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Smithsonian Year - 1976 

Dramatic Bicentennial display of fireworks on the Mall, July 4, 1976. 

Smithsonian Year • 1976 




JULY 1, 1975, THROUGH 

SEPTEMBER 30, 1976 

Smithsonian Institution Press • City of Washington • 1977 

Smithsonian Publication 6399 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 67-7980 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington, D.C., 20402 — Price $6.80 (paper cover) 

Stock Number: 047-000-00345-8 

Smithsonian Year • 1976 


The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 1846 
in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson of Eng- 
land, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of 
America "to found at Washington, under the name of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion 
of knowledge among men." After receiving the property and ac- 
cepting the trust, Congress incorporated the Institution in an "estab- 
lishment," whose statutory members are the President, the Vice 
President, the Chief Justice, and the heads of the executive depart- 
ments, and vested responsibility for administering the trust in the 
Smithsonian Board of Regents. 


Gerald R. Ford, President of the United States 

Nelson A. Rockefeller, Vice President of the United States 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States 

Henry A. Kissinger, Secretary of State 

William E. Simon, Secretary of Treasury 

Donald H. Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense 

Edward H. Levi, Attorney General 

Thomas S. Kleppe, Secretary of Interior 

Earl L. Butz, Secretary of Agriculture 

Elliot H. Richardson, Secretary of Commerce 

W. J. Usery, Secretary of Labor 

F. David Matthews, Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare 

Carla A. Hills, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 

William T. Coleman, Jr., Secretary of Transportation 

Board of Regents and Secretary • September 30, 1976 


Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, Chancellor 

Nelson A. Rockefeller, Vice President of the United States 

Frank E. Moss, Member of the Senate 

Henry M. Jackson, Member of the Senate 

Hugh Scott, Member of the Senate 

George H. Mahon, Member of the House of Representatives 

Elford A. Cederberg, Member of the House of Representatives 

Sidney R. Yates, Member of the House of Representatives 

John Paul Austin, citizen of Georgia 

John Nicholas Brown, citizen of Rhode Island 

William A. M. Burden, citizen of New York 

Murray Gell-Mann, citizen of California 

Robert F. Goheen, citizen of New Jersey 

Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of Washington, D.C. 

A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., citizen of Pennsylvania 

Thomas J. Watson, Jr., citizen of Connecticut 

James E. Webb, citizen of Washington, D.C. 


Warren E. Burger, Chancellor (Board of Regents) 

William A. M. Burden 

Caryl P. Haskins 

James E. Webb (Chairman) 


S. Dillon Ripley 



David Challinor, Assistant Secretary for Science 
Charles Blitzer, Assistant Secretary for History and Art 
Paul N. Perrot, Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs 
Julian T. Euell, Assistant Secretary for Public Service 
John F. Jameson, Assistant Secretary for Administration 
T. Ames Wheeler 
Peter G. Powers 
Richard L. Ault, Director 


Smithsonian Year • 1976 






66 Center for the Study of Man 

72 Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 

79 Fort Pierce Bureau 

81 National Air and Space Museum 

97 National Museum of Natural History 

121 National Zoological Park 

131 Office of International Programs 

132 Radiation Biology Laboratory 

142 Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

159 Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, Inc. 

161 Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 


170 Archives of American Art 

173 Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design 

175 Freer Gallery of Art 

178 Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

186 Joseph Henry Papers 

187 National Collection of Fine Arts 

193 National Museum of History and Technology 

207 National Portrait Gallery 

211 Office of Academic Studies 

214 Office of American Studies 


223 Conservation- Analytical Laboratory 

225 National Museum Act Program 


228 Office of Exhibits Central 

229 Office of Horticulture 

233 Office of Museum Programs 

235 Office of the Registrar 

236 Smithsonian Institution Archives 

237 Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

240 Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 


248 Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

250 Division of Performing Arts 

254 International Exchange Service 

255 Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 
257 Office of Public Affairs 

259 Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars 

260 Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. 

261 Smithsonian Associates 

269 Smithsonian Institution Press 

271 Smithsonian Magazine 







Smithsonian Year • 1976 


The Smithsonian's new Victorian Garden. 

The Attic Refurbished 


This is the year of the Bicentennial, and this Institution can take 
pride in its accomplishments after nearly ten years of preparation. 
It is a year in which a new Smithsonian museum, newly opened on 
July 1, 1976, the National Air and Space Museum, played host to 
two million visitors in its first forty-nine days of existence, surely a 
record of some kind. It is a year in which we successfully looked 
backwards to a hundred years ago, with the opening of "1876: A 
Centennial Exhibition," a simulacrum of the great Philadelphia 
Centennial Exposition, using the same materials, and displaying 
them in the building on the Mall originally built to house the forty- 
two carloads of material given to the Smithsonian at the time the 
Philadelphia exposition closed. After a year and a half of the most 
painstaking restoration and refurbishing, that exhibit opened on 
May 10, 1976, one hundred years to the day from the opening in 
Fairmount Park, complete with carriages, prayers, the Hallelujah 
Chorus, release of pigeons, and the John Philip Sousa music com- 
posed for the occasion. Each of these great exhibits, the one cele- 
brating the achievements of America's first hundred years, the other 
celebrating the triumphs of American technology of our second hun- 
dred years, creates an atmosphere of excitement, of sheer pleasure, 
and of enthusiasm which is contagious. 

Nor were these all. The rest of the Smithsonian celebrated alike, 
each museum or bureau with a triumphant series of exhibitions, the 
best Festival of American Folklife ever, and a marvelous array of 
traveling exhibits, portfolios, courses, lectures, and visiting smaller 
exhibits of exquisite beauty and rarity. Truly the Bicentennial year 
has been a triumph for collections, the justification of all that has 

gone before. These magnificent exhibitions remind us of our na- 
tional esprit, and of our special human qualities — innate curiosity 
combined with memory, and the insatiable will to discover. 

And the people came. Several years ago we predicted that there 
would be a vast turnout of visitors during the Bicentennial summer. 
Perhaps the expectations of the business bureaux were overly 
aroused, for the final city figures and those of hotels, motels, and so 
on, have been lower than expected this spring, right up and down 
the East Coast. But the Smithsonian visitation, after a rather slow 
start, has been picking up steadily since the glorious Fourth, and 
indeed that last week of July and the first week of August, for ex- 
ample, our visitors were up a full 20 percent over the year before. 
We are conducting a study to determine who they are, and why 
and where they are staying. In any case, it appears likely that 
earlier news reports of light visits to Washington in the spring pro- 
duced more tourists later, as well as a different manner of coming, 
hard for the business or other count-takers to assess; namely, the 
use of campers, trailers, or backpacks by many people who may just 
come by for a day, and camp out of town somewhere at night, even 
bringing their own food. The National Park Service seems to agree 
with us that visiting was heavy, but the manner of visits has 

But the visitors have written in; witness this visitor from South 

"Dear Sirs, 

I must take this opportunity to say 'Thank you' for your 
part in making this a wonderful vacation to your city. 

People like you, proved all the 'wild tales' I'd been told 
were false. 

The week I spent in Washington, 'The days at the Smith- 
sonian' will be a memory I'll cherish. 

I hope to return in the near future. 
God Bless — 


Certainly this Institution is proud to be part of Washington, and 
proud too to have the great collections which make us the "Magnet 
on the Mall." The collections are as much a part of the Smithsonian 
as any other. In the original Act of Congress of 1846 occur the 

4 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

words: "All objects of art and of foreign and curious research, and 
all objects of natural history, plants, and geological and mineralogi- 
cal specimens belonging, or hereafter to belong, to the United States 
. . . shall be delivered . . . and shall be arranged in such order, and 
so classed, as best to facilitate the examination and study of them, 
in the building ... for the Institution." By 1857, it had been defi- 
nitely settled that Congress would make the necessary appropria- 
tions for the museum's maintenance. As Paul Oehser in his book 1 
on the Smithsonian has written, and as the early Annual Reports of 
the Institution amply demonstrate, Joseph Henry, the first Secretary, 
". . . would rather have seen the museum separate from the Smith- 
sonian. He did not relish the idea of having to depend on annual 
Government appropriation for Smithsonian activities. It would, he 
thought, 'annually bring the Institution before Congress as a sup- 
plicant for government patronage, and ultimately subject it to politi- 
cal influence and control.' He wanted the Institution to 'mingle its 
operations as little as possible with those of the general govern- 
ment. . . .' " But that was not to be, for under the original Act as 
quoted above, the Smithsonian was specifically charged with the 
museum collections function, and so by 1858 an appropriation of 
$4,000 was made for the arrangement and care of the national col- 
lections, and appropriations in increasing amounts, as the collections 
and the visitation (and inflation) have increased, have continued 
ever since. 

By 1877, it was obvious — the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition 
(in which the Smithsonian had played a leading part in arranging 
the Government exhibitions) having resulted in a shower of gifts to 
the Institution — that additional space must be secured. This was the 
genesis of the Institution's second building, the Arts and Industries 
Building, so-called, which we reopened in Centennial style. As the 
Regents of the time proposed to the Senate, it would be necessary 
for the nation to pay for the maintenance, care, and upkeep of these 
national collections. So Senator Hiester Clymer averred, introducing 
the bill for the appropriation of construction funds for the new 
building: "It may not be disputed that the acceptance of them (the 
gifts) by the Government imposes an obligation that they shall be 

1 Sons of Science, page 67 (New York, N.Y. : H. Schuman, 1949). 

Statement by the Secretary I 5 

preserved and exhibited for the gratification and instruction of the 
people. . . ." 

Public instruction has been the cornerstone of the policy of every 
generation of Regents and Secretary alike in this Institution. For the 
purposes of public instruction, the need for continuing federal sup- 
port is clear, whether the means adopted be exhibits, traveling ex- 
hibits, publications ranging from guidebooks to encyclopedias of 
knowledge, or kindred forms of diffusion. 

Similar sentiments were expressed in Congress, and by President 
Theodore Roosevelt in 1905, when Charles Lang Freer indicated that 
he would give his collections and funds for a building to be part of 
the national heritage. Roosevelt writing to the Board of Regents 
urged the gift upon them: 

"All that is asked of the government or the Regents of the 
Smithsonian now is that they shall accept this magnificently 
generous offer. . . . Congress will have to take some steps to 
provide the comparatively small sum necessary to take care of 
what will be a national asset. ... I hope the Regents will feel 
warrented [sic] to close with the offer; for they are the na- 
tional guardians of such a collection." 

Congress in subsequent years has often reaffirmed this principle, 
as in the Act of May 17, 1938, describing the purposes of the Na- 
tional Collection of Fine Arts. 

" . . . (a) It shall be the policy of the Regents to maintain a 
worthy standard for the acceptance of art objects for exhibition 
in the Gallery . . . and the Regents are hereby authorized to 
solicit and receive private donations of works of art and con- 
tributions of funds from private sources for the purchase of 
works of art. . . . 

". . . (b) In order to encourage the development of con- 
temporary art and effect the widest distribution and cultivation 
in matters of such art, the Regents are hereby authorized to 
solicit and receive funds from private sources, to acquire (by 
purchase or otherwise) and sell contemporary works of art or 
copies thereof, to employ . . . artists. . . ." 

Statements such as these continue over the years: in 1946 (estab- 
lishment of the National Air Museum, Public Law 722); in 1962 

6 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

(establishment of the National Portrait Gallery, Public Law 443); 
and all echo the words of Joseph Henry when in 1855 he stated: 
"The principal aim, therefore, in taking charge of all the specimens 
(of every kind) is not to swell the Smithsonian collection, but to pre- 
serve them from destruction, and to render them immediately avail- 
able," (and here he writes of everything from natural history speci- 
mens to "a valuable collection of engravings by the first masters" 
[italics mine] — who were they, I wonder, for these were presumably 
lost in the fire ten years later?). And Henry goes on, ". . . with the 
hope that Congress will, at some future day, make a liberal appro- 
priation to support a national collection." 

And so it has proved, for Congress has indeed taken the Smith- 
sonian most seriously, as a special trust responsibility to which it 
pledged "the faith of the United States" in 1836, and has been 
generous in its stated purposes to improve and protect the national 

Congress now appropriates about one hundred million dollars a 
year to maintain collections, to provide for their study and display, 
and to support other operations of the Institution. A much appre- 
ciated and generous figure indeed, but one which deserves a brief 
assessment. It is my suspicion that the collections of scientific mate- 
rials, art objects, books, and historical materials amassed by the 
Institution over the years, while obviously priceless to the nation in 
general terms, could be valued to surpass Mr. Smithson's original 
seed money of somewhat over $500,000 by a factor of at least ten 
thousand, or something between five and six billion dollars. If the 
annual interest on such a vast sum were to be reckoned as the appro- 
priate amount to be made available for collections maintenance and 
operations, it would be seen that our current levels of funds repre- 
sent about a third of what could prudently be spent without exceed- 
ing our income. 

In this connection it has always been hoped that a "liberal dis- 
tribution of the duplicate specimens should be made to societies and 
other establishments in this country and abroad" (quoting Henry's 
Ninth Annual Report, page 25, 1855). Although Secretary Spencer 
Baird, who followed Henry, attempted to furnish materials to a 
number of early scientific societies in this country, the later de- 
velopment of scientific methods requiring series of duplicate speci- 
mens for certain studies somewhat cramped the fulfillment of this 

Statement by the Secretary I 7 

ideal concept. As a result, the Smithsonian has never been able 
freely to open up its "riches" and lavishly distribute duplicates to 
kindred museums. Sensible exchanges, trade-offs, and deposits, par- 
ticularly in the scientific fields, but also in the art field are sometimes 
made, but always with committee or commission approvals, and 
sometimes with specific scrutiny by the Regents according to a set 
of rules adopted by the Board. 

It has always seemed sad that objects of great importance or ex- 
hibit potential were not more plentiful, for every year the Institution 
is petitioned to start a satellite museum here or there in the country 
at large. But there are simply not enough objects of exhibit quality 
to go round to develop a collection of subsidiary museums. That is 
partly why the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 
has come into its own, as a source of surrogate exhibitions which can 
be shared across the fifty States, and enjoyed by additional millions 
of viewers. And this Bicentennial year has been a notable one for 
our Service, with 200 exhibitions traveling to forty-eight States. 
Dennis Gould, our Director, deserves great credit for his persistence, 
and the ability of his organization to deliver on time. We estimate 
that these exhibitions alone have been seen by over eight million 
people in this past year. 

Even so, the collections continue to mount in number, and de- 
mands for space proliferate. As I wrote in last year's annual report, 
Smithsonian Year 1975, "museum keepers know that the supply of 
objects, whether made by man, or great natural objects such as 
whales or pandas, are finite in number and will inevitably run out 
in due course." We continue to be offered many things, and even 
with a discriminating eye, there are certain things which we must 
legitimately accept. We can turn things down, as I reported last 
year, or we can redirect them to places which seem more appropri- 
ate, especially, for example, objects of preeminent state interest 
which should go to state institutions. But there are always objects 
which fit in, or which fill an important gap, and these we continue 
to receive, fulfilling our basic responsibility. 

Last year I wrote that one of the things that we would dearly 
love to secure for our collection of transportation was a donkey 
engine, as its absence was a serious gap in our history of railroad 
evolution. Such a miniature, narrow-gauge creature is of considera- 
ble rarity in this day and age. Having heard that these little gems 

8 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

can still sometimes be found rusting away in some southern pine- 
land lumber yard, I prayed — "Oh Georgia-Pacific, Oh Weyer- 
haeuser, where is thy benison? Where in some neglected forest 
glade lies maundering that rusting hulk?" 

But romantic prayers fell on deaf ears, and nary a peep or chirrup 
of recognition came from the busy giants of the lumber industry. It 
is no wonder, for all the great timber companies of the world today 
seem to be intent on besting their competitors in cutting down the 
tropical forests of the world. I am told by the New York Botanical 
Garden that these tropical forests, either through lumbering or 
burning off, are being cut at the rate of 49.2 acres a minute, day in, 
day out, over 22 million acres per year. 

Rather, an answer to prayer has come from a Mr. Gerald M. Best 
of Beverly Hills, California, who all these years has preserved and 
lavished attention on "olomana," a donkey engine from the Island 
of Maui in Hawaii. Mr. Best has promised that he and his wife will 
give us "olomana," and so the final jewel has been placed in the 
diadem of the Museum of History and Technology's Department of 
Transportation, "olomana" will take her rightful place beside the 
great Southern locomotive, No. 1401, and the San Francisco Cable 
Car, and "pioneer," our oldest horseless, belching monster of the 
rails. It will be interesting to see if our curators can reconstruct the 
voice of "olomana," on tape, to ring out every so often, and amaze 
the children of all ages who throng the Hall of Transportation, and 
are so enraptured by the thunderous song of the Southern locomo- 
tive. That one has a wonderful taped voice including the word 
"bo — ard" among the roars, the pants, and puffs of the start-up, 
the shattering passage down the track, and the final mournful 
whistle echoing over the distant prairie at the end. 

And yet all these objects take care and conservation, whether 
books, or paintings, or early transportation. Our paramount need is 
still a museum's support center, in nearby Maryland, on land al- 
ready in public ownership, which will give us the conservation, 
storage, and work areas that make collections come to life, and keep 
the Smithsonian where it should be in the vanguard of preservation, 
retrieval, and conservation. Without this facility, and without an 
appropriate library for our History of Science collections, the nag- 
ging dilemma will continue, the reception of collections with inade- 
quate facilities to house them and the gradual deterioration as a 

Statement by the Secretary I 9 

result, or the rejection of needed materials — to moulder and lie 
a-rusting somewhere else. 

But what we have done this past year has been a triumph. The 
quality and style of exhibitions all over Washington have been an 
appropriate tribute to the Bicentennial, and have indeed made this 
city a focal point in a way nothing else could have so illumined the 
event. For perhaps obvious reasons there are common purposes to 
be discerned in the assembling of exhibitions either in science, his- 
tory, or art, which have to do with the celebration of a Bicentennial. 
As mentioned earlier, two exhibitions have, it seems to me, a com- 
mon theme. One is the creation of the great Air and Space Museum 
with its extraordinary exhibit of fact, which in truth outdoes fiction. 
The design and the settings in which man's conquest of air and space 
is depicted are almost as handsome and as symbolically diverse and 
sophisticated as the creation of the objects themselves. They are 
highly appropriate. The history of air and space involves technologi- 
cal design and inventiveness of the first order. The objects are dis- 
played in the awareness of these technologies and the results are 
meet and right. The building is in perfect scale, and the effect is not 
unlike a novel art museum, in which objects and display suit each 
other perfectly. This then is the epitome of the last eighty years, 
and of much of which the United States can be justly proud. 

The "1876" exhibition similarly tells us what we were most proud 
of one hundred years ago. It is the history of the development of 
the United States as we conceived it at that time. Our pride was in 
the possibility of the mastery of the Continent. The horrible Civil 
War was behind us. Now we should turn our minds to the real 
priorities, to the unification of the Continent from "sea to shining 
sea." Thus "1876" represents a kind of microcosm of the previous 
hundred years, and a sense of where we thought the priorities lay. 

Another theme which seems to run through the exhibitions has 
had to do with the discovery of the Continent by foreigners and 
their impressions of the setting or the new-found objects or peoples. 
Thus at the National Gallery of Art there was a superb and fasci- 
nating exhibition, "The European Vision of America," organized by 
Hugh Honour. Here one could delight by reflection in the marvels, 
some of them fanciful, of the new worlds across the seas, as seen 
by artists and naturalist draftsmen. In the same vein, but in a 
slightly different context, the National Portrait Gallery has mounted 

10 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

a triumph in representation of what the eighteenth- and nine- 
teenth-century travelers from abroad saw and thought about us all 
then. As John Russell said in the New York Times- "Nothing in 
American museum life is quite like the exhibitions at the National 
Portrait Gallery. . . . They are about people . . . brought alive by 
paintings, photographs, objects and letters which document what 
they said, what they did, and what they saw. . . . What we experi- 
ence at the National Portrait Gallery is resuscitation in depth." It is 
a great show, and it does a great deal to tell one what America 
seemed like, truly or not, in foreign eyes. And as we all know we 
Americans are always immensely curious to know what others think 
of us. 

A third theme might be described as what America has done to 
people, the people who came, and how they reacted. The Hirshhorn 
Museum has a fascinating exhibition, "The Golden Door," which 
surveys the immigrant artists who came to America, and what 
they then proceeded to do in the Land of Opportunity, and how it 
managed, often subtly, to affect their style and their transition into 
a new consciousness in the New World. A monumental exhibit at 
the Museum of History and Technology called, "A Nation of 
Nations" tells us about immigrants in general to this country, who 
came, and when, where from, and where they went, east and west, 
north and south. In the process we can see how ethnic roots have 
been preserved, and at the same time how the land and the setting 
have inevitably moulded customs and traditions. Styles of making 
things changed from region to region, even though the roots of 
the styles, or the utility of the objects, were held in common. Finally 
the homogenization of the late twentieth century is shown in glaring 
detail, but still with ethnic variety, e.g., McDonald's signs in 

A third exhibit within this theme has been the major Bicentennial 
exhibition at the National Collection of Fine Arts, "America as Art." 
Here is a sensitive interpretation of the evolution of indigenous art 
in America, what the country did to the eye of the artist — as a 
symbol — as a theater for the evolution of local character in oppo- 
sition to European values. Here, landscape became a romantic no- 
tion, evoking moral values and an approach toward understanding 

2 July 11, 1976. 

Statement by the Secretary I 11 

philosophic truths in nature. In a later state there is shown the 
paradox of sympathy for the noble savage in an idealized sense 
coupled with the frenzied exaltation of frontier conquest. Still later 
comes urbanism, the masses, the new realism, accompanied by the 
growth of a new liberalism, provoked perhaps by the vestiges of 
transcendentalism and moral superiority. At the end there is some- 
thing of the current struggle of artists to decide how to break away 
from homogenization, to develop an identity out of uniformity. 

A variant on this theme could be described as what people have 
done to America, and here the National Museum of Natural History 
has presented an ecological succession exhibition which graphically 
depicts changes in the environment of Washington, D. C, taken at 
a point where Rock Creek debouches on the Potomac River. Be- 
ginning some 10,000 years ago when the forest was primeval in- 
deed, with tree boles of sycamores and other hardwoods as large as 
sequoias, down through the first cultivation by native Americans to 
the present parklike setting with benches, litter, rats, and sparrows, 
it is all there, a panorama of change pointing to a wholly uncertain 

Other museum exhibits have been historic moments in time, de- 
picting a stage in some cultural succession, or a glorious moment 
perceived and now lost. Thus, the Freer Gallery of Art chose to 
represent something of where culture or stages in life, as depicted in 
painting, stood in Asia in 1775. All over the world the late eight- 
eenth century had life and vigor and style, and so it was in India, 
China, and Japan. The exhibit is exquisite in its selection and re- 
fined in taste. If there are intimations of revolution there, they 
escaped me. 

An exhibition, celebrating a moment perceived and lost, has been 
"The Eye of Thomas Jefferson" at the National Gallery of Art. 
Romantic to the hilt, the objects brought together represent all the 
varied influences of the art and culture of Europe, a kind of im- 
pressionistic grand tour, which might have influenced Jefferson as 
a man for all seasons, architect, philosopher, aesthetic interpreter 
of life itself, and yet somehow a man of action, a superb politician, 
whose pen was mightier than many a sword. The exhibition was 
a glorious assemblage of objects of the time, a depiction of the sur- 
roundings of an enigma, an aristocrat and an elitist who could be a 
violent revolutionary in a time when revolutionaries tolerated gen- 

12 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

tlemen and aesthetes among their company. How is it possible? It 
is too romantic for today. The moment has been lost in the stirring 
swirl of history, and we can view such diversity of style and char- 
acter with pure nostalgia, convinced that we will not see such 
times, or such heroes again. 

Then there have been small special exhibitions sent from abroad 
to honor the Bicentennial. One of them reached the Museum of His- 
tory and Technology. It was an exhibit sent over especially to mark 
the visit of the Spanish King and Queen, but one which had taken 
years to plan, an exhibit about Columbus and with the artifacts con- 
nected with his voyages. There was the great Juan de la Cosa Map 
of 1500, never before seen outside of Spain, painted on a sheepskin 
as a guide to travelers to the new hemisphere, with symbolic repre- 
sentations of travel, such as the Three Kings journeying to pay 
homage to the Christ Child. There was Columbus's copy of Marco 
Polo's travels, appropriate reference reading for someone searching 
for the Indies. There were Columbus's meditations in jail when the 
Bible became his support and comforter. There were documents, 
paintings, tapestry, and artifacts which made this a treasure trove 
to view, and transported the imagination back nearly five hundred 
years. Yes, nearly five hundred years; what will there be to com- 
memorate in 1992? 

A particularly precious exhibition was loaned to the Smithsonian, 
and to the Los Angeles County Museum by Her Majesty Queen 
Elizabeth II of Great Britain. This was a collection of anatomical 
drawings by Leonardo da Vinci from the Library at Windsor Castle. 
These drawings, with Leonardo's enigmatic script notations, are so 
far ahead of their time (as witness contemporary anatomical draw- 
ings) that they excite wonder, admiration, and awe. Visiting 
scholars and students came from all over the Eastern States to see 
the exhibit, taking advantage of a very rare opportunity. 

Additionally, for the visit of the Queen herself, we had the stylish 
exhibition of the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths and Silver- 
smiths of gold and silver plate of all periods. This was in the original 
Smithsonian building, the "Castle," where Her Majesty was greeted 
by the Chancellor and Regents, shown the tomb of James Smithson, 
and presented with a Joint Resolution of the Congress of the United 
States commemorating what is perhaps the largest philanthropic gift 
ever made to one nation by a citizen of another, the bequest of 

Statement by the Secretary I 13 

James Smithson. Thus the Congress was right to commemorate the 
event in this way, and it would seem as if Her Majesty, in this year 
of revolutions, should be pleased to think of what a Britisher had 
done for the United States, and what the results in subsequent 
years have been. 

To measure all of the results of Mr. Smithson's bequest would 
be an impossible task, I feel. We can only suspect that nothing quite 
like the present Institution could have been foreseen, or even 
planned a hundred and forty years ago, when the Act of acceptance 
was finally passed and signed into law. No comparable set of cir- 
cumstances has existed in any other country. One of the joys of 
the creation of the Smithsonian has been that it inaugurated a 
vehicle by which the nation might be given things, and a way in 
which they might be accepted. Over the years the magnitude of the 
gifts — Smithson, Hodgkins, Sprague, Freer, Gallatly, the Walcotts, 
the Barneys, Dibner, Roebling, Mellon, Vetlesen, Winston, Link, 
Forrest, Bruce, the Ramseys, Reeves, Lilly, Becker, Johnson, Hirsh- 
horn, and Post — more than justifies the funds from various sources 
spent annually to keep them up. We must take all possible steps 
necessary to assure that what we now possess is well cared for and 
thoroughly catalogued, or else fail in our trust to the donors. We 
would otherwise fail in our responsibility to the Executive and to 
the Congress, and thus imperil the very mandate of 1846, that "all 
objects of art and of foreign and curious research, and all objects of 
natural history," etc. . . . "shall be arranged in such order and 
so classed, as best to facilitate . . . the study of them ... in the 
building . . . for the Institution." This is a charge which we are 
solemnly obligated to carry out with the help of the Congress, God 

And we must keep "The Nation's Attic" (as it is suspected 
Bernard de Voto first called us) in proper order so as to keep safely 
our stake in the future as well as the past. Let no one call the Smith- 
sonian derelict in pointing out the urgent necessity of preserving the 
testament of the past in order to assure our future. For, as has been 
said before, history gives us ample reminders of the probable way 
of the future. If the Bicentennial has reminded us of anything, it 
has brought home to the Smithsonian the interest of our citizens in 
being reminded of the past, and the kindred interest in knowing 
more of the root stock from which we are all sprung. As I had 

14 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

predicted, July Fourth was celebrated with a big bang, but there 
was more to it than that, more to it than the thrilling nostalgia of 
the Tall Ships. There was indeed a sense of rededication and newly 
reborn pride in being an American, after what now seem numbing 
years of uncertainty and denigration. Can we discern something? 
Through the smog of oral and visual logomania which surrounds 
us, can we perceive a new will, a new desire for humanity, for 
honesty and tolerance? If we can, then indeed our Bicentennial 
will have been worthwhile. 

This past year has brought sadness to the Smithsonian in the un- 
timely death of Under .Secretary Robert A. Brooks, scholar, poet, 
and expert administrator, whom we shall long mourn. Mr. Brooks 
had been with the Institution a scant five years, but had already 
endeared himself to his colleagues with his fair-minded outlook and 
good humor. Less than a year after joining the staff, we have also 
lost our Coordinator of Membership and Development, Lawrence E. 
Layborne, a valued new addition indeed. We shall miss his style 
and gentle spirit. 

Another loss has been the nation's gain, for this year Professor 
Daniel J. Boorstin, Senior Historian, National Museum of History 
and Technology, has left us to become the nation's twelfth Librarian 
of Congress. The appointment is particularly welcome to the Smith- 
sonian, symbolizing as it does the traditional partnership in schol- 
arly exchange and book collection that has illuminated the entire 
history of our two institutions. 

As Assistant Secretary for Administration, John F. Jameson, a 
relative veteran of the Smithsonian in spite of his years, has been 
appointed to assist me in integration of the management functions 
of the Secretary's office. As Chief Budget Officer of the Institution, 
he has developed a particular view of the whole operation which is 

Dr. Kevin Sullivan has been appointed Director of the Chesa- 
peake Bay Center for Environmental Studies after serving for five 
years on that staff. He succeeds Dr. Francis S. L. Williamson, who 
decided to resign after a year's leave of absence in order to continue 
as Commissioner of Public Health and Social Services for the State 
of Alaska. 

Statement by the Secretary I 15 

Mr. Edward F. Rivinus has been appointed Acting Director of the 
Smithsonian Press after coming to the Smithsonian from the United 
States Foreign Service and serving for a time in the area of Public 

To head Smithsonian employee health programs, Dr. Edward 
Belton has been appointed as Chief Medical Officer. Professor 
Herbert Gursky has been appointed Associate Director of the Center 
for Astrophysics (Optical and Infrared Division), Smithsonian As- 
trophysical Observatory. Among our affiliates, Miss Ruth Graves 
has taken the position of Director of Reading Is Fundamental, and 
Messrs. Donald Elliott and Harold Leuba have become Vice Presi- 
dents of the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange. Mr. George 
Packard has become Deputy Director of the Woodrow Wilson Cen- 
ter for Scholars to replace Professor Prosser Gifford, who has re- 
turned to Amherst College as Dean after a year's leave of absence. 

Retirements this year included Dr. Waldo Wedel, Senior Anthro- 
pologist and distinguished authority on Indian archeology, from the 
staff of the National Museum of Natural History, and Dr. Helmut 
K. Buechner as Biologist from the National Zoo. Sadly, Dr. Buech- 
ner has recently died after a long illness. His ecological research 
studies, particularly of ungulates in East Africa, are classics in 
their field. 

Finally to all those unsung heroes and heroines of the Smith- 
sonian staff who kept the wheels rolling, and who performed un- 
stintingly and with unfailing politeness to keep this Institution's 
Bicentennial observance on a plane above any single other equiva- 
lent ceremonies that I know of, may I say how grateful America 
must and should be to you all ! 

16 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Board of Regents 

The board of regents met in fiscal year 1976 in the autumn, winter, 
and spring, as is customary. At the autumn meeting on Septem- 
ber 30, 1975, it was attested that Dr. John Nicholas Brown and 
Thomas J. Watson, Jr., had been reappointed as Citizen Regents. 
The Secretary reviewed the financial report of the Smithsonian and 
described the present schedule of the Bicentennial programs. Of par- 
ticular significance was the report that the National Air and Space 
Museum would be completed on time and that the costs for con- 
struction would be under the original estimate. 

Progress was also reported on the joint sponsorship by Wells 
Fargo and Company and the Smithsonian of the Bicentennial Essay 
Contest authorized by the Regents which would serve to focus at- 
tention on the more positive and exciting prospects that face our 
country in its third century. Nine distinguished Americans agreed 
to serve as national judges to vote on submissions made by various 
categories of contestants on the subject "Toward Our Third 

Two recent legislative actions were noted. The first reserves for 
Smithsonian use in the future the last remaining site on the Mall, 
located between Third and Fourth Streets and Independence Ave- 
nue and Jefferson Drive. The second measure authorizes the prepa- 
ration of plans for museum support facilities for the care, curation, 
conservation, deposit, preparation, and study of the national collec- 
tions of scientific, historic, and artistic objects, specimens, and 
artifacts; for related documentation of such collections of the 
Smithsonian; and for the training of museum conservators. 

The first anniversary of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden was celebrated after the Regents' meeting at the Museum. 
The Museum has a visitor attendance of 1.8 million in the year. 

The winter meeting of the Board of Regents was held on Janu- 
ary 22, 1976. Special recognition was given to Mr. James E. Webb 
as an outstanding Regent and Chairman of the Executive Commit- 
tee. The financial report of the Institution was summarized by the 

Statement by the Secretary I 17 

Secretary for the Board, and a full discussion of the finances of the 
Institution will be found in this report. 

The Board of Regents determined that the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion is financially unable to operate Hillwood as a nonprofit museum 
under the terms specified in the Agreement between the Institution 
and Mrs. Marjorie Merriweather Post and therefore directed, in 
accordance with the provisions of Mrs. Post's will, that title to Hill- 
wood pass to the Marjorie Merriweather Post Foundation of D.C. 
on July 1, 1976. 

In commemoration of the nation's Bicentennial, the Regents voted 
to award a number of medals to the following recipients for dis- 
tinguished achievement in areas of Institutional interest : The Smith- 
sonian Medal to Nancy Hanks, the Langley Medal to Grover 
Loening and James E. Webb, the Henry Medal to Dr. Martin H. 
Moynihan and Dr. T. Dale Stewart, the Matthew Fontaine Maury 
Medal to Dr. Robert M. White, and the Hodgkins Medal to Dr. 
E. Cuyler Hammond. 

The designation of the "Doris and Henry Dreyfus Memorial 
Study Center" in the Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts 
and Design was approved in recognition of the contributions of 
Henry Dreyfus to the field of industrial design. The generous dona- 
tions of Mr. and Mrs. Henry J. Heinz II to the Cooper-Hewitt were 
underscored by the naming of the "Drue Heinz Study Center for 
Drawings and Prints." The Regents also approved the name "Waldo 
L. Schmitt Conference Room" for a room in the Invertebrate Zool- 
ogy area of the National Museum of Natural History in honor 
of Dr. Schmitt's outstanding contributions to invertebrate zoology. 

A number of legislative proposals were approved for submission 
to the Congress, including measures to authorize appropriations 
under the National Museum Act, to eliminate the ceiling on appro- 
priations for the Barro Colorado Island at the Smithsonian Tropical 
Research Institute, and to authorize the construction of a museum 
support facility. The Secretary reported that the two measures, 
approved by the Board of Regents in 1974, to authorize planning of 
a museum support facility and to remove restrictions on the collec- 
tion of portraiture by the National Portrait Gallery have been 

The Secretary discussed plans for the forthcoming visit of Her 
Majesty Queen Elizabeth II to the Smithsonian Institution. It was 

18 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

agreed to request a Joint Resolution of the House and Senate to 
express the American people's gratitude for the bequest of James 

The spring meeting of the Board of Regents was convened on 
May 10, 1976. At this meeting the Regents paid tribute to the 
Smithsonian's late Under Secretary Robert A. Brooks, hailing par- 
ticularly his outstanding classical scholarship and his remarkable 
administrative career. The Secretary introduced to the Regents John 
F. Jameson, newly designated as the Acting Assistant Secretary for 

The financial reports were summarized by the Secretary and ac- 
cepted by the Board, including the estimate for the "transition 
quarter" from July 1 to September 30, 1976, occasioned by the 
change in the beginning of the fiscal year from the first of July to the 
first of October. 

The Secretary reported developments at the National Zoo, includ- 
ing the renovation of the elephant house, the new bird yards, and 
the glockenspiel provided by a bequest. The first portion of the new 
"William M. Mann Lion and Tiger Exhibit" was opened to the pub- 
lic on April 9, 1976. This exhibit received a design award in 1975. 

An underground parking garage on the Mall was again con- 
sidered by the Board as a possibility for the future. A recent up-date 
of an earlier study indicates that 3,200 parking spaces could be con- 
structed under the Mall. It was decided to continue to examine 
possibilities for the construction and financing of this parking facil- 
ity in cooperation with the National Park Service and other in- 
terested government agencies. 

Noting progress on a number of legislative matters, the Board of 
Regents reviewed the language of the proposed Joint Resolution of 
the Senate and House on the occasion of the visit of Her Majesty 
Queen Elizabeth II. 

The Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design hav- 
ing progressed on schedule toward its opening in the renovated 
Carnegie Mansion in New York, the next meeting of the Regents 
was scheduled to precede that opening in early October. 

Statement by the Secretary I 19 

Left. Rotunda of the newly renovated Arts and Industries Building, where "1876: A Cen- 
tennial Exhibition," a recreation in microcosm of the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition, 
opened on May 10, 1976, a hundred years to the day since the opening in Philadelphia. An 
air of festive excitement and celebration marked this occasion as Chief Justice Warren E. 
Burger and Secretary S. Dillon Ripley arrive in a coach-and-four (above), followed by other 
notables in horse-drawn carriages (below). 

July 1, 1976, dedication of the National Air and Space Museum. This newest of 
Smithsonian museums on the Mall contains dramatic evidence of America's tech- 
nological advances and man's conquest of air and space. Below. Visitors enjoy the 
Milestones of Flight Gallery. 


1 I I I 




Newly renovated third floor of the National Portrait Gallery showing a portion of the 
Bicentennial exhibition "Portraits from The Americans: The Democratic Experience." 
Below. Aerial view of the "William M. Mann Lion and Tiger Exhibit," dedicated May 
25, 1976. 

r % 




.> Wl 


1 V"_^ ■*£*? 

^'"i Bmh» • 

Aboue. View of the National Museum of Natural History's Bicentennial exhibit, "Our 
Changing Land." The exhibition focuses on the history of land use in the Potomac 
River Valley. Below. Designer at the Smithsonian's Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 
discusses with its Exhibits Design and Production Laboratory staff a panel for the 
traveling exhibition, "The Frederick Douglass Years." 

An "Insect Zoo," newly installed at the National Museum of Natural History, fas- 
cinates a young visitor. 


. ..... . 

■ t > 

figs' ■ : 

Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain during her July 1976 visit to the 
Smithsonian. Chief Justice Warren E. Burger and Secretary S. Dillon Ripley point out 
landmarks in a diorama that is part of the Bicentennial exhibition "The Federal City: 
Plans & Realities." Below. Their Majesties King Juan Carlos and Queen Sophia of Spain 
sign the guest register at the opening of the exhibition "Columbus and His Time," June 
3, 1976, National Museum of History and Technology, as Mrs. Ripley looks on. 

Emperor Hirohito of Japan, an ardent marine biologist, examines a marine specimen 
from the collections in the National Museum of Natural History during his visit to the 
Smithsonian in October 1975. With His Majesty are Dr. Frederick M. Bayer and Dr. 
Joseph Rosewater, curators at the Museum, and Professor Hidemi Sato of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, who acted as interpreter. Below. Emperor Hirohito and Empress 
Nagako of Japan and President and Mrs. Ford greet guests prior to the State Dinner 
held at the Smithsonian on October 3, 1975. 

Ranjit, handsome male white tiger, is an occupant of the newly modernized lion and 
tiger quarters at the National Zoological Park. 

Smithsonian Year '1976 


This report covers the fiscal year 1976 and the added three 
months' "Transition Quarter" (July 1-September 30, 1976), re- 
flecting our change in fiscal year to conform with the new federal 
year beginning October 1st. 

In this period the Institution continued to benefit from both 
strong governmental support and growth in nonfederal income. As 
shown in Table 1, federal appropriations received for operating 
purposes rose 12.7 percent to $84,004,000 in fiscal year 1976, with 
an additional $23,150,000 for the Transition Quarter; together, 
these appropriations amounted to 77 percent of the total operating 
support in the 15 months' period. Research grants and contracts 
provided another 11 percent, while nonfederal funds from gifts, 
endowments and our various auxiliary activities and concessions 
supplied the remaining $16,438,000 or 12 percent of the total. For 
construction purposes, the Institution received an additional $13,- 
922,000 of federal appropriations and $560,000 of gifts from private 

The increased income for the most part went to meet inflationary 
cost increases and to make possible the outstanding Smithsonian 
Bicentennial programs for the nation's capital, including the open- 
ing of the new National Air and Space Museum, a summer-long 
international folk festival on the Mall, and a wide variety of major 
exhibitions. Nearly $10,000,000 of federal construction funds were 
used to continue the modernization of the National Zoo, while 
renovation of the Carnegie Mansion in New York City for the 


October opening of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum and construction 
of the new Associates Court, public and staff restaurants and 
educational facilities in the National Museum of Natural History, 
were completed with nonfederal trust funds, derived principally 
from our fund-raising and Associates activities. This period also 
saw the completion of our Museum Shop construction and modern- 
ization program which will benefit visitors and the Institution alike. 

A further step was taken toward the building of our present 
relatively small unrestricted-purpose endowment funds to a level 
capable of assuring stable financial support for nonfederally sup- 
ported Institutional needs in the future; continuation and enlarge- 
ment of this effort remains a goal of highest priority. 

An overall picture of the application of all of these funds for 
operating purposes (exclusive of foreign currency and construction 
funds) by individual bureaux and offices may be seen in Table 2. 


The $81,564,000 of federal funds received for Institutional operat- 
ing purposes in the 12 months of fiscal year 1976, exclusive of funds 
for the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, Inc., and the 
Excess Foreign Currency Programs, was an increase of $10,858,000 
over fiscal year 1975. Well over half of this increase ($6.0 million), 
however, was provided merely to meet costs of legislated and 
other uncontrollable increases in federal salaries, plus sharp in- 
creases in utility rates and other inflationary cost increases. A 
further $2,800,000 was made available to equip and staff the new 
National Air and Space Museum, and $700,000 was added for our 
Bicentennial Program. A large part of the remaining $1.4 million 
was needed for maintenance, protection, conservation, and other 
program support activities, with relatively little available for any 
expansion of programmatic efforts themselves. The resulting alloca- 
tion by broad program categories is set forth in Table 3. 

As the year progressed, it became possible to hold costs to lower 
amounts than originally anticipated; as a result, some $1,271,000 of 
the $104,193,000 combined appropriations for operating purposes 
in fiscal year 1976 and the Transition Quarter was returned to the 
United States Treasury. 

For the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, $1,940,000 
was provided for fiscal year 1976, and another $521,000 for the 

30 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Table 1. Overall Sources of Financial Support 
[In $l,000's] 


FY 1974 FY 1975 FY 1976 Quarter 


Federal appropriation: 

Salaries and expenses $58,868 $70,706 $81,564 $22,629 

Smithsonian Science Information 

Exchange 1,695 1,805 1,940 521 

Special Foreign Currency Program .... 4,500 2,000 500 -0- 

Subtotal $65,063 $74,511 $84,004 $23,150 

Research grants and contracts 9,996 12,292 11,525 3,987 

Nonfederal funds: 

Gifts (excluding gifts to endowments 
and Plant Funds) 

Restricted purpose 1,970 4,177 4,307 658 

Unrestricted purpose 275* 253* 354* 66* 

Income from endowment and current 
funds investment** 

Restricted purpose 1,750 1,724 1,634 503 

Unrestricted purpose 747 953 1,110 264 

Auxiliary activities (net) 1,770 2,308 3,390 1,147 

Miscellaneous 1,110 1,405 2,299 706 

Total Nonfederal Funds 7,622 10,820 13,094 3,344 

Total Operating Support $82,681 $97,623 $108,623 $30,481 


Federal Construction Funds: 

National Zoological Park $ 3,790 

National Air & Space Museum 17,000 

Restoration & Renovation of Bldgs. . . 1,070 

Total Fed. Construction Funds .... $21,860 

Nonfederal Plant & Land Acquisition 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum $ 262 

Hirshhorn Museum 1,000 

Chesapeake Bay Center 70 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum .... -0- 

National Zoological Park -0- 

Total Nonfederal Plant and 

Land Acquisition Funds $ 1,332 

$ 9,420 

$ 8,390 












$ 162 

$ 425 















$ 187 

$ 530 



* Excluding gifts to Associates (included under Auxiliary Activities). 
** Includes portion of investment gain appropriated to income under Total Return Policy. 

Financial Report I 31 

Table 2. Source and Application of Operating Funds 

Fifteen Months Ended September 30, 1976 

(Excludes Special Foreign Currency Funds, Plants Funds, and Endowments) 

[In $l,000's] 

Nonfederal Funds 

Unrestricted Restricted 


non- Auxil- Spe- Grants 
Fed- fed- iary cial -and 
eral eral Cen- activ- pur- Cen- con- 
Funds funds funds eral ities pose eral tracts 


1 July 1975 $ -0- $ 9,317 $3,767 $ -0- $1,071 $ 4,374 $ 105 


Federal Appropriations . . $106,654 

Investment Income $ 3,511 $1,370 $ - $ 4 $ 2,137 $ 

Grants and Contracts . . . 15,508 - 15,508 

Gifts 5,610 81 226 338 4,965 

Sales and Revenue 34,887 - 34,257 630 - 

Other 2,375 1,241 - 448 686 

Total Provided $106,654 $61,891 $2,692 $34,483 $1,420 $ 7,788 $15,508 

Total Available $106,654 $71,208 $6,459 $34,483 $2,491 $12,162 $15,613 



Environmental Science . . $ 906 $ 297 $ 45 $ - $ 12 $ 27 $ 213 

Natl. Museum of Nat. 

History 13,277 1,852 46 - 145 472 1,189 

Natl. Zoological Park 7,802 202 41 - 95 44 22 

Fort Pierce Bureau - 601 - - 601 

Science Info. Exchange* . . 2,461 - - - - - - 

Smithsonian Astrophysical 

Observatory 4,942 8,864 36 - 37 274 8,517 

Radiation Biology Lab. . . 2,057 130 - 3 11 116 

Smithsonian Tropical 

Research Institute 1,785 81 5 - 37 38 1 

Interdisciplinary Commu- 
nications Program - 1,528 23 - - 12 1,493 

Natl. Air and Space 

Museum 6,933 745 52 - 252 265 176 

Other Science 1,541 1,758 74 - 37 224 1,423 

Total 41,704 16,058 322 - 618 1,968 13,150 

History and Art: 

Natl. Portrait Gallery . . . 2,190 188 23 - 32 32 101 

Natl. Collection of 

Fine Arts 2,902 244 16 - 165 44 19 

Freer Gallery 573 1,511 - 1,464 47 

Natl. Museum of History 

and Technology 6,939 909 72 - 135 643 59 

* Figures do not include revenues to SSIE from other sources of approximately $1,500,000. 
32 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Table 2. Source and Application of Operating Funds 

Fifteen Months Ended September 30, 1976 — continued 

(Excludes Special Foreign Currency Funds, Plant Funds, and Endowments) 

[In $l,000's] 

Nonfederal Funds 

Unrestricted Restricted 


non- Auxil- Spe- Grants 
Fed- fed- iary cial and 
eral eral Gen- activ- pur- Gen- con- 
Funds funds funds eral ities pose eral tracts 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum . 342 765 - 684 81 
Archives of American 

Art 411 317 - - 1 316 

Bicentennial of the 

American Revolution . 5,800 26 26 - - - 

Hillwood - 519 - - - 519 

Hirshhorn Museum 1,999 53 17 - 31 5 

Other History & Art ... 972 962 72 - 78 683 129 

Total 22,128 5,494 226 - 442 4,390 436 

Public Service: 

Auxiliary Activities 

Smithsonian Press . . . 812 512 2 501 9 

Performing Arts 1,143 4,756 34 1,141 22 1,783 1,776 

Other 28,372 1 28,304 67 

Anacostia Museum .... 667 102 24 - 10 68 

Other Public Service . . . 1,076 106 40 - 2 63 1 

Total 3,698 33,848 101 29,946 101 1,923 1,777 

Museum Programs: 

Libraries 2,344 5 - - - 5 - 

Exhibits 1,235 - - 

Natl. Museum Act Pgms. 976 - - - - - - 

Other Museum Programs 3,169 266 10 - 2 58 196 

Total 7,724 271 10 2 63 196 

Buildings Management 

and Protection 

Services 23,526 54 7 - 45 2 

Administration 6,603 5,939 704 1,312 124 773 3,026 

Overhead Recovered . (5,759) (575) (1,312) (84) (762) (3,026) 

Transfers for Designated 

Purposes— Out or (In) 1,271** 4,656 1,590 4,537 (1,245) (179) (47) 

Total Funds Applied $106,654 $60,561 $2,385 $34,483 $ 3 $8,178 $15,512 

30 September 1976 ... $ 

$10,647 $4,074 $ -0- $2,488 $3,984 $ 101 

h * Unobligated funds returned to Treasury. 

Financial Report I 33 

Table 3. Application of Federal Appropriations 
Fiscal Year 1974 through Fiscal Year 1976 

(Excluding Special Foreign Currency Program) 
[In $l,000's] 

Area FY 1974 FY 1975 FY 1976 Quarter 

Science $24,884 

History and Art 12,130 

Public Service 2,696 

Museum Programs 4,321 

Administration 4,693 

Building Maintenance and Protection . . . 11,839 



$ 8,896 
















Total $60,563 $72,511 $80,216 $25,167 

Transition Quarter. The operations of this bureau have continued 
to expand both as to contribution into the research project data 
bank and also in providing summaries of such data requested by its 
customers. Payments for the latter services, suggested several 
years ago by the Office of Management and Budget and the Con- 
gress as an alternative to increased appropriations, are growing 
steadily and have proven very successful in allowing the Exchange 
to meet its total increase in costs with only minimal added federal 

Federal funds for the Smithsonian's Foreign Currency Program, 
which provides grants to United States educational institutions for 
field research in those countries where these blocked foreign cur- 
rencies remain available, were curtailed sharply in fiscal year 1976 
to only $500,000. Thus, usage of these funds, together with re- 
maining prior-year balances, was limited primarily to supporting 
priority ongoing research needs (see Table 4). 

Federal appropriations for the Institution's construction purposes 
in fiscal year 1976 and the Transition Quarter totaling $13,922,000 
included $2,500,000 to complete the National Air and Space 
Museum, an amount which was $500,000 less than anticipated at 

34 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Table 4. Special Foreign Currency Program 
Fiscal Year 1976 and Transition Quarter — Obligations 










atic & 








& Earth 












$ 368 


$ 368 




































An additional $83,000 was obligated through the National Science Foundation for 
the translation and printing of scientific publications in India and Pakistan re- 
quested by the Smithsonian Institution. 

the beginning of construction. Another $9,830,000 of the total 
allowed the continued gradual renovation of the National Zoo in 
accordance with its previously approved Master Plan. Major specific 
projects paid for with these appropriations included the service 
facility to consolidate support functions, new bear exhibits, con- 
tinued planning for Beaver Valley exhibits, planning and installa- 
tion of educational graphics, and repairs and renovation of Zoo 
facilities at the Rock Creek and Front Royal locations. An additional 
$1,592,000 was granted for restoration and renovation of other 
Institutional buildings. 


Grants and contracts from federal agencies also provided sub- 
stantial support to the Institution research programs over the past 
15 months. During fiscal year 1976, $11,525,000 was expended, 
roughly the same as in the prior fiscal year, and a further $3,987,000 
was expended during the Transition Quarter, primarily for work in 
the scientific disciplines. The major granting agencies are listed in 
Table 5 for this and prior periods representing hundreds of different 
grants and contracts each year. 

Financial Report I 35 

Table 5. Grants and Contracts 
[In $l,000's] 



Federal Agencies FY 1974 FY 1975 FY 1976 Quarte 

Atomic Energy Commission $ 72 

Department of Commerce 184 

Department of Defense 872 

Department of Health, Education 

and Welfare 261 

Department of Interior 283 

Department of Labor 163 

Department of State 1,066 

National Aeronautics and Space 

Administration 5,308 

National Endowments for the Arts 

and Humanities 102 

National Science Foundation 690 

Other 995 

Total $9,996 


$ 85 

$ 48 































$12,292 $11,525 $3,987 

The major recipient in the Institution is the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory which, as shown in Table 2, expended $8,- 
517,000, or 55 percent of these funds; most of this support came 
from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for such 
projects as satellite tracking and research and development of 
masers. Projects for other bureaux ranged from studies of the social 
behavior of harbor seals to analysis of herbicide concentrations in 
the Chesapeake Bay, and an oral history of jazz in the United States. 


The federal funds discussed above are provided to enable the 
Smithsonian to carry out its responsibilities for the preservation, 
research, and exhibition of the ever-growing national collections of 
valuable cultural, historic, and scientific objects; they constitute 
by far the largest source of income to the Institution as has been 
the case for nearly the past 100 years since the construction with 
appropriated funds of the Arts and Industries Building, completed 
in 1881. Nevertheless, the Smithsonian's own nonfederal trust 
funds remain the basic element of this unique Institution's financial 

36 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Table 6. Total Trust Funds Income Fiscal Year 1976 

and Transition Quarter 

[In $l,000's] 

Unrestricted Purposes 

General & 

Auxiliary Special Restricted 

Activities Purpose* Purposes*** 

Revenue Sources 




Auxiliary Activities (net) 

Concessions and Miscellaneous 

Total Operating Funds . . 


Gifts — 

National Zoological Park . . . 

Chesapeake Bay Center 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 

Total Gifts 

Miscellaneous — 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 

Total Plant 

Grand Total 



$ 4 


$ 3,511 















$7,788 $16,438 

$ - 



$ 100 

$ 100 







$ 533 


$ - 



$ 533 

$ - 



$ 27 

$ 27 




$ 560 

$ 560 





* Represents unrestricted income designated by management to be used only for specific 

h * Excluding $226,000 gifts to Associates (included under Auxiliary Activities). 

h * Excluding Grants and Contracts shown in Table 5. 

structure as they have been ever since the Institution was estab- 
lished in 1846. In order for the Smithsonian to continue its position 
as an outstanding cultural and scientific resource for the entire na- 
tion, this important and flexible source of support must be main- 
tained and strengthened. Efforts toward this goal were continued 
successfully in this Bicentennial period. 

Most encouraging perhaps has been the continued success of the 
Associates program, including the Smithsonian magazine, and also 
our Museum Shops and related programs featuring sales of products 
based on interesting and informative items in the museum collec- 
tions. National Associate memberships again rose sharply from 
just over 900,000 in June 1975 to about 1,300,000 in the Transition 

Financial Report I 37 

Table 7. Unrestricted Trust Funds 
General and Auxiliary Activities 

(Excluding Special Purpose Funds and Gifts to Endowment) 

[In $l,000's] 


FY 1974 FY 2975 

FY 1976 Quarter 


General Income: 

Investments $ 744 $ 950 

Gifts 151 46 

Concessions and miscellaneous 284 228 

Total General Income 1,179 1,224 

Auxiliary Activities (net) : 

Associates 1,590 1,968 

Shops 226 417 

Press (89) (96) 

Performing Arts 104 (79) 

Product Development 37 218 

Other Activities (98 ) (120 ) 

Total Activities 1,770 2,308 

Total Income 2,949 3,532 


Administrative Expense 3,957 4,780 

Less Administrative Recovery 3,345 3,644 

Net Administrative Expense 612 1,136 466 

Less Transfers: 

To Special Purpose and Restricted Funds 

for Program Purposes 

To Plant Funds 

To Endowment Funds 




$ 263 













































Quarter. Resident Associate members in the Washington area who 
participate here in special cultural, educational, and entertainment 
programs now exceed 40,000. In addition, Associates activities have 
now been expanded to extend certain Smithsonian events to about 
ten cities throughout the country each year. 

While Museum Shop sales have increased, income was reduced 
in this period by the temporary closing of the Arts and Industries 
Building and by start-up expenses of new shops and our new mail 

38 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

order catalogue. Improved results, however, are anticipated for the 
future, particularly with the completion of all the Shops, including 
those in the National Air and Space Museum and the National 
Museum of Natural History. 

The unrestricted funds derived from all of these various pro- 
grams have been used to cover Institutional administrative costs, 
to continue a program of small research grants, and to benefit the 
individual bureaux which share in the income from the concessions, 
Shops, and Product Development Program. The Associates, school 
children, and other visitors have benefited during the past year 
from the addition of new facilities in the Natural History Building. 
Income from the unrestricted funds enabled the Institution to take 
another step in its high-priority program of increasing its relatively 
small unrestricted-purpose endowment funds. With the addition 

Table 8. Auxiliary Activities for Fiscal Year 1976 

and Transition Quarter 

[In $l,000's] 

Smith- Per- 

Mh- Smith- sonian form- 
seum sonian Asso- ing 

Shops Press* dates Arts 

Item Total 

Sales and Revenues . . $34,079 $5,274 $ 265 $26,061 $1,006 
Less Cost of Sales .... 

Gross Income . . 


Other Income 

Total Income . . . 


Administrative Costs . 

Income (Loss) Before 


Less Transfers 

Net Income (Loss) ... $ 3,643 $ 139 

ment Other** 

$730 $ 743 






















































$(192) $ 3,638 $ (119) $387 $(210) 

* The privately funded activities of the Press as opposed to the federally supported 
publication of research papers. 

** Includes Traveling Exhibitions, Belmont Conference Center, Photo Sales, Center 
for Short-Lived Phenomena, Special Publications, and Television Programs. 

*** Allocations to the Smithsonian bureaux participating in this program. 

Financial Report I 39 

of $1,750,000 during the 15-month period, these unrestricted en- 
dowment funds now total approximately $7.5 million. 

Special Purpose Funds, shown separately in Tables 2 and 6, in- 
clude gifts and other income received directly by individual bureaux 
for their general use or set aside by Smithsonian management from 
general unrestricted funds for bureau programs or other specific 
uses. Income to these funds shown in Table 6 totaling $1,420,000 
in this period is only that portion received directly — from gifts, for 
example, or from Zoo parking receipts reserved for future expan- 
sion of its parking facilities, or from miscellaneous sales, performing 
arts admissions and rentals. Including funds from such items as in- 
terest payments and sharing of shop proceeds, royalties and con- 
cessions earnings, total income to these. Special Purpose Funds in 
this period equaled $2,665,000 and expenditures $1,248,000. The 
balance in these funds as of September 30, 1976, was $2,488,000, 
compared to $1,071,000 on June 30, 1975 (see Balance Sheet on 
page 58 of this report). 

A major portion of Smithsonian trust funds is restricted to 
specific bureaux or activities by designation. During fiscal year 1976 
and the Transition Quarter, the Institution received $7,788,000 of 
these restricted funds. Of this total, $2,137,000 was income from 
Restricted Endowment Funds, $4,965,000 was gifts and grants from 
individuals, foundations, and corporations, and $686,000 repre- 
sented miscellaneous receipts, such as those from sales desks, bene- 
fits, and membership fees. 

The major units receiving these funds are shown in Table 9. The 
Freer Gallery of Art and the Fort Pierce Bureau were both provided 
for in large measure by endowment dedicated to their use; the 
other restricted endowments, detailed more fully below, support a 
wide range of projects throughout the Institution. Principal activi- 
ties benefiting from gifts and grants during this period include the 
Maritime Hall project of the National Museum of History and 
Technology, the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, the Freer Gallery of Art, 
the Division of Performing Arts (which produced the extended 
Festival of American Folklife on the Mall), and the Hillwood 
Museum, which at the end of the fiscal year was transferred to the 
Marjorie Merriweather Post Foundation of D.C. Gifts and grants 
also represent a major source of support for programs in other 
areas, and the Institution is extremely grateful for this public sup- 

40 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Table 9. Restricted Operating Trust Funds * Fiscal Year 1976 

and Transition Quarter 
[In $l,000's] 




























Anacostia Neighbor- 

hood Museum .... 

$ - 

$ 136 

$ - 

$ 136 

$ 68 

$ 6 

$ 74 

$ 64 

Archives of 

American Art .... 









Natl. Mus. of Hist. 

& Technology 

— American Bank- 

ing Exhibit 









— American Mari- 

time Hall 









— Person to Per- 

son Exhibit 











— Operations 









— Special Purpose 










Division of Per- 

forming Arts 









Fort Pierce Bureau . . 









Freer Gallery 


















National Air and 

Space Museum . . . 









Woodrow Wilson 
















$ (390) 






* Excluding Grants and Contracts shown in Table 5 and also Restricted Plant Funds 
included in Table 6. 
** Included herein even though federal funds of the Center are not a part of this 
Report, since the Smithsonian is by legislative act the official recipient and 

port. A partial list of our donors is included at the end of this re- 
port (page 51), but particular mention should be made of the grants 
from American Airlines and General Foods Corporation for the 
Folklife Festival, as well as a gift from the Tobacco Institute for the 
Hall of American Maritime Enterprise. 

Financial Report I 41 

The Archives of American Art, the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, and 
the Freer Gallery of Art also support their activities through such 
fund-raising efforts as auctions and tours, as well as sales desks, 
which are included under miscellaneous receipts. 

Generous support was also received during the year for the 
renovation of the Carnegie Mansion of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum. 
Due in great measure to a matching grant in this period from the 
Carnegie Corporation, as well as a gift from Mr. Henry J. Heinz II, 
the Museum was able to open to the public in October 1976. A 
welcome and specific bequest from the Estate of Dr. Ivy A. Pelzman 
allowed us to construct a glockenspiel in the National Zoological 

Table 10. Endowment and Similar Funds* 
Summary of Investments September 30, 1976 

Accounts Book Value Market Value 


Consolidated Endowment Funds: 

Cash and Equivalents $ 991,037 $ 991,037 

Bonds 5,739,461 5,685,631 

Convertible Bonds 2,555,694 2,622,258 

Stocks 31,987,962 34,333,972 

Total $41,274,154 $43,632,898 


Cash $ -0- $ -0- 

Bonds 9,769 9,900 

Common Stocks 3,572 16,206 

Total $ 13,341 $ 26,106 

Total Investment Accounts $41,287,495 $43,659,004 

Other Accounts : 

Notes Receivable $ 46,169 $ 46,169 

Loan to U.S. Treasury in Perpetuity 1,000,000 1,000,000 

Total Other Accounts $ 1,046,169 $ 1,046,169 

Total Endowment and Similar Fund 

Balances $42,333,664 $44,705,173 

* Includes both true endowments, whose income only may be expended, and quasi 
endowments, whose principal as well as income may be used for current purposes 
on approval of the Board of Regents. 

42 / Smithsonian Year 1976 


As of September 30, 1976, the Smithsonian had total endowment 
funds with a market value of $44,705,000, including $1,000,000 on 
permanent deposit in the United States Treasury, $72,000 of 
miscellaneous securities, and the Consolidated Endowment Fund of 
$43,633,000 (see Table 10). Income from these funds is primarily 
restricted to specific purposes. The Consolidated Endowment Fund 

Table 11. Market Values of Consolidated Endowment Funds* 

[In $l,000's] 

Fund 6/30/72 6/30/73 6/30/74 6/30/75 9/30/76 

Unrestricted $ 5,102 $ 4,759 $ 3,906 $ 5,654 $ 7,477 

Freer 21,973 18,279 14,250 15,744 16,035 

Endowment No. 3 14,641 13,196 11,128 12,321 12,701 

Restricted 8,185 7,634 6,266 7,148 7,420 

Total $49,901 $43,868 $35,550 $40,867 $43,633 

* Not including Endowment Funds of $1,000,000 held in the United States Treasury, carrying 
6 percent interest, nor minor amount of miscellaneous securities treated separately. 

Table 12. Changes in Consolidated Endowment Funds for 

Fiscal Year 1976 and Transition Quarter 

[In $l,000's] 





























Unrestricted funds. 

$ 5,654 


$ 270 

$ 356 

$ 7,369 

$ 108 

$ 7,477 

Freer Fund 








Endowment No. 3. 








Restricted funds . . 













* Income earned less managers fees. 

** Not including Endowment Funds of $1,000,000 held in the United States Treasury, carrying 
6 percent interest, nor minor amount of miscellaneous securities treated separately. 

Financial Report I 43 

Table 13. Consolidated Endowment Funds 
September 30, 1976 



Funds participating in pool 











$ 7,496,759 

$ 7,477,358 

$ 356,035 










































































































Abbott, William L 

Armstrong, Edwin James 

Arthur, James 

Bacon, Virginia Purdy 

Baird, Spencer Fullerton 

Barney, Alice Pike 

Barstow, Frederic D 

Batchelor, Emma E 

Beauregard, Catherine 

Memorial Fund 

Becker, George F 

Brown, Roland W 

Canfield, Frederick A 

Casey, Thomas Lincoln 

Chamberlain, Frances Lea 

Cooper, G. Arthur, Curator's Fund 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 

Desautels, Paul E 

Div. of Mammals Curator Fund . . 
Div. of Reptiles Curator Fund .... 

Drake, Carl J 

Dykes, Charles 

Eickemeyer, Florence Brevoort . . . 
Guggenheim, David and Florence . 
Hanson, Martin Gustav and 

Caroline Runice 16,707 

Henderson, Edward P. 

Meteorite Fund 577 

Hillyer, Virgil 12,352 

Hitchcock, Albert S 2,223 

Hrdlicka, Ales and Marie 88,282 

Hughes, Bruce 27,026 

Johnson, E. R. Fenimore 15,347 

Kellogg, Remington, Memorial . . . 46,085 

Kramar, Nada 5,049 

Lindsey, Jessie H 1,277 

Loeb, Morris 164,038 

Long, Annette E. and Edith C 764 

Lyons, Marcus Ward 8,230 

Maxwell, Mary E 27,695 

Myer, Catherine Walden 37,972 

Nelson, Edward William 33,969 

















































44 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Table 13. Consolidated Endowment Funds 
September 30, 1976 — continued 

Funds participating in pool 

Noyes, Frank B 

Pell, Cornelia Livingston 

Petrocelli, Joseph, Memorial . . 
Ramsey, Admiral and Mrs. 

DeWitt Clinton 

Rathbun, Richard, Memorial . . 

Reid, Addison T 

Roebling Collection 

Roebling Solar Research 

Rollins, Miriam and William . 

Ruef, Bertha M 

Smithsonian Agency Account . 

Sprague, Joseph White 

Springer, Frank 

Stevenson, John A 

Strong, Julia D 

T. F. H. Publications, Inc 

Walcott, Charles D 

Walcott, Charles D. and 

Mary Vaux 

Walcott Botanical Publications 
Zerbee, Francis Brinckle 

Total Restricted Funds . 

Total Consolidated 
Endowment Funds . . . 





























































































$ 6,889,786 

$ 7,419,709 

$ 405,133 






consists of the Freer Fund, whose income supports the operation 
of the Freer Gallery of Art, Endowment Fund No. 3, used for 
oceanographic research at the Fort Pierce Bureau in Florida, and a 
great number of smaller restricted and unrestricted funds (listed in 
Table 13) for a variety of research and museum projects. Unre- 
stricted endowment funds totaled $7,477,000, or 17 percent of the 
total. Separate accounting records are, of course, maintained on 
each of these various endowments, but for investment purposes 
they have been pooled since June 1, 1974, into the one fund. Market 
values of the Consolidated Endowment Fund since 1972 are shown 
in Table 11. 

Financial Report I 45 

The investment management of the endowment funds of the 
Institution, with the exception of $1,000,000 on permanent deposit 
and the miscellaneous securities, is conducted by three professional 
advisory firms, under the close surveillance of the Investment 
Policy Committee and the Treasurer, and is subject to policy guide- 
lines set by the Smithsonian's Board of Regents. As described in 
prior reports, the Institution follows the total return policy, adopted 
by the Board of Regents in 1972, under which income is paid by 
each individual endowment fund at the annual rate of 4V2 percent 
of the running 5-year average of market values, adjusted for addi- 
tions or withdrawals of capital. 

As indicated previously, the Smithsonian in this last fiscal period 
was able to transfer $1,750,000 from current unrestricted income 
into endowment funds, in furtherance of its goal to increase such 
funds to a level more in proportion to the present operations of the 
Institution. Every effort will be made to continue this practice in 
future years. 

The changes in the Consolidated Endowment Funds over the past 
15 months, due to transfers, reinvestment of income, donations, and 
values in the securities markets, are shown in Table 12. The in- 
crease in market value during this period indicates a market per- 
formance roughly in line with the major market indexes. Income of 
$2,467,000, net of managers' and custodial fees, was paid out dur- 
ing the 15-month period under the total return policy; this was 
$565,000 greater than the $1,902,000 from dividends and interest 
yield. A breakdown of the income to the various funds participating 
in the Consolidated Endowment Funds is shown in Table 13, 
together with the book and market values of these funds. Table 10 
provides detail on the types of securities held by the Institution. A 
listing of the individual investments held in the Consolidated En- 
dowment Funds at September 30, 1976, may be obtained upon 
request to the Treasurer of the Institution. 


The nonfederal Trust Funds of the Institution are audited annually 
by independent public accountants as they have been at the direc- 
tion of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents since 
1909. Their report for fiscal year 1976 and the Transition Quarter 

46 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

is contained in the following pages, including a comparative balance 
sheet and a statement of the changes in various fund balances. 

The Defense Contract Audit Agency annually performs an audit 
on grant and contract moneys received from federal agencies. In 
addition, the federally appropriated funds of the Institution are 
subject to audit by the General Accounting Office which, at year's 
end, was conducting a general review of Smithsonian finances. The 
internal audit staff continued its program of selective audits during 
the year, contributing to continued improvements in administrative 
and financial management. 

Gifts and Bequests to the Smithsonian 

The Smithsonian Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts and be- 
quests received during fiscal year 1976 from the following: 

$100,000 or more: 

American Airlines Incorporated 
American Telephone and Telegraph 

Carnegie Corporation of New York 
Estate of Edith Ehrman 
Federal Republic of Germany 

The Ford Foundation 
General Foods Corporation 
Hillwood Trust 
Mr. and Mrs. David Packard 
Estate of Ivy A. Pelzman 
The Rockefeller Foundation 

$10,000 or more: 

Alcoa Foundation 


Appalachian Power Company 

The Arcadia Foundation 

The Barra Foundation, Inc. 

BASF Wyandotte Corporation 

Margaret T. Biddle Foundation 

Mr. George Barry Bingham, Jr. 

Miss Helen W. Buckner 

The Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz 

Calhoon Meba Engineering School 
CBS Foundation, Inc. 
Certain-teed Products Corporation 
Chevron Chemical Company 
The Coca Cola Company 
The Edna McConnell Clark 


Crane Co. 

Dr. and Mrs. William H. Crocker 

Crowley Maritime Corporation 

John Deere Foundation 

Diamond Shamrock 

The Henry L. and Grace Doherty 

Charitable Foundation, Inc. 
Doubleday & Company, Inc. 
The Dow Chemical Company 
The T. M. Evans Foundation 
EXXON Corporation 
Federal Barge Lines, Inc. 
Max C. Fleischmann Foundation 
FMC Foundation 
Ford Motor Company 
Gulf Oil Corporation 
Dr. and Mrs. Herbert Hawkes 
Mr. H. J. Heinz II 
The Higbee Company 

Financial Report I 47 

$10,000 or more — continued 

Mrs. Patricia Kendall Hurd 
International Business Machines 

S. C. Johnson and Son 
The J. M. Kaplan Fund, Inc. 
Samuel H. Kress Foundation 
Mrs. Edith MacGuire 
Richard King Mellon Foundation 
The Charles E. Merrill Trust 
Estate of Mr. William A. Mitchell 
Mr. Benjamin B. Morgan 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas B. Morgan 
Philip Morris Incorporated 
Estate of Alfred Mussinan 
National Geographic Society 
New York State Council on the Arts 
Edward John Noble Foundation 
Northrop Corporation 
Occidental Petroleum Corporation 
The Ohio River Company 
Otis Elevator Company 
Pepsico Foundation, Inc. 
Pew Memorial Trust 
Pfizer, Inc. 

Phelps Dodge Corporation 
The Marjorie Merriweather Post 

Foundation of D.C. 

Relm Foundaton 

Mr. and Mrs. Ralph C. Rinzler 

Rockefeller Brothers Fund 

Mr. John D. Rockefeller III 

Rohm and Haas Company 

Shell Oil Company 

Lewis and Rosa Strauss Memorial 

Mr. and Mrs. Bertrand L. Taylor III 
The Tinker Foundation 
The Tobacco Institute, Inc. 
Tupper Foundation 
Union Mechling Corporation 
United States Steel Foundation, Inc. 
University of Notre Dame 
Dr. and Mrs. Jeremy P. Waletsky 
DeWitt Wallace Fund, Inc. 
The Washington Post 
Water Transport Association 
Mr. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 
The Weatherhead Foundation 
Wells Fargo Bank 
Western Union Corporation 
Matilda Wilson Fund 
Women's Committee of the 

Smithsonian Associates 
World Wildlife Fund 

$1,000 or more: 

Mr. Frederick R. Adler 
AKC Fund, Inc. 
Aldine Publishing Company 
The Alvord Foundation 
Amax Foundation, Inc. 
American Can Company 
American Cyanamid Company 
American Institute of Marine 

American International Underwriters 

American Metal Climax Foundation 
American Ornithologists Union 
American Security and Trust 

American Sign & Indicator 

American Studies Association 

American University 

Amos Press, Incorporated 


Art Associaton of Newport Rhode 

Ashland Oil, Inc. 
The Vincent Astor Foundation 
Avanti Motor Corporation 
Bank of America Foundation 
The Barra Foundation 
Mrs. Evelyn F. Bartlett 
The Bass Foundation 
Bath Iron Works Corporation 
Mr. Henry C. Beck, Jr. 
The Bedminster Fund, Inc. 
The Bendix Corporation 
Beneficial Foundation, Inc. 
Estate of Joseph Bernstein 

48 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

$1,000 or more — continued 

Bethlehem Steel Corporation 

Mrs. Elizabeth C. Booker 

Mr. Daniel J. Boorstin 

Borden, Inc. 

The Boswell Oil Company 

Mrs. Beulah Boyd 

Mrs. John L. Bradley 

Brent Towing Company, Inc. 

Mrs. Mabel A. B. Brooks 

Mr. John Nicholas Brown 

Mr. and Mrs. Keith S. Brown 

Bucyrus-Erie Company 

Bunge Corporation 

Mr. John A. Burnham, Jr. 

Butterick Fashion Marketing 

Cables Electricos Ecuatorianos C.A. 
Mr. Robert P. Caldwell 
Canal Barge Company, Inc. 
Cargo Carriers, Incorporated 
Guy Carpenter & Co., Inc. 
Castle & Cooke, Inc. 
Caterpillar Tractor Company 
Central Telephone & Utilities 

Centran Bank of Akron 
Champion Spark Plug Company 
CIBA-CEIGY Corporation 
City Investing Company 
Mr. Peter Clark 
Continental Bank International 
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth W. Cooper 
Copernicus Society of America 
Corinthian Broadcasting Corporation 
Miss Dorothy Corliss 
Mrs. Rosemary B. Corroon 
Miss Nina J. Cullinane 
Mr. Nathan Cummings 
Royal Danish Embassy 
Mr. and Mrs. Ron Dante 
Dillingham Corporation 
Dixie Carriers, Inc. 
Joseph C. Domino, Inc. 
Mr. William W. Donnell 
Dravo Corporation 
Alice and Leonard Dreyfuss 

Duke University 
Earhart Foundation 

Eastern States Sign Council, Inc. 

Eastman Kodak 

Eaton Corporation 

Mr. Robert Ellsworth 

Mr. Alfred U. Elser, Jr. 

The Charles Engelhard Foundation 

The Equitable Life Assurance Society 

of the United States 
EXXON Company, U.S.A. 
Miss Frances J. Fahnestock 
First National City Bank 
Mrs. Bella Fishko 
Fluor Corporation 
Ford's Theatre Society 
Foremost McKesson, Inc. 
Mr. Hamilton C. Forman 
Mr. S. S. Forrest, Jr. 
Foss Launch & Tug 
Friends of Music at the Smithsonian 
G & C Towing Inc. 
General Electric Company 
Dr. Gordon D. Gibson 
Gladders Barge Line, Inc. 
G. W. Gladders Towing Company, 

The Griffis Foundation, Inc. 
Mr. Melville Bell Grosvenor 
Carter Hawley Hale Stores, Inc. 
Edith Gregor Halpert Foundation 
Hallmark Educational Foundation 
Mr. Armand Hammer 
The Honorable Averell W. Harriman 
Professor George W. Hilton 
Janet A. Hooker Charitable Trust 
Johns Hopkins University 
Hughes Aircraft Company 
Ingersoll-Rand Company 
Ingram Barge Company 
Interdisciplinary Communications 

Associates, Inc. 
Interstate Oil Transport Company 
IU International 
The JDR 3rd Fund 
Johnson & Higgins 
Mrs. Ruth Cole Kainen 
Charles F. Kettering Foundation 
Mr. Irving Kingsford 
The Alice G. K. Kleberg Fund 
Estate of Nada Kramar 

Financial Report I 49 

$1,000 or more — -continued 

The Lauder Foundation 

Mr. Cyrus J. Lawrence 

Mrs. Halleck Lefferts 

The Liberian Foundation, Inc. 

Howard & Jean Lipman Foundation, 

Lober Charitable Fund 
Mrs. Elizabeth B. Loch 
Mrs. John E. Long 
Mr. Joseph O. Losos 
S. C. Loveland Co., Inc. 
The Magowan Family Foundation, 

Mr. and Mrs. William A. Marsteller 
Massey-Ferguson Limited 
Louis B. Mayer Foundation 
Chauncey and Marion Deering 

McCormick Foundation 
Mr. Vasco McCoy, Jr. 
The Honorable George C. McGhee 
Mr. and Mrs. Eugene McHenry 
Mr. Robert S. McNamara 
Mr. Giles Mead 
Merck and Co., Inc. 
Mobil Foundation, Inc. 
Morgan Guaranty Trust Company 
Mote Marine Laboratory 
Mr. and Mrs. John Mudd 
National Maritime Union of America 
National Research Council 
Mr. and Mrs. John U. Nef 
New World Records 
Nissan Motor Corporation, U.S.A. 
Olive Bridge Fund Inc. 
Outdoor Advertising Association of 

New Jersey 
Palisades Foundation, Inc. 
The Park Foundation 
Patcraft Mills 
Peretz Fund of the Combined Jewish 

Philanthropies of Greater Boston, 

Pfizer International, Inc. 
The Pioneer Foundation 
Mr. M. P. Potamkin 
PPG Industries, Inc. 
Frederick Henry Prince Trust 7/9/47 
Procter & Gamble Fund 
Propeller Club of Port Everglades 

Propeller Club of Houston 
Propeller Club Port of New York 
Reynolds Metals Company 
Miss Esther M. Ridder 
The Ridgefield Foundation 
The Riggs National Bank of 

Washington, D.C. 
Josephine C. Robinson Foundation 
Mr. Steven Rockefeller 
Madame Augusto Rosso 
Charles E. Sampson Memorial Fund 
Mr. A. A. Seeligson, Jr. 
Miss Gertrude Hochschild Sergievsky 
The Sidney Printing and Publishing 

Sign & Display Industry Promotion 

Mr. and Mrs. Leonard L. Silverstein 
Charles E. Smith Family Foundation 
Sperry Rand Corporation 
The Seth Sprague Educational and 

Charitable Foundation 
Standard Oil Company of California 
Stauffer Chemical Company 
Miss Elizabeth Stein 
Mrs. Matthew W. Stirling 
Stroheim & Romann 
Mr. and Mrs. E. Hadley Stuart, Jr. 
Mary Horner Stuart Foundation 
Sumner Gerard Foundation 
The Symonds Foundation 
Mrs. Carola Terwilliger 
Time Incorporated 
Todd Shipyards Corporation 
Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. 
Transportation Institute 
Mr. John J. Trelawney 
T.R.W. Foundation, Inc. 
Marcia Brady Tucker Foundation, Inc. 
Union Oil Company of California 
Upper Mississippi Towing 

U.S. Independent Telephone 

The Valley Line Company 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Waaland 
Mr. Richard W. Weatherhead 
Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation 

50 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

$1,000 or more — continued 

Willcox, Baringer 
F. W. Woolworth Co. 
World Sign Associates 

Charles W. Wright Foundation of 
Badger Meter, Inc. 

$500 or more: 

Mr. and Mrs. M. Clay Adams 

American Honda Motor Co., Inc. 

Mr. William S. Anderson 

Mrs. Anna Bing Arnold 

Mr. James C. Barbour 

The Becton, Dickinson Foundation 

Mr. Arthur H. Bissell, Jr. 

Mr. George S. Breidenback 

Brilliant Electric Signs, Inc. 

Mr. John Lee Bunce 

Mr. and Mrs. Emile L. Cahn 

Campbell Barge Line 

Dr. and Mrs. Haig Carapetyan 

Mr. and Mrs. Collins L. Carter 

Miss Ida L. Clement 

Cord Foundation 

Corning Glass Works Foundation 

Mr. and Mrs. Fred W. Corwin 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank Devlin 

Mr. and Mrs. Bern Dibner 

Mr. and Mrs. John V. Disney 

Mrs. William Doniger 

Mr. and Mrs. Maitland Edey 

E. H. Edwards Company 

Mr. and Mrs. Malcom Farmer 

Dr. Martin B. Flamm 

Dr. and Mrs. Robert Fox 

Mr. James C. Frits 

Colonel and Mrs. Robert W. Fuller III 

Mr. and Mrs. Milton M. Gatch 

General Stevedores, Inc. 

The Rev. and Mrs. C. Leslie Glenn 

Miss Anne Golovin 

The Goodyear Tire and Rubber 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Grant, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Greensfelder 
Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Harvey 
Miss Gertrude Heare 
The Sidney L. Hechinger Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. Frank C. Henderson 
Mrs. Amy E. Higgins 
Dr. J. Raymond Hinshaw 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas F. Hogan 

Mr. and Mrs. Frederick D. Houghton 

Mrs. Jaquelin H. Hume 

Mrs. Dorothy P. Jackson 

Mrs. Howell E. Jackson 

Mr. and Mrs. Evan E. James 

Mr. and Mrs. T. Frank James, Jr. 

Fred S. James & Co. of New York, Inc. 

Mr. William R. Jamison 

Misses Beryle Jeter and Helen Jeter 

Katzenberger Foundation, Inc. 

The M. W. Kellogg Company 

Atwater Kent Foundation, Inc. 

Mr. Lawrence E. Korwin 

Miss Marguerite LeLaurin 

Mr. and Mrs. Lee T. Lincoln 

Louchheim Philanthropic Fund 

Mr. and Mrs. Lealon Martin 

Maxon Marine Industries, Inc. 

Mr. and Mrs. John Mayer 

Mr. Joe D. McCain 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry R. Mecinski 

Melweb Signs, Inc. 

Mr. and Mrs. Herbert L. Meschke 

Mitchell, Hutchins Inc. 

Ms. Anne M. Monteno 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Mueller 

Mr. and Mrs. Nathan D. Munro 

Mr. and Mrs. Corneal B. Myers 

National Bank of Detrot 

National Capital Shell Club 

National Electric Sign Association, 

Southeast Region 
Ogden Marine, Inc. 
Mr. Mandell J. Ourisman 
Outdoor Advertising Association of 

Outdoor Advertising Association of 

New York 
Outdoor Advertising Association of 

Mr. and Mrs. George Page 
Mr. and Mrs. Jules J. Paglin 

Financial Report I 51 

$500 or more — continued 

Mr. and Mrs. Clarence M. Pierce 
Propeller Club of the United States, 

Port of Boston, Inc. 
Propeller Club of United States, Port 

of Jacksonville, Florida 
Propeller Club of Norfolk 
Propeller Club of the United States, 

Port of Portland, Me. 
Propeller Club of the United States, 

Port of Savannah 
Propeller Club of the United States 

Port of the Twin Cities, Minn. 
Revlon International Corporation 
Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Risenpart 
Miss Eileen Rockefeller 
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel R. Rosenthal 
Mr. and Mrs. Donald M. Ross 
Mr. and Mrs. Rucker Ryland 
Honorable Herbert Salzman 
Dr. and Mrs. J. Albert Sanford 
Mr. and Mrs. Carl L. Selden 

Mr. Sidney N. Shure 

Mr. Stephen Sloan 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles C. Spink 

The Starr Foundation 

Mr. and Mrs. Morgan Stedman 

SYBRON Corporation 

Mr. and Mrs. L. K. Thompson, Jr. 

Miss Jeanne L. Tillotson 

Mr. John B. Trevor, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Christopher Tunnard 

Mrs. Virginia B. Wajno 

The Raymond John Wean Foundation 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert M. 

Mr. Stephen Weil 
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert A. Whiting 
Mr. and Mrs. Howard C. Wiedemann 
Mrs. Anthony T. Wilson 
Mr. and Mrs. James A. Wise 
Mr. and Mrs. John O. Zimmerman 

We also gratefully acknowledge other contributions in excess of 
$200,000 received from approximately 4,000 contributors in 1976. 

52 / Smithsonian Year 1976 





The Board of Regents 
Smithsonian Institution: 

We have examined the balance sheet of the Trust Funds (formerly 
designated as Private Funds) of Smithsonian Institution as of Sep- 
tember 30, 1976 and the related statement of changes in fund 
balances for the fifteen months then ended. Such statements do 
not include the accounts of the National Gallery of Art, the John 
F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, nor other departments, 
bureaus and operations administered by the Institution under 
Federal appropriations as detailed in note 2 to the financial state- 
ments. Our examination was made in accordance with generally 
accepted auditing standards, and accordingly included such tests of 
the accounting records and such other auditing procedures as we 
considered necessary in the circumstances. 

In our opinion, the aforementioned financial statements present 
fairly the financial position of the Trust Funds of Smithsonian In- 
stitution at September 30, 1976 and the changes in its fund balances 
for the fifteen months then ended, in conformity with generally 
accepted accounting principles applied on a basis consistent with 
that of the preceding year. 


December 3, 1976 

Financial Report I 53 

Balance Sheet 

September 30, 1976 (with comparative figures at June 30, 1975) 

Assets 1976 1975 



In U. S. Treasury $ 820,381 543,741 

In banks and on hand 694,934 234,479 

Total cash 1,515,315 778,220 

Investments (note 3) 8,149,723 10,149,875 

Receivables : 

Accounts and notes, less allowance for doubtful 

accounts of $446,000 ($340,000 in 1975) 4,821,815 1,882,057 

Advances — travel and other 448,200 454,775 

Unbilled costs and fees — grants and contracts . . 2,219,357 2,271,060 

Due from agency funds - 246,032 

Total receivables 7,489,372 4,853,924 

Inventories 1,937,426 1,118,688 

Prepaid expenses 951,127 462,278 

Deferred expenses 2,482,308 1,749,229 

Capitalized improvements and equipment, used in 

income producing activities, net of accumulated 

depreciation and amortization of $724,198 

($537,538 in 1975) 1,069,862 597,610 

Total current funds $23,595,133 19,709,824 


Cash, net of receivables and payables on securities 

transactions 437,312 41,063 

Notes receivable 46,169 48,354 

Due from current funds 553,725 316,043 

Investments (note 3) 40,296,458 40,015,177 

Loan to U. S. Treasury in perpetuity at 6% 1,000,000 1,000,000 

Total endowment and similar funds $42,333,664 41,420,637 


Due from current funds 41,836 461,266 

Real estate (note 4) 9,875,562 6,230,034 

Total plant funds $ 9,917,398 6,691,300 


Investments 10,000 10,000 

Due from current funds 371,990 386,507 

Total agency funds $ 381,990 396,507 

See accompanying notes to financial statements. 

Liabilities and Fund Balances 1976 


Note payable — secured $ - 

Accounts payable and accrued liabilities 2,770,747 

Due to plant funds 41,836 

Due to agency funds 371,990 

Due to endowment and similar funds 553,725 

Deferred income: 

Magazine subscriptions 7,855,793 

Other 1,354,519 

Total liabilities 

Fund balances: 

General purpose 

Special purpose 

Total unrestricted 


Total fund balances 

Total current funds 


Fund balances: 


Quasi-endowment : 



Total quasi-endowment 

Total endowment and similar funds 


Mortgage notes payable (note 4) 

Accrued liabilities 

Fund balances: 
Acquisition fund: 

Unrestricted 37,499 

Restricted 685 

Investment in plant 9,670,740 

Total plant funds $ 9,917,398 


Due to current funds - 

Deposits held in custody for others 381,990 

Total agency funds $ 381,990 










































Statement of Changes in Fund Balances 

Fifteen Months ended September 30, 1976 


Auxiliary enterprises revenue $34,887,301 

Federal grants and contracts 15,507,598 

Investment income (net of $136,759 management and 

custodian fees) 

Gains (losses) on sale of securities 

Gifts, bequests and foundation grants 

Additions to equity in real estate 

Rentals, fees and commissions 2,010,095 2,010,095 

Other— net 940,230 254,586 

















Total revenue and other additions 61,901,669 39,084,707 


Research and educational expenditures 21,776,720 1,688,924 

Administrative expenditures 5,733,615 1,945,545 

Auxiliary enterprises expenditures 28,930,162 28,930,162 

Expended for real estate and equipment 40,283 

Retirement of indebtedness - - 

Interest on indebtedness - - 

Total expenditures and other deductions 56,480,780 32,564,631 


Mandatory — principal and interest on notes (81,708) (81,708) 

Portion of investment gain appropriated 555,074 86,060 

For plant acquisition (2,631,886) (2,631,886) 

Income added to endowment principal (158,089) - 

Appropriated as quasi-endowment (1,793,361) (1,776,316) 

For designated purposes - (392,417) 

Endowment released 18,793 - 

Net increase in auxiliary activities - - 

Total transfers among funds — additions (deductions) . . (4,091,177) (4,796,267) 

Net increase (decrease) for the period 1,329,712 1,723,809 

Fund balances at lune 30, 1975 9,316,811 4,838,530 

Fund balances at September 30, 1976 $10,646,523 6,562,339 

See accompanying notes to financial statements. 

56 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Current funds 


General Auxiliary Special 

purpose activities purpose 



and similar 


Plant funds 

Acquisition in plant 

- 34,257,621 






















































































































































Financial Report I 57 


Notes to Financial Statements 

September 30, 1976 

1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and General Information 

a. The statement of changes in fund balances reflects transactions for the 
fifteen months ended September 30, 1976, as a result of a change in the 
Institution's fiscal year from June 30 to September 30. 

b. Accrual Basis — The financial statements of Smithsonian Institution — Trust 
Funds (previously designated as Private Funds) (note 2) have been pre- 
pared on the accrual basis, except for depreciation of plant fund assets as 
explained in note l(i) below, and are in conformity with generally accepted 
accounting principles included in the American Institute of Certified Public 
Accountants Audit Guide "Audits of Colleges and Universities." 

c. Current funds include capitalized improvements and equipment used in 
income-producing activities having a net carrying value of $1,069,862 and 
$597,610 at September 30, 1976 and June 30, 1975, respectively. Current 
funds used to finance the acquisition of plant assets and for provisions for 
debt amortization and interest are accounted for as transfers to the plant 

Separate sub-fund groups of current unrestricted funds have been reflected 
in the statement of changes in fund balances for auxiliary activities 
(representing primarily the revenue and expenditures of the Smithsonian 
Associates program, including the Smithsonian Magazine, and museum 
shop sales) and Special Purposes (representing internally segregated funds 
for certain designated purposes). 

d. Fund Accounting — In order to ensure observance of limitations and re- 
strictions placed on the use of the resources available to the Institution, 
the accounts of the Institution are maintained in accordance with the 
principles of "fund accounting." This is the procedure by which resources 
for various purposes are classified for accounting and reporting purposes 
into funds that are in accordance with activities or objectives specified. 
Separate accounts are maintained for each fund; however, in the accom- 
panying financial statements, funds that have similar characteristics have 
been combined into fund groups. Accordingly, all financial transactions 
have been recorded and reported by fund group. 

Within each fund group, fund balances restricted by outside sources are so 
indicated and are distinguished from unrestricted funds allocated to specific 
purposes by action of the governing board. Externally restricted funds may 
only be utilized in accordance with the purposes established by the source 
of such funds and are in contrast with unrestricted funds over which the 
governing board retains full control to use in achieving any of its in- 
stitutional purposes. 

Endowment funds are subject to the restrictions of gift instruments re- 
quiring in perpetuity that the principal be invested and the income only be 

58 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

utilized. Also classified as endowment funds are gifts which will allow the 
expenditure of principal but only under certain specified conditions. 

While quasi-endowment funds have been established by the governing 
board for the same purposes as endowment funds, any portion of such 
funds may be expended. Restricted quasi-endowment funds represent gifts 
for restricted purposes where there is no stipulation that the principal be 
maintained in perpetuity or for a period of time, but the governing board 
has elected to invest the principal and expend only the income for the 
purpose stipulated by the donor. 

All gains and losses arising from the sale, collection, or other disposition of 
investments and other noncash assets are accounted for in the fund which 
owned such assets. Ordinary income derived from investments, receivables, 
and the like, is accounted for in the fund owning such assets, except for 
income derived from investments of endowment and similar funds, which 
income is accounted for in the fund to which it is restricted or, if unre- 
stricted, as revenues in unrestricted current funds. 

All other unrestricted revenue is accounted for in the unrestricted current 
fund. Restricted gifts, grants, endowment income, and other restricted 
resources are> accounted for in the appropriate restricted funds. 

e. Investments are recorded at cost or fair market value at date of acquisi- 
tion when acquired by gift. 

f. Inventories are carried at lower of average cost or net realizable value. 

g. Income and expenses in respect to the Institution's magazine and asso- 
ciates' activities are deferred and taken into income and expense over the 
applicable periods and are reported in the activities section of the current 
unrestricted funds. 

h. The Institution utilizes the "total return" approach to investment manage- 
ment of endowment funds and quasi-endowment funds. Under this ap- 
proach, the total investment return is considered to include realized and 
unrealized gains and losses in addition to interest and dividends. In apply- 
ing this approach, it is the Institution's policy to provide 4V2% of the five 
year average of the market value of each fund (adjusted for gifts and 
transfers during this period) as being available for current expenditures; 
however, where the market value of the assets of any endowment fund is 
less than 110% of the historic dollar value (value of gifts at date of 
donation) the amount provided is limited to only interest and dividends 

i. Capitalized improvements and equipment used in income-producing activi- 
ties purchased with Trust Funds are capitalized in the current unre- 
stricted fund at cost (see note 1(c)), and are depreciated on a straight-line 
basis over their estimated useful lives of five to ten years. Depreciation 
expense of $186,660 for 1976 is reflected in the expenditures of the current 

Real estate (land and buildings) are recorded in the plant fund at cost, to 
the extent that restricted or unrestricted funds were expended therefor, 
or appraised value at date of gift, except for gifts of certain islands in 
Chesapeake Bay and the Carnegie Mansion, which have been recorded 
at nominal values. Depreciation on buildings is not recorded. 

Financial Report I 59 

All the other land, buildings, fixtures and equipment (principally acquired 
with Federal funds), works of art, living or other specimens are not re- 
flected in the accompanying financial statements. 

j. The agency funds group consists of funds held by the Institution as custo- 
dian or fiscal agent for others. 

k. Pension costs are funded as accrued. 

1. The Institution has a number of contracts with the U. S. Government, 
which primarily provide for cost reimbursement to the Institution. Contract 
revenues are recognized as expenditures are incurred. 

2. Related Activities 

The Trust Funds reflect the receipt and expenditure of funds obtained from 
private sources, from Federal grants and contracts and from certain activi- 
ties related to the operations of the Institution. 

Federal appropriations, which are not reflected in the accompanying 
financial statements, provide major support for the operations and ad- 
ministration of the educational and research programs of the Institution's 
many museums, art galleries and other bureaus, as well as for the main- 
tenance and construction of related buildings and facilities. In addition, 
land, buildings and other assets acquired with Federal funds are not re- 
flected in the accompanying financial statements. 

The following Federal appropriations were received by the Institution for 
the fifteen months ended September 30, 1976 and the twelve months 
ended June 30, 1975. 

1976 1975 

Operating funds $106,654,000 72,511,000 

Special foreign currency program 500,000 2,000,000 

Construction funds 13,922,000 17,910,000 

$121,076,000 92,421,000 

The Institution provides fiscal and administrative services to certain 
separately incorporated organizations on which certain officials of the In- 
stitution serve on the governing boards. The amounts paid to the Institu- 
tion by these organizations for the aforementioned services, together with 
rent for Institution facilities occupied, etc., totaled approximately $466,000 
for the fifteen months ended September 30, 1976. The following sum- 
marizes the approximate expenditures of these organizations for the fifteen 
months ended September 30, 1976, as reflected in their individual financial 
statements and which are not included in the accompanying financial state- 
ments of the Institution: 

Smithsonian Research Foundation $2,500,000 

Smithsonian Science Information Exchange . 2,900,000 

Reading is Fundamental, Inc 650,000 

Center for Natural Areas, Inc 420,000 

60 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

3. Investments 

Quoted market values and carrying values of investments (all marketable 
securities) of the funds indicated were as follows: 

September 30, 1976 June 30, 1975 

Carrying Market Carrying Market 
value value value value 

Current funds $ 8,149,723 8,093,625 10,149,875 10,083,444 

Endowment and similar 

funds 40,296,458 42,667,967 40,015,177 40,532,248 

Total investments $48,446,181 50,761,592 50,165,052 50,615,692 

Total investment performance is summarized below: 

Net Cains (Losses) 

Current Endowment and 
funds similar funds Total 

Unrealized gains (losses) : 

September 30, 1976 $(56,098) 2,371,509 2,315,411 

June 30, 1975 (66,431) 517,071 450,640 

Unrealized net gains for period 10,333 1,854,438 1,864,771 

Realized net gain (losses) for period . 2,303 (533,929) (531,626) 

Total net gains for period $ 12,636 1,320,509 1,333,145 

Substantially all of the investments of the endowment and similar funds 
are pooled on a market value basis (consolidated fund) with each in- 
dividual fund subscribing to or disposing of units on the basis of the value 
per unit at market value at the beginning of the calendar quarter within 
which the transaction takes place. Of the total units each having a market 
value of $103.69 ($102.61 in 1975), 335,954 units were owned by endow- 
ment, and 79,520 units by quasi-endowment at September 30, 1976. 

The following tabulation summarizes the changes in the pooled invest- 
ments during the fifteen months ended September 30, 1976: 

Carrying Market value 

value Market per unit 

September 30, 1976 $40,720,429 43,079,172 103.69 

June 30, 1975 40,063,092 40,569,918 102.61 

Increase $ 657,337 2,509,254 1.08 

4. Mortgage Notes Payable 

The mortgage notes payable are secured by first deeds of trust on property 
acquired in connection with the Chesapeake Bay Center. The details of the 
mortgage notes payable are as follows: 

Financial Report I 61 

2976 2975 

Mortgage note, payable in semiannual installments of 
$13,300, plus interest at the prevailing prime rate 
at the due date of the installment payment but 

not less than 8%, due July 1, 1980 $106,400 146,300 

6% mortgage note payable, due in monthly 
installments of $451 including interest, due 

November 1, 1989 28,422 33,418 

6% mortgage note, payable in semiannual 

installments of $10,000, plus interest, due 

November 7, 1979 70,000 90,000 

$204,822 269,718 

5. Pension Plan 

The Institution has a contributory pension plan providing for the pur- 
chase of retirement annuity contracts for those employees meeting certain 
age and length of service requirements who elect to be covered under the 
plan. Under terms of the plan, the Institution contributes the amount 
necessary to bring the total contribution to 12% of the participants' com- 
pensation subject to social security taxes and to 17% of the participants' 
compensation in excess of that amount. The total pension expense for the 
fifteen months ended September 30, 1976 was $1,404,788. 

6. Income Taxes 

The Institution has been recognized as exempt from income taxes as a 
nonprofit organization described in Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal 
Revenue Code. It is the opinion of the Institution that it is also exempt 
from taxation as an instrumentality of the United States as described in 
Section 501(c)(1) of the Code. Recognition of this dual status will be 
sought from the Internal Revenue Service. Should the Institution's position 
not prevail, income taxes in a substantial amount might be imposed on cer- 
tain income of the Institution, under provisions of the Internal Revenue 
Code dealing with unrelated business income as defined therein. 

62 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Visitors show keen interest in Apollo lunar samples in "The Moon: Its Rocks 
and History" exhibition, which opened in June 1976. (Photo credit: Chip Clark) 

Smithsonian Year • 7276 

The bicentennial year has brought a greater recognition among 
the general public of our common heritage; it has also intensified 
doubts prevalent in this country during the past decade concerning 
cherished ideas and institutions. Many organizations and beliefs 
have adjusted to the times or simply disappeared. Throughout this 
period of uncertainty and skepticism the Smithsonian has been will- 
ing to accept divergent viewpoints and in its research and in its 
exhibits has adhered to a truthful portrayal of our universe and of 
man's role in its development. This is a proper function for the 
Smithsonian and one which under no circumstances should be 

Due to its unique nature, the Smithsonian is in a position not 
only to chronicle the past but to chart the future toward the third 
century of American development. The conquest of air and space 
which we celebrate in the new National Air and Space Museum 
and the work of our own scientists at the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory in Cambridge will be instrumental in unlocking the 
mysteries of the universe. While progress is assuredly slow at times, 
no one in Philadelphia in 1876 would have thought that today we 
would have reached the Moon and Mars, with promise that by the 
last quarter of this century the outposts of our own galaxy and 
beyond will be accessible. 

The serious question of our ability to sustain life on earth at the 
time of our Tricentennial is a problem to which we must address 
ourselves. Depletion of our floral and faunal heritage is of particu- 
lar concern to the National Zoological Park and the National 
Museum of Natural History. It is hoped that with increased atten- 


tion and research on endangered species, especially through pro- 
grams at the Zoo's Conservation and Research Center and the 
National Museum of Natural History's Department of Botany, we 
will be able eventually to repatriate such species to the wild with 
practical plans for their rational management. 

Health problems continue to plague the world, and scientists at 
our Tropical Research Institute are studying how the life cycle and 
behavior of tropical wild animals relate to human health. Studies 
have already linked the sloth as a possible vector in the spread of a 
form of encephalitis and yellow fever. In conjunction with health 
officials, our scientists hope to provide clues which will solve the 
riddle of these debilitating diseases. At our Radiation Biology 
Laboratory, scientists are studying the problems of ultraviolet light 
and its relationship to skin cancer and plant growth. Further 
research on ultraviolet light should lead to greater food production 
and lessen the risk of skin cancer. 

While we in science will always have our critics and be tempted 
to explore fleeting trends, our hope, and that of the country in our 
third century, is to be concerned with the long term. Through the 
stabilizing influence of such institutions as the Smithsonian, our 
society is protected against temporarily fashionable research, so 
that, thanks to our firm resolve, forthcoming generations may 
expect a better world and the realization of many of the dreams 
of our forefathers. 

Center for the Study of Man 

Research on American Indian problems has been a prime activity 
over the past year at the Center for the Study of Man. Investigation 
of the American Indian ecumenical movement continued, with 
invited attendance at the Southwest Regional Meeting at the Navajo 
Community College and at the general meeting on the Stony Indian 
Reserve in Morley, Canada. The Center was also represented by 
invitation at the first meeting of the Fourth World Tribal Peoples 
in Port Alberni, British Columbia, Canada. 

The Handbook of North American Indians is a comprehensive 
encyclopedia written from the perspectives of anthropology, his- 
tory, and linguistics. Hundreds of scholars from all over the world 

66 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

have submitted articles for this twenty-volume work, which is now 
being assembled by a staff under General Editor William C. Sturte- 
vant, Curator of North American Ethnology in the National Mu- 
seum of Natural History. 

Most volumes will be studies of tribal culture and history by area, 
e.g., the Northeast, the Southwest, and the Plains. Several others are 
thematically organized, e.g., technology and the visual arts, and the 
history of Indian-White relations. Volumes on California and the 
Northeast are expected to appear in 1977. 


Founded a year ago by Dr. E. Richard Sorenson "as a means to 
forge beyond the too narrow view of the human condition as bio- 
logical organization or collections of artifacts," the National 
Anthropological Film Center is now taking advantage of the 
scholarly potential of the visual media to explore and reveal the 
range of human qualities and behavior in our diverse and changing 
world. Bridging science and the humanities, it draws upon the ma- 
terials and methods of both. 

Research this year centered on Dr. Sorenson's Study of Child 
Behavior and Human Development in Cultural Isolates. As pat- 
terns of behavior and interaction take hold of and mold a growing 
child, they can reveal how basic human potential may respond to 
various conditions of life and how the patterned responses char- 
acteristic of a culture emerge. 

Using techniques of phenomenological inquiry developed by Dr. 
Sorenson to obtain data suitable for study without first having to 
decide what might be important or significant, the Center is now 
examining child behavior and human development in isolated soci- 
eties in New Guinea, Brazil, Micronesia, Afghanistan, and Mexico. 

To sample as broad a range of human expression as possible, a 
World Ethnographic Film Sample is being planned to preserve 
examples of the range and variety of human life. Bodies of film 
already made are being searched out, and new collaborative film 
studies of existing cultural survivals are aimed at filling the gaps in 
the range of cultural expressions of humankind. Special attention is 
being given to threatened social and cultural enclaves which repre- 
sent vanishing or changing expressions of human organization and 

Science I 67 

With great freedom bestowed on them to explore objects and places at will, 
the Fore children of New Guinea reacted to unanticipated, new, or surprising 
occurrences by seeking bodily association with others — similarly to the way 
they learned new things as infants. To Fore infants and toddlers, this physical 
contact was a sanctuary of nurture and warmth, in which curiosity and in- 
terest could be safely maintained. Supplying cues to appropriate response, 
this sanctuary was also a retreat when the children's cognitive or response 
capabilities were overtaxed. Research film analysis by Dr. Sorenson showed 
this pattern persists throughout childhood. This pattern of response to the 
novel or unknown left the freely ranging young child relatively safe in his 
exploratory quests. His automatic reaction to novelty was to approach it in 
the company of a "more knowledgeable" hamlet-mate. (Photo credit: E. Rich- 
ard Sorenson) 


A National Research Film Collection is being developed as a 
means of preserving the irreplaceable film records which document 
divergent expressions of human potential, organization, and be- 
havior in natural, social, and cultural contexts. 

A temperature/humidity-controlled film vault has been installed, 
thanks to a gift from Drs. Jerry and Lucy Waletzky and the Na- 
tional Endowment for the Humanities; and the developing film 
collection is now being preserved at 40° F. and 35 percent relative 
humidity. The capacity of the vault — 2,500,000 feet of 16 mm film — 
will allow continued accessioning for several years. 

This year, 312,538 feet of film were accessioned into the National 
Research Film Collection, bringing the total number of feet to 
554,338. This growing body of irreplaceable documents represents 
aspects of life in Afghanistan, Bolivia, Brazil, the Cook Islands, 
Ghana, India, Mexico, Micronesia, Nepal, New Guinea, the New 
Hebrides, and the United States. 

In an effort to improve location and identification of existing an- 
thropological films and to help establish priorities for urgent 
anthropological filming, a central National Union Catalog of an- 
thropological films is being developed. Anthropological film his- 
torian Emilie de Brigard is organizing this catalog so that it will be 
compatible with existing indexes to the anthropological literature 
and ethnological collections. 

Developed from the small Ethnofilm Training Program for Devel- 
oping Nations initiated two years ago by a grant from the Wenner- 
Gren Foundation, the Ethnofilm Training Program has been designed 
to train students to obtain film samples, suitable for research, of 
human behavior of vanishing and changing cultures. Based on the 
belief that individuals from other cultures enrich such samples, 
because of their different, often more expert, cultural perceptions, 
the Program purposely involves members of non-Western cultures. 


The Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies (rues) 
was founded in 1973 as a unit within the Smithsonian Institution's 
Center for the Study of Man. The mission of rues includes research, 
dissemination, stimulation, and facilitation of interdisciplinary 

Science I 69 

study, and consultative services on the broad range of knowledge 
of United States immigration. 

rues is unique among institutions studying immigration in at least 
two ways: (1) stress on the new immigrants entering the United 
States since 1965, and (2) explicit inclusion of American extrater- 
ritorial jurisdictions among those topics studied. Such a focus 
complements the Research Institute's goal of achieving a fuller 
understanding of the new immigration, its patterns and character- 
istics, and its ongoing impact on American society and discernible 
implications for the future of the international community. 

Since its inception, the Research Institute has provided consulta- 
tive services, been host to and advised research fellows, and spon- 
sored activities aimed at fostering in-depth study of issues related 
to international migration, ethnicity, development, and other critical 
areas, as they influence domestic and international relations. 
Within the Smithsonian, rues personnel have contributed to the 
activities of the Interdisciplinary Communications Program, the Di- 
vision of Performing Arts, the Woodrow Wilson International 
Center for Scholars, the Office of Symposia and Seminars, the 
Smithsonian Associates program, and the Office of Academic 

Planning and evaluative services have also been provided to pub- 
lic and private organizations concerned with national and interna- 
tional programs and activities. Among these organizations are: 

Association of Caribbean Universities and Research Institutes (unica) 

Carnegie Foundation 

Ford Foundation 

House Subcommittee on Inter-American Affairs 

National Endowment for the Humanities 

National Institute of Mental Health 

National Urban League 

Organization of American States 

Phelps-Stokes Fund, Washington Bureau 

In observance of the Bicentennial, many Smithsonian Institution 
units have emphasized such subjects as immigration, ethnicity, cul- 
tural pluralism in the evolution of American society, and techno- 
logical and cultural developments, rues has been one of the few 
units within the Smithsonian Institution to stress a truly contempo- 

70 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

■ ] 

} ll 



* ' h 


Participants are in deep discussion at the Ethnicity and Ethnos Seminar held 
by the Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies on November 7, 
1975, at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Approxi- 
mately sixty-five representatives of academia, government, and the mass 
media attended the seminar. 

rary phenomenon — post-1965 immigration to the United States and 
its various implications. 

As its contribution to the Bicentennial, rues has planned a two- 
year activity aimed at the convening of a national conference on 
the new immigration to the United States and the publication of a 
technically definitive volume on the same subject. The conference 
will combine public panel discussions and selective scholarly semi- 
nars. The panels will discuss policy issues, such as refugees and 
illegals, and will present progress reports on research concerning 
policy-oriented aspects of the new immigration. The scholars will 
participate in two sequences of seminars, on international and do- 
mestic implications of the new migration. In addition to national and 
international dignitaries, key participants will include important 
academicians, researchers, and policymakers. 

In order to realize more effectively its goals for the Bicentennial, 
rues has established regional ad hoc committees of individuals to 
assist the rues staff in the design of the Bicentennial program. These 
individuals are highly respected professionals from the diplomatic 

Science I 71 

corps, private industry, academia, government, and other public in- 
ternational and national agencies, as well as public-interest groups. 
They are chosen on the basis of reputation for knowledge of rele- 
vant literature, professional experience, or participation in the new 
immigration. These ad hoc advisory committees embody many 
racial and ethnic groups and, as an added dimension, bring to bear 
interdisciplinary viewpoints on the formulation of programs or ac- 
tivities. In addition to Washington, D.C., sites visited by the riies 
staff as part of its work with these groups were: Miami, Florida; 
San Juan, Puerto Rico; St. Thomas, Virgin Islands; San Francisco, 
Los Angeles, and Camp Pendleton, California; and Toronto, 
Ontario, Canada. 

As part of its preliminary activities for the Bicentennial, riies 
planned a series of mini-conferences. These mini-conferences had 
several objectives: to stimulate cross-country enthusiasm for the 
general topic; to identify prospective participants and subthemes; 
and to establish working ties with organizations and agencies with 
special interest in the new immigration. 

riies also sponsored selected individuals to participate in panel 
discussions on "International Immigration as a Policy Issue," held 
at the International Studies Association's Annual Convention in 
Toronto, Canada. The riies session, which stressed Western Hem- 
isphere immigration, included papers on the comparison of United 
States and Canadian immigration policies, Third World immigra- 
tion, and analyses of Caribbean emigration and immigration. 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 

In the spring of 1976, Dr. J. Kevin Sullivan was appointed Director 
of the Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies (cbces). 
Before joining the Smithsonian Institution in 1971, Dr. Sullivan 
spent seven years with the United States Fish and Wildlife Service 
in Michigan, where he was involved in environmental studies on the 
Great Lakes and the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. 

Associate Directors for Science and Education were also 
appointed in 1976. Dr. David Correll, formerly a research chemist 
at the Smithsonian Institution's Radiation Biology Laboratory, was 
named Associate Director for Scientific Programs, and Dr. John 

72 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Falk, an ecologist from the University of California, Berkeley, was 
named Associate Director for Education Programs. 

Activities at the Chesapeake Bay Center include ecological re- 
search and education programs. Principal themes in research include 
comparative ecology of terrestrial communities, with emphasis on 
the effects of past land use. Estuarine research is concerned with 
the response of biological populations to physical and chemical 
factors. The integration of these two programs is accomplished by 
an extensive program of monitoring and analysis of runoff from the 
Rhode River watershed through a system of permanent gauging 


The long-range goal of the Upland Ecology Subprogram is to gain 
a better understanding of the comparative ecology of the various 
land uses found on the Rhode River watershed. This past year's 
participants in the Upland Ecology Subprogram, led by J. Lynch and 
B. Tremper, are concentrating their efforts on the characterization 
of nine intensive-study sites, each of which is 1 to 10 hectares in 
size. These sites were selected on the basis of past land use, time 
period since abandonment, and the types of plant communities 
presently found on the sites. This research is supplemented by a 
land-use history project in which deed records and oral histories 
are being used to develop a detailed understanding of past land-use 
practices on sites undergoing contemporary comparative research. 
The investigations are analyzing population data on birds, small 
mammals, ants, understory arthropods, and litter arthropods. 

These study sites are representative of successional stages. For 
example, two sites have never been clearcut or burned since coloni- 
zation in the 1650s. Both are characteristic of mature plant com- 

In comparison, another site is a previously cultivated field which 
was abandoned only six years ago. The soils of this site are 
relatively low in nitrogen. 

In addition to these baseline studies on the animal and plant com- 
munities of each site, Dr. Correll and his colleagues are beginning 
to examine the mechanisms underlying observed distributional 
patterns. Rates of nutrient depletion and pH decrease when land is 
abandoned from agriculture are being studied. An experiment in- 

Science I 73 

One species responsible for a dense dinoflagellate bloom in the Rhode River 
estuary was identified as Prorocentrum mariae-lebouriae. This scanning elec- 
tron micrograph shows its almost spherical, strongly compressed, saucer-shape. 
Its surface has an evenly distributed pattern of small projections and ridges 
at the cell periphery. 

volving the manipulation of nutrient availability in an old forest 
has also been designed, and preliminary survey data are being 
gathered. One goal of this study is to determine whether mineral 
nutrient limitations are the restricting factor for plant species com- 
position and animal population size in southern Maryland forests. 

In addition to studies of the upland sites in the Rhode River 
Watershed, Dr. Patricia Mehlhop has also been conducting studies 
on small-mammal distribution at the Poplar Islands. Owned and ad- 
ministered by the Smithsonian, these small islands are located 2 
miles off the Eastern Shore of Maryland, in the Chesapeake Bay. 

In 1973, Dr. Mehlhop and Sheila Minor surveyed the islands for 
small mammals. They found mammal diversity and populations to 
be very low. Meadow voles were found on two Poplar Islands, and 
Norway rats were found on one. Later in 1973, the Norway rat 
became extinct. Interviews with past residents indicated that other 
mammals, such as squirrels and mice, had once inhabited Poplar. 

74 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

In the watershed subprogram, Drs. Correll, Pierce, Faust, and Wu 
are measuring mass balances for a series of parameters on sub- 
watersheds which vary in size from 2 hectares (5 acres) to 1000 ha 
(2500 acres). A major goal is to determine how land management, 
climate, and other factors influence the movement of materials from 
a watershed into an estuary. 

