Panama, November 1973, Informal 

discussion of ecological parameters (with slides). 

"On the Systematics of the Magelonidae." Southern California Acad- 

emy of Sciences meetings, Fullerton, California, May 4, 1974. 

Pawson, David L. "Antarctic Biology." James Madison High School, November 

Pettibone, Marian H. "Revisionary Studies on the Aphroditoid Polychaetes." 
Southern California Academy of Sciences meetings. May 4, 1974. 

Roper, Clyde F. E. "Oceanographic expeditions." Public lecture, Fredericksburg, 

. "Phylogeny and Diversity in Recent Cephalopoda." International Col- 
loquium on Molluscan Phylogeny, London, April 1974. 

-. "Diversity and Biology of Cephalopods." Western Society of Malacolo- 

gists Banquet Address, Pomona, California, June 1974. 

"Vertical Distribution of Mediterranean Cephalopods." American 

Malacological Union Annual Meeting, University of Delaware, June 1974. 

Roper, Clyde F. E., and Rosewater, Joseph. Two lectures, one demonstration 
(tour of Mollusk collections), one field trip to Chincoteague, Virginia, during 
course on Marine Malacology to a class of approximately 20 adults, July 5- 
August 1, 1973, sponsored by Smithsonian Associates. 

Rosewater, Joseph. Two lectures on Ecology of Marine Mollusks to class in 
Biology of Mollusks, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Decem- 
ber 4-6, 1973. 

. "A Malacological Expedition to Molluccas Islands." Evening lecture, 

Boston Malacological Club, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard Uni- 
versity, Cambridge, Massachusetts, February 5, 1974. 

"Mollusks of Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean." Invertebrate 

Zoology Seminar, National Museum of Natural History, March 27, 1974. 

"A Malacological Expedition to Molluccas Islands." Smithsonian Asso- 

ciates, National Museum of Natural History, April 4, 1974. 

-. "Phylogeny of Littorinidae." Colloquium on Molluscan Phylogeny, Bed- 

ford College, London, England, April 3-4, 1974. 

'A Malacological Expedition to the Molluccas Islands." Pittsburgh 

Shell Club, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1, 1974. 

Stansbery, David H. "North American Unionid Mollusks: Vanishing Ameri- 
cans." Paleontological Society of Washington (December 1973), National 
Capital Shell Club (January 1974), Invertebrate Zoology Seminar (March 

. "Symposium on Organisms and Biological Communities as Indicators 

of Environmental Quality." Participant, Ohio State University, March 1974. 
At same symposium, he also presented a paper entitled "Unionid Mollusks ): 
as Environmental Indicators." 

Department of Mineral Sciences 

Appleman, D. E., with R. T. Helz. "Poikilitic and Cumulate Textures in Rock . 
77017, a Crushed Anorthositic Gabbro." In Lunar Science V, Lunar Science '; 
Institute, pages 322-324, 1974. 

352 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Clarke, Roy S., Jr. (editor). "The Meteoritical Bulletin, no. 52." Meteoritics, 
volume 9 (1974), pages 101-121. 

Clarke, Roy S., Jr., and Joseph I. Goldstein. "Phosphide Growth in Coarse 
Structured Iron Meteorites" (abstract). Meteoritics, volume 8 (1973), pages 

Desautels, P. E. "Collectors Series: Rocks and Minerals." 200 pages. Grosset 
and Dunlap. 

. "The National Collection of Gems in the Smithsonian Institution, 1965 

to 1974." Lapidary Journal, pages 84-100, 1974. 

"Majestic Jewels Find a New Setting at Smithsonian." Smithsonian 

(June 1974), pages 36-43. 

"Gems in the Smithsonian" Smithsonian Institution Press, 63 pages. 

44 color plates, 5 black and white, 1972. [Not previously reported in staff list.] 

Fredriksson, K., P. Brenner, J. Nelen, A. Noonan, A. Dube, and A. Reid. "Com- 
parative Studies of Impact Glasses and Breccias." Lunar Science V, pages 
245-247, 1974. 

Fredriksson, K., A. Dube, D. Milton, and M. S. Balasundaram. "Lonar Lake, 
India: An Impact Crater in Basalt." Science, volume 180 (1973), pages 862- 
864, 1973. 

Fredriksson, K., A. Noonan, and J. Nelen. "Meteoritic, Lunar, and Lonar Impact 
Chondrules." The Moon, volume 7 (1973), pages 574-582. 

Fredriksson, K., with A. M. Reid, R. J. Williams, and E. K. Gibson, Jr. "A Re- 
fractory Glass Chondrule in the Vigarano Chrondrite. Meteoritics, volume 9 
(1974), pages 35-45. 

Fudali, R. F. "Genesis of the Melt Rocks at Tenoumer Crater, Mauritania." 
Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 74, number 14 (1974), pages 2115- 

. "Origin of the Analcime-bearing Rocks at Richat, Sciences de la Terre, 

Memoire 28." Contributions a I'Etude de I'Accident Circulaire des Richat, 
pages 97-106, 1973. 

'Roter Kamm: evidence for an impact origin." Meteoritics, volume 8, 

number 3 (1973), pages 245-257. 

Fudali, R. F., and W. A. Cassidy. "Gravity Reconnaissance at Richat, Sciences 
de la Terre, Memoire 28." Contributions a I'Etude de I'Accident Circulaire 
\ des Richat, pages 77-81, 1973. 

Fudali, R. F., D. P. Gold, and J. J. Gurney. "The Pretoria Salt Pan: Astrobleme 
or Cryptovolcano?" Journal of Geology, volume 81, number 4 (1973), pages 

Jarosewich, E., with R. H. Gibbs, Jr., and H. L. Windor. "Heavy Metal Con- 
centration in Museum Fish Specimens: Effect on Preservatives and Time." 
Sciences, volume 160 (1973), pages 475-477. 

Jarosewich, E., with B. Mason. "The Barea, Dyarrl Island, and Emery Meteorites 
and Review of the Mesosiderites." Mineralogical Magazine, volume 39 (1973), 
pages 204-217. 

Mason, B. "Chemistry of the Moon's Surface." Chemistry in Britain, volume 9 
(1973), pages 456-461. 

. "Manganese Silicate Minerals from Broken Hill, New South Wales." 

Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, volume 20, pages 397-404, 

Mason, B., with R. O. Allen. "Minor and Trace Elements in some Meteoritic 
Minerals." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, volume 37 (1973), pages 1435- 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 353 

Mason, B., and R. O. Allen. "Minor and Trace Elements in Augite, Hornblende, 

and Pyrope Megacrysta from Kakanui, New Zealand." New Zealand Journal 

of Geology and Geophysics, volume 16 (1973), pages 935-947. 
Mason, B., with G. T. Faust, J. J. Fahey, and E. J. Dwornik. "The Disintegration 

of the Wolf Creek Meteorite and the Formation of Pecoraite, the Nickel 

Analog of Clinochrysotile." United States Geological Survey Professional 

Paper, number 384 (1973), pages 107-135. 
Mason, B., S. Jacobson, J. A. Nelen, W. G. Melson, and T. Simkin. "Regolith 

Compositions from the Apollo 17 Mission." Lunar Science V, pages 493-495, 

Mason, B., with J. C. Laul, and R. A. Schmitt. "Breccias 64435, 63335, and 

63355." Lunar Science V, pages 435-437, 1974. 
Mason, B., and P. M. Martin. "Minor and Trace Element Distribution in Meli- 

lite and Pyroxene from the Allende Meteorite." Earth and Planetary Science 

Letters, volume 22 (1974), pages 141-144. 
Moreland, G., with G. H. Conrad, P. F. Hlava, J. A. Green, R. B. Moore, E. 

Dowty, M. Prinz, K. Keil, C. E. Nehru, and T E. Bunch. "Electron Microprobe 

Analyses of Lithic Fragments and Their Minerals from Luna 20 Fines. Special 

Publication 12, UNM Institute of Meteoritics, 1973. 
Moreland, G., with E. Dowty, M. Prinz, C. E. Nehru, R. B. Moore, K. Keil, 

P. F. Hlava, and J. A. Green. "Electron Microprobe Analyses of Minerals 

from Apollo 15 Mare Basalt Rake Samples. Special Publication 9, UNM. 

Institute of Meteoritics, 1973. 
Simkin, T., with J. E. Case, S. L. Ryland, and K. A. Howard. "Gravitational 

Evidence for a Low-Density Mass Beneath the Galapagos Islands." Science, 

volume 181 (1973), pages 1040-1042. 
. "Gravity Anomalies in the Galapagos Islands Area." Science, volume 

184 (1974), pages 808-809. 
Simkin, T., with J. Filson, and L-K. Leu. "Seismicity of a Caldera Collapse: 

Galapagos Islands 1968." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 78, num- 
ber 35 (1973), pages 8591-8622. 
Simkin, T., W. G. Reeder, and C. MacFarland. "Galapagos Science: 1972 Status 

and Needs." Galapagos Science 1972 Conference, pages i-ix -f- 1-87, 1972. 
Switzer, G. S. "Memorial to Martin L. Ehrmann, August 9, 1903-May 18, 1972." 

American Mineralogist, volume 59 (1974), pages 414-415. 

. "The Diamond Industry in 1972." Jewelers Circular Keystone, 1973. 

Switzer, G. S., with T. Simkin, A. F. Noonan, B. Mason, J. A. Nelen, and W. G. 

Melson. "Composition of Apollo 16 Fines 60051, 60052, 64811, 64812, 67711, 

67712, 68821, and 68822." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Proceedings of 

the Fourth Lunar Science Conference, volume 4, number 1 (1974), pages 279- 

White, J. S., Jr. "Memorial of Kent Combs Brannock, July 20, 1923-February 21, 

1973." American Mineralogist, volume 59 (1974), pages 411-413. 
. "Extreme Symmetrical Distortion of Pyrite from Naica, Mexico." Min- 

eralogical Record, volume 4 (1974), pages 267-270. 
White, J. S., Jr., P. B. Leavens, J. E. Arem, J. A. Nelen, and R. W. Thomssen. 

"Brannockite, a New Tin Silicate." Mineralogical Record, volume 4 (1973), 

pages 73-76. 
White, J. S., Jr., and J. A. Nelen. "Tetrawickmanite, Tetragonal MnSN(OH)6, a 

New Mineral from North Carolina, and the Stottite Group." Mineralogical 

Record, volume 4 (1973), pages 24-30. 


Appleman, Daniel E. "Current Geological Research." National Conference of 

354 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Explorer Scout Presidents. 

. "Careers in Geology." Oakton High School. 

'New Minerals from the Moon." Mineralogical Society of the District 

of Columbia. 

Desautels, Paul E. American Federation of Mineral Societies, Convention and 
Show, Charlotte, North Carolina, July 1973. 

. Midwest Federation of Mineral Societies, Convention and Show, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, July 1973. 

Southern Appalachian Gem and Mineral Society, Meeting and Show, 

Spruce Pine, North Carolina, August 1973. 

-. Baltimore Mineral Society, Annual Micromounting Symposium, Balti- 

more, Maryland, September 1973. 

-. Congressional Wives Club, National Museum of Natural History, Octo- 

ber 1973. 

. Philadelphia Mineral Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 1973. 

Mineral Society of Southern California Meeting and Show, Pasadena, 

California, October 1973. 

. Nassau Mineral Club, Long Island, New York, November 1973. 

Delaware Valley Mineral Society, Woodbury, New Jersey, November 


. Opening of new Edelsteinbourse Museum, Idar-Oberstein, West Ger- 
many, November 1973. 

-. Question and answer session by telephone hookup to Waco Gem and 

Mineral Society, Waco, Texas, December 1973. 
. Pacific Micromount Conference, Santa Monica, California, February 


. "Unveiling of New Mineral Postage Stamps." Tucson, Arizona, Febru- 
ary 1974. 

. Tucson Gem and Mineral Society, Annual Meeting, Tucson, Arizona, 

February 1974. 

American Machine Tool Manufacturer's Association, Annual Meeting, 

Puerto Rico, March 1974. 

First Annual Mineral Conference, Rochester Academy of Sciences, Can- 

andaigua. New York, April 1974. 

. Smithsonian Associates, National Collection of Fine Arts, May 1974. 

School Librarian's Association of Northern Virginia, Fort Meyer, Vir- 

ginia, May 1974. 

. Ward's Natural Science Establishment, Rochester, New York, May 1974. 

-. Baltimore Mineral Society Annual Banquet, Sparrow's Point, Maryland, 

June 1974. 

California Federation of Mineral Societies, Convention and Show, San 

Mateo, California, June 1974. 

Dunn, Pete J. Northshore Rock and Mineral Club of Massachusetts, January 

. Greater Boston Mineral Show, April 1974. 

. Baltimore Mineral Society, October 1973. 

. New England Gem and Mineral Show, June 1973. 

Fredriksson, Kurt. "The Lonar Impact Crater." The Commission for the Geo- 
logical Map of the World, Calcutta, February 1974. 

. "Carbonaceous Matrix in Ordinary Chondrites." Meeting of the Group 

for the Analysis of Carbon Compounds in Carbonaceous Chondrites and 
Lunar Sample, Stanford University, October 1973. 

Jarosewich, Eugene, with R. T. Dodd. "H and L Group Xenoliths in the St. Mes- 
min LL Group Chondrite." AGU Meeting, Washington, D.C., April 1974. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 355 

. "Chemical Analysis of Carbon and Sulfur in Carbonaceous Meteorites." 

Stanford University, October 1973. 
Mason, Brian H. "Minor and Trace Elements in the Allende Meteorite." Paper, 

Geology Department, University of Melbourne, July 1973. 
. "Manganese Silicate Minerals from Broken Hill, Australia." Paper, 

Geological Society of Australia, Victoria Division, July 1973; Research School 

of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, July 1973. 

. "Lunar Geochemistry." Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, October 1973. 

. Geology Club, State University of New York at Crockfort, February 


"Regolith Compositions from the Apollo 16 Mission." Paper, Fifth 

Lunar Science Conference, Houston, Texas, March 1974. 

-. "Kimberlite Geochemistry." International Conference on Kimberlites, 

Cape Town, September 1973. 

"High-titanium Lunar Basalts: a Possible Source in the Allende Mete- 

orite." Geological Society of Washington, May 1974. 
Simkin, Thomas E. "Recent Volcanism in the Galapagos." Swarthmore College, 

January 1974. 

. AAAS Annual Meeting, March 1974. 

. Pick and Hammer Club, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, March 


. Prince Georges County Gem and Mineral Club, April 1974. 

. "Tonga Pumice Eruption." Geological Society of Washington, October 


Switzer, George S. "Gemology." Smithsonian Associates, autumn 1973. 

White, John S. "Mineralogical Travelogue." National Show, American Federa- 
tion of Mineral Societies, Charlotte, North Carolina, July 1973. 

. "Minerals of the Foote Spodumene Mine." Midwest Federation Show, 

Cincinnati, Ohio, July 1973. 

"Minerals of the Foote Mineral Company's Spodumene Mine, Kings 

Mountain, North Carolina." The Philadelphia Mineralogical Society, Media, 
Pensylvania, December 1973. 

"Mineral Names." Mineral Show, St. Petersburg Gem and Mineral 

Club, Florida, March 1974. 

"M and M, the Museum and the Magazine." Mineral Show, St. Peters- 

burg Gem and Mineral Club, Florida, March 1974. 

"The Minerals of the Foote Mineral Company's Spodumene Mine." 

Banquet, Walker Mineral Club, Toronto, May 1974. 

-"Changing Trends in Mineral Collecting." Mineral Show, Cincinnati, 

Ohio, May 1974. 

Department of Paleobiology 

Adey, W. "Temperature Control of Reproduction and Productivity in a Sub 

arctic Coralline Alga." Phycologia, volume 12 (1973), pages 111-118. 
Adey, W., and P. J. Adey. "Studies on the Biosystematics and Ecology of the j 

Epilithic Crustose Corallinaceae of the British Isles." British Phycologial Jour- 

nal, volume 8 (1973), pages 343-407. 
Benson, R. H. "Ostracodal View of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Messinian 

Events in the Mediterranean." Ceodynamics Scientific Report Number 7, 

pages 235-243. Amsterdam: Nerth Holland Publishing Company, 1973. 
. "The Role of Ornamentation in the Design and Function of the Ostra- 

code Carapace." In Commemorative Volume to H. V. Howe. Baton Rouge: 

Louisiana State University Press, 1974. 

356 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Boardman, R. S., and A. H. Cheetham. "Degrees of Colony Dominance in Steno- 
laemate and Gymnolaemate Bryozoa." In Boardman and Cheetham, editors. 
Animal Colonies: Development and Function Through Time, pages 121-220, 
13 plates, 27 figures. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross Publishing Company, 
October 1973. 

Boardman, R. S., A. H. Cheetham, and W. A. Oliver, Jr. "Introducing Colonial- 
ity." Preface In Boardman and Cheetham, editors. Animal Colonies: Devel- 
opment and Function Through Time. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross Publish- 
ing Company, October 1973. 

Buzas, M. A. "Vertical Distribution of Ammobaculites in the Rhode River, 
Maryland." Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 1974. 

Cifelli, R. "Observations on Globigerina pachyderma (Ehrenberg) and G. in- 
compta Cifelli from the North Atlantic." Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 
volume 3 (1973), pages 157-166. 

Coates, A. C, and E. G. Kauffman. "Stratigraphy, Paleontology, and Paleo- 
environment of a Cretaceous Coral Thicket, Lamy, New Mexico." Journal of 
Paleontology, volume 47, number 5 (1973), pages 953-968, 4 figures, plate 1. 

Cooper, G. A., and R. E. Grant. "Permian Brachiopods of West Texas, II." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Paleobiology, number 15 (1974), pages 233-793, plates 

Emry, Robert J. "Stratigraphy and Preliminary Biostratigraphy of the Flagstaff 
Rim Area, Natrona County, Wyoming." Smithsonian Contributions to Paleo- 
biology, number 18 (1973), 43 pages. 

. [Review] "The Age of Mammals," by Bjorn Kurten, Columbia Univer- 
sity Press, New York (1972). Journal of Mammalogy, volume 54, pages 1024- 

Emry, Robert J., and Mary R. Dawson. "Nonomys, New Name for the Cricetid 
(Rodentia, Mammalia) Genus Nanomys Emry and Dawson." Journal of Pale- 
ontology, volume 47 (1973), page 1003. 

Grant, R. E., and G. A. Cooper. "Brachiopods and Permian Correlations." In 
The Permian and Triassic Systems and Their Mutual Boundary, Memoir 2, 
pages 572-595, 7 figures. Calgary, Alberta: Canadian Society of Petroleum 
Geologists, 1973. 

Kauffman, E. G. "Cretaceous Bivalvia." Pages 353-383, 10 figures, in Hallam, 
editor. Atlas of Paleobiogeography. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Com- 
pany, 1973. 

. "A Brackish Water Biota from the Upper Cretaceous Harebell Forma- 
tion of Northwestern Oklahoma." Journal of Paleontology, volume 47, num- 
ber 3 (1973), pages 436-446, 2 figures, plate 1. 

"Stratigraphic Evidence for Cretaceous Eustatic Changes." Abstract 

Program (1973), page 687, Annual Meeting of Geological Society of America, 


. "Extinction Patterns in the Cretaceous." Ibid, page 687. 

. "Evolutionary Rates and Biostratigraphy." Ibid, page 688. 

"The Value of Benthonic Bivalvia in Cretaceous Biostratigraphy of the 

Western Interior." Program and Abstracts (1973), Colloquium on Cretaceous 
Systematics of Western Interior North America, Geological Association of 
Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, page 40. 

"Biostratigraphy." Pages 117-121, 1 figure, in McGraw-Hill Yearbook 

of Science and Technology, 1974. 
Kauffman, E. G., and N. F. Sohl. "Structure and Evolution of Antillean Cre- 
taceous Rudist Frameworks." 97 pages, 24 figures, in Festschrift fiir Hans 
Kugler, Natural History Museum, Basel, 1974. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 357 

Kennedy, W. J., E. G. Kauffman, and H. C. Klinger. "Upper Cretaceous Inverte- 
brate Faunas from Durban, South Africa." Transactions of the Geological 
Society of South Africa, pages 97-111, 1 figure, plates 1-6, 1974. 

Kier, P. M. "A New Silurian Echinoid Genus from Scotland." Paleontology, vol- 
ume 16, part 4 (1973), pages 651-663, 3 figures, plates 80-83. 

. "The Echinoderms and Permian-Triassic Time." In The Permian and 

Triassic Systems and Their Mutual Boundary, Memoir 2, 766 pages. Calgary, 
Alberta: Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, 1973. 

"Evolutionary Trends and Their Functional Significance in the Post- 

Paleozoic Echinoids." Journal of Paleontology, volume 48, number 2, Memoir 
5 (1974), 96 pages, 78 figures, 1 table, 1 chart. 

Rupke, N. A., D. J. Stanley, and R. Stuckenrath. "Late Quarternary Rates of 
Abyssal Mud Deposition in the Western Mediterranean Sea." Marine Geol- 
ogy, volume 16 (1974), 

Stanley, D. J. "Basin Plains in the Eastern Mediterranean: Significance in Inter- 
preting Ancient Marine Deposits. I. Basin Depth and Configuration." Marine 
Geology, volume 15 (1973), pages 295-307. 

. "Modern Flysch Sedimentation in a Mediterranean Island Arc Setting." 

In Dott and Shaver, editors, Geosynclinal Sedimentation, SEPM Special Publi- 
cation 19, 1974). 

-. "Basin Plains in the Eastern Mediterranean: Significance in Interpret- 

ing Ancient Deposits. II. Basin Distribution." C.R.P.-S.N.P.A. Journal, vol- 
ume 8 (1974). 

-. "Dish Structures and Sand Flow in Ancient Submarine Valleys, French 

Maritime Alps." C.R.P.-S.N.P.A. Journal, volume 8 (1974). 

'Pebbly Mud Transport in the Head of Wilmington Canyon." Marine 

Geology, volume 16 (1974). 
Stanley, D. J., H. Got, O. Leenhardt, and Y. Weiler. "Subsidence of the Western 

Mediterranean Basin in the Plio-Quaternary: Further Evidence." Geology, 

volume 2 (1974). 
Wear, C. M., D. J. Stanley, and J. E. Boula. "Shelfbreak Physiography between 

Wilmington and Norfolk Canyons, Mid-Atlantic Continental Margin. I. 

Physiography." Marine Technical Society Journal, volume 8 (1974). 

Department of Vertebrate Zoology 

Aldrich, John W. "Disparate Sex Ratios in Waterfowl." Pages 482-489 in Breed- 
ing Biology of Birds, Proceedings of a Symposium on Breeding Behavior and 
Reproductive Physiology in Birds, Denver, Colorado, February 1972. Wash- 
ington, D.C. : National Academy of Sciences, 1973. 

. [Review] "The Snipes : a Study of the Genus Capella," Leslie M. Tuck. 

Arctic, volume 26, number 4 (1973), pages 343-344. 

-. (Review] "Grouse and Quails of North America," Paul A. Johnsgard. 

Auk, volume 91, number 2 (1974), pages 439-441. 

Ali, Salim, and S. Dillon Ripley. "Robins to Wagtails." Handbook of the Birds 
of India and Pakistan, volume 9, xvi -f 306 pages, 10 plates, 80 maps, numer- 
ous line drawings. London: Oxford University Press, 1973. 

Ash, John S., and George E. Watson. "Locustella naevia in Ethiopia." Bulletin of 
the British Ornithologists' Club, volume 94, number 1 (1974), pages 39-40. 

Bury, R. Bruce. "Western Plethodon: Systematics and Biogeographic Relation- 
ships of the Elongatus Group." Abstract, HISS News Journal, volume 1, 
pages 56-57. 

. "The Cascade Frog, Rana cascadae, in the North Coast Range of Cali- 
fornia." Northwest Science, volume 47, number 4 (1973), pages 228-229, 1 

358 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Bury, R. Bruce, and R. Marlow. "The Desert Tortoise. Will It Survive?" National 
Parks and Conservation Magazine, volume 47, number 6 (June 1973), pages 
9-12, 5 figures. 

Bury, R. Bruce, and M. Martin. "Comparative Studies on the Distribution and 
Foods of Plethodontid Salamanders in the Redwood Region of Northern Cali- 
fornia." Journal of Herpetology, volume 7, number 4 (1973), pages 331-335, 
3 tables. 

Bury, R. Bruce, and J. Wofheim. "Aggressive Behavior in Free-Living Pond 
Turtles (Clemmys marmorata)." BioScience, volume 23, number 11 (Novem- 
ber 1973), pages 659-662, 4 figures, 2 tables. 

Busack, Stephen. "Morocco, My Way." Carnegie Magazine, volume 47, number 
2 (February 1973), pages 77-82, 9 figures. 

Clapp, Roger, and Richard Banks. "Birds Imported into the United States in 
1970." U. S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wild- 
life, Special Scientific Report — Wildlife, Number 164, 102 pages. 

Cohen, Daniel M. "Zoogeography of the Fishes of the Indian Ocean." Pages 
451-463 in The Biology of the Indian Ocean, Ecological Studies 3. Springer- 
Verlag, 1973. 

. "Viviparous Ophidioid Fish Genus Calamopteryx: New Species from 

Western Atlantic and Galapagos." Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington, volume 86, number 28 (September 1973), pages 339-350. 

"Families Argentinidae, Bathylagidae, Opisthoproctidae, Bregmacero- 

tidae, Eretmophoridae, Melanonidae," in Check-List of the Fishes of the 
North-eastern Atlantic and of the Mediterranean, volume 1, pages 152-157, 
321-327. Paris: UNESCO, 1973. 

"The Gadoid Fish Genus Halargyreus (Family Eretmophoridae) in the 

Southern Hemisphere." Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, volume 
3, number 4 (1974), pages 629-634. 

"The Ophidioid Fish Genus Luciobrotula in the Hawaiian Islands. 

Pacific Science, volume 28 (1974). 

Collette, Bruce B. "Daector quadrizonatus, a Valid Species of Freshwater Ven- 
omous Toadfish from the Rio Truando, Columbia, With Notes on Additional 
Material of Other Species of Daector." Copeia, number 2 (May 1973), pages 

. "The Garfishes (Hemiramphidae) of Australia and New Zealand." Rec- 
ords of the Australian Museum, volume 29, number 2 (1974), pages 11-105, 
figures 1-23. 

-. "Potamorrhaphis petersi, a New Species of Freshwater Needlefish (Be- 

lonidae) from the Upper Orinoco and Rio Negro." Proceedings of the Biologi- 
cal Society of Washington, volume 87, number 5 (1974), pages 31-40, figures 

'Hyporhamphus australis X Hy. melanochir, a Hybrid Halfbeak (Hemi- 

ramphidae) from Australia." Fishery Bulletin, volume 71, number 1 (January 

1973), pages 318-321. 
Crombie, Ronald I. "Comment on the Proposed Suppression of Hyla crucialis 

(Amphibia)." Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 30, part 1 (July 

1973), pages 4-6. 
. "The Ecology, Behavior, and Systematics of Jamaican Hylid Frogs." 

Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society for 1973 (March 1974), pages 

Eisenberg, John F., and Richard W. Thorington, Jr. "A Preliminary Analysis of 

a Neotropical Mammal Fauna." Biotropica, volume 5 (1973), pages 150-161, 

1 figure, 6 tables. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 359 

Farrand, John, Jr., and Storrs L. Olson. "The Correct Spelling of Scopoli's Spe- 
cific Name for the Malaysian Crested Wood Partridge (Rollulus)." Bulletin of 
the British Ornithologists' Club, volume 93 (June 20, 1973), pages 53-54. 

Gardner, Alfred L. "The Occurrence of Streptoprocne zonaris albicincta and 
Ara militaris in Chiapas, Mexico." Condor, volume 74, number 4 (winter 
1972), pages 480-481. [Not previously reported.] 

. "The Systematics of the Genus Didelphis (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) in 

North and Middle America." Special Publications The Museum Texas Tech 
University, number 4 (July 1973), 81 pages, 14 figures, 7 tables. 

Gibbs, Robert H,, Jr., E. Jarosewich, and Herbert L. Windom. "Heavy Metal Con- 
centrations in Museum Fish Specimens: Effects of Preservatives and Time." 
Science, volume 184, number 4135 (1974), pages 475-477. 

Gibbs, Robert H., Jr., and James E. Morrow. "Astronesthidae," in Check-list of 
the Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and of the Mediterranean, volume 1, 
pages 126-129. Paris: UNESCO, 1973. 

Heyer, W. Ronald. "Systematics of the Marmoratus Group of the Frog Genus 
Leptodactylus (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae)." Contributions in Science, num- 
ber 251 (November 9, 1973), 50 pages, 29 figures. 

. "Ecological Interactions of Frog Larvae at a Seasonal Tropical Location 

in Thailand." Journal of Herpetology, volume 7, number 4 (November 21, 
1973), pages 337-361. 

"Relationships of the marmoratus Species Group (Amphibia, Lepto- 

dactylidae) Within the Subfamily Leptodactylinae." Contributions in Science, 
number 253 (February 12, 1974), 46 pages, 7 figures, 4 tables. 

-. "Vanzolinius, a New Genus Proposed for Leptodactylus discodactylus 

(Amphibia, Leptodactylidae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Wash- 
ington, volume 87, number 11 (April 25, 1974), pages 81-90. 

"Niche Measurements of Frog Larvae from a Seasonal Tropical Loca- 

tion in Thailand." Ecology, volume 55, number 3 (May 1974), pages 651-656. 

Johnson, Robert Karl, and Daniel M. Cohen. "Revision of the Chiasmodontid 
Fish Genera Dysalotus and Kali, with Descriptions of Two New Species." 
Archiv ftir Fisehereiwissenschaft, volume 24, number 1 (1974). 

Jones, Clyde, and Robert D. Fisher. "Comments on the Type-Specimen of Neo- 
toma desertorum sola Merriam 1894 (Mammalia: Rodentia)." Proceedings of 
the Biological Society of Washington, volume 86, number 37 (December 14, 
1973), pages 435-438. 

Jones, Clyde, and R. Suttkus. "Colony Structure and Organization of Pipistrel- 
lus subflavus in Southern Louisiana." Journal of Mammalogy, volume 54, 
number 4 (November 1973), pages 962-968, 6 tables. 

King, W. B. "Conservation Status of Birds of Central Pacific Islands." Wilson 
Bulletin, volume 85 (1973), pages 89-103. 

. "Wedge-tailed Shearwater (Puffinus pacificus)," in King, editor. Pelagic 

Studies of Seabirds in the Central and Eastern Pacific Ocean. Smithsonian 
Contributions to Zoology, number 158 (1974), pages 53-95. 

King, W. B., and J. L. Lincer. "DDE Residues in the Endangered Hawaiian Dark- 
rumped Petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis)." Condor, volume 75 
(1973), pages 460-461. 

Lachner, Ernest A. "Echeneididae," in Check-list of the Fishes of the North- 
eastern Atlantic and of the Mediterranean, volume 1, pages 637-640. Paris: 
UNESCO, 1973. 

Marshall, N. B., and D. M. Cohen. "Order Anacanthini (Gadiformes), Charac- 
ters and Synopsis of Families," in Fishes of The Western North Atlantic, Part 
6. Memoir Sears Foundation for Marine Research, number 1, part 6 (Sep- 
tember 1973), pages 479-495. 

360 / Smithsoriian Year 1974 

Melendez, Luis V., Muthiah D. Daniel, Nerval W. King, Fernando C. Calvo, 
Horacio H. Barahona, Richard W. Thorington, Jr., Douglas A. Jackman, and 
Jill Cadwallader. "Isolation and in vitro Characterization of a Herpesvirus 
from Field Mouse (Microtus pennsylvanicus) ." Laboratory Animal Science, 
volume 23, number 3 (1973), pages 385-390, 4 figures, 1 table. 

Nielsen, J0rgen G., and Daniel M. Cohen. "A Review of the Viviparous Ophidi- 
oid Fishes of the Genera Bythites Reinhardt and Abythites New (Pisces, Oph- 
idioidei)." Steenstrupia, volume 3 (1973), pages 71-88. 

Olson, Storrs L. "Evolution of the Rails of the South Atlantic Islands (Aves: 
Rallidae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 152 (August 14, 
1973), 53 pages. 

. "A Plumage Aberration of Cariama cristata." Auk, volume 90 (October 

1, 1973), pages 912-914. 

-. "A Study of the Neotropical Rail Anurolimnas castaneiceps (Aves: 

Rallidae) with a Description of a New Subspecies." Proceedings of the Bio- 
logical Society of Washington, volume 86 (December 14, 1973), pages 403-412. 
-. "A Classification of the Rallidae." The Wilson Bulletin, volume 85 (De- 

cember 31, 1973), pages 381-416. 

'A Reappraisal of the Fossil Heron Palaeophoyx columbiana McCoy." 

Auk, volume 91 (January 29, 1974), pages 179-180. 

'Tantalus milneedwardsii Shufeldt — a Synonym of the Miocene Pheas- 

ant Miophasianus altus (Milne-Edwards)." The Wilson Bulletin, volume 86, 
number 2 (May 8, 1974), pages 110-113. 

[Review] "Preliminary Observations on the Phylogenesis of Thegosis," 

G. A. Tunnicliffe. Bird-Banding, volume 45 (spring 1974), page 188. 

"A Melanistic White-tailed Tropicbird." Condor, volume 76 (May 30, 

1974), pages 217-218. 

-. "The Pleistocene Rails of North America." Condor, volume 76 (May 

30, 1974), pages 169-174. 

-. "Purple Gallinule Carrying Young." Florida Field Naturalist, volume 2 


Olson, Storrs L., and John Farrand, Jr. "Rhegminornis Restudied: a Tiny Mio- 
cene Turkey." The Wilson Bulletin, volume 86, number 2 (May 8, 1974). 
pages 114-120. 

Randall, John E., and Victor G. Springer. "The Indo-Pacific Labrid Fish Genera 
Labrichthys and Diproctacanthus with Description of a New Related Genus, 
Larabicus." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 86, 
number 23 (September 28, 1973), pages 279-297. 

Riopelle, A., and Clyde Jones. "Field Studies of Primates in Rio Muni, West 
Africa." National Geographic Society Research Report, 1966 Projects (1973), 
pages 219-223. 

Ripley, S. Dillon. "Afterword: On First Entering Evelyn's Laboratory." in 
Growth by Intussusception. Ecological Essays in Honor of G. Evelyn Hutchin- 
son. Transactions of The Connecticut Academy of Sciences, volume 44 (1972), 
pages 439-441. 

. "Museums and the Natural Heritage." Museum, UNESCO, volume 25, 

number 1/2 (1973), pages 10-14. 

"Conservation Comes of Age." Contribution number 7, pages 151-162, 

in Aspects of Science-Technology, General Readings 3. Tokyo: Kenkyusha 
Ltd., 1973. 

. "From Plumes to Pollution." Birds, volume 4, number 11 (1973), pages 


Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 361 

. [Review] "A Catalogue of the Ellis Collection of Ornithological Books 

in the University of Kansas Libraries." The Auk, volume 90, number 4 (1973), 
pages 930-931. 

-. "Foreward" in Birds of the Tropics. London: Orbis Publishing, 1973. 

Ripley, S. Dillon, and Storrs L. Olson. "Re-identification of Rallus pectoralis 
deignani." Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, volume 93, number 3 
(September 20, 1973), page 115. 

Schlitter, Duane A. "A New Species of Gerbil from South West Africa with Re- 
marks on Cerbillus tytonis Bauer and Niethammer, 1959 (Rodentia: Ger- 
billinae)." Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, volume 
72, number 1 (April 1973), pages 13-18, 1 figure, 1 table. 

Schlitter, Duane A., and Henry W. Setzer. "New Rodents (Mammalia: Cricet- 
idae, Muridae) from Iran and Pakistan." Proceedings of the Biological So- 
ciety of Washington, volume 86, number 14 (May 31, 1973), pages 163-174. 

Skarr, R., Roger Clapp, and Richard Banks. "Re-evaluation of some Montana 
Bird Records." Condor, volume 75, number 1 (spring 1973), pages 132-133. 

Stephens, John S., and Victor G. Springer. "Clinid Fishes of Chile and Peru, 
with Description of a New Species, Myxodes ornatus, from Chile." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Zoology, number 159 (January 21, 1974), 24 pages. 

Watson, George E. "Seabird Colonies in the Islands of the Aegean Sea." Na- 
tional Geographic Society Research Reports, 1966 Projects (1973), pages 

. "The Correct Gender of Daption Stephens 1826." The Auk, volume 91, 

number 2 (April 1974), pages 419-421. 

Watson, George E., J. Phillip Angle, and M. Ralph Browning. "First North 
American Record of Little Bunting in Eastern Chukchi Sea." The Auk, vol- 
ume 91, number 2 (April 1974), page 417. 

Weske, John. "Nest of Poor-will in Cimarron County, Oklahoma." Bulletin of 
the Oklahoma Ornithological Society, volume 6, number 3 (September 1973), 
page 22. 

Wetmore, Alexander. "The Egg of a Collared Forest-Falcon." The Condor, vol- 
ume 76, number 1 (1974), page 103. 

. "A Pleistocene Record for the White-Winged Scoter in Maryland." The 

Auk, volume 90, number 4 (1973), pages 910-911. 

Wilson, Don E. "Reproduction in Neotropical Bats." Periodicum Biologorum, 
volume 75 (1973), pages 215-217, 3 figures. 

. "Wasps as a Defense Mechanism of Katydids." The American Midland 

Naturalist, volume 89, number 2 (April 1973), pages 451-455, 3 figures, 1 
table. [Not previously reported.] 

-. "The Systematic Status of Perognathus merriami Allen." Proceedings of 

the Biological Society of Washington, volume 86, number 15 (May 31, 1973), 

pages 175-192. [Not previously reported.] 
Wilson, Don E., and Ronald H. Pine. "Baiting for Toads." Copeia, number 1 

(March 8, 1974), page 252. 
Wilson, Don E., and Richard K. LaVal. "Myotis nigricans." Mammalian Species, 

number 39, 3 pages. May 1974. 


Heaney, Lawrence R., and Richard W. Thorington, Jr. "The Limb Proportions 
of Squirrels, Sciuridae." Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mam- 
malogists, June 3, 1974. 

Olson, Storrs L. "The Past and Present Birdlife of Fernando de Noronha Island, 
South Atlantic Ocean." American Ornithologists' Union, Provincetown, Mas- 
sachusetts, October 9, 1973. 

362 / Smithsonian Year 1974 \ 


. "A Tody from the Oligocene of Wyoming." Cooper Ornithological So- 
ciety, Flagstaff, Arizona, May 11, 1974. 

Thorington, Richard W., Jr., and Robert Vorek. "Observations on the Taxon- 
omy and Skeletal Development of the Night Monkey, Aotus." Fifth Annual 
Assembly of the New England Regional Primate Research Center, Harvard 
Medical School, May 13, 1974. 

Watson, George E., and George J. Divoky. "Marine Birds in the Beaufort Sea." 
Symposium on Beaufort Sea Coastal and Shelf Research, Arctic Institute of 
North America, San Francisco, California, January 1974. 


Block, Judith A. "Hand-rearing Seven-banded Armadillos (Dasypus septemcinc- 
tus) at the National Zoological Park, Washington." International Zoo Year- 
book, volume 14 (1974), pages 210-214. 

Buechner, H. K. "The Sociable 'Leo serengeti'. " Quarterly Review of Biology, 
volume 48 (1973), pages 625-627. 

Buechner, H. K., and H. D. Roth. "The Lek System in Uganda Kob Antelope." 
American Zoologist, volume 14 (1973), pages 143-160. 

Buechner, Helmut K., H. R. Stroman, and William A. Xanten Jr. "Breeding Be- 
havior of Sable Antelope (Hippotragus niger)." International Zoo Yearbook, 
volume 14 (1974), pages 133-136. 

Bush, M., R. M. Heller, and A. E. James. "Atlanto-Axial Subluxation in a Dog." 
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, volume 163, num- 
ber 5 (1973), pages 473-474. 

Bush, M., R. J. Montali, and A. E. James. "Alveolar Cell Carcinoma in a Cat." 
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, volume 162, number 
7 (1973), pages 573-574. 

. "Subcapsular Hematomas Associated with Renal Lymphoma in a Cat: 

A Radiographic Study." Journal of the American Veterinary Radiology So- 
ciety, XIV (1973), pp. 27-31. 

Bush, M., R. J. Montali, C. W. Gray, and L. M. Neeley. "Caesarean Section in a 
Bongo Antelope." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 
volume 163, number 6 (1973), pages 552-553. 

Bush, M., R. J. Montali, L. M. Neeley, C. W. Gray, and A. E. James. "Pyometra 
with Peritonitis in a Lioness (Panthera leo)." Journal of Zoo Animal Medi- 
cine, volume 5, number 1 (1974), pages 21-23. 

Collins, Larry R. Monotremes and Marsupials, A Reference for Zoological Insti- 
tutions. 323 pages. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973. 

Collins, Larry R., and James K. Page, Jr. Ling-Ling and Hsing-Hsing, Year of 
the Panda. New York: Doubleday/Anchor Press, 1973. 

Eisenberg, J. F. "Mammalian Social Systems: Are Primate Social Systems 
Unique?" Symposium of IV International Congress of Primatology, Karger, 
Basel, volume 1 (1973), pages 232-249. 

. "Reproduction in Two Species of Spider Monkeys, Ateles fusciceps and 

A. geoffroyi." Journal of Mammalogy, volume 55 (1974), pages 955-957. 

[Review] Motivation of Human and Animal Behavior, by K. Lorenz and 

P. Leyhausen. New York: Von Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1973. Journal of 
Mammalogy, volume 55 (1974), page 253. 

[Review] The Cheetah, The Biology, Ecology, and Behavior of an En- 

dangered Species, by R. L. Eaton. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Com- 
pany, 1974. Smithsonian, volume 5 (April 1974), pages 86-87. 
Eisenberg, J. F., and E. Maliniak. "The Reproduction of the Genus Microgale in 
Captivity." International Zoo Yearbook, volume 14 (1974), pages 108-110. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 363 

malogy, volume 55 (1974), pages 224-227. 

[Review] The Ecology of Stray Dogs, by Alan Beck. Baltimore: York 

Press, 1973. Journal of Mammalogy, volume 55 (1974), pages 250-251. 

[Review] The Spotted Hyena, by Hans Kruuk. Chicago and London: 

University of Chicago Press, 1972. Animal Behaviour, volume 21 (1973), pages 
Kleinman, D. C, and J. F. Eisenberg. "Comparisons of Canid and Felid Social 
Systems from an Evolutionary Perspective." Animal Behaviour, volume 21 
(1973), pages 637-659. 

Montgomery, G. C, W. W. Cochran, and M. E. Sunquist. "Radiolocating Arbo- 
real Vertebrates in Tropical Forest." Journal of Wildlife Management, vol- 
ume 37, number 3 (1973), pages 426-428. 

Montgomery, G. G., S. A. Rand, and M. E. Sunquist. "Postnesting Travels of 
Iguanas from a Nesting Aggregation." Copeia, volume 3 (1973), pages 620- 

Montgomery, G. G., and M. E. Sunquist. "Contact-Distress Calls of Young 
Sloths." Journal of Mammalogy, volume 55 (1974), pages 211-213. 

Murphy, M. R. "Relative Importance of Tactual and Nontactual Stimuli in 
Eliciting Lordosis in the Female Golden Hamster." Behavioral Biology, vol- 
ume 2 (1974), pages 115-120. 

. "Sexual Preferences of Turkish, Syrian, and Romanian Hamsters." 

American Zoologist, volume 13 (1973), page 1260. 

Perry, John, and Peter Kibbee. "The Capacity of American Zoos." International 
Zoo Yearbook, volume 14 (1974), pages 240-247. 

Rudran, R. "Adult Male Replacement in One-Male Troops of Purple-Faced 
Langurs (Presbytis senex senex) and Its Effect on Population Structure." 
Folia Primatology, volume 19 (1973), pages 166-192. 

