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SMITHSONIAN 

YEAR 



Smithsonian Year 

1970 



ANNUAL REPORT OF 

THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FOR THE YEAR ENDED 30 JUNE 1970 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PRESS 

City of Washington 

1970 



SMITHSONIAN PUBLICATION 4766 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.25 (paper cover) 



The Smithsonian Institution 

The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 1846 
in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson of England, 
who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of America 
"to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge 
among men." In receiving the property and accepting the trust, Con- 
gress determined that the federal government was without authority to 
administer the trust directly, and, therefore, constituted an "establish- 
ment," whose statutory members are "the President, the Vice President, 
the Chief Justice, and the heads of the executive departments." 

The Establishment 

Richard M. Nixon., President of the United States 

Spiro T. Agnew, Vice President of the United States 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States 

William P. Rogers., Secretary of State 

David M. Kennedy, Secretary of the Treasury 

Melvin R. Laird, Secretary of Defense 

John N. Mitchell, Attorney General 

Winton M. Blount, Postmaster General 

Walter J. Hickel, Secretary of the Interior 

Clifford M. Hardin, Secretary of Agriculture 

Maurice H. Stans, Secretary of Commerce 

George P. Shultz, Secretary of Labor 

Robert H. Finch, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare 

George W. Romney, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 

John A. Volpe, Secretary of Transportation 



Board of Regents and Secretary 



30 June 1970 



Presiding Officer ex officio 



Regents of the Institution 



Executive Committee (Permanent 
Committee) 



The Secretary 
Under Secretary 
Assistant Secretaries 



A listing of the professional staff of 
and its offices appears in Appendix 4 
'Died 27 July 1970. 



Richard M. Nixon, President of the 
the United States, Chancellor 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of 

the United States, Chancellor 
Spiro T. Aonew, Vice President of 

the United States 
Clinton P. Anderson, Member of 

the Senate 
J. William Fulbright, Member of 

the Senate 
Hugh Scott, Member of the Senate 
Frank T. Bow, Member of the House 

of Representatives 
Michael J. Kirwan, Member of the 

House of Representatives 1 
George H. Mahon, Member of the 

House of Representatives 
John Nicholas Brown, citizen of 

Rhode Island 
William A. M. Burden, citizen of 

New York 
Crawford H. Greenewalt, citizen 

of Delaware 
Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of Wash- 
ington, D.C. 
Thomas J. Watson, Jr., citizen of 

Connecticut 
James E. Webb, citizen of Washing- 
ton, D.C. 
Warren E. Burger. Chancellor 

(Board of Regents) 
Clinton P. Anderson- 
Caryl P. Haskins (Chairman ad 

interim) 
James E. Webb 
S. Dillon Ripley 
James Bradley 

Sidney R. Galler, Assistant Secre- 
tary (Science) 

Charles Blitzer, Assistant Secretary 
(History and Ait) 

William W. Warner, Assistant Sec- 
retary (Public Service) 
the Smithsonian Institution, its bureaus, 



Contents 



Page 

The Smithsonian Institution iii 

Board of Regents and Secretary iv 

Statement by the Secretary 1 

Financial Report 18 

Science 27 

National Museum of Natural History 30 

National Air and Space Museum 40 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 45 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 49 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 55 

National Zoological Park 56 

Office of Environmental Sciences 59 

Center for the Study of Man 62 

Center for Short-Lived Phenomena 63 

History and Art 65 

National Museum of History and Technology 68 

Archives of American Art 73 

Freer Gallery of Art 75 

National Collection of Fine Arts 77 

National Portrait Gallery 78 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 80 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design 81 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 83 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 84 

Office of American Studies 85 

The Joseph Henry Papers 86 

Special Museum Programs 89 

Office of the Director General of Museums 92 

Office of Exhibits Programs 94 

Conservation-Analytical Laboratory 94 

Office of the Registrar 95 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 96 



Page 

Public Service and Information Activities 99 

Smithsonian Associates 102 

Office of Public Affairs 104 

Office of International Activities 105 

Division of Performing Arts 106 

Smithsonian Museum Shops 107 

Belmont Conference Center 107 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 108 

Smithsonian (magazine) 110 

Smithsonian Institution Archives Ill 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries Ill 

International Exchange Service 112 

Information Systems Division 113 

Smithsonian Institution Press 114 

Science Information Exchange 115 

Reading Is Fundamental 115 

Office of Academic Programs 119 

Administrative Management 123 

National Gallery of Art 133 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 139 

Appendixes 147 

1. Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program 149 

2. Members of the Smithsonian Council 153 

3. Smithsonian Associates Membership 155 

4. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution 158 

5. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press 184 

6. Academic Appointments 192 

7. Public Affairs 203 

8. Smithsonian Exhibits 210 

9. Financial Statement 212 



VI 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 



Statement by the Secretary 

S. Dillon Ripley 



This past year has been one of measured progress for the enter- 
prises of the Smithsonian Institution. Where many of the 
prospects of the nation at large seem fraught with dissent and 
division, where the path of education has become obscured by the 
divisiveness which has beset the academies, the smaller private institu- 
tions of learning, lacking tuition-paying students as well as football 
teams, seem to have survived so far relatively unscathed. 

Sometimes it seems to us that the Smithsonian and other research 
institutions are rather like monasteries in medieval times, removed 
from the warfare that surges round about and insulated from the 
dissensions that rage throughout our public life. Our "monasteries" 
are not fortified as were those in the middle ages and we have not 
so far had to defend the scholars writing in their libraries and 
attempting to preserve individual research and learning. Rather our 
monasteries are open havens where the public comes and goes as it 
will, and we hope that something of value to all our people will brush 
off in the process. A notable example of the latter was the second 
peace demonstration and moratorium march on 15 November 1969 
when, in the cold, and with tear gas on Constitution Avenue some 
81,000 persons crowded into the Museum of History and Technology, 
cheek by jowl, to rest awhile and look at the objects displayed therein. 
That the exercise was not purely one of rest and relaxation was wit- 
nessed by the many letters and telephone calls received from all over 
the country afterward which expressed thanks and grateful apprecia- 
tion for the hospitality offered by the Museum, and concern and active 
interest in the displays that were on view. So some benefits can be 
derived even from such confrontations. 

Like other institutions concerned with research and study, however, 
the Smithsonian suffered in the past year from the general decline in 
grants and subventions to science as well as to related areas of study. 
Our problem with the declining government budgets for the support 
of basic science has been compounded by the tax reform act of last 
year which produced a serious paralysis of will on the part of the 
foundations. Drawing back from giving while they attempted to 
reassess the legal complications of the tax bill, foundations in general 

1 



2 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

have still not recovered entirely from the shock of the great tax 
reform act. The path ahead for foundations and for philanthropy 
in general is a thorny and difficult one. It appears for the moment 
as if the populist theoreticians in government have won a kind of 
victory and that once more the concept of the private accumulation 
of wealth is cast into an atmosphere of discredit in the public mind. 
Whether this trend on the part of the legislators represents a true 
feeling in the country at large remains to be discerned. It seems 
at this stage highly unlikely that the public tax-derived dollar will 
replace foundation giving to the extent or with anywhere near the 
potential versatility that the record of private philanthropy has dem- 
onstrated. All of this remains for the future, however. At least it 
would seem as if foundations will be somewhat more limited in the 
cycle of their growth and the number of years in which they con- 
tinue to operate. It seems as if a term had been put to the age of 
any foundation and one can only hope that in the long run this will 
not prove to be a serious or crippling blow. 

One of the encouraging developments for the Institution this year 
was the series of fruitful discussions held during the summer and 
autumn with the Bureau of the Budget on methods of structuring the 
federal part of our budget and the annual appeal for appropriations 
to the Congress of the United States. For the first time the Bureau 
of the Budget recognized the concept which we have continually 
emphasized, that Smithsonian activities represent a kind of unity. 
In spite of the many bureaus, some of them incorporated in large 
buildings on the Mall and others tucked away in laboratories here 
and there, there are a series of unifying themes which run through 
the Institution's activities. Our concerns remain united around the 
general subjects of history, history of art, science and technology, and 
the delineation of these histories through public exhibition. In addi- 
tion, our science activities revolve generally around the compilation 
of statistics, information, and research about the biosphere and space. 
Our classical concerns in natural history and in astrophysics have 
come full circle so that today we can proudly claim our work to be 
of vital importance in the new sciences of the study of the environ- 
ment on the one hand and of outer space on the other. Within these 
common themes there are overriding considerations for the public 
good. Education and public exhibition are of paramount concern for 
all our main buildings and for the curators and the research staff who 
inhabit them. Education through research and publication remains 
paramount in the other bureaus whose activities are not contained in 
the large public buildings. In addition, Joseph Henry's initial concern 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 3 

with bringing scholars together with colleagues in foreign countries 
continues to be developed and encouraged through our foreign cur- 
rency program as well as research activities both here and abroad. 

We are proud of the incorporation this year of the first program 
for developing studies by the Woodrow Wilson International Center 
for Scholars and pleased that we shall be able to give the Woodrow 
Wilson Center houseroom in the old Smithsonian building for a 
temporary period of time until new quarters are found for them. It is 
symbolic of the activities to which that "building was dedicated in the 
formative years of the Smithsonian that we should now have advanced 
scholars concerned with common themes of study housed in the red 
sandstone castle on the Mall. We hope that the first two broad areas 
of study of the Center scholars — the international law of the sea 
with its implication on planning for the appropriate and best uses 
of the sea, and the broad areas of social biology — will be illuminated 
by the Center's scholars. Their studies will reflect out, I am sure, 
into many of the scholarly workings of the Institution itself. 

The Bureau of the Budget has encouraged us during the past year 
to develop an interbureau program pointing toward the celebration of 
the American Revolution Bicentennial in 1976 and subsequent years, 
and for this the Congress, impressed by the goals toward which we 
strive, has appropriated some funds this year for the Institution. 

The second general theme approved by the Bureau is that of envi- 
ronmental studies, in so many aspects of which the Smithsonian has 
pioneered. We believe that the Congress will listen with interest to 
our discussions in this regard and will furnish us with some funds to 
begin laying out long-range plans for ecological assessments in both 
the New World temperate and tropical zones and perhaps in the 
Old World. Within such programs many of our scientists can find 
themselves at home and with the potential of resources to add to 
their critically needed funds for research. Like researchers in the 
field of the natural and physical sciences everywhere we have deep 
legitimate concerns for the great problems of our time. We are 
uniquely equipped through possessing and working with the national 
collections to contribute to solutions but we are pitifully undersup- 
ported in order to make these vital concerns effective. If the science 
fraternity across the land cares, we wish they would let us know and 
seek ways to help. 

Additionally, the events of last summer, when the Apollo 11 flight 
first successfully explored the moon, prompted us to raise with the 
administration whether the time might not be ripe to proceed with 
the plans for the National Air and Space Museum. The language of 



4 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

the 1966 authorization was, "appropriations should not be requested 
pursuant to H.R. 6125 unless and until there is a substantial reduction 
in our military expenditures in Vietnam." In the interim since 1966, 
it has been our thought that the original plans for the National Air 
and Space Museum, first begun in the 1950s, have through the lapse 
of time become obsolescent. Museum building plans can become as 
dated in their own way as the designs for an airplane engine, provided 
no mock-up is constructed, no prototype tested. In the ensuing years 
since the National Air and Space Museum's plans were first drawn up, 
many new concepts of exhibits as well as new thoughts about the 
research potential of the Museum itself have evolved. At the same 
time construction costs have escalated steadily and in an arithmetic 
manner, so that today one is faced with the possibility of an annual 
increment to such costs of up to 12 percent. This means that an Air 
and Space Museum authorized in 1966 "not to exceed approximately 
$50,000,000 in costs" may now be envisaged to cost by the mid '70s 
something in the order of $65,000,000 to $70,000,000. 

The Smithsonian administration should not rest in its efforts to 
make prudent use of the dollars which may be appropriated to us by 
the Congress. It seems wise, therefore, to restudy the whole original 
design and to set exhibit and research needs against costs in such a 
way as to attempt to hold the line financially in any request to the 
Congress for a firm budget. Last autumn we asked the Bureau of the 
Budget for study funds, but this was unfortunately cut out of the 
President's budget for the 1970 session of the second session of the 
91st Congress. We hope to go back to the Bureau of the Budget again 
this year and request funds for appropriate studies of the project. 
There will be only one National Air and Space Museum and we had 
better make sure that it is going to be the best one that can be 
feasibly obtained as well as a prudent and efficient use of government 
funds. Fortunately, the cooperation of nasa, the continued coopera- 
tion of the Air and Space Museum, and the perseverance of our 
budgetarily limited staff have combined to make sure that those 
objects as well as the documents incorporated in the eventual building 
will be of the highest quality and caliber. It is now up to us to produce 
the finest building that can be constructed. Happily, Mr. Gyo Obata 
of the firm of Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum has consented to 
restudy and redesign the building for what we hope will be an appro- 
priate cost, and this concept the Regents have approved. 

In spite of the generous actions of the Congress in giving the 
Smithsonian limited increases each year, which have averaged some- 
where between 6 and 8 percent, it is sad to recall that costs in the 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 5 

nation at large have continued to escalate so much that our scientists' 
work and our research and exhibits potential have been seriously 
slowed and potentially threatened in their appropriate and meritorious 
growth. We have just been able to keep up with the continued na- 
tional rate of inflation. It allows little for growth, expansion, and 
change, so necessary for a healthy concern, be it a corporation, univer- 
sity, or a research and museum complex. Examples of such needs 
are continuing additions to art, history, and science collections, 
modern inventory computerization for these collections, development 
of new experimental ideas and fields of study — a neighborhood mu- 
seum, environmental research at our Chesapeake Bay Center and our 
Tropical Research Laboratory in Panama, support for the new Center 
for Short-Lived Phenomena — to name but a few of a seemingly endless 
list of worthy projects. 

Thus there is a definite and increasingly severe confrontation be- 
tween the clamor on the one hand to pursue creative ideas in pursuit 
of our mandate to increase and diffuse knowledge, and on the other 
hand the support of funds to permit such work to be carried out. 

While vigorously seeking additional support from Congress for these 
purposes, we are at the same time carrying out a program of self- 
examination of the use of our total resources with the objective of 
reducing or eliminating outmoded or low-priority activities. The 
results of this program will be a painful but necessary and healthy 
exercise. 

In the case of our private finances the pressures are no less severe. 
Failure to maintain a healthy balance between income and expendi- 
tures could produce a serious threat to the future of the Institution. 
Those unfamiliar with the Smithsonian may not realize that it was 
founded by Congress as a private institution and operated without 
any federal support for nine years until 1855, when at the insistence 
of the government it took over the management and exhibition of the 
National Museum collections. Since then, of course, the continued 
accessions of magnificent collections plus growth of other federally 
related activities have brought about an enlargement of this federal 
support. The growth of federal support combined in recent years with 
an alarming degree of inflation unmatched by growth of income from 
our private endowment funds has reduced our private fund support 
to less than 10 percent of our total, although research grants and 
contracts awarded to the Smithsonian added to our private income 
constitute about 32 percent of our total operating budget. 

The fact that the Smithsonian is basically a private institution, 
although federally supported, is of immense importance to its ability to 



6 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

occupy its long-established and unique position. Its nonpolitical char- 
acter allows us to maintain our objectivity and our contacts and 
scholarly investigations in virtually all nations. The Smithsonian is a 
national showplace partially supported by but not of the government, 
and this attracts a continuing flow of valuable collections which would 
not otherwise be available in the nation's capital for the millions of 
annual visitors. 

Today it is not too much to say that the private nature of the Smith- 
sonian is threatened by the inflationary advances in costs without com- 
mensurate increase in private resources. While the Smithsonian private 
endowment funds total about thirty million dollars, only about one 
quarter of this amount is of an unrestricted nature and the annual 
income from these unrestricted endowment funds is less than $400,000, 
pitifully small in relation to a total annual budget of nearly fifty mil- 
lion dollars. During the fiscal year 1970 alone, the need to match for 
private employees the salary increases legislated for all United States 
government employees, boosted private roll salary payments by 15 
percent. It will be literally impossible to keep up such a heavy pace 
in the future unless ,a commensurate increase in private resources can 
be achieved. 

We are now making strenuous efforts to cope with this threat to 
the future of the Institution. As in the case of federal funds, we 
are also currently examining all of our private activities to eliminate 
the unnecessary or less important. At the same time we are striving 
vigorously to increase income from our various private activities such 
as our Museum Shops and our Associates organizations. In addition, 
we have launched a national campaign to build up our private endow- 
ment funds to assure a substantially greater private income in the 
future. To this end, an Office of Development was formed in Septem- 
ber 1969 with Mr. Lynford E. Kautz as Director. Under his guidance 
a new national associates program has been launched with Mr. 
Thomas J. Watson, Jr., a Regent, serving as Chairman. The key to 
the success of the operation, is of course, our new Smithsonian maga- 
zine, launched in April 1970 and already showing great promise. It is 
anticipated that this program will have far-reaching benefits to the 
Institution. Besides serving as a giant step forward in carrying out our 
mandate to increase and diffuse knowledge among men, it can at the 
same time serve as the foundation for building a national counseling 
organization which will serve to attract the financial support which we 
so sorely need. 

In the area of publications in general, however, our funds for 
assuring an appropriate stream of the products of research have been 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 7 

as seriously curtailed as they were in this Institution during the years 
of World War II. In spite of appeals for additional research funds 
for our scholars, Congress has not been able to award us any increase. 
In spite of continued appeals to foundations and government-granting 
agencies the level of funding for our research has decreased due to 
stringencies and shortages elsewhere in the government. 

Under these circumstances we have been pushed to the limit to 
account for the dollars made available for specific purposes by the 
Congress. This year particularly we were threatened with a potential 
deficit in our annual operations which at one time assumed menacing 
proportions. Searching and stringent action on the part of the fiscal 
and personnel offices of the Smithsonian has resulted in a pruning 
down of expenditures so that we have been able to balance our books 
at the end of the year. But it has been a trying and difficult year for 
everyone and in this sense we have reflected some of the mood of the 
nation at large. It is a great credit to our research and administrative 
staff as well as to the staff of the exhibits department and manifold sup- 
porting activities of the Institution that they have borne these trials with 
patience and understanding. In the past year or two it is as if indeed 
we have been placed on truly monastic fare, bread and water. It is a 
tribute to the understanding of the staff and their sharing of these 
burdens that we have come through so far with morale preserved and 
with cheerful good humor. In our exhibits and in aspects of our 
research we can at least emphasize the positive in America and in the 
American experience. Particularly in our historical exhibits this can 
be a countervailing current to much of the general mood of uncer- 
tainty and self-pity which prevails today. 

In Joseph Henry's view the Smithsonian existed to stimulate re- 
search in pursuit of new truths and to make these truths available to 
both the public and to professionals, in the arts, sciences, and cultural 
history. His favorite phrase to describe the Institution's ultimate aim 
was a "College of Discoverers." I still feel that this is the unifying 
force, the common factor in all the diverse bureaus and museums of 
the Smithsonian — the Institution as a "College of Discoverers" which 

• First, keeps records of knowledge through its collections; 

• Second, serves as a stimulus to research, largely through its collec- 
tions; 

• Third, and perhaps most important, uses the collections and the 
results of research for public education. 

These three elements may be found to a greater or lesser degree 
in all the bureaus of the Smithsonian, as they are today. What then 



8 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

is the record of our most recent objectives and our present manage- 
ment program? 

When I returned to the Smithsonian as Secretary in 1964, the Insti- 
tution was completing a major cycle of facilities development under- 
taken to increase its capacity as a research institution. The National 
Collection of Fine Arts and National Portrait Gallery were readying 
new quarters with ample study space, in addition to new exhibition 
and storage spaces. A renovation of the historic Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Building was in prospect. Fourteen halls of modern research and 
collection storage space were being completed for the National Mu- 
seum of Natural History. The splendid new National Museum of 
History and Technology had just opened, with two floors of scholarly 
studies and collection storage areas. A research building was being 
considered as a step in the ten-year construction program of the 
National Zoological Park. The staff of our tropical research laboratory 
was preparing to move from restricted quarters on Barro Colorado 
Island onto the mainland and to establish strategically situated marine 
biology facilities as their sphere of inquiry widened to include the 
diverse habitats of Panama and the tropics as a whole. But the 
administrative and fiscal requirements for the expanded research 
efforts allowed by physical expansion had barely begun and there was 
little understanding within the wid^r community of the character 
and extent of the Smithsonian's interests in research. I felt then that 
our first efforts should be to deepen the Institution's emphasis on 
research, in order to attain the advantages of the building program so 
successfully carried forward by my predecessor, Dr. Carmichael. So 
our professional research staff on fulltime appointments has grown, 
from 243 in 1965 to 310 today. Of course without strong support 
from technical assistants and support divisions such an expansion of 
the research effort could not be effective since all of these necessary 
functions would otherwise have to be borne on the shoulders of the 
research staff, and here faltering government budget support has held 
back our appropriate growth. 

I have been deeply concerned about the scale of services available 
from the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, an indispensable auxiliary 
of all of our research. A distinguished librarian, Dr. Russell Shank, 
was recruited in September 1967 from the forefront of the library 
profession, given senior standing and a pledge of continued support 
until our libraries could be judged adequate to the needs of the 
research enterprise. That day still seems far off, for the constriction in 
federal funding and freezes on employment, worsened by steadily 
rising costs for subscriptions and monographs, continues to limit severe- 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 9 

ly the service capacity of our libraries. This must serve only to double 
our determination. The Smithsonian Institution Libraries are unique 
reference systems in specialized areas not duplicated elsewhere, closely 
related to the national collections which they complement. 

We have sought to increase research support in the form of techni- 
cians in our research laboratories and support for field investigations. 
The oceanography support group, ably led by Dr. I. Eugene Wallen, 
has been notably successful in expanding opportunities for staff mem- 
bers to go to sea, helping to overcome a very serious lack of ship 
time which severely hampered our unique effort in marine biology. An 
automatic data-processing support group has been built up in both 
Washington and Cambridge to meet needs for computation and 
information storage. 

Scientists and scholars can only be appropriately treated as profes- 
sionals; they must be accorded latitude in order to act responsibly 
as masters of their domains of subject matter knowledge. One of my 
first aims as Secretary was to provide that department chairmen 
serve in rotation "from the ranks" so to speak, and for limited terms, 
in order to minimize the hazard of an internal seniority system that 
might block initiative and convert scientists into permanent adminis- 
trators. Research support is made available to staff members in the 
form of grants and from appropriated funds, so that they will act 
responsibly as principal investigators treating scarce resources as 
wisely as they would funds of their own. I put an end to pre-publica- 
tion review of professional publications by the Secretary, preferring 
to read them as reprints from colleagues rather than submissions for 
administrative clearance. We canceled a burdensome annual report 
required of each staff member about his research because it served 
unnecessary and merely administrative purposes. Burdensome formal 
reporting can be no substitute for consultation and constant aware- 
ness by supervisors. Evaluation of professional accomplishment is now 
conducted by committees of peers formed in the major research units, 
known as "Professional Accomplishment Evaluation Committees." 
Staff members have been encouraged to teach in universities on 
official time (without added compensation) and to request changes 
of their duty stations at intervals so as to be able to spend a year in 
study and research without the distractions of daily office routine, an 
equivalent to a university sabbatical. Travel to professional meetings 
has been encouraged. 

The Bicentennial of the birth of James Smithson in 1965 took the 
form of an academic convocation, which we still repeat upon conven- 
ing our occasional international symposia, conspicuously celebrating 



10 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

our character as a community of scholars. The Smithsonian Institution 
Press has been reconstituted as a scholarly publishing arm for the 
Institution and more effective formats were chosen for the serials in 
which staff members' papers are published. Most important of all, 
among our bureau directors and professional staff members, we have 
sought to maintain shared respect for the individual pursuit of excel- 
lence, whether in research, collection development, or the presentation 
of knowledge to the public. The professionalization of our research 
community is manifested in many ways and, of course, constitutes one 
of the greatest strengths of the Institution. 

In keeping with the professional character of our staff and in a 
spirit of service to the nation, we have sought closer ties with the 
universities. We have inaugurated programs whereby students and 
other qualified investigators are freely given access to Smithsonian 
facilities to conduct their own investigations. Younger visitors and 
PhD candidates receive supervision from professional staff members. 
Direct budgetary support for stipends for visiting scholars has been 
secured for the first time from federal appropriations to the Institution. 
An advisory council, drawn mostly from the universities, was consti- 
tuted in 1965 to serve as a visiting committee to advise on the develop- 
ment of general Institution-wide policies affecting basic research and 
higher education. Control of stipend awards was delegated to com- 
mittees of professional staff members. These efforts, carefully designed 
to be cooperative rather than competitive, do not duplicate the efforts 
of universities but serve to make our facilities and staff capabilities 
available to them to the extent that funding permits. A strong program 
of higher education contributes to our research environment and in- 
vigorates our institutional life through lively exchanges with univer- 
sities. The specialized areas of knowledge represented by our highly 
skilled staff are thus guaranteed survival at a time when a number of 
these disciplines of general concern have been neglected by most 
colleges and universities. 

We have not allowed ourselves to rest with static presentations of 
objects in our collections. In order to be successful in conveying 
knowledge to the wider public, exhibits must involve the viewer active- 
ly, reward curiosity, invite exploration. We have sought to raise our 
standards for the effectiveness of exhibits, to guard against being con- 
tent merely to show an object and to seek instead to elicit from 
more of our visitors those active responses and attentive regard that 
betray a more affirmative understanding or comprehension of the 
context of the object and its meaning for the citizen. Programs of 
school tours have been expanded. The number of children on escorted 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 11 

tours has grown from less than 25,000 in 1967 to about 75,000 this 
year and our corps of volunteer docents has tripled in size. The 
experimental development of a neighborhood museum in Anacostia 
has shown that museum-like operations may be carried out in the 
crucible of the inner city, that children may learn with delight and 
advantage, and that the residents of the area will treat with respect 
what they regard as their own center for learning and recreation. 

We have held annual conferences on the use of museums as 
educational resources. Through our membership organization, the 
Smithsonian Society of Associates, more people may participate far 
more directly in the offerings of our museums such as popular study 
and craft courses, special events, and guided field trips. In 1968 we 
commissioned the first general survey of visitors to our museums. 
Much more, needless to say, remains to be done, but unless museums 
ask of themselves what their visitors have learned they will have no 
way to gauge their effectiveness. Internal dissatisfaction with the 
educational impact of our exhibits is healthy and serves to increase 
our determination to improve them. 

A well-informed public is the best source of constructive criticism, 
which we encourage to insure that the Institution does not become 
insulated from the public it serves. 

We have changed the annual report from a collection of articles 
written by others, often interesting but not informative about the 
Institution itself, into a full and detailed statement about all of our 
activities, the publications of staff members, the results of research, 
and the expenditure of funds — full disclosure, if you will — in a manner 
intended to allow any reader of the report to form his own opinion 
of our effectiveness and objectives. We have established a public 
information office to facilitate inquiries from external sources. We 
have had numerous activities reviewed by ad hoc committees drawn 
from outside the Institution. We have encouraged visits by Members 
of Congress and others to become informed about the Institution. An 
example that comes to mind was an evening open house in 1965 to 
which we invited the entire Congress to view the exhibits presented 
in the National Museum of History and Technology. Our new 
magazine Smithsonian, mentioned earlier, will function as an educa- 
tional benefit of membership in the Society of Associates and also 
serve the vital function of helping to inform the public about the pur- 
poses and operations of the Institution. 

With the increase in responsibilities and higher performance stand- 
ards has come a need for strengthened management. To enter per- 
sonnel and payroll information or address lists on our computer was 



12 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

an obvious step, but one which took some years of intensive effort. 
We have created the office of General Counsel for the first time in the 
Institution's history and constituted the office of the Treasurer at the 
senior level. Service divisions have been brought into closer relation 
with the units they support. Here is another area where our own 
dissatisfaction with ourselves is the surest safeguard of the public 
interest. In a period of complex growth we may have given insuffi- 
cient attention to certain kinds of procedures simply because they 
showed less sign of strain. I have been enormously pleased by the 
cooperation we have received from the Office of Management and 
Budget, the Civil Service Commission, the General Accounting Office, 
the General Services Administration, this and other Committees of 
the Congress, and a host of helpful advisors. We need all the help 
we can get. 

At the same time, technical procedures are no substitute for a 
shared and intense dedication to the public good, through a system 
of management wherein management responsibility is vested in the 
very best people one can find, operating with clear warrants to seek 
and produce the best results attainable. We have sought to develop a 
concept of shared responsibility rather than to second-guess our 
bureau and program directors up an endless hierarchy. I have been 
strongly concerned about the quality of our decision-making and have 
sought ways to create shared judgments through the establishment 
of our Secretariat (meeting weekly) and council of bureau directors 
(meeting monthly). 

One of the most important aspects of our programs is its interna- 
tional character. The pathways followed by knowledge and culture 
do not observe national boundaries. The quality of research, collec- 
tion development, and education cannot be maintained without regard 
to the work of kindred institutions overseas, just as our investigations 
must be prosecuted around the globe. We inaugurated a major program 
in 1965 to apply excess currencies to the needs of scholarship and 
field research abroad in continuation of the original efforts of Joseph 
Henry. We created an Office of International Activities to foster 
cooperation with scholars and institutions in other nations, aided by 
a Travel Services Office to help staff members in their overseas 
pursuits. The effects of this renewed international emphasis in our 
programs of education, conservation, and research have been salu- 
tary, and have included 219 grants to 57 American institutions and 
universities for foreign research using counterpart funds. 

The establishment of the Woodrow Wilson International Center 
for Scholars is perhaps a further realization of the Congress' recogni- 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 13 

tion of the Smithsonian's international role. The tragic failures of 
international understanding which so mar the recent history of our 
world surely call for a redoubling of effort by all institutions to seek 
to increase international understanding through scholarly exchanges 
and cooperation. 

We have attempted to be mindful of our responsibilities as an 
establishment in a troubled urban area, through services to schools 
and the Anacostia neighborhood experiment. The annual Festival 
of American Folklife serves as an example of an inspiring presenta- 
tion that appeals to young and old alike. Groups that confront one 
another angrily in other settings enjoy the experience of a common 
heritage side by side. I believe it is incumbent upon the Smithsonian 
to take seriously its obligations as a good citizen of the District of 
Columbia and to be increasingly mindful of a public service respon- 
sibility to educational and governmental programs underway here. 
Another objective of management, which has become increasingly 
well established, is to maintain strong cooperative links to those pro- 
grams of major government agencies that the Smithsonian can assist 
as a performer of research or provider of services. The Satellite 
Tracking Program conducted on behalf of nasa by our Astro- 
physical Observatory is a noteworthy instance, or the scientific ad- 
visory services we provided the Corps of Engineers regarding pollu- 
tion in New York Harbor. We have assisted the Atlantic-Pacific 
Interoceanic Sea Level Canal Commission in ecological studies related 
to plans for a new sea-level canal. The Fish and Wildlife Service 
and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries, as well as the Geological Survey 
and entomology division of the Department of Agriculture, are alloted 
office space and collection storage facilities in the Natural History 
Building. Cooperative projects offer an excellent format for the 
attainment of timely or urgent objectives without our having to build 
a permanent staff which might outlive the aims of the program 
under which they had been drawn together. 

In all this, planning is of the utmost importance. Growth must 
be brought into effective relation to the availability of resources, 
especially for an establishment such as ours with more than forty line 
items in our federal budget, each of which could very readily be 
expanded to meet some external or internal need. We recently 
constituted an executive steering committee of our Secretariat to 
guide the development of the planning function within the Institu- 
tion and consider ways to maintain a balance between our pattern 
of commitments and the resources we may expect. It was my judg- 
ment in 1964 that the Institution would have to inaugurate some 



14 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

new programs and achieve order-of-magnitude increases in some 
support activities in order to function successfully for the 1970s, and 
to be judged worthy of more financial support from the Congress 
and private sources. While we have had some very considerable 
success much remains to be done. In 1964, our federal budget was 
able to meet only 70 percent of basic research and support needs. 
Now it meets more than 90 percent, but the elimination of remaining 
shortages is a priority objective in planning. What then could be 
said of our plans for the next decade? 

The central concerns of the Smithsonian represent national needs 
for the kind of sustained commitment that can be made only by an 
institution with a strong sense of continuity, tradition, and concen- 
trated purpose. We believe that our first responsibility is to continue 
the general lines of endeavor to which my predecessors, with the 
support of the Congress, have committed the Institution: basic 
research in selected areas of national interest; development and main- 
tenance of the national collections in biology, anthropology, history, 
and the arts; and enlightenment of the public through exhibitions 
and related activities. 

In all this an overriding concern should continue to be the quality 
of the professional staff effort within the Smithsonian and, I cannot 
too strongly emphasize, the achievement of an adequate level of 
support of that effort. We have repeatedly appealed to the President 
and Congress to remedy deficiencies in support of research and 
scholarly programs. While virtually half of the growth in appropria- 
tions since 1964 has been devoted to staffing and operating new 
facilities authorized by the Congress, an equal effort has been made 
to sustain the basic scholarly program: support for fieldwork, instru- 
ments, libraries and again libraries, automatic data processing, im- 
proved personnel procedures, technician support, related higher edu- 
cation activities, better access to colleagues through scholarly publish- 
ing, and unremitting emphasis on the professional character of staff 
appointments, all against a background of increasing costs. Much 
remains to be done on this score. We are now documenting the 
character and extent of these support shortages in even greater detail 
for the President's budget in the future. Our budget henceforth will 
proceed on two tracks, the first a phased elimination of these short- 
ages and the second to provide for the continued development of 
programs entrusted to us by the Congress. 

There are a number of courses we should avoid. We repeatedly 
decline requests to assume responsibilities which we believe to be 
too extensive. The Institution is an establishment, somewhat akin to 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 15 

a university or research academy, not a public program agency with 
massive national operations, field offices, or extensive granting pro- 
grams. For example, it was once suggested that the Institution 
assume management of international educational and cultural ex- 
changes funded by the government, but we could not agree. The 
Board of Regents has followed a consistent policy against distant 
museum operations such as regional museums or national museums 
in cities other than the Capital. Professor Henry's principle, that 
the Smithsonian should not bear responsibilities that others are will- 
ing to assume, still applies today. While cooperating with universi- 
ties we should not seek to assume their distinctive functions of gen- 
eral instruction or degree-granting. While cooperating with museums 
elsewhere we should not interpose this Institution in their relations 
with one another or with the national government. 

Without infringing on the autonomy of our bureaus and their 
distinctive objectives we shall seek the advantages of existence as a 
community of scholars where scientists and scholars learn from one 
another. Whether by tracing biochemical relations from one group 
of organisms to another or studying the behavior of a group of verte- 
brates first in the tropics and then in the setting of the zoo, followed 
with close anatomical and distributional studies in museum collec- 
tions, we benefit from association with our colleagues. Similarly 
scholars working with portraits, genre painting, lithographs, and 
historical objects can pursue together their mutual interests in the 
documents of the American past. Our desire to maintain unity of 
outlook and professional endeavor suggests that the Smithsonian 
should always avoid program developments that do not in some way 
reinforce some of our other activities. 

The museum as an institution in society is one focus for Smith- 
sonian concern; the other focus is on the vigorous prosecution of 
lines of study which, if left to themselves, would not receive the 
attention that the national interest requires. Sometimes we move 
beyond the museum setting to develop laboratory investigations. 
When we constitute a museum it is with due emphasis upon its 
scholarly responsibilities in adding to the store of man's knowledge. 
These two foci of concern should continue to determine the Smith- 
sonian's course, rather as two points generate an ellipse: neither 
museums without scholarship nor scholarship without concern for 
communicating with the public at large, but as in the beginning the 
increase and the diffusion of knowledge. 

Beginning this year the observance of the bicentennial of the 
American Revolution will become a predominant factor in the devel- 



16 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

opment of Smithsonian programs. Within the settings of our history 
and art museums members of the public may seek a reappraisal of 
our national experience with due reference to its international setting. 
Fresh insights of historians should be interwoven with superb offer- 
ings of objects and art works that portray our nation's course over the 
past two centuries and suggest paths for our continued development. 
From the studies of the sources of energy and means for its use by 
living systems to the explanation of biological diversity, the Smith- 
sonian represents an unexcelled multidisciplinary array of information 
resources and professional scientists which bear upon critical needs to 
improve our understanding of the physical environment upon which 
human society depends. We anticipate increasing demands upon our 
efforts in systematic biology, anthropology, astrophysics, and environ- 
mental studies as important resources for the national effort in environ- 
mental improvement. 

One of the most important unfulfilled hopes for the Smithsonian is 
that a great national museum might be developed on the authorized 
space on the Mall between Fourth and Seventh Streets along Inde- 
pendence Avenue to recreate the experience of man's greatest 
adventure: flight and space exploration. We also aspire to present 
insights about the significance of the space age for everyday life and 
to communicate an understanding of the scientific discoveries originat- 
ing from space exploration. Thus we are coming to appreciate that 
it is not only machines, or relics of the past, or evidences of the skills 
of craftsmen that concern us, but man himself. Thus we propose also 
to continue to study the idea of a museum of man which could per- 
haps convey something of the ever-widening insight into man and 
society that characterizes the progress of knowledge today. 

The birthright of today's citizen is an understanding of the forces 
shaping himself and his world. It is to museums that many people 
look for access to the works of artists, an appreciation of the past, 
an awareness of the scientific view of nature, and for portents of the 
future. All museums must experiment with new techniques of exhibi- 
tion and embark upon research aimed at improving their effectiveness 
in popular education. The quality of our response to this democratic 
vista will continue to be a matter of overriding concern to the Smith- 
sonian in years to come. 

From the amassing of great national collections will arise difficult 
questions about how to guarantee access to the information they 
contain. This will call for innovative designs of indexes, catalogs, 
and ways to manage vast resources of information. Perhaps some 
of the techniques developed for the management of voluminous flows 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 17 

of data from satellite observations or oceanographic stations may be 
adapted to the needs of the future. If man is not to be engulfed by a 
rising tide of reports, paper, data, computer printout, and memora- 
bilia, organizations such as the Smithsonian must pioneer in winnow- 
ing and selecting this material from the spate of messages that now fill 
the communications channels of our advanced technological civiliza- 
tion. I wonder if the Smithsonian does not occupy a salient or point 
of vantage from which this concern figures very prominently. In our 
role as custodian of the nation's collections we must try to serve the 
public interest in improved management of scientific and scholarly 
information. 

In eras of decisive historical change all institutions undergo trials: 
the challenge of changes in purpose, efforts to adapt to changing cir- 
cumstances, and perhaps even lapses of confidence from within or 
without. This is a time of testing and trial for the university, for the 
museum, indeed, for our society as a whole. The Smithsonian is not 
immune from searching inquiry into its objectives and character. 
Without such inquiry and without audacious questioning of any of 
our comfortable suppositions, the Smithsonian would lose its value to 
the people and to future generations. Every institution must be recep- 
tive to change, to new patterns of communication, to the concerns of 
new groupings in society, and to new expectations. 

If the Smithsonian is to deepen its services to our society we must 
continue to strengthen our administrative structure, to seek new 
sources of support, to enlist men and women of principle and insight 
as officers and staff members, and to hold our performance to ever 
higher standards of quality and meaningfulness. I would submit that 
the Institution must increase its ability to adapt to changing circum- 
stances, shifting patterns of public needs, widening horizons of leader- 
ship within the Congress and the Executive Branch. We are confident 
that only in this way can we strengthen the Institution to meet the 
future of the decade. 

BOARD OF REGENTS 

The first of a newly scheduled fall meeting of the Board of 
Regents was held on 5 November 1969 at the National Zoological 
Park. Such additional meetings are planned in order to give the 
Regents an opportunity to consider a series of presentations on the 
various programs of the Institution. Emphasis at this meeting was 
on the National Zoological Park. Talks were given by Dr. Theodore 
Reed on the status of Zoo construction and by Dr. John Eisenberg 
concerning the Ceylon-Smithsonian elephant research program. 



18 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

The Regents had an opportunity to visit a number of the Zoo 
buildings, including the bird house where arrangements had been 
made to exhibit the moonrock from the Apollo 1 1 mission. Also on 
exhibit was the Crown-of-Thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) , cur- 
rently the subject of research into its effect on coral reefs, particularly 
in the Pacific Ocean. 

The winter meeting of the Board of Regents was held at Hillwood, 
the estate of Mrs. Marjorie Merri weather Post, on 28 January 1970. 
Chief Justice Warren E. Burger had been elected earlier by mail 
ballot as Chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution. It was recognized 
that Mr. Thomas J. Watson, Jr., had been designated a Regent by 
Public Law 91-30, dated 17 June 1969. 

The actions of the Board were reported in a statement released to 
the Press, which is summarized as follows: 

Plans for a Smithsonian monthly magazine were approved. The Board 
approved a study of the advisability of establishing a unified investment pro- 
gram for the Institution's private endowments. This program, if ultimately 
adopted, would not involve any transfer of collections, capital funds, or income 
from any existing fund to any other. The Board expressed satisfaction with the 
Institution's plans for improvement of operating procedures and of the internal 
auditing of its financial affairs. 

The spring meeting of the Board of Regents was held in the Freer 
Gallery of Art on 20 May 1970. The Chancellor welcomed Vice Presi- 
dent Spiro T. Agnew to the meeting of the Board and also welcomed 
the new Regent, Mr. James E. Webb, whose appointment was 
approved by Public Law 91-255 on 18 May 1970. 

In addition to discussing matters of policy, programs, legislation, 
and finances, the Regents elected Regent James E. Webb to be a 
Member of the Executive Committee (Permanent Committee). The 
Board approved the Secretary's recommendation that Assistant Secre- 
tary James Bradley be appointed to the position of Under Secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution. 

At the conclusion of the meeting the Chancellor, on behalf of the 
Board of Regents and the Secretary, presented a scroll to Mrs. Agnes 
E. Meyer for her more than fifty years of devotion and service to the 
Freer Gallery of Art. 

FINANCIAL REPORT 

During the fiscal year ending 30 June 1970 private and federal fund 
finances continued to be adversely affected by inflationary conditions 
and the need to maintain vital commitments within a framework of 
restricted income support. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 19 

Sources of financial support for our operating expenses in fiscal 
year 1970 as compared with fiscal year 1969 are as follows: 

Federal appropriations FY 1970 FY 1969 

Salaries and Expenses— operating funds $29,965,000 $26,443,000 

Special Foreign Currency Program 2,316,000 2,316,000 

District of Columbia— operations of the National Zoo 2,802,000 2,528,000 

Research grants and contracts (federal and private) 10,600,000 11,400,000 
Private funds 

Gifts (excluding gifts to endowment funds: 2,000,000 1,987,000 

entire amount restricted to specific 
projects and hence unavailable for 
general operating expenses) 
Income from endowments and current fund 1,400,000 1,365,000 

investments 



Total $49,083,000 $46,039,000 

In addition, federal appropriations to finance construction projects 
were received as follows: 

FY 1970 FY 1969 

National Zoological Park $ 600,000 $ 300,000 

Restoration and renovation of buildings 525,000 400,000 

Toward construction of the Joseph H. 3,500,000 2,000,000 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 

Garden 



Total $4,625,000 $2,700,000 



Federal Operating Funds 

As may be seen above, the federal appropriations provided by 
Congress for fiscal year 1970 totaled $29,965,000, including supple- 
mental appropriations arising from federally legislated wage and salary 
increases during the year. This was 13 percent more than the $26,443,- 
000 provided in fiscal year 1969. An 11 percent increase was received 
through the District of Columbia to provide for operations of the 
National Zoo. Support for the Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program, 
however, was continued at the same level as in the previous year, 
namely, $2,316,000; these funds are used to administer a program 
of grants to more than fifty museums and universities in the United 
States for the purpose of carrying on research in the related foreign 
currency countries. 

The increase in the federal appropriation is indeed beneficial. It 
must be realized, however, that nearly two thirds of the increase 
granted is required to cover merely the two salary increases plus the 



20 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

wage scale adjustment legislated by Congress in fiscal year 1970. Most 
of the remainder of the increase is required to cover the mounting cost 
of goods and services in this inflationary period. Yet on top of provid- 
ing for these expanded costs the Smithsonian has been in the position 
during the past year of carrying out a number of important prior 
commitments including the transfer of the Radiation Biology Labora- 
tory to new quarters; stepped-up preparations for the future opening 
of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden; funding of a por- 
tion of the requirements of the Archives of American Art which be- 
came a part of the Smithsonian this year; and support for the newly 
formed Center for Short-Lived Phenomena, a program which is 
attracting worldwide attention in the scientific community. Providing 
for these new requirements while at the same time trying to meet 
the legitimate demands for expansion of our long-established activities 
to absorb, for example, new national biological or mineralogical collec- 
tions, to intensify research in the growing fields of ecology and 
oceanography, simply could not be carried out in a manner which 
would be satisfactory to all parties within the limitations of the funds 
available. Financial planning, furthermore, was made all the more 
difficult by the fact that the Congressional appropriations for fiscal 
year 1970 were not voted until more than three months after the 
beginning of the year. The result is that there is no question that 
many of our departments and projects are suffering shortages, par- 
ticularly since the current year stringencies merely add to those which 
have been growing over the past several years. 

Under these circumstances, the Institution has embarked on a 
thorough analysis of all federally supported activities with the aim of 
reducing or eliminating activities that are of a lower priority or have 
become marginal. This will do much to reallocate our resources so 
that high-priority programs can be supported more adequately. There 
should be a reflection of this study in our next year's disbursements 
and in our request for Congressional appropriations for fiscal year 
1972. 

Research, Grants, and Contracts 

As shown above, grants and contracts awarded to the Smithsonian 
in fiscal year 1970 declined from those of the previous year. Primarily 
this reflected cutbacks by nasa, especially for the satellite-tracking 
program at our Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. The full 
extent of these cutbacks will not be realized until fiscal year 1971. 
They have, however, caused a drastic reduction in forces at the 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 21 

Observatory. At the same time the tight money conditions affecting 
the government granting agencies have been further evidenced by 
delays in contract payments and advances. This in turn has forced the 
Smithsonian to increase its working capital investment in these con- 
tracts by over $1,000,000 in the past twelve months, severely reducing 
our cash balances. 

Private Operating Funds 

Financial statements for the private funds, as audited by independ- 
ent public accountants, are shown in Appendix 9, page 212. While 
the squeeze on funds in the federal funds sector has been severe, it is 
in the private funds area that the most difficulty has been experienced 
during fiscal year 1970. Income from endowment funds and from cur- 
rent investments increased only slightly, yet costs were affected by the 
same inflationary influences, particularly the need to match for our 
privately funded employees the increase in salaries and wages given 
federally funded employees. 

Income from the Institution's endowment funds and current invest- 
ments is largely dedicated to restricted purposes. The Freer Gallery, 
for example, received nearly half of the total endowment fund income 
in fiscal year 1970, with other restricted funds taking an additional 
one-quarter. Thus, the total unrestricted private-fund income from 
endowments and current fund investments amounted to only about 
$340,000 for the year, and this must be largely used to. buttress our 
shortages on the federal side, a most unfair strain on these resources. 

Disbursements of private unrestricted funds exceeded this income 
by more than $1,000,000 in fiscal year 1970. The largest single factor 
in this result was the start-up expenses relating to our new Smithsonian 
magazine. It is expected that a good portion of these unusual start-up 
costs may be recovered from private donations from those interested 
in the Smithsonian's effort to widen greatly its educational efforts. 
For the future, furthermore, there are present indications that the new 
magazine and membership program will be able to pay their own way. 
The cost of subsidizing other private-fund activities, notably the 
Smithsonian Institution Press and the Division of Performing Arts, 
also rose substantially during the past year. Thus the combined costs 
of magazine start-up and subsidies to the various activities were well 
in excess of unrestricted private-fund income and produced the large 
loss of funds previously referred to. This loss in the operating account, 
together with the tying up of an additional $1,000,000 of unrestricted 
funds in the carrying out of grant and contract projects, acted to 



22 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

reduce cash balances severely. The cash position was restored at year 
end by the influx of magazine subscription monies. Other cash drains, 
hopefully less severe than those of fiscal year 1970, may be experienced 
for temporary periods in the future. 

As in the case of federal funds, strong efforts are now being made 
to prevent a recurrence of deficits in the private-fund sector. Expenses 
are being reduced where possible with the elimination of low-priority 
projects or the release of employees. At the same time, increasing 
management attention is being given to our revenue-producing 
activities such as the Museum Shops, the Press, and the Division of 
Performing Arts. At year end a restudy of our entire accounting system 
was being carried out to permit improved management reports and 
possibly less costly fiscal operations in the future. 

Finally, the groundwork has been laid for a major fund-raising 
effort through the establishment in September 1969 of a Development 
Office, and the subsequent launching of our Smithsonian Associates 
national membership campaign. Through these efforts we plan to 
raise sufficient funds to complete our purchase program for the 
Chesapeake Bay Center and certain other immediate needs; over the 
next five- to ten-year period it is hoped that unrestricted endowment 
funds can be increased very substantially to restore a better balance 
between private-fund and federal-fund support. As Joseph Henry 
pointed out years ago, our private funds must be protected in order 
to accomplish our goals of research and instruction and not used, like 
plugs in a dyke, to underwrite gaps in our federal support. 

A separate but major fund-raising activity is also being undertaken 
on behalf of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design and Decorative 
Arts. Several million dollars will be required within the next few 
years to allow this museum to complete the renovation of the 
Carnegie Mansion in New York City to become the new home for 
the Cooper-Hewitt collections and art courses. 

Gifts Received 

The Smithsonian continued during the year to be most fortunate 
in attracting substantial donations for specific purposes related to its 
established fields of activity. The most outstanding have been two 
gifts totaling $6,000,000 to support an expanded program of under- 
water oceanography. The donors wish to remain anonymous, but we 
are pleased to express again here our deep appreciation. 

In addition, gifts for current projects were received in the amount 
of $2,000,000. Our program for the purchase of additional land areas 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 23 

at our Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Sciences has made 
excellent progress thanks to $575,000 of contributions from the Richard 
K. Mellon Foundation, the Scaife Foundation, Old Dominion Founda- 
tion, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, Laurel Foundation, and 
Prospect Hill Foundation. For these and for th'e host of other gifts 
by persons and organizations we are deeply grateful. 

Endowment Funds 

The addition of the $6,000,000 of oceanographic support funds, 
the bequest of $291,000 from the George F. Becker estate for the 
advancement of geophysics, and the transfer of about $30,000 in 
endowment funds of the Archives of American Art, raised the book 
value of our total endowment funds to $32,600,000 as of 30 June 
1970. The market value of these funds, has, of course, been severely 
affected by the sharp decline in stock values during the past year; 
income from the funds, however, has continued to increase, albeit 
slowly; total value at year end was approximately $33,000,000. 

The Smithsonian Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts and 
bequests received from the following: 

$100,000 or more: 

George F. Becker Estate 

J. Seward Johnson 

Richard King Mellon Foundation 

$10,000 or more: 

American Federation of Information Processing Society 

Andreas Foundation 

State of Arkansas 

Asia Foundation 

Charles and Rosanna Batchelor Memorial, Inc. 

Battele-Memorial Institute 

Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation 

Consolidated Fine Arts, Ltd. 

Corporation for Public Broadcasting 

William H. Crocker 

Martin L. Ehrmann Company 

L. A. Fleishman 

The Ford Foundation 

J. Paul Getty 

The Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Foundation 

George Gund Foundation 

Interdisciplinary Communication Associates 

International Business Machines Corporation 

J.D.R. 3rd Fund, Inc. 



24 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



James E. Jones, Jr. 

Junior League of Washington 

Chas. F. Kettering Foundation 

Laurel Foundation 

Edwin A. Link 

H. Bradley Martin Charitable Foundation 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

Eugene and Agnes E. Meyer Foundation 

National Geographic Society 

National Home Library Foundation 

The Marjorie Merriweather Post Foundation of D.C. 

Prospect Hill Foundation 

Hattie M. Strong Foundation 

Tai Ping Foundation 

Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 

Wenner-Gren Foundation 



$1,000 or more: 

John Wyatt Gregg Allerton 

American Sheep Council 

American Society of Civil Engineers 

Atlantic Richfield Company 

Barra Foundation, Inc. 

The William Benton Foundation 

The Brook Foundation 

David Bruce 

Cincinnati Inquirer Foundation 

Louise. Crane Foundation 

Mrs. Priscella Cunningham 

Bruce Dowling 

Educational Service Programs, Inc. 

General Electric Foundation 

General Foods Corporation 

The Grant Foundation, Inc. 

Mary Livingston Grigg and 

Mary Griggs Burke Foundation 
Grossman Publications, Inc. 
Winston Guest 

William & Elsie Knight Foundation 
Irene Lewisohn 
EH Lilly 

Charles A. Lindbergh 
Harold Linder 
Link Foundation 
Marriott Foundation 
Ingraham Merrill Foundation 



Morton D. May, Jr. 

Mobil Oil Company 

Mrs. Irene Morden 

Galerie-Verein Munchen 

National Area Council, Inc. 

The New World Foundation 

Mrs. John Newington 

Nilon Brothers 

Occidental International Corporation 

Oklahoma Society 

Oliver Foundation 

Olympia Airways 

Ozark Regional Commission 

Reader's Digest Foundation 

Mrs. Augustus Riggs IV 

Sidney Printing & Publishing Company 

C.R. Smith 

Southeast Asia Advisory Group 

E.R. Squibb & Sons, Inc. 

Standard Oil Co. 

Taiwan Government 

Tecumseh Products Company 

University of Michigan 

United States Steel Foundation, Inc. 

Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation 

William C. Whitney Foundation 

Wilkie Brothers Foundation 

Thomas Williams 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 



25 



$500 or more: 

American Philosophical Society 

Mrs. Cicely D' A. Angleton 

Arrow, Inc. 

Clay P. Bedford 

Bell & Howell Foundation 

Jacob Blaumstein 

Chrysler Art Museum 

E.H. Walker 

Earth Science Imports 

International Association for Geodsey 

Donald Karshan 



Dorothy V. Lee 

Motion Picture Association 

Olin Corporation Trust 

Ralph Rinzler 

David Rockefeller 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard Rogers 

Ann Sayen 

Roger Stevens 

Mrs. Kamiyo Tamesa 

Yonderbrook Foundation 



We also gratefully acknowledge other contributions in the amount of 
$14,616.24 received from 302 persons during 1970. 



SCIENCE 



Tf there is a common bond of interest among all the activities of 
-*• the Smithsonian Institution — Science, History, Art, the Humanities 
— it is a common concern with development, the development of 
human behavior (as shown in man's response to his physical and socio- 
logical environment, and historically, as shown by his artifacts and pro- 
ductivity) and the development of nonhuman organisms and their re- 
lationship to their environment, both terrestrial and cosmic. The his- 
tory and development of natural phenomena and the characterization 
of natural events as an indirect influence on these developments fills 
out our sphere of interest in a way that is most likely to provide us 
with an understanding of man and his universe. 

Within the scientific portion of this sphere, the activities of the 
Smithsonian Institution are focused primarily on what may properly 
be called natural history. This term, once pejorative, encompasses a 
breadth of interest now recognized as necessary to an understanding of 
our total environment. We are attempting to elucidate the interrela- 
tionships between whole organisms, communities, and populations 
with the physical, chemical, and geological factors which play a role in 
the total ecology of the earth, now and in past ages. We are concerned 
also with the impact on these relationships of extraterrestrial phenom- 
ena. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and solar effects are perhaps 
the most easily recognized. Astrophysical investigations which in their 
purest form consist of theoretical physics and mathematics are carried 
out in attempts to explain the mechanics of the universe. The contri- 
bution to our knowledge from these investigations, moreover, helps us 
to understand the geophysical events on earth that in turn improve 
our understanding of their effects on living systems over time and 
space. We hope that by moving on a broad intellectual front we can 
take advantage of all new techniques and information gained through 
a naturally related group of disciplines. The Smithsonian Institution 
is fortunate and perhaps unique in having this range of competence 
and in being sufficiently free of specificly assigned "missions'" that we 
can permit ourselves this broad goal. 



29 



30 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

National Museum of Natural History 

Research projects continued or concluded; plans were evolved and 
carried out; expeditions departed and returned; collections were loaned 
and received again; but it was not a year of "business as usual." These 
and countless other activities were accomplished against a background 
fabric of increasing tension, woven of uncertainties. If ivory towers 
existed here earlier, they have long since crumbled, spilling their occu- 
pants into the midst of the concerns that involve us all. During the 
year a number of the staff participated in radio programs and 
television presentations designed to increase awareness of the great 
national issues and to provide a free, open forum for discussion of 
them by the citizenry. 

Decreasing resources in the past few years for carrying forward 
research-curation-education programs in the Museum became a major 
preoccupation in the latter half of the year. Reductions in "buying 
power," caused by near-level funding, inflation, and general pay raises, 
have been met in recent years by progressive reorganization in many 
of the Museum departments (resulting in greater efficiency of opera- 
tions), but also by unfortunate postponements of expenditures. Unless 
relief is provided, the present slowing of progress in the increase and 
diffusion of knowledge of the natural world and in the care of the 
national collections will be further evidenced in the years ahead. 

In spite of such difficulties, it was a year characterized by a large 
volume of research publications, some of which received national at- 
tention by special awards, and the continued evolution of interdisci- 
plinary, interdepartmental investigations that reflect the deepening 
relevancy of the natural sciences to today's troubled world. Although 
it was a productive period, only the most significant accomplishments 
can be recorded in the following pages. 

Only a portion of the funds ordinarily allotted to the Office of Sys- 
tematica was actually available, but partial support was provided, 
among other things, for initiating two experimental behavior projects, 
for assisting with the further development of electronic data-processing 
applications in the Museum, and to stage the annual Summer Insti- 
tute in Systematics. This year's Institute brought together botanical 
and zoological systematists to discuss the full panoply of systematic 
biology, with joint sponsorship of the American Society of Plant 
Taxonomists and the Society of Systematic Zoology. 









SCIENCE 31 

RESEARCH 

Within days after the beginning of the new fiscal year, millions of 
television viewers saw the first footprint in the surface dust of the 
moon. In the Department of Mineral Sciences, after many years of 
research on randomly acquired extraterrestrial rocks — meteorites — 
the sight of the astronauts bagging the first lunar rocks had a signifi- 
cance even beyond that for most viewers. Now, the preceding man- 
years of thought, training, and experimentation were to be put to the 
ultimate challenge of elucidating the history and evolution of the 
moon from these samples. 

Preparations to meet this challenge have been steadily accelerated 
in recent years by the addition of staff and equipment, and by the 
intensive investigation of possible meteoritic and terrestrial analogs 
of lunar materials. Techniques for sampling and sectioning such rare 
and unique specimens have been carefully developed in this depart- 
ment. Indeed, the first member of our team to actually handle the 
Apollo 11 collections was chief preparator Grover C. Moreland, who 
was called upon by the National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion to oversee the sectioning laboratory at the Lunar Receiving Lab- 
oratory, and who made some of the first sections after the rocks were 
released from quarantine. Samples of Apollo 1 1 materials were re- 
ceived at the Museum in mid-September, and since then virtually 
everyone in the department has been actively involved in this inte- 
grated research effort. Samples from the Apollo 12 mission began 
arriving in April and are still being received. Thanks to the breadth of 
our scientific capability, we have been able to plan and execute a truly 
comprehensive investigation of the lunar materials — their chemical 
and mineralogical composition, and the interpretation of these data — 
to provide a tentative account of their petrologic history and evolu- 
tion. 

Although the samples we received were small (totaling less than an 
ounce), we were able to extract from them a remarkable variety of 
rock and mineral fragments. Among these was a unique object, a small 
metallic spheroid four millimeters in diameter. It evidently formed as 
a droplet of nickel-iron from a metallic meteorite which crashed on the 
moon. The surface of this spheroid is spotted with small craters, the 
product of impacts of lunar particles traveling at supersonic velocities. 
In its shape and surface features it mimics the moon itself, so we have 
called it our "mini-moon." A photograph of this object was chosen 
for the front cover of the issue of Science (30 January 1970) devoted 
to the initial reports on the Apollo 1 1 investigations. 

On 27 April, Dr. Edward P. Henderson, who led the departmental 



32 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



team's study of the "mini-moon," received the National Academy of 
Sciences' Lawrence Smith Medal for nearly forty years of distinguished 
contributions to meteorite research. 

The study of the microscopic anatomy of bone has the potential of 
providing valuable metabolic data on human skeletal populations, and 
has led to new areas of research, such as the ecological influences on 
bone metabolism in two or more populations. There are two fun- 
damental facts that allow bone biology to be used in studies of life 
processes: (1) Although the primary function of bone is structural, it 
is also importantly involved in metabolic processes by providing a 
source of calcium and phosphate; and (2) living bone responds to both 
structural and physiological stresses by a continuous process of re- 
modeling. Because bone microstructure follows a developmental se- 
quence during the entire life of an individual, it can provide a most 
useful means for studying aging and disease. Recent studies of polished 




A nickel-iron spheroid, 4 mm in diameter, from the Apollo 1 1 material, which 
epitomizes much of lunar history. A meteorite crashed into the moon, being 
melted by the impact and producing a rain of liquid droplets, of which this is 
one. It has been abraded by lunar dust and struck by high-velocity lunar par- 
ticles, producing the remarkable craters on its surface. 



SCIENCE 33 

thin sections of tibia bones of normal, diseased, and alcoholic individ- 
uals demonstrated statistically significant differences between the 
normal and abnormal bone. 

Comparative studies of fossil organisms and their modern counter- 
parts continue to be a fruitful approach to understanding paleo-ecol- 
ogy, functional morphology, and ultimately the evolutionary relation- 
ships upon which a valid classification can be erected. Among numer- 
ous staff contributions to our knowledge of the evolution of fossil 
Recent groups, an especially important one was concerned with the 
radiation of Cenozoic planktonic Foraminifera. Through analysis of 
morphotypic groups, rather than through the traditional taxa, it was 
shown that the planktonic Foraminifera underwent two major radia- 
tions during the Cenozoic. The first began in the Paleocene, was com- 
pleted by Eocene, and ended with extinction of all groups except the 
globigerines by Oligocene. The second radiation began in the Miocene 
and the groups evolved are still extant. Distribution patterns of the 
radiation were repetitive; in both cases similar complex morphotypic 
groups appeared while the simpler globigerine group persisted 
throughout the Cenozoic. By analogy with studies of planktonic Fo- 
raminifera in modern oceans over a period of years, it was concluded 
that the repetitive patterns are probably due to major changes in the 
structure of water masses during the Cenozoic. 

Investigations of living invertebrate animals involved principally 
aquatic organisms, both marine and freshwater groups. The comple- 
tion of a monograph on the entocytherid ostracods of Mexico and 
Cuba is noteworthy because the entocytherids occur in association 
with crayfishes, and an understanding of their distribution patterns, as 
well as those of their crayfish hosts, and of the ecological interrelation- 
ships of both groups are required for an understanding of the orgin and 
evolution of these common freshwater animals. 

The littorinid snails, common inhabitants of the intertidal zone, 
were the subject of another monograph completed during the year; 
part one included the subfamily Littorininae in the Indo-Pacific 
region. Basic information on this widely distributed group had been 
scattered in the literature and was not generally available to the 
nonspecialist. The author combined a literature survey, studies of old 
collections, and extensive field work to produce a work that will be the 
standard reference for malacologists and ecologists interested in the 
organisms of the intertidal zone. 

A museum is not only a place in which scientists study preserved 
specimens, but also where it is entirely possible to conduct valuable 
research on living plants and animals. Although the facilities required 
are still very limited, behavioral studies are underway on two major 



34 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

groups of vertebrate animals. Earlier systematic investigations of 
many fish groups were based exclusively on morphological and, to a 
lesser extent, on anatomical data. Aquaria are now in operation in the 
Museum for studying the behavior of some of the smaller fishes with 
the hope that it may provide additional systematic characteristics to 
differentiate species. 

Similar observations are being made on locomotion in frogs, based 
on anatomical and skeletal materials and on controlled experiments 
with living amphibians. Jumping and climbing adaptations are re- 
ceiving particular attention by the use of motion-picture analysis, on 
the assumption that different species will have not only structural 
differences but behavioral ones as well. 

Botanical research spanned highly diverse projects, from floristics to 
cytology, monographs to evolutionary anatomy. Geographically, there 
is still a preponderance of concern for the plants of the tropics; contri- 
butions were completed or greatly advanced for floras of Venezuela, 
Costa Rica and Panama, Ceylon, Mexico, Santa Catarina (Brazil), 
Dominica, and the islands of the Pacific. 

The temperate latitudes were not neglected, for the Flora North 
America Project, midway in its planning phase, will bring a new era 
to floristic research and practice. Although the program is administra- 
tively centered at the Smithsonian, North American botanists gener- 
ally are cooperating in a massive long-term effort, aimed at bringing 
together existing knowledge of the flowering plants of this continent in 
an encyclopedic, computerized data bank. The existence of such a data 
base has obvious, direct application to current and future ecologic 
research for environmental enhancement, but it could also provide 
printouts of floras of the whole continent or any part of it in the fu- 
ture. The National Science Foundation granted funds to the American 
Institute of Biological Sciences for support of the project development, 
particularly the employment of a highly qualified systems develop- 
ment manager. 

The usefulness of plant anatomy for defining evolutionary pathways 
is unquestionable, but an especially valuable example was published 
during the year. Because there is scanty fossil evidence for one or the 
other view of the origin and evolution of flower form and structure, 
much of the thinking has been speculative and at times highly con- 
troversial. The origin of the inferior ovary, for example, has been 
assumed by most botanists to have occurred evolutionarily from the 
superior ovary by adnation of surrounding flower parts. A recent 
anatomical study of the floral anatomy of one of the Ginseng family 
showed, among other things, that the ovary in this group of plants has 



SCIENCE 35 

undergone an evolutionary reversal from the inferior to the superior 
position, a reversal never previously reported in any plant family. 

In spite of considerable loss of time for moving back into the 
Museum, the Department of Entomology and associated Department 
of Agriculture entomologists are again housed with the rest of the 
natural sciences, and research continued at a high level. The sixth and 
seventh volumes of a long-term study of Edward Meyrick's types at 
the British Museum were published this year. Meyrick was a very 
prolific describer of new species and genera of microlepidoptera; but 
because he failed to provide either adequate descriptions or illustra- 
tions, it has been almost impossible to place his taxa in modern sys- 
tems of classification. This multivolume work is an invaluable asset to 
systematic entomologists, including as it does original references, rede- 
scriptions, and photographs of the wings and genitalia. 

In addition to numerous individual research efforts, a departmental 
project on the biosystematics of Ceylonese insects was initiated with a 
grant of excess-currency funds and the approval of the cosponsoring 
National Museums of Ceylon and other government agencies. The first 
field party carried out life history studies, obtained behavioral and 
ecological data, and returned after three months with 150,000 speci- 
mens. The Ceylon project affords the opportunity to broaden the 
similar studies that have been carried out in the New World tropics in 
past years. The Ceylonese will benefit by receiving ecological and life 
history information, and identified specimens that will have great 
potential significance for improvements in agriculture and public 
health. 

COLLECTIONS 

Specimens, samples of the natural world, are biological standards, 
the documentation for what we know about the kinds of organisms 
now and in the geologic past, their geographic distribution, their vari- 
ability, and their evolutionary history. Together with the literature of 
more than two hundred years, collections are the basic tool without 
which systematic biology may not proceed soundly. 

There is a growing awareness now that these standards are also 
critical for any ecological research aimed at improving environmental 
quality. Collections and their associated data permit serious considera- 
tion of restoring quality because they provide the most authoritative 
information on what grew where and when and under what conditions. 
And so the national collections of natural history objects continue, as 
they must, to increase, but under restraints that assure the most sig- 



36 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

nificant additions. For example, one need only review the large 
growth-areas — mammals and insects. As a part of a much larger pro- 
gram, 7,500 small mammals were collected by a staff team in Morocco 
along with data on habitat preferences, reproductive biology, food 
habits, and their ectoparasites. Nearly 100,000 collections of water 
beetles were made by one staff researcher during the year in support of 
his project to understand the biology of these pollution-indicator 
organisms. Collections are rarely purchased, and then they must meet 
very exacting criteria. The largest museum collection is not perforce 
the best, and even with adequate space and technical assistance, 
neither of which is more than minimal, a high degree of organiza- 
tional skill and judgment is required to meet problems of caring for 
such large numbers of collections. 

The concept of a centralized specimen-processing laboratory, first 
implemented by the anthropologists, has now been adopted in other 
departments as resources and attitudes permit. In March the Herbari- 
um Services Unit was established by the botanists with one of their 
number serving as the first supervisor for all the technical assistants. 
The entomologists have concentrated support services in an Entomol- 
ogy Preparation Laboratory that carries on many of the curatorial 
activities of the department. 

While these efforts are still evolving, it is possible to be helpful to 
other collections centers in such matters. In fact, one of the outstand- 
ing events of the year was a cooperative training program involving 
George Metcalf, supervisor of the Anthropology Processing Labora- 
tory. Metcalf, who was later awarded an honorary doctorate degree by 
Luther College, spent two weeks in the new Archeological Museum at 
the college setting up a cataloging and accessioning system with a 
group of enthusiastic students who now are able to organize the 
museum's collections. 

The twin problems of collections space and curatorial assistance to 
manage them must be solved if the national collections are to continue 
to be useful biological standards in the future. Over the years methods 
for organizing data about and from collections have been developed, 
but the data are collected by hand and then made available in such 
forms as cards, catalogs, and check lists. Retrieval of data in such form 
is slow, inflexible, and inadequate for the kinds of research being 
organized and initiated. 

Given the wide availability of computers and their ability to store 
and retrieve endless quantities of information, it is the responsibility of 
collections managers to study the potential of this tool and chart coop- 
erative programs for putting it to the service of museums and science 
generally. Initial consideration must be given to the kinds and quanti- 



SCIENCE 37 

ties of information the collections contain and the ways in which com- 
puters can handle it. Then, agreement must be reached on a level of 
effort at which to attack the volume and complexity of the potential 
data base. Every precaution must be taken to assure that the data 
organized at this stage are automatically transferrable to the next level 
of attack where more complete information may be added later. 

A three-year pilot project to initiate and test flexible, open-ended 
storage and retrieval programs was concluded at the end of the year. 
The results were sufficiently successful to encourage at least the 
larger systematic museums to begin very deliberate cooperative plan- 
ning. For highly practical reasons, the first efforts in the Museum have 
been and for a time will continue to be at the level of incoming col- 
lections. That is, data from new materials will be captured and stored 
in the system. Retrospective capture of data from older collections will 
initially be largely limited to type specimens, except as special needs 
arise for which fiscal support is available. 

The next step for museums is to agree among themselves on ( 1 ) 
what curatorial data will be input to our common data base, (2) the 
format for recording these data elements, (3) the terminology to 
describe geography, geological periods, scientific names, etc., and (4) 
the means by which all scientists can gain free access to the data in the 
common base. The National Museum of Natural History is working 
closely with the other important systematic collections centers in the 
evolution of long-term, feasible plans for meeting present and future 
data-transfer problems. 

Within the Museum several units are already in the source data- 
capturing stage with respect to newly received materials — marine 
invertebrates, oceanic rocks, mammals, and sea birds. A project on the 
botanical type collections is underway in the National Herbarium in 
cooperation with four other major plant-collection centers. As an 
example of the prospects for data-processing techniques to improve 
curatorial management, the new procedures in handling paleontolog- 
ical specimens involve the recording of data by machines on standard 
catalog sheets at the initial processing of the incoming specimens. 
Machine operation then automatically processes the data to provide 
labels of two sizes, other records as needed, and then stores the data on 
tape for later transfer to the data banks. The program increases the 
capabilities of the supportive staff and will lessen enormous backlogs 
of unprocessed specimens. 

These are starts toward the long-range goal of making the collec- 
tions more significant to today's issues. If the national collections are 
truly biological standards, we who are the keepers must be prepared to 
discard traditional practices when they no longer adequately meet 



38 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

needs. If the standards fail to provide the information needed to solve 
problems, they will cease to have importance to anyone but ourselves. 

EXHIBITS 

Museums generally are hesitating at an exhibits crossroads; dissat- 
isfaction with what exists is widespread at all levels; but the course 
of other, better routes remains undefined except in general terms. With 
exhibits funds already deficient, experimentaion cannot be afforded. 
Consequently, very little was accomplished with respect to long-term 
exhibit halls, but several temporary exhibitions of timely subjects were 
presented — a photographic story of volcanoes, installation in the Life 
in the Sea Hall of an aquarium containing two Grown-of-Thorns star- 
fish, and a small exhibit of some of the natural history of Malaya in 
celebration of Alfred Wallace's studies in that region. 

One of the more exciting events during the year was the placing on 
exhibit of an incredibly large Indian tiger. This splendid gift of David 
J. Hasinger of Philadelphia was beautifully mounted and prepared for 
exhibition by noted taxidermist-artist Louis Jonas. The display depicts 
the great cat in mid-air pursuit of a small Axis deer, and the accom- 
panying labels stress the endangered-species status of the tiger. 

In midyear an Air Force plane arrived in Washington with a block 
of earth eight feet long, weighing about two tons. Encased within that 
block are the remains of an ancient man recovered from a cave in 
northern Spain last year. Handling such a block posed great problems 
for the local Spanish museum, so the Smithsonian offered to apply the 
proper conservation techniques as a contribution to international 
science, in return for the privilege of exhibiting it for the first time. 
Study and preparation are underway to put this ancient burial on 
exhibit in the new year. 

SCIENTIFIC SERVICES 

There are at least two general ways by which scientific assistance 
can be provided to the public and to other scientists. Formerly, there 
was great emphasis given to the direct route, which consisted of the 
staff occupying major parts of its time to provide identifications of 
anything from everywhere, literally by the thousands each year. Now 
there is a deliberate effort made to answer such needs on a priority 
basis, depending largely on the use to which the information will be 
put, and most of the scientists' time goes into research that is designed 



SCIENCE 39 

to provide more and better answers to larger and more significant 
questions of society. 

During the past few years a population explosion of the poisonous 
starfish Acanthaster planci, which feeds on living coral, has occurred 
in the Pacific. These infestations were first noticed on the Great Bar- 
rier Reef of Australia and have now been found at Guam as well as 
other islands within the United States Trust Territory. Many square 
miles of coral reefs are known to have been destroyed by this starfish. 
Coral reefs not only form a living protective barrier for these islands 
but also provide the foundation of the marine ecology that supports 
the reef fish, the main source of protein for the residents of the islands. 
This protection and food supply are now being threatened. Staff 
scientists participated in surveys to determine the extent of the infesta- 
tion in the Territory islands in order to obtain information needed to 
plan for research into the causes of the population increase, its short- 
and long-term effects on coral reefs, and to develop control measures. 

The results of scientific research are not always readily useable by 
nonspecialists or the layman, so semipopular/semitechnical field iden- 
tification manuals are published. The Catalogue of Neotropical Squa- 
mata is a good example of such service publications. Simple keys, 
descriptions, synonymies, and geographic distribution in both English 
and Spanish enable anyone interested in reptiles of the neotropics to 




Thomas Phelan injecting the coral-eating Crown-of-Thorns (Acanthaster planci) 

with formalin at Eniwetok Atoll. 



40 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

recognize species encountered in field studies and achieve some under- 
standing of their biology. 

Similarly, interest on the part of public and military health author- 
ities in South Asia has resulted in illustrated identification manuals 
to the mammals and to the snakes of Vietnam. Published by the 
Smithsonian Institution Press with assistance from the Department of 
Navy, both volumes are intended for the serious student rather than 
the layman. 

Scientists from several departments also collaborated in the prepara- 
tion of material for a deck of cards on which is printed survival infor- 
mation for personnel in Southeast Asia. One surface of each card 
depicts in color a dangerous or useful species of animal, and the other 
side gives specific points for recognition, hints for eating, if edible, 
etc. The cards were produced under a contract with the Department 
of Navy as a service. 



National Air and Space Museum 



The year 1969 witnessed the retirement of two valued and impor- 
tant officials of the Museum : Director S. Paul Johnston, and Assistant 
Director and Senior Historian Paul Edward Garber. 

Mr. Johnston retired 31 August 1969 after serving five years as 
Director. His skill at planning and organization was applied success- 
fully to planning the new building to house the National Air and 
Space Museum on the Mall in Washington. Several important legisla- 
tive steps toward the construction of the new building were accom- 
plished during his five years of service, culminating in Congressional 
action authorizing the construction. Mr. Johnston organized and di- 
rected well-conceived programs for preservation of the collection and 
their management for research and study. The program for the selec- 
tion, acquisition, and circulation of significant space craft and materi- 
el, which will have far-reaching consequences for the Museum, was 
instituted under Mr. Johnston's direction. Pie was a dedicated advocate 
of a high priority for the rapid development of the new building and 
the programs of the Museum. 

Mr. Garber retired 28 February 1969, after forty-nine years of ser- 
vice at the Smithsonian Institution dedicated to the aircraft collection 
and the National Air and Space Museum. He is widely known and 
respected for his lectures and his deep knowledge of the history of 



SCIENCE 41 

aircraft and flight, as well as for his success in making this history 
meaningful in scholarship at all levels of education. The Muse- 
um's collection of aircraft, the most comprehensive in the world, is a 
monument to his accomplishment. As a collector without equal he 
performed prodigious feats of enlisting the volunteer support of the 
Armed Services and many other public and private agencies in provid- 
ing facilities and services for the collection when the resources of the 
Smithsonian could not keep up with his success. Mr. Garber continues 
his service to the Museum as a Ramsey research associate and trustee 
of the Admiral and Mrs. DeWitt Clinton Ramsey Fund. 

Following the policy of the past several years, the major effort of 
the Preservation and Restoration Division was devoted to the mainte- 
nance of the collections. The great increase in the astronautics col- 
lections, however, and the demand to exhibit these artifacts through- 
out the world, made it necessary to devote considerable time to restora- 
tion. 

The time devoted to the various types of work performed was 
divided as follows: collection maintenance 50 percent, restoration 39 
percent, exhibits in the Museum 8 percent, and miscellaneous services 
3 percent. 

Approximately 3500 new specimens were received, 85 percent of 
which concerned astronautics, and 15 percent aeronautics. A total of 
775 specimens were processed through inventory, identification, catalog- 
ing, and warehousing. 

Among the highlights of the year was the initiation of a trial series 
of student seminars at the Preservation and Restoration Division with 
the cooperation of the Department of Academic Programs. About 90 
secondary-level students from three representative schools took part 
in this program, which visually illustrated the evolution of propulsion 
systems, aircraft, rockets, and space-craft by using the actual hardware 
from the study collections set up and arranged for close examination 
and discussion. There are now approximately 75 major specimens 
from the study collection available for curatorial study, educational 
programs, and the use of visiting researchers. 

The Aeronautics Department was active in experimental education 
projects utilizing the collection, in collaboration with the Smithsonian 
Associates ("Introduction to Flight") and the University of Maryland. 
The year's major acquisition was the Hawker Hurricane from the 
Royal Air Force, in commemoration of the Battle of Britain Day, 
15 September 1969. 

Mr. Paul Edward Garber's retirement further reduced the profes- 
sional staff. The activities of the remaining two professionals are 



42 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 




Restoration shops of the National Air and Space Museum, preservation and 
restoration facility. Specimens shown are part of the study collection and are 
assembled for restoration and study programs. 



limited to servicing day-to-day correspondence and short-range proj- 
ects. One of the major projects during the year was the preparation, 
shipment, and installation of the Lockheed Sirius aircraft in a special 
exhibit building at Osaka, Japan, for Expo '70. The aircraft is the one 
in which Charles and Ann Morrow Lindbergh surveyed the Arctic air 
route to the Orient. 

The department has continued its program of loaning specimens 
under controlled conditions beneficial to both the Museum and the 
loanee. An interesting exchange brought a Packard B-12 engine into 
the collection in exchange for 1300 photos of Plains Indians (obtained 
through the cooperation of the National Museum of Natural History). 

The Department of Astronautics has two major responsibilities: (1) 
determining and authenticating the history of rockets and spaceflight, 
and (2) acquiring, restoring, and exhibiting specimens. 

The Museum's research material in astronautics is probably the 
largest available in the United States, and now includes the unique 
reference files for the Congreve and Hale rockets plus life-saving and 
whaling rockets. Historical photographs have been received and cata- 



SCIENCE 



43 




Lockheed Sirius flown by Colonel Charles A. and Anne Morrow Lindbergh on 
their historic "North to the Orient" air-route survey in 1931. Shown in "Wings 
Across the Pacific" Building in the American Park, Expo '70, Osaka, Japan. 



loged along with the acquisition of a sound-tape collection, from which 
the "To The Moon" (Time Life Records) set of records was drawn. 
Containing tapes of all manned flights through Apollo 11, this collec- 
tion of more than 1500 reels is one of the largest and most complete 
in the world. 

Through the NASA-Smithsonian agreement most of the Mercury 
and Gemini and four of the Apollo spacecraft have come to the Muse- 
um, along with some fifteen spacesuits, rocket motors, engineering 
mockups, and hundreds of component parts. Loans were made during 
the past year to the U. S. Information Agency, Department of Com- 
merce, and Department of Labor for overseas exhibits. Expo '70 at 
Osaka, among others, displayed the Apollo 8 command module, Gem- 
ini 12 spacecraft, Lunar Orbitor, spacesuits, and a Goddard rocket. 
An exhibit now touring in Europe includes the Apollo 10 command 
module, Gemini 10, Aldrin's lunar visor, lunar glove, Collin's cover- 
alls, Schirra's and Ander's Apollo spacesuits, all from the Museum's 
collections. More than thirty tons of space artifacts were received this 
year, much of which forms part of the "study and reference collection." 

During the Apollo 1 1 flight in July, both major networks used the 
Arts and Industries Building for interviews and historical background, 
for which purposes the building was permitted to remain open over- 



44 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 




Apollo 1 1 astronauts, left to right, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Michael Collins, and 
Neil Armstrong, at presentation of Lunar sample to the Smithsonian Institution, 
16 September 1969. 



night. In September nasa Administrator Thomas Paine and the 
Apollo 11 astronauts presented the 1.1 -pound specimen of lunar rock 
to the Museum. Consequently, attendance tripled in the next months 
and exceeded two million by the end of the fiscal year. 

The Department of Astronautics received hundreds of letters re- 
questing information concerning its specimens. Courses on the history 
of astronautics and the national space program were taught by the 
staff to youngsters of Smithsonian associates members. Frank H. Win- 
ter was awarded the Robert Goddard Historical Essay award for his 
paper on William Hale. 

In the vicinity of Washington, D.C., there exist the largest holdings 
of air and space documentation in the world. The primary responsi- 
bility of the Information and Education Department is to support the 



FY 1970 


FY 1969 


4000 


5400 


1300 


2100 


62 


61 


637 


467 


132 


69 


194 


119 



SCIENCE 45 

curatorial staff with the documentation needed to select, authenticate, 
and restore the artifacts needed to portray the evolutionary develop- 
ment of air and space technology. To supplement the nasm Histor- 
ical Research Center's extensive holdings, major documentation col- 
lections in the field of air and space technology are available from 
many other government and educational agencies. 

The second major responsibility of the Information and Education 
Department is serving the interested public, which encompasses the 
model builder, author, technologist, and other museums. The follow- 
ing figures show a comparison of this year's activities with last year's: 



Requests answered 

Visitors 

Donations (which include a large collection from 

Curtiss Wright Corporation of photographs) 
Photo orders processed 
New library titles received 
Total volumes received 

Over 10,000 items of correspondence were received during FY 1970. 



Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 



To meet the new scientific concerns of the 1970s, research at the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (sac) has been organized 
into three major program areas — the Earth as a Planet, the Solar 
System, and Energetic Phenomena in the Universe. These areas reflect 
not only the overall goals of the Observatory's investigations but also 
the interrelationships of many once-separate fields that now are seen 
as concerned with the "total environment of man." Within these gen- 
eral areas, however, some sixty investigators still pursue a broad range 
of individual projects, thus ensuring that the Observatory will main- 
tain the optimum balance between diversity and concentration. 

Studies of the earth as a planet extend from the outer reaches of its 
atmosphere and magnetosphere to its inner regions, with emphasis on 
the structure, composition, and gravity field of the earth and on the 
composition and physical processes of the atmosphere. 

During the past year, the Observatory published one major inter- 
national reference. The 1969 Smithsonian Standard Earth (II), and 
contributed significantly to another, The International Reference 
Atmosphere. 



46 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

The first refines the representation of the earth's size, shape, and 
gravitational field issued by sao in 1966 and since widely used as a 
model. The new Standard Earth shows that our planet has an intricate 
pattern of "highs and lows" in the earth's mean sea level relative to the 
spheroid; these are more widespread than the recognizable topograph- 
ical features usually associated with continental masses and ocean 
beds. The existence of these anomalies has been revealed by computer 
analysis of certain perturbations in the orbits of artificial satellites. 
The refinement was made possible by data from the new laser tracking 
systems at several sao stations and from deep-space probes, as well 
as by photographic and other data. 

Much of what is known about the earth's atmosphere above 200 
kilometers is based on Smithsonian analysis of satellite orbital data 
gathered over the past decade. Observatory scientists have shown that 
density variations in the atmosphere respond to a number of separate, 
but related, geophysical and solar factors. For example, Observatory 
scientists have found a correlation between satellite drag and solar 
activity. The latter heats the earth's upper atmosphere, thus increas- 
ing its density and resistance to the satellite motion. 

Observatory scientists also have discovered that diurnal heating of 
the upper atmosphere, and its resultant change in atmospheric density, 
lag about three hours behind the sun. Moreover, the heated bulge in 
the atmosphere is shaped somewhat like an elongated eye, with the 
broadest part at the equator and the tapered ends nearer the poles. 
Most recently, they found that the solar wind — high-energy particles 
ejected by the sun — also contributes to atmospheric heating. 

Sao investigations of the solar system include theoretical, labora- 
tory, and observational programs concerned with the moon and plan- 
ets, the sun, meteors and comets, and meteorites and cosmic dust. 

On 9 January 1970, near the hamlet of Lost City, Oklahoma, the 
field manager of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Prairie 
Network recovered a 22-pound fragment of a meteorite that had been 
photographed by the Network as the meteor fell to earth just six nights 
earlier. Within the next four months, three more fragments were dis- 
covered in the same area. This was only the second time in history — 
and the first time, intentionally — that meteoritical material photo- 
graphed entering the earth's atmosphere had been recovered from the 
ground. 

The rapid recovery of the Lost City meteorite allowed immediate 
analysis of its very short-lived radioisotopes created by cosmic-ray 
bombardment. Moreover, the photographic record of the meteor fall 
provides information on the meteorite's origin (from the asteroid belt 
beyond the orbit of Mars) and its loss of mass in flight. This informa- 



SCIENCE 47 

tion is particularly valuable because the meteorite proved to be a 
bronzite chondrite, a type that probably accounts for some 35 percent 
of all falls. Thus, Lost City can provide a standard reference for 
meteoriticists around the world. Moreover, the photographic data can 
be used to calibrate information gathered on thousands of bright 
meteors photographed by both the Prairie Network and other organi- 
zations. 

Because of the Observatory's experience in the analysis of recovered 
meteoritical material, three separate research groups were selected as 
principal investigators of lunar material returned by the Apollo 
astronauts. 

One research group has been engaged in the mineralogical and 
petrological studies of lunar sample particles through X-ray diffrac- 
tion and electron-microprobe techniques. These researchers have found 
an unexpected amount of gabbroic anorthosite in Apollo 1 1 samples. 
These anorthosite materials match the chemical composition of ma- 
terials from the lunar highlands, thus suggesting that the anorthosites 
may be mountain fragments tossed onto Mare Tranquillitatis (the 
Apollo 1 1 landing site) by cratering impacts. 

Another group has been conducting analyses of Apollo 11 and 12 
samples to measure precisely the amounts of argon 37 and tritium, 
radioactive isotopes created by cosmic-ray bombardment. This re- 
search not only reveals information concerning radiation levels on the 
moon but also provides indications of the exposure age of the samples 
themselves. In a parallel effort, a third group is conducting isotopic 
analyses of lunar samples with a laser to free the radioactive gases for 
mass-spectrometer study. 

Studies of energetic phenomena are concerned with the nature of 
newly discovered and largely unexplained sources of radiation far 
outside the solar system, as well as with the physical processes in 
stellar objects that hold clues to the creation and evolution of the 
universe. 

Proceedings of the April 1969 meeting on stellar atmospheres held 
jointly by sao and the Harvard College Observatory have now been 
published as Theory and Observation of Normal Stellar Atmospheres 
(mit Press: 1970). This standard reference work will provide a base- 
line for much stellar-physics research for the next five years. Specifi- 
cally, the book gives spectral and other data for a reference set of 68 
stellar atmospheres in an effective temperature range from 4000° 
to 50,000°. This grid of model atmospheres was computed entirely at 
the Observatory. 

A companion volume to the comprehensive SAO Star Catalog is- 
sued in 1966 has now been published by mit Press. The Smithsonian 



48 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

Star Atlas, a boxed collection of 152 individual sky charts, is a boon to 
professional and amateur astronomers alike. The same quarter of a 
million stars listed in the catalog are graphically depicted, with spe- 
cial designations of double stars and variable stars, as well as nonstel- 
lar objects such as galaxies, globular clusters, and planetary nebulas. 

Observing the universe at radio wavelengths with an 85-foot an- 
tenna, sao astronomers are searching for signals from chemical com- 
pounds not heretofore known to exist in space. Radiation of this type 
is thought to come from the extended cloud of rarefied gases between 
the stars. Concurrent laboratory studies are identifying other com- 
pounds possibly present in space and measuring their characteristic 
wavelengths, thus providing a basis for intensive searches with radio 
telescopes. 

A laboratory experiment performed jointly by personnel of the 
National Bureau of Standards and of the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory now indicates that laser emission by water vapor may be 
involved in the process that converts the energy of infrared stars into 
the microwave line radiation observed from water and hydroxyl mole- 
cules in space. The experiment shows that a far-infrared spectral line 
emitted by a water-vapor laser has nearly the same frequency as an 
infrared absorption line of the hydroxyl molecule. By tuning the hy- 
droxyl absorption line with a variable magnetic field, the experiment- 
ers determined the exact frequency difference and deduced that an 
optical pumping of the hydroxyl vapor could occur, at low pressures, 
when the two lines were brought into coincidence. In space, this fine 
tuning might be achieved by Doppler shifts. 

Smithsonian scientists are now analyzing the data produced by the 
Celescope experiment onboard nasa's second Orbiting Astronomical 
Observatory. More than 8500 photographs of over 2800 areas of the 
sky were made during the experiment's lifetime. The photographs 
provide brightness data for more than 25,000 stars in each of three 
ultraviolet regions and for a limited number of stars in a fainter 
region, as well as new information about the moon and comets and 
about hydrogen near the earth. 

The search for sources of ultra-high-energy gamma rays by the 
Observatory is being conducted with a 34-foot optical reflector at 
Mt. Hopkins and with balloon-borne detectors launched from Texas 
and India. The observations at Mt. Hopkins represent the most sensi- 
tive searches ever conducted. While no discrete sources have yet been 
conclusively identified, the Mt. Hopkins project has established new 
standards for determining "background noise," disproved several spu- 
rious sources, helped revise several theories, and produced valuable new 
information on the magnetic field of the Crab Nebula and that of the 



SCIENCE 49 

radio galaxy Virgo A. Ultimately, gamma-ray astronomy may pro- 
vide the key to our understanding of many phenomena, including 
magnetic fields, the density of matter, and high-energy particles in 
intergalactic space and radio sources. 

Astronomy seems poised ready to achieve a fuller understanding of 
the universe in the 1970s. The mysteries of pulsars, quasars, gamma 
rays, antimatter, and other possible keys to the evolution of the uni- 
verse are now nearer than ever to being solved. Naturally, success 
depends significantly on new instrumentation. Therefore, the Observa- 
tory has embarked on a long-range program to develop the advanced 
tools needed for the future. This year, for example, the Observatory 
installed at Mt. Hopkins a new 60-inch reflecting telescope for studies 
of stellar and planetary atmospheres. Also, production began on a 
series of advanced laser-ranging systems for both geophysical and 
lunar sciences. 

Looking to the future, the Observatory continued its design studies 
to determine the feasibility of constructing a very large, but inexpen- 
sive and lightweight, optical telescope using many small primary 
mirrors rather than a single large one. Also, development began on an 
improved hydrogen-maser system, the most precise timing device 
known, which could vastly improve the accuracy of many astronomical 
measurements. Finally, the Observatory continued to work on ad- 
vanced design concepts that might greatly reduce the cost of construct- 
ing the world's largest, fully steerable radio telescope. 

This foresighted approach to the development of new instrumenta- 
tion should allow the Observatory to meet the critical research 
requirements of this next decade. 



Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 



Competition for scarce resources and life space is an increasingly 
urgent problem of human society. It has always been a problem for the 
organisms of the tropics, where the greatest diversity of life-forms on 
earth produces intense competition among species. Understanding the 
outcome of this interaction — in effect, the reasons for evolutionary 
success or failure — is one of the principal objectives of the Smithson- 
ian Tropical Research Institute (stri). 

In this connection, we are also seeking to determine how and why 
tropical floras and faunas differ from those of the rest of the world. 



50 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

Diversities are greater in the tropics, ecological and behavioral rela- 
tions among species are more complex than elsewhere, and new and 
major types of adaptation to new ways of life are more likely to be 
evolved by tropical species than those of other regions. The scientists of 
the stri staff, research associates, fellows, visiting scientists, and ad- 
vanced students from institutions all over the world, are attempting 
to describe these features in more precise, quantitative, mathematical, 
or physical terms, and to discover causal relationships among them. 

Gaining such an understanding of the tropical environment is 
imperative. Human populations in the tropics are increasing very 
rapidly and are headed for ecological disaster in the absence of ade- 
quate information about their environment. In the north, we are con- 
cerned about air pollution, entrophication of lakes, and the deleterious 
effects of insecticides. In the tropics, the problems are more brutal. 
Areas such as the hill country of Colombia and Panama, and the 
whole island of Madagascar are fast becoming deserts. The basic 
features of tropical ecology must be understood as quickly as possible. 
Assembling new insight and understanding into a coherent picture of 
the tropics as a whole — where one half of mankind lives — is another 
continuing objective of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 
It offers a strong union of intellectual and environmental resources. 
Advances were made in both realms in 1970. 

During the year the community of workers in biology at stri grew 
to include 9 staff biologists, 4 predoctoral and 6 postdoctoral fellows, 
556 professional visitors (including 155 scientists and advanced stu- 
dents working at stri facilities for 4687 visitors days), from 62 uni- 
versities in 31 states and 19 countries. Twenty-four seminars by staff 
and visiting scientists were conducted at stri during this period. 

The year saw continuation of an orderly progress of stri re- 
search into the tropical environs. 

Exploration of marine areas was extended to the full length of the 
Isthmus of Panama. With United States Navy cooperation, dives were 
conducted in previously unexplored waters of the Pacific in western 
Panama. Large constructional coral reefs, populations of the Crown- 
of-Thorns starfish, nine species of fishes new to science and eleven new 
to the fauna of Panama, in addition to two species of hydrocorals pre- 
viously unreported in the eastern Pacific were the discovery highlights 
of the initial expeditions. In the San Bias Islands, off the eastern 
Panama Atlantic coast, a field team began exploration of complex reef 
communities. 

With a base camp at Barro Colorado Island, hydrobiologists 
launched comparative studies on the dynamics of lakes, both natural 



SCIENCE 51 

and man-made, in the lowlands and mountains of Panama, Colombia, 
and Costa Rica. 

On Barro Colorado Island itself, on a base of four decades of stud- 
ies, an accelerating effort — including sixteen studies of one year or 
longer — since 1965 is resulting in development of new methods for 
discerning environmental adaptive strategies. Under study are biologi- 
cal parameters such as reproductive strategies of forest trees, popula- 
tion dynamics, and social organizations of possibly key organisms, com- 
munication patterns and functions, and various questions of predatory 
adaptations, energetics, and phenological characteristics. Thus, cor- 
relative efforts may now proceed with greatly enhanced chances of 
success. 

Comparative studies elsewhere in the New World, and in the Old 
World, are adding important new dimensions to the data on Panama 
and are clarifying the distinctive biological role of the tropics. During 
the year the staff and fellows of stri extended comparative studies 
into the cold tropics of the Colombian Andes, into montane and low- 
land continental regions of West Africa and India which vary inter- 
estingly from Central America, and into the contrasting insular areas 
of Madagascar and New Guinea. 

Stri continued to concentrate on aspects of evolution, ecology, and 
behavior, combining experimental analysis in the laboratory with ob- 
servations in the field under natural conditions both in the Old and 
New World tropics. 

Adaptive strategies employed by organisms in their relationship to 
their environment are particularly complex and varied in the tropics. 
The adaptive aspects of plants, which have not been thoroughly stud- 
ied in the past, are the concern of several studies: the nature of the 
reproductive strategies employed by various tree species in the rich 
Barro Colorado Forest; in-depth studies to delineate the complex 
adaptations of orchids to their available insect resources; and com- 
parative studies of the structure of tropical forests in both the New 
and Old World. 

The largest migration in 26 years of the day-flying moth Urania 
fulgens was studied by Neal G. Smith. Billions of these conspicuous 
moths crossed the isthmus toward South America between August 
and October. Smith is trying to understand the adaptive significance 
of this almost yearly migration which has been mentioned repeatedly 
in newspaper and scientific literature as far back as the early 1800s. 

Adaptive mechanisms of organisms in the marine environment 
were brought under new study. Feeding experiments with visual fish 
predators of the sand beach isopod Ancinus have shown a preference 



52 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

for the most frequent pattern morph. This selective removal is con- 
sidered important in affecting the polymorphic population structure. 
The sea snake, Pelamis platurus, a docile, conspicuous, and highly 
poisonous animal which at times is exceedingly abundant at the sur- 
face along drift lines in the Pacific, was studied for its population 
movements and basic biology by Chaim Kropach. Ira Rubinoff experi- 
mented with potential fish predators of the snake in order to develop 
a colonization model of theoretical as well as applied significance 
should the animal gain introduction into the Atlantic. Pacific fishes 
have adapted to avoid the snake, while Atlantic fishes of apparently 
the same species eat them with avidity and are often bitten and die in 
the process. 

The partitioning of environmental resources among organisms is 
being studied from a variety of perspectives, and on a variety of 
species, with suprisingly different results in some cases. The relation- 
ships between food niche overlap and food availability in stream 
dwelling fishes was studied by Tom Zaret and A. Stanley Rand. They 
found evidence that the degree of overlap correlated well with prey 
abundance. On the other hand Henry Hespenheide has shown that 
over a broad range of species and feeding habits of birds, the width 
of niches as measured by prey size is a function only of the mean prey 
size, and thus is independent of such factors as prey abundance and 
foraging techniques of the birds. Related data gathered by Eugene 
Morton indicates that while adult vireos eat insects in the rainy sea- 
son, they eat fruit in the dry season when they breed, but feed their 
young insects. This may be adaptation to reduce intraspecific com- 
petition when insects are relatively scarce. 

Amazingly, it has taken fifty-four years after its creation for Gatun 
Lake to become a subject of intensive biological study. Z.M. Gliwicz 
of the University of Warsaw, Department of Hydrobiology, undertook 
a fifteen-month investigation of the primary and secondary productiv- 
ity of Gatun and Madden lakes, and extended this comparative 
analysis to lakes in Costa Rica and Colombia. A key purpose is to com- 
pare the ecological efficiency of the primary production utilization by 
plankton consumers in temperate and tropical lakes similar in mor- 
phometry and trophic characteristics. 

Intraspecific behavior is affected importantly by relations between 
species, and their adaptations, as reflected in their "communication 
systems." The ways in which "messages," whether simply or highly 
specialized signals, mediate among organisms, and with the environ- 
ment, is one of the principal pursuits of research at stri. A. Stanley 
Rand continued his studies of animal communication in amphibians 



SCIENCE 



53 




Acanthaster planci observed for first time in Central America along the Pacific 
shore of western Panama (Contreras Islands, 5 m depth, 30 April 1970). 
Feeding on Pavona. 




Underwater view of coral reef, a recently discovered community off southwestern 
coast of Panama (Secas Islands, 3 m depth, 1 May 1970). Such reefs were pre- 
viously thought not to exist along the Pacific shore of Panama. 



54 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

and reptiles. In collaboration with George Drewry of the Puerto Rican 
Nuclear Center, he analyzed the chorus structure in Puerto Rican 
frogs. They found that species that chorus together vocalize at dif- 
ferent frequencies, apparently to avoid interspecific jamming. Their 
vocalizations also differ in a number of other ways, presumably encod- 
ing other information. 

Coral reefs in the eastern Pacific have been considered typically 
represented by those in the relatively well-studied area of Panama 
Bay. Stri conducted two highly productive expeditions to the Secas 
and Contreras islands which have made it clear that the interpretation 
of biotic composition and species numbers between Atlantic and 
Pacific coasts have been biased. Coral reefs and associated fauna of 
considerable richness were found. Revealed for the first time along the 
Pacific Ocean in Central America were the occurrence of large con- 
structional coral reefs; populations of the Crown-of-Thorns starfish 
(Acanthaster), an important predator and an associated shrimp 
(Hymenocera) ; a coelenterate hydrocoral group represented by at least 
two species of the stinging form Millepora; and several fish species 
previously known only from the western Pacific biogeographic region. 

In its educational emphasis stri serves as an advanced studies 
center. Informal guidance and association mark the stri professional 
contribution to independent studies by visiting scientists, research 
fellows, and advanced students. More than seventy projects by visitors 
were accommodated in 1970. 

Seminar programs were offered and attended by staff and students 
from other research and educational institutions on the Isthmus of 
Panama. 

Stri scientists also extended their educational contributions else- 
where. During the year they conducted seminars at the University of 
Panama, University of California, University of Chicago, Cornell 
University, Harvard University, Rockefeller University, Washington 
University, and elsewhere. Courses were conducted at the University 
of Mexico by Dr. Dressier, at the University of Pennsylvania by Drs. 
Rand and Robinson, and at Princeton University by Dr. Leigh. 

The Organization of Tropical Studies conducted a major portion of 
its marine sciences summer course at stri. 

The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute is indebted for the 
continuing excellent cooperation extended by the government and 
agencies of the Republic of Panama, by the Panama Canal Company 
and Canal Zone government, by the United States Southern Command, 
and by our fellow research and educational institutions throughout the 
Isthmus of Panama, and in Colombia. 



SCIENCE 55 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 



From a number of small buildings in the old Astrophysical Observa- 
tory Yard south of the Smithsonian Building and a few small rooms 
scattered throughout the Smithsonian Building, the Radiation Biology 
Laboratory has been relocated to new modern quarters in Rockville, 
Maryland. The new facility is a two-story structure designed to meet 
specialized requirements of the areas of biological and environmental 
research relating to the program of the laboratory. The areas of inves- 
tigation are principally in the field of regulatory biology and include: 
( 1 ) physiology, ( 2 ) biochemical processes of developmental responses 
to light, and (3) measurement of solar radiation. In addition, the lab- 
oratory maintains a carbon-dating facility for archeological and 
anthropological research and for research and development in carbon- 
dating techniques. 

The new building provides about fifty thousand square feet of space 
and includes plant physiology, biochemistry, biophysics, genetics, and 
biology laboratories. There is a staff office, a general laboratory work 
area, small handling and preparation rooms, and special function 
rooms, such as controlled temperature units, drak-growth rooms, and 
light-treatment facilities. A Phillips, Model 300, electron microscope 
has been installed. Low-level counting systems for radiocarbon dating 
and a standards laboratory for photometric and radiometric calibrat- 
ing standards are being installed. Several large areas are planned for 
environmental control rooms, a temperature-controlled greenhouse, 
and specialized irradiation systems, such as monochromators for action 
spectra determinations. Installation of equipment is in progress. 

The support facilities for the laboratory include a small auditorium, 
a library, secretarial and administrative offices, and an instrument 
shop for servicing the laboratory research programs. 

The monitoring and recording of radiation measurements was con- 
tinued at the Mall location throughout the year. An additional facility 
at Rockville was installed and is functioning. The personnel comple- 
ment at the station in Jerusalem, Israel, was completed, and data are 
being accumulated on a continuous basis. A new radiometric instru- 
ment has been developed through joint efforts of the Smithsonian 
Radiation Biology Laboratory and Eppley Laboratories for extending 
the monitoring of spectral quality of daylight to include pre-sunrise 
and post-sunset periods when biological clocks are presumed to be 
activated. This area of solar radiation measurement is a new phase of 
investigation in physical measurements for biological purposes. 



56 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

In the research area of the electron microscopy study of the fine struc- 
ture of algae, recent evidence obtained revealed that there are major 
structural differences in the location of the phycobiliproteins (photo- 
synthetic accessory pigments). In red and blue-green algae they are 
aggregated on the stroma side of the photosynthetic lamellae, while in 
the photosynthetic cryptophyte algae, the phycobilins are located in 
the intrathylakoidal spaces. The known chemical and structural dif- 
ferences lead to the conclusion that these pigments appeared indepen- 
dently in evolutionary development. 

There have been several recent additions to the staff. Dr. Roy Hard- 
ing, geneticist, will assume the direction of work on chromosome 
aberrations induced by ultraviolet radiation and will also undertake 
work on the genetics of photoperiodism. Dr. Andrew Snope will assist 
with this work. Dr. Maurice Margulies has spent the past year on 
sabbatical leave at Harvard University. 

Despite curtailment of research necessitated by the relocation, a 
number of research papers were completed and published by members 
of the staff. Staff members participated in scientific meetings and 
conferences, both national and international. 



National Zoological Park 



The National Zoological Park celebrates this year the 80th anniver- 
sary of its founding in 1890. From a small menagerie housed in the 
rolling woodland of Rock Creek Park, it has grown into one of the 
important zoos of the world. 

One important action taken this year resulted in the Zoo being 
transferred from the budget of the District of Columbia to the appro- 
priation of the Smithsonian Institution. This will lead to a change of 
emphasis regarding education, conservation, and advancement of 
science and should lead to the development of a truly National Zoo, so 
that it will no longer be mistakenly referred to as "the Washington 
Zoo." 

The new hospital and research building was completed in December 
1969 and is partially occupied. The Scientific Research Department 
has already moved into its offices and laboratories. The Animal Health 
Department and the Office of the Pathologist will transfer to the new 
building shortly. The spacious, thoroughly modern facility is located 
near the Director's office on Administration Hill. 



SCIENCE 



57 




Madame Suharto, wife of the President of Indonesia, presents Dr. Reed with a 
photograph of the Komodo dragon, gift of her government. Mrs. Soedjatmoko, 
wife of the Indonesian Ambassador, looks on. 



Fieldwork in connection with the Ceylon elephant project, begun in 
1967, has been completed. This was headed by resident scientist, John 
F. Eisenberg and was undertaken as a Smithsonian project in coopera- 
tion with the Ceylon government. The primate study in that country 
is continuing. 

The status of the collection remains about the same. The aim of the 
National Zoological Park is to obtain collections of diversified animal 
groups, rather than solitary individuals, so that reproduction, espe- 
cially of rare species, may be encouraged. 1 



1 Certain tabulated, statistical, and other information formerly contained in 
the report of the National Zoological Park in the Smithsonian Year now appears 
as appendixes to the Separate of this Report (available on request from the 
Director of the National Zoological Park). This information contains: visitor 
statistics and other operational information ; report of the Veterinarian, aug- 
mented by case histories and autopsy reports; report of the pathologist; and 
complete lists of (a) animals in the collection on 30 June 1970; (b) all births 
and hatchings during the year; (c) changes in the collection by gift, purchase, 
or exchange. 



58 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



Many exciting and valuable gifts were received during the year. 
Through the good offices of Crawford H. Greenewalt, a Regent of the 
Smithsonian, a notable collection of New Guinea fauna was acquired. 
This consisted of four birds of paradise of two different species, a king 
parrot, an orange lory, three tree kangaroos, and six sugar gliders. 

The government of Indonesia presented the National Zoo with a 
Komodo dragon as a mate for the lone female that the Zoo has had 
since 1967. When President Suharto and his wife paid a state visit to 
Washington, Mrs. Suharto came to the Zoo, bringing with her a 
photograph of the huge male, which arrived a few days later on 27 
May. 

Another gift from a foreign government was a pair of tuataras. The 
rare reptile is considered a bridge between the living reptiles of today 
and those of prehistoric times. These were formally presented by 
Ambassador Frank Corner of New Zealand at a ceremony in the 
reptile house on 4 June. Tuataras are often referred to as "living 
fossils" because they are the sole survivors of the age of reptiles and 
have scarcely changed since the Triassic Period of 200 million years 



|" - *P 



\ 4 




Moni, the newest of the white tigers, and friends on Lion House Hill. 

(Photo by Ellis.) 



SCIENCE 59 

ago. They are being carefully protected in simulated native habitat. 
There are only two others in United States zoos. 

The number of births continues to be gratifying. There was one 
tragedy, however; Mohini, the white tigress, gave birth to four cubs, 
two white and two normal color, on 8 March. Forty-eight hours later 
she gave birth to another cub, stillborn, and in the course of labor she 
fell on three of the first born, killing them. Moni, the lone survivor, a 
white male, was removed from her den and successfully reared in the 
Director's home. He is now on exhibition at the Zoo. 

An orangutan and a black rhinoceros were born during the year, and 
antelopes acquired over the past few years, since the establishment of 
the new hoofed-stock area, are now reproducing satisfactorily. The 
number of hatchings at the bird house surpassed any former year and 
included some that had not previously occurred here. 

Although hiring of personnel has been restricted, the Zoo was for- 
tunate in getting an architect on the staff, Mr. Norman Melun, who 
reported for work on 4 May. This enables the Zoo to set up a planning 
division, which will oversee the development and modernization of 
the Park. 

After many months of investigation and discussion, the Friends of 
the National Zoo were finally able to inaugurate the running of three 
trackless trains. There are three train stations and visitors may board 
at any one of them, ride to the next stop, view the animals and continue 
either on the same train or on the next one that comes along. These 
rides are proving very popular, and proceeds from the sale of tickets 
will go to the Friends' educational fund. 



Office of Environmental Sciences 



On 28 October 1970 the Secretary established the office of Environ- 
mental Sciences in order to "make more visible the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution's broad spectrum of research projects in the environmental 
sciences and improve the opportunities for attracting financial support 
and scientific collaboration." Building on the accomplishments of the 
Ecology Program and the Oceanography and Limnology Program, the 
Office has continued a series of activities to bring the Smithsonian to 
the attention of national and international scientific groups including 
funding agencies. 



60 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

Recognizing that the care and study of the research collections are a 
principal function of the largest Smithsonian bureau, the National 
Museum of Natural History (nmnh), the office places its greatest 
emphasis in collaboration with this program. Support is sought for 
and provided to scientists in nmnh in several ways. Collecting 
expeditions are supported by incorporating plans of Smithsonian sci- 
entists into international programs, such as the U.S. Antarctic Pro- 
gram and the Southeast Asia Ministers of Education biotrop 
project developed in Indonesia. The International Union for Conser- 
vation of Nature and Natural Resources developed field conferences 
and symposia with Smithsonian participation and the Cooperative 
Investigations of the Mediterranean will include Smithsonian collect- 
ing. Other cooperative bilateral collecting was arranged by the Office 
in Taiwan, Iran, Australia, Ceylon, Israel, Tunisia, Thailand, Laos, 
Cambodia, New Zealand, Chile, Brazil, British Honduras, United 
States and French Pacific Trust Territories, Japan, Korea, India, 
Pakistan, Kenya, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Malta, France, Italy, Jamaica, 
Panama, Argentina, Ecuador, and other countries. 

The results of marine collecting are received and sorted by two 
processing centers, the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center 
and the Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center. The masses of material 
collected by nets, trawls, and dredges are such that there is a sub- 
stantial backlog of work to be accomplished. In increasing the avail- 
ability of sorting, distribution, and identification services the Office 
has proposed and is negotiating the establishment of sorting centers in 
South America (Chile) and in Asia (Indonesia or the Philippines.) 
These centers recognize the requirement for utilization of the research 
and identification of hundreds of scientists in work on marine collec- 
tions and arrange the participation of competent marine scientists 
wherever they exist in the world. In addition to using all available 
nmnh scientists it has been possible to enroll about three hundred 
non-Smithsonian scientists in twenty-seven countries of the world, who 
work to gain information from the collections made available by the 
sorting centers. 