The watershed of the Rhode River is composed of small basins 
which drain directly or through creeks into the estuary. The basins 
have been mapped according to land use, and instrumented sam- 
pling stations have been constructed to monitor the runoff from 
each basin. These stations record the volume of water discharged 
while taking volume-integrated samples. The runoff is analyzed for 
organic matter, nutrients, bacteria, sediment, cations (including 
heavy metals), and pesticides. Rainwater is also collected and 

Analysis of the 1974 data revealed the following findings: 

1. For the entire year, runoff from residential land contained 
more nitrogen and phosphorus per unit area than runoff from any 
other land-use type. Cultivated cropland had the second highest 
yield rate for these nutrients. The nutrient yield rates for forests 
were consistently low throughout the year. 

2. Rainwater deposited more nitrogen in the estuary than upland 
runoff. For example, rain deposited 4.1 tons of nitrogen in the 
estuary, compared to 3.7 tons of nitrogen from land runoff. 

3. Cropland and pasture are not exporting most of the incoming 
loads of nitrogen to the Rhode River. Substantial amounts are prob- 
ably lost to the atmosphere as nitrogen, ammonia, and nitrogen 
oxides. On the average, farmers applied 0.16 lb. N/acre day to 
cultivated land and 0.13 lb. N/acre day to pasturelands. The yearly 
average loading rates of nitrogen from cropland and pasture were 
0.011 lb. N/acre day and 0.0085 lb. N/acre day, respectively. 

4. Residential land had the highest loading rate of sediment for 
the year, followed by cultivated cropland, pastureland, and forest- 

5. Freshwater upland wet areas were found to be nutrient and 
sediment sinks; average loading rates for wet areas, especially in 
the spring and summer, were negative. 

6. Fecal coliform concentrations in the Rhode River exceeded 
standards for shellfish waters at certain times of the year. This 

Science I 75 

contamination was entirely from runoff and from drainage areas, 
with average densities of only 1.6 animals/acre and 0.8 persons/ 

The watershed program is funded by the National Science Foun- 
dation-Research Applied to National Needs (nsf-rann) through the 
Chesapeake Research Consortium and by the Environmental Pro- 
tection Agency. 

The goal of the estuarine subprogram is to develop a more ade- 
quate understanding of the relationship between biological popula- 
tions of an estuary and physical/chemical factors. Some of the more 
advanced research projects in this subprogram focus on phosphorus 
cycling and flux in an estuarine environment. 

David Correll and Maria Faust have been investigating the role of 
microorganisms in phosphorus cycling. In their research, they 
attempted to distinguish phosphorus-uptake by algae from that by 
bacteria in an estuarine community. Using a differential filtration 
technique to separate the bacterial population from the phytoplank- 
ton, they measured the phosphorus-uptake of each. Monthly sam- 
pling was carried out in the main basin of the Rhode River estuary 
from March 1973 through February 1974. 

The results of these experiments indicated the relative contribu- 
tion of algae and bacteria to phosphorus-uptake with the season. 
During the period from August to May, phosphorus was assimi- 
lated mostly by bacteria, and the algal contribution to phosphorus- 
uptake was less than 6 percent. During June and July, phosphorus- 
uptake by algae increased to 9 percent and 42 percent of total 
phosphorus-uptake, respectively. The bacteria's higher phosphorus- 
uptake throughout the year clearly indicated the importance of 
bacteria as a major recycler of phosphorus in the estuarine environ- 

Nutrient-flux experiments have also been conducted in tidal 
marshes. During 1974, various levels of phosphate were applied to 
a high and low marsh in the Rhode River for a period of three to 
four months. Samples of plant leaves, surface detrital materials, and 
sediment cores at various depth were analyzed for the amount and 
specific activity of various phosphorus fractions. Since the nutrient 
loading included nitrogen in the form of ammonia and nitrate, core 
samples were also analyzed for total nitrogen composition. 

76 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

An important implication of these results is that the contention 
that marshes have considerable value as nutrient-removal systems 
appears to be unfounded, at least for the medium salinity marshes 
of the Chesapeake Bay. 

Another project by M. Faust focused on the survival of Escheri- 
chia coli MC-6, a bacterium of fecal origin, in an estuarine environ- 
ment. The effects were measured of physical parameters on E. coli 
survival in diffusion chambers placed in the Rhode River. Data 
were collected to evaluate the combined efforts of time, water tem- 
perature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and montmorillonite (a type of 
clay particle) on coliform survival. 


During 1976, cbces continued to initiate and expand programs 
aimed at improving the quality and effectiveness of outdoor- 
centered environmental education. 

Initiated in 1975, the teacher-led tour program was designed to 
provide children with outdoor experiences which reinforced or in- 
troduced science concepts. The Center worked closely with the local 
Anne Arundel County School System to develop the following 
teacher-led activities: "Micro-Trails, Macro-Trails" for the first 
grade; "Animal Adaptations: Insects and Spiders" for the second 
and third grades; "Community Comparison: Forest and Old Field" 
and "Estuary Chesapeake" for the fifth and sixth grades; and 
"Seeing the Trees for the Forest: A Census Activity" for the 
seventh and eighth grades. Each activity is outlined in a brochure 
that includes background information for the teacher, objectives 
for the students, a step-by-step procedure section for the class, and 
suggested follow-up activities. 

During the summer of 1976, the Summer Ecology Program was 
expanded and restructured to emphasize community-centered learn- 
ing. For the first time, the Program was conducted in eight different 
locations instead of the Center's research facility. This new approach 
helped familiarize children with the human and natural ecologies 
of their own communities. 

The Work/Learn Program in Environmental Studies, initiated in 
the fall of 1975, is a cooperative education program that provides 
college students with the opportunity to live and work in a research 

Science I 77 

setting. Each participant receives a small stipend, plus living accom- 
modations and may arrange to receive academic credit for work 
completed at the Center. 

Seventeen students were selected to participate in the Program 
during the first year. They worked with cbces's professional staff 
on projects in estuarine and terrestrial ecology, land-use manage- 
ment, and environmental education. 

Another major objective of the Education Program is to convey 
the Center's scientific research findings to management agencies 
and the general public. Recently, public groups have been especially 
interested in obtaining information on the extent of nonpoint source 
pollution from land runoff. Since nonpoint sources of pollution are 
measured and evaluated in the Center's Watershed Research Pro- 
gram, special efforts were made in 1975-1976 to disseminate the 
Center's watershed findings to the public. 

In June 1975, the Center began publishing Rhode River Review, 
a newsletter which summarized on-going cbces research projects and 
activities on a bimonthly basis. Each issue covers major develop- 
ments in the science and education programs and describes staff 
activities. Feature articles are also included on cbces's research find- 
ings and Bay-wide environmental issues. The newsletter has proved 
to be a major means of communication with the surrounding com- 
munity and other regional, state, and national organizations. 

Under a grant from the Edward John Noble Foundation, the 
Center provided support in the form of staff time and expertise to 
citizen organizations throughout the Chesapeake Bay region. Sup- 
port activities for these groups included organizing workshops and 
conferences, developing technical information on environmental 
issues, and helping achieve citizen participation in land- and water- 
quality planning. 

In January 1976, cbces planned and organized a major conference 
on Water Quality Goals for the Chesapeake Bay. Existing water- 
quality conditions in the Bay were described and governmental 
officials outlined federal and state programs that deal with water- 
quality problems in this region. The role of the citizen in achieving 
water-quality goals was also explored. 

In 1976, cbces acquired a 32-foot diesel work boat from the Fort 
Pierce Bureau of the Smithsonian Institution in Florida. 

78 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Fort Pierce Bureau 

The Fort Pierce Bureau has continued to stress its three long-term 
programs, as part of a consortium effort with the Harbor Branch 
Foundation, Incorporated, to study the estuarine and marine en- 
vironments along Florida's east-central coast and adjacent con- 
tinental shelf. These programs are: the Indian River Coastal Zone 
Study, Life History Studies, and Submersible Exploration of the 
East Florida Continental Slope. The initial purpose of these investi- 
gations is to accumulate baseline information by making an inven- 
tory of the aquatic biota and by assessing the environment and 
sources of pollution, in order to predict natural and man-caused 
changes in the Indian River lagoon and offshore continental shelf. 

This past year the Bureau added five personnel to its scientific 
staff; initiated a predoctoral/postdoctoral fellowship program; pro- 
vided an electron-microscope facility for the Life Histories Section 
for Ultrastructural Studies; and remodeled the Smithsonian's Butler 
Building to accommodate eight offices, an air-conditioned room for 
the reference collection of preserved specimens, and a ventilated 
area for the gross sorting of samples. 

The Indian River Coastal Zone Study is investigating the eco- 
logical role of the two primary production bases of the estuary, 
the seagrasses with their epiphytes and the phytoplankton. During 
the past year, 79,000 benthic invertebrates have been collected 
quantitatively from experimental seagrass stations and analyzed for 
information on community structure. Data indicate that benthic 
invertebrates associated with seagrasses of the Indian River are 
heavily preyed upon, and are extremely important to the overall 
food web of the estuarine ecosystem. A total of 278 fish collections 
have added 47 species for waters shallower than 200 meters. An 
innovative drop net was developed to determine fish biomass and 
densities and to compare seagrass-bed community changes with 
respect to water depth. The coastal sabellariid worm reefs of the 
Indian River region were found to have associated decapod and 
stomatopod crustacean communities, consisting of about ninety-six 
species. Grass shrimps were found to form a major component of 
the seagrass and drift-algae communities. 

The Life Histories Program has continued to accumulate baseline 

Science I 79 

Sampling of benthic invertebrates associated with seagrasses at field experi- 
mental site in the Indian River estuary, Florida. Below. The submersible 
Johnson-Sea-Link II leaving her mother ship R/V Johnson to do photographic 
reconnaissance on the ocean floor. Note camera system mounted on bow. 



information on the critical stages in reproduction and development 
of the common species in the region, for potential utilization in 
assessments of environmental stresses and modifications on popula- 
tions of marine organisms. This knowledge of developmental pat- 
tern is basic for evaluation of the effects of environmental factors 
on marine animals, for individuals with highly vulnerable plank- 
tonic larvae are predictably more susceptible to the effects of pollu- 
tants than those with direct development and no planktonic stages. 
Three specialized techniques were devised for the Program this 
year: a quantitative sampling device for collecting sand-dwelling 
sipunculans and polychaetes for population analyses; a culturing 
technique to rear successfully planktonic sipunculan larvae, through 
metamorphosis to adulthood; and a procedure for preparing one- 
micron-thick serial sections of larvae and embryos embedded in 
plastic resins. Six different sipunculan larvae, representing four 
genera, were reared to sexual maturity in the laboratory. One of 
these, common to oceanic plankton, was reared to adulthood and 
spawned gametes which developed to the second larval stage — the 
first-known instance of the successful culturing of a sipunculan 
larva to a gamete-producing mature adult. 

The Submersible Exploration of the East Florida Continental 
Shelf has continued to carry out its dual functions of reconnaissance 
and contribution to the inventory bank of continental-shelf organ- 
isms. Eleven of 14 proposed east-west transects, from 100 feet to 
1000 feet in depth, were completed between Lake Worth and Cape 
Canaveral. These transects have traversed a total of 260 kilometers 
during 68 transect and local reconnaissance dives. Forty-nine lock- 
out dives between 60 feet and 212 feet have collected 97 plant 
species, including at least 6 new records and 2 undescribed species; 
about 230 different invertebrates; and 27 fish species, of which 5 
are new records. Many species of organisms were observed which 
were not collected. 

National Air and Space Museum 

A unique ribbon-cutting ceremony and immediate popularity 
marked the opening of the National Air and Space Museum (nasm), 

Science I 81 


The Air Force precision flying team, the Thunderbirds, make a salutatory 
flight over the new National Air and Space Museum during opening cere- 
monies, July 1, 1976, on the Mall terrace. (Photo credit: Georgette Edwards) 

highlighting the Bicentennial summer at the Smithsonian Insti- 

On opening day, July 1, 1976, President Ford and Vice President 
Rockefeller arrived at the west door of the Museum, where they 
were greeted by Secretary S. Dillon Ripley and Museum Director 
Michael Collins. The party toured the Museum and emerged onto 
the Mall terrace for the ribbon-cutting ceremony just as the Air 
Force precision flying team, the Thunderbirds, made a third saluta- 
tory flight over Jefferson Drive. 

To the accompaniment of the Air Force Band, they joined plat- 
form guests Warren Burger, Chief Justice of the United States 

82 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Left. With obvious delight, President Ford, Vice President Rockefeller, Secre- 
tary S. Dillon Ripley, and Museum Director Michael Collins (reading from 
right to left) tour the National Air and Space Museum on opening day, July 
1, 1976. Right. Crown Prince Harald of Norway (right) listens intently as 
Michael Collins explains an exhibit in the National Air and Space Museum. 
Prince Harald was an honored visitor on July 2, 1976. 

Supreme Court and Chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution; 
Regents of the Smithsonian Senator Frank E. Moss, Mr. William A. 
M. Burden, Mr. Caryl P. Haskins, and Mr. James E. Webb; Senator 
Jennings Randolph, sponsor of the original National Air Museum 
legislation; the Right Reverend William F. Creighton, Episcopal 
Bishop of Washington; Mayor Walter E. Washington; and Dr. 
David Challinor, the Smithsonian's Assistant Secretary for Science. 

After the presentation of colors by the Joint Services Color Guard, 
welcoming speeches were made. Referring to the Museum as "a 
perfect birthday present from the American people to themselves," 
President Ford dedicated the building. 

Symbolically the ribbon for the opening ceremony was bright red, 
white, and blue, and stretched between the jaws of a replica Viking 
spacecraft soil-sampling mechanism similar to one that was to dig 
on the surface of Mars a few weeks later. The taut ribbon awaited 
not a snip of the scissors but a signal from the Viking spacecraft 
approaching Mars. 

After an 18-minute journey of more than 200 million miles, the 
signal from Mars arrived at the Museum, causing the soil-sampling 

Science I 83 

arm to retract. The ribbon fluttered to the ground, burned in half 
by a hot metal coil in the mechanism. 

The completed Museum was then open for the first time. Visitors 
came at such rates that the millionth visitor was welcomed only 
twenty-five days after the door opened and the two millionth after 
only seven weeks. 


July 1, 1976, marked not only the opening of the Museum but also 
the completion of the preparation period of the inaugural exhibition. 
The effort involved appears to have been by far the largest single 
museum-exhibit development program in history, encompassing 
twenty-three major galleries, two presentation centers, and a num- 
ber of smaller areas. Under the direction of Michael Collins, this 
program was supervised by Melvin B. Zisfein, Deputy Director of 
the Museum. Included in this effort were the development of basic 
concepts for each gallery; the preparation of all written material 
(such as all label and audiovisual scripts) needed for gallery design; 
the development of conceptual and detail designs; development of 
all fabrication drawings and specifications; programming and re- 
cording of all presentations; preparation of all plans; and fabrica- 
tion and installation of all exhibit units. 

The galleries and presentation centers that were opened to the 
public on July 1, 1976, occupy a floorspace of some 230,000 square 
feet on two exhibit levels. The galleries are listed below: 

Gallery 100 Milestones of Flight 

Gallery 102 Air Transportation 

Gallery 103 Vertical Flight 

Gallery 104 West Gallery (Early Military Aircraft) 

Gallery 105 General Aviation 

Gallery 106 Exhibition Flight 

Gallery 107 Life in the Universe 

Gallery 108 South Lobby (Murals and Trophy Hall) 

Gallery 109 Flight Testing 

Gallery 110 Satellites 

Gallery 111 Benefits from Flight 

Gallery 112 East Gallery (Lunar Exploration Vehicles) 

Gallery 113 Rocketry and Space Flight 

Gallery 114 Space Hall 

Gallery 203 Sea-Air Operations 

84 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Gallery 205 World War II Aviation 

Gallery 206 Balloons and Airships 

Gallery 207 Air Traffic Control 

Gallery 208 Special Exhibits (Famous "First" Airplanes) 

Gallery 209 World War I Aviation 

Gallery 210 Apollo to the Moon 

Gallery 211 Flight and the Arts 

Gallery 213 Flight Technology 

Einstein Spacearium 

nasm Theater 

Most of the design of these galleries was initiated in fiscal years 
1974 and 1975, while most of the fabrication occurred in fiscal year 
1976. All gallery concepts were developed internally; numerous out- 
side firms, however, were placed under contract to perform portions 
of the detail design and fabrication. 

The nasm exhibits design and fabrication program was closely 
managed by an internal group chaired by the Deputy Director and 
representing all phases of museum operation. A comprehensive 
activity-by-activity schedule was developed for each gallery and a 
Coordinator was assigned to each for control of all administrative 
aspects of the gallery development program. Items requiring action 

Over three million visitors thronged the new National Air and Space Museum 
during the first three months after its luly 1, 1976, opening. 


. 4 ' 

were assigned each week and accounted for the following week. 
The entire program was completed within budget and several days 
ahead of schedule. 

To maximize the reliability and ease of maintenance of the audio- 
visual and electromechanical portions of the exhibits, a Museum 
Automatic Control Center System (maccs) was developed. Con- 
tained in a climate-controlled room in the basement of the Museum, 
maccs is designed to: (1) feed audio and video programs to all gal- 
leries as required; (2) provide switching logic to all exhibit units 
(such as automated shows) requiring it; and (3) maintain a diag- 
nostic surveillance of all exhibit areas to detect malfunctions such 
as film break, delamping, loss of synchronization, overheating, etc., 
and activate a malfunction print-out and alarm when a malfunction 
signal is received. 

maccs is the only facility of its kind in the world. Its use has 
resulted in the need for a maintenance staff approximately one-half 
to one-quarter that of an equivalent museum not comparably 

All of the nasm Departments contributed to the central gallery, 
Number 100, Milestones of Flight — the premier gallery in the 
National Air and Space Museum. Only the most highly significant 
flight vehicles in the national collection qualify for inclusion in this 
gallery. Special recognition is accorded the 1903 Wright Flyer, the 
first airplane capable of sustained powered, controlled, manned 
flight. Also in the Gallery are such historic flight vehicles as The 
Spirit of St. Louis, the Bell X-l, the North American X-15, and 
spacecraft such as the Friendship 7, Gemini 4, and Columbia, the 
Apollo 11 command module that orbited the moon during the first 
manned lunar exploration. Also on exhibit is a lunar rock that 
visitors can examine and touch. 

During 1976, the Departments of Aeronautics, Astronautics, and 
Science and Technology devoted their major efforts to the comple- 
tion of those galleries pertaining to the respective Department's 
specialties. Between July 1, 1975, and July 1, 1976, galleries de- 
veloped from the concept and unit script stage to completion. In 
addition to their normal tasks of research and writing, many 
curators from the Departments were assigned the job of coordinat- 
ing the efforts of the firms engaged in the design and construction 
of the exhibits. 

86 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

The Space Hall features a walkway that permits visitors to walk through the 
spacecraft and see the working and living conditions of the Skylab astronauts. 
Below. A real Apollo Lunar Module, LM-2, is exhibited on the main floor in 
the East Window. Mylar and metal materials covering portions of the lunar 
module are mounted for visitors to touch. 



Suspended high over the visitors, significant transport airplanes are shown 
in the National Air and Space Museum. Below. In the simulated aircraft-car- 
rier hangar deck of the Sea-Air Operations Gallery, Melvin B. Zisfein, Deputy 
Director, and Donald S. Lopez, Assistant Director for Aeronautics, discuss the 
completion of their project. 


Members of the Presentations and Education Division worked with 
other Smithsonian employees to: (1) organize and begin an educa- 
tion program; (2) equip, staff, program, and begin operation of the 
Albert Einstein Spacearium; and (3) equip, staff, and put into opera- 
tion a highly specialized projection theater. All of these programs 
went into full operation the day the Museum opened. 

The year began with twenty-three volunteers in the Education 
Unit. Recruitment during the fall of 1975 multiplied this corps of 
enthusiastic and capable people by a factor of ten. During the first 
half of 1976, 230 recruits completed the training program. About 
two-thirds of them have worked or now work as professionals in 
aerospace fields. Some are pilots; others are aerospace managers, 
scientists, engineers, journalists, and educators; still others are air- 
traffic control workers. 

Volunteers served in many ways, including assisting in offices, 
library work, cataloguing, care and storage of collections, exhibit 
preparation, public information, and museum teaching. 

During the past year considerable progress was made in helping 
handicapped visitors enjoy the Museum. A full-time coordinator of 
programs for the handicapped was hired. The philosophy has been 
to integrate handicapped visitors into all parts of the Museum rather 
than to have special exhibits for them. Groups such as the National 
Federation of the Blind, the National Association of the Physically 
Handicapped, and the National Association of the Deaf have been 
of great help in this effort. 

Wherever possible the building has been designed or modified as 
a barrier-free environment for the physically handicapped. Various 
implements and materials have been and will continue to be devel- 
oped for handicapped visitors. For example, mirrors with universal 
clamps that will attach to any wheelchair are available for persons 
who have little or no head movement. There are two teletype 
machines: one for use in the Education Office for answering in- 
quiries from deaf persons, the other for use in the public areas for 
communicating with deaf visitors. 

Blind persons may obtain copies of the nasm and Smithsonian 
brochures in either braille, large print, or on cassette tape. These 
sell for the same price as the regular printed editions. A building 
model of the Museum, marked in braille and in print, is located in 
the Lobby, and cassette tours of Museum galleries are provided to- 

Science I 89 

gether with a list of touchable objects. Raised-line drawings have 
been produced and may be borrowed by blind visitors. 

On June 1, 1976, the Smithsonian Institution received a grant of 
$74,000 from the United States Office of Education to develop a set 
of guidelines for establishing museum programs for handicapped 
students. The nasm Education Unit directed the grant on behalf of 
the Institution, with participation by the National Museum of His- 
tory and Technology, the National Museum of Natural History, and 
the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Other research pro- 
grams, including evaluation of nasm galleries and presentation 
centers, are in the planning stages. 

Volunteers have been given special training in presenting tours to 
groups that include handicapped individuals. A comprehensive bib- 
liography of books that are available in braille or talking-book form 
has been compiled with the cooperation of the Washington, D.C. 
Public Library and the Library of Congress. In addition, a growing 
collection of tape-recorded material on air and space subjects is 
available in the Museum library. 

The Education Unit arranged and conducted a number of special 
lectures. One lecture series, the Noon-Time Air and Space Forum, 
consisted of fifteen lectures presented by selected authorities in 
aviation and space science. This series began in September 1975 and 
continued monthly through May 1976. In past years these lectures 
have not been given during the summer months. This year, how- 
ever, a special set of lectures, arranged with the help of the Goddard 
Space Flight Center, was held twice monthly, beginning in July 

On December 22, 1975, the second Annual Holiday Lecture Series 
for high school students was given. The lectures, presented by three 
noted space scientists, were on the theme of "The Planets" and were 
supported by the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Foundation. 
During 1972 and again in 1974, two complementary series of astron- 
omy lectures were co-sponsored by nasm and the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory. A third series started in the fall of 1976 
was titled "New Windows to the Universe." 

The Albert Einstein Spacearium 

Prior to the middle of this century, various individuals and groups 
began attempts to establish a major planetarium in the city of 

90 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Washington. The opening of the Albert Einstein Spacearium is the 
culmination of these interests. 

During the fall of 1975 a Carl Zeiss Model VI planetarium instru- 
ment was installed in the Spacearium. This instrument, together 
with funds for automation of the Spacearium system, was a Bicen- 
tennial gift from the Federal Republic of Germany to the people of 
the United States. An interesting feature of the facility is a foreign 
language system that will allow visitors to hear programs in French, 
German, Japanese, and Spanish, as well as English. 

The first Spacearium show, "Cosmic Awakening," is a 42-minute 
look at how human perception of the universe has changed over the 
past two-hundred years. This multi-media show uses hundreds of 
audiovisual effects, including the Zeiss projector, to illustrate the 
sun, moon, planets, stars, and galaxies and mankind's increasing 
comprehension of them. The automated show is narrated by Burgess 
Meredith, with music by William Penn of the Eastman School of 

The Spacearium is also used for education programs that are re- 
lated to Museum-guided school activities. 

Even though the Spacearium opened with the rest of the Museum 
on July 1, 1976, it was officially dedicated on July 15. Chancellor 
Helmut Schmidt of the Federal Republic of Germany presented the 
planetarium system and its control system to Vice President Nelson 
Rockefeller, who received the gift for the American people. A new 
composition, Sirius, written by the noted German composer Karl- 
Heinz Stockhausen, was given its world premiere during the dedica- 
tion ceremony. A beautiful gleaming glass sculpture, containing an 
intaglio of Albert Einstein, was especially designed and fabricated 
by Steuben Glass of Corning, New York, to serve as a dedicatory 
plaque. It is located beside the Spacearium entrance. 

The Theater 

The theater at the National Air and Space Museum is one of the 
world's best equipped projection theaters. It was designed to accom- 
modate an imax projector, one of six currently operational in the 
world. This instrument projects extremely high-quality motion pic- 
tures onto a screen 50 feet (five stories) high and 75 feet wide. Fac- 
ing the screen are 483 seats in amphitheater arrangement. A high- 
quality sound system adds the aural dimension needed to sweep 

Science I 91 

people into space to explore the accomplishments of flight. This 
combination of equipment and giant screen helps provide Museum 
visitors with the experience of flight, increasing their enjoyment and 
comprehension of the Museum's artifacts and exhibits. 

The premier imax film is entitled To Fly. It is a "Bicentennial view 
of America through flight-oriented eyes." This Francis Thompson, 
Inc., production was custom-made for the nasm theater and was pro- 
vided to the Museum as a public service by the Continental Oil 
Company. The film was directed and photographed by MacGil- 
livray-Freeman Films of California. It will be shown regularly dur- 
ing Museum hours for at least one year. 


The period from July 1, 1975, through September 30, 1976, was 
characterized by an extremely high level of activity, directed at 
moving specimens into the new building, erecting or hanging these, 
and improving conditions at the Silver Hill storage facility. 

The movement of more than 250 major air-and-space artifacts 
from more than two dozen locations, some as far away as the Soviet 
Union, presented an immediate scheduling problem. The problem 
was compounded by the size and weight of some items (the weight 
of the Orbital Work Shop, for example, exceeded 35 tons) ; the com- 
plexity of others (some with perhaps as many as 100 major com- 
ponents); and the fragility of still others (the Wright Flyer, for 

The modes of transportation for these items included air, rail, 
barge, bus, and truck. Truck transportation was determined to be 
the restricting factor, as Smithsonian trucks were limited in size 
and had numerous other commitments. This problem was solved 
when the United States Army at Fort Belvoir agreed to provide 
trucks, tractors, cranes, and operators for the duration of the move. 
The Washington, D.C.,and Maryland police readily provided per- 
mits and escorts for the movement of large items. 

During the entire program, in which more than 1,000 truck ship- 
ments were made, more than 150 objects suspended, and numerous 
artifacts positioned into difficult locations, only one accident oc- 
curred, involving relatively minor (and easily repairable) damage to 
one artifact and no injury to personnel. This accident had a 
useful side result. Despite the contractor's primary responsibility, all 

92 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

future lifts were reviewed by a team chaired by the Deputy Director. 
As a result, even so complex a task as bringing in the 70,000-pound, 
23-foot-diameter Orbital Work Shop (ows) and assembling it to its 
full 52-foot height, was accomplished safely. 

When the restoration effort at the Preservation, Restoration, and 
Storage Division at Silver Hill, Maryland, approached completion, 
as much support as possible was directed to the Museum opening. 

An evaluation was made of the facility, and a long-range annual 
program of restoration of four aircraft and preservation of twenty 
others was determined to be the most useful to the Museum in 
terms of future exhibit requirements and the management of the 

The microfilming of engine materials and biographical materials 
is almost complete. The project was much more time-consuming 
than originally envisioned. The space saved by this effort will 
amount to more than forty-five file-drawer cases. Additional plans 
are underway to use microfilm to reduce storage space further. 

As a result of the various attempts to improve warehousing, and 
indirectly as a result of model requirements for the new Museum, 
nasm's model collection was inventoried and reviewed for expansion 
and deletion. 


The National Air and Space Museum Library staff began the move 
to the new building on July 14, 1975. The collection of over 22,000 
books, 4,600 bound periodicals, and one million documents was 
shelved and filed. The Library opened its new quarters to the re- 
search staff and public one month later in August. When the con- 
solidation of materials from two warehouses and the Arts and 
Industries nasm collection was made, significant collections were 
documented. Over 1,000 motion pictures and 800 audio tapes were 
also moved from a warehouse to the new library. 

Special collections include the William A. M. Burden collection of 
early ballooning books, Russian and German rocketry works, and 
scarce aeronautica; also, the Bella Landauer aeronautical sheet 
music collection and her unique collection of children's books. A 
valuable 1912 edition of Hike and the Aeroplane by Tom Graham, 
the pseudonym for Sinclair Lewis, was discovered in the children's 

Science I 93 

View of the reading area in the National Air and Space Museum's library 

showing study carrels. 

The Ramsey Room houses rare and scarce aeronautica and astro- 
nautica. Included are the aeronautical manuscripts of Samuel Pier- 
pont Langley, James Means, Hiram Maxim, Otto Lilienthal, Octave 
Chanute, Stephen M. Balzer, the correspondence of Professor 
Jerome C. Hunsaker, designer of the airship Shenandoah, and the 
scrapbooks of Captain "Eddie" Rickenbacker. 

The Ramsey Room furnishings are the gift of Juanita Gabriella 
Ramsey (1892-1966), who visualized this room as a memorial to her 
husband and to all persons associated with the science and art of 
flight. Admiral De Witt Clinton Ramsey (1888-1961) was one of 
the first naval aviators and holder of the Navy Cross. At one end of 
the room are portraits of Admiral and Mrs. Ramsey. The painting 
of the admiral is by the late Thomas E. Stephens; that of Mrs. 
Ramsey is by Gabriella Koszorus. At the other end of the room are 
three bronze medallion plaques representative of three forms of 
manned flight: aerostation (balloons and dirigibles), aviation (all 
heavier-than-air craft), and astronautics (space flight). 

94 / Smithsonian Year 1976 


During fiscal year 1976, the following projects were undertaken by 
the Office of the Curator of Art: 

Richard Lippold and Charles O. Perry were commissioned to pro- 
duce two major sculptures, which, by opening day, were installed 
outside the entrances to the National Air and Space Museum. 

Richard Lippold's Ad Astra, a 100-foot golden spire penetrating a 
cluster of silver stars, stands on the sidewalk at the Mall entrance to 
the Museum. Charles O. Perry's 16-foot-diameter black bronze 
Continuum is at the Independence Avenue entrance. 

Artists Robert T. McCall and Eric Sloane were asked to decorate 
2,100-square-foot walls in the Independence Avenue Lobby of the 
National Air and Space Museum. Mr. McCall painted The Space 
Mural: A Cosmic View and Mr. Sloane did The Earth Flight En- 
vironment. Because progress went so well on these murals, they 
became an important factor in the decision to preview the Inde- 
pendence Lobby area to the public beginning on February 2, 1976. 

At the same time, the Office of the Curator of Art commissioned 
two other mural projects: one by Keith Ferris in the World War II 
gallery, depicting a number of B-17 bombers on a raid over Ger- 
many, and the other by Eric Sloane in the General Aviation Gallery, 
showing a cross section of weather conditions when warm and cold 
fronts meet. 

For the first time, the National Air and Space Museum art col- 
lection was brought together from three storage areas to a perma- 
nent storage facility within the new Museum. Many of the artworks 
not on display in the public exhibition areas are either displayed in 
administrative areas within the Museum or installed upon racks in 
the new storage rooms. 

During fiscal year 1976, about 600 new pieces of art, mostly 
transferred from the National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion collection, were accessioned and catalogued. 

An art gallery was designed and built during this period, and an 
inaugural exhibition of 119 pieces of art by 64 artists was opened to 
the public. Most of the work shown was transferred to the National 
Air and Space Museum collection from the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration. Also represented in the exhibition was 
work from the United States Air Force, Department of the Army, 
and many private lenders and donors. The Metropolitan Museum 

Science I 95 

of Art lent Richard Lippold's Variations Within a Sphere: The Sun, 
Doris Bry lent Georgia O'Keefe's Blue A, and Stuart M. Speiser lent 
from his collection a number of photo-realist works of aerospace 


Personnel of the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies participated 
in the creation of the lunar sample display in the "Apollo to the 
Moon" exhibit. Center personnel were also responsible for the 
acquisition of one lunar sample that visitors can touch. This particu- 
lar display has proven very popular with nasm visitors. 

Plans were initiated for a new exhibit to deal with space science. 
The nature of the subject will necessitate the continuous updating 
of the exhibit as new knowledge is acquired. Since there will be few 
artifacts to be displayed in such an exhibit, the available space will 
be used to impart scientific knowledge to Museum visitors. 

The Center for Earth and Planetary Studies played an important 
role in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (astp). The Research Director 
of the Center, Dr. Farouk El-Baz, was Principal Investigator for the 
"Earth Observations and Photography Experiment" on this mission. 
The objectives of the experiment were for the astronauts to make 
visual observations from orbit and to obtain photographs of specific 
Earth features, processes, and phenomena. The experiment was 
highly successful. A description of performed tasks and acquired 
data was published in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Preliminary 
Science Report. 

The southeastern Mare Serenitatis area of the Moon has been 
mapped at a scale of 1:250,000. Data sources included Apollo pho- 
tographs, analyses of samples from the Apollo 17 site, and results 
of Apollo orbital geochemical and geophysical sensors. Using struc- 
tural relationships within this relatively well-studied area of the 
Moon, it is possible to deduce age relations of other lunar basins 
and thus further explain their geologic history. The resulting 
sequences of tectonic events are also applicable to studies of major 
basins on Mars and Mercury. 

Cooperation has continued with the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration on the lunar mapping program. The Center 
Director attended meetings of the Lunar Photographic and Carto- 

96 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

graphic Committee to choose sites for future lunar mapping in 
accordance with the scientific community's needs, interests, and 
priorities. Nomenclature data for fourteen new maps at 1:250,000 
scale and three large-scale maps (1:50,000 scale or larger) were sup- 
plied to the Defense Mapping Agency Topographic Center where 
the maps are produced. These maps are used in both regional lunar 
studies and detailed investigations of particular surface features of 
interest to scientists from several disciplines. 

A computer program was devised for the lunar nomenclature file 
which greatly enhances the Center's capacity to do statistical work 
and to retrieve information. The computerized file will be expanded 
by the addition of scientific details relating to the size, character- 
istics, and significance of named lunar features. The file will be 
used by the Advisory Committee on Extraterrestrial Features of the 
U.S. Department of Interior's Board of Geographic Names. This 
committee hopes to establish a system of nomenclature that would 
be applicable to features of all planetary surfaces in the solar 

The photographic library of the Center for Earth and Planetary 
Studies has expanded. New acquisitions include Earth photographs 
from Gemini 3-12, Apollo 6-17, and Apollo-Soyuz: a total of 8,494 
new frames. Microfiche catalogues of available imagery of Mars and 
Mercury will be used to select the best photographs of these planets 
for acquisition. The photographs will be used in ongoing research 
in comparative planetology. 

National Museum of Natural History 

The Bicentennial year saw major improvements and enlargement of 
the interior of the National Museum of Natural History (nmnh) in 
an effort to make the public's visit to the Museum more rewarding. 
Improved permanent exhibits were created and a variety of new 
service conveniences were offered, including dining facilities, an 
escalator, larger lounge areas, centralized restrooms, orientation 
aids, and classrooms. 

"Our Changing Land," the Museum's Bicentennial exhibit, 
opened in November 1975. It focuses on the history of land use in 

Science I 97 


I i I 

*•* Bk I « 

the Potomac River Valley. The changes of landscape in this region 
are representative of what happened to many North American areas 
after they were settled by man and transformed from virginland to 
farmland and ultimately to urban centers. It will become a perma- 
nent ecology hall. Other permanent exhibits that opened in late 
1975 and 1976 as part of the Museum's long-range exhibits-renewal 
program are: "South America: Continent and Culture," showing the 
distinctive environments and resources of four South American 
regions and the different ways in which cultures have adapted to 
them during the prehistoric, colonial, and modern eras; "The Moon: 
Its Rocks and History," a large display of moon rocks that tells 
what scientists have learned from the rocks about the first one-half 
billion years of planetary evolution; and the "Insect Zoo," the first 
such installation in the United States, in which a visitor can view 
the life-styles of a large array of live insects and their arthropod 

98 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Left. Fourth of July 1976 parade in 
front of the National Museum of 
Natural History on Constitution Ave- 
nue. Right. Young visitor watches 
tarantula behavior with amazed 
delight at the Museum's popular 
Insect Zoo. (Photo credit: Chip Clark) 

relatives and discover why insects are the most successful animals 
on earth. 

With its heavy commitment of space to exhibits, research labo- 
ratories, and collections storage, the Museum in the past was never 
able to find the room for a restaurant and several other sorely 
needed public services. But in 1975-1976 an imaginative solution 
to this problem was worked out by fitting a three-level service 
building within the Museum's west courtyard. Originally an air and 
light shaft, the courtyard had become an anachronism in an age of 
air conditioning and fluorescent lighting, serving only as a site for 
a small tin storage shed. The new service building constructed in 
the cleared courtyard adds 45,000 square feet of floor space to 
the Museum. On the top level, with access from the Museum's 
rotunda area, a skylit public dining area for 400 persons and a 
lounge area are situated next to a shop that specializes in books 
and items related to natural history. Restrooms are conveniently 
accessible one flight down on the middle level. Late in 1976 a 
Naturalist's Center is scheduled to open on the middle level, de- 
signed for amateur naturalists who are interested in handling 

Science I 99 

<"*> ■■■*. 

Botanist Robert Read places plants in the Museum's new rooftop research 
greenhouse. (Photo credit: Victor Krantz) 

and studying natural history specimens. This facility will be oper- 
ated by the Museum's Office of Education. On the ground level is 
a school-tour staging area that includes a conference room and 
four classrooms — also useful to the Office of Education — and sep- 
arate employee and Smithsonian Associates dining areas. 

In addition to services offered in the west courtyard building, the 
record crowds of visitors to the Museum during the latter half of 
the Bicentennial year enjoyed a number of other new accommoda- 
tions. At the Constitution Avenue entrance to the Museum, a 
spacious lounge area with comfortable sofas and soft rugs opened 
for foot-weary visitors. Those eager to see the exhibits had a new 
escalator to take them directly from the ground-floor Bicentennial 
exhibit hall up to the second-floor rotunda area. There they obtained 
orientation maps keyed to large colored banners hanging at the 
entrances of exhibit halls around the rotunda. The banners identify 
the contents of the halls and add a note of gaiety and warmth to 
the rotunda's grey granite facade. These improvements are part of 
a new program designed to insure that visitors find their way 
through the Museum without becoming lost or confused. New direc- 

100 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

tional signs and map stands have been placed at strategic points to 
assist in this effort. 

A rooftop greenhouse, serving as a research resource for the 
Museum's botanists, and a two-story Osteo-Preparation Laboratory 
have been erected in the east courtyard. The Osteo-Preparation 
Laboratory provides space for the dissection and preparation of bird 
and mammal research specimens, especially marine mammals, which 
the Museum is gathering in large numbers from its marine mammal 
beach salvage program. Another service to scientists set up at the 
Museum in 1975-1976 is the Scientific Event Alert Network (sean). 
sean is a worldwide communications system, administered by 
the Museum's Director and a scientific review board, which alerts 
scientists throughout the world of geophysical, biological, astro- 
nomical, and anthropological events, from meteorite falls and vol- 
canic eruptions to whale strandings and archeological finds. 

One of the highlights of 1975-1976 at the Museum was the visit 
of Emperor Hirohito of Japan. The Emperor, who is a marine 
biologist, visited the Department of Invertebrate Zoology, where 
he spent over an hour in the privacy of a laboratory studying 
hydroid and mollusk specimens with the assistance of staff curators 
Dr. Frederick M. Bayer and Dr. Joseph Rosewater. 


What kinds of animals and plants can one find on an undisturbed 
Caribbean coral reef? How do they interact with each other? What 
effects do changes in light, temperature, and wave action have on 
these organisms? How do populations change with time and increas- 
ing influence of man? What is the reef's energy budget, and how 
much organic matter (carbon) and how many nutrients does it 
exchange with the surrounding sea? 

At Carrie-Bow Cay, a tiny island that stands on the barrier reef 
extending along the coast of Belize (British Honduras), nmnh 
marine biologists, geologists, botanists, and paleontologists have 
undertaken a long-term ecological investigation that they hope will 
shed increased light on these questions. 

The Investigation of Marine Shallow Water Ecosystems project 
(imswe) is coordinated by nmnh's Dr. Klaus Ruetzler. He and the 
other scientists chose Carrie-Bow Cay as their study site because of 

Science I 101 


I s ,, % Fjl 



Aerial view of Carrie-Bow Cay, off the coast of Belize. This compact reef labo- 
ratory is the study site for the Investigation of Marine Shallow Water Ecosys- 
tems project. Below. Diver photographs underwater reef life at Carrie-Bow 
Cay. Right. Dr. Klaus Ruetzler, coordinator of the project, studies biological 
material recovered from the reef. (Photo credit: Kjell Sandved) 

features that make it an ideal reef laboratory. Perhaps the most 
important of these features is the compactness of the reef, which 
slopes off sharply into deep water, making it convenient for the 
scientists to monitor its different habitat zones. Two other ideal 
characteristics are its accessibility from the mainland by charter 
boat and the presence of several buildings that can be used by the 
scientists as lodgings and laboratory space. Finally, and no less 
importantly, the reef is not marred by pollution or other manmade 

In addition to carefully mapping and photographing the reef, 
much of the early study has been devoted to an inventory and 
description of the reef's inhabitants. Samples of life have been 
systematically sampled from the various marine habitats off 
Carrie-Bow Cay and logged and distributed to specialists for iden- 
tification. Quite a few of the scientists participating in the pro- 
gram have made frequent scuba-diving descents into the reef and 
lagoon waters to do their own collecting, which they prefer because 
they can make underwater observations that give them clues as to 
how the organisms they are interested in relate to the total reef 
ecosystem. Among this group are Dr. Ruetzler, who has inventoried 
the reef's sponges; Dr. Thomas Waller, who is interested in Carrie- 

Science / 103 

Sea urchin collected by Museum Director Porter Kier at Carrie-Bow Cay. 

Bow Cay's bivalves, particularly the scallops; Dr. Porter Kier, who 
has collected over twenty different kinds of echinoids in the 
island's lagoon and reef bottom; Dr. Ian Macintyre, who is studying 
the reef's coral rocks; and Dr. James Norris, who is investigating 
Carrie-Bow Cay's marine flora. Kjell Sandved, the Museum's bio- 
logical motion picture producer, documented all of this underwater 

Many of the specimen collections made at Carrie-Bow Cay are 
now the basis for further studies. Dr. Ruetzler, for example, has 
been making electron microscope examinations of the blue-green 
algae within the cellular system of sponges, a study that illuminates 
the symbiotic process whereby an animal gets nutritious photo- 
synthetic products from plants. Dr. Norris is submitting his speci- 
mens of algae and seaweed to colleagues for chemical analysis in 
order to discover what alkaloid compounds these plants contain 
that protect them from fish and other plant grazers. 

Considerable research has been directed at the processes that 
contribute to the construction and destruction of the reef frame- 

104 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

work — research that is giving scientists a better idea of how much 
energy the Carrie-Bow Cay reef ecosystem expends in carbonate 
production and breakdown. Dr. Ian Macintyre has headed this part 
of the project. One of his successful experiments provides a new 
means of determining the rates of growth of reef corals. At regular 
intervals, plastic bags are placed over coral head and a red dye 
released inside, staining the exposed coral. Eventually the coral is 
collected, sectioned, and radiographed. The result is a picture that 
perfectly preserves the history of the coral, making visible dye 
bands that can be read like tree rings and enabling Dr. Macintyre 
to see how a species of coral grows in relationship to its environ- 
ment. Transplantation experiments of dyed corals suggest that at 
Carrie-Bow Cay light is the critical factor in determining coral form 
and growth. A coral can grow in a vertical column at depths where 
there is little light (below 50 feet), whereas in shallow areas where 
there is high light intensity the same species will show little vertical 
growth but significant hemispherical growth. 

Other experiments by Dr. Macintyre are planned or are in 
progress. He and his colleague Dr. Walter Adey have drilled into 
the Carrie-Bow Cay reef substructure in initial attempts to recon- 
struct the historic development of the ecosystem. In another ongoing 
project, different types of coral plates, one-half to one-inch thick, 
have been spiked into the reef floor at different depths. Over a 
period of years these plates are expected to yield information on 
what types of boring organisms attack different corals and at what 
rate. Screened traps on upright plastic pipes record sediment ac- 
cumulation rates and biological data. In several cases a rare mollusk 
invaded a trap in its larval, free-swimming stage and established 
itself in the sediment, allowing Dr. Thomas Waller to make obser- 
vations of its growth. 

Dr. Mary Rice is engaged in an intensive study of sipunculan 
worms that form burrows in dead reef coral and weaken its struc- 
ture. Her investigation seeks to determine what are the diversity 
and density of worms in the rock; if there are some types of rock 
into which they bore more readily than others; and how they do the 
boring, a process that is poorly understood because the worms do 
not make the holes when they are put under observation in a 

Other nmnh scientists who are working at Carrie-Bow Cay or 

Science I 105 

who are helping in the identification and study of its organisms 
include: Raymond Fosberg, terrestrial ecology; Frederick Bayer, 
sea fans and other coelenterates; C. W. Hart, Jr., Louis Kornicker, 
Fenner Chace, Raymond Manning, and Colby A. Child, Crustacea; 
Martin Buzas, foraminifera; Meredith Jones, polychaete worms; 
and David L. Pawson, echinoderms. 



In 1972, Robert B. Jones was bulldozing irrigation ditches in a field 
on his ranch near Wray, Colorado, when he turned up a quantity 
of bones and stone points. Jones called in Jack Miller, a Colorado 
anthropologist, who examined the site and identified several hun- 
dred bison bones and a large number of Paleolndian stone and bone 
tools. This discovery set in motion a chain of events that led to a 
full-scale National Geographic Society-funded excavation directed 
by the National Museum of Natural History's Dr. Dennis Stanford, 
an archeologist who heads a program that is trying to throw light 
on the settlement patterns of early man as he moved from the Bering 
Straits to Tierra del Fuego at the tip of South America. 

The Stanford party's dig at the Jones-Miller site revealed the bone 
remains of nearly 300 big-horned bison (the extinct Bison 
Antiquus), spread over a 30-meter-long by 20-meter-wide area. The 
bison evidently had been killed and butchered some 10,000 years 
ago by a band of 40 to 50 Paleolndians. The bones had been tossed 
systematically into piles, suggesting that the bison were quartered 
and that groups of persons were organized and given specialized 
responsibilities for preparing meat cuts from different sections of 
the dead animals. Hundreds of stone and bone cutting and chopping 
tools were found at the site, as well as stone projectile points. The 
source of the stone has been traced to Plains areas in Wyoming, 
Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, and the Texas panhandle, raising the 
question whether the stone came there through the union of several 
bands at the site, through one band's roving travels, or through 
regional trade. 

Whatever its source, the evidence shows that one or more groups 
of Paleolndians evidently spent the winter in this area of north- 
eastern Colorado and, on several occasions when they needed meat, 
banded together to corral and kill bison at the Jones-Miller draw. 

106 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

The Jones-Miller site near Wray, Colorado, where 20,000 disarticulated bones 
of butchered bison were found. Dr. Dennis Stanford, archeologist with the 
National Museum of Natural History, directed the excavation, which revealed 
evidence of the presence of one or more groups of Paleolndians. (Photo credit: 
National Geographic Society) 

In the scenario Dr. Stanford has reconstructed, the draw was filled 
with windblown snow. The hunters herded a group of bison into the 
draw's snowdrifts and as the bison floundered around, dispatched 
them from the edge of the draw with hand-launched spears. Then 
the bison were butchered on the site, with the snow acting as a 
freezing agent to keep the meat fresh until the job was completed. 

Many observers of the nineteenth-century Northern Plains In- 
dians reported the use of a similar winter buffalo-hunting strategy 
and also noted that these hunts were highly ritualized occasions. In 
the center of the impoundment, a "medicine post" was set up and 
offerings were placed around it for a successful kill. Outside the im- 
poundment, the hunt chief held a religious ceremony for several 
days before the hunt, burning incense on smudge fires. 

At the Jones-Miller site Dr. Stanford uncovered intriguing evi- 
dence that these same rituals were practiced by the Plains Paleo- 

Science I 107 

Indians. A large post mold was found in the center of the draw. 
So shallowly was the post emplaced that it probably was not meant 
to serve any purpose in the butchering operation. Near the post 
mold a flutelike drilled bone and an extremely tiny but complete 
projectile point were dug up, both of which could have had a 
ceremonial purpose. West of the bone bed, a hearth area was found 
that contained red and yellow ochre, both associated with cere- 
monial activities. 

The many similarities of the Jones-Miller hunt to the historical 
plains hunts have interesting implications. They suggest the 
existence of at least 10,000 years of socioreligious continuity on the 
northern plains, which would alter our theoretical concepts of the 
development of Plains Indian culture and the complexity of 
Paleolndian society. According to Dr. Stanford: "It is the first 
Paleolndian physical evidence we have ever uncovered that gives 
evidence of a high level of social organization. Early bison kills like 
this were generally assumed to be fortuitous happenings, but we can 
see from what happened at the Jones-Miller site that it was actually 
a highly complex, ritualized and planned event." 


Dr. Samuel Johnson labored for six years over his famous dictionary 
and now Dr. Robert Laughlin, a cultural anthropologist at the 
National Museum of Natural History, after an even longer lexico- 
graphic effort, has had his The Great Tzotzil Dictionary of San 
Lorenzo Zinacantdn published by the Smithsonian Institution Press. 

When he started the project fourteen years ago, Dr. Laughlin 
recalls that he was rashly confident he could swiftly complete it. He 
quotes in his dictionary's introduction a letter he wrote to his 
secretary in those sanguine days: 

"An extensive dictionary of the Mayan language, Tzotzil, spoken 
today by 78,000 Indians of the State of Chiapas — has not been com- 
piled since the 18th century. In 1960 a vocabulary of 2,000 items of 
the dialet of Zinacantan was collected by Lore M. Colby. I have 
expanded the vocabulary to 4,000 items. It is hoped that this mate- 
rial will be ready for publication in a year's time." 

He was wrong. The book was not ready for press until 1973 and 
in that interval, Dr. Laughlin noted ruefully, the population of the 
78,000 Tzotzil Indians had grown with "fearful exuberance" to 

108 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

125,000; the vocabulary of 4,000 items had mushroomed to more 
than 45,000; and he had undergone searing tribulations in the pro- 
cess of having the dictionary programmed into a computer. He be- 
lieves it to be the largest dictionary ever published of a Western 
Hemisphere language. 

Dr. Laughlin began his study of the Zinacantec language in 1959. 
That year, he was invited as a Harvard postgraduate student to join 
Dr. Evon Vogt's Chiapas Project. He soon succeeded in learning 
the language and set about documenting Zinacantec folktales and 
myths. Completing a dissertation on this subject, and taking a job 
at the Smithsonian, he returned to Zinacantan, and after a year 
decided to undertake the task of compiling an extensive dictionary 
for the Chiapas project's use. 

Most of the raw data for the dictionary was compiled between 
1963-1967 with the help of two highly intelligent and articulate 
young Tzotzil collaborators, Romin Teratol and Anselmo Peres. 
Dr. Laughlin spent many months interviewing them in Zinacantan. 
He also brought them to the United States — to Santa Fe, New 
Mexico, and to his home in Alexandria, Virginia — where Tzotzil 
definitions were added for "such foreign elements as chaise lounges, 
which were promptly dubbed in Tzotzil 'foot watchers/ ' Identifica- 
tion of stars was made in visits to the Hayden Planetarium, and 
insects and larger animals not seen in Zinacantan were named dur- 
ing trips to United States museums and zoos. 

Dr. Laughlin's collaborators become increasingly foot-weary as 
month after month was spent walking along trails through the 
mountainous Zinacantan region. The dictionary has five maps, 
showing the 1,000 place names that the collaborators pinpointed 
with the aid of aerial photographs and ground surveys. Ornitholo- 
gist Alexander Skutch went into the field and helped make sight 
identifications of scores of birds, and Dennis Breedlove, an authority 
on Chiapas flora, advised in the collection of more than 3,000 local 
plants. This part of the project was so successful that Dr. Laughlin 
began to worry that plants were going to engulf the whole 

As published, the dictionary is 598 pages long. The heaviness of 
the tome makes a mockery of the conventional wisdom that "primi- 
tives speak 'primitive' languages," Dr. Laughlin believes. For him 
the language has genius. Its musical cadences and complex phraseol- 

Science I 109 

ogy brilliantly lend themselves to the formal discourse, gossip, and 
spinning of tales that are the heart of Zinacantan life. 


Squash, gourds, and pumpkins (Curcurbita plants) are native to the 
Western Hemisphere, where they evolved in close association with 
bees that are especially adapted to pollinate them. But when these 
plants were introduced into other parts of the world, squash bees 
were left behind, so that less effective honeybees, native wild 
bees, or man himself, had to do the pollinating. These methods of 
pollination have never worked very well, and crops of Curcurbita 
plants cultivated in areas without squash bees have a poor yield. 

nmnh entomologist Dr. Paul Hurd is attempting to restore this 
perfect and age-old squash-plant-and-insect partnership in Hawaii, 
an island where squashes exist but no squash bees. If Dr. Hurd's 
experiment is successful, he feels that it may possibly be repeated 
throughout the world, dramatically increasing the production of one 
of man's important food sources. 

One of the first things Dr. Hurd and his two collaborators, Dr. 
E. Gorton Linsley and A. E. Michelbacher, had to determine was 
which species of squash bee would be best to export to Hawaii. 
After studying the distribution, ecology, and behavior of the 
twenty-one species of squash bees ranging throughout Mexico and 
North America, they selected the species P. pruinosa because of its 
efficiency as a pollinator of almost all domestic Curcurbita plants 
and its proven ability to survive in a wide variety of climatic and 
topographical conditions. 

They chose California's Sacramento Valley as a region to collect 
bees for their experiment. Deep rich soil makes the Sacramento 
Valley a center for the growing of pumpkins for the canning in- 
dustry; a great deal of commercial and home planting of summer 
and fall squashes is done there, too. This abundance of pumpkins is 
directly related to the large populations of P. pruinosa bees that live 
in the area. 

One of the flat, grassy, well-watered areas where the squash bees 
make their burrows was located, and behavioral observations were 
made that determined that the bees were leaving their nests for 
the fields shortly after 5 a.m. It was apparent that they had become 
adapted to flying at early morning temperatures and at low light- 

110 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

intensities so that they could synchronize their foraging with the 
limited time in the morning that the pumpkin flowers are open. 

Before the heat of the day wilts and closes the flowers and other 
insects arrive, the P. pruinosa bees are able to get the pollen and 
nectar they need from the flower and at the same time pollinate 
them. The plants have adaptive features that encourage pollination, 
including heavy, large, and adhesive pollen grains; an adhesive 
stigma; a large amount of sugar-rich nectar produced by both 
staminate and pistillate flowers; and large showy blossoms. 

Once the scientists discovered the daily rhythm of activity of the 
squash bees, they were able to choose the best time to collect the 
bees for their introduction experiments. Females, they decided, are 
best moved immediately after their emergence from the pupate 
stage in early June, before nest construction has begun. 

They checked on this and other critical factors by conducting 
a number of trial introductions. Batches of Sacramento bees were 
collected in the fields and released the next day, 250 miles away, 
near squash plantings close to the Davis and Berkeley campuses of 
the University of California. 

A method of transporting the bees had to be developed for the 
trial introductions. Still in the flowers, the bees were placed in 
plastic bags that were put in thermos jugs or ice chests with a 
cardboard liner to protect them from direct contact with the ice 
or ice water. Usually some bees died during the trips, but most of 
them were ready to resume full activity on being released. Before 
letting them go, the three scientists marked the bees with colored 
acrylic paint so that later they could identify them on the plants. 

Feeling that the trial introductions had worked out well enough 
to warrant going ahead with the Hawaii experiment, the three 
scientists enlisted the cooperation of the Hawaii and the California 
Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Dr. Toshiyuki Nishida and 
his associates of the Department of Entomology of the University of 
Hawaii. Dr. Nishida made local arrangements, including the locating 
of pumpkin plantings where the bees could be released. 

Dr. Hurd and Mr. Michelbacher then flew a batch of captive bees 
to Hawaii and released them at designated sites in Hawaii and on 
the neighboring island of Oahu. These sites are now being moni- 
tored to see if breeding populations of squash bees will succeed in 
permanently establishing themselves. 

Science I 111 


Dr. Kurt Fredriksson is completing a decade of studies of the only 
major meteorite crater on earth that is directly comparable to 
lunar impact craters. 

Lonar crater, in the Bulana District of Maharashtra, India, is a 
rimmed circular depression in basaltic rock, 1,830 meters across and 
nearly 150 meters deep, with a shallow lake in the center. For 
many years it was commonly believed to be volcanic, despite the 
glass fragments that had been found on the rim of the crater — 
evidence of a meteoritic origin — and despite the crater's close re- 
semblance in structure and size to Arizona's Meteor Crater. 

In 1964, the Geological Survey of India carried out magnetic, 
gravity, and seismic surveys at the site, but the surveyors did not 
uncover sufficient evidence to prove the impact hypothesis. No 
magnetic anomalies of significance were discovered, and studies of 
lake water and soils and plants from in and around the crater 
did not reveal any appreciable concentration of nickel or cobalt, two 
elements that are present in enriched quantities in most meteorites. 

Unsatisfied with the scope of this investigation, Dr. Fredriksson, 
an authority on meteorites, suggested further tests. He knew that 
if Lonar was indeed a meteoritic crater, its situation in basaltic rock, 
which is similar to many lunar basalts, would give it singular sig- 
nificance. No other basaltic impact craters are known on earth, 
and samples of the Lonar crater would be of great value for com- 
parison with samples brought back from the moon by the Apollo 

The India Geological Survey concurred with Dr. Fredriksson 
about the importance of establishing the impact origin of the Lonar 
structure. In cooperation with the Smithsonian, the Survey began a 
comprehensive exploration program, including geologic mapping, 
drilling, trenching, and geochemical studies. The work began in 
1970 and although not yet completely finished, it has established 
beyond a doubt that the Lonar crater was produced by a meteorite 
that hit the earth's surface perhaps less than 50,000 years ago 
(carbon-14 dating indicates an age of more than 30,000 years). 

"At Lonar we can make a detailed study of debris ejected from a 
relatively recent basaltic impact point, including a mapping of its 
fall-out distribution," Dr. Fredriksson said. "This is valuable be- 
cause it is not feasible to do this with moon craters. On the moon's 

112 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

View of Lonar crater at Bulana, Maharashtra, India, where a meteorite ex- 
ploded. Dr. Kurt Fredriksson of the Museum staff is completing a decade of 
studies of this crater, which is the only major meteorite crater on earth that 
is directly comparable to lunar impact craters. 

surface we are left with a record of a period of intense meteoritic 
activity that took place during the formation of the solar system 4 
to 4.5 billion years ago. During this time when one crater was 
formed, additional meteorites would hit directly on top of it, mixing 
and agglomerating the debris, and in doing so creating a very 
complex and confusing history. This continuing bombardment, 
which now takes place at a much lower rate, formed the moon's 
characteristic breccia rocks (breccia rock consists of mixed frag- 
ments embedded in a fine-grained matrix). 

"Indeed, for hundreds of millions of years such impacts may 
have been the dominant geological process on the earth, moon, and 
other bodies of the solar system. In order to appreciate the magni- 
tude of the forces involved, consider the fact that a kilometer-sized 
meteoritic body traveling at 20 kilometers per second packs an 
energy perhaps 10 times greater than the energy released in the 
explosion of volcanoes during each year on earth." 

In the India Geological Survey's investigation, fifty-five trenches 
one to three meters in depth were excavated in the main crater rim 
flank, reaching out in concentric patterns as far as twice the dis- 
tance of the crater radii. No volcanic ejecta was found, but in six 
trenches, spherules and fragments of black glassy material were 
found that are characteristic of intensely shocked basalt. 

To explore the main crater, six holes more than 300 meters deep 
were bored into the lake bottom. The cores that were brought up 
had 100 meters of lake sediment that contained small amounts of 
impact glass and shocked rock fragments. Below the sediment 

Science I 113 

strata, the drilling returned cores of coarse breccia, either unshocked 
or slightly shocked. Beneath this layer of coarse breccia, all drilling 
encountered a layer composed of unconsolidated to extremely 
friable microbreccia. 

Dr. Fredriksson and his colleagues from the Department of 
Mineral Sciences, Joseph A. Nelen and Dr. Robert F. Fudali, and 
Dr. Daniel Milton of the United States Geological Survey, working 
in collaboration with Ananda Dube of the Division of Petrology of 
the India Geological Survey, analyzed the constitution of Lonar 
basalts, breccias, and glass ejecta, with an electron microprobe and 
compared them with stony meteorites and lunar materials. This 
work was supported mainly by the Smithsonian Foreign Currency 
Program and the Smithsonian Research Foundation. 

The analysis showed close structural and textural similarities 
among meteorites, Lonar, and lunar material. These data, combined 
with the mapping of the crater stratigraphy and impact fall-out, 
are expected to aid in the interpretation of questions about the 
source and depth at which lunar ejecta originated; how unfirm and 
how extensive this ejecta blanket is, and what role secondary 
cratering plays in the shaping of the moon's surface. 


Dr. Beryl B. Simpson is completing work on an International Bio- 
logical Program (ibp) comparative ecosystem study examining the 
generally held theory that similar communities can evolve in two 
widely separated areas with comparable rainfall, temperature, soil, 
and other conditions. 

One theory holds that a high level of evolutionary convergence 
of form and process occurs in similar environments, and ibp sup- 
ported several programs that tried to produce ecosystem models on 
this assumption. But Dr. Simpson and her collaborators decided to 
test the theory of community convergence before accepting it as a 
basis for construction of models that would influence important 
policies of land use, management, and conservation. 

Because a comparison of complex ecosystems would be an over- 
whelming task, they chose to study two relatively simple pairs of 
desert scrub ecosystems with very similar climates and geological 
histories. One of these comparisons was between the Sonoran 
Desert near Tucson, Arizona, and the Monte Desert, near Andalaga, 

114 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Above, left. Representative plants of 
the Sonoran Desert near Tucson, 
Arizona. Below, left. Representative 
plants of the Monte Desert of 
northern Argentina. (Drawings by 
Alice Tangerini) Above, right. Dr. 
Beryl B. Simpson of the Museum staff 
examines a plant specimen on the 
Sonoran Desert in connection with 
a comparative ecosystem study. 

Science I 115 

Argentina. At these sites, Dr. Simpson investigated the similarity of 
plant-pollinator relationships and the breeding systems of the domi- 
nant perennial plants. 

The thirteen dominant plant species were singled out in each of 
the desert areas (dominance was based on numbers and ground 
coverage). Dr. Simpson then set out to determine how the polli- 
nators interact with the plants; how much energy these plants 
apportion to nectar and flower production in order to attract pol- 
linators; and how many pollinators are supported by the plant 
community. To this end she collected data on floral structure and 
odor, blooming schedules, amounts of flower and nectar production, 
sugar concentrations of the nectar, amounts of pollen produced, 
and daily cycles of both nectar and pollen presentation. 

The determination of which insects visited the flowers was made 
in the study of a collaborating entomologist. Solitary bees are by 
far the most important desert scrub pollinator. Several hundred 
species were collected during the project, with more at the North 
American site turning out to be specialized than at the South 
American site. 

Dr. Simpson observed that plants in North and South America 
depend on different major pollen carriers, invest different amounts 
of energy in flower production, and supply different amounts of 
nectar and pollen to potential animal pollinators. 

An interesting difference between the two ecosystems is their 
blooming patterns. This difference appears to be the result of the 
way in which rainfall is dispersed during the year. The total amount 
of rain received at both sites appears to be about the same, but at 
the Monte Desert site rain falls only in the summer, whereas at the 
Sonoran Desert site rain falls at the end of the summer and toward 
the end of the winter. As a consequence, in Argentina the dominant 
plants bloom patchily for a long period during the summer, as 
opposed to Arizona, where the blooming is relatively synchronous 
during short blooming times in the spring and late summer. 


Mollusks migrated into the Atlantic and Caribbean at the time 
these basins opened through seafloor spreading 150 million years 
ago. The evolutionary history of these animals over the next 90 
million years is the focus of a study by Dr. Erie G. Kauffman. 

116 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Analyzing thousands of specimens collected in widely scattered 
field areas and housed in the nmnh's collections, he has been able to 
document the evolutionary response or patterns of these ecologically 
sensitive organisms to major fluctuations in the global environment. 

By integrating his data with radiometric age determinations from 
volcanic ash falls preserved in sediments of these ocean basins, Dr. 
Kauffman can also measure variations on rates of evolutionary 
change. As expected, patterns and rates of evolution were found to 
vary widely between different types of organisms. Predictable vari- 
ances also showed up in single evolving lineages subjected to major 
changes in the Earth's environment. 

But many unexpected evolutionary phenomena also emerged 
from these studies: nearly simultaneous, basically catastrophic ex- 
tinctions among diverse groups of organisms; periods of very rapid 
radiation of new forms; and remarkably fast evolutionary rates, at 
times producing a new species every 80,000 years within a single 
lineage. Dr. Kauffman believes these evolutionary changes are 
related to geologically cataclysmic events brought about by plate 
tectonics, seafloor spreading, and continental drift, and he suggests 
that this relationship clearly alters the concepts of evolution. 

According to Dr. Kauffman: "Strict Darwinism holds that evolu- 
tion takes place slowly, through small changes over long periods of 
time, on a globe that was structurally and environmentally stable 
through time. It gives no mechanism for explaining periods of rapid 
evolution and massive extinction. But now we work with a different 
model of the Earth's crust and are beginning to realize that plate 
tectonic movements provide logical mechanisms for biological 
'explosions' and 'catastrophes' that we see reflected in the history 
of fossil organisms. 

"The movement of crustal plates across the Earth's surface and 
the resultant building and/or collapse of oceanic ridges and uplifts 
over the 90-million-year period I am studying, caused major fluctua- 
tions in the sea level and accompanying climatic changes which 
were the principal controlling environmental forces on the rates and 
patterns of evolution in marine mollusks." 

Essentially, the history Dr. Kauffman has documented follows 
this pattern: global rise of sea level took place during times of 
rapid plate movements and oceanic ridge building, flooding much of 
the low continental areas of the world with shallow continental seas 

Science I 117 

National Museum of Natural 
History's Dr. Erie G. Kauffman 
examines one of the mollusks 
that he has collected for his 
studies of the past changes in 
the global environment. (Photo 
credit: Kjell Sandved) 

and creating vast new spaces and environments that were ideal 
for the habitation, spread, and diversification of marine organisms. 
For mollusks, evolution proceeded at a relatively slow but increas- 
ing rate during these periods; life conditions were optimal and 
environmental stresses were low. Dr. Kauffman has found evolu- 
tionary rates during these times that averaged only one new species 
every half million years within many lineages. 

The slowing and temporary cessation of plate movements resulted 
in ultimate collapse of oceanic uplifts and ridges like the present 
mid-Atlantic Ridge, caused global lowering of sea level, environ- 
mental decline, restriction of space and resources, and ultimate 
elimination of many prime marine environments for mollusks. As 
a result, strong competition for food and space coupled with high 
environmental stress caused extinction of many mollusks and ac- 
celeration of evolutionary rates of others. 

The maximum evolutionary rates recorded within molluscan 
lineages during these high-stress periods were approximately one 
species per 80,000 years — the most rapid rate ever documented for 
marine organisms. The more abrupt the plate tectonic event and 
resultant environmental events, the more dramatic the evolutionary 
rates and extinctions associated with them. Superimposed upon 
these patterns is a complex ecological response. Specialized and 
normally exposed (swimming, surface-dwelling) marine organisms 
show the earliest and/or most rapid evolutionary response to en- 

118 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

vironmental stress; generalized or protected (buried) marine orga- 
nisms, as well as those of brackish-to-fresh water and the intertidal 
zone, show the lowest level of evolutionary response. 


Ornithological research at the National Museum of Natural History 
during 1975-1976 included publication of Birds of the Antarctic and 
Sub-Antarctic (American Geophysical Union), by Dr. George Wat- 
son, the first comprehensive field identification guide to penguins, 
petrels, and other resident and vagrant birds of these areas. It is 
illustrated with color plates and black-and-white drawings by Bob 
Hines of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Sixty-seven 
birds are described in detail, with information on reproduction, 
molting, flight, habits, voice, display, food, predation, ectoparasites, 
habitat, and distribution. Numerous vagrants are covered in less 
detail. There is also an introduction to the Antarctic environment 
and directions on how to observe seabirds. The book is the culmi- 
nation of a project that began in 1963 when the National Science 
Foundation approached the Smithsonian Institution about the 
possibility of producing such a guide. Dr. Watson made three col- 
lection trips into the Subantarctic and Antarctic areas., surveyed all 
of the literature (dating back to Captain Cook) on the birds of the 
area, and examined specimens in major museum collections, includ- 
ing those at the Smithsonian gathered by the United States Explor- 
ing Expedition of 1838-1842 and Admiral Richard Byrd's United 
States Antarctic Service Expeditions of the 1930s and 1940s. One 
of the author's aims is to standardize the nomenclature for birds of 
that region, as well as suggest areas where further research is 
needed. He believes that his book would also benefit tourists who 
are now regularly traveling to Antarctica and previously had no 
really helpful guide to the birds of that area. 

Dr. Richard Zusi continued his studies of the evolution of bark 
climbing in the tropical family Dendrocolaptidae. Members of this 
family, such as the Buff-throated Woodcreeper (not related to 
woodpeckers), feed along trunks and limbs, lifting mosses, poking 
into holes, and digging into cracks of the bark with their beaks. 
They support themselves with feet that are adapted for clinging and 
a spine-tipped tail that bends under their weight. 

Dr. Paul Slud has been working in Central America, as well as 

Science I 119 

in other New World Tropic areas, on a project that correlates 
ecological background with bird census observations. His analysis 
of this information, published as Geographic and Climatic Relation- 
ships of Avifaunas with Special Reference to Comparative Distribu- 
tion in the Neotropics (Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 
212) establishes links between the comparative distribution of birds 
and prevailing environmental and climatic conditions. 

Dr. Storrs Olson edited the Collected Papers in Avian Paleontol- 
ogy Honoring the 90th Birthday of Alexander Wetmore, eighteen 
papers by prominent avian paleontologists. Dr. Wetmore's career 
at the Smithsonian spans more than half a century. Dr. Olson also 
made trips to Ilha da Trinidade (off the coast of Brazil), Hawaii, and 
Japan, collecting many specimens of fossil and recent birds for his 
studies of island paleofaunas and evolution of seabirds. 

Dr. Richard Zusi (left) takes motion pictures of Woodcreepers in a Venezuelan 
cloud forest as his colleague, Dr. Paul Schwartz, lures the birds within range 
by playing their songs. 

/ / 

National Zoological Park 

Out of the construction chaos of the past years, the National Zoo- 
logical Park's Master Plan now begins to be seen in reality. The 
"William M. Mann Memorial Lion-Tiger Exhibit" was completed 
and officially dedicated on May 25, 1976; the outdoor waterfowl 
ponds and the crane yards around the Bird House Plaza opened 
in July; and the enlargement of the Elephant House yards for the 
African and Indian elephants, Indian rhinoceroses, and Nile 
hippopotamuses were finished in the late fall of 1975. 

Renovation started on the interiors of the Elephant House and 
Bird House. Construction began on new bear dens, and on the mas- 
sive job of digging out the hillside along Rock Creek for the 
General Services Building. 

Research and scientific projects grew steadily, and the amount of 
grant money the Zoo received likewise increased. Grants to Zoo 
personnel came from the National Institutes of Health, the World 
Wildlife Fund, the Wildlife Preservation Trust International 
(formerly safe International), the Noble Foundation, and the Na- 
tional Geographic Society, as well as from the Smithsonian's 
Research Foundation and Fluid Research Fund. These grants sup- 
ported such diverse projects as the evaluation of anesthesia and 
restraint of exotic species by monitoring blood gases and blood pH, 
and the study of social communication in three South American 

The Zoo began work-study programs with the Washington Tech- 
nical Institute, the University of Maryland, and Cornell University. 
These programs enable students to become familiar with zoo work 
and to plan appropriate study for zoo careers. Participating offices 
include Animal Management, Animal Health, Zoological Research, 
Graphics and Exhibits, and Police and Safety. 

Predoctoral and postdoctoral training has expanded also. The 
veterinary internship program, which began in 1974, fulfills our 
national purpose by helping other zoos improve their veterinary 
staffs. The predoctoral programs in the Offices of Animal Health 
and Zoological Research are yielding productive results. 

The Friends of the National Zoo (fonz) expanded their operations 
this past year by taking charge of the food concessions; money from 
these concessions goes into Zoo educational programs, such as the 

Science I 121 

m K 

Newly constructed quarters for the National Zoological Park's white tigers — 
a part of the "William M. Mann Memorial Lion-Tiger Exhibit." Below. Ranjit, 
male white tiger, and Bharat, female white tiger, are apparently quite content 
in their new home. 


YL1 I Smithsonian Year 1976 

puppet shows designed and produced by the Bob Brown Marionettes 
which were performed during July and August 1976. A char- 
acter named Zoodle, the star of each show, cautioned his audience 
against littering as well as against feeding and harassing the 

The Zoo's new glockenspiel is the imaginative gift of the late 
Dr. Ivy A. Pelzman of Washington, D.C. Its thirty-six bells, in 
three octaves, were cast in The Netherlands, and the tunes may 
be played either manually or electronically. Just below the clock a 
fiberglass lion, bear, elephant, and giraffe move when the hour 


Major changes are going on in the hardy hoofstock area. Several 
years ago Zoo staff determined this area was being destroyed by 
the large hoofed mammals. At first some of the cages were deco- 
rated with plants to conceal erosion, buildings, and fences. This, 
however, was not successful with animals as large as the greater 
kudus and Cape buffaloes which trampled pens and hillsides. Thus, 
during the past year, the kudus and Cape buffaloes were shipped 
out to other zoos; in their cages now are dama gazelles and bles- 
boks. In adjoining cages are red brockets from Mexico and munt- 
jacs from the Far East showing New World and Old World cervids 
side by side. As the smaller species allow the plants to take hold in 
these enclosures, there has been a dramatic change: the animals 
together with the greenery have become the focus of the exhibit. 

Guy Greenwell moved to Front Royal to develop the bird incu- 
bation program for the Zoo. Emphasis is on birds which have previ- 
ously bred well at the Zoo, including roulrouls, Bali mynahs, vul- 
turine guineafowl, and Hawaiian geese. Eggs laid at the Zoo will be 
sent to Front Royal where they will be hatched and the young 
raised and returned or placed in other zoos. The unit's incubation 
program was so successful in breeding Hawaiian geese in 1975 (it 
raised nineteen) that the International Wild Waterfowl Association 
presented the Zoo with its Annual Achievement Award. There 
appears to be a bumper crop of this endangered bird in 1976 also. 

The new "William M. Mann Memorial Lion-Tiger Exhibit" con- 
tains a large conference room and offices for the curatorial staff, a 

Science I Y12> 

small theater for the public, and indoor and outdoor exhibit areas 
for the big cats. The keeper staff has had to learn to operate the 
new mechanical systems, such as the electronic shift doors and com- 
plex alarm system. Mohini, the eighteen-year-old white tigress, 
returned from Chicago, along with her three white "grand" cubs 
from Cincinnati. The Atlas lions arrived from Morocco in Septem- 
ber 1976, as part of a long-term breeding project. 

One of this year's major accomplishments and the culmination 
of a three-year project was the birth of an orangutan. This baby, 
the offspring of two animals born in captivity and raised by their 
own mothers, was the first second-generation captive birth of an 
orangutan in the Western Hemisphere, and possibly only the second 
in the world. Although the female proved to be a good mother, the 
baby died later of a bacterial meningitis. It is possible, however, 
that the orangutan captive-breeding program will not end when all 
the animals caught in the wild die — at least not at the National Zoo. 


The primary function of the Office of Animal Health is to provide 
the best available health care for the animal collection, whether at 
Rock Creek Park or at Front Royal, Virginia. The delivery of veteri- 
nary care to the Conservation and Research Center is more difficult 
than in the Park due to the inability to watch closely and handle 
the herd animals in their large enclosures. 

In both locations, however, the ideal approach in exotic medicine 
is preventive. Yearly tuberculosis tests and physical examinations 
are conducted on all primates, and yearly vaccinations and physical 
examinations are undergone by the carnivores, including the cats, 
pandas, and canids. The quarantine facility of the hospital prevents 
the introduction of any infectious agent into the existing collection. 
All animals are monitored by routine fecal examinations and appro- 
priate therapy is administered when parasites are found. 


The Office of Pathology's primary functions are diagnostic medi- 
cine, teaching, and research. The diagnostic aspect is its paramount 
mission. Routine blood tests, urinalysis, cultures, parasite examina- 
tions, and a variety of other diagnostic tests are performed in the 

124 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Office's laboratories. All animals that die undergo autopsies and 
are completely examined grossly and histopathologically to gain 
insight into the various causes of death. 

In the spring of 1976 an outbreak of versiniosis, a bacterial dis- 
ease caused by Versinia pseudotuberculosis, took the lives of three 
of the Zoo's blesboks. Through the diagnostic capabilities of the 
Zoo laboratories, the cause of the disease in the hoofstock was iso- 
lated. A vaccine was developed from the isolated bacterial organ- 
isms, and an all-out effort was made to exterminate the carrier ver- 
min, which had brought the disease into the yards. 

The Office began a new system of record keeping by streamlining 
the flow of information concerned with pathologic diagnoses. An 
ibm data-retrieval system is used; it can integrate previous material 
generated in this Office. A similar retrieval system is used for the 
color-slide collection, which currently contains over 3,000 slides of 
pathologic and clinical conditions of zoo animals. 


During the past fifteen months, the Office of Zoological Research 
not only continued previous programs and studies but added some 
new ones. 

The Venezuelan field project in vertebrate behavior and ecology, 
coordinated by Dr. John Eisenberg, assembled valuable data 
concerning distribution, abundance, reproduction, and natural his- 
tory of selected species of marsupials, rodents, primates, reptiles, 
and birds. The studies were conducted by Dr. Eisenberg, National 
Zoo staff, and students in two quite different regions: the montane 
rainforest of Guatopo National Park and the seasonally inundated 
llanos on the ranch of Sr. Tomas Blohm. 

In June 1976, Dr. Eugene Morton began to reintroduce on Barro 
Colorado Island several avian species which had become locally 
extinct. Seven song wrens and seven white-breasted wood wrens, 
trapped on the mainland, were transported to Barro Colorado, 
marked with bands, and released. Preliminary indications suggest 
that some of the reintroduced birds have established themselves on 
the island. The problem of local extinction in a biological preserve 
the size of Barro Colorado is of great theoretical interest since 
populations in small areas may be of extremely small size, and un- 

Science I 125 

predictable environmental events, over which man has no control, 
may cause local extinction. 

The studies of South American canid social behavior and com- 
munication, conducted by Dr. Devra Kleiman at the Conservation 
and Research Center, were highlighted by the birth of two litters of 
crab-eating foxes. Both were reared by the mothers, and detailed 
observations of development were recorded for the second litter. 
At the same time, a maned wolf was born which did not survive. 
The female bush dog was artificially inseminated but the attempt 
failed, and a proven breeding male was sent on breeding loan 
from Los Angeles. 

The Zoo was saddened in October 1975, by the untimely death 
of Dr. Helmut Buechner. His energy and enthusiasm successfully 
launched several projects dealing with the propagation of ungulates 
at the Zoo. He will be sorely missed. 


In the past fifteen months since the Smithsonian was given full title 
to the Front Royal, Virginia, property, the Conservation and Re- 
search Center as a resource for research has grown. Dr. Eugene 
Morton of the Office of Zoological Research began two projects: 
the first concerns the nesting habits and population dynamics of 
the eastern bluebird; the second studies the movements and social 
organization of the turkey vulture using radiotelemetry. Dr. Dale 
Madison of McGill University in Montreal carried out a summer 
investigation in 1975 of the social use of space by two species of 
mice, the meadow mouse and the white-footed mouse. Dr. Christen 
Wemmer and Larry Collins began a three-year study of the social 
structure and behavior of the Pere David's deer; and in the summer 
of 1976 Kerry Malson initiated a one-year study of nutrition and 
pasture-carrying capacity, also on the Pere David's deer. 

During the winter and spring, a muntjac facility was completed. 
It consists of seven paddocks covering about 5 acres, with a central 
observation tower. The yards have been planted in dogwood and 
the plant growth will be allowed to proceed naturally to provide 
adequate cover for the animals. The tower will allow keepers 
and researchers to observe the animals without disturbing them. 

The granary built in 1916 is being renovated as a commissary. 

126 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

One wing will be a rodent-breeding area, and the other will include 
walk-in cooler and freezer, meat saw and grinder, butcher table, 
food mixer, can washer, tables, and counter space. There will also 
be an office, locker rooms, and a drive-through section for loading 
trucks in cold weather. 

The first residents of the Center in 1974 were one male and two 
female scimitar-horned oryx. Today the herd numbers nine, all 
of which were born in captivity, and eight either at the Rock Creek 
facility or the Conservation Center. There were two births this 
spring and one last December which was hand-reared. Other 
births this year include seven crab-eating foxes, two zebra, and 
two Pere David's deer. 

Cooperative agreements with other zoos have made the Center's 
present large breeding groups possible. The Bactrian camel herd is 
jointly owned by the National Zoo and the Minnesota State 
Zoological Gardens, while the New York Zoological Society pro- 
vided over one-third of the Pere David's deer. The onager herd was 
established solely through the contributions of the zoos in Balti- 
more, Los Angeles, and San Diego. The Lincoln Park Zoo sent 
three male muntjacs to help establish breeding groups for this 
species of nonrelated animals. 


The audience of the National Zoological Park is large and varied. 
According to a visitor survey completed in 1976, visitors to the 
National Zoo have above-average education levels and above- 
average annual family incomes; they are predominantly white and 
non-Spanish-speaking, and visit the Zoo as a family experience; 
they also visit other zoos and natural history museums, and have a 
high interest in other cultural institutions. The Zoo seeks to pro- 
vide a well-balanced offering of exhibits, programs, and materials 
for this audience. 

Working as a team with the Office of Animal Management and 
the Office of Graphics and Exhibits, numerous interpretive projects 
were completed. Labels received first priority. Each label has two 
parts: a standard identification label containing basic species infor- 
mation, and a visual key which consists of a statement about an 
aspect of biology relating to the animal exhibit with a photo or 
drawing to highlight that statement. By spring 1976 all labels also 

Science I 127 

had been rewritten in a two-langauge format, English and Spanish. 

More complex exhibits were completed for the three outdoor 
alcoves in the new "William M. Mann Memorial Lion-Tiger 
Exhibit." A photo-collage and written text in each alcove deal with 
a single theme — habitat, predator-prey relationships, and social 
behavior. In addition, two films were produced for showing in the 
small theater in this exhibit. Tiger is a live-action profile of that 
endangered cat. The Big Cats and How They Came To Be is the 
history of cat evolution, and was animated by Film Polski, Warsaw, 
Poland, through a grant from the Smithsonian Foreign Currency 

For the first time in many years, the Zoo will have a written 
guide: ZOOBOOK. This pictorial essay, written by this Office and 
photographed by Jan Skrentny, tells the story of the Zoo's animals 
and of the people and programs that revolve around them. 
ZOOBOOK will be published in the late fall of 1976. 

In addition to its ongoing dealings with the press, the information 
service added two innovations. Tiger Talk, the employees news- 
letter, was redesigned and is published weekly. A second develop- 
ment was the three-month trial photo-caption story, mailed to 150 
selected newspapers. This was well received and plans are under- 
way to continue this service in 1977. 

The use of the Zoo's library increased considerably in the past 
year, and a library technician was hired to provide more assistance 
to users. The generous gift of Dr. Helmut Buechner's journal col- 
lection filled many gaps in journal holdings and over 200 volumes 
were bound. Also this past year a good portion of library funds 
was used to develop the book and journal collection at the Con- 
servation and Research Center in Front Royal, Virginia. 


With the Office of Education-Information, a new format for animal 
identification labels was designed to present information in the 
most effective manner. The labels are designed so they can be read 
easily at various distances, are legible at low light levels, are 
easily produced, and are flexible. The first labels in the Reptile 
House in 1974 revealed some problems and additional changes were 
made. Complete labeling of the Park, with the exception of the 
Bird House, was finished in September 1976. 

128 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

A child studies the National 
Zoological Park's brochure show- 
ing the various pictograms which 
will direct visitors to areas of 

The Zoo is attempting to provide an organized approach by which 
visitors may find their way around the grounds. Graphic totems, 12 
to 18 feet high, using the new animal pictographs, will be located 
along the center road known as Olmsted Walk. These totems mark 
the beginning and end of six trails that pass the animal exhibits. 
Each trail covers a specific group of animals, such as birds or hoof- 
stock, and is named for a conspicuous animal found on that trail, 
such as the crowned crane or zebra. The pictograph representing 
that animal will be in the largest space on the totem. The first totem 
was installed at the waterfowl ponds in early August 1976. The 
remaining ten will be in place by October. These six separate trails 
allow the visitor to cover the entire Zoo or just one area. The totems 
also include such information as the length of each walk and the 
approximate time needed to complete it. 


During the past year the Office of Police and Safety has also under- 
gone changes — keeping pace with the rest of the Zoo's activities, 
while continuing its emphasis on service and public relations. 

In-service training for officers was expanded to include on-the- 
job training for less experienced recruits, and has resulted in an 

Science I 129 

increase in applications from minority groups. In addition, the 
summer work-study program with the Washington Technical Insti- 
tute has turned out very well. Students in the law enforcement- 
criminal justice programs were hired as police aides and used in 
nonenforcement aspects of the police and safety program, such as 
internal traffic and pedestrian control, and communications and 
office work at the police station. 


A major effort was made to prepare the Rock Creek Park facility 
for the Bicentennial summer, and a number of related projects were 
begun in addition to the ongoing Master Plan construction. They 
included renovating the roadway leading to the Monkey House and 
constructing a visitor sidewalk; building a visitor pavilion on the 
site of the old Puma House; and completely renovating the Mane 
Restaurant and the Panda Cafe. 

Three major areas of construction under the Master Plan are the 
Education-Administration Building, the bear dens, and the General 
Services Building. In July 1975, construction began on the Educa- 
tion-Administration Building near the Connecticut Avenue entrance. 
When completed in December 1976, the building will include space 
for the library, the administrative staffs of the Zoo, and the Friends 
of the National Zoo, plus three classrooms and a 300-seat audi- 

Construction started on bear exhibits in February 1976 involves 
two areas: one for polar bears, with three amphitheaters and under- 
water viewing, and the other for grizzley bears and a smaller 
bear, possibly the sun bear. Completion is scheduled for January 

Work on the General Services Building began in January 1976. 
When the building opens in August 1977, all of the Zoo's mainte- 
nance facilities will be moved into it, thereby freeing a number of 
areas around the Park for other uses. Included in this building will 
be additional parking spaces. This is the largest project under the 
Master Plan; the first phase is contracted at approximately six 
million dollars. The second phase, four parking levels providing 
spaces for 1,000 cars, is subject to future appropriation by Congress. 

By the summer of 1976 all Bicentennial projects were complete, 
and the center of the Park was opened to the public. 

130 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

The Office of Facilities Management is primarily responsible for the 
upkeep of all buildings, grounds, and related mechanical systems 
of the Zoo. The majority of the work consists of specific, recurring 
duties which make up the preventive maintenance programs. This 
year, however, additional responsibility came to the Office owing to 
progression of the Master Plan. New and renovated buildings now 
have multimechanical systems — sophisticated, expensive, sensitive 
— which must be incorporated into the preventive maintenance 

Office of International Programs 

The Office of International Programs fosters and coordinates the 
international aspects of Smithsonian programs and also provides 
support to United States institutions of research and higher learn- 
ing, including the Smithsonian, through Special Foreign Currency 
Program grants. Its functions are carried out by sections designated 
as the Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program and the International 
Liaison Section. 


The Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program (sfcp) awards grants 
to support the basic research interests of American institutions, in- 
cluding the Smithsonian, in those countries where the United States 
holds blocked currencies derived largely from past sales of surplus 
agricultural commodities under Public Law 480. The Program is 
active in countries where the Treasury Department deems United 
States holdings of these currencies to be in excess of normal federal 
requirements, including at present India, Pakistan, Egypt, Tunisia, 
and Poland. The Smithsonian has received a fiscal year 1977 ap- 
propriation of $3.5 million in "excess" currencies, which will be 
used to support projects in the anthropological sciences, systematic 
and environmental biology, astrophysics and earth sciences, and 
museum professional fields. The Smithsonian received a fiscal year 
1976 appropriation of $500,000 in "excess" currencies that was 
used to grant support to over sixty projects in these disciplines. 

Science I 131 

Since its inception in fiscal year 1966, the sfcp has awarded approxi- 
mately $29 million in foreign currency grants to some eighty-seven 
institutions in thirty-two states and the District of Columbia. 
Within the framework of the Program, the Smithsonian will make 
a third contribution of $1 million in Egyptian pounds in support of 
Egypt's efforts to save the submerged temples at Philae in Nubia. 


The International Liaison Section (ils) provides liaison and assist- 
ance to individuals and units of the Smithsonian in dealing with the 
Department of State and with foreign governments. It handles 
international matters involving travel and research abroad, and 
foreign participation in domestic programs of the Smithsonian, ils 
provides passport and visa services for Smithsonian staff, and as- 
sists in research arrangements for foreign visitors, ils worked 
closely with the Division of Performing Arts in arranging Bicen- 
tennial-related participation by 814 foreign folk artists in the Festi- 
val of American Folklife, and some 150 other foreigners participating 
in the special Bicentennial activities of the Institution. 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 

The form and structure of growing plant cells are determined by the 
interaction of at least two qualitatively different sets of signals. One 
of these controlling sets of signals is within the cell, and the second 
is external, consisting of a wide range of environmental factors such 
as light, temperature, and availability of the raw materials needed 
for growth. 

The internal instructions can be thought of as coming from a 
complex architectural blueprint, which is being followed by the 
molecular processes of the cell. This genetic blueprint, however, 
has a number of alternative, contingency plans that are read 
only if an appropriate signal is received from the environment. 
As the organism develops, it follows a basic pattern, so the species 
is clearly recognizable, but superimposed on this basic pattern are 
many possible variations of development in space and time. 

132 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

One of the most important and dependable external signals 
is sunlight. The Radiation Biology Laboratory has been studying the 
growth and development of organisms for nearly fifty years. Cur- 
rently, the Laboratory is emphasizing three basic areas of research: 
(1) the molecular nature of the pathways regulated and controlled 
by light, (2) the time dependency of developmental processes upon 
periodic changes in sunlight, and (3) a quantitative description of 
the time course of periodic fluctuations in environmental signals that 
are important for growth. 

A familiar example of the control of development by light is the 
sprouting of a potato. In the dark, the shoot produced is white 
and the leaves are small. If the shoot is exposed to light, the leaves 
expand and develop structures within the cells, called chloroplasts, 
that contain the membrane and pigments, chlorophylls (green) and 
carotenoids (yellow), that are necessary for photosynthesis. The 
formation of these chloroplast photosynthetic membranes and the 
mechanism by which proteins are added to the membranes during 
growth are being studied by electron microscopy and biochemistry. 

Experiments have not yet determined whether the information for 
controlling the synthesis of chloroplast membranes is within the 
chloroplast itself or is in the cytoplasm of the cell. The molecular 
components required for synthesizing proteins are known as 
polyribosomes. Polyribosomes occur on chloroplast membranes. 
These membrane-bound polyribosomes are attached to the mem- 
brane by proteins, since they can be released by mild treatment with 
the enzyme trypsin that breaks down protein. The released poly- 
ribosomes probably do not contain remnants of membrane, since 
they can be degraded by another enzyme, ribonuclease. The ribo- 
nuclease attacks the information-carrying nucleic acids in the poly- 
ribosomes. In contrast, treatment of membranes with the detergent 
"Nonidet" releases polyribosomes that appear to be attached to 
membrane remnants about the size of the polyribosome group. 
Another detergent, "Triton," solubilizes much of the membrane, but 
leaves the polyribosomes attached to much larger pieces of mem- 
brane. These membrane remnants are identifiable both in the elec- 
tron microscope and by analysis of their protein (polypeptide) com- 
position. The remnants differ in polypeptide composition from the 
membrane as a whole. This observation suggests that the poly- 
ribosomes lie on specialized portions of the membrane. 

Science I 133 

Some chloroplast membrane proteins are synthesized in the 
chloroplast itself, and some are synthesized in the cytoplasm. These 
proteins are then independently inserted into the chloroplast mem- 
brane. Isolated chloroplast membranes can be made to synthesize 
protein in vitro and the products obtained compared with products 
formed in vivo. The results suggest that the in vitro system com- 
pletes some membrane polypeptide chains. It is by studying such in 
vitro systems that the control of membrane synthesis by the inter- 
action of information from both the chloroplast and cytoplasm may 
be understood. 

The complexity of the chloroplast development in flowering 
plants has made progress slow and difficult. Another approach being 
pursued in the Laboratory is the use of algal cells. Many algae have 
developed special pigment molecules that act as light-harvesting 
antennae to funnel the light energy into photosynthetic membranes. 
These pigments have properties which allow efficient absorption of 
light in the color bands of sunlight that cannot be absorbed effi- 
ciently by chlorophyll alone. Thus, light captured between the red 
and blue absorbing peaks of green chlorophyll is transferred to 
chlorophyll in special protein-pigment structures (phycobilisomes) 
for photosynthesis. These phycobilisomes can be isolated from 
membranes and their structure determined. The pigment which 
finally funnels the light energy to chlorophyll is called allophyco- 
cyanin, and recent data show that it is in the base of the phycobili- 
some near the attachment point on the photosynthetic membrane. 
Allophycocyanin in vivo is in an aggregated state, which appears to 
enhance the energy transfer efficiency as seen by a fluorescence 
emission in the red region of the spectrum (675 nm). This year, in 
vitro shifts in absorption in purified allophycocyanin solutions have 
been produced. This is the first step in attempts to reconstitute 
functional phycobilisomes in vitro. 

The use of such seemingly simpler single-celled biological sys- 
tems has been productive. Another type of organism, the large, 
multinucleate single-celled fungus, Phycomyces, has been studied 
for many years. Aerial cells (sporangiophores) respond rapidly in a 
number of ways to environmental stimuli. The chief advantage of 
Phycomyces has been that growth responses were known to occur 
localized in the same region of the cell where the environmental 
signals are received, quite unlike flowering plants, which have a 

134 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

complex system of hormones that move from one region of the 
plant to another. In the past few years, data have been published 
that such hormones also may be involved in the Phycomyces sys- 
tem. It was discovered in this Laboratory that continuous exposure 
to high-intensity blue light will cause the sporangiophores to stop 
growing by elongation and, after a period of a few hours, to initiate 
a branch cell that elongates for many hours. The system also dem- 
onstrates apical dominance, in that two branches sometimes are 
formed, one of which exerts control and elongates, while the other 
is inhibited. If the spherical sporangium, at the upper end of the 
dominant branch sporangiophore, is mechanically removed, growth 
is initiated in the previously inhibited branch. We have been able to 
confirm this phenomenon and have observed that application of the 
plant growth hormone, auxin (indoleacetic acid), in about 50 percent 
of all experiments, is able to prevent branching. It appears that 
high-intensity blue light selectively destroys the sensitivity of the 
growing cell to hormonal materials being produced by the 
sporangium, since it has not been possible to produce branches by 
irradicating the sporangium alone. Each mature sporangium con- 
tains about one million vegetative spores, and the active material 
appears to be produced by these spores. The application of a num- 
ber of auxin inhibitors and antagonists, known to interfere with 
the effects of auxin or the flow of auxins in higher plants, has not 
led to branch formation in Phycomyces. 

Most fungal cells contain carotenoid pigments responsible for the 
yellow, orange, and red colors observed. These same compounds 
occur in higher plants and in animals. Some of these pigments are 
the accessory pigments for photosynthesis and are also precursors 
for Vitamin A synthesis. In many organisms the carotenoids have 
a protective function against adverse effects of visible light, and in 
addition they have other, unknown, functions. 

In the orange bread mold, Neurospora crassa, blue light is re- 
quired to initiate the biosynthesis of at least eight different carote- 
noid pigments. From experimental data using biochemical inhibitors, 
it has been proposed that one or more enzymes in the carotenoid 
pathway are absent or at low levels in dark-grown Neurospora cul- 
tures and that the activity of these enzymes increases following light 
exposure. One way of testing this hypothesis is to examine bio- 
chemically the precursors of the carotenoid pigments. Phytoene, a 

Science I 135 

40-carbon colorless compound, accumulates in dark-grown cultures. 
The enzyme activity that catalyzes the biosynthesis of phytoene 
from isopentenyl-pyrophosphate has been partially purified. Even 
though phytoene can be produced by dark-grown cultures, the 
activity is higher in cells which were exposed to blue light prior to 
extraction. Thus, light may regulate both the biosynthesis of 
phytoene, as well as its subsequent conversion to carotenoids. In 
order to separate these two processes, it will be necessary to investi- 
gate the regulation of each enzyme in the pathway. 

Temperature changes can also regulate carotenoid production in 
Neurospora. The optimum temperature for carotenoid biosynthesis 
following a light exposure is 6°C. Mutants have been isolated which 
have the same optimum, but carotenoid production is relatively in- 
sensitive to higher temperatures. For example, at 25°C to 37°C 
these mutants accumulate more pigment than the wild type strain. 
The gene containing the mutation has been mapped and found to 
be on the right arm of Chromosome IV. 

One of the pigments involved in the regulation of green plant 
development is the chromoprotein phytochrome. This pigment regu- 
lates a wide variety of plant responses, from flowering, stem growth, 
and seed germination to chlorophyll synthesis. Much effort has been 
devoted to characterizing this pigment because of its ubiquitous and 
important nature. Characterization has been hampered by two 
factors. One is the low concentration of phytochrome in the plant 
cell, and the second is the presence of other molecules which alter 
the structure of proteins when the plant tissue is broken up for 
extraction. Both of these factors have led to spurious artifacts. It 
was discovered by this Laboratory recently that highly purified 
phytochrome solutions previously thought to be free of significant 
contaminants contained another protein that could only be separated 
from phytochrome by ultracentrifugation. In addition, the struc- 
tural features observed by electron microscopy and previously 
ascribed to phytochrome are actually due to the presence of the 
contaminating protein. These data led to a reexamination of the 
phytochrome molecule. Electrophoretic and ultracentrifugal studies 
confirm that phytochrome exists in solution as a dimer. Analysis 
of gel filtration and ultracentrifugal data led to a description of 
phytochrome as an elongated molecule, described as a cigar-shaped 
structure with an axial ratio on the order of 8 to 1. The dimer dis- 

136 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

sociates as the alkalinity of the solution is increased. Even under 
conditions routinely used in isolating phytochrome, some dissocia- 
tion occurs. Such dissociation may account for some of the con- 
flicting descriptions from other laboratories of the properties of 

In addition, a purported photoreversible pigment system, driven 
by blue and yellow light from the alga Protosiphon, was examined 
because of its similarities to the photoreversible phytochrome 
molecule. However, the data indicate that the isolated pigment is 
probably not photoreversible by yellow light, since it reverts to the 
blue-absorbing form in the dark, with nearly identical kinetics ob- 
served under yellow light. The suggestion was made that the pig- 
ment plastocyanin is involved in this system, but data from mu- 
tants of Chlamydomonas which lack plastocyanin did not support 
this hypothesis. 

The phytochrome molecule acts as the receptor molecule for the 
control of reproductive development. When light signals are re- 
ceived from the environment, either inhibition or promotion occurs 
that is dependent upon both the species of plant and the time in the 
developmental cycle during which the signal is received. Normally, 
the red portion of sunlight predominates during the day, with 
marked increases in the far-red portion near sunrise and sunset. 
Experiments conducted with a long-day plant, Wintex barley, indi- 
cate that high levels of far-red light (700-800 nm), if maintained 
throughout the day, significantly promote the induction of flowers, 
when compared to plants grown with equally photosynthetically 
active energies but without the additional far-red light. 

Once flowering is induced by an appropriate light signal, internal 
biochemical changes occur that are transmitted from the sensitive 
leaves to the vegetative buds which become flowers. The nature of 
this chemical stimulus is unknown. This material is carried in the 
phloem sap. One way of obtaining sufficient phloem sap for analysis 
is to take advantage of the fact that aphids feeding upon plants 
insert a stylet directly into the phloem tissue. Droplets of honeydew 
can be collected from the aphids feeding on plants that have been 
induced to flower, and, assuming that no appreciable chemical 
changes have occurred in the passage of the active material through 
the aphid, it should be possible to identify the flowering stimulus. 
Salicylic acid was identified in honeydew, and salicylic acid has 

Science I 137 

been found by this technique to induce flowering in test plants of 
duckweed (Lemna gibba). Other materials known to be present are 
being tested in reference to their involvement in the flowering 
process. In addition, salicylic acid is being tested on a number of 
plant species, including several different Lemnaceae. 

Besides its regulatory effect upon growth processes, light is im- 
portant for photosynthesis. The efficiency of light usage in photo- 
synthesis is very low: about two percent of the incident energy 
is utilized. In some regions of the world, plants are grown under 
artificial lighting to produce prime horticultural and floricultural 
products. The electrical energy used is mostly produced from fossil 
fuels, thereby depleting a nonrenewable resource. The mode of light 
used for this purpose traditionally has been continuous light. 
However, work completed thirty years ago under flashing light 
conditions produced by mechanical devices indicated an increased 
efficiency in the photosynthetic utilization of light. The Radiation 
Biology Laboratory has recently been testing a prototypical, elec- 
tronically controlled, flashing fluorescent lamp system in a con- 
trolled environment for plant growth. Preliminary testing of the 
light utilization in the flashing mode versus continuous application 
of equal total energy indicates an increase of as much as 30 percent 
in photosynthetic efficiency. Such data should also lead to a better 
understanding of the molecular mechanisms occurring in photo- 

Salt marshes along the Atlantic seaboard are thought to be among 
the most productive ecosystems, and it has been assumed that much 
of the solar energy fixed as carbon compounds by photosynthesis 
finds its way into the adjacent estuaries, where fish and shellfish 
spend a part of their life cycle. In association with measurements of 
the incident solar radiation, measurements have also been made of 
the primary productivity of selected portions of two salt marsh 
communities. One of these communities is dominated by a sedge 
and the other by a mixture of two grass species. From measurements 
taken at different times during the growing season, estimates were 
made of the net carbon assimilated. More carbon was found to be 
assimilated by these communities than could be accounted for on 
the basis of measurements of the total mass of plant and animal 
matter in the community. These data substantiate the notion that 

138 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

these salt marsh communities are supplying significant amounts of 
carbon to the adjacent estuaries. 

In order to make these correlations, measurements of the incident 
solar radiation were needed. Such a monitoring program has been 
in progress for six years by the Laboratory. The program for 
measuring and monitoring the ultraviolet erythemal (sunburn) en- 
ergy (285 to 320 nm in 5nm increments) content of daylight was 
initiated last year. A preliminary analysis of the data indicates a 
pattern for this energy at the earth's surface at various latitudes for 
the northern hemisphere. As anticipated, the amount of ultraviolet 
erythemal radiation increases from the pole to the equator, with 
more detectable energy at the shorter wavelengths as one moves 
toward the equator. Also, the amount of ozone decreases as one 
approaches the equator. 

The data for these trends have been obtained from four scanning 
radiometers developed and constructed by the Radiation Biology 
Laboratory. Ozone calculations from the ultraviolet measurements 
at the Panama station indicate very little variation in ozone thick- 
ness seasonally, while measurements from the other stations indi- 
cate more seasonal variations for higher latitudes. 

There have been other phenomena observed in the data. Besides 
an increasing variability in daily ozone measurements with increas- 
ing latitude, there is the appearance of a cycle in the ozone data at 
three sites simultaneously. This cycle appears to be of about 27 to 
30 days and occurs in data from November 1975 to June 1976. More 
data will be needed to ascertain the existence of this observed 
cyclical event. 

The data collected on the spectral quality of daylight are being 
analyzed for long-term trends and variability at various locations. 
The analysis has begun using one year of data from three locations: 
(1) Barrow, Alaska (71 °N), (2) Rockville, Maryland (39 °N), and 
(3) Panama Canal Zone (9°N). The analysis was performed using 
the daily amounts of irradiance in each of the 100-nanometer (nm)- 
wide spectral bands from 400 nm to 800 nm, the total irradiance 
(300 nm-2800 nm), and the infrared region from 800 nm to 2800 
nm. The data were collected using precision Eppley pyranometers 
and automated acquisition systems. 

The analysis of the 1974 data clearly showed that the determi- 

Science / 139 


Sites at Barrow, Alaska, (above) and Panama (below) show the different en- 
vironments to which delicate and complicated instruments are exposed in the 
Smithsonian's Radiation Biology Laboratory studies. 


140 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

nation of the available solar energy and the spectral quality of that 
energy can only be obtained from direct measurements if data 
better than ±25 percent are required. Also, it may be quite impos- 
sible to predict long-term trends without measurements taken over 
many years. Such things as spectral quality changes, and losses in 
energy such as those found at Washington, D.C., and Mount Saint 
Katherine, Egypt, cannot be predicted with only five or six years' 

Another fact clearly shown in the analysis is that there are not 
only major differences in the spectral quality of daylight from place 
to place, but large variations in the spectral distribution can occur 
at any one location, especially around sunrise and sunset. 

For the 1974 data, the average daily amount of solar energy 
reaching the surface of the earth, compared to that available daily 
at the top of the atmosphere, is approximately 40 percent at Barrow, 
Alaska (71 C N) and about 53 percent at the Pacific entrance to the 
Panama Canal (9°N). The variations in these values are relatively 
large: from 5 percent to 65 percent at Barrow, 30 percent to 50 
percent at Rockville, and 48 percent to 60 percent in Panama, 
where the atmosphere is generally clear. 

If data from a longer period of time are used — for example the 
data from Rockville for seven years — then different mean values 
for the year will be obtained. For Rockville, an average value of 
46 percent of the solar energy available at the top of the atmosphere 
falling on the earth's surface is obtained, with a variation in the 
average of only 41 percent-51 percent. The measured values of the 
average energy available for over three quarters of the time range 
from 5 percent to 75 percent. Therefore, it is apparent that the use 
of calculated rather than measured values of solar radiation in solar 
energy applications must be done with great care. 

In photosynthesis, radioactive 14 carbon naturally occurring in 
the atmospheric carbon dioxide is assimilated. This 14 C decays with 
time and can be used to determine the age of once-living materials. 
Using this technique in collaboration with the Institution staff and 
in cooperative research with some twenty other institutions and 
universities, the relationships are being investigated between chang- 
ing environments and changing cultures, and research is being done 
on the early human occupation of the Americas. Of necessity, this 
requires more than the straightforward construction of chronolo- 

Science I 141 

gies, for research must be carried out in all the fields of archeology, 
geology, sedimentology, pollen analysis, sea-level changes, etc., in 
order to understand why peoples move, why cultures change. 

Current reversal in the Mediterranean Basin 10,000 years ago, 
first noted through sediment studies at the Strait of Gibraltar, has 
been confirmed by similar studies at the Strait of Sicily and the 
underwater cone of the Nile Delta. The entire Basin was subjected 
to drastic environmental change, and the concomitant change in 
human culture must have been equally great. The documentation 
of a succession of rapid climatic changes in Labrador and along the 
coast of northeastern North America has been keyed to successive 
movements and occupations by Eskimo and Indian groups, and the 
continued dating of pollen cores throughout the area will provide 
confirmatory evidence of geomorphological and ecological events 
and parameters. 

Continued excavations at Meadowcroft Rockshelter in western 
Pennsylvania have revealed some very early levels of occupation. 
Two samples, one of charcoal and the other of a simple bark textile, 
recovered in the 1975 excavations, have been dated and are esti- 
mated to be about 19,000 years old. 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

Astronomy was once concerned only with observing and charting 
the positions and motions of the planets and stars. Joy and satis- 
faction came from seeing the beauty and symmetry of these distant 
celestial bodies. The sense of wonder basic to astronomy naturally 
evolved into a desire to understand the physical composition of 
these celestial objects. Thus developed the science of astrophysics: 
the application of the prinicples of physics to the study of the 
stars, and, in particular at the Smithsonian Institution, the sun. 

At the turn of the century, the basic tools of astrophysics were 
optical telescopes and spectrographs. Following World War II, 
astrophysics expanded to include radio observations of stars, 
planets, and galaxies. Now the concept of astrophysics has broad- 
ened again. The stars are no longer considered static entities, but 
rather dynamic bodies that change and evolve — being born, matur- 

142 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

ing, aging, and dying much like living organisms. Thanks to the 
space program, modern astronomers can now observe radiation 
across the entire electromagnetic spectrum — from radio waves that 
are meters long to gamma rays, trillions of times shorter. During 
the past two decades, with each new wavelength revealing new 
insights on the complex nature of the universe, astrophysics has 
become an especially challenging and exciting branch of science. 

To theoretical astrophysicists, the future of this science seems 
exciting indeed. Astronomers have discovered quasars, pulsars, cos- 
mic masers, X-ray sources, and black holes. But even more exciting 
is the prospect of studying these mysterious objects with the radio, 
optical, infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray techniques that first re- 
vealed them. Some clues have already been discovered. For ex- 
ample, the quasars seem to have points of similarity with the X-ray 
sources discovered by satellite experiments, in which a spinning 
disk of matter is thought to be swallowed slowly by a black hole. 
The quasars appear to be a similar phenomenon on a much larger 
scale. To generate the tremendous energy of quasars, the black 
holes within them would have to weigh as much as 100 million suns. 

Each of these discoveries, fascinating in itself, contributes to our 
understanding of the processes by which the universe has expanded, 
galaxies have been formed, and stars have evolved over the past 15 
billion years. Dying stars apparently eject new chemical elements 
into space, in which they are available for forming new stars and 
planets — some of them with life. The intellectual synthesis describ- 
ing this process might be called "Cosmic Evolution," with an 
impact rivaling that of the Darwinian theory of biological evolution. 
This synthesis may account for all the structures in the universe, 
from quasars to planets. 

Particularly exciting is the prospect for future study of the pro- 
cesses that connect cosmic evolution with the evolution of life. If 
life originated from nonliving matter early in the history of the 
solar system, according to the laws of physics and chemistry, then 
perhaps some day we can predict which stars have life, and even 
which stars have intelligent life with which we might communicate. 

The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (sao) is participat- 
ing fully in the exploration of the frontiers of astrophysics. Only a 
large, multidisciplinary organization can muster the scientific capa- 
bility and technical expertise necessary to exploit and utilize the full 

Science I 143 

range of the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio to gamma rays. 
Accordingly, in 1973, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
and the Harvard College Observatory were joined, under a single di- 
rector, as the Center for Astrophysics, in order to pursue excellence 
in astrophysical research by developing the potential of both organi- 
zations. Today, with over 140 scientists and 500 staff members, in 
Cambridge and at field stations around the world, the Center repre- 
sents the nation's largest observatory. 

The research of the Center is organized by divisions representing 
major fields of study; and, as the following summaries show, the 
Center is making important scientific progress. 


One of the most exciting discoveries in the field of astronomy dur- 
ing the past year was the detection of giant bursts of X-ray emission 
from the centers of globular clusters of stars. The first and largest 
of these extraordinary X-ray sources was found by scientists at the 
Center for Astrophysics working with data taken by an experiment 
aboard the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite (ans). The sudden 
burst of energy, comparable to the 30-fold brightening of an optical 
object, was seen from a cluster in the constellation Sagittarius. Sub- 
sequently, at least another dozen of these so-called "X-ray bursters" 
were identified by Center scientists and a team from the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, with the latter group using data 
from the Small Astronomy Satellite (sas-3). 

The bursts of X-ray radiation are thought to be associated with 
giant black holes weighing the equivalent of several hundred suns, 
which may represent an intermediate stage between stellar black 
holes and the quasi-stellar black holes with a mass 100 million 
times that of the sun. 

An X-ray experiment using a two-dimensional low-resolution 
mirror and imaging system was flown aboard a rocket. In addition to 
observations of extragalactic X-ray sources, the experiment ob- 
tained the data that produced the first X-ray map of the Perseus 
cluster of galaxies, showing both extended emission regions and the 
galaxy ngc 1275. That gallaxy is the most intense source of X-ray 
emission discovered. 

Work continued on the experiments scheduled for flight aboard 
the upcoming National Aeronautics and Space Administration 

144 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Left. A rocket-borne X-ray telescope launched from White Sands Missile 
Range December 1975 produced this image of X-ray emissions from the Per- 
seus cluster, an ensemble of some 1,000 galaxies located about 300 million 
light years from earth. The image shows a broad area of diffuse X-ray emis- 
sion estimated as several million light years in diameter. Intense emission is 
seen from the Seyfert galaxy ngc 1275 at the center of the cluster, indicating 
that the object is perhaps the most powerful X-ray source known, some mil- 
lion times more luminous than the sum of all the X-ray sources in our own 
galaxy. Right. Photographic image of X-ray data returned by sas-3 satellite 
shows the exploding galaxy ngc 1275 (concentric circles on left) and the star 
Algol, Beta Persei, both in the constellation Perseus. The experiment was de- 
signed to measure precisely the positions of sources at high-galactic latitudes, 
thus allowing searches for optical counterparts of X-ray emission objects, (sao 

(nasa) series of High Energy Astronomy Observatory (heao) satel- 
lites, the first of which is planned for late 1977. A major effort has 
been devoted to construction of the cosmic X-ray telescope aboard 
the heao-b, due to fly in 1978. This telescope will be capable of de- 
tecting tens of thousands of X-ray sources, some more distant than 
the most distant galaxies now seen from ground-based telescopes. 

Experiments proposed by the division have also been selected 
for flight on the hea Transient Explorer satellite and the Soft X-ray 
and euv Explorer satellite. 

The all-sky survey of high-energy gamma-ray sources using a 
10-meter reflector at Mount Hopkins, Arizona, neared completion 
after an intense observation campaign during the past year. 


Two major satellite experiments conceived and designed by Division 
members culminated with successful launches in the spring. 

Science I 145 

Lageos, an extremely dense, mechanically and electrically inert, 
passive satellite fitted with retroreflectors was launched by nasa on 
May 4, 1976. The satellite, which has an orbital lifetime estimated in 
millions of years, will serve as a stable reference for ground-based 
laser tracking stations, including those of the Smithsonian, thus 
providing data on crustal movements, polar motion, and variations 
in the rotation of the earth. 

At an altitude of 5,900 km and with a magnitude of 13, the 
Lageos satellite was thought too faint to be photographed by the 
network's Baker-Nunn camera; indeed, it was expected that 60 days 
would be needed for initial observations. Yet the Baker-Nunn 
camera on the island of Maui, Hawaii, photographed the satellite on 
its first orbit, just 90 minutes after launch, and other network 
cameras photographed the object shortly thereafter. Using the 
camera data to improve pointing predictions, the Mount Hopkins, 
Arizona, laser obtained returns within 3 days after launch. Lasers 
in Peru and Brazil were successful as well, and routine tracking of 
this geodetic reference point, including daytime observations, began 
nearly 2 months ahead of schedule. 