. "The Reproductive Cycles of Two Subspecies of Purple-Faced Langurs 

(Presbytis senex) with Relation to Environmental Factors." Folia Primatologyr 
volume 19 (1973), pages 41-60. 

364 / Smithsoriian Year 1974 

Eisenberg, J. F., and R. W. Thorington, Jr. "A Preliminary Analysis of a Neo- 
tropical Mammal Fauna." Biotropica, volume 5 (1973), pages 150-161. 

Elliott, R., E. Smith, and M. Bush. "Preliminary Report on Hematology of Birds 
of Prey." Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine, volume 5, number 2 (1974), pages 

Greenwell, G. A. (Contributor). "Helping Ducklings Out of the Egg." Pages 99- \ 
102 in Raising Wild Ducks in Captivity, edited by Dayton Hyde. New York: 
E. P. Dutton & Company, 1974. 

. "Imprinting." Pages 139-141 in Raising Wild Ducks in Captivity, edited 

by Dayton Hyde. New York: E. P. Dutton & Company, 1974. 

-. "Waterfowl Predators Versus 'Robin's Roost.' " Pages 196-200 in Rais- 

ing Wild Ducks in Captivity, edited by Dayton Hyde. New York: E. P. Dut- 
ton & Company, 1974. 

James, A. E., E.-P. Strecker, and M. Bush. "A Catheter Technique for the Pro- 
duction of Communication Hydrocephalus." Radiology, volume 106, number 
2 (1973), pages 437-439. 

Kleiman, Devra. "Activity Rhythms in the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melano- 
leuca): An Example of the Use of Checksheets for Recording Behaviour in 
Zoos." International Zoo Yearbook, volume 14 (1974), pages 165-169. 

. "Estrous Cycles and Behavior of Captive Tigers." The World's Cats, 

edited by R. L. Eaton. Volume 2 (1974), pages 60-75. 

-. "Scent-Marking in the Binturong, Arctictis binturong." Journal of Mam- 

Sauer, R. M. "Mystery Case No. 3: Pulmonary Osteoarthropathy in a Lion." 
Journal of Comparative Pathology, volume 5, number 2 (May 1973), page 4. 
[Not previously reported.] 

Squire, R. A., M. Bush, E. C. Melby, L. M. Neeley, and B. Yarborough. "Clinical 
and Pathologic Study of Canine Lymphoma: Clinical Staging, Cell Classifi- 
cation, and Therapy." Journal of the National Cancer Institute, volume 51, 
number 2 (1973), pages 565-574. 

Strecker, E. -P., B. Konigsmark, M. Bush, and A. E. James. "Cerebrospinal Fluid 
Flow Alterations in the Dog with Chemical Meningitis." Investigative Radi- 
ology, volume 8, number 1 (1973), pages 33-42. 

Sunquist, M. E., and G. G. Montgomery. "Activity Patterns of a Translocated 
Silky Anteater (Cyclopes didactylus)." Journal of Mammalogy, volume 54, 
number 3 (1973), page 782. 

Weeks, Sam E., and Mitchell Bush. "Sexing Ratities." International Zoo Year- 
book, volume 14 (1974), pages 141-142. 

Wilson, S., and D. G. Kleiman. "Eliciting Play: A Comparative Study (Octodon, 
Octodontomys, Pediolagus, Phoca, Choeropsis, Ailuropoda)." American 
Zoologist, volume 14 (1974), pages 341-370. 

Wolf, Muriel D., and Lee D. Schmeltz. "Identification and Medical Treatment 
of Snake Bites." Clinical Proceedings, volume 30, number 3 (1974), pages 

Wurster-Hill, D. H., and C. W. Gray. "Giemsa Banding Pattern and the Chro- 
mosomes of 12 Species of Cats (Felidae)." Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, 
volume 17, number 6 (1973). 

Zook, B. C. "Lead Intoxication in Urban Dogs." Clinical Toxicology, volume 6 
(March 1973), pages 377-388. [Not previously reported.] 

. "Lead Poisoning in Urban Pet and Zoo Animals." Clinical Toxicology 

Bulletin, volume 3 (May 1973), pages 91-100. [Not previously reported.] 

Zook, B. C, J. F. Eisenberg, and E. McLanahan. "Some Factors Affecting the 
Occurrence of Lead Poisoning in Captive Primates." Journal of Medical 
Primatology, volume 62 (December 1973), pages 206-217. 

Zook, B. C, and R. M. Sauer. "Leucoencephalomyelosis in Nonhuman Primates 
Associated with Lead Poisoning." Journal of Wildlife Diseases, volume 9 
(January 1973), pages 61-63. [Not previously reported.] 

Zook, B. C, R. M. Sauer, M. Bush, and C. W. Gray. "Lead Poisoning in Zoo- 
Dwelling Primates." American Journal of Physical Anthropology, volume 
28, number 2 (March 1973), pages 415-424. [Not previously reported.] 


Arthur, Michael A., and Keith L. Simmons. "Bottom Current Activity Between 

the Antarctic and Australian Continent: Distribution and Effects EOS." 

Transactions of American Geophysical Union, volume 55, number 4, page 

372, 1974. 
Higgins, Robert P. "Kinorhyncha." In A. C. Giese and J. I. Pearse, editors. 

Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates, volume 1, 546 pages. N.Y. : Academic 

Press, 1974. 
Houbrick, Richard S. "Bruguiere (1789), (Gastropoda): Proposed Preservation 

by Designation of a Type-Species under the Primary Powers. Z. N. (S.) 2032." 

Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 30, number 1, pages 104-107, 

. "Gross Studies on the Genus Cerithium (Gastropoda Prosobranchia) 

with Notes on Ecology and Microhabitats." Nautilus, volume 88, number 1, 

pages 14-27, 1974. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 365 

. "Studies on the Reproductive Biology of the Genus Cerithium (Gas- 
tropoda: Prosobranchia) in the Western Atlantic." Bulletin Marine Science, 
volume 23, number 4, pages 874-904, 1974. 

Center for Short-Lived Phenomena 

"A Plan for the Implementation of the United Nations Global Environmental 
Monitoring System (GEMS)." Smithsonian Institution, May 1974. 

Asher, R. A., M. M. Miller, J. McCracken, and C. Petrie. "An Unusual Glacier 
Cave in the Lemon Glacier, Alaska — An Englacial Drainage and Reservoir 
System." April 1974. 

Citron, R. "International Environmental Monitoring Programs — A Directory." 
Smithsonian Institution, January 1974. 

"CSLP 1973, Annual Report and Review of Events." June 1974. 

"Directory of National and International Pollution Monitoring Programs; Pre- 
liminary Results of a Worldwide Survey Prepared for the United Nations 
Environmental Program." 3 volumes. Smithsonian Institution, February 1974. 

Romano, R., and C. Sturiale. "Preliminary Report on the Eruption of Mt. Etna 
of January-March 1974." May 21, 1974. 


Butzer, Karl W., G. J. Fock, R. Stuckenrath, and A. Zilch. "Paleo-hydrology 
of Late Pleistocene Lakes in the Alexandersfontein Pan, Kimberley, South 
Africa." Nature, volume 243 (1973), pages 328-330. 

Butzer, Karl W., David M. Helgren, G. J. Fock, and Robert Stuckenrath. 
"Alluvial Traces of the Lower Vaal River, South Africa: A Reappraisal and 
Reinvestigation." Journal of Geology, volume 81 (1973), pages 341-362. 

Craker, L. E., F. B. Abeles, and W. Shropshire, Jr. "Light-induced Ethylene 
Production in Sorghum." Plant Physiology, volume 51 (1973), pages 1082- 

Faust, Maria. "Structure of the Periplast of Cryptomonas ovata var. Palustris." 
Journal of Phycology, volume 10 (1974), pages 121-124. 

Faust, Maria, and Elisabeth Gantt. "Effect of Light Intensity and Glycerol on| 
the Growth, Pigment Composition and Ultrastructure of Chroomonas sp." 
Journal of Phycology, volume 9 (1973), pages 489-495. 

Goldberg, B., and W. H. Klein. "Radiometer to Monitor Low-Levels of Ultra- 
violet Irradiance." Applied Optics, volume 13 (1974), pages 493-496. 

Gray, Brian, C. A. Lipschultz, and E. Gantt. "Phycobilisomes from a Blue-Green; 
Algae, Nostoc sp." Journal of Bacteriology, volume 116 (1973), pages 471-478. 

Honeycutt, Richard C, and M. M. Margulies. "Protein Synthesis in Chlamy- 
domonas reinhardi." Journal of Biological Chemistry, volume 248 (1973), 
pages 6145-6153. 

Lyons, John B., and James E. Mielke. "Holocene History of a Portion of North- 
ernmost Ellesmere Island." Arctic, volume 26 (1973), pages 314-323. | 

Margulies, Maurice M. "An Evaluation of the Evidence Concerning the Sites 
of Synthesis of Chloroplast Proteins." Atti del Seminario di Studi Biologici, 
Univ. of Bari, Italy, volume V (1973), pages 81-90. 

Margulies, Maurice M., and Allan Michaels, with the technical assistance of 
H. Lee Tiffany. "Ribosomes Bound to Chloroplast Membranes in Chlamy- 
domonas reinhardi." Journal -of Cell Biology, volume 60 (1974), pages 65-77. 

Shropshire, W., Jr. "Photoinduced Parental Control of Seed Germination and 
the Spectral Quality of Solar Radiation." Solar Energy, volume 15 (1973), 
pages 99-105. 

366 / Smithsonian Year 1974. 

. "Stimulus-Response Systems of Phycomyces blakesleeanus." Chapter, 

pages 553-568, in Mycology Guidebook, Mycological Society of America, 
edited by Russell B. Stevens. University of Washington Press, 1974. 


Aannestad, P. A., and G. B. Field. "Hot H2 and Interstellar Shocks." Astro- 
physical Jourrtal (Letters), volume 186 (1973), pages L29-L32. 

Aksnes, K. "Mutual Phenomena of the Galilean Satellites, 1973-74" (Letter). 
Sky arid Telescope, volume 45 (1973), pages 271 and 294. 

. "Orbit Improvement from Satellite Imaging Data Obtainable from 

Outer Planet Missions." Celestial Mechanics, volume 8 (1973), pages 99-110. 
"On the Choice of Reference Orbit, Canonical Variables, and Pertur- 

bation Method in Satellite Theory" (abstract). Celestial Mechanics, volume 8 
(1973), page 259. 

"Mutual Phenomena of Jupiter's Galilean Satellites, 1973-74." Icarus, 

volume 21 (1974), pages 100-111. 

'Ephemeris for Neptune II (Nereid)." International Astronomical Union 

Circular, number 2665 (1974). 

"Flygande Tallerkar 25 ar Etter, Del I (25 Years of Flying Saucers, 

Part I)." Naturen, volume 98 (1974), pages 35-47. 

Austin, J. A., D. H. Levy, C. A. Gottlieb, and H. E. Radford. "The Microwave 
Spectrum of the HCO Radical." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 60 
(1974), pages 207-215. 

Avni, Y., J. N. Bahcall, P. C. Joss, D. Q. Lamb, E. Schreier, and H. Tananbaum. 
"Upper Limit on 2.5-Second Pulsations from Hercules X-1." Astrophysical 
Journal (Letters), volume 188 (1974), pages L35-L36. 

Bahcall, J. N., and E. M. Kellogg. "Radio Stars and X-Ray Sources." Nature, 
Physical Science, volume 244 (1973), pages 135-136. 

Ball, J. A., J. A. Wheeler, and E. L. Fireman. "Photoabsorption and Charge 
Oscillation of the Thomas-Fermi Atom." Reviews of Modern Physics, vol- 
ume 45 (1973), pages 333-352. 

Becklin, E. E., J. A. Frogel, D. E. Kleinmann, G. Neugebauer, S. E. Persson, and 
C. G. Wynn-Williams. "Infrared Emission from the Southern H II Region 
H2-3." Astrophysical Journal, volume 187 (1974), pages 487-490. 

Beichman, C. A., and E. J. Chaisson. "Possible Evidence for a Large Magnetic 
Field in the Orion Infrared Nebula." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 
190 (1974), pages L21-L24. 

Black, J. H., E. J. Chaisson, J. A. Ball, H. Penfield, and A. E. Lilley. "X 9-cm CH 
Emission from Comet Kohoutek (1973f)." International Astronomical Union 
Circular, number 2621 (1974). 

Black, J. H., and A. Dalgarno. "The Cosmic Abundance of Deuterium." Astro- 
physical Journal (Letters), volume 184 (1973), pages L101-L104. 

. "The Formation of CH in Interstellar Clouds." Astrophysical Letters, 

volume 15 (1973), pages 79-82. 

Black, J. H., and G. G. Fazio. "Production of Gamma Radiation in Dense Inter- 
stellar Clouds by Cosmic-Ray Interactions." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), 
volume 185 (1973), pages L7-L11. 

Bottcher, C, and K. K. Docken. "Autoionizing States of the Hydrogen Mole- 
cule." Journal of Physics B (Atomic and Molecular Physics), volume 7 (1974), 
pages L5-L8. 

Brinckman, A. C, D. R. Parsignault, E. Schreier, H. Gursky, E. Kellogg, H. 
Tananbaum, and R. Giacconi. "Correlation Analysis of X-Ray Emission from 
Cygnus X-1." Astrophysical Journal, volume 188 (1974), pages 603-608. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 367 

Brownlee, D. E., and P. W. Hodge. "Ablation Debris and Primary Micrometeo- 
roids in the Stratosphere." Pages 1139-1151 in M. J. Rycroft and S. K. Run- 
corn, editors. Space Research XIII. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1973. 

Brownlee, D. E., P. W. Hodge, and W. Bucher. "The Physical Nature of Inter- 
planetary Dust as Inferred by Particles Collected at 35 km." Pages 291-295 
in C. L. Hemenway, P. M. Millman, and A. F. Cook, editors. Evolutionary 
and Physical Properties of Meteoroids, Proceedings of the International 
Astronomical Union's Colloquium No. 13. NASA SP-319, 1973. 

Cameron, A. G. W. "Major Variations in Solar Luminosity?" Reviews of Geo- 
physics and Space Physics, volume 11 (1973), pages 505-510. 

. "Interstellar Grains in Museums?" Pages 545-547 in J. M. Greenberg 

and H. C. van de Hulst, editors. Interstellar Dust and Related Topics, Pro- 
ceedings of the International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 52. Dor- 
drecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1973. 

"Abundances of the Elements in the Solar System." Space Science 

Reviews, volume 15 (1973), pages 121-146. 

"Cosmic Rays from Supernovae and Comments on the Vela X Pre- 

Supernova." Pages 74-88 in S. P. Maran, J. C. Brandt, and T. P. Stecher, 
editors. The Cum Nebula and Related Problems. NASA SP-332, 1973. 

-. "The Role of Dust in Cosmogony." Presented at The Dusty Universe 

Symposium honoring Dr. Fred L. Whipple, Smithsonian Astrophysical Ob- 
servatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts, October 1973. 

'Are Large Time Differences in Meteorite Formation Real?" Nature, 

volume 246 (1973), pages 30-32. 

Carleton, N., editor. Astrophysics, Part A: Optical and Infrared, volume 12 in 
Methods of Experimental Physics. New York: Academic Press, 1974. 

Carleton, N. P., and W. A. Traub. "Observations of Spatial and Temporal 
Variations in the Jovian H2 Quadrupole Lines." Presented at the International 
Astronomical Union Symposium No. 65, Exploration of the Planetary System, 
Torun, Poland, September 1973. 

. "A Search for H2O and CH4 in Comet Kohoutek." Presented at the I 

Planetary Sciences Division Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 
Palo Alto, California, April 1974. 

Carleton, N. P., W. A. Traub, and J. Noxon. "A Search for Martian Dayglow | 
Resulting from Ozone Photolysis." Presented at the Planetary Sciences Di- 
vision Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Palo Alto, California, 
April 1974. 

Carlsten, J. L., T. J. Mcllrath, and W. H. Parkinson. "Measurement of the 
Photoionization Cross Section from the Laser-Populated ^D Metastable 
Levels in Barium." Journal of Physics B (Atomic and Molecular Physics), 
volume 7 (1974), pages L244-L248. 

Chaffee, F. H., Jr. "Line Spectra in Interstellar Clouds. I. The Perseus 2 Cloud." 
Astrophysical Journal, volume 189 (1974), pages 427-440. 

Chaisson, E. J. "Heavy-Element Recombination Lines." Presented at the 141st 
Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Tucson, Arizona, December 
1973; abstract in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 5 
(1973), page 451. 

. "Microwave Spectroscopic Mapping of Gaseous Nebulae. III. Hydro- 
gen, Helium, and Carbon in Orion A." Astrophysical Journal, volume 186 
(1973), pages 545-553. 

"Microwave Spectroscopic Mapping of Gaseous Nebulae. IV. Excited 

Hydrogen in Sagittarius B2." Astrophysical Journal, volume 186 (1973), pages 

368 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

. "On the Recombination-Line Observations toward Supernova 3C 391." 

Astrophysical Journal, volume 189 (1974), pages 69-72. 

-. "A Correlation Study of Carbon Ions and Hydroxyl Molecules toward 

Galactic Nebulae." Astronomical Journal, volume 79 (1974), pages 555-564. 

Chaisson, £. J., and C. J. Lada. "Recombination Lines from H I Gas toward 
Orion A." Astrophysical Journal, volume 189 (1974), pages 227-237. 

Coleman, P. L., A. N. Bunner, W. L. Kraushaar, D. McCammon, F. O. William- 
son, E. Kellogg, and D. Koch. "X-Ray Spectrum of the Tycho Supernova." 
Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 185 (1973), pages L121-L125. 

Colombo, G., F. A. Franklin, and L L Shapiro. "On the Formation of the Orbit- 
Orbit Resonance of Titan and Hyperion." Astronomical Journal, volume 79 
(1974), pages 61-72. 

Cook, A. F. "A Working List of Meteor Streams." Pages 183-191 in C. L. Hemen- 
way, P. M. Millman, and A. F. Cook, editors. Evolutionary and Physical Prop- 
erties of Meteoroids, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union's 
Colloquium No. 13. NASA SP-319, 1973. 

Cook, A. F., G. Forti, R. E. McCrosky, A. Posen, R. B. Southworth, and J. T. 
Williams. "Combined Observations of Meteors by Image-Orthicon Tele- 
vision Camera and Multistation Radar." Pages 23-44 in C. L. Hemenway, 
P. M. Millman, and A. F. Cook, editors. Evolutionary and Physical Properties 
of Meteoroids, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union's Col- 
loquium No. 13. NASA SP-319, 1973. 

Cook, A. F., C. L. Hemenway, P. M. Millman, and A. Swider. "An Unusual 
Meteor Spectrum." Pages 153-159 in C. L. Hemenway, P. M. Millman, and 
A. F. Cook, editors. Evolutionary and Physical Properties of Meteoroids, 
Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union's Colloquium No. 13. 
NASA SP-319, 1973. 

Dalgarno, A. "The Z-Dependence of Oscillator Strengths." Nuclear Instruments 

and Methods, volume 110 (1973), pages 183-188. 
Dalgarno, A., J. H. Black, and J. C. Weisheit. "Ortho-Para Transitions in Hj 

and the Fractionation of HD." Astrophysical Letters, volume 14 (1973), pages 

Dalgarno, A., E. Herbst, S. Novick, and W. Klemperer. "Radio Spectrum of 

H2D + ." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 183 (1973), pages L131-L133. 
Dalgarno, A., M. Oppenheimer, and R. S. Berry. "Chemiionization in Interstellar 

Clouds." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 183 (1973), pages L21-L24. 
Dalgarno, A., M. Oppenheimer, and J. H. Black. "Formation of Formaldehyde 

in Interstellar Clouds." Nature, Physical Science, volume 145 (1973), pages 

Dalgarno, A., and K. M. Sando. "The Extreme Wings of Atomic Emission and 

Absorption Lines." Comments on Atomic and Molecular Physics, volume 4 

(1973), pages 29-33. 

Davis, R. J. "The Astronomical Data File for the Celescope Catalog." Presented 
at the 142nd Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Lincoln, Ne- 
braska, March 1974; abstract in Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 6 (1974), page 218. 

. "The Celescope Survey and the Galactic Distribution of Interstellar 

Absorption." Presented at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting, Astronomy 
in the Ultraviolet, London, England, April 1974. 

Dickinson, D. F. "Who Lives between the Clouds?" The Alcalde, July 1973, 

pages 14-18. 
. "Water Vapor in Infrared Stars" (abstract). Bulletin of the American 

Astronomical Society, volume 5 (1973), page 318. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 369 

Docken, K. K., and T. P. Schafer. "Spectroscopic Information on Ground-State 
Afj, Kti, Xci from Interatomic Potentials." Journal of Molecular Spectro- 
scopy, volume 46 (1973), pages 454-459. 

Fazio, G. G. "Observations of High-Energy Gamma Rays." Pages 153-164 in 
F. W. Stecker and J. I. Trombka, editors, Gamma-Ray Astrophysics. NASA 
SP-339, 1973. 

. "X-Ray and Gamma^Ray Detection by Means of Atmospheric Inter- 
actions: Fluorescence and Cerenkov Radiation." Pages 315-359 in N. Carleton, 
editor. Astrophysics, Part A: Optical and Infrared, volume 12 in Methods 
of Experimental Physics. New York: Academic Press, 1974. 

Fazio, G. G., D. E. Kleinmann, R. W. Noyes, E. L. Wright, and F. J. Low. "A 
Balloon-Borne 1-Meter Telescope for Far-Infrared Astronomy." Presented 
at the Symposium on Telescope Systems for Balloon-Borne Research, NASA 
Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, February 1974. 

Fazio, G. G., D. E. Kleinmann, R. W. Noyes, E. L. Wright, M. Zeilik II, and 
F. J. Low. "High-Resolution Maps of H II Regions at Far-Infrared Wave- 
lengths." Presented at the 8th ESLAB Symposium, Frascati, Italy, June 1974. 

Field, G. B. "Interstellar Atoms, Molecules, and Dust." Presented at the Inter- 
national Astronomical Union Extraordinary General Assembly, Warsaw, 
Poland, September 1973. 

. "Intergalactic Gas." Presented at the International Astronomical Union 

Symposium No. 63, Confrontation between Cosmological Theories and Ob- 
servational Data, Krakow, Poland, September 1973. 

"The Composition of Interstellar Dust." Presented at The Dusty Uni- 

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-. "Missing Mass in the Universe." Pages 289-317 in Fundamental Inter- 

actions in Physics and Astrophysics, volume 3 in Studies in the Natural Sci- 
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"On Interstellar Depletion." Presented at the 141st Meeting of the 

American Astronomical Society, Tucson, Arizona, December 1973; abstract 
in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 262. 

'Intergalactic Matter in Clusters of Galaxies." Presented at the High- 

Energy Astrophysics Division Meeting of the American Astronomical So- 
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Field, G. B., H. Arp, and J. Bahcall. The Redshift Controversy, Frontiers in 
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Fireman, E. L., J. D'Amico, and J. DeFelice. "Radioactivities versus Depth in 
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Forman, W., and W. Liller. "Optical Studies of UHURU Sources. V. A Prime 
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national Astronomical Union's Colloquium No. 13. NASA SP-319, 1973. 

Foukal, P. K., M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, E. M. Reeves, E. J. Schmahl, J. G. 
Timothy, J. E Vernazza, and G. L. Withbroe. "A Study of the Active Region 
McMath 12417 with the Harvard ATM EUV Spectrometer." Presented at the 
141st Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Tucson, Arizona, 
December 1973; abstract in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 
volume 5 (1973), pages 432-433. 

Franklin, F. A. "The Structure of Saturn's Rings Based on Optical and Dynami- 
cal Considerations." Presented at the National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration Workshop on Saturn's Rings, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasa- 
dena, California, August 1973. 

Gaposchkin, E. M. "Literal Algebra for Satellite Dynamics." Presented at the 
17th International COSPAR Meeting, Sao Paulo, Brazil, June 1974. 

Garton, W. R. S., E. M. Reeves, F. S. Tomkins, and B. Ercoli. "Rydberg Series 
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Gerdes, C, C. Y. Fan, and T. C. Weekes. "The Primary Cosmic Ray Spectrum 
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Giacconi, R. "Binary X-Ray Sources." Presented at the International Astro- 
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. "Progress in X-Ray Astronomy." Physics Today, volume 26, number 5 

(1973), pages 38-47. 

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sented at the 16th International Solvay Congress on Physics, Brussels, Bel- 
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Giacconi, R., H. Gursky, E. Kellogg, R. Levinson, E. Schreier, and H. Tanan- 
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physical Journal, volume 184 (1973), pages 227-236. 

Giacconi, R., S. Murray, H. Gursky, E. Kellogg, E. Schreier, T. Matilsky, D. 
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Astrophysical Journal Supplement Number 237, volume 27 (1974), pages 

Gingerich, O. "From Copernicus to Kepler: Heliocentrism as Model and as 
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. "Copernicus and Tycho." Scientific American, volume 229 (1973), pages 


"History of Astronomy (Report of lAU Commission No. 41)." Transac- 

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'H. Levitt." Pages 105-106 in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 

8. New York: Scribner's, 1973. 

"A. C. Maury." Pages 194-195 in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 

volume 9. New York: Scribner's, 1974. 

"P. Mechain." Pages 250-252 in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, vol- 

ume 9. New York: Scribner's, 1974. 

"C. Messier." Pages 329-331 in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, vol- 

ume 9. New York: Scribner's, 1974. 

"Astronomical Maps." Pages 223-232 in Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol- 

ume 2. Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1974. 

"Harlow Shapley: Twentieth-Century Copernicus?" Harvard Maga- 

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Goad, L. E., and E. J. Chaisson. "Observations of Radio-Recombination Lines 
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Golub, L., A. S. Krieger, J. K. Silk, and G. S. Vaiana. "Time Variations of Solar 
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COSPAR Symposium No. 68, Solar Gamma X-Ray and EUV Radiation, 
Buenos Aires, Argentina, June 1974. 

Gorenstein, P., P. Bjorkholm, B. Harris, and F. R. Harnden, Jr. "Soft X-Ray 
Flux of the Coma Cluster of Galaxies." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), vol- 
ume 183 (1973), pages L57-L61. 

Grindlay, J. E., and G. G. Fazio. "Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts from Relativistic 
Dust Grains." Pages 296-308 in I. B. Strong, editor. Proceedings of the Con- 
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Alamos, New Mexico: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, 1974. 

. "Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts from Relativistic Dust Grains." Astro- 
physical Journal (Letters), volume 187 (1974), pages L93-L96. 

Grindlay, J. E., R. Hanbury Brown, J. Davis, and L. Allen. "First Results of a 
Southern Hemisphere Search for Gamma Ray Sources at E7 ^ 3 X 10" eV." 
Pages 439-444 in 13th International Cosmic Ray Conference, volume 1. Den- 
ver, Colorado: University of Denver, 1973. 

Grindlay, J. E., and Helmken, H. "Cosmic Ray Composition at >10" eV from 
Muon/Electron Ratios in EAS." Pages 202-207 in 13th International Cosmic 
Ray Conference, volume 1. Denver, Colorado: University of Denver, 1973. 

Grindlay, J. E., H. F. Helmken, R. Hanbury Brown, J. Davis, and L. R. Allen. 
"Observations of Southern Sky Gamma Ray Sources at E7 ~ 3 X 10" eV." 
Presented at the 8th ESLAB Symposium, Frascati, Italy, June 1974. 

Grindlay, J. E., H. F. Helmken, and T. C. Weekes. "Observations of NP 0532 
at 10"-10'2 eV Gamma Ray Energies." Presented at the 8th ESLAB Sym- 
posium, Frascati, Italy, June 1974. 

Grindlay, J. E., H. F. Helmken, T. C. Weekes, G. G. Fazio, and F. Boley. 
"Gamma-Ray Observations at E7 > 5 X 10" ev of the Pulsars NP 0532 and 
CP 0950." Pages 36-40 in 13th International Cosmic Ray Conference, volume 
1. Denver, Colorado: University of Denver, 1973. 

Gurman, J. B., G. L. Withbroe, and J. W. Harvey. "A Comparison of EUV 
Spectroheliograms and Photo^pheric Magnetograms." Solar Physics, volume 
34 (1974), pages 105-111. 

Gursky, H. "X-Ray Astronomy — A New View of the Sky from Space." The 
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372 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

. "The X-Ray Emission from Rich Clusters of Galaxies." Publications of 

the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, volume 85 (1973), pages 493-502. 
. "Neutron Stars and Black Holes." Presented at the Astronomical So- 

ciety of the Pacific Meeting, San Francisco, California, February 1974. 

"Observation of Galactic X-Ray Sources." Pages 291-341 in C. DeWitt 

and B. S. DeWitt, editors. Black Holes. New York: Gordon & Breach, Science 

Publishers, Inc., 1973. 
Gursky, H., and E. Schreier. "The Galactic X-Ray Sources." Presented at the 

American Association for the Advancement of Science Symposium on Black 

Holes and Neutron Stars, San Francisco, California, February 1974. 
Gursky, H., and D. Schwartz. "Deductions of the X-Ray Emissivity of the 

Universe from Observations of the Diffuse X-Ray Background." Presented 

at the International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 63, Confrontation 

between Cosmological Theories and Observational Data, Krakow, Poland, 

September 1973. 
Hallam, M., and A. H. Marcus. "Stochastic Coalescence Model for Terrestrial 

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Haramundanis, K. "Interstellar Extinction in the Ultraviolet from Emission 

Stars." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 185 (1973), pages L87-L88. 
Harvey, P. M., I. Gatley, M. W. Werner, J. H. Elias, N. J. Evans II, B. Zucker- 

man, G. Morris, T. Sato, and M. M. Litvak. "Dust and Gas in the Orion 

Molecular Cloud: Observations of 1-Millimeter Continuum and 2-Centimeter 

H2CO Emission." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 189 (1974), pages 

Hawkins, G. S. "Prehistoric Astronomy." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 

volume 29 (1973), pages 58-64. 
. "Micrometeorite and Cosmic Dust Data near the Earth's Orbit." Pages 

1159-1164 in M. J. Rycroft and S. K. Runcorn, editors. Space Research XIII. 

Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1973. 

"Astro-Archaeology — Scientific Knowledge Shown by Prehistoric 

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"James Bradley, a Biography." In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Chicago, 

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Hayes, D. S., D. W. Latham, and S. H. Hayes. "The Absolute Flux of Vega in 
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volume 5 (1973), page 347. 

Hegyi, D. J., W. A. Traub, and N. P. Carleton. "Cosmic Background Radiation 
at 1.32 Millimeters." Astrophysical Journal, volume 190 (1974), pages 543- 

Helmken, H. F., G. G. Fazio, E. O'Mongain, and T. C. Weekes. "A Three-Year 
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from NP 0532. Astrophysical Journal, volume 184 (1973), pages 245-250. 

Helmken, H. F., P. Gorenstein, and H. Gursky. "Hard X-Ray Burst Detector 
with High Angular Resolution." Pages 253-259 in I. B. Strong, editor. Pro- 
ceedings of the Conference on Transient Cosmic Gamma- and X-Ray Sources 
(LA-5505-C). Los Alamos, New Mexico: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, 

Helmken, H., and J. Hoffman. "Pulsed Gamma-Ray Flux from NP 0532 at 
E ^ 15 MeV." Pages 31-35 in 13th International Cosmic Ray Conference, 
volume 1. Denver, Colorado: University of Denver, 1973. 

Helmken, H. F., T. C. Weekes, and G. G. Fazio. "Search for 10"-ev Periodic 
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Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 373 

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Hemenway, C. L., P. M. Millman, and A. F. Cook, editors. Evolutionary and 
Physical Properties of Meteoroids, Proceedings of the International Astro- 
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Hodge, P. W. "The Recent Evolutionary History of the Cluster System of the 
Large Magellanic Cloud." Astronomical Journal, volume 78 (1973), pages 

. "A Second Survey of H II Regions in Galaxies." Astrophysical Journal 

Supplement Number 239, volume 27 (1974), pages 113-120. 

Hodge, P. W., and P. Flower. "A Color-Magnitude Diagram for the Rich Cluster 
NGC 2164 in the Large Magellanic Cloud." Astrophysical Journal, volume 185 
(1973), pages 829-841. 

Hodge, P. W., and D. W. Smith. "The Structure of the Fornax Dwarf Galaxy." 
Astrophysical Journal, volume 188 (1974), pages 19-25. 

Hodge, P. W., and F. W. Wright. "Particles around the Boxhole Meteorite Cra- 
ter." Meteoritics, volume 8 (1973), pages 315-320. 

. "The Transparency of the Small Magellanic Cloud." Presented at the 

141st Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Tucson, Arizona, De- 
cember 1973; abstract in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 
volume 5 (1973), page 448. 

Holt, S. S., E. A. Boldt, P. J. Serlemitsos, S. S. Murray, R. Giacconi, E. M. Kellogg, 
and T. A. Matilsky. "On the Nature of the Unidentified High Latitude UHURU 
Sources." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 188 (1974), pages L97-L101. 

Huber, M. C. E., A. K. Dupree, L. Goldberg, R. W. Noyes, W. H. Parkinson, 
E. M. Reeves, and G. L. Withbroe. "The Harvard Experiment on OSO-6: In- 
strumentation, Calibration, Operation, and Description of Observations." 
Astrophysical Journal, volume 183 (1973), pages 291-312. 

Huber, M. C. E., P. V. Foukal, R. W. Noyes, E. M. Reeves, E. J. Schmahl, J. G. 
Timothy, J. E. Vernazza, and G. L. Withbroe. "Observations of a Coronal 
Hole Boundary in the Extreme Ultraviolet." Presented at the 141st Meeting of 
the American Astronomical Society, Tucson, Arizona, December 1973; ab- 
stract in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 5 (1973), 
page 446. 

Huber, M. C. E., E. M. Reeves, and J. G. Timothy. "Photometric Calibration of 
an Extreme-Ultraviolet Spectroheliometer for the Skylab Mission." Pages 33- 
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of the Ninth International Congress of the International Commission for 
Optics. Washington, D.C. : National Academy of Sciences, 1974. 

Jacchia, L. G. "Variations in Thermospheric Composition: A Model Based on' 
Mass-Spectrometer and Satellite-Drag Data." Journal of Geophysical Re- 
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. "New Models of the Thermosphere and Exosphere." Presented at the 


17th International COSPAR Meeting, Sao Paulo, Brazil, June 1974. 

Jacchia, L. G., I. G. Campbell, and J. W. Slowey. "A Study of the Diurnal Varia 
tion in the Thermosphere as Derived by Satelhte Data." Planetary and Space 
Science, volume 21 (1973), pages 1825-1834. 

Jacchia, L. G., and J. W. Slowey. "A Study of the Variations in the Thermo 
sphere Related to Solar Activity." Pages 343-348 in M. J. Rycroft and S. K. 
Runcorn, editors. Space Research XIII. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1973. 

Jacchia, L. G., J. W. Slowey, and I. G. Campbell. "An Analysis of the Solar- 
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ume 21 (1973), pages 1835-1842. 

374 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Kahler, S., A. S. Krieger, J. K. Silk, R. Simon, A. F. Timothy, and G. S. Vaiana. 
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Solar Gamma X-Ray and EUV Radiation, Buenos Aires, Argentina, June 1974. 

Kalkofen, W. "Complete Linearization of the Integral Equations in Radiative 
Transfer." Astrophysical Journal, volume 188 (1974), pages 105-119. 

. "A Comparison of Differential and Integral Equations of Radiative 

Transfer." Journal of Quantitative and Spectroscopic Radiative Transfer, vol- 
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Kellogg, E., S. Murray, R. Giacconi, H. Tananbaum, and H. Gursky. "Clusters 
of Galaxies with a Wide Range of X-Ray Luminosities." Astrophysical Jour- 
nal (Letters), volume 185 (1973), pages L13-L16. 

Kellogg, E., H. Tananbaum, F. R. Harnden, Jr., H. Gursky, R. Giacconi, and 
J. Grindlay. "The X-ray Structure of the Vela X Region Observed from 
UHURU." Astrophysical Journal, volume 183 (1973), pages 935-940. 

Kleinmann, D. E., and E. L. Wright. "A New Infrared Source in Ml7." Astro- 
physical Journal (Letters), volume 185 (1973), pages L131-L133. 

Kohl, J. L., and W. H. Parkinson. "Measurement of the Neutral-Aluminum Pho- 
toionization Cross-Section and Parameters of the 3p ''P" — 3s3p^ ^Si/2 Auto- 
ionization Doublet." Astrophysical Journal, volume 184 (1973), pages 641-652. 

."Absolute Intensity Calibration of a High-Resolution Rocket Spectrom- 
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Optics, Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of the International 
Commission for Optics. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 

Kornblum, J. J., E. L. Fireman, M. Levine, and A. Aronson. "Neutrons in the 
Moon." Pages 2172-2182 in Proceedings of the Fourth Lunar Science Confer- 
ence, Ceochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, supplement 4, volume 2. New York: 
Pergamon Press, 1973. 

Krieger, A. S., R. C. Chase, M. Gerassimenko, S. Kahler, A. F. Timothy, and 
G. S. Vaiana. "Time Variations in Coronal Active Regions Structures." Pre- 
sented at the International Astronomical Union/COSPAR Symposium No. 68, 
Solar Gamma X-Ray and EUV Radiation, Buenos Aires, Argentina, June 1974. 

Kurucz, R. L. "Stellar Spectral Synthesis in the Ultraviolet." Astrophysical Jour- 
nal (Letters), volume 188 (1974), pages L21-L22. 

. "A Preliminary Theoretical Line-Blanketed Model Solar Photosphere." 

Solar Physics, volume 34 (1974), pages 17-23. 

Lada, C. J., and E. J. Chaisson. "Microwave Spectroscopic Mapping of Gaseous 
Nebulae. II. Observations of Hydrogen in NGC 7538." Astrophysical Journal, 
volume 183 (1973), pages 479-489. 

Lada, C. J., D. F. Dickinson, and H. Penfield. "Discovery and CO Observations 
of a New Molecular Cloud near Ml7." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), vol- 
ume 189 (1974), pages L35-L37. 
^Latham, D. W. "Report on the Cambridge Meeting of the AAS Working Group 
on Photographic Materials in Astronomy, Part III." American Astronomical 
Society Photo-Bulletin, volume 5, number 1 (1973), pages 3-6. 

. "Detective Performance of Photographic Plates." Pages 221-235 in N. 

Carleton, editor. Astrophysics, Part A: Optical and Infrared, volume 12 in 
Methods of Experimental Physics. New York: Academic Press, 1974. 
Latham, D. W., and W. C. Miller. "Report on the Ann Arbor Meeting of the 
AAS Working Group on Photographic Materials in Astronomy, Part I." Amer- 
ican Astronomical Society Photo-Bulletin, volume 5, number 1 (1973), pages 

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Latham, D. W., and W. Rice. "Detective Quantum Efficiency of Kodak Special 
Plate, Type 127-02, Relative to Kodak Spectroscopic Plate, Type Ila-F." Amer- 
ican Astronomical Society Photo-Bulletin, volume 5, number 1 (1973), pages 

Laughlin, C, and A. Dalgarno. "Nuclear-Charge-Expansion Method for 
(2s°2p'' — 2s"~'2p''''') Transitions." Physical Review A, volume 8 (1973), 
pages 39-46. 

Laughlin, C, and G. A. Victor. "Model Potential Calculations for Two-Valence 
Electron Systems." Atomic Physics, volume 3 (1973), pages 247-255. 

Lea, 5. M., J. Silk, E. Kellogg, and S. Murray. "Thermal-Bremsstrahlung Inter- 
pretation of Cluster X-Ray Sources." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 
184 (1973), pages L105-L111. 

Lecar, M. "Computer Simulation of Stellar Systems." Pages 143-147 in S. W. 
McCuskey, editor. Structure and Dynamics of the Galactic System, A Report. 
East Cleveland, Ohio: Warner and Swasey Observatory, 1973. 

Lecar, M., and F. A. Franklin. "On the Original Distribution of the Asteroids. 
I." Icarus, volume 20 (1973), pages 422-436. 

Lecar, M., R. Loeser, and J. Cherniack. "Numerical Integration of Gravitational 
N-Body Systems with the Use of Explicit Taylor Series." Pages 451-470 in 
D. Bettis, editor. Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations, Lec- 
ture Notes in Mathematics No. 362. New York: Springer- Verlag, 1974. 

Lehr, C. G. "The Statistics of Laser Returns from Cube-Corner Arrays on Satel- 
lites." Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Laser Report, number 5, 13 
pages, 1973. 

. "Laser Tracking Systems." Pages 1-52 in M. Ross, editor. Laser Appli- 
cations, volume 2. New York: Academic Press, 1974. 

Lejeune, G., and A. Dalgarno. "The Red Line of Atomic Oxygen at Twilight." 
Planetary and Space Science, volume 21 (1973), pages 1937-1943. 

Lester, J. B. "The ON9 V Star HD 201345." Astrophysical Journal, volume 185 
(1973), pages 253-264. 

Levitte, D., J. Columba, and P. A. Mohr. "Reconnaissance Geology of the Amaro 
Horst, Southern Ethiopian Rift." Bulletin of the Geological Society of Amer- 
ica, volume 85 (1974), pages 417-422. 

Levy, H. "Tropospheric Budgets for Methane, Carbon Monoxide, and Related 
Species." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 78 (1973), pages 5325- 

Litvak, M. M. "Common Molecular Masers in Astronomy." Page 15 in Digest of 
Technical Papers, VIII International Quantum Electronics Conference. New 
York: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 1974. 

Marsden, B. G. "The Next Return of the Comet of the Perseid Meteors." Astro- 
nomical Journal, volume 78 (1973), pages 654-662. 

. "Report of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (Commis- 
sion No. 6)." Transactions of the International Astronomical Union, volume 
XVA (1973), pages 15-17. 

"Daniel Kirkwood." Pages 384-387 in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 

volume 7. New York: Scribner's, 1973. . 

"The Recovery of Apollo." Sky and Telescope, volume 46 (1973), pages j 


"Comets in 1972." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 

volume 14 (1973), pages 389-406. 

"Annual Report of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.' 

International Astronomical Union Information Bulletin, number 30 (1973), i 
pages 8-10. 

376 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

. "Percival Lowell." Pages 520-523 in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 

volume 8. New York: Scribner's, 1974. 

'Cometary Motions." Celestial Mechanics, volume 9 (1974), pages 

Marsden, B. G., and Z. Sekanina. "On the Distribution of 'Original' Orbits of 

Comets of Large Perihelion Distance" (abstract). Bulletin of the American 

Astronomical Society, volume 5 (1973), page 361. 
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Distance." Astronomical Journal, volume 78 (1973), pages 1118-1124. 

"Comets and Nongravitational Forces. VL Periodic Comet Encke 1786- 

1971." Astronomical Journal, volume 79 (1974), pages 413-419. 
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(1973), pages 12-23. 
. "Ti-Rich Lunar Spherule Aggregates" (abstract). Programs of the 1973 

Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America, volume 5 (1973), pages 


Continental Drift, the Evolution of a Concept. Washington, D.C. : Smith- 

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(with Apollo 17 Preliminary Examination Team). "Apollo 17 Lunar 

Samples : Chemical and Petrographic Description." Science, volume 182 (1973), 
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"Continental Drift." In Encyclopaedia Britannica, volume 3. Chicago, 

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. "La Lune apres Apollo." La Recherche, April (1974), pages 337-346. 

"Morphology and Surface Mapping." Pages 9-33 (plus Appendices A 

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Station 2, Apollo 17. Compilation of the Studies of the Consortium Indomi- 
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Marvin, U. B., and D. B. Stoeser. "The Civet Cat Clast, a New Variety of Lunar 
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American Geophysical Union, volume 55 (1974), pages 323-324. 

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Mazurek, T. J., J. W. Truran, and A. G. W. Cameron. "Electron Capture in Car- 
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pages 261-291. 