Even with the above collections-related scientific effort, there are 
biological taxa which need attention because of special interest from 
an agency standpoint. Using money for Antarctic studies, the Office 
provides funds for specialists to carry on the necessary identifications 
and related research in certain taxa, which are potentially important 
as Antarctic resources. In a similar manner the Office stimulates the 
production of keys to freshwater organisms of importance to the Fed- 
eral Water Quality Administration. 



SCIENCE 61 

Within available resources the Office supports inadequately funded 
Smithsonian scientists by assisting with the purchase of collections, 
assisting with publication costs, and meeting otherwise unfunded re- 
quirements such as visiting other museums. Assistance is provided in 
recruitment of personnel to fill gaps in Smithsonian scientific capabili- 
ties. Consultants are provided to advise on scientific problems and in 
special cases a person may be employed temporarily to fill an nmnh 
need, pending the establishment of a nmnh position. 

The possible role of the Smithsonian in national and international 
plans is considered within and outside the federal government. Inter- 
ests of the Smithsonian are written into projects having appropriate 
objectives. Liaison is maintained for this purpose with the National 
Council for Marine Resources and Engineering Development, the 
Federal Council for Science and Technology, the Council on Environ- 
mental Quality, the National Water Commission, and broad projects 
of the Departments of State, Defense, Interior, Health, Education and 
Welfare, the National Science Foundation, and Atomic Energy Com- 
mission. Close association is also maintained with programs of the 
National Academy of Sciences. 

In attracting financial support the Office develops concepts appro- 
priate to funding by public and private agencies and individuals in as 
varied a nature as possible within the time available. Funding of such 
ideas was received from the National Science Foundation, Atomic 
Energy Commission, Coast Guard, Coast and Geodetic Survey, Naval 
Oceanographic Office, Office of Naval Research, Army Engineers, 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, National Institutes of Health, De- 
partment of State, Federal Water Quality Administration, Agency for 
International Development, National Academy of Sciences, American 
Association for the Advancement of Sciences, Woods Hole Oceano- 
graphic Institution, American Institute of Biological Sciences, Link 
Foundation, Vetlesen Foundation, Iran Foundation, Atlantic Founda- 
tion, TaiPing Foundation, Asia Foundation, Smithsonian Research 
Foundation, Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program, Edwin A. Link, 
J. Seward Johnson, Carl Dry, Alpine Geophysics, Incorporated, and 
Ocean Systems, Incorporated. 

Current program development lies in such broad program areas as 
(1) environmental assessment and prediction as a result of man's 
activities, (2) provision and protection of natural areas, (3) expedit- 
ing collections and related research, (4) developing Smithsonian par- 
ticipation in national and international environmental programs, (5) 
providing ship and underwater support of research, and (6) operating 
the Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies in such a way 



62 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

as to insure its productivity and viability as a model watershed, a 
natural preserve, and a local asset. 



Center for the Study of Man 



In its second year of operation the Center for the Study of Man has 
continued to carry out a number of cooperative research and informa- 
tion programs in the human sciences. The most important single 
development of the year occurred at the second annual meeting of the 
full membership held at the Smithsonian during 16—19 May 1970. The 
members agreed that the Center should become in effect an interna- 
tional studies center devoted to adding anthropological perspective to 
understanding of such major world problems as war, colonialism, de- 
structive nationalism, gross inequalities, racism, poverty, technological 
and urban overdevelopment, irreversible environmental destruction, 
population growth, alienation, anomie, and lack of generational con- 
tinuity. The Center will establish annually a new international "task 
force" of research anthropologists and other scientists to deal for a 
limited time (perhaps five years) with a selected and closely defined 
facet of one of these major problems. The first problem to be inves- 
tigated is human fertility. A working paper has been commissioned 
and the work of assembling resources is underway. 

The American Indian program of the Center was very active 
throughout the past year. A major objective of this program is to 
assist Indians in achieving goals which they have set for themselves. 
This has been done in a modest way by sending them difficult-to- 
obtain materials free of charge, by referring them to anthropologists 
and other scholars who can help them in matters involving their 
rights, by referring them to other Indian groups with similar prob- 
lems, and by advising them in matters where they have requested our 
knowledge. 

The program to computerize a roster of 4700 anthropologists 
throughout the world has been completed. The results of this pro- 
gram, carried out in conjunction with the Smithsonian Information 
Systems Division and with the support of the Wenner-Gren Founda- 
tion for Anthropological Research will appear in a forthcoming issue 
of the world-wide anthropological journal Current Anthropology. 

The Center has continued to coordinate the Urgent Anthropology 
Program. Six grants involving four different countries have been 



SCIENCE 63 

made under the Small Grants Program for urgent research. Some 
results of this program are now beginning to be received and one such 
is the discovery of a new Java Man skull by Professor Sartono of the 
Bandung Institute in Indonesia. 

The current bibliography of anthropological publications has con- 
tinued to develop under the direction of Dr. Robert M. Laughlin. In 
the past year a total of 6800 titles has been classified and readied for 
publication. To date 2439 have been published and the remainder 
will continue to appear bimonthly. 

A special committee on the proposed National Museum of Man, 
chaired by Dr. Irven DeVore, met in February 1970 to develop plans 
for relating the Center to the proposed Museum. The report of this 
meeting, presented to Secretary Ripley at the Center's meeting in May, 
precipitated the subsequent resolution on the part of the membership 
to move the Center in its new direction. 



Center for Short-Lived Phenomena 



The Center for Short-Lived Phenomena now has more than 2500 
registered correspondents located in 124 countries of the world includ- 
ing 956 earth science correspondents, 379 biological science correspon- 
dents, 266 astrophysical science correspondents, 189 urgent anthro- 
pology/urgent archaeology correspondents, 191 Transient Lunar 
Phenomena correspondents, and 372 multidisciplinary correspondents. 

During 1969 the Center reported to scientists around the world 
145 short-lived events that occurred in 58 countries including 61 earth 
science events, 52 biological science events, 24 astrophysical science 
events, and 4 urgent archeological and 2 urgent anthropological events. 
Scientific teams investigated at least 102 of the 145 events reported 
by the Center in 1969. 

The Center reported 18 volcanic eruptions in Alaska, Antarctica, 
Costa Rica, Hawaii, Indonesia, Japan, the Mariana Islands, New 
Zealand, Nicaragua, Peru, the Philippines, and the Soviet Union. 

The Center reported 18 other earth science events during the year, 
including major landslides in Sweden, Hungary, Finland, Israel, and 
the Azores, two submarine volcanic eruptions in the Marianas and the 
Solomon Islands, a major tidal wave in China, a natural gas eruption 
in Yugoslavia, a major flood in China, a major mud flow in Hungary, 
a rockfall in the French Alps, a storm surge in the Hawaiian Islands, 



64 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

and a floating island in the Caribbean. At least 42 of the 61 earth 
science events were investigated by one or more field research teams. 

The Center reported 52 biological events, including 12 oil spills in 
the Netherlands, England, France, South Africa, Alaska, and the 
continental United States; 19 animal kills in Ireland, Spain, Peru, 
Canada, England, South Africa, and the United States; 11 animal 
irruptions, migrations, and colonizations occurring in Australia, Pan- 
ama, Trinidad, Peru, Alaska and the United States; six pollution 
events occurring in the Philippine Islands, Peru, Germany and the 
United States; and two major flora kills occurring in Japan and the 
United States. 

At least 46 of the 52 biological events reported by the Center in 
1969 were investigated by one or more field research teams. 

The Center reported 24 astrophysical events including 17 major 
fireball events in Japan, Greece, Mexico, Malawi, Brazil, Tunisia, 
Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States; 4 meteorite 
falls in Mexico, Czechoslovakia, Australia, and Ireland; and several 
transient lunar events that occurred during Apollo manned lunar 
missions. 

Specimens of all four meteorites were quickly recovered and sent to 
laboratories for radioisotope analysis. Delay between the time of the 
fall of the objects and the time they arrived in measuring laboratories 
ranged from four days for "Allende" to eighteen days for "Murchison" 
with the average being eleven days. In addition, fireball ablation pro- 
ducts were successfully sampled in the atmosphere by high altitude air 
collection aircraft within 12—18 hours after the "Allende" event 
occurred. 

During 1969 the Center reported two urgent anthropological events 
(the discovery of two new tribes in Surinam and Colombia) and four 
urgent archeological events. 

The Center issued 143 event notification reports, 523 event informa- 
tion reports, 12 event publications, and handled a communications 
volume of 245,000 cable words and a mail volume of 390,000 pieces 
during 1969. 



HISTORY AND ART 



ryHE fiscal year 1970 was one of real accomplishments and of 
-*• real promise in the areas of history and art at the Smithsonian. 
As the National Collection of Fine Arts and the National Portrait 
Gallery settled more comfortably into their quarters in the historic 
Patent Office Building, construction on the Joseph H. Hirshhorn Mu- 
seum and Sculpture Garden began, the refurbishing of the Renwick 
Gallery continued, and the Cooper-Hewitt Museum prepared to 
move into the Andrew Carnegie Mansion of New York's Fifth Avenue. 

In every case, our history and art bureaus, often with the valuable 
assistance of their advisory boards and commissions, emerged from a 
serious consideration of their purposes and plans with a strengthened 
sense of mission and identity. Although increased appropriations were 
not the order of the day this year, we are sure that this sharpened 
sense of purpose, this exercise in self-definition, will allow each of our 
bureaus to make the best possible use of the funds that are available to 
it. 

This was also a year in which the Smithsonian welcomed a number 
of extraordinary new directors, whose several qualifications range 
from brilliant service in other museums, or in other parts of the Smith- 
sonian, to academic distinction of the highest sort. Since it is our 
museum and bureau directors who must formulate and carry out the 
Institution's programs in history and art, this infusion of new talent 
and enthusiasm augurs well for the future. 

In addition to the exhibitions and acquisitions mentioned below, a 
special word should be said about the coming to the Smithsonian of 
the Archives of American Art. This enormously important archival 
resource will strengthen the position of the Smithsonian as a leading 
national center for the study of American civilization; the presence of 
the Archives has already made itself felt in our successful efforts to 
recruit distinguished scholars to the staffs of our various museums. 

In addition to the obvious and satisfying progress of each of our 
history and art bureaus, it is pleasant to report that relations among 
them seem more cordial than ever. The transfer of portraits from 
the National Collection of Fine Arts to the National Portrait Gallery, 
as urged by the Portrait Gallery Commission, as well as the transfer of 
three Augustus Saint-Gaudens reliefs to the National Collection of 
Fine Arts from the National Portrait Gallery was a case in point. The 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum's gracious loan of a number of Winslow 
Homer paintings to the National Collection of Fine Arts, where they 

67 



68 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

are now beautifully displayed, is another. As the Institution enters a 
period of intensive preparation for the celebration of the Bicentennial 
of the American Revolution, we are confident that the strengths of our 
individual bureaus, and their willingness to work together in a com- 
mon cause, will prove worthy to this great occasion. 



National Museum of History and Technology 



The announcement made in January 1969 of the appointment of 
Dr. Daniel J. Boorstin as the Director of the National Museum of 
History and Technology signalized the search for a fresh approach to 
history in the museum world. Coming from the Department of His- 
tory of the University of Chicago, Dr. Boorstin assumed his new 
responsibilities in October. 

He immediately directed his efforts, with the cooperation of his 
scholarly staff, to the development of new programs designed to 
widen, deepen, and enlarge the visitors' museum involvement by re- 
capturing man's experience in everyday life in the nation's past. By 
employing innovative techniques in exhibition and by reinterpretation 
of the unwritten documents of American civilization which form the 
national collections, new emphasis is being directed to several hitherto 
neglected aspects of the Museum's functions and capabilities. 

A sweeping new program of visitor orientation was instituted to 
make the Museum's holdings and facilities more readily accessible and 
meaningful to the more than five million visitors who come to it each 
year. Several successful elements of this program, designed to provide 
useful guidance to the public at various levels, have already been initi- 
ated. A series of special tour brochures to provide self-guidance to the 
visitor was produced to highlight particular aspects of history pre- 
sented in the Museum and specialized subject interests. A continuing 
series of changing special exhibits at the Mall entrance commemorate 
historical events of national importance and traditional American 
holidays. Through a display of selected materials (including national 
treasures from the collections and incorporating modern audio-visual 
techniques), the holiday exhibits orient the public to the other dis- 
plays within the Museum on related subjects. More elaborate orienta- 
tion techniques and programs to assist the public more effectively in 
the use of the Museum are being developed. 



HISTORY AND ART 



69 



The emerging new role of the Museum as the national center for 
the study of American civilization was recognized in the annual ban- 
quet of the Society of American Historians, for which the Museum 
served as host, and at which presentations of the Francis Parkman Prize 
and the Allan Nevins Prize were made. 

Considerable effort has been directed in the past year to develop 
plans for the Museum's role in the forthcoming celebration of the 
American Revolution Bicentennial. Planning for a comprehensive 
program combining exhibits, conferences, and publications is in 
progress. 

The continuing exhibits program of the Museum has been redi- 
rected to feature selected materials from major collections which have 




Samuel Slater carding machine, circa 1 790, on display in the Hall of Textiles, 
National Museum of History and Technology. 



70 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



not yet been exhibited, and material aspects of American life which 
have not been acknowledged elsewhere in the exhibition areas. Dis- 
played for the first time in the Museum is a new exhibit incorporating 
significant historical machinery and products of the American textile 
industry. In a representative sampling of American textiles organized 
by the curator, Rita Adrosko, the historic carding machine of Samuel 
Slater and components of Slater's spinning machine are highlighted. 
These machines, which were made about 1 790, brought textile produc- 
tion out of the home into a developing American textile industry. 
Featured also is the only Jacquard loom in operable condition in any 
American museum. The exhibit includes programmed spinning and 
weaving demonstrations by members of the staff. 

"Energy Conversion," a special exhibit prepared by Warren Danzen- 
baker under the direction of Bernard S. Finn, was opened in September 
and illustrated the methods of converting energy sources to electrical 




School group watching Mrs. Lois Vann spinning wool on an 18th-century 
woolwheel from Virginia, in the National Museum of History and Technology. 



HISTORY AND ART 



71 



power. Historic specimens in the national collections were displayed 
together with significant artifacts donated by related industries. Among 
these were the world's first fuel-cell tractor and an Apollo spacecraft 
fuel cell, as well as a thermoelectric generator and numerous other 
artifacts, which demonstrated the story of man's harnessing of heat, 
sunlight, and chemical energy. 

Renewed efforts have been made by the Museum's scholarly staff 
as part of a long-range program to render the displayed collections 
more meaningful to the public, by attempting to recapture the 
environment of the past in which the materials exhibited play a role. 

A conference and exhibit on "The Roots of California Culture," 
conceived and developed by C. Malcolm Watkins, were held at the 
Oakland Museum in April, and sponsored jointly by the Museum's 
Department of Cultural History, the University of California Exten- 
sion, and the Oakland Museum. Six curators presented papers focused 
on the background environments of the major groups that settled 
California, cumulative material cultures that conditioned them, and 
the industrial technology that emerged in the nineteenth century to 
effect the cultural changes that made California a "nation within a 
nation." A special exhibition related to the original man-made en- 
vironment and material culture that emerged after the settlement of 
the West was prepared in the National Museum of History and 
Technology, which drew from its reserve collections of objects of 




A special exhibit on energy conversion showing the development of fuel-cell 
technology, in the Hall of Electricity, National Museum of History and 
Technology. 



72 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

everyday life in pre-industrial and Victorian America and were com- 
bined with materials from the Oakland Museum. The exhibition will 
tour other museums and institutions in California on continuing 
display. 

Special exhibits, produced during the year, have ranged from 
"Women in Politics," which was conceived by Keith E. Melder and 
opened in May to commemorate the founding of the League of 
Women Voters, to a temporary hall planned by Philip W. Bishop, 
featuring artifacts and models in a historical approach to remind the 
visitor of the size and importance of the American iron and steel 
industry. 

The maintenance and development of the national collection con- 
tinued to be a major concern of the curatorial staff, with a total of 
104,731 additions made to the Museum's holdings in the past year. 
Although the major part of the Museum's acquisitions are accepted 
for display, there is nevertheless equal curatorial concern for develop- 
ing the Museum's resources for study by the curatorial staff and visit- 
ing scholars and students. Among such significant new study accessions 
was a collection of approximately thirteen thousand glass and film 
negatives recording the production of the Pullman Car Works for a 
period of almost half a century from 1885 to 1932. This plant is of 
particular significance to railroad history because it built not only the 
elegant sleeping and parlor cars for the Pullman Company, but it also 
produced thousands of freight cars. 

The Museum benefited by a generous gift of almost the entire col- 
lection of old type matrices owned by the American Type Founders, a 
unique collection consisting of thousands of sets of nineteenth-century 
matrices made by independent foundries. Arrangements have been 
completed by the curator, Elizabeth M. Harris, to have fonts of type 
from the more significant mats cast by private subscribers on the con- 
dition that a font of each be deposited in the collection. A checklist of 
the mats is in preparation and an illustrated catalog with the histories, 
specifications, illustrations, and identifications will be one of the valu- 
able products of this project. This is merely one example of the many 
ways in which the Museum not only serves the public in its avowed 
functions as the keeper of the national collections with its exhibits and 
publications, but also preserves more pedestrian aspects of the Ameri- 
can heritage. 

Continuing his program of studies in industrial archeology, Robert 
M. Vogel documented by interview, by physical measurement, and with 
motion picture film, the process of manufacturing wooden wheels — 
a process virtually unchanged in the Hoopes Bro. & Darlington 
factory in Westchester, Pennsylvania, since the end of the nineteenth 



HISTORY AND ART 73 

century. Similarly in the field of medical science, Audrey Davis under- 
took a study of the development of the gastroscope, with interviews of 
individuals connected with its early history and filming of the manu- 
facture of the instrument at the original United States plant, which 
was established in the 1940s. 

In the Division of Postal History, Carl H. Scheele and Reidar Norby 
developed a series of exhibits of postal issues of groups of countries, 
which in addition to providing continuing displays resulted in the 
acquisition of important stamps and postal objects, and added depth 
and broadness to the study collections which are utilized by numerous 
visiting researchers. 

A deliberate program has been initiated for the acquisition of new 
collections of historical materials not already represented in the na- 
tional collections. This program will enlist the cooperation of the 
related industries. Plans are proceeding for development of collections 
and exhibits of the history of American advertising art, the history of 
early broadcasting and radio, and similar aspects of American life 
which previously have not been the subject matter of museums. 



Archives of American Art 



On 1 May 1970 the Archives of American Art formally joined the 
Smithsonian Instution as a bureau. 

The Archives, which was founded in Detroit in 1954 as an in- 
dependent research institution, is committed to encouraging and aid- 
ing scholarship in the visual arts in this country from the 18th century 
to the present time. It acts to achieve this goal by acquiring and pre- 
serving the primary documentation needed by historians — the cor- 
respondence, diaries, business papers, and photographs, of painters, 
sculptors, critics, dealers, and collectors, and the formal records of 
galleries, museums, and art organizations. These collections of papers 
are microfilmed and made available to scholars in a series of regional 
branch offices and through interlibrary loans. 

The processing and chief reference center of the Archives is now 
located in space provided by the National Collection of Fine Arts/ 
National Portrait Gallery Library. Regional branch offices operate in 
New York and Detroit and field offices were established in 1970 in 
Boston and Santa Fe. 



74 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



During the past year the Archives has acquired over 100,000 items. 
Among the more important collections received were the papers of 
William Baziotes, Cecilia Beaux, Karl Bitter, Herbert Ferber, Palmer 
Hayden, Ibram Lassaw, Guy Pene du Bois, Jose de Rivera, and Ben 
Shahn. Of particular interest is a large collection of records accumu- 
lated by Charles Henry Hart, an authority on 18th and early 19th cen- 
tury portraiture. 

The Archives' oral history program continued its activities with a 
series of tape-recorded interviews with administrators and other fig- 
ures in the New York art world. This work was made possible by a 
grant from the New York State Council on the Arts. Among those 
people interviewed were Harvard Arnason, Ralph Colin, Lawrence 
Fleischman, Henry Geldzahler, Huntington Hartford, and Gordon 
Washburn. 

Trustees 



Russell Lynes, President 
Howard W. Lipman, Vice President 
Harold O. Love, Vice President 
Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth, Vice President 
Stanford C. Stoddard, 
Secretary-Treasurer 
Harry Baldwin 
Irving F. Burton 
Edmond duPont 
Joseph H. Hirshhorn 
James Humphry III 
Miss Milka Iconomoff 
Eric Larrabee 
Robert L. McNeil, Jr. 



Abraham Melamed 

Henry Pearlman 

Mrs. William L. Richards 

E. P. Richardson 

Chapin Riley 

Girard L. Spencer 

Edward M. M. Warburg 

James Wineman 

Willis F. Woods 

S. Dillon Ripley, ex officio 

Charles Blitzer, ex officio 

Lawrence A. Fleischman, Honorary 

Mrs. Edsel B. Ford, Honorary 



Advisory Committee 



James Humphry III, Chairman 

Milton O. Brown 

Lloyd Goodrich 

Eugene C. Goossen 

Harry D. M. Grier 

James J. Heslin 

John Howat 

Bernard Karpel 

Edgar Kaufmann, Jr. 

John A. Kouwenhoven 



Karl Kup 

Eric Larrabee 

A. Hyatt Mayor 

J. T. Rankin 

Daniel J. Reed 

Charles van Ravenswaay 

Marvin Sadik 

Joshua Taylor 

William B. Walker 

Richard P. Wunder 



HISTORY AND ART 75 

Freer Gallery of Art 

Mr. Freer understood that the most effective way to study a civili- 
zation, to learn what motivated the thinking of men in other times 
and other parts of the world, was to study the finest things they made. 
The investigation of the reasons why men made these beautiful things, 
and the research into the nature of the materials of which they were 
made, and the methods used to fashion those materials cannot but 
yield basic information about the men themselves and the civilizations 
they created. Thus the twofold program envisaged by Mr. Freer in- 
volves the continuing search for works of oriental art of the highest 
quality that may be added to the Freer Gallery collections and the con- 
tinuing study of these works of art as keys to understanding the civili- 
zations that produced them. This research in all its manifold aspects is 
the basic task of the professional staff of the Freer Gallery; and all the 
supporting services of the Gallery (library, photographic laboratory, 
oriental picture-mounting studio, technical laboratory, etc.) operate 
to expedite and facilitate this research. Members of the curatorial staff 
travel frequently and widely in order to be familiar with the latest 
additions to other collections, to examine archeological sites and find- 
ings, and to meet and discuss problems of mutual interest with col- 
leagues who are engaged in related research. At the same time, we re- 
ceive and give every cooperation to all scholars, including many from 
Europe and Asia, who come to the Freer Gallery to make use of our 
unparalleled resources both in the collections themselves and in the 
study facilities. We also give guidance and encouragement to gradu- 
ate students in the field who come to the Gallery either for short 
visits or for protracted periods under established fellowship programs. 
Work of this kind does not lend itself to sensational discoveries. It 
proceeds slowly, and when something important is accomplished, it is 
published. Our public is to be found among the users of 500-odd li- 
braries and universities all over the world that receive Freer publica- 
tions free of charge. The books are also widely sold. Our most recent 
work, published this year, was the second volume of The Freer 
Chinese Bronzes, which deals with the technical aspects of the subject. 
This was a pioneering effort in that it is the first book ever devoted to 
the study of the materials and methods which produced the magnifi- 
cent vessels that are the glory of the Bronze Age in China and one of 
the finest artistic achievements in the history of mankind. 



76 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



To maintain the atmosphere that fosters productive research, to con- 
tinue adding to the sum of knowledge of the civilizations of the East, 
to publish and make available this information to the interested 
world, these matters are the concen of those who are responsible for 
the operation of the Freer Gallery. 




Chinese stone sculpture of Buddha, dated 29 April A.D. 521 during the Northern 

Wei Dynasty. 



HISTORY AND ART 77 

National Collection of Fine Arts 



The year was marked by a series of major exhibitions organized and 
shown by the National Collection of Fine Arts and the first steps to- 
ward the reorganization of the permanent collection and establishment 
of new activities in the areas of education and research. The most 
notable of the temporary exhibitions, all with catalogs, were the large 
retrospective of the work of Milton Avery; the very popular exhibition 
"Explorations," organized by the International Art Program and pro- 
duced by the Center for Advanced Visual Studies under Gyorgy Kepes 
at Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and a mid-career retrospec- 
tive of the work of Leonard Baskin. In connection with "Explora- 
tions," several special events were scheduled — musical performances, 
a poetry reading, and an expanded program of experimental films. A 
handsomely installed exhibition of Tibetan Art prepared by Asia 
House was shown, although the policy will now be to exhibit only 
American art and related material in the Fine Arts Gallery. 

Various areas of the building were redesigned and systematic stor- 
age areas reinstalled. A larger portion of the permanent collection was 
placed on exhibition and an easily accessible print and drawing study 
room was instituted. Two small exhibitions, one devoted to Winslow 
Homer (chiefly of works from the Cooper-Hewitt Museum) and one 
made up of painting and sculpture from the 1930s, inaugurated a new 
policy of informal exhibitions underscoring various aspects of the per- 
manent collection. 

Activity with local school children continued at the Children's Mu- 
seum and an active docents program was climaxed by a lively chil- 
dren's spring festival. 

Plans have continued for the further restoration of the Renwick 
Gallery, scheduled to open in 1971, which will be devoted to Ameri- 
can design and crafts. 

The International Art Program circulated a print workshop and 
various exhibitions abroad, among the most interesting being "Disap- 
pearance and Reappearance of the Image" shown in Romania, Czech- 
oslovakia, and Belgium. 

On the first of January, Assistant Director Robert Tyler Davis, who 
had been Acting Director since 30 May 1969, turned over the direc- 
tion of the ncfa to Joshua C. Taylor. 



78 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

National Portrait Gallery 



The year past was the first for the second Director at the National 
Portrait Gallery. While much of the time during this period was spent 
in the preparation of programs and the planning of events that will 
not materialize until 1971, one major exhibition occurred this year and 
110 portraits were added to the permanent collection. 

The exhibition was "Augustus Saint-Gaudens: The Portrait Re- 
liefs." A full-scale catalog, designed by Leonard Baskin, reproducing 
all reliefs from photographs made especially for this purpose by David 
Batchelder and produced by the Meriden Gravure Company, was made 
possible by a generous gift from Mr. and Mrs. John E. Marqusee of 
New York. The catalog was subsequently issued in book form by Gross- 
man Publishers. The exhibition was organized and the catalog written 
by John Dryfhout, curator of the Saint Gaudens National Historic 
Site in Cornish, New Hampshire. 

Two other small exhibitions intended primarily for use in connec- 
tion with the Gallery's secondary school educational program were 
held during the year. One was devoted to a portrait of the arctic ex- 
plorer Elisha Kent Kane, and the other to Thomas Edison; each por- 
trait was hung in a separate gallery surrounded by materials related 
to the subject's life and achievements. 

Among the many important acquisitions of the year, several deserve 
special mention. A magnificent life portrait of John Randolph of 
Roanoke by John Wesley Jarvis was given by Mrs. G. B. Lambert, a 
descendant of the artist; and a fine oil of General Horatio Gates by 
James Peale (after Charles Willson Peale) was acquired by the Gal- 
lery partly with its own funds and partly through a generous gift 
from Mr. Lawrence Fleischman. Through the kind offices of a member 
of the npg Commision, Wilmarth Sheldon Lewis, Gardner Cox pre- 
sented the Gallery with his moving study of Robert F. Kennedy, as 
well as two original sketches for the work, which were done from life 
in February 1968. Other notable acquisitions included a portrait of 
Daniel of Saint Thomas Jenifer by John Hesselius, acquired from a 
descendant of the subject; a handsome version in marble of Giuseppi 
Cerrachi's portrait bust of George Washington in Roman garb; a 
Sharpies pastel of Alexander Hamilton; an oil of Bret Harte by John 
Pettie, the best-known likeness of the author; a portrait of Mathew 
Brady by Thomas LeClear, one of only two known oils of the master 
American photographer; and Adolfo Muller-Ury's pastel of Lillian 
Russell, which was included in the Gallery's opening exhibition. 



HISTORY AND ART 



79 



Twenty-four acquisitions were transfers from the National Collec- 
tion of Fine Arts through the generous cooperation of the Commission 
and Director of that sister institution. These works included portraits 
of President John Tyler by George P. A. Healy and of George Catlin 
by William Fisk. 




^tUvV 




Life Study of Robert F. Kennedy, by Garner Cox, presented to the National 

Portrait Gallery. 



80 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 



By its Act of 7 November 1966, Congress accepted the Joseph H. 
Hirshhorn collection as a gift to the United States. Congress also ap- 
proved a site on the Mall for the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden and provided statutory authority for the appropriation of con- 
struction and operating funds. 

In 1968 the 90th Congress provided contract authority and an 
initial $2,000,000 for construction; in 1969, an additional $3,300,000 
was appropriated. The ground-breaking ceremony, led by former 
President Johnson was held on 8 January 1969. Construction com- 
menced in 1970. The public opening of the Joseph H. Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden is scheduled for 1972—1973. 

The world-renowned sculptures in the Hirshhorn collection range 
historically from antiquity to the present. The depth of representation 
of major sculptors of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is unique. 
The paintings in the collection are primarily twentieth century. Be- 
ginning with such precursors as Thomas Eakins and Winslow Homer, 




Three Piece Reclining Figure No. 2 : Bridge Prop, by Henry Moore. 



HISTORY AND ART 81 

the course of American painting is extensively covered. Complement- 
ing the American section is a strong group of significant European 
paintings of the past three decades. 

For museum officials, scholars, students, and publishers, the Hirsh- 
horn collection continues to be a major source of documentation in the 
field of modern art. In 1970 the curatorial staff replied to 190 requests 
for research information and photographs. More than one hundred 
scholars, artists, and officials visited the Museum office and warehouse 
in New York. The loan program is severely curtailed during the 
present interim period; nonetheless, 65 paintings and sculptures were 
loaned to 30 museums, galleries, and institutions. Approximately 2000 
persons attended 23 benefit tours for educational, cultural, and phil- 
anthropic organizations at the Hirshhorn Sculpture Garden in 
Connecticut. 

In 1970, the Hirshhorn Museum staff formulated plans for the selec- 
tion and preparation of the paintings and sculpture for the opening 
exhibition, as well as for the future programs of the Hirshhorn 
Museum. 



Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative 
Arts and Design 



The Museum's long history in the Cooper Union Building will soon 
come to a close. A new home has been obtained for the Museum — the 
historic Andrew Carnegie Mansion on 90th Street and Fifth Avenue. 
The Mansion will provide five times more space than the present 
location and allow for a great expansion of collections, programs, and 
services. The staff has worked hard to make the Museum's last year at 
Cooper Union an interesting one, while at the same time planning for 
the move to "Museum Row" on upper Fifth Avenue. 

When the Cooper-Hewitt relocates this summer it will take along 
1315 new objects acquisitioned in the past year. The most significant 
of these are seventy-three drawings, watercolors, and oil sketches by 
William Stanley Haseltine; twenty-nine theatre designs by Oliver 
Smith; quilted bed cover of 18th-century Indian Chintz; 16th-century 
Persian double cloth; 14th-century Peruvian tied and dyed net; exam- 
ples of ikat from various parts of the world; wall hangings by Arthur 
Crisp and Theo Moorman; six Lalique and two Daum vases; Bent- 



82 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

wood console table by Michael Thonet; lacquered coffee table by Jean 
Durand; two Louis XV armchairs and an 18th-century French settee; 
collection of 18th- and 19th-century wallpapers, including one of the 
earliest known examples of a labeled 18th-century American wall- 
paper; and a Morris & Go. wallpaper sample book of 1890. 

The Library acquired 418 new books, approximately half through 
gifts. The most notable of these are 95 books on architecture and the 
decorative arts presented by the Cooper Union Library and an im- 
portant collection of books on wallpaper and textiles. 

The special exhibitions presented in the past year include "Kabuki 
Prints"; "Contemporary Japanese Posters"; "A Stately Pleasure Dome: 
The Royal Pavilion at Brighton"; "Light and Line: Etchings by 
Rembrandt"; "Posters by E. McKnight Kauffer, 1890-1954"; "Con- 
temporary Drawings by New York Artists" and the beautiful farewell 
exhibition, "India Chintz," made possible through a grant from The 
JDR 3rd Fund. Alice Baldwin Beer prepared Trade Goods: A Study 
and Catalogue of Indian Chintz in the Cooper-Hewitt Museum of 
Decorative Arts and Design, Smithsonian Institution to accompany the 
exhibition. 

"E. McKnight Kauffer Posters" from the collection were shown at 
the ibm Gallery in New York and "Master Drawings: The Kingdom 
of the Two Sicilies" at the Finch College Museum. Objects from the 
Decorative Arts Department were displayed at five branches of the 
East River Savings Bank in New York City. "Please Be Seated," an 
exhibition of chairs throughout history is being circulated by the 
American Federation of Arts following its opening in New York. A 
total of 254 objects was loaned to institutions in this country and 
abroad. Long-term loans of 129 additional objects were arranged with 
the Fogg Art Museum at Harvard, the Brooklyn Museum, the Phila- 
delphia Museum of Art, and museums of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Mrs. Lisa Suter Taylor, former program director of the Smithsonian 
Associates, was appointed Director in October, replacing Dr. Richard 
Wunder, who is on sabbatical leave. Mr. Leo Arffman was engaged to 
administer the capital development program. 

The Cooper-Hewitt was visited by over 10,000 persons, of whom 
1372 consulted curatorial departments or the library about specific 
projects. Tours were given to twenty-two school groups and a twelve- 
week adult education course was offered in conjunction with New 
York L^niversity. 

The architectural firm of Hardy, Holzman and Pfeiffer was com- 
missioned to prepare a program plan for the relocation of the Muse- 



HISTORY AND ART 83 

um. During the renovation of the Mansion, major portions of the 
collection will be shown at other museums. The staff and study collec- 
tions will be housed in Miller House, a townhouse adjoining the 
Carnegie Mansion. All available resources and energy will be directed 
to the planning of a vital and meaningful new institution — a national 
museum of design. 



National Armed Forces Museum 
Advisory Board 



At the Advisory Board's recommendation, a legislative proposal to 
establish a national historical museum park to be designated Bicen- 
tennial Park, has been forwarded to the Bureau of the Budget. Reflect- 
ing President Eisenhower's belief in the need for a national museum 
devoted to the historic commitment of the American people to the 
cause of freedom, the park will be a living outdoor museum, bringing 
to present-day Americans a sense of the spirit that drove our forebears 
to conceive a new nation within the majestic framework of the Decla- 
ration of Independence. 

At rural Fort Foote, in Prince George's County, Maryland, Bicen- 
tennial Park will enable visitors to see, hear, handle, smell, and taste 
life as known by our 18th-century ancestors. With emphasis focused on 
the Revolutionary War citizen-soldier — his background, his motives, 
and the labor, sacrifice and self-reliance demanded in the struggle to 
bring forth the first modern republic — Bicentennial Park will be 
essentially an animated museum, portraying the daily camp duties 
while craftsmen demonstrate their trades in the tailor and shoemaker 
shops and at the smithy and armory. The rumble of wagons, the clank 
of forge, odors of woodsmoke and picket line, the heft of tools and 
weapons, muted shades of coarse homespun and flashing colors of 
silken standards, all will envelop the visitor in the long-vanished world 
of young America. 

Colorful reviews to a Continental "band of musick" will be held on 
the parade ground, along with such other activities as folk dancing, 
pageants, and theatricals — all reflecting the customs and traditions of 
our Revolutionary forebears, black and white, townsmen, farmers, 
backwoodsmen, seafarers, artisans, merchants, and professional men. 



84 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

Woodrow Wilson International Center 
for Scholars 



During fiscal year 1970 the Woodrow Wilson International Center 
for Scholars, created by the Congress in October 1968 to be a living 
memorial "expressing the ideals and concerns of Woodrow Wilson . . . 
symbolizing and strengthening the fruitful relation between the world 
of learning and the world of public affairs" did work preparatory to 
opening its doors in October of 1970. 

After some months of study, the presidential mixed private-public 
Board of Trustees headed by former Vice President Hubert H. Hum- 
phrey, approved at its fall meeting the opening of new fellowship and 
guest-scholar programs in prime space that has been offered to the 
Center in the newly renovated Smithsonian Institution Building. The 
theme of the fellowship program is designed to accentuate those 
aspects of Wilson's ideals and concerns for which he is perhaps best 
remembered a half century after his presidency : his search for interna- 
tional peace and the imaginative new governmental approaches he 
used to meet pressing issues of his day. In the opening period the 
Board plans to stimulate particularly substantial studies on ( 1 ) the 
development of international understanding, law, and cooperation in 
ocean space; and (2) man's relations with and his response to his 
deteriorating environment, with special attention to the new forms 
of international cooperation needed to address effectively those envi- 
ronmental problems that transcend boundaries. 

When the program is fully operational, up to forty distinguished 
scholars — approximately half from the United States and half from 
other countries — will be selected to work and study for periods ranging 
from a few weeks to several years. They will be chosen — again in 
approximately equal geographic measure — from many traditional 
academic disciplines and from a variety of nonacademic occupations 
and professions such as government, law, business, labor, and 
journalism. 

During the past fiscal year, Director Benjamin H. Read and a small 
staff prepared to launch the program, determining policies, publiciz- 
ing and getting support for the program, recruiting and selecting the 
first fellowship recipients, initiating a private fund-raising campaign, 
and working in other ways to breathe life into this newest of presiden- 
tial memorial institutions. 



HISTORY AND ART 



85 



Office of American Studies 



The Office of American Studies conducts a formal graduate program 
which is directed to the original Smithsonian purpose: "the increase 
and diffusion of knowledge among men." During the past year, thirty 
graduate students from five universities participated in the Program, 
gaining academic credit toward advanced degrees at those universities. 
Three courses were offered by the American Studies staff during the 
year. The introductory seminar, "Material Aspects of American Civil- 
zation," this year examined American culture as it has been self- 
consciously displayed at world's fairs and international expositions. A 
two-semester seminar, "The Physical City: Approaches to American 
Urban History," taught in conjunction with a visiting urban historian, 
Dana F. White, offered students an opportunity to study the American 
city as a physical artifact. During the spring semester, students 
enrolled in a seminar on "Material Aspects of Cultural History" un- 
dertook an archeological excavation on Theodore Roosevelt Island in 




Graduate student Joanne Baker studying the gravestones of a church yard in 
New Hampshire under the sponsorship of the George Washington University- 
Smithsonian program in American Studies. 



86 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

the Potomac in conjunction with members of the staff of the National 
Museum of History and Technology. In addition to the formal courses 
listed above, a number of students in the program carried on individ- 
ual research and study under the direction of members of the Smith- 
sonian's curatorial staff. Studies pursued included industrial and 
historical archeology, the history of photography, and the material 
culture of the period of the American Revolution. 

While conducting a program of graduate education, staff members 
of the Office of American Studies continued research in several areas, 
such as 19th-century politics as revealed by an analysis of symbols and 
mottoes on hand-painted campaign banners; a biographical dictionary 
of American civil engineers; technology, architecture, and urbaniza- 
tion; early exploration; the history of cartography; and Indian-White 
relations. The political banners project was outlined in a paper by 
Wilcomb E. Washburn at the annual meeting of the Organization of 
American Historians in April 1970. In January 1970, Harold Skram- 
stad presented a paper discussing "The Engineer as Architect" at the 
annual meeting of the Society of Architectural Historians. Several 
papers by the staff, based on earlier research, were published during 
the year. 



The Joseph Henry Papers 

In 1970 the Henry Papers received an enormous influx of microfilm 
and xerox copies of documents and was able to add more than 4000 of 
these to its computer-control system. Most of these documents were 
from Henry's Princeton years, 1833-1846, and the early days of the 
Smithsonian Institution, 1847—1852. 

At the same time, the staff was engaged in the necessary prelimi- 
naries for preparing the first volume of a major documentary publica- 
tion. By far the most laborious (and most elementary) activity was a 
careful review of documents from Henry's Albany period, 1792—1832, 
to winnow chaff. Documents surviving this review are being edited for 
textual accuracy and their contents researched to provide meaningful 
annotations for readers. The first volume will not only depict a young 
man developing into a significant scientist but will also provide a 
documentary precis of the social and intellectual setting for this 
development. 



HISTORY AND ART 37 

Albany in Henry's day was a lively provincial center, not too much 
different from similar localities in the United States. By focusing 
intensely on one man's rise, the Henry Papers will illuminate some of 
the factors in his immediate environment and the society at large 
affecting our nation's development. 



SPECIAL MUSEUM PROGRAMS 



'""P'hrough the year's work there ran a strong current of service 
■*■ to the community of interests and objectives of the world's 
museums. The preservation of every nation's heritage and the desire 
to engage museums in action roles in education, cultural development, 
and the enhancement of the quality of life have become increasingly 
the common interests of museum professionals everywhere. The Smith- 
sonian has directly and indirectly aided the Department of State, 
unesco, and the International Council of Museums to press on 
with efforts to rally museum action to suppress unethical practices in 
acquiring objects of art, antiquities, and cultural history. Wider cir- 
culation was given to codes of acceptable conduct of scientific and 
archeological expeditions respecting the natural and cultural resources 
of host countries and the encouragement of cooperation with counter- 
part scholars and institutions. The General Counsel continued to 
guide the legislation, now enacted, to authorize the adherence of the 
United States to the International Centre for the Preservation and the 
Restoration of Cultural Property (the Rome center) . 

Assistance was given to the efforts of the American Association of 
Museums and the United States National Committee of the Interna- 
tional Council of Museums to coordinate their interests in the world 
community of museums and to improve communications between mu- 
seum professionals everywhere. Advice and guidance have been pro- 
vided to the director of the recently established World Museum 
Fund designed to encourage international support of museum purposes. 

Foreign museum professionals and cultural and scientific personnel 
in large numbers continued to consult with colleagues at the Smithson- 
ian. They came for advice in establishing national programs of mu- 
seum-based sciences, as well as to consult with the personnel of con- 
servation and exhibits laboratories, the Registrar, and many others on 
museum functions, techniques, and administration. Some of this 
appears in the reports that follow. The Conservation Analytical Lab- 
oratory, for example, provided consultation and demonstrations to 
more than thirty foreign colleagues who came from Italy, Pakistan, 
Jordan, Germany, Nigeria, Guinea, India, Mexico, Belgium, Ja- 
maica, Venezuela, England, Iran, Taiwan, Canada, and elsewhere. 



91 



92 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

Office of the Director General of Museums 



The past year has seen an intensifying of the need of museums and 
their professional organizations to improve and carry out programs 
which, in the words of the National Museum Act, are "necessary to 
insure that museum resources for preserving and interpreting the na- 
tion's heritage may be more fully utilized in the enrichment of public 
life in the individual community." Cooperation with museums in 
America and abroad, continued emphasis upon museum training and 
exhibit effectiveness, and an increased concern for the world commu- 
nity of museums have characterized the activities of the Office of the 
Director General. 

The Director General, under the authority of the Museum Act, has 
responded to an ever-increasing number of requests for technical assis- 
tance and advice from museums in this country and overseas. Re- 
sponse under the act has varied from consultant activities to support 
of international symposiums, as well as to the direct assistance of mu- 
seum programs with national implication such as the American Asso- 
ciation of Museums' study of museum accreditation. Under the general 
provisions of the act, members of the Smithsonian's scientific and 
curatorial staff have aided the Oakland Museum, California; the Buf- 
falo Museum of Science, New York; the New York State Museum at 
Albany, and such nascent institutions as the Virginia Museum of 
Science. 

Essential to providing adequate information and advice has been 
the continuing accumulation of data pertinent to museums and their 
missions. The Director General has cooperated with the American 
Association of Museums and the United States Department of Educa- 
tion in gathering and refining statistical data relating to museums. 
Within the Smithsonian, interviewing of visitors to the National Mu- 
seum of History and Technology and the National Museum of Natural 
History for the year-long Smithsonian visitor survey was completed in 
October. Volunteer interviewers have questioned more than 5000 
visitors and the Smithsonian's Information Systems Division has com- 
pleted card-punching of their responses. Programmed use of this data 
will permit an analysis of our visitors and their experiences at the 
Smithsonian. 

Training has continued as an important adjunct of the National 
Museum Act. Over 1600 persons from both domestic and foreign 
institutions have received advice on exhibition techniques and in the 
general principles of museum management. Cooperation with the Art 
Department of Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, resulted in a 



SPECIAL MUSEUM PROGRAMS 93 

student planned and supervised exhibition on the black ghetto, first 
shown at the National Museum of History and Technology in August 
of 1969. At another level of involvement, the Office of the Director 
General, in concert with the Office of Academic Programs conducted 
a symposium: "Opportunities for Extending Museum Contributions 
to Pre-College Science Education." Supported by the National Science 
Foundation, forty-five invited participants met at the Belmont Con- 
ference Center 26-27 January 1970. The proceedings of the symposium 
will be published in book form. 

Internally, the Director General has chaired an Institution-wide 
committee charged by the Secretary with the responsibility of review 
and study of the future of exhibits at the Smithsonian. The committee 
has completed its finding and has prepared its final report and recom- 
mendations. 

In October, Mr. Taylor and Mr. Welsh attended a meeting of the 
icom International Committee for Museums of Science^ and Tech- 
nology which was held in India, principally at Bangalore. The purpose 
of the meeting was to plan a laboratory with a capability to produce 
basic science exhibits designed to meet the specific needs of individual, 
developing countries. It is anticipated that a laboratory will be 
founded in India at Bangalore and that it will become a depository of 
experience, a center of training, and a useful example of international 
cooperation among museums. This meeting was the culmination of 
several years' effort and planning by the Director General of Museums 
based on the belief that science-teaching exhibits, carefully prepared 
and tested, can help bridge the science lag between developed and de- 
veloping countries. 

The Director General of Museums has furthered the concept and 
utilization of the Arts and Industries Building as an Exposition Hall. 
The Exposition Hall programs provided a setting for two exhibitions 
on urban themes, "Urban Transit: Problem and Promise" and "Urban 
Design: Manhattan," and an opportunity for the general public to 
hear Rai Y. Okamoto, city planner-architect, lecture on urban transit 
and its impact. Industrial design students from several major schools 
presented in the "New Concepts for Leisure" exhibition their solutions 
to diminishing leisure resources and increasing leisure time. 

Support from industry made possible the expansion of the traveling 
"Plastic as Plastic" exhibition. It demonstrated the historical develop- 
ment of plastic in America and emphasized the future of plastics when 
shaped by the hands of innovative designers and technicians. An ex- 
perimental space enclosure of urethane foam sprayed on stretched cot- 
ton jersey fabric, early plastic objects from the Smithsonian collections, 
the first all-plastic airplane, an experimental automobile with plastic 



94 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

body, an operating injection-molding machine, and "instant vacation 
home" were high points of the exhibition. 

Significant progress was made this year in coordinating and plan- 
ning the Smithsonian's role in the celebration of the Bicentennial of 
the American Revolution. This was accomplished by Mr. John J. 
Slocum, special assistant for Bicentennial planning, whose completed 
study, with estimates of the various Smithsonian elements expected to 
participate in the Bicentennial, has been forwarded to the Secretary of 
the Institution. Mr. Slocum continued to serve as a liaison officer be- 
tween the Smithsonian, the American Revolution Bicentennial Com- 
mission, other government agencies, and private organizations. 



Office of Exhibits Programs 

The Office of Exhibits Programs collaborates in the production of 
exhibits originating in the curatorial, scientific, academic, and public 
service programs of the Smithsonian. More than 225 individual proj- 
ects were worked on during the year including sixty temporary exhib- 
its and upgrading and maintenance in nearly every gallery of the Na- 
tional Museum of History and Technology, the National Museum of 
Natural History, and the National Air and Space Museum. The exhi- 
bitions produced are described in part in the reports of the divisions 
and museums in which they originated and are listed in Appendix 8. 

The "Laser 10" exhibition was designed and produced by this Office 
with the essential assistance of a group of distinguished laser scient- 
ists from universities and industry. The scientists planned the exhibi- 
tion and assisted in the acquisition of laser instruments and demon- 
strations. This exhibit, visited by about 750,000 people in the period 
January to June, will remain until the fall of 1970. 

The instruction of museum personnel in museum exhibition prac- 
tices and techniques continued. A total of twenty-nine persons from ten 
states and ten foreign countries received instruction during the year. 



Conservation- Analytical Laboratory 



Detailed advice on good environments for the preservation of mu- 
seum objects and on acceptable methods of cleaning and preserving 



SPECIAL MUSEUM PROGRAMS 95 

them have been provided to many museums and to the public. Docu- 
ments and objects made of such various materials as wood, leather, and 
metal — that have been damaged, were in need of cleaning, or subject 
to active corrosion or decay — have been repaired and stabilized for each 
of the various Smithsonian bureaus. 

Two conservators were added to the staff. A visiting research associ- 
ate spent an academic year studying methods and materials applicable 
to plain and painted African wooden cult objects for use in tropical 
areas. 

One of the staff has worked briefly at Florence, Italy, on flood- 
damaged books and documents. Practical emergency assistance has 
been given to a museum damaged by hurricane Camille. Trainees 
from the Pacific area have been instructed at Honolulu in conservation 
methods. A second series of twenty weekly lectures for Smithsonian 
staff attracted up to fifty-six attendees at some sessions. 

Innumerable facilities and services were provided to Smithsonian 
Museums. Analytical facilities were applied to more than sixty re- 
quests from six bureaus. Sensitive neutron-activation analysis is being 
applied to characterize American ceramics and also to medieval glass 
from the collections, and a method of precise analysis by X-ray fluores- 
cence has been developed for museum objects that promises to be of 
universal application with a minimum of synthetic standards. A com- 
puter terminal was installed to facilitate calculations. Emission spec- 
trograph^ and X-ray diffraction also served to analyze such diverse 
objects as moon rock, earth minerals, Chinese bronzes, and religious 
medals. 



Office of the Registrar 



In addition to the important function of receiving and recording 
specimens and objects into the museums' collections, the Office of the 
Registrar provides services that support the Smithsonian's research, 
education, collection management, and exhibition programs. For all 
bureaus of the Smithsonian, these are the shipping operation, the 
customs work, central mail activity, travel documents for official 
foreign travel, as well as the receipt and control of public inquiries and 
official correspondence for the museums. 

More than two million pieces of mail were handled, with the Smith- 
sonian Associates and the Smithsonian (magazine) generating large 



96 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

volumes. Among public inquiries, ecology and man's environment 
captured the interests ranging from that of the youngest school child 
to the older citizens as evidenced by letters received. 

Shipping activities covered the usual wide diversity of objects, such 
as the 30,000-year-old man from Spain, 47,000 pounds of records from 
Detroit for the Archives of American Art, the Napoleon diamond 
necklace sent as a loan to the Palais du Louvre, and a man-eating 
crocodile from the Caroline Islands. 

Official travel by staff members and foreign currency grantees ex- 
tended to all parts of the world, including Vietnam, Cambodia, 
Australia, New Guinea, and Iceland. The Office of the Registrar 
obtained 204 passports and 275 visas for 250 travelers. 



Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service 



During this past fiscal year exhibitions of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Traveling Exhibition Service (sites) were shown in all of the 
United States with the exceptions of Alaska and Hawaii. Seven hun- 
dred bookings were viewed by an estimated four to five million people. 
Institutions in several Canadian cities also exhibited sites shows. 
Smithsonian museums showed eleven of them. 

"Contemporary American Black Artists" organized by the National 
Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the Lee 
Nordess Galleries, and "The Art of Henry O. Tanner" jointly orga- 
nized by the Museum of .African Art and the National Collection of 
Fine Arts were added to the sites program this year. 

It is encouraging to report a substantial increase in the number of 
traveling exhibitions organized during the past year by Smithsonian 
units. Two versions of "The Douglass Years" are being circulated in 
cooperation with the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. The following 
exhibits originated in the Smithsonian, contain material from Smith- 
sonian collections, or were planned and produced by Smithsonian pro- 
grams: "Jean Louis Berlandier," "Photography and The City," "John 
Wesley Powell: The Indomitable Major," "Werner Drewes Wood- 
cuts," "The People's Choice," "The Malay Archipelago," and "A 
Heritage in Peril — Alaska's Vanishing Totems." Modest progress was 
made toward a broader program of traveling exhibitions and the ex- 
tension of Smithsonian resources to other parts of the United States. 



SPECIAL MUSEUM PROGRAMS 97 

The Service continues to receive letters of thanks from staff and trus- 
tees of museums using the Service, frequently accompanied by press 
notices of the interest stimulated in their communities by traveling 
exhibits. 

This year has been a critical one financially. Sites has been caught 
in the squeeze between higher operating costs and lower revenues. 
Salaries and other expenses are rising while museums generally are 
suffering from inadequate support. Many museums cannot now afford 
the larger shows and this has reduced the income of sites dispropor- 
tionately. Sites is supported by fees received for its services so it has 
had to reduce its operations somewhat to work within its income. 

The number of exhibitions in the program has been reduced ten 
percent and the staff by about the same percentage. In making these 
cutbacks, 42 exhibitions have been dispersed, 32 new ones initiated, 
and 67 continued from prior years. Of the new shows initiated this 
year, twelve are from other countries. Eighteen of those continued 
from last year are also from abroad. 



PUBLIC SERVICE AND 
INFORMATION ACTIVITIES 



The worth and importance of the Institution are not to be estimated by what it 
accumulates within the walls of its buildings, but by what it sends forth to the 

world. 

Secretary Joseph Henry 
Smithsonian Annual Report, 1852 

The Institution's diverse public service activities all have the one 
common purpose so well expressed in Secretary Henry's vision. They 
range from the traditional one-page Monthly Calendar of Events to 
the newly established Smithsonian magazine, or from a small work- 
shop class in enameling to an international conference on arid-land 
ecology. 

In April of 1970 the Smithsonian took a significant step forward in 
sending forth its storehouse of knowledge to the world with the pub- 
lication of the monthly Smithsonian magazine. Essentially popular in 
character, the magazine was originally conceived as a means of extend- 
ing the Smithsonian Associates from a local or Washington-based 
membership group to a nationwide audience. With the publication of 
the first issue, therefore, the Smithsonian Associates established both 
resident and national membership categories. Resident members con- 
tinued to receive a varied program of lecture courses, workshops, and 
guided tours, as well as an option to subscribe to the magazine at a 
reduced rate. National members received the Smithsonian and cer- 
tain other benefits, such as a reception center, located in the Great 
Hall of the Smithsonian Building, to help plan their visits to Washing- 
ton; the opportunity to participate in both domestic and international 
study tours; and discounts on Museum Shop articles and Smithsonian 
Institution Press publications. 

The magazine, ably headed by Edward K. Thompson, former man- 
aging editor of Life, and a small editorial staff of seven, reached a 
circulation of 180,000 by its fourth issue. It was thus favored by what 
many professionals call the most successful start in the recent history 
of magazine publishing. Smithsonian's principal theme is "man: his 
environment, sciences, arts, adventures, follies, fortunes." Each issue, 
therefore, carries at least one major article on man's problems with 
his environment, in both humanistic and scientific terms. Within this 
environmental context, the magazine seeks to portray and interpret 
Smithsonian interests in science, art, and cultural history. 

Other major efforts in carrying the Smithsonian Institution beyond 

101 



102 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

its own walls centered around the medium of television, both public 
and commercial. In April the Institution received a generous grant 
from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting to produce a general 
documentary on the Smithsonian's various museums and scientific 
bureaus for National Educational Television. The film will be adapted 
later for continual showings within the Smithsonian for visitor orien- 
tation. It thus will fill a long felt need for improved guidance of the 
Institution's visitors. In June the Institution entered into an agree- 
ment with the Columbia Broadcasting System for a series of documen- 
taries, principally based on the Smithsonian's overseas scientific expe- 
ditions. It is expected that this agreement will provide for the first 
time the instrumentality for popular interpretation of the Institution's 
scientific missions to the significant number of listeners attracted by 
the evening or prime-time broadcasts of a major network. 

Other signal achievements in the work of carrying the Smithson- 
ian's interests beyond its own walls included a new program of urban 
problem identification at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, sup- 
ported by a Carnegie Corporation grant; Office of International Ac- 
tivities participation in a Mekong Basin study team, designed to assess 
the ecological effects of present and proposed hydroelectrical projects 
on the Mekong River; and an Information Systems Division bulletin 
published especially for the museum community, showing how auto- 
matic data processing can best be applied to museum collections. 



Smithsonian Associates 



In its fourth year, the Smithsonian Associates continued to create 
numerous opportunities for both its members and the general public to 
participate in the life of the Smithsonian Institution. More than 
40,000 adults and young people were involved in a broad variety of 
activities, ranging from special events such as the opening of the exhi- 
bition "Laser 10," Zoo night, and the Folk Festival Preview to in-depth 
classes taught primarily by Smithsonian scholars in fields of Smithson- 
ian interest. 

Programs for members only, more than half of which were without 
charge, totaled some 121 separate events, many of which were repeated 
by popular demand. Events also open to the public totaled another 
111. These activities included lecture courses in history, science, and 
the humanities; films, field trips (both outdoors and behind-the-scenes 



PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION ACTIVITIES 



103 







A young Associate works at shaping down his own boomerang in preparation 
for learning to throw it. Nearly 200 people attended the Boomerang Workshops 
under the direction of Benjamin Ruhe, Smithsonian Office of Public Affairs. 
(Photograph by Robert de Gast, Smithsonian Magazine.) 



104 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

in the National Museums of History and Technology and Natural 
History), exhibit openings, an exploration into conservation of art 
objects at the National Collection of Fine Arts, the ever-popular 
annual Kite Carnival, a new and well-received workshop on boomer- 
ang making and throwing, and numerous concerts and theatrical pro- 
ductions, ranging from a play on drug addiction presented by student 
members of the Daytop rehabilitation program of New York to a 
concert by leading experimenters with the Moag synthesizer and other 
electronic instruments. In addition, young people and adults studied in 
some 93 classes and craft workshops. 

Emphasis was on doing — on learning and growing and "becoming 
involved." Some discussed ecological problems at an Encounter series 
while others studied natural history on a schooner cruise off the coast 
of Maine, explored archeology at the luncheon series, dug fossils at 
Calvert Cliffs, hunted mushrooms in Maryland, and considered the 
past through art-history tours in nearby states. As varied and extensive 
as these activities have been, they mark only the beginning of the 
Associates' adventure in discovery. 

A major event in the history of the Associates occurred in April 
with the publication of the first issue of the Smithsonian magazine. 
A list of the Smithsonian Associates membership gifts is in Appendix 3. 



Office of Public Affairs 



The Office of Public Affairs (opa) in the past year broadened its 
programs of communication with visitors and the public at large. A 
full-time visitor-information desk service was inaugurated in coopera- 
tion with the Smithsonian Associates. The Smithsonian Motion Pic- 
ture Group undertook three productions: a public television program 
about Institution activities under a grant from the Corporation for 
Public Broadcasting, a film about museums in modern life, and a con- 
temporary study of libraries with the American Library Association. A 
half-hour television show, "Smithsonian," was produced with the 
American University Broadcast Center and wrc-tv. Broadcasters fo- 
cused increased attention on the Smithsonian, and numerous projects 
from modern art to space flight were carried out with opa aid. Radio 
Smithsonian, a program series of music and conversation, was carried 
regularly by stations in Washington, D.C., and New York City and 
distributed nationally and overseas. A publications branch was estab- 



PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION ACTIVITIES 105 

lished to initiate and distribute a wide range of printed materials — 
including information leaflets, building guides, and foreign-language 
material. The News Bureau, charged with communicating day-to-day 
developments to news media, prepared a series of "news-features" that 
were widely reprinted. The Smithsonian Film Theatre presented 37 
weekly programs in art, science, and history attended by more than 
25,000 persons. An educational radio internship program was estab- 
lished with American University, and the opa also sponsored the third 
annual day of staff briefings for student science writers. 



Office of International Activities 



Office activities were concentrated on the environmental conse- 
quences of development, with the Director leading a team of scientists 
to the Mekong Basin to assess the ecological effects of present and 
proposed hydroelectrical projects there. He also served on the National 
Academy of Sciences committee to study the biological consequences of 
a sea-level canal in Panama. 

The Office assisted Smithsonian scientists in planning research 
abroad and briefed American diplomats going overseas and foreign 
visitors to the Institution on its international programs. Museum 
training for three Africans was arranged, a symposium on Smithsonian 
projects in Ceylon was successfully carried out and two Smithsonian 
staff members were sent to Iran as consultants under the Iran-United 
States Science Agreement, the first such international agreement in 
which the Smithsonian has been designated as the program-directing 
agency. Staff members visited more than twelve nations to arrange 
new cooperative programs. 

Closing its fifth year, the Foreign Currency Program had awarded 
more than $10,000,000 in "excess" foreign currency grants to over fifty 
American institutions of higher learning, of which $3,500,000 was 
awarded this year alone. Grants included more than the equivalent of 
five million dollars for work in archeology and related disciplines; 
over three and one half million in systematic and environmental 
biology; more than $400,000 in astrophysics and earth sciences; and 
nearly $150,000 in the newly authorized category of Museum 
programs. 

Program accomplishments over the five-year period include some 
50 research publications, 150 postdoctoral research opportunities for 



106 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

Americans, 110 field-training opportunities for doctoral candidates, 
and research collections for the Smithsonian and many of the Ameri- 
can grantee institutions. The bi-national collaborative research pattern 
fostered by the program contributed in a similar beneficial way to 200 
foreign host institutions. 

A list of the grants awarded in fiscal year 1970 is included in 
Appendix 1. 



Division of Performing Arts 



The Division of Performing Arts continued to enliven and enrich 
the experience of museum visitors with a variety of programs and 
projects. "Perceptions II," a series of contemporary forms in perform- 
ing arts, now in its second year, highlighted the world premiers of two 
musical works. One of them, "Misfortunes of the Immortals" by Mor- 
ton Subotnick, has been added to the permanent repertoire of the 
Dorian Woodwind Quintet. The series also included two powerful and 
timely dramatic works: "The Concept," dealing with the endeavors of 
former drug addicts to reenter society; and "Neighbors," a rock musical 
based on the Spoon River Anthology. "Perceptions" is presented in 
cooperation with the Smithsonian Associates. 

The third annual Festival of American Folklife was again the most 
popular single event on the Mall. More than half a million visitors 
were once again reminded of their own cultural roots by the exhibits 
of crafts and cooking and performances of music and dance. A special 
section was devoted to the craft and music of the State of Pennsylvania. 

The Touring Performances Service, in the second year, sponsored a 
wide range of American performing artists and lecturers at cultural 
and educational institutions across the country. The American Folklife 
Company, The Black Experience, the touring Smithsonian Puppet 
Theatre, The Jelly Roll Memorial Band, The Concept, and other 
programs disseminated the experience and success of the Smithsonian 
in the field of performing arts. 

The Resident Puppet Theater, an exceedingly popular informative 
entertainment for children, continued during 1970 with three new 
shows in expanded facilities. One hundred and forty colleges and uni- 
versities submitted their productions to the American College Theatre 
Festival, and the ten best were then restaged in Washington, D.C., to 



PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION ACTIVITIES 107 

general critical acclaim. The Division also presented programs in 
cooperation with other organizations: A series of concerts was offered 
monthly with the Left Bank Jazz Society, and chamber music concerts 
with the Washington Performing Arts Society, as well as an evening 
of Brazilian folk music with the the Brazilian Embassy, among others. 



Smithsonian Museum Shops 

The Smithsonian Museum Shops installations in all museums were 
completed during the last year. Special efforts were made to expand 
the role of the book stores of the Museum Shops. 

Facilities for publications were increased in the Shops of the Arts 
and Industries Building (a&i) and the National Museum of History 
and Technology (nmht). A special sales area for the ^'Contributions 
to the Museum of History and Technology" was installed at nmht and 
all Shops offered specially selected publications focused on the special 
exhibits of each museum. 

The Museum Shops once more participated in the Folklife Festival 
on the Mall in July of 1969 offering items of traditional American 
crafts. The Second Annual Aerospace Modeling Exhibit was held in 
the shop of the Arts and Industries Building sponsored by the National 
Air and Space Museum and the Museum Shops, which included a 
weekend launching competition on the Mall of model rocket and flight 
craft. 

The sales exhibitions program of the Museum Shops was high- 
lighted with the introduction of a new series of exhibitions honoring 
the crafts and craftsmen of the United States in February when the 
works of thirty-four distinguished craftsmen from Montana were 
shown in the Museum Shop in a&i. Other special sales exhibitions 
offered the public an opportunity to select crafts from Pakistan and 
Chile; flat-woven rugs from Greece, Iran, and Turkey; wooden circus 
toys made by William Accorsi; and animals in iron sculpture by 
Orvello Wood. 



Belmont Conference Center 

The Belmont Conference Center, now in its fourth year of full oper- 
ation, continues to grow and to find itself scheduling conferences at an 



108 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

ever-increasing rate. At the present time, groups are reserving the 
Center as far as a year in advance. During the past year, fifty-eight 
conferences met at Belmont, sponsored by thirty- three agencies (gov- 
ernmental as well as public and private organizations) . 

Smithsonian groups holding conferences at Belmont have included 
the Smithsonian Council, Interdisciplinary Communications Program, 
Office of Academic Programs, Program for Postdoctoral Fellows in 
Education Research, and the Office of International Activities. The 
Center has been host to groups as diversified as the National Urban 
Coalition and the Senate Public Works Committee, while guests have 
included Nobel Prize winner Dr. Murray Gell-Mann; Dr. John Clark, 
Director of Goddard Space Flight Center; Dr. Robert Marston, Direc- 
tor of National Institutes of Health; Mr. Robert Mayo, Counsellor to 
the President; Mr. Elmer Staats, Comptroller General; Dr. John 
Gardner, Chairman, National Urban Coalition; and Commissioner 
Nicholas Johnson of the Federal Communications Commission, to 
name a few of the more than 1,000 persons who have been welcomed 
to Belmont this past year. 

The Center accommodates twenty-four resident guests with facilities 
for meetings and meals for thirty people. The completion of a new 
roof, as well as extensive repairs to the main house and other build- 
ings, has made Belmont more comfortable and attractive. 

Conference operations continue to be directed toward the needs of 
small groups which require the kind of attractive and secluded setting 
which Belmont provides, together with the advantages of easy access to 
Washington's National and Baltimore's Friendship airports. 



Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 



Highlights in the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum's 1970 pro- 
grams included the exhibit "The Rat: Man's Invited Affliction," which 
focused on the environmental problem of rat infestation and how to 
deal with it. A simulated backyard was especially constructed so that 
the viewer could see how live rats live and breed. This exhibit received 
nationwide attention when it was filmed for the abc television pro- 
gram "Discovery." A portion of the exhibit was shown at the Buffalo 
Museum of Science under the cosponsorship of that museum and the 
Buffalo County Health Department. The impact of "The Rat" rein- 
forced the conviction that the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 



PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION ACTIVITIES 



109 



should be a mechanism for change in the inner city. A proposal was 
submitted, and in May of this year, the Carnegie Corporation granted 
the Museum $100,000 "to enable the staff to work with neighborhood 
groups in analyzing urban problems and their effect on the neighbor- 
hood and to make information and educational materials on these 
issues available to schools, museums, and other local and national 
groups." 

In cooperation with the sites, the Museum's exhibit on Frederick 
Douglass and his influence on Afro- American history, "The Douglass 
Years," has been shown at various museums throughout the country. 

During the major part of the school year, over 23,000 children and 
teenagers visited the Museum on guided school tours. Films and var- 
ious programs of educational and popular interest were presented with 
each new exhibit. The Mobile Division reached approximately 6600 
students during visits to area schools with a condensed version of "The 
Douglass Years." 




Special exhibit "The Rat: Man's Invited Affliction" at the Anacostia Neighbor- 
hood Museum, focused on the environmental problem of rat infestation and how 
to deal with it. 



HO SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

Smithsonian 



The Smithsonian magazine, born of the Institution's desire to extend 
the Smithsonian Associates into a nationwide membership organization, 
published its first issue in April of 1970. It soon achieved a circulation 
of 180,000. 

The editorial office, located in the Arts and Industries Building, is 
headed by Edward K. Thompson. Before coming to Washington, Mr. 
Thompson served for ten years as managing editor of Life magazine, 
after which he became editor of all Life publications. In this capacity 
he was largely responsible for launching a well-known Life books 
program. 

With Mr. Thompson on the Board of Editors of Smithsonian are 
Ralph T. Backlund, formerly associate and managing editor of Horizon 
magazine ; R. Hobart Ellis, who has served as editor of various scientific 
publications, including Nucleonics, Nuclear Fusion, and Physics Today; 
Edward Parks, formerly editor of several magazines in Australia and 
associate director of the National Geographic's book department; and 
Mrs. Grayce P. Northcross, who has done research and reporting for 
Time, Life, and the United States Information Agency's America. 

The magazine's advertising, circulation, and promotion offices are in 
New York City. Heading the New York office is advertising director 
Thomas H. Black, formerly sales executive with J. Walter Thompson, 
abc, Life, and Time; assisted by general manager Joseph J. Bonsig- 
nore, previously head of editorial production for Life, Fortune, Time, 
and Sports Illustrated; and circulation-promotion director Anne Keat- 
ing, formerly advertising and promotion director of Natural History. 

Early articles to attract national attention concerned the Crown- 
of- Thorns starfish infestation of Pacific coral reefs, the history of our 
volunteer armies, and a historical appraisal of women's rights move- 
ments. Smithsonian scientists and staff members contributing to 
Smithsonian included Dr. John Eisenberg of the National Zoological 
Park, James Weaver of the National Museum of History and Tech- 
nology's Division of Musical Instruments, and photographer Francis 
Greenwell of the National Museum of Natural History. In addition, 
Regent Crawford H. Greenewalt contributed an article, with his own 
photographs, on Birds of Paradise. 

An early letter to the editor perhaps best sums up the broad appeal 
and the unique character of Smithsonian. The writer, a high school 
graduate and heavy-equipment operator, asked : 



PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION ACTIVITIES HI 

I would like to see occasional articles on native and primitive art . . . plus at 
least one good article on heraldry . . . and definitions of the items involved in 
this form of art. 

Edward Thompson has stated that Smithsonian will not disappoint 
him or its other readers. 



Smithsonian Institution Archives 

The Archive's major obligations are preservation of the materials in 
its custody and announcement of the availability of three resources to 
scholars. At present physical work predominates; records are separated 
into discrete units, cleaned, boxed, and shelved. During this arrange- 
ment process a limited amount of information is also collected about 
each record or manuscript unit, and in Jaunary 1971 this information 
will be issued as the first comprehensive finding aid to the Archives' 
holdings. Description of records in depth has begun and will proceed 
according to the research importance of the materials. A full guide to 
the Smithsonian Archives will appear in about four years. 

The program for physical arrangement and production of good 
quality-finding aids will create information which can be computerized 
simply and effectively. When information of sufficient quality about 
the collections has been assembled, the Archives will be prepared for 
computerized finding aids to complement information systems within 
other divisions of the Smithsonian and national systems for manu- 
script collections. 

In March 1970 the Archives occupied its newly remodeled space in 
the Smithsonian Institution Building. Reference service was provided 
to a wide range of users. Drs. Charles G. Abbot and Alexander Wet- 
more made arrangements for transfer of their personal Secretarial 
papers to the Smithsonian. This was the highlight of the year and 
undoubtedly ranks among the most important transactions in the 
history of the Smithsonian Archives. 



Smithsonian Institution Libraries 



The Smithsonian Institution and the National Agricultural Library 
conducted a facsimile transmission experiment to augment delivery 



112 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

service between the two libraries. Permanent transmission services 
await staff augmentation. The Libraries produced an exhibit, to be 
available through the Traveling Exhibition Service (sites) commem- 
orating the 100th anniversary of the publication of Alfred Wallace's 
The Malay Archipelago. The first American Library Association tu- 
torial program on basic library automation was conducted by the 
Smithsonian Libraries, with the District of Columbia Library Associa- 
tion as a cosponsor. The Institution was elected to its third consecutive 
two-year term on the Federal Library Committee. 

Reduced buying power of funds for the purchase of library materials 
heightened the importance of the Libraries' gift and exchange pro- 
gram. A new review process was organized and subject experts on the 
Libraries' staff selected over 5,000 items for retention from among the 
many items received this year. This effort was capped by a valuable 
gift of historical items in botany by Mr. Harry Lubrecht of New York 
City. Processing was begun of the rare books in the Dwight-Tucker 
ornithological collection and the task of recataloging the Department 
of Anthropology Library reached the halfway mark in 1970. 

A long-range solution to space problems for the curation of the 
Libraries' collections was reached through the creation of the Smith- 
sonian Institution Library Center away from the Mall in the Institu- 
tion's Lamont Street building. The Center will hold the growing 
number of large and special collections, particularly for historical re- 
search. Library space in Mall buildings will be devoted to reference 
and concentrated research collections. The large collection transferred 
to the Smithsonian from the Patent Office last year was moved im- 
mediately to the Center. 



International Exchange Service 

Publications weighing more than 700,000 pounds were received 
from over 370 organizations in the United States for exchange with 
libraries in other countries. Exchange publications weighing approxi- 
mately 500,000 pounds were forwarded by ocean freight to 39 exchange 
bureaus in 32 countries, and approximately 200,000 pounds were 
mailed to addressees in countries that do not have exchange bureaus. 
More than 120,000 pounds were received in exchange from the foreign 
exchange bureaus for addressees in the United States. 

Some 350,000 pounds of official United States publications were ex- 
changed for the official documents of other countries. Recipients in 45 
countries received the full sets of official publications, and partial sets 



PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION ACTIVITIES 113 

were sent to recipients in 34 countries. The official journals, the Con- 
gressional Record, and the Federal Register were sent on exchange to 
65 countries. United States patent specifications were exchanged with 
patent libraries in 24 countries. 

Medical and dental publications were received from more than 180 
libraries in the United States for exchange with medical and dental 
libraries in other countries. 

During the year the United States Department of Agriculture and 
the Geological Survey discontinued using the Service for the mailing 
list portions of their exchange programs. 



Information Systems Division 



The Information Systems Division, staffed with specialists in re- 
trieval and indexing techniques, mathematical computation, and 
management information services, continues to provide Smithsonian 
museologists and management with technical assistance in all areas of 
automation. In addition to the continuing research and development 
of new applications and the maintenance of existing systems, several 
computer systems were implemented during the year to handle the 
diverse information needs of the Institution. 

A generalized software package was developed to establish a mu- 
seum data file within the Smithsonian, based on a standard means of 
recording and updating information. Additional calculation capabili- 
ties have been offered to Smithsonian scientists with the development 
of a library of advanced mathematical software packages. The Divi- 
sion also sponsored seminars in statistical applications to enhance the 
value of these computer programs. A system was designed and imple- 
mented to combine all personnel and payroll data into one readily 
accessible file. Other systems began operating this year to provide rec- 
ord-management procedures for library serials, oceanographic rock 
samples, and fine-arts inventory, and another to report accumulating 
cost and workload data for labor and materials at all management 
levels. 

As a service to the museum community at large, the Division began 
publishing a technical bulletin dedicated to acquainting the reader 
with automated systems specifically designed to solve the collection 
problems of museums and herbaria. In addition, many members of the 



114 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

community from both home and abroad attended demonstrations of 
the now operating Smithsonian Institution information retrieval 
system for handling biological and petrological data in all their 
complexities. 



Smithsonian Institution Press 



The publication programs of the Smithsonian Institution Press were 
reviewed in March by a visiting committee of four prominent pub- 
lishers. The committee concluded that the Smithsonian is meeting ade- 
quately its mandate for diffusion of knowledge to scholars through 
publication of research reports and catalogs, but that communication 
to a broader audience is not as well organized or as effective. The com- 
mittee proposed an organic program of publication on three levels: 
(1) leaflets, available at the exhibits of public museums, for the pur- 
pose of exhibit interpretation; (2) booklets and other educational 
materials, to be produced and distributed by cooperation with other 
publishers, for the purpose of extension to schools and communities; 
and (3) adult books, related to Smithsonian programs and interests, 
for the purpose of reviewing and integrating significant information in 
science, history, and art. This plan was reviewed by the Press staff, 
the standing Editorial Policy Committee, the Secretary, and the 
bureau directors, all of whom gave it their strong endorsements and 
approvals for implementation commencing in fiscal 1971. 

Arrangements with Random House, Inc. for sales and distribution 
of privately funded books in the United States and Canada were termi- 
nated at the end of the year. A new contract for these services was 
executed with George Braziller, Inc. 

Production costs of 1 1 1 publications were funded by federal appro- 
priation in the amount of $374,497; 11 were supported by Smith- 
sonian private funds in the amount of $89,996; and 12 were sub- 
sidized by grants of gifts in the amount of $43,157. The total out- 
put of 134 titles is listed in Appendix 5. The Press warehouse and 
Random House shipped, on order and subscription, a total of 256,000 
publications during the year. 



PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION ACTIVITIES 115 

Science Information Exchange 



Beginning its second decade, the Science Information Exchange 
(sie) has continued to expand its services to the national scientific 
community. About 100,000 records of currently active research are 
received annually and from this automated data bank, thousands of 
inquiries are being answered to assist research investigators and ad- 
ministrators in the planning and management of the projects and 
programs. During 1970 there has been a significant increase in 
demands for complex multi-disciplinary, multi-agency compilations 
that describe the details of broad programs of national importance, 
such as water resources, marine sciences, environmental pollution, and 
outdoor recreation. These compilations, including thousands of related 
projects, are being furnished as computer listings, printed catalogs, and 
tables of data or matrices showing the distribution of research effort 
over the appropriate subspecialties of complex programs. 

Interest in the international exchange of information of this kind 
appears to be increasing, although most announced systems still seem 
to be in planning stages. A registry of Scientific and Technical Services 
among nine Asiatic nations, however, is currently operational in 
Australia, and a one-year experimental exchange arrangement has 
been initiated between sie and the International Atomic Energy com- 
mission in Vienna. 

The Exchange has progressed substantially toward a systems- 
network capability. About half of the total project input is now being 
received on compatible machine-readable tape capable of two way 
exchange. Eight keyboard visual screen terminals are now connected 
directly to the automated data bank and could be connected through 
leased lines whenever remote real time access is deemed desirable and 
economically feasible. Within a few months, the full text of all sie 
records will be available in the computer store. 



Reading Is Fundamental 



The National Reading Is Fundamental program (rif) has oper- 
ated since 1968 as an independent unit under Smithsonian sponsorship 
and is supported by the Ford Foundation. Rif's purpose is to motivate 
disadvantaged youngsters and adults to want to read, by making avail- 
able a wide variety of interesting and relevant inexpensive paperbacks. 



116 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 




"Reading Is Fundamental" in Cleveland — Elementary school children participate 
in rif book distribution, visited by their Mayor, the Honorable Carl Stokes 
(member of rif National Advisory Board), far right; Joseph D. Burrucker, 
Director, Cleveland-RiF, standing next to the Mayor; and Jerrold Sandler, 
Executive Director, National rif Program, far left. Spring, 1970. 



The program stresses self-selection and ownership of books in the belief 
that the right to read should be the birthright of all America's chil- 
dren. Under the Ford grant, rif provides technical assistance and 
information to those interested in beginning a local project — school 
systems, libraries, and community agencies. 

During 1969—1970 eleven model projects were developed, covering 
both urban and rural areas throughout the country, and including 
various ethnic groups — American Indians, Blacks, and Mexican-Ameri- 
cans. All funds for books, as well as the selection of titles, were the 
responsibility of the local sponsoring groups. Areas covered included 
Cleveland; Pittsburgh; Appalachia, Mississippi; New York City; East 
Los Angeles; St. Louis; Eastern Shore, Maryland; Columbus, Ohio; 
and Washington, D. C. In addition to these model projects, the Read- 
ing Is Fundamental central staff acts as liaison with the publishing 
industry, government, schools, and libraries regarding book programs 
and provides general information to all who seek it. 

Two major publications were completed during the year for wide 
distribution: Action for Change, a pictorial booklet describing the 



PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION ACTIVITIES 117 

national program, and rif's Guide to Book Selection, including more 
than 1700 titles and 1100 authors, with special sections dealing with 
materials of relevance to the ethnic groups served. Future plans call 
for the development of guidelines for setting up a rif program and 
development of a new film for distribution via television and com- 
munity organizations showing the program in action. 

The Ford Foundation will continue to support rif as a Smithsonian 
activity through a renewal grant of $400,000 for the three-year period, 
1970-1973. Policy guidance for rif is provided by a National Advisory 
Board composed of more than thirty distinguished Americans from 
many walks of life. The founder and chairman of rif is Mrs. Robert 
S. McNamara; Secretary Ripley serves ex officio as a member of the 
rif board. 



OFFICE OF ACADEMIC PROGRAMS 



Q ixty academic appointments of six months or longer and seventy 
^ of shorter duration were conferred upon students and trainees in 
the Institution's programs of higher education in academic year 1969— 
1970 (Appendix 6). All such appointments now depend upon prior 
acceptance by members of the professional staff. This was the first year 
that the recipients of stipend awards had been chosen by committees 
of professional staff members, thus assuring that those selected would 
fit in well with our efforts in research. These guarantees have in turn 
increased staff members' willingness to supervise student projects. In a 
recent survey of more than 300 staff scientists and scholars only 53 
indicated that they would not be available to supervise students 
(mostly because of administrative duties or plans to spend most of 
their time in the field), while 36 indicated that they would prefer only 
students who would assist them directly; 82 indicated a "desire to su- 
pervise one student working on doctoral dissertation research and 78 
expressed interest in having more than one. In addition, over 100 
indicated a willingness to assist younger graduate students who had 
not yet completed their coursework and 83 indicated a willingness to 
offer seminars dealing with their research. This represents a very con- 
siderable capacity to conduct higher-education programs. While 29 
PhDs were earned within the Smithsonian in 1969-1970, the total 
could readily be several times that amount. The Institution's major 
objective in higher education is to employ its capacity to the max- 
imum practical extent. 

In school services a 50 percent increase was achieved in escorted vis- 
its for local schoolchildren this year, through the expanded efforts of 
our groups of devoted volunteer docents (see Appendix 6) . The total of 
68,000 pupils is encouraging, but it is far more important to report 
that more and more of their experiences are self-directed explorations 
of museum exhibits as resources for individual learning. Rather than 
attempt to reproduce the classroom experience of listening to a lecture, 
we endeavor to help children learn how to learn on their own, enlisting 
visual curiosity and the important sense of touch (8 of the 16 tours 
offered each day include objects to be passed around). Let our concern 
about the limitations of conventional schooling lead us to significant 
experiments in the development of learning environments in the con- 
genial and fascinating open settings of museums. In January we drew 
together a group of educators and museum staff members from around 
the country to help identify the most promising contributions of mu- 

121 



122 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

seums to science education. Its recommendations are being transmitted 
to the National Science Foundation, which supported the conference. 
\\ ith the aid of grants from the Charles F. Kettering Foundation and 
The New World Foundation, Professor John Appel of Michigan State 
University has conducted a pilot project in the preparation of learning 
resource materials from the Smithsonian collections to show the his- 
tory of prejudice in America through the portrayal of ethnic and racial 
stereotypes in cartooning and the popular arts. The Institution also 
agreed to cooperate with the Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational 
Corporation in preparing sound filmstrips, an experiment aimed at 
extending the museum into the nation's classrooms. 

Perhaps the greatest need in education is to introduce the compre- 
hensive insights of modern science and scholarship into the process of 
education at all levels. The Smithsonian is endeavoring to conduct 
cycles of activities, each to last for a year or so, such as a series of com- 
missioned essays to be presented in a major international symposium 
and an interdisciplinary exhibit to illuminate and reappraise an area 
of knowledge. The fourth cycle will explore cultural factors which may 
account for more rapid social change in the modern world. The pro- 
gram began with a year-long research seminar on popular culture con- 
ducted for faculty members and staff members of organizations in the 
Washington area, which was a fascinating exploration of the subject 
matter while serving as a welcome opportunity for interchange among 
scholars in the metropolitan area. 



ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT 



r T~'HE relationship of the Smithsonian Institution's executive man- 
agement staff with its bureau directors and managers of other 
organization units may be described as one of partnership directed 
toward national goals in the fields of research, education, exhibition, 
culture, and public enlightenment. Day-to-day activities in furthering 
these objectives result in this partnership interacting in numerous 
ways, large and small, with every branch of government; schools and 
universities, museums and art galleries; citizens of all ages; professional 
societies and organizations; scientists and scholars, artists and authors 
the world over; foreign governments and institutions, and the inter- 
national public. The program support groups also form a vital segment 
of this very diverse, yet closely related, internal and external network. 
Significant steps, such as the forming of an internal audits activity in 
the Office of the Under Secretary, have been taken during the year to 
strengthen and simplify the administrative framework within which 
all of these relationships function and thrive. 

To enhance the efforts of the support units, some growth has been 
realized this year in two areas — the Office of Personnel and Manage- 
ment Resources benefitted by the addition of several positions and the 
Travel Services Office added one employee. Despite these modest 
increases, the support group as a whole has not yet realized position 
and funding increases commensurate with the growth of the Smith- 
sonian program units. These handicaps did not lessen the lively inter- 
est, continuing cooperation, and dedicated efforts of these groups. A 
review of their individual and collective accomplishments during the 
year reveals that a noteworthy volume of high-standard work has been 
performed. The following statement highlights some of their 
achievements. 



PROGRAM SUPPORT ACTIVITIES 

The Office of Personnel and Management Resources has continued 
to advise and assist all Smithsonian staff in encouraging the develop- 
ment of an atmosphere of individual achievement within a framework 
of sound management of human resources. During this year an embry- 
onic manpower program was developed, which established manpower 

125 



126 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

"ceilings" for the organizations within the Institution, and managers 
were asked to develop their programs within these ceilings. In this pro- 
gram top management is involved increasingly in decisions affecting 
human resources management. Manpower adjustments and key 
employee selections are reviewed by the appropriate Assistant Secre- 
tary and recommendations presented to the Secretary for decision. 
This procedure has the effect of translating top management interest 
throughout the Institution and contributes immeasurably to high- 
quality staffing and efficient manpower utilization. 

An exciting program called "Vision '70" was launched this year in 
an effort to broaden the horizons of administrators, managers, and 
employees. This program began with a series of film presentations 
encompassing vital challenges of life in the 70s. One series of four films 
about Black America drew an attendance of 600. Other series were pre- 
sented on environmental pollution and on drugs in American life. The 
goal calls for a monthly series on interrelated presentations, lectures, 
discussions, and symposia. 

The awards program through which excellence can be rewarded has 
been simplified and authority to grant awards was delegated to bureau 
directors, eliminating unnecessary committees and additional paper- 
work. The career-development and job-enrichment training authority 
also has been delegated to bureau directors giving them the ability to 
plan their staff's training consistent with program requirements. A 
pilot program started in one major bureau in which the authority to 
classify jobs was delegated may develop into a prototype leading to 
increased flexibility for managers. 

The training and development program provided for the attendance 
of two major program managers at the Federal Executive Institute, a 
voluntary executive management-development film program, a forty- 
hour first-level supervisory development program, and a secretarial 
training course tailor-made for the Smithsonian. These were in addi- 
tion to continuing skills development in on-and-off the job training 
provided to employees from the trades and crafts through the profes- 
sional ranks. 

The varied activities of the Office as evidenced by the following 
statistical table of personnel actions, reflects the dynamics of organiza- 
tional life of the Smithsonian Institution : 



ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT 



127 





Federal 


Private 


Total 


New hires 


744 


499 


1243 


Employees leaving 


604 


391 


995 


Grade promotions 


542 


145 


687 


Other actions (reassignments, 








job changes, etc.) 


621 


269 


890 


Meritorious pay increases 


178 


24 


202 


Regular pay increases 


784 


184 


968 


Total actions 


3473 


1512 


4985 



A special survey showed that this year the office received 4524 
visitors, responded to 52,392 telephone calls, and replied to 3240 let- 
ters. This total of over 60,000 responses to individuals seeking informa- 
tion is in addition to some 5000 internal requests from managers, 
supervisors, and employees. 

Under the personal leadership of the Secretary, the Smithsonian's 
Office of Equal Employment Opportunity has continued a realistic 
program designed to assure genuine equality of opportunity in all 
official actions of the Smithsonian Institution. 

During the year approximately 110 consultations were conducted 
with individual supervisory staff members on matters relating to their 
selections of candidates for promotion under the merit promotion pro- 
gram. A number of informal complaints were reviewed, factual 
information developed, and necessary adjustments made to the satis- 
faction of the complainants. Upon request, special counseling services 
are provided regularly to employees aspiring to positions of greater 
responsibility. This service provides staff members with information 
about educational opportunities available in the metropolitan D.G. 
area and the methods for acquiring specific educational and experi- 
ence requirements for career advancement. 

Two special training sessions were conducted for employees assigned 
recently to supervisory positions. The discussions stressed the necessity 
for eliminating personal prejudices, indifference to the needs of 
employees, and favoritism in supervisory practices. 

In cooperation with the Office of Personnel and Management 
Resources a program is being developed to offer additional career 
opportunities for employees in lower-level positions. 

The past year was one of progressive change and improvement for 
the Buildings Management Department. With the assistance of a pri- 
vate management consulting firm, an analysis was made of the Depart- 
ment's program and functional areas and plans were developed to 
provide a more manageable and effective operation. Service units were 
consolidated into three major groupings: Building Services Division, 
Engineering and Construction Division, and Protection Divison. The 



128 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

new edp (electronic data processing ) -oriented system was imple- 
mented to provide regular, detailed financial and work-progress data 
covering virtually all services performed by the Department. 

The largest of all Smithsonian units, the Department is responsible 
for the operation and maintenance of the physical plant, which com- 
prises nearly 3.5 million square feet of floor space; safeguarding the 
priceless national collections, and guiding, assisting, and protecting the 
millions of people who visit the Smithsonian each year. The very spirit 
of these responsibilities results in the Department giving daily support 
to the Institution's diversified research, cultural, educational, and 
public enlightenment programs. 

The 2560 special events and ceremonies which occurred during the 
year, required major participation by the Department. These included 
the Folklife Festival and the Tent Theatre productions which were pre- 
sented on the Mall. In addition, special efforts were required to cope 
with problems associated with various demonstrations held in the 
vicinity of Smithsonian Institution buildings. 

Major construction and renovation projects, which will total an 
expenditure of $16.6 million when completed, required the Depart- 
ment's continuing attention. This included design work, design-review 
planning conferences, contract development and review, as well as 
contract supervision. Major projects in this category were: the Hirsh- 
horn Museum and Sculpture Garden, renovation of the original Smith- 
sonian Institution Building, restoration of the exterior of the Arts and 
Industries Building, and remodeling of the snack bar in the History 
and Technology Building. Innumerable smaller projects were under- 
taken throughout the Smithsonian properties, including renovation 
and construction of office spaces, modifications to air-handling equip- 
ment, installation of a new freight elevator in the Freer, and extensive 
design work for other proposed projects. 

The Administrative Ssytems Division issued in April the Smithson- 
ian Staff Handbook 510 — Requisitioning — Purchase of Supplies and 
Services. Work started on another handbook in this series, which will 
furnish policy and procedural guidelines covering internal services 
available to managers and supervisors in support of their programs. 
Some 250 administrative issuances were distributed to the staff, rang- 
ing from matters of permanent major policy and procedural guidelines 
to special interim instructions and matter-of-fact information of a tem- 
porary nature. Material about the staffing and functions of the organi- 
zations in the Smithsonian was provided to 30 external publications. A 
program was developed, in cooperation with the Information Systems 
Division, to provide computer support for the preparation and mainte- 



ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT 



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130 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

nance of data required for the Smithsonian Institution Directory. The 
Forms Management Unit processed, through in-house reproduction, 
604 requests from 112 organizations for a variety of forms and form 
letters to support management, research, education, exhibition, and 
public service activities. In addition, 149 orders were placed with the 
Government Printing Office and other external sources. 

The Photographic Services Division continued its active participa- 
tion in programs concerned with research, documentation and con- 
servation of collections, exhibitions, education, training, publications, 
and public service; and provided essential technical assistance and 
guidance as well as training for staff members in other Smithsonian 
organizations. Outstanding special exhibits, benefiting from profes- 
sional photographic talent, where the "Laser 10," "Neutra," "Com- 
puter," and "Frederick Douglass" shows. 

The 5870 work requests received by the Division provided 23,734 
negatives, 13,734 transparencies, 33,699 microfilm frames, and 103,- 
094 prints. 

The Travel Services Office continues to experience growth in some 
major services, i.e., air and rail reservations booked were up 6 percent; 
travel itineraries issued 16 percent, and transportation requests pre- 
pared 10 percent, and the dollar value of all transportation purchased 
was some $53,000 higher than last year. Formerly cumbersome proce- 
dures involved in obtaining travel with excess foreign currencies for 
affiliates of the American Institute of Indian Studies have been stream- 
lined. Travel management advice, program planning assistance, and a 
wide variety of travel services and technical guidance were provided to 
support major national and international symposia, meetings, expedi- 
tions, and special programs. 

Purchases by the Supply Division this year have exceeded 12,000 
units, an estimated increase of 1000 over the previous year. Under 
the government property distribution and utilization programs, items 
from airplanes to missiles — including a seagoing vessel from the Coast 
Guard — with an original acquisition value exceeding $8,000,000, have 
been obtained for exhibition and research purposes. 

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS 

National Museum of History and Technology 

Calder Stabile. A contract to install a filtration system for the pool 
was let 24 February 1970 to the John J. Kirlin Co. Completion of this 
work is expected by 24 August 1970. 



ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT 131 

Snack Bar. This facility was completely remodeled by the Joseph 
McCann Company. Construction commenced on 4 February 1970 and 
was completed on 1 June 1970. 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

Contract was awarded to the Piracci Construction Company and 
actual work was started on 23 March 1970. The projected completion 
date of this project is September 1972. 

National Zoological Park 

Hospital-Research Building. The Lomack Corporation contractors 
completed their work in December. The building, now partially occu- 
pied, will be completely used when required furnishings are delivered 
and installed. 

Multiclimate House. Severe modifications in the final design 
resulted in the indefinite deferment of this project. 

Heating Study. Final design was accepted and bids will be let and 
construction started early in fiscal year 1971. 

Pollution Abatement Study. Recommended modifications of the 
sewerage system were accomplished and some erosion control measures 
were implemented at the same time. 

Restoration and Renovation of Buildings 

Renovation of Smithsonian Institution Building. The Grunley- 
Walsh Construction Company continued work throughout the year. 
The project was accepted as being substantially completed on 29 June 
1970. 

Freight Elevator in Freer Gallery. Contracts were let for this project 
on 3 March 1970. It is expected that the project will be completed by 
the fall of 1970. 

Renwick Gallery. A contract for furthering restoration work was 
awarded to Associated Builders, Inc., on 15 June 1970. It is antici- 
pated that this work will be completed about 15 October 1970. 

Arts and Industries Building. A contract was awarded on 4 August 
1969 to Mr. William Watts for the cleaning and restoration of the 
exterior of the building. Work was completed during November 1969. 

Feasibility Studies 

National Museum of History and Technology. A feasibility study 
was made to result in the preparation of a design for facilities necessary 
for the celebration of the Bicentennial of the American Revolution. 



132 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. The Urban 
Design and Development Corporation completed a study for the 
Center to be located on a proposed Pennsylvania Avenue-Market 
Square complex. The conclusions were that the location was not feas- 
ible and that, if the entire complex could not be constructed under a 
central agency, the Center should be located elsewhere. 

Parking. A draft of the study made by Wilbur Smith and Associates 
for Mall garages and Zoo parking is being reviewed. 

Storage. The study completed by the George M. Ewing Company for 
redevelopment of the Smithsonian's Silver Hill facility is being 
reviewed. 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 



National Gallery of Art 
J. Carter Brown, Director 



r T"'HE national gallerv of art, although technically established 
-*■ as a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, is an autonomous and 
separately administered organization. It is governed by its own 
Board of Trustees, the statutory members of which are, ex officio, the 
Chief Justice of the United States (Chairman), the Secretary of State, 
the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution. There are also five General Trustees, from whom, in fiscal 
year 1970, Paul Mellon was reelected President of the Gallery, and 
John Hay Whitney, Vice President. The other General Trustees con- 
tinuing to serve were Dr. Franklin D. Murphy, Lessing J. Rosenwald, 
and Stoddard M. Stevens. 

During the fiscal year 1970 the Gallery had 1,935,533 visitors, an 
increase of more than 50 percent over the previous year. Its collections 
were augmented by an unusually large number of important accessions. 
Most notable among these is the Ailsa Mellon Bruce bequest, a collec- 
tion which includes Bazille and Camille and The Artist's Garden at 
Vetheuil, both by Monet; and, among twenty two Renoirs, Le Pont 
Neuf and Madame Monet and her Son in their Garden at Argenteuil. 
Also in the collection is Riverbank by Cezanne, nine paintings by Bon- 
nard, five by Pissarro, ten by Vuillard, and the Condesa de Chinchon 
by Goya. 

The major single acquisition was The Artist's Father by Cezanne, a 
gift of Mr. Paul Mellon. Other important acquisitions include two 
Cubist paintings, Football Players by Albert Gleizes and Rush Hour, 
New York by Max Weber; The City from Greenwich Village by John 
Sloan; and drawings by Andrew Wyeth and van Dyck. Portrait of 
Mme. Caillebotte, by Renoir, was bequeathed by Angelika Wertheim 
Frink. The Gallery also received two American naive paintings from 
Colonel and Mrs. Edgar William Garbisch. Loans were made to 61 
institutions in this country and abroad. 

Especially notable among the years's exhibitions at the Gallery were 
"German Expressionist Watercolors," "Old Master Drawings from 
Chatsworth," "Joseph Wright of Derby," "The Artist and Space," 

135 



136 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

"Masterpieces of African Sculpture" (attended by 118,801 persons in 
five weeks), and "The Reality of Appearance: The Trompe l'Oeil Tra- 
dition in American Painting." 

In February, the Gallery announced a multimedia education pro- 
gram for junior and senior high schools throughout the nation, which 
will use a new means of reaching students. The program is based on a 
low-priced periodical called "Art and Man," published by Scholastic 
Magazines. This is packaged with filmstrips, slides, posters, color 
reproductions, and teaching guides. These are drawn from the resources 
not only of the National Gallery, but of other museums and private 
collections throughout the world. 

The Gallery's extension services have also developed a comprehensive 
audio-visual program for use in classrooms. Slide lectures covering the 
history of art from the Byzantine period to the 20th century, traveling 
exhibits of framed reproductions, and 16-mm motion pictures dealing 
with art, humanities, history, social studies, and literature are loaned 
to schools at no cost. Last year extension services materials were used 
in over 3,000 communities in the nation and reached more than 
3,100,000 people. 

Total attendance at talks given by the Gallery's educational staff and 
for the programs presented in the auditorium, exclusive of "Civilisa- 
tion" films, was 89,951 for 2610 separate tours and events. This repre- 
sents an increase in attendance of 2993 over last year, when 2518 pro- 
grams were scheduled. Some of the events regularly presented at the 
Gallery are its Tours of the Week, Paintings of the Week, and the Sun- 
day Auditorium Lectures and Films. 

Late last October the American premiere of the thirteen-part series 
"Civilisation," narrated by Britian's distinguished art historian 
Kenneth Clark, was presented at the Gallery. Audience response to this 
extraordinary series was immediate and enthusiastic. Through gener- 
ous public cooperation, funds were raised to purchase prints of the 
entire series, making it possible for the series to be shown on a continual 
basis. Attendance in the Gallery at the films was over 247,000. In 
addition, the Gallery loaned its print, by request, to the White House, 
the Department of State, and the Central Intelligence Agency. 

That same month saw the broadcast over the National Educational 
Television (net) network of "In Search of Rembrandt," which was 
made possible by a grant to the National Gallery by Mrs. Cordelia 
Scaife May. The hour-long program, produced by the Gallery, was 
narrated by James Mason. Net cameras recorded more than 600 
Rembrandt paintings and drawings from some 100 museums through- 
out the world, some of which are part of the Gallery's collection. The 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 137 

film is now available through the Gallery to schools, libraries, and other 
educational institutions. 

There were thirty-two guest lecturers who spoke at the Gallery dur- 
ing the last fiscal year. They included the A. W. Mellon Lecturer in the 
Fine Arts, Sir Nikolaus Pevsner, who gave eight talks on the subject of 
"Some Aspects of Nineteenth-Century Architecture." 

Through the new self-service sales facility the Gallery's publications 
fund made available fourteen new publications, as well as eight cata- 
logs of those exhibitions shown at the Gallery. During the year over 
370,000 customers were served. 

Under the supervision of Richard Bales, forty concerts were given 
on Sundays in the East Garden Court, twelve of them by the National 
Gallery Orchestra. Attendance continued high throughout the season, 
usually at capacity for the orchestral programs. All concerts were 
broadcast in their entirety by station vvgms, am-fm. 

Scientific research on the causes of deterioration of museum objects, 
sponsored in large part by the National Gallery, continues at Carnegie- 
Mellon University's Mellon Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The 
fading of pigments and dyes has received major consideration, as well 
as the processes of oxidation and ways in which they may be inhibited. 
This research project is exploring the application of durable modern 
materials to problems in conservation and is concentrated principally 
on polymer emulsions, ultraviolet absorbers, and solvents for the 
removal of synthetic polymers. 

I. M. Pei & Partners moved ahead on the design of the East Building 
and connecting link addition to the Gallery. Plans call for over half a 
million gross square feet of space devoted to exhibition galleries and 
related supporting facilities, such as a Center for Advanced Study in 
the Visual Arts, a library, print and drawing facilities, photo archives, 
and offices for the Gallery's administrative and curatorial staff. 



JOHN F. KENNEDY CENTER FOR 
THE PERFORMING ARTS 



John F. Kennedy Center for 
the Performing Arts 

William McC. Blair, Jr., General Director 



T)RESIDENT NIXON BECAME THE FOURTH AMERICAN PRESIDENT to 

■■- give tangible support to the John F. Kennedy Center for the Per- 
forming Arts when on 17 October 1969 he signed a bill authorizing 
additional federal funds for the Center. The authorization increased 
the Center's matching federal grant from $15.5 million to $23 million 
and the United States Treasury loan from $15.4 million to $20.4 mil- 
lion. Without these additional funds, which were subsequently appro- 
priated, construction of the Center could not have been completed on 
schedule (P.L. 91-90). 

The Center was initiated by President Eisenhower on 2 September 
1958 as the National Cultural Center (P.L. 85-874). It received the 
strong support of President Kennedy who signed legislation extending 
the fund-raising deadline on 19 August 1963 (P.L. 88-100). The Center 
was named as the sole official memorial in the nation's capital to 
President Kennedy on 23 January 1964 when President Johnson signed 
the John F. Kennedy Center Act (P.L. 88-206). This legislation also 
provided the first federal funds for the project. 

The Kennedy Center is administered separately by a 45-member 
Board of Trustees appointed by the President to ten-year terms, together 
with members ex-officio from pertinent public agencies and from the 
United States Senate and House of Representatives. Members of the 
Board at the end of fiscal 1970 are as follows: 

Richard Adler Representative Peter H. B. 
Floyd D. Akers Frelinghuysen 

Robert O. Anderson Senator J. William Fulbright 

Ralph E. Becker Mrs. George A. Garrett 

K. LeMoyne Billings Leonard H. Goldenson 

Edgar M. Bronfman Mrs. Rebekah Harkness 

Mrs. George R. Brown George B. Hartzog, Jr. 

Robert W. Dowling Senator Edward M. Kennedy 

Ralph W. Ellison Thomas H. Kuchel 

Abe Fortas Mrs. Albert D. Lasker 

141 



142 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



Erich Leinsdorf 

Sol Myron Linowitz 

Mrs. Michael J. Mansfield 

Harry C. McPherson, Jr. 

George Meany 

Robert I. Millonzi 

L. Quincy Mumford 

Senator Charles Percy 

Elliot Richardson 

John Richardson, Jr. 

S. Dillon Ripley II 

Richard Rodgers 

Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. 



Mrs. Jouett Shouse 
Mrs. Stephen E. Smith 
Roger L. Stevens 
William H. Thomas 
Representative Frank H. 

Thompson, Jr. 
Jack J. Valenti 
William Walton 
Walter E. Washington 
Lew R. Wasserman 
Edwin L. Weisl, Sr. 
Representative James C. Wright, Jr. 
Senator Ralph W. Yarborough 



On 27 March 1970 President Nixon appointed a 57-member Advi- 
sory Committee on the Arts for the Center under the chairmanship of 
Mrs. J. Willard Marriott of Washington, D.C. On 26 May the Presi- 
dent appointed an additional 49 members to the Advisory Committee, 
which is provided for in the John F. Kennedy Center Act. 

Members of the Advisory Committee were sworn into office by 
Robert H. Finch, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare and a 
Trustee of the Center, on 8 June 1970 preceding their first business 
meeting. This committee, which represents 48 states and serves at the 
pleasure of the President, will make recommendations to the Board 







^ II I. HII I II 





John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts nearing completion. 



JOHN F. KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS 143 

of Trustees regarding programs presented by the Center and also will 
assist the Board in its fund-raising program. 

Construction of the Kennedy Center stands 75 percent complete at 
the end of fiscal year 1970, compared with 50 percent a year ago. An 
average of 600 men are working daily on the structure to assure that 
the official opening can take place during the second week of Septem- 
ber 1971. Early in March 1970, Ambassador Egidio Ortona of Italy 
witnessed the placing of the final piece of Carrara marble in the 
Center's exterior wall which closed in the building. The Center's entire 
requirement for marble, about 3500 tons, is an official gift of the 
people of Italy. 

Progress payments for construction in place and materials furnished 
reached $50.1 million of which $41.8 million were federal funds in- 
cluding $20.4 million of repayable bonds. Six additional subcontracts 
totaling $1.6 million were awarded during the year bringing to thirty- 
eight the number of separate competitive awards made since construc- 
tion began in 1965. The awards total nearly $36 million. 

The subcontracts awarded during the year are as follows: 

Auditorium seating: American Seating Company of Palisades Park, New Jersey; 

$434,885. 
Ceramic tile and terrazzo: Peter Bratti Associates, Inc. of New York, New York; 

$395,300. 
Plumbing enclosures and partitions: Global Steel Products Corporation of Deer 

Park, Long Island, New York; $57,000. 
Painting and finishing and wall coating: Clifton D. Mayhew, Inc. of Arlington, 

Virginia; $516,000. 
Wood flooring: Couglin-Berk, Inc. of New York, New York; $162,380. 
Drapery, curtain, and heavy-duty track: Washington Shade and Awning Co. of 

Washington, D.C.; $11,980. 

The Secretary of State of Canada, the Honorable Gerard Pelletier, 
announced his government's gift to the Kennedy Center on 16 April 
1970 during a brief ceremony at the Center's construction site. The 
gift, the ninth from a foreign nation, is a woolen stage curtain for the 
Eisenhower Theater designed by Madame Mariette Rosseau-Vermette, 
designer of the curtain for the Opera of the National Arts Centre 
in Ottawa. In addition to the nine nations which have already pre- 
sented gifts to the Kennedy Center, there are more than twenty coun- 
tries that have offered gifts, and discussions with them are continuing. 

Looking forward to one kind of education program that will be 
presented by the Kennedy Center after its opening, the Center pre- 
sented both the second American College Theater Festival and the 
National College Jazz Festival in the spring of 1970. The theater 
festival, presented with the Smithsonian and sponsored by American 



144 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 




Presentation of a color sketch of the black-and-red woolen stage curtain for the 
Kennedy Center's Eisenhower Theater, a gift of the people of Canada. Left to 
right, Susan Eisenhower, granddaughter of Mrs. Dwight D. Eisenhower; 
Madame Mariette Rousseau-Vermette, designer of the stage curtain; Roger L. 
Stevens, Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Kennedy Center; the Honor- 
able Gerard Pelletier, Secretary of State of Canada; Mrs. Edward M. Kennedy, 
representing the Kennedy family. 



Airlines, brought ten of the nation's best college theater companies to 
perform at Ford's Theatre and the new George Washington Univer- 
sity Center Theater between 27 April and 12 May. The jazz festival 
presented finalists from six regional college jazz festivals at the Kran- 
nert Center for the Performing Arts at the University of Illinois in 
Champaign-Urbana on 16 and 17 May. 

John LaMontaine, the American composer, was commissioned to 
write a work for orchestra and organ for the opening season of the 
Center and first performance on the organ in the Concert Hall, it was 
announced on 28 January 1970. The work was commissioned by Mrs. 
Jouett Shouse, a Trustee of the Center and the donor of the Concert 
Hall's Aeolian Skinner organ. The theme for Mr. LaMontaine's com- 
position will be taken from the books of Henry Thoreau, Winter, 
Spring, Summer, and Autumn. 

On 18 June 1970 the Center sponsored "An Evening with Edward 
Villella" at Lisner Auditorium which presented Edward Villella, 
Patricia McBride, Violette Verdy, and ten other dancers from the 
New York City Ballet. About 150 tickets were made available to 
students at one dollar through the sale of benefit tickets. 



JOHN F. KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS 145 

With the substantial progress of interior construction work during 
fiscal year 1970, tours of the building were arranged on a limited 
basis. In September 1969 all major contributors to the Center in the 
Washington area were invited to see the building. Subsequently dur- 
ing the year many foreign ambassadors to the United States, the cul- 
tural attaches of all foreign embassies, members of the press, the D.G. 
Arts Council, representatives of the National Endowment on the Arts 
and the United States Information Agency, and other groups with a 
special interest in the building were invited for a tour. 

The Friends of the Kennedy Center, established as an auxiliary 
organization by the Trustees in 1966, have about 3000 members in 
48 states and 29 regional and state chairmen. The Friends are seeking 
to expand membership both in the Washington area and across the 
country and welcome all new members. 

On 2 June the National Council of the Friends met to elect the 
following officers: 

Mrs. Polk Guest, chairman 

Mrs. Norris Dodson, Jr., vice chairman 

Mrs. Eugene Carusi, secretary 

Mr. Henry Strong, treasurer 

During July and August 1969, the Friends sponsored a city-wide 
arts project under the title, "Music, Music, Music" for which 1000 
children produced works of art in conjunction with music experiences. 
All participants were invited to the construction site on 9 August 
for a picnic and to view an exhibit of their works using the River 
Terrace covered parkway to form a giant exhibition center. 

On 18 December 1969 the Friends produced a unique evening en- 
titled "The Kennedy Center is for everyone." The occasion was the 
premiere of the film "Hello, Dolly!," sponsored by the Kennedy Cen- 
ter, and included a box supper at the National Museum of Natural 
History. Tickets sold at prices from $1 (limited to students contacted 
through city programs) to $50, and by selling a large number of 
tickets at the higher prices the Friends were able to make available 
over 350 tickets to young people. 

The Friends continued to sponsor a weekly radio program on the 
performing arts on station wgms, manned the Information Center at 
the construction site, and maintained a Speakers Bureau whose mem- 
bers gave talks both in Washington and throughout the country. The 
Fourth Annual Meeting of the Friends, held 12 and 13 May, featured 
Senator Claiborne Pell of Rhode Island as key speaker. 



APPENDIXES 



Appendix 1 



SMITHSONIAN FOREIGN CURRENCY PROGRAM 
GRANTS AWARDED IN FISCAL YEAR 1970 

Archeology and Related Disciplines 

Office of Anthropology, Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 
Washington, D.C. Survey of disappearing traditional crafts, industries, and 
Technologies in Ceylon. 

University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. Ceylon archeological survey. 

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. A study of the relations 
between kinship structure and economic organizations among the Veddas of 
Ceylon. 

American Institute of Indian Studies, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Sup- 
port for American Institute of Indian Studies research fellowships. 

University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. To complete investigations 
of ancient glass manufacturing sites. 

American Schools of Oriental Research., Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Archeological activity of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 

Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Excavations of a Philistine 
city at Ashdod. 