During the next four years, geophysicists hope to obtain range 
data (laser-to-satellite distance) accurate to 10 cm, with the dis- 
tances between the ground stations measured to comparable ac- 
curacies. By the 1980s, this accuracy is expected to be 2 cm, or about 
the distance that Europe and North America are suspected of drift- 
ing apart annually. 

On June 18, 1976, a Smithsonian-designed and -built hydrogen 
maser clock, so accurate that it loses only 1 second in 10 million 
years, was launched by nasa on a 2-hour suborbital flight to test 
the equivalence principle, a cornerstone of Einstein's theory of gen- 
eral relativity. In the test, time aboard the spacecraft was measured 
against a duplicate ground-based clock to an accuracy of 1 part in 
10 14 . According to Einstein's theory, the space clock should run 
faster once free of the earth's gravitational field. 

The payload reached an altitude of 10,000 km with a flight time 
of l h 56 m . The probe maser functioned properly throughout the 
flight, as did the ground-based equipment. Initial analysis of the 
data, considered some 100 times more accurate than any previous 
ground-based experiments, indicates Einstein's theory is correct. 

In support of research in geodesy, geophysics, and the upper at- 

146 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Left. The laser system at Mount 
Hopkins, Arizona, is part of the 
worldwide network used for the 
precise tracking of earth-orbiting 
satellites for geophysical and geodetic 
research. This laser obtained the first 
range data from the Lageos satellite. 
(sao photo) Below. The hydrogen 
maser clock designed and built by 
the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory undergoes final checkout 
at nasa's Marshall Space Flight 
Center prior to rocket launch June 
18, 1976, to test the equivalence 
principle of Einstein's theory of 
general relativity, (nasa photo) 

mosphere, satellite-tracking operations were conducted in close 
cooperation with nasa, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, and 
the Institut fur Angewandte Geodasie. As coordinator of all interna- 
tional laser networks, sao provided orbital elements, scheduling, 
and general operational support for all the overseas lasers partici- 
pating in the campaign to track the Geos 3 satellite. Laser data were 
also acquired on a number of other retroreflector satellites for use 
in the development of the gravity-field and geodetic models of the 

An analytical theory for determining the nongravitational effects 
of solar radiation pressure, albedo pressure, and infrared pressure 
on artificial satellites, was developed for the first time. 

A complex theory for ocean tides was devised that incorporates 
existing theories on perturbations due to the sun and the moon, as 
well as those due to the earth's solid body tides caused by the sun 
and the moon. The new theory includes ocean tidal loading on the 
solid earth. 

Ionospheric data collected by the doppler-tracking experiment on 
the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (astp) of 1975 were reduced. This 
experiment was designed to detect large concentrations of mass 
in the earth beneath the satellites. Work this year was devoted to 
removing propagation errors from raw measurements of the relative 
velocity between the Apollo spacecraft and the astp docking 
module, with the resulting data to be inverted into gravity-field 
anomalies. These data also represent valuable horizontal sounding 
samples of the ionosphere at the 220-km orbital height. 


The primary research of this Division continues to focus on the 
study of the sun as a star, with related programs designed to under- 
stand similar physical processes observed in other stars. 

Basic to this research has been the continued analysis of solar 
data obtained by Harvard experiments aboard the Skylab satellite 
during the 1973-1974 flight. These data, in the form of thousands 
of photographs, were taken by two different instruments — one 
sensitive to ultraviolet emissions, the other to X-rays — and they are 
being analyzed by two different groups within the Division. 

The analyses have resulted in detailed numerical models describ- 
ing the physical mechanisms for energy flow in the sun's corona and 

148 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

the acceleration of solar wind. It has been found that the solar wind, 
which strikes the earth, is controlled by a magnetic field deep within 
the body of the sun. 

This discovery has major implications for understanding physical 
processes and motions below the solar surface. Moreover, this dis- 
covery may allow earth-bound investigators to predict periods of 
solar-wind activity through observations of changes in the sun's 
surface features. 

An excellent example of Harvard-Smithsonian collaboration in 
scientific endeavor is the establishment of the Langley-Abbot pro- 
gram of solar research. Funded by the Institution and using Harvard 
satellite data, the program will attempt to integrate current theory 
and observation of solar processes with historical studies of solar 
variability in a critical assessment of the interrelationship between 
solar and terrestrial phenomena, particularly long-term climatic 

During the past year, activities in the Langley-Abbot program in- 
cluded analysis of possible solar "constant" variations from the 
original Abbot data and more modern Mariner and Nimbus space- 
craft data; measurement of the differential rotation of solar 
magnetic fields and the photosphere; theoretical analyses of the 
implications of such data and related observations on the solar cycle 
and long-term solar variability; data analysis and theoretical studies 
of the interaction of solar plasma and magnetic fields in active 
regions; prominences and flares; and the continuing analytic studies 
of long-term terrestrial climatic variation and its possible relation to 
solar activity. 


Harvard-Smithsonian collaboration in radio astronomy has been 
active for many years in a cooperative program designed to detect 
and measure the very faint radio signals emitted by molecules in 
interstellar space. 

The list of newly discovered interstellar molecules grows every 
day, with scientific interest and anticipation mounting as more and 
more complex organic molecules are found in the space between the 
stars. For example, in the past year, Division scientists detected in- 
terstellar nitrogen sulphide. Although no one expects to find living 
organisms in space, there is hope that molecules of biological inter- 

Science I 149 

est will be discovered, thus providing a step toward understanding 
the origin of life on earth. 

The Division also began a program that applies the techniques of 
ground-based millimeter-wave radio astronomy to the problem of 
measuring the photochemical ozone balance in the earth's atmos- 
phere. Scientists measured H_>0 and O . in the earth's mesophere and 
developed mathematical models for determining the altitude distri- 
butions of the two substances. The design and construction of a 
millimeter-wave atmospheric spectrometer for this program were 
completed, and a method of predicting the millimeter-wave spectra 
of heavy organic molecules was developed to support this program. 

Using the Harvard radio astronomy facility at Fort Davis, Texas, 
Center scientists participated in an expanded collaborative program 
of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (vlbi) with a number of 
other radio astronomy institutions. The vlbi technique utilizes 
several widely separated radio antennas to observe celestial sources 
of radio emission. This technique has the effect of extending the 
"size" of the radio receivers to a diameter of hundreds, or even 
thousands, of miles. The difference in arrival time of received radio 
signals at the various ground stations provides highly accurate an- 
gular resolution. The initial studies of this ambitious program con- 
centrated on radio galaxies, quasars, and oh masers, including, in 
one case, an unprecedented eight-station experiment to map quasars 
at the 18-cm wavelength. An extremely precise hydrogen maser 
clock, built by the same team that prepared the clock for space flight 
in the gravity probe experiment, was developed for use in the radio 


By combining Harvard laboratory facilities with Smithsonian theo- 
retical research support, programs in the Division are influenced 
and inspired by the diverse activities and needs of astrophysics. The 
goal is to provide the basic parameters of atomic and molecular 
physics required to understand physical processes and thus to aid 
in the interpretation of observational data obtained by other Center 

Theoretical studies in the field of atomic structure and processes 
concentrated on the application of model potential methods for the 
accurate calculation of properties of complex atoms, and the de- 

150 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

velopment of a relativistic generalization of the random phase 
approximation for studying the properties of highly stripped atomic 

In the field of molecular structure and processes, progress has 
been made in large scale ab initio calculations of potential energy 
curves, methods for including electronic continuum functions in 
molecular calculations, and the use of model potential and random 
phase approximation methods in molecular physics. 

Atomic and molecular data have been used in theoretical studies 
of the thermosphere of the earth, for comparison with the in situ 
measurements obtained by the nasa Atmospheric Explorer Satellite 
system, in order to obtain a quantitative understanding of the 
physical and chemical processes. The absorption of solar euv radia- 
tion and photoelectrons in the atmosphere and the photochemical 
equilibrium in concentrations have been calculated. Using the satel- 
lite observations, information on the Ou concentration, the total 
ionization rate due to the solar ultraviolet flux, and the thermal 
budget of the ionosphere can be obtained. Some preliminary studies 
of the upper atmosphere of Jupiter and Mars have been carried out. 


The Planetary Sciences Division is somewhat unusual in that con- 
siderably more attention is given to the smaller bodies of the solar 
system than to the larger ones. This emphasis has recently received 
a unique form of recognition: the asteroids numbered 1877, 1880, 
1881, 1913, and 1940 have been named Marsden, McCrosky, Shao, 
Sekanina, and Whipple, respectively, in honor of the scientific con- 
tributions of these Center staff members. An astrometric program 
at Harvard's Agassiz station has contributed to the awarding of 
those honors; more than 500 positions of faint asteroids and comets 
have been measured, leading to the assignment of permanent num- 
bers to thirteen minor planets. Much of this activity has been made 
possible through the development of a program to reduce the uncer- 
tainties in comet and asteroid orbits and to reconcile apparently 
conflicting observations. 

Several members of the Division maintain an active interest in 
comets. Investigations of comet orbit clustering have led to the con- 
clusion that there is less evidence than previously thought for the 
reality of comet pairs. Work continued on the process of comet 

Science I 151 

splitting, particularly on the possibility that a very large number 
of new comets would be deflected into the inner solar system where 
the large release of cometary gases could have formed a secondary 
solar nebula early in the history of the solar system. Photometric 
studies on the properties of cometary tails continued, with a con- 
centration on predicted observability of "antitails." These predic- 
tions have been verified by a number of recent observations and 
give interesting physical information about cometary particles in the 
millimeter-to-centimeter size range. Studies of nongravitational 
forces affecting cometary projectories also continued. 

In meteor research, the Prairie Network observing stations have 
been closed, but analysis of network observations continues. A co- 
operative program with groups in Albany and Ottawa has been 
conducted to measure the spectra of faint meteors from ground and 
aircraft. These groups have had some successful runs with observa- 
tions of meteor showers and are beginning the reduction of the 
data. This program is expected to continue for two more years. 

Work relating to the outer planets included research on the prop- 
erties of Saturn's rings, particularly the structure of the gaps in the 
rings, which are associated with satellite resonances. Ring-particle 
scattering apparently plays an important role in widening these 
gaps, and the current estimate of ring particle size is of the order of 
a meter. The ephemerides of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, as 
well as knowledge about their diameters, have been improved 
through analysis of their mutual occultations. In cooperation with 
the California Institute of Technology, efforts are being made to 
discover new faint satellites of Jupiter. 

A strong program of research on lunar and meteorite samples 
has been maintained by Division members who have also organized 
two consortia to coordinate research in lunar geology. One of these, 
the Consortium Indomitable, worked on the analysis of samples 
from a large lunar boulder; the other, new consortium, the Con- 
sortium Imbrium, has been formed to study ejecta from the Imbrium 
basin. In addition, the analysis of solar-wind gases trapped in the 
lunar materials has placed a meaningful upper limit on the amount 
of tritium in the solar wind and has allowed a positive identification 
of carbon 14. 

Members of the Division are also engaged in a variety of theo- 
retical programs. An investigation of the theory of Cassini states 

152 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Comet West, one of the brightest comets of the twentieth century, was visible 
to North American observers in early 1976. This 47-minute exposure was 
taken on March 13 by Daryl Willmarth of the Mount Hopkins Observatory 
using the 61-cm telescope, (sao photo) 

has predicted that the lunar spin axis points to within a few degrees 
of the earth-moon system, and further predicts that the earth-spin 
axis will undergo wild gyrations about two billion years in the 
future. Similar studies are being applied to Venus. A new theory 
was developed to account for the large eccentricity of Mercury's 
orbit, which involves passing the planet through two resonances 
with Venus and requires that a certain limit exist on the spin-down 
time of the sun. Evolutionary sequences of models of the primitive 
solar nebula were constructed, with each treating the nebula as a 
viscous accretion disk. According to the theoretical studies, the solar 
nebula should have become repeatedly unstable against global 
gravitational instabilities, and an investigation of the properties of 
the giant gaseous proto-planets that would result from such insta- 
bilities has begun. Also studied was a collision theory of lunar 
formation, in which a large collision in the late stages of formation 
of the earth inefficiently places vaporized and condensed rocky 
material in earth orbit, from which the moon can collect by gravi- 
tational instabilities. 


The research of the Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division may 
be divided according to the areas and objects of interest and accord- 
ing to facilities and instrumentation. 

In the former scheme of division, a major interest is extragalactic 
work. The spectra of active galaxies that emit large amounts of 
energy in the infrared, such as the Seyfert galaxy ngc 1068, were 
studied by means of both a 1-m balloon-borne telescope and a 
ground-based instrument at the Kitt Peak National Observatory 
fitted with a circular variable filter. The data show complexity in 
the spectrum, including line emission, which indicated that no 
single simple model can explain the infrared emission. 

The optical variability of several quasi-stellar or BL-Lacertae 
objects was studied. The observations revealed large variations, the 
peaks of which show very great luminosities of these objects at 
cosmological distances. 

Two techniques are being used to search for halos of faint red 
stars around galaxies, which could represent large amounts of mass. 
An essentially negative measurement was made of ngc 4565, an 
edge-on spiral, by use of a silicon vidicon camera. Additional studies 

154 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

will continue with the ccd camera under development at the Center. 
Preliminary measurements with photographic emulsions and grid 
technique to get reliable low-contrast results were also made. 

The problem of two- and three-body correlations for the distri- 
bution of galaxies was studied. This work has shown that extensive, 
careful red-shift measurements, combined with positional data, can 
be of great cosmological interest when compared with theory. 

Work on the interstellar medium includes study of H n regions at 
both near- and far-infrared wavelengths, again utilizing data from 
both balloon- and ground-based observations. Mapping of the Orion 
and W3 regions, and near-infrared measurements of various regions, 
will aid in the understanding of how energy is distributed between 
gas and dust. 

A large proportion of the research on stars is centered on the use 
of optical observations in conjunction with X-ray data to study the 
properties of highly condensed objects interacting with normal 
companions in binary systems. An identification of these com- 
panions and studies of their variability were made, both on short- 
and long-time scales. In the latter case, the studies were made pos- 
sible by the archival photographs in the Harvard plate collection. 
Intensive studies were made of the centers of globular clusters 
which emit X-ray bursts in a search for optical clues to this unusual 
phenomenon. A study of abundances in Sirius has been conducted 
to see whether mass transfer between it and its companion could 
have affected nucleosynthesis in this system. Ultraviolet studies of 
X-ray sources will be made with the ive satellite. 

In planetary research, a definitive determination of the tempera- 
ture of Uranus was made with the balloon instrument calibrated 
by means of the model for the time-dependent effective temperature 
of Mars. 

In terms of observing facilities, the Division's activities were 
many and varied. A duplicate version of the Mount Hopkins echelle 
spectrograph was installed on the 61-inch telescope at Agassiz 
Station in Massachusetts, and will be supplemented with an electro- 
graphic camera, permitting effective use of the telescope in the pre- 
vailing nonphotometric conditions. A novel fast spectrograph is 
being constructed to permit lower-resolution observations of fainter 

As of July 1, 1976, the Smithsonian discontinued its participation 

Science I 155 

Architect's rendering of the Multiple Mirror Telescope under construction on 
the summit of Mount Hopkins, Arizona, by the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory and the University of Arizona. The entire structure will rotate, 
via wheels on a track, with the telescope during normal operations. The fa- 
cility is expected to be completed by the fall of 1977. 

in the operation of the Boyden Observatory in South Africa because 
the remoteness of the station made research there costly and ineffec- 
tive. New locations are being considered for Harvard's Southern 
Hemisphere Damon patrol cameras that have been at Boyden. 

The major commitment in observing facilities is at Mount Hop- 
kins, Arizona, where the installation of the Multiple Mirror Tele- 
scope has begun, in collaboration with the University of Arizona. 
The Mount Hopkins complex now operates on a reliable commercial 
power line from the valley, and improvements to the road and water 
system continue. 

The 60-inch telescope was refurbished this year, with recoating 
of the primary mirror (done at Kitt Peak) and subsequent use of the 
primary in testing the figure of a new secondary mirror (made by 
the University of Arizona's Optical Science Center). This light- 
weight mirror is designed for infrared work and is now mounted on 
an oscillating support designed and built, together with its drive, at 
the Center. The improved system allows sky subtraction for infra- 

156 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

red photometry, using an f/10 beam up to 2-arcmin diameter, a 
unique capability among infrared telescopes. 

During fiscal year 1976, the 24-inch telescope of the State Uni- 
versity of New York at Stony Brook was brought into full operation 
under our collaborative arrangement. Used for photometry and 
spectroscopy, it is being designed to accept instruments from the 
60-inch telescope. 

The Multiple Mirror Telescope (mmt) Program jointly carried 
out by the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory is proceeding at a satisfactory pace. The optics are 
essentially complete, and the active-optics alignment system is 
nearing completion, with both tasks undertaken at the University 
of Arizona. The final subcontract, for actual fabrication of the opti- 
cal support structure, was let in the summer; construction and 
testing should be complete by February 1977. The construction of 
the mmt housing is proceeding nearly on schedule, under the direc- 
tion of Aeronutronic-Ford Western Development Laboratories, the 
prime contractor for all the structural mechanical work. The pier 
and foundation are complete, and the bearing support and yoke 
base have been installed by the Smithsonian. Erection of the hous- 
ing and its support and drive system will take place during the 
summer and early fall, allowing for the completion of the yoke 
installation, under shelter, before the end of 1976. After the erec- 
tion of the optical support structure, scheduled for February 1977, 
installation of the optical components can begin and should be 
completed during the spring of 1977. Serious testing and provisional 
operation of the telescope should take place during the summer 
of 1977. 


The Theoretical Astrophysics Division performs research in a wide 
range of astrophysical topics, with theoretical studies often applied 
to the support and interpretation of observational data. Members 
of the Division frequently work in collaboration with members of 
other divisions as well as with scientists in other institutions. In 
addition, they contribute substantially to the educational program 
of the Department of Astronomy. 

The development and application of methods of quantum me- 
chanics to atomic and molecular processes continued, as did studies 

Science I 157 

A delegation from the Scientific and Technical Association of the People's 
Republic of China visited the Center for Astrophysics in October for a tour 
of the facilities and a discussion of current topics in astronomy and astro- 
physics. Dr. Edmond Reeves (left) describes the Harvard spectroheliometer 
that flew aboard the Skylab satellite. (Harvard College Observatory photo) 

on the role of atomic and molecular processes in astrophysics. A 
relativistic generalization of the random phase approximation was 
developed and is proving to be a powerful new tool for the treat- 
ment of elements of high nuclear charges. 

A pulsating white dwarf model for explaining the X-ray pulsars 
was devised, in which the pulsations are driven by nuclear burning 
of accepted hydrogen from a binary companion. 

Similarly, a model developed for the formation of ob stars in a 
molecular cloud suggests that an ob star can drive an ionization and 
shock front into a molecular cloud, which will trigger the formation 
of a second ob star. The process repeats to form a chain of ob stars. 

Investigations were made of the possible noncosmological pro- 
duction of deuterium and other light elements; of the spatial dis- 
tribution of galaxies; of the propagation of acoustic waves in stellar 
atmospheres, with particular application to the heating of the low 
solar chromosphere; and of the radiative transfer and line formation 

158 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

in sources with spherical geometry and with velocity fields. 

Studies of the evolution of close binary stars indicate that in an 
early phase of evolution the binaries were in contact and may have 
lost a substantial amount of mass and angular momentum at that 

The growth of the central galaxy in a rich cluster of galaxies, 
due to its accretion of other cluster galaxies, was studied. Also, a va- 
riety of scenarios was developed to describe formation of a large 
black hole in a globular cluster. 

Studies of stellar turbulence driven by tidal distortion revealed 
that tidally induced shear probably cannot cause turbulence in an 
otherwise stable star. 

The unified gauge theory of weak, electromagnetic, and strong 
interactions was used to study neutrino-pressure supernova models. 

Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, Inc. 

The Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, Inc. (ssie) has had 
another year of growth in fiscal year 1976. Not only has there been 
increasing recognition of the importance of ongoing research infor- 
mation as a tool for the management and planning of research, but 
new approaches have been developed to make ongoing research 
information in the ssie data base more readily available. 

The Exchange sought to increase the comprehensiveness and 
coverage of information in its data base in a number of areas of 
major importance to the national interest. Two such areas were in 
the fields of cancer and energy research. New sources of input in 
both these fields were forthcoming at the national and international 
level, and more than 4,000 new projects were added to the system 
in these two areas alone. 

In the field of energy research, the Exchange prepared, under a 
National Science Foundation grant, the first directory on Informa- 
tion on International Research and Development Activities in the 
Field of Energy, which was published by the National Science 
Foundation. Because of the Exchange's success in obtaining input 
from five European countries and Canada this first year, the project 
has been extended for a second year, and arrangements have been 
completed for obtaining information from three new countries, 

Science / 159 

Sweden, Denmark, and Israel. The possibility of adding input from 
other foreign countries is also being explored. A concerted effort has 
been undertaken to obtain new national energy research informa- 
tion from nonfederal organizations, such as the Electrical Power 
Research Institute and the Petroleum Research Institute. 

Through its operation of the Current Cancer Research Project 
Analysis Center for the International Cancer Research Data Bank 
program of the National Cancer Institute, the Exchange has in- 
creased its data base of information about ongoing cancer research, 
both nationally and internationally. The program is particularly 
significant not only in terms of identifying research in progress 
worldwide, but also in terms of the Exchange's output products and 
services, which are distributed by the National Cancer Institute 
to scientists in this country and abroad. During fiscal year 1976, the 
Exchange prepared eight major directories of cancer research and 
some fourteen special listings of cancer research in highly specific 
subject areas. Copies of the latter were made available to research 
investigators worldwide whose research projects appeared in each 
of the special categories. In addition, information on all research 
projects in the cancer field, registered at ssie, were made available 
on-line through the computer facility at the National Library of 
Medicine. This program is expected to continue throughout the 
coming year and become increasingly valuable as more research 
information is fed into the data base. 

During the year, the Exchange began preparing a quarterly 
directory of ongoing research information in toxicology for the 
Toxicology Information Subcommittee of the Department of Health, 
Education and Welfare's Committee of Coordinate Toxicology and 
Related Programs. The directory, published quarterly by the Na- 
tional Technical Information Service, will have an annual cumula- 
tive index covering research projects indexed throughout the year. 
The response to the project was enthusiastic and the project has 
been continued for a second year. 

The Exchange also continued to prepare directories for publica- 
tion by various federal agencies in Water Resources Research, 
Disaster Related Technology, and Dental Research. 

In 1975 and 1976 the Exchange, with the support of the National 
Science Foundation, began to develop a more extensive program to 
identify international data sources of ongoing research information 

160 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

which could be of major importance and use to research planners 
and managers in various scientific fields. As a part of this effort, 
the first International Symposium on Information Systems and 
Services in Ongoing Research in Science, sponsored by the unisist 
program of unesco in collaboration with ssie, was held in Paris in 
October 1975. 

The Exchange is currently preparing, in cooperation with the 
unisist program of unesco, a directory of ongoing research systems 
worldwide in order to further the exchange of information between 
developed and developing countries. Efforts are currently underway 
to identify problem areas which might develop as actual exchange 
of scientific information between countries becomes a reality. As a 
follow-up to the symposium, the unisist program expects to de- 
velop an office for ongoing research, which will have a working 
group of international experts in the field to help identify and 
suggest ways to resolve problems that might develop in the ex- 
change of information between countries. In addition to working 
with unisist, the Exchange is currently exploring the possibility of 
bilateral cooperation with several countries, including the leasing of 
the ssie data base, exchange of information in selected subject 
areas, and development of bilingual indexing terminology to facili- 
tate exchange of information. 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Many people living in temperate regions still regard the tropics as 
a "green hell" of steaming jungles inhabited by all manner of fierce 
and unfriendly creatures. Part of our work at the Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute (stri) is to correct this notion. Our 
primary concern is to support studies that will help to place the 
ecological, evolutionary, and sociological processes occurring in the 
tropics into a proper perspective relative to the world ecosystem. 
Just as we have found that events in the temperate regions, such as 
indiscriminate use of insecticides and release of radioactive at- 
mospheric pollutants, produce worldwide effects, so we can expect 
that destruction of tropical forests and pollution of coral reefs may 

Science I 161 

have profound and as yet unpredicted effects on the earth's weather 
and ocean productivity. 

The tropics contain the fastest growing segments of the human 
population, and the economic aspirations of this group impinge on 
natural areas in ways that we have only begun to understand. 

In some parts of Central America more forests may exist now 
than existed before the Spanish exploration, when indigenous popu- 
lations may have had greater acreage under cultivation; in other 
parts of the new world, cutting of forests is proceeding at an un- 
precedented rate. In tropical rain forests of the Far East, plantations 
of few or single species are becoming increasingly popular. Of 
course, such forests are more vulnerable to pests and diseases, and 
they can only support a much-reduced fauna compared to the 
mixed-species rain forest that they replace. Tropical rain forests are 
great storehouses of animal and plant species, and once a species is 
removed from the genetic pool, it cannot be restored. 

stri is devoted to fundamental research on tropical organisms. 
Scientists and students seek to learn why there are more kinds of 
animals and plants in the tropics and how they divide the avail- 
able resources, stri is engaged in a wide variety of studies; how- 
ever, for purposes of this report, the focus will be on activities in 
two areas: forest ecology and certain aspects of the evolution of 
aquatic organisms. 

By conducting fundamental research on the reproductive strate- 
gies of plants, ecologists on Barro Colorado Island are also learning 
how and why some species are better exploiters of new openings 
that appear in tropical forests. Clearings of various sizes appear 
both naturally and through human activity. Man clears forests for 
farms, roads, dams, etc. Nature provides clearings through single 
treefalls, storm-induced clearings, such as the 1.5 hectare openings 
produced on Barro Colorado Island in 1973; or most spectacularly, 
the hundreds of hectares of forest that were scoured away by the 
forces of an earthquake on the Colombia-Panama border last June. 

Study of recolonization under natural conditions provides the 
kind of data needed to understand the processes of forest develop- 
ment, succession, and persistence. A number of workers at stri are 
looking at problems related to plant growth and success in the 

Egbert Leigh went to Malaysia to continue his comparison of 

162 / Smithsonian Year 1976 


Iguanas emerging from a nest on Slothia Island, adjacent to Barro Colorado 

Island in Panama. 

lowland and montane rain forests around the world. To see whether 
transpiration (the evaporation of water through the stomates of 
leaves), which brings up water by capillary traction from the roots, 
plays an essential role in transporting nutrients to the tree crown, 
he visited montane forests in the fog belts of Costa Rica and 
Malaysia, where transpiration is much reduced. He hoped to dis- 
cover whether the trees had adopted forms to increase transpira- 
tion rates under those conditions. 

These comparisons are part of a program instituted by Martin 
Moynihan to determine how typical Barro Colorado is of the wet 
tropics around the world. Analysis indicates that the ecological 
organization of Barro Colorado wood and leaf production, and the 
spectrum of defenses from herbivores, etc., seem very similar to 
those of lowland Malaysian rain forests, as revealed by the ibp 
project there. 

Mycorrhizae are specialized plant organs, formed by the associa- 
tion of fungi with plant roots, which absorb minerals. Almost all 
plant species, including many crops, can form the vesicular- 
arbuscular (vA)-type mycorrhizae. The fungi of this type have 
extremely broad host ranges, and are obligate root inhabitants that 
neither grow nor reproduce when unassociated with host roots. 

David P. Janos, a stri postdoctoral fellow, is developing a model 
of the interaction of va mycorrhizal fungus and plant communities. 

Science I 163 

Many canopy tree species are dependent on mycorrhizae for growth. 
Plant species of early successional communities are less absolute in 
their requirement of mycorrhizae, being adapted to greater varia- 
tion in mineral and mycorrhizal fungus availability. The quantity of 
mycorrhizae formed in an early successional community affects the 
availability of inocula for subsequently colonizing species. A reduc- 
tion of mycorrhizal fungus populations may impede return to 
climax forest. 

The current study at stri is concerned first with learning whether 
the plant community composition reflects mineral and mycorrhizal 
inoculum availability. Several successional and climax species are 
being grown with different additions of mycorrhizal inocula and 
mineral nutrients. The more dependent species are expected to be 
incapable of growing where inocula are lacking, although this in- 
capacity may be ameliorated by increased mineral availability. 
Second, stri scientists are trying to determine whether the quantity 
of mycorrhizae formed by the plants in a community affects sub- 
sequent inoculum availability. Repetition of the previously de- 
scribed experiment without further manipulation of mycorrhizal 
inoculum will answer this question. 

Robert Silberglied joined the biological staff in January 1976. 
He holds a joint appointment with stri and with Harvard Uni- 
versity as an Assistant Professor of Biology and Curator in Ento- 
mology at the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Silberglied is studying the function of color and pattern in insect 
communication and orientation. Of particular interest to him are 
the spectacular ultraviolet reflection patterns found on the wings 
of certain butterflies. These patterns, visible to insects (and by 
photography) but not seen by man, are characterized by some of 
the most intense and spectrally pure colors found in nature. Since 
different butterfly species that appear similar to us often have 
radically different ultraviolet patterns, and since the sexes within 
a species often differ from one another in this respect, there is 
potential for an elaborate and very subtle communication system. 
By changing the colors of living butterflies in behavioral experi- 
ments, Dr. Silberglied is attempting to unravel the mysteries of this 
language beyond the spectrum visible to man. 

Dr. Gene Montgomery has also joined stri's permanent staff. 
Formerly employed by the National Zoo, Dr. Montgomery's re- 

164 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Phoebis arganta (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) photographed with visible light (left) 

and ultraviolet light (right). 

search interests are primarily involved with the ecology of tropical 
mammals and so can be more conveniently pursued at stri. An 
expert on the radio-tracking of mammals, Dr. Montgomery will 
continue his studies of anteaters and sloths in Panama and 

In an effort to further the development of a cooperative program 
with the Charles Darwin Research Station in the Galapagos Islands, 
Ecuador, Messrs. Rubinoff, Rand, and Borges visited there in No- 
vember 1975. Discussions were held on the establishment of a ma- 
rine laboratory and on the development of fellowships to encourage 
students to work in the Galapagos. Two stri scientists went to the 
Galapagos in August to initiate marine studies. D. Ross Robertson 
was interested in the problem of resource partitioning and competi- 
tion between damselfishes and surgeonfishes on coral reefs. In 
most coral reefs of the world, many species of both groups are 
found, but in the Galapagos only one species of surgeonfish is 
found as opposed to six species of damselfishes. During Mr. Robert- 
son's short trip, the patterns of spatial distribution, feeding habits, 
and interaction of these fish groups with the marine iguana were 
examined. The only marine lizard occurs there, and it is a herbi- 
vore probably competing with the fishes for food. 

From October through December 1975, Tyson Roberts conducted 
a comprehensive biological survey of the fishes in the Fly River 
basin, one of the largest in Papua New Guinea. A total of about 
twenty-five families and eighty-five species was obtained. The fish 

Science I 165 

fauna of the Fly consists almost entirely of recent invaders from 
the sea or those forms that have had a long history of movement 
back and forth between marine and freshwater habitats. 

In June a workshop met on Barro Colorado Island, to review 
knowledge on when and how the Isthmus of Panama was formed 
and to discuss the effects of its formation on the evolution of in- 
vertebrates, especially mollusks and corals. Special attention was 
given to possible parallels with major "crises" earlier in the fossil 
record, such as those resulting in extinctions of ammonites, 
mosasaurs, icthyosaurs, etc. Mollusks survived better on the Pacific 
side, which suffered less environmental disturbance, but the corals 
survived better in the Caribbean, largely because of trade-wind- 
induced upwellings of deeper nutrient-laden waters in the Pacific. 
Where nutrients abound, algae and barnacles smother infant corals. 
Long absences of coral reefs are found in the fossil record, such as 
in the early Carboniferous items when shoal waters were probably 
richer in nutrients. Had this condition caused kelp beds to replace 
coral reefs as they do in colder, more nutrient-rich waters today? 

Drs. Moynihan and Linares left for Senegal in July 1976 for a 
year of field work. Dr. Moynihan will be looking at the behavior of 
squirrels and cephalopods, while Dr. Linares will be revisiting the 
Diola wet rice cultivators that she studied in 1964. 

A. S. Rand was awarded a grant from the National Science 
Foundation's United States-Latin American Cooperative Program 
to investigate the role of malaria in the fluctuations of the popula- 
tions of lizards on Barro Colorado Island. These population 
changes, which do not appear to be caused by changes in food or 
predator abundance, may be a function of disease. Co-investigator 
in this study is Steven Ayala of the Universidad del Valle, Cali, 

In December, the second annual report of the Environmental 
Sciences Program's Tropical Studies was published. Donald Wind- 
sor was the editor. This computer-assisted compilation makes pos- 
sible the convenient comparison of data from 1973 and 1974 for a 
number of parameters. As subsequent volumes accumulate, more 
meaningful comparisons between annual fluctuations in environ- 
mental and biological variables will be possible. 

The short-term fellowship program was expanded with a grant 
from the Exxon Foundation. Along with continued support from 

166 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

the Henry L. and Grace Doherty Foundation and the Edward John 
Noble Foundation, more than fifty students from the United States, 
Panama, Colombia, Germany, Great Britain, Belgium, Chile, Vene- 
zuela, and Peru were provided with fellowships to begin studies 
introducing them to tropical research. 

Interest in tropical science is increasing, judging from the num- 
ber of visitors to stri. Over 1,700 scientists and students from 39 
states and 37 foreign countries, representing over 180 universities 
and other institutions, took advantage of stri marine and terrestrial 
facilities in the last fifteen months. 

Science I 167 

Her Majesty Queen Margrethe II of Denmark with Mr. Marvin Sadik, Director 
of the National Portrait Gallery, at the May 11, 1976, opening of the exhibi- 
tion "Christian Gullager, Portrait Painter to Federal America." 

Smithsonian Year • 1976 

It seems fitting that the Smithsonian's Bicentennial year should 
have turned out to be fifteen months long. As the following pages 
show in some detail, the history and art bureaus of the Institution 
produced an array of exhibitions, publications, scholarly tools and 
educational programs that could scarcely be expected to fit within 
the confines of an ordinary twelve-month year. The continuing 
encouragement and support of the Congress and the White House, 
the extraordinary dedication of hundreds of members of the Smith- 
sonian family, the cooperation of government agencies and private 
institutions and individuals, and the administrative and diplomatic 
skills of the Institution's Bicentennial coordinator, Susan Hamilton, 
made possible a program worthy both of the Smithsonian and of 
the great occasion we celebrated. 

It will be interesting for future generations to compare our Bi- 
centennial celebration with the Centennial that has been so bril- 
liantly recaptured in the National Museum of History and Tech- 
nology's "1876: A Centennial Exhibition" in the Arts and Industries 
Building on the Mall. Perhaps our successors will see fit to do this 
at the time of the Tricentennial, in an exhibition called "1976," 
which might be shown in the nostalgic setting of a carefully re- 
stored National Air and Space Museum. 

With the Bicentennial year drawing to a close, our museums and 
research offices look forward to catching up on some of the impor- 
tant work of research, collections management, and sheer mainte- 
nance that has necessarily been deferred during the last few years. 
But in an Institution as vital and imaginative as the Smithsonian, 
that does not mean simply a return to business as usual — if, indeed, 
that phrase can be said to have any meaning at the Smithsonian. 


The inventiveness of our directors, curators, and other specialists, 
the farsightedness of our Regents and Secretary, and the interested 
participation of our visitors and associates throughout the country 
all guarantee that the Institution will continue to develop in response 
to the needs of the time. 

Archives of American Art 

As a research bureau, the Archives of American Art serves scholar- 
ship by acquiring and preserving the documentary records needed 
by art historians and by making them known and available to re- 
searchers. The past year has seen an unusual degree of success in 
each of these endeavors. 

Through the activities of its five regional centers, the Archives 
received as donations 357 collections of personal papers and insti- 
tutional and business records. One of the larger of these, the papers 
of Thomas Casilear Cole and his family, spans a two-hundred-year 
period in correspondence and diaries. Other collections with useful 
nineteenth-century material are the papers of the sculptor John 
Frazee, the engraver James Barton Longacre, the painter Francis 
D. Millet, and the dealer J. Eastman Chase, whose records include 
seven Winslow Homer letters. Two important groups of letters 
written by the contemporary sculptors Alexander Calder and David 
Smith were lent for microfilming, as were the records of the early 
twentieth-century abstract painter Arthur Carles. Particularly use- 
ful series of letters written by Bernard Berenson, Charles Burch- 
field, John Steuart Curry, and Stanton Macdonald-Wright were also 
acquired during the year. Other twentieth-century artists repre- 
sented by substantial collections of correspondence, notes, business 
records, photographs, and clippings are Rico Lebrun, Philip Pearl- 
stein, Walter Quirt, Edward W. Redfield, Judson Smith, and Frank- 
lin Watkins. 

Artists' papers make up the major portion of collections received, 
but those of other figures in the art world are often of equal value. 
This year the entire corpus of records of the art historians Robert 
Goldwater, Millard Meiss, and Wolfgang Stechow, the curator Sam- 
uel Wagstaff, and the collector Ferdinand Howald were deposited 
in the Archives or lent for microfilming. The Lee Nordness Gallery 

170 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

aivllocrs J^-^'JPcc^ Cars 

J ^■'■•JPccAf Cars j ( TT- • r> i 

7 ■ /^L<r_ <£? ^»-t^tft-^<f (Sa^jSta^*. i**^*^^^ 

Part of a letter from the early nineteenth-century sculptor John Frazee to his 
wife Lydia describing his first ride on a railroad train. Philadelphia, May 18, 

and the Finch College Museum, both significant New York institu- 
tions, also donated their records to the Archives. 

A supplementary and often quite useful form of documentation 
is the tape-recorded interview. The Archives Oral History Program, 
established nearly twenty years ago, conducted taped interviews in 
1976 with more than thirty artists, collectors, historians, and mu- 
seum administrators, including particularly fruitful ones with James 
Flexner, Al Held, Marcia Marcus, Roy Neuberger, Perry Rathbone, 
and Otto Wittman. 

"A library in disorder/' Thomas Jefferson wrote, "has little util- 
ity." The observation applies to an archives as well, and much of 
the staff work of the Archives of American Art is devoted to ar- 
ranging, cataloguing, and microfilming the collections it receives. 
During this year, 280 collections were catalogued; 2,350 catalogue 
and index cards were produced and distributed to each of the re- 
gional centers; and 164 rolls of film were completed and distributed. 

The effect of this activity and the rising scholarly interest in 
American art history are reflected in the growing use made of 

History and Art I 171 

Archives resources. Research visits to the Archives centers by 
graduate students, curators, and scholars totaled 2,760, and 730 
rolls of microfilm were sent out on interlibrary loans to researchers 
in all parts of the country. Books, articles, exhibition catalogues, 
and dissertations are the concrete evidence of research in primary 
documentation. Among the more important recent ones acknowl- 
edging assistance from the Archives are full-length books on Rock- 
well Kent, William Sidney Mount, Eadweard Muybridge, Grant 
Wood, and on the Dada movement in New York; exhibition cata- 
logues on Peggy Bacon, Jervis McEntee, and women artists of the 
1930s; and dissertations on William Zorach and on the Stieglitz 

In a continuing effort to reach beyond the confines of pure 
scholarship to a broader audience, the Archives organized several 
exhibitions of documents from its holdings. "Artists and Models," 
installed in the Archives Gallery made available by the National 
Portrait Gallery, opened in December. A traveling exhibition of 
letters, sketches, and photographs was shown in Dallas, San Fran- 
cisco, and Cleveland through arrangements made by the Smith- 
sonian National Associates Program, and other exhibitions were 
prepared in connection with Bicentennial art shows in San Fran- 
cisco, Detroit, Cleveland, and Toledo. Press comments and public 
response to these efforts were extensive and enthusiastic. 

Members of the Archives staff delivered thirty-five lectures and 
published eight articles and one exhibition catalogue during the 
year, a significant increase over similar activities in the past. They 
also participated in seven symposia devoted to professional and 
art historical subjects. 

Editorial work on the Archives Bicentennial project, a three- 
volume bibliography of American art, was completed and a pub- 
lication date in 1977 established. The Archives of American Art 
Journal, a quarterly publication containing articles based on Ar- 
chives holdings, reports from the regional offices, and listings of 
recent acquisitions, continued its efforts to inform the scholarly 
community and provide a publishing medium for those actively 
engaged in research. 

The Archives exists for the future as well as for the present, and 
later generations of scholars will expect to find here records that 
throw light on the art of our epoch. In meeting its responsibility to 

172 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

posterity the Archives regularly acquires collections whose signifi- 
cance and historical relevance will become clear only as time goes 
on. Such groups as the correspondence of David Smith and Alex- 
ander Calder are now of obvious importance, but early letters 
written by a then-obscure Andrew Wyeth at the outset of his 
career might well have been lost if his dealer, whose name is hardly 
known today, had not preserved them and eventually offered his 
gallery's records to the Archives. 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 

of Decorative Arts and Design 

The Cooper-Hewitt Museum, the Smithsonian Institution's Na- 
tional Museum of Design, opens to the public on October 7, 1976, 
in the renovated Andrew Carnegie Mansion at 2 East 91st Street, 
New York City. 

The Museum's opening exhibition, "Man Transforms," has been 
designed by the architect and industrial designer Hans Hollein of 
Vienna, Austria, working with a team of international designers, 
including George Nelson, Richard Meier, and Buckminster Fuller 
of the United States, Ettore Sottsass of Italy, Oswald Lingers and 
Peter Bode of Germany, Arata Isosaki of Japan, Karl Schlamminger 
and Nadar Ardalan of Iran, and Murray Grigor of Scotland. The 
exhibition is being sponsored by the Johnson Wax Company. 

A series of twenty satellite exhibits in different museums, li- 
braries, and universities in New York City is scheduled to coincide 
with the opening. These exhibits, all drawn from the Cooper-Hewitt 
collections, will serve as a reminder to New York of the rebirth of 
one of the oldest of the city's museums. 

The Cooper-Hewitt's drawings, prints, wallpapers, textiles, furni- 
ture, ceramics and glass, and library are being installed in new 
surroundings and will once again be available to the public for 

The Museum is offering a full range of classes, workshops, lec- 
tures, weekend seminars, and tours for the autumn semester, begin- 
ning October 1976. 

In cooperation with the Book-of-the-Month Club, the Museum 
is preparing a series of volumes on antiques, to appear in 1977. 

History and Art I 173 

* v * 1 

?$ — 

Benefit auction in progress in the garden of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum in 
May 1976. All objects sold had been donated for this occasion. 

These volumes will deal primarily with the collections of the 
Cooper-Hewitt but will also refer to collections of other museums. 

A third benefit auction was held in May in the Museum garden, 
and approximately $90,000 was raised from the sale of objects 
given specifically for the auction and from a dance that inaugu- 
rated the viewing. Several benefit lectures and small exhibitions 
were organized by the departments of drawings and textiles, and 
the proceeds from these events were contributed to special con- 
servation and purchase funds. 

A total of 633 works of art were received through donation, 19 
were purchased, and 30 were transferred to the Museum; the 
Cooper-Hewitt participated in 37 exhibitions and transferred 1 
work of art to the National Museum of History and Technology in 
Washington, D.C. and 4 to the Victoria and Albert Museum in 

The Museum received major grants from the Johnson Wax Com- 
pany, Karastan Rug Mills, Carnegie Corporation, Mr. Henry J. 
Heinz II, and support from the New York State Council on the Arts 
and the National Endowment for the Arts. 

Several members have been added to the professional staff. 
Elizabeth Burnham is the new Registrar, having spent twenty years 

174 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

at the Museum of Modern Art. Jane Clark is the Program Coordi- 
nator for the Education Department and comes to the Museum 
from the National Endowment for the Arts. Brenda Gilchrist, for- 
merly of Praeger Publications, is on a one-year assignment as 
editor of publications. 

Freer Gallery of Art 

In observance of the American Bicentennial, the Freer Gallery of 
Art assembled, from its own collections, an exhibition entitled "The 
Arts of Asia at the Time of American Independence." The exhibi- 
tion and the fully illustrated catalogue were arranged in three 
sections: Arts of the Ch'ing Dynasty, 1644-1911; Arts of the Edo 
Period, 1615-1868; and Arts of the Near East and India. Objects 
in the exhibition were selected to provide insights into the civiliza- 
tions of the Far East, the Near East, and India during the period 
of the American Revolution. 

Another special exhibition was prepared for Her Majesty the 
Empress of Japan, who visited the Freer Gallery of Art on October 
2, 1975. Her Majesty, who is an amateur artist, specifically asked 
to see a number of outstanding Japanese and Chinese objects in 
the Freer collection. The objects were placed on exhibition and 
were seen by Her Majesty during her visit. Her Majesty viewed 
another group of Far Eastern art objects in the study areas of the 

As part of an extensive conservation project — directed toward a 
forthcoming major exhibition of American paintings in the collec- 
tion — that was begun during fiscal year 1975, a number of oil 
paintings have been cleaned, and gilt frames requiring repair are 
being restored. 

Harold P. Stern, Director, completed a catalogue and book en- 
titled Birds, Beasts, Blossoms and Bugs, the Nature of Japan. The 
volume was prepared for an exhibition selected and arranged by 
Dr. Stern at the Frederick S. Wight Art Gallery at the University 
of California, Los Angeles. 

Members of the curatorial staff contributed to the first volume 
of the Freer Gallery handbook series. The initial volume, devoted 
to a selection from the Chinese and Japanese collections, will be 

History and Art I 175 


A. x 

Facing page, top. Presentation by 
Mr. Toyosaburo Taniguchi of his gift of 
Hokkai paintings to the Freer Gallery 
of Art, April 20, 1976. From left to right 
are Mr. Edward Noda, Secretary S. 
Dillon Ripley, Mr. Toyosaburo Taniguchi, 
Mrs. William Tanaka, Dr. Harold P. 
Stern, and Mrs. Mike Masaoka. Facing 
page, bottom. Her Majesty the Empress 
of Japan with Harold P. Stern, Director 
of the Freer Gallery of Art, on October 
2, 1975. Above. Takashima Hokkai, 
Japanese artist (1850-1931). Right. 
Japanese painting Moon on the Lake, 
the Austrian Tyrol by Takashima 
Hokkai; colors on silk; hanging scroll. 
Gift of Mr. Toyosaburo Taniguchi. 
Accession No. SC-PA-27. 

History and Art I 177 

followed by studies based on the Near Eastern and American col- 
lections. This first handbook, Masterpieces of Chinese and Japanese 
Art, was made possible by the generous financial support of the 
Weatherhead Foundation, Mr. Richard Weatherhead, and the Na- 
tional Endowment for the Arts. 

In fiscal year 1975, the Collection acquired a number of impor- 
tant objects, gifts from Mr. Toyosaburo Taniguchi, Professor Franz 
Michael, Miss R. K. Keith, Mr. Gordon H. Brown, Mrs. Marion 
Hammer, Mr. John Thacher, Dr. Kurt Gitter, Mrs. Elizabeth Reyn- 
olds, and the Estate of Edith Ehrman. Mr. Taniguchi's generous 
gift to the Study Collection consisted of ninety-five hanging scrolls 
by Japanese artist Takashima Hokkai (1850-1931). The scrolls are 
part of a suite of one hundred landscape paintings, entitled Hokkai 
Sansui Hyakushu. Mr. Taniguchi presented the paintings to the 
Freer Gallery in commemoration of the American Bicentennial. 
Secretary S. Dillon Ripley accepted the paintings from Mr. Tani- 
guchi at a luncheon in the Gallery on April 20, 1976. 

The Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation again presented a gener- 
ous gift to the Gallery for library acquisitions in the oriental field. 

During the year, the Freer Gallery sponsored its twenty-third 
annual series of "Illustrated Lectures on Oriental Art." 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

The first full year of operation of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculp- 
ture Garden witnessed a continuation of public enthusiasm, as at- 
tendance equaled that of the inaugural year of 1974. In the less 
than two years since its opening, over three million people have 
visited the Museum. 

This interest on the part of scholars, artists, collectors, and the 
general public has also been evidenced by many generous offers 
of works of art, from which the Museum has accepted 108 paint- 
ings, drawings, illustrated books, and sculptures. These gifts enable 
the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden to continue the pol- 
icy of its Board of Trustees in expanding the existing collections. 
In addition to these gifts, the Hirshhorn Museum, as authorized 
by its Board of Trustees, also has purchased other works of art that 

178 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

&<* ..>■-• 

Left, Photograph of Raphael Soyer shortly after his arrival in the United States 
in 1912. Mr. Soyer is one of the artists featured in the Hirshhorn's Bicenten- 
nial exhibition "The Golden Door: Artist-Immigrants of America, 1876-1976. 
(Photo credit: Raphael Soyer) Right. Soyer's Farewell to Lincoln Square, oil 
on canvas, 1959. (Photo credit: Joseph H. Hirshhorn Foundation) 

add depth to the collection and maintain the Museum's interest in 
fine examples of contemporary creativity. 

A meaningful celebration of the nation's Bicentennial was a 
Museum priority in 1976. The combined efforts of the staff, guided 
by Curator Cynthia McCabe, produced the exhibition "The Golden 
Door, Artist-Immigrants of America: 1876-1976," a selective sur- 
vey of the immigrant-artist's contribution to the development and 
expansion of American culture. The comprehensive 432-page cata- 
logue, which contains an introduction by Dr. Daniel Boorstin, Li- 
brarian of Congress, and an essay by Mrs. McCabe, includes 
detailed information about the exhibition's content: 203 paintings, 
sculptures, architectural models, drawings, and photographs, rep- 
resenting 67 artists who immigrated to the United States from 23 
countries. In addition, the catalogue includes a one-hundred-year 

History and Art I 179 

The first anniversary of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden was 
celebrated on October 1, 1975. Among those present were (left to right) Mr. 
Joseph H. Hirshhorn; Mr. Abram Lerner, Director of the Museum; Vice Presi- 
dent Rockefeller; and Mrs. Hirshhorn. 

chronology of world events, immigration legislation, and cultural 
history, as well as artists' biographies and their comments concern- 
ing the impact of immigration. A generous grant from The Thomas 
M. Evans Foundation, New York, made it possible to enlarge and 
enhance this significant catalogue. 

Three orientation galleries, featuring pertinent immigration docu- 
ments, ship lists, photographs, newspapers, and memorabilia, 
served to introduce visitors to the immigrant experience and were 
made possible by liberal support from The Balch Institute of Phila- 
delphia. The Balch Institute also made it possible for the Museum 
to print and distribute 150,000 free tabloid-format information 
sheets about the exhibition. 

Other exhibitions presented by the Museum were: "Soto: A 

180 / Smithsonian Year 1976 




\w v 

The third-floor balcony of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

Retrospective Exhibition/' September 25, 1975-November 9, 1975; 
"The Sculpture and Drawings of Elie Nadelman," December 18, 
1975-February 15, 1976; "Artists, Authors, and Others: Drawings 
by David Levine," March 4, 1976-May 2, 1976; "Thomas Hart 
Benton: The Sources of Country Music," June 28, 1976-September 
6, 1976; "Homage to Joan Prats," June 28, 1976-September 6, 
1976; "Robert Rauschenberg's Stoned Moon Series," June 28, 
1976-September 6, 1976; and "John Covert, 1882-1960," Septem- 
ber 16, 1976-November 14, 1976. 

On October 14, 1975, in cooperation with the United States Gen- 
eral Services Administration, the Museum installed on its plaza a 
reduced version of Alexander Calder's 53-foot sculpture Flamingo, 
created for the Federal Plaza in Chicago. The installation was spe- 

History and Art I 181 



Dramatic view of sculptures by Nadelman, part of the exhibition "The Sculp- 
ture and Drawings of Elie Nadelman/' held at the Hirshhorn, December 19, 
1975-February 15, 1976. 

daily designed for use by sightless visitors to the Museum. The 
suggestion for the smaller version, which made it more accessible 
to the touch, came from various organizations for the blind and 
was approved by Mr. Calder and the General Services Adminis- 
tration. A braille plaque described the sculpture to the blind visitor. 
An official ceremony marked the unveiling at which Mrs. Gerald 
R. Ford; Mr. Arthur F. Sampson, Administrator, General Services 
Administration; and United States Senator Jennings Randolph 
(West Virginia) spoke before invited guests and a large audience. 
Research on the permanent collections continued, with archival 
material being sorted, analyzed, and catalogued in a master file. 
Over one thousand photographs were added to these official files. 
The Museum answered 579 research inquiries from various sources 
and furnished 564 photographs to scholars, publishers, and authors. 
The Registrar's office catalogued 400 works in the Museum collec- 
tion (including 129 new acquisitions) and added newly gathered 
data to the computerized catalogue of the collection. A number of 
practical working tools were developed from this computer file, 

182 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

including artist lists, donor lists, retrieval by type of object, store- 
room inventory cards, and labels for photo archive files. 

With its large collection of painting and sculpture, the Museum 
engages in an active program of lending to significant exhibitions 
here and abroad. Forty-two loans involving one hundred works 
were made from the Museum collection to other institutions. These 
loans included a portrait by Robert Delaunay sent to the Louvre, 
paintings by Willem de Kooning and Stuart Davis circulated to 
Rome, Bonn, and Eastern Europe, and other objects lent to major 
museums in London, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Atlanta, San 
Francisco, and Los Angeles. Another twenty-two paintings are on 
loan to the White House. 

In addition to this regular program of outgoing loans, two ex- 
hibitions of works from the Museum collection were circulated: 
"Sculptors and Their Drawings," a selection of twelve sculptures 
and twelve related drawings, traveled to museums in Charlotte, 
San Francisco, Akron, and Middletown; an exhibition of twenty- 
seven sculptures by Italian artists was made available to the Mu- 
seum of Fine Arts in Richmond and the University of Virginia in 


Seven temporary loan exhibitions and three smaller exhibitions, 

drawn from the Museum collection, were held during the year. 
These exhibitions included over 400 works borrowed from other 
museums and collections and 150 from the Museum's own holdings. 
The Education Department of the Museum continued to inter- 
pret the collection to a diverse public, which included many visi- 
tors from abroad during the Bicentennial year. The docent pro- 
gram continues to be the most popular educational service in the 
Museum, and one of the largest in the Washington metropolitan 
area. During the fifteen-month period from July 1, 1975, through 
September 30, 1976, 102 docents provided tours as follows: 

Tour Classification 

Elementary School Group 
Secondary School Group 
Adult Group 
General (unscheduled) 
Special Exhibition 


of Tours 



7,942 children 


7,784 children 


7,656 adults 


33,436 adults/children 


3,545 adults/children 


60,363 adults/children 

History and Art I 183 

The docents gave approximately ten thousand hours of volun- 
teer time. To augment the summer schedule during the Bicentennial 
year, the Department trained five specialist-docents to interpret 
the Bicentennial exhibition "The Golden Door, Artist-Immigrants 
of America: 1876-1976." These docents were especially useful dur- 
ing the Museum's first evening visiting hours, when it was open 
until 9:00 p.m., April through Labor Day. 

The Education Department developed a manual for Museum 
volunteers that is invaluable in the training and supervision of 

As part of the Museum's changing exhibition program that 
began in September 1975, the Education Department prepared spe- 
cial one-page handouts for each exhibition, distributed without cost 
to visitors. Approximately sixty thousand copies of these handouts 
were distributed during the Soto, Nadelman, and Levine exhibi- 

In addition, the telesonic guide system, which serves to interpret 
selected paintings and sculptures in the permanent collection, was 
incorporated into the Bicentennial exhibition. Thirty-eight special 
tapes were created for this purpose. 

The auditorium program, begun in November 1974, has contin- 
ued with a weekly three-part film series and a monthly program 
of lectures. The film series features documentaries on art and art- 
ists, as well as avant-garde and experimental cinema and a special 
Saturday series featuring works in animation particularly selected 
for children. From September 1975 through April 1976, over 25,600 
persons viewed 140 different films. Highlights of this film program 
included premieres of many new films, talks by artist-filmmakers, 
screening of works by sixteen independent filmmakers, and lectures 
on film as an art form. 

The monthly lecture series featured distinguished professionals in 
the field of nineteenth- and twentieth-century art. Among the 
speakers in this program were Michael Fried, Peter Plagens, Douglas 
Davis, John I. H. Baur, John Hallmark Neff, David Levine, and 
Diane Waldman. The eight lectures given during the year were 
attended by 1,242 persons. 

The Museum's intern program, begun last year, was continued 
during 1976. The graduate program included two interns who were 
working toward their master's degree in art history at George 

184 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

David Levine, self-caricature drawn 
in 1968, from "Artists, Authors, and 
Others: Drawings by David Levine," 
an exhibition at the Hirshhorn March 
4, 1976-May 2, 1976. (Photo: 
Copyright © David Levine) 

Washington University. The undergraduate program was also con- 
tinued during the summer of 1976 and included four interns, who 
were selected from a total of 215 applicants from colleges through- 
out the United States. 

The Photography Department concentrated on documenting the 
permanent collection and producing slides and photographs re- 
quired for special exhibitions. Over 7,776 original photographs 
were produced by the Department through September 1976. The 
Department also answered 564 individual photo requests during the 
same period. 

The Conservation Department made major advances toward com- 
pleting its modern laboratory. Some three hundred objects were 
treated, twenty requiring major treatments. More than one hundred 
examination and condition reports were completed in connection 
with the ongoing project of surveying the entire collection. The 
collection of outdoor sculpture was cleaned and coated to help 
guard against harmful atmospheric conditions. With most of its 
equipment now installed, the laboratory is carrying on conservation 
activities essential to the physical care of the Museum collection. 

The Department of Exhibits and Design mounted a total of four 
major and six smaller exhibitions. Shown were groupings of works 

History and Art I 185 

by David Smith, Henry Moore, Robert Rauschenberg, Jose de 
Creeft, and Ben Benn, as well as a selection of drawings from the 
permanent collection and of paintings by artists of the San Fran- 
cisco area. 

Major exhibitions installed by the Museum's Department of Ex- 
hibits and Design included a retrospective of works by the Vene- 
zuelan artist Jesus Rafael Soto, which originated with The Solomon 
R. Guggenheim Museum, and a retrospective of sculptures and 
drawings by Elie Nadelman, which was presented in cooperation 
with the Whitney Museum of American Art. The Museum's ex- 
hibition of caricatures by David Levine will tour for two years 
under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhi- 
bition Service. Especially relevant to the Smithsonian's Bicentennial 
Festival of American Folklife was the exhibition of Thomas Hart 
Benton's mural, The Sources of Country Music, which included pre- 
liminary drawings and was lent by the Country Music Hall of Fame 
Museum. An exhibition of Stoned Moon, a series of twenty-nine 
lithographs by Robert Rauschenberg, celebrated the opening of the 
new National Air and Space Museum. 

Joseph Henry Papers 

On February 6, 1976, ceremonies were held at Princeton University 
celebrating the publication of volume two of The Papers of Joseph 
Henry, released by the Smithsonian Institution Press in December 
1975. Highlighting the activities at Princeton were the opening of 
an exhibit of Henry apparatus and documents, prepared in part by 
members of the staff of the Henry Papers, and a demonstration 
lecture reproducing Henry's electromagnetic experiments, in which 
some of Henry's original apparatus was used. 

Volume two of The Papers of Joseph Henry is concerned with 
Henry's first three years as Professor of Natural Philosophy at 
Princeton (1832-1835). Documented are his initial contacts with 
major European scientists, Henry's struggles to improve the quality 
of the scientific program at Princeton, his continuing experimenta- 
tion in terrestrial magnetism and self-induction, and his early asso- 
ciation with Alexander Dallas Bache, later to become Henry's 

186 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

partner in remaking American science. Reading notes, personal and 
scientific correspondence, and detailed laboratory notes are included 
in the volume. 

Research and editing for the third volume of The Papers of 
Joseph Henry have proceeded on schedule. Covering Henry's career 
through mid-1838, this volume will document both his professional 
and personal life. The core of the volume will be Henry's diary of 
his first European trip (1837). Henry observed European science, 
technology, and culture, and compared them to their American 
counterparts. The reader will view Europe through the eyes of 
Henry the scientist, exchanging ideas with colleagues, and Henry 
the tourist, awed by the sights of Europe. 

The Henry Papers continues to participate in various scholarly 
and educational activities. The nineteenth-century seminar pre- 
sented speakers from assorted divisions of the Institution. The 
editor, with financial support from the National Endowment for the 
Humanities and the National Science Foundation, organized a series 
of sessions on "The Sciences in America: A Bicentennial Retro- 
spective," at the 1976 meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, under the sponsorship of the History of 
Science Society. This past year the Henry Papers again participated 
in the National Historical Publications Commission's fellowship 
program in Advanced Editing of Documentary Sources for Ameri- 
can History, training a postdoctoral fellow in the techniques of 
preparing documents for publication. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

What has art meant to America and what has America meant to art? 
These questions were asked by one of the National Collection of 
Fine Arts' major Bicentennial exhibitions, "America As Art." In- 
cluding 388 works of art, many never before shown in a major 
national presentation, the exhibition was organized in eight distinct 
parts, each examining an aspect of the relationship between Amer- 
ica and its art and culture, from the late eighteenth century to the 
present. Themes ranged from "America As Symbol" and "The 
American Cousin" to "Identity from Uniformity." Accompanying 

History and Art I 187 

"America As Art" was a 320-page book of the same title by Joshua 
C. Taylor, with an additional essay by John Cawelti, an illustrated 
checklist, and a study manual. 

Calling attention to more contemporary matters, "Signs of Life: 
Symbols in the American City," an elaborately installed show at 
the Renwick Gallery, set out to explore the various levels of mean- 
ing in the environment we have built for ourselves. Candidly 
looking at "The Home," "The Strip," and "The Street" through 
photographs and full-scale mock-ups, "Signs of Life" pointed out 
the human values underlying much that is overlooked in conscious 
efforts at environmental design. The exhibition, produced by the 
architectural firm of Venturi and Rauch, in close association with 
the staff, provoked wide discussion in the national press. 

As a foundation for future work in the history of American art, 
on July 6 the National Collection of Fine Arts (ncfa) opened to the 

Left. "The Strip" section in "Signs of Life: Symbols in the American City" 
exhibition at the National Collection of Fine Arts' Renwick Gallery, February 
26-October 31, 1976. Right. Louise Hellstrom by Peggy Bacon from the exhi- 
bition "Peggy Bacon: Personalities and Places," shown at the National Col- 
lection of Fine Arts, December 5, 1975, through February 8, 1976. 

scholarly public its Bicentennial Inventory of American Paintings 
Executed before 1914, an event marked by a small explanatory 
exhibition. This project was begun in 1971 to locate and record 
works from across the nation, with particular concern for those 
never before recorded. With the aid of individuals and local com- 
mittees throughout the country, 153,000 paintings were filed on 
the computer by the time the Inventory was opened for use, and 
an image file recording 35,000 works was established. A guide to 
the Inventory, outlining its contents and describing its nature and 
use, was published in August. Since its opening, entries have con- 
tinued to expand the Inventory's listings, and scholars have been 
quick to utilize its information. 

As a further Bicentennial contribution to the understanding of 
American art, the ncfa mounted the first comprehensive exhibition 
of works by the nineteenth-century painter Emanuel Leutze and 
published a catalogue raisonne of Leutze's known works, compiled 
by Dr. Barbara Groseclose. The study revealed him to be a painter 
of great skill and national pride, who deserves to be remembered 
for more than his Washington Crossing the Delaware. Throughout 
the summer, "1876: American Art of the Centennial," a small but 
representative exhibition of works actually shown, or similar to 
those exhibited in the art section of the Philadelphia exposition 
of 1876, provided an opportunity to look back at the complexities 
that characterized art in that important year. The exhibit was or- 
ganized by Dr. Susan Hobbs. 

In addition to exhibitions related to the Bicentennial celebration, 
the ncfa produced fourteen exhibits that continued its policy of 
investigating often neglected aspects or little studied assumptions 
of American art. The delightful and incisive work of Peggy Bacon, 
well known since the 1920s but sometimes overlooked by those 
more interested in the avant-garde, was presented by the Depart- 
ment of Prints and Drawings in an exhibition of 192 paintings, 
prints, drawings, and pastels. A 166-page publication, with an essay 
by Dr. Roberta Tarbell and a complete catalogue of Miss Bacon's 
prints, accompanied the exhibition. In cooperation with the artist's 
family, Janet Flint, Curator of Prints and Drawings, organized a 
major exhibition and catalogue of prints by Louis Lozowick, an 
artist of the 1920s and 1930s who in his theoretical writings and 

History and Art I 189 

works of art celebrated technology and the American city. Lozo- 
wick's paintings were also featured in "Urban Optimism/' the sec- 
tion of "America As Art" that dealt with the urban ideal of the 
Twenties. Mrs. Flint also organized an exhibition and wrote a criti- 
cal essay on the contribution of George Miller, the master printer 
who almost single-handedly provided a generation of American 
artists with the technical expertise to produce lithographs of artistic 
quality. An especially provocative exhibition was that of the color- 
ful works of Bob Thompson (1937-1966), organized by Adelyn 
Breeskin. Though cut off early in his career, Thompson made his 
mark as a distinctive personality in American art. 

Of particular importance in the reassessment of recent art was 
"Sculpture: American Directions, 1945-1975," assembled by Wal- 
ter Hopps, which traveled to Dallas and New Orleans after its show- 
ing in Washington. Concentrating on variety in process and content, 
the exhibition provided a picture of the range and power of Ameri- 
can sculpture over the past thirty years. "Images of an Era: The 
American Poster, 1945-1975," an extensive exhibition prepared by 

190 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Left. Partial view of the exhibition 
"Sculpture: American Directions, 
1945-1975" at the National 
Collection of Fine Arts, October 
10-November 11, 1975. Right. His 
Excellency Jose C. Cardenas (left), 
the Ambassador from Ecuador, 
with Dr. Joshua C. Taylor, 
Director of the National Collection 
of Fine Arts, at the opening of 
the exhibition "Americas: The 
Decorative Arts in Latin America 
in the Era of the Revolution." 

the Office of Exhibitions Abroad (oea), was shown throughout the 
United States and has been sent abroad for extended tour. The 
exhibition is accompanied by a handsomely illustrated publication. 
Also originated under oea were "Variations on the Camera's Eye," 
a selection of contemporary works that traveled through South 
America, and an exhibition of American quilts, shown in Europe. 

The impact of commercial and industrial design on our daily lives 
is rarely noted. In the Renwick Gallery's retrospective exhibition of 
the designs of Raymond Loewy, the influence of one man's sense 
of design was impressive. From the first streamlined locomotive to 
a recent oil company sign, Loewy taught a whole generation to see 
design in his special way. Of very different character were the de- 
signs of Arne Jacobsen, presented at the Renwick in an exhibition 
under the patronage of the Embassy of Denmark. In marked con- 
trast to the works of these designers for industry were the works 
by American craftsmen featured in the Renwick's exhibition, "Craft 
Multiples." Each crafted object shown had to be producible in sets 
of at least ten without losing its individual quality. Accompanied 

History and Art I 191 

by a well-illustrated publication, the exhibit began a two-year tour 
of smaller cities in the United States after its Washington showing. 

The public rarely has access to the operations that support the 
varied activities of the ncfa, so an exhibition, "Behind the Scenes/' 
was organized by interns working under the Department of Edu- 
cation to allow the visitor an insight into the organization and 
support necessary to care for works of art and to prepare carefully 
designed and documented exhibitions for the public. The creative 
process in developing a large-scale work was dramatically described 
in ". . . And There Was Light: Studies by Abraham Rattner for 
the Stained Glass Window, Chicago Loop Synagogue." Both of 
these exhibitions were presented in the Education Department's 
"Discover Gallery," which is devoted to such informative and 
visually exciting exhibitions. 

During the year, 507 works were added to the collection, includ- 
ing a luminous landscape painting by Thomas Doughty signed in 
1833, and William Sonntag's unusually dramatic Mountain Land- 
scape of 1854. Among other important eighteenth- and nineteenth- 
century works acquired were the portrait of General Giles by 
Joseph Wright, Robert Loftin Newman's Flight into Egypt, and 
Erastus Dow Palmer's sculpture June. Several works were acquired 
that were featured in exhibitions, including Seymour Lipton's 
sculpture The Defender, Bob Thompson's Two Figures, and Louis 
Lozowick's drawing Stage Setting for Gas. With matching funds 
from the National Endowment for the Arts, several major works 
were added to the collection of the Department of Prints and 
Drawings, including Jim Dine's Five Paint Brushes, Robert 
Rauschenberg's Treaty, and Claes Oldenberg's Pile of Erasers. The 
Woodward Foundation made a generous gift of 193 contemporary 
works to the Collection. 

Staff activity and participation in professional organizations have 
grown steadily over the years as the ncfa has been increasingly 
looked to for leadership among those especially interested in Ameri- 
can art. William Walker, Librarian of the National Collection of 
Fine Arts and the National Portrait Gallery, was elected chairman of 
the Art Libraries Society of North America, and several staff mem- 
bers were elected to local art councils. Several members of the staff 
served as judges in competitions of national stature. The staff took 
an active part in the 71st Annual Conference of the American 

192 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Association of Museums. Among others, Val Lewton and David 
Keeler met with participants to explain the ncfa's attitude toward 
the design of exhibitions, and association members were introduced 
to the methods used by the Education Department for improvisa- 
tional tours and other, more general, uses of the collections that 
have come to be emulated in numerous museums throughout the 
nation. Staff members of the Conservation Laboratory, the Library, 
and the Bicentennial Inventory of American Paintings conducted 
tours and sessions. Robin Bolton-Smith, Associate Curator of 
Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Painting and Sculpture, who 
organized a loan exhibition of early American miniatures in the 
ncfa's Doris M. Magowen Gallery of Portrait Miniatures, delivered 
a lecture on American miniatures to the Sixth Annual Symposium 
on American Art. This event was co-sponsored by the ncfa and 
the University of Delaware. 

National Museum of History and Technology 

The impressive commitment of the National Museum of History 
and Technology to mount nine exhibitions in honor of the nation's 
Bicentennial reached a magnificent climax in fiscal year 1976, with 
the opening of five exhibitions, including two of unprecedented size: 
"1876: A Centennial Exhibition" and "A Nation of Nations." Two 
others, "Suiting Everyone" and "We The People," were opened 
last year and two, "Belgian Gunmaking in American History" and 
"Person to Person," remain to be opened in the final months of 
this calendar year. These varied and ambitious exhibitions culminate 
a period of more than six years of planning and preparation. Dur- 
ing much of this time staff members redirected their activities, some 
in part and others totally, from their usual pursuits to an extraordi- 
nary concentration upon exhibition-related work. This mammoth 
endeavor resulted in nearly 125,000 square feet of exhibits in which 
over 38,000 objects are displayed. 

The largest of all the exhibits is "1876: A Centennial Exhibition," 
a recreation of the spirit of the great Philadelphia exposition of 
1876, which occupied 274 acres and some 40 buildings in Fairmount 
Park. Using the entire exhibition area of 54,000 square feet in the 
Arts and Industries Building, this exhibit utilized more than 

History and Art I 193 

25,000 objects, some of them originally displayed at Philadelphia. 
Amid great enthusiasm, it was officially opened by Chief Justice 
Warren Burger and Secretary Ripley at twelve noon, May 10, the 
exact anniversary of the opening of the original exposition. 

A large proportion of the staff contributed to this enormous effort. 
Designed by William A. Miner of the Museum's Office of Exhibits, 
the exhibition catches the enthusiasm and ebullience of one hundred 
years ago. Robert Vogel, Chairman of the Department of Science 
and Technology, served as chairman of the curators who developed 
the content and collections. Robert C. Post, nmht Historian, served 
on the curatorial committee and as editor of the handsome publi- 
cation produced for "1876: A Centennial Exhibition" — a volume 
consisting of more than forty essays by members of the Museum 
staff and others, and almost 350 illustrations. Also accompanying 
the exhibit is a film planned for television presentation, as well as 
for viewing in the Smithsonian, entitled Celebrating a Century. This 
film vividly recreates the dream and achievements of a few Phila- 
delphians who successfully carried the exposition through its many 
vicissitudes and made it a major event of the century. The script, 
written by Benjamin W. Lawless, Assistant Director for Exhibits, 
was produced by the Film Unit of Smithsonian Exhibits Central, 
under the direction of Karen Loveland. It was funded by the 
Museum and the National Science Foundation. 

As in the original fair, machinery and technology dominate the 
present exhibit. Nearly all of the machines had to be restored and 
brought back to working condition. Several operating machine 
steam engines are set in motion regularly to run woodworking and 
metalworking machinery and an early Otis elevator. Indeed, motion 
highlights this exhibition. One display provides a selection of early 
powered fans, another a rotating lighthouse. A sparkling Baldwin 
locomotive and several carriages are featured, and many varieties of 
tools, implements, and scientific instruments appear, as well as 
inventions of the day ranging from the fluting iron to the tele- 
phone. From time to time, some of the musical instruments are 

A sense of the foreign exhibits that were sent to Philadelphia is 
conveyed in the series of national pavilions, while the flavor of the 
states' participation can be found in the individual bays present- 
ing some of the states. One of the most notable presentations — dis- 

194 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Above. Ninety-foot-high rotunda 
of the Arts and Industries Build- 
ing showing part of the National 
Museum of History and Tech- 
nology's exhibition "1876: A 
Centennial Exhibition." Right. 
Katherine Dirks and Howard 
Hoffman at work on the 51-foot 
model of the U.S. 5. Antietam, a 
prominent feature of that exhibi- 
tion. (Credit both photos: Robert 
C. Lautman) 

plays, products, and efforts by women — is housed in a recreation of 
the separate building that was erected for that purpose in 1876. 
The dominant feature in the government wing of the exhibit is the 
51-foot model of the U.S.S. Antietam. This model was actually 
displayed at Philadelphia and thereafter used at the Naval Academy 
for training in handling sailing ships. Restoration to its original 
appearance required a very tedious and time-consuming project of 
making, fitting, and rigging sails. 

"A Nation of Nations," an exhibition that made comparable 
demands upon the staff, was opened on June 9 after many years of 
planning and development. Occupying nearly half of the entire 
second floor of the Museum, the exhilarating story of the transfer 
of peoples and cultures to America is told in terms of objects. 
Throughout, items displayed are identified with the national and 
ethnic groups that used them. 

The exhibit introduces the theme by showing evidences of the 
first migrants, the Indians, who themselves became a complex of 
nations, and by showing the remarkable diversity already present 
when the United States proclaimed its independence. Four major 
periods are developed: (1) the settling of the country by English- 
speaking peoples on the one hand and a great diversity of nations 
on the other; (2) the persistence of old patterns in the new land; 
(3) the sharing of experiences, in which new Americans partici- 
pated in common efforts without giving up their own cultural heri- 
tage; and, finally (4) a nation among nations that lives in instant 
communication with the rest of the world. 

The exhibit features fine examples of a great number of objects 
of everyday use and some very large items, among them a rotating 
windmill and a log gristmill from New Mexico powered by a hori- 
zontal waterwheel. Several striking interiors include an early 
New England kitchen, an early twentieth-century urban school 
room, a World War II barracks, and a twentieth-century Italian- 
American home. An operating pencilmaking machine and an 
operating amateur radio station in actual contact with the rest of 
the world are demonstrated periodically. 

This exhibition was planned and developed by a committee of 
staff members under the leadership of Carl H. Scheele, Curator 
of Postal History; throughout preparation, the resources of the en- 
tire Museum were crucial. The design was by Chermayeff and 

196 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

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Visitors to the exhibition "A Nation of Nations" saw this unique collection of 
ethnic-food neon signs from various American stores and restaurants, includ- 
ing one from Goldberg's Pizza on 2nd Avenue, New York City. 

Geismar Associates. Peter C. Marzio, Associate Curator of Graphic 
Arts and Printing, edited a 696-page accompanying volume en- 
titled A Nation of Nations, an illustrated collection of more than 
thirty topical essays, most of them by staff members who partici- 
pated in building the exhibit. 

One of the smaller exhibitions, "American Banking/' was made 
possible by the support of the American Banking Association. It 
represents the first major attempt in the museum world to illustrate 
the story of American banking and credit and related services from 
the nation's beginning to the present. A supplemental history of the 
American banking system, entitled American Banking, was written 
by the Curators of Numismatics, Elvira and Vladimir Clain-Stefa- 
nelli, who also had planned the exhibition. 

Two other exhibits, although small, are especially notable in 
bringing to this country for the first time great treasures held in 
other nations. "Columbus and His Time" presented many of the 

History and Art I 197 

The exhibition "Columbus and His Time," which opened June 3, 1976, con- 
tained many treasures and rare documents from Spain relating to Columbus. 
Especially notable was the great map drawn in 1500 on oxhide by Juan de la 
Cosa, navigator, geographer, and master of the Santa Maria on Columbus's 
first voyage. 

state documents and relics relating to Christopher Columbus and 
his voyages of discovery. Carried through by Silvio A. Bedini, 
Deputy Director of the Museum, the project necessitated his on-site 
search of repositories throughout Spain, where most of the objects 
had remained for as long as five hundred years. Securing the neces- 
sary loan agreements for a number of these materials required a 
heroic effort coordinated by the Instituto de Cultura Hispanica in 
Madrid, the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Relations, and the personal 
intercession, again and again, of King Juan Carlos himself. Perhaps 
the most spectacular of the treasures is the great map of Juan de la 
Cosa, produced in 1500, in which the new world discovered by 
Columbus was delineated for the first time. Critical documents re- 
lating to the voyage, weapons and armor of the period, and even 
books with Columbus's own notes are included. Portraits of Colum- 
bus and Queen Isabella and the great retablo of the Virgin Protec- 
tress of Seafarers from the Reales Alcazares in Seville are remark- 
able pieces. The exhibit was opened formally by King Juan Carlos 
and Queen Sophia on their visit to Washington, June 3, 1976. 

The visit to the Smithsonian by Queen Elizabeth II was com- 
memorated by a smaller, jewellike display of twenty-five of the 

198 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

original anatomical drawings by Leonardo da Vinci from the 
Queen's personal collection in Windsor Castle. Because the draw- 
ings had been bound into volumes, this was the first time they 
could be viewed side by side in context with one another. Although 
displayed for only one month, the exhibition drew scholars and 
students of medicine, anatomy, and painting from all over the 
country. It was opened on July 2, 1976, by Sir Robin Mackworth- 
Young, Royal Librarian and Keeper of the Queen's Archives. 

The Museum's public presentations were not limited to exhibi- 
tions. The Division of Musical Instruments produced two record- 

Above. Original anatomical drawings by Leonardo da Vinci from the personal 
collection of Queen Elizabeth II were on display in the National Museum of 
History and Technology, July 2-August 1, 1976. Silvio A. Bedini, Deputy 
Director of the Museum, (left to right) and Secretary S. Dillon Ripley greet 
Sir Robin Mackworth-Young, Royal Librarian and Keeper of the Queen's 
Archives. Below. Mrs. Malcolm Fraser, wife of the Prime Minister of Aus- 
tralia, visits the Leonardo exhibition with Brooke Hindle. Director of the 

Camp stool, part of the camp equipment of General George Washington and 
headquarters staff, was a notable acquisition in 1976. 

ings with instruments from the National Collections. Music From 
the Age of Jefferson has proven to be extremely popular and a 
recording of Volume II of the Songs of Stephen Foster has also 
received acclaim. James M. Weaver, Associate Curator of the Divi- 
sion, prepared the musicians for thirteen live performances of 
"Music and Dance from the Age of Jefferson," produced in various 
parts of the country in cooperation with the National Smithsonian 

Despite the diversion of most of the Museum's staff and re- 
sources to exhibition projects, the collections were enriched by the 
acquisition of numerous important specimens, some acquired 
specifically for the major exhibitions and others added to the refer- 
ence collections. Worthy of particular mention are the only extant 
prototype of a "Geiger-Miiller" radiation counter tube; the first 
hand calculator; the "Huff-Duff," the radio direction-finder that 
broke the wolf packs of German submarines in World War II; and 
a major collection of radiological artifacts and documents. Also ac- 
quired were a comprehensive collection of nineteenth-century 
American stoneware; a rare inlaid Pennsylvania German chest dated 
1783; a Massachusetts "Sword in Hand" 30-shilling note of 1775 
printed from plates engraved by Paul Revere; and the Ernst W. 
Puttkammer Collection of more than 150,000 German and German- 

200 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

related stamps and the Rene Muller Collection of Saar overprints. 
Additions to the ordnance collections included a rare seventeenth- 
century dog lock long-fowler of the type used by New Englanders 
and the only known example of the repeating rifle made on the 
patent of Joseph G. Chambers during the War of 1812. A one-tenth- 
scale model of the eighteenth-century tobacco ship Brilliant was 
donated by the American Tobacco Institute and will be featured in 
the Hall of American Maritime Enterprise now being planned. 

Most notable among acquisitions important for their associations 
were a dress from the First Lady, Mrs. Gerald R. Ford; a campstool 
from George Washington's field headquarters tent; and jewelry and 
sewing accessories owned by Martha Washington. A tall case clock 
was acquired, made by Peter Hill, the first black clockmaker in this 
country. Herbert R. Collins, Associate Curator in the Division of 
Political History, attended both the Democratic and Republican 
National Conventions and collected valuable ephemera and political 
campaigning memorabilia for the already outstanding collection 
owned by the Museum. 

On May 18, 1976, Muhammad Ali (right) donates his boxing gloves and robe 
from the George Foreman fight in Zaire to Carl H. Scheele, Chairman of "A 
Nation of Nations" exhibition. 

The Museum engaged in a wide variety of educational activities. 
These ranged from the direct (though often unperceived) impact of 
exhibits, through the programs of the Division of Visitor Informa- 
tion and Education, to formal activities in higher education and 
informal participation in the work of many professional groups. 

The Division of Visitor Information and Education offered more 
services than ever before. During the school year (October 1975- 
April 1976), 187 docents conducted 1,620 lesson-tours related to 
several themes for 31,859 students and visitors, 289 outreach pro- 
grams in local schools serving 8,734 children, and 759 tailored and 
highlight tours for 15,561 adult visitors. In addition, 795 special 
programs, including tours for the handicapped, "discovery 
corners," demonstrations, and films were presented to 13,123 
visitors. During the other months covered in this fifteen-month 
reporting period (July 1975 through September 1976), 69,959 
visitors participated in 2,290 mini-tours, demonstrations, "discov- 
ery corners," and specially scheduled programs. 

In August 1975, Joseph Buckley joined the staff to develop and 
implement a program for handicapped visitors. Among current 
activities are signed tours for the deaf, outreach programs for the 
mentally retarded, adapted tours for the physically handicapped, 
and arranged tours for the elderly. More extensive use of touchable 
objects and raised-line drawings has increased the Museum's 
accessibility to the blind. The installation of special communications 
equipment has enabled the Special Education Specialist to deal 
directly with handicapped individuals and agencies for the handi- 

For the most part, new tours were developed around the Bicen- 
tennial exhibitions or the new exhibitions were included in existing 
tours; "1876: A Centennial Exhibition" added a new dimension to 
museum education at the Smithsonian. Docents, clothed in period 
costumes, use "living history" techniques to present the various 
items in the exhibit. As "salesmen" for the display, the docents 
not only demonstrate various objects in such areas as W. and L. E. 
Gurley surveying instruments and Snediker and Carr ventilating 
fans, but also discuss the daily affairs of 1876 with visitors. 

The "discovery corners" represent another addition to the edu- 
cational programs. The Spirit of 1776 Corner opened in April 1976. 
Its popularity led to the addition of a "discovery corner" in the 

202 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Hall of Electricity in May 1976, presenting the early electrical ex- 
periments of Benjamin Franklin. 

The Bicentennial series of Frank Nelson Doubleday lectures was 
dedicated to "The Character of the American Achievement." David 
C. Mathews, Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare, spoke on 
"Perspectives on Education." Harold Rosenberg, art critic of The 
New Yorker, examined "American Art: Form and Exploration." 
Thomas C. Cochran, Benjamin Franklin Professor Emeritus at the 
University of Pennsylvania, evaluated "The American Business 
Heritage," and author Stephen Birmingham concluded with "Eth- 
nicity in America." 

The Museum's largest formal commitment to higher education 
has been through the Smithsonian Fellowship Program. The seven 
fellows appointed during the 1975 academic year reflected, even 
more than usual, the great diversity of its pursuits and interests. 
This year only one was a postdoctoral fellow: Arthur Nunes of the 
University of California, who pursued research in the history of 
welding. The predoctoral fellows were: Virginia Drachmann, State 
University of New York at Buffalo, whose topic was nineteenth- 
century obstetrical and gynecological instruments; Leonard Reich, 
Johns Hopkins University, the development of the vacuum tube and 
radio in the United States; Scott Hambly, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, developments in the form, use, and function of the mandolin 
in the United States; Richard Glasow, University of Delaware, the 
"new American navy," naval officers, and naval engineering; Rob- 
ert Friedel, Johns Hopkins University, a study of the technical and 
social history of celluloid; and Susan Frey, University of Washing- 
ton, a study of Friedrich Engels, the Dialectics of Nature, and nine- 
teenth-century science. Limited-term summer appointments were 
served by Julie Haifley, George Washington University, whose sub- 
ject was Titian Ramsay Peale and photography; and Steven Dick, 
Indiana University, who studied astronomical measuring instru- 
ments. The Fellowship Program continued to add a significant 
dimension to activities at the National Museum of History and 
Technology, especially as liaison between the Museum and acade- 
mia. Biweekly fellows' luncheons provided a productive medium for 
interaction with the staff. 

Under the direction of Dr. Forrest C. Pogue, the Dwight D. 
Eisenhower Institute for Historical Research has been active in 

History and Art I 203 

directing fellows, in research activities, and in a variety of profes- 
sional programs. Colonel Thomas E. Griess, Chairman of the His- 
tory Department at West Point, served as a fellow in the 1975-1976 
academic year. This summer, Colonel Alfred F. Hurley, usaf, and 
Hans L. Paeffgen arrived to pursue individual research projects as 

The Institute co-sponsored with the United States Commission 
on Military History, the Ninth Quinquennial Conference of the 
Commission Internationale d'Histoire Militaire, which was held in 
the Museum in August 1975. Approximately one hundred and sixty 
historians attended, including sixty from twenty-six foreign 
nations; simultaneous translation of the proceeding was provided. 
Two related themes were considered: "Development of Military 
Techniques and Technology: Its Impact on Strategy and Tactics in 
the Period Before the Atomic Bomb," and "The Age of Revolution 
in the Americas During the 18th and 19th Centuries: The Military 
Impact on Society, Economics, and Technology." Dr. Philip K. 
Lundeberg, Curator of Naval History, served as program chairman. 

In November 1975, at the General Douglas MacArthur Memorial 
Library, Norfolk, Virginia, Dr. Pogue participated in the first of a 
three-part series of seminars on the American military occupation 
and reconstruction of Japan and Europe after World War II. The 
second part took place in April at the George C. Marshall Research 
Foundation and the third will meet here in May 1977. In March 
1976, Dr. Pogue and Colonel Griess contributed military history 
dimensions to a television series entitled "Transformations of 
American Society," presented by Bergen Community College and 
the Columbia Broadcasting System. Dr. Pogue served as consultant 
in developing the George C. Marshall Corridor at the Pentagon, 
opened by President Ford in April. Also in April, Dr. Pogue joined 
the executive committee that will supervise the large, statewide 
program of the Kentucky Bicentennial Oral History Commission. 

In January 1976, at the request, among others, of Dr. Robert R. 
Kifer, Marine Sanctuaries Coordinator of the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration (noaa), U. S. Department of Com- 
merce, the Eisenhower Institute sponsored a meeting in the 
Museum of representatives of interested public and private groups 
to assist noaa in developing a philosophical basis for its manage- 
ment of the recently created Monitor Marine Sanctuary. The sanc- 

204 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

tuary is centered upon the wreck of the U.S. 5. Monitor off Cape 
Hatteras, North Carolina. With Dr. Pogue as chairman, the group 
endorsed the establishment of an advisory panel to the United 
States Department of Commerce, to aid in establishing require- 
ments for research permits and policy on the recovery of Monitor 

In much of the Museum, Bicentennial exhibit commitments held 
research activities to a lower level than usual. There were, however, 
a few exceptions: Robert P. Multhauf, Senior Historian, spent 
much of the year in Munich and other European centers working 
on his history of nonmetallic minerals; Sami K. Hamarneh, His- 
torian of Pharmacy, examined archival material in Egypt during the 
summer of 1975; Uta C. Merzbach, Curator of Mathematics, 
worked on the history of mathematics in the nineteenth and 
twentieth centuries. Under a Smithsonian Research Foundation 
grant, Cynthia Hoover, Curator of Musical Instruments, researched 
collections in many parts of the country pertinent to a study of 
music in eighteenth-century American life. John H. White, Curator 
of Transportation, completed a massive history of the railroad pas- 
senger car, which was accepted for publication by the Johns 
Hopkins University Press. 

Among the more important publications that appeared during 
the past year was Thinkers and Tinkers, by Silvio A. Bedini, which 
dealt with science and technology in colonial America. Robert P. 
Multhauf, who edits Isis, supervised two anthologies from Isis, one 
edited by Brooke Hindle and entitled Early American Science; the 
other edited by Otto Mayr and entitled Philosophers and Machines. 
Staff members were especially prominent as authors in the Dic- 
tionary of Scientific Biography, two volumes appearing during the 
year. Twenty-two contributions to the Dictionary came from the 

In a variety of research and professional activities, the Museum 
reached out to other communities. The restoration of the Mexico 
City Cathedral's two eighteenth-century organs was initiated this 
year by Smithsonian Collaborator D. A. Flentrop. Damaged by fire 
and considered beyond repair by the church authorities, these in- 
struments were central to the efforts of John Fesperman, Curator 
of Musical Instruments, and Scott Odell, Conservator, to stimulate 
interest in a restoration program for a number of historic Spanish 

History and Art I 205 

colonial instruments that remain neglected. Work was also begun 
on a smaller eighteenth-century organ in Taxco, Mexico, as a joint 
effort of the Division of Musical Instruments, Collaborator Charles 
Fisk, and the Mexican National Patrimony Restoration Department. 

In September 1975, Curator of the Division of Mechanical and 
Civil Engineering Robert M. Vogel was one of the delegates from 
the United States to the Second International Congress on the Con- 
servation of Industrial Monuments, where he delivered a paper on 
"The Preservation of Industrial Monuments in the United States." 

Dr. Sami K. Hamarneh, Historian of Pharmacy, participated in 
the International Symposium for the History of Arabic Science held 
at the University of Aleppo in April. He has been appointed editor 
of the newly established Journal for the History of Arabic Science, 
to be published in Syria. The Division of Postal History and 
Philately participated in the Seventh Annual Stamp Exhibition held 
in May at Philadelphia and was host to the annual congress of the 
Federation Internationale de Philatelie at the Museum in May. 

Among the more important meetings of research scholars held 
in the National Museum of History and Technology was the 
Society for the History of Technology's eighteenth annual meeting, 
a special Bicentennial conference on "Two Hundred Years of 
American Technology," which met in October 1975. Major papers 
were presented by leading historians of technology. With more 
than one hundred and fifty registrants, everyone concerned con- 
sidered the meeting an unprecedented success. Dr. Melvin Kranz- 
berg, long-time Secretary of the Society, later remarked that "every 
part of the meeting turned out so successfully that we will be hard 
pressed to repeat this exhilarating event in the future." 

In May 1976, the Museum was host to the Eighth Annual Meet- 
ing of the International Society for the History of the Behavioral 
and Social Sciences (cheiron). Reflecting this organization's 
multidisciplinary orientation, the program included sessions rang- 
ing from social psychology to anthropology and unwritten historical 
sources. The program was arranged by Audrey B. Davis, Curator 
of Medical Sciences, and planned by Michael M. Sokal, of Worces- 
ter Polytechnic Institute, formerly a Smithsonian fellow. 

In October 1975, in conjunction with the Haydn Festival and 
Conference held in Washington, several concerts were presented in 
the Museum's Hall of Musical Instruments. In November, at the 

206 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

call of Chairman John Nicholas Brown, the National Armed Forces 
Museum Advisory Board met to counsel the Museum on the display 
of artifacts from the armed forces. In June 1976, during the annual 
meeting of the American Association of Museums in Washington, 
a session was held in the National Museum of History and Tech- 
nology on "Collecting in the 21st Century." And in September, 
during the Washington meetings of the American Psychological 
Association, the Society for Engineering Psychologists held a ses- 
sion in Carmichael Auditorium on "Perspectives on Technology 
and Americans." 

The Dibner Library of the History of Science and Technology, 
installed in temporary quarters within the Museum, will be opened 
in October 1976. This rare-book library includes all the classics in 
the history of science and represents a great research resource. 

National Portrait Gallery 

In terms of special exhibitions, the past year has been a particularly 
active one for the National Portrait Gallery. "Portraits From The 
Americans: The Democratic Experience," based on Daniel J. Boor- 
stin's Pulitzer Prize-winning book, opened in November on the 
newly renovated third floor of the Gallery. This area has now been 
restored to the American Victorian Renaissance style in which it 
had been decorated in the 1880s following a fire in 1877 in the 
north and west wings of the building. "The Americans" was 
accompanied by a catalogue, illustrated with portraits and other 
related materials, and a text, supplementing that by Dr. Boorstin, 
written by Messrs. Beard, Voss, and Yellis of the Gallery's staff. 
The Gallery's final Bicentennial exhibition, "Abroad in America: 
Visitors to the New Nation, 1776-1914," opened in April. It was 
organized by Marc Pachter, Historian of the Gallery, who also 
wrote the introduction for the accompanying publication, which 
consisted of twenty-nine essays by foreign and American scholars 
and writers. This volume was co-edited by Mr. Pachter and Mrs. 
Frances Wein, the National Portrait Gallery's editor. 

Six other exhibitions deserve note: "Christian Gullager, Portrait 
Painter to Federal America," opened by Queen Margrethe II of 
Denmark on May 11; "Keep the Last Bullet for Yourself: The 

History and Art I 207 

Charles Dickens 




Scene from the National Portrait Gallery's Bicentennial exhibition "Abroad in 
America: Visitors to the New Nation, 1776-1914," which opened in April 
1976. (Photo credit: Eugene L. Mantie) 

Battle at the Little Big Horn," prepared by Rick Beard of the 
Gallery staff to commemorate the one-hundredth anniversary of 
Custer's Last Stand, June 25; "Wedgewood Portraits and the Ameri- 
can Revolution," opened by Sir Arthur Bryan, the Chairman of 
Wedgewood, Inc., on July 12; "The Spirit of Fact: The Daguerreo- 
types of Southworth & Hawes, 1843-1862," organized by the Inter- 
national Museum of Photography, Rochester; and "A Knot of 
Dreamers: The Brook Farm Community, 1841-1847" and "The 
Coming of Age of American Music" (Ives, Gershwin, and Copland), 
which were conceived, respectively, by two Gallery interns, Miss 
Marni Sandweiss and Miss Anita Jones. All exhibitions were de- 
signed by Mr. J. Michael Carrigan, Chief, Exhibits Design and 

208 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

m - m 


Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, former Prime Minister of Israel Golda 
Meir, Director of the Gallery Marvin Sadik, and Secretary S. Dillon Ripley 
at the luncheon held for the presentation of the Raphael Soyer portrait of 
Mrs. Meir. 

A special presentation of a portrait of Golda Meir by Raphael 
Soyer, the gift of Mr. and Mrs. Nathan Cummings, Mr. and Mrs. 
Meyer P. Potamkin, and the Charles E. Smith Family Foundation, 
took place on December 19. The event was attended by Mrs. Meir 
and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, both of whom spoke. 
Another special presentation, a portrait bust of Henry A. Wallace 
by Jo Davidson, was made on January 20, the thirty-fifth anni- 
versary of Wallace's inauguration as Vice President. The bust was 
the gift of the subject's children, who were present at the ceremony, 
which was also attended by Vice President Nelson A. Rockefeller. 

Acquisitions during the past year included forty-four portraits 
by purchase and twenty-three by gift. Outstanding in the former 
category are splendid paintings of John Adams by John Trumbull, 

History and Art I 209 

Above left. Thomas Cole, circa 1845, by an unidentified daguerreotypist. Gift 
of Edith Cole Silberstein. Above right. Benjamin Franklin, circa 1775, executed 
in laminated blue and white jasper from a wax portrait by Patience Wright, was 
loaned by Dr. and Mrs. Alvin Kanter for the exhibition "Wedgwood Portraits 
and the American Revolution," which opened July 14, 1976. Facing page. 
Left to right: Director of the National Portrait Gallery Marvin Sadik, the 
Duke of Northumberland, Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, and Secretary S. 
Dillon Ripley with a portrait of Thayendanegea (Joseph Brant), Chief of the 
Mohawks and Father of the Six Nations. The portrait was painted in London 
in 1789 by Gilbert Stuart and is on loan to the Gallery by the Duke of 

and of Zachary Taylor by James Reid Lambdin; an oil sketch of 
Robert E. Lee, done at Petersburg during the winter of 1864-1865 
by Edward Caledon Bruce; a 1932-portrait of Amelia Earhart by 
Edith Scott; and James Sharples's exceptional pastel of George 
Washington, which had descended in Washington's family. Espe- 
cially noteworthy among the portraits given the Gallery were an 
extremely rare mezzotint, in an extraordinary state of preservation, 
of Samuel Adams by Samuel Okey, a gift of Mrs. Katie Louchheim 
and Mr. William Louchheim; a charcoal drawing of James Russell 
Lowell by Samuel W. Rowse, presented by Miss Susan Norton; a 
striking daguerreotype of Thomas Cole, given by a descendant of 
the subject, Mrs. Edith Cole Silberstein; and an early self-portrait 
by Thomas Hart Benton, the gift of Mr. and Mrs. Jack H. Mooney. 
Of great future significance to the Gallery was the enactment in 
February 1976 of Public Law 94209, which authorizes the collection 
and exhibition of portrait photographs. 

210 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Office of Academic Studies 

A major unifying theme of the Smithsonian's diverse activities is 
intellectual accomplishment based on professional research and the 
free interplay of ideas. Essential to the achievement of intellectual 
excellence are deep and complex ties with the national and inter- 
national academic communities. Smithsonian academic programs 
offer a context for the Institution's entire research faculty to collab- 
orate with colleagues in the Smithsonian and in the larger academic 
world in the pursuit of knowledge. The benefits of collaborative 
efforts flow both ways: they stimulate and refresh analysis and 
interpretation by Smithsonian staff members and foster the 
diffusion of their findings. Because the most exciting intellectual 
interplay takes place face to face, the Smithsonian's academic pro- 
grams bring people together on either a one-to-one basis or in small 

With policy direction from the Board of Academic Studies, the 

History and Art I 211 

Office of Academic Studies acts as the center through which the 
Smithsonian's research activities pursue their academic objectives. 
Academic programs reflect the character of the research and collec- 
tion strengths of the Smithsonian. They deliberately avoid duplica- 
tion of university-based study and research, stressing new perspec- 
tives on academic subjects and disciplines not commonly studied in 
the university. These academic programs are typically residential 
and range from experimental undergraduate studies to traditional 
postdoctoral research-training fellowships. They are flexible, giving 
assistance to individuals who need to study at the Institution for a 
few days and to persons who require the research resources of the 
Institution for a year or more. Most scholars come to the Smith- 
sonian to pursue academic studies in an individual working relation- 
ship with a member of the research staff. Where an expanded 
dialogue seems promising, however, small seminars and symposia 
are developed which assemble colleagues from around the world. 

During the 1975-1976 academic year, special attention was 
directed to meeting new demands on academic programs within the 
constraint of limited funding. For the most part, these demands 
stemmed from the greater participation of staff members in aca- 
demic activities, from the addition of new professional staff mem- 
bers throughout the Smithsonian Institution, and from the addition 
of new research activities — most notably the recently opened 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden and the National Air 
and Space Museum. Additional support for fellowships and other 
student appointments was developed by the further integration of 
academic appointments into the major objectives of each of the 
Smithsonian Institution's bureaus and facilities. 

Resulting from this effort were a substantial increase in the num- 
ber of fellows and students in residence at the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion; an extended and improved interchange among staff members 
and students, at many levels; and a further diversification of the 
types of academic programs offered. For example: the first fellow 
was appointed at the Hirshhorn Museum; three new predoctoral 
fellowships for field research were created in conjunction with the 
Smithsonian International Environmental Program; two new pro- 
fessional internships were created, one in exotic animal medicine 
at the National Zoological Park, the other in anthropological 

212 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

archival and publication work at the Center for the Study of Man; 
and Smithsonian staff helped develop and participated in the new 
Washington Cultural Semester program of The American Uni- 

To assist in the management of academic programs, the Office of 
Academic Studies increased its efforts to draw upon the experience 
of fellows and students during their residence at the Smithsonian 
Institution. Their evaluations have proved a useful tool for program 
management and development. They have also expressed the almost 
universal conviction that the academic experience at the Smith- 
sonian Institution was crucial in the professional lives of the par- 

Under the Smithsonian's Fellowship Program, individuals spend 
a year consulting the collections and conducting research at the 
Institution. Predoctoral fellows complete their dissertations with 
direction from Smithsonian Institution staff members. Postdoctoral 
fellows pursue advanced research training, working in close col- 
laboration with a Smithsonian adviser. In the academic year 1975- 
1976 fifty-seven fellows were appointed to study in the museums, 
archives, and research stations of the Institution. 

To assist students in determining the scope of their anticipated 
research at the start of their graduate training, a Visiting Research 
Student Program offers the opportunity to spend ten weeks pur- 
suing a research topic at the Institution. This year, thirty Visiting 
Research Students were appointed. 

Increasingly, colleges and universities are offering their students 
the opportunity to study off-campus and receive academic credit. 
The value of supplementing classroom experience with work experi- 
ence in related disciplines has now gained national recognition. 
These nontraditional work and study assignments are individually 
developed for each student, to profit both the student and the 
Smithsonian. Under this program of Museum Study, seventeen 
students were appointed last year. 

Many investigators express a need to spend periods of a week or 
two consulting with the staff and collections. These visitors bring 
to the Institution's faculty the welcome opportunity to maintain a 
regular exchange with colleagues from around the world. To en- 
courage and facilitate such visits, the Smithsonian conducts a Short 

History and Art I T\.2> 

Term Visitor and Seminar Program, under which thirty individual 
investigators and three staff-developed seminars were supported 
this year. 

During the 1975-1976 academic year, some one hundred and 
fifty individuals participated in a program of academic study at the 
Smithsonian. Brief descriptions of their research and study may be 
found in Appendix 7. 

Office of American Studies 

The Office of American Studies continued its program in graduate 
education throughout the year. The Fall 1975 Seminar in the 
"Material Aspects of American Civilization" had as its theme leisure 
and recreation in American culture. Taught by the Director of the 
program and Professor Bernard Mergen of The George Washington 
University, the course had twenty-five students. 

Other seminars given during the academic year 1975-1976 
included: "Introduction to the Systematic Study of Vernacular 
Building," taught by Cary Carson, Coordinator of Research of the 
St. Mary's City (Maryland) Commission; "The American Decora- 
tive Arts in Historic Preservation," taught by Barbara Carson; "The 
Material Culture of Alexandria, Virginia: 1770-1830," taught by 
Dennis O'Toole, Curator of Education of the National Portrait 
Gallery; "The Art and Architecture of Washington, D. C: 1791- 
1929" taught by Michael Richmond, Project Director for the 
National Trust for Historic Preservation; and the 1975 summer 
course in "Material Aspects of American Civilization: An Introduc- 
tion," taught by Joanna Zangrando of The George Washington 

During the summer of 1976, David Van Tassel taught the 
"Introduction to Material Aspects of American Civilization." 

Individual students continued to pursue specialized research 
under the supervision of the Director of the program. 

The Director was Scholar-in-Charge of a Bicentennial exhibition 
entitled "The Federal City: Plans and Realities," which opened on 
George Washington's birthday, February 22, 1976, in the Great 
Hall of the Smithsonian Institution Building. The exhibition ex- 

214 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

amines the planning of the city of Washington from L'Enfant to the 
present day, graphically illustrating the planning process. Jointly 
sponsored by the National Capital Planning Commission, the Com- 
mission of Fine Arts, and the Smithsonian Institution, the exhibition 
received the "Outstanding Bicentennial Planning Award" of the 
National Capital Area Chapter, American Institute of Planners. 

From September 2-9, 1976, the Director attended the Forty- 
second International Congress of Americanists in Paris, France, and 
delivered a paper on "Economic Development of the Arctic: Future 
of Eskimo and Indian People in the Historical Context of the 
'Lower 48' States." 

History and Art I 215 

The Smithsonian Institution's new Victorian Garden with the Arts and Indus- 
tries Building in the background. 

Smithsonian Year • 1976 

The measure of the effectiveness of an organization is its ability 
to face frenetic pressure and impossible deadlines while maintain- 
ing quality in performance, equanimity in attitude, and timeliness 
in delivery. With no fear of immodesty one can say that the Smith- 
sonian Institution has amply demonstrated its effectiveness in this 
Bicentennial year, when the projects that had been in preparation 
for nearly a decade climaxed with the opening of the National Air 
and Space Museum and in a wide variety of complex exhibits and 
other cultural activities in all of our museums. That so much was 
accomplished is a tribute to the management of these museums and 
to the dedication of their staffs. 

In these multiple activities, the units that are part of the Office of 
Museum Programs played varied roles. Many had to put aside some 
of their more traditional pursuits to assist in meeting deadlines, 
while others found in the Bicentennial the fulfillment of their pur- 

The satisfaction of having contributed to the success of the Bi- 
centennial celebration has prepared us to face many tasks left un- 
finished and whose urgency is becoming apparent. 

The vital role that museums play in preserving, interpreting, and 
transmitting America's heritage is being more clearly recognized. 
Museums are now conscious that their responsibilities transcend 
narrow or disciplinary boundaries. They provide that sense of his- 
torical continuity and interrelationship that is so necessary if we 
are to understand the world around us and our role within it. These 
considerations are forcing museums to improve the quality of their 
performance. This dedication to improvement characterizes the rich 


Opening ceremonies for "1876: A Centennial Exhibition," held in front of the 
Arts and Industries Building on May 10, 1976, were replete with notables, a 
choir singing Handel's Hallelujah Chorus, the United States Army Band, and 
the release of hundreds of doves. 

and varied complex that constitutes the museum functions of the 

In the years ahead we must seek new ways to interpret our col- 
lections to the public, integrate our offerings within the academic 
tradition, and find new ways to employ our holdings as instruments 
of continuing education and self education. 

To achieve these ends, we must develop our capability of sharing 
the resources of the Institution through traveling exhibitions, 
audiovisual devices, television, and publications. We must refine 
the format of exhibitions, taking advantage of the unique multi- 
disciplinary opportunities offered by the variety in our collections 
and museums. 

The training of conservators, the perfecting of conservation 
methods, and the scientific examination of processes and structures 
must be encouraged. The advances made by contemporary science 

218 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Secretary S. Dillon Ripley and Chief Justice Warren E. Burger arrive for the 
opening of "1876: A Centennial Exhibition" in the horse-drawn carriage that 
had carried President Grant to the 1876 exposition in Philadelphia's Fairmount 
Park a hundred years before. 

can be put to greater use in interpreting the past products of man's 
creativity and ingenuity. Our own effort in conservation must be 
expanded, as it must be by other museums across the nation. 

Data retrieval from our vast holdings must be perfected. Though 
too much should not be expected from computers, the fullest use of 
computer technology has not yet been made. 

The usefulness of vast reserve collections, which are vital for 
study and which present, in many cases, irreplaceable testimony of 
the evolution and continuity of the natural world, must be enhanced 
through better retrieval methods and especially through the devel- 
opment of storage and study facilities whose absence, in some cases, 
is now jeopardizing the safety of this heritage or preventing its full 
use. In all of these areas, the units of the Office of Museum Pro- 
grams play a key role, often unglamorous because supportive, but 
rewarding because necessary. 

Museum Programs I 219 

The completion of the National Air and Space Museum led to the 
opening of a new, revitalized branch library, located in elegant new 
quarters, whose holdings were almost totally catalogued. Cata- 
loguing was accomplished in part through the Central Library's 
continued efforts to improve acquisition and cataloguing processes 
and make greater use of the cataloguing capabilities of the Ohio 
College Library Center (oclc). The institution was one of the first 
members of oclc, which links research and public libraries through- 
out the eastern United States by a computer network that permits 
the sharing of resources and, to a great extent, eliminates duplica- 
tion of effort. In cooperation with the National Museum of History 
and Technology, the Libraries also completed the transfer of the 
great manuscript and rare book collections donated by Dr. Bern 
Dibner, housed in newly completed temporary quarters. 

The Conservation Analytical Laboratory, reinstalled in an ex- 
panded space, was able to provide new analytical services through 
greatly improved equipment and a slightly enlarged staff. The 
Laboratory concentrated the major part of its efforts on assisting 
numerous curatorial departments in preparing objects for complex 
exhibitions such as "A Nation of Nations" and "1876." In spite of 
the day-to-day needs of exhibit curators, preparators, and others, 
the staff contributions to scholarly literature and participation in 
professional meetings continued at a high level. A series of seminars 
has been developed in cooperation with the National Bureau of 
Standards that will bring together curators, scientists, archeologists, 
and anthropologists to focus their disciplines on common problems. 
Further effort will be made in the coming years to study manufac- 
turing methods and materials so as to gain a better understanding 
of technological growth and refine conservation methods. 

The Archives of the Institution, keeper of the Institution's his- 
torical "conscience," is an invaluable research tool, not only for the 
history of the Institution but for the history of science and scholar- 
ship in the United States. The Archives has continued to classify 
and analyze hundreds of thousands of documents and to develop 
means for their easier retrieval. The Archives also completed its 
long-planned move from the Smithsonian Institution Building to 
larger quarters in the Arts and Industries Building. The oral ar- 
chives program was expanded, and senior members of the staff have 
recorded new data essential for an understanding of the Institu- 

220 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

tion's growth, as well as of the growth of the interviewees' own 

The long-planned reorganization of the Office of the Registrar 
was completed during the year. Each of the museums of the Institu- 
tion now has its own registrarial department, which will permit 
far better coordination than was possible in the past between regis- 
trarial and curatorial functions. The Office of the Registrar re- 
mains a central coordinating-planning unit, responsible for assisting 
the development of retrieval systems for the Institution. In time it 
may become a key element in regional or national networks. The 
Registrar was made chairman of a pan-institutional Collections 
Management and Policy Committee whose function is to review 
current practices and make recommendations for future develop- 
ment, with the aims of avoiding duplication, identifying needs, and 
maximizing the use of resources. The work of the Committee is 
closely linked with the development of plans for a proposed 
Museum Support Center. 

Perhaps the unit in greatest demand was the Office of Exhibits 
Central, which provided specialized production support for the ex- 
hibit units of each museum. This Office was also responsible for a 
major exhibition loaned by the Japanese Imperial Household and 
another that was loaned by the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths 
of London and shown in the Smithsonian Institution Building. 

In late spring and early summer, a major effort was made to meet 
the special requirements of the Festival of American Folklife. Its 
unprecedented length and complexity presented entirely new prob- 
lems for the Division of Performing Arts, as well as for those units 
called upon to give support. 

The Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (sites) 
circulated 210 exhibitions around the country, and, through an imag- 
inative program co-sponsored by the American Revolution Bicen- 
tennial Administration, brought to the United States an important 
series of exhibitions sponsored by foreign nations and sent to our 
country in tribute to our Bicentennial. These exhibitions, and some 
that are still being organized, provide a unique opportunity for 
museums, historical societies, colleges, and other organizations 
throughout the United States to show facets of foreign cultures far 
more directly than they could by other means. Approximately eight 
million people benefited from sites offerings in 1976. As in the past, 

Museum Programs I 221 

a major part of the costs of organizing and circulating sites exhi- 
bitions was provided by grants, contracts, gifts, and modest receipts 
from rental fees. 

During the year, the Horticultural Services Division became the 
responsibility of the Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs and 
was renamed the Office of Horticulture. This change signifies a 
new direction for that department. From being a support unit, it 
will become an initiator in interpreting the history of horticulture, 
interrelating materials that have visual appeal as well as scholarly 
logic. The most impressive result of this new approach is the horti- 
cultural treatment of the interior of the Arts and Industries Build- 
ing. Working with the curatorial staff of the National Museum of 
History and Technology, the Office created a widely acclaimed evo- 
cation of the great horticultural extravaganza of the Philadelphia 
Centennial. The Office also took a leading part in developing the 
Victorian Garden in the South Yard of the Smithsonian Institution 
Building, that extends the spirit of the "1876" exhibition and pro- 
vides a setting that emphasizes the architectural beauty and char- 
acter of the Smithsonian Institution and Arts and Industries 

The National Museum Act, administered by the Institution, was 
reauthorized for three more years, testifying to the quality of a 
grant program that since its inception has provided aid to the 
museum profession. The Act has encouraged the development of 
expertise in museum work, enhancing opportunities for the training 
of existing personnel as well as younger persons who, in increas- 
ingly large numbers, are attracted to the museum field. Through 
grants from the National Museum Act, the National Conservation 
Advisory Council has continued its in-depth analysis of the conser- 
vation needs of the country and published the first of a series of 
comprehensive reports. 

Seminars, workshops, and internships, as well as research in 
specific aspects of museum management, were all made possible by 
National Museum Act grants that went to a wide variety of indi- 
viduals and organizations. As in the past, special efforts were made 
to avoid duplication of the programs that are administered by the 
National Endowment for the Arts and the National Endowment for 
the Humanities. 

The Office of Museum Programs has continued to develop and 

222 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

refine a series of video-tape and slide programs on various aspects 
of conservation. These programs are now available for national dis- 
tribution. Workshops on various aspects of museum management, 
using the knowledge of Smithsonian staff members and invited 
specialists, have increased in number and have attracted colleagues 
from all parts of the country. This program will be developed 
further in the coming year. 

The long-recognized need of Native Americans for expertise that 
would enable them to protect their heritage and develop their own 
museum collections and interpretive programs is now nearer to 
being met. Final arrangements were made to develop a training pro- 
gram that takes full advantage of the specialized talents of Smith- 
sonian staff members. The aim of this program is to provide Native 
Americans with the skills necessary to run their own museums in 
a fully professional manner. 

Conservation- Analytical Laboratory 

The Conservation Analytical Laboratory (cal) serves as the central 
research organization of the Institution in a wide variety of conser- 
vation-related fields. It possesses complex instruments permitting 
spectrographs, X-ray thermoluminescence analysis as well as the 
more traditional equipment related to standard chemical methods. 
Recently it added X-ray fluorescence equipment matched to com- 
puter capabilities and is rapidly developing a computerized infor- 
mation system. 

The reconstruction of Laboratory space, initiated in 1974, was 
completed during the year. 

The Laboratory has embarked on a joint program with the Na- 
tional Bureau of Standards to develop a series of seminars on 
science applied to museum artifacts. These seminars, intended to 
bring together anthropologists, archeologists, and scientists to dis- 
cuss subjects of common interest, may lead to joint research projects. 

A major function of cal is to disseminate information to mem- 
bers of the staff of the Institution as well as to others concerned 
with the vital problems of conservation; to facilitate this, in 
cooperation with the Conservation Information Program, a video- 
tape series of eighty conservation orientation lectures was corn- 
Museum Programs I 223 

Left. Conservation-Analytical Laboratory's 
unit for X-radiography of museum objects 
(ceramics, wood, metal) to detect defects, 
restoration, hidden structures, and methods 
of fabrication. Above. The Metallograph 
used by the Laboratory to examine prepared 
metals microscopically. 

pleted and is now available in-house as well as to museums and 
other organizations across the country. The main role of the labora- 
tory, however, is to provide technical interpretation and chemical 
analysis on a wide variety of items. During the year, these ranged 
from the original stenciling of the Arts and Industries Building, 
which was discovered under numerous layers of later paint, to the 
identification of the gum varnish which was applied by John Henry 
Belter to furniture that he had assembled in 1858. 