McCrosky, R. E. "Cometary Debris." Presented at The Dusty Universe Sym- 
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Megrue, G. H. "Distribution of Gases within Apollo 15 Samples: Implications 
for the Incorporation of Gases within Solid Bodies of the Solar System." Jour- 
nal of Geophysical Research, volume 78 (1973), pages 4875-4883. 

_Menzel, D. H. "Concluding Remarks." Memoires Societe Royale des Sciences de 
Liege, series 6, volume V (1973), pages 491-495. 

. "Science Questions Answered by DHM." Highlights for Children, vol- 
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pages 10-12. 

"The Year of the Great Comet." Highlights for Children, volume 29, 

number 1 (1974), pages 38-39. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 377 

Menzel, D. H., and W. W. Salisbury. "Pulsar Radiation as Magnetic-Dipole 
Synchrotron Emission." Memoires Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege, series 
6, volume V (1973), page 219. 

Mertz, L. N. "The Gap at One Second in the Period Distribution of Pulsars" 
(abstract). Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 5 (1973), 
pages 321. 

. "Swept Frequency Excitation for Fourier Transform Spectrometry" (Let- 
ter). Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments, volume 7 (1974), page 228. 
'Rapid Fluctuations of Large Volume Astronomical Sources." Nature, 

volume 247 (1974), page 324. 

"Focusing Behavior of Fresnel Zone Plates Having Various Central 

Phases," Optics Communications, volume 11 (1974), pages 148-149. 

Millman, P. M., A. F. Cook, and C. L. Hemenway. "Image-Orthicon Spectra of 
Geminids in 1969." Pages 147-151 in C. L. Hemenway, P. M. Millman, and 
A. F. Cook, editors. Evolutionary and Physical Properties of Meteoroids, Pro- 
ceedings of the International Astronomical Union's Colloquium No. 13. NASA 
SP-319, 1973. 

Mitler, H. E. "The Cambridge Cosmochemistry Symposium." Icarus, volume 20 
(1973), pages 54-71. 

Mohr, P. A. "Comments on 'Tectonic History of the Ethiopian Rift Deduced 
by K-Ar Ages and Paleomagnetic Measures of Basaltic Dikes,' by G. H. Meg- 
rue, E. Norton and D. W. Strangway." Journal of Geophysical Research, vol- 
ume 78 (1973), pages 720-722. 

. "Evolution of Danakil Depression (Afar, Ethiopia) in Light of Radio- 
metric Age Determinations: A Discussion." Journal of Geology, volume 81 
(1973), pages 747-749. 

-. "Structural Geology of the African Rift System : Summary of New Data 

from ERTS-1 Imagery." Presented at the Third ERTS Symposium, Washing- 
ton, D.C., December 1973. 

'Rift Valleys." Pages 841-846 in Encyclopaedia Britannica, volume 15. 

Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1974. 

"Structural Setting and Evolution of Afar." Presented at the Symposium 

on the Afar Region of Ethiopia and Related Rift Problems, Bad Bergzabern, 
Germany, April 1974. 

"ENE-Trending Lineaments of the African Rift System." Presented at 

the First International Conference on The New Basement Tectonics, Salt Lake 

City, Utah, June 1974. 
Moran, J. M. "Some Characteristics of an Operational System for Measuring ! 

UT 1 Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry." Pages 73-82 in M. J. Rycroft 

and S. K. Runcorn, editors. Space Research XIII. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 

. "Spectral-Line Analysis of Very Long-Baseline Interferometric Data." 

Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, volume 61 

(1973), pages 1236-1242. 

"Geodetic and Astrometric Results of Very Long-Baseline Interfero- 

metric Measurements of Natural Radio Sources." Presented at the 17th Inter-: 

national COSPAR Meeting, Sao Paulo, Brazil, June 1974. 
Moran, J. M., G. D. Papadopoulos, B. F. Burke, K. Y. Lo, P. R. Schwartz, D. L. . 

Thacker, K. J. Johnston, S. H. Knowles, A. C. Reisz, and I. I. Shapiro. "Very 

Long-Baseline Interferometric Observations of the H2O Sources in W49N, 

W3(OH), Orion A, and VY Canis Majoris." Astrophysical Journal, volume 

185 (1973), pages 535-567. 
Morgan, J. W., U. Krahenbuhl, R. Ganapathy, E. Anders, and U. B. Marvin. 

"Trace Element Abundances and Petrology of Separates from Apollo 15, 

378 / Smithsoniari Year 1974 

Soils." Pages 1379-1398 in Proceedings of the Fourth Lunar Science Confer- 
ence, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, supplement 4, volume 2. New York: 
Pergamon Press, 1973. 

Murphy, R. E., and K. Aksnes. "Polar Cap on Europa." Nature, volume 244 
(1973), pages 559-560. 

Noyes, R. W., P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, E. M. Reeves, E. J. Schmahl, J. G. 
Timothy, J. E. Vernazza, and G. L. Withbroe. "ATM Observations of Solar 
Flares in the Extreme Ultraviolet." Presented at the 141st Meeting of the 
American Astronomical Society, Tucson, Arizona, December 1973; abstract 
in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 5 (1973), page 433. 

■ . "ATM Observations of Solar Flares in the Extreme Ultraviolet." Pre- 
sented at the Fifty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, 
Washington, D.C., April 1974; abstract in Transactions, American Geophysi- 
cal Union, volume 55 (1974), page 408. 

Oppenheimer, M., and A. Dalgarno. "The Chemistry of Sulphur in Interstellar 
Clouds." Astrophysical Journal, volume 187 (1974), pages 231-235. 

Papaliolios, C, and P. Horowitz. "Results of a Search for Optical Pulsars. II. 

Extragalactic Supernovae." Astrophysical Journal, volume 183 (1973), pages 

Peterson, L. E., D. A. Schwartz, and J. C. Ling. "Spectrum of Atmospheric 

Gamma Rays to 10 Mev at Latitude 40°." Journal of Geophysical Research, 

volume 78 (1973), pages 7942-7958. 
Porter, N. A., T. Delaney, and T. C. Weekes. "Observations of the Crab Pulsar 

with a Wide-Angle Atmospheric Cherenkov System." Presented at the 8th 

ESLAB Symposium, Frascati, Italy, June 1974. 
Radford, H. E., K. M. Evenson, and C. J. Howard. "HO2 Detected by Laser Mag- 
netic Resonance." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 60 (1974), pages 

Reeves, E. M. "Solar Physics Investigations on Skylab." Presented at the 142nd 

Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Lincoln, Nebraska, March 

1974; abstract in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 6 

(1974), pages 225-226. 

. "Payload Operations Presented to the Crew Functions (Shuttle) Work- 
shop." Presented at Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, April 1974. 

'Solar Perplexities: A View from Skylab." Harvard Today, volume 17 

(1974), pages 8-9. 

Reeves, E. M., R. R. Fisher, P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, E. J. 
Schmahl, J. G. Timothy, J. E. Vernazza, and G. L. Withbroe. "EUV Observa- 
tions of Coronal Holes with the Harvard ATM Experiment." Presented at the 
Fifty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, Washington, 
D.C., April 1974; abstract in Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol- 
ume 55 (1974), page 408. 

Reeves, E. M., P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, E. J. Schmahl, J. G. 
Timothy, J. E. Vernazza, and G. L. Withbroe. "Solar EUV Photoelectric Obser- 
vations from Skylab." Presented at the XVth General Meeting of the Inter- 
national Astronomical Union, Sydney, Australia, August 1973. 

. "Preliminary Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Observations from the ATM 

with the Harvard Instrument." Presented at the 141st Meeting of the Ameri- 
can Astronomical Society, Tucson, Arizona, December 1973; abstract in Bul- 
letin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 5 (1973), page 419. 

'Observations of the Chromospheric Network: Initial Results from 

Apollo Telescope Mount." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 188 (1974), 
pages L27-L29. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 379 

Reeves, E. M., R. W. Noyes, and G. L. Withbroe. "The Scientific Instruments." 
Pages 21-27 in Skylab and the Sun. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration, 1973. 

. "The Solar Joint-Observing Program." Pages 30-34 in Skylab and the 

Sun. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1973. 
"Coordinated Observing Program." Page 36 in Skylab and the Sun. 

Washington, D.C. : National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1973. 

Reeves, E. M., J. G. Timothy, and M. C. E. Huber. "The Photoelectric Spectro- 
heliometer on ATM." Presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumenta- 
tion Engineers Seminar-in-Depth on Instrumentation and Astronomy — II, 
Tucson, Arizona, March 1974. 

Reisz, A. C., I. I. Shapiro, J. M. Moran, G. D. Papadopoulos, B. F. Burke, K. Y. 
Lo, and P. R. Schwartz. "W3(OH): Accurate Relative Positions of Water- 
Vapor Emission Features." Astrophysical Journal, volume 186 (1973), pages 

Rieke, G. H., F. J. Low, and D. E. Kleinmann. "High-Resolution Maps of the 
Kleinmann-Low Nebula in Orion." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 
186 (1973), pages L7-L11. 

Schaefer, M. M., G. B. Rybicki, and M. Lecar. "A Method of Computing the 
Gravitational Field of an Axially Symmetric Flat Galaxy." Astrophysics and 
Space Science, volume 25 (1973), pages 357-372. 

Schild, R. E. "A Far-Ultraviolet Flux Difference between Hyades and Pleiades 
Stars." Pages 29-33 in B. Hauck and B. Westerlund, editors. Problems of Cali- 
bration of Absolute Magnitudes and Temperatures of Stars, Proceedings of 
the International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 54. Dordrecht, Hol- 
land: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1973. 

Schild, R. E., F. Chaffee, J. A. Frogel, and S. E. Persson. "The Nature of Infrared 
Excesses in Extreme Be Stars." Astrophysical Journal, volume 190 (1974), 
pages 73-83. 

Schild, R., J. B. Oke, and L. Searle. "The Energy Distribution of the Very Red 
Star in NGC 6231." Astrophysical Journal, volume 188 (1974), pages 71-74. 

Schmahl, E. J., P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, E. M. Reeves, J. G. 
Timothy, J. E. Vernazza, and G. L. Withbroe. "Solar Prominences in the EUV 
as Observed from ATM." Presented at the 141st Meeting of the American 
Astronomical Society, Tucson, Arizona, December 1973; abstract in Bulletin 
of the American Astronomical Society, volume 5 (1973), page 432. 

Schreier, E. J. "Galactic X-Ray Sources." Pages 650-667 in H. H. Bingham, M. 
Davier, and G. R. Lynch, editors. Proceedings of the 1973 Meeting of Division 
of Particles and Fields. Berkeley, California: American Physical Society, 1973. 

. "Binary X-Ray Sources and the Observational Situation of Black Holes." 

Presented at the Lectures at the International School of Cosmology and Gravi- 
tation, Erice, Sicily, May 1974. 

Schwartz, D. "Geomagnetic Background Events Observed by UHURU." In S. 
Holt, editor. Particle Contamination of Low Energy X-Ray Astronomy Experi- 
ments. Goddard Space Flight Center Publication No. X-661-74-130, 1974. 

Schwartz, D., and H. Gursky. "The X-Ray Emissivity of the Universe: 2-200 
keV." Pages 15-36 in F. Stecker and J. Trombka, editors, Gamma-Ray Astro- 
physics. NASA SP-339, 1973. 

Schwartz, D. A., and L. E. Peterson. "The Spectrum of Diffuse Cosmic X-Rays 
Observed by 050-3 between 7 and 100 keV." Astrophysical Journal, volume 
190 (1974), pages 297-303. 

Sekanina, Z. "Existence of Icy Comet Tails at Large Distances from the Sun.' 
Astrophysical Letters, volume 14 (1973), pages 175-180. 

380 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

. "New Evidence for Interplanetary Boulders?" Pages 199-207 in C. L. 

Hemenway, P. M. Millman, and A. F. Cook, editors. Evolutionary and Physi- 
cal Properties of Meteoroids, Proceedings of the International Astronomical 
Union's Colloquium No. 13. NASA SP-319, 1973. 

"The Prediction of Anomalous Tails of Comets." Sky and Telescope, 

volume 47 (1974), pages 374-377. 

Silk, J. K., S. Kahler, A. S. Krieger, A. F. Timothy, G. S. Vaiana, and D. Webb. 
"Spatial and Spectral Observations of Two Solar X-Ray Flares." Presented at 
the Spatial ATM Session of the Open Meeting of the WG3 COSPAR Meeting, 
Sao Paulo, Brazil, June 1974. 

Sistla, G., G. Kojoian, and E. J. Chaisson. "Microwave Measurements of Plane- 
tary Nebulae." Presented at the 141st Meeting of the American Astronomical 
Society, Tucson, Arizona, December 1973; abstract in Bulletin of the Ameri- 
can Astronomical Society, volume 5 (1973), page 424. 

Southworth, R. B. "Recombination in Radar Meteors." Pages 13-21 in C. L. 
Hemenway, P. M. Millman, and A. F. Cook, editors. Evolutionary and Physi- 
cal Properties of Meteoroids, Proceedings of the International Astronomical 
Union's Colloquium No. 13. NASA SP-319, 1973. 

Steinbrunn, F., and E. L. Fireman. "^®Ar Production Cross-Sections in Ti for 
Solar-Proton Effects in Lunar Surface Samples" (abstract). Pages 732-734 in 
Lunar Science V. Houston, Texas: Lunar Science Institute, 1974. 

Stephens, T. L., and A. Dalgarno. "Kinetic Energy in the Spontaneus Radiative 
Dissociation of Molecular Hydrogen." Astrophysical Journal, volume 186 
(1973), pages 165-167. 

Stoeser, D. B., R. W. Wolfe, U. B. Marvin, J. A. Wood, and J. F. Bower. "Petro- 
graphic Studies of a Boulder from the South Massif" (abstract). Pages 743- 
745 in Lunar Science V. Houston, Texas: Lunar Science Institute, 1974. 

Stoeser, D. B., R. W. Wolfe, J. A. Wood, and U. B. Marvin. "Petrology." Pages 
35-109 in Interdisciplinary Studies of Samples from Boulder 1, Station 2, 
Apollo 17. Compilation of the Studies of the Consortium Indomitabile, vol- 
ume 1 (1974). 

Taylor, G. J., M. J. Drake, M. Hallam, U. B. Marvin, and J. A. Wood. "Apollo 
16 Stratigraphy: The ANT Hills, the Cayley Plains and a Pre-Imbrian Re- 
golith." Pages 553-568 in Proceedings of the Fourth Lunar Science Conference, 
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, supplement 4, volume 1. New York: Per- 
gamon Press, 1973. 

Timothy, J. G., P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, E. M. Reeves, E. J. 
Schmahl, J. E. Vernazza, and G. L. Withbroe. "Preliminary Results from 
ATM: Observations of the Earth's Upper Atmosphere." Presented at the 
Fifty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, Washington, 
D.C., April 1974; abstract in Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 
volume 55 (1974), page 372. 

. "Preliminary Results from ATM: The Structure of Solar EUV Bright 

Points." Presented at the 17th International COSPAR Meeting, Sao Paulo, 
Brazil, June 1974. 

"Preliminary Results from ATM: Measurements of the Density of O2 in 

the Earth's Upper Atmosphere." Presented at the 17th International COSPAR 
Meeting, Sao Paulo, Brazil, June 1974. 

Timothy, A. F., A. S. Krieger, R. Petrasso, J. K. Silk, and G. S. Vaiana. "Struc- 
ture and Dynamics of the Quiet X-Ray Corona." Presented at the Spatial 
ATM Session of the Open Meeting of the WG3 COSPAR Meeting, Sao Paulo, 
Brazil, June 1974. 

Timothy, J. G., E. M. Reeves, and M. C. E. Huber. "The Photoelectric Spectro- 
heliometer on ATM." Presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumenta- 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 381 

tion Engineers Seminar-in-Depth on Instrumentation in Astronomy — II, Tuc- 
son, Arizona, March 1974. 

Traub, W. A., and N. P. Carleton. "Observations of O2, HaO, and HD in Plane- 
tary Atmospheres." Presented at the International Astronomical Union Sym- 
posium No. 65, Exploration of the Planetary System, Torun, Poland, Septem- 
ber 1973. 

. "Detection of Interstellar Lithium." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), 

volume 184 (1973), pages L11-L14. 

"Observations of Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Jovian H2 

Quadrupole Lines." Presented at the Planetary Sciences Division Meeting of 
the American Astronomical Society, Palo Alto, California, April 1974. 

Traub, W. A., N. P. Carleton, and D. J. Hegyi. "Search for Deuterium in Orion 
and Detection of High- Velocity Features." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), 
volume 190 (1974), pages L81-L84. 

Trauger, J. T., F. L. Roesler, N. P. Carleton, and W. A. Traub. "Observation of 
HD on Jupiter and the D/H Ratio." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 
184 (1973), pages L137-L141. 

Vaiana, G. S. "Observations of the X-Ray Corona with S-054 X-Ray Telescope." 
Presented at the International Astronomical Union/COSPAR Symposium No. 
68, Solar Gamma X-Ray and EUV Radiation, Buenos Aires, Argentina, June 

. "ATM X-Ray Telescope Results." Presented at the Spatial ATM Ses- 
sion of the Open Meeting of the WG3 COSPAR Meeting, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 
June 1974. 

Vaiana, G. S., J. M. Davis, R. Giacconi, A. S. Krieger, J. K. Silk, A. F. Timothy, 
and M. Zombeck. "X-Ray Observations of Characteristic Structures and Time 
Variations from the Solar Corona: Preliminary Results from Skylab." Astro- 
physical Journal (Letters), volume 185 (1973), pages L47-L51. 

VanSpeybroeck, L., E. Kellogg, S. Murray, and S. Duckett. "Negative Affinity 
X-Ray Photocathodes." Nuclear Science, volume NS 21 (1974), pages 408-415. 

Vernazza, J. E., E. H. Avrett, and R. Loeser. "Structure of the Solar Chromo- 
sphere. I. Basic Computations and Summary of the Results." Astrophysical 
Journal, volume 184 (1973), pages 605-631. 

Vernazza, J. E., P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, E. M. Reeves, E. J. 
Schmahl, J. G. Timothy, and G. L. Withbroe. "ATM Observations of the Time 
Dependent Intensity Fluctuations in the Extreme Ultraviolet." Presented at 
the Solar Physics Division Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 
Honolulu, Hawaii, January 1974; abstract in Bulletin of the American Astro- 
nomical Society, volume 6 (1974), page 296. 

. "ATM Measurements of EUV Intensity Fluctuations." Presented at the 

17th International COSPAR Meeting, Buenos Aires, Argentina, June 1974. 

Vernazza, J. E., and G. L. Withbroe. "The Evolution of Solar Active Regions 
Based on 8.6 mm and Other Solar Observations." AFCRL Scientific Report 
No. 73-0643, 34 pages, 1973. 

Vessot, R. F. C. "A Gravitational Redshift Rocket Experiment." Presented at the 
University of Toronto Physics Department Colloquium, Toronto, Canada, 
April 1974. 

Vessot, R. F. C, and M. W. Levine. "Performance Data of Space and Ground 
Hydrogen Masers and Ionospheric Studies for High-Accuracy Comparisons 
between Space and Ground Clocks." Presented at the Twenty-Seventh An- 
nual Frequency Control Symposium, Atlantic City, New Jersey, June 1974. 

Victor, G. A., and C. Laughlin. ''Model Potential Calculations of Be I and Mg I 
Oscillator Strengths." Nuclear Instruments and Methods, volume 110 (1973), 
pages 189-192. ; 

382 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Weeks, T. C. "A Survey of Gamma-Ray Sources in the Galactic Plane at Ener- 
gies of 10" to 10'* ev." Pages 446-449 in 13th International Cosmic Ray Con- 
ference, volume 1. Denver, Colorado: University of Denver, 1973. 

Weekes, T. C., and G. H. Rieke. "The Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique for 
Gamma Ray Astronomy." Presented at the 8th ESLAB Symposium, Frascati, 
Italy, June 1974. 

Whipple, F. L. "Accumulation of Chondrules on Asteroids" (abstract). Page 345 
in C. L. Hemenway, P. M. Millman, and A. F. Cook, editors. Evolutionary and 
Physical Properties of Meteroids, Proceedings of the International Astronomi- 
cal Union's Colloquium No. 13. NASA SP-319, 1973. 

. "Radial Pressure in the Solar Nebula Affecting the Motions of Plane- 

tesimals." Pages 355-361 in C. L. Hemenway, P. M. Millman, and A. F. Cook, 
editors. Evolutionary and Physical Properties of Meteoroids, Proceedings of 
the International Astronomical Union's Colloquium No. 13. NASA SP-319, 

-. "Note on the Number and Origin of Apollo Asteroids." The Moon, vol- 

ume 8 (1973), pages 340-345. 

. "Birth and Death of a Comet." Astronomy, volume 2 (1974), pages 4-19. 

"The Nature of Comets." Scientific American, volume 230 (1974), pages 


Withbroe, G. L. "ATM EUV Observations: The Corona and Transition Region." 
Presented at the Santa Fe Solar Physics Meeting, Santa Fe, New Mexico, May 

Withbroe, G. L., R. R. Fisher, P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, E. M. 
Reeves, E. J. Schmahl, J. G. Timothy, and J. E. Vemazza. "Extreme Ultra- 
violet Observations Acquired by the Harvard ATM Instrument." Presented 
at the Fifty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, Wash- 
ington, D.C., April 1974; abstract in Transactions, American Geophysical 
Union, volume 55 (1974), page 408. 

Withbroe, G. L., P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, E. M. Reeves, E. J. 
Schmahl, J. G. Timothy, and J. E. Vernazza. "Extreme Ultraviolet Solar Obser- 
vations from the Harvard ATM Experiment." Presented at the Solar Physics 
Division Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Honolulu, Hawaii, 
January 1974; abstract in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 
volume 6 (1974), pages 297-298. 

Withbroe, G. L., and J. B. Gurman. "Models of the Chromospheric-Coronal 
Transition Layer and Lower Corona Derived from Extreme-Ultraviolet Obser- 
vations." Astrophysical Journal, volume 183 (1973), pages 279-289. 

Wood, J. A. "The Fine-Grained Structure of Chondritic Meteorites." Presented 
at the Dusty Universe Symposium honoring Dr. Fred L. Whipple, Smithson- 
ian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts, October 1973. 

. "Bombardment As a Cause of the Lunar Asymmetry." The Moon, vol- 
ume 8 (1973), pages 73-103. 

(with Lunar Sample Analysis Planning Team). "Lunar Science IV." 

Science, volume 181 (1973), pages 615-622. 

'The Moon after Apollo: Lunacies Reconsidered." Harvard Today, 

winter issue (1974), pages 6-7. 

"A Survey of Lunar Rock Types and Comparison of the Crusts of 

Earth and Moon." Presented at the Soviet-American Conference on Cosmo- 
chemistry of the Moon and Planets, Moscow, June 1974. 
I Wood, J. A., and H. E. Mitler. "Origin of the Moon by a Modified Capture 
Mechanism, or Half a Loaf is Better Than a Whole One" (abstract). Pages 
851-853 in Lunar Science V. Houston, Texas: Lunar Science Institute, 1974. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 383 

Wright, F. W. Particularized Navigation (How to Prevent Navigation Emergen- 
cies). Part I, Emergency Booklet, 66 pages; Part II, Emergency Pamphlet, 51 
pages. Cambridge, Maryland: Cornell Maritime Press, Inc., 1973. 


352. G. E. O. Giacaglia. "Lunar Perturbations on Artificial Satellites of the 
Earth." October 1, 1973. 

353. E. M. Gaposchkin, editor. "1973 Smithsonian Standard Earth (III)." No- 
vember 28, 1973. Part I: "Historical Introduction," by C. A. Lundquist 
and F. L. Whipple. Part II: "SAO Network: Instrumentation and Data 
Reduction," by M. R. Pearlman, J. M. Thorp, C. R. H. Tsiang, D. A. 
Arnold, C. G. Lehr, and J. Wohn. Part III: "Satellite Dynamics," by E. M. 
Gaposchkin. Part IV: "Estimate of Gravity Anomalies," by M. R. William- 
son and E. M. Gaposchkin. Part V: "Determination of the Geopotential," 
by E. M. Gaposchkin, M. R. Williamson, Y. Kozai, and G. Mendes. Part 
VI: "Determination of Station Coordinates," by E. M. Gaposchkin, J. 
Latimer, and G. Veis. 

354. L. G. Jacchia. "Variations in Thermospheric Composition: A Model Based 
on Mass-Spectrometer and Satellite-Drag Data." November 30, 1973. 

355. R. E. Schild. "Optical and Mechanical Performance of the Tillinghast 
60-Inch Reflector, Mt. Hopkins Observatory." December 14, 1973. 

356. J. W. Slowey. "Radiation-Pressure and Air-Drag Effects on the Orbit of 
the Balloon Satellite 1963 30D." January 18, 1974. 

357. M. R. Pearlman, J. L. Bufton, D. Hogan, D. Kurtenbach, and K. Goodwin. 
"SAO/NASA Joint Investigation of Astronomical Viewing Quality at 
Mt. Hopkins Observatory: 1969-1971." January 23, 1974. 

358. P. A. Mohr. "1973 Ethiopian-Rift Geodimeter Survey." January 28, 1974. 

359. R. L. Kurucz. "Semiempirical Calculation of gf Values, II: Fe I (3d-l-4s)8 — 
(3d-|-4s)7 4p." April 15, 1974. 


Goldstein, Jan. "Coordinating Research Nationwide: Some Help For Associa- 
tion Executives." Association Management (February 1974), pages 84-85. 

Hersey, David F. "SSIE: A Unique Data Base." Government Publications Re- 
view, volume 1, number 2 (winter 1973), pages 209-212. 

Hersey, D. F., W. R. Foster, and S. Liebman. "The Smithsonian Science Informa- 
tion Exchange." Chemical Technology, volume 3, number 12 (December 
1973), pages 733-738. 

Hersey, D. F., M. Snyderman, W. R. Foster, B. Hunt, and P. Morgan. "On-Line 
Retrieval and Machine-Aided Indexing in a Large Data Base of Ongoing 
Research Information." Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the 
American Society for Information Science, volume 10 (October 1973), pages 



Ospina, H. Mariano, and Robert L. Dressier. Orquideas de las Americas. 496 

pages. Fondo de Publicaciones Cientificas, Medellin, 1974. 
Ricklefs, Robert E. Ecology. 861 pages. Newton, Massachusetts: Chiron Press, 



Abele, Lawrence G. "A New Species of Sesarma, S. (Holometopus) rubinof- 
forum from the Pacific Coast of Panama (Crustacea, Decapoda, Grapsidae)." 

384 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 86, number 27 
(1973), pages 333-338. 

"Taxonomy, Distribution and Ecology of the Genus Sesarma (Crus- 

tacea, Decapoda, Grapsidae), in Eastern North America, with Special Refer- 
ence to Florida." American Midland Naturalist, volume 90, number 2 (1973), 
pages 375-386. 

"Species Diversity of Decapod Crustaceans in Marine Habitats." Ecol- 

ogy, volume 55, number 1 (1974), pages 156-161. 

Abele, Lawrence G., and Robert H. Gore. "Selection of a Lectotype for Mega- 
lobrachium granuliferum Stimpson, 1958 (Decapoda, Forcellanidae)." Crus- 
taceana, volume 25, number 1 (1973), pages 105-106. 

Abele, Lawrence G., Michael H. Robinson, and Barbara Robinson. "Observa- 
tions on Sound Production by Two Species of Crabs from Panama (Decapoda, 
Gecarcinidae, and Pseudothelphusidae)." Crustaceana, volume 25, number 

2 (1973), pages 147-152. 

Bohlke, James E., and John E. McCosker. "Two Additional West Atlantic Gobies 

(Genus Cobiosoma) That Remove Ectoparasites from Other Fishes." Copeia, 

volume 3 (1973), pages 609-610. 
Buckman, Nancy S., and John C. Ogden. "Territorial Behavior of the Striped 

Parrotfish Scarus croicensis Bloch (Scaridae)." Ecology, volume 54, number 

6 (1973), pages 1377-1382. 
Dressier, Robert L. "Elleanthus capitatus — A Name That Must be Changed, 

or Is It?" American Orchid Society Bulletin, volume 42 (1973), pages 419-420. 
. "Notas sobre el Genero Encyclia en Mexico." Orquidea (Mex), volume 

3, number 10 (1974), pages 306-313. 
Dressier, Robert L., and Eric Hagsater. "Una Govenia Nueva del Estado de 

Jalisco: Govenia tequilana." Orquidea (Mix.), volume 3 (1973), pages 175- 

Dressier, Robert L., and Glenn E. Pollard. "Una Nueva Encyclia del sureste 

de Mexico." Orquidea (Mex.), volume 3 (1973), pages 272-279. 
Elton, Charles S. "The Structure of Invertebrate Populations Inside Neotropical 

Rain Forest." Journal of Animal Ecology, volume 42, number 1 (1973), pages 

Fleming, Theodore H. "Numbers of Mammal Species in North and Central 

American Forest Communities." Ecology, volume 54, number 3 (1973), pages 

Gliwicz, J. "A Short Characteristic of a Population of Proechimys semispinossus 

(Tomes, 1860) — a Rodent Species of the Tropical Rain Forest." Bulletin de 

la Academie Polonaise de Sciences, Series Science Biology, cl. 2, volume 21, 

number 6 (1973), pages 413-418. 
Glynn, Peter William. "Ecology of a Caribbean Coral Reef. The Porites Reef- 
Flat Biotope: Part I. Meteorology and Hydrography." Marine Biology, volume 

20 (1973), pages 297-318. 

. "Ecology of a Caribbean Coral Reef. The Porites Reef-Flat Biotope; 

Part II. Plankton Community with Evidence for Depletion." Marine Biology, 
volume 22, number 22, number 1 (1973), pages 1-21. 

Glynn, Peter W., and Robert H. Stewart. "Distribution of Coral Reefs in the 
Pearl Islands (Gulf of Panama) in Relation to Thermal Conditions." Lim- 
nology and Oceanography, volume 18, number 3 (1973), pages 367-379. 

Gore, Robert H., and Lawrence G. Abele. "Three New Species of Porcellanid 
Crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Porcellanidae) from the Bay of Panama and 
Adjacent Caribbean Waters." Bulletin of Marine Science, volume 23, number 

3 (1973), pages 559-573. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 385 

Graham, Jeffrey B. "Heat Exchange in the Black Skipjack, and the Blood-Gas 
Relationship of Warm-Bodied Fishes." Proceedings of the National Academy 
of Science, volume 70, number 7 (1973), pages 1964-1967. 

. "Terrestrial Life of the Amphibious Fish Mnierpes macrocephalus." 

Marine Biology, volume 23 (1973), pages 83-91. 

Hespenheide, Henry A. "A Novel Mimicry Complex: Beetle and Flies." Journal 
of Entomology, volume 48, number 1 (1973), pages 49-56. 

Kropach, Chaim, and John D. Soule. "An Unusual Association between an 
Ectoproct and a Sea Snake." Herpetologica, volume 29, number 1 (1973), 
pages 17-19. 

Lang, Judith. "Interspecific Aggression by Scleractinian Corals: 2. Why the 
Race Is Not Only to the Swift." Bulletin of Marine Science, volume 23, num- 
ber 2 (1973), pages 260-279. 

Lehman, John T., and James W. Porter. "Chemical Activation of Feeding in the 
Caribbean Reef-Building Coral Montastrea cavernosa." Biological Bulletin, 
volume 145 (1973), pages 140-149. 

Leigh, Egbert G. "The Evolution of Mutation Rates." Genetics Supplement, 
volume 73 (1973), pages 1-18. 

Linares, Olga F. "Current Research: Lower Central America." American An- 
tiquity, volume 38 (1973), pages 234-235. 

. "Excavaciones en Barriles y Cerro Punta: Nuevos Datos sobre la Epoca 

Formativa Tardia (0-500 D.C.) en el Oeste panamefio." Actas del Tercer 
Simposio de Antropologia, Arqueologia y Ethnohistoria de Panama, Octubre 

"From the Late Preceramic to the Early Formative in the Intermediate 

Area: Some Issues and Methodologies." First Symposium of Archaeology 
and History, Puerto Rico, December 1973. 

[Review] "Ngawbe: Traditions and Change among the Western Guaymi 

of Panama," by Philip D. Young. American Anthropologist, volume 75, num- 
ber 4 (1973), pages 1011-1012. 

[Review] "Pre-Columbian Man Finds Central America: The Archaeo- 

logical Bridge," by Doris Stone. American Journal of Archaeology, volume 77 
(1973), pages 361-362. 

[Review] "Revista Espanola de Antropologia Americana (Trabajos y 

conferencias)," volume 6, edited by Jose Alcina Franch. American Journal of 
Archaeology, volume 77 (1973), pages 253-254. 

Lubin, Yael D. "Web Structure and Function: The Non-adhesive Orb-Web of 

Cyrtophora moluccesis (Doleschall) (Aranaea: Araneidae)." Forma et Func- 

tio, volume 6 (1973), pages 337-358. 
Macurda, Donald B., and David L. Meyer. "Feeding Posture of Modem Stalked 

Crinoids." Nature, volume 247 (1974), pages 394-396. 
Meyer, David L. "Feeding Behavior and Ecology of Shallow-Water Unstalked 

Crinoids (Echinodermata) in the Caribbean Sea." Marine Biology, volume 

22, number 2 (1973), pages 105-129. 
Montgomery, G. G., W. E. Cochran, and M. E. Sunquist. "Radiolocating Ar- 
boreal Vertebrates in Tropical Forest." Journal Wildlife Management, volume 

37, number 3 (1973), pages 426-428. 
Montgomery, G. G., A. S. Rand, and M. E. Sunquist. "Post-Nesting Movements 

of Iguanas from a Nesting Aggregation." Copeia, volume 3 (1973), pages 

Morton, Eugene S. "On the Evolutionary Advantages and Disadvantages of 

Fruit Eating in Tropical Birds." American Naturalist, volume 107 (1973), 

pages 8-22. 

386 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Moynihan, Martin H. "The Evolution of Behavior and the Role of Behavior in 

Evolution." Breviora, volume 415 (1973), pages 1-29. 
Ogden, John C, and Nancy S. Buckman. "Movements, Foraging Groups, and 

Diurnal Migrations of the Striped Parrotfish Scarries croicensis Bloch 

(Scaridal)." Ecology, volume 54, number 3 (1973), pages 589-596. 
Oppenheimer, John R. "Social and Communicatory Behavior in the Cebus 

Monkey." Pages 251-271 in C. R. Carpenter, editor. Behavioral Regulators 

of Behavior in Primates. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 1973. 
Porter, James W. "Biological, Physical, and Historical Forces Structuring Coral 

Reef Communities on Opposite Sides of the Isthmus of Panama." Thesis 

(1973), pages 1-146. 
Porter, James W., and Karen Porter. "The Effects of Panama's Cuna Indians on 

Coral Reefs." Discovery, volume 8, number 2 (1973), pages 65-70. 
Ricklefs, Robert E., and John Cullen. "Embryonic Growth of the Green Iguana 

Iguana iguana." Copeia, volume 2 (1973), pages 296-305. 

Robinson, Michael H. "The Evolution of Cryptic Postures in Insects, with 
Special Reference to Some New Guinea Tettigoniids (Orthoptera)." Psyche, 
volume 80, number 3 (1973), pages 159-165. 

. "Insect Anti-predator Adaptations and the Behavior of Predatory Pri- 
mates." Actas del IV Congreso Latino americano de Zoologia, volume 2 (1973), 
pages 811-836. 

'The Stabilimenta of Nephila clavipes and the Origins of Stabili- 

mentum-Building in Araneids." Psyche, volume 80, number 4 (1973), pages 

'The Biology of Some Argiope Species from New Guinea: I. Predatory 

Behavior and Stabilimentum Construction." Zoological Journal of the Lin- 
nean Society, London. 

Robinson, Michael H., and Barbara Robinson. "Ecology and Behavior of the 
Giant Wood Spider Nephila maculata (Fabricius) in New Guinea." Smith- 
sonian Contribution to Zoology, number 149 (1973), 76 pages. 

Robinson, Michael H., B. Robinson, and Yael D. Lubin. "Phenology, Species 
Diversity and Natural History of Web-Building Spiders on Three Transects 
at Wau, New Guinea." Pacific Insects, volume 20 (1974), pages 117-163. 

Rubinoff, Ira. "A Sea Level Canal in Panama." Theme 3 (1973). Pages 1-13 in 
Les Consequences biologiques des Canaux interoceans. XVII Congress Inter- 
national de Zoologie, Montecarlo, 1972. 

Smith, Wayne L. "Record of a Fish Associated with a Caribbean Sea Anemone." 
Copeia, volume 3 (1973), pages 597-598. 

Todd, Eric S. "Positive Buoyancy and Air-Breathing: A New Piscine Gas Blad- 
der Function." Copeia, volume 3 (1973), pages 461-464. 

. "A Preliminary Report of the Respiratory Pump in the Dactyloscopi-r 

dae." Copeia, volume 1 (1973), pages 115-119. 

Williams, Norris H., and Robert L. Dressier. "Oncidium Species Described by 
Jacquin and the Typification of Oncidium." Taxon, volume 22, number 2/3 
(1973), pages 221-227. 

Willis, Edwin O. "The Behavior of Ocellated Antbirds." Smithsonian Contri- 
butions to Zoology, number 144 (1973), 57 pages. 

Wolda, Hindrik. "Ecology of Some Experimental Populations of the Landsnail 
Cepaea nemoralis (L.) : II. Production and Survival of Eggs and Juveniles." 
Netherlands Journal of Zoology, volume 32, number 2 (1973), pages 168-188. 

Zaret, Thomas M., and R. T. Paine. "Species Introduction in a Tropical Lake." 
Science, volume 182 (1973), pages 449-455. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 387 

Zucker, Naida. "Shelter Building as a Means of Reducing Territory Size in the 
Fiddler Crab, Uca terpsichores (Crustacea: Ocypodidae)." American Midland 
Naturalist, volume 91 (1973), pages 224-236. 



"An American Museum of Decorative Art and Design: Designs from the 
Cooper- Hewitt Collection." Foreword, Sir John Pope-Hennessy; introduction, 
Lisa Taylor; drawings, Elaine Evans Dee; textiles, Milton Sonday; wall- 
papers, Catherine Lynn Frangiamore. 118 pages, 246 black-and-white and 2 
color illustrations. New York: Victoria & Albert Museum, London, 1973. 

"Cooper-Hewitt Museum Benefit Auction Catalogue." Introduction by Lisa 
Taylor. 98 pages, 66 black-and-while illustrations, 1974. 



Atil, Esin. Ceramics from the World of Islam. 225 pages, 101 illustrations. 
Washington, D.C. : Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, 1973. 

Lawton, Thomas. Chinese Figure Painting. 236 pages, 59 illustrations. Wash- 
ington, D.C: Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, 1973. 


Atil, Esin. "Two Ilkhanid Candlesticks at the University of Michigan." Kunst 
des Orients, volume VIII, number 1-2 (1972), pages 1-33. 

. "Exhibition of Islamic Pottery at the Freer Gallery of Art." Connois- 
seur, volume 185, number 745 (March 1974), pages 219-226. 

Chase, W. Thomas, III. "Conservation in the People's Republic of China."' 
Bulletin of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic 
Works, volume 14, number 2 (1974), pages 131-141. 

Lawton, Thomas. [Review] "Die Siegelschrift (Chuan-shu) in der Ch'ing-Zeit, 
ein Beitrag zu Geschichte due chinesischen Shrift Kunst," by Lothar Ledder- 
hose. Journal of the Oriental Society (1973). 

Lovell, Hin-cheung. "Chinese Figure Painting at the Freer Gallery of Art." 
Oriental Art, n.s., volume 19, number 3 (autumn 1973), pages 330-332. 

■ . An Annotated Bibliography of Chinese Painting Catalogues and Re- 
lated Texts. Michigan Papers in Chinese Studies No. 16, Ann Arbor, 1973. 

Winter, John. [Review] Science and Archaeology, R. H. Brill, editor, MIT Press, , 
1971, in ASTM Standardization News, volume 2, Number 3, March 1974 
page 48. 


Atil, Esin. "Islamic Pottery." Darien Community Association, Darien, Conn. 

. "Turkish Paintings as Historical Documents." University of Maryland, . 


"Exhibition of Islamic Pottery at the Freer Gallery of Art." Smith- 

sonian Associates, Washington, D.C. 

-. "Formation of Ottoman Miniature Painting." Carnegie Center, New 


"Ottoman History through the Works of the Court Painters." Textile 

Museum, Washington, D. C. 
. "Turkish Miniature Painting." Washington Club, Washington, D.C. 

388 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

. "Historical Survey of Islamic Painting." Foreign Service Institute, State 

Department, Washington, D.C. 

Chase, W. Thomas, III. "The Art of the Hyogushi." Royal Ontario Museum, 
Toronto, Canada. 

. "Impressions of China." Westmoreland Congregational Church, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

"Conservation in the People's Republic of China." Washington Region 

Conservation Guild, Washington, D.C. 

"Archaeology in the People's Republic of China." Massachusetts In- 

stitute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 

-. "Comparative Analysis of Archaeological Bronzes." National Bureau 

of Standards, Analytical Chemistry Seminar, Washington, D. C. 

"Fakes and Forgeries in Sculpture — Oriental Bronzes and Ceramics." 

Smithsonian Associates course, "Fakes-Imposters of the Marketplace," Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

"My Trip to China." Annual Meeting of the American Institute for 

Conservation, Cooperstown, N.Y. 

"Technical Aspects of Chinese Metalwork." Society of North American 

Goldsmiths, Washington, D.C. 

Lawton, Thomas. "Recent Archaeological Excavations in the People's Republic 
of China." Twentieth Century Club, Washington, D.C. 

. "Chinese Narrative Painting." Baltimore Art Society, Maryland. 

. "Chinese Art." Saint Louis Art Museum Society, Missouri. 

. "Chinese Art in the Freer Gallery." Corcoran Gallery Group, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

. "Chinese Buddhist Art." Princeton Academic Group, New Jersey. 

"Recent Archaeological Excavations in the People's Republic of China." 

Voice of America, Washington, D.C. 
Stern, Harold P. "A Survey of Japanese Art." Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, 

. "The Freer Gallery of Art — Yosa Buson." Friends of Oriental Art of the 

Seattle Art Museum, Washington. 

-. "Yosa Buson." Seattle Art Museum, Washington. 

Winter, John. "Archaeological Dating Methods." Smithsonian Associates, 

Washington, D.C. 
. "Chemistry in Museums : A Quick Tour of the Field." Sigma Xi Society, 

University of West Florida, Pensacola, Fla. 

"The Scanning Electron Microscope in Pigment Studies." ICOM Con- 

servation Committee, Working Group on the Paint Layer, Copenhagen, 


Aldrich, Michele L. "Edward Berry" in Edward T. James, editor. Dictionary of 
American Biography, Supplement Three: 1941-1945 (1973). 

. "Clarence King" in Charles Gillispie, editor. Dictionary of Scientific 

Biography, volume 7 (1973). 

"Jonathan Homer Lane" in C. C. Gillispie, editor. Dictionary of Sci- 

entific Biography, volume 8, pages 1-3. New York, 1973. 


Hobbins, James M. "Applications of Computer Technology to Historical Edit- 
ing." History Department, University of Maryland, November 1973. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 389 

Molella, Arthur P. "Research in the History of Physics — The Case of Joseph 
Henry." Symposium: History in the Teaching of Physics, New York State 
Section of the American Association of Physics Teachers, Troy, New York, 
October 13, 1973. 

. "Active Nature and 19th-century German Physics: The Atomic Phi- 
losophy of Gustav T. Fechner." Zoology Colloquium, University of Maryland, 
December 12, 1973. 

with Nathan Reingold, Lecture and Seminar on Science, Technology, 

and Public Policy, February 7, 1974, Fogarty International Center, National 
Institutes of Health. 

Reingold, Nathan. "Joseph Henry on the Scientific Life : An AAAS Presidential 
Address of 1850." American Association for the Advancement of Science 
session on the Development of American Science in the 19th and 20th Cen- 
turies, San Francisco, California, March 1, 1974. 

