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Smithsonian Year 






City of Washington 







Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 67-7980. 

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The Smithsonian Institution 

The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 1846 in 
accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson of England, who 
in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of America "to 
found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an 
establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men." In 
receiving the property and accepting the trust, Congress determined that 
the federal government was without authority to administer the trust 
directly, and therefore, constituted an "establishment," whose statutory 
members are "the President, the Vice President, the Chief Justice, and the 
heads of the executive departments." 


Richard M. Nixon, President of the United States 

Spiro T. Agnew, Vice President of the United States 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States 

William P. Rogers, Secretary of State 

George P. Shultz, Secretary of the Treasury 

Melvin R. Laird, Secretary of Defense 
Richard G. Kleindienst, Attorney General 

Elmer T. Klassen, Postmaster General 
Rogers C. B. Morton, Secretary of Interior 

Earl L. Butz, Secretary of Agriculture 

Peter G. Peterson, Secretary of Commerce 

James D. Hodgson, Secretary of Labor 

Elliot L. Richardson, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare 

George W. Romney, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 

John A. Volpe, Secretary of Transportation 


Board of Regents and Secretary 

30 June 1972 

Presiding Officer ex officio 
Regents of the Institution 

Executive Committee (Permanent 

The Secretary 
Under Secretary 
Assistant Secretaries 


♦Retired effective 30 June 1972. 

Richard M. Nixon, President of the 

United States, Chancellor 
Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the , 

United States, Chancellor 
Spiro T. Agnew, Vice President of the \ 

United States 
Clinton P. Anderson, Member of the 

J. William Fulbright, Member of the 

Hugh Scott, Member of the Senate 
Frank T. Bow, Member of the House of 

George H. Mahon, Member of the House 

of R e pre sen ta fives 
John J. Rooney, Member of the House 

of Represen ta tives 
John Paul Austin, citizen of Georgia 
John Nicholas Brown, citizen of Rhode 

William A. M. Burden, citizen of New 

Robert F. Coheen, citizen of New Jersey 
Crawford H. Greenewalt, citizen of 

Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of Washington, 

A. Leon Higginbotham Jr., citizen of 

Thomas J. Watson, Jr., citizen of 

James E. Webb, citizen of Washington, 

Warren E. Burger, Chancellor (Board of 

Clinton P. Anderson 
William A. M. Burden 
Thomas J. Watson 
Caryl P. Haskins 
James E. Webb (Chairman) 
S. Dillon Ripley 
James Bradley* 
David Challinor, Assistant Secretary for 

Charles Blitzer, Assistant Secretary for 

History and Art 
William W. Warner, Assistant Secretary 

for Public Service 
T. Ames Wheeler 




The Smithsonian Institution iii 

Board of Regents and Secretary iv 

Statement by the Secretary 1 

Financial Report 25 

Science 51 

National Museum of Natural History 52 

National Air and Space Museum 61 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 62 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 67 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 71 

National Zoological Park 72 

Office of Environmental Sciences 76 

Center for the Study of Man 79 

Smithsonian Science Information Exchange 80 

Fort Pierce Bureau 80 

History and Art 82 

The National Museum of History and Technology 84 

Archives of American Art 92 

Freer Gallery of Art 93 

National Collection of Fine Arts 95 

National Portrait Gallery 99 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 100 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design 102 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 103 

Joseph Henry Papers 104 

Office of American Studies 105 

Office of Academic Studies 105 

Smithsonian Institution Archives 106 

Office of Seminars 107 

Special Museum Programs 109 

Office of Smithsonian and National Museum Programs 110 

Office of Exhibits Programs Ill 

Conservation-Analytical Laboratory 112 

Office of the Registrar 112 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 113 

Public Service 114 

Smithsonian Associates 115 

Office of Public Affairs 116 

Office of International Activities 117 

Division of Performing Arts 117 

Belmont Conference Center 118 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 119 

Smithsonian (magazine) 119 

Smithsonian Institution Press 120 


Reading Is Fundamental 121 

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 121 

Administrative Management 123 

National Gallery of Art 131 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 134 ; 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 138 


1. Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program 139 

2. Members of the Smithsonian Council 142 

3. Smithsonian Associates Membership 144 

4. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution 148 

5. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press 177 

6. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Staff 184 

7. Academic Appointments 243 

8. Public Affairs 251 

9. Smithsonian Exhibits 262 

10. Progress on Building Construction, Restoration, and Renovation .... 265 

1 1. Visitors to the Smithsonian Institution 266 


Statement of the Secretary 


The Pleasure of Your Company 

Of all places in the world, Washington seems to have the largest tourist 
attendance if the Smithsonian's annual visitor count is any indication. Last 
year the Smithsonian buildings, including the National Zoological Park in 
nearby Rock Creek, were visited by more than twenty million people. A 
year ago the Zoo made a survey showing that approximately 50 percent of 
its visitors are persons from a radius of more than 50 miles away from 
Washington, that is to say not from the immediate suburbs. Thus the 
National Zoo is indeed a nationally visited zoo. Extrapolating the figures 
for the total Smithsonian visitation on this basis would produce an 
extraordinary result. Something over five percent of the total population 
of the United States has visited the Mall buildings and the Zoo during the 
past year. This is the largest number of visitors that has been recorded for 
any institution. Other buildings in Washington also have a large number of 
recorded visitors, many of whom must be the same visitors of course. The 
United States Capitol has an annual estimate of seven to ten million people 
visiting the building but, as is also our case, there is no way of 
differentiating between members of the staff, Members of Congress, the 
press, people on business calls, and others. It does appear that on 
particularly heavy days the Capitol entertains as many as thirty thousand 
visitors on tours. In New York, the Metropolitan Museum has approxi- 
mately 2.25 million visitors a year and the American Museum of Natural 
History, 3.2 million annually. In Disneyland, California, there were about 
9.5 million visitors last year and the visitor count for Walt Disney World in 
Florida was approximately 7 million. 

Compared to these figures the total 20 million for the Smithsonian 
makes it by all odds the largest single center for visitors in the Nation, if 
not in the world. The National Park Service estimates that all over the 
nation as many as 200 million people have visited public installations 
under their care in the last year. This includes, of course, everything from 
battlefields, national parks, the Statue of Liberty, The White House 
(1,391,300), to historic homes, forests, and open space camping sites. 
These figures seem to indicate that Americans are as peripatetic as ever and 
as restless as Mark Twain and other authors have described. 


What special impact do the Smithsonian buildings have on twenty 
million visitors? This question represents a continuing enigma to us at the 
Institution, one that we shall probably never really solve. Certainly, as the 
years go on, my own impression is that the American tourists consider the 
Smithsonian's public exhibits as part of their birthright, and maintain a 
residual sense for many years afterwards of a kind of pilgrimage to this 
center in Washington, a visit to the place where the truths of their origins 
will be revealed. Of all the buildings visited on the Mall, the one with the 
largest tourist count is the National Museum of History and Technology, 
and as one might suspect, here is felt the pulse of American history. Here 
are the visible evidences of America, the desk on which Thomas Jefferson 
wrote the Declaration of Independence, the flag that flew over Fort 
McHenry and inspired, apocryphally or not, our Nation's anthem, the 
uniform of General George Washington, his field campaign tent, memo- 
rabilia of famous men and women and examples of our culture and crafts 
from earliest times. The National Museum of History and Technology is a 
veritable archive of objects. It makes patent American history and speaks 
of the struggles and triumphs of American men and women. Surely this 
will be one of the most important shrines for American visitors during 
the Bicentennial Year of 1976. 

Another center for historical interest, which we hope to complete by 
1976, will be the National Air and Space Museum Building. Time, strikes, 
weather, and material shortages notwithstanding, our target is to open this 
new museum during the Bicentennial year. The National Air and Space 
Museum will have within it not only the documents of the history of 
man's conquest of the air and space, the machines, the objects involved in 
the bewildering triumphs of air and space technology, but also archives 
and records of those who have made the discoveries and the flights 
possible. We shall also have a fascinating auditorium, a space which we 
have christened the "spacearium," in which it should be possible not only 
to achieve the impressions gained in a planetarium but also seemingly to 
project the visitor out into space looking back on Mother Earth. 

This coming winter we shall be experimenting with a model of the 
spacearium in the form of a smaller-domed projection auditorium in the 
old Air and Space Building in the hope of refining our techniques and 
making the exhibit technologically perfect. It is estimated that the visitor 
count during the first year to the National Air and Space Museum will be 
in excess of six million, presumably taking care of the anticipated 30 
million visitors on the Mall during the Bicentennial Year of 1976. The 
contemplation of such a vast aggregation of tourists is staggering almost 
beyond comprehension. In his 4th of July speech the President cited 
"Festival USA" as part of the Nation's plan for the Bicentennial and 
mentioned also the "Nation of Nation's" slogan which the National 


Museum of History and Technology had adopted for its major exhibit 
during the Bicentennial Year. 

The record of this country's performance in such areas as politics, 
economics, and science is clear, but the attitude of Americans towards the 
arts— ranging as it sometimes has, from apathy to antagonism— has left us 
with little understanding of their history. One of the purposes of the 
Smithsonian's program for the American Revolution Bicentennial Celebra- 
tion is to develop a Bicentennial Survey of American Art. This will 
embrace the National Collection of Fine Arts' Bicentennial Inventory of 
American Painting, the National Portrait Gallery's catalog of portraits of 
the revolutionary era, the Archives of American Arts' Bibliography of 
American Art, and the Division of Performing Arts' Survey of American 
Folk Culture. Most of these were begun two years ago with the first 
Congressionally approved appropriation to the Smithsonian for the 
Bicentennial. In addition, the National Gallery has important plans for 
exhibitions. During those two years plans have been formulated for the 
various parts of the Survey; hundreds of local, state, and regional 
organizations and institutions have been invited to cooperate in it; 
computer programs and retrieval systems have been developed and forms 
have been prepared for the gathering of information. To date some 1,226 
museums and historical societies all over the country and in Canada have 
undertaken to gather information for the National Collection of Fine Arts 
Inventory, which already lists more than 18,000 paintings. About 5,000 
items have been entered in the National Portrait Gallery's Catalogue of 
American Revolutionary Portraits. This Survey is one that promises to 
produce one of the most enduring products for students and scholars of 
our Nation's cultural achievements. 

In the realm of exhibits, the Smithsonian has developed a Bicentennial 
Exhibition Program, designed to produce special exhibits in all of our 
major museums, as well as traveling Bicentennial exhibits for use 
throughout the country. During this year some four million persons 
viewed our traveling exhibits throughout the United States and Canada. 
One can only surmise how many more will wish to see the Bicentennial 
displays planned especially for them. We also plan to have additional 
exhibits, catalogs, the possible acquisition of special objects and the 
production of traveling versions of these exhibits. The Anacostia Neighbor- 
hood Museum is planning to create a new center for the design and 
production of imaginative and inexpensive exhibits on themes of special 
interest to minority groups, to the disadvantaged, and to all those 
throughout the country who do not normally visit museums. This center 
will serve also as a training place for young people drawn from all parts of 
the country who wish to learn the special skills involved in communication 
through objects and exhibits. In addition we plan to contribute to 


intergovernmental agencies, Bicentennial projects, such as the exhibit in 
the Great Hall of the Department of Commerce Building. Altogether the 
Smithsonian's contributions to the Bicentennial Year should be epoch 
making in the Mall area itself; and if, in addition we can create an outdoor 
museum in one of the neighboring park areas along the Potomac for the 
history of the Armed Forces revolutionary period, we will have played a 
still more significant role in the welcome to Washington for the thirty 
millions of visitors expected at that time. 

If the fifty percent increase in visitors, expected by 1976, is to be 
accommodated without an increase in available parking facilities, the 
saturation point will have been exceeded. By then, the Air and Space 
Museum Building, the addition to the National Gallery of Art, and the 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden will have joined the other 
buildings on the Mall, and added over 50 percent to the present 760,514 
square feet of public exhibit space, to make a total of 1,154,964 square 
feet. This tremendous increase in exhibition area, and one which will have 
unusual architectural distinction, will, we believe, accommodate a forecast 
attendance of thirty million persons a year. But there is no doubt that 
things will be crowded, and particularly in the heat of summer, with the 
rush from one activity to the other, the temper of our visitors may wear 
thin. Hence, it is even more important that the activities planned for 1976 
be festive and that Washington, as a whole, prepare itself for the challenge 
of "Festival USA." The Smithsonian, with appropriate help from the 
National Park Service and kindred organizations, and with the blessing of 
Congress and of the administration, will do its part, and every member of 
our staff will be taxed to the limit. To this challenge, there are no 
alternatives: 1976 is a year of promise for all Americans and it is a year in 
which many foreigners will want to share. Restless as Americans are, they 
will come. Patient as they are they will withstand the tiredness, the aching 
feet, the shrill cries of little children who cannot be left behind. The year 
will come and go with a resounding crashing of many feet on the Mall, 
millions hungry for these sights will not be denied. 

What impression will the visitors have in that year? What semblence of 
the past, what hope for the future will they take away when they leave the 
Nation's Capital? The Smithsonian is more than simply concerned with the 
past. Our objects are "documents," carefully conserved and lovingly 
curated, representing more than merely a panorama of past history. They 
indicate the scope of man's inventiveness, his ability to create, and the 
technical skill and craft innovation which have placed America in the 
forefront of the nations of the world. 

In a recent commencement address Nathan Glazer, the sociologist, 
spoke of the question of productivity and the fact that in the present 
youth culture in the United States there seems to be a rejection of 


ambition and competition. As he put it, the position of the United States 
in world trade and technology is dependent on its youth. It is dependent 
on a continuity of such skills and such creativeness. Without that our 
standing could be significantly diminished in time. He contemplated a 
possible future in which Japanese youth "take pride in turning out ever 
more efficient and complex transportation and electronic devices, while 
American youth take satisfaction in fashioning leather belts and making 
organic bread." 

A recent article in The New York Times cited a foreign correspondent's 
impression of the difficulties of education in a country abroad. Describing 
the present trends in that country the writer noted the government's 
concern for educational techniques and training which have failed to 
preserve traditional labor in agriculture and crafts, noting that the youth, 
especially of more affluent families, desired to go to college today, 
whereas 30 years ago a high school diploma was considered a mark of 
prestige. The writer commented on the government's increasing concern 
over vanishing agricultural labor on farms and the distaste expressed by the 
young for craft or machine work in factories. As it happened the country 
was the Soviet Union although the resemblance to the United States seems 

Why is it that young people today find education itself a pleasurable 
occupation, to be prolonged as long as possible, in a kind of extended 
playpen, and why is it that no one really seems interested in getting down 
to a job? 

These are some of the questions which continually bewilder all of us 
concerned with education. They are not necessarily questions confined to 
educators. It often seems to me that the Smithsonian should concern itself 
with these problems based on our reservoir of information about the 
history of the growth of American culture. If American culture is 
changing, then there should be some way of assessing and measuring this 
even within the records of the recent past. I have often stated that a 
museum should be like a kind of planetarium, almost like the spacearium 
which the National Air and Space Museum contemplates building. It 
should be possible to set in motion a chain of events within a museum 
which would lead up through an exposition of the past into the present 
and then, bearing these points of reference in mind, preparing a projection 
for the future. If we could think of a museum as a kind of "social 
spacearium" then it should be possible to determine why it is that at this 
present stage in American culture, there is such a sense of alienation from 
traditional values and such a sense of apathy about traditional skills and 
cultural refinements. From art to technology, there seems to be a peculiar 
lack of industry, creativeness, and desire to follow in any mould today. 

In many ways art today is sick, suffering from a surfeit of invention, 


which has produced a sense of negativism. Artists today dwell in a half 
world, bored on the one hand with derivative skills and the techniques of 
realism, on the other hand virtually barren of inspiration. The result is a 
kind of nihilism, a sense of frustration out of which a feeling of self 
destruction and sadism seems to emerge. At the Venice Biennale a group 
of revolutionary young artists voted to applaud the act of the mentally 
disturbed Hungarian engineer who defaced Michelangelo's Pieta, as a 
heroic act of anti art (= presumably art?). This sort of gesture is beyond 
Dada, beyond surrealism, perhaps part of an odyssey into a new psychic 
realm-the "freak -out." 

In technology the labor unions, on the one hand, and industrial 
planners, on the other, are concerned that the young of the most highly 
skilled, inventive, and technologically developed country in the world are 
no longer interested in the refinements and skills on which our society 
depends. Here again is a kind of nihilism which one must deplore, for it is 
so naive. If we are to succeed in making the envelope of earth viable for 
future generations, we must continue to develop the skills on which our 
very culture depends. 

Only with greater skills and a greater understanding of the lessons of 
applied science can we achieve an ultimate adaptation between human life 
and the supporting forces of earth, which will allow human life to 
continue. This dilemma is heightened today by the tension between the 
universities, on the one hand, and the students and their parents, on the 
other. The universities have been plagued by negativism and self-doubt. 
The students, many of whom really are not qualified for university life in 
principle, are led astray by the play syndrome, or by feelings of frustration 
or rancor at the failure of their expectations. The parents are frustrated 
because of their own expectations for their children inherent in the 
American dream. And so all elements in the mixed salad that is American 
education today are at odds. The institutions, afflicted with self-doubt and 
a nagging loss of purpose, are about as popular to the taxpayer as other 
municipal or state supported institutions, such as sanitariums and prisons. 
We know we need them or something like them, but we hate to have to 
pay for them. In this atmosphere leadership is difficult if not impossible, 
and mere training and the transfer of information becomes the rule. 

What is, of course, needed is some development of training institutes 
for the many youths who need such training in skills. But how to make 
that dignified? How to make it more glamorous? How to invest such 
potential career-training with an aura of excitement? Without it, the 
urgent needs of education will not be solved. One can only applaud U.S. 
Commissioner of Education, Sidney Marland's concept of "career educa- 
tion" at different levels from primary to continuing adult. What we need is 
a return to the concept of a tradition and pride in crafts and skills through 


curriculum reform. 

The problems of the Smithsonian for the next few years are going to 
evolve largely around "the pleasure of your company" and how best to let 
some of what we have to tell about America rub off on the increasing 
millions of visitors. It is all very well for us to spend time, money, and 
great intellectual effort planning and designing new buildings as part of the 
Smithsonian complex of public enterprises on the Mall, but it is going to 
be physically impossible to entertain the very crowds we welcome unless 
some accommodation can be reached among the city of Washington, the 
legislators who rule us, and the federal government. Signs and portents are 
all around. Cassandra-like voices have been calling for the development (via 
the Pennsylvania Avenue Commission of a number of years ago) of new 
centers for visitors, of outlying satellite parking, of bus services and other 
means of transporting people. It will be most difficult to handle the very 
masses of people whom the President wishes to welcome for "Festival 
USA" for 1976 even with the present schemes of busing and the 
development of the Metro. Visitor surveys seem to be largely unheeded. It 
is difficult to assess the eventual costs of building a transportation network 
that will get tourists to the central attractions of the Capital city. No one 
seems really to want to pay for it all, and yet so much of the economic life 
of Washington depends on its tourist traffic. If twenty million people a 
year are coming to the Smithsonian buildings today, how many more will 
have been here by 1976 to increase the glut and congestion? 

Recently I had a letter from South Dakota. 

Dear Mr. Ripley, 

I bought a $12 Smithsonian membership [I think he meant an Associate mem- 
bership which is $10] because I thought it would help when we visited. We probably 
will never know! 

Yesterday we were able finally to get on to the street your front door is on-the 
heat was terrific-the people thicker than hair on a dog's back-and by the good Lord 
himself you could not find a place to park your car-Sooo - we decided, in a word, 
tohellwithit-we have had a lovely day here in Dayton at the Air Force Museum. 

My 13 year old son and I also spent three days at the Museum of Science and 
Industry in Chicago. When we finish here we are going to St. Louis and see the 
Arch-so we will see our share-in spite of your lousy parking situation. 

We honestly do suggest that better parking and more of it be provided for us 
country bumkins from the sticks and further- so somehow we can see what we keep 
hearing about when we come to town. 

And no wonder. One Associate member who receives Smithsonian 
magazine wrote in to tell us that he lives in Arlington, Virginia, and that 
the only way that he sees the Smithsonian is through our magazine. 
Whenever he sees the buildings it is usually to drop off visitors to town, 
leave them at the front door, drive around, and pick them up two hours 
later. This means that many of the less persistent residents of Washington 


city, itself, and the immediate suburbs simply have no time to get to the 

It becomes not worth-while. It is too much of a struggle. We certainly 
cannot blame them. The tourists will come despite any amount of traffic 
jams and problems. It is really going to be difficult in the coming years for 
Washington to become so relatively unpopular that the tourist traffic will 
fall off. Rather, people remain persistent, they remain hopeful, and, one 
hopes, they remain enthusiastic. 

Recently, when planning for the National Air and Space Museum (plans 
approved by the Congress now many years ago), voices were heard on 
Capitol Hill that we should not go ahead with the plans for the Air and 
Space Museum because of the present congestion of visitors. But if we are 
not to go ahead with plans for a new building already long approved, 
which will enhance the popular understanding of science and technology 
among the American people, then how are we to proceed? Should we 
simply shut up shop and go away? The Institution is already here, the 
plans for the new building are already in existence. Everything that we can 
do to mobilize public opinion and to engage the interests of the young in 
American history, the history of our technological achievements, and the 
hopes for the future, must somehow be done. If it is not to be done by the 
Smithsonian in Washington then how is it to be done? Some Members of 
Congress may find it more appealing to have the Air Force Museum in 
Dayton or a museum of science and industry in Chicago assume the task, 
but this is begging the question. The National Collections must be 
exhibited in Washington. The city itself continues to be an enormous 
tourist attraction for Americans from every part of the country. Surely the 
Congressmen themselves on reflection will realize that these are their own 
constituents and that there will be growing concern over the years if 
somehow these constituents are not shown the heritage of America and its 
hopes for the future. In any case, a traffic survey made for us around the 
site of the new Air and Space Museum showed that having the building 
there rather than a parking lot and cross streets as at present, will actually 
decrease traffic congestion at peak periods by cutting off diversionary 
cross traffic, improving the parking situation, and providing some five 
hundred new spaces for tourists in a basement parking garage. 

And so we proceed with our plans, confident that over the years the 
city government, the Congress, and the Executive branch will somehow 
mobilize a coherent program to solve the parking situation and to handle 
the flow of visitors whom we all surely wish to see come to Washington. 
We will have to learn how to live with ourselves as well as visitors in some 
kind of harmony as far as transportation is concerned. 

In a way, Washington symbolizes the kind of general transportation 
problems of all urban areas, and yet it is a specialized one in so far as 


tourist traffic is concerned. Too much attention is being paid today to 
other areas, too little attention is being paid to inner city transportation 
problems. Concomitant with these transportation problems are the 
problems of the residents themselves. Somehow a new effort will have to 
be made to understand the interrelationships of people living in urban 
areas and people moving through and being part of these urban areas in 
transit. A whole aspect of human nature is involved. People do not like to 
be crowded beyond a certain point and the points vary, the degrees of 
toleration are endless. Anthropologists have mused on the fact that certain 
types of people accept life in aggregations more than others. The study of 
proxemics reveals that some people are more adapted to being closely 
crowded, almost as it were herded together, and that other kinds of people 
resent herding and wish to break out and be more solitary. And so it goes. 
People will continue to be motivated by different urges, will continue to 
differ in their reactions as well as in their appearance, and this will go on 
endlessly in spite of all attempts by planners, architects, engineers, and 
social philosophers to equate one person to another. 

Our very diversity and our ethnic variety are strong assets only now 
beginning to be realized. It is one more reason why the Smithsonian hopes 
over the next few years to think more deeply about the problems of 
representing man in his environment, perhaps to be encompassed in a 
Museum of Man? 

The problems of man and the representation and discussion of man in 
his environment are not simply the prerogatives of anthropologists. The 
sadness of museums of anthropology is that for most of the practitioners 
of ethnology these museums are merely legacies of extinction. Museums of 
anthropology in themselves have only existed for the past hundred years 
since the collections of the explorers began to be displayed. The Musee de 
l'Homme in Paris, perhaps the greatest of the existing museums of 
anthropology, is a place where one can find preserved exquisite records of 
extinct cultures, collections brought back by explorers themselves long 
dead. On the other hand, certain of the newer museums such as the 
National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City have done an excellent 
job in exhibiting the continuity of culture. More recently we have "urgent 
anthropology" as it is sometimes called, the last residues of that program 
of the explorers, initiated in this country by Major John Wesley Powell 
(who founded our own Bureau of American Ethnology in the Smithsonian 
a hundred years ago), to record the languages and artifacts of the 
American Indian before they became extinct. I have been told that there 
are still more than two dozen Indian dialects or subdialects which have 
eluded Powell and his followers and have not yet been fully described. In 
some cases they are spoken by only a handful of persons over 70 years of 
age, and, thus, as dialects or languages, will go to the grave with them. If 


this is so we cannot avoid an ultimate responsibility as curators, not 
merely in the failure to record an aspect of the creativity of the human 
spirit, but also that we ourselves have created the very extinctions which 
we now mourn. 

All over the world today, especially the tropical world, a sadness 
descends upon us, as we think of the ease with which cultures vanish 
before the onslaught of ourselves and our material artifacts. Tribes with 
whom I lived in New Guinea a dozen years ago have now already in the 
intervening time forgotten how to fashion stone axes and know only the 
steel ones. In fifty years I suppose they will have forgotten how to use 
axes at all and be dependent on power saws and gasoline-powered brush 
cutters. Thus these legacies of vanishing ways of life, collected by 
ethnologists and anthropologists are really the sole meaning of anthropo- 
logical museums. They are simply evidences of the evolution of groups and 
types of the varied material cultures of mankind. 

A modern Museum of Man, however, should be far more than a 
museum of collections and a museum of extinctions. A Museum of Man 
should be a museum of social and technological history and as such a 
matter of great moment and concern to us all whether we are American 
Indians, Caucasians, or members of any other ethnic subdivision. All 
citizens of the United States should be concerned, for within all of us 
there continues to reside heritable characters which, transmuted by 
whatever external pressures about us still persist, tend to evade change, 
and still produce our bewildering diversities. Anthropology as such does 
not seem any more a subject. It has become to many minority peoples a 
figment of the imagination of peoples of European stock. 

Nowhere could there be potentially better proof of the ability, 
phoenix-like, of a museum to show its true colors, not to be dead, but to 
be reborn, than in the case of anthropology. Ethnologists should cease to 
exist solely in the realms of connoisseurship and bring their functions and 
their collections up to date. They should do this by studying the peoples 
as they are today, how they survive, how their culture has molded them to 
adapt to this onrushing century and its international hucksterism. For they 
will not die out, all these different people, all these ethnic subcultures, 
these minorities of every kind. "Their cultural structure may become 
dilapidated" as Kubler describes the descendants of the Maya, but they 
will survive, and in so doing surely represent a cultural evolutionary 
response to hard knocks, which students of the welfare state might do well 
to recall. I have always felt that there were quantities of relevant data in 
the reactions of tribal people to the inroads of civilization. Psychologists 
and sociologists would do well to remember the vast resources that 
ethnographers and their museums of anthropology have at their disposal. 

So it seems to me that the subject of a Museum of Man is a vital 


forward looking one, which could help to place the capstone on the realm 
of public instruction which we can offer along the Mall. Somehow or other 
the Smithsonian should play a role in interpreting man to himself through 
all his endless varieties and diversity. 

The past year has seen the 125 th anniversary of the legislation that 
established the Smithsonian Institution. In September 1971 we celebrated 
this milestone. A letter from President Nixon described the contributions 
of the Smithsonian and paid tribute to the English scientist "whose 
generosity and vision first made its founding possible, and to the dedicated 
generations of scientists and scholars who carried forward its mission. This 
anniversary is a brilliant reminder of the public benefits that can result 
from enlightened private endowment." 

The 125th anniversary was celebrated with a delightful program of 
lectures and capped by a dinner at which birthday cakes in blue and gold 
colors were provided and messages from around the world were read. One 
of the interested participants in the 125 th anniversary was former 
Secretary C. G. Abbot of the Smithsonian, who in May, 1972, celebrated 
his 100th birthday. Eighty percent of the history of the Smithsonian has 
been encompassed in his lifetime and one half of the history of our 
Republic. Dr. Abbot's 100th birthday, coinciding so closely with the 
125th anniversary of the Smithsonian itself, reminded us once again of the 
transitory nature of recent history, the fact that in a flash, as it were— the 
lifetime of one man— fully half of the lifetime of our Nation has occurred. 
All of us concerned rejoiced both in the anniversary of the Institution and 
in the birthday anniversary of the fifth Secretary. We were delighted that 
all of his successors were able to be present as well, for it is in such a sense 
of continuity that we can overcome the feeling of speed and haste which 
somehow so easily overcome us today. 

It is significant that the largest of our two new enterprises, the 
Hirshhom gallery, on the one hand, and the National Air and Space 
Museum, on the other, should be concerned with objects and ideas and 
ways of thought which did not exist when former Secretary Abbot was 
already an adult. The Smithsonian itself as it now exists could hardly have 
been imagined at the turn of the century when Abbot had been working 
for this Institution for four years. The very idea of air and space 
technology was a dream, encompassed then only in the minds of 
visionaries. The emphasis of the museum community itself, the concern 
with social problems, and the attempts to understand our natural 
environment, are programs that similarly did not then exist. At the turn of 
the century, Darwin was barely accepted and his theories of evolution 
were still revolutionary. Now we realize that an understanding of the 
principles of Darwinian evolution is vital to our understanding of 
continued life on earth. 


Having a 125th anniversary reminds us of the continuing efforts that 
must be made to develop the most effective ways of administering so 
extraordinary an institution, preserving the richness of its variety and the 
liveliness of its parts, while retaining a general identity and a sense of 
purpose and direction. A new element in the administration of the 
Institution has been introduced this year with the retirement of James 
Bradley as Under Secretary and his replacement by Mr. Robert A. Brooks 
as The Assistant Secretary. Mr. Bradley, a veteran of 37 years of 
government service, came to the Smithsonian in 1959 as Assistant to the 
Secretary and was named Assistant Secretary in 1960 and Under Secretary 
in 1971. He had served as the principal technical and administrative 
assistant to the Assistant Secretary in the Department of the Interior since 
1950. Earlier, from 1945 to 1950, he served as a budgetary and legislative 
analyst in the Bureau of the Budget, Executive Office of the President. His 
ability to handle the various threads of administration and to support the 
Secretary's Office in all its aspects has been outstanding and one of my 
personal pleasures is the fact that he will continue to work for the 
Institution on a part-time basis in the future. Meanwhile, we welcome 
Mr. Brooks in his capacity as a replacement to Mr. Bradley and feel 
convinced that his unique background of training in classical scholarship 
and administrative achievement in the Department of Defense and in 
private industry in management will succeed in serving the Institution's 
purposes most successfully. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year David Challinor was appointed 
Assistant Secretary for Science. Mr. Challinor came to the Smithsonian in 
1966 with a background in forest ecology and museum administration. 
Subsequently he performed an excellent job as Director of the Office of 
International Activities and had been Acting Assistant Secretary for 
Science since the departure of Dr. Sidney Galler. 

Other activities in some of the outlying parts of the Institution have 
been of great interest in 1972. During this year recognition of the pioneer 
work of the team of Messrs. E. A. Link and J. Seward Johnson in 
developing the unique submersible vessel, the Johnson-Sea-Link and 
creating a marine center about five miles north of Fort Pierce, Florida, on 
the inland waterway, resulted in the creation of the Fort Pierce Bureau. 
The Bureau will be a center for research and development in the 
Smithsonian's continuing work in the sea. The five-man submersible 
Johnson-Sea-Link is a fascinating vessel in which I have had the good 
fortune to make a dive. It attains high visibility through a transparent 
acrylic forward compartment as well as a diver lockout capability from the 
aluminum afterchamber. It is possible to descend as deep as 1 ,000 feet or 
more for study of the structure and biology of the sea floor. The research 
vessel Johnson, now being completed, will service and act as a mother ship 


to the submarine. This bureau is under the direction of Dr. I. E. Wallen, 
who pioneered the marine sorting center facilities at the Smithsonian 
itself, and has been so active in our oceanographic program. 

Activities at the Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies have 
resulted in the Smithsonian Institution joining the Chesapeake Bay 
Research Consortium, Inc., for long term research of the area. This 
Consortium includes support from the National Science Foundation for 
scientists from the Smithsonian, Johns Hopkins, The University of 
Maryland and the Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences. In addition, close 
cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey will be maintained. The 
Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies continues to develop 
successfully through the mixture of private land acquisition and govern- 
ment agency support. During the past year, the Stevens farm of 150 acres 
was added to the acreage of the Center, which now consists of a total of 
2,261.26 acres, acquisition of which resulted from donations from private 
individuals and foundations. These included two major gifts in the past 
year: $200,000 from the Richard K. Mellon Foundation and $120,000 
from the Scaife Family Charitable Trusts. In addition a donation of one 
half of Jefferson Island gives the Smithsonian full title to two of the three 
islands in the Poplar Island group. This donation adds to the debt of 
gratitude which the Smithsonian owes to Dr. William L. Elkins of 
Philadelphia, whose generosity has been notable in the past. 

In October the Smithsonian Institution joined with the University of 
Tel Aviv in the dedication of a new sixty inch telescope at Mitzpeh 
Ramon. This is the largest telescope in Israel and further strengthens the 
SAO's connections in astronomy abroad. 

An additional bureau of the Smithsonian is the Cooper-Hewitt Museum 
in New York, which will become the eventual National Museum of Design. 
During the past year strong support has been given to the development of 
this museum in the Carnegie Mansion, a National Historic Landmark, 
through the gift of that mansion to the Smithsonian from the Carnegie 
Corporation, as well as an important contribution of $500,000 towards 
the renovation of the house by the Andrew F. Mellon Foundation. Further 
contributions have been notable including the gift of $100,000 by Mrs. 
Enid Haupt towards the conversion of one of the period rooms of the 
Carnegie Mansion, the beautiful old conservatory. It is planned that partial 
reconstruction of the Carnegie house will begin in the coming year. 

In Washington, a striking development of the past year has been the 
final opening of the Renwick Gallery on the corner of Pennsylvania 
Avenue and 17th Street. As readers of past annual reports will recall, the 
Renwick Gallery was the original W. W. Corcoran Gallery of Art, designed 
by our own architect of the Smithsonian Building, James Renwick of 
church and cathedral fame. Rechristened the Renwick Gallery, the 


building for many years had been the home of the Court of Claims, and in 
more recent times had lain uninhabited when the Court moved out to its 
new home on Jackson Place. The Renwick Gallery is next to the Blair 
House and across from the Executive Office Building and the White House. 
It is one of the city's loveliest and most historic buildings. Constructed just 
before the Civil War, it was the first building in this country designed 
specifically as a gallery for art, and finally given to the Smithsonian 
through the intervention of President Lyndon B. Johnson. When the 
building opened in January 1972, visitors could view the enormous north 
gallery on the second floor carefully restored to convey the impression of 
its appearance in its opening days in the 1870s. We are most grateful to the 
Corcoran Gallery of Art for the loan to the Smithsonian of a number of 
the paintings which appeared in this original gallery. The smaller octagonal 
room on the south side of the building has been carefully restored as a 
result of the generosity of the Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation. 
In addition contemporary furniture, industrial design and James Renwick's 
own historical architectural achievements, the Index of American Design, 
and Frederick Carder's glass craftsmanship were all parts of the current, 
contemporary exhibits for the opening. The building will serve continually 
as a showcase for American design, crafts, and the decorative arts, as well 
as serving as host for important cultural events from time to time. 

Another important milestone for Smithsonian installations in the 
Capital has been the preliminary approval of the master plan for the 
National Zoological Park, coupled with the arrival in this country and the 
donation to the National Zoo of the two giant pandas from the People's 
Republic of China. Mrs. Nixon presented the pandas to the Zoo in a 
ceremony on April 20th. Installed in the former Delicate Hoofstock 
Building, which is to be extensively renovated for these purposes, the 
pandas already have attracted an attendance fifty percent higher for the 
Zoo than in comparable periods of previous years. Ffforts are being made 
to have the pandas fed at times of the day that will give visitors maximum 
viewing possibilities. We are already learning far more about giant pandas 
than most of the previous records of their care in captivity had prepared us 
for. Hsing Hsing and Ling Ling were reported to be about the same age, 
approximately 18 months old, when they arrived in this country in 
mid- April, and are notable for the fact that they are very different in 
weight. The female, Ling Ling, weighed 136 pounds on arrival, but had 
been in captivity since June of 1971. The smaller male weighed only 74 
pounds on arrival, and may be slightly younger, but has been in captivity 
only since December 1971. It is thought by the Chinese keepers who 
accompanied the pandas to this country, that these animals grow more 
rapidly and increase their weight at a faster rate in captivity than they do 
in the wild state. 


Somewhat nocturnal or at least crepuscular, the two animals have been 
adjusting well to their new home. They now sleep a bit less in the daytime 
than they did at the beginning of their stay, spend more time at play and 
in curious inspection of the visitors. They are fed a gruel of boiled rice and 
powdered milk along with fresh fruits and vegetables and freshly cut 
bamboo, and enjoy eating plants of bamboo planted in large tubs in their 
air conditioned enclosures. Although separated for the time being, it is 
planned eventually to bring them together in a common garden area to the 
south of the house in which they are confined. Under the imaginative 
guidance of Lester Collins, the landscape architect associated with our 
architects for the master plan, Faulkner, Fryer and Vanderpool, we hope 
to produce a panda haven in the form of a garden of bamboo as part of 
their enclosure. 

It would be inappropriate today to receive such extraordinarily rare and 
valuable animals as giant pandas without making every effort to insure that 
they eventually should mate and reproduce. Pandas have been reared in 
captivity in the Peking Zoo, and it is the hope of the National Zoological 
Park, as it would be of any responsible zoo today, that the stewardship of 
these animals will include sensible and pragmatic efforts to have them 
breed. More and more, the major zoos of the world today are becoming 
bound together in a common concern and new fraternity as stocks of 
endangered species of animals continue to decline. One of the ambitions of 
the National Zoological Park is to create its own breeding area somewhere 
outside of Washington, so that certain stocks of rare species may be 
entrusted to the Zoo for safe-keeping and breeding in captivity. With the 
constant destruction of habitat, more and more species of animals will 
tend to become rare, vulnerable, and endangered. Many of these species 
will not be susceptible to captive rearing, but on the other hand, many of 
the larger animals, mammals, and birds particularly can be reared in 
captivity. Through international cooperative efforts, breeding stocks of 
such animals may be maintained for the day, some time in the future, 
when international public sentiment will have evolved sufficiently to 
restore some balance between human habitation and animal occupation of 
former range. As nation after nation becomes more sophisticated and 
understanding of the interplay between man and his animal relatives and 
neighbors increases, there is hope that natural areas may be preserved and 
kept around the world to serve as resources for the future. In such areas, 
many of the presently endangered species can be reintroduced successfully 
in time. The example of the San Diego Zoological Society, in creating their 
big natural park for breeding stocks of certain animals such as the white or 
wide-lipped rhinoceros of Africa, is inspiring. 

It is incumbent upon the National Zoological Park to join this 
movement and to develop its own breeding area outside of the city. Such a 


breeding area can serve as a satellite zoo, in effect combining both 
visitation possibilities for tourists and regional visitors, as well as secure 
breeding sanctuaries. The original example of the Whipsnade division of | 
the London Zoological Society at Regents Park and the additional work 
being done by American zoos are all part and parcel of our hopes and ' 
ambitions for the National Zoo of the future. 

On 17 May 1972, the Institution opened a major exhibit on drugs. Over 
two years in preparation, the purpose of the exhibit was to see how the 
Smithsonian, looking at the historical roots and evolution of the use of 
hallucinogens, could develop an exhibit that would educate the public in 
understanding drugs in our culture. Since the earliest times, drugs have 
played a significant role in religion and, later on, in medicine. Today 
without the constant refinement and use of drugs, medical practice would 
be at a standstill. In the conviction that our culture has evolved in close 
company with the rational and disciplined use of drugs, first in religion 
among the priestly castes and secondly among alchemists and doctors, we 
felt that it would be possible to arrange an exhibit which would rationalize 
in people's minds the traditional uses of these extraordinary substances. 
The exhibit has been supported with help from several foundations and 
drug companies and has pointed towards a new dimension in our ability to 
tell a story through an exhibition. The use of "talking heads," as 
developed by our Department of Exhibits has been noteworthy. The text 
material for the exhibit, prepared with the aid of the National Institute of 
Mental Health, the President's Committee on Drug Abuse, and a number 
of national and international authorities, has given us, I hope, the source 
material for a book which can be used as a textbook on the current status 
and knowledge about the use of drugs both beneficially and harmfully in 
our lives. 

It is hoped that the exhibit will travel and will be widely viewed around 
the country. Shortly after the opening of the exhibit the Institution was 
honored by being given the Pacesetter Award from the National Coordinat- 
ing Council on Drug Education, in recognition of our innovative educational 
exhibit. It is our hope that this exhibit will contribute to developing a ra- 
tional approach towards the understanding and prevention of drug abuse. 

In connection with our museum programs, we have been happy to 
obtain the addition of Mr. Paul N. Perrot to our staff. Mr. Perrot has been 
for twelve years Director of the Corning Museum of Glass in Corning, New 
York. He will assume office on 1 August 1972 as the Assistant Secretary 
for Museum Programs of the Institution, succeeding Mr. Frank A. Taylor 
who had been our pioneer head as Director General of Museum Programs. 
Like Mr. Taylor, Mr. Perrot has had long experience with museums in this 
country, as well as contacts abroad, and should be a most valuable 


associate in connection with the Institution's National Museum Act, our 
Exhibits Program for museums both here and abroad, our libraries, our 
Conservation-Analytic Laboratory, and for museum affairs in general. It 
has been unexpectedly sad that he comes to us just after the tragedy of 
Hurricane "Agnes" had destroyed so much of the important collection and 
library of the Corning Museum of Glass, and we greet him with mixed 
emotions of happiness at his arrival and commiseration with him, his 
colleagues and associates at Corning, New York. 

Of outstanding importance in this year has been the official commit- 
ment by Mr. Hirshhorn of an additional gift of 326 paintings and 
sculptures valued at more than $7 million for the Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden. The paintings and sculptures involved are of the finest 
quality and include an important portrait by John Singer Sargent of 1884, 
a vitally important painting by Piet Mondrian of 1935, a Picasso sculpture 
of 1950, and an additional important David Smith, to round out the large 
Smith group in the Collection. The Board of Trustees of the Hirshhorn 
Museum have held three meetings, in Washington, New York, and 
Greenwich, and noted with approval the planning for the catalog of the 
inaugural exhibition which will be published by Harry N. Abrams, 
Incorporated. Mr. Lerner, Director of the Hirshhorn Museum, has an- 
nounced that Douglas MacAgy, former Director of National Exhibitions, 
National Endowment for the Arts, has been named Curator for the 
Opening Show. The public opening of the Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden is scheduled for late autumn, 1973. At that time the 
collection of sculpture, complemented by a strong selection of modern 
American paintings and significant European works, will add greatly to the 
range and depth of artistic achievement on public view under the aegis of 
the Smithsonian Institution. 

Progress continues to be the watchword for the Anacostia Neighbor- 
hood Museum, which has been extremely active during 1972. The Museum 
has expanded its effort to involve more people in the community in every 
aspect of the museum experience, and plans this coming year to establish 
an exhibits, design, and production laboratory, which will offer training in 
all phases of exhibition work. A small building has been planned for this 
laboratory and an important proposal has been submitted to a private 
foundation for funding. 

In the National Museum of History and Technology a major opening of 
the past year has been that of a 19th-century Post Office Country Store. 
The U.S. Postal Service cooperated in the development of this exhibit and 
has provided a staff of three clerks to handle philatelic sales and regular 
mail for visitors to the Museum on a daily basis. The furnishings and 
objects in this store, a former Headsville, West Virginia, Post Office, 
originally constructed in the early 1860s, recreate the 1890-1910 period. 