The Laboratory monitored temperature and humidity conditions 
in a large number of locations and was responsible for developing 
proper environmental controls for the objects loaned by the Japa- 
nese Imperial Household and displayed in the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Building between September 18 and October 5, 1975. 

The staff was especially pressed to meet the deadlines imposed 
by a large number of Bicentennial exhibitions. In spite of this, num- 
erous contributions to scholarly research were made during the 

224 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

National Museum Act Program 

The National Museum Act of 1966 reaffirmed the Smithsonian's 
traditional role of providing assistance to other museums and 
authorized the Institution to strengthen its activities of service to 
them. In 1976, the Act was reauthorized to extend into fiscal years 
1978, 1979, and 1980. The kinds of assistance specifically referred 
to in the Act include cooperating with museums in the United States 
and abroad in the continuing study of museum problems and op- 
portunities, preparation of museum publications, research in 
museum techniques, and cooperation with agencies of the govern- 
ment concerned with museums. Achievement of these objectives is 
fulfilled through the administration of a series of program grants 
made available to museums, nonprofit museum-related organiza- 
tions and associations, academic institutions, and individuals em- 
ployed or sponsored by eligible organizations. 

Projects sponsored by the National Museum Act must be of sub- 
stantial value to the museum profession as a whole; they must 
contribute to the improvement of museum methods and practices 
or to the professional enhancement of individuals entering or work- 
ing in the museum field. 

During 1976, individual grant program descriptions were care- 
fully reviewed and clarified, and distributed widely, in a new 
format, to the museum community and to those institutions of 
higher learning desiring to develop educational and training pro- 
grams in museum management and other museum specializations. 
During this year there was also a continuing refinement and up- 
dating of the administrative procedures through which grant appli- 
cations are received, evaluated, awarded, and reviewed. 

The nine individual grant programs offered in 1976 can be 
grouped into three general categories: those affording increased 
opportunities for training and education in museum practices; those 
supporting special studies and research activities related to museum 
techniques and methods; and those offering a variety of profes- 
sional and technical services to museums. 

Financial resources for the National Museum Act in fiscal year 
1976 amounted to $768,938, and an additional appropriation of 
$194,500 was made available for the transition quarter (July 

Museum Programs I 225 

through September, 1976). A total of 175 proposals, requesting 
more than $2.9 million for project support, were received from 
applicants during the fifteen-month period. 

Applications for support are reviewed by an Advisory Council 
composed of museum professionals who represent a cross section 
of museum interests and disciplines, as well as broad geographic 
regions of the country. The Council also assists with the determina- 
tion of policies governing the grant programs and with the estab- 
lishment of standards which applicants must meet. 

Members of the Advisory Council in 1976 were: 

William T. Alderson, Director, 

American Association for State and Local History 
Robert Feller, Senior Fellow, National Gallery of Art Research Project, 

Carnegie-Mellon Institute of Research 
Weldon D. Frankforter, Director, Grand Rapids Public Museum 
Bonnie Pitman Gelles, Museum Consultant, Washington, D.C. 
Julia Hotton, Assistant Director, 

Public Affairs and Development, The Brooklyn Museum 
Phillip S. Humphrey, Director, 

Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 
Arminta Neal, Assistant Director, Denver Museum of Natural History 
Joseph Noble, President, American Association of Museums 

and Director, Museum of the City of New York 
Barnes Riznik, Director, Grove Farm Plantation 
Mitchell Wilder, Director, Amon Carter Museum of Western Art 
Vernal L. Yadon, Director, Pacific Grove Museum of Natural History 
Paul N. Perrot, Chairman, Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs, 

Smithsonian Institution 

After review of applications submitted in 1976, the Advisory 
Council recommended that seventy-five projects be funded, for a 
total of $892,659. Of this amount, $295,739 was directed to con- 
servation training and research activities to be undertaken by appli- 

Fifty-seven of the approved projects were associated with the 
educational programs supported by the Act and provided training 
opportunities in one form or another for more than two thousand 
individuals entering or working in the museum field. Through the 
Advanced Academic Degree Program, five museum professionals 
were able to undertake graduate studies in their areas of expertise. 

226 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Seven individuals engaged in specialized training activities in con- 
servation techniques under the Stipends for Conservation Studies 
Program. One individual, for example, studied with a leading paper 
conservator at the Royal Library in The Hague. Thirteen grants for 
Museum Internships and Graduate/Professional Education and 
Training made it possible for many beginning professionals to re- 
ceive theoretical and practical training in various museum functions 
such as exhibition, administration, education, conservation, and 
curation. Nineteen museum professionals enhanced their profes- 
sional museum skills through the study of collections, operations, 
and practices of museums in the United States and abroad under 
the Travel Program. Travel Programs benefited not only the indi- 
viduals making visits to other museums, but also those colleagues 
with whom they had come in contact during the course of their 
studies. Substantial numbers of the profession were able to take 
advantage of continuing educational and training opportunities pro- 
vided by thirteen regional Seminar/Workshop Program grants. 
These seminars and workshops presented topics as varied as ad- 
ministrative procedures for the small museum, computer usage in 
museums, and museum programs for the handicapped, and were 
attended by professionals from all parts of the United States and 
from Europe, Africa, and Australia. 

During 1976, the National Museum Act supported eight projects 
under the Special Studies and Research Program, among which 
were investigations into uses of ultrasonics for art and architectural 
conservation, personnel policies within museums, and techniques of 
paper conservation. 

Ten Professional and Technical Assistance Program grants per- 
mitted museums and museum associations to offer specialized 
assistance to the museum community. In several instances, assist- 
ance took the form of consultation services for individual museums 
seeking advice and guidance on conservation, exhibition design, 
lighting, and similar matters. One important assistance project pro- 
vided the natural history community with comprehensive, central- 
ized information on laws and regulations affecting the collection, 
accession, maintenance, and transport of natural history specimens. 

A list of projects supported by the National Museum Act during 
1976 is found in Appendix 3. 

Museum Programs I 227 

Office of Exhibits Central 

The Bicentennial programs of the Smithsonian Institution largely 
dictated the direction and commitments of the Office of Exhibits 
Central (oec) in fiscal year 1976. In one form or another, oec par- 
ticipated in virtually every Bicentennial program. Occasionally 
oec's contributions were limited and specific, but more often they 
were continuing and extensive; all demanded special skills. 

In support of the summer-long Festival of American Folklife, 
oec provided a range of services from hand-lettered signs to cine- 
matography, oec's work began months before the Festival, con- 
tinued for its duration, and included directing many willing but un- 
trained persons in techniques of exhibit production. 

Two prominent exhibitions in which oec was actively involved 
on many levels were presented in the Smithsonian "Castle" in con- 
junction with the visits of Emperor Hirohito (October 1975) and 
Queen Elizabeth II (July 1976). oec designed, produced, and in- 
stalled "Art Treasures from the Imperial Collections of the Japanese 
Imperial Household" and wrote, designed, produced, and installed 
"Treasures of London." For Queen Elizabeth's tour of the "Castle," 
oec engineered an unprecedented but elegant exhibition of the most 
extraordinary and priceless gems in the Smithsonian's collections. 

In addition to its special support of and participation in the ex- 
hibitions of the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Serv- 
ices, oec assisted in some way virtually every other bureau and 
office of the Smithsonian. 

The Motion Picture Unit of oec received a Silver Plaque at the 
11th International Film Festival for the film Festival of American 
Folklife, 1975. The film was presented by the American Airlines In- 
Flight Theatre for thirty days and was shown by thirty-six tele- 
vision stations. The award-winning film has also been run in 
schools, before various special groups, and by usia at international 
film festivals. The Motion Picture unit also produced 1876, a 30- 
minute film that tells the story of the Centennial Exposition (held 
in 1876 at Philadelphia). About 300 members of the Smithsonian 
staff appear in the film; its first prints have been enthusiastically 

The oec Editors' office served the Smithsonian Institution Travel- 
ing Exhibition Service in many ways, editing not only exhibition 

228 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

scripts but often also writing and editing a wide range of supple- 
mentary materials. Among the most comprehensive of these pro- 
grams in 1976 were "White House China/' which opened in 
December at the National Museum of History and Technology 
prior to its tour; "Toys from Switzerland" (the larger of two ver- 
sions opened in May at the Swiss Embassy in Washington); "Naive 
Art of Yugoslavia"; and "The Dye Is Now Cast," which oec con- 
verted from a stationary exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery 
into a traveling version. Other exhibits in which the oec editors 
figured prominently were the Hirshhorn's "Golden Door," a major 
Bicentennial exhibit; the Leonardo exhibition at mht (which like 
"Treasures of London" marked Queen Elizabeth's tour of the 
United States; and the Columbus exhibition at mht, opened by 
King Juan Carlos of Spain. 

The Museum Lighting staff continued to promote energy conser- 
vation on new lighting projects and upgraded existing ones. The 
staff also conducted workshops in museum lighting and provided 
consultation and guidance to other museums throughout the nation. 

The Freeze-Dry taxidermy laboratory continued to serve the 
Smithsonian, and assisted and trained personnel from other 

In addition to the Lighting and Freeze-Dry staffs, editors, de- 
signers, and others from oec served as faculty, teaching and train- 
ing the professionals enrolled in workshops and seminars that were 
organized by the Office of Museum Programs. 

Office of Horticulture 

On February 29, 1976, the Horticultural Services Division of the 
Office of Plant Services was reorganized and transferred to the 
Office of Museum Programs as the Office of Horticulture (oh). At 
the time of transfer, the Office was given the responsibility for all 
interior and exterior landscaping of the various Smithsonian Insti- 
tution museums and for development of the overall scientific, re- 
search, educational, and display programs of horticulture for the 
Institution. Although the discipline of horticulture was added to the 
Institution in 1972, it was first recognized in 1976 as an official 
museum program rather than as a maintenance operation. 

Museum Programs I 229 

Throughout fiscal year 1976, the Office of Horticulture has 
attempted to assist each of the Smithsonian's museums and some 
related organizations in the presentation of their Bicentennial exhi- 
bitions. For example, oh provided consultation and horticultural 
plantings for the Festival of American Folklife and plants for 
"America on Stage" and other special events at the John F. 
Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. In September 1975, oh 
provided plantings of Japanese origin for the exhibition "Art 
Treasures from the Imperial Collections of the Japanese Imperial 

In December 1975, the Office of Horticulture designed and in- 
stalled plantings for the "Centennial Christmas Ball" given by the 
Women's Committee of the Smithsonian Associates. All of the 
decorations, including hundreds of yards of paper-cut stars, bells, 
and roping, were authentic to the 1876 era. The entire rotunda of 
the National Museum of Natural History was transformed into a 
botanical "conservatory." The proceeds from this ball, totaling 
$20,000, were donated to oh for a new "mini-garden" between the 
Arts and Industries building and the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculp- 
ture Garden's West Wall. This garden will be developed as a five- 
senses garden for the visually and physically handicapped and will 
feature herbal and medicinal plants with aromatic flowers and 
foliage or unusual textured stems and will contain a major water 
feature. Plans are well underway for the development of this 
garden in fiscal year 1977. 

In the fall of 1975, the Office of Horticulture installed 120,000 
tulip bulbs for the spring display of 1976, followed by 120,000 
summer annuals and 5,000 ornamental flowering kale and cabbage 
for the fall and winter season of 1976. In June, oh installed a new 
perennial border along the Ninth Street underpass of the National 
Museum of Natural History. 

In "The Federal City" exhibit, oh provided documentation for the 
horticultural plantings of the A. J. Downing Plan for the Mall of 
the 1850s, as well as interior plants for this exhibition. 

The highlight of the Bicentennial year was the research and in- 
stallation of the horticultural plantings for the "1876" exhibition 
in the Arts and Industries Building. The Arts and Industries rotunda 
was selected as the setting to evoke the great Horticultural Hall of 
the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. The Commissioners of 

230 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Fairmount Park agreed to a one-year loan of the Foley Fountain 
that was the centerpiece of the Horticultural Hall. Within the 
"1876" exhibit, oh attempted to duplicate the horticultural and 
botanical extravaganza of the Centennial Exposition by installing 
eight 25-foot Cocos plumosa, ten 25-foot fishtail palms, and one 
25-foot Ficus nitida, along with hundreds of small tropicals includ- 
ing mahogany, dracaena, dieffenbachia, crotons, and other varieties 
of plants that were known to have been in the displays in Horticul- 
tural Hall in 1876. A duplicate of the "Henry A. Dreer Sales Case," 
installed in the North Hall, contains replicas of dried flower bou- 
quets, immortelles, dried grasses, floral initials, pressed flower pic- 
tures, and other decorative objects known to have been displayed 
by the firm at the Centennial Exposition. These arrangements were 
researched and reproduced by the oh staff in conjunction with Ms. 
Sunny O'Neil of Washington, D.C. 

To the west of the Arts and Industries Building, oh completed the 
new Victorian Garden that complements the Smithsonian Institution 
and Arts and Industries buildings and the "1876" exhibition. This 
new garden opened on September 27, 1976, with authentic em- 
broidery parterres and a geometric star bed requiring approximately 
40,000 Alternanthera bettzicaina or Jacob's Coat. These plantings 
were modeled after the sunken parterre at the west end of the Hor- 
ticultural Hall in 1876. In addition, hardy trees, shrubs, tubbed 
tropicals, and annuals were installed to enhance the ambience of 
the Centennial. Within the Garden, Office of Horticulture displays 
its antique and cast-reproduction collection of Victorian urns, 
benches, wickets, and other garden accessories. Additional perma- 
nent plantings and floral beds will be added in the spring of 1977. 

Massive Victorian floral arrangements were provided in the 
"Castle" building for the visit of Queen Elizabeth II of Great 
Britain, and in the Arts and Industries Building for Mrs. Helmut 
Schmidt, the First Lady of the Federal Republic of Germany. Mrs. 
Schmidt was the first official visitor to the New Victorian Garden. 
Special floral arrangements were also provided for the many state 
visits made to the Institution during the Bicentennial year. 

In the summer of 1976, oh assumed responsibility for the interior 
and exterior landscaping of the National Air and Space Museum 
(July) and renovated the grounds and conservatory of the Cooper- 
Hewitt Museum in New York City (September). Additional projects 

Museum Programs I 231 



-. H 

Above. Mrs. Helmut Schmidt, wife of the West German Chancellor, tours the 
Smithsonian's Victorian Garden during a two-day visit to Washington with 
her husband in July 1976. To the right of Mrs. Schmidt is Assistant Secretary 
for Museum Programs Paul N. Perrot and to the left is James R. Buckler, Chief 
of the Office of Horticulture. Below: Another view of the Victorian Garden. 

under development include the relandscaping of the East Entrance 
of the Smithsonian Institution Building and new proposals for the 
east side of the National Air and Space Museum. 

At the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, thirty Weeping 
Beeches were installed in August in the four new planter boxes on 
the East Plaza. In late September, twenty-two evergreen euonymus, 
Euonymus fortunei vegetus "Sarcoxi," were installed around the 
west, north, and east walls and in the Sculpture Garden. Additional 
landscaping is now under consideration. 

The Horticultural Advisory Committee of the Institution met in 
September 1975 and May 1976 to discuss short- and long-term 
projects for the oh, including the Victorian Garden, "1876, " green- 
house-nursery development, the Cooper-Hewitt renovation, the 
mini-garden for the visually handicapped, the Orchid Collection, 
the State Flower and State Tree Project, and many other horticul- 
tural activities, oh requested each of the fifty states to donate to the 
Institution at least three state flowers and state trees as a Bicenten- 
nial gift. These plants are being used in a landscape scheme around 
our museums and will be appropriately labeled. An Orchid Subcom- 
mittee of the Horticultural Advisory Committee was established in 
September 1975 to develop a research, display, and conservation 
collection of Orchidaceae. During the past year the Subcommittee 
gave recommendations and assisted oh in maintenance of the orchid 
collection of Hillwood Gardens. 

In August, oh received the Grand Award from the Professional 
Grounds Management Society for the best maintained overall gov- 
ernmental complex in the United States. This award is based on the 
degree of difficulty in maintaining a landscape and general overall 

Office of Museum Programs 

The increasing demands placed upon museum professionals by a 
public evermore aware of the resources that museums have to offer 
and the growing use of museum collections in research and the in- 
terpretation of historic phenomena have made it more imperative 
than ever for members of the museum profession to sharpen their 
techniques. Several distinct departments within the Office of Mu- 

Museum Programs I 233 

seum Programs concentrate the major part of their activity on pro- 
fessional enhancement, as well as on research into methods which 
will increase the effectiveness of museum operations. 

The Conservation Information Program is circulating a series 
of eighty video-tape lectures on the principles of conservation 
to museums and related organizations across the country. Since 
July 1, 1975, these tapes have had 505 showings, and this number is 
expected to increase in fiscal year 1977. 

A series of slide tape programs on various practical aspects of 
conservation was completed and' is also being circulated nationally. 
There were 499 showings during the year. Programs on seven dif- 
ferent subjects are now available and an additional five are in 

Thirty workshops concerned with all phases of museum opera- 
tions including management, exhibit design, educational programs, 
curatorial practices, registrarial methods, publication development, 
fund-raising, membership development, and conservation principles 
have been developed. Participants come from all parts of the coun- 
try and the needs are so evident that the variety of these offerings 
will be expanded. 

The Office of Museum Programs coordinates the activities of 
foreign and United States interns who come to Washington for 
a period of weeks or months to study various aspects of museum 
management. During the year, participants from Saudi Arabia, 
Botswana, England, and Nigeria were serviced. In addition, consul- 
tations and short visits were arranged for colleagues from India, 
Peru, Tasmania, Argentina, Uruguay, West Irian, Thailand, Ro- 
mania, Nigeria, New Zealand, and England. A special training pro- 
gram for native Americans has been developed in cooperation with 
the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of 
Natural History. It is expected that the program will be operational 
by mid-year. 

A two-day conference on the requirements of museum training 
was conducted at the Belmont Conference Center in cooperation 
with the National Museum Act. The meeting was attended by rep- 
resentatives of most of the major museum-training programs in the 
United States. This meeting led to the creation, by the American 
Association of Museums, of a training committee that will provide 

234 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

ongoing evaluation of museum-training needs and curriculum re- 

The Museum Information Center was established as a branch of 
the Smithsonian Libraries. Its primary responsibility is to assemble 
books, periodicals, monographs, and research papers relating to 
museum operations and management. For the first time such mate- 
rials have been assembled and collected on a systematic basis and 
are available for use in one location. 

In its continued effort to determine the effectiveness of museum 
displays, the Psychological Studies Program completed a number of 
internal reports. The Measurement and Facilitation of Learning in 
the Museum Environment, by Professor Chandler Screven was 

Office of the Registrar 

The final steps in decentralization of traditional registration func- 
tions were completed this year with the distribution of resources 
and responsibilities to the National Museum of History and Tech- 
nology and the National Museum of Natural History. These two 
museums (the only ones which still lacked operational independ- 
ence) now have local control over their own registration activities. 

The Office of the Registrar, no longer encumbered by dual obli- 
gations, is free to concentrate fully on its primary responsibility: 
the information management aspect of collections management at 
the Institutional level. Coordination of registration activities is 
being provided by the Central Registrar and the Council of Regis- 
trars whose role has continued to expand during the past year. In 
addition to regular monthly meetings at which business is trans- 
acted and featured professional discussions are presented, the 
Council sponsors a variety of cooperative projects in areas of 
mutual concern. 

The Office itself, while continuing to serve as a clearinghouse for 
Council matters, pursues projects of its own at the Institutional 
level. In addition to providing editorial and logistics support for the 
Institution's current study of collections policy and management, 
members of the Office of the Registrar's staff are pursuing a num- 

Museum Programs I 235 

ber of fact-gathering investigations for input to the study report. 
With the conclusion this year of a consultant's study of existing in- 
formation systems at the Institution's Mall facilities, the Office has 
begun a detailed review of the consultant's recommendations to- 
ward the objectives of implementing those plans deemed appropri- 
ate and feasible. 

One project, which started last year as an effort to develop Insti- 
tution-wide information systems for access to the national collec- 
tions, progressed this year to the point where it has generated an 
entire family of related projects. Consequently, the Office is en- 
gaged in such things as a data-element inventory, an analysis of 
potential subject thesauri, a critical review of real as opposed to 
imagined networking needs, and a feasibility study of data-process- 
ing standards for the storage and retrieval of information pertain- 
ing to collected objects and specimens. In connection with the 
standards effort, the intent is to use the Institution as a catalyst for 
the development of published national and perhaps international 
standards for use by the collecting community as a whole. 

Smithsonian Institution Archives 

During fiscal year 1976, the Smithsonian Archives moved to new 
quarters in the Arts and Industries Building. New stack space ulti- 
mately will provide for 10,000 cubic feet of records and manu- 
scripts, while the new reading room offers improved facilities for 
patrons. Much staff time was devoted to the production of a new 
Guide to the Smithsonian Archives, which is scheduled for publica- 
tion in 1977. 

Work continued on the records of the National Museum of 
Natural History, the National Museum of History and Technology, 
and the National Collection of Fine Arts. Records surveys were 
conducted at the National Portrait Gallery and the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum of Decorative Arts and Design. In September, the Deputy 
Archivist went to Cambridge, Massachusetts, to survey the records 
of the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena, and arranged for the 
transfer of the Center's files to the Archives, in conjunction with 
the Center's separation from the Smithsonian. 

Major accessions were received from the Smithsonian Astro- 

236 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

physical Observatory, the National Museum of Natural History, 
and the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange. The Accession 
Records of the United States National Museum were accessioned 
from the Office of the Registrar, and the Archives serviced the rec- 
ords for the National Museum of Natural History and the National 
Museum of History and Technology. Other accessions of note in- 
clude the papers of Leonard P. Schultz and Howard Chapelle, as 
well as additions to the papers of Charles G. Abbot and James A. 

The Archives' Oral History Program was continued. Since the 
program's inception in 1974, over one hundred hours of tape, com- 
prising interviews with some thirty individuals, have been accumu- 
lated. During fiscal year 1976, Program emphasis was on the history 
of the National Museum of Natural History. 

Scholars continued to visit the Archives in increasing numbers. 
Several recent publications have appeared, based at least in part on 
material in the Archives. Among them are: Nathan Reingold, 
editor, The Papers of Joseph Henry: November 1832-December 
1835, The Princeton Years (Washington: Smithsonian Institution 
Press, 1975); Sally Gregory Kohlstedt, The Formation of the Ameri- 
can Scientific Community: The American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, 1848-1860 (Urbana: University of Illinois 
Press, 1976); and articles by Sally Gregory Kohlstedt, Nathan 
Reingold, Bruce Sinclair, and Henry D. Shapiro, which appeared in 
Alexander Oleson and Sanborn C. Brown, editors, The Pursuit of 
Knowledge in the Early American Republic: American Scientific and 
Learned Societies from Colonial Times to the Civil War (Baltimore 
and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976). 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

During the Bicentennial year, the Smithsonian Institution Libraries 
added approximately 20,000 volumes to the collections of cata- 
logued library materials. The collections of the Library of the 
National Air and Space Museum, previously uncatalogued, were 
fully catalogued and in place on the shelves well in time for the 
Museum's opening — a special project accomplishment by the 
Libraries' Technical Services Division. 

Museum Programs I 237 

Dr. Bern Dibner's gift of rare materials in the history of science 
and technology arrived from the Burndy Library in Norwalk, 
Connecticut. Among the nearly 8,000 volumes in the gift are hun- 
dreds of classical works, including 200 epochal books and pamph- 
lets, listed in the Burndy Library catalogue, Heralds of Science. The 
Dibner Library is located in a handsomely decorated room in the 
National Museum of History and Technology Building, and for- 
mally opened in the fall of 1976. Other notable gifts are listed in 
Appendix 9. As in previous years, the Libraries' collections were 
enriched by the many friends who donated books to the collections. 

The Libraries estimated that, in addition to the more than 793,000 
volumes of catalogued materials, more than 200,000 volumes of un- 
recorded library materials are owned by the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. In 1977 the Libraries will investigate techniques for creating 
a record of these uncatalogued materials, so that users will have 
greater accessibility to them. 

The Libraries' program placed a high priority upon the building 
and preservation of materials. A conservator and a handbinder were 
recruited for the staff, and plans are underway for a conservation 
laboratory at 1111 North Capitol Street. Volumes which had de- 
teriorated were identified, and those materials which are of signifi- 
cance to the collections were microfilmed. This marked the initiation 
of a poor-paper microfilming project for the Libraries. In addition 
to the filming of deteriorated materials, the Libraries began to re- 
place long runs of reference and bibliographic materials with com- 
mercial microform editions. The critical space situation in the 
Libraries makes this replacement imperative. In the future, an in- 
creasing number of library materials will be acquired in microform 
format, to save both space and money. 

Various moves took place during the year. The move into the new 
National Air and Space Museum Library, from the old facility in 
the Arts and Industries Building, has been mentioned. Included in 
that Library is the Ramsey Rare Book Room, which contains some 
notable materials dealing with the history of air and space. The 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Library in Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, was physically consolidated with the Harvard Col- 
lege Observatory Library, although each Library maintains its own 
catalogue and continues to serve its own users. The Libraries' facil- 
ity at Lamont Street was moved to 1111 North Capitol Street. 

238 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Library space on the Mall is inadequate to house all of the materials 
needed by the Smithsonian staff for the reasearch, exhibit, educa- 
tion, and public service programs supported by the Libraries; there- 
fore, more materials will be housed at the North Capitol Street 
facility. Plans are underway to refurbish the space, making it into 
a viable unit. 

The Libraries continued to make use of advanced technology. A 
third terminal has been acquired for communication with the Ohio 
College Library Center (oclc). In addition to receiving catalogue 
cards from the more than two million bibliographic records stored 
at oclc, in 1976 the Libraries began to contribute original cata- 
loguing to the oclc data base. The Libraries received catalogue 
cards of the original work, and the oclc data base is enriched. 

The union list of more than 14,000 serials currently received by 
the Libraries has been printed by the computer. This year an experi- 
ment was undertaken to produce the record in computer output 
microform (com), as another attempt to use microform to save 
space and funds. The Libraries' converted, machine-readable files 
can be economically reproduced in multiple copies for distribution 
to the Libraries' branches as needed. 

Several units in the Libraries were reorganized. The Bibliographic 
Support Services unit was established. This unit supports both 
Acquisitions Services and Cataloguing Services by performing all 
of the bibliographic searching and verification required for acquir- 
ing and cataloguing materials, thus reducing duplication of effort. 
In addition, the Bibliographic Support Services unit is responsible 
for scheduling use of the oclc terminals and for accepting oclc 
catalogue copy when no revisions are required by professional 

The support functions of the Libraries were consolidated in a 
newly created Office of Management and Development. The Office 
is responsible for planning, budgeting, management and fiscal in- 
formation reporting, fiscal record-keeping, supplies, equipment, 
space utilization, personnel, and systems development. 

An intensive study of a randomly selected sample of 700 Smith- 
sonian Institution staff members was completed. The resulting "Re- 
port of Survey of Smithsonian Institution Libraries Users" was 
distributed to all Smithsonian units. In general, users expressed 
satisfaction with the Libraries' services and collections. The results 

Museum Programs I 239 

of the survey were intensively reviewed by the Libraries' staff and 
users, in order to plan ways to improve the services and collections. 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 

Fiscal year 1976 was a busy one for the Smithsonian Institution 
Traveling Exhibition Service (sites). In addition to the normal in- 
auguration of new exhibitions, exhibits produced with special con- 
gressional appropriations for the Bicentennial began their tours, 
making a total for the year of 48 new titles, or 114 new exhibitions 
counting duplicates and additional versions. 

Supplementing these exhibitions were nineteen publications, 
among them major catalogues, such as American Art in the Mak- 
ing, American Presidential China, and Workers and Allies: Female 
Participation in the American Trade Union Movement, 1824-1976. 
In addition, smaller catalogues, brochures, and posters were pro- 
duced by sites to accompany new exhibitions. 

Bicentennial exhibitions dominated the year's program, sites 
planning for the Bicentennial began in fiscal year 1975, with a com- 
mitment to double its audience and the number of available exhibi- 
tions dealing with aspects of American history and culture. Realiz- 
ing that sites was the only national traveling exhibition service 
that would offer such shows for Bicentennial programs, and 
recognizing that it would be impossible to meet the projected 
demand with expensive exhibitions of original artifacts, sites de- 
veloped the "information core" exhibition concept. The idea was 
simple, new, and exciting. An exhibitor would provide his own 
artifacts to supplement an exhibition on a complementary theme. 
sites set to work with a list of possible "information core" topics: 
furniture, music, photography, political history, and agriculture. 
Enthusiastic curators throughout the Smithsonian either volun- 
teered themselves and their staffs to develop exhibits or recom- 
mended specialists whom sites placed on contract. Eleven "infor- 
mation core" exhibitions produced a total of fifty-three shows. 
Workbooks written and compiled by the sites education staff were 
provided to each exhibitor, to aid planning activities and installa- 

These "information core" exhibitions, combined with panel 

240 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Left. Montgomery College Gallery in Rockville, Maryland, was the site for a 
local showing of the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service's 
"Contemporary Crafts of the Americas." Right. Mayor Paul Soglin of Madi- 
son, Wisconsin, opens sites exhibition "Workers and Allies" at the City- 
County Building. 

shows developed and produced from major Smithsonian exhibitions 
(such as "The Dye Is Now Cast" of the National Portrait Gallery 
and the Henry Luce Hall of News Reporting of the National 
Museum of History and Technology), often constituted the basic 
program for a community's Bicentennial observances. For example, 
between six and ten sites exhibitions were seen in Junction City, 
Kansas; Middletown, Ohio; Wichita, Kansas; and throughout the 
state of Wisconsin (under the sponsorship of that state's Bicenten- 
nial Commission). These exhibitions were supplemented by activi- 
ties as varied as band concerts; bicycle parades; costumed openings; 
couturier workshops; demonstrations of printing presses, spinning 
wheels, and looms; miniature reenactments of Revolutionary War 
battles; and many speakers, films, and school group tours. 

Bicentennial exhibitions of original art and artifacts that began 
their tours in fiscal year 1976 include: "American Presidential 
China," which opened at the National Museum of History and 
Technology; "American Prints from Wood," which includes a tech- 
nical section on making wood prints; "Lilliput, USA," an exhibition 

Museum Programs I 241 



Queen Elizabeth II visits sites exhibition "Treasures from London" shown in 
the Smithsonian's "Castle" before going on tour. With Her Majesty are Chief 
Justice Warren E. Burger and Secretary S. Dillon Ripley. The exhibit, which 
showed five hundred years of British silver, was produced by The Worshipful 
Company of Goldsmiths of London. 

of miniature furnishings; and "Twenty Bicentennial Banners," an 
edition of which was shown all summer at the Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden. 

The sites "International Salute to the States" program (iss), 
which sponsors tours of major international exhibitions, got under- 
way in fiscal year 1976 and was highlighted by Queen Elizabeth's 
visit to the "Treasures from London" exhibition at the Smithsonian 
Institution "Castle." Ten other iss exhibitions began their tours, 
including: "Silverworks from Rio de la Plata, Argentina"; "The 
Fourth Part of the World," a major exhibition from Australia; 
"Edvard Munch: The Major Graphics," from Norway; and "Naive 
Art in Yugoslavia." 

Nineteen additional exhibitions are currently planned for the iss 
program. Most of these are in the final stages of organization and 
production, with only a few remaining under negotiation. The sites 

242 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

staff has been preparing or contributing to major publications or 
educational materials for almost every exhibition in this program. 

Support funds from the American Revolution Bicentennial Ad- 
ministration for the sites program and from special appropriations 
have contributed to a substantial increase in the size and scope of 
sites' program. An American Studies Office within sites has been 
established to maintain exhibit offerings in this field. 

sites increased its participation in professional museum services 
by cooperating again with George Washington University's Museum 
Education Program, and training interns by holding a week-long 
seminar on traveling exhibitions for museum professionals, under 
the sponsorship of the Office of Museum Programs. Staff members 
also attended and spoke at various national and regional museum 
conferences, sites developed a fifteen-minute slide program of its 
activities for such conferences, seminars, and orientation sessions. 

sites staff members traveled extensively during the past fiscal 
year, negotiating new exhibitions and inspecting those on tour. 
Visits were made to Argentina, Austria, France, Norway, Tunisia, 
Finland, Belgium, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Canada, Switzerland, and 
Iran, as well as to many cities within the United States. 

sites expanded its annual catalogue of available exhibitions, 
Update, to a larger format, allowing a full page for each exhibition 
description. Update is mailed annually to approximately 12,000 
interested organizations and individuals. 

Totals for Period July 1, 1975, through September 30, 1976 

Number of Bookings 790 

Number of States Served 48 

Estimated Audience 8,016,000 

Exhibitions (including duplicates) listed in 

last Update (catalogue of sites exhibitions) 212 

Exhibitions Produced for Tour During the Year 

(including duplicates and additional versions) 114 

Exhibitions Refurbished for Extended Tour 

(including duplicates and additional versions) 9 

Museum Programs I 2A3 

Basically the summer-long Festival of American Folklife was just folks . . . 
some three to four million people from all over the country who came to 
share in the story of what being an American during the two-hundredth-year 
celebration meant to them. The Festival in Washington culminated ten years 
of celebrating the vital and continuing folk traditions, arts, and skills of 

Smithsonian Year • 1976 

For those whose main concern at the Smithsonian Institution is 
the vital and demanding area known as Public Service, the past year 
was unusual and busy, highlighted by the national observance of 
the American Revolution Bicentennial. New and diverse opportuni- 
ties arising from the Bicentennial celebration provided the Smith- 
sonian with the opportunity to tell audiences totaling many millions 
about the past, present, and future of their nation, as well as about 
the Institution that is viewed as the "trustee of the nation's heri- 

The Bicentennial stimulated all of the Public Service divisions to 
develop and offer activities and programs that appropriately marked 
the nation's birthday and brought new facts and insights to those 
who came to Washington for observance. A central mission of 
Public Service is the "diffusion of knowledge" in a challenging era 
when a growing desire has been felt among Americans of all ages 
to learn more about their society and the world in which they live. 

An enthusiastic public response greeted the summer-long Bicen- 
tennial Festival of American Folklife. Several million people 
attended the twelve-week event presented by the Division of Per- 
forming Arts with the National Park Service and sponsored by 
American Airlines and General Foods. More than 5,000 participants 
from each of the 50 states, 38 foreign countries, 55 unions and 
organizations, and 116 native American tribal groups from every 
region of the United States took part in the songs, dances, crafts, 
and activities that expressed their heritage. 

In an editorial published upon the close of the highly successful 
Festival, the Washington Post said, in part: 

"There seems to be general agreement that the Festival of Ameri- 


can Folklife was among the most inspired and inspiring events in 
the nation's Bicentennial celebration." 

Public Service is directing a comprehensive assessment of how, 
when, and if such festivals might be staged by the Smithsonian in 
the post-Bicentennial period. Meanwhile, wide and appreciative 
recognition has been paid to the imagination, skill, and devotion of 
the Division of Performing Arts in presenting what was probably 
the largest continuing outdoor event in the history of the Institu- 

In addition to the Festival, the Division of Performing Arts pre- 
pared for innovations in its regular winter concert series which is 
so popular in Washington. A new series on country guitar was 
arranged with some of the finest players in America, as well as 
programs on "The Blues," "American Popular Song," and "Jazz 

The Anacostia Neighborhood Museum continued its production 
of specially developed exhibitions to mark the Bicentennial: "Black 
Women: Achievements Against the Odds," which opened in late 
1975; "The Frederick Douglass Years," which will be distributed 
nationally through the Smithsonian Institution's Traveling Exhibi- 
tion Service; and "The Anacostia Story." The latter two are in the 
final stages of production. 

The Anacostia Museum's Exhibits and Design Laboratory build- 
ing opened formally in late 1975. On July 20, 1976, the center was 
damaged by a serious fire that temporarily interrupted production 
of "The Frederick Douglass Years" and "The Anacostia Story." 
Funds are being authorized to repair the center in a manner that will 
reduce hazards associated with exhibits production. 

The Resident Associate Program provided a quality program of 
continuing education for Washington area residents by offering 
unique educational experiences consonant with the research, collec- 
tions, and exhibitions of the Institution. Even though no new mem- 
bers were actively sought, a net gain of 5,500 memberships was 
recorded for the year, and the annual renewal rate reached a new 
high of 79.6 percent. 

Smithsonian magazine continued its remarkable growth in pop- 
ularity during the sixth year of its publication. Readership grew to 
1.3 million. 

The Office of Public Affairs experienced unprecedented demands 

246 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

for information and published materials to assist the press and Bi- 
centennial visitors. Outstanding among the many events for which 
the Office of Special Events made arrangements was the July visit 
of Queen Elizabeth II, during which she paused at the crypt of 
James Smithson, viewed the exhibit on Washington, D.C., "The 
Federal City," and was then presented with a resolution of the 
Congress in appreciation of James Smithson's bequest. 

The Office of Telecommunications was established as a separate 
entity in recognition of the importance of television, radio, and 
films as major means of public education and enrichment. 

With a reorganized and augmented staff, the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Press significantly increased its production of Smithsonian- 
related scholarly books and improved its performance in the trade- 
book-publishing field. 

The Office of Elementary and Secondary Education expanded its 
teacher-workshop and school-publications program. A summer in- 
tern program brought twenty-four high school students from rural 
and inner-city communities for projects under Smithsonian staff 
guidance. The Office also coordinated efforts to promote equal 
access for handicapped visitors to exhibits and programs. 

The Office of Symposia and Seminars organized two major activi- 
ties related to the Bicentennial year. The Office conducted work- 
shops as a part of its continuing "Your Own American Experience" 
program which encourages nonnative Americans to find out and 
record where they came from and how they got here and to trace 
what has happened to them since. An international conference, 
"The United States in the World," brought distinguished foreign 
specialists together to give presentations on American influences 
abroad in agriculture, public health, education, labor, architecture, 
music, journalism, and film. 

Reading Is Fundamental (rif) celebrated its tenth anniversary as 
a national, nonprofit program designed to motivate children to 
read. The number of rif programs increased to over 400 in 47 states 
and the District of Columbia. One of rif's major Bicentennial proj- 
ects was a guide to book selection for general use. More than 9,800 
copies of this guide were distributed to public libraries across the 

The Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center per- 
formed myriad services for the Bicentennial visitors, who, though 

Public Service I 247 

less numerous than had been anticipated, nevertheless required the 
dedicated counsel of some 187 volunteers. With the permanent staff 
of 17, these volunteers handled more than 200,000 telephone in- 
quiries and many hundreds of thousands of visitor demands for 
information. Several hundred thousand orientation brochures were 
distributed to visitors by the Center's staff. 

The International Exhange Service continued the program estab- 
lished in 1851 of exchanging publications of this country with those 
of other nations. 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

Begun nine years ago as a community museum, the Anacostia 
Neighborhood Museum (anm) has now grown into an institution 
with an audience that extends from Anacostia to cities, large and 
small, across the nation. Through its exhibitions, approaches to 
education, programs, and catalogues, the Anacostia Neighborhood 
Museum continues to attract museologists, students, interns, and 
visitors from around the country and from as far away as Africa 
and Guam. Scholars and students from local and national colleges 
and universities come to share in the experience of creating a cul- 
tural institution. 

The Anacostia Neighborhood Museum has worked to broaden 
its appeal and to involve large numbers of minorities in a participa- 
tory program that builds positive images of ethnic groups, which, 
for too long, have not been equitably represented in the great exhi- 
bition halls of the more traditional museums. One expression of this 
commitment is the Museum's oral history program, which has its 
origins in the African heritage. This commitment is also evidenced 
in the Museum's ongoing research of local history, documenting the 
contributions of blacks, German sharecroppers, English and Scottish 
immigrants, and others who peopled the region known today as 
Anacostia. The Museum has also sought collateral relationships 
with private and governmental museums and institutions, affording 
larger audience participation in this cultural awakening. One result 
of these collaborative efforts was the John Robinson exhibition that 
was presented at the Corcoran Gallery of Art. The show offered a 

248 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

retrospective display of the creative talents and skills of an Ana- 
costian Afro-American artist. 

Clearly, the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum has not adopted 
an isolationist policy: while sensitive to the needs and aspirations 
of the local residents, the Museum is not parochial in its exhibits, 
programs, or outlook. In conjunction with the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Traveling Exhibition Service, the Museum will be circulating 
exhibits that it has researched, designed, and produced to communi- 
ties throughout the nation. 

Programs conducted in the museum included a Young People's 
Film Festival and activities designed to support and complement 
anm's two Bicentennial exhibits, "Blacks in the Westward Move- 
ment" and "Black Women: Achievements Against the Odds." Audi- 
ences participated in workshops, conducted by an American Indian, 
that focused on the cultural and religious life of the Sioux and 
allowed them to share some of the Sioux nation's customs and 
foods. A highly successful lecture series "Black Women Speak," 
accompanied the "Black Women" exhibition. Conducted in the 
Museum's exhibit hall and in the community, the series addressed 
a number of topics of interest and sparked provocative discussions 
between students, residents, and lecturers, who brought expertise 
from such varied disciplines as education, psychology, psychiatry, 
medicine, folk history, and social work. This continuing program, 
initiated at the beginning of the month-long celebration of the study 
of Afro-American life and history, opened its fall series with an 
address by the Honorable Shirley Chisholm. Her speech marked 
the observance of the Museum's ninth anniversary. 

The study, collection, and preservation of Anacostia history have 
led to the development of the Museum's concluding Bicentennial 
exhibit, "The Anacostia Story," which culminates over four years 
of research, begun when anm initiated its oral history project. A 
rekindling of interest in local history is evidenced by the growing 
membership of the Anacostia Historical Society. Community en- 
thusiasm has been demonstrated by the involvement and participa- 
tion of residents. 

Through the acquisition of primary source materials and library 
volumes, the Center for Anacostia Studies has significantly in- 
creased its research capabilities. Archival materials now available 

Public Service I 249 

Visitors at the opening of the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum's Bicentennial 
exhibition "Black Women: Achievements Against the Odds," learn about 
more than one hundred and fifty outstanding black women, who are repre- 
sented in the exhibition by photographs, texts, artifacts, letters, and other 

in microfilm may be used by graduate students and scholars and 
include census and tax records, the Emancipation Commission rec- 
ords (1861-1863), correspondence and records of the Freedmen's 
Bureau, and volumes of Crises, the official organ of the naacp. The 
Center for Anacostia Studies also houses the Museum's first collec- 
tion: tapes and video-tapes of oral history interviews, primary 
source documents, photographs, artifacts, and memorabilia. This 
collection represents an important assemblage of eyewitness ac- 
counts of early Anacostia history, some items dating back to 1792. 

Division of Performing Arts 

To celebrate 200 years of America's cultural heritage, the Division 
of Performing Arts focused on research and presentations about the 
roots of American culture. 

250 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Efforts were organized around the Festival of American Folklife, 
Music at the Museum programs, and expanded publication of re- 
cordings under the Smithsonian Collection label. The Division 
combined forces with the Division of Musical Instruments and the 
National Associates for special Bicentennial projects, the Haydn 
Festival, and a national tour of a production of "Music and Dance 
from the Age of Jefferson." 

The Ninth Annual Festival of American Folklife in the summer 
of 1975 became a major dress rehearsal for the summer-long Bicen- 
tennial "museum out of doors" in 1976. More than nine hundred 
performers from Germany, Lebanon, Ghana, Jamaica, Japan, Italy, 
and Mexico, as well as workers in transportation, Native Americans 
from the Iroquois Confederacy, and participants from California 
and the Heartland States were involved in the 1976 Festival. 
Preparations for the Bicentennial Festival necessitated field surveys 
by nearly one hundred folklorists, who interviewed and selected the 
participants. The Festival featured 5,000 persons from 38 foreign 
countries, 55 unions and organizations, and 116 Native American 
tribal groups, demonstrating the astonishingly rich folk heritage 
that is uniquely American. Following the Festival, the performers 
from foreign countries were sent on tour, filling over one hundred 
engagements in more than fifty American cities. About five million 
persons attended the 12-week event, which was presented by the 
Smithsonian Institution and the National Park Service and was 
sponsored by American Airlines and General Foods. 

As the principal organization responsible for live performances 
at the Smithsonian, the Division offered a wide range of jazz, popu- 
lar, classical and oriental music, and dance. Many presentations 
were accompanied by free workshops, master classes, and open 
rehearsals. Music was offered under eight different category head- 
ings, each seeking out the best of the old and the new. The cultural 
contributions of a number of leading American artists were thus 
honored at the Smithsonian, including a fiftieth anniversary cele- 
bration of the Mills Brothers, Mable Mercer in concert, an evening 
of jazz tap dancing, banjo music by Grandpa Jones, young virtuoso 
artists with Music from Marlboro, and contemporary composers 
featured by the Theater Chamber Players. Weekly events, spon- 
sored with the Division of Musical Instruments of the National 
Museum of History and Technology, attracted some sixteen thou- 

Public Service I 251 


{ v> 

Above. A logging sports carnival from Pennsylvania demonstrated regional 
skills at rolling, topping, and sawing logs by champion woodsmen. This Fes- 
tival highlight event was repeated later in the summer with participants from 
the Pacific Northwest. Audiences were thrilled to watch competitions between 
man and machine in which man won! Below. In the Working Americans area 
of the Festival, Workers Who Build featured ironworkers on high girders 
erecting a structure, answering questions from visitors, and having fun. 
Bricklayers, carpenters, electrical workers, and engineers all demonstrated 

Above. The African Diaspora area presented the cultural experience of Black 
Americans paying tribute to those aspects of culture that link Black Americans 
to Africa, the Caribbean, and Latin America. Musical presentations included 
gospel and Black sacred music, jazz and night-life music, drums and songs 
from three continents. The Trinidad Steel Band from Washington, D.C., 
roused young and old in the crowd. Below. A glimpse backstage at the working 
rehearsal of the Joffrey Ballet II company was a fascinating presentation by 
workers in the performing arts. Clowns, actors, designers, musicians, and 
announcers were others participating in this Working Americans theme. More 
than fifty unions and organizations participated throughout the summer. 

Left. This reissue captures a fruitful year in the career of a great American 
composer. Right. An original recording that highlights little-known corners 
of ragtime history. 

sand persons, and featured rarely performed music, including a 
Haydn puppet opera, played on original instruments from one of 
the world's largest collections. 

Glowing critical reception greeted release of five recordings 
under the Smithsonian Collection label: reissues of the music of 
King Oliver, Louis Armstrong, and Earl Hines; three new record- 
ings of Classic Rags, Music from the Age of Jefferson, and Piano 
Music of Ferdinand "Jelly Roll" Morton, James Dapogny, pianist. 
The standard-bearer of the series, The Smithsonian Collection of 
Classic Jazz, continued to reach an admiring public. The recordings, 
available nationally, are specially priced for Smithsonian As- 

The program "Music and Dance from the Age of Jefferson," pro- 
duced for a Washington premiere, was recorded as Music from 
the Age of Jefferson, and toured five cities selected for their geo- 
graphic representation: Charlotte, Atlanta, Houston, San Francisco, 
and Cleveland. 

International Exchange Service 

In 1851, the Smithsonian Institution established the international 
exchange system to provide a means for exchanging current Smith- 

254 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

sonian publications for the transactions and proceedings of schol- 
arly institutions in other countries. Other learned bodies in the 
United States were allowed to participate by exchanging their pub- 
lications with those of foreign organizations. In 1886, the service 
was designated as the bureau through which United States Gov- 
ernment publications are exchanged with foreign governments for 
their official publications. This exchange includes the daily issues of 
the Congressional Register, Federal Register, the weekly issues of 
the Compilations of Presidential Documents, and all other publica- 
tions designated by the Library of Congress for depository libraries. 
This program continues to provide service to many colleges, uni- 
versities, scientific societies, and medical and dental libraries in the 
United States in exchange with similar organizations in countries 
throughout the world. 

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

Fiscal year 1976 brought new opportunities and new directions to 
the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (oese). 

In March 1976, as part of a growing national program for ele- 
mentary and secondary schools, the experimental newspaper Art 
to Zoo was launched. This new four-page publication is designed to 
promote the use of museums, parks, libraries, zoos, and other 
community resources by students and teachers throughout the 
nation. Two pilot issues were circulated this past spring among 
236 teachers in 35 schools across the United States. Art to Zoo will 
be distributed to a wider number of teachers during the 1976-1977 
school year, and a series of regional workshops for school and 
museum educators will be given in conjunction with the publication. 
The first of these workshops— to be held in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 
in November 1976— will involve the participation of two school sys- 
tems and ten cultural institutions from the Lancaster area. 

On the local level, in keeping with its responsibility to encourage 
cooperation and exchange of information among the Smithsonian 
education offices and between those offices and the District of 
Columbia schools, oese continues to offer a number of programs 
that have proven successful in the past. The first of these involves 
two publications designed specifically for a local audience: Let's 

Public Service I 255 

Teachers study ancient bones and 
stone tools during Office of Elemen- 
tary and Secondary Education's 
workshop on museum teaching 

Go (a monthly newsletter) and Learning Opportunities for Schools 
(an annual brochure). These publications, sent free to over 1,300 
area schools, tell teachers of the ever-growing variety of Smith- 
sonian services available to young people, and suggest ways of 
using museums as educational resources. Another local program is 
Teacher's Day, held annually. Teacher's Day in 1976 brought more 
than seventy Washington-area teachers and the Smithsonian edu- 
cation staff together for an informal program of special activities, 
including an introduction to the educational materials developed by 
oese for use with "1876: A Centennial Exhibition." 

Local teachers are also reached through an oese workshop and 
seminar program, now in its fifth year. During fiscal 1976, a total of 
2,400 teachers participated in 84 workshops and seminars, includ- 
ing 3 summer courses at which curriculum units based on Smith- 
sonian resources were developed for use in the classroom. Ongoing 
summer workshops consisted of an orientation program, "Tuesdays 
at the Smithsonian;" a seminar on museum teaching methods; and 
a 3-week special in-service course given in cooperation with the 

256 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Fairfax County Park Authority and the Fairfax County Public 

In June, July, and August 1975, an OESE-sponsored pilot program 
for summer interns brought twenty-two promising high school 
seniors from rural and inner-city communities to the Smithsonian to 
engage in learning service projects. The students worked under the 
guidance of curatorial and professional staff members in various 
parts of the Institution. One intern, Mr. Eric Seip, assisted in the 
dismantling of the Dunham School classroom, which is now a part 
of "A Nation of Nations" exhibition. In 1976, the Summer Intern 
Program had twenty-four participating students. A grant from the 
DeWitt Wallace Reader's Digest Scholarship Fund made this effort 

Office of Public Affairs 

The year of the American Bicentennial at the Smithsonian was 
an exciting, dramatic, and productive period for the mass media in 
their continuing coverage of the Institution. Around the world, 
thousands of column-inches about Smithsonian events appeared in 
newspapers, periodicals, and books. Radio and television, locally 
and nationally, featured many audiovisual originations on events 
and exhibits at the Institution. It was a period of unusual media 
interest, in which a parade of correspondents from many points 
came to the Smithsonian in search of articles relevant to accom- 
plishments in the prime disciplines for which the Institution is 
world renowned— the arts, the sciences, and history. 

A new directory of Smithsonian knowledge resources is in 
preparation to orient members of the media to the knowledge- 
able authorities at the Institution so they can talk with Smithsonian 
experts in fields ranging from gastropods to gallaxies, anthropology 
to zoology. 

Major activities included assistance in arranging media coverage 
for the openings of the National Air and Space Museum, dedicated 
by President Gerald R. Ford on July 1, 1976; "1876: A Centennial 
Exhibition" in the renovated Arts and Industries Building on 
May 10, 1976; and the "A Nation of Nations" exhibit at the 

Public Service I 257 

National Museum of History and Technology on June 9, 1976. 

The News Bureau continued to provide such services as pub- 
lication of the Calendar of the Smithsonian Institution, maintenance 
of code-a-phones as a source of daily information for the public, 
publication of the employee house organ Torch, and issuance of 
Smithsonian Research Reports. 

The Publications section revised the basic orientation leaflet for 
visitors, published in English, German, French, Spanish, and Japa- 
nese. More than a million copies of the English version were printed 
for distribution during the Bicentennial peak period. Articles about 
the Smithsonian to be published in encyclopedias, travel guides, and 
museum community periodicals were reviewed for accuracy. 

The News Bureau also serviced requests from radio and television 
producers for features on newsworthy activities and staff of the 
Institution. Some 304 press releases were issued during the year. 

The Telecommunications Branch developed and produced audio- 
visual material and worked with numerous television, film, and 
radio producers on projects which would bring to America and 
foreign audiences a better understanding of the activities of the 
Institution. These projects ranged from a half-hour film on the 
National Museum of Natural History to an Encyclopaedia Britannica 
filmstrip series to television and radio promotional "spots" high- 
lighting Bicentennial endeavors. 

The Special Events staff assisted in the planning, preparation, and 
coordination of lectures, award presentations, conferences, symposia, 
exhibit openings, luncheons, dinners, and other events throughout 
the Institution. Additional undertakings included numerous Bicen- 
tennial observations, such as the opening of "1876: A Centennial 
Exhibition" and assistance in the National Air and Space Museum 
opening. Arrangements were also made for a State Dinner honoring 
Their Majesties The Emperor and Empress of Japan; other foreign 
dignitaries visiting in honor of the Bicentennial included Her 
Majesty Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain; His Majesty Carl 
XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden; Her Majesty Margrethe II, Queen 
of Denmark and His Royal Highness Henrik, The Prince of Den- 
mark; Their Majesties the King and Queen of Spain; His Royal 
Highness Harald, Crown Prince of Norway; His Royal Highness 
Crown Prince Hassan of Jordan; and Her Royal Highness Princess 
Paola of Belgium. 

258 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars 

Preliminary to the Institution's sixth international symposium in 
June 1977, the Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars de- 
veloped a special program of workshops, seminars, and public lec- 
tures for June 14-16, 1976, formally introducing its activities cele- 
brating "Kin and Communities: The Peopling of America" as an 
educational contribution to the Bicentennial observance. Described 
by Israel Shenker in The New York Times as a "floating rap 
game," these informal meetings were designed to stimulate each 
of us to discover (or rediscover) one's own American experience by 
learning more about his family history and its particular contribu- 
tion to the genesis and growth of our country and civilization. 
A second major program of the Office also pursued the Institu- 
tion's goal of disseminating the fruits of scholarly investigations 
and insights about the ideas, customs, skills, and art of various 
cultures and civilizations: Two hundred years of American history— 

Left. Cover design to "Kin and Communities" program brochure featuring a 
lithograph originally published circa 1859 from the Smithsonian Collections. 
Right. Secretary S. Dillon Ripley and Mrs. Ripley welcoming Dr. Margaret 
Mead, chairman of the "Kin and Communities" program, to the June 1976 
opening reception. 


The Smithsonian Institution 

announces a 

Bicentennial Education Program 


what difference has it made? This was the central question posed to 
approximately three hundred distinguished scholars and specialists 
invited from over fifty countries at a major international Bicen- 
tennial conference, "The United States in the World," held Septem- 
ber 26-October 1, 1976, at the Smithsonian. Working sessions were 
devoted to science and technology, politics, education, reform move- 
ments, business enterprise, film and television, music, architecture, 
and the printed media. At the end of the conference week, there 
were open forums during which other topics were discussed. The 
program committee, composed of representatives of the three 
sponsoring organizations (the American Studies Association, the 
American Council of Learned Societies, and the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution), made it a point to invite practicing architects, scientists, 
composers, business executives, journalists, etc., rather than Ameri- 
can studies scholars, in order to obtain a fresh perspective on the 
United States' cultural contributions in specific fields of endeavor 
and to see how these have been adopted and adapted in different 

Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. 

Reading Is Fundamental, now in its eleventh year, continues to 
grow throughout the United States. More than four hundred local 
community projects operate in forty-seven states — in cities, small 
towns, and remote rural areas. 

rif was founded by Mrs. Robert McNamara in 1966 as a reading 
motivation program for children. Since 1968, it has been housed in 
the Smithsonian Institution. 

Freedom of choice and pride of ownership are the basic tenets of 
Reading Is Fundamental. The implementation is simple, i.e., children 
choose from a large selection of books, keeping the ones that in- 
terest them. In this way, the purpose of rif — motivating children to 
read — is fulfilled. 

Studies of this national, nonprofit organization indicate that rif is 
getting books to children and generating the desired enthusiasm in 
the communities and with the youngsters themselves. Each project 
organizes and supports its own activities. The result has been the 

260 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

motivating and coordinating of a cross section of people within 
each participating community. 

Published in the winter of 1976, in cooperation with the Associa- 
tion of American Publishers, the Bicentennial Guide to Book Selec- 
tion lists 3,000 titles and over 270 publishers and distributors. Mrs. 
Kathryn Lumley, one of the founding members of rif, compiled 
and edited the guide. As an author, reading consultant, and instruc- 
tor of reading and language arts for the Pennsylvania State Uni- 
versity of Continuing Education, she used her expertise to compile 
a comprehensive and successful guide. 

The American Revolution Bicentennial Association has distrib- 
uted 9,800 copies to public libraries across the nation. 

In talking about rif's work, Mrs. McNamara is partial to what 
Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote in 1762 in Emile: "A . . . way that 
nobody thinks of, is to create the desire to read. Give the child this 
desire . . . and any method will be good." 

Smithsonian Associates 

The Institution's membership program of the Smithsonian Associ- 
ates was essentially designed for Washington area residents until the 
spring of 1970 when publication of the Smithsonian began. As a 
principal benefit of membership, the monthly magazine so stimu- 
lated interest in the program as to increase the Smithsonian Asso- 
ciates to more than 1,250,000 members across the country. 


Regional Program 

During the past year approximately sixty-four thousand Smithson- 
ian Associates in six cities throughout the United States were given 
an opportunity to share more fully in the National Associate Pro- 
gram. Members were invited to participate in Smithsonian events 
co-sponsored with museums and cultural organizations in their 
home communities. Charlotte, North Carolina; Birmingham, Ala- 
bama; Dallas, Texas; San Francisco, California; Cleveland, Ohio; 
and Tucson, Arizona were the sites of Smithsonian regional activi- 

In cooperation with nine divisions of the Institution, the National 

Public Service I 261 

Associates presented a varied program of over fifty-one separate 
lectures, exhibitions, and performances in the host cities. Twenty 
thousand Associates responded to the invitation to expand their 
sense of participation and increase their understanding of the Insti- 
tution's work. 

Among the offerings taken to the local Associates were: "Music 
and Dance from the Age of Jefferson," produced by the Division of 
Performing Arts and the Division of Musical Instruments; "Sculp- 
tors and Their Drawings," objects from the Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden, "Art and the Written Word," a sampling of the 
Archives of American Art, and "The National Gem Collection," 
specimens from the Department of Mineral Sciences, National 
Museum of Natural History. 

Associates Travel Program 

The Domestic Tours staff continued to provide small groups of 
members with unusual travel experiences, rich in learning, in a 
variety of locales from Maine to California. Thematic weekends, 
for Associates from areas other than Washington, focused on a 
single facet of the Smithsonian's total collection, providing an in- 
depth study of a topic as well as an opportunity to become 
acquainted with the Institution and to attend a performance at the 
John F. Kennedy Center for Performing Arts. Subject areas for the 
weekends included gems and minerals, the Hirshhorn collection, 
the National Collection of Fine Arts, and the ever popular "Christ- 
mas at the Smithsonian" program. 

The Washington "Anytime" Weekend continued to be popular 
with the membership during 1976. Designed to give National Asso- 
ciates the opportunity to visit Washington and the Smithsonian 
any weekend during the year, the program, assisted by the Visitors 
Information and Associates' Reception Center, was able to respond 
to the large influx of members who enjoyed the exciting Bicenten- 
nial activities. 

Dedicated to a goal of providing educational and culturally ori- 
ented tours at a cost and within a time-frame affordable by a broad 
base of the Associate membership, the Foreign Charter Program 
received an overwhelming response to its initial efforts. During 
1976 tours went to four new destinations and tours were repeated 
to satisfy the demand for visits to Great Britain and Russia. The 

262 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Program emphasized intellectual content and provided lectures, 
seminars, and special events in the country visited. Topics included 
history, literature, art, and current political, social, and economic 
trends. A new feature of the Charter Program introduced during 
1976 was the innovative optional pre-departure program that intro- 
duced members to the Smithsonian and provided a day and a half 
of special lectures and social events designed to add to the partici- 
pant's understanding of the country to be visited and its people. 

Contributing Membership Program 

The Contributing Members of the Smithsonian Associates provide 
annual support for the Institution's work in education, research, 
and scholarship. The Smithsonian recognizes four levels of support: 
Founder membership at $1,000, Sustaining at $500, Donor at $100, 
and Supporting at $50. In 1976 the number of Contributing Mem- 
bers increased from 635 to 885. Their generous support made pos- 
sible, in particular, the development and expansion of educational 
programs for a national audience. 

The Smithsonian Institution gratefully acknowledges the gener- 
ous support of the Contributing Members in a listing in Appendix 8. 


A review of the past year vividly illustrates the dramatic growth 
of the Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center. Still 
operating from its original office in the South Tower of the 
"Castle," the Center, which was established simultaneously with 
Smithsonian magazine six years ago, has increased its staff from 
two to seventeen employees in keeping with expanded visitor in- 
formation programming and other added responsibilities. 

Although initiated in anticipation of record Bicentennial crowds, 
the assignment of Building Information Coordinators in major Mall 
museums and galleries served necessary and timely functions; act- 
ing as liaisons between the museums and the Center, the Coordina- 
tors provided on-the-spot supervision and supplemental training 
for Information Volunteers, enabling them to function with greater 
efficiency and confidence. 

To accommodate the projected number of visitors expected dur- 
ing the Bicentennial celebration, 187 new Information Volunteers 

Public Service I 263 

Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs Julian T. Euell presents certificates of 
appreciation and service pins to volunteers Dorothy Tull (right) and Josephine 
Olker at an awards ceremony and Christmas party honoring volunteer in- 
formation specialists. Next to Mr. Euell is Mary Grace Potter, Director of 
the Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center. 

were recruited and trained. A total of 317 specialists, filling 56 
assignments a day, produced a gratifying coverage of 90 percent for 
the year. Many volunteers, following special training, assumed re- 
sponsibility for new information desks located in the bustling 
National Air and Space Museum, the Centennial exhibition in the 
Arts and Industries building, and in the Museum of History and 
Technology near the "A Nation of Nations" exhibit. From April 
until Labor Day, hours for all information desks were from 10 a.m. 
to 7 p.m., a three-hour extension of duty. All volunteers concerned 
with the dissemination of information were provided with yellow 
sashes, which insured easy identification. Installation of new, larger 
desks in the Museum of History and Technology, the Museum of 
Natural History, and the "Castle" enabled Information Volunteers 
to handle visitors more quickly and comfortably. 

The Center's annual survey of Smithsonian-wide volunteer par- 
ticipation appears in Appendix 10. 

The Independent Volunteer Placement Program, serving as the 
principal source of behind-the-scenes opportunities for museum ex- 

264 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

perience, responded with increased effectiveness this year to a wide 
variety of curatorial requests. This ongoing program, inaugurated 
in 1972, continues to experience significant growth. Much interest 
was generated by the scope and number of special Bicentennial ex- 
hibits. Short-term projects, as well as long-term regular assign- 
ments, accounted for over forty-eight thousand hours of volunteer 


The Smithsonian Resident Associate Program was established in 
1965 by Secretary Ripley to provide the opportunity for residents 
of the Greater Washington area to participate actively in the life of 
the Institution. The purpose of the Program, as defined by Secretary 
Ripley, is to "serve as a link between what the Institution does, 
whether in museum or laboratory or art gallery programs or re- 
search and publications and what the public in the Washington area 
can do to participate." The Program seeks to achieve this goal 
through an extensive range of quality educational activities that are 
consonant with the research, collections, and exhibitions of the 
Institution. These activities include classes in the arts, sciences, 
humanities, and studio arts; study tours within the Smithsonian 
bureaus and nearby complementary facilities; lectures; symposia; 
seminars; film series; exhibition previews; outdoor festivals; art 
poster projects; and performing arts events. 

In striving to provide a quality program of continuing education, 
the Resident Associate Program seeks to accommodate a rapidly 
expanding membership that is highly educated, relatively young, 
and the majority of whom reside in suburban Maryland and nearby 

As of July 1976, there were 39,500 members, a nearly fivefold 
increase over the July 1972 figure of 8,500. It was determined that 
in fiscal 1976, membership growth should not be sought; however, 
although all promotion was eliminated, unsolicited applications and 
a high retention rate resulted in a net gain of 5,500 memberships; 
13,199 new members joined, and the annual renewal rate was 78.5 
percent. The 39,500 memberships represent approximately 85,000 
individuals who are single, double, or family members. 

The Resident Associate Program marked its Tenth Anniversary 
in September 1975 with a full day of festivities. To commemorate 

Public Service I 265 

this event, Washington artist Gene Davis was commissioned to 
create a special Resident Associate serigraph and poster. The 200 
serigraphs and 1,000 posters were much appreciated by the mem- 
bers, and sold out within a month. The Program donated an artist's 
proof of the Gene Davis serigraph to the National Gallery of Art, 
National Collection of Fine Arts, and the Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden. Proceeds from the poster sales were used to 
award tuition-free scholarships, based on need and interest to 339 
inner-city students, for attendance at Associate classes; additionally, 
38 Smithsonian docents received tuition-free scholarships to classes, 
and any other docents applying received one-third discount on the 
class fee. 

The Program continued to offer a broad range of lecture classes 

Smithsonian Horticulturist James Buckler teaching an Associate class on 

indoor gardening. 

266 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

for adults in the arts, sciences, and humanities. Taught by Smith- 
sonian and visiting scholars, 108 classes in these areas were 
scheduled in the four terms of fiscal year 1976, attended by 5,116 
individuals. A total of 273 adult classes, including studio courses, 
photography, and workshops, were given for adults during the year, 
with an enrollment of 8,075 students. Of the lecture classes, those 
in archeology, architecture, astronomy, botany, decorative arts, and 
new courses related to Associate foreign travel were the best at- 
tended. The latter represented a series of foreign study courses 
planned as orientation for participants in Associate trips abroad. 
These classes were also intended as complete educational experi- 
ences in themselves. In the studio arts, photography laboratory 
courses surpassed all others in number of enrollment. Furniture- 
making and restoration, photo-silkscreen, stained-glassmaking, 
weaving, and calligraphy were also extremely well received. 

Through the Trips and Tours branch of the Program, members 
were given the opportunity to participate in scholarly tours of 
Smithsonian exhibitions and visits to nearby cultural, historic, or 
scientific locales. This year, there were 439 on-site learning ex- 
periences, 140 of which were free and open to members only. A 
total of 17,265 individuals participated in these field activities led 
by Smithsonian or other qualified scholars. Among the most popu- 
lar tours were those that enabled members to explore facets of the 
Institution; the "Indoor Field Trips at the National Museum of 
History and Technology" attracted over 1,200 members; 450 mem- 
bers took guided tours of "The Eye of Thomas Jefferson" exhibition 
at the National Gallery of Art. In-depth art trips to New York 
City's Soho lofts, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and other New 
York museums and collections continue to be exceedingly popular, 
resulting in large overflow lists. Tours to Winterthur and walking 
tours of the city, Alexandria, Georgetown, Capitol Hill, and Massa- 
chusetts Avenue areas were oversubscribed and rescheduled. All 
tours are limited in size; many have to be repeated as often as 
twenty-four times to accommodate registrants. 

The Special Events segment of the Program includes lectures, 
seminars, and symposia conducted by distinguished Smithsonian 
and visiting scholars. Outdoor festivals, film series, and performing 
arts are also integral. During fiscal year 1976, 100 special events 
were attended by over 21,000 people. Twenty special events were 

Public Service I 267 

Young Associates learn how to produce and direct their own television pro- 
grams in this class. 

offered free to members only. During 1976, the reopening of the 
restored Arts and Industries Building with its "1876: A Centennial 
Exhibition" and the opening of the National Air and Space 
Museum provided opportunities for gala Associate openings. Mem- 
bers were also offered a special private walk-through of the Na- 
tional Museum of History and Technology's major Bicentennial 
exhibition, "A Nation of Nations." An ongoing cooperative ven- 
ture, the Audubon Lecture Series, sponsored by the Resident Asso- 
ciate Program, the Audubon Naturalist Society, and the Friends of 
the National Zoo, was overbooked for all of the nine lectures. 

268 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

The Young Associates program extends the resources of the In- 
stitution to members' children (as well as the scholarship children 
noted above) through classes and special activities. The program 
, offers learning experiences appropriate to specific age groups, rang- 
ing from four to eighteen. Over twenty classes are offered in each 
of the four academic terms. Special tours of Smithsonian exhibitions 
and of local cultural, scientific, and historic places of interest are 
planned for young people, as well as free films, performing arts 
programs, and courses and workshops. The free annual holiday 
party served over 1,000 Young Associates. Over 12,000 young 
people have participated in Young Associate activities during the 
past year. 

Some two hundred and fifty volunteers work for the Resident 
Associate Program on a regular basis. Their responsibilities vary 
from assisting at special events to office duties to monitoring classes. 
A special project undertaken this year by volunteers was the read- 
ing of the Associate newsletter for the visually handicapped. Volun- 
teers have also been working with Harold Snider of the National 
Air and Space Museum on Institution-wide projects to aid the 
visually impaired. 

Smithsonian Institution Press 

During the past fifteen months the Smithsonian Institution Press, 
under new management and with a reorganized and augmented 
staff, significantly increased its production of Smithsonian-related 
scholarly books and improved the quality of its performance, fol- 
lowing many of the valuable recommendations of the 1975 Bout- 
well, Crane, Moseley, and Associates Study Report. The staff 
reorganization and increase enabled the Press to catch up with the 
impending backlog of a year ago, to meet several short schedules 
for Bicentennial exhibition catalogues and the generally increased 
publishing requirements of the Bicentennial, to rejuvenate a promis- 
ing trade-book publishing activity after a hiatus during the summer 
of 1975, and to make a promising beginning in correcting a long- 
standing and unfavorable imbalance in the relationship between 
sales prices and production costs in its privately funded book pub- 
lishing. In addition, moving and associated activities occupied a 

Public Service I 269 

good deal of the time and attention: the Distribution and Fulfillment 
Section transferred its base of operations from 24th Street, N.W. to 
1111 North Capitol Street, and the editorial, design, production, and 
administration offices left the Liberty Loan Building to become tem- 
porary tenants of the National Museum of Natural History. With 
one more move, scheduled for November 1976, the Press will occupy 
permanent quarters in the Arts and Industries Building. 

The publication in June of the 1976 Smithsonian Institution Press 
catalogue with its list of attractive new titles brought a prompt 
response from the extensive market to which it was distributed, 
and furnished tangible evidence of the attention the entire Press 
staff is devoting to these goals. Current best-sellers on the new 
list are Zoobook, Blue Mystery: The Story of the Hope Diamond, 
America As Art, The Golden Door, and Official White House 
China. New books of more specialized scholarly interest included 
volume 2 of The Papers of Joseph Henry, and The Flora of Okinawa 
and the Ryukyu Islands; the Press arranged co-publishing agree- 
ments with commercial publishers for books of wide potential 
appeal, such as The Indian Legacy of Charles Bird King (co-pub- 
lished with Doubleday, Inc.) and The National Watercraft Collec- 
tion (co-published with International Marine Publishing Co.); and 
it collaborated with other federal agencies on books of mutual 
interest, of which recent examples are Worthy of the Nation and 
The Federal City: Plans and Realities, produced with the coopera- 
tion of the National Capital Planning Commission. 

Smithsonian Institution Press editors and designers continued to 
reap laurels in both federal and private competitions and exhibits 
for the exceptional quality of their productions. Nine members of 
the Press staff received 1976 National Association of Government 
Communicators Blue Pencil Awards, with four first, a second, and 
third prizes in four categories of federal publications. In addition, 
seven Smithsonian Institution Press publications were placed on 
exhibit in "Design Response," the Federal Design Council's first 
annual exhibition of outstanding graphic design work performed 
by federal agencies; two pieces were accepted for display in the 
annual exhibit of the Art Directors Club of Metropolitan Washing- 
ton, which embraces both governmental and commercial graphic 
design; and Official White House China was one of only twenty- 
five publications in the country accepted for the American Associa- 

270 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

tion of University Presses' 1976 Bookshow, which is toured 

During the year, production costs of 220 publications were 
funded by federal appropriations in the amount of $1,224,565; 10 
trade publications were supported wholly by Smithsonian trust 
funds in the amount of $292,826. The Press and the Superintendent 
of Documents shipped, on order and subscriptions, a total of 
6,691,995 publications including books, art catalogues, brochures, 
and miscellaneous items; 267 records were distributed. 

Smithsonian Magazine 

Smithsonian magazine joined in the celebration of our nation's Bi- 
centennial by publishing special articles throughout the year that 
presented thought-provoking ideas which should be considered 
within the next few decades. The magazine continued to project 
the spirit of the Institution to its nationwide audience. 

For the past fifteen months, Smithsonian magazine carried its 
readers from Lake Baikal to Singapore, introduced them to truckers 
in Alaska and tramps riding freight trains. The American art col- 
lection of John D. Rockefeller was viewed as closely as was the Elie 
Nadelman exhibition in the Smithsonian's own Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden. The Smithsonian joins the rest of the Insti- 
tution in presenting information on history, science, and the arts to 
the public from its vast store of knowledge. 

Along with continuing success in enriching the editorial content 
of the magazine, Smithsonian increased its membership from 
900,000 to 1,250,000. 

Public Service I 271 

Product Development reproduction of a "Counting House" inkwell used by 
nineteenth-century accountants; the center well is surrounded by water in 
which the quills rest, keeping them soft and pliable. 

Smithsonian Year • 7976 

Following the untimely death of Under Secretary Robert A. 
Brooks, the Secretary established a new position of Assistant Sec- 
retary for Administration, to which Mr. John F. Jameson, formerly 
the Institution's Budget Officer, was appointed, effective August 
15, 1976. 

The Institution's museums, galleries, research laboratories, and 
other program activities are served by a number of support activities 
and financial services which, while operating largely behind the 
scenes, made significant contributions to program achievements 
during the Bicentennial period. 

Organizations reporting to Mr. Richard L. Ault, Director of Sup- 
port Activities, included the Management Analysis Office, Office 
of Equal Opportunity, Office of Computer Services, Office of 
Facilities Planning and Engineering Services, Office of Personnel 
Administration, Office of Plant Services, Office of Printing and 
Photographic Services, Office of Protection Services, Office of Sup- 
ply Services, Contracts Office, and the Travel Services Office. 
During the year, significant improvements were made in Support 
Activities toward providing quality and timely services. A Manage- 
ment by Objectives program, implemented in the previous year, 
continued to supply participative, results-oriented, objective-setting 
and review processes. 

Mr. T. Ames Wheeler, Treasurer, continued his responsibilities 
for the financial assets and management of the Institution assisted 
by the Office of Programming and Budget, Accounting Division, 
Investment Accounting Division, Grants and Insurance Administra- 
tion Division, and the Business Management Office (which includes 
the Museum Shops, Product Development Program, and the Bel- 


New Museum Shop in the National Museum of Natural History offers a vari- 
ety of appropriate items for visitors to take home as mementos of their 
Smithsonian visit. 

mont Conference Center). During the year, revised procedures for 
the entire accounting system were under development to unify 
federal and trust fund accounting for greater efficiency in data 
collection and to provide more timely financial information to 
management at all levels. The Museum Shops opened new shops in 
the National Air and Space Museum, the Arts and Industries Build- 
ing, and in the West Court addition to the Natural History Building. 
Considerable expansion of the Smithsonian's mail order program 
occurred, stemming from new museum-related products and the 
availability of catalogues. 

The Smithsonian Institution Women's Council continued its 
important efforts to represent the women of the Institution and 
to promote their welfare. During the year, the Women's Council 
presented six programs concerning women's interests, with particu- 

274 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

lar emphasis on new laws covering credit, name change, the current 
standing of the Equal Rights Amendment, and a session on con- 

The Council's annual training seminar was devoted to the Smith- 
sonian's equal employment opportunity and personnel management 
programs, the status of women's programs in other agencies, EEO 
legislation, and regulations and credit for women. 

In addition, this year the Smithsonian Women's Council estab- 
lished a career training and development program, instituted for 
the purpose of acquainting members with helpful knowledge which 
would be conveyed to all Smithsonian employees. Courses were 
taken in assertiveness, career development, and administrative 

Administration I 275 

Former Secretary of State Dean Rusk (left) and Secretary of State Henry Kis- 
singer with "Peace" sculpture presented by the state of Georgia to the 
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars to mark the appointment 
of Mr. Rusk as a Trustee of the Center on April 5, 1976. 

Smithsonian Year • 1976 





Approaching its sixth anniversary, the Woodrow Wilson Inter- 
national Center for Scholars, recognized throughout the nation and 
the world as a scholarly institution of major importance, has become 
a distinctive, living memorial to a former president. 

The Center continued to commemorate, through its residential 
fellowship program of advanced research and communication, both 
the intellectual depth and the public concerns of Woodrow Wilson. 
Providing leadership for first-rate scholarship in the nation's capital, 
the Center embodies the humanistic, Wilsonian belief in a fruitful 
relationship between the world of learning and the world of public 

The Fellows 

The thirty-five fellows conducting individual research are the core 
of the Center. The quality and diversity of the fellows and their 
published works continue to grow. The number of applications from 
across the United States and around the world increases each year. 
As of September 1976, 197 fellowships had been awarded since the 
Center was established — about 60 percent to American scholars, the 
rest to applicants from some 32 countries. 


During 1976, at one of the regular Tuesday and Friday noontime 
discussion hours, one might have observed in conversation: the 
former commander-in-chief of nato; a former head of state from 
Latin America; a former foreign minister from Africa; the director 
of the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London; a pro- 
fessor of comparative literature and culture from Tokyo University; 
a state senator from Wisconsin; a theologian from the School of 
Theology at Claremont, California; and a professor of anthropology 
from Stanford University. In the current year, fellows included 
thirty-one American college professors from a variety of depart- 
ments in twenty-five different universities, chosen through open 

Drawing on the rich resources of the Library of Congress, Na- 
tional Archives, and other collections of materials often uniquely 
available in Washington, D.C., the fellows have pursued such varied 
research projects as: 

"The sponsor: his role and influence in American television." 

"History of attitudes toward death in western culture from the middle 

ages to the present." 
"Authority and inequality in comparative historical perspective." 
"A critical study of civic education as conceived by the founding fathers." 
"Comparative study of western civil and communist revolutionary des- 
potic cultures." 
"A history of the idea of poverty in nineteenth-century England." 
"History of Afro-American attitudes toward Africa." 
"The making of Saudi Arabia, 1902-1953." 
"A history of American trade unionism since 1945." 

"Intelligent citizen participation in the face of growing complexity and 
certain adverse effects of the media and the present political process." 
"A critical study of regionalism as used in the United States." 
"Renewable natural resources in an age of scarcity and climatic instability: 
interrelations of ecology and public policy." 

Among the distinguished guest scholars who shared in the life 
of the Center this year was Fernand Braudel, one of the most emi- 
nent historians of his generation. Director of the Maison des 
Sciences de 1'Homme in Paris, and author of the classic The Medi- 
terranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II (in 
two volumes), Braudel worked on a sequel to the first volume, 
Capitalism and Material Life, 1400-1800. 

278 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

The Program 

Fellows at the Center worked within three broadly defined scholarly 
divisions: Historical and Cultural Studies; Social and Political 
Studies; and Resources, Environment and Interdependence. A 
fourth division, the Kennan Institute.for Advanced Russian Studies, 
was established by decision of the Board of Trustees in December 
1974, with former Center fellow George Kennan as head of its 
academic advisory group and Dr. S. Frederick Starr as its secretary. 

The Kennan Institute has launched a program of fellowships and 
short-term grants, enabling leading scholars from this country and 
abroad to utilize the unique resources of the Washington area. 
Simultaneously, the Institute has organized conferences, colloquia, 
and seminars which bring together leading specialists from aca- 
demia, government, business, and the press to consider significant 
issues involving Russia, past and present. Three film series also have 
been arranged, at which little-known works of Soviet cinema are 
presented and discussed, often for the first time in this country. 

Like the Center as a whole, the Kennan Institute's policy is to 
receive and offer hospitality to those engaged in fundamental re- 
search anywhere in the world. To this end, it maintains regular 
scholarly contact with leading university centers for Russian 
studies in this country and with scholarly groups in Europe, Japan, 
and the U.S.S.R. As these contacts broaden, and as the fellowship 
and seminar programs gain momentum, the Center's new institute is 
expected to make a significant contribution to our understanding of 
the Soviet Union. 

The Center has no permanent faculty or restrictive departmental 
barriers within its interdisciplinary body. "Clusters" of scholars, 
however, often have formed around topics of major importance 
and mutual interest. For example, the problems of state and local 
government, of the ocean, food, the impact of the visual media 
(movies and television), and ethnicity have been subjects of in- 
formal groupings; and there is a continuing concern for studies of 
the institutions of American government. 

Recognizing the importance of Inter-American relations, as well 
as the special resources in Washington, D.C. for research in this 
area, in 1976 the Center prepared to embark on a new three-year 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars I 279 

During an evening lecture by Daniel Patrick Moynihan in May 1976, the 
speaker is questioned by Murrey Marder, Diplomatic Correspondent for the 
Washington Post. 

program in Latin American affairs. The program will bring together 
a group of Latin American scholars working individually on re- 
gional research. Programmatic focus for many of the meetings will 
be provided by a major study of United States-Latin American eco- 
nomic relationships, of which Dr. Abraham F. Lowenthal, director 
of the program at the Center, will be a principal author. 

A variety of seminars, conferences, and colloquia will complement 
the work under way and will involve a broad community of scholars, 

280 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

practitioners, and commentators. Special support for this program is 
expected from the Tinker, Ford, Rockefeller, and Kettering Founda- 
tions; the Rockefeller Brothers' Fund; the Organization of Ameri- 
can States; the United States Department of State; and the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

The Communicating 

The Center's effort to carry out its mandate to communicate with a 
wider public took a major step forward in October 1976, with the 
publication of the first issue of The Wilson Quarterly, a 160-page 
"national review of ideas and information." The Quarterly is de- 
signed to provide educated Americans with a continuing overview 
of scholarly thinking on "basic social, political, economic, and intel- 
lectual issues." The initial press run was 80,000 copies. 

The Quarterly's editors, led by Peter Braestrup, a distinguished 
and experienced journalist (Time, the New York Times, the Wash- 
ington Post) and former fellow, draw on the talents and judgments 
of the Center's fellows and former fellows, as well as on authorities 
at leading universities. The editors seek fresh thinking and clear 
writing from noted specialists across America and in major re- 
search centers overseas. 

The magazine contains five sections. First, there is a broad review 
of significant articles from a wide spectrum of some four hundred 
journals, ranging from Public Opinion Quarterly to Orbis to Renais- 
sance. Then come several essays on special topics, ranging in one 
issue from Soviet affairs to the American family. Each group of 
essays is reenforced by a review-essay of background books in the 
relevant field. A section devoted to "current books," on a variety of 
scholarly subjects, comes next, with listings of new books by fellows 
and former fellows. Special reports on current scholarly research 
in various fields and occasional reprints of significant articles or 
studies from the past complete the Quarterly's offerings. 

The magazine's initial publication was made possible by the 
assistance of the Smithsonian Institution and by grants from indi- 
viduals, foundations, and corporations. Its circulation and promo- 
tion effort is managed under contract by the Smithsonian magazine 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars I 281 

business staff. The Quarterly, like the Center itself, encourages di- 
versity of viewpoint and scholarly method. 

In still another effort to serve a broader public, the Center is pre- 
paring to publish a series of Guides for scholars to resources in the 
libraries and archives, both federal and private, in the Washington 
area. Each Guide will be prepared by a scholar who has done re- 
search in some of the Washington collections. The Center has 
received a grant from the Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Founda- 
tion for the printing of four of the Guides. The first one, covering 
the resources for Russian and Soviet studies, by Dr. Steven Grant, 
assistant professor of history and international relations at George 
Washington University, was nearly completed in 1976. Other 
Guides on Africa, the Caribbean, Latin America, and the resources 
for the study of film and television are planned for future 

In other forums, the fellows communicate the results of their 
research to each other, to fellow specialists, and to interested and 
concerned leaders of both public and private sectors in Washington 
and throughout the nation. 

A major goal of the Center is that each fellow's study project 
results in a published work, such as the book by former fellow 
Elliot Richardson, entitled The Creative Balance: Government, Poli- 
tics and the Individual in America's Third Century, which came out 
this year. Scores of magazine articles and monographs also emanate 
from work originating at the Center. 

Preluncheon discussions are held at noon every Tuesday and 
Friday, providing an opportunity for dialogue among the fellows and 
with distinguished guests from the Congress, from other parts of 
the government, and from the private sector. 

Late-afternoon colloquia on works in progress are led by fellows 
at some point in their stay here. Informed commentary, either by 
other fellows or by outside specialists, is invited, and critical dis- 
cussion centers on key ideas, with a view to improving and sharpen- 
ing the focus of the work. 

Evening dialogues, sustained by a grant from the Xerox Corpora- 
tion, are held on topics of major interest and importance every other 
week or so. From thirty to thirty-five guests with special interest in 
the topic are invited from leading scholarly and public institutions, 

282 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

and after dialogue among two or three specially qualified partici- 
pants, and dinner, the discussion is opened up to all the participants, 
who have included a number of Senators, Congressmen, cabinet and 
subcabinet officers, and specialists throughout the Washington 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars I 283 

South view of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts on the 

banks of the Potomac River. 

Smithsonian Year • 1976 



When Congress voted in 1958 to establish a national center for the 
performing arts in the city of Washington, it envisioned a vital insti- 
tution that would serve as a showcase for the finest programs of 
music, dance, and drama from this country and abroad; stimulate 
the integration of the arts with the American educational process; 
and serve as a catalyst for the advancement of the arts throughout 
the United States. In designating the Center as a living memorial to 
President Kennedy in 1964, Congress and the Executive Branch re- 
affirmed the desire that the institution become a major force for 
the enrichment of American life. 

It is both gratifying and encouraging that in only five years of 
actual operation, the Center has gained international recognition as 
one of the most successful performing arts institutions of its kind. 
Thousands of the world's foremost performing artists, writers, com- 
posers, conductors, choreographers, directors, and designers have 
contributed to a new creative environment; enthusiastically sup- 
portive audiences have been developed; and arts programs have 
been designed to reach into all areas of the country. 

Since the first preview performance of Leonard Bernstein's Mass, 
on September 6, 1971, nearly eight million people have attended 
more than 5,100 major performances, including 2,932 perform- 
ances of drama and musical comedy, 637 performances of dance, 
771 symphony concerts, 244 opera performances, 155 recitals, 132 


choral concerts, 82 concerts of chamber music, and 234 concerts 
of popular music. During the past year alone, audience attendance 
exceeded 1.75 million, an average of 85 percent of capacity, and 
made the Center the envy of the performing arts world. 

Performing Arts Programming 


The Center's fifth theater season proved its most challenging and 
successful to date. A generous grant from Xerox Corporation en- 
abled the Center, for the first time, to develop and produce an entire 
theatrical season, without reliance upon outside producers. Under 
the guidance of a distinguished advisory panel, headed by Arthur 
Schlesinger, Jr., an American Bicentennial Theater Season was 
organized to recognize outstanding achievement within the Ameri- 
can theater during the past 200 years. The series of plays provided 
an overview of the development of theater in this country and the 
development of American life and thought as they were reflected 
upon the stage. 

Included in the Bicentennial Theater Season were Thornton 
Wilder's The Skin of Our Teeth, starring Elizabeth Ashley, Alfred 
Drake, and Martha Scott; Percy MacKaye's The Scarecrow, with 
William Atherton, Barbara Baxley, and Leonard Frey; William 
Inge's Summer Brave, with Alexis Smith; Tennessee Williams's 
Sweet Bird of Youth, with Irene Worth and Christopher Walken; 
The Royal Family, by George S. Kaufman and Edna Ferber, starring 
Rosemary Harris, Eva Le Gallienne, and George Grizzard; Eugene 
O'Neill's Long Day's Journey Into Night, with Jason Robards, Zoe 
Caldwell, and Michael Moriarty; Rip Van Winkle, with Anthony 
Quayle; The Heiress, by Ruth and Augustus Goetz from Henry 
James's novel Washington Square, starring Jane Alexander and 
Richard Kiley; and Emmet Lavery's The Magnificent Yankee, star- 
ring James Whitmore and Audra Lindley. Irene Worth received 
Broadway's Tony Award for her shattering performance in Sweet 
Bird of Youth, and Ellis Rabb was similarly honored for his direc- 
tion of The Royal Family. 

The Center also produced and presented three plays by the major 
contemporary American playwright, Preston Jones. Separately en- 

286 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

titled The Last Meeting of the Knights of the White Magnolia, The 
Oldest Living Graduate and Lu Ann Hampton Laverty Oberlander 
and collectively termed A Texas Trilogy; the plays were presented 
in an unprecedented eleven-performance-per-week repertory and 
acclaimed by critics and audiences alike. The three productions were 
directed by Alan Schneider and presented by an acting ensemble, 
headed by Fred Gwynn and Diane Ladd. Trilogy broke previous 
Eisenhower Theater records with a total of 156 performances. 


The Center's success and the reputation of Washington audiences 
have prompted the nation's leading theatrical producers to seek out 
any available booking periods. Inasmuch as the "musical" is recog- 
nized as this country's most unique contribution to the performing 
arts, it was appropriate that the Center should play host to a series 
of new musical productions and major musical revivals during the 
Bicentennial year. 

Among the new productions appearing on the Opera House stage 
were Musical Jubilee, produced by The Theatre Guild, with a cast 
that included John Raitt, Tammy Grimes, and Cyril Ritchard; 
Harold Prince's production, Pacific Overtures, with music by 
Stephen Sondheim; and Rex, produced by Richard Adler, with Nicol 
Williamson as King Henry VIII and music by Richard Rodgers. 
Pearl Bailey closed her long show-business career with a farewell 
engagement of Hello, Dolly!, presented by Robert Cherin, and Zero 
Mostel recreated the role of Tevye in a splendid revival of Fiddler 
on the Roof, in which the Kennedy Center participated as a co- 
producer with The Shubert Organization and Nederlander Pro- 

A generous Bicentennial grant from the Prudential Insurance 
Company of America enabled the Center to develop and present a 
spirited musical celebration, Sing, America, Sing, which traced the 
history of the United States through its music. 


One of the most encouraging recent trends in the performing arts 
has been the increased public support of dance and the strengthen- 
ing of American dance companies. During its Bicentennial season, 
the Center presented return engagements of two of this country's 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 287 

foremost dance organizations, The American Ballet Theatre and 
the New York City Ballet. The acclaimed Alvin Ailey City Center 
Dance Theater also returned to the Opera House under the sponsor- 
ship of the Washington Performing Arts Society. 

In its role as a showcase for the presentation of outstanding per- 
forming organizations from other countries, the Center also spon- 
sored engagements of Britain's Royal Ballet, the Royal Danish 
Ballet, the Royal Winnipeg Ballet, and the Australian Ballet. 


The Center's 1975-1976 opera season offered a spectacular series 
of productions by five of the world's leading companies. During a 
fifteen-month period, the Center presented a total of seventy-seven 
performances of twenty-five different works. 

The Bolshoi Opera engagement, in July 1975, featured produc- 
tions of Boris Godnnov, War and Peace, Eugene Onegin, Pique 
Dame, The Gambler, and a contemporary work, The Dawns Are 
Quiet Here. The Berlin Opera followed in November with Lohen- 
grin, Tosca, and Cosi Fan Tutte. 

The New York City Opera's fifth annual Kennedy Center en- 
gagement included productions of The Ballad of Baby Doe, The 
Barber of Seville, Un Ballo in Maschera, La Boheme, Cavalleria 
Rusticana, I Pagliacci, and special performances of Lucrezia Borgia, 
with Beverly Sills singing the title role. 

With the combined assistance of the Italian Government, the 
Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation, Philip Morris, Gar- 
finckel's, Local 22 of the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage 
Employees, and the Metropolitan Opera Guild, the Center presented 
the first American engagement of the legendary Teatro alia Scala 
of Milan. Appearing only at the Center, La Scala treated capacity 
audiences to productions of Macbetto, La Boheme, Simon Boccane- 
gra, and La Cenerentola, and to a concert presentation of the Verdi 

Completing the season were Paris Opera productions of Otello, 
Le Nozze di Figaro and Faust. The Paris Opera Chorus and Orches- 
tra also presented two choral masterworks, The Damnation of 
Faust and Requiem, by Hector Berlioz. 

Other Center-sponsored musical events included a series of per- 
formances by the Philadelphia Orchestra; a Chamber Music Festi- 

288 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

val, featuring such performers as Isaac Stern, Pinchas Zukerman, 
Eugene Istomin, and Leonard Rose; and a memorable concert — 
tribute to W. C. Handy. 

Vitally important to the musical year were the scores of per- 
formances presented and sponsored by Washington arts organiza- 
tions. The Center's resident National Symphony Orchestra, under 
the direction of Antal Dorati, presented a season of 137 concerts. 
The Washington Performing Arts Society brought to the Concert 
Hall outstanding performances by major world orchestras and re- 
cital artists. The Opera Society of Washington presented three 
major productions: L'ltaliana in Algeri, Otello, and Thais. And, the 
Choral Arts Society, the Paul Hill Chorale, and the Oratorio Society 
of Washington performed many of the world's great choral works. 

The Center also welcomed independently presented productions 
of Scott Joplin's Treemonisha, John Philip Sousa's El Capitan, and 
Britain's D'Oyly Carte Opera Company. 


Operating within the Kennedy Center under a separate administra- 
tion, the American Film Institute has brought more than 600 films 
and nearly 100,000 moviegoers to the Center during the past year. 
The 224-seat afi Theater has become one of the world's most re- 
spected repertory film theaters, and its programs include retrospec- 
tives of the works of important filmmakers, the films of a particular 
country, and highlights of a certain period or genre. Among the 
1976 series were "Americana," the Soviet Silent Cinema, Opera on 
Film, new films from Egypt, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, and Iran, 
and series-tributes to William Wyler, Cary Grant, Gary Cooper, 
Carole Lombard, Fred Astaire, and Ginger Rogers. The afi also 
presented an educational film-lecture series and matinees of classic 
films for children. 

Appearing personally in connection with special film presenta- 
tions were such stars as James Stewart, Liv Ullman, and Cicely 
Tyson; directors, including Martin Scorsese, Elia Kazan, Satyajit 
Ray, Marcel Ophuls, Louis Malle, and Joan Micklin Silver; and 
producers Sam Spiegel and David Brown. 

More than 26,000 people attended a special Bicentennial Film 
Series presented by the National Park Service in the afi Theater 
each day from April 26th through Labor Day. In addition, the 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 289 

Theater hosted such special events as the Washington National 
Student Film Festival and the International Women's Film Festival. 
The afi Theater is supported by ticket revenue, a major grant 
from the Cafritz Foundation, and fund-raising benefits organized by 
the Fans of afi. 


A glittering array of talent gathered on January 25, 1976, to honor 
Center-Chairman Roger L. Stevens in a "Bicentennial Salute to the 
Performing Arts." Among those who performed on the Opera 
House stage, before an audience that included President and Mrs. 
Ford, were Marian Anderson, Pearl Bailey, Carol Channing, Doug- 
las Fairbanks, Jr., Henry Fonda, Tammy Grimes, Robert Hooks, 
Judith Jamison, Priscilla Lopez, Martha Scott, Isaac Stern, Edward 
Villella, Allegra Kent, and Pinchas Zukerman. The gala perform- 
ance benefitted the Center's Performing Arts Programming Fund. 

Public Service Programming 

In addition to its performance programming, the Center has under- 
taken an extensive program of educational and public service activi- 
ties, and during the fifteen-month period ending September 30, 
1976, nearly one million people attended 1,491 different free events. 
Symposia, focusing upon all areas of the performing arts and draw- 
ing upon the expertise of many of the performers appearing at the 
Center, are presented on a regular basis by the Friends of the Ken- 
nedy Center, in cooperation with the National Park Service, the 
National Symphony Orchestra, and the American Film Institute. 
The Friends also sponsor weekly demonstration-lectures that ex- 
plain the workings of the Concert Hall's Filene Memorial Organ 
and feature recitals by Washington-area organists. 

The Center's 1975 holiday festival, "The Twelve Days of Christ- 
mas," featured forty free programs staged throughout the building. 
The festival, made possible by the continued support of Mobil Oil 
Corporation, included the "Messiah Sing In," one of the most popu- 
lar annual events. "The Spring Festival of American Music," spon- 
sored by McDonald's Corporation, offered thirty-three free concerts 
representing the spectrum of America's musical heritage. 

290 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

The Center's Bicentennial exhibition, "America on Stage: 200 
Years of Performing Arts," will continue through December 31, 
1976. Sponsored by a grant from IBM Corporation, "America on 
Stage" occupies more than 20,000 square feet of the Roof Terrace 
level and focuses upon the evolution of American drama, music, 
and dance from the colonial period to the present. Located in the 
exhibition area is a 230-seat theater in the form of a replica of a 
Chautauqua Tent. Since the exhibition opened in January, the Tent 
has housed more than one hundred free performances, including a 
special Center-sponsored summer series, Three Portraits in Reper- 
tory by Eugenia Rawls. 

Free performances are frequently presented at the Center in con- 
junction with regular programing activities. During September and 
October 1975, the Center collaborated with the National Sym- 
phony, the Washington Performing Arts Society, the Smithsonian 
Institution, and the Library of Congress to produce a three-week 
festival and musicological conference celebrating the monumental 
career of Joseph Haydn. In addition to a major series of Haydn per- 
formances in the Opera House and Concert Hall, ten of the twelve 
Haydn Masses were presented to the public in the Grand Foyer. 

The National Music Council is currently sponsoring an eighteen- 
month-long series of free State Day concerts. The series celebrates 
music written by composers from each of the fifty states and the 
District of Columbia and features programs performed in the 
Grand Foyer and Concert Hall by solo artists and musical groups 
from each state. Termed "A Bicentennial Parade of American 
Music," the series is administered by the National Federation of 
Music Clubs and funded by a grant from exxon. 

The Center also hosts Mobil Oil Corporation's "National Town 
Meeting" series. The National Town Meetings provide a unique 
opportunity for direct interaction between the public and national 
policy- and opinion-makers. 


From July 1, 1975, through September 30, 1976, 166,833 tickets for 
regular Center performances were distributed at half-price through 
the Specially Priced Ticket Program. This Program was designed by 
the Center to make its performances accessible to all, regardless of 
economic circumstances, and is available to students, the handi- 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 291 

capped, senior citizens, military personnel in the lower grades, and 
low-income groups. The sale of these Specially Priced Tickets repre- 
sented a total price-reduction of $841,041 for the fifteen-month 


In 1973, the Center joined with the Department of Health, Educa- 
tion and Welfare to establish the national Alliance for Arts Educa- 
tion (aae). The aae is dedicated to incorporating the arts into the 
educational experience of each child and to fostering greater co- 
operation between established arts organizations and educational 
institutions, aae committees have been established within each 
state to assist in the implementation of specific state arts programs. 

During March 1976, the aae sponsored a six-day Youth Music 
Festival with performances throughout the Center. Thirty-five stu- 
dent groups, representing twenty-one states, performed for a total 
audience that exceeded ten thousand. The aae also sponsors arts 
workshops for teachers and school administrators and administers 
an ongoing internship program designed to acquaint students with 
basic arts administration skills through involvement in Center 

Currently, the aae is presenting a twenty-eight-week Children's 
Arts Series, with specially designed children's programs performed 
at the Center by professional groups. The programs are participa- 
tory in nature and include music, dance, theater, mime, poetry, and 
puppetry. Performances are offered free of charge on Fridays and 
Saturdays and are designed to reach a total audience of more than 
thirty-six thousand children during the twenty-eight-week period. 
The Series is intended to culminate in a major Children's Arts Festi- 
val in 1977. 


The American College Theatre Festival, presented annually by the 
Kennedy Center and the Alliance for Arts Education, provides 
recognition to the 2,300 college and university theaters throughout 
the country and the more than 50,000 students enrolled in formal 
classes in theater arts. More than 10,000 college and university 
productions are presented in the United States each year, and the 
Festival seeks to honor the best of these, strengthen the rest, and 

292 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

encourage students everywhere to take an active part in theater as 
writers, designers, performers, directors, and/or audiences. 

From a series of regional festivals in which more than 350 schools 
participated, seven productions were selected for presentation in a 
national showcase at the Center in April. The Festival Program 
also included special awards designed to recognize and encourage 
individual excellence in performing and playwriting. In its eighth 
year, the Theatre Festival was sponsored by amoco Oil Company 
and produced by the American Theatre Association. 

Friends of the Kennedy Center 

Organized as the Center's official auxiliary in 1966, the Friends of 
the Kennedy Center have established an extraordinary record of 
service to all phases of Center operations. 

Long before the Center opened, the Friends staffed a visitor infor- 
mation trailer at the construction site and sent speakers into all 
parts of the country to explain and promote the Center project. The 
Friends co-sponsored the first American College Theatre Festival 
and in so doing helped to establish one of the Center's most sig- 
nificant educational traditions. Before the Center had taken on a 
recognizable structural form, the Friends were actively organizing 
arts projects for Washington-area school children and sparking the 
imagination of children through the "Tom Sawyer" construction- 
fence-painting project. 

Under the chairmanship of Mrs. Polk Guest, the Friends now 
number nearly ten thousand from all fifty states and several foreign 
countries. Included in the membership are 300 active volunteers 
whose combined contribution to the Center totals nearly 80,000 
hours each year. The volunteer office, which serves as a major in- 
formation and assistance center for visitors, is staffed 365 days a 
year from 9:30 a.m. until 9:00 p.m. More than 400,000 visitors par- 
ticipate each year in tours of the building conducted by volunteer 
guides. For the benefit of foreign visitors, tours are available in 
Spanish, German, Dutch, French, Italian, and Hebrew. 

The Friends also administer the Center's Specially Priced Ticket 
Program, manage its souvenir stands, coordinate special arrange- 
ments for handicapped visitors and theatergoers, provide staff as- 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 293 

sistance to the Center's mail-order department, assist with logistics 
for the National Symphony Orchestra's children's concerts, and 
respond to tens of thousands of written requests for Center infor- 
mation. During the past year, the Friends have also provided invalu- 
able assistance in staffing the "America on Stage" exhibition each 
day from 10:15 a.m. until 8:15 p.m. 

The Friends work closely with the National Park Service, which is 
responsible for maintaining the Center as a national memorial, and, 
from July 1, 1975, through September 30, 1976, the Friends and 
Park Service personnel helped to provide information assistance and 
hospitality to more than 5.8 million visitors. 


The Center receives no Federal funding for its programming, public 
service, and administrative expenses, which totaled $15,639,582 for 
the twelve-month period ending June 30, 1976, and is solely de- 
pendent upon revenue from theater operations, concessions income, 
and private contributions. In addition, the Center reimburses the 
National Park Service a pro-rata share of annual maintenance costs, 
on the basis of a formula devised by independent accountants for 
the House Public Works Committee. For the period July 1, 1975, 
through June 30, 1976, this reimbursement amounted to $485,440. 

Grants from the American business community enabled the 
Center to develop one of the most successful Bicentennial efforts in 
the nation. In a special White House gathering on July 8, 1975, 
President Ford praised the Center's Bicentennial programming and 
paid tribute to the generosity of its corporate sponsors. Corporate 
grants specifically designated for Bicentennial projects were received 
from amoco Oil Company, exxon Corporation, ibm Corporation, 
McDonald's Corporation, Mobil Oil Corporation, Philip Morris, the 
Prudential Insurance Company of America, and Xerox Corporation. 

During the past fifteen months, the Center has also received sub- 
stantial aid from the following corporations and foundations: 
American Broadcasting Companies, Inc.; Alcoa Foundation; Ameri- 
can Telephone and Telegraph Company; Atlantic Richfield Com- 
pany; the Louis D. Beaumont Foundation; Bethlehem Steel Corpora- 
tion; the Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation; Canteen Cor- 

294 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

As President Ford and Bicentennial Commission Director John Warner look 
on, Japanese Prime Minister Takeo Miki presents a check for $3 million to 
Roger L. Stevens, Chairman of the Kennedy Center, to construct a 600-seat 
Studio Theater in the Kennedy Center. The Theater will be part of Japan's 
Bicentennial gift to the people of the United States and, in Mr. Miki's words, 
"a permanent and living link between our two cultures." (Photo credit: Wash- 
ington Post) 

poration; CBS Foundation, Inc.; the George Gund Foundation; the 
Charles E. Merrill Trust; Public Welfare Foundation, Inc.; William 
Randolph Hearst Foundation; the Redskin Foundation; the Rocke- 
feller Foundation; the Shubert Foundation; and United States Steel 

Bicentennial Gifts 

During the White House ceremony on June 30, 1976, Japanese 
Prime Minister Takeo Miki presented to the Kennedy Center a cash 
gift of $3 million, designated for the completion of the Center's 
Studio Theatre. This Bicentennial gift from the government and 

■ MB 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 295 

people of Japan to the people of the United States will provide the 
Center with a 600-seat facility designed for chamber music, experi- 
mental drama, and poetry. The Theater located on the Roof Terrace 
level, is expected to be completed in 1978. 

Other national gifts included a bronze and stone sculpture, Don 
Quixote, by Aurelio Teno, presented by King Juan Carlos I of 
Spain; a white porcelain relief by Inge-Lise Koefoed, presented by 
Queen Margrethe of Denmark; a 4,600-year-old alabaster vase 
from the government of Egypt, presented by Mrs. Anwar Sadat; and 
two tapestries, "Poem to Fire I and II," by Leonardo Nierman, pre- 
sented by the government of Mexico. 

Board of Trustees 

Although organizationally a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, 
the Center is administered separately by a 45-member Board of 
Trustees composed of thirty members appointed by the President of 
the United States to ten-year overlapping terms and fifteen mem- 
bers ex officio from pertinent government agencies, the Senate, and 
the House of Representatives. 

On October 5, 1976, President Ford announced the reappointment 
of Roger L. Stevens and Jack J. Valenti and named as new Center 
trustees Mrs. Howard H. Baker, Jr., Robert S. Carter, Orval Hansen, 
Mrs. Bob Hope, and John G. Spatuzza. 

After serving the Center for eighteen years as Trustee and Gen- 
eral Counsel, Ralph E. Becker resigned from the Board to assume 
new duties as United States Ambassador to Honduras. 

Members of the Board of Trustees as of October 20, 1976, are as 

Roger L. Stevens, Chairman Abe Fortas 

Edward Aquirre Peter H. B. Frelinghuysen 

Mrs. Howard H. Baker, Jr. J. William Fulbright 

Daniel J. Boorstin Leonard H. Goldenson 

J. Carter Brown R. Philip Hanes, Jr. 

Robert S. Carter Orval Hansen 

Mrs. Edward Finch Cox Mrs. Rebekah Harkness 

Marvin L. Esch Mrs. Paul H. Hatch 

Gary Everhardt Mrs. Bob Hope 

Mrs. J. Clifford Folger Frank N. Ikard 

296 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Edward M. Kennedy Mrs. Stephen E. Smith 

Thomas H. Kuchel John G. Spatuzza 

Melvin R. Laird Henry Strong 

Gustave L. Levy William Hammond Thomas 

David Mathews Frank Thompson, Jr. 

Mrs. Michael J. Mansfield Benjamin A. Trustman 

Mrs. J. Willard Marriott John V. Tunney 

Robert I. Millonzi Jack J. Valenti 

Charles H. Percy Walter E. Washington 

Mrs. Donna Stone Pesch Lew R. Wasserman 

John Richardson, Jr. Mrs. Jack Wrather 

S. Dillon Ripley II Mrs. George A. Garrett, 

Teno Roncalio Honorary Trustee 

Mrs. Jouett Shouse 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 297 

The National Gallery of Art's East Building between Third and Fourth Streets 
on the Mall is expected to open in 1978. (Photo credit: Stewart Bros., Inc.) 

Smithsonian Year • 1976 



The National Gallery of Art, although formally established as a 
bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, is an autonomous and sepa- 
rately administered organization. It is governed by its own Board 
of Trustees, the statutory members of which are the Chief Justice of 
the United States, Chairman; the Secretary of State; the Secretary 
of the Treasury; and the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
all ex officio; and five general trustees. Paul Mellon continued as 
president of the Gallery and John Hay Whitney as vice president. 
The other general trustees continuing to serve were Carlisle H. 
Humelsine and Dr. Franklin D. Murphy. In September 1975, Mr. 
Stoddard M. Stevens resigned after eight years as a trustee; Mr. 
John R. Stevenson of New York City was elected to succeed him. 

During the fifteen-month period ending September 30, 1976, the 
Gallery counted 2,210,813 visitors. 

A number of important works of art were acquired. The most 
significant purchase was the painting Lavender Mist by Jackson 
Pollock. Done in 1950, this work is deemed one of the key works 
of the artist's classical period. It will be displayed to the public when 
the East Building is opened in 1978. Notable among paintings do- 
nated were Copley's portrait of Harrison Gray and Tavern Scene 
by the Flemish artist David Teniers II. 

Eight works of sculpture were added to the collection, including 
Clodion's spirited terra-cotta model for the famous marble group 
Poetry and Music in the Kress Collection and Elie Nadelman's fine 
plaster relief, Two Nudes. 

Among the 634 works of graphic art acquired were 51 drawings, 


including an Ingres portrait and Bird Perched on a Branch with 
Fruit by Mantegna, 17 Homer watercolors, and prints by Altdorfer, 
Gainsborough, Delacroix, Pissarro, and de Kooning. A major dona- 
tion of 160 prints, 30 drawings, and 2 illustrated books by the most 
prominent contemporary American artists was added to the Gal- 
lery's modern collection. 

Twelve exhibitions were offered by the Gallery during the period. 
"Master Paintings from The Hermitage and The State Russian 
Museum" afforded viewers a selection of thirty of the old masters 
as well as a dozen works by nineteenth-century Russian artists little 
known to Americans. A small but representative display of Goya's 
paintings in the Prado marked the visit of King Juan Carlos to the 
United States. 

Two major exhibitions were mounted after years of gestation as 
the Gallery's contribution to the Bicentennial. The first, "The Euro- 
pean Vision of America," done in conjunction with the Cleveland 
Museum of Art, sought to convey the impact of the discovery and 
opening of the Western Hemisphere on the visual arts of Europe 
from the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries. The second ex- 
hibition, "The Eye of Thomas Jefferson," in a sense the reverse 
of the first, surveyed the impact of the classical and European heri- 
tage of art, architecture, literature, and music on Jefferson, that 
most nearly omniscient of the Founding Fathers. A full list of 
exhibitions is noted at the close of this section. 

From its collections, the Gallery made loans to thirty-nine exhibi- 
tions at fifty-two institutions including fourteen abroad. Among 
works lent were seventy-seven paintings, four sculptures, ninety- 
six graphics, two oriental rugs, and one tapestry. 

The Department of Extension Programs continued to make prog- 
ress in revising existing audiovisual materials and developed and 
field-tested two new formats designed to enhance the classroom 
teaching of art history. These included texts, cassettes, slides, film, 
and reproductions. Total bookings of all programs were 35,608, an 
increase, on an annual basis, of 9 percent. The total estimated 
audience in all fifty states and foreign countries was 3,033,127. 
Another educational program, Art and Man, published in coopera- 
tion with Scholastic Magazines, Inc., reached over 3,500 classrooms 
in every state. 

Total attendance at talks given by the Gallery's Education De- 

300 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

partment and at the programs presented in the auditorium was 
131,654. These included the regularly scheduled auditorium lectures 
and films; the Introduction to the Collection, the Tour of the Week, 
and Painting of the Week talks; as well as special introductory 
presentations keyed to three of the exhibitions. There were thirty- 
three guest lecturers including the twenty-fourth annual Andrew W. 
Mellon Lecturer in the Fine Arts, Peter von Blanckenhagen, who 
gave a series of six lectures entitled "Aspects of Classical Art." 
Other distinguished scholars who lectured included Rosamond 
Bernier, Philip Hofer, and Sir Francis Watson, the Kress Professor 
in Residence. 

The Conservation staff undertook major restoration on twelve 
paintings and minor treatment on fifty. A major research project on 
all the Gallery's twenty-three Rembrandts was initiated and will 
continue for several years. The Chief Conservator accompanied the 
return of the "Exhibition of Archaeological Finds" to the People's 
Republic of China. Important work was also performed on the 
graphics and textile collections. 

The Research Project at the Carnegie-Mellon Institute of Re- 
search continued the study of the properties of both natural and 
synthetic varnishes and solvents therefor, and produced several 
publications. Additional projects dealt with deteriorating effects 
of light on artists' materials including yarns used for repairing 
tapestries. Work continued on ten monographs on artists' pigments. 

The most noteworthy acquisition of the Library was the collection 
of nearly five hundred volumes belonging to Wolfgang Stechow and 
donated by Mrs. Stechow. More than 4,000 other books and 
pamphlets were received. The Photographic Archives acquired over 
165,000 photographs, of which 108,869 were purchased through 
funds donated by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation. 

The sales facilities, including special catalogue desks at exhibi- 
tions, handled 343,768 over-the-counter orders and 6,689 mail 

In the Music Program, forty-one concerts were presented in the 
East Garden Court. The National Gallery Orchestra supplied the 
music at the eighteenth-century fireworks that inaugurated "The 
Eye of Thomas Jefferson" exhibition in June and represented the 
District of Columbia in the Parade of the States series at the Ken- 
nedy Center. In a closing salute to the Jefferson exhibition, the 

National Gallery of Art I 301 

Cafe opened in June 1976 in the Concourse beneath the Plaza, both of which 
will connect the new East Building with the present National Gallery of Art. 

Orchestra Sinfonica Scarlatti di Napoli performed in the East 
Garden Court as an official gift of the Government of Italy. 

The period under review witnessed impressive developments on 
the construction site to the east of the National Gallery's original 
building. In the summer of 1975, the East Building appeared little 
more than half completed; but by the end of the summer of 1976, 
all the exterior walls had risen to their full height and were covered 
with marble, and the giant frame for the skylight over the central 
court was in place. In addition, the construction of the Concourse 
linking the two buildings was completed, the Plaza above it was 
paved, and the Gallery grounds were relandscaped to Fourth Street. 
In late June, the public was welcomed to the 600-seat Cafe/Buffet 
in the Concourse; the new sales area offering a wide choice of art 
books was opened at the end of August. During the fifteen months, 

302 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation made grants in support of this 
expansion program totalling $10 million. 

During the spring of 1976, rapid progress was made in remodel- 
ing of the Fourth Street entrance to the original Gallery building 
with a new east doorway and a Main Floor balcony overlooking the 
Plaza and the Lobby. A large Aubusson tapestry based on Jean 
Arp's Aubette mural was given by the Collector's Committee and 
displayed on the landing of the escalator leading to the Concourse. 
This was the first work of art commissioned and completed in con- 
nection with the new building program. 


26 Lithographs Printed at the Tamarind Workshop, Los Angeles 
Continued from the previous fiscal year through July 9, 1975. 

Jacques Callot: Prints & Related Drawings 

Continued from the previous fiscal year through September 14, 1975. 