Jerusalem School of Archeology of the Hebrew Union College, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. Excavations of an archeologocial site at Gezer, Israel. 

Office of Anthropology, Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 
Washington, D.C. Archeological investigations of southern Palestinian cul- 
ture at Tel Jemmah. 

University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. A program for research and train- 
ing in prehistoric archeology in Israel : Excavations at the site of Tabun. 

American Schools of Oriental Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Expeditions to Tel El Hesi and Khirget Shema. 

University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. Excavations at Tel Anafa 
(Shamli), Israel. 

University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. The Maqam tradition in theory 
and practice. 

Office of Anthropology, Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 
Washington, D.C. Survey of disappearing traditional crafts, industries, and 
technologies in Pakistan. 

Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Washington, D.C. A 
corpus of ancient mosaics of Tunisia. 

American Research Center in Egypt, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey. Sup- 
port for the activities of the American Research Center in Egypt (arce). 

149 



150 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Akhnaten 

temple project. 
Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, 

New York. Excavations at Starcevo, Yugoslavia. 
University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California. 

Excavations of a Neolithic stratified settlement at Anzibegovo in Eastern 

Macedonia, Yugoslavia. 
Denison University, Granville, Ohio. Archeological excavations at Sirmium. 
University of Texas at Austin, Texas. Archeological excavations at Stobi. 
Douglass College, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

Excavations at Salona. 
University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California. 

The Early Bronze Age cemetery at Mokrin. (Publication costs only.) 
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Excavations of Dio- 

cletians palace, Split, Yugoslavia. 
Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. Excavations at Nin, Dalmatia, 

Yugoslavia. 
Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Washington, D.C. 

Medieval Bargala. 
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Early food-produc- 
ing cultures in Yugoslavia. 
University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California. 

Excavations at Senta (Velebit). 
University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California. 

Archeological investigations at the Iron Age sites in Batina and Dalj. 

Systematic and Environmental Biology 
(Including Paleobiology) 

Smithsonian National Zoo, Washington, D.C. Studies on the behavior and 

ecology of the Ceylonese elephant. 
Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. A revision 

of Trimen's Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon. 
Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 

Washington, D.C. Biosystematic studies of the insects of Ceylon. 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Administration of Smith- 
sonian sponsored projects in Ceylon. 
Smithsonian National Zoo, Washington, D.C. The comparative ecology 

and behavior of Ceylonese Cercopithecidae. 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Binational symposium to assess 

impact of Smithsonian-supported research on Ceylonese national science 

objectives. 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Cytological studies of 

Indian mollusks. 
Smithsonian Ecology Program, Washington, D.C. Conference for the 

International Union for the Conservation of Nature (iucn). 
Smithsonian Ecology Program, Washington, D.C. Conference for the 

International Council for Bird Preservation (icbp). 



APPENDIX 1. SMITHSONIAN FOREIGN CURRENCY PROGRAM 151 

Smithsonian Ecology Program, Washington, D.C. Ecological research in 

the Gir Forest. 
Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Habitat relationships, numbers, 

and distribution of wild ungulates in the Gir Forest, India. 
Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Museum of Natural 

History, Washington, D.C. Migratory bird survey. 
Department of Botany, Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 

Washington, D.C. A flora of the Hassan District, Mysore State, India. 
Smithsonian Oceanography Program, Washington, D.C. Biota of the Red 

Sea and Eastern Mediterranean. 
Smithsonian Ecology Program, Washington, D.C. Bird Banding and Avi- 

faunal Survey. 
University of the State of New York, Stony Brook, Long Island, New 

York. A Study of the Eilat Coral Reef. 
University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. Ecology and behavior of ga- 
zelles in Israel. 
Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Museum of Natural 

History, Washington, D.C. A geographical and ecological study of the 

mammals of Morocco. 
Smithsonian Institution and National Academy of Sciences, Washing- 
ton, D.C. International Biological Program (ibp) research, planning, and 

training in the "excess" currency countries. 
Foreign Science Information Program, Washington, D.C. Scientific trans- 
lation services. 
Smithsonian Oceanogrraphy Program, Washington, D.C. Support for the 

Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center. 
Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Museum of Natural 

History, Washington, D.C. Studies on the systematics and physiological 

ecology of Tunisian sponge communities. 
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. Paleontological investigations 

in Tunisia. 
Smithsonian Oceanographic Program, Washington, D.C. International 

Conference on Meiofauna. (Unanticipated extra costs.) 
Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Museum of Natural 

History, Washington, D.C. A serological and ectoparasite survey of the 

migratory birds of East Africa. 
Smithsonian Oceanography Program, Washington, D.C. Preparation of 

plans and projects for refitting the research vessel Phykos. 
Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Museum of Natural 

History, Washington, D.C. International Conference on the Biology of 

Sipunculids. 



Astrophysics and Earth Sciences 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Continuation of a study of cosmic gamma rays. 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Multicolor photoelectric observations of flare stars at the Uttar Pradesh State 

Observatory and analysis of flare-star observations. 



152 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

A study of the collective behavior of self-gravitating systems. 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

The construction of stellar models of evolving stars. 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

An astronomical observing program in Israel. 
Foreign Science Information Program, National Science Foundation, 

Washington, D.C. (on behalf of Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory). 

Translation of the Polish Copernican studies of L. A. Birkenmajer. 



Museum Programs 

Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Washington, D.C. Exhibit of Bhutanese Art. 

Director General of Museums, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
D.C. Support for Science Museum Conference at Bangalore. 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts. Exhibition of 
Egyptian royal sculpture. 



Appendix 2 



MEMBERS OF THE SMITHSONIAN COUNCIL 

30 JUNE 1970 

Mr. H. Harvard Arnason. Art Historian. New York City. 

Dr. Herman R. Branson. President, Central State University, Wilberforce, 
Ohio. 

Professor Fred R. Eggan. Department of Anthropology, University of Chi- 
cago, Chicago, Illinois. 

Professor Donald S. Farner. Chairman, Department of Zoology, University 
of Washington, Seattle. 

Professor Anthony N. B. Garvan. Chairman, Department of American Civil- 
ization, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

Dr. Murray Gell-Mann. Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Theoretical 
Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena. 

Dr. Philip Handler. President, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, 
DC. 

Professor G. Evelyn Hutchinson. Sterling Professor of Zoology, Yale Uni- 
versity, New Haven, Connecticut. 

Professor Jan LaRue. Department of Music, Graduate School of Arts and 
Sciences, New York University, New York City. 

Mr. Clifford L. Lord. President, Hofstra University, Hempstead, Long Island, 
New York. 

Professor Charles D. Michener. Watkins Distinguished Professor of Ento- 
mology and of Systematics and Ecology, University of Kansas, Lawrence. 

Dr. Peter M. Millman. National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, On- 
tario. Meteoritic Specialist. 

Mr. Elting E. Morison. Professor of History and Master, Timothy Dwight 
College, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 

Professor Norman Holmes Pearson. Professor of English and American 
Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 

Mr. Gordon N. Ray. President, John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Founda- 
tion, New York City. 

Mr. Andre Schiffrin. Managing Director, Pantheon Books, New York City. 

Professor Cyril Stanley Smith. Institute Professor, Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, Cambridge. 

Professor John D. Spikes. Professor of Biology, College of Letters and 
Science, University of Utah, Salt Lake City. 

Professor Stephen E. Toulmin. Department of Philosophy, Michigan State 
University, East Lansing. 

153 



154 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

Dr. Rainer Zangerl. Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road and 
Lakeshore Drive, Chicago, Illinois. 

Professor Warren H. Wagner, Jr. Department of Botany and Matthaei Bo- 
tanical Gardens, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 



Appendix 3 



SMITHSONIAN ASSOCIATES MEMBERSHIP 

1969-1970 

Our deepest gratitude is extended to our members for their interest and 
generous support of the Smithsonian Associates this year, and especially to those 
listed below, who have contributed amounts in excess of the membership dues 



Founder Members 

($1000 and up) 



The Honorable and Mrs. David 

K. E. Bruce 
Mrs. Morris Cafritz 
The Honorable Douglas Dillon 
Mr. Charles E. Eckles 
The Honorable and Mrs. John 

Clifford Folger 



Mr. Cornelius Van S. Roosevelt 
Mr. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. P. A. B. Widener 
Mr. Christian A. Zabriskie 
Mr. and Mrs. Sidney S. Zlotnick 



Sustaining Members 

($500 and up) 



Mrs. Theodore Babbitt 

Mr. Joel Barlow 

Mr. William R. Biggs 

Mr. George A. Binney 

Mrs. L. Roosevelt Bramwell 

Mr. A. Marvin Braverman 

Mr. John Nicholas Brown 

Mr. Bertram F. Brummer 

Mr. Leon Campbell, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Carmichael 

Clarke and Rapuano Foundation 

(Mr. Gilmore D. Clarke) 
Mrs. Frances A. Davila 
Mr. Newell W. Ellison 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard S. Friedman 
Mr. Richard E. Fuller 
Mr. and Mrs. Hy Garfinkel 



Mr. George A. Garret 

Mr. Crawford H. Greenewalt 

Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert C. Greenway 

Mr. William H. Greer, Jr. 

Mr. Melville B. Grosvenor 

Mr. Gilbert Hahn 

Mr. Laurence Harrison 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Hirshhorn 

Mr. Philip Johnson 

Miss Brenda Kuhn 

Mr. Harold F. Linder 

Colonel and Mrs. Leon Mandel 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Willard Marriott 

Mr. William McC. Martin, Jr. 

Lieutenant Commander and Mrs. 

P. J. Maveety 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon 

155 



156 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



Miss Katherine A. A. Murphy 
Neuberger Foundation Inc. 

(Roy R. and Marie S. Neuberger) 
Duke of Northumberland 
Mrs. K. D. Owen 
Dr. and Mrs. Melvin M. Payne 
Miss Lucy M. Pollio 
Mrs. Merriweather Post 
Mr. Peter Powers 
Miss Elsie Howland Quinby 
Dr. and Mrs. S. Dillon Ripley 
Mr .and Mrs. Seymour J. Rubin 
Mr. H. C. Seherr-Thoss 



Mrs. Jouett Shouse 

Dr. and Mrs. Carl Swan Shultz 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Smith 

Mr. Robert T. Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. Bertrand L. Taylor III 

Mrs. Clark W. Thompson 

Mrs. Carll Tucker 

Mr. Alexander O. Vietor 

Mr. and Mrs. John W. Warner 

Dr. Alexander Wetmore 

Mr. and Mrs. W. Bradley Willard 

Mrs. Rose Saul Zalles 



Contributing Members 

($100 and up) 



Mrs. Howard Ahmanson 

Mr. and Mrs. John W. Auchincloss 

Mrs. Robert Low Bacon 

Mr. and Mrs. James C. H. Bonbright 

Mr. and Mrs. John F. Boyd 

Mr. Maxwell Brace 

Mr. and Mrs. Montgomery S. Bradley 

Mr. J. Bruce Bredin 

The Honorable William A. M. Burden 

Mrs. Jackson Burke 

Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Calfee 

Mr. and Mrs. G. Howland Chase 

Mrs. Priscilla Meek Christy 

Mr. and Mrs. David Sanders Clark 

Mr. Thomas G. Corcoran 

General Jacob L. Devers 

Mr. and Mrs. Ewen C. Dingwall 

Mr. and Mrs. Bryan M. Eagle 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Eames 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Eichholz 

Mr. and Mrs. Waldron Faulkner 

The Honorable and Mrs. Edward 

Foley 
The Honorable and Mrs. 

Peter Frelinghuysen 
Mr. W. E. Gathright 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph T. Geuting, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. T. K. Glennan 
Mrs. Katharine Graham 



Dr. Sheila H. Gray 

Mr. and Mrs. Homer Gudelsky 

Miss Elisabeth Houghton 

Mrs. Edward F. Hutton 

Mr. and Mrs. Anthony A. Lapham 

Mrs. Newbold Legendre 

Mr. and Mrs. Jack L. Leon 

Mrs. Demarest Lloyd 

Mrs. J. Noel Macey 

Mr. and Mrs. George C. McGhee 

Mr. and Mrs. Carl J. Mulert, Jr. 

Mr. Gerson Nordlinger, Jr. 

Mr. Gyo Obata 

Mrs. Carolyn C. Onufrak 

The Honorable and Mrs. Jefferson 

Patterson 
Mr. Charles Emory Phillips 
Dr. and Mrs. Ernest G. Rafey 
Mr. James H. Ripley 
Mrs. John Farr Simmons 
Dr. and Mrs. T. Dale Stewart 
Mrs. Edward C. Sweeney 
Martha Frick Symington, Inc. 
Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Toro 
Mr. and Mrs. A. Buel Trowbridge 
Mr. and Mrs. William S. Weedon 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Burke Wilkinson 
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Winkler 



APPENDIX 3. SMITHSONIAN ASSOCIATES MEMBERSHIP 



157 



Supporting Members 



($50 and up) 



The Reverend and Mrs. F. Everett 

Abbott 
Mr. and Mrs. Stanley N. Allan 
Mrs. Carol P. Banks 
Mr. and Mrs. Emanuel Boasberg III 
The Honorable Frances P. Bolton 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul C. Bruning 
Mrs. Linda C. Burgess 
Mr. John H. Burns 
Mr. and Mrs. Horace W. Busby, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Caplan 
Miss Joan Collett 
Mr. and Mrs. B. C. Connelly 
Mrs. Chester Dale 
Captain and Mrs. Robert F. Doss 
Mrs. Albert H. Ely 
Commander and Mrs. William B. 

Fisher 
Mrs. Julius Fleischmann 
Mr. John W. Galston 
Mr. and Mrs. Melvin Gelman 
Dr. and Mrs. Arthur Goldsmith 
Mrs. Nancy K. Gullett 
Mr. and Mrs. W. Averell Harriman 
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Hausman 
Mr. and Mrs. Randolph A. Hearst 
Dr. and Mrs. K. R. Henery Logan 
Mr. and Mrs. James H. Hughes 
Mr. and Mrs. James D. Hurd 
Mrs. George C. Keiser 
Mr. J. A. King 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Liggett 
Dr. and Mrs. Charles U. Lowe 



Mrs. Charles Hamilton Maddox 

Miss Katherine Magraw 

Mrs. Isabel C. Mahaffie 

Mr. and Mrs. Gershom R. Makepeace 

Major and Mrs. George S. Mansfield 

Dr. and Mrs. Francis Mayle, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. John H. McLaren 

Dr. and Mrs. Edgar H. McPeak 

Mr. and Mrs. Mylon Merriam 

Mrs. E. P. Moore 

Mrs. W. Gillespie Moore 

Miss Lee Muth 

The Reverend and Mrs. Philip R. 

Newell 
Mr. Estrada Raul Oyuela 
Miss Ruth Uppercu Paul 
Mrs. Duncan Phillips 
Mr. Donald H. Price 
Mrs. Albert J. Redway 
Dr. Michael J. Reilly 
Mr. R. D. Remley 
Mrs. John Barry Ryan 
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Salzman 
Miss E. R. Saul 

Dr. and Mrs. Saul Schwartzbach 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard R. Sigmon 
Mr. and Mrs. Douglas R. Smith 
Mr. and Mrs. Murray Socolof 
Mrs. Sally Sweetland 
Mr. and Mrs. E. Russell True, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Watson 
Mrs. Orme Wilson 
Mrs. Leslie H. Wyman 



Appendix 4 



STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

30 JUNE 1970 

Secretary's Office and Related Activities 



The Secretary 

Executive Assistant 
Under Secretary 
Special Assistant 
Administrative Officer 
Director General of Museums 
and Director, United States 
National Museum 
Assistant Secretary (Science) 
Assistant Secretary (History and Art) 
Assistant Secretary (Public Service) 
Treasurer 

Assistant Treasurer 
Director, Office of Programming 

and Budget 
Chief Accountant 
Contracting Officer, Contracts 
Office 
Director, Office of Academic Programs 
General Counsel 
Assistant General Counsel 
Director, Office of Personnel and 

Management Resources 
Special Projects, Office of the Secretary 
Special Assistant to the Secretary 
Director, Office of Development 
Equal Employment Opportunity 

Officer 
Editor, Joseph Henry Papers 
Chief, Administrative Systems Division 
Director, Buildings Management 
Department 



S. Dillon Ripley 
John H. Dobkin 
James Bradley 1 
Robert Engle 
Dorothy Rosenberg 



Frank A. Taylor 
Sidney R. Galler 
Charles Blitzer 
William W. Warner 
T. Ames Wheeler 
Betty J. Morgan 

John F. Jameson 
Allen S. Goff 

Elbridge O. Hurlbut 
Philip C. Ritterbush 
Peter G. Powers 
Alan Ullberg 2 

Leonard B. Pouliot 

Richard H. Howland 
Lynford E. Kautz 3 

Joseph A. Kennedy 
Nathan Reingold 
Ann S. Campbell 

Andrew F. Michaels 



Effective 21 May 1970. 

2 Effective 18 January 1970. 

3 Effective 2 September 1969. 

158 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



159 



Chief, Supply Division 
Chief, Photographic Services Division 
Chief, Travel Services Office 
Honorary Research Associates 



Honorary Fellow 



Fred G. Barwick 

O. H. Greeson 

Betty V. Strickler 

Charles G. Abbot, Secretary 

Emeritus 
Leonard Carmichael, Secretary 

Emeritus 
Paul H. Oehser 
Alexander Wetmore, Secretary 

Emeritus 
John A. Graf 



Science 



Assistant Secretary 
Special Assistants 



Sidney R. Galler 
Helen H. Hayes 
Harold J. Michaelson 



National Museum of Natural History 



Director 

Assistant Director 
Assistant to Director (adp) 
Special Assistant, Tropical Biology 

Botanist 
Administrative Officers 



Special Assistant to the Director 

Anthropology 

Chairman 

Senior Physical Anthropologist 

Senior Archeologist 

Senior Ethnologist 

Archivist 
Latin American Anthropology 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 

Curator 

Associate Curator 
Old World Anthropology 

Supervisor and Curator 

Curator 



Richard S. Cowan 
Paul K. Knierim 
James F. Mello 4 
F. Raymond Fosberg 
Marie-Helene Sachet 
Mabel A. Byrd 
John J. Prenzel 5 
John C. Townsend 6 
Joseph C. Britton 7 

Clifford Evans 8 
T. Dale Stewart 
Waldo R. Wedel 
John C. Ewers 
Margaret C. Blaker 

Robert M. Laughlin 
Clifford Evans 
William H. Crocker 

Gordon D. Gibson 
Saul H. Riesenberg 



4 Appointed 11 January 1970. 

5 Transferred to Department of Defense September 1969. 

6 Appointed 28 June 1970. 

7 Resigned 26 June 1970. 

8 Effective 25 January 1970. 



160 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



Associate Curators 



North American Anthropology 

Supervisor and Curator 

Curator 

Associate Curator 
Physical Anthropology 

Supervisor and Curator 

Assistant Curator 

Associate Curator 
Honorary 



Botany 

Chairman 

Senior Botanist 
Phanerogams 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 

Curators 



Eugene I. Knez 
Gus W. Van Beek 
William B. Trousdale 

Richard B. Woodbury 9 
William C. Sturtevant 
Paul H. Voorhis 

J. Lawrence Angel 
Donald J. Ortner 10 
Lucile E. St. Hoyme 
Hans-George Bandi (Archeology) 
W. Montague Cobb (Physical 

Anthropology) 
Henry B. Collins (Archeology) 
Wilson Duff (Ethnology) 
Roger I. Eddy (Ethnology) 
Marcus S. Goldstein (Physical 

Anthropology) 
Sister Inez Hilger (Ethnology) 
C. G. Holland (Archeology) 
Neil M. Judd (Archeology) 
Richard T. Koritzer (Physical 

Anthropology) 
Ralph K. Lewis (Archeology) 
Olga Linares de Sapir (Archeology) 
Betty J. Meggers (Archeology) 
Philleo Nash (Ethnology) 
Victor A. Nunez Regueiro 

(Archeology) 
Mary Slusser (Archeology) 
Wilhelm G. Solheim (Archeology) 
Matthew W. Stirling (Archeology) 
Douglas Taylor (Ethnology) 
William J. Tobin (Physical 

Anthropology) 
Theodore A. Wertime (Archeology) 
William S. Willis, Jr. (Ethnology) 
Edwin F. Wilmsen (Archeology) 

Edward S. Ayensu 11 
Lyman B. Smith 

Dan H. Nicolson 
John J. Wurdack 
Velva E. Rudd 



9 Resigned 31 July 1969. 
"Appointed 21 September 1969. 
"Effective 2 April 1970. 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



161 



Associate Curator 
Assistant Curator 

Ferns 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 

Curator 
Grasses 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 
Cryptogams 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 

Curator 
Plant Anatomy 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 

Associate Curator 
Fungi 12 

Research Associates 



Honorary 



Wallace R. Ernst 
Stanwyn G. Shetler 
Dieter C. Wasshausen 

David B. Lellinger 
Conrad V. Morton 

Thomas R. Soderstrom 

Harold E. Robinson 
Mason E. Hale, Jr. 

Richard H. Eyde 
Edward S. Ayensu 

Chester R. Benjamin 

John A. Stevenson 

Francis A. Uecker 

John L. Cunningham 

Paul Lewis Lentz 

Marie L. Farr 

Kent H. McKnight 

L. R. Batra 

Andrew W. Archer (Flowering 

Plants) 
Paul S. Conger (Diatomaceae) 
Jose Cuatrecasas (Flora of Tropical 

South America) 
James A. Duke (Flora of Panama) 
Emily W. Emmart (Plants of 

Mexico) 
F. Raymond Fosberg (Tropical 

Biology) 
Howard S. Gentry (Economic Plants 

of Northwestern Mexico) 
William H. Hathaway (Flora of 

Central America) 
Frederick J. Hermann (North 

American Flora) 
Elbert L. Little, Jr. (Dendrology) 
Alicia Lourteig (Neotropical 

Botany) 
Floyd A. McClure (Bamboos) 13 
Kittle F. Parker (Compositae) 
Julian C. Patino (Flora of 

Colombia) 
Clyde F. Reed (Ferns) 
James L. Reveal (Ferns) 



12 National fungus collections are curated by Department of Agriculture staff. 

13 Died 15 April 1970. 



162 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



Honorary — Continued 



Entomology 

Chairman 

Senior Entomologist 
Neuropteroids 

Supervisor and Curator 
Lepidoptera and Diptera 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 

Associate Curator 

Assistant Curator 
Coleoptera 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 

Curator 
Hemiptera and Hymenoptera 

Supervisor and Assistant Curator 

Associate Curator 
Myriapoda and Arachnida 

Supervisor and Curator 
Honorary 



Invertebrate Zoology 
Chairman 
Senior Zoologists 



Crustacea 

Supervisor and Curator 
Curators 

Associate Curator 



Marie L. Solt (Melastomataceae) 
William L. Stern (Plant Anatomy) 
Edward E. Terrell (Phanerogams) 
Egbert H. Walker (Myrsinaceae, 
East Asian Flora) 

Karl V. Krombein 
J. F. Gates Clarke 

Oliver S. Flint, Jr. 

Donald R. Davis 

W. Donald Duckworth 

William D. Field 

Paul J. Spangler 
Oscar L. Cartwright 14 

Gerald I. Stage 15 
Richard C. Froeschner 

Ralph E. CrabilL Jr. 
William H. Anderson (Coleoptera) 
Doris H. Blake (Coleoptera) 
Franklin S. Blanton (Diptera) 
Frank L. Campbell (Insect 

Physiology ) 
Oscar L. Cartwright (Coleoptera) 
K. C. Emerson (Mallophaga) 
Frank M. Hull (Diptera) 
William L. Jellison (Siphonaptera, 

Anoplura) 
Harold F. Loomis (Myriapoda) 
Carl F. W. Muesebeck 

(Hymenoptera) 
Thomas E. Snyder (Isoptera) 
Robert Traub (Siphonaptera) 

Raymond B. Manning 
Fenner A. Chase, Jr. 
Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. 
Harald A. Rehder 

Thomas E. Bowman 
J. Laurens Barnard 
Louis S. Kornicker 
Roger F. Cressey 



14 Retired 30 April 1970. 

15 Appointment terminated 30 March 1970. Replaced by Richard C. Froesch- 
ner 1 July 1970. 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



163 



Echinoderms 

Supervisor and Curator 

Associate Curator 
Worms 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 

Curators 

Associate Curator 
Mollusks 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 

Curator 

Associate Curator 
Honorary 



Mineral Sciences 

Chairman 

Curator 
Meteorites 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 

Chemist 

Curator 

Geochemist 

Chemist 
Mineralogy 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 
Petrology 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 
Honorary 



David L. Pavvson 
Klaus Ruetzler 

W. Duane Hope 
Meredith L. Jones 
Marian H. Pettibone 
Mary E. Rice 

Clyde F. E. Roper 
Joseph Rosewater 
Joseph P. E. Morrison 
Frederick M. Bayer (Lower 

Invertebrates) 
Willard W. Becklund 

( Helminthology ) 
S. Stillman Berry (Mollusks) 
J. Bruce Bredin (Biology) 
Isabel C. Canet (Crustacea) 
Maybelle H. Chitwood (Worms) 
Ailsa M. Clark (Marine 

Invertebrates) 
Elisabeth Deichmann (Echinoderms) 
Mary Gardiner (Echinoderms) 
Roman Kenk (Worms) 
Anthony J. Provenzano, Jr. 

(Crustacea) 
Waldo L. Schmitt (Marine 

Invertebrates) 
Frank R. Schwengel (Mollusks) 
I. G. Sohn (Crustacea) 
Donald F. Squires (Echinoderms) 
Gilbert L. Voss (Mollusks) 
Mrs. Mildred S. Wilson (Copepod 

Crustacea) 

Brian H. Mason 
George S. Switzer 

Roy S. Clarke, Jr. 
Joseph A. Nelson 
Kurt Fredriksson 
Robert F. Fudali 
Eugene Jarosewich 

Paul E. Desautels 

William G. Melson 

Howard J. Axon (Meteorites) 

Edward P. Henderson (Meteorites) 



164 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



Honorary — Continued 



Paleobiology 
Chairman 
Senior Paleobiologists 

Invertebrate Paleontology 
Supervisor and Curator 
Curators 



Associate Curator 
Staff Specialist (Electron-microscopy) 
Vertebrate Paleontology 

Supervisor and Curator 

Curator 
Paleobotany 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 

Associate Curators 

Sedimentology 

Supervisor and Curator 
Associate Curator 
Honorary 

Invertebrate Paleontology 



John B. Jago (Mineralogy) 
Peter Leavens (Mineralogy) 
Rosser Reeves (Mineralogy) 
Thomas E. Simkin (Petrology) 
Geoffrey Thompson (Petrology) 
Harry Winston (Mineralogy) 

Porter M. Kier 
G. Arthur Cooper 
C. Lewis Gazin 

Martin A. Buzas 
Richard S. Boardman 
Alan H. Cheetham 
Erie G. Kauffman 
Richard Cifelli 
Richard M. Benson 
Thomas R. Waller 
Kenneth M. Towe 

Clayton E. Ray 
Nicholas Hotton III 

Walter H. Adey 16 
Leo J. Hickey 
Francis M. Hueber 

Daniel J. Stanley 
Jack W. Pierce 

Arthur J. Boucot 
Anthony C. Coates 
C. Wythe Cooke 
J. Thomas Dutro 
Robert M. Finks 
Mackenzie Gordon, Jr. 
Richard E. Grant 
John W. Huddle 
Ralph W. Imlay 
Harry S. Ladd 
N. Gary Lane 
Kenneth E. Lohman 
Sergius H. Mamay 
William A. Oliver, Jr. 
Axel A. Olsson 
John Pojeta, Jr. 
Norman F. Sohl 
Margaret Ruth Todd 
Wendell P. Woodring 



16 Effective 1 October 1969. 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



165 



Honorary — Continued 
Vertebrate Paleontology 

Sedimentology 

Vertebrate Zoology 

Chairman 
Fishes 

Supervisor and Curator 

Curators 



Associate Curator 
Reptiles and Amphibians 

Supervisor and Curator 

Associate Curator 
Birds 

Supervisor and Curator 

Associate Curator 
Mammals 

Supervisor and Curator 

Curator 

Associate Curator 
Honorary 



Ellis L. Yochelson 
Douglas Emlong 
Frank C. Whitmore, Jr. 
Gilbert Kelling 
Frederic R. Siegel 

George W. Watson 

Robert H. Gibbs, Jr. 17 
Ernest A. Lachner 
Victor G. Springer 
Stanley H. Weitzman 
William R. Taylor 

James A. Peters 
George R. Zug 

Richard L. Zusi 
Paul Slud 

Charles O. Handley 
Henry W. Setzer 
Richard W. Thorington 18 
John W. Aldrich (Birds) 
Richard C. Banks (Birds) 
William Belton (Birds) 
James E. Bohlke (Fishes) 
Leonard Carmichael (Psychology, 

Animal Behavior) 
Daniel M. Cohen (Fishes) 
Bruce B. Collette (Fishes) 
John F. Eisenberg (Mammals) 
Herbert Friedmann (Birds) 
Crawford H. Greenewalt (Birds) 
Arthur M. Greenhall (Mammals) 
Philip S. Humphrey (Birds) 
David H. Johnson (Mammals) 
Clyde J. Jones (Mammals) 
Gwilm S. Jones (Mammals) 
E. V. Komarek (Mammals) 
Roxie C. Laybourne (Birds) 
Richard H. Manville (Mammals) 
J. A. J. Meester (Mammals) 
Edgardo Mondolfi (Mammals) 
Russell E. Mumford (Mammals) 
Dioscoro S. Rabor (Birds) 
S. Dillon Ripley (Birds) 
Leonard P. Schultz (Fishes) 



17 Effective 1 July 1969. 

18 Effective 2 November 1969. 



166 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



Honorary — Continued 



Frank J. Schwartz (Fishes) 
Alexander Wetmore (Birds) 
David B. Wingate (Birds) 



National Air and Space Museum 



Acting Director 

Acting Assistant Director 
(Aeronautics) 
Curator (Aircraft Propulsion) 
Assistant Director (Astronautics) 
Assistant Director (Information) 
Advisory Board 



Honorary 



Frank A. Taylor 19 

Louis S. Casey 

Robert B. Meyer 

Frederick C. Durant III 

Ernest W. Robischon 

S. Dillon Ripley, Chairman 

(ex officio) 
Major General Nils O. Ohman, 

USAF 

Vice Admiral Thomas F. Connolly, 

USN 

Brigadier General James L. Collins, 

USA 

Brigadier General H. S. Hill, usmc 
Rear Admiral Roderick Y. Edwards, 

USCG 

Julian Scheer, nasa 
General Gustav Lundquist, faa 
(Three civilian vacancies) 
Olive Ann Beech 
William E. Hall 
Elwood R. Quesada 



Astrophysical Observatory 



Director 

Assistant Director (Science) 
Assistant Director (Management) 
Scientific Staff 



19 Effective 10 September 1969. 

20 Appointed 12 January 1970. 



Fred L. Whipple 
Charles A. Lundquist 
Robert V. Bartnik 20 
Arthur C. Allison 
Eugene H. Avrett 
Eric Becklin 
Prabhu Bhatnagar 
Nathaniel P. Carleton 
Frederic Chaffee 
Jerome R. Cherniack 
Giuseppe Colombo 
Matthias F. Comerford 
Allan F. Cook 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



167 



Scientific Staff — Continued 



Alex Dalgarno 
Robert J. Davis 
James C. DeFelice 
William A. Deutschman 
John S. Dickey, Jr. 
Dale F. Dickinson 
Giovanni G. Fazio 
Edward L. Fireman 
M. Raymond Flannery 
Giuseppe Forti 
Fred A. Franklin 
Edward M. Gaposchkin 
Owen Gingerich 
Antanas Girnius 
Mario D. Grossi 
Henry F. Helmken 
Paul W. Hodge 
Luigi G. Jacchia 
Wolfgang Kalkofen 
Yoshihide Kozai 
David Latham 
Myron Lecar 
Carlton G. Lehr 
Martin Levine 
Hiram Levy II 
A. Edward Lilley 
Richard E. McCrosky 
Brian G. Marsden 
Ursula B. Marvin 
Naresh C. Mathur 
George H. Megrue 
Donald H. Menzel 
Lawrence W. Mertz 
Henri E. Mitler 
Paul A. Mohr 
Carl S. Nilsson 
Yasushi Nozawa 
Robert W. Noyes 
Costas Papaliolios 
Cecilia H. Payne-Gaposhkin 
Michael R. Pearlman 
Douglas T. Pitman 
Annette Posen 
Harrison E. Radford 
George Rieke 
George B. Rybicki 
Winfield W. Salisbury 
Rudolph E. Schild 
Mario R. Schaffner 
Ladislav Sehnal 



168 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



Scientific Staff — Continued 



Consultants 



Fellows 

Executive Director, Central Bureau for 

Satellite Geodesy 
Director, Central Bureau for 

Astronomical Telegrams 



Zdenek Sekanina 
Chen- Yuan Shao 
I. Shapiro 
Jack W. Slowey 
Richard B. Southworth 
Gert Spannagel 
Stephen E. Strom 
Wesley A. Traub 
Robert Vessot 
Richard B. Wattson 
George Weiffenbach 
Trevor C. Weekes 
Charles A. Whitney 
John A. Wood 
Frances W. Wright 
John Danziger 
Salah E. Hamid 
Kurt Lambeck 
Nirumpama Raghaven 
Stanley Ross 
Robert Stein 
Karen Strom 
George Veis 
Natarajan Visvanathan 
David R. Hearn 
Noam Sack 

Jan Rolff 

Brian G. Marsden 



Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 



Director 

Deputy Director 

Assistant Director, Marine Biology 

Administrative Officer 

Biologists 



Honorary 



Martin H. Moynihan 
Edward H. Kohn 
Ira Rubinoff 
Adela Gomez 
Robert L. Dressier 
Peter W. Glynn 
Egbert Leigh 
A. Stanley Rand 
Michael H. Robinson 
Roberta W. Rubinoff 
Neal G. Smith 
Charles F. Bennett, Jr. 
John F. Eisenberg 
Carmen Glynn 
Carlos Lehmann 
Robert H. MacArthur 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 169 

Honorary — Continued Giles W. Mead 

Ernst Mayr 
Barbara Robinson 
Patricio Sanchez 
W. John Smith 
C. C. Soper 
Paulo Vanzolini 
Martin Young 



Radiation Biology Laboratory 

Director William H. Klein 

Assistant Director Walter A. Shropshire, Jr. 

Biochemists David L. Correll 

Maurice M. Margulies 
Robert L. Weintraub 
Homer T. Hopkins 
Biologist Elisabeth Gantt 

Geneticist Andrew W. Snope 

Anthropologist Robert Stuckenrath 

Geochemist James Mielke 

Physicist Bernard Goldberg 

Plant Physiologists John Edwards 

Victor B. Elstad 
Rebecca Gettens 
Leonard Price 



National Zoological Park 



Director T. H. Reed 

Assistant Director John Perry 

Office of the Director 

Pathologist Robert M. Sauer 

Engineer Frank A. Maloney 

Architect Norman Melun 
Acting Head, Information and 

Education Sybil E. Hamlet 

Administrative Officer Joseph J. McGarry 

Special Assistant to the Director Warren J. IlifT 

Personnel Management Specialist Robert H. Artis 

Department of Living Vertebrates 

Manager, Bird Division Kerry A. Muller 

Manager, Reptile Division Jaren G. Horsley 

Scientific Research Department 

Resident Scientist John F. Eisenberg 

Zoologist Larry R. Collins 

Veterinarian, Animal Health 

Department Clinton W. Gray 



170 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



Chief, Operations and Maintenance 

Department 
Associates in Ecology 



Research Associates 



Collaborators 



James H. McAllister 
Helmut K. Buechner 
S. Dillon Ripley 
Lee M. Talbot 
Jean Delacour 
Suzanne Ripley 
Richard Fiennes 
F. M. Garner 
Leonard Goss 
J. Lear Grimmer 
Carlton Herman 
Werner P. Heuschle 
Paul Leyhausen 
Charles R. Schroeder 
Constance P. Warner 



Office of Environmental Sciences 21 



Director 
Ecology Program 

Director 

Senior Scientist 

Resident Ecologist 
Oceanography and Limnology Program 

Director 

Director, Mediterranean Marine 
Sorting Center 

Director, Smithsonian Oceanographic 
Sorting Center 

Oceanographer 
Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental 

Director 



I. Eugene Wallen 22 

Dale W. Jenkins 23 
Helmut K. Buechner 
Lee M. Talbot 

William I. Aron 24 

Robert P. Higgins 

H. Adair Fehlmann 
Dail W. Brown 
Studies 
Frank S. L. Williamson 



Center for the Study of Man 



Acting Director 
Program Coordinator 



Sol Tax 

Sam Stanley 



Center for Short-Lived Phenomena 



Director 



Robert Citron 



21 Established 28 October 1969. 
"Appointed 28 October 1969. 

23 Appointed 8 March 1970. 

24 Appointed 22 March 1970. 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



171 



Operations Manager 
Assistant Operations Specialist 
Event Research Specialist 

Biology/ Ecology 
Environmental Information Specialist 



David R. Squires 25 
Richard P. DiBenedetto 

Sarah P. Meselson 
Wendy Quinones 



History and Art 



Assistant Secretary 
Director, Special Projects 



Charles Blitzer 
Ervin S. Duggan 



National Museum of History and Technology 



Director 

Assistant Director 

Assistant Director for Administration 

Special Assistant to the Director 

Administrative Officer 

Senior Scientific Scholar 

Research Assistants 



Applied Arts 

Chairman 
Graphic Arts and Photography 

Supervisor and Curator 

Assistant Curators 

Numismatics 

Supervisor and Curator 

Curator 
Postal History 

Supervisor and Curator 

Associate Curator 
Textiles 

Supervisor and Curator 

Associate Curator 
Honorary 

Cultural History 

Chairman 
Costume and Furnishings 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 

Assistant Curator 



Daniel J. Boorstin 
Silvio A. Bedini 
Robert G. Tillotson 26 
Ladd E. Hamilton 27 
Virginia Beets 
Robert P. Multhauf 
Peter C. Marzio 
Robert H. McNulty 
James W. Seymore 

Carl H. Scheele 

Eugene Ostroff 
Elizabeth M. Harris 
David E. Haberstich 

Vladimir Clain-Stefanelti 
Elvira Clain-Stefanelli 

Carl H. Scheele 
Reidar Norby 

Grace R. Cooper 

Rita J. Adrosko 

Emery May Norweb (Numismatics) 

R. Henry Norweb (Numismatics) 

C. Malcolm Watkins 

Rodris C. Roth 
Claudia B. Kidwell 



25 Effective 1 December 1969. 

26 Effective 10 December 1969. 
"Effective 5 April 1970. 



172 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



Ethnic and Western Cultural History 

Supervisor and Curator 

Curator 
Musical Instruments 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 

Associate Curator 
Preindustrial History 

Supervisor and Curator 

Associate Curator 
Honorary 



Industries 

Chairman 

Senior Historian 
Agriculture and Mining 

Supervisor and Curator 

Associate Curator 
Ceramics and Glass 

Supervisor and Curator 

Curator 
Manufacturing 

Supervisor and Curator 
Transportation 

Supervisor and Curator 

Curator 
Honorary 

National and Military History 

Chairman 
Historic Archeology 

Supervisor and Curator 
Military History 

Supervisor and Curator 

Associate Curator 
Naval History 

Supervisor and Curator 

Curator 
Political History 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 

Curator 

Associate Curator 
Honorary 

Science and Technology 

Chairman 
Electricity and Nuclear Energy 

Supervisor and Curator 

Associate Curator 



Richard E. Ahlborn 
C. Malcolm Watkins 

John T. Fesperman 
Cynthia A. Hoover 

C. Malcolm Watkins 

Anne C. Golovin 

Mrs. Arthur M. Greenwood 

Ivor Noel Hume 

Anne W. Murray (Curator 

Emeritus, Costume) 
Joan Pearson Watkins 
Edward B. Jelks 

John H. White, Jr. 
Howard I. Chapelle 

John T. Schlebecker 
John N. Hoffman 

Paul V. Gardner 

J. Jefferson Miller II 

Philip W. Bishop 

John H. White, Jr. 
Melvin H. Jackson 
Hans Syz (Ceramics) 

Edgar M. Howell 

Mendel L. Peterson 

Edgar M. Howell 
Craddock R. Goins, Jr. 

Philip K. Lundeberg 
Harold D. Langley 

Keith E. Melder 

Margaret B. Klapthor 

Herbert R. Collins 

William Rea Furlong (Flag History) 

Bernard S. Finn 

Bernard S. Finn 
Uta C. Merzbach 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



173 



Mechanical and Civil Engineering 
Supervisor and Curator 
Curators 

Medical Sciences 

Supervisor and Curator 

Associate Curator 
Physical Sciences 

Supervisor and Associate Curator 

Curator 

Associate Curator 
Honorary 



Robert M. Vogel 
Edwin A. Battison 
Otto Mayr 

Sami K. Hamarneh 
Audrey B. Davis 

Deborah J. Warner 28 

Walter F. Cannon 

Jon B. Eklund 

Anthony R. Michaelis (Scientific 

Instruments) 
Derek J. De Solla Price (Scientific 

Instruments) 



Archives of American Art 29 



Director 

Deputy Director 

Curator 

Area Directors 



William E. Woolfenden 

Garnett McCoy 

Arthur Breton 

Butler Coleman (New York) 

Robert Brown (Northeast) 



Freer Gallery of Art 



Director 

Assistant Director 
Curator, Chinese Art 
Assistant Curator, Chinese Art 
Head Conservator, Technical 

Laboratory 
Research Consultant, Technical 

Laboratory 
Research Assistant, Far Eastern 

Ceramics 
Research Assistant, Herzfeld Archives 
Honorary Associates 



John A. Pope 
Harold P. Stern 

Thomas Lawton 
Hin-cheung Lovell 

W. Thomas Chase 

Rutherford J. Gettens 

Josephine H. Knapp 
Joseph M. Upton 
Richard Edwards 
Calvin French 



National Collection of Fine Arts 



Director 
Assistant Director 



Joshua C. Taylor 30 
Robert Tyler Davis 31 



28 Effective 23 June 1970. 

29 Brought into Smithsonian 1 May 1970. 

30 Appointed 5 January 1970. 

31 Appointed 5 January 1970. 



174 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



Administrative Officer 

Registrar 

Editor, Publication 

Curator, Exhibition and Design 

Associate Curator, 18th- and 19th- 
century Painting and Sculpture 

Curator, Contemporary Painting and 
Sculpture 

Acting Curator, Prints and Drawings 

Chief, International Art Program 

Coordinator of Special Projects, 
Renwick Gallery 

Chief, Museum Programs 

Photographer (ncfa-npg) 

Conservator (ncfa-npg) 

Librarian (ncfa-npg) 

National Collection of Fine Arts 
Commission 



Honorary Members 



Harry W. Zichterman 
Elisabeth Strassmann 
Georgia M. Rhoades 
Harry Lowe 

William H. Truettner 

Adelyn D. Breeskin 
Janet L. Flint 
Lois A. Bingham 

Donald R. McClelland 
Susan C. Sollins 
Lowell Kenyon 
Charles H. Olin 
William B. Walker 

Charles H. Sawyer, Chairman 

Walker Hancock, Vice Chairman 

S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary 

Leonard Baskin 

William A. M. Burden 

H. Page Cross 

David E. Finley 

Martin Friedman 

Lloyd Goodrich 

Walker Hancock 

Bartlett H. Hayes, Jr. 

August Heckscher 

Thomas C. Howe 

Mrs. J. Lee Johnson III 

Samuel C. Johnson 

Wilmarth S. Lewis 

Henry P. Mcllhenny 

Ogden M. Pleissner 

Edgar P. Richardson 

Charles H. Sawyer 

Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth 

Alexander Wetmore 

Leonard Carmichael 

Gilmore D. Clarke 

Paul Mellon 

Stow Wengenroth 

Andrew Wyeth 



National Portrait Gallery 



Director 

Assistant to the Director 



Marvin S. Sadik 
Douglas E. Evelyn 32 



32 



Appointed 14 December 1969. 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



175 



Historian 
Curator 

Assistant Curator 
Keeper of the Catalogue 
Museum Specialist (Art) 
Senior Research Assistant (Art) 
Research Assistant (History) 
Research Assistant (History) 

Librarian (npg-ncfa) 

Conservator (npg-ncfa) 

Registrar 

npg Commission 



Ex officio 



Beverly J. Cox 
Robert G. Stewart 
Monroe Fabian 
Wilford P. Cole 
Genevieve Stephenson 
Mona Dearborn 
Dorothy Brewer 
Ann M. Schofield 
William B. Walker 
Charles H. Olin 
Jon D. Freshour 

John Nicholas Brown, Chairman 
Whitfield J. Bell, Jr. 
Catherine Drinker Bowen 
Lewis Deschler 
David E. Finley 
Wilmarth S. Lewis 
Edgar P. Richardson 
Andrew Oliver 
Jules D. Prown 

Chief Justice of the United States 
Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 
Director, National Gallery of Art 



Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 



Director 

Administrative Officer 
Associate Curator 
Historian 
Associate Registrars 



Abram Lerner 
Joseph Sefekar 33 
Cynthia Jaffee McCabe 
Frances R. Shapiro 
James J. Elias 
Frank B. Gettings 



Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design 



Director 

Administrator 

Curator of Textiles 

Curator of Drawings and Prints 

Associate Curator of Decorative Arts 

Librarian 

Registrar 



33 Appointed 14 June 1970. 

34 Effective 1 October 1969. 



Lisa Suter Taylor 34 
Christian Rohlfing 
Alice Baldwin Beer 
Elaine Evans Dee 
Janet Thorpe 
Edith Adams 
Mary F. Black welder 



176 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 



Director 

Assistant Director 

Administrative Officer 

Tecumseh Project 

Collections 

Historian 

Registrar 

Advisory Board 



Ex officio 



John H. Magruder III 

James S. Hutchins 

Miriam H. Uretz 

Robert M. Calland 

John M. Elliott 

James J. Stokesberry 

Lorene B. Mayo 

John Nicholas Brown, Chairman 

The Honorable Earl Warren 

Secretary of Army 

Secretary of Navy 

Secretary of Air Force 

Robert C. Baker 

James H. Cassell, Jr. 35 

David Lloyd Kreeger 36 

William H. Perkins, Jr. 37 

Secretary of Defense 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 



Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 



Director 
Deputy Director 



Benjamin H. Read 38 
Albert Meisel 



Office of American Studies 



Director 

Specialist in American Studies 



Wilcomb E. Washburn 
Harold K. Skramstad 



Joseph Henry Papers 



Editor 

Assistant Editor 
Staff Historian 



35 Term expired 9 April 1970. 

36 Term expired 9 April 1970. 

37 Term expired 9 April 1970. 

38 Appointed 30 March 1969. 



Nathan Reingold 
Stuart Pierson 
James M. Hobbins 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



177 



Special Museum Programs 



Director General of Museums 
Office of Director General 
Assistant to Director General 
Program Manager 
Office of Exhibits Program 
Chief 

Assistant Chief 
Special Projects 
Exhibits Labels Editor 
Administrative Officer 
Chief, Natural History Laboratory 
Assistant Chief 
Chief of Design 
Senior Museologist 
Production Supervisor 
Chief, History and Technology 
Laboratory 
Chief of Design 
Production Supervisor 
Conservation-Analytical Laboratory 
Chief 

Research Chemist 
Office of the Registrar 

Assistant Registrar 
Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service 
Chief 

Administrative Assistant 
Program Assistant 
Registrar 
Exhibits Coordinators 



Frank A. Taylor 

Peter C. Welsh 
Lloyd E. Herman 

John E. Anglim 
James A. Mahoney 
Eugene F. Behlen 
Constance Minkin 
James H. Jones 
James A. Mahoney 
Harry Hart 
William F. Haase 
A. Gilbert Wright 
Frank Nelms 

Benjamin W. Lawless 
Richard S. Virgo 
William W. Clark, Jr. 

Robert M. Organ 
Jacqueline S. Olin 
Helena M. Weiss 
William P. Haynes 



Dorothy Van Arsdale 
Eileen Rose 
Frances P. Smyth 
Terence Forbes 
Anne R. Gossett 
Jane Kinzler 



Public Service and Information Activities 



Assistant Secretary 
Deputy Assistant Secretary 



William W. Warner 
Robert W. Mason 



Smithsonian Associates 



Program Director 
Business Manager 
Special Events Assistant 
Subscription Assistant 



Susan Hamilton 39 
Marlin C. Johnson 40 
Carolyn Amundson 
Carolyn A. Hecker 



39 Effective 1 July 1969. 

40 Appointed 1 June 1969. 



178 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



Office of Public Affairs 



Director 

Special Assistant to the Director 
Administrative Officer 
News 

Audio- Visual Services 
Radio Production 
Motion Picture Unit 
Publications 

Manager, Community Directory 
of Interests 



Frederic M. Philips 
William C. Grayson 
Jewell S. Dulaney 
George J. Berklacy 
Albert J. Robinson 
Vacant 
John O'Toole 
William C. Craig 

Alicia R. Fisher 



Office of International Activities 



Director 

Assistant Director 
Foreign Currency Program 

Director 

Deputy Director 

Program Officer 

Grants Technical Assistants 

Administrative Assistant 



David Challinor 
Michael R. Huxley 41 

Kennedy B. Schmertz 
Kenneth D. Whitehead 
Richard C. Conroy 
Betty J. Wingfield 
Judy E. Rodgers 
Paula E. Ullmann 



Division of Performing Arts 



Director 

Deputy Director 

Director, Festival of American 

Folklife 
Budget and Development Officer 
Operations Officer 
Planning Officer 
Indian Programs 

Acting Director, Touring Performances 
Manager, Puppet Theatre 



James R. Morris 
Richard P. Lusher 

Ralph C. Rinzler 
John A. McQuiggan 
Ruri Kesa Sakai 
Marian A. Hope 
Clydia D. Nahwooksy 
Mary E. Carrington 
Mel Mackler 



Smithsonian Museum Shops 



Acting Director 
Administrative Officer 
Design Chief 
Book Shops Manager 



John E. Skuce 42 
Martha L. Wilson 
J. Michael Carigan 
Florence R. Lloyd 



"Appointed 3 May 1970. 
42 Effective 16 April 1970. 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



179 



Belmont Conference Center 



Director 



Joanne S. Baker 43 



Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 



Director 

Assistant Director 

Research and Design Coordinator 

Exhibit Specialist 

Artist in Residence 



John R. Kinard 
Zora B. Martin 
Larry Erskine Thomas 
James E. Mayo 
Georgia Mills Jessup 



Smithsonian (magazine) 



Editor 

Members, Board of Editors 



Associate Editor 
Advertising Director 
Circulation-Promotion Director 
General Manager 



Edward K. Thompson 
Ralph Backlund 
R. Hobart Ellis 
Edwards Park 
Grayce P. Northcross 
Thomas H. Black 
Anne Keating 
Joseph Bonsignore 



Smithsonian Institution Archives 



Archivist 

Assistant Archivist 
Historian 



Richard H. Lytle 44 
Donald Danuloff 45 
James Steed 46 



Smithsonian Institution Libraries 



Director of Libraries 
Assistant Director of Libraries 
Special Assistant to the Director of 

Libraries for Biological Science 

Programs 
Library of Congress Liaison Librarian 
Public Service Advisor 
Administrative Librarian 



43 Effective 1 January 1970. 

44 Appointed 5 January 1970. 

45 Appointed 22 June 1970. 

46 Appointed 2 March 1970. 



Russell Shank 
Mary A. Huffer 



Jean C. Smith 
Ruth E. Blanchard 
Frank A. Pietropaoli 
Thomas L. Wilding 



180 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



Acquisitions Division 
Chief 

Assistant Chief 
Serials Librarian 

Catalog Division 
Chief 
Catalogers 



Reference and Circulation Division 
Assistant Chief 
Reference Librarians 

Branch Librarians 
Freer Gallery of Art 
National Collection of Fine Arts and 

National Portrait Gallery 
National Museum of History and 

Technology 
Smithsonian Astrophysical 

Observatory 

Smithsonian Tropical Research 

Institute 
Department of Anthropology 
Department of Botany 

Branch Library Reference Staff 
Reference Librarians 



Technical Information Specialist 



L. Frances Jones 
Mildred D. Raitt 
Edna S. Suber 



Vija L. Karklins 
Bertha S. Sohn 
Angeline D. Ashford 
Ruth E. Carlson 47 
Charles H. King 
Martha L. Lang 48 
Cynthia P. Rupp 
Margaret A. Sealor 

Jack F. Marquardt 
Sue Y. Chen 
A. James Spohn 

Priscilla P. Smith 

William B. Walker 

Jack S. Goodwin 

Elizabeth H. Weeks 49 
Joyce M. Rey 

Alcira Mejia 
Mary L. Horgan 
Ruth F. Schallert 

Charles G. Berger (nmht) 
Aleita A. Hogenson (ncfa-npg) 



Shirley S. Harren (ncfa-npg) 



50 



International Exchange Service 



Director 
Assistant Director 



Jeremiah A. Collins 
John E. Estes 51 



47 Retired 31 October 1969. 

48 Transferred 30 May 1970. 

49 Resigned 7 November 1969. 

50 Transferred 4 April 1970. 

51 Appointed 20 April 1969. 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



181 



Information Systems Division 



Director 

Acting Director 

Manager, Management Systems 

Section 
Manager, Computer Operations 
Manager, Information Storage 

and Retrieval Section 
Manager, Library Systems and 

Programs Maintenance Section 
Manager, Scientific Applications 

Section 
Senior Programming Analysts 



Nicholas J. Suszynski 02 
Stanley A. Kovy 53 

Stanley A. Kovy 
Roy G. Perry 

Reginald A. Creighton 

James J. Crockett 

Dante Piacesi 
George Davis 
William Lawson 
Edwin A. Robinson 
Raymond D. Shreve 



Smithsonian Institution Press 



Director 

Managing Editor 
Managing Designer 
Promotion Manager 
Business Manager 
Editors 



Designers 

Series Production Manager 



Anders Richter 
Roger Pineau 
Stephen Kraft 
Maureen R. Jacoby 
Eileen M. McCarthy 
Mary Frances Bell 
Ernest E. Biebighauser 
Louise J. Heskett 
Joan B. Horn 
Mary M. Ingraham 
John S. Lea 
Nancy L. Powars 
Albert L. Ruffin, Jr. 
Jane W. Sieverts 
Crimilda Pontes 
Elizabeth Sur 
Charles L. Shaffer 



Science Information Exchange 



Director 
Deputy Director 
Associate Directors 
Life Sciences 
Physical Sciences 



52 Resigned 20 December 1969. 

53 Appointed 20 December 1969. 



Monroe E. Freeman 
David F. Hersey 

Willis R. Foster 
Frank J. Kreysa 



182 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



Data Processing 

Special Assistant 

Executive Officer 

Administrative Officer 

Life Sciences Division 
Chief 

Deputy Chief 

Chief, Medical Sciences Branch 
Chief, Biological Sciences Branch 
Chief, Agricultural Sciences Branch 
Chief, Behavioral Sciences Branch 
Chief, Social Sciences and 

Community Programs Branch 

Physical Sciences Division 
Chief 

Chief, Chemistry Branch 
Chief, Earth Sciences Branch 
Chief, Electronics Branch 
Chief, Engineering Branch 
Chief, Materials Branch 
Chief, Physics and Mathematics 

Branch 
Data Processing Division 
Chief 

Deputy Chief 
Chief, Registry Branch 
Chief, Data Edit Branch 
Chief, Report Services Branch 
Chief, Systems and Programming 

Branch 
Chief, Computer Operations Branch 



Martin Snyderman 
Richard C. Reeser 
V. P. Verfuerth 
Evelyn M. Roll 

Willis R. Foster 
Charlotte M. Damron 
Faith F. Stephan 
James R. Wheatley, Jr. 
William T. Carlson 
Rhoda Stolper 

Barbara F. Lundquist 

Frank J. Kreysa 
Samuel Liebman 
Joseph P. Riva, Jr. 
John J. Park 
Inder Jit Bhambri 
William H. Payne 

Robert Summers 

Martin Snyderman 
Bernard L. Hunt 
Angelo Piccillo 
Mary Rumreich 
Olympia Merritt 

Robert A. Kline 
Paul Gallucci 



Reading Is Fundamental 



Executive Director 
Assistant Director 



Jerrold Sandler 
Barbara B. Atkinson 



National Gallery of Art 



President 
Vice President 
Director 

Assistants to the Director 



Administrator 

Assistants to the Administrator 



Paul Mellon 
John Hay Whitney 
J. Carter Brown 
Richard Bales (Music) 
Katherine Warwick (Public 

Information) 
E. James Adams 
Charles B. Walstrom (Personnel 

and Administration) 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



183 



Assistants to the Administrator — 
Continued 
Treasurer 
Secretary 

Acting Chief Curator 
Deputy Administrator 
Deputy Administrator, Extension 

Services and Publications 
Curator of Painting 
Curator in charge of Education 
Curator of Sculpture 
Curator, Index of American Design 

and Decorative Arts (Exhibitions 

and Loans Officer) 
Editor 

Personnel Officer 
Assistant Treasurer 



Sterling P. Eagleton (Scientific 
and Technical Information) 
Lloyd D. Hayes 
Kennedy C. Watkins 
William P. Campbell 
Joseph G. English 

W. Howard Adams 
H. Lester Cooke 
Margaret Bouton 
C. Douglas Lewis, Jr. 



Grose Evans 
Theodore S. Amussen 
Jeremiah J. Barrett 
James W. Woodard 



John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 



Chairman 

Vice Chairman 

Vice Chairman 

General Counsel 

Secretary 

Treasurer 

General Director 

Deputy General Director and Assistant 

Secretary 
Music Adviser 
Artistic Administrator 
Assistant Treasurers 



Executive Director for Engineering 

Project Manager 

Honorary 

Treasurer Emeritus 



Roger L. Stevens 
Robert O. Anderson 
Sol M. Linowitz 
Ralph E. Becker 
K. LeMoyne Billings 
Robert G. Baker 
William McC. Blair, Jr. 

Philip J. Mullin 
Julius Rudel 
George London 
John L. Bryant 
Kenneth Birgfeld 
Paul J. Bisset 
L. Parker Harrell, Jr. 
William A. Schmidt 
Robert L. Prichard 

Daniel W. Bell 



Appendix 5 



PUBLICATIONS 

OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PRESS 

IN FISCAL YEAR 1970 

Books 

American Printmaking: The First 150 Years. Preface by A. Hyatt Mayor, fore- 
word by Donald H. Karshan, introduction by J. William Middendorf II, text 
by Wendy J. Shadwell. 180 pages, 115 plates. 1 August 1969. Cloth, $12.50. 

Archipenko. Edited by Donald H. Karshan, preface by S. Dillon Ripley, fore- 
word by David W. Scott, with essays by Guillaume Appollinaire and Guy 
Habasque. 116 pages, 178 illustrations. 1 May 1970. Cloth, $10.00. 

Devereux, George. Mohave Ethno psychiatry: The Psychic Disturbances of an 
Indian Tribe, xvi -f- 597 pages. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 175, 
originally published 1961. Revised edition, 17 November 1969. Cloth, $16.50. 

Ewers, John C. The Horse in Blackfoot Indian Culture, xv + 374 pages, 33 fig- 
ures, 17 plates, 7 tables. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 159, orig- 
inally published 1955, reissued 17 November 1969. Cloth, $12.50. 

Isleta Paintings. With introduction and commentary by Elsie Clews Parsons; 
edited, and with a new foreword, by Esther S. Goldfrank; and with annotated 
glossary of Isleta terms by George L. Trager. xxii -f- 170 pages, 140 paintings 
plus frontispiece. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 181, originally pub- 
lished 1962. Revised edition 10 June 1970. Cloth, $13.95. 

Lewis, Emanuel Raymond. Seacoast Fortifications of the United States: An 
Introductory History, xiv + 145 pages, 66 figures. 30 June 1970. Cloth, 
$8.95. 

Pursell, Carroll W., Jr. Early Stationary Steam Engines in America: A Study in 
the Migration of a Technology, viii -\- 152 pages, 19 illustrations. 17 Novem- 
ber 1969. Cloth, $6.75. 

Scheele, Carl H. A Short History of the Mail Service. 250 pages, 14 figures, 13 
tables. 15 March 1970. Cloth, $6.95. 

Spencer, Robert F. The North Alaskan Eskimo: A Study in Ecology and So- 
ciety, viii -\- 490 pages, 2 figures, 9 plates, 4 maps. Bureau of American Eth- 
nology Bulletin 171, originally published 1959. Reissued 17 November 1969. 
Cloth, $15.00. 

Takhtajan, Armen. Flowering Plants: Origin and Dispersal. Translated by C. 
Jeffrey, x + 310 pages, 32 figures, 13 plates. 10 November 1969. Cloth, $6.95. 

184 



APPENDIX 5. PUBLICATIONS OF SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 185 

Booklets 

Dubos, Rene. A Theology of the Earth. 19 pages. 30 December 1969. 

Hoover, Cynthia A. Harpischords and Clavichords. 43 pages, 36 figures. 31 De- 
cember 1969. 

Maclnnis, Joseph B., M.D., and Jon M. Lindbergh. Underwater Man: His 
Evolution and Explorations, iii -f- 20 pages, 8 figures. Publication 4763. 8 De- 
cember 1969. $.75. 

Purdy, Virginia O, and Daniel J. Reed. Presidential Portraits. Edited by J. 
Benjamin Townsend. iv + 76 pages, 39 illustrations. Publication 4748. Orig- 
inally published 1968. Revised edition, 20 October 1969. $1.25. 

Shortridge, John D. Italian Harpischord-Building in the 16th and 17 th Centuries. 
15 pages, 12 figures. Contributions from the Museum of History and Tech- 
nology, United States National Museum Bulletin 225 (Paper 15), originally 
published 1963. Reprinted with changes, 11 June 1970. 

Smithsonian Institution Explorer's Booklet. Numbers 1-6. Illustrated. 26 August 
1969. 

Serial Publications 

United States National Museum Bulletins 

277. L. P. Kelsey. A Revision of the Scenopinidae (Diptera) of the World. 
v + 336 pages, 208 figures. 31 December 1969. 

282. William Ralph Taylor. A Revision of the Catfish Genus Noturus Rafin- 
esque with an Analysis of Higher Groups in the Ictaluridae. vi -\- 315 
pages, 5 figures, 21 plates, 14 maps, 28 tables. 31 December 1969. 

291. Clyde F. E. Roper. Systematics and Zoogeography of the Worldwide 
Bathypelagic Squid Bathyteuthis (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida). v-j-210 
pages, 74 figures, 12 plates, 20 tables. 1 August 1969. 

293. Maureen E. Downey. Catalog of Recent Ophiuroid Type Specimens in 
Major Collections in the United States, vi + 239 pages. 6 November 1969. 

295. Rosalie F. Maddocks. Revision of Recent Bairdiidae (Ostracoda) . iv + 
126 pages, 63 figures, 1 plate, 2 tables. 18 August 1969. 

296. Jack T. Tomlinson. The Burrowing Barnacles (Cirripedia: Order Acro- 
thoracica) . v -f- 162 pages, 45 figures, 3 tables. 25 November 1969. 

297. James A. Peters and Roberto Donoso-Barros. Catalogue of the Neotrop- 
ical Squamata: Part II. Lizards and Amphaisbaenians. viii -}- 293 pages, 
104 figures. 24 February 1970. 

Contributions from the 
Museum of History and Technology 

bulletin 250 
(Whole volume) 

Papers 59-64 on History, vii 4- 203 pages, illustrated. 31 December 1969. 



186 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology 

volume 2 

5. William K. Jones. "Notes on the History and Material Culture of the Ton- 
kavva Indians. - ' Pages 65-81, 19 figures, 3 maps, 31 December 1969. 

6. Jack Frederick Kilpatrick and Anna Gritts Kilpatrick. "Notebook of a 
Cherokee Shaman." Pages 83-125. 6 May 1970. 

VOLUME 9 

(Whole volume) 

Aubrey W. Williams, Jr. "Navajo Political Process." ix + 71 pages, 1 figure, 10 
plates, 6 maps, 6 tables. 25 June 1970. 

VOLUME 11 
(Whole volume) 

James A. Ford. "A Comparison of Formative Cultures in the Americas: Diffu- 
sion or the Psychic Unity of Man." xviii +211 pages, 32 figures, 22 charts, 
13 tables. 10 December 1969. 

(Seriation by volume/number is replaced hereon by number only.) 

12. C. G. Holland. "An Archeological Survey of Southwest Virginia." xvi + 
194 pages, 43 figures, 28 plates, 9 tables. 27 May 1970. 

13. Leland C. Wyman. "Sandpaintings of the Navaho Shootingway and The 
Walcott Collection." xii 4- 102 pages, 44 plates, colored frontispiece, 5 
tables. 11 June 1970. 

Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 

1. Dan Henry Nicolson. "A Revision of the Genus Aglaonema (Araceae)." 69 
pages, 23 figures, 1 table. 14 August 1969. 

2. Harold Robinson. "A Monograph on Foliar Anatomy of the Genera Con- 
nellia, Cotteiidorfia, and Navia (Bromeliaceae)." 41 pages, 277 figures. 10 
October 1969. 

3. Wm. Randolph Taylor and Charles F. Rhyne. "Marine Algae of Dominica." 
16 pages, 2 figures. 5 March 1970. 

Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 

1. G. Arthur Cooper and Richard E. Grant. "New Permian Brachiopods from 
West Texas." 20 pages, 5 plates. 14 July 1969. 

2. G. Lewis Gazin. "A New Occurrence of Paleocene Mammals in the Evanston 
Formation, Southwestern Wyoming." 17 pages, 1 figure, 3 plates. 31 Decem- 
ber 1969. 

4. Richard Cifelli and Roberta K. Smith. "Distribution of Planktonic Forami- 
nifera in the Vicinity of the North Atlantic Current." 52 pages, 22 figures, 
6 plates, 8 tables. 13 April 1970. 



APPENDIX 5. PUBLICATIONS OF SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 187 

Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 

4. W. Donald Duckworth. "Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey 
of Dominica: West Indian Stenomidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) ." 21 
pages, 30 figures. 13 August 1969. 

7. Rosalie F. Maddocks. "Recent Ostracodes of the Family Pontocyprididae 
Chiefly from the Indian Ocean." 56 pages, 35 figures, 5 tables. 17 Septem- 
ber 1969. 

8. Louis S. Kornicker. "Morphology, Ontogeny, and Intraspecific Variation of 
Sphiacopia, a New Genus of Myodocopid Ostracod (Sarsiellidae) ." 50 
pages, 26 figures, 6 plates, 7 tables. 22 August 1969. 

9. Robert E. Ricklefs. "An Analysis of Nesting Mortality in Birds." 48 pages, 
11 figures, 26 tables. 12 December 1969. 

10. Charles W. Myers and A. Stanley Rand. "Checklist of Amphibians and 
Reptiles of Barro Colorado Island, Panama, with Comments on Faunal 
Change and Sampling." 11 pages, 2 figures, 1 table. 13 August 1969. 

1 1 . Dale J. Osborn and Karl V. Krombein. "Habitats, Flora, Mammals, and 
Wasps of Gebel 'Uweinat, Libyan Desert." 18 pages, 13 figures, 1 table. 

27 August 1969. 

12. R. E. Crabill, Jr. "Tracheotaxy as a Generic Criterion in Himantariidae, 
with Proposal of Two New Bothriogastrine Genera (Chilopoda: Geophilo- 
morpha)." 9 pages, 23 figures. 13 August 1969. 

13. Clyde F. E. Roper, Richard E. Young, and Gilbert L. Voss. "An Illustrated 
Key to the Families of the Order Teuthoidea (Cephalopoda)." 32 pages, 
2 figures, 16 plates, 1 table. 18 August 1969. 

14. Robert P. Higgins. "Indian Ocean Kinorhyncha: 1, Condyloderes and 
Sphenoderes, New Cyclorhagid Genera." 13 pages, 23 figures, 3 tables. 13 
August 1969. 

15. Richard E. Young and Clyde F. E. Roper. "A Monograph of the Cepha- 
lopoda of the North Atlantic: The Family Joubiniteuthidae." 10 pages, 6 
figures, 1 table. 13 August 1969. 

16. Alan Stone. "Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: 
The Mosquitoes of Dominica (Diptera: Culicidae)." 8 pages, 9 July 1969. 

17. Leonard P. Schultz. "The Taxonomic Status of the Controversial Genera 
and Species of Parrotfishes with a Descriptive List (Family Scaridae)." 49 
pages, 2 figures, 8 plates, 13 tables. 10 December 1969. 

18. Ronald W. Hodges. "Nearctic Walshiidae Notes and New Taxa (Lepidop- 
tera: Gelechioidea)." 30 pages, 46 figures, 6 August 1969. 

19. Karl V. Krombein. "Life History Notes on Some Egyptian Solitary Wasps 
and Bees and Their Associates (Hymenoptera: Aculeata)." 18 pages, 26 
figures. 13 August 1969. 

20. Gayle A. Heron and David M. Damkaer. "Five Species of Deep-Water 
Cyclopoid Copepods from the Plankton of the Gulf of Alaska." 24 pages, 

28 figures, 1 table. 23 September 1969. 

21. Oscar L. Cartwright and Robert E. Woodruff. "Ten Rhyparus from the 
Western Hemisphere (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) ." 20 pages, 
15 figures. 6 November 1969. 

22. Karl V. Krombein. "A Revision of the Melanesian Wasps of the Genus 
Cerceris Latreille (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae)." 36 pages, 23 figures. 19 
December 1969. 



188 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

23. Thomas Borgmeier. "Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Do- 
minica: The Phoridae of Dominica (Diptera)." 69 pages, 152 figures. 18 
November 1969. 

24. Charles E. King and Louis S. Kornicker. "Ostracoda in Texas Bays and 
Lagoons: An Ecologic Study." 92 pages, 15 figures, 21 plates, 19 tables. 
25 March 1970. 

25. Harold Robinson. "A Monographic Study of the Mexican Species of En- 
linia (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) ." 62 pages, 221 figures. 6 November 1969. 

26. Helmut K. Buechner and Jimmie H. Buechner, editors. "The Avifauna of 
Northern Latin America: A Symposium Held at the Smithsonian Institution 
13-15 April 1966." 119 pages, 4 figures. 3 April 1970. 

27. J. F. Eisenberg and Edwin Gould. "The Tenrecs: A Study in Mammalian 
Behavior and Evolution." 137 pages, 77 figures, 13 tables. 9 March 1970. 

28. M. Moynihan. "Some Behavior Patterns of Platyrrhine Monkeys II. Sagui- 
nus geoffroyi and Some Other Tamarins." 77 pages, 25 figures, 1 table. 
15 April 1970. 

29. F. D. Por. "Deep-Sea Cerviniidae (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from the 
Western Indian Ocean, Collected with R/V Anton Brunn in 1964." 60 
pages, 182 figures, 1 table. 6 November 1969. 

30. Carl F. W. Muesebeck. "The Nearctic Species of Orgilus Haliday (Hymen- 
optera: Braconidae)." 104 pages, 57 figures. 20 February 1970. 

31. Robert H. Gibbs, Jr. "Taxonomy, Sexual Dimorphism, Vertical Distribu- 
tion, and Evolutionary Zoogeography of the Bathypelagic Fish Genus Sto- 
mias (Stomiatidae)." 25 pages, 6 figures, 15 tables. 2 December 1969. 

32. Louis S. Kornicker. "Ostracoda (Myodocopina) from the Peru-Chile 
Trench and the Antarctic Ocean." 42 pages, 25 figures, 1 table. 11 Feb- 
ruary 1970. 

33. Frank N. Young. "A Checklist of the American Bidessini (Coleoptera: 
Dytiscidae-Hydroporinae) ." 5 pages. 25 November 1969. 

34. J. Laurens Barnard. "Sublittoral Gammaridea (Amphipoda) of the Ha- 
waiian Islands." 286 pages, 180 figures, 6 tables. 15 April 1970. 

35. Robert E. Martin. "Cranial and Bacular Variation in the Populations of 
Spiny Rats of the Genus Proechimys (Rodentia: Echimyidae) from South 
America." 19 pages, 12 figures, 4 tables. 30 January 1970. 

36. Raymond B. Manning. "A Review of the Genus Harpiosquilla (Crustacea, 
Stomatopoda), with Descriptions of Three New Species." 41 pages, 43 
figures, 1 table. 31 December 1969. 

37. Thomas W. Donnelly. "The Odonata of Dominica British West Indies." 
20 pages, 27 figures. 11 February 1970. 

39. Louis S. Kornicker. "Myodocopid Ostracoda (Cypridinacea) from the 
Philippine Islands." 32 pages, 18 figures, 5 tables. 11 February 1970. 

40. Thomas Phelan. "A Field Guide to the Cidaroid Echinoids of the North- 
western Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea." 67 pages, 
7 figures, 22 plates. 10 March 1970. 

41. Marian H. Pettibone. "Revision of the Aphroditoid Polychaetes of the 
Family Eulepthidae Chamberlin (= Eulepidinae Darboux; = Pareulepidae 
Hartman)." 44 pages, 31 figures. 6 November 1969. 



APPENDIX 5. PUBLICATIONS OF SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 189 

42. Helmut E. Zibrowius. "Review of Some Little Known Genera of Serpulidae 
(Annelida: Polychaeta)." 22 pages, 7 figures. 31 December 1969. 

44. J. Laurens Barnard. "Benthic Ecology of Bahia de San Quintin, Baja 
California." 60 pages, 18 figures, 12 tables. 10 March 1970. 

46. Karl V. Krombein. "Behavioral and Life-History Notes on Three Floridian 
Solitary Wasps (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae)." 26 pages, 78 figures, 3 tables. 
25 May 1970. 

47. Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., and H. H. Hobbs III. "New Entocytherid Ostracods 
with a Key to the Genera of the Subfamily Entocytherinae." 19 pages, 9 
figures. 26 May 1970. 

48. W. Donald Duckworth. "Neotropical Microlepidoptera XVIII: Revision 
of the Genus Peleopoda (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae) . 30 pages, 55 figures, 
3 plates, 8 maps. 19 June 1970. 



Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology 

1. Melvin H. Jackson. "Privateers in Charleston, 1793-1796: An Account of 
a French Palatinate in South Carolina." x+159 pages, 24 figures. 31 De- 
cember 1969. 

2. W. E. Knowles Middleton. "Catalog of Meteorological Instruments in the 
Museum of History and Technology." v+128 pages, 124 figures. 4 Au- 
gust 1969. 

3. Betty Lawson Walters. "The King of Desks: Wooton's Patent Secretary." 
iv+32 pages, 28 figures, frontispiece. 31 December 1969. 

Atoll Research Bulletins 

128. A. D. Forbes-Watson. Notes on Birds Observed in the Comoros on Behalf 
of the Smithsonian Institution. 23 pages. 15 August 1969. 

129. John D. Milliman. Four Southwestern Caribbean Atolls: Courtown Cays, 
Albuquerque Cays, Roncador Bank and Serrana Bank. 22 pages, 10 figures, 
13 plates, 4 tables. Appendix: Reef Productivity Measurement, by John D. 
Milliman and Conrad V. W. Mahnken. 4 pages, 7 figures, 2 tables. 15 
August 1969. 

130. C. D. Adams. A Botanical Description of Big Pelican Cay, A Little Known 
Island off the South Coast of Jamaica. 10 pages, 1 figure, 4 plates. 15 
August 1969. 

131. D. R. Stoddart. Post-Hurricane Changes on the British Honduras Reefs 
and Cays: Re-survey of 1965. 25 pages, 15 figures. 15 August 1969. 

132. F. R. Fosberg. Plants of Satawal Island, Caroline Islands. 13 pages. 15 
August 1969. 

133. F. R. Fosberg and Michael Evans. A Collection of Plants From Fais, 
Caroline Islands. 15 pages. 15 August 1969. 

134. M. D. Gwynne and D. Wood. Plants Collected on Islands in the Western 
Indian Ocean During a Cruise of the M.F.R.V. "Manihine," Sept.— Oct. 
1967. 15 pages. 15 August 1969. 

135. Island News and Comment. 17 pages. 



190 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

Manuals 

Campden-Main, Simon M. A Field Guide to the Snakes of South Vietnam. 

v -(- 114 pages, 77 figures. 27 January 1970. 
Van Peenen, P. F. D. Preliminary Identification Manual for Mammals of South 

Vietnam, vi -)- 310 pages, 181 figures. 1 December 1969. 
Wildlife Southeast Asia. Study card set. 27 February 1970. 

Catalogs 

The Art of Henry O. Tanner. 60 pages, 27 illustrations. 6 August 1969. 
Beer, Alice Baldwin. Trade Goods: A Study of Indian Chintz in the Collection 

of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design, Smithsonian 

Institution. 135 pages, 4 color plates, 30 black and white plates. 26 June 1970. 
D. C. Art Association 2nd Annual Art Exhibition. 60 pages, illustrated. 13 

April 1970. Exhibit announcement. 10 April 1970. 
Explorations. With statements by Gyorgy Kepes, Joshua C. Taylor, and Howard 

W. Johnson. 4 booklets. 3 April 1970. 
The Frederick Douglass Years: A Cultural History Exhibit. 12 pages, illustrated. 

10 April 1970. Pamphlet, 8 pages, January 1970. Folder, February 1970. 
G. Melies. 12 pages, illustrated. November 1969. Foldout: Melies Film Festival: 

Films of Fantasy and Illusion From the 1890's. December 1969. 
Indian Images: Photographs of North American Indians 1 847— 1928. Introduc- 
tion and catalog by Joanna Cohan Scherer. 3 1 pages, illustrated. 30 June 

1970. Paper. 
Laser 10. Exhibit folder. January 1970. Hologram. January 1970. 
Leonard Baskin. Essay by Alan Fern, annotated by Leonard Baskin, foreword 

by Joshua C. Taylor. 76 pages, 62 illustrations. 12 June 1970. 
The Rat: Man's Invited Affliction. 8 pages. 17 November 1969. 
Werner Drewes Woodcuts. Introduction by David W. Scott, statement by 

Werner Drewes, text by Jacob Kainen, catalogue by Caril Dreyfuss. 32 pages, 

36 illustrations. 20 August 1969. $.50. 

Leaflets 

The American Folklife Company. Foldout. November 1969. 

American Studies Program. Foldout. February 1970. 

The Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, Smithsonian Institution Presents The 

Columbians. 20 pages, illustrated. 7 November 1969. 
The Black Experience. Announcement. November 1969. 
Color Me Mankind. Announcement. August 1969. 
Electricity and Matter. 4 pages. 8 July 1969. 

Electricity and Physiology, Chemistry, Magnetism, Heat. Folder. October 1969. 
Explorer-I and Jupiter-C. 4 pages, illustrated. December 1969. 
A Guide to the Arts & Industries Building, Smithsonian Institution. Guide map. 

13 June 1970. 



APPENDIX 5. PUBLICATIONS OF SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 191 

History of Science and Technology at the Smithsonian histitution. Foldout. 24 

December 1969. 
Learning Opportunities for Schools. Foldout. 21 November 1969. 
National Museum of History and Technology. Foldout. Revised 10 September 

1969. 
National Portrait Gallery Sculpture Court. Folder. May 1970. 
Organs in Early America. Folder. October 1969. 
Smithsonian Film Theatre. Schedules. December 1969-January 1970. November 

1969. February-March 1970. January 1970. April-May-June 1970. March 

1970. 
The Smithsonian Institution Invites Volunteers in Education. 4 pages. April 

1970. 
The Smithsonian Institution Offers Academic Research Opportunities. Foldout. 

22 September 1969. 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. Guide map. Revised 16 December 

1969. Revised 11 June 1970. 
The Speakers Bureau. 12 pages. 10 April 1970. 
The Theory of Electricity. Foldout. November 1969. 
Wiley Post's "Winnie Mae": Lockheed Model 5-C "Vega" (Modified). Folder. 

December 1 969. 
Wind Instruments. Folder. November 1969. 

Woodrow Wilson International Center For Scholars. Foldout. March 1970. 
Women, Cameras, and Images II: Betty Hahn and Gayle Smalley. Exhibit 

announcement. July 1969. 
Women, Cameras, and Images III: Berenice Abbott. Exhibit announcement. 

July 1969. 
Women, Cameras, and Images IV: Barbara Morgan. Exhibit announcement. 

October 1969. 



Official Publications 

Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1968. 

Volume 1: "Proceedings." xvii+172 pages. 8 December 1969. 
Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1 961. 

Volume II: "Writings on American History, 1959." Edited by James R. 

Masterson. xv-|-737 pages. 2 October 1969. 
Increase and Diffusion : A Brief Introduction to the Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, DC. Foreword by Frederic M. Philips. 87 pages. 30 April 1970. 
Smithsonian Institution Directory. 151 pages. Publication 4638. January 1970. 
Smithsonian Institution Opportunities for Research and Advanced Study, 

1970-1971. xvi + 230 pages, 8 illustrations. 22 September 1969. 
Smithsonian Year 1969: Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for the 

Year Ended 30 June 1969. viii + 705 pages, illustrated. Publication 4765. 

20 May 1970. 
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 1970-197 1 . 20 pages, 

illustrated. 15 November 1969. 



Appendix 6 



ACADEMIC APPOINTMENTS 

1969-1970 



Postdoctoral Visiting Research Associates 

Program in American History 

Walter L. Creese. The American imagery resulting from political action and 
how it influenced the formulation of the visual and esthetic environment over 
the last two hundred years, "History of the Effect of American Government 
on the American Arts from Washington's Time," with Dr. Wilcomb E. Wash- 
burn, American Studies Program, from 1 July 1969 to 30 June 1970. 

E. Raymond Lewis. A history of American seacoast fortification, with John H. 
Magruder III, National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board, from 1 
October 1969 to 1 October 1970. 

John J. McCusker. Philadelphia shipping, 1722—1776; a statistical study, with 
Dr. Melvin H. Jackson, National Museum of History and Technology, from 1 
September 1969 to 31 August 1970. 

Linda M. McKee. A biographical study of Commodore Isaac Hull, with Howard 
I. Chapelle, National Museum of History and Technology, from 1 September 
1969 to 1 September 1970. 

Spencer C. Tucker. A history of American muzzle-loading naval ordnance, 

with Dr. Melvin H. Jackson, National Museum of History and Technology, 

from 23 July 1969 to 23 July 1970. 
Dana F. White. A systems study of the development of the city of Washington, 

D.C., with Dr. Wilcomb E. Washburn, American Studies Program, from 

1 July 1969 to 1 July 1970. 

Program in Anthropology 

R. H. Ives Goddard III. Linguistics, ethnography, and ethnohistory of the 
Algonquin Indians, with Dr. William C. Sturtevant, National Museum of 
Natural History, from 1 August 1969 to 1 August 1970. 

Irving I. Zaretsky. A social history of spiritualism in the San Francisco 
Bay Region, with Dr. William C. Sturtevant, National Museum of Natural 
History, from 1 September 1969 to 1 September 1970. 

Program in Environmental Sciences 

Penelope Williamson. Behavioral studies of foraging in starling flocks, with 
Dr. George Watson, National Museum of Natural History, from 15 September 
1969 to 15 September 1970. 

192 



APPENDIX 6. ACADEMIC APPOINTMENTS 193 

Program in Evolutionary and Behavioral Biology, Tropical Zones 

Zbigniew M. Gliwicz. Freshwater phytoplankton productivity; differential 
availability of different kinds of algae to various consuming organisms, with 
Dr. Martin H. Moynihan, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from 16 
October 1969 to 16 October 1970. 

Henry A. Hespenheide III. Ecology of tropical insectivorous birds and their 
prey, with Dr. Martin Moynihan, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 
from 1 July 1969 to 1 July 1970. 

Bruce A. Miller. Ecology and systematics of Pacific and Western Atlantic 
Terebridae, with Dr. Peter Glynn, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 
from 12 May 1970 to 11 March 1971. 

Eugene S. Morton. Communication in birds, with Dr. Neal Smith, Smith- 
sonian Tropical Research Institute, from 1 January 1970 to 1 January 1971. 

John Conrao Ogoen. Ecology of inshore fishes, with Dr. Ira Rubinoff, Smith- 
sonian Tropical Research Institute, from 1 September 1969 to 1 November 
1970. 

Uzi Ritte. Ecological and genetic adaptations of populations of the spiny rat, 
Proechimys semispinosus, to different climatic regimes, and Dr. Martin H. 
Moynihan, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from 1 September 1969 
to 1 September 1970. 

Eric S. Todd. Ecophysiology of some air-breathing gobiid and gobiesocid fishes, 
with Dr. Martin H. Moynihan, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 
from 1 September 1969 to 1 September 1970. 

Program in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

William C. Banta. Evolution of bryozoa as illustrated by the structure and 
development of the body wall, with Dr. Alan Cheetham, National Museum of 
Natural History, from 1 September 1969 to 1 September 1970. 

Daniel B. Blake. Evolutionary and morphological relationships of paleozoic 
bryozoa, with Dr. Richard Boardman, National Museum of Natural History, 
from 1 September 1969 to 1 September 1970. 

J. Stanley Cobb. Brain morphology and behavior of deep-sea fishes, with Dr. 
Robert Gibbs and Dr. Stanley Weitzman, National Museum of Natural His- 
tory, from 1 October 1969 to 1 October 1970. 

Arthur L. Dahl. Ecological investigations of marine algae with computerized 
analysis of their habitats, with Dr. Mason Hale, National Museum of Natural 
History, from 15 September 1969 to 14 September 1970. 

Desmond J. G. Griffin. Evolutionary relationsbips of decapod Crustacea, with 
Dr. Raymond Manning, National Museum of Natural History, from 19 
January 1970 to 19 October 1970. 

Stuart Landry, Jr. Evolution and relationships of rabbits and rodents, with 
Dr. Charles O. Handley, Jr., National Museum of Natural History, from 
1 September 1969 to 1 September 1970. 

James E. Morrow. Systematics of Alaskan White fishes and Charrs, with Dr. 
Robert Gibbs, National Museum of Natural History, from 18 September 
1969 to 31 May 1970. 

Shih-Chieh Shen. Systematic and morphologic studies of fishes, with Dr. 
Robert Gibbs, National Museum of Natural History, from 3 November 1969 
to 31 October 1970. 



194 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

Program in History of Science and Technology 

Stanley Guralnick. Science education in nineteenth-century American col- 
leges, with Dr. Nathan Reingold, Joseph Henry Papers, from 1 August 1969 
to 1 August 1970. 

David J. Jeremy. The textile industry in England and the United States; a 
case study in transmission of a technology, with Dr. Philip Bishop, National 
Museum of History and Technology, from 18 August 1969 to 18 August 1970. 

Carroll Pursell, Jr. Mobilization of American science and technology for 
World War I, with Dr. Nathan Reingold, Joseph Henry Papers, from 15 De- 
cember 1969 to 15 June 1970. 

Peter Stechl. Biological and standardization of drugs, 1928-1940, with Dr. 
Sami Hamarneh, National Museum of History and Technology, from 23 June 
1969 to 23 June 1970. 

Program in Physical Sciences 

Tomas Feininger. Petrology of some Colombian and Ecuadorian Andean meta- 
morphic rocks, with Dr. George Switzer, National Museum of Natural History, 
from 1 September 1969 to 31 August 1970. 

Ter-Chien Huang. Origin and nature of deep-sea sediments and sediment 
transport processes, with Dr. Daniel J. Stanley, National Museum of Natural 
History, from 1 January 1970 to 1 January 1971. 

Anil Lyall. Studies of outer continental margin sediments near the Wilming- 
ton Canyon, with Dr. Daniel J. Stanley, National Museum of Natural His- 
tory, from 1 November 1969 to 1 July 1970. 

Forese C. Wezel. Sediments on the continental rise in the vicinity of the 
Wilmington Submarine Canyon, eastern United States, with Dr. Daniel J. 
Stanley, National Museum of Natural History, from 1 November 1969 to 31 
October 1970. 



Predoctoral Visiting Research Associates 



Program in American History 

Faye Joanne Baker. A study of tombstones as a reflection of American culture, 
with Dr. Wilcomb E. Washburn, American Studies Program, from 1 Septem- 
ber 1969 to 1 September 1970, leading to the award of PhD from the George 
Washington University. 

David K. Sullivan. Studies in the documentation of American political history 
in the United States, with Dr. Wilcomb E. Washburn, American Studies 
Program, from 1 September 1969 to 1 June 1970, leading to the award of 
PhD from Georgetown University. 

Joanna S. Zangrando. The Memorial Bridge; monumental bridge design and 
the City Beautiful movement, with Robert M. Vogel, National Museum of 
History and Technology, from 1 September 1969 to 1 March 1970, leading 
to the award of PhD from the George Washington University. 

Program in Anthropology 

Richard Lunt. Folkloric study of traditional American boatbuilding techniques, 



APPENDIX 6. ACADEMIC APPOINTMENTS 195 

with Howard I. Chapelle, National Museum of History and Technology, and 
Ralph Rinzler, Division of Performing Arts, from 1 September 1969 to 1 
September 1970, leading to the award of the PhD from Indiana University. 

Program in Environmental Sciences 

Dorothy J. Morton. Developmental physiology of grass seedlings with special 
reference to effects of light on corn, with Dr. Robert Weintraub, Radiation 
Biology Laboratory, from 1 July 1969 to 31 December 1969, leading to the 
award of PhD from the George Washington University. 

Program in Evolutionary and Behavioral Biology, Tropical Zones 

Mark H. Bernstein. The significance of "quirks" in captive primates, with 
Dr. Martin H. Moynihan, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from 
1 September 1969 to 1 September 1970. 

Robin B. Foster. Fruiting sequences in the tropical rainforest (schedules of food 
availability), with Dr. A. Stanley Rand, Smithsonian Tropical Research Insti- 
tute, from 1 September 1969 to 1 September 1970. 

Chaim N. Kropach. Ecology and population structure of the eastern Pacific sea 
snake, with Dr. Ira Rubinoff, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from 
1 August 1969 to 1 August 1970. 

Thomas M. Zaret. Seasonal variation in a tropical freshwater predator-prey 
relationship (Thyrionopsis: Ceriodaphnia), with Dr. Martin H. Moynihan, 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from 1 July 1969 to 1 July 1970. 

Program in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

Jean T. DeBell. Electron microscopy of body wall structure of certain marine 
worms, with Dr. W. D. Hope, National Museum of Natural History, from 
9 October 1969 to 9 October 1970, leading to the award of PhD from the 
George Washington University. 

T. Gary Gautier. Morphological, stratigraphic and paleoecological relationship 
of the bryozoa of the West Texas Permian, with Dr. Richard S. Boardman, 
from 1 August 1969 to 31 July 1970, leading to the award of PhD from the 
University of Kansas. 

Richard H. Goodyear. Systematic studies of deep-sea fishes (Malacosteidae), 
with Dr. Robert H. Gibbs, National Museum of Natural History, from 25 
August 1969 to 25 August 1970, leading to the award of PhD from the 
George Washington University. 

Walter S. Gray, Jr. Systematic and morphologic studies of Antarctic amphipod 
Crustacea, with Dr. J. L. Barnard, National Museum of Natural History, from 
15 February 1970 to 15 February 1971, leading to the award of PhD from 
the George Washington University. 

Lyndon Hawkins. Systematic and morphologic studies of the American brac- 
onid wasps, with Dr. Richard Froeschner, National Museum of Natural His- 
tory, from 1 November 1969 to 30 April 1970, leading to the award of PhD 
from the University of Idaho. 

Robert W. Hinds. Evolutionary and morphological studies of fossil bryozoa of 
the Gulf Coast, with Dr. Richard S. Boardman, National Museum of Natural 
History, from 1 July 1969 to 1 September 1970, leading to the award of PhD 
from Columbia University. 



196 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

Catherine J. Kerby. Ecology, histology, embryology, and systematics of marine 
worms, with Dr. Meredith Jones, National Museum of Natural History, from 
1 August 1969 to 1 August 1970, leading to the award of PhD from the 
George Washington University. 

Jackson E. Lewis. Evolutionary and morphologic studies of fossil and Recent 
decapod Crustacea, with Fenner A. Chace, Jr., National Museum of Natural 
History, from 1 July 1969 to 1 July 1970, leading to the award of PhD from 
Tulane University. 

Gerald R. Noonan. Systematics and zoogeographical relationships of coleop- 
teran beetles, with Dr. Paul J. Spangler, National Museum of Natural History, 
from 1 October 1969 to 30 September 1970, leading to the award of PhD 
from the University of California, Riverside. 

John S. Peel. Comparative studies of British and American fossil gastropods, 
with Dr. Ellis Yochelson, National Museum of Natural History, from 8 Oc- 
tober 1969 to 8 October 1970, leading to the award of PhD from University 
of Leicester, England. 

Program in History of Art and Music 

Robert Rorex. Lady Wun-Chi, a historical study, with Dr. Thomas Lawton, 
Freer Gallery of Art, from 1 September 1969 to 1 September 1970, leading to 
the award of PhD from Princeton University. 

Program in Museum Studies 

Miriam Davidson Plotnicov. Studies in the display and restoration of museum 
collections, with John Anglim, Office of Exhibits Programs, from 1 September 
1969 to 31 May 1970. 

Jon Seger. Research and production of visual displays and film strip recording 
packages, with Nathanial Dixon, Office of Academic Programs, from 22 Sep- 
tember 1969 to 21 September 1970. 

Donna Stone. Research in ethnomusicology techniques of collection mainte- 
nance of musical instruments, with John Fesperman, National Museum of 
History and Technology, from 1 September 1969 to 1 June 1970. 

Kitti Thonglongya. Taxonomic revision of the bats of Thailand, with Dr. 
George Watson, National Museum of Natural History, from 8 September 1969 
to 7 September 1970. 

Robert Works. Studies in museum administration and the history of American 
art, with Marvin Sadik, National Portrait Gallery, from 1 January 1970 to 
31 August 1970. 

Program in Physical Sciences 

Leslie Ray Brady. Studies of atomic nuclear processes associated with produc- 
tion of sunshine and starlight, with Dr. Henri Mitler, Smithsonian Astrophysi- 
cal Observatory, from 1 July 1969 to 1 July 1970, leading to the award of 
PhD from Brandeis University. 

Duane Carbon. Theoretical calculations of how stars produce light, with Owen 
J. Gingerich, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 July 1969 to 
30 June 1970, leading to the award of PhD from Harvard University. 

Chung-Chieh Cheng. Theoretical studies of the flux and energy spectrum of 
gamma radiation from the sun, with Dr. G. G. Fazio, Smithsonian Astrophys- 



APPENDIX 6. ACADEMIC APPOINTMENTS 197 

ical Observatory, from 1 June 1968 to 31 August 1969, leading to the award 
of PhD from Harvard University. 

Eric G. Chipman. Studies of outer layers of the sun, with Dr. E. H. Avrett, 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 July 1969 to 30 June 1970, 
leading to the award of PhD from Harvard University. 

J. Stephen Duerr. Studies of the physical effects of outer space on meteorites, 
with Dr. Charles A. Lundquist, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 
1 July 1969 to 1 July 1970, leading to the award of PhD from the Massa 
chusetts Institute of Technology. 

Jonathan E. Grindlay. Theoretical studies of cosmic ray origin, with Dr. G. G. 
Fazio, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 July 1969 to 1 July 
1970, leading to the award of PhD from Harvard University. 

Robert L. Kurucz. Theoretical studies of particularly hot stars, with Dr. 
Wolfgang Kalkofen, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 July 1969 
to 30 June 1970, leading to the award of PhD from Harvard University. 

Elia M. Leibowitz. Studies of dynamics and evolution of planetary nebulae, 
with Dr. Charles A. Lundquist, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 
1 July 1969 to 30 June 1970, leading to the award of PhD from Harvard 
University. 

Timothy L. Stephens. Studies of effects of light radiation on hydrogen gas, 
with Professor A. Dalgarno, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 
1 September 1969 to 30 June 1970, leading to the award of PhD from Har- 
vard University. 

Joseph Veverka. Photopolarimetry of satellites and minor planets, with Dr. 
Fred Whipple, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 July 1969 to 
1 February 1970, leading to the award of PhD from Harvard University. 



Summer 1969 Undergraduate Research 
Participation Appointments 

Names marked with an asterisk indicate students whose research was supported 
through grants from the National Science Foundation's Undergraduate Research 
Participation Program (grants GY4240: Social Sciences, and GY 4549: Biolog- 
ical Sciences). 

Program in American History 

Barbara Blanchard Bowie, Skidmore College. Interpretation through com- 
puter applications of nineteenth-century political symbols, with Harold Skram- 
stad, American Studies. 

Elizabeth Rea Dulcan, New Mexico Highlands University. The original prints 
of Theodor de Bry and copies by Bernard Picart, with Karil Dreyfuss, National 
Museum of History and Technology. 

Edward S. Haynes, Duke University. Development of naval uniforms, with 
Craddock R. Goins, Jr., National Museum of History and Technology. 

Cherry Deborah Maurer, Wells College. Urban design and transportation 
systems, with Dr. Wilcomb E. Washburn, American Studies. 

Peter N. Munsing, University of Michigan. A study of Revolutionary War 
military leaders, with Robert Stewart, National Portrait Gallery. 



198 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

Thomas Raysor, Jr., University of Virginia. Research in authentication of 
military uniforms in the national collections, with Craddock R. Goins, Jr., 
National Museum of History and Technology. 

Bryant Young, Yale University. Urban design and transportation systems, with 
Dr. Wilcomb E. Washburn, American Studies. 

Program in Anthropology 

*James Bare, Johns Hopkins University. Data Processing in linguistics; the 
tonal system of the Amoy dialect of China, with Dr. Paul Voorhis, National 
Museum of Natural History. 

*Christine Diane Cooper, Wellesley College. Analysis of an archeological 
collection from Central Kansas, with Dr. Waldo R. Wedel, National Museum 
of Natural History. 

*Mary Frances Guptill, University of Arizona. Research in dream texts from 
Zinacantan, Mexico, contributing to the first Tzotzil dictionary, with Dr. 
Robert M. Laughlin, National Museum of Natural History. 

*Laura May Kaplan, Rice University. Sex prediction determined by compari- 
son of bone length and joint size in long bones, with Dr. Lucile E. St. Hoyme, 
National Museum of Natural History. 

*Thomas Whitney Kavanagh, University of New Mexico. Classification of 
Plains Indian legging traits, with Dr. William C. Sturtevant, National Museum 
of Natural History. 

Karen Ann Larson, Raymond College. Research in Micronesian ethnohistory, 
with Dr. Saul H. Riesenberg, National Museum of Natural History. 

*Peter Warren Ochs, Yale University. Analysis of the various areas of native 
geographical and navigational knowledge from the Island of Puluwat, with 
Dr. Saul H. Riesenberg, National Museum of Natural History. 

*Catherine Sease, Bryn Mawr College. Sindhi textiles, costume, and costume 
accessories of West Pakistan, with Dr. Eugene I. Knez, National Museum of 
Natural History. 

*Samuel Martin Seiffer, City College of New York. A survey of the anthro- 
pological profession and social dissent, with Dr. Sam Stanley, National 
Museum of Natural History. 

*Judith Ann Shulimson, University of Wisconsin Early collectors of African 
materials: a biographical survey, with Dr. Gordon D. Gibson, National Mu- 
seum of Natural History. 

*John Anderson Van Ness, New College. Linguistic notes of John Harring- 
ton, linguist of the Bureau of Ethnology, with Margaret Blaker, National 
Museum of Natural History. 

Program in Environmental Sciences 

*Harvey J. Alexander, University of Miami. Development of avian capture 
techniques, with Dr. Francis S. L. Williamson, Chesapeake Bay Center for 
Environmental Studies. 

*Rosemarie C. Alisio, St. Joseph College. Sexual patterns of Solenodon para- 
doxus and Dinomys branickii, with Larry R. Collins, National Zoological Park. 

*Peggy Jean Arps, Cornell University. Problems in germination of Arabidop- 
sis thaliana, with Dr. William H. Klein, Radiation Biology Laboratory. 

*Robert A. Askins, University of Michigan. Comparative ecology of the 
Hooded Warbler (Wilsonian citrina) and Kentucky Warbler (Oporarnis for- 



APPENDIX 6. ACADEMIC APPOINTMENTS 199 

mosus), with Dr. Francis S. L. Williamson, Chesapeake Bay Center for En- 
vironmental Studies. 

*Nelson Jay Bassin, Oberlin College. Distribution of ice-rafted rocks in the 
South Pacific determined from sea-floor photographs, with Dr. Thomas E. 
Simkin, Oceanographic Sorting Center. 

*Suzanne Marie Bogdanski, Trinity College. Histochemical applications in 
diagnosis of tumors of lower animals, with Dr. John C. Harshbarger, National 
Museum of Natural History. 

*Douglas H. Boucher, Yale College. Measuring human impact on ecological 
systems, with Dr. Richard S. Cowan, National Museum of Natural History. 

*David A. Couzin, University of Aberdeen. The effects of shading on plant 
growth, with Dr. William H. Klein, Radiation Biology Laboratory. 

*Betty Jean Gray, Mt. Holyoke College. Population density study of foraging 
behavior in the cardinal, with Dr. Francis S. L. Williamson, Chesapeake Bay 
Center for Environmental Studies. 

*James S. Harper III, University of Pennsylvania. Survey of enteric pathogens 
in collection animals at the National Zoological Park, with Dr. Robert M. 
Sauer, National Zoological Park. 

*Howard M. Laten, Baldwin- Wallace College. Study of the intestinal flora of 
the Boidae, with Dr. Clinton W. Gray, National Zoological Park. 

*Mark A. Mostow, Harvard College. Survey of small mammals at the Bay 
Center and their relationships to vegetation types, with Dr. Helmut K. 
Buechner, Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies. 

*John M. Peach, St. Lawrence University. Concepts of marine ecology as ap- 
plied in oceanographic engineering, with Dr. Francis S. L. Williamson, Chesa- 
peake Bay Center for Environmental Studies. 

*Steven E. Reynolds, University of California at Davis. Research in the prac- 
tice of veterinary medicine in the exotic animals, with Dr. Clinton W. Gray, 
National Zoological Park. 

*Joel F. Zipp, University of Wisconsin. Determination of paleoenvironments of 
the Outer Banks, North Carolina, with Dr. Jack W. Pierce, National Museum 
of Natural History. 

Program in Evolutionary and Behavioral Biology, Tropical Zones 

*William F. Graney, University of Delaware. Analysis of the criteria for web 

location of the spider, Arogiope argentata, with Dr. Michael H. Robinson, 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 
*Robert Klein, Cornell University. Habit discrimination of Agglychnis, with 

Dr. A. Stanley Rand, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 
Deborah Lee, Wells College. Physiology of tropical marine fishes, with Dr. Ira 

Rubinoff, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 
*Wayne L. Smith, University of California at Santa Barbara. Comparison of 

germinated species pairs of invertebrates found in the Atlantic and Pacific 

Oceans of the Isthmus of Panama, with Roberta W. Rubinoff, Smithsonian 

Tropical Research Institute. 

Program in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

*Mary R. Ditman, George Washington University. Study of micromorphologi- 
cal character of Hymenoxys and related genera, with Dr. Kittie F. Parker, 
National Museum of Natural History. 



200 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

*Paul E. Drez, Old Dominion College. Field study of Pleistocene paleoecology 
in southeastern Virginia, with Dr. Clayton E. Ray, National Museum of Nat- 
ural History. 

*Susan Hershev, Charles County Community College. Feeding behavior and 
morphology of larval and adult sipunculid worms, with Dr. Mary E. Rice, 
National Museum of Natural History. 

*Katherine H. Lewis, University of Miami. Viability of ostracods eggs follow- 
ing consumption and defecation by fish, with Dr. Louis S. Kornicker, National 
Museum of Natural History. 

*Susan Platkin, University of Maryland. Compilation of data for the moth 
genus Urodus and completion of a catalogue for one species of the genus, with 
Dr. W. Donald Duckworth, National Museum of Natural History. 

*Clara P. Sperapani, University of Maryland. Primitive and advanced charac- 
ters of the leaves of the Fagaceae, with Dr. Leo J. Hickey, National Museum 
of Natural History. 

*Mary Ann Turner, Indiana University. Morphologic characters of specific 
importance in the South African Dicynodontis, with Dr. Nicholas Hotton III, 
National Museum of Natural History. 

*Edward J. Wall, Muhlenberg College. Study of Pleistocene bivalve mollusk 
fauna of a Mississippi mudlump island, with Dr. Thomas R. Waller, National 
Museum of Natural History. 

*Steven J. Zehren, University of Wisconsin. A comparative study of the 
osteology and anatomy of teleost fishes, with Dr. Stanley H. Weitzman, Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History. 

Program in History of Art and Music 

Ronald Brucato, Pratt Institute. Magic realism in painting: 1930-1950, with 

Robert T. Davis, National Collection of Fine Arts. 
Roger W. Evans, Stetson University. Eighteenth-century keyboard instruments, 

with John T. Fesperman, National Museum of History and Technology. 
James E. Furman, Claremont College. The art of Maurice Prendergast, with 

Robert T. Davis, National Collection of Fine Arts. 
Janice H. Hertenstein, Michigan State University. History and techniques of 

printmaking in America, with Donald R. McClelland, National Collection of 

Fine Arts. 

Program in History of Science and Technology 

*Bernard C. Dale, Kenyon College. Historical and social interrelationships of 
the mints of Asia Minor, with Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli, National Museum 
of History and Technology. 

*Ming M. Ivory, Tufts University. Problems of access and interpretation for 
the Joseph Henry Papers, with Dr. Nathan Reingold, Joseph Henry Papers. 

*Robert O. Lapidus, Ohio University. The Sputnik and its repercussions: an 
historical analysis, with Frederick C. Durant III, National Air and Space 
Museum. 

*Howard Jay Millard, Michigan State University. An historical survey of pho- 
tographic processes and techniques, with Eugene Ostroff, National Museum of 
History and Technology. 



APPENDIX 6. ACADEMIC APPOINTMENTS 201 

*David Alan Rosenberg, The American University. The sloop of war Sara- 
toga: verification of data in the national collection, with Philip K. Lundeberg, 
National Museum of History and Technology. 

*John F. K. Tvner, Trinity College. Development of the P. K. Tomajan Col- 
lection catalogue, with Dr. Elizabeth Harris, National Museum of History 
and Technology. 

*William A. Watson, George Washington University. Development of electron 
injection techniques in the McMillan synchrotron, with Dr. Philip W. Bishop, 
National Museum of History and Technology. 

Program in Museum Studies 

Laurel L. Arnold, Mount Holyoke College. Research in conservation tech- 
niques, with Charles H. Olin, National Collection of Fine Arts and National 
Portrait Gallery. 

James P. Batchelor, Williams College. Research in conservation techniques, 
with Charles H. Olin, National Collection of Fine Arts and National Portrait 
Gallery. 

Susan B. Kelly, Mount Holyoke College. History and techniques of print- 
making in America, with Robert G. Stewart, National Portrait Gallery. 

Program In Physical Sciences 

Thomas L. Marzetta, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Research in 
electron microprobe laboratory instrumentation refinement activities, with Dr. 
William G. Melson, National Museum of Natural History. 



Summer 1969 Graduate Research 
Participation Appointments 

Program in American History 

George L. Mitchell, University of Chicago. The image of the city in Ameri- 
can silent film, with Dr. Wilcomb E. Washburn, American Studies Program. 

Program in Anthropology 

Raymond P. DeMallie, University of Chicago. Studies in American Indian 
linguistics — Siouan groups, with Dr. Paul Voorhis and Margaret C. Blaker, 
National Museum of Natural History. 

Jane I. Lumpkin, University of Alabama. Identification of artifacts from Thai- 
land and Pakistan, with Dr. Eugene I. Knez, National Museum of Natural 
History. 

Jill Ellen Marshall, American University. Study of culture and population 
in Africa, with Dr. Gordon D. Gibson, National Museum of Natural History. 

Program in Evolutionary and Behavioral Biology, Tropical Zones 

Yael Devora Dubin, University of Florida. Ecology and behavior of spiders, 
with Dr. Martin H. Moynihan, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 



202 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

Program in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

Sana Isa Atallah, University of Connecticut. Mammals of the eastern Medi- 
terranean region : their ecology, systematics, and zoogeographical relationships, 
with Dr. Henry W. Setzer, National Museum of Natural History. 

Program in Physical Sciences 

Douglas Nelson, University of South Carolina. Clay mineralogy of Atlantic 
project, with Dr. Jack W. Pierce, National Museum of Natural History. 



Visiting Scholars 

Alfred R. Henderson. A biographical study of Dr. Charles Land and his role 
in the development of dentistry and medicine, with Dr. Robert P. Multhauf, 
National Museum of History and Technology, from 15 June 1969 to 15 June 
1970. 

Dale W. Richey. Conservation problems of Chinese minor bronzes of the Chou 
and Han periods, with W. Thomas Chase, Freer Gallery of Art, from 1 Sep- 
tember 1969 to 1 September 1970. 

William Wing. A comprehensive study of drug use, with Philip C. Ritterbush, 
Office of Academic Programs, from 16 February 1970 to 15 May 1971. 