. "Time and Place Physics." Carnegie-Mellon/Pittsburgh Workshop on 

The Place of the Geophysical Sciences in 19th Century Natural Philosophy, 
March 14-17, 1974. 

with Arthur P. Molella. Lecture and Seminar on Science, Technology 

and Public Policy, February 7, 1974, Fogarty International Center, National 
Institutes of Health. 


Elliott, John M. "Painting of Special Aircraft." American Aviation Historical 
Society Journal, volume 18, number 3 (3d quarter 1973), pages 199-202. 



Andrews, Martha. "Bicentennial Inventory of American Painting." ARLIS/NA 
(Art Libraries Society of North America) Newsletter, October 1973. 

Bolton-Smith. Robin. "The Sentimental Paintings of Lilly Martin Spencer." 
Antiques, volume 103, number 7 (July 1973). 

Booth, Abigail. "The Bicentennial Inventory." American Art Review September- 
October 1973. (Reprint of "An Inventory for the Art Researcher." Museum 
News, December 1972). 

Breeskin, Adelyn D. Art of the Pacific Northwest: From the 1930s to the Pres- 
ent." Exhibition catalogue acknowledgments, December 7, 1973. 

. Tribute to Mark Tobey. Exhibition catalogue acknowledgments, June, 

7, 1974. 

Fink, Lois. "American Artists in France, 1850-1870." American Art Journal, 
volume 5, number 2, November 1973. 

Flint, Janet. Modern American Woodcuts. Exhibition checklist. 16 pages, 5 
illustrations. November 30, 1973. 

. Herman A. Webster: Drawings, Watercolors and Prints. Exhibition 

checklist. 8 pages, 1 illustration, February 15, 1974. 

Hanan, Sara B. Selected and Annotated List of Basic Reference Materials in the 
NCFA/NPC Library: Fine Arts. (Research guide distributed in the library.) 
32 pages, 1974. 

Herman, Lloyd E. Introduction to Form and Fire: Natzler Ceramics 1939-1972. 
Exhibition catalogue. 12 pages, 80 illustrations, July 27, 1973. 

. Foreword to Shaker, Furniture and Objects from the Faith and Edward 

Deming Andrews Collection Commemorating the Bicentenary of the Ameri- 
can Shakers. Exhibition catalogue. 88 pages, 65 illustrations, November 2, 

390 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Hopps, Walter. Anne Truitt. Catalogue. 64 pages, 45 illustrations. Baltimore, 
Md. : Garamond/Pridemark Press, 1974. 

. Introduction to Revival!, by Eleanor Dickinson, text by Barbara Ben- 

ziger. New York: Harper & Row, 1974. 

Panzer, Nora. National Collection of Fine Arts / Renwick Gallery. Information 
for Docents. Handbook. 20 pages. May 1974. 

Taylor, Joshua C. Foreword to Form and Fire: Natzler Ceramics 1939-1972. 
Exhibition catalogue. July 27, 1973. 

. Introduction to Robert Loftin Newman: 1827-1912. Exhibition Cata- 
logue. March 18, 1974. 

. Robert Loftin Newman: 1827-1912. Checklist essay. October 26, 1973. 

Introduction to Shaker: Furniture and Objects from the Faith and 

Edward Deming Andrews Collection Commemorating the Bicentenary of the 
American Shakers. Exhibition catalogue. 88 pages, 65 illustrations. November 
2, 1973. 

-. Introduction to Art of the Pacific Northwest. Exhibition catalogue. Feb- 

ruary 8, 1974. 

. Tribute to Mark Tobey. Exhibition catalogue essay. June 7, 1974. 

'Evolution of the Fine Arts." Treasures of America and Where to Find 

Them. Readers' Digest Association, Inc., 1974. 

Taylor, Joshua C, with L. Quincy Mumford. Foreword to Catalog of the 23rd 
National Exhibition of Prints. Exhibition catalogue. Washington, D.C. : Li- 
brary of Congress, September 24, 1973. 

Walker, William B. "Some Notes on L. C. Class N." Article. ARLIS/NA (Art 
Libraries Society of North America) Newsletter, volume 2 (April 1974), pages 


Andrews, Martha. "Progress of the Bicentennial Inventory of American Paint- 
ing." Kansas City (Mo.) Inventory Survey, Nelson Gallery of Art. Kansas 
City, Mo. June 20, 1974. 
Bermingham, Peter. "Crisis in Public Education." Seminar participant. George 
Washington University, Washington, D.C. November 1973. 

. "Barbizon Art in America." Indianapolis Art Museum, Ind. November 

. Discussion and Tour of the National Collection of Fine Arts for Inter- 

national Committee on Museums, American Association of Museums, Na- 
tional Collection of Fine Arts. April 1974. 

Singham, Lois, and Cogswell, Margaret. "Programs of the Office of Exhibitions 
Abroad." Professional and Business Women's Association of Alexandria, Va. 
November 27, 1973. 

3olton-Smith, Robin. "Lilly Martin Spencer." Washington Women Art Profes- 
sionals. Washington, D.C. August 9, 1973. 

. "Miniatures in the National Collection of Fine Arts." Smithsonian 

Associates. December 3, 1973. 

. "Lilly Martin Spencer." Radio interview. Station WMAU, Washington, 

D.C. August 1973. 

3ooth, Abigail. "Women and the Museum Profession." Wesleyan College, 
Macon, Ga. October 30, 1973. 

. "Bicentennial Inventory of American Painting." Gaithersburg (Md.) 

Branch, American Association of University Women. November 12, 1973. 

. "Bicentennial Inventory of American Painting." Washington Guild of 

Conservators. December 6, 1973. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 391 

. "Bicentennial Inventory of American Painting." Bay Area Inventory 

Survey, Bohemian Club, San Francisco, Calif. March 26, 1974. 

-. "Bicentennial Inventory of American Painting." Rockville (Md.) Branch, 

American Association of University Women. May 11, 1974. 
Breeskin, Adelyn D. "Women in the Arts." Akron College Club, Akron, Ohio. 

September 15, 1973. 
. Judge. "The 1973 Maryland Open Art Shovy?." Maryland School of Art 

and Design, Silver Spring, Md. October 29, 1973. 

"Roots of Modernism in Painting and Sculpture." Abilene Fine Arts 

Museum, Abilene, Tex. November 16, 1973. 

"Mary Cassatt." Northwood Experimental Art Institute, Dallas, Tex. 

November 16, 1973. 

"The Social Responsibility of Museums and of Artists." Northern Vir- 

ginia Fine Arts Association, Alexandria, Va. March 26, 1974. 
. "The National Collection of Fine Arts." Guild of our Friends of Art 

from the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas City, Mo. National 
Collection of Fine Arts. April 18, 1974. 

"Mark Tobey." Smithsonian Associates, June 12, 1974. 

Cogswell, Margaret. "International Art Exhibitions." Junior Officer Trainees, 
United States Information Agency. November 23, 1973. 

. "The Organization and Preparation of Traveling Exhibitions." Massa- 
chusetts College of Art, Boston. March 29, 1974. 

Fink, Eleanor E. "Visual Documentation Activities: 62nd Annual Meeting of 
the College Art Association of America, Detroit, January 1974." ARLIS/NA 
(Art Libraries Society of North America) Washington-Baltimore Chapter, 
Washington, D.C. February 14, 1974. 

Fink, Lois. "Image of Innocence: The Child in Nineteenth Century Art." Bir- 
mingham Museum of Art, Ala. December 12, 1973. 

. "The Quality of Sentiment: Women, Children, Blacks, Dumb Animals 

and Christ in Nineteenth Century Art." Georgetown University Department 
of Fine Arts. Washington, D.C. January-May 1974. 

■ . "The American Renaissance: Art in the United States ca 1870 to 1913." 

Smithsonian Associates Class, winter 1974. 

"American Taste and Patronage at Mid-Century as Reflected in the 

Grand Salon of the Renwick Gallery." Lecture to graduate seminar. "Mate- 
rial Aspects of American Civilization," George Washington University/ 
University of Maryland. National Portrait Gallery. October 18, 1973. 

"Late 19th-century American Art: Cosmopolitan Tastes and the Gen- 

teel Tradition." Sponsored jointly by the National Collection and the Uni- 
versity of Delaware. April 19, 1973. 

Flint, Janet. Juror. Philadelphia Print Club Exhibition. Philadelphia, Pa. 

. "Print Collection of the National Collection of Fine Arts." Washington 

Print Club. 

. "Collecting Prints and Posters." Smithsonian Associates. 

. "History of Printmaking in the United States." American University, 

Washington, D.C. Spring 1974. 

Gordon, Margery. "The Smithsonian and the Schools." Fairfax (Va.) County 
Schools. March 1974. 

• . "Elementary Art Education." Teachers' workshop. Association of Child- 
hood Education International, National Collection of Fine Arts. April 1974. 

Grana, Teresa. "Innovative High" School Programs." Rockefeller Foundation, 
San Francisco, Calif. November 1973. 

. "Portfolio Day." National Association of Schools of Art, Parsons School 

of Design, New York, N.Y. April 1974. 

392 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Herman, Lloyd E. Judge. "Winter Park (Fla.) Sidewalk Art Festival." January 

and March 1974. 
. Juror. "North American Goldsmiths Competition." Minnesota Museum 

of Art, St. Paul, Minn. March 10-12, 1974. 

. Guest speaker. Raleigh (N.C.) Fine Arts Society. November 1973. 

"Furniture Options for the Twentieth Century." Smithsonian Associ- 

ates. Renwick Gallery. 

Hopps, Walter. "Joseph Cornell: His Visual Poetics." National Collection of 
Fine Arts. February 1974. 

. Judge. "Tenth Monroe National Annual Art Exhibition." Masur Mu- 
seum of Art, Monroe, La. October 13, 1973. 

Kaneshiro, Allan K. "Etching Et Al." Smithsonian Associates. Spring 1974. 

. "The Saturday Painter." Smithsonian Associates. Spring 1974. 

Martin, Edith L Judge. "Summer Media Workshop." High School Students' 
Photography Contest. 1974. 

McClelland, Donald R. Juror. Anne Arundel County (Md.) Fair. September 12, 

. Juror. "Department of Defense Show." March 26, 1974. 

. Foreword to Watercolor, by Arthur N. Starin. The Tweed Museum of 

Art, University of Minnesota, Duluth. August 8, 1973. 

'American Painting at the Turn of the Twentieth Century." "Mid-Nine- 

teenth Century Architecture." Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, Sep- 
tember 20-21, 1973. 

'Introduction and Comments on a Tour of Russia." Graduate School, 

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. October 10, 1973. 

'Development of the Arts and Architecture in Maryland in the Eight- 

eenth Century." University of Maryland, Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, Md. 
April 26, 1974. 

Monroe, Michael W. Judge. High School Students' Design Contest, D.C. Bicen- 
tennial, Washington, D.C. February 1974. 

. "The Goldsmith Exhibition." The Society of North American Gold- 
smiths Conference, Renwick Gallery. 

Muhlert, Jan K. "Collectors and Collections: The National Collection of Fine 
Arts." National Collection of Fine Arts. October 30, 1973. 

. "Joseph Cornell." National League of American Pen Women, Alexan- 
dria, Va. January 4, 1974. 

"Women Artists: History/Conditions/Aspirations." National Collec- 

tion of Fine Arts. January 24, 1974. 

Judge. "The Washington Post Recreation Association Second Annual 

Arts, Crafts, and Photography Show." Washington, D.C. October 19, 1973. 
-. Judge. "Vienna Society of Artists: Fourth Annual Juried Show." Vienna, 

Va. November 16, 1973. 

Judge. "Resident Smithsonian Associate Program Photography Con- 

test." February 2, 1974. 

Judge. "Winter Haven Sunshine Art Festival." Winter Haven, Fla. 

March 29-30, 1974. 
Myette, Ellen M. "History and Restoration of the Renwick Gallery." Corcoran 

Luncheon Series. Renwick Gallery. October 17, 1973. 
. "Renwick Gallery." Talk and tour for members of the International 

Panzer, Nora. "Docent Training." Northeast Regional Conference, American 

Association of Museums, Washington, D.C. 
Taylor, Joshua C. "Degas and the Photographic Melancholy." National Gallery 

of Art, Washington, D.C. October 14, 1973. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 393 

. "The Lost Art or What Happened in the Grove?" University of Chicago. 

November 12, 1973. 

"The Present and Futurism." Soloman R. Guggenheim Museum, New 

York City. November 20, 1973. 

"American Art, Past and Present." International Club of Washington, 

D.C. January 31, 1974. 
. "Art of the Pacific Northwest." National Collection of Fine Arts. Febru- 

ary 28, 1974. 

"Religious Impulse in American Art." Baylor Unversity, Waco, Tex. 

April 16, 1974. 

. "Where Is Art?" Trinity University, San Antonio, Tex. April 18, 1974. 

-. "Cubism and Futurism." Art Institute of Chicago. April 21, 1974. 

Walker, William B. "The (Library of Congress) N Classification: How the 
Fourth Edition Works." Second Annual Conference, Art Libraries Society of 
North America, Detroit, Mich. January 22, 1974. 

. "Art Research Facilities in Washington: the NCFA/NPG Library." Dis- 
trict of Columbia Library Association, NCFA/NPG Library. February 20, 1974. 
"Library Materials for Research on American Prints." Panel presenta- 

tion. Washington Print Club, National Collection of Fine Arts. February 24, 
1974. (A special exhibition of books and catalogs on print collecting and re- 
search on prints was prepared for the program.) 



Battison, Edwin A., and Patricia Kane, American Clocks, 1725-1865. 207 pages. 
New York Graphic Society, 1973. 

Boorstin, Daniel J. Democracy and Its Discontents: Reflections on Everyday 
America. 136 pages. New York: Random House, 1974. 

Berkebile, Donald H., with Smith Hempstone Oliver. Wheels and Wheeling, 
The Smithsonian Cycle Collection. 104 pages. Smithsonian Studies in History, 
and Technology, number 24, 1974. 

Chapelle, Howard I. History of the American Fishing Schooners. 690 pages. 
New York : W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1973. 

Cooper, Grace R. Thirteen-Star Flags — Keys to Identification. 16 pages. Wash- 
ington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973. 

Davis, Audrey B. The Circulation of the Blood and Medical Chemistry in Eng- 
land, 1650-1680. 263 pages. Kansas: Coronado Press, 1973. 

• . A Bibliography on Women in Science and Society. 50 pages. New York: 

Science History Publishers, June 1974. 

Hamarneh, Sami K. Origins of Pharmacy and Therapy in the Near East, xiii + 
176 pages. Tokyo, Japan: The Naito Foundation, 1973. 

. Al-Biruni's Book on Pharmacy and Materia Medica, Introduction, Com- 
mentary, and Evaluation. 152 pages. Karachi, Pakistan: Hamdard National 
Foundation, 1973. 

The Physician, Therapist and Surgeon Ihn al-Quff. 199 pages English 

text + 27 pages Arabic text. Cairo: Atlas Press, 1974. 
Jackson, Melvin H., and Charles DeBeer. 18th Century Gunfounding. England: 

Newton Abbey, May 1974. 
Marzio, Peter C. Rube Goldberg: His Life and Work. 322 pages. New York: 

Harper & Row, 1973. 
Post, Robert C. [chief researcher]. Los Angeles and Its Environs in the Twentieth ! 

Century: A Bibliography of a Metropolis, 518 pages. Los Angeles: The Ward 

Ritchie Press, 1973. 

394 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Schlebecker, John T., Jr. The Use of the Land. 218 pages. Kansas: Coronado 

Press, 1973. 
Vogel, Robert M. (editor). A Report of the Mohawk-Hudson Area Survey. 

Smithsonian Studies in History & Technology, number 26, 210 pages, 414 

illustrations, 1973. 
White, John H., Jr. Horse Cars, Cable Cars and Omnibuses, xxxiv + 107 pages. 

New York: Dover Publications, 1974. 


Adrosko, Rita J. Introduction to a reprint of The Dyer's Companion by Elijah 
Bemiss. New York : Dover Publications, Inc., 1973. 

Ahlbom, Richard Eighme. "Peter Glass, a Maker of American Marquetry." 

Antiques, CIV, number 6 (December 1973), pages 1096-1100, 10 illustrations. 
Battison, Edwin A. "A New Look at the Whitney Milling Machine." Technology 

and Culture, volume 14, number 4 (October 1973). 
Boorstin, Daniel J. "A Design for an Anytime, Do-It- Yourself, Energy-Free 

Communication Device." Harper's Magazine, pages 83-86, January 1974. 
. "1984 minus 10." Symposium on the future of museums. Museum News, 

pages 49-50, June 1974. 

'Watergate as 'Cult of Personality.' " Congressional Quarterly, News 

and National Report, July 6, 1973. 
Bruns, Franklin R., Jr. "Sweden's Royal Regalia." The 5. P. A. Journal, volume 
35, number 12 (August 1973), pages 748-751, 1 illustration. 

. "Milwaukee Postal History and The Smithsonian." Program for MIL- 

COPEX 74/75th anniversary stamp exhibition, Milwaukee Philatelic Society, 
pages 32-34 (2 illustrations). 

Stamp (and coin) weekly syndicated columns, July 1, 1973-June 30, 1974, 

in the: Washington Post, Washington, D.C.; Inquirer, Philadelphia, Pa.; Post, 
Denver, Colo.; Times, St. Petersburg, Fla.; Democrat-Chronicle, Rochester, 
N.Y.; Post-Standard, Syracuse, N.Y.; Star Ledger, Newark, N.J.; and Patriot- 
News, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Clain-Stefanelli, Elvira. "L'evoluzione artistica della medaglia americana." Me- 
daglia, Milan, number 5 (1973), pages 87-99, illustrated. 

with Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli. Medals Commemorating Battles of the 

American Revolution, 44 pages. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution, 
1973. Reprinted by the United States Mint, Washington, D.C, 1974. 

co-editor. A Survey of Numismatic Research, 1966-1971, volume III. 

New York: International Numismatic Commission, 1973. 

"United States of America," pages 340-349 in A Survey of Numismatic 

Research, 1966-1971. New York, 1973. 

'Why and How to Collect Ancient Coins." The M.A.N.A. Journal, num- 

ber 2 (1973), pages 4-8. 
Davis, Audrey B. Triumph Over Disability: The Development of Rehabilitation 
Medicine in the U.S.A. Smithsonian Institution Press, October 1973, 49 pages. 
Davis, Audrey B., and Jon Eklund. "The Contributions of British Medicine to 
i American Medicine in the 18th Century." Proceedings of the 23rd Interna- 
tional Congress of History of Medicine, London, September 1972. 
Davis, Aubrey B., and Uta C. Merzbach. "Graphic Recording in Psychology: The 
I Kymograph." American Psychology Association, Washington, D.C, pages 

1-6, 1972. 
Fesperman, John T. "Nantucket's Two Musical Treasures." 8 pages, 4 illustra- 
tions [brochure describing two organs made in 1831 that are still in use]. Nan- 
tucket, Massachusetts: Second Congregational Meeting House Society, 1974. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 395 

Finn, Bernard S. Submarine Telegraphy: The Grand Victoria Technology. 48 

pages. London: Science Museum, 1973. 
Forman, Paul. "Scientific Internationalism and the Weimar Physicists: The Ide- 
ology and Its Manipulation in Germany after World War I." ISIS, volume 

64 (1973), pages 131-180. 
. "Financial Support and Political Alignment of the Physicists in Weimar 

Germany." Minerva, volume 12 (1974), pages 39-66. 
Hamameh, Sami K. "Some Aspects of Medical Practice and Institutions in 

Medieval Islam." Episteme, volume 7 (1973), pages 15-31, 5 figures. 
. "Pharmacy in Islam from the Eighth Through the Thirteenth Century." 

Radovi sa odrzanog prigodom proslave 700 obljetnice spomena Ijekarne u 

Trogiru. Zagreb (1973), pages 165-172. 

"Ecology and Therapeutics in Medieval Arabic Medicine." Sudhoffs 

Archiv, volume 57 (1973). 

Harris, Elizabeth M. "The American Common Press: The Restoration of a 
Wooden Press in the Smithsonian Institution." Journal of the Printing His- 
torical Society, volume 8 (1972), pages 42-52. 

. Chaim Goldberg's Shtetl. Exhibition guide. Hall of Graphic Arts. Smith- 
sonian Institution Press, 1973. 

Harris, Elizabeth M., Peter Marzio, and James Spears. The Anatomy of A Gallop. 
Exhibition guide, 4 pages. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973. 

Hebert, Raymond J. "Concerning Tenth to Twelfth Century Byzantine Folles." 
The Numismatic Circular, volume 82, number 3 (March 1974), pages 94-96; 
volume 82, number 4 (April 197 A), pages 140-141; volume 82, number 5 (May 
1974), pages 189-190. 

. "Countermarked Medieval Islamic Coins." The Numismatist, volume 

87, number 5 (May 1974), pages 856-861. 

Hindle, Brooke. "The Transfer of Power and Metallurgical Technologies to the 
United States, 1800-1880." Colloques Internationaux CNRS; No. 538-L' Acqui- 
sition des Techniques par les Pays Non-Iniaterus, pages 407-428. Paris: 1973. 

. "Shattered Dreams and Unexpected Accomplishment." Pages 422-435 

in James Kirby Martin, editor. Interpreting Colonial America, New York, 1973. 

"A Bridge: The History of Technology." Pages 24-32 in Philip C. Ritter- 

bush, editor. Technology As Institutionally Related to Human Values, Wash- 
ington, D.C, 1974. 

HoIIis, Helen R. "Jonas Chickering: Father of American Pianoforte-Making," 
Antiques, August 1973. 

. Pianos at the Smithsonian Institution. 47 pages, 23 figures. Smithson- 
ian Institution Press, 1973. 

Lundeberg, Philip K. "The Museum Perspective." Military Affairs, volume 36 
(1973), pages 153-154; volume 38 (1974), pages 29-30. 

. "The Challenge of the Museum Dimension," Military Affairs, volume 

36 (1973), pages 105-107. 

"Annual [Presidential] Report to the American Military Institute." Mi7z- 

tary Affairs, volume 37 (1973), pages 101-102. 
Marzio, Peter C. The Men and Machines of American Journalism, Exhibition 

Guide, 144 pages. Smithsonian Institution, 1973. 
Marzio, Peter C, Elizabeth Harris, James Spears, The Anatomy of a Gallop, 

Exhibition Guide, 4 pages. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973. 
Marzio, Peter C, Stanley Nelson, James Spears. Prang's American Chromos, 

Exhibition Guide, 4 pages. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973. 
Mayr, Otto. "Automatenlegenden in der Spatrenaissance." Technikgeschichte 

41 (1974), pages 20-32. 

396 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


Multhauf, Robert P. "Some Observations on the State of the History of Tech- 
nology." Technology and Culture, volume 15 (1974), pages 1-12. 

■ . "The discovery of borax." Proceedings of the 13th International Con- 
gress of the History of Science (Moscow), Moscow, 1974. 

Norby, Reidar. "Norway: Posthorn Stamp Printings, 1893-1909." Scandinavian 
Scribe, volume 9, number 6 [June 1973], pages 92-97. (Translation and arrange- 
ment from Norwegian original.) 

. "The N. H. Gum Scheme Still Rampant." Scandinavian Scribe, volume 

10, number 4 (April 1974), pages 51-52. 

"Scandinavian Varieties." [A series.] Scandinavian Scribe, volume 9 

(1973), page 98, and volume 10 (1974), pages 11, 27, 46, 77. 

-. "The Scandinavian Stamp Lexicon." Scandinavian Scribe, volume 10, 

numbers 3, 4, 5, 6 (1974), pages 37-44, 55-58, 71-74, 87-90. 

Ostroff, Eugene S. "Presentation of Photographs." Museum News, pages 42-45, 
May 1974. 

Post, Robert C, and Carol Ann Poh. Sites Associated with Social and Humani- 
tarian Movements in America. 229 pages. Washington: National Survey of 
Historic Sites and Buildings (National Park Service), 1974. 

. "Electromagnetism as a Motive Power: Robert Davidson's Galvani of 

1842." Railroad History, number 130 (spring 1974), pages 5-52. 

Signers of the Constitution: The Middle Atlantic and New England 

States. 75 pages. Washington: National Survey of Historic Sites and Build- 
ings (National Park Service), 1973. 

Roney, Ellen E. "Postmaster General Osgood's Report: The State of the Post 
Office in 1790." Postal History Journal, volume 18, number 36 (January 1974), 
pages 41-43. 

Scheele, Carl H. "Finding the Smithsonian's Country Store Post Office." Postal 
Inspection Service Bulletin, fall 1975, pages 16-19. 

Turner, Craig J. "The Postmaster General's Postage Stamp — Part VI — 1873 

Ninety Cent Officials." The S.P.A. Journal, volume 35, number 11 (July 1973), 

pages 665-668, 3 illustrations. 
. "The Postmaster General's Postage Stamp — Part VII — 1890 Ninety 

Cent Orange." The S.P.A. Journal, volume 35, number 12 (August 1973), 

pages 692-696, 2 illustrations and 1 table. 

-. "The Official Imitations of the U.S. 1847 Issue." The S.P.A. Journal, 

volume 36, number 5 (January 1974), pages 567-572, 4 illustrations. 

'Cyrus Durand — Inventive Genius." The S.P.A. Journal, volume 36, 

number 10 (June 1974), pages 593-605, 11 illustrations. 

Walker, Paul E. "A Byzantine Victory Over the Fatimids at Alexandretta (971)." 
Byzantion XLII (1972), 1974, pages 431-440. (Not previously reported.) 

Warner, Deborah J. "The Landscape Mirror and Glass." Antiques (January 
1974), pages 158-159. 

Watkins, C. Malcolm. "Ceramics Used in America: Comparisons." Ceramics in 
America (Winterthur Conference Report, 1972, pages 191-196. Charlottes- 
ville: University Press of Virginia, 1973. 

Weaver, James M. (Recording, with Sonya Monosoff, violin; Judith Davidoff, 
viola da gamba.) Twelve Sonatas, Opus 5, for Violin and Continuo by Arc- 
angelo Corelli using a copy of the Ridolfi harpsichord in the Smithsonian 
collections. New York: Musical Heritage Society, Inc., 1973 (3 discs). 

. (Recording, with Catharina Meints and James Caldwell.) Suite for 

Viola da Camba and Basso Continuo by Marin Marais. Cambridge Records, 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 397 

White, John H., Jr. "The Railroad Reaches California: Men, Machines, and 
Cultural Migration." California Historical Quarterly, volume LII, number 2 
(summer 1973), pages 131-144. 

. "Americans Single Locomotives and the 'Pioneer.' " Smithsonian Studies 

in History and Technology, number 25 (1973), 50 pages, 53 figures. 

'The Railway Museum: Past, Present and Future." Technology and 

Culture, October 1973, pages 599-613. 

"Richmond Locomotive Builders." Railroad History, number 130 (spring 

1974), pages 68-88. 
. "No Class." Trains, page 58, April 1974. 


Adrosko, Rita J. "An Introduction to Household Textiles Used in America.' 

Columbia University, New York, March 5, 1974. 
Battison, Edwin A. Patents, Productivity, and Prosperity. Sigma XI Engineering 

Society of Calspan, Buffalo, New York, May 1973. 
. "The Ascutney Gravity-Arch Mill Dam at Windsor, Vermont, of 1-834." 

Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial Archeology, April 1974. 
Bedini, Silvio A. "Oriental Concepts of the Measure of Time (The Role of the 

Mechanical Clock in Japan and China)." Lecture (presented in absentia). The 

Second World Conference of the International Society for the Study of Time. 

Tokyo, Japan, July 1973. 
. "Thomas Jefferson and His Writing Devices." Annual meeting of the 

American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. November 8, 

Boorstin, Daniel J. "How Opinion Went Public." Ohio State University, Colum- 
bus, Ohio, August 31, 1973. 
. Dedication of Bierce Library, University of Akron, Ohio, September 19, 


"Political Revolution and Revolutions in Science and Technology. 

American Enterprise Institute Lecture Series: The Bicentennial of the United 
States of America. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., October 
9, 1973. 

"Bill Moyers Journal." Interview on the work of the historian for Public 

Educational Television. WETA, Washington, D.C., December 12, 1973. 

"Some Possibilities in the Study of Civilization." Meeting of Indo- 

American Scholars, New Delhi, India, January 7-11, 1974. 

-. "Technology and Democracy." American University Center, Calcutta, 

India, January 15, 1974. 

-. "Lawyers and Outlaws in American Life." Sind Muslim Law College, 

Karachi, Pakistan, January 17, 1974. 
. "American Civilization at the Crossroads." American Center Audito- 

rium, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, January 18, 1974. 

"The Development of American Law." Bar Association of the Supreme 

Court, Lahore, Pakistan, January 21, 1974. 

Opening address to Conference on Technology Transfer, Lahore, Pak- 

istan, January 22, 1974. 

-. "In Search of the Common Experience." Graduate Institute of Interna- 

tional Studies, Geneva, Switzerland, February 6, 1974. 

-. "George Washington : His Life and Afterlife." American Embassy, Dub- 

lin, Ireland, February 22, 1974. 

-. "American Democracy and the American Language." Menningarstof- 

nun Bandarikjanna, Reykjavik, Iceland, March 13, 1974. 

398 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

. "Enlarging the Historical Experience." Faculty of Letters, University of 

Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, March 14, 1974. 

"Technology and Democracy." University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Ice- 

land, March 15, 1974. 

"The Uses of History." "Triple I": Three Illinois educational associ- 

ations (Curriculum Development, School of Libraries, and Audiovisual Aids), 
Chicago, Illinois, April 4, 1974. 

"The Historian and the Perils of Prophecy." Towson State College, Bal- 

timore, Maryland, April 25, 1974. 
. "What Historians Don't Write About." Town Hall of California, Los 

Angeles, California, May 7, 1974. 

-. "The Great Negative Explorers." University of California, Los Angeles, 

California, May 8, 1974. 

"The Historian and the Social Scientist." Rhode Island College, Provi- 

dence, Rhode Island, June 7, 1974. 

Cannon, Walter F. "A Slab for Darwin." Victorian Counter-Culture Conference, 

University of South Florida, February 28, 1974. 
. "Geologists and the Physics of the Solid Earth in the 19th Century." 

Hunt Foundation Workshop, Carnegie-Mellon University, March 16, 1974. 
Coffee, Barbara J. "Abigail Smith Adams and Abigail Adams Smith." Colonial 

Dames of America, New York, N.Y., October 1, 1973. 
. "National Trust Conservation Seminar." National Trust for Historic 

Preservation, February 11, 1974. 
Collins, Herbert R. "Abraham Lincoln, Sketch of His Complete Life." The 

Washington Club, Washington, D.C., June 14, 1973. 

. "Political Campaign Collection at the Smithsonian Institution." Ameri- 
can Political Items Collection's Meeting, Lancaster, Pa., August 18, 1973. 

"Transportation of the American Presidents." Ginter Park Woman's 

Club, Richmond, Va., March 6, 1974. 
Cooper, Grace R. "American Textiles: The American Scene, 1812-1865." Mid- 
west Antiques Forum on Technology and the Decorative Arts, Henry Ford 
Museum, October 9, 1973. 
Davis, Audrey B. "The Blood and Its Instruments." National Institute of Health, 
Bethesda, Md., January 25, 1974. 

. "Triumphing Over Disability." Rehabilitation Medicine Film and Lec- 
ture Series, National Museum of History and Technology, February 15, 1974. 
-. "Technology and the Blind, A History." Rehabilitation Medicine Film 

and Lecture Series, National Museum of History and Technology, April 5, 

"A History of the Handicapped." Rehabilitation Medicine Film and Lec- 

ture Series, National Museum of History and Technology, June 14, 1974. 

Davis, Audrey B., Uta C. Merzbach, and Michael M. Sokal. "Toward A National 
Inventory of Historic Psychological Apparatus." Sixth Annual Meeting of 
CHEIRON, The International Society for the History of the Behavioral and 
Social Sciences, Durham, N.H., June 1, 1974. 

Dirks, Katherine. "The Wet-Cleaning af Antique Cotton, Linen and Wool." 
Tape, script, and slide show in cooperation with the Office of Museum Pro- 
grams, 1974. 

Eklund, Jon. "Ethics and Human Fallibility in Science." Physical Sciences Hon- 
ors Seminar, State University College at Oneanta, N.Y., February 12, 1974. 

. "The Humanities of Science, Past and Present." Hartwick College, One- 

onta, N.Y., March 21, 1974, 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 399 


Finn, Bernard S. "The American Pacific Telegraph Cable: Seventy years after." 
Society for the History of Technology meeting, San Francisco, Calif., Decem- 
ber 27, 1973. 

Forman, Paul. "Design and Construction of Physical Laboratories in the Late 
Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries." Department of the History of 
Science, Johns Hopkins University, January 30, 1974. 

Gardner, Paul V. "Frederick Carder, an English Glass Maker in America." Eng- 
lish Glass Circle, London, England, June 21, 1973. 

. "The Glass of Frederick Carder." Mint Museum, Charlotte, N.C., April 

5, 1974. 

Goins, Craddock R., Jr. "The Preservation and Display of Firearms." United 
States Army Museum Conference, Fort Sheridan, 111., May 1974. 

. "Development of Breech-Loading Firearms in America During the First 

Half of the 18th Century." Annual Meeting of American Society of Arms 
Collectors, Atlanta, Ga., April 1974. 

Golovin, Anne C. "Material Aspects of American Culture: Domestic Furnish- • 
ings." George Washington University Graduate Seminar, Smithsonian, Wash- 
ington, D.C., October 1973. 

Haberstich, David. "Focus on the Smithsonian History of Photography Collec- 
tion." The Maryland Institute, College of Art, Baltimore, Md., April 27, 1974. 

Hamarneh, Sami K. "Herbal Medicine." WGTS-FM Radio, Washington, D.C., 
August 22, 1973. 

. "Al-Biruni's Contribution to Medical Botany and Therapy." Depart- 
ment of Anatomy and the History of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical 
Sciences, New Delhi, India, November 13, 1973. 

"Origins of the Profession and Practice of Pharmacy." Hamdard Col 

lege of Pharmacy, New Delhi, India, November 17, 1973. 
. "India's Contribution to Arabic Medical Education and Practice." Ghalib 

Academy of the Institute of Islamic Studies, Delhi, India, November 20, 1973. 
-. "Al-Biruni, Father of Arabic Pharmacy and Marine Biology." Millenary 

International Conference on al-Biruni, Islamabad, Pakistan, December 9, 

Tbn al-Quff from al-Katak to Damascus." International Conference on 

Bilad al-Sham (Syria), University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, April 24, 1974. 
"Arabic Pharmacy to the Time of al-Biruni." College of Pharmacy, 

University of Cairo, Egypt, May 1974 

Harris, Michael R. "Collecting of American Pharmaceutical Antiques." Inter- 
national History of Pharmacy Meetings, Boston, Mass., July 22, 1973. 

. "Medical Theories in 19th Century Patent Medicine Literature." 19th i 

Century American Medicine Class, Johns Hopkins Institute of the History of t 
Medicine, Baltimore, Md., March 1974. 

Hindle, Brooke. "Perceived and Perceivable Ways of Technology in Ante- 
Bellum America." American Historical Association, San Francisco, December ; 
28, 1973 

. "The Art, Science, and Telegraph of Samuel F. B. Morse." Institute of ( 

Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Washington, D.C., June 18, 1974. 

Hoffman, Howard P. "The Continental Gondola Philadelphia." With Philip K 
Lundeberg. Annual Meeting of the Nautical Research Guild at the Maryland i 
Historical Society, Baltimore, Md., August 5, 1973. 

. "Time Capsule 1776: The Continental Gondola Philadelphia." With 

Philip K. Lundeberg. Annual Meeting of the Organization of Military Mu- 
seums of Canada, Halifax, Nova Scotia, September 24, 1973, and Annual 
Meeting of the Company of Military Historians, May 4, 1974. 

400 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Hoffman, John N. "The 19th Century Technology of the Anthracite Industry." 
University of Delaware Fellowship Program, Eleutherian Mills Historical 
Library, August 16, 1973. 

Hollis, Helen R. "Musical Instruments in Works of Art at the National Gal- 
lery." National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., December 1973. 

. "Predecessors of the Piano" and "The Piano from 1700." Technicians 

Guild in the National Museum of History and Technology, April 1974. 

Hoover, Cynthia A. "Instruments and Instrumentalists." Chairman of Session 
at national meetings of the American Musicological Society, Chicago, Novem- 
ber 1973. 

. "Criticism of Published Documentary Sound Recordings: A Symposium 

on the Theoretical and Practical Problems." Annual conference of the Associ- 
ation for Recorded Sound Collections, Philadelphia, March 1974. 

Jackson, Everett A. "17th and 18th Century Dentistry in America." American 
Dental Association — Mid Eastern Region, Harrisburg, Pa., April 1974. 

. "17th and 18th Century Dentistry in America." American Dental Asso- 
ciation — Eastern Region Periodontist Society, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pa., April 1974. 

"Medicine and Dentistry in the Smithsonian." Ross County Historical 

Society, Chillicothe, Ohio, June 1974. 

Klapthor, Margaret B. "Dresses of the First Ladies of The White House." Fred- 
erick County Historical Society, Frederick, Md., September 18, 1973. 

. "Dolley Madison Was Born Here." Dedication of the Dolley Madison 

Birthplace Memorial, Greensboro, N.C., May 20, 1974. 

Leckie, Doris. "The Evolution of Cupping Instruments." University of Virginia 
Medical History Society, Charlottesville, Va., September 26, 1973. 

. "The Evolution of Cupping Instruments." Georgetown University Surgi- 
cal Residents Grand Rounds, Washington, D.C., December 15, 1973. 

'Cupping — A Technique of Bloodletting from Antiquity to the Twen- 

tieth Century." Man and Medicine Series, Hammelforth Health Sciences Li- 
brary, George Washington University, Washington, D.C., May 8, 1974. 

Langley, Harold D. "Frontiers of Naval History." President and Regents of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution. National Museum of History and 
Technology, October 10, 1973. 

. "The Early History of Military Aviation." Air Force ROTC cadets of 

Georgetown and Catholic Universities. The Catholic University of America, 
March 29, 1974. 

Lundeberg, Philip K. "Time Capsule 1776: The Continental Gondola Philadel- 
phia." With Howard P. Hoffman. Annual Meeting of the Organization of 
Military Museums of Canada, Halifax, Nova Scotia, September 24, 1973, and 
Annual Meeting of the Company of Military Historians, May 4, 1974. 

. "The Continental Gondola Philadelphia." With Howard P. Hoffman. 

Annual Meeting of the Nautical Research Guild at the Maryland Historical 
Society, Baltimore, Md., August 5, 1973. 

"The Rationale for a North American Society for Oceanic History.' 

Second Annual Symposium on Maritime History at the University of Maine 
(Orono), October 7, 1973. 

"The Enigma of Samuel Colt's Submarine Battery." Annual Meeting of 

the Society for the History of Technology, San Francisco, Calif., December 
29, 1973. 

'Documenting a National Treasure: The Continental Gondola Phila- 

delphia." Fort Concho Museum, San Angelo, Tex., April 15, 1974. 

"Samuel Colt and His Submarine Battery." Connecticut Historical So- 

ciety, Hartford, Conn., May 7, 1974. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 401 

Mayr, Otto. "The Origins of the Clockwork Metaphor in 17th Century Philoso- 
phy." Annual meeting of the Society for History of Technology, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif., December 27, 1973. 

. "Zur Geschichte des Uhren gleichnisses." Deutsches Museum, Munich, 

Germany, May 27, 1974, and Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt, Germany, 
May 31, 1974. 

"Das Problem der Zeit und der Zeitmessung in der Physik und Philoso- 

phic der Neuzeit." University of Regensburg, Regensburg, West Germany, 
May 29, 1974. j 

Miller, J. Jefferson, II. "Pottery and Porcelain in the American Home, 1700- , 
1900." Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, October 2, 1973. ^ 

. "European Porcelain of the 18th Century." Maryland Historical Society, 

April 16, 1974. 

Myers, Susan H. "The Community and Architecture of Capitol Hill, 1870-1900." 
George Washington University Graduate Seminar, Smithsonian, Washington, , 
D.C., September 1973. 

. "Capitol Hill 1870-1900: The People and Their Homes." First Annual; 

Conference on Washington, D.C., Historical Studies, Washington, D.C., Jan- 
uary 1974. 

"Domestic Architecture on Capitol Hill, 1870-1900." Capitol Hill Res- 

toration Society, May 1974. 

Norby, Reidar. "Smithsonian's Role in Philately. International Stamp Exposi- 
tion and Convention, San Francisco, December 1973. 

Odell, J. Scott. "Cleaners, Polishes, and Protective Coatings for Brass Musical 
Instruments." Restorer's Symposium, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Niim- 
berg, Germany, May 1974. 

Ostroff, Eugene S. "Preservation of Photographs." Arizona Historical Society, 
Tucson, Ariz., October 23, 1973. 

. "Old Themes, New Faces." Photographic Historical Society of Roches- 
ter, N.Y., February 20, 1974. 

"New Techniques in Conserving Old Photographs." The Royal Photo- 

graphic Society, London, March 16, 1974. 

'New Approaches to Museum Display." The Royal Photographic So- 

ciety, Historical Group, London, March 20, 1974. 

'Photographic Preservation: Modern Techniques." The Royal Photo- 

graphic Society, London, March 1974. 

Post, Robert C. "Robert Davidson's Galvani of 1842: A Note on the Sources of 
Invention." School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Min- 
neapolis, March 5, 1974. 

. "Historical Case Studies in Technological Innovation." Seventeenth 

Annual Missouri Valley Historical Conference, Omaha, Nebr., March 7, 1974. 

Roth, Rodris. "Furnishing the Victorian House, 1840-1850." Annual Meeting of 
The Victorian Society in America, Philadelphia, Pa., March 30, 1974. 

. "An American Celebration: The 1876 Centennial." The Board of Direc- 
tors Meeting of Kenmore, Fredericksburg, Va., May 7, 1974. 

Scheele, Carl H. "Design and Production of the Federal Migratory Bird Hunt- 
ing Stamps." Amarillo Art Center, Amarillo, Texas, December 1973, and The 
National Museum of History and Technology, Washington, D.C., February 

Schlebecker, John T., Jr. "Stockmen and Drovers during the Revolution." Pio- 
neer American Society, Charlottesville, Va., November 10, 1973. 

. "Use of Objects in Historical Research." Theta Beta Chapter, Towson 

State College, Baltimore, Maryland, April 20, 1974. 

402 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

. "Keeping the Record: Historical Objects." Symposium on Agriculture, 

University of California at Davis, Davis, Calif., June 19, 1974. 

Vogel, Robert M. "Industrial Preservation in the U.S. and England." Coopers- 
town seminar and general public, Cooperstown, N.Y., July 1973. 

. "Building in the Age of Steam." (The development to 1860 of powered 

construction machinery and equipment.) "Building Early America." Sympos- 
ium (the 250th Anniversary of the Carpenters' Company of the City and 
County of Philadelphia), Philadelphia, Pa., March 1974. 

Watkins, C. Malcolm. "What Good are the Artifacts After the Report is Writ- 
ten?" Society for Historical Archaeology, Berkeley, Calif., January 10, 1974. 

. "Ceramics in the 17th Century English Colonies." 1974 Winterthur Con- 
ference, Winterthur, Del., April 5, 1974. 

Weaver, James M. "Music at the Smithsonian." Baroque Music at Aston Magna, 
Great Barrington, Mass., June 1974. 

. "A Mozart Festival-Conference: Authenticity and Performance Prob- 
lems." Conference of the American Musicological Society in conjunction with 
the Mozart Festival, The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, 
Washington, D.C., May 1974. 


Adrosko, Rita J. "Nineteenth Century Furnishing Fabrics." Decorative arts of 
the nineteenth century, July 24, 1973. 

Ahlbom, Richard E. "The Folk Arts of Spanish New Mexico." May 1974. 