Pennsylvania German Craftsmanship — 18th and 19th Centuries 
Watercolor renderings from the Index of American Design 
July 11, 1975, through January 25, 1976. 

Master Paintings from The Hermitage and The State Russian Museum 
July 30 through September 9, 1975. 

Winslow Homer (1836-1910) : Watercolors 
September 28 through December 14, 1975. 

The European Vision of America 

December 7, 1975, through February 16, 1976. 

Recent Acquisitions of Printed Portraits: Sixteenth-Eighteenth Centuries 
January 26 through June 6, 1976. 

Goya in the Prado 

May 6 through 31, 1976. 

The Triumph of Reason and Order over Chaos and War: Eighteenth- 
Century French Fireworks Spectacle 
June 1, 1976. 

The Eye of Thomas Jefferson 

June 5 through September 6, 1976. 

Fireworks/Feux d'Artifices: Prints and Watercolors of French Fireworks 
from the 17th to the 19th Century 
June 10 through September 6, 1976. 

Morris Louis: Major Themes & Variations 

September 12, 1976, through the end of the fiscal year. 

National Gallery of Art I 303 



The Chief Justice of the United States 

Warren E. Burger, Chairman 
The Secretary of State 

Henry A. Kissinger 
The Secretary of the Treasury 

William E. Simon 
The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 

S. Dillon Ripley 


Carlisle H. Humelsine 
Paul Mellon 
Franklin D. Murphy 
John R. Stevenson 
John Hay Whitney 

304 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Smithsonian Year • 1976 

1. Members of the Smithsonian Council, Boards, page 306 
and Commissions, September 30, 1976 

2. Smithsonian Special Foreign Currency Program Research 312 
Supported from July 1, 1975, through September 30, 1976 

3. National Museum Act Grants Awarded, July 1, 1975, 314 
through September 30, 1976 

4. Progress on Building Construction, Restoration, 317 
and Renovation 

5. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press, 319 
July 1, 1975, through September 30, 1976 

6. Publications of the Staff of the Smithsonian Institution 332 
and Its Subsidiaries, July 1, 1975, through 

September 30, 1976 

7. Academic Appointments, July 1, 1975, 411 
through September 30, 1976 

8. Smithsonian Associates Membership, July 1, 1975, 425 
through September 30, 1976 

9. List of Donors to the Smithsonian Institution, 434 
July 1, 1975, through September 30, 1976 

10. List of Volunteers Who Served the Smithsonian 488 
Institution, July 1, 1975, through September 30, 1976 

11. Visitors to the Smithsonian Institutions, July 1, 1975, 511 
through September 30, 1976 

12. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution and Its Subsidiaries, 512 
September 30, 1976 


APPENDIX 1. Members of the Smithsonian Council, Boards, 
and Commissions, September 30, 1976 

Smithsonian Institution Board of Regents 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, Chancellor 

Nelson A. Rockefeller, Vice President of the United States 

Frank E. Moss, Member of the Senate 

Henry M. Jackson, Member of the Senate 

Hugh Scott, Member of the Senate 

George H. Mahon, Member of the House of Representatives 

Elford A. Cederberg, Member of the House of Representatives 

Sidney R. Yates, Member of the House of Representatives 

John Paul Austin, citizen of Georgia 

John Nicholas Brown, citizen of Rhode Island 

William A. M. Burden, citizen of New York 

Murray Gell-Mann, citizen of California 

Robert F. Goheen, citizen of New Jersey 

Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of Washington, D.C. 

A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., citizen of Pennsylvania 

Thomas J. Watson, Jr., citizen of Connecticut 

James E. Webb, citizen of Washington, D.C. 

Executive Committee, Board of Regents 

Warren E. Burger, Chancellor of the Board of Regents 

William A. M. Burden 

Caryl P. Haskins 

James E. Webb, Chairman 

The Smithsonian Council 

Dr. Roger D. Abrahams, Chairman, Department of English, Professor of Eng- 
lish and Anthropology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 

Professor George A. Bartholomew, Department of Zoology, University of 
California, Los Angeles, California 90024. 

Dr. Milton W. Brown, The Graduate School and University Center, City Uni- 
versity of New York, 33 West 42nd Street, New York, New York 10036. 

Dr. Reid A. Bryson, Director, Institute for Environmental Studies, University 
of Wisconsin-Madison, 1225 West Dayton Street, Madison, Wisconsin 53706. 

Dr. Frederick H. Burkhardt, President Emeritus, American Council of Learned 
Societies, RFD 1, Bennington, Vermont 05201. 

Professor Archie F. Carr, Jr., Department of Biology, University of Florida, 
Gainesville, Florida 32601. 

Professor Carl W. Condit, Center for Urban Affairs, Northwestern University, 
2040 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60201. 

Mrs. Camille W. Cook, Associate Dean, University of Alabama School of Law, 
Box 1435, University of Alabama 35486. 

306 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Mrs. Anne d'Harnoncourt, Curator, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Parkway at 
26th Street, P.O. Box 7646, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106. 

Professor A. Hunter Dupree, Department of History, Brown University, Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island 02912. 

Professor Fred R. Eggan, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, 
1126 East 59th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60601. 

Dr. Murray Gell-Mann, California Institute of Technology, 1201 East Cali- 
fornia Avenue, Pasadena, California 91109. 

Dr. Peter C. Goldmark, Goldmark Communications Corporation, One Com- 
munication Plaza, Stamford, Connecticut 06905. 

Dr. Frank B. Golley, Executive Director, Institute of Ecology, The Rockhouse, 
University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30601. 

Professor Stephen Jay Gould, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138. 

Dr. David Hawkins, Director, Mountain View Center for Environmental Edu- 
cation, University of Colorado, 1511 University Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 

Professor Nathan I. Huggins, Department of History, Columbia University, 
New York, New York 10027. 

Dr. Giles W. Mead, Director, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, 
900 Exposition Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90007. 

Dr. Ruth Patrick, Chairman of the Board, The Academy of Natural Sciences, 
19th and Parkway, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103. 

Dr. Gordon N. Ray, President, John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, 
90 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10016. 

Mr. Harold Rosenberg, do New Yorker Magazine, 25 West 43rd Street, New 
York, New York 10036. 

Professor Carl E. Sagan, Director, Laboratory of Planetary Studies, Space 
Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850. 

Mr. Andre Schiffrin, Managing Director, Pantheon Books, 201 East 50th 
Street, New York, New York 10022. 

Mrs. Barbara W. Tuchman, 875 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10021. 

Archives of American Art Board of Trustees 

Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth, Chairman 

Irving F. Burton, President 

Mrs. Nancy B. Negley, Vice President 

Mrs. E. Bliss Parkinson, Vice President 

Henry DeF. Baldwin, Secretary 

Joel S. Ehrenkranz, Treasurer 

Edwin Bergman 

Mrs. John L. Bradley 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn 

James Humphry III 

Miss Milka Iconomoff 

Gilbert H. Kinney 

Howard W. Lipman 
Harold O. Love 
Russell Lynes 
Richard Manoogian 
Porter A. McCray 
Abraham Melamed 
Mrs. Dana M. Raymond 
Edward M. M. Warburg 
George H. Waterman III 
S. Dillon Ripley, ex officio 
Charles Blitzer, ex officio 

Center for the Study of Man 

National Anthropological Film Center Advisory Council 

Dr. Margaret Mead, The American Museum of Natural History, New York. 
Mrs. Roma Crocker, Washington, D.C. 

Dr. William H. Crocker, Associate Curator of South American Ethnology, 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards, and Commissions I 307 

Dr. Gordon Gibson, Curator of African Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution. 

Dr. Edward Hall, Professor of Anthropology, Northwestern University. 

Dr. Paul Hockings, Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Illinois 
at Chicago Circle. 

Mr. Matthew Huxley, National Institute of Mental Health. 

Dr. Jay Ruby, President, Society for the Anthropology of Visual Communica- 
tion, do Temple University, Philadelphia. 

Dr. George Spindler, Professor of Anthropology, Stanford. University. 

Mrs. Marion Stirling, Washington, D.C. 

Dr. Sol Tax, Professor of Anthropology, University of Chicago. 

Dr. Fuller Torrey, National Institute of Mental Health. 

Mr. Carroll Williams, Director, Anthropology Film Center, Santa Fe. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 
Board of Trustees 

Daniel P. Moynihan, Chairman* Anne d'Harnoncourt 

Leigh B. Block, Vice-Chairman** Thomas M. Evans 

H. Harvard Arnason Sydney Lewis*** 

Theodore E. Cummings Dorothy C. Miller*** 

Honorable Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, ex officio 
Honorable S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 

* Reelected at meeting of Board of Trustees, May 12, 1976. 
** Elected at meeting of Board of Trustees, May 12, 1976. 
*** Appointed at meeting of Board of Trustees, May 12, 1976. 

Horticultural Advisory Committee 

S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, ex officio. 

Mr. James R. Buckler, Horticulturist, Smithsonian Institution. 

Dr. Robert Baker, Professor of Horticulture, University of Maryland. 

Mrs. Frances Patteson-Knight, Lay Horticulturist, McLean, Virginia. 

Mr. Jimmie L. Crowe, Assistant Director, U.S. Botanic Gardens. 

Dr. Robert Read, Curator, Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany. 

Dr. Russell Seibert, Director, Longwood Gardens, Kennett Square, Pennsyl- 

Mrs. Belva Jensen, Director, Division of Biological Sciences, Charles County 
Community College. 

Mr. Carlton Lees, Vice President, New York Botanic Gardens. 

Mr. Lester Collins, Landscape Architect, Washington, D.C. 

Mrs. S. Dillon Ripley, Orchidologist, Washington, D.C. 
Dr. Robert Read, Curator, Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany. 
Mr. Paul Desautels, Orchidologist and Curator, Smithsonian Institution, De- 
partment of Mineralogy. 
Mr. James R. Buckler, Horticulturist, Smithsonian Institution. 
Mr. August A. Dietz IV, Greenhouse Manager. 

* Established by the Secretary in September 1975. This Subcommittee meets approxi- 
mately every other month. 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 
Members of the Board of Trustees are given on page 296. 

308 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

National Air and Space Museum Advisory Board 


S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Chairman. 
Jefferson W. Cochran, Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Trans- 
Brigadier General James L. Collins, Department of the Army. 
Vice Admiral Forrest S. Petersen, Department of the Navy. 
Brigadier General William C. Norris, Department of the Air Force. 
Rear Admiral Robert H. Scarborough, United States Coast Guard. 
Herbert J. Rowe, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
Brigadier General Phillip Shutler, United States Marine Corps. 


Mrs. O. A. Beech, Wichita, Kansas. 

Lieutenant General William E. Hall, USAF (Ret), Palm Bay, Florida. 

Lieutenant General Elwood R. Quesada, USAF (Ret), Washington, D.C. 

National Air and Space Museum Visiting Committee 

Dr. Alexander H. Flax, President, Institute of Defense Analysis. 

Dr. Gerald K. O'Neill, Professor of Physics, Princeton University. 

Mr. Russell L. Schweickart, Director, User Affairs, National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration. 

Dr. Leon T. Silver, Professor of Geology, California Institution of Technology. 

Lieutenant General James T. Stewart, USAF, Commander, Aeronautical Sys- 
tems Division. 

Dr. Richard T. Whitcomb, Head, Transonic Aerodynamics Branch, Langley 
Research Center. 

National Collection of Fine Arts Commission 

George B. Tatum, Chairman 

Otto Wittmann, Vice Chairman 

S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary 

Mrs. Elizabeth Brook Blake 

Thomas S. Buechner 

David E. Finley 

Martin Friedman 

Lloyd Goodrich 

Walker Hancock 

R. Philip Hanes, Jr. 

Bartlett H. Hayes, Jr. 


Paul Mellon 
Stow Wengenroth 

August Heckscher 
Thomas C. Howe 
Mrs. Jaquelin H. Hume 
David Lloyd Kreeger 
Abram Lerner, ex officio 
Mrs. Doris M. Magowan 
Henry P. Mcllhenny 
Ogden M. Pleissner 
Harold Rosenberg 
Charles H. Sawyer 
Mrs. Otto Spaeth 

Alexander Wetmore 
Andrew Wyeth 

National Gallery of Art 
Members of the Board of Trustees are given on page 304. 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards, and Commissions I 309 

National Portrait Gallery Commission 

John Nicholas Brown, Chairman Katie Louchheim 

Ralph Ellison Barry Bingham, Sr. 

David E. Finley Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of 
Wilmarth Sheldon Lewis the United States, ex officio 

Robert L. McNeil, Jr. S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary, 
Andrew Oliver Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 

E. P. Richardson J. Carter Brown, Director, National 
Robert Hilton Smith Gallery of Art, ex officio 

Office of International Programs, 

Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program Advisory Councils 


Dr. Klaus Baer Dr. Nancie Gonzalez (observer) 

Professor Joseph W. Elder Professor Henry S. Robinson 

Dr. William Fitzhugh Dr. Bernard Wailes 


Dr. Felix Chayes Dr. William Melson 

Dr. Henry Faul Professor Thornton Page 

Dr. Paul Hodge Dr. Victor Szebehely 

Dr. William H. Klein Dr. Louis Walter 


Dr. Edwin Colbert Dr. James C. Hickman (observer) 

Professor Kenneth W. Cooper Dr. Robert F. Inger 

Dr. John F. Eisenberg Dr. Watson M. Laetsch 

Professor Peter W. Frank Dr. Paul Risser (observer) 


(See listing under Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs) 

Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, Incorporated, 
Board of Directors 

Dr. David Challinor, Chairman of the Board, Assistant Secretary for Science, 

Smithsonian Institution, ex officio. 
Dr. Lee G. Burchinal, Director, Division of Science Information, National 

Science Foundation. 
Dr. David F. Hersey, President, Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, 

Mr. S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, ex officio. 
Dr. R. W. Lamont-Havers, Deputy Director, National Institutes of Health. 
Dr. Charles W. Shilling, Executive Secretary, Undersea Medical Society, Inc. 
Mr. Alan D. Ullberg, Associate General Counsel, Smithsonian Institution. 
Mr. T. Ames Wheeler, Treasurer, Smithsonian Institution. 

310 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 
Board of Trustees 

William J. Baroody, Chairman. 

Daniel P. Moynihan, Vice Chairman. 

Ronald S. Berman, Chairman, National Endowment for the Humanities. 

Daniel J. Boorstin, Librarian of Congress. 

Robert H. Bork, Washington, D.C. 

Robert A. Goldwin, Special Consultant to the President. 

Bryce N. Harlow, Washington, D.C. 

Henry A. Kissinger, Secretary of State. 

David Mathews, Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare. 

Paul W. McCracken, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

James B. Rhodes, Archivist of the United States. 

S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Dean Rusk, University of Georgia Law School. 

Rawleigh Warner, Jr., New York, New York. 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards, and Commissions I 311 

APPENDIX 2. Smithsonian Special Foreign Currency Program 
Research Supported from July 1, 1975, through 
September 30, 1976 


American Institute of Indian Studies, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Continued 
support for administration; research fellowships; Benares Center for Art and 
Archeology; documentation of selected ritual art forms as communication 
systems of traditional culture. 

American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York. Excavation at 
Harappan site of Allahdino in the Malir Area, Karachi District, Pakistan. 

American Research Center in Egypt, Princeton, New Jersey. Continued support 
for a program of research and excavation in Egypt: support for operation of 
the Cairo Center; maintenance of archeological research at the site of Hiera- 
konpolis (Nekhen) in Edfu District; survey of Arabic scientific manuscripts 
in Cairo; continuation of excavation of a stratified pharaonic site in the 
Egyptian delta at Mendes; Akhenaten Temple project; research in modern 
Arabic literature; continuation of an epigraphic and architectural survey at 
Luxor by the Oriental Institute; editing the Nag Hammadi codices; prepara- 
tion for publication of a manuscript by the late G. Legrain on the Late 
Egyptian sculpture from Karnak in the Cairo Museum. 

American Schools of Oriental Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Excava- 
tions in salient areas of Punic and Roman Carthage (Tunisia). 

Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Washington, D.C. A corpus 
of the mosaics of Tunisia. 

North Texas State University, Arlington, Texas. Studies in predynastic Egypt. 

Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas. Prehistory of the Western 
Desert, Egypt. 

University of California, Berkeley, California. Archeological excavations at 
the Harappan seaport of Balakot, Pakistan. 

University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. Archeological investigations at 
Qsar Ibrium, Egyptian Nubia. 

University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky. Research and study of early 
medieval Polish archeology. 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Excavation within the 
town and harbor site of Malkata, western Thebes (Egypt). 

Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan. Prehistoric studies in the Siwa 
oasis region, northwestern Egypt. 

312 / Smithsonian Year 1976 


Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Mitochondrial 
DNAs of hybridogenetic amphibians: a search for a biological clock. 

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. Exploitation of habitats by chemi- 
cally differentiated races of morphologically uniform lichen forming fungi 

National Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology, Washing- 
ton, D.C. Biosystematic studies of the insects of Ceylon. 

National Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology, Washing- 
ton, D.C. Comparative study and geography of selected Devonian and Permian 
corals in Poland and the United States of America. 

Smithsonian Institution, Office of the Secretary, Washington, D.C. Some as- 
pects of the ecology of Indian birds; publication of the Synopsis of the Birds 
of India and Pakistan; publication of Phillips Revised Checklist of the Birds 
of Ceylon. 

Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center, Washington, D.C. Study of bio- 
logical productivity of some tropical lakes of South India. 

University of California, Berkeley, California. Pollen flow in Lythrum junceum 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Systematic studies of the 
molluscan genus Bulinus in Africa and adjacent regions (Egypt). 

Utah State University, Logan, Utah. Systems analysis of the Pre-Saharan 
ecosystem of southern Tunisia. 


Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. Studies in Lake of Tunis. 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Con- 
tinued operation of the SAO/Uttar Pradesh State observing station at Naini 
Tal (India); geophysical interpretation of mean latitude variations of stations 
located on a common meridian (Poland). 

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Nucleosynthesis and the advanced 
stages of stellar evolution (Poland). 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Geochronology of 
alkaline complexes of the southeastern desert of Egypt. 


Festival of American Folklife, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Old 
ways in the New World (Egypt, Pakistan). 

National Museum of History and Technology, Department of Science and 
Technology, Washington, D.C. Cooperative program for advice, training and 
research on medicine and pharmacy museums in Egypt. 

Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Magazine. Development of educational 
articles for Smithsonian magazine on research abroad supported by the 
Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program (Poland). 

Appendix 2. Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program I 313 

APPENDIX 3. National Museum Act Grants Awarded, July 1, 
1975, through September 30, 1976 


National Conservation Advisory Council, Washington, D.C. 

The American Association for State and Local History, Nashville, Tennessee. 

International Council of Museums, Paris, France. 

University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois. 

The University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, Nebraska. 

The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. 

Regional Conference of Historical Agencies, Manlius, New York. 

Merrimack Valley Textile Museum, North Andover, Massachusetts. 

American Association of Museums, Washington, D.C. 


The American Association for State and Local History, Nashville, Tennessee. 
The University of Illinois at Chicago Circle, Chicago, Illinois. 
The American Academy in Rome, New York, New York. 

Conservation Center, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, New York, 

New York. 

Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. 

The Regents of the University of California, Riverside, California. 

University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. 

Texas Technical University, Lubbock, Texas. 


New MUSE Community Museum of Brooklyn, Brooklyn, New York 
The Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colorado. 
Gallery 101-University of Wisconsin, River Falls, Wisconsin. 
San Antonio Museum Association, San Antonio, Texas. 

314 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver, Colorado. 

Georgia Museum of Art, Athens, Georgia. 

The Byzantine Collection, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C. 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York. 

Art Conservation Laboratory, University of California, Davis, California. 

McDonnell Planetarium, St. Louis, Missouri. 

Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico. 

San Francisco Maritime Museum, San Francisco, California. 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts. 

The Putnam Museum, Davenport, Iowa. 

Southwest Research Center and Museum Bishop College, Dallas, Texas. 

Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. 

Alaska State Museum, Juneau, Alaska. 

Schoellkopf Geological Museum, Niagara Falls, New York. 


University of California, California Academy of Sciences, Department of 
Work-Learn Center, Davis, California. 

The Museum of African Art, Washington, D.C. 

Museum Associates, Los Angeles, California. 

Rochester Museum & Science Center, Rochester, New York. 

The American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York. 

Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 


University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware. 

Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio. 

University of Denver (Colorado Seminary), Denver, Colorado. 

The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 

Conservation Center, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, New York, 

New York. 

The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, New York. 

Appendix 3. National Museum Act Grants Awarded I 315 


American Association for State and Local History, Nashville, Tennessee. 
Museum of Afro- American History, Roxbury, Massachusetts. 
Association of Science-Technology Centers, Washington, D.C. 
Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. 
American Association of Museums, Education Committee, Washington, D.C. 
National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, D.C. 

Washington State University/Washington Archaeological Research Center, 

Pullman, Washington. 

Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, New York. 

Texas Historical Foundation, Austin, Texas. 

AAM/ICOM, Washington, D.C. 

Wyoming Archives & Historical Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 


University of Kansas Museum of Art, Lawrence, Kansas. 
International Museum of Photography, Rochester, New York. 
The Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Maryland. 
The Hispanic Society of America, New York, New York. 
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, New York. 


The American Academy in Rome, New York, New York. 

Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston, Massachusetts. 

George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 

International Council of Monuments and Sites, Washington, D.C. 

Foundation of American Institute for Conservation, Washington, D.C. 

Arts Alaska, Inc., Anchorage, Alaska. 

University of London, Institute of Archaeology, London, England. 

316 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

APPENDIX 4. Progress on Building Construction, Restoration, 
and Renovation 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. With the completion of the basic structure 
for the Exhibit Design and Production Laboratory in 1975, interior partitioning 
and painting were initiated and completed in 1976. 

Arts and Industries Building. Phase I of the major restoration work was com- 
pleted in February 1976. The first phase of roof and window repairs was 
initiated and completed during the year. The second phase of roof repairs is 
scheduled for this next year. 

Bicentennial Exhibit Construction. The exhibits "A Nation of Nations," "We 
the People," "Centennial 1876," and "Our Changing Land," were completed 
and opened to visitors. 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies. The first phase of a master 
facilities plan concerned with the administrative core of the center was com- 
pleted during 1976. 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design. Major renovation 
work begun in 1974 will be completed in the fall of 1976. 

History and Technology Building. Library to house a rare book collection 
completed. Plans for a sixth-floor addition 70 percent completed during the 
year, with anticipated final design available during fiscal year 1977. 

National Air and Space Museum. Construction completed and the building 
opened to the public July 1, 1976. All major exhibits, eating facilities, and 
museum sales shop opened at that time. 

National Zoological Park. During the fiscal year general improvements were 
made for the Bicentennial summer. Sidewalk improvements were completed 
in December and the visitors information pavilion was completed in March. 
Renovation of the restaurant building and the food kiosk on the panda 
house roof was completed in March. Construction continued during the 
year on new bear exhibits, on a new education and administration building, 
and on a new general services and parking facility. Renovation of the elephant 
and bird house yards, begun last fiscal year, was completed. 

Exhibits plans and specifications are now in progress for the beaver valley 
area of the Park, which will exhibit beavers, otters, wolves, seals, and sea 
lions. Preliminary designs have also begun for a new ape house. 

Natural History Building. The West Court facility, which includes public 
cafeteria, restaurant, and museum sales shop, was opened during July 1976. 
Final acceptance of the Osteology Laboratory was taken and construction 
completed in August 1976 for a greenhouse in the East Court. 

Appendix 4. Progress on Building Construction I 317 

Silver Hill Facility. Flammable storage unit was installed and in-house planning 
continues for the development of a museum support facility on a site adjacent 
to Silver Hill. 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Barro Colorado Island: A new tram- 
way is scheduled for completion in October 1976. Tivoli Site: The initial 
building is two-thirds renovated with the herbarium and laboratory sections 
already completed. The final phase is scheduled for completion in early 1977. 
Preliminary plans for a new library to occupy part of this 4.5-acre site have 
also been completed. 

South Garden. Construction was completed on the garden and preliminary 
work proceeded to develop long-range plan for ultimate use of certain spaces 
within its borders. 

318 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

APPENDIX 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press, 
July 1, 1975, through September 30, 1976 



James M. Goode. The Outdoor Sculpture of Washington, D.C.: A Comprehen- 
sive Historical Guide. 526 pages, 455 black-and-white illustrations. Revised 
reprint. December 9, 1975. Paper: $8.95. 

Neal O. Hines. Fish of Rare Breeding: Salmon and Trout of the Donaldson 
Strains. 167 pages, 54 black-and-white illustrations. July 16, 1976. $15.00. 

Margaret Brown Klapthor. Official White House China: 1789 to the Present. 
283 pages, 81 color and 83 black-and-white illustrations. July 25, 1975. $15.95. 

Luis G. Lumbreras. The Peoples and Cultures of Ancient Peru. Translated by 
Betty J. Meggers, vii + 248 pages, 372 black-and-white illustrations. Reprint. 
April 1, 1976. Paper: $8.95. 

Susanne Steinem Patch. Blue Mystery: The Story of the Hope Diamond. 64 
pages, 4 color and 24 black-and-white illustrations. March 18, 1976. Paper: 


Nathan Reingold, editor. The Papers of Joseph Henry, Volume Two: The 
Princeton Years, November 1832-December 1835. xxxix + 524 pages, 13 
black-and-white illustrations, 63 text figures. January 15, 1976. $30.00. 

E. Richard Sorenson. The Edge of the Forest: Land, Childhood and Change in 
a New Guinea Protoagricultural Society. 278 pages, 151 black-and-white illus- 
trations. September 22, 1976. $18.50. 

Joshua C. Taylor. America as Art. xi + 320 pages, 10 color and 339 black-and- 
white illustrations. September 30, 1976. $25.00. 

Herman J. Viola. The Indian Legacy of Charles Bird King. 152 pages, 44 color 
and 83 black-and-white illustrations. September 30, 1976. $19.95. 

Egbert H. Walker. Flora of Okinawa and the Southern Ryukyu Islands x + 
1,159 pages, 1 color and 208 black-and-white illustrations. June 30, 1976. $36.75. 


American Historical Association. Annual Report, 1974. vii + 133 pages. 
December 4, 1975. Paper: $1.65. 

Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Year, 1975. Annual Report of the Smith- 
sonian Institution for the Year Ended June 30, 1975. vii + 590 pages, 148 
black-and-white illustrations. January 15, 1975. Paper: $8.30. 

. Statement hy the Secretary. The Smithsonian Institution, 1975. "Limits 

to Growth?" by S. Dillon Ripley, and "Financial Report" by T. Ames Wheeler. 
67 pages, 9 black-and-white illustrations. December 18, 1975. 

Smithsonian International Exchange Service. 1975 Annual Report. 9 pages. 
August 27, 1976. 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 319 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

Blacks in the Westward Movement, v + 57 pages, 54 black-and-white illustra- 
tions. September 12, 1975. 

John Robinson: A Retrospective. 48 pages, 8 color and 15 black-and-white 
illustrations. June 18, 1976. Paper $2.25. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

Michael Klein. John Covert, 1882-1960. 64 pages, 1 color and 37 black-and- 
white illustrations. September 15, 1976. Paper: $3.70. 

Cynthia Jaffee McCabe. The Golden Door: Artist-Immigrants of America, 
1876-1976. 432 pages, 39 color and 243 black-and-white illustrations. May 20, 
1976. Paper: $10.50. 

Artist, Authors and Others: Drawings by David Levine. xii + 70 pages, 65 
black-and-white illustrations. March 4, 1976. Paper: $3.95. 

National Air and Space Museum 

Lynne C. Murphy. Rockets, Missiles, and Spacecraft of the National Air and 
Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution. 68 pages, 4 color and 93 black-and- 
white illustrations. May 20, 1976. Paper: $1.50. 

Claudia M. Oakes, compiler. Aircraft of the National Air and Space Museum, 
Smithsonian Institution. 132 pages, 273 black-and-white illustrations. March 
22, 1976. Paper: $2.00. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

Barbara S. Groseclose. Emanuel Leutze, 1816-1868: Freedom Is the Only King. 
160 pages, 4 color and 165 black-and-white illustrations. January 9, 1976. 
Paper: $5.10. 

Joshua C. Taylor. America As Art. xi + 320 pages, 10 color and 399 black-and- 
white illustrations. April 28, 1976. Paper: $9.60. 

. . . and there was light: Studies by Abraham Rattner for the Chicago Loop 
Synagogue. 32 pages, 1 color and 32 black-and-white illustrations. April 20, 
1976. Paper: $1.55. 

Peggy Bacon: Personalities and Places, x + 166 pages, 1 color and 244 black- 
and-white illustrations. December 2, 1975. Paper: $6.25. 

National Portrait Gallery 

In the Minds and Hearts of the People: Five American Patriots and the Road 
to Revolution. 80 pages, 1 color and 85 black-and-white illustrations. Reprint. 
September 1, 1975. Paper: $1.90. 

Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts 

Boxes and Bowls: Decorated Containers by Nineteenth Century Haida, Tlingit, 
Bella Bella, and Tsimshian Indian Artists. 96 pages. 147 black-and-white 
illustrations. Reprint. July 15, 1976. Paper: $4.85. 

Craft Multiples. 64 pages, 132 black-and-white illustrations. September 8, 
1975. Paper: $4.75. 

The Designs of Raymond Loewy. 56 pages, 29 black-and-white illustrations. 
August 30, 1975. Paper: $2.50. 

320 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Smithsonian Institution and the 
National Capital Planning Commission 

Frederick Gutheim and Wilcomb E. Washburn. The Federal City: Plans and 
Realities. 170 pages, 86 black-and-white illustrations. February 21, 1976. 
Paper: $3.00. 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 

Carolyn Bryant. And the Band Played On: 1776-1976. 54 pages, 1 color and 
50 black-and-white illustrations. November 10, 1975. Paper: $1.60. 

Susan Detweiler. American Presidential China. 96 pages, 16 color and 51 
black-and-white illustrations. December 4, 1975. 

Jane Farmer, organizer. American Prints from Wood. 64 pages, 124 black-and- 
white illustrations. October 17, 1975. 

Judith O'Sullivan and Rosemary Gallick. Workers and Allies: Female Partici- 
pation in the American Trade Union Movement. 96 pages, 64 black-and-white 
illustrations. January 15, 1976. 

David Sellin. American Art in the Making: Preparatory Studies for Master- 
pieces of American Art, 1800-1900. 95 pages, 131 black-and-white illustrations. 
January 21, 1976. 

WPA/FAP Graphics. 23 pages, 11 black-and-white illustrations. March 15, 


National Collection of Fine Arts 

[Robin Bolton-Smith.] Portrait Miniatures from Private Collections. 16 pages, 
11 black-and-white illustrations. September 15, 1976. 

[Janet A. Flint.] George Miller and American Lithography. 20 pages, 2 black- 
and-white illustrations. March 25, 1976. 

. Louis Lozowick: Drawings and Lithographs. 12 pages, 6 black-and- 
white illustrations. October 22, 1975. 

[Barbara J. Groseclose.] Emanuel Leutze, 1816-1868: Freedom Is the Only 
King. 8 pages, 1 black-and-white illustration. January 7, 1976. 

[Susan Hobbs.] 1876: American Art of the Centennial. 32 pages, 9 black-and- 
white illustrations. June 25, 1976. Paper: $1.75. 

Joshua C. Taylor. America As Art. 48 pages, 10 black-and-white illustrations. 
May 28, 1976. Paper: $1.25. 

Sculpture: American Directions, 1945-1975. 8 pages. October 2, 1976. 

National Museum of History and Technology 

What's in a Map? 10 pages, 8 black-and-white illustrations. Reprint. Septem- 
ber 9, 1976. 

Peter Marzio. Mr. Audubon and Mr. Bien: An Early Phase in the History of 
American Chromolithography. 11 pages, 1 color and 1 black-and-white illus- 
tration. Reprint. November 15, 1975. 


Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

Zora Martin-Felton. A Walk Through "Old" Anacostia. iv + 44 pages, 34 
black-and-white illustrations. May 1, 1976. 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 321 

National Museum of Natural History 

J. Meester and H. W. Setzer, editors. The Mammals of Africa: An Identifica- 
tion Manual. Fascicle IV of V. Parts 1.1, 6.1-6.7, 6.9, and 8.1. Looseleaf inserts. 
December 10, 1975. Paper: $5.00. 

United States National Entomological Collections. 47 pages, 6 black-and-white 
illustrations. August 9, 1976. 

National Portrait Gallery 

Permanent Collection Checklist. 72 pages, 8 color illustrations. Revised re- 
print. September 15, 1975. Paper: $2.15. 

National Trust for Historic Preservation 

Preservation and Conservation: Principles and Practices, 1972. xxi + 547 
pages, 71 black-and-white illustrations. February 12, 1976. $15.00. 

Office of Museum Programs 

C. G. Screven. The Measurement and Facilitation of Learning in the Museum 
Environment: An Experimental Analysis. 91 pages, 26 black-and-white illustra- 
tions. February 5, 1976. Paper: $5.40. 

Office of Public Affairs 

The Smithsonian Institution. 54 pages, 22 black-and-white illustrations. August 
9, 1976. 


National Collection of Fine Arts 

Education Programs. 18 pages, 6 black-and-white illustrations. December 17, 

National Museum of History and Technology 

The First Ladies Hall. 24 pages, 8 color and 48 black-and-white illustrations. 
Revised reprint. July 14, 1976. Paper: $2.50. 

Office of Museum Programs 

National Museum Act Guidelines for 1976 Grant Programs. 31 pages. August 
29, 1975. 

National Museum Act Guidelines for 1977 Grant Programs. 31 pages. Reprint. 
September 23, 1976. 

Office of Public Affairs 

Smithsonian Institution. 20 pages, 6 black-and-white illustrations, 1 map. 
May 20, 1976. 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 

Eugene Ostroff. Photographing the Frontier. 32 pages, 29 black-and-white 
illustrations. July 1, 1976. 


Bicentennial Coordinator's Office 

Floor Plans for Smithsonian Institution Buildings (in French, German, Japanese, 
and Spanish). May 28, 1976. 

322 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 

Animal Adaptations: Insects and Spiders, 17 black-and-white illustrations. 
Reprint. September 1, 1975. 

Community Comparison: Forest and Old Field. 10 black-and-white illustra- 
tions. Reprint. September 1, 1975. 

Estuary Chesapeake. 12 black-and-white illustrations. February 16, 1976. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution. 6 black- 
and-white illustrations. Reprint. January 6, 1976. 

National Air and Space Museum 

Inaugural Ceremony Spacearium Program. July 12, 1976. 

National Air and Space Museum. 5 black-and-white illustrations. June 15, 

Ribbon Cutting Ceremony Program. 1 black-and-white illustration. June 30, 

"Sirius" Program. 1 black-and-white illustration. July 14, 1976. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

National Collection of Fine Arts: A Museum of American Art. 10 black-and- 
white illustrations. Revised reprint. June 14, 1976. 

The National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution. 6 black-and- 
white illustrations, 1 map. Reprint. June 7, 1976. 

National Museum of History and Technology 

The Musical Instrument Collection of the Smithsonian Institution. 5 black- 
and-white illustrations. December 19, 1975. 

National Museum of Natural History 

National Museum of Natural History. Revised reprint. August 27, 1976. 

Selected Photographs Illustrating North American Indian Life. September 19, 

National Portrait Gallery 

Abroad in America: Pavel Svin'in. 11 black-and-white illustrations. September 
20, 1976. 

Abroad in America: Charles Dickens. 11 black-and-white illustrations. Sep- 
tember 20, 1976. 

Abroad in America: Fredrika Bremer. 11 black-and-white illustrations. Sep- 
tember 20, 1976. 

Abroad in America: Henryk Sienkiewicz. 11 black-and-white illustrations. 
September 20, 1976. 

Abroad in America: Bjornstjerne Bjornson. 11 black-and-white illustrations. 
September 20, 1976. 

National Zoological Park 
Tiger. May 25, 1976. 
Zoo Jobs. June 31, 1976. 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 323 

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

Let's Go to the Smithsonian: Bulletins for Schools. September 1975 through 
Spring/Summer 1976. 

Smithsonian Intern '76. January 31, 1976. 

Office of Museum Programs 

Smithsonian Institution Workshop Series, Office of Museum Programs. 1 
black-and-white illustration. January 20, 1976. 

Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts 

Paintings in the Grand Salon and Octagon Room. 1 black-and-white illustra- 
tion. Reprint. May 7, 1976. 

Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts. Reprint. March 22, 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 

American Agriculture: A Continuing Revolution. 9 black-and-white illustra- 
tions. December 30, 1975. 

Inaugural Story: From George Washington to Gerald Ford. 2 black-and-white 
illustrations. August 10, 1975. 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Communicado Sobre Oportunidades en STRI. June 7, 1976. 

Research Opportunities at STRI. 11 black-and-white illustrations. April 15, 


Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

Let's Go to the Smithsonian: Learning Opportunities for Schools, 1975. 19 
pages, 28 black-and-white illustrations. September 1, 1975. 

Let's Go to the Smithsonian: Learning Opportunities for Schools, 1976. 28 
pages, 30 black-and-white illustrations. September 1, 1976. 


Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 
Blacks in the Westward Movement. September 1, 1975. 
Black Women. February 9, 1976. 

Office of Academic Studies 

Programs in Higher Learning and Research Training — 2977 — in Anthropology. 
July 28, 1976. 

Programs in Higher Learning and Research Training — 2977 — in Biological 
Sciences. July 28, 1976. 

Programs in Higher Learning and Research Training — 2977 — in Earth Sciences. 
July 28, 1976. 

Programs in Higher Learning and Research Training — 2977 — in History of 
Art. July 28, 1976. 

324 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Programs in Higher Learning and Research Training — 2977 — in History of 
Science and Technology. July 28, 1976. 

Programs in Higher Learning and Research Training — 2977 — in American and 
Cultural History. July 28, 1976. 

Office of International and Environmental Programs 

There Are Opportunities Overseas through the Smithsonian-Peace Corps En- 
vironmental Program. December 11, 1975. 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 

Larry Rosenblatt. The Frederick Douglass Years. 14 black-and-white illustra- 
tions. August 11, 1976. 

American Eagle: Symbol for Survival. 1 color illustration. September 20, 1976. 

Bridges: Spans of North America. 3 black-and-white illustrations. August 11, 

In Quest of Cockaboody. 12 black-and-white illustrations. May 3, 1976. 

Man in His Environment. 7 black-and-white illustrations. March 2, 1976. 

Romaine Brooks, "Thief of Souls." 24 black-and-white illustrations. Novem- 
ber 12, 1975. 

The Tallgrass Prairie: An American Landscape. August 13, 1976. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 
American Kaleidoscope '76. May 22, 1976. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 
Artists, Authors, and Others: Drawings by David Levine. February 11, 1976. 
The Sculpture and Drawings of Elie Nadelman. November 28, 1975. 
Hans Hofmann. September 22, 1976. 
John Covert. September 1, 1976. 

National Air and Space Museum 
Inaugural Ceremony, Spacearium. June 1, 1976. 
Ribbon Cutting Ceremony. May 20, 1976. 
Sea-Air Operations Hall Opening. April 1, 1976. 
July 1 Dinner. April 5, 1976. 
July 1 Preview. April 5, 1976. 
July 2 Dinner. April 5, 1976. 
July 2 Preview. April 5, 1976. 
"Sirius." June 18, 1976. 

Staff Open House and Preview. April 5, 1976. 
"To Ply" I. April 30, 1976. 
"To Ply" II. April 30, 1976. 
"To Ply" III. April 30, 1976. 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 325 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

America As Art. July 26, 1976. 

. . . and there was light: Studies by Abraham Rattner for the Chicago Loop 
Synagogue. January 5, 1976. 

Christmas Seal Paintings, 1975. October 13, 1975. 

Emanuel Leutze: 1816-1868; Freedom Is the Only King. December 22,1975. 

Peggy Bacon: Personalities and Places. November 10, 1975. 

Robert Rauschenberg (Opening). September 22, 1976. 

Sculpture: American Directions, 1945-1975. August 25, 1975. 

National Museum of History and Technology 
Anatomical Drawings by Leonardo da Vinci. June 8, 1976. 
Belgian Cunmaking and American History. September 14, 1976. 

Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts 
Americas: The Decorative Arts of Latin America. July 26, 1976. 
Craft Multiples. July 3, 1975. 
The Designs of Raymond Loewy. July 8, 1975. 
Signs of Life: Symbols in the American City. January 22, 1976. 


National Air and Space Museum 

The Planets: Holiday Lecture Series for High School Students. 5 black-and- 
white illustrations. December 5, 1975. 

A Tribute to Robert H. Goddard. 1 black-and-white illustration. February 25, 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

America As Art (In French, German, Japanese, and Spanish). June 2, 1976. 

Coleccion Nacional de Bellas Artes. August 16, 1976. 

Masters of the Early Republic: The Art of an Emergent Nation. February 23, 

Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies 

Smithsonian Institution Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies. 
August 16, 1976. 

Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts 

Caleria Renwick de la Coleccion Nacional de Bellas Artes. September 17, 1976. 

Signs of Life: Symbols in the American City (In French, German, Japanese, 
and Spanish). June 2, 1976. 


National Collection of Fine Arts 

With the Compliments of the National Collection of Fine Arts. Slip. Septem- 
ber 1, 1975. 

326 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

National Portrait Gallery 

"The Dye Is Now Cast." Education Package. 143 pages, 20 color slides and 27 
black-and-white illustrations. September 15, 1975. 

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

Art to Zoo #1. Newsletter. 4 pages, 11 black-and-white illustrations. March 
1, 1976. 

Art to Zoo #2. Newsletter. 4 pages, 13 black-and-white illustrations. May 1, 

Office of Protection Services 
Investigator, Supervisor, and Detective badges. August 25, 1976. 

Office of Plant Services 
Smithsonian Institution Directory, Telephone Directory. January 5, 1976. 



19. Robert M. Laughlin. "The Great Tzotzil Dictionary of San Lorenzo Zina- 
cantan." xiv + 598 pages, 5 figures, 6 tables, 5 maps. December 17, 1975. 

22. Robert M. Laughlin. "Of Wonders Wild and New: Dreams from Zina- 
cantan." xii + 178 pages, 14 figures and frontispiece. August 9, 1975. 


21. F. Raymond Fosberg and Marie-Helen Sachet. "Polynesian Plant Studies 
1-5." iv + 25 pages. July 21, 1975. 

23. Marie-Helene Sachet. "Flora of the Marquesas, 1: Ericaceae-Convulvul- 
aceae." iv + 34 pages, 1 figure. October 2, 1975. 

24. F. Raymond Fosberg and Marie-Helene Sachet. "Flora of Micronesia, 2: 
Casuarinaceae, Piperaceae, and Myricaceae." iv + 28 pages, 1 figure. Septem- 
ber 18, 1975. 

25. Mason E. Hale, Jr. "A Revision of the Lichen Genus Hypotrachyna 
(Parmeliaceae) in Tropical America." iv + 73 pages, 20 figures. August 13, 

26. Mason E. Hale, Jr. "A Monograph of the Lichen Genus Relicina (Par- 
meliaceae)." iv + 32 pages, 16 figures. August 13, 1975. 

27. Harold Robinson. "The Mosses of Juan Fernandez Islands." iv + 88 
pages. December 1, 1975. 

28. Richard S. Cowan. "A Monograph of the Genus Eperua (Leguminosae: 
Caesalpinioideae)." iv + 45 pages, 13 figures, 2 tables. September 4, 1975. 

29. Laurence E. Skog. "A Study of the Tribe Gesnerieae, with a Revision of 
Cesneria (Gesneriaceae: Gesnerioideae)." iv + 182 pages, 86 figures, 9 tables. 
May 3, 1976. 

30. Lyman B. Smith and Edward S. Ayensu. "A Revision of American 
Velloziaceae." vii + 172 pages, 53 figures and frontispiece, 37 plates. August 3, 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 327 

31. Mason E. Hale, Jr. "A Monograph of the Lichen Genus Pseudoparmelia 
Lynge (Parmeliaceae)." iv + 62 pages, 18 figures. September 3, 1976. 

32. Mason E. Hale, Jr. "A Monograph of the Lichen Genus Bulbothrix Hale 
(Parmeliaceae)." iv -f 29 pages, 7 figures. August 31, 1976. 

34. James N. Norris and Katina E. Bucher. "New Records of Marine Algae 
from the 1974 R/V Dolphin Cruise to the Gulf of California." iv -f 22 pages, 
13 figures. September 28, 1976. 

35. Michael J. Wynne and James N. Norris. "The Genus Colpomenia 
Derbes et Solier (Phaeophyta) in the Gulf of California." iv + 18 pages, 11 
figures. September 9, 1976. 


14. George S. Switzer, editor. "Mineral Science Investigations: 1972-1973." 
iv + 88 pages, 29 figures and frontispiece. July 2, 1975. 

16. Andres Maldonado and Daniel Jean Stanley. "Late Quaternary Sedimen- 
tation and Stratigraphy in the Strait of Sicily." iv + 73 pages, 39 figures and 
frontispiece, 5 tables. August 3, 1976. 

17. R. O. Chalmers, E. P. Henderson, and Brian Mason. "Occurrence, Dis- 
tribution, and Age of Australian Tektites." iv -f- 46 pages, 17 figures, 10 tables. 
September 9, 1976. 

20. Daniel Jean Stanley, Henry Got, Neil H. Kenyon, Andre Monaco, and 
Yehezkiel Weiler. "Catalonian, Eastern Betic, and Balearic Margins: Structural 
Types and Geologically Recent Foundering of the Western Mediterranean 
Basin." iv + 67 pages, 33 figures. September 20, 1976. 


19. G. Arthur Cooper and Richard E. Grant. "Permian Brachiopods of West 
Texas, III (Part 1, Text; Part 2, Plates)." Part 1: x + 503 pages. Part 2: viii 
+ 621 pages, 310 plates. December 29, 1975. 

21. G. Arthur Cooper and Richard E. Grant. "Permian Brachiopods of West 
Texas, IV (Part 1, Text; Part 2, Plates)." Part 1: viii + 362 pages. Part 2: vi 
+ 319 pages, 159 plates. February 12, 1976. 

25. Robert J. Emery. "Revised Tertiary Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the 
Western Beaver Divide, Fremont County, Wyoming." iv + 20 pages, 6 figures. 
October 23, 1975. 

26. C. Lewis Gazin. "Mammalian Faunal Zones of the Bridger Middle 
Eocene." iv + 25 pages. January 20, 1976. 

27. Storrs L. Olson, editor. "Collected Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring 
the 90th Birthday of Alexander Wetmore." x -f- 211 pages, 91 figures, 1 plate, 
38 tables. May 21, 1976. 

28. Clayton E. Ray "Phoca wymani and Other Tertiary Seals (Mammalia: 
Phocidae) Described from the Eastern Seaboard of North America." iv + 36 
pages, 3 figures, 11 plates. May 14, 1976. 

29. Alan H. Cheetham and Douglas M. Lorenz. "A Vector Approach to Size 
and Shape Comparisons among Zooids in Cheilostome Bryozoans." iv + 55 
pages, 37 figures, 19 tables. July 8, 1976. 


163. Louis S. Kornicker. "Antarctic Ostracoda (Myodocopina)." [In Two 
Parts] Part 1: vii -\- 374 pages, 240 figures, 22 tables. Part 2: vi + 356 pages, 
192 figures, 9 plates. September 8, 1975. 

328 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

170. Lion S. Gardiner. "The Systematics, Postmarsupial Development, and 
Ecology of the Deep-Sea Family Neotanaidae (Crustacea: Tanaidacea)." iv -f- 
265 pages, 103 figures, 20 tables. November 18, 1975. 

176. Jeffrey B. Graham, editor. "The Biological Investigation of Malpelo 
Island, Colombia." iv -f- 98 pages, 35 figures, 8 tables. July 18, 1975. 

185. Harold Robinson. "Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of 
Dominica: The Family Dolichopodidae with Some Related Antillean and 
Panamanian Species (Diptera)." iv + 141 pages, 231 figures. September 10, 

188. Donald R. Davis. "A Review of the West Indian Moths of the Family 
Psychidae with Descriptions of New Taxa and Immature Stages." iv -f- 66 
pages, 206 figures, 5 tables. July 21, 1975. 

192. Donald R. Davis. "A Review of Ochsenheimeriidae and the Introduction 
of the Cereal Stem Moth Ochsenheimeria vacculella into the United States 
(Lepidoptera: Tineoidea)." iv -f- 20 pages, 31 figures, 2 maps. July 2, 1975. 

193. Paul D. Hurd, Jr., and E. Gorton Linsley. "The Principal Larrea Bees of 
the Southwestern United States (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)." iv -+- 74 pages, 18 
figures, 15 tables. July 2, 1975. 

195. Louis S. Kornicker and Martin V. Angel. "Morphology and Ontogeny 
of Bathyconchoecia septemspinosa Angel, 1970 (Ostracoda: Halocyprididae)." 
iv + 21 pages, 14 figures, 2 tables. August 31, 1975. 

197. Louis S. Kornicker. "Ivory Coast Ostracoda (Suborder Myodocopina)." 
iv + 46 pages, 32 figures, 3 tables. September 4, 1975. 

199. W. Ronald Heyer. "A Preliminary Analysis of the Intergeneric Relation- 
ships of the Frog Family Leptodactylidae." iv + 55 pages, 16 figures, 41 tables. 
July 2, 1975. 

201. Horton H. Hobbs. "New Crayfishes (Decapoda: Cambaridae) from the 
Southern United States and Mexico." iv + 34 pages, 8 figures. July 28, 1975. 

202. Arthur G. Humes. "Cyclopoid Copepods (Nanaspididae and Sabelliphili- 
dae) Associated with Holothurians in New Caledonia." iv + 41 pages, 24 
figures. August 12, 1975. 

203. Harald A. Rehder and Barry R. Wilson. "New Species of Marine Mol- 
lusks from Pitcairn Island and the Marquesas." iv + 16 pages, 10 figures and 
frontispiece, 1 table. December 19, 1975. 

204. Anne C. Cohen and Louis S. Kornicker. "Taxonomic Indexes to Ostra- 
coda (Suborder Myodocopina) in Skogsberg (1920) and Poulsen (1962, 1965)." 
iv + 29 pages, 2 tables. September 9, 1975. 

205. William G. Eberhard. "The Ecology and Behavior of a Subsocial Penta- 
tomid Bug and Two Scelionid Wasps: Strategy and Counterstrategy in a Host 
and Its Parasites." iv -f 39 pages, 13 figures, 24 tables. November 24, 1975. 

206. Porter M. Kier. "The Echinoids of Carrie Bow Cay, Belize." iv + 45 
pages, 12 plates. July 31, 1975. 

207. James G. Mead. "Anatomy of the External Nasal Passages and Facial 
Complex in the Delphinidae (Mammalia: Cetacea)." iv + 72 pages, 3 tables. 
November 18, 1975. 

208. Terry L. Erwin. "Studies of the Subtribe Tachyina (Coleoptera: Carabi- 
dae: Bembidiini), Part III: Systematics, Phylogeny, and Zoogeography of the 
Genus Tachyta Kirby." iv + 68 pages, 175 figures, 2 tables. November 18, 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 329 

209. Clyde F. E. Roper and Richard E. Young. "Vertical Distribution of 
Pelagic Cephalopods." iv + 51 pages, 31 figures. September 12, 1975. 

210. Donald R. Davis. "Systematics and Zoogeography of the Family Neo- 
pseustidae with the Proposal of a New Superfamily (Lepidoptera: Neopseus- 
toidea)." iv + 45 pages, 98 figures, 1 table. September 2, 1975. 

211. Richard W. Baumann. "Revision of the Stonefly Family Nemouridae 
(Plecoptera) : A Study of the World Fauna at the Generic Level." iv -f 74 pages, 
186 figures, 1 table. December 1, 1975. 

212. Paul Slud. "Geographic and Climatic Relationships of Avifaunas with 
Special Reference to Comparative Distribution in the Neotropics." iv + 149 
pages, 37 figures, 11 tables. February 10, 1976. 

213. John F. Eisenberg. "Communication Mechanisms and Social Integration 
in the Black Spider Monkey, Ateles fusiceps robustus, and Related Species." 
iv + 108 pages, 63 figures, 40 tables. February 10, 1976. 

214. Louis S. Kornicker. "Myodocopid Ostracoda from Southern Africa." 
iv + 39 pages, 24 figures. January 15, 1976. 

215. Robert E. Dietz IV, and W. Donald Duckworth. "A Review of the 
Genus Horama Hiibner and Reestablishment of the Genus Poliopastea Hamp- 
son (Lepidoptera: Ctenuchidae)." iv + 53 pages, 3 plates, 29 figures, 4 maps. 
February 10, 1976. 

216. Victor G. Springer and Warren C. Freihofer. "Study of the Monotypic 
Fish Family Pholidichthyidae (Perciformes)." iv -f 43 pages, 23 figures and 
frontispiece. February 10, 1976. 

217. Arthur G. Humes. "Cyclopoid Copepods Associated with Asteroid 
Echinoderms in New Caledonia." iv + 19 pages, 9 figures, 1 table. January 15, 

218. Michael H. Robinson and Barbara Robinson. "The Ecology and Be- 
havior of Nephila maculata: A Supplement." iv + 22 pages, 9 figures, 1 table. 
March 25, 1976. 

220. Paul D. Hurd, Jr., and E. Gordon Linsley. "The Bee Family Oxaeidae 
with a Revision of the North American Species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)." 
iv + 75 pages, 68 figures, 3 plates, 2 tables. June 25, 1976. 

222. Fenner A. Chace, Jr. "Shrimps of the Pasiphaeid Genus Leptochela 
with Descriptions of Three New Species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea)." 
iv + 51 pages, 37 figures. April 22, 1976. 

223. Louis S. Kornicker, Sheldon Wirsing, and Maura McManus. "Biological 
Studies of the Bermuda Ocean Acre: Planktonic Ostracoda." iv + 34 pages, 
20 figures, 9 tables. June 21, 1976. 

224. Raymond W. Bouchard and Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. "A New Subgenus 
and Two New Species of Crayfishes of the Genus Cambarus (Decapoda: 
Cambaridae) from the Southeastern United States." ii + 15 pages, 3 figures. 
July 6, 1976. 

225. Louis S. Kornicker and F. P. C. M. van Morkhoven. " Met apoly cope, a 
New Genus of Bathyl Ostracoda from the Atlantic (Suborder Cladocopina)." 
iv + 29 pages, 24 figures. July 6, 1976. 

229. Marian H. Pettibone. "Revision of the Genus Macellicaphala Mcintosh 
and the Subfamily Macellicephalinae Hartmann-Schroder (Polychaeta: Poly- 
noidae)." iv + 71 pages, 36 figures. September 29, 1976. 

330 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

230. Marian H. Pettibone. "Contributions to the Polychaete Family Trocho- 
chaetidae Pettibone." iv + 21 pages, 10 figures. September 1, 1976. 

231. Louis S. Kornicker. "Benthic Marine Cyprinidacea from Hawaii (Ostra- 
coda)." iv -f 24 pages, 19 figures. September 1, 1976. 

233. W. Ronald Heyer and David S. Liem. "Analysis of the Intergeneric 
Relationships of the Australian Frog Family Myobatrachidae." iv + 29 pages, 
28 figures, 2 tables. September 9, 1976. 

234. Victor G. Springer and Thomas H. Fraser. "Synonymy of the Fish 
Families Cheilobranchidae (=Alabetidae) and Gobiesocidae, with Descriptions 
of Two New Species of Alabes." iv + 23 pages, 14 figures, 3 tables. September 
13, 1976. 

236. James F. McKinney and Victor G. Springer. "Four New Species of the 
Fish Genus Ecsenius with Notes on Other Species of the Genus (Blenniidae: 
Salariini)." iv + 27 pages, 11 figures, 12 tables. September 28, 1976. 


23. Cora Lee C. Gillilland. "The Stone Money of Yap: A Numismatic Sur- 
vey." iv -\- 75 pages, 33 figures, 1 graph, 1 table. October 23, 1975. 

30. Edgar M. Howell. "United States Army Headgear 1855-1902: Catalog 
of United States Army Uniforms in the Collections of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, II." vi + 109 pages, 63 figures. December 29, 1975. 

31. Audrey B. Davis and Uta C. Merzbach. "Early Auditory Studies: Activi- 
ties in the Psychology Laboratories of American Universities." vi + 39 pages, 
36 figures. November 10, 1975. 

32. Arthur H. Frazier. "Joseph Saxton and His Contributions to the Medal 
Ruling and Photographic Arts." iv -(- 17 pages, 13 figures. November 10, 1975. 

33. Jon Eklund. "The Incompleat Chymist: Being an Essay on the Eighteenth- 
Century Chemist in His Laboratory, with a Dictionary of Obsolete Chemical 
Terms of the Period." ii -f- 49 pages, 4 figures. December 8, 1975. 

35. Eugene Enrico. "The Orchestra at San Petronio in the Baroque Era." iv 
+ 64 pages, 33 figures, 13 tables. August 20, 1976. 

187-189. In one volume, as follows. August 6, 1975. 

187. Walter H. Adey. "The Algal Ridges and Coral Reefs of St. Croix: Their 
Structure and Holocene Development." ii + 67 pages, 45 figures. 

188. W. G. D'Arcy. "Anegada Island: Vegetation and Flora." ii + 40 pages, 
1 figure. 

189. Mac Marshall. "The Natural History of Namoluk Atoll, Eastern Caroline 
Islands." With identifications of vascular flora by E. R. Fosberg. ii + 64 pages, 
9 plates, 2 tables. 

190. D. R. Stoddart and P. E. Gibbs, editors. "Almost-Atoll of Aitutaki: Reef 
Studies in the Cook Islands, South Pacific." vii + 158 pages, 38 figures and 
frontispiece, 39 plates, 1 map. August 13, 1975. 

191. William T. Gillis, Roger Byrne, and Wymann Harrison. "Bibliography 
of the Natural History of the Bahama Islands." vi + 123 pages, 1 figure. 
August 20, 1975. 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 331 

APPENDIX 6. Publications of the Staff of the Smithsonian 
Institution and Its Subsidiaries, July 1, 1975, 
through September 30, 1976 

Publications are by staff members unless otherwise noted. 


Goode, James M. "Epilogue: The Arts and Industries Building." 

In 1876: A Centennial Exhibition, edited by Robert C. Post. Washington, 
D.C. : National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, 

. [Review] "The Gothic Revival in America," catalogue and exhibition, 

Houston Museum of Art, 1976. Nineteenth Century Magazine, Summer 1976. 
'Lost Georgetown." In Washington Antique Show Catalog, 1976, 

Washington Chapter, Junior League. 

"The Riggs Mansion: A Washington Banker's House." Nineteenth 

Century Magazine (The Victorian Society in America), Winter 1975. 

'A View of the Castle." Museum News (Association of American 

Museums), July-August 1976. 



Scherer, Joanna Cohan. "Pictures as Documents: Resources for the Study of 
North American Ethnohistory." In Studies in the Anthropology of Visual 
Communication, volume 2, number 2 (Fall 1975), pages 65-66. 

. "You Can't Believe Your Eyes: Inaccuracies in Photographs of North 

American Indians." In Studies in the Anthropology of Visual Communica- 
tion, volume 2, number 2 (Fall 1975), pages 67-79. 

Stanley, Sam. "The Panajachel Symposium" with CAi^ comment. Current 
Anthropology, volume 16, number 4 (December 1975), pages 518-540. 

National Anthropological Film Center 

Sorenson, E. Richard. "Culture and the Expression of Emotion." In Psychologi- 
cal Anthropology, edited by Thomas R. Williams. Mouton: The Hague, 1975. 

. "Visual Evidence: An Emerging Force in Visual Anthropology." 

Occasional Papers of the National Anthropological Film Center, number 1 
(December 1975). 

"Phenomenological Inquiry in Ethnobotanical Studies." In Drugs, 

Rituals, and Altered States of Consciousness, edited by Brian M. Du Toit. 
Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema, 1976. 

The Edge of the Forest: Land, Childhood, and Change in a New 

Guinea Protoagricultural Society. Washington: Smithsonian Institution 
Press, 1976. 

332 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies 

Bryce-Laporte, Roy S. Contemporary Perspectives on Alienation. Co-edited 
with Claudewell S. Thomas, M.D. New York, N.Y. : Praeger Publishers, 
Inc., 1976. 

. "Migration and Ethnicity: A Commentary on Inequality, Power and 

Development." In Migration and Development: Implications for Ethnic 
Identity and Political Conflict, edited by Helen Safa and Brian Du Toit. 
Paris, The Hague: Mouton Publishers, Inc., 1975. 

-. "Dreams and Destinations: The Caribbean Immigrant in the United 

States." In Continuities, edited by Wilfred Cartey, Jerome Brooks, and 
Maxine Alexander, page 5, Spring, 1975. New York, N.Y. : City College 
of New York, Black Studies Department. 

Contribution to a Symposium on Time on the Cross (volumes I and II). 

In Contemporary Sociology (Bennett M. Berger, editor), American Sociolo- 
gical Association, volume 4, number 4 (July 1975), pages 353-361. 

"Redefining the Role of the United States in Caribbean Migration and 

Development." In Contemporary International Relations in the Caribbean 
(Basil A. Ince, editor). Barbados: The University of the West Indies, Insti- 
tute of International Relations, 1976. 

Mortimer, Delores M. Caribbean Immigration to the United States, Co-edited 
with Roy S. Bryce-Laporte. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution, 1976. 

. "Caribbean Immigrants: A Prismatic Overview on Life in the United 

States." In Caribbean Immigration to the United States. Washington, D.C: 
Smithsonian Institution, 1976. 

-. "U.S. Involvement in Portuguese Africa." In American Involvement in 

Southern Africa, edited by M. A. El-Khawas and F. A. Kornegay, Jr. West- 
port, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1975. 


Beane, Marjorie. Non-Point Pollution: A Case Study of the Rhode River 
Watershed. Smithsonian Institution: Chesapeake Bay Center for Environ- 
mental Studies, November 1975. 

Correll, D. L. "The Rhode River Program." The National Estuarine Study: 
Symposium on Pollution Problems in the Nation's Estuaries: Pensacola, 
Florida, February 1975. 

, M. A. Faust, and J. W. Pierce. Studies on Certain Nutrients, Sediments 

and Bacterial Constituents of Run-off from Rhode River Watershed. Chesa- 
peake Research Consortium Publication Number 43. Annual Technical 
Report NSF/RANN Grant G.I. 38973, pages 518-581. 1975. 

Correll, D. L., and J. J. Miklas. "Phosphorus Cycling in a Maryland Deciduous 
Forest Subjected to Various Levels of Mineral Nutrient Loading." In 
Mineral Cycling in Southeastern Ecosystems, edited by F. G. Howell, J. B. 
Gentry, and M. H. Smith, pages 642-657. erda Symposium Series Confer- 
ence— 740513. 1976. 

Correll, D. L., J. W. Pierce, and M. A. Faust. "A Quantitative Study of the 
Nutrient Sediment and Coliform Bacterial Constitutents of Water Run-off 
from the Rhode River Watershed." In Southeastern Regional Conference 
on Non-Point Sources of Water Pollution, pages 131-143. Blacksburg, 
Virginia, May 1975. 

Cory, R. L. "Estimates of Open Water Metabolism in the Rhode and West 
River Estuaries, Maryland." In Proceedings of 10 European Symposia on 
Marine Biology, Ostend, Belgium. September 1975. 680 pages. 

, and J. M. Redding. "Macroscopic Benthic Fauna of Three Tidal Creeks 

Adjoining the Rhode River, Md." U.S.G.S. W.R.I. 39-75. 23 pages. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 333 

Falk, J. H. "Know Your Own Front Lawn." Flower and Garden, August 1975, 

pages 30-31. 
. "Outdoor Education: A Technique for Assessing Student Behaviors." 

School Science and Mathematics 76, pages 226-230, 1976. 

"Of Beetles, Worms and Leaves of Grass." Art to Zoo news for 

schools from the Smithsonian Institution, March 1976. 

"Energetics of a Suburban Lawn Ecosystem." Ecology, volume 57, 

number 1, pages 141-150. 

Faust, Maria A. Non-Point Source Studies on Chesapeake Bay: I. Bacterial 
Contamination from the Rhode River Watershed, Concentrations and Survi- 
val Studies in the Estuary. Chesapeake Research Consortium, publication 
number 53. Baltimore, Maryland. 69 pages. 

. "Coliform Bacteria from Diffuse Sources as a Factor in Estuarine 

Pollution." Water Research 10 (1976), pages 619-627. 

-, A. E. Aotaky, and M. T. Hargadan. "Effect of Physical Parameters on 

the in situ Survival of Escherichia coli MC-6 in an Estuarine Environment. 
Applied Microbiology 30 (1975), pages 800-806. 

Faust, M. A. and D. L. Correll. "Comparison Between Bacterial and Algal 
P-Uptake in an Estuarine Environment." Marine Biology 34 (1976), pages 

Wake, D. B., and J. F. Lynch. "The Distribution, Ecology, and Evolutionary 
History of Plethodontid Salamanders in Tropical America." Natural History 
Museum of Los Angeles County Bulletin, number 25 (1976). 69 pages. 

Whitcomb, R. F., J. F., Lynch, P. A. Opler, and C. S. Robbins. "Island Bio- 
geography and Conservation: The Limitations of Small Preserves." Science, 
August 1976. 


Gore, Robert H., and L. J. Becker. "Studies on Stomatopod Crustacea from 
the Indian River Region of Florida. II. An Annotated Checklist of the 
Mantis Shrimps of the Central Eastern Florida Coast." Proceedings of the 
Biology Society of Washington, volume 86, number 10, pages 147-184. 

Gore, Robert H., L. E. Scotto, and L. J. Becker. "Crustacean Community Stabil- 
ity on Sabellariid Worm Reefs in Florida." American Zoologist, volume 16, 
number 12, pages 286. 

Rice, M. E. "Sipunculans Associated with Coral Communities." Micronesica, 
volume 12, number 1 (1976), pages 119-132. 

. "Observations on the Development of Six Species of Caribbean 

Sipuncula with a Review of Development in the Phylum" In Proceedings 
of the International Symposium on the Biology of the Sipuncula and 
Echiura, volume 1 (1975), pages 141-160. 

"Survey of the Sipuncula of the Coral and Beachrock Communities 

of the Caribbean Sea." In Proceedings of the International Symposium on 
the Biology of the Sipuncula and Echiura, volume 1 (1975), pages 35-49. 
-, and M. Todorovic, editors. Proceedings of the International Symposium 

on the Biology of the Sipuncula and Echiura. Nauco Delo, Belgrade, 1975. 

Department of Science and Technology 

Hallion, Richard P. "Note: The Lawson Airliner." Aircraft Illustrated, Sum- 
mer 1975. 

, "The Convair XF-92A." Air Enthusiast Quarterly, number 2 (Sum- 
mer 1976). 

. "The Northrop X-4." Air Enthusiast Quarterly, number 3 (Fall 1976). 

334 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

. "Profile Preservation Feature: S.P.A.D. VII." Aeroplane Monthly, 

June 1976. 

Miner, E. W., and C. H. Lewis. "Viscous Shock-Layer Flows for the Space 
Shuttle Windward Plane of Symmetry." AlAA Journal, volume 14, num- 
ber 1 (January 1976). 

Center for Earth and Planetary Studies 

El-Baz, Farouk. "The Moon After Apollo." Icarus, volume 25, number 4, 

(1975), pages 495-537. 
. "Stratigraphy of the Moon." [Abstract] Discussion Meeting: The 

Moon — A New Appraisal from Space Missions and Laboratory Analyses, 

Abstracts of papers, June 9-12, The Royal Society, London, England, (1975), 

page 22. 

"Taqdeem (Introduction in Arabic)." Maza bad Al-Qamar (What 

After the Moon). Authorized edition of selections from Aeronautics and 
Space Report of the President, 1972, by S. Galal, Franklin Association, 
Cairo, Egypt, (1975), pages 9-11. 

"Terrestial Sand Patterns Photographed by the Apollo-Soyuz Mission 

and Similar Features on Mars." Lunar Science VII, pages 236-238. Houston, 
Texas: Lunar Science Institute, 1976. 

-. "Harvest of Apollo Science." Journal of Aerospace Education, National 

Aeronautic Association, Washington, D.C., February 1976, pages 30-31; 

also in: Action and Reaction, New York, volume VII, number 13 (May 1976), 

page 6. 
El-Baz, F., and A. R. Adams. "Named Lunar Craters." List of lunar crater 

names approved by the International Astronomical Union. IAU XVI Gen- 
eral Assembly, Grenoble, France (1976), 28 pages. 
El-Baz, F., and D. A. Mitchell. "The Earth Observations and Photography: 

Experiment MA 136." Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Preliminary Science 

Report, nasa Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas (1976), TMX 58173, 

pages 10-1 to 10-64. 
El-Baz, F., and D. E. Wilhelms. "Photogeological, Geophysical, and Geochemi- 

cal Data on the East Side of the Moon." Proceedings of the Lunar Science 

Conference 6th (1975), pages 2721-2738. 
Maxwell, T. A., F. El-Baz, S. H. Ward. "Distribution, Morphology, and Origin 

of Ridges and Arches in Mare Serenitatis." GSA Bulletin, volume 86 (1975), 

pages 1273-1278. 
Maxwell, T. A., and M. D. Picard. "Channel-fill Sequences in the Duchesne 

River Formation near Vernal, Utah: A Possible Transition from Meandering 

to Braided Stream Disposition." Utah Geology, volume 3 (1975), 9 pages. 
May, T. W., W. J. Peeples, T. A. Maxwell, W. R. Sill, S. H. Ward, R. J. 

Phillips, R. Jordan, E. Abott. "Subsurface Layering in Maria Serenitatis and 

Crisium: Apollo Lunar Sounder Results." Lunar Science VII, Lunar Science 

Institute (1976), pages 540-542. 
Wolfe, R. W., and F. El-Baz, "Haldene— A Multi-Ringed Lunar Caldera in 

Mare Smythii." Lunar Science VII, Lunar Science Institute (1976) pages 


Department of Aeronautics 

Boyne, Walter J. "Pipe Organ Bomber," Story of Martin XB-48. Wings, 

volume 5, number 5 (September 1975). 
. "Middle River Stump Jumper," Story of Martin XB-26G. Airpower, 

volume 5, number 6 (October 1975). 

"Curtis Hawk P-6E." Part One. Airpower, volume 6, number 2, 

(March 1976). 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 335 

. "Curtis Hawk P-6E," Part Two. Wings, volume 6, number 2 (April 

. "The Anonymous Cubs/' History of Early Light Planes. Aviation 

Quarterly, volume 2, number 2. 
. "Cry Havoc," Part One, Development of Douglas A-20. Wings, 

volume 6, number 3 (June 1976). 

"Cry Havoc," Part Two, Douglas A-20. Airpower, volume 6, number 

4 (July 1976). 

"Ghosts from Luscombe's Drawing Board," Luscombe Experimental 

Projects. Wings, volume 6, number 4 (August 1976). 

"Convair's Needle Nose Orphan," Story of XB-46. Airpower, volume 

6, number 5 (September 1976). 
Mikesh, Robert C. Aichi M6A1 Seiran, Japan's Submarine Launched Panama 

Canal Bomber. Monogram Books. 

. "The Emperor's Envoys." Air Force Magazine, August 1975. 

. "Postscript to History: Tokyo to New York, 35-years Later." Air Plane 

Pilot, March 1976. 

. "Lightning Strikes Twice (MC. 202)." Airpower, January 1976. 

. "Across the Pacific (Tachikawa A-26)." Airpower, July 1976. 

. "Dornier's Double-Ender." Wings, August 1976. 

. "Macchi C.202 Restoration." Koku Fan, January 1976. 

. "Dornier Do 335 Restoration." Koku Fan, July and August 1976. 

Presentations and Education Division 

Barbely, Charles G. "The Spacearium, A Planetarium for the Smithsonian." 
The Planetarian, Journal of the International Society of Planetarium Educa- 
tors, volume 3, numbers 3 and 4, 1974 (published in 1976). 

Bondurant, R. Lynn, Jr. An Assessment of Certain Skills Possessed by Fifth 
Grade Students Used to Successfully Identify Constellations in a Plane- 
tarium. [Ph. D. dissertation] Michigan State University, 1975. 

. "Museum Programs for Handicapped Students — A Need for Guide- 
lines." Roundtable Reports. Washington, D.C. : Official publication of 
the Museum Education Roundtable, Summer 1976. 

Chamberlain, Von Del. "American Indian Interest in the Sky as Indicated in 
Legend, Rock Art, Ceremonial and Modern Art." The Planetarian, Journal 
of the International Society of Planetarium Educators, volume 3, numbers 
3 and 4, 1974 (published in 1976). 

. "Those Simple Structures Housed History of SI Astronomical Research 

Progress." The Smithsonian Torch, August 1975. 

'American Indian Sky Lore — A Bibliography." Planetarium Directors' 

Handbook, number 33 (September-October 1975). 

[Review] Highlights in Astronomy, by Fred Hoyle. Journal of College 

Science Teaching, volume 5, number 3 (January 1976). 

'In Touch with the Sky." In Touch, National Park Service Interpreters 

Newsletter, May 1976. 

'Interpreting the Sky." Chapter 22 of Interpreting the Environment, 

edited by Grant W. Sharpe, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1975. 

-. "Prehistoric American Astronomy c 1054 A.D." Astronomy, July 1976. 

Murphy, Nancy. "Come Fly." Art to Zoo. A Publication of the Smithsonian 
Institution, May 1976. 


Department of Anthropology 
Angel, J. Lawrence. "Paleoecology, Paleodemography, and Health," In Popula- 
tion, Ecology, and Social Evolution, edited by S. Polgar, pages 167-190. 
Mouton: The Hague (Chicago: Aldine), 1975. 

336 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

. Comment on New Evidence for a Late Introduction of Malaria into 

the New World by C. S. Wood. Current Anthropology, volume 16, number 
96 (1975). 

"Human Skeletons from Eleusis." In The South Cemetery of Eleusis 

by G. E. Mylonas. Athens: The Athens Archaeological Society, number 81, 
14 pages, 1975. 

Collins, Henry B. "Eskimo Art." In The Far North: 2000 Years of American 
Eskimo and Indian Art, pages 1-25. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Press, 1973. (Not reported previously.) 

. "Additional Examples of Early Eskimo Art." Folk, volumes 16/17 

(1974-1975), pages 55-62. 

"Archaeological Investigations at Bering Strait, 1936." National Geo- 

graphic Society Research Reports, 1890-1954 Projects, pages 51-62. 1975. 
-. "Archaeological Investigations in Hudson Bay, 1954." National Geo- 

graphic Society Research Reports, 1890-1954 Projects, pages 63-77. 1975. 
-. "Ethnology, Bureau of American." In Dictionary of American History, 

pages 464-465. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 

Crocker, William H., and Richard E. Sorenson. "Individuality and Solidarity 
among the Canela Indians, State of Maranhao, Brazil, 1975." A film pro- 
duced by the National Anthropological Film Center, Smithsonian Institution, 
under the auspices of the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, Brazil. 

Evans, Clifford and Betty J. Meggers. "Archaeology: South America." In 
Handbook of Latin American Studies number 37: The Social Sciences, 
pages 52-84. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 1975. 

. "Some Potential Contributions of Caribbean Archaeology to the 

Reconstruction of New World Prehistory." In Proceedings of the First 
Puerto Rican Symposium on Archaeology, edited by Linda Sickler Robinson, 
pages 25-32. Informe number 1, Fundacion Arqueologica, Antropologica e 
Historica de Puerto Rico: San Juan, 1976. 

-, contributing editors. Archaeology: South America, Handbook of Latin 

American Studies, number 37. University Press of Florida Press: Gaines- 
ville. 1975. 

Ewers, John C. "Intertribal Warfare as the Precursor of Indian-White Warfare 
on the Northern Great Plains." Western Historical Quarterly, volume VI, 
number 4 (October 1975), pages 397-410. 

. Blackfeet Indian Tipis — Design and Legend. [Booklet accompanying 

illustrations by Jessie Wilber and others] Museum of the Rockies: Boxeman, 
Montana. 1976. 

"Artifacts and Pictures as Documents in the History of Indian-White 

Relations." Chapter in Indian-White Relations: A Persistent Paradox, 
edited by Jane F. Smith and Robert M. Kvasnicka, pages 101-111. National 
Archives Conference on Research in the History of Indian-White Rela- 
tions, 1972. Washington, D.C: Howard University Press, 1976. 

-. "Indian Views of the White Man Prior to 1850: An Interpretation." 

Chapter in Red Men and Hat-Wearers. Viewpoints in Indian History, edited 
by Daniel Tyler, pages 7-23. Papers from the Colorado State University 
Conference on Indian History, August 1974. Boulder, Colorado: Pruett 
Publishing Company, 1976. 

Introduction to The Indian Legacy of Charles Bird King by Herman 

J. Viola, pages 11-14. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press 
and Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1976. 
Fitzhugh, William. "Paleoeskimo Occupations of the Labrador Coast." In 
Eastern Arctic Prehistory: Paleoeskimo Problems, edited by Moreau Max- 
well, pages 103-118. Society for American Archaeology, Memoir 31, 1975. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 337 

. "Environmental Factors in the Evolution of Dorsest Culture: A Mar- 
ginal Proposal for Hudson Bay." In Eastern Arctic Prehistory: Paleoeskimo 
Problems, edited by Moreau Maxwell, pages 139-149. Society for American 
Archaeology, Memoir 31, 1975. 

"A Maritime Archaic Sequence from Hamilton Inlet, Labrador." In 

Papers from a Symposium on Moorehead and Maritime Archaic Problems 
in Northeastern North America, edited by W. Fitzhugh, pages 117-138. 
Arctic Anthropology, volume 12, number 2 (1975). 

Introduction to Papers from a Symposium on Moorehead and Mari- 

time Archaic Problems in Northeastern North America, edited by W. Fitz- 
hugh. Arctic Anthropology, volume 12, number 2 (1975), pages 1-8. 

"Preliminary Culture History of Nain, Labrador: Smithsonian Field 

Work, 1975." Journal of Field Archeology, volume 3 (1975), pages 123-142. 
Gibson, Gordon D., editor. Introduction to Ethnography of Southwestern 

Angola, by Carlos Estermann, volume I. New York: Africana Publishing 

Company, 1976. 
Glenn, James R. "Materials of Use to Geographers in the National Anthro- 
pological Archives." In Geographical Perspectives on Native Americans, 

edited by Jerry N. McDonald and Tony Lozewski, Association of American 

Geographers. 1976. 
. "Recent Accessions to the National Anthropological Archives." 

History of Anthropology Newsletter, volume III, number 1 (1976). 
Houchins, Chang-su, and Lee Houchins. "The Korean Experience, 1903-1924." 

In The Asian American, edited by Norris Hundley, Jr. pages 129-156. 

Clio Press, Inc.: Santa Barbara and Oxford, 1976. 
. "Beikoku ni okeru Kankokujin no keiken, 1903-1924 no kakete." 

[Japanese translation by Inada Hideo of "The Korean Experience, 1903- 

1924."] The Han, Tokyo, volume V, number 4, (April 1976), pages 54-82. 
Meggers, Betty J. "Application of the Biological Model of Diversification to 

Cultural Distributions in Tropical Lowland South America." Biotropica, 

volume VII, number 3 (September 1975), pages 141-161. 
-, and Clifford Evans. "La 'Seriacion Fordinana' como metodo para 

construir una cronolgia relativa." Revista de la Universidad Catolica, Ano 3, 

number 10, pages 11-40 (Quito 1975). 
Nagle, Christopher. "Report on Meeting for Computer Data Banking in 

Anthropology Museums." Newsletter of Computer Archaeology, September 

Ortner, Donald J. "Aging effects on Osteon Remodeling." Calcified Tissue 

Research, number 18 (1975), pages 27-36. 
, and Marguerite Monahan. "The Paleopathology Program at the 

Smithsonian Institution." Paleopathology Newsletter, number 10 (1975), 

pages 7-8. 

-, and R. S. Corruccinni. "The Skeletal Biology of the Virginia Indians." 

[Abstract of paper] American Journal of Physical Anthropology, number 

44 (1975), pages 171-172. 
Riesenberg, Saul H. "The Ghost Islands of the Carolines." Micronesica, 

volume 11, number 1 (1975), pages 7-33. 
Selig, Ruth O. "First the Babe." Art to Zoo: News to Schools from the Smith- 
sonian Institution, May 1976, page 1. 
Stewart, T. Dale. "Study of Human Skeletal Remains from Pueblo Ruins in 

Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, 1935." National Geographic Society Research 

Reports, 1890-1954 Projects, 1975, pages 293-297. 
. "The Growth of American Physical Anthropology Between 1925 and 

1975." Anthropological Quarterly, number 48 (1975), pages 193-204. 

338 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

. "Recent Examples of Pseudo-Trephination." Adas del XLI Congreso 

International de Americanistas (Mexico, 2-7 de septiembre, 1974), number 
1 (1975), pages 99-102. 

"Charles Weer Goff, 1897-1975." American Journal of Physical Anthro- 

pology, number 44 (1976), pages 220-222. 

-. "Patterning of Pathologies and Epidemiology." Paper prepared in 

advance for participants in Burg Wartenstein symposium number 72 on 
Origins and Affinities of the First Americans, August 21-30, 1976. 

Sturtevant, William C. "Some Publications of the Last Decade on the History 
of Museum Anthropology." [Bibliography] History of Anthropology News- 
letter, volume 2, number 2 (1975), pages 11-13. 

. "Two 1761 Wigwams at Niantic, Connecticut." American Antiquity, 

volume 40, number 4 (1975), pages 437-444. 

. "Cuban Miami: 1834. Rediscovered: Santa Maria de Loreto." In Born 

of the Sun; the Official Florida Bicentennial Commemorative Book, edited 
by Joan E. Gill and Beth R. Read, page 28. Florida Bicentennial Com- 
memorative Journal, Inc.: Hollywood, Florida, 1975. 

[Review] Cod is Red, by Vine Deloria, Jr. Journal of Ethnic Studies, 

volume 3, number 1 (1975), pages 104-105. 

"First Visual Images of Native America." In First Images of 

America: The Impact of the New World on the Old, edited by Fredi 
Chiappelli, pages 417-454. University of California Press: Berkely, Los 
Angeles, London, 1976. 

— , and Wilcomb E. Washburn. "The First Americans." Chapter 1 in 

A National of Nations, edited by Peter C. Marzio, pages 4-23. New York: 
Harper & Row, 1976. 

Ubelaker, Douglas H. "The Juhle Ossuary at Nanjemoy Creek." In Proceed- 
ings of the Fourth Annual Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference, 
Penns Grove, New Jersey, 1973, pages 17-36. 1975. 

. "Preliminary Report of an Analysis of the Savich Farm Site Crema- 
tions." In Eastern States Archaeological Federation, Proceedings of the 
Annual Meeting, Dover, Delaware, July 1974, Bulletin number 33 (1975), 
page 11. 

"The Aboriginal Population of America North of Mexico; A New 

Appraisal." American Journal of Physical Anthropology, volume 44, num- 
ber 1 (1976), pages 212-213. 

-. "Paleodemography of Virginia Indians: A Critique." Quarterly Bulletin 

of the Archeological Society of Virginia, volume 30, number 3 (March 1976), 
pages 167-168. 

-, and J. Lawrence Angel. "Analysis of the Hull Bay Skeletons, St. 

Thomas." Journal of the Virgin Island Archaeological Society, number 3 
(1976), pages 7-14. 

-, and Waldo R. Wedel. "Bird Bones, Burials, and Bundles in Plains 

Archaeology." American Antiquity, volume 40, number 4 (October 1975), 
pages 445-452. 

Viola, Herman J. "The Burning of Washington, 1814." In Congress Investi- 
gates, a Documented History, 1792-1974, edited by Arthur M. Schlesinger, 
Jr. and Roger Bruns, volume I, pages 247-334. R. R. Bowker Company: 
New York, 1975. 

. "Andrew Jackson's Invasion of Florida, 1818." In Congress Investi- 
gates, a Documented History, 1792-1974, edited by Arthur M. Schlesinger, 
Jr., and Roger Bruns, volume I, pages 335-480. R. R. Bowker Company: 
New York, 1975. 

"Indian Rations and Sam Houston's Trail, 1832." In Congress Investi- 

gates, a Documented History, 1792-1974, edited by Arthur M. Schlesinger, 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 339 

Jr., and Roger Bruns, volume I, pages 689-811. R. R. Bowker Company: 
New York, 1975. 

"Lincoln and the Indians." Historical Bulletin, number 31 (1976). 

Madison, Wisconsin: The Lincoln Fellowship of Wisconsin. 

[Review] Indians and Bureaucrats: Administering the Reservation 

Policy During the Civil War, by Edmund Danziger, Jr. The Indiana Magazine 
of History, December 1975, pages 387-389. 

The Indian Legacy of Charles Bird King. Washington, D.C. and New 

York: Doubleday and the Smithsonian Press, 1976. 

VonEndt, David W. Some Aspects of Chemical Communication in Insects and 
Mammals. University Microfilms. 1975. 

. "The Amino Acid Analysis of Archeological Remains from Axum, 

Ethiopia." Journal of Archeological Science, 1976. 

Wedel, Mildred Mott. "Ethnohistory: Its Payoffs and Pitfalls for Iowa Archeolo- 
gists." Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society, volume 23 (1976), pages 

Wedel, Waldo R. "Chain Mail in Plains Archeology." The Plains Anthropolo- 
gist, volume 20, number 69 (1975), pages 187-196. 

. "Chalk Hollow: Culture Sequence and Chronology in the Texas Pan- 
handle." In Proceedings, XLI International Congress of Americanists, 
Mexico City, volume 1 (1975), pages 270-278. 

-, and Douglas H. Ubelaker. "Bird Bones, Burials, and Bundles in Plains 

Archeology." American Antiquity, volume 40, number 4, (1975), pages 444- 

Department of Botany 

Ayensu, Edward S. "International Co-operation among Conservation-orientat- 
ed Botanical Gardens and Institutions." In Conservation of Threatened 
Plants by various authors, pages 259-269. New York: Plenum Publishing 
Corporation, 1976. 

. "Preface." Botany of the Black Americans by William Ed Grime. St. 

Clair Shores, Michigan: Scholarly Press, Inc., 1976. 

'Threatened or Endangered Plants of Sri Lanka." In Natural Products 

for Sri Lanka's Future, pages 45-46. Colombo: National Science Council, 

'Water Lilies: They Delight Senses the World Over." Smithsonian, 

volume 7, number 2 (May 1976), pages 50-55. 
Cowan, Richard S. "A Monograph of the Genus Eperua (Leguminosae: Caesal- 

pinioideae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, number 28 (1975), pages 

. "Brachycylix, A New Genus of Tropical Leguminosae (Caesalpinio- 

ideae)." Proceedings Koninkl. Nederl. Akademie van Wetenschappen, series 

C, 78, number 5 (1975), pages 464-467. 

"A Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Heterostemon (Leguminosae- 

Caesalpinioideae)." Proceedings Koninkl. Nederl. Akademie van Weten- 
schappen, series C, 79, number 1 (1976), pages 42-60. 
Cuatrecasas, J. "Miscellaneous Notes on Neotropical Flora VII." Phytologia, 

volume 31, number 4 (1975), pages 317-333. 
. "Miscellaneous Notes on Neotropical Flora VIII." Phytologia, volume 

32, number 4 (1975), pages 312-326. 
Culberson, W. L., and Mason E. Hale, Jr. "The Range of the Lichen Parmelia 

eurysaca." Mycologia, volume 66 (1974), pages 1047-1049. 
Eyde, Richard H. "The Bases of Angiosperm Phylogeny: Floral Anatomy." 

Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, volume 62, number 3 (1975), 

pages 521-537. 

340 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

. "The Foliar Theory of the Flower." American Scientist, volume 63, 

number 4 (1975), pages 430-437. 
Fenical, William, and James N. Norris. "Chemotaxonomy in Marine Algae: 

Chemical Separation of Some Laurencia Species (Rhodophyta) from the Gulf 

of California." Journal of Phycology, volume 11, number 1 (1975), pages 

Fosberg, F. R. "Bobea elatior Again." Taxon, volume 25, number 1 (1976), 

page 188. 
. "Coral Island Vegetation." In "Biology and Geology of Coral Reefs" 

(volume 3 of Biology 2) by D. J. Jones and R. Endean, pages 255-277. New 

York: Academic Press, 1976. 

"Geography, Ecology, and Biogeography." Annals of the Association 

of American Geographers, volume 66, number 1 (1976), pages 117-128. 
-. "Identification of Vascular Plants of Namoluk Atoll, Eastern Caro- 

line Islands." Atoll Research Bulletin, volume 189 (1975), pages 23-48. 
Fosberg, Raymond F. "Ipomoea indica Taxonomy: A Tangle of Morning 

Glories." Botaniska Notiser, volume 129 (1976), pages 35-38. 
. "List of Vascular Plants." In "Geography of Aitutaki Island, Cook 

Islands" by David R. Stoddart and P. E. Gibbs, pages 73-84. Atoll Research 

Bulletin, number 190 (August 1975). 

'Revised Check-List of Vascular Plants of Hawaii Volcanoes National 

Park." Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, Technical Report, 
number 5 (1975), pages 1-19. 

-. "Revisions in the Flora of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands." Rhodora, 

volume 78, number 813 (1976), pages 79-119. 

"Status of the Name Chloris barbata (L.) Swartz." Taxon, volume 25, 

number 1 (1976), pages 176-178. 

"The Deflowering of Hawaii." National Parks & Conservation Maga- 

zine, volume 49, number 10 (1975), pages 4-10. 

"Typification and Author Citation of Merremia tridentata ssp. hastata 

van Ooststroom, Blumea 3: 317, 1938." Taxon, volume 24 (1975), page 541. 
-. "Typification of Sadleria hillebrandii Robinson." Taxon, volume 25, 

number 1 (1976), pages 187-188. 
Fosberg, F. R., and M. V. C. Falanruw. "Noteworthy Micronesian Plants. 1." 

Micronesica, volume 11 (1975), pages 77-80. 
Fosberg, F. R., and M.-H. Sachet. "Noteworthy Micronesian Plants. 2." 

Micronesica, volume 11 (1975), pages 81-84. 
. "Polynesian Plant Studies. 1-5." Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 

number 21 (1975), pages 1-25. 
Fosberg, F. R., L. B. Smith, J. J. Wurdack, R. S. Cowan, and F. A. Stafleu. "In 

Praise of a Curator." Taxon, volume 24, numbers 2/3 (May 1975), page 

Goldberg, Aaron, and L. B. Smith. "Chave para as Familias Espermatofiticas 

do Brasil." Flora llustrada Catarinense, separate (1975), pages 3-204. 
Hale, Mason E., Jr. "A Monograph of the Lichen Genus Relicina (Parmelia- 

ceae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, number 26 (1975), pages 1-32. 
. "A Revision of the Lichen Genus Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae) in 

Tropical America." Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, number 25 

(1975), pages 1-73. 

-. "Hypotrachyna showmanii, a New Lichen from Eastern North 

America." Bryologist, volume 79 (1976), pages 78-80. 

-. "Informe Sobre el Crecimiento de Liquenes en los Monumentos de 

Copan, Honduras." Yaxkin, volume 1 (1975), pages 6-9, 16. 

"Lichen Structure Viewed with the Scanning Electron Microscope." 

In Lichenology. Progress and Problems, edited by D. H. Brown, D. L. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 341 

Hawksworth, and R. H. Bailey, pages 1-15. New York: Academic Press, 

"Studies on the Lichen Family Thelotremataceae. 3." Mycotaxon, 

volume 3 (1975), pages 173-181. 

"Synopsis of a New Lichen Genus, Everniastmm Hale (Parmeliaceae)." 

Mycotaxon, volume 3 (1976), pages 345-353. 
Kennedy, H., and D. H. Nicolson. "New Combinations and Notes on Central 

American Marantaceae." Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, volume 

62 (August 1975), pages 501-503. 
King, R. M., and H. Robinson. "New Species of Stomatanthes from Africa 

(Eupatorieae, Compositae)." Kew Bulletin, volume 30 (1975), pages 463-465. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXLIII. A New Genus, 

Austrocritonia." Phytologia, volume 31 (1975), pages 115-117. 

'Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXLIV. A New Genus, 

Viereckia." Phytologia, volume 31 (1975), pages 118-121. 

-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXLV. A New Species of 

Bartlettina." Phytologia, volume 31 (1975), pages 62-65. 

-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXLVI. Two New Species of 

Fleischmannia from Central America." Phytologia, volume 31 (1975), pages 

-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXLVII. Additions to the 

Genera Amboroa, Ayapanopsis, and Hebeclinium in South America.' 
Phytologia, volume 31 (1975), pages 311-316. 

-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXLVIII. A New Species 

of Lomatozoma." Phytologia, volume 32 (1975), pages 246-249. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXLIX. A New Genus, 

Osmiopsis." Phytologia, volume 32 (1975), pages 250-251. 

-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CL. Limits of the Genus 

Koanophyllon." Phytologia, volume 32 (1975), pages 252-267. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CLI. A New Genus, 

Grisebachianthus." Phytologia, volume 32 (1975), page 268-270. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CLII. A New Genus, Imeria.' 

Phytologia, volume 32 (1975), pages 271-272. 

-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CLIII. A New Genus, 

Lorentzianthus." Phytologia, volume 32 (1975), pages 273-274. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CLIV. A New Genus, 

Chacoa." Phytologia, volume 32 (1975), pages 275-276. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CLV. A New Genus, 

Idiothamnus." Phytologia, volume 32 (1975), pages 277-282. 

-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CLVI. Various New 

Combinations." Phytologia, volume 32 (1975), pages 283-285. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CLVII. A New Genus, 

Revealia from Mexico." Phytologia, volume 33 (1976), pages 277-280. 

'Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CLVIII. A New Genus, 

Adenocritonia from Jamaica." Phytologia, volume 33 (1976), pages 281-284. 
Kirkbride, Joseph H., Jr. "The Genus Wittmackanthus (Rubiaceae)." Annals 

of the Missouri Botanical Garden, volume 62, number 2 (1975), pages 504- 

Lellinger, David B. "A Phytogeographic Analysis of Choco Pteridophytes." 

Fern Gazette, volume 11, numbers 2-3 (1975), pages 105-114. 
Misra, G., S. Huneck, and Mason E. Hale, Jr. "Mitteilungen Uber Flechtenin- 

baltsstoffe. CVIII. Die Flechtenstoffe Einiger Indischer Parmeliaceen." 

Philippia, volume 3 (1976), pages 20-23. 
Morton, C. V. A Revision of the Argentine Species of Solanum. Edited by 

L. B. Smith and I. A. Hunziker. Cordoba, Argentina: Academia Nacional 

de Ciencias, 1976. 

342 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Nicolson, Dan H. "Diphelypaea (Orobanchaceae), nom. nov. and Other Cau- 
terizations on a Nomenclatural Hydra." Taxon, volume 24, numbers 5-6 
(November 1975), pages 651-657. 

. "Emilia." In "Flora of Guatemala" by D. L. Nash and L. O. Willaams, 

pages 393-395. Fieldiana: Botany, volume 24, part XII (May 1976). 

"Emilia fosbergii, a New Species." Phytologia, volume 32 (October 

1975), pages 33-34. 

-. "Isonyms and Pseudo-Isonyms: Identical Combinations with the 

Same Type." Taxon, volume 24, number 4 (August 1975), pages 461-466. 
"Lectotypification of Genera of Araceae." Taxon, volume 24, num- 

ber 4 (August 1975), pages 467-468. 

"Paratautonyms, a Comment on Prop. 146." Taxon, volume 24, 

numbers 2-3 (May 1975), pages 389-390. 

Norris, James N. "Resena Historica de las Exploraciones Marinas Botanicas 
en el Gulfo de California." In number 27 of Sonora: Antropologia del 
Desierto by various authors, edited by B. Braniff C. and R. S. Felger, pages 
79-84. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Anthropologia e Historia, 1976. 

Norris, James N., and Katina E. Bucher. "New Records of Marine Algae from 
the 1974 R/V DOLPHIN Cruise to the Gulf of California." Smithsonian 
Contributions to Botany, number 34 (1976), pages iv-22. 

Powell, A. M., and J. Cuatrecasas. "IOPB Chromosome Number Reports, 
Asteraceae from Colombia and Venezuela (editor Love)." Taxon 24 (1975), 
pages 275-276. 

Robinson, H. "Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: 
The Family Dolichopodidae with Some Related Antillean and Panamanian 
Species (Diptera)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 185 
(1975), pages 1-141. 

. "Conardia, a New Moss Genus for Hypnum compactum (Hook.) 

C. Mull." Phytologia, volume 33 (1976), pages 293-295. 

-. "Considerations on the Evolution of Lichens." Phytologia, volume 

32 (1975), pages 407-413. 

"The Mosses of Juan Fernandez Islands." Smithsonian Contributions 

to Bontany, number 27 (1975), pages 1-88. 

-. "A New Name for the Moss Genus, Thyridium." Phytologia, volume 

32 (1975), pages 432-435. 

-. "A New Species of Barnadesia from Ecuador (Mutisieae: Asteraceae).' 

Phytologia, volume 32 (1975), pages 414-418. 

-. "Studies in the Heliantheae (Asteraceae). VI. Additions to the Genus, 

Caleae." Phytologia, volume 32 (1975), pages 426-431. 

"Studies in the Senecioneae (Asteraceae). VII. Additions to the 

Genus Roldana." Phytologia, volume 32 (1975), pages 331-332. 
Robinson, H. "Three New Asteraceae from Guerrero, Mexico." Phytologia, 

volume 33 (1976), pages 285-292. 
Robinson, H., and R. D. Brettell. "Studies in the Heliantheae (Asteraceae). V. 

Two New Species of Aspilia from South America." Phytologia, volume 32 

(1975), pages 419-425. 
Robinson, H., and D. H. Nicolson. "Tagetes ernestii (Tageteae: Asteraceae) a 

New Species from Oaxaca, Mexico." Phytologia, volume 32 (1975), pages 

Rogers, C. M. and L. B. Smith. "Linaceas." Flora Ilustrada Catarinense, Fascicle 

LINA (30 May 1975), pages 1-34. 
Sachet, M.-H. "Flora of the Marquesas. 1. Ericaceae through Convolvulaceae." 

Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, number 23 (1975), pages 1-34. 
Sachet, M.-H., P. A. Schafer, and J. C. Thibault. "Mohotani: Une ile protegee 

aux Marquises." Bulletin de la Societes des Etudes Oceaniennes, number 

193 (1975), pages 557-568. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 343 

Sandved, K. B., and R. Tucker Abbot. Shells. New York: Viking Publishers, 

1973. (Not reported previously.) 
Sandved, K. B., and Michael G. Emsley. Butterfly Magic. New York: Viking 

Publishers, 1975. 
Shetler, Stanwyn G. "Bicentennial Glimpses of Audubon's Wilderness: The 

Lost Camellia." Audubon Naturalist News, volume 1, number 9 (1975), 

page 10. 
. "Bicentennial Glimpses of Audubon's Wilderness: The Appalachian 

Monarch (American Chestnut) Passes." Audubon Naturalist News, volume 

2, number 5 (1976), page 2. 

"Bicentennial Glimpses of Audubon's Wilderness: Wild Rice: Bread 

Corn of the North." Audubon Naturalist News, volume 2, number 7 (1976), 
page 2. 

'Flora North America." Atlantic Naturalist, volume 31, number 2 

(Summer 1976), page 50. 

'Foreword." The Bluebird: How You Can Help Its Fight for Survival 

by Lawrence Zeleny. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976. 

"Learning from Nature's Laboratory." Audubon Naturalist News, 

volume 2, number 5 (1976), page 2. 

-. "Learning from Nature's Laboratory, II." American Naturalist News, 

volume 2, number 6 (1976), page 2. 

"Natural History Today." Atlantic Naturalist, volume 30, number 4 

(Winter 1975), page 150. 

-. "Our Biological Heritage." Atlantic Naturalist, volume 30, number 3 

(Autumn 1975), page 98. 

"Weeds on Trial." Atlantic Naturalist, volume 31, number 3 (Fall 

1976), page 98. 
Simpson, Beryl B. "Pleistocene Changes in the Flora of the High Tropical 

Andes." Paleobiology, volume 1 (1975), pages 273-294. 
Simpson, Beryl B., A. Burkart and N. J. Carman. "Prosopis palmeri: A Relict 

of an Ancient North American Colonization." Madrono, volume 23 (1975), 

pages 220-227. 
Skog, Laurence E. "Chomelia Jacq. versus Chomelia Linn., A Proposal for 

Conservation." Taxon, volume 25, number 1 (1976), pages 205-206. 
. "Nematanthus fissus, A New Combination in the Gesneriaceae." 

Baileya, volume 19, number 4 (1975), pages 148-150. 

'A Study of the Tribe Gesnerieae, with a Revision of Cesneria (Ges- 

neriaceae-Gesnerioideae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, number 

29 (1976), pages 1-182. 
Smith, Lyman B. "Herbarium Notes, V." Phytologia, volume 33, number 7 

(June 1976), page 441. 
. "(389) Proposal for the Conservation of the Generic Name 169 

Oplisrnenus Beauv. against Orthopogon R. Br. (Gramineae)." Taxon, volume 

25, number 1 (February 1976), pages 194-195. 

-. "Reconsideration of lectotype for the genus Vellozia." Taxon, volume 

24, number 4 (August 1975), page 474. 
Smith, Lyman B., and Edward E. Ayensu. "A Revision of American Vello- 

ziaceae." Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, number 30 (1976), pages 

i-vii, 1-172. 
. "Velloziaceas do Estado do Parana." Boletim do Museu Botanico 

Municipal, Curitiba, Parana, Brasil, number 21 (May 1975). 
Smith, Lyman B., and Robert W. Read. "Notes on Bromeliaceae. XXXVIII." 

Phytologia, volume 33, number 7 (June 1976), pages 429-443. 
Smith, Lyman B., and Carroll E. Wood, Jr. "The Genera of Bromeliaceae in 

the Southeastern United States." Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, volume 

56, number 4 (November 1975), pages 375-397. 

344 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Walker, E. H. Flora of Okinawa and the Southern Ryukyu Islands. Washing- 
ton, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976. 

Walker, E. H., and D. H. Nicolson. "Araceae." In Flora of Okinawa and the 
Southern Ryukyu Islands by E. H. Walker, pages 280-288. Washington: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976. 

Wasshausen, D. C. "A New Species of Oplonia (Acanthaceae) from Peru." 
Phytologia, volume 33 (1976), pages 444-446. 

. "A New Species of Ruellia (Acanthaceae) from Panama." Phytologia, 

volume 33 (1976), pages 59-62. 

"Two Additional New Species of Aphelandra (Acanthaceae)." Phytolo- 

gia, volume 33 (1976), pages 178-182. 
Wasshausen, D. C, and Mary T. Kalin de Arroyo. "A New Species of 

Justicia (Acanthaceae) from Venezuela." Boletin de la Sociedad Venezolana 

de Cilnuas Naturales, volume 22 (1976), pages 407-413. 
Wurdack, J. J. "Certamen Melastomataceis XXIV." Phytologia, volume 31, 

number 6 (September 1975), pages 492-500. 
. "Endemic Melastomataceae of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, 

Colombia." Brittonia, volume 28, number 1 (April 1976), pages 138-143. 

"New Guatemalan Melastomataceae." Wrightia, volume 5, number 

7 (May 1976), pages 226-227. 

Department of Entomology 

Baumann, Richard W. "A Revision of the Stonefly Family Nemouridae 
(Plecoptera) : A Study of the World Fauna at the Generic Level." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Zoology, number 211 (1975), pages 1-74. 

. "Amphinemeura reinerti, A New Stonefly from Northern Mexico 

(Plecoptera: Nemouridae)." The Southwestern Naturalist, volume 20 (1976), 
pages 517-521. 

Baumann, Richard W., and Dragica Kacanski. "A New Species of Capnioneura 
from Yugoslavia (Plecoptera, Capniidae)." Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen 
Entomologischen Cessellschaft, volume 48 (1975), pages 451-453. 

Burns, John M. "Isozymes in Evolutionary Systematics." In Isozymes: IV, 
Genetics and Evolution, edited by C. L. Markert, pages 49-62. New York: 
Academic Press, 1975. 

. [Review] Butterflies: Their World, Their Life Cycle, Their Behavior, 

by T. C. Emmel. Smithsonian, volume 6, number 9 (1975), pages 130-132. 
-. BioGraffiti: A Natural Selection. New York: Quandrangle/The New 

York Times Book Company, 1975, xvi + 112 pages. 

Crabill, Ralph E., Jr. "A New Watophilus from Utah, Including a List of All 
Known Species (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Chilenophilidae)." Proceed- 
ings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 88, number 37 
(January 22, 1976), pages 395-398. 

Davis, Donald R. "A Review of the West Indian Moths of the Family 
Psychidae with Descriptions of New Taxa and Immature Stages." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Zoology, number 188 (1975), 66 pages. 

. "A Review of Ochsenheimeriidae and the Introduction of the Cereal 

Stem Moth Ochsenheimeria vacculella into the United States (Lepidoptera: 
Tineoidea)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 192 (1975), 
20 pages. 

-. "Systematics and Zoogeography of the Family Neopseustidae with 

the Proposal of a New Superfamily (Lepidoptera: Neopseustoidea)." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Zoology, number 210 (1975), 75 pages. 
Dietz, Robert E. IV, and W. Donald Duckworth. "A Review of the Genus 
Horama Hubner and Reestablishment of the Genus Poliopastea Hampson 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 345 

(Lepidoptera: Ctenuchidae)." Smithsonian Contribution to Zoology, num- 
ber 215 (1976), 53 pages. 

Duckworth, W. Donald. "Introduction" in the Dictionary of Butterflies and 
Moths in Color; by Allan Watson and Paul E. S. Whalley, W. Donald Duck- 
worth, American Editor, pages vii-xiii. New York City: McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, 1975. 

Erwin, Terry L. "The Ground Beetle Components of the Panamanian Fauna." 
In 2973 Environmental Monitoring and Baseline Data, edited by R. W. 
Rubinoff, pages 124-128. Smithsonian Institution Environmental Science 
Program, 1974. 

. "Studies of the Subtribe Tachyina (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidiini), 

Part III: Systematics, Phylogeny, and Zoogeography of the Genus Tacyta 
Kirby." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 208 (1975), pages 

"The Ground Beetle Types of Max Liebke in the Smithsonian Insti- 

tution, Washington, D.C. (Coleoptera: Carabidae)." Coleopterists Bulletin, 
volume 29, number 4 (1975), pages 267-268. 

"Relationships of Predaceous Beetles to Tropical Forest Wood Decay. 

Part I. Descriptions of the Immature Stages of Eurycoleus macularis Chev- 
rolat (Carabidae: Lebiini)." Coleopterists Bulletin, volume 29, number 4 
(1975), pages 297-300. 

"A Case of Homonymy in the Tachyina (Coleoptera: Carabidae: 

Bembidiini). Coleopterists Bulletin, volume 30, number 1 (1976), page 94. 

Flint, Oliver S., Jr. "Checklist of the Trichoptera, or caddisflies, of Chile." 
Revista Chilena de Entomologia, volume 8 (1975), pages 83-93. 

. "A Preliminary Report of Studies on Neotropical Trichoptera." Pro- 
ceedings of the First International Symposium on Trichoptera (1976), pages 

-. "The Greater Antillean species of Polycentropus (Tricoptera: Polycen- 

tropidae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 89 
(1976), pages 233-246. 

Floore, T. G., B. A. Harrison, and B. F. Eldridge. "The Anopheles (Anopheles) 
crucians Subgroup in the United States (Diptera: Culicidae)." Mosquito 
Systematics, volume 8, number 1 (1975), pages 1-100. 

Froeschner, Richard C. "Description of a New Species of Lace Bug Attacking 
the Oil Palm in Colombia (Hemiptera: Tingidae)." Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington, volume 78 (1976), pages 104-107. 

. "Galapagos Lace Bugs: Zoogeographic Notes and a New Species of 

Phatnoma (Hemiptera: Tingidae)." Proceedings of the Entomological Society 
of Washington, volume 78 (1976), pages 181-184. 

Harrison, B. A., and J. E. Scanlon. "Medical Entomological Studies II. The 
Subgenus Anopheles in Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae)." Contr. Am. Entomol. 
Inst., volume 12, number 1 (1975), pages 1-307. 

Huang, Yiau-Min. "A New Species of Aedes (Stegomyia) from Sri Lanka, 
(Ceylon) (Diptera: Culicidae)." Mosq. Syst., volume 7, number 4 (1975), 
pages 345-356. 

Hurd, Paul D., Jr., Roland L. Fischer, Kenneth L. Knight, Charles D. Michener, 
W. Wayne Moss, Paul Oman, and Jerry A. Powell. "Report of the Advisory 
Committee for Systematics Resources in Entomology. Part II: The Current 
Status of Entomological Collections in North America." Bulletin of the 
Entomological Society of America, volume 21 (1975), pages 209-212. 

Hurd, Paul D., Jr., and E. Gorton Linsley. "The Bee Family Oxaeidae with a 
Revision of the North American Species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Zoology, volume 220 (1976), pages 1-75, 68 figures, 
3 plates, 3 maps, 2 tables. 

346 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Krombein, Karl V. "Comment on the Proposed Suppression of Euplilis Risso, 
1826, in Favour of Rhopalum Stephens, 1829, Z.N.(S.) 2056." Bulletin 
of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 32, part 2 (1975), page 97. 

. "Additional Comment on Z.N.(S.) 2056, Euplilis Risso, 1826 (Hymen- 

optera, Sphecidae) : Proposed Suspension Under the Plenary Powers in 
Favour of Rhopalum Stephens, 1829." Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 
volume 32, part 4 (1976), pages 205-207. 

"Eustenogaster, A Primitive Social Sinhalese Wasp." Loris, volume 

13, number 6 (1976), pages 303-306, figs. 1-12. 

"Synonymical Notes on Two Palaearctic Subgenera of Myrmosa 

Latreille (Hymenoptera, Mutillidae." Polski Pismo Entomologiczne, volume 
46 (1976), pages 257-260. 

Technical editor for English translation from Japanese of Kunio 

Iwata's "Evolution of Instinct: Comparative Ethology of Hymenoptera." 

Publ. for Smithsonian Institution by National Technical Information Service 

(TT 73-52016) (1976), 535 pages, 50 figures. 
Reinert, J. F. "Mosquito Generic and Subgeneric Abbreviations Diptera: Culici- 

dae)." Mosquito Systematics, volume 7, number 2 (1975), pages 105-110. 
. "Medical Entomological Studies IV. The Subgenera Indusius and 

Edwardsaedes of the genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae)." Contr. Am. 

Entomol. Inst., volume 13, number 1, pages 1-45. 

'A Ventromedian Cervical Sclerite of Mosquito Larvae Diptera: Culici- 

dae)." Mosquito Systematics (1976), volume 8, number 2 (1976), pages 205- 

Sirivanakarn, S. "A New Species of Culex (Eumelanomyia) Theobald from 
Manus Island, Papua-New Guinea (Diptera: Culicidae)." Mosquito Systema- 
tics, volume 8, number 2 (1976), pages 209-216. 

Spangler, Paul J., Hans Reichardt and Sergio A. Vanin. "New and Little 
Known Neotropical Coleoptera IV. Notes on Spercheidae, Especially 
Spercheus fimbricollis Bruch." Paper's Avulsos Zoologia, volume 29, number 
11 (1975), pages 71-78. 

Traub, R., and C. L. Wisseman, Jr. "The Ecology of Chigger-borne Rickettsiosis 
(Scrub Typhus)." J. Med. Ent. (1974), volume 11, number 3, pages 237-303, 

. "Current Concepts of the Ecology of Chigger-borne Rickettsiosis 

(Scrub Typhus)." Jap. ]. Med. Sci. Biol. (Tokyo), volume 27, number 1 
(1974), pages 1-5. 

Traub, R., C. L. Wisseman, Jr., M. R. Jones, and J. J. O'Keefe. "The Acquisition 
of Rickettsia Tsutsugamushi by Chiggers (Trombiculid Mites) During the 
Feeding Process." Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. (1975), 266, pages 91-114, refs. 

Utmar, Joyce A., and W. W. Wirth. "A Revision of the New World Species 
of Forcipomyia, Subgenus Caloforcipomyia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)." 
Florida Entomologist, volume 59, number 2 (1976), pages 109-133. 

Wisseman, C. L., Jr., and R. Traub. "Scrub Typhus (Chigger-borne Rickettsio- 
sis)." In Hunter, G. W., Ill; J. C. Swartzwelder, and J. C. and D. F. Clyde 
(eds.) A Manual of Tropical Medicine (1976), Chapter 12, pages 125-130. 
5th Edition, W. B. Saunders & Co., Philadelphia, 900 pages. 

Department of Invertebrate Zoology 

Banta, W. C, and M. E. Rice. "A Restudy of the Middle Cambrian Burgess 
Shale Fossil Worm, Ottoia prolifica." Proceedings of the International 
Symposium on the Biology of the Sipuncula and Echiura, volume 2 (1976), 
pages 79-90. 

Barnard, J. L. "Identification of Gammaridean Amphipods. "In Light's Manual: 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 347 

Intertidal Invertebrates of the Central California Coast, edited by Ralph I. 
Smith and James T. Carlton, pages 314-352, plate 70-83. Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia: University of California Press, 1975. 
. "Amphipod." Encyclopaedia Britannica, Micropedia, volume 1, page 

326. 1974. 

-. "Amphipoda (Crustacea) from the Indo-Pacific Tropics: A Review. 

Micronesica, volume 12, number 1, pages 169-182. 

-, and Gordan S. Karaman. "The Higher Classification in Amphipods.' 

Crustaceana 28 (1975), pages 304-310. 

Barnard, J. L., and Desmond E. Hurley. "Redescription of Parawaldeckia 
kidderi (Smith) (Amphipoda, Lysianassidae)." Crustaceana 29 (1975), pages 
68-73, figures 1-2. 

, and M. M. Drummond. "Clarification of Five Genera of Phoxocephali- 

dae (Marine Amphipoda)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Wash- 
ington 88 (1976), pages 515-547, figures 1-4. 

Bayer, Frederick M., and Katherine Margaret Muzik. "New Genera and 
Species of the Holaxonian Family Chrysogorgiidae (Octocorallia: Gorgona- 
cea)." Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden), 1976, pages 1-26, figures 1-10, 
plates 1-7. 

. "A New Solitary Octocoral, Taiaroa tauhou n. gen. et n. sp. (Coelen- 

terara: Protoalcyonaria), from New Zealand." Journal of the Royal Society 
of New Zealand, 1976. 

Bouchard, Raymond W., and Horton H. Jobbs, Jr. "A New Subgenus and 
Two New Species of Crayfishes of the Genus Cambarus (Decapoda: Cam- 
baridae) from the Southeastern United States." Smithsonian Contributions 
to Zoology, volume 224 (1976), 15 pages, 3 figures. 

Bowman, Thomas E. "Oithona colcarva, n. sp., an American Copepod Incor- 
rectly Known as O. brevicornis (Cyclopoida: Oithonidae)." Chesapeake 
Science, volume 16, number 1 (1975), pages 134-137. 

. "Miostephos cubrobex, a New Genus and Species of Copepod from 

an Anchialine Pool in Cuba (Calanoida: Stephidae)." Proceedings of the 
Biological Association of Washington, volume 89, number 11 (1976), pages 

"Three New Troglobitic Asellids from Western North America 

(Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellidae)." International Journal of Speleology, 
volume 7, number 4 (1976), pages 339-356. 

-, and Charlotte Holmquist. " ' Asellus (Asellus) alaskensis, n. sp., the 

First Alaskan Asellus, With Remarks on its Asian Affinities (Crustacea: 
Isopoda: Asellidae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 
volume 88, number 7 (April 23, 1975), pages 59-72. 