Appendix 7 



PUBLIC AFFAIRS 



News Releases Issued 

Texas Folklorist Helps Plan Take-Over of D.C. 2-7-69 
CBS Labs Give Smithsonian Original Field-Sequential Color Equipment 2-7-69 

FBI Building Site Fertile Spot for Smithsonian Archeologist 3—7—69 
Henry O. Tanner Exhibition To Open at National Collection 

of Fine Arts 8-7-69 

Henry O. Tanner Biography 8—7—69 

Smithsonian and Yugoslavs Sign Research Agreement 10—7—69 

National Collection of Fine Arts Will Present Four Summer Lectures 15-7-69 

Smithsonian Exhibit Chronicles Powell's Colorado River Trek 15—7-69 

Works of Three Women Featured in Photo Shows Opening 17 July 15—7—69 

Zoo Police Get Pay Raise 17-7-69 

Smithsonian To Exhibit Works of Richard Neutra 18-7-69 
Smithsonian To Stage Satirical Musical Of Thee I Sing 

in Theatre-On-The-Mall 23-7-69 

Smithsonian To Exhibit Work of Ten Afro-American Artists 29-7-69 
Works of Pacesetting Italian Architects Going on Display 

at Smithsonian 30-7-69 
Dr. Wunder Taking Leave of Absence from Cooper-Hewitt Museum 

of Design 31-7-69 
Dr. Robert P. Higgins New Director of Mediterranean Marine 

Sorting Center 31-7-69 

Tent Show Cancellation 5-8-69 

The Concerned Photographer Exhibition To End Three-Month Run 8-8—69 

Smithsonian To Present Exhibit of Top British Craft Designs 12-8-69 

Smithsonian Children's Theater Will Present 18th-Century Fable 14-8-69 
United States To Show Four Team Exhibits at Youth Art Biennial 

in Paris 14-8-69 

Smithsonian To Display Student Design Exhibit Color Me Mankind 15-8-69 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum To Trace History of the Chair 15-8-69 

Time Magazine Cover Show Is Extended at Smithsonian 20-8-69 

Carolina Pottery Shop Salvaged by Smithsonian 22—8—69 

Smithsonian Appoints Development Director 26—8—69 
R.A.F. To Present a Hawker Hurricane to Smithsonian 

Air and space Museum 26-8-69 

"Pharmacy in Prints" Shows Artist's View of Medicine 27-8-69 

Professor Joshua C. Taylor To Head Smithsonian Museum 3-9-69 

Museums at Smithsonian Institution Holding 57 Art Exhibitions 4-9-69 

203 



204 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

Smithsonian Shops Will Display Rugs Woven by Near East Nomads 5-9-69 

Smithsonian To Exhibit Scientific Illustrations 9—9—69 
National Collection of Fine Arts To Show Modern Paintings 

by Jannis Spyropoulos 9—9—69 
National Collection of Fine Arts To Show Film on United States 

Artist Moses Soyer 10-9-69 
Johnson Wax Survey of "Objects: USA" at National Collection 

of Fine Arts 10-9-69 

Alyce Simon's "Atomic" Art To Be Shown at Smithsonian 11-9-69 

Smithsonian Design Museum Moving to Carnegie Mansion 12-9-69 

Smithsonian Names Director for Cooper-Hewitt Museum 12-9-69 

Elaborate Detailing Marks Gracious Carnegie Mansion 12—9—69 

Smithsonian To Exhibit Two-Pound Lunar Rock 15-9-69 
Cooper-Hewitt To Exhibit Original Drawings of Brighton Pavilion 16—9—69 

Smithsonian First Public Showing of Two-Pound Lunar Rock 16—9-69 
Whistler Landscapes and Seascapes To Be Exhibited at Freer Gallery 18-9-69 
Talk on Japanese Porcelain To Open Annual Freer Gallery 

Lecture Series 18-9-69 

Volcanoes Explained in Smithsonian Exhibit 26—9—69 

Varied Uses of Plastic on Display in New Smithsonian Exhibition 26—9-69 
Restored Pre-Revolutionary Organ Shown in Musical Instruments Hall 30—9—69 

Smithsonian To Exhibit 1 1-Foot Long Indian Tiger 30-9-69 

Smithsonian Encounter Focuses on the Potomac River Problems 3—10—69 

Smithsonian Exhibition To Honor Noted Experimental Printmaker 8—10—69 

Air and Space Art Showing at Arts and Industries Building 8-10-69 

"Energy Conversion" Show Traces Development of Power Sources 8—10—69 
Barbara Morgan Featured in 4th Women, Cameras, and Images Exhibit 8—10—69 

Smithsonian Scientist Finds Fossil Forgery 9—10-69 

Craftsmanship and Genius Merged in Saint-Gaudens' Art 17-10-69 
National Portrait Gallery To Show 60 Reliefs by 

Augustus Saint-Gaudens 17-10-69 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum Marks Rembrandt Anniversary 17—10—69 

Smithsonian Scientists To Study Tooth Decay Origins 20-10-69 

African Concert Will Benefit Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 24-10-69 

One Room New England School Reconstructed in Smithsonian 27—10-69 

Smithsonian Shop To Display Welded Animal Sculptures 28—10—69 

Smithsonian Christmas Shop Will Show Yule Traditions 30—10—69 

Smithsonian Panel To Discuss Problems of Chesapeake Bay 30—10—69 

Netherlands Concert Group To Perform at Smithsonian 31—10—69 

Smithsonian Museum Shop To Show Pakistani Crafts 31 — 10—69 

Smithsonian Will Exhibit Yugoslav Tapestries, Prints 4-11-69 

Freer Will Present Lecture on Chinese Domestic Arts 4-11-69 

Smithsonian To Sage Festival of Works of Georges Melies 5-1 1-69 

A Long-Range Listing of Performing Arts Division Schedule 12-11—69 
Smithsonian To Present Major Photo Exhibit 

"Camera and Human Facade" 14-11-69 

Smithsonian Exhibit To Examine Transit Problems and Promise 17—11-69 

Progressive Jazz Concert To Be Given by Lee Morgan Quintet 19-11-69 

Smithsonian Staging Festival of Georges Melies' Films 21-11—69 

Two World Music Premieres Scheduled 24-11-69 

Smithsonian Will Present Milton Avery Retrospective 25-1 1-69 



APPENDIX 7. PUBLIC AFFAIRS 205 

Smithsonian To Present Informal Concert 3 December 26—1 1—69 

Moratorium Day Attendance All-Time High at Museum 26-11-69 

Woodrow Wilson Center Now Taking Fellowship Applications 28—11—69 

Smithsonian Photo Exhibition To Feature Own Collection 28-11—69 

Smithsonian Panel To Examine DDT Effects 1-12-69 

Smithsonian Sponsoring "Sing Out" for Children 4—12—69 

Smithsonian Concert Postponed 'Till 5 January 4—12—69 

Smithsonian Shop Shows Works of Twenty D.C. Artists 8-12-69 

Registration Open for Courses at Smithsonian 10—12—69 

Key Editorial-Business Posts Filled for Smithsonian Magazine 12-12-69 

Smithsonian To Give Play by Former Drug Addicts 12-12-69 

"Story of Jazz" Concert Presented by Benny Powell Septet 12-12-69 

Smithsonian Sets Photo Show of Dead Sea Scrolls 19-12-69 

Smithsonian Exhibition Traces "Romans in Ancient Romania" 22-12-69 

Freer Schedules Lecture on Near Eastern Archive 30-12-69 

Smithsonian Will Exhibit 115 Early American Prints 31-12-69 

Smithsonian Puppet Theatre To Give "Hansel and Gretel" 5-1-70 
Mrs. Nixon Presents Inaugural Ball Gown to Smithsonian 

First Ladies Collection 7-1-70 

Smithsonian To Sponsor Program of West Indies Dance, Music 9-1-70 

First Decade of Laser Technology Reviewed in Major Exhibition 14-1-70 

Smithsonian Plans Seminar by Former Drug Addicts 15-1-70 

Panel To Focus on Solid Waste Disposal Problems 16-1-70 

Teaching Exhibitions Opened by National Portrait Gallery 16-1-70 
Indians and Arkansas Share Spotlight for Annual American 

Folklife Festival 19-1-70 

Exhibition of Yugoslav Tapestries, Prints Extended 19-1-70 

Smithsonian Museums Holding Forty Art Exhibitions 27-1-70 

Shop Exhibition Will Honor Craftsmen of Montana 27-1-70 

Smithsonian Institution To Show Apollo Space Program Art 30-1-70 

Meeting of the Board of Regents (28 January 1970) 30-1-70 

Freer Will Present Lecture on Egyptian Decorative Arts 5-2-70 

Photographic Exhibitions Opening in February 9-2-70 
Exhibition Honors Famous British Naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace 9-2-70 

Barbara Holmquest To Lecture on Early 19th-century Pianos 10-2-70 

Smithsonian Lindbergh Plane Returns to Japan 12-2-70 

"Encounter" Panel To Discuss Vanishing Wilderness Life 12-2-70 

Biography— S. Dillon Ripley 13-2-70 

Play on Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts Repeated 13-2-70 
Drawing Society's New York Regional Show at Cooper-Hewitt Museum 13-2-70 
Smithsonian To Show Prints of German Pre-Expressionist 

Lovis Corinth 13-2-70 

Smithsonian To Exhibit Washington Memorabilia 16-2-70 

Two Doubleheader Jazz Concerts Are Scheduled at Smithsonian 20-2-70 
Student Designers' Concepts for Leisure Going on Display 

at Smithsonian 20-2-70 

Dr. Armand Hammer — Biography 24-2-70 

Flag That Flew To Moon Displayed at Smithsonian 24-2-70 

Photographs by Steven Wilson Will Be Shown at Smithsonian 24-2-70 
Freer Gallery Will Present Lecture of Early United States Trade 

with Orient 27-2-70 



206 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

i 

Weaver Harpsichord Concert Will Be Repeated 27-2-70 
Study Shows Shift from Hunting to Farming Hurt Health 

of Ancient Men 2-3-70 

Smithsonian Going West To Help Californians Find Their Culture 2-3-70 
Smithsonian To Exhibit Hammer Collection of Modern French 

and Old Masters Paintings 4-3-70 

Panel To Look at Government's Role in Environmental Policy 4-3-70 

30 Millionth Visitor to Museum of History and Technology 5-3-70 

"Artistic Forms Have Acquired Explosive Dimensions," Says Kepes 5—3-70 

Benefit Postponement 6-3-70 
Scandinavian Countries, Smithsonian Cooperate on Major Postal Exhibit 9-3-70 
Objects from Football to Peace Button Depict Society for 

Smithsonian Capsule 10-3-70 

Russell Family of Galax, Virginia, To Present Dulcimer Concert 1 1-3-70 
Floridian Is 30 Millionth Visitor to Museum of History 

and Technology 1 1-3-70 
23 Artists Represented in "Explorations" at National Collection 

of Fine Arts 13-3-70 

Puppet Theatre To Present "Peter and the Wolf" 16-3-70 
Art and Technology Join in "Explorations," an Exhibit by 

Smithsonian and MIT 16-3-70 

Art Blakey Quintet To Present Jazz Concert at Smithsonian 17—3—70 

48 Key Smithsonian Works of Art To Be Reproduced, Circulated 24-3-70 
Advanced Indian Civilizations in the Americas are Traced to 

Members of Round-Headed Race 24-3-70 
Playboy Fashion Director To Stage Men's Fashion Show 

at Smithsonian 27-3-70 
Smithsonian To Show Elliot Erwitt "Photographs and 

Anti-Photographs" 27-3-70 

Smithsonian Shops To Exhibit Hand-Carved "Oom Pah Pah Circus" 30-3-70 

Smithsonian Museum To Exhibit Tapestries from Czechoslovakia 31—3-70 
Scholar To Lecture at Freer Gallery on Old Sites, Festivities of Kyoto 1—4—70 

Anacostia Museum Presents D.C. Art Association Show 1-4-70 

Smithsonian To Present Dutch Trio on 1 3 April 2—4-70 
Friends, Ex-Associates Giving Painting of Truman to National 

Portrait Gallery 6-4-70 
First Major Exhibition of Indian Chintz at Cooper-Hewitt Museum 

in New York 9-4-70 

Wilson Center Sets Deadline for Fellowship Application 10-4-70 

"Encounter" Panel To Look at Pollution Costs 14-4-70 
Smithsonian To Give Film, Discussion Programs as 

Follow-up to "Earth Day" 14-4-70 

Ray Haynes Quintet Will Present Smithsonian Jazz Concert 25 April 16—4—70 

National Collection of Fine Arts Schedules Children's Fete on 2 May 17-4-70 

Four Troupes To Perform at Museum 1 7-4-70 

New Smithsonian Exhibit Traces Political Role of Women in U.S. 20-4—70 

Archives of American Art Comes to Smithsonian 23-4—70 

Archives Makes Art Research Easy — Documents All on Microfilm 23-4-70 

Museum Education Day 4-5-70 
Smithsonian Associates Program To Boomerang on Monument Grounds 4-5-70 

Hot Cycle Research Aircraft Joins Smithsonian Institution 5-5-70 



APPENDIX 7. PUBLIC AFFAIRS 207 

Smithsonian Museum Schedules Sky Spectacle on 9 May 5-5-70 

Smithsonian Museum Schedules National Glassware Exhibition 6—5—70 
The Nevins and Parkman Prizes of the Society of American Historians 7-5-70 

Air Force Art Show at Smithsonian 7—5—70 

Exhibit Shows Influences of Spanish on American Culture 8—5—70 
Lloyd McNeil, Capitol Ballet Company to Premiere 

"Washington Suite" 13-5-70 

Mall Sky Spectacle Is Planned by Smithsonian on Saturday, 16 May 13-5-70 
Composition Premiered at Smithsonian Is Given First Foreign 

Performance 18-5-70 
Smithsonian Honors Mrs. Eugene Meyer for Devoted Service to 

Freer Gallery 19-5-70 

Multimedia Soft Rock Musical To Be Presented 19-5-70 
National Collection of Fine Arts Continues Public Tours This Summer 19-5-70 

Recommendations Made To Save Hawaiian Endangered Species 22-5-70 

African Costume Paintings Shown 22—5—70 

Smithsonian Exhibit Honors Gutenberg 25—5—70 

Smithsonian Regents' Spring Meeting 26—5—70 

Teaching Exhibition Scheduled by National Portrait Gallery 27-5-70 

Smithsonian Museum To Unveil Portrait of Robert F. Kennedy 27-5-70 

Winslow Homer Exhibition Focuses on Artist's Popular Early Works 27-5-70 

Naval Research Lab Gives First Radar Equipment to Smithsonian 1-6-70 

Special Exhibition Traces Manhattan's Historic Trip 1—6-70 
Artist Leonard Baskin Being Accorded Mid-Career Exhibition 

at Smithsonian 3-6—70 

Puppet Theatre Opens Summer Variety Show 3-6-70 

High School Students Needed as Smithsonian Tour Guides 8-6-70 

Early Bird Twin To Be Presented to Smithsonian 10-6-70 



Newsfeatures Issued 

Wheels of Progress Haven't Caught 102-Year-Old Pennsylvania 

Factory 26-11-69 

American Artist Rediscovered in Washington Exhibition 15-12-69 

Amateurs Can Help Scientist Search for Dinosaur Fossils 1-1-70 

A Change of Clothes for Each First Lady Is Curator's Goal 14-1-70 

Where Have All the Wild Flowers Gone? 9-2-70 

Flowering Death Strikes Japanese Bamboo Plants 2-3-70 

Ecologist Warns of Effects of Environmental Ruin on Young 17—3—70 
Topping 100th Birthday Celebration Will Challenge Bicentennial 

Planners 20-4-70 

Man Probably Villain in Ice Age Mammal Extinction 15-6-70 



"Radio Smithsonian" Programs 

1. The Infestation of Starfish in the Pacific. Paul Morris, Violinist. Tibetan 

Art. 

2. "Jumbo Mumbo" — Conservation and Ecology in Ceylon. Color Me Man- 

kind. 



208 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 

3. The Festival of American Folklife. 

4. Music — Concerto for Two Organs in F. Theme and Variations. 

5. Frederic Tanner's Role in Art. Hurricane Fighter Plane. Ladies' Bathing 

Garments. 

6. Archeology in South America. National Portrait Gallery. 

7. Atomic Art. The British Crafts Show. 

8. The Concerned Photographer. The Sacred Grove. The Doll House. 

9. Meteorites and Moon Rocks. Stitchery. 

10. Encounter. The Deep Discoverers. 

1 1 . Smithsonian School Aids. The Bahar River Tiger. Grasses as Food and 

Medicine. 

12. Music at the Smithsonian. The Exhibits Story. In the Architect's World. 

13. A Christmas Program. 

14. A Concert Program. 

15. The Art of Whistler. The Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. 

16. The Frozen Wing. Primate Biology and Evolution. 

17. Public Broadcasting. Civilization. 

18. On the Trail of the Dinosaur. Syntagma Musicum. 

19. The Continental Motion. Mineralogy. 

20. A Gift to the Nation. Objects: USA. A House of Foam. 

21. An Oral History of Aviation. NASA Space Art. 

22. Frankincense and Myrrh. Pieces de Clavecin en Concerts. 

23. The First Ladies' Gowns. Music of the Political Campaigns. 

24. Perceptions II. 

25. Freeze-Drying. Flora North America. 

26. Ensembles Musical de Buenos Aires. 

27. China and the Porcelain Trade. Reading Is Fun-damental. 

28. The National Zoological Park. 

29. Laser 10. 

30. Smithsonian. The Collection of Meteorites. 

31. Orchestra Sinfonia di Como. The Hammer Collection. 

32. The Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies. The Flowering 

Death. 

33. The Art of Barbara Holmquest. Privateers: Opportunists or Pirates? 

34. The Machine Left Behind. Archeology Beneath the Sea. 

35. Music at the Smithsonian. 

36. The Concept of Honor. American Seacoast Fortifications. 

37. Paleolithic-Era Burial Remains: The First Clues. The Kalihar Bushmen. 

38. The Smithsonian Puppet Theater. 

39. Women's Liberation — From Suffrage to Careers. Tektite II : An Undersea 

Experiment. 

40. The History and Folk Music of Peggy Seeger and Ewan McColl. 

41. Pollution in Perspective. Butterfly Collecting. 

42. Greek Archeology. Foraminifera : Indicator Organisms. 

43. Russian Porcelain. Pleasure of Minerals as Objects d'art. 



APPENDIX 7. PUBLIC AFFAIRS 209 

Public Inquiries 

Dial-a-Museum calls 27,000 

Dial-a-Satellite calls 150,000 

Calls for information 27,500 

Letter requests for information 9,150 



Appendix 8 



SMITHSONIAN EXHIBITS 



Special Exhibits 



History and Technology Building 



American Holidays — Appomatox 
American Holidays — ■ 

Washington/Lincoln 
American Holidays — Winter 
Archeological Finds 
Atomic Art 
Bethlehem Steel 
Captain Buck's Paintings 
Color Me Mankind 
Demand for Water 
Energy Conversion 
Gurnsey-Jersey Stamps 
Historic Site Archeology 
Laser 10 

Melies Film Festival 
Model T Ford 



Napoleonic Coins and Medals 
People Figures 
Pharmacy in Prints 
Photography — Elliot Erwitt 
Photography — Hosee /Johnson 
Roots of California Culture 
Scandinavian Stamps 
Ship Models 

Ten Modern Italian Architects 
The Camera and the Human Facade 
The Works of Richard Neutra 
Weather (Philately) 
Westward to Promontory 
Women, Cameras, and Images, 

Parts II-IV 
Women and Politics 



Natural History Building 



A Heritage in Peril — Alaska's 

Vanishing Totems 
African Art 
Armand Hammer 
Daco Roman Traces in Romania 



Dead Sea Scrolls, Parts I and II 
Library Show (Malay Archipelago) 
The Indomitable Major 
The World Beneath the Sea 
Volcanos and Volcanism 



210 



APPENDIX 8. SMITHSONIAN EXHIBITS 211 

Arts and Industries Building 

British Designer Craftsmen New Concepts in Leisure 
Contemporary Black American Artists Plastic as Plastic 

Contemporary Tapestries and Polish Folk Art 

Graphics — Yugoslavia Scientific Illustrators 

Johannes Gutenberg Toledo Glass 

Lovis Corinth Urban Transit 
Moon Rock 

National Air and Space Museum 

Apollo Art USAF Show 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

Rats — Man's Invited Affliction The Douglass Years 

Permanent Exhibitions 
History and Technology Building 

Agriculture Graphic Arts 

Armed Forces Chronology — Navy Hall of Photography 

Autos and Coaches Iron and Steel 

Everyday Life in the American Past Philately 

Flag Hall Political History 

Natural History Building 

Fossil Fishes Prehistoric Peoples of North America 

Ice Age Mammals Whale (Life in the Sea) 

Physical Geology 



Appendix 9 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 

30 JUNE 1970 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Summary of Grants and Contracts 
Year Ended 30 June 1970 





Total 


Grants 


Contracts 


Department of Health, 


$ 325,832 


$ 311,119 


$ 14,713 


Education, and Welfare 








Department of Defense 


1,085,685 


46,343 


1,039,342 


National Aeronautics and 


6,560,854 


3,780,531 


2,780,323 


Space Administration 








National Science Foundation 


2,246,241 


283,884 


1,962,357 


Other 


606,554 


107,742 


498,812 


Total grants and contracts 


$10,825,166 


$ 4,529,619 


$ 6,295,547 



Summary of Endowment and Similar Funds Investments 
Book Values at 30 June 1970 





Total 


Freer Fund 


Other 


Short-term bonds 


$ 1,909,345 


$ 1,121,352 


$ 787,993 


Medium-term bonds 


1,494,486 


877,426 


617,060 


Long-term bonds 


9,349,386 


5,228,216 


4,121,170 


Preferred stocks 


281,484 


205,796 


75,688 


Common stocks 


17,178,444 


5,749,008 


11,429,436 


Total 


$30,213,145 


$13,181,798 


$17,031,347 



212 



APPENDIX 9. FINANCIAL STATEMENT 213 



PEAT, MARWICK, MITCHELL & CO. 

CERTIFIED PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS 
1025 CONNECTICUT AVENUE, NW 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20036 

The Board of Regents 
Smithsonian Institution: 

We have examined the balance sheet of private funds of Smith- 
sonian Institution as of 30 June 1970 and the related statement of 
changes in fund balances for the year then ended. Our examination 
was made in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, 
and accordingly included such tests of the accounting records and 
such other auditing procedures as we considered necessary in the 
circumstances. 

In our opinion, the accompanying statement of changes in fund 
balances presents fairly the operations of the unrestricted private 
funds of Smithsonian Institution for the year ended 30 June 1970, 
in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles; and 
with respect to all other funds, subject to the matters referred to in 
note 1, the accompanying balance sheet of private funds and the 
related statement of changes in fund balances present fairly the 
assets and fund balances of Smithsonian Institution at 30 June 1970 
and changes in fund balances resulting from cash transactions of the 
private funds for the year then ended, all on a basis consistent with 
that of the preceding year. 

Peat, Marwick, Mitchell Sc Co. 

22 October 1970 



214 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
BALANCE SHEET OF PRIVATE FUNDS 30 JUNE 1970 

Assets 

Current funds: 
Cash: 

In U. S. Treasury $ 49,599 

In banks and on hand 168,225 

Total cash 
Receivables: 
Accounts 

Advances — travel and other 
Reimbursements — grants and contracts 

Inventories at net realizable value 
Investments — stocks and bonds at cost (market 

value $2,900,264) 
Prepaid expense 

Deferred magazine subscription expenses (note 2) 
Equipment — museum shops (less accumulated 

depreciation of $49,932) 

Total current funds 

Endowment and similar funds: 
Cash 

Note receivable 
Investments — stocks and bonds at cost (market value 

$29,456,568) 
Loan to U.S. Treasury in perpetuity 
Real estate (at cost or appraised value at date of gift) (note 3) 

Total endowment and similar funds 

See accompanying notes to financial statements. 





217,824 


$ 349,484 




146,269 




1,536,516 


2,032,269 




544,413 




3,409,426 




39,541 




267,300 




64,115 




$ 6,574,888 




77,533 




96,934 




30,213,145 




1,000,000 


:) (note 3) 


1,760,448 




$33,148,060 



APPENDIX 9. FINANCIAL STATEMENT 



215 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
BALANCE SHEET OF PRIVATE FUNDS 30 JUNE 1970 

Liabilities and Fund Balances 



Current funds: 






Accounts payable 




$ 968,933 


Accrued liabilities 




63,986 


Deferred magazine subscription income 




1,030,115 


Unrestricted fund balance 




1,869,941 


Restricted fund balances: 






Gifts 


$ 1,566,028 




Grants 


108,330 




Contracts 


177,814 


1,852,172 


Unexpended income: 






Freer 


434,873 




Other 


354,868 


789,741 


Total current funds 




$ 6,574,888 



Endowment and similar funds: 
Mortgage note payable (note 3) 
Fund balances: 

Endowment funds — income restricted: 
Freer 
Other 

Current funds reserved as an endowment- 
income unrestricted 

Commitment (note 4) 

Total endowment and similar funds 



13,188,994 
13,214,651 



310,697 

26,403,645 
6,433,718 

$33,148,060 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
PRIVATE FUNDS 

Statement of Changes in Fund Balances 
Year Ended 30 June 1970 





Current 


funds 




Total current 


Unrestricted 




funds 


funds 


Balance at beginning of year 


$ 6,024,712 


$ 2,851,411 


Adjustment — accrued interest 


26,670 


26,670 


Adjustment balance at beginning of year 


6,051,382 


2,878,081 


Additions: 






flranf^ anH rontrarts net of refunds 


9,517,884 




Investment income 


1,322,315 


323,206 


Gifts and bequests 


2,307,097 


17,550 


Gross profit on sales 


744,950 


744,950 


Rental 


1,583,657 


1,583,657 


Dues and fees 


531,184 


531,184 


Reimbursement from grantors or contractors 


384,629 


109,989 


Other 


451,960 


283,372 


Net gains (loss) on sales and 






exchanges of investments 


(41,899) 


(41,899) 


Total additions 


16,801,777 


3,552,009 


Deductions (additions) : 






Expenditures: 






Salaries and benefits: 






Administrative 


4,093,708 


4,093,708 


Rpcpq t~/™h 


6,225,853 
429,526 




Pnrrhasps for roll pr Hon 




1 VI X v 1 1 < 1 , ~ V . 1 1 * ' L \. \ ' 1 I \ v. 1 1 » ' 1 1 

Travel and transportation 


610,162 


158,358 


Equipment and facilities 


922,188 


80,370 


Supplies and materials 


1,375,145 


225,910 


Rents and utilities 


964,606 


366,224 


Communication 


247,680 


77,227 


Contractual services 


2,162,920 


1,211,299 


Computer rental 


1,027,765 


176,023 


Promotion and advertising 


133,717 


133,717 


Depreciation 


31,296 


22,825 


Administrative expenditures applicable 






to other funds 




(2,056,728) 
42,724 


Reduction of inventory to net realizable value 


42,724 


Total deductions 


18,267,263 


4,531,657 


Transfers in (out) : 






Income added to principal 
Transfers for designated purposes 
Transfers to endowment funds 


(52,989) 




(7,439) 
(21,053) 


(21,053) 


Transfer in support of activities 










Total transfers to (from) 


(74,042) 


(28,492) 


Balance at end of year 


$ 4,511,854 


$ 1,869,941 



See accompanying notes to financial statements. 



217 



Current funds — Continued 



Restricted 


funds 


Endowment and similar 


funds 


Gifts, 

grants, and 

contracts 


Unexpended 
income 


Total 

endowment and 

similar funds 


Endounnent 
funds 

$20,075,884 


Current funds 

reserved, as 
an endowment 


$ 2,379,937 


$ 793,364 


$26,489,937 


$ 6,414,053 




2,379,937 

9,517,884 


793,364 


26,489,937 


20,075,884 


6,414,053 




999,109 








2,289,547 


6,384,289 


6,384,289 






















274,640 








74,541 


94,057 


113,577 

(224,482) 
6,273,384 




113,577 




(130,570) 
6,253,719 


(93,912) 






12,156,612 


1,093,156 


19,665 



5,791,461 


434,392 


175,801 


253,725 


412,521 


39,283 


821,478 


20,340 


1,085,831 


63,404 


595,159 


3,223 


156,133 


14,320 


887,779 


63,842 


812,744 


38,998 



8,444 

1,981,771 74,957 



12,720,678 1,014,928 



(52,989) 52,989 52,989 

36,301 (28,862) 

21,053 21,053 



36,301 (81,851) 74,042 74,042 



$ 1,852,172 $ 789,741 $32,837,363 $26,403,645 $ 6,433,716 



218 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1970 



NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENT 

30 June 1970 

1. Basis of Accounting. — The accounts for unrestricted funds are maintained 
on the accrual basis of accounting. Accounts for other funds are maintained on 
the basis of cash receipts and disbursements, except that reimbursements for 
work performed pursuant to a grant or contract are accrued and certain real 
estate is carried at cost or appraised value as explained below. 

Except for certain real estate acquired by gift or purchased from proceeds of 
gifts which are valued at cost or appraised value at date of gift, land, buildings, 
furniture, equipment, works of art, living and other specimens, and certain other 
similar property, are not included in the accounts of the Institution; the amounts 
of investments in such properties are not readily determinable. Current expendi- 
tures for such properties are included among expenses. The accompanying state- 
ments do not include the National Gallery of Art, the John F. Kennedy Center 
for the Performing Arts, nor other departments, bureaus, and operations ad- 
ministered by the Institution under Federal appropriations. 

2. Deferred Magazine Subscription Expenses. — This amount represents pro- 
motional and other expenses incurred in connection with the introduction of 
the Smithsonian magazine. Amortization is over a period of twelve months which 
commenced in March 1970, the month of the first issue. 

3. Mortgage Notes Payable. — The mortgage notes payable are secured by first 
deeds of trust on property acquired in connection with the Chesapeake Bay 
Center. Funds for the curtailment of these notes will be transferred from Re- 
stricted Funds — Gifts, designated for the development of the Chesapeake Bay 
Center. The details of the mortgage notes payable are as follows: 

a. A $266,000 note on property acquired for $376,000. The note is payable 
in twenty consecutive semi-annual installments of $13,300, plus interest at the 
prevailing prime rate on the due date of payment but not less than 8 percent. 

b. A $44,697 note on property acquired for $118,533. The note is payable 
in monthly installments of $451.02, including interest at the rate of 6 percent, 
with the final payment due on 1 November 1989. 

4. Commitment. — Pursuant to an agreement, dated 9 October 1967, between 
the Institution and The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, 
the Institution acquired, on 1 July 1968, all funds belonging to The Cooper 
Union for use exclusively for museum purposes, and certain articles of tangible 
personal property as defined in the agreement. 

The agreement provides, among other covenants, that the Institution will 
maintain a museum in New York City and has pledges in excess of $800,000 for 
the support of such a museum. Pledges in the amount of $500,000 have been 
collected to date. 



-&U S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1970 O 401-511 



U I 



'I : 
I?/. 




YEAR 



Smithsonian Year 

1971 



ANNUAL REPORT OF 

THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FOR THE YEAR ENDED 30 JUNE 1971 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PRESS 

City of Washington 
1971 



SMITHSONIAN PUBLICATION 4767 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington. D.C.. 20402 - Price $1.25 (paper cover) 

Stock Number: 4700-0179 



The Smithsonian Institution 



The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 
1846 in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson 
of England, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United 
States of America "to found at Washington, under the name of 
the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase 
and diffusion of knowledge among men." In receiving the property 
and accepting the trust, Congress determined that the federal 
government was without authority to administer the trust directly, 
and therefore, constituted an "establishment," whose statutory 
members are "the President, the Vice President, the Chief Justice, 
and the heads of the executive departments." 



The Establishment 

Richard M. Nixon, President of the United States 

Spiro T. Acnew, Vice President of the United States 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States 

William P. Rogers, Secretary of State 

John B. Connally, Secretary of the Treasury * 

Melvin R. Laird, Secretary of Defense 

John N. Mitchell, Attorney General 

Winton M. Blount, Postmaster General 

Rogers C. B. Morton, Secretary of Interior f 

Clifford M. Hardin, Secretary of Agriculture 

Maurice H. Stans, Secretary of Commerce 

James D. Hodgson, Secretary of Labor 

Elliot L. Richardson, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare 

George W. Romney, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 

John A. Volpe, Secretary of Transportation 



* Replaced David M. Kennedy on 11 February 1971. 
f Replaced Walter J. Hickel on 29 January 1971. 



Board of Regents and Secretary 

30 June 1971 



Presiding Officer ex officio 
Regents of the Institution 



Executive Committee (Permanent 
Committee) 



The Secretary 
Under Secretary 
Assistant Secretaries 



the 



of 



Treasurer 

A listing of the professional staff 

and its offices appears in Append 



Richard M. Nixon, President of the 

United States, Chancellor 
Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of 

the United States, Chancellor 
Spiro T. Agnew, Vice President of 

the United States 
Clinton P. Anderson, Member of the 

Senate 
J. William Fulbright, Member of the 

Senate 
Hugh Scott, Member of the Senate 
Frank T. Bow, Member of the House 

of Representatives 
John J. Rooney, Member of 

House of Representatives 
George H. Mahon, Member of the 

House of Representatives 
John Nicholas Brown, citizen 

Rhode Island 
William A. M. Burden, citizen of 

New York 
Crawford H. Greenewalt, citizen of 

Delaware 
Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of Wash- 
ington, D.C. 
Thomas J. Watson, Jr., citizen of 

Connecticut 
James E. Webb, citizen of Washington, 

D.C. 
Warren E. Burger, Chancellor (Board 

of Regents) 
Clinton P. Anderson 
Caryl P. Haskins (Chairman ad 

interim) 
James E. Webb 
S. Dillon Ripley 
James Bradley 
David Challinor, Acting Assistant 

Secretary (Science) * 
Charles Blitzer, Assistant Secretary 

(History and Art) 
William W. Warner, Assistant Sec- 
retary (Public Service) 
T. Ames Wheeler 
of the Smithsonian Institution, its bureaus, 
ix 4. 



* Replaced Sidney R. Galler on 11 January 1971. 



Contents 



Page 



The Smithsonian Institution iii 

Board of Regents and Secretary iv 

Statement by the Secretary 1 

Financial Report H 

Science 33 

National Museum of Natural History 34 

National Air and Space Museum 43 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 45 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 50 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 54 

National Zoological Park 56 

Office of Environmental Sciences 58 

Center for the Study of Man 63 

Science Information Exchange 64 

History and Art 65 

The National Museum of History and Technology 66 

Archives of American Art 74 

Freer Gallery of Art 75 

National Collection of Fine Arts 76 

National Portrait Gallery 78 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 80 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design 81 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 83 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 84 

Joseph Henry Papers 84 

Office of American Studies 85 

Office of Academic Studies 85 

Smithsonian Institution Archives 86 

Office of Seminars 87 

Special Museum Programs 89 

Office of Museum Programs 90 

Office of Exhibits Programs 91 

Conservation-Analytical Laboratory 92 

Office of the Registrar 93 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 93 

International Exchange Service 94 

Public Service Activities 96 

Smithsonian Associates 97 

Office of Public Affairs 99 

Office of International Activities 100 

Division of Performing Arts* 100 

Smithsonian Museum Shops 101 

Belmont Conference Center 102 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 103 

v 



Page 

Smithsonian (magazine) 104 

Smithsonian Institution Press 104 

Reading Is Fundamental 105 

Division of Elementary and Secondary Education 107 

Administrative Management 108 

National Gallery of Art 118 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 121 

Appendixes 127 

1. Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program 129 

2. Members of the Smithsonian Council 132 

3. Smithsonian Associates Membership 134 

4. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution 137 

5. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press 166 

6. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Staff 173 

7. Academic Appointments 229 

8. Public Affairs 237 

9. Smithsonian Exhibits 246 



VI 



Statement by the Secretary 

S. Dillon Ripley 



This annual report of the Institution covers a twelve-month 
period from 1 July 1970 to 1 July 1971. This year seems 
to have been the time for a distinct pause in American affairs, 
economically, politically, and to some extent in the realm of ideas 
as well, for in such times moods are contagious. This has been the 
year of the decrescendo, the de-escalation, the lowering of rhetoric. 

The pause, while unfamiliar to some, has not been unwelcome. 
It has been a sober experience, and sober times are always useful 
in these days of mental assault by the mixed media among which 
we live and the false euphoria engendered by our innate huck- 
sterism. But if the pause has succeeded in being somewhat anti- 
inflationary, it is too bad that it has not been more productive of 
contemplation. 

The basic problems of the present stage of American cultural 
and economic history remain: anomie in the young, the pandemic 
use of drugs, alienation among the poor and the ethnic minorities 
that remain disadvantaged, and the curious loss of interest in hand 
labor, skills and crafts — those talents that once helped set American 
energy and creativeness in a class by itself. 

Annually the Institution attempts to remind Americans of this 
traditional approach towards life and personal fulfillment in our 
Folk Festival. The 1970 Folk Festival, our fourth on the Mall, was 
even more successful than its predecessors. 

A main feature was provided by the State of Arkansas, a national 
center for crafts and folk music traditions. One hundred and 
seventy five Arkansans led by State officials, participated in the five 
day festival, demonstrating everything from the carving of dul- 
cimers to the making of sorghum, corncob jelly, barrels, saddles, 
fiddles, split oak cotton baskets, knives, quilts, and wood carvings. 
They also demonstrated wine-making and milking, churning, 
cheese-making, and baking. A huge turn-out of Washington citizens 
and tourists watched with fascination and awe as all sorts of things 
were made by hand. 

Among the foods sold at the festival were barbecued buffalo 
meat, Indian fried bread, Arkansas barbecued chicken, and black- 
berry cobbler, Ozark style. 

1 



<> SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

In addition we played host to our first big assemblage of Amer- 
ican Indians organized by Mrs. Clydia Nahwooksy and George 
Kishketon, Cherokee and Kickapoo, respectively. Tribes represented 
included Comanches, Kiowas, Ponca, Ponca-Sioux, Kickapoo, Osage, 
Cheyenne, Kiowa-Choctaw and Arapaho. Crafts, music, and dance 
were all demonstrated. 

As one tourist wrote, "I wish Washington was like this all year 
round. You have brought life to the center of the Mall. It's a 
living greensward, not a dead one." 

During the period 16-31 July 1970, the Institution had its first 
general Congressional hearings since 1855. The purpose of the 
hearings, called by our committee in the House, the Subcommittee 
on Library and Memorials, was, in the words of the Honorable 
Frank Thompson of New Jersey, our Chairman, "a comprehensive 
look at the Smithsonian, which, established by Act of Congress in 
1846, is essentially a federal responsibility," even though "rela- 
tively independent compared to other federal organizations. . . . 
We hope to obtain a better understanding of how the Smithsonian 
operates, of its structure, of how it develops and carries out its 
policies, of how its activity benefits the public and, of course, we 
want to find out what its goals are for the future." 

"Only when we have this knowledge can the subcommittee and 
the Congress pass confidently on legislation requested by the 
Smithsonian." 

In my own statement I responded in kind, "We feel we have 
far too few opportunities ... to be in close touch with your 
committee . . . and it is a very hopeful and helpful sign of the 
continuing interest of the Congress of the United States" in our 
affairs. For indeed we welcome scrutiny as I had stated in our 
annual report of 1969, and we feel that we thrive on self-examina- 
tion. 

The two volumes of the hearings,* running to over 1,000 pages, 
were comprehensive indeed and no doubt will prove a valuable 
source book for the future. No stone seemed to be left unturned in 
our accounting of the multifarious activities of the Institution, 
although for those of us who constantly live the affairs of the 
Smithsonian, the time at hand seemed all too short in which to 
set the stage as it were, to provide the setting, both historical 



* General Hearings before the Subcommittee on Library and Memorials of 
the Committee on House Administration. House of Representatives, Ninety-first 
Congress, Second Session (Smithsonian Institution) , U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, 1970. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 3 

and contemporary, tor what it is that we do, why we do it, and 
how it came about in the first place. 

The demonstrated interest of Mr. Thompson, well known in the 
country for his sponsorship of cultural and arts legislation, of 
Mr. Brademas, whose concern for education is equally well known, 
and of the other members of the subcommittee, Mr. Schwengel, 
Mr. Bingham, Mr. Harvey, and Mr. Crane, in our hearings, was a 
most welcome one, and we are indeed grateful for this oppor- 
tunity to be responsive to the Congress. 

One of the particular recommendations of the Committee as a 
result of the hearings was that the Smithsonian should restudy 
the cross-Mall design for the sculpture garden of the Hirshhorn 
Museum. As a result a new solution was found; the plans were 
revised and are currently under way, thus not traversing the open 
space of the Mall's center panel. Finally the committee gave circu- 
lation to its far-reaching conclusion that, "the Smithsonian's value 
to the people of the United States is impossible to estimate. It can 
be safely stated that its role is basic and should be continued. Its 
work and research in science, education, history, the arts, and, of 
course, in its many museums far overshadow whatever criticisms 
of the Smithsonian have been made." 

In all of the work of assembling material for the hearings, I 
should like to pay particular tribute to the Smithsonian staff, from 
my own assistants to the heads of bureaus and departments and to 
our Archivist, fiscal officers and secretarial aides, many of whom 
worked overtime and under great pressure performing research 
and providing data for presentation. The energy and initiative 
displayed were a testament to the fact that there exists a great 
loyalty and a sense of common enterprise among those who work 
for this much-cherished Institution. We are all very proud of 
the Smithsonian, and our pride is shown in the dedication and 
sense of fulfillment which is demonstrated in our work at such 
times. 

During all this period of the summer of 1970, our budget unit 
had been preparing materials for submission to the President's 
Office of Management and Budget, for the fiscal year 1972 budget. 
Both at our hearings and also in the subsequent autumn discussions 
with the Budget authorities of the President, the Institution was 
honored to have a new champion for our air and space concerns 
in the person of Senator Barry Goldwater, one of the premier aero- 
nauts in government, who took revived interest on our behalf for 
the long postponed National Air and Space Museum. This project, 



4 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

passed by the Congress in 1966, with a site on the Mall and build- 
ing plans approved, had been deferred for construction until such 
time as a significant decline in the American involvement in Viet- 
nam had occurred. Meanwhile inflation had taken its toll of the 
original plans for the museum, which we estimated would cost 
nearly twice as much to build by 1976, as we had assumed in 1966. 
Consequently, the Board of Regents approved a scaling down of 
the original plans to produce a building more in keeping with the 
original estimated costs. 

New scaled-down plans with their redesign will take nearly a 
year to achieve, and in order to accomplish this, an allowance in 
our budget of $1.9 million would be required. With the help of 
Senator Goldwater, as well as the authoritative and enthusiastic 
support of the Regents, this item was approved and incorporated 
in our budget for 1972. If the schedule presently outlined can be 
achieved without let or hindrance from acts of God, strikes, fires 
or flood, we are in a fair way to have a National Air and Space 
Museum within five years, namely by 1976. 

The new Museum should incorporate many new devices and' 
points of view on account of the very delay in its construction. 
There is a beneficial aspect in such delays. The triumphs of the 
astronauts on the Moon for example, give our designers scope for 
newly thought-out exhibits. The whole understanding of space 
which has evolved in the last five years since 1966 gives us new 
opportunities. A "Spacearium" should be incorporated in the new 
museum, an evolved planetarium concept orienting the participant 
to life in space. New advances in chemistry and geology have cre- 
ated new cosmogonies. New theories of the origin of the solar 
system and the galaxies of outer space can be demonstrated and 
exhibited in a manner which we would have been hard put to 
incorporate in an existing designed series of exhibits. So there is 
new scope for enthusiasm, and the new techniques will benefit the 
history of man's conquest of the air, as well as the story of the 
unfolding of the universe. 

A most welcome addition to our staff this year has come in the 
person of Michael Collins, one of the Apollo 11 astronauts, who 
has taken up the post of Director of the National Air and Space 
Museum with captivating enthusiasm. 

This has also been the year in which we have completed the 
budgeting, under contract authority, for the construction of the 
Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. The final 
sum needed to complete this contemporary structure designed by 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 5 

Gordon Bunshaft of the firm of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill is 
$3,697,000 and this has been voted by the Congress in the 1972 
budget. 

The Museum and Garden, situated between Seventh and Ninth 
Streets and Independence Avenue and Adams Drive, will play 
neighbor to the Arts and Industries Building erected in 1878. The 
four buildings taken in a row, the Freer Gallery, the Smithsonian 
"Castle," the Arts and Industries Building, and the Hirshhorn, 
provide a fascinating exercise in American architectural tradition 
and style over one hundred and twenty years. 

All the buildings are or will be small, and each in its way sym- 
bolizes a period, and each has its own color values. Contrasted to 
the monolithic procession of buildings which ring the Mall, I 
sometimes think of these varied creations as colorful figures on a 
Bayeux tapestry, or in a Mayan pictograph. 

The Hirshhorn will certainly add a vivid new dimension to 
touristing in Washington, with its extraordinary collections span- 
ning the rise of contemporary art and its roots, the past one 
hundred years of sculpture and painting, particularly in America, 
as well as examples of many of the source materials from far-away 
places and eras like the Kingdom of Benin, the prehistoric cul- 
tures of the Middle East and central Asia, and examples of so- 
called "primitive" art. 

The new design for the sculpture garden, drawn into the tree 
panel on the south side of the Mall is a positive improvement for 
the viewer, for shade is of the essence in tourist Washington dur- 
ing the long summer months. We are grateful to the Congressional 
hearings for spurring us into a reconsideration of that design. 

Construction contracts on a tight budget are always fearful and 
risky things to tamper with. Inflationary cost-increases in construc- 
tion threatened at one point to endanger the whole project, and 
we are additionally grateful to Mr. Hirshhorn for his generosity 
in adding a million dollars to our construction budget. With luck 
our schedule now assumes an opening of the Museum and Sculpture 
Garden in mid- 1973. Meanwhile President Nixon has named the 
eight public Trustees of the Gallery, together with two ex-officio 
Trustees. 

During autumn of 1970, the fourth Smithsonian symposium 
"Cultural Styles and Social Identities: Interpretations of Protest 
and Change" met to air issues of great concern to all of us. The 
colloquium, which was held through the generous interest and 
support of the Charles F. Kettering Foundation and the Rocke- 



5 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

feller Brothers Fund, demonstrated our own interest in cultural 
change as reflected in the work of anthropologists and historians 
alike. We are most grateful to these foundations, and with the 
stimulus of the Kettering staff we hope to explore further aspects 
of the Smithsonian in the fields of education and public service 
that could help us grasp the "open university" concept. 

If our setting as a museum seems to imply to many that we are 
merely guardians of old dead "things," then we should remind 
others as well as ourselves that we are keeping these objects for a 
purpose: to accompany the inevitable stream of change with the 
constant reminder of the thread of continuity. Past is prologue 
and young people today, who grow older each moment, will recall 
this in time. 

If the new media are making us once again remember our pre- 
literate gifts of ear and hand and nose and the nonreading eye, 
as I believe they are, then surely museums are the most valuable 
ally that formal education could find, ready-made, ready to hand. 
But if the juggernaut of education is capable of critical self- 
examination leading to change, can the museum be said to be so 
as well? Museums sometimes tend to be somnolent, backward- 
looking as the very materials they keep. Unless museums can be 
critical of their own role, they will be found wanting when the 
forces of education call for their support. 

The symposium called forth its own protest from groups who 
felt unrepresented, Chicanos and women. This was welcome, and 
a great compliment to the Institution. Perhaps we really are a 
"sacred cow" as we were termed. I would like to think so, for if 
we can bend our attention to changes in the eddys and currents 
running through our culture then so much the better. 

The Institution needs to strengthen its competence in certain 
behavioral and social fields in order to develop better interactive, 
teaching exhibits that are more useful and more germane to present 
styles of learning. The two great areas for this effort seem to me 
to lie in the fields of understanding our environment and of under- 
standing our history and, perhaps, where both may lead us. 

The American experience is brief but incalculably rich. Nothing 
so far has occurred that leads us to believe we cannot profit from 
past achievements as well as errors, and in so doing secure our 
future. 

During the winter season an active program of new exhibits and 
openings delighted our Associates and the general public alike. 
Notable among these were the Rube Goldberg exhibit initiated 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 7 

by Professor Boorstin, Director of the National Museum of History 
and Technology. We were fortunate to have Mr. Goldberg at the 
opening and to celebrate his many fruitful years as cartoonist, 
artist, sculptor, and philosopher of the American scene. 

Dr. Sadik organized two especially interesting exhibits at the 
National Portrait Gallery in what is fast becoming a remarkable 
tradition of style and scholarship. The first, organized by Andrew 
Oliver, displayed the portraits of John Quincy Adams (to whom 
the Smithsonian owes so much for his interest during his latter 
years as Congressman) . The second, the research on which was 
performed by Robert Stewart, exhibited the obscure 18th-century 
American portraitist, Henry Benbridge. Both were artistic triumphs. 

The arrival at the National Portrait Gallery of Professor Lillian 
Miller from the University of Wisconsin will add a highly signifi- 
cant element to the Gallery's continual evolution as a center for 
historical scholarship. 

Similarly the National Collection of Fine Arts created a rich 
and illustrative series of exhibits of American artists ranging from 
Jasper Cropsey to the virtually unknown (in this country) Lyman 
Sayen, and Romaine Brooks. These exhibits, under the director- 
ship of Professor Taylor, were notable for the exemplary taste in 
display of Harry Lowe. 

This has been the first full year in operation of the Archives of 
American Art, and auguries for research and scholarship in Amer- 
ican art history in Washington are just beginning to be appreciated. 
I feel sure that the Washington in years to come will be as well 
known as a metropolis of art and studies in art, as it is thought of 
today as the center for U.S. Government administration. That 
this will be so is assured by plans announced or in process of our 
two Smithsonian affiliates, the National Gallery of Art, and the 
John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. During the year, 
the National Gallery has broken ground for its formidably beauti- 
ful addition designed by I.M. Pei. In years to come this building 
and its space should set the capstone on the National Gallery's 
ambitions to be a world center for exhibition and study of centuries 
of art. The Kennedy Center, now virtually completed, will launch 
its performances shortly in halls that already have been shown to 
be acoustically as fine as any in the nation. 

This year budgeting for the Institution at last reached an area 
of appropriate recognition. The demonstrated needs in science, in 
the administration of buildings, and in the initiation or completion 
of construction were largely met by an understanding and generous 



3 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Congress. We welcome this recognition of needs long overdue and 
are most grateful to our appropriations committees as well as to 
our Congressional Regents for their inestimable support. 

In areas to do with the arts, with the coming of the Nation's 
Bicentennial, and with the environmental sciences, the Institution 
has still to achieve the recognition that its tasks are vital to progress 
in American culture and civilization. That this day will come I 
feel sure, and already we can look back at the years in which we 
have been stressing the needs of museums in general and the part 
which the Institution could perform nationally to aid museums 
as by no means wasted. 

Museums are slowly but surely being recognized for their poten- 
tial, and it is our hope that our own small nascent program of 
help to museums and kindred institutions under the National 
Museum Act will help to speed this progress. 

To this end we are not only planning to launch expanded pro- 
grams of museum-technician training and aid in exhibits, but also 
conferences, seminars, and other discussions on kindred subjects 
such as the future of systematic collections, data centers for descrip- 
tive sciences, and the linking of science museum exhibits to a teach- 
ing curricula. 

This past year marked the fifteenth of our collaboration with 
Harvard University in astrophysics. In recognition of this fact 
President Pusey proposed that we hold a joint ad hoc discussion 
of past results and future hopes for this collaboration. The Smith- 
sonian was delighted to do so, and a joint report to President Pusey 
and myself, organized by Dean Dunlop of Harvard and Under 
Secretary Bradley, has provided a foundation for new discussions 
of future cooperation. 

In these fifteen years, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
has become an integrated arm of teaching at Harvard, while the 
Harvard faculty have joined with us in an exciting series of 
research efforts at our tracking stations around the globe as well 
as new installations in Nebraska, and latterly, in Arizona at Mount 
Hopkins in conjunction with the University of Arizona. 

Grateful thanks are indeed due for the prescience of my prede- 
cessor, Secretary Leonard Carmichael, and Professor Donald Men- 
zel, then the Director of the Harvard College Obseratory, in initiat- 
ing this collaboration which has resulted in the training of 76 
graduate students, and the setting up of 4 joint laboratory facilities 
shared by the two institutions. 

The year 1970 marks the completion of the fifth year of public 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 9 

service inaugurated by the Associates' programs. The membership 
in the greater Washington area totals some 8,300 members that 
include family units and totals approximately 17,000 persons. The 
variety of activities available to these members and family members 
is astounding, and the participation by young and old continues 
to be increasingly rewarding to those of us who believe that this is 
one of the things that the Smithsonian must carry on and encour- 
age — participation by Washingtonians in day-to-day Institution 
activities. The participation response as always continues to be 
heartwarming to ourselves. 

The patience of our volunteers and members when, on occasion, 
classes are held in too-crowded quarters or when the unbelievable 
Washington traffic congestion on the Mall makes accessibility to, 
our halls almost impossible, is a source of continuing gratitude. 

This summer again we will be resuming our open-Museums 
policy with funds newly granted us by the Congress. Keeping the 
buildings open after business hours has been one of the most 
popular moves that has been made on the Mall. Many Washing- 
tonians pass their whole lives without having time to visit the 
Smithsonian. 

Traffic problems have become increasingly depressing. We con- 
tinue to hope, along with the National Park Service, whose effi- 
ciency and organization deserve unbounded admiraton, that our 
joint concern and ambition in securing off-Mall or underground 
parking may somehow be achieved. Otherwise the dead hand of 
constant traffic jams may eventually strangle all movement on the 
Mall, and produce that mortuary effect that I sometimes think is 
the ultimate dream of the surburban developers and the final 
quietus of the city planners. 

If it can be said that in this year the Smithsonian has done any- 
thing useful for the people of this country, then I think it is simply 
that we exist. In times of turmoil, even though lessened, in times 
of peculiar uncertainty of what role if any America can play in 
world affairs, it is rewarding to look back on the kinds of service 
to people which this Institution affords — an open sort of education, 
a reaffirmation of what we have accomplished in the past two cen- 
turies, a series of examples and precepts, not didactic, not shrill or 
hortatory, but simply there, showing something positive. 

No matter how bitterly we may regret the past for lost oppor- 
tunities or missed directions, our country shows an extraordinary 
ability to solve pragmatic problems which should encourage us 



JO SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

greatly in these days of awareness of environmental damage all 
around. 

In addition, in spite of all the evidence of human frailty on 
every hand, Americans continue to show an essential friendliness, 
tolerance, and concern for their fellow men. We sense it in our 
day-to-day comings and goings on the Mall, and it is this which 
continues to give us all a sense of pride and accomplishment in 
our work in the Institution. 



Financial Report 



The total operating support for the Institution is composed 
of federally appropriated funds (including special foreign currency 
monies) , research grant and contract awards, and private funds 
in the form of gifts and endowment fund income for both re- 
stricted and unrestricted purposes. With the exception of private 
unrestricted funds, the uses of these monies are limited to the 
specific purposes designated by the appropriation, grant, or gift, 
with the funds recorded separately in over 1,500 individual ac- 
counts. 

Total funds for operations and for construction in fiscal years 
1968-1971 are shown below (in thousands) : 

FT 1968 FT 1969 FT 1970 FT 1971 

OPERATING FUNDS 

Federal appropriations 

Salaries and expenses $26,784 529,150 $32,679 $36,895 

Special foreign currency program 2,316 2,316 2,316 2,500 

Subtotal 29,100 31,466 34,995 39,395 

Research grants and contracts 1 1 , 584 1 1 , 624 1 , 825 9,312 

Nonfederal funds: 

Gifts (excluding gifts to endowments) 

Restricted purpose 442 1,806 2,290 1,905 

Unrestricted purpose 27 181 17 356 

Income from endowment and current 
funds investment 

Restricted purpose 870 924 999 1,115 

Unrestricted purpose 368 441 281 330 

Miscellaneous 190 476 503 406 

Total Operating Support $42,581 $46,918 $49,910 $52,819 

CONSTRUCTION FUNDS (Federal) 

National Zoological Park $ 400 $ 300 $ 600 $ 200 

National Air and Space Museum — — 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum 803 2,000 3,500 5,200 

Restoration and renovation of buildings.. 1 , 125 400 525 1 ,725 

Total $ 2,328 $ 2,700 $ 4,625 $ 7,125 

Federal Appropriated Funds 

Operations (Salaries and Expenses) . — As shown above, Congress 
has provided increases in appropriations to the Smithsonian in 

441-283 O - 71 - 2 



12 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 



recent years. The substantial inflation in this period, however, 
absorbed a large part of these increases. Throughout this period, 
also, there existed the need to provide for the natural growth of 
museum and scientific research collections, to meet established 
commitments toward improvement of the Institution's museums, 
and to participate more fully in growing research fields such as 
ecology and oceanography. Together these forces placed a severe 
strain upon operating budgets and accentuated existing shortages 
of support for our research scientists and museum directors. For- 
tunately, this situation has now been recognized and the increase 
in our appropriation for operations (salaries and expenses) for 
FY 1972 will make a good start toward alleviating these shortages 
in many areas. 

The division of the Institution's federal appropriations (exclud- 
ing special foreign currency program) for operating purposes in 
recent years among its broad areas of service has been as follows 
(in thousands) : 

FT 1968 FY 1969 FT 1970 FT 1971 

Science $9,566 $10,467 $11,761 $13,495 

History and Art 4,045 4,287 5,081 5,878 

Public Service 973 1,159 1,445 1,442 

Museum Programs 3,128 3,260 3,592 3,744 

Administration 2,155 2,526 2,733 3,051 

Building Maintenance 6,917 7,451 8,067 9,285 

Total $26,784 $29,150 $32,679 $36,895 

Additional detail for FY 1971 is shown in Table 1 on page 22. 

Special Foreign Currency Program. — These funds, representing 
a portion of the U.S. Government's holdings of blocked currencies 
in nine foreign nations, have been awarded to the Smithsonian 
annually since 1964 to administer a program of grants to more 
than fifty museums and universities in the United States for the 
purpose of carrying on research in the related foreign currency 
countries. The uses of these currencies during FY 1971 were as 
follows (in thousands) : 

Systematic 

and En- Astrophysics Grant 

vironmental and Earth Museum Admini- 

Archeology Biology Sciences Programs stration Tola? 

Ceylon $ 18.0 $431.7 $- $- $- $449.7 

India 492.4 287.9 11.5 8.7 1.7 802.2 

Israel 521.1 281.4 1.2 803.7 

Morocco 3.9 41.6 2.9 48.4 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 13 

Pakistan 47.1 42.4 89.5 

Poland 39.8 3.0 1.1 43.9 

Tunisia 61.7 15.2 76.9 

Egypt 266.6 43.5 23.7 333.8 

Yugoslavia 315.8 73.4 - 3.1 392.3 

Total $1766.4 $1217.1 $38.2 $12.9 $5.8 $3040.4* 

* Includes unobligated balance from previous fiscal year. 

These grants are audited by the Smithsonian internal auditing 
staff aided by foreign independent accountants in some cases, and 
also more recently with the assistance in foreign countries of the 
audit staff of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 

Construction. — An additional $5,200,000 was appropriated in the 
fiscal year 1971 budget for the construction of the Joseph H. 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. This made a total of 
$11,303,000 appropriated for this project since the initial planning 
appropriation was received in fiscal year 1968. This left a final 
appropriation of $3,697,000, the balance of the $15,000,000 author- 
ized by Congress for the project, to be obtained in the fiscal year 
1972 appropriation. Construction is scheduled to be completed in 
the fall of 1972. 

Of the $1,725,000 of appropriations for restoration and renova- 
tion of buildings appropriated to the Institution in fiscal year 1971, 
$774,000 was for the repair of fire damage suffered in the third 
floor of the National Museum of History and Technology in 
September 1970. An additional $500,000 was for the necessary 
redecking of space in the Arts and Industries Building to provide 
additional office areas. 

Research Grants, and Contracts 

Total grants and contracts carried on by the Institution in each 
of the past years, by awarding agency, were as follows (in thou- 
sands) : 

FT 1968 FT 1969 FT 1970 FT 1971 

Department of Health Education and $ - $ 272 $ 326 $ 297 
Welfare 

Department of Defense 1,334 1,667 1,086 843 

National Air and Space Agency 7,294 7,265 6,561 4,930 

National Science Foundation 2,355 2,099 2,246 2,028 

Other 601 321 606 1,214 

Total $11,584 $11,624 $10,825 $9,312 



14 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

As indicated in last year's annual report, cutbacks by nasa, espe- 
cially for the satellite tracking program at our Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory, caused a further reduction in grants and 
contracts awarded to the Institution in fiscal year 1971. Adjust- 
ments in expenditures and personnel at the Observatory have been 
carried out as a result. 

Table I, shows the usage of grant and contract monies by various 
bureaus of the Institution. Over 95 percent goes for scientific 
research — notably to our Astrophysical Observatory, to anthropol- 
ogists and other scientists in the National Museum of Natural 
History and for studies in the environmental sciences. Grants from 
the National Science Foundation were largely for the funding of 
the Science Information Exchange which has been operated by the 
Smithsonian since 1953. For the fiscal year 1972, funding responsi- 
bility has also been transferred to the Institution, to become a 
part of its federal appropriation request with a corresponding re- 
duction in future nsf funding. 

Private Funds 

In addition to federal appropriations and awards of research 
grants and contracts the Institution benefits from private funds 
received in the form of gifts and as income from its endowment 
and other investment funds. Not including contributions to endow- 
ment funds (discussed below), a total of $2,261,000 of gifts was 
received during fiscal year 1971, about the same level as in the 
previous year. Income from investments amounted to $1,444,000. 
An additional $406,000 was obtained from memberships, special 
fund-raising drives, and fees. 

Following traditional practice, private fund accounts of the Insti- 
tution are audited annually in their entirety by independent public 
accountants. Their report for fiscal year 1971, including compara- 
tive balance sheets and a statement of changes in balances in all 
the various funds, appears on pages 25-31. (Grant and contract 
monies received from federal agencies are audited annually by the 
Defense Contracts Audit Agency; audits of federally appropriated 
funds are conducted by the Institution's internal audit staff and 
from time to time by the General Accounting Office.) 

Unrestricted Private Funds. — Private funds are vital to the main- 
tenance of the Institution, permitting it flexibility of operations, 
nonpolitical objectivity, and greater attraction for valuable na- 
tional collections to benefit its millions of visitors. Unfortunately, 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 15 

its total sources of private funds in fiscal year 1971 provided only 
8 percent of overall operating revenues, with federal appropriations 
accounting for a growing portion of total support. 

It is important to note, furthermore, that these private funds 
are dedicated largely to restricted purposes. This was the case for 
77 percent of our fiscal year 1971 investment income and, in recent 
years, nearly all of the gift monies. In fiscal year 1971, however, 
the latter included $365,500 for unrestricted operating purposes; 
this was of immense value in aiding the Institution to approach a 
balance in its current unrestricted private funds operating budget 
despite the continued rise in costs of salaries, services, and sup- 
plies. The gap between income and expenditure was reduced to 
$138,690, a notable improvement over previous years. Nevertheless, 
the loss of these unrestricted private funds during the year was 
disappointing. The balance of these funds was $1,719,657 at 30 
June 1971. This is below the desired level of working capital for 
the Institution; it must be rebuilt in future years by surpluses to 
be obtained by careful control of expenditures and by enlargement 
of our sources of income. 

An examination of the present application of our private unre- 
stricted funds is useful in understanding how this desired result 
may be achieved. Table 1 sets forth total Smithsonian income and 
disbursements — federal, nonfederal, and grant and contract monies 
— by bureaus, offices, and activities. In this table the revenues and 
expenses of our computer centers (which are run on a break-even 
basis) and of our revenue-producing "activities" have been netted 
out; only the net excess of disbursements is included in order to 
clarify their effect. From this table it may be seen that unrestricted 
funds are used in part to support new programs (Anacostia 
Museum, Chesapeake Bay Center) , provide additional resources 
for certain established programs and supporting services (libraries, 
academic programs, Smithsonian Institution Press, performing arts), 
and to finance our revenue-producing "activities" until they can 
become fully self-supporting. Additionally, private unrestricted 
funds pay for administrative costs associated with these nonfederal 
expenditures, including the large amount of grants and contracts 
and the "activities" themselves — all of which are charged for a 
share of these administrative expenses in an effort to recover such 
expenses as fully as possible. 

Results of the revenue-producing activities themselves in fiscal 
year 1971 were as follows (in thousands) : 



16 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Per- 

Museum Maga- Asso- forming 

Total Shops Press* zine dates Arts Other** 

Sales and Revenues $4,654 SI, 020 $ 148 52,412 $ 597 $ 142 $ 335 

Less Cost of Sales 2,188 686 134 1,134 193 - 41 

Gross Income 2,466 334 14 1,278 404 142 294 

Gifts 52 - - 6 46 - - 

Total Income 2,518 334 14 1,284 450 142 294 

Expenses 2,763 327 150 1,393 410 200 283 

Income (loss) before (245) 7 (136) (109) 40 (58) 11 

charge for adminis- 
trative costs 

Less Administrative 289 87 _23 100 31 20 28 

Costs 

Net Income (loss) $ (534) $ (80) $(159) $ (209) $ 9 $ (78) $ (17) 

* The privately funded activities of the Press as opposed to the federally sup- 
ported publication of research papers. 

** Includes Traveling Exhibitions, Belmont Conference Center, photo sales, and 
the "Commons" restaurant. 

The Smithsonian magazine continued to gain acceptance and 
show excellent progress during this first full year of operation. Its 
loss, due in part to nonrecurring costs, was greatly reduced, and 
circulation at the fiscal year-end exceeded 250,000. Break-even 
results are expected in fiscal year 1972. 

On the other hand, the continued loss ($80,000) in our Museum 
Shops, although caused in large part by liquidation of large unsal- 
able inventories acquired in previous years, was most disappointing. 
The need for great business attention to the Shops and other sim- 
ilar activities has become abundantly clear. Effective in July 1971, 
Mr. Harry R. Albers has been given this responsibility by his ap- 
pointment as Business Manager, Office of the Treasurer. 

Another major factor causing the imbalance in private unre- 
stricted fund accounts was the substantial underrecovery of private 
fund administrative expenses. An intensive study of this problem 
has been completed and with the adoption of certain policy changes 
the loss from this source should be reduced. If this can be accom- 
plished and if expected improvements in financial results of the 
magazine and shops are also achieved, the Institution should make 
a start in fiscal year 1972 toward the desired rebuilding of its 
current operating funds. 

From a different angle, our year-old Development Office is 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 17 

actively at work in conjunction with the newly organized National 
Associations program at building an active national group of 
Smithsonian friends who will assist in the raising of additional 
sorely needed unrestricted private funds. At the same time the 
Office is soliciting contributions for a number of specific funding 
requirements of the Institution and is launching a program to make 
clear the need for future individual gifts and bequests. Additional 
unrestricted funds thus obtained could be constructively used to 
restore needed working capital, to provide equipment to outfit 
properly the Institution's photographic services division and 
Museum Shops (enabling the Institution to help itself by increas- 
ing revenues in these areas) , to develop more rapidly its public 
education programs in new fields of audiovisual techniques, and 
to finance a great variety of research projects or collection acquisi- 
tions now stifled for lack of funds — to name but a few pressing 
requirements. 

Restricted Private Funds. — As indicated earlier, a total of 
$1,905,000 of gifts for restricted operating purposes was received 
during fiscal year 1971. Major donations included $276,000 for 
the Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design in New 
York City, representing principally the payment of previous out- 
standing commitments toward reestablishment of this Museum. 
The Carnegie Corporation has agreed, subject to court review and 
certain terms and conditions, to donate the Carnegie Mansion as 
a site for this Museum. Strong measures are now needed to obtain 
the very substantial funds for rehabilitating the building for 
museum use and to provide future operating funds. 

Continued progress was made in acquiring additional land at 
the Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Sciences and a new 
$25,000 gift was received for that purpose during the year. To 
exercise a favorable option to acquire one of the properties, it was 
necessary, however, to obtain a bank loan of $175,000 which it is 
hoped can be repaid within the near future from additional dona- 
tions. Other acquisitions and proposals for additional grants are 
in process. 

In another field, gifts totaling $243,000 were contributed to- 
ward the important underwater research efforts centered at the 
Institution's new oceanographic center in Fort Pierce, Florida, at 
which will be based the Johnson-Sea-Link submarine and the 
/. Seward Johnson oceangoing submarine tender, contributed to 
the Institution by Mr. Edwin A. Link and Mr. J. Seward Johnson. 
These were in addition to the substantial income for this purpose 



18 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

received from a large special endowment fund. In part these funds 
financed the purchase of 172 acres of land at this center in June 
1971, but it is expected that an interested foundation will repur- 
chase this land within the near future while continuing to dedicate 
it to the same purposes. A final three-year grant of $259,000 to the 
Smithsonian-associated program of "Reading is FUNdamental" 
assured successful continuation of this valuable venture. Numerous 
other contributions for important research, educational and 
museum projects included those for Anacostia Museum, the Fourth 
International Symposium, and the acquisition of additional col- 
lection items. A listing of individual donors is shown on pages 19-21. 

In addition to gifts, endowment funds established for specific 
purposes provided $1,114,000. of investment income and miscellane- 
ous sources added another $195,000 of restricted purpose income in 
fiscal year 1971. Of the investment income $674,000 was for opera- 
tion of the Freer Gallery, $116,000 was dedicated to the Marine 
Center oceanography program referred to above, and the remain- 
ing $324,000 was provided for a great variety of purposes designated 
by the donors. 

Utilization of these gifts and restricted purpose investment in- 
come may not, of course, occur in the same year as the one in 
which they are received, with the result that year-end balances show 
considerable variations from year to year. In fiscal year 1971 land 
acquisition at the Chesapeake Bay Center required expenditure 
of $288,000 of money received for this purpose in previous years 
and unusually large collection purchases by the Freer Gallery drew 
down its previously accrued investment income balance by $180,000. 
These two items largely account for the decline in total restricted 
fund balances from $2,241,000 as of 30 June 1970 to $1,762,000 on 
30 June 1971. 

Endowment Funds. — The value of the Institution's endowment 
funds increased during the year, reflecting both additional gifts 
of $1,677,000 and also general increases in values of securities to 
reach a total market value on 30 June 1971 of $45,905,000 
($42,632,000 of stocks and bonds, $1,000,000 permanent loan to 
U.S. Treasury, $2,176,000 real estate, and a $97,000 note receiv- 
able) . In addition, current fund investments on that date had a 
market value of $2,727,000. The endowment fund gifts included a 
$1,310,000 addition to the Oceanography Research Fund and a 
$79,000 bequest for unrestricted uses. 

Most of the Institution's endowment funds are handled in 
three separate investment accounts consisting of the Freer Fund 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 19 

($18,805,000 market valuation of 30 June 1971), dedicated to pro- 
viding operating income for the Freer Gallery of Art; Endow- 
ment Fund No. 3 ($12,331,000), dedicated entirely to oceano- 
graphic research; and the Consolidated Fund ($11,470,000), in 
which all other restricted and unrestricted endowment funds 
have for many years been pooled for investment purposes. These 
funds, as well as current account investment funds, are summarized 
in Table 2. A listing of the individual investments held in the 
various endowment funds may be obtained upon request to the 
Treasurer of the Institution. 

Increasing attention has been given to the monitoring of these 
funds in the past two years with the result that the Board of 
Regents appointed in September 1970 a new Investment Policy 
Committee consisting of the Secretary (ex-officio) , three Regents 
(Mr. William A. M. Burden, Chairman; Dr. Crawford H. Greene- 
wait; and Mr. James E. Webb) and four experienced investment 
executives (Messrs. Harold F. Linder, Donald Moriarty, Charles 
H. Mott, and William R. Salomon) . After reviewing the invest- 
ment problems of the Institution, the Board of Regents, on the 
recommendation of this Committee, has adopted a number of 
changes affecting our endowment funds. Effective 1 July 1971, 
three new investment management firms have been given the re- 
sponsibility for investing different portions of the funds. Discretion 
has been granted to the managers to carry out this responsibility, 
subject to general policy guidance and prompt reporting require- 
ments imposed by the Board. 

A listing of individual funds included in our Consolidated Invest- 
ment Fund and their related investment income in fiscal year 1971 
is set forth in Table 3. 

Donors to the Smithsonian 

The Smithsonian Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts and 
bequests received during fiscal year 1971 from the following: 

$100,000 or more: Atlantic Foundation 

Battelie-Memorial Institute 
Ford Foundation ,, -, _ , „ 

Mrs. Mary Graham Bruce 
T. Seward lohnson „ . „ , . 

J J Carnegie Foundation 

Mrs. Marjorie Merriweather Post ¥ , „ „ _ , ,. 

J Joseph P. Crane Foundation 

er/i nnn William H. Crocker 

$10,000 or more: . 

William L. Elkins 

Mrs. Hugo Astor Daniel and Florence Guggenheim 

Mrs. W. Vincent Astor Foundation 



20 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 



$10,000 or more — Continued 

Susan Morse Hilles Agency 
Interdisciplinary Communications 

Association 
International Business Machines 

Corporation 
Iran Foundation 

Junior League of Washington, D. C. 
J. D. R. 3rd Fund, Inc. 
J. M. Kaplan Fund, Inc. 
Charles F. Kettering Foundation 
Hoffman La Roche Foundation 
Miami Beach Tourist Authority 
Ambrose Monell Foundation 
National Foundation for the Arts 

and Humanities 
National Geographic Society 
State of New York 
Edward J. Noble Foundation 
Prospect Hill Foundation 
Rockefeller Brothers Fund 
Rockefeller Foundation 
Laurence S. Rockefeller 
Clara Louise Safford Estate 
San Diego Zoo 

The Scaife Family of Pittsburgh 
Hattie M. Strong Foundation 
Bertrand L. Taylor 
Wenner-Gren Foundation 
Xerox Corporation 

$1,000 or more: 

Amalgamated Meat Cutters and 

Butchers Workmen of North 

America 
American Conservation Association, 

Inc. 
American Council of Learned 

Societies 
American Federation of Information 

Processing Society 
American Philosophical Society 
Anonymous 
W. Andrew Archer 
Avco Corporation 
Bakery and Confectionery Union 
Barra Foundation 
Henry W. Bass 
Beal Foundation 
Clay Bedford 



Louis D. Beaumont Foundation 

David P. Becker 

Bernard P. Bishop Museum 

Jacob Blaustein 

Elizabeth Booker 

Brunschwig & Fils, Inc. 

Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz 

Foundation 
Charron Foundation 
Cleveland Foundation 
Continental Oil Company 
Cook Industries, Inc. 
Pamela C. Copeland 
Cornell University 
Dairy Industry Committee of 

Metro Washington 
Elsie DeWolfe Foundation 
Dillon Fund 

Government of District of Columbia 
Alfred U. Elser, Jr. 
Faunalabs, Inc. 
Joseph Fenykovi 
Harvey Firestone 
Friendship Fund 
General Electric Company 
General Telephone and Electronic 

Corp. 
George Washington University 
Gordon D. Gibson 
Bruce Gilchrist 
Glass Bottle Blowers Association of 

the United States and Canada 
William P. Graham 
Crawford H. Greenewalt 
Norris Harkness 
Harvard University Press 
Hill and Knowlton, Inc. 
Charles Horsky 
International Association of Bridge, 

Structural, and Ornamental Iron 

Workers of America 
International Telephone and 

Telegraph Co. 
John B. Jago 

Johns Hopkins University 
Marguerite Kellogg 
Ellsworth P. Kelly 
Mannheimer Kunstverein 
Phyllis Lambert 
Jack L. Leon 
Charles A; Lindbergh 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 



21 



$1,000 or more — Continued 

Link Foundation 

Howard Lipman 

Sally P. Livingstone 

Lockheed Aircraft Corp. 

Marcus Ward Lyon, Jr. Estate 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert S. McNamara 

Merck & Co., Inc. 

City of Monroe, Louisiana 

Museum d'Art et d'Historie, Geneve 

National Audubon Society 

Mr. and Mrs. Hugo V. Neuhaus 

New York Foundation 

New York Times Foundation 

Dan H. Nicholson 

Northern Trust Company 

Occidental Petroleum Corporation 

The Poynter Fund 

H. Vnon Petrikovits 

Preservation Society of Newport 

County 
Mrs. Augustus Riggs iv 
Ralph Rinzler 
Mrs. Clifford Robertson 
Rubin Foundation, Inc. 
Sidney Printing and Publishing Co. 
Symonds Foundation 
E. W. Thaw and Co. 
John B. Trevor, Jr. 
Marcie Brady Tucker Foundation 
W. M. Underwood Co. 

UNESCO 

Union Trust Co. 
United States Steel Corp. 
Mrs. H. G. Van Roijen 



Dorothy Wallenstein 

Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation 

Howard Weingrow 

William Woodward, Jr. 

Zoological Board of Victoria, Australia 

or more: 

Madame Leon Barzin 

Harry H. Bassett 

William Beinecke 

Bell and Howell Foundation 

Carroll Cartwright 

Caterpillar Tractor Co. 

Lois Clark 

Alice De Leman 

Michael Desfayes 

Early Birds 

Electronic Corporation of America 

Clifford Evans, Jr. 

Peter A. Frank and Co. 

Grossman Publications 

Mason E. Hale, Jr. 

Samuel J. Holladay 

Institution of International Education 

Johnson City Foundation 

Abraham Melamed 

Elinor Merrell 

Dorothy S. Payer 

Phillips Petroleum Company 

Revlon Foundation 

Scovill Manufacturing Company 

E. R. Squibb and Sons 

Strahein and Somann 

The Upjohn Company 

William C. Whitney Foundation 

Marie and Joseph Wilson 



We also gratefully acknowledge other contributions in the 
amount of $34,289.86 received from 484 persons during fiscal year 
1971. 



Table 1 . — Source and applications of funds (in thousands) 

Year ended 30 June 1971 

Non-Federal Funds 

Federal Grants and 

Funds Funds Total Unrestricted Restricted Contracts 

Fund Balances- 1 July 1970.. $ - $ 4,512 $ 1,870 $ 2,356 $ 286 

FUNDS PROVIDED 

Federal Appropriations $36,895 

Investment Income $ 1,444 $ 330 $ 1,114 $ - 

Grants and Contracts 9,317 9,317 

Gifts 2,261 356 1,905 

Other 406 211 195 

Total Provided 836,895 $13,428 $ 897 $3,214 $9,317 

Total Funds Available $36,895 $17,940 $2,767 $5,570 $9,603 

funds applied 

Science: 

Environmental Science $ 724 $ 1,317 $ 42 $ 762 $ 513 

Nat'l Museum of Nat. Hist 4,339 849 236 613 

National Zoological Park 3,163 60 34 613 

Science Info. Exchange 1 ,675 1 ,675 

S.A.0 2,107 3,745 58 3,687 

Other Science 3,162 900 115 785 

Total 13,495 8,546 42 1,205 7,299 

History and Art: 

Nat'l Portrait Gallery 784 1 1 

Nat'l Collec. of Fine Arts 1,040 123 121 2 

Freer Gallery 57 927 927 

Nat'l Museum of Hist, and 2,243 103 40 62 1 

Tech. 

Other History and Art 1,754 974 98 876 

Total 5,878 2,128 138 1,987 3 

Public Service: 

Revenue Producing Activities 

Smithsonian Press 691 136 136* 

Performing Arts 215 245 58* 44 143 

Other 103 103* 

Anacostia Museum 151 97 39 58 

Other 385 389 - 290 99 

Total 1,442 970 336 392 242 

Museum Programs: 

Libraries 744 60 53 7 

Exhibits 2,409 14 14 

Other Programs 591 15 8 7 

Total 3,744 89 61 21 7 

Buildings Management Dept 9,285 

Administration: 

Direct 3,051 2,434 2,434 

Overhead Applied _ (1,964 ) 203 1,761 

Net Administration 3,051 2,434 470 203 1,761 

Total Funds Applied $36,895 $14,167 $1,047 $3,308 $9,312 

Fund Balances-30 June 1971 $ $ 3,773 $ 1,720 $ 1,762 $ 291 

* Net loss before administrative charges; "Other" excludes $52,000 gifts reported 
in gift income above. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 23 



Table 2. — Summary of investments in stocks and bonds 
of private funds, 30 June 1971 



Funds Book Value Market Value 



INVESTMENT ACCOUNTS FOR ENDOWMENT FUNDS 
Freer Fund: 

Cash $ 13,746 $ 13,746 

Bonds 6,742,844 5,711,771 

Convertible bonds 491 ,500 443,500 

Convertible preferred stock 210,566 192,506 

Common stocks 5,869,837 12,443,830 

Total $13,328,493 818,805,353 

Consolidated Funds: 

Cash 149,913 149,913 

Bonds 4,188,588 3,607,052 

Convertible bonds 471,842 376,900 

Convertible preferred stock 252,799 147,492 

Common stocks 5,917,075 7,188,655 

Total $10,980,217 $11,470,012 

Endowment Fund #3: 

Cash 1 ,375 1 ,375 

Bonds 777,625 798,875 

Common stocks 6,352,570 11,530,750 

Total $ 7,131,570 $12,331,000 

Miscellaneous: 

Cash 

Bonds 10,065 9,500 

Common stocks 3,322 16,608 

Total 13,387 26,108 

Total Endowment and Similar Funds investments .... $31 ,453,667 $42,632,473 

CURRENT FUNDS 

Special Endowment Fund: 

Cash $ 304 $ 304 

Bonds 558,728 457,962 

Convertible bonds 243,050 205,950 

Convertible preferred stock 106,584 101 ,400 

Common stocks 769,051 792,747 

Total 1,677,717 1,558,363 

General Fund: 

Cash 70,000 70,000 

Short-term notes 929,001 924,989 

Total 999,001 994,989 

Miscellaneous: 

Common stocks 182,345 173,675 

Total Current Fund investments $ 2,859,063 $ 2,727,027 



Table 3. — Consolidated investment fund 



Funds Participating in Pool 



Investment 

{Book Value) 
1971 



Income 
1971 



Unexpended 

Income 
30 Jun 71 



Total Restricted Funds 



Total Consolidated Fund. 



$ 180 


,649 


23 


,649 


3 


,188 


69 


,309 


160 


,442 


63 


,452 


49 


,702 


1 


,732 


58 


,715 


275 


,364 


55 


,958 


66 


,828 


21 


,721 


48 


,800 


1 


,502 


158 


,645 


3 


,439 




591 


270 


,121 


74 


,607 


18 


,836 


176 


,211 


15 


,407 


11 


,389 


2 


,737 


104 


,260 


33 


,172 


14 


,383 


9 


,580 




634 


151 


,131 




943 


7 


,710 


33 


,992 


35 


013 


41 


099 


1 


670 


12 


850 


12 


850 


480 


,156 


18 


436 


30 


823 


209 


097 


43 


259 


301 


552 


104 


055 


2,196 


963 


31 


075 


10 


355 


17, 


330 


7, 


848 


193, 


095 


797, 


383 


100, 


112 


1, 


646 


$ 6,815, 


466 


$10,980, 


217 



8,876 

214 

129 

3,413 

6,928 

3,051 

2,446 

85 

2,738 

11,990 

2,333 

3,760 

1,070 

2,402 

50 

5,828 

131 

22 

,936 

,671 

927 

,604 



9, 

3, 



UNRESTRICTED FUNDS $ 4,164,751 $175,204 

RESTRICTED FUNDS: 

Abbott, William L 

Archives of American Art 

Armstrong, Edwin James 

Arthur, James 

Bacon, Virginia Purdy 

Baird, Spencer Fullerton 

Barney, Alice Pike 

Barstow, Frederic D 

Batchelor, Emma E 

Becker, George F 

Brown, Roland W 

Canfield, Frederick A 

Casey, Thomas Lincoln 

Chamberlain, Frances Lea 

Cooper, G. Arthur, Curator's Fund 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 

Division of Mammals Curator Fund 

Division of Reptiles Curator Fund 

Drake, Carl J 

Dykes, Charles 

Eickemeyer, Florence Brevoort 

Guggenheim, David and Florence 

Hanson, Martin Gustav and 

Caroline Runice 

Hillyer, Virgil 

Hitchcock, Albert S 

Hrdlicka, Ales and Marie 

Hughes, Bruce 

Johnson, E. R. Fenimore 

Kellogg, Remington, Memorial 

Lindsey, Jessie H 

Loeb, Morris 

Long, Annette E. and Edith C 

Lyons, Marcus Ward 

Maxwell, Mary E 

Myer, Catherine Walden 

Nelson, Edward William 

Noyes, Frank B 

Pell, Cornelius Livingston 

Petrocelli, Joseph Memorial 

Ramsey, Admiral and Mrs. DeWitt Clinton. 

Rathbun, Richard Memorial 

Reid, Addison T 

Roebling Collection 

Roebling Solar Research 

Rollins, Miriam and William 

Smithsonian Agency Account 

Sprague, Joseph White 

Springer, Frank 

Stevenson, John A 

Strong, Julia D 

T. F. H. Publications, Inc 

Walcott, Charles D 

Walcott, Charles D. and Mary Vaux 

Walcott Botanical Publications 

Zerbee, Francis Brinckle 



758 

561 

136 

4,249 

1,635 

561 

87 

24 

7,518 

48 

70 

1,674 

1,723 

1,896 

87 

636 

635 

18,962 

911 

1,517 

10,243 

1,959 

13,147 

2,277 

79,103 

1,528 

415 

857 

275 

8,226 

39,228 

4,757 

81 



2,621 
186 

3,838 

12,904 

126 

300 

1,515 

2,555 

32,646 

2,798 

2,385 
8,091 

40,597 

924 

47 

24,368 

9,051 
4,888 

10,274 

5,891 

1,056 

3,219 

19,359 

3,067 

75 

171 

1,393 

968 

28,846 

3,490 

427 

940 

8,527 

6,638 

54,052 

9,987 

460 



10,221 

17,860 

349 

1,624 

4,369 

3,251 

1,436 



466 $280,388 $347,790 
217 $455,592 $347,790 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 25 



PEAT, MARWICK, MITCHELL & CO. 

CERTIFIED PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS 

1025 CONNECTICUT AVENUE, N. W. 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 20036 



The Board of Regents 
Smithsonian Institution: 

We have examined the balance sheet of private funds of Smith- 
sonian Institution as of 30 June 1971 and the related statement 
of changes in fund balances for the year then ended. Such state- 
ments do not include the account of the National Gallery of Art, 
the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, or other 
departments, bureaus and operations administered by the Institu- 
tion under federal appropriations. Our examination was made in 
accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, and accord- 
ingly included such tests of the accounting records and such other 
auditing procedures as we considered necessary in the circum- 
stances. 

In our opinion, except for the method of accounting for fixed 
assets and related depreciation described in note 1, the accompany- 
ing balance sheet and statement of changes in fund balance of 
private funds present fairly the financial position of Smithsonian 
Institution at 30 June 1971, and the results of its operations for 
the year then ended, in conformity with generally accepted ac- 
counting principles which, except for the adoption of the accrual 
basis of accounting for all funds described in note 2 in which we 
concur, were applied on a basis consistent with that of the pre- 
ceding year. 

Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. 

27 August 1971 



26 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
BALANCE SHEET OF PRIVATE FUNDS 30 JUNE 1971 

(With comparative figures for 1970) (note 2) 



Assets 

1971 1970 

CURRENT FUNDS: 

Cash: 

In U.S. Treasury $ 413,857 $ 49,599 

In banks and on hand (including 579,273 in sav- 
ings; $17,214 in 1970) 235,270 168,225 

Total cash 649,127 217,824 

Receivables: 

Accounts 774,772 

Advances — travel and other 194,835 

Reimbursements — grants and contracts 1 , 369 , 306 

2,338,863 

inventories at net realizable value 522,908 

Investments — stocks and bonds at cost (market value 

$2,656,723; $2,900,264 in 1970) 2,788,759 

Prepaid expense 1 16,988 

Deferred magazine subscription expenses (note 3).... 404,472 
Equipment (less accumulated depreciation of 

$71 ,636; $49,932 in 1970) (note 4) 521,325 

Total current funds $ 7,342,442 

ENDOWMENT AND SIMILAR FUNDS: 

Cash 165,033 77,533 

Note receivable 96,663 96,934 

Investments — stocks and bonds at cost (market value 

$42,467,439; $29,456,568 in 1970) 31,288,633 30,213,145 

Loan to U.S. Treasury in perpetuity 1 ,000,000 1 ,000,000 

Real estate (at cost or appraised value at date of 

gift) (note 5) 2,176,219 1,760,448 

Total endowment and similar funds $34 , 726 , 548 $33,148,060 

See accompanying notes to financial statements. 



352,814 

146,269 

1,835,671 

2,334,754 

544,413 

3,409,426 

39,541 

267,300 

64,115 
$ 6,877,373 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 27 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
BALANCE SHEET OF PRIVATE FUNDS 30 JUNE 1971 

(With comparative figures for 1 970) (note 2) 

Liabilities and Fund Balances 

1971 1970 

CURRENT FUNDS: 

Notes payable (note 4) $ 654,613 $ 

Accounts payable 814,581 1 ,381 ,000 

Accrued liabilities 570,068 63,986 

Unrestricted fund balance 1 ,719,657 1 ,858,347 

Deferred income: 

Magazines subscriptions 1 ,400,926 1 ,030,115 

Other 130,249 16,627 

1,531,175 1,046,742 
Restricted fund balances: 

Gifts 1 , 109,718 1 ,493,041 

Grants and contracts 290,741 286,144 

1,400,459 1,779,185 
Unexpended income: 

Freer 210,562 389,906 

Other 441,327 358,198 

651 ,889 748,104 

Total current funds $ 7,342,442 $ 6,877,373 

ENDOWMENT AND SIMILAR FUNDS: 

Mortgage note payable (note 5) 293,641 310,697 

Fund balances: 

Endowment funds — income restricted: 

Freer 13,328,493 13,188,994 

Other 14,166,763 13,099,645 

Current funds reserved as an endowment — income 

unrestricted 5,055,073 5,098,973 

Real estate acquisition fund 1 ,882,578 1 ,449,751 

Total fund balance 34,432,907 32,837,363 

Commitments (note 6) 

Total endowment and similar funds $34,726,548 $33,148,060 



441-283 O - 71 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
PRIVATE FUNDS 

Statement of Changes in Fund Balances 
Year ended 30 June 1971 

Current Funds 



Unrestricted funds 
Total General Activities 

Balance at 30 June 1970 $4,511,854 1,869,941 

Adjustments from cash to 

accrual basis (126,218 ) (11.594) - 

Adjusted balance at 30 June 

1970 4,385,636 1,858,347 - 

Additions: 

Grants and contracts net 

of refunds 9,316,961 - 

Investment income 1,448,758 334,452 - 

Gifts and bequests 2,261,285 304,292 52,218 

Gross profit on sales 2,465,922 - 2,465,922 

Rental 1,166,723 1,166,723 

Other... 251,629 56,926 

Net gain (loss) on sale or 

exchange of invest- 

ments. (4,541 ) (4,541) - 

Total additions 16,906,737 1,857,852 2 ,518,140 

Deductions (additions) : 
Expenditures: 

Salary and benefits: 

Administrative 3,972,791 2,678,092 1,294,699 

Research 5,720,632 

Purchases for collection.. 599,043 
Travel and transporta- 

tation 644.201 65,751 58,272 

Equipment and facili- 

ties 1,319,378 116,450 23,979 

Supplies and material... 800,841 161,974 171,309 

Rent and utilities 567,656 263,907 18,915 

Communications 147,641 69,150 17,116 

Contractual service 2,377,568 318,773 493,967 

Computer rental 653,121 - 

Promotion and adver- 

tising 662,026 - 662,026 

Depreciation 22,404 22,404 

Administrative expendi- 
tures applicable to 

other funds - ( 2,254,104) 289,700 

Total deductions car- 

ried forward 17,487,302 1,419,993 3 ,052,387 

Adjusted balance at 30 June „,„,.„ 

1970 brought forward $4,385,636 1,858,347 - 

Total additions, 

brought forward 16,906,737 1,857,852 2 ,518,140 

Total deductions, „ , „„ „„„ 

brought forward 17,487,302 1,419,993 3 ,052,387 

Transfers in (out): 

Income added to principal.. (63 ,322 ) - 

Transfer to unexpended 

income 257,320 

Transfer to endowment 

funds (227,064) (21,053) 

Transfer to restricted 

funds — gifts - 

Transfer for designated 

purposes _ (13,037) 

(Transfer to grants) com- 
puter services to com- 

mercial users - (8,212) 

Transfer in support of ac- .,. ... 

tivities - (534,247) 534,247 

Total transfers (33,066 ) (576,549) 534,247 

Net income (loss) af- 
ter transfers (613,631 ) (138,690) - 

Balance at 30 June 1971 $3,772,005 1,719,657 - 

See accompanying notes to financial statements. 





Restricted funds 




Gifts 
1,566,028 

(72,987) 


Grants and 
contract 

286,144 


Unexpended 
Freer 

434,873 
(44,967) 

389,906 


income 
Other 

354,868 
3,330 


1,493,041 


286,144 


358,198 



9,316,961 
34 200 - 673,625 406,481 

1,895,589 - 1,705 7,481 



127,042 



67,259 



2,056, 


831 


9,316 


961 


742 


589 


414 


364 


712 


667 


4,537 


637 


386 


771 


83 


557 


317 


518 


- 




249 


891 


31 


634 


152 


537 


323 


,104 


31 


223 


13 


314 


349 


249 


808 


459 


12 


865 


8 


37c 


125 


,358 


264 


,351 


74 


237 


3 


,61i 


15 


832 


269 


002 


— 




- 




11 


872 


49 


,445 


— 






5! 


759 


,459 


639 


,968 


126 


,529 


38 


,875 


1 


182 


651 


939 


- 




— 





116,364 1,761,099 40,417 



2,562,038 


9,305,004 


1,493,041 


286,144 


2,056,831 


9,316,961 


2,562,038 


9,305,004 



921 


933 


389 


906 


742 


,589 


921 


933 



(206,011) 
300,945 
26,950 (15,572) 

8,212 



(7,360) 



121,884 

(383,323) 
1,109,718 290,741 210,562 



4,597 (179,344) 



(105,28! 


83 


,12< 


441 


32" 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
PRIVATE FUNDS 

Statement of Changes in Fund Balances 
Year ended 30 June 1971 

Endowment and Similar Funds 



Balance at 30 June 1970 

Adjustments from cash to accrual basis 

Adjusted balance at 30 June 1970 

Additions: 

Grants and contracts net of refunds 

Investment income 

Gifts and bequests 

Gross profit on sales 

Rental 

Other 

Net gain (loss) on sale or exchange of invest 

ments 

Total additions 

Deductions (additions) : 
Expenditures: 

Salary and benefits: 

Administrative 

Research 

Purchases for collection „ 

Travel and transportation 

Equipment and facilities 

Supplies and material 

Rent and utilities 

Communications 

Contractual service 

Computer rental 

Promotion and advertising 

Depreciation 

Administrative expenditures applicable to 

other funds 

Total deductions carried forward 

Adjusted balance at 30 June 1970, brought 

I forward $32 ,837 

Total additions, brought forward 

Total deductions, brought forward 

Transfers in (out): 

Income added to principal 

Transfer to unexpended income 

Transfer to endowment funds... 

Transfer to restricted funds — gifts 

Transfer for designated purposes 

(Transfer to grants) computer services to 

commercial users 

Transfer in support of activities 

Total transfers 

Net income (loss) after transfers 

balance at 30 June 1971 

>ee accompanying notes to financial statements 







Endowment 


Current funds 

reserved as 
an endowment 


Real estate 
acquisition 


Total 




Freer 


Other 


fund 


$32,837,363 


13 


,188,994 


13,099,645 


5,098,973 


1,449,751 


32,837,363 


13 


,188,994 


13,099,645 


5,098,973 


1,449,751 


1,676,848 




- 


1,345,256 


79,776 


251,816 


(114,370) 




139,499 


(130,193) 
1,215,063 


(123,676) 
(43,900) 




1,562,478 




139,499 


251,816 



- 




- 






- 




- 


- 


$32,837,363 


13 


188 
139 


994 
499 


13 
1 


,099,645 
,215,063 


5 


,098,973 
(43,900) 


1,449,751 


1,562,478 


251,816 


63,322 

(257,320) 
227,064 




- 




63,322 

(257,320) 

46,053 


- 


181,011 



33,066 


(147,945) 


181,011 


1,595,544 139,499 


1,067,118 (43,900) 
14,166,763 5,055,073 


432,827 


$34,432,907 13,328,493 


1,882,578 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

30 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
PRIVATE FUNDS 

Notes to Financial Statements 
30 June 1971 



1. Accounting for Fixed Assets.— The Institution records additions to fixed 
assets as follows: museum shops and computer equipment purchased with now 
appropriated funds are capitalized in the current fund; land and buildings 
acquired by gift are recorded in the endowment and similar fund at the 
appraised value at date of gift except for gifts of certain islands in the Chesa- 
peake Bay and the Carnegie Mansion which have been recorded at nominal 
values; land buildings, furniture, equipment, works of art, living and other 
specimens, and certain other similar property purchased from federal appropria- 
tions, nonappropriated funds, except as indicated above or proceeds of gifts 
are not included in the accounts of the Institution; depreciation is recorded 
only for the computer and business-type activities. 

2. Basis of Accounting.- On 1 July 1970 the Institution changed its method 
of accounting for restricted funds and endowment and similar funds from the 
cash receipts and disbursements to the accrual basis. The comparative balance 
sheet has been restated to reflect this change— with this change, all private 
funds of the Institution are accounted for on the accrual basis. 

3. Deferred Magazine Subscripion Expenses.— This amount represents pro- 
motional expenses incurred in connection with the Smithsonian magazine. These 
expenses are to be amortized over a period of twelve months. 

4. Notes Payable.— The notes payable of 30 June 1971 are summarized as 
follows: 

6% unsecured note payable to a bank due 25 June 1972 $175,000 

Installment note payable secured by computer equipment due 

30 June 1976 in monthly payments of $7,993.64 479 ' 614 

$654,614 



5. Mortgage Notes Payable— The mortgage notes payable are secured by first 
deeds of trust on property acquired in connection with the Chesapeake Bay 
Center. Funds for the curtailment of these notes will be transferred from 
Restricted Funds— Gifts, designated for the development of the Chesapeake 
Bay Center. The details of the mortgage notes payable are as follows: 

a. A $252,700 note on property acquired for $376,000. The note is payable in 
nineteen consecutive semi-annual installments of $13,300, plus interest at 
the prevailing prime rate on the due date of payment but not less than 8%. 

b. A $40,941 note on property acquired for $118,533. The note is payable in 
monthly installments of $451.02, including interest at the rate of 6%, with 
the final payment due on 1 November 1989. 

6. Commitments.— Pursuant to an agreement, dated 9 October 1967, between 
the Institution and the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 01 

the Institution acquired, on 1 July 1968, all funds belonging to the Cooper 
Union for use exclusively for museum purposes, and certain articles of tangible 
personal property as defined in the agreement. 

The agreement provided, among other covenants, that the Institution would 
maintain a museum in New York City and has pledges in excess of $800,000 
for the support of such a museum. Pledges in the amount of $660,000 have been 
collected to date. 



SCIENCE 



f~pHE inauguration of the Environmental Science Program this year 
■*■ was a major step in coordinating the relatively disparate activities 
of the Institution's scientific bureaus. The funding of this program 
as a line item in our budget has given clear recognition to the special 
capabilities of the Smithsonian to conduct multidisciplinary research 
on two major ecosystems. 

Under the direction of the Assistant Secretary (Science) a coordi- 
nated research plan has begun on a shallow water marine and a 
decidious forest ecosystem. Comparative studies of temperate and 
tropical aspects of these two ecosystems will be primarily done at the 
Smithsonian's research facilities on the Chesapeake Bay and in 
Panama. Emphasis will be on determining primary and secondary 
productivity of the ecosystems and developing techniques for moni- 
toring their normally occurring changes. 

This coordinated study will allow the Smithsonian to use the 
computer programming talents of the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory, the long experience of the Radiation Biology Labora- 
tory in measuring solar radiation, the great taxonomic ability of the 
National Museum of Natural History, and the knowledge of animal 
behavior gained from the research of scientists at the Zoo. By bring- 
ing all of these hitherto independent research operations into focus 
under a common program, the Institution can finally take full 
advantage of its many scientific resources to help understand the 
complex nature of our environment. 

The reports of the separate bureaus which follow give good 
evidence of the vigor of science at the Smithsonian. Important ques- 
tions of policy, however, continue to arise. Space on the Mall for our 
collections is about exhausted and an off-Mall study and storage 
center seems inevitable. Scientific collections are only valuable if 
they can be used; thus it is essential to furnish laboratory space 
adjacent to the collections. Which collections can be moved and 
where they should be located are questions now being considered. 

The exhibitions of the National Air and Space Museum, now 
under the directorship of astronaut Michael Collins, continues to 
occupy a World War I metal shed and various halls in the Arts and 

33 



34 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Industries Building. The thousands of visitors certainly deserve 
better and we hope that construction of the long-delayed, new 
museum to house all these exhibitions under one roof will be fin- 
ished in time for the Bicentennial in 1976. 

Midway through the fiscal year the Assistant Secretary (Science) 
Sidney R. Galler left the Smithsonian to become the Deputy Assist- 
ant Secretary for Environmental Affairs in the Department of 
Commerce. His five years service with the Institution was marked 
by a rapid rise in new science programs and he will be sorely missed. 
Dr. David Challinor, formerly Director of the Office of International 
Activities, has been serving as Acting Assistant Secretary (Science). 



National Museum of Natural History 

As in all research /education centers over the country, the year 
was one of retrenchment, deferred needs, and constantly revised 
priorities. Rather than lose any of its excellent staff, this Museum 
chose to keep the people even though that decision meant drastically 
reduced funding for items other than salaries. By a combination of 
constant attention to fiscal details, priority reevaluations, and not a 
few sacrifices, this was a highly rewarding year. Examples of the 
achievements and developments that support this point of view are 
presented in the following pages. 

RESEARCH 

Although there were fewer trips for field and museum research 
and less participation in scientific meetings by the staff, there was a 
continuing flow of high quality research products. With a small 
portion of the funds available to the Institution for environmental 
sciences, research programs were initiated in soil biology, on coral 
reef ecology, and on the Panamanian biota of the shallow inshore 
waters. These complement and augment the more than a century of 
natural history research that continues to supply the fundamental 
data upon which other ecological projects have to be founded. 

The impact of environmental conditions on early man influenced 
both his cultural and physical evolution. For example, data from 
large numbers of prehistoric eastern Mediterranean human skeletons 
show increasing longevity and improved health effects with the 
development of farming and stable village life, in contrast to the 
earlier mesolithic hunting and gathering life-support techniques. 



SCIENCE 



35 




Postdoctoral Research Associate Arnfried Antonius surveys a coral reef at a 
depth of 20 meters off Northeast Key, Glover's Reef, British Honduras, in a 
survey to select reefs suitable for a long term ecological study. 



A natural consequence of longer life and better health was the 
beginning of the population increase so alarming in some parts of 
the modern world. 

Dating of skeletal remains is critical to these studies and a method 
based on the rate of decay of protein in bone has been further per- 
fected in the physical anthropology laboratories. From simulated 
aging experiments under carefully controlled conditions, it appears 
that amino-acid residues in teeth may serve as a useful index of 
archeological or geological age. Also, residues of certain amino-acids 
in bone appear from other studies to decrease with advancing age of 
the individual. 

Such data are also important to archeological investigations of the 
cultural developments of ancient man, whether in our own Midwest, 
the deserts of Afghanistan, or an ancient town in Israel. The latter 
is the site of a multiyear excavation and study which began during 
the fiscal year at Tell Jemmeh in the western Negev. The site in- 
cludes 15 meters of cultural debris, representing occupation from the 
second century b.c. back to the beginning of the Late Bronze Age 
in mid- 15th century b.c. The excavations of this prehistoric site, at 
the crossing of two great trade routes, are utilizing techniques that 



36 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 




1 J 




- 3**£ 



f*-,. 




Workers, most of whom are volunteers from the United States, searching for 
artifacts on the Tell Jemmeh project, directed by Dr. Gus W*. Van Beek. From 
materials found thus far, the site is presumed to be an ancient palace. 



will help reconstruct the features of the total economy and the 
relationships of the people to their surroundings. 

Characterization of plants and animals, their distribution geo- 
graphically and stratigraphically, and their relationships with each 
other and the total environment continue to be major components 
of the Museum's research programs. Numerous contributions to our 
understandings of neotropical plants were completed, including the 
second volume of Flora Neotropica and several manuscripts for the 
Flora Ilastrada Catarinense (Brazil). Planning for the Flora North 
America Program was also greatly advanced, which will lead to the 
initiation of the implementation stage in January 1972. Independ- 
ently and in cooperation with the taxonomists, the staff-anatomists 
carried out studies of internal structure and its evolutionary signifi- 
cance in several monocotyledonous families and in the Ginseng 
family. 

The earliest occurring, and the first described, fossil plants of the 
Lower Devonian from the Canadian Arctic were described by one 
paleobotanist who then turned his attention to plants of the same 
time period in Australia, eastern Canada, and the southeastern 



SCIENCE 37 

United States. A colleague, working at a much more recent time- 
level, conducted some very promising investigations of leaf archi- 
tecture with important phylogenetic implications among both fossil 
and Recent taxa. 

Extensive regional studies on the composition, relationships, and 
distribution of marine invertebrate faunas, including West Indian 
shrimps, Australian amphipods, and Indopacific littorinid snails, 
have been completed. Continuing faunal studies have led to the 
investigation of complex ecological problems, such as host-parasite 
relationships between fishes and copepod crustaceans and competi- 
tion for space among sponges. 

Studies of fossil organisms are the key to paleoecological con- 
clusions but constituents of the sediments are important for these 
and modern ecological studies as well. For example, two minerals 
(pyrophyllite and talc) have been demonstrated, by a study by our 
sedimentologists, to be widely distributed over the continental shelf 
along the southeastern coast, but absent among the riverborne par- 
ticulates discharged into the Atlantic. It is concluded that these 
mineral particles are introduced into the system as wastes from 
industrial processes, and may be useful in detecting and monitoring 
pollution in coastal waters. 

Although uses of the scanning electron microscope (sem) have 
been diverse, depending partly on availability of funds for materials, 
it has had its greatest impact in research on fossil invertebrates. For 
example, underwater investigations of a family of translucent, thin- 
shelled scallops demonstrated that they have a shell microstructure, 
as revealed by the sem, quite unlike that of the common scallops. 
This, with other data, suggests close relationship of this family to a 
group thought to have become extinct 225 million years ago. Studies 
of deep-sea drilling cores are also greatly facilitated by the use of the 

SEM. 

The enormous task of studying and classifying insects and their 
allies progressed with the publication of an outstanding volume con- 
cerned with the microlepidoptera of the remote tropical Pacific 
island of Rapa; a study of the behavior, life histories, and classifica- 
tion of a genus of small moths; a paper on the caddis flies of the 
Amazon Basin, based on research undertaken in cooperation with 
fishery officials in Brazil; and a very significant paper on the co- 
evolution of squashes/gourds and their bee associates, which are 
species-specific and entirely dependent on the plants for food in both 
larval and adult stages. 

The interrelationships of animals are sometimes extremely close 



38 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 




The Scanning Electron Microscope, recently acquired by the National Museum 
of Natural History, is used by many of the Museum curators for the examination 
and illustration of tiny specimens too small or too delicate to be seen by con- 
ventional microscopes. The instrument has the capacity to provide images from 
20 to 20,000 magnifications and can form these into three dimensional stereo- 
graphic pictures, which reveal many features never previously observed. 



and the phenomenon of mimicry is one of the most interesting. Field 
and laboratory studies of coral reef blenny fishes in Israel demon- 
strated that several kinds of mimicry had resulted in close resem- 
blance of three species that are not phylogenetically close. In another 
group, a computer program has been developed to simulate the 
effects of predation on Batesian mimetic populations, providing 
predictions of the population structure of succeeding generations. 

The more than 300 species of fishes of the Appalachian Mountains 
were treated in terms of their ecological preferences, drainage system 
occupied, as well as their distinguishing characteristics. The geo- 
logical history of the river drainage system was also reviewed and 
correlated with the early dispersal and current distribution of the 
species. Such studies have obvious usefulness to environmentalists 
concerned with appraisals of fresh waters threatened with pollution 



SCIENCE 39 

and the setting of rational standards for improvement based on 
ecological information. 

In addition to the continuing research on lunar materials, which 
has involved most of the mineral sciences staff, a highly significant 
monograph on the Allende (Mexico) meteorite was completed and 
distributed. Parts of this, the largest stony meteorite fall on record 
(February 1969), have been shared for study with 99 other scientists 
in 79 organizations around the world. The national collections now 
include 2100 fragments of this meteorite with a total weight in 
excess of 400 kilograms. Studies of petrology, volcanology, and 
mineralogy have progressed and a long-awaited new program in 
crystallography has been initiated. 

COLLECTIONS 

The usefulness of natural history materials for documenting the 
composition of ecological systems, extant and in the past, is well 
recognized. The unique capability they provide to sample organisms 
gathered in pre-industrial, pre-pollution times was underscored by 
an experiment concerned with mercury as a pollutant. Tuna speci- 
mens collected in 1878 were found to contain amounts of mercury 
considerably in excess of that currently permitted by law to be 
present in foods. A National Science Foundation grant was obtained 
for the evaluation of the feasibility of using existing oceanographic 
specimens to determine pollutant levels in the oceans. At year's end 
work was underway to answer this very important question. 

The evolution of central, departmental, specimen-processing units 
has continued and this year some of the largest, outstanding back- 
logs of specimens— plants and insects— have been greatly reduced. For 
example, nearly 135,000 specimens of insects and their relatives were 
accessioned and distributed for study to the appropriate specialists 
by the Entomological Preparation Laboratory. 

The collections of the National Anthropological Archives are of a 
different sort but as they become better organized and more avail- 
able, an increasing number of visiting scholars are using them. These 
manuscripts, field notes, correspondence, photographs, and draw- 
ings are a rich source of research data formerly unavailable. Descrip- 
tive inventories of manuscripts relating to specific subjects, or the 
works of a single author, are now available to respond to specific 
inquiries of researchers. 

One of the most important improvements with respect to the 
collections generally is the continuing application of data-processing 



40 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 




Dr. Bruce B. Collette (seated) of NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service 
demonstrates to Mr. Edgar N. Gramblin, National Museum of Natural History, 
the removal of a flesh sample from a 30-year old skipjack tuna (Katsuiconus 
pelamis) from Peru for determination of levels to total mercury and methyl 
mercury. Specimens of tuna examined include some collected almost 100 years 
ago. 



techniques referred to in earlier annual reports. Significant progress 
was made in the use of automated methods for capture, storage, and 
manipulation of data related to museum specimens. Modest funding 
allowed the Museum to initiate a long-range program for the con- 



SCIENCE 



41 




Mr. Frederick J. Collier, Collection Manager, consulting a computer listing of 
specimen data. These lists are used by Smithsonian scientists to locate quickly 
and easily specimens in the Museum's vast collections. The lists also are distrib- 
uted to interested scientists and serve to circulate widely information on the 
Museum's collections. 



version of ledger- and label-preparation from hand to machine 
methods. Procedures begun in four departments also include com- 
puter accumulation and rearrangement of the data followed by pro- 
duction of composite catalogs and cross-listings for local use and for 



42 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

publication. Information on over 30,000 specimens was processed 
and plans for the future call for substantial broadening of the scope 
of the program. The ultimate aim is to capture data on virtually all 
incoming specimens while gradually converting collections-data al- 
ready on hand in response to internal or external requests. 

A most promising development with respect to management of 
information resources was the endorsement by the Conference of 
Directors of Systematic Collections of a cooperative intermuseum 
approach to the problem. The conference voted at its May meeting 
to accept and implement a blueprint for such cooperation, which 
calls for the National Museum of Natural History to serve as the 
interim clearinghouse for data collected in the program. Fossil and 
modern mammal specimens and botanical type-specimens will be 
the first groups to be treated by an initial informal consortium of 
six or seven museums and herbaria. Support will be sought to 
broaden the program to cover more groups of organisms and to 
include many more institutions curating and researching systematic 
collections. 

EXHIBITS 

Although the results are just beginning to show, this has been a 
period of considerable change. Planning has been advanced for 
several halls and parts of a hall on physical geology and another on 
ice-age vertebrates were opened to the public during the year, al- 
though construction continues in both. At the same time, much has 
been accomplished on the maintenance and updating of many of 
the exhibits already on view. 

A new approach to exhibits planning and preparation has been 
initiated this year. While the staff scientists must always be the 
ultimate source for evaluation of the accuracy of the science to be 
presented, they are not required to spend literally years conceiving 
and writing exhibits. A small team of scientifically trained con- 
ceptualizers/writers (an exhibits planning group) works with the 
curators, and interacts with the other half of the team, the exhibits 
designers and producers. The planning group is also the focus for 
exhibits experimentation with techniques and subjects, among which 
one of the more interesting is the use of live insects to demonstrate 
biological principles in an Insect Zoo, manned by volunteers. 

Formal preliminary planning has also begun for the Museum's 
part in the American Bicentennial Celebration of 1976. The themes 
are being defined and refined by the staff in cooperation with a 
contractual consultant in preparation for detailed development in 
the year ahead. 



SCIENCE 



43 



National Air and Space Museum 



During fiscal year 1971, the Institution appointed Mr. Michael 
Collins Director of the National Air and Space Museum and Mr. 
Melvin B. Zisfein Deputy Director. 

Mr. Collins came to the Institution from the Department of 
State where he had served as Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs 
and before that as an Air Force Colonel assigned to the space pro- 
gram where he participated as an astronaut in the Gemini 10 and 
Apollo 1 1 flights. 

Mr. Zisfein comes from a career in air and space research having 
served as Associate Director of the Franklin Institute Research 
Laboratories, General Manager of the Astromechanics Research 
Division of the Conroe Corporation, and Chief of the Dynamics 
Department of Bell Aircraft Corporation. 

An important addition this year to the Museum's collections 
which are maintained by the Department of Astronautics was the 
complete reference file of the late Willy Ley, representing forty 
years of historical research and study. Many historical photographs 
have been received and cataloged along with the acquisition of sound 
and video tape collections. 

The most significant artifact received and placed on exhibit this 
fiscal year was the Apollo Lunar Module 2. Since lunar modules 
never return to earth from their space voyages (being unable to 
withstand the temperature and pressure of reentry into the earth's 
atmosphere), we are especially fortunate to have this rare flight 
artifact, which, though never flown, is identical to those now resting 
on the surface of the moon. 

The collection of space art was increased by some twelve works 
of art. 

The Department of Astronautics answered hundreds of letters 
requesting information concerning its specimens. Courses on the 
history of astronautics and the national space program were taught 
by the staff to youngsters of Smithsonian associates members. 

The consultation activities of the Aeronautics Department staff 
continue at a high level providing advice and coordination to numer- 
ous museums and interested individuals, both here and abroad. 