Coffee, Barbara J. "First Ladies Hall." Christmas Weekend, December 8, 1973. 

Goins, Craddock R., Jr., "Technology in American Military History." Eight lec- 
tures, January-March 1974. 

Haberstich, David. "Contemporary Photographic Art," on "Photography as 
Art," December 19, 1973. 

Hindle, Brooke. "The Wooden Age in the National Museum of History and 
Technology." February 21, 1974. 

Klapthor, Margaret B. "The Image of the First Lady." August 27, 1973. 

Mayo, Edith P. "Women in Politics." April 16, 1974. 

Vann, Lois M. "Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century English Textiles." English 
antiques, March 1974. 


Alexander, Sheila. "American Ceramics from the National Collections (1880- 
1915)." August 4,1973. 

Battison, Edwin A. "Patents, Productivity and Prosperity." February 5, 1974. 

Bruns, Franklin R., Jr. "Modern Philately." May 7, 1974. 

. "U.S. Postage Stamp Design (1847-1973)." September 8, 1973. 

Clain-Stefanelli, Elvira. "The History of Italy in its Coins (5th Century B.C. to 
the Present)." January 22, 1974. 

Clain-Stefanelli, Vladimir, "Crossroads in the Development of Money." August 
18, 1973. 

Collins, Herbert R. "The Life of Lincoln." March 12, 1974. 

. "Carriages and Automobiles of the American Presidents." April 30, 


Davis, Audrey B. "From Natural History to Biology: The Growth of a Science." 
February 12, 1974. 

Haberstich, David E. "American Masters of Photography." June 11, 1974. 

. "New Images 1839-1973 : Reviving Early Photographic Processes." Octo- 
ber 20, 1973. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 403 

Harris, Michael R. "American Patent Medicines, from 'Balsam of Life' to Mod- 
em Seltzer." August 25, 1973. 

. "One Is Good, Two Are Better — 19th Century Patent Medicines." 

April 2, 1974. 

Harris, Elizabeth M. "Rebuilding an Early American Printing Press in the 
Smithsonian." March 26, 1974. 

Hebert, Raymond J. "As Phony as a $3 Bill." May 28, 1974. 

Henson, William K. "Restoration of the Harlan and Hollingsworth Engine." 
February 26, 1974. 

Hoffman, Howard P. "Time Capsule 1776: The Continental Gondola Philadel- 
phia." July 3 and October 13, 1973. 

Hollis, Helen R. "Predecessors of the Piano." June 25, 1974. 

Jackson, Everett. "The Evolution of False Teeth." September 29, 1973. 

Kloster, Donald E. "Uniforms of the U.S. Army, 1832-1902." October 27, 1973. 

Leckie, Doris J. "The Medical Practice of Cupping: Antiquity to the 20th Cen- 
tury." September 22, 1973. 

Lundeberg, Philip K. "The Evolution of American Warship Construction." Sep- 
tember 15, 1973. 

. "Time Capsule 1776: The Continental Gondola Philadelphia." July 3 

and October 13, 1973. 

Mayo, Edith P. "Women in Politics." February 19, 1974. 

Merzbach, Uta C. "Comets and Mathematics in History." January 15, 1974. 

. "Pascal and Technology." July 28, 1973. 

Miller, J. Jefferson, II. "American Pottery and Porcelain from Colonial Times to 
1900." May 21, 1974. 

Multhauf, Robert P. "America's Wooden Age." May 14, 1974. 

Norby, Reidar. "New Zealand: A Nation's History in Postage Stamps." July 
21, 1973. 

. "Smithsonian: Stamp Collectors' Mecca." October 6, 1973. 

Scale, William. "Style and Taste in Victorian Interiors." June 4, 1974. 

Scheele, Carl H. "Production and Design of Federal Duck Stamps." January 
8, 1974. 

Sivowitch, Eliot N. "Musical Broadcasting in the Nineteenth Century." January 
29, 1974. ^ 

Walker, Paul E. "Invention of Time." April 9, 1974. .) 

Warner, Deborah J. "Stars and Constellations." April 23, 1974. 



Washburn, Wilcomb E. "The American Indian." The American Annual, 1974: 
Yearbook of the Encyclopedia Americana, 52nd edition, pages 63-69. New 
York: Grolier Incorporated, 1974. 

, editor. The American Indian and the United States: A Documentary 

History, 4 volumes, 3119 pages. New York: Random House, 1973. 

"James Adair's 'Noble Savages.' " Pages 91-120 in Lawrence H. Leder, ',, 

editor. The Colonial Legacy, volume III of Historians of Nature and Man's 
Nature. New York: Harper & Row, 1973. i 



McMillan, E. "Notes on Paper." Bulletin, International Institute for Conserva- ■ 
tion — American Croup, volume 14, number 1 (1973), pages 75-77. 

404 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Miller, B. A., and J. S. Olin "Analysis of French, English and Scottish Pewter 
Measures Using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Analysis." Bulletin 
of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 
volume 14, number 2 (April 1974). 

Organ, R. M. [Review in] Studies in Conservation, volume 18 (1973), pages 
189-194, of H. J. Plenderleith and A. E. Werner, The Conservation of Antiqui- 
ties and Works of Art, London, 1971. 

. "Examination of the Ardagh Chalice — A Case History," pages 238-271 

in W. J. Young, editor. Application of Science in Examination of Works of 
Art. Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 1973. 

Lectures and Seminars 

Organ, R. M., Presentation to Joint Hearings before the Special Sub-Committee 
on Arts and Humanities (Chairman Senator Pell) on S796 and S2137, July 
19, 1973. 

. Presentation to Seminar held by New England Document Center, Os- 
good Hill, October 3, 1973. 

Conservation Orientation Series, #21-40, #61-80, October 18, 1973, 

through March 14, 1974. 

"The Philosophy of Conservation," AAM Seminar on Conservation, 

New York, January 28-29, 1974. 

Lecture on CAL to Underwater Archaeology Association (Group of 

Underwater Archaeologists), February 17, 1974. 

-. A Seminar at Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Gallery concerning 

the care in moving of objects being brought into the new building and un- 
packing, April 11, 1974. 

Lecture to Annual Meeting of AIC on "The National Conservation 

i Institute — A Personal Concept," May 30, 1974. 


Goodwin, J. "Current Bibliography in the History of Technology (1971)." 
Technology and Culture, volume 14 (1973), pages 175-286. 

Shank, R. "Books of Science." Science Year: The World Book Science Annual, 

\ 1974. Chicago: Field Enterprises (1973), pages 266-268. 

Olson, E., E. Warner, V. Pings, E. F. Sloan, and R. Orr. "Relative Use Patterns 
of Libraries Serving Medical School Populations," in R. Cheshire, editor. 
Information in the Health Sciences: Working to the Future. Cleveland: Case- 
Western Reserve University Press, 1973. 

Walker, W. "Some Notes on the N Classification." ARLIS Newsletter, volume 
2, number 3 (April 1974), pages 33-34. 


Goodwin, J. "The History of the Library of Congress and Its Buildings." At the 
Library of Congress to the Arlington (Va.) Senior Citizens Club, November 
14, 1973. 

Shank, R. with Madeline Henderson (National Bureau of Standards). Com- 
puters and Networks in Federal Libraries." American Association for the 
Advancement of Science Annual Meeting, San Francisco, California, Feb- 
ruary 26, 1974. 


"Williams, Martin. The Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz (book of jazz 
history and annotations to the recordings collection). Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, 1973. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 405 

. "Tales of Tarzan and More" (a review of five periodicals devoted to 

Edgar Rice Burroughs). Washington Post. January 5, 1974. 

"Happy Birthday to the Duke" (an appreciation on Ellington). Wash- 

ington Star-News, April 28, 1974. 

"Continental Comics" (a review of four adventures of Herge's Tin 

Tin). Washington Post Book World, May 19, 1974. 

"On Monsters, Pilots, Tarzan and other Superheros" (a review of The 

Comic Book book). Washington Post, June 8, 1974. 

"Some Remarks on Johnny Gruelle and Raggedy Ann" in Children's 

Literature: The Great Excluded, volume 3. Storrs: University of Connecticut, 


, "Pitchin' Boggie" (record annotations). Milestone MSP 2018. 

. "Ornette Coleman: Twins" (record annotations). Atlantic LP 1588. 

The Modern Jazz Quartet: Plastic Dreams" (record annotations). 

Atlantic LP 1589. 
. "The Art of John Coltrane" (record annotations). Atlantic LP SD2-313. 


How to Organize an Effective Program: A RIF Handbook (in looseleaf form, 

organized in eight sections), copyright 1974. 
RIF Newsletter, volume 3, issue 3 (September 1973), 12 pages; volume 4, issue 

1 (January 1974), 12 pages. 


Edelstein, J. M. Wallace Stevens: A Descriptive Bibliography. Pittsburgh: Uni- 
versity of Pittsburgh Press, 1974. 

. "Petrarch: Honored as Europe's First Truly Modern Man." Smithsonian/, 

volume 5, number 1 (April 1974). 

. "The Poet as Reader: Wallace Stevens and His Books." The Book 

Collector, London, volume 23, number 1 (Spring 1974). 

[Review] German Book Illustration of the Gothic Period and Early 

Renaissance (1460-1530) by Richard Muther. The Papers of the BibliO' 
graphical Society of America, volume 68, number 1 (January-March 1974). 
News, Notes, and Queries Editor of The Papers of the Bibliographical 

Society of America. 

Feller, Robert L. "Thermochemically Activated Oxidation: Mother Nature's 
Book Burning." P.L.A. Bulletin (Pennsylvania Library Association), Novem- 
ber 1973, pages 232-242. 

. "Rubens's The Gerbier Family: Technical Examination of the Pigments \ 

and Paint Layers." Pages 54-74 in 1973 Studies in the History of Art. Wash- 
ington: National Gallery of Art, 1973. 

'Induction Time and the Autoxidation of Organic Compounds." Bulle- 

tin of the American Institute for Conservation, volume 14, number 2 (1974), 
pages 142-151. 

Keisch, Bernard. "A Detector for Efficient Backscatter Mossbauer Effect Spec- 
troscopy." Nuclear Instruments and Methods, volume 104 (1972), page 237. 

Keisch, B., and R. C. Callahan. "Rubens's The Gerbier Family: Investigation 
by Lead Isotype Mass Spectrometry." Pages 25-78 in 2972 Studies in the 
History of Art. Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1973. 

Lewis, Douglas. "La datazione della Villa Corner a Piombino Dese." Bolletino 
del C.I.S.A. Vicenza, volume 14 (1972), pages 381-393. i 

406 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

. [Review] Carlo Maderno and Roman Architecture 1580-1630 by Howard 

Hibbard. Art Journal, volume 32, number 3 (1973), pages 356-364. 

-. "Una decina di documenti del Longhena." Arte Veneta, volume 27 


[Review] Baldassare Longhena, by Giuseppe Cristinelli. Arte Veneta, 

volume 27 (1973). 

Parkhurst, Charles. "Camillo Leonardi and the Green-Blue Shift in Sixteenth- 
Century Painting. Intuition und Kunstweisenschaft, Festschrift fur Hanns 
Swarzenski, Gebr. Mann Verlag, Berlin, 1973, pages 419-425. 

Robison, Andrew. "Piranesi's Ship on Wheels." Master Drawings, volume XI, 
number 4 (winter 1973), pages 389-392. 

. "The Albrizzi-Piazzetta Tasso." Non Solus, number 1, pages 1-12. 

. Nine reviews of various books on prints and drawings. Library Journal, 

volumes 98 and 99. 

Russell, H. Diane. "Books on Two Master Etchers of the Seicento." The Wash- 
ington Print Club Newsletter, March-April 1974. 

. "Heinemann Drawings at the Pierpont Morgan Library." Master Draw- 
ings, volume 10 (fall 1973). 

Schneider, Laura. "The Freer Canteen." Pages 137-156 in Ars Orientalis, vol- 
ume 9, Freer Gallery of Art Fiftieth Anniversary Volume, 1973. 


Cain, J. Fred. "Georgia O'Keeffe: A Survey of Her Painting Career." American 
University, December 1973. 

Keisch, Bernard. "Mossbauer Effect Spectroscopy without Sampling: Applica- 
tion to Art and Archaeology." 4th Annual Conference of Chemistry and 
Archaeology, ACS Meeting, Dallas, Texas, April 9-10, 1973. 

. "Nuclear Applications of the National Gallery of Art Research Project: 

Seven Years of Progress." International Conference on the Application of 
Nuclear Methods in the Field of Works of Art, Rome, May 24-29, 1973. 

"Bridging the Culture Gap: Applications of Nuclear Science to Art.' 

Gordon Research Conference, Nuclear Chemistry Division, New London, 

New Hampshire, June 28, 1973. 
Lewis, Douglas. "Palladio and His Patrons." Amherst College, October 1973. 
. "Palladio's Unpublished Autograph Plans for Caldogno and Maser, 

1548-1549." Symposium on Venetian Art, The Johns Hopkins University, 

March 1974. 

"National Gallery Sculpture: The New Amid the Old." National Gallery 

of Art, June 1974. 

Oberhuber, Konrad. "The School of Athens." Lincoln, Massachusetts. 
Parkhurst, Charles. "Color in Sixteenth-Century Painting." University of North 
Carolina, Chapel Hill, February 1974. 

. "The Science and Art of Color in the Seventeenth Century, Some 

Origins and Consequences." Duke University, February 1974. 

Juror, Norfolk Arts Festival in July 1973 and Tenth Maryland Juried 

Art Exhibition, The Academy of the Arts, Easton, Maryland, April 1974. 

Appendix 8. Staff Publications I 407 

APPENDIX 9. Visitors to the Smithsonian Institution in FiscalY ear 1974 


Smithsonian Arts & Natural Air & 

Institution Industries History Space 

Building Building Building Building 

Freer History & 

Gallery Technology 

of Art Building 





















































739,651 2,040,731 3,067,694 1,285,598 219,346 5,850,227 

Fine Arts National Anacostia 

& Portrait Renwick Zoological Neighborhood 
Galleries Gallery Park Museum 











































175,672 5,311,869 76,483' 


^ This represents visitors to the Museum; the mobile unit was not in use. 

' 53,536 adults and children visited museum; the mobile unit was viewed by 22,947 
children at their schools. 

'This total does not include 6,100,000' visitors — 4,800,000 who visited the Smithson- 
ian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service's displays in museums and educational 
institutions throughout the United States and Canada and 1,300,000 persons who 
viewed the 1973 American Folklife Festival. 

408 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

APPENDIX 10. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1974 



Executive Assistant Dorothy Rosenberg 

Under Secretary Robert A. Brooks 

Administrative Officer John Motheral 

Director, Agenda Office Robert L. Farrell 

Assistant Secretary for Science David Challinor 

Assistant Secretary for History and Art . . Charles Blitzer 

Assistant Secretary for Public Service . . . Julian Euell 

Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs Paul N. Perrot 
(Director, United States National Museum) 

Treasurer T. Ames Wheeler 

Assistant Treasurer (Accounting) Betty J. Morgan 

Assistant Treasurer (Programming 

and Budget) John F. Jameson 

Chief Accountant Allen S. Goff 

Business Manager Richard Griesel 

Director, Smithsonian Museum Shops . . . William W. Rowan III 

Director, Belmont Conference Center .... Joanne S. Baker Kugel 

General Counsel Peter G. Powers 

Assistant General Counsels Alan D. Ullberg 

George S. Robinson 
L. Wardlaw Hamilton 
Suzanne D. Murphy 
, Marie C. Malaro 

Director of Support Activities Richard L. Ault 

Special Projects, Office of the Secretary 

Special Assistant to the Secretary Richard H. Howland 

Special Assistant to the Secretary Margaret Gaynor 

Director, Office of Development Lynford E. Kautz 

Editor, Joseph Henry Papers Nathan Reingold 

Director, Office of Equal Opportunity . . . Archie D. Grimmett 

Curator, Smithsonian Institution Building James M. Goode 

Honorary Research Associates Charles G. Abbot,' Secretary Emeritus 

Leonard Carmichael,* Secretary Emeritus 

Paul H. Oehser 

Alexander Wetmore, Secretary Emeritus 

Honorary Fellow John A. Graf 

^ Died December 17, 1973. 
^ Died September 16, 1973. 
' Died November 24, 1973. 

Appendix 10. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1974 I 409 


Assistant Secretary David Challinor 

Deputy Assistant Secretary Michael R. Huxley 

Executive Officer Harold J. Michaelson 


Director Sol Tax 

Program Coordinator Sam Stanley 


Director Francis S. L. Williamson 

Assistant Director J. Kevin Sullivan 

Administrative Officer Donald L. Wilhelm 

Administrative Assistant, Rhode River 

Research Program Archibald O. Mason, Jr. 

Resident Manager Robert E. Ayers 

Resident Manager, Poplar Island Leroy Shores 

Scientific Staff: 

Veta Clements Patricia Mehlop 

Robert L. Cory (U.S.G.S.) Joseph Miklas 

Claude Crawford (J.H.U.) Sheila Minor 

Maria Faust Michael Read 

Deborah H. Ford Michael Redding 

Michael Hargedon Barbara Rice 

Daniel Higman Bill Schaffner 

Gregory J. Loeffler Louis Schenker 

Martha McCullough* Susan Week Welles ^ 

James McKinney Tung Lin Wu 


Education Coordinator John Falk 

Education Specialist Lynne Mormann 

Information Transfer 

Environmental Planning Specialist David P. Miller 

Environmental Information Specialist . . . Marjorie Beane 

Information Specialist Dorothy Kinsman 


Director H. Adair Fehlmann 


Director Michael Collins 

Deputy Director Melvin B. Zisfein 

Executive Officer John Whitelaw 

Administrative Officer M. Antoinette Smith 

Department of Aeronautics 

Assistant Director Donald S. Lopez 

Department of Astronautics 

Assistant Director F. C. Durant III 

* Resigned. 

410 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Department of Science and Technology 

Assistant Director Howard Wolko 

Center for Earth and Planetary Studies 

Research Director Dr. Farouk El-Baz 

Presentations and Educational Division 

Chief Von Del Chamberlain 

Exhibits Division 

Chief Francis A. Baby 

Chief, Audiovisual Unit Hernan Otano 

Chief, Design Unit Robert Widder 

Chief, Illustration Unit Peter Copeland 

Chief, Production Unit Frank Nelms 

Preservation, Restoration, and Storage Division 

Chief Donald Merchant 

Library Branch 

Librarian Catherine D. Scott 


Director Porter M. Kier 

Assistant Director James F. Mello 

Special Assistant to Director Paul K. Knierim 5 

Chief of Exhibits Harry T. Hart 

Coordinator, Office of Education Joan Madden ^ 

Acting Chief, ADP Program T. Gary Gautier ^ 

Building Manager Donald L. Case « 

Administrative Officer John C. Townsend 


Chairman Clifford Evans 

Senior Archeologist Waldo R. Wedel 

Senior Ethnologists John C. Ewers 

Saul H. Riesenberg 

Archivist Herman J. Viola 

Collections Manager George E. Phebus 

Latin American Anthropology 

Curator Clifford Evans 

Associate Curators William H. Crocker 

Robert M. Laughlin 

Old World Anthropology 

Curators Gordon D. Gibson 

Gus W. Van Beek 
Eugene I. Knez 
William B. Trousdale 

^ Retired June 14, 1974. 
^ Appointed September 16, 1973. 
^ Appointed April 30, 1973. 
* Appointed February 3, 1974. 

Appendix 10. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1974 I 411 

North American Anthropology 

Curator William C. Sturtevant 

Associate Curators William W. Fitzhugh 

Dennis M. Stanford 

Physical Anthropology 

Curator J- Lawrence Angel 

Associate Curators Donald J. Ortner 

Lucile E. St. Hoyme 
Douglas H. Ubelaker 

Organic Chemist David W. Von Endt 

Research Associates, Collaborators, and Affiliated Scientists: 

Hans-Georg Bandi (Archeology) 
W. Montague Cobb, Physical 

T. Aidan Cockburn (Physical 

Henry B. Collins (Archeology) 
Wilson Duff (Ethnology) 
Don D. Fowler (Archeology) 
Sister Inez Hilger (Ethnology) 
C. G. Holland (Archeology) 
Neil M. Judd (Archeology) 
Richard T. Koritzer (Physical 

Ralph K. Lewis (Archeology) 
Michael Liebman (Physical 


Olga Linares (Archeology) 
Betty J. Meggars (Archeology) 
George S. Metcalf (Archeology) 
Walter G. Putschar (Physical 

Victor A. Nunez Regueiro (Archeology) 
Owen Rye (Archeology) 
Wilhelm G. Solheim (Archeology) 
T. Dale Stewart (Physical Anthropology) 
Matthew W. Stirling (Archeology) 
Robert Stuckenrath (Archeology) 
Mildred Mott Wedel (Archeology & 

Theodore A. Wertime (Archeology) 
Edwin F. Wilmsen (Archeology) 


Chairman Edward S. Ayensu 

Senior Botanists Richard S. Cowan 

Lyman B. Smith 


Curators F. Raymond Fosberg 

John J. Wurdack 

Associate Curators Dan H. Nicolson 

Robert W. Read 
Marie-Helene Sachet 
Stanwyn G. Shetler 
Beryl B. Simpson 
Laurence E. Skog ^ 
Dieter C. Wasshausen 


Associate Curator David B. Lellinger 


Curator Thomas R. Soderstrom 


Curators Mason E. Hale, Jr. 

Harold E. Robinson 
Associate Curator Arthur L. Dahl ^^ 


^ Appointed September 16, 1973. 
" Resigned June 14, 1974. 

412 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


Associate Curator Joan W. Nowicke 

Plant Anatomy 

Curators Edward S. Ayensu 

Richard H. Eyde 

Research Associates, Collaborators, and Affiliated Scientists^'^: 

Paul S. Conger (Diatomaceae) Kittie F. Parker (Compositae) 

Jose Cuatrecasas (Flora of Tropical Clyde F. Reed (Ferns) 

South America) James L. Reveal (Ferns) 

, James A. Duke (Flora of Panama) Velva E. Rudd (Leguminosae) 

Marie L. Farr (Fungi) Marie L. Solt (Melastomataceae) 

Aaron Goldberg (Phanerogams) Frans A. Stafleu (Phanerogams) 

Charles R. Gunn (Seeds) William L. Stern (Plant Anatomy) 

William H. Hathaway (Flora of John A. Stevenson (Fungi) 

Central America) Edward E. Terrell (Phanerogams) 

Paul L. Lentz (Fungi) Francis A. Uecker (Fungi) 

Elbert L. Little, Jr. (Dendrology) Egbert H. Walker (Myrsinaceae, 
Alicia Lourteig (Neotropical Botany) East Asian Flora) 


Chairman Paul D. Hurd, Jr. 

Collections Manager Gary F. Hevel 

Senior Entomologists J. F. Gates Clarke 

Karl V. Krombein 
Neuropteroids and Diptera 

Curator Oliver S. Flint, Jr. 

Associate Curator Richard W. Baumann 


Curators Donald R. Davis 

W. Donald Duckworth 
Associate Curator William D. Field 


Associate Curators Terry L. Erwin 

Paul J. Spangler 
Associate Curator Richard C. Froeschner 

Myriapoda and Arachnida 

Curator Ralph E. Crabill, Jr. 

Research Associates, Collaborators, and Affiliated Scientists: 

Charles P. Alexander (Diptera) W. L. Jellison (Siphonaptera, Anoplura) 

Doris H. Blake (Coleoptera) Harold F. Loomis (Myriapoda) 

Franklin 5. Blanton (Diptera) C. F. W. Muesebeck (Hymenoptera) 

Frank L. Campbell (Insect Physiology) George W. Rawson (Lepidoptera) 

Oscar L. Cartwright (Coleoptera) Mary Ripley (General Entomology) 

K. C. Emerson (Mallophaga) Robert Traub (Siphonaptera) 

John G. Franclemont (Lepidoptera) David Wooldridge (Coleoptera) 

' Harry Hoogstraal (Medical Entomology) 


Chairman David L. Pawson 

Senior Zoologists Fenner A. Chace, Jr. 

Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. 

Harald A. Rehder 

^^ National fungus collections are curated by Department of Agriculture staff. 

Appendix 10. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1974 1 413 


Curators J. Laurens Barnard 

Thomas E. Bowman 
Roger F. Cressey 
Louis S. Kornicker 
Raymond B. Manning 


Curators David L. Pawson 

Klaus Ruetzler 
Visiting Research Associate Frederick H. C. Hotchkiss 


Curators W. Duane Hope 

Meredith L. Jones 1 

Marian H. Pettibone 

Associate Curator Mary E. Rice 


Curators Clyde F. E. Roper 

Joseph Rosewater 

Associate Curator Joseph P. E. Morrison 

Visiting Curator David H. Stansbery 

Research Associates, Collaborators, and Affiliated Scientists: 

Frederick M. Bayer (Echinoderms) Roman Kenk (Worms) 

S. Stillman Berry (Mollusks) J. Ralph Lichtenfels (Worms) 

J. Bruce Bredin (Biology) Anthony J. Provenzano, Jr. (Crustacea) 

Isabel C. Canet (Biology) Waldo L. Schmitt (Marine Invertebrate 

Ailsa M. Clark (Echinoderms) Frank R. Schwengal (Mollusks) 

Elisabeth Deichmann I. G. Sohn (Crustacea) 

Mary Gardiner (Echinoderms) Donald F. Squires (Echinoderms) 

John C. Harshbarger (Marine Gilbert L. Voss (Mollusks) 

Invertebrates) Austin B. Williams (Crustacea) 
Lipke B. Holthuis (Crustacea) 


Chairman William G. Melson 

Mineralogist George S. Switzer 

Collections Manager Harold H. Banks, Jr. 


Curators Roy S. Clarke, Jr. 

Brian H. Mason 
Geochemists Kurt Fredriksson 

Robert F. Fudali 


Curator Paul E. Desautels 

Associate Curator John S. White, Jr. 

Crystallographers Daniel E. Appleman ^2 

Joel E. Arem ^^ 

Petrology and Volcanology 

Curator _. Thomas E. Simkin 

Physical Sciences Laboratory 

Chemists Eugene Jarosewich 

Joseph A. Nelen 

^^ Appointed February 17, 1974. 
^^ Resigned September 14, 1973. 

414 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Research Associates, Collaborators, ar\d Affiliated Scientists: 

Howard J. Axon (Meteorites) 
Vagn F. Buchwald (Meteorites) 
Tomas Feininger (Petrology) 
John J. Gurney (Petrology) 
Edward P. Henderson (Meteorites) 
John B. Jago (Mineralogy) 

Peter Leavens (Mineralogy) 
T. R. McGetchin (Petrology) 
Rosser Reeves (Mineralogy) 
Arthur Roe (Mineralogy) 
Geoffrey Thompson (Petrology) 
Harry Winston (Mineralogy) 


Chairman Richard E. Grant 

Collections Manager Frederick J. ColHer 


Curators Richard M. Benson 

Richard S. Boardman 
Martin A. Buzas 
Alan H. Cheetham 
Richard Cifelli 
Richard E. Grant 
Erie G. Kauffman 
Thomas R. Waller 

Geologist Kenneth M. Towe 


Curators Nicholas Hotton III 

Clayton E. Ray 
Associate Curator Robert J. Emry 


Curator Walter H. Adey 

Associate Curators Leo J. Hickey 

Francis M. Hueber 

Curator Jack W. Pierce 

Geological Oceanographer Daniel J. Stanley 

Geologist Ian G. Macintyre 

Research Associates, Collaborators, and Affiliated Scientists: 

Arthur J. Boucot Venka V. Macintyre 

Anthony C. Coates Sergius H. Mamay 

G. Arthur Cooper James F. Mello 

Raymond Douglass Robert B. Neuman 

J. Thomas Dutro William A. Oliver, Jr. 

Robert M. Finks Storrs L. Olson 

C. Lewis Gazin Axel A. Olsson 

Mackenzie Gordon, Jr. John Pojeta, Jr. 

Joseph E. Hazel Norman F. Sohl 

John W. Huddle Steven M. Stanley 

Ralph W. Imlay Margaret Ruth Todd 

Jeremy B. C. Jackson Astrid Witmer 

Harry S. Ladd Wendell P. Woodring 

N. Gary Lane Ellis P. Yochelson 
Kenneth E. Lohman 

Appendix 10. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1974 I 415 

Research Associates, Collaborators, and Affiliated Scientists — cont. 

Paleobotany Patricia J. Adey 

David Child 
Sedimentology Gilbert Kelling 

Frederic R. Siegel 
Vertebrate Paleontology Douglas Emlong 

Charles A. Reppening 

Frank C. Whitmore, Jr. 


Chairman Robert H. Gibbs, Jr. 


Curators Robert H. Gibbs, Jr. 

Ernest A. Lachner 
Victor G. Springer 
Stanley H. Weitzman 

Associate Curator William R. Taylor 

Reptiles and Amphibians 

Associate Curators W. Ronald Heyer 

George R. Zug 


Curators George E. Watson 

Richard L. Zusi 
Associate Curator Paul Slud 


Curators Charles O. Handley, Jr. 

Henry W. Setzer 

Associate Curator Richard W. Thorington, Jr. 

Assistant Curator James G. Mead 

Research Associates, Collaborators, and Affiliated Scientists: 

John W. Aldrich (Birds) Richard Highton (Reptiles, 
Ronald Gail Altig (Reptiles, Amphibians) 

Amphibians) Marshall A. Howe (Birds) 

Richard C. Banks (Birds) Philip S. Humphrey (Birds) 

William Belton (Birds) Crawford G. Jackson, Jr. (Reptiles, 
James P. Bogart (Reptiles, Amphibians) 

Amphibians) George J. Jacobs (Reptiles, 
James E. Bohlke (Fishes) Amphibians) 

Robert L. Brownell, Jr. (Mammals) Clyde J. Jones (Mammals) 

Howard W. Campbell (Reptiles, E. V. Komarek (Mammals) 

Amphibians) Roxie C. Laybourne (Birds) 
Leonard Carmichael, Jr. (Psychology, Richard H. Manville (Mammals) 

Animal Behavior) i* J. A. J. Meester (Mammals) 

Daniel M. Cohen (Fishes) Egardo Mondolfi (Mammals) 

Bruce B. Collette (Fishes) Russell E. Mumford (Mammals) 

Robert K. Enders (Mammals) Storrs L. Olson (Birds) 
Carl H. Ernst (Reptiles, Amphibians) Braulio Orejas-Miranda (Reptiles) 

Herbert Friedmann (Birds) JoTin Paradiso (Mammals) 

Crawford H. Greenewalt (Birds) William F. Perrin (Mammals) 

Arthur M. Greenhall (Mammals) Dioscoro S. Rabor (Birds) 

" Died September 16, 1973. 

416 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Rudolfo Ruibal (Reptiles, Amphibians) Stephen G. Tilley (Reptiles, Amphibians) 

G. Carleton Ray (Mammals) John C. Weske (Birds) 

S. Dillon Ripley (Birds) Alexander Wetmore (Birds) 

William Schevill (Mammals) Ralph E. Wetzel (Mammals) 

Leonard P. Schultz (Fishes) Don E. Wilson (Mammals) 


Director Theodore H. Reed 

Deputy Director Edward Kohn 

Assistant Director for Conservation John Perry 

Assistant Director for Visitor Services . . . Warren J. Iliff 

Chief, Office of Education and 

Information (Open) 

Chief, Office of Graphics and Exhibits . . . Robert E. Mulcahy 

Chief, Office of Protective Services Joseph J. McGarry 

Captain, NZP Police Samuel L. Middleton, Jr. 

Chief, Health and Safety Unit Anthony S. Kadlubowski 

General Curator, Office of Animal 

Management Jaren G. Horsley 

Mammalogist, Office of Animal 

Management Harold J. Egoscue 

Associate Curator, North Mammal Unit. . Larry R. Collins 

Curator, Central Mammal Unit William A. Xanten, Jr. 

Assistant Curator, South Mammal Unit . . Miles S. Roberts 

Curator, Birds Unit Guy A. Greenwell 

Assistant Curator, Reptiles Unit Michael L. Davenport 

Chief, Commissary and Support Unit .... Moses Benson 

Scientist-in-Charge, Office of Zoological 

Research John F. Eisenberg 

Chief, Office of Health and Pathology . . . Clinton W. Gray 
Pathologist, Office of Health and 

Pathology Robert M. Sauer 

Chief, Office of Construction 

Management Robert C. Engle 

Chief, Office of Facilities Management . . . Emanuel Petrella 

Chief, Maintenance Unit Robert F. Ogilvie 

Chief, Grounds Unit Samuel W. Gordon 

Chief, Services Unit Carl F. Jackson 

Chief, Transportation Unit Robert T. Chesley 

Chief, Property and Procurement Unit . . . James E. Deal 

Chief, Office of Management Services . . . Joe W. Reed 

Associates in Ecology S. Dillon Ripley 

Lee M. Talbot 

Research Associates Jean Delacour 

Bernard C. Zook 
James A. Sherburne 

Collaborators Leonard J. Goss 

Carlton M. Herman 
Paul Leyhausen 
Charles R. Schroeder 

Appendix 10. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1974 I 417 


Director Wymberley Coerr^^ 

Deputy Director William L. Eilers 

Program Director, AID Environmental 

Impact Studies Peter H. Freeman 

Program Director, AID Waterborne 

Diseases Study Curt R. Schneider 

Oceanography and Limnology Program 

Director Robert P. Higgins 

Deputy Director Catherine J. Kerby 

Program Limnologist C. Willard Hart, Jr. ^^ 

Director, Smithsonian Oceanographic 

Sorting Center Betty J. Landrum 

Director, Mediterranean Marine Sorting 

Center Ernani G. Menez 

Ecology Program 

Director Dale W. Jenkins ^^ 

Acting Director William L. Eilers ^^ 

Deputy Director Lee M. Talbot ^^ 

Director, Center for Natural Areas Stephen L. Keiley 

Director, Peace Corps Environmental 

Program Robert K. Poole 

Project Manager, Environmental 

Inventories Project William C. Jolly 

Project Manager, Atlantic Coastal Plain 

Study Anne LaBastille 

Project Manager, Johnston Atoll Study . . A. Binion Amerson, Jr. 

Center for Short-Lived Phenomena 

Director Robert A. Citron 


Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program 

Director Kennedy B. Schmertz 

Administrative Assistant Jean A. C. Harrell 

Program Officer C. Elmer Skold 

Program Officer Wayne Mills 

Grants Technical Assistants Betty J. Wingfield 

Judy Rogers Johnson ^o 
Francine Berkowitz (Acting) 

International Liaison Program 

Acting Director Richard T. Conroy 

Program Officer LeRoy Makepeace 

Program Assistant Saundra A. Tilghman (Acting) 

^^ Appointed October 15, 1973. 

*^ Entered on duty June 8, 1974. 

^^ Until December 31, 1973. 

^® January 1-June 30, 1974. 

^^ On leave since 1972 to Council on Environmental Quality. 

^° Resigned June 1974. 

418 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


Director William H. Klein 

Assistant Director W. Shropshire, Jr. 

Agricultural Engineer John Sager 

Anthropologist Robert Stuckenrath 

Biochemists David L. Correll 

Maurice M. Margulies 

Biologists Elisabeth Gantt 

Rebecca Hayes 
Allan Michaels 

Chemist David Severn 

Fisheries Biologist Joseph Miklas 

Geneticist Roy W. Harding, Jr. 

Microbiologist Brian Gray 

Physicist Bernard Goldberg 

Physiological Ecologist Bert Drake 

Plant Physiologists Wilham O. Smith, Jr. 

John L. Edwards 
Cornelius Raven 
Michael Read 
Robert L. Weintraub 
Fellow Edward DeFabo 


Director George B. Field 

Assistant Director John G. Gregory 

Scientific Staff: 

Kaare Aksnes Gerald Hawkins 

Eugene H. Avrett Henry F. Helmken 

Prabhu Bhatnagar Paul W. Hodge 

A. G. W. Cameron Luigi G. Jacchia 

Nathaniel P. Carleton Wolfgang Kalkofen 

Frederic Chaffee Edwin M. Kellogg 

Eric J. Chaisson Douglas Kleinmann 

Guiseppe Colombo Yoshihide Kozai 

Allan F. Cook Robert L. Kurucz 

Alex Dalgarno David Latham 

Robert J. Davis Don A. Lautman 
William A. Deutschman Myron Lecar 

Dale F. Dickinson John R. Lester 

Kate K. Docken Martin Levine 

Giovanni G. Fazio A. Edward Lilley 

Edward L. Fireman Marvin Litvak 

William Forman Richard E. McCrosky 

Fred A. Franklin Brian G. Marsden 
Edward M. Gaposchkin Ursula B. Marvin 

Giorgio Giacaglia Donald H. Menzel 

Riccardo Giacconi Lawrence W. Mertz 

Owen Gingerich Henri E. Mitler 

Paul Gorenstein Paul A. Mohr 

Mario D. Grossi James Moran 

Herbert Gursky Stephen S. Murray 

Marie E. Hallam Robert W. Noyes 

Appendix 10. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1974 I 419 

SAO Scientific Staff — cont. 

Michael Oppenheimer Harvey D. Tananbaum 

Costas Papaliolios Wesley A. Traub 

William H. Parkinson Giuseppe Vaiana 

Cecelia H. Payne-Gaposchkin Leon van Spreybroeck 

Michael R. Pearlman George Veis 

Harrison E. Radford Robert Vessot 

Edmond M. Reeves George Victor 

George B. Rybicki Trevor C. Weekes 

Winfield W. Salisbury George Weiffenbach 

Rudolph E. Schild Steven Weinberg 

Ethan J. Schreier Fred L. Whipple 

Daniel A. Schwartz Charles A. Whitney 

Zdenek Sekanina Marlene Williamson 

I. Shapiro George L. Withbroe 

Richard B. Southworth John A. Wood 

Frank Steinbrunn Fred Young 


President David F. Hersey 

Vice President, Professional Services .... Willis R. Foster 

Vice President, Data Processing Martin Snyderman 

Secretary V. P. Verfuerth 

Treasurer David W. Lakamp 

Assistant Treasurer Evelyn M. Roll 

Director of Marketing David W. Lakamp 

Marketing Manager Janet D. Goldstein 

Science Division 

Director Willis R. Foster 

Deputy, Life Sciences Charlotte M. Damron 

Chief, Medical Sciences Branch Faith F. Stephan 

Chief, Behavioral Sciences Branch Rhoda Stolper 

Chief, Social Sciences Branch Barbara F. Lundquist 

Chief, Agriculture Sciences Branch William T. Carlson 

Chief, Biological Sciences Branch James R. Wheatley, Jr. 

Deputy, Physical Sciences Samuel Liebman 

Chief, Chemistry, Material and 

Engineering Branch Samuel Liebman 

Chief, Physics, Mathematics and 

Electronics Branch Robert Summers 

Chief, Earth Science Branch (Temporarily vacant) 

Data Processing Division 

Director Martin Snyderman 

Deputy Bernard L. Hunt 

Chief, Input Services Branch Jack DeVore 

Chief, Systems Development Branch .... Bernard L. Hunt 
Chief, Programming and Reports Services 

Branch Robert A. Kline 

Chief, Computer Operations Branch Paul Gallucci 


Director Ira Rubinoff 

Special Assistant to Director Adela Gomez 

420 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Assistant Director A. Stanley Rand 

Administrative Officer C. Neal McKinney 

Manager, Barro Colorado Island Ernest Hayden 

Manager, Naos Island Thomas Borges 

Librarian Alcira Mejia 

Senior Scientist Martin H. Moynihan 


Charles Birkeland Michael H. Robinson 

Robert L. Dressier Roberta W. Rubinoff 

Peter W. Glynn Alan P. Smith 

Jeffrey B. Graham Neal G. Smith 

Egbert G. Leigh, Jr. Nicholas Smythe 

Olga F. Linares Hindrik Wolda 
David L. Meyer 

Honorary : 

Carlos Arellano L. Carlos Lehmann 

Charles F. Bennet, Jr. Ernst Mayr 

Mary Jane West Eberhard Barbara Robinson 

William G. Eberhard W. John Smith 

Nathan Gale Henry Stockwell 

Pedro Galindo Paulo Vanzolini 

Carmen Glynn Martin Young 


Assistant Secretary Charles Blitzer 

Program Management Officer Dean Anderson 

Bicentennial Coordinator Susan Hamilton 


Director William E. Woolfenden 

Deputy Director-Archivist Garnett McCoy 

Administrative Assistant Richard J. Nicastro 

Curator of Manuscripts Arthur J. Breton 

Assistant Curator of Manuscripts Nancy Zembala 

Manuscripts Assistant Anne Payne 

Area Directors Butler Coleman (New York) 

Robert Brown (Northeast) 
Dennis Barrie (Midwest) 
Paul Karlstrom (West Coast) 

Field Researchers F. Ivor D. Avellino (New York) 

Sylvia Loomis (Southwest) 
Oral History Paul Cummings 


Director Lisa Suter Taylor 

Program Management Officer John Dobkin 

Administrator and Curator of Collections Christian Rohlfing 

Assistant Curator of Decorative Arts . . . Catherine Frangiamore 

Appendix 10. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1974 1 421 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum — cont. 

Curator of Drawings and Prints Elaine Evans Dee 

Technician for Drawings and Prints .... Xenia Cage 

Assistant Curator of Textiles Milton Sonday 

Consultant for Textiles Alice Baldwin Beer 

Registrar Mary F. Blackwelder 

Exhibits Specialist Dorothy Globus 

Building Manager Manuel Perez 

Museum Secretary Rowena MacLeod 

Museum Receptionist Mary Kerr 


Director Harold P. Stern 

Assistant Director Thomas Lawton 

Associate Curator, Chinese Art Hin-cheung Lovell 

Associate Curator, Near Eastern Art Esin Atil 

Head Conservator, Technical Laboratory. W. Thomas Chase III 

Chemist, Technical Laboratory John Winter 

Research Curator, Far Eastern Ceramics. . John A. Pope 
Research Consultant, Technical 

Laboratory Rutherford J. Gettens 21 

Research Assistant, Far Eastern 

Ceramics Josephine H. Knapp 

Research Assistant, Herzfeld Archive . . . Joseph M. Upton 

Librarian Priscilla P. Smith 

Administrative Officer Willa R. Moore 

Registrar Eleanor Radcliffe 

Honorary Associates Richard Edwards 

Calvin French 


Director Abram Lerner 

Deputy Director Stephen Weil 22 

Administrator Joseph Sefekar 

Chief Curator Charles W. Millard 

Curator Cynthia J. McCabe 

Curator Inez Garson 

Curatorial Assistant Phyllis Rosenzweig 

Librarian Anna Brooke 

Registrar Douglas Robinson 

Prints and Drawings Specialist Frank B. Gettings 

Chief, Education Program Edward Lawson 

Education Specialist Mary Ann Tighe 

Building Manager Keith Cumberland 


Editor Nathan Reingold 

Assistant Editor Michele L. Aldrich 

Assistant Editor Arthur P. Molella 

Staff Historian James M. Hobbins 

Research Assistant Kathleen Waldenfels 

Administrative Officer Beverly Jo Lepley 

-^ Died June 17, 1974. 