It is a living historical exhibit, dramatizing the importance of postal 
communications and the role of the post office as a social institution in 
the American community. A special postmark incorporates a pictorial 
representation of the Headsville Post Office and has been applied to all the 
mail deposited at our new "Smithsonian Station." 

The Division of Postal History at the Museum has been fortunate this 
year in acquiring an outstanding envelope carried by the pony express in 
1861 and a pair of rare stamps issued for mail carried by the balloon, 
Buffalo, in 1877. 

Many additional acquisitions in photographs, daguerrotypes and associ- 
ated items have also been received by the Division of Photographic 
History. This spring a Hall of News Reporting is being opened, made 
possible by generous donations from Time-Life, Inc., and The Salt Lake 
Herald Tribune among others. This summer has also included the re- 
opening of the Hall of Graphic Arts and the Hall of Numismatics. These 
halls have been redesigned since the unfortunate fire in the Museum of 
History and Technology a little over a year ago. 

The Friends of Music at the Smithsonian had a memorable program in 
April 1972, including an entire festival weekend under the direction of 
Mrs. Constance Louden Mellen as Chairman of the Friends, and of our 
Concert Director, James Weaver. Fifty guests from many parts of the 
country attended and were taken on tours of the Division of Music's 
handsomely installed exhibits and study collections, and in addition given 
dinners and receptions provided by local resident Friends of Music, 
culminating in a superb performance of Rameau, Couperin, Bach, and 
Handel in the Hall of Musical Instruments. The weekend was a delight, and 
grateful thanks are indeed owed to the organization of Friends of Music at 
the Smithsonian. 

Plans have been inaugurated for the opening of a new gallery on the 
American Merchant Marine. A brochure has been published outlining the 
projected hall's theme which will expand the present collection beyond 
the limits of ships and types of ship models. Under the direction of Dr. 
Melvin H. Jackson, Curator of the Maritime Collections, it is hoped to 
convey a greater scope to the exhibits which will capture some of the 
glamor of the seatrader's life and the romance of ocean commerce. The 
scheme is an ambitious one and holds great promise to enliven and 
broaden the appeal of exhibits in the history of technology. An effort is 
being made to secure private support for the installation of the new hall. 

Behind all this, performing less spectacular but nonetheless vital jobs, 
are the many administrative and support activities which enable the people 
engaged in the more glamorous history, art, science, and scholarly pursuits 
of the Smithsonian to carry on their work. 

During the past year the Woodrow Wilson Center for International 


Studies has been extremely busy and active. A number of important 
seminars have been held including informal visits to the Smithsonian 
Building by Prime Minister Willy Brandt of West Germany and Prime 
Minister Indira Gandhi of India. In addition the Club of Rome, in 
conjunction with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Woodrow 
Wilson Center, and the Smithsonian, held a one-day seminar on the subject 
of the Limits of Growth, the stimulating book developed as a result of 
studies by computer scientists and economists at M.I.T. This seminar 
attracted considerable attention, although the subject matter has come 
under spirited debate and the question of the validity of the projections 
will continue to be argued for a number of years. An airing of such a 
subject at this time, however, can always be assumed to be of the greatest 

Additionally, in December 1971, the Institution played host for several 
days to the Group of Ten Finance Ministers at the request of then 
Secretary of the Treasury, John B. Connally. This momentous meeting, 
the first of the Finance Ministers to be held in Washington, was a landmark 
meeting for the Smithsonian itself, and we hope that the benign influence 
of the Castle Building was useful in promoting a community of financial 
interests among the nations concerned. Even though the dollar proceeded 
to float thereafter to the dismay of a good many of us, the merits of the 
case were well thrashed out and the immediate results seem to have been 

In February 1972, as a result of the offer of air transportation by 
Mr. Watson, four of the Regents and their wives, accompanied by 
Smithsonian officials made a flying weekend visit to the Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute in the Panama Canal Zone and the Republic of 
Panama. The trip was an enormous success and a veritable eye-opener for 
the Regents involved, Senator Fulbright, Congressman Bow, Mr. Watson 
and Dr. Greenewalt; all of them found the occasion a memorable one, 
especially in understanding the complex ecological studies being under- 
taken in the tropics. During the visit the Regents had an opportunity of 
seeing the headquarters of STRI at Ancon in the Canal Zone in a building 
made available to the Smithsonian by the Canal Zone government next to 
the Gorgas Memorial Hospital. In addition they were able to see the Naos 
Island laboratories on the Pacific side of the canal and the work being 
done there on the biology of intertidal animals, marine environmental 
monitoring, and such fascinating subjects as the competition of coral 
species, and the reaction of unsuspecting Atlantic fish species to the 
poisonous Pacific sea snakes, a subject of great interest in connection with 
their possible introduction to the Caribbean Sea via a sea-level canal. The 
party also had an opportunity to visit the Galeta Island marine station on 
the Caribbean side of the canal, where studies are being undertaken on the 


long term consequences of oil spills, as well as a wide variety of basic 

A visit to Barro Colorado Island in freshwater Gatun Lake was a high 
point of our stay, for this island, formed when the Chagres River was 
dammed for the canal in 1914, has been held intact as a laboratory reserve 
since the 1920s. Its nearly 4,000 acres under the quarter-century 
administration of the Smithsonian serve as one of the most valuable 
tropical research laboratories in the world. Research records have been 
maintained of the flora and the fauna of the island since it was first set 
aside as a research center, and records of such continuous duration are rare 
indeed for tropical areas of the world. The reception that the Regents and 
their party received from the officials of the Republic of Panama as well as 
the Canal Zone was outstanding, and it was a joy to all of us to meet with 
so much hospitality as well as comprehension of the Institution's programs 
by the local residents and officials. It is hoped in the future to plan 
additional field trips for members of the Board of Regents as well as 
members of the National Associates Board. The success of this first trip 
was so marked that it seems important to give Board members additional 
opportunities for such personal experiences. 

Three meetings of the Board of Regents were held during the past year. 
The autumn meeting was convened on 27 September 1971 in the 
Director's Conference Room of the National Museum of History and 
Technology. The principal discussion centered around the 1976 commem- 
oration of the Bicentennial of the American Revolution which, as I have 
said, offers the Smithsonian Institution a rare opportunity to help to 
delineate our National achievements. Presentation of the proposed 
Smithsonian program was made by a number of bureau directors: Michael 
Collins for the National Air and Space Museum, Daniel J. Boorstin for the 
National Museum of History and Technology, John H. Magruder for the 
National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board, and Theodore H. Reed 
for the National Zoological Park. Others presented a brief report on the 
proposed "Year of the Centennial" exhibit in the Arts and Industries 
Building, and the Festival of American Folklife. 

The winter meeting was held at Hillwood, the estate of Mrs. Marjorie 
Merriweather Post, on 27 January 1972. The appointment of Thomas J. 
Watson, Jr., as a member of the Executive Committee (Permanent 
Committee) was confirmed by the Board of Regents. Senator Clinton P. 
Anderson resigned from the Executive Committee and the Board ex- 
pressed its highest regard for his effectiveness in the deliberations of that 
Committee for the last eight years. 

Following the meeting, the members of the Board of Regents attended 
the opening of the Smithsonian's Renwick Gallery, located at 17th and 
Pennsylvania Avenue. 


The spring meeting of the Board was held in the Regents' Room of the 
Smithsonian Institution Building on 10 May 1972. Mr. James E. Webb was 
named Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents, 
and Dr. William A. M. Burden was appointed a member of the Executive 

The Board of Regents approved the adoption of new principles 
designed to make possible improved performance in the management of its 
endowment funds. These principles include the establishment of maximum 
total return as the investment objective for the funds without assuming an 
inappropriate degree of risk, and the determination of amounts to be 
distributed from endowment funds each year as a prudent portion of the 
average total return expected on these funds over an extended period. 

On 11 May 1972, the President signed into law the appointments of 
three new citizen Regents. The appointments of John Paul Austin, 
A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., and Robert F. Goheen, are for the statutory 
term of six years. 

The Regents received a number of status reports including construction 
progress on the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, which has been 
delayed by difficulties in the construction itself, as well as industry-wide 
strikes and slowdowns. 

The design concept of the National Air and Space Museum was 
approved by the Commission of Fine Arts. The House of Representatives 
included in the appropriation bill for the fiscal year 1973 an appropriation 
of $13 million and express contract authority for an additional $27 
million for the construction of this project. 

The National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board was the subject of 
legislation introduced during the year to establish a Bicentennial Outdoor 
Museum, to designate the authorized study center as the Dwight D. 
Eisenhower Institute for Historical Research, and to authorize the transfer 
of federal lands at Fort Foote, Maryland, to the administrative jurisdiction 
of the Smithsonian. Negotiations with the Prince George's County 
Planning Board and with the local communities continued through the 

The Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, Inc., received a 
supplemental appropriation of $300,000 to provide for normal operation 
through the fiscal year. 

The National Zoological Park master plan received preliminary approval 
from the Commission of Fine Arts and the National Capital Planning 
Commission. The plan emphasizes the landscape and animals, and 
subordinates the visual impact of building construction. Particular atten- 
tion was given to the critical matter of automobile parking and traffic. At 
this meeting the Secretary reported that Robert A. Brooks will succeed 
Under Secretary James Bradley with the title of The Assistant Secretary 


on 1 July 1972. The members of the Board recorded their appreciation of 
the extraordinary service that James Bradley has rendered to the 

At the conclusion of the meeting, the Board of Regents honored Dr. 
Charles G. Abbot, former Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, on the 
occasion of his 100th birthday. 

If one lesson has been learned this year it is that we must alert ourselves 
and all the powers that be in Washington that time will not stand still, and 
that the tidal wave of "company" will descend upon us inexorably in the 
next four years. We can paraphrase the poet and declare that "the World is 
too much with us late and soon, getting and begetting," but we know that 
the souls so created will crowd in upon us ever more closely— full of the 
stuff of life, endlessly consuming to ashes the remains of time and 
purpose, of objects carefully wrought, of past history. We cannot halt the 
tide but only make our preparations while we may and pray for affection 
and comprehension. If Americans have begun to indulge in self-doubt, let 
us rejoice, for this should be an encouragement. Self-doubt and a certain 
hesitancy can be the beginning of the road to self-knowledge and thus to 
comprehension and to wisdom. Can we not prepare for that? 

Financial Report 

It is a rare experience for educational and research institutions to have 
adequate funds to take care of all their pressing needs and promising 
opportunities for improvements and imaginative new projects. In this 
respect, the Smithsonian Institution is no different from its counterparts. 
Nevertheless, fiscal year 1972 was one from which the Institution may 
derive a degree of satisfaction from improvements on a number of 
budgetary fronts— many of these resulting from programs initiated in 
previous years. 

Increased FY 1972 federal appropriations, which account for over 
three-quarters of our total financial support, moved toward easing 
accumulated research support shortages and also made possible additional 
services to our visitors and the start of certain important new research 
projects. Private unrestricted fund accounts, vital to the unique character 
of this Institution, showed a favorable balance between income and 
expenditures for the first time in five years. This welcome result followed 
introduction of improved accounting and budgeting methods, tighter 
control of expenditures, a gradual extension of fund-raising efforts, and 
modest improvement in a number of revenue-producing areas. In addition, 
increased donations for specific purposes and larger grant and contract 
awards also benefited the many projects covered by these restricted- 
purpose funds. New policies adopted this year with respect to the handling 
of investment funds of the Institution are expected to bring important 
benefits in future years. 

Overall Sources and Application of Financial Support 

Total support of the Institution from all sources for operating purposes 
approximated $62,700,000 in fiscal year 1972, compared with 
$52,800,000 in the previous year. In addition, $6,347,000 was received 
for construction projects, somewhat less than the $7,125,000 in FY 1971. 
Sources of support for the last four fiscal years 1969-1972 are shown 
below (in thousands): 



FY 1969 FY 1970 FY 1971 FY 1972 


Federal appropriation 

Salaries and expenses $29,150 $32,679 $36,895 $46,301 

Special Foreign Currency Program. . . 2,316 2,316 2,500 3,500 

Subtotal $31,466 $34,995 $39,395 $49,801 

Research grants and contracts 11,624 10,825 9,312 8,088 

Nonfederal funds: 

Gifts (excluding gifts to endowments) 

Restricted purpose 1,806 2,290 1,905 2,618 

Unrestricted purpose 181 17 356 171 

Income from endowment and current 

funds investment 

Restricted purpose 924 999 1,115 1,178 

Unrestricted purpose 441 281 330 334 

Miscellaneous 476 503 406 548 

Total Operating Support $46,918 $49,910 $52,819 $62,738 


National Zoological Park $300 $600 $200 $200 

.National Air and Space Museum -0- -0- -0- 1,900 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum 2,000 3,500 5,200 3,697 

Restoration and renovation of buildings . 400 525 1,725 550 

Total $2,700 $4,625 $7,125 $6,347 

It may be noted that in FY 1972 approximately 79 percent of the 
Institution's operating funds were supplied by federal appropriations, with 
an additional 13 percent coming in the form of research grants and 
contracts and only 8 percent being represented by private donations, 
investment income, and other miscellaneous nonfederal sources. 

The application of these funds (with the exception of Special Foreign 
Currency Program funds and construction funds) in FY 1972 is indicated 
in Table 1, similar to the one provided for the first time in last year's 
annual report. Further detail on all of these funds follows. 



TABLE 1 -Source of applications of funds (in thousands) year ended 

30 June 1972 

Non-federal funds 










General producing 




1 July 1972 


$ -0- 

$ 3,773 


$ -0- 


$ 291 

Federal Appropriations 


Investment Income . . 

$ 1,512 

$ 334 




Grants and Contracts . 










Sales and Revenue . . . 






Less: Cost of Sales • . 












Total Provided. 



Total Available 








Environmental Science 







Nat'l Museum of 







National Zoological 









Fort Pierce Bureau . . . 

Science Information 







Smithsonian Astro. 
















History and Art: 

Nat'l Portrait Gallery . 







Nat'l Collec. of Fine 













Nat'l Museum of Hist. 










Other History and Art 





Public Service: 

Revenue Producing 


Smithsonian Press 







Performing Arts . . 













Anacostia Museum . . 






Other ...... 











TABLE I -Source of applications of funds (in thousands) year ended 

30 June 1 9 72- Continued 


Non-federal funds 


Unrestricted Grants 


Revenue con- 
General producing Restricted tracts 

Museum Programs 





50 - 1 
9 - - - 

Total 5,881 136 59 - 77 

Buildings Management 

Dept. $10,442 

Administration: 3,235 $2,643 $2,643 $ - $ - 

Overhead Recovered . . (2,639) (2,639) 

Transfers for Desig- 
nated Purposes (717) 179 (141) (909) 


PLIED $46,301 $13,917 $ 536 $2,446 

FUND BALANCES- == ===== ===== ===== 

30 June 1972 $ -0- $ 4,888 $1,781 $ -0- $3,057 $ 


$2,847 $8,088 


Federal Appropriated Funds 

Operations (Salaries and Expenses).- As shown above in the tabulation 
of sources of support, Congress increased the Smithsonian's appropriation 
for regular operations by over $9,400,000 in FY 1972. Of this amount, 
however, $1,600,000 represented an appropriation for the Smithsonian 
Science Information Exchange (Table 1) which had been funded since 
1964 by grants from the National Science Foundation. Nearly $2,000,000 
of the increase in appropriations, furthermore, was necessary merely to 
meet legislated increases in federal salaries. Continued inflationary cost 
increases for supplies and other services absorbed additional monies. 
Nevertheless, the remaining increase of more than $5,000,000 included 
provision for an important start on correcting the serious imbalance 
between professional research and curatorial efforts, on the one hand, and 
the level of technical support for these efforts, on the other. Such 
technical support had been eroded in previous years as the limited funds 
available had to be increasingly devoted to salaries of the professional 


staff, leaving progressively lesser amounts for technicians, assistants, 
equipment, and supplies. Accessions of new or expanded collections 
meanwhile accentuated such needs. Increases in appropriations provided in 
FY 1972 were the first step toward elimination over a three-year period of 
these shortages in the National Museum of Natural History. 

Similarly, a $500,000 increase for the National Zoological Park made 
possible improved veterinary treatment and research. An allowance of 
$600,000 was received to implement the program of the National Museum 
Act, authorized in 1970; of this amount, $200,000 was transferred by 
legislative requirement to the National Endowments for the Arts and 
Humanities. Other major benefits from increased Congressional support 
were directed toward the visiting public: funding of a major new exhibit, 
"The World of Living Things," provision for longer visitor hours for our 
Mall museums, the opening of the Renwick Gallery, and stepped-up 
preparations for the opening of the Hirshhorn Museum. Finally, $500,000 
was provided for Smithsonian's share of a group effort to establish a new, 
large, low-cost, multi-mirror telescope which should represent a break- 
through in instrumentation of this type and lead to important new 
discoveries in astrophysics. 

The division of the Institution's federal appropriations for operating 
purposes (excluding special Foreign Currency Program) in recent years, 
among its broad areas of services, has been as follows (in thousands): 


History and Art 

Public Service 

Museum Programs 


Building Maintenance .... 


*Includes $1,600,000 for the Science Information Exchange which had been 
funded since 1964 by grants from the National Science Foundation. 

FY 1969 

FY 1970 

FY 1971 

FY 1972 





























After allowance for the change in form of funding of the Science 
Information Exchange in FY 1972, the percentage share of each of the 
service areas has remained fairly constant in this four-year period, except 
that the combined share of Administration and Building Maintenance has 
fallen from 34 to 31 percent, with slight percentage increases in Science 
and Public Service. 



Special Foreign Currency Program. Since. 1966 the Smithsonian has. 
been administering a program of grants benefiting more than 200 museums 
and universities in the United States in order that they may carry on! 
research in certain foreign countries where blocked currency credits,, 
usable only in those countries, are available to the United States in return 
for services previously provided. Annual appropriations to the Smithsonian 
from available blocked currency to fund such grants increased in FY 1972 
from $2,500,000 to $3,500,000. Use of such grant monies in FY 1972 was 
as follows (in thousands): 


and environ- Astrophysics Grant 

mental and earth Museum adminis- 








$ 374.8 

$ 144.9 

$ 22.8 

$ 8.4 

$ 4.6 

$ 555.5 








Morocco . . 







Pakistan. . . 














Tunisia . . . 





















Burma .... 








$1685.3 $1407.5 

$255.2 $24.5 $11.9 $3384.4* 

""Unobligated balance of FY 1972 appropriation carried forward for use in 
FY 1973. 

Construction.- From the tabulation of sources of support, it can be 
seen that Congress appropriated to the Smithsonian Institution in FY 
1972, a total of $6,347,000 for construction purposes. Of this, 
$3,697,000 represented the final balance of the $15 million authorized by 
Congress for the Hirshhorn Museum construction, which is to be 
completed in FY 1973. In addition, $1,900,000 was granted to cover the 
planning and redesign of the new National Air and Space Museum on the 
Mall, construction of which was authorized in 1966. Another $750,000 
was appropriated for completion of the Renwick Gallery renovation plus 
various relatively minor improvements elsewhere. 

Research Grants and Contracts 

An important part of the Institution's research work is funded by 
grants and contracts received from federal agencies. Following is a 


tabulation (in thousands) of such grants and contracts in recent years, the 
data being expressed in terms of expenditures as being the most 
meaningful indicator of research activity funded by this means since the 
awards themselves are spread over varying and extended periods of time. 

FY 1969 

FY 1970 

FY 1971 

FY 1972 

Department of Health, 

Education, and Welfare . 

$ 272 

$ 326 

$ 297 

$ 132 

Department of Defense .... 





National Aeronautics and 

Space Administration. . . 





National Science Foundation 














The decline in the total for FY 1972 compared with FY 1971 was 
caused entirely by the elimination in this past year of the National Science 
Foundation grant for the Science Information Exchange. In FY 72 
Smithsonian took over the responsibility for the funding, as well as the 
management of, the Exchange with its $1,600,000 becoming a new 
separate Smithsonian federal appropriation rather than being received in 
the form of a contract. With this exception, there has been an increase in 
federal grants and contracts received during the past year. 

It may be noted from Table 1 , that the major recipient of grants and 
contracts is the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, with a total of 
$4,755,000 for FY 1972. Grants to the Observatory covered, among other 
things, work done on tracking of satellites, monitoring of stellar 
observations from the celescope satellite and experiments concerning 
continental drift. A large share of the remaining research grants and 
contracts went to the scientists of our National Museum of Natural 
History and the Office of Environmental Sciences covering a variety of 
studies from sources of endemic Asian diseases to analysis of the contents 
of areas of the oceans. Grants and contracts also extended beneficially the 
work of our Oceanographic Sorting Center, Tropical Research Center, and 
Division of Performing Arts. A major contract, received near the close of 
the fiscal year, will fund worldwide population studies by our Interdis- 
ciplinary Communications Program. 

Private Trust Funds 

As mentioned earlier, the largest part of the funding of the Institution 
comes from federal appropriations, augmented further by substantial 


amounts of grants and contracts from federal agencies. Equally important 
in many ways, however, is the "private side" of the Institution, since, the 
Smithsonian derives its unique character in large part from this combina- 
tion of Governmental and private support, permitting operating flexibility, 
nonpolitical objectivity, and greater attraction to its many private donors. 

The resources for the Smithsonian private side are in the form of 
income from endowment funds, donations from foundations, corporations 
or individuals, and to a lesser extent, receipts from concessions and 
miscellaneous sources. In appraising these resources an important distinc- 
tion must be made between income received for unrestricted as compared 
with restricted purposes. The largest share of both the investment and gift 
income is for specific (restricted) purposes, with only a regretably small 
unrestricted portion which can be directed to support Institutionally 
determined priority needs or promising program opportunities. 

In fiscal year 1972 the private fund income, excluding gifts to 
endowment funds, for both restricted and unrestricted purposes totaled 
$4,849,000 as follows (in thousands): 

Unrestricted Restricted 

Investments $334 

Gifts 171 

Concessions and Miscellaneous 306 

Total $811 










Not included in the above figures are the results of our revenue- 
producing activities, such as, the Smithsonian Magazine and museum 
shops, since on balance these activities do not yet produce net income 
although they are expected to do so in the future. 

Unrestricted Private Funds.-The most significant fact about this 
important segment of the Smithsonian's financial affairs is that in FY 
1972 a favorable balance was reestablished between income and expendi- 
tures. The gain of $61,000 was, of course, small, but it was achieved at a 
time when many educational institutions and museums are reporting 
serious financial losses. It was also achieved despite the continued rise in 
costs and pressing needs for greater services— factors that contributed 
heavily to the Smithsonian's own losses of private unrestricted funds in the 
previous four years. 

As may be seen from ihese figures, the improvement in FY 1972 
resulted principally from (1) control of administrative expenses and their 
recovery through proper charges to grants and contracts, revenue- 
producing activities, and other privately funded programs of the Institu- 
tion, and (2) the nearly $400,000 reduction in the loss of our revenue- 






Concession & Misc 

Total Income 804 


Admin. Expense 2,983 

Less Admin. Recovery .... 2,390 

Net Admin. Expense ... 593 

Revenue Producing Activities 

Magazine (70) 

Shops (25) 

Press (127) 

Associates 57 

Performing Arts (60) 

Other Activities (231) 

Total Activities .... (456) 

Total Expenditures . ■ 1 ,049 

Net Gain (Loss) (245) 

Ending Balance .... $2,851 

*In thousands. 

FY 1969 

FY 1970 

FY 1971 

FY 1972 

$ 379* 

$ 323 

$ 334 

$ 334 


















































producing activities. Together these two factors more than offset the 
absence in FY 1972 of a special one-time $300,000 gift for unrestricted 
purposes, which was so beneficial in FY 1971 . 

The gain of $61 ,000 in FY 1972 reversed the down-trend in the balance 
• of our unrestricted funds and increased it slightly to $1,781,000 at 
30 June 1972. This figure, however, is still well below a comfortable level 
for current working funds of the Institution. Intensive steps must be 
continued to rebuild this working capital by more than $1 million to at 
least the $2,851,000 figure existing at the end of 1969. More than $1 
million of such working capital is required to support grant and contract 
work performed before payment is received, another $700,000 for 
investment in inventories, and at least $1 million more must be maintained 
for payrolls, accounts receivable, and cash fluctuations of a seasonal 

There is, however, reason to believe that improvement in this direction 
lies ahead. Our Development Office, together with the National Associates 


Organization, is now working on a program which will hopefully produce 
an annual flow of donations and bequests from an increasingly large 
number of interested parties. Approximately $171,000 of gifts for 
unrestricted purposes were received in FY 1972 in addition to much larger 
grants, principally from foundations, for specifically designated purposes 
(see "Restricted Private Funds" below). 

At the same time our revenue-producing enterprises show promise of 
producing significant income in the next several years to bolster our 
private resources. Additional data on the finances of these revenue- 
producing activities in FY 1972 are as follows (in thousands): 


Museum Maga- Asso- forming 

Total shops Press* zine ciates arts Other** 

Sales and Revenues . . $6,196 $1,374 $127 $3,307 $872 $130 $386 

Less Cost of Sales . . . 3,999 812 103 2,483 489 2_ 110 

Gross Income. . 2,197 562 24 824 383 128 276 

Gifts 145 - - - 145 

Other Income 104 -_ -_ 104 - - -_ 

Total Income. . 2,446 562 24 928 528 128 276 

Expenses 2,207 424 115 776 412 162 318 

Income Qoss) before 
charge for adminis- 
trative costs .... 239 138 (91) 152 116 (34) (42) 

Less Administrative 

Costs 380 _ 119 20 150 42 16 33 

Net Income (loss) . . $ (141) $ 19 $(111) $ 2 $ 74 $(50) $(75) 

The privately funded activities of the Press as opposed to the federally 
supported publication of research papers. 

♦♦Includes Traveling Exhibitions, Belmont Conference Center, Photo Sales, and 
the "Commons" Restaurant. 

In FY 1972 the Smithsonian Magazine again made excellent progress. 
Circulation increased from 275,000 at 30 June 1971 to 330,000 National 
Associate Members by 30 June 1972. Despite the unusual expenses related 
to the circulation-building efforts, financial results were greatly improved, 
registering $2,500 net income for the year compared with a loss of 
$209,000 in the previous year. 

The Museum Shops showed a sharp 35 percent increase in volume this 
year. Financial results moved from previous losses to a gain of $19,000 
and should show increasing gains in the future. Shop areas were expanded 



and a new shop will open at the Renwick Gallery in mid-1972. Two sales 
exhibitions and increasing emphasis on offering educational items reflect- 
ing the various museum exhibits contributed to the progress of these 
auxiliary operations. 

The closely related program of product development is now underway. 
If successful it should become an important element in improving the 
balance between private and federal resources of the Institution. Equally 
important, this program is directed toward spreading nationally the 
Smithsonian's educational efforts through the distribution by independent 
manufacturers of authenticated items related to our collections. Great care 
will be taken with this program to maintain strict standards of quality, 
authenticity, and good taste. 

As may be noted from the preceding tabulation, two other activities, 
the Smithsonian Press and the Division of Performing Arts, have required 
subsidies from our private funds in recent years. These programs provide 
both educational and entertainment value, but strenuous efforts are being 
directed toward elimination of their financial losses while preserving their 
cultural values. 

Restricted Private Funds.- Additions to "restricted" funds dedicated to 
specific purposes (exclusive of gifts to endowment funds) totaled 
$5,151,000 in FY 1972, but this included a special transfer of $612,000 
from the principal of Endowment Fund No. 3, in part to allow completion 
of the renovation of the research vessel Johnson at Fort Pierce, and in part 
as an advance against FY 1973 operating funds for this bureau. Including 
this special transfer, $2,082,000 came from endowment funds, $2,618,000 
from donations, and $451,000 from miscellaneous sources. The major 
bureaus and programs supported by these funds, together with their total 
related income and expenditures in FY 1972 were as follows (in 

Additions to funds 



Gifts Misc. 

7 $ 84 

Freer Gallery $ 679 $ 

Fort Pierce 1,012* 

CBCES Land Pro- 
gram - 360 

Cooper Hewitt- 
Operating 32 128 

Cooper Hewitt- 
Renovation. . . 792 

Reading is Funda- 
mental 296 



$ 770 












Net Ending 
increase fund 
(decrease) balances 

$ (91) $ 120 






Anacostia Museum 63 63 97 (34) 26 
Archives of Ameri- 
can Art 4_ 40 99 143 126 17. 86_ 

Subtotal.. 1,727 1,686 261 3,674 2,811 863 1,988 
Other Restricted 

Funds 355 932 190 1,477 1,045 432 1,068 

Total $2,082 $2,618 $451 $5,151 $3,856 $1,295 $3,056 


Including $612 special transfer from principal of Endowment Fund No. 3. 

The Freer Gallery is largely supported by income from endowment 
funds originally provided for this purpose by Charles Freer at the time of 
the construction of the Gallery; it also receives some federal support. 
Inflationary cost increases of recent years have made it increasingly 
difficult to operate within available income. 

The Fort Pierce, Florida, oceanographic facility is supported entirely by 
income from Endowment Fund No. 3, donated to the Smithsonian for this 
purpose during the past two years. The Center's expenditures have been 
principally for research operations of the Center's oceanographic submersi- 
ble, the Johnson-Sea-Link, and for renovation of the tender ship, R/V 
Johnson. These renovations, to be completed in September 1972, caused 
FY 1972 expenditures to exceed available endowment fund income, 
necessitating a one-time withdrawal of funds in FY 1972 for this purpose 
from the principal of the endowment fund itself. 

Two important new gifts in support of the Chesapeake Bay Center's 
land acquisition program were received during this year-$200,000 from 
the Richard King Mellon Foundation and $120,000 from The Scaife 
Family of Pittsburgh. These gifts made possible the repayment of a 
$175,000 loan previously incurred for land purchases, as well as the 
purchase of an additional parcel of land, and brought to $1,669,000 the 
total thus far received for this project. Most of the major plots of land 
have now been obtained and negotiations are in progress for the remaining 
areas. Substantial additional sums will still be required to complete 
payments for these acquisitions. 

The planned renovation of the Carnegie Mansion in New York City to 
house the Cooper-Hewitt Museum was launched in a most encouraging 
way in December 1971 by a grant of $500,000 from the A. W. Mellon 
Foundation. Nearly $300,000 more of renovation funds has also been 
received from other sources. In addition, gifts totaling $128,000 were 
received during the year toward the operating programs of the Museum. 
This Museum will need greater financial support for both purposes in 
future years. 

The Reading Is Fundamental Program, initiated by Mrs. Robert S. 
McNamara and now operated in association with the Smithsonian, has 


been generously supported by the Ford Foundation, and the program has 
now been awarded a new grant from the Edna McConnell Clark 
Foundation totaling $1,130,000 over a three-year period. This should 
enable R.I.F. to become self-sustaining thereafter. 

A complete list of donors for FY 1972 is included at the end of this 
financial report. 

Endowment Funds.-The Smithsonian endowment funds are handled in 
three separate investment accounts, namely, the Freer Fund, dedicated 
entirely to the operation of the Freer Gallery of Art; Endowment Fund 
No. 3, devoted entirely to oceanographic research; and the Consolidated 
Fund in which all other endowment and similar funds of the Institution 
are pooled for common investment although maintained separately for 
accounting and administrative purposes. A listing of individual funds 
included in our Consolidated Fund and their related book values, market 
values, net income and unexpended income balances are set forth in 
Table 2. 

The growth of these endowment funds in recent years is shown in the 
following comparison of their market values at intervals since 1960 (in 

SO June 30 June 30 June 30 June 30 June 
1960 1965 1970 1971 1972 

FreerFund $13,389 $17,276 $14,987 $18,805 $21,973 

Endowment Fund No. 3 - - 5,433 12,331 14,641 

Consolidated Fund .. . 4,498 7,853 8,998 11,470 13,287 

Total $17,887 $25,129 $29,418 $42,606 $49,901 

Of the $32,014,000 total increase from 30 June 1960 to 30 June 1972, 
$7,354,000 of Endowment Fund No. 3 and $6,277,000 of Consolidated 
Fund was the result of additions from donations and reinvestment of 
income and the remaining $18,383,000 represented an increase in the 
market values of securities. During the year ended 30 June 1972, net 
additions of new funds to the Consolidated Fund equaled $131 ,000, while 
a net amount of $891,000 was transferred from Endowment Fund No. 3 
to current operating accounts; market appreciation of total funds in this 
year amount to $8,055,000. 

Effective 1 July 1971, management of these funds were distributed 
among three different investment managers with performance being 
monitored closely by the Investment Policy Committee and the Treasurer. 
The results achieved thus far have substantially exceeded the average rise 
in stock values in the 12-month period to 30 June 1972. A breakdown of 

(Continued on page 39) 



TABLE 2. -Consolidated fund, 30 June 1972 



Funds participating in pool 

Net income Unexpended 
Book value Market value 1972 balance 


Abbott, William L 

Archives of American Art. . . . 
Armstrong, Edwin James .... 

Arthur, James 

Bacon, Virginia Purdy. ...... 

Baird, Spencer Fullerton .... 

Barney, Alice Pike 

Barstow, Frederic D 

Batchelor, Emma E 

Becker, George F 

Brown, Roland W 

Canfield, Frederick A 

Casey, Thomas Lincoln 

Chamberlain, Frances Lea . . . 
Cooper, G. Arthur, Curator's 


Cooper-Hewitt Museum 

Division of Mammals Curator 

Fund '. 

Division of Reptiles Curator 


Drake, Carl J 

Dykes, Charles 

Eickemeyer, Florence 


Guggenheim, David and 


Hanson, Martin Gustav & 

Caroline Runice 

Hillyer, Virgil 

Hitchcock, Albert S 

Hrdlicka, Ales and Marie. .... 

Hughes, Bruce. 

Johnson, E. R. Fenimore .... 
Kellogg, Remington, Memorial 

Lindsey, Jessie H 

Loeb, Morris 

Long, Annette E. and Edith C. 

Lyons, Marcus Ward 

Maxwell, Mary E. 

Myer, Catherine Walden 

Nelson, Edward William 

Noyes, Frank B 

Pell, Cornelia Livingston .... 
Petrocelli, Joseph Memorial . . 
Rathbun, Richard Memorial. . 
Ramsey, Admiral and Mrs. 

Dewitt Clinton 

Reid, Addison T 

Roebling Collection ........ 













3,5 61 



























































































































20,8 30 



















85 1 



















TABLE 2. -Consolidated fund, 30 June 19 72- Continued 

Principal Income 

Net income Unexpended 

Funds participating in pool Book value Market value 1972 balance 

Roebling Solar Research $46,823 $54,944 $1,993 $ - 

Rollins, Miriam and William . . 288,488 390,434 18,016 9,472 

Smithsonian Agency Account 135,939 136,876 3,805 - 

Sprague, Joseph White 2,118,369 2,349,087 108,398 27,162 

Springer, Frank. 28,541 43,338 2,047 18,866 

Stevenson, John A 9,665 11,774 556 211 

Strong, Julia D 18,888 24,014 871 2,495 

T.F.H. Publications, Inc 8,349 7,733 280 10,847 

Walcott, Charles D 184,921 244,216 11,270 1,838 

Walcott, Charles D. and Mary 

Vaux 732,340 1,111,955 52,526 14,141 

Walcott Botanical Publications 92,22 3 134,887 6,372 - 

Zerbee, Francis Brinckle 1,510 2,279 108 1,544 

Total Restricted Funds $6,770,814 $8,266,208 $359,838 $387,267 

Total Consolidated 

Fund. $11,091,605 $13,286,785 $556,249 $387,267 

the three endowment funds as of 30 June 1972, showing types of 
investments held, with related book and market values, is given in Table 3. 
A listing of the individual investments held in the various endowment 
funds may be obtained upon request to the Treasurer of the Institution. 

Much attention has been given to the management of the Institution's 
endowment funds during the past three years. In addition to the steps 
taken by the Board of Regents in FY 1971 to establish the Investment 
Policy Committee and, upon its recommendation, to appoint new 
investment managers with full discretion for the investment of the funds 
(subject to broad policies established by the Board and to prompt 
reporting of transactions), we have been investigating for some time the 
desirability of adopting "Total Return" as the investment goal of all of our 
endowment funds. Briefly, this concept of investment management is in 
two parts', first, it establishes maximum total return (interest and dividend 
income plus appreciation in market values), without assuming an inappro- 
priate degree of risk, as the investment management goal; second, it 
provides that the income to be derived from the endowment funds, in lieu 
of interest and dividends received by the fund in that year, shall be a 
prudent amount determined in relation to the value of the funds, taking 
into account both present and future needs of the Institution. The purpose 


TABLE 3. -Endowment and similar funds summary of investments 
and other assets as of 30 June 1972 

Funds Book value Market value 

Freer Fund: 

Cash 198,100 198,100 

Bonds 4,220,980 4,317,963 

Convertible bonds 3,656,150 4,004,940 

Convertible preferred stock 671,577 783,305 

Common stocks 6,7 00,314 12,668,632 

Total 15,447,121 21,972,940 

Consolidated Funds: 

Cash 657,754 657,754 

Bonds 3,500,791 3,499,813 

Convertible bonds 396,092 502,125 

Convertible preferred stock 247 ,58 1 164,000 

Common stocks 6,289,387 8,463,093 

Total 11,091,605 13,286,785 

Endowment Fund No. 3: 

Cash 443,234 443,234 

Bonds 163,123 175,773 

Common stocks 6,414,077 14,021,797 

Total 7,020,434 14,640,804 


Bonds 10,064 9,875 

Common stocks 3,321 18,402 

Total 13,385 28,277 

Total investment accounts 33,572,545 49,928,806 

Other Accounts: 

Notes receivable 95,316 95,316 

Loan to U.S. Treasury in perpetuity 1 ,000,000 1 ,000,000 

Total other accounts 1,095,316 1,095,316 

Total Endowment and Similar Fund Balances 34,667 ,861 5 1 ,024,122 

of the policy is to allow investment in the most attractive securities from 
the point of view of expected total investment return without the need to 
restrict them to those providing higher current yields. 

With the agreement of the Board of Regents, this policy has been 
followed during the past year for "quasi-endowment" funds (namely those 
in which the principal, as well as interest and dividend, yields may be used 
for the purposes specified), a course of action now followed by many 


leading universities since adoption of the policy was first recommended by 
a study financed by the Ford Foundation. More recently, the Institution 
has received from the Washington firm of Covington & Burling a strong 
legal opinion supporting its use of the Total Return policy for true 
endowment funds as well as quasi-endowment funds. Based upon this 
opinion and upon the recommendation of our Investment Policy Com- 
mittee, the Board of Regents, in May 1972, authorized adoption of the 
Maximum Total Return policy as the goal for all of our endowment funds. 
It is believed that this policy, which also has the full support of our three 
investment managers, will enable our endowment funds to show an 
improved record in future years. 

The Board of Regents also approved the recommendation of the 
Investment Policy Committee that the prudent amount of income to be 
derived from the endowment funds should be 4H percent annually based 
upon the moving five-year average market values of each of the funds. 
Insofar as income is concerned, there will be little immediate effect on any 
of the funds except the Freer Fund; endowment income to the Freer 
Gallery will increase immediately by over $100,000 per year and bring 
beneficial relief to that gallery in keeping abreast of its expenditure 

Accounting and Auditing.- As mentioned earlier the improved financial 
results in FY 1972 were aided in no small measure by beneficial changes in 
accounting and budgeting procedures and reports instituted by our 
Accounting, Budgeting and Grant Administration offices over the past two 
or three years. The control budgets, reporting of monthly operations, and 
regular monthly financial review meetings, combined with increased 
participation in the planning and budgeting process at bureau and 
administrative levels have all served to clarify the Institution's basically 
complex financial affairs. Increasing use of computer program aids is a part 
of these efforts. Appreciation is expressed herewith to the staffs of these 
offices for their initiative shown in this important work. 

Private side finances of the Institution are annually audited in full by 
independent public accountants; their report for FY 1972 on following 
pages includes comparative balance sheets and a statement of changes in 
balances in all the various funds. Grant and contract monies received from 
federal agencies are audited annually by the Defense Contract Audit 
Agency. Audits of federally appropriated funds, as well as portions of the 
Institution's non-federal funds, are conducted regularly by our own 
internal audit staff, and from time to time by the General Accounting 
Office. Special Foreign Currency grants are also audited by the internal 
auditing staff aided by foreign independent accountants, and in some cases 
by the audit staff of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 



Donors to the Smithsonian 

The Smithsonian Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts and bequests 
received during fiscal year 1972 from the following: 

$100,000 or more: 
The Ford Foundation The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation 

Mrs. Enid A. Haupt Richard King Mellon Foundation 

International Business Machines Scaife Family Charitable Trusts 


$10,000 or more: 

American Federation of Information 

Processing Society 
American Law Institute 

Archives of American Art Trustees 
Barra Foundation, Inc. 
Battelle Memorial Institute 
Mrs. W. Vincent Astor 
The Morris & Gwendolyn Cafritz 

Carnegie Corporation of New York 
Celanese Corporation 
The Charron Foundation 
Edna McConnell Clark Foundation, Inc. 
The Commonwealth Fund 
Doubleday Communication Corporation 
Mrs. Lionel C. Epstein 
Estate of Susan Dwight Bliss 
Ford Motor Company 
The Daniel and Florence Guggenheim 

Mr. & Mrs. H. E. Hawkes 
Interdisciplinary Communications 


Ittleson Family Foundation 

The J. M. Kaplan Fund, Inc. 

Mrs. Remington Kellogg 

Samuel H. Kress Foundation 

Miles Laboratories 

Mobil Foundation, Inc. 

National Geographic Society 

The Nature Conservatory 

New York State Council on the Arts 

Edward John Noble Foundation 

Phillip Morris Incorporated 

Radio Corporation of America 

Laurance S. Rockefeller 

Sears, Roebuck and Company 

The Stans Foundation 

Hattie M. Strong Foundation 

Mr. & Mrs. Bertrand L. Taylor III 

Tupper Foundation 

van Ameringen Foundation, Inc. 

Washington Planetarium and Space 

Xerox Corporation 

$1,000 or more: 

Alcoa Foundation 

American Conservation Association 

American Society of Civil Engineers 


Antiquariaat Junk 

Arkville E. R. P. F. 

Mrs. Hester M. Ayers 

Mrs. Frederic C. Bartlett 

Mrs. Leon Barzin 

The Bass Foundation 

The Beal Foundation 

Mr. David P. Becker 

Borg Warner Co. 

Boston Safe Deposit & Trust Co. 

Mrs. George R. Brewer 

The Brown Foundation, Inc. 

Mr. John Nicholas Brown 

Mr. David Bruce 

Brunschwig & Fils, Inc. 

The Bunker Foundation, Inc. 



$1,000 or more- Con t. 

Mr. Wiley N. Caldwell 

Caterpillar Tractor Co. 

The Chesapeake Bay Foundation 

Coca-Cola U.S.A. 

Dr. Harold J. Coolidge 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum Building Games 

Mr. Julien Cornell 

Mr. John A. Corron 

Dr. William H. Crocker 

Dart Industries, Inc. 

John Deere Foundation 

Dodge Foundation 

Dow Chemical Co. 

Dr. William L. Elkins 

Mr. & Mrs. Alfred U. Elser, Jr. 

Entomological Society of America 

Dr. Clifford Evans 

Mr. Joseph I. Ferguson 

Mr. S. S. Forrest, Jr. 

Fort Worth Zoo Association 

Mrs. Edith Heboid Freidberg 

Mr. Charles H. Frey 

General Telephone & Electronics 

George Washington University 
Dr. Gordon D. Gibson 
The Lillian Gish Foundation, Inc. 
William Glackens Exhibition 
Mr. Alfred C. Glassell, Jr. 
Dr. Crawford H. Greenewalt 
Mrs. Lloyd P. Griscom 
Mr. & Mrs. Walter Haas, Jr. 
Marian Hagu Estate 
Hamilton Standard & United Aircraft 

Dr. J. Hasinger 
Mr. & Mrs. Samuel Hill, Jr. 
Susan Morse Hilles Agency 
Humble Oil Company 
Imperial Embassy of Iran 
Industrial Designers Society of America 
Institute for Psychiatry & Foreign 

International Telephone & Telegraph Co. 
The Iran Foundation, Inc. 
Johns Hopkins University 
The Kiplinger Foundation, Inc. 
Mr. Harold F. Linder 
Mr. Charles A. Lindbergh 

The Link Foundation 

George Little Memorial Foundation, Inc. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

Mr. Devereaux F. McCatchey 

Mr. Robert L. McNeil 

Mrs. Louden Mellen 

Melville Shoe Co. 