The professional staff also assisted the Civil Service Commission 
in establishing standards for personnel desiring air and space 
museum employment. 

To revitalize the Flight Materiel Division of the Aeronautics De- 
partment, the curatorial function pertaining to aviation clothing, 

441-283 O - 71 - 4 



44 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

medals, insignia and personal equipment was reorganized. The 
preservation of related artifacts will be improved by the acquisition 
of special storage equipment and new larger storage space. With the 
completion of these steps, the thousands of artifacts in the flight 
materiel study collection will be available for the first time for 
examination and study by researchers and scholars. 

The first priority of the Information and Education Department 
is the collection of documentation and the determination of the loca- 
tion of other specialized documentation holdings. In the vicinity of 
Washington, D. C. there exists the largest holdings of air and space 
documentation in the world. To supplement the nasm Historical 
Research Center's extensive holdings, major documentation collec- 
tions in the field of air and space technology exist in many other 
government and educational agencies. 

During the past year the collections of two early American pilots, 
Blance Stuart Scott and Beckwith Havens, have been added to the 
holdings of the Historical Research Center, as well as a collection 
from an early Norwegian pilot, Mr. Sem-Jacobsen. 

Under a grant initiated in 1964 by the Daniel and Florence Gug- 
genheim Foundation, the first reports of a survey to determine the 
impact on aerospace development resulting from two of the seven 
schools of aeronautical engineering established by the Daniel Gug- 
genheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics were completed 
and submitted to the foundation. The two schools were Leland 
Stanford University and the California Institute of Technology. 

An already established oral history program of voice tape record- 
ing was expanded to include video recording. The department has 
now on hand a complete spectrum of voice recording equipment to 
meet all needs. 

The following figures show a comparison of this year's activities 
with last year's: 

FY 1971 FY 1970 

Requests answered 4987 4000 

Visitors 1440 1300 

Donations 85 62 

Photo orders processed 744 637 

New library titles received 177 132 

Total library volumes received 269 194 

Total mail received 11,885 10,000-f 

The urgencies of preservation have demanded that the major 
effort of the Preservation and Restoration Division be devoted to 
the maintenance of the collections. 

Approximately 1800 specimens from the existing collections (700 



SCIENCE 45 

astronautical and 1100 aeronautical) were verified by identification 
and category number against the accession records and properly 
warehoused and inventoried on our locator system. 

Forty-five (45) shipments, totaling 107,949 pounds of astronautical 
material and 18 shipments totaling 25,548 pounds of aeronautical 
material were received to be added to the collections. 

A total of 675 (465 astronautical and 210 aeronautical) new speci- 
mens were processed through identification, cataloging, inventory, 
and warehousing. 

A considerable increase in astronautic artifacts restoration has 
been required because of the preparation requirements to support 
the world-wide loan program. Restoration was continued on the 
Douglas World Cruiser, the Nieuport Type 83, and on the Con- 
grieve Rocket. The Fokker D-VII restoration was completed and put 
on exhibit. During this fiscal year the department also exhibited 
the Sirius, "Polar Star," and the FC-2, as well as preparing for 
traveling exhibitions the Gemini 6, 10, 11, and 12; the Mercury 
7, 9, and 12; the Apollo 8; and the Goddard (1940-341) rocket. 

The year ended with the augmented National Air and Space 
Museum staff developing an expanded program of study, publica- 
tion, exhibit development, public service and new facility develop- 
ment for the coming years. 



Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

This year, research at the Observatory (sao) exemplified the com- 
plex relationship between science and technology— the symbiosis 
between the two illustrating the development of both. 

The 60-inch reflector atop Mt. Hopkins in Arizona incorporates 
several unusual features that facilitate its use for study of the energy 
distribution in the light from planets and stars. At the lowest 
spectral resolution, the telescope has been used with an infrared 
photometer to measure the total amount of energy radiated by dust 
shells surrounding hot stars. These measurements are being inter- 
preted to infer the amount of mass contracting in the youngest stars 
and to reveal the amount of dust condensing above or ejected from 
some of the most rapidly rotating stars. Together with low-resolution 
spectrographs observations of absorption and emission lines origi- 
nating in the outer atmospheres of the rapidly rotating stars, these 
measurements offer new insight into the differential rotation of the 
hot stars. 

Observations of the far-ultraviolet energy distribution of stars 



46 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

already observed by Project Celescope are being reduced to permit 
a detailed comparison with data predicted by the stellar-atmospheres 
group using computer synthesis. 

A new interferometer at Mt. Hopkins is making observations of 
cool pulsating variable stars; the resultant data will enable sao 
scientists to map the velocity variations throughout the stellar 
atmosphere. An other interferometer is being used to map the 
atmospheres of Jupiter and Venus. These observations have already 
revealed strong variable winds in the atmosphere of Venus. 

The easy access to accurate national time standards through the 
loran-c system has allowed sao scientists to use Harvard's 61-inch 
telescope at Agassiz Station to make time-of-arrival measurements of 
the optical pulses from the Crab Nebula pulsar to a typical precision 
of 5 (Msec. These measurements enable them: (1) to trace the evolu- 
tion of a rapidly rotating (30 revolutions per second), highly magnet- 
ized neutron star, which this pulsar appears to be; (2) to check with 
precision and perhaps improve some of the orbital parameters of 
our solar system, particularly the orbit of the earth; and (3) to test 
some of the predictions of general relativity such as the "gravita- 
tional red shift," which indicates that the rate of a clock depends on 
the local gravitational potential. 

It has already been learned that the dominant slowdown mecha- 
nism of the Crab pulsar is through electromagnetic radiation caused 
by the rotating dipolar magnetic field. The systematic deviations 
from the exact predictions are, however, still unexplained. One of 
these jumps in a period of 3 parts in 10 9 , which occurred last Sep- 
tember, could be interpreted as a change of only a thousandth of an 
inch in the typically 12-mile diameter of a neutron star. 

A new interdisciplinary study— astrochemistry— has emerged 
through the alliance of radio astronomy and laboratory research. 
Recently detected distant gas clouds by a joint Smithsonian /Harvard 
observing team is the characteristic radiation of methyl alcohol. The 
astronomical discovery of this organic molecule may give part of the 
eventual answer to the question of how life evolves from primordial 
matter. 

The Microwave Spectroscopy Laboratory supports the radio 
astronomy program of the Smithsonian Institution by measuring the 
characteristic wavelengths of selected molecules, thus providing the 
information needed for tuning radio telescope receivers and for 
analyzing Doppler shifts in the astronomical line spectra. Over the 
first year, measurements have been made on several organic and in- 
organic molecules that have current importance to astronomy, such 



SCIENCE 47 

as formic acid, methyl amine, and hydroxyl. For his research of this 
type, H. E. Radford of sao has been given the University of New 
Hampshire Distinguished Alumni Award. 

Radio telescopes, thousands of miles— even continents— apart, 
can be used in conjunction. They are synchronized with precise 
atomic clocks whose errors are only one second per million years. 
Some of the most astounding recent discoveries in astronomy have 
been made possible with the perfection of these techniques called 
very long-baseline interferometry (vlbi). In April 1971, the Amer- 
ican Academy of Arts and Sciences honored the individuals who 
pioneered the development of vlbi astronomy, by presentation of 
the Rumford Premium. One of the co-winners of the Rumford 
Medal, the oldest scientific prize in the United States, was James 
Moran of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. 

Another common means of communication— television— is now 
being used for astronomical purposes in the study of meteors. 
Meteors can be observed in our atmosphere in several ways, by the 
human eye, by camera, or by radar. The radar technique, however, 
does not work well on meteors bright enough to be photographed. 

Thus a new and most recent technique employed is television of 
low light level. Its accuracy is comparable to that of radar, and it 
does reach meteors faint enough to be observed effectively by radar, 
thus providing a calibration of the radar method. Observations of 
the same meteors by both radar and television can relate light to 
ionization. Reduction of the radar and television observations and 
the combination of them by means of computer programs are well 
advanced. The results should give the relation between a meteor's 
brightness and velocity and the number of electrons per unit of 
path length it leaves behind. 

Until recently, those meteors surviving fiery passage through the 
atmosphere to become meteorites have been the only extraterrestrial 
material available for study. But the most spectacular technological 
development of the 1960s, the Apollo Program, lias now made lunar 
samples available. 

Four sao scientists have devoted essentially full time, for the past 
year, to a study of the mineralogic and petrologic characteristics of 
small rock fragments from samples of the lunar soil. A tablespoon of 
"coarse fines" (the sieve fraction between 1 and 10 mm in diameter) 
contains about 2000 particles, each with its own story to tell. The 
particles are examined under the microscope, and the microscopic 
crystals are analyzed with an electron microprobe. 

The approach has been very rewarding because it has been pos- 



48 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 




Two SAO scientists examine samples of lunar soil returned by Apollo 14 

astronauts. 



sible to observe and study lunar rock types not represented among 
the larger rock specimens. It appears now that the near-surface 
regions of the moon (the "crust," to use a terrestrial term) are com- 
posed of three principal types of rock: dark basalt, a volcanic rock 
that filled the mare basins some 3.5 billion years ago; a lighter 
colored rock, termed norite, that is grossly basaltic in composition, 
but differs from the mare basalt in details of its chemical composi- 
tion; and anorthosite, a light-colored rock of peculiar composition, 
in that it consists largely of a single mineral, plagioclase feldspar. 
The two latter light-colored rocks are believed to be samples of the 
lunar terra regions and the floors of the mare basins (beneath the 
dark basalt floods that fill them now). 

There are discrepancies between the topographic irregularities of 
the lunar surface and the local value of lunar gravity (as revealed by 



SCIENCE 49 

tracking of lunar satellites), such that the lunar highlands, although 
they represent a local excess in the amount of lunar material, do not 
exert a proportionately higher gravitational attraction than the 
lowlands. This can only mean that the lunar surface is underlain 
by rock of variable mass density. In particular, a lunar model that 
reconciles the lunar gravity field with its topography would involve 
a thickness of about 25 kilometers of anorthosite (low density) 
beneath the lunar highlands; a similar thickness of norite (medi- 
um density) beneath most of the mare basins; and the absence of 
these rocks, in favor of high-density mare basalt, in the other maria, 
those that display "mascons." 

The satellite data from lasers are the natural technological ad- 
vance beyond optical camera data. Whereas the camera data have 
an accuracy of 20 meters, those from laser tracking currently have 
an accuracy of 50 centimeters, roughly an improvement of two 
orders of magnitude. 

The sao geodesy and geophysics program is participating in the 
International Satellite Geodesy Experiment (isagex) organized by 
the Centre National d'Etude Spatials (cnes), France. Fifteen laser- 
tracking systems are taking part. This observing program provides 
the basis for analysis that will result in a revised sao Standard Earth. 

The laser data will open a new chapter in the study of the solid 
earth. They may help answer questions that have intrigued scientists 
for centuries. For analyses at 5 meters, the earth can be assumed 
rigid. At 20 centimeters, it is very active. Crustal motions are 5 
centimeters per year and earthquake displacements can be meters 
and are of unknown scale. The solid-earth tide varies with geo- 
graphical region. These changes of mass distribution result in a 
complex rotational motion of the earth. This rotation, termed polar 
motion, will be measured with greater accuracy and possible pre- 
cursors of earthquakes can then be determined. For the first time, 
these can be measured. 

Meanwhile, current optical data have been used to relate the de- 
tailed mass distribution determined in 1969 to tectonic activity and 
to measure the solid earth tide, the annual variation in the mass 
distribution, and the motion of the earth's rotation axis with re- 
spect to the solid earth. 

A new combination of data has enabled sao scientists to complete 
the construction of new atmospheric models, now published as sao 
Special Report No. 332 and soon to be incorporated into the forth- 
coming edition of the cospar International Reference (cira). These 
models try to represent all the observed variations of density and 



50 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

composition at heights between 100 and 1500 km. The many differ- 
ent types of variation (the 1 1-year solar cycle, day-to-day solar activity, 
geomagnetic activity, the diurnal and semiannual variations, seasonal- 
latitudinal variations, the pole-to-pole migration of helium, and the 
escape of hydrogen) are all represented by means of empirical equa- 
tions. The success of the models in representing the observed 
densities can be seen from the fact that the departures from the 
models average about 10 to 15 percent even in the height region 
between 400 and 500 kilometers, where the range of densities reaches 
a factor of 200. 

Past attempts to represent the semiannual density variation in the 
heterosphere as a consequence of temperature variation have run into 
difficulties in two height regions: below 200 kilometers and above 
1000 kilometers. A new analysis of the semi-annual density varia- 
tions at different height levels fails to show a dependence of the 
amplitude with the sunspot cycle. All difficulties are removed if it is 
assumed that the semiannual density variation is not a direct con- 
sequence of temperature variations. 

These are some highlights of science and technology at sao in 
1971. Meanwhile, the Observatory is planning new programs and 
new instrumentation to meet the challenges of astrophysics through 
the rest of the 1970s. One innovative project, conducted jointly with 
the University of Arizona, would result in the construction of a 
relatively inexpensive telescope of six 72-inch mirrors having the 
light-collecting capability of a 175-inch conventional instrument. 
Sao also expects to enter the field of millimeter astronomy, an 
exciting new venture. 



Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Fiscal Year 1971 was a year of rapid growth for the Tropical Re- 
search Institute (stri). Salaries and expenses grew by 20 percent, 
permanent staff grew by 21 percent, visitor days grew by 76 percent, 
staff seminars grew by 22 percent, and major new assets were 
acquired. 

NEW ASSETS 

The most significant development at stri in this fiscal year has 
been the construction of a new laboratory building on Naos Island. 
The building, scheduled for completion on 30 June, has 4700 square 
feet of floor space and is being constructed at a cost of $110,000. 



SCIENCE 



51 



Included are six general laboratories, a chemistry lab, three offices, 
and a conference room. The new building will be occupied by both 
marine and terrestrial biologists; the exchange of ideas and regular 
comparison of the different ecologies is something stri has desired 
for some time. Stri will continue to operate its facilities at Barro 
Colorado Island, Balboa, Galeta Point, and Cali, Colombia. 

A marine launch was obtained by stri from the Panama Canal 
Government on intergovernmental transfer in August. Valued at 
|29,000, the new ship can sleep eleven and range 400 miles. A re- 
search award from the Research Foundation was obtained for 
operating costs. The launch, formerly the Governor's yacht, has been 
converted to a research vessel and christened R. V. Tethys. Initial 
doubts have been dispelled as to the Tethy's utility for research; over 
3000 miles have already been logged in both oceans and as knowl- 
edge of her availability grows, unscheduled time is becoming non- 
existent. Stri now has 13 other boats, ranging from a launch licensed 
for 45 passengers to a cayuco licensed for none and used only by the 
courageous. 

Barro Colorado Island has been a national preserve for biological 
research since 1940. Its limits have recently been redefined by the 
Canal Zone Government to include the waters out to the channel 
markers on all sides of the island. This will give stri game wardens 
authority to eliminate such things as fishing and killing of crocodiles 
and tapirs in waters which are essential to the ecology of the Island. 
In addition, three large points of land across the ship channel from 
Barro Colorado Island have been leased to stri by the Canal Zone 
Government. Large portions of this land have been cleared fairly 
recently for lumber and cultivation. Grasslands and secondary 




R. V. Tethys at home port at Rodman Naval Base, Canal Zone (Pacific side). 



52 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

growth research, and investigations comparing the biota and environ- 
ment to Barro Colorado Island are planned for this area. 

A land lease to an extensive bunker system on Flamenco Island 
in Panama Bay was obtained. The bunkers will require extensive 
rehabilitation but are expected to be the eventual location of a 
Radiation Biology Laboratory monitoring site. 

RESEARCH 

Stri can fairly be considered the most outstanding research 
center investigating tropical evolutionary biology in the world. In 
fiscal 1971 two new programs have provided the stimulus for the 
development of an equally significant emphasis in ecological re- 
search. One has been a two-phase contract from the Environmental 
Protection Agency to study the effects of oil pollution on tropical 
shores, including Atlantic and Pacific intertidal reef communities, 
mangrove swamps, and sandy beaches. The first phase has provided 
a base analysis of temporal and spacial variability of species in com- 
munity structures. The second phase (the coming year) will involve 
monitoring the same variables while introducing bulk oil into 
experimental areas. The research team, which works mostly at the 
Galeta Point installation, includes three biologists and two tech- 
nicians. 

The other significant new program has been the stri component 
of the Environmental Sciences Program. The program is measuring 
physical-meteorological factors and correlating them with cycling 
and variation of the biota. The terrestrial portion of this program 
has included the initiation of rainfall, wind, humidity, evaporation 
and temperature measurement at various points on Barro Colorado 
Island and the evapotranspiration and nutrient loss from a stream 
basin. Measurements are being made in the same area of organic 
decomposition and population of soil organisms. Litter fall and the 
times of flowering, fruiting, and leaf production in the area are 
being extensively studied. Studies of insect abundance and diversity 
and the biota of some temporary, unstable ponds and a bat roost 
have also been included in the first year's study. 

In the marine area, tide pool analysis of species abundance, diver- 
sity, reproductive periods, and recruitment is being carried on. These 
data, together with a large portion of the data already gathered for 
the Environmental Protection Agency contract, will be correlated 
with a wide range of physical monitoring beginning in fiscal year 
1972. 



SCIENCE 



53 




Large wier constructed on Barro Colorado Island by Environmental Science 
Program employees. Evapotranspiration, nutrient loss, and stream bed biota are 
being monitored. 



There is a strong possibility that a major program on the tropical 
forest biome will soon be launched by the International Biological 
Program and that Barro Colorado Island will be one of the primary 
sites. Research projects are expected to be carried out on the island 
by numerous visiting scientists as well as stri staff members. Several 
stri research projects in human ecology and paleoecology will be 
correlated with the International Biological Program. 

The crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci), which has 
recently been so destructive to western Pacific coral reefs, has been 
the subject of continued study by Dr. Peter Glynn since his discovery 
of them in Central America in April 1970. Results show a stable 
population and that one large reef area, which was 80-percent con- 
sumed by Acanthaster had in large part been recolonized by young 
corals within a year. Dr. Glynn notes, however, that these reefs are 
free from human over-collecting, pollution, and coastal destruction, 
as well as from violent storms, all factors which have been cited as 
contributing to the devastation of western Pacific reefs. 

Significant progress has been made in comparative studies of the 



54 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Old World Tropics. Six members of our staff traveled to Europe, 
Asia, and Africa during the fiscal year in an effort to coordinate 
research programs with different institutions to encourage local 
scientists to pursue research projects in their areas. Dr. Moynihan 
made an extensive visit to establish contacts with various admini- 
strative officials and biologists at several educational and research 
institutions in the Ivory Coast, Madagascar, India, and New Guinea. 
As a result, stri has presented a substantial proposal for research 
in India using Public Law 480 funding. 

The use of the Colombia station in Cali quadrupled during the 
past year. More of our staff have visited Colombia with a view toward 
establishing new programs. Agreements with the University of El 
Valle and the Departmental Museum of Natural History have been 
initiated and considerable cooperation and progress has been 
attained. 

PERSONNEL 

Deputy Director Edward H. Kohn left stri in May to become a 
special assistant to Mr. Bradley. During Mr. Kohn's 30 months at 
stri, the bureau work force grew by 36 percent and the number of 
visitors increased by 39 percent. Mr. C. Neal McKinney joined the 
staff in February as administrative officer. Mr. McKinney's back- 
ground has been in personnel administration, most recently with 
the Environmental Protection Agency. In August, Dr. Judith Lang 
joined the staff. A specialist in deep water (slope) coral communities, 
she will continue to work primarily in Jamaica. In June, Dr. Hin- 
drik Wolda joined the staff. A specialist in population ecology, Dr. 
Wolda was a faculty member at the University of Groningen. 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 

The biosphere is an extremely complex dynamic structure which 
requires a large number of parameters to describe even partially its 
characteristics at any given geographical location or for a particular 
point in time. Nevertheless, organisms regulate their growth pat- 
terns to a large extent by responding to changing and interacting 
physical factors in the environment. Laboratory experiments in 
which environmental variables are precisely controlled have in- 
dicated clearly that light quality, intensity, and duration are im- 
portant signals or stimuli. In its new facility in Rockville, Maryland, 
the Radiation Biology Laboratory is continuing to probe these and 



SCIENCE 55 

other regulatory responses toward a better understanding of the 
molecular, biochemical, and biophysical processes occurring in living 
organisms at the cellular and subcellular levels. 

It is becoming increasingly more evident that a great deal more 
information is needed about daily and seasonal changes in spectral 
quality and also about differences in duration and quality of sunlight 
that occur naturally and about how these factors are instrumen- 
tal in regulating growth and development. 

From one latitude to another the light of the sun reaches the earth 
at different angles, consequently having traveled longer or shorter 
distances through the atmosphere. The quality of incident sunlight, 
because of these variances, and certainly the lengths of days, can be 
expected to differ significantly from one geographical location to 
another. In cooperation with the Environmental Sciences Program 
of the Smithsonian a solar radiation monitoring station was estab- 
lished at Barrow, Alaska, this year. Automatic measurements of the 
irradiance within six biologically important light wavelength bands 
are made at three-minute intervals from near sunrise to near sunset. 
Measuring at this high northerly latitude, with its relatively long 
light paths and comparing with values obtained at other latitudes 
will permit assessment concerning the significance of this environ- 
mental parameter in controlling growth and distribution of bio- 
logical systems. Such data also contribute to estimates of perturba- 
tions in daylight caused by man's intervention in the environment. 
There appear, from time to time, applications for these measure- 
ments of sunlight that have value and significance in other than 
biological fields. It is interesting to note, for example, that data were 
furnished for analysis in connection with possible environmental 
effects on the atmosphere by the projected supersonic transport. 

Light, in order to be effective in initiating regulatory responses, 
must be absorbed by cells of plants and animals. This year in the 
Radiation Biology Laboratory the pigment structures (phycobili- 
somes) in the red alga Porphyridium cruentum have been isolated 
for the first time in a pure state. When dissociated and analyzed 
they are composed almost entirely of the pigments phycoerythrin 
and phycocyanin. 

Carotenoids are found in almost every organism. The degradation 
product of one of these carotenoids, for example, is needed for 
vision in man and other vertebrates. In lower organisms light is 
often required for the synthesis of these pigments. The sequential 
biochemical pathway of carotenoid synthesis as regulated by light is 
being studied. Several new mutants of Neurospora crassa, albinos, 



56 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

yellows, and one pink, have been found that synthesize altered 
carotenoid contents. It has also been discovered that D,L, para- 
fluorophenylalanine, L-ethionine and D-ethionine inhibit the syn- 
thesis of carotenoids in light, and these compounds are being 
utilized to map the pathway of synthesis. 

Chloroplasts of higher plants are required for photosynthesis. The 
use of the antibiotics chloramphenicol and the cycloheximide in 
following the synthesis of chloroplast protein suggests that the 
enzyme ribulose-1, 5-diphosphate carboxylase occurs in part in the 
chloroplasts and in part in the cytoplasm. In contrast, the synthesis 
of chloroplast ribosomal proteins appears to occur entirely in the 
cytoplasm. It has further been found that the inability of aged 
leaves to photosynthesize is related to the loss of manganese. In addi- 
tion, the process of electron transport leading to photosynthetic 
oxygen evolution has been found to consist of at least two steps. 

In addition to these selected new research findings, it can be re- 
ported that laboratory facilities have been about 90 percent com- 
pleted. The major portions of the research activities of the Labora- 
tory have been reported at scientific meetings, both national and 
international and have been published in scientific journals. 



National Zoological Park 

Zoos are challenged to become net producers rather than net 
consumers of wildlife. As more species become rare or endangered 
in the wild, zoos cannot continue to replenish losses by additional 
captures. Acquisitions of some species are now restricted to zoos 
which seem competent to propagate them. 

While most species kept in zoos have reproduced, at least oc- 
casionally, sustained reproduction of most has not yet been achieved. 
In many cases, captive-born adults fail to mate and reproduce 
as well as wild-caught specimens. Each year, however, some addi- 
tional progress is achieved. 

This year the Division of Scientific Research reported the first 
captive breeding of the pacarana, second-generation captive births 
of the long-tailed tenrec, and third-generation births of Sminthopsis 
macrura, a mouse-like marsupial. Significant births and hatchings in 
the main collection included a pair of golden marmosets, a species in 
grave danger of extinction; two kagus, a rare bird from New 
Caledonia; and a tree kangaroo. 

The most significant additions to the collection were a group of 



SCIENCE 57 

bongos, rare antelopes seldom seen in zoos. Three were trapped by 
John Seago in Kenya, the culmination of a capture and conditioning 
effort that began in 1968. A fourth was obtained in West Africa. The 
Government of India presented the Zoo with a female lesser panda, 
a prospective mate for our single male. 

The scientific program yielded a number of staff publications re- 
porting earlier research. Resident Scientist John F. Eisenberg 
initiated a study of sloths in Panama, using radio telemetry to track 
them in the rain-forest canopy. The new method indicates density 
of sloths exceeding estimates made by earlier methods. 

During the year, the National Zoological Park began to emerge 
from a period of austerity. While there had been no reduction in 
the number of positions authorized by the Congress, personnel ceil- 
ings imposed in previous years required that a number of positions 
be left vacant. Recent increases in professional staff were, to some 
extent, made at the expense of other categories. Since standards of 
animal care could not be compromised, the pinch was left chiefly in 
maintenance of buildings and grounds. At the end of the fiscal year, 
the ceiling had been increased to 234 permanent positions, whereas 
the total authorized was 249. 

For the fourth consecutive year, there was no appropriation for 
capital construction, in keeping with wartime restrictions on federal 
building. Approximately $1.4 million of funds previously appro- 
priated were frozen, pending Congressional approval of revised 
construction plans, although sums were appropriated for renova- 
tions and repairs. 

In anticipation of future appropriations, the firm of Faulkner, 
Fryer and Vanderpool, Architects, and Lester Collins, Landscape 
Architect, were retained to redesign the Zoo's master plan. They will 
be guided by the admonition of the Commission of Fine Arts to 
emphasize the exhibition of animals in well-designed landscape 
settings and minimize the visual impact of buildings. Preliminary 
site plans had been completed at the end of the year. 

Attendance continued to increase, exceeding five million for the 
year. Since the zoo is open without charge, with multiple entrances, 
visitor counts are based on a sampling formula. The formula was 
developed some time ago, and there is reason to believe it now 
overestimates attendance. However, the increasing congestion of the 
zoo, and especially of its parking lots and roads, is evidence that 
crowds are larger each year. 

A firm of consulting engineers, having studied the traffic and park- 
ing problems, submitted a report with two principal recommen- 



53 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

dations. The first would replace the present scattered parking lots 
with a multi-level garage, providing more spaces. The second was an 
interim plan to improve traffic flow, making only minor modifications 
in present roads and parking lots. Both are under study, as is the 
further recommendation that a fee be charged for parking to offset 
costs of construction and service. 

In March, a new Department of Zoological Programs was estab- 
lished, combining the animal exhibit divisions and the divisions of 
Scientific Research, Animal Health, and Pathology. The new post 
of Assistant Director for Zoological Programs was created. Dr. John 
Eisenberg was named Acting during the recruiting period. 

Dr. Sam Weeks joined the staff as curator of birds and Mr. 
Harold Egoscue as curator of small mammals and primates. 

The Friends of the National Zoo (fonz) expanded their activi- 
ties in education and public service. More than 17,000 school chil- 
dren were conducted on planned tours by trained fonz guides. 
Fonz continues to man information posts and provide volunteers 
for after-hours "preg-watches" and "tiger sits." The area-wide school 
art show received many entries. The trackless trains began a second 
year of successful operation. At year's end, a new and much larger 
sales building for gifts, souvenirs, and balloons was completed and 
ready to open. 

Office of Environmental Sciences 

Studies of the consequences of man's major alteration of his en- 
vironment were initiated during this year, such as the study of the 
biology of the intermediate hosts of human parasitic diseases; 
schistosomiasis in relationship to the development of the Mekong 
River; the impact on their respective environments of the Volta 
River in Ghana, the Nairobi National Park in Kenya, the Special 
City of Seoul, Korea, the offshore oil exploration in Indonesia, and 
the Belem-Brazilia highway in Brazil. 

PROGRAM OFFICE OF ECOLOGY 

Remote sensing studies of vegetation of the Rhode River water- 
shed were carried out under a contract with nasa. A detailed survey 
of the vegetation of the watershed served as "ground truth" for 
environmental sensing from helicopters and aircraft using color and 
infrared film and image scanning in infrared. Identification of 
deciduous forest species by changes in spring and fall foliage colors 



SCIENCE kq 

was correlated with air photographs. A symposium for the Agency 
for International Development was convened to evaluate the po- 
tential contribution of remote sensing in resource development and 
in environmental planning in developing countries. 

A research program on biological control of nonagricultural pests 
was initiated, with an 8-month study of sciomyzid fly larvae which 
attack and kill snails. Studies were accomplished in Peru, Ghana, 
Indonesia, Australia, and the Mekong area in Thailand. 

Satellite tracking studies of migrating elk were carried out on 
contact with nasa. One wild elk was located by a satellite (Nimbus 
III) for one month and an additional animal was tracked by satellite 
during its early migration. 

An environmental program was developed, including recruitment 
and assignment of research ecologists, environmentalists, conserva- 
tionists, and biologists as Peace Corps volunteers. Participants with 
Masters or Doctors degrees or candidates for the degrees carry out 
research programs in the host countries which request them. To date 
120 volunteers have applied; fifteen countries have requested various 
types of research specialists, and volunteers have been sent or are 
preparing for their assignments. 

PROGRAM OFFICE OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND LIMNOLOGY 

Acquisition of the acrylic and aluminum research submersible, 
Johnson-Sea-Link, has provided a new Smithsonian capability for 
research in the marine environment. Conceived, engineered, and 
constructed in part by Edwin A. Link, and donated to the Smith- 
sonian, the vehicle incorporated a 66-inch diameter acrylic sphere, 
developed by the Navy, with an 8-foot cylindrical aluminum diver 
:ompartment, similar to the diver lockout system of Deep Diver. 
Fhe pilot and an observer in the forward compartment will have a 
:ull opportunity to place the vehicle into close proximity with the 
narine situation to be examined. Three divers are pressurized for 
excursions from the aluminum chamber, especially to collect geo- 
ogical and biological specimens and data. 

In support of the submersible, the Smithsonian, in cooperation 
vith Mr. Link, and the Harbor Branch Foundation, has acquired 
md is developing a marine facility near Fort Pierce, Florida. Consist- 
ng of about 250 acres of land on the Indian River Inland Water- 
vay, the improvements include two warehouse buildings for main- 
enance of the submarine and for associated underwater activities. 
^ laboratory building is under construction to house scientific in- 



441-283 O - 71 - 5 



60 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 




After the commissioning on 29 January 1971, submersible pilot John Fike and 
Florida Lieutenant Governor Thomas Adams, within the acrylic bubble, prepare 
for the launching of Johnson-Sea-Link from Mr. Edwin A. Link's vessel, Sea 
Diver. 



vestigations especially related to the field programs. A former Coast 
Guard Cutter, now called R/V Johnson, has been acquired and is 
being fully rebuilt at the facility for oceanographic work and as a 
submarine tender. 

In connection with the commissioning ceremonies for Johnson- 
Sea-Link, which were held on 29 January, Mr. Ripley awarded a 
newly established Smithsonian Institution medal to Mr. Link and to 
Mr. Seward Johnson, who had not only provided substantial support 
to the project but also gave an endowment for its operation. 

During the year, the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center 
(sosc) sent 219,708 specimens of algae, invertebrates, vertebrates, 
oceanic rocks, and photographs of the ocean bottom to 368 scientists 
for studies of the kinds, distributions, and populations of organisms 
of the world ocean. At the request of national and international 
organizations, sosc sent its supervisors to the Antarctic, the Pacific 
coast of Colombia, Staten Island, the Galapagos Islands, Panama, 
and many other localities to make collections or to obtain records of 
collections of scientific interest. 

The Smithsonian research vessel R/V Phykos spent the year in 



SCIENCE 



61 



Yugoslavia undergoing conversion into a modern oceanographic 
vessel. She will begin operations early next fiscal year as the 
principal biological collections vessel for the Cooperative Investiga- 
tions of the Mediterranean. 



THE CHESAPEAKE BAY CENTER FOR 
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 

A plan for a complete ecosystem study of the Rhode River Water- 
shed was developed as the primary research program of the Center, 
in cooperation with the Johns Hopkins University, The University 
of Maryland, and the U. S. Ceological Survey. The plan integrates 
the Center's scientific research program with data on land-use history, 
ecosystem structure and function, and socioeconomic trends and at- 
titudes in such a way that predictions can be made of the possible 
effects of proposed changes in land use in the watershed, as they 
occur with increased population density and diversification of 
human activities. The information gathered will be used in manag- 
ing the land and water resources of the estuary and its watershed, 
and should be applicable as a methodology for the study of other por- 
tions of the Chesapeake Bay. The study is expected to be a part of a 
major study of the total bay in cooperation with many other 
agencies. 

Substantial data has been gathered to aid management decisions 
regarding planning and zoning in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, 
and in the management of the Chesapeake Bay as a natural resource. 
Scientific information, collected by the Center, was instrumental 
in planning for the construction of tertiary sewage-treatment facili- 
ties for a housing project in the watershed, and for the planning of 
erosion control during construction of a powerline right-of-way. 
These actions represent valuable precedents in the application of 
research-produced information for purposes of environmental man- 
agement by industry and public agencies. 

The facilities of the Center were substantially expanded during 
the year with the addition of 507 acres of land, of leases, offices and 
of a small research vessel. 

Educational activities were accelerated with the offering of a 
course in estuarine ecology by the Biology Department of The 
Johns Hopkins University. Two postdoctoral fellows were supported 
at the Center by the Smithsonian Research Foundation. Six univer- 
sities in the Baltimore-Washington area utilized the Center for field 
work and the Center continued to provide instruction for children at 



52 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

the Human Resources Development Center of the Community 
Action Agency in Anne Arundel County. 

CENTER FOR SHORT-LIVED PHENOMENA 

The Center for Short-Lived Phenomena expanded its reporting 
network which now includes over 3000 scientists, scientific institu- 
tions, and field stations located in 148 countries on every continent 
and ocean of the world. 

The Center continues to communicate data and information on 
significant changes in biological and ecological systems, including 
rare or unusual animal migrations, population explosions, and major 
mortalities of flora and fauna, as well as volcanic eruptions, the birth 
of new islands, major fireball events and meteorite falls, and en- 
vironmental pollution events such as major oil spills, and pesticide 
and herbicide contaminations. 

During 1970, the Center reported 113 short-lived events that oc- 
curred in 48 countries. Scientific teams investigated at least 84 of the 
events. Forty-nine earth science events were described, as well as 
47 biological and 15 astrophysical events. 

Specimens of all six meteorites were recovered promptly and sent 
to laboratories for radioisotope analysis. Delay between the time of 
the fall of the objects and the time they arrived in measuring labo- 
ratories ranged from a few days to a few weeks. In addition, fireball 
ablation products were sampled in the atmosphere by high altitude 
air collection aircraft shortly after two major fireball events. 

The Center also reported other unusual geological events, includ- 
ing submarine volcanic activity in the Tonga Islands, major land- 
slides in Hungary and Nigeria, the Pozzoulli uplift near Naples in 
Italy, the Wolenchiti fracturing in Ethiopia, major floods and storm 
surges in Ecuador and Rumania, the drainage of a glacial lake in 
Alaska, a major typhoon in the Philippines and a series of major 
tidal waves in East Pakistan, as well as the discovery of the Guajaki 
tribe of Paraguay. 

A science teacher event-notification program was inaugurated to 
provide science teachers with up-to-date information on fast breaking 
natural events that would be of interest in their classrooms. Hun- 
dreds of science teachers use the Center's daily event cards as teach- 
ing tools to show the dynamic nature of the earth. The Center has 
also been involved with a number of international programs con- 
cerned with global environmental monitoring, such as the Inter- 
national Biological Program, unesco's "Man and the Biosphere" 



SCIENCE 



63 



program, and the National Academy of Sciences Environmental 
Monitoring Program. 



Center for the Study of Man 

During the past year the Center for the Study of Man has con- 
tinued to provide leadership for anthropologists and other scientists, 
who are seeking to bring their special skills and knowledge to the 
solution of major world problems. From 14-19 May 1971, Inter- 
national Advisory Board members of the Center met with members 
of two "task forces" on human fertility and environmental degrada- 
tion. Members of the Task Force on Human Fertility, representing 
24 institutions, prepared and discussed papers defining ways in 
which anthropologists could contribute to an understanding of the 
population problem. The result of their efforts is a forthcoming 
handbook containing guidelines for population research, including 
suggestions for analyzing and recycling field notes. 

The Task Force on the Environment, representing 15 institutions, 
mapped out a procedure for concentrating anthropological research 
on environmental problems. Present knowledge in this field was 
summarized and plans for future research were sketched. A con- 
ference will take place in October to further consolidate the efforts 
of this task force. 

At the urging of the International Advisory Board a third task 
force on education will be assembled during the coming year. This 
task force will conduct basic research on the problem of cultural 
transmission from generation to generation in the context of rapid 
culture change. 

The Center's American Indian Program has continued to serve 
Indians and the American public by distributing scholarly materials 
to them. A research program on Indian economic development is 
now also underway. All volume editors for the 18-volume Handbook 
of North American Indians have now been selected. The content 
for each volume is determined and contributors are now in the 
process of researching and writing. 

Results of the Center's Urgent Anthropology Program continue 
to be received, such as Frank Lobo's work with four of the last 
surviving Ahashamen Indians of San Juan Capistrano who still 
possess some knowledge of the Ahashamen language. Throughout 
the past year a total of 15 grants were made to carry out urgent 
anthropological research in 12 different countries. 



54 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

From 29 October to 1 November 1970, the Center brought 
together a working group of 20 anthropologists and film-makers. 
This three-day session developed guidelines for evaluating proposals 
involving anthropological film-making; it examined long range re- 
quirements for educational films in anthropology; and it planned the 
development of a National Anthropological Film Archive for re- 
search in anthropological film records and for the development of 
new educational films in anthropology. 

Science Information Exchange 

The Exchange completed seven years under the contractual au- 
thority of the National Science Foundation. Beginning in FY 1972 
the total responsibility for support and operation of the Exchange 
will be centered under the authority of the Smithsonian Institution. 
During the year the Science Information Exchange (sie) was in- 
corporated under the laws of the District of Columbia. 

Demand for sie services increased substantially, especially in 
catalog and thesaurus development. Several new output products 
were designed to make sie information more readily available to 
scientists and research administrators. A complete microfilm record 
of ongoing biomedical research accompanied by a printed index was 
introduced to be printed and distributed by a commercial contractor. 
Pre-run searches on timely topics were announced in appropriate 
journals and newsletters, with very good results and expanded de- 
mands for this new information product. 

Particularly noteworthy has been the increasing interest in the 
Exchange's data bank by overseas organizations. Negotiations have 
been initiated for sale of tape records in several foreign countries. 
It is anticipated that the international information exchange will 
accelerate. 

All records, in full text, are now in computer storage and can be 
selected and printed on demand. Information input and output is 
via video terminals that can be readily adapted to on-line remote 
interrogation whenever demand develops. 

An intensified program of articles about sie and announcements 
by mail have substantially increased awareness and usage of sie 
services throughout the scientific and lay communities. 



HISTORY AND ART 



A s shown by the individual reports that follow, the past year was 
one of satisfying accomplishments by the history and art bureaus 
of the Institution. Some milestones, such as the completion of the 
first volume of the Joseph Henry Papers and the preparation of the 
first complete guide to the archives of the Smithsonian, were reached 
during the year. Additions to the national collections of historical, 
artistic, and archival material continued at an impressive rate. 
Exhibitions both major and minor in the Museum of History and 
Technology, the National Collection of Fine Arts, and the National 
Portrait Gallery were well received by critics and the public alike. 
The educational and scholarly activities that form so important a 
part of the responsibilities of our museums and other bureaus re- 
ceived continuing emphasis and led to a number of distinguished 
publications. 

The past year was also notable in terms of new physical facilities. 
Early in the year the Cooper Hewitt Museum accomplished its move 
from the Cooper Union to the Carnegie and Miller Houses with 
almost miraculous economy and efficiency. Construction continued 
on the Hirshhorn Museum, which by year's end had emerged above 
ground level; the opening of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden is planned for 1973. Basic work on the Renwick Gallery was 
completed and an opening is planned for the winter of 1971, follow- 
ing the final restoration and decoration of the interior and the 
installation of exhibits. 

A special word should be said about the Smithsonian's plans for 
the Bicentennial of the American Revolution, which involve many 
parts of the Institution in addition to its history and art bureaus. 
The Bicentennial offers the Smithsonian a unique opportunity and 
an urgent duty. We must use our vast resources, and enlist the re- 
sources of others, to help rediscover and illuminate our national 
achievements. The theme of the Smithsonian's Bicentennial celebra- 
tion is the American experience; its purpose will be, in President 
Nixon's words, "a new understanding of our heritage." 

For this effort, the Smithsonian Institution is providentially well 
prepared. It is a remarkably comprehensive group of enterprises 

65 



66 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

surveying every aspect of man's life and work— his social, political, 
and military institutions; his fine arts, his applied arts, his per- 
forming arts; his use of natural resources; and his adventures of 
exploration on this planet and into outer space. The Smithsonian 
Institution has a long and rich tradition of free interchange of ideas 
with the world of learning. It has been a center for the study of 
resources, natural and human, of the whole continent. The 
Smithsonian, as the repository for myriad objects sacred to our 
history and illustrative of the American experience since the be- 
ginning, is preeminent among the museums of the world and second 
to none in the number of its visitors. All of this gives us a special 
responsibility of which we are deeply mindful. 

During the past year, preliminary work was begun on a number of 
special Bicentennial activities. These included special exhibitions 
in the Museum of History and Technology, the Museum of Natural 
History, the Arts and Industries Building, and the National Air and 
Space Museum. Planning continued for the development of Bicen- 
tennial Park on the banks of the Potomac, and authorizing legisla- 
tion to this end was submitted by the Regents on the advice of the 
National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board. The Institution's 
art bureaus are collaborating in the preparation of an unprecedented 
Bicentennial Survey of American Art, which will include an in- 
ventory of American paintings before 1914, a catalog of revolutionary 
era portraits, and a bibliography of American art. With continuing 
support from the Congress and the American Revolution Bicenten- 
nial Commission, the Smithsonian's role in the celebration of the 
200th birthday of our nation will receive increasing emphasis in the 
years between now and 1976. 



The National Museum of History and Technology 

In the fiscal year 1971 a major endeavor of the professional staff 
of The National Museum of History and Technology was the 
development of plans for a variety of ambitious exhibitions and 
special projects to commemorate the forthcoming American Revolu- 
tion Bicentennial. These will be concerned not only with the per- 
sonalities and events of the era of the Revolutionary War, but will 
provide a broader understanding of American achievement over the 
succeeding two centuries. A preliminary step to planning was the 
successful completion of an inventory of the national collections to 
identify and select available and appropriate materials for the proj- 
ects in progress. 



HISTORY AND ART 



67 



An opportunity to undertake a major revision of the exhibition 
halls in the central segment of the third floor made possible a 
reorganization of subject content under the conceptual theme of 
communication. Existing exhibits are being modified and supple- 
mented, as well as relocated, and a major portion of the Museum's 
exhibit effort in the forthcoming year will be directed to the com- 
pletion of this project. 

Two major events which highlighted the Museum's activities 
during the year were special exhibits developed in the Department 
of Cultural History. Both were memorable because of the novelty 
of their subject matter and their reminiscent appeal. 

"Do It The Hard Way: Rube Goldberg and Modern Times," 
which opened in November, was dedicated to the famous cartoonist 
whose name has become part of the language. The exhibit featured 
a montage of Goldberg's original drawings and published cartoons, 
his sculpture, realizations of some of the fantastic comic-page in- 
ventions for which he was widely known, and other memorabilia 
illustrating the cartoonist's many-faceted social commentaries and 
observations on the absurdities of human nature. A film supplemen- 




Rube Goldberg's elaborate picture-taking contraption with which visitors were 

photographed. 



68 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 



ting the tangible elements of the exhibit captured the essence of 
Goldberg's personality and achievements. Produced by Karen Love- 
land and Benjamin W. Lawless of the Office of Exhibits, the film won 
a cine Golden Eagle Award and has been submitted to three in- 
ternational film festivals. The attractive catalog describing the 
exhibit, produced by Peter G. Marzio and Anne C. Golovin, received 
a Certificate of Award from the Printing Institute of America in the 
one and two color brochure and catalog category. Among the most 
popular aspects of the exhibit were a Goldberg signature-machine 
which visitors could operate, and an elaborate picture-taking con- 
traption by which visitors were photographed. 

"Music Machines— American Style," which opened in April, is an 
ongoing special exhibit depicting the development of mechanical 
and electronic devices and machines by means of which popular 
music was recorded, reproduced, and transmitted in America. A 
theater within the exhibition presents a program of clips of famous 
musical productions of the 1930's and of the period 1940-1960. 

The past year also witnessed the opening of two permanent 




By the 1890s talking machines shown in "Music Machines— American Style" 
were entertaining thousands of Americans at home, penny arcades, and phono- 
graph parlors. 



HISTORY AND ART 



69 



exhibition halls and the creation of several popular special exhibits, 
representing a wide range of curatorial interests. The first segment 
of the new Hall of Electricity which was opened in December focuses 
on the mystery and fascination of electrical science through the mid- 
nineteenth century. Featured are a working reproduction of an 
electric motor designed by Benjamin Franklin, and a number of 
visitor-operated displays. Dominating the entrance is a tableau 




The entrance to the Hall of Electricity is dominated by this operating recon- 
struction of a typical 18th-century parlor demonstration: The Electric Kiss. 



70 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

demonstrating the "electric kiss"— a preoccupation of the 18th cen- 
tury. The first in a series of changing exhibits entitled "Contem- 
porary Counterparts of Early American Craftsmen" was added to 
the popular Hall of Everyday Life in the American Past. A major 
segment added to the Hall of Ceramics and Glass was a unique 
collection of yellow-glazed English earthenware of the 1785-1835 
period donated by Eleanor and Jack Leon. 

Three hundred years of South Carolina paper currencies was the 
subject of an exhibit in the Hall of Numismatics. A joint venture 
was undertaken with the philatelic services of five Scandinavian 
countries in the production of an exhibit on the "Stamps and Posts 
of Scandinavia." A splendid collection of ceramic and silver tureens 
from the Campbell Museum collection was featured in a special 
exhibit which opened in June. 

The historical significance of American holidays is the theme of 
an ongoing series of colorful popular exhibits at the Mall entrance 
to the Museum. These have included among others, an exhibit about 
Fourth of July celebrations, which featured music, slides, and 
original objects relating to the Declaration of Independence, and a 
dual exhibit commemorating the birthdays of George Washington 
and Abraham Lincoln, again showing many original objects as- 
sociated with these patriots. 

An innovation is a series of departmental exhibit cases changed 
monthly by the curatorial staff in which recent additions to the 
national collections are displayed and acknowledged. 

Numerous small individual exhibits reflected a wide range of 
interest in various parts of the Museum, ranging from the photo- 
graphic work of Stephen Whealton and of Janine Niepce to the 
national concern for accurate measurement and protection of the 
country's water supply. Yet others ranged from the 100th anniver- 
sary of the civil engineer, Benjamin Wright, to "Poetry of the 
Body," a series of anatomical drawings by Paul Peck. 

The Division of Musical Instruments continued to supplement 
their displays of instruments with a program of three concerts 
produced in cooperation with the Smithsonian Associates. The 
Energy Conversion Exhibit was reassembled into a colorful traveling 
version, representing the first technical traveling exhibit from this 
Museum, and it has been enthusiastically received. 

The presentation of the Secretary's Gold Medal to Howard I. 
Chapelle, Senior Historian of the Department of Science and Tech- 
nology on 30 November marked the retirement of one of America's 



HISTORY AND ART 



71 




Figure of Benjamin Franklin, circa 1780-1790 by Ralph Wood, Jr. This fine 
figure is important not only because of its American association, but also because 
it is an outstanding example of 18th-century English ceramic art and technology. 



72 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 




Massachusetts Bay Colony note dated 3 February 1690, acquired for the 

numismatics collections. 



most distinguished marine historians. Mr. Chapelle will, however, 
continue to work in the Museum as Historian Emeritus. 

John T. Schlebecker, Jr., curator of the Division of Agriculture 
and Mining, received the American Library Association's Oberley 
prize for his bibliography on the history of agriculture. He also 
completed a catalog of agricultural implements in the Museum's 
collections. 



HISTORY AND ART 



73 




^ y^r? 



Jk^ y< 



Envelope carried by the famed Pony Express in June 1861. The cover bears a 
patriotic emblem of a type popular during the Civil War period, a two-dollar 
Wells Fargo stamp, and an embossed ten-cent U.S. stamp. 



Two Smithsonian Research Foundation grants were given, for 
the purpose of examining baroque organs in Mexico, and another 
to study family records of a 19th century mid-western German im- 
migrant cabinetmaker. 

During the summer of 1970 an institute for college teachers on the 
history of technology was conducted. The annual meeting of the 
National Society for Historical Archeology, locally sponsored by the 
Department of Cultural History, was held in Washington with 
participation by several members of the Museum staff. 

Staff interest and involvement in the Museum's Bicentennial 
planning greatly influenced the maintenance and expansion of the 
national collections, to which 540,939 objects were added within the 
past year. Significant additions relating to the Revolutionary War 
period included an appliqued quilt-top made of rare examples of 
early American textile printing, typical of the designs of John 
Hewson, Philadelphia textile printer and patriot of the American 
Revolution. A Dutch loom, dated 1730, presently being restored, 
will be displayed in the Hall of Textiles to demonstrate the pro- 
duction of 18th-century fabrics. Other significant acquisitions in- 
clude a Revolutionary War period sweetmeat dish manufactured by 
America's premier porcelain manufacturer, Bonnin and Morris of 
Philadelphia, and a figure of Benjamin Franklin modeled between 



74 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

1780 and 1790 by Ralph Wood, Jr. An important collection of 18th 
century clothing was acquired by the Division of Costume. 

An important acquisition was a Massachusetts Bay Colony note 
dated 3 February 1690. This note is of extraordinary importance 
since it typifies an American venture in publicly-authorized paper 
money which predates the issuance of paper currencies by the Bank 
of England in 1694 and the Bank of Scotland in 1696 highlighting 
the difference between a publicly authorized issue and an issue by 
privately owned and operated banks. America was to become the 
proving ground for paper economics. 

The Division of Political History received an unusually important 
donation of a group of sixty-five pieces of china owned by President 
Millard Fillmore. An interesting group of documents, photographs, 
and campaign memorabilia was the gift of the League of Women 
Voters. 

A noteworthy acquisition by the Division of Postal History was an 
envelope carried by the storied Pony Express in the period 1860- 
1861, as well as an airmail stamp of Newfoundland, issued in 1919 
for the first nonstop transatlantic flight. 

Archives of American Art 

The past year, the first spent by the Archives of American Art as 
a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, was a period of establishing 
residence, organizing a Washington office staff, and working out new 
procedures in the handling of both administrative and archival 
details. By July 1971 it had become an integral part of the Smith- 
sonian's research facilities and its resources were being intensively 
used by staff and fellows of the National Collection of Fine Arts, 
the National Portrait Gallery, and the National Gallery of Art, by 
faculty and graduate students at local universities, and by scholars 
from such places as New York, Chicago, San Francisco, New Orleans, 
Seattle, London, and Stockholm. 

The year was also marked by the establishment of a branch office 
in Boston, an addition to other regional offices in New York and 
Detroit where researchers regularly consult Archives resources 
duplicated on microfilm. Branch offices are also the chief means of 
acquiring collections of artists' and dealers' personal and business 
papers. The opening of the Boston office thus represents an im- 
portant new source of archival records which, after being organized 
and filmed at the Washington center, are offered to scholars on a 
national basis. 

Among significant collections of papers received by the Archives 



HISTORY AND ART 75 

during the year are those of John Taylor Arms, Arthur G. Dove, Guy 
Pene Du Bois, G. P. A. Healy, J. Alden Weir, and of two major New 
York dealers, the Kootz Gallery and the Howard Wise Gallery. 

The Archives also continued its oral history project, a large por- 
tion of it under a grant from the New York State Council on the 
Arts. Extended tape recorded interviews, later transcribed, were 
conducted with ten art administrators and ten printmakers, photog- 
raphers, and craftsmen, all from the New York area. Other indi- 
viduals participating in this project were Leo Castelli, Ralph Colin, 
Huntington Hartford, August Heckscher, James Thrall Soby, and 
E. M. M. Warburg. 

Freer Gallery of Art 

Research, curatorial, and exhibition activities of the Freer Gallery 
of Art continued this year as in the past. We were all saddened by 
the death of Mrs. Agnes E. Meyer who was both a good friend and 
patron of the Gallery. Mrs. Meyer was born in New York City in 
1887. During most of her lifetime she had a keen interest in Far 
Eastern art and published Chinese Painting as Reflected in the 
Thought and Art of Li-Lung-Mien in 1923. Mrs. Meyer first met Mr. 
Freer in January, 1913, and from that moment on their lives were 
closely allied in the search and study of Far Eastern art. Following 
Mr. Freer's death in 1919, Mrs. Mever continued to serve as an ad- 
visor and was mentioned in Mr. Freer's will as one of the five people 
who were permitted to make gifts of objects to the collection. Mrs. 
Meyer was the last living person officially associated with the Gallery 
who also knew Mr. Freer. During her lifetime and as part of her 
bequest, Mrs. Meyer greatly enriched the collection of the Freer 
Gallery of Art. 

In the course of the year a committee known as the Visiting Com- 
mittee of the Freer Gallery of Art was established. It will be chaired 
by The Honorable Hugh Scott, Senator from Pennsylvania, and the 
other members are as follows: Laurence Sickman, Director, William 
Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art; Mrs. Jackson Burke, collector; 
Chang Kwang-chih, Professor, Department of Anthropology, Yale 
University; Miss Edith Ehrman, Manager, Foreign Area Materials 
Center, State Education Department, University of the State of 
New York; Marvin Eisenberg, Professor, History of Art, University 
of Michigan; Mrs. Katharine Graham, Publisher, The Washington 
Post; John Rosenfield, Professor of Oriental Art, Harvard Univer- 
sity. They will meet regularly and serve in an advisory capacity. 



441-283 O - 71 - 6 



76 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

A major achievement was the publication of Museums of the 
World, The Freer Gallery of Art, Part I; China, and Part II: Japan, 
printed in Japanese in collaboration with Kodansha, Tokyo. The 
English edition of Part I has also been released and Part II will 
follow in the coming year. 



National Collection of Fine Arts 

The Director reported to a Congressional Committee in July that 
the mission of the National Collection of Fine Arts (ncfa) is to 
preserve, study, and make known the art of the nation. To preserve 
art, however, is not to maintain a static situation; a museum is too 
often misunderstood as a mausoleum, the antithesis of creative 
activity. Although the physical objects must indeed be protected 
with care, they cease to be of value (in fact, to be works of art) if 
the spirit that marked their creation does not persist. Creativity is an 
action and can be apprehended only by an active mind, a mind set 
free to explore, discover, savor, and judge. It is this creative spirit, 
with its many shades and directions weaving through our changing 
culture over the past three hundred years, that the museum in its 
varied activities wishes to keep alive, to make accessible to the gen- 
eral public, the children and youth in the schools, and the specialized 
scholar. 

The creative spirit of America in the 19th century can be seen 
in new accessions such as those of Rembrandt Peale, Philip Tilyard, 
and William Henry Rinehart, and in the 20th century in such recent 
acquisitions as Helen Frankenthaler's acrylic, Blessing of the Fleet, 
and new print acquisitions of Werner Drewes, George Rickey, 
Robert Rauschenberg, Carol Summers, and others, all shown in new 
gallery arrangements. In the course of the year, 583 works were 
acquired. 

Two creative Americans who lived abroad at a time when they 
were little appreciated at home were restored to public attention 
through comprehensive exhibitions: "H. Lyman Sayen (1875-1918)," 
and "Romaine Brooks (1874-1970)." The first director of the ncfa, 
William Henry Holmes, was honored by an exhibition of his water- 
colors in the new print and drawing gallery. Among other exhibi- 
tions were "Jasper Cropsey," "John Marin," "Small Sculpture and 
Drawings of Paul Manship," "Prints from the Venice Bienale 
Workshop," arranged by the International Art Program, and "West 
Coast Print Makers," an exhibition circulated by the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 



HISTORY AND ART 



77 




School children recreating Alexander Liberman's sculpture, Equipoise (in back- 
ground) during an "improvisational tour" in the National Collection of Fine 
Arts. 



A formal program for research scholars was begun under the 
leadership of a coordinator of research, and seven scholars are now 
studying, lecturing, and publishing at ncfa in the field of American 
art history. "Walking Seminars," a program using the museum to 
supplement college art departments in the Washington area, was 
begun in the spring, and exhibitions of "High School Graphics II" 
and "Early Work— Art by Students in D.C. Grade Schools" were 



78 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

organized and exhibited at the ncfa. Any notion that the museum 
is regarded as a mausoleum was wiped out forever on 8 May when 
an awesome 7,600 children and parents actively participated in the 
"fun-filled day of art experiences" which was Children's Day at the 
National Collection of Fine Arts. 

As the year ended, the 27 June opening of the major summer 
exhibition, "Hidden Aspects of the National Collection of Fine 
Arts," attracted 2,300 visitors. This exhibition of more than 200 
objects was intended to acquaint the public with the surprising 
range of the ncfa collections. It included Renaissance jewelry, 
ancient Chinese glass, European paintings of the 17th through 19th 
centuries, and the American folk art masterpiece by James Hampton, 
"Throne of the Third Heaven of the Nation's Millennium General 
Assembly." 

During this past fiscal year the Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Services (sites) has been re-designated an office of the 
National Collection of Fine Arts and has moved its offices from the 
Mall to the Studio House of Alice Pike Barney which was given to 
the Smithsonian by her daughters. 

Sites circulated 116 exhibitions to museums and educational in- 
stitutions throughout the United States and Canada. Smithsonian 
units are contributing more than ever before to the organization of 
exhibitions for circulation by sites. "Indian Images," "The Genteel 
Female," "Creative Printmaking in Pakistan," "Energy Conversion," 
"James Weldon Johnson," and "Paintings by Edwin Scott" are new 
sites exhibitions which have been originated by Smithsonian de- 
partments. These exhibitions have had their initial showings at the 
Smithsonian before beginning their tours. "U. S. World War I 
Posters" was prepared from Smithsonian collections especially for a 
sites tour. The addition of these exhibitions to those already in 
circulation brings the total of Smithsonian exhibitions in sites' 
program to 14. 

Sites has acquired for travel 28 new exhibitions and has returned 
23 exhibitions to their lenders. The tours of the returned exhibitions 
have ranged from 18 months to 6 years. Thirty-five of sites' exhibi- 
tions are of foreign origin; five of these are new exhibitions. 



National Portrait Gallery 

During the past year the Gallery mounted two major exhibitions, 
as well as two smaller undertakings designed primarily for our 
secondary school audience, and acquired fifty portraits. 



HISTORY AND ART 79 

"The Life Portraits of John Quincy Adams" was the exhibition 
held at the Gallery in the fall. It coincided with the publication of a 
book on the same subject by Andrew Oliver, a member of the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery Commission, published by the Belknap Press 
of Harvard University. On the afternoon of the opening, President 
and Mrs. Nixon gave a party at the White House for about 40 mem- 
bers of the Adams family as well as members of the Gallery's staff. 
A five-minute filmed review of the exhibition was shown on the 
nbc nightly news by John Chancellor. The portraits of Henry Ben- 
bridge, a comparatively little known painter of the period of the 
American Revolution whose major activity was in Charleston, South 
Carolina, were shown in the Spring. Both exhibitions were ac- 
companied by full scale publications; the former, designed by Miss 
Crimilda Pontes of the Smithsonian Institution Press, was chosen as 
one of the twenty-two most handsomely produced university publica- 
tions of the year by the Association of American University Presses. 

The two secondary school oriented exhibitions were devoted to 
the pioneering conservationist John Muir and the composer and 
civil rights leader James Weldon Johnson. Brochures were produced 
for both of these exhibitions. 

The most notable acquisitions of the year were two presidential 



James Monroe by John Vanderlyn 
(NPG. 70.59). 



80 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

portraits. The first of these is Gilbert Stuart's painting of John 
Adams, begun during Adams' presidency in 1798, but not completed 
until about 1815 or later by the artist's daughter Jane Stuart. The 
second is an 1816 portrait of James Monroe by John Vanderlyn. 
Both were acquired from direct descendants of the subjects. 

Several portraits were transferred from The National Museum of 
History and Technology. Perhaps the most important of these is a 
self-portrait of Eastman Johnson, one of the greatest American 
painters of the 19th century. A Thomas Hicks portrait of Edwin 
Booth as Iago was loaned by the Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decora- 
tive Arts and Design. 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

During fiscal year 1971, thirty percent of the construction of the 
Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden was completed 
and preparations continued for the opening in 1973. A change in 
the design of the sculpture garden has been agreed upon which will 
place it parallel to the building rather than traversing the Mall. 

The director and his staff examined several thousand paintings 
and selected about 600 for possible inclusion in the opening exhibi- 
tion, scheduled for May 1973. Present plans call for approximately 
500 paintings and 500 sculptures to be included. Initial selection of 
sculpture will begin shortly. These preliminary selections will be 
researched, processed, and pertinent background data compiled on 
each work of art. 

Preparation was begun of the opening exhibition catalog, with 
decisions being made as to format, size, and selection of photo- 
graphs. The task is a formidable one because of the large number 
of works of art to be included in the opening show. 

Approximately 70 percent of the collection has been inventoried 
and photographed. The documentation of each work of art provides 
detailed data for location, identification, and condition. Methods 
are being developed to permit electronic retrieval of photographs 
and data. 

Although the present interim period is one in which it is diffi- 
cult for the staff to provide information and loans, more than 225 
requests for research information and photographs were answered. 
Some 100 scholars, artists, and officials visited the museum office and 
warehouse in New York. Seventy-three paintings and sculptures 
were loaned to 45 museums, galleries, and institutions. Approxi- 
mately 1,200 persons attended 15 benefit tours for educational, 






HISTORY AND ART 



81 




Head of a Queen. Bronze, 18V4 inches 
high. Benin, Nigeria. 

cultural, and philanthropic organizations at the Hirshhorn Sculp- 
ture Garden in Connecticut. 



Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative 
Arts and Design 

Many months were spent preparing for Cooper-Hewitt's move to 
the Carnegie and Miller houses on upper Fifth Avenue. The study 
collections were installed in Miller House and are open to the public 
by appointment. The staff is engaged in planning for the Museum's 
reopening following the renovation of the Carnegie mansion. A 
grant of $100,000 from the New York State Council on the Arts has 
enabled the Museum to launch studies and conferences leading to a 
clear definition of direction. 



82 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

In order to continue maximum display and interest in the col- 
lections, extended loans were made to the Metropolitan Museum, 
National Collection of Fine Arts, Brooklyn Museum, Philadelphia 
Museum, Hudson River Museum, University of Michigan, and the 
Fogg Art Museum at Harvard University. 

Four special exhibitions were sent to the following: Wellesley 
College, "Master Drawings: The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies"; 
Ithaca College, "Drawn from Nature/Drawn from Life"; New York 
Cultural Center, "Selections from the Cooper-Hewitt Museum"; 
American Federation of Arts, a circulating exhibition, "Master 
Printmakers from the Cooper-Hewitt Museum." 

Objects from the collection were also included in major exhibi- 
tions at museums in this country and abroad: National Gallery of 
Art, Metropolitan Museum, Morgan Library, High Museum, Mu- 
seum of American Folk Art, Finch College, Cranbrook Academy, 
Victoria & Albert Museum, Brighton Pavilion, Montreal Museum 
of Fine Arts, and the Musee des Arts Decoratifs in Paris. 

The Museum has acquired 1,522 works of art through the kind- 
ness of its friends. The most outstanding of these are 104 costume 
and stage designs, gifts of the designers, which include Charles Le 
Maire, Ben Edwards, Miles White, Robert O'Hearn, and Freddy 
Wittop; 59 prints by Luigi Rossini; 49 Daumier lithographs; 27 
embroidered samplers from the Coe collection; a Persian 17th- 
century fragment of textile; a 1930s silk screen panel by Ruth 
Reeves; 560 embroideries and laces from the collection of Marian 
Hague; an English mahogany breakfront of the mid- 18th century; a 
Louis XVI Secretaire a abattant; a 19th-century cabinet by L. Sou- 
brier & Cie.; a combination birdcage-fishbowl of the early 19th 
century; a pair of Belter armchairs; 14 pieces of Greek ceramics 
ranging from 14th century b. c. to 4th century b. c. 

One hundred seventy-six volumes were added to the library. The 
most noteworthy gifts were 21 cartons of auction catalogs and 
decorative arts books from the Queens College Library and 38 books 
on 19th century world fairs from the Cooper Union Library. The 
Museum received a $92,000 grant from the Samuel H. Kress Founda- 
tion for a Textile Conservation Laboratory. 

The American Institute of Interior Designers has elected Mrs. Lisa 
Taylor, the director, to honorary membership. Mrs. Elaine Dee, 
curator of Prints and Drawings, and Mrs. Catharine Frangiamore, 
assistant curator of Decorative Arts, were awarded grants to partici- 
pate in international conferences abroad. 

As a new neighbor in Carnegie Hill, the Museum has sponsored 



HISTORY AND ART 83 

a series of tours, lectures, children's classes, festivals, and other 
events as a means of winning new friends and cultivating prospective 
supporters. An initial membership group has been formed involving 
neighborhood families who use the garden and assist in various 
volunteer capacities. 

The Museum has provided facilities for the Guggenheim Mu- 
seum's summer program for inner-city children and for activities of 
the Museums Collaborative and a number of other professional 
organizations. 

An Outdoor Sculpture Symposium, the first of its kind in New 
York, is underway on the grounds. Four master sculptors, Phillip 
Pavia, Minoru Niizuma, Karl Prantl, and Paul Jenkins are de- 
lighting sidewalk superintendents with their work. 

Visitors have increased since the Cooper-Hewitt moved to its new 
location. The staff looks forward to the formal opening of the 
"national museum of design" and hopes that the Museum will be 
an even larger force in the future than it has been in the past. 



National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 

Legislation in the form of S. 2153 was introduced into the 92nd 
Congress to authorize establishment of a National Historical 
Museum Park, to be known as Bicentennial Park, and to designate 
the study center authorized under Section 2 (a) of Public Law 87- 
186 as the Dwight D. Eisenhower Institute for Historical Research. 

The Institute, commemorating our thirty-fourth president, who 
contributed so much to the shaping of a free world, is intended to 
promote study of the interaction of military thought and policy with 
the overall American historical experience. During the Bicentennial 
period, special emphasis will be placed on study of the American 
Revolution, not only as a military contest but as a profound social 
upheaval with consequences touching every aspect of human life. 

Staff members and visiting scholars would participate in a broad 
program of conferences and lectures held under the auspices of the 
Institute, probing the revolutionary experience, not just as a matter 
of battles lost or won, but from the point of view of its full impact 
upon the new and the old worlds— militarily, politically, economi- 
cally, culturally, and scientifically. 

Bicentennial Park and the Eisenhower Institute together will 
offer a rare opportunity to develop integrated collections and pro- 
grams designed to contribute to a broader understanding of the 



84 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

American past— an understanding vitally necessary in order to ad- 
vance intelligently and confidently into the future. 



Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 

The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, created 
by the Congress in October 1968 to be a living memorial "expressing 
the ideals and concerns of Woodrow Wilson . . . symbolizing and 
strengthening the fruitful relation between the world of learning and 
the world of public affairs" opened its doors on 19 October 1970, 
with some 25 scholars from this country and abroad. 

The theme of the Center's fellowship program is designed to ac- 
centuate those aspects of Wilson's ideals and concerns for which he 
is perhaps best remembered a half century after his presidency: his 
search for international peace and the imaginative new govern- 
mental approaches he used to meet pressing issues of his day. In the 
opening period the Board of Trustees is particularly encouraging 
substantial studies on (1) the development of international under- 
standing, law and cooperation in ocean space; (2) man's relations 
and response to his deteriorating environment, with special attention 
to the new forms of international cooperation needed to address 
effectively those environmental problems that transcend boundaries; 
and (3) various approaches to the problems of international peace- 
keeping and post- Vietnam United States foreign policy. 

On 18 February 1971, the Center was officially dedicated by Presi- 
dent Richard M. Nixon. 

Throughout the first 8 months of its life, the Center has sponsored 
a number of seminars, symposia, and public discussions in fulfill- 
ment of its Congressional mandate to be a "bridge" between the 
world of learning and the world of public affairs. 



Joseph Henry Papers 

Volume I of the Joseph Henry Papers was completed, and the text 
prepared for transmission to the Smithsonian Press, during this 
fiscal year. The approximately 250 items start with Henry's baptismal 
record and end with his resignations from offices in Albany, New 
York, in preparation for his departure to Princeton in 1832. In addi- 
tion to many letters of great biographic importance, the volume will 
contain three unpublished lectures, notes of scientific work, and 



HISTORY AND ART 85 

documents of both the Albany Institute and the Albany Academy. 
Approximately one half of the volume will consist of the editor's 
commentary and annotations. Perhaps the most significant theme 
in the volume is Henry's view of science and its relations to society. 
As a case study in provincial culture, the volume has much fresh 
evidence on American culture and society as it is by no means limited 
to the detailing of Henry's scientific work. 



Office of American Studies 

The Office of American Studies conducts a formal graduate pro- 
gram in material culture of the United States which is directed to 
the original Smithsonian purpose: "the increase and diffusion of 
knowledge among men." Graduate students from George Washing- 
ton University, Georgetown University, American University, the 
University of Maryland, Catholic University, and the University of 
Texas participated in the program, gaining academic credit toward 
advanced degrees at those universities. The basic seminar in "Ma- 
terial Aspects of American Civilization" this year examined the 
material culture of the working class. Research seminars in "Amer- 
ican Technology and Its Cultural Impact" and "The Physical City: 
An Approach to American Urban History" were also given, all 
under the direction of Harold Skramstad. 

During the spring semester, a seminar in "Historical Uses of 
Vernacular Architecture" was conducted by Gary Carson, Coordi- 
nator of Research of the St. Mary's City Commission. The Office of 
American Studies is cooperating with the St. Mary's City Commis- 
sion in a long-range project to study St. Mary's City, the 17-century 
capital of Maryland, by means of historical archeology, architectural 
history, and archival research. In addition to participating in formal 
seminars, individual graduate students carried on reading and re- 
search projects under the direction of members of the staff of the 
Office of American Studies and of the various Smithsonian museums. 



Office of Academic Studies 

The Office of Academic Studies, formerly the Division of Graduate 
Studies of the Office of Academic Programs, is directed by the newly 
established Board of Academic Studies in the conduct of the Institu- 
tion's higher education programs. The programs include fellowship 



86 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

and administrative support for pre- and post-doctoral Visiting Re- 
search Associates engaged in independent research, for graduate and 
undergraduate students in directed research and internship assign- 
ments, for short-term visitors studying in the Smithsonian's collec- 
tions, and for departmental seminars. 

For the academic year 1971-1972, 27 postdoctoral and 18 pre- 
doctoral fellowships were awarded. For several years the Institution 
has cooperated with universities in jointly funding fellowships for 
graduate students pursuing course work partly at their home 
university and partly at the Smithsonian. This year two such fellow- 
ships have been awarded in American Civilization at Georgetown 
University and one at the University of Texas. In addition, two 
doctoral candidates in the History of Science and Technology are 
being jointly supported with the University of Maryland and with 
Harvard University, marking the first such cooperative venture with 
Harvard. 

Support for graduate interns, previously offered only during the 
summer months, has been extended to a year-round program of one 
to three month appointments for research and study under the 
supervision of a member of the professional staff. 

Several successful seminars, developed and conducted within de- 
partments and divisions of the Institution, have been supported, in 
part or in full, by the Office of Academic Studies. 



Smithsonian Institution Archives 

In spring 1971 the Archives completed a major reorganization of 
its holdings, culminating in completion of the Preliminary Guide to 
the Smithsonian Archives, now in press. The guide presents to the 
scholarly community the first comprehensive statement of the hold- 
ings of the Archives. 

The re-ordering which was accomplished in preparation for the 
guide clearly designates records according to their source; and a 
numbering system, also used in the guide, permits easier location 
of records in the stacks. In addition to the guide, a file for other 
finding aids was set up, keyed to the guide-stack numbering system. 

As the staff completed the guide for publication, plans were made 
for finding aids of much greater depth, which would be machine 
adaptable. Problems were discussed with National Archives staff in 
charge of spindex, a national computer system for manuscript col- 
lections, and with the Smithsonian Information Systems Division. 



HISTORY AND ART 87 

Prototype collection descriptions were produced and two collections 
were described under the new processing standards. Although 
actual machine application lies in the future, the Smithsonian 
Archives finding aids will be ready for the computer when that day 
arrives. 

Emphasis during this year was on internal reorganization, but 
several accessions were made. Most important were early records of 
Smithsonian book exchanges, records of the director of the Museum 
of History and Technology, additional records of the Exhibits 
Editor's office, and fiscal records from the Treasurer's office. The 
program for microfilming selected archives continued with a much 
expanded activity projected for the near future. 



Office of Seminars 

The Office of Seminars cooperated in the planning and manage- 
ment of an international symposium held 16-19 November 1970, on 
"Cultural Styles and Social Identities: Interpretations of Protest and 
Change." The Charles F. Kettering Foundation and the Rockefeller 
Brothers Fund provided financial support. The symposium reflected 
the Institution's long-standing interests in the processes of culture 
change as studied both by historians and anthropologists. It also 
served as a sequel to the 1969 symposium, "Man and Beast: Com- 
parative Social Behavior," which concentrated on the biological 
bases of behavior in human and other animal societies. The 1970 
symposium, chaired by Professor Michio Nagai of Japan, will be 
published by the Smithsonian Institution Press under the title The 
Cultural Drama. The 1969 symposium volume Man and Beast was 
published 18 June 1971, under the editorship of John F. Eisenberg 
and Wilton S. Dillon. Planning began in 1971 for the next inter- 
national symposium to be held in 1973, in cooperation with the 
National Academy of Sciences, to commemorate the 500th an- 
niversary of the birth of Copernicus and his impact on scientific 
discovery, including space exploration in the twentieth century. The 
1973 symposium will be the fifth in the Smithsonian's international 
symposia series. 

With the opening of the Woodrow Wilson International Center 
for Scholars in 1970, the Office of Seminars served as a link between 
the work of the visiting Fellows and scientists and other scholars in 
the Smithsonian, arranging a series of small discussions and semi- 
nars on topics related to ecology and the environmental sciences. 



88 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 




Antonio Zarco, senior elder of the Choco Indian nation of Panama, and Michael 
Collins, former astronaut and new director of the National Air and Space 
Museum, at a meeting sponsored by the Office of Seminars. 



One seminar, involving government, foundation, and university 
participants, speculated on the environmental implications of new 
highways and hydroelectric dams in the tropics and what Americans 
might learn from such development schemes. Another dealt with 
innovations in university curricula— both in the United States and 
overseas— to accommodate increasing faculty and student interests 
in problems of environmental quality. Such activities are carried out 
in close cooperation with the Smithsonian's Office of Environmental 
Sciences. 

Antonio Zarco, senior elder in the Choco Indian nation of 
Panama, and former teacher of jungle survival techniques to U. S. 
air and space personnel, was invited by the Office of Seminars to 
visit the Smithsonian research and museum facilities in June 1971, 
while visiting the United States as a guest of the Air Force. He held 
discussions with Michael Collins, director of the Air and Space 
Museum, his former pupil in Panama, and with scientists at the 
National Museum of Natural History, to which he contributed the 
beginnings of a collection of artifacts of Choco culture. 



SPECIAL MUSEUM PROGRAMS 



r-piHE Smithsonian in its special museum programs during the past 
■*■ year has extended its historic mission of service and concern for 
the condition and objectives of museums both at home and abroad. 
United States membership in the International Centre for the 
Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (Rome Centre) 
has been authorized by the Congress, due in part to the support of 
the Smithsonian Institution. Similarly, the Smithsonian has con- 
tinued to support the principles of the proposed unesco Cultural 
Property Convention designed to stem the rising tide of illegal 
international trade in objects of art, antiquities, and cultural ma- 
terials. 

An activist role of educator, conservator, and communicator is 
shared increasingly by museums, and each year these common ob- 
jectives bring the museums of the world closer together as custodians 
of cultural values and enhancers of the quality of life. To this end 
the Smithsonian has continued its assistance to the American As- 
sociation of Museums and the U. S. National Committee of the 
International Council of Museums, an effort which has resulted in 
an increased appreciation of the opportunities, goals, and achieve- 
ments of museums. 

Continuing its tradition of worldwide exchange of ideas, the 
Smithsonian staff has collaborated with and supported museum ad- 
ministrators, technicians, and cultural specialists from Africa, Asia, 
and Europe interested in establishing or expanding their national 
museum programs. Particularly gratifying has been the assistance 
provided museum professionals from developing countries who 
have come to the Smithsonian to observe and study techniques and 
methods in conservation, exhibition, and registrar functions. 

Through the National Museum Act, information and advice 
have been given in response to approximately 5000 requests in the 
last year. Some of these, as suggested above, have been of an inter- 
national character, but by far the great majority have come from 
the small museums of the United States. This alone indicates the 
critical need of the museum profession for concrete data, profes- 
sional advice, and opportunities for training. 

89 



90 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Office of Museum Programs 

On 23 January 1971, Mr. Frank A. Taylor retired from the Smith- 
sonian Institution after forty-eight years of service. Engineer, lawyer, 
curator, museum administrator, and recipient of the Henry Medal, 
Mr. Taylor will continue to serve the Institution as a Research 
Associate, as a consultant to the Secretary for special projects, and 
as the Smithsonian's ambassador-at-large to the museum world. 

The Office of Director General of Museums, with Mr. Taylor's 
retirement, now operates as the Office of Museum Programs. On 25 
January 1971, Mr. Peter C. Welsh was appointed director of this 
office and charged with the supervision of the Office of Exhibits 
Programs, the Office of the Registrar, the Conservation-Analytical 
Laboratory, and the execution of programs under the National 
Museum Act. 

In December of 1970 the Congress extended the National Museum 
Act and authorized funding up to one million dollars for its pur- 
poses which, broadly stated, encompass cooperative studies of tech- 
nical problems, training of museum personnel, and development of 
museum techniques. An advisory committee of museum professionals 
will recommend to the Secretary procedures and policies for carry- 
ing out the purposes of the act. 

In the past year the Smithsonian has supported the regional mu- 
seum conferences of the American Association of Museums. Pre- 
liminary study for the American Association of Museums Docu- 
mentation Center has been aided. The American Association for 
State and Local History has received assistance for the preparation 
of a guide to instruct its membership in the planning and prepara- 
tion of exhibits relative to the Bicentennial of the American 
Revolution. Evaluating and testing the effectiveness of exhibits and 
exhibit techniques have been furthered through a cooperative pro- 
gram with the Carnegie Museum and the University of Pittsburgh. 
Other cooperative ventures— one with the New York State Historical 
Association and the Rome Centre and another with the International 
Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works— will aid 
and promote studies in conservation. 

The Office of Museum Programs continues to receive innumerable 
requests from museums for technical assistance and advice. Since 
the inception of the Museum Act in 1966 these requests have in- 
creased by more than 300 percent. Such questions as how to raise 
money for a museum project, how to plan and utilize exhibit space, 
how to begin an exhibition program, how to organize a museum 



SPECIAL MUSEUM PROGRAMS 91 

education program, how to find and train museum personnel, and 
how to care for and manage collections increase as the influence and 
role of museums become more important in the community. The 
Office of Museum Programs continues to accumulate and refine data 
relating to museums and their activities. The Smithsonian Visitor, 
published in May, interviews nearly 5000 visitors to the National 
Museum of Natural History and the National Museum of History 
and Technology and gives a statistical view of the visitor's experi- 
ences. 

Training in museum exhibits techniques, conservation practices, 
and museum administration continues under the National Museum 
Act. Last year over 1000 persons received training in the Smith- 
sonian exhibition laboratories. Trainees have come from most of the 
Fifty States and many foreign countries. The Office of Museum 
Programs has continued its interest in the efficacy of museums in 
education and has participated actively in assessing the contribu- 
tions museums can make in this field. 



Office of Exhibits Programs 

Despite rising costs and the resulting reductions in both materials 
and manpower, the Office of Exhibits Programs not only acquitted 
its traditional, diverse responsibilities but continued to expand the 
scope and intensity of those responsibilities. 

The 56 special and temporary exhibitions that opened in fiscal 
year 1971 included the spectacular "Music Machines- American 
Style" and "Do It the Hard Way: Rube Goldberg and Modern 
Times" presentations in the National Museum of History and 
Technology. "Music Machines" is a multimedia masterwork, with 
synchronized lights and sounds guiding the visitor through the 
development of the machines that have revolutionized music in 
America. A special film on Rube Goldberg was one of the seven 
that the Exhibits Film Unit produced in conjunction with exhibi- 
tions. 

Segments of the Electricity Hall in the History and Technology 
Building and the Physical Geology Hall in the National Museum of 
Natural History were opened to the public, as work continued on 
additional areas of these halls. Work was also continued in 56 other 
halls of the National History and Technology, Natural History, and 
the National Air and Space museums. At the same time, an exhibi- 
tion on the Apollo 11, recreating the drama of man's landing on the 



441-283 O - 71 



92 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

moon, was being readied. Also underway are the proposed multi- 
faceted analysis of drug usage and its impact on society; the pro- 
posed Hall of Living Things, a major ecologic undertaking; plan- 
ning and designs for programs in conjunction with the Bicentennial 
of the American Revolution; continued assistance to the Renwick 
Gallery and Anacostia Neighborhood Museum; extensive upgrading 
and maintenance of exhibitions throughout the Smithsonian com- 
plex; and publications ranging from a Philately and Postal History 
Hall guide to leaflets supplementing exhibit labels; and training of 
museum careerists from all over the world. 



Conservation- Analytical Laboratory 

Last year's conservation effort has been tripled within our con- 
stricting walls. Upon request we have advised eight bureaus, other 
museums, and the public on safe environments for many different 
kinds of objects, and methods of mounting and of cleaning them; 
cleaned, repaired and chemically stabilized documents, graphics and 
objects— of wood, leather, metal, pottery, hair— collected or ex- 
cavated, ranging in date from prehistoric to recent and in culture 
from Attic to modern American. Causes of damage have included 
corrosion, unchecked decay, insects, fire, and flood. 

A visiting research associate has studied and analyzed metal 
artifacts for credit towards a diploma in conservation. Members of 
the staff attended courses in infrared spectrophotometry and chro- 
matography, are researching paper treatment for credit in a Master's 
degree, took active part in seminars on paper conservation and the 
study of silver and metals generally, and lectured regularly on con- 
servation to fifty interested persons and irregularly to numerous 
special-interest groups, as well as maintaining active relationships 
with national and international organizations concerned with arti- 
fact conservation. 

Analytical facilities have been applied to about 130 submitted 
samples, resulting in almost 4000 semiquantitative estimations 
spectrographically on metals and minerals, almost 200 quantitative 
estimations on pottery by neutron-activation, and 350 by X-ray 
fluorescence. Micro-analysis, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spec- 
trophotometry have also served to identify corrosion products, sub- 
stances present in commercial materials proposed for long-term 
contact with artifacts, and painted house-plasters and fragments 
from religious objects that have also been studied in cross-section. 



SPECIAL MUSEUM PROGRAMS 93 

Office of the Registrar 

The work of the Office of the Registrar this year, although varied 
in detail, was characterized by a unity of function. The tasks of 
keeping records, moving mail, shipping freight, and fielding a 
multitude of questions from an inquisitive public, fit nicely together. 
As an example, consider the single instance of our scientists going 
to Liberia on a project to study an outbreak of monkey pox in 
humans, this office was typically involved in the following: (1) 
obtaining work and entry permits from the foreign government for 
the individuals and equipment, (2) obtaining passports and visas, 
(3) preparing requests for immunizations, (4) preparing letters of 
introduction, (5) recording and shipping necessary field equipment 
to Monrovia, (6) handling shipping and customs requirements for 
the return of the field equipment plus any specimens collected, (7) 
recording the accession of specimens acquired for the national col- 
lections, and (8) correlating and forwarding to the professional staff 
future inquiries concerning the project that may be addressed to the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Mail service was extended this year to the Barney House and the 
Renwick Gallery and shifted to accommodate the move of several 
Smithsonian offices from the Pension Building to the Liberty Loan 
Building. An estimated 11,000 individual freight shipments were 
handled including more than 100 entries accomplished through the 
U.S. Customs. Assistance was given to 238 official travelers. Approxi- 
mately 84,500 public inquiries were received; 418 involved objects 
referred for professional identification. Documentation was made of 
2,785 accession memoranda substantiating the ownership of many 
thousands of historically and scientifically significant objects. 



Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

The Libraries' cataloged collections grew by a net of nearly 
16,000 volumes, and the reference staff responded to nearly 44,000 
queries, both up 30 percent over the previous year. Nearly one-third 
of the Libraries' recorded circulation was of books and journals 
borrowed from other libraries. Over 2700 requests were filled by 
photocopying. The first phase of the serials automation project was 
completed, providing computerized control and analysis of fiscal 
transactions for purchased serials. 

The National Museum of Natural History and the National 



94 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Museum of History and Technology established library advisory 
committees, and the Remington Kellog Library of Marine Mam- 
malogy officially became a part of the Smithsonian's library system. 
Materials from several other branch libraries are being incorporated 
into the Kellog collection. The Director of Libraries served as a 
consultant to the Indonesian Institute of Sciences for the develop- 
ment of that nation's information service in science and technology. 
Four library school students worked on academic projects in the 
Libraries under the supervision of the Director's Office. One pro- 
duced a study of decision processes in library collection development 
that is expected to influence the libraries' organization for this 
function. 

The Libraries experimented with a task force concept of library 
service in the National Museum of Natural History. A small team of 
librarians and technical assistants were assigned as needed to per- 
form service and maintenance tasks in departmental libraries on 
flexible schedules. Manpower was thus matched closely to urgent 
library problems as they arose. This technique at manpower utili- 
zation will be extended to other bureaus of the Institution. 



International Exchange Service 

During the year publications were received from approximately 
400 organizations in the United States for exchange with organiza- 
tions in more than 100 countries. Approximately one-half of these 
organizations were libraries exchanging medical and dental publica- 
tions with organizations in other countries. Packages of exchange 
publications weighing more than 100,000 pounds were received 
from the foreign exchange bureaus for distribution in the United 
States. 

The daily issues of the Congressional Record and the Federal 
Register were sent on exchange to 137 foreign libraries in exchange 
for their parliamentary journals. 

More than 400,000 pounds of official United States publications 
were transmitted on exchange for the official documents of other 
countries. The agreements with four recipients of partial sets were 
terminated during the year, and one recipient of a full set of official 
documents was changed to a recipient of a partial set. 

Publications were forwarded by ocean freight to 38 exchange 
bureaus in other countries for distribution to the addressees. Publi- 



SPECIAL MUSEUM PROGRAMS 95 

cations were mailed to the addressees in countries that do not have 
exchange bureaus. 

Many requests are received for assistance in sending publications to 
libraries in other countries. The Service has not been able to assist 
in these programs. It must restrict its activity to the exchange pro- 
grams and to limit the amount of assistance furnished in this field. 



PUBLIC SERVICE ACTIVITIES 



In march of the year under review, Smithsonian magazine 
enjoyed its first anniversary. By that time the Institution's first 
popular monthly publication had a circulation of 220,000, a figure 
which magazines closest in character to Smithsonian normally take 
several years to reach. All subscribers automatically become Na- 
tional Members of the Smithsonian Associates, since it has been the 
Institution's intention from the beginning to create through the 
magazine a full and varied membership program on a national 
scale. Accordingly, efforts were made in 1971 to develop benefits 
beyond the magazine which might create closer ties between the 
member-subscribers and the Institution. These included a Recep- 
tion Center in the Great Hall of the Smithsonian Building to assist 
National Members in planning their visit to the Institution and the 
Washington area in general, discounts on Museum Shops articles 
or Smithsonian Institution Press publications, and the opportunity 
to subscribe to a wide variety of study tours, both domestic and 
international, conducted by Smithsonian staff members. 

The Anacostia Neighborhood Museum began work on a novel 
urban studies project funded by generous grants from the Carnegie 
Corporation, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, 
and the Cafritz Foundation. In essence the project is aimed initially 
at having the residents of Anacostia themselves determine the social, 
economic, and educational problems which most affect their lives, 
through surveys conducted in situ by volunteers, with limited staff 
assistance. Once these problems are clearly defined and articulated, 
the Neighborhood Museum will seek to present them through a 
program of exhibits, with related educational materials, for school 
and community use. This experimental project is being closely 
watched as a model for other communities, which have similar 
neighborhood museums, many of which have received planning as- 
sistance from Anacostia. 

Towards the close of the period under review the first television 
documentary under the series known as "Smithsonian Adventure," 
produced in collaboration with cbs, was broadcast to a prime-time 
Sunday night national audience. It concerned the excavations con- 

96 



PUBLIC SERVICE ACTIVITIES 97 

ducted by Dr. Iris Love on the island of Knidos and her search for 
Praxiteles' renowned statue of Aphrodite. The documentary was 
favorably reviewed by Life magazine and produced an enormous 
volume of correspondence, most of it from students asking the 
Institution about careers in archelogy or for further information on 
the Knidos excavation. Other subjects which the Institution plans 
to treat in this series include Major Powell's exploration of the 
Colorado River and human evolution, the latter featuring Dr. T. 
Dale Stewart, Curator Emeritus of Physical Anthropology and 
former Director of the Museum of Natural History. 

The Division of Performing Arts held its fourth annual Festival 
of American Folklife, with a special "pavillion" or presentation 
from the state of Arkansas. It brought a record crowd of over 
500,000 to the Mall during its five day span, leading up to the fourth 
of July. The Festival was widely praised in editorials as a common 
and peaceful meeting ground for both Honor America Day par- 
ticipants and radical youth demonstrators. At the end of the period 
under review, the Division began a summer long folklife festival in 
the United States pavillion at the "Man and His World" exposition 
site in Montreal, as part of and supported by the Department of 
Commerce's "Visit the United States" program. 



Smithsonian Associates 

"There is always something going on at the Smithsonian which 
invites participation" observed one of our more than 15,000 As- 
sociate members in a letter of appreciation. 

As of January 1971, the Smithsonian Associates completed its 
fifth year of programs and activities created to involve people of all 
ages in active participation at the Smithsonian. Throughout the 
year, some 20,000 persons took part in over 170 members' events, 
including lectures on such diversified subjects as whale communica- 
tion, beasts of mythology, and man and machines; musical, dance, 
and poetry performances; films; special events such as the Annual 
Kite Carnival and the first National Kite Competition, the Boomer- 
ang Workshops, Capital Mall history tours, and Zoo Night; and 
finally, the annual field trips in the museums and outdoors. 

In addition, some 6500 attended six special receptions, including 
two Museum Shop openings, openings for the Rube Goldberg, 
Music Machines, and the Campbell collection exhibits, the Renwick 
Gallery Benefit sponsored by the Woman's Committee for the 



98 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 




Third place prize winner, 16-year-old Associates member John Umhow, shows off 
his winning kite and trophy at the first National Kite Competition held on the 
Mall 10 April 1971. (Photo by Douglas Stewart.) 



PUBLIC SERVICE ACTIVITIES 99 

Scholarship Fund; and Mondays at the Museum— a series of five 
lectures on great collections. Another 1500 took day tours and ex- 
tended study trips throughout the country. 

The Associates classes and craft workshops offered more than 
3300 people the opportunity to study and work directly with Smith- 
sonian and visiting scholars and professional craftsmen. Of these, 
over a thousand were young people, ages four to twelve (100 were 
scholarship students). A total of 89 classes and 14 workshops on 
subjects ranging from animal behavior, anthropology, osteology, 
and the history of democracy to fabric construction and weaving 
were offered. 

Through these programs the Associates' provide an opportunity 
for individual and human discovery, learning, and growth within 
the boundaries of the Smithsonian Institution. 



Office of Public Affairs 

Divisions of the Office of Public Affairs (opa) used film, tape, and 
print to communicate the story of the Smithsonian and its diverse 
activities in the past year. Production was completed on a half-hour 
color motion picture about the Institution, Around the Clock at the 
Smithsonian, produced under a grant from the Corporation for 
Public Broadcasting for presentation nationally over educational 
television. The first of a series of documentaries by the Columbia 
Broadcasting System under the title "Smithsonian Adventure" was 
telecast 13 June and brought a flood of 1400 favorable letters from 
viewers. It was one of many productions filmed in recent months by 
various producers with cooperation from opa and other Smithsonian 
staff members, who are now working with the British Broadcasting 
Corporation on two major series, "The Ascent of Man," and 
"America." The office started an archival film record of construction 
on the Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Fifty 
more stations began broadcasting "Radio Smithsonian" in the past 
year. The series is now heard over sixty educational radio stations in 
thirty-five states, the District of Columbia and Canada, and over the 
armed forces network overseas. The opa news bureau issued more 
than 200 news releases and forty-nine public service radio an- 
nouncements, aided news media in coverage of special events, and 
published The Smithsonian Torch and the monthly Calendar of 
Events. A total of 36,500 callers used the Dial-A-Museum answering 
service, and 109,500 used the Dial-A-Phenomenon service. The opa 
publications section began issuing a revised series of information 



100 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

leaflets, and produced for the first time orientation leaflets for 
visitors in French and Spanish (see Appendix 8). 



Office of International Activities 

The Office continued to foster new dimensions of Smithsonian 
programs abroad, particularly through development of cooperative 
programs in environmental research and conservation. The Office 
organized an Indian-American Ecology Symposium in New Delhi in 
conjunction with India's University Grants Commission. A team 
of distinguished American ecologists headed by Secretary Ripley and 
the Acting Assistant Secretary for Science met during February 1971 
with Indian counterparts to consider approaches to ecological re- 
search and training which would also serve the critical needs of 
governmental planning. 

To assist in development of such joint research opportunities, the 
Office assigned a representative for South Asia to New Delhi for an 
initial period of six months. One of his assignments of special 
urgency is the development of a joint Indo-American program of 
research and conservation. 

The Office Director traveled to Ceylon to review progress of the 
Smithsonian's baseline ecological studies embracing elephant, pri- 
mate, botanical, and entomological research there. The Director 
also represented the Smithsonian at the meetings in England of the 
Charles Darwin Foundation of which he is the American Secretary 
(Administrative), the World Wildlife Fund World Congress, and the 
Aldabra Committee of the Royal Society. The Office represented 
the Institution at the International Conference on the Biology of 
Whales. Closing its sixth year, the Foreign Currency Program had 
awarded nearly $13 million in "excess" foreign currency grants to 
over sixty American institutions of higher learning. 

Program accomplishments over the six-year period include more 
than 111 research publications, 214 postdoctoral research oppor- 
tunities for Americans, 220 field-training opportunities for doctoral 
candidates, and research collections for the Smithsonian and many 
of the American grantee institutions. 



Division of Performing Arts 

The Division of Performing Arts continued to expand its activi- 
ties in enlivening the Mall and in creating an open experience in 



PUBLIC SERVICE ACTIVITIES 101 

the arts for museum visitors. The Fourth Annual Festival of 
American Folklife featured the State of Arkansas and Indians of 
the Southern Plains. The more than 700,000 people who attended 
this living exhibition of folk creativity made it perhaps the most- 
attended single event in Washington. "A Festival of American 
Folklife" was directed and produced in Montreal for the "Man 
and His World," exhibition at the original United States Pavilion. 
Continuing from 1 1 June through 6 September the presentation was 
sponsored by the United States Travel Service, U. S. Department of 
Commerce, in cooperation with the Discover America Travel Or- 
ganizations. 

Among the programs presented with the Smithsonian Associates 
were the famed Kathakali Dance Company from Kerala, India; an 
evening of black poetry by Joanna Featherstone; and the Percep- 
tions 3 series in contemporary performing arts: The Electric Stere- 
opticon, Yvonne Rainer and the Grand Union, The Paul Sanasardo 
Dance Company, and the New Music Choral Ensemble III. The 
Division co-sponsored with other organizations 6 jazz concerts, 5 folk 
music concerts, and 30 productions of the American College 
Theatre Festival. 

The Touring Performance Service presented four productions: 
The American Folklife Company; The Black Experience; The 
Concept; The Waywardly Wandering Wagonful of Banjo and 
Jack; and Neighbors. These were seen at the Smithsonian and by 
audiences from Maine to Florida and as far west as Iowa. The 
Service worked with State Arts Councils for colleges, universities, 
and civic organizations with minimal budgets wishing to acquire 
these programs. After smoke damage delayed the scheduled opening, 
the Smithsonian Resident Puppet Theater reopened on 24 March. 
The Waywardly Wandering Wagonful of Banjo and Jack, based on 
Kentucky folktales, played to enthusiastic audiences. 



Smithsonian Museum Shops 

The Smithsonian Museum Shops continued its program of offering 
museum visitors a wide variety of articles carefully selected to re- 
flect the exhibits of each museum, where possible with special em- 
phasis on articles for children. Visitors response to books and 
publications necessitated a further expansion of the book sections 
of the shops in the Arts and Industries Building and the National 
Museum of History and Technology. New publications of staff 



102 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

members issued during the year were featured in exhibits, with ap- 
propriate artifacts, and over four hundred new titles were added 
to the extensive book collections available in the shops. 

The sales exhibition program began its year with a large variety 
of traditional crafts offered in the shops of the National Museum of 
History and Technology, opening the first day of the Folklife 
Festival and continuing during the summer. Contemporary crafts- 
men of Georgia were featured in the second sales exhibition 
honoring the crafts and craftsmen of the United States. The ex- 
hibition featuring pottery, weaving, wood carving, and jewelry done 
by thirty Georgia craftsmen was shown in the Arts and Industries 
Museum Shop throughout the fall. Botanical prints by Henry 
Evans and jewelry made with minerals and gems by Fridel Blu- 
menthal were featured in the Natural History Museum Shop sales 
exhibits. 

The Museum Shops staff gave assistance, advice, and guidance to 
sixteen museums in the United States that sought help in establish- 
ing museum shop programs during 1970-1971. 



Belmont Conference Center 

The Belmont Conference Center is presently in its fifth year of 
operation, with the growing prospect of more conferences each year. 
During fiscal 1971, there were 69 conferences held at Belmont in 
comparison with 58 the previous year, and reservations are being 
made up to 18 months in advance. The Center accepts conferences 
from all types of groups, the majority being governmental agencies, 
but including academic, industrial, international, labor, and phi- 
lanthropic organizations as well. It has welcomed nearly 1500 
participants during this year. 

Our Smithsonian guests have included the Smithsonian Council, 
the Interdisciplinary Communications Program, the Office of Aca- 
demic Programs, a pre-Symposium '70 seminar, and a meeting 
sponsored by the Anthropology Department. The Center has been 
host to groups as diversified as the U.S. Department of State and the 
Baltimore Mutual Investment Company, while guests have in- 
cluded Dr. Margaret Mead of the American Museum of Natural 
History; His Excellency Nobuhiko Ushiba, Ambassador from Japan; 
The Right Reverend Monsignor Bordelon of the U.S. Catholic 
Conference; Dr. Robert Marston, Director of the National Institutes 
of Health; Dr. M. C. Shelesnyak, Director of the Interdisciplinary 



PUBLIC SERVICE ACTIVITIES 103 

Communications Program; Ambassador Armin Meyer, American 
Ambassador to Japan; Dr. John Clark, Director of the Goddard 
Space Flight Center; Dean L. G. Cowan of the State University of 
New York; Sir Solly Zuckerman of the British Cabinet Office; James 
Kilpatrick, columnist; His Highness the Maharaja Gaekwar of 
Baroda; and Nobel Prize winner Dr. Murray Gell-Mann. 

Belmont accommodates twenty-four resident guests with facilities 
for meetings and meals for thirty people. Yearly improvements to 
this 240 year-old manor house and surrounding 365 acres make it 
more comfortable and enjoyable each year. 

Conference operations continue to be directed toward the needs 
of small groups which require the kind of attractive, secluded, and 
exclusive setting which Belmont provides, together with the ad- 
vantages of easy access to Washington's National and to Baltimore's 
Friendship airports. 



Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

The story of black Americans, both slaves and free men who 
fought in the War for Independence, was retold in the Anacostia 
Neighborhood Museum's exhibit "Black Patriots of the American 
Revolution.'' Over 3000 booklets describing the exhibit in story form 
for children were distributed to school tour groups and in response 
to requests from teachers and parents. 

The Museum and the Lorton Reformatory cooperated in a 
presentation of visual and dramatic arts done entirely by the men 
from Lorton who worked along with the exhibits staff in mounting 
their own paintings and handicrafts. Research for "Lorton Re- 
formatory: Beyond Time" was undertaken during several staff visits 
to the prison. 

The Mobile Division offered a bussing program which takes 
mini-editions of current exhibits to inner-city playgrounds and 
churches in summer and schools in winter. Another project provided 
teachers with a portable library of Afro-American books and shoe- 
box specimens and puzzle maps on such subjects as black scientists 
and places to visit in Washington of interest to black Americans. 
The Speakers Bureau offers a list of lecturers on various subjects 
who are available to schools and community groups. 

The Center for Anacostia Studies, operating under a grant from 
the Carnegie Corporation, conducted an opinion survey at the re- 
quest of the Museum's Neighborhood Advisory Committee, which 



104 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

disclosed that crime, drugs, housing, unemployment, and education 
were prime concerns. Interviews with old-time residents have been 
completed in preparation for an oral history of Anacostia and an 
exhibit. 



Smithsonian 

Although only a year old with the March 1971 issue, Smithsonian 
progressed toward being an institution within the Institution via 
membership in the Smithsonian Associates. 

It is a circulation success with 245,000 net paid subscribers at the 
end of the fiscal year. Surveys show that our readership enjoys a high 
educational level. A survey indicates that 85 percent of subscribers 
are college educated, that their median income is above $19,000 a 
year. 

Editorially, Smithsonian follows the lines of the Secretary's 
original concept— being interested in what interests the Smithsonian 
Institution. This, of course, starts with the Institution itself. 
Through the July 1971 issue there have been 76 articles related to 
the Institution. They have been from one to eleven pages long. The 
Institution staff also checks material obtained from the outside. 

Outside the Institution Smithsonian has had such authors as 
Isaac Asimov and Theodore H. White; photographers such as Lee 
Boltin, Fritz Goro, Gjon Mili, Carl Mydans, and David Plowden; 
cartoonist-illustrators such as Richard Erdoes and Robert Osborn. 

Unfortunately, a subscription fulfillment concern turned in a 
thoroughly unacceptable job. Through a court injunction, the mag- 
azine's address tapes have been transferred to another company. 
That growing pain has been satisfactorily eased. 

There will be by-products. There is material for a book on man's 
environment, including his attempt to learn more about ecology 
and conservation. The infinite opportunities in Smithsonian's 
assigned fields will continue to be pursued vigorously. 



Smithsonian Institution Press 

Much of this year's effort was concentrated on launching the 
three-level organic publication program recommended by the Visit- 
ing Committee as described in Smithsonian Year 1970. Detailed in- 
ventories were taken and quality evaluations made for publications 



PUBLIC SERVICE ACTIVITIES 105 

of level one (leaflets, available at the exhibits of public museums, 
for the purpose of exhibit interpretation) and level two (booklets 
and other educational materials, for students and the public at 
large). Uniform, but highly attractive, design and format will be 
used for these publications, and they will be made available through 
vending devices at exhibit locations. Numerous leaflets, five booklets 
and four recordings are in preparation. 

An agreement reached with Museum Shops will enable certain 
publications and recordings, heretofore available only in our mu- 
seum stores, to receive national, indeed international, distribution. 

By cooperative arrangement with Smithsonian magazine, Press 
books have been offered to all subscribers at a discount of 20 percent, 
and more attractive offerings are planned for the coming year. 

The Life Portraits of John Qidncy Adams, a catalog designed by 
Miss Crimilda Pontes, was chosen as one of the twenty-two outstand- 
ing design and production publications of the year by the Associa- 
tion of American University Presses. The exhibit of these twenty-two 
books will be sent to libraries, educational institutions, cultural 
centers, book fairs, and special graphic art events in Europe, Asia, 
Africa, and Latin America. 

Production costs of 98 publications were funded in whole or in 
part by Federal appropriations in the amount of $227,337.80; 13 
were supported wholely or partly by Smithsonian Institution Press 
private funds in the amount of $101,764.65; and 5 were subsidized 
variously by Smithsonian or other private funds in the amount of 
$20,321.30. The total output of 113 titles is listed in Appendix 5. 
The Press warehouse, the U.S. Government Printing Office, and 
George Braziller, Inc. (the Press's sales and distribution agent) 
shipped, on order and subscription, a total of 204,935 publications 
during the year. In addition, 1237 records were distributed by the 
Press. 



Reading Is Fundamental 

The National Reading Is Fundamental Program (rif) is now 
operating in its fourth year as an independent unit under Smith- 
sonian sponsorship, with support by the Ford Foundation. Rif's 
purpose is to motivate disadvantaged youngsters and adults to want 
to read, by making available a wide variety of interesting and 
relevant, inexpensive paperbacks. The program stresses self-selection 
and pride of ownership in the belief that "the right to read" should 



106 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 




Pre-schoolers at a "Reading Is Fundamental" day-care center in Washington, 
D.C., show their book choices to Mrs. Robert S. McNamara, RIF's Board Chair- 
man. 



be the birthright of all America's children. National rif provides 
technical assistance and information to those interested— school sys- 
tems, libraries, and community agencies— in developing a local 
project. 

During 1970-1971, the number of local projects grew from eleven 
to eighteen, including both urban and rural areas and various 
ethnic groups— Blacks, American Indians, and Mexican-Americans. 
The local sponsoring groups throughout the country were respon- 
sible for funding, selection of book titles, and distribution. National 
rif also acts as liaison with the publishing industry, federal and 
local governments, schools, and libraries about book programs and 
provides general information to all who seek it. 

New publications (see Appendix 6) are made available upon 
request. During 1971-1972, plans call for a national media cam- 
paign with the endorsement of the Advertising Council, a greater 
emphasis on corporate sponsorship of local programs, and a close 
working relationship with usoe's "Right to Read." 

The current Ford Foundation grant of $400,000 covers adminis- 



PUBLIC SERVICE ACTIVITIES 107 

trative support for National rif as a Smithsonian activity for the 
three year period, 1970-1973. Policy guidance for rif is provided by 
a National Advisory Board composed of more than thirty distin- 
guished Americans from many walks of life. The founder and chair- 
man of rif is Mrs. Robert S. McNamara; Secretary Ripley serves 
ex officio as a member of the rif Board. 



Division of Elementary and Secondary Education 

The increase of escorted visits for local school children con- 
tinues apace. The figures for school tours during the academic year 
1970-1971 reflect a substantial increase in all the museums of the 
Smithsonian. 

Several innovations to the usual lecture tour for school groups 
were introduced to enhance the opportunity for children to learn on 
their own. A study tour of early man in the National Museum of 
Natural History offered students a chance to examine firsthand the 
permanent exhibits, slides, fossils, and artifacts, which demonstrate 
the principles of human evolution. A series of seminars, under the 
direction of a research docent and guide by museum specialists in 
the field of anthropology, was conducted for a class of high school 
students from a girls school in Maryland. The students were able to 
follow in their free time and on their own initiative in-depth studies 
of subjects not generally offered to high school students. In the 
Museum of History and Technology a two hour "touch-it" tour was 
specially arranged on request related to Colonial life studies. Simi- 
larly, on the subject of the Industrial Revolution, a two-hour visit 
was arranged to encompass several halls. 

For Museum Education Day in March a gathering of several 
hundred volunteers, teachers, Smithsonian staff members, students, 
and representatives of several museums beyond the Washington area 
met to discuss questions concerning how best to provide effective 
education in a museum environment. The discussions were carried 
out in groups of 40-50, with panels of "experts" served by docent 
moderators. 



441-283 O - 71 - 8 



ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT 



Perhaps there is no more important area of human activity than man- 
agement, since its task is that of getting things done through people. 
Our modern civilization has increasingly become one of cooperative 
endeavor. Whether in business, government, the church, philanthropic 
institutions or other forms of enterprise, the effectiveness with which 
people work together toward the attainment of their joint goals is largely 
determined by the ability of those who hold managerial positions. It is 
to little or no avail to have advanced scientific knowledge, engineering 
skills, or technical abilities unless the quality of management in organ- 
ized groups permits effective coordination of these human resources.* 



This principle has particular application in the Smithsonian In- 
stitution in the essential day-to-day interaction between administra- 
tors of our bureaus and program offices and the managers of our 
support activities. The management direction of these discrete, yet 
interlocking segments, must assure the accomplishment of goals 
that can be attained by group, rather than individual, action. 

In November 1970, a director of Support Activities was appointed 
in the Office of the Under Secretary. This important step was taken 
this year to further strengthen the efforts of the support group and 
to assure the recognition of an administrative framework in which 
they are joined systematically in a common purpose. The Director, 
in addition to other related assignments, was given immediate and 
continuing responsibility for the supervision and executive direction 
of the following organizations: Administrative Systems Divsion, 
Buildings Management Department, Contracts Office, Information 
Systems Division, Office of Equal Employment Opportunity, Office 
of Personnel Administration, Photographic Services Division, Supply 
Division, and Travel Services Office. Again this year, despite 
judicious allocation of always-limited funds, this group, as an entity, 
did not receive increases in positions or funds corresponding with 
the growth of the program elements of the Smithsonian. A review of 
their total accomplishments reveals that this group, despite these 



•Harold Koontz and Cyril O'Donnell, "Preface," Principles of Management 
(New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1959). 

108 



ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT 109 

handicaps, successfully completed a remarkable amount of excellent 
work. 



PROGRAM SUPPORT ACTIVITIES 

The Administrative Systems Division issued in January the 
Smithsonian Staff Handbook— 540— Stock Catalog. This publication 
lists not only items stocked in the SI Supply Division but also pro- 
vides policies and guidelines for ordering, issuing, stocking, and 
controlling expendable property. Work continued on another hand- 
book in this series, which will furnish policy and procedural guide- 
lines covering internal supporting services. A Time and Attendance 
Reporting Handbook is being compiled to furnish timekeepers 
with succinct and accurate guidelines for recording employee at- 
tendance. Publication early in fiscal year 1972 is anticipated. 

Over 310,000 copies of administrative materials concerning some 
230 separate subjects were distributed to the staff. These covered 
policy and major procedural matters as well as special interim in- 
structions and ephemeral information. Staffing and functional state- 
ments about the Smithsonian Institution were furnished to over 30 
external publishers. The first Smithsonian Directory developed with 
computer support is in final stages of preparation and will be 
published in July 1971. 

With the appointment of a new director of the Photographic 
Services Division, an innovative arrangement was made that pro- 
vided for the assignment of a management analyst to the director 
for a temporary period of 3 to 4 months. The remarkable success 
of this effort was most encouraging and it is hoped that, staff per- 
mitting, similar assignments can be made when other key positions 
are filled. 

The Forms Management unit processed, in-house, 452 requests 
from over 70 discrete organization segments for a variety of essential 
management and program-related forms and form letters. In addi- 
tion 156 orders were placed with the Government Printing Office 
and other external services. 

The Buildings Management Department is responsible for the 
operation, construction, improvement, maintenance, and protection 
of the physical plant and facilities, which consist of nearly 3.5 mil- 
lion square feet of floor space. This includes exhibition halls, as 
well as office, laboratory, and research facilities. The Department 
also is responsible for assuring that the over 13 million visitors to the 



HO SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Smithsonian Institution each year, have safe and secure visits to 
the buildings, grounds, and exhibits. 