Bowman, Thomas E., Peter W. Glynn, and Deborah M. Dexter. "Excirolana 
braziliensis, a Pan-American Sane Beach Isopod: Taxonomic Status, Zona- 
tion and Distribution." Journal of Zoology, London, volume 175 (1975), 
pages 509-521. 

Bowman, Thomas E., and Glenn Longley. "Redescription and Assignment to 
the New Genus Lirceolus of the Texas Troglobitic Water Slater, Asellus 
smithii (Ulrich) (Crustacea: Isopoda: Aselliae)." Proceedings of the Biolo- 
gical Society of Washington, volume 88, number 45 (January 22, 1976), 
pages 489-496. 

(Canet) Perez Farfante, Isabel. "Spermatophores and Thelyca of the Ameri- 
can White Shrimps, Genus Penaeus, Subgenus Litopenaeus." Fishery Bulle- 
tin, volume 73, number 3 (1975), pages 463-486, figures 1-19. 

. "A Redescription of Penaeus (Melicertus) canaliculatus (Oliver, 1811), 

a Wide-ranging Indo-west Pacific Shrimp (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaei- 
dea)." Zoologische Mededelingen, volume 50, number 2 (August 13, 1976), 
pages 23-37, 5 figures. 

348 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Chace, F. A., Jr. "Shrimps of the Pasiphaeid Genus Leptochela with Descrip- 
tions of Three New Species (Crustacea: Decapods: Caridae)." Smithsonian 
Contributions to Zoology number 222 (1976), 51 pages, 37 figures. 

, and G. Barnish." Swarming of a Raninid Megalopa at St. Lucia, West 

Indies (Decapoda, Brachyura)." Crustaceana, volume 31, part 1 (July 1976), 
pages 105-107. 

Cohen, Anne C, and Louis S. Kornicker. "Taxonomc Indexes to Ostracoda 
(Suborder Myodocopina) in Skogsberg (1920) and Poulsen (1962, 1965)." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, volume 204 (1975), 29 pages. 

Cressey, R. F. "Shiinoa elagata, a New species of Parasitic Copepod from 
Elagatus (Carangidae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Wash- 
ington, volume 88, number 40 (1976), pages 433-438. 

. "Nicothoe tumulosa A New Siphonostome Copepod Parasitic on the 

Unique Decapod N eoglyphea-inopinata Forest and Saint Laurent." Proceed- 
ings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 89, number 7 (1976), 
pages 119-126. 

Forest, J. M. de Saint Laurent, and F. A. Chace, Jr. 1976. "Neoglyphea ino- 
pinata: A Crustacean "Living Fossil" from the Philippines." Science, 192 
(4242), pages 884. 

Hobbs, Horton H., Jr. "New Crayfishes (Decapoda: Cambaridae) from the 
Southern United States and Mexico." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 
volume 201 (1976), 34 pages, 8 figures. 

. "Adaptations and Convergence in North American Crayfishes." In 

Freshwater Crayfish, edited by James W. Avault, Jr., pages 541-551 (2 
figures). Papers from the Second International Symposium on Freshwater 
Crayfish, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, 1974. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State 
University, 1976. 

Hope, W. D. [Review] Introduction to Nematology by B. G. Chitwood and 
M. B. Chitwood. University Park Press, Baltimore, London and Tokyo, 1974. 
Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, volume 95, number 2 
(1976), pages 258-259. 

Jones, Meredith L. "On the Invertebrates of the Upper Chamber, Gatun Locks, 
Panama Canal, with Emphasis on Trochospnogilla leidii (Bowerbank) (Pori- 
fera)." Marine Biology volume 33, pages 57-66, 6 figures. 

Kornicker, Louis S. "Ivory Coast Ostracoda (Suborder Myodocopina)." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Zoology, volume 197 (1975), 46 pages, 32 figures. 

. "Antarctic Ostracoda (Myodocopina) Parts 1 and 2." Smithsonian Con- 
tributions to Zoology, volume 163 (1975), 720 pages, 432 figures, 9 plates. 
-. "Myodocopid Ostracoda from Southern Africa." Smithsonian Contri- 

butions to Zoology, volume 214 (1976), 39 pages, 24 figures. 

'Cigantocypris Muelleri Skogsberg, 1920 (Ostracoda) in Benthic 

Samples Collected in the Vicinity of Heard Island and The Kerguelen Islands 
on Cruise MD 03 of the Research Vessel Marion-Mufresne 1974." Prospec- 
tions en Oceanographie Biologique et Bionomie Benthique aux Abords Des 
lies Kerguelen et Corzet, Comite National Francois des Rechereches Antarc- 
tiques, volume 39 (1976), pages 47-48. 

Kornicker, Louis S., and Martin V. Angel. "Morphology and Ontogeny of 
Bathyconchoecia septemspinosa Angel, 1970 (Ostracoda: Halocyprididae)." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, volume 195 (1975), 21 pages, 14 

Kornicker, Louis S., and Marcia Bowen. "Sarsiella ozotothrix, a New Species 
of Marine Ostracoda (Myodocopina) from the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of 
North America." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 
volume 88, number 46 (1976), pages 497-502, figures 1-3. 

Kornicker, Louis S., Sheldon Wirsing, and Maura McManus. "Biological 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 349 

Studies of the Bermuda Ocean Acre: Planktonic Ostracoda." Smithsonian 

Contributions to Zoology, volume 223 (1976), 34 pages, 20 figures. 
Manning, Raymond B. "Eurysquilla pacifica, a New Stomatopod Crustacean 

from New Britain." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 

volume 88 (1975), pages 249-252, figure 1. 
. "Two New Species of the Indo-West-Pacific Genus Chorisquilla 

(Crustacea, Stomatopoda), with Notes on C. excavata (Miers)." Proceedings 

of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 88 (1975), pages 253-261, 

figures 1-3. 

"A New Species of Meiosquilla (Crustacea, Stomatopoda) from South 

Africa." Annals of the South African Museum, volume 67, number 9 (1975), 
pages 363-366, figure 1. 

-. "The Identity of Raninoides fossor A. Milne-Edwards and Bouvier, 

1923 (Decapoda)." Crustaceana, volume 29, number 3, pages 297-298, 
figure 1. 

"Two Methods for Collecting Decapods in Shallow Water." Crusta- 

ceana, volume 29, number 3 (1975), pages 317-319, plates 1-2. 

"Conodactylus botti, a New Stomatopod Crustacean from Indonesia." 

Senckenbergiana biologica, volume 56, numbers 4-6 (1975), pages 289-291, 
figure 1. 

-. "A Redescription of Clorida mauiana (Bigelow), a Stomatopod Crus- 

tacean New to the American Fauna." Proceedings of the Biological Society 
of Washington, volume 89 (1976), pages 215-220, figure 1. 

-. "Notes on Some Eastern Pacific Stomatopod Crustacea, with Descrip- 

tion of a New Genus and Two New Species of Lysiosquillidae." Proceedings 
of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 89 (1976), pages 221-231, 
figures 1-2. 

"Redescriptions of Oratosquilla indica (Hansen) and Clorida verru- 

cosa (Hansen), with Accounts of a New Genus and Two New Species 
(Crustacea, Stomatopoda)." Beaufortia, volume 25, number 318 (September 
1, 1976), pages 1-13. 

Pawson, David L., G. Donnay, and M. Hey. "Iron Phosphate Deposits in 
Molpadiid Holothurians (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea)." Biomineraliza- 
tion Research Reports, volume 8 (1975), pages 16-20. 

Pettibone, Marian H. "Review of the Genus Hermenia, with a Description of 
a New Species (Polychaeta: Polynoidae: Lepidonotinae)." Proceedings of 
the Biological Society of Washington, volume 88, number 22 (1975), pages 
233-248, 6 figures. 

. "Revision of the Genus Macellicephala Mcintosh and the Subfamily 

Macellicephalinae Hartmann-Schroder (Polychaeta: Polynoidae)." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Zoology, number 229 (1976), pages 1-71, 36 figures. 
"Contribution to the Polychaete Family Trochochaetidae Pettibone." 

Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, volume 230 (1976), pages 1-21, 

10 figures. 
Rehder, Harald A. "Corrections to Recent Papers on New Species of Volu- 

tocorbis from South Africa." The Nautilis, volume 89, number 3 (1975), page 

. "Comment on the Request for a Ruling on the Authorship of Conus 

moluccensis. Z.N.(S.)2059." Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 32, 

part 3, pages 133-134. 

"Proposed Amendment to Opinion 740: Correction of name number 

2087 on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology. Z.N.(S.)1521" Bulletin 
of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 32, part 3, page 143. 

-, and Barry R. Wilson. "New Species of Marine Mollusks from Pitcairn 

Island and the Marquesas." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 
203 (1975), iv + 6 pages, 1 color plate, 10 figures. 

350 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Rice, M. E. "Observations on the Development of Six Species of Caribbean 
Sipuncula with a Review of Development in the Phylum." Proceedings of 
the International Symposium on the Biology of the Sipuncula and Echiura, 
volume 1 (1975), pages 141-160. 

. "Survey of the Sipuncula of the Coral and Beachrock Communities 

of the Caribbean Sea. "Proceedings of the International Symposium on the 
Biology of Sipuncula and Echiura, volume 1 (1975), pages 35-49. 

"Sipunculans Associated with Coral Communities." Micronesica, 

volume 12, number 1 (1976), pages 119-132. 
Rice, M. E., and M. Todorovic, editors. Proceedings of the International 

Symposium on the Biology of the Sipuncula and Echiura, volume 1 (1975). 

Belgrade, Yugoslavia: Naucno Delo Press, 355 pages. 
Roper, Clyde F. E., and A. Solem. "Structures of Recent Cephalopod Radulae." 

The Veliger, volume 18, number 2 (1975), pages 127-133, 23 figures. 
. "Radulae." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Malacological Union 

for 1975 (1976), page 58. 
Roper, Clyde F. E., and M. J. Sweeney. "The Pelagic Octopod Ocythoe tuber- 

culata Rafinesque, 1814." Bulletin of the American Malacological Union for 

1975 (1976), pages 21-28, 1 figure. 
Roper, Clyde F. E., and R. E. Young. "Vertical Distribution of Pelagic Cepha- 

lopods." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 209 (1975), 51 

pages, 31 figures. 
. "Bioluminescent Countershading in Midwater Animals: Evidence from 

Living Squid." Science, volume 191 (1976), pages 1046-1048. 
Rosewater, Joseph. [Review] The World of Shells by R. Scase and E. Storey. 

National Capital Shell Club Newsletter, September 1975, page 10. 
. "William Healey Dall — The Legacy He Left for Malacology." Bulletin 

of the American Malacological Union for 1975, (1976), pages 4-6. 

'Some Results of the National Museum of Natural History — Smith- 

sonian Tropical Research Institute Survey of Panama 1971-1975." Bulletin 
of the American Malacological Union for 1975, (1976), pages 48-50. 

-. "Pleurocera Rafinesque, 1818 (Gastropoda): Proposed Designation of 

Type-Species under The Plenary Powers Z.N.(S)83." R. V. Melville, editor: 
Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 33, part 2 (September 30, 
1976), pages 105-113. 

[Review] Shell Collectors Guide by Ruth Fair. National Capital Shell 

Club Newsletter, September 1976, pages 11-12. 

Department of Mineral Sciences 

Appleman, D. E., J. A. Konnert, J. R. Clark, L. W. Finger, T. Kate, and Y. 
Miura. "Crystal Structure and Cation Distribution of Hulsite, a Tin-Iron 
Borate." American Mineralogist, volume 61 (1976), pages 116-122. 

Chalmers, R. O., E. P. Henderson, and Brian Mason. "Occurrence, Distribu- 
tion, and Age of Australian Tektites." Smithsonian Contributions to the 
Earth Sciences, number 17 (1976), 46 pages. 

Clarke, Roy S., Jr., editor. The Meteoritical Bulletin, number 53 (1975), 
Meteoritics 10, pages 133-158. 

, editor. The Meteoritical Bulletin, number 54 (1976), Meteoritics 11, 

pages 69-93. 

'Schreibersite Growth and Its Influence on the Metallography of 

Coarse Structured Iron Meteorites." [Ph.D. thesis] The George Washington 
University, Washington, D.C. (1976), 197 pages. 

-, Eugene Jarosewich, and Albert F. Noonan. "Preliminary Data on Eight 

Observed-Fall Chondritic Meteorites." Mineral Sciences Investigations 1972- 
1973, Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences, number 14, pages 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 351 

Desautels, Paul E. "Gemstones." Encyclopedia Brittanica Yearbook, 1975. 
Dunn, Pete J. "On Gem Orthopyroxines." Gems and Gemmology, volume 15, 

number 4 (1975), pages 118-122. 
. "On Gem Rhondonite from Massachusetts, U.S.A." The journal of 

Gemmology, volume 15 (1976), pages 76-80. 

"Inclusions in Gem Almandine from Idaho and New York." Journal 

of Gemmology, volume 14 (1975), pages 273-280. 

"On Gem Elbaite from Newry, Maine." Journal of Gemmology, volume 

14 (1975), pages 357-367. 

-. "Genthelvite and the Helvite Group." Mineralogical Magazine, volume 

40 (1975), pages 627-636. 
. "The Loudville Lead Mines." Mineralogical Record, volume 6 (1975), 

pages 293-298. 

"Rosenhahnite, A Second Occurrence with the Zeolites of the Durham 

Quarry." Mineralogical Record, volume 6 (1975), pages 300-301. 

-. "Personality Sketch — Frank Perham." Mineralogical Record, volume 6 

(1975), page 105. 

"National Mineral Collection Supports Research." Mineralogical 

Record, volume 6 (1975), page 206. 

"Notes on Inclusions in Tanzanite and Tourmalinated Quartz." 

Journal of Gemmology, volume 14 (1975), pages 335-338. 

-. "So You Think You Have Found a New Mineral?" Guest Editorial, 

Mineralogical Record, volume 6 (1975), pages 220-221. 

"On Jewelry Fit for a Queen." Journal of Gemmology, volume 14 

(1975), pages 313-321. 

-, and J. Marshall. "The Lead Mines at Loudville." Rocks and Minerals, 

volume 51, number 5 (1976), pages 250-255. 

Dunn, Pete J., J. Arem, and J. Saul. "Red Dravite from Kenya." Journal of 
Gemmology, volume 14 (1975), pages 386-387. 

Dunn, Pete J., and W. Wight. "Green Gem Herderite from Brazil." Journal 
of Gemmology, volume 15 (1976), pages 27-28. 

Fredriksson, K. [Review] "Minerals and Rocks, 10. Meteorites: Classification 
and Properties" by J. T. Wasson. Chemical Geology, volume 16 (1975), 
pages 317-318. 

Fredriksson, K., A. A. deGasparis, and P. Brenner. "Composition of Individual 
Chondrules in Ordinary Chondrites." Meteoritics, volume 10 (1975), pages 

Fredriksson K., A. A. deGasparis, and E. Rambaldi. "The Matrix in Chond- 
rites." Meteoritics, volume 10 (1975), pages 402-403. 

Fredriksson, K., G. Kurat, and G. Hoinkes. "Zoned Al-Ca-rich Chondrule in 
Bali: New Evidence Against the Primordial Condensation Model." Earth 
and Planetary Science Letters, volume 26 (1975), pages 140-144. 

Fredriksson, K., J. Nelen, and G. Kurat. "The Renazzo Chondrite — A Reevalua- 
tion." Meteoritics, volume 10 (1975), pages 464-465. 

Fudali, R. F., and P. J. Cressy. "Investigation of a New Stony Meteorite from 
Mauritania with Some Additional Data on Its Fine Site: Aouelloul Crater." 
Earth and Planetary Science Letters, volume 30 (1976), pages 262-268. 

Jarosewich, E. "Chemical Analysis of Two Microprobe Standards." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences, volume 14 (1975), pages 85-86. 

Jarosewich, E., K. Fredriksson, Ananda Dube, Joseph Nelen, and Albert 
Noonan. "The Pulsora Anomaly." Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth 
Sciences, volume 14 (1975), pages 41-53. 

Jarosewich, E., and R. T. Todd. "Olivine Microporphyry in the St. Mesmin 
Chondrite." Meteoritics, volume 11 (1976), pages 1-20. 

Mason, Brian. "The Allende Meteorite — Cosmochemistry's Rosetta Stone?" 
Accounts of Chemical Research, volume 8 (1975), pages 217-224. 

352 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

. "Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Two Amitsoq Gneisses from the 

Godthab Region, West Greenland." Geological Survey of Greenland Report, 
number 71 (1975), 11 pages. 

-. "High-titanium Lunar Basalts: A Possible Source in the Allende 

Meteorite." Geochemical Journal (Japan), volume 9 (1975), pages 1-5. 
. "Mineral Sciences in the Smithsonian Institution." Smithsonian Con- 

tributions to the Earth Sciences, number 14 (1975), pages 1-10. 

"Petrographic Analysis of Apollo 16 Samples 66083,1 and 67943,1." 

Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences, number 14 (1975), pages 

"List of Meteorites in the National Museum of Natural History." 

Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences, number 14 (1975), pages 

-. "Famous Mineral Localities: Broken Hill, Australia." The Mineralogi- 

cal Record, volume 7 (1976), pages 25-33. 
Mason, B., J. Nelen, P. Muir, and S. F. Taylor. "The Composition of the 

Chassigny Meteorite." Meteoritics, volume 11, number 1 (1975), pages 21-27. 
Mason, Brian, and H. B. Wiik. "The Composition of the Geidam Meteorite." 

Records of the Geological Survey of Nigera, volume 8 (1974), pages 35-38. 
Melson, William G., and Scientific Party. "Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 

Challenger Drills on Leg 45." Geotimes, volume 21, number 4 (1976), pages 

Moreland, Grover C, Tracy Vallier, D. Bohrer, and E. McRee. "Origin of 

Basaltic Microlapilli — Lower Miocene Pelagic Sediment North Eastern 

Pacific." GSA Bulletin (1976). 
Noonan, A., and J. Nelen. "A Petrographic and Mineral Chemistry Study of the 

Weston, Connecticut, Meteorite." Meteoritics, volume 11 (1976), pages 111- 

Pei-Lin Tien, P. Leavens, and J. Nelen. "Swindfordite, A Dioctahedral-Triocta- 

hedral Li-rich Member of the Smectite Group from Kings Mountain, North 

Carolina." American Mineralogist, volume 60 (1975), pages 540-547. 
Simkin, Thomas. "Volcanology: Global Review of 1975." Geotimes, volume 

21 (1976), page 38. 
Simkin, Thomas, and J. Filson. "An Application of a Stochastic Model to a 

Volcanic Earthquake Swarm." Bulletin Seismological Society of America, 

volume 65 (1975), pages 351-358. 
Simkin, Thomas, and A. F. Krueger. "Summit Eruption of Fernandina Caldera, 

Galapagos Islands, Ecuador." nasa Special Publication on Results of Sky- 
lab 4. 
Simkin, Thomas, P. T. Taylor, D. J. Stanley, and W. Jahn. "Gillis Seamount: 

Detailed Bathymetry and Modification by Bottom Currents." Marine, volume 

19 (1975), pages 139-157. 
White, John S., Jr. "Fersmite from North Carolina." Mineralogical Record, 

volume 6 (1975), pages 276-277. 
. "Levyne-Offretite from Beech Creek, Oregon." Mineralogical Record, 

volume 6 (1975), pages 171-173. 
. "A New Mineral Almost — III." Mineralogical Record, volume 7 (1976), 

page 83. 
White, John S., Jr., G. E. Dunning, and J. F. Cooper, Jr. "Chromian Alumo- 

hydrocalcite from California, and Knipovichite Discredited." Mineralogical 

Record, volume 6 (1975), page 180-183. 
White, John S., Jr., and A. Roe. "A Catalog of the Type Specimens in the 

Mineral Collection, National Museum of Natural History." Smithsonian 

Contributions to Earth Sciences, number 18 (1976), 41 pages. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 353 

Department of Paleobiology 

Adey, W. H. "The Algal Ridges and Coral Reefs of St. Croix: Their Structure 
and Holocene Development." Atoll Research Bulletin, volume 187 (1975), 
pages 1-67. 

Adey, W. H., and R. B. Burke. "Holocene Bioherms (Algal Ridges and Bank 
Barrier Reefs) of the Eastern Caribbean." Geological Society of America 
Bulletin, volume 87, number 1 (1976), pages 95-109. 

Adey, W. H., Tomiataro Masaki, and Hidetsuga Akiota. "The Distribution of 
Crustose Corallines in Eastern Hokkaido and the Biogeographic Relation- 
ships of the Flora." Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries, Hokkaido Univer- 
sity, volume 26, number 4 (1976), pages 303-313, 4 figures. 

Adey, W. H., and J. M. Vassar. "Colonization, Succession, and Growth Rates 
in Caribbean Crustose Corallines." Phycologia, volume 14 (1975), pages 

Benson, R. H. "Ostracodes and Neogene History." In Late Neogene Bound- 
aries, edited by Tsunemasa Saito and L. H. Burckle. Micropaleontology 
Special Publication, number 1 (1975), pages 41-48, 3 text-figures. 

Boardman, R. S., and F. K. McKinney. "Skeletal Architecture and Preserved 
Organs of Four-Sided Zooids in Convergent Genera of Paleozoic Treposto- 
mata (Bryozoa)." Journal of Paleontology, volume 50, number 1 (1976), 
pages 25-78, 16 plates, 18 text-figures. 

Cheetham, A. H. "Preliminary Report on Early Eocene Cheilostome Bryozoans 
from Site 308 — Leg 32, Deep Sea Drilling Project." In Initial Reports of the 
Deep Sea Drilling Project, edited by R. L. Larson et al., volume 32, pages 
835-851, 4 plates, 2 text-figures. Washington, D.C. : United States Govern- 
ment Printing Office, 1975. 

Cheetham, A. H., and D. M. Lorenz. "A Vector Approach to Size and Shape 
Comparisons Among Zooids in Cheilostome Bryozoans." Smithsonian Con- 
tributions to Paleobiology, number 29 (1976), 55 pages, 37 figures. 

Cooper, G. A., and R. E. Grant. "Permian Brachiopods of West Texas, III." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, number 19 (1975), (Part 1: Text) 
pages 795-1298, (Part 2: Plates) pages 1300-1921, plates 192-502. 

. "Permian Brachiopods of West Texas, IV." Smithsonian Contributions 

to Paleobiology, number 21 (1976), (Part 1: Text) pages 1923-2285, (Part 2: 
Plates) pages 2288-2607, plates 503-662. 

Correll, D. L., M. A. Faust, and J. W. Pierce. [Integrated Progress Report] 
Non-Point Sources, submitted to National Science Foundation (Research 
Applied to National Needs), 119 pages and appendix. Edgewater, Maryland: 
Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies, 1975. 

Correll, D. L., J. W. Pierce, and M. A. Faust. "A Quantitative Study of the 
Nutrient, Sediment, and Coliform Bacteria Constituents of Water Runoff 
from the Rhode River Watershed." Southeastern Regional Conference on 
Non-Point Sources of Water Pollution (Virginia Water Resources Center, 
Blacksburg, Virginia), 1975, pages 131-143. 

Doyle, J. A., and L. J. Hickey. "Pollen and Leaves from the Mid-Cretaceous 
Potomac Group and Their Bearing on Early Angiosperm Evolution." In 
Origin and Early Evolution of Angiosperms, edited by C. B. Beck, pages 
139-206, 30 figures, 1 table. New York: Columbia University Press. 

Emry, R. J. "Revised Tertiary Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Western 
Beaver Divide, Fremont County, Wyoming." Smithsonian Contributions to 
Paleobiology, number 25 (1975), 20 pages, 6 figures. 

Feyling-Hanssen, R. W., and M. A. Buzas. "Emendation of Cassidulina and 
Islandiella helenae new species." Journal of Foraminiferal Research, volume 
6, number 2 (1976), pages 154-158, 4 text-figures. 

354 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Grant, R. E. "Permian Brachiopods from Southern Thailand." Journal of 
Paleontology, volume 50, supplement to number 3: The Paleontological 
Society Memoir 9 (1976), 269 pages, 71 plates, 23 text-figures. 

Graus, R. R., and I. G. Macintyre. "Light-Adapted Growth of Massive Coral 
Reefs: Computer Simulation." [Abstract] Geological Society of America 
Abstracts with Programs, volume 7, number 7 (1975), page 1090. 

Hickey, L. J. "Relationship of Lithofacies to Cretaceous and Tertiary Mega- 
floral Assemblages." [Abstract] Botanical Society of America (Tulane Uni- 
versity) Abstracts of Papers (1976), page 26. 

Hickey, L. J., and R. W. Hodges. "Lepidopteran Leaf Mine from the Early 
Eocene Wind River Formation of Northwestern Wyoming." Science, volume 
189, number 4204 (1975), pages 718-720, 2 figures. 

Hickey, L. J., and J. A. Wolfe. "The Bases of Angiosperm Phylogeny: Vege- 
tative Morphology." Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, volume 62, 
number 3 (1975), pages 538-589, 21 figures, 2 tables. 

Hueber, F. M. "Phytogeographical Analysis of the Devonian." [Abstract] 
Geological Society of America (Northeastern Section and Southeastern Sec- 
tion) Abstracts with Programs, volume 8, number 2 (1976), pages 203-204. 

Kauffman, E. G. "Dispersal and Biostratigraphic Potential of Cretaceous 
Benthonic Bivalvia in the Western Interior." Special Paper of the Geological 
Association of Canada, number 13 (1975), pages 163-194, 4 text-figures. 

. "Evolution and the Environment." Chemistry, volume 48, number 9 

(1975), page 24. 

-. "Plate Tectonics: A Major Force in Evolution." The Science Teacher, 

volume 43, number 3 (1976), pages 12-17. 

"Deep-Sea Cretaceous Macrofossils: Hole 317A, Manihiki Plateau." 

In Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, edited by S. O. Schlanger 
et al., volume 33, pages 503-535, 3 plates, 2 text-figures. Washington, D.C. 
United States Government Printing Office, 1976. 

and R. W. Scott. "Basic Concepts of Community Ecology and Paleo- 

ecology." In Structure and Classification of Ancient Communities, edited by 
R. W. Scott and R. West, pages 1-28, 4 figures. Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: 
Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross, Inc. 

Kelling, Gilbert, and D. J. Stanley. "A Model for Longitudinal Transport 
within a Modern Multi-Source Basin." In Congress Reports: IXth Inter- 
national Congres of Sedimentology (Nice, France), 1975, 8 pages. 

. "Sedimentation in Canyon, Slope, and Base of Slope Sediments." In 

Marine Sediment Transport and Environmental Management, edited by D. 
J. Stanley and D. J. P. Swift, pages 379-435. New York: John Wiley and 
Sons, 1976. 

Kier, P. M. "The Echinoids of Carrie Bow Cay, Belize." Smithsonian Contribu- 
tions to Zoology, number 206 (1975), 45 pages, 12 plates, 8 text-figures. 

Macintyre, I. G., B. W. Blackwelder, L. S. Land, and R. Stuckenrath. "North 
Carolina Shelf-Edge Sandstone: Age, Environment of Origin, and Relation- 
ship to Pre-existing Sea Levels." Geological Society of America Bulletin, 
volume 86, number 8 (1975), pages 1073-1078. 

Macintyre, I. G., and P. W. Glynn. "Evolution of a Modern Caribbean Fringe 
Reef: Galeta Point, Panama." [Abstract] Geological Society of America 
Abstracts with Programs, volume 7, number 7 (1975), page 1183. 

. "Evolution of a Modern Caribbean Fringing Reef, Galeta Point, Pan- 
ama." Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, volume 
60, number 7 (1976), pages 1054-1072, 9 figures, 2 tables. 

Macintyre, I. G., and K. M. Towe. "Skeletal Calcite in Living Scleractinian 
Corals: Further Observations." Science, volume 193 (1976). 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 355 

Maldonado, Andres, and D. J. Stanley. "Nile Cone Lithofacies and Definition 
of Sediment Sequences." In Congress Reports, IXth International Congress 
of Sedimentology (Nice, France) (1975), 10 pages. 

. "The Nile Cone: Submarine Fan Development by Cyclic Sedimenta- 
tion." Marine Geology, volume 20, number 1 (1976), pages 27-40, 5 figures. 
"Late Quaternary Sedimentation and Stratigraphy in the Strait of 

Sicily." Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences, number 16 (1976), 
73 pages, 39 figures, 5 tables. 

Pierce, J. W. "Suspended Sediment Transport at the Shelf-Break and over 
the Outer Margin." In Marine Sediment Transport and Environmental Man- 
agement, edited by D. J. Stanley and D. J. P. Swift, pages 437-458. New 
York: John Wiley and Sons, 1976. 

Pierce, J. W., F. R. Siegel, and P. P. Hearn. "Suspended Particulate Matter of 
the Southern Argentine Shelf." [Abstract] III Congresso Latinoamericano 
de Geologia (Mexico City, Mexico) Resumenes (1976), page 107. 

Pierce, J. W., and D. J. Stanley. "Suspended-Sediment Concentration and 
Mineralogy in the Central and Western Mediterranean and Mineralogic 
Comparison with Bottom Sediment." Marine Geology, volume 19, number 
2 (1975), pages M15-M25, 3 figures, 1 table. 

Ray, C. E. "The Relationships of Hemicaulodon effodiens Cope 1869 (Mam- 
malia: Odobenidae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 
volume 88, number 26 (1975), pages 281-304, 6 plates. 

. "The Geography of Phocid Evolution." [Abstract] American Zoologist, 

volume 15, number 3 (1975), page 812. 

-. "Phoca wymani and Other Tertiary Seals (Mammalia: Phocidae) 

Described from the Eastern Seaboard of North America." Smithsonian 
Contributions to Paleobiology, number 28 (1976), 36 pages, 11 plates, 

3 figures. 

Roberts, W. P., and J. W. Pierce. "Deposition in the Upper Patuxent Estuary, 
Maryland." Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, volume 4, number 2 
(1976), pages 267-280, 6 figures, 2 tables. 

Siegel, F. R., J. W. Pierce, and P. P. Hearn. "Suspended Sediments on the 
Argentine Continental Shelf: R/V HERO Cruise 75-3." Antarctic Journal 
of the United States, volume 11, number 1 (1976), pages 29-33, 2 figures. 

Southard, J. B., and D. J. Stanley. "Shelf-Break Processes and Sedimentation." 
In Marine Sediment Transport and Environmental Management, edited by 
D. J. Stanley and D. J. P. Swift, pages 351-377. New York: John Wiley and 
Sons, 1976. 

Stanley, D. J. "Submarine Canyon and Slope Sedimentation (Gres D'Annot) 
in the French Maritime Alps." In Congress Reports, IXth International Con- 
gress of Sedimentology (Nice, France) (1975), 131 pages, 62 figures. 

Stanley, D. J., H. Got, N. H. Kenyon, A. Monaco, and Y. Weiler. "Catalonian, 
Eastern Betic and Balearic Margins: Structural Types and Geologically 
Recent Foundering of the Western Mediterranean Basin." Smithsonian 
Contributions to the Earth Sciences, number 20 (1976), 67 pages, 33 figures. 

Stanley, D. J., A. Maldonado, and R. Stuckenrath. "Strait of Sicily Deposi- 
tional Rates and Patterns, and Possible Reversal of Currents in the Late 
Quaternary." Palaeo geography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, volume 
18, number 4 (1975), pages 279-291, 6 figures. 

Stanley, D. J., H. D. Palmer, and R. F. Dill. "Lateral Infill as a Major Factor 
in Submarine Canyon and Fan-Valley Sedimentation." [Abstract] Bulletin 
of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, volume 60, number 

4 (1976), page 726. 

Stanley, D. J., and D. J. P. Swift, editors. Marine Sediment Transport and 
Environment Management. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1976, 602 

356 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Stanley, D. J., and C. M. Wear. "Sediment Transfer across the Shelfbreak 
Off the Mid-Atlantic States." [Abstract] Geological Society of America 
(Northeastern Section and Southeastern Section) Abstracts with Programs, 
volume 8, number 2 (1976), page 275. 

Swift, D. J. P., and D. J. Stanley. "Introduction." In Marine Sediment Trans- 
port and Environmental Management, edited by D. J. Stanley and D. J. P. 
Swift, pages 1-3. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1976. 

Taylor, P. T., D. J. Stanley, T. E. Simkin, and W. Jahn. "Gilliss Seamount: 
Detailed Bathymetry and Modification by Bottom Currents." Marine Geol- 
ogy, volume 19, number 3 (1975), pages 139-157, 9 figures. 

Waller, T. R. "The Behavior and Tentacle Morphology of Pteriomorphian 
Bivalves: A Motion-Picture Study." Bulletin of the American Malacological 
Union, Inc. for 1975 (1975), pages 7-13, 2 figures, 1 table. 

. "The Origin of Foliated-Calcite Shell Microstructure in the Subclass 

Pteriomorphia (Mollusca: Bivalvia)." [Abstract] Bulletin of the American 
Malacological Union, Inc. for 1975 (1975), pages 57-58. 

Zieman, J. C, S. V. Smith, and I. G. Macintyre. "A Simulatton Model of 
Carbon Flow Through a Coral Reef Ecosystem." [Abstract] Thirteenth 
Pacific Science Congress (Vancouver, British Columbia) Abstracts of Papers: 
Record of Proceedings, volume 1 (1975), pages 136-137. 

Department of Vertebrate Zoology 

Ash, John S., Christian Erard, and Jean Prevost. "Statut et distribution de 

Streptopelia reichenowi en Ethiopie." Oiseau, volume 44, number 4, pages 

Bohlke, James E., and Victor G. Springer. "A New Genus and Species of Fish 

(Nemaclinus atelestos) from the Western Atlantic (Perciformes : Clinidae)." 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, volume 

127, number 7 (1975), pages 57-61, 2 figures, 3 tables. 
Bond, Gorman M. "The Correct Spelling of Jerdon's Generic Name for the 

Thickbilled Warbler." Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, volume 

95, number 2 (1975), pages 50-51. 
Busack, S. D., and G. R. Zug. "Observations on the Tadpoles of Pelobates 

cultripes from Southern Spain." Herpetologica, volume 32, number 2 (1976), 

pages 151-160. 
Desfayes, Michel. "Birds from Ethiopia." Revue de Zoologie Africaine, volume 

89, fascicle 3 (1975), pages 505-535. 
Handley, C. O., Jr. "Mamals of the Smithsonian Venezuelan Project." 

Brigham Young University Science Bulletin, Biological Series, volume 20, 

number 5 (July 1976), iv -f- 91 pages, 1 figure. 
Heltne, P. G., and R. W. Thorington, Jr. "Problems and potentials for primate 

biology and conservation in the New World." In Neotropical Primates: 

Field Studies and Conservation, edited by R. W. Thorington, Jr. and P. G. 

Heltne, pages 110-124. Washington, D.C. : National Academy of Sciences, 

Heyer, W. Ronald. "A Preliminary Analysis of the Intergeneric Relationships 

of the Frog Family Leptodactylidae." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 

number 199 (1975), pages 1-55, appendix, 16 figures, 38 tables. 
. "Adenomera lutzi (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae), a New Species of 

Frog from Guyana." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 

volume 88, number 28 (1975), pages 315-318. 
Heyer, W. Ronald, and David S. Liem. "Analysis of the Intergeneric Rela- 
tionships of the Australian Frog Family Myobatrachidae." Smithsonian 

Contributions to Zoology, number 233 (1976), pages 1-29, 28 figures, 3 


Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 357 

Heyer, W. Ronald, Roy W. McDiarmid, and Diana L. Weigmann. "Tadpoles, 

Predation and Pond Habitats in the Tropics." Biotropica, volume 7, number 

2 (1975), pages 100-111. 
Horner, Kenneth O., and George E. Watson. "First Records of Bimaculated 

Lark, Melanocorypha bimaculata from Cyprus." Bulletin of the British 

Ornithologists' Club, volume 93, number 3 (September 20, 1975), pages 

Lachner, E. A. "A National Plan for Ichthyology." Report to the American 

Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetolo gists (by the Advisory Committee), 

March 1976, 201 pages. 
Litchfield, C, A. Greenberg, and J. G. Mead. "The Distinctive Character of 

Ziphiidae Head and Blubber Fats." Cetology, number 23 (April 23, 1976), 

10 pages. 
Mead, J. G. "A Fossil Beaked Whale (Cetacea: Ziphiidae) from the Miocene 

of Kenya." Journal of Paleontology, volume 49, number 4 (July 1975), 

pages 745-751. 
. "Anatomy of the External Nasal Passages and Facial Complex in the 

Delphinidae (Mammalia: Cetacea)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 

number 207 (Nov. 18, 1975), 72 pages. 

"Preliminary Report on the Former Net Fisheries for Tursiops trunca- 

tus in the Western North Atlantic." Journal of the Fisheries Research Board 

of Canada, volume 32, number 7, pages 1155-1162. 
Muedeking, Miriam H, and W. Ronald Heyer. "Descriptions of Eggs and 

Reproductive Patterns of Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Amphibia: Lepto- 

dactylidae)." Herpetologica, volume 32, number 2 (1976), pages 137-139. 
Olson, Storrs L. "Geographic Variation and Other Notes on Basileuterus 

leucoblepharus (Parulidae)." Bulletin of the British Ornithologsts' Club, 

volume 95, number 3 (September 20, 1975), pages 101-104. 
. "A Review of the Extinct Rails of the New Zealand Region (Aves: 

Rallidae)." National Museum of New Zealand Records, volume 1, number 

3 (November 27, 1975), pages 63-79. 

-. "A New Species of Milvago from Hispaniola, with Notes on Other 

Fossil Caracaras from the West Indies (Aves: Falconidae)." Proceedings 
of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 88, number 33 (January 
22, 1976), pages 355-366. 

[Letter in response to R. J. Scarlett's on extinct New Zealand rails] 

Notornis, volume 23 (March 1976), page 79. 

-. "An Erroneous Fossil Record of Chionis from Australia." Emu, num- 

ber 76 (April 1976), page 90. 

-. "Oligocene Fossils Bearing on the Origins of the Todidae and Momo- 

tidae (Aves: Coraciiformes)." In Collected Papers in Avian Paleontology 
Honoring the 90th Birthday of Alexander Wetmore, edited by Storrs L. 
Olson, pages 111-119. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, volume 
27 (May 21, 1976). 

"Alexander Wetmore and the Study of Fossil Birds," including a 

bibliography of Publications in Avian Paleontology by Alexander Wetmore 
and an index to fossil avian taxa described by Alexander Wetmore. In Col- 
lected Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring the 90th Birthday of 
Alexander Wetmore, edited by Storrs L. Olson, pages xi-xxvi. Smithsonian 
Contributions to Paleobiology, volume 27 (May 21, 1976). 

-. [Abstract] "New Fossil Evidence of the Origin of Frigatebirds." Emu, 

volume 74 supplement (April 17, 1975), pages 281-282. 

"The Affinities of the Falconid Genus Spiziapteryx." Auk, volume 93 

(July 26, 1976), pages 633-636. 
Pyburn, William F., and W. Ronald Heyer. "Identity and Call of the Frog, 
Leptodactylus stenodema." Copeia, number 3 (1975), pages 585-587. 

358 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Randall, John E., and Victor G. Springer. "Labroides pectoralis, a New Species 
of Labrid Fish from the Tropical Western Pacific." Uo No Kai, volume 25 
(1975), pages 4-11, 22, 1 figure, 1 plate. 

Ripley, S. Dillon. "Zoological Expedition to Nepal, 1948-1949." In National 
Geographic Society Research Reports, 1890-1954 Projects, pages 271-276, 
National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C., 1975. 

. [Prefactory Note and Introduction] Festschrift volume in honor of the 

75th birthday of Salim Ali. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 
volume 71, number 3 (1974 — published 1976), pages 351-355. 

[Foreword] To Save a Bird in Peril by David R. Zimmerman. New 

York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, Inc., 1975. 

Slud, Paul. "Geographic and Climatic Relationships of Avifaunas with 
Special Reference to Comparative Distribution in the Neotropics." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Zoology, number 212 (1976), pages 1-149, 37 
figures, 11 tables. 

Springer, Victor G. "Cirrisalarias bunares, New Genus and Species of Blenniid 
Fish from the Indian Ocean." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Wash- 
ington, volume 89, number 13 (1976), pages 199-203, 1 figure. 

Springer, Victor G., and Warren C. Freihofer. "Study of the Monotypic Fish 
Family Pholidichthyidae (Perciformes)." Smithsonian Contributions to 
Zoology, number 216 (1976), pages 1-43, 23 figures. 

Springer, Victor G., and Martin F. Gomon. "Variation in the Western Atlantic 
Clinid Fish Malacoctenus triangulatus with a Revised Key to the Atlantic 
Species of Malacoctenus." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 
200 (1975), pages 1-11, 3 figures, 3 tables. 

Straughan, Ian R., and W. Ronald Heyer. "A Functional Analysis of the 
Mating Calls of the Neotropical Frog Genera of the Leptodactylus Com- 
plex (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae)." Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia, Sao Paulo, 
volume 29, number 23 (1976), pages 221-245. 

Thorington, R. W., Jr. "Primate Conservation — the Basic Problems." In 
Proceedings from the Symposia of the Fifth Congress of the International 
Primatological Society, edited by S. Kondo, M. Kawai, A. Ehara, and S. 
Kawamura, pages 489-490, 1975. 

. "A Summary of Discussions on Primate Conservation." In Proceed- 
ings from the Symposia of the Fifth Congress of the International Primato- 
logical Society, edited by S. Kondo, M. Kawai, A. Ehara, and S. Kawamura, 
pages 563-565, 1975. 

"The Relevance of Vegetational Diversity for Primate Conservation 

in South America." In Proceedings from the Symposia of the Fifth Congress 
of the International Primatological Society, edited by S. Kondo, M. Kawai, 
A. Ehara, and S. Kawamura, pages 547-553, 1975. 

-. "The Systematics of New World Monkeys." First Inter-American Con- 

ference on Conservation and Utilization of American Nonhuman Primates 
in Biomedical Research, pages 8-19. Pan American Health Organization, 
Scientific Publication number 317. 

Thorington, R. W., Jr., and P. G. Heltne, editors. Neotropical Primates: Field 
Studies and Conservation. Washington, D.C. : National Academy of Sciences, 
1976, v + 135 pages. 

Thorington, R. W., Jr. and P. G. Heltne. "Introduction." In Neotropical 
Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, edited by R. W. Thorington, Jr. 
and P. G. Heltne, pages 1-3, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, 
D.C, 1976. 

Thorington, R. W., Jr., N. A. Muckenhirn, and G. G. Montgomery. "Move- 
ment of a Wild Night Monkey (Aotus trivirgatus)." In Neotropical 
Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, edited by R. W. Thorington and 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 359 

P. G. Heltne, pages 32-34. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, 
D.C., 1976. 

Wake, D. B., R. G. Zweifel, H. C. Dessauer, G. W. Wace, E. R. Pianka, 
G. B. Rabb, R. Ruibal, J. W. Wright, and G. R. Zug. "Report of the Com- 
mittee on Resources in Herpetology." Copeia, volume 1975, number 2 
(1975), pages 391-404. 

. "Recommendations for the Management of Herpetological Museum 

Collections." Herpetological Review, volume 6, number 2 (1975), pages 

"Collections of Preserved Amphibians and Reptiles in the United 

States." Herpetological Circular, number 3 (1975), pages 1-22. 

Watson, George E. [Review] "The Birdlife of Texas" by H. C. Oberholser, 
1975. Atlantic Naturalist, volume 30, number 2, pages 140-141. 

. "Birds of the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic." Washington, D.C. : Amer- 
ican Geophysical Union, December, 1975, xvii + 350 pages, 7 tables, 11 color 
plates, frontispiece + 11 figures, 51 maps, numerous line drawings. 

"Proceedings of the Ninety-third Stated Meeting of the American 

Ornithologists' Union." The Auk, volume 93, number 1 (January 23, 1976), 
pages 142-163. 

"Charge to the AOU Committee on Public Responsibilities." The Auk, 

volume 93, number 1 (January 23, 1976), page 157. 

[Review] "Ocean Wanderers/the Migratory Seabirds of the World," 

by R. M. Lockley. The Auk, volume 93, number 2 (April 19, 1976), pages 

Weitzman, Stanley H. "Der Fltigelschuppensalmler, Pterobrycon myrnae, ein 

bezaubernden Aquarienfisch der Zukurst aus Costa Rica." Die Aquarien-und 

Terrarien Zeitschrift, 28 Jahrgang, number 12 (December 1975), pages 406- 

410, 8 figures. 
Zug, G. R., E. Lindgren, and J. R. Pippet. "Distribution and Ecology of the 

Marine Toad, Bufo marinus, in Papua New Guinea." Pacific Science, volume 

29, number 1 (1975), pages 31-50. 


Brownstein, D., R. J. Montali, M. Bush, and A. E. James. "Nasal Carcinoma 
in a Captive Eld's Deer." Journal of Veterinary Medicine Association, 
volume 167, number 7 (1975), pages 569-571. 

Buechner, H. K., S. F. Macklery, H. R. Stroman, and W. A. Xanten. "Birth 
of an Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) at the National Zoological 
Park, Washington." International Zoo Yearbook, volume 15 (1975), pages 

Bush, M., and C. W. Gray. "Dental Prophylaxis in Carnivores." International 
Zoo Yearbook, volume 15 (1975), page 223. 

Bush, M., D. W. Heese, C. W. Gray, and A. E. James. "Surgical Repair of 
Tusk Injury (Pulpectomy) in an Adult, Male Forest Elephant (Loxodonta 
cyclotis)." Journal of the Dental Association, volume 93 (August 1976), 
pages 371-375. 

Bush, M., and A. E. James. "Some Considerations of Practice of Orthopedics 
in Exotic Animals." Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 
volume 11, number 5 (September-October 1975), pages 587-594. 

Bush, M., and E. Teeple. "Barbituate Toxicity in Lions." Journal of Zoo 
Animal Medicine, volume 6, number 3 (September 1975), page 25. 

Davis, P., and G. Greenwell. "Successful Hatching of a North Island Brown 
Kiwi (Apteryx australis mantelli), at the National Zoological Park." Inter- 
national Zoo Yearbook, volume 16 (1976), pages 86-89. 

Davis, T. "Effects of Familiarity on Agonistic Encounter Behavior in Male 

360 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Degus (Octodon degus)." Behavioral Biology, volume 14 (1975), pages 511- 

Demeter, B. "Observation on the Care, Breeding, and Behavior of the Giant 
Day Gecko, Phelsuma madagascariensis, at the National Zoological Park, 
Washington." International Zoo Yearbook, volume 16 (1976), pages 130-133. 

Dittus, W. P. J. "Population Dynamics of the Toque Monkey, Macaca sinica." 
In Socioecology and Psychology of Primates, edited by R. Tuttle, pages 125- 
151. The Hague: Mouton Publishers, 1975. 

Egoscue, Harold J. "Abnormal Juvenile Pelages and Estivation in the Utah 
Prairie Dog, Cynomys parvidens." The S. W. Naturalist, volume 20, num- 
ber 1 (1975), pages 133-136. 

. "The Care, Management, and Display of Prairie Dogs Cynomys spp. in 

Captivity." International Zoo Yearbook, volume 15 (1975), pages 45-48. 

Eisenberg, J. F. "The Design and Administration of Zoological Research Pro- 
grams." In Research in Zoos and Aquariums, pages 12-19. ILAR: National 
Academy of Science, Washington, D.C., 1975. 

. "The Behavior Patterns of Desert Rodents." In Rodents in Desert 

Environments, edited by I. Prakash and P. K. Ghosh, pages 189-224. Mono- 
graphae Biologicae. The Hague: W. Junk, 1975. 

"Tenrecs and Solenodons in Captivity." International Zoo Yearbook, 

volume 15 (1975), pages 6-12. 

-. "Phylogeny of Behavior and Ecology in the Mammalia." In Phylogeny 

of the Primates: An Interdisciplinary Approach, edited by P. Luckett and 
F. Szalay, pages 47-68. New York: Plenum Press, 1975. 

-. "Communication and Social Integrations in the Black Spider Monkey, 

Ateles fusciceps robustus, and Related Species." Smithsonian Contributions 
to Zoology, volume 213 (1976), pages 1-108. 

Eisenberg, J. F., L. R. Collins, and C. Wemmer. "Communication in the 
Tasmanian Devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) and a Survey of Auditory Com- 
munication in the Marsupialia." Zeitschrift fiir Teirpsychologie, volume 37 
(1975), pages 379-399. 

Ensley, P. K., and M. Bush. "Case Report: Rectal Mucosal Prolapse in an 
Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis)." Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine, 
volume 7, number 2 (June 1976), page 22. 

Gilbert, S., and G. Greenwell. "An Unusually Prolific Breeding Season in the 
Bornean Great Argus Pheasant (Argusianus argus grayi)." International 
Zoo Yearbook, volume 16 (1976), pages 93-96. 

Guerrero, V. "A Quantitative Study of the Courtship and Copulatory Behavior 
of the Green Acouchi, Myoprocta pratti, Pocock 1911 (Rodentia: Hystrico- 
morpha)." Ph.D. Thesis, Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1975. 

Hughes, Austin, and Cynthia Gale Turner. "Breeding and Behavior of 
Rothschild's Mynah (Leucopsar rothschildi) at the National Zoological Park, 
Washington." International Zoo Yearbook, volume 15 (1975), pages 116-120. 

Iliff, Warren J. "A Volunteer Interpretive Programme at the National Zoo, 
Washington." International Zoo Yearbook, volume 15 (1975), pages 305-308. 

James, A. E., B. Burns, W. F. Flor, E.-P. Strecker, T. Merz, M. Bush, and D. L. 
Price. "Pathophysiology of Chronic Communicating Hydrocephalus in Dogs 
(Canis familiaris) : Experimental Studies." Journal of the Neurological 
Sciences, volume 24 (1975), pages 151-178. 

James, A. E., M. Bush, G. Hutchins, B. Burns, R. M. Heller, and C. W. Gray. 
"Avian Respiration: A Radiological Study in Vivo and in Vitro Correlation." 
Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians (1975), pages 

James, A. E., M. Bush, F. A. Osterman, R. M. Heller, and G. R. Novak. 
"Radiologic Imaging of Human Diseases in Exotic Animals." Journal of the 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 361 

American Medical Association, volume 235, number 2 (January 12, 1976), 
pages 184-188. 

James, A. E., R. M. Heller, M. Bush, 'C. W. Gray, and K. S. Oh. "Positive 
Contrast Peritoneography and Herniography in Primates." Journal of Medi- 
cal Primatology, volume 4 (1975), pages 114-119. 

James, A. E., G. Hutchins, M. Bush, T. K. Natarajan, and B. Burns. "How 
Birds Breathe: Correlation Radiographic with Anatomical and Pathological 
Studies." Journal of the Veterinary Radiology Society, volume 17, number 2 
(1976), pages 77-86. 

James, A. E., F. A. Osterman, M. Bush, T. Sheehan, D. W. Novak, and R. C. 
Sanders. "The Use of Compound B-Mode Ultrasound in Abdominal Disease 
of Animals." Journal of the Veterinary Radiology Society, volume 17, num- 
ber 3 (1976), pages 106-112. 

James, A. E., G. U. V. Rao, C. W. Gray, R. M. Heller, and M. Bush. "Magnifica- 
tion in Veterinary Radiology." Journal of the Veterinary Radiology Society, 
volume 16, number 2 (1975), pages 52-64. 

James, A. E., R. C. Sanders, F. A. Osterman, G. R. Novak, and M. Bush. 
"Abdominal Ultrasound in Animals." Seminars in Roentgenology, volume 
10, number 4 (October 1975), pages 323-328. 

James, A. E., E.-P. Strecker, F. J. Miller, and M. Bush. "Preliminary Report: 
An Experimental Study of 99mT. Pertechnetate Abdominal Scans in Jejunal 
Intussusception." Journal of Surgical Residents, volume 19 (1976), pages 

Johnson, M. J., and R. C. Gayden. "Breeding the Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus 
leucocephalus, at the National Zoological Park, Washington." International 
Zoo Yearbook, volume 15 (1975), pages 98-100. 

Kleiman, D. G. "The Management of Breeding Programs in Zoos." In Research 
in Zoos and Aquariums, pages 157-177. ILAR: National Academy of Sci- 
ence, Washington, D.C., 1975. 

. [Review] The Wild Canids, by M. W. Fox. Science, volume 189 (1975), 

page 376. 

[Review] Concepts in Ethology: Animal and Human Behavior, by M. 

W. Fox. Quarterly Review of Biology, volume 50 (1975), pages 507-508. 

"The Effects of Exposure to Conspecific Urine on Urine-marking in 

Male and Female Degus (Octodon degus)." Behavioral Biology, volume 14 
(1975), pages 519-526. 

-. "Stargazing in the Panda House." Animal Kingdom, volume 78 (1975), 

pages 2-5. 

"Will the Pot of Gold Have a Rainbow? Hope for Brazil's Golden 

Tamarins in North America." Animal Kingdom, volume 79 (1976), pages 2-6. 

Montali, R. J., E. Smith, M. Davenport, and M. Bush. "Dermatophilosis in 
Australian Bearded Lizards (Amphibolurus barbatus)." Journal of the Veteri- 
nary Medicine Association, volume 167, number 7 (October 1, 1975), pages 

Montgomery, G. G., and M. E. Sunquist. "Impact of Sloths on Neotropical 
Forest Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycling." In Tropical Ecological Systems: 
Trends in Terrestrial and Aquatic Research, edited by F. B. Golley and E. 
Medina, pages 69-111. Ecological Studies 11: Speringer-Verlag, New York, 

Morton, E. S. "Ecological Sources of Selection on Avian Sounds." American 
Naturalist, volume 109 (1975), pages 17-34. 

Osterman, F. A., A. E. James, A. Heshiki, M. J. Ryan, G. Novak, G. U. V. Rao, 
and M. Bush. "Xeroradiography in Veterinary Radiography: A Preliminary 
Study." Journal of the American Veterinary Radiology Society, volume 16, 
number 5 (1975), pages 143-150. 

Rehg, J. E., R. J. Montali, and M. E. Szymkowiak. "Morphological and Histo- 

362 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

chemical Observations on Renal Microbodies in Cats." Veterinary Pathology, 

volume 12 (1975), pages 186-195. 
Roberts, M. S. "Growth and Development of Mother-Reared Red Pandas 

(Ailurus fulgens)." International Zoo Yearbook, volume 15 (1975), pages 

Seidensticker, J. "The Vanishing Animals of India." International Wildlife, 

volume 5 (1975), page 47. 
Seidensticker, J., and J. McNeeley. "Observations on the Use of Natural Licks 

by Ungulates in the Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand." 

Natural History Bulletin, Siam Society, volume 26 (1975), pages 24-33. 
Storm, G. L., and G. G. Montgomery. "Dispersal and Social Contact Among 

Red Foxes: Results from Telemetry and Computer Simulation." In The Wild 

Canids: Their Systematics, Behavioral Ecology and Evolution, edited by M. 

W. Fox, pages 237-246. Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York, 1975. 
Wemmer, C, and M. J. Fleming. "Management of Meerkats, Suricata suri- 

catta, in Captivity." International Zoo Yearbook, volume 15 (1975), pages 

Wemmer, C, and G. Johnson. "Egg-Breaking Behavior in a Yellow-Throated 

Marten (Martes flavigula, Multelidae: Carnivora)." Zeitschruft fur Saugetier- 

Kunde, volume 41, number 1 (1976), pages 58-60. 
Wheeler, J. W., D. W. von Endt, and C. Wemmer. "5-Thiomethylpentane — 

2,3-dione: A Unique Natural Product from the Striped Hyena." Journal of 

the American Chemical Society, volume 97 (1975), page 441. 
Wurster-Hill, D. H., and C. W. Gray. "The Interrelationships of Chromosome 

Banding Patterns in Procyonids, Viverrids, and Felids." Cytogenetics, 

volume 15 (1975), pages 306-331. 
Xanten, W. A., H. Kafka, and E. Olds. "Breeding the Binturong, Arctictis 

binturong, at the National Zoological Park." International Zoo Yearbook, 

volume 16 (1976), pages 117-120. 


Adovasio, J. M., J. D. Gunn, J. Donahue, and R. Stuckenrath. "Excavations at 
Meadowcroft Rockshelter 1973-1974: A Progress Report." Pennsylvania 
Archaeologist, volume 45, number 3 (1975), pages 3-30. 

Correll, David L., Maria A. Faust, and David J. Severn. "Phosphorus 
Flux and Cycling in Estuaries." In Estuarine Research, edited by L. Eugene 
Cronin, volume 1. Chemistry and Biology, October 1975. 

. "Phosphorus Flux and Cycling in Estuaries." In Estuarine Research, 

edited by L. Eugene Cronin, volume 1, pages 108-136. New York: Academic 
Press, 1975. 

Correll, David L., and Joseph J. Miklas. "Phosphorus Cycling in a Maryland 
Deciduous Forest Subjected to Various Levels of Mineral-Nutrient Loading." 
In Mineral Cycling in Southeastern Ecosystems, edited by F. G. Howell, J. B. 
Gentry and M. H. Smiths. ERDA Symposium Series (Conf-740513). 

Correll, David L., J. W. Pierce, and Maria A. Faust. "A Quantitative Study of 
the Nutrient, Sediment, and Coliform Bacterial Constituents of Water 
Runoff from the Rhode River Watershed." In Non-Point Sources of Water 
Pollution, Southeastern Regional Conference, Blacksburg, Virginia, May 1-2, 

De Fabo, Edward C, Roy W. Harding, and W. Shropshire, Jr. "Action Spec- 
trum Between 260 and 800 Nanometers for the Photoinduction of Carotenoid 
Biosynthesis in Neurospora crassa." Plant Physiology, volume 57 (1976), 
pages 440-445. 

Gantt, Elisabeth. "Phycobilisome: Light-Harvesting Pigment Complexes." Bio- 
Science, volume 56 (1975), pages 781-788. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 363 

. "Plant Cell Ribosomes and Endoplasmic Reticulum." In Cell Biology: 

Biological Handbook, edited by P. L. Altman and D. D. Katz, volume 1, 
pages 239-240. FASEB, Bethesda, Maryland, 1976. 

Gantt, Elisabeth, Claudia A. Lipschultz, and Barbara Zilinskas. "Further Evi- 
dence for a Phycobilisome Model from Selective Dissociation, Fluorescence 
Emission, Immunoprecipitation, and Electron Microscopy." Biochimica et 
Biophysica Acta, volume 430 (1976), pages 375-388. 

Klein, William H., and J. R. Hickey, editors. Solar Radiation Measurements 
and Instrumentation, Proceedings of a Symposium, November 13-15, 1973. 
U. S. Govt. Printing Office 0-588-552, 1975, 481 pages. 

Macintyre, Ian G., Blake W. Blackwelder, Lynton S. Land, and Robert Stuck- 
enrath. "North Carolina Shelf-edge Sandstone: Environment of Origin and 
Relationship to Pre-existing Sea Levels." Geological Society of America 
Bulletin, volume 86 (1975), pages 1073-1078. 

Margulies, Maurice M., and Allan Michaels. "Free and Membrane-bound 
Chloroplast Polyribosomes in Ch.lamydom.onas reinhardtii." Biochimica et 
Biophysica Acta, volume 402 (1975), pages 297-308. 

Michaels, A., and M. M. Margulies. "Membrane-bound Ribosomes in Chloro- 
plasts. Possible Role in Membrane Biosynthesis." In Molecular Biology of 
Nucleocytoplasmic Relationships, edited by S. Puiseux-Dao, pages 53-60. 
Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., The Netherlands, 1975. 

Raven, C. W., and W. Shropshire, Jr. "Photoregulation of logarithmic Fluence- 
response Curves for Phytochrome Control of Chlorophyll Formation in 
Pisum sativum L." Photochemistry and Photobiology, volume 21 (1975), 
pages 423-429. 

Smith, William O., Jr., and David L. Correll. "Phytochrome: A Reexamination 
of the Quaternary Structure." Plant Physiology, volume 56 (1975), pages 

Stanley, Daniel Jean, Andres Maldonado, and Robert Stuckenrath. "Strait of 
Sicily Depositional Rates and Patterns, and Possible Reversal of Currents 
in the Late Quaternary." Palaeo geography, Palaeoclimatology , Palaeoeco- 
logy, volume 18 (1975), pages 279-291. 


(Including Contributions from Harvard Members of the 
Center for Astrophysics) 
Aarseth, S. J., and M. Lecar. "Computer Simulations of Stellar Systems." 

Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 13 (1975), pages 

Aksnes, K. "Jupiter's Nye Maane (Jupiter's New Moon)." Astronomisk Tids- 

skrift, volume 8 (1975), pages 159-162. 
. "Short-Period and Long-Period Perturbations of a Spherical Satellite 

Due to Direct Solar Radiation." Celestial Mechanics, volume 13 (1976), pages 

Aksnes, K., and F. A. Franklin, "de Sitter's Theory 'Melts' Europa's Polar Cap." 

Nature (Letter), volume 258 (1975), pages 503-505. 
. "Mutual Phenomena of the Galilean Satellites in 1973, III. Final 

Results from 91 Light Curves." Astronomical Journal, volume 81 (1976), 

pages 464-481. 
Aksnes, K., and B. G. Marsden. "The Orbit of Jupiter XIII." Division of 

Dynamical Astronomy of the American Astronomical Society, Tampa, 

Florida, December 1974. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical 

Society, volume 7 (1975), pages 342-343. 
. "The Orbit of a Probable Fourteenth Satellite of Jupiter." Dynamical 

364 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Astronomy Division Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 
Pasadena, California, December 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American 
Astronomical Society, volume 8 (1976), page 433. 

Avrett, E. H., editor. Frontiers of Astrophysics, 551 pages. Cambridge: Harvard 
University Press, 1976. 

Avrett, E. H., J. E. Vernazza, and J. Linsky. "Excitation and Ionization of 
Helium in the Solar Atmosphere." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 
207 (1976), pages L199-L204. 

Ayres, T. R., and H. R. Johnson. "The Mass of Arcturus." 148th Meeting of 
the American Astronomical Society, Haverford, Pennsylvania, June 1976. 
[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 8 (1976), 
page 303. 

Ayres, T. R., and J. L. Linsky. "The Mg II h and k Lines II. Comparison with 
Synthesized Profiles and Ca II K." Astrophysical Journal, volume 205 
(1976), pages 874-894. 

Bahcall, J. N., N. A. Bahcall, S. Murray, and M. Schmidt. "Optical Studies of 
10 High Galactic Latitude X-Ray Sources." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), 
volume 199 (1975), pages L9-L11. 

Bahcall, J., P. Charles, P. Davison, E. Kellogg, P. Sanford, and D. York. "Coper- 
nicus X-Ray Observations of 3U0750-49." Monthly Notices of the Royal 
Astronomical Society, volume 171 (1975), pages 41P-46P. 

Baliunas, S. L., A. K. Dupree, and J. B. Lester. "Optical and Ultraviolet Ob- 
servations of Lambda Andromedae." 148th Meeting of the American 
Astronomical Society, Haverford, Pennsylvania, June 1976. [Abstract] 
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 8 (1976), pages 353. 

Ball, J. A. "Comment on 'Simple Iterative Procedures for Solving Transcenden- 
tal Equations with the Electronic Slide Rule.' " American Journal of Physics, 
volume 44/5 (1976), pages 488-490. 

. "Measurements with Radio-Frequency Spectrometers." In Methods of 

Experimental Physics, volume 12C, edited by M. L. Meeks, pages 46-57. 
New York: Academic Press, 1976. 

Basu, A., and J. Bower. "Major Element Chemistry of Lunar Agglutinitic 
Glass." Spring Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, Wash- 
ington, D.C., April 1976. [Abstract] EOS, Transactions of the American 
Geophysical Union, volume 57 (1976), page 273. 

. "Pyroxenes from Apollo 15 Mare Soils: Implications to Provenance 

Studies." Conference on the Origin of Mare Basalts, Houston, Texas, Nov- 
ember 1975. [Abstract] In Origin of Mare Basalts, pages 6-10. Houston, 
Texas: The Lunar Science Institute, 1975. 

Basu, A., D. J. DesMarais, J. M. Hayes, and W. G. Meinschein. "Integrated 
Investigation of the Mixed Origin of Lunar Sample 72161,11." The Moon, 
volume 14 (1975), pages 129-138. 

Basu, A., D. J. DesMarais, and W. G. Meinschein. "Evolution of Lunar Soil 
and Enrichment of C, H, and Other Solar Wind Implanted Elements in 
Agglutinates." 7th Lunar Science Conference, Houston, Texas, March 1976. 
[Abstract] In Lunar Science VII, pages 38-40. Houston, Texas: The Lunar 
Science Institute, 1976. 

Basu, A., and L. J. Suttner. "Use of Structural State of Alkali Feldspars in 
Provenance Interpretation." Proceedings of the IX me Congress of Interna- 
tional Sedimentology, Nice, Th. 3 (1975), pages 1-8. 

Basu, A., and C. J. Vitaliano. "Sanidine from the Mesa Falls Tuff, Ashton, 
Idaho." American Mineralogist, volume 61 (1976), pages 405-408. 

Basu, A., S. W. Young, L. J. Suttner, W. C. James, and G. H. Mack. "Re-Evalu- 
ation of the Use of Undulatory Extinction and Polycrystallinity in Detrital 
Quartz for Provenance Interpretation." Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 
volume 45 (1975), pages 873-882. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 365 

Bell, B. "Climate and the History of Egypt: The Middle Kingdom." In American 
Journal of Archaeology, volume 79, 1975, pages 223-269. 

Bell, B., and G. Noci. "Coronal Holes as M-Regions: Correlation between 
Solar Features and Solar Wind Disturbances." Osservazioni e Memorie 
Osservatorio di Arcetri, Number 104 (1975), pages 111-119. 

. "Intensity of the Fe XV Emission-Line Corona, the Level of Geo- 
magnetic Activity, and the Velocity of the Solar Wind." Journal of Geo- 
physical Research, volume 81 (1976), pages 4508-4516. 

Bernard, C, A. Duncan, J. LoSecco, and S. Weinberg. "Exact Spectral Function 
Sum Rules." Physical Review, volume 12D (1975), pages 792-804. 

Black, J. H., E. J. Chaisson, J. H. Ball, H. Penfield, and A. E. Lilley. "9-cm CH 
Emission in Comet Kohoutek (1973f)." In Proceedings of Comet Kohoutek 
Workshop, nasa SP-355, edited by G. Z. Gary, pages 135-136. Huntsville, 
Alabama: Space Sciences Laboratory, Marshall Space Flight Center, 1975. 

Black, J. H., and A. Dalgarno. "Interstellar H>:The Population of Excited Rota- 
tional States and the Infrared Response to Ultraviolet Radiation." Astro- 
physical Journal, volume 203 (1976), pages 132-142. 

Black, J. H., A. Dalgarno, and M. Oppenheimer. "The Formation of CH + in 
Interstellar Clouds." Astrophysical Journal, volume 199 (1975), pages 633- 

Boksenberg, A., B. Kirkham, M. Pettini, B. Bates, P. P. D. Carson, P. L. 
Dufton, and C. D. McKeith. "Interstellar Magnesium Absorption in the 
Directions of Four Unreddened Stars." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), 
volume 202 (1975), pages L91-L96. 

Bottcher, C, T. C. Cravens, and A. Dalgarno. "Collision Broadening and 
Relaxation of the Resonance Lines of Lithium and Sodium in Helium Gas." 
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, volume 346 (1975), 
pages 157-170. 

Bottcher, C, and A. Dalgarno. "Model Potential Calculations of Potential 
Energies of Excited States of Li 2 ." Chemical Physics Letters, volume 36 
(1975), pages 137-144. 

Bottcher, C, K. K. Docken, and A. Dalgarno. "Collision Broadening of Mg + 
and Mg by He." Journal of Physics B, volume 8 (1975), pages 1756-1764. 

Bradt, H., W. Mayer, J. Buff, G. W. Clark, R. Doxsey, D. Hearn, G. Jernigan, 
P. C. Joss, B. Laufer, W. Lewing, F. Li, T. Matilsky, J. McClintock, F. Primini, 
S. Rappaport, and H. Schnopper. "The Transient Periodic X-Ray Source in 
Taurus, A0535-(-26." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 204 (1976), 
pages L67-L71. 

Brinkman, A., J. Heise, R. Mewe, A. den Boggende, J. Schrijver, E. Gronen- 
schild, Y. Tanaka, D. R. Parsignault, J. Grindlay, E. J. Schreier, H. Schnopper, 
and H. Gursky. "Spectral and Intensity Variations in Cygnus X-3 by the 
Astronomical Netherlands Satellite." Astrophysics and Space Science, vol- 
ume 42 (1976), pages 201-204. 

Cameron, A. G. W. "The Role of Dust in Cosmogony." In The Dusty Universe, 
edited by G. B. Field and A. G. W. Cameron, pages 1-31. New York: Neale 
Watson Academic Publications, 1975. 

. "The Origin and Evolution of the Solar System. "Scientific American, 

volume 233 (1975), pages 32-41. 

. "Solar Models in Relation to Terrestrial-Climatic Variations." In Pos- 

sible Relationships between Solar Activity and Meteorological Phenomena, 
nasa SP-366, edited by W. R. Bandeen and S. P. Maran, pages 143-147. 
nasa: Washington, D.C, 1975. 

"Endpoints of Stellar Evolution." In Frontiers of Astrophysics, edited 

by E. H. Avrett, pages 118-146. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976. 
Cameron, A. G. W., and J. B. Pollack. "On the Origin of the Solar System and 

366 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

of Jupiter and its Satellites." In Jupiter, edited by T. Gehrels, pages 61-84. 
Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1976. 

Cameron, A. G. W., and W. R. Ward. "Origin of the Moon." [Abstract] 
Seventh Lunar Science Conference, Part 1 (1976), pages 120-122. 

Cerjan, C, K. Kirby-Docken, and A. Dalgarno. "Potential Curves and Molec- 
ular Properties of Na 2 ." Chemical Physics Letters, volume 38 (1976), pages 

Chaffee, F. H., Jr. "Line Spectra in Interstellar Clouds II, CH and CH + in 
Ophiuchus." Astrophysical Journal, volume 199 (1975), pages 379-382. 

Chaffee, F. H., Jr., and D. J. Schroeder. "Astronomical Applications of Echelle 
Spectroscopy." Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 14 
(1976), pages 23-42. 

Chaisson, E. J. "Microwave Observations of the Rho Ophiuchus Dark Cloud." 
Astrophysical Journal {Letters), volume 197 (1975), pages L65-L68. 

. "Gaseous Nebulae and Their Interstellar Environment." In frontiers 

of Astrophysics, edited by E. H. Avrett, pages 259-351. Cambridge: Harvard 
University Press, 1976. 

Chaisson, E. J., and C. A. Beichman. "Further Evidence for Magnetism in the 
Orion Region." Astrophysical Journal {Letters), volume 199 (1975), pages 

Chaisson, E. J., and M. A. Dopita. "A Dual Radio-Optical Spectroscopic Study 
of the Orion Nebula." 146th Meeting of the American Astronomical 
Society, San Diego, California, August 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the 
American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 465. 

Chaisson, E. J., R. I. Ingalls, A. E. E. Rogers, and I. I. Shapiro. "An Upper 
Limit on the Radar Cross-Section of Comet Kohoutek." In Proceedings of 
Comet Kohoutek Workshop, edited by G. A. Gary, pages 189-191. Hunts- 
ville, Alabama: Space Sciences Laboratory, Marshall Space Flight Center, 

Chaisson, E. J., and R. F. Willson. "A Microwave Investigation of the Triffid 
Nebula and Its Surrounding Environment." Astrophysical Journal, volume 
199 (1975), pages 647-659. 

Chu, S. I., and A. Dalgarno. "Angular Distributions in the Elastic Scattering 
and Rotational Excitation of Molecular Hydrogen by Atomic Hydrogen." 
Astrophysical Journal, volume 199 (1975), pages 637-641. 

. "Approximations for the Rotational Excitation of Molecules by 

Atoms." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 63 (1975), pages 2115-2118. 

Clark, G. W., J. G. Jernigan, H. Bradt, C. Canizares, W. H. G. Lewin, F. K. Li, 
W. Mayer, J. McClintock, and H. Schnopper. "Recurrent Brief X-Ray Bursts 
from the Region of the Globular Cluster NGC 6624." Astrophysical Journal 
{Letters), volume 207 (1976), pages L105-L108. 

Colombo, G., D. A. Arnold, J. H. Binsack, R. H. Gay, M. D. Grossi, D. A. 
Lautman, and O. Orringer. "Dumbbell Gravity-Gradient Sensor: A New 
Application of Orbiting Long Tethers." Smithsonian Astrophysical Observa- 
tory Reports in Ceoastronomy, number 2 (June 1976). 

Colombo, G., E. M. Gaposchkin, M. D. Grossi, and G. C. Weiffenbach. "The 
'Skyhook': A Shuttle-Borne Tool for Low-Orbital-Altitude Research." Mec- 
canica, volume X (1975), pages 3-20. 

Cravens, T. E., G. A. Victor, and A. Dalgarno. "The Absorption of Energetic 
Electrons by Molecular Hydrogen Gas." Planetary and Space Science, 
volume 23 (1975), pages 1059-1070. 

Dalgarno, A. "Interstellar Molecular Absorption Lines." Philosophical Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society {London), volume 279A (1975), pages 323-329. 

. "Model and Pseudopotential Calculations." In Atomic Physics 4, 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 367 

edited by E. W. Weber and A. Einnacker, pages 325-335. New York: Plenum 
Publishing Company, 1975. 
. "Molecular Processes in Interstellar Clouds." In Atomic and Molecular 

Processes in Astrophysics, edited by M. C. E. Huber and H. Nussbaumer. 
Geneva Observatory, Switzerland: Swiss Society of Astronomy and Astro- 
physics, 1975. 

-. "Chemistry of the Interstellar Medium." In Frontiers of Astrophysics, 

edited by E. H. Avrett, pages 352-384. Cambridge: Harvard University 
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Davis, J. M., M. Gerassimenko, A. S. Krieger, and G. S. Vaiana. "The Inter- 
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of an Active Region." Solar Physics, volume 45 (1975), pages 393-410. 

Davis, M. "Galaxies and Cosmology." In Frontiers of Astrophysics, edited by 
E. H. Avrett, pages 472-522. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976. 

Davis, M., and M. J. Geller. "Galaxy Correlations as a Function of Morpholog- 
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Davis, R. J. "The Celescope Survey and the Galactic Distribution of Inter- 
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de Jong, T., and S. I. Chu. "Carbon Monoxide in Collapsing Interstellar 
Clouds." Astrophysical Journal, volume 199 (1975), pages 69-78. 

Delvaille, J. P., H. Bradt, J. Buff, A. Epstein, W. Mayer, J. McClintock, S. Rap- 
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1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 
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Delvaille, J. P., H. W. Schnopper, and A. R. Sohval. "Continuum X-Ray 
Processes in Heavy Ion Collisions." IX International Conference on the 
Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions, Seattle, Washington, July 1975. 
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Des Marais, D. J., A. Basu, J. M. Hayes, and W. G. Meinschein. "Evolution 
of Carbon Isotopes, Agglutinates, and the Lunar Regolith." In Proceedings 
of the Sixth Lunar Science Conference, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 
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Deutschmann, W., R. J. Davis, and R. Schild. "The Galactic Distribution of 
Interstellar Absorption as Determined from the Celescope Catalog of Ultra- 
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Observations." Astrophysical Journal {Supplement Series), number 30 (1976), 
pages 97-225. 

Dickinson, D. "CO Observations of Compact Galactic H II Regions." 146th 
Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, San Diego, California, 
August 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 
volume 7 (1975), page 401. 

. "Water Emission in Infrared Stars." Astrophysical Journal (Supple- 
ment Series), number 30 (1976), pages 259-271. 

Dickinson, D., C. A. Gottlieb, E. W. Gottlieb, and M. M. Litvak. "Observa- 
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(1976), pages 79-83. 

Dickinson, D., E. Kollberg, and S. Yngvesson. "Further Work on the Correla- 
tion of Period with OH Radial Velocity Pattern." Astrophysical Journal, 
volume 199 (1975), pages 131-134. 

368 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Dobrowlny, M., G. Colombo, and M. D. Grossi. "Electrodynamics of Long 
Tethers in the Near-Earth Environment." Smithsonian Astrophysical Ob- 
servatory Reports in Geoastronomy, number 3 (June 1976). 

Doxsey, R., H. Bradt, J. Buff, J. Delvaille, G. Jernigan, A. Levine, W. Mayer, S. 
Rappaport, and H. Schnopper. "Precise Positions of Galactic X-Ray Sources." 
146th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, San Diego, California, 
August 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 
volume 7 (1975), page 416. 

Doxsey, R., G. Jernigan, D. Hearn, H. Bradt, J. Buff, G. W. Clark, J. Delvaille, 
A. Epstein, P. Joss, T. Matilsky, W. Mayer, J. McClintock, S. Rappaport, 
J. Richardson, and H. Schnopper. "X-Ray Nova A0600-00: Celestial Position 
and 0.4-0.8 keV Flux." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 203 (1976), 
pages L9-L12. 

Driver, R. D. "A Measurement of the 3p Subshell Photoionization Cross 
Section of Potassium." Journal of Physics B, volume 9 (1976), pages 817-827. 

Driver, R. D., and J. E. G. Wheaton. "Photoionization Cross Sections of Metal 
Vapors below 50 nm; An Apparatus for their Measurement." Applied 
Optics, volume 15 (1976), pages 700-702. 

. "The Broadening of the Calcium Resonance Line in a High Tempera- 
ture Helium Atmosphere." Astrophysical Journal, volume 208 (1976), pages 

Dupree, A. "Ultraviolet Observations of Alpha Aurigae from Copernicus." 
Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 200 (1975), pages L27-L31. 

. "Ultraviolet Observations from I.U.E." In X-Ray Binaries, nasa SP-389, 

edited by Y. Kondo and E. Boldt, page 747. nasa: Washington, D.C., 1976. 
"Highly Ionized Atoms in Astrophysics." 1976 Spring Meeting of 

the American Physical Society, Washington, D.C., April 1976. [Abstract] 
Bulletin of the American Physical Society, volume 21 (1976), page 509. 
-. "Empirical Evidence of Mass Motions in Stellar Chromospheres and 

Coronas." In Proceedings, CNRS Colloquium on the Physics of Motions in 
Stellar Atmospheres, Physique des Mouvements dans les Atmospheres Stel- 
laires, edited by R. Cayrel and M. Steinberg, pages 439-451. Paris: CNRS, 

Dupree, A. K., and S. Baliunas. "The Chromosphere and Corona of Capella." 
147th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Chicago, Illinois, 
December 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 
volume 8 (1976) page 397. 

Dupree, A. K., P. Foukal, and C. Jordan. "Ultraviolet Observations of C III 
Transitions in the Sun." 146th Meeting of the American Astronomical 
Society, San Diego, California, August 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the 
American Astronomical Society, volume 8 (1976), page 292. 

Dupree, A. K., and J. B. Lester. "High Dispersion Spectroscopic Observations 
of HD 153919 (3U 1700 37)." X-Ray Binaries, nasa SP-389, edited by Y. 
Kondo and E. Boldt, pages 539-549. nasa: Washington, D.C., 1976. 

Dupree, A. K., and H. Shipman. "Measurement of the Interstellar Hydrogen 
Density Towards Alpha Centauri." 147th Meeting of the American Astro- 
nomical Society, Chicago, Illinois, December 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of 
the American Astronomical Society, volume 8 (1976), pages 394. 

Eachus, L. J., and W. Liller. "Photometric Histories of QSOs: 3C 279, The 
Most Variable and Possibly Most Luminous QSO Yet Studied." Astrophysi- 
cal Journal (Letters), volume 200 (1975), pages L61-L62. 

Elmergreen, B. "The Ionization of Cloud and Intercloud Hydrogen by O and 
B Stars." Astrophysical Journal, volume 205 (1976), pages 405-418. 

. "The Ionization of a Low Density Intercloud Medium by a Single O 

Star." Astrophysical Journal (Supplement Series), number 17 (1976), pages 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 369 

Elmergreen, B., and D. C. Morton. Velocity Dispersions In Galaxies V: The 
Nuclei of M 31 and M 32." Astrophysical Journal, volume 205 (1976), pages 

Epstein, R. I., and W. D. Arnett. "Neutronization and Thermal Disintegration 
of Dense Stellar Matter." Astrophysical Journal, volume 201 (1975), pages 

Epstein, R. I., W. D. Arnett, and D. N. Schramm. "Synthesis of the Light 
Elements in Supernovae." Astrophysical Journal (Supplement Series), volume 
31, number 1 (1976), pages 111-141. 

Epstein, A., G. Clark, J. Delvaille, R. Doxsey, G. Jernigan, W. Mayer, F. 
Primini, and H. W. Schnopper. "Precise Positions of Several High Galactic 
Latitude X-Ray Sources." 146th Meeting of the American Astronomical 
Society, San Diego, California, August 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the 
American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 416. 

Fazio, G. G. "Infrared Astronomy." In Frontiers of Astrophysics, edited by 

E. H. Avrett, pages 203-258. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976. 
Fazio, G. G., D. E. Kleinmann, R. W. Noyes, E. Wright, M. Zeilik II, and 

F. J. Low. "High Resolution Map of the W"3 Region at Far-Infrared Wave- 
lengths." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 199 (1975), pages L177- 

Fazio, G. G., and F. W. Stecker. "Prediction of the Diffuse Far-Infrared Flux 
from the Galactic Plane." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 207 
(1976), pages L49-L52. 

Fazio, G. G., E. L. Wright, and F. J. Low. "Flight Performance of the 102-cm 
Balloon-Borne Far-Infrared Telescope." In Far-Infrared Astronomy, Proceed- 
ings of a Conference Held at Cumberland Lodge, Windsor, United King- 
dom, edited by M. Rowan-Robinson, pages 21-31. Oxford, England: Perga- 
mon, 1976. 

. "Flight Performance of the 102-cm Balloon-Borne Far-Infrared Tele- 
scope." 146th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, San Diego, 
California, August 1975 [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 7 (1975), page 408. 

Fazio, G., E. Wright, M. Zeilik, and F. Low. "A Far-Infrared Map of the 
Ophiuchus Dark Cloud Region." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 206 
(1976), pages L165-L169. 

. "A Far-Infrared Source in the Rho Ophiucus Dark Cloud." 146th 

Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, San Diego, California, 
August 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 
volume 7 (1975), pages 440-441. 

Field, G. B. "Heating and Ionization of the Interstellar Medium; Star Forma- 
tion." In Atomic and Molecular Physics and the Interstellar Medium, edited 
by R. Balian, P. Encrenaz, and J. Lequeux, pages 469-531. Amsterdam: 
North-Holland Publishing Company, 1975. 

. "Heating of the Universe by Quasars." Symposium on the Early 

Evolution of the Universe, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North 
Carolina, March 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 7 (1975), page 516. 

"Hot Gas in and between Galaxies." Astrophysics and Space Science, 

volume 38 (1975), pages 167-190. 

"The Mass of the Universe: Intergalactic Matter." In Frontiers of 

Astrophysics, edited by E. H. Avrett, pages 523-547. Cambridge: Harvard 
University Press, 1976. 

-. "Consequences of a New Hot Component of the Interstellar Medium. 

Astrophysical Journal, volume 205 (1976), pages 762-765. 
Field, G. B., and A. G. W. Cameron, editors. The Dusty Universe. New York: 
Neale Watson Academic Publications, Inc., 1975, 323 pages. 

370 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Fireman, E. L. "Solar-Wind Tritium Limit and the Mixing Rate of the Solar 
Atmosphere." Astro-physical Journal, volume 205 (1976), pages 268-272. 

Fireman, E. L., J. D'Amico, and J. DeFelice. "Solar-Wind Tritium Limit and 
Nuclear Processes in the Solar Atmosphere." In Proceedings of the Sixth 
Lunar Science Conference, Ceochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Supplement 
6, volume 2 (1975), pages 1811-1821. 

. "Evidence for Carbon-14 in the Solar Wind." 7th Lunar Science Con- 
ference, Houston, Texas, March 1976. [Abstract] In Lunar Science VII, page 
257. Houston, Texas: Lunar Science Institute, 1976. 

Flannery, B. P., and R. K. Ulrich. "The Early Evolution of X-Ray Binary Stars." 
148th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Haverford, Penn- 
sylvania, June 1976. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 8 (1976), page 315. 

Ford, A. L., and K. Kirby-Docken. "Ion Kinetic Energy Distributions from Dis- 
sociative Photoionization of H>." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 62 
(1975), pages 4955-4957. 

Ford, A. L., K. Kirby-Docken, and A. Dalgarno. "Cross Sections for Photo- 
ionization of Vibrationally Excited Molecular Hydrogen." Astro-physical 
Journal, volume 200 (1975), pages 788-789. 

Forman, W., and C. Jones. "Uhuru Observations of an X-Ray Burst at High 
Galactic Latitude Centered on the Globular Cluster NGC 1851." Astrophysi- 
cal Journal {Letters), volume 207 (1976), pages L177-L180. 

Forman, W., C. Jones, and H. Tananbaum. "Uhuru Observations of the Galac- 
tic Plane in 1970, 1971, and 1972." Astrophysical Journal {Letters), volume 
206 (1976), pages L29-L35. 

. "Uhuru Observations of a Transient X-Ray Source Associated with the 

Globular Cluster NGC 6440." Astrophysical Journal {Letters), volume 207 
(1976), pages L25-L27. 

"Survey of Intensity Variability of Strong Galactic X-Ray Sources 

from Uhuru." Astrophysical Journal, volume 208 (1976), pages 849-862. 

Foukal, P. V. "The Temperature Structure and Pressure Balance of Active 
Region Loops." Solar Physics, volume 43 (1976), pages 327-336. 

. "Spectroscopic Evidence for a Higher Rotation Rate of Magnetized 

Plasma at the Solar Photosphere." Astrophysical Journal {Letters), volume 
203 (1976), pages 145-148. 

Foukal, P., and J. R. Jokipii. 'On the Rotation of Gas and Magnetic Fields at 
the Solar Photosphere." Astrophysical Journal {Letters), volume 199 (1975), 
pages L71-93. 

Franklin, F. A., B. G. Marsden, J. G. Williams, and C. M. Bardwell. "Minor 
Planets and Comets in Libration about 2:1 Resonance with Jupiter." Astro- 
nomical Journal, volume 80 (1975), pages 729-746. 

Freeman, R. R., E. M. Mattison, D. E. Pritchard, and P. Kleppner. "The Spin- 
Rotation Interaction in the van der Waals Molecular KAr." Journal of 
Chemical Physics, volume 64 (1976), pages 1194-1203. 

Frogel, J., D. Dickinson, and A. Hyland. "CO in the Infrared and Radio 
Spectra of Carbon Stars." Astrophysical Journal, volume 201 (1975), pages 

Frogel, J. A., S. E. Persson, D. F. Dickinson, and E. J. Chaisson. "CO Observa- 
tions of Compact Galactic H II Regions." 146th Meeting of the American 
Astronomical Society, San Diego, California, August 1975. [Abstract] 
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 401. 

Ganeko, Y. "Astrogeodetic Geoid of Japan." Smithsonian Astrophysical Ob- 
servatory Special Report, number 372 (March 1976). 

Gaposchkin, E. M. "Dynamic Satellite Geodesy." Reviews of Geophysics and 
Space Physics, volume 13 (1975), pages 286-287. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 371 

. "Literal Algebra for Satellite Dynamics." In Satellite Dynamics, edited 

by G. E. O. Giacaglia, pages 170-179. Berlin: Springer- Verlag, 1975. 

Gay, R. H., and M. D. Grossi. "Doppler Measurements of the Ionosphere on 
the Occasion of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Part II: Inversion of Differ- 
ential and Rotating Doppler Shifts." Smithsonian Astrophysical Observa- 
tory Special Report, number 367 (July 1975). 

Geller, M. J., and P. J. E. Peebles. "Bright Galaxies in Rich Clusters: A Sta- 
tistical Model for Magnitude Distributions." Astrophysical Journal, volume 
206 (1976), pages 939-957. 

Gerdes, C, D. Hartman, C. Y. Fan, and T. C. Weekes. "A Measurement of 
the Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum from 10 u to 10 15 eV." In Proceedings of 
the 14th International Cosmic Ray Conference, volume 8 (1975), page 3040. 

Giacconi, R. "High Energy Astronomy." In Science Year, World Book Encyclo- 
pedia, pages 240-242. Chicago: Field Enterprises Educational Corp., 1976. 

Gingerich, O. "The Forgeries of 'Abd al-A'imma's Astrolabes." In Proceedings 
of the XIHth International Congress of the History of Science, Moscow, 
1971, Sections III, IV, pages 141-142. 

. "Copernicus and the Impact of Printing." Vistas in Astronomy, 

volume 17 (1975), pages 201-214. 

-. "The Sun." In Man and Cosmos, edited by J. Cornell and E. N. Hayes, 

pages 37-49. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1975. 

'Introductory Remarks on the Astronomy of Copernicus." In Avant, 

Avec, Apres Copernic, pages 101-104. (Semaine de Synthase XXXI, Paris, 

'Astronomy Three Hundred Years Ago." Nature, volume 255 (1975), 

pages 602-606. 

"Greenwich Tercentenary Symposium." Sky and Telescope, volume 

50 (1975), pages 217-218. 

-. "Commentary: Remarks on Copernicus' Observations." In The Coper- 

nican Achievement, edited by R. Westman, pages 99-107. Los Angeles, 
California: University of California Press, Berkeley, 1975. 

"Kepler's Place in Astronomy." Vistas in Astronomy, volume 18 

(1975), pages 261-278. 

'The Origins of Kepler's Third Law." Vistas in Astronomy, volume 18 

(1975), pages 595-601. 

Gingerich, O., and J. Dobrzycki, editors. The Astronomy of Copernicus and 
Its Background. Colloquia Copernicana III, Studia Copernicana XIII, Osso- 
lineum, Wroclaw, 1975. 

Golub, L. A. S. Krieger, J. K. Silk, A. F. Timothy, and G. S. Vaiana. "Time 
Variations of Solar X-Ray Bright Points." In Solar, Gamma-, X-, and EUV 
Radiation, Proceedings of International Astronomical Union Symposium 
No. 68, edited by S. Kane, page 23. Boston: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 

Golub, L., A. S. Kreiger, and G. S. Vaiana. "Observation of a Nonuniform 
Component in the Distribution of Coronal Bright Points" (research note). 
Solar Physics, volume 42 (1975), page 131. 

. "Emergence of Small-Scale Magnetic Fields on the Sun." 148th Meet- 
ing of the American Astronomical Society, Haverford, Pennsylvania, June 
1976. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 8 
(1976), page 333. 

Gorenstein, P. "Interstellar Absorption and Variable Soft X-Ray Component 
in Cygnus X-l." Astrophysics and Space Science, volume 42 (1976), pages 

Gorenstein, P., H. Helmken, and H. Gursky. "Localization of Gamma-Ray 
Bursts with Wide Field Multiple Pinhole Camera System in Near Earth 
Orbit." Astrophysics and Space Science, volume 42 (1976), pages 89-97. 

372 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Gorenstein, P., K. Topka, D. Fabricant, and F. R. Harnden, Jr. "Soft X-Ray 
Structure of the Perseus Cluster of Galaxies." Washington Meeting of the 
American Physical Society, April 1976. [Abstract] American Physical 
Society, volume 21 (1976), page 544. 

Gorenstein, P., and W. Tucker. "Soft X-Ray Sources." Annual Review of 
Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 14 (1976), pages 373-416. 

Gottlieb, C. A., J. A. Ball, E. W. Gottlieb, C. J. Lada, and H. Penfield. "Detec- 
tion of Interstellar NS." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 200 (1975), 
pages L147-L149. 

Gottlieb, C. A., C. J. Lada, E. W. Gottlieb, A. E. Lilley, and M. M. Litvak. 
"Observations of Millimeter-Wave HCN in Four Prototype Clouds." Astro- 
physical Journal, volume 202 (1975), pages 655-672. 

Gottlieb, E. W., E. L. Wright, and W. Liller. "Optical Studies of Uhuru 
Sources. XIII. A Photometric Analysis of X Persei (= 3U 0352 + 30 ?)." 
Astrophysical Journal {Letters), volume 202 (1975), pages L13-L14. 

Grindlay, J. "ANS Observations of X-Ray Bursts from the Globular Cluster 
NGC 6624." Bulletin of the American Physical Society, volume 21, page 676. 

. "Progress in Flare Star Research." In Transactions of International 

Astronomical Union Commission 27, Reports on Astronomy, edited by G. 
Contopoulos, pages 130-132, 1976. Dordrecht-Holland: D. Reidel Publishing 

Grindlay, J., and H. Gursky. "Scattering Model for X-Ray Bursts: Massive 
Black Holes in Globular Clusters." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 
205 (1976), pages L131-133. 

. "Detection of X-Ray Bursts from Norma with Uhuru." International 

Astronomical Union Circular 2932, March 26, 1976. 

Grindlay, J., H. Gursky, H. Schnopper, D. R. Parsignault, J. Heise, A. C. Brink- 
man, and J. Schrijver. "Discovery of Intense X-Ray Bursts from the Globular 
Cluster NGC 6624." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 205 (1976), 
pages L127-L130. 

Grindlay, J., and J. Heise. "ANS Position for Rapid Burst Sources." Interna- 
tional Astronomical Union Circular 2929, March 19, 1976. 

. "Intense X-Ray Bursts from a Globular Cluster." International Astro- 
nomical Union Circular 2879, December 8, 1975. 

Grindlay, J. E., H. F. Helmken, R. H. Brown, J. Davis, and L. R. Allen. "Results 
of a Southern Hemisphere Search for Gamma Ray Sources at E-y — 3 X 10 
eV." In Proceedings of the 14th International Cosmic Ray Conference, 
volume 1 (1975), pages 89-94; and also in Astrophysical Journal, volume 
201 (1975), pages 82-89. 

Grindlay, J. E., H. Schnopper, E. J. Schreier, H. Gursky, and D. R. Parsignault. 
"The Location and Intensity of the X-Ray Source Centaurus A Observed 
by the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), 
volume 201 (1975), pages L133-L136. 

. "Improved Position for the X-Ray Source Associated with the Globular 

Cluster NGC 6441." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 206 (1976), 
pages L23-L24. 

Grindlay, J. E., E. J. Schreier, H. W. Schnopper, H. Gursky, and D. Parsignault. 
"Observations of Extragalactic X-Ray Sources with ANS." 146th Meeting 
of the American Astronomical Society, San Diego, California, August 1975. 
[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), 
page 461. 

Grindlay, J., E. Schreier, A. den Boggende, and A. Brinkman. "Upwards Transi- 
tion of Cyg X-l Detected by ANS." International Astronomical Union Cir- 
cular 2863, November 10, 1975. 

Grossi, M. D., and R. H. Gay. "Doppler Measurements of the Ionosphere on 
the Occasion of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Part I: Computer Simulation 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 373 


of Ionospheric-Induced Doppler Shifts. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observ- 
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Guberman, S. L., and W. A. Goddard*. "Nature of the Excited States of He 2 ." 

Physical Review, volume 12 (1975), pages 1203-1221. 
Gursky, H. "Neutron Stars, Black Holes, and Supernovae." In Frontiers of 

Astrophysics, edited by E. H. Avrett, pages 147-202. Cambridge: Harvard 

University Press, 1976. 
Gursky, H., H. Schnopper, and D. Parsignault. "The Hard X-Ray Experiment 

on the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), 

volume 201 (1975), pages L127-L131. 
Heise, J., A. C. Brinkman, J. Schrijver, R. Mewe, A. den Boggende, E. Gronen- 

schild, D. Parsignault, J. Grindlay, E. Schreier, H. Schnopper, and H. Gursky. 

"X-Ray Observation on Cygnus X-l with ANS." Nature, volume 256 (1975), 

pages 107-108. 
Heise, J., A. Brinkman, J. Schrijver, R. Mewe, E. Gronenschild, A. den Bog- 
gende, and J. Grindlay. "Evidence for X-Ray Emission from Flare Stars 

Observed by ANS." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 202 (1975), 

pages L73-L76. 
Henize, K., and W. Liller. "The Very Slow Nova He 3-558." Astrophysical 

Journal, volume 200 (1975), pages 674-697. 
Henry, P., S. Bowyer, M. Lampton, F. Paresce, and R. Cruddace. "Limits on 

the Space Density of O Subdwarfs and Hot White Dwarfs from a Search 

for Extreme Ultraviolet Sources." Astrophysical Journal, volume 205 (1976), 

pages 426-429. 
Hodge, P. W., and F. W. Wright. "Variable Stars in Clusters of the SMC." 

Astronomical Journal, volume 80 (1975), pages 510-511. 
Hougen, J. T., H. E. Radford, K. M. Evenson, and C. J. Howard. "Analysis of 

the Laser Magnetic Resonance Spectrum of HO2." Journal of Molecular 

Spectroscopy, volume 56 (1975), pages 210-228. 
Jacchia, L. G. "The Earth's Upper Atmosphere." Sky and Telescope, volume 

49 (1975), pages 155-159, 229-232, and 294-299. 
. "Some Thoughts about Randomness." Sky and Telescope, volume 50 

(1975), pages 371-374. 

"Novae through the (convex) Looking Glass." Journal of the American 

Association of Variable Star Observers, volume 4 (1976), pages 49-54. 

Jacchia, L. G., and J. W. Slowey. "A Catalog of Atmospheric Densities from 
the Drag on Five Balloon Satellites." Smithsonian Astrophysical Observa- 
tory Special Report, number 368, August 1975. 

Jacchia, L. G., J. W. Slowey, and U. von Zahn. "Latitudinal Changes of Com- 
position in the Disturbed Thermosphere from ESRO 4 Measurements." 
Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 81 (1976), pages 36-42. 

Jamieson, M., P. M. Kalaghan, and A. Dalgarno. "Rotational Excitation of CN 
Molecules by Proton Impact." Journal of Physics B, volume 8 (1975), pages 

Johnson, C, and M. H. Liller. "RY Carinae: A Complex Star Group." Journal 
of the American Association of Variable Star Observers, volume 4 (1975), 
pages 31-33. 

Kahler, S. W., A. S. Krieger, J. K. Silk, R. W. Simon, A. F. Timothy, and 
G. Vaiana. "Studies of the Dynamic Structure and Spectra of Solar X-Ray 
Flares." In Solar, Gamma-, X-, and EUV Radiation, edited by S. Kane, page 
185. Boston: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1975. 

Kahler, S. W., and A. S. Krieger, and G. S. Vaiana. "Morphological Evolution 
of X-Ray Flare Structures from the Rise through the Decay Phase." Astro- 
physical Journal (Letters), volume 199 (1975), page L57. 

. "The Morphology and Evolution of Long Decay Soft X-Ray Events 

Observed with the S-054 X-Ray Experiment on Skylab." 148th Meeting of 

374 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

the American Astronomical Society, Haverford, Pennsylvania, June 1976. 
[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 8 (1976), 
page 316. 

Kellogg, E. M. "X-Ray Astronomy in the Uhuru Epoch and Beyond." Astro- 
physical Journal, volume 197 (1975), pages 689-704. - 

Kellogg, E., J. Baldwin, and D. Koch. "Studies of Cluster X-Ray Sources. 
Energy Spectra for the Perseus, Virgo and Coma Clusters." Astrophysical 
Journal, volume 199 (1975), pages 299-306. 

Kellogg, E., P. Henry, S. Murray, L. Van Speybroeck, and P. Bjorkholm. "High 
Resolution Imaging X-Ray Detector." Reviews of Scientific Instruments, 
volume 47 (1976), pages 282-290. 

Kinoshita, H. "Theory of the Rotation of the Earth" (abstract). In Long-Time 
Predictions in Dynamics, edited by V. Szebehely, page 339. Dordrecht- 
Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1976. 

. "Cassini's Laws." [Abstract] In Long-Time Predictions in Dynamics, 

edited by V. Szebehely, page 338. Dordrecht-Holland: D. Reidel Publishing 
Company, 1976. 

"Third-Order Artificial Satellite Theory." Dynamical Astronomy Divi- 

sion Meeting of the American Astronomical Society Meeting, Pasadena, 
California, December 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astro- 
nomical Society, volume 8 (1976), page 432. 

Kirby-Docken, K., C. Cerjan, and A. Dalgarno. "Oscillator Strengths and 
Photodissociation Cross Sections of Na + 2 and LiV Chemical Physics Letters, 
volume 40 (1976), pages 205-209. 

Kirby-Docken, K., and A. L. Ford. "Dipole and Overlap Integrals between 
Slater-Type Functions and Continuum Functions." Computational Physics 
Communications, volume 11 (1976), pages 49-55. 

Klein, R. I., R. F. Stein, and W. Kalkofen. "Radiative Shock Dynamics. I. The 
Lyman Continuum." Astrophysical Journal, volume 205 (1976), pages 499- 

Kleinmann, D. E. "The Use of a Large Telescope in the Infrared." In Far- 
Infrared Astronomy, Proceedings of a Conference held at Cumberland 
Lodge, Windsor, United Kingdom, edited by M. Rowan-Robinson, pages 
33-45. Oxford, England: Pergamon, 1976. 

Kleinmann, D. E., F. C. Gillett, and E. L. Wright. "The 8-13m Spectrum of 
NGC 1068." Astrophysical Journal, volume 208 (1976), pages 42-46. 

. "The 8-13m Spectrum of NGC 1068." 146th Meeting of the American 

Astronomical Society, San Diego, California, August 1975. [Abstract] Bulle- 
tin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 436. 

Kohl, J. L., and W. H. Parkinson. "The Mg II h and k Lines I: Absolute Center 
and Limb Measurements of the Solar Profiles." Astrophysical Journal, vol- 
ume 205 (1976), pages 599-611. 

Kohl, J. L., and W. H. Parkinson. "The Solar Profiles of the Components of 
He II 1640 A from Rocket Observations." 146th Meeting of the American 
Astronomical Society, San Diego, California, August 1975. [Abstract] 
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 450. 

Kojoian, G., R. S. Sramek, D. Dickinson, H. Tovmassian, and C. Purton. "The 
Radio Spectra of Markarian Galaxies." Astrophysical Journal, volume 203 
(1976), pages 323-328. 

Kolaczek, B., and G. Weiffenbach, editors. On Reference Coordinate Systems 
for Earth Dynamics, Proceedings of International Astronomical Union Col- 
loquium No. 26, 478 pages. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw Technical University, 

Kowal, C, K. Aksnes, B. G. Marsden, and E. Roemer. "The Thirteenth Satellite 
of Jupiter." Astronomical Journal, volume 80 (1975), pages 460-464. 

Kozai, Y. "Hybrid Systems for Use in the Dynamics of Artificial Satellites." 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 375 

In On Reference Coordinate Systems for Earth Dynamics, Proceedings of 
International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 26, edited by B. Kolaczek 
and G. Weiffenbach, pages 235-240. Warsaw Poland: Warsaw Technical 
University, 1975. 

Krieger, A. S., R. C. Chase, M. Gerassimenko, S. W. Kahler, and G. S. Vaiana. 
"Time Variations in Coronal Active Regions." In Solar, Gamma-, X-, and 
EUV Radiation, Proceedings of International Astronomical Union Sym- 
posium No. 68, edited by S. Kane, page 103. Boston: D. Reidel Publishing 
Company, 1975. 

Kurucz, R., E. H. Avrett, and E. Peytremann. Blanketed Model Stellar Atmos- 
pheres for Early Type Stars, 189 pages. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian 
Institution Press, 1975. 

Lada, C. J., and J. H. Black. "CO Observations of the Bright-Rimmed Cloud 
B35." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 203 (1976), pages L75-L79. 

Lada, C. J., D. F. Dickinson, C A. Gottlieb, and E. L. Wright. "H2O and 22 
GHz Continuum Observations of M17." Astrophysical Journal, volume 207 
(1976), pages 113-118. 

Lada, C. J., T. R. Gull, C. A. Gottlieb, and E. W. Gottlieb. "Optical and 
Millimeter-Wave Observations of M8." Astrophysical Journal, volume 203 
(1976), pages 159-168. 

Landini, M., B. C. Monsignori-Fossi, A. Krieger, and G. S. Vaiana. "The 
Coronal Structure of Active Regions." Solar Physics, volume 44 (1975), pages 

Latham, D. "Interobservatory Sensitometer Standards." American Astronomi- 
cal Society Photo-Bulletin, number 3 (1975), pages 15-17. 

Latham, D., and I. Furenlid. "The Influence of Background Exposures on the 
Detective Performance of Photographic Plates." American Astronomical 
Society Photo-Bulletin, number 1 (1976), pages 11-14. 

Layzer, D. "Galaxy Clustering: Its Description and Its Interpretation." In Stars 
and Stellar Systems, Compendium of Astronomy, volume 9, Galaxies and the 
Universe, edited by A. Sandage, M. Sandage, and J. Kristian, pages 665-723. 
Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1975. 

. "The Arrow of Time." Scientific American, volume 233 (1975), pages 

56-69; see also Astrophysical Journal, volume 206 (1976), pages 559-569. 

Leach, R. W., S. Murray, E. J. Schreier, H. C. Tananbaum, M. P. Ulmer, and 
D. R. Parsignault. "Further Observations of Cygnus X-3 with the Uhuru 
Satellite." Astrophysical Journal, volume 199 (1975), pages 184-188. 

Lecar, M. "Dynamical Friction in the Coma Cluster." In Dynamics of Stellar 
Systems, edited by A. Hayli, pages 161-166. Dordrecht-Holland: D. Reidel 
Publishing Company, 1975. 

Lecar, M., J. C. Wheeler, and C. F. McKee. "Tidal Circularization of the Binary 
X-Ray Sources Hercules X-l and Centaurus X-3." Astrophysical Journal, 
volume 205 (1976), pages 556-562. 

Lester, J. B., and A. K. Dupree. "High Dispersion Observations of Ca II H and 
K Lines in Late-Type Stars." 147th Meeting of the American Astronomical 
Society, Chicago, Illinois, December 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the Ameri- 
can Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 517. 

Levine, R. H. "The Representation of Magnetic Field Lines from Magnetograph 
Data." Solar Physics, volume 44 (1975), pages 365-370. 

. "Evidence for Opposed Currents in Active Region Loops." Solar 

Physics, volume 46 (1976), pages 159-170. 

Levine, R. H., M. D. Altschuler, and J. W. Harvey. "Open Magnetic Structures 
on the Sun." 148th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Haver- 
ford, Pennsylvania, June 1976. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astro- 
nomical Society, volume 8 (1976), page 326. 

Levine, R. H., and G. L. Withbroe. "Physics of an Active Region Loop Event." 

376 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

146th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, San Diego, California, 
August 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 
volume 7 (1975), page 460. 

Liller, M. H. "Variable Stars in the X-Ray Globular Cluster NGC 1851." Astro- 
physical Journal (Letters), volume 201 (1975), pages L125-L126. 

Liller, M. H., and W. Liller. "Photometric Histories of QSOs with Large Light 
Amplitude." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 199 (1975), pages 

. "Preliminary Photometry of the X-Ray Globular Cluster NGC 6624." 

Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 207 (1976), pages L109-L111. 

"Photometric Studies of the X-Ray Globular Cluster NGC 6624 = 3U 

1820-30." 147th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Chicago, 
Illinois, December 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 7 (1975), page 536. 

Liller, M. H., and H. B. Sawyer Hogg. "The Variable Stars in the Globular 
Cluster NGC 5634." Astronomical Journal, volume 81 (1976), pages 628-631. 

Lin, C. D. "Ground State and Elastic Phase Shifts of the e-H System Studied 
in Hyperspherical Coordinates." Physical Review A, volume 12 (1975), pages 

. "Feshbach and Shape Resonances in e-H *P System." Physical Review 

Letters, volume 35 (1975, pages 1150-1153. 

Litvak, M. M. "Molecular Alignment and Radiative Transport." Astrophysical 
Journal, volume 202 (1975), pages 58-75. 

. "Vortex and Hypersonic Motion in Galactic Clouds." 17th Annual 

Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics, American Physical Society, St. 
Petersburg, Florida, November 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American 
Physical Society, volume 20 (1975), page 1325. 

Lo, K. Y., J. M. Moran, M. Morris, R. C. Walker, and A. H. Haschick. "Ex- 
tremely Rapid Variations of the H2O Maser Source Near Herbig-Haro 
Object No. 9." 146th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, San 
Diego, California, August 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astro- 
nomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 417. 

Lo, K. Y., M. Morris, J. M. Moran, and A. H. Haschick. "The Unusual H 2 
Maser Source Near Herbig-Haro Object 11." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), 
volume 204 (1976), pages L21-L24. 

Lo, K. Y., R. C. Walker, B. F. Burke, J. M. Moran, K. J. Johnston, and M. S. 
Ewing. "Evidence for Zeeman Splitting in 1720 MHz OH Line Emission." 
Astrophysical Journal, volume 202 (1975), pages 650-654. 

McClintock, J., H. Bradt, J. Buff, G. Clark, R. Doxsey, D. Hearn, G. Jernigan, 
W. Lewin, F. Li, T. Matilsky, W. Mayer, F. Primini, S. Rappaport, J. Richard- 
son, and H. W. Schnopper. "The Transient Periodic X-Ray Source in Taurus 
A 0535+26. 146th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, San 
Diego, California, August 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astro- 
nomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 431. 

McCrosky, R. E. "Cometary Debris." In The Dusty Universe, edited by G. B. 
Field and A. G. W. Cameron, pages 169-184. New York: Neale Watson 
Academic Publications, 1975. 

Mcintosh, P. S., A. S. Krieger, J. T. Nolte, and G. Vaiana. "Association of 
X-Ray Arches with Chromospheric Neutral Lines." 146th Meeting of the 
American Astronomical Society, San Diego, California, August 1975. [Ab- 
stract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), 
page 444. 

Mader, G. L., K. J. Johnston, and J. M. Moran. "The Relative Positions of the 
OH and H 2 Masers in W49N and W3(OH)." 146th Meeting of the Ameri- 
can Astronomical Society, San Diego, California, August 1975. [Abstract] 
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 417. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 377 

Mader, G. L., K. J. Johnston, J. M. Moran, S. H. Knowles, S. A. Mango, P. R. 

Schwartz, and W. B. Waltman. "The Relative Positions of the OH and H 2 

Masers in W49N and W3(OH)," Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 200 

(1975), pages 111-114. 
Mao, N. H., and P. A. Mohr. "Site Evaluation for Laser Satellite-Tracking 

Stations." Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Special Report, number 

371 (February 1976). 
Mariska, J. T., and G. L. Withbroe. "Analysis of EUV Limb Brightening 

Observations from ATM. I: Model for the Transition Layer and Corona." 

Solar Physics, volume 44 (1975), pages 55-68. 
. "Extreme Ultraviolet Solar Limb Brightening Observations." 146th 

Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, San Diego, California, 

August 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 

volume 7 (1975), page 460. 
Marsden, B. G. "Annual Report of the Central Bureau for Astronomical 

Telegrams." International Astronomical Union Information Bulletin, number 

34 (1975), pages 8-9. 
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Hayes, pages 152-168. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1975. 

"Charles Edward St. John." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 

volume 12, pages 72-73. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1975. 

"Nongravitational Forces on Comets." In Study of Comets, nasa 

SP-393, edited by B. Donn, M. Mumma, W. Jackson, M. A'Hearn, and 

R. Harrington, pages 465-489. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and 

Space Administration, 1976. 
Marsden, B. G., and J. E. Bortle. "Comet d'Arrest Approaches the Earth." Sky 

and Telescope, volume 52 (1976), pages 10-13. 
Marvin, U. B. "Geological Setting and Sample Descriptions." Interdisciplinary 

Studies by the Imbrium Consortium, volume 1 (1976), pages 15-21, 20-21, 

40, 54-55, 67, 74-77, 108-111. 
. "The Perplexing Behavior of Niobium in Meteorites and Lunar 

Samples." Meteoritics, volume 10 (1976), pages 452-454. 

-. "Plate Tectonics." In The Year Book (1975), Annual Supplement to 

Collier's Encyclopedia and Merit Student's Encyclopedia, pages 62-71. New 
York: Macmillan Education Corporation, 1976. 

"Apollo 16 Rock 61224, 6: A Lunar or Meteoritic Eucrite?" Spring 

Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 

April 1976. [Abstract] EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical 

Union, volume 57 (1976), pages 277-278. 
Mattison, E. M., R. F. C. Vessot, and M. W. Levine. "A Study of Hydrogen 

Maser Resonators and Storage Bulbs for Use in Ground and Satellite 

Masers." In Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Precise Time and Time 

Interval Applications and Planning Meeting, pages 243-263. Greenbelt, 

Maryland: Goddard Space Flight Center, 1976. 
Meier, D., R. I. Epstein, D. N. Schramm, and W. D. Arnett. "Magnetohydro- 

dynamic Phenomena in Collapsing Stellar Cores." Astrophysical Journal, 

volume 204 (1976), pages 869-878. 
Menzel, D. H. "Excerpt from Other Worlds Than Ours." In American English 

Today. Writing as Communication, chapter 3. Boston, Massachusetts: 

McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1975. 
. "Gravitational Analogue of the Magnetic Force — Menzel and Salisbury 

Reply." Nature, volume 257 (1975), pages 161-162. 

-. "Kepler's Place in Science Fiction." Vistas in Astronomy, volume 18 

(1975), pages 895-904. 

"Superstars and the Black-Hole Myth." Memoires de la Societe Royale 

des Sciences de Liege, 6th ser., tome IX (1976), pages 343-353. 

378 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

. "The Nature of Life on Mars — A Prophecy." Harvard Magazine, June 


Mertz, L. "Field Compensation for High-Dispersion Spectrographs." Optics 
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Mohr, P. A. "New Data on the Evolution of the Ethiopian Rift." [Abstract] 
EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, volume 56 (1975), 
page 450. 

. "Structural Elements of the Afar Margins: Data from ERTS-1 

Imagery." Bulletin of the Geophysical Observatory of Addis Ababa, num- 
ber 15 (1975), pages 83-89. 

"Structural Setting and Evolution of Afar." In Afar Depression of 

Ethiopia, edited by A. Pilger and A. Rosier, pages 27-37. Stuttgart: Schwei- 
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"Pliocene K — Ar Age for the Observatory Basalt." Bulletin of the 

Geophysical Observatory of Addis Ababa, number 15 (1975), pages 155-156. 
— . "Failing to Take the Point." Nature, volume 256 (1975), page 690. 

"Quaternary Volcanic-Tectonic Relationships, Ethiopian Rift." [Ab- 

stract] Abstracts with Programs, Geological Society of America, volume 8 
(1976), page 612. 

"ENE-Trending Lineaments of the African Rift System." In Proceed- 

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Geological Association Publication Number 5 (1976), pages 327-336. 

Mohr, P. A., A. Girnius, J. R. Cherniack, E. M. Gaposchkin, and J. Latimer. 
"Recent Crustal Deformation in the Ethiopian Rift Valley." Tectonophysics, 
volume 29 (1975), pages 461-469. 

Moran, J. M. "Geodetic and Astronometric Results of Very Long Baseline 
Interferometric Measurements of Natural Sources." In On Reference Co- 
ordinate Systems for Earth Dynamics, Proceedings of International Astro- 
nomical Union Colloquium No. 26, edited by B. Kolaczek and G. Weiffen- 
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. "Very Long Baseline Interferometric Observations and Data Reduc- 
tion." In Methods of Experimental Physics, volume 12C, edited by M. L. 
Meeks, pages 228-260. New York: Academic Press, 1976. 

"Radio Observations of Galactic Masers." In Frontiers of Astro- 

physics, edited by E. H. Avrett, pages 385-437. Cambridge: Harvard Univer- 
sity Press, 1976. 