Merck & Company 

Miss Ethel Merman 

Ingram Merrill Foundation Trust 

University of Michigan 

Mrs. Irene Morden 

Eugene & Agnes E. Meyer Foundation 

National Capital Parks 

National Council on Arts 

National Endowment for the Humanities 

National Park Service 

State of New York 

New York Zoological Society 

Richard Nixon Foundation 

The Tai Ping Foundation, Inc. 

Mrs. Marjorie Merriweather Post 

William Randolph Hearst Foundation 

Reader's Digest 

Rockefeller Brothers Fund 

Mrs. John D. Rockefeller IV 

Mrs. Dorothy F. Rodgers 

Clara Louise Safford Estate 

Mr. Bert Sager 

Salt Lake City Tribune 

Dr. Seuss Foundation 

Mrs. Arthur L. Shipman, Sr. 

Sidney Printing & Publishing Co. 

Mr. Robert Hilton Smith 

The Stanley Works 

Summerhill Foundation 

The Allie L. Sylvester Foundation 

E. V. Thaw & Co. 

Mr. Joseph A. Thomas 

Mr. & Mrs. Edgar J. Thompson 

Mrs. John Tishman 

Marcia Brady Tucker Foundation, Inc. 

Mrs. Hildegarde G. van Roijen 

Mr. Dewitt Wallace 

Mr. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 

Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation 

Wildenstein & Co., Inc. 

Youth Friends Association, Inc. 

Mr. Harry W. Zichtermann 



$500 or more: 

Mr. & Mrs. John W. Auchincloss 

The Lily Auchincloss Foundation 

Miss Isabell Allen 

Allied Chemical Foundation 

American Geophysical Union 

Mr. & Mrs. B. V. Ayers 

Mr. & Mrs. George Bashlow 

Mr. & Mrs. Lewis Baskin 

Mr. & Mrs. Roger K. Becker 

Bell & Howell Foundation 

Ms. Barbara Berry 

Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Bissell 

Mr. Edwin Caplin 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert G. Cleveland 

Mr. & Mrs. E. H. Clocker 

Mr. & Mrs. Leonard H. Cohan 

Mr. R. G. Conley 

Mr. Richmond A. Day 

Mr. & Mrs. Bern Dibner 

Mr. L. Gordon Fiske 

Mr. Blanton Fortson, Jr. 

Mr. Herb Glass 

Mr. & Mrs. Harry Griffin 

Mr. Frederick Haupt III 

Mr. John J ago 

Mr. & Mrs. B. G. Lainson 

Mrs. Cazenove Lee 

Mr. & Mrs. Steward W. Livermore 

James A. MacDonald Foundation 

The Magnavox Foundation, Incorporated 

University of Maine 

Mr. Morton D. May 

Dr. & Mrs. George Morrice 

Mr. & Mrs. James Duncan Munro 

Newark Museum Association 

Nickerson Charitable Fund 

Mr. & Mrs. Nottin 

Mr. & Mrs. Nelson R. Nottingham 

Louise L. Ottinger Foundation 

Paccar Foundation 

Mr. Vito A. Passeno 

Dr. & Mrs. E. Lee Porter 

Mr. M. P. Potamkin 

Mrs. Augustus Riggs IV 

Mrs. Nedenia H. Robertson 

Mr. D. H. Robinson 

Mr. & Mrs. Howard F. Ross 

Helena Rubinstein Foundation, Inc. 

Dr. Peter S. Scott 

Mr. Robert W. Shackleton 

Mr. Arthur L. Shipman, Sr. 

Shure Brothers, Inc. 

Mr. & Mrs. Montgomery M. Smith 

E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc. 

Miss Marilyn L. Steinbright 

Mr. & Mrs. Harry N. Stevens 

Stroheim & Romann 


Tucson Gem & Mineral Society 


Colonel & Mrs. Julius Wadsworth 

Mr. Robert W. Wallick 

Mr. Jay N. Whipple, Jr. 

Mrs. Ben White 

Mr. Sargent White 

Whitney Museum of American Art 

Mr. Alanson Willcox 

Womens Committee of the Smithsonian 

Mrs. Rose Saul Zalles 

We also gratefully acknowledge other contributions in the amount of 
$141,749.00 received from 1,196 persons during 1972. 






The Board of Regents 
Smithsonian Institution: 

We have examined the balance sheet of private funds of Smithsonian 
Institution as of 30 June 1972 and the related statement of changes in 
fund balances for the year then ended. Such statements do not include the 
account of the National Gallery of Art, the John F. Kennedy Center for 
the Performing Arts, nor other departments, bureaus and operations 
administered by the Institution under federal appropriations. Our exami- 
nation was made in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, 
and accordingly included such tests of the accounting records and such 
other auditing procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. 

As explained in note 1 of the notes to financial statements, the 
Institution has consistently followed the practice of reflecting in its 
financial statements as fixed assets only museum shops and computer 
equipment and other fixed assets acquired through gift or through use of 
gift funds. Generally accepted accounting principles for non-profit 
organizations require the recording of all fixed assets in the financial 

In our opinion, except for the method as discussed in the preceding 
paragraph, the accompanying balance sheet and statement of changes in 
fund balance of private funds present fairly the financial position of 
Smithsonian Institution at 30 June 1972, and the results of its operations 
for the year then ended, in conformity with generally accepted accounting 
principles applied on a basis consistent with that of the preceding year. 


29 August 1972 



FUNDS 30 JUNE 1972 

(With comparative figures for 1971) (Note 1) 


1972 1971 



In U.S. Treasury $ 172,821 $ 413,857 

In banks and on hand 290,917 155,997 

Total Cash 463,738 569,854 

Investments - at cost (market value $49,530; 

$2,735 ,996 in 1971) 4,186,224 2,868,032 


Accounts 774,332 774,722 

Advances - travel and other 160,106 194,835 

Reimbursements - grants and contracts 986,797 1,369,306 

1,921,235 2,338,863 

Inventories at lower of cost or net realizable value 567,210 522,908 

Prepaid expense 1 14,047 1 16,988 

Deferred magazine expenses (note 2) 749,226 404,472 

Equipment (less accumulated depreciation of 

$189,804; $71,636 in 1971) (note 1 and 3).. 408,211 521,325 

Total Current Funds $ 8,409,891 $ 7,342,442 


Cash $ 1,299,088 $ 165,033 

Notes receivable 95,316 96,663 

Investments -at cost: (market value 

$48,629,718; $42,467,439 in 1971) 32,273,457 31,288,633 

Loan to U.S. Treasury in perpetuity 1,000,000 1,000,000 

Total Endowment and Similar Funds . $34,667,861 $32,550,329 

Real estate at cost or appraised value at date of 

gift (note 1) $ 2,326,956 $ 2,176,219 

Total Real Estate Acquisition Funds. . $2,326,956 $2,176,219 

See accompanying notes to financial statements. 



FUNDS 30 JUNE 1972 

(With comparative figures for 1971) (Note 1) 

Liabilities and Fund Balances 

1972 1971 


Notes payable (note 3) $ 383,691 $ 654,61 3 

Accounts payable 421,213 814,581 

Accrued liabilities 669,065 570,068 

Deferred income: 

Magazine subscriptions 1,931,311 1,400,926 

Other 117,019 130,249 

Total Liabilities 3,522,299 3,570,437 

Fund balances: 

Unrestricted 1,781,105 1,719,657 


Unexpended income from endowments . 550,580 651,889 

Grants and Contracts 50,001 290,741 

Gifts 2,505,906 1,109,718 

Total Fund Balances 4,887,592 3,772,005 

Total Current Funds $ 8,409,891 $ 7,342,442 


Fund balances: 

Endowment funds $29,320,809 $27,391,201 

Funds functioning asendowments 5,347,052 5,159,128 

Total Endowment and Similar Funds $34,667,861 $32,550,329 


Mortgage notes payable (note 4) $ 353,138 $ 293,641 

Fund balance 1,973,818 1,882,578 

Total Real Estate Acquisition Funds . $ 2,326,956 $ 2,176,219 




Statement of Changes in Fund Balances 
Year ended 30 June 1972 

Current Funds 

Unrestricted funds 

Restricted funds 

Balance at 30 June 1971 

Total General 

3,772,005 $1,719,657 $ 

Income from 
Activities endowments 

Gran ts i 
con true 

$ 651,889 $1,109,718 $ 290, 


Net sales 7,157,260 831,190 

Less: cost of goods sold 4,837,761 812,401 

Gross profit 2,319,499 18,789 

Grants and contracts - Net . . . 7,847,612 

Investment income 1,512,396 334,05 5 

Gifts, bequests and 

foundation grants 2,789,036 25,591 

Rental and commission 170,562 170,562 

Other 395,377 49,178 

Total additions $15,034,482 598,175 


Salary and benefits 8,952,275 2,413,352 

Purchases for collection .... 209,465 523 

Travel and transportation. . . 834,418 76,114 

Equipment and facilities .. . 638,087 138,154 

Supplies and materials 730,206 81,171 

Rent and utilities 103,806 44,954 

Communications 139,593 67,361 

Contractual services 3,063,447 142,116 

Computer rental 41,038 32,729 

Promotion and advertising . . 67,429 

Depreciation 22,244 

Administrative expenditures 

applied (167,090 ) (2,638,646 ) 

Total deductions. .. . $14,634,918 357,828 

Transfers 716,023 (178,899) 

Net increase (decrease) in fund 

balances 1,115,587 61,448 

Balance at 30 June 1972 $ 4,887,592 . $1,781,105 $ 















1 1,094 






















327,2 1 








36,5 j 

























7,934,0 1 



1,1 19,196 







$ 550,580 


$ 50,0 1 




Statement of Changes in Fund Balances 
Year ended 30 June 1972 

Endowment and Similar Funds 

Endowment funds 





as endow- 

Fund balances at 30 June 1971 

as previously reported $32,550,329 $27,495,256 $13,328,493 $14,166,763 $5,055,073 

To correct error in classification 

of Smithsonian Agency Acct. - (104,055) - (104,055) 104,055 

Fund balances at 30 June 1971 

as adjusted 32,550,329 27,391.201 13,328,493 14,062,708 5,159,128 


Gifts and Bequests 43,830 38,069 38,069 5,761 

Net Gain (Loss) on Sale of 

investments 2,880,965 2,723,293 2,118,628 604,665 157,672 

Income added to principal . . 95,178 91,740 - 91,740 3,438 

Transfer from Current Funds- 
Smithsonian Agency Acct.. . 21,05 3 - - - 21,05 3 

Total Additions 3,041,026 2,853,102 2,118,628 734,474 187,924 


Transfer to Current Funds. . 923,494 923,494 - 923,494 

Fund balances at 30 June 1972. $34,667,861 $29,320,809 $ 1 5,447,121 $13,873,688 $5,347,052 

Real Estate Acquisition Fund 

Fund balance at 30 June 1971 $1,882,578 


Land Acquisition - Chesapeake Bay Center Property 280,503 


Land sales 

Ft. Pierce, Fla $181,01 1 

Chesapeake Bay Center 8,252 189,263 

Fund balance at 30 June 1972 $1,973,818 



Notes to Financial Statements 
30 June 1972 

1. Accounting Principles.-The institution follows the accrual method of account- 
ing except that accrued vacation pay has not been reflected on the accompanying 
financial statements. 

Fixed assets are recorded as follows: 

Museum shops and computer equipment: Those purchased from private funds are 
capitalized in the current fund. 

Land and buildings: Those acquired by gift or by use of gift funds are recorded in 
the real estate acquisition fund at cost or appraised value at date of gift, except for 
gifts of certain islands in the Chesapeake Bay and the Carnegie Mansion which have 
been recorded at nominal values. 

All other land, buildings, furniture, equipment, works of art, living or other 
specimens are not reflected in the accompanying financial statements. 

Museum Shops and computer equipment are depreciated on a straight line basis 
over an estimated useful life of five years. In accordance with generally accepted 
accounting principles for non-profit organizations, depreciation is not provided on 
non-income producing assets. 

2. Deferred Magazine Expenses. - This amount represents promotional expenses 
incurred in connection with the Smithsonian magazine. These expenses are to be 
amortized over a period of twelve months. 

3. Note Payable. -The note payable in the principal amount of $383,691 is 
secured by computer equipment and is payable in monthly installments of $7,993 to 
30 June 1976. 

4. Mortgage Notes Payable. -The mortgage notes payable are secured by first 
deeds of trust on property acquired in connection with the Chesapeake Bay Center. 
Funds for the curtailment of these notes will be transferred from restricted 
funds- gifts, designated for the development of the Chesapeake Bay Center. The 
details of the mortgage notes payable are as follows: 

a. A $226,100 note on property acquired for $376,000. The note is payable in 
nineteen consecutive semi-annual installments of $13,300, plus interest at the 
prevailing prime rate on the due date of payment but not less than 8% with the 
final payment due 1 July 1980. 

b. A $37,038 note on property acquired for $118,533. The note is payable in 
monthly installments of $451, including interest at the rate of 6%, with the final 
payment due on 1 November 1989. 

c. A $90,000 note on property acquired for $120,000. The note is payable in three 
consecutive annual installments of $30,000, plus interest at the rate of 7 percent 
on the unpaid balance, with the final payment due 1 November 1974. 

5. Real Estate Acquisition Funds. -The real estate acquisition funds include 
certain land and buildings acquired by gift or purchased from restricted funds. This 
property is currently being used for museums, the Chesapeake Bay Center and a 
conference center. Previously this property was included as part of the endowment 
and similar funds. The prior year's financial statements have been reclassified to 
reflect this change. 


Science at the Smithsonian has been free of many of the constraints to 
which large government agencies are subject. The benefit accruing from 
this freedom has resulted in the innovative and often unconventional 
research that follows in the reports of the bureaus. 

It is worth noting that when the Astronomy Survey Committee of the 
National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council 
published its independently formulated standard entitled Astronomy and 
Astrophysics in the 1970's the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
could already show substantial progress on its own towards every one of 
the Committee's recommendations. One of the most dramatic innovations 
by SAO during the year has been the start of construction of a 
multiple-mirror telescope (MMT) in cooperation with the University of 
Arizona. Although not a new concept, this is the first time the 
multiple-mirror technique has been attempted on a telescope of this size. 
When finished it will be the third largest optical telescope in the world. 
The MMT, when completed, will be capable of performance hitherto only 
equaled by conventional instruments of larger size and costing several 
million dollars more. 

Exhibit plans are moving rapidly ahead for the new Air and Space 
Museum, which, pending Congressional approval, is scheduled to open in 
1976. Construction of Washington's first planetarium is well advanced, and 
the prototype of a highly imaginative spacearium is being constructed, 
which will allow the audience to "travel" into space and look back at the 
earth and our solar system. With cooperation from the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory the proposed exhibits will afford the lay 
visitor new perspectives of our universe and a greater knowledge of some 
of the exciting discoveries and theories of astrophysics. 

Substantial progress has been made in the interbureau research of the 
Environmental Science Program. The first research results of this long-term 
project will soon be published on the Zoo's study of two species of sloth 
at Barro Colorado Island. The results of monitoring biological and physical 
fluctuations on this island are now being submitted to computer analysis 
and parallel monitoring is underway at the Chesapeake Bay Center for 
Environmental Studies. 

An important step in multidisciplinary and multi-institutional research 
on the Chesapeake Bay was achieved in December by the formation of the 
Chesapeake Research Consortium, Inc. As a Consortium member, the 
Smithsonian received a grant from the National Science Foundation's 
RANN (Research Applied to National Needs) Program for work at the 



Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies. Scientists from the 
University of Maryland, the Johns Hopkins University, and the United 
States Geological Survey are using our facilities there in a highly integrated 
fashion. The Rhode River estuary is particularly valuable in this bay -wide 
study because it is one of the very few relatively unstressed areas less than 
an hour from Washington and Baltimore. 

This year also marks the inauguration of the Fort Pierce Bureau of the 
Smithsonian, in Florida, where a broad research plan in marine science is 
getting underway. 

Finally, recognition should be given to the continuous and positive role 
which the science bureaus of the Smithsonian have assumed throughout 
the past year in matters of national and international concern. 
Smithsonian scientists have provided representatives and advisory services 
to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), to the U.S. delegation to 
the International Whaling Commission, to the U.S. delegation to the 
Stockholm Conference on the Environment, and to the federal agencies 
interested in the environmental effects of sea-level canal construction in 
Panama. Smithsonian scientists have also collaborated with foreign 
governments on every continent on environmental projects for which they 
needed technical assistance, and a joint Smithsonian Institution-Peace 
Corps recruitment effort has also made scientific technicians available to 
many developing countries. 

Details of these and other science bureau accomplishments in fiscal year 
1972 follow. 

National Museum of Natural History 

This was a year marked by encouraging progress in a number of areas, 
progress made possible by substantial new fiscal support from the 

In addition to several new scientists, the Museum was able to employ a 
considerable number of support personnel-clerks and typists, museum 
aides, and technicians. As a consequence, an excellent start was made 
toward the Museum's long-sought goal of providing an average of two such 
support people for each researcher. Results are evident in a greater number 
of publications of the interpretive type, as well as greater involvement in 
leadership activities that contribute to the advancement of the natural 
sciences nationally and internationally. New multidisciplinary field studies 
were initiated which, when added to ongoing projects and broad floristic 
and faunistic survey programs, have provided significantly increased 
opportunities for the staff to work in the field with living organisms in 
their natural habitats. 


Major accomplishments also have been made in the application of elec- 
tronic data-processing (EDP) and information retrieval to the management 
of collections. It is becoming increasingly evident that the care of such data 
is, in its own way, as important as care for the specimens themselves. The 
objectives are to capture, store, and retrieve collection-based information 
more efficiently than by conventional means and to produce ultimately a 
versatile, easily searchable data base that will be more responsive to 
scientific inquiry than are current records in most of the departments. Top 
priority is given to projects designed to capture data from all incoming 
collections. The capture of data on specimens already in the collections 
occupies the second priority, and about 25 such projects are underway. 
Application of computer technology to research projects of the staff of 
the Museum, a third priority, began this year and will be expanded in the 
future. In close cooperation with the Museum's EDP program, a research 
team consisting of USDA and Smithsonian entomologists is collecting and 
collating all the available data on entomological systematics in machine- 
readable form. The primary purpose of the project is to use the resulting 
magnetic-taped data base to publish a current catalog and simultaneously 
to provide the means by which it can be continuously updated. In 
addition, such a data bank can be queried by agriculturists, entomologists, 
and even by the public indirectly without demands on the time of our 
Museum staff. 


Early man and animals of the New World were intimately related 
ecologically in an environment characterized by climatological extremes. 
While there have been many attempts to interpret one or another sector of 
this vast area, a new, multidisciplinary program was initiated this year 
aimed at a clearer understanding of man's early history as a hunter of 
Pleistocene fauna from Alaska to Patagonia. An archeologist specializing in 
Paleoindian studies was employed and projects were inaugurated in the 
Brooks Range of Alaska, Nebraska, the Texas Panhandle, east-central New 
Mexico, eastern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in four geographical zones 
of Coastal Chile. It is anticipated that the program will involve -in addition 
to anthropologists— geomorphologists, palynologists, and paleontologists. 

The National Herbarium has long been recognized as one of the most 
important centers for studies of neotropical plants. The truth of that 
observation was again emphasized by the volume of monographic, 
revisionary, and floristic research published or largely completed this year. 
Now palynology in the Museum has been initiated by the employment of a 
specialist whose first responsibility was to plan the new laboratory and 
begin to obtain the necessary equipment. 



Lichens have long held a place of special interest to botanists because of 
the algae-fungus symbiosis involved. The use of phytochemistry is well 
established as a means of classifying lichens but the Scanning Electron 
Microscope (SEM) has now opened the way for new understandings of 

SEM photograph of a cross-section of the cortical layer of a foliose lichen ( Pa rmelia 
croceopustulata Kurok.) showing the thin polysaccharide epicortical layer and a pore 
that provides for gas exchange to the algal layer below. Magnified X 3000. 


their microstructure. Working with members of a major family of foliose 
lichens, the SEM has been used to reveal for the first time the complexities 
of the structure of the cortical layei, most importantly in three 
dimensions. It is particularly interesting that pores below the resolution of 
light microscopy were found. These function in much the same manner as 
the stomates of flowering plants, except they do not open and close, to 
permit gaseous exchange between the inner (algal) cells and the external 
physical environment. Not only do these findings provide new charac- 
teristics for systematic investigations but they may stimulate research on 
ecological physiology of lichens. 

Bees were also the subject of an economically important study that is 
continuing. Those bees responsible for pollination of squashes, gourds, and 
pumpkins are being introduced under carefully controlled experimental 
conditions into areas where these plants are cultivated but where their 
natural pollinators are absent. Releases of bees were made in Hawaii and 
observations are underway to determine whether or not they become 
established and, if so, whether the yields of these crop plants are increased 
as anticipated. Positive results could be of major importance to some of 
the developing nations where these crops are being introduced to improve 
the local food supply. 

Similarly, the study of burrowing sponges, which form large cavities in 
coral heads and contribute to the destruction of coral reefs is of primary 
importance. Through use of the Scanning Electron Microscope and 
through stimulation of burrowing activity in pieces of Iceland Spar 
(calcite), it was possible to study burrowing activity in hard substrates. 
Continuing investigations are aimed at determining the mechanisms by 
which sponges dissolve hard substrates. This and other studies will be 
greatly facilitated by an electron microscope, obtained and installed in 
cooperation with the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals, which is 
housed in the Museum. 

Under laboratory conditions, it was determined that an ostracod species 
of Cypretta is an effective predator of Biomphalaria glabrata, a vector snail 
of the blood fluke that causes the serious tropical disease schistosomiasis. 
Such ostracods may prove to be useful in biological control of schistoso- 
miasis in areas such as Vietnam and tropical Africa. 

Lunar studies in recent years have often been directed to exploration of 
the chemical and structural nature of moon rocks and dust. However, 
investigations of lunar "geomorphology" have also stimulated re- 
evaluations of some earth structures similar in appearance to those on the 
moon. Staff members spent several weeks in South and Southwest Africa, 
Lonar Lake in India, and Henbury and Gosse's Bluff in Central Australia 
examining enigmatic geological structures in each location for evidence of 
meteorite impact. In addition, extensive investigations were carried out of 



Squash bees have been introduced in Hawaii experimentally in an attempt to 
establish populations of these natural pollinators of cultivated cucurbits. 





Topographic mapping and gravity survey across Rotor Kamm, a possible meteorite 
impact crater 8,000 feet in diameter and 400 feet deep located in the restricted 
diamond area along the west coast of South West Africa. 

the active volcanoes Arenal in Costa Rica, Soufriere on the Carribean 
island of St. Vincent, and Fernandina in the Galapagos Islands. 

In recent years, the interrelated subjects of sea-floor spreading, plate 
tectonics, and continental drift have received attention primarily by the 
penologists in the Museum. Important paleobiologies data can now also 


be reported that complement and support the physical data. A pilot study 
has been conducted of the evolutionary responses to the constant 
movements of the earth's crustal plates. This consisted of an investigation 
of the history of biological relationships among mollusks across the 
Temperate and Tropical Atlantic Ocean throughout the 200-million-year 
history of its formation and subsequent opening to its present configura- 
tion. Initial results clearly show increasing endemism of molluscan faunas 
during the Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic on either side of the Atlantic as it 
opened, as well as a close correlation of major evolutionary and 
sedimentary events with periods of active plate movement. Periods of 
active crustal movement appear to be correlated with continental flooding, 
while draining of continents accompanied inactive periods of crustal 
movement. Rates of molluscan evolution, documented by studying 
numerous lineages within a framework of absolute geological time 
constructed from radiometric dating, appear to be closely related to 
tectonic -sedimentary events. 

A long-term functional anatomical study of a hundred species of shore 
birds was completed, dealing primarily with kinesis of the upper jaw, as 
well as the proportion and angular relationships of the skull. Skull 
features not previously studied were compared, using X-rays, with the 
conclusion that general adaptive patterns in these respects corresponded 
well with accepted taxonomic groupings. 

As is usually the case, studies of fishes of many groups using the full 
panoply of taxonomic characteristics, was an important contribution to 
the total research of the Museum. A paper on nearly 200 interspecific and 
intergeneric hybrids of chubs concluded that such hybridization results 
from temporal, spatial, or ethological isolation during the breeding season. 
Also completed was a comprehensive summary and analysis of host 
relationships in the sharksuckers that demonstrated host specificity in 
some species, including one that attaches only to certain species of marine 
mammals. In addition, the Ocean Acre project, an intensive study of the 
ecology of the midwater fauna of a selected water column near Bermuda, 
produced reports on the vertical distribution and ecology of the 
lanternfishes and the bristlemouth fishes. 


Two ultimate truths concerning natural history collections were 
repeatedly emphasized by events of the year: Samples of the natural 
world, already viewed as indispensable documentation of the components 
of the global ecosystem, are increasingly seen as a national resource in the 
study of environmental and pollution problems, as well as for more 
conventional uses. However, there is no single, more serious, all-pervading 



problem for the National Museum of Natural History than the production 
of a long-range solution to the problem of adequate space for the National 

Conservation of collections, always important, was advanced in this 
year by several activities. A major collection of Samurai Arms and Armor 
for the first time was cleaned and stored in proper cases and on special 
racks. An expert Japanese sword polisher from Tokyo spent six months in 
the Anthropology Processing Laboratory examining, evaluating, and 
conserving the 180 Japanese Samurai swords in the collection. It was 

Terutoyo Fujimoto, expert Japanese sword polisher, conserving one of the 
historically important Samurai swords from anthropological collections to preserve 
the finish and to expose temper lines. 


discovered that some were extremely significant pieces and certification 
papers will be issued by the Japanese authorities. 

Growth in holdings of vertebrate animal specimens, as well as the care 
of those already in hand, continued to pose space-use problems, as well as 
research opportunities. Whale, porpoise, and other marine mammal 
materials, presently in warehouse storage, were prepared for return to the 
Museum where they will occupy an entire exhibit hall made available for 
this purpose because of great national interest in these animals. This marks 
the initiation of a research/curatorial program on marine mammals in 
collaboration with the International Biological Program studies of marine 
productivity, involving the Departments of Vertebrate Zoology and 
Paleobiology, which house the fossil marine materials. 

In addition to collections management, EDP applications have other 
very real values. For example, associated data on mammals and their 
ectoparasites in the system will permit the generation of a variety of 
summaries, correlations, and analyses of great potential value in 
epidemiological and ecological programs underway in many institutions. A 
quite different objective motivates the capture of data about and from the 
gem and mineral collections. In this instance, not only are the needs of 
research projects served, but an accurate inventory of these precious 
materials permits much improved security to be maintained. 

During the fiscal year a National Synthetic Crystals Collection has been 
initiated which promises to be a significant adjunct to the present 
collections. In the first six months of its establishment almost a thousand 
specimens had been received, many of rare or unique materials. 


There has been a succession of outstanding temporary exhibits in the 
foyer area. An exhibit of the tools and implements of everyday life in a 
Korean village, another on life in Greenland, one on the history of U.S. 
Fisheries, and another on Japanese Swords and Armor are examples of 
these short-term highly popular presentations. 

Perhaps the single effort most appreciated by the public was the Insect 
Zoo which opened for its second summer season in June, thanks to fiscal 
support from Alfred Elser, the Smithsonian Associates Ladies' Committee, 
and the Entomological Society of America. New features this year were an 
ant farm, butterfly flight cage, and television monitor closeups of a 
procession of insects too small to be seen easily without magnification. 
Although funds were available for much of the apparatus, a great deal of 
the time required for answering questions and giving brief explanations 
was contributed by a large number of young volunteers recruited and 
trained by the Museum staff. 



Visitors watching a tarantula in the Natural History Museum's Insect Zoo, an 
experimental exhibit designed to teach biological principles using the behavior of live 

National Air and Space Museum 

Fiscal year 1972 marked the first year that the National Air and Space 
Museum operated under the leadership of its new Director, Michael Collins. 
Major emphasis has been placed on detailed preparation for a new museum 
to be opened in the Bicentennial year. The architectural firm of Hellmuth, 
Obata, & Kassabaum, Inc., designed the new National Air and Space 
Museum Building. The building design has been approved by the Fine Arts 
Commission and the National Capital Planning Commission. 

Two major exhibits were opened during the year. The first, Ballooning, 
combined a variety of audiovisual techniques new to the Air and Space 
Museum. The exhibit contains such things as an automated puppet show, 
which describes the first balloon crossing of the English Channel ; a hot air 
balloon that rises to the ceiling and returns to the floor when the air cools; 
continuous playing of balloon music; and hundreds of artifacts ranging 
from the first air mail letter to furniture designed with a balloon motif. 

The second exhibit, World War I Fighters, carries the audiovisual 
techniques to even greater dimensions. In this exhibit not only is there 
extensive use of sound, but in addition, a live mechanic works on the 
restoration of a Nieuport Fighter. This exhibit area has proved to be very 
popular for it allows the visitor to ask questions and receive immediate and 
accurate information about the aircraft of the World War I era. 

A planetarium chamber on the Mall is fast becoming a reality. A 
30-foot domed chamber, which will be housed in the Air and Space 
Building, is under construction. The dome is in place, the equipment is on 


order, and a planetarium program is being prepared for opening in late 
December 1972. This planetarium will serve two purposes. First, it will be 
an entertainment and educational center. Not only will shows be given to 
the general public on a regularly scheduled basis, but in addition, 
educational programs will be developed for classes at primary and 
secondary educational levels. Schools in the Washington area will have the 
opportunity to send full classes to the planetarium for astronomy lectures 
and shows. Secondly, the planetarium will serve as a laboratory for the 
experimentation and design of programs and equipment which will be used 
in the Spacearium to be built in the new NASM Building. 

Not only is the Museum adding to the collections, approximately 
120,000 pounds of material was added during the fiscal year, but, more 
significantly, a program was initiated to purge items which have little or no 
historical significance. Pursuant to this program, over 35,000 pounds of 
material were removed from the NASM collections. 

Restoration work continued during the year on the Douglas World 
Cruiser, the Nieuport Type 83E-2, and the Curtiss XFC9-2. It is planned to 
exhibit these aircraft in the new NASM Building. 

Miss Catherine Scott was assigned as branch librarian by the Smith- 
sonian Library and has begun the task of reorganizing the NASM library. 
Interlibrary loan cooperation procedures have been established with other 
libraries in the Washington, D.C., area. Work has begun on weeding out 
insignificant and duplicate material. Circulation records are being re- 
organized and an appraisal is being made of the catalog file in line with the 
Union catalog holdings in the main library. All of this is being 
accomplished to bring the NASM library up to the standards of the other 
Institution libraries. 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

Publication of Astronomy and Astrophysics in the 1970's (Astronomy 
Survey Committee of the National Academy of Sciences and the National 
Research Council, April 1972) gave an independently formulated standard 
against which to measure progress and plans of the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). A comprehensive assessment, begun this 
year, of the implications for SAO of the Committee recommendations will 
be completed during fiscal year 1973. Meanwhile, however, the concord- 
ance between these recommendations and SAO activities is so striking in 
most areas that this situation is already reflected in the Observatory's 
report for this year. 

The Survey Committee defines, in order of importance, four national 
programs of highest priority. The first concerns radio astronomy; it 


recommends construction of a very large array (VLA) radio-telescope 
facility and increased support of smaller radio programs. While SAO 
scientists have no intimate role in present plans for the VLA, they would 
surely be among the users of such a facility. 

The second part of the recommendation is another recognition of the 
same compelling scientific facts that led SAO to initiate a joint 
radio-astronomy program with Harvard University some years ago and 
diligently to build that program in the intervening years. During the past 
year, joint research by a Smithsonian-Harvard team continued on several 
excited states of methyl alcohol, and, for the first time, interstellar 
acetaldehyde was detected. Parallel laboratory studies gave precise rest 
frequencies for the formamide molecule, recently detected by this group 
in the interstellar medium, and further spectroscopic data on isotopic 
hydroxyl molecules. Measurements were made of the far-infrared spectra 
and chemical properties of an unidentified oxygen-hydrogen radical 
produced in the reaction of oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons. 

The most recent addition to this program— very long-baseline inter- 
ferometry (VLBI)-is specified in the recommendations as one of the areas 
deserving increased support. Four VLBI experiments were undertaken 
between July 1971 and June 1972 in cooperation with Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, Naval Research Laboratory, and California 
Institute of Technology. All the experiments involved observations of 
galactic spectral line sources, including the 2n3/2, J=3/2 and 27rl/2, J=5/2 
transition of OH and the 6\(f+ $23 transition of HoO. 

As its second highest priority, the Committee recommends an optical 
program that will greatly increase the efficiency of existing telescopes by 
means of modern electronic auxiliaries and at the same time design and 
construct the new large telescopes necessary for research to the limits of 
the known universe. 

SAO has, for some time, been pushing the development of modern 
electronic auxiliaries for use primarily on its 60-inch telescope, but also on 
other telescopes such as those at Boyden Observatory in South Africa and 
the new Wise Observatory in Israel. Examples of such instrumentation 
employed by SAO scientists include the PEPSIOS spectrometer, the 
Fourier-transform spectrometer, and a Kron electronographic image tube. 
With such instrumentation, the SAO 60-inch telescope on Mt. Hopkins has 
in fact been making observations that earlier could have been done only on 
a much larger telescope. 

For example, high-resolution spectroscopic measurements of planetary 
absorption lines have been made with a three-etalon Fabry-Perot inter- 
ferometer at Mt. Hopkins. The investigators detected, for the first time, 
the presence of molecular oxygen in the atmosphere of Mars and also 
established the existence of a layered cloud structure in the atmosphere of 


Venus. They made some measurements of interstellar absorption lines that 
gave the rotational temperature of interstellar CN molecules, which may 
show remaining effects of a "big bang" origin of our present universe. 

The Smithsonian participated in several ways in the founding of the 
new Florence and George C. Wise Observatory in Israel. This observatory 
was dedicated on 26 October, 1971. The Institution provided exchange 
currency for acquisition and operation of some peripheral equipment, and 
an SAO scientist is coordinating joint research activities of American and 
Israeli astronomers. The major instrument at the new observatory on the 
Negev High Plateau is a 40-inch reflector-type telescope. 

The Multiple -Mirror Telescope (MMT) project of SAO and the 
University of Arizona is a principal element in the activity that the 
Committee envisions as leading to new large telescopes. Design of the 
MMT progressed as scheduled during the year, and SAO gave a contract to 
an industiial firm for fabrication of the mount. Mt. Hopkins was chosen as 
the MMT site. Measurement of light pollution and radio noise established 
that the sky there is significantly better for astronomical observations than 
is the sky over Mt. Lemmon north of Tucson, the other site considered. 

The third recommendation of the Survey Committee asks for a 
significant increase in support of infrared astronomy, including construc- 
tion of a large ground-based infrared telescope, a high -altitude balloon 
survey, and design studies for a very large stratospheric telescope. 

Some few years ago, SAO placed particular emphasis on strengthening 
its infrared astronomy program. Activities have included the fabrication of 
refined infrared detectors, adaptation of the Boyden 60-inch telescope for 
infrared observations, and initiation of a project to put on the peak of Mt. 
Hopkins a 48-inch telescope for infrared observations. Of course, SAO's 
greatest activity in this area is the MMT, which will be the world's largest 
telescope optimized for infrared. 

Furthermore, a joint project is underway among SAO, Harvard College 
Observatory, and the University of Arizona to design and build a 40 -inch 
telescope for infrared observations from a balloon gondola. The first 
flights of the telescope will take place during calendar 1972. This infrared 
balloon project is a substantial first step toward the large stratospheric 
telescope recommended in the Committee report. 

A program for X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy from a series of large 
orbiting High-Energy Astrophysical Observatories (HEAO), supported by 
construction of ground-based optical and infrared telescopes, is the fourth 
Survey Committee recommendation. 

SAO scientists are not involved in the development of the HEAO now 
authorized, but they have had experience with satellite-borne gamma-ray 
astronomy. SAO also has been very active during the last few years in 
balloon flights for gamma-ray astronomy. Early this year, two successful 


balloon flights of SAO's 10-Mev gas-Cerenkov detector were made from 
Parana, Argentina. Both gave indications that the suspected 10-Mev 
gamma-ray source at the galactic center was indeed there. Another 
gamma-ray source, Sgr 7-I, reported at higher energies, also yielded an 
excess flux of gamma rays, although at a lower level of confidence. 

The first observations of extremely high-energy gamma rays from the 
pulsar in the Crab Nebula have been made by SAO scientists using two 
different techniques. In the first, pulsed gamma rays were detected by 
means of paired searchlight reflectors at Mt. Hopkins. These observations 
confirm an earlier SAO experiment when a suspected pulsed flux of 
gamma rays was detected. A second set of results was based on 
observations with the 10-meter optical reflector, also at Mt. Hopkins. 
Scientists detected a continuous flux from the Crab Nebula; the flux 
varied slowly with time, the largest emissions occurring 60 to 120 days 
after a major frequency change of the pulsar. 

The Survey Committee identifies several additional programs of 
"highest scientific importance," but agrees that funding of them, although 
urgent, should not be allowed to delay the funding of the first four 
recommendations. SAO is engaged in activities relating to these additional 

The Committee proposed construction of a large millimeter-wavelength 
antenna to study quasars and complex interstellar molecules. SAO has 
already initiated a program in millimeter-wave astronomy. One phase of it 
is a joint project with Harvard College Observatory, the University of 
Texas, and Bell Laboratories that has fielded in Texas an extraordinarily 
precise telescope equipped with recently developed millimeter-wave 

Continuation of the program of Orbiting Solar Observatories (OSO) is 
urged by the Committee. SAO scientists will participate in the currently 
authorized OSO-I of the University of Colorado and OSO-J of Harvard 
College Observatory. Meanwhile, from data taken by OSO 4 and 6, SAO 
scientists have produced a new model of the solar chromosphere and made 
basic contributions to understanding of the high-temperature structure of 
solar flares, active regions, and prominences. 

Another recommendation is a sizable increase in support of theoretical 
investigations, including numerical computations. SAO is a recognized 
world leader in the use of computers to generate theoretical models of 
stellar atmospheres. This year, it cosponsored with NASA an international 
symposium on such models. Also, Observatory scientists continue to 
improve and refine PANDORA, the largest and most powerful computer 
program yet designed for model stellar atmospheres and radiative line 
transfer. Already the program is being used by a number of research 
groups outside the Smithsonian. 


The Committee proposes an expanded program of ultraviolet 
astronomy from space, culminating in the launch of a large space telescope 
by the end of this decade. 

SAO's Project Celescope to record stars in the ultraviolet was, of 
course, one of the two experiments onboard NASA's Orbiting Astro- 
nomical Observatory (OAO 2). This year, as a major achievement of that 
project, SAO issued the first catalog of stars as they appear in the 
ultraviolet. It is based on more than 6000 television pictures taken by 
Celescope. The initial version in the form of magnetic tape has been 
deposited in the National Space Sciences Data Center at NASA's Goddard 
Space Flight Center. An extended tape and printed version based on all 
Celescope data is now being prepared. 

The catalog lists the magnitudes of the stars observed in Celescope's 
four ultraviolet bands, as well as the standard deviations of the 
magnitudes, and the positions and identifications of the stars. It also gives 
the magnitudes, colors, and spectral types of these same stars as observed 
by ground-based telescopes. The data will be of particular value to 
theoreticians constructing models of hot rapidly evolving stars, which seem 
to emit most of their light in the ultraviolet. 

The large, steerable radio telescope recommended by the Committee is, 
in most respects, identical to the radio instrument described in the design 
study funded by NSF. This study, in which SAO participated, is the most 
detailed plan in existence for such an instrument. 

As a contribution to the Committee's final recommendation that 
improved astrometric measurements be undertaken, the Observatory 
coordinated a 14-month Earth-Physics Satellite Observation Campaign 
(EPSOC) to measure the Chandler Wobble, a major component in the 
geophysical phenomenon known as "polar motion." Meanwhile, the 
earth-physics group at SAO is generating a new Standard Earth, the third 
the Observatory has produced as a major result of its satellite-tracking 

The Observatory, of course, pursues other important research outside 
the scope of the Astronomical Survey Committee. This year, three groups 
of scientists continued to analyze lunar samples; a new and definitive guide 
to cometary orbits was issued at SAO; analysis of the orbit of the asteroid 
Pallas led to the concept that the asteroid belt is a cosmic museum of 
unused building blocks for Mars and Earth, of uncompleted planets, and of 
senile comets; first returns from a retroreflector on the moon were 
obtained by the SAO laser at Agassiz Station; precise geodetic measure- 
ments across the great African rift valley in Ethiopia surprisingly suggested 
longitudinal extension rather than widening of the rift; and a program of 
environmental monitoring was initiated at Mt. Hopkins. 


Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Fiscal year 1972 was a period of quiet consolidation and transition for 
STRI. Programs planned or begun earlier were pursued with encouraging 
success. Preparations were made for anticipated developments in the 

As always, considerable emphasis was placed on basic research. The 
scientific staff was enlarged by several recruits and supplemented by new 
pre- and postdoctoral fellows and research associates. This has made it 
possible to investigate the ecology and/or behavior of a really substantial 
variety of organisms. The "in house" research of the bureau (work 
receiving direct financial support) included studies of primates, bats, 
edentates, passerine birds, cuckoos, lizards, sea-snakes, frogs, both fresh- 
water and marine fishes, spiders, several kinds of insects (Hymenoptera, 
Orthoptera, Lepidoptera), squid, shrimp, corals, gorgonians, zooanthids, 
echinoids, crinoids, other less conspicuous marine invertebrates, orchids, 
forest trees, and marine algae. 

Most of this work was done in the neotropics, in and around the 
Isthmus of Panama, the northern part of South America, and the West 
Indies; but new comparative studies were also launched in the Old World 
(including such countries as Liberia, Gabon, and Kenya where the bureau 
has not been active before). 

The gradual increase of personnel has permitted extension of research 
to whole communities, as well as to individual groups and areas. Special 
attention is being paid to the measurement and prediction of fluctuations 
in humid tropical forest (part of the general Smithsonian Environmental 
Sciences Program) and in coral reef and inshore marine habitats (with 
support from both the Environmental Sciences Program and the Environ- 
mental Protection Agency). Preliminary work on tropical grassland biomes 
has begun. Further studies will be developed in collaboration with experts 
of the Institute of Ecology of the Polish National Academy of Sciences. 

The following examples illustrate the sorts of problems that have been 
judged to be accessible and relevant, and the level of refinement attained 
in STRI's research. 

Research on corals has been a major focus of effort. J. Lang of the 
staff, who is working in Jamaica, has for the first time measured 
interspecific aggressive behavior and the establishment of dominance 
hierarchies in competition for space (and presumably ultimately food) 
among major species of scleractinian hermatypes in the Caribbean. She is 
also studying such subjects as deep reef communities, intraspecific 
polymorphism and speciation in reef corals, the effects of depth upon 
skeletogenesis, and budding forms of asexual reproduction in 


J. Porter, one of the predoctoral fellows, has been experimenting with j 
coral feeding and zooplankton energy flow over the reefs of the San Bias 
Islands, and has completed surveys of coral diversity and biomass 
abundance as well as the physical oceanography and sedimentation regimes 
of several reef sites. 

P. Glynn of the staff, with his colleagues, has documented the 
occurrence of true structural reefs on eastern Pacific shores— another first 
record. Evidence from C 14 dating and the growth of the principal 
frame -building corals indicates that these reefs are among the fastest- 
growing known. They are increasing at the rate of M/250 yrs, despite 
attrition by predators of about one-third of the annual production. 