The past year has been devoted to implementing organization and 
program changes, developed after considerable study and analysis 
of the Department's management and operations. A work control 
branch was established, staffed, and placed in operation to provide 
more effective utilization of resources and improved service to the 
Smithsonian. 

Second generation programs were implemented through automatic 
data processing to improve control over manpower, material, and 
equipment and to provide timely operational information to the 
Director and other levels of management and supervision within 
the Department. 

Over 2000 special events at the Smithsonian Institution required 
substantial support and participation by Department personnel. 
These included the annual Folklife Festival and the opening of 
new exhibits such as the Rube Goldberg Hall and the Hall of 
Music Machines in the History and Technology Building. 

The numerous demonstrations in the Mall area throughout the 
year placed an additional burden on the Department. These unusual 
happenings resulted in expenditures for payroll and special equip- 
ment in addition to regularly planned and programmed outlays. 

The Engineering and Construction Division and the Facilities 
Planning Office provided major design, review, and engineering 
services as well as contract supervision for major projects including 
alterations to the Arts and Industries Building and the Renwick 
Gallery, construction of the Joseph H. Hirshorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden, and the History and Technology Building fire- 
damage restoration. These units also furnished design and engineer- 
ing services for constructing and remodeling over 500,000 square feet 
of building space, for modifying the mechanical plant, and for 
making preliminary studies for future projects. 

As a result of a redesign of existing parking lots, the Department 
is providing parking spaces for 112 more employees than in fiscal 
year 1970. The employee parking program as well as other Depart- 
ment-wide programs have been placed in the newly created Office of 
BMD Programs. 

Based on recommendations made by the Director of the Informa- 
tion Systems Division, the Smithsonian Institution entered into an 
agreement to purchase a computer system similar to the one we 
have been renting. As a result, immediate savings will be realized 



ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT 111 

each month and the hourly rate charged to Smithsonian and other 
users of computer time will be reduced. 

The Division is developing a generalized systems package that 
will enable members of the professional research staff to enter in- 
formation into a computer as a standard means of recording, updat- 
ing, and retrieving data. 

The National Portrait Gallery has implemented a system that 
will provide biographically oriented indexes to artists and sitters 
contained in the Catalogue of American Portraits. A system was 
developed to provide indexes to the National Collection of Fine 
Arts' Bicentennial Inventory of American Paintings. 

A library of advanced mathematical software packages is being 
expanded to make the latest calculation capabilities available to 
each scientist. The Division sponsors seminars in statistical applica- 
tions to augment the value of these computer programs. Other 
automated systems that have had major enhancements are the ac- 
counting for foreign currency funds and expansion of the property 
management system from a physical inventory control system to a 
financial-inventory system. Federal and private accounting systems 
were revised to handle an accrual method of reporting, and the 
regional Smithsonian Associates mailing system went to an auto- 
mated billing process. 

As a service to the museum community at large, the Division 
published two editions of their technical bulletin (Smithsonian In- 
stitution Information Systems Innovations) to acquaint the reader 
with automated systems specifically designed to solve the collection/ 
research problems of museums and herbaria. In addition, many mem- 
bers of the community from home and abroad have visited and/or 
requested information pertaining to automated systems at the 
Smithsonian. 

Under the leadership of the Secretary, the Office of Equal Em- 
ployment Opportunity has maintained a responsible and viable plan 
for providing equality of opportunity in all official actions of the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

The continuing affirmative policy for the realization of equal 
opportunity objectives resulted in over 136 consultations with vari- 
ous supervisory and other staff members regarding the Merit Promo- 
tion Program and candidate selection. Additionally, matters of 
personal concern to a number of employees were reviewed, factual 
information developed, and necessary adjustments made to the 
satisfaction of those involved. In two instances, formal complaints 
were filed and investigatory steps taken. 



112 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Upon request, special advisory services were provided to em- 
ployees aspiring to positions of greater responsibility. Respective 
interested personnel were furnished with current information about 
educational opportunities, the methods for adding specific educa- 
tional credits, the requirements for career advancement, along with 
the availability of extracurricular schooling in the metropolitan 
D. C. area. 

Four special training Work Shops were conducted for employees 
assigned to supervisory positions. These discussions concerned all 
levels of supervision relating to the acceptance, fulfillment, and 
continuing support of the equal employment program philosophy. 

The Office of Personnel Administration continued to develop its 
role as a consultant resource to the managers of the Smithsonian 
allowing them to assume more fully their responsibilities and exer- 
cise their authorities in personnel management. This approach to 
personnel management requires close cooperation between the 
personnel staff and the management officials of the various opera- 
tional units. An example of such cooperation involved the first signif- 
icant reduction-in-force at the Smithsonian. Although a total of 25 
employees were affected, the Office of Personnel Administration was 
able to place 22 employees in other organizations, thus continuing 
their careers with the Smithsonian. 

A member of the staff in conjunction with the Civil Service Com- 
mission modified the qualifications standards for museum techni- 
cians. The revisions in the qualifications standards will enable the 
Smithsonian Institution to draw upon a larger source of qualified 
applicants. 

The orientation of new employees is of continuing concern to 
the Smithsonian Institution. Orientation is not viewed merely as a 
meeting of new employees to discuss personnel policies and organiza- 
tion, but in terms of a system which includes the activities involved 
before the employee actually reports to his new job, his initial proc- 
essing, his introduction to his new organization, a more or less 
formal meeting (in the traditional orientation sense), and continu- 
ing follow-up during his first few months on the job. As part of 
this system a New Employee Handbook is being prepared and will be 
given to each new employee when he reports for duty. It is expected 
that copies also will be given to all current employees. 

A pilot program of supervisory training was initiated at the Na- 
tional Zoological Park. This program, which was developed and 
conducted by the Office of Personnel Administration consultants at 
the request of Zoo management officials, was different from super- 






ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT H3 

visory training programs in the past because all supervisors at the 
National Zoological Park were brought into the intensive training 
program as a group. The program included orientation to super- 
visory responsibilities, labor management relations, human behavior 
in the work situation, and the administration of a personnel program 
at the working level. 

Since the issuance of the new Merit Promotion Policy by the U.S. 
Civil Service Commission in 1969, the Smithsonian's total merit 
promotion program has been reviewed by office staff. As one result 
of this review, a Secretarial Skills File has been established. This 
file aids organizations in recruiting for secretarial help. When a 
vacancy occurs in the secretarial field, the Office draws from this file 
the best qualified candidates for the position. The amount of time 
required to fill secretarial vacancies has been reduced considerably. 

The Office has established a pool of clerical resources as a service 
to Smithsonian organizations. These services are used when regular 
office help is not available, when an office's extra work load needs 
to be handled, or when a vacancy is being filled. The pool has been 
an effective means of providing essential office assistance when an 
expressed need arises. 

In June, the Secretary approved the reorganization of the Pho- 
tographic Services Division recommended by the new director, who 
had joined the Smithsonian Institution in the spring. The new 
organization, which will be effective 1 July 1971, makes maximum 
use of all resources, reinforces the service-oriented philosophy, and 
utilizes the advantages of centralized and decentralized operations. 
Wet processes, such as film and paper processing and printing, have 
been centralized, and the dry process— the photography or camera 
work— is decentralized and accomplished at the site or in studios 
located in the major buildings. Two new sections have been estab- 
lished, one to centralize and manage the negative files and the other 
to centralize, manage, and expand the pay-order function. A pro- 
duction control officer will schedule the daily work of the four 
cohesive working sections. 

Following a careful and informed study made by an ad hoc group 
of cognizant Smithsonian staff members, modest increases were made 
this year in the processing fees for photographic materials sold to 
the public. 

The Division continued its active participation in and support of 
the Smithsonian's exhibition program. Exhibits worked on during 
the year included: the Rube Goldberg Hall, Music Machines- 



114 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

American Style, Gandhi Exhibit, Energy Conversion, and Women 
in Politics. 

Production figures are: orders, 5,408; negatives, 19,800; color, 
10,412; microfilm, 67,900; and prints, 96,500. 

The Supply Division continued to process a large volume of 
procurements and to take full advantage of the redistribution of 
excess government property. Also, in keeping with the principles of 
consolidation and uniformity, effective in February, all procure- 
ment for the National Zoological Park was taken over officially by 
the Division. Prior to that, the Division's responsibility for the 
Zoo's procurement was, in general, confined to those instances when 
continuing construction funds were used. 

The Division's diverse functions include procurement of supplies, 
materials, contractural services and equipment; operation and 
maintenance of an active personal property management program; 
acquisition of excess property in lieu of new procurement whenever 
possible; and ordering, controlling, and issuing laboratory, office, and 
shop supplies. The successful accomplishment of these assignments 
on a day-to-day basis throughout the year contributed immeasurably 
to the attainment of the Smithsonian's objectives in research, ex- 
hibition, education, publication, and related activities. 

The Travel Services Office continued to experience growth in 
virtually all of its major activities, i.e., air and rail reservations 
booked were up 10 percent; travel itineraries issued, up 9 percent; 
transportation requests prepared, up .3 percent; hotel reservations 
made, up 51 percent; and the dollar value of all transportation 
purchased was some $35,000 higher than last year. 

Much closer liaison had to be maintained with the airlines to 
accomplish increasingly complex travel performed under foreign 
currencies. Of particular interest was the "International Symposium 
of the Biology of the Sipuncula" held in Kotur, Yugoslavia. Program 
planning assistance, travel management advice, and a wide variety 
of travel services and technical guidance were provided to support 
major national and international symposia, meetings, expeditions, 
and special programs. 

During the year the Office of Audits; which reports directly to the 
Under Secretary, issued three audit reports on audits conducted by 
its staff members. Recommendations made in these reports resulted 
in improved management procedures and controls, sometimes point- 
ing to potential dollar savings. 

In addition, the Office coordinated the development of an in- 



ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT 



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116 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

tegrated personal property system, the updating of authorizations 
to Smithsonian contracting officers, and the publication of a list of 
authorized Smithsonian contracting officers. 

The Office also reviewed and closed out 84 foreign currency 
grants, which were awarded in the total amount of $2.3 million. 
The close out of these 84 grants resulted in $516,000 of unused 
funds being made available for current research projects. 

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS 

National Museum of History and Technology 

Fire Damage. A contract to restore that part of the third floor 
which was damaged by the fire which occurred on 30 September 
1970, was awarded to the Spradlin Construction Company. 

Calder Stabile. A lighting system was installed by the Washington 
Electric Company. Final work on this project was completed in 
February 1971. 

Sprinkler System. A contract to install additional sprinkler sys- 
tems in the building was awarded to the High Point Sprinkler Com- 
pany. Completion of this work is anticipated in the fall of 1971. 

National Museum of Natural History 

Fumigation Chamber. Associated Builders, Inc., was awarded the 
contract for installation of this facility on 12 May 1971. It is expected 
that their work will be completed in July 1971. 

Arts and Industries Building 

Mezzanine Construction. Designs and specifications for decking 
the Northwest Range were completed in June 1971. Design work for 
the Southwest Range was also commenced during the same month. 
It is expected that actual construction will commence during the 
fall of 1971. 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

The Piracci Construction Company continued their work on the 
museum building. Recent changes in the location and design of the 
Sculpture Garden have resulted in an expected delay in the com- 
pletion of the overall project. 

National Zoological Park 

Heating Plant. The heating plant was completely renovated and 
converted from coal burning to gas burning furnaces. 



ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT 117 

Restoration and Renovation of Buildings 

Smithsonian Institution Building. The firm of Paintrite, Inc., was 
awarded the contract to paint those office areas not renovated under 
the overall renovation project which was completed in June 1970. 
This work was completed 18 September 1970. 

Buildings Management Department personnel continued to work 
on the renovation of basement space in the Smithsonian Institution 
Building. It is anticipated that this work will be completed during 
the next fiscal year. 

Renwick Gallery. The contract for furthering the restoration work 
was completed by Associated Builders, Inc., on 22 October 1970. 
Also the firm of Schewigert, Inc., completed the installation of a 
new air conditioning unit on 15 June 1971. 

National Zoological Park. Contract work was completed on the 
waterproofing of Delicate Hoofstock Building, Numbers 1 and 2. 

Feasibility Studies 

Parking. The final report of the study made by Wilbur Smith and 
Associates for Mall garages and Zoo parking was received and is 
now being considered. 

National Museum of History and Technology. Victor Lundy and 
Associates completed a study leading to the preparation of a 
design for facilities necessary for the celebration of the Bicentennial 
of the American Revolution. The proposed designs were rejected 
and that part of the planning for the celebration was abandoned. 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 

J. Carter Brown, Director 



rr-iHE national gallery of art, although technically established 
-*- as a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, is an autonomous 
and separately administered organization. It is governed by its own 
Board of Trustees, the statutory members of which are the Chief 
Justice of the United States, chairman, the Secretary of State, the 
Secretary of the Treasury, and the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution, all ex officio; and five general trustees. Paul Mellon 
continued as president of the Gallery and John Hay Whitney as 
vice-president. The other general trustees continuing to serve were 
Dr. Franklin D. Murphy, Lessing J. Rosenwald, and Stoddard M. 
Stevens. During the fiscal year 1971 the Gallery had 1,597,723 
visitors. 

A number of important acquisitions were made. Among them: 
Antony Valabregue by Paul Cezanne; the magnificent series of four 
large paintings by Thomas Cole, The Voyage of Life; a bronze of 
Louis XIV by Francois Girardon; and a painting, Mount Katahdin, 
by Marsden Hartley. Major acquisitions in the graphic arts have 
included a rare landscape drawing by Anthony van Dyck and a 
complete set of the Kleine-Welten series by Wassily Kandinsky. A 
total of 61 loans were made to institutions in this country and 
abroad. Expert opinio) s were given on 1341 objects. 

Some of the more notable exhibitions held at the Gallery were 
"Paintings and Sculpture from the Nathan Cummings Collection," 
"Mary Cassatt," "American Paintings from the Museum of Fine 
Arts, Boston and The Metropolitan Museum, New York," "British 
Painting and Sculpture 1960-1970," "Ingres in Rome," "Paintings 
by William Hogarth from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul 
Mellon," and Diirer in America: His Graphic Work." 

The Gallery's new multimedia education program "Art and 
Man," published by Scholastic Magazines Inc. reached 5000 classes 
with more than one million magazines; 72,000 reproductions, 12,000 
recordings, and 12,000 filmstrips were also distributed as part of 
the program. 

118 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 119 

The Extension Service materials were viewed by a total audience 
of more than 3,238,705. These materials include films, exhibitions, 
and slide lectures. For the first time, the Extension Service published 
a catalog of its 61 offerings, all of which are available on loan to 
schools and communities at no cost. 

Through the Extension Service, Kenneth Clark's film series 
Civilisation was shown to a national audience through grants from 
the Xerox Corporation and the National Endowment for the Hu- 
manities. The film has been seen by 400 colleges and universities 
with enrollments under 2000. It is estimated that about 2.25 million 
people have seen the films. For his work on Civilisation, Lord Clark 
was awarded the National Gallery's Medal for Distinguished Service 
to Education in Art on 18 November 1970. 

Total attendance at talks given by the Gallery's Education De- 
partment and for the programs presented in the auditorium was 
83,403 for 2,530 separate tours and events. The Gallery's regularly 
scheduled events include the Sunday auditorium lectures and films, 
the Tour of the Week, and Painting of the Week. There were 35 
guest lecturers who spoke at the Gallery during the last fiscal year. 
They included the distinguished British art historian and educator 
T.S.R. Boase, the 20th annual A.W. Mellon Lecturer in the Fine 
Arts, who gave a series of six talks entitled "Vasari, the Man and the 
Book." 

Through its self-service sales facility, the Gallery made available 
eight new publications, as well as seven catalogs of exhibitions 
shown at the Gallery and published three posters in connection with 
those exhibitions. During the year over 375,744 customers were 
served. Under the supervision of Richard Bales, forty concerts were 
given in the East Garden Court at the new hour of 7 p.m. Ten of 
these were by the National Gallery Orchestra which played a special 
concert of American music in honor of the Thirtieth Anniversary of 
the Gallery on 14 March 1971. Two compositions were commis- 
sioned for the occasion. All the concerts were broadcast in their 
entirety by radio station wgms, am-fm. 

The scientific investigation of the causes of deterioration of 
museum objects and methods of conservation continued in its 
twentieth year at the Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh. The 
Gallery's long-term research program completed accelerated-aging 
evaluation tests in the past year on a number of polymers that hold 
considerable promise in protective coatings and adhesives. Studies of 
traditional and modern artists' pigments by Mossbauer and infrared 
spectroscopy, neutron-activation analysis, isotope-ratio mass spectros- 



120 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

copy, and radioactive-decay dating methods are yielding valuable 
new methods to characterize and identify artists' pigments. 

After two and a half years of intensive planning, the National 
Gallery has completed final design plans for the addition to its 
present building. The groundbreaking ceremony for the East 
Building was held on 6 May, when architectural plans, renderings, 
and models were presented to the public. Final completion of the 
East Budding is planned for 1975. 



JOHN F. KENNEDY CENTER FOR 
THE PERFORMING ARTS 

William McC. Blair, Jr., General Director 



rj u R country will witness the much anticipated debut of its 
^ national center for the performing arts on 8 September when 
the world premiere of Leonard Bernstein's "Mass" inaugurates the 
Kennedy Center opera house. 

The opening has been the goal of the past year, with concentration 
on completing construction and on the exciting program for the 
Center's first season. The staff has been expanded, additional con- 
struction funds raised; there have been new gifts from nations 
abroad, and a new fund established to provide low-cost tickets to 
students and those with limited incomes. 

The inauguration of the Kennedy Center will bring to reality a 
long held dream of many Americans. It was initiated as the Na- 
tional Cultural Center in 1958 by President Eisenhower and ardently 
supported by President Kennedy. President Johnson signed the 
1964 law designating the Center as President Kennedy's official 
memorial in Washington, and the Center has received the con- 
tinued interest and active support of President Nixon. 

The Kennedy Center is administered separately by a 45-member 
Board of Trustees appointed by the President to ten-year terms, 
together with members ex-officio from pertinent public agencies and 
from the United States Senate and House of Representatives. Mem- 
bers of the Board at the end of fiscal 1971 are as follows: 



Roger L. Stevens, Chairman 
Richard Adler 
Floyd D. Akers 
Robert O. Anderson 
Ralph E. Becker** 
K. LeMoyne Billings 
Edgar M. Bronfman 
Mrs. Edward Cox* 
Robert W. Dowling 
Ralph W. Ellison 
Mrs. J. Clifford Folger* 



Abe Fortas 

Rep. Peter H. B. Frelinghuysen 

Senator J. William Fulbright 

Mrs. George A. Garrett 

Leonard H. Goldenson 

H. R. Haldeman* 

Mrs. Rebekah Harkness 

George B. Hartzog, Jr. 

Mrs. Paul H. Hatch* 

Senator Edward M. Kennedy 

Thomas H. Kuchel 



121 



122 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 



Mrs. Michael J. Mansfield 
Sidney P. Marland, Jr. 
Harry C. McPherson, Jr. 
George Meany 
Robert I. Millonzi 
L. Quincy Mumford 
Senator Charles Percy 
Elliot Richardson 
John Richardson, Jr. 
S. Dillon Ripley, II 
Rep. Teno Roncalio 
Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. 



Mrs. Jouett Shouse** 

Mrs. Stephen E. Smith 

Henry Strong* 

William H. Thomas 

Rep. Frank H. Thompson, Jr. 

Senator John V. Tunney 

Jack J. Valenti 

William Walton 

Walter E. Washington 

Lew R. Wasserman 

Edwin L. Weisl, Sr. 



•Appointed by President Nixon on 14 September. 
**Reappointed by President Nixon on 14 September. 

The 114-member Advisory Committee on the Arts, appointed by 
the President, includes 10 new members appointed by President 
Nixon on 7 May. During the year the Committee has provided 
extensive counsel on the Center's promotion, programming and its 
educational aims, and also has secured donations of $1 million 
toward the completion of the Eisenhower Theater. 
The Executive Committee of this group is as follows: 



Mrs. J. Willard Marriott, Chairman 
Robert S. Carter, Secretary 
Raymond A. Lamontagne, Special 

Counsel 
Vernon B. StoufFer, Chairman, Finance 
Mrs. David E. Bradshaw, Vice 

Chairman, Finance 
Mrs. Jack Wrather, Chairman, Public 

Relations 
Harry L. Jackson, Vice Chairman, 

Public Relations 



Mrs. Paul A. Clayton, Chairman, 

Education & Program 
Mrs. Benjamin C. Evans, Vice 

Chairman, Education & Program 
Mrs. D. Eldredge Jackson, Northeast 

Regional Chairman 
Harvey B. Cohen, Southern Regional 

Chairman 
Mrs. William A. McKenzie, Western 

Regional Chairman 
John H. Myers, Midwest Regional 

Chairman 



Construction of the Kennedy Center stands about 90 percent 
complete at the end of fiscal 1971, with the opening of the opera 
house and concert hall scheduled for 8 and 9 September, respectively, 
and the opening of the Eisenhower Theater tentatively set for 
October. The Film Theater is scheduled for completion in 1972. 

The three roof-terrace restaurants— La Grand Scene, a gourmet 
dining room; the Gallery, a cafe, and the Promenade, a buffeteria— 
will open to the public in August. They are managed by Canteen 
Corporation. Two of the three levels of underground parking have 
been in use since January of this year, with management by apcoa. 

New staff appointments during the year include Norman L. Fagan, 



JOHN F. KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS 123 

formerly executive director of the West Virginia Arts and Humani- 
ties Council, as Director of Education (4 January); Michael Sean 
O'Shea, widely experienced press representative in the performing 
arts, as Director of Publicity and Promotion (1 February), and J. 
Charles Gilbert, formerly managing director of the Civic Opera 
House and Civic Theater in Chicago, as General Manager of the 
Center's theaters (1 May.) Julius Rudel, who has been the Center's 
Music Advisor since 1968, was named Music Director in January. 

The appointment of Willis Conover, widely known broadcaster 
for the Voice of America, as Consultant for Jazz Programs was an- 
nounced on 10 July. The appointment of a 10-member Jazz Ad- 
visory Panel was also announced on that date with the following 
membership: Julian (Cannonball) Adderley, David Baker, Co-chair- 
man, Topper Carew, Willis Conover, Co-chairman, Stanley Dance, 
Ernest Dyson, Julian Euell, John Lewis, Tahir Sur, and Clark Terry. 

Katherine Dunham, dancer-choreographer-educator, was engaged 
as the Center's Technical Advisor for Inter-Cultural Communica- 
tions in June. 

The National Symphony Orchestra, under the leadership of its 
distinguished new director Antal Dorati, will give its regular season 
of concerts in the Center, it was announced on 9 December. The 
Orchestra, under Mr. Dorati's direction, with Isaac Stern as soloist 
and the Paul Hill Chorale and the Washington Choral Arts Society, 
will open the Concert Hall on 9 September. 

The American College Theatre Festival, presented for the third 
consecutive year by the Center with the Smithsonian, brought ten of 
the nation's best college theater companies to perform at Ford's 
Theatre and the George Washington University Center Theater 
between 21 March and 4 April. The Festival was produced by the 
American Educational Theatre Association with Frank Cassidy as 
Executive Producer. American Airlines, American Express, and 
American Oil were sponsors. 

The American College Jazz Festival, presented for the second year 
by the Center in cooperation with the Krannert Center on the 
Champaign-Urbana campus of the University of Illinois, brought 
together almost 300 of the nation's top student jazz musicians to 
perform on 14, 15, and 16 May. American Airlines and American 
Express were sponsors for the event. 

Natalia Makarova, who defected from the Soviet Union in October 
and joined the American Ballet Theatre as a prima ballerina shortly 
thereafter, visited the Kennedy Center on 19 May. Ballet Theatre, 



441-283 O 



124 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

the official Kennedy Center dance company, will make its first ap- 
pearance in the opera house on 1 1 September. 

The Gala Preview of the Center on 27 May attracted 3500 people 
from Washington, from almost every state and from 30 nations 
abroad for an "early bird" look at the Center complemented by 
dancing, a buffet supper and fireworks at midnight. The evening 
announced that the Center was nearly ready to open, honored the 
ambassadors of the countries who are making gifts to the Center, 
and raised about $240,000 to initiate the Special Ticket Fund, which 
will provide low-cost tickets to Center events for students, the 
elderly, and others with limited incomes. 

Almost 50 internationally prominent performing artists have ac- 
cepted the invitation of the Trustees to become Founding Artists 
of the Kennedy Center. The Founding Artists, comprising the 
classical and popular fields, will donate a concert during the 
Center's premiere season to benefit the Special Ticket Fund, and 
will have their names etched in marble within the Center. 

More than 30 nations are making contributions to the Center and 
during the year four of these were announced. 

Ambassador Walter Loridan of Belgium announced on 9 March 
that his country would donate mirrors for the Center's grand foyer, 
concert hall and opera house lobbies, and the restaurant area. 

Israel will furnish and decorate the concert hall lounge with 
specially commissioned artworks illustrating the continuous bond 
between Judaism and music from Biblical times to the present. The 
gift was announced by Mrs. Yitzhak Rabin, wife of the Ambassador 
of Israel, on 29 April. 

The presentation of the gift of France— two tapestries by Henri 
Matisse and two sculptures by Henri Laurens— was made by Charge 
d'Affaires Emmanuel Margerie during a brief ceremony in the 
Center on 24 May. 

Ambassador Olavi Munnki of Finland presented his country's 
gift of Finnish designed chinaware, including complete dinner 
service for the Promenade and Gallery restaurants, during a brief 
ceremony on 14 June. 

Several of the gifts from other nations were installed during the 
year including the crystal chandeliers from Norway, Sweden, Austria, 
and Ireland. The red and gold silk stage curtain from Japan was 
taken out of storage in preparation for installation in the opera 
house this summer. 

The Center opened its doors for two public tours in October and 
the enthusiastic visitors, numbering about 10,000, were treated to a 






JOHN F. KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS 125 

concert by the U.S. Army Band and the U.S. Navy Band. Princess 
Sophia of Spain, escorted by Center Trustee Tricia Nixon Cox, and 
Mrs. Ferdinand Marcos, wife of the President of the Philippines, 
were among the foreign dignitaries visiting during the year. Special 
tours were also conducted for cabinet wives, Congressional wives, 
Smithsonian staff members, representatives of performing arts or- 
ganizations, and other groups with a special interest in the Center. 

The Friends of the Kennedy Center, established as an auxiliary 
organization by the Trustees in 1966, have increased their member- 
ship to more than 6000, representing 48 states, with 29 regional and 
state chairmen. The annual meeting of the Friends, normally held 
in the spring, was postponed to September to coincide with the 
Center's opening. 

Officers at the close of the fiscal year are as follows: Mrs. Polk 
Guest, Chairman, Mrs. Norris Dodson, Jr., Vice Chairman, Mrs. 
Eugene C. Carusi, Secretary, and Mr. Henry Strong, Treasurer. 

The Friends sponsored a three-day Blues Festival at Howard 
University on 5, 6, and 7 November, helped enable Katherine Dun- 
ham to bring a young dance group from East St. Louis, Illinois, to 
perform during the White House Conference on Children in Decem- 
ber, and held their Founders Day Luncheon, attended by 750 people, 
on 16 January in the Center, the first such event. Ongoing projects 
of the Friends include the Information Center adjacent to the 
building, the Speakers Bureau, a regular newsletter, and a weekly 
radio program on station wgms. 



APPENDIXES 



Appendix i 



SMITHSONIAN FOREIGN CURRENCY PROGRAM 
GRANTS AWARDED IN FISCAL YEAR 1971 

Archeology and Related Disciplines 

American Institute of Indian Studies, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Continued 
support for Poona Center, Benares Center for South Asian Art and Arche- 
ology, and American Institute of Indian Studies research fellowships. 

American Research Center in Egypt, Princeton, New Jersey. Continued sup- 
port for a program of research and excavation in Egypt, research in Arabic 
literature, support for operation of Cairo Center, expedition to Fustat, epi- 
graphic and architectural survey of Luxor, maintenance of a stratified Pharonic 
site at Mendes, excavation at the ancient city of Memphis, and excavation 
of the ancient city of Hierakonpolis. 

American Schools of Oriental Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Arche- 
ological activities of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 

Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, New York. Egyptological projects of the Brook- 
lyn Museum. 

Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Excavations at Tel Ashdod, Israel. 

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. Academic research and field work in 
biological anthropology and prehistoric archeology. 

Denison University, Granville, Ohio. Excavation of the Roman imperial 
metropolis at Sirmium. 

Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Washington, D.C. Excavations 
leading to the publication of a corpus of ancient mosaics of Tunisia. 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Publication of the ethnological 
contribution of Milenko S. Filipovic. 

Hebrew Union College, Jerusalem School of Archeology, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Excavation of an archeological site at Gezer, Israel. 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. Excavations at Nin, Dalmatia, Yugo- 
slavia. 

Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Studies in ancient Roman 
glass excavated at Salona, Yugoslavia. 

Rutgers University, Douglass College, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Arche- 
ological excavations at Salona, Yugoslavia. 

Smithsonian Institution, Department of Anthropology, Washington, D.C. 
Ethnographic research on selected Tibetan artifacts. 

Smithsonian Institution, Department of Anthropology, Washington, D.C. 
Study of disappearing traditional crafts, industries, and technologies in Pakis- 
tan. 

129 



130 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. Excavations at the site of Tabun, 
Israel. 

University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. Metric and morphological 
traits in the dentition and calvaria of neo-eneolithic crania from Wislica, 
Poland. 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Excavations of a middle paleo- 
lithic site in northern Bosnia, Yugoslavia. 

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Excavations of the Palace 
of Diocletian at Split, Yugoslavia. 

University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. Investigations of ancient glass- 
manufacturing sites in Israel. 

University of New Mexico, Albequerque, New Mexico. Studies of Majolica 
pottery in Morocco. 

University of Pennsylvania, University Museum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
The Akhnaten Temple project. 

University of Pennsylvania, University Museum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
The Dra Abu el-Naga project. 

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Study of early food-pro- 
ducing cultures in Yugoslavia. 

University of Texas, Austin, Texas. Archeological investigations at Stobi. 

Systematic and Environmental Biology 
(Including Paleobiology) 

American University of Beirut, New York, New York. Zoogeography and com- 
munity structure of Sand Beach Meiofauna in the Mediterranean Sea. 

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. Studies of ramalina lichens in 
Morocco. 

National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. Research, planning, and 
training for International Biological Program personnel in the "excess" cur- 
rency countries. 

Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
Study of specimens of marine ostracods in Tunisia. 

Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey. Structure and function of 
tropical avian communities. 

Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey. Studies in comparison of tropical 
forest structures. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Department of Botany. A flora 
of the Hassan District, Mysore State, India. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Department of Invertebrate 
Zoology. Studies on the systematics and physiological ecology of Tunisian 
sponge communities. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Department of Vertebrate Zool- 
ogy. Geographical and ecological study of the mammals of Morocco. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Department of Vertebrate Zool- 
ogy. Serological and ectoparasite survey of migratory birds in northeast Africa. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Division of Birds. Preparation of 
a manuscript for a handbook of Indian birds. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Division of Birds. Migratory bird 
survey in India. 



APPENDIX 1. SMITHSONIAN FOREIGN CURRENCY PROGRAM 131 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Office of Ecology. Symposium on 
recent advances in tropical biology. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Office of Oceanography and 
Limnology. Study in Israel of biological interchanges between the eastern 
Mediterranean and the Red Sea through the Suez Canal. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Office of Oceanocraphy and 
Limnology. Survey of the marine fauna and flora of Morocco. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Office of Oceanography and 
Limnology. Support for the Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center in Tunisia. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Office of Oceanography and 
Limnology. Refitting of the research vessel Phykos. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Support for the first Indian-Ameri- 
can ecology symposium in New Delhi. 

Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas. Study of the ecology and 
behavior of gazelles in Israel. 

University of California, Berkeley, California. Biosystematic research on 
bees of the genus Ceratina (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) . 

University of California, Berkeley, California. Biosystematic studies of Mo- 
roccan flora. 

University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. Studies of the cytotaxonomy of 
the Yugoslavian flora. 

University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. Studies and collection of lizards on 
Yugoslavia's Adriatic Islands. 

University of the State of New York, Stony Brook, New York. Study of the 
ecology of an Eilat coral reef in Israel. 

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Research on the biology and 
control of the wild boar of West Pakistan. 

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Habitat relationships and distri- 
bution of wild ungulates in the Gir Forest, India. 

Astrophysics and Earth Sciences 

Smithsonian Institution, Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts. Theories of planetary motion. 

Smithsonian Institution, Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts. Multicolor photoelectric observations of flare stars at the Uttar Pradesh 
State Observatory, Naini Tal, India. 

Smithsonian Institution, Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts. Observation of Uttar Pradesh State Observatory at Naini Tal, India. 

Smithsonian Institution, Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts. Study of the collective behavior of self-gravitating systems. 

Smithsonian Institution, Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts. An astronomical observing program in Israel. 

Museum Programs 

Smithsonian Institution, Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Wash- 
ington, D.C. Research on early machine tools, early materials handling equip- 
ment, and interchangeable manufacture in Poland. 

Smithsonian Institution, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Schol- 
ars, Washington, D.C. Research in international ocean studies. 



Appendix 2 



MEMBERS OF THE SMITHSONIAN COUNCIL 30 JUNE 1971 



Dr. Roger Abrahams. Professor of English and Anthropology, Afro-American 

Research Institute, University of Texas, Austin. 
Mr. H. Harvard Arnason. Vice President for Art Administration, Solomon R. 

Guggenheim Foundation, New York City. 
Dr. Herman R. Branson. President, Lincoln University, Pennsylvania. 
Professor Fred R. Egcan. Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, 

Illinois. 
Professor Donald S. Farner. Chairman, Department of Zoology, University of 

Washington, Seattle. 
Professor Anthony N. B. Garvan. Chairman, Department of American Civiliza- 
tion, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 
Dr. Murray Gell-Mann. Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Theoretical 

Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena. 
Dr. Philip Handler. President, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. 
Professor G. Evelyn Hutchinson. Sterling Professor of Zoology, Yale University, 

New Haven, Connecticut. 
Professor Jan LaRue. Department of Music, Graduate School of Arts and 

Sciences, New York University, New York City. 
Mr. Clifford L. Lord. President, Hofstra University, Hempstead, Long Island, 

New York. 
Professor Charles D. Michener. Watkins Distinguished Professor of Entomology 

and of Systematics and Ecology, University of Kansas, Lawrence. 
Dr. Peter M. Millman. National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. 

Meteoritic Specialist. 
Mr. Elting E. Morison. Professor of History and Master, Timothy Dwight Col- 
lege, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 
Mr. Robert Motherwell. Distinguished Professor, Hunter College, New York 

City. 
Professor Norman Holmes Pearson. Professor of English and American Studies, 

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 
Mr. Gordon N. Ray. President, John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, 

New York City. 
Mr. Philip C. Ritterbush. Chairman, Organization Response, Washington, D.C. 
Mr. Andre Schiffrin. Managing Director, Pantheon Books, New York City. 
Professor Cyril Stanley Smith. Institute Professor, Massachusetts Institute of 

Technology, Cambridge. 
Dr. John D. Spikes. College of Science, University of Utah, Salt Lake City. 
Professor Stephen E. Toulmin. Department of Philosophy, Michigan State 

University, East Lansing. 

132 



APPENDIX 2. MEMBERS OF THE SMITHSONIAN COUNCIL 133 

Dr. William von Arx. Senior Scientist, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts. 

Professor Warren H. Wagner, Jr. Department of Botany and Matthaei Botani- 
cal Gardens, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 

Dr. Rainer Zangerl. Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road and 
Lakeshore Drive, Chicago, Illinois. 



Appendix 3 



SMITHSONIAN ASSOCIATES MEMBERSHIP 1970-1971 



Our deepest gratitute is extended to our members for their interest and gen- 
erous support of the Smithsonian Associates this year, and especially to those 
listed below, who have contributed amounts in excess of the membership dues. 



Founder Members 



($1000 and up) 



Mr. Irwin Belk 

The Honorable and Mrs. David 

K. E. Bruce 
Mrs. Morris Cafritz 
The Honorable Douglas Dillon 
Mr. Charles E. Eckles 



The Honorable and Mrs. John 

Clifford Folger 
Mr. Cornelius Van S. Roosevelt 
Mr. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 
Mr. P. A. B. Widener 
Mr. Christian A. Zabriskie (Deceased) 
Mr. and Mrs. Sidney S. Zlotnick 



Sustaining Members 
($500 and up) 



Mrs. Anna Bing Arnold 

Mrs. Theodore Babbitt 

Mr. Joel Barlow 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard J. H. Barnes 

Mr. William R. Biggs 

Mr. George A. Binney 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph D. Blatt 

Mr. Hardy Jefferson Bowen 

Mrs. L. Roosevelt Bramwell 

Mr. A. Marvin Braverman 

Mr. and Mrs. John Nicholas Brown 

Mr. Bertram F. Brummer 

Mr. Leon Campbell, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Carmichael 

Dr. Rita Chow 

Clarke and Rapuano Foundation 

(Mr. Gilmore D. Clarke) 
Mrs. Frances A. Davila 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry F. DuPont 



Mr. Newell W. Ellison 

Mr. and Mrs. Alfred U. Elser, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard S. Friedman 

Mr. Richard E. Fuller 

Mr. and Mrs. Hy Garfinkel 

Mr. George A. Garret 

Mr. Crawford H. Greenewalt 

Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert C. Greenway 

Mr. William H. Greer, Jr. 

Mr. Melville B. Grosvenor 

Mr. Gilbert Hahn 

Mr. Laurence Harrison 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Hirshhorn 

Mr. and Mrs. Christian C. Hohenlohe 

Mr. Philip Johnson 

Miss Brenda Kuhn 

Mr. Harold F. Linder 

Colonel and Mrs. Leon Mandel 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Willard Marriott 



134 



APPENDIX 3. SMITHSONIAN ASSOCIATES MEMBERSHIP 



135 



Mr. William McC. Martin, Jr. 
Lieutenant Commander and Mrs. 

P. J. Maveety 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon 
Miss Katherine A. A. Murphy 
Neuberger Foundation Inc. 

(Roy R. and Marie S. Neuberger) 
Duke of Northumberland 
Mr. Douglas W. Orr (Deceased) 
Mrs. K. D. Owen 
Dr. and Mrs. Melvin M. Payne 
Miss Lucy M. Pollio 
Mrs. Merriweather Post 
Mr. Peter Powers 
Miss Elsie Howland Quinby 



Dr. and Mrs. S. Dillon Ripley 

Mr. and Mrs. Seymour J. Rubin 

Mr. H. C. Seherr-Thoss 

Mrs. Jouett Shouse 

Dr. and Mrs. Carl Swan Shultz 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Smith 

Mr. Robert T. Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. B°rtrand L. Taylor III 

Mrs. Clark W. Thompson 

Mrs. Carll Tucker 

Mr. Alexander O. Vietor 

Mr. and Mrs. John W. Warner 

Dr. and Mrs. Alexander Wetmore 

Mr. and Mrs. W. Bradley Willard 

Mrs. Rose Saul Zalles 



Contributing Members 
($100 and up) 



Mrs. Howard Ahmanson 

Mr. and Mrs. James C. H. Bonbright 

Mr. Maxwell Brace 

Mr. J. Bruce Bredin 

The Honorable William A. M. Burden 

Mrs. Jackson Burke 

Mr. and Mrs. G. Howland Chase 

Mr. and Mrs. Leon Chatelain, Jr. 

Miss Joan Collett 

Dr. and Mrs. William H. Crocker 

General Jacob L. Devers 

Mr. and Mrs. Ewen C. Dingwall 

Mr. and Mrs. Bryan M. Eagle 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Eames 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Eichholz 

The Honorable and Mrs. Edward 

Foley 
Mr. T. Jack Gary, Jr. 
Mr. W. E. Gathright 
Mr. and Mrs. T. K. Glennan 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles C. Glover III 
Colonel and Mrs. Julius Goldstein 
Mrs. Katharine Graham 
Dr. Sheila H. Gray 
Mr. and Mrs. Homer Gudelsky 
Mr. Arthur A. Houghton, Jr. 
Miss Elisabeth Houghton 
Mrs. Edward F. Hutton 
Mr. David Lloyd Kreeger 
Mr. and Mrs. Anthony A. Lapham 



Mrs. Mortimer C. Lebowitz 

Mrs. Newbold Legendre 

Mr. and Mrs. Saul M. Linowitz 

Mrs. Demarest Lloyd 

Mrs. J. Noel Macey 

Mr. and Mrs. Leonard H. Marks 

Mr. and Mrs. George C. McGhee 

Mr. and Mrs. John H. McLaren 

Mrs. William Moreden 

Mr. and Mrs. Carl J. Mulert, Jr. 

Mr. Gerson Nordlinger, Jr. 

Mr. Gyo Obata 

The Honorable and Mrs. Jefferson 

Patterson 
Mr. Charles Emory Phillips 
Dr. and Mrs. Ernest G. Rafey 
Mr. James H. Ripley 
Mr. William H. Scully 
Mrs. John Farr Simmons 
Dr. and Mrs. T. Dale Stewart 
Mrs. Edward C. Sweeney 
Mrs. Mary Davidson Swift 
Martha Frick Symington, Inc. 
Mr. and Mrs. David G. Townsend 
Mr. and Mrs. A. Buel Trowbridge 
Mr. George C. Webster 
Mr. and Mrs. William S. Weedon 
Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Wilkinson, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Winkler 



136 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 



Supporting Members 

($50 and up) 



The Reverend and Mrs. F. Everett 

Abbott 
Mr. and Mrs. Stanley N. Allan 
Mrs. Carol P. Banks 
Dr. and Mrs. Montgomery Blair 
Mr. Herbert Block 
Mr. and Mrs. Emanuel Boasberg III 
The Honorable Frances P. Bolton 
Mr. and Mrs. Philip Bonsai 
Mrs. Albert J. Bowley 
Mrs. Linda C. Burgess 
Mr. and Mrs. Horace W. Busby, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Caplan 
Mr. and Mrs. James G. Chandler 
Mr. and Mrs. David Sanders Clark 
Mrs. Chester Dale 
Captain and Mrs. Robert F. Doss 
Mr. and Mrs. Lionel Epstein 
Mrs. Julius Fleischmann 
The Honorable Peter Freylinghuysen 
Mr. John W. Galston 
Mr. and Mrs. Melvin Gelman 
Mr. and Mrs. Ernest W. Grove 
Mr. Tom Hart 

Mr. and Mrs. Louis Hausman 
Mr. and Mrs. Randolph A. Hearst 
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Hechinger 
Mrs. Rex D. Hopper, Sr. 
Mr. H. T. Howard, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. James H. Hughes 
Mr. and Mrs. James D. Hurd 
Mrs. George C. Reiser 
Mr. J. A. King 
Miss N. P. Kuhn 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Liggett 
Dr. and Mrs. Charles U. Lowe 
Miss Katharine Magraw 
Mrs. Isabel C. Mahaffie 
Mr. and Mrs. Gershom R. Makepeace 



Major and Mrs. George S. Mansfield 

Mr. and Mrs. Sheldon I. Matzkin 

Dr. and Mrs. Francis Mayle, Jr. 

Dr. and Mrs. Edgar H. McPeak 

Mr. and Mrs. Mylon Merriam 

Colonel and Mrs. Kenneth L. Moll 

Mrs. E. P. Moore 

Miss Lee Muth 

Mr. and Mrs. V. M. Newbold 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Lloyd Niles 

Nutrition Today 

Mrs. Carolyn C. Onufrak 

Mr. Estrada Raul Oyuela 

Miss Ruth Uppercu Paul 

Mrs. Duncan Phillips 

Mr. Donald H. Price 

Mrs. Albert J. Redway 

Dr. Michael J. Reilly 

Mr. R. D. Remley 

Mr. and Mrs. John Richardson, Jr. 

Mrs. John Barry Ryan 

Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Salzman 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank M. Sanger, Jr. 

Mr. Michael F. Sawyer 

Dr. and Mrs. George L. Sigalos 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard R. Sigmon 

Mr. and Mrs. Murray Socolof 

Mrs. Beck Stein 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard L. Sugarman 

Mrs. Sally Sweetland 

Mr. and Mrs. E. Russell True, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. John D. Walker 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Watson 

Mrs. Norma Christine Wertz 

Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Wilson 

Mrs. Mark Winkler 

Mrs. Leslie H. Wyman 

Mrs. Maury Young 



Appendix 4 

STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

30 JUNE 1970 

Secretary's Office and Related Activities 

The Secretary S. Dillon Ripley 

Executive Assistant Christian C. Hohenlohe 1 

Under Secretary James Bradley 

Administrative Officer Dorothy Rosenberg 

Director of Support Activities Richard L. Ault 

Assistant to Under Secretary Edward H. Kohn 

Director, Office of Audits Chris S. Peratino 

Director General of Museums, and 
Director, United States National 

Museum Frank A. Taylor 2 

Assistant Secretary (Science), Acting.... David Challinor 3 

Assistant Secretary (History and Art)... Charles Blitzer 

Assistant Secretary (Public Service) William W. Warner 

Treasurer T. Ames Wheeler 

Assistant Treasurer Betty J. Morgan 

Director, Office of Programming 

and Budget John F. Jameson 

Chief Accountant Allen S. Goff 

General Counsel Peter G. Powers 

Assistant General Counsels Alan D. Ullberg 

George S. Robinson 
L. Wardlaw Hamilton 
Mrs. Suzanne D. Murphy 
Mrs. M. Malaro 
Special Projects, Office of the Secretary 

Special Assistant to the Secretary Richard H. Howland 

Special Assistant to the Secretary Woodruff M. Price 4 

Director, Office of Development Lynford E. Kautz 

Editor, Joseph Henry Papers Nathan Reingold 

Director, Office of Equal Employment 

Opportunity Joseph A. Kennedy 



1 Replaced John H. Dobkin on 1 June 1971. 

2 Retired 23 January 1971 . 

3 Replaced Sidney R. Galler on 11 January 1971. 

4 Appointed 1 February 1971. 



137 



138 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 



Support Activities 

Chief, Administrative Systems 

Division Ann S. Campbell 

Director, Buildings Management 

Department Andrew F. Michaels 

Contracting Officer, Contracts Office. . Elbridge, O. Hurlbut 

Chief, Duplicating Section Joseph E. Freeman 

Director, Information Systems 

Division Stanley A. Kovy 

Director, Office of Personnel 

Administration Vincent J. Doyle 5 

Director, Photographic Services 

Division Arthur L. Gaush 6 

Chief, Supply Division Fred G. Barwick 

Chief, Travel Services Office Mrs. Betty V. Strickler 

Honorary Research Associates Charles G. Abbot, Secretary Emeritus 

Leonard Carmichael, Secretary 

Emeritus 
Paul H. Oehser 
Alexander Wetmore, Secretary 
Emeritus 
Honorary Fellow John A. Graf 

Science 

Assistant Secretary David Challinor 

Special Assistants Helen L. Hayes 

Michael R. Huxley 
Harold J. Michaelson 
Paula E. Ullmann 

National Museum of Natural History 



Director Richard S. Cowan 

Assistant Director Paul K. Knierim 

Assistant to Director (ADP) James F. Mello 

Assistant to Director (Exhibits) Ronald S. Goor 7 

Administrative Officers Mabel A. Byrd 

John C. Townsend 
Anthropology 

Chairman Clifford Evans 

Senior Physical Anthropologist T. Dale Stewart 8 

Senior Archeologist Waldo R. Wedel 

Senior Ethnologist John C. Ewers 

Archivist Margaret C. Blaker 

5 Replaced Leonard Pouliot 13 December 1970. 

6 Replaced Otis H. Greeson (Retired) 28 February 1971. 

7 Appointed 23 August 1970. 

8 Retired 28 May 1971. 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



139 



Latin American Anthropology 

Associate Curator Robert M. Laughlin 

Curator Clifford Evans 

Associate Curator William H. Crocker 

Old World Anthropology 

Curator Gordon D. Gibson 

Curator Saul H. Riesenberg 

Curator Gus W. Van Beek 

Associate Curators Eugene I. Knez 

William B. Trousdale 
North American Anthropology 

Associate Curator William W. Fitzhugh 9 

Curator William C. Sturtevant 

Associate Curator Paul H. Voorhis 10 

Physical Anthropology 

Curator J. Lawrence Angel 

Associate Curator Donald J. Ortner 

Associate Curator Lucile E. St. Hoyme 

Museum Specialist Douglas H. Ubelaker 

Research Associates, Collaborators, 

and Affiliated Scientists Hans-Georg Bandi (Archeology) 

W. Montague Cobb (Physical 

Anthropology) 
T. Aidan Cockburn (Physical 

Anthropology) 
Henry B. Collins (Archeology) 
Wilson Duff (Ethnology) 
Roger I. Eddy (Ethnology) 
Don D. Fowler (Archeology) 
Marcus S. Goldstein (Physical 

Anthropology) 
Sister Inez Hilger (Ethnology) 
C. G. Holland (Archeology) 
Neil M. Judd (Archeology) 
Richard T. Koritzer (Physical 

Anthropology) 
Ralph K. Lewis (Archeology) 
Olga Linares de Sapir (Archeology) 
Betty J. Meggers (Archeology) 
George S. Metcalf (Archeology) 
Philleo Nash (Ethnology) 
Walter G. Putschar (Physical 

Anthropology) 
Victor A. Nunez Regueiro 

(Archeology) 
Mary Slusser (Archeology) 
Wilhelm G. Solheim (Archeology) 

9 Appointed 31 August 1970. 

10 Resigned 10 September 1970. 



441-283 O - 71 - 10 



140 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 



Research Associates, Collaborators, T. Dale Stewart (Physical 

and Affiliated Scientists— Continued Anthropology) 

Matthew W. Stirling (Archeology) 
Robert Stuckenrath (Archeology) 
Douglas Taylor (Ethnology) 
William J. Tobin (Physical 

Anthropology) n 
Theodore A. Wertime (Archeology) 
Edwin F. Wilmsen (Archeology) 
Botany 

Chairman Edward S. Ayensu 

Senior Botanist Lyman B. Smith 

Senior Botanist Conrad V. Morton 12 

Phanerogams 

Curators John J. Wurdack 

Velva Rudd 

Wallace R. Ernst 

F. Raymond Fosberg 13 

Associate Curators Dan H. Nicolson 

Marie-Helene Sachet 14 
Stanwyn G. Shetler 

Assistant Curator Dieter C. Wasshausen 

Ferns 

Associate Curator David B. Lellinger 

Grasses 

Associate Curator Thomas R. Soderstrom 

Cryptogams 

Curator Harold E. Robinson 

Curator Mason E. Hale, Jr. 

Associate Curator Arthur L. Dahl 15 

Plant Anatomy 

Curator Richard H. Eyde 

Curator Edward S. Ayensu 

Research Associates, Collaborators 

and Affiliated Scientists 16 W. Andrew Archer (Flowering 

Plants) 
Chester R. Benjamin (Fungi) 
John A. Churchill (Flowering 

Plants) 
Paul S. Conger (Diatomaceae) 
Jose Cuatrecasas (Flora of Tropical 

South America) 
James A. Duke (Flora of Panama) 
Emily W. Emmart (Plants of Mexico) 



11 Died 3 March 1971. 

12 Effective 9 August 1970. 

1 3 Reassigned 1 July 1970. 

14 Reassigned 1 July 1970. 

15 Appointed 14 September 1970. 

1 6 National fungus collections are curated by Department of Agriculture staff. 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



141 



Research Associates, Collaborators, 

and Affiliated Scientists— Continued Marie L. Farr (Fungi) 

Howard S. Gentry (Economic Plants 

of Northwestern Mexico) 
Charles R. Gunn (Fungi) 
William H. Hathaway (Flora of 

Central America) 
Frederick J. Hermann (North 

American Flora) 
Robert M. King (Compositae) 
Paul L. Lentz (Fungi) 
Elbert L. Little (Dendrology) 
Alicia Lourteig (Neotropical Botany) 
Kittie F. Parker (Compositae) 
Julian C. Patiiio (Flora of Colombia) 
Clyde F. Reed (Ferns) 
James L. Reveal (Ferns) 
Marie L. Solt (Melastomataceae) 
William L. Stern (Plant Anatomy) 
John A. Stevenson (Fungi) 
Edward E. Terrell (Phanerogams) 
Francis A.Uecker (Fungi) 
Egbert H. Walker (Myrsinaceae, 

East Asian Flora) 

Entomology 

Chairman Paul D. Hurd, Jr. 17 

Senior Entomologists Karl V. Krombein 

J. F. Gates Clarke 
Neuropteroids 

Curator Oliver S. Flint, Jr. 

Lepidoptera and Diptera 

Associate Curators Donald R. Davis 

W. Donald Duckworth 

Assistant Curator William D. Field 

Coleoptera 

Associate Curator Paul J. Spangler 

Assistant Curator Terry L. Erwin 18 

Hemiptera and Hymenoptera 

Associate Curator Richard C. Froeschner 

Myriapoda and Arachnida 

Curator Ralph E. Crabill, Jr. 

Research Associates, Collaborators, 

and Affiliated Scientists Charles P. Alexander (Diptera) 

William H. Anderson (Coleoptera) 
Doris H. Blake (Coleoptera) 
Franklin S. Blanton (Diptera) 
Frank L. Campbell (Insect 
Physiology) 



17 Appointed 31 August 1970. 

18 Appointed 1 July 1970. 



142 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 



Research Associates, Collaborators, 

and Affiliated Scientists— Continued 

Oscar L. Cartwright (Coleoptera) 
K. C. Emerson (Mallophaga) 
John G. Franclemont (Lepidoptera) 
Frank M. Hull (Diptera) 
William L. Jellison (Siphonaptera, 

Anoplura) 
Harold F. Loomis (Myriapoda) 
Carl F. W. Muesebeck 
(Hymenoptera) 

Thomas E. Snyder (Isoptera) 19 
Robert Traub (Siphonaptera) 
Invertebrate Zoology 

Chairman Raymond B. Manning 

Senior Zoologists Fenner A. Chace, Jr. 

Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. 
Harald A. Rehder 
Crustacea 

Curators Thomas E. Bowman 

J. Laurens Barnard 
Louis S. Kornicker 

Associate Curator Roger F. Cressey 

Echinoderms 

Curator David L. Pawson 

Associate Curator Klaus Ruetzler 

Worms 

Curators Meredith L. Jones 

Marian H. Pettibone 
Mary E. Rice 

Associate Curator W. Duane Hope 

Mollusks 

Curator Joseph Rosewater 

Associate Curators Joseph P. E. Morrison 

Clyde F. E. Roper 

Visiting Curator Frederick M. Bayer 

Research Associates, Collaborators, 

and Affiliated Scientists Willard W. Becklund 

(Helminthology) 20 
S. Stillman Berry (Mollusks) 
J. Bruce Bredin (Biology) 
Isabel C. Canet (Crustacea) 
May belle H. Chitwood (Worms) 
Ailsa M. Clark (Marine 

Invertebrates) 
Elisabeth Deichmann (Echinoderms) 
Mary Gardiner (Echinoderms) 



is Died 31 July 1970. 
20 Died 18 October 1970. 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



143 



Research Associates, Collaborators, 

and Affiliated Scientists— Continued 

Roman Kenk (Worms) 
Anthony J. Provenzano, Jr. 

(Crustacea) 
Waldo L. Schmitt (Marine 

Invertebrates) 
Frank R. Schwengel (Mollusks) 
I. G. Sohn (Crustacea) 
Donald F. Squires (Echinoderms) 
Gilbert L. Voss (Mollusks) 
Mildred S. Wilson (Copepod 
Crustacea) 
Mineral Sciences 

Chairman Brian H. Mason 

Curator George S. Switzer 

Meteorites 

Curator Kurt Fredericksson 

Associate Curator Roy S. Clarke, Jr. 

Geochemist Robert F. Fudali 

Chemists Eugene Jarosewich 

Joseph A. Nelen 
Mineralogy 

Associate Curator Paul E. Desautels 

Crystallographer Joel E. Arem 21 

Petrology 

Associate Curator William G. Melson 

Research Associates, Collaborators, 

and Affiliated Scientists Howard J. Axon (Meteorites) 

Vago F. Buchwald (Meteorites) 
Tomas Feininger (Petrology) 
Edward P. Henderson (Meteorites) 
John B. Jago (Mineralogy) 
Peter Leavens (Mineralogy) 
Rosser Reeves (Mineralogy) 
Thomas E. Simkin (Petrology) 
Geoffrey Thompson (Petrology) 
Harry Winston (Mineralogy) 
Paleobiology 

Chairman Porter M. Kier 

Senior Paleobiologists G. Arthur Cooper 

C. Lewis Gazin 22 

Collections Manager Frederick J. Collier 

Invertebrate Paleontology 

Curators Martin A. Buzas 

Richard S. Boardman 
Alan H. Cheetham 
Erie G. KaufFman 



21 Appointed 1 July 1970. 
"Retired 31 July 1970. 



144 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 



Invertebrate Paleontology— Continued 

Curators— Continued Richard Cifelli 

Richard M. Benson 

Associate Curator Thomas R. Waller 

Geologist Kenneth M. Towe 

Vertebrate Paleontology 

Curators Clayton E. Ray 

Nicholas Hotton III 

Associate Curator Robert J. Emry 23 

Paleobotany 

Associate Curators Walter H. Adey 

Leo J. Hickey 
Francis M. Hueber 
Sedimentology 

Geological Oceanographer Daniel J. Stanley 

Curator Jack W. Pierce 

Research Associates, Collaborators, 
and Affiliated Scientists 

Invertebrate Paleontology Arthur J. Boucot 

Anthony C. Coates 
C. Wythe Cooke 
J. Thomas Dutro 
Robert M. Finks 
Mackenzie Gordon, Jr. 
Richard E. Grant 
John W. Huddle 
Ralph W. Imlay 
Harry S. Ladd 
N. Gary Lane 
Kenneth E. Lohman 
Sergius H. Mamay 
James F. Mello 
William A. Oliver, Jr. 
Axel A. Olsson 
John Pojeta, Jr. 
Norman F. Sohl 
Margaret Ruth Todd 
Wendell P. Woodring 
Ellis L. Yochelson 

Paleobotany Patricia J. Adey 

David Child 

Sedimentology Gilbert Kelling 

Frederic R. Siegel 

Vertebrate Paleontology Douglas Emlong 

Charles A. Reppening 
Frank C. Whitmore, Jr. 
Vertebrate Zoology 

Chairman George E. Watson 



"Appointed 16 February 1971. 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



145 



Fishes 

Curators Robert H. Gibbs, Jr. 

Ernest A. Lachner 
Victor G. Springer 
Stanley H. Weitzman 

Associate Curator William R. Taylor 

Reptiles and Amphibians 

Curator James A. Peters 

Assistant Curator George R. Zug 

Birds 

Curator Richard L. Zusi 

Associate Curator Paul Slud 

Mammals 

Curator Charles O. Handley 

Curator Henry W. Setzer 

Associate Curator Richard W. Thorington, Jr. 

Research Associates, Collaborators, 

and Affiliated Scientists J onn W. Aldrich (Birds) 

Richard C. Banks (Birds) 
William Belton (Birds) 
James E. Bohlke (Fishes) 
Robert L. Brownell, Jr. (Mammals) 
Leonard Carmichael (Psychology, 

Animal Behavior) 
Daniel M. Cohen (Fishes) 
Bruce B. Collette (Fishes) 
George J. Divocky (Birds) 
John F. Eisenberg (Mammals) 
Robert K. Eenders (Mammals) 
Herbert Friedmann (Birds) 
Crawford H. Greenewalt (Birds) 
Arthur M. Greenhall (Mammals) 
Brian A. Harrington (Birds) 
Philip S. Humphrey (Birds) 
David H. Johnson (Mammals) 
Clyde J. Jones (Mammals) 
Gwilym S. Jones (Mammals) 
E. V. Komarek (Mammals) 
Roxie C. Laybourne (Birds) 
Richard H. Manville (Mammals) 
J. A. J. Meester (Mammals) 
Edgardo Mondolfi (Mammals) 
Russell E. Mumford (Mammals) 
John R. Napier (Mammals) 
Storrs L. Olson (Birds) 
Dioscoro S. Rabor (Birds) 
S. Dillon Ripley (Birds) 
Leonard P. Schultz (Fishes) 
Frank J. Schwartz (Fishes) 
Alexander Wetmore (Birds) 
David B. Wingate (Birds) 



146 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

National Air and Space Museum 

Director Michael Collins 2i 

Deputy Director Melvin B. Zisfein 

Administrative Officer J onn Whitelaw 

Acting Assistant Director (Aeronautics). Louis S. Casey 

Curator (Aircraft Propulsion) Robert B. Meyer 

Assistant Director (Astronautics) Frederick C. Durant III 

Assistant Director (Information) Ernest W. Robischon 

Advisory Board S. Dillon Ripley, Chairman 

(ex officio) 
Major General Nils O. Ohman, usaf 
Vice Admiral Thomas F. Connolly, 

USN 

Brigadier General James L. Collins, 

USA 

Brigadier General H. S. Hill, usmc 
Rear Admiral Roderick Y. Edwards, 

user, 
Vacancy, nasa 
General Gustav Lundquist, faa 

Honorary Olive A. Beech 

William E. Hall 
Elwood R. Quesada 



Astrophysical Observatory 



Director Fred L. Whipple 

Assistant Director (Management) Robert V. Bartnik 

Assistant Director (Science) Charles A. Lundquist 

Scientific Staff Kaare Aksnes 

Arthur C. Allison 
Eugene H. Avrett 
Prabhu Bhatnagar 
Nathaniel P. Carleton 
Frederic Chaffee 
Jerome R. Cherniack 
Giuseppe Colombo 
Allan F. Cook 
Alex Dalgarno 
Robert J. Davis 
James C. DeFelice 
William A. Deutschman 
Dale F. Dickinson 
Giovanni G. Fazio 
Darrell Fernald 
Edward L. Fireman 
Giuseppe Forti 



24 



Appointed 12 April 1971. 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 147 

Scientific Staff— Continued Fred A. Franklin 

Edward M. Gaposchkin 

Owen Gingerich 

Antanas Girnius 

Mario D. Grossi 

Katherine Haramundanis 

Gerald Hawkins 

Henry F. Helmken 

Paul W. Hodge 

Luigi G. Jacchia 

Wolfgang Kalkofen 

Douglas Kleinmann 

Yoshihide Kozai 

David Latham 

Myron Lecar 

Carlton G. Lehr 

Martin Levine 

A. Edward Lilley 

Marvin Litvak 

Richard E. McCrosky 

Brian G. Marsden 

Ursula B. Marvin 

George H. Megrue 

Donald H. Menzel 

Lawrence W. Mertz 

Henri E. Mitler 

Paul A. Mohr 
James Moran 

Carl S. Nilsson 

Yasushi Nozawa 

Robert W. Noyes 
Costas Papaliolios 

Cecelia H. Payne-Gaposhkin 
Michael R. Pearlman 
Douglas T. Pitman 
Annette Posen 
Harrison E. Radford 
John Reid 
George B. Rybicki 
Winfield W. Salisbury 
Rudolph E. Schild 
Zdenek Sekanina 
Chen-Yuan Shao 
I. Shapiro 
Jack W. Slowey 
Richard B. Southworth 
Gert Spannagel 
Frank Steinbrunn 
Shephen E. Strom 
Wesley A. Traub 
Robert Vessot 



148 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Scientific Staff— Continued Richard B. Wattson 

George Weiffenbach 
Trevor C. Weekes 
Charles A. Whitney 
John A. Wood 

Consultants Robert N. Anthony 

John Danziger 
Stanley Ross 
Robert Stein 
Pol Swings 
George Veis 
Natarajan Visvanathan 

Fellows Hiram Levy II 

G. Jeffrey Taylor 
Director, Central Bureau for Satellite 

Geodesy George Veis 

Director, Central Bureau for 

Astronomical Telegrams Brian G. Marsden 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Director Martin H. Moynihan 

Special Assistant to Director Adela Gomez 

Assistant Director (Science) Ira Rubinoff 

Administrative Officer C. Neal McKinney 

Biologists Robert L. Dressier 

Peter W. Glynn 
Judith Lang 
Egbert Leigh 
A. Stanley Rand 
Michael H. Robinson 
Roberta W. Rubinoff 
Neal G. Smith 
Henk Wolda 

Honorary Charles F. Bennett, Jr. 

John F. Eisenberg 
Carmen Glynn 
Carlos Lehman n 
Robert H. MacArthur 
Giles W. Mead 
Ernst Mayr 
Barbara Robinson 
Patricio Sanchez 
W. John Smith 
C. C. Soper 
Paulo Vanzolini 
Martin Young 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 149 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 

Director William H. Klein 

Assistant Director Walter A. Shropshire, Jr. 

Biochemists David L. Correll 

Maurice M. Margulies 
Robert L. Weintraub 
Homer T. Hopkins 

Biologist Elisabeth Gantt 

Geneticist Andrew W. Snope 

Anthropologist Robert Stuckenrath 

Geochemist James Mielke 

Physicist Bernard Goldberg 

Plant Physiologists John Edwards 

Victor B. Elstad 
Rebecca Gettens 
Leonard Price 



National Zoological Park 

Director Theodore H. Reed 

Assistant Director John Perry 

Special Assistant to the Director Warren J. Iliff 

Administrative Officer Joseph J. McGarry 

Captain, Police Division Anthony J. Kadlubowski 

Head, Planning and Design Office Norman C. Melun 

Head, Information and Education Office Sybil E. Hamlet 

Curator, Division of Birds Sam E. Weeks 

Curator, Division of Small Mammals 

and Primates Harold J. Egoscue 

Curator, Division of Reptiles Jaren G. Horsley 

Resident Scientist, Division of 

Scientific Research John F. Eisenberg 

Veterinarian, Division of Animal 

Health Clinton W. Gray 

Pathologist, Division of Pathology Robert M. Sauer 

Chief, Operations and Maintenance 

Department James H. McAllister 

Head, Automotive Division Jesse Batts 

Head, Grounds Division John Monday 

Head, Maintenance Division Robert Ogilvie 

Head, Mechanical Division Theodore Runyan 

Head, Labor Division Carl F. Jackson 

Associates in Ecology S. Dillon Ripley 

Lee M. Talbot 

Research Associates Jean Delacour 

Gerald G. Montgomery 
George McKay 
Devra G. Kleiman 
Bernard C. Zook 



150 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Collaborators F. M. Garner 

Leonard J. Goss 
Carlton M. Herman 
Peul Leyhausen 
Charles R. Schroeder 



Office of Environmental Sciences 

Director I. Eugene Wallen 

Ecology Program 

Director Dale W. Jenkins 

Senior Scientist Helmut K. Buechner 

Resident Ecologist Lee M. Talbot 25 

Visiting Ecologist Clifford O. Berg 26 

Oceanography and Limnology Program 

Director Robert P. Higgins 

Director, Mediterranean Marine 

Sorting Center William P. Davis 

Director, Smithsonian Oceanographic 

Sorting Center H. Adair Fehlmann 

Oceanographer Dail W. Brown 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environ- 
mental Studies, Director Francis S. L. Williamson 

Center for Short-Lived Phenomena 

Director Robert Citron 



Center for the Study of Man 

Acting Director Sol Tax 

Program Coordinator Sam Stanley 



Science Information Exchange 

Director Monroe E. Freeman 

Deputy Director David F. Hersey 

Associate Directors 

Life Sciences Willis R. Foster 

Physical Sciences Frank J. Kreysa 

Data Processing Martin Snyderman 

Special Assistant . Richard C. Reeser 

Executive Officer V. P. Verfuerth 

Administrative Officer Evelyn M. Roll 

Life Sciences Division 

Chief Willis R. Foster 

Deputy Chief Charlotte M. Damron 

25 On leave to Council for Environmental Quality during FY 1971. 

26 Served 1 October 1970 to 31 May 1971. 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



151 



Life Sciences Division— Continued 

Chief, Medical Sciences Branch Faith F. Stephan 

Chief, Biological Sciences Branch James R. Wheatley, Jr. 

Chief, Agricultural Sciences Branch.. William T. Carlson 

Chief, Behavioral Sciences Branch. . . . Rhoda Stolper 
Chief, Social Sciences and Community 

Programs Branch Barbara F. Lundquist 

Physical Sciences Division 

Chief Frank J. Kreysa 

Chief, Chemistry Branch Samuel Liebman 

Chief, Earth Sciences Branch Joseph P. Riva, Jr. 

Chief, Electronics Branch John J. Park 

Chief, Engineering Branch Inder Jit Bhambri 

Chief, Materials Branch William H. Payne 

Chief, Physics and Mathematics 

Branch Robert Summers 

Data Processing Division 

Chief Martin Snyderman 

Deputy Chief Bernard L. Hunt 

Chief, Registry Branch Angelo Piccillo 

Chief, Data Edit Branch Mary Rumreich 

Chief, Report Services Branch Olympia Merritt 

Chief, Systems and Programming 

Branch Robert A. Kline 

Chief, Computer Operations Branch. . Paul Gallucci 

History and Art 



Assistant Secretary Charles Blitzer 

Deputy Richard Grove 

The National Museum of History and Technology 

Director Daniel J. Boorstin 

Assistant Director Silvio A. Bedini 

Assistant Director for Administration. . . Robert G. Tillotson 

Special Assistant to the Director Ladd E. Hamilton 

Administrative Officer Virginia Beets 

Senior Scientific Scholar Robert P. Multhauf 

Special Assistant (Bicentennial 

Planning John J. Slocum 

Principal Investigator (Computer 

History) Henry S. Tropp 27 

Historians Peter C. Marzio 

Harold K. Skramstad, Jr. 28 
Applied Arts 

Chairman Carl H. Scheele 

27 Appointed 21 April 1971. 

28 Appointed 21 February 1971. 






152 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 



Graphic Arts and Photography 

Curator Eugene Ostroff 

Associate Curator Elizabeth M. Harris 

Assistant Curator David E. Haberstich 

Numismatics 

Curator Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli 

Curator Elvira Clain-Stefanelli 

Postal History 

Curator Carl H. Scheele 

Associate Curator Reidar Norby 

Textiles 

Curator Grace R. Cooper 

Curator Rita J. Adrosko 

Honorary Emery May Norweb (Numismatics) 

R. Henry Norweb (Numismatics) 

Cultural History 

Chairman C. Malcom Watkins 

Costume and Furnishings 

Associate Curator Rodris C. Roth 

Assistant Curator Claudia B. Kidwell 

Ethnic and Western Cultural History 

Curator Richard E. Ahlborn 

Curator C. Malcolm Watkins 

Musical Instruments 

Associate Curator John T. Fesperman 

Associate Curator Cynthia A. Hoover 

Preindustrial History 

Curator C. Malcolm Watkins 

Associate Curator Anne C. Golovin 

Honorary Mrs. Arthur M. Greenwood 

David W. Hinshaw 

Edward B. Jelks 

Anne W. Murray (Curator 

Emeritus, Costume) 
Ivor Noel Hume 
Joan Pearson Watkins 

Industries 

Chairman John H. White, Jr. 

Agriculture and Mining 

Curator J°hn T. Schlebecker 

Associate Curator John N. Hoffman 

Ceramics and Glass 

Curator Paul V. Gardner 

Curator J- Jefferson Miller II 

Manufacturing 

Curator Hans Syz (Ceramics) 

Transportation Philip W. Bishop 

Curator John H. White, Jr. 

Curator Melvin H. Jackson 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 153 

Honorary Peter B. Bell 

Howard I. Chapelle (Historian 
Emeritus) 
National and Military History 

Chairman Edgar M. Howell 

Historic Archeology 

Curator Mendel L. Peterson 

Military History 

Curator Edgar M. Howell 

Associate Curator Craddock R. Goins, Jr. 

Naval History 

Curator Philip K. Lundeberg 

Curator Harold D. Langley 

Political History 

Curator Margaret B. Klapthor 

Associate Curator Herbert R. Collins 

Honorary William Rea Furlong (Flag History) 

Science and Technology 

Chairman Bernard S. Finn 

Electricity and Nuclear Energy 

Curator Bernard S. Finn 

Curator (Mathematics) Uta C. Merzbach 

Mechanical and Civil Engineering 

Curator Robert M. Vogel 

Curator Edwin A. Battison 

Curator Otto Mayr 

Medical Sciences 

Curator Sami Hamarneh 

Associate Curator Audrey B. Davis 

Physical Sciences 

Associate Curator Deborah J. Warner 

Curator Walter F. Cannon 

Associate Curator Jon B. Eklund 

Honorary Anthony R. Michaelis (Scientific 

Instruments) 
Derek J. De Solla Price 
(Scientific Instruments) 



Archives of American Art 

Director William E. Woolfenden 

Deputy Director-Archivist Garnett McCoy 

Administrative Assistant Lea Feinstein 

Curator of Manuscripts Arthur J. Breton 

Assistant Curator of Manuscripts Elsie F. Freivogel 

Area Directors Butler Coleman (New York) 

Robert Brown (Northeast) 
Field Researchers F. Ivor D. Avellino (New York) 

Sylvia Loomis (Southwest) 



154 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Trustees Russell Lynes, President 

Howard W. Lipham, Vice President 
Harold O. Love, Vice President 
Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth, Vice President 
Stanford C. Stoddard, 
Secretary-Treasurer 
Harry Baldwin 
Irving F. Burton 
Edmond duPont 
Joseph H. Hirshhorn 
James Humphry III 
Miss Milka Iconomoff 
Eric Larrabee 
Robert L. McNeil, Jr. 
Abraham Melamed 
Mrs. E. Bliss Parkinson 
Henry Pearlman 
Mrs. Dana M. Raymond 
Mrs. William L. Richards 
E. P. Richardson 
Chapin Riley 
Girard L. Spencer 
Edward M. M. Warburg 
James Wineman 
Willis F. Woods 
S. Dillon Ripley, ex officio 
Charles Blitzer, ex officio 
Lawrence A. Fleischman, Honorary 
Mrs. Edsel B. Ford, Honorary 

Advisory Committee James Humphry III, Chairman 

Milton O. Brown 
Lloyd Goodrich 
Eugene C. Goossen 
Harry D. M. Grier 
James J. Heslin 
John Howat 
Bernard Karpel 
Edgar Kaufmann, Jr. 
John A. Kouwenhoven 
Karl Kup 
Eric Larrabee 
Abram Lerner 
A. Hyatt Mayor 
J. T. Rankin 
Daniel J. Reed 
Charles van Ravenswaay 
Marvin S. Sadik 
Joshua C. Taylor 
William B. Walker 
Richard P. Wunder 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



155 



Freer Gallery of Art 



Director John A. Pope 

Assistant Director Harold P. Stern 

Curator, Chinese Art Thomas Lawton 

Assistant Curator, Chinese Art Hin-cheung Lovell 

Assistant Curator, Near Eastern Art. . . . Esin Atil 
Head Conservator, Technical 

Laboratory W. Thomas Chase 

Research Consultant, Technical 

Laboratory Rutherford J. Gettens 

Research Assistant, Far Eastern 

Ceramics Josephine H. Knapp 

Research Assistant, Herzfeld Archives. . . Joseph M. Upton 

Honorary Associates Richard Edwards 

Calvin French 



National Collection of Fine Arts 

Director Joshua C. Taylor 

Assistant Director Robert Tyler Davis 

Administrative Officer George W. Riggs 

Curator, Contemporary Painting and 

Sculpture Adelyn D. Breeskin 

Associate Curator, 18th- and 19th- 
century Painting and Sculpture. . . . William H. Truettner 

Curator, Prints and Drawings Janet A. Flint 

Curator, Exhibition and Design Harry Lowe 

Administrator, Renwick Gallery Lloyd E. Herman 

Curator of Education Darrel L. Sewell 

Coordinator of Research Lois M. Fink 

Coordinator, Bicentennial Inventory 

of American Paintings Abigail Booth 

Acting Chief, Smithsonian Institution 

Traveling Exhibition Service Eileen Rose 

Chief, International Art Program Lois A. Bingham 

Head, Conservation Laboratory, 

ncfa/npg Charles H. Olin 

Registrar Elisabeth Strassmann 

Editor, Office of Publication Georgia M. Rhoades 

Head Librarian, ncfa/npg William B. Walker 

Public Affairs Officer Benjamin Ruhe 

Supervisory Photographer, ncfa/npg... Lowell A. Kenyon 
National Collection of Fine Arts 

Commission Thomas C. Howe, Chairman 

H. Page Cross, Vice Chairman 
S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary 
Leonard Bask in 
William A. M. Burden 
David E. Finlev 



441-283 O - 71 - 11 



156 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 



National Collection of Fine 

Arts Commission— Continued 



Honorary Members 



Martin Friedman 
Lloyd Goodrich 
Walker Hancock 
Bartlett H. Hayes, Jr. 
August Heckscher 
Wilmarth S. Lewis 
Henry P. Mcllhenny 
Robert Motherwell 
Ogden M. Pleissner 
Charles H. Sawyer 
Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth 
George B. Tatum 
Otto Wittmann 
Alexander Wetmore 
Leonard Carmichael 
Gilmore D. Clarke 
Paul Mellon 
Stow Wengenroth 
Andrew Wyeth 



National Portrait Galley 



Director Marvin S. Sadik 

Assistant to the Director Douglas E. Evelyn 

Historian Beverly J. Cox 

Curator Robert G. Stewart 

Assistant Curator Monroe Fabian 

Keeper of the Catalogue Wilford P. Cole 

Senior Research Assistant Mona Dearborn 

Curator of Education James R. Vivian III 29 

Assistant Curator of Education Robert N. Works 30 

Chief, Exhibits Department James J. Shelton 31 

Assistant Chief, Exhibits Department. . . J. Michael Carrigan 32 

Librarian (npg-ncfa) William B. Walker 

Conservator (npg-ncfa) Charles H. Olin 

Registrar Jon D. Freshour 

npg Commission John Nicholas Brown, Chairman 

Whitfield J. Bell, Jr. 
Catherine Drinker Bowen 
Lewis Deschler 
David E. Finley 
Wilmarth S. Lewis 
Edgar P. Richardson 



29 Appointed 17 August 1970. 

30 Appointed 17 August 1970. 

31 Appointed 19 January 1970. 

32 Appointed 3 January 1971. 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



157 



npg Commission— Continued 



Ex officio 



Andrew Oliver 

Jules D. Prown 

Chief Justice of the United States 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 

Director, National Gallery of Art 



Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

Director Abram Lerner 

Administrative Officer Joseph Sefekar 

Associate Curator Cynthia Jaffee McCabe 

Assistant Curator Inez Garson 

Historian Frances R. Weitzenhoffer 

Acting Registrar Sandra L. Pearson 

Associate Registrars James J. Elias 

Frank B. Gettings 



Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design 

Director Lisa Suter Taylor 

Administrator Christian Rohlfing 

Curator of Textiles Alice Baldwin Beer 

Curator of Drawings and Prints Elaine Evans Dee 

Associate Curator of Decorative Arts. . . . Janet Thorpe 

Librarian Edith Adams 

Registrar Mary F. Blackwelder 



National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 



Director John H. Magruder III 

Assistant Director James S. Hutchins 

Administrative Officer Miriam H. Uretz 

Collections John M. Elliott 

Historian James J. Stokesberry 

Registrar Lorene B. Mayo 

Advisory Board The Honorable John Nicholas 

Brown, Chairman 
The Honorable Earl Warren 
Secretary of Army 
Secretary of Navy 
Secretary of Air Force 
Leiutenant General Milton G. Baker, 

Retired 
Robert C. Baker 
The Honorable Alexander P. 

Butterfield 
William H. Perkins, Jr. 



158 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Advisory Board— Continued 

Ex officio Secretary of Defense 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 

Director Benjamin H. Read 

Deputy Director Albert Meisel 

Joseph Henry Papers 

Editor Nathan Reingold 

Assistant Editor Arthur P. Molella 

Staff Historian James M. Hobbins 

Office of American Studies 

Director Wilcomb E. Washburn 

Specialist in American Studies Harold K. Skramstad 

Office of Academic Studies 

Executive Officer Edward S. Davidson 

Program Officer Gretchen Gayle 

Smithsonian Institution Archives 

Archivist Richard H. Lytle 

Assistant Archivist Donald Danuloff 

Assistant Archivist James Steed 

Office of Seminars 

Director Wilton S. Dillon 

Administrative Assistant Dorothy Richardson 

Conference Specialist Stephany Knight 

Assistant Frances Miller 

Special Museum Programs 

Director General of Museums Frank A. Taylor 33 

3 3 Retired 23 January 1971. 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 159 

Office of Museum Programs 

Director Peter C. Welsh 

Assistant to the Director Katherine Goldman 

Research Assistant Jean H. Eisenberg 

Research Associate Frank A. Taylor 



Office of Exhibits Programs 

Director John E. Anglim 

Deputy Director James A. Mahoney 

Deputy Director Benjamin W. Lawless 

Chief of Design Richard S. Virgo 

Assistant Chief of Design William F. Haase 

Chief of Production Harry T. Hart 

Assistant Chief of Production Eugene F. Behlen 

Exhibits Labels Editor Constance Minkin 



Conservation-Analytical Laboratory 

Chief Robert M. Organ 

Research Chemist Jacqueline S. Olin 



Office of the Registrar 

Registrar Helena M. Weiss 

Assistant Registrar William P. Haynes 



Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

Director of Libraries Russell Shank 

Special Assistant to the Director of 

Libraries for Science Programs .... Jean C. Smith 

Bibliographer in the History of 

Science Jack S. Goodwin 

Library of Congress Liaison Librarian Ruth E. Blanchard 

Assistant to the Director Dan O. Clemmer, Jr. 34 

Assistant Director of Libraries Mary A. Huffer 

Assistant to the Assistant Director . . . Peter A. Geiger 33 

Administrative Librarian Thomas L. Wilding 

Administrative Assistant Mary C. Quinn 



34 Appointed 12 July 1970. 

33 Appointed 8 September 1970. 



160 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 



Acquisitions Division 

Chief L. Frances Jones 

Assistant Chief Mildred D. Raitt 

Serials Librarian Edna S. Suber 

Gift and Exchange Librarian Mary Clare Cahill 36 

Special Assistant assigned to 

Acquisitions Mary L. Horgan 

Catalog Division 

Chief Vija L. Karklins 

Assistant Chief Bertha S. Sohn 

Catalogers Angeline D. Ashford 

Charles H. King 
Helen S. Nordberg 37 
Cynthia P. Rupp 38 
Margaret A. Sealor 
Carol L. Wohlford 39 
General Reference Service Division 

Chief Jack F. Marquardt 

Assistant Chief A. James Spohn 

Reference Librarian Sue Y. Chen 40 

Branch Librarians 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative 

Arts and Design Edith E. Adams 

Department of Botany Ruth F. Schallert 

Freer Gallery of Art Priscilla P. Smith 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 

Garden Anna M. Brooke 41 

National Collection of Fine Arts and 

National Portrait Gallery William B. Walker 

National Museum of History and 

Technology Frank A. Pietropaoli 

Smithsonian Astrophysical 

Observatory J ovce M« R e Y 

Smithsonian Tropical Research 

Institute Alcira Mejia 

Woodrow Wilson International 

Center for Scholars Mary Anglemeyer 

Branch Library Reference Staff 
National Museum of History and 

Technology Charles G. Berger 

National Collection of Fine Arts and 

National Portrait Gallery Aleita A. Hogenson 42 



36 Appointed 23 August 1970. 

37 Appointed 12 July 1970. 

38 Resigned 6 March 1971. 

39 Appointed 18 April 1971. 
^Resigned 29 May 1971. 

41 Appointed 26 April 1971 . 

42 Retired 29 May 1971. 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 161 

International Exchange Service 

Director Jeremiah A. Collins 

Assistant Director John E. Estes 

Public Service and Information Activities 

Assistant Secretary William W. Warner 

Deputy Assistant Secretary Robert W. Mason 

Special Assistant Julian T. Euell 

Smithsonian Associates 

Program Director Susan Hamilton 

Business Manager Marlin C Johnson 

Special Events Assistant Carolyn Amundson 

Subscription Assistant Carolyn A. Hecker 

Office of Public Affairs 

Director Frederic M. Phillips 

Special Assistant to the Director Jewell S. Dulaney 

News Mary M. Krug 

Radio Smithsonian Cynthia Helms 

Motion Picture Unit John O'Toole 

Publications William O. Craig 

Manager, Community Directory 

of Interests Alicia R. Fisher 

Office of International Activities 

Director David Challinor 43 

Acting Director Kennedy B. Schmertz M 

Assistant Director Michael Huxley 45 

Foreign Currency Program 

Director Kennedy B. Schmertz 

Deputy Director Kenneth D. Whitehead 

Program Officer Richard T. Conroy 

Grants Technical Assistants Betty J. Wingfield 

Harriette Hughes 46 

Administrative Assistant Paula Ullman 47 

43 Transferred 11 January 1971. 

44 Appointed 11 January 1971. 

45 Transferred 11 January 1971. 

46 Appointed 16 February 1971. 

47 Transferred 11 January 1971. 



162 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Division of Performing Arts 

Director James R. Morris 

Deputy Director Richard P. Lusher 

Director, Festival of American Folklife. . Ralph C. Rinzler 
Administrator, Festival of American 

Folklife Carol Fraser 

Operations Officer Ruri Kesa Sakai 

Planning Officer Marian A. Hope 

Indian Programs Clydia D. Nahwooksy 

Acting Director, Touring Performances. Mary E. Carrington 

Manager, Box Office Harry Bagdasian 

House Manager, Puppet Theatre Sue Hockenberry 



Smithsonian Museum Shops 

Acting Director J onn E. Skuce 

Administrative Officer Martha L. Wilson 

Sales Manager Lillian R. Cutler 

Book Shops Manager Florence R. Lloyd 



Belmont Conference Center 

Director Joanne S. Baker 



Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

Director J onn R- Kinard 

Assistant Director Zora B. Martin 

Research and Design Coordinator Larry Erskine Thomas 

Exhibit Specialist James E. Mayo 

Program Analyst, Center for Anacostia 

Studies J onn F. Bradshaw 

Assistant to the Director for Special 

Projects Balcha Fellows 



Smithsonian (magazine) 

Editor Edward K. Thompson 

Members, Board of Editors Ralph Backlund 

Grayce P. Northcross 
James K. Page, Jr. 48 
Edwards Park 
General Manager Joseph Bonsignore 

48 Effective 26 October 1970. 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 163 

Advertising Director Thomas H. Black 

Circulation-Promotion Director Anne Keating 

Smithsonian Institution Press 

Director Gordon Hubel 49 

Managing Editor Roger Pineau 

Managing Designer Stephen Kraft 

Promotion Manager Maureen R. Jacoby 

Business Manager Eileen M. McCarthy 

Series Production Manager Charles L. Shaffer 

Editors Mary Frances Bell 

Ernest E. Biebighauser 

Louise J. Heskett 

Joan B. Horn 

Mary M. Ingraham 

John S. Lea 

Nancy L. Powars 

Albert L. Ruffin, Jr. 

Jane W. Sieverts 

Writer-Editor Hope G. Pantell 50 

Designers Crimilda Pontes 

Elizabeth Sur 



Reading Is Fundamental 

Executive Director Jerrold Sandler 

Assistant Director Barbara B. Atkinson 



Division of Elementary and Secondary Education 

Acting Director J° nn W. Bingham 51 

Staff Associates David Estabrook (Technology) 

Jane Farmer (Art History) 
Robert Harding (History) 
Samuel Rizzetta (Biology) 
Coordinator, Volunteer Programs Joan C. Madden 



National Gallery of Art 

Board of Trustees The Chief Justice of the United 

States, Warren G. Burger, 
Chairman 



49 Appointed 1 November 1970. 

50 Effective 16 April 1971. 

51 Effective 15 February 1971. 



164 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Board of Trustees— Continued The Secretary of State, William P. 

Rogers 
The Secretary of the Treasury, 

John M. Connally 
The Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution, S. Dillon Ripley, 
ex officio 

General Trustees Paul Mellon 

John Hay Whitney 
Dr. Franklin D. Murphy 
Lessing J. Rosenwald 
Stoddard M. Stevens 

President Paul Mellon 

Vice President J onn Hay Whitney 

Director J. Carter Brown 

Secretary and General Counsel E. James Adams 

Assistant Director Charles Parkhurst 

Treasurer Lloyd D. Hayes 

Administrator Joseph G. English 

Senior Curator and Curator of 

American Painting William P. Campbell 

Planning Consultant David W. Scott 

Construction Manager Robert C. Engle 

Assistant to the Administrator, 

Personnel and Administration Charles B. Walstrom 

Assistant to the Administrator, 

Extension Services W. Howard Adams 

Assistant to the Director, Music Richard Bales 

Assistant Treasurer James W. Woodard 

Assistant to the Administrator, 

Scientific and Technical Sterling P. Eagleton 

Curator of Exhibitions and Loans Grose Evans 

Curator of Paintings H. Lester Cooke 

Editor Theodore S. Amussen 

Curator of Education Margaret Bouton 

Research Curator Konrad Oberhuber 



John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 

Chairman Roger L. Stevens 

Vice Chairmen Robert O. Anderson 

Harry C. McPherson, Jr. 

Charles H. Percy 

General Counsel Ralph E. Becker 

Secretary K. LeMoyne Billings 

Treasurer Robert G. Baker 

General Director William McC. Blair, Jr. 

Deputy General Director and 

Assistant Secretary-Treasurer Philip J. Mullin 

Music Director Julius Rudel 



APPENDIX 4. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 165 

Artistic Administrator George London 

General Manager of Theaters J. Charles Gilbert 

Director of Development Robert M. Long 

Director of Education Norman L. Fagan 

Director of Publicity and Promotion Michael Sean O'Shea 

Assistant Treasurers John L. Bryant 

Kenneth Birgfeld 

Paul J. Bisset 

L. Parker Harrell, Jr. 

Executive Director for Engineering William A. Schmidt 

Project Manager Walter E. Huber 

Honorary Chairmen Mrs. Richard M. Nixon 

Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson 
Mrs. Aristotle Onassis 
Mrs. Dwight D. Eisenhower 
Treasurer Emeritus Daniel W. Bell 



Appendix 5 



PUBLICATIONS 

OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PRESS 

IN FISCAL YEAR 1971 

Research in Art, History, and Science 
Non-Series Publications 

Eisenberg, J. F., and Wilton S. Dillon, editors. Man and Beast: Comparative 
Social Behavior. 401 pages, 29 figures, 3 tables. 18 June 1971. Cloth, $11.50. 

Green, Constance McLaughlin, and Milton Lomask. Vanguard: A History. Fore- 
word by Charles A. Lindbergh, xviii -f 309 pages, 46 illustrations, 3 tables. 
27 April 1971. Cloth, $12.50. 

Scheele, Carl H. A Short History of the Mail Service. 250 pages, 14 figures, 13 
tables. Originally published 15 March 1970, reissued January 1971. Cloth, $6.95. 

Stewart, T. D., editor. Personal Identification in Mass Disasters. 158 pages, 40 
figures, 59 tables. 16 October 1970. Cloth. 

Stites, Raymond S. The Sublimations of Leonardo da Vinci, x -+- 422 pages, 
311 illustrations. 1 December 1970. Cloth, $14.95. 

Swanton, John R. The Indian Tribes of North America, vi -\- 726 pages, 5 maps. 
Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145, originally published 1952, reis- 
sued 15 April 1969, reprinted January 1971. Cloth, $16.50. 

Smithsonian Annals of Flight 

4. C. Fayette Taylor. "Aircraft Propulsion: A Review of the Evolution of Air- 
craft Piston Engines." viii -f 135 pages, 72 figures. 29 January 1971. 

6. Robert B. Meyer, Jr., editor. "Langley's Aero Engine of 1903." xi -f 193 
pages, 44 figures. 30 March 1971. 

Smithsonian Contributions to Astrophysics 

12. Bertil-Anders Lindblad. "Two Computerized Stream Searches Among Me- 
teor Orbits: 1. Among 865 Precise Photographic Orbits; 2. Among 2401 
Photographic Orbits." 24 pages, 4 figures, 14 tables. 23 June 1971. 

13. Cecilia H. Payne-Gaposchkin. "The Variable Stars of the Large Magellanic 
Cloud." 41 pages, 13 tables. 3 June 1971. 

166 



APPENDIX 5. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN PRESS 167 

Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences 

1. George Switzer and William G. Melson. "Partially Melted Kyanite Eclogite 
from the Roberts Victor Mine, South Africa." 9 pages, 5 figures, 6 tables. 

15 April 1969. [Not reported in 1970.] 

2. Paul A. Mohr. "Catalog of Chemical Analyses of Rocks from the Inter- 
section of the African, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea Rift Systems." 271 pages. 

16 December 1970. 

3. Brian Mason and A. L. Graham. "Minor and Trace Elements in Meteoritic 
Minerals." 17 pages, 1 figure, 17 tables. 17 September 1970. 

4. William G. Melson, Eugene Jarosewich, and Charles A. Lundquist. "Vol- 
canic Eruption at Metis Shoal, Tonga, 1967-1968: Description and Petrology." 
18 pages, 13 figures, 3 tables. 16 October 1970. 

5. Roy S. Clarke, Jr., Eugene Jarosewich, Brian Mason, Joseph Nelen, Manuel 
Gomez, and Jack R. Hyde. "The Allende, Mexico, Meteorite Shower." 53 
pages, 36 figures, 6 tables. 17 February 1971. 

6. Daniel J. Stanley and Noel P. James. "Distribution of Echinarachnius parma 
(Lamarck) and Associated Fauna on Sable Island Bank, Southeast Canada." 
24 pages, 8 figures, 6 plates, 1 table. 27 April 1971. 

Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 

3. J. Thomas Dutro, Jr., editor. "Paleozoic Perspectives: A Paleontological 
Tribute to G. Arthur Cooper." 390 pages, illustrated. 22 February 1971. 

5. Arthur D. Watt. "Catalog of the Illustrated Paleozoic Plant Specimens in 
the National Museum of Natural History." 53 pages. 17 September 1970. 

Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 

38. Roger F. Cressey. "Copepods Parasitic on Sharks from the West Coast of 

Florida." 30 pages, 110 figures, 1 table. 30 December 1970. 
43. Norman Marston. "Revision of New World Species of Anthrax (Diptera: 

Bombyliidae), Other than the Anthrax albofasciatus Group." 148 pages, 

135 figures, 6 plates, 27 maps. 6 July 1970. 
45. Charles P. Alexander. "Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of 

Dominica: The Crane Flies (Diptera: Tipulidae)." 59 pages, 68 figures. 17 

September 1970. 
49. W. D. Williams. "A Revision of North American Epigean Species of 

Asellus (Crustacea: Isopoda)." 80 pages, 57 figures, 5 tables, 31 December 1970. 

51. Dennis M. Devaney. "Studies on Ophiocomid Brittlestars. I. A New Genus 
(Clarkcoma) of Ophiocominae with a Reevaluation of the Genus Ophio- 
coma." 41 pages, 50 figures, 5 tables. 2 December 1970. 

52. Marian H. Pettibone. "Revision of the Genus Enthalenessa Darboux 
(Polychaeta: Sigalionidae)." 30 pages, 16 figures. 16 July 1970. 

53. Marian H. Pettibone. "Revision of Some Species Referred to Leanira Kin- 
berg. (Polychaeta: Sigalionidae)." 25 pages, 12 figures. 6 August 1970. 



168 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

54. Arthur G. Humes and Ju-Shey Ho. "Cyclopoid Copepods of the Genus 
Pseudanthessius Associated with Crinoids in Madagascar." 20 pages, 90 
figures, 1 table. 16 July 1970. 

55. Ellsworth H. Wheeler, Jr. "Atlantic Deep-Sea Calinoid Copepoda." 31 
pages, 109 figures, 4 tables. 18 August 1970. 

56. J. F. Gates Clarke. "The Lepidoptera of Rapa Island." 282 pages, 175 
figures, 29 plates. 11 June 1971. 

57. Doris H. Blake. "A Review of the Beetles of the Genus Metachroma 
Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)." Ill pages, 175 figures. 31 Decem- 
ber 1970. 

59. Ernest A. Lachner, C. Richard Robins, and Walter R. Courtenay, Jr. 
"Exotic Fishes and Other Aquatic Organisms Introduced into North Amer- 
ica." 29 pages, 4 figures, 1 table. 30 September 1970. 

60. Oliver S. Flint, Jr. "Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, X: Leucotrichia 
and Related Genera from North and Central America (Trichoptera: 
Hydroptilidae). " 64 pages, 249 figures. 21 October 1970. 

61. J. Laurens Barnard. "Gammaridean Amphipoda from a Deep-Sea Transect 
off Oregon." 86 pages, 48 figures, 1 table. 4 January 1971. 

62. William L. Peters. "A Revision of the Leptophlebiidae of the West Indies 
(Ephemeroptera)." 48 pages, 212 figures, 1 table. 10 March 1971. 

64. Maureen E. Downey. "Zorocallida, New Order, and Doraster constellatus, 
New Genus and Species, with Notes on the Zoroasteridae (Echinodermata: 
Asteroidea)." 18 pages, 11 figures, 2 tables. 30 July 1970. 

65. Michael H. Robinson and Jose Olazarri. "Units of Behavior and Complex 
Sequences in the Predatory Behavior of Argiope argentata (Fabricius): 
(Araneae: Araneidae)." 36 pages, 15 figures, 3 tables. 21 May 1971. 

66. Peter W. Glynn. "On the Ecology of the Caribbean Chitons Acanthopleura 
granulata Gmelin and Chiton tuberculatus Linne: Density, Mortality, Feed- 
ing, Reproduction, and Growth." 21 pages, 10 figures, 9 tables. 16 October 
1970. 

67. Maurice T. James. "A Partial Revision of the Oriental Isotnyia of the 
Viridaurea Group (Diptera: Calliphoridae). 14 pages, 1 figure. 17 September 
1970. 

68. D. L. Deonier. "A Systematic and Ecological Study of Nearctic Hydrelli/i 
(Diptera: Ephydridae)." 147 pages, 142 figures, 2 tables. 11 May 1971. 

69. James A. Peters. "Biostatistical Programs in BASIC Language for Time- 
Shared Computers: Coordinated with the Book 'Quantitative Zoology.' " 
46 pages. 10 March 1971. 

70. T. J. Spilman. "Bredin-Archbold-Sniithsonian Biological Survey of Do- 
minica: Bostrichidae, Inopeplidae, Lagriidae, Lyctidae, Lymexylonidae, 
Melandryidae, Monommidae, Rhipiceridae, and Rhipiphoridae (Coleoptera). 
10 pages, 7 figures, 1 table. 4 January 1971. 

71. Raymond B. Manning. "Keys to the Species of Oratosquilla (Crustacea: 
Stomatopoda), with Descriptions of Two New Species." 16 pages, 4 figures. 
14 January 1971. 

72. Victor G. Springer. "Revision of the Fish Genus Ecsenius (Blenniidae. 
Blenniinae, Salariini)." 74 pages, 36 figures, 18 tables. 30 March 1971. 

73. William F. Smith-Vaniz and Victor G. Springer. "Synopsis of the Tribe 
Salariini, with Description of Five New Genera and Three New Species 
(Pisces: Blenniidae)." 72 Pages, 51 figures, 6 tables. 30 March 1971. 



APPENDIX 5. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN PRESS 169 

74. James F. Greene. "A Revision of the Nearctic Species of the Genus Psam- 
motettix (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)." 40 pages, 23 figures. 25 May 1971. 

75. James A. Blake. "Revision of the Genus Polydora from the East Coast 
of North America (Polychaeta: Spionidae)." 32 pages, 16 figures, 1 table. 
5 February 1971. 

77. Klaus Riitzler. "Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Do- 
minica: Burrowing Sponges, Genus Siphonodictyon Bergquist, from the 
Caribbean." 37 pages, 11 figures, 9 plates, 2 tables. 24 February 1971. 

78. Neil C. Hulings and John S. Gray, editors. "A Manual for the Study of 
Meiofauna." 83 pages, 13 figures, 1 table. 28 April 1971. 

79. Isabel Perez Farfante. "Western Atlantic Shrimps of the Genus Meta- 
penaeopsis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae), with Descriptions of Three 
New Species." 37 pages, 22 figures, 1 table. 10 March 1971. 

80. Roman Kenk. "Freshwater Triclads (Turbellaria) of North America, IV: 
The Polypharyngeal Species of Phagocata. 17 pages, 9 figures. 30 December 
1970. 

82. A. J. Bruce. "Pontoniinid Shrimps from the Ninth Cruise of R/V Anton 
Bruun, IIOE, 1964: I. Palaemonella Dana and Periclimenes Costa." 13 pages, 
1 figure, 1 table. 7 April 1971. 

83. George R. Zug. "The Distribution and Patterns of the Major Arteries of 
the Iguanids and Comments on the Intergeneric Relationships of Iguanids 
(Reptilia: Lacertilia)." 23 pages, 15 figures, 3 tables. 7 April 1971. 

86. Robert D. Gordon. "A Revision of the Genus Zenoria Mulsant (Coleop- 
tera: Coccinellidae)." 22 pages, 85 figures. 20 January 1971. 

88. Eve C. Southward. "Pogonophora of the Northwest Atlantic: Nova Scotia 
to Florida." 29 pages, 12 figures, 3 tables. 10 May 1971. 

89. Raymond B. Manning and Fenner A. Chace, Jr. "Shrimps of the Family 
Processidae from the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean (Crustacea: Decapoda: 
Caridea)." 41 pages, 20 figures. 21 May 1971. 

94. William H. Anderson and Donald M. Anderson. "Type Specimens in the 

Hans Eggers Collection of Scolytid Beetles (Coleoptera)." 38 pages. 11 May 

1971. 
96. Thomas E. Bowman. "The Distribution of Calanoid Copepods off the 

Southeastern United States Between Cape Hatteras and Southern Florida." 

58 pages, 51 figures. 21 May 1971. 

Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology 

4. J. Jefferson Miller II and Lyle M. Stone. "Eighteenth-Century Ceramics 
From Fort Michilimackinac." ix -j- 130 pages, 56 figures, 9 tables. 31 De- 
cember 1970. 

5. Howard I. Chapelle and Leon D. Polland. "The Constellation Question." 
152 pages, 53 figures. 30 October 1970. 

6. George E. Hargest. "History of Letter Post Communication Between the 
United States and Europe, 1845-1875." ix -f 234 pages, 126 figures, 34 
tables. 10 February 1971. 

8. John T. Fesperman. "A Snetzler Chamber Organ of 1761." 56 pages, 20 

figures. 15 December 1970. 
10. Robert M. Vogel. "Roebling's Delaware & Hudson Canal Aqueducts." 
45 pages, 57 figures. 26 April 1971. 



170 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

United States National Museum Bulletins 

288. Doris M. Cochran and Coleman J. Coin. "Frogs of Colombia." xii -j- 655 
pages, 55 figures, 68 plates. 6 July 1970. 



Public Education 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. Children's Pamphlet. 8 pages, illustrated. 

9 October 1970. 
The Belford 99: A Private Railroad Car. Foldout. 10 August 1970. 
Belmont: The Smithsonian Institution's Conference Center. 8 pages, 6 illus- 
trations. Revised 11 January 1971. 
Bicentennial Inventory of American Paintings Executed before 1914. Foldout. 

11 May 1971. 
Bicentennial Park, Smithsonian Institution. 16 pages, illustrated. 29 March 

1971. 
Black Patriots of the American Rez>olution. Pamphlet. 16 pages. 2 July 1970. 
Blue Whale. Folder. Reprinted 25 March 1971. 

Breeskin, Adelyn D. H. Lyman Say en. Foreword by Joshua C. Taylor. Cata- 
log. 83 pages, 51 illustrations. September 1970. 
Breeskin, Adelyn Dohme. Mary Cassatt: A Catalogue Raisonne of the Oils, 

Pastels, Watercolors, and Drawings. Catalog. 322 pages, 925 illustrations, 15 

color plates. 10 November 1970. Cloth, $29.95. 
Breeskin, Adelyn D. Romaine Brooks, "Thief of Souls." Catalog. 143 pages, 83 

illustrations. 19 March 1971. 
The Center for Anacostia Studies. Pamphlet, 6 pages, illustrated. 30 April 

1971. 
Curtis, L. Perry, Jr. Apes and Angels: The Irishman in Victorian Caricature. 

xi -f 126 pages, 46 figures. 31 March 1971. Cloth, $6.95. 
D. C. Art Association Exhibition '71. Foreword by John R. Kinard. Catalog. 

64 pages, 36 illustrations. 30 April 1971. 
Do It the Hard Way: Rube Goldberg and Modern Times. Foreword by Peter 

C. Marzio; essays by Daniel J. Boorstin, Anne C. Golovin, and Rube Goldberg. 

Catalog. 32 pages, 25 illustrations. 24 November 1970. 
The Fitness of Man's Environment. Smithsonian Annual II. Introduction by 

Jennie Lee; foreword by Hubert H. Humphrey; premise by S. Dillon Ripley. 

250 pages. Originally published June 1968, reprinted January 1971. Cloth, 

$6.50. 
The Frederick Douglass Years: A Cultural History Exhibition. 46 pages, 40 

illustrations. 14 September 1970. 
"A Glimmer of Their Own Beauty": Black Sounds of the Twenties. 32 pages, 

43 illustrations. June 1971. 
The Grumman G-22, "Gulf hawk II." Folder. 8 April 1971. 
The Hall of American Maritime Enterprise: A Proposal for a New Exhibit Hall 

for the National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, 

in Washington, D.C. Catalog. 11 pages, illustrated. 21 May 1971. 
The Hand of Man on America. Foreword by David Haberstich; photographs 

by David Plowden; acknowledgments by Dorothy T. Van Arsdale. Catalog. 

85 pages, 76 illustrations. 10 November 1970. 



APPENDIX 5. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN PRESS 171 

History of Science and Technology at the Smithsonian Institution. Foldout. 

17 December 1970. 
James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938). 14 pages, 16 illustrations. May 1971. 
Jasper F. Cropsey, 1823-1900. Foreword by Joshua C. Taylor; essay by William 

S. Talbott. Catalog. 114 pages, 65 black and white illustrations, 2 color plates. 

23 October 1970. Leaflet. 14 July 1970. 
John Muir, 1838-19U. 16 pages, 16 illustrations. 26 March 1971. 
The Life Portraits of John Qiiincy Adams. Introduction by Marvin Sadik. Cata- 
log. 112 pages, 47 illustrations. September 1970. Folder 30 October 1970. 
Moments: A Photographic Exhibit. Foreword by John R. Kinard. 16 pages, 

illustrated. 21 November 1970. 
Music Machines: American Style. Foldout. 5 April 1971. 
Napier, John. The Roots of Mankind, xi -|- 240 pages, 30 figures, 20 plates, 

13 tables. 16 October 1970. Cloth, $6.95. 
Open House for Teachers. Announcement. 23 October 1970. 
Opportunities in Oceanography. 32 pages, 44 illustrations. Revised 24 March 

1971. Paper $1.25. 
The Pan-American Goodwill Flight of 1926-1927. Foldout. 7 April 1971. 
Plans for Making an Early American Loom. Folder. 9 November 1970. 
Preparation of Illustrations for Smithsonian Contributiojis to Botany, Paleo- 
biology, Earth Sciences, Zoology. 5 pages, illustrated. 28 September 1970. 
Scheele, Carl H. Neither Snozu, Nor Rain . . . : The Story of the United States 

Mails. 99 pages, 85 illustrations. 9 September 1970. 
Sharrer, George Terry. George Washington Carver. Foldout. 19 October 1970. 
Smithsonian Institution. Foldout. In English 19 January 1971. In French 18 

June 1971. In Spanish 18 June 1971. 
Smithsonian Institution Seminar Series in Paleopathology, 1971. Folder. 10 

November 1970. 
Stewart, Robert G. Henry Benbridge (1743-1812): American Portrait Painter. 

Catalog. 93 pages, 121 figures. 26 March 1971. Foldout 1 April 1971. Poster 

8 April 1971. 
Tiger Talk. Booklet. 10 pages. 6 October 1970. 
. . . Toward Freedom. Catalog. 28 pages, illustrated. 15 January 1971. Foldout 

8 January 1971. 
Wessel, Thomas R. The Honey Bee. Smithsonian Information Leaflet 482 

(1967). 15 pages, 5 figures. Revised 17 June 1971. 
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 1970-1971. Booklet. 20 

pages, illustrated. 6 August 1971. 
Woodroiv Wilson International Center For Scholars. Foldout. 30 November 

1970. 
The Wright Brothers. Folder. 8 pages, illustrated. 8 April 1971. 



Institutional Publications 

Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1969. Vol- 
ume 1: "Proceedings." xviii + 188 pages. 28 December 1970. 



441-283 O - 71 - 12 



172 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Donors to the National Collections and Staff Publications, National Museum of 
History and Technology, 1 May 1969 through 30 April 1970. 26 pages. 25 
May 1971. 

Smithsonian Year 1970: Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institutio?i for the 
Year Ended 30 June 1970. vi 4. 218 pages, illustrated. Publication 4766. 29 
January 1971. 

Smithsonian Institution Opportunities for Research and Advanced Study, 1971— 
1972. xvi -j- 234 pages, 8 illustrations. 22 September 1970. Separates in Anthro- 
pology, The Humanities, and Physical Sciences issued 1 December 1970. 

Atoll Research Bulletins 

(Bound in one volume) 

137. Robert L. Folk and Augustus S. Cotera. "Carbonate Sand Cays of Alacran 
Reef, Yucatan, Mexico: Sediments." 16 pages, 10 figures. 16 February 1971. 

138. Garrett C. Clough and George Fulk. "The Vertebrate Fauna and the 
Vegetation of East Plana Cay, Bahama Islands." 17 pages, 7 plates. 16 
February 1971. 

139. W. G. D'Arcy. "The Island of Anegada and Its Flora." 21 pages, 6 plates. 
16 February 1971. 

140. Alan J. Kohn. "Inshore Marine Habitats of Some Continental Islands in 
the Eastern Indian Ocean." 29 pages, 26 figures, 1 table. 16 February 1971. 

141. C. S. Gopinadha Pillai. "The Distribution of Shallow-water Stony Corals 
at Minicoy Atoll in the Indian Ocean with a Check-list of Species." 12 
pages, 2 figures, 1 table. 16 February 1971. 

142. S. B. Domm. "The Uninhabited Cays of the Capricorn Group, Great 
Barrief Reef, Australia," 27 pages, 10 figures, 24 plates. 16 February 1971. 

143. S. B. Domm. "The Safe Use of Open Boats in the Coral Reef Environ- 
ment." 10 pages. 16 February 1971. 

144. Roger B. Clapp and Fred C. Sibley. "The Vascular Flora and Terrestrial 
Vertebrates of Vostok Island, South-Central Pacific." 10 pages, 4 figures, 
2 tables. 16 February 1971. 

145. Roger B. Clapp and Fred C. Sibley. "Notes on the Vascular Flora and 
Terrestrial Vertebrates of Caroline Atoll Southern Line Islands." 18 pages, 
5 figures, I table. 16 February 1971. 

146. A. Binion Amerson, Jr., and K. C. Emerson. "Records of Mallophaga 
from Pacific Birds." 30 pages. 16 February 1971. 

147. D. R. Stoddart. "Rainfall on Indian Ocean Coral Islands." 21 pages, 11 
figures, 3 tables. 16 February 1971. 

148. "Island News and Comment." 38 pages. 



Appendix 6 



PUBLICATIONS 

OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION STAFF 

IN FISCAL YEAR 1971 

National Museum of Natural History 
Department of Anthropology 

Angel, J. Lawrence. Lerna: A Preclassical Site in lite Argolid, volume 2: The 
People. American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Princeton, New Jersey, 
and Smithsonian Institution Press, 1971. 

Evans, Clifford, and Betty J. Meggars. "Archaeology: South America." In 
Handbook of Latin American Studies, number 31, pages 68-94. Gainesville: 
University of Florida Press, 1970. 

Gibson, Bethune. "Methods of Removing White and Black Deposits from An- 
cient Pottery." Studies in Conservation, volume 16, number 1, pages 18-23. 

Knez, Eugene I., and A. Gilbert Wright. "The Museum as a Communication 
System: An Assessment of Cameron's Viewpoint," Curator, volume 13, number 
3, pages 204-212. American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

Meggers, Betty J. Amazonia: Man and Culture in a Counterfeit Paradise, Chi- 
cago: Aldine-Atherton Press, 1971. 