22 Entered on duty July 22, 1974. 

422 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


Director James S. Hutchins 

Administrative Officer Miriam H. Uretz 

Collections John M. Elliott 

Secretary Barbara J. Lane 


Director Joshua C. Taylor 

Assistant Director for Operations Harry Lowe 

Assistant Director for Administration . . . Harry Jordan 

Registrar W. Robert Johnston 

Curator, 20th Century Painting and 

Sculpture Walter Hopps 

Consultant, 20th Century Painting and 

Sculpture Adelyn Breeskin 

Associate Curator, 18th- and 19th- 
century Painting and Sculpture William H. Truettner 

Curator, Prints and Drawings Janet A. Flint 

Curator of Education Peter Bermingham 

Director, Renwick Gallery Lloyd E. Herman 

Associate Curator, Renwick Gallery Michael Monroe 

Curator of Research Lois M. Fink 

Coordinator, Bicentennial Inventory of 

American Paintings Abigail Booth 

Chief, Office of Exhibition and Design . . David Keeler 

Chief, Office for Exhibitions Abroad .... Lois A. Bingham 

Conservator Thomas Carter 

Editor, Office of PubUcation Carroll Clark 

Librarian, NCFA/NPG William B. Walker 

Coordinator for Lending Program Donald R. McClelland 


Director Brooke Hindle 

Deputy Director Silvio A. Bedini 

Assistant Director for Administration . . . Robert G. Tillotson 
Assistant Director for Design and 

Production Benjamin W. Lawless 

Registrar Virginia Beets 

Chief, Exhibits Programs Harold K. Skramstad 

iSenior Historian Daniel J. Boorstin 


[Chairman Carl H. Scheele 

Graphic Arts 

Associate Curators Elizabeth M. Harris 

i Peter C. Marzio 


Curators Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli 

Elvira Clain-Stefanelli 

Photographic History 

Curator Eugene Ostroff 

Assistant Curator David E. Haberstich 


Appendix 10. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1974 1 423 

Postal History 

Curator Carl H. Scheele 

Associate Curators Franklin R. Bruns 

Reidar Norby 


Curators Rita J. Adrosko 

Grace R. Cooper 


Numismatics Cora Lee C. Gillilland 

R. Henry Norweb 
Emery May Norweb 


Chairman (acting) Rodris Roth 

Senior Curator C. Malcolm Watkins 

Costume and Furnishings 

Curator Rodris Roth 

Assistant Curator Claudia B. Kidwell 

Curator Emeritus Anne W. Murray 

Ethnic and Western Cultural History 

Curators Richard E. Ahlbom 

William Seale 

Musical Instruments 

Curator John T. Fesperman 

Associate Curator Cynthia A. Hoover 

Assistant Curator James M. Weaver 

Preindustrial Cultural History 

Associate Curator Anne C. Colovin 


Musical Instruments David W. Hinshaw 

Preindustrial Cultural History Ivor Noel-Hume 

Robert H. McNulty 
Joan Pearson Watkins 


Chairman John H. White, Jr. 

Historian Emeritus Howard I. Chapelle 

Agriculture and Mining 

Curator John T. Schlebecker, Jr. 

Associate Curator John N. Hoffman 

Ceramics and Glass 

Curators J. Jefferson Miller II 

Paul V. Gardner 


Assistant Curator George T. Sharrer 


Curators John H. White, Jr. 

Melvin H. Jackson 
Assistant Curator Donald H. Berkebile 

424 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


Ceramics and Glass Hans Syz 

Manufacturing Philip W. Bishop 

Transportation Peter B. Bell 


Chairman Margaret B. Klapthor 

Military History 

Curator Craddock R. Coins, Jr. 

Assistant Curator Donald E. Kloster 

Naval History 

Curators Philip K. Lunderberg 

Harold D. Langley 

Political History 

Curator Margaret B. Klapthor 

Associate Curator Herbert R. Collins 


Naval History William Rea Furlong 


Chairman Robert M. Vogel 

Senior Scientific Scholar Robert P. Multhauf 

Historian (Pharmacy) Sami K. Hamarneh 

Principal Investigator (Computer History 

Project) Henry S. Tropp 

Electricity and Nuclear Energy 

Curator Bernard S. Finn 

Associate Curator Paul Forman 

Mechanical and Civil Engineering 

Curators Robert M. Vogel 

Edwin A. Battison 
Otto Mayr 

Medical Sciences 

Associate Curator Audrey B. Davis 

Physical Sciences 

Associate Curator Deborah J. Warner 

Curator Walter F. Cannon 

Associate Curator Jon B. Eklund 

Section of Mathematics 

Curator Uta C. Merzbach 


Electricity and Nuclear Energy Ladislaus L. Marton 

Gerald F. J. Tyne 

Physical Sciences Anthony R. Michaelis 

Derek J. De Solla Price 
Arthur Frazier 


Assistant Director for Design and 

Production Benjamin W. Lawless 

Appendix 10. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1974 1 425 

Office of Exhibits — cont. 

Chief, Exhibits Designs Richard 5. Virgo 

Chief, Exhibits Production Stanley Santoroski 


Director Marvin S. Sadik 

Assistant Director 

and Administrative Officer Douglas E. Evelyn 

Historian Lillian B. Miller 

Research Historian Frederick S. Voss 

Coordinator of Exhibitions Beverly J. Cox 

Curator Robert G. Stewart 

Associate Curator Monroe Fabian 

Keeper of the Catalogue Mona Dearborn 

Curator of Education Dennis A. O'Toole 

Associate Curator of Education Lisa Strick 

Chief, Exhibits Design and Production . . Joseph M. Carrigan 

Librarian (NPG-NCFA) William B. Walker 

Senior Conservator Felrath Hines 

Photographer Eugene L. Mantie 

Registrar Jon D. Freshour 

Assistant Registrar Suzanne C. Jenkins 

Public Affairs Officer Carol Cutler 


Executive Officer Edward S. Davidson 

Program Officer Gretchen Gayle 


Director Wilcomb E. Washburn 


Assistant Secretary Paul N. Ferrot 

Research Associate Frank A. Taylor 


Chief Robert M. Organ 

Research Chemist Jacqueline S. Olin 

Supervisory Conservator Eleanor McMillan 

Administrative Officer Montague Smith 


Chief James A. Mahoney 

Assistant Chief and Exhibits Editor Constance Minkin 

Administrative Officer William M. Clark 

Coordinator Joseph W. Saunders 

Chief of Production John C. Widener 

426 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


Assistant Director and Administrator, 

National Museum Act Frederick Schmid 

Administrative Assistant Gwendolyn Baker 

Program Coordinator, Conservation 

Information Elena Borowski 

Research Assistant Jean Chen 

Museum Studies Specialist Marilyn S. Cohen 

Program Coordinator, Museum 

Workshop Program Rolland O. Hower 

Research Psychologist Robert A. Lakota 

Research Psychologist (Visiting) Ross J. Loomis-3 

Museum Studies Specialist Margaret Parsons 

Consultant, Experimental Psychology .... C. G. Screven 


Registrar pro tem Richard H. Lytle^* 

Supervisory Technician Margaret Santiago 

Supervisory Transportation Specialist . . . Gleason Shaver 


Archivist Richard H. Lytic 

Associate Archivist William A. Deiss 

Assistant Archivists James Steed 

Alan L. Bain 

Supervisory Technician Norwood Biggs 


Director of Libraries Russell Shank 

Assistant to the Director for Planning 

and Research Elaine Sloan 

Administrative Librarian Thomas L. Wilding 

Administrative Officer Mary C. Quinn 

Assistant Director of Libraries for 

Bureau Services Jean C. Smith 

Deputy Assistant Director of Libraries 

for Bureau Services L. Frances Jones 

Assistant Director of Libraries for 

General Services Philip Leslie 

Access Services 

Chief Jack F. Marquardt 

Assistant Chief Dan O. Clemmer^^ 

Assistant Chief Amy Levin^® 

Bibliographer for the History of Science 

and Technology Jack S. Goodwin 

^^ July 1, 1973 to September 15, 1973. 

2* Effective December 1973. 

^^ Transferred to State Department Library November 23, 1973. 

2® Appointed April 15, 1974. 

Appendix 10. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1974 I 427 

Technical Processes Center 

Chief Vija L. Karklins 

Acquisitions Division 

Chief Mildred D. Raitt 

Gift and Exchange Librarian Sharon H. Sweeting 

Catalog Division 

Chief Mary Jane H. Linn 

Catalogers Angeline D. Ashford 

Charles H. King 
Helen S. Nordberg 
Margaret A. Sealor 
Bertha S. Sohn 
Frances W. Penfold^" 

Processing Section 

Chief Mary J. Pierce 

Bureau Libraries 

Freer Gallery of Art 

Librarian Priscilla B. Smith 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

Librarian Anna M. Brooke 

National Air and Space Museum 

Librarian Catherine D. Scott 

National Collection of Fine Arts and National Portrait Gallery 

Librarian William B. Walker 

Reference Librarian Sara H. Hanan-^ 

Reference Librarian Katharine Ratzenberger^^ 

Slide and Photograph Librarian Eleanor Fink 

National Museum of History and Technology 

Librarian Frank A. Pietropaoli 

Reference Librarian Charles G. Berger 

National Museum of Natural History 

Acting Librarian Jean C. Smith 

Botany Branch Librarian Ruth F. Schallert 

National Zoological Park 

Librarian Mary Clare Cahill 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

Librarian Joyce M. Rey 

Smithsonian Radiation Biology Laboratory 

Librarian Mary Clare Cahill 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Librarian Alcira Mejia 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 

Librarian Mary Anglemyer^° 

Librarian Zdenek David^^ 

^" Appointed November 25, 1973. 
2* Resigned May 18, 1974. 
2^ Appointed April 28, 1974. 
^° Retired December, 1973. 
^^ Appointed March 18, 1974. 

428 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


Director Dennis Gould 

Administrative Assistant Eileen Rose 

Program Assistant Anne R. Gossett 

Exhibition Coordinator Quinton Hallett Hoglund 

Bicentennial Exhibitions Coordinator .... Andrea P. Stevens 

Bicentennial Exhibitions Assistant William Kloss 

Science Exhibitions Coordinator Deborah Raab 

Science Exhibitions Assistant Deborah Dawson 

Program Coordinator Robin Lynn 

Registrar Kathleen Hopkins 


Assistant Secretary Julian T. Euell 

Deputy Assistant Secretary Robert W. Mason 

Program Coordinator Edward F. Rivinus 

Television Coordinator (vacancy) 

Administrative Officer Jewell S. Dulaney 


Director John R. Kinard 

Assistant to the Director for Special 

Projects Balcha Fellows 

Administrative Assistant Audrey Archer 

Supervisory Program Manager, Education 

Department Zora B. Martin 

Program Manager, Education Department 

(Mobile) Fletcher Smith 

Supervisory Program Manager, Research 

and Design Department Larry E. Thomas 

Supervisory Exhibits Specialist, 

Exhibits Branch James E. Mayo 

Education Specialist (Research), 

Anacostia Studies Branch Louise D. Hutchinson 


Director James R. Morris 

Deputy Director Richard P. Lusher 

Special Assistant to the Director Ruth Jordan 

Director, Festival of American Folklife . . . Ralph C. Rinzler 
Program Development Officer and 

Senior Folklorist Robert Byington 

Folklore Presentation Specialist Ernestine Potter 

Director, Jazz Program Martin Williams 

Production Manager B. C. May 

Education Services Officer Susanne Roschwalb 

Public Information Officer Manuel Melendez 

Design Specialist Janet Stratton 

Appendix 10. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1974 I 429 


Senior Education Coordinator David W. Estabrook 

Assistant Education Coordinator Seln\a A. Searles 

Volunteer Program Coordinator Magdalene C. Schremp 

Writer/Editor Ann P. Bay 


Director Carl W. Larsen 

Administrative Assistant Muriel J. Slaughter 

Chief, News Bureau (vacancy) 

Art Information Specialist (vacancy) 

Science Information Specialist Thomas R. Harney 

Information Officer Johnnie M. Douthis 

Writer-Editor Lilas P. Wiltshire 

Special Events Officer Meredith Johnson 

Assistant Special Events Officer Jeanette C. Gladstone 

Publications Officer William O. Craig 

Radio Production SpeciaUst Paul B. Johnson 

Special Coordinator for Public Affairs . . . William C. Grayson 


Director Wilton S. Dillon 

Assistant to Director Dorothy Richardson 

Program Specialist Jane Wallace 


Chairman of Board of Directors Mrs. Robert S. McNamara 

President Dr. Sidney Nelson 

Managing Director Eleanor Smollar 

Program Director Barbara B. Atkinson 


Editor and Publisher Edward K. Thompson 

Members, Board of Editors Ralph Backlund 

Grayce P. Northcross 
James K. Page, Jr. 
Edwards Park 

General Manager Joseph J. Bonsignore 

Advertising Director Thomas H. Black 

Circulation-Promotion Director Anne Keating 


Executive Director Robert W. Mason 

Director of Plans and Marketing Robert H. Angle 

National Program 

Director, Reception Center Mary Grace Potter 

Manager, Domestic Study Tours Rosa Mae Howe 

430 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Manager, Contributing Membership Maxwell G. Courtney III 

Assistant for National Board Barbara M. Benson 

Resident Program 

Director Janet W. Solinger 

Assistant Director for Administration . . . Edward H. Able 
Assistant Director for Programming .... Herbert W. White 

Program Coordinators Leslie L. Buhler 

Carolyn Hecker 
Moya B. King 
Bonnie Webb 
Membership Secretary Jeanne B. George 


Director Gordon Hubel 

Managing Designer Stephen Kraft 

Promotion Manager Maureen R. Jacoby 

Business Manager Frederick H. MacVicar 

Series Managing Editor Albert L. Ruffin, Jr. 

Series Production Manager Charles L. Shaffer 

Editors Mary Frances Bell 

Ernest E. Biebighauser 
Louise J. Heskett 
Joan B. Horn 
Mary M. Ingraham 
John S. Lea 
Nancy L. Powars 

Writer-Editor Hope G. Pantell 

Designers Natalie Bigelow 

Crimilda Pontes 
Elizabeth Sur 



Director Richard L. Ault 

Contracting Officer, Contracts Office .... Elbridge O. Hurlbut 

Director, Information Systems Division. . Stanley A. Kovy 

Director, Management Analysis Office . . . Ann S. Campbell 

Director, Office of Equal Opportunity . . . Archie D. Grimmett 

Director, Office of Personnel 

Administration Vincent J. Doyle 

Director, Office of Protection Service .... Robert B. Burke, Jr. 

i Chief, Travel Services Office Betty V. Strickler 

Director, Office of Plant Services Kenneth E. Shaw 

Director, Office of Facilities Planning 

i and Engineering Services Phillip K. Reiss 

Director, Office of Printing and 

Photographic Services Arthur L. Gaush 

Director, Office of Supply Services Harry P. Barton 

Appendix 10. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1974 I 431 


Director, Office of Programming 

and Budget John F. Jameson 

Chief Accountant Allen 5. Goff 

Business Manager Richard Griesel 

Director, Smithsonian Museum Shops . . . William W. Rowan III 

Director, Belmont Conference Center . . . Joanne S. Baker Kugel 


Director, Office of Audits Chris S. Peratino 


Director Jeremiah A. Collins 


President Paul Mellon 

Vice President John Hay Whitney 

Director J. Carter Brown 

Assistant to the Director, Music Richard Bales 

Assistant to the Director, National 

Programs W. Howard Adams 

Assistant to the Director, 

Public Information Katherine Warwick 

Construction Manager Hurley Offenbacker 

Planning Consultant David W. Scott 

Assistant Director Charles P. Parkhurst 

Curator of American Painting William P. Campbell 

Chief Librarian J. M. Edelstein 

Chief, Education and Public Programs . . . Margaret I. Bouton 

Editor Theodore S. Amussen 

Chief, Photographic Laboratory Henry B. Beville 

Curator of Photographic Archives Alessandro Contini-Bonacossi 

Senior Conservator Victor C. B. Covey 

Chief of Exhibitions Jack C. Spinx 

Curator of Tuscan, Umbrian, and Early 

Italian Painting David A. Brown 

Curator of Graphic Arts Andrew Robison 

Senior Research Curator Konrad Oberhuber 

Curator of French Painting David E. Rust 

Curator of Sculpture C. Douglas Lewis, Jr. 

Curator of Twentieth Century Art E. A. Carmean, Jr. 

Curator of Venetian, Northern and 

Later Italian Painting Sheldon Grossman 

Curator of Northern European 

Painting John O. Hand 

Secretary and General Counsel Robert Amory, Jr. 

Treasurer - Lloyd D. Hayes 

Assistant Treasurer James W. Woodward 

Administrator Joseph G. English 

Assistant Administrator George W. Riggs 

Personnel Officer Jeremiah J. Barrett 

432 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


Honorary Chairmen Mrs. Richard M. Nixon 

Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson 
Mrs. Aristotle Onassis 
Mrs. Dwight D. Eisenhower 

Chairman Roger L. Stevens 

Vice Chairmen Harry C. McPherson, Jr. 

Charles H. Percy 
Henry Strong 

General Counsel Ralph E. Becker 

Secretary Frank N. Ikard 

Treasurer W. Jarvis Moody 

Executive Director of Performing Arts . . . Martin Feinstein 

Music Director Julius Rudel 

General Manager of Theaters Alexander Morr 

Director of Education F. W. Rogers 

Director of Publicity Wayne Shilkret 

Assistant Secretary Charlotte Woolard 

Assistant Treasurers: 

John L. Bryant Henry Strong 

Rita M. Driscoll Peter M. Van Dine 

L. Parker Harrell, Jr. John R. Whitmore 

James F. Rogers Maxine F. Wininger 


Director James Billington 

Assistant Director Michael Lacey 

Administrative Officer William Dunn 

Librarian Zdenek David 

Appendix 10. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1974 I 433 

APPENDIX 11. List of Donors to the Smithsonian Institution 
in Fiscal Year 1974 


The Board of Regents and the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 
join with the entire staff in thanking all of our friends for their generous 
financial support and for their gifts to the collections. If perchance any 
donor has been omitted from the following lists, it is an inadvertence 
and not intentional. Many gifts were received from anonymous donors. 

Our gratitude also goes out to the many capable and dedicated volun- 
teers, who contribute so significantly each year to the Institution's pro- 
grams, particularly in the areas of education and visitor orientation. The 
1,120 volunteers have graciously contributed 105,000 hours of work; this 
represents 77 man-years and can be valued at approximately $900,000. 

Donors to the Furnishings Collection 

Armstrong, General and Mrs. Donald, Palm Beach, Florida: Empire sofa 

belonging to President Andrew Jackson during his presidency; Victorian 

sculpture group with pedestal. 
Davis, Mrs. Richard, Washington, D.C. : Empire secretary. 
Deveau, Mr. and Mrs. Donald, Bethesda, Maryland: Renaissance Revival 

console table with two side chairs; Renaissance Revival secretary; Victorian 

mantel clock; pair Renaissance Revival arm chairs. 
Fetherston, Mrs. Edith (from her estate), Lewisburg, Pennsylvania: Pair 

Renaissance Revival arm chairs; Victorian bookcase; one set North 

American Wildflowers, by Mary Veau Walcott. 
Freseman, Mrs. Perry, Alexandria, Virginia: Eastlake hatstand; Rococo Revivak 

King, Mrs. Moya B., Washington, D.C: pair centennial side chairs. 
Patterson, Mrs. Jefferson, Washington, D.C. : folding table, serving tray, 

Shepard, Mrs. Donald, Washington, D.C: oil portrait of Andrew Mellon by 

Gari Melchers. 
Wood, Mrs. N. Bissell, Washington, D.C: pair of ornamental Victorian cast- 
iron garden urns. 
Wyckoff, Mr. and Mrs. Bernard, Washington, D.C: Victorian chandelier. 
Young, Dorothy M. (from her estate), Washington, D.C: set of Oriental 


434 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


Donors to the Aeronautic Collections 

American Airlines: aircraft — Ford Tri-Motor, Model 5-AT-B. 
Dawson, J., and Maryann Ransome: aircraft — Pitts Special. 
Doolittle, Lt. Gen. James H., USAF (Ret.) : 45 items of memorabilia, 

including photos, portrait, medals, awards, etc. 
Emge Aviation Marine Products, Inc. : pressure suit with helmet and controller. 
Goodyear Aerospace Corporation: aircraft — Goodyear Inflatoplane. 
Pan American: DC-8 Flight Simulator. 
Raven Industries: balloon gondola. 
Rickenbacker, Capt. Eddie (from his estate) : 230 items of memorabilia, 

including portrait, awards, medals, etc. 
Turner, Mrs. Roscoe: Uniforms and clothing worn by Roscoe Turner. 

Donors to the Astronautic Collections 

Artists, The Garrett Corporation, LTV Aerospace Corporation, Hughes 

Aircraft Company, and System Development Corporation : 29 works of space 
art by seventeen artists including works by Robert McCall, Paula Creenman, 
and Raquel Forner. 

Geiss, Dr. J., Universitat Bern, Physikalisches Institut, Switzerland: Apollo 
Solar Wind Experiment (backup flight unit). 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Apollo Program materiel, 
including Apollo 17 astronaut space suits, Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment 
Packages, Lunar Sample Return Containers, lunar hand tools, and astronaut 
training equipment. 

Stine, G. Harry, Phoenix, Arizona: Unique documented collection of model 
rockets and missiles consisting of all known model kits, both U.S. and 

United States Navy: Poseidon Missile. 


Donors of Financial Support 

Estate of William A. Archer 

Mr. D. Jenkins Armistead 

Mr. James E. Bakey 

Mr. Charles Bodington 

Ms. Helen Bodington 

Mr. I. C. Brown 

Frau Dr. Helene Butz-Landolt 

Miss Julie Cheek 

Mrs. Frances K. Clark 

Mr. J. F. Gates Clarke 

Committee for Islamic Culture 

Dr. William H. Crocker 

Ms. Aileen Curry-Cloonan 

Dr. Arthur L. Dahl 

Mr. Gilbert S. Daniels 

Mrs. Helen W. Edey 

Mr. Edward Henderson 

Elsa Wild Animal Appeal 

Entomological Society of America 

Mr. Robert Feinstein 

Mr. Francis T. Fenn 

Ms. Lucille Bond Ferris 

Ms. Diana Fischer 

Mr. Robert B. Flint 

Mrs. Rebecca D. Gibson 

Mr. Martin Glamm 

Miss Mary C. Groves 

Mr. P. Frank Hagerty 

Dr. and Mrs. Herbert E. Hawkes 

Mr. Harvard K. Hecker 

Mr. P. G. Hecker 

Ms. Jean E. Howard 

Mr. H. W. Hruschka 

Mr. Carl Hubbs 

Institute of International Education 

International Association of 

Plant Taxonomy 
Mr. F. M. Johnson 

Appendix 11. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 435 

Mr. H. L. Kempner Mr. and Mrs. William G. Roe 

Mr. Irving B. Kingsford Mr. R. P. Rose 

Mr. F. D. Lapham Schwarzhart Family 

Mr. and Mrs. Rodney M. Layton Mrs. Audrey Sheldon 

Mr. J. deNavarre Macomb, Jr. Mr. Hermann Simon 

Mr. J de Navarre Macomb, Jr. Dr. L. B. Smith 

Mr. Jack H. Mclellan Miss Elizabeth Stein 

Dr. and Mrs. Perry D. Nadig Ms. Helen B. Sundeen 

National Capital Shell Club Mr. L. Erwin Terry 

Association Mr. and Mrs. John L. Tishman 

National Geographic Society Ms. Ruth Todd 

Mr. Joseph T. Neary Mr. John W. Treys 

Dr. Joan Nowicke Mr. Herman J. Viola 

Ms. Patricia Packard Mr. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 

Palisades Foundation, Inc. Mr. Christopher A. Weeks 

Mr. Perry R. Pease Mr. Kermit A. Weeks 

Dr. R. Marlin Perkins Miss Leslie Anne Weeks 

Mr. Charles Repenning Wenner-Gren Foundation 

Ms. Margro Reppert Mr. Austin B. Williams 

Mr. Charles M. Rick Mr. Druid Wilson 
Mrs. S. Dillon Ripley 

Donors to the Collections 

Abbott, Dr. R. Tucker (see Delaware Museum of Natural History). 

Academia Nauk of the USSR, Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and 
Ecology, Animals (through Dr. N. Nikitsky) : beetle, type. 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (through Dr. Samuel L. H. 

Fuller): 9 echinoderms; 96 crustaceans; (through Dr. H. Radclyffe Roberts): 
4 grasshoppers (exchange) ; (through Dr. James Tyler) : 4 echinoderms. 

Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Institute of Zoology and Botany (through 
Dr. K. Elberg) : 13 marsh flies. Zoological Institute (through Dr. K. B. 
Gorodkov) : 10 empid flies; (through Dr. V. A. Trjapitzin) : 58 chalcid flies 

Addicott, Warren O. (see Interior, U.S. Department of the). 

Adelaide, University of, Australia (through Dr. H. B. S. Womersley) : 141 
algae (exchange). 

Afgouni, Kalil: beryl specimen, Brazil. 

Agrell, Dr. S. O. : 2 osumilite specimens, Ireland. 

Agriculture, U.S. Department of. Agricultural Research Service (through Dr. 
Arthur S. Barclay): 492 plants, Colombia; (through Dr. E. W. Baker): 242 
acarina slides, including types, Mexico; (through Dr. Richard H. Foote) : 
47,958 insects, worldwide; 2 decapod larvae. North Carolina; (through Dr. 
A. M. Golden) : 166 crustaceans, Nigeria; (through Dr. A. S. Menke) : 376 
insects, U.S.; (through Dr. Reece I. Sailer) : 23 isopods, Chile; (through Dr. 
W. W. Wirth) : 92 insects, Florida; 54 Lepidoptera, 53 neuropteroids. North 
America. Forest Service: 17,321 insects, Japan; (through Dr. Harold E. 
Grelen): Andropogon specimen, Louisiana; (through Dr. Elbert L. Little, 
Jr.): 1,037 plants, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. National Arboretum 
(through Dr. T. Dudley) : 15 plants, Peru. Systematic Entomology Laboratory 
(through Dr. D. C. Ferguson) : 5,697 moths. 

Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria (through John Deeming) : 203 flies. 

Ahmed, Dr. Muzammil: 17 marine mollusks. 

Aitchison, Mrs. C. W. : 2 centipedes, Canada. 

Alabama, University of (through Dr. Herbert T. Boschung) : 809 crustaceans; 
28 fish; (through Magi Cameron): 5 palms, Colombia. 

436 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Alaska, University of (through Dr. James E. Morrow) : 3 fishes, types. 

Albaugh, Dr. Douglas W. (see Texas A&M University). 

Alberta, University of, Canada (through Joseph Belicek) : 9 beetles (exchange); 

(through B. S. Heming); 6 thrips (exchange). 
Aleksandrov, Dr. S. M. (through Mary Mrose) : 16 mineral specimens USSR. 
Allard, Robert E.: arrow with poisoned tip, Kenya. 
Allen, Dr. Gerald (see Australia, Government of). 
Allen, Dr. Harry W.: 249 wasp slide mounts. 
Allyn, Arthur C.: 5,798 moths, Mexico. 
Almborn, Dr. O. (see Botanical Museum). 

Alpine Corporation (through Henry Truebe) : quartz specimen, Colorado. 
Altena, Dr. C. O. Van Regteren (see Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie). 
Altig, Dr. Ronald (see Mississippi State University). 
Alusuisse Metals, Inc.: crystal of gallium metal. 
Amaoka, Kunio (see Hokkaido University). 
American Museum of Natural History (through Dr. Meredith Jones) : 500 

brachiopods; (through Dr. William E. Old, Jr.): 5 marine mollusks 

American Samoa, Government of (through Duane Rodman): 29 fish; (through 

Dr. Stanley Swerdloff) : 75 marine mollusks. 
Anderson, Alexander G.: 13 baskets, mats, and weapons, Congo. 
Anderson, Dr. Donald M.r 26 weevils. 
Anderson, H. J. (see Westinghouse Corp.). 
Andrews, Murray M.: crustacean, Alaska. 
April, Martin: blowgun and darts, British Guiana. 
Aquaculture International (Australia) Pty. Ltd. (through Takuji Fujimura): 4 

crustaceans, Hawaii. 
Aquinas College (through Dr. Robert S. Benda) : 71 crustaceans, Michigan. 
Archeological Society of Maryland: 3 human skeletal remains. 
Arem, Dr. Joel E.: 22 mineral specimens (see also Friends of Mineralogy). 
Argentina, Government of: Ministerio de Cultura u Educaccion (through Dr. 

Peter Seeligmann) : 142 plant specimens (exchange). 
Arhus Universitet, Denmark (through Dr. Kai Larsen) : 44 plant specimens 

Arizona State College (through Delzie Demaree) : 93 plant specimens. 
Arizona State University (through Denton Belk) : 316 crustaceans; (through 

Elinor Lehto) : 275 plant specimens; (through Dr. D. J. Pinkava) : 33 

Eriogonum specimens. 
Arizona, University of (through Dr. Steven Hilty) : 160 plant specimens, 

Arnell, J. Hal (see California, University of). 
Arthur Rylan Institute for Environmental Research, Australia (through Dr. 

Robert M. Werneke) : fur seal. 
Ash, Dr. Sidney R.: 12 fossil plants, 14 slide preparations. 
Atomic Energy Commission: Puerto Rico Nuclear Center (through Delores 

Ayguabibas) : 11 copepods. 
Auburn University (through Dr. John S. Ramsey) : 1,082 crustaceans, Alabama. 
Australia, Government of: The Australian Museum (through Dr. Gerald 

Allen): 42 fishes, including types; (through Colleen J. Robinson): 2 mollusk 

paratypes; (through Lin Sutherland): meteorite specimen. New Guinea 

(exchange). Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization: 

2,020 botanical specimens (exchange). Department of Mines (through R. C. 

Gorman) : bag of calcium sulfosilicate. National Herbarium of New South 

Wales: 284 plant specimens (exchanges). Queensland Herbarium: 268 plant 

specimens (exchanges). 

Appendix 11. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 437 

Axelrod, Dr. Herbert R.: 75 mollusk specimens, Africa (see also T.F.H. 

Publications, Inc.). 
Ayala, Dr. Francisco J. (see California, University of). 
Ayguabibas, Delores (see Atomic Energy Commission). 
Bacon Fund, Smithsonian Institution: 86 bird skeletons. 
Baglin, Elizabeth G. (see Interior, U.S. Department of the). 
Bailey, Dr. Joseph R. (see Duke University). 
Bailey, Dr. R. M. (see Michigan, University of). 
Baker, Dr. E. W. (see Agriculture, U.S. Department of). 
Balcomb, Kenneth C. : 2 marine mammals. 
Baldwin, Dr. J. T., Jr.: 1,203 botanical specimens. 
Ball, Dr. George E.: 51 ground beetles; 373 centipedes. 
Balsbaugh, Dr. E. U.: 11 beetles. 
Banta, Dr. William: 2 Bryozoa slides. 
Barbehenn, Dr. Kyle R. (see State, U.S. Department of). 
Barclay, Dr. Arthur 5. (see Agriculture, U.S. Department of). 
Barham, Dr. Eric G.: 9 echinoderms. 
Barker, Mrs. Robert: 68 mineral specimens. 
Barkley, Dr. Fred A.: 252 plant specimens. 
Barkley, Dr. T. M. (see Kansas State University). 
Barnes, Dr. Robert D. (see Del Mar College). 
Barnett, Dr. Douglas E. : 10 cicadas. 
Barnish, Guy (see St. Lucia, W.I., Government of). 
Barr, Louis (see Commerce, U.S. Department of). 
Barr, Dr. William: 41 beetles. 
Barros, Neylson: 2 mineral specimens, Brazil. 
Bashore, Mrs. Judy C: margay cat. 
Bates, Robert: 5 mineral specimens. 
Batham, Dr. Elizabeth J.: 7 polychaetes, New Zealand. 
Bauchot, Dr. M. L. (through Dr. B. B. Collette): fish type. 
Baumann, Dr. Richard W.: 2,756 insects; 85 water beetles. 
Bayer, Dr. F. M. (see Miami, University of). 
Be, Dr. Alan W. H. : 19 foraminifera types. 
Beaman, Dr. John H. (see Michigan State University). 
Bechtel, Dr. Robert C: 2 lace bugs; 21 matispids; 108 lace bugs and cicadas; 

150 beetles (see also Nevada, State of). 
Beck, Dorothy Bateman, Estate of (through Edward J. Corcoran) : 24 steel 

pole arms heads, China (bequest). 
Beck, Dr. William M., Jr.: 15 stoneflies, Sweden. 
Becker, Dr. E. C: ground beetle, Mexico. 
Becker, Dr. Vitor Osmar: 4 moths. 

Belgium, Government of: Jardin Botanique National de Belgique: 19 bambusa. 
Belicek, Joseph (see Alberta, University of). 
Belk, Denton (see Arizona State University). 
Bell, Mrs. Mae Woods (see Children's Museum). 
Belle, Jean: 15 dragonflies (exchange). 
Bellport Senior High School: Students for Environmental Quality (through 

Thomas A. Woolford) : 9 mollusk specimens. 
Benda, Dr. Robert S. (see Aquinas College). 
Benfield, Dr. Fred: water beetle. 
Benthin, Bruce M.: 16 mineral specimens. 
Berdan, Dr. Jean M. (see Interior, U.S. Department of the). 
Berman, Dr. and Mrs. Bernard: cut emerald, Colombia. 
Bermuda Biological Station for Research (through Bruce C. Coull) : 393 


438 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Bermudez, Dr. Pedro J. (see Venezuela, Government of). 

Bernard, David G. (see International Paper Co.). 

Bernard, Dr. Frank R. (see Canada, Government of). 

Bernice P. Bishop Museum (through Dr. Dennis M. Devaney) : I Holothurian; 

(through Anita Manning): 89 plants; 389 plants (exchanges); (through G. A. 

Samuelson) : 19 leaf beetles (exchange); (through Dr. Wallace B. Steffan) : 

12 mosquitoes (exchange). 
Bernstein, Lawrence: 5 Chrysocolla; 1 lot vivianite (exchange). 
Berrill, Dr. Michael (see Princeton University). 
Berry, Dr. S. Stillman: 2 Pecten specimens containing brachiopods, 4 marine 

Beshear, Ramona J.: 3 lace bugs. 

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (through Dr. B. L. Bramfitt) : graphite specimen. 
Beu, Dr. A. G. (see New Zealand, Government of). 
Bideaux Minerals: vanadinite on barite. 
Bieri, Dr. Robert: 1,000 worms. 

Birenheide, Dr. Rudolf (see Forschungs-Institut Senckenberg). 
Birkeland, Dr. Charles (see Smithsonian Institution). 
Bisson, Peter A. (see Oregon State University). 
Bjornberg, Dr. Tagea K. S. (see Universidade de Sao Paulo). 
Blair, Dr. Albert P.: 4 land mollusks. 
Blake, Dr. James A.: 225 polychaetes. 
Blanchard, Andre: 1,714 moths. 
Blewett, J. (see Great Britain, Government of). 
Blume, Richard R.: 10 beetles. 
Bode, Mrs. Helen Spalding, Estate of (through Kenneth Foster, Jr.) : 21 

anthropological specimens, mostly Chinese (bequest). 
Boesch, Dr. Donald F. (see Virginia Institute of Marine Science). 
Boesman, Dr. M. (see Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie). 
Bokermann, Dr. Werner C. A.: 19 frogs. 
Bonar, Henry: silicified wood specimen, Honduras. 
Bond, Dr. Carl (see Oregon State University). 
Bonner, Dr. C. E. B. (see Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques). 
Borden, Joseph H. : 9 mineral specimens (exchange). 
Borhidi, Dr. A. (see Eotvos University). 
Boschung, Dr. Herbert T. (see Alabama, University of). 
Boss, Dr. K. M. (see Harvard University). 
Bostic, Dr. Dennis L. (see Palomar College). 
Boswell, Mrs. Helen: 4 mollusks. 
Botanical Museum, Sweden (through Dr. O. Almborn) : 128 plants, Africa 

Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem: 29 ferns (exchange). 
Botanisk Museum, Norway (through Dagfinn Moe) : 75 plant specimens 

Bottimer, Larry J. (see Canada, Government of). 
Boucek, Dr. Z. (see Commonwealth Institute of Entomology). 
Boucot, Dr. Arthur J. : 18,015 brachiopods, 2 latex molds, Silurian and 

Bowling Green State University (through Dr. Richard D. Hoare) : 6 bryozoan 

Bramfitt, Dr. B. L. (see Bethlehem Steel Corporation). 
Brandt, Tom (see Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University). 
Brannock, K. C, Estate of: 511 mineral specimens (bequests), 
Branson, Dr. Branley A.: land mollusk. 
Brazil, Government of: Faculdade de Ciencias Medical E Biologicas de 

Appendix 11. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 439 

Botucatu (through Dra. Use S. Gottsberger) : 10 melastomataceae. Secretaria 
de Agricultura, Industria, E Commercio: 6 BromeHaceae. 

Brenan, Dr. J. P. M. (see Great Britain, Government of). 

Brewer, George: 9 mineral specimens. 

Brice, Dr. D. : 6 brachiopods, Upper Devonian, Afghanistan. 

Brigham, Warren U. (see IlHnois Natural History Survey). 

Brigham Young University (through Dr. C. Selby Herin) : 6 mite slides, types; 
(through Dr. Stanley L. Welsh): 116 plants (exchange). 

Bright, Dr. Donald B. (see California State University). 

Bright, Dr. Donald E., Jr. (see Canada, Government of). 

Brinton, Dr. Edward (see California, University of). 

Broadhead, Dr. Thomas W. (see Texas, University of). 

Brown, Dick E.: 2 lot quartz. 

Brown, Dr. William L. : 32 centipedes, 200 mites (see also Cornell University). 

Browne, Dr. P. R. L.: vial of teschermacherite, New Zealand. 

Brownell, Robert L., Jr.: 4 bird skeletons; 118 marine mammals. 

Brownell, W. N. (see Virgin Islands Ecological Research Station). 

Bruce, Dr. A. J. (see East African Marine Fisheries Research Organization). 

Bruce-Terminix Co. (through E. V. Walter) : 29 crustaceans. 

Brumbach, William C. : 102 plant specimens. 

Bryan, Patrick (see Guam, University of). 

Buckley, George (see Harvard University). 

Buechner, Dr. Helmut K.: 475 antelopes. 

Buell, William: 5 mineral specimens. 

Burger, Dr. John F. : 4 rodent bot flies. 

Burghardt, Glenn E.: 2 mollusks, types. 

Burke, Dr. Horace: 29 weevils, including types. 

Burkholder, Dr. Paul R. (see Puerto Rico, University of). 

Bussing, Dr. William A. (see Universidad de Costa Rica). 

Byron, Mrs. George: 3 Hopi Indian pottery plaques. j 

Cala, Dr. Plutarco (see Universidad Nacional de Colombia). 

Caldwell, Dr. David K. (see Marineland of Florida). 

California, State of: Department of Agriculture (through Dr. Alan R. Hardy): 
17 beetles (gift-exchange). Department of Fish and Game (through Dick 
Daniel): 33 copepods; (through James L. Houk) : 2 barnacle. 

California, University of: Berkeley Campus (through Dr. John L. Strother) : 
252 plant specimens (gift-exchange). Davis Campus (through Dr. Francisco 
J. Ayala) : 15 Drosophila flies; (through R. O. Schuster): 3 thrips, Hawaii 
exchange); (through John M. Tucker) : 2 Calathea dressleri isotype, 
Panama; (through Dr. Grady L. Webster): 31 plant specimens. New 
Caledonia (exchange). Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (through Dr. Gilbert 
D. Potter) : 3 crustaceans. South Pacific; 5 bird skins and 5 bird skeletons, 
Eniwetok Atoll. Los Angeles Campus (through J. Hal Arnell) : 31 
mosquitoes; (through Dr. Gary N. Lane) : 10 crinoids, Ordovician, Utah; 
(through Dr. Joseph Murdock) : 8 sulfur specimens. Riverside Campus 
(through W. H. Ewart) : 5 thrips; (through Dr. T. W. Fisher) : 2 marsh flies. 
San Diego Campus (through Dr. Carl D. Hopkins) : 49 fishes, Guyana. 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography (through Dr. Edward Brinton) : 
3 crustaceans, Singapore; (through Dr. Abraham Fleminger) : 20 copepods, 
1 slide; (through Dr. John E. McCosker) : 13 fishes; (through Dr. William 
A. Newman): 207 marine mollusks, including types; (through Dr. Eric 
Shulenberger) : 242 crustaceans. 

California Academy of Sciences (through Dr. Jean Durham) : 1 fossil para- 
type; (through Dr. W. N. Eschmeyer and B. B. Collette) : 3 fishes, 
Venezuela (exchange); (through Dr. W. N. Eschmeyer): I fish holotype; 

440 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

(through Dr. Tomio Iwamoto) : 5 fishes, types. 
California State University (through Dr. Donald B. Bright) : 32 crustaceans, 

Costa Rica. 
Cameron, Magi (see Alabama, University of). 
Camp, David K. (see Florida, State of). 
Canada, Government of: Department of Agriculture (through Larry J. 

Bottimer) : 2 seed beetles, Mexico; (through Dr. Donald E. Bright, Jr.) : 40 

bark beetles; (through Dr. R. A. Ellis) : 3 mosquitoes. Department of 

Energy, Mines, and Resources (through Dr. B. S. Norford) : 10 Acaste 

birminghamensis, type. Fisheries Research Board (through Dr. Frank R. 

Bernard) : I marine mollusk. Gouvernement du Quebec (through Richard 

Cayouette) : 2 plant specimens. Royal Ontario Museum (through Dr. G. B. 

Wiggins) : 6 caddisflies. 
Canfield Fund, Smithsonian Institution: 6 mineral specimens. 
Canning, Ken: 48 mineral specimens. 

Canterbury, University of. New Zealand (through James K. Lowry) : 13 
I amphipods. 
Canzoneri, Dr. Silvano: 8 Ephydrid flies, Italy (see also Museo Civico de 

Storia Naturale). 
Capriles, Dr. J. Maldonado: 532 Hemiptera, 97 Lepidoptera and Diptera, 464 
i Coleoptera; 696 Hemiptera (exchange) ; 2 assassin bugs (see also Puerto 

Rico, University of). 
Carestia, Maj. Ralph R. (see Defense, U.S. Department of). 
Caribbean Marine Biological Institute, Curacao (through Dr. Jan H. Stock) : 35 

Carleton University, Canada (through Dr. Stewart B. Peck) : 109 crustaceans. 
Carlson, Paul H. : 1,105 Neuropteroids. 

Carnegie Museum (through Dr. George Wallace) : 18 chalcid-flies (exchange). 
Carpenter, Ray: 3 mineral specimens. 
Carriers, Bruno: 23 mineral specimens, (exchanges). 
Carter, John L.: 126 brachiopod fossils. 
Casey Fund, Smithsonian Institution: 4,033 Coleoptera, Africa and South 

Cashatt, Dr. E. D.: 2 small moths. Central America. 
Cather, Mary R. : 10 caddisflies. 
Causey, Dr. Nell B.: 34 millipedes, including types. 
Cayouette, Richard (see Canada, Government of). 
Central University of Venezuela (through Rafael M. Escarbassiere) : 39 marine 

Centre National Pour L'Exploitation Des Oceans, France (through Dr. Roger 

Hekinian) : 9 deep sea basaltic rock specimens. 
Cernohorsky, Walter O.: 9 mollusks (exchange). 
Chai, Paul (see Malaysia, Government of). 

Chamberlain Fund, Smithsonian Institution: 5 mineral specimens. 
Chambers, Dr. Kenton L. (see Oregon State University). 
Chambers, Mr. and Mrs. W. Craig: cut tanzanite. 
Chan, Ky (see Chinese University of Hong Kong). 
Chandler, Donald S. : 4 beetles. 

Chapin, Dr. Joan B.: 6 beetles (see also Louisiana State University). 
Chapman, Dr. Carl (see Miami Sea Aquarium). 
Chatham County Mosquito Control Commission, Georgia (through Virginia 

T. Mullen) : 6 crustaceans. 
Chaw, Dr. Lai Hoi (see Universiti Sains Malaysia). 
Chelan County Cooperative Extension Service, Washington (through John M. 

Lange) : 3 freshwater mollusks. 

Appendix 11. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 441 

Chemsak, Dr. John: 15 beetles. 

Chew, Dr. Kenneth (see Washington, University of). 

Chick, Mrs. Walter G.: 115 mineral specimens. 

Child, C. Allan: 65 worms, 8 sponges, 41 crustaceans. 