Analysis of reefs and environments around the Pearl Islands reveals that 
the low temperature conditions accompanying seasonal upwelling are 
deleterious to corals along the exposed western coasts. Thermal stress 
slows or impedes growth by rendering the corals more susceptible to 
invasions by other benthic organisms. 

Sections of coral heads cut along the growth axis and viewed under UV 
light show chlorophyll rings which appear to represent annual growth 
increments. An attempt is being made to determine the relationship 
between size of rings and intensity of upwelling. Hopefully, this should 
provide information on past marine climatic fluctuations. 

C. Birkeland and D. Meyer, research associates, obtained transect data 
on the depth distribution of reef corals at the isolated island of Malpelo 
off the northwestern coast of South America. They found that hermatypic 
corals were a dominant benthic element as far down as 37 meters below 
the surface of the waters. 

Further work on the Caribbean shore of Panama has disclosed drowned 
reefs on the shelf off Nombre de Dios, an actively accreting algal ridge 
structure on the Holandes reef, and an emergent fossil coral assemblage, 
possibly of Sangamon age, on the same reef. 

STRI's participation in the Environmental Sciences Program, primarily 
concerned with problems of unpredictability and instability (which maybe 
larger in the tropics than has usually been supposed), has both terrestrial 
and marine components. The monitoring of biological and physical 
fluctuations in the forest on Barro Colorado, which was begun last year, is 
proceeding at full speed. The data are now being submitted to computer 
analysis. The parallel studies of inshore organisms and habitats started 
later, and only became fully operational in the first half of fiscal year 
1972, with the installation of continuously recording instruments on the 
reef flat adjacent to the marine laboratory at Galeta. The parameters being 
measured include salinity, water temperature, water depth, exposure, (b 
concentration, light penetration, rainfall, air temperature, wind speed, 
wind direction, and the growth rates, reproductive cycles, abundance, 



The algal ridge off Morotupo, Islas San Bias on the Atlantic side of Panama. 

mortality, and productivity of selected species of animals that seem to be 
particularly dominant or important to the system. It has already become 
clear that periods of stress in the intertidal area are totally unpredictable 
on the basis of conventional tide tables and information derived from 
offshore waters. 

In addition to the "in house" research, STRI has continued to provide 
facilities for, and help to, visiting scientists and students from universities 
and other institutions all over the world. The number of visitors and their 
use of the bureau's laboratories, equipment and reserves in fiscal year 1972 
remained at much the same level as in the two preceding years, especially 
noteworthy in view of the general and widely publicized reduction of 
effective research funds in so many of the countries from which visitors 
come. The demand for bureau help to outsiders in this sphere would 
appear to have reached temporary equilibrium. The rate of demand may 
be less than would be desirable, but it is still appreciable. It is bound to go 
up in the future, although the timing remains uncertain. 

The most promising new educational activity was a cooperative 
program with the University of Panama. The students and staff of the 
university are now using the STRI research vessel Tethys on a regular basis 
for studies along the Pacific coast and adjacent islands. 

The various changes, additions, and improvements in fiscal year 1972 
were not spectacular in themselves, but they should all contribute to the 



Installation of Weather Station for Environmental Science Project at Galeta Island, 

Atlantic coast Panama. 

New laboratory building on Naos Island, Ft. Amador. 

ultimate goal of developing a multicultural international institute with 
competence in all the important aspects of field biology and related 


Radiation Biology Laboratory 


Light signals in the environment regulate the growth and development 
of plants. These light signals are absorbed by pigments which in turn 
change the metabolism and life functions of cells. One of the pigments 
known to be involved in this process is phytochrome, a plant pigment 
which strongly absorbs red or far red light. Phytochrome, a water soluble 
protein with a molecular weight of more than 50,000, has been isolated 
for several years in the Radiation Biology Laboratory and its properties 
studied extensively at the molecular level. Recently, evidence has 
accumulated that sulfhydryl reagents which were present in the extraction 
solutions may have altered its properties. This year a method has been 
developed for isolating and purifying phytochrome without sulfhydryl 
reagents. This phytochrome is more stable in the presence of proteolytic 
enzymes and at low pH. It has an isoelectric pH of 7.5 to 8 and we believe 
has properties which approximate more closely the properties of "native" 
phytochrome in vivo than previously isolated phytochrome. 

In addition, two significant findings have been made in the study of the 
mechanism of phytochrome-mediated growth responses of oat and wheat 
coleoptile cells to red light: (1) The light-induced effects are independent 
of growth responses to exogenous auxins or gibberellins, as though there 
are two separate growth mechanisms in the cell. (2) The light-induced 
effects appear to be related to microtubule formation, since they can be 
specifically prevented by substances such as colchicine, urea, and cupric 
ions, which are known to interfere with aggregation of microtubule 

The control of the molecular processes required for the synthesis of 
chloroplast proteins is not understood. Regulation may be under either 
cytoplasmic, nuclear, or chloroplast control or some complex interaction 
between all three. Attempts to map precisely this control system have 
continued using the alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardii, in which the 
synthesis of proteins of chloroplast ribosomes and their properties have 
been measured. 

Two lines of evidence suggest that most of the proteins of chloroplast 
ribosomes (70S) are made in the cytoplasm on 80S ribosomes. Chloram- 
phenicol, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, fails to inhibit the synthesis of 
the protein component of chloroplast ribosomes. In addition, when cells 
are labeled for short times (15 seconds) with radioactive amino acids, a 
product-precursor relationship can be demonstrated between radioactivity 
in newly formed "nascent" protein on 80S cytoplasmic ribosomes and 
radioactivity in protein of 70S chloroplast ribosomes. From independent 
tests it has been discovered that chloramphenicol specifically inhibits 


protein synthesis on chloroplast 70S ribosomes of C. reinhardii. Am- 
monium ions also control the synthesis of ribosomes in wild type C. 
reinhardii, but not in the arginine requiring mutant, arg-1 . 


A program for the study of phosphorus cycling has been initiated in the 
Rhode River-Muddy Creek system at the Chesapeake Bay Center for 
Environmental Studies. Baseline data of 18 parameters such as tempera- 
ture, pH, salinity, and inorganic and organic phosphorus levels were 
accumulated for 13 stations. In addition, experiments on phosphate 
cycling and energy flow were initiated in phytoplankton, periphyton and 
salt marsh communities. 

National Zoological Park 

Without question, the most important event at the National Zoo during 
the fiscal year 1972 was the arrival of two giant pandas for the people of 
the United States from the people of the People's Republic of China. This 
generous gift was formally accepted by Mrs. Richard Nixon on 20 April. 
The pandas, female named Ling-Ling and male named Hsing-Hsing, have 
nearly doubled the Zoo's attendance. 

Twin orangutans (a rare event) were born in December and a male 
gorilla in May. As a result of captive breeding at the Zoo, Kanitia, the 
older of the two female bongos, gave birth to a female calf. The hatching 
of four brush turkeys, Alectura lathami, was a significant event. The male 
brush turkey began scratching a mound together in the spring of 1971 and 
worked the entire summer on the peat moss, shredded bark and grass 
clippings which were supplied to him. The female was allowed near the 
nest only on the occasion of egg-laying. The rare Rothschild's mynahs 
continued to be prolific, producing 18 young during the year, bringing the 
total offspring from a single pair to 29 during an 18-month period. 

Other important births have been scimitar-horned oryx, sable antelope, 
Burmese brow-antlered deer, pygmy hippopotamus, and a greater kudu. 
The scientific program has a notable achievement in the second generation 
breeding of the tenrecoid insectivore, Microgale talazaci. For the second 
time, the rare and endangered species of caviomorph rodent, Plagiodontia 
aedum, was bred. 

The golden eagles and bald eagles were given enclosures of their own 
and almost immediately nesting attempts were made. The female golden 
eagle laid ten eggs which proved to be infertile. 

Bill and Lucy, the pair of the northern race of square-lipped 
rhinoceroses, were shipped to San Diego's Wild Animal Park in San 
Pasqual. The pair had been at the Zoo for 16 years without reproduction. 



Ling-Ling, the female giant panda, eating bamboo. 

Shortly after their arrival at San Pasqual, breeding between the two was 

An extremely popular new exhibit is the jungle scene in the Reptile 
House. The cage is decorated with a variety of living plants, tree trunks, 
and vines. Six adult iguanas, four basilisk lizards and ten giant toads were 
placed in the cage and breeding and territorial behavior is displayed. 
Another exhibit that is attracting interest is in the grouping of wildebeest, 
Cape buffalo, and zebra in one large corral. 



Twin orangutans, Mawar and Melati, born to Jennie and Archie in December. 
(Photo by Donna K. Grosvenor) 

The field study of the three-toed sloth entered its second year in 
Panama. By radiotracking it has been determined that young sloths learn 
the location of feeding trees while accompanying their mother during their 



Golden marmoset father carrying baby on his back. 

6 to 7 month association prior to weaning. At weaning the mother leaves 
the original home range thus donating it to the juvenile which then 
continues the cyclic tree-use patterns it has learned from its mother. 

Some major equipment was purchased by the Division of Animal 
Health in order to update the surgery and radiology capabilities which 
includes a portable X-ray machine capable of taking diagnostic radiographs 
of animals ranging in size from a marmoset to a zebra; a portable gas 
anesthetic machine; and a portable electrocardiograph machine. The 
continuing clinical research covers the accumulation and documentation of 
base line data of various blood values on exotic animals; monitoring the 
clinical progress of the rheumatoid-like arthritis of the male gorilla, 
Tomoka; studying the effectiveness of panleucopenis vaccination in exotic 
cats by monitoring the antibody titers; the lead poisoning studies; and the 
supplementation of vitamin E and selenium in the diets. 


In February the Zoo co-sponsored a conference of Brazilian and 
American specialists concerned with saving the golden marmoset from 
possible extinction. Construction was begun on a Golden Marmoset 
Breeding and Research Facility as an official gesture of concern for this 
vanishing primate. During the year the Zoo's golden marmosets produced 
three sets of twins. 

Office of Environmental Sciences 

The increasing general awareness of the importance of environmental 
problems has caused an increase in the activities of this office during fiscal 
year 1972. Federal and private agencies and organizations have requested 
assistance in studying and solving national and international environmental 
problems and have provided financial support. The Office has assisted 
other Smithsonian organizations in utilizing their expertise and collections 
to greater advantage in the environmental field. 

The staff is quite active on national and international committees and 
organizations involved in environmental and ecological impact studies, 
biological monitoring, plant and animal protection, study and preservation 
of natural areas, review of environmental and ecological research programs, 
biological control, marine and limnological research, and related areas. 

Studies are being made in various parts of the world on the 
environmental and ecological impacts of technology in developing 
countries for the Agency for International Development. These include 
study of impacts by the Volta Reservoir in Ghana, a game park in Kenya, 
rapid urban growth in Seoul, Korea, offshore oil pollution in Indonesia, 
and other studies. 


The Smithsonian Center for Natural Areas is making detailed surveys of 
the Atlantic Coastal Plain and particularly the Chesapeake Bay region for 
the Department of Interior and Nature Conservancy. Surveys are being 
made of all protected natural and wilderness areas and ecologically 
important areas which should be procured and protected. Ecological 
advisory service is being furnished to requesting federal agencies, and a 
registry and computerization has been started for all United States natural 

A global biological monitoring program was prepared for the Inter- 
national Union of Biological Sciences, Commission on Monitoring. 
Detailed studies were made of the importance of museum specimens for 
studying the history of levels of toxic metals. 



A study was made of wildlife, including endangered species, and their 
habitats, as indicators and indices of the status of environmental quality 
for the Council on Environmental Quality. Trends in populations, acreage 
of habitats and other factors were used in developing environmental 
indices and a proposed national biological monitoring program. 

Remote sensing of vegetation and hydrology of the Rhode River 
watershed was studied with emphasis on identification of deciduous 
forests and salt marsh plants using different films and altitudes under a 
NASA contract. A symposium was held on uses of remote sensing in 
developing countries for AID. 

The Peace Corps Environmental Program has resulted in over 650 
applications and 220 volunteers with Masters and Doctors degrees in the 
biological and environmental fields, and 85 scientists have been sent to 24 
requesting countries to carry out research programs. 


The Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center processed over 3.5 
million marine organisms in fiscal year 1972, and sent about 10 percent to 
scientists for taxonomic, distribution, and population studies. The Center 
assisted various national and international programs on environmental 
analysis, particularly the National Science Foundation's U.S. Antarctic 
Research Program (USARP), and the Marine Resource Monitoring and 
Assessment Program (MARMAP) of the National Marine Fisheries Service. 
The Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center in Tunisia contributed to the 
UNESCO-FAO sponsored Cooperative Investigations of the Mediterranean, 
and made available 2.5 million marine organisms to scientists who depend 
on research services of taxonomic sorting, community analysis, specimen 
and sample data management, and field logistics. During the past 10 years, 
over 40 million specimens have been processed by the Smithsonian's two 
centers which provide international leadership in this field. In cooperation 
with UNESCO, an international conference of directors of the eight 
sorting centers of the world was held in Tunisia to meet rapidly increasing 
demands in environmental biology research. 

Studies of Skadar Lake, the largest of the Balkan Lakes, were initiated 
in cooperation with the Institute for Biological Research at Belgrade, 
Yugoslavia. The objectives of this 5-year project are to describe the 
physical, chemical, biological, and geological nature of this lake, to 
develop a capability for management of the lake and its drainage basin as 
the regional impact of man increases. A report was prepared on the 
"Existing Conditions of the Biota of the Chesapeake Bay" for the Corps of 
Engineers to be used in developing a broad-based program on environ- 
mental management. 



The Center initiated an interdisciplinary ecosystem study of the Rhode 
River and watershed under a grant from the National Science Foundation. 
The project is a microcosm study of a relatively undisturbed subestuary of 
Chesapeake Bay. Results will be compared with research projects on more 
heavily stressed areas of the bay being studied by the Chesapeake Research 
Consortium which includes the Johns Hopkins University, University of 
Maryland, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, and the Smithsonian 
Institution. The Rhode River study includes investigators from the above 
listed institutions, Catholic University, the U.S. Geological Survey, and 

Other continuing research projects at the Center include ground-truth 
evaluation of remote sensing and other aerial photographic techniques; 
historical land-use patterns and their environmental impact; solid-waste 
disposal and erosion control; and basic studies in ecology. New studies 
include an evaluation of spray irrigation as a waste disposal technique; 
investigations into environmental decision-making by local units of 
government; an examination of the role of citizen participation in land-use 
planning; and research on the attitudes of urban and suburban youths 
towards their respective physical and social environments. 

Educational activities include regular tours and lectures for elementary 
and secondary schools, colleges, and adult groups on the ecosystem 
research program of the Center. Facilities of the Center were expanded 
with the addition of 155 acres of land and completion of laboratories in 
the Old Dominion Building. A dormitory building for students is planned 
for construction by the end of the year. 


The Center's reporting network includes over 2700 scientists, scientific 
institutions, and field stations located in 143 countries on every continent 
and ocean of the world. 

The Center continues to communicate data and information of 
significant changes to biological and ecological systems, including rare or 
unusual animal migrations, population explosions, and major mortalities of 
flora and fauna, as well as volcanic eruptions, the birth of new islands, 
major fireball events and meteorite falls, and environmental pollution 
events such as major oil spills, and pesticide and herbicide contaminations. 

During fiscal year 1972, the Center reported 99 short-lived events that 
occurred in 50 countries. Scientific teams investigated at least 80 of the 
events. Forty-six earth science events were described, as well as 40 
biological and 1 1 astrophysical events. The Center also reported unusual 
geological events, including fumarole activity in the Galapagos Islands, an 


avalanche in Peru, seismic activity in Colombia, a landslip in Canada, 
fracturing in Ethiopia, a severe hailstorm in Milan, Italy, and floods in 
Brazil and West Malaysia. 

The Center has worked on international programs concerned with 
global environmental monitoring including a world-wide survey for 
UNESCO on "National and International Environmental Monitoring 
Activities" and a paper on "The Establishment of an International 
Environmental Monitoring Program" invited by the Secretary-General of 
the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. 

Center for the Study of Man 

The Center brought together over fifty scholars from five continents to 
meet in Cairo, Egypt, and complete plans for focusing anthropological 
knowledge on problems of worldwide concern. The conference, held 8-12 
May 1972, under joint auspices with the American University in Cairo and 
the University of Alexandria, agreed that one or more books on major 
world problems should be prepared as quickly as possible by individuals or 
teams of authors selected from all over the world. 

Topics with which the books would deal include: (1) education in the 
modernizing world; (2) social integration in the new nations; (3) social 
dislocation of people accompanying urbanization, industrialization and 
population growth; (4) physical and mental health and social well-being in 
a variety of different cultures. 

The Center will coordinate the interaction between anthropologists and 
teams of authors, in most cases behavioral scientists, who are chosen to 
prepare the books. The effect of this program will be to elicit data in the 
heads and notebooks of anthropologists which could then be put to use by 
the best of social scientists in seeking solutions to problems besetting the 

During the past fiscal year ten final reports were received from 
recipients of Urgent Anthropology Small Grants. One of these reports was 
an analysis by Keith H. Basso and Ned Anderson of a unique, original 
American Indian writing system. Data on this Western Apache writing 
system was obtained from its 89-year-old creator, Silas John Edwards. 
Forthcoming publication of the results of this work will constitute a very 
significant contribution to the field of American Indian language writing. 

Work on the Handbook of North American Indians over the past year 
has resulted in the receipt of over one-hundred manuscripts at the editor's 
office. More arrive each day and the editorial process is now underway. 
Our schedule calls for final publication of all 18 volumes by 1976. 
Another activity of the Center's American Indian Program has resulted in 
the publication of a list of 217 current periodicals by, for, and about 
American Indians. 


Smithsonian Science Information Exchange 

This fiscal year marked completion of the Smithsonian Science 
Information Exchange's (SSIE) first year as a nonprofit corporation. It 
also marked the completion of the Smithsonian Institution's first full year 
of responsibilities for both policy and management responsibilities for the 

Of primary importance during the year was the increasing demand for 
user services which was reflected by an increase in user income of some 75 
percent over the 1971 level. Much of this increase was attributable to an 
increase in the preparation of catalogs of ongoing research in many new 
areas of interest such as dental and health services research. Regular annual 
catalogs continue in such areas as outdoor recreation, water resources, and 
population research. The demand for services of the Exchange continues 
to be dominated by federal users, although industrial and foreign use is 
increasing. Brochures describing SSIE services have now been-prepared in 
French and Japanese and requests from these two areas are increasing. 
Negotiations are underway to secure the services of a Spanish-speaking 

Among the new and innovative services offered by SSIE, the use of 
pre-run questions which can be made available at reasonable cost and 
maximum distribution has been the most well received. This service has 
been greatly expanded through the development of an SSIE Newsletter 
published ten times a year and sold on a subscription basis. The Newsletter 
has been instrumental in making SSIE better known throughout the 
scientific community. In addition, several volumes of ongoing research 
have been prepared for publication by a nationally known publishing firm 
with the intention of making information in the SSIE data bank more 
readily available to users throughout the country. 

Fort Pierce Bureau 

The generous support of Edwin A. Link and J. Seward Johnson has 
enabled the Smithsonian to estabhsh, on 16 October 1971, the Fort Pierce 
Bureau as an operating unit on the landward shore of the inland waterway, 
about 5 miles north of Fort Pierce, Florida. Directed by I. Eugene Wallen, 
who formerly headed the Smithsonian Office of Environmental Sciences, 
the new Bureau has a mission of marine biological and geological research, 
using the Johnson-Sea-Link and other submersibles as well as the 
oceanographic research vessels Johnson and Sea Diver. 

During the year a fine new laboratory building was constructed at the 
site by the Harbor Branch Foundation for use in research in association 
with the Smithsonian. Five Smithsonian scientists are stationed at the 



laboratory studying (1) marine ecology, (2) the biology of organisms 
under pressure, (3) the biology of sipunculid worms, (4) contaminant gases 
in enclosed spaces such as the submersible, (5) the recycling of nutrients 
through sewage and oysters, and (6) the biology of alligators and green 

Principally an engineering activity in support of biologists, the Bureau 
also has about 35 employees in machine shops and carpenter shops, 
remodeling oceangoing vessels and developing research support equipment 
for use from the submersible. Such items as manipulators, communications 
systems, special diving equipment, special lighting, submersible collecting 
equipment, photographic facilities are being conceptualized, designed, and 
produced for use in research in marine biology. 

Seagoing operations of the ship-submersible system will support 
Smithsonian scientific activities and extend the ability of the Smithsonian 
to cope with environmental problems, such as marine pollution and beach 


During the month of April 1972, nearly a million visitors-978,728, to 
be exact— came to the Smithsonian's National Museum of History and 
Technology. This single month's attendance far exceeds the annual 
attendance of many respectable and important museums, including several 
of our own. The visitors were drawn not by any special, dazzling 
temporary exhibition in the museum, but rather by what are somewhat 
inaccurately called its "permanent" exhibits-the halls and galleries that 
draw upon the museum's great collections, and upon the knowledge and 
skills of its curatorial and exhibits staffs to illuminate our nation's history 
and the history of technology. 

Numbers of visitors are, of course, only one way to measure a 
museum's achievement. While no other museum in the Smithsonian, and 
we believe, in the world, can match the Museum of History and 
Technology on this score, it is satisfying to note that during the year under 
review the attendance at each of our history and art museums increased. In 
the case of the National Collection of Fine Arts the increase was due in 
large part to the opening in January of its new branch, the Renwick 
Gallery, which is now settling into its magnificently restored building on 
Pennsylvania Avenue. In the case of the National Portrait Gallery, 
unusually large numbers of visitors were drawn especially by two 
handsomely installed special exhibitions, one on the history of the 
performing arts in America, and one on unsuccessful candidates for the 
presidency. For its part, the Freer Gallery of Art benefited from the 
growing public interest in China that followed Mr. Kissinger's and the 
President's trips. 

Pleased as we are by this evidence of popularity, we do not intend to 
lose sight of the other responsibilities that are so deeply rooted in the 
traditions of the Smithsonian, and that indeed insure that the experience 
of our growing number of visitors will be enlightening as well as delightful. 
We shall continue to stress the importance of collecting, of conserving, of 
studying, and of publishing the results of our studies. Catalogs published 
by the National Portrait Gallery in conjunction with its major shows are 
important works of historiography; exhibitions in the National Collection 
of Fine Arts have quite literally rescued significant artists from oblivion; 
the nineteenth-century post office in the Museum of History and 
Technology is meticulously accurate in every detail— these are simply 
outstanding examples of the way in which the increase of knowledge can, 
and in our view must, go hand in hand with its diffusion to the public. The 
role of the Archives of American Art, not only in providing a great resource 




Country-store Post Office, ca. 1860, from Headsville, West Virginia, was reassembled 
and restored to full postal service in the National Museum of History and 

for research, but also in supplying fascinating material for use in exhibitions 
of the National Collection of Fine Arts, is another example, as is the role of 
the Joseph Henry Papers and the Smithsonian Archives, in keeping always 
before us the example of our predecessors and the evidence of their 
determination, under differing circumstances, to maintain a due balance 
between the scholarly and the public functions of the Institution. 

The Bicentennial of the American Revolution offers us challenges on 
both fronts. We must, as the American Revolution Bicentennial Commis- 
sion suggests, take this event as the occasion for deepening our understand- 
ing of the entire history of our nation. On the other hand, we must also 
prepare ourselves for the descent upon Washington and our museums of an 
awe-inspiring number of visitors in the years around 1976. We are 
confident that the Smithsonian's response will be worthy of a great 
institution and a great occasion. 

Finally, it would be unthinkable to conclude even these brief 
observations without grateful mention of the continuing generosity of 
Joseph H. Hirshhorn, which will make the opening of the Hirshhorn 


Museum and Sculpture Garden even more brilliant than we had expected, 
and the munificence of the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the 
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, which have provided a fitting home for 
the Cooper Hewitt Museum. As always in such cases, our pleasure in these 
great gifts is enormously increased because they are evidence of the 
donors' confidence in us. 

The National Museum of History and Technology 

Remarkable progress was made during the past year in the National 
Museum of History and Technology. Five major exhibition halls and a 
special exhibits gallery in the central segment of the Museum's third floor 
were being reconstructed into the Halls of Communication. A newly 
designed Hall of Money and Medals and a Hall of Printing and Graphic 
Arts were completed by the end of the fiscal year and opened to the 
public shortly thereafter, and the remaining three halls are well in progress. 
One of these depicts the history of news media, the installation of which 
has been made possible by the support of Time-Life, Inc. It will open in 
the spring of 1973, in time to commemorate the firm's 50th anniversary, 
as the Henry R. Luce Hall of News Reporting. 

The Museum was fortunate in enlisting the interest of outside industries 
and trade organizations in contributing to the Museum's programs to fulfill 
its mission in new dimensions. Sears, Roebuck and Co. donated to the Mu- 
seum an important collection of 3200 cast iron and tinplate toys and pro- 
vided funds for installing a special exhibit on the second floor entitled, "A 
Children's World," and developing a series of satellite exhibits which are be- 
ing presented by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 

To mark its 75th year in book publishing, Doubleday & Company, Inc. 
has agreed to sponsor a series of Frank Nelson Doubleday Lectures on the 
general subject of "Frontiers of Knowledge," which will be held during the 
next fiscal year. The Gulbenkian Foundation has provided a grant for a 
period of three years to enable the Museum to undertake a program of 
studies in the history of Portuguese navigation with major scholars in the 
field. The Museum has developed plans for a new and greatly expanded 
Hall of Maritime Enterprise with the cooperation of the Department of 
Commerce. The construction and installation of this hall will be made 
possible by the participation of the related maritime industries. 

The Museum's first floor was enhanced by the addition of The Smithso- 
nian Bookstore, which opened on 17 June. It was installed and is operated 
by McGraw-Hill Book Company in cooperation with the Institution. Ac- 
cording to Publishers Weekly the bookstore contains "the world's largest 
collection of retail books on American civilization . . . arranged topically 



as opposed to the traditional categories of fiction, nonfiction and poetry 
.... Not only is this the largest collection of books of Americana on sale, 
it is also the largest museum bookstore in the world . . . ." Because the 
Bookstore spotlights a variety of specimens from the Museum's collections, 
it is literally "a bookstore in a museum and a museum in a bookstore.'" 
Featured is a reproduction of the facade of Shakespeare & Co., which 
Sylvia Beach operated during the early decades of the century in Paris and 
which formed a center for American writers abroad. 

The Museum was particularly fortunate also in acquiring a number of 
significant items, ranging in size from an elegant little document box used 
for keeping legal papers during the enforcement of the Stamp Act in 1765 
to a full size nineteenth-century country store post office. The post office 

Country -store Post Office in the National Museum of History and Technology, where 
visitors can have cards and letters stamped with the "Smithsonian Station" postmark. 


has been officially designated the Smithsonian Station of the U.S. Postal 
Service and is operated daily during public hours by clerks of the Postal 
Service. This new facility has added a new dimension to the Museum's 
exposition of history and has proven to be a total success. 

A considerable amount of the scholarly resources of the Museum have 
been used for the Bicentennial exhibitions, particularly the "Nation of 
Nations," in addition to the planning for a new major Hall of Political 
History, and for developing long-range plans for research centers which 
will enlist the support of institutions outside the Museum towards a fuller 
understanding of American civilization. 


Plans were initiated and installation work was well advanced on the 
reconstruction of exhibition halls for Monetary History and Medallic Art, 
Graphic Arts, News Reporting, Photographic History, and Philately and 
Postal History. These major exhibits, which will emphasize the theme of 
communications in history, will restore the gallery areas that were 
damaged by the fire on the third floor. 

The opening of the nineteenth-century post office and general store on 
27 September 1971 culminated a two-year research and exhibition project 
undertaken jointly by the Division of Postal History and the U.S. Postal 
Service. Mr. Charles Rowell, restoration specialist, dismantled the building 
which had stood at Headsville, West Virginia, since about 1861 and 
reassembled it at the Constitution Avenue entrance to the Museum. The 
U.S. Postal Service assigned a staff of three clerks, in appropriate costume 
of the period, to provide philatelic and regular mail services to museum 

The special exhibits program was significantly carried forward when 
Mrs. Elvira Clain-Stefanelli organized a special exhibit illustrating recent 
developments of medallic art in the United States for the F.I.D.E.M. 
Congress in Cologne, Germany, in September 1971 . Dr. V. Clain-Stefanelli 
was an initial organizer and the Chairman of the Exhibits Committee for 
the 1971 National Convention of the American Numismatic Association 
which was held in Washington. The special exhibit, "Mexican Stamps 
Designed by America's Lance Wyman," held in the Museum, was 
supplemented by special philatelic exhibits in New York City, Anaheim, 
and San Francisco. 

At the close of the special exhibit "Dorothy Liebes Retrospective Show 
of Textiles," forty-three fabric examples were chosen for the permanent 
collections of the Division of Textiles. Another outstanding collection 
received was of ninety hand-embroidered and lace handkerchiefs of the 
nineteenth century presented by Mr. Leon Orlowski. 




A special exhibition, "A Children's World," was the result of an 
extraordinary gift of more then 2800 cast iron and tin-plate toys from 
Sears, Roebuck and Co., which also sponsored the exhibit. The 350th 
anniversary of the Pilgrims' first Thanksgiving occasioned a Mall entrance 
holiday exhibit, which opened with a reception in honor of the Honorable 
Dorothy F.W. Innes, The Lord Mayor Alderman of Plymouth, England. 

Several other major acquisitions have enhanced the Department of 
Cultural History's collections. The rural general store as an American 
institution was given recognition in the gift of The George C. Seyboldt 
Collection of Marketing Artifacts, numbering several hundred objects. The 
Robert Young Brown American Stoneware Pottery Collection came as a 

"The City" with its revolving platform is a popular attraction in the special 
exhibit, "A Children's World" in the National Museum of History and Technology. 



A few of the many cast-iron and metal toys on display in "A Children's World," a 
special exhibit in the National Museum of History and Technology. 

significant supplement of 135 items to the Museum's holding of American 
ceramics. A joint acquisition of the Divisions of Ceramics and Glass and 
Preindustrial Cultural History, this is an important element in a new 
American Ceramics Study Center developed by both divisions. The gift by 
Lemuel Pope of colonial and federal period furniture is important for its 



history of continuous use by the Pope family of Massachusetts. A rare 
violin by Jacobus Stainer, several eighteenth-century items of clothing, and 
a large number of examples of late nineteenth-century Japanese porcelains 
made for the California market are other significant acquisitions. 

The Division of Musical Instruments again distinguished itself in a series 
of evening concerts. In support of such concerts, the recently formed 
Friends of Music at the Smithsonian collaborated with the division to 
sponsor a musical weekend in April. Designed to communicate to musical 
friends of the Smithsonian the visual and aural richness of the musical 
instrument collections, this elegant occurrence included demonstrations, 
tours, social events, and a concert of baroque music superbly performed. 

Four projects currently supported by the Smithsonian Research 
Foundation include the compilation of on-site information about 
eighteenth-century Mexican organs, field research on the remarkable 
material culture of Blacks in coastal South Carolina, investigations 
concerning a German-American cabinetmaker of Wisconsin, and research 
on American pottery. 


Fiscal year 1972 witnessed the publication of three books by staff 
members of this Department. They included the elegant and exhaustive 
study of Frederick Carder, founder of the Steuben Glass Works, by Paul V. 
Gardner. John Schlebecker authored two valuable reference works for 
agricultural historians and museologists which will be published by the 
Smithsonian Institution Press. 

Five full-size additions to the vehicle collection include a 1912 Knox 
tractor, the predecessor of the modern day tractor trailer. The railroad 

Knox three -wheel tractor, 1912, predecessor of the modern tractor trailer. 


collection was enriched by the acquisition of the John Bull (1831) 
locomotive's original whistle which was obtained by private funds at the 
Penn Central auction in Philadelphia. The Section of Mining acquired a 
Draeger portable breathing lung of 1904. This was the first style of mine 
rescue breathing apparatus used in the United States. 

Significant additions to the collections of the Division of Ceramics and 
Glass are a Vienna porcelain candlestick (ca. 1730) and a Longton Hall 
figure of "Hercules and the Nemean Lion." 


The most important addition to the arms collections in the past 50 
years was a group of 181 firearms from the Estate of William Goodwin 
Renwick of Tucson, Arizona. Mr. Renwick was one of the foremost 
collectors of this era. A number of the pieces are masterpieces of design 
and armament reflecting the skill of fine artisans. Included also are many 
with historical associations from Maximilian I in the 15th century to 
General J.E.B. Stuart, Confederate States Army, in 1863. 

A full-rigged model of the Continental Gondola Philadelphia, finely 
detailed to represent that surviving naval relic of the War for Independence 
as originally commissioned on Lake Champlain in 1775, was completed by 
Museum Specialist Howard P. Hoffman. The Division of Naval History also 
secured a model of the Continental Frigate Confederacy (1778), con- 
structed on British Admiralty plans. Another notable acquisition was a rare 
white summer service uniform worn by Ordinary Seaman Charlton H. Wing, 
USN, during the Civil War, donated by his grandson, Bradford L. Cleveland. 

A very significant specimen received in the Division of Political History 
is a unique tooled leather document box that was used to hold the 
pre-stamped papers required for legal documents during the enforcement 
of the Stamp Act in the American Colonies in 1765. Another valuable 
addition is the chair President Abraham Lincoln used in the Cabinet room 
at the White House during his administration. This chair was the gift of Mr. 
El wood Middle ton. 

A silver coffee service owned by Mary Todd Lincoln and some pieces of 
china from a dessert service used in the White House was a bequest from 
Lincoln Isham, great grandson of President and Mrs. Lincoln. The National 
Collections received as a gift from Mr. August Belmont the inlaid lacquer 
Japanese ladies' desk brought back from Japan by his ancestor, Com- 
modore Matthew Perry, when he returned from his expedition in 1854. 


A second section of the Hall of Electricity was opened, covering the 
development of the science of electricity in the second half of the 



nineteenth century. There is also a special reference area where the visitor 
can leaf through collections of photographs and look at books related to 
the subject. Special exhibits on the laser and on electrical appliances also 
opened in this hall. Among the series of monthly exhibits, special mention 
might be made of one featuring the work of the department's technical 
laboratory, giving the visitors an idea of the special talents necessary in a 

Some major collections were obtained by the department, including 
automatic control devices from Taylor Instrument Co., some unique early 
plastic materials from the Celanese Plastics Co., experimental psychology 

Admiralty-style model of the Continental Frigate Confederacy. 


equipment from Cornell University, a twelfth -century rare Persian drug jar 
from the E. R. Squibb Fund, a major collection of instruments from the 
Maryland Medical and Chirugical Faculty, materials related to the work of 
John William Draper from his descendents, and the contents of the 
Western Union Museum. Hundreds of individuals and companies 
responded to a plea publicized in the spring of 1972 asking for early 
electrical appliances. As a result a fine collection ranging from toasters and 
egg beaters to stoves and washing machines has been added to the National 
Collections. On display in the Hall of Nuclear Energy is a model of a 
boiling-water reactor presented by Babcock & Wilcox and a demonstration 
of the thermonuclear pinch effect from Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. 
Increasing emphasis has been placed in recent years on the collection of 
documentary material to complement our artifacts. Two collections 
mentioned already— Draper and Western Union— contain some very 
important archival material that will be of great use for research being 
done at the museum. Two formal archival collecting programs have been 
started, one by the Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering in 
cooperation with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, the other by the Division of 
Electricity in cooperation with the Institute of Electrical and Electronic 
Engineers. A continuing special project of Robert Vogel has been the 
development of industrial archeology. A number of sites have been 
inspected— some with the help of the National Park Service— and a society 
has been founded to promote wider interest in the subject in the Western 

Archives of American Art 

The Archives of American Art enjoyed an unusually successful year in 
its work of acquiring, organizing, and giving access to documentation on 
the visual arts in America. More than a hundred collections of personal 
papers and institutional records came to the Archives during the year, 
either as gifts or as loans for microfilming. Among the more important of 
these were the correspondence and photographs of the influential 
Philadelphia painter and teacher Thomas Anshutz; papers of the New York 
painter Philip Evergood; correspondence of the nineteenth -century painter 
Lily Martin Spencer; sketchbooks of the contemporary painter Karl 
Knaths; correspondence and unpublished manuscripts of the architectural 
historian Sybil Moholy-Nagy; and records of the Alan Gallery in New 
York, of the Allied Artists of America, of the Corcoran Gallery, and of the 
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum and the Institute of Contemporary Arts, 
both in Boston. 


The year saw a marked increase in use of the Archives by researchers in 
the various regional offices. The 790 letters of inquiry were answered and 
research was conducted on the premises by more than 700 historians, 
curators, graduate students, and other scholars. Both figures represent 
twice the volume of research during the previous year. 

Two books published in 1972 based entirely on material in the Archives 
are Ben Shahn, by John Morse, and Terminal Iron Works: The Sculpture 
of David Smith, by Rosalind Krauss. Of the many other publications 
dependent on Archives resources a few are Francis V. O'Connor's The New 
Deal Art Projects: An Anthology of Memoirs, Barbara Rose's Franken- 
thaler, Nathalia Wright's Letters of Horatio Greenough, Whitney Museum 
of American Art's Eastman Johnson, and William Truettner's 
"William T. Evans: Collector of American Paintings" in The American Art 

Two projects initiated in 1972 under grants from the New York 
Foundation and the Andrew Wyeth Foundation were the organization and 
indexing of the Archives photograph collection and the editing for 
eventual publication of a richly detailed late nineteenth-century diary kept 
by the New York painter Jervis McEntee. Other projects continued during 
the year were the microfilming of the Black Mountain College Art 
Department records and the Archives Oral History Program, which 
resulted in 90 tape recorded interviews, of which 65 have been transcribed. 

A major activity was the preparation of a Guide to Archives resources, 
to be published in the fall by R.R. Bowker Company. This volume, to be 
offered to college, museum, and public libraries throughout the country, 
will list and describe 550 collections of papers available to scholars at the 
Archives of American Art. 

Freer Gallery of Art 

The Freer Gallery of Art continued to carry on research, curatorial, and 
exhibition activities as in the past. The third Director of the Gallery, John 
A. Pope, retired on 13 August 1972, after 28 years of distinguished 
service. He was succeeded by Harold P. Stern, and Thomas Lawton was 
appointed Assistant Director. In his retirement Dr. Pope will continue to 
work for the Gallery with the goal of producing a comprehensive catalog 
of the Freer's Japanese ceramic holdings. 

During this year, there were several special exhibitions in the Gallery. 
To commemorate the superb objects bequeathed by the late Eugene and 
Agnes E. Meyer, a Memorial Exhibition was opened in September. Many 
of the Chinese and Japanese objects included in the exhibition had not 
been shown previously, and all are regarded as significant additions to the 
collection. To complement the Inaugural Exhibition of Japan House in 



Japanese Standing Buddha. Wood covered with cloth, lacquer, and gilt, 82 inches 
high. Heian period, A.D. 1 1th century. 


New York in September, the Gallery opened a special exhibition of 
Japanese paintings of the Rimpa School. During the Christmas season, a 
special showing of biblical manuscripts was organized, and in February an 
exhibition of Persian art was opened as part of the Gallery's program of 
honoring the 2500th anniversary of the founding of the Persian Empire. 

The Freer Gallery of Art partook of and assisted the current national 
interest and awareness of the People's Republic of China by holding public 
showings of a film made by Peking television on "Recent Archaeological 
Discoveries in the People's Republic of China. ' : Arrangements for this film 
were made with the knowledge of that government and the Gallery is 
grateful for the opportunity of being able to offer the film to the public. 
At the same time, the Director of the National Palace Museum in Taipei, 
Taiwan, visited the Freer, and it is the Gallery's intent to have close ties 
with all scholars interested in the areas encompassed by the collections. 

The Visiting Committee, composed of eight distinguished members, 
held its first meeting on 13 October 1971. Deliberations of the Committee 
have been of great assistance to the Gallery, and their initial report was 
submitted to the Secretary for transmittal to the Board of Regents; a 
second meeting was held on 31 May 1972. 

The Freer Gallery of Art will commence the celebration of the 50th 
anniversary of its opening on 2 May 1973. During that year, the Gallery 
plans to hold three special exhibitions: (1) Japanese Ukiyoe painting, (2) 
Chinese figure painting, and (3) Islamic art of the Book; to present three 
Freer medals; and to conduct those symposia related to the special 
exhibitions. As part of the anniversary year, a 50th Anniversary Fund 
Raising Program has been initiated. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

Doubtless the most impressive event of the year was the opening late 
in January of the Renwick Gallery. The staff has worked for several years 
on plans for restoring the building at 17th and Pennsylvania that served as 
the first Corcoran Gallery of Art, which now, bearing the name of its 
architect, has been opened as a curatorial branch of NCFA for the 
presentation of American craft and design. The central stairway, the large 
salon and the octagon room have been restored in the style of the period. 
The rest of the museum has been converted into modern gallery space, 
always respecting the original lines of the building. In addition to the 
permanent displays in the period rooms, the gallery opened with seven 
exhibitions, the major being "Woodenworks," an exhibition of the works 
of five designers in wood, and "Design is . . . ." One of the galleries has 
been set aside primarily for exhibitions from abroad sponsored through 
embassies. The Renwick has very quickly become a favorite meeting place, 

The installation of the Bombay Chandelier was one of the many technical problems 
faced in completing the Renwick Gallery for its January 1972 opening. 


and a very active program of lectures, demonstrations, and other public 
events has been inaugurated. 

In the Fine Arts and Portrait Gallery Building, there were 6 large and 
17 smaller exhibitions presented during the year, all but 4 produced by the 
staff of the NCFA and all designed and mounted by the museum. Seven 
were accompanied by substantial publications, the largest being a 
monograph on W.H. Johnson, the first serious study of the man. Others 
were Boris Anisfeldt, Lee Gatch, Drawings of William Glackens, Two 
American Painters, The Prints of J. Alden Weir, and National Parks and the 
American Landscape. The exhibition of works by Johnson, a black painter 
active chiefly in the 1930s, required several months of intensified work by 
the conservation laboratory before these largely forgotten works could be 
returned to public attention. This exhibition, as well as "Two American 
Painters: Fritz Scholder and T.C. Cannon," is circulating abroad. Also as 
part of its program of exhibitions abroad, the NCFA sponsored an 
exhibition of contemporary works, prepared by Mr. Walter Hopps, for 
showing at the Venice Biennale and elsewhere. 

Six new galleries were opened in the museum, chiefly for the 
presentation of the permanent collection. These include two galleries 
devoted to nineteenth-century American landscape. As a result of work in 
preparation for the Washington subway, which will pass the museum on G 
Street, a crack developed in the Lincoln Gallery which weakened the 
cornice and made it necessary to evacuate the large collection of works of 
art from this beautiful and historic space and place them in storage. When 
the Lincoln Gallery is reopened, the entire gallery will be reorganized and 
relit in the manner of the already completed twentieth-century section. 

Recording of the collection on the computer reached the first stage of 
completion, marking further progress in the restudy and total inventory of 
works. During the year, 1590 new works were accessioned; among the 
notable acquisitions were October (1867) by John W. Ehninger, Mary 
Elizabeth Francis, the Artist's Daughter (c. 1840) by John F. Francis, a 
large painting by Esteban Vicente, two drawings by Edward Hopper, and 
25 drawings by Alfred Maurer. 

Two postdoctoral Fellows and four student Fellows spent the year at 
the Collection, and an internship in museum education was provided a 
student preparing for the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching. A new 
intern program in museum training leading to a Master's degree in the 
History of Art with concentration in museum practice was instituted in 
association with George Washington University, and plans were made for 
year-long internships in museum training for advanced students to begin in 
the autumn of 1972. 