, Translator. The Civilizational Process by Darcy Ribeiro. xviii -\- 201 

pages, 3 figures. New York: Harper Torchbooks, Harper and Row, 1971. 

Meggers, Betty J., and Clifford Evans. Como Interpretar a Linguagem da 
Cerctmica. Translated by Alroino B. Eble from the revised text of Potsherd 
Language [Multilith]. iv -\- 111 pages, 28 figures. Washington, D.C., 1970. 

Ortner, D. J., and D. W. Von Endt. "Microscopic and Electron Microprobe 
Characterization of the Sclerotic Lamellae in Human Osteons.'* Israel Journal 
of Medical Science, volume 7, pages 480-482. 

Phebus, George E., Jr. "Archeology: Western Hemisphere." Americana Annual 
(1971), pages 99-100. New York. 

Stewart, T. D. "The Evolution of Man in Asia as Seen in the Lower Jaw." 
Proceedings of the JTIIth International Congress of Anthropological and Eth- 
nological Sciences, Tokyo and Kyoto, 1968, volume 1, pages 263-266, 1970. 

. "Skin, Hair and Eyes [of Middle American Indians], A: Introduc- 
tion." In Handbook of Middle American Indians, volume 9 edited by T. D. 
Stewart, pages 164-166. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1970. 

"Skin, Hair and Eyes [of Middle American Indians], D: Color of 



Eyes and Skin." In Handbook of Middle American Indians, volume 9 edited 
by T. D. Stewart, pages 184-191. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1970. 

173 



174 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 
. "Physical Plasticity and Adaptation [of Middle American Indians]." 



In Handbook of Middle American Indians, volume 9 edited by T. D. Stewart, 
pages 192-202. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1970. 
. "Foreword." In Personal Identification in Mass Disasters, edited 



by T. D. Stewart, pages 1-4. Washington, D.C.: National Museum of Natural 
History, Smithsonian Institution, 1970. 
. "Identification of the Scars of Parturition in the Skeletal Remains 



of Females." In Personal Identification in Mass Disasters, edited by T. D. 
Stewart, pages 127-135. Washington, D.C.: National Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Smithsonian Institution, 1970. 

'Selected Bibliography on Personal Identification." In Personal 



Identification in Mass Disasters, edited by T. D. Stewart, pages 137-155. Wash- 
ington, D.C.: National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 
1970. 

"Report on the Skeletal Remains from the St. Jones Adena Site 



near Lebanon, Delaware." Bulletin Series Delaware State Museum, volume 2 
(1970), 46 pages. 

Sturtevant, William C. "Agriculture on Artificial Islands in Burma and Else- 
where." Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Anthropological and 
Ethnological Sciences, Tokyo and Kyoto, 1968, volume 3, pages 11-13, 1970. 

, compiler. "Early Indian Tribes, Culture Areas, and Linguistic 

Stocks." Two maps on pages 130-132 of National Atlas, U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey, Washington, D.C., 1971. 

. Contributing consultant with G. Berreman and 32 others. Anthro- 



pology Today. Del Mar, California: CRM Books, 1971. 
Van Beek, Gus W., and A. Jamme. "The Authenticity of the Bethel Stamp 

Seal." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 199 (1970), pages 

59-65. 
Von Endt, D. W., and J. W. Wheeler, Jr. "1- Pentadecene Production in Tri- 

bolium Confusum." Science, volume 172 (1971), pages 60-61. 
Wedel, Waldo R. "Coronado's Route to Quivira 1541." Plains Anthropologist, 

volume 15, number 49 (1970), pages 161-168. 
. "Some Observations on Two House Sites in the Central Plains: 

An Experiment in Archaeology." Nebraska History, volume 51, number 2 

(1970), pages 225-252. 
. "Some Environmental and Historical Factors of the Great Bend 



Aspect." In Pleistocene and Recent Environments of the Great Plains, W. 
Dort, Jr., and J. K. Jones, Jr., editors, pages 131-140. Lawrence, Kansas: Uni- 
versity of Kansas Press, 1970. 



Department of Botany 

Ayensu, Edward S. "Analysis of the Complex Vascularity in Stems of Dioscorea 

composita." Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, volume 51, number 2 (1970), 

pages 228-240. 
. "Comparative Anatomy of Dioscorea rotundata and Dioscorea cay- 

enensis." In New Research in Plant Anatomy, edited by N. K. B. Robson et al., 

pages 127-136. Academic Press, 1970. 
. "Anatomy and Morphology of Tropical Plants." Advanced Seminar 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 175 

for Tropical Botany, University of Miami, Florida. National Science Founda- 
tion-sponsored program, June-July 1970. 
. "Vascular Architecture of Flowering Plants Especially Mono- 



cotyledons." University of Maryland, December 1970. 
. "Comments on Old and New World Dioscoreas." First International 



Symposium on Dioscoreas. Associacion de fabricantes de esteroides A.C. Mexico, 

October 1970. 
Cowan, R. S. "Leguminosae/Caesalpinioideae." In Wiggins and Porter's Flora 

of the Galapagos Islands, pages 600-608. Stanford University Press, May 1971. 
Cuatrecasas, J. "Una nueva Mirtacea frutal de las Costa del Pacifico." Mutisia, 

volume 32 (1970), pages 6-8. 
. "Reinstatement of the genus Llerasia (Compositae)." Biotropica, 

volume 2, number 1 (1970), pages 39^5. 
. "Brunelliaceae." Monograph number 2 of Flora Neotropica, pages 



1-189. 1970. 

. "Miscellaneous Notes on Neotropical Flora." Phytologia, volume 

20, number 8 (1971), pages 465-481. 

Ernst, Wallace R., and Michael F. Baad. "Two New Species of Lamourouxia 
(Scrophulariaceae) in Mexico." Madrono, volume 20 (1970), pages 342-346. 

Eyde, R. H. "Anatomy." In J. Cuatrecasas "Brunelliaceae." Monograph Num- 
ber 2 of Flora Neotropica, pages 32-43. 1970. 

. "Evolutionary Morphology: Distinguishing Ancestral Structure 

from Derived Structure in Flowering Plants." Taxon, volume 20, number 1 
(1971), pages 63-73. 

Eyde, R. H., and C. C. Tseng. "What is the Primitive Floral Structure of 
Araliaceae?" Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, volume 52, number 2 (1971), 
pages 205-239. 

Fosberg, F. R. "Desert Wilderness," The Living Wilderness, volume 34, number 
109 (1970), pages 17-24. 

. "The Tropical Agriculture Panacea." BioScience, volume 20 (1970), 

page 793. 

. "Preliminary Survey of Aldabra Vegetation." Philosophical Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society, London B, volume 260 (1971), pages 215-225. 

. "The Problem of Isolation in the Lowland Tropical Rain Forest." 



Tropical Ecology, volume 11 (1970), pages 162-168. 
Fosberg, F. R., and T. Blunt. "Vernon Black Gum Swamp." Rhodora, volume 

72 (1970), pages 280-282. 
Fosberg, F. R., M. S. Doty, and D. Mueller-Dombois. "Initial Site Studies for 

the International Biological Program in the Tropical and Far Western Pacific." 

Micronesica, volume 5 (1970), pages 283-293. 
Fosberg, F. R., and M. -H. Sachet. "Island News and Comment." Atoll Research 

Bulletin, number 148 (1971), pages 1-38. 
Fosberg, F. R., D. R. Stoddart, J. D. Taylor and G. E. Farrow. "Geomorphology 

of Aldabra Atoll." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B, 

volume 260 (1971), pages 31-65. 
Hale, Mason E. "Single-lobe Growth-rate Patterns in the Lichen Parmelia 

caperata." Bryologist, volume 73, number 1 (1970), pages 72-81. 
. "Two Species of Parmelia New to North America." Bryologist, 

volume 74, number 1, pages 44-46. 
King, R. M., and H. Robinson. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), 



176 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

XVIII: New Combinations in Fleischmannia." Phytologia, volume 19 (1970), 
pages 201-207. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XIX: New Combinations 



in Ageratina." Phytologia, volume 19 (1970), pages 208-229. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XII: A New Genus, 



Shinnersia." Phytologia, volume 19 (1970), pages 297-298. 

'Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XIII: The Genus Cono- 



clinium." Phytologia, volume 19 (1970), pages 299-300. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XIV: Another Example 



of Dimorphic Pollen?" Phytologia, volume 19 (1970), pages 301-302. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XX: New Combinations 

in Spaniopappus." Phytologia, volume 19 (1970), pages 303-304. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XXI: A New Genus, 

Neomirandea." Phytologia, volume 19 (1970), pages 305-310. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XXXII: A New Genus, 



Neocuatrecasia." Phytologia, volume, 20 (1970), pages 332-333. 
. "Eupatorium, A Composite Genus of Arcto-Tertiary Distribution. 



Taxon, volume 19 (1970), pages 769-774. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XXXIII: The Genus 

Gyptis." Phytologia, volume 21 (1971), pages 22-25. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XXXIV: A New Genus, 

Barrosoa." Phytologia, volume 21 (1971), pages 26-27. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XXXV: A New Genus, 



Lourteigia." Phytologia, volume 21 (1971), pages 28-30. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XV: Jaliscoa, Mac- 

vaughiella, Oaxacania, and Planaltoa." Rhodora, volume 72 number 789 (1970), 

pages 100-105. 
. "The New Synantherology." Taxon, volume 19, number 1 (1970), 

pages 6-1 1 . 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XXII: The Genus 

Piptothrix." Phytologia, volume 19 (1970), pages 425-426. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XXIII: New Combina- 



tions in Jaliscoa." Phytologia, volume 19 (1970), pages 427-428. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XXIV: A New Genus, 



Stomatanthes." Phytologia, volume 19 (1970), pages 429^430. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XXV: A New Genus, 



Eupatoriadelphns." Phytologia, volume 19 (1970), pages 431^32. 

-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XXVI: A New Genus, 



Austroeupatorium." Phytologia, volume 19 (1970), pages 433^34. 

. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XXVIII: A Monogram 

of the Genus, Trichocoronis." Phytologia, volume 19 (1970), pages 497-500. 

'Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XXVIII: The Genus 



.Praxelis." Phytologia, volume 20 (1970), pages 193-195. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XXIX: The Genus 



Chromolaena." Phytologia, volume 20 (1970), pages 196-209. 

. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XXX: The Genus 

Ayapana." Phytologia, volume 20 (1970), pages 210-212. 

'Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), XXXI: A New Genus, 



Polyanthina." Phytologia, volume 20 (1970), pages 213-214. 
Lellinger, David B. "Fern" in Encyclopedia Americana (1970), pages 113-120. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 177 

Lellinger, David B., and C. V. Morton. "Niphidium longifloium, a necessary 
new combination.'* American Fern Journal, volume 61, number 1 (1971). 
pages 37-39. 

. "The Many Species of Polypodium crassifolium." American Fern 

Society Session, AIBS Meetings, Bloomington, Indiana, August 1970. 

. "Methods in Quantitative Taxonomy." Department of Biology, 



University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia, April 1971. 
Morton, Conrad V. "The Fern Collections in Some European Herbaria, V." 

American Fern Journal, volume 59, number 4 (1970), pages 137-149. 
. "A Further Note on the Type of Plalycerium alcicorne." American 

Fern Journal, volume 60, number 1 (1970), pages 7-12. 
. "A New Form of Microlepia speluncae." American Fern Journal, 



volume 60, number 1 (1970), pages 28-29. 

"Le nom exact d'un Pteris du Portugal et des lies Atlantiques." 



Bulletin de la Societe Botanique de France, volume 116 (1970), pages 247-248. 
. "The Fern Collections in Some European Herbaria, VI." American 



Fern Journal, volume 60 (1970), pages 49-61. 
. "A Reply to A. V. Hall on the Names of Subsidiary Croups. 



Taxon, volume 19, number 3 (1970), page 485. 

"A Peculiar Species of Grammitis." American Fern Journal, volume 



60 number 2 (1970), pages 65-67. 

"Proposal for the Conservation of the Ceneric Name Drynaria 



(Bory) J. Smith (Filicineae)." Taxon, volume 19, number 4 (1970), page 647. 
'The Lectotype of Polypodium leptophyllum L." American Fern 



Journal, volume 60, number 3 (1970), pages 101-103. 
. "Taxonomic Notes on Ferns, IV." American Fern Journal, volume 



60, number 3 (1970), pages 103-106. 

-. "Pyrrosia princeps, a Fern New to Cultivation." American Fern 



Journal, volume 60, number 3 (1970), pages 118-119. 

-. "Some Types and Range Extensions in Hybanthus (Violaceae)." 



Phytologia, volume 21, number 1 (1971), pages 56-62. 
. "The Genus Columnea (Gesneriaceae) in Panama." Phytologia, 



volume 21, number 3 (1971), pages 165-195. 
. "The Proper Disposition of Meniscium macrophyllum Kunze." 



American Fern Journal, volume 61, number 1, (1971), pages 17-20. 
. "Ferns and Allies." In Wiggins and Porter, Flora of the Galapagos 



Islands, pages 61-176. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1971. 

Parker, K. F. "Two New Taxa in Texas Hymenoxys (Compositae)." Phytologia, 
volume 20 (1970), page 192. 

. "Hymenoxys of Texas." In D. S. Correll and M. C. Johnston, 

Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas, pages 1676-1680. Renner, Texas: 
Texas Research Foundation, 1970. 

Reed, C. F., and H. Robinson. "Bryophytes of Monteverde, Costa Rica." Phy- 
tologia, volume 21 (1971), pages 6-21. 

Robinson, H. "Notes on the Genus Noivellia." The Bryologist, volume 73, 
number 1 (1970), pages 150-152. 

."A Revision of the Moss Genus, Trichostomopsis." Phytologia, vol- 
ume 20 (1970), pages 184-191. 

"Notes on the Moss Genera, Camptochaete, Physcomitrium, and 



Ptychomnion, in Chile." Phytologia, volume 20 (1970), pages 329-331. 



178 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 



. "South American Species of Stomatanthes (Eupatorieae, Compo- 

sitae)." Phytologia, volume 20 (1970), pages 334-338. 

'The Subfamilies of the Family Dolichopodidae in North and 



South America (Diptera)." Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia, volume 23, number 6 
(1970), pages 53-62. 

"Family Dolichopodidae." A Catalogue of the Diptera of the Amer- 



icas South of the United States. Fascicle 40, pages 1-92. Sao Paulo, Brazil: 
Museu de Zoologia, Universidad de Sao Paulo, 1970. 

"A Revision of the Moss Genus, Hymenostyliella, with Description 



of Sporophyte." Phytologia, volume 21 (1971), pages 1-3. 

"A New Species of Cyclodictyon from Costa Rica." Phytologia, 



volume 21 (1971), pages 4-5. 

Robinson, H., and P. H. Arnaud, Jr. "The Genus Enlinia Alsrich in America 
North of Mexico (Diptera: Dolichopodidae)." Occasional Papers of the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences, number 83 (1970), pages 1-9. 

Robinson, H., and G. C. Steyskal. "Dolichopodidae from the Patuxent Wildlife 
Refuge, Maryland, with the Descriptions of Three New Species of Neurigona 
(Diptera.)" Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, volume 
72, number 4 (1970), pages 448-453. 

Rudd, Velva E. "Proposal for the Conservation of the Generic Name 3899. 
Flemingia Roxburgh ex W. T. Aiton (1812)." Taxon, volume 19 (1970), pages 
282-285. 

. "Revival of Nissolia microptera (Leguminosae)." Phytologia, vol- 
ume 20 (1970), page 324. 

. "Etaballia dubia (Leguminosae), A New Combination." Phytologia, 

volume 20 (1970), pages 426-428. 

. "Studies in the Sophoreae (Leguminosae) I." Phytologia, volume 

21 (1971), page 327. 

. "Leguminosae: Minosoideae; Faboideae." In Wiggins and Porter, 



Flora of the Galapagos Islands, pages 608-658. Stanford, California: Stanford 

University Press, 1971. 
Shetler, Stanwyn G. "The Herbarium: Past, Present, and Future.* Volume 82, 

pages 687-758 of D. M. Cohen and R. F. Cressey, editors, "Natural History 

Collections: Past, Present, Future," in Proceedings of the Biological Society 

of Washington. 
. "The Suitland Bog." Atlantic Naturalist, volume 25 (1970), pages 

65-68. 
. "Flora North America as an Information System." BioScience, vol- 



ume 21 (1971), pages 524, 529-532. 

"Informal Report on Progress of Flora North America Program." 



Joint session of American Society of Plant Taxonomists and Systematics Sec- 
tion of the Botanical Society of America, 21st Annual AIBS Meeting of Bio- 
logical Societies, Indiana University, Bloomington, 25 August 1970. 
. "Flora North America — Plants, Man and Machine." Paper in sym- 



posium "The Usefulness of Systematics in Science," sponsored by the Society 
for Systematic Zoology, 1st National Biological Congress, Detroit, Michigan, 
8 November 1970. 
. "Plants, Man and Computers." Seminar. Science Center, Eastern 



Mennonite College, Harrisonburg, Virginia, 8 March 1971. 
. "Flora of Alaska." Public lecture sponsored by Audubon Naturalist 



Society of the Central Atlantic States, Smithsonian Institution, 15 March 1971. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 179 
. "Informal Report on Flora North America Program" to "Round- 



Table on Information Storage and Retrieval in Plant Systematics," sponsored 
by the Phytogeography and Systematics Section of the Canadian Botanical 
Association, joint meeting of the Canadian Botanical Association and the 
AIBS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, 21 June 1971. 
. "Cytological Studies on Campanula rotundifolia in the Rocky 



Mountains." Paper presented to joint session of American Society of Plant 
Taxonomists and Systematics Section of the Botanical Society of America, 
joint meeting of the Canadian Botanical Association and the AIBS, University 
of Alberta, Edmonton, 22 June 1971. 

Shetler, Stanwyn G., J. H. Beaman, M. E. Hale, L. E. Morse, J. J. Crockett, and 
R. A. Creighton. "Pilot Data Processing Systems for Floristic Information." 
In J. L. Cutbill, editor, Data Processing in Biology and Geology, pages 275- 
310. New York and London: Academic Press, 1971. 

Smith, Lyman B. "Notes on Bromeliaceae, XXX." Phytologia, volume 19, 
number 4 (1970), pages 281-290. 

. "Notes on Bromeliaceae, XXXI." Phytologia, volume 20, number 

3 (1970), pages 121-183. 

. "Boraginaceas." Flora Ilustrada Catarinense, part 1, fascicle bora 



(1970), pages 1-85. 
. "Notes on Bromeliaceae, XXXII." Phytologia, volume 21, number 



2 (1971), pages 73-96. 
Handro, Oswaldo, and Lyman B. Smith. "A New Combination in Hypocyrta, 

Gesneriaceae." Phytologia, volume 20, number 6 (1970), page 390. 
Rauh, Wener, and Lyman B. Smith. "Tillandsia esseriana." Journal of the 

Bromeliad Society, volume 21, number 1 (1971), pages 3-6. 
McWilliams, Edward L., and Lyman B. Smith. "A New Species of Vriesea from 

Southeastern Brazil." Bromeliad Society Bulletin, volume 20, number 3 (1970), 

pages 53-56. 
Smith, C. Earle, Jr., and Lyman B. Smith. "Eleocarpaceas." Flora Ilustrada 

Catarinense, part 1, fascicle eleo (1970), pages 1-33. [Also in Florida da Ilha 

de Santa Catarina, fascicle eleo (1970), pages 1-25.] 
Soderstrom, T. R. "Grass." Encyclopedia Americana (1970), pages 192-199. 
Gould, F. W., and T. R. Soderstrom. "Gramineae." In A. Love, "IOPB Chromo- 
some Number Reports." Taxon, volume 19, number 1 (1970), pages 104-105. 
. "Chromosome Numbers of Some Mexican and Colombian Grasses." 

Canadian Journal of Botany, volume 48, number 9 (1970), pages 1633-1639. 
Wasshausen, Dieter C. "A Synopsis of the Genus Seussenguthia (Acanthaceae)." 

Rhodora, volume 72, number 789 (1970), pages 119-125. 
. "Acanthaceae." In Donovan S. Correll and Marshall C. Johnston, 

Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas, pages 1456-1475. Renner, Texas: 

Texas Research Foundation, 1970. 

"Acanthaceae." In Wiggins and Porter, Flora of the Galapagos 



Islands, pages 259-268. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1971. 
Wurdack, J. J. "Triolena pustulata — Correct Name for Bertolonia pubesce?is." 

The American Horticultural Magazine, volume 49, number 2 (1970) . page 81. 
. "Certamen Melastomataceis XV." Phytologia, volume 20, number 

6 (1970), pages 369-389. 
. "Erroneous Data in Glaziou Collections of Melastomataceae." 



Taxon, volume 19, number 6 (1970), pages 911-913. 



180 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 
. "Certamen Melastomataceis XVI. Phytologia, volume 21, number 



2 (1971), pages 115-130. 

Department of Entomology 

Amerson, A. B., and K. C. Emerson. "Records of Mallophaga from Pacific 
Birds." Atoll Research Bulletin, number 146, 30 pages. 

Blake, Doris H. "Notes on Some Chrysomelid Beetles in the United States and 
Argentina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)." Proceedings of the Entomological 
Society of Washington, volume 72 (September 1970), pages 320-324. 

. "A Review of the Beetles of the Genus Metachroma Chevrolat 

(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 
57 (31 December 1970), pages 1-111. 

Brown, F. Martin, and William D. Field. "Papilio hyllus Cramer, 1776, vs. 
Polycommatus thoe Guerin-Meneville, 1831, and the '50-year rule' (Lepidop- 
tera: Lycaenidae)." Journal New York Entomological Society, volume 78, 
number 3 (1970), pages 175-184. 

Cartwright, Oscar L. "The Male of Megasoma vogti Cartwright (Coleoptera: 
Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae)." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Wash- 
ington, volume 72, number 2 (1970), pages 224-226. 

. "A New Name for Onthophagus monticolus Howden and Cart- 
wright (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)." Proceedings of the Entomological Society 
of Washington, volume 72, number 1 (1970), page 54. 

. "Two New Synonyms of Ataenius picinus Harold (Coleoptera: 

Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae)." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Wash- 
ington, volume 72, number 2 (1970), page 226. 

. "A Review of the Aphodiine Beetles of the Galapagos Islands 

(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Wash- 
ington, volume 83, number 4 (1970), pages 51-58. 

Clarke, J. F. Gates. Catalogue of the Type Specimens of Microlepidoptera in 
the British Museum (Natural History) described by Edward Meyrick, volume 
8, 261 pages, 60 plates. London: British Museum (Natural History), 1970. 

. "The Lepidoptera of Rapa Island." Smithsonian Contributions to 

Zoology, number 56 (11 June 1971), 282 pages, 175 figures, 29 plates. 

Crabill, Ralph E. "A New Ballophilus from the Philippines." Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington, volume 73, number 1, pages 27-28. 

Dobrotworsky, N. V. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast 
Asia, X: The Genus Culisela Felt in Southeast Asia. Contributions to the 
American Entomological Institute, volume 7, number 3 (May 1971), pages 
38-61. 

Emerson, K. C, and Roger D. Price. "A New Species of Plegadiphilus (Mallo- 
phaga: Menoponidae) from the Cayenne Ibis." The Florida Entomologist, vol- 
ume 52, pages 161-163. 

. "A New Species and Records of Mallophaga (Trichodectidae) from 

Nigerian Mammals." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 
volume 71, pages 335-339. 

Erwin, Terry L. "Unique Structures in Members of Tachys sensu lat. (Coleop- 
tera: Carabidae)." Pan-Pacific Entomologist, volume 46, pages 231-232, 2 
figures. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 181 
. "The Nearctic Species of the Genus Leistus Frolich (Coleoptera: 



Carabidae)." Pan-Pacific Entomologist, volume 46, pages 111-119, 8 figures. 
. "A Description of the Larva of Thyce harfordi Casey (Scarabaeidae: 



Melolonthini).*' Psyche, volume 77, number 1, pages 50-53, 7 figures. 
. "The Role of the Bombardier Beetle in the Riparian Ecosystem." 



Lecture. Given to the combined Swedish and Danish Entomological Societies 
on 21 November 1970. 

. Seminar on Ground Beetles. Given to the Entomology and Zoology' 

Departments at Lund University, Spring 1971. 

Flint, Oliver S., Jr. "Life History Studies on Chilean CaddisHies (Trichoptera)." 
The American Philosophical Society Yearbook 1970, pages 312-313. 1971. 

. "Studies of Neotropical Caddis Flies, X: Leucotrichia and Related 

Genera from North and Central America (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae)." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 60 (21 October 1970), 64 pages, 
249 figures. 

. "Studies of Neotropical Caddis Flies, XI: The Genus Rhyacopsyche 

in Central America (Hydroptilidae)." Proceedings of the Biological Society 
of Washington, volume 83, number 46 (1971), pages 515-526. 

Froeschner, Richard C. "Teleonemia harleyi, a New Species of Lantana-feeding 
Lace Bug from Trinidad, W.I. (Hemiptera. Tingidae)." Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington, volume 72, pages 470-472. 

Froeschner, Richard C, and Richard M. Baranowski. "First United States Rec- 
ords for a West Indian Burrower Bug, Amnestus trimaculatus Froeschner 
(Hemiptera: Cydnidae)." The Florida Entomologist, volume 53, page 15. 

Huang, Yiau-Min. "A Note on Aedes aurotaeniatus Edwards. Proceedings of 
the Entomological Society of Washington, volume 72, number 3 (September 
1970), pages 281-288. 

. "A Redescription of Aedes (Stegomyia) scutellaris melayensis Colless 

and the Differentiation of the Larva from that of Aedes (S). albopictus (Skuse) 
(Diptera: Culicidae)." Proceedings of the E?ito?nological Society of Washington, 
volume 73, number 1 (March 1971), pages 1-8. 

Hurd, Paul D., Jr. "A Classification of the Squash and Gourd Bees Peponapis 
and Xenoglossa (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)." University of California Publica- 
tions in Entomology, volume 62 (September 1970), pages 1-39, 11 figures, 3 
maps, 4 tables. 

. "Systematics of Bees and Their Value in Determining Plant Ori- 
gins." Lecture. University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, 24 September 1970. 

. "Exploitation of Squashes, Gourds, and Pumpkins in the American 

Tropics by Bees of the Genera Peponapis and Xenoglossa." Invited Speaker, 
Symposium on "Insect Speciation in Tropical Environments," Entomological 
Society of America national meeting, Miami, Florida, 1 December 1970. 

"Squash and Gourd Bees and the Origin of the Cultivated Curcur- 



bita." Lecture. University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, 3 March 1971. 

. "The Birds and the Bees." Radio Smitlisonian, 21 March 1971. 

. "Squash Bees and Pumpkins." Invited speaker, American Entomo- 
logical Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 27 May 1971. 

. "A New Narrowly Polylectic, Autumnal Species of Dialictus from 

the Flowers of Jepsonia heterandra, An Endemic California Saxifrage. Pan- 
Pacific Entomologist, volume 46, number 3 (October 1970), pages 209-212. 

Hurd, Paul D., Jr., E. Gorton Linsley, and T. W. Whitaker. "Squash and Gourd 
Bees (Peponapis, Xenoglossa) and the Origin of the Cultivated Cucurbita." 



182 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Evolution, volume 25, number 2 (March 1971), pages 218-234, 5 figures, 3 
tables. 

Kim, K. C, and K. C. Emerson. "Anoplura from Mozambique with Descrip- 
tions of New Species and Nymphal Stages. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique 
Africaines, volume 81 (1970), pages 383-416. 

Klein, J. M. "A New Species of Culex (Neoculex) from Cambodia. (Diptera: 
Culicidae)." Proceedings of the Entomological. Society of Washington, volume 
72, number 4 (December 1970), pages 504-506. 

Knight, Kenneth L., and Jean Laffoon. "A Mosquito Taxonomic Glossary, III: 
Adult Thorax." Mosquito Systernatics Newsletter, volume 2, number 3 (Au- 
gust 1970), pages 132-148. 

. "A Mosquito Taxonomic Glossary, IV: Adult Thoracic Appendages. 

Mosquito Systernatics Newsletter, volume 2, number 4 (November 1970), pages 

165-178. 

. "A Mosquito Taxonomic Glossary, V: Abdomen (Except Female 

Genitalia). Mosquito Systernatics Newsletter, volume 3, number 1 (March 
1971), pages 8-24. 

Krombein, Karl V. "Another Note on the Nesting Habits of Megachile texana 
Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)." Proceedings of the Entomological So- 
ciety of Washington, volume 72 (1970), page 415. 

. Smithsonian Explorations in Africa." Address of retiring President, 

Entomological Society of Washington, 7 January 1971. 

. "Bugs, Animals and Things in Africa." Address at Cosmos Club, 



19 April 1971. 

Krombein, Karl V., and Dorothy B. Krombein. "From Nymph to Noise to 
Nymph Again; The Cicadas All Take Their Time." Smithsonian, volume 2, 
number 2 (May 1971), pages 56-63, 8 colored plates. 

Lane, John. "The Collection at USNM/SEAMP." Mosquito Systernatics News- 
letter, volume 2, number 3 (August 1970), pages 83-86. 

Mattingly, Peter F. "Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia, 
VI: The Genus Heizmannia Ludlow in Southeast Asia." Contributions to the 
American Entomological Institute, volume 5, number 7 (August 1970), pages 
1-104. 

Muesebeck, C. F. W. "A New Mealybug Parasite from Japan." Proceedings 
of the Entomological Society of Washington, volume 72 (1970), pages 318-319. 

Peyton, E. L., and J. M. Klein. "Five New Species of Uranataenia from South- 
east Asia (Diptera-Culicidae)." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of 
Washington, volume 72, number 2 (June 1970), pages 243-251. 

Peyton, E. F., and Rampa Rattanarithikul. "Five Additional New Species of 
Uranotaenia from Southeast Asia." Proceedings of the Entomological Society 
of Washington, volume 72, number 3 (September 1970), pages 403-413. 

Reinert, John F. "Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia, V: 
Genus Aedes, Subgenus Diceromyia Theobald in Southeast Asia." Contribu- 
tions to the American Entomological Institute, volume 5. number 4 (6 April 
1970), pages 1-43. 

. "The Zoogeography of Aedes (Diceromyia) Theobald." Journal of 

the Entomological Society of South Africa, volume 33, number 1 (1970), pages 
129-141. 

. "Current Study of Genus Culex in Southeast Asia." Mosquito 



Systernatics Newsletter, volume 2, number 2 (May 1970), pages 48-52. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 183 



. "Culex Neoculex Nematoides (Dyar and Shannon 1925): An Errone- 
ous Record from the Philippines (Diptera: Culicidae)." Mosquito Systematics 
Newsletter, volume 3, number 1 (March 1971), pages 1-3. 

Sirivanakarn, S. "Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia, IX: 
The Genus Orthopodomyia Theobald in Southeast Asia. Contributions to the 
American Entomological Institute, volume 7, number 3 (May 1971), pages 1-37. 

Spangler, Paul J. "Collecting Waterbeetles in South America." Lecture Wash- 
ington Entomological Society, 5 February 1970. 

. "Aquatic Insects and Their Relationships to Their Environment." 

Lecture. Smithsonian Associates, Washington, D.C., 2 November 1970. 

Traub, R., A. Beg Mirza, M. Nadchatham, and E. B. Mann. "Survey of Bulolo 
for Fleas and Trombiculid Mites." Papua and New Guinea Medical Journal, 
volume 13, number 2 (1970), pages 62-64. 

Tyson, W. H. "Notes on African Aedes, Subgenus Mucidus." Journal of the 
Entomological Society of South Africa, volume 33, number 1 (1970), pages 
81-88. 

. "Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia, VII: The 

Aedeomyia of Southeast Asia; and VIII: The Aedes (Mucidus) of Southeast 
Asia." Contributions to the American Entomological Institute, volume 6, 
number 2 (August 1970), pages 1-80. 

Zavortink, Thomas J. "Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast 
Asia, IX: The Genus Orthopodomyia Theobald in Southeast Asia." Contri- 
butions to the American Entomological Institute, volume 7, number 3 (May 
1971), pages 1-37. 

Department of Invertebrate Zoology 

Barnard, J. Laurens. "Gammaridean Amphipods from a Deep-Sea Transect off 
Oregon." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 61 (4 January 1971), 
86 pages, 48 figures, 1 table. 

. "The Identity of Dexamonica and Prinassus with a Revision of 

Dexaminidae (Amphipoda)." Crustaceana 19: 161-180, figs. 1-7, 1970. 7 figures. 

Barnard, J. Laurens, and Gray W. Scott. "South African Ampelisca excavata 
K. H. Barnard (Amphipoda, Gammaridea): A Redescription with Notes on 
the Domicile." Crustaceana, number 19 (1970), pages 67-83, 5 figures. 

Bourdon, Roland, and Thomas E. Bowman. "Western Atlantic Species of the 
Parasitic Genus Leidya (Epicaridea: Bopyridae)." Proceedings of the Biological 
Society of Washington, volume 83, number 36 (September 1970), pages 409- 
424. 

Bowman, Thomas E. The Distribution of Calanoid Copepods off the South- 
eastern United States Between Cape Hatteras and Southern Florida. Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Zoology, number 96 (21 May 1971), 58 pages, 51 figures. 

. "Excirolana kumari, A New Tubicolous Isopod from Malaysia." 

Crustaceana, volume 20, part 1 (1971). 

Chace, Fenner A., Jr. "A New Shrimp of the Genus Lysmata (Decapoda, Hip- 
polytidae) from the Western Atlantic." Crustaceana, volume 19, number 1. 
pages 59-66. 

Chace, Fenner A., Jr., and J. Forest. "Henri Coutiere: Son oeuvre carcinologique 
avec un index pour son memoire de 1899 sur Les Alpheidae." Bulletin du 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris), series 2, volume 41, number 
6, pages 1459-1486. 



184 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Chace, Fenner A., Jr., and Samuel L. H. Fuller. "A New Shrimp of the Genus 
Gnathophyllum (Decapoda, Caridea) from Puerto Rico." Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington, volume 83, number 44 (February 1971), 
pages 493-504. 

Child, C. Allan. "Pycnogonida of the Smithsonian-Bredin Pacific Expedition, 
1957. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 83, number 
27 (September 1970), pages 287-308. 

Cressey, Roger F. "Copepods Parasitic on Sharks from the West Coast of Flor- 
ida." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 38 (30 December 1970), 
30 pages, 110 figures, 1 table. 

Cressey, Roger F., and Bruce B. Collette. "Copepods and Needlefishes: A Study 
in Host-Parasite Relationships." Fishery Bulletin, volume 86, number 3 (1970), 
pages 347-i32. 

Cressey, Roger F., and Ernest A. Lachner. "The Parasitic Copepod Diet and 
Life History of Diskfishes (Echeneidae)." Copeia, number 2 (June 1970), pages 
310-318. 

Downey, Maureen E. "Marsipaster acicula, New Species (Asteroidea: Echino- 
dermata) from the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico." Proceedings of the Bio- 
logical Society of Washington, volume 83, number 28 (September 1970), pages 
309-312. 

. "Zorocallida, New Order, and Doraster constellatus, New Genus 

and Species, with Notes on the Zoroasteridae (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 64 (30 July 1970), 18 pages, 
11 figures, 2 tables. 

Forstner, Helmut, and Klaus Riietzler. "Measurements of the Micro-climate in 
Littoral Marine Habitats." Oceanographic Marine Biology Annual Review, 
volume 8 (1970), pages 225-249. 

Hobbs, Horton H., Jr. "New Crayfishes of the Genus Cambarus from Tennessee 
and Georgia (Decapoda, Astacidea)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington, volume 84, number 23 (September 1970), pages 241-260. 

. "A New Crayfish of the Genus Procambarus from Mississippi 

(Decapoda: Astacidea)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 
volume 83, number 40 (February 1971), pages 459-468. 

"The Cave Crayfishes of North America." Lecture. Baltimore 



Grotto of the National Speleological Society. December 1970. 

Holthuis, L. B., and Raymond B. Manning. "The Porcellanidae, Hippidae, and 
Albuneidae (Crustacea, Decapoda), The R/V Pillsbury Deep-Sea Biological 
Expedition to the Gulf of Guinea, 1964-65." Studies in Tropical Oceanography, 
Miami, volume 4, part 2 (1970), pages 241-255. 

Flope, W. Duane. "6-10. Nematoda." In N. C. Hidings and J. S. Gray, editors, 
"A Manual for the Study of Meiofauna," Smithsonian Contributions to Zool- 
ogy, number 78 (27 April 1971), pages 41-42. 

Hope, W. Duane, and D. G. Murphy. "A Redescription of Enoplus groen- 
landicus Ditlevsen, 1926 (Nematoda: Enoplidae)." Proceedings of the Biological 
Society of Washington, volume 83, pages 227-240. 

. "Procedures for the Preparation of Nematodes and Other Soft- 
bodied Organisms for Scanning Electron Microscopy." Paper presented to 
Washington Area Scanning Electron Microscopists. March 1971. 

Jones, Meredith L. "The Presence of Certain Dehydrogenases among Poly- 
chaetous Annelids as Shown by Disc Electrophoresis." Comparative Biochem- 
istry and Physiology, volume 36, pages 605-611, 1970. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 185 

"The Panamic Biota — A Point of Departure Prior to a Sea-level 



Canal." Lecture. Biological Society of Washington Symposium Introduction. 

March 1971. 
Kenk, Roman. •Freshwater Triclads (Turbellaria) of North America, III: Sphal- 

loplana weingartneri, New Species, from a Cave in Indiana." Proceedings of the 

Biological Society of Washington, volume 83, pages 313-320. 
. "Freshwater Triclads (Turbellaria) of North America, IV: The 

Polypharyngeal Species of Phagocata." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 

number 80 (30 December 1970), 17 pages, 9 figures. 
Manning, Raymond B. "A New Genus and Species of Stomatopod Crustacean 

from Madagascar." Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. 

(Paris), series 2, volume 42, number 1 (1970), pages 206-209. 
. "Mithrax (Mithraculus) commensalis, A New West Indian Spider 

Crab (Decapoda, Majidae) Commensal with a Sea Anemone." Crustaceana, 

volume 19, part 2 (1970), pages 157-161. 
•. "Two New Stomatopod Crustaceans from Australia," Records of 

the Australian Museum, volume 28, number 4 (1970), pages 77-85. 
. "Keys to the Species of Oratosquilla (Crustacea: Stomatopoda), with 

Descriptions of Two New Species." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 

number 71 (14 January 1971), 16 pages, 4 figures. 
. "The Stomatopod Crustacea. The R/V Pillsbury Deep-Sea Bio- 
logical Expedition to the Gulf of Guinea, 1964-65." Studies in Tropical 

Oceanography, Miami, volume 4, part 2 (1970), pages 255-275. 
Manning, Raymond B., and Fenner A. Chace, Jr. "Shrimps of the Family Pro- 

cessidae from the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean (Crustacea: Decapoda: 

Caridea)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 89, (21 May 1971), 

41 pages, 20 figures. 
Manning, Raymond B., and A. Michel. "A New Autrosquilla (Stomatopoda) 

from the Marquesas Islands." Crustaceana, volume 20, part 3, pages 237-240, 

1 figure. 
Morrison, Joseph P. E. "Figures for East Florida Donax." Seafari, volume 12 

(September 1970), number 8, page 5. 
. "Atheamia. New Name for a Genus of Pleurocerid Snails." Nau- 
tilus, volume 84, part 3 (January 1971), pages 110-111. 

"Names for the Subfamily Hydrobiinae." American Malacological 



Union Annual Report for 1970 (February 1971), pages 7-8. 

. "Western Atlantic Donax." Proceedings of the Biological Society 

of Washington, volume 83, number 48 (February 1971), pages 545-568. 

'Comments on Gastrochaena." Seafari, volume 13, number 2 



(March 1971), page /. 
. "Numbers for the Subfamily Hydrobiinae." Paper presented at 

American Malacological Union Meeting, Key West, Florida. July 1970. 
. "Beachcombing and Collecting." SI Associates Beachcombing trip. 

Sanibel, Florida, 11 and 13 November 1970. 
. "Conservation of Molluscan Species." Lecture to the National 

Capital Shell Club. Februarv 1971. 
Pawson, David L. "Echinoderm Studies in Southern Chile." Antarctic Journal 

(September-October 1970). 
. "The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Sea Cucumbers (Echino- 

dermata: Holothuroidea)." New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir, 

number 52 (1970). pages 1-69. 



186 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 
. "Coral Reefs and the Crown-of-Thorns Starfish." Lecture. Bermuda 



Biological Station. 28 July 1970. 

"Can the Phylum Echinodermata he Defined?" Lecture. Zoology 



Department, University of South Florida, Tampa. 3 December 1970. 
. "Evolution and Relationships of Echinoderms." Lecture. Zoology 



Department, University of South Florida, Tampa. 4 December 1970. 

Perez, Isabel Farfante. "Western Atlantic Shrimps of the Genus Metapenaeopsis 
(Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae), with Descriptions of Three New Species." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 79 (10 March 1971), 37 pages, 
22 figures, 1 table. 

Pequegnat, Willis E., and Fenner A. Chace, Jr., editors. "Contributions on the 
Biology of the Gulf of Mexico." Texas AirM Uiiiversity Oceanographic Studies, 
volume 1, xvi -j- 270 pages. 

Pettibone, Marian H. "Two New Genera of Sigalionidae (Polychaeta).'* Pro- 
ceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 83, number 34 (Sep- 
tember 1970), pages 365-386. 

. "Revision of the Genus Euthalenessa Darboux (Polychaeta: Siga- 
lionidae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 52 (16 July 1970), 
30 pages, 16 figures. 

"Revision of Some Species Referred to Leanira Kinberg (Polychaeta: 



Sigalionidae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 53 (6 August 
1970), 25 pages, 12 figures. 

Rehder, Harald A. "A Molluscan Faunule from 200 Meters off Valparaiso, Chile, 
with Descriptions of Four New Species." Proceedings of the Biological Society 
of Washington, volume 83, number 51 (9 February 1971), pages 585-596. 

. "Comment on the Request for Validation of Murex lotorium Lin- 

naceus, 1758 (Gastropoda) in its Accustomed Sense Z.N. (S). 1886." Bulletin of 
Zoological Nomenclature, volume 27, part 2 (10 August 1970), page 67. 

"Malacological Expedition to the Tropical South Pacific." Na- 



tional Geographic Society Research Report (1965 projects), pages 213-218. 

Rice, Mary E. "Observations on the Development of Six Species of Caribbean 
Sipuncula with a Review of Development in the Phylum." Paper presented at 
the International Symposium on the Biology of the Sipuncula. June 1970. 

. "Survey of the Sipuncula of the Coral and Beachrock Communities 

of the Caribbean Sea." Paper presented at the International Symposium on 
the Biology of the Sipuncula. June 1970. 

Rice, Mary E., and A. C. Stephen. "The Type Specimens of Sipuncula and 
Echiura Described by J. E. Gray and W. Baird in the Collections of the British 
Museum (N.H.)." Bulletin of the British Museum, (Zoology) volume 20, num- 
ber 2 (1970). 

Roper, Clyde F. E., and R. H. Gibbs. "Ocean Acre: Preliminary Report on 
Vertical Distribution of Fishes and Cephalopods." In G. B. Farqubar, editor, 
Proceedings of an International Symposium on Biological Sound Scattering 
in the Ocean, pages 129-135. Washington, D.C.: Naval Oceanographic Office. 

Roper, Clyde F. E., R. H. Gibbs and W. Aron. "Ocean Acre: An Interim Re- 
port." 32 pages, 27 figures. Washington, D.C.: Office of Environmental Sciences, 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Rosewater, Joseph. "The Family Littorinidae in the Indo-Pacific, Part I: The 
Subfamily Littorininae." Indo-Pacific Mollusca, volume 2, number 11 (1970), 
pages 417-506, 64 plates. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 187 

. "A Malacological Collecting Expedition, Molluccas Islands." Lec- 



ture. Public Schools, Midland, Texas, February 1971. 

Riitzler, Klaus. "Spatial Competition Among Porifera: Solution by Epizoism." 
Oecologia (Berlin), volume 5 (1970), pages 85-95. 

. "Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: Bur- 
rowing Sponges, Genus Siphonodictyon Bergquist, from the Caribbean." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 77 (24 February 1971), 37 pages, 
11 figures, 9 plates, 2 tables. 

"The Mangrove Community, Aspects of Its Structure, Faunistics 



and Ecology." Pages 515-536 in Memoir of the International Symposium on 
Coastal Lagunes (Origin, Dynamics, and Productivity). Mexico, D.F.: Universi- 
dad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 1970. 

Mineral Sciences 

Arem, J. E. "Preserving Mineral Localities." Mineralogical Record, volume 1 

(1970), page 39. 
. "Treasurehouse of the Nation." Rock and Gem, volume 1 (1971), 

pages 30-37. 
Arem, J. E., and J. Ito. "Chevkinite and Perrierite: Synthesis, Crystal Growth 

and Polymorphism." American Mineralogist, volume 56 (1971), pages 307-319. 
Clarke, R. S., Jr. "The Allende, Mexico Meteorite Shower." Lecture. The Geo- 
logy Club, Lafayette College, Pennsylvania, 5 May 1971. 
Clarke, Roy S., Jr., R. J. Gettens, and W. T. Chase. "Two Early Chinese Bronze 

Weapons with Meteoritic Iron Blades." Freer Galley of Art Occasional Paper, 

volume 4, number 1 (1971). 
Clarke, Roy S., Jr., E. Jarosewich, B. Mason, J. Nelen, M. Gomez, and J. R. Hyde. 

"The Allende, Mexico, Meteorite Shower." Smithsonian Contributiotrs to the 

Earth Sciences, number 5 (17 February 1971), 53 pages, 36 figures. 
Clarke, Roy S., Jr., E. Jarosewich, and J. Nelen. "The Lost City, Oklahoma, 

Meteorite: An Introduction to its Laboratory Investigation and Comparisons 

with Pribram and Ucera." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 76, num- 
ber 17 (1971), pages 4135-4143. 
Desautels, P. E. "A Top Collection for Experts and Amateurs to Envy." 

Smithsonian, volume 1, number 4 (July 1970), pages 44-51. 
. "For a Little Bit of Data You Need a Big Machine." Smithsonian, 

volume 1, number 12 (March 1971), pages 46-49. 
Fredriksson, Kurt. "Impact of Microprobe Analysis on the Characterization 

of Lunar Samples." Lecture. Society for Applied Spectroscopy, New Orleans, 

October 1970. 
. "Impact-ignimbrites." Lecture. Meeting on Impact and Volcanism, 

Houston, October 1970. 
. "Sialic Components in Mare Procellarum Soil." Lecture. Second 

Lunar Science Conference, Houston, January 1971. 
. "Terrestrial and Lunar Impact-ignimbrites." Lecture. Museum 

d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, May 1971. 
Fredriksson, K., A. M. Reid, M. N. Bass, H. Funita, and J. F. Kerridge. "Olivine 

and Pyroxene in the Orgueil Meteorite." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Data, 

volume 34 (1970), pages 1253-1254. 
Jarosewich, E. "Chemical Analysis of the Murchison Meteorite." Meteoritics, 

volume 1 (1971), pages 49-51. 



441-283 O - 71 - 13 



188 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Jarosewich, E., and E. Olsen. "The Chemical Composition of the Silicate In- 
clusions in the Weekeroo Station Iron Meteorite." Earth and Planetary Science 
Letters, volume 8 (1970), pages 261-266. 

Jarosewich, E., and G. R. Levi-Donati. "The Valdinizza Meteorite, Mineralogy, 
Chemistry and Microstructure." Meteoritics, volume 1 (1971), pages 1-14. 

Mason, B. Principles of Geochemistry (Japanese translation). 402 pages. Tokyo: 
Iwanami Station, 1970. 

. Principles of Geochemistry (Russian translation). 311 pages. Mos- 
cow: Nedra, 1971. 

. "Meteorites." In I. G. Gass, editor, Understanding the Earth, pages 



114-121. Sussex, England: Artemis Press, 1971. 

Mason, B., K. Fredriksson, E. P. Henderson, E. Jarosewich, W. G. Melson, K. M. 
Towe, and J. S. White, Jr. "Mineralogy and Petrology of Lunar Samples." 
Proceedings of the Apollo 11 Lunar Science Conference 1970, pages 655-660. 

Mason, B., and A. L. Graham. "Minor and Trace Elements in Meteoritic Min- 
erals." Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences, number 3 (17 Sep- 
tember 1970), 17 pages, 1 figure, 17 tables. 

Mason, B., and W. G. Melson. The Lunar Rocks. 179 pages. New York: John 
Wiley & Sons, 1970. 

. "Comparison of Lunar Rocks and Basalts and Stony Meteorites." 

Proceedings of the Apollo 11 Lunar Science Conference 1970, pages 661-671. 

Melson, W. G. "Volcanic Rocks Recovered on Leg 6." Initial Reports of the 
Deep Sea Drilling Project (1971), pages 1119-1120. 

Melson, William G., Eugene Jarosewich, and Charles A. Lundquist. "Volcanic 
Eruption at Metis Shoal, Tonga, 1967-1968: Description and Petrology." 
Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences, number 4 (16 October 1970), 
18 pages, 13 figures, 3 tables. 

Melson, W. G., and G. Thompson. "Petrology of a Transform Fault Zone and 
Adjacent Ridge Segments." Transactions of the Royal Society of London, A., 
volume 268, pages 423^441. 

Nelen, J., M. Christophe-Michel-Levy, and R. Caye. "A New Mineral in the 
Vigarano Meteorite." Meteoritics, volume 4 (1970), page 211. 

Switzer, G. "Origin and Composition of Rock Fulgurite Glass." Lecture. Meet- 
ing of the International Mineralogical Society, Kyoto, Japan, September 1970. 

White, J. S., Jr. "New Data for Plattnerite." Mineralogical Record, volume 1 
(1970), pages 75-80. 

White, J. S., Jr., P. B. Leavens, and M. H. Hey. "Eakerite— A New Tin Silicate." 
Mineralogical Record, volume 1 (1970), pages 92-96. 

White, J. S., Jr., and E. Jarosewich. "Second Occurrence of Benstonite." Min- 
eralogical Record, volume 1 (1970), pages 141-142. 

Department of Paleobiology 

Adey, Walter H. "The Effects of Light and Temperature on Growth Rates in 

Boreal Subarctic Crustose Corallines." Journal of Phycology, volume 6 (1970), 

pages 269-276. 
. "The Crustose Corallines of the Northwestern North Atlantic, Incl. 

Lithothamnium Lemoineae n. sp." Journal of Phycology, volume 6 (1970), 

pages 225-229. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 189 

. "A Revision of the Foslie Crustose Coralline Herbarium." Det 



Konglige Norske Videnskabis Selskad Skrifter (1970), 46 pages. 

"Some Relationships Between Crustose Corallines and Their Sub- 



strate." Scientia Islandica, volume 2 (1970), pages 21-25. 
. "Investigations on the Crustose Corallines of the Northeastern 



North Atlantic." National Geographic Society Research Report for 1965 
(1970), pages 1-9. 

"Ecology of Crustose Corallines." Lecture. University of Miami, 



Florida, October 1970; and British Museum, London, December 1970. 

Adey, Walter H., and D. L. McKibbin. "Studies on the Maerl Species Phy- 
matolithon calcareum and Lithothamnium coralloides." Botanica Marina, vol- 
ume 13 (1970), pages 100-106. 

Adey, Walter H., and C. P. Sperapani. "The Biology of Kvaleya epilaeve, A 
New Parasitic Genus and Species of Corallinaceae." Phycologia, volume 10 
(1970), pages 29-42. 

Benson, Richard H. "Architectural Solutions to Structural Stress in Rigid 
Micro-organisms, through SEM Examination." Cambridge Proceedings, Stereo- 
scan SEM Colloquium, Third Annual (1970), pages 71-78. 

. "Deep-Sea Ostracodes and Tethys." Colloquium of the Paleo- 

ecology of Ostracodes, July 1970. 

'Deep-Sea Ostracodes and Tethys." Lecture. Paleontological So- 



ciety of Washington, Washington, D.C., September 1970. 
. "Continental Drift and the Tethys Ocean." Lecture. Washington 



Geological Society. Washington, D. C, October 1970. 
. "In Search of Lost Oceans." Lecture. Smithsonian Associates, Wash- 



ington, D.C., April 1971. 

"Problems, Paradigms and Paradoxes in Paleontology." Lecture. 



Geology Department Honors Banquet, Lawrence, Kansas, April 1971. 
. "In Search of Lost Oceans." Geology Department, University of 



Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, April 1971. 

. "On the Study of an Ostracode Genus." Lecture. Geology Depart- 
ment, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, April 1971. 

Benson, Richard H., and P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. "Terminology for Surface 
Features in the Ornate Ostracodes." Lethaia, volume 4, number 3 (1971), 38 
pages, 50 figures. 

Buzas, Martin A. "On the Quantification of Biofacies." Proceedings of the 
North American Paleontological Convention, Chicago, 1969, (1970), pages 
101-116. 

. "Spatial Homogeneity: Statistical Analyses of Unispecies and Multi- 
species Populations of Foraminifera." Ecology, volume 51 (1970), pages 874- 
879. 

Cheetham, Alan H. "Measurement and Evaluation of Morphologic Variation 
in Cheilostome Bryozoa." Lecture. Western Maryland College, November 1970. 

. "Evolutionary History of Cheilostome Bryozoa." Three lectures 

with laboratory demonstrations at George Washington University, November 
1970. 

. "The Use of Principal Components Analysis in Morphometric 

Evolutionary Trends in Cheilostome Bryozoa." Two lectures to graduate 
seminar in paleontology, George Washington University, March 1971. 

Cheetham, Alan H., R. S. Boardman, and P. L. Cook. "Intracolony Variation 
and the Genus Concept in Bryozoa." Proceedings of the North American 



190 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Paleontological Convention, Chicago, 1969, Part C (1970), pages 294-320, 12 
text-figures. 

Cooper, G. Arthur. "Generic Characters of Brachiopods." Proceedings of the 
North American Paleontological Convention, Chicago, 1969, Part C (1970), 
pages 194-263, 5 plates. 

. "Brachiopoda: Japanithyris is Campages." Journal of Paleontology, 

volume 44, number 5 (1970), pages 898-904, plate 129. 

Dutro, J. Thomas, editor. "Paleozoic Perspectives: A Paleontological Tribute 
to G. Arthur Cooper." Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, number 3 
(22 February 1971), 390 pages, illustrated. 

Emery, Robert J. "A North American Oligocene Pangolin and Other Additions 
to the Pholidota." Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, vol- 
ume 142, article 6 (1970), pages 455-510, figures 1-32. 

Hickey, Leo J. "Plant History." Two lectures. Botany Department, University 
of Maryland, fall 1970, spring 1971. 

. "Paleobotany." Lecture. Phi Sigma chapter, University of Mary- 
land, December 1970. 

. "New Evidence on Early Angiosperm Evolution." Seminar. Botany 



Department, Smithsonian Institution, May 1971. 

Hotton, Nicholas III. " Mauchchunkia bassa, gen. et sp. nov., An Anthrocosaur 
(Amphibia, Labyrinthodontia) from the Upper Mississippian." Kirtlandia, vol- 
ume 12 (1970), pages 1-38. 

. "Dinosaurs and Other Fossil Reptiles." Lecture. Smithsonian Asso- 
ciates, January 1971. 

. "Vertebrate Problems Associated with Continental Drift." Lecture. 



Paleontological Society of Washington, March 1971. 
. "Vertebrate Problems Associated with Continental Drift." Lecture. 



Geology Department, University of Pennsylvania, April 1971. 

"Origins of Vertebrate Classes." Proceedings of the North Ameri- 



can Paleontological Convention, Chicago, 1969, Part H (1971), pages 1 146— 
1152. 

Hueber, Francis M. "Rebuchia, A New Name for Bucheria Dorf." Taxon, vol- 
ume 19, number 5 (1970), page 822. 

Kier, Porter M. "Functional Morphology of Living and Fossil Echinoids." Lec- 
ture. University of Pennsylvania, spring 1971. 

Pierce, J. W. "Clay Mineralogy of Cores from the Continental Shelf Margin of 
North Carolina." Southeastern Geology, volume 12, (1970), pages 33-51. 

. "Coastal Changes in North Carolina." Lecture. Symposium, Duke 

University, Marine Laboratory, December 1970. 

Pierce, J. W., and D. J. Colquhoun. "Configuration of the Holocene Primary 
Barrier Chain, Outer Banks, North Carolina." Southeastern Geology, volume 
11 (1970), pages 231-236. 

. "Holocene Evolution of a Portion of the North Carolina Coast." 

Geological Society of America Bulletin, volume 81 (1970), pages 3697-3714. 

Pierce, J. W., and T. C. Huang. "The Carbonate Minerals of Deep-Sea Bio- 
clastic Turbidites, Southern Blake Basin." Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 
volume 41 (1970), pages 251-260. 

Pierce, J. W., and D. D. Nelson. "Suspended Sediment in Waters off the South- 
eastern United States." Paper. Annual Meeting, Southeastern Section, Geo- 
logical Society of America, Blacksburg, Virginia, May 1971. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 19] 

. "Clay Minerals and Sedimentology in the Pamlico Sound Region, 



North Carolina." Paper. Annual Meeting, Southeastern Section, Geological 

Society of America, Blacksburg, Virginia, May 1971. 
Pierce, J. W., and D. J. Stanley. "Readings in Suspended Sediment Technology." 

In The Neiu Concepts of Continental Margin Sedimentation, Supplement, 

American Geological Institute, DSJP 1-7, 1970. 
Ray, Clayton E. "Polar Bear and Mammoth on the Pribilof Islands." Arctic, 

1971. 
Stanley, D. J. "The New Concepts of Continental Margin Sedimentation." 

Paper. American Geological Institute, Houston, Texas. 
Stanley, Daniel J., and Noel P. James. "Distribution of Echinarachnius parma 

(Lamarck) and Associated Fauna on Sable Island Bank, Southeast Canada." 

Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences, number 6 (27 April 1971), 

24 pages, 8 figures, 6 plates, 1 table. 
Waller, Thomas R. "The Glass Scallop Propeamussium, A Living Relict of the 

Past." Annual Report of the American Malacological Union for 1970 (1971), 

pages 5-7. 

Department of Vertebrate Zoology 

Amadou, Dean, Eugene Eisenmann, George E. Watson, III, and Alexander Wet- 
more. "Plautus or Plotus Gunnerus, 1761, Plautus Klein, 1760, Plotus Lin- 
naeus, Plautus Brunnich, 1772 (Aves): Proposed Rejection or Suppression 
under the Plenary Powers." Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 27, 
part 2 (1970), pages 110-112. 

Bailey, Reeve M., John E. Fitch, Earl S. Herald, Ernest A. Lachner, C. C. Lind- 
sey, C. Richard Robins, and W. B. Scott. "A List of Common and Scientific 
Names of Fishes from the United States and Canada." American Fisheries 
Society, Special Publication Number 6 (1970), third edition, 149 pages. 

Banks, Richard C. "The Fox Sparrow on the West Slope of the Oregon Cas- 
cades." The Condor, volume 72, number 3 (July 1970), pages 369-370. 

. "Birds Imported into the United States in 1968." U.S. Department 

of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and 
Wildlife, Special Scientific Report— Wildlife, number 136 (September 1970), 
ii _j_ 64 pages. 

. "Re-evaluation of Two Supposed Hybrid Birds." The Wilson 



Bulletin, volume 82, number 3 (September 1970), pages 331-332. 
. "On Ecotypic Variation in Birds." Evolution, volume 24, number 



4 (29 December 1970), pages 829-831. 

Cressey, Roger F., and Ernest A. Lachner. "The Parasitic Copepod Diet and 
Life History of Diskfishes (Echeneidae)." Copeia, number 2 (1970), pages 310- 
318. 

Gibbs, Robert H., Jr., and Jon C. Staiger. "Eastern Tropical Atlantic Flying- 
Fishes of the Genus Cypselurus." Studies in Tropical Biology, number 4, 
part 2 (1970), pages 432-466. 

Gibbs, Robert H., Jr., and Clyde F. E. Roper. "Ocean Acre: Preliminary Report 
on Vertical Distribution of Fishes and Cephalopods." Proceedings of an Inter- 
national Symposium on Biological Sound Scattering in the Ocean (1971), Report 
number 005, pages 120-135. Maury Center for Ocean Science, Department 
of Navy. 



192 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Goodyear, Richard H., and Robert H. Gibbs, Jr. "Ergebnisse der Forschungs- 
reisen des FFS 'Walther Herwig' nach Siidamerica, X: Systematics and Zooge- 
ography of Stomiatoid Fishes of the Astronesthes cyaneus Species Group 
(Family Astronesthidae), with Descriptions of Three New Species." Arch. 
Fischereiwiss (1969), volume 20, number 2/3 (1970), pages 107-131. 

Handley, Charles O., Jr., and J. R. Choate. "The Correct Name for the Least 
Short-tailed Shrew (Cryptotis parva) of Guatemala (Mammalia: Insectivora)." 
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 83 (1970), pages 
195-201. 

. "Appalachian Mammalian Geography." Lecture delivered at Sym- 
posium on the Distributional History of the Biota of the Southern Appalach- 
ians, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia, June 1970. 

. "Natural History of the Kalahari Bushmen." Lecture delivered at 



the University of Virginia, July 1970. 

. "Zoogeography of Appalachian Mammals." Lecture delivered at 

the University of Virginia, August 1970. 

"Mammalogy in Panama." Lecture delivered before Biological So- 



ciety of Washington Symposium on Biota of Panama, March 1971. 

Heyer, W. Ronald, and James A. Peters. "The Frog Genus Leptodactylus in 
Ecuador." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 84, 
number 19 (30 June 1971), pages 163-170. 

Hubbard, John P., and Richard C. Banks. "The Types of Taxa of Harold H. 
Bailey." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 83, num- 
ber 30 (25 September 1970), pages 321-332. 

Jones, Clyde. "Mammals Imported into the United States in 1968." U.S. De- 
partment of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Sport Fisheries 
and Wildlife, Special Scientific Report — Wildlife, number 137 (1970), 30 pages. 

. "Notes on Hairy Frogs (Trichobatrachns robustus Boulenger) Col- 
lected in Rio Muni, West Africa." Herpetologica, volume 27 (1971), pages 51-54. 

. "The Bats of Rio Muni, West Africa." Journal of Mammalogy, 



volume 52 (1971), pages 121-140. 

Jones, Clyde, and J. Sabater Pi. "Comparative Ecology of Gorilla gorilla (Savage 
and Wyman) and Pan troglodytes (Blumenbach) in Rio Muni, West Africa." 
Bibliotheca Primatologica, volume 13 (1971), iv -j- 96 pages. 

Jones, Clyde, and Henry W. Setzer. "Comments on Myosciurus pumilio." jour- 
nal of Mammalogy, volume 51 (1970), pages 813-814. 

. "The Designation of a Holotype of the West African Pygmy Squir- 
rel, Myosciurus pumilio (Leconte, 1857) (Mammalia: Rodentia)." Proceedings 
of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 84, number 8 (30 June 1971), 
pages 59-64. 

Jones, J., Jr., and Clyde Jones. "Dates of Publication of Numbers in the North 
American Fauna Series." Journal of Mammalogy, volume 51 (1970), page 845. 

Lachner, Ernest A., C. Richard Robins, and Walter R. Courtenay, Jr. "Exotic 
Fishes and Other Aquatic Organisms Introduced into North America." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Zoology, number 59 (30 September 1970), 29 pages, 
4 figures, 1 table. 

Morse, Larry, James A. Peters, and Paul Hamel. "A General Data Format for 
Summarizing Taxonomic Information." BioSciences, volume 21 (1971), pages 
174-180 and 186. 

Peters, James A. "Generic Position of the South American Snake Tropidodipsas 
perijanensis." Copeia (1970), pages 394-395. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 193 

. "Crash Course in Computer Programming in the Language basic." 



Lecture delivered at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 3 July 
1970. 
. "Do Snakes Have Souls?" Interview given on Radio Smithsonian, 



Washington, D.C., 27 December 1970. 

"Biostatistical Programs in basic Language for Time-Shared Com- 



puters: Coordinated with the Book 'Quantitative Zoology.' " Smithsonian Con- 
tributions to '/.oology, number 69 (10 March 1971), 46 pages. 
. "Further Comment on Rana maculata." Bulletin of Zoological 



Nomenclature, volume 27 (1971), page 133. 

Peters, James A., and B. Orejas-Miranda. "Notes on the Hemipenis of Several 
Taxa in the Family Leptotyphlopidae." Herpetologica, volume 26 (1970), 
pages 320-324. 

Pine, Ronald H., and Dilford C. Carter. "Distributional Notes on the Thick- 
spined Rat (Hoplomxs gymnurus) with the First Records from Honduras." 
Journal of Mammalogy, volume 51, number 4 (1970), page 804. 

Pine, Ronald H., Iain R. Bishop, and Ruth L. Jackson. "Preliminary List of 
Mammals of the Xavantina/Cachimbo Expedition (Central Brazil)." Trajisac- 
tions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, volume 64, num- 
ber 5 (1970), pages 668-670. 

Schlitter, Duane A., and Kitti Thonglongya. "Rattus turkestanicus (Satunin, 
1903), The Valid Name for Rattus rattoides Hodgson, 1845 (Mammalia: 
Rodentia)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 84, 
number 20 (30 June 1971), pages 171-174. 

Setzer, Henry W., and Gary L. Ranck. "A New Gerbil (Genus Gerbillus) from 
the Chad." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 84, 
number 7 (30 June 1971), pages 55-58. 

Smith-Vaniz, William F., and Victor G. Springer. "Synopsis of the Tribe 
Salariini, with Description of Five New Genera and Three New Species (Pisces: 
Blenniidae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 73 (30 March 
1971), 72 pages, 51 figures, 6 tables. 

Springer, Victor G. "The Blennies." Tropical Fish Hobbyist, volume 19 (Octo- 
ber 1970), pages 54-66. 

. "The Western South Atlantic Clinid Fish Ribeiroclinus eigenmanni, 

with Discussion of the Intraralationships and Zoogeography of the Clinidae." 
Copeia, number 3 (1970), pages 430-436. 

. "Revision of the Fish Genus Ecsenius (Blenniidae, Blenniinae, 



Salariini)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 72 (30 March 1971), 
74 pages, 36 figures, 18 tables. 

"Mimetic Relationships Involving Blenniid Fishes." Lecture given 



at Smithsonian Institution, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, February 
1971; Department of Zoology, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel, March 
1971; Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, April 1971; and annual meeting of 
American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Los Angeles, California, 
June 1971. 

Stephens, John S., Jr., and Victor G. Springer. "Neoclinus nudus, New Scaleless 
Clinid Fish from Taiwan, with a Key to Neoclinus." Proceedings of the Bio- 
logical Society of Washington, volume 84, number 9 (1971), pages 65-72. 

Taylor, William R., Robert E. Jenkins, and Ernest A. Lachner. "Rediscovery 
and Description of the Ictalurid Catfish, Noturus flavipinnis." Proceedings of 



194 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

the Biological Society of Washington, volume 83, number 41 (1971), pages 
469-476. 

Thorington, Richard W., Jr., and C. P. Groves. "An Annotated Classification 
of the Cercopithecoidea." In Old World Monkeys, pages 629-647. New York 
and London: Academic Press, Inc., 1970. 

. "Feeding Behavior of Nonhuman Primates in the Wild." In Feed- 
ing and Nutrition of Nonhuman Primates, pages 15-27. New York: Academic 
Press, Inc., 1970. 

"The Interpretation of Data in Systematics." In Old World Mon- 



keys, pages 3-15. New York and London: Academic Press, Inc., 1970. 

"The Taxonomy of Primates Used in Viral Research." Lecture 



given at Southwest Foundation for Research and Education, Virus Workshop, 
San Antonio, Texas, April 1971. 

Watson, George E. "A Presumed Wild Hybrid Baldpate x Eurasian Wigeon." 
Auk, volume 87, number 2 (1970), pages 353-357. 

. "A Shearwater Mortality on the Atlantic Coast." Atlantic Natur- 
alist, volume 25, number 2 (1970), pages 75-80. 

. "Molting Greater Shearwaters (Pujtinus gravis) off Tierra del 



Fuego." Auk, volume 88, number 2 (1971), pages 440-442. 
. "Penguin" in Encyclopedia Britannica (1971), volume 17, page 



552. 

. "A Serological and Ectoparasite Survey of Migratory Birds in 

Northeast Africa: Final Report." Report for the Army Research Office. 642 
pages, illustrated. 10 March 1971. 

Watson, George E., Robert E. Shope, and Makram N. Kaiser. "An Ectoparasite 
and Virus Survey of Migrating Birds in the Eastern Mediterranean." Reports of 
the V Symposium of the Study of the Role of Migrating Birds in Distribution 
of Arboviruses. Nauka, Novosibirska, 1971. 

Weitzman. Stanley H., and H. Nijssen. "Four New Species and One New Sub- 
species of the Catfish Genus Corydoras from Ecuador, Colombia, and Brazil 
(Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)." Beaufortia, volume 18 (1970), pages 
119-132. 

Weitzman, Stanley H., and Jamie E. Thomerson. "A New Species of Glandulo- 
caudine Characid Fish, Hysteronotus myersi, from Peru." Proceedings of the 
California Academy of Sciences, volume 38 (1970), pages 139-156. 

Wetmore, Alexander. "Familie Palmschatzer (Familie Dulidae)." In Grzimeks 
Tierleben (1970), Band IX, neuntes Kapitel, page 210. 

. "Archaeopteryx." In Encyclopaedia Britannica (1971), pages 284- 



285. 



"Diatryma." In Encyclopaedia Britannica (1971), page 369. 
"Hesperornis." In Encyclopaedia Britannica (1971), pages 461-462. 
"Ichthyornis." In Encyclopaedia Britannica (1971), pages 1054- 



1055. 



. "Phororhacos." In Encyclopaedia Britannica (1971), page 1911. 

Zug, George R., and Ronald I. Crombie. "Modifications of the Taylor Enzyme 
Method of Clearing and Staining for Amphibians and Reptiles." Herpe to- 
logical Review, volume 2 (1970), pages 49-50. 

. "Intergradation of the Two Rhineura (Reptile) Populations in 

Central Florida and Comments on Its Scale Reduction." Journal of Herpetol- 
ogy, volume 4 (1970), pages 123-129. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 195 
. "The Distribution and Patterns of the Major Arteries of the 



Iguanids and Comments on the Intergeneric Relationships of Iguanids (Rep- 
tilia: Lacertilia)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 83 (7 April 
1971), 23 pages, 15 figures, 3 tables. 

"The Musculoskeletal System: An Evolutionary Perspective." In 



Chordate Structure and Function, pages 200-241. New York: Macmillan Co., 

1971. 
Zusi, Richard L. "Functional Anatomy in Systematics." Taxon, volume 20, 

number 1 (1970), pages 75-84. 
Zusi, Richard L., and J. T. Marshall. "A Comparison of Asiatic and North 

American Sapsuckers." The Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society, vol- 
ume 23, number 3 (1970), pages 393-407. 
Zusi, Richard L., and Joseph R. Jehl, Jr. "The Systematic Relationships of 

Aechmorhynchus, Prosobonia, and Phegornis (Charadriiformes; Charadrii)." 

Auk, volume 87, number 4 (1970), pages 760-780. 



National Air and Space Museum 

Meyer, Robert B., Jr., editor. "Langley's Aero Engine of 1903." Smithsonian 
Annals of Flight, number 6 (30 March 1971), xi _|_ 193 pages, 44 figures. 



Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

Allison, A. C. "The Numerical Solution of Coupled Differential Equations 

Arising from the Schrodinger Equation." Journal of Computational Physics, 

volume 6 (1970), pages 378-391. 
Allison, A. C, and A. Dalgarno. "Band Oscillator Strengths and Transition 

Probabilities for the Lyman and Werner Systems of H,, HD and D 2 ." Atomic 

Data, volume 1 (1970), pages 289-304. 
. "Isotope Effects in the Lyman and Werner Systems of Molecular 

Hydrogen." Molecular Physics, volume 19, number 4 (1970), pages 567-572. 
Apparao, K. M. V. "The Electromagnetic Spectrum of the Crab Nebula." Pages 

247-249 in L. Gratton, editor, Non-Solar X- and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, 

Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 37. 

Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1970. 
Austin, P. M., and M. R. Schaffner. "Computations and Experiments Relevant 

to Digital Processing of Weather Radar Echoes." Presented at the 14th Radar 

Meteorology Conference, Tucson, Arizona, 1970. 
Avrett, E. H. "Solution of Non-LTE Transfer Problems." Presented at the 

Interdisciplinary Symposium of the Applications of Transport Theory, Oxford, 

September 1970. 
. "The Solar H and K Lines." Publications of the Astronomical So- 
ciety of the Pacific, volume 82 (1970), pages 169-248. 
Ball, J. A., C. Cesarsky, A. K. Dupree, L. Goldberg, and A. E. Lilley. "Detection 

and Identification of Recombination Lines from an H I Region." Astrophysical 

Journal, volume 162 (1970), pages L25-29. 
Ball, J. A., D. F. Dickinson, C. A. Gottlieb, and H. E. Radford. "The 3.8-cm 



196 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Spectrum of OH: Laboratory Measurement and Low-Noise Search in W3 
(OH)." Astronomical Journal, volume 75, number 7 (1970), pages 762-763. 

Ball, J. A., C. A. Gottlieb, A. E. Lilley, and H. E. Radford. "Detection of Methyl 
Alcohol in Sagittarius." Astrophysical Journal, volume 162 (1970), pages L203- 
210. 

Ball, J. A., C. A. Gottlieb, M. L. Meeks, and H. E. Radford. "Search for the 
2 II 1/2 , J = 5/2 Excited State of OH in W3." Astrophysical Journal, volume 
163 (1971), pages L33-34. 

Ball, J. A., C. A. Gottlieb, and H. E. Radford, "Search for Extraterrestrial H„ 18 
Emission." Astrophysical Journal, volume 163 (1971), pages 429-430. 

Barker, J. I., and M. D. Grossi. "Results of the OV4-1 Dual Satellite Experi- 
ment on Guided Ionospheric Propagation." Radio Science, volume 5, number 
6 (1970), pages 983-996. 

Barnes, J. A., R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. McGunigal, 
J. A. Mullen, Jr., W. L. Smith, R. L. Sydnor, R. F. C. Vessot, and G. M. R. 
Winkler. "Characterization of Frequency Stability." Institute of Electrical 
and Electronic Engineers Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 
volume IM-20, number 2 (1971), pages 105-120. 

Becker, K. H., E. FI. Fink, and A. C. Allison. "Intensity Calibrations of a Spec- 
troscopic Detecting System in the 1100-1820 A Region." Journal of the Optical 
Society of America, volume 61, number 4 (1971), pages 495-498. 

Bottcher, C, and M. R. Flannery. "Impact-Parameter Treatment of Hydrogen- 
Hydrogen Excitation Collisions." Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular 
Physics, volume 3 (1970), pages 1600-1609. 

Bottcher, C, R. A. McCray, M. Jura, and A. Dalgarno. "Time-Dependent Model 
of the Interstellar Medium." Astrophysical Letters, volume 6 (1970), pages 
237-241. 

Carleton, N. P., W. A. Traub, and R. B. Wattson. "Venus CO, Line Profiles: 
Observations Compared with Predictions for a Variety of Cloud Distributions." 
Presented at the Third Annual Meeting of the Division of Planetary Sciences 
of the American Astronomical Society, Tallahassee, Florida, February 1971. 

Chaffee, F. "Abundances in Open Clusters: F Dwarfs in the Coma Cluster." 
Presented at the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Hawaii, June 1971. 

Chaffee, F., D. F. Carbon, and S. E. Strom. "Abundances in Open Clusters: 
Model-Atmosphere Abundance Analysis of Stars in the Pleiades and Hyades 
Clusters." Astrophysical Journal, volume 166 (1971), pages 593-603. 

Charlson, R. J., P. W. Hodge, P. B. Lucke, E. J. Mannery, and T. P. Snow. "At- 
mospheric Extinction in Four Wavelength Regions from Sites in the Northern 
and Southern Hemispheres." Project ASTRA, Publication No. 2 (1970). 

Charman, W. N., R. W. P. Drever, J. H. Fruin, J. V. Jelley, J. L. Elliot, G. G. 
Fazio, D. R. Hearn, H. F. Helmken, G. H. Rieke, and T. C. Weekes. "Upper- 
Air Fluorescence as a Tool in X-Ray Astronomy and Searches for X-Rays 
from NP 0532 and Other Pulsars." Pages 41-49 in L. Gratton, editor, Non- 
Solar X- and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, Proceedings of the International Astro- 
nomical Union Symposium No. 37. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing 
Company, 1970. 
Cherniak, J., and E. M. Gaposchkin. "Computer Derivation of Short-Period 
Lunar Perturbations." Pages 36-39 in B. Morando, editor, Dynamics of Satel- 
lites. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1970. 
Cook, A. F., and F. A. Franklin. "An Explanation of the Light Curve of 
Iapetus." Icarus, volume 13 (1970), pages 282-291. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 197 

Crawford, O. H., and A. Dalgarno. "The Scattering of Thermal Electrons by 
Carbon Monoxide." Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, 
volume 4 (1971), pages 494-502. 

Dalgarno, A. "Metastable Species in the Ionosphere." Annates de Geophysique, 
volume 26, number 2 (1970), pages 601-607. 

Dalgarno, A., C. Bottcher, and G. A. Victor. "Pseudo-Potential Calculation of 
Atomic Interactions." Chemistry and Physics Letters, volume 7 (1970), pages 
265-267. 

Dalgarno, A., and T. C. Degges. "CO^ Dayglow on Mars and Venus." Pages 
337-345 in C. Sagan et al., editors, Planetary Asmospheres. Dordrecht, Hol- 
land: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1971. 

Dalgarno, A., G. Herzberg, and T. L. Stephens. "A New Continuous Emission 
Spectrum of the Hydrogen Molecule." Astrophysical Journal, volume 162 
(1970), pages L49-53. 

Dalgarno, A., and M. B. McElroy. "Mars: Is Nitrogen Present?" Science, vol- 
ume 170 (1970), pages 167-168. 

D'Amico, J., J. DeFelice, and E. L. Fireman. "The Cosmic-Ray and Solar-Flare 
Bombardment of the Moon." Proceedings of the Apollo 11 Lunar Science 
Conference, volume 2 (1970), pages 1029-1036. 

Danziger, I. J., and M. A. Jura. "The Halo B Star HD 137569." Astrophysical 
Journal, volume 161 (1970), pages 997-1002. 

Davis, R. J. "Astronomical Spectroscopy." Pages 107-108 in McGraw-Hill Year- 
book of Science and Technology. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Com- 
pany, 1970. 

. "Ultraviolet Photometry of Stars Obtained with the Celescope Ex- 
periment in the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory." Pages 109-119 in L. 
Houziaux and H. E. Butler, editors, Ultraviolet Stellar Spectra and Related 
Ground-Based Observations. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1970. 

Davis, R. J., W. A. Deutschman, K. Haramundanis, Y. Nozawa, and K. O'Neill. 
"Video Data Processing for the Celescope Experiment." Astronomical Use of 
Television-Type Image Sensors, NASA SP-256 (1970) , pages 137-144. 

Deutschman, W. A. Automatic Computer Reduction of Astronomical Television 
Images. Presented at International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 11, 
Edinburgh, August 1970. 

Dickey, J. S., Jr. "Nickel-Iron in Lunar Anorthosites." Earth and Planetaty 
Science Letters, volume 8 (1970), pages 387-392. 

Dickinson, D. "Galactic Radio Astronomy." Smithsonian, volume 1, number 
8 (1970), pages 56-63. 

Dickinson, D., and C. A. Gottlieb. "Comments on the Excitation and Abundance 
of Interstellar SiO, Based on a Search at 87 GHz." Astrophysical Letters, vol- 
ume 7 (1971), pages 205-207. 

Drake, G. W. F., and A. Dalgarno. "A 1/Z Expansion Study of the 2s2p 1 P 
and 3 P Autoionizing Resonances of the Helium Isoelectronic Sequence." Pro- 
ceedings of the Royal Society of London A, volume 320 (1971), page 549. 
Evenson, K. M., J. S. Wells, and H. E. Radford. "Infrared Resonance of OH 
with the HoO Laser: A Galactic Maser Pump?" Physical Review Letters, vol- 
ume 25 (1970), number 4, pages 199-202. 
Fazio, G. G. Recent Progress in Cosmic Gamma Radiation. Presented at Ameri- 
can Physical Society Meeting, Washington, D.C., April 1971. 



198 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 
. "X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Astronomy." Pages 72-100 in Proceedings 



of the 6th Interamerican Seminar on Cosmic Rays, volume 1 (1970). 

Fazio, G. G., D. R. Hearn, and H. F. Helmken. "A Search for Periodic Gamma- 
Ray Emission in the 10 n - to 10 13 -eV Energy Region from Pulsars." Acta Physica 
Academicae Scientiarium Hungaricae (1970), volume 29, supplement 1, pages 
111-114. 

Fazio, G. G., D. R. Hearn, H. F. Helmken, G. H. Rieke, and T. C. Weekes. "A 
Search for High-Energy y-Rays from Pulsars." Pages 192-195 in L. Gratton, 
editor, Non-Solar X- and Gamma-Ray Astronomy , Proceedings of the Inter- 
national Astronomical Union Symposium No. 37. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel 
Publishing Company, 1970. 

Fazio, G. G., H. F. Helmken, G. H. Rieke, and T. C. Weekes. "A Lower Limit 
to the Magnetic Field in the Crab Nebula from Cosmic y-Ray Experiments at 
10 I1 eV." Pages 250-256 in L. Gratton, editor, Non-Solar X- and Gamma-Ray 
Astronomy, Proceedings of the International Astro?iomical Union Symposium 
No. 37. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1970. 

. "Recent Results on the Search for 10 11 eV Gamma Rays from the 

Crab Nebula." Pages 56-58 in R. D. Davies and F. G. Smith, editors, The 
Crab Nebula, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Symposium 
No. 46. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1971. 

"Upper Limits to the Emission of 10 11 -eV Gamma Rays from Dis- 



crete Sources." Acta Physica Academicae Scientiarium Hungaricae (1970), vol- 
ume 29, supplement 1, pages 115-121. 

Fazio, G. G., J. V. Jelley, and W. N. Charman. "Generation of Cerenkov Light 
Flashes by Cosmic Radiation within the Eyes of the Apollo Astronauts." Na- 
ture, volume 228 (1970), pages 260-264. 

Fireman, E. L., J. DeFelice, and E. Norton. "Ages of the Allende Meteorite." 
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, volume 34 (1970), pages 873-881. 

Fireman, E. L., and G. Spannagel. "The Radial Gradient of Cosmic Rays from 
the Lost City Meteorite." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 76, num- 
ber 17 (1971), pages 4127-1134. 

Flannery, M. R. "Classical Theory of Excitation, De-Excitation and Ionization 
of Atoms by Charged Particles." Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular 
Physics, volume 3 (1970), pages 1610-1619. 

. "The Excitation of Atomic Hydrogen from the n to the n-fl 

Levels by Electron Impact." Astrophysical Letters, volume 7 (1970), pages 
85-88. 

. "Semiquantal Theory of Heavy-Particle Excitation, De-Excitation, 



and Ionization by Neutral Atoms, LSlow and Intermediate Energy Collisions." 
Annals of Physics, volume 61, number 2 (1970), pages 465— 487. 

. "The 2*S and 2 J P Excitations of Helium by Proton and Electron 

Impact." Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, volume 3 (1970), 
pages 306-314. 

. "Excitation and Ionization of Hydrogen by Hydrogen-Atom Im- 
pact." Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, volume 3 (1970), 
pages L97-100. 

"Impact Parameter and Wave Equations for Direct Excitation and 



Electron Capture." Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, 
volume 3 (1970), pages 21-28. 
. "Inclusion of Higher State Coupling in a Multistate Impact Param- 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 199 

eter Treatment of Heavy Particle Collisions." Journal of Physics B: Atomic 
and Molecular Physics, volume 3 (1970), pages 798-803. 

"Long-Range Effects in the 2S and 2P Excitations of Hydrogen by 



Proton and Helium-Ion Impact." Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular 
Physics, volume 3 (1970), pages 1083-1089. 

"The n -» n+1 Transition of Atomic Hydrogen Induced by Hy- 



drogen-Atom Impact." Astrophysical Journal, volume 161 (1970), pages L41- 

42. 
Franklin, F. A., and G. Colombo. "A Dynamical Model for the Radial Struc- 
ture of Saturn's Rings." Icarus, volume 12 (1970), pages 338-347. 
Forti, G. A Determination of Meteor Mass Distribution from Meteor Echoes. 

Presented at the International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 13, Albany, 

New York, June 1971. 
Gaposchkin, E. M. Analysis of Pole Position from 1846 to 1970. Presented 

at the International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 48, Morioka, Japan, 

May 1971. 
. "Future Uses of Laser Tracking." Pages 1-42 in Computer Sciences 

Corporation, editor, Laser and Radar Investigations, volume III. Washington, 

D.C.: NASA, 1970. 

"Improved Values for the Tessera! Harmonics of the Geopotential 



and Station Coordinates." Pages 109-118 in B. Morando, editor. Dynamics of 
Satellites. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1970. 
. "Pole Position Studied with Artificial Earth Satellites." Presented 



at the International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 48, Morioka, Japan, 
May 1971. 
. "Satellite Geodesy: Results." EOS, volume 52, number 3 (1971), 



pages 30-33. 
Gaposchkin, E. M., J. R. Cherniack, R. Briggs, and B. Benima. "Third-Order 

Oblateness Perturbations for an Artificial Satellite." Presented at the 52nd 

American Geophysical Union Meeting, Washington, D.C., April 1971. 
Gaposchkin, E. M., W. M. Kaula, and K. Lambeck. "1969 Smithsonian Standard 

Earth and Global Tectonics." Pages 7-60 in Computer Sciences Corporation, 

editor, Gravimetric and Geometric Investigations with Geos 1 and Geos 2, 

volume I. Washington, D.C.: NASA, 1970. 
Gingerich, O. "Argole." Dictionaiy of Scientific Biography, volume 1 (1970), 

pages 244—245. 
. "Astronomy in Harvard Project Physics." Bulletin of the American 

Astronomical Society, volume 2 (1970), pages 275-277. 
, editor. Frontiers in Astronomy (Readings from the "Scientific 



American" Introductions). San Francisco: Freeman, 1970. 
. "Laboratory Exercises in Astronomy — Spectral Classification." Sky 



and Telescope, volume 40, number 2 (1970), pages 74-76. 
. "Renaissance Books of Science from the Collection of Albert E. 



Lownes. Collaborating with D. Godine." Presented at Dartmouth College, 
Hanover, New Hampshire, 1970. 

"The Ultraviolet Solar Capacity." Pages 140-142 in L. Houziaux 



and H. E. Butler, editors, Ultraviolet Stellar Spectra and Related Ground- 
Based Observations. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1970. 
Grindlay, J. E. "Flare Stars as X-Ray Sources." Astrophysical Journal, volume 
162 (1970), pages 187-198. 



200 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

v 
. "New Studies of Cerenkov Radiation in Extensive Air Showers." 



II Nuovo Cimento, volume 2B, number 1 (1971), pages 119-138. 

Hawkins, G. S. "Photogrammetric Survey of Stonehenge and Callanish." Na- 
tional Geographic Magazine, volume 139, number 1 (1971), pages 101-108. 

Hellwig, H., R. F. Vessot, M. W. Levine, P. W. Zitzewitz, H. E. Peters, D. W. 
Allan, and D. J. Glaze. "Measurement of Unperturbed Hydrogen Hyperfine 
Transition Frequency." IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measure- 
ment, volume IM-19 (1970), pages 200-209. 

Hodge, P. W. "The Distribution of Atmospheric Particulates over the Pacific, 
I." Project Astra, Publication No. 3 (1970). 

. The Revolution in Astronomy. 189 pages. New York: Holiday 

House Publishers, 1970. 

'Celestial Photography with Fiber-Optics Image Tubes." Sky and 



Telescope, volume 39 (1970), pages 234-235. 
. "Stellar Statistics," "Star Clusters," "Galaxies," and "Nebulae," 



Encyclopedia Universale. Rome: Institute of Sciences and Arts, 1970. 

Hodge, P. W., and P. B. Lucke. "A Catalogue of Stellar Associations in the 
Large Magellanic Cloud." Astronomical Journal, volume 75 (1970), pages 171- 
175. 

Horowitz, P., C. Papaliolios, and N. P. Carleton. "Results of a Search for Op- 
tical Pulsars." Astrophysical Journal, volume 163 (1971), pages L5-10. 

Horowitz, P., C. Papaliolios, N. P. Carleton, J. Nelson, J. Middleditch, R. Hills, 
D. Cudaback, J. Wampler, P. E. Boynton, E. J. Groth, R. B. Partridge, D. T. 
Wilkinson, J. G. Duthie, and P. Murdin. "Optical Tim of-Arrival Measure- 
ments from the Crab Pulsar: Comparison of Results from ^our Observatories." 
Astrophysical Journal, volume 166 (1971), pages L91-93. 

Jacchia, L. G. "Recent Advances in Upper Atmosphere Structure." Pages 367- 
388 in T. M. Donahue, P. A. Smith, and L. Thomas, editors, Space Research 
X. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1970. 

. "Semi-Annual Density Variation in the Heterosphere: A Reap- 
praisal." Presented at the 14th Internati ial COSPAR Meeting, Seattle, Wash- 
ington, June 1971. 

. "Solar-Wind Dependence of the Diurnal Temperature Variation in 



the Thermosphere." Journal of Geophysical Researcn, volume 75 (1970), pages 
4347-4349. 

Johnston, K. J., S. H. Knowles, W. T. Sullivan, III, J. M. Moran, B. F. Burke, 
K. Y. Lo, D. C. Papa, G. D. Papadopoulos, P. R. Schwartz, C. A. Knight, I. I. 
Shapiro, and W. J. Welch. "An Interferometer Map of the Water-Vapor 
Sources in W49." Astrophysical Journal, volume 166 (1971), pages L21-26. 

Kalkofen, W. "Line Formation in Moving Atmospheres." Pages 120-133 in H. G. 
Groth and P. Wellmann, editors, Spectrum Formation in Stars with Steady- 
State Extended Atmospheres, National Bureau of Standards Special Publica- 
tion No. 332. Washington, D.C.: National Bureau of Standards, 1970. 

Kalkofen, W., and R. W. Noyes. "The Solar Lyman Continuum and the Struc- 
ture of the Solar Chromosphere." Solar Physics, volume 15 (1970), pages 120- 
138. 

Kalkofen, W., and C. A. Whitney. "Line Formation in Pulsating Variable Stars." 
Presented at the Interdisciplinary Symposium on the Applications of Trans- 
port Theory, Oxford, September 1970. 

Lambeck, K. "Some Comments on the Present and Future Value of Geometric 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 201 

Satellite Geodesy." Pages 67-100 in Computer Sciences Corporation, editor, 
Laser and Radar Investigations, volume III. Washington, D.C.: NASA, 1970. 

Latham, D. "Computerized Microphotometry of Stellar Spectrograms." Pre- 
sented at the International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 11, Edin- 
burgh, August 1970. 

LeBas, M. J., and P. A. Mohr. "Tholeiite from the Simien Alkali Basalt Centre, 
Ethiopia." Geology Magazine, volume 107 (1970), pages 523-529. 

Lecar, M., and C. Cruz-Gonzalez. "A Numerical Experiment of Relaxation 
Times in Stellar Dynamics." Presented at the 10th International Astronomical 
Union Colloquium, Brighton, England, August 1970. 

Lecar, M., and L. Cohen. "Numerical Experiments on Lynden-Bell's Statistics." 
Presented at the 10th International Astronomical Union Colloquium, Brighton, 
England, August 1970. 

Lehr, C. G., and M. R. Pearlman. "Laser Ranging to Satellites." Pages 54-60 
in T. M. Donahue, P. A. Smith, and L. Thomas, editors, Space Research X. 
Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1970. 

Lehr, C. G., M. R. Pearlman, and J. A. Monjes. "The SAO Lunar Laser." Pre- 
sented at the 14th International COSPAR Meeting, Seattle, Washington, June 
1971. 

Lehr, C. G., M. R. Pearlman, J. A. Monjes, and W. F. Hagen. "A Transportable 
Lunar-Ranging System." Presented at the 1971 IEEE Optical Society of America 
Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications, Washington, D.C., June 
1971. 

Lehr, C. G., M. R. Pearlman, and J. L. Scott. "A Photographic Technique for 
Improved Laser-Ranging Accuracy." Pages 51-56 in Computer Sciences Corpo- 
ration, editor, Laser and Radar Investigations, volume III. Washington, D.C.: 
NASA, 1970. 

Lehr, C. G., M. R. Pearlman, M. R. Wolf, and J. A. Monjes. "A High-Radiance 
Laser System for Lunar Ranging." Presented at the Seminar on Optical Track- 
ing Systems, El Paso, Texas, January 1971. 

Levine, M. W., and R. F. C. Vessot. " Hydrogen -Maser Time and Frequency 
Standard at Agassiz Observatory." Radio Science, volume 5, number 10 (1970), 
pages 1287-1292. 

Levy, H., II. "Born Wave Cross-Section Calculations for Collisional Quenching 
of Metastable H(2s) by Helium, Neon, Argon, and Krypton." Physical Review 
A, volume 3, number 6 (1971), pages 1987-1991. 

. "Born Wave Cross-Section Calculations for the Excitation of 

He(PS) to He(N'L) by Helium, Neon, Argon, and Krypton." Journal of Physics 
B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, volume 3 (1970), pages 1501-1509. 

Lundquist, C. A. "Laser Ranging to Artificial Satellites." Presented at the XIV 
General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, Brighton, Eng- 
land, August 1970. 

. "Photometry from Apollo Tracking." Pages 25-32 in T. M. Dona- 
hue, P. A. Smith, and L. Thomas, editors, Space Research X. Amsterdam: 
North-Holland Publishing Company, 1970. 

Lundquist, C. A., and G. E. O. Giacaglia. "Sampling Functions as an Alterna- 
tive to Spherical Harmonics." Presented at the International Astronomical 
Union Svmposium No. 48, Morioka, Japan, May 1971. 

. "A Geopotential Representation with Sampling Functions." Pre- 
sented at the Symposium of the Use of Artificial Satellites for Geodesy, Wash- 
ington. D.C., April 1971. 



202 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Lundquist, C. A., and G. C. Weiffenbach. "Plans by SAO for the Use of Geos 
C in Geodetic and Earth-Physics Investigations." Pages 173-182 in Computer 
Sciences Corporation, editor, General, volume IV. Washington, D.C.: NASA, 
1970. 

Marsden, B. "Reports of the Progress of Astronomy. Comets." Quarterly Journal 
of the Royal Astronornical Society, volume 11 number 3 (1970), pages 221-235. 

. "Report of The Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams." 

Transactions of the International Astronomical Union, Commission number 
6, volume XIV A (1970), pages 15-17. 

Mathur, N. C, M. D. Grossi, and M. R. Pearlman. "Atmospheric Effects in 
Very Long Baseline Interferometry." Radio Science, volume 5, number 10 
(1970), pages 1253-1261. 

Maxwell, J. C. "A Doppler Satellite System Design for Animal Tracking." Pre- 
sented at National Telemetering Conference, Washington, D.C., April 1971. 

. "A Paper Supporting the Use of the Doppler Technique to Track 

Free-Roaming Animals from Satellites." Presented at the Symposium on Ani- 
mal Orientation and Navigation, Wallops Station, Virginia, September 1970. 

McCrosky, R. E. "The Lost City Meteorite Fall." Sky and Telescope, volume 
39 (1970), pages 154-158. 

McCrosky, R. E., and Z. Ceplecha. "Fireballs and the Physical Theory of Me- 
teors." Bulletin of the Astronomical Institute of Czechoslovakia, volume 21 
(1970), pages 271-296. 

McCroskey, R. E., A. Posen, G. Schwartz, and C. -Y Shao. "Lost City Meteorite — 
Its Recovery and a Comparison with Other Fireballs." Journal of Geophysical 
Research, volume 76, number 17 (1971), pages 4090-4108. 

McDaniel, E. W., V. Cermak, A. Dalgarno, E. E. Ferguson, and L. Friedman. 
Ion Molecule Reactions. 374 pages. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1970. 

Megrue, G. "Distribution and Origin of Helium, Neon, and Argon Isotopes in 
Apollo 12 Samples by In Situ Analysis was a Laser Probe Mass Spectrometer." 
Presented at Apollo 12 Lunar Science Conference, Houston, Texas, January 
1971. 

. "Laser Microprobe Mass Spectrometry with Applications to Me- 
teorite Research." Pages 654-656 in K. Ogata and T. Hayakawa, editors, Recent 
Developments in Mass Spectroscopy. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1970. 

Melson, W. G., E. Jarosewich, and C. A. Lundquist. "Volcanic Eruption at 
Metis Shoal, Tonga, 1967-1968: Description and Petrology." Smithsonian Con- 
tributions to the Earth Sciences, number 4 (16 October 1970), 18 pages, 13 fig- 
ures, 3 tables. 

Menzel, D. H. Astronomy. New York: Random House, 1970. 

. "Laser Action in Non-LTE Atmospheres." Pages 134-137 in H. G. 

Groth and P. Wellman, editors, Spectrum Formation in Stars with Steady- 
State Extended Atmospheres, National Bureau of Staiidards Special Publication 
No. 332. Washington, D.C.: National Bureau of Standards, 1970. 

"The Challenge of Space Research." Advances in the Astronautical 



Sciences, volume 27 (1970). 
. "Total Eclipse of the Moon." Highlights for Children, volume 26, 



number 2 (1971), page 28. 
Menzel, D. H., and J. M. Pasachoff. "Eclipse Instrumentation for the Solar 
Corona." Journal of Applied Optics, volume 9, number 12 (1970), pages 2626- 
2630. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 203 
. "The Outer Corona at the Eclipse of March 1970." Nature, volume 



226 (1970), page 5251. 

"Site Survey for the 1973 Total Solar Eclipse." Big Bear Solar Ob- 



servatory Preprint (1971). California Institute of Technology. 
. "Solar Eclipse: Nature's Super Spectacular." National Geographic 



Magazine, volume 138, number 2 (1970), pages 222-233. 
Menzel, D. H., W. W. Salisbury, and D. L. Femald. "A System for Recording 

the Polarization of Extended Astronomical Objects." Applied Optics, volume 9 

(1970), pages 2648-2649. 
Menzel, D. H., F. L. Whipple, and C. de Vaucouleurs. Survey of the Universe. 

841 pages. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1970. 
Mertz, L. "Design for a Giant Telescope." Page 507 in J. Home Dickson, editor, 

Optical Instruments and Techniques. Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, England: Oriel 

Press, Ltd., 1970. 
. "Eclectic Considerations in Astronomical Fourier Spectroscopy." Pre- 
sented at Optical Society of America Meeting, Hollywood, Florida, September 

1970. 
. "Fourier Spectroscopy, Past, Present, and Future." Applied Optics, 



volume 10 (1971), pages 386-389. 
. "Numerical Image Synthesis for the Rotation Modulation Colli- 



mator." Presented at the American Astronomical Society Meeting, Tampa, 
Florida, December 1970. 
. "Numerical Image Synthesis for a Ring Pupil." Optica Ada. vol- 



ume 18, number 1 (1971), pages 51-57. 
. "Observations of Infrared Stellar Absorption Lines." Presented at 



17th International Astrophysical Symposium at Liege on Infrared Spectroscopy, 
Liege, Belgium, June 1971. 

Michelini, R. D. "Investigations of Very Long Baseline Interferometry at the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory." Pages 15-26 in L. E. Fron and C. B. 
Solloway, editors, Proceedings of the Conference on Scientific Applications of 
Radio and Radar Tracking in the Space Program. Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
Technical Report number 32-1475. Pasadena, California: Jet Propulsion Lab- 
oratory, 1970. 

. "A One-Bit VLBI Recording and Playback System Using Video- 
tape Recorders." Radio Science, volume 10 (1970), pages 1263-1270. 

Michelini, R. D., and M. D. Grossi. "VLBI Observations of Radio Emissions 
from Geostationary Satellites." Presented at 14th International COSPAR 
Meeting, Seattle, Washington, June 1971. 

Miller, W. C, and D. Latham. "Report on the Albany, New York, Meeting of 
the AAS Working Groups on Photographic Materials in Astronomy." American 
Astronomical Society Photo-Bulletin, volume 3, number 2 (1970), pages 3-10. 

Mohr, P. A. "The Afar Triple Junction and Sea-Floor Spreading." Journal of 
Geophysical Research, volume 75, number 35 (1970), pages 7340-7352. 

. "Catalog of Chemical Analyses of Rocks from the Intersection of 

the African, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea Rift Systems." Smithsonian Contribu- 
tions to the Earth Sciences, number 2 (16 December 1970), 271 pages. 

. "Volcanic Composition in Relation to Tectonics in the Ethiopian 



Rift System: A Preliminary Investigation." Bulletin Volcanologique, volume 
34, number 1 (1970), pages 1-17. 
. "Plate Tectonics of the Red Sea and East. Africa." Nature, volume 



228, number 5271 (1970), pages 547-548. 



441-283 O - 71-14 



204 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 
. "Ethiopian Rift and Plateaus: Some Volcanic Petrochemical Dif- 



ferences." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 76, number 8 (1971), pages 
1967-1984. 
. "The Ethiopian Triple-Rift Junction in Terms of Plate Tectonics." 



Bulletin of the Geophysical Obsenmtory, Haile Sellassie I University, number 
13 (1971), pages 1-17. 

-. "Research Programs on Crustal Deformations in the Ethiopian 



Rift. 2. Smithsonian Geodimeter Surveys." Bulletin of the Geophysical Ob- 
servatory, Haile Sellassie I University, number 13 (1971), page 121. 
. "Tectonics of the Dobi Graben Region, Central Afar, Ethiopia." 



Bulletin of the Geophysical Observatory, Haile Sellassie I University, number 

13 (1971), pages 73-89. 
. The Geology of Ethiopia (2nd Printing with new Foreword). 268 

pages. Addis Ababa: Haile Selassie I University Press, 1971. 
Nilsson, C. S., and F. W. Wright. "Detection of Micrometeoroid Flux on Satel- 
lites." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 76 (1971), pages 3424-3425. 
Nozawa, Y. "Accuracy of an Orbiting Television Photometer." Presented at the 

Electro-Optical System Design Conference, New York, September 1970. 
. "Deterioration Characteristics of a SEC Vidicon." Presented at the 

Seoul International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 

Seoul, Korea, September 1970. 
. "Integrated Data-Processor-Controller for an Astronomical Tele- 



vision System in a Space-Borne Observatory." Presented at the 31st Interna- 
tional Astronautical Congress, Constance, Federal Republic of Germany, Oc- 
tober 1970. 

. "Problems Encountered During Development of an Astronomical 

Television System for an Earth-Orbiting Observatory." Journal of the British 
Interplanetary Society, volume 23 (1970), pages 759-769. 

Nozawa, Y., and R. J. Davis. "Some Factors Affecting the Accuracy of a Space- 
Borne Astronomical Television Photometer." Astronomical Use of Television- 
Type Image Sensors, NASA SP-256 (1971). 

Oke, J. B., and R. Schild. "Recent Absolute Calibration Work at Palomar 
Mountain." Pages 13-17 in L. Houziaux and H. E. Butler, Ultraviolet Stellar 
Spectra and Related Ground-Based Observations, Proceedings of the Inter- 
national Astronomical Union Symposium No. 36. Dordrecht, Holland: D. 
Reidel Publishing Company, 1970. 

Papaliolios, C, N. P. Carleton, and P. Horowitz. "Absolute Time-of- Arrival 
Measurements of Optical Pulses from the Crab Pulsar." Nature, volume 228, 
number 5270 (1970), pages 445-450. 

. "Period of the Crab Pulsar." Central Bureau for Astronomical 

Telegrams Circular No. 2269 (1970). 

. "Optical Timing Measurements of the Crab Pulsar." in R. D. 



Davies and F. G. Smith, editors. The Crab Nebula, Proceedings of the Inter- 
national Astronomical Union No. 46. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing 
Company, 1971. 

Papaliolios, C, P. Horowitz, and N. P. Carleton. "Results of a Search for Op- 
tical Pulsars." Aslrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 163 (1971), pages L5-10. 

Payne-Gaposchkin, C. H. "The Variable Stars of the Large Magellanic Cloud." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Astrophysics, number 13 (2 June 1971), 41 pages, 
13 tables. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 205 

Payne-Gaposchkin, C. H., and K. Haramundanis. Introduction to Astronomy. 

610 pages. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1970. 
. "The Moon." Collier's Encyclopedia, New York: Grolier Press, 

1970. 
Pearlman, M. R., and R. E. McCrosky. "Synoptic Observations of the Aerosol 

Layer by LIDAR." Presented at the 14th International COSPAR Meeting, 

Seattle, Washington, June 1971. 
. "A Two-Laser Collocation Experiment." Pages 99-114 in Computer 

Sciences Corporation, editor, Tracking System Inte.rcomparisons zuith Geos-2, 

volume II. Washington, D.C., NASA, 1970. 
Reid, J. B. "Petrology of Basic Igneous Rock Fragments in Apollo 12 Soil 

Samples." Presented at the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, 

Skyline, Virginia, October 1970. 
. "Apollo 12 Spinels as Petrogenetic Indicators." Earth and Planetary 

Science Letters, volume 10 (1971), pages 351-356. 
. "The Petrology of Basaltic Particles in Apollo 12 Soils." Presented 



at the American Geophysical Union 52nd Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., 

April 1971. 
Reid, J. B., and F. A. Frey. "Rare-Earth Distributions in Lherzolite and Garnet 

Pyroxenite Xenoliths and the Constitution of the Upper Mantle." Journal 

of Geophysical Research, volume 76 (1971), pages 1184-1196. 
Reid, R. H. G., and A. Dalgarno. "Sodium 2 P Fine-Structure Transitions in 

Collisions with Helium." Chemistry and Physics Letters, volume 6 (1970), 

pages 85-86. 
Reid, R. H. G., and G. L. Withbroe. "The Density and Vibrational Distribution 

of Molecular Oxygen in the Lower Thermosphere." Planetary and Space 

Science, volume 18 (1970), pages 1255-1265. 
Rybicki, G. "A Note on the Computation of Diffuse Reflection Functions for 

Spherical Shells." Journal of Computational Physics, volume 6 (1970), pages 

131-135. 
. "Relaxation Times in Strictly Disk Systems." Presented at the 10th 

International Astronomical Union Colloquium, Brighton, England, August 

1970. 

"Theoretical Methods of Treating Line Formation Problems in 



Steady-State Extended Atmospheres." Pages 87-118 In H. G. Groth and P. 
Wellmann, Spectrum Formation in Stars with Steady-State Extended Atmo- 
spheres, National Bureau of Standards Special Publication No. 332. Washing- 
ton, D.C., National Bureau of Standards, 1970. 

Salisbury, W. W. "Generation of Light from Free Electrons." Journal of the 
Optical Society of America, volume 60, number 10 (1970), pages 1279-1284. 

. "The Properties of the Moon as a Radio Lens." Pages 217-228 in 

W. I. Linlor, editor, Electromagnetic Exploration of the Moon. Baltimore. 
Maryland: Mono Book Corporation, 1970. 

Salisbury, W. W., and D. W. Fernald. "Experimental Chondrule Formation." 

Presented at 33rd Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, Skyline, Virginia, 

October 1970. 

o 

Sando, K. M., and A. Dalgarno. "The Absorption of Radiation Near 600 A 
by Helium." Molecular Physics, volume 20, number 1 (1971), pages 103-112. 

Schild, R. E. "Red Supergiants in Open Clusters." Astrophysical Journal, vol- 
ume 161 (1970), pages 855-866. 

. "Infrared Emission from Stars in the h and % Persei Association.' 



206 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Presented at the 17th International Astrophysical Symposium at Liege on 

Infrared Spectroscopy, Liege, Belgium, June 1971. 
Schild, R. E., G. Neugebauer, and J. A. Westphal. "Interstellar Absorption and 

Color Excesses in Sco OB-1." Astronomical Journal, volume 76 number 3 

(1971), pages 237-241. 
Schild, R. E.. D. M. Peterson, and J. B. Oke. "Effective Temperatures of B- 

and A-Type Stars." Astrophysical Journal, volume 166 (1971), pages 95-108. 
Sekanina, Z. "Statistical Model of Meteor Streams, I: Analysis of the Model." 

Icarus, volume 13 (1970), pages 459-474. 
. "Statistical Model of Meteor Streams, II: Major Showers." Icarus, 

volume 13 (1970), pages 475-493. 
. "Internal Motions in the Head of Comet Ikeya-Seki 1965 VIII from 



High Resolution Spectra." Presented at 14th International Astronomical Union 
General Assembly, Commission 15, Brighton, England, August 1970. 
. "Secular Variations in the Nongravitational Effects on Comets." Pre- 



sented at 14th International Astronomical Union General Assembly, Commis- 
sion 20, Brighton, England, August 1970. 
. "A New Model for Meteor Streams." Presented at 14th International 



Astronomical Union General Assembly, Commission 22, Brighton, England, 
August 1970. 
. "A Model for the Nucleus of Encke's Comet." Presented at Interna- 



tional Astronomical Union Symposium No. 45, Leningrad, USSR, August 1970. 
"Rotation Effects in the Nongravitational Parameters of Comets." 



Presented at International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 45, Leningrad, 
USSR, August 1970. 
. "A Core-Mantle for Cometary Nuclei and Asteroids of Possible 



Cometary Origin." Presented at International Astronomical Union Colloquium 
No. 12, Tucson, Arizona, March 1971. 
. "New Evidence for Interplanetary Boulders?" Presented at Interna- 



tional Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 13, Albany, New York, June 1971. 

Sheridan, W. F., O. Oldenberg, and N. P. Carleton. "Excitation of Nitrogen by 
Fast Protons and Electrons." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 76 
(1971), pages 2429-2436. 

Strom, S. E., and K. M. Strom. "A Study of the Blue Stragglers in the Open 
Cluster NGC 7789." Astrophysical Journal, volume 162 (1970), pages 523-533. 

Strom, S. E., K. M. Strom, R. T. Rood, and I. Iben. "On the Evolutionary Status 
of Stars above the Horizontal Branch in Globular Clusters." Astronomy and 
Astrophysics, volume 8 (1970), pages 243-250. 

Traub, W. A., and N. P. Carleton. "Measurements of Differential Doppler 
Effect of a CO. Absorption Line Between Various Points on Venus." 
Presented at the Third Annual Meeting of the Division of Planetary Sciences 
of the American Astronomical Society, Tallahassee, Florida, February 1971. 

Veis, G., and M. Wolf. "A Laser Satellite Ranging System." Pages 61-66 in 
T. M. Donahue, P. A. Smith, and L. Thomas, editors, Space Research X. 
Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1970. 

Vessot, R. F. C, and M. W. Levine. "Measurement of the Gravitational Red 
Shift Using a Clock in an Orbiting Satellite." Presented at Conference on Ex- 
perimental Tests of Gravitational Theories, California Institute of Technology, 
Pasadena, California, November 1970. 

. "A Method for Eliminating the Wall Shift in the Atomic Hydrogen 

Maser." Metrologia, volume 6 (1970), pages 116-117. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 207 
. "Studies of Hydrogen Maser Wall Shift for High Molecular Weight 



Polytetrafluoroethylene." Pages 270-274 in Proceedings of the 24th Annual 
Symposium on Frequency Control. Ft. Monmouth, New Jersey: U.S. Army 
Command, 1970. 

Vessot, R. F. C, M. W. Levine, P. W. Zitzewitz, P. Debely, and N. Ramsey. 
Recent Developments Affecting the Hydrogen Maser as a Frequency Standard. 
Presented at the International Conference on Precision Measurement and 
Fundamental Constants, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Mary- 
land, August 1970. 