Children's Museum, Rocky Mount (through Mrs. Mae Woods Bell) 40 fossil 

specimens (exchange). 
Chinese University of Hong Kong (through Ky Chan) : 105 legume specimens 

Chirichigno F., Dr. Norma (through Dr. B. B. Collette) : 4 fishes, Peru. 
Chiswell, Alfred G., Jr.: stone celt. 
Chogyal and Gyalmo of Sikkim: silver brazier. 
Christie, Mrs. Lillian G.: 32 Ojibwa Indian clothing specimens, Canada, in 

memory of Ronald Christie. 
Churcher, Dr. C. S. : 2 casts of fossil bovid remains. 
Churkin, Dr. Michael, Jr. (see Interior, U.S. Department of the). 
Clark, Barbara A. (see Massachusetts, University of). 
Clark, Dr. Donald, Jr.: 4 bats. 
Clark, Elizabeth C. (see Wilcox, Howard). 
Clastrier, Dr. J.: 20 flies, Palearctic. 
Closs, Dr. Darcy: I isopod, Brazil. 

Cobban, Dr. W. A. (see Interior, U.S. Department of the). 
Cochrane, Theodore S. (see Wisconsin, University of). 
Coffey, Vince (see Georgia, University of). 
Cogan, Dr. Brian (see Britain, Government of). 
Cohen, Mrs. Anne: 15 marine mollusks, Azores. 

Cohen, Dr. Daniel M. (see Oregon State University and Krefft, Dr. Gerhard). 
Coleman, Neville: 85 echinoderms, Australia. 
Collette, Dr. B. B. (see Bauchot, Dr. M. L.; California Academy of Sciences; 

Chirichigno F., Dr. Norma; Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic; and 

Universidad Nacional de Colombia). 
Collins, Dr. Charles: bird skeleton. 
Colorado, University of: Museum (through Dr. William A. Weber): 132 plant 

specimens (exchange). 
Columbia University: College of Physicians and Surgeons (through Dr. John J 

Rasweiler IV) : 34 bats, Colombia. Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory 

(through Dr. Davida Kellogg) : 10 Eocene radiolaria, Norwegian Sea. 
Commerce, U.S. Department of: National Oceanic and Atmospheric 

Administration: Auke Bay Fisheries Laboratory (through Louis Barr) : 

6 shrimp. Marine Geology and Geophysics Laboratory (through Robert S. 

Dietz) : 12 shocked coconino sandstone specimens. National Marine Fisheries^ 

Service (through Milton J. Lindner) : 18 crustaceans. Gulf of Mexico; 

(through Dr. Richard B. Roe): 10 echinoderms; 235 crustaceans; (through 

Carl H. Saloman) : 3 crustaceans; (through Dr. Paul Struhaaker) : 2 fish, 

including type. Systematics Laboratory (through Dr. Austin B. Williams) : 

1,050 crustaceans. 
Commonwealth Institute for Biological Control, India (through Dr. Sudha 

Nagarkatti) : 2 chalcid-flies, Japan. j 

Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, Great Britain (through Dr. Z. ' 

Boucek) : 145 chalcid-flies; (through Dr. Douglas J. Williams): 8 scale insect' 

Connolly, Dr. T. F. (see Oak Ridge National Laboratories). 
Conrad, Dr. Melvin L. (see Northeast Missouri State University). 
Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Switzerland: 40 plant specimens 

(exchange); (through Dr. C. E. B. Bonner): 528 plant specimens (exchange) 
Coogan, Dr. A. H. : 43 invertebrate fossils. 

442 / Smithsonian Year 1974 


Cook, Dr. David G.: 20 oligochaetes slides, including types. 

Cooke, Dr. William J.: 4 medusae. 

Cooper, Mrs. John H. : 2 marine mollusks. 

Cooper, Dr. Kenneth W. : 2 scorpion flies. 

Cooper, Martha R. and John E.: 7 crustaceans. 

Cooper, Dr. Robert W., and Hendrickx, Dr. Andrew G.: 143 primate 

Copenhagen, University of: 200 plant specimens; (through Dr. Jorgen 

Nielsen) : 3 fishes. 
Corcoran, Edward J. (see Beck, Dorothy Bateman, Estate of). 
Corey, Roscoe: danalite specimen. 
Cornell University (through Dr. William L. Brown, Jr.): 3 ants (exchange) ; 

(through Drs. Robert Dickerman and Charles Seymour) : 127 bats, 

Guatemala. L. H. Bailey Hortorium (through Dr. Harold E. Moore, Jr.): 

1 melastomataceae, Costa Rica; (through Dr. Margaret H. Stone): 165 plant 

specimens (exchanges). Veterinary College (through Dr. Howard E. Evans): 

land snail, Sapelo Island. 
Correia, R. F. : bivalve mollusk (see also Virginia Commonwealth of). 
Correll, Dr. Donovan S.: 1 phanerogam, type. 
Cortes, Dr. Raul: 11 tachinid flies, Chile. 
Coull, Dr. Bruce C. (see Bermuda Biological Station for Research and South 

Carolina, University of). 
Craig, Gen. and Mrs. Louis A.: 8 American Indian ethnological objects, 4 

pottery objects, embroidered skirt, China. 
Crawford, Dr. C. S.: 20 centipedes. 
Crawford, David: 2 benstonite specimens. 
Crick, W. M.: beetle. 

Croat, Dr. Thomas B. (see Missouri Botanical Garden). 
Crosnier, Dr. Alain: 53 crustaceans (see also France, Government of). 
Cross, Mr. and Mrs. Jarrett L.: 2,275 beetles. North America. 
Cuatrecasas, Dr. Jose: 1,000 plant specimens, Venezuela. 
Cuello, Juan (see Museo Nacional de Historia Natural). 
Cumbaa, Stephen L. (see Florida, University of). 
Currier, Rock: 2 mineral specimens. 
Curtis, Dr. Doris M. : 92 ostracod slides, Miocene. 
Czechoslovakia, Government of: National Museum in Prague: 50 bryophytes 

Dahl, Arthur L. (see Sheen, Michael). 

Dailey, Dr. D. Charles: 10 wasps and galls, including types. 
Dalhousie University, Canada: Institute of Oceanography (through Dr. Gareth 

Harding): 2 crustaceans; (through Byron Morris): 5 crustaceans, 4 slides. 
Dallas Museum of Natural History (through Dr. Richard W. Fullington) : 

6 land snails. 
Daniel, Dick (see California, State of). 
Darlington, Dr. P. J., Jr. 279 ground beetles. 
Darnel, Mrs. Delbert A.: 3,500 mineral micromounts. 
Davidse, Dr. Gerrit (see Missouri Botanical Garden). 
Davidson, Capt. Jerry M. (see Defense, U.S. Department of). 
Davidson, Dr. John (see Maryland, University of). 
Davis, Mrs. Brooks: hemimorphite, Mexico. 
Davis, Lee E. : 2 bamboo specimens. 
Davis, Dr. W. J.: fossil whale skull. 

Dawson, Dr. C. E. (see Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Museum). 
Day, J. H.: 2,714 polychaetes, including types. 
Dayrit, Fernando G.: 59 mollusks, Philippines. 

Appendix 11. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 443 

Dearborn, Dr. J. (see Stanford University). 

deAzevedo, Selma Barreto (see Laboratorio de Ciencias do Mar). 

deButts, Henry M. (see Western Airlines). 

Deeming, John C. : 25 house flies, Africa (see also Ahmandu Bello University). 

Defense, U.S. Department of: Department of the Air Force (through Capt. 
Jerry M. Davidson): 67 moths; (through Dr. Charles S. Sahagian) : 32 
synthetic crystals. Department of the Army: 210 plant specimens; (through 
Maj. Ralph R. Carestia) 300 mollusks; (through Dr. K. C. Emerson): 907 
lice; (through E. L. Peyton) : 26 mosquitoes. Department of the Navy 
(through Dr. K. C. Emerson): 115 lice; (through Dr. E. C. Haderlie) : 8 
ostracods; (through William R. McBride) : 12 retgersite crystals; (through 
Lawrence Pugh) : 75 lots larval fish, 52,192 crustaceans ; (through John 
Schindler) : 5 birds. 

deGranville, Dr. J. J. (see France, Government of). 

Deignan, Mrs. Herbert G.: 102 anthropological specimens, mostly Thailand. 

Deinhardt, Dr. Frederick (see Rush-Presbyterian St. Luke's Medical Center). 

Delaware, University of (through Dr. Les Watling) : 2 ostracod slides, 3 

Delaware Museum of Natural History (through Dr. R. Tucker Abbott) : 
freshwater clam (exchange). 

Del Mar College (through Dr. Robert D. Barnes) : 3 fish specimens. 

De Lotto, Giovanni (see Plant Protection Research Institute). 

Demaree, Delzie (see Arizona State College). 

de Panza, Elisa N. (see Universidad de Buenos Aires). 

de Quoy, Gen. Alfred (see Irish Wolfhound Club of America). 

de Rageot, Roger: 10 small mammals. 

de Rojas, Carmen E. B. (see Universidad Central de Venezuela). 

de Souza Sob., Ranulpho (see Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina). 

Desqueyroux, Ruth (see Universidad de Concepcion). 

Devaney, Dr. Dennis M. : polychaete, Hawaii (exchange) (see also Bernice P. 
Bishop Museum). 

de Will, Dr. Wallace (see Interior, U.S. Department of the). 

Dexter, Deborah M.: 50 echinoderms, Panama. 

Diamond Sales Co. (through Richard Swaebe) : 14 mineral specimens 
(exchanges) (see also Hansen's Minerals, Inc.). 

Dickerman, Dr. Robert W. : bird skin (see also Cornell University). 

Dieterle, Mrs. Jennie V. A. (see Michigan, University of). 

Dietz, Robert E., IV: 939 Lepidoptera and Diptera, 99 Neuropteroids, 90 
Coleoptera, 176 Hemiptera and Hymenoptera. 

Dietz, Robert S. (see Commerce, U.S. Department of). 

Dmitriev, Dr. L. : 4 mineral specimens, USSR. 

Dodds, Mrs. Mary: 5 clausthalite specimens. 

Dodson, Dr. Calaway H. (see Marie Selby Botanical Gardens). 

Dombrowski, Luiza Thereza Deconto (see Instituto de Defesa do Patrimonie 

Dominick, Dr. Richard B.: 67 moths and freeze-dried larvae. 

Donnelly, Dr. T. W.: 40 caddisflies; 99 dragonflies (exchange). 

Dooley, James K. (see North Carolina, University of). 

Dorrance, John C. : 2 pairs ritual shoes, Australia. 

Doty, Dr. Matwell S. (see Hawaii, University of). 

Douglas, Dr. Neil H. (see Northeast Louisiana University). 

Douglass, Dr. Raymond (see Interior, U.S. Department of the). 

Dozier, Dr. Herbert L. : 10 darking beetles, New Guinea; 5 Hemiptera and 
Hymenoptera; 101 beetles (exchange). 

Drewes, Harold (see Interior, U.S. Department of the). 

444 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Druckenbrod, Lawrence Michael: 4 ground beetles; 659 Neuropteroids. 

Dudley, Dr. T. (see Agriculture, U.S. Department of). 

Duke University: 75 botanical specimens (exchanges); (through Dr. Joseph R. 

Bailey): 262 crustaceans; (through Marjorie Watkins) : 55 bryophytes 

(exchange); (through Dr. Myron L. Wolbarsht) : 11 galagos. Marine 

Laboratory (through Dr. Gilbert T. Rowe) : 2 amphipods. 
Dunn, Dr. D. B. (see Missouri, University of). 

Dunn, Pete J.: 84 mineral specimens; 72 grams beryllonite, Maine. 
Dunn, Wilbur F. : portion of Cetothere skeleton, Miocene. 
Durham, Dr. Jean (see California Academy of Sciences). 
Dybas, Henry: 11 beetles. 
East African Marine Fisheries Research Organization (through Dr. A. J. 

Bruce) : 5 crustaceans. 
Eccles, David H. : 83 lots fish specimens, Africa. 
Ecole Polytechnique, Canada (through Dr. J. C. Sisi) : 9 mineral specimens 

Edmunds, Dr. George F., Jr., and Peters, Dr. William L.: 155 stoneflies, 

Ege University, Turkey (through Mustafa U. Saritas) : 26 sponges and slides. 
Eisler, Ronald (see Environmental Protection Agency). 

Eiten, Dr. George (see Universidade de Brazilia and Instituto de Botanica). 
Eklund, Mrs. Carl R. : 4 antarctic bird eggs; feather blanket, 2 pairs boots, 

Elberg, Dr. K. (see Academy of Sciences of the USSR). 
Elliott, Dr. William R. : 10 aquatic beetles, Mexico (see also Texas Tech 

Ellis, Dr. R. A. (see Canada, Government of). 
Ellison, Mrs. W. L.: 21 bird skins, Brazil. 
Elsik, William C: 17 pollen and spore specimens, types. 
Emerson, Dr. K. C: 638 lice (see also Defense, U. S. Department of). 
Enamait, Ed (See Maryland, State of). 
England, Kent: melanophlogite specimen (exchange). 

Environmental Protection Agency (through Ronald Eisler) : 3 clam specimens. 
Eotvos University, Hungary (through Dr. A. Borhidi) : 2 plant specimen, Cuba. 
Erskine College (through Dr. James G. Saxon) : 257 fishes. 
Erwin, Dr. Terry L. : 10,434 insects. 

Escarbassiere, Rafael M. (see Central University of Venezuela). 
Eschmeyer, Dr. W. N. (see California Academy of Sciences). 
Eskow, Mrs. Seymour: cord-bound coconut water canteen, Gilbert Islands. 
Estevez, Ernest (see South Florida, University of). 
Etnier, Dr. David A. (see Tennessee, University of). 
Evans, Dr. Clifford: 160 archeological artifacts, Ecuador. 
Evans, Dr. Howard E. (see Cornell University). 
Even, Lance: mollusk specimen. 
Ewart, W. H. (see California, University of). 

Ewell, G. O.: cervical vertebrae of Balaena mysticetus, Pleistocene. 
Ewing, Rod: mineral specimen. 

Exxon Co. (through Duane O. LeRoy) : 5 foraminifera type specimens. 
Faculte des Sciences Agronomiques, Belgium (through Dr. Jean Leclercq) : 

74 bees. 
Fales, Col. and Mrs. Clark Kent: Chinese costume, 2 Indonesian weapons. 
Faulkner, Douglas: 3 crustaceans. 

Faunalabs, Inc. (through Dr. Neil B. Todd) : 50 frozen domestic cats. 
Fay, Dr. Rimmon (see Pacific Bio-Marine Supply Co.). 
Felder, Darryl L. (see Louisiana State University). 

Appendix 11. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 445 

Ferguson, Mrs. A. L. L. (through Dr. Marshall T. Newman) : 154 human 

skeletal remains. 
Ferguson, Dr. Douglas C: 9,500 moths (see also Agriculture, U. S. Department 

Fernald, Dr. Robert L. (see Washington, University of). 
Fernandez, Dr. A. (see Portugal, Government of). 
Ferreyra, Dr. Ramon: thread snake, type, Peru (see also Universidad Nacional 

Mayor de San Marcos). 
Fiance, Samuel: 25 stoneflies. 
Field Museum of Natural History: I Bromeliaceae; 103 plant specimens 

(exchange); 391 plant specimens (gift-exchange); (through Dr. Robert K. 

Johnson) : 6 fishes, Colombia (exchange); (through H. G. Nelson) : 42 water 

beetles (exchange); (through Dr. Lorin I. Nevling, Jr.): 112 plant specimens 

(exchanges); 203 plant specimens (gift-exchange). 
Fielding, Herbert: bowenite specimen. 

Figueiras, Dr. Manuel Lopez (see Universidad de los Andes). 
Fincham, Dr. Anthony A. (see Victoria University of Wellington). 
Finney, Dr. Colin M. (see New York Ocean Science Laboratory). 
Fischer-Piette, E.: worm specimen. 
Fish, Marjorie E.: mask and comb. New Guinea. 

Fishbein, Dr. (see Health, Education, and Welfare, U. S. Department of). 
Fisher, Dr. T. W. (see California, University of). 
Fittkau, Dr. E. J. (see Max-Planck Institut fur Limnologie). 
Flavill, Paul: 34 water beetles. 
Fleischer, Dr. Peter: mineral specimen. 
Fleminger, Dr. Abraham (see California, University of). 
Flensborg, Imga: 5 mineral specimens (exchange). 
Flint, Mrs. C. M.: 169 dragonflies. 
Flint, Dr. Oliver S., Jr.: 574 lacewings. 
Florida, State of: Department of Agriculture (through Dr. E. E. Grissell) : 

2 chalcid-flies. Department of Natural Resources (through David K. Camp) : 

8 marine squid; (through Dr. William Lyons) : 34 echinoderms. 
Florida, University of: 62 mosses, Venezuela; 60 bryophytes, Costa Rica; 

(through Dr. Daniel B. Ward); I gnaphalium. Florida State Museum 

(through Stephen L. Cumbaa) : 3 casts of fossil remains of rare seal; 

(through Dr. Carter R. Gilbert): 170 crustaceans. 
Florida State University: 30 plant specimens; (through D. Bruce Means) : 4 

crustaceans; (through Dr. Allen Z. Paul): I isopod, high Arctic. 
Flower, Dr. Rousseau: 4 land snails. 
Folkerts, Dr. George W.: 14 water beetles. 
Foote, Dr. Richard H. (see Agriculture, U. S. Department of). 
Ford, E. J.: 3 beetles. 

Forest, Dr. J. (see Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle). 
Formas C, Ramon (see Universidad Austral de Chile). 
Forschungs-Institut Senckenberg (through Dr. Rudolf Birenheide) : 6 fossil 

specimens, 2 thin sections. Middle Devonian. 
Foster, Kenneth, Jr. (see Bode, Mrs. Helen Spalding, Estate of). 
France, Government of: Office de la Recherche, Scientifique et Technique 

Outre-Mer: 7 botanical specimens. South America; (through Dr. Alain 

Crosnier) : 222 crustaceans; (through Dr. J. J. deGranville) : 9 botanical 

specimens. South America; (through Dr. R. A. A. Oldeman) : 16 botanical 

specimens, French Guiana. 
Franclemont, Dr. John G.: 3 millipedes. 
Freude, Dr. H.: 8 beetles. 
Frey, Dr. David G. (see Indiana University). 

446 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Friends of Mineralogy (through Dr. Joel E. Arem) : 45 mineral specimens. 

Froglia, Carlo (see Laboratorio di Technologia della Pesca). 

Frommer, Dr. Saul I.: 7 beetles. 

Frondel, Dr. Clifford: barylite specimen. 

Frost, Dr. S. W. : squash bug. 

Fujimoto, Hozan: 2 porcelain bowls, Japan (exchange). 

Fujimura, Takuji (see Aquaculture International (Australia) Pty. Ltd.). 

Fuller, Dr. Samuel L. H. (see Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia). 

Fullington, Dr. Richard W. (see Dallas Museum of Natural History). 

Funasaki, Dr. George (see Hawaii, State of). 

Funk, Dr. Richard S.: 2 leeches. 

Furman, Dr. Deane P.: 55 mite slides, including types. 

Futrell, Darryl: 4 tridymite specimens. 

Gaeth, Mr. and Mrs. Douglas E., and Valenza, Mr. and Mrs. Angelo D. : 

bald-faced hornet nest. 
Gagne, Dr. Raymond J.: 350 gall midges. 
Gallo, Dr. Sergio: 15 mineral specimens, Italy (exchange) ; 2 melanophlogite 

specimens, Italy. 
Gait, Mrs. Jolly H. (see Washington, University of). 
Garth, Dr. John S. (see Southern California, University of). 
Gauthier, Gilbert: 6 mineral specimens, Africa (exchange). 
Gaver, Mrs. G. P.: mah-jong gaine set. 

Geijskes, Dr. D. C. (see Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic). 
George, Gilbert: 2 serandite specimens, Canada. 

Georgia State University (through Dr. Charles H. Wharton) : 120 crustaceans. 
Georgia, University of (through Vince Coffey) : Lysimachia specimen, 

Alabama. Marine Institute (through Richard W. Heard III): Coneplacidae 

Gerk, Arthur J.: 360 brachiopods, Iowa. 

Gibbs, Dr. Robert H.: 7 echinoderms, 40 mollusks, 174 crustaceans. 
Gibson, Dr. Gordon D. : 100 archeological specimens, Angola. 
Gilbert, Dr. B. Miles: 48 pubic bone casts. 
Gilbert, Dr. Carter R. (see Florida, University of). 
Gillaspy, Dr. Jan^es E.: 3 moths, Texas. 
Gillis, Dr. William T. (see Harvard University). 
Gillogly, Capt. Allen: 562 beetles. 
Gittins, Dr. John, (see Toronto, University of). 
Glynn, Dr. Peter W. (see Smithsonian Institution). 
Goff, Barney: 2 mineral specimens, Australia. 
Gogate, G. B.: 2 polychaete worms, India 
Golden, Dr. A. M. (see Agriculture, U. S. Department of). 
Goldman, Jane E.: Apache Indian basket. 

Goldner, Mrs. Marion O. : 3 pieces of Chinese clothing, 2 Japanese pictures. 
Goldsmith, Merton J.: 2 marine mollusks. 
Goldstein, A. Edge: I lot mineral specimens. 
Gonsoulin, Dr. Gene: 93 styrax specimens. 
Goodson, Mrs. Ruby Bowe: Cherokee Indian beaded bag. 
Goodyear, James: 6 beetles, Africa (exchange). 
Gordh, Gordon: 3 chalcid-flies. 
Gordon, MacKenzie: 19 specimens and fragments of Ammonoidea (see also 

Interior, U. S. Department of the). 
Gore, Dr. Robert M. (see Smithsonian Institution). 
Gorman, R. C. (see Australia, Government of). 
Gorodkov, Dr. K. B. (see Academy of Sciences of the USSR). 
Goteborgs Universitet, Sweden: 71 plant specimens, Ecuador. 

Appendix 11. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 447 

Gothenburg, University of, Sweden (through Dr. Anders Waren) : 2 mollusks. 

Gottsberger, Dr. Use S. (see Brazil, Government of). 

Gramaccioli, Dr. Carlo M. : mineral specimen, Italy (exchange). 

Grand Valley State College (through Dr. Howard O. Wright) : 22 echinoderms, 

24 marine mollusks, 2 worms, British Honduras. 
Great Britain, Government of: British Museum (Natural History) (through Dr. 

Brian Cogan) : 6 acalyptrate flies (exchange) ; (through Roger Lubbock): 

I fish; (through Dr. Anthony L. Rice): 6 crustaceans (exchange); (through 

R. Ross): 19 fern photographs (exchange). Royal Botanic Gardens: 200 

plant specimens (exchange) ; (through J. Blewett) : 131 plants, Brazil 

(exchange) ; (through Dr. J. P. M. Brenan) : 44 plants, Aldabra (exchange) ; 

(through Peter Green): 104 plants, Brazil (exchange); (through J. Heslop 

Harrison) : 3 plant specimens and 4 drawings. 
Green, Peter (see Great Britain, Government of). 
Greenfield, Dr. David W. (see Northern Illinois University). 
Grelen, Dr. Harold E. (see Agriculture, U. S. Department of). 
Grigg, Ursula M. (see Saint Mary's University). 
Grissell, Dr. E. E. (see Florida, State of). 
Gross, Dr. G. E. (see South Australian Museum). 
Gruenwald, M. Henri (see Mauritania, Government of). 
Gruwell, John A.: 2,295 grasshoppers, 841 moths, 3,337 bees, 13,470 beetles, 

Guam, University of (through Patrick Bryan) : 7 fish specimens. 
Guillemin, Dr. Claude: 2 mineral specimens, Trance (exchange). 
Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Museum (through Dr. C. E. Dawson) : 2,203 

crustaceans, 382 mollusks, 14 fishes, 34 echinoderms, 26 lots worms; 

(through Dr. R. W. Heard): 7 crustaceans; (through Walter Langley) : worm 

Gunther, Lloyd: 7 fossil specimens. Middle Cambrian, Utah (exchange). 
Gurney, Dr. Ashley B.: 2,294 Neuropteroids, South America. 
Habe, Dr. Tadashige (see National Science Museum). 
Haderlie, Dr. E. C. (see Defense, U. S. Department of). 
Haick, Roger A.: 540 Neuropteroids. 
Hale, William H. : fossil cormorant bones, Nevada. 
Halpern, Jack: jamesonite specimen. 
Hamid, Dr. Abdul: stink bug, type, Asia. 
Hansen, Dr. Bruce F. (see Wisconsin, University of). 
Hansen, Gary: 2 calcite specimens (exchange); 1 orpiment specimen, Peru 

(see also Hansen's Minerals, Inc.). 
Hansen's minerals. Inc. (through Gary Hansen) : 3 mineral specimens (see also 

Diamond Sales Co.) 
Hansen's Minerals, Inc., and Diamond Sales Co. (through Gary Hansen and 

Richard Swaebe) : I axinate specimen (exchange). 
Hanson, Dr. Wilford J.: 52 beetles. 
Harding, Dr. Gareth (see Dalhousie University). 
Hardman, David: I mendipite specimen. 
Hardy, Dr. Alan R. (see California, State of). 
Hargraves, Audrey: 8 echinoderms, Texas, 18 marine mollusks. 
Harman, Walter J.: 44 worm slides (see also Louisiana State University). 
Harris, Mrs. Bessie B. : 24 freshwater snails. 
Harris, Herbert S., Jr., and Simmons, Dr. Robert S. : 2 crocodileSj Mexico, 2 

snakes, Peru. 
Harris, Ronald E. : 7 crustaceans. 

Harrison, J. Heslop (see Great Britain, Government of). 
Harrison, Richard V.: 4 crustaceans, British Honduras. 

448 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Hartman, Dr. Willard D. (see Yale University). 

Hartshorn, Gary 5. (see Universidad de Costa Rica). 
' Harvard University (through Dr. James R. Kirkpatrick) : synthetic mineral 
specimen. Arnold Arboretum (through Dr. William T. Gillis) : 4 Palmae. 
Botanical Museum (through Dr. Richard Evans Schultes) : 5 plants, South 
America. Geological Museum (through Dr. Jun Ito) : 12 synthetic rare earth 
silicates. Gray Herbarium (through Dr. William T. Gillis) : 5 
melastomataceae; (through Dr. Reed C. Rollins): 2,594 botanical specimens 
(exchanges). Museum of Comparative Zoology (through Dr. K. M. Boss): 
64 worms (exchange); (through George Buckley): 1,420 mollusks 
(exchange); (through Michael H. Horn): 78 crustaceans; (through Dr. Bryan 
Patterson) : cast of Australopithecus right jaw. 

Hattori Botanical Laboratory, Japan: 50 hryophytes (exchanges). 

Hawaii, State of: Department of Agriculture (through Dr. George Funasaki) : 
2 beetles; (through William Rose): 5 compositae, Mexico. 

Hawaii, University of (through Dr. Matwell S. Doty): 10 algae, types; 
(through William J. Hoe) : 5 hryophytes. Lyon Arboretum (through Dr. 
Sharon S. Ishikawa) : 290 plant specimens (exchange). Institute of Marine 
Biology (through Dr. John M. Miller) : 2 Medusae. 

Hawkins, Dr. W. A., Jr.: wasp. 

Hazel, Dr. Joseph E. (see Interior, U.S. Department of the). 

Health, Education, and Welfare, U. S. Department of: Food and Drug 

Administration (through Dr. Fishbein) : 2 crustaceans. West Africa. Public 
Health Service: National Communicable Disease Center (through Dr. Robert 
S. McLean) : 34 fishes, 1 toad, 5 lizards. Rocky Mountain Laboratory 
(through Dr. Conrad E. Yunker); mule deer skull. 

Heaney, Lawrence R. (see Minnesota, University of). 

Heard, Dr. R. W. (see Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Museum). 

Heard, Richard W., Ill (see Georgia, University of). 

Hedlin, A. F. : moth. 

Hekinian, Dr. Roger (see Centre National Pour L'Exploitation des Oceans). 

Helm, Dr. June: Eskimo skin bag, Alaska. 

Helsinki, University of, Finland (through Dr. Harri Harmaja) : 18 hryophytes 

Heming, B. S. (see Alberta, University of). 

Henderson, Dr. Edward P.: complete individual meteorite; 11 obsidian 

Hendrickx, Dr. Andrew G. (see Cooper, Dr. Robert W.). 

Henry, Dr. Dora P. (see Washington, University of). 

Herbario "Barbosa Rodriques," Brazil: 345 grass specimens. 

Herbarium Bradeanum, Brazil (through Dr. G. F. J. Pabst) : 71 botanical 

Herbarium Universitatis Napocensis, Romania: 124 plant specimens 

Herman, Dr. Lee H., Jr.: 26 beetles. 

Heron, Gayle (see Washington, University of). 

Herrin, Dr. C. Selby (see Brigham Young University). 

Hickey, Gerald: 31 anthropological specimens, Vietnam. 

Hicks, Mrs. E. W. : 3 quartz specimens. 

Hieke, Dr. F. : ground beetle (exchange). 

Hight, Dr. Mary Etta: 177 squirrels. 

Hill, Dr. Clyde A.: 3 mammal specimens. 

Hill, Dr. Inez: 2 bowls, Cyprus; carved limestone sphere, Ethiopia. 

Hill, Louis W., Jr.: Piegan Indian pipe bowl and bear figure. 

Hilsenhoff, Dr. William: 68 stoneflies. 

Appendix 11. Donors to Smithsonian Institution / 449 

Hilty, Dr. Steven (see Arizona, University of). 

Hindman, James R. : mineral specimen. 

Hinshaw, Everett: 3 calcite specimens. 

Ho, Dr. Pham-Hoang (see Universite de Saigon). 

Hoare, Dr. Richard D. (see Bowling Green State University). 

Hobson, Mrs. Katharine D. : 30 polychaetes. 

Hodges, Dr. Ronald W.: 500 small moths. 

Hoe, William J. (see Hawaii, University of). 

Hoffman, Dr. Richard L. : 195 insects 

Hokkaido University, Japan (through Kunio Amaoka) : fish specimen, type. 

Holdridge, Dr. Leslie R. : 17 phanerogams, Costa Rica (see also Tropical 

Science Center). 
Holland, Dr. C. G.: 460 archeological pottery and stone specimens. 
Holland, Mrs. Malinda B.: Sioux Indian headed leggings and moccasins. 
Hollingsworth, Charles: 8 polychaetes, Barbados. 
Hollis, Julian: 142 bivalves. Lower Cretaceous, England (exchange). 
Holmgren, Dr. Patricia K. (see New York Botanical Garden). 
Holsinger, Dr. John R. : 2,915 crustaceans (see also Old Dominion College). 
Hooff, Laura (see Wilcox, Howard). 
Hopkins, Dr. Carl D. (see California, University of). 

Horn, Michael H. (see Harvard University). jj 

Houbrick, Dr. Richard S.: 2,500 land and marine mollusks (see also 

Smithsonian Institution). 
Houk, James L. (see California, State of). j 

Houston, University of (through Rosalie F. Maddocks) : 32 ostracod slides. 
Howard, Fred: 156 crustaceans, Canada. 

Hubricht, Leslie: 65 amphipods; 2 worm slides; 1 lot worms, 2 lots shrimp. 
Huckett, Dr. H. C: 22 Dfpferfl. 

Huggins, Dr. Charles W. (see Interior, U. S. Department of the). 
Huggins, Dr. Donald G.: 63 stoneflies, Alaska. , 

Hughes, Warren: 19 quartz specimens. 
Humphrey, Dr. Philip S. (see Kansas, University of). 
Hunter, Jay V. (see Louisiana State University). 
Hunziker, Armando T. (see Universidad Nacional de Cordoba), 
lishi. Dr. K.: synthetic antigorite specimen (exchange). 
Illg, Dr. Paul L. (see Lynch, Dr. James E., and Washington, University of). 
Illinois Natural History Survey (through Warren U. Brigham) : 7 coleoptera 

(through Larry M. Page) : 19 crayfishes. 
litis. Dr. Hugh B. (see Wisconsin, University of). 
Indiana University (through Dr. David G. Frey) : 2 crustaceans and 2 slides, 

Inland Fisheries Trust Inc. (through Michael Kennedy) : fish specimen, Ireland. 
Institute of Plant Protection, USSR (through Dr. G. V. Mikolajev) : 59 scarab 

beetles (exchange). 
Institute de Botanica, Brazil (through Dr. George Eiten) : 2,563 plant 

specimens; (through Dr. J. Mattos) : 127 plant specimens. 
Institute de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia (through Padre L. Uribe) : 6 ' 

Institute de conservacao de natureza, Brazil: 30 plant specimens. 
Institute de Defesa de Patrimonie Natural, Brazil: 25 Gramineae; (through 

Luiza Thereza Deconto Dombrowski) : 187 botanical specimens. 
Institute Nacional de Pesquisas, Brazil: 11 Leguminosae. 
Institute Politecnico Nacional, Mexico (through Dr. J. Rzedowski) : 88 plant 

specimens (exchange). 
Interior, U. S. Department of the: Bureau of Mines (through Elizabeth G. , 

450 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Baglin) : vial of argentojarosite ; (through Dr. Charles W. Huggins) : 2 vials 
of dawsonite. Fish and Wildlife Service: 495 skins, 45 skeletons, 6 eggs of 
North American birds; (through Dr. Donald E. Wilson) : 2,053 mammals. 
Geological Survey: 6 Tretomphalus bulloides, types; (through Warren O. 
■^^ Addicott) : 98 fossil gastropods and bivalves; (through Dr. Jean M. Berdan) : 
216 fossil ostracods and brachiopods; (through Dr. Michael Churkin, Jr.): 
21 thin sections of Devonian corals and 52 slabs; (through Dr. W. A. 
Cobban): 217 fossil specimens; (through Dr. Wallace de Will): 2 Devonian 
nautiloid; (through Dr. Raymond Douglass) : 168 fusulinids thin sections, 
Chile; (through Harold Drewes) : 15 tertiary volcanic rocks; (through 
MacKenzie Gordon): 2 cephalopod, Upper Devonian, Maryland; (through 
Dr. Joseph E. Hazel) : 3 drawers of ostracods; (through Dr. Dick Janda) : 
1 fossil whale jaw, Oregon; (through Edward M. MacKevett, Jr.): 20 
analyzed rocks, Alaska; (through Dr. 5. H. Mamay); 4 paleozoic insects. 
New Mexico; (through Dr. Daniel J. Milton) : 3 lots churchite/florenceite, 
California; (through Mary Mrose) : 2 suite of phosphate minerals, Brazil; 
1 clinobisuanite, Australia; (through Dr. George J. Neuerburg) : 2 galkhaite 
specimen, Nevada; (through Dr. John Pojeta): 3 drawers of Silurian and 
Devonian Pelecypods; (through Dr. Reuben J. Ross, Jr.): 2 Blastoidocrinus; 
(through Harold Saunders) : 5 quartz specimens, Arkansas; (through 
Dr. William N. Sharp) : 5 vials of kogarkoite, Colorado; (through R. P. 
Sheldon) : 18 mineral specimens; (through Dr. I. G. Sohn) : 200 ostracods, 
14 slides; (through Dr. James Sprinkle) : 206 crinoids; (through Ellis L. 
Yochelson) : 222 fossil specimens, including types. National Park Service 
(through Roland R. Wauer) : 2 leeches, Texas. 

International Paper Co. (through David G. Bernard) : tourmaline specimens. 

Iowa State University (through Dr. Richard W. Pohl) : 16 grass specimens, 
Costa Rica (exchange) ; 7 Cramineae, Peru. 

Ireland, Dr. R. R. (see National Museum of Natural Sciences). 

Irish Wolfhound Club of America (through Gen. Alfred de Quoy) : dog 

Irvine, John W., Jr.: lacrosse sticks. 

Ishikawa, Dr. Sharon S. (see Hawaii, University of). 

Island Resources Foundation, Inc. (through William E. Rainey) : 6 crustaceans. 

Ito, Dr. Jun (see Harvard University). 

Iwamoto, Dr. Tomio (see California Academy of Sciences). 

Jackson, James F. : 15 fungus gnats, British Honduras. 

Jacksonville University (through Dr. Kenneth Relyea) : 2 crustaceans. 

Jacobi, Dr. Gerald Z. : 15 beetles (see also Wisconsin State University). 

Jakowska, Dr. Sophie: 2 echinoid, Dominican Republic. 

Janda, Dr. Dick (see Interior, U. S. Department of the). 

Jaxel, Robert: 5 mineral specimens. 

J. E. Purkyne University, Czechoslovakia (through Dr. R. Rozkosny) : 7 marsh 

Jewell, Dana: 53 mineral specimens. 

Jirak, Dr. Ivan L. : 4 mineral specimens. 

Johns-Manville Corp. (through Julie C. Yang) : 9 vials of mineral specimens. 

Johnson, Andrew: 7 ethnological specimens, Philippine Islands. 

Johnson, Arthur F. (see Virginia, Commonwealth of). 

Johnson, Dr. Gerald H. (see Smith, David). 

Johnson, Dr. Jesse G.: 460 fossil specimens. 

Johnson, Richard I.: mollusk specimen, type. 

Johnson, Dr. Robert K. (see Field Museum of Natural History). 

Johnston, Dr. Marshall C. (see Texas, University of). 

Johnson, Jean Claude (see Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle). 

Appendix 11. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 451 

Jones, Henry A. (see Smithsonian Institution). 

Jones, Dr. Meredith (see American Museum of Natural History). 

Jones, Dr. Robert H.: 10,900 flies. 

Jouanin, Dr. Christian (see Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle). 

Judkins, Dr. David C. (see Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution). 

Kansas, University of (through Dr. Philip S. Humphrey): 39,268 land and 

freshwater mollusks. 
Kansas State University (through Dr. T. M. Barkley) : plant specimen. 
Kaplan, Ronald D.: 86 stoneflies. 
Katholieke Universiteit, The Netherlands (through Dr. F. Lukoschus) : 12 mite 

Kato, Dr. Akira: 5 mineral specimens. 
Kauffman, Dr. E. G. (see Saul, Dr. Louella). 
Kavanaugh, David: 52 centipedes, Aleutian Islands. 
Kazan, Peter: snout beetle. South America. 
Keil, Dr. Klaus (see New Mexico, University of). 
Keller, Peter (see Texas, University of). 
Kelley, Richard N. : 3 chips of Helvite, Canada. 
Kellogg, Dr. Davida (see Columbia University). 
Kellogg, Mrs. Stuart: 250 land and marine mollusks. 
Kelly, F. R. (see Lloyd, Mrs. Frances K.). 
Kendall, Elizabeth: 4 Philippine helmets, 2 Chinese flags. 
Kenk, Dr. Roman: 23 worms, including type. 
Kennedy, Helen: 15 plant specimens. 
Kennedy, Hugh: mineral specimen, Brazil. 
Kennedy, Michael (see Inland Fisheries Trust, Inc.). 
Kennedy, Dr. W. J.: 200 fossil specimens, mostly mollusks. 
Khartoum, University of, Sudan (through J. R. Vail) : meteorite specimen. 
Kilburn, R. N. (see Natal Museum). 
Kimball, Kenneth: 190 Neuropteroids, Iran. 
King, Robert M.: 123 Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, Costa Rica; 31 Compositae, 

King, Vandall T. : 5 mineral specimens. 

Kingsley, Mrs. Charles P.: suit of Japanese Samurai armor, Persian war axe. 
Kingsley, William: Japanese Samurai sword. 
Kirkpatrick, Dr. James R. (see Harvard University). 
Klemm, Donald J.: 3 leeches. 

Knapp, Dr. Leslie W. (see Smithsonian Institution). 
Knez, Dr. Eugene I.: shoes, bowl, ceremonial belt, Korea; scroll and 3 

ethnological specimens, Bhutan. 
Knight, James: Botallackite specimen, England (exchange). 
Knobloch, Dr. Irving W. : 108 plant specimens, Mexico. 
Knowlton, Dr. George F. : 517 Coleoptera; 167 Myriapoda and Arachnida. 
Kobe University, Japan: 33 sawflies (exchange). 
Koch, Dr. L. E. (Western Australian Museum). 
Kohn, Dr. Alan J.: 2,610 polychaetes, Easter Island. 
Komarek, E. V.: 1,409 Neuropteroids. 
Komarov Botanical Institute of the USSR: Herbarium (through Dr. I. T. 

Vassilczenko) : 200 plant specimens (exchange). 
Kornicker, Dr. L. S.: 10,184 crustaceans. 
Koyama, Hiroshige (see National Science Museum). 
Kraeuter, Dr. John N. : 5 marine rhollusks. 
Krai, Dr. Robert (see Vanderbilt University). 
Krapovickas, Antonio (see Universidad Nacional del Nordeste), 
Krauss, N. L. H. : 4 crustaceans; 594 Diptera. 

452 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Krefft, Dr. Gerhard (through Dr. Daniel Cohen) : 4 worms, 52 crustaceans. 

Krombein, DarHssa B.: cicada specimen. 

Kruczynski, WilHam L. : 10 freshwater mollusks. 

Kues, Dr. Barry S. : marine mollusk. 

Kushner, Ervan F. : 3 mineral specimens. 

Laboratorio de Ciencias do Mar, Brazil (through Selma Bareto de Azevedo) : 

8 fish specimens. 
Laboratorio di Technologia Delia Pesca, Italy (through Carlo Froglia) : 156 

crustaceans (exchange). 
Lafayette College (through Dr. Arthur Montgomery) : mineral specimen, Dutch 

Lajmi, Mohamed (see Smithsonian Institution). 
Lakela, Dr. Olga (see South Florida, University of). 
Lambers, Dr. D. Hille Ris: aphid slide, Africa. 
Landrum, Betty J. (see Smithsonian Institution). 
Lane, Dr. N. Gary (see California, University of). 
Langley, Walter (see Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Museum). 
Larsen, Dr. Kai (see Arhus Universitet). 
Larsen, Ronald J. (see Puerto Rico, University of). 

Larson, William: 40 mineral specimens (see also Pala Properties International). 
Lasmanis, Raymond: arsenic specimen, Canada. 
Laurence University (through Dr. Allen M. Young) : 17 plant specimens, Costa 

Laurent, M. de Saint (see Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle). 
Lavigne, Dr. Robert J.: 152 ants, types, Puerto Rico. 
Lawrence, Dr. J. (see South Florida, University of). 
Lawrence, Dr. John F. : 4 fungus beetles. 

Lawson, Dr. Thomas J. (see Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution). 
Leclercq, Dr. Jean (see Faculte des Sciences Agronomiques). 
Lee, Dr. Albert F. : pottery whistle, Mexico. 
Lee, C. Bruce: 2 Lepidoptera, Asia. 
Lee, Dr. D. C. (see South Australian Museum). 
Lee, Lester (through William W. Warner) : marine mollusk. 
Leech, Dr. Hugh B.: 561 beetles (exchange). 
Lees, Dennis C. (see Marine Biological Consultants, Inc.). 
Lehigh University (through Dr. J. D. Ryan) : 13,996 Peruvian fossils, 4 land 

Lehto, Elinor (see Arizona State University). 
Leicht, Wayne: 6 mineral specimens (exchange). 
Lembaga Oceanologi Nasional, Indonesia (through Kasim Moosa) : 2 

Lerer, Mrs. Edna: 9 mineral specimens. 
LeRoy, Duane O. (see EXXON Co.). 
Lessing, Dr. Peter: vial of zoned andradite. 
Leveque, Dr. Ch. (see Station de Recherches de Zoologie). 
Levinson, S. A.: S ostracod slides. 
Lewis, Dr. David J. : 32 biting flies. 

Lewis, Mrs. John S. (see Lewis, Rear Adm. John S., Estate of). 
Lewis, Rear Adm. John S., Estate of (through Mrs. John S. Lewis) : carved 

wooden figure, Solomon Islands (bequest). 
Lidstrom, Walter (see Lidstrom Minerals). 
Lidstrom Minerals (through Walter Lidstrom) : 15 mineral specimens, 

Lie, Ulf (see Washington, University of). 
Lieftinck, Dr. M. A.: wasp, Europe. 