-. "Very Long Baseline Interferometer Systems." In Methods of Experi- 

mental Physics, volume 12C, edited by M. L. Meeks, pages 174-197. New 
York: Academic Press, 1976. 

Murray, S., and M. Ulmer. "Observations of High Latitude X-Ray Sources with 
the Uhuru Satellite." Astrophysical Journal, volume 207 (1976), pages 364- 

Noxon, J. F., W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, and P. Connes. "Detection of 2 
Dayglow Emission from Mars and the Martian Ozone Abundance." Astro- 
physical Journal, volume 207 (1976), pages 1025-1035. 

Noyes, R. W. "The Solar Maximum Mission." In Proceedings, Symposium on 
the Study of the Sun and Interplanetary Medium in Three Dimensions, 
GSFC X-660-76-53, pages 48-58. Greenbelt, Maryland: Goddard Space Flight 
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. "New Developments in Solar Research." In Frontiers of Astrophysics, 

edited by E. H. Avrett, pages 41-94. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 

Noyes, R. W., P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, E. M. Reeves, E. J. Schmahl, J. G. 
Timothy, J. E. Vernazza, and G. L. Withbroe. "EUV Observations of the 
Active Sun from the Harvard Experiment on ATM." In Solar, Gamma-, X-, 
and EUV Radiation, Proceedings of International Astronomical Union Sym- 

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posium No. 68, edited by S. Kane, pages 3-17. Boston: D. Reidel Publishing 
Company, 1975. 

O'Leary, B., B. G. Marsden, R. Dragon, E. Hauser, M. McGrath, P. Backus, and 
H. Roskoff. "The Occultation of k Geminorum by Eros." Icarus, volume 28 
(1976), pages 133-146. 

Oppenheimer, M., and A. Dalgarno. "The Formation of Carbon Monoxide and 
the Thermal Balance in Interstellar Clouds." Astrophysical Journal, vol- 
ume 200 (1975), pages 419-425. 

. "Ion Chemistry of N + 2 and the Solar Ultraviolet Flux in the Thermo- 

sphere." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 8 (1976), pages 3762-3766. 

Oppenheimer, M., A. Dalgarno, and L. H. Brace. "Recombination Rate Co- 
efficient of NO + from Thermosphere Daytime Photochemistry." 1976 Spring 
Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 
April 1976. [Abstract] EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical 
Union, volume 57 (1976), page 297. 

Oppenheimer, M., A. Dalgarno, and H. C. Brinton. "Molecular Oxygen Abun- 
dances in the Thermosphere from the Chemistry of the + 2 Ion Based on 
Atmosphere Explorer -C Composition Measurements." Journal of Geo- 
physical Research, volume 81 (1976), pages 4678-4684. 

Oppenheimer, M., and H. Doyle. "An Improved Bound-State Method for Cal- 
culating Resonance Eigenvectors and Properties." Physical Review A, vol- 
ume 13 (1976), pages 665-673. 

Palenius, H. P., J. L. Kohl, and W. H. Parkinson. "Absolute Measurement of 
the Photoionization Cross Section of Atomic Hydrogen with a Shock Tube 
for the Extreme Ultraviolet." Physical Review A, volume 13 (1976), pages 

Pallavicini, R., G. S. Vaiana, S. W. Kahler, and A. S. Krieger. "Spatial Struc- 
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Skylab." Solar Physics, volume 45 (1975), pages 411-433. 

Papaliolios, C, S. J. Freedman, and R. A. Holt. "Experimental Status of Hidden 
Variable Theories." In Quantum Mechanics, Determinism, Causality, and 
Particles, edited by M. Flato, Z. Marie, A. Milojevic, D. Sternheimer, and 
J. P. Vigier. Dordrecht-Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1976. 

Parkinson, W. H., E. M. Reeves, and F. S. Tomkins. "Neutral Calcium, 
Strontium and Barium: Determination of f- Values of the Principal Series by 
the Hook Method." Journal of Physics B, volume 9 (1976), pages 156-165. 

. "Measurements of Sc I gf Values." Proceedings of the Royal Society, 

volume 351 (1976), pages 569-579. 

Parsignault, D., A. Epstein, J. Grindlay, E. Schreier, H. Schnopper, H. Gursky, 
Y. Tanaka, A. Brinkman, J. Heise, J. Schrijver T R. Mewe, E. Gronenschild, 
and A. den Boggende. "ANS Observations of Cygnus X-l." Astrophysics 
and Space Science, volume 42 (1976), pages 175-185. 

Parsignault, D. R., J. Grindlay, E. Schreier, H. Schnopper, and H. Gursky. "Iron 
Line Emission in the X-Ray Spectrum of Cygnus X-3." 147th Meeting of the 
American Astronomical Society, Chicago, Illinois, December 1975. [Abstract] 
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 537. 

Payne-Gaposchkin, C, and C. A. Whitney. "Analysis of Broad-Band Pho- 
tometry of the Long-Period Variables." Smithsonian Astrophysical Obser- 
vatory Special Report, number 370 (March 1976). 

Pearlman, M. R., C. G. Lehr, N. W. Lanham, and J. Wohn. "Upgrading of the 
SAO Laser Systems to Improve Ranging Performance." In Laser Tracking 
Instrumentation, edited by G. C Weiffenbach and K. Hamal. Prague, 
Czechoslovakia: Technical University of Prague, 1975. 

Penfield, H. "Multichannel-Filter Spectrometers." In Methods of Experimental 
Physics, volume 12B, edited by M. L. Meeks, pages 266-279. New York: 
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380 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Petrasso, R. D., S. W. Kahler, A. 5. Krieger, J. K. Silk, A. F. Timothy, and 
G. S. Vaiana. "The Location of the Site of Energy Release in a Solar X-Ray 
Subflare." In X-Rays in Space, Proceedings of the University of Calgary, 
pages 975. 

Podolak, M., and A. G. W. Cameron. "Further Investigations of Jupiter 
Models." Icarus, volume 25 (1975), pages 627-634. 

Poggio, E. C, H. R. Quinn, and S. Weinberg. "Smearing Method in the Quark 
Model." Physical Review D, volume 13 (1976), pages 1958-1968. 

Poletto, G., G. S. Vaiana, M. V. Zombeck, A. S. Krieger, and A. F. Timothy. 
"A Comparison of Coronal X-Ray Structures of Active Regions with Mag- 
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volume 44 (1975), pages 83-99. 

Radford, H. E. "New CW Lines from a Submillimeter Waveguide Laser." 
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Journal of Quantum Elec- 
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Radford, H. E., and M. M. Litvak. "Imine (NH) Detected by Laser Magnetic 
Resonance." Chemical Physics Letters, volume 34 (1975), pages 561-564. 

Raghavan, N., and G. L. Withbroe. "EUV Analysis of an Active Region." 
Solar Physics, volume 43 (1975), pages 117-128. 

Reeves, E. M. "A Solar Observatory in Space: Initial Results and Mission 
Assessment." Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, volume 31 (Part II: 
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. "The EUV Chromospheric Network in the Quiet Sun." Solar Physics, 

volume 46 (1976), pages 53-72. 

Reeves, E. M., and A. K. Dupree. "EUV Solar Spectroscopy from Skylab and 
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Reeves, E. M., J. G. Timothy, P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, 
E. J. Schmahl, J. E. Vernazza, and G. L. Withbroe. "Initial Results from the 
EUV Spectroheliometer on ATM." Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, 
volume 48 (1976), pages 73-104. 

Reeves, E. M., J. E. Vernazza, and G. L. Withbroe. "The Quiet Sun in the 
Extreme Ultraviolet." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 
(London), volume 281 (1976), pages 319-329. 

Reid, M. J. "On the Stellar Velocity of Long-Period Variables and OH Maser 
Stars." Astrophysical Journal, volume 207 (1976), pages 784-789. 

Rice, J. E., H. Helava, R. R. Parker, and H. W. Schnopper. "X-Ray Spectra 
from Alcator." First Topical Conference on Diagnostics of High Tempera- 
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American Physical Society, volume 21 (1976), page 852. 

Richardson, S. M. "Ion Distribution in Pink Muscovites." American Mineralo- 
gist, volume 61 (1976), pages 1051-1052. 

. "Paragenesis of Vein Sulfates in the Orgueil (Cl) Carbonaceous 

Chondrite." Spring Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, 
Washington, D.C., April 1976. [Abstract] EOS, Transactions of the Ameri- 
can Geophysical Union, volume 57 (1976), page 277. 

Rodriguez, L. F., and E. J. Chaisson. "Radio-Recombination Line Mapping of 
M8." 146th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, San Diego, 
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Society, volume 7 (1975), page 464. 

. "23-GHz Mapping of H II Regions and a Comparison to High Resolu- 
tion Far-Infrared Maps." 148th Meeting of the American Astronomical 
Society, Haverford, Pennsylvania, June 1976. [Abstract] Bulletin of the 
American Astronomical Society, volume 8 (1976), page 301. 

Romanowicz, B. A. "On the Tesseral-Harmonics Resonance Problem in Arti- 

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ficial Satellite Theory. Part II." Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
Special Report, number 373 (March 1976). 

Roosen, R. G., and B. G. Marsden. "Observing Prospects for Halley's Comet." 
Sky and Telescope, volume 49 (1975), pages 363-364. 

Rybicki, G. B. "Effect of Weak Turbulence on Spectral Line Formation." In 
Proceedings, CNRS Colloquium on the Physics of Motions in Stellars At- 
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Rybicki, G. B., and D. H. Hummer. "A Note on the 'Peaking Effect' in 
Spherical-Geometry Transfer Problems." Monthly Notices of the Royal 
Astronomical Society, volume 170 (1975), pages 423-427. 

Ryder, G. "Lunar Sample 15405: Remnant of a KREEP Basalt— Granite Differ- 
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pages 255-268. 

Ryder, G., and A. Basu. "Apollo 15 KREEP Basalt." [Abstract] EOS, Transac- 
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Ryder, G., and J. F. Bower. "Petrology." Interdisciplinary Studies by the 
Imbrium Consortium, volume 1 (1976), pages 22-37, 41-50, 55-66, 77-94, 

Ryder, G., D. B. Stoeser, U. B. Marvin, and J. F. Bower. "Lunar Granites with 
Unique Ternary Feldspars." In Proceedings of the Sixth Lunar Science 
Conference, Ceochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Supplement 6, volume 1 
(1975), pages 435-449. 

Ryder, G., D. B. Stoeser, U. B. Marvin, J. F. Bower, and J. A. Wood. "The 
Boulder." The Moon, volume 14 (1975), pages 315-326. 

. "Boulder 1, Station 2, Apollo 17: Petrology and Pedogenesis." The 

Moon, volume 14 (1975), pages 327-357. 

Ryder, G., and G. J. Taylor. "'Pre-Mare' Volcanism." [Abstract] In Lunar 
Science VII, pages 755-757. Houston, Texas: Lunar Science Institute, 1976. 

Schaefer, M. M., G. Rybicki, and M. Lecar. "Galactic Mass Determinations 
from Incomplete Rotation Curves." Astrophysics and Space Science, volume 
41 (1976), pages 3-14. 

Schild, R., and M. Frankston. "Near Infrared Observations of the Edge-On 
Spiral Galaxy NGC 4565." Astronomical Journal, volume 81 (1976), pages 

Schild, R., and W. Liller. "The Light Curve of CV Serpentis, the Sometimes- 
Eclipsing Wolf-Rayet Stars." Astrophysical Journal, volume 199 (1975), 
pages 432-435. 

Schild, R., and W. Romanishin. "A Study of Be Stars in Clusters." Astro- 
physical Journal, volume 204 (1976), pages 493-501. 

Schmahl, E. J. "The Temperature Structure of the Lower Corona." 148th 
Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Haverford, Pennsylvania, 
June 1976. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, vol- 
ume 8 (1976), page 369. 

. "The Generation of Alfven Waves by Jupiters Satellites." Winter 

Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, California, 
December 1975. [Abstract] EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical 
Union, volume 57 (1976), page 155. 

Schmahl, E. J., and F. Q. Orrall. "Comparison of the Prominence-Corona 
Interface with the Chromosphere-Corona Transition Region." 147th Meeting 
of the American Astronomical Society, Chicago, Illinois, December 1975. 
[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), 
page 523. 

Schnopper, H. W., and J. P. Delvaille. "Radiative Electron Capture and 
Bremsstrahlung." In Atomic Collisions in Solids, edited by S. Datz, B. R. 
Appleton, and C D. Moak, pages 481-498. New York: Plenum Press, 1975. 

382 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Schnopper, H. W., J. P. Delvaille, A. Epstein, K. Kalata, and A. R. Sohval. 
"X-Ray Spectroscopy with the ANS and HEAO-B Satellites." Space Science 
Instrumentation, volume 2 (1976), pages 243-261. 

Schnopper, H. W., J. P. Delvaille, A. Epstein, H. Gursky, K. Kalata, A. R. 
Sohval, and D. R. Parsignault. "Search for Si XIV and Si XIII Line Emission 
from Cosmic X-Ray Sources." 146th Meeting of the American Astronomical 
Society, San Diego, California, August 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the 
American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 460. 

Schreier, E., H. Schnopper, H. Gursky, and D. Parsignault. "Possible Indentifi- 
cation of a High-Latitude X-Ray Source with a QSO by the Astronomical 
Netherlands Satellite." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 201 (1975), 
pages L137-L139. 

Schreier, E., K. Swartz, R. Giacconi, G. Fabbiano, and J. Morin. "The Long- 
Term Intensity Behavior of Centaurus X-3." Astrophysical Journal, volume 
204 (1976), pages 539-547. 

Schwartz, D. A. "New Cosmological Test for q ." Astrophysical Journal 
(Letters), volume 206 (1976), pages L95-L97. 

Schwartz, D. A., S. S. Murray, and H. Gursky. "A Measurement of Fluctua- 
tions in the X-Ray Background by Uhuru." Astrophysical Journal, volume 
204 (1976), pages 315-321. 

Schwarz, J., J. P. Ostriker, and A. Yahil. "Explosive Events in the Early 
Universe." Astrophysical Journal, volume 202 (1975), pages 1-6. 

Seguin, F. "Turbulence in Tidally Distorted Stars." Astrophysical Journal, 
volume 207 (1976), pages 848-859. 

Sekanina, Z. "Progress in Our Understanding of Cometary Dust Tails: A 
Review." In The Study of Comets, nasa SP-393, edited by B. Donn, M. 
Mumma, W. Jackson, M. A'Hearn, and R. Harrington, pages 893-939. 
Washington, D.C. : National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1976. 

. "A Continuing Controversy: Has the Cometary Nucleus Been Re- 
solved?" In The Study of Comets, nasa SP-393, edited by B. Donn, M. 
Mumma, W. Jackson, M. A'Hearn, and R. Harrington, pages 537-585. 
Washington, D.C: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1976. 

"Predicted Favorable Visibility Conditions for Anomalous Tails of 

Comets." In Interplanetary Dust and Zodiacal Light, Proceedings of Inter- 
national Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 31, edited by H. Elsasser and 
H. Fechtig, pages 339-342. Berlin: Springer- Verlag, 1976. 

"Modeling of the Orbital Evolution of Vaporizing Dust Particles near 

the Sun." In Interplanetary Dust and Zodiacal Light, Proceedings of Inter- 
national Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 31, edited by H. Elsasser and 
H. Fechtig, pages 434-436. Berlin: Springer- Verlag, 1976. 

'A Probability of Encounter with Interstellar Comets and the Likeli- 

hood of Their Existence." Icarus, volume 27 (1976), pages 123-133. 

-. "Statistical Model of Meteor Streams. IV. A Study of Radio Streams 

from the Synoptic Year." Icarus, volume 27 (1976), pages 265-321. 

"Disintegration Phenomena in Comet West." Sky and Telescope, vol- 

ume 17 (1976), pages 386-393. 

"On the Existence of Interstellar Comets and the Probability of their 

Encounter with the Sun." 146th Meeting of the American Astronomical 
Society, San Diego, California, August 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the 
American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 467. 

Sekanina, Z., and F. D. Miller. "On the Nature of the Antitail of Comet 
Kohoutek (1973f). II. Comparison of the Working Model with Ground-Based 
Photographic Observations." Icarus, volume 27 (1976), pages 135-146. 

Silk, J. K., S. W. Kahler, A. S. Krieger, and G. S. Vaiana. "Energy and Material 
Loss in the Decay of an X-Ray Flare." 148th Meeting of the American 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 383 

Astronomical Society, Haverford, Pennsylvania, June 1976. [Abstract] Bul- 
letin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 8 (1976), page 375. 

Skinner, C. H. "Four Wave Mixing in Barium." Fall Meeting of Optical Society 
of America, Boston, Massachusetts, October 1975. [Abstract] Journal of the 
Optical Society of America, volume 65 (1975), page 1180. 

Smith, P. L., M. C. E. Huber, and W. H. Parkinson. "The Refractivities of H 2 , 
He, O^CO, and Kr for 168 ^ X ^ 288nm." Physical Review A, volume 13 
(1976), pages 1422-1434. 

Smith, P. L., W. H. Parkinson, and M. C. E. Huber. "The Refractive Index of 
Krypton for 168 — X — 288nm." Optics Communications, volume 14 (1975), 
pages 374-377. 

Sohval, A. R., J. P. Delvaille, K. Kalata, K. Kirby-Docken, and H. W. Schnop- 
per. "Model for Radiative Electron Capture: An Interpretation of the Line 
Width." Journal of Physics B, volume 9 (1976), pages L25-L29. 

Sohval, A. R., J. P. Delvaille, K. Kalata, and H. W. Schnopper: "Knock-On 
Bremsstrahlung in Heavy-Ion Collisions with Thick Targets." Journal of 
Physics B, volume 8 (1975), pages L426-L428. 

. "Cross Section Ratio for Radiative Electron Capture to Inner and 

Outer Atomic Shells." Journal of Physics B, volume 9 (1976), pages L47-L51. 

Sohval, A. R., J. P. Delvaille, and H. W. Schnopper. "Cross Sections and 
Angular Distributions for Continuum X-Ray Processes in Heavy Ion Col- 
lisions." IX International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and 
Atomic Collision, Seattle, Washington, July 1975. [Abstract] In Electronics 
and Atomic Collisions, edited by J. S. Resley and R. Geballe, volume 1, 
pages 321-322. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press, 1975. 

Stewart, R. F., G. Victor, and C. Laughlin. "The Calculation of Continuum 
Properties of L" and Na~ by a Green's Function Method." Journal of Physics 
B, volume 8 (1975), pages 1603-1612. 

Stewart, R. F., D. K. Watson, and A. Dalgarno. "Variational Time-Dependent 
Hartree-Fock Calculations. 1. Applications to Four-Electron Atomic and 
Molecular Systems." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 63 (1975), pages 

Stier, M., and W. Liller. "The Photometric and Spectrographic Histories of 
HD245770 = A0535 + 26, The Transient X-Ray Source." Astrophysical 
Journal, volume 206 (1976), pages 257-259. 

Timothy, J. G. "Detection Efficiencies of Channel Electron Multipliers with 
MgF* Photocathodes at XUV Wavelengths." Applied Optics, volume 15 
(1976), page 1218. 

. "Evidence for Long-Term Variations in the Quiet Sun Emission at 

EUV Wavelengths." 146th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 
San Diego, California, August 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American 
Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 407. 

Timothy, J. G., and R. L. Bybee. "Two-Dimensional Photon-Counting Detector 
Arrays Based on MicroChannel Array Plates." Review of Scientific Instru- 
ments, volume 46 (1975), pages 1615-1623. 

Timothy, J. G., and E. M. Reeves. "Preliminary Results from the Harvard 
ATM Calibration Rocket Program." Progress in Astronautics and Aero- 
nautics, volume 48 (1976), pages 123-149. 

Torr, D. G., M. R. Torr, J. L. G. Walker, L. H. Brace, H. C. Brinton, B. Hanson, 
J. H. Hoffman, A. O. Nier, and M. Oppenheimer. "Recombination of NO + in 
the Ionosphere." Geophysical Research Letters, volume 3 (1976), page 209. 

Traub, W. A. "Balloon-Borne Fourier Spectroscopy." In Far-Infrared Astron- 
omy, edited by M. Rowan-Robinson, pages 1-10. Oxford, England: Per- 
gamon Press, 1976. 

Traub, W. A., G. G. Fazio, E. L. Wright, F. J. Low, and L. Trafton. "The 
Effective Temperature of Uranus." 7th Planetary Sciences Division Meeting 

384 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

of the American Astronomical Society, Austin, Texas, March 1976. [Ab- 
stract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 10 (1976), 
page 300. 

Tsuruta, S., and A. G. W. Cameron. "The URCA Process in Convective 
Cores." Astrophysics and Space Science, volume 39 (1976), pages 397-400. 

Ulmer, M. P., and S. S. Murray. "Search for X-Ray Emission from BL Lacertae 
Objects and Nearby Seyfert Galaxies." Astrophysical Journal, volume 207 
(1976), pages 364-366. 

Ulmer, M., S. Murray, H. Gursky, and J. Bahcall. "Search for X-Ray Emission 
from Globular Clusters Using Uhuru Data." Astrophysical Journal, volume 
208 (1976), pages 47-51. 

Vaiana, G. S., R. Chase, J. Davis, M. Gerassimenko, L. Golub, S. Kahler, A. S. 
Krieger, R. Petrasso, J. K. Silk, R. Simmon, A. F. Timothy, M. Zombeck, and 

D. Webb. "Skylab and the ASE X-Ray Telescope Experiment: A New View 
of the X-Ray Corona." Osservazioni and Memorie Osservatorio Arcetri, 
number 104 (1975), pages 3-47. 

Vaiana, G. S., A. S. Krieger, A. F. Timothy, and M. Zombeck. "ATM Observa- 
tions, X-Ray Results." Astrophysics and Space Science, volume 39 (1976), 
pages 71-101. 

Van Biesbroeck, G., C. D. Vesely, K. Aksnes, and B. G. Marsden. "Observa- 
tions of Comets, Minor Planets, Pluto and Satellites." Astronomical Journal, 
volume 81 (1976), pages 122-124. 

Van Biesbroeck, G., C. D. Vesely, and B. G. Marsden. "Orbits of Comets 1892 
VI and 1911 V." Astronomical Journal, volume 81 (1976), pages 125-126. 

Veis, G. "General Principles for the Realization of Reference Systems for 
Earth Dynamics." In On Reference Coordinate Systems for Earth Dynamics, 
Proceedings of International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 26, edited 
by B. Kolaczek and G. C. Weiffenbach, pages 261-267. Warsaw, Poland: 
Warsaw Technical University, 1975. 

Vernazza, J. E., P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, E. M. Reeves, 

E. J. Schmahl, J. G. Timothy, and G. L. Withbroe. "Time Variations in 
Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Lines and the Problem of Coronal Heating." 
Astrophysical Journal, volume 199 (1975), pages L123-L126. 

Vessot, R. F. C. "Frequency and Time Standards." In Methods of Experimental 
Physics, volume 12C, edited by M. L. Meeks, pages 197-227. New York: 
Academic Press, 1976. 

Victor, G., K. Kirby-Docken, and A. Dalgarno. "Calculations of the Equi- 
librium Photoelectron Flux in the Thermosphere." Planetary and Space 
Science, volume 24 (1976), pages 679-681. 

Victor, G., P. McKenna, and A. Dalgarno. "Auroral Emission at 1084 A." 
Planetary and Space Science, volume 24 (1976), pages 405-407. 

Victor, G., R. F. Stewart, and C. Laughlin. Oscillator Strengths in the Mg 
Isoelectronic Sequence." Astrophysical Journal (Supplement Series), volume 
31 (1976), pages 237-247. 

. "Oscillator Strengths for Ac I, Sc II and Ti III." In Beam Foil Spectros- 
copy, volume 1, edited by I. Snellin and D. J. Pegg, pages 43-50. New York: 
Plenum Press, 1976. 

Walker, R. C, K. Y. Lo, B. F. Burke, K. J. Johnston, and J. M. Moran. "Six 
Centimeter Observations of Radio Galaxies over a 228 Kilometer Baseline." 
Astrophysical Journal, volume 208 (1976), pages 296-297. 

Ward, W. R. "Past Orientation of the Lunar Spin Axis." Science, volume 189 
(1975), pages 377-379. 

. "Cosmogony of the Solar System." Reviews of Geophysics and Space 

Science, volume 13 (1975), pages 422-424. 

"Formation of the Solar System." In Frontiers of Astrophysics, edited 

by E. H. Avrett, pages 1-40. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 385 

Ward, W. R., G. Colombo, and F. A. Franklin. "Secular Resonance, Solar 

Spin Down, and the Orbit of Mercury." Icarus, volume 28 (1976), pages 

Wasserman, L. H., J. L. Elliot, J. Veverka, and W. Liller. "Galilean Satellites: 

Observations of Mutual Occultations and Eclipses in 1973." Icarus, volume 

27 (1976), pages 91-107. 
Webb, D., A. Krieger, D. Rust, and G. Vaiana. "Coronal X-Ray Transient 

Events Associated with Ha Filament Disappearances." 146th Meeting of the 

American Astronomical Society, San Diego, California, August 1975. 

[Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 7 (1975), 

page 430. 
Weekes, T. C. "Atmospheric Fluorescence as a Means of Detecting X-Ray 

and Gamma-Ray Transients." Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial 

Physics, volume 38 (1976), pages 1021-1026. 
Weinberg, S. "Astrophysical Implications of the New Theories of Weak Inter- 
actions." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, volume 262 (1975), 

pages 409-421. 
. "The Forces of Nature." Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts 

and Sciences, volume 29 (1976), page 13. 

-. "Implications of Dynamical Symmetry Breaking." Physical Review D, 

volume 13 (1976), pages 974-996. 

"Mass of the Higgs Boson." Physical Review Letters, volume 36 (1976), 

pages 294-296. 

-. "Ambiguous Solutions of Supersymmetric Theories." Physics Letters, 

volume 62-B (1976), pages 111-113. 

-. "Apparent Luminosities in a Locally Inhomogeneous Universe" Astro- 

physical Journal (Letters), volume 208 (1976), pages L1-L3. 
Wetherbee, P. K., and E. M. Reeves. "Preliminary Atlas of Coronal Hole 

Observations with the HCO Spectrometer on Skylab." Harvard College Ob- 
servatory Report, 1975. 
Whipple, F. L. "Perspectives — Past, Present, and Future." In Man and Cosmos, 

edited by J. Cornell and E. N. Hayes, pages 169-179. New York: W. W. 

Norton and Co., 1975. 
. "Comments by Fred L. Whipple." In The Dusty Universe, edited by 

G. B. Field and A. G. W. Cameron, pages 292-310. New York: Neale Watson 

Academic Publications, 1975. 

'The Nucleus: Comments." In The Study of Comets, nasa SP-393, 

edited by B. Donn, M. Mumma, W. Jackson, M. A'Hearn, and R. Harrington, 
pages 622-635. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration, 1976. 

"Comet Kohoutek in Retrospect." Proceedings of the American Philo- 

sophical Society, volume 120 (1976), pages 1-6. 
Whipple, F. L., and M. Lecar. "Comet Formation Induced by the Solar Wind." 

[Abstract] In The Study of Comets, edited by B. Donn, M. Mumma, W. 

Jackson, M. A'Hearn, and R. Harrington, page 660. Washington, D.C. : 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1976. 
Whitney, C. A. "New Infrared Data on Mira Variables." Journal of the 

American Association of Variable Star Observers, volume 4 (1975), pages 

Withbroe, G. L. "The Analysis of XUV Emission Lines." Solar Physics, volume 

45 (1975), pages 301-317. 
. "Solar Structure in the Extreme Ultraviolet." Invited Paper at the 

Meeting of American Astronomical Society Solar Physics Division, San 

Diego, California, August 1975. [Abstract] Bulletin of the American Astro- 
nomical Society, volume 7 (1975), page 478. 
Withbroe, G. L., D. T. Jaffe, P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, E. M. 

386 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Reeves, E. J. Schmahl, J. G. Timothy, and J. E. Vernazza. "EUV Transients 
Observed at the Solar Pole." Astrophysical Journal, volume 203 (1976), 
pages 528-532. 

Withbroe, G. L., and J. T. Mariska. "Analysis of EUV Limb Brightening Ob- 
servations from ATM. II: Influence of Spicules." Solar Physics, volume 48 
(1976), pages 21-40. 

Wood, J. A. "Consortium Indomitabile." The Moon, volume 14 (1975), pages 

. "The Moon." In Man and Cosmos, edited by J. Cornell and E. N. 

Hayes, pages 50-67. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1975. 

The Fine-Grained Structure of Chondritic Meteorites." In The Dusty 

Universe, edited by G. B. Field and A. G. W. Cameron, pages 245-266. 
New York: Neale Watson Academic Publications, 1975. 

"The Nature and Origin of Boulder 1, Station 2, Apollo 17." The Moon, 

volume 14 (1975), pages 505-517. 

. "The Moon." Scientific American, volume 233 (1975), pages 92-102. 

. "Potter Glazes from the Moon." Studio Potter, Summer (1975), pages 


-. "Lunar Petrogenesis in a Well-Stirred Magma Ocean." In Proceedings 

of the Sixth Lunar Science Conference, Ceochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 

Supplement 6, volume 1 (1976), pages 1087-1102. 
Wright, E. L., G. G. Fazio, and F. J. Low. "Far-Infrared Observations of M20 

(NGC 6514)." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 208 (September 1, 

1976), pages L87-L89. 
Wright, E. L., E. W. Gottlieb, and W. Liller. "Optical Studies of Uhuru 

Sources. XII. The Light Curve of Scorpius X-l = v818 Scorpii, 1889-1974." 

Astrophysical Journal, volume 200 (1975), pages 171-176. 
Yau, A., and A. Dalgarno. "Fine Structure Excitation of Carbon by Atomic 

Hydrogen Impact." Astrophysical Journal, volume 206 (1976), pages 652- 

Young, S. W., A. Basu, G. Mack, N. Darnell, and L. J. Suttner. "Use of Size- 
Compositional Trends in Holocene Soil and Fluvial Sand for Paleoclimatic 

Interpretation." Proceedings of the IX me Congress of International Sedi- 

mentology, Nice, Th. 1 (1975), pages 201-206. 
Zeilik, M., D. E. Kleinmann, and E. L. Wright. "G 45.5 + 0.1 and G 45.1 + 

0.1: Compact Infrared Sources." Astrophysical Journal, volume 199 (1975), 

pages 401-405. 


Ferrari, Frank D. "Taxonomic Notes of the Genus Oncaea (Copepoda:Cyclo- 
poida) from the Gulf of Mexico and Northern Caribbean Sea." Proceedings 
of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 88, number 21 (1975), pages 

Houbrick, Richard S. "Clavocerithium (Indocerithium) taeniatum a Little 
Known and Unusual Cerithid from New Guinea." The Nautilus, volume 
89, number 4 (1975), pages 99-105. 

. "Preliminary Prevision of Supraspecific Taxa in the Cerithiinae Flem- 
ing, 1822 (Cerithiidae:Prosobranchia)." Bulletin of the American Malacolo- 
gical Union, Inc. for 1975 (1976), pages 14-18. 

Knapp, Leslie W. "Redescription, Relationships and Status of the Maryland 
Darter, Etheostoma sellare (Radcliffe and Welsh), an Endangered Species." 
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 89, number 6 
(1976), pages 99-118. 

Landrum, B. J. "Technical Support for Systematic Biology." Antarctic Journal 
of the U.S., volume 10, number 6 (1975), pages 313-315. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 387 


Hunt, B. L., M. Snyderman, and W. H. Payne. "Machine Assisted Indexing 
of Scientific Research Studies." Journal of the American Society for Informa- 
tion Science, volume 26 (1975), pages 230-237. 

Lakamp, David W. "An Approach to the Processing and Delivery of Ongoing 
Research Information." Proceedings of the International Symposium on 
Information Systems and Services in Ongoing Research in Science, Paris, 
France, October 27-29, 1975. 

. "Theoretical Negative Pion Absorption Cross Sections of Nuclei of 

Biomedical Significance." Catholic University Technical Report, February 


Abele, Lawrence G. "Comparative Species Richness and Constant Environ- 
ments; Coral-Associated Decapod Crustaceans." Science, volume 192, num- 
ber 4238 (1976), pages 461-463. 
Abele, Lawrence C, and Wendell K. Patton. "The Size of Coral Heads and 

the Community Biology of Associated Decapod Crustaceans." Journal of 

Biogeography, volume 1, number 1 (1976), pages 35-47. 
Andrews, Robin M. "Growth Rate in Island and Mainland Anoline Lizards." 

Copeia, number 3 (1976), pages 477-482. 
Arosemena M., Dalva H. "Absorcion de Radiocarbono en el Golfo de Panama." 

Thesis, Fundacion Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Facultad de 

Ciencias del Mar, 1975. 
Bertsch, Hans. "Distributional and Anatomical Observations of Berthella 

tupala (Opisthobranchia: Notaspidea)." The Nautilus, volume 89 (1975), 

pages 124-126. 
. "New Data on Thyca callista (Gastropoda: Capulidae)." The Veliger, 

volume 18, number 1 (1975), pages 99-100. 
Birkeland, Charles, Amada A. Reimer, and Joyce Redemske Young. "Survey of 

Marine Communities in Panama and Experiments with Oil." Ecological 

Research Series, EPA-600/3-76-028, 1976, 177 pages. 
Bonaccorso, Frank J. "Foraging and Reproductive Ecology in a Community of 

Bats in Panama." Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, 1975. 
Boyden, Thomas C. "Butterfly Palatability and Mimicry: Experiments with 

Ameiva Lizards." Evolution, volume 30, number 1 (1976), pages 73-81. 
Campanella, Paul J. "The Evolution of Mating Systems in Temperate Zone 

Dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) II: Libellula luctocsa (Burmeister)." 

Behaviour, volume 54, number 4 (1975), pages 278-310. 
Cooke, Richard. "El Hombre y la Tierra en el Panama Prehistorico." Revista 

Nacional de Cultura, number 2 (1976), pages 17-38. 
Croat, Thomas B. "Flacourtiaceae New to Panama: Casearia and Xylosma." 

Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, volume 62, number 2 (1975), 

pages 484-490. 
. "Phenological Behavior of Habit and Habitat Classes on Barro 

Colorado Island (Panama Canal Zone)." Biotropica, volume 7, number 4 

(1975), pages 270-277. 

"A Reconsideration of Trichilia cipo (A. Juss.) CDC. (Meliaceae). 

Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, volume 62, number 2 (1975), 

pages 491-496. 
Dressier, Robert L. "It Grows Up in the Trees; Really It Does." Marie Selby 

Botanical Garden Bulletin, volume 2 (1975), pages 22-23. 
. "El Genero Nidema." Orquidea (Mex.), volume 5 (1975), pages 235- 


388 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

. "Notas Sobre Nomenclaturas de las Orquidaceas VI." Orquidea (Mex.), 

volume 5, number 5 (1975), pages 143-146. 

"The Use of Pollinaria in Orchid Systematics." In First Symposium 

on the Scentific Aspects of Orchids, Southfield, Michigan, edited by H. 
Harry Szmant andjames Wemple. University of Detroit, 1976. 
. "Jacquin Names — Again." Taxon, volume 24, number 5/6 (1975), 

pages 647-650. 

"Proposal for the Conservation of the Generic Name 1779 Oncidium 

Swartz (Orchidaceae) with a Conserved Type Species, Oncidium altissiumum 
Sw." Taxon, volume 24, number 5/6 (1975), pages 692-693. 

"Proposal for the Conservation of the Generic Name 1393b Phragmi- 

pedium Rolfe (1896) (Orchidaceae), against Uropedium Lindley (1846)." 

Taxon, volume 24, number 5/6 (1975), pages 691-692. 
Eberhard, Mary Jane West. "Born: Sociobiology." [A review]. Quarterly 

Review of Biology, volume 51, number 1 (1976), pages 89-92. 
. "Estudios de las Avispas Sociales (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) del Valle 

del Cauca. I. Objetivos, Metodos y Notas para Facilitar la Identification de 

Especies Comunes." Cespedesia, volume 4 (1975), pages 245-267. 
Eberhard, William G. "The Ecology and Behavior of a Subsocial Pentatomid 

Bug and Two Sceliond Wasps: Strategy and Counterstrategy in a Host and 

its Parasites." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 205 (1975). 
. "Photography of Orb Webs in the Field." Bulletin of the British 

Arachnological Society, volume 3 (1976), pages 200-204. 
Gliwicz, Z. M., and Biesiadka, E. "Pelagic Water Mites (Hydracarina) and 

Their Effect on the Plankton Community in a Neotropical Man-Made Lake." 

Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie, volume 76, number 1 (1975), pages 65-88. 
Glynn, Peter W. "A New Shallow-Water Serolid (Isopoda: Flabellifera) from 

the Pacific Coast of Panama." Journal of Natural History, volume 10, num- 
ber 1 (1976), pages 7-16. 
. "The Coral Reef Community." Encyclopedia Britannica, Yearbook of 

Science and the Future, 1976, pages 202-219. 
Goos, R. D. "Fungi of Barro Colorado Island: New and Interesting Hyphomy- 

cetes." Canadian Journal of Botany, volume 53, number 24 (1975), pages 

Gore, Robert H. "Petrolisthes zacae Haig, 1968 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Porcel- 

lanidae) : The Development of Larvae in the Laboratory." Pacific Science, 

volume 29, number 2 (1975), pages 181-196. 
Gorman, George C, Yung J. Kim, and Roberta Rubinoff. "Genetic Relation- 
ships of Three Species of Bathygobius from the Atlantic and Pacific Sides 

of Panama." Copeia, number 2 (1976), pages 361-364. 
Graham, Jeffrey B. "Respiratory Adaptations of Marine Air-Breathing Fishes." 

In Respiration of Amphibious Vertebrates, edited by G. M. Hughes. New 

York: Academic Press, 1976. 
. "Hemoglobin Concentrations of Air-Breathing Fishes." American 

Zoologist, volume 16, number 2 (1976), page 192, abstract 73. 
Heck, Kenneth L. "Community Structure and Effects of Pollution in Sea-Grass 

Meadows and Adjacent Habitats." Marine Biology, volume 35, number 4 

(1976), pages 345-357. 
. "Some Critical Considerations of the Theory of Species Packing." 

Evolutionary Theory, volume 1 (1976), pages 247-258. 

"Comparative Community Organization in Tropical and Temperate 

Sea-Grass (Thalassia testudinum) Meadows." Thesis, The Florida State 
University College of Arts and Sciences, Tallahassee, 1976. 

Hendler, Gordon L. "Adaptional Significance of the Patterns of Ophiuroid 
Development." American Zoologist, volume 15 (1975), pages 691-715. 

Herring, Jon L. "A New Genus and Species of Cylapinae from Panama 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 389 

(Hemiptera: Miradea)." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Wash- 
ington, volume 78, number 1 (1976), pages 91-94. 

Karr, James R., and Frances C. James. "Eco-morphological Configuration and 
Convergent Evolution in Species and Communities." In Ecology and Evolu- 
tion of Communities, edited by Martin L. Cody and Jared M. Diamond. 
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1975. 

Knight, Dennis H. "A Phytosociological Analysis of Species-Rich Tropical 
Forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama." Ecological Monographs, volume 
45, number 3 (1975), pages 259-284. 

Land, L. S., J. C. Lang, and D. J. Barnes. "Extension Rate: A Primary Control 
on the Isotropic Composition of West Indian (Jamaican) Scleractinian Reef 
Coral Skeletons." Marine Biology, volume 33 (1975), pages 221-233. 

Lawrence, John M. "On the Reversal of the Covering Response in Lytechinus 
variegatus. [Abstract]." Florida Naturalist, volume 39, number 2, supple- 
ment 1 (1976). 

. "Covering Response in Sea Urchins." Nature, volume 262, number 

2268 (1976), pages 490-491. 

Leek, Charles F. "Weights of Migrants and Resident Birds in Panama." Bird- 
Banding, volume 46 (1975), pages 201-203. 

Leigh, Egbert G. "Population Fluctuations, Community Stability, and Environ- 
mental Variability." In Ecology and Evolution of Communities, edited by 
Martin L. Cody and Jared M. Diamond. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard 
University Press, 1975, pages 51-73. 

. [Review] Sex and Evolution, by George C. Williams. American Sci- 
entists, volume 64 (1976), pages 214-216. 

"Structure and Climate in Tropical Rain Forest." Annual Review of 

Ecology and Systematics, volume 6 (1975), pages 67-86. 

Linares, Olga F. "From the Late Preceramic to the Early Formative in the 
Intermediate Area: Some Issues and Methodologies." Proceedings of the 
First Puerto Rican Symposium on Archaeology, report 1 (1976), pages 65-77. 

. "Animales No Comestibles Son Temibles." Revista Nacional de Cul- 

tura, number 2 (1976), pages 5-16. 

Lubin, Yael D. "Stabilimenta and Barrier Webs in the Orb Webs of Argiope 
argentata (Araneae, Araneidae) on Daphne and Santa Cruz Islands, Gala- 
pagos." Journal of Arachnology, volume 2 (1975), pages 119-126. 

May, Michael L. "Thermoregulation and Adaptation to Temperature in Dra- 
gonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera)." Ecological Monographs, volume 46 (1976), 
pages 1-32. 

Milton, Katharine. "Urine-Rubbing in the Mantled Howler Monkey Aluotta 
palliata." Folia Primatologica, volume 23 (1975), pages 105-112. 

Milton, Katharine, and Michael L. May. "Body Weight, Diet and Home Range 
Area in Primates." Nature, volume 259 (1976), pages 459-462. 

Morrison, Douglas Wildes. "The Foraging Behavior and Feeding Ecology of 
A Neotropical Fruit Bat, Artibeus jamaicensis." Thesis, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, New York, 1975. 

Moser, Don. "Barro Colorado is a Noah's Ark in the Rain Forest." Smith- 
sonian, volume 6, number 5 (1975), pages 53-62. 

Moynihan, Martin. "Conservatism of Displays and Comparable Stereotyped 
Patterns Among Cephalopods." In Function and Evolution in Behaviour, 
edited by G. Baerends, C. Beer, and A. Manning, pages 276-291. Oxford: 
Clarendon Press, 1975. 

. "The New World Primates." Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton Univer- 
sity Press, 1976. 

-. "Notes on the Ecology and Behavior of the Pygmy Marmoset (Cebuella 

pygmaea) in Amazonian Colombia." In Neotropical Primates: Field Studies 

390 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

and Conservation, edited by R. W. Thorington, Jr., and P. G. Heltne, pages 
79-84. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1976. 

Rand, William M., and A. Stanley Rand. "Agonistic Behavior in Nesting 
Iguanas: A Stochastic Analysis of Dispute Settlement Dominated by Minimi- 
zation of Energy Cost." Zeitschrift fuer Tierpsychologie, volume 40 (1976), 
pages 279-299. 

Ranere, Anthony J. "The Preceramic of Panama : The View from the Interior." 
Proceedings of the First Puerto Rican Symposium on Archaeology, report 1 
(1976), pages 103-135. 

Reimer, Amada A. "Description of a Tetraclita salactifera panamensis Com- 
munity on a Rocky Intertidal Pacific Shore of Panama." Marine Biology, 
volume 35, number 3 (1976), pages 225-238. 

. "Effect of Crude Oil on Corals." Marine Pollution Bulletin, volume 6, 

number 3 (1975), pages 39-43. 

"Effects of Crude Oil on the Feeding Behaviour of the Zoanthid 

Palythoa variabilis." Environmental Physiology and Biochemistry, volume 5 
(1975), pages 258-266. 

"Succession of Invertebrates in Vacant Tests of Tetraclita stalactifer 

panamensis." Marine Biology, volume 35, number 3 (1976), pages 239-251. 

Reimer, Roger D., and Amada A. Reimer. "Chemical Control of Feeding in 
Four Species of Tropical Ophiuroids of the Genus Ophioderma." Compara- 
tive Biochemistry and Physiology, volume 51A (1975), pages 915-927. 

Ricklefs, Robert E., and Kevin O'Bourke. "Aspect Diversity in Moths: A 
Temperate-Tropical Comparison." Evolution, volume 29, number 2 (1975), 
pages 313-324. 

Robinson, Michael H., and Thane Pratt. "The Phenology of Hexacentrus mun- 
dus (F. Walker) at Wau, Papua, New Guinea (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae)." 
Psyche, volume 82 (1975), pages 315-323. 

Robinson, Michael H., and Barbara Robinson. "The Ecology and Behavior of 
Nephila maculata: A Supplement." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 
number 218 (1976). 

. "Evolution Beyond the Orb Web: The Web of the Araneid Spider 

Pasilobus sp., Its Structure, Operation and Construction." Zoological Jour- 
nal of the Linnean Society, volume 56, number 4 (1975), pages 301-314. 

"Techniques in Field Studies of Spiders." Bulletin of the British Arch- 

nological Society, volume 3 (1975), pages 160-165. 

Rubinoff, Ira. [Review] The Biology of Sea Snakes, by William A. Dunson. 
Science, volume 191 (1976), pages 555-556. 

Scott, Norman J., Don E. Wilson, Clyde Jones, and Robin M. Andrews. "The 
Choice of Perch Dimensions by Lizards of the Genus Anolis (Reptilia, 
Lacertilia, Iguanidae)." Journal of Herpetology, volume 10, number 2 (1976), 
pages 75-84. 

Sexton, Owen J. "Black Vultures Feeding on Iguana Eggs in Panama." Ameri- 
can Midland Naturalist, volume 93, number 2 (1975), pages 463-467. 

Silberglied, Robert E. "Visualization and Recording of Longwave Ultraviolet 
Reflection from Natural Objects. Part 1." Functional Photography, volume 
11, number 2 (1976), pages 20, 24-29. 

. "Visualization and Recording of Longwave Ultraviolet Reflection from 

Naturalist Objects. Part 2." Functional Photography, volume 11, number 3 
(1976), pages 31-33. 

Smith, Alan P. "Altitudinal Seed Ecotypes in the Venezuelan Andes." Ameri- 
can Midland Naturalist, volume 94 (1975), page 247-250. 

. "Insect Pollination and Heliotropism in Oritrophium limnophilum 

(Compositae) of the Andean Paramo." Biotropica, volume 7, number 4 
(1975), pages 284-286. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 391 

. "Response of Plants of an Andean Paramo Species to an Artificial Wet 

Season." Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, volume 102, number 1 
(1975), pages 28-30. 

"Vegetative Reproductive and Close Packing in a Successional Plant 

Species." Nature, volume 26, number 5557 (1976), pages 232-233. 
Tannenbaum, Bernice Ruth. "Reproductive Strategies in the White-Lines Bat." 

Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 1975. 
Thorington, Richard W., Jr., Nancy A. Muckenhirn, and G. Gene Montgomery. 

"Movements of a Wild Night Monkey (Aotus trivirgatus)." In Neotropical 

Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, edited by R. W. Thorington, Jr., 

and P. G. Heltne. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1976, 

pages 32-34. 
Todd, Eric S. "Vertical Movements and Development of the Prolarvae of the 

Eleotrid Fish, Dormitator latifrons." Copeia, number 3 (1975), pages 

. "Terrestrial Grazing by the Eastern Tropical Pacific Goby Gobionellus 

sagittula." Copeia, number 2 (1976), pages 374-377. 
Waage, Jeffrey K., and G. Gene Montgomery. "Cryptoses choloepi: A Copro- 

pagous Moth that Lives on a Sloth." Science, volume 193, number 4248 

(1976), pages 157-158. 
Warner, Robert R., D. Ross Robertson, and Egbert G. Leigh. "Sex Change and 

Sexual Selection." Science, volume 190, number 4215 (1975), pages 633-738. 
Weers, Eleanor T., and Thomas M. Zaret. "Grazing Effects in Nannoplankton 

in Gatun Lake, Panama." Verhandlungen der Inter nationalen Vereinigun 

fuer Limnologie, volume 19 (1975), pages 1480-1483. 
Williams, Norris H., and Robert L. Dressier. "Euglossine Pollination of 

Spathiphylum (Araceae)." Selbyana, volume 1 (1976), pages 349-356. 
Windsor, Donald M., editor. "Environmental Monitoring and Baseline Data; 

Tropical Studies," 409 pages. (Compiled under the Smithsonian Institution 

Environmental Science Program.) Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1976. 
Windsor, Donald, and Stephen T. Emlen. "Predator-Prey Interactions of Adult 

and Prefledgling Bank Swallows and American Kestrels." Condor, volume 

77 (1975), pages 359-361. 
Zaret, Thomas M. "Strategies for Existence of Zooplankton Prey in Homo- 
geneous Environments." Verhandlungen der International Vereinigun fuer 

Limnologie, volume 19 (1975), pages 1484-1489. 



Dee, Elaine. "Winslow Homers at the Cooper-Hewitt Museum." American 
Antiques, November 1975, pages 16-20. 


Chase, W. Thomas III. Bronze Disease and Its Treatment. Exhibition catalogue. 

Bangkok (Thailand) National Museum: Department of Fine Arts, 1975. 
Hobbs, Susan. 1876: American Art of the Centennial. Exhibition catalogue. 

Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976. 
Lovell, Hin-cheung. "Yen-sou's Plum Blossoms: Speculations on Style, Date 

and Artist's Identity." In Archives of Asian Art, volume XXIX (1975-1976), 

pages 59-79. New York: The Asia Society. 
Stern, Harold P. Birds, Beasts, Blossoms and Bugs: The Nature of Japan. 

392 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Exhibition catalogue. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1976. 196 pages, 
177 black-and-white illustrations, 86 color plates. 

Stern, Harold P., Thomas Lawton, Hin-cheung Lovell, and Esin Atil. Arts of 
Asia at the Time of American Independence. Exhibition catalogue. Washing- 
ton, D.C. : Museum Press, Inc., 1975. 41 pages, 106 black-and-white illustra- 

. Masterpieces of Chinese and Japanese Art, Freer Gallery of Art 

Handbook. Baltimore: Garamond/Pridemark Press, 1976. 142 pages, 223 
black-and-white illustrations, 36 color plates. 

Winter, John. "Note on the Preparation and Mounting of Samples of Chalk/ 
Glue Ground from Paintings for Scanning Electron Microscopy." In Studies 
in Conservation, volume 20 (1975), pages 169-173. 

. "The Working Group on Reference Materials." International Council 

of Museums Committee for Conservation, Fourth Triennial Meeting. Venice, 
1975. Preprint number 75/9/1-1 to 75/9/1-8. 

"Some Notes on the Microstructure of Far Eastern Paintings." Inter- 

national Council of Museums Committee for Conservation, Fourth Triennial 
Meeting, Venice, 1975. Preprint number 75/21/2-1 to 75/21/2-6. 


Fox, Howard. "Anne Truitt Interviewed by Howard Fox." Sun & Moon, number 

1 (Winter 1976), pages 37-60. 
. "A Louis M. Eilshemius Portfolio." [Selections with introduction] Sun 

& Moon, number 2 (Spring 1976), pages 44-58. 
McCabe, Cynthia J. "Artist-Immigrants and America's Golden Door, 1876- 

1929." American Art Review, volume III, number 3 (May-June 1976), pages 

. The Golden Door: Artist-Immigrants of America, 1876-1976. Wash- 
ington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976. 
Millard, Charles W. "An American Landscape." Print Collector's Newsletter, 

May-June 1976, pages 47-48. 

. "Anthony Cargo." Hudson Review, Winter 1975-1976, pages 573-578. 

. "A Look at Edward Weston." Print Collector's Newsletter, July-August 

1975, pages 68-70. 

-. "Sculpture and Theory in Nineteenth Century France." The Journal of 

Aesthetics and Art Criticism, volume XXXIV, number 1 (Fall 1975), pages 
. "Toward the Liberation of Color." Hudson Review, Summer 1976, 

pages 265-269. 
Tighe, Mary Ann. "The Caricature of David Levine." The New Republic, 

March 20, 1976, pages 19-21. 
. "Philip Pearlstein: Dis-Armorying Art History." The New Republic, 

April 24, 1976, pages 17-19. 

. "Tuning In To Audio Tours." Museum News, May-June 1976. 

-, and Elizabeth Lang (non-staff). Instructor's Manual for Art America 

Television Series. Northern Virginia Community College, 1975. 
Weil, Stephen E. "The Filer Commission Report: Is It Good for Museums?" 

Museum News, volume 54, number 5 (May-June 1976), pages 32, 33, 49-51. 
Zilczer, Judith K. "Robert J. Coady, Forgotten Spokesman for Avant-Garde 

Culture in America." American Art Review, November-December 1975, 

pages 77-90. 
. "The World's New Art Center: Modern Art Exhibitions in New York 

City, 1913-1918." Archives of American Art Journal, volume 14, number 3 

(1975), pages 2-7. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 393 


Hobbins, James M. "Shaping a Provincial Learned Society: The Early History 
of the Albany Institute." In The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early 
American Republic, edited by Alexandra Oleson and Sandborn C. Brown, 
pages 117-150. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976. 

Molella, Arthur P. "The Electric Motor, the Telegraph, and Joseph Henry's 
Theory of Technological Progress." Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical 
and Electronic Engineers, Special Bicentennial Issue (September 1976). 

Reingold, Nathan. "Definitions and Speculations: The Professionalization of 
Science in America in the Nineteenth Century." In The Pursuit of Knowledge 
in the Early American Republic, edited by Alexandra Oleson and Sandborn 
C. Brown, pages 33-69. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 

. "Reflections on 200 Years of Science in the USA." Nature, volume 262 

(1976), pages 9-13. 

-. "Lewis Morris Rutherfurd." Dictionary of Scientific Biography, edited 

by Charles C. Gillispie, volume 12, pages 36-37. New York: Charles 
Scribner's Sons, 1975. 

"Edward Sabine." Dictionary of Scientific Biography, edited by Charles 

C. Gillispie, volume 12, pages 49-53. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 

-. "Charles Anthony Schott." Dictionary of Scientific Biography, edited 

by Charles C. Gillispie, volume 12, pages 209-210. New York: Charles 
Scribner's Sons, 1975. 

"Robert Simpson Woodward." Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 

edited by Charles C. Gillispie, volume 14, pages 503-504. New York: Charles 
Scribner's Sons, 1976. 

editor. Science in America Since 1820. New York: Science History 

Publications, 1976. 

Rothenberg, Marc. "American Science — Two Hundred Years of Development." 
Science, volume 191 (1976), pages 171-172. 



National Collection of Fine Arts. Directory to the Bicentennial Inventory of 

American Paintings Executed before 1914. New York: Arno Press, Inc., July 

1976, 212 pages. 
Norelli, Martina R. American Wildlife Painting. New York: Watson-Guptill 

Publications, Inc., 1975, 224 pages, 100 black-and-white illustrations, 64 

color plates. 
Taylor, Joshua C. America As Art. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution 

Press, April 1976, 320 pages, 336 black-and-white illustrations, 10 color 



Adams, Karen M. "The Black Image in the Paintings of William Sidney 
Mount." The American Art Journal, volume 7, number 2 (November 1975). 

Bassing, Allen. "Museums U.S.A." [Review] Roundtable Reports, Museum 
Education Roundtable, Washington, D.C. (October 1975). 

. "Primitive Art/Masterworks. [Review] African Arts, volume 9, num- 
ber 3 (April 1976). African Studies Center, University of California at Los 

394 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

. "Report on the Rockefeller Foundation Pre-AAM Conference." Round- 
table Reports, Museum Education Roundtable, Washington, D.C. (October 

"The Snobbery of Collectors." African Arts, volume 9, number 3 

(April 1976). African Studies Center, University of California at Los 

and Teresa Grana. "Meet Me in St. Louie, Louie, or Looking for 

Museum Educators." Roundtable Reports, Museum Education Roundtable, 
Washington, D.C. (May 1976). 

Bolton-Smith, Robin. Catalogue essays on miniatures in Philadelphia: Three 
Centuries of American Art. Exhibition catalogue. Philadelphia Museum of 
Art, 1976. 

. Essay in Portrait Miniatures from Private Collections. Exhibition 

checklist. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, September 1976. 

Breeskin, Adelyn D. Introduction to Romaine Brooks, Thief of Souls. Smith- 
sonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. Fall 1975. 

. "Biographical Notes." In Bob Thompson. Exhibition checklist. Decem- 
ber 1975. 

Chieffo, Patricia. "Saving Our Past for the Future." Georgetown Today (July 

Cogswell, Margaret. Essay in Images of an Era: The American Poster, 1945-75. 
Exhibition publication. October 1975. 

Fink, Eleanor E. "Collecting the Photograph." Art Library Societies of North 
America Newsletter, volume 3, number 6 (October 1975). 

Flint, Janet A. Essay in Louis Lozowick: Drawings and Lithographs. Exhibition 
checklist. September 1975. 

. "Checklist of Prints." In Peggy Bacon: Personalities and Places. Ex- 
hibition catalogue. December 1975. 

Essay in . . . and there was light: Studies by Abraham Rattner for 

the Stained Class Window, Chicago Loop Synagogue. Exhibition catalogue. 
January 1976. 

Essay in George Miller and American Lithography. Exhibition check- 

list. February 1976. 

Hartigan, Lynda R. "James Hampton: Washington's Visionary." Washington 
Review of the Arts, volume 2, number 1 (Spring 1976). 

Hobbs, Susan. Essay in 1876: American Art of the Centennial. Exhibition 
catalogue. June 1976. 

Hopps, Walter. Essay in Sam Gilliam: Paintings and Works on Paper. Ex- 
hibition catalogue. J. B. Speed Art Museum, Louisville, Kentucky. January 

Hormats, Bess. "Prussian Treasures Hidden by Nazis." Art News, volume 74, 
number 9 (November 1975). 

Lewton, Val E. "Where Has All the Color Gone." Washington Review of the 
Arts (November 1975). 

Taylor, Joshua C. Foreword to The Designs of Raymond Loewy. Exhibition 
catalogue. August 1975. 

. Foreword to Peggy Bacon: Personalities and Places. Exhibition cata- 
logue. December 1975. 

"The Religious Impulse in American Art." Papers on American Art, 

The Friends of Independence National Historical Park, 1976. 

Introduction to Emanuel Leutze, 1816-1868: Freedom Is The Only King. 

Exhibition publication. January 1976. 

"Three Centuries of American Art: John D. Rockefeller 3rd's Personal 

American Art Collection." Smithsonian, volume 7, number 1 (April 1976). 
Truettner, William H. "'Scenes of Majesty and Enduring Interest': Thomas 
Moran Goes West." The Art Bulletin (June 1976). 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 395 

Walker, William B. "From the Chair." Art Libraries Society of North America 
Newsletter, volume 3, numbers 4-6 (Summer-October 1975), and volume 4, 
number 1 (December 1975). 



Battison, Edwin A. Muskets to Mass Production. Windsor, Vermont: American 
Precision Museum, 1976, 32 pages, 36 illustrations. 

Bedini, Silvio A. Thinkers and Tinkers, Early American Men of Science. New 
York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975, 521 pages, 102 illustrations. 

Bruns, Franklin R., Jr. The Color Handbook. Omaha, Nebraska: The Collectors 
Institute, Ltd., 1976, 76 pages, 46 color charts plus three color isolation aid 

Chapelle, Howard I. The National Watercraft Collection (second edition). 
Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press and Camden, Maine: Inter- 
national Marine Publishing Company, 1976, xiii -f- 399 pages, 250 illustra- 

Clain-Stefanelli, Elvira and Vladimir. Chartered for Progress, Two Centuries 
of American Banking. Washington, D.C: Acropolis Press, 1976, 144 pages. 

Collins, Herbert R., with David Weaver. Wills of the U.S. Presidents. New 
York: Communication Channels, Inc., 1976, 286 pages. 

Cooper, Grace R. The Sewing Machine: Its Invention and Development. 
Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976, 240 pages. 

Davis, Audrey B., and Uta C Merzbach. Early Auditory Studies: Activities in 
the Psychology Laboratories of American Universities. Washington, DC: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1975, 39 pages. 

Eklund, Jon B. The Incompleat Chymist. Washington, DC: Smithsonian 
Institution Press, 1975, 49 pages. 

Forman, Paul, John L. Heilbron, and Spencer Weart. Physics circa 1900: 
Personnel, Funding, and Productivity of the Academic Establishments. 
Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, 5. Princeton, New Jersey: Prince- 
ton University Press, 1975, 185 pages. 

Harmaneh, Sami K. Catalogue of Arabic Manuscripts on Medicine and 
Pharmacy at the British Library. Cairo, Egypt: Les Editions Universitaires 
D'Egypte, 1975, xvii + 276 + 16 pages English text, 16 pages Arabic text. 

. Islamic Bicentennial Exhibition. Washington, DC: McGregor and 

Werner, 1976, 28 pages, illustrated. 

Harris, Michael R. Drugs and Their Dispensers. Booklet. Washington, D.C: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976, 12 pages, 52 illustrations. 

Hindle, Brooke, editor. America's Wooden Age. Tarrytown, New York: Sleepy 
Hollow Restorations, 1975, vii + 218 pages. 

, editor. Early American Science. New York: Science History Publica- 
tions, Neale Watson Academic Publications, Inc., 1976, xiv + 213 pages. 

Howell, Edgar M. United States Army Headgear 1855-1902. Washington, DC: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1975, 109 pages, 63 illustrations. 

Hutchins, James S. Boots & Saddles at the Little Bighorn: Weapons, Dress, 
Equipment, Horses, and Flags of General Custer's Seventh U.S. Cavalry in 
1876. Fort Collins, Colorado: The Old Army Press, 1976, 81 pages. 

Klapthor, Margaret B. The First Ladies. Washington, DC: White House 
Historical Association, 1975, 85 pages, 39 illustrations. 

. The First Ladies Hall. Booklet. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Press, 1975, 4th edition, 22 pages, 19 illustrations. 

Marzio, Peter C, editor. A Nation of Nations. New York: Harper and Row, 
1976, 670 pages. 

396 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Mayr, Otto, editor. Philosophers and Machines. New York: Science History 

Publications, 1976. 
Merzbach, Uta C, and Audrey B. Davis. Early Auditory Studies: Activities in 

the Psychology Laboratories of American Universities. Washington, D.C. : 

Smithsonian Institution Press, 1975, 39 pages. 
Norton, George, Jr., and Darlie Norton. A History of Suitland. Denton, Mary- 
land: Baker Printing Company, 1976, 43 pages. 
Ostroff, Eugene. Photographing the Frontier. Smithsonian Institution Traveling 

Exhibition Services catalogue. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution 

Press, 1975, 32 pages. 
Post, Robert C, editor. 1876: A Centennial Exhibition. Washington, D.C: 

National Museum of History and Technology, 1976, 224 pages + 16 page 

supplement, 344 illustrations. 
White, John H., Jr. The Pioneer Chicago's First Locomotive. Chicago: Chicago 

Historical Society, 1976, 32 pages. 


Adrosko, Rita J. Introduction to Early American Weaving and Dyeing. New 
York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1976 (reprint of a book first published in 

. "Textiles." In 1876: A Centennial Exhibition, pages 123-125. Washing- 
ton, DC: National Museum of History and Technology, 1976. 

"The Cromptons." In A Nation of Nations, pages 203-207. New York : 

Harper & Row, 1976. 
Ahlborn, Richard E. "Moving On." In A Nation of Nations, page 160. New 

York: Harper & Row, 1976. 
, and Grace R. Cooper. "The Home Crafts and Folk Arts." In A Nation 

of Nations, pages 248-275. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 
Alexander, Sheila M., with Paul V. Gardner. "Glassware." In 1876: A Centen- 
nial Exhibition, pages 115-117. Washington, DC: National Museum of 

History and Technology, 1976. 
Battison, Edwin A. "Historical Survey of Clockmaking in the United States." 

In Dictionary of American History, pages 78-80. New York: Charles 

Scribner's Sons, volume 2, 1976. 
. "Interchangeable Manufacture." In Dictionary of American History, 

pages 441-443. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, volume 3, 1976. 

"The Phonograph." In Dictionary of American History, pages 289-291. 

New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, volume 5, 1976. 

-. "The Typewriter." In Dictionary of American History, pages 135-137. 

New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, volume 7, 1976. 

Battison, Edwin A., with Deborah J. Warner. "Timekeeping Devices." In 1876: 
A Centennial Exhibition, pages 145-147. Washington, DC: National Mu- 
seum of History and Technology, 1976. 

Bedini, Silvio A. "Artisans in Wood: The Mathematical Instrument Makers." 
In America's Wooden Age: Aspects of Its Early Technology, edited by 
Brooke Hindle, pages 85-119, 15 illustrations. Tarrytown, New York: Sleepy 
Hollow Restorations, 1975. 

. "Oriental Concepts of the Measure of Time: The Role of the Mechan- 
ical Clock in Japan and China." In The Study of Time II, edited by J. T. 
Fraser and N. Lawrence, pages 451-484, 26 illustrations. New York & 
Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1975. 

Foreword to Fox-Ellicott-Evans American Family History by Charles 

Worthington Evans, Martha Ellicott Tyson, and G. Hunter Bartlett, pages 
vii-viii. Cockeysville, Maryland: Fox-Ellicott-Evans Fund, 1976. 

-. "Benjamin Banneker, The First Black Man of Science." Science and 

Children, volume 13, number 4 (January 1976), pages 19-21, 2 illustrations. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 397 

. "The Practical Sciences in the American Revolution." The Daughters 

of the American Revolution Magazine, volume 110, number 6 (July 1976), 
pages 766-775, 6 illustrations. 

"Andrew Ellicott, Surveyor of the Wilderness." Surveying and Map- 

ping, volume XXXVI, number 2 (June 1976), pages 113-135, 18 illustrations. 
"The Case of the Wandering Watch." The Smithsonian magazine, 

volume 7, number 7 (October 1976), pages 134-143, 6 illustrations. 
Berkebile, Don H. "Roads and Coaches." In A Nation of Nations, pages 161- 

175. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 
. "Canals." In A Nation of Nations, pages 176-177. New York: Harper 

& Row, 1976. 

"Carriages and Road Vehicles." In 1876: A Centennial Exhibition, 

pages 131-133. Washington, D.C. : National Museum of History and Tech- 
nology, 1976. 

Bruns, Franklin R., Jr. "More on the Philatelic Truck." S.P.A Journal, volume 
38, number 7 (March 1976), pages 411-424. 

. "Counterfeit Stamps." Postal Inspection Service Bulletin, Spring 1976, 

pages 8-13. 

'Pictorial Treasury of U.S. Stamps." [Review] Historic Preservation, 

volume 27, number 4 (October-December 1975), pages 41-42. 

Stamp (and coin) weekly syndicated columns, July 6, 1975-June 27, 

1976, in the Washington Post, Washington, D.C; Posf, Denver, Colorado; 
Times, St. Petersburg, Florida; Star-Ledger, Newark, New Jersey; Times- 
Union, Albany, New York; Post-Standard, Syracuse, New York; and Patriot- 
News, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

Bruton, Elsa, with Herbert R. Collins. "State Exhibits." In 1876: A Centennial 
Exhibition, pages 189-205. Washington, D.C: National Museum of History 
and Technology, 1976. 

Bruton, Elsa, with Everett Jackson, and Michael Harris. "Medicine and 
Dentistry." In 1876: A Centennial Exhibition, pages 153-157. Washington, 
DC: National Museum of History and Technology, 1976. 

Cannon, Faye. "Charles Lyell, Radical Actualism, and Theory." British Jour- 
nal for the History of Science, volume 9 (1976), pages 104-120. 

. "The Darwin-Whewell Controversy." Proceedings of the Geological 

Society of London, volume 132 (1975-1976), pages 377-384. 

"Scientific and Surveying Instruments." In 1876: A Centennial Exhibi- 

tion, page 137. Washington, DC: National Museum of History and Tech- 
nology, 1976. 

Clain-Stefanelli, Elvira. "Miinzen und Medaillen der Friihzeit der Munze zu 
Philadelphia." In Die CriXndung der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika 1775- 
1789, pages 19-26. Wurzburg, 1976. 

Collins, Herbert R. "The Statue of Liberty." In A Nation of Nations, pages 
137-141. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 

. Contributor to We the People catalogue, pages 40-52, 56-60. Washing- 
ton, DC: National Museum of History and Technology, 1975. 

-. "Presidents on Wheels." Antique Automobile, Antique Automobile 

Club of America, July-August 1976. 

-. "Bully For You, Teddy." The Standard, Association for the Preserva- 

tion of political Americana, Spring 1976, pages 14 and 25. 

"If I Can't Make the White House, I'll Take the Garage." Parking, 

July 1975, pages 16-20 and 35. 

Cooper, Grace R. "Importing a Revolution." In A Nation of Nations, pages 
196-202. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 

. "Sewing Machine." In Dictionary of American History, revised edi- 
tion, pages 264-265. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 

398 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

. "Cotton Gin." In Dictionary of American History, revised edition, page 

240. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 
Cooper, Grace R., with Richard E. Ahlborn. "The Home Crafts and Folk Arts." 

In A Nation of Nations, pages 248-265. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 
Davis, Audrey B., Michael M. Sokal and Uta C. Merzbach. "A National Inven- 
tory of Historic Psychological Apparatus." Journal of the History of the 

Behavioral Sciences, volume 11 (1975), pages 284-286. 
. "Laboratory Instruments in the History of Psychology." Journal of 

the History of the Behavioral Sciences, volume 12 (1976), pages 59-64. 
Dirks, Katherine. "An Introduction to Textile Storage." Journal of the 

American Home Economics Association, volume 68, number 3 (May 1976), 

pages 8-10. 
Eklund, Jon B. "Eleuthere Irenee du Pont de Nemours and the American 

Gunpowder Trade." In A Nation of Nations, pages 237-239. New York: 

Harper & Row, 1976. 
Fesperman, John T. "Organs and Organ Building in the Americas before 

1775." The Bicentennial Tracker, 1976, pages 24-28. 
. Catalogue description for Kirkman harpsichord and English guitar. 

In The Eye of Thomas Jefferson, pages 19-20. National Gallery of Art, 1976. 
"Music from the Age of Jefferson." Notes for recording and descrip- 

tion of Smithsonian instruments used. 

Finn, Bernard S. "History of Electrical Technology, the State of the Art." 
Isis, volume 67 (1976), pages 31-35. 

. "Electricity." In 1876: A Centennial Exhibition, pages 63-65. Washing- 
ton, D.C. : National Museum of History and Technology, 1976. 

-. "Everywhere is Here and Now." In A Nation of Nations, pages 610- 

629. New York City: Harper & Row, 1976. 

"H. D. Ruhmkorff." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 11, 

pages 603-604. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975. 

"W. Sturgeon." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 13, 

page 126. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 
Forman, Paul. "Walter Ritz." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 11, 

pages 475-481. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975. 
. "Carl Runge." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 11, pages 

610-615. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975. 

"Adolf Smekal." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 12, 

pages 463-465. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975. 

"Arnold Sommerfeld." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 

12, pages 525-532. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975. 

"Albert Einstein." In A Nation of Nations, pages 302-305. New York: 

Harper & Row, 1976. 
Gardner, Paul V., with Sheila M. Alexander. "Glassware." In 1876: A Cen- 
tennial Exhibition, pages 114-117. Washington, D.C: National Museum of 

History and Technology, 1976. 
. "1876: A Centennial Exhibition." The Class Club Bulletin, number 

116, pages 3-9. 
Goins, Craddock R. "The Evolution of the American Rifle — A Pictorial Essay." 

In A Nation of Nations, pages 232-236. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 
Goins, Craddock R., with Donald Kloster. "The War Department." In 1876: 

A Centennial Exhibition, page 83. Washington, D.C: National Museum of 

History and Technology, 1976. 
Golovin, Anne C. "Foreign Nations." In 1876: A Centennial Exhibition, pages 

176-188, 33 illustrations. Washington, DC: National Museum of History 

and Technology, 1976. 
Golovin, Anne C, assisted by Rodris Roth. "Furniture Making — Immigrant 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 399 

Hands and Yankee Machines." In A Nation of Nations, pages 211-223, 

3 illustrations. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 
Hamarneh, Sami K. "The Life Sciences." In The Genius of Arab Civilization, 

edited by John R. Hayes, pages 143-172. New York: New York University 

Press, 1975. 
. "Ya'qub b. Ishaq Ibn al-Quff." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 

volume 11, pages 238-239. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975. 

"A Brief Survey of Islamic Medicine During the Middle Ages." The 

Journal of the Islamic Medical Association, volume 7, number 1 (1976), pages 

-. "Abu'l-Hasan al-Tabari." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 

13 pages 229-231. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 

"Amin al-Dawlah Ibn al-Tilmidh." In Dictionary of Scientific Biog- 

raphy, volume 13, pages 415-416. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 
-. "Abu Bakr A. ibn Wahshiya." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 

volume 14, pages 117-119. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 

"Abu'l-Qasim al-Zahrawi." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 

volume 14, pages 584-585. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 

-. "Abu Marwan ibn Zuhr." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 

14, pages 637-639. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 

"The Pharmacy and Materia Medica of al-Biruni and al-Ghafiqi. 

Pharmacy in History, volume 18 (1976), pages 3-12. 

-. "Arabic Glass Seals on Early Eighth Century Containers for Materia 

Medica." Pharmacy in History, volume 18 (1976), pages 51-56. 

Harris, Elizabeth. "Printing." In 2876: A Centennial Exhibition, page 61. 
Washington, D.C. : National Museum of History and Technology, 1976. 

. "The Printing Arts." In A Nation of Nations, pages 229-231. New 

York: Harper & Row, 1976. 

Harris, Michael, with Everett Jackson, and Elsa M. Bruton, "Medicine and 
Dentistry." In 1876: A Centennial Exhibition, pages 152-157. Washington, 
D.C: National Museum of History and Technology, 1976. 

Hindle, Brooke. "The Underside of the Learned Society in New York." In 
The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic, edited by 
Alexander Oleson and Sanborn C. Brown, pages 84-116. Baltimore, Mary- 
land: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976. 

. Foreword to The Frontiers of Knowledge, The Frank Nelson Double- 
day Lectures, 1974-1975. Garden City, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1975, 
pages v-ix. 

Introduction to Building Early America, edited by Charles E. Peterson, 

pages xv-xvi. Radnor, Pennsylvania: Chilton Book Company, 1976. 

-. Introduction to A Nation of Nations, pages xv-xviii. New York, 

Harper & Row, 1976. 
Hoffman, John N. "Mining Frontiers — A Bicentennial Review, 1776 to 1976," 

Mining Congress Journal, volume 62, number 2 (February 1976), pages 

. "Coal." In Dictionary of American History (revised edition), pages 

84-86. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 
Hollis, Helen R. "Musical Instruments of the Baroque and Early Classical 

Eras: an Audio Visual Presentation." Smithsonian Institution, 56 slides, 

2 cassette tape recordings and descriptive booklet. 
Hoover, Cynthia A. "The Steinways." In A Nation of Nations, pages 210. 

New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 
. "Music and Musical Instruments." In 2876: A Centennial Exhibition, 

pages 138-143, 11 illustrations. Washington, D.C: National Museum of 

History and Technology, 1976. 
Hughes, Ellen Roney, with Kip Cardero. "Educating Everyone — A Pictorial 

400 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Essay." In A Nation of Nations, pages 306-323. New York: Harper & Row, 

Jackson, Everett A. "A Bicentennial Salute to Dentistry." Chicago Dental 

Review, July 1976, pages 10-16. 
Jackson, Everett, with Michael Harris, and Elsa M. Burton, "Medicine and 

Dentistry." In 2876: A Centennial Exhibition, pages 152-157. Washington, 

D.C. : National Museum of History and Technology, 1976. 
Jackson, Melvin H. "Transatlantic Travel." A Nation of Nations, pages 116- 

130. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 
Kidwell, Claudia B. "Paper Patterns." In 1876: A Centennial Exhibition, pages 

126-129. Washington, D.C: National Museum of History and Technology, 

. "Bicentennial Outlook: Riches, Rags, and In-Between." Historic Pres- 
ervation, July-September 1976, pages 28-33. 
Klapthor, Margaret B. "The White House Porcelain." Connoisseur, May 

1976, pages 16-20. 
Kloster, Donald. "Military Uniformity: A Pictorial Essay." In A Nation of 

Nations, pages 326-351. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 
Kloster, Donald, with Craddock R. Goins. "The War Department." In 2876: 

A Centennial Exhibition, page 83. Washington, D.C: National Museum of 

History and Technology, 1976. 
Langley, Harold D. "The Navy Department." In 2876: A Centennial Exhibition, 

pages 86-87. Washington, DC: National Museum of History and Tech- 
nology, 1976. 
. "The Treasury Department." In 1876: A Centennial Exhibition, pages 

97-99. Washington, DC: National Museum of History and Technology, 


-. "The Objects of the Revolution: A Pictorial Essay." In A Nation of 

Nations, pages 96-113. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 
Lundeberg, Philip K. "Museums as Historical Resources." In A Guide to the 

Sources of United States Military History, edited by Robin Higham, pages 

547-559. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon, 1975. 
. "Sea Mines in the Defense of Kiel, 1848-1849." In Seemacht und 

Ceschichte: Festschrift zum 80. Geburstag von Friedrich Ruge, Deutsches 

Marine Institut. Bonn-Bad Godesberg: MOV Verlag, 1975. 

"Shipbuilding in the United Colonies as Revealed in the Continental 

Gondola Philadelphia." In The American Revolution and the Sea: The 
Proceedings of the XIV Conference of the International Commission for 
Maritime History, July 7-13, 1974, pages 134-138. Greenwich, London: 
National Maritime Museum, 1975. 

"The Navy Department." In 2876: A Centennial Exhibition, pages 87- 

93. Washington, DC: National Museum of History and Technology, 1976. 
Mayo, Edith P. "Foremothers Featured in Smithsonian Exhibit." Bulletin of 

the National Council of Women, volume XXIII, number 5 (February 1976) 

pages 3-4. 
Mayr, Otto. "Yankee Practice and Engineering Theory: Charles T. Porter 

and the Dynamics of the High Speed Steam Engine." Technology and 

Culture 16 (1975), pages 570-602. 
. "Mass Production: An Example of Global Give and Take." In A 

Nation of Nations, pages 508-519. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 

"From Guns to Cars: Products for Mass Consumption." In A Nation 

of Nations, pages 520-563. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 

"Henri Pitot." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, pages 4-5. New 

York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975. 

"Ferdinand Jakob Redtenbacher." In Dictionary of Scientific Biog- 

raphy, pages 343-344. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 401 

. "Georg Friedrich von Reichenbach." In Dictionary of Scientific Biog- 
raphy, pages 354-355. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975. 

'Franz Reuleaux." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, pages 383- 

385. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975. 

"Aurel Boleslav Stodola." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 

13, pages 72-74. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975. 

"Gustav Anton Zeuner." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 

14, pages 617-618. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 
Merzbach, Uta C. "Bridges and Pillars in Dirichlet's Mathematics." [Abstract] 

Notices of the American Mathematical Society, January 23, 1976. 
, Audrey B. Davis, and Michael M. Sokal. "A National Inventory of 

Historic Psychological Apparatus." Journal of the History of the Behavioral 

Sciences, volume 11 (1975), pages 284-286. 

-, Audrey B. Davis, and Michael Sokal. "Laboratory Instruments in the 

History of Psychology." Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 
volume 12 (1976), pages 59-64. 

Miller, J. Jefferson II., and Anne Marie Serio. "Status and Prejudice: A Pic- 
torial Essay." In A Nation of Nations, pages 276-297. New York: Harper & 
Row, 1976. 

Multhauf, Robert P. "The History of Science Society and its Concerns." Isis, 
volume 66 (1975), pages 454-467. 

. "A History of Magnesia Alba." Annals of Science, volume 33 (1976), 

pages 197-200. 

-. "America's Wooden Age." In Building Early America, edited by C. E. 

Peterson, pages 23-24. Radnor, Pennsylvania, 1976. 

"Immigrants and Minerals. Four episodes." In A Nation of Nations, 

pages 240-242. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 
Murray, Anne W. "From Breeches to Sherryvallies." Dress. The Journal of 

the Costume Society of America, volume II, number 1 (1976), pages 17-33 

(cover and 13 illustrations). First published in Waffenund Kostumkunde, 

volume 16, number 2 (1974). 
Myers, Susan H. "Castle Garden." In A Nation of Nations, pages 131-134. 

New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 
. "Ellis Island." In A Nation of Nations, pages 135-136. New York: 

Harper & Row, 1976. 

"Ceramics." In 1876: A Centennial Exhibition, pages 108-113, 11 

illustrations. Washington, D.C. : National Museum of History and Tech- 
nology, 1976. 

-. "Silver." In 1876: A Centennial Exhibition, pages 119-121, 8 illustra- 

tions. Washington, D.C: National Museum of History and Technology, 1976. 
"Capitol Hill, 1870-1900: The People and Their Homes." Records of 

the Columbia Historical Society (1973-1974), volume 49, pages 276-299. 

Charlottesville, Virginia: University Press of Virgnia, 1976. 
Norby, Reider. "The Scandinavian Stamp Lexicon." Scandinavian Scribe, 

volume 11, numbers 6-9, 11 (1975), pages 87-90, 103-106, 119-122, 133- 

140, 157-164. 
. "Scandinavian Varieties." Scandinavian Scribe, volume 11 (1975), pages 

110, 124-125, 151. 
Odell, J. Scott, Thomas Wolf, and Sheridan Germann. "A Louis Dulcken 

Fortepiano of c. 1790." Full-scale technical drawing, available in paper 

and mylar prints from the National Museum of History and Technology, 

Division of Musical Instruments. 
Ostroff, Eugene. "Photography." In 1876: A Centennial Exhibition, pages 148- 

151. Washington, D.C: National Museum of History and Technology, 1976. 
. "Jacob Riis— The Other Half." In A Nation of Nations, page 505. 

New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 

402 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Pogue / Forrest C. Chapter on General of the Army Omar N. Bradley in The 
War Lords. Military Commanders of the Twentieth Century, edited by 
Field Marshal Sir Michael Carver, 16 pages. London: Weidenfield and Nicol- 
son, 1976. 

. "Economy Before Preparedness." Defense Management Journal, July 

1976, pages 14-18. 

"La Conduite de la guerre aux Etats-Unis (1942-1945)." Revue 

d'Histoire de la Deuxieme Guerre Mondiale, October 1975, pages 67-94. 
Post, Robert C. "A Look Backward: 233 Years of Electricity in America." 

Electrical Contractor, volume 41 (July 1976), pages 26-34, 76-77. 
. "About the Exhibit." In The Centennial Post, Washington, D.C. : 

Smithsonian Institution and The Washington Post, 1976. 

-. "Arno Reprints Reconsidered (Again)." I A: The Journal of the Society 

for Industrial Archeology, volume 1 (Summer 1975), pages 68-69. 
. "Bicentennial Preparations." ASME News Letter, (March 1975), pages 

1, 4. 

"Film and the Historian of Technology [Program Summaries]." Tech- 

nology and Culture, volume 16 (July 1975), pages 435-437. 
. " 'Liberalizers' versus 'Scientific Men' in the Antebellum Patent 

Office." Technology and Culture, volume 17 (January 1976), pages 24-54. 

'Louis Agassiz — Scientist and Teacher." In A Nation of Nations, pages 

324-325. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 

"Stray Sparks From the Induction Coil: The Volta Prize and the Page 

Patent." Proceedings of the IEEE, volume 64 (September 1976), pages 1279- 

Roth, Rodris. "Furniture." In 1876: A Centennial Exhibition, pages 102-107, 
8 illustrations. Washington, D.C: National Museum of History and Tech- 
nology, 1976. 

Scheele, Carl H. "American Entertainment — An Immigrant Domain." In A 
Nation of Nations, pages 410-453. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 

. "Baseball — A Shared Excitement." A Nation of Nations, New York: 

Harper & Row, 1976, pages 454-477. 

'At Home — The American Dream." In A Nation of Nations, pages 

478-504. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 
Schlebecker, John T. "Agricultural Markets and Marketing in the North, 1774- 

1777." Agricultural History, volume 50 (January 1976), pages 21-36. 
. "Grasshoppers." In Dictionary of American History (revised edition), 

pages 212-213. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 

"Livestock." In Dictionary of American History (revised edition), 

pages 169-170. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 
Serio, Anne Marie, with J. J. Miller II. "Status and Prejudice — A Pictorial 

Essay." In A Nation of Nations, pages 276-297, 22 illustrations. New York: 

Harper & Row, 1976. 
. "The American Diet — An Ethnic Mix: American Cookbooks and 

Foreign Recipes." In A Nation of Nations, pages 581-596, 18 illustrations. 

New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 
Sharrer, G. Terry. "U. S. Patents by Marylanders 1790-1830." Maryland His- 
torical Magazine, volume 71, number 1 (Spring 1976), pages 50-59. 
. "Flour Milling." In Dictionary of American History (revised edition), 

pages 42-44. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 

"Cereal Grains." In Dictionary of American History (revised edition), 

page 486. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 
Sivowitch, Elliot N. "Communications Satellites." In Dictionary of American 

History, volume 2, pages 142-143. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 
. "Masers and Lasers." In Dictionary of American History, volume 4, 

pages 262-263. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 403 

. "Radio." In Dictionary of American History, volume 4, pages 14-16. 

New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 

"Television." In Dictionary of American History, volume 7, New York: 

Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 

-, and Bernard S. Finn. "Everywhere is Here and Now." In A Nation of 

Nations, pages 610-629. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 
Turner, Craig J. "A Black Jack With a Star on the Chin." S.P.A. Journal, 

volume 37, number 10 (June 1975), pages 623-629. 
. "Asher Brown Durand — Premier Engraver." Paper Money, volume XV, 

Whole Number 61 (January/February 1976), pages 6-14. (Reprinted from 

S.P.A. Journal, volume 37, number 1 (September 1974), pages 27-38. 
Vogel, Robert M. "Machinery Hall." In 1876: A Centennial Exhibition, pages 

29-47. Washington, D.C.: National Museum of History and Technology, 

Walther, Robert G. "Agriculture." In 1876: A Centennial Exhibition, page 57. 

Washington, D.C. : National Museum of History and Technology, 1976. 
. "The Immigrant Farmer." In A Nation of Nations, pages 144-159. 

New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 
Warner, Deborah J. "Johannes Bayer and His Star Atlas — Reconsidered." 

Journal, British Astronomical Association, volume 86, pages 53-54. 
. "Astronomical Observatories." In Dictionary of American History, 

pages 130-132. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 

"Hale Observatories." In Dictionary of American History, pages 241- 

242. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 

"John Martin Schaeberle." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 

volume 12, page 139. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975. 

"Charles Piazzi Smyth." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 

12, pages 498-499. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975. 

-. "James South." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 12, pages 

551-552. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975. 

"Joseph Winlock." In Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 13, 

pages 448-449. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 

"Charles Greeley Abbot." American Philosophical Society, Yearbook, 

pages 111-116. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1975. 

"The Women's Pavilion." In 1876: A Centennial Exhibition, pages 

163-173. Washington, D.C: National Museum of History and Technology, 

-. "Notes on the National Cookery Book." The National Cookery Book, 

Compiled from Original Receipts for the Women's Centennial Committees 

of the International Exhibition in 1876. Bicentennial edition, Legado, 1976. 
Watkins, C. Malcolm. "The Letter to Santangel." In A Nation of Nations, 

pages 24-34, 4 illustrations. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 
. "The English Heritage." In A Nation of Nations, pages 36-53, 17 

illustrations. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 

"A Plantation of Difference — People from Everywhere." In A Nation 

of Nations, pages 54-82, 23 illustrations. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 

"Ceramics in the Seventeenth-Century English Colonies. Winterthur 

Conference Report 1974. Arts of the Anglo-American Community in the 
Seventeenth Century, edited by Ian M. G. Quimby, pages 275-299, 13 
illustrations. Charlottesville, Virginia: The University Press of Virginia, 

White, John H, Jr. "A Short History of Railway Brakes." National Railway 
Historical Society Bulletin, volume 40, number 5 (1975), pages 6-17. 

. "American Railroads: A Bicentennial Overview." Railway Age, July 

4, 1976, pages 64-65. 

404 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

. "Railroads and the Westward-Bound Immigrant." In A Nation of 

Nations, pages 178-191. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 

"Firefighting." In A Nation of Nations, pages 54-55. New York: Harper 

& Row, 1976. 

"Railroading." In A Nation of Nations, pages 58-59. New York: 

Harper & Row, 1976. 

, editor. Railroad History, number 133 (Autumn 1975), 128 pages. 

, editor. Railroad History, number 134 (Spring 1976), 119 pages. 


Beard, Richard. [Review] Some Notions on Nations. Museum Education 

Roundtable Reports, Summer 1976. 
. Caption texts for The Portraits from The Americans: The Democratic 

Experience. Exhibition catalogue. New York: Random House, 1975. 
Miller, Lillian. "Hiram Powers," "Benjamin West," "George Caleb Bingham." 

In Harper's Encyclopedia of American Biography, 1975. 
. "The Garden and American Landscape Painting." In The American 

Examiner: A Forum of Ideas, volume IV, number 1 (Fall, 1975). 

"The Lovely and The Wild: The Correspondence Between American 

Literature and Painting before the Civil War." In Meaning in American Art, 
edited by John C. Milley. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Friends of Indepen- 
dence National Historical Park, Spring 1976. 

'The American Revolution as Image and Symbol in American Art.' 

Proceedings, Association for 18th Century Studies. McMaster University, 
Spring 1976. 

[Review] Donelson Hoopes' American Narrative Painting, Matthew 

Baigell's The American Scene, and William Gerdts' The Great American 
Nude. American Historical Review, volume 81, number 1 (February 1976). 
-. [Review] James Madison Alden. Yankee Artist of the Pacific Coast, 

1854-1860, by Franz Stenzel. History. Review of New Books (Fall 1975). 

[Review] Millay in Greenwich Village by Anne Cheney. History. 

Review of New Books, volume 4, number 5 (March 1976). 

[Review] The Architecture of Maximilian Godefroy by Robert L. 

Alexander. The Journal of American History, March 1976. 

O'Toole, Dennis. "The Dye is Now Cast." Multi-media Instructional Package 
for secondary school use, September 1975. 

. [Review] Fat Mutton, Liberty and Conscience by Carl Bridenbaugh. 

New York History, July 1975. 

Pachter, Marc. Introduction to Abroad in America: Visitors to the New Nation, 
1776-1914. Exhibition catalogue. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley 
Publishing Company, 1976. 

Pfister, Harold Francis. "Burlingtonian Architectural Theory in England and 
America." Winterthur Portfolio 11, 1976. 

. [Review] Architecture of the Ecole des Beaux Arts at MOMA. Decora- 
tive Arts Chapter of the Society of Architectural Historians Newsletter, 
Winter 1976. 

Sadik, Marvin S. Foreword to Portraits from The Americans: The Democratic 
Experience. Exhibition catalogue. New York: Random House, 1976. 

. Foreword to Abroad in America: Visitors to the New Nation 1776- 

1914. Exhibition catalogue. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Pub- 
lishing Company, 1976. 

— . "Paintings from the White House." The Connoisseur , May 1976. 

Christian Gullager, Portrait Painter to Federal America. Exhibition 

catalogue. Washington, D.C. : The National Portrait Gallery, 1976. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 405 

. Foreword to Wedgwood Portraits and The American Revolution. Ex- 
hibition catalogue. Washington, D.C. : The National Portrait Gallery, 1976. 

Schaffer, Michael D. [Review] "State History Series Bows with One Hit, Two 
Misses." The National Observevr, for the week ending July 3, 1976. 

Stewart, Robert G. "The Battle of the Ice Mound, February 7, 1815." Maryland 
Historical Magazine, Winter 1975. 

Voss, Frederick. Caption texts for Portraits Prom the Americans: The Demo- 
cratic Experience. Exhibition catalogue. New York: Random House, 1976. 

Yellis, Kenneth. [Review] Our Changing Land. Museum Education Roundtable 
Reports, Winter 1976. 

. [Review] Remarks on the Reopened Philadelphia Museum of Art. 

Museum Education Roundtable Reports, Spring 1976. 

Caption texts for Portraits from the Americans: The Democratic 

Experience. Exhibition catalogue. New York: Random House, 1976. 

Washburn, Wilcomb E. Foreward to Indian Land Tenure: Bibliographical 
Essays and a Guide to the Literature, by Imre Sutton, pages vii-viii. New 
York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1975. 

. "Defining the Museum's Purpose." New York State Historical Associa- 
tion Monographic Studies, number 1 (1975) pages 1-20. Cooperstown, New 
York: The New York State Historical Association. 

. "Do Museums Educate?" Curator, volume 18, number 3 (1975), pages 


. "Indians and the American Revolution." Essay in The Revolutionary 

Era: A Variety of Perspectives, edited by John R. Brumgardt, pages 27-40, 
chapter III. Riverside, California: Historical Commission Press, 1976. 

"The Exhibition." In The Federal Cty: Plans and Realities, pages xv, 

170, 74-170. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976. 

"The Clash of Morality in the American Forest." Essay in First Images 

of America: The Impact of the New World on the Old, edited by Fredi 
Chiappelli, volume 1, pages 335-350. Berkeley: University of California 
Press, 1976. 

"The Historical Context of American Indian Legal Problems." Law and 

Contemporary Problems, volume 40, number 1 (Winter 1976). 

"Introduction to Cultural Change." Essay in Contributions to Anthro- 

pology: Selected Papers of A. Irving Hallowell, pages 477-479. The Univer- 
sity of Chicago Press, 1976. 

"American Studies." In Dictionary of American History, pages 112- 

113. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 

-. "Bacon's Rebellion." In Dictionary of American History, page 240. 

New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. 

-, and William C. Sturtevant. "The First Americans." Chapter 1 in A 

Nation of Nations: The People Who Came to America as Seen Through 
Objects and Documents Exhibited at the Smithsonian Institution, edited by 
Peter C. Marzio, pages 4-23. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 



Olin, J. S., M. E. Salmon, and E.V. Sayre. "Neutron Activation and Electron 
Beam Microprobe Study of a XIV Century Austrian Stained Glass Panel." 
Applicazione dei meteli nucleari nel campo delle opere d'arte, Accademia 
Nazionale dei Lincei, 1976, pages 99-110. 

406 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Olin, J. S., and E. V. Sayre, (non-staff). "Neutron Activation Analysis of 
Majolica from Spanish Colonial Sites in Meso-America." Bulletin of the 
American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, Sum- 
mer 1975, pages 57-62. 

. "Identification of the Provenience of Majolica from Sites in the 

Caribbean using Neutron Activation Analysis." Brookhaven National Lab- 
oratory Report 21176, 1976. 

Organ, Robert M. "An Idea for A National Conservation Institute Without 
Walls." International Centre for the Study of Preservation and the Restora- 
tion of Cultural Property, Rome. Newsletter Number 3, October 1975. 

. "The Corrosion of Tin, Copper, Iron and Steel and Lead." In Preserva- 
tion and Conservation: Principles and Practice, edited by S. Timmons, pages 
243-256. Washington, D.C. : Preservation Press, 1976. 

"The Organisation of an Integrated Facility for Conservation of 

Museum Objects." Bulletin, Institut Royal Du Patrimoine Artistique XV 
(1975), pages 283-301. 

"The Organisation and Management of Conservation Programs." In 

Conservation Administration, edited by R. C. Morrison, G. C. Cunha, and 
N. P. Tucker, pages 213-285. New England Document Conservation Center, 

-, and J. A. Mandarino (non-staff). "Romarchite and Hydroromarchite, 

Two Stannous Minerals." Canadian Mineralogist 10 (1973), page 916. 


Fink, Eleanor E. "Collecting the Photograph" (Report on the Art in America 
symposium, "Collecting the Photograph," held in New York City, September 
20, 1975). Art Libraries Society of North America Newsletter, volume 3, 
number 6 (October 1975), pages 104-105. 

Goodwin, Jack. "Current Bibliography in the History of Technology (1973)." 
Technology and Culture 16 (April 1975), pages 195-286. 

. "Current Bibliography in the History of Technology (1974)." Technol- 
ogy and Culture 17 (April 1976), pages 286-364. 

Ratzenberger, Katharine. [Review] Fine Arts: A Bibliographic Guide to Basic 
Reference Works, Histories and Handbooks, by Donald L. Ehresmann. 
Library Journal, October 1, 1975. 

. [Review] George Howe: Toward a Modern American Architecture, by 

Robert A. Stern. Library Journal, August 1975. 

[Review] Louis I. Kahn, by Romaldo Giurgola and Mehta Jaimini. 

Library Journal, March 1, 1976. 

[Review] Old Alexandria: Where America's Past is Present. Library 

Journal, March 1, 1976. 

[Review] Winslow Homer: An Annotated Bibliography of Periodical 

Literature, by Melinda D. Davis. Choice, June 1976. 

[Review] Contemporary American Folk Artists, by Elinor L. Horwitz. 

Art Libraries Society of North America Newsletter, volume 4, number 1 
(December 1975). 

[Review] American Folk Painters, by John and Katherine Ebert. Art 

Libraries Society of North America Newsletter, volume 4, number 3 (April 

Shank, Russell, and Madeline Henderson. "Federal Library Cooperation." Li- 
brary Trends, volume 24 (1975), pages 277-292. 

. "Books of Science." In Science Year: The World Book Science Annual, 

1976. Chicago: Field Enterprises (1975). 

Scott, Catherine. "National Air and Space Museum Library." Bowker Annual, 
1975, pages 39-44. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 407 

Walker, William B. "From the Chair" (Column from National Chairman of the 
Art Libraries Society of North America). ARLIS/NA Newsletter, volume 3, 
numbers 4-6 (Summer-October 1975), volume 4, number 1 (December 1975). 



Cutting-Baker, Holly. Family Folklore. Smithsonian Institution, 94 pages, 1976. 
Gross, Sandra. Family Folklore. Smithsonian Institution, 94 pages, 1976. 
Hawes, Bess. 1976 Festival of American Folklife. [Program book] Smithsonian 

Institution, 48 pages, 1976. 
Hooks, Rosie Lee. Black People and their Culture, Selected Writings from the 

African Diaspora. Smithsonian Institution, 137 pages, 1976. 
Kotkin, Amy. Family Folklore. Smithsonian Institute, 94 pages, 1976. 
Reagon, Bernice. Black People and their Culture, Selected Writings from the 

African Diaspora. Smithsonian Institution, 137 pages, 1976. 
Rinzler, Ralph. Monograph, Backliner, and Recordings. Louisiana Cajun 

French Music from the Southwest Praires, recorded 1964-1967, 2 volumes, 

Rounder Records #6001-2, Somerville, Massachusetts, 1976. 
. Roots of the Folk Revival, The Folk Music Source. New York: Alfred 

A. Knopf, 1976. 
Roschwalb, Susanne. Music and Dance from the Age of Jefferson. [Program 

book] Smithsonian Institution, 9 pages, 1975. 
. 2976 Festival of American Folklife. [Program book] Smithsonian 

Institution, 48 pages, 1976. 
Shapiro, Linn. Black People and their Culture, Selected Writings from the 

African Diaspora. Smithsonian Institution, 137 pages, 1976. 
Weaver, Jim. Music and Dance from the Age of Jefferson. [Program book] 

Smithsonian Institution, 9 pages, 1975. 
Whitfield, Elizabeth. Black People and their Culture, Selected Writings from 

the African Diaspora. Smithsonian Institution, 137 pages, 1976. 
Working Americans Program. Ring Like Silver, Shine Like Gold. Smithsonian 

Institution, 95 pages, 1976. 
Zeitlin, Steven. Family Folklore. Smithsonian Institution, 94 pages, 1976. 


"Classic Rags and Ragtime Songs." Conducted by T. J. Anderson, featuring 
Rags by Scott Joplin and Eubie Blake, two rags sung by Morgan State 
College Choir, Smithsonian Institution, 1975. 

"Duke Ellington, 1938" Smithsonian Institution, 1976. 

"King Oliver's Jazz Band/1923." Two-LP set, Smithsonian Institution, 1975. 

"Louis Armstrong and Earl Hines/1928." Two-LP set, Smithsonian Institution, 

"Music from the Age of Jefferson." Recorded at Hall of Musical Instruments, 
Special Credit to James Weaver, John Fesperman, and Albert Fuller, Smith- 
sonian Institution, 1975. 

"Piano Music of Ferdinand 'Jelly Roll' Morton." Played by James Dapogny, 
Smithsonian Institution, 1976. 


Dillon, Wilton S. "Epilogue." In Mediterranean Europe and the Common 
Market: Studies of Economic Growth and Integration, edited by Eric Bak- 
lanoff. University of Alabama Press, 1976. 

408 / Smithsonian Year 1976 


Spann, Barbara T. Carlby. Fairfax, Virginia: Fairfax County Office of Compre- 
hensive Planning, 1976, 168 pages, 31 illustrations. 


Brown, David A. "A Decorative Drawing by Correggio." Master Drawings, 
volume 13, number 2 (1975), pages 136-141. 

Carmean, E. A., Jr. Morris Louis: Major Themes and Variations. [Exhibition 
catalogue] Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1976. 

Feller, Robert L. (Senior Fellow). "Studies on the Photochemical Stability of 
Thermoplastic Resins." Paper 75/22/b, 4th Triennial Reunion, icom Commit- 
tee for Conservation, Venice, October 1975. 

. "A Project to Prepare Monographs on Ten Artists' Pigments." Paper 

75/21/6, 4th Triennial Reunion, icom Committee for Conservation, Venice, 
October 1975. 

-. "Studies on Photochemical Deterioration." Paper 75/19/4, 4th Trien- 

nial Reunion, icom Committee for Conservation Meeting, Venice, October 

"Speed Up Photochemical Deterioration." Bulletin 15 (1975), Inst. 

Royal du Patrimoine Artistique (Bruxelles), pages 135-150. 

"The Deterioration of Organic Substances and the Analysis of Paints 

and Varnishes." In Preservation and Conservation: Principles and Practices, 
edited by Sharon Timmons, pages 287-299. Washington, D.C.: The Preserva- 
tion Press, 1976. 

Feller, Robert L., and M. Curran. "Changes in Solubility and Removability of 
Varnish Resins with Age." Bulletin of the American Institute for Conserva- 
tion, volume 15, number 2 (1975), pages 17-26. 

Feller, Robert L., and Sidney Pollack. "On the Crystallography of Chrome 
Orange." Journal of Coatings Technology, number 48 (1976), page 68. 

Keisch, Bernard (Senior Fellow). "Nuclear Applications at the National Gallery 
of Art Research Project: Seven Years of Progress." Atti Dei Convegni 
Lincei 11, International Conference on Applications of Nuclear Methods in 
the Field of Works of Art, Accademia Nazionale Dei Lincei, Roma, 1976, 
pages 359-379. 

. "Analysis of Works of Art." In Application of Mosshauer Spectros- 
copy, edited by R. L. Cohen, volume 1, pages 263-286. New York: Aca- 
demic, 1976. 

Keisch, Bernard, and Robert C. Callahan, "Sulfur Isotope Ratios in Ultra- 
marine Blue: Application to Art Forgery Detection." Applied Spectroscopy 
30, number 5 (September 10, 1976), pages 515-519. 

. "Lead Isotope Ratios in Artists' Lead White: A Progress Report." 

Archaeometry 18, (1976), pages 181-194. 

Lehrer, Ruth F. "Blake Material in the Lessing J. Rosenwald Collection." 
Blake Newsletter, 35, volume 9, number 3 (Winter 1975-1976). 

. Philadelphia: Three Centuries of American Art. [Exhibition catalogue] 

Print entries, 1876-1976. 

Lewis, Douglas. [Review] Florence in the Forgotten Centuries, 1527-1800 by 
Eric Cochrane. The Social Studies, volume 66, number 4 (July/August 1975), 
pages 177-178. 

. "An Unrecognized Work of 1595 by Vincenzo Scamozzi." Bollettino 

del Centro Inter nazionale di Studi di Architettura, number 17 (1975). 

'Girolamo II Corner's Completion of Piombino." Architettura, number 

1 (1976). 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 409 

. [Review] Old Calabria by Norman Douglas. Johns Hopkins Magazine, 

volume 27, number 4 (July 1976), page 19. 
Robison, Andrew. Entries on Giovanni Battista Piranesi prints and books, in 

The Eye of Thomas Jefferson [exhibition catalogue], edited by W. Howard 

Adams. Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1976. 
. "Drawings." In The National Gallery of Art, edited by John Walker. 

New York : Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1976. 

[Review of exhibition and catalogue] The Changing Image: Prints by 

Francisco Goya, by Eleanor A. Sayre, et al. Pantheon, volume XXXIII, num- 
ber 4 (1975), pages 367-368. 

Russell, H. Diane. "The Manner and Method of That Famous Callot." Art 
News, volume 74, number 7 (September 1975) pages 32-34. 

Scott, David W. John Sloan. New York: Watson Guptill Publications, 1975. 

. The Yogi and the Registrar. New York: Museum Data Bank Com- 
mittee, 1976. 

Voris, Anna M. Biographies of artists, in The Eye of Thomas Jefferson [exhibi- 
tion catalogue]. Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1976. 

. Indexes for Sculptures from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European 

Schools, X1V-XIX Centuries by Ulrich Middeldorf. London: Phaidon Press, 

Watson, Ross. [Review] The Anatomical Works of George Stubbs by Terence 
Doherty. The Smithsonian Magazine, September 1975. 

. [Review] Lord Leighton, by Leonee and Richard Ormond. The Smith- 
sonian Magazine, March 1976. 

Wheelock, Arthur K., Jr. [Review] Gabriel Metsu (1629-1667). A Study of his 
Place in Dutch Genre Painting of the Golden Age, by Franklin W. Robinson. 
The Art Bulletin, volume 58, number 3, pages 456-459. 

410 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

APPENDIX 7. Academic Appointments, July 1, 1975, 
through September 30, 1976 

Smithsonian fellows pursue research problems in Smithsonian facilities and 
collections in collaboration with professional staff members. 


Program in American and Cultural History 

Cynthia A. Field, Ph.D., Columbia University. The museum as an architectural 
statement of American culture, with Lillian B. Miller, Editor, Peale Papers, and 
James M. Goode, Curator, Smithsonian Institution Building, from June 1, 1975, 
through June 30, 1976. 

Program in Anthropology 

Bernardo Dougherty, Ph.D., University of La Plata. A comparative study of 
Lowland South American Archeological cultures, with Clifford Evans, Jr., 
Department of Anthropology, from October 1, 1975, through September 30, 

Geoffrey L. Gamble, Ph.D., University of California. Examination of J. P. 
Harrington material to develop a comparative Yokuts lexicon, with William 
C. Sturtevant, Department of Anthropology, and Herman J. Viola, National 
Anthropological Archives, from July 15, 1975, through July 14, 1976. 

Margaret A. Hardin, Ph.D., University of Chicago. Study of structure and 
variation of Zuni pottery design, with William C. Sturtevant, Department of 
Anthropology, from October 1, 1975, through September 30, 1976. 

Program in Astrophysics 

John B. Hearnshaw, Ph.D., Australian National University. To obtain abun- 
dance data for Cu, Zn, and Fe in a large enough sample of stars of several 
types to interpret the results in the light of theories of nucleosynthesis of Cu 
and Zn. To carry out differential model atmosphere analysis using computer 
programming, with Nathaniel P. Carleton, Smithsonian Astrophysical Ob- 
servatory, from September 25, 1975, through January 31, 1976. 

Charles J. Lada, Ph.D., Harvard University. Continued studies of molecular 
clouds using radio astronomical techniques, with A. Edward Lilley, Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory, from July 1, 1975, through July 1, 1976. 

Mark J. Reid, Ph.D., California Institute of Technology. Investigation of 
molecular clouds, circumstellar dust shells, newly forming stars, and primitive 
stellar nebulae; origins and dynamics of the solar system; experimental tests 
of relativity with various techniques incuding spectral line, very long baseline 
interferometry, with James M. Moran, Jr., Smithsonian Astrophysical Ob- 
servatory, September 1, 1975, through August 31, 1976. 

Appendix 7. Academic Appointments I 411 

Frederick H. Seguin, Ph.D., California Institute of Technology. A study of the 
evolution of binary orbits; to construct models of elliptical galaxies, star 
clusters with arbitrary rotation curves; to study gravitational radiation reac- 
tion in relativistic fluid systems, with Steven Weinberg, Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory, from October 1, 1975, through October 1, 1976. 

Program in Earth Sciences 

Peter A. Jezek, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts. Compositional and textural 
study of volcanic ashes, with Thomas E. Simkin, Department of Mineral 
Sciences, from January 1, 1976, through December 31, 1976. 

John M. Sinton, Ph.D., University of Otaga. Mineralogy and petrology of 
oceanic plutonic and metamorphic rocks, with William G. Melson, Department 
of Mineral Sciences, from January 1, 1976, through December 31, 1976. 

Program in Environmental Sciences 

Sandra L. Spurgeon, Ph.D., Washington State University. Carotenoid bio- 
synthesis in Neurospora, with Roy W. Harding, Jr., Radiation Biology Labora- 
tory, from November 1, 1975, through October 31, 1976. 

Jerry P. Thomas, Ph.D., University of Alabama. Pigment systems involved in 
regulation of cytokinesis, with Walter A. Shropshire, Jr., Radiation Biology 
Laboratory, from August 1, 1975, through July 31, 1976. 

Brenda S. Tremper, Ph.D., University of California. Distribution of ant species 
in various successional stages of the Eastern deciduous forest, with James F. 
Lynch, Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies, from January 1, 
1976, through December 31, 1976. 

Barbara A. Zilinskas, Ph.D., University of Illinois. Analysis of the phycobili- 
some-photosynthetic lamellae interactions, with Elisabeth Gantt, Radiation 
Biology Laboratory, from June 14, 1975, through August 31, 1976. 

Program in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

Wayne E. Clark, Ph.D., Texas A & M University. Systematics of the weevil 
subfamily Tychiinae (Curculionidae: Coleoptera), with Terry L. Erwin, Depart- 
ment of Entomology, from August 1, 1975, through July 31, 1976. 

Bruce W. Hayward, Ph.D., Auckland University. Taxonomy and paleoecology 
of Lower Micene benthonic foraminifera in northern New Zealand, with 
Martin A. Buzas, Department of Paleobiology, from November 1, 1975, 
through October 31, 1976. 

Timothy J. Palmer, Ph.D., Oxford University. Evolutionary changes of niche 
patterns and faunal diversity in hardground communities, with Erie G. 
Kauffman, Department of Paleobiology, from July 1, 1975, through June 30, 

Seymour H. Sohmer, Ph.D., University of Hawaii. Systematic work with the 
genus Psychotria, with F. Raymond Fosberg, Department of Botany, from 
September 1, 1975, through June 30, 1976. 

Program in the History of Science and Technology 

Arthur C. Nunes, Jr., Ph.D., University of California. Research into the history 
of welding, with Otto Mayr, Department of Science and Technology, from 
September 1, 1975, through August 31, 1976. 

412 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Program in Tropical Biology 

Peter A. Abrams, Ph.D., University of British Columbia. Study of competition 
in hermit crab communities with Peter W. Glynn, Smithsonian Tropical Re- 
search Institute, from October 15, 1975, through October 14, 1976. 

David P. Janos, Ph.D., University of Michigan. Research on the ecology of 
vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, with Nicholas D. Smythe, Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute, from January 1, 1976, through December 31, 1976. 

Kentwood D. Wells, Ph.D., Cornell University. Social behavior of frogs in the 
family Dendrobatidae, with A. Stanley Rand, Smithsonian Tropical Research 
Institute, from September 1, 1975, through August 31, 1976. 


Program in American and Cultural History 

Richard D. Glasow, Ph.D. candidate, University of Delaware. Building the 
"New American Navy," Naval officers and scientific engineering, 1875-1899, 
with Philip K. Lundeberg, Department of National and Military History, from 
September 1, 1975, through August 31, 1976. 

Scott Hambly, Ph.D. candidate, University of Pennsylvania. The social and 
contextual history of the mandolin in America, 1875-1975, with J. Scott Odell, 
Department of Cultural History, from July 1, 1975, through June 30, 1976. 

George W. McDaniel, Ph.D. candidate, Duke University. The material culture 
of a plantation community, with Wilcomb E. Washburn, Office of American 
Studies, from September 1, 1975, through August 31, 1976. 

Program in Anthropology 

Brian C. Hesse, Ph.D. candidate, Columbia University. Economic and artifac- 
tual categories in the fauna from the neolithic site of Ganj Dareh, Western 
Iran, with Dennis J. Stanford, Department of Anthropology, from August 1, 
1975, through July 31, 1976. 

Rebecca H. Welch, Ph.D. candidate, George Washington University. Social 
history of Alice Cunningham Fletcher, nineteenth-century anthropologist and 
social reformer, with Herman J. Viola, National Anthropological Archives, 
from September 1, 1975, through August 31, 1976. 

Program in Astrophysics 

Eric D. Feigelson, Ph.D. candidate, Harvard University. Course work at 

Harvard Department of Astronomy and related research, with Riccardo 

Giacconi, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from September 23, 1975, 
through June 12, 1976. 

Robert W. Leach, Ph.D. candidate, Harvard University. Development of a 
negative electron affinity device for use in future X-ray astronomy experi- 
ments, with Riccardo Giacconi, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 
September 23, 1975, through June 12, 1976. 

Sten F. Odenwald, Jr., Ph.D. candidate, Harvard University. Investigation of 
the properties of accretion discs surrounding (supermassive) black holes, with 
George B. Field, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from September 23, 
1975, through June 12, 1976. 

Appendix 7. Academic Appointments I 413 

Robert S. Pariseau, Ph.D. candidate, Harvard University. Stellar atmospheres 
model and radio interferometry-data reduction, with George B. Rybicki, 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from September 23, 1975, through 
January 31, 1976. 

Carleton R. Pennypacker, Ph.D. candidate, Harvard University. Infrared pulsar 
search, with Costas Papaliolios, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 
September 1, 1975, through June 1, 1976. 

Stephen C. Perrenod, Ph.D. candidate, Harvard University. Intergalactic 
medium, quasar absorption features, and hot gas in clusters of galaxies, with 
George B. Field, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from October 16, 
1975, through June 16, 1976. 

Ira Wasserman, Ph.D. candidate, Harvard University. Various problems in 
relativistic astrophysics, with Steven Weinberg, Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory, from September 1, 1975, through June 1, 1976. 

Program in Environmental Sciences 

Kenneth Green, Ph.D. candidate, Johns Hopkins University. Ecology and social 
organization of Cebus nigrivittatus, a neotropical primate, with John F. 
Eisenberg, National Zoological Park, from June 15, 1975, through June 14, 

Robert J. Hoage, Ph.D. candidate, University of Pittsburgh. The development 
of social and sexual behavior in the Golden Lion Marmoset, with Devra G. 
Kleiman, National Zoological Park, from April 1, 1975, through March 31, 

Margaret A. O'Connell, Ph.D. candidate, Texas Tech University. Population 
ecology of neotropical rodents, with John F. Eisenberg, National Zoological 
Park, from June 15, 1975, through June 14, 1976. 

Rasanayagam Rudran, Ph.D. candidate, University of Maryland. Ecology and 
behavior of the blue monkey in the Kibale Forest, Uganda, with John F. 
Eisenberg, National Zoological Park, from July 1, 1975, through April 13, 1976. 

Rebecca G. Troth, Ph.D. candidate, University of Michigan. A life history 
study of Bombax ceiba, with Dan H. Nicolson, Department of Botany, from 
February 1, 1975, through January 31, 1976. 

Program in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

Francisco Mago-Leccia, Ph.D. candidate, Universidad Central de Venezuela. 
Venezuelan Gynotoid fishes, a preliminary study for a revision of the group 
in South America, with Stanley H. Weitzman, Department of Vertebrate 
Zoology, from April 15, 1975, through August 15, 1976. 