Vessot, R. F. C, and J. Vanier. "Hydrogen Maser Wall Shift.'" Metrologia, vol- 
ume 6 (1970), pages 52-53. 

Victor, G. A., and A. Dalgarno. "Orientation-Dependent van der Waals Co- 
efficients for Various Species in Molecular Hydrogen." Journal of Chemical 
Physics, volume 53, number 4 (1970), pages 1316-1317. 

Wattson, R. B., and J. Regas. "An Approximate, Rapid Computational Tech- 
nique for Synthesizing Planetary Absorption Spectra." Presented at the Third 
Annual Meeting of the Division of Planetary Sciences of the American Astro- 
nomical Society, Tallahassee, Florida, February 1971. 

Weiffenbach, G. C. "A Satellite for 2-cm Accuracy Laser Ranging." Presented 
at the meeting of the American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, December 
1970. 

. "Current Status of the SAO Program in Dynamic Geodesy." Pre- 
sented at the Department of Defense Gravity and Satellite Geodesy Symposium, 
Washington, D.C., April 1971. 

. "Characteristics and Sources of Errors in Laser Range Measurements 



to Satellites." Presented at the Symposium on the Use of Artificial Satellites 
for Geodesy, Washington, D.C., April 1971. 
. "Determination of UT-1 and Polar Motion by Means of VLBI and 



Laser Ranging to Satellites." Presented at the International Astronomical Union 
Symposium No. 48, Morioka, Japan, May 1971. 

Weiffenbach, G. C, E. M. Gaposchkin, and C. A. Lundquist. "SAO Objectives 
and Plans in Satellite Geodesy and Geophysics." Presented at the Department of 
Defense Gravity and Satellite Geodesy Symposium, Washington, D.C., April 
1971. 

Whipple, F. L. "The Origin of Comets." Presented at the International Astro- 
nomical Union Symposium No. 45, Leningrad, USSR, August 1970. 

. "Accumulation of Chondrules on Asteroids." Presented at the Inter- 
national Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 12, Tucson, Arizona, March 
1971. 

. "On the Amount of Dust in the Asteroid Belt." Presented at the 



International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 12, Tucson, Arizona, 
March 1971. 
. "Radial Pressure in the Solar Nebula as Affecting the Motions of 



Planetesimals." Presented at the International Astronomical Union Sympo- 
sium No. 13, Albany, New York, June 1971. 

Whipple, F. L., and S. E. Hamid. "A Search for Comet Encke in Ancient Chi- 
nese Records — A Progress Report." Presented at the International Astro- 
nomical Symposium No. 45, Leningrad, USSR, August 1970. 

Wolfe, C. W., L. W. McCombs, H. Skornick, L. J. Battan, R. H. Fleming, and 
G. S. Hawkins. Earth and Space Science. Second edition. Boston, Massachusetts: 
D. C. Heath, 1971. 



208 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Wood, J. A. "The Lunar Soil." Scientific American, volume 233 (1970), pages 
14-23. 

. "Petrology of the Lunar Soil and Geophysical Implications." Jour- 
nal of Geophysical Research, volume 75, number 32 (1970), pages 6497-6513. 

Wood, J. A., J. S. Dickey, Jr., U. B. Marvin, and B. N. Powell. "Lunar Anortho- 
sites and a Geophysical Model of the Moon." Proceedings of the Apollo 11 
Lunar Science Conference, volume 1 (1970), pages 965-988. 

Special Reports 

Through its Special Report series, the Observatory distributes catalogs of satel- 
lite observations, orbital data, and scientific papers before journal publication. 

319. P. W. Hodge. "Color-Magnitude Diagrams for Five Stellar Associations 
in the Large Magellanic Cloud." 7 July 1970. 

320. P. W. Hodge, G. A. Welch, R. Wills, and F. W. Wright. "Estimates of 
Magnitudes of the Brightest Stars in the Clusters of the Large Magellanic 
Cloud." 14 August 1970. 

321. D. W. Latham. "Abundances of the Elements in Sirius and Merak." 19 
August 1970. 

322. M. R. Flannery. "Semi-Quantal Theory of Heavy-Particle Excitation, 
Deexcitation, and Ionization by Neutral Atoms, I: Slow and Intermediate 
Energy Collisions." 26 August 1970. 

323. H. E. Mitler. "The Solar Light-Element Abundances and Primeval He- 
lium." 28 August 1970. 

324. A. F. Cook. "Discrete Levels of Beginning Height of Meteors in Streams." 
8 September 1970. 

325. K. Haramundanis. "Comparison of the SAO Star Catalog with Cape 
Catalogues from —64° to —90°." 15 October 1970. 

326. L. G. Jacchia and J. W. Slowey. "A Catalog of Atmospheric Densities 
from the Drag on Five Artificial Satellites." 16 October 1970. 

327. M. R. Pearlman, D. Hogan, W. Kirchoff, K. Goodwin, D. Kurtenbach, 
S. Rocketto, and B. Van't Sant. "A Meteorological Report for the Mt. 
Hopkins Observatory: 1968-1969." 26 October 1970. 

328. J. R. Cherniak. "Techniques for Manipulation of Long Poisson Series." 
29 October 1970. 

329. G. C. Weiffenbach and T. E. Hoffman. "A Passive Stable Satellite for 
Earth-Physics Applications (Cannonball, a Satellite for Accurate Laser 
Ranging)." 30 November 1970. 

330. H. E. Mitler. 'Cosmic-Ray Production of Deuterium, He 3 , Lithium, Beryl- 
lium, and Boron in the Galaxy." 1 December 1970. 

331. S. Tsuruta and C. A. Whitney. "Radiation Gas Dynamics in Normal 
Shock Waves." 3 May 1971. 

332. L. G. Jacchia. "Revised Static Models of the Thermosphere and Exo- 
sphere with Empirical Temperature Profiles." 5 May 1971. 

333. J. A. Wood, U. B. Marvin, J. B. Reid, Jr., G. J. Taylor, J. F. Bower, B. N. 
Powell, and J. S. Dickey, Jr. "Mineralogy and Petrology of the Apollo 
12 Lunar Sample." 20 May 1971. 

334. J. E. Grindlay. "Extensive Air Shower Studies of Cosmic Gamma Rays 
and Cosmic Ray Composition." 28 May 1971. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 209 

335. J. A. Hoffman. "A Gas-Cerenkov Telescope Experiment to Observe Cosmic 
Gamma Rays." 4 June 1971. 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Glynn, Peter W. "On the Ecology of the Caribbean Chitons Acanthopleiira 
granulata Gmelin and Chiton tuberculatus Linee: Density, Mortality, Feeding, 
Reproduction, and Growth." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 
66 (16 October 1970), 21 pages, 10 figures, 9 tables. 

Robinson, Michael H., and Jose Olazarri. "Units of Behavior and Complex 
Sequences in the Predatory Behavior of Argiope argentata (Fabricius): (Ara- 
neae: Araneidae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 65 (21 May 
1971), 36 pages, 15 figures, 3 tables. 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 

Brown, J. A. M., and W. H. Klein. "Photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis 

Thaliana (L.) Heynh: Threshold Intensities and Blue Far-red Synergism in 

Floral Induction." Plant Physiology, volume 47 (1971), pages 393-399. 
Drumm, Helga E., and Maurice M. Margulies. "In Vitro Protein Synthesis by 

Plastids of Phaseolus vulgaris, IV. Amino Acid Incorporation by Plastids." 

Plant Physiology, volume 45 (1970), pages 435^442. 
Gantt, E., M. R. Edwards, and L. Provasoli. "Chloroplast Structure of the 

Cryptophyceae: Evidence for Phycobiliproteins within Intrathylakoidal Spaces." 

Journal of Cell Biology, volume 48 (1971), pages 280-290. 
Goldberg, Bernard. "Loss of Solar Radiation at Washington, D.C. over the 

Past 50 Years." Presented at 1971 International Solar Energy Conference, 

Greenbelt, Maryland, 9-14 May 1971. 
Klein, W. H. "Annual Variation of Ultraviolet Radiation at Washington, D.C." 

Presented at SST Environmental Research Panel Meeting, Boulder, Colorado 

March 1971. 
Lange, H., W. Shropshire, Jr., and H. Mohr. "An Analysis of Phytochrome- 

Mediated Anthocyanin Synthesis." Plant Physiology, volume 47 (1971), pages 

649-655. 
Ma, Te-Hsiu, A. J. Snope, and Tsai Ying Chang. "Far-red Light Effect on 

Ultraviolet Light Induced Chromatid Aberrations in Pollen Tubes of Trade- 

scantia." Radiation Botany, volume 11 (1971), pages 39^13. 
Margulies, Maurice M. "Changes in Absorbance Spectrum of the Diatom Phaeo- 

daclylum Tricornutum upon Modification of Protein Structure." Journal of 

Phycologv (1970), pages 160-164. 
. "Electron Transport Properties of Chloroplasts from Aged Bean 

Leaves." Presented at Second International Congress of Photosynthesis Research 

in Stressa, Italy. 24-29 June 1971. 
. "/» Vitro Protein Synthesis by Plastids of Phaseolus vulgaris, V. 



Incorporation of "C-leucine into a Protein Fraction Containing Ribulose 
1,5-Diphosphate Carboxylase." Plant Physiology, volume 46 (1970), pages 136- 
141. 



210 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Shropshire, W., Jr. "Intracellular Communication for Phototropism." Presented 
at Symposium on Membranes, Structure and Function of Photobiological Sys- 
tems — Phytochrome and Phototropism held at Raleigh, N.C. 7 April 1971. 

. "Photo-Induced Parental Control of Seed Germination." Presented 

at 1971 Solar Energy Conference in Greenbelt, Maryland 9-14 May 1971. 

Shropshire, W., Jr., and H. Mohr. "Gradient Formation of Anthocyanin in 
Seedlings of Fagopyrum and Sinapis Unilaterally Exposed to Red and Far-red 
Light." Photochemistry and Photobiology, volume 12 (1970), pages 145-149. 

Stuckenrath, Robert, and James E. Mielke. "Smithsonian Institution Radio- 
carbon Measurements, VI." Radiocarbon, volume 12 (1970), pages 193-204. 

National Zoological Park 

Boyer, S. H., A. N. Noyes, G. R. Vrablik, L. J. Donalson, C. W. Gray, and T. F. 
Thurmon. "Silent Hemoglobin Alpha Genes in Apes: Potential Source of 
Thalassemia." Science, volume 171, pages 182-185. 

Brown, T. McP., H. W. Clark, J. S. Bailey, and C. W. Gray. "A Mechanistic 
Approach to Treatment of Rheumatoid Type Arthritis Naturally Occurring 
in a Gorilla." Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Asso- 
ciation, volume 82 (1970). 

Eisenberg, J. F. "Breeding Project Helps Restore Ceylon Elephants." Smith- 
sonian, volume 1, number 1 (1970), pages 20-27. 

."A Splendid Predator Does Its Own Thing Untroubled By Man." 

Smithsonian, volume 1, number 6 (1970), pages 48-55. 

. "The Relationship Between Ecology and Social Structure in Pri- 



mates." Paper presented at the Animal Behavior Society Meeting, Logan, 
Utah, 14-16 June 1971. 

. "The Vocalizations of South American Primates." Paper presented 

to the Fifty -first Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mammalogists, 
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 20-24 June 1971. 

. "What is Ethology?" Invitational Seminar, Department of Pathol- 
ogy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, 16 October 1970. 

"Wildlife Conservation in Ceylon." Invitational Seminar, Ceylon 



Council, Asia Society, New York City, 19 November 1970. 

Eisenberg, J. F., and Wilton S. Dillon, editors. Man and Beast: Comparative 
Social Behavior. 401 pages, 29 figures, 3 tables. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian 
Institution Press, 1971. 

Eisenberg, J. F., M. R. Jainudeen, and J. B. Jayasinghe. "Semen of the Ceylon 
Elephant (Elephas maximus)." Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, volume 
24, number 2 (1971), pages 213-219. 

Eisenberg, J. F., and D. G. Kleiman. "Comparisons of Canid and Felid Social 
Systems from an Evolutionary Point of View." Paper presented at the Inter- 
national Symposium on Ecology, Behavior and Conservation of the World's 
Cats, Lion Country Safari, Laguna Hills, California, 15 March 1971. 

Eisenberg, J. F., and G. M. McKay. "A Revised Checklist of the Mammals of 
Ceylon with Keys to the Species." Ceylon Journal of Science, Biological Science, 
volume 8, number 2 (1970), pages 23-53. 

Eisenberg, J. F., G. M. McKay, and M. R. Jainudeen. "Reproductive Behavior 
of the Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus L.)." Behavior, volume 38 (1971), 
pages 193-225. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 211 

Eisenberg, J. F., and N. A. Muckenhirn. "Spacing Mechanisms and Predation 
by the Ceylon Leopard." Paper presented at the International Symposium on 
Ecology, Behavior and Conservation of the World's Cats, Lion Country Safari, 
Laguna Hills, California, 15 March 1971. 

Eisenberg, J. F., C. Santiapillai, and M. Lockhart. "The Censusing of Animal 
Populations by Indirect Methods." Ceylon Journal of Science, Biological 
Science, volume 8, number 2 (1970), pages 53-62. 

Gray, C. W. "Use of a Walking Cast in a Third Metatarsal Fracture in the 
Zebra." International Zoo Yearbook, volume 10, page 173. 

Gray, C. W., and A. P. W. Nettashinghe. "A Preliminary Study on the Im- 
mobilization of the Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus) Utilizing Etorphine 
(M-99)." Zoologica (New York Zoological Society), number 55, part 3, pages 
51-56. 

Horsley, Jaren G. "Keeper Training Program.'" Continuing Lecture Series to 
the Reptile Division, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, 1970— 
1971. 

. "Animal Behavior." USDA Graduate School Course, 16 November 

1970— 12 January 1971. 

Sauer, R. M., B. C. Zook, and F. M. Garner. "Demyelinating Encephalomyelo- 
pathy Associated with Lead Poisoning in Non-human Primates." Science, vol- 
ume 169 (11 September 1970), pages 1091-1093. 

Slaughter, Leo. "Gestation Period of the Dorcas Gazelle." Journal of Mammol- 
ogy, volume 52, number 2 (1971), pages 480-481. 

Weeks, Sam E. "The Relevant Role of the Zoo." Lecture. University of Mary- 
land, Phi Sigma Society, 29 October 1970. 

. "Birds of the World." Walking Lecture. National Zoological Park, 

Tour of the Bird Division, 21 November 1970. 

. "Birds." Lecture. National Zoological Park, Keeper Training Pro- 
gram, 30 November 1970. 

. "Birds and the Role of the Zoo." National Zoological Park, Friends 



of the National Zoo Docent Course, 7 January 1971. 
. "Current Ecological Topics." Seminar. Northern Virginia Com- 



munity College, 26 January 1971. 
. "Owl Presentation." Lecture. Audubon Naturalist Society, 5 Feb- 



ruary 1971. 
. "World Population." Lecture. University of Maryland, 10 February 



1971. 

. "World Ecology." Seminar. Howard University, Washington, D.C.. 

30 March 1971. 

. "Animal Behavior." Seminar. Northern Virginia Community Col- 
lege, 2 March 1971. 

. "Ethology." Lecture. Northern Virginia Community College, 9 

March 1971. 



. "Animal Communication." Two Seminars. Woodrow Wilson High 

School, 16 March 1971. 
. "Techniques of Bird Care." Two Seminars. Audubon Naturalist 



Society, 28 March 1971 and 18 April 1971. 

"Birds." Course. Smithsonian Associates, Washington, D.C., 3 



April— 19 June 1971. 
. "Earth Day." Seminar. Mary Washington College, 20 April 1971. 



212 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 
. "Birds of the World." Walking Lectures. Tour of National Zoo 



Bird Division for students of Northern Virginia Community College, 28 April 
1971, and Maryland University, 6 May 1971. 
. "Introduction to Ecology." Lecture. Audubon Naturalist Society, 



5 May 1971. 

. "Ecology." Lecture. Apple Grove School, 13 May 1971. 

. "Tinamous, Behavior and Man's Future." Lecture. Radio Smith- 



sonian, 30 May 1971. 
. "Avicultural Techniques." Seminar. Baltimore Bird Fanciers' Club, 



16 May 1971. 
. "Birds." Two Courses. National Zoological Park, Friends of the 



National Zoo Docent Training Course, 20-29 May 1971. 
. Bird Division Keeper Training Course, National Zoological Park, 



Washington, D.C., 25 May— 27 July 1971. 

"Is There Intelligent Life on Earth?" Seminar. Carnegie Institution, 



Washington, D.C., 30 June 1971. 

Wemmer, C. "Birth, Development and Behavior of a Fanaloka (Fossa fossa) 
at the National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C.," International Zoo Year- 
book, volume 11 (1971), pages 113-115. 

Wurster, D. FL, K. Benirschke, and C. W. Gray. "Determination of Sex in the 
Spotted Hyena." International Zoo Yearbook, volume 10, page 143. 

Zook, B. C. "An Animal Model for Human Disease. Lead Poisoning in Non- 
human Primates." Comparative Pathology Bulletin, volume 111, number 1 
(1971), pages 3-4. 

. "Thallium Poisoning in Dogs and Cats." In Current Veterinary 

Therapy, IV, pages 97-99. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1971. 

Zook, B. C, and J. L. Carpenter. 'Lead Poisoning in Dogs." In Current Veteri- 
nary Therapy IV, pages 100-104. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1971. 

Zook, B. C, R. M. Sauer, and F. M. Garner. "Lead Poisoning in Australian 
Fruit Bats (Pteropus poliocephalus)." American Veterinary Medical Associa- 
tion Journal, volume 157, number 5, pages 691-694. 

Office of Environmental Sciences 

Buechner, Helmut K. "Principles of Game Cropping in Eastern Africa." Lec- 
ture series. Institute of Creative Engineering Methodology, Chemical Engi- 
neering Department, Catholic University, Washington, D.C., 31 July 1970. 

. "Satellite and Ground Radiotracking of Elk." With Frank C. 

Craighead, Jr., J. J. Craighead, and Charles E. Cote. Symposium on Animal 
Orientation and Navigation sponsored jointly by NASA, Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, AIBS, at Wallops Island, Virginia, 9-13 September 1970. 

. "Environmental Development." Panelist. Washington Chapter, The 



Society for International Development, 14 October 1970. 
. "Satellite Tracking of Free-Roaming Animals." Lecture to Seminar 



on Investigations in Terrestrial Biology using Aerospace Vehicles, NASA Ames 
Research Center, 21 January 1971. 
. "Territoriality and Ceremonial Mating Behavior in the Uganda 



Kob." Lecture. University of California, 4 June 1971. 

"Radiotelemetry for Research on Large Land Mammals." Lecture. 



First International Telemetering Conference, 29 September 1971. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 213 

Jenkins, Dale W. "Global Biological Monitoring." Lecture. MIT Summer Study 
of Critical Environmental Problems. Williams College, Massachusetts, 3 July 
1970. 

. "Laboratory Animal Ecology in Research Programs." Lecture. 

American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 29 September 1970. 

. "Trends in Ecology." Lecture. George Washington University Con- 



ference for IBM, Airlee House, 2 November 1970. 

. "Global Biological and Environmental Monitoring." Chairman's 

Opening Session Address at Symposium on Monitoring of the Environment, 
1st National Biological Congress, Detroit, Michigan, 2 November 1970. 

. "Data Requirements in Ecology, Remote Sensing, and Global En- 



vironmental Monitoring." Lecture. IBM Research Staff, Yorktowne, New York, 
2 December 1970. 

. "Remote Sensing in Chesapeake Bay." Lecture. School of Public 

Health and Hygiene, Johns Hopkins University, 20 January 1971. 

. "The Smithsonian Institution-Peace Corps Environmental Pro- 
gram." Radio Smithsonian, April 1971. 

. "Ecology." Lecture series. Smithsonian Associates, May 1971. 



Opportunities in Oceanography. 32 pages, 44 illustrations. Publication 4537. 
Revised edition. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1971. 

Proceedings of the Symposium on Potential Application of Remote Sensing to 
Economic Development in Developing Countries. 117 pages. June 1971. 

Wallen, I. E. "Underwater Houses and Production Plants." Lecture. Interocean 
Congress Dusseldorf, 11 November 1970. 

. "Frontiers in Innerspace." Lecture. University of Nebraska, 10 

March 1971. 

. "New Developments in Oceanography." Lecture. Rutgers Univer- 
sity, 27 January 1971. 

. "On Oceanographic Research." Lecture. Stanford Club of Wash- 
ington, D.C., 17 September 1970. 

. "Environmental Sciences Research at the Smithsonian Institution." 



Lecture. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, St. Andrews, 18 June 1971. 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 

Williamson, Francis S. L. 'Ecosystem Studies of the Rhode River Watershed." 
Lecture. Chesapeake Bay Biological Research Planning Council, 19 August 
1970. 

. "Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies." Lecture. Wild- 
life Society, D.C. Chapter, 14 October 1970. 

. "Virus Diseases Transmitted by Birds." Lecture. George Washing- 
ton University Medical School, 12 November 1970. 

. "The Timing of Breeding and Molt in Lapland Longspur in 

Alaska." Lecture. Cooper Ornithological Society, San Diego, California, 7 April 
1971. 

. "Global Environmental Problems and Human Population Growth." 

Lecture. Towson State University, April 1971. 



214 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Center for Short-Lived Phenomena 
(Reports issued by the Center) 

Annual Report 1970. 296 pages. May 1971. 

"The Bay of Bengal Storm Surge, 12-13 November 1970." 1 March 1971. 

Bleahu, Marcian, and Liviu Constantinescu. "The Floods of Southeastern 

Europe." 27 July 1970. 
Citron, Robert. "International Environmental Monitoring Programs." 1 July 

1970. Revised 10 August 1970. 
. "Monitoring the Planet." Paper presented at the M.I.T. Summer 

Study on Critical Environmental Problems, 1-30 July 1970. 2 July 1970. 
. "A Proposed International Monitoring Program for Critical Global 



Environmental Problems." 26 July 1970. 
. "The Establishment of an International Environmental Monitoring 



Program — A Plan for Action." Prepared for the United Nations Conference 
on the Human Environment, Stockholm, Sweden, June 1971. May 1971. 

"A Directory of National and International Environmental Monitoring Activ- 
ities." 292 pages. October 1970. 

Hedervari, Peter. "A Detailed Account of the Landslide Near Dunafoldvar, 
Hungary, 15 September 1970." 21 October 1970. 

"The Kiffa Meteorite Fall of 23 October 1970. May 1971. 

"Notes on the Development of a United Nations Natural Disaster Program." 
Prepared for the Office of Science and Technology of the United Nations. 24 
March 1971. 

Rittman, Alfredo. "The Mt. Etna Volcanic Eruption of 1971." 3 May 1971. 

Tazieff, H., and F. Le Guern. "Tectonic Nature and the Mechanism of Etna's 
Eruption of April-May 1971." 4 June 1971. 

Viramonte, Jose G., Eliseo Ubeda, and Maximiliano Martinez. "The 1971 Erup- 
tion of Cerro Negro, Nicaragua." 15 April 1971. 

Yohner, Art. "Contact with a Group of Akurijo Indians of Suriname." 5 No- 
vember 1970. 

Oceanography and Limnology 

Higgins, R. P. "Biological Stress in Marine Ecosystems." Lecture. University of 

Libya, 10 March 1971. 
Hidings, Neil C, and John S. Gray, editors. "A Manual for the Study of Meio- 

fauna." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 78 (27 April 1971), 

83 pages, 13 figures, 1 table. 

Center for the Study of Man 

Tax, Sol. "Indian, Latin-American," Encyclopaedia Britamiica, 1971 edition. 

. "Integration of the Social Sciences through Policy Analysis." Com- 
ments on a paper by Robert E. Lane, Paper prepared for the American Acad- 
emy of Political and Social Sciences Conference, June 16-17, 1971, Philadelphia. 

. "Foreword." In Alicja Iwanska, Purgatory and Utopia. Schenkman 

Publishers, 1971. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 215 

. "Foreword." In Thorne Deuel, Scientific Papers, Vol. XIII. Illinois 



State Museum, 1971. 
. "Current Anthropology." Colloquim at Center for Advanced Studies 



in the Behavioral Sciences, May 1970. 

"The Contribution of Anthropology to Man's Survival." Address 



at the inaugural of the President of Wilmington College, Ohio, April, 1971. 
. "Action Anthropology: The Ethics of Intervention." Seminar. Wil- 



mington College, Ohio, 23 April 1971. 
. "The Challenge of Multi-Cultural Education." Seminar. Wilming- 



ton College, Ohio, 23 April 1971. 
Tax, Sol, and Clyde Mitchell. "Urban Anthropologv." Britannica Yearbook of 
Science and the Future. 1971 edition. 



Science Information Exchange 

Snyderman, M., and Hunt, B. L. "The Myriad Virtues of Text Compaction. 
Datamation, volume 16, number 16 (1 December 1970), pages 36-40. 



National Museum of History and Technology 

Bedini, Silvio A. "Hardware of History." Paper read during panel discussion 
on "The Uses of Historical Archaeology." Annual meeting of the Society for 
Historical Archaeology, National Museum of History and Technology, 8 
January 1971. 

Bedini, Silvio A., Wernher von Braun, and Fred L. Whipple. Moon, Man's 
Greatest Adventure, 267 pages, New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1970. 

Boorstin, Daniel J. The Landmark History of the American People: From Ap- 
pomattox to The Moon. 192 pages. New York: Random House, 1970. 

. "A Case of Hypochondria," Newsweek (6 July 1970), pages 27-29. 

. "Is America Really Sick?" Reader's Digest (September 1970), pages 

92-94. 

'The American Century — Myth vs. Reality," U. S. News and 



World Report, 19 October 1970), pages 64-67. 
. "Enlarging the Historian's Vocabulary." In The Reinterpretation 



of American Economic History, edited by Robert William Fogel and Stanley L. 
Engerman, pages 11-14. New York: Harper and Row, 1971. 
. "The Perils of Indwelling Law." In The Rule of Lau< edited b\ 



Robert Paul Wolff. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1971. 

. "Introduction." In A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains by Isa- 
bella L. Bird. Reprint. Pages 11-19. New York: Ballantine Books, 1971. 

. Convocation Lecture. University of Rochester, 20 September 1970. 

. "Preserving American Papers." Lecture. Society of American Archi- 
vists, Washington, D.C., 30 September 1970. 

. "What Historians Don't Write About." Duquesnc University His 



tory Forum. 31 October 1970. 

. "What is the Standard of American Living." Lecture. USIS, Cul- 
tural Americans, 3 January 1971. 

. "Aspects of America." Lecture. American Club of Lisbon, 5 January 



1971. 



216 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 
. "The Force of Fashion in a Changing Society. " Lecture. Menswear 



Retailers of America, 8 February 1971. 
. "The Continuity of Change." Lecture. Casper College, 24 Febr tary 



1971. 

. "Toward Independence." Institute of Early American History ;nd 

Culture Seminar on the American Revolution, 9 March 1971. 

. "Consumer Advertising and American Culture." Informing To- 
morrow's Skeptical Consumer, Bureau of Advertising Conference, New York, 
25 March 1971. 

. Atherton Lecture, Harvard University, 29 March 1971. 

. "Psycho History." Lecture. City University of New York, 24 April 



1971. 
. "Some Remarks About American History." Lecture. Catholic Uni- 



versity, 27 April 1971. 
Gorr, Louis F. Beyond Relevance: A Collection of Essays. 340 pages. Glenview, 

Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Co., 1971. 

. "Science for Humans." The Progressive (May 1971), pages 48-50. 

. "Jacob Bigelow's Elements of Technology: Science, Technology, 

and the American Synthesis." Paper delivered to annual meeting of the Society 

for the History of Technology and the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, December 1970. 
Marzio, Peter C. "American Lithographic Technology Before the Civil War," 

Winterthur Report, 1970. 
. "Lithography as a Democratic Art: A Reappraisal." Leonardo, 

Winter 1970. 
Skramstad, Harold K. "Historical Archaeology and Its Relation to Historic 

Preservation." Lecture given a the Ninth Annual National Trust Woodlawn 

Conference for Historic Preservation, 11 February 1971. 
. "Historical Archaeology, Doorway to the Past." Lecture. Gunston 

Hall, Virginia, 19 February 1971. 
. "Heroic Materialism: A Critique." Lecture. Senior Honors Program 



in History, University of Maryland, 29 April 1971. 
. "Early American History and Culture." Graduate Field Seminar. 



Smithsonian American Studies Program, St. Mary's City, Maryland, 2 July-16 
August, 1971. 

"Material Aspects of American Civilization." Graduate Seminar, 



Smithsonian American Studies Program, Fall 1970. 

"The Physical City: An Approach to American Urban History'." 



Graduate Seminar, Smithsonian American Studies Program, Spring 1971. 

"American Technology and Its Cultural Impact." Graduate Read- 



ing Course, Smithsonian American Studies Program, Spring 1971. 
Do It the Hard Way: Rube Goldberg and Modern Times. Foreword by Peter 
C. Marzio; essays by Daniel J. Boorstin, Anne C. Golovin, and Rube Goldberg. 
Catalog. The National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian In- 
stitution. 23 November 1970. 

Department of Applied Arts 

Adrosko, Rita J. "American Textiles, 1750-1850." Lecture. School of Archi- 
tecture, Columbia University, March 1971. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 217 
. "Fabric Design." Department of Home Economics, Howard Uni- 



versity, February 1971. 
. "Color in Early Tapestries." Symposium of the Inter-Society Color 



Council, New York City, April 1971. 
Clain-Stefanelli, Elvira. La Monnoie tresor d'art. Presentation. Paris, 1971. 
. South Carolina Paper Money 1770-1933. Presentation. Hampton, 

Virginia, 1970. 

. Welcoming Address, South Carolina State Society, 6 October 1970. 

. "In God We Trust." Lecture. Women's Association, National Pres- 



byterian Church, Washington, D.C., 18 November 1970. 

"The Significance of the Josiah K. Lilly Collection." Educational 



Forum, Empire State Numismatic Association Convention, Albany, New York, 
4 April 1971. 
. "Medals as an American Art Form." Invitational lecture. Collectors 



of Art Medals, Inc., New York, 25 April 1971. 
. "I'll Give You A Dollar for that Penny." Radio Smithsonian, 28 



March 1971. 

Clain-Stefanelli, Vladimir. "Coins as Documents of History." Lecture. The Sid- 
well Friends School, 8 January 1971. 

. "Highlights from The National Numismatic Collections." Educa- 
tional Forum, Empire State Numismatic Association Convention, Albany, New 
York, 4 April 1971. 

. "History of Money — A Survey." Lecture. The University of Vir- 



ginia, Extension Program, Winter 1971. 
. "Ancient Roman Coins." Collaborator, Seminar. Maryland Univer- 



sity, Spring 1971. 
. "I'll Give You A Dollar for that Penny" Radio Smithsonian, 28 



March 1971. 

. "The Bald Eagle." Collaborator for Film Project, National Wildlife 

Foundation, 31 March 1971. 

Haberstich, David E. "Foreword." In The Hand of Man on America. Catalog. 
Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1970. 

. "Collecting and Exhibiting Photographs at the Smithsonian." Lec- 
ture. North Bethesda Camera Club, Bethesda, Maryland, 24 February 1971. 

Hargest, George E. "History of Letter Post Communication Between the United 
States and Europe, 1845-1875," Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology, 
number 6 (10 February 1971), ix -f 234 pages, 126 figures, 34 tables. 

McHugh, Maureen Collins, "Wet-Cleaning Coverlets." Shuttle, Spindle and Dye- 
pot, volume 1 number 3 (June 1970), 2 pages, 3 illustrations. 

Norby, Reidar. 'Sweden's New Return Postage Stamps," The Posthorn, volume 
27, number 2 (1970), pages 23-24. 

. "Improving Philatelic Terminology," Scandinazria7i Scribe, volume 

6, number 6 (1970), pages 104-105. 

. "Scandinavian Varieties." Scandinavian Scribe, volume 6 (1970), 



pages 113, 119, 148-149, 169, 188-189, 221; volume 7 (1971), pages 5, 37, 79, 
95, 119. 
. "A Postal Look at Scandinavia, 1968." Scandinavian Scribe, volume 



7, number 1 (1971), page 16. 

'Icelandic Cancellation Mystery Solved." Scandinavian Scribe, vol- 



ume 7, number 1 (1971), page 18. 



218 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 



. "Norway NK No. 44 — Issue Date to Advance?" Scandinavian 

Scribe, volume 7 (1971), number 3, page 58 and number 4, pages 63-64. 
. "Warning — Greenland Polar Bear 'Proofs' Sheer Nonsense." Scan- 



dinavian Scribe, volume 7, number 5 (1971), pages 83-85. 

. "Smithsonian's Role in Philately." Lecture. Stamp Society, Lynch- 
burg, Virginia, 6 October 1970. 

. "Smithsonian's Special Exhibition Stamps and Posts of Scandi- 



navia." Lecture. North Jersey Scandinavian Collectors Club, Upper Montclair, 
New Jersey, 19 November 1970. 

"Smithsonian and Scandinavia, and Philately." Lecture. Norwegian 



Postal Administration, Oslo, Norway, 19 March 1971. 

Norby, Reidar, Ellen E. Roney, and Carl H. Scheele. "Smithsonian Philatelic 
Booklist." S. P. A. Journal, volume 32, number 11 (July 1970). 

Ostroff, Eugene. "Photographs, Inventors, and Photographers." Lecture. Pro- 
fessional staff and research laboratory, E. I. DuPont de Nemours, Inc., Parlin, 
New Jersey, May 1971. 

. "Conservation of Photographs and Related Documents." Four 

2-day seminars, under the auspices of the Smithsonian and the Institute for 
Graphic Communications, for museum personnel, archivists, librarians, and 
professional photographers. 

"The History of Photography." Smithsonian Associates course, 



spring 1971. 
. "Photography, History and the Smithsonian." Lecture. Brooklyn 

Camera Club, New York, June 1971. 
Scheele, Carl H. Neither Snow, Nor Rain . . . : The Story of the United States 

Mails. 99 pages, 85 illustrations. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution 

Press, 1970. 
. "Impact of Technology on American Music, 1923-1950." Lecture. 

Smithsonian Associates, the National Museum of History and Technology, 

20 May 1971. 
. 'Postal Perspectives and Philatelic Evidence: The Classics Period." 



Lecture. U.S. Philatelic Classics Society, Washington, D.C., 22 May 1971. 
. "The Burden of the Far West: U.S. Mails and the Turner Thesis.' 



Lecture. Western Postal History Conference, Tucson, Arizona, 25 May 1971. 
. "The Western Post Office Under Buchanan and Lincoln." Lecture. 



Western Postal History Conference, Phoenix, Arizona, 26 May 1971. 
Turner, Craig J. "Punches Feature Effort to Foil Stamp Cleaners." Linn's 

Weekly Stamp News, volume 44, number 5 (1 February 1971), pages 18, 19, 

20, 23. 
. "Bored with Collecting? — Try a New Country." Linn's Weekly 

Stamp News, volume 44, number 18 (3 May 1971), pages 15 and 20. 

Department of Cultural History 

Ahlborn, Richard E. "American Beginnings: Prints in Sixteenth-Century Mex- 
ico." 1970 Wintherthur Conference Report: Prints In and of America to 1850. 
23 pages, 12 illustrations. Winterthur, Delaware: Henry Francis du Pont 
Winterthur Museum, 1970. 

. "Santos y Penitentes." Americas, volume 22, number 10 (October 

1970), pages 6-13, 15 illustrations. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 219 

"Later Colonial Arts of Spanish North America." Lecture. Summer 



Institute of the Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, Delaware, August 1970. 

"The Religious Arts of Spanish New Mexico." Lecture. Hancock 



Village, Hancock, Massachusetts, November 1970. 

Fesperman, John T. "A Snetzler Chamber Organ of 1761." Smithsonian Studies 
in History and Technology, number 8 (15 December 1970), 56 pages, 20 figures. 

. "Two Important Mexican Organs," The Organ, volume 196, num- 
ber 49 (1970), pages 179-183. 

A New Organ for George Washington's Parish Church." Journal 



of Church Music (October 1970), pages 2-4, 3 plates. Philadelphia. 

Lecture recital for American Guild of Organists national conclave, 



29 December 1970. 

Golovin, Anne C. "Daniel Trotter: Eighteenth-Century Philadelphia Cabinet- 
maker." Winterthur Portfolio 6, pages 152-184. Charlottesville, Va.: Published 
for the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum by the University Press 
of Virginia, 1970. 

Kidwell, Claudia. "The Costume Study Group." Discussion series. Division of 
Costume and Furnishings, National Museum of History and Technology 

Watkins, C. Malcolm. "Artificial Lighting in the Old South." Lecture. Anti- 
quarian Society of Richmond, Virginia, 12 January 1971. 

. "American Folk Pottery." Lecture. Bethesda Ceramics Guild, at the 

National Museum of History & Technology, 10 March 1971. 

. "Significance of Historical Archaeology for History Museums." 

Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, 
8 January 1971. 

Weaver, James M. Six Sonatas for violin and harpsichord, Two Sonatas for 
violin and basso continuo. (J. S. Bach). With Sonya Monosoff, violinist; Judith 
Davidoff, viola da gamba, using instruments from the Smithsonian collection. 
Cambridge, 3 records. CRS B 2822 (Stereo Recording). 

. Three Scenes for Soprano and a Harpsichord Suite. (Purcell, 

Handel). With Carole Bogard, soprano. Cambridge, CRS 2709 (Stereo Re- 
cording). 

. Cantata 51 (Bach). With Carole Bogard. Cambridge, CRS 2710 

(Stereo Recording). 

. Su le Sponde del Tebro (A. Scarlatti). With Carole Bogard. Cam- 
bridge, CRS 2710 (Stereo Recording). 

. Arias (Handel). With Carole Bogard. Cambridge, CRS 2712 (Stereo 

Recording). 

. Concerto in C for Trumpet (Ghitalla). Haydn. Cambridge, CRS 

2823 (Stereo Recording). 

Department of Industries 

Chapelle, Howard I. "History of Shipbuilding in Maryland." Lecture. His- 
torical Society of Cambridge, Maryland, 15 May 1970. 

. "18th Century Shipbuilding in America." Lecture. Muson Institute, 

Mystic, Connecticut, 8 July 1970. 

'Construction of Fast Motor Boats in the 20th Century." Lecture. 



Antique Auxiliary of the Thousand Island Museum, Clayton, New York, 15 
August 1970. 



441-283 O - 71 - 15 



220 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 
. "History of Naval Architecture in America." Lecture. Society of 



Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Charleston, South Carolina, September 
1970. 

Chapelle, Howard I., and Polland, Leon D. "The Constellation Question." 
Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology, number 5 (30 October 1970), 
152 pages, 53 figures. 

Edson, W. D., and John H. White, Jr. "The Lima Locomotive Works." Bulletin 
Railway and Locomotive Historical Society, 123 (October 1970), pages 81-102. 

Gardner, Paul V. "American and European Ceramics of the 18th and 19th 
Centuries." Symposium, Columbia Museum of Art, Columbia, South Carolina, 
4 November 1970. 

Geoghegan, William E. "Study for a Scale Model of U.S.S. Carondelet." Nau- 
tical Research Journal, volume 17, number 3 (fall 1970), pages 147-163. Con- 
tinued in Winter 1970, volume 17, number 4, pages 231-240. 

Hoffman, John N. Centennial History of Prince Edwin Lodge, Middletown, 
Pennsylvania. 116 pages. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Central Publishing Co., 
1971. 

. "Girard Estate Coal Lands 1830-1884." Paper given for the Du- 

quesne History Forum in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 29 October 1970. 

. "Future Energy Sources for the United States." Illustrated lecture. 



Industrial War College, Fort McNair, Washington, D.C., 20 January 1971. 

"Stockpiling Strategic Mineral Supplies." Illustrated Lecture. In- 



dustrial War College, Fort McNair, Washington, D.C., 27 January 1971. 

"Strategic Mineral Supplies of the U.S." Illustrated lecture. Army 



Mobilization Detachment, Army Map Service, 17 February 1971. 

Knowles, James A. "Colonial Ship Model hms America." Nautical Research 
Journal, volume 17, number 4 (winter 1970), pages 223-228. 

. "The Building of the 4th Rate America." Nautical Research Jour- 
nal, volume 17, number 4 (winter 1970), pages 229-230. 

Miller, J. Jefferson, II. Comments on "Ceramics in Suffolk County, Massachu- 
setts, Inventories, 1680-1775." The Conference on Historic Site Archaeology 
Papers, volume 3. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina, 
Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, 1970. 

Miller, J. Jefferson, II, and Lyle M. Stone. "Eighteenth-Century Ceramics From 
Fort Michilimackinac." Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology, num- 
ber 4 (31 December 1970), ix -\- 130 pages, 56 figures, 9 tables. 

Schlebecker, John T. "Living Historical Farms: A Major New Program Takes 
Shape." Early American Life (January-February 1971), pages 8-13, 54-59. Re- 
print of Living Historical Farms: A Walk Into the Past. 

. "Living Historic Farms Tell It Like It Was." In Contours of 

Change, pages 229-236, illustrated. Washington: Yearbook of Agriculture, 
1970. 

"Living Historical Farms." Paper given for the Symposium of 



Early American Agriculture held at Old Sturbridge Village, September 1970. 
Sharrer, G. Terry. "Indigo in Carolina, 1671-1796." South Carolina Historical 

Magazine, volume 72, number 2 (April 1971), pages 94-103. 

. George Washington Carver. Foldout. 19 October 1970. 

. "America's Agricultural Revolution 1783-1860." Lecture. Maryland 

University, October 1970. 
. "America's Agricultural Revolution 1865-1945." Lecture. Maryland 



University, April 1971. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 221 

Sinclair, Angus. Development of the Locomotive ETigine. Annotated edition 

prepared by John H. White, Jr., with new chapter, pages 662-692. Cambridge, 

Massachusetts: The M.I.T. Press, 1970. 
Wessel, Thomas R. The Honey Bee. Smithsonian Information Leaflet 482 (1967). 

Revised 17 June 1971. 
White, John H., Jr. "The Steam Fire Engine: A Reappraisal of a Cincinnati 

'First.' " Bulletin of the Cincinnati Historical Society, volume 28, number 4 

(winter 1970), pages 317-335. 

Department of National and Military History 

Goins, Craddock R., Jr. "Research and Development in American Military 
Small Arms, 1800-1865." Lecture. United States Air Force Research and De- 
velopment Squadron K, Washington, D.C., September 1970. 

. "Firearms in American History from the Collections of the Smith- 
sonian Institution." Lecture. American Society of Arms Collectors, Houston, 
Texas, September 1970. 

Hoff, Arne (Director, Royal Danish Arsenal Museum). Lecture. "The Evaluation 
of Firearms." National Museum of History and Technology, April 1970. 

Langley, Harold D. "Changing Viewpoints on the Causes of the American 
Revolution," Lecture. George Washington Chapter, Virginia Society of the 
Sons of the American Revolution, Spring 1970. 

. "A History of the Conservation Movement in the United States." 

Lecture. Earth Day Ceremonies, The Catholic University of America, April 
1970. 

. "The Diplomatic History of the United States." Seminar. The 

Catholic University of America, fall and spring semester, 1970. 

. "The American Age of Enterprise, 1815-1860." Seminar. The Cath- 
olic University of America, fall semester 1970. 

. "The Rise of the American City, 1860-1914." Seminar. The Catho- 
lic University of America, spring semester, 1971. 

Lundeberg, Philip K. "The Emergence of Undersea Warfare in Northern Eu- 
rope." Paper delivered at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Baltic Studies, at San Jose State College, San Jose, California, 
November 1970. 

. "Development of the National Collection of Warship Models." Semi- 
nar on Maritime History, Ecole des Hautes Etudes Practiques, Sorbonne, Paris, 
Spring 1970. 

Department of Science and Technology 

Davis, Audrey B. "Some Implications of the Circulation Theory for Disease 
Theory and Treatment in the Seventeenth Century." Journal of the History 
of Medicine and Allied Sciences, volume 26 (January 1971), pages 28-39, 2 
illustrations. 

. "The Virtue of the Cortex in 1680: A Letter from Charles Goodall 

to Mr. H." Medical History (July 1971). 

. "Seventeenth Century Circulation Physiology." Lecture. University 

of Maryland, March 1971. 

. "Innovation in Dental Medicine — The Historian's Role." Lecture 



222 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

to Curators, Department of Science and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, 

27 July 1971. 
Finn, Bernard S. "The History of Submarine Telegraphy." Paper delivered 

at the Annual Meeting of the History of Technology Society, Chicago, Illinois, 

December 1970. 
Hamarneh, Sami K. "Pharmacy and Medical Therapy in Medieval Islam." Lec- 
ture. College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, 13 January 

1971. 
. "The Physician and the Health Professions in Medieval Islam." 

Lecture. New York Academy of Medicine, 24 March 1971. 

"U.S. Pharmacy Museums." Lecture. First session of the American 



Institute of The History of Pharmacy's Section on Contributed Papers, AIHP 
Annual Meeting, San Francisco, California, 29 March 1971. 

'Historical Development of Arabic Pharmacy and Pharmacology." 



Lecture. College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tuscon, Arizona, 1 April 
1971. 

"The History of Pharmacy Museums" and "The Origins of Pro- 



fessional Pharmacy." Lecture. Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of His- 
tory of Pharmacy and the opening of the Naito Pharmacy Museum, Tokyo, 
Japan, 12-13 June 1971. 

Mayr, Otto. The Origins of Feedback Control. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT 
Press, 1970. 

. "Origins of Feedback Control." Scientific American, volume 223, 

number 4 (October 1970), pages 110-1 18. 

. "Revolution of Electrical Technology (1870-1900)," Science, volume 



170(1970), pages 1339-40. 

. "Adam Smith and the Concept of the Feedback System." Tech- 
nology and Culture, volume 12 (1971), pages 1-22. 

. "Nineteenth Century Physicists and the Problem of Speed Regu- 



lation." Paper. Annual Meeting of the History of Science Society in Chicago, 

Illinois, December 1970. 
Merzbach, Uta C. Of Levers and Electrons, Learning and Enlightenment: The 

Technological Augmentation of Cognition in the United States since 1776. 56 

pages. Washington, D.C.: Thiel Press. 1971. 
Vogel, Robert M., "Speculations on the History and Original Appearance of the 

Last Bollman Truss." Industrial Archaeology, volume 7 (November 1970), 15 

pages, 5 figures. 
. "Civil Engineering History and Industrial Archaeology." Paper. 

Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, 15 October 1970. 
— . "Industrial Archaeology." Lecture. Columbia University graduate 



course on Architectural Preservation, 1 December 1970. 
. "Roebling's Delaware & Hudson Canal Aqueducts." Smithsonian 

Studies in History and Technology, number 10 (26 April 1971), 45 pages, 57 

figures. 
Warner, Deborah Jean. "The First Modern Sky Maps Reconsidered." Archives 

Internationales d'histoire des Sciences (1969), volume 22 (1971), pages 263-266. 
. "Lewis Morris Rutherfurd: Pioneer Astronomical Photographer and 

Spectroscopist." Technology and Culture, volume 12 (1971), pages 190-216. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 223 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

Breeskin, Adelyn D. "20th-century American Artists." Lecture. Wives Seminar 
of the Foreign Service Institute, Washington, D.C. (Monthly lecture). 

. Mary Cassatt: A Catalogue Raisonne of the Oils, Pastels, Water- 
colors, and Drawings. Catalog. 322 pages, 925 illustrations, 15 color plates. 
Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1970. 

. "Mary Cassatt." Lecture. Twentieth Century Club, Washington, 



D.C, 14 October 1970. 
. "Mary Cassatt." Lecture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C, 

18 October 1970. 
. "Into the Arts." TV Interview. WRC-TV, "Circumference." Chan- 



nel 4, Washington, D.C, 30 November 1970. 
. "Various Aspects of Painting, 1970." Lecture. National League of 



American Pen Women, Sarasota Branch, Sarasota, Florida. 7 January 1971. 
. "The Cone Sisters and the Baltimore Museum of Art." Lecture. 



Smithsonian Associates, Washington, D.C, 8 February 1971. 
. "The 1971 Area Exhibition of Painting and Graphics." Lecture. 



Fairfax Cultural Committee, Northern Virginia Community College, Annan- 
dale, Virginia, 21 February 1971. 
. "Problems Facing the Arts." Lecture. Fine Arts Festival Committee, 



College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina, 20 March 1971. 
. "Mary Cassatt." Lecture. Vienna Society of Artists, Vienna Com- 



munity Center, Vienna, Virginia. 10 June 1971. 
. H. Lyman Sa'yen. Catalog. 83 pages, 51 illustrations. Washington, 



D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1970. 

. Romaine Brooks, "Thief of Souls." Catalog. 143 pages, 85 illustra- 
tions. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1971. 

Fink, Lois. "American Artists in Paris, 1850-1870." Lecture. National Collection 
of Fine Arts, Washington, D.C, 25 February 1971. 

. "Contemporary French Art in the United States, 1850-1870." Lec- 
ture. National Collection of Fine Arts, Washington, D.C, 25 March 1971. 

Flint, Janet. "Five Paintings From Thomas Nast's Grand Caricaturama." Lec- 
ture. National Collection of Fine Arts, Washington, D.C, 4 August 1970. 

McClelland, Donald R. Paintings by Edwin Scott. Catalog. 55 pages, 35 illus- 
trations. Introduction by Henri Focillon; Biographical notes by Donald 
McClelland, July 1970. 

. "Mr. Corcoran and His Architect, James Renwick." Lecture. The 

Art League and Museum Association, Huntsville, Alabama, 22 January 1971. 

. "Making a Collection." Seminar. The Art League and Museum 



Association, Huntsville, Alabama, 21 January 1971. 

Taylor, Joshua C. "Vedere Prima Di Credere." 94 pages, 29 illustrations. Florence, 
Italy: Italia Nuova, 1970. 

. "Environment and the Mind." Lecture. University of Oregon, Eu- 
gene, Oregon, 28 February 1971. 

. "The Live Museum." Lecture. Liberal Arts Committee, Women's 



National Democratic Club, Washington, D.C, 4 March 1971. 
. "To Catch the Eye and Hold the Mind: The Museum as Educator.' 



Lecture. National Art Education Association Conference, Dallas, Texas, 8 
April 1971. 



224 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 
. "Art and the University." Lecture. Southeastern College Art Con- 



ference, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, 23 April 
1971. 
. "What is an Art School?" Lecture. Portland Art Museum, Portland, 



Oregon, 30 May 1971. 



National Portrait Gallery 



Stewart, Robert G. Henry Benbridge (1743-1812): American Portrait Painter. 
Catalog. 93 pages, 121 figures. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution 
Press, 1971. 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design 

Beer, Alice Baldwin. "Chintzes and Indian Trade." Lecture. Society for the 
Preservation of New England Antiquities, Boston, Massachusetts, 20 January 
1971. 

. "Early American Fabrics." Lecture. Fort Tryon, New Bern, North 

Carolina, 8 March 1971. 

. "Embroideries." Lecture. Plandome Historical Society, Women's 



Club, Plandome, Long Island, New York, 11 May 1971. 
Sonday, Milton F., Jr. "A Curator and a Handweaver Discussion." Lecture. 

New York Guild of Handweavers, Y.W.C.A., New York City, 5 December 1970. 
. "An Approach to the Understanding of Museum Textiles." Lecture. 

Philadelphia Academy of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 16 February 1971. 
Sonday, Milton F., Jr., and Nobuko Kajitani. "A Type of Mughal Sash." The 

Textile Museum Journal (December 1970), 184 pages. 
Taylor, Lisa. "New Roles for Museums." Lecture. Hunter College, New York 

City, 23 April 1971. 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 

Hutchins, James S. "Introduction." In Ordnance Memoranda No. 29: Horse 

Equipments and Cavalry Accoutrements as Prescribed by CO. 73, A.G.O., 

1885. Pasadena: Socio-Technical Publications, 1970. 
. "The United States Cavalry Saddle, McClellan Pattern, Model 

1857, in T0jhusmuseet, Copenhagen." Yaabenhistoriske Aarb0ger, volume 16 

1970), pages 145-165. 
. "Captain McClellan's Saddle." Seminar. 21st Annual Meeting, Com- 



pany of Military Historians, United States Coast Guard Academy, 24 April 
1971. 
Stokesberry, James J. "U.S.S. Tecumseh: Treasure in Mobile Bay." Lecture. 
Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis, Missouri, 26 March 1971. 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 

Anglemyer, Mary. "Natural Resources: A Selection of Bibliographies." EARI 
Development Series Report, number 3, 145 pages. U.S. Engineer Agency for 
Resources Inventories, Washington, D.C., 1970. 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 225 

Office of American Studies 

Harold K. Skramstad. "The Georgetown Canal Incline." Technology and Cul- 
ture, volume 10, number 4 (October 1969), pages 549-560. 

. "St. Mary's City: Possibility of a Training Site." Museum News, 

volume 48, number 5 (January 1970), pages 24-26. 

. "The Engineer as Architect in Washington: The Contribution of 



Montgomery Meigs." Records of the Columbia Historical Society, volume 69- 
70 (1969-1970), pages 266-284. 

Washburn, Wilcomb E. "Dedication."' In special issue of William and Mary 
Quarterly dedicated to Lester Cappon, former Director, Institute of Early Amer- 
ican History and Culture. William and Mary Quarterly, third series, volume 26, 
number 3 (July 1969), pages 323-326. 

. "Representation of Unknown Lands in XIV-, XV- and XVI-Cen- 

tury Cartography." In Revista da Universidade de Coimbra, volume 24, paper 
number 35, pages 1-20. Coimbra, Portugal: Junta de Investigates do Ultra- 
mar, Lisbon, 1969. 

. "The Oriental Purpose of the Arctic Navigations." In Etudes 



d'Histoire Maritime, presented at the XIII International Congress of His- 
torical Sciences, International Commission of Maritime History, Moscow, 
August 1970. Multilith (Paris 1970), pages 131-146. 
. "American Studies at the Smithsonian Institution." American Quar- 



terly, volume 22, number 2, part 2 (Summer 1970), pages 560-570. 
. "Out of the Clouds and Into the Earth: New Directions for Ameri- 



can Studies." In Challenges in American Culture, edited by Ray B. Browne, 
Larry N. Landrum, and William K. Bottorff, pages 55-60. Bowling Green, 
Ohio: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1970. 
. "The Society of American Indians," The Indian Historian, volume 



3, number 1 (Winter 1970), pages 21-23. 



Smithsonian Institution Archives 

Lytle, Richard H. "Ethics of Information Management." Records Management 
Quarterly, volume 4, number 4 (October 1970), pages 5-8. 



Office of Seminars 

Eisenberg J. F., and Wilton S. Dillon, editors. Man and Beast: Comparative 
Social Behavior. 401 pages, 29 figures, 3 tables. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian 
Institution Press, 1971. 



Office of Museum Programs 

Welsh, Peter C. The Genteel Female. Catalog. 16 pages, 6 illustrations. Wash- 
ington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, 1970. 

. "Two Ladies from New York." New York Folklore Quarterly 

(March 1971), pages 83-96. 



226 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 
. "Dexter." International Trotter and Pacer (July-August 1970), 



pages 11, 20-21. 
. "Lady Suffolk." International Trotter and Pacer (September-Oc- 



tober 1970), pages 13-14. 
. "Ethan Allen." International Trotter and Pacer (November-Decem- 



ber 1970), pages 20, 40. 
. "Flora Temple." International Trotter and Pacer (spring 1971), 



pages 16, 26-27. 
. "Trottings First Century." Hoofbeats (U.S. Trotting Association, 



May 1971), pages 88-112. 
. "The Youthful Mood of Patriotism, 1750-1850." Lecture. New York 



State Historical Association Colloquium on American Folk Art, 28-30 June 
1971. 



Conservation- Analytical Laboratory 

Eirk, K. "A Study of the Deteriorating Effects of Some Common Bleaches and 
Solvents on Paper." Lecture. Washington Region Conservation Guild, February 
1971. 

. "Conservation of a George Washington Print Mounted on a 

Wooden Panel." Lecture. Washington Region Conservation Guild, April 1971. 

Hopwood, W. R. "A Few Methods for Measuring the pH of Paper." Lecture. 
Washington Region Conservation Guild, February 1971. 

McMillan, E. "Notes on Paper." Bulletin, International Institute for Conserva- 
tion — American Group, volume 2, number 2 (1971) pages 16-19. 

Organ, R. M. "Chemistry of Conservation," Lecture series on conservation 
procedures. Smithsonian Institution, fall and winter, 1970-1971. 

. "Conservation Problems." Lecture. Society for Historic Archae- 
ology, Washington, D.C., 7 January 1971. 

'Study and Stabilization of Metallic Museum Objects." Lecture. 



National Bureau of Standards Metallurgical Group, 2 March 1971. 
. "Conservation of Metals." 2 day seminar. Cooperstown Graduate 



Program, New York State Historical Society, April 1971. 
. "Problems of Conservation." Lecture. Philatelic Classics Association, 



20 May 1971. 



Smithsonian Institution Libraries 



Clemmer, Dan O., Jr., and Russell Shank. "Interlibrary and Information Net- 
works." In The Bowker Annual of Library and Book Trade Information, pages 
299-303. New York: R. R. Bowker, 1971. 

Goodwin, Jack. "Current Bibliography in the History of Technology (1969)." 
Technology and Culture, volume 12 (1971), pages 269-327. 

. "A Preliminary Survey of Materials Available for the Study of 

American Library History in Washington, D.C." Paper presented at the third 
Conference on Library History, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 
March 1971. 

"New Problems and New Goals of Museum Librarianship." Paper 



presented at a joint meeting of the Museums, Arts, and Humanties Division 



APPENDIX 6. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN STAFF 227 

and the Picture Division of the Special Libraries Association, San Francisco, 
California, June 1971. 

."The History of Books and Printing." Paper presented to ninety 



sixth grade students, Riverside School, Fairfax County, Virginia, April 1971. 
. "Architectural Books in the Smithsonian Libraries." Paper pre- 



sented to a visiting graduate seminar from Columbia University, at the Mu- 
seum of History and Technology, April 1971. 

Shank, Russell, et al. A Library Network for Western Canada: Automation for 
Rationalization in College and University Libraries in Alberta, Saskatcheiuan 
and Manitoba. 76 pages. Kent, Ohio: Kent Center for Library Studies, February 
1971. 

Shank, Russell, and Caroline Arden Bull. Non-Conventional File Structure 
Data-Collecting Projects in the Smithsonian Institution: A Survey, Winter 
1968 — Spring 1969. 95 pages, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libra- 
ries, December 1970. 



Office of Public Affairs 

"Bibliography on Anatomy and Osteology of Recent Vertebrates." Division of 
Vertebrate Paleontology, Information Leaflet 71-1. 

"Bibliography on Field and Laboratory Techniques." Division of Vertebrate 
Paleontology, Information Leaflet 71-2. 

"Storing Old Carmen ts in the Home." Division of Costume and Furnishings, 
Information Leaflet 71-3. 

"Taxidermy Procedures and Animal Preparation." Division of Mammals, In- 
formation Leaflet 71-4. 

"References to American Domestic Architecture." Division of Cultural History, 
Information Leaflet 71-5. 

"Smithsonian Institution Photographic Services Processing Fees and Policy." 
Information Leaflet 71-6. 

"Bibliography on United States Coins and Paper Currencies." Division of Nu- 
mismatics, Information Leaflet 71-7. 

"The Passenger Pigeon." Division of Birds, Information Leaflet 71-8. 

"Suggested Publications on Fossil Fishes." Division of Fishes, Information 
Leaflet 71-9. 

"Available Publications of Bureau of American Ethnology." Information Leaf- 
let 71-10. 

"Selected Photographs Illustrating North American Indian Life in Various Cul- 
tural Areas." National Anthropological Archives, Information Leaflet 71-11. 

"Suggested References on American Period Costume." Division of Costume and 
Furnishings, Information Leaflet 71-12. 

"Notes on Antiques." Division of Cultural History, Information Leaflet 71-13 

"Jacquard Woven Tapestries." Division of Textiles, Information Leaflet 71-14. 

"Jacquard Woven Silk Pictures." Division of Textiles, Information Leaflet 71- 
15. 

"Bibliography on Stevengraphs." Division of Textiles, Information Leaflet 71- 
16. 



228 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Reading Is Fundamental 

Action for Change. 24 pages. Summer 1970. 

RIF's Guide to Developing a Program. 16 pages. Fall 1970. 

RIF Newsletter, Volume 1, issue 1 (March 1971), 4 pages. Volume 1, issue 2 

(June 1971), 4 pages. 
Smollar, Eleanor B., editor. RIF's Guide to Book Selection. 80 pages, Summer 

1970. 

. RIF's Guide to Book Selection: Supplement 1. 20 pages. Fall 1970. 

This Book Belongs to . . . Me! 67 pages. Summer 1968. 



Information Systems Division 

Roth, H. Daniel. "Cluster Analysis for the Biological and Social Sciences." 
Smithsonian Institution Information Systems Innovations, volume 2, number 2 
(December 1970), 35 pages, illustrated. 

. "Multivariate Statistics." Seminar. National Museum of Natural 

History, Smithsonian Institution, 1970. 

. "Mathematics in Biology." Seminar. Coppins State College, Balti- 



more, Maryland, May 1971. 

National Gallery of Art 

Bullard, E. John. Edgar Degas. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1971. 

Cooke, H. Lester. Dogs, Cats, Horses and Other Animals at the National 

Gallery of Art. Richmond, Virginia: Westover, 1970. 

. "The Louvre." National Geographic Magazine (June 1971). 

. The National Gallery in Washington. Italy: Novaro, 1970. 

. The National Gallery of Art. Knorr & Hirth, 1970. 

. Pictures within Pictures at the National Gallery of Art. Richmond, 

Virginia: Westover, 1970. 
Evans, Grose. Vincent van Gogh. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1971. 
Lewis, Douglas. "II problema della villa e le piantagione americane." Bollettino 

del Centro Internazionale di Studi de Architettura "Andrea Palladio," volume 

12 (1970). 
. "Un nuovo disegno autografo de Michele Sanmicheli," Bollettino 

dei Museo Civici Veneziani, volume 16 (1971), numbers 3—4. 
Parkhurst, Charles. "Art Museums and Environmental Education," pages 161- 

164, in Museums and the Environment: A Handbook for Education. Washing- 
ton, D.C.: American Association of Museums, 1971. 
Ravenel, Gaillard, Charles Talbot, and Jay Levenson. Diirer in America: 

His Graphic Work. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1971. 
Watson, Ross. William Hogarth: Paintings from the Collection of Mr. & Mrs. 

Paul Mellon. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1971. 



Appendix 7 



ACADEMIC APPOINTMENTS 

1970-1971 

Postdoctoral Visiting Research Associates 



'O 



Program in American History 

Leonard P. Curry. Roots of American urbanism, 1800-1850, with Dr. Wilcomb 
Washburn, American Studies Program, from 15 August 1970 to 14 August 
1971. 

Program in Anthropology 

James T. Rauh. An investigation of the structure of the Borgia group of manu- 
scripts, with Dr. Clifford Evans, National Museum of Natural History, from 
1 December 1970 to 31 August 1971. 

Mario Jose Sanoja. Ecology and cultural areas in pre-Columbian Venezuela, 
with Dr. Clifford Evans, National Museum of Natural History, from 1 Sep- 
tember 1970 to 31 August 1971. 

David Gentry Steele. A re-evaluation of the within-group variation of the 
family Tupaiidae, with Dr. Lawrence Angel, National Museum of Natural 
History, from 1 July 1970 to 30 June 1971. 

Program in Environmental Sciences 

Clarke Brooks. Analysis of algal biliproteins, with Dr. Elizabeth Gantt, Ra- 
diation Biology Laboratory, from 1 July 1970 to 30 June 1971. 

Jack H. Burk. Production and energy status of deciduous tree species with 
regard to annual cycle of energy utilization and standing crop, with Dr. 
Francis S. L. Williamson, Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies, 
from 1 September 1970 to 31 August 1971. 

Stephen I. Rothstein. An experimental investigation of host preferences in 
the brown-headed cowbird, with Dr. Francis S. L. Williamson, Chesapeake 
Bay Center for Environmental Studies, from 1 September 1970 to 31 August 
1971. 

Penelope Williamson. Foraging behavior of the starling, Sturnus vulgaris, 
with Dr. George Watson, National Museum of Natural History, from 15 
September 1970 to 14 September 1971. 

Program in Evolutionary and Behavioral Biology, Tropical Zones 

Alicia Breymeyer. Ecology of grasslands environments in tropical zones, with 

229 



230 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Dr. Martin Moynihan, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from 1 No- 
vember 1970 to 30 April 1971. 
Jeffrey B. Graham. Studies in the biology of the amphibious clinid, Mnierpes 

macrocephalus, with Dr. Michael Robinson and Dr. Ira Rubinoff, Smithsonian 

Tropical Research Institute, from 1 September 1970 to 31 August 1971. 
Ian N. Healev. The role of animals in decomposition processes in the tropical 

forest, with Dr. Martin Moynihan, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 

from 1 January 1971 to 31 December 1971. 
James R. Karr. Comparisons of structure of avian communities in selected 

tropical areas, with Dr. Neal Smith, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 

from 1 January 1971 to 30 June 1971. 
Eugene Morton. Ecological aspects of communication in birds, with Dr. 

Neal Smith, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from 1 January 1971 

to 30 June 1971. 

Program in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

O. Sylvester Adegoke. Tertiary paleontology of southern Nigeria and ecology 
and distribution of living Foraminifera in the Gulf of Guinea, with Dr. 
Richard Cifelli, National Museum of Natural History, from 1 August 1970 to 
31 July 1971. 

Arnfried Antonius. Occurrence and distribution of stony corals in Venezuelan 
waters, with Dr. Klaus Ruetzler, National Museum of Natural History, from 
1 August 1970 to 31 July 1971. 

James A. Doyle. Studies on angiosperm pollen and megafossils of the Potomac 
Group (Cretaceous) of Maryland and Virginia, with Dr. Leo J. Hickey, Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History, from 1 October 1970 to 30 September 1971. 

Ter-chien Huang. Deep sea sedimentation in the western Mediterranean Sea, 
with Dr. Daniel Stanley, National Museum of Natural History, from 1 Jan- 
uary 1970 to 1 January 1971. 

Jerry A. Powell. Biosystematic study of Neotropical Sparganothidini (Lepidop- 
tera: Tortricidae) , with Dr. Donald Duckworth, National Museum of Natural 
History, from 1 September 1970 to 31 August 1971. 

Program in History of Art and Music 

Robert E. Eliason. Early American wind instruments and their makers, with 

Mrs. Cynthia Hoover, National Museum of History and Technology, from 

15 July 1970 to 14 July 1971. 
Francis V. O'Connor. Historical studies of American art of the 1930s, with 

Dr. Joshua C. Taylor, National Collection of Fine Arts, from 1 September 1970 

to 31 August 1971. 

Program in History of Science and Technology 

Sandra S. Herbert. Erasmus Darwin's materialistics physiology and its impor- 
tance for his grandson Charles' discovery of evolution through natural selec- 
tion, with Dr. Audrey Davis, National Museum of History and Technology, 
from 1 June 1970 to 31 May 1971. 

Program in Physical Sciences 

Martin R. Flannery. Theoretical investigations of certain atomic and molec- 



APPENDIX 7. ACADEMIC APPOINTMENTS 231 

ular processes relevant to the earth's atmosphere, stellar and planetary atmo- 
spheres, and H I, H II regions of the sun, with Dr. Alexander Dalgarno, 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 September 1970 to 1 March 
1971. 

John J. Gurney. Electron microprobe studies of kimberlite and its associated 
ultrabasic xenoliths, with Dr. Brian Mason, National Museum of Natural 
History, from 1 November 1970 to 31 October 1971. 

Lawrence N. Mertz. Development of astronomical instrumentation, with Dr. 
N. P. Carleton, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 July 1970 to 
30 June 1971. 

Jeffrey Taylor. Petrological and chemical research on lunar samples and 
theoretical interpretation and research on the metallic minerals in chondritic 
meteorites, with Dr. John Wood, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 
1 September 1970 to 31 August 1971. 



Predoctoral Visiting Research Associates 

Program in American History 

Martha E. Doty. Popular images of the American Indian, with Dr. Wilcomb 
Washburn and Mr. Richard Ahlborn, American Studies Program, from 1 
January 1971 to 30 June 1971. 

William B. Floyd. An historical study of Thomas Sully, with Dr. Wilcomb 
Washburn, American Studies Program, from 1 July 1970 to 31 June 1971. 

Rayna D. Green. The Image of the Indian in the popular imagination, with 
Dr. Wilcomb Washburn, American Studies Program, and Dr. Sam Stanley, 
Center for the Study of Man, from 1 September 1970 to 31 August 1971. 

Yvonne M. Lange. Santos, the wooden household saints of Puerto Rico, with 
Mr. Richard Ahlborn, American Studies Program, from 1 August 1970 to 31 
July 1971. 

Peter H. Smith. The Great American Wheel Conspiracy: Hoopes Bros, and 
Darlington, 1890-1920, with Mr. Robert Vogel, National Museum of History 
and Technology, from 1 September 1970 to 31 August 1971. 

Arthur Townsend. Pattern and change in the material culture of Junction 
City, Kansas, between 1888 and 1922, as seen through the life and lens of 
Joseph Judd Pennell, photographer, with Dr. Wilcomb Washburn, American 
Studies Program, from 1 September 1970 to 1 June 1971. 

Program in Anthropology 

Iraida Vargas. Aboriginal cultural development in eastern Venezuela and their 
relationships with the Lesser Antilles, with Dr. Clifford Evans, National Mu- 
seum of Natural History, from 1 September 1970 to 31 August 1971. 

Program in Environmental Sciences 

Christen E. Wemmer. Behavioral concomitants of morphology and the rela- 
tionship of the form-function complex to social organization and habitat 
utilization, with Dr. John Eisenberg, National Zoological Park, from 1 July 
1970 to 31 July 1971. 



232 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Program in Evolutionary and Behavioral Biology, Tropical Zones 

A. Ross Kiester. Studies on the ecology and social behavior of Panamanian 
Gecko, Gonatodes albogularis, with Dr. A. Stanley Rand, Smithsonian Tropi- 
cal Research Institute, from 1 September 1970 to 31 August 1971. 

John E. McCosker. Substrate preferences and comparative functional morphol- 
ogy of eels of the family Ophichthidae, with Dr. Ira Rubinoff, Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute, from 15 August 1970 to 14 August 1971. 

William B. Ramirez. Ecological relationships and specificity between fig wasps 
(Agaonidae) and Ficus, with Dr. Robert Dressier, Smithsonian Tropical Re- 
search Institute, from 1 October 1970 to 30 September 1971. 

Program in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

David R. Budge. Study of late Ordovician and Silurian rocks and their con- 
tained coral fauna in the eastern Great Basin, with Dr. William S. Oliver, 
National Museum of Natural History, from 1 September 1970 to 31 August 
1971. 

Anne C. Cohen. Geographic variation and sexual dimorphism in the squid 
Loligo pealei, living from Canada to Columbia near the continental shores of 
western north Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, with Dr. Clyde Roper, National Mu- 
seum of Natural History, from 15 August 1970 to 30 June 1971. 

Jean T. DeBell. Electron microscopy of the body wall of Macracanthorhynchus 
hirudinaceus (Acanthocephala) , with Dr. W. Duane Hope, National Museum 
of Natural History, from 9 October 1969 to 9 October 1971. 

Theodore Gary Gautier. Cryptostome Bryoza from the Permian (Leonardian) 
of the Glass Mountains, Texas, with Dr. Richard S. Boardman, National Mu- 
seum of Natural History, from 1 July 1970 to 30 June 1971. 

Walter Scott Gray. Studies of Antarctic Gammaridea (Amphipoda) , par- 
ticularly the families Eusiridae, Calliopiidae, and Pleustidae, with Dr. J. L. 
Barnard, National Museum of Natural History, from 15 February 1970 to 
14 February 1971. 

Eckart Hakansson. The free-living Cheilostomata from the White Chalk of 
Denmark, with Dr. Alan Cheetham, National Museum of Natural History, 
from 15 October 1970 to 14 October 1971. 

Catherine J. Kerby. A life history study of the polychaetous annelid, Sabella 
microphthalma, with Dr. Meredith L. Jones, National Museum of Natural 
History, from 1 August 1970 to 31 July 1971. 

Miloslav Kovanda. Preparation of a monographic electronic data bank of 
Campanula section Heterophylla, with Mr. Stanwyn Shetler, National Museum 
of Natural History, from 1 July 1970 to 30 June 1971. 

Jackson Lewis. A study of genus Calappa (Decapoda: Oxystomata) as repre- 
sented by recent species in the United States National Museum collections and 
by Miocene fossils from Florida, with Dr. Fenner A. Chace, Jr., National Mu- 
seum of Natural History, from 1 September 1970 to 31 August 1971. 

Program in History of Art and Music 

Shelley Fletcher. Pigment analysis of the American painting collection at 
the National Collection of Fine Arts, with Mr. Charles Olin, NCFA Conserva- 
tion Laboratory, from 1 July 1970 to 30 June 1971. 

Robert Hunter. Study of Stuart Davis in the 1930s, with Dr. Joshua C. Taylor, 



APPENDIX 7. ACADEMIC APPOINTMENTS 233 

National Collection of Fine Arts, from 1 September 1970 to 31 August 1971. 

William D. Morgan. Henry Vaughan, 1845-1917, Gothic revival architect, with 
Dr. Joshua C. Taylor, National Collection of Fine Arts, from 15 January 1971 
to 30 June 1971. 

Richard N. Murray. A study of figurative mural painting, public and private 
in the United States, 1890-1920, with Dr. Joshua C. Taylor, National Collec- 
tion of Fine Arts, from 1 September 1970 to 31 August 1971. 

Phylis North. Max Weber paintings, 1905-1920, with Dr. Joshua C. Taylor, 
National Collection of Fine Arts, from 1 January 1971 to 30 June 1971. 

Christine S. Schloss. Study of the 18th-century American primitive painters, 
with Dr. Joshua C. Taylor, National Collection of Fine Arts, from 1 September 
1970 to 30 June 1971. 

Program in History of Science and Teclinology 

Stephen Cooper. History of American science and technology with emphasis 
on interrelationships between science and government, with Dr. Nathan Rein- 
gold, Joseph Henry Papers, from 1 August 1970 to 31 July 1971. 

Barbara Kaplan. The relevance of alchemical and hermetic ideas to 13th and 
14th century medicine in western Europe, with Dr. Sami Hamarneh, National 
Museum of History and Technology, from 1 September 1970 to 31 August 1971. 

John Richard Kerwood. The editing of documentary sources in American His- 
tory, with Dr. Nathan Reingold, Joseph Henry Papers, from 1 September 
1970 to 30 June 1971. 

Sally G. Kohlstedt. The American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
1840 to 1860; the formation of a national scientific community, with Dr. 
Nathan Reingold, Joseph Henry Papers, from 1 September 1970 to 31 August 
1971. 

Program in Museum Studies 

Joan W. Mishara. Conservation studies of metals, particularly metallic objects 
of art, with Mr. Robert Organ, Conservation Analytical Laboratory, from 1 
July 1970 to 31 January 1971. 

Richard Pruitt. Pictorial and bibliographical studies of Black American nota- 
bles, with Dr. Sidney Kaplan, National Portrait Gallery, from 1 September 
1970 to 1 July 1971. 

Jon Allen Seger. A long-range plan for the "third generation" of exhibits in 
the National Museum of Natural History, with Mr. Nathaniel Dixon from 21 
September 1970 to 20 September 1971. 

Elaine F. Sloan. Studies of the collection development policies of the Smith- 
sonian Institution Libraries, with Dr. Russell Shank, Smithsonian Institution 
Libraries, from 1 September 1970 to 1 June 1971. 

Robert N. Works. Studies in museum administration and in the history of 
American art, with Mr. Marvin Sadik, National Portrait Gallery, from 1 
September 1970 to 31 August 1971. 

Program in Physical Scie?ices 

Duane F. Carbon. Theoretical studies of non-gray model atmosphere for stars 
of intermediate and late spectral types, with Dr. Owen J. Gingerich, Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 July 1970 to 30 January 1971. 



234 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Eric G. Chipman. Formation of spectral lines in the solar atmosphere, with 
Dr. E. H. Avrett, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 July 1970 to 
30 June 1971. 

J. Stephen Duerr. Formation of plessite in metallic meteorites, with Dr. Charles 
A. Lundquist, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 July 1970 to 
30 June 1971. 

James Elliott. Investigation of atmospheric fluorescence as a means of detecting 
transient X-ray phenomena from cosmic sources, with Dr. G. G. Fazio, Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 September 1970 to 30 June 1971. 

William R. Forman. Study of magnetic field structure in the Crab Nebula, 
with Dr. R. B. Southworth, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 
September 1970 to 30 June 1971. 

Jonathan E. Grindlay. Studies of high energy cosmic gamma rays and cosmic 
X-rays and their respective air showers, with Dr. G. G. Fazio, Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 July 1970 to 30 June 1971. 

Robert L. Kurucz. Studies in model atmospheres, with Dr. Wolfgang Kalkofen, 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 July 1970 to 30 June 1971. 

Elia Leibowitz. The emission spectrum of heavy ions in planetary nebulae, 
with Dr. Leo Goldberg, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 July 
1970 to 30 June 1971. 

Douglas D. Nelson. Clay mineralogy and sedimentation of the Outer Banks, 
North Carolina, with Dr. J. W. Pierce, National Museum of Natural History, 
from 15 September 1970 to 14 September 1971. 



Summer 1970 Graduate and Undergraduate Research 
Participation Appointments 

Names marked with an asterisk indicate students whose research was supported 
through grants from the National Science Foundation's Undergraduate Research 
Participation Program (grants GY7622: Social Sciences and GY6056: Biological 
Sciences) . 

Program in American History 

Beth Michele Grosvenor, Mount Holyoke College. Research in political slo- 
gans in 19th century presidential campaigns, with Dr. Wilcomb Washburn, 
Office of American Studies. 

Katherine Cora Hancock, Mills College. Studies of costumes in the Annapolis 
area during the 18th century, with Mrs. Claudia Kidwell, National Museum 
of History and Technology. 

Catherine Mary Scholten, University of California at Berkeley. Bibliographic 
and documentary studies, with Mr. Richard Ahlborn, National Museum of 
History and Technology. 

Program in Anthropology 

*Richard Blair Allen, University of Illinois. Studies of Iranian and Afghan 
archeological ceramics and preservation techniques of ethnological specimens, 
with Mrs. Bethune Gibson and Dr. William Trousdale, National Museum of 
Natural History. 



APPENDIX 7. ACADEMIC APPOINTMENTS 235 

*Anita Marie Barrow, University of Pittsburgh. A study of the social organi- 
zation of the Southwestern Bantu, with Dr. Gordon Gibson, National Museum 
of Natural History. 

•John Thomas Bruer, University of Wisconsin. Studies of urban metaphysical 
movements, with Dr. Irving Zaretsky, National Museum of Natural History. 

*Lianne Iddincs Burke, George Mason College of the University of Virginia. 
Inventory of selected anthropological manuscripts, with Mrs. Margaret Blaker, 
National Museum of Natural History. 

♦Robert Spencer Corruccini. University of Colorado. Studies in paleopathology 
and Paleoecology, with Dr. Donald Ortner, National Museum of Natural His- 
tory. 

*Wendy Joan Frosh, Pitzer College. Studies relating to a dictionary of the 
Tzotzil language, with Dr. Robert Laughlin, National Museum of Natural 
History. 

•Laura May Kaplan, Rice University. Sex differentiation in human long bones, 
with Dr. Lucile St. Hoyme, National Museum of Natural History. 

♦William Greg Myers, Duke University, A study of the historical contributions 
of the English to West Pakistan anthropology, with Dr. Eugene Knez, National 
Museum of Natural History. 

♦Mary Alice Nation, University of Chicago. A study of the Japanese ceramic 
collections in the National Museum of Natural History comparing American 
and Japanese concepts of Japanese ceramic art 1875-1920, with Dr. Eugene 
Knez, National Museum of Natural History. 

•Jane Wierdsma, Smith College. An historical study of Kiowa art, with Mr. 
John Ewers, National Museum of Natural History. 

Program in Environmental Sciences 

Judith Lynn Bishop, University of California at Davis. Literature research 
concerning drug immobilization in exotic animals, with Dr. Clinton W. Gray, 
National Zoological Park. 

Program in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

♦Susana Barros, George Washington University. Analysis of bamboos, with 

Dr. Thomas Soderstrom, National Museum of Natural History. 
George Joseph Divoky, Michigan State University. A study of the seasonal 

distribution of marine birds, with Dr. George Watson, National Museum of 

Natural History. 
Mary Beth Moore, Michigan State University. Research and data gathering 

for Flora North America project, with Mr. Stanwyn Shetler, National Museum 

of Natural History. 
♦Frieda Virginia Osborne, California State College. The taxonomy of Indo- 

Pacific mollusks, with Dr. Joseph Rosewater, National Museum of Natural 

History. 
♦Ricardo Rebollar, DePaul University. A study of light intensity and quality, 

temperature and pH effects on respiration and photosynthesis in corralines, 

with Dr. Walter Adey, National Museum of Natural History. 

Program in the History of Art and Music 

Diane Lynn Arkin, University of Chicago. Studies in 19th century landscape 
painting in America, with Dr. Joshua Taylor, National Collection of Fine Arts. 



441-283 O - 71 - 16 



236 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

Catherine Beth Lippert, University of Michigan. Study of American painting 
1900-1904, with Dr. Joshua Taylor, National Collection of Fine Arts. 

Program in the History of Science and Technology 

•Craig Buck Andrews, Claremont Men's College. Studies of ship plans and 
machinery, with Dr. Melvin Jackson, National Museum of History and Tech- 
nology. 

♦John Francis Connors, Cincinnati Bible Seminary. Study of technical history 
of World War I aircraft in the National Air and Space Museum collections, 
with Mr. Louis Casey, National Air and Space Museum. 

*Joan M. Harlow, Smith College. Studies in American spectroscopy in the 
second half of the 19th century and French and British chemistry in the 18th 
century, with Dr. Jon Eklund, National Museum of History and Technology. 

*John Thomas Kelly, Harvard University. Study of the History of Science and 
technology in the War of Independence, with Mr. Silvio Bedini, National Mu- 
seum of History and Technology. 

♦Howard Sander Koch, University of Miami. Study of cable telegraphy in the 
19th century with Dr. Bernard Finn, National Museum of History and Tech- 
nology. 

*Jose M. Rodriguez, University of Miami. A study of maser and laser history, 
with Dr. Bernard Finn, National Museum of History and Technology. 

*David Alan Rosenberg, University of Chicago. Studies of the 1924 flight 
around the world, with Dr. Richard K. Smith, National Air and Space Museum. 

•Frances Ruth Schartenberg, University of Pennsylvania. A study of the tech- 
nological development of microscopes as related to the development of Dar- 
winism, with Dr. Audrey Davis, National Museum of History and Technology. 

*Diane Senders, Antioch College. Analysis of natural dye stuffs using textiles 
from Smithsonian collections, with Miss Rita Adrosko, National Museum of 
History and Technology. 

*Joanne Beth Shore, University of Pennsylvania. An historical study of early 
engineering structures on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, with Mr. Robert 
Vogel, National Museum of History and Technology. 

♦Barbara Levy Simon, Goucher College. Research on the history of 19th cen- 
tury science, with Mr. Richard Lytle, Smithsonian Archives. 

Program in Museum Studies 

Judith Ann Calvert, University of California at Berkeley. Research and bibli- 
ography on the stylistic origins of Shaker furniture, with Mr. Carl Alexander, 
National Museum of History and Technology. 

Caroline Levert Mastin. University of Delaware. Research participation and 
studies of special exhibits, with Mr. Peter C. Welsh, U.S. National Museum. 

Carolyn Louise Rusch, Sweet Briar College. Studies relating to methods of 
conservation of museum objects including documentation, with Mr. Robert 
Organ, National Museum of History and Technology. 



Appendix 8 



PUBLIC AFFAIRS 



News Releases Issued 

Smithsonian To Present "Musick," Pageantry of American Revolution 6 July 70 

Textile Designer Will Be Accorded Retrospective Show 7 July 70 
Model Rockets, Planes To Be Flown on National Mall, Sunday, 

July 12 8 July 70 
Daguerreotype Portraits of Webster, Clay and Houston Given to 

Smithsonian 14 July 70 
National Collection of Fine Arts Shifts Entrance Because of Subway 15 July 70 

Smithsonian Computer Awaiting Your Questions about Reptiles 20 July 70 
National Collection of Fine Arts To Hold "Artists Abroad" 

Exhibition 29 July 70 

Smithsonian Museum Schedules "Vibrating World" Exhibition 31 July 70 

Indian Photographs on View at Smithsonian 3 Aug. 70 

Space Art Show at Smithsonian 4 Aug. 70 

Astronomical Art at Smithsonian 4 Aug. 70 
Smithsonian Conducting Global Survey of Environmental 

Monitoring System 4 Aug. 70 

Historic Equipment, Fabrics Display in New Textile Hall 11 Aug. 70 

Oil Painting of Apollo 11 Crew Being Given to Portrait Gallery 11 Aug. 70 

Moon Rock Research Is Explained in Exhibit 12 Aug. 70 

Smithsonian Exhibit To Mark Centennial of Gandhi's Birth 13 Aug. 70 

Global Photographic Show on Woman Scheduled 18 Aug. 70 

A Computerized Data Bank on Plants Is Planned 19 Aug. 70 

Freer Sculptures from India Described in New Volume 1 Sept. 70 
Free Jazz/Gospel /Soul Music Festival Scheduled at Douglass Home 

September 12-13 1 Sept. 70 

"Deep-Ocean" Fossils Back Continental Drift Theory 1 Sept. 70 

Smithsonian Seeks Volunteers To Guide School Groups 1 Sept. 70 

"Curtain Raiser" — A Most Unusual Benefit Oct. 2 1 Sept. 70 

Smithsonian, Left Bank Society Plan Series of 7 Jazz Concerts 11 Sept. 70 
Smithsonian Display of Paper Money Documents South Carolina's 

History 15 Sept. 70 

Smithsonian To Show Art of H. Lyman Sayen 16 Sept. 70 

Wilson Center Sets Deadline for Fellowship Applications 16 Sept. 70 

Smithsonian, Left Bank Society Sponsor Jazz Quartet Concert 21 Sept. 70 

Lithographs Depict Romantic View of 19th Century Women 21 Sept. 70 
"Pinocchio" To Open September 30 at Smithsonian Puppet Theatre 21 Sept. 70 

Freer Lectures To Begin With Talk on Indian Art 22 Sept. 70 

237 



238 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 



Dr. Roy Strong To Speak at National Portrait Gallery 
Smithsonian Sales Exhibit To Feature Georgia Crafts 
A Smithsonian Entomologist Probes Origins of South Pacific's 

Insects 
NCFA To Present Concert of Music by Erik Satie 
Smithsonian To Exhibit Works by Tapio Wirkkala 
Antique Firearms Given to Smithsonian 
Talents of Lorton Reformatory Inmates Going on Display at 

Anacostia Museum 
NCFA To Show Paintings of William Henry Holmes 
Dizzy Gillespie Quintet To Give Concert Oct. 17 
Wilson Center To Welcome First Fellows Oct. 19 
Singer Betty Carter, Donald Byrd Ensemble Will Give Smithsonian 

Concert Oct. 31 
National Portrait Gallery Exhibition Will Trace Life of John 

Quincy Adams 
Division of Performing Arts To Sponsor Concert Series 
Smithsonian Publishes First Unified Directory of World's 

Environmental Monitoring Systems 
Exotic Fish Imports Endanger Environment 
Smithsonian Museum Shops Offering Two Bonestell Space Prints 

for Sale 
Ford Gives $95,000 Grant To Woodrow Wilson Fellow 
Space Flight Recordings Presented To Smithsonian 
Kathakali Dance Theater To Appear at Smithsonian 
Smithsonian To Exhibit Photos by David Plowden 
Statement by S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the Smithsonian 

Institution, at Announcement of Joint Peace Corps Smithsonian 

Environmental Program, Oct. 27, 1970 
Museum Shops Offering Show, Sale of Contemporary Jewelry 
Alarius Ensemble Will Open Smithsonian Concert Season 
Smithsonian To Honor Cartoonist Rube Goldberg With Special Show 
Smithsonian Will Convene Symposium on Cultural Styles and 

Social Identity 
Dr. Cyril Smith To Speak on Metallurgy and History 
Yvonne Rainer Dance Troupe To Perform at Smithsonian 
Rudolf Kelterborn To Lecture on Contemporary Swiss Music 
Openings of Christmas Sales-Exhibitions at Museum Shops of 

Smithsonian Institution 
Left Bank Jazz Society, Smithsonian To Present Charles Tolliver 

Concert 
Study Program for Scholars Set up by National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
Hubel Appointed Director of Smithsonian Press 
Rare Collection of Earthenware To Go on Display November 13 
Dr. Scanlon To Give Lecture on Chinese Pottery in Egypt 
Dutch Officer To Give Lecture on Aviation Archaeology Project 
Note To Editors — Rube Goldberg Press Preview 
Rising Ethnic Consciousness Alters "Melting Pot" Concept 
Historian Cites Role of "Myths" in Nation's Cultural Development 



22 Sept. 


70 


23 Sept. 


70 


24 Sept. 


70 


24 Sept. 


70 


29 Sept. 


70 


30 Sept. 


70 


30 Sept. 


70 


1 Oct. 


70 


6 Oct. 


70 


7 Oct. 


70 


10 Oct. 


70 


14 Oct. 


70 


15 Oct. 


70 


16 Oct. 


70 


19 Oct. 


70 


19 Oct. 


70 


19 Oct. 


70 


21 Oct. 


70 


21 Oct. 


70 


22 Oct. 


70 


26 Oct. 


70 


28 Oct. 


70 


29 Oct. 


70 


30 Oct. 


70 


30 Oct. 


70 


31 Oct. 


70 


3 Nov. 


70 


3 Nov. 


70 


4 Nov. 


70 


5 Nov. 


70 


6 Nov. 


70 


6 Nov. 


70 


9 Nov. 


70 


9 Nov. 


70 


10 Nov. 


70 


12 Nov. 


70 


13 Nov. 


70 


13 Nov. 


70 



APPENDIX 8. PUBLIC AFFAIRS 



239 



Freddie Hubbard Quintet Will Appear November 31 
National Collection of Fine Arts To Show 83 Works by 19th 

Century Landscape Painter 
Dr. Pennington To Demonstrate Ornamentation of Messiah Solos 
Left Bank To Present Trumpeter Lee Morgan 
Lewis Mumford Will Receive Smithsonian's Hodgkins Medal 
NCFA Will Show 65 Drawings and Sculptures by Paul Manship 
National Portrait Gallery Acquires Rare Painting of President 

Monroe 
Smithsonian Will Present "The Electric Stereopticon" 
Smithsonian, Left Bank Jazz Society Will Present Last Poets 

at Howard 
Dr. Harold P. Stern Named Director of Freer Gallery 
Apollo 12 "Atomic Battery" To Be Given to Smithsonian 
Wilson Center Sets Deadline for Fellowship Applications 
Romaine Brooks: "Thief of Souls" 

Three Distinguished Scholars Named Wilson Center Fellows 
Two Famous Planes Exhibited at Smithsonian 
Apollo 11 Spacecraft on View on the Mall 
Smithsonian To Show Pakistani Prints 
Smithsonian Offers Puppet Theatre for Washington Area 

Performances 
Memorial Fund To Be Established at National Museum of 

Natural History 
Challinor Named Smithsonian Deputy Assistant Secretary 
Joanna Featherstone To Present Program of Afro-American Poetry 
Smithsonian Commissions Submersible Oceanographic Vessel 
Experts To Talk on Print Collecting at National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
Smithsonian Will Exhibit "100th Street" Photo Show 
Teaching Exhibit on Naturalist John Muir is Scheduled 
Portraits by 18th Century Painter To Be Shown by Smithsonian 

Museum 
Wilkinson To Lecture at Freer on Drinking Vessels of Persia 
Oceanography at the Smithsonian 
J. Seward Johnson — Biography 
I. Eugene Wallen — Biography 
Edwin A. Link — Biography 

Smithsonian Will Present Sanasardo Dance Company 
Personnel Chief, Associate Appointed at Smithsonian 
Smithsonian Exhibits Art Inspired by Space Program 
Anacostia Exhibit Traces Move ". . . Toward Freedom" 
"The First Two Years": A Photographic Impression of the 

Presidency 
Environmental Law Conference Will Be Held at Smithsonian 
Paintings of John Henry Legend on Display at Smithsonian Museum 
Smithsonian To Present Second "Music from Marlboro" Concert 
National Collection of Fine Arts Will Show Venice Biennale Prints 
Smithsonian Gives First Maury Medal for Ocean Science to Link, 

Johnson 



16 Nov. 


70 


16 Nov. 


70 


16 Nov. 


70 


17 Nov. 


70 


19 Nov. 


70 


23 Nov. 


70 


25 Nov. 


70 


1 Dec. 


70 


1 Dec. 


70 


2 Dec. 


70 


3 Dec. 


70 


4 Dec. 


70 


7 Dec. 


70 


9 Dec. 


70 


11 Dec. 


70 


11 Dec. 


70 


15 Dec. 


70 


15 Dec. 


70 


15 Dec. 


70 


18 Dec. 


70 


21 Dec. 


70 


21 Dec. 


70 


22 Dec. 


70 


23 Dec. 


70 


23 Dec. 


70 


23 Dec. 


70 


23 Dec. 


70 


28 Dec. 


70 


28 Dec. 


70 


28 Dec. 


70 


28 Dec. 


70 


28 Dec. 


70 


7 Jan. 


71 


11 Jan. 


71 


11 Jan. 


71 


12 Jan. 


71 


12 Jan. 


71 


13 Jan. 


71 


15 Jan. 


71 


21 Jan. 


71 



21 Jan. 71 



240 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

National Portrait Gallery Exhibition Will Pay Homage to Negro 

History Week 
Mayor Washington To Visit Portrait Gallery 
Smithsonian Scientists Publish Mexican Meteorite Study Results 
NCFA To Present Dramatic Reading Feb. 27 
Inventory of American Paintings Begins 
Marine Biology Lectures To Be Held at Smithsonian 
Freer Lecturer To Discuss Work of Japanese Painter 
American Impressionist Painters Shown in New Galleries at 

National Collection 
NCFA To Show Portraits by "Thief of Souls"' 
Smithsonian Sets Up Program To Promote Indian Awareness 
Smithsonian Museums Add Evening Hours 

Five Soloists To Present Finale of "Music from Marlboro" Series 
Michael Collins, Apollo Astronaut, Will Direct Air and Space 

Museum 
Michael Collins — Biography 

National Air and Space Museum — Background Material 
Puppet Theatre To Reopen March 24 at Smithsonian 
Music from Marlboro Artists Will Make Final Washington 

Appearance 
Ohio, Northwest Indians, Labor To Be Featured at Smithsonian's 

5th Annual Folklife Festival 
Kite Fliers Invited To Compete in Contest in Washington April 10 
Frans Brueggen To Perform at Smithsonian March 15 
Freer Director To Lecture on Ming Porcelain March 16 
New Art Show Offers Inside View of Body 
New Music Choral Ensemble III Will Perform at Smithsonian 
D.C. Grade School Art To Be Shown at NCFA 
Smithsonian Commissions Architects To Design National Zoo 

Master Plan 
Lecture Series at National Collection To Trace Roots of Modern 

American Art 
In Sight and Sound, Smithsonian Portrays Development of 

Machines That Make Music 
Contemporary West Coast Graphics To Be Shown at Smithsonian 

Museums 
Low Cost Furniture To Be Exhibited at National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
Archaeologist Iris Love To Give Lecture at Smithsonian April 2 
Freer Galley Opens Two Special Exhibitions 
Lecture at Freer To Focus on Chinese Landscape Painting 
Exhibit of Arms and Armor of Japan Opens at Smithsonian 
John Marin Centennial Exhibition To Be Shown by Smithsonian 

Museum 
National Portrait Gallery Exhibition To Honor Unknown 18th 

Century Artist 
Children's Day: An Art Happening at National Collection of 

Fine Arts 



29 Jan. 


71 


29 Jan. 


71 


2 Feb. 


71 


2 Feb. 


71 


8 Feb. 


71 


9 Feb. 


71 


10 Feb. 


71 


10 Feb. 


71 


12 Feb. 


71 


16 Feb. 


71 


16 Feb. 


71 


17 Feb. 


71 


19 Feb. 


71 


19 Feb. 


71 


19 Feb. 


71 


22 Feb. 


71 


22 Feb. 


71 


23 Feb. 


71 


1 Mar. 


71 


5 Mar. 


71 


8 Mar. 


71 


8 Mar. 


71 


9 Mar. 


71 


15 Mar. 


71 


15 Mar. 


71 


17 Mar. 


71 


19 Mar. 


71 


19 Mar. 


71 


22 Mar. 


71 


23 Mar. 


71 


24 Mar. 


71 


24 Mar. 


71 


26 Mar. 


71 


30 Mar. 


71 


31 Mar. 


71 


1 Apr. 


71 



2 Apr. 

6 Apr. 

8 Apr. 
12 Apr. 
15 Apr. 


7 
7 
7 
7 
7 


15 Apr. 
20 Apr. 


7 
7 



APPENDIX 8. PUBLIC AFFAIRS 241 

Smithsonian Announces Evening Hours for Museum of History 

and Technology 
Museum of Natural History Opens Section of Physical Geology Hall 
Special Exhibit Shows Faces of D.C. Children 
Anacostia Museum, D.C. Art Group Present 3rd Annual Exhibit 
Wilson Center Sets May 1 Deadline for Applications 
Smithsonian Will Produce Festival of American Folklore in 

Montreal 
Seventh Annual Link Lecture To Be Held at Smithsonian 
Contemporary Lebanese Paintings Will Be Exhibited in Washington 22 Apr. 7 
NCFA Announces Schedule of Exhibitions and Special Events 22 Apr. 7 

N.J. Firm Presents Historic Dividing Engines to Museum 23 Apr. 7 

High School Graphics To Be Exhibited at NCFA 26 Apr. 7 

Texas-Size Project Yields Millions of Fossil Shells from Tons of Rock 26 Apr. 7 
Illustrated Lecture on American Art Rescheduled by National 

Collection 28 Apr. 7 

Two Story Lunar Module To Go on Exhibition at Smithsonian 29 Apr. 7 

Iron Axes Made Centuries Before China's Iron Age Were Fabricated 

from Meteorite, Experts Find 29 Apr. 7 

Children's Day at NCFA To Feature Indians, Puppets, Craftsmen, 

Do-It-Yourself Art 3 May 7 

Smithsonian To Feature Work of Artisans Continuing American 

Handcraft Tradition 3 May 7 

Peace Corps Poster Contest Entries To Be Shown at Smithsonian 

May 8-16 4 May 7 

GE Gives Household Appliances to Smithsonian History Museum 6 May 7 

Ted Mack To Lecture on Broadcasting May 13 at Smithsonian 

History Museum 7 May 7 

Smithsonian Puppet Theatre To Reopen for Summer May 22 10 May 7 

Smithsonian Museum To Display Mexican Stamps by U.S. Artist 10 May 7 

Special Exhibition To Commemorate 100 Years of Microfilm 

Technology 11 May 7 

Government Information, the Media and the Public 13 May 7 

National Portrait Gallery Extends Benbridge Exhibition 13 May 7 

Center for the Study of Man To Hold Population Meetings 13 May 7 

NCFA To Exhibit Drawings from Collection of John Davis Hatch 17 May 7 
National Portrait Gallery Exhibition Will Salute Kennedy Center 

Inaugural 19 May 7 

National Portrait Gallery Will Honor Mary McLeod Bethune 19 May 7 

Special Exhibition Traces History of Plastic Surgery 21 May 7 

Wilson Center To Sponsor Foreign Policy Dialogue 21 May 7 

Folk Skills of American Labor Will Be Featured at Annual 

Smithsonian Festival on Mall July 1-5 24 May 7 

Two New Smithsonian Museums Are an Undiscovered Resource 24 May 7 

New Children's Gallery at National Collection "A Looking, 

Dreaming, Thinking, Imagining Place" 24 May 7 

Report Analyzes New State Approaches to Environment 26 May 7 

Smithsonian Puppet Theatre Open Through Labor Day, Adopting 

Summer Schedule 27 May 71 



242 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 



Annual Smithsonian Boomerang Competition Scheduled for June 5 

on Monument Grounds 28 May 71 
Summer Film Series at National Collection To Focus on Eight 

Modern American Artists 4 June 71 

Smithsonian's Science Hotline Issues Annual Report for 1970 4 June 71 

Campbell Museum Collection Shows Tureens as Fine Art 7 June 71 

Smithsonian To Present Talk on Mexican Organs 7 June 71 
Movies by Teenagers From D.C. Area Will Be Screened at Museum 

Festival 7 June 71 
Mack McCormick Appointed Director of Smithsonian's Festival of 

American Folklife in Montreal, Canada 8 June 71 
Portrait Gallery Plans Exhibition on "Black Sounds of the Twenties" 9 June 71 
Richard Lahey To Talk at National Collection on the Noted 

American Artists He Has Known 9 June 71 
Bust of Labor Leader John L. Lewis Will Be Given to Portrait 

Gallery 10 June 71 

423-Carat Logan Sapphire Will Be Unveiled June 22 10 June 71 
First Synthetic Gem-Quality Diamonds Will Be Given to 

Smithsonian June 17 10 June 71 
Dancers, Drummers, and Actors To Honor Black Educator 

In Courtyard Festival at National Portrait Gallery 14 June 71 

July 4 Exhibit at Smithsonian Will Feature Marquetry Flags 14 June 71 
Oregon Arts Administrator Appointed Chief of Smithsonian 

Traveling Exhibition Service 15 June 71 

Public Invited to Art Show at Swiss Embassy June 25-28 16 June 71 

NASM To Receive Painting From Spanish Ambassador 17 June 71 

Open House Scheduled at National Collection 17 June 71 
Indians of Northwest To Demonstrate Traditional Culture at 

Smithsonian Institution Folklife Festival July 1-5 18 June 71 
Unknown Art Masterpieces Will Be Unveiled in National Collection 

of Fine Arts Show 21 June 71 

Puerto Rican Dance Company To Appear at Folk Festival 23 June 71 

Concerts Set for Smithsonian's Museum of History and Technology 23 June 71 

Sol Tax Named To Direct Center for Study of Man 24 June 71 

Concert Set for Smithsonian's Museum of History and Technology 25 June 71 

Smithsonian Scientist Named To Link Foundation Trustees 29 June 71 

"Radio Smithsonian" Programs 

JULY 1970 

"Jacquard Mechanism and Nineteenth Century Jacquard Woven Coverlets." 

"India Chintz." 
"Hamilton College Choir and Brass Choir." 
"Division of Musical Instruments Record" (two programs). 

AUGUST 1970 



"Recital of Twentieth Century Piano Music by Pierre Huybregts." 
"The Princeton Chamber Orchestra." 



APPENDIX 8. PUBLIC AFFAIRS 243 

"Tarr and Kent Concert." 

"The 1970 American Folklife Festival" (two programs). 

SEPTEMBER 1970 

"Conversation with Joseph H. Hirshhorn and Abram Lemer," Director of the 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 
Interviews: Roy Strong, Director of the National Portrait Gallery, London; Dr. 

Sidney R. Galler, Assistant Secretary for Science, Smithsonian Institution. 
Benjamin Ruhe, Press Officer: "Boomerangs — It All Comes Back to Me Now"; 

Paul Garber, Air and Space Historian: "The Art of Kites." 
Dr. J. Lawrence Angel, Physical Anthropologist: "Working With Prehistoric 

Remains and Sleuthing for the FBI"; Paul V. Gardner, Curator of Ceramics: 

"Collectables." 

OCTOBER 1970 

Erwin Swann: "Thomas Nast: Influential Political Cartoonist or Artist?"; Rob- 
ert M. Vogel, Curator of Mechanical Engineering: "Our Inventive Past." 

His Excellency Lakshmi Jha, the Ambassador of India: "Gandhi." 

Lucy Kavaler, author of "Freezing Point": "She Ventured in the Cold"; Dr. 
Gordon Gibson, Curator of Old World Anthropology: "Scientific Safari." 

Dr. Lee Talbot, of the President's Council on Environmental Quality: "Environ- 
ment: What Are You Doing?"; Dr. Joshua Taylor, Director of the National 
Collection of Fine Arts: "What Have We Created?" 

NOVEMBER 1970 

"The Music of Erik Satie." 

Benjamin Read, Director, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars: 

"A Living Memorial"; Dr. Ray Smith: "A Temple for the Goddess Nefertiti. 
"Chamber Music," by the U.S. Air Force Ensemble. 
"Our Future Environment: Will We Have One?" (two programs selected from 

the General Assembly of the International Union of Biological Sciences). 

DECEMBER 1970 

Rube Goldberg: "Do It the Hard Way!" 

"Concert of Baroque Music." Alarius Ensemble of Brussels. 

"Early Christmas Music," with James Weaver, Concert Director for the Smith- 
sonian Division of Musical Instruments. 

"Do Snakes Have Souls?" with Dr. James Peters, Curator of the Division of Rep- 
tiles and Amphibians; "Reclaiming World War II Planes Downed in Nether 
lands Waters," Lt. Col. A. P. Dejong, Director of Information for the Royal 
Netherlands Air Force. 

JANUARY 1971 

"The Jazz Scene" (three programs). Julian Euell, former bassist, sociologist, and 
now Special Assistant for Public Service at the Smithsonian, and Dr. Donald 
Byrd, noted jazz trumpeter, composer, and Chairman of the Department of 
Jazz Studies at Howard University, in a musicated conversation about jazz 
and jazzmen. 



244 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1971 

"Bugging the Bugs," Dr. Barnard Burks, Research Entomologist in the Systematic 
Entomology Laboratory; "Curtain Going Up," William Blair, General Director 
of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. 

"Talking to the Animals," Warren Iliff, Special Assistant for the Director, Na- 
tional Zoological Park; "Commodore Perry: East to the Rising Sun," Roger 
Pineau, Managing Editor of the Smithsonian Press. 

FEBRUARY 1971 

"The Alarius Ensemble of Brussels," a concert ranging from contemporary to 
baroque music presented at the Smithsonian. 

"A Collection of Millions?", Dr. Richard S. Cowan, Director of the National 
Museum of Natural History; "You Are More Attractive With a Flat Head!," 
Dr. T. Dale Stewart, Senior Physical Anthropologist. 

"Council on Worms," Dr. Meredith L. Jones, Curator of the Division of Worms; 
"Scientists at Sea," Dr. I. Eugene Wallen, Director of the Office of Environ- 
mental Sciences. 

"Indians." A look at a major area of Smithsonian scholarship, the American 
Indian, his culture, and some of his problems today. 

MARCH 1971 

"Indians," Part II. 

"What If the Pacific Flows Into the Atlantic?," Dr. Ira Rubinoff, Assistant 
Director for Marine Biology, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; "The 
Unicorn Is Alive and Well, Living in Washington (also Kansas City, London 
and Mars)," Dr. John White, author and specialist in mythical animals. 

"The Birds and the Bees." A program in honor of the coming of spring. 

"The American Museum," Ian McCallum, Director of the American Museum in 
Britain; "I'll Give You a Dollar for That Penny," Dr. and Mrs. Clain-Stefanelli, 
Curators of Numismatics. 

APRIL 1971 

"American Bandsman." Selected music of John Philip Sousa with discussion by 
James Weaver, Concert Director, Division of Musical Instruments. 

"Toward a Lasting Peace." President Richard M. Nixon and Senator Hubert H. 
Humphrey speaking at the dedication of the Woodrow Wilson International 
Center for Scholars. 

"Global Crusade." Discussion of a joint international environment program with 
Robert K. Poole, Director, Environmental Programs, Peace Corps, and Dr. 
Dale W. Jenkins, Director, Ecology Program, Smithsonian Office of Environ- 
mental Sciences. 

"Thief of Souls." A Discussion of the art of Romaine Brooks with art student 
Gerald Adelman; "Henry Moore," a conversation with the great British 
sculptor. 

MAY 1971 

"Concert" by Frans Brueggen, recorder virtuoso, assisted by James Weaver, 
Smithsonian Concert Director, on the harpsichord, playing works by Corelli 
and Loeillet. 



APPENDIX 8. PUBLIC AFFAIRS 245 

"Who First Called it Jade?" A visit with Senator Hugh Scott of Pennsylvania. 

"Know Thyself." Dr. Raymond Stites, formerly with the National Gallery of 
Art, discusses the subject of his recent book The Sublimations of Leonardo da 
Vinci; Derek Rogers, Keeper of Art at the Brighton Pavilion, "Who Would 
Have Thought of an Oriental Pavilion in England?" 

"Sing While You Labor!" Tapes and talks on American work songs with Archie 
Green, Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations. 

"Do You Know About the Tinamu Bird?" Discussion with Dr. Sam Weeks, 
Curator of Birds at the National Zoological Park; "Are Plastic Spoons Prog- 
ress?" Dr. Eugene Knez, Old World Anthropology Department, National Mu- 
seum of Natural History, revisits a Korean village. 

"Folk Concert." Margaret MacArthur, folk singer and song collector from Ver- 
mont, with self-accompaniment on the dulcimer and the folk harp. 

"Concert." Bach and Handel Music, presented by the United States Air Force 
String Orchestra. 

"Music Machines — American Style" (two programs). A survey of popular styles 
in American music from barrel organs and player pianos to the most up-to- 
date high fidelity equipment. 

JUNE 1971 

"Folk Concert." Margaret MacArthur, folk singer and song collector from Ver- 
mont, with self-accompaniment on the dulcimer and the folk harp. 

"Concert." The United States Air Force String Orchestra, in concert at the 
Smithsonian, playing works by Bach and Handel. 

"Music Machines, American Style, Part I." A look at American music machines, 
from barrel organs and player pianos to the most up-to-date stereo equipment. 

"Music Machines, American Style, Part II." 



Appendix 9 



SMITHSONIAN EXHIBITS 



Special Exhibits 



History and Technology Building 



American Holidays — 

Discovery Day 

Founders' Day 

Fourth of July 

Labor Day 
Antique Toys 
Automat 

Benjamin Wright 
Campbell Museum Collection 
Civil Engineering 
Cyrus Field 
Do It the Hard Way 
Embryology 

George Washington Carver 
Ghandi Exhibit 



Graphic Arts 

Jacquard Loom 

Leon Collection 

Mexican Stamps 

Mr. Zip 

Music Machines — American Style 

Nixon Photographs 

Objects of the Month 

Perry Exhibit 

Plastic Surgery 

Poetry of the Body 

South Carolina Currency 

Stephen Whealton 

Women, Cameras, and Images (V) 



Natural History Building 



Drake Birds 
Fiberglass Show 
Flora of North America 
Indian Images 



Japanese Armor 
Moon Rock 
OEP Posters 
Reptiles' Photos 



National Air and Space Museum 



Aerial Explorations 
Apollo 14 
Early Bird 
NASA Benefit 



NASM Art Exhibit 
Robert McCall Art Exhibit 
Space Art 



246 



APPENDIX 9. SMITHSONIAN EXHIBITS 



247 



Arts and Industries Building 



Art Protis 

Bruce Davidson's Photos 
Dorothy Liebes 
Finnish Design 



Genteel Female 

The Hand of Man in America 

Vibrating World 

Woman 



Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 



Black Patriots 



Jewish Museum, New York 



Software 



Traveling Exhibit 



Energy Conversion 



Permanent Exhibitions 



History and Technology Building 



American Heroes 

Armed Forces Chronology (Navy) 

Autos and Coaches 

Ceramics 

Electricity 



Iron and Steel 
Maritime History 
Textiles 
Underwater History 



Natural History Building 



Age of Mammals (Quaternary) 

Archeology 

Dinosaurs 

Gems 



Native Peoples of the Americas 
Physical Geology 
Life in the Sea 
Tiger 



National Air and Space Museum 



Air and Space Building 
Beech Aircraft 
Goddard Exhibit 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1971 O 441-283