The Department of Education inaugurated a stimulating program, 
Discover Graphics, which brought groups of high school students and their 



Provided with prefabricated cardboard walls, children play in the courtyard of the 
NCFA/NPG building during Children's Day, an annual event at the National 
Collection of Fine Arts. 

teachers into active participation with a resident graphic artist in the new 
Graphics Workshop established at the museum. Study was divided between 
the workshop and the print-and-drawing study room. Associated in the 
program was a group of young artists from Federal City College. The 
active corps of docents, trained by the NCFA education staff,. conducted 
283 gallery sessions for schoolchildren, and 234 sessions for the general 
public. This dedicated group has also taken charge of all exhibition 
openings at the NCFA. 

The Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, administered 
by NCFA, provided exhibitions on art, history, and science for 550 
installations throughout the country to an estimated audience of four 
million. To aid in the mounting and packing of exhibitions, NCFA's newly 
established carpenter shop was turned over entirely to the SITES 

This has been an expanding year for the Bicentennial Inventory of 
American Paintings before 1914 since the well-laid plans of last year have 
been providing astonishing results from around the country. The staff has 
been increased to record the many works reported. Plans have been made 



also for a series of exhibitions in all areas of the museum to commemorate 
the Bicentennial of the American Revolution. 

National Portrait Gallery 

Two major exhibitions on widely differing themes were mounted by 
the Gallery during the course of the year. The first of these, which opened 
in the fall, was entitled "Portraits of the American Stage 1771-1971." 
Organized by Monroe Fabian, associate curator of the Gallery, who also 
wrote the accompanying catalog, the exhibition contained nearly 100 
likenesses of significant theatrical personalities, as well as a large number 
of associated objects. The Gallery's spring exhibition, " 'If Elected . . .' 
Unsuccessful Candidates for Presidency 1796-1968" was conceived by 
Beverly Cox, assistant historian of the NPG, and organized by her in 
collaboration with Harold Francis Pfister, curatorial assistant at the 
Gallery. It was accompanied by a 512-page catalog written by the 
Gallery's historian, Lillian B. Miller, and other members of her staff, as 
well as a 48-page student-oriented synopsis of the catalog, which is being 
distributed nationally in an edition of 60,000 copies by Education 
Ventures, Inc., of Middletown, Connecticut, together with teaching guides 
and color-slide sets. Portraits of 80 losing candidates for the presidency, 
including major third party contenders, were included in the exhibition, 
which also contained more than 500 political campaign items of all kinds, 
many drawn from the great Ralph E. Becker Collection in The Museum of 
History and Technology. Installed in a fashion suggesting the panoply of 
political campaigning by James J. Shelton, chief, and Michael Carrigan, 
assistant chief, of Exhibits Design, the portraits and associative objects 
were accompanied by a 45-minute continuously playing tape of campaign 
songs and speeches, as well as a film showing such candidates as Norman 
Thomas, Al Smith, and Wendell Willkie. " 'A Glimmer of Their Own 
Beauty;' Black Sounds of the Twenties," an exhibition organized by the 
Gallery's Education Department was held during the summer months. A 
two-part exhibition of Black history in the District of Columbia. 
"Washington from Banneker to Douglass, 1791-1870" and "Washington in 
the New Era, 1870-1970" was held in the fall and spring of the year, 

Ninety-nine portraits were acquired during the course of the year. 
Important purchases included a striking oil of General William Clark (of 
the Lewis and Clark Expedition) by famed Indian painter George Catlin; a 
William Jewett portrait of John C. Fremont, the western explorer known 
as the "Pathfinder," who was also the first Republican candidate for the 
presidency; a likeness of the aged Andrew Jackson painted in 1840 by 
Trevor Fowler; the group portrait of Zachary Taylor and his military aides 


painted in Mexico in 1848 at the behest of a Richmond, Virginia, 
newspaper editor, who believed (correctly as it turned out) that Taylor 
would be the next president; a small oil of Confederate General Joseph E. 
Johnston by Benjamin F. Reinhardt; a rare and moving portrait of 
Charlotte Cushman by William Page; a magnificent likeness of the Black 
actor Ira Aldridge by Henry Perronet Briggs, purchased from the Player's 
Club in London; and a pastel of the great dancer Ruth St. Denis by Max 

Among the important portraits which came to the Gallery by gift were 
a self-portrait of Alexander Calder, presented by the artist; a self-portrait 
of William Glackens, the gift of Mr. and Mrs. Ira Glackens; a marble bust 
of Josiah Quincy by Horatio Greenough, given by Edmund Quincy; an 
exceptional folk art sculpture of Senator Stephen A. Douglas, presented 
by Richard Guggenheim; an Eastman Johnson portrait of President Grover 
Cleveland, given by the subject's son Francis; and a Norman Rockwell 
portrait of President Nixon, funds for which were provided by the Nixon 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

During fiscal year 1972 construction continued on the Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden. The scheduled completion date is May 

In addition to preparing the Museum's collections for the move to 
Washington, building the professional staff and projecting future Museum 
activities, plans for the inaugural exhibition were advanced, and the 
selection of paintings and sculpture to be displayed was completed. The 
selected works, currently being researched and prepared, will be installed 
to greatest advantage in the Museum's galleries and garden. Mr. Douglas 
MacAgy, formerly director of national exhibitions, National Endowment 
for the Arts, was named curator for the opening exhibition. 

The catalog of the inaugural exhibition is being prepared for publica- 
tion. One thousand paintings and sculpture will be documented and 
reproduced-more than two hundred in color— in this volume, which will 
serve as an introduction to the scope and variety of the Museum's 

An event of outstanding importance in fiscal year 1972 was the formal 
commitment of 326 outstanding paintings and sculpture by Mr. Hirshhorn 
to the Museum. This gift, valued at more than seven million dollars, adds a 
group of significant works of art to the collections and goes far beyond the 
agreement entered upon by the donor and the Smithsonian Institution. 

The Board of Trustees of the Hirshhorn Museum held its first meeting 
on 25 September 1971 at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 



La Serpentine, 1909, by Henri Matisse. 


Presidentially appointed members of the Board are: Dr. Daniel P. 
Moynihan, Chairman, Dr. George Heard Hamilton, V ice-Chairman, Mr. H. 
Harvard Arnason, Mr. Leigh B. Block, Mr. Theodore E. Cummings, Miss 
Elizabeth Houghton, Mr. Taft B. Schreiber, and Mr. Hal B. Wallis. 

During this period of organization and acceleration of overall activities, 
the Museum has continued its policy ofproviding replies to public requests 
for research information as well as of lending outstanding works of art to 
national and international exhibitions. More than 295 requests for research 
information and photographs were answered. Eighty-three paintings and 
sculpture were loaned to 50 museums, galleries, and institutions. More 
than 115 scholars, artists, and officials visited the Hirshhorn Museum 
office and warehouse in New York. Approximately 2300 people attended 
33 tours of the Hirshhorn Sculpture Garden, Greenwich, Connecticut, for 
the benefit of educational, cultural, and philanthrophic organizations. 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design 

The plan for establishing a national museum of design is close to 
becoming a reality. The Carnegie Corporation has given the Andrew 
Carnegie property (consisting of the mansion, an adjoining townhouse and 
gardens) to the Smithsonian as a new home for the Museum. A gift of 
$500,000 from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and a comparable 
amount in smaller donations will make it possible to proceed with the 
renovation. The firm of Hardy, Holzman, Pfeiffer Associates has been 
commissioned to do the architectural work. 

With an exciting future ahead, the Museum has been able to attract 
many gifts. The collection was enriched by 3036 works of art from 78 
donors. The most significant gifts were: a collection of over 200 examples 
of late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century French wallpapers, a 
collection of 187 marionettes, two eighteenth-century chinoiserie terra 
cotta figures, a seventeenth-century Spanish bird cage, an early seventeenth- 
century altar frontal, two Louis XV lacquer commodes, a large sample of 
eighteenth-century Chinese wallpaper, eleven stage designs by Stewart 
Chaney, and a glass and metal chandelier from a room designed in 1929 by 
the firm of Alavoine. Objects cataloged numbered 1362. 

A designer's Pictorial Reference Library containing over 300,000 items 
has been promised to the Museum; the first installment of 12 vertical file 
drawers has been received. The library has been expanded to include a 
Color Archive containing publications, manuscripts, swatches, standards, 
instruments, and other materials related to the study of color. Eight 
hundred volumes were added to the library, including 46 scrapbooks, 173 
rare architectural books, and 310 rare textile books ranging from the 
sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. 


The Museum's long-term loan program has been extended throughout 
the renovation period. An additional 568 objects were included in 
exhibitions at the Metropolitan Museum, National Collection of Fine Arts, 
Museum of American Folk Art, Birmingham Museum, Brooklyn Museum, 
Corcoran Gallery, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Philadelphia Museum, 
Dayton Art Institute, Parrish Art Museum, John and Mable Ringling 
Museum, Colorado State University, Mary Washington College, Pittsburgh 
State College, Hofstra, and the University of Michigan. 

Five exhibitions made up entirely of objects from the collection were 
shown elsewhere: "Salute to the Cooper-Hewitt" at the Winter Antiques 
Show in New York; Albrecht Durer prints at the Detroit Institute of Art; 
"New York As It Was and Might Have Been" at the Century Club; 
ceramics from the James Hazen Hyde Collection of the "Four Continents" 
at the opening of the Smithsonian's new Renwick Gallery in Washington; 
and a benefit exhibition of Winslow Homer paintings, drawings, and prints 
at the Wildenstein Gallery for which the Smithsonian Institution Press 
published a catalog. 

The Museum was given a grant by the National Endowment for the Arts 
to install a permanent outdoor display featuring changing film programs 
on urban design. The Carnegie facilities were made available to numerous 
outside organizations for educational purposes. Members of the com- 
munity were offered a program of 24 events, including curatorial lectures, 
children's workshops, tours, and social activities. The study collections 
were used by over 200 scholars from this country and abroad. Ten student 
interns and fifty -seven volunteers received training at the Museum. 

The staff was honored in a variety of ways. Catherine Lynn 
Frangiamore was awarded a fellowship to pursue independent research 
next year; Regina Solinger and Eliane Zuesse were given stipends to 
participate in a summer workship at Cooperstown; Elaine Dee and 
Christian Rohlfmg received travel grants to attend international 
conferences; and Milton Sonday published an article in the December issue 
of the Textile Museum Journal. 

Four new members were added to the Advisory Board: The Honorable 
Robert Weaver, former Secretary of HUD and now professor of urban 
affairs at Hunter College; Mr. CassCanfield, Jr., the publisher; Mr. Sydney 
Gruson, Vice President of the New York Times Company; and Mr. Thomas 
E. Murray II, a Member of the New York Stock Exchange. 

Planning for the future has been in progress over the past year. A major 
grant from the New York State Council on the Arts has enabled the 
Museum to conduct studies and conferences leading to a redefinition and 
expansion of its role. As the need for a museum of design process becomes 
more evident, the staff looks forward to the Museum's reopening with 
great anticipation. 


National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 

During fiscal year 1972 the major endeavor of the National Armed 
Forces Museum Advisory Board, assisted by its staff, was toward the 
establishment of Bicentennial Outdoor Museum. To that end, and also to 
designate the study center authorized under Section 2(a) of Public Law 
87-186 as the Dwight D. Eisenhower Institute for Historical Research, S. 
2153 and H.R. 1031 1— identical bills-were introduced into the 92nd 

The proposed legislation was approved by the National Capital Planning 
Commission, the Department of the Army (on behalf of the Department 
of Defense), and the Department of the Interior. At the request of the 
National Park Service the proposed legislation was changed to designate 
the prospective facility Bicentennial Outdoor Museum, rather than 
Bicentennial Park. The Department of the Interior further recommended 
the outright transfer of Fort Foote Park and Jones Point Park to the 
administrative custody of the Smithsonian Institution upon appropriation 
of funds for the museum's development, rather than joint use by the two 

The proposed legislation received the strong support of the Adminis- 
tration. President Nixon, in a special Bicentennial message to the Congress 
on 4 February 1972, endorsed Bicentennial Outdoor Museum as an 
"important undertaking to give the bicentennial activities metropolitan 
scope," and asked "prompt Congressional action to approve the Bi- 
centennial Outdoor Museum and to authorize appropriations for planning 
it." At the same time the Office of Management and Budget, Executive 
Office of the President, included funds for planning the museum in the 
Administration's budget for fiscal year 1973. 

Joseph Henry Papers 

Volume one of The Papers of Joseph Henry, documenting his early 
years in Albany, New York, is scheduled for formal release on 26 
December 1972 at ceremonies to be held in the Great Hall of the 
Smithsonian Building. Accompanying the ceremonies will be an exhibit 
displaying a selection of Henry manuscripts, items from his personal 
library, as well as research materials and techniques used in various stages 
of the editorial process. A number of items to appear in future volumes 
will also be exhibited. 

Work is presently underway on volume two, which documents Henry's 
first years at Princeton University as Professor of Natural Philosophy 
(from the end of 1832 through 1835). While family connections and old 
scientific friends still tied Henry to Albany, his arrival at Princeton marks a 


new stage in his career. Building up the facilities for scientific teaching and 
research at Princeton, Henry enters the national and international 
scientific scene. An extensive run of laboratory notes shows the 
intensification of his pioneering work in electromagnetism begun in 
Albany. Aside from documenting other aspects of Henry's widening 
scientific interests, correspondence and personal journals illuminate the 
developing environment for science not only at Princeton but at national 
centers like Philadelphia and New York. 

The Nineteenth-Century Seminar continued its successful run under the 
direction of Nathan Reingold, who also organized a series of three 
Saturday Conferences in spring 1972 on the history of science and its 
social and cultural context. 

Office of American Studies 

The Office of American Studies conducts a formal graduate program in 
material culture of the United States which is directed to the original 
Smithsonian purpose: "the increase and diffusion of knowledge." 
Graduate students from area universities participated in the program, 
gaining academic credit toward advanced degrees at those universities. All 
entering graduate students take the seminar in "Material Aspects of 
American Civilization," which was taught by Dr. Harold K. Skramstad, 
Chief of Special Projects, National Museum of History and Technology, 
and which dealt this year with the theme of ethnicity. Dr. Cary Carson, 
Coordinator of Research of the St. Mary's City Commission and Adjunct 
Scholar of the Smithsonian Institution, again gave his seminar in 
"Historical Uses of Vernacular Architecture" during the spring semester. 
Dr. Paul Kleppner, Visiting Postdoctoral Research Associate attached to 
the American Studies Program, gave a year-long seminar on American 
voting behavior in the nineteenth century. A Work-Study Program in 
Historical Archaeology, offered by the St. Mary's City Commission in 
cooperation with the American Studies Program of the Smithsonian, 
George Washington University, and St. Mary's College of Maryland, was 
held from 19 June to 25 August 1972, with participation by graduate 
students and Smithsonian staff members. In addition to these formal 
seminars, supervision of individual reading and research projects, thesis 
direction, and preparation of comprehensive examinations were under- 
taken by the director and cooperating Smithsonian staff members. 

Office of Academic Studies 

The Office of Academic Studies, under the direction of the Board of 
Academic Studies, administers Institution programs in higher education, 


including fellowship and administrative support for pre- and postdoctoral 
Fellows engaged in independent research, for graduate and undergraduate 
students in directed research and study assignments, for short-term visitors 
studying in the Smithsonian's collections, and for departmental seminars. 

For academic year 1972-1973, 26 predoctoral and 30 postdoctoral 
fellowships were awarded. Three of these postdoctoral fellowships were 
supported by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities 
for research in American Indian studies. For several years the Smithsonian 
has cooperated with universities in jointly funding fellowships for graduate 
students pursuing course work partly at their home universities and partly 
at the Institution. This year two such fellowships were awarded in 
American Civilization at Georgetown University. In addition one doctoral 
candidate in the History of Science and Technology is being jointly 
supported with the University of Maryland. With the continued develop- 
ment of the conservation training program of the Cooperstown Graduate 
Programs, the Smithsonian anticipates extensive cooperation in offering 
laboratory experience to Cooperstown graduate students. 

Appointments for directed research and study were awarded to 80 
graduate and undergraduate students during the year, of which 22 were 
supported under grants from the National Science Foundation. Many of 
these students have received academic credit from their home institutions 
for studies conducted at the Smithsonian. 

Two departmental seminars were supported. The number of short-term 
visitors to the Institution increased during this year, 26 individuals 
receiving partial or full support. 

Smithsonian Institution Archives 

During 1972, the Smithsonian Archives assumed its responsibilities for 
archival resources throughout the Institution. The Preliminary Guide to 
the Smithsonian Archives, which appeared in September in conjunction 
with the Smithsonian's 125th anniversary served as an example of how 
Smithsonian archives should be made known and available for research. 
The Archivist discussed archival needs with members of numerous bureaus 
and set priorities. 

The Archives' first priority is care of archives in the National Museum 
of Natural History, which contains a wealth of resources for research in 
the history of science. Working with curators, the Archives' goal is to 
publish a full guide to archival and manuscript resources of the National 
Museum of Natural History. The Archives receives and cares for inactive 
records, and processes on location those records open to scholars which 
remain in the Museum for use with the National Collections. 


An archives committee was formed in the National Museum of Natural 
History and the National Museum of History and Technology. Archives 
staff continued to develop computerized finding aids with the Smithsonian 
Information Systems Division. In summer 1972 the Archives supervised 
two deaf students from Gallaudet College in study of archival administra- 

Other projects during 1972 included a survey of administrative office 
records; supervision of arrangement and microfilming of the Registrar's 
accession records; appraisal of records at the Astrophysical Observatory; 
processing 125 cubic feet of National Zoological Park records; and 
submission of the Smithsonian's first report to the National Union Catalog 
of Manuscript Collections. 

Office of Seminars 

Improved public understanding of the international and research bases 
of modern science was the aim of two major efforts of the Office of 
Seminars in 1972. One was the establishment of an advisory committee to 
serve the Secretary in his capacity as chairman of the December 1972 
meetings in Washington of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science. The other was working out arrangements for co-sponsorship, 
by the Smithsonian and the National Academy of Sciences of an 
international symposium, "The Nature of Scientific Discovery." The 
symposium is scheduled for 25-27 April 1973 in commemoration of the 
500th anniversary of the birth of Copernicus. A joint program-planning 
committee under the chairmanship of Professor John Wheeler, the 
Princeton physicist, was appointed to consider recommendations of a 
larger Smithsonian consultative panel. United States observance of the 
Copernican Qumquecentennial was being coordinated with UNESCO, and 
financed by contributions sought from foundations and corporations. 
Professor Owen Gingerich of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
and Harvard University was named editor of the symposium volume -one 
of several multimedia educational materials to be produced by the 
symposium. (The 1969 symposium volume, Man and Beast: Comparative 
Social Behavior, continued to prompt book reviews and sales to colleges.) 

"The Educational Uses of Museums" was the theme of lectures given by 
the Director of Seminars in five Asian countries in October-November 
1971 under auspices of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of 
the Department of State. He spoke to museum officials and professional 
societies in South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, and 
Indonesia, returning via the University of the South Pacific in Fiji and the 
East-West Center, Honolulu. Films from the Smithsonian's Festival of Folk 
Life on the Mall and the Anacostia Museum illustrated the lectures. 


The Office of Seminars was responsible for organizing and coordinating 
the celebration of the 125th anniversary of the Smithsonian 26 September 
1971. The occasion is described in a booklet featuring the anniversary 
address by Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, "Museum Objects, Truth, and 
Education," to be published by the Smithsonian Institution Press. The 
introduction was prepared by Wilton S. Dillon, who served as general 

An eight month seminar series, "Man's Internal Environment," sup- 
ported by a grant from Dr. William D. Davidson, M.D., President, Institute 
for Psychiatry and Foreign Affairs, explored research in the medical and 
behavioral sciences relevant to understanding human capacities to control 
problems of population, pollution, and violence. 

Throughout the year distinguished scholars addressed the Smithsonian 
staff and the general public. Governor Rolf Edberg, Swedish statesman and 
author (On the Shred of a Cloud and At the Root of a Tree) spoke on 
"Man and His Shrinking World," the text of which appeared in the 
Congressional Record. Dr. Avraham Biran, director of antiquities in Israel, 
described recent archeological excavations in the Near East, and Dr. Caleb 
Olaniyan, Nigerian biologist, spoke on the ecology of brackish water in 
West Africa. 

The Office also served as a resource for helping to plan or participate in 
seminars, conferences, and symposia in other institutions. The director 
opened a faculty seminar series at the University of Alabama with an 
address on "Man and His Institutions." He spoke on "Anthropological 
Perspectives on Violence" before the American College of Psychiatrists, 
the Psychiatric Society of Washington, and the Department of Psychiatry, 
Harvard Medical School. As president of the Anthropological Society of 
Washington, he presided over a series of programs on "Ethnicity and 
Ethnic Categories" held at American University and Catholic University. 
The Office has been used also by the Department of State for discussions 
with university officials about the future of area studies in the United 
States and to cooperate with the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 
in planning the 1972 Oxford Pugwash conference on science and world 

In 1972 the director became president of the board of directors, 
Institute of Intercultural Studies, American Museum of Natural History, 
New York; secretary, board of trustees, Phelps-Stokes Fund of New York; 
and adjunct professor, University of Alabama. 


The Smithsonian has maintained its continuing concern for achieving 
the objectives envisioned by all museums. Through funding of the National 
Museum Act programs, for the first time in fiscal year 1972, the 
Smithsonian was able to provide increased technical aid and assistance to 
museums throughout the United States and abroad. The Advisory Council 
on National Museum Act programs developed guidelines and procedures 
for applying for and receiving grants of funds to advance the museum 
profession through research, publication, and training. Sixteen such grants 
were awarded in fiscal year 1972. 

Through United States membership in the International Centre for the 
Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (Rome Centre), which 
was authorized by the Congress, strides are being made on an international 
basis to develop new techniques for the conservation of monuments and 
works of art and for the training of conservators and preservations. 

The Smithsonian also continued to support the common objectives of 
the American Association of Museums and of the United States National 
Committee of the International Council of Museums. 

The Office of Exhibits Programs contributed substantially to the 
educational aspects of all our exhibitions through imaginative techniques 
in presenting information. An excellent example in fiscal year 1972 dealt 
with the highly controversial subject of drug use and misuse; the exhibit 
was titled "Drugs: A Special Exhibition," and has evoked much interest 
and many questions. 

The Conservation-Analytical Laboratory continued to develop various 
techniques for conserving and analyzing historic objects, advising 
numerous inquirers on methods to assist them in identifying problems 
concerned with artifact preservation. 

The Smithsonian Institution Libraries, in addition to their normal serv- 
ices, again served a clinical function in formal library education, cooperat- 
ing in a predoctoral fellowship, a course on research methodology, and joint 
cooperation in library studies with library schools of nearby universities. 
The Office of the Registrar reported on the continuing public awareness 
as evidenced by the multitude of inquiries received on a variety of 

The distribution of United States publications through the International 
Exchange Service served to exchange information with organizations in 
more than 100 countries. Exchange bureaus similar to the Smithsonian 
International Exchange Service directed more than 100,000 publications 
for distribution in the United States. 



Through these and other related activities, the Smithsonian is providing 
needed services that have become increasingly appreciated by the museum 

Office of Smithsonian and National Museum Programs 

During the fiscal year, the Office of Museum Programs changed its 
name to reflect a broad program of assistance, research, and information in 
museum problems and in operations of museums throughout the United 
States and abroad. As an innovative program, all projects developed by 
this Office endeavor to upgrade and advance professional practices. 

The National Museum Act, authorized in 1966 received its first 
appropriation of $600,000 in fiscal year 1972. In accordance with the 
appropriation legislation, the National Endowment for the Arts and the 
National Endowment for the Humanities each received $100,000 from the 
above sum. Through the National Museum Act the Smithsonian Institution 
is able to provide technical aid and assistance to museums throughout the 
United States and abroad. Funds may be granted for specific proposals 
that will advance the museum profession either through research, 
publication, or training. An Advisory Council met for the first time on 10 
November 1971 to recommend guidelines and procedures for granting 
these funds. Science, history, and art museums, as well as museum-related 
organizations, are eligible to apply for grants. 

Sixteen applications were funded including, for example, support for 
the six regional Museum Conferences, the development of a curriculum in 
museum studies, three in-service seminars in museum administration, a 
consultation service for small history museums, five in-service seminars on 
history museums and historic house operations, internships in conservation 
techniques, a publication: The Interpretation of Historic House Museums, 
an international exchange program for museum professionals, an ap- 
prentice program for museum technicians and a publication: Guide to 
Historic Preservation Historical Agencies, and Museum Practices: A 
Selective Bibliography. 

The office continues to receive innumerable requests from museums for 
technical assistance. Such questions as (1) how to raise funds, (2) how to 
create an exhibition program, (3) how to organize an education program, 
(4) how to train museum personnel, and (5) how to care for collections are 
most frequently asked. 

Continuing a tradition of exchange of ideas, this office has supported 
directly a number of other important programs, such as, (1) a Conserva- 
tion Information Project which will produce approximately 100 video- and 
audiotapes on conservation techniques, practices, and problems; (2) 
a Systematic Biology Conference for the Development of a National 


Program on Resources and Resource Management; (3) a special three day 
symposium on psychological and sociological studies of the museum 
environment and the publication of the proceedings of this meeting; and 
(4) the Museum Data Bank Coordinating Committee, which studies the 
interphase and cooperation between various museum computer programs. 

As a special project this year, the Smithsonian Institution opened its 
Drug Exhibit. This office sponsored an adjunct activities area in which 
panel discussions, lectures, live theatrical performances, film shows, and 
other presentations on drugs were held. This added dimension to the 
exhibition provided an excellent opportunity for the museum visitor to 
receive more information on drugs and enrich his museum visit. 

Office of Exhibits Programs 

The Office of Exhibits Programs— restructured and more efficient- 
produced more than 200 separate exhibits and exhibits-related projects in 
fiscal year 1972. The professional resources of the OEP assisted virtually 
every Smithsonian area from the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum to 
National Zoological Park. 

A special exhibition in the Great Hall of the Smithsonian Building 
heralded the Institution's 125th anniversary, while "Drugs— A Special 
Exhibition" created nationwide interest for its unique multifaceted 
commentary on a current social crisis. Our Restless Planet, a permanent 
hall of physical geology, opened in the National Museum of Natural 
History; and development progressed on "It All Depends," a major 
exhibition on environmental responsibility that will open in 1973. The 
popular Insect Zoo was among the special exhibitions at Natural History. 

The new, permanent Monetary History and the Graphic Arts halls were 
completed in fire-damaged areas of the National Museum of History and 
Technology; the remaining galleries— Philately, News Reporting, and 
Photography— will open in fiscal year 1973. 

The first new-concept National Air and Space Museum exhibitions, 
"Ballooning" and "World War I Fighters," opened in the Arts and 
Industries Building. 

The Office of Exhibits Programs contributed substantially to the new 
Renwick Gallery and to several major SITES presentations, including 

The death of John E. Anglim (23 May 1972) was a grievous loss to the 
entire museum world. In large measure, he had been personally responsible 
for the development of exhibits at the Smithsonian, and had trained or 
advised many of today's exhibits specialists. 


Conservation-Analytical Laboratory 

Conservation effort within our confining walls has reduced the backlog 
of unstarted requests to about 70. Upon request we have advised twelve 
bureaus, other museums, and about five hundred enquirers on safe 
environments for many different kinds of objects and on methods of 
mounting and cleaning them. Documents, graphics, and objects of fibers, 
leather, metal, stone, and wood, ranging in date from prehistoric to the 
present and in culture from Ancient Chinese to Cosmonaut, have been 
collected or excavated, cleaned, repaired, and chemically stabilized. Causes 
of damage have included accident, corrosion, unchecked decay and insects. 

Members of the staff have attended courses in paper conservation and 
in use of the polarizing microscope for fiber and pigment identification; 
shared in an encounter between paper conservators and scientists; 
organized a conference section on spectrographic techniques in the 
Museum Laboratory; and lectured regularly on conservation to fifty 
interested persons and irregularly to numerous special-interest groups, as 
well as maintaining active relationships with national and international 
organizations concerned with artifact preservation. 

Analytical facilities have been supplied for curators to about 270 
samples, resulting in 5600 elemental and other analyses, 1 150 of them on 
medieval glass by neutron-activation techniques, 4000 on materials of all 
kinds by UV spectrography, 500 by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Pigments, 
minerals, corrosion products have been identified by X-ray diffraction and 
infrared spectrophotometry-used also to identify commercial materials 
proposed for long-term contact with artifacts. The structures of metals and 
layering of paints on religious objects, decorated gourds, and transport 
vehicles have been studied in cross-section at various magnifications. 

Office of the Registrar 

This year the Office of the Registrar's activities encompassed again its 
traditional roles as record keeper for the museums and as service office for 
the Institution providing assistance to the staff and public in such matters 
as mail distribution, shipping, customs procedures, official travel, and 
public inquiries. 

A long overdue project expected to take several years for completion 
was begun in cooperation with the Smithsonian Archives to microfilm the 
Office of the Registrar's holdings of accession records. These irreplaceable 
original records are the basic documentation of the National Collections, 
dating from the establishment of the National Museum. They are not 
duplicated elsewhere, and their safety has been of increasing concern. 


Twenty -nine hundred and twenty -seven accession memoranda covering 
the acquisition of a much larger number of individual items for the 
collections were recorded during the year. Some two million pieces of mail 
were handled in serving Smithsonian personnel in the four buildings on the 
Mall and in various offices in other parts of the city. Shipments processed 
by the office numbered 24,433 pieces totaling 1289 tons, and involved 
over a hundred customs entries. Passports, visas, and other diplomatic 
travel documents were obtained for approximately three hundred official 
travelers. Public awareness of the Institution continues to be evidenced by 
the lively pace of inquiry mail on a variety of subjects and in response to 
Smithsonian programs. 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

All recorded use of the Libraries increased in fiscal year 1972. User 
contacts were up 17 percent to more than 47,000, and circulation 
increased 34 percent. About one-quarter of the material used was 
borrowed from other libraries. The cataloged collections grew by nearly 
15,000 volumes. 

The General Library was administratively reorganized, with services to 
the bureaus featured separately from the general services. A Technical 
Processing Center was established to combine the acquisitions and 
cataloging work under one supervisor. An outstanding special librarian was 
recruited to fill the newly created position of head of the National Air and 
Space Museum Branch Library, and three positions were added to the 
service staffs for branches in the National Museum of Natural History and 
the National Museum of History and Technology. 

Space modification for better collection management and flow of 
materials was begun in three locations: a rare book room in the A&I 
Building, a stack area in the S.I. Libraries Center at Lamont Street, and a 
decking over of the cataloging area in the Natural History Building. 

The Libraries again served a clinical function in formal library 
education, cooperating in a predoctoral fellowship, a course on research 
methodology, and a field work project. Five students were involved from 
the library schools of the University of Maryland and the University of 

Automation proceded slowly. All serials titles were stored in the 
computer and output was obtained on microfilm. At year's end the 
Director established an ad hoc study group for a Federal Library Service 
Center to develop cooperative automation projects among federal libraries. 


The Office of Public Service has the distinction of beginning each of its 
fiscal years with a lively event-the Festival of American Folklife 
sponsored by the Division of Performing Arts. The fifth annual festival 
featured the state of Ohio, and for the first time had a major contribution 
on the American laborer from the AFL-CIO. Thousands thronged the Mall 
to watch bakers, iron workers, meatcutters and other union workers 
perform their skills. Indian tribes from the Northwest presented their 
traditional arts and discussed contemporary problems in workshops and 
seminars. The division is conducting its fieldwork for future years' festivals 
with an eye toward the Bicentennial where there may be a festival lasting 
several months, and featuring several states. 

Two new publications were begun this past year to keep the public 
aware of the Smithsonian's many diverse activities. The Office of 
Elementary and Secondary Education began publishing on a bimonthly 
schedule the Smithsonian Institution Bulletin for Schools. It is sent to all 
teachers in the metropolitan area to keep them informed of and involved 
with exhibits and programs of special interest to their students. OESE has 
also designed several ' new tours in the museums where students are 
encouraged to study a few selected exhibits in depth. 

The Smithsonian magazine continued into its third successful year with 
a National Associates membership of well over 300,000. During the past 
year there were more than 34 articles either about Smithsonian exhibitions 
or written by staff members. Our National Assoctates program provides 
special services to its members as announced through the magazine, such as 
domestic and foreign study tours, and a book service, whereby Associates 
can buy curator-selected books at a discount. The Smithsonian magazine 
thus serves to educate and entertain its readers, and provides information 
about tangible benefits available only to Smithsonian Associates. 

The Smithsonian Institution Press designed and published several new 
publications relating to exhibits this past year. The Press has found that in 
order to sell adaptations of exhibit-related material to schools, they must 
be part of an audiovisual package, so the Press is exploring with other 
divisions of the Institution the fields of cassettes, recordings, and films for 
future projects. Three editors won Federal Editors Association Awards for 
outstanding government publications, and Stephen Kraft won both first 
and second awards of the Art Directors Club for his design work. The Press 
shipped a total of 266,000 publications during the year. 

"The Evolution of a Community" at the Anacostia Neighborhood 
Museum was another of its successful exhibits suggested and planned by 



the Neighborhood Advisory Committee. The History of the community 
was conveyed to the visitor through old photographs, films, and taped 
interviews with older residents of Anacostia. The Neighborhood Museum 
has prepared a major proposal for Bicentennial funds to construct an 
Exhibits Design and Production Laboratory. The laboratory will be used 
to train minority people in the planning, design, and production of 
exhibits and related educational materials. It will, in addition, strengthen 
Secretary Ripley's vision of the Museum as a center that answers 
person-to-person needs and involves itself at all levels of the community. 

Smithsonian Associates 

The year was a period of review and consolidation of Associates 
activities. National and resident programs were brought together under the 
management of an executive director, and a Corporate and Individual 
Membership program was formed. 

In October the recently established National Board of the Smithsonian 
Associates met under its chairman, Regent Thomas J. Watson, Jr. This 
group of industrial and citizen leaders is committed to assisting the 
Institution extend its appeal to business organizations for private financial 
support. In return, the Institution is preparing to render counsel and 
appropriate assistance to corporations in employee education and support 
of local museums and similar institutions. By June the Board's member- 
ship of 27 persons had begun a corporate member solicitation. Pilot 
projects were being investigated in Peoria, Illinois, and San Francisco, 
California. In the fiscal year, ten Corporate Members contributed $56,740 
to the Institution's general funds in addition to gifts of objects and project 

The individual membership (persons making larger annual contribu- 
tions) brought the Institution $15,500 in donations. Members in the 
Washington, D.C., area enjoyed participation in several important oc- 
casions during the year. 

Study of the relations between national and resident members led to an 
extensive review of the Resident program and survey of the local 
membership. As a result, plans were made to extend the scope of resident 
programs to serve a larger part of the National Capital area population, and 
to experiment with off-Mall programs. Smithsonian magazine, formerly an 
optional benefit of resident members, would become the journal of all 
Associates at no increase in cost. 

The Members' Reception Center was staffed and furnished in a room 
adjoining the Great Hall of the Smithsonian Institution Building to provide 
increased information services to members and museum visitors. A devoted 
group of 100 volunteers operated information desks in Smithsonian 


museums and carried out 193 service projects. Another 65 volunteers were 
placed in special projects by the Center. 

In its sixth year the Resident Program served more than 15,000 
members. It continued to provide opportunities for people to explore the 
collections, learn about the museums' research, and study with both 
Smithsonian and visiting scholars and craftsmen. During the year, more 
than 2000 adults and young people took 82 courses in a variety of subjects 
ranging from Near Eastern archaeology and Peruvian art to American 
political history, oceanography, and bird behavior. Adults participated in 
new studies of Washington, D.C., and an innovative course in city-building 
for young people was developed. In addition, more than 1200 members 
created their own works of art in 38 craft workshops. 

Over 140 special events were offered including openings, luncheon 
talks, lectures, films, museum tours, field trips, day tours, fashion shows, 
concerts and other performing arts attended by more than 25,000 persons. 
Members had fun making stone-age tools, learning of the Mall's history, 
and sharing some new facts about Nefertiti revealed by a major 
computer-research project. Some 2000 young people also participated 
in six children's programs, and Associates families undertook 39 field trips 
led by Smithsonian scholars. 

The Women's Committee pursued nearly two dozen projects to aid the 
Institution and managed two benefits; a fashion show of Sikkimese 
clothing and an old-fashioned Christmas dance. Proceeds from these events 
provided scholarships for 208 young people in Associates classes, 
supported the Insect Zoo, and helped a visual education program at the 
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. 

Office of Public Affairs 

A significant event for the Office of Public Affairs during the year was 
the launching of a new quarterly Smithsonian Institution Research 
Reports. First published in May for distribution to news media, libraries, 
and other academic institutions, the quarterly will be a means of focusing 
attention on the diverse interesting and important work done behind the 
scenes by scientists and curators throughout the Institution. In the past 
twelve months, the OPA News Bureau wrote and distributed a record total 
of almost 300 news releases and more than 100 radio announcements. The 
bureau also played major roles in publicizing the opening of the Renwick 
Gallery and the openings of a number of major exhibitions. "Radio 
Smithsonian" began its third year in September 1971, and is now heard 
over 84 stations in 33 states. Work proceeded in the past year on a new 
film, Dilemma of the Museums, in which various challenges and oppor- 
tunities before Smithsonian museums are explored. Work has begun on a 


second version of Around the Clock at the Smithsonian. This film will be 
used for visitor orientation in the museums. Smithsonian exhibits also have 
been the subject of a number of films made by various groups for 
educational and other uses. In recent months, OPA has undertaken a 
general review of the Institution's aims and goals in the television field. 
Other OPA activities include publication of the Smithsonian Torch and 
monthly Calendar of Events, and revised guides to Smithsonian museums 
of which more than three million copies were printed. A total of 41,358 
callers dialed the Dial-A-Museum answering service, and 100,138 dialed the 
Dial-A-Phenomenon service. In addition, thousands of inquiries from 
visitors, media, and citizens throughout the world were handled by the 
staff of the Office of Public Affairs. 

Office of International Activities 

The Office of International Activities fosters new dimensions to 
Smithsonian programs abroad. In the past year, the Institution's scientific 
and cultural exchanges with the People's Republic of China, its inter- 
national art programs, as well as cooperative programs in environmental 
research and conservation, have received special attention. Specifically, a 
revised agreement between the Smithsonian and the United States 
Information Agency was signed supplying that Agency exhibits in the arts. 
Moreover, the Office is now working actively with foreign embassies in 
Washington and other foreign organizations to bring exhibitions from 
abroad to the international exhibition rooms of the new Renwick Gallery. 

The Office of International Activities administers the Smithsonian 
Foreign Currency Program which received an appropriation of $3.5 million 
in "excess" foreign currencies for fiscal year 1972 for the support of 
grants to United States institutions of higher learning for "museum 
programs and related research in the natural sciences and cultural history." 
The program has awarded more than $15 million in foreign currency 
grants to more than 65 United States institutions of higher learning over 
the past seven years. Major environmental research programs initiated this 
year with Program support include two major limnology studies in 
Yugoslavia, one in India, and one Desert Biome study in Tunisia, the 
latter, part of the United States contribution to the International 
Biological Program. 

Division of Performing Arts 

The Division of Performing Arts continued to present examples of the 
American esthetic experience with particular emphasis on illuminating the 
Smithsonian collections. 


The fifth annual Festival of American Folklife featured the state of 
Ohio and Indian tribes from the Northwest. A notable new feature was a 
new exhibit which dealt with American workers and was presented with 
the sponsorship of the AFL-CIO. The skills and crafts of iron workers, 
bakers, glass bottle blowers, and meatcutters were demonstrated, and 
workshops explored the relationship of the worker to his union and 

Noted Jazz scholar, Martin Williams, joined the staff of the Division of 
Performing Arts to plan and implement scholarly activities, live concerts 
and a series of recordings dealing with the history of Jazz. 

The Perceptions series continued to offer performances by contempo- 
rary creative figures, including composer Steve Reich and the 
improvisational theater group, The Proposition. 

The Division of Performing Arts again joined with the John F. Kennedy 
Center for the Performing Arts and the American Theater Association in 
the production of the American College Theater Festival, which was 
housed in the new Eisenhower Theater in the Kennedy Center. The twenty 
productions ranged from Oedipus Rex presented by Southern Methodist 
University , to the contemporary 365 Days presented by the University of 

The Smithsonian Touring Performance Service continued to provide 
performances not available through commercial management to museums, 
colleges, universities and cultural centers throughout the country. The 
Smithsonian Puppet Theatre completed a full year of operation offering 
performances of original scripts dealing with museum related themes. A 
notable success was achieved in the production of Eureka relating the 
adventures of a small boy and his friend as they travel through time and 

Belmont Conference Center 

The Belmont Conference Center has now entered its sixth year of 
operation, with the goal of providing a secluded, gracious setting for 
small groups needing an exclusive and relaxed working atmosphere. 
Through word-of-mouth recommendations by previous guests (Belmont 
does no advertising of any kind), the Center finds itself host to more 
groups each year: forty-five in fiscal year 1969, fifty-eight in 1970, 
sixty -nine in 1971, and seventy-nine in 1972; over 1650 participants have 
been welcomed in the last twelve months. 

Belmont accepts conferences from all types of groups and this year has 
received guests from 35 government agencies, 53 colleges and universities, 
5 foundations, 2 Presidential commissions, and 15 private groups. An 
astounding 40 percent of these groups has been holding conferences at 
Belmont for at least three of the past five years. 


Twenty -four residents can be accommodated at Belmont, with facilities 
for meetings and meals for thirty people. The 240-year-old manor house is 
now air conditioned, and ever-continuing improvements make the 
residence and 365 surrounding acres of lawns, fields, and forests more 
enjoyable each year. The availability of such a beautiful location, together 
with the advantage of easy access to Washington's National and 
Baltimore's Friendship airports, has proven most convenient for Belmont's 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

Black scientists and their achievements from early days to the present 
time were honored in the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum's exhibit 
"Science: Man's Greatest Adventure." The life stories of seven of the 
contemporary scientists were compiled into a booklet entitled They Were 
Determined and distributed to junior and senior high school tour groups, 
libraries, and science supervisors in the District of Columbia public 

Old photographs, films, and tape recordings traced the history of 
: Anacostia in the exhibit "The Evolution of a Community." Visitors 
walked through replicas of the Old Douglass Hall, Birney School, a section 
of a neighborhood church, and a family parlor of the early twenties. 
Douglass Hall served Black residents of Anacostia as a meeting place and 
social center in the early 1900s. Interviews with oldtime residents were 
recorded on tape by the staff of the Museum's Center for Anacostia 
Studies. The exhibit was conceived by the Neighborhood Advisory 
Committee of the Museum. 

The Mobile Division has been able to increase its services to the 
community with the acquisition of video-tape equipment that will be used 
to give an increased dimension to the Museum's exhibits and create a 
video-record of its programs. 

A children's room now occupies a section of the exhibit area. 
Demonstrations of how soap, butter, ice cream, taffy, and candles are 
made together with multimedia presentations on Black history are among 
the various programs offered to children by the Museum's education 


Smithsonian, the Institution's national magazine, began its third year of 
publication with the April 1972 issue. At the close of the fiscal year, net 
paid subscriptions had climbed well past 300,000. Subscribers are National 


Members of the Smithsonian Associates, and thus form a reservoir of 
interest and support for the Institution. 

Although the magazine is not a Smithsonian "house organ," it is 
appropriate that much of the editorial content is generated by the 
activities or interests of the Institution. During the last year there were 34 
major articles either directly related to Smithsonian exhibitions and 
research projects or written by Smithsonian staff members. Subjects 
ranged from the paintings of the neglected Black artist William H. 
Johnson, given his first major exhibition by the National Collection of 
Fine Arts last fall, to Dr. Dale W. Jenkins' sobering study of toxic metals 
in the environment (not to mention the first color photographs of the 
National Zoological Park's most celebrated acquisitions, the giant pandas). 

Non-Smithsonian authors who contributed important articles during 
the year include Isaac Asimov, Lionel Casson, Emmet John Hughes, 
Margaret Mead, John Bakeless, and Jacques-Yves Cousteau. Among the 
photographers represented were such well-known names as Dmitri Kessel, 
Loomis Dean, and Farrell Grehan, and there were special commissioned 
drawings such as Robert Osborn's. 