Albert C. Myrick, Jr., Ph.D. candidate, University of California, Los Angeles. 
A population approach to the systematics of two dolphins from Middle Mio- 
cene deposits of eastern North America, with Clayton E. Ray, Department of 
Paleobiology, from July 1, 1975, through December 31, 1976. 

Alfred L. Rosenberger, Ph.D. candidate, City University of New York. Re- 
search to determine the evolutionary relationships and to reconstruct the 
evolutionary history of the New World monkeys, with Richard W. Thorington, 
Department of Vertebrate Zoology, from September 1, 1975, through August 
31, 1976. 

414 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Robert D. Ward, Ph.D. candidate, Michigan State University. Phylogenetic 
systematics of the "primitive" taxa of the Caraboidea, with Terry L. Erwin, 
Department of Entomology, from January 1, 1976, through December 31, 1976. 

Anders H. Waren, Ph.D. candidate, University of Gothenburg. Selection of 
types in the Jeffreys Collections, with Joseph Rosewater, Department of 
Invertebrate Zoology, from October 15, 1975, through April 15, 1976. 

Orrey P. Young, Ph.D. candidate, University of Maryland. Feeding strategies 
in a neotropical forest dung beetle community, with Terry L. Erwin, Depart- 
ment of Entomology, and Egbert G. Leigh, Jr., Smithsonian Tropical Research 
Institute, from July 1, 1975, through December 31, 1976. 

Program in the History of Art 

Ruth Louise Bohan, Ph.D. candidate, University of Maryland. An examination 
of the Societe Anonyme and the Brooklyn Museum's International Exhibition 
of Modern Art held in 1926-1927, with Walter W. Hopps III, National Collec- 
tion of Fine Arts, from September 1, 1975, through August 31, 1976. 

Marc H. Miller, Ph.D. candidate, New York University. Lafayette's Farewell 
Tour of America, 1824-1825; portraiture and pageantry, with Lois M. Fink, 
National Collection of Fine Arts, from January 1, 1976, through June 30, 1976. 

Deborah D. Muller, Ph.D. candidate, Yale University. The Chiu-T'u; a study of 
the "Nine Songs" Handscrolls, with Thomas Lawton and Hin-Cheung Lovell, 
Freer Gallery of Art, from October 1, 1975, through March 31, 1976. 

Joan F. Seeman, Ph.D. candidate, Stanford University. Postwar vanguard New 
York sculpture, with Walter W. Hopps III, National Collection of Fine Arts, 
from September 1, 1975, through August 31, 1976. 

Julia A. Wortman, Ph.D. candidate, University of Michigan. The art criticism 
of Russell Sturgis, with Peter Bermingham, National Collection of Fine Arts, 
from July 1, 1975, through June 30, 1976. 

Ann Yonemura, Ph.D. candidate, Princeton University. The Ishiyamadera Engi 
Emaki, a Japanese Buddhist narrative painting, with Thomas Lawton, Freer 
Gallery of Art, from January 1, 1976, through June 30, 1976. 

Program in the History of Science and Technology 

Virginia G. Drachman, Ph.D. candidate, S.U.N.Y., Buffalo. Nineteenth-century 
obstetrical and gynecological instruments, the catalogs advertising them and 
the papers of Dr. Chevalier Jackson, with Audrey B. Davis, Department of 
Science and Technology, from September 1, 1975, through August 31, 1976. 

Susan T. Frey, Ph.D. candidate, University of Washington. Frederich Engels 
and nineteenth-century science, with Faye Cannon, Department of Science and 
Technology, from August 1, 1975, through September 15, 1976. 

Robert D. Friedel, Ph.D. candidate, Johns Hopkins University. Research con- 
cerning the technical, economic, and social history of the development of 
celluloid plastics, with Jon B. Eklund, Department of Science and Technology, 
from September 1, 1975, to August 31, 1976. 

Leonard S. Reich, Ph.D. candidate, Johns Hopkins University. Industrial re- 
search, patents and the development of radio in America, with Bernard S. 
Finn, Department of Science and Technology, from September 1, 1975, 
through August 31, 1976. 

Appendix 7. Academic Appointments I 415 

Program in Tropical Biology 

Carol K. Augspurger, Ph.D. candidate, University of Michigan. A study of the 
influence of the animal community of pollinators, seed dispersers, and seed 
predators on the plant reproductive systems, with Alan Smith, Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute, from December 31, 1975, through December 30, 

Eric A. Fischer, Ph.D. candidate, University of California. Behavioral ecology 
and hamlets (Hypoolecturs spp., Pisces), simultaneously hermaphroditic fish 
of the sea bass family, with Ira Rubinoff, Smithsonian Tropical Research 
Institute, from November 1, 1975, through October 30, 1976. 


Program in American and Cultural History 

Julia Haifley, George Washington University. Study of Titian Ramsey Peale, 
early amateur photographer, with Eugene Ostroff, Division of Photographic 

Norma J. Halischak, Gallaudet College. Studies in principles and technology 
of archival administration, with William A. Deiss, Smithsonian Archives. 

Luna Lambert, North Carolina State University. Study of nineteenth-century 
skates at the Smithsonian, with Rodris C. Roth, Department of Cultural 

Darroll A. Midgette, George Washington University. Supported by the Elsie 

Shaver Scholarship. Study of newspaper materials related to the life of 

Dorothy Shaver, with Claudia B. Kidwell, Division of Costumes and Fur- 

Theresa D. Shellcroft, University of Pittsburgh. Supported by a grant from 
the William Randolph Hearst Foundation. Studies conducted with black per- 
formers and craftspeople in the Festival of American Folklife, with Bernice 
J. Reagon, Division of Performing Arts. 

Lisa Soderberg, George Washington University. Study of the role of Adelaide 
Johnson in the early women's movement, with Edith P. Mayo, Department of 
National and Military History. 

Sherri L. Tucker, Northwestern University. Supported by a grant from the 
William Randolph Hearst Foundation. Studies conducted with the African 
Diaspora section of the Festival of American Folklife, with Bernice J. Reagon, 
Division of Performing Arts. 

Program in Anthropology 

Louisa Beyer, George Washington University. Study of discrimination of sex 
in human sacra by multivariate analysis, with J. Lawrence Angel, Department 
of Anthropology. 

Joan Gardner, George Washington University. Research into the life ways of 
the aboriginal inhabitants of the archeological site of Spiro, Oklahoma, as can 
be interpreted from the collection of objects at the Smithsonian, with William 
W. Fitzhugh and Waldo R. Wedel, Department of Anthropology. 

Susan Golla, Columbia University. Study of continuity and change in the 
symbolic structure of Nootka myth and ritual, with William C. Sturtevant, 
Department of Anthropology. 

416 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

M. Michael Maloney, American University. Research on use of visual evidence 
in the study of man focusing on development of ethnographic film, with E. 
Richard Sorenson, National Anthropological Film Center. 

Bonnie Poswall, California State University, Sacramento. Research in paleo- 
epidemiology, with Donald J. Ortner, Department of Anthropology. 

Joseph W. Price, Howard University. Supported by a grant from the William 
Randolph Hearst Foundation. Study of the chemical composition of dental 
enamel, with Lucile St. Hoyme, Department of Anthropology. 

Elaine Richman, University of Maryland School of Medicine. Study of the 
histological structure of bone in three prehistoric populations, With Donald 
J. Ortner, Department of Anthropology. 

Environmental Sciences 

Stephen Ralph, University of Washington. Study to describe behavioral 
parameters of a small local population of Turkey Vulture at Front Royal, 
Virginia, with Eugene S. Morton, National Zoological Park. 

Roger Zimmerman, University of Puerto Rico. Studies of the feeding ecology 
of Gammaridean Amphipods from Indian River sea grass beds in Florida, 
with David K. Young, Fort Pierce Bureau. 

Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

David Bohaska, Texas Technical University. Study of fossil cetaceans, par- 
ticularly Zarhachis, with Frank C. Whitmore, Jr., Department of Paleobiology. 

Victor E. Diersing, University of Illinois. Systematic revision of the species 
Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen) of North and South America, with Charles O. 
Handley, Jr., Department of Vertebrate Zoology. 

Exequiel Gonzalez Balbontin, Universidad Catolica de Chile. Study of amphi- 
poda taxonomy, with Thomas E. Bowman, Department of Invertebrate 

Robin Lighty, Duke University. Studies in carbonate sedimentology, in par- 
ticular, the depositional diagenetic history of a drowned Holocene reef in 
southeast Florida, with Ian G. Maclntyre, Department of Paleobiology. 

James F. McKinney, Old Dominion University. Study of systematics and 
taxonomy of the goboid fish genus Callogobius, with Ernest A. Lachner, 
Department of Vertebrate Zoology. 

Larry D. McKinney, Texas A & M University. Distribution of benthic amphi- 
pods in the Yucatan area of the Gulf of Mexico, with J. L. Barnard, Depart- 
ment of Invetebrate Zoology. 

Joaquin Bueno Soria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Study of 
the systematics of the caddis flies (Trichoptera), with Oliver S. Flint, Jr., 
Department of Entomology. 

Sara P. Stubblefield, Cornell University. Study of Devonian lycopods, with 
Francis M. Hueber, Department of Paleobiology. 

Cathy Tate, Virginia Commonwealth University. Study of variations among 
short-tailed shrews in central Virginia, with Charles O. Handley, Department 
of Vertebrate Zoology. 

Robert E. Weems, George Washington University. Preparation of Triassic 
skeletal material of a new type of reptile and research on its relationship with 

Appendix 7. Academic Appointments I 417 

other described materials, with Nicholas Hotton III, Department of Paleo- 

Program in the History of Art 

Philip Brookman, University of California, Santa Cruz. Studies in exhibit 
design and installation, with Joseph M. Shannon, Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden. 

Barbara R. Butts, Rutgers College. Research for upcoming exhibitions, with 
Cynthia J. McCabe, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

H. Nicholas Clark, University of Delaware. Studies of the permanent collec- 
tions at the Hirshhorn Museum, with Inez Garson, Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden. 

Joyce K. Guiliani, Georgetown University. Study of the operation of the regis- 
trar's department of a major museum, with Patricia H. Chieffo, National 
Collection of Fine Arts. 

Nancy Idaka, Hunter College. Research in the Department of Painting and 
Sculpture, with Judith K. Zilczer, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

Catherine A. Kaputa, Harvard University. Research on late Momoyama and 
early Edo period painting in Japan, with Harold P. Stern, Freer Gallery of Art. 

Michael G. Lawrence, Case Western Reserve University. Preparing labels, 
handcuts, telesonic tapes, etc., for future exhibitions, with Mary Ann Tighe, 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

William Lynn, Georgetown University. Research and study in the silk screen 
lab, with Val E. Lewton, National Collection of Fine Arts. 

Ted L. Pearson, The Maryland Institute College of Art. Study and research of 
design and installation, with Mary Ann Tighe and Hal M. Pauley, Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

Richard Powell, Howard University. Study of Afro-American printmakers, 
with Janet A. Flint, National Collection of Fine Arts. 

Nancy R. Shields, Rutgers University. Study of museum educational programs, 
with Mary Ann Tighe, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

Maria D. Suarez, Harvard University. Study of museum educational programs, 
with Mary Ann Tighe, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

Pam Theodoredis, University of Delaware. Research and exhibition of art work 
of the mentally and physically handicapped, with Patricia H. Chieffo, National 
Collection of Fine Arts. 

Aimee B. Troyen, Yale University. Preparation of supplement to Inaugural 
Catalogue and research on paintings, with Inez Garson, Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden. 

Susan P. Wertheimer, Johns Hopkins University. Research on photographic 
material for the Bicentennial Exhibition at the Hirshhorn, with Mary Ann 
Tighe, and Cynthia J. McCabe, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

Program in the History of Science and Technology 

John Commander, University of Maryland. The influence of the atomism de- 
bate on the scientific community, 1894-1906, with Paul A. Hanle, Department 
of Science and Technology. 

418 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Steven J. Dick, Indiana University. Research in the history of astronomy 
through the study of instruments, with Deborah J. Warner, Department of 
Science and Technology. 

Kathryn M. Igoe, George Washington University. Preparation and production 
of a large scale exhibition, with Paul A. Hanle, Department of Science and 

Ormond Loomis, Indiana University. Comparative study of concepts in living 
historical farms and folk museums, with John T. Schlebecker, Department of 
Science and Technology. 

Program in Tropical Biology 

Ruth Chadab, University of Connecticut. Study of Army Ant raiding behavior, 
with Michael H. Robinson, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 

Art Museum Fellows — National Collection of Fine Arts 

Celia Betsky, Yale University. Cataloguing and research on twentieth-century 
American painting, with Karen M. Adams, National Collection of Fine Arts. 

Ildiko De Angelis, S.U.N.Y., Binghampton. Studies in educational and esthetic 
presentation of art objects, with Patricia H. Chieffo, National Collection of 
Fine Arts. 

Stephanie Newman, University of Virginia. Work in silk-screen shop and 
Discover Graphics workshop, with Patricia H. Chieffo, National Collection of 
Fine Arts. 

Neil Printz, University of Michigan. Studies in educational and esthetic pre- 
sentation of art objects, with Patricia H. Chieffo, National Collection of Fine 

National Endowment for the Humanities-National 
Portrait Gallery Interns 

Anita E. Jones, Wake Forest University. Studies in the use of material objects 
as historical documents, with Beverly J. Cox, National Portrait Gallery. 

Martha Sandweiss, Harvard University. Studies in the use of material objects 
as historical documents, with Beverly J. Cox, National Portrait Gallery. 

National Zoological Park Research Students 

Penn Richard Chu, University of Maryland. Work on the social behavior of 
giant pandas, with Devra G. Kleiman, Office of Zoological Research. 

Todd McL. Davis, George Washington University. Research on agonistic be- 
havior in degus, with Devra G. Kleiman, Office of Zoological Research. 

A. Lang Elliott, University of Maryland. Research on the eastern chipmunk, 
with John F. Eisenberg, Office of Zoological Research. 

Susan Farabaugh, University of Maryland. Investigations into the vocal de- 
velopment in Panamanian wrens, with Eugene S. Morton, Office of Zoological 

Rebecca Field, Johns Hopkins University. Analysis of wolf vocalizations, with 
John F. Eisenberg, Office of Zoological Research. 

Appendix 7. Academic Appointments I 419 

David Kessler, University of Maryland. Work in the ontgeny of lesser pandas, 
with Devra G. Kleiman, Office of Zoological Research. 

Christine Shonewald, University of Maryland. Investigations of the courtship 
behavior of acouchis, with John F. Eisenberg, Office of Zoological Research. 

Susan C. Wilson, Open University, London. Work in the ontogeny and play 
behavior in four rodent species, with Devra G. Kleiman, Office of Zoological 


Philip K. Ensley, D.V.M., Tuskegee Institute. Specialized training in exotic 
animal medicine, with Clinton W. Gray, National Zoological Park, from 
June 1, 1975, through September 30, 1976. 

Paula E. Rabkin, M.A., Yale University. Advanced training in archival and 
editorial skills, with William C. Sturtevant, Center for the Study of Man, 
from August 17, 1975, through August 16, 1976. 


Miriam Arond, University of Pennsylvania. Studies with the Public Informa- 
tion section of the Festival of American Folklife, with Susanne B. Roschwalb, 
Division of Performing Arts. 

Margaret Baird, University of Massachusetts. Study of hand production of 
cloth in eighteenth-/nineteenth-century America, with Rita J. Adrosko, 
Division of Textiles. 

Pamela Brackenbury, California State Polytechnic University. Preparation of 
Archives finding aid, with William A. Deiss, Smithsonian Archives. 

Michael Brazley, Howard University. Supported by a grant from the William 
Randolph Hearst Foundation. Research assistant in Architectural History 
project, with Cynthia A. Field, Smithsonian Fellow, Architectural History 

Michael D. Cabell, Virginia State College. Supported by a grant from the 
William Randolph Hearst Foundation. Studies in the management of geo- 
logical collections, with Frederick J. Collier, Department of Paleobiology. 

Christina K. Chambers, University of Connecticut. Basic museological studies 
in paleobiology, with Frederick J. Collier, Department of Paleobiology. 

Nancy S. Costales, Scripps College. Studies in concert and festival production, 
with B. C. May, Division of Performing Arts. 

Arthur L. Cramp, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse. Research for the book 
Losf Washington, with James M. Goode, Curator, Smithsonian Institution 

Christie Dailey, Michigan State University. Study on museum methodology 
emphasizing registration techniques, with Donald E. Kloster, Department of 
National and Military History. 

Carol M. Daye, Howard University. Supported by a grant from the William 
Randolph Hearst Foundation. Analyzing, organizing, and editing unpublished 
documents, with Nathan Reingold, Editor, Joseph Henry Papers. 

Sharon Eubanks, Mississippi State University. Supported by a grant from the 
William Randolph Hearst Foundation. Preparation of a bibliography for living 

420 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

historical farms and for agricultural museums, with John T. Schlebecker, 
Department of Industries. 

Gretchen Geiger, Marymount College. Studies in display designs for the 
Public Information section of the Festival of American Folklife, with Susanne 
B. Roschwalb, Division of Performing Arts. 

Celia Goldman, University of Pennsylvania. Analyzing and studying historical 
documents, with Nathan Reingold, Editor, Joseph Henry Papers. 

Mark Goodwin, University of Massachusetts. Studies in the management of 
vertebrate collections, with Frederick J. Collier, Department of Paleobiology. 

Mollie Higbie, University of California, Santa Cruz. Studies in information 
techniques at the Festival of American Folklife, with Susanne B. Roschwalb, 
Division of Performing Arts. 

Margaret Holub, University of California,' Santa Cruz. Studies in the demon- 
stration of traditional crafts with the children's area of the Festival of 
American Folklife, with Barbara S. Melnicove, Division of Performing Arts. 

John Hopkins, Skidmore College. Research of demolished buildings in Wash- 
ington, D.C., with James M. Goode, Curator, Smithsonian Institution Building. 

Margaret H. Kavalaris, University of California, Berkeley. Analyzing, organiz- 
ing, and editing historical documents, with Nathan Reingold, Editor, Joseph 
Henry Papers. 

Janet Kennelly, University of Maryland. Research of demolished buildings in 
Washington, D.C., with James M. Goode, Curator, Smithsonian Institution 

Kathryn Kuranda, Dickinson College. Research for the Old Ways in the New 
World section of the Festival of American Folklife, with Susan J. Kalcik, 
Division of Performing Arts. 

David Lucas, Carnegie-Mellon University. Supported by a grant from the 
William Randolph Hearst Foundation. Organizational research projects for 
high school students and graphic design work, with Teresa C. Grana, National 
Collection of Fine Arts. 

Rita C. Lynch, Pitzer College. Analyzing and studying historical documents, 
with Nathan Reingold, Editor, Joseph Henry Papers. 

Linda Mason, Cornell University. Studies in photographic documentation of 
the Festival of American Folklife, with Susanne B. Roschwalb, Division of 
Performing Arts. 

John C. Miller, American University. Research of demolished buildings in 
Washington, D.C., with James M. Goode, Curator, Smithsonian Institution 

Carl Moore, University of California, Santa Cruz. Work with African Diaspora 
at the Festival of American Folklife, with Bernice J. Reagon, Division of 
Performing Arts. 

Kimberley Ann Parmele, University of California, Berkeley. Studies with the 
diplomatic coordinator at the Festival of American Folklife, with Manuel J. 
Melendez, Division of Performing Arts. 

Michelle M. Schultz, Kirkland College. Collecting and processing material 
from ex-Peace Corps volunteers, with James R. Glenn, National Anthropologi- 
cal Archives. 

Nancy Sherwood, St. Mary's College of Maryland. Studies in the classification 
of fossils, with Frederick J. Collier, Department of Paleobiology. 

Appendix 7. Academic Appointments I All 

Carol Slatkin, Brooklyn College Graduate School of Radio and Television. 
Studies in liason techniques for the Festival of American Folklife, with 
Susanne B. Roschwalb, Division of Performing Arts. 

Margaret Tribe, American University. Preparation of Family Folklore materials 
for the Festival of American Folklife, with Steven J. Zeitlin, Division of 
Performing Arts. 

Mary P. Trifone, University of Massachusetts. General studies in physical 
anthropology, with Lucile St. Hoyme, Department of Anthropology. 

Sandra Turkowitz, Skidmore College. Restoration and installation of exhibits 
for the 1876 Centennial Exhibition, with Deborah J. Warner, Department of 
Science and Technology. 

Dale Walker, Denison University. Study of general laboratory techniques in 
the care and accessioning of human skeletal material, with J. Lawrence Angel, 
Department of Anthropology. 

Judy White, University of Pennsylvania. Studies in liason techniques for the 
Festival of American Folklife, with Susanne B. Roschwalb, Division of Per- 
forming Arts. 

Leslie Winn, American University. Analyzing, organizing, and editing histori- 
cal documents, with Nathan Reingold, Editor, Joseph Henry Papers. 

Rebecca Zurier, Harvard University. Studies in architectural history of the 
Arts and Industries Building, with Cynthia A. Field, Smithsonian Fellow, 
Architectural History Project. 


Thomas Andres, Bennington College. Successful Analysis of Forest Tree 
Populations, Dr. David Correll. 

Rose Lee Armstrong, University of Pittsburgh. Primary Productivity in Grass- 
land Communities, Dr. John Falk. 

David Burns, University of Virginia. Leaf Litter Production in Forest Com- 
munities, Dr. David Correll. 

Bonnie Fauth, Utah State University. Outdoor Environmental Education Cur- 
riculum Development, Dr. John Falk. 

Eve S. Hiatt, University of Texas at Austin. Structure and Function of Com- 
munities of Terrestrial Vertebrates and Arthropods. 

Clifton Houghton, Gettysburg College. Land Use History in the Rhode River 
Watershed, Ms. Amy Hiatt. 

Anne C. Jackson, Cook College, Rutgers University. Estuarine Microbiology, 
Dr. Maria Faust. 

Julie Ann Kinney, University of Texas at Austin. Estuarine Microbiology, Dr. 
Maria Faust. 

Virginia Kirby, University of Arizona. Behavioral Ecology of Foraging Birds, 
Dr. James Lynch. 

Beth Meister, Cook College. Compendium of Edible Lawn Plants, Dr. John 

Sara Nielsen, University of Michigan. The Federal Role in Non-Point Source 
Pollution Control, Dr. Kevin Sullivan. 

422 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Marc C. Percy, Stanford University. Alternative Strategies for the Preserva- 
tion of Agricultural Land, Dr. Kevin Sullivan. 

Kimberly Jean Perry, Vassar College. Fecal Contamination of Soil in a Culti- 
vated Watershed, Dr. Maria Faust. 

Thomas Powers, Anne Arundel Community College. Productivity of Lawn 
Grasses in a Man-Altered Environment, Dr. John Falk. 

Donald A. Shute, University of Illinois. Leaf Litter Production in Forest 
Communities, Dr. David Correll. 

Jennifer G. Smith, University of North Carolina. Primary Productivity of 
Man-Altered Grassland Sites. 

Ruth Aronson, Cornell University; Jane Creuss, University of California; 
Thane Maynard, Rollins College; Nancy Seibel, University of Wisconsin- 
Program Leaders, Summer Ecology Program. 


The Edward John Noble Foundation 

Tania Beliz, Universidad de Panama 

Stephen Buchmann, University of California 

Karen Clary, Texas A&M University 

Edward Connor, Florida State University 

John Dean, University College of North Wales 

Beverly Dugan, University of Tennessee 

Harry Greene, University of Tennessee 

Alan Jaslow, University of Michigan 

Lawrence Kirkendall, University of Michigan 

Suzane Koptur, University of Michigan 

Katherine Lee and Thomas Verhoeven, Oregon State University 

Susan Libonati-Barnes, University of Washington 

Marcia Little, Cornell University 

Katharine Milton, New York University 

Jaiber Monjarrez, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia 

Ana Montalvan 

Elpidio Pineda, Universidad de Panama 

Mary E. Power, University of Washington 

Gregg Redmann, Harvard University 

James Russell, University of North Carolina 

Lynn Siri, University of California 

Kim Steiner, University of California 

Frances Stier, University of Arizona 

Fritz Vollrath, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat, Germany 

Norris Williams, Florida State University 

EXXON Corporation 

Franklin Batista, Universidad de Panama 

Carmen Chang, Universidad de Panama 

Fernando Chang, Universidad de Panama 

Fernando Crastz, Universidad de Panama 

Stella Guerrero, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia 

Amalia Herrera, Universidad de Panama 

Appendix 7. Academic Appointments I 423 

Jaime Hun, Universidad de Panama 

Rudolfo Mendoza, Universidad de Panama 

Magaly Ojeda, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas 

Richard Peralta, Universidad de Panama 

Patricio Sanchez, Universidad Catolica de Chile 

Rene Torres, Universidad de Panama 

Doris Vergara, Universidad de Panama 

Gloria B. de Yee, Universidad de Panama 

Henry B. and Grace Doherty Foundation 

Bonnie Jean Davis, San Francisco State University 

Rita Denny, University of Pennsylvania 

Chantal De Ridder, Universite Libre de Bruxelles 

Douglas Diener, Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Joseph Dudley, University of Chicago 

Gail Irvine, University of Washington 

Pablo Jourdan, College of the Virgin Islands 

Howard Lasker, University of Chicago 

Henry Lee, University of North Carolina 

Susan Oldfield, Queen Mary College, University of London 

Allison Richard Palmer, University of Washington 

Richard Yeaton, University of Pennsylvania 

424 / Smithsonian Year 1976 


Smithsonian Associates Membership, 
July 1, 1975, through September 30, 1976 


FOUNDER MEMBERS ($1,000 and above) 

Mr. Henry C. Beck, Jr. 

Mr. Robert P. Caldwell 

Mr. Alfred C. Glassell 

The Honorable George C. McGhee 

The Honorable Frederick W. Richmond 

Mr. Arthur A. Seeligson 

SUSTAINING MEMBERS ($500 and above) 

Mr. William S. Anderson 
Mrs. Anna Bing Arnold 
Mr. George Arrowsmith 
Mr. Keith S. Brown 

The Honorable and Mrs. John 

W. Hechinger 
Mr. and Mrs. Mandell J. Ourisman 
Ms. Deborah Perry 

DONOR MEMBERS ($100 and up) 

Mrs. Howard Ahmanson 

Mr. Ivan Allen, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. David R. Anderson 

Mr. and Mrs. E. B. Anderson 

Mr. and Mrs. Emmet D. Anderson 

Mr. Joseph R. Anderson 

Mr. Myron Anderson 

Mr. John D. Archbold 

Mr. John E. Baker 

Mr. and Mrs. John Bartlett 

Mr. and Mrs. John H. Bernard 

Mr. and Mrs. Seymour Bernett 

Mr. and Mrs. Steven Bershader 

Mr. Richard Lee Birchler 

Mr. H. Harold Bishop 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert O. Blake 

Mr. and Mrs. J. B. Bogan 

Ms. Joan V. Bonk 

Mr. Maxwell Brace 

Mr. Glenn M. Branch 

Mr. J. Bruce Bredin 

Mr. and Mrs. Brent Breedin 

Mr. and Mrs. Larry Buettner 

Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Buhler 

Mr. and Mrs. I. Townsend Burden III 

The Honorable and Mrs. 
William A. M. Burden 
Mrs. Jackson Burke 
Mrs. Clara May Burns 
Mr. and Mrs. Harry W. Burns 
Dr. and Mrs. J. A. Burwell 
Mr. Marion B. Busch 
Mr. E. T. Byram 
Mr. Carlton E. Byrne 
Dr. and Mrs. Charles M. Cabaniss 
Mr. and Mrs. Carter Cafritz 
Mr. and Mrs. Leo A. Carten 
Mrs. Priscilla M. Christy 
Mr. Blake Clark 
Mr. and Mrs. Jerald L. Clark 
Colonel and Mrs. Russell C. Coile 
Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Corbet 
Mr. Stephen F. Crum 
Mr. and Mrs. David R. Dear 
Dr. and Mrs. Lewis H. Dennis 
General Jacob L. Devers 
Dr. and Mrs. Kevin P. Donohue 
Captain and Mrs. Robert F. Doss 
Mr. Alden Lowell Doud 
Dr. and Mrs. Joseph S. Drage 

Appendix 8. Smithsonian Associates I 425 

Mr. Wilson A. Draughon 

Mrs. Helen Jean Arthur Dunn 

Mr. George M. Elsey 

Mr. and Mrs. John G. Esswein 

Mr. and Mrs. James G. Evans, Jr. 

Mr. Robert W. Fleming 

Mr. David Fogelson 

The Honorable and Mrs. Edward 

Mr. Richard E. Ford 
Miss Helen E. Forshier 
Mrs. Rowland G. Freeman 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur H. Fribourg 
Mr. William C. Frogale 
Mr. and Mrs. Geoffrey S. Fuller 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. Gardner 
Mr. T. Jack Gary, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Roswell L. Gilpatric 
Mr. and Mrs. T. K. Glennan 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry H. Goldberg 
Colonel and Mrs. Julius Goldstein 
Mrs. Bette C. Graham 
Mrs. Katharine Graham 
Captain and Mrs. C. A. Grandjean 
Dr. Sheila H. Gray 
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth M. Grubb 
Mr. John F. Gunnell 
Mr. and Mrs. Ernest V. Hallberg, Jr. 
Mrs. E. P. Hand 
Mr. Gordon Hanes 
Ms. Morella R. Hansen 
Mr. Thomas Hays 
Mr. and Mrs. John Heard 
Mrs. Judith B. Heimach 
Ms. Alverne S. Hellenthal 
Dr. and Mrs. L. M. Hellman 
Mr. Jeffrey L. Hendry 
Mr. and Mrs. William B. Hewitt 
Mr. Robert A. Hicks 
Dr. J. D. Hills 
Commander and Mrs. Robert M. 

Mr. and Mrs. L. Hoffman 
Dr. and Mrs. John B. Holden 
Mr. Arthur A. Houghton, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. William R. Hunter 
Mr. Claude D. Hurd 
Mr. F. I. Hutchins 
Mrs. S. T. Inglish 
Dr. Glenn James 
Mr. David B. Jenkins 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas E. Jenks 
Colonel and Mrs. F. M. Johnson, Jr. 
Mr. Daniel C. Kaye 
Mr. Harris L. Kempner 

Mr. Walter H. Kidd 

Mr. Charles T. Kindsvatter 

Mr. John S. Kingdon 

Mr. and Mrs. J. K. Knee 

Mr. Lawrence E. Korwin 

Mr. and Mrs. A. Scheffer Lang 

Mr. and Mrs. Anthony A. Lapham 

Dr. and Mrs. K. C. Latven 

Mrs. George Lear 

The Honorable and Mrs. Edward H. 

Mr. George E. Lien 
Mr. Harold Linder 
Mr. Benjamin H. Long 
Mrs. John E. Long 
Ms. Genevieve Lukawiecki 
Mr. Frank R. Lyons, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Anthony J. 

Mrs. J. Noel Macy 
The Honorable and Mrs. Leonard H. 

Mr. and Mrs. Larry B. Marton 
Mr. Michael E. Mazer 
Mr. Donald L. McCathran 
Mr. and Mrs. Lacy McClain 
Dr. and Mrs. John J. McGrath 
Mr. Harold E. Mertz 
Mr. and Mrs. Alfred A. Michaud 
Miss Elizabeth Milbank 
Mr. and Mrs. E. Kirkbride Miller 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Edward Moore 
Mr. and Mrs. Carl J. Mulert 
Mr. and Mrs. James H. Muncy 
Mr. John F. Murphy 
Mr. C. Edward Murray, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Bruce Nelson 
Dr. and Mrs. Dwight Newman 
Mr. Thomas S. Nichols 
Mrs. John Nuveen 
Mr. Robert O'Brien 
Mr. and Mrs. Howard F. O'Neil 
Mr. and Mrs. Guyon P. Pancer 
Mr. Steven A. Pate 
Miss Ruth Uppercu Paul 
Mr. Louis Peller 
Mr. James P. Perry- 
Mr. Jack Peterson 
Mr. and Mrs. Donald A. Petrie 
Mrs. Charles E. Phillips 
Ms. Rae H. Pickrel 
Mr. and Mrs. Dwight J. Porter 
Mr. and Mrs. William M. Porter 
Mr. and Mrs. A. M. Prado 
Dr. and Mrs. Jerold Principato 

426 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Mrs. Dow Puckett 

Mr. Cyrus J. Quinn 

Dr. and Mrs. Ernest G. Rafey 

Mr. and Mrs. Michael M. Rea 

Mr. and Mrs. Eugene L. Reagan 

Dr. Michael J. Reilly 

Mr. Don Rhodes 

Mr. John M. Rhodes 

Mr. James H. Ripley 

Mrs. David Roberts III 

Mr. Walter P. Robinson, Jr. 

Mr. William R. Salomon 

Mr. Michael F. Sawyer 

Mr. and Mrs. Morton Schomer 

Mr. and Mrs. Frederick P. Shubert 

Mr. Lloyd E. Schuster 

Ms. Marjorie H. Scribner 

Miss Carolynne Seeman 

Mr. James G. Shakman 

Mr. Donald W. Shaw 

Mr. Peter L. Sheldon 

Mr. and Mrs. George Sherman 

Mr. M. D. Shewmaker 

Mr. and Mrs. Jack Silberman 

Mrs. James Sinkler 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Sivard 

Mr. Sanford Slavin 

Mr. and Mrs. Raymond L. Smart 

Mr. and Mrs. Dean Smith 

Ms. Shirley A. Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence P. Snipper 

Mr. Brian R. Somers 

Mr. Edward W. Spears 

Mr. and Mrs. Alvin Spriggs 

Dr. and Mrs. T. Dale Stewart 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas A. Sulkie 

Commander Edward J. Sullivan 

Dr. Philip B. Sullivan 

Mrs. Arthur H. Sulzberger 

Mrs. Martha Frick Symington 

Mr. John E. Toole 

Mr. and Mrs. David G. Townsend 

Mr. and Mrs. Stephen A. Trentman 

Mr. William C. Treuhaft 

Truland Foundation 

United Steelworkers of America 

Dr. Jeremy P. Waletzky 

Mrs. Barbara R. Walsh 

Mr. and Mrs. Ray Watkins 

Mr. Arnold Watson 

The Honorable and Mrs. James E. 

Mr. Fred Week 

Mr. and Mrs. William S. Weedon 
Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Westreich 
Mr. and Mrs. Peter White 
Mr. James L. Whitehead 
Mr. and Mrs. Donald E. Widmann 
Mrs. Vivian Wildman 
Mr. Julius Wile 
Mrs. David Wilstein 
Mrs. Mark Winkler 
Mr. and Mrs. Curtin Winsor 
Dr. and Mrs. Allan Y. Wolins 
Mr. and Mrs. Herman Wouk 
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel E. Zimmerman 


Mrs. Ann Duncan Adams 

Mr. and Mrs. John C. Ahlers 

Mr. Robert R. Aitken 

Mr. Jose P. I. Albanez 

Mr. W. W. Alexander 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley N. Allan 

Mr. and Mrs. James W. Allen 

Mr. Woodley A. Allen 

Mr. James G. Andrews 

Mr. Arthur C. Ansley 

Miss Rose C. Anthony 

Mr. and Mrs. M. B. Antrim 

Mr. and Mrs. John J. Arcuri 

Mr. and Mrs. Rudolph Arkin 

Mr. and Mrs. John W. Auchincloss 

Mrs. Evelyn A. Azarchi 

Mr. Michael H. Bailey 

Mr. and Mrs. John S. Bainbridge 

Miss Josephine Ballinger 

Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey Barnes 
Lieutenant General and Mrs. Earl W. 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul S. Bauer 
Mr. and Mrs. Martin E. Bayol 
Mr. Norman B. Belecki 
Mr. Thomas Bellinger 
Mr. and Mrs. James Bellows 
Dr. Jeffrey Berenberg 
Mr. L. Bergland 
Mrs. Thelma Berkley 
Mr. Samuel W. Bernheimer 
Dr. and Mrs. James F. Bing 
Ms. Jill S. Bixler 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Blackledge 
Mrs. Anthony F. Blanks 
Mr. Frank Bliss, Jr. 
Mr. Donn W. Block 
Mr. Robert F. Bodrogy 

Appendix 8. Smithsonian Associates I 427 

Mr. and Mrs. Mel H. Bolster 
The Honorable Frances P. Bolton 
The Honorable and Mrs. Philip W. 

Mr. Arthur S. Boraca 
Mr. Vincent B. Boris 
Mr. and Mrs. F. Borowsky 
Mr. John Henderson Boswell, Sr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul A. Bowles 
Mr. and Mrs. John Boyd 
Colonel and Mrs. John R. Boyd 
Dr. P. H. Boyer 
Ms. Eugenie Rowe Bradford 
Miss Evelyn W. Bradshaw 
Mr. Raymond A. Brady 
Dr. William L. Brannon, Jr. 
Dr. James C. Bray 
Mr. Edward T. Brooks 
Mr. and Mrs. Harold D. Brown 
Mr. J. James Brown 
Mr. and Mrs. Percival F. Brundage 
Mr. and Mrs. Frederick B. Bryant 
Mr. Jackson R. Bryer 
Mr. Donald J. Buckmann 
Mr. Edward P. Bullock 
Mr. and Mrs. James M. Burger 
Ms. Barbara Burklew 
Mr. Richard Scott Burow 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Calhoun 
Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Callahan 
Mr. and Mrs. B. Cameron, Jr. 
Mr. M. Cane 

Dr. Francis Caponegro, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Woolsey Carmalt 
Mr. Harvey Carmel 
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth S. Carpenter 
Mr. Philip L. Carret 
Mr. and Mrs. Douglas H. Carter 
Mr. and Mrs. Edmund L. Castillo 
Mr. and Mrs. James C. Castillo 
Mr. Sabastino J. Castro 
The Honorable and Mrs. Henry E. 

Catto, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Chackin 
Mr. and Mrs. James G. Chandler 
Mr. Joel Chaseman 
Ms. Gabrielle Choy 
Mrs. Harold W. Cheel 
Mr. K. Dexter Cheney 
Mr. Henry C. Christie 
Mr. and Mrs. Page B. Clagett 
Mr. Ludwig R. Claps 
Mr. Charles F. Cleland 
Dr. and Mrs. David G. Cogan 
Mr. Edward J. Cohen 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas F. Comick 

Mr. Robert M. Comly 

Mrs. Ethel Conlisk 

Mr. and Mrs. James R. Connell 

Mr. Leonardo Contardo 

Mr. and Mrs. A. George Cook 

Mr. William J. Cooper 

Mr. Thomas G. Corcoran, Jr. 

Mrs. Mildred S. Corrigan 

Ms. Patricia D. W. Counts 

Mr. and Mrs. Howard V. Covell 

Mrs. Logan O. Cowgill 

Miss Mary L. Cox 

Mr. and Mrs. Raymond Cox 

Mrs. W. C. Cox 

Ms. Patricia E. Coyle 

Mr. David M. Crabtree 

Mr. F. L. Cromwell 

Ms. Linda F. Crouse 

Mrs. Linda Cooper Crow 

Ms. Judith C. Croxton 

Mr. George A. Crump 

Mr. Carl R. Culbas 

Mr. and Mrs. William B. Culver 

Dr. and Mrs. W. T. Cunningham 

Mrs. Chester Dale 

Ms. Winifred B. Dana 

Captain and Mrs. R. L. Daniels 

Mr. and Mrs. C. N. Davis 

Mr. and Mrs. F. Elwood Davis 

Ms. Olivia Davis 

Mrs. Alva A. Dawson 

Mr. and Mrs. Guy L. De Furia 

Mr. Silvester De Thomasis 

Mr. Alan L. Dean 

Ms. Marie Debacker 

Ms. Cassandra H. Deck 

Major General and Mrs. Oren E. 

Ms. Elena Delacio 
Mr. and Mrs. Wayne Richard 

Captain and Mrs. Victor Delano 
Mr. Howard Dellon 
Mr. Vinel E. Dent 
Mr. Wallace DeWitt 
Miss Patricia Anne Dick 
Miss Mary C. Dillingham 
Mr. R. Samuel Dillon, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. John Dimick 
Mr. and Mrs. Allen T. Dittman 
Mr. George A. Doole 
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Dooley 
Mr. James A. Dorsch 
Mr. David M. Dorsen 

428 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth H. Drummond 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard Dubin 

Mr. and Mrs. Donald A. Duffy 

Mr. A. P. Dumas, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. H. Stewart Dunn, Jr. 

Lieutenant Colonel and Mrs. John J. 

Mr. Philip A. Dusault 
Ms. Elizabeth M. Earley 
Mr. and Mrs. John F. Early 
Dr. Anthony M. Eaton 
General and Mrs. Richard J. Eaton 
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore M. Edison 
Mr. Chester R. Edwards 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Eichholz 
Miss Lynette F. Eltinge 
Mr. Pleasanton H. Ennis 
Mrs. Lionel C. Epstein 
Mrs. Philip H. Erbes 
Miss Ann E. Erdman 
Mr. Timothy Evans 
Mr. Henry Eyl 
Mr. and Mrs. Irving Feist 
Colonel and Mrs. J. J. Felmley 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur R. Fillebrown 
Mr. I. Avrum Fingeret 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas D. Finney, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. S. Greenhoot Fischer 
Mr. and Mrs. Joel H. Fisher 
Mr. Kenneth P. Fisher 
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Fisher 
Dr. and Mrs. A. L. Fjordbotten 
Mr. Edwin F. Fleischman 
Mrs. Julius Fleischmann 
Mr. Harlan B. Forbes, Jr. 
Mr. Earl M. Foreman 
Mr. H. Jeff Fossett III 
Mr. John H. Foster 
Mr. Joel Burr Fowler II 
Mr. Mark Fox 

Mr. and Mrs. Raymond R. Fox 
Dr. and Mrs. Irwin J. Fredman 
Mr. Gordon Freedman 
Mr. C. 5. Gardner 
Mrs. Virginia B. Garvey 
Mr. Zachary Paul Geaneas 
Mr. Jack Lewis Geller 
Ms. Frances A. Giacobbe 
Dr. and Mrs. Roy S. Gillinson 
Mr. John M. Goehner 
Miss Elinor Goodspeed 
Mr. and Mrs. Willliam Goshorn 
Mr. G. Gowans 

Mr. and Mrs. Moses J. Gozonsky 
Ms. Betty R. Graham 

Mr. William F. Graney 

Mr. and Mrs. John Grattan 

Dr. and Mrs. Frank D. Gray, Jr. 

Mr. Thomas E. Greathouse 

Dr. and Mrs. Louis Greenberg 

Dr. and Mrs. James B. Gregory 

Mr. and Mrs. Donald B. Gridley 

Miss Jeanne Griest 

Dr. and Mrs. Lindsay I. Griffin III 

Mr. Sam Griffith 

Mrs. Hubert L. Grigault 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Groberg 

Dr. and Mrs. C. D. Groover 

Mr. John H. Groth 

Mr. Joseph Guilietti, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hans Gunzenhauser 

Mr. and Mrs. Alvin Guttag 

Mr. John L. Hafenrichter 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard H. Hagemeyer 

Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Halpern 

Miss Marion S. Halsey 

Mr. Courtney C. Hamilton 

Dr. and Mrs. William F. Hamilton, Jr. 

Miss Eileen M. Hardy 

Dr. James C. Harris 

Mr. and Mrs. Allen Harrison 

Mr. Peter M. Hart 

Mr. David T. Harvey, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. John Harwell, Jr. 

Mr. Philip H. Haselton 

Mr. Warren W. Hastings 

Mr. George A. Hatzes, Jr. 

Mr. Gerald Hawkins 

Ms. Mercedes Hearn 

Major Charles E. Heimach 

Mr. Ray Heiskell 

Mr. Ralph D. Helwig 

Ms. Mary Stanley Henderson 

Dr. Walter L. Henry 

Mrs. Nona G. Herndon 

Mr. Alan R. Hill 

Mr. Charles H. Himman 

Mr. William M. Hines 

Mrs. J. H. Ward Hinkson 

Mr. Joseph U. Hinshaw 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles J. Hitch 

Mr. Michael R. Hoffman 

Mr. E. Roberts Hofsas 

Mr. Roger E. Holtman 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph F. Horning, Jr. 

Mr. Arthur M. Horst 

Mr. Alfred Preston Howland 

Mr. and Mrs. James H. Hughes 

Mr. Nicholas D. P. Hughes 

Mr. John L. Hughes-Caley 

Appendix 8. Smithsonian Associates I 429 

Ms. Sally Hunter 

Mr. and Mrs. James D. Hurd 

Miss Ann Hyde 

Mr. and Mrs. James M. Idema 

Mrs. S. H. Ingersoll 

Mr. Harald W. Jacobson 

Mr. W. N. Jersin 

Mr. and Mrs. David D. Johnson 

Dr. Donald A. Johnson 

Mr. and Mrs. Irwin B. Johnson 

Mr. and Mrs. John B. Jones, Jr. 

Mr. Mitchell F. Jones, Jr. 

Mr. R. E. Jones, Jr. 

Lieutenant Colonel W. B. Jones 

Mr. and Mrs. Michael Joseph 

Mr. and Mrs. Albert H. Jung 

Mr. John M. Kalbermatten 

Mr. James B. Karickhoff 

Ms. Monna Y. Kauppinen 

Mr. and Mrs. C. M. Kaye 

Mr. E. J. Kazanowski 

Mr. and Mrs. Earl W. Keegan 

Mr. Thomas M. Keeling 

Mrs. George C. Keiser 

Mr. Robert C. Keller, Jr. 

Mr. Morrie Kellman 

Mr. Stephen D. Kelly 

Mr. and Mrs. William Kenety 

Mr. W. John Kenney 

Ms. Anna Marie Kent 

Mr. Andrew A. Kerhulas, Jr. 

Mr. William R. Kerivan 

Dr. Harold King 

Ms. Susan C. Kirkby 

Mr. Kenneth W. Klein 

Mr. Wily W. Knighten 

Mr. and Mrs. Allison J. Koberg 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert P. Kogod 

Mr. and Mrs. Michael J. Koliss 

Dr. and Mrs. M. C. Korengold 

Mr. and Mrs. Bogumil Kosciesza 

Mr. Robert Myles Koteen 

Mr. Michael Kraft 

Mr. Albert Kramer 

Mr. and Mrs. R. L. Kranker 

Lieutenant Colonel Barton Krawetz 

Mr. R. P. Kressley, Sr. 

Major and Mrs. A. N. Kropf 

Miss S. Victoria Krusiewski 

Mr. Stanley J. Kuliczkowski 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward Kwalwasser 

Mrs. Wesley M. Kyle, Jr. 

Mr. William P. La Plant, Jr. 

Mr. Albert J. Laflam 

Mr. Glenn G. Lamson, Jr. 

Mr. John Lanchak 

Mr. and Mrs. Felix J. Lapinski 

Mr. David Lasser 

Mr. Hugh Leroy Latham 

Mr. John T. Lawrence 

Ms. Ella Jean Layman 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard M. Lederer 

Mr. James A. Lee 

Colonel and Mrs. Jack L. Leggett 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley W. Legro 

Mrs. E. R. Leng 

Mr. Richard J. Leonard 

Dr. and Mrs. Carl M. Leventhal 

Mr. and Mrs. Ernest E. Lewis 

Mr. Morgan Lewis 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert G. Liebhardt 

Mr. Frank W. Lindenberger 

Dr. and Mrs. D. A. Lindquist 

Mrs. Jean C. Lindsey 

Miss Jane T. Lingo 

Mr. R. Robert Linowes 

Mr. and Mrs. Sol M. Linowitz 

Ms. Harriet K. Lloyd 

Dr. Kathleen E. Lloyd 

Dr. P. Loe 

Ms. Ursula G. Lohmann 

Mr. Paul C. Loizeaux 

Mr. and Mrs. Tom H. W. Loomis 

Mr. Durate A. Lopez 

Mr. Richard G. Loutsch 

Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Low 

Mr. William Lowenthal 

Mr. Harry Lunn 

Mrs. Audrey Luster 

Mr. J. Robert MacNaughton 

Mr. Rex A. Maddox 

Mrs. James T. Magee 

Captain Ronald L. Magee 

Mrs. Isabel C. Mahaffie 

Dr. Hunter E. Malloy 

Mr. Robert W. Mann 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mannes 

Mr. and Mrs. D. Manns 

Major and Mrs. George S. Mansfield 

Mr. John W. Margosian 

Mr. James M. Maroney 

Mr. Richard Heeman Marshall 

Mr. P. H. Mathews 

Ms. Karen Mathiasen 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert F. Maxwell 

Dr. and Mrs. Francis Mayle, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph S. Mazza 

Mr. Thomas L. McCamley 

Mr. Martin E. McCavitt 

Colonel Stephen McCormick 

430 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Mr. John P. McCullough 

Mr. Allan R. McDonald 

Mr. Charles Vincent McDonald 

Mr. and Mrs. James P. McDonald 

Mr. Thomas J. McDowell 

Mr. and Mrs. J. W. McEachren 

Mr. Robert C. McGhee 

Mr. Donn McGiehan 

Mr. and Mrs. Philip L. McHugh 

Dr. Richard J. Mcllroy 

Mr. James S. McKnight 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard R. McLauglin 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas M. McMurray 

Mr. J. Jerome McNally 

Dr. J. Malcolm McNeill 

Mr. and Mrs. Max B. McQueen 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard J. Medalie 

Dr. Barbara A. Mella 

Ms. Dorothy B. Melville 

Mrs. R. B. Menapace 

Mr. and Mrs. Louis W. Mendonsa 

Mr. and Mrs. Norman J. Merksamer 

Mrs. Ida C. Merriam 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold W. Merritt 

Mr. David Messent 

Mr. and Mrs. L. Meyer 

Dr. and Mrs. David B. Michaels 

Mr. and Mrs. Gordon K. Milestone 

Mr. and Mrs. G. R. Milford 

Mr. and Mrs. G. O. Miller 

Mr. L. Allen Miller 

Dr. M. H. Miller 

Mr. Warren G. Miller 

Ms. Justine Milliken 

Mr. Don W. Minium 

Dr. and Mrs. John Minna 

Dr. Raymond Mize, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul O. Mohn 

Colonel and Mrs. Kenneth L. Moll 

Mr. John Molleson 

Mr. and Mrs. George D. Monk 

Miss Mary Montoya 

Mrs. E. P. Moore 

Mr. Franklin C. Moore 

Mr. James Moore 

Mr. Leonard Moretz 

Dr. and Mrs. James I. Moulthrop 

Mr. Burnaby Munson 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph D. Murphy 

Mr. Patrick J. Murphy 

Mr. and Mrs. Edmund Murray 

Mr. Thomas W. Nawn 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Newby 

Mrs. F. C. Noble 

Mr. and Mrs. Giles R. Norrington 

Mr. and Mrs. Jack R. Norwood 

Mr. David P. Notley 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul T. O'Day 

Mrs. John B. Ogilvie 

Mr. Thomas O'Hare 

Mr. Cyprus Omidyar 

Mr. Brian O'Neill 

Mrs. Carolyn C. Onufrak 

Osceola Farms Co. 

Dr. and Mrs. John Ottina 

Mr. and Mrs. David J. R. Pales 

Commander Everett A. Parke 

Ms. Alice Mengel Parker 

Dr. David F. Paskausky 

Mr. and Mrs. Gerald Patrick 

Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey Patterson 

Colonel C. Michael Paul 

Mr. Harry A. Paynter 

Mr. Raymond Pearlstine 

Mrs. C. Wesley Peeble, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. William C. Penick 

Mr. George E. Perez 

Mr. Tucker W. Peterson 

Captain and Mrs. Charles Phillips 

Mrs. Frank S. Phillips 

Mr. Joseph B. Phillips 

Mr. James H. Pickford 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert D. Pierce 

Mr. Richard E. Pitts 

Mr. Dexter 5. Plumlee, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Leo Pompliano 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank T. Pope, Jr. 

Ms. Laura R. Potter 

Mr. Jean Poupeau 

Mrs. James A. Powell 

Mr. Douglas 5. Price 

Mr. William R. Probst 

Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey A. Prussin 

Miss Inez L. Pulver 

Dr. Regina A. Puryear 

Mr. and Mrs. E. Wallace Raabe 

Miss Ellen R. Ramsey 

Mr. and Mrs. A. R. Rankin 

Ms. Isabel M. Rea 

Mr. and Mrs. Jack Reams 

Mr. and Mrs. Seymour Reitman 

Mr. John Arthur Reynolds 

Mr. John P. Rhodes 

Mr. Joseph A. Rice 

Ms. Pat Ridge 

Mr. Donald W. Riester 

Mr. and Mrs. Eugene H. Rietzke 

Dr. Monira K. Rifaat 

Ms. Jane F. Roberts 

Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell B. Roberts 

Appendix 8. Smithsonian Associates I 431 

Mr. and Mrs. F. L. Robertson 

Mr. Hamilton Robinson 

Dr. and Mrs. S. David Rockoff 

Mr. William R. Rose III 

Mr. E. H. Rosenberg 

Mr. Leon I. Rosenbluth 

Mr. Robert J. Rovang 

Mr. and Mrs. Roy R. Russo 

Mrs. John Barry Ryan 

Mr. and Mrs. Hachemi Saada 

Dr. and Mrs. Abner Sachs 

Mrs. Marvin Sadur 

Dr. and Mrs. David L. Salmon, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Salzman 

Mr. R. R. Santarossa 

Mr. and Mrs. David Sapadin 

Mr. B. Francis Saul II 

Mr. and Mrs. Thorndike Saville 

Very Reverend and Mrs. Francis B. 

Sayre, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Sayers 
Mr. John K. Scales 

Lieutenant General George E. Schafer 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul J. Scheips 
Mr. Robert J. Schemel 
Dr. Basil A. Schiff 
Ms. Penelope L. Schleifer 
Mrs. Julian L. Schley 
Mr. Kenneth P. Schmidt 
Mr. and Mrs. Jacques J. Schoch 
Miss Greta Schuessler 
Mr. and Mrs. John H. Schwartz 
Major and Mrs. T. E. Schwartz 
Mr. C. W. Scott 
Dr. Wayne Scott 
Mr. William R. Scott 
Mr. and Mrs. Gene F. Seevers 
Mr. and Mrs. Seymour M. Selig 
Mr. Lee C. Seligman 
Mr. F. L. Selvig 
Mr. Dan E. Shackelford 
Dr. and Mrs. Gordon T. Shahin 
Mr. John F. Shaw 
Mr. John D. Shilling 
Ms. Donna H. Shor 
Mr. Arthur Siebel 
Mr. and Mrs. Alexander W. Sierck 
Mrs. Ellen Hanna Simmons 
Mrs. Charles Simon 
Mr. Kenward L. Sims 
Colonel and Mrs. C. Haskell Small 
Mr. Benjamin M. Smith, Jr. 
Mr. Hugh Stewart Smith 
Mr. and Mrs. Joe P. Smith 
Mrs. Myron B. Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. Larry Snodgrass 
Mr. and Mrs. Gerald Snyder 
Mr. and Mrs. Saul Snyder 
Mr. Robert W. Snyder II 
Dr. Marian A. Solomon 
Mr. Harold A. Soulis 
Dr. Daniel L. Stabile 
Mr. Richard W. Stafford 
Mr. Ronald A. Stanley 
Mr. Bruce E. Stauffer 
Mr. Stuart L. Stauss 
Colonel and Mrs. Harcourt M. 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Stephens 
Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey A. Stevens 
Dr. Serena Stier 
Mrs. Tegner M. Stokes 
Dr. and Mrs. K. A. Strand 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard L. Sugarman 
Mr. Charles A. Suter 
Mr. and Mrs. John R. Sutter 
Mrs. Mary Davidson Swift 
Mr. Gerald L. Swope 
Mr. Harry F. Swope III 
Mr. Curtis W. Tarr 
Miss Harriet J. Tatman 
Mr. Joseph M. Tessmer 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Tetro 
Mr. and Mrs. Brian Thompson 
Ms. Linda R. Thompson 
Mrs. B. W. Thoron 
Mr. and Mrs. Sylvan M. Tobin 
Mr. and Mrs. Grover M. P. Tolliver 
Mrs. Stirling Tomkins 
Mr. Henry R. Traubitz 
Mr. Thomas T. Traywick, Sr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Lynn A. Trobaugh 
Mr. and Mrs. A. Buel Trowbridge 
Mr. John H. Turner 
Mr. George E. Tuttle 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul E. Tychsen 
Ms. Judith Falk Unger 
Mr. Anthony S. Vaivada 
Dr. and Mrs. Philip Varner 
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore J. Vass 
Mr. John M. Veatch 
Mr. John M. Venditti 
Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Vest, Jr. 
Mr. Wallace W. Voigt 
Ms. A. E. Wall 
Mrs. Elizabeth D. Walsh 
Mrs. Harry Wanger 
Dr. and Mrs. Henry P. Ward 
Mr. Michael J. Ward 
Ms. Susan C. Watkins 

432 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Mrs. Mary M. Watson 

Colonel and Mrs. Louis V. Watwood 

Dr. Hamilton B. Webb 

Mr. and Mrs. Nathan Wechsler 

Mr. Norman Weiden 

Miss Ruth M. Weiland 

Mr. and Mrs. Gerald L. Werner 

Mr. and Mrs. William B. Wharton 

Mrs. Edwin M. Wheeler 

Mr. George Y. Wheeler 

Mr. and Mrs. Grover C. White, Jr. 

Mr. Ward P. Whitlock 

Mr. and Mrs. John E. Wickman 

Dr. Edwin Wildner 

Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Wiley 

Major General and Mrs H. L. 

Mrs. Richard E. Wilkie 
Mr. J. Harvey Wilkinson 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Willard 
Mr. and Mrs. Arnold Clarke Williams 
Mr. and Mrs. E. I. Williams 
Colonel E. J. Williams 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul J. Williams 

Mrs. William J. Williams, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. James A. Williamson, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Williamson 

Mr. and Mrs. John K. Willis 

Mr. and Mrs. Morton H. Wilmer 

Mr. and Mrs. Luke W. Wilson 

Mrs. Flora Jane Winton 

Mr. Gilbert A. Wolf 

Mrs. Saralyn V. Wolff 

Mr. David L. Wood 

Mr. Kenneth A. Wood 

Mr. and Mrs. George E. Woodin 

Mr. and Mrs. William Woodward 

Mr. and Mrs. William Work 

Mrs. Frank L. Wright 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard E. Wright 

Mr. Christopher B. Wry, Jr. 

Ms. Jane W. Wuchinch 

Mrs. Leslie H. Wyman 

Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth R. Youngert 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Zauner 

Mrs. John H. Zentay 

Dr. 5. S. Zungoli 

Appendix 8. Smithsonian Associates I 433 

APPENDIX 9. List of Donors to the Smithsonian Institution, 
July 1, 1975, through September 30, 1976 


Garber, Paul E. : bronze bust of James Smithson by Felix W. de Weldon. 

Donors to the Furnishings Collection 

Bartlett, Mrs. Bradford, Falls Church, Virginia: five Renaissance Revival chairs, 
table, mantle clock, Empire sofa, Morris chair, Rococo Revival sofa, plat- 
form rocker, dropleaf table, whatnot, gilded mirror. 

Bolin, Mrs. Luis, Washington, D.C.: dining table, eight Gothic Revival side 

Cabot, Ambassador and Mrs. John H., Washington, D.C.: Renaissance Revival 

Drysdale, Mrs. Robert M., Jr., and Mr. Lawrence Drake, Warrenton, Virginia: 
bronze card tray, six side chairs, two Savanarolla arm chairs, five Medieval 
Revival arm chairs and matching settee, pair marine paintings, carved 
chest, pair French vases, pair firescreens, tilt-top table, pair Neo-Greek 
pedestal stands. 

Furman, Mrs. Martha, Bethesda, Maryland: pair Anglo-Japanese urns, bronze 
mantle clock. 

Jones, Mr. H. McCoy, Bethesda, Maryland: pier mirror. 

Lee, Mrs. Dora Fugh, Bethesda, Maryland: pair watercolor paintings. 

Moody, Mrs. Ada C, Bethesda, Maryland: watercolor painting, Venetian 
mirror, two bookcases, dining table, pedestal stand. 

Patterson, Mrs. Jefferson, Washington, D.C.: crystal table lamp, hatrack, 
Bohemian glass vase, pair watercolor paintings. 

Smith, Mrs. Wilfred J., Alexandria, Virginia: Rococo Revival console table. 

Spear, Mr. and Mrs. Ralph E., Alexandria, Virginia: reed organ, piano stool. 

Templin, Roger P. (estate), Alton, Illinois: pedestal desk, mirror, three 
tables, commode, Oriental prayer carpet, pair side chairs. 



Donors of Financial Support 

Anonymous: support of film projects. 

The Canada Council: support of A Film Record of the Pashtoon People of 

434 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Cullinane, Nina: development of the National Anthropological Film Center. 
Evers, Henry, K. : development of the National Anthropological Film Center. 
The Marks Foundation, Inc.: development of the National Anthropological 

Film Center. 
Morgan, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas B.: support of film projects in both the South 

Pacific and related areas. 
National Endowment for the Arts: support of A Filmic Inquiry into the 

Artistic Lifestyle of the Western Caroline Islands of Micronesia. 
National Endowment for the Humanities : second-year support of a Film 

Center to serve as a research resource for humanistic scholarship; con- 
tinuing support of A Film Record of the Pashtoon People of Afghanistan. 
National Institute of Mental Health: preparation of a report on the patterns 

of child handling and rearing of the Canela Indians of Brazil. 
Rockefeller, Eileen McG.: support of projects of the National Anthropological 

Film Center. 
Rockefeller, Steven C. : support of film projects in the South Pacific and 

related areas. 
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Gerard C. : development of the National Anthropological 

Film Center. 
Stirling, Mrs. Marion: support of projects of the National Anthropological 

Film Center. 
Waletzky, Dr. & Mrs. Jeremy P.: support of film projects in the South Pacific 

and related areas. 

Donors and Collaborative Acquisitions 

Balikci, Dr. Asen, University of Montreal: Film, Pashtoon Nomads of Afghanis- 
tan, 94,800 ft. Supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities, 
the Canada Council, and WGBH Public Broadcasting. 

Breidenbach, George, Chatsworth, New Jersey: Film, Study of Polynesian Child 
Behavior in the Cook Islands, 8,500 feet. Supported by the National Geo- 
graphic Society. 

Breidenbach, Martha, University of Illinois at Chicago Circle: Film, Friday 
Healing Ritual of the Church of the Twelve Apostles, Ghana, 2,000 feet. 

Crocker, Dr. William H., National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Institution: Film, Study of Child Behavior and Human Development among 
the Canela Indians of Brazil, 84,000 ft. Supported by the National Endow- 
ment for the Humanities. 

Lowman, Cherry, Columbia University: 5,500 35mm b&w photographs of 
behavioral sequences of the Maring people of the Simbai and Jimi Valleys, 
Papua New Guinea, with related field notes and health survey data. Sup- 
ported by the National Science Foundation. 

Merriman, Paul H., Madison, Wisconsin: 16,000 feet of film documentation 
from the travels of Milton E. Merriman from the 1920's through the 1950's. 

Muller, Dr. Kalman, Guadalajara, Mexico; George S. Breidenbach, Chatsworth, 
New Jersey; and Karl Kernberger, Santa Fe, New Mexico: Film, Traditional 
Polynesian Dances of the Cook Islands, 21,050 ft. Supported by the 
National Geographic Society. 

Smith, Hubert L., University of California at Los Angeles: Film Studies of 
American Family Life, 16,700 ft. Supported by the American Film Institute 
and the Institute for the Study of Human Issues. 

Staal, Dr. J. Frits, University of California at Berkeley, and Robert J. Gard- 
ner, Harvard University: Research Film Documentation of the Agnicayana 
Vedic Ritual in India, 28,000 ft. Supported by the Smithsonian Foreign 
Currency Program and the National Endowment for the Humanities. 

Appendix 9. Donors to the Smithsonian Institution I 435 

Williams, Scott, Bellevue Community College, Bellevue, Washington: A Film 
Study of the Western Caroline Islands of Micronesia, 29,000 ft. Supported 
by the National Endowment for the Humanities. 

Wirz, Dadi, Rice University, Houston, Texas: 12,488 feet of 35mm film shot by 
Paul Wirz between 1918 and 1930 in New Guinea, Bali, Sumatra, and Borneo. 

Donors of Financial Support 

Communications Satellite Corporation: for COMSAT Unit in exhibit gallery, 

"Benefits from Flight." 
Federal Republic of Germany: for a Zeiss MK V Planetarium and automation 

for the Planetarium. 
Summa Corporation: for Museum activities. 
TRW Foundation: an exhibit unit depicting the contributions to aeronautics 

made by General James Doolittle. 

Donors to the Collections 

Alcorn, John: Laird Super Solution model. 

Barnaby, Ralph S. (USN Ret.) : "Leonardo" Trophy from First International 
Paper Model Airplane Contest. 

Bell Helicopters: Helicopter models. 

Brant, Richard: Granville Brothers Gee-Bee model Z. 

Chennault, Anna: Flying Tigers memorabilia. 

Communications Satellite Corp.: $32,000 for six video monitors to show 
transmissions carried by INTELSAT Global Communications Satellite 
System and COMSAT System Maps. 

Containair: Three corrugated cardboard air freight containers. 

Crossfield, A. Scott: Logbook from D-558-II. 

Delta Airlines: Bank of three DC-8 passenger seats. 

Emery Air Freight: Large air freight container. 

Ficklen, John D. : — Deperdussin Racer 1913 model. 

Garrett Corp.: Garrett TPE 331 Turboprop. 

Gates, J. C. : German aircraft instruments. 

Gates-Learjet Corp.: Learjet nose section. 

General Electric: G. E. CF-6 high bypass turbofan model engine. 

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.: Model of Goodyear Blimp, 1:32 scale. 

Grumman Aerospace Corp.: Fire pumper prototype. 

Grumman Aerospace Corp. : Grumman A6-E model. 

Howell, Emily: First female airline pilot's uniform. 

Hughes Aircraft Co.: DC-10 Demultiplexer/Encoder and two Probeyes. 

Hughes Helicopters, Div. of Summa Corp.: Hughes Hercules H-4 and Dou- 
glas DC-3 models. 

Jacoby, Clarence C, Model Builders, Inc. : Macchi M-7 model. 

Jensen, Philip: Wedell-Williams 1934 Racer model. 

Johnson, Cdr. R. A., Director, U.S. Naval Pilot Test School, Naval Air Test 
Center: Test pilot school textbooks. 

Kato, Tatsusaburo: Japanese kites. 

Kelly, John: Stearman Cropduster model. 

Kill, Syl: Caudron C-460 model. 

Lee, George: Verville-Sperry R-3 model. 

Lockheed Aircraft Corp.: Lockheed CL-475 Helicopter. 

Lockheed Georgia Co.: "Super Hercules" L-100-30 model. 

Lopez, Donald S.: U.S. Air Force memorabilia. 

436 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Lyons, J. Michael: Junkers Ju-87B model. 

McDonald Douglas Corp.: Models of DC-20 and DC-3, 1:25 scale. 

Mikesh, Robert C. : B-24 Astrodome bubble. 

Mitchell, Dr. Frank: Granville Brothers Gee-Bee R-l model. 

Motorola, Inc.: Coronary Observation Radio (COR) System. 

NASA, Ames: SST, X-B-70, M-l and M2F2 lifting bodies, and three shuttle 

wind tunnel models. 
NASA, Edwards: Lockheed F104A Starfighter. 
NASA, Johnson: Telecare Emergency Medical System. 

NASA, Langley: Spin tunnel models and D-558-II and X-2 wind tunnel models. 
NASA, General Electric, and National Geographic: 10' X 16' Landsat Mosaic 

transparency of 48 contiguous United States. 
National Weather Service and The Boeing Co.: APT antenna, pedestal, and 

recording equipment; transportation of antenna provided by The Boeing Co. 
Naval Aviation Museum: Pratt & Whitney Wasp Jr. R-985 engine. 
Nolte, Richard: Japanese Army Air Force World War II uniform. 
Pacesetter Systems, Inc. : Two heart pacemakers. 
Pan American Airlines: PanAm shipping container. 
Peterson, George A.: German Air Force uniform. 
Poynter, Robert: Messerschmitt Bf. HOC model. 
Quincy Shipbuilding Div., General Dynamics : Model LNG tanker. 
Rohr Industries, Inc.: Metro car model. 

San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District: Two maps of BART System. 
Schmitt, John: World War II aircraft armament cartridges. 
Sierra Engineering Co. : Collection of oxygen masks and helmets. 
Sikorsky/United Technologies: Sikorsky S-64 Skycrane and S-61N helicopter 

models; Helicopter Familiarization Training Unit. 
Spenser, Jay P.: World War II goggles. 
Summa Corp.: Hughes H-l Racer, wood chip section of wing structure, and 

historical pictures of H-l. 
Sweeting, C. G.: World War II insignia. 
Sweeting, Thomas G.: Aviator's badge. 
Swiss Museum of Transport & Communication: Swissair Orion and Clark 

Tracy, Daniel: Packard Verville, Curtiss R3C-1, and Howard DGA "Mr. Mulli- 
gan" models. 
Trans World Airlines : Northrop Alpha. 
United Technologies: FT3 model, x k scale; Pratt & Whitney JT9D Fanjet and 

Pratt & Whitney PT6T-6 Twin Pac engines. 
Universal Studios: Hindenburg miscellany from movie, including gondola 

and model. 
U.S. Air Force Nurse Corps: USAAF and USAF Nurses Corps uniforms. 
U.S. Women's Air Force (former members through Mrs. Joseph Haydu) : 

WAF memorabilia. 
Van de Wege, J. D. : General Electric CJ805 Aft Fanjet engine. 
Wheeler, Robert: Junkers Ju-88A model. 
Wurlitzer: Contemporary jukebox. 

Donors of Financial Support 

American Ornithologists Union 


Appalachian Power Company 

Audubon Naturalist Society 

Mr. Arthur H. Bissell, Jr. 

Mrs. Beulah Boyd 

Ms. Mabel A. Byrd 

Cables Electricos Ecuatorianos C.A. 

Appendix 9. Donors to the Smithsonian Institution I 437 

Castle & Cooke, Inc. 
Chevron Chemical Company 
CIBA-CEIGY Corporation 
City Investing Company 
The Edna McConnell Clark 

Continental Bank International 
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth W. Cooper 
Dr. William H. Crocker 
Miss Nina J. Cullinane 
Diamond Shamrock Corporation 
The Dow Chemical Company 
Eastern Air Lines, Inc. 
Mr. William L. Eury 
Dr. Richard H. Eyde 
Dr. Herbert Feinberg 
FMC Foundation 
Mr. Hamilton C. Forman 
Gem and Mineral Society of 

Syracuse, Inc. 
Dr. Lee Gerhard 
Sumner Gerard Foundation 
Dr. Gordon D. Gibson 
Mr. Henry L. Greilsheim 
Frank B. Hall and Company 

Donors to the National Collections 


Adelseck, Dr. Charles G., Jr. (321192). 
Allen, Charles A. (320255). 
Allen, Dr. Robert T. (318290). 
Amli, Reidar (322448). 
Andrews, Dr. Fred G. (321239). 
Anthony, Dr. John W. (318593). 
Armstrong, Mrs. Pauline (319630). 
Ash, Dr. Sidney R. (318787). 
Ashby, Wallace (320973). 
Ashworth, Dr. Allan (317648, 318263). 
Bagnara, J. T. (see Frost, J. S.) 
Baker, James H. (319149). 
Balciunas, Joseph (322886). 
Ball, Dr. George E. (317633). 
Bamford, Maya S. (323163). 
Barber, Lorna (322923). 
Barbosa, Carlos (322147). 
Barclay, Dr. Harriet G. (321083). 
Barnard, Dr. J. L. (270357, 275759, 

311492)— see Child, C. Allan. 
Barnett, Dr. Douglas E. (320174). 
Barnett, Mrs. Lisa M. (321929). 
Barrell, Dr. Joseph (321076). 
Bartlett, Rear-Adm. Bradford 

Bartlett, Melissa (317544). 
Bastero, Sr. Juan Jesus (317315). 
Batista, Halley Freier (320126). 

Dr. Mason Hale 

Mr. Howard W. Hruschka 

Mrs. Marguerite H. Kellogg 

The M. W. Kellogg Company 

Estate of Nada Kramar 

Samuel H. Kress Foundation 

Dr. David Lellinger 

Miss Susan H. McDaniel 

National Capital Shell Club 

National Geographic Society 

Prudential Lines, Inc. 

Dr. Clayton E. Ray 

Mr. J. Ridley 

Dr. R. J. G. Savage 

Scientific American 

The Starr Foundation 

Stauffer Chemical Company 

Lewis and Rosa Strauss Memorial 

Mr. and Mrs. E. Hadley Stuart 
Mary Horner Stuart Foundation 
Dr. William Sturtevant 
The Tinker Foundation 
Mr. John J. Trelawney 
Mr. Robert A. Vines 

Baumann, Dr. Richard W. (317097, 

317385, 318346, 319436)— see Flint, 

Dr. Oliver S., Jr. 
Baxter, Rae (321905). 
Bayer, Dr. Frederick M. (318137, 

318783, 321193, 321983). 
Bayliss, R. D. A. (318684). 
Beaulieu, Col. and Mrs. N. H. 

Beazley, Donald W. (318450). 
Behnke, Russell E. (319619). 
Beland, Dr. Rene (318200). 
Belton, William (323378). 
Bennetch, Leonard M. (318832). 
Bennett, Mrs. Thelma (321238). 
Bentley, Ron (320143). 
Berggren, Dr. William A. (318078). 
Bergwin, Lark (322919). 
Bernstein, Lawrence R. (323239). 
Berry, Dr. Richard Lee (321245). 
Berry, Dr. S. Stillman (317279). 
Beshear, Ramona J. (318261, 322892). 
Biffar, Dr. Thomas A. (321000). 
Blanchard, Andre (317634, 318239, 

319640, 320906, 322889, 323349). 
Blanchard, Mr. and Mrs. Andre 

Blow, Warren (322507). 

438 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Blume, Richard R. (318260, 322885). 
Bolick, Mr. and Mrs. Glenn (318907). 
Bolli, Dr. Hans M. (321401). 
Bonar, Henry (323227). 
Boothe, Dr. Billy B., Jr. (317809). 
Boraker, Dr. David K. (317543). 
Bouchard, Dr. Raymond W. (316575). 
Boucot, Dr. A. J. (318218, 319511). 
Bourgeois, Dr. Feodor (322843). 
Bouseman, Dr. John K. (319441). 
Boyce, Richard F. (322220). 
Boyer, Dr. Paul 5. (317055, 320892). 
Brach, Vincent (321945). 
Brayfield, Mrs. Leila (320068). 
Brewer, George (319675, 322285). 
Brigida, Arthur A. (319608). 
Britton, James (318207). 
Brock, Dr. Julie Bailley (320479). 
Brooks, Dr. S. T. (Deceased) (134775). 
Brou, Vernon A. (319438). 
Brown, Betsy (319259). 
Brown, Dr. H. P. (319648). 
Brown, W. Chris (320344). 
Brownell, A. J. (318462). 
Brubacher, Mr. and Mrs. John 

Bruce, Murray (318478). 
Buck, John (322924). 
Budiman, Dr. Arie (321578). 
Bueno S., Sr. Joaquin (318105, 318191, 

Buholzer, Hubert (319841). 
Burchick, Mark (322116). 
Buriro, Shah Nawaz (321925). 
Busack, Stephen D. (310166, 318377) 

— see Crombie, Ronald I. 
Buskirk, Mike Van (318465). 
Cabri, Dr. L. J. (321387). 
Calder, Dale R. (317005). 
Campbell, Jonathan A. (322942). 
Canning, Mrs. Harold E. (318451). 
Capriles, Dr. J. Maldonado (319139). 
Carayon, Dr. J. (322883). 
Carlson, Dave (317641). 
Carlson, Paul H. (317631). 
Carr, John (321221). 
Carr, Mrs. Kathleen H. (266111). 
Carter, Mrs. Winifred T. (320280). 
Cartwright, Dr. O. L. (323228). 
Carvalho, Dr. Jose C. M. (319647). 
Carver, Dan (314461). 
Cebulla, Mr. and Mrs. Albert 

Cecil, Francis D. (283548). 
Chace, E. P. (296607). 
Chalumeau, F. (317016). 

Chambers, Frank (322274). 
Chambers, Mrs. Shirley (318076). 
Chantal, Dr. Claude (319138). 
Chen, Mr. and Mrs. C. F. (323162). 
Chen, Dr. T. T. (318529). 
Child, C. Allan (292580, 311492)— see 

Barnard, J. L. and Manning, Dr. 

Raymond B. 
Chin, Peter (318595, 318906). 
Choate, Paul M. (318472). 
Christensen, Carl C (320352). 
Clapp, Emory L. (320142). 
Clark, Prof. K. B. (318138). 
Clark, Hon. Lewis (322921). 
Clench, Dr. William J. (316919). 
Coetzee, Dr. Cornelius (318212). 
Cohen, Anne (315021, 321588). 
Coil, Clarence (320220). 
Cole, Dr. W. Storrs (322844). 
Colin, Dr. Patrick (321132). 
Collette, Dr. Bruce (317101). 
Conkin, Dr. James E. (319605, 

Conkle, Bud (320343). 
Cook, Dr. David R. (322887). 
Cook, Dr. Robert B. (321599, 321604). 
Cornell, Dr. & Mrs. J. F. (323361). 
Coscaron, Dr. S. (317651). 
Cottrell, Mrs. Benjamin (323164). 
Coulloudon, Mme. Monique (319137). 
Covell, Dr. Charles V. (318463, 

Crombie, Ronald I. (310166, 320579) 

— see Busack, Stephen D. 
Cross, Jarrett L. (320178 ). 
Cunningham, HMCS Marvin L. 

Cupp, Mrs. Donald E. (322922). 
Curry, Dr. Richard P. (318788). 
Dahl, Dr. Arthur L. (292580). 
Dahlman, Louis-Jacques (318322). 
Damaer, Dr. David M. (318114). 
Daniels, Bruce (317592). 
Darnell, Dr. Rezneat M. (296577). 
Davidson, Dr. J. A. (322888) — see 

Wood, Dr. F. E. 
Davis, Dr. & Mrs. Donald R. (321927). 
Dawson, Dr. C. E. (292580). 
De Marzo, Sr. Luigi (318190). 
de Meillon, Dr. Botha (321930). 
Derstler, Dr. Kraig (322938). 
Desfayes, Michel E. (292915, 315884). 
de Vasconcelos, Dr. Hortencia L. 

Deyrup, Mark (321942). 
de Zayas, Dr. Fernando (319142). 

Appendix 9. Donors to the Smithsonian Institution I 439 

Dhogbhidhuk, Sanga (199251). 
Dietz, Robert, IV (319145). 
Dippenaar, Nikko (321838). 
Dix, Dr. Michael W. (320477). 
Dmitriev, Dr. Leonid (318596). 
Dodrill, Jon (319116). 
Doherty, Dr. Peter (318182). 
Dombrowski, David (318069). 
Donoho, Rear-Adm. & Mrs. Glynn 

Dorr, Mrs. John (323202). 
Dougherty, Gregory (279468). 
Dove, John (322257). 
Downey, Maureen (318818). 
Drake, Raleigh (314723). 
Dube, Ronald N. (320170). 
Dudley, Mrs. Martha W. (323165). 
Dunn, Mrs. Ethel L. (320145, 320521). 
Dunn, Pete J. (316838, 318075, 320520, 

Edmunds, Dr. George F., Jr. (317099, 

Ekis, Dr. Ginter (323364). 
Ekkens, Dr. David (321943). 
Elbert, Stephen A. (321936). 
Elder, Robert A., Jr. (322223). 
Emerson, Dr. K. C. (320181, 321248). 
Emrich, Dr. Duncan (323166). 
Emry, Robert J. (317692, 322209). 
Enders, Dr. Robert (323035). 
Erichsen, M/Sgt. Merrill E. (285360). 
Ernst, Carl H. (318897, 319117, 

Erseus, Christer (319658). 
Ervin, Dr. Frank R. (317605). 
Erwin, Dr. Terry L. (317643, 319152, 

319646, 323355)— see Whitehead, 

Dr. Donald. 
Esbenshade, Stanley (323235). 
Eskin, Otho Evans (see Eskin, 

Eskin, Stanley (323171). 
Ethetton, Lee W. (318118). 
Evans, Clifford (322913). 
Everard, C. O. R. (317530). 
Everdell, Preston (320916). 
Eyer, Dr. John R. (320183). 
Fable, William A., Jr. (320067). 
Fair, Mrs. Ruth (317280). 
Ferguson, Dr. Douglas C. (319639). 
Ferguson, Meredith M. (323347). 
Ferreira, Dr. Antonio J. (317296). 
Figiel, Dr. & Mrs. Leo S. (322907)— 

see Figiel, Dr. & Mrs. Steven J. 
Figiel, Dr. & Mrs. Steven J. (see 

Figiel, Dr. & Mrs. Leo S.). 

Finlay, C. John (318237). 
Fishburne, Mrs. Charlotte Lee 

Fisher, George W. (320121). 
Fisk, Dr. Frank W. (318248). 
Fitzgerald, Dr. T. D. (319637). 
Fitzpatrick, Dr. J. F., Jr. (281928). 
Flannery, Dr. Kent V. (303029)— see 

Hole, Frank. 
Fleming, Dr. Richard C. (318264). 
Flint, Dr. Oliver S., Jr. (317097, 

320180, 322893)— see Flint, Mrs. 

Oliver S., Jr. 
Flint, Mrs. Oliver S., Jr. (321940). 
Flower, Dr. Rousseau H. (317409, 

319601, 321542, 322581). 
Fonger, George (317411, 320136). 
Ford, Evert J. (319432). 
Foreman, Dr. Helen P. (316911). 
Fosburg, Dr. F. R. (223601) — see 

Sachet, Dr. Marie-Helene. 
Foster, Dr. R. J. (322074). 
Fox, Rev. Dr. C. E. (Deceased) 

Francis, Dr. Carl (317546) 
Franclemont, Dr. John G. (320175). 
Franklin, Roland A. (317541). 
Frazier, Mr. and Mrs. Si (318081). 
Fredine, C. Gordon (318479). 
Freeman, The Estate of Mrs. Ethel 

Cutler (319549). 
Frost, J. S. (313515) — see Bagnara, 

Frost, Dr. S. W. (320899). 
Frick, Jane (319597). 
Friedl, W. A. (320588). 
Funderburg, John B. (315931). 
Furlow, Capt. Bruce M. (319443). 
Gabelish, A. J. (316578). 
Gaebelein, Frank E. (322228). 
Gaedike, Dr. R. (322241). 
Gaines, Dr. Richard V. (316673, 

316839, 317570, 319672, 321012, 

323230, 323232). 
Gallagher, Susan (317033). 
Gardinar, Stephen L. (308023). 
Garske, Dr. David H. (321339). 
Gaston, Gary R. (322421). 
Gatrelle, Ronald R. (318464, 322253, 

Gerhard, Dr. Lee C. (322543). 
Gerk, Arthur J. (318140). 
Gibbs, Mrs. K. Elizabeth (322232). 
Gibson, Dr. Gordon D. (310220). 
Giletti, Dr. Bruno J. (315969). 
Giorgio, Bertoldi (318872). 

440 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Golini, Dr. V. I. (318246). 
Gombos, Andrew M., Jr. (322541) 
Goodrum, Dr. John W. (316922). 
Gordon, Linda K. (319228). 
Gould, Dr. Ed (319547). 
Govoni, David (322937, 322939). 
Grant, Dr. Richard E. (322799, 323273) 

— see Nestell, Dr. M. 
Greenwell, Francis M. (319607, 

319608, 320319, 322445) — see 

Brigida, Arthur A. 
Gressitt, Dr. J. Linsley (317128). 
Grew, Dr. Edward S. (321916). 
Griffin, Dr. W. L. (318763). 
Griffith, Mrs. Eugene (Deceased) 

Grubbs, Andy G. (321553). 
Gruwell, J. A. (323357). 
Gunn, Michael (322284). 
Gutschick, Dr. Raymond C. (318854). 
Gutstadt, Prof. Allan M. (318085). 
Haake, Dr. Friedrich-Wilhelm 

Habeck, Dr. Dale H. (320173, 321923). 
Hagerman, George (318110). 
Halley, Dr. Robert B. (317400). 
Hamilton, Maj. & Mrs. Raymond E. 

Hammond, Billy A. F. (320975, 

Hanahan, Dr. John, Jr. (320519). 
Handley, Dr. Charles O., Jr. (316890, 

316892, 316920, 319631, 320513). 
Hanscom, Dr. Roger (319109). 
Hansen, Gary (318510). 
Hara, Paul (313243). 
Hardy, Dr. Alan (319098, 323177). 
Harker, Dr. Roger S. (317558). 
Harmatuck, P. J. (319472). 
Harris, Dr. Halbert M. (319143). 
Harrison, Dr. Linda K. (321402). 
Harrison, Richard V., Esq. (316605). 
Hart, C. W., Jr. (262460)— see Hart, 

Dabney G. 
Hart, Dabney G. (see Hart, C. W., Jr.). 
Hasinger, David J. (311907, 321887)— 

see Hettrick, David R. 
Hastriter, Lt. Michael W. (322882). 
Hatfield, Jack J. (322926). 
Hatschbach, Exmo. Sr. Dr. Gert 

(318705, 319740). 
Hayami, Dr. Itaru (318519). 
Hays, Helen (287206). 
Hazlett, Dr. Brian A. (317349). 
Heatwole, Dr. Harold (322233)— see 

Muir, Robert. 

Heck, Cathern A. (322221). 
Hedges, Frank R. (322234). 
Heinrich, Dr. E. William (321602). 
Heisterberg, Jon F. (316866). 
Heltne, Dr. Paul (323193). 
Henderson, Dr. Edward P. (248505)— 

see Mason, Brian H. 
Henry, Mark C. (322926)— see 

Hatfield, Jack J. 
Herring, Dr. Jon L. (319150). 
Hess-Distel, Dr. Hans (318202). 
Hettrick, David R. (321887). 
Hevel, Gary F. (323362, 323368). 
Hickman, Dr. Carole S. (318203). 
Higgins, Dr. Robert (321547). 
Hills, Dr. L. V.( 321544). 
Hobbs, Dr. H. H., Jr. (266300, 272610, 

Hof, Mrs. Gail (322929). 
Hoff, Donald (318236). 
Hoffman, Richard L. (318378, 322249). 
Hoge, Legare W. (321589). 
Hole, Frank (303029). 
Holland, C. G. (322915). 
Holm, E. (318269). 
Holsinger, John R. (318789). 
Homan, C. D. (322508). 
Hoover, Peter (316909). 
Hope, Dr. W. Duane (311425). 
Hough, Mr. and Mrs. Edwin A. 

Hovel, Haim (317425). 
Howe, William H. (319435). 
Howell, K. M. (320937). 
Hubricht, Leslie (315967). 
Hudson, Maxwell J. (317416, 321338). 
Huff, W. T., Jr. (322146). 
Hufford, John (315975). 
Hunter, C. J. (319133). 
Hurd, Dr. Paul D., Jr. (323369). 
Hurlbut, James F. (317566). 
Hutchinson, Capt. Howard B. 

Her, Ralph K. (317415). 
Ireland, Mrs. Irma T. (Deceased) 

Ito, Dr. Jun (322199). 
Izecksohn, Eugenio (322002). 
Jackson, James F., Jr. (322444). 
Jagodinski, Helen (323172). 
Jakob, Dr. Hans (322429). 
Jameson, Dr. E. William, Jr. (322110). 
Jewett, Irene (316101). 
Johansen, Mr. and Mrs. Walter & 

Flora (319620). 
Johnson, Alex R. (322225). 

Appendix 9. Donors to the Smithsonian Institution I 441 

Johnson, Dr. J. G. (318098, 322144). 

Johnson, Paul G. (320971). 

Jones, David (319669). 

Jones, Fred (317067). 

Jones, Gwilym S. (320646). 

Jones, Jerome (323180). 

Jones, Dr. Meredith L. (292580, 

317821, 322109). 
Jones, Dr. Robert E. (320901). 
Justice, Dr. William S. (318410). 
Kalra, Dr. N. L. (318254). 
Kasinathan, Dr. R. (318295). 
Kasper, Dr. Andrew E. (318086). 
Kato, Dr. Akira (316569). 
Keitel, Mr. and Mrs. Frederick 

Kendall, Roy O. (319434). 
Kennedy, Dr. Helen (315866). 
Kennel, Mr. and Mrs. Philip J. 

Kennett, Dr. J. P. (318097). 
Kerby, Cathy (293706). 
Key, Charles (319421, 319677). 
Kielbaso, J. W. (322524). 
Kier, Mrs. Mary (322819) — see Kier, 

Dr. Porter M. and Zardini, Rinaldo. 
Kier, Dr. Porter M. (322819)— see Kier, 

Mrs. Mary and Zardini, Rinaldo. 
King, Robert Merrill (321036, 321313). 
King, Vandall T. (321603). 
Klemm, Dr. Donald J. (322563). 
Klima, Prof. Bohuslov (322222). 
Knez, Dr. Eugene I. (322229). 
Knez, Mrs. Jiae Choi (322226). 
Knopf, Kenneth W. (322569). 
Knowlton, Dr. George F. (322230, 

Koening, Maria Luise (306004). 
Koh, Dr. Han Shil (322906). 
Kohlmann, Dr. Bert (318468). 
Kohn, Dr. Alan J. (321577). 
Kohn, Mrs. Marian A. (318253). 
Kolker, Allan (320116). 
Kontrovitz, Dr. Mervin (318178). 
Kordish, Richard (322227). 
Kornicker, Dr. L. 5. (318383). 
Kosnar, Richard A. (317414, 318083). 
Kothavala, Rustam Z. (319419). 
Krauss, Dr. N. L. H. (318250, 318665, 

319144, 321386, 321935). 
Krefft, Dr. Gerhard (308018). 
Krizman, Richard (320582). 
Krombein, Dr. Karl V. (317647, 

318242, 319430, 319645). 
Krombein, Karlissa B. (318249). 
Krutak, Dr. Paul R. (317518). 

Kudenov, Dr. Jerry D. (321194). 
Kuzirian, Alan M. (322097). 
Kwapiszewski, Hon. Michael (322920). 
Kyte, David J. (322206). 
Ladd, Dr. Harry (317688). 
Lago, Paul (323179). 
Lamb, Cathy L. (318088, 318454). 
Lampert, Col. Lester L., Jr. (320992). 
Lane, Dr. H. Richard (317056). 
Lane, Robert A. (323366). 
Langford, Patricia S. (320603). 
Larochelle, Andre (319136). 
Larsen, Dr. Arne Rosenkrands 

Larson, Ronald J. (300990, 301710, 

Larson, William (319617). 
Lautenschlager, Dr. Lyle (315222). 
Lawrence, Prof. Addison L. (321138). 
Le Due, James W. (323438). 
Lellinger, Dr. David B. (315791). 
Lewis, Dr. D. J. (322250). 
Lewis, Dr. Robert E. (317632, 318262, 

Levi-Donati, Dr. G. R. (307402). 
Lieftinck, Dr. M. A. (319439). 
Lighty, R. (323150). 
Lilyestrom, Dr. Craig (322512). 
Lindroth, Dr. Carl H. (319642). 
Liner, Ernest A. (321954). 
Longley, Dr. Glenn (318259). 
Loveridge, Dr. Arthur (272611). 
Lowe, Doris (318294) — see Todd, 

Lutze, Dr. Gerhard F. (318786). 
Lynch, Dr. J. F. (317645). 
MacDougal, John M. (317701). 
Maier, Bruce (317538, 318132, 319618). 
Maizels, Dr. Albert D. (320172). 
Makin, David (320938). 
Mallack, Dr. J. (318245). 
Malone, Mrs. Elsie (316871). 
Manders, Edward A. and Mark 

Mani, Dr. M. S. (319148). 
Manning, Dr. Raymond B. (292580). 
Marble, William (317539). 
Marchbanks, Dr. D. L. (321403). 
Marckoon, Peter (322201). 
Marcus, Dr. Eveline (317006, 319242). 
Marincovich, Dr. Louie (318895, 

Marinkelle, Dr. C. J. (322149). 
Marrow, Maxwell P. (317007). 
Martin, Norman T. (322149). 

442 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Mason, Dr. Brian H. (248505, 312132, 

318268, 323238). 
Mason, Dr. Wilton (320125). 
Mather, Bryant (321937). 
Mathis, Wayne N. (318244, 320910). 
Matioli, Dr. Jose Claret (321241). 
Matsui, Masafumi (318439). 
Matta, Dr. James (320905). 
Matternes, Jay (320351). 
Mattioli, Dr. Vittorio (321126). 
McAlpine, Wilbur S. (318256). 
McCormick, Dr. George R. (320980, 

McCullough, Martha M. (321551). 
McDonald, H. L. (320221). 
McElravy, Eric P. (320900). 
McGuinness, Albert L. (317567, 

Mcintosh, Dr. Bruce M. (321240). 
Mclver, Dr. J. R. (321172). 
McNeary, Annie B. (316961). 
Medler, Dr. J. T. (321928). 
Melancon, Earl, Jr. (322202). 
Melloy, George E. (321170). 
Melson, Dr. William G. (320217, 

Mendelson, Johanna (322912). 
Medem, Prof. Federico (318861). 
Mendryk, Harold (320972). 
Merisuo, Dr. A. K. (317386). 
Mesmer, Theodore C. (323173). 
Messersmith, Dr. D. H. (323358). 
Metzler, Eric H. (318265, 319638). 
Middleton, Arthur L., Jr. (316023). 
Mills, Margaret A. (298681). 
Minette, James (320129). 
Mitchell, Dr. Steve (318141). 
Miyagi, Dr. Ichiro (321932). 
Mochi, Dr. A. (319431). 
Moldenke, Dr. Harold N. (316739, 

317244, 317780, 318670, 321031). 
Moore, Gary (318071). 
Moore, Mrs. George M. (279618). 
Moore, Dr. Ian (323356). 
Moore, Dr. Thomas E. (317376). 
Moree, Montague (316101). 
Moreland, Pamela S. (317756). 
Morley, Ted (320118). 
Morrison, Robert (320112). 
Morse, Mrs. Emilie (318451) — see 

Canning, Mrs. Harold E. 
Morse, M. Patricia (319108). 
Mortensen, Kim (322156). 
Moyer, Raymond T., Esq. (322914). 
Muir, Dr. Robert (322233). 
Murphy, Jack (320128). 

Myers, Mrs. B. J. (322908). 

Myers, Ruth (318216). 

Napier, Mrs. T. D. (322928). 

Natland, Dr. M. L. (322017). 

Nebot S., Jose E. (319240). 

Neill, Mrs. L. D. (315890). 

Nelson, A. (321382). 

Nestell, Dr. M. (322799). 

Neves, Richard (322235). 

Nielsen, Claus (321211). 

Nishikawa, Allen K. (322905). 

Ober, Lewis D. (316099). 

O'Donoghue, Michael (320884). 

Ohira, Dr. Hitoo (320904, 321249). 

Olson, Dr. Storrs L. (305692, 318271, 

318477, 319424). 
Opler, Dr. Paul A. (322254). 
Orsak, Larry J. (318474). 
Oshida, Philip S. (320110). 
Overstreet, Robin M. (293129). 
Oyler, Edward H. (319114). 
Pacheco, Dr. Francisco (318475). 
Palmer, Dr. Harris (322909). 
Panczner, William (321600). 
Papezik, Dr. V. S. (321592). 
Parker, Frances L. (321130). 
Parnau, John L. (321341). 
Passaglia, Dr. E. (318206, 321598). 
Patch, W. P. (315970). 
Patterson, Mrs. Jefferson (323170). 
Patterson, Robert M. (322240). 
Paulet, Dr. Jaime Gallemi (322168). 
Pawson, Dr. David L. (312755). 
Pechuman, Dr. L. L. (317654). 
Peck, Dr. Stewart (319132). 
Pedersen, R. E. (320271). 
Pemberton, H. Earl (321344). 
Perrault, Dr. Guy (317571). 
Perrygo, C. L. (322910). 
Peters, Dr. William L. (321242). 
Phelan, Thomas F. (322509). 
Pickford, Dr. Frace E. (318512). 
Pinch, William W. (316818, 317066, 

317540, 320117, 320120, 323237). 
Pine, Ronald H. (302253)— see 

Wilson, Donald E. 
Pinger, Dr. Robert R., Jr. (319440). 
Pletsch, Dr. Donald J. (316986, 

Plomley, John M. (322244). 
Plusquellec, Dr. Y. (319600). 
Plyler, John A., Jr. (319520). 
Pochek, Stephen (323229). 
Pollack, Joseph (323226). 
Powell, Dr. C. B. (318856). 
Proud, Amanda (317348). 

Appendix 9. Donors to the Smithsonian Institution I 443 

Purdy, R. W. (316025). 

Pyburn, William F. (318068, 319195, 

Rahn, Russell A. (320182). 
Raincourt, Carla (318072). 
Rainey, Dr. William E. (318808). 
Raymond, James A. (315561). 
Ray, D. Carleton (271533). 
Ray, Dr. Clayton E. (316921). 
Raysinger, CW4 Paul L., A.U.S. Ret. 

321034, 322245). 
Read, Dr. Robert W. (317233). 
Render, Dr. Harald A. (313647). 
Reinert, Dr. John F. (319126). 
Relyea, Dr. Kenneth (318634). 
Remm, Dr. H. (321243). 
Rentz, Dr. David C. (317653, 319141). 
Reynolds, Margaret (318532). 
Rice, Dr. Mary E. (276005, 306226). 
Richards, Dr. R. Peter (320570). 
Ridinger, Jay G. (317565). 
Rigby, Dr. J. Keith (321008). 
Ripley, Mrs. 5. Dillon (316139, 

321034, 322245). 
Ripley, S. Dillon (318480). 
Rivinus, Edward F. (322256). 
Roback, Dr. Selwyn S. (320909). 
Roberts, Dr. Willard L. (322176). 
Robinson, Dr. Harold (318243). 
Rodda, Dr. Peter (318520). 
Rodgers, B. (320115). 
Roe, Dr. Arthur (315956, 317413). 
Roessler, Martin A. (316566). 
Ronderos, Dr. R. A. (322239). 
Roper, Dr. Clyde F. E. (281255, 

Rose, Dr. Robert K. (321837). 
Rosenberg, Ronald (319146). 
Rosenzweig, Dr. Abraham (318082). 
Rosewater, Dr. Joseph (292580, 

316101) — see Jewett, Irene; Smith, 

Wendy; Moree, Montague. 
Rouse, Dr. E. P. (322242). 
Rucker, Dr. J. B. (318437). 
Ruetzler, Klaus (318379). 
Ruffino, Sally M. (322918). 
Ruibal, Rodolfo (318862). 
Ruiz, Olivia (321319). 
Russo, Ronald A. (305795). 
Sabrosky, Dr. Curtis W. (320117, 

Sachet, Dr. Marie-Helene {see 

Fosburg, Dr. F. R.). 
Sage, Walter E., Ill, (319521). 
Sahama, Dr. Th. G. (318908). 
Sainfeld, Dr. P. (318042). 

Sakae, Dr. Toshiro (318531). 
Sato, Dr. Masataka (320903). 
Saul, John (321601, 323233). 
Schaffner, Dr. Joseph C. (319636, 

Schreyer, Prof. W. (321593). 
Schuh, Dr. R. T. (320898). 
Schwethelm, Dr. Godehard (320130, 

321169, 321375). 
Scott, Dr. David B. (319830). 
Scott, Norman J., Jr., (322003). 
Scribner, Walter (316913). 
Seeno, Terry (317646). 
Segun, Dr. A. O. (318214). 
Sever, David M. (318438). 
Seymour, Frank C. (319332). 
Shelton, William (314314). 
Shimek, Steven J. (313243) — see Hara, 

Shmakin, Dr. B. M. (315971). 
Shulman, Mr. and Mrs. Will (318602). 
Siddons, Derek C. (320535). 
Sihvonen, John (315776). 
Silsby, Scott (319673). 
Simkin, Dr. Thomas E. (307669). 
Simmons, Ed (318761). 
Simmons, Melva (323375). 
Simons, Anna (319606). 
Sinkankas, John (322207). 
Skoglund, Mrs. Carol (305349). 
Slater, Dr. James A. (319147, 321944). 
Slifer, Dr. Eleanor H. (323351). 
Smith, Dr. Gordon L. (319806). 
Smith, Wendy (316101). 
Smith-Evernden, Dr. Roberta K. 

Socolof, Ross (321001). 
Sohn, Dr. I. Gregory (317091). 
Sorauf, Dr. James E. (316176). 
Souza Lopes, Dr. Oscar de (323190, 

Spangler, Dr. Paul J. (284201, 318213, 

322884, 323354). 
Spencer, Dr. K. A. (319644). 
Springer, Dr. Victor G. (284009, 

Squires, Dr. Hubert J. (316836). 
Srinivasan, Dr. M. S. (318097) — see 

Kennett, Dr. J. P. 
Statzner, Bernhard (319643). 
Stemler, Kathleen S. (322564) — see 

Larson, R. 
Sterling, Gerhard (321029). 
Stevens, Dr. Calvin H. (318911). 
Steyskal, George C. (317649). 
Stinchcomb, Dr. Bruce L. (316152). 

444 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Stockwell, Dr. Henry (318473). 
Stokes, Dr. Darrell R. (321250). 
Stone, Dr. M. W. (323182). 
Stormer, Dr. J. C. (317547). 
Strong, A. M. (Deceased) (89777). 
Stuart, Mr. and Mrs. Hadley, Jr. 

Surdick, Rebecca (318266). 
Sutty, Lesley (315547). 
Sventek, Sgt. Paul L. (319197). 
Swanson, Vernon L. (315973, 319113, 

Swanson, William (319671). 
Sweet, Samuel (321584). 
Tambuyser, Paul (320119). 
Taylor, Dr. Graham F. (321011). 
Tenery, Mrs. J. H. (322798). 
Terashima, Yasuo (322576). 
Tescione, Pete (317569). 
Thomas, Luther (321374). 
Thomel, Dr. Gavard (319165). 
Thompson, Dr. F. C. (320179). 
Thompson, Dr. Fred G. (322818). 
Thompson, Lee (316571). 
Thompson, Dr. Patrick H. (318241). 
Thompson, Mr. and Mrs. Wayne 

Thomssen, Richard W. (321168, 

Thorington, Dr. Richard W., Jr., 

Thornton, Jocelyn (322150). 
Tien, Dr. Pei-Lin (316923). 
Tilley, Stephen G. (315737). 
Tirmizi, Dr. N. (317818). 
Tkac, Martin A., Jr., (318258). 
Todd, Ruth (318294, 322581). 
Tonnsen, John J. (317517). 
Triplehorn, Dr. Charles A. (319442). 
Truedsson, Ake, (316234, 322431). 
Tseng, Wen- Young (306839). 
Turnbow, Dr. Robert H., Jr., (318067, 

Tyson, Dr. Edwin L. (322304). 
Ubelaker, Dr. Douglas (318238). 
Ulatoski, Brig. Gen. Joseph R. 

Upatham, Dr. Edward S. (317640). 
Vagvolgyi, Dr. Joseph (323041). 
Valentine, Dr. & Mrs. Lawrence E. 

van Aartsen, Dr. John J. (320640). 
van Bree, P. J. H. (316891). 
van der Velde, Mrs. Myrtle Ware 

van Goethem, Dr. Jackie (321332). 

van Schoonhoven, Dr. Aart (321931). 
Velasquez, Dr. Carmen C. (277735). 
Velick, Gerson J. (315834). 
Vickers, Mr. and Mrs. H. C. (321907). 
Vincent, David (322255). 
Vincent, Mrs. Sandy (321941). 
Visser, John (303426). 
Vitaliano, Dr. Charles (322145). 
Voigt, Dr. E. (320642). 
Waldun, SFC Einar S., Jr., (320581). 
Wall, William J., Jr., (286829). 
Wallace, Dr. George (318066). 
Waller, Dr. Richard (316833). 
Waller, Dr. Thomas R. (317531). 
Ward, Ronald A. (321815). 
Watson, Dr. George E. (321253). 
Watt, Dr. J. Charles (318257, 319135). 
Weber, Jay A. (Deceased) (211425). 
Weir, Thomas R., II, (322925). 
Welbourn, W. Calvin (318255). 
West, William R. (318760). 
Westfall, Douglas (322305). 
Wetmore, Dr. Alexander (311206). 
Wheless, Pam (322801). 
White, Mrs. Alan P. (320140). 
White, Dr. D. S. (319648)— see Brown, 

Dr. H. P. 
White, Donald C. (319227). 
White, James J. (323043). 
White, John S., Jr., (319621, 322286, 

Whitehead, Dr. Donald (see Erwin, 

Dr. Terry L.). 
Whitmore, Dr. F. C. (317804). 
Whitmore, Tom (321208). 
Wielgus, Ronald S. (318466, 319634, 

319635, 320176, 321922, 321938, 

322237, 322247, 323178, 323184, 

323350, 323360). 
Wight, Quintin (318070, 321343). 
Wiik, Dr. H. B. (323374). 
Wilkins, Hon. Fraser (322927). 
Williams, Dave (314461) — see Carver, 

Williams, Holly (317652). 
Williams, Jesse M. (323168). 
Williams, Dr. Sidney (320122). 
Wilson, Charles S. (319629). 
Wilson, Donald E. (302253). 
Wilson, Mrs. Martha S. (283876). 
Wilson, Wendell E. (311537). 
Wimmer, Howard R. (318461). 
Wing, Dr. Bruce L. (318455). 
Wingert, Gene (322272). 
Winters, Mrs. Mary (322275). 

Appendix 9. Donors to the Smithsonian Institution I 445 

Wise, Dr. William S. (321347). Yochelson, Dr. Ellis L. (316602, 

Womble, Edgar A. (319550). 323203, 323206). 

Wood, Dr. F. E. (322888). Yount, Victor C. (317677, 318080, 

Wood, R. V. (322504). 318204, 320219, 323234). 

Wright, Mrs. E. P. (321865). Zardini, Rinaldo (322819). 

Wyatt, Donald (318177). Zumwalt, G. 5. (306849). 

Yamaguchi, Dr. Masaski (317820). Zusi, Richard L. (321951). 

Yedlin, Neal (318594, 319615, 321013). 

Donors to the National Collections 


Aarhus Universitet, Denmark: (317254). 

Academy of Sciences of the USSR: (313451); Herbarium (316794); P. P. 

Shirshov Institute of Oceanology (320311); Boological Institute: (322238, 

323183); Botanical Institute: (322382). 
Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa.: (312507, 318469, 321006). 
Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California: (314736, 316912, 318193, 

320552, 323198). 
Agriculture, U. S. Dept. of: Agricultural Research Service (280109, 300648, 

315958, 318476, 323370, 323317); Plant Protection & Quarantine (319437); 

Biological Control of Weeds Research Laboratory (319140); Forest Service 

(318641, 319364); Systematic Entomology Laboratory (317629, 317636, 

317637, 317644, 321244, 321926, 323367). 
Alabama Museum of Natural History: (311552). 
Alaska, University of: (281062, 321251). 
Alberta, University of, Canada: (316741, 318192). 
Allyn Museum of Entomology, Florida: (322236). 
American Meteorite Laboratory, Colorado: (320913). 
Amoco Production Company: (317118). 
Amsterdam, Universiteit, The Netherlands: (295732, 318055, 322977, 322978, 

"Adrena," The Netherlands: (317650). 
Annamalai University: (319860). 
Appalachian Learning Center: (321814). 
Appalachian State University: (319166). 
Arizona, University of: (285176, 319319, 319555). 
Arkansas State University : (317604). 
Arkansas, University of: (314979). 
Auburn University: (318493, 320498, 322871). 
Australia, Government of: Australian Museum (316918, 319428, 322442); 

Department of Mines (320146, 317439); Bureau of Mineral Resources 

318208); Royal Botanic Gardens (316764, 317790, 319731, 321444, 322361). 
Baylor, University of: (310088). 

Berlin, Universitat Zu, East Germany: Zoolog. Museum (295963). 
Bermuda Biological Station for Research: (294889, 311208, 312881, 315723, 

Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Hawaii: (321052). 
Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, India: (316766). 

Boston University, Marine Biological Laboratory: (320978, 321313, 322118). 
Botanische Staatssammlung, Germany: (319774). 
Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Inc.: (319275). 
Brigham Young University: (319372). 
British Antarctic Survey, England: (317497, 319822). 
British Columbia Provincial Museum: (317498, 320600). 

446 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

British Museum of Natural History: (286458, 309968, 315771, 315889, 316134, 
317763, 318189, 318319, 318467, 320929, 321258, 322976). 

Brookhaven National Laboratory: (319455). 

Bryn Mawr College: (321348). 

Bundesanstalt fur Materialprufung, Germany: (315959). 

Busch Gardens: (318535). 

California, State of: Department of Fish & Game (303753); Department of 
Health (320911). 

California, University of: (286857, 289297, 312454, 314780, 315813, 316199, 
314448, 317642, 318073, 318381, 318533, 318613, 319848, 320636, 321485, 
322273, 323186); Allan Hancock Foundation (321546); Scripps Institution of 
Oceanography (279428, 303280, 317824, 319280, 319463, 321576, 322117). 

Campbellsville College, Kentucky: (321140). 

Canada, Department of Agriculture: (316803, 322452). 

Canadian Geological Survey: (316962). 

Canterbury Museum, New Zealand: (290235). 

Canterbury, University of: (318750). 

Cape Town, University of: (314828, 317282, 318163). 

Carlton University, Canada: (316130). 

Carnegie Museum of Natural History: (318748). 

Centre Oceanologique de Bretagne, France: (319593). 

Centro de Investigaciones Marine, Venezuela: (313491). 

Centro Investigaciones Pesqueras, Venezuela: (306802). 

Chicago Natural History Museum: (318471). 

China, Peoples' Republic of: Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleo- 
anthropology (323176). 

Cid. Universitaria, Ilho do Fundao: (315861). 

Cincinnati, University of: (317489, 322982). 

Claire D'Ecologie Animale et de Zoologie Agricole: (317635). 

Clark University: (302737). 

Coastal Zone Resources Corporation: (317370). 

College of Charleston, South Carolina: (317593). 

Colorado Gem & Mineral Company: (319659). 

Colorado, University of: (317679). 

Commerce, U. S. Department of: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin- 
istration (293040, 302481, 316960, 318859, 319261, 320171, 323142. 317120, 
321552, 319046, 319492, 319627, 320254); National Ocean Survey (319049); 
National Marine Fisheries Service (310121, 314432, 322941); Systematic 
Ichthyology Laboratory (320645, 310793). 

Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, India: (318251). 

Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organization: (316993, 321605). 

Companhia de Desenvolvimento do Estado de Mato Grosso (CODEMAT) : 
Brazil (318817). 

Copenhagen, University of: Botanical Museum (319371, 321430); Mineralogical 
Museum (322287). 

Cornell University: (303424, 316132); L. H. Bailey Hortorium (317713, 320388). 

Crystal Mining Company: (317568). 

Dayton Museum of Natural History: (322077). 

Defense, U. S. Department of: Department of the Army (320914, 321586); 
Department of the Navy (290071, 296966, 302219, 319656, 321252). 

Delaware, University of: College of Marine Studies (304720, 316874, 319281, 
320986, 322565). 

Delia Universita di Perugia, Italy: (315825). 

Department of Agriculture & Fisheries for Scotland: (323359). 

Department de Botanica y Ecologia, Argentina: (319694). 

Appendix 9. Donors to the Smithsonian Institution I 447 

Desert Botanical Garden in Papago Park, Arizona: (319701). 

Drew University: (287223). 

Duke University, North Carolina: (316749, 316752, 317704, 317733). 

Eckerd College: (306443). 

Entomology Research Institute, Canada: (319134). 

Environmental Protection Agency, U.S.: (319626, 320475). 

Escuela Nacional de Agricultura, Rama de Botanica: (320436). 

Esso Production Research/European: (318534). 

Estacion de Biologia Pesquera, Mexico: (279425). 

Exxon Production Research Company: (317442). 

Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botacatu: (317739, 318667, 

Fairchild Tropical Garden: (314975, 319750, 321074). 
Field Museum of Natural History: (312677, 322380, 322367, 317221, 320315, 

315772, 316733, 319429, 317718, 319728, 319779, 321057). 
Fisheries Research & Development Project, Venezuela: (282828, 312104). 
Fisheries Development Project, U.N. Development Programs: (305422). 
Florida, State of, Agriculture: (317638). 
Florida Board of Conservation: (285653). 
Florida International University: (322586, 323194). 
Florida, State of, Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission: (268866). 
Florida, University of: (315818, 317011, 317738, 318637); State Museum 

Florida State University: (323010). 
Forschungsinstitut Senchenberg, Natur-Museum Senckenberg, Germany: 

(316182, 320619). 
Fundacion La Salle De Ciencias Naturales, Venezuela: (319496). 
Fundacion Miguel Lillo, Argentina: (321427). 
Georgia University: (293131, 317122, 317639). 
Georgetown University: (311722). 
Gettysburg, College: (318855). 

Gorgas Memorial Laboratory, Canal Zone: (319427). 
Goteborgs Universitet, Sweden: (319353, 321046). 
Guam University, Guam: (317784, 318432). 
Gulf Coast Research Laboratory: (317012, 317013, 292964, 311521, 284436, 

317008); Museum (308115, 308522, 315292, 315724, 320649). 
Hamburg Universitat, Zoologisches Museum, Germany: (297989). 
Hansen Minerals, Inc.: (316924). 
Harvard University: Botanical Museum (315820, 318725, 317226); Geological 

Museum (317590, 319112); Gray Herbarium (317187); Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology (314447, 315542, 317493, 318399, 318831, 319691, 323274). 
Hattori Botanical Laboratory, Japan: (321462). 
Hawaii University: (323185); Aquarium Laboratory (395834); Harold L. Lyon 

Aboretum (315784, 318215, 320638, 320643). 
Health, Education and Welfare: (312621, 318517). 
Herbario "Barbosa Rodrigues," Brazil: (315829, 320466). 
Herbario, Coordenadoria de Dfesa dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis, Brazil: 

Herbario de la Facultad National de Agronomia de Medellin, Colombia: 

Herbarium Ellenberg, Germany: (319338, 319710). 
Herbarium Bradeanum, Brazil: (316757). 
Hong Kong University: (315659, 317194,317765). 
Hope College: (319752, 321503). 
Houston University: (318858). 
Hungarian Natural History Museum, Hungary: (321974). 

448 / Smithsonian Year 1976 

Ibadan University of, Nigeria: (321858). 

Ichthyological Associates: (312208). 

Idaho, State of: Department of Health and Welfare (319106). 

Ife, University of: Museum of Natural History, Nigeria (317536). 

Illinois Natural History Survey: (319151, 322035). 

Illinois, University of: (322248). 

India, Government of: Botanical Survey of India (321494). 

Indian Ocean Biological Centre, India (284068, 285652). 

Indonesia Geological Survey: (317548). 

Institut fur Allgemeine Botanik una Botanischer Garten, West Germany: 
(319386, 319414). 

Institut fur Seefischerei, Germany: (323152). 

Institut fur Meeresforschung Bremerhaven, West Germany: (317443). 

Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles, Belgium: (278514). 

Institute of Biology & Pedology, USSR: (319847). 

Institute for Systematic Botany, The Netherlands: (319379, 320420, 315778). 

Institut fur Systematische Botanik der Universitat, Germany : (320460). 

Instituto de Biologia Marina, Argentina: (297004, 320637). 

Instituto de Botanica, Brazil: (316742, 317256). 

Instituto Botanico, Venezuela: (318638, 314255, 316788, 317242, 318728, 319321, 
319788, 321478, 321483). 

Instituto de Conservacao