Appendix 11. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 453 

Lindner, Milton J. (see Commerce, U. 5. Department of). 

Little, Dr. Elbert L., Jr. (see Agriculture, U.S. Department of). 

Liverpool Polytechnic, Great Britain (through Dr. Malcolm Luxton) : 5 mite 

Lloyd, Mrs. Frances K., Kelly, J. M., Jr., and Kelly, F. R. : Chippewa Indian 

beaded cloth cap. 
Lobl, Dr. Ivan (see Museum d'Histoire Naturelle). 
Loftesnes, Capt. E.: mineral specimen, Norway. 
Long, Charlene D. : 11 echinoderms, 7,012 polychaete worms, 36 phoronida 

worm slides, 16 lots insects. 
Long, Charles A. (see Wisconsin, University of). 
Long, Edward R. (see Oregon State University). 
Long, Robert W. (see South Florida, University of). 
Loomis, H. F. : millipede. 

Lopes, Dr. H. de Souza: 225 fleshflies. South America. 
Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History (through Dr. James H. 

McLean) : 140 marine mollusks. 
Louisiana State University (through Dr. Joan B. Chapin) : 6 moths; (through 

Darryl L. Felder) : 38 crustaceans; (through Walter J. Harman) : 4 worm 

slides; (through Jay V. Hunter): 2 crayfish; (through Dr. George H. Lowery, 

Jr.) bird mummy, Philippines (exchange). 
Lourteig, Dr. Alicia (see Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle). 
Lowery, Dr. George H. (see Louisiana State University). 
Lowry, James K. (see Canterbury, University of). 
Lubbock, Roger (see Great Britain, Government of). 
Ludlow, Smith, and Cann, Inc. (through F. L. Smith) : 38 mineral specimens 

Lugton, Ralph: 3 beryl specimens. 
Lukoschus, Dr. F. (see Katholieke Universiteit). 
Lutze, Dr. Gerhard F. (see Universitat Kiel). 
Luxton, Dr. Malcolm (see Liverpool Polytechnic). 
Lyko Mineral and Gem, Inc. (through Jack Young) : 10 mineral specimens 

(exchanges) ; 6 mineral specimens. 
Lynch, Dr. James E. (through Dr. Paul L. Illg) : 8 lots worms, 200 mollusks, 

63,689 crustaceans. 
MacCord, Col. Howard A. (see Virginia, Commonwealth of). 
MacKevett, Edward M., Jr. (see Interior, U. S. Department of the). 
MacLean, Dermid: 6 mineral specimens. 
Maddocks, Rosalie F. (see Houston, University of). 

Madurai University, India (through P. Navaneethakrishnan) : 20 shrimp. 
Mailloux, Gerard: I centipede. 
Major, Mrs. Bernard P.: 2 pottery vessels, Iran. 
Malaya, University of, Malaysia: 61 plant specimens (exchange) ; (through 

Dr. Benjamin Stone) : 55 plant specimens(exchanges) ; (through Thomas 

Yancey) : 50 crustaceans. 
Malaysia, Government of: Office of Conservator of Forests (through Paul 

Chai) : 10 Araceae specimens. 
Malone, Mrs. Elsie: 7 mollusks. 

Mamay, Dr. S. H. (see Interior, U. S. Department of the). 
Manchester, University of. Great Britain (through Dr. Joan Watson) : 15 fossil 

specimens (exchange). Manchester Museum (through Dr. Charles Pettitt) : 

42 mollusks (exchange). 
Mancini, Eugene R. : 1 mayfly. 
Mandaville, James P., Jr.: 82 plants, Oman. 
Mangan, Robert: 150 sepsid flies. 

454 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Manning, Mrs. Anita: 36 coleoptera, Pacific Islands (see also Bernice P. Bishop 

Marcus, Mrs. Eveline: marine moUnsk, Barbados. 
Marcus, Mr. and Mrs. Philip: Eocene gastropod. 
Marcus, Philip: 2 stilbite specimens. 
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens (through Dr. Calaway H. Dodson). 393 

botanical specimens. 
Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (through Dr. William 

A. Newman) : 2 crustaceans and 8 slides, southwest Atlantic. 
Marine Biological Consultants, Inc. (through Dennis C. Lees) : 2 medusae. 
Marine Biological Station, Yugoslavia (through Dr. Joze Stirn) : 162 crustaceans 

Marineland of Florida (through Dr. David K. Caldwell) : 3 marine mammals. 
Markham, John C. (see Miami, University of). 
Marshall, Mrs. Elsie: 6 marine shells, Chile. 
Marshall, John: 31 mineral specimens. 
Maryland, State of: State Trout Hatchery (through Ed Enamait) : fish 

Maryland, University of (through Dr. John Davidson) : 253 beetles. 
Mason, Mrs. Janie Ellis: 4 Apache baskets. 
Massachusetts, University of (through Barbara A. Clark) : 100 plant specimens 

(exchange) ; (through Dr. Albert C. Smith): 6 plants, Fiji. 
Massey, J. R. (see North Carolina, University of). 
Mather, Bryant: 85 moths, Mississippi; 27 caddisflies. 
Mathis, Wayne N. : 7 flies. 
Matternes, Jay H.: orangutan skin. 
Mattos, Dr. J. (see Instituto de Botanica). 
Mauney, Morris: 205 flies. 
Mauritania, Government of: Ministere de I'lndustrialisation et des Mines 

(through M. Henri Gruenwald) : meteorite specimen. 
Max-Planck Institut fur Limnologie (through Dr. E. J. Fittkau) : 2 isopod, 

McAlpin, Dr. Bruce W. : 7 ferns, Costa Rica. 
McBride, William R. (see Defense, U. S. Department of). 
McCosker, Dr. John E. (see California, University of). 
McCrosky, Dr. Richard E. (see National Aeronautics and Space Administration 

McDaniel, Dr. Sidney: 73 botanical specimens. 
McDonald, D. C. : 87 prehistoric Australian lithic tools. 
McDonnell, Unity: centipede, England. 

McGuinness, Albert L. : 30 inesite specimens; 6 minerals (exchanges). 
McKeeson, Hon. John Alexander, III: mask and figure, Gabon. 
McLachlan, Dr. Anton (see Port Elizabeth, University of). 
McLaughlin, Dr. Patsy A. (see Miami, University of). 

McLean, Dr. James H. (see Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History). 
McLean, Dr. Robert S. (see Health, Education, and Welfare, U. S. Department 

McPherson, J. E.: 2 burrowing bugs. 
McVaugh, Dr. Rogers (see Michigan, University of). 
Means, D. Bruce (see Florida State University). 

Medici, Dr. John C: 2 chalcopyrite specimen; 2 mineral specimens (exchange). 
Medler, Dr. John T. : 15 stoneflies, Nigeria. 
Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada: 20 algae specimens 

Mendryk, Harold: 56 crustaceans. Upper Cretaceous. 

Appendix 11. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 455 

Menez, Dr. Ernani G. (see Smithsonian Institution). 

Menge, Jane Lubchenco: 30 marine mollusks. 

Menke, Dr. A. 5. (see Agriculture, U. S. Department of). 

Mennega, Dr. E. A. (see Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht). 

Mertins, Dr. James W. : 5 cicadas. 

Messersmith, Dr. D. H. : 521 flies, Seychelles Islands. 

Metcalf, Artie L. (see Texas, University of). 

Miami, University of: School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences (through 

Dr. F. M. Bayer): 1,080 crustaceans; (through John C. Markham) : 23 

crustaceans; (through Dr. Patsy A. McLaughlin: 3 crustaceans; (through Dr. 

Patsy A. McLaughlin and Dr. A. J. Provenzano) : 12 crustaceans; (through 

Dr. C. Richard Robins) : 1 fish specimen; (through Dr. C. Richard Robins 

and Dr. Jon Staiger) : 2 fish specimens. 
Miami Sea Aquarium (through Dr. Carl Chapman) : pilot whale. 
Michigan State University (through Dr. John H. Beaman) : 2 botanical 

specimens, Mexico. 
Michigan, University of: Herbarium (through Mrs. Jennie V. A. Dieterle) : I 

Mechaerium, Mexico; (through Dr. Rogers McVaugh) : I cultivated begonia. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology (through Dr. R. M. Bailey) : 92 fishes, 

Thailand (exchange); (through Dr. Robert R. Miller): 30 fishes, Mexico; 

1 scorpion, 61 crustaceans. 
Mikolajev, Dr. G. V. (see Institute of Plant Protection). 
Miller, Dr. Charles N., Jr.: 27 botanical thin section slides. Late Eocene. 
Miller, Dr. James R.: 3 water beetles. 
Miller, John (see Smithsonian Institution). 
Miller, Dr. John M. (see Hawaii, University of). 
Miller, Dr. R. R. (see Universidad de Costa Rica). 
Miller, Dr. Robert R. (see Michigan, University of). 
Millson, Henry E.: 5 mineral specimens. 

Milton, Dr. Daniel J. (see Interior, U. S. Department of the). 
Mineralogisches Museum (through Dr. Gert Wappler) : 11 mineral specimens 

Mineralogisk-Geologiske Institut, Denmark (through Dr. Ole V. Petersen) : 

205 mineral specimens (exchange). 
Minette, Jim: mineral specimen (exchange). 
Minnesota, University of: James Ford Bell Museum of Natural History 

(through Lawrence R. Heaney) : 71 squirrels and 1 marten. 
Mironov, Konstantin: ceruleite specimen, Bolivia. 

Mississippi State University (through Dr. Ronald Altig) : 25 crustaceans. 
Missouri, University of (through Dr. D. B. Dunn) : 222 plant specimens 

(exchange) ; (through Dr. Arthur Witt, Jr.): 1 freshwater mollusk, Iowa. 
Missouri Botanical Garden (through Dr. Thomas B. Croat) : 309 botanical 

specimens; 496 plant photographs, 350 tropical plant specimens (exchanges); 

58 plant specimens, Panama and Costa Rica (gift-exchanges); (through Dr. 

Garrit Davidse) : 6 compositae, Panama. 
Mitchell, Robert W. : 34 planarian slides, types, Mexico. 
Miyagi, Dr. Ichiro: 17 canaceid flies, Asia. 
Moe, Dagfinn (see Botanisk Museum). 
Molinari, Ovidio Garcia (see Puerto Rico, University of). 
Montgomery, Dr. Arthur (see Lafayette College). 
Moore, Donald R. : 5 mollusks. 
Moore, Dr. Harold E., Jr. (see Cornell University). 
Moore, Dr. Paul B.: 9 mineral specimens, including types. 
Moore, Phil H. : 7 plant specimens, Guam. 

456 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Moosa, Kasim (see Lembaga Oceanologi Nasional). 

Moras, Charles Michael: Choco Indian wooden paddle, Panama. 

Morris, Byron (see Dalhousie University). 

Morrow, Dr. James E. (see Alaska, University of). 

Morse, John C. : 16 stoneflies. 

Morton, Dr. Eugene S.: bird skin, Panama. 

Moskowitz, Dr. Paul (through Dr. Samuel Moskowitz) : crystal of chrome 

Moskowitz, Dr. Samuel (see Moskowitz, Dr. Paul). 
Moss Landing Marine Laboratories (through Dr. Peter N. Slattery) : 537 

ostracods; 10 Holothurians. 
Moya, Miguel Moya: 44 reptiles and amphibians, Spain (exchange). 
Mrose, Mary: mineral specimen (see also Aleksandrov, Dr. S. M., and Interior, 

U. S. Department of the). 
Muchmore, Dr. William B.: 862 centipedes and millipedes. 
Mumaw, Homer: 1 shrew. 

Muniziga, Juan: clay-covered human skull fragment, Chile. 
Murayama, Dr. Sadao (see National Science Museum). 
Murdock, Dr. Joseph (see California, University of). 
Murphy, Dr. D. H. : 30 lace bugs, Asia. 
Museo Civico de Storia Naturale, Italy (through Dr. Canzoneri) : 3 ephydrid 

flies (exchange). 
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Uruguay (through Juan Cuello) : 2 bird 

skins (exchange). 
Museu Paraense Emilia Goeldi, Brazil (through Dr. Joao Murca Pires) : I plant 

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Switzerland (through Dr. Ivan Lobl) : 32 

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, France (through Dr. J. Forest) : 41 

crustaceans; (through Jean Claude Jolinon) : 2 Gramineae (exchange) ; 

(through Dr. Christian Jouanin) : 2 birds (exchange) ; (through M. de Saint 

Laurent) : 6 crustaceans; (through Dr. Alicia Lourteig) : 38 plant specimens; 

122 plant specimens (gift-exchange) ; 6 plant specimens (exchange) ; 

(through Dr. Paul Pellas) : 1 meteorite thin section (exchange); (through Dr. 

Henri J. Schubnel) : 1 priorite specimen (exchange). 
Museum of Science, Boston (through Edward D. Pearce) : I specimen 

chemically analyzed granite. South Africa. 
Nagarkatti, Dr. Sudha (see Commonwealth Institute for Biological Control). 
Nakaike, T. (see National Science Museum). 
Nakane, Dr. Takehiko: 5 scarab beetles, Bonin Islands. 
Natal Museum, South Africa (through R. N. Kilburn) : 2 mollusks, types. 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Fund, Smithsonian Institution 

(through Dr. Richard E. McCrosky) : complete meteorite, 286 grams; 

(through M. O. Oyawoya) : meteorite specimen; (through K. M. Russell): 

3 glass specimens. 
National Geographic Society (through Robert Sisson) : 3 crustaceans, Indian 

National Museum of Natural Sciences, Canada (through Dr. R. R. Ireland) : 

420 bryophyte specimens (exchange). 
National Science Museum, Japan: 50 woody plants (exchange): (through Dr. 

Tadashige Habe) : 2 mollusks; (through Hiroshige Koyama) : 50 compositae; 

(through Dr. Sadao Murayama) . meteorite polished thin section; (through 

T. Nakaike) : 50 ferns (exchange). 
Natur-Museum und Forschungs Institut Senckenberg (through Dr. R. zur 

Strassen) : 9 thrips, Canary Islands (exchange). 

Appendix 11. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 457 

Navaneethakrishnan, P. (see Madurai University). 

Negre, Jacques: 2 ground beetles (exchange). 

Nelson, Dr. Gayle H. : 13 wood-boring beetles (gift-exchange). 

Nelson, H. G. (see Field Museum of Natural History). 

Neuerburg, Dr. George J. (see Interior, U.S. Department of the). 

Nevada, State of: Department of Agriculture (through Dr. Robert C. Bechtel) : 

I walkingstick (exchange). 
Nevling, Dr. Lorin I., Jr. (see Field Museum of Natural History). 
Newell, Dr. Norman D. : 5,000 marine invertebrates, Tunisia. 
Newell, Robert L. : 19 stoneflies. 

New England Aquarium (through John H. Prescott) : 13 marine mammals. 
Newman, John H. : 7 moths. 

Newman, Dr. Marshall T. (see Ferguson, Mrs. A. L. L.). 
Newman, Dr. William A. (see Marine Biological Association of the United 

Newman, Dr. William A. (see California, University of). 
New Mexico, University of (through Dr. Klaus Keil) : meteorite specimen 

New York Botanical Garden (through Dr. Patricia K. Holmgren): 146 botanical 

specimens; 310 botanical specimens (gift-exchanges); 1,539 botanical 

specimens (exchanges). 
New York Ocean Science Laboratory (through Dr. Colin M. Finney) : 14 

New Zealand, Government of: Geological Survey (through Dr. A. G. Beu) : 

49 land snails. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (through 

E. W. Valentine) : I sawfly (exchange). 
Nichols State University (through James G. Ragan) : 6 fish specimens. 
Nickel, Dr. Ernest H. : mineral specimen, Australia. 
Nickel, Dr. P. A.: mite slide. 
Nicolay, Col. S. S.: 4 butterflies, South America. 
Nielsen, Dr. Jorgen (see Copenhagen, University of). 
Nielsen, Mogens C. : 9 moths and butterflies. 
Nikitsky, Dr. N. (see Academia Nauk of USSR). 
Noble, Chief Dennis L. (see Transportation, U. S. Department of). 
Nohel, Dr. Peter: 4 beetles. 

Norford, Dr. B. S. (see Canada, Government of). 
North Carolina, State of: Museum of Natural History (through Dr. Roland 

M. Shelley) : 2 mollusks, 33 crayfish, 5 shrimp. 
North Carolina, University of (through J. R. Massey) : 150 botanical specimens 

(gift-exchange) ; (through Cathy Salmons) : 11 crustaceans. Institute of 

Fisheries Research (through James K. Dooley) : 4 fishes, types; (through Dr. 

Austin B. Williams) : 5 crustaceans. 
Northeast Louisiana University (through Dr. Neil H. Douglas) : 49 fishes, 

including types. 
Northeast Missouri State University (through Dr. Melvin L. Conrad) : 3 

botanical specimens, Mexico. 
Northern Illinois University (through Dr. David W. Greenfield) : fish specimen, 

British Honduras. 
Nowacki, Dr. W. : mineral specimen, Switzerland (exchange). 
Nussbaum, Ronald A.: 31 salamanders. 
Nutting, W. H.: 255 beetles. 
Oak Ridge National Laboratories (through Dr. T. F. Connolly) : 6 crystal 

Ober, Dr. Lewis D.: 53 frogs, Haiti. 

458 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

O'Brien, Dr. Charles W. : 377 weevils; 4 weevils (exchange). 

O'Brien, Dr. Lois B.: 52 cockroaches, South America. 

Occidental College (through Michael K. Oliver) : 4 fishes, types, Africa. 

O'Clair, Charles E. (see Washington, University of). 

Odell, Rev. Mark: 153 crayfish. 

O'Dunne, Mrs. Eugene: 17 carat sapphire in diamond mounting. 

Ohashi, Hiroyoshi (see Tokyo, University of). 

Ohio State University: Herbarium: 141 plant specimens (exchange) ; (through 

Marvin L. Roberts): 15 plant specimens. Museum of Zoology (through Dr. 

David H. Stansbery) : 2 freshwater moUusks. 
Oklahoma City Zoo (through Charles G. Wilson) : fish specimen. 
Old, Dr. William E., Jr. (see American Museum of Natural History). 
Old Dominion College (through Dr. John R. Holsinger) : 354 crustaceans. 
Oldeman, Dr. R. A. A. (see France, Government of). 
Oliver, Michael K. (see Occidental College). 
Olson, Dr. Storrs: 2 rodent specimens. 
Olsson, Dr. Axel A.: 2 marine mollusks. 
Oman, Dr. Paul (see Oregon State University). 
Ontiveros, Manuel: 3 private specimens, Mexico. 
Opler, Dr. Paul A. (see Organization for Tropical Studies, Inc.). 
Oregon State University (through Peter A. Bisson) : 20 fishes; (through 

Dr. Carl E. Bond) : 5 fishes, types; (through Dr. Kenton L. Chambers) : 

1 botanical specimen; (through Dr. Daniel M. Cohen and David Stein): 

3 fishes; (through Edward R. Long) : 69 crustaceans; (through Dr. Paul 

Oman) : 4 beetles. 
Organization for Tropical Studies, Inc. (through Dr. Paul Opler) : 35 botanical 

Otobed, Demei O. (see Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the). 
Owen, Robert P.: bird skin, Caroline Islands. 
Owre, Dr. Harding B.: worm specimen, type. Gulf of Mexico. 
Oyawoya, M. O. (see National Aeronautics and Space Administration Fund). 
Pabst, Dr. G. F. J. (see Herbarium Bradeanum). 
Pacific Bio-Marine Supply Co. (through Dr. Rimmon Fay) : 2 stomatopod 

Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of (through Demei O. Otobed) : 19 crustaceans. 
Page, Larry M. (see Illinois Natural History Survey). 

Pala Properties International (through William Larsen) : 9 mineral specimens. 
Palmer, Robert E. : 5 polychaete worms (exchange). 
Palmer, Dr. William M.: bog turtle, corn snake. 

Palomar College (through Dr. Dennis L. Bostic) : 14 worms, 2 mollusks. 
Panczner, William: natrolite specimen, New Zealand. 
Paperna, Dr. Ilan (see Virginia Institute of Marine Science). 
Papua and New Guinea, Territory of: Department of Forests: 644 plant 

specimens (exchange) ; 364 plant specimens. 
Park, Dr. Taisoo (see Texas A&M University). 
Parker, Frances L.: 91 fossil foraminifera. 

Parmelee, Dr. David F. : 28 bird skins and 8 skeletons, Antarctic. 
Parsons, Dr. Carl T. : 2 beetles, Brazil (exchange). 
Patterson, Dr. Bryan (see Harvard University). 
Patterson, Mrs. Jefferson; 5 ethnological specimens, West Africa; pottery head, 

Patton, Mr. and Mrs. Harry J.: rug of Egyptian Bedouin tent cloth. 
Paul, Dr. Allen Z. (see Florida State University). 
Paulson, Dr. Dennis : 7 dragonflies. 

Appendix 11. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 459 

Peacor, Donald R.: vial metavivianite, 2 kellyite specimens. 

Pearce, Edward D. (see Museum of Science). 

Peck, Dr. Raymond E. : 190 Cretaceous microcrinoids. 

Peck, Dr. Stewart B. (see Carleton University). 

Peigler, Richard: 400 moths. 

Pellas, Dr. Paul (see Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle). 

Pennsylvania, State of: Department of Agriculture (through Dr. A. G. 

Wheeler): 6 plant hugs. 
Pequegnat, Dr. Willis E.: 220 echnioderm specimens, Gulf of Mexico (see also 

Texas A&M University). 
Perrault, Dr. G. G.: ground beetle, type. 
Peters, Dr. William L.: 382 Neuropteroids (see also Edmunds, Dr. 

George F., Jr.). 
Petersen, Dr. Ole V. (see Mineralogisk-Geologiske Institut), 
Peterson, Mrs. L. W. (see Smithsonian Institution). 
Peterson, Norman: 745 mammal specimens, Colombia). 
Petit, Richard E. : 1 mollusk specimen. 
Pettitt, Dr. Charles (see Manchester, University of). 
Peyton, E. L. (see Defense, U.S. Department of). 
Pflug, Linda: 2 marine mollusks, Venezuela. 
Philips Forschungslaboratorium Aachen Gmbh (through G. R. Schodder) : 

crystal specimens. 
Pieritz, Douglas: fossil whale skull. 
Pieters, Sid: 1 jeremejevite specimen (exchange); 1 cuprite with malachite 

specimen; 1 lot cuprite. 
Pignataro, John: 12 mineral specimens. 
Pinch, William: westerveldite specimen, Spain. 
Pinkava, Dr. D. J. (see Arizona State University). 
Pires, Dr. Joao Murca (see Museu Paraense Emilia Goeldi). 
Pittsburgh, University of (through Dr. Fred Tsuji) : 547 crustacean and 

plankton specimens. 
Plant Protection Research Institute, South Africa (through Giovanni DeLotto): 

9 insect slides. 
Plowman, Dr. Timothy: 569 specimens, South America. 
Plumbago Mining Co.: pegmatite pocket material. 
Pohl, Dr. Richard W. (see Iowa State University). 
Pojeta, Dr. John (see Interior, U.S. Department of the). 
Pokomy, Dr. Vladimir: 88 ostracod slides. 
Polhemus, Dr. John T. : I water strider, 5 true bugs. 
Pond, Dr. Robert B., Jr. (see Windsor Metalcrystals, Inc.). 
Pope, Mrs. E. C. : 12 echinoderms, Australia. 
Pope, Dr. R. D. : ground beetle. South America (exchange). 
Port Elizabeth, University of. South Africa (through Dr. Anton McLachlan) : 

9 crustaceans. 
Porte, Dr. Anthony R. D. : I fossil specimen, Jamaica. 
Portugal, Government of: Centre de Botanica (through Dr. A. Fernandes): 

12 grass specimens. 
Post, Dr. R. L.: 8 ladybug beetles. 
Post, Dr. Richard L. : 33 beetles. 
Potter, Dr. Gilbert D. (see California, University of). 
Pough, Fred: 2 silicon carbide spe<:imens. 
Povolny, Dr. D. : 3 small moths, Central America. 
Prescott, John H. (see New England Aquarium). 
Price, Richard: 2 butterflies. 
Priesner, Dr. H. : 3 wasps, Europe (exchange). 

460 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Princeton University (through Michael Berrill) : 29 crustaceans. 

Provenzano, Dr. A. J. (see Miami, University of). 

Pryce, Dr. M. W. : mineral specimen, Australia. 

Puerto Rico, University of (through Dr. Paul R. Burkholder) : 7 sponges; 
(through Dr. J. Maldonado Capriles) : 49 Lepidoptera and Diptera, 574 
Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, 22 Neuropteroids, 224 Coleoptera (gift- 
exchange); (through Ronald J. Larsen) : 18 crayfish; (through Ovidio Garcia 
Molinari) : 27 botanical specimens. 

Pugh, Lawrence (see Defense, U.S. Department of). 

Putnam, Barry: slab containing pelecypods, Jurassic. 

Quarin, Camilo Luis (see Universidad Nacional del Nordeste). 

Queen's University, Canada (through Dr. J. Douglas Scott) : 2 mineral 
specimens (exchange). 

Radwin, Dr. George E. (see San Diego Society of Natural History). 

Rae, Scott: 2 snakes. 

Ragan, Dr. James G.: 15 polychaetes (see also Nichols State University). 

Rainey, William E. (see Island Resources Foundation, Inc.). 

Ramsey, Dr. John S. (see Auburn University). 

Randall, Dr. John E. : 40 mollusk specimens. 

Rasweiler, Dr. John, J., IV (see Columbia University). 

Read, Luana: 2 marine mollusks, Bahama Islands. 

Reddell, James R. : 48 crustaceans; 19 Hemiptera and Hymenoptera (see also 
Texas Tech University). 

Reeder, Dr. Charlotte G. (see Wyoming, University of). 

Reeder, Dr. Steven S. (see Universidad de Costa Rica). 

Reichardt, Dr. Hans (see Universidade de Sao Paulo). 

Relyea, Dr. Kenneth (see Jacksonville University). 

Rice, Dr. Anthony L. (see Great Britain, Government of). 

Richards, Dr. R. Peter: 5 cornulitids. 

Richmond, Mrs. Leana: 1,388 beetles. 

Riddle, W. C. : 3 bivalves. Cretaceous. 

Riggs, Mrs. Augustus, IV: 2 plains Indian buckskin dresses. 

Rijksherbarium, Netherlands: 773 plant specimens (exchange). 

Rijkmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Netherlands (through Dr. C. O. van 
Regteren Altena) : 2 marine mollusks; (through Dr. Boesman and Dr. B. B. 
CoUette): 4 fishes; (through Dr. D. C. Geijskes): 37 stoneflies (exchange) ; 
(through Dr. W. Vervoort) : 84 copepods. 

Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, Netherlands: Botanisch Museum en Herbarium: 
60 botanical specimens (gift-exchanges); 24 plant specimens (exchange); 
(through Dr. E. A. Mennega) : 30 plant specimens (gift-exchange). 
Zoologisch Laboratorium (through Dr. H. A. ten Hove) : 15 polychaetes. 

Riley, Vane: chambersite specimen. 

Rimoli, Renato O.: 20 shrimp; 2 fishes. 

Ripley, Dr. S. Dillon: 60 water bugs; 3 mammals, Bhutan. 

Roberts, Dr. H. Radclyffe (see Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia). 

Roberts, Marvin L. (see Ohio State University). 

Roberts, Raymond: carved stone charm. New Hebrides. 

Robins, Dr. C. Richard (see Miami, University of). 

Robinson, Colleen J. (see Australia, Government of). 

Robinson, Dr. Eric (see University College London). 

Robinson, George: 13 mineral specimens. 

Robinson, Dr. Henry W. (see Southern State College). 

Rodgers, David: 6 mollusk specimens. 

Rodman, Duane (see American Samoa, Government of). 

Rodriguez-Carrasquero, Dr. Henry A. (see Universidad de los Andes). 

Appendix 11. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 461 

Roe, Dr. Arthur: I chabazite specimen; 1 lot cobaltite. 

Roe, Dr. Richard B. (see Commerce, U.S. Department of). 

Roebling Fund, Smithsonian Institution: 49 mineral specimens. 

Rogers, Dr. Ken (see Southern Mississippi, University of). 

RolHns, Dr. Reed C. (see Harvard University). 

Rose, WiHiam (see Hawaii, State of). 

Rosenberg, Rutger: 24 polychaete worms. 

Ross, Dr. Reuben J., Jr. (see Interior, U.S. Department of the). 

Rossetto, Dr. Carlos Jorge: 37 lace hugs. 

Rothstein, Joseph: 17 mineral specimens. 

Rowe, Dr. Gilbert T. (see Duke University and Texas A&M University). 

Rowell, Dr. A. J.: 15 brachiopods and 17 slides, Cambrian and Ordovician. 

Rozkosny, Dr. R. (see J. E. Purkyne University). 

Ruder Boskovic Institute, Yugoslavia (through Dr. Zdravko Stevcic) : 403 

Ruhoff, Theodore B. : 1 worm, 27 mollusks. 
Rush-Presbyterian St. Luke's Medical Center (through Dr. Frederick Dienhardt 

and Dr. Lauren G. Wolfe) : 27 mammal specimens. 
Rushin, Carol Jo: 30 Neuropteroids, British Honduras. 
Russell, K. M. (see National Aeronautics and Space Administration Fund). 
Ryan, Dr. J. D. (see Lehigh University). 
Rygg, Darwin: mineral specimen. 
Rzedowski, Dr. J. (see Instituto Politecnio Nacional). 
Saena R., Rodrigo: 3 plagioclase feldspar specimens, Costa Rica. 
Sahagian, Dr. Charles S. (see Defense, U.S. Department of). 
Sahlin, Carl F. : Araucanian Indian silver necklace, Chile. 
Sailer, Dr. Reece I. (see Agriculture, U.S. Department of). 
St. Lucia, W.I., Government of: Research and Control Department (through 

Guy Barnish): 20 crustaceans. 
Saint Mary's University, Canada (through Ursula M. Grigg) : I ostracod 

Sakimura, K.: 3 thrips. 

Salmons, Cathy (see North Carolina, University of). 
Saloman, Carl H. (see Commerce, U.S. Department of). 
Samuel, Mr. and Mrs. Craig R. : 6 fossil invertebrates, Devonian. 
Samuelson, G. A. (see Bernice P. Bishop Museum). 
Sanderson, Dr. Milton: 3 beetles. 
San Diego Society of Natural History (through Dr. George E. Radwin) : 

mollusk specimen, type. 
Sanson, Andrew (see Wiewandt, Thomas A.). 
Santa Barbara Botanic Garden: 68 plant specimens (exchange). 
Santos, Stuart L. : 234 polychaete worms. 
Saritas, Mustafa U. (see Ege University). 
Saul, John: 2 lots mineral specimens. 
Saul, Dr. Louella (through Dr. E. G. Kauffman) : 23 Cretaceous bivalves 

Saunders, Harold (see Interior, U.S. Department of the). 
Sawyer, Allan: 13 land and marine shells, Peru. 

Sawyer, Dr. Roy T.: 213 worms, 66 leeches and many cocoons, 2 crustaceans. 
Saxon, Dr. James G. (see Erskine College). 
Scalisi, I. Phillip: mooreite specimen. 
Schindler, John (see Defense, U.S. Department of). 
Schlepp, Gene: 2 mineral specimens, Mexico (exchange). 
Schlicter, Ernest: 68 mineral specimens. 
Schmidt, Terry E. : meteorite specimen (exchange). 

462 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Schneider, Dr. Curt R. : 122 Lepidoptera and Diptera, 12 Neuropteroids, 3 
Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, Thailand. 

Schodder, G. R. (see Philips Forschungslaboratorium Aachen Gmbh). 

Schoen, Ivan L. : 16 specimens of clothing and weapons, Surinam. 

Schubnel, Dr. Henri J. (see Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle). 

Schuh, Joe: 19 beetles. 

Schultes, Dr. Richard Evans (see Harvard University). 

Schuster, Dr. R. M.: 17 wasps. 

Schuster, Dr. R. O.: 8 beetles (see also California, University of). 

Scott, Dr. J. Douglas (see Queen's University). 

Sedman, Dr. Yale S.: 107 caddisflies. 

Seeligmann, Dr. Peter (see Argentina, Government of). 

Segeler, Curt G.: wermlandite specimen, Sweden. 

Segura Paguaga, Dr. Alfonso: 5 mineral specimens. 

Sessom, Dr. Stanley L. (see Southwest Texas State University). 

Setzer, Henry W.: striped skunk. 

Sevrens, Palmer: uralolite specimen. 

Sexauer, Howard T. : 7 mollusk specimens. 

Seymour, Dr. Charles (see Cornell University). 

Shaffner, Mrs. Marie L. : 2 ashtrays, Samoa; carved wood bookend, Haiti. 

Sharp, Dr. William N. (see Interior, U.S. Department of the). 

Sheen, Michael (through Arthur L. Dahl) : 1 lobster, Puerto Rico. 

Sheldon, R. P. (see Interior, U.S. Department of the). 

Shelley, Dr. Roland M. (see North Carolina, State of). 

Shrum, Louis: prehnite specimen. 

Shulenberger, Dr. Eric (see California, University of). 

Sieker, William E.: 28 hawk moths (exchange). 

Sikkim, Government of (see the Chogyal and Gyalmo of Sikkim). 

Simmons, Robert S. (see Harris, Herbert S., Jr.). 

Singapore, Government of: 107 plant specimens, Malaysia (exchange). 

Sisi, Dr. J. C. (see Ecole Polytechnique). 

Sisson, Robert (see National Geographic Society). 

Skog, Laurence E.: 144 plant specimens. 

Slattery, Dr. Peter N. (see Moss Landing Marine Laboratories). 

Small, Gordon B., Jr.: 1 butterfly, type. 

Smith, Dr. Albert C. (see Massachusetts, University of). 

Smith, David (through Dr. Gerald H. Johnson) : 2 fossil heavers. Pleistocene. 

Smith, Dr. David R.: 69 sawflies, India. 

Smith, Dr. Dean K. : genthelvite specimen, type (exchange). 

Smith, Dr. DeBoyd L. (see West Coast Plankton Studies). 

Smith, F. L. (see Ludlow, Smith, and Cann, Inc.). 

Smith, H. Morgan: spear and 4 basketry specimens, Panama; bow, arrows, 
and quiver, Philippine Islands. 

Smith, Joe B.: chryscolla specimen. 

Smithsonian Institution (see the following Funds: Bacon, Canfield, Casey, 
Chamberlain, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Roebling, 
Springer, and Walcott) : Collected for the Museum: 99 worms, Margarita 
Islands, Venezuela, Dr. Meredith L. Jones; 10 echinoderms. Central Pacific, 
Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Progam; 54 lots worms, 6 marine mollusks, 
34 crustaceans, 50 echinoderms, RV Aliminos cruise; 113 crustaceans, 
Canada; 39 dried reptile skeletons; 2 echinoderms, 4 crustaceans, 1 lot 
worms, Israel; 129 sipunculids, Yugoslavia; 1,809 crustaceans, 46 Coleoptera; 
9 lice slides, Liberia; 12 crustaceans, 10 worms, Argentina, O. L. Flint, Jr., 
and G. F. Hevel; 6 fishes, Tunisia; 49 reptiles and amphibians, Egypt; 13 
crustaceans, Thailand; 13 bird skins, 37 bird skeletons, Western Beaufort 

Appendix 11. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 463 

Sea Ecological Cruise Survey; 21 crustaceans, Senegal; 88 crustaceans, 
Bermuda; 6 crustaceans, 19 mollusks,. Indonesia; 654 fossil mammals, 
Oligocene, Wyoming; 50 echinoderms, Western Australia Museum; 7 plant 
specimens, Colombia; 7 mollusk shells, Alabama; 2 crustaceans, Mexico; 2 
samples lithium clay. North Carolina; 3 xenoliths, Arizona; 16 worms, 545 
crustaceans, 300 mollusks, Yugoslavia and Tunisia; 99 ostracods. Tertiary 
and Recent; 2,243 plant specimens, Brazil, Dr. Cert Hatschbach; 8,000 
silicified brachiopods, Thailand, R. E. Grant and F. G. Stehli; 1,933 plant 
specimens, Costa Rica, D. B. Lellinger and J. J. White; 26 bird skins, 29 
skeletons, 3 nests, 2 eggs, Brazil; 24 crustaceans, 265 mollusks, 11 worms, 27 
echinoderms, Turkey; 4 mollusks; 360 mineral specimens, Alaska; 25 
freshwater mollusks. New York; 34 marine mollusks; 29 mollusks, Caroline 
Islands; 1 marine mollusk, 1 echinoderm, 427 crustaceans, Yugoslavia; 
1,540 mollusks, 20 crustaceans; 16 mineral specimens, Iceland; 2 mineral 
specimens, Mexico; 35 bats, 4 rodents; 7 begonias, Ceylon, A. H. M. 
Jayasuriya; 4,232 crustaceans, RVs Vema, Atlantis II, and Anton Bruun; 2 
taafeite specimens, Australia; 1 lot augite crystals, Mt. Etna volcanic 
complex. Dr. R. F. Fudali; 6 echinoderms, Morocco; 100 corals, mollusks, 
and burrow structures, Crustaceous, Texas; 1 natrojarosite specimen, 
Australia; 330 crustaceans, Caspian Sea; 1,900 mollusks, American Samoa 
and Cook Islands; 26 foraminifera. North Atlantic; meteorite specimen, 
Australia; 8 potsherds, Brazil; 14 potsherds, Argentina; 700 Oligocene and 
6 Pliocene fossil vertebrates, Nebraska and Wyoming, Robert J. Emry; 80 
plant specimens, U.S.; 77 centipedes and millipedes. New York; 450 
archeological specimens, Nicaragua; 18 Cretaceous corals; painted altar slab, 
Arizona and 5 etched birchbark plaques, Maine, Dr. Jesse Walter Fewkes; 
362 Neutropteroids, 69 Coleoptera, Ohio; 10,493 Lepidoptera and Diptera, 
1,651 Coleoptera, 936 neuropteroids, 536 Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, 343 
Myriapoda and Arachnida, Dominican Republic and Jamaica; 2,347 
neuropteroids, Sri Lanka; collection of archeological objects, Florida; 147 
craft objects, Bhutan; 69 ethnological specimens, Angola; 4 felsic volcanic 
rock specimens, Wyoming; 85 bat flies, Venezuela; 6 oolitic limestone 
specimens, Australia; 15 neuropteroids, Yugoslavia. Ft. Pierce Bureau 
(through Dr. Robert M. Gore) : 106 crustaceans, Panama. Found in the 
Collections: 5 Near Eastern rugs; 195 mineral specimens; 1 peacock coal 
specimen. Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center: (through Mohamed Lajmi): 
6 crustaceans; (through Dr. Ernani G. Menez) : 785 crustaceans, Morocco. 
National Zoological Park: dwarf lemur, prairie dog; 25 bird skins and 
skeletons. Oceanographic Sorting Center: 4,781 Nematoda, Antarctica; 431 
sipunculids ; 3,824 echinoderms; 2 echinoderms, 2 lots nemertean worms; 
335 marine and land mollusks; British Honduras; 60 lots polychaetes; 
(through Dr. Richard S. Houbrick) : 10 crustaceans; (through Dr. Richard S. 
Houbrick and Henry A. Jones): 40 marine mollusks; (through Henry A. 
Jones): 1,746 crustaceans; (through Dr. Leslie W. Knapp) : 32 crustaceans, 
Thailand; (through Betty J. Landrum) : 220 marine mollusks; (through 
Dr. Ernani G. Menez): 32 crustaceans, Philippines; (through John Miller): 
6 ostracods; (through Mrs. L. W. Peterson): 5,859 crustaceans. Purchased: 
28 plant specimens; 227 Tibetan ethnological items; 140 Motilone Indian 
specimens, Venezuela; sculptured pottery owl. Renwick Gallery: glazed 
ceramic water jar, Nigeria. Tropical Research Institute (through Dr. Charles 
Birkeland); 17 crustaceans, Panama; (through Dr. Peter VV. Glynn): 77 
crustaceans, Panama; 200 crustaceans; (through James P. Stames) : 202 
crustaceans, Panama; (through Dr. Henk Wolda) : 7 plants, Colombia. 

Sohn, Dr. I. G. (see Interior, U.S. Department of the). 

Solomon, Mrs. Hermine K. (see Solomon, Mr. and Mrs. Richard A.). 

464 / Smithsonian Year 1974 

Solomon, Mr. and Mrs. Richard A.: I Pima Indian jar, in memory of Mrs. 

Hermine K. Solomon. 
South Australian Museum (through Dr. G. E. Gross): 1 Reduviidae (exchange); 

(through Dr. D. C. Lee) : 28 mite slides, including types. 
South Carolina, University of (through Dr. Bruce B. Coull) : 28 copepods. 
South Florida, University of (through Ernest D. Estevez) : 23 isopods; (through 

Dr. Olga Lakela) : 1 Xanthosoma; (through Dr. J. Lawrence): I Cirripedia; 

(through Robert W. Long) : 1 Pectis. 
Southeastern State College (through Dr. John Taylor) : 210 plant specimens, 

Mexico and Costa Rica (exchange). 
Southern California, University of: Allan Hancock Foundation (through 

Dr. John S. Garth) : 1 crustacean, type, Peru. 
Southern Illinois University (through Dr. Jamie E. Thomerson) : 4 fishes, types, 

Southern Mississippi, University of (through Dr. Ken Rogers) : 93 grass 

Southern State College (through Dr. Henry W. Robinson) : 25 fish specimens. 
Southwest Texas State University (through Dr. Stanley L. Sessom) : 74 

Spangler, Dr. Paul J.: 262 crustaceans, 9,928 beetles. 
Spaulding Fibre Co., Inc.: Mycalex Division (through E. C. Worden) : 

synthetic mica specimen. 
Spertini, Francesco: 20 mineral specimens (exchange). 
Springer Fund, Smithsonian Institution: slab containing specimens of a 

Middle Cambrian crinoid. 
Sprinkle, Dr. James (see Interior, U.S. Department of the). 
Staiger, Dr. Jon (see Miami, University of). 
Stames, James P. (see Smithsonian Institution). 

Stanford University (through Dr. J. Dearborn): 11 echinoderms, Antarctica. 
Stansbery, Dr. David H. : 6 freshwater mollusks (see also Ohio State 

Stark, William P.: 39 Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, 46 Coleoptera, 844 

Trichoptera; 21 stoneflies; 83 caddisflies. 
State, U.S. Department of: silver urn, Cambodia; dagger and sheath, Saudi 

Arabia; (through Dr. Kyle R. Barbehenn) : 673 mammal specimens. 
Station de Recherches de Zoologie, Guadeloupe (through Dr. Ch. Leveque) : 

60 crustaceans. West Indies. 
Stearns, Dr. Richard E. (see Stearns, Mrs. Richard E.). 
Stearns, Mrs. Richard E. : 600 stone and pottery artifacts, in memory of 

Dr. Richard E. Stearns. 
Steffan, Dr. Wallace B. (see Bernice P. Bishop Museum). 
Stein, David (see Oregon State University). 
Stein, Jack: 4 beetles. 

Steinhouser, Dr. S. R. : 6 plant specimens. El Salvador. 
Stephens, J. D.: 15 mineral specimens. 
Stephens, Dr. John, Jr. : fish specimen, Chile. 
Stevcic, Dr. Zdravko (see Ruder Boskovic Institute). 
Stewart, Dr. Kenneth W.: 23 stoneflies. 
Steyermark, Dr. Julian (see Venezuela, Government of). 
Steyskal, George C: 707 marsh flies. 
Stirn, Dr. Jose (see Marine Biological Station). 
Stock, Dr. Jan H. (see Caribbean Marine Biological Institute). 
Stockton, William L. : 9 marine mollusks, Antarctica. 
Stone, Dr. Benjamin C. (see Malaya, University of). 
Stone, Dr. Margaret H. (see Cornell University). 

Appendix 11. Donors to Smi