Smithsonian has become a means of communication between the 
Institution and its constituency, and is a major item in the benefits to the 
National Members of the Associates. Other benefits are foreign and 
domestic study tours and discounts on items sold in Museum Shops and on 
the publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press. These privileges will 
extend to more and more people as the magazine continues to acquire new 

Smithsonian Institution Press 

Progress continued this year in the development of our museum-related 
publications program. Two attractive booklets were produced for new 
exhibits in the National Museum of Natural History and were to be made 
available at the exhibit sites. Unfortunately, our experiment with an honor 
system dispenser for a ten-cent pamphlet was an unqualified failure. Until 
we can devise foolproof vending devices, we shall have to be content with 
pamphlets located only in the Museum Shops, often far away from the 
exhibit and the moment of highest visitor-interest. 

Several attempts were made during the year to make arrangements with 
commercial publishers for the adaptation of our museum-related 
pamphlets (Our Restless Planet, All About Pandas, If Elected) to the public 
school market. Educational publishers prefer "packages," including audio- 
visual programs, with the book or pamphlet as one component. The Press 
recommends a coordinating panel for the various Smithsonian offices 


which are already, or soon will be, producing recordings, cassettes, films, 
and other items that could make up a marketable educational package. 

Three Press editors won Federal Editors Association Awards for 
Outstanding Government Publications in 1972: Louise Heskett for Apes 
and Angels: Vie Irishman in Victorian Caricature, Joan Horn for History 
of Letter Post Communication Between the United States and Europe, and 
Ernest Biebighauser for Hold the Fort! The Story of a Song from the 
Sawdust Trail to the Picket Line. Stephen Kraft won both the First and 
Second Awards of the Art Directors Club of Metropolitan Washington for 
The Hand of Man on America and Music Machines- American Style. 

Production costs of 112 publications were funded by federal ap- 
propriations in the amount of $412,569.39; 16 were supported wholly by 
Smithsonian Institution private funds in the amount of $73,379.16. The 
total publications list for 1972 is given in Appendix 5. The Press 
warehouse, the Superintendent of Documents, and George Braziller, Inc. 
(The Press' sales and distribution agent) shipped, on order and subscrip- 
tion, a total of 265,903 publications during the year. In addition, 293 
recordings were distributed by the Press. 

Reading Is Fundamental 

The National Reading Is Fundamental program is now in its fifth year as 
an independent unit under Smithsonian sponsorship. RIF's purpose is to 
motivate disadvantaged children and adults to want to read, by making 
available a wide variety of interesting and inexpensive paperbacks. The two 
motivational forces built into the RIF program have proven to be sound 
educational practice— freedom of choice and pride of ownership. 

The number of local RIF projects has grown from 18 in 1971 to 55 in 
1972, with many more in the developing stage. Seven hundred and fifty 
thousand children have received 2.75 million RIF books. 

A national advertising council campaign, started in September 1971, has 
elicited a gratifying response from professional educators and the public. 

National RIF acts as liaison with the publishing industry, federal and 
local governments, schools, and libraries about book programs and 
provides technical assistance and information to those interested in 
developing a local project. The sponsoring groups throughout the country 
are responsible for local funding, selection of book titles, and distribution. 

The Edna McConnell Clark Foundation has committed up to 
$1,150,000 to RIF over a three-year period. The grant covers administra- 
tive support for National RIF as a Smithsonian activity. Policy guidance is 
provided by the National Advisory Board composed of 44 distinguished 
Americans. The founder of RIF is Mrs. Robert S. McNamara; Secretary 
Ripley serves ex-officio as a member of the RIF Board. 


Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

A variety of new learning opportunities for students has been 
introduced this year under the administration of this Office for the 
museums on the Mall, pertaining both to the scheduled visits by school 
groups and to new services being extended to the schools. 

New techniques have been developed in the presentation of several 
additional lesson tours in the museums of Natural History, and History 
and Technology. Students are encouraged to study in depth a few selected 
exhibits and artifacts to draw inferences from their observations of these 
items, and to develop some general concepts concerning them. In this way 
students are guided through an experience of discovery, using not only the 
objects on exhibit but touchable objects as well. The fourth season of 
utilizing volunteer high school students as guides in the Mall museums 
during the summer months was successfully implemented by the 
"Info-7r' program. 

First efforts to extend the resources of the Smithsonian by directly 
reaching out to the classroom have been undertaken. Materials in kit form 
have been assembled and released on loan to the schools. A demonstrations 
workshop on American folk musical instruments has been provided in 
many classrooms of the metropolitan area under the direction of a staff 
associate with trained volunteers. Publication of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Bulletin for Schools was inaugurated this year on a bimonthly 
schedule to provide a full range of timely information on activities at the 
Smithsonian with particular interest to teachers and students. 

Representatives of the volunteer corps and members of OESE met in 
workshop sessions with elementary-level curriculum specialists from the 
six school districts of the Washington area during the months of April and 


In July, a Deputy Under Secretary, Robert A. Brooks, joined the staff. 
During the year, in addition to participating in the full range of activities of 
this Office, he undertook independently special assignments from the Sec- 
retary and the Under Secretary. At the Secretary's request, the Smithsonian 
Institution began a major effort to identify, define, and resolve significant 
operating issues which are of concern to all Smithsonian program and 
support organizations. These relate to current operations and to future 
growth and development. A small working group was established for this 
effort under the supervision of the Deputy Under Secretary. This activity 
represents a major new step in the decision-making process. The active in- 
volvement of all bureaus and offices is required to help bring into clearer 
focus the Institution's resource management priorities and alternatives. 

In February, the Director of Support Activities was designated by the 
Secretary to serve as liaison for the new Fort Pierce Bureau in Florida. In 
addition to this interesting assignment, the Director continued to supervise 
and provide management leadership to the support groups that report 
directly to him. The International Exchange Service was added to this 
group during the year. The Smithsonian Institution Libraries also was 
included, pending the appointment of the Assistant Secretary for Museum 
Programs. The Libraries' report appears under "Special Museum Pro- 
grams." Brief descriptions of the major activities of the other units in this 
group are given below. 

Buildings Management Department carried out its basic responsibilities 
to operate, restore, renovate, maintain, and protect Smithsonian buildings. 
To cope with increased workloads without attendant expansion of 
personnel resources, a variety of management improvements were made. 
These included the development and implementation of standards for 
housekeeping and maintenance functions; installation of new equipment 
and systems for telephone and telegraph communications; introduction of 
a cargo shuttle to move small shipments among Smithsonian buildings in 
the Washington area; re-emphasis on the need for regular and complete 
coordination of activities; implementation of more effective procedures 
and operational methods, and clarification of the scope of authority and 
responsibilities at all levels in the Department. 

Major projects underway during the year included supervising the 
construction contract for the Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden; planning for the new National Air and Space Museum Building; 
restoring and opening the Renwick Gallery; altering interior of the Arts 
and Industries Building; renovating library space in the Natural History 



Building; installing a planetarium exhibit in the Air and Space Building; 
and developing plans and specifications for construction of the new 
Ramsey Building at Silver Hill. Small projects undertaken included 
constructing and renovating office and laboratory spaces; modifying 
heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning equipment; supporting exhibits 
construction and installation; and providing extensive design work for 
other proposed projects. 

Measures taken by the Protection Division to achieve maximum 
security in face of increased incidents of crimes, harassments, thefts, 
vandalism, and bomb threats included: expansion of the Guard training 
program; adjustment of post assignments; and employment of more 
electronic security and fire prevention systems. 

Support of other Smithsonian programs remained at a high level, with 
approximately 20 percent of the Department's productive manpower 
devoted to these activities. The special events portion of this effort 
required over 6000 manhours. 

The Safety Management Office reported that the 12 percent reduction 
in lost-time injuries may be attributed to the excellent support given by 
Smithsonian managers and employees to the "ZERO IN on Federal 
Safety" program. 

In the area of personnel management, a new union contract was 
negotiated, the awards program was used to greater advantage, and training 
was intensified throughout the Department. 

Information Systems Division develops and coordinates the use of 
automatic data processing support throughout the Institution. Advances 
continued to be made through computer utilization in the areas of 
administration, management of national collections, and scientific 
research, and most bureaus increased their use of this support. Research 
was conducted to enhance the ways of entering data into the computer 
and the ways of obtaining better output products, such as optical 
character recognition for entering data directly from a printed page; 
terminal devices to enable telephone communication with the computer; 
and computer output to microfilm and microfiche; as well as plotted maps 
and other graphical presentations. 

Individual research assistance to curators and scientists expanded and 
broadened in scope as the Division made available additional mathematical 
techniques and software packages. 

New developments and refinements enhanced support for the manage- 
ment of the national collections in history, art, and science. A recently 
developed, but not yet completed, generalized information management 
package called SELGEM has aroused much attention within and outside 
the Institution because of its potential as a standard for the computerized 
management of collections. 



Honeywell Information Systems and Smithsonian representatives at the ribbon- 
cutting ceremony after the installation of the Honey well-20 15 computer system 
in the Information Systems Division. 

As a service to the museum and university community at large, the 
Division published information about the SELGEM system in its technical 
bulletin, Smithsonian Institution Information Systems Innovations. The 
'Innovations" series acquaints the reader with automated systems and 
procedures specifically designed to solve collection and research problems 
in museums and herbaria. 

Though no totally new systems evolved during the year, many 
specialized systems for administration, curation, and analysis were 
expanded to meet changing requirements. 

The new Honeywell-2015 computer system, purchased by the 
Smithsonian Institution, was operational in November. 

Management Analysis Office, formerly the Administrative Systems 
Division, continued to work with members of the Executive Committee 
and heads of organization units on management improvement projects. In 
June, two of the analysts were assigned to assist the Deputy Under 
Secretary in helping to resolve a variety of specific management issues. 

During the year, 182 management issuances and one handbook were 
researched, coordinated, and published, and 5 handbooks and 17 major 
issuances were in various stages of completion at year's end. In addition to 
the management surveys and studies required to accomplish this, the staff 
participated in 25 additional studies which resulted in improved manage- 
ment and operations. 

One internal directory and 13 external publications were updated and 
16 external special management reports were completed. 

In June, a contract was awarded for the preparation of a manuscript 
copy of a Smithsonian Correspondence Handbook. 


The Forms Management Unit provided four million copies of 690 forms 
to 85 separate Smithsonian units. A feasibility study for an ADP program 
to support forms management and control also was completed. 

Office of Equal Employment Opportunity. Under the personal leader- 
ship of the Secretary, the Smithsonian's Equal Employment Plan of 
Action was revised. The expanded plan provides for improved recruiting 
practices and programs for career advancement, including methods for 
acquiring specific educational and experience requirements, and for 
gaining information about educational opportunities available in the 
Washington Metropolitan area. The realistic program is designed to assure 
equality of opportunity in all official actions of the Institution. 

Additionally, a Smithsonian Women's Council was established to 
provide women employees of the Institution a forum for the expression of 
mutual interests. This channel facilitates communication and encourages 
action by the exchange of information and ideas and lends cooperative 
strength to individuals and groups seeking to promote the good of all 
Smithsonian employees. 

During the year, 64 consultations were conducted with individual 
supervisory staff members on matters relating to their selections of 
candidates for promotion under the Merit Promotion Program. Some 34 
informal complaints were discussed and reviewed and, as factual informa- 
tion was developed, the necessary adjustments were accomplished. One 
formal complaint was settled to the satisfaction of the complainant, and 
one hearing decision is pending. 

Three special training sessions were conducted for supervisory 
employees. The discussions stressed the necessity for eliminating personal 
prejudices, indifference to the needs of employees, and favoritism in 
supervisory practices. 

Office of Personnel Administration, following its consultative role in 
advising and assisting all Smithsonian staff in creating an environment for 
individual growth, has as its major thrust to give responsive and positive 
assistance to program directors and managers. The principal emphasis 
during the year was to bring managers and employees closer together to 
develop a more viable relationship. The Office also concentrated on 
personnel program development and analysis as a beginning toward 
assuring that our personnel management effort serves the needs of the 
Institution while fully recognizing that our most precious resource is our 

Labor-Management Relations continued to represent a significant 
effort. New contracts were negotiated with the National Zoological Park 
and with the Buildings Management Department. An election for union 
representation resulted in the Office of Exhibits Programs' employees 
voting for union recognition. Informal and formal meetings between labor 


and management were encouraged, and both groups are getting closer 
together in recognizing legitimate needs of employees while becoming 
more aware of the needs of the Institution. 

An Executive Manpower Resources Board was established to assist in 
identifying and developing high potential employees so they will be able to 
assume greater responsibilities. 

A Learning Laboratory was established to provide employees an 
opportunity to gain basic skills to assist in their self-development. Over 
150 employees have enrolled in individual instruction which allows them 
to develop at their own pace. 

Additional improvements included the beginning of an alcoholism 
program to assist employees and managers in coping with this complex 
illness and a revised merit promotion program. A complete survey was 
made of the Institution's Health Services used by employees and visitors. 
The awards program was emphasized and managers were encouraged to be 
more aware of employee contributions. 

Improved visible recognition with support of top management has 
contributed to a more productive, better motivated workforce. These 
accomplishments were especially significant in a year when employment 
cutbacks and average grade controls imposed difficult burdens on 
management. The Office of Personnel Administration in conjunction with 
the Office of Programming and Budget and the excellent cooperation of 
managers withstood these restrictions without seriously affecting 
employee relations. 

Photographic Services Division was reorganized in 1972. All like -type 
work was consolidated into one physical area and maximum production 
techniques were applied. A backlog of 700 jobs was reduced to 
approximately 120, production units increased by 68 percent, and job 
time was reduced from two to three months to one to two weeks. 

The Sales Section provides students, educators, scientists, and the 
general public with photographs of the Smithsonian collections. Its 
mission is to insure maximum "diffusion of knowledge" through the visual 
media. During the first six months, the pay order backlog was eliminated 
and the average processing time was reduced from two months to 
approximately two weeks. Sales increased 81 percent over the same period 
in 1971. 

The Library Section centralized 200,000 negatives into temperature- 
and humidity-controlled space in the History and Technology Building. 
Sixty-five thousand negatives were pulled from the files to fill customer 
orders. Fifteen thousand negatives and 1000 transparencies were 
numbered, captioned, and filed; plans were formulated for captioning, 
indexing, restoring, filing, retrieving, and cataloging all negatives. A 
comprehensive study was made by the Management Analysis Office to 


determine resources necessary to accomplish the above plans. Planning was 
initiated to put all information into the Smithsonian computer. To the 
2000 color slides transferred from the Office of Public Affairs, the Section 
added 1 500 new ones. 

The Laboratory Section overcame a tremendous backlog of work. 
Consolidation of all wet processes in one location resulted in a 68 percent 
increase in production; the new black and white film processor resulted in 
a 75 percent savings in film-processing time; print production increased \ 
from 120.000 last year to over 200.000 this year; and copy negatives 
increased from 10.000 to 28.000. The Laboratory produced 28,000 8X10 
inch glossy prints for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of the 
Interior, on a contract through the Department of Anthropology. It 
contributed photographs for the Balloon exhibit; World War I exhibit; 
Korean Village exhibit; the Arabia Felix show; a Japanese exhibit for 
SITES; the toy exhibit; the new Numismatics Hall; and the Graphic Arts 

The Assignment Section also benefitted from the new processing 
equipment as more time of the photographers was released for studio 
work. Assignments of interest were The Queen of Sikkim fashion show, 
visits of Mrs. Tito and Mayor Willie Brandt, unveiling of President Nixon's i 
portrait at the National Portrait Gallery, the Renwick Gallery Opening, the 
Folklife Festival, the 125th anniversary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
and Mrs. Richard M. Nixon receiving the giant pandas. 

Supply Division processed over 33 percent more procurement actions 
this year than in fiscal year 1971. The successful accomplishment of this 
workload, with no increases in personnel, is recognized as a major 
contribution to the achievement of the program goals of all Smithsonian 
organizations. As in past years, the Division overlooked no opportunity to 
acquire useful excess government property. 

Travel Services Office continued to experience growth in its major 
services, i.e., air and rail reservations booked were up 10 percent; travel 
itineraries issued up 12 percent; transportation requests prepared up 15 
percent; and the dollar value of all transportation purchased was some 
S 108.000 higher titan last year. 

Planning data, advisory services, and travel arrangements were provided 
for the annual Folklife Festival, and for national and international 
conferences, meetings, and expeditions; e.g., the three-week systematics 
symposium in Washington, D.C.; archeological expeditions to Yugoslavia, 
Israel, and Greece; and the international meeting in geology in 
Novosibirsk, Siberia. Special attention was given to travel arrangements for 
the Foreign Currency Program of the Office of International Activities. 



The International Exchange Service is the one program bureau included 
in the support group. During the year, the Service received publications 
from approximately 400 United States organizations for exchange with 
organizations in over 100 countries. Exchange publications weighing over 
100,000 pounds were received from foreign exchange bureaus for 
redistribution in the United States. 

More than 450,000 pounds of official United States publications were 
transmitted on exchange for official documents of other countries. There 
were eight less recipients of full sets but the number of recipients of the 
partial sets remained unchanged. 

The daily issues of the Congressional Record and the Federal Register 
were mailed to 137 foreign libraries in exchange for their parliamentary 

Publications were forwarded by ocean freight to 38 exchange bureaus 
in other countries for distribution to the addressees, and publications were 
mailed to addressees in countries that do not have exchange bureaus. 

Approximately 300 medical and dental organizations exchanged their 
duplicate journals and books through the Service with libraries in other 

A strike of the East Coast longshoremen in October and November 
adversely affected operations. 

The Service is again accepting packages of publications for transmission 
to the mainland of China. 

The Duplicating Section, administered by the Director of the Inter- 
national Exchange Service, reproduces materials for all Washington-based 
Smithsonian units and for several in the field. The Section's objective is to 
furnish quality material in a minimum amount of time. Management items 
reproduced include forms, form letters, administrative directives, organiza- 
tion charts, annual and special budget documents, and the Smithsonian 
Institution Directory. Research support materials include scientific and 
technical reports, grant applications, information leaflets, preliminary 
manuscripts, maps, graphs, charts and line drawings. 

A serious loss was sustained with the resignation of the chief assistant in 
October. Inability to fill the resulting vacancy for some six months caused 
a six weeks backlog of work. This was reduced subsequently to a backlog 
of some two weeks and further reduction is anticipated with the 
acquisition this year of a new paper cutter and a new multilith machine. 
These improvements together with an additional operator planned for the 
forthcoming fiscal year should increase production and reduce the amount 
of overtime required. 


During the year, the Office of Audits, which reports directly to the 
Under Secretary, issued six audit reports on audits conducted by its staff 
members. Recommendations made in these reports have resulted in 
improved management procedures and controls, sometimes pointing to 
potential dollar savings. 

The Office also reviewed and closed out 47 foreign currency grants 
which were awarded in the total amount of $3.5 million. The close out of 
these grants resulted in $430,000 of unused funds being made available for 
current research projects. 


J. Carter Brown, Director 

The National Gallery of Art, although technically established as a 
bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, is an autonomous and separately 
administered organization. It is governed by its own Board of Trustees, the 
statutory members of which are the Chief Justice of the United States, 
(chairman), the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, all ex officio; and five general 
trustees. Paul Mellon continued as president of the Gallery and John Hay 
Whitney as vice-president during fiscal year 1972. The other general 
trustees continuing to serve were Franklin D. Murphy, Lessing J. 
Rosenwald, and Stoddard M. Stevens. The Gallery had approximately 
1,586,550 visitors during the year. 

During the past year, the excavation for the East Building was in large 
part completed, and the beginning of the foundation mat was laid. 
Excavation under the east end of the present building was carried out in 
preparation for the underground connection between the existing and the 
new structures. Structural and mechanical plans were completed and 
released for bid on 1 May. 

A number of important acquisitions were made. Among them were 
twenty-two works from the W. Averell Harriman Foundation in memory 
of Marie N. Harriman, including At the Water's Edge by Paul Cezanne, 
Words of the Devil by Paul Gaugin, and Lady with a Fan by Pablo 
Picasso. Other paintings acquired included Lozenge in Red, Yellow and 
Blue by Piet Mondrian and Trumpeters of Napoleon's Imperial Guard by 
Theodore Gericault. Major sculpture acquisitions include A Classical 
Allegory: Victory with the Attributes of Peace, attributed to Antonio 
Lombardo; and Torso of a Young Man by Raymond Duchamp-Villon. 

Major temporary exhibitions held at the Gallery were "La Scala: 400 
Years of Stage Design from the Museo Teatralle alia Scala, Milan," "John 
Sloan," "Rodin Drawings - True and False," and "The Art of Wilhelm 

With the increase in staff of the Graphics Department, an active 
acquisition policy was established. During the year, 472 prints and 85 
drawings were added to the collection. These will be the subject of a 
special exhibition in early 1974. There were nine exhibitions installed 
devoted entirely to the graphic arts, one of the most outstanding of which 
was that devoted to "Rare Etchings of G.B. and G. D. Tiepolo," held in 



honor of Lessing J. Rosenwald. A total of 122 loans were made to 
institutions in this country. 

The Index of American Design circulated nineteen exhibitions in 
fifty-six bookings and prepared four exhibitions for special showings. Also, 
782 sets of color slides were booked by schools, institutions, and clubs. 
Visitors to the Index numbered 329. 

During the fiscal year 1972, the Photographic Archives received 33,680 
photographs and negatives. Some special purchases included 345 old and 
valuable glass negatives from Reali of Florence and 8573 photographs of 
Mexican Colonial architecture from Judith Sandoval. Noteworthy gifts 
included the Clarence Ward Archive of 6993 negatives of French Medieval, 
European, and American architecture and 1198 photographs of paintings 
from the Samuel H. Kress Foundation. 

The Gallery's new multimedia humanities program "Art and Man," 
published in cooperation with Scholastic Magazines, Inc., reached 6500 
classes with more than 1.5 million magazines. As part of the program 
128,000 slides, 10,000 recordings, 10,000 filmstrips, and 20,000 media 
supplements were also distributed. 

Films, color/sound slide lectures and traveling exhibitions were 
distributed by the Gallery's Extension Service to interested schools and 
community groups in all fifty states and many foreign countries. 

Through grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities and 
the Xerox Corporation, the Extension Service continued this year to 
distribute Kenneth Clark's thirteen-part film series, Civilisation, to a 
national audience of colleges with enrollments of under 2000. 

In March 1972, another National Endowment for the Humanities grant 
was made to the Gallery for the distribution of a new Kenneth Clark 
six-part film series, Pioneers of Modem Painting, to colleges with 
enrollments under 2000 and cosponsoring museums and cultural arts 
groups. The total number of bookings of all materials circulated by the 
Extension Service was approximately 22,750. 

Talks given by the Gallery's Education Department and programs 
presented in the auditorium totaled 134,321 for 2915 separate events. The 
Gallery's regularly scheduled programs included Tour of the Week, 
Painting of the Week, Introduction to the Collection, films, and Sunday 
auditorium lectures. There were twenty-nine guest speakers who lectured 
at the Gallery during the fiscal year. They included the distinguished 
German art historian Ludwig H. Heydenreich, the 21st annual Andrew 
W. Mellon Lecturer in the Fine Arts, who gave six talks on Leonardo 
da Vinci. 

Twelve new publications were placed on sale through the Publications 
Service, six of which were catalogs of exhibitions held at the Gallery. Sales 
posters were published for three of these exhibitions. 


Under the supervision of Richard Bales, forty concerts were given in the 
East Garden Court at 7 o'clock on Sunday evenings. Ten of these were 
by the National Gallery Orchestra. The Gallery's 20th American Music 
Festival took place between 16 April and 4 June 1972. Eight world 
premieres and twenty-four first Washington performances were heard 
throughout the season. All the concerts were broadcast in their entirety by 
WGMS, AM-FM in Washington. 

To advance the methods used to maintain and preserve its collections, 
the National Gallery of Art has, for more than twenty years, sponsored a 
scientific research program at Pittsburgh's Carnegie-Mellon University. 
Extensive investigations on the harmful effects of light have led to the 
ability to detect potentially serious forms of deterioration and to the 
development of adhesives and protective varnishes of improved stability. 
Advanced methods have been applied in the past year to the study of 
special sections of the sculpture collection as well as to the enhancement 
of our ability to characterize the traditional artist's pigments. 


Roger L. Stevens, Chairman 

The concept of a National Cultural Center, first developed in 1958, 
became reality in 1971 with the opening of the John F. Kennedy Center 
for the Performing Arts. Thirteen years of assembling the complex mosaic 
of planning, fund-raising, construction and expectation culminated on the 
evening of 8 September 1971 when the Opera House opened with Leonard 
Bernstein's Mass. The Concert Hall officially opened the following night 
with a special performance by the National Symphony Orchestra, under 
the direction of Antal Dorati, and the Eisenhower Theater took its 
inaugural bow on 18 October 1971 when the Center presented Ibsen's A 
Doll's House. 

With its opening, the Center acknowledged four American Presidents: 
President Eisenhower, who encouraged and signed the enabling legislation; 
President Kennedy, who gave ardent support to the planning; President 
Johnson, who broke ground for the building and signed legislation making 
the Center the sole official memorial in Washington to the martyred 
President; and President Nixon, who gave full personal support and 
much-needed tangible support when he signed legislation authorizing 
additional federal funding. The Center also acknowledged the public and 
private support it had received: $23 million in matching federal funds; $28 
million in private and corporate donations; and $20.4 million in the form 
of a United States Treasury loan for construction of parking facilities. 

The first season received unprecedented artistic and popular acclaim. 
At a time when theaters throughout the country faced severe difficulties 
in terms of audience attendance and available productions, the Center's 
three halls were virtually in constant operation, entertaining a total of 
nearly 1.6 million people. 

The Center's first season offered an almost overwhelming program: 18 
weeks of dance with distinguished companies from the United States and 
abroad; 120 orchestral concerts by 20 major world orchestras, including 
94 by the resident National Symphony Orchestra; 27 performances of 9 
different operas; 60 concerts of popular music, folk, jazz and rock; 26 
recitals by world famous musicians; 22 choral concerts; and 45 weeks of 
drama and musical comedy with works of Shakespeare, Shaw, Saroyan, 
Odets, Pinter, Bernstein, and Weill. 



The American College Theatre Festival, presented for the fourth 
consecutive year by the Center and the Smithsonian, brought ten of the 
nation's finest college theater companies to perform for the first time in 
the Center's Eisenhower Theater. Produced by Frank Cassidy for the 
American Theatre Association and the American National Theatre and 
Academy, the Festival enjoyed the sponsorship of American Airlines and 
the American Oil Company. Participating schools were selected during 
twelve regional festivals held throughout the country and involving over 
300 colleges and universities. Of special interest was the participation of 
the first foreign theater group, the Aleksander Zelwerowicz State 
Theatrical Higher School of Warsaw, Poland. 

The third American College Jazz Festival, presented 28-29 May 1972, 
under the sponsorship of American Airlines, included performances by 
jazz ensembles from 15 colleges and universities. 

The educational outreach of the Kennedy Center was very much in 
evidence. Tens of thousands of school children from the greater 
Washington area attended special concerts by the National Symphony 
Orchestra at the Center which were arranged by the wives of Cabinet 
members. Other performing arts organizations throughout the city also 
sponsored a number of special programs. In cooperation with the National 
Art Education Association, the Center offered an exhibit of paintings by 
students from 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. 

In addition, a commitment to making the Center accessible to all, 
regardless of economic circumstances, resulted in the establishment of a 
special ticket program subsidized by the Education Fund. Nearly 70,000 
tickets to Center events were sold at half price to students, retired persons, 
the handicapped, low income groups and military personnel in the lower 

Throughout the year the Center continued to receive gifts of art objects 
and furnishings from this country and abroad. By June 1972, twenty 
nations had made contributions. Presented and dedicated since the 
opening were gifts from Argentina, Australia, Canada, Germany, Great 
Britain, India, Israel, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, and Yugoslavia. 

The American artist, J. Anthony Wills, presented his portrait of 
President Eisenhower, which now hangs over the Eisenhower Theater's 
Presidential Box, and the Texas State Society donated and dedicated a 
bronze bust of President Eisenhower, the work of Felix W. de Weldon, 
which is mounted over the Theater's main entrance. 

The development of private fund-raising program continued, and the 
names of major donors were incised in the marble walls of the Hall of 

Probably the greatest success of the Center was found in the response 
of the public to its working reality. In addition to those who attended 



performances in the Center during its first season, well over two million 
people came as visitors to enjoy and take pride in the long awaited, long 
needed National Cultural Center. 

So much success would imply calm seas and a prosperous voyage. This 
is never the case with the creative arts and its institution. Growing pains 
are to be expected and provide measures for improvement. The Center has 
unfinished areas, including the studio theater and public rooms on the 
Roof Terrace level, and full landscaping of the 17 acre site is incomplete. 

The enormous tourist response, which exceeded all expectations, 
created an increase in maintenance and security costs. These demands 
resulted in a severe financial strain, necessitating an appeal to Congress for 
maintenance arrangements befitting a Presidential memorial. Consequent- 
ly, the Congress responded by amending the John F. Kennedy Center Act 
(72 Stat. 1698) to provide $1.5 million for fiscal year 1972. The 
appropriation was designated for maintenance, security, and other services 
necessary to the nonperforming arts functions of the Center. The 
amendment also provided for the transfer of responsibility for these 
functions to the Department of Interior as of 1 July 1972. 

The Center is administered separately by a 45-member Board of 
Trustees composed of 30 members appointed by the President to ten-year 
terms and 1 5 members ex-officio from pertinent public agencies and from 
the United States Senate and House of Representatives. Members of the 
Board at the end of fiscal year 1972 are as follows: 

Roger L. Stevens, Chairman 

Richard Adler 

Floyd D. Akers 

Ralph E. Becker 

K. LeMoyne Billings 

Mrs. Donna S. Bradshaw 

J. Carter Brown 

Mrs. Edward F. Cox 

Robert W. Dowling 

Ralph W. Ellison 

Mrs. J. Clifford Folger 

Abe Fortas 

Rep. Peter H. B. Frelinghuysen 

Senator J. William Fulbright 

Mrs. George A. Garrett 

Leonard H. Goldenson 

Mrs. Rebekah Harkness 

H.R. Haldeman 

Mrs. Paul H. Hatch 

George B. Hartzog, Jr. 

Frank Ikard 

Senator Edward M. Kennedy 

Thomas H. Kuchel 

Harry C. McPherson, Jr. 
Mrs. Michael J. Mansfield 
Sydney P. Marland, Jr. 
Mrs. J. Willard Marriott 
George Meany 
Robert I. Millonzi 
L. Quincy Mumford 
Senator Charles R. Percy 
Elliot L. Richardson 
John Richardson, Jr. 
S. Dillon Ripley 
Rep. Teno Roncalio 
Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. 
Mrs. Jouett Shouse 
Mrs. Stephen E. Smith 
Henry Strong 

William Hammond Thomas 
Rep. Frank Thompson, Jr. 
Senator John V. Tunney 
Jack Valenti 
Walter E. Washington 
Lew R. Wasserman 



The staff listing (Appendix 4) reflects some of the many changes in this 
year's direction and administration. 

The 121-member Advisory Committee on the Arts, appointed by the 
President, continues as the chief consultative body of the Center. The 
Executive Committee includes: 

Mrs. J. Willard Marriott, Chairman 
Robert S. Carter, Secretary 
Vernon B. Stouffer, Chairman, 

Mrs. Donna S. Bradshaw, Vice Chairman, 

Mrs. Jack Wrather, Chairman, Public 

Harry L. Jackson, Vice Chairman, 

Public Relations 
Mrs. Paul A. Clayton, Chairman, 

Education and Program 

Mrs. Benjamin C. Evans, Vice Chairman, 

Education and Program 
Mrs. Arnold Schwartz, Director of 

Mrs. D. Eldridge Jackson, Northeast 

Regional Cliairman 
Harvey B. Cohen, Southern Regional 

John H. Myers, Midwestern Regional 

Mrs. William A. McKenzie, Western 

Regional Chairman 

The Friends of the Kennedy Center, established as an auxiliary 
organization in 1966, increased membership to 8100 members. Volunteers 
of the Friends have given thousands of hours of time and effort to the 
Center, managing and manning the public tours, the information-souvenir 
stands, and providing hospitality and other services to Center operations 
and functions. Officers at the end of fiscal year 1972 are as follows: 

Mrs. Polk Guest, Chairman 
Mrs. Norris Dodson, Jr., Vice 

Mrs. Eugene Carusi, Secretary 
Henry Strong, Treasurer 


Benjamin H. Read, Director 

The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars was founded by 
the Congress in 1968 to be "a living institution expressing the ideals and 
concerns of Woodrow Wilson . . . symbolizing and strengthening the 
fruitful relation between the world of learning and the world of public 
affairs." In keeping with this mandate, the Board of Trustees determined 
that the Center would emphasize "studies designed to increase man's 
understanding of significant international, governmental and social 
problems and to suggest alternative means of resolving them." 

Since doors opened in October 1970, a total of 87 men and women 
from the United States and 20 other countries have been granted 
fellowship and guest scholar appointments at the Center, and many scores 
of other scholars have had occasion to use Center facilities. The 
distribution between U.S. and non-U.S. fellows has been roughly 60/40. 
Ages have ranged from the middle twenties to the early seventies. 
Academic fellows have come from careers in the social sciences, 
humanities, and natural sciences. Others have represented a broad range of 
other occupations and professions. The projects of some two-thirds of the 
fellows have related to one of the Center's designated areas of emphasis- 
international affairs, environment or oceans. 

Center scholars have produced— or are in the process of producing for 
publication-a substantial number of articles, monographs and book-length 
manuscripts on a wide range of subjects, the majority related to one of the 
Center's three areas of emphasis. 


Appendix I 


Archeology and Related Disciplines 

American Institute of Indian Studies, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Continued 

support for Poona Center, Benares Center for South Asian Art and Archeology, 

and American Institute of Indian Studies research fellowships. 
American Research Center in Egypt, Princeton, New Jersey. Continued support for 

a program of research and excavation in Egypt, support for operation of Cairo 

Center, expedition to Fustat, epigraphic survey and maintenance of Chicago 

House at Luxor, maintenance of a stratified Pharonic site at Mendes, archeological 

research at the site of Hierakonopolis (Nekhen), and a study of the reliefs and 

paintings of the Third Intermediate period. 
American Schools of Oriental Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Archeological 

activities of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 
Colgate University, Hamilton, New York. Raksha, A National Inventory and 

Preservation Program for the Performing Arts of India. 
Denison University, Granville, Ohio. Excavation of the Roman imperial metropolis 

at Sirmium. 
Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Washington, D.C. Excavations 

leading to the publication of a corpus of ancient mosaics of Tunisia. 
Hebrew Union College, Jerusalem School of Archeology, Cincinnati, 

Ohio. Excavation of an archeological site at Gezer, Israel. 
New York University, New York, New York. Modernization in rural Tunisia. 
Rutgers University, Douglass College, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Archeological 

excavations at Salona, Yugoslavia. 
Smithsonian Institution, Department of Anthropology, Washington, D.C. Study of 

disappearing traditional crafts, industries, and technologies in Pakistan. 
Smithsonian Institution, Center for the Study of Man, Washington, D.C. Confer- 
ence on Anthropology, Cross Cultural Data Retrieval and Pressing Social 

State University of New York, Buffalo, New York. Archeological investigations on 

the Neolithic and Early Bronze Ages in southeastern Poland. 
University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. Excavations at the site of Tabun, Israel. 
University of California, Los Angeles, California. Excavations at Obre, Yugoslavia, 

publication of research. 
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Excavations at the Palace of 

Diocletian at Split, Yugoslavia. 
University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. Excavations at Tel Anafa (Shamir), Israel. 
University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. Investigations of ancient glass 

manufacturing sites in Israel. 
University of Pennsylvania, University Museum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The 

Akhnaten Temple project, Egypt. 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Excavations within the 

town and harbor site of Malkata, Western Thebes, Egypt. 



University of Texas, Austin, Texas. Archeological investigations at Stobi. 

Systematic and Environmental Biology 
(Including Paleobiology) 

Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire. Limnological investigations of Lake 

Qhrid. Yugoslavia. 
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. Research, planning and training 

for International Biological Program personnel in the "excess" currency countries. 
Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, Washington, D.C. A flora of the 

Hassan District. Mysore State. India. 
Smithsonian Institution, Division of Birds, Washington, D.C. Migratory bird survey 

in India. 
Smithsonian Institution, Office of Environmental Sciences, Washington, D.C. Bird 

banding and avifaunal survey in Israel. 
Smithsonian Institution, Office of Environmental Sciences, Washington, 

D.C. Limnological Investigations of Lake Skadar, Yugoslavia. 
Smithsonian Institution, Office of Environmental Sciences, Washington, D.C. Marine 

Decapod Crustaceans of North Africa. 
Southern Methodist University. Dallas, Texas. Conference on African paleontology 

and paleoecology. 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Development of Smithsonian scientific 

programs in South Asia. 
Smithsonian Institution, Office of Environmental Sciences, Washington, D.C. Study 

in Israel of biological interchanges between the eastern Mediterranean and the 

Red Sea through the Suez Canal. 
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. Studies of the cytotaxonomy of the 

Yugoslavian flora. 
University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, Cretaceous teleostean fishes of Yugoslavia. 
University of the State of New York, Stony Brook, New York. Study of the 

ecology of an Eilat coral reef in Israel. 
Utah State University, Logan, Utah. Systems analysis of the pre-Saharan ecosystem 

of Southern Tunisia. 
Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Habitat relationships and distribution of 

wild ungulates in the Gir Forest, India. 

Astrophysics and Earth Sciences 

Duke University. Durham, North Carolina. Sedimentation in Bahiret El Bibane. 

Smithsonian Institution. Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Theories of planetary motion lEg\ pt). 
Smithsonian Institution, Astrophysical Observatory. Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Study of the collective behavior of self -gravitating systems (Israel). 
Smithsonian Institution, Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts. An 

astronomical observing program in Israel. 
Smithsonian Institution, Astrophysical Observatory , Cambridge. Massachusetts. A 

research program in remote sensing of the troposphere by radio troposcatter 



University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia. Pennsylvania. Field and laboratory studies 
of Libyan desert silica glass. 

Museum Programs 

Smithsonian Institution, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washing- 
ton. D.C. Research support in "excess" currency countries. 

Smithsonian Institution. Division of Medical Sciences. Washington. D.C. Research 
in the history of medicine, pharmacy and pharmacology (Egypt). 

Appendix 2 


Dr. Roger Abrahams. Director, African and Afro-American Research Institute, The 

University of Texas, Austin. 
Mr. H. Harvard Arnason. Vice President for Art Administration, Solomon R. 

Guggenheim Foundation, New York City. 
Dr. Muriel M. Bennan. Allentown, Pennsylvania. (Honorary member.) 
Dr. Herman R. Branson. President, Lincoln University, Pennsylvania. 
Professor Fred R. Eggan. Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, 

Professor Donald S. Farner. Chairman, Department of Zoology, University of 

Washington, Seattle. 
Professor Anthony N.B. Garvan. Department of American Civilization, University 

of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 
Dr. Murray Gell-Mann. Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Theoretical Physics, 

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena. 
Dr. Philip Handler. President, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. 
Dr. David Hawkins. Director, Mountain View Center for Environmental Education, 

University of Colorado, Boulder. 
Professor G. Evelyn Hutchinson. Sterling Professor of Zoology, Yale University, 

New Haven, Connecticut. 
Professor Jan LaRue. Department of Music, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, 

New York University, New York City. 
Dr. Clifford L. Lord. President, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York. 
Professor Charles D. Michener. Watkins Distinguished Professor of Entomology, 

University of Kansas, Lawrence. 
Dr. Peter M. Millman. National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. 

Meteoritic Specialist. 
Mr. Elting E. Morison. Acting Master, Timothy Dwight College, Yale University, 

New Haven, Connecticut. 
Professor Norman Holmes Pearson. Department of English and American Studies, 

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 
Mr. Gordon N. Ray. President, John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, 

New York City. 
Mr. Philip C. Ritterbush. Chairman, Organization response, Washington, D.C. 
Mr. Andre Schiffrin. Managing Director, Pantheon Books, New York City. 
Mr. George C. Seybolt. Watertown, Massachusetts. (Honorary member.) 
Professor Cyril Stanley Smith. Institute Professor, Massachusetts Institute of 

Technology , Cambridge. 
Professor John D. Spikes. Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake 

Professor Stephen E. Toulmin. Provost, Crown College, University of California, 

Santa Cruz. 
Dr. William Von Arx. Senior Scientist, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 

Woods Hole, Massachusetts. 



Professor Warren H. Wagner, Jr. Department of Botany, University of Michigan, 

Ann Arbor. 
Dr. Rainer Zangerl. Chairman, Department of Geology, Field Museum of Natural 

History , Chicago, Illinois. 

Appendix 3 


Contributing Membership 

Our deepest gratitude is extended to our members for their interest and generous 
support of the Smithsonian Associates this year, and especially to those listed below, 
who have contributed amounts in excess of the membership dues. 

Mr. Alfred C. Glassell, Jr. 
The Honorable Frank N. Ikard 

($1000 and up) 

Mr. Joseph A. Thomas 

($100 and up) 

Mrs. Howard Ahmanson 

Dr. and Mrs. Aerol Arnold (Bing 

Fund, Inc.) 
Mr. and Mrs. Norman Bernstein 
Mr. and Mrs. J.B. Bogan 
Mrs. Albert J. Bowley 
Mr. Maxwell Brace 
Mr. J. Bruce Bredin 
The Honorable and 

Mrs. William A.M. Burden 
Mrs. Jackson Burke 
Mr. Carter Cafritz 
Mr. and Mrs. Conrad Cafritz 
Miss Joan Collett 
Miss Virginia M. Collins 
Mr. Daniel W. Cook, III 
Mr. Richard P. Cooley 
Dr. and Mrs. William H. Crocker 
Mr. Morgan J. Davis 
General Jacob L. Devers 
Captain and Mrs. Robert F. Doss 
The Honorable Angier Biddle Duke 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Eames 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Eichholz 
Mr. Gerald S. Eilberg 
Mr. and Mrs. Waldron Faulkner 
Miss Judith R. Fetter 
The Honorable and Mrs. Edward Foley 

The Honorable and Mrs. Peter 

Mr. T. Jack Gary, Jr. 
Mr. W.E. Gathright 
General James M. Gavin 
Mr. Philip M. Gignoux 
Mr. and Mrs. T.K. Glennan 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles C. Glover III 
Colonel and Mrs. Julius Goldstein 
Mrs. Katharine Graham v 
Dr. Sheila H. Gray 
Mr. W.J. Henderson 
Mr. Lon Hocker 
Mr. Charles Beecher Hogan 
Mr. Arthur A. Houghton, Jr. 
Miss Elisabeth Houghton 
Mrs. Edward F. Hutton 
Mrs. Randolph Kidder 
Mr. and Mrs. Anthony A. Lapham 
Mrs. Newbold Legenore 
Mr. and Mrs. Harold F. Linder 
Mrs. Demarest Lloyd 
Mr. Edmund C. Lynch 
Mr. and Mrs. Edmund Marcus 
Mr. Stanley Marcus 
Mr. and Mrs. Leonard H. Marks 
Mr. and Mrs. John H. McLaren 
Mr. and Mrs. E. Kirkbridc Miller 




Mr. and Mrs. Carl J. Mulert, Jr. 

Mr. Gerson Nordlinger, Jr. 

The Honorable and Mrs. Jefferson 

Mr. Edmund E. Pendleton, Jr. 
Mr. Charles Emory Phillips 
Mr. Abe Pollin 
Mrs. T. Randolph Potter 
Dr. and Mrs. Ernest G. Rafey 
Mr. James H. Ripley 
Mrs. John Farr Simmons 
Dr. and Mrs. T. Dale Stewart 
Mrs. Edward C. Sweeney 
Ms. Sally Sweetland 

Martha Frick. Symington Foundation, 
Inc. (Mrs. Martha Frick Symington) 
Mr. and Mrs. David G. Townsend 
Mr. and Mrs. Philip M. Tracy 
Mr. and Mrs. J.S. Tressler 
Mr. and Mrs. A. Buel Trowbridge 
Mr. and Mrs. Julius Wadsworth 
The Honorable James E. Webb 
Mr. and Mrs. William S. Weedon 
Mrs. Norma Christine Wertz 
Mr. George Y. Wheeler III 
Mr. and Mrs. Luke W. Wilson 
Mrs. Mark Winkler 


($50 and up) 

The Reverend and Mrs. F. Everett 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley N. Allan 
Mr. and Mrs. Walter Beck 
The Honorable Frances P. Bolton 
Mr. and Mrs. Philip Bonsai 
Mr. and Mrs. John F. Boyd 
Mrs. Eugenie Rowe Bradford 
Mr. and Mrs. Frederick B. Bryant 
Mrs. Linda C. Burgess 
Mrs. There se Burleson 
Dr. and Mrs. Charles M. Cabaniss 
Mr. and Mrs. James G. Chandler 
Mr. and Mrs. David G. Chapman 
Mr. and Mrs. David Sanders Clark 
Mrs. Barbara Collier 
Mr. Robert M. Comly 
Mrs. Chester Dale 
Mr. and Mrs. Michael F. Deevy 
Mr. and Mrs. Ewen C. Dingwall 
Mr. and Mrs. Allen T. Dittmann 
Mr. James M. Duncan III 
Mrs. Julius Fleischmann 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur H. Fribourg 
Mr. John W. Galston 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. Gardner 
Miss Anne H. Goldfinch 
Miss Virginia H. Groomes 
Miss Morella R. Hansen 
Mr. Tom Hart 
Dr. and Mrs. L.M. Hellman 
Mr. and Mrs. James D. Hurd 
Mr. and Mrs. Gerald O. Johnson 

Mrs. George C. Keiser 

Mr. Walter H. Kidd 

Mr. J. A. King 

Mrs. C. Edwin Kline 

Mr. and Mrs. J.K. Knee 

Miss S. Victoria Krusiewski 

Mr. Paul LePage 

Marianne E. and Maxwell B. Lewis 

Mr. and Mrs. Sol M. Linowitz 

Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Low 

Miss Katherine Magraw 

Major and Mrs. George S. Mansfield 

Mr. and Mrs. Sheldon I. Matzkin 

Mrs. R.B. Menapace 

Colonel and Mrs. Kenneth L. Moll 

Mrs. E.P. Moore 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Lloyd Niles 

Mr. and Mrs. C. Norden and Family 

Mrs. Carolyn C. Onufrak 

Mr. Estrada Raul Oyuela 

Mr. Donald H. Price 

Dr. and Mrs. Jorold J. Principato 

Mr. and Mrs. Howard W. Reid 

Dr. Michael J. Reilly 

Mr. R.D. Remley 

Mrs. John Barry Ryan 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank M. Sanger, Jr. 

Mr. Michael F. Sawyer 

Mr. and Mrs. James H. Scheuer 

Mr. and Mrs. Lamar A. Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. Larry Snodgrass 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard L. Sugarman 

Miss Helen S. Thompson 



Mr. and Mis. Richard C. Van Dusan 
General and Mrs. L.A. Walsh, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Watson 
Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Westreich 
Mr. and Mrs. John L. Wheeler 

Miss Claudia P. Wilds 
Mr. and Mrs. J.H. Wilkinson, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Wilson 
Mrs. Leslie H. Wyman 

Life Membership 

The Institution gratefully acknowledges the generosity and enthusiasm of the 
following individuals who became Life Members during the years 1965 through 1971, 
when life memberships in the Smithsonian Associates were available. 

Mr. Irwin Belk 

The Honorable and Mrs. David K.E. 

Mrs. Morris Cafritz 
The Honorable Douglas Dillon 
Mr. Charles E. Eckles 


($1000 and up) 

The Honorable and Mrs. John Clifford 

Mr. Cornelius Van S. Roosevelt 
Mr. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 
Mr. P.A.B. Widener 
Mr. and Mrs. Sidney S. Zlotnick 


($5 00 and up) 

Mrs. Anna Bing Arnold 

Mrs. Theodore Babbitt 

Mr. Joel Barlow 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard Barnes 

Mr. William R. Biggs 

Mr. George A. Binney 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph D. Blatt 

Miss Fay Boyle 

Mrs. L. Roosevelt Bramwell 

Mr. A. Marvin Braverman 

Mr. and Mrs. John Nicholas Brown 

Mr. Bertram F. Brummer 

Mrs. Leon Campbell, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Carmichael 

Dr. Rita Chow 

Clarke and Rapuano Foundation 

(Mr. Gilmore D. Clarke) 
Mrs. Frances A. Davila 
Mr. Newell W. Ellison 
Mr. and Mrs. Alfred U. Elser, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard S. Friedman 
Mr. Richard E. Fuller 
Mr. and Mrs. Hy Garfinkel 
Mr. George A. Garret 
Mr. Carl S. Gewirz 
Mr. and Mrs. Crawford Greenewalt 

Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert C. Greenway 

Mr. William H. Greer, Jr. 

Mr. Melville B. Grosvenor 

Mr. and Mrs. Homer Gudelsky 

Mr. Gilbert Hahn 

Mr. Laurence Harrison 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Hirshhorn 

Mr. and Mrs. Christian Hohenlohe 

Mr. Philip Johnson 

Miss Brenda Kuhn 

Mr. Harold F. Linder 

Colonel and Mrs. Leon Mandel 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Willard Marriott 

The Honorable William McC. 

Martin, Jr. 
Lieutenant Commander and Mrs. P.J. 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon 
Miss Katherine A.A. Murphy 
Neuberger Foundation Incorporated 

(Roy R. and Marie S. Neuberger) 
Duke of Northumberland 
Dr. and Mrs. Melvin M. Payne 
Miss Lucy M. Pollio 
Mrs. Merriweather Post 
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Powers 



Miss Elsie Howland Quinby 
Dr. and Mrs. S. Dillon Ripley 
Mr. and Mrs. Seymour J. Rubin 
Mr. H.C. Seherr-Thoss 
Mrs. Jouett Shouse 
Dr. and Mrs. Carl Swan Shultz 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Smith 
Mr. Robert T. Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. Bertrand L. Taylor III 

Mrs. Clark W. Thompson 

Mrs. Carll Tucker 

Mr. Alexander O. Vie tor 

Mr. and Mrs. John W. Warner 

Dr. Alexander Wetmore 

Mr. and Mrs. W. Bradley Willard 

Mrs. Rose Saul Zalles 

Corporate Membership 

We thank the following business organizations for their understanding and 
generous support of the Institution's research and education through Charter 
Membership in the Smithsonian Associates. 

International Business Machines, Inc. 

(Four Year Pledge) 
International Telephone & Telegraph 

Corp. (Four Year Pledge) 
Caterpillar Tractor Company 
Celanese Corporation 

Dart Industries 
Deere and Company 
Melville Shoe Corporation 
Philip Morris, Inc. 
J.K. Smit and Sons 

National Board 

This body was created in October 1971 to assist the Institution in the pursuit of 
certain of its aims for the decade of the 1970s, particularly in the development of its 
relations with industry. While the Institution hopes to advance its goals in public 
education and environmental studies through increased private support, it seeks, in 
turn, to serve the educational and community interests of its Corporate Members. We 
are grateful for the energy and concern sh-own by the members of the Board. 

Thomas J. Watson, Jr., Chairman 

Harry Hood Bassett 

William Blackie 

John W. Brooks 

Richard P. Cooley 

Joseph F. Cullman III 

Harry B. Cunningham 

Paul L. Davies 

Leonard K. Firestone 

Charles T. Fisher III 

G. Keith Funston 

Alfred C. Glassell, Jr. 

Mrs. David L. Guyer 

Ben W. Heineman 

Henry J. Heinz II 

William A. Hewitt 

Lewis A. Lapham 

Frank Y. Larkin 

The Honorable George C. McGhee 

Mrs. Robert S. McNamara 

Ruben F. Mettler 

Roger Milliken 

Charles M. Pigott 

Francis C. Rooney, Jr. 

Merritt K. Ruddock 

Mrs. Henry P. Smith III 

James O. Wright 

Appendix 4 


30 JUNE 1972 

Secretary's Office and Related Activities 

The Secretary S. Dillon Ripley 

Executive Assistant Christian C. Hohenlohe 

Under Secretary James Bradley 

The Assistant Secretary Robert A. Brooks 

Administrative Officer Dorothy Rosenberg 

Director of Support Activities Richard L. Ault 

Assistant to Under Secretary Edward H. Kohn 

Director, Office of Audits Chris S. Peratino 

Assistant Secretary for Science David Challinor 

Assistant Secretary for History and Art . . Charles Blitzer 
Assistant Secretary for Public Service 

(Acting) Julian Euell 

Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs 
(Director, United States National 

Museum) Paul N. Perrot 

Treasurer T. Ames Wheeler 

Assistant Treasurer Betty J. Morgan 

Director, Office of Programming and 

Budget John F. Jameson 

Chief Accountant Allen S. Goff 

General Counsel Peter G. Powers 

Assistant General Counsels Alan D. Ullberg 

George S. Robinson 
L. Wardlaw Hamilton 
Suzanne D. Murphy 
Marie C. Malaro 
Special Projects, Office of the Secretary 

Special Assistant to the Secretary . . . Richard H. Howland 

Special Assistant to the Secretary . . . Woodruff M. Price 

Director, Office of Development .... Lynford E. Kautz 

Editor, Joseph Henry Papers Nathan Reingold 

Director, Office of Equal Employment 

Opportunity Archie D. Grimmett 

Special Events Officer Meredith Johnson 

Curator, Smithsonian Institution Build- 
ing James M. Goode 

1 William W. Warner on sabbatical leave. 

2 Effective 1 August 1972. 

3 Replaced Joseph A. Kennedy, retired, on 4 June 1972. 



Support Activities 

Director, Buildings Management 

Department Andrew F. Michaels 

Contracting Officer, Contracts Office . Elbridge O. Hurlbut 
Director, International Exchange Serv- 
ice Jeremiah A. Collins 

Director, Information Systems 

Division 4 Stanley A. Kovy 

Director, Management Analysis Office . Ann S. Campbell 

Director, Office of Personnel 

Administration Vincent J. Doyle 

Director, Photographic Services 

Division Arthur L. Gaush 

Chief, Supply Division Fred G. Barwick 

Chief, Travel Services Office Betty V. Strickler 

Honorary Research Associates Charles G. Abbot, 

Secretary Emeritus 
Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary Emeritus 
Paul H. Oehser 
Alexander Wetmore, 
Secretary Emeritus 
Honorary Fellow John A. Graf 


Assistant Secretary David Challinor 

Special Assistants Helen L. Hayes 

Michael R. Huxley 
Harold J. Michaelson 
Paula U. Duncan 

National Museum of Natural History 

Director Richard S. Cowan 

Assistant Director Paul K. Knierim 

Assistant to Director (ADP) James F. Mello 

Assistant to Director (Exhibits) Ronald S. Goor 

Administrative Officers Mabel A. Byrd 

John C. Town send 

Chairman Clifford Evans 

Senior Physical Anthropologist T. Dale Stewart 

Senior Archeologist Waldo R. Wedel 

Senior Ethnologist John C. Ewers 

Associate Curator Dennis M. Stanford 

^Name of office changed from Administrative Systems Division, December 1971 

5 Retired 30 June 1972. 
6 Appointed 26 May 1972. 


Collections Manager George E. Phebus 

Archivist Margaret C. Blaker 7 

Latin American Anthropology 

Curator Clifford Evans 

Associate Curators William H. Crocker 

Robert M. Laughlin 
Old World Anthropology 

Curators Gordon D. Gibson 

Saul H. Riesenberg 
Gus W. Van Beek 

Associate Curators Eugene I. Knez 

William B. Trousdale 
North American Anthropology 

Curator William C. Sturtevant 

Associate Curator William W. Fitzhugh 

Physical Anthropology 

Curator J. Lawrence Angel 

Associate Curators Donald J. Ortner 

Lucile E. St. Hoyme 

Museum Specialist Douglas H. Ubelaker 

Research Associates, Collaborators, and 

Affiliated Scientists Hans-Georg Bandi (Archeology) 

W. Montague Cobb (Physical 

T. Aidan Cockburn (Physical 

Henry B. Collins (Archeology) 
Wilson Duff (Ethnology) 
Roger I. Eddy (Ethnology) 
Don D. Fowler (Archeology) 
Marcus S. Goldstein (Physical 

Sister Inez Hilger (Ethnology) 
C. G. Holland (Archeology) 
Neil M. Judd (Archeology) 
Richard T. Koritzer (Physical 

Ralph K. Lewis (Archeology) 
Olga Linares de Sapir (Archeology) 
Betty J. Meggers (Archeology) 
George S. Metcalf (Archeology) 
Walter G. Putschar (Physical 

Victor A. Nunez Regueiro 

Wilhelm G. Solheim (Archeology) 
T. Dale Stewart (Physical 

Matthew W. Stirling (Archeology) 
Robert Stuckenrath (Archeology) 

7 Retircd 30 June 1972. 


Theodore A. Wertime (Archeology) 
Edwin F. Wilmsen (Archeology) 

Chairman Edward S. Ayensu 

Senior Botanists Lyman B. Smith 

Conrad V. Morton 

Curators John J. Wurdack 

Velva Rudd 
Wallace R. Ernst 8 
F. Raymond Fosberg 

Associate Curators Dan H. Nicolson 

Marie-Helene Sachet 
Stanwyn G. Shetler 


Beryl S. Vuilleumier 

Assistant Curator Dieter C. Wasshausen 


Associate Curator David B. Lelhnger 


Associate Curator Thomas R. Soderstrom 


Curators Harold E. Robinson 

Mason E. Hale, Jr. 

Associate Curator Arthur L. Dahl 

Plant Anatomy 

Curators Richard H. Eyde 

Edward S. Ayensu 

Associate Curator Joan M. W. Nowicke 

Research Associates, Collaborators and 

Affiliated Scientists 1 ' W. Andrew Archer (Flowering 

Chester R. Benjamin (Fungi) 
John A. Churchill (Flowering 

Paul S. Conger (Diatomaceae) 
Jose' Cuatrecasas (Flora of Tropical 

South America) 
James A. Duke (Flora of Panama) 
Emily W. Emmart (Plants of Mexico) 
Marie L. Farr (Fungi) 
Howard S. Gentry (Economic Plants 

of Northwestern Mexico) 
Aaron Goldberg (Phanerograms) 
Charles R. Gunn (Fungi) 
William H. Hathaway (Flora of 
Central America) 

8 Died 8 October 1971. 


Appointed 4 June 1972. 
Appointed 4 June 1972. 
1 National fungus collections are curated by Department of Agriculture staff. 


Frederick J. Hermann (North 

American Flora) 
Robert M. King (Compositae) 
Paul L. Lentz (Fungi) 
Elbert L. Little (Dendrology) 
Alicia Lourteig (Neotropical Botany) 
Kittie F. Parker (Compositae) 
Julian C. Patino (Flora of Colombia) 
Robert W. Read (Palmae) 
Clyde F. Reed (Ferns) 
James L. Reveal (Ferns) 
Marie L. Solt (Melastomataceae) 
Frans A. Stafleu (Phanerograms) 
William L. Stern (Plant Anatomy) 
John A. Stevenson (Fungi) 
Edward E. Terrell (Phanerograms) 
Francis A. Uecker (Fungi) 
Egbert H. Walker (Myrsinaceae, 
East Asian Flora) 

Chairman Paul D. Hurd, Jr. 

Senior Entomologists Karl V. Krombein 

J. F. Gates Garke 

Curators Oliver S. Flint, Jr. 

Richard W. Baumann 
Lepidoptera and Diptera 

Curator Donald R. Davis 

Associate Curator W. Donald Duckworth 

Assistant Curator William D. Field 


Curator Terry L. Erwin 

Associate Curator Paul J. Spangler 

Hemiptera and Hymenoptera 

Associate Curator Richard C. Froeschner 

Myriapoda and Arachnida 

Curator Ralph E. Crabill, Jr. 

Research Associates, Collaborators, and 

Affiliated Scientists Charles P. Alexander (Diptera) 

William H. Anderson (Coleoptera) 
Doris H. Blake (Coleoptera) 
Franklin S. Blanton (Diptera) 
Frank L. Campbell (Insect 

Oscar L. Cartwright (Coleoptera) 
K. C. Emerson (Mallophaga) 
John G. Franclemont (Lepidoptera) 
Frank M. Hull (Diptera) 
William L. Jellison (Siphonaptera, 

12 Appointed 19 June 1972. 


Harold F. Loomis (Myriapoda) 
Carl F. W. Muesebeck 
Robert Traub (Siphonaptera) 
Invertebrate Zoology 

1 3 

Chairman David L. Pawson 

Senior Zoologists Fenner A. Chace, Jr. 

Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. 
Harald A. Rehder 

Curators Raymond B. Manning 1 

Thomas E. Bowman 
J. Laurens Barnard 
Louis S. Kornicker 

Associate Curator Roger F. Cressey 

Visiting Curator Lipke Holthuis 1 


Curator David L. Pawson 

Associate Curator Klaus Ruetzler 

Visiting Curator Frederick M. Bayer 


Curators Meredith L. Jones 

Marian H. Pettibone 
Mary E. Rice 

Associate Curator W. Duane Hope 


Curator Joseph Rosewater 

Associate Curators Joseph P. E. Morrison 

Clyde F. E. Roper 
Research Associates, Collaborators, and 

Affiliated Scientists S. Stillman Berry (Mollusks) 

J. Bruce Bredin (Biology) 
Isabel C. Canet (Crustacea) 
Maybelle H. Chitwood (Worms) 
Ailsa M. Clark (Marine 

Elisabeth Deichmann (Echinoderms) 
Mary Gardiner (Echinoderms) 
Roman Kenk (Worms) 
Anthony J. Provenzano, Jr. 

Waldo L. Schmitt (Marine 

Frank R. Schwengel (Mollusks) 
I. G. Sohn (Crustacea) 
Donald F. Squires (Echinoderms) 
Gilbert L. Voss (Mollusks) 

13 Appointed 5 September 1971. 
14 Appointed 5 September 1971. 
^Terminated 15 May 1972. 
1 terminated 6 February 1972. 


Mildred S. Wilson (Copepod 
Mineral Sciences 

Chairman Brian H. Mason 

Curator George S. Switzer 


Curator Kurt Fredericksson 

Associate Curator Roy S. Clarke, Jr. 

Geochemist Robert F. Fudali 

Chemists Eugene Jarosewich 

Joseph A. Nelen 

Associate Curator Paul E. Desautels 

Crystallographer Joel E. Arem 


Associate Curator William G. Melson 

1 7 

Geologist Thomas E. Simkin 

Research Associates, Collaborators, and 

Affiliated Scientists Howard J. Axon (Meteorites) 

Vago F. Buchwald (Meteorites) 
Tomas Feininger (Petrology) 
Edward P. Henderson (Meteorites) 
John B. Jago (Mineralogy) 
Peter Leavens (Mineralogy) 
Rosser Reeves (Mineralogy) 
Geoffrey Thompson (Petrology) 
Harry Winston (Mineralogy) 

Chairman Porter M. Kier 

1 8 

Senior Paleobiologists G. Arthur Cooper 

C. Lewis Gazin 

Collections Manager Frederick J. Collier 

Invertebrate Paleontology 

Curators Richard M. Benson 

Richard S. Boardman 

Martin A. Buzas 

Alan H. Cheetham 

Richard Cifelli 

Richard E.Grant 19 

Erie G. Kauffman 

Associate Curator Thomas R. Waller 

Geologist Kenneth M. Towe 

Vertebrate Paleontology 

Curators Clayton E. Ray 

Nicholas Hotton III 

Associate Curator Robert J. Emry 


Curator Walter H. Adev 

17 Appointed 6 February 1972. 

18 Retired 29 February 1972. 

19 Appointed 14 May 1972. Elected Chairman Spring 1972, effective 3 July 1972. 


Associate Curators Leo J. Hickey 

Francis M. Hueber 

Geological Oceanographer Daniel J. Stanley 

Curator Jack W. Pierce 


Associate Curator Ian G. Macintyre 

Research Associates, Collaborators, and 
Affiliated Scientists 
Invertebrate Paleontology Arthur J. Boucot 

Anthony C. Coates 

C. Wythe Cooke 2 ! 

G. Arthur Cooper 

Raymond Douglass 

J. Thomas Dutro 

Robert M. Finks 

C. Lewis Gazin 

Mackenzie Gordon, Jr. 

Joseph E. Hazel 

John W. Huddle 

Ralph W. Imlay 

Jeremy B. C. Jackson 

Harry S. Ladd 

N. Gary Lane 

Kenneth E. Lohman 

Venka V. Macintyre 

Sergius H. Mamay 

James F. Mello 

William A. Oliver, Jr. 

Axel A. Olsson 

John Pojeta, Jr. 

Norman F. Sohl 

Steven M. Stanley 

Margaret Ruth Todd 

Wendell P. Woodring 

Ellis L. Yochelson 
Paleobotany Patricia J. Adey 

David Child 
Sedimentology Gilbert Kelling 

Frederic R. Siegel 
Vertebrate Paleontology Douglas Emlong 

Charles A. Reppening 

Frank C. Whitmore, Jr. 
Vertebrate Zoology 

Chairman George E. Watson 


Curators Robert H. Gibbs, Jr. 

Ernest A. Lachner 

Victor G. Springer 

Stanley H. Weitzman 


Appointed 26 December 1971. 
21 Died 25 December 1971. 


Associate Curator William R. Taylor 

Reptiles and Amphibians 

Curator James A. Peters 

Assistant Curator George R. Zug 


Curator Richard L. Zusi 

Associate Curator Paul Slud 


Curators Charles O. Handley 

Henry W. Setzer 

Associate Curator Richard W. Thorington, Jr. 

Research Associates, Collaborators, and 

Affiliated Scientists John W. Aldrich (Birds) 

Richard C. Banks (Birds) 
William Belton (Birds) 
James E. Bohlke (Fishes) 
Robert L. Brownell, Jr. (Mammals) 
Leonard Carmichael (Psychology, 

Animal Behavior) 
Daniel M. Cohen (Fishes) 
Bruce B. Collette (Fishes) 
George J. Divocky (Birds) 
John F. Eisenberg (Mammals) 
Robert K. Eenders (Mammals) 
Herbert Friedmann (Birds) 
Crawford H. Greenewalt (Birds) 
Arthur M. Greenhall (Mammals) 
Brian A. Harrington (Birds) 
Philip S. Humphrey (Birds) 
George J. Jacobs (Reptiles, 

David H. Johnson (Mammals) 
Clyde J. Jones (Mammals) 
E. V. Komarek (Mammals) 
Roxie C. Laybourne (Birds) 
Ronald Mackenzie (Mammals) 
Richard H. Manville (Mammals) 
J. A. J. Meester (Mammals) 
Edgardo Mondolfi (Mammals) 
Russell E. Mumford (Mammals) 
John R. Napier (Mammals) 
Storrs L. Olson (Birds) 
Braulio Orejas-Miranda (Reptiles) 
John Paradiso (Mammals) 
Dioscoro S. Rabor (Birds) 
G. Carleton Ray (Mammals) 
S. Dillon Ripley (Birds) 
Leonard P. Schultz (Fishes) 
Alexander Wetmore (Birds) 



National Air and Space Museum 

Director Michael Collins 

Deputy Director Melvin B. Zisfein 

Administrative Officer John Whitelaw 

Librarian Catherine D. Scott 

Acting Assistant Director (Aeronautics) . Louis S. Casey 

Aircraft Propulsion Robert B. Meyer, Jr., Curator 

Assistant Director (Astronautics) Frederick C. Durant III 

Advisory Board S. Dillon Ripley, Chairman 

(ex -officio) 

Major General Nils O. Oman, USAF 
Vice Admiral Maurice A. Weisner, USN 
Brig. General James L. Collins, USA 
Brig. General H. S. Hill, USMC 
Rear Admiral Robert E. Hammond, 

Willis H.Shapley, NASA 
General Gustav Lundquist, FAA 

Honorary Mrs. Olive Ann Beech 

William E. Hall 
Elwood R. Ouesada 

Astrophysical Observatory 

Director Fred L. Whipple 

Assistant Director (Management) Robert V. Bartnik 

Assistant Director (Science) Charles A. Lundquist 

Scientific Staff Kaare Aksnes 

Arthur C. Allison 
Eugene H. Avrett 
Prabhu Bhatnagar 
Nathaniel P. Carleton 
Frederic Chaffee 
Jerome R. Cherniack 
Giuseppe Colombo 
Allan F. Cook 
Alex Dalgarno 
Robert J. Davis 
James C. DeFelice 
William A. Deutschman 
Dale F. Dickinson 
Giovanni G. Fazio 
Darrell Fernald 
Edward L. Fireman 
Fred A. Franklin 
Edward M. Gaposchkin 
Owen Gingerich 
Antanas Girnius 
Mario D. Grossi 
Katherine Haramundanis 
Gerald Hawkins 




Henry F. Helmken 
Paul W. Hodge 
Luigi G. Jacchia 
Wolfgang Kalkofen 
Douglas Kleinmann 
Yoshihide Kozai 
David Latham 
Myron Lecar 
Carlton G. Lehr 
Martin Levine 
Hiram Levy II 
A. Edward Lilley 
Marvin Litvak 
Richard E. McCrosky 
Brian G. Marsden 
Ursula B. Marvin 
George H. Megrue 
Donald H. Menzel 
Lawrence W. Mertz 
Henri E. Mitler 
Paul A. Mohr 
James Moran 
Robert W. Noyes 
Costas Papaliolios 
Cecelia H. Payne-Gaposhkin 
Michael R. Pearlman 
Douglas T. Pitman 
Annette Posen 
Harrison E. Radford 
John B. Reid, Jr. 
George B. Rybicki 
Winfield W. Salisbury 
Rudolph E. Schild 
Zdenek Sekanina 
Chen-Yuan Shao 
I. Shapiro 
Jack W. Slowey 
Richard B. Southworth 
Frank Steinbrunn 
G. Jeffrey Taylor 
Wesley A. Traub 
Robert Vessot 
George Victor 
George Weiffenbach 
Trevor C. Weekes 
Charles A. Whitney 
Marlene Williamson 
John A. Wood 
Robert N. Anthony 
John Danziger 
Stanley Ross 
Robert Stein 


Pol Swings 

George Veis 

Natarajan Visvanathan 
Director, Central Bureau for Satellite 

Geodesy George Veis 

Director, Central Bureau for Astronomical 

Telegrams Brian G. Marsden 

NAS Fellows Eoghan O'Mongain 

Steven Wofsy 

Eric Chaisson 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Director Martin H. Moynihan 

Special Assistant to Director Adela Gomez 

Assistant Director (Science) Ira Rubinoff 

Administrative Officer C. Neal McKinney 

Manager, Barro Colorado Island .... Ernest Hayden 

Manager, Naos Island Archibald Turner 

Office Manager Arilla Kourany 

Biologists Robert L. Dressier 

Peter W. Glynn 

Jeffrey B. Graham 

Judith Lang 

Egbert Leigh 

A. Stanley Rand 

Michael H. Robinson 

Roberta W. Rubinoff 

Neal G. Smith 

Hindrik Wolda 
Honorary Charles F. Bennett, Jr. 

John F. Eisenberg 

Carmen Glynn 

Carlos Lehmann 

Robert H. MacArthur 

Giles W. Mead 

Ernst Mayr 

Barbara Robinson 

Patricio Sanchez 

W. John Smith 

C. C. Soper 

Paulo Vanzolini 

Martin Young 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 

Director William H. Klein 

Assistant Director Walter A. Shropshire, Jr. 

Anthropologist Robert Stuckenrath 

Biochemists David L. Correll 

Maurice M. Margulies 


Biologists Elisabeth Gantt 

Rebecca Gettens 

William O. Smith, Jr. 

Chemist David Severn 

Geneticist Roy W. Harding, Jr. 

Geochemist James Mielke 

Microbiologist Maria Faust 

Oceanographer John Joyce 

Physicists Bernard Goldberg 

Richard Jeck 

Physiological Ecologist Bert Drake 

Plant Physiologists John Edwards 

Victor B. Elstad 

Leonard Price 

Robert L. Weintraub 
Fellows Clarke Brooks 

Edward DeFabo 

Richard Honeycutt 

Verna Lawson 

National Zoological Park 

Director Theodore H. Reed 

Assistant Director John Perry 

Assistant Director, Department of 

Zoological Programs Floris M. Garner 

Chief, Administrative Services Joseph J. McGarry 

Captain, Police Division Anthony J. Kadlubowski 

Head, Planning and Design Office Norman C. Melun 

Chief, Division of Interpretation Saul W. Schiffman 

Curator, Division of Birds (Vacant) 

Curator, Division of Small Mammals and 

Primates : Harold J. Egoscue 

Curator, Division of Reptiles Jaren G. Horsley 

Resident Scientist, Division of Scientific 

Research John F. Eisenberg 

Veterinarian, Division of Animal Health . Clinton W. Gray 

Pathologist, Division of Pathology Robert M. Sauer 

Chief, Operations and Maintenance 

Department Emanuel Petrella 

Head, Automotive Division Jesse Batts 

Head, Grounds Division John Monday 

Head, Maintenance Division Robert Ogilvie 

Head, Mechanical Division Theodore Runyan 

Head, Labor Division Carl F. Jackson 

Associates in Ecology S. Dillon Ripley 

Lee M. Talbot 

Research Associates Jean Delacour 

Gerald G. Montgomery 
George McKay 
Devra G. Kleiman 
Bernard C. Zook 


Nancy A. Muckenhirn 

Collaborators Floris M. Garner 

Leonard J. Goss 
Carlton M. Herman 
Paul Leyhausen 
Charles R. Schroeder 

Office of Environmental Sciences 

Director William L. Eilers 

Program Director. AID Environmental 

Impact Studies Peter H. Freeman 

Program Director, AID Waterborne 

Diseases Study Curt R. Schneider 

Ecology Program 

Director Dale W. Jenkins 

Deputy Director Lee M. Talbot 22 

Director, Center for Natural Areas . . . Stephen L. Keiley 
Director, Peace Corps Environmental 

Studies Robert K. Poole 

Visiting Ecologist Lloyd V. Knutson 

Oceanography and Limnology Program 

Director Robert P. Higgins 

2 3 

Deputy Director David K. Young 

Director, Mediterranean Marine Sorting 

Center William P. Davis 

Director, Smithsonian Oceanographic 

Sorting Center H. Adair Fehlmann 

Program Officer, CITRE Planning Pro- 
gram Stephen V. Smith 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental 

Director Francis S. L. Williamson 

Deputy Director John Kevin Sullivan 

Center for Short-Lived Phenomena 

Director Robert Citron 

Center for the Study of Man 

Director Sol Tax 

Program Coordinator Sam Stanley 

Smithsonian Science Information Exchange 

President David F. Hersey 

Vice President, User Services Frank J. Kreysa 

Director, User Education Richard C. Reeser 

Vice President, Professional Services .... Willis R. Foster 

2 2 

On leave in 1971 to Council on Environmental Quality. 
' Appointed effective June 1972. Dail W. Brown resigned March 1972. 


Vice President, Data Processing Martin Snyderman 

Secretary V. P. Verfuerth 

Treasurer David W. Lakamp 

Assistant Treasurer Evelyn M. Roll 

Science Division 

Director Willis R. Foster 

Deputy, Life Sciences Charlotte M. Damron 

Chief, Medical Sciences Branch . . Faith F. Stephan 

Chief, Behavioral Sciences Branch . Rhoda Stolper 

Chief, Social Sciences Branch .... Barbara F. Lundquist 

Chief, Agriculture Sciences Branch William T. Carlson 

Chief, Biological Sciences Branch . James R. Wheatley. Jr. 

Deputy. Physical Sciences Samuel Liebman 

Chief, Chemistry, Material and 

Engineering Branch Samuel Liebman 

Chief, Physics, Mathematics and 

Electronics Branch Robert Summers 

Chief, Earth Science Branch Joseph P. Riva, Jr. 

Data Processing Division 

Director Martin Snyderman 

Deputy Bernard L. Hunt 

Chief, Input Services Branch .... Jack DeVore 
Chief, Systems Development 

Branch Bernard L. Hunt 

Chief, Programming and Reports 

Services Branch Robert A. Kline 

Chief, Computer Operations Branch Paul Gallucci 

Fort Pierce Bureau 24 

Director I. Eugene Wallen 


Assistant Secretary Charles Blitzer 

Deputy Richard Grove 

Bicentennial Coordinator Susan Hamilton 

The National Museum of History 
and Technology 

Director Daniel J. Boorstin 

Deputy Director Silvio A. Bedini 

Assistant Director for Administration . . . Robert G. Tillotson 

Administrative Officer Virginia Beets 

Historian Harold K. Skramstad 

Applied Arts 

Chairman Carl H. Scheele 

24 Established 16 October 1971. 


Division of Graphic Arts 

Associate Curators Elizabeth M. Harris 

Peter C. Marzio 

Curators Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli 

Elvira Clain-Stefanelli 
Photographic History 

Curator Eugene Ostroff 

Assistant Curator David E. Haberstich 

Postal History 

Curator Carl H. Scheele 

Associate Curators Franklin R. Bruns 

Reidar Norby 

Curators Rita J. Adrosko 

Grace R. Cooper 

Honorary Cora Lee C. Gillilland 

R. Henry Norweb (Numismatics) 
Cultural History 

Chairman C. Malcolm Watkins 

Costume and Furnishings 

Curator Rodris Roth 

Assistant Curator Claudia B. Kidwell 

Ethnic and Western Cultural History 

Curators Richard E. Ahlborn 

C. Malcolm Watkins 
Musical Instruments 

Curator John T. Fesperman 

Associate Curator Cynthia A. Hoover 

Preindustrial History 

Curator C. Malcolm Watkins 

Associate Curator Anne C. Golovin 

Honorary Mrs. Arthur M. Greenwood 

David W. Hinshaw 
Ivor Noel Hume 
Edward B. Jelks 
Robert H. McNulty 
Anne W. Murray (Curator 

Emeritus, Costume) 
Joan Pearson Watkins 

Chairman John H. White, Jr. 

Agriculture and Mining 

Curator John T. Schlebecker 

Associate Curator John N. Hoffman 

Ceramics and Glass 

Curators J. Jefferson Miller II 

Paul V. Gardner 

Curator John H. White. Jr. 



Curators John H. White, Jr. 

Melvin H. Jackson 

Honorary Peter B. Bell 

Philip W. Bishop 

Howard I. Chapelle (Historian 

Hans Syz (Ceramics) 
National and Military History 

Chairman Edgar M. Howell 

Historic Archeology 

Curator Mendel L. Peterson 

Military History 

Curators Edgar M. Howell 

Craddock R. Goins, Jr. 
Naval History 

Curators Philip K. Lundeberg 

Harold D. Langley 
Political History 

Curator Margaret B. Klapthor 

Associate Curator Herbert R. Collins 

Honorary William Rea Furlong 

(Flag History) 
Science and Technology 

Chairman Bernard S. Finn 

Senior Scientific Scholar Robert P. Multhauf 

Principal Investigator (Computer 

History Project) Henry S. Tropp 

Electricity and Nuclear Energy 

Curator Bernard S. Finn 

Curator (Mathematics) Uta C. Merzbach 

Mechanical and Civil Engineering 

Curators Robert M. Vogel 

Edwin A. Battison 
Otto Mayr 
Medical Sciences 

Curator Sami K. Hamarneh 

Associate Curator Audrey B. Davis 

Physical Sciences 

Curator Walter F. Cannon 

Associate Curators Deborah J. Warner 

Jon B. Eklund 

Honorary Anthony R. Michaelis 

(Scientific Instruments) 
Derek J. De Solla Price 
(Scientific Instruments) 

Archives of American Art 

Director William E. Woolfenden 

Deputy Director-Archivist Garnett McCoy 



Administrative Assistant Howard McCall 

Curator of Manuscripts Arthur J. Breton 

Assistant Curator of Manuscripts Elsie F. Freivogel 

Area Directors Butler Coleman (New York) 

Robert Brown (Northeast) 

Field Researchers F. Ivor D. Avellino (New York) 

Sylvia Loomis (Southwest) 

Oral History Paul Cummings 

Trustees Howard W. Lipman, President 

Irving F. Burton, Vice President 

James Humphry III, Vice President 

Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth, Vice President 

Girard L. Spencer, Treasurer 

Miss Milka Iconomoff, Secretary 

Harry Baldwin 

Edmond duPont 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn 

Harold O. Love 

Russell Lynes 

Robert L. McNeil, Jr. 

Mrs. Alfred Negley 

Abraham Melamed 

Mrs. E. Bliss Parkinson 

Henry Pearlman 

Mrs. Dana M. Raymond 

Mrs. William L. Richards 

E. P. Richardson 

Chapin Riley 

Edward M. M. Warburg 

Willis F. Woods 

S. Dillon Ripley, ex officio 

Charles Blitzer, ex officio 

Lawrence A. Fleischman, Honorary 

Mrs. Edsel B. Ford, Honorary 

Advisory Committee James Humphry III, Chairman 

Milton W. Brown 
Lloyd Goodrich 
Eugene C. Goossen 
James J. Heslin 
John Howat 
Bernard Karpel 
Edgar Kaufmann, Jr. 
John A. Kouwenhoven 
Karl Kup 
Eric Larrabee 
Abram Lerner 
A. Hyatt Mayor 
Jules Prown 
J. T. Rankin 
Daniel J. Reed 
Charles van Ravenswaay 
Marvin S. Sadik 


Joshua C. Taylor 
William B. Walker 
Richard P. Wunder 

Freer Gallery of Art 

Director Harold P. Stern 

Assistant Director Thomas Lawton 

Assistant Curator, Chinese Art Hin-cheung Lovell 

Assistant Curator, Near Eastern Art .... Esin Atil 

Head Conservator, Technical Laboratory . W. Thomas Chase 

Chemist, Technical Laboratory John Winter 

Research Curator, Far Eastern Ceramics . John A. Pope 
Research Consultant, Technical 

Laboratory Rutherford J. Gettens 

Research Assistant, Far Eastern Ceramics Josephine H. Knapp 

Research Assistant, Herzfeld Archive . . . Joseph M. Upton 

Librarian Priscilla P. Smith 

Honorary Associates Richard Edwards 

Calvin French 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

Director Joshua C. Taylor 

Administrative Officer George W. Riggs 

Curator, Exhibition and Design Harry Lowe 

Curator, Contemporary Painting and 

Sculpture Adelyn D. Breeskin 

Associate Curator, 18th- and 19th-century 

Painting and Sculpture William H. Truettner 

Curator, Prints and Drawings Janet A. Flint 

Administrator, Renwick Gallery Lloyd E. Herman 

Assistant Curator, Renwick Gallery .... Arthur Feldman 

Curator of Education Darrel L. Sewell 

Special Assistant for the Collections .... Robert Tyler Davis 

Coordinator of Research ' Lois M. Fink 

Coordinator, Bicentennial Inventory 

of American Paintings Abigail Booth 

Chief, Smithsonian Institution Traveling 

Exhibition Service Dennis Gould 

Chief, International Art Program Lois A. Bingham 

Senior Conservator Anton Konrad 

Registrar . . . .- Elisabeth Strassmann 

Editor, Office of Publication Georgia M. Rhoades 

Head Librarian, NCFA/NPG William B. Walker 

Coordinator of Special Projects Donald R. McClelland 

Public Affairs Officer Benjamin Ruhe 

Photographer Lowell A. Kenyon 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

Commission Thomas C. Howe, Chairman 

H. Page Cross, Vice Chairman 


S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary 
Leonard Baskin 
Thomas S. Buechner 
William A.M. Burden 
David E. Finley 
Martin Friedman 
Lloyd Goodrich 
Walker Hancock 
Bartlett H. Hayes, Jr. 
August Heckscher 
Mrs. Jaquelin H. Hume 
Henry P. Mcllhenny 
Ogden M. Pleissner 
Charles H. Sawyer 
Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth 
George B. Tatum 
Otto Wittmann 

Honorary Members Alexander Wetmore 

Leonard Carmichael 
Gilmore D. Clarke 
Paul Mellon 
Stow Wengenroth 
Andrew Wyeth 

National Portrait Gallery 

Director Marvin S. Sadik 

Assistant Director and Administrative 

Officer Douglas E. Evelyn 

Historian Lillian B. Miller 

Assistant Historian Beverly J. Cox 

Research Historian Frederick S. Voss 

Curator Robert G. Stewart 

Associate Curator Monroe Fabian 

Keeper of the Catalogue Wilford P. Cole 

Senior Research Assistant Mona Dearborn 

2 5 

Curator of Education James Vivian 

Assistant Curator of Education Robert Works 

Chief, Exhibits Design James J. Shelton 

Assistant Chief, Exhibits Design Michael Carrigan 

Librarian (NPG-NCFA) William B. Walker 

Senior Conservator Anton Konrad 

Conservator Felrath Hines 

Registrar Jon D. Freshour 

NPG Commission John Nicholas Brown, Chairman 

Whitfield J. Bell, Jr. 

Lewis Deschler 

David E. Finley 

Wilmarth Sheldon Lewis 

25 Resigned 16 June 1972. 
26 Resigned 16 June 1972. 


Robert L. McNeil, Jr. 
Andrew Oliver 
Jules D. Prown 
E. P. Richardson 
Robert Hilton Smith 
Barbara Tuchman 

Ex-officio Chief Justice of the United States 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 
Director, National Gallery of Art 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

Director Abram Lerner 

Administrative Officer Joseph Sefekar 

Curator of Exhibitions Douglas MacAgy 

Associate Curator Cynthia Jaffee McCabe 

Assistant Curator Inez Garson 

Librarian Anna Brooke 

Registrar Sandra L. Pearson 

Museum Specialists James J. Elias 

Frank B. Gettings 

Gerald O'Connor 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design 

Director Lisa Surer Taylor 

Administrator and Curator of Collections Christian Rohlfing 

Associate Curator of Decorative Arts . . . Janet Thorpe 

Assistant Curator of Decorative Arts . . . Catherine Frangiamore 

Curator of Drawings and Prints Elaine Evans Dee 

Technician for Drawings and Prints .... Xenia Cage 

Assistant Curator of Textiles Milton Sonday 

Consultant for Textiles Alice Baldwin Beer 

Registrar Mary F. Blackwelder 

Librarian Edith Adams 

Assistant Librarian Eliane Zuesse 

Building Manager Manuel Perez 

Museum Secretary Rowena MacLeod 

Museum Receptionist Deirdre MacGuire 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 

Director John H. Magruder III 

Assistant Director James S. Hutchins 

Administrative Officer Miriam H. Uretz 

Collections John M. Elliott 

Historian James J. Stokesberry 

Registrar Lorene B. Mayo 

27 Resigned 22 October 1971 


Advisory Board The Honorable John Nicholas Brown, 

The Honorable Earl Warren 
Secretary of Army 
Secretary of Navy 
Secretary of Air Force 
Lieutenant General Milton G. Baker, 

Robert C. Baker 

The Honorable Alexander P. Butterfield 
William H. Perkins, Jr. 

Ex officio Secretary of Defense 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 

Joseph Henry Papers 

Editor Nathan Reingold 

Assistant Editor Arthur P. Molella 

Staff Historian James M. Hobbins 

Research Assistant Kathleen Waldenfels 

Administrative Officer Beverly Jo Lepley 

Officer of American Studies 
Director Wilcomb E. Washburn 

Office of Academic Studies 

Executive Officer Edward S. Davidson 

Program Officer Gretchen Gayle 

Smithsonian Institution Archives 
Archivist Richard H. Lytle 

2 8 

Assistant Archivists Donald Danuloff 

William A. Deiss 29 
James Steed 
Alan L. Bain 

Office of Seminars 

Director Wilton S. Dillon 

Administrative Assistant Dorothy Richardson 

Conference Specialist Stephany Knight 

Assistant Frances Miller 

28 Retired 17 September 1971. 
29 Appointed 31 October 1971. 
30 Appointed 30 April 1972. 



Assistant Secretary Paul N. Perrot 31 

Office of Smithsonian and National Museum Programs 
Assistant Director Frederick Schmid 3 

3 3 

Research Assistants Katherine Goldman 

Jean H. Eisenberg 34 

Research Associate Frank A. Taylor 

Special Consultant Stephen Johnston 5 

Office of Exhibits Programs 

Director John E. Anglim 

Acting Director James A. Mahoney 

Deputy Director Benjamin W. Lawless 

Chief of Design Richard S. Virgo 

Assistant Chief of Design William F. Haase 

Chief of Production Harry T. Hart 

Assistant Chief of Production Eugene F. Behlen 

Exhibits Labels Editor Constance Minkin 

Program Management Officer William M. Clark, Jr. 

Conservation-Analytical Laboratory- 
Chief Robert M. Organ 

Research Chemist Jacqueline S. Olin 

Senior Conservator Eleanor McMillan 

Office of the Registrar 
Acting Registrar William P. Haynes 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

Director of Libraries Russell Shank 

Assistant to the Director Dan O. Clemmer 

Assistant Director of Libraries Mary A. Huffer 

Assistant to the Assistant Director . . . Peter A. Geiger 

Assistant Director of Libraries for Bureau 

Services Jean C. Smith 

3 Effective 1 August 1972. 

32 Appointed 15 July 1971. Peter C. Welsh, Director, resigned 1 December 1971. 

33 Resigned 15 May 1972. 

34 Resigned 18 June 1972. 

Appointed 1 February 1972. 
36 Died23May 1972. 
"Transferred to U.S. Department of the Interior 20 February 1972. 


Deputy Assistant Director of Libraries for 

Bureau Services L. Frances Jones 

Administrative Librarian Thomas L. Wilding 

Administrative Assistant Mary C. Quinn 

Access Services 

Chief Jack F. Marquardt 

Assistant Chief A. James Spohn 

Library of Congress Liaison Librarian Ruth E. Blanchard 38 
Bibliographer in the History of Science . . Jack S. Goodwin 
Technical Services 

Chief Vija L. Karklins 

Acquisitions Division 

Acting Chief Mildred D. Raitt 

Serials Librarian Edna S. Suber 

Gift and Exchange Librarian .... Mary Clare Cahill 
Special Assistant assigned to 

Acquisitions Mary L. Horgan 

Catalog Division 

Acting Chief Bertha S. Sohn 

Catalogers Angeline D. Ashford 

Charles H. King 
Helen S. Nordberg 
Margaret A. Sealor 
Carol L. Wohlford 
Branch Librarians 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative 

Arts and Design Edith Adams 

Department of Botany Ruth F. Schallert 

Freer Gallery of Art Pricilla B. Smith 

Hirshorn Museum and Sculpture 

Garden Anna M. Brooke 

National Air and Space Museum .... Catherine D. Scott 
National Collection of Fine Arts and 

National Portrait Gallery William B. Walker 

National Museum of History and 

Technology Frank A. Pietropaoli 

National Museum of Natural History . Jean C. Smith (acting) 
Smithsonian Astrophysical 

Observatory Joyce M. Rey 

Smithsonian Tropical Research 

Institute Alcira Mejia 

Woodrow Wilson International Center 

for Scholars Mary Angle myer 

Branch Librarian Reference Staff 

National Collection of Fine Arts and 


National Portrait Gallery Sara B. Hinnegan 

38 Retired 31 December 1971. 
39 Retired 14 January 1972. 
40 Resigned 22 October 1972. 
41 Appointed 15 May 1972. 


Appointed 2 August 1971. 


National Museum of History and 

Technology Charles G. Berger 


Acting Assistant Secretary Julian T. Euell 

Deputy Assistant Secretary Robert W. Mason 

Administrative Assistant Ruth Frazier 

Smithsonian Associates 

Executive Director Robert W. Mason 

Director of Plans and Marketing Robert H. Angle 

National Program 

Director, Reception Center Mary Grace Potter 

Manager, Domestic Study Tours .... Patricia N. Kilkenny 
Resident Program 

Director Susan Hamilton 

Business Manager Marlin Johnson 

Special Events Assistant Carolyn Amundson 

Subscription Assistant Carolyn A. Hecker 

Day Tours and Social Secretary .... Moya B. King 

Office of Public Affairs 

Director Carl W. Larsen 

Special Assistant to the Director Jewell S. Dulaney 

Chief, News Bureau Mary M. Krug 

Art Information Specialist Benjamin P. Ruhe 

Science Information Specialist Thomas R. Harney 

Chief, Public Affairs, MHT Irwin Goodwin 

Radio Correspondent Cynthia Helms 

Publications Officer William O. Craig 

Office of International Activities 

Acting Director Kennedy B. Schmertz 

Foreign Currency Program 

Director Kennedy B. Schmertz 

Deputy Director Kenneth D. Whitehead 

Program Officer Richard T. Conroy 

Grants Technical Assistants Betty J. Wingfield 

Judy E. Rodgers 

Administrative Assistant Jean A. C. Harrell 

Division of Performing Arts 

Director James R. Morris 

Deputy Director Richard P. Lusher 

43 Effective 1 July 1972. 


Director, Festival of American Folklife .. Ralph C. Rinzler 
Assistant Director of Festival of American 

Folklife Gerald L. Davis 

Director, Indian Awareness Program .... Clydia Nahwooksy 

Director, Jazz Program Martin Williams 

Planning Officer Marian A. Hope 

Operations Officer Manuel Melendez 

Director, Touring Performances Mark Mason 

Manager, Box Office Harry Bagdasian 

Administrative Officer Anne Anders 

Smithsonian Museum Shops 

Director William W. Rowan III 

Administrative Assistant Barbara A. Brand 

Store Operations Lillian R. Cutler 

Book Buyer Florence R. Lloyd 

Belmont Conference Center 
Director Joanne S. Baker Kugel 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

Director John R. Kinard 

Assistant Director Zora B. Martin 

Research and Design Coordinator Larry Erskine Thomas 

Exhibit Specialist James E. Mayo 

Program Analyst, Center for Anacostia 

Studies Thomas J. Cantwell 

Mobile Coordinator Fletcher Smith 

Assistant to the Director for Special 

Projects Balcha Fellows 

Smithsonian (magazine) 

Editor Edward K. Thompson 

Members, Board of Editors Ralph Backlund 

Grayce P. Northcross 

James K. Page, Jr. 

Edwards Park 

General Manager Joseph J. Bonsignore 

Advertising Director Thomas H. Black 

Circulation-Promotion Director Anne Keating 

Smithsonian Institution Press 

Director Gordon Hubel 

Managing Designer Stephen Kraft 

Promotion Manager Maureen R. Jacoby 


Business Manager Eileen M. McCarthy 

Series Managing Editor Albert L. Ruffin, Jr. 

Series Production Manager Charles L. Shaffer 

Editors Mary Frances Bell 

Ernest E. Biebighauser 

Louise J. Heskett 

Joan B. Horn 

Mary M. Ingraham 

John S. Lea 

Nancy L. Powars 

Writer-Editor Hope G. Pantell 

Designers Crimilda Pontes 

Elizabeth Sur 

Reading Is Fundamental 

Chairman of Advisory Board Mrs. Robert S. McNamara 

President William B. Mullins 

Executive Director Eleanor Smollar 

Program Director Barbara B. Atkinson 

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

Acting Director John W. Bingham 

Staff Associates Teresa E. Covacevich (Art History) 

David W. Estabrook (History 

and Technology) 
Robert S. Harding (History) 
Samuel C. Rizzetta (Biology) 
Coordinator, Volunteer Programs Joan C. Madden 

National Gallery of Art 

Board of Trustees The Chief Justice of the 

United States, Warren E. Burger, 
The Secretary of State, 

William P. Rogers 
The Secretary of the Treasury, 

John B. Connally 
The Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution, S. Dillon Ripley, 
ex officio 

General Trustees Paul Mellon 

Dr. Franklin D. Murphy 
Lessing J. Rosenwald 
Stoddard M. Stevens 
John Hay Whitney 

President Paul Mellon 

Vice President John Hay Whitney 

Director J. Carter Brown 


Assistant to the Director, Music .... Richard Bales 

Assistant to the Director, National 

Programs W. Howard Adams 

Assistant to the Director, Public 

Information Katherine Warwick 

Construction Manager Robert C. Engle 

Planning Consultant David W. Scott 

Secretary and General Counsel E. James Adams 

Assistant Director Charles P. Parkhurst 

Curator of American Painting William P. Campbell 

Curator of Painting H. Lester Cooke 

Curator of Graphic Arts Christopher J. White 

Curator of Drawings Konrad Oberhuber 

Curator of Decorative Arts Grose Evans 

Curator of Sculpture C. Douglas Lewis, Jr. 

Chief, Education and Public Programs Margaret Bouton 

Editor Theodore S. Amussen 

Chief, Photographic Laboratory .... Henry B. Beville 

Curator of Photographic Archives . . . Alessandro Contini-Bonacossi 

Treasurer Lloyd D. Hayes 

Assistant Treasurer James W. Woodard 

Administrator Joseph G. English 

Acting Deputy Administrator Charles B. Walstrom 

Assistant to the Administrator 

(Scientific and Technical) Sterling P. Eagleton 

Personnel Officer Jeremiah J. Barrett 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 

Honorary Chairmen Mrs. Richard M. Nixon 

Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson 
Mrs. Aristotle Onassis 
Mrs. Dwight D. Eisenhower 

Chairman Roger L. Stevens 

Vice Chairmen Harry C. McPherson, Jr. 

Charles H. Percy 
Henry Strong 

General Counsel Ralph E. Becker 

Secretary K. LeMoyne Billings 

Treasurer Robert C. Baker 

Music Director Julius Rudel 

Executive Director of Performing Arts . . Martin Feinstein 

Comptroller Aaron Spaulding 

General Manager of Theaters Alexander Morr 

Director of Publicity and Promotion . . . Wayne Shilkret 

Assistant Treasurers Kenneth Birgfeld 

Paul J. Bisset 
John L. Bryant 
L. Parker Harrell, Jr. 
Jarvis Moody 
Henry Strong 


Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 

Director Benjamin H. Read 

Deputy Director Albert Meisel 

Appendix 5 




Research in Art, History, and Science 


Angel, J. Lawrence. The People of Lema: Analysis of a Prehistoric Aegean Popula- 
tion. 159 pages, 5 figures, 26 plates, 15 tables. 20 August 1971. Cloth. $17.50 

List, Robert J., Preparer. Smithsonian Meteorological Tables. 6th revised edition, 5th 
reprint. 527 pages. 10 September 1971 (originally published as Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collections, volume 114). Cloth. $15.00 

Meester, J., and H.W. Setzer, editors. The Mammals of Africa: An Identification 
Manual. 10 September 1971 (Parts 2, 7, 9, 12, 13) and 23 May 1972 (Parts, 4, 5, 
10, 15, 15.1). Loose leaf. $5.00 per fascicle. 

O'Connor, Francis V., editor. The New Deal Art Projects: An Anthology of Memoirs. 
ix + 339 pages, 53 illustrations. 27 April 1972. Cloth. $12.50. 

Pantell, Hope. Our Restless Planet: A Geologist's View of the Earth. 30 pages, 
illustrated. 22 May 1972. Paper. $2.00 

Phebus, George, Jr. Alaskan Eskimo Life in the 1890s as Sketched by Native Artists. 
168 pages, 120 illustrations. 28 February 1972. Cloth. $15.00 

Plowden, David. The Hand of Man on America. 134 pages, 75 illustrations. 20 August 
1971. Cloth. $12.50. 

(Final volume of series) 

200. "List of Publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology, with Index to 
Authors and Titles." 134 pages. 14 December 1971. 


5. Leonard S. Hobbs. "The Wright Brothers' Engines and Their Design." x + 71 
pages, 17 figures. 27 October 1971. 

7. Hugo T. Byttebier. 'The Curtiss D-12 Aero Engine." vii + 109 pages, 47 figures, 
1 table. 10 May 1972. 

8. Stanley R. Mohler and Bobby H. Johnson. "Wiley Post, His Winnie Mae, and the 
World's First Pressure Suit." vii + 127 pages, 139 figures. 22 November 1971. 


14. Don D. Fowler and Catherine S. Fowler, editors. "Anthropology of the Numa: 
John Wesley Powell's Manuscripts on the Numic Peoples of Western North 



America, 1868-1880." xiii + 307 pages, 36 figures, 9 maps, 1 table. 10 
December 1971. 

15. W. Raymond Wood. "Biesterfeldt: A Post-Contact Coalescent Site on the 
Northeastern Plains." xv + 108 pages, 16 figures, 20 plates, 6 text tables, 3 
appendix tables. 17 August 1971. 

16. William W. Fitzhugh. "Environmental Archeology and Cultural Systems in 
Hamilton Inlet, Labrador: A Survey of the Central Labrador Coast from 3000 
B.C. to the Present." xix + 299 pages, 80 figures, 87 plates, 30 tables. 31 May 


4. Mason E. Hale, Jr. "Morden-Smithsonian Expedition to Dominica: The Lichens 
(Parmeliaceae)." 25 pages, 29 figures. 31 August 1971. 

5. Barrett Nelson Rock. "The Woods and Flora of the Florida Keys: 'Pinnatae'." 
35 pages, 35 figures, 4 tables. 4 February 1972. 

7. F. R. Fosberg and M.-H. Sachet. "Thespesia populnea (L.) Solander ex Correa 
and Thespesia populneoides (Roxburgh) Kosteletsky (Malvaceae)." 13 pages, 6 
figures. 17 April 1972. 

8. F. R. Fosberg and M.-H. Sachet. "Three Indo-Pacific Thelypteris Species 
Reinterpreted and a New African Species Described." 10 pages, 3 figures. 5 May 


7. William G. Melson. "Geology of the Lincoln Area, Lewis and Clark County, 
Montana." 29 pages, 13 figures, 8 tables. 15 October 1971. 

8. Daniel J. Stanley, Donald J.P. Swift, Norman Silverberg, Noel P. James, and 
Robert G. Sutton. "Late Quaternary Progradation and Sand Spillover on the 
Outer Continental Margin off Nova Scotia, Southeast Canada." 88 pages, 83 
figures, 6 tables. 11 April 1972. 


6. Alan H. Cheetham. "Functional Morphology and Biofacies Distribution of 
Cheilostome Bryozoa in the Danian Stage (Paleocene) of Southern 
Scandinavia." 87 pages, 29 figures, 17 plates, 10 tables. 27 September 1971. 

7. Richard H. Benson. "A New Cenozoic Deep-Sea Genus Abyssocythere 
(Crustacea: Ostracoda; Trachyleberididae), with Descriptions of Five New 
Species." 25 pages, 12 figures, 3 plates, 1 table. 11 August 1971. 

8. Richard S. Boardman. "Mode of Growth and Functional Morphology of 
Autozooids in Some Recent and Paleozoic Tubular Bryozoa." 51 pages, 6 
figures, 1 1 plates. 23 August 1 97 1 . 

9. Frederick J. Collier, compiler. "Catalog of Type Specimens of Invertebrate 
Fossils: Conodonta." 256 pages, 1 figure. 23 September 1971. 

10. Porter M. Kier. "Tertiary and Mesozoic Echinoids of Saudi Arabia." 242 pages, 
50 figures, 67 plates, 1 table. 14 June 1972. 

1 1. G. Arthur Cooper. "Homeomorphy in Recent Deep-Sea Brachiopods." 25 pages, 
5 figures, 4 plates. 10 March 1972. 

13. Porter M. Kier. "Upper Miocene Echinoids from the Yorktown Formation of 
Virginia and Their Environmental Significance." 41 pages, 7 figures, 10 plates, 2 
tables. 10 April 1972. 



50. Allan Watson. "An Illustrated Catalog of the Neotropic Arctiinae Types in the 

United States National Museum (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), Part I." 361 pages, 

252 plates. 2 June 1971. [Not reported in SY 1971.] 
58. J. Laurens Barnard. "Keys to the Hawaiian Marine Gammaridea, 0-30 Meters." 

135 pages, 68 figures. 23 September 1971. 
63. Alan Brindle. "Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: 

The Dermaptera (Earwigs) of Dominica." 25 pages, 27 figures. 7 July 1971 . 
69. James A. Peters. "Biostatistical Programs in BASIC Language for Time-Shared 

Computers: Coordinated with the Book 'Quantitative Zoology'." 46 pages. 

Reprinted 1 March 1972, Original 10 March 1971. 
76. Neil C. Hulings, editor. "Proceedings of the First International Conference on 

Meiofauna." ix + 205 pages, 68 figures, 9 tables. 30 December 1971 . 
81. Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. "The Entocytherid Ostracods of Mexico and Cuba." 55 

pages, 31 figures, 1 table. 15 July 1971. 

84. William D. Field. "Butterflies of the Genus Vanessa and of the Resurrected 
Genera Bassahs and Cynthia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). 105 pages, 160 
figures. 5 October 1971. 

85. Ernest A. Lachner and Robert E. Jenkins. "Systematics, Distribution, and 
Evolution of the Chub Genus Nocomis (Girard) (Pisces, Cyprinidae) of Eastern 
United States, with Descriptions of New Species." 97 pages, 30 figures, 27 
tables. 17 August 1971. 

87. Ju-Shey Ho. "Parasitic Copepods of the Family Chondracanthidae from Fishes 
of Eastern North America." 39 pages, 26 figures. 7 July 1971 . 

90. Robert E. Jenkins and Ernest A. Lachner. "Criteria for Analysis and 
Interpretation of the American Fish Genera Nocomis Girard and Hybopsis 
Agassiz." 15 pages, 1 figure, 4 tables. 12 November 1971. 

91. Ernest A. Lachner and Robert E. Jenkins. "Systematics, Distribution, and 
Evolution of the Nocomis biguttatus Species Group (Family Cyprinidae: Pisces) 
with a Description of a New Species from the Ozark Upland." 28 pages, 8 
figures, 9 tables. 6 October 1971 . 

92. Ernest A. Lachner and Martin L. Wiley. "Populations of the Polytypic Species 
Nocomis leptocephalus (Girard) with a Description of a New Subspecies." 35 
pages, 4 figures, 15 tables. 12 November 1971. 

93. C. E. Machado-Allision and Rafael Antequera. "Notes on Neotropical Mesostig- 
mata VI: Four New Venezuelan Species of the Genus Periglischrus (Acarina: 
Spinturnicidae)." 16 pages, 61 figures. 29 July 1971. 

95. J. F. Gates Clarke. "Neotropical Microlepidoptera XIX: Notes on and New 
Species of Oecophoridae (Lepidoptera)." 39 pages, 26 figures, 3 plates. 9 
September 1971. 

98. Fenner A. Chace, Jr. "The Shrimps of the Smithsonian-Bredin Caribbean 
Expeditions with a Summary of the West Indian Shallow-water Species 
(Crustacea: Decapoda: Natantia)." x + 179 pages, 61 figures. 18 February 1972. 

99. Nabil N. Youssef. "Topography of the Cephalic Musculature and Nervous 
System of the Honey Bee Apis mellifera Linnaeus." 54 pages, 10 figures, 5 
tables. 30 December 1971. 

100. Norman Marston. "Taxonomic Study of the Known Pupae of the Genus 
Anthrax (Diptera: Bombyliidae) in North and South America." 17 pages, 4 
plates, 1 table. 17 August 1971. 

101. John F. Eisenberg and Melvyn Lockhart. "An Ecological Reconnaissance of 
Wilpattu National Park, Ceylon." 118 pages, 76 figures, 16 tables. 3 May 1972. 


102. Robert J. Menzies and Milton A. Miller. "Systematics and Zoogeography of the 
Genus Synidotea (Crustacea: Isopoda) with an Account of Californian Species." 
33 pages. 12 figures, 5 tables. 4 February 1972. 

103. J. Laurens Barnard. "Gammaridean Amphipoda of Australia, Part I." 333 pages, 
194 figures, 1 table. 3 May 1972. 

104. Marian H. Pettibone. "Revision of Some Species Referred to Leptonereis. 
Nicon, and Laeonereis (Polychaeta: Nereididae)." 53 pages, 27 figures. 13 
October 1971. 

105. Horton H. Hobbs. Jr., and Thomas C. Barr, Jr. "Origins and Affinities of the 
Troglobitic Crayfishes of North America (Decapoda: Astacidae), II: Genus 
Orconectes. " 84 pages, 16 figures. 10 March 1972. 

106. W. Donald Duckworth. "Neotropical Microlepidoptera XX: Revision of the 
Genus Setiostoma (Lepidoptera: Stenomidae)." 45 pages. 62 figures, 2 plates, 
2 maps. 13 October 1971. 

107. James A. Peters. "A New Approach in the Analysis of Biogeographical Data. "28 
pages, 15 figures, 2 tables. 21 October 1971. 

108. Charles A. Triplehorn. "A Review of the Genus Zopherus of the World 
(Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)." 24 pages. 4 plates. 7 February 1972. 

109. Marian H. Pettibone. "Partial Revision of the Genus Sthenelais Kinberg 
(Polychaeta: Sigalionidae) with Diagnoses of Two New Genera." 40 pages, 24 
figures. 21 October 1971. 

110. Herman A. Scullen. "Review of the Genus Cerceris Latreille in Mexico and 
Central America (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae)." 121 pages, 173 figures. 30 June 

111. S. Dillon Ripley and Gorman M. Bond. "Systematic Notes on a Collection ot 
Birds from Kenya." 21 pages, 1 figure, 16 November 1971. 

112. Victor G. Springer and William F. Smith-Vaniz. "Mimetic Relationships 
Involving Fishes of the Family Blenniidae." 36 pages, 4 figures, 7 plates, 2 
tables. 2 February 1972. 

113. Hairy W. Allen. "A Monographic Study of the Subfamily Tiphiinae (Hy- 
menoptera: Tiphiidae) of South America." 76 pages, 57 figures. 26 April 1972. 

114. Paul D. Hurd, Jr., and E. Gorton Linsley. "Parasitic Bees of the Genus 
Holcopasites Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)." 41 pages, 16 figures, 1 table. 
10 March 1972. 

115. Howard E. Evans. "Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of 
Dominica: Aculeate Wasps (Hymenoptera: Scolioidea, Vespoidea, Pompiloidea, 
Sphecoidea)." 19 pages, 20 figures. 3 March 1972. 

116. Edward W. Baker and Donald M. Tuttle. "New Species and Further Notes on 
the Tetranychoidea Mostly from the Southwestern United States (Acarina: 
Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae)." 37 pages, 70 figures. 10 April 1972. 

117. Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. "The Subgenera of the Crayfish Genus Procambarus 
(Decapoda: Astacidae)." 22 pages, 20 figures, 1 table. 4 February 1972. 

118. Oliver S. Flint, Jr. "Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies. XIII: The Genus 
Ochrotrichia from Mexico and Central America (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae)." 
28 pages, 78 figures. 3 March 1972. 

119. Marjorie Estelle Carter and Janet M. Bradford. "Postembryonic Development of 
Three Species of Freshwater Harpacticoid Copepoda." 26 pages, 14 figures, 1 
table. 24 May 1972. 

122. Carl F.W. Muesebeck. "Nearctic Species of Scelionidae (Hymenoptera: Procto- 
trupoidea) that Parsitize the Eggs of Grasshoppers." 33 pages, 51 figures. 21 
June 1972. 


123. Roger F. Cressey. "Revision of the Genus Alebion (Copepoda: Caligoida)." 29 
pages, 132 figures. 24 May 1972. 


7. Grace Rogers Cooper. "The Copp Family Textiles." viii + 65 pages, 68 Figures, 3 

tables. 27 July 1971. 
9. Paul J. Scheips. "Hold the Fort! The Story of a Song from the Sawdust Trail to 

the Picket Line." iv + 57 pages, 19 figures. 9 September 1971 . 

12. Otto Mayr. "Feedback Mechanisms in the Historical Collections of the National 
Museum of History and Technology." x + 133 pages, 145 figures. 20 July 1971. 

13. Peter L. Koffsky. "The Consul General's Shanghai Postal Agency, 1867-1907." 
v+ 46 pages, 7 figures. 1 March 1972. 

16. John T. Schlebecker and Gale E. Peterson. "Living Historical Farms Hand- 
book." iii + 91 pages. 24 April 1972. 

22. Robert B. Shaw. "History of the Comstock Patent Medicine Business and Dr. 
Morse's Indian Root Pills." 49 pages, 28 figures. 26 May 1972. 


(Final volume of series) 

298. "Publications of the United States National Museum (1947-1970)." 77 pages. 7 
September 1971. 

Public Education 

American Art Programs of Higher Education and Research at the National Collection 

of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution. Announcement. 7 October 1971. 
Books and Records from the Smithsonian Institution Press. Order form. 21 October 

Breeskin, Adelyn D. Lee Gatch, 1902-1968. Catalog of the exhibition, 64 pages, 40 

illustrations. 5 October 1971. 
Breeskin, Adelyn D. Two American Painters: Fritz Scholder and T.C. Cannon. 

Foreword by Joshua C. Taylor, introduction by Robert A. Ewing. Catalog of 

the exhibition, 45 pages, illustrated. 16 March 1972. Paper. 
Breeskin, Adelyn D. William H. Johnson, 1901-1970. Foreword by Joshua C. Taylor, 

catalog of the exhibition by Jan K. Muhlert. 208 pages, 168 illustrations. 29 

October 1971. Paper. 
Brown, Letitia W., and Elsie M. Lewis. Washington From Banneker to Douglass, 

1791-1870. 40 pages, illustrated. 18 November 1971. Poster. 
Brown, Letitia W., and Elsie M. Lewis. Washington in the New Era, 1870-1970. 41 

pages, illustrated. 6 March 1972. Paper. Poster. 
The Catalog of American Portraits. Folder. 5 pages. 25 January 1972. 
Charles A. Lindbergh and The Spirit of St. Louis. Foldout. 28 December 1971. 
Checklist of Books for the 1971 Meeting of the American Studies Association. Order 

form. 21 October 1971. 
Edith Gregor Halpert Memorial Exhibition. Introduction by Adelyn D. Breeskin. 

Catalog of the exhibition. 4 pages. 4 April 1972. 
The Evolution of a Community. Foreword by John R. Kinard, introduction by Larry 

Erskine Thomas. 27 pages, illustrated. 24 February 1972. Poster February 1972. 


Flint, Janet A. Boris Anisfeldt: Twenty Years of Designs for the Theater. Foreword 

by Joshua C. Taylor, Catalog. 35 pages, 12 illustrations. 8 September 1971. 

Flint, Janet A. Drawings by William Glackens, 1870-1938. Foreword by Joshua C. 

Taylor-, introduction by Ira Glackens. 20 pages, 12 illustrations. 24 February 

1972. Paper. 
Freeze-dry at the Smithsonian. Foldout. 12 July 1971. 

The Glass of Frederick Carder. Announcement of the exhibition. 16 February 1972. 
Hoover, Cynthia A. Music Machines- American Style. Foreword by Daniel J. 

Boorstin; introductory notes by Erik Barnouw and Irving Kolodin. Catalog of 

the exhibition. 140 pages, 220 illustrations. 21 September 1971. Paper. 
'If Elected . . .': Unsuccessful Candidates for the Presidency, 1796-1968. Foreword 

by Marvin Sadik, introduction by Lillian B. Miller. 512 pages, illustrated. 3 May 

1972. Paper. Folder 14 April 1972. 
XXXVI International Biennial Exhibition of Art/Venice. Catalog. 16 pages, il- 
lustrated. 5 June 1972. Paper. 
John Steuart Curry: Themes and Variations. Catalog of the exhibition, 4 pages. 12 

November 1971. 
Learning Opportunities for Schools. Pamphlet. 12 pages. 24 August 1971. 
The McDonnell FH-1 Phantom. Foldout. July 1971. 

The National Collection of Fine Arts. Museum guide Foldout. 22 October 1971 . 
National Museum of History and Technology. Museum guide foldout. 26 October 

1971. Reprint 4 May 1972. 
National Parks and the American Landscape. Foreword by Joshua C. Taylor, 

introductory remarks by Rogers C.B. Morton and William H. Truettner and 

Robin Bolton-Smith. 141 pages, 135 illustrations. 15 June 1972. Paper. 
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. 24 pages, illustrated. Reprint 6 

March 1972. 
NCFA Calendar. January -June 1972. 
Organs in Early America. Foldout. 20 September 1971. 
Portraits of the American Stage, 1 771-1971. Foreword by Marvin Sadik, introduction 

by Monroe H. Fabian. Catalog of the exhibition. 203 pages, 93 illustrations. 10 

September 1971. Paper. 
Pueblo Pottery. Poster. 16 February 1972. 
Saturday Conference: Interactions. Poster. 4 March 1972. 
Saturday Conference: Science and Education. Poster. 4 March 1972. 
Saturday Conference: Times and Places. Poster. 4 March 1972. 
Scherer, Joanna Cohan. Indian Images: Photographs of North American Indians, 

1847-1928. Catalog. 31 pages, 13 illustrations. First edition 30 June 1970. 

Second printing 21 December 1971. Paper. 
Science: Man's Greatest Adventure: An Exhibition Honoring Black Scientists and 

their Achievements. Pamphlet. 12 pages, illustrated. 27 July 1971. 
Smithsonian Institution Bulletin for Schools. Folders. 4 pages. 30 November 

1971-May 1972. 
Smithsonian Institution Programs of Higher Education and Research Training in 

American History or American Material Culture. Announcement. 8 October 

Smithsonian Institution Program of Higher Education and Research in Anthropology. 

Announcement. 7 October 1971. 
Smithsonian Institution Program of Higher Education and Research Training in the 

Biological Sciences. Announcement. 8 October 1971. 


Smithsonian Institution Program of Higher Education and Research Training in the 
History of Science and Technology. Announcement. 7 October 1971. 

Smithsonian Institution Program of Higher Education and Research Training in 
Physical Sciences. Announcement. 7 October 1971. 

Smithsonian Institution Research Reports, Number 1. 6 pages, illustrated. 30 May 

Smithsonian Institution Seminar Series in Patheopathology. 1972. Announcement. 7 
October 1971. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Guide foldout. 12 November 1971. 
Reprint 5 May 1972. 

Stachiw, Jerry B. Window in the Sea: Development of the Smithsonian's Johnson- 
Sea-Link Submarine. 31 pages, 22 illustrations. 2 December 1971. $1.25. 

The Story of a Legendary Copper Boulder. Foldout. 29 October 1971. $.10. 

The T-2 Airplane and The First Nonstop Coast-to-Coast Flight. 1 pages. Information 
Leaflet 466. 8 June 1972. 

What Ami . . .? Children's foldout. 9 May 1972. 

Wind Instruments. Foldout. 20 September 1971. 

Winslow Homer, 1836-1910. Foreword by Lisa Taylor, introduction by Lloyd 
Goodrich, catalog of the exhibition by Elaine Evans Dee. 125 pages, 106 
illustrations. 1 May 1972. Paper. 

Woodenworks. Catalog of the exhibition. Foldout. 16 February 1972. 

Institutional Publications 

Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1 970. Volume 1 : 

"Proceedings." xvi+ 170 pages. 23 February 1972. 
1970 Annual Report, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, 1 July 1969 

through 30 June 1970. 89 pages, 16 figures. 28 January 1972. 
Preliminary Guide to the Smithsonian Archives: 125th Anniversary of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 72 pages. September 1971. 
Smithsonian International Exchange Service, 1970 Annual Report. 9 pages. January 

Smithsonian International Exchange Service, 1971 Annual Report. 9 pages. 5 May 

Smithsonian Year 1971: Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for the Year 

Ended 30 June 1971. vi + 247 pages, illustrated. Publication 4767. 27 January 



149. D.R. Stoddart and J.D. Taylor, editors. "Geography and Ecology of Diego 
Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago." 237 pages, 34 figures, 50 plates, 9 tables. 27 
August 1971. 

150. A. Binion Amerson, Jr. "The Natural History of French Frigate Shoals, 
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands." 383 pages, 74 figures, 149 tables. 20 
December 1971. 

Appendix 6 




Office of the Assistant Secretary for Science 

Challinor, David, and David B. Wingate. "The Struggle for Survival of the Bermuda 
Cedar." Biological Conservation, volume 3, number 3 (April 1971), pages 

National Museum of Natural History 


Angel, J. Lawrence. The People of Lerna: Analysis of a Prehistoric Aegean 
Population, xii + 159 pages. American School of Classical Studies of Athens, 
Princeton, New Jersey, and Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 

. "Disease and Culture in the Ancient East Mediterranean." Pages 

503-508, in Anthropological Congress dedicated to AlSs Hrdlicka, 30th August- 
5th September 1969, Praha and Humpolec. Praha: Academia [Publishing House 
of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences], 1971. 

"Early Skeletons from Catai Hiiyiik: Demography and Pathology." 

Anatolian Studies, volume 21 (1971), pages 77-98. 
. "Biological Relations of Egyptian and East Mediterranean Popula- 

tions during Predynastic and Dynastic Times." In Chiarelli, editor, Symposium on 
Population Biology of the Ancient Egyptians. Journal of Human Evolution, 
volume 1, number 3(1972). 
. "Genetic and Social Factors in a Cypriote Village." Human 

Biology, volume 44 (1972), pages 53-80. 
Bass, William M., and Donald J. Ortner, "A Case of Forgery of Indian Artifacts 

Worked Human Bone Tools from Kansas." Kansas Anthropological Association 

Newsletter, volume 16 (1971) pages 1-4. 
Collins, Henry B. "The L'Anse aux Meadows Archaeological Site in Northern 

Newfoundland." National Geographic Society Research Reports, 1961-1962 

Projects (1970), pages 3940. [Not previously reported.] 
"Prehistoric Relations between Japan and the American Arctic: 

Eskimo and Pre-Eskimo." Vllth Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological 

Sciences, Tokyo and Kyoto 1968, volume 3 (1970), pages 358-359. [Not 

previously reported.] 
"Composite Maska: Chinese and Eskimo." Anthropologica, new 

series, volume 13, numbers 1-2 (1971), pages 271-278. 
"Study of the Religious Beliefs of the Canadian Eskimo." National 

Geographic Society Research Reports, 1965 Projects (1971), pages 87-89. 
. . "Eskimo Archaeology." Pages 704-706 in Encyclopaedia 

Britannica, volume 8, Chicago, 1971. 


"Peoples of the Arctic." Pages 345-346 in Encyclopaedia Britan- 

nica, volume 2. Chicago, 1971. 
"Origin and Development of Eskimo Culture." VII Congres 

International des Anthropologiques et Ethnologiques, Moscow 1964, volume 10, 

pages 257-259. [Dated Moscow 1970; received May 1972. Not previously 

Crocker, William H. "The Canela (Brazil) Taboo System: A Preliminary Exploration 

of an Anxiety-reducing Device." Verhandlungen des XXXVIII Internationalen 

Amerikanistenkongr esses, Stuttgart-Munchen 1968, Band 3 (1971), pages 

"Observations Concerning Certain Ramkokamekra-Canela (Brazil) 

Indian Restrictive Taboo Practice." Verhandlungen des XXXVIII Internationalen 

Amerikanistenkongresses, Stuttgart-Munchen 1968, Band 3 (1971), pages 337- 

Evans, Clifford, and Betty J. Meggers. "Introducao." In "Programa Nacional de 

Pesquisas Arqueologicas, Resultados Preliminares do Quarto Ano, 1968-69." 

Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Publicacozes Avulsas, number 15 (1971), pages 

7-9 Belem. 
Ewers. John C. "Bodily Proportions as Guides to Lineal Measurements Among the 

Blackfoot Indians." American Anthropologist, volume 72, number 3 (1970), 

pages 561-562. [Not previously reported.] 
"Jean Louis Berlandier: A French Scientist Among the Wild 

Comanches of Texas in 1828. Pages 290-300, in John Francis Mc Dermott, editor, 

Travelers on the Western Frontier. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970. 

[Not previously reported.] 
"Contraceptive Charms Among the Plains Indian." Plains Anthro- 

pologist, volume 15, number 49 (1970), pages 216-218, 1 plate. [Not previously 
. "A Crow Chiefs Tribute to the Unknown Soldier." The American 

West, volume 8 number 6 (1971), pages 30-35,5 plates. 
, . "Not Quite Red Men: The Plains Indian Illustrations of Felix O.C. 

Darley." The American Art Journal, volume 3, number 2 (Fall), pages 88-98, 16 
"When Red and White Men Met." The Western Historical 

Quarterly, volume 2, number 2 (1971), pages 133-150. 
. "Winold Reiss: His Portraits and Proteges." The Magazine of 

Western History, volume 21, number 3 (1971), pages 44-55, 22 plates. 
. "Indians as Warriors." The American Way, volume 4, number 8 

(1971), pages 20-27, 12 plates. 
. . "The Influence of the Horse in Blackfoot Culture." Pages 252-270, 

in Deward E. Walker, editor, The Emergent Native Americans: A Reader in 
Culture Contact. Boston: Little Brown and Co., 1972. 
. "Folk Art in The Fur Trade of the Upper Missouri." Prologue (The 

National Archives), volume 4, number 2 (June 1972), pages 99-108, 7 plates. 
. "Blackfoot Camp Life." Pages 133-144, in Bruce A. Glasrud and 

Alan H. Smith, editors. Promises to Keep A Portrayal of Nonwhites in the United 

States. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co., 1972. 
Fitzhugh William. "Fife Brook Surveys and Excavations, Upper Deerfield River." 

Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society, volume 33, numbers 1-2 

(1971), pages 21-29. 
. "Environmental Archeology and Cultural Systems in Hamilton 

Inlet, Labrador: A Survey of the Central Labrador Coast from 3000 B.C. to the 


Present." Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, number 16 (1972), xix + 

299 pages, 80 figures, 87 plates, 30 tables. 
Knez, Eugene I. "Ainu." Pages 308-309, in Funk and Wagnalls New Encyclopedia, 

volume 1. New York, 1971. 
Koritzer, Richard T. "Enameloma in a prehistoric Indian skull." American Journal of 

Physical Anthropology 1 , volume 33, number 3 (1970), pages 439441. [Not 

previously reported.] 
"Arthritic changes of temporomandibular joint related to the 

dentition." Georgetown Dental Journal, volume 37, number 1 (1971), pages 

Meggers, Betty J. "Contacts from Asia." Pages 239-259, in Geoffrey Ashe and others, 

The Quest for America. New York: Pall Mall Press, London and Praeger, 1971. 
. Prehistoric America, vii + 200 pages, 100 figures. Chicago: Aldine 

Atherton, 1972. 
Meggers, Betty J., and Clifford Evans. "Especulaciones sobre rutas tempranas de 

difusion de la ceramica entre sur y Mesoamerica." Revista Dominicana de 

Arqueologia y Antropologia, Ano 1, volume 1, number 1, pages, 137-149, 

enero-junio de 1971. 
, contributing editors. "Archaeology: South America." Number 33, 

pages 67-102, in Handbook of Latin American Studies, Gainesville: University of 

Florida Press, 1971. 
Metcalf, George, and Harold Carlson. "An Atlatl Weight from North Dakota." Plains 

Anthropologist, volume 16, number 52 (May 1971), pages 121-122. [Not 

previously reported.] 
Phebus, George E. Jr. Alaskan Eskimo Art in the 1890's as Sketched by Native 

Artists. 168 pages. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1972. 
. "Archeology: Western Hemisphere." Americana Annual (1972), 

pages 100-101. New York. 
Riesenberg, Saul H., editor. A Residence of Eleven Years in New Holland and the 

Caroline Islands, by James F. O'Connell. Pacific History Series number 4, 232 

pages. Canberra: Australian National University Press. 1972. 
Riesenberg, Saul H., and Samuel H. Elbert. "The Poi of the Meeting." The Journal of 

the Polynesian Society, volume 80 (1971), pages 217-227. 
Stewart, T.D. "Use of the Hrdlicka Skeletal Collection in a Museum Presentation of 

the Biology of Man." Pages 17-24 in Anthropological Congress dedicated to Ales 

Hrdlicka, 30th August-5th September 1969, Praha, Humpolec. Praha: Academia 

[Publishing House of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences] , 1971. 
"What the Bones Tell Today." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 

volume 41, number 2 (1972), pages 16-20, 30-31. 
St. Hoyme, Lucile E., and Richard T. Koritzer. "Unusual Dental Pathology in an 

Illinois Indian ca. 500 A.D." Dental Digest, volume 76 (1970), pages 386-387. 

[Not previously reported.] 
Sturtevant, William C. "Traditional Crafts and Art of Northwest Coast Indians." 

Pages 18-21 in 1971 Festival of American Folklife July 1-5, Washington, D.C.: 

Division of Performing Arts, The Smithsonian Institution, 1971. 
. "Notes on the Creek Hothouse." Southern Indian Studies, volume 

20 (1971), pages 3-5. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 
. "A Short History of the Strange Custom of Tattooing." Pages 

1-10, in C.H. Fellowes, editor, Tattoo Book. Princeton: The Pyne Press, 1971. 
"Creek into Seminole." Chapter 4, pages 92-128, in E.B. Leacock 

and N.O. Luire, editors, North American Indians in Historical Perspective. New 
York: Random House, 1971. 

. "Smithsonian Plans New Native American Handbook." The Indian 

Historian, volume 4, number 4 (1972), pages 5-8. San Francisco. 

. "American Indian Religions." 77?^ American Way, volume 5, 

number 2 (1972), pages 28-34. New York. 
. "Studies in Ethnoscience." Pages 129-167, in James P. Spradley, 

editor, Culture and Cognition: Rules, Maps, and Plans. San Francisco: Chandler 

Publishing Co., 1972. [Reprinted from American Anthropologist, volume 66, 

number 3, part 2 (1964), pages 99-1 31.] 
Trousdale, William B. "Iranian Culture Continuum in the Himalaya." Paper presented 

at the 28th International Congress of Orientalists, Canberra, 1971. 
Ubelaker, Douglas, H. "The Dentition." Appendix 1 in Bass, Evans, and Jantz, "An 

Analysis of the Leavenworth Site, 39C09, Carson County, South Dakota." The 

University of Kansas, Publication Series in Anthropology, number 2 (1971). 
"The Human Dentition." Chapter 4, in William M. Bass, editor, 

Human Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual of the Human Skeleton. 

Columbia: Special Publications, Missouri Archaeological Society, 1971. 


Ayensu, Edward S. Anatomy of the Monocotyledons: Dioscoreales. Oxford: 

Clarendon Press, 1972. 
_, "Morphology and Anatomy of Synsepalum dulcificum 

(Sapotaceae)." Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, volume 65, number 2 

(1972), pages 179-187. 
. . "The Need for Training in Technological Management in develop- 

ing Countries-Ghana, A Case in Point." Journal of the Washington Academy of 

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"Parmelia squarrosa, a New Species in Section Parmelia. " 

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King, R.M., and H. Robinson. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). XXXVI. A 
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. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). XXXVII. The Genus, 

Hebeclinium. "Phytologia, volume 21 (1971), pages 298-301. 

. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). XXXVIII. A New Genus, 

Pet eravenia." Phytologia, volume 21 (1971), pages 394-395. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). XXXIX. A New Genus, 

Guayania. "Phytologia, volume 21 (1971), pages 302-303. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). XI. The Genus, 

Urolepis. "Phytologia, volume 21 (1971), pages 304-305. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). XLI. The Genus 

Eupatoriastrum." Phytologia, volume 21 (1971), pages 306-307. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). XLII. A New Genus, 

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Antillia." Phytologia, volume 21 (1971), pages 398-399. 
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Radlkoferotoma." Phytologia, volume 21 (1971), pages 400-401. 
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Standleyanthus." Phytologia, volume 22 (1971), pages 4142. 
"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). XL VII. A New Genus, 

Steyermarkina. "Phytologia, volume 22 (1971), pages 43-55. 
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Critonia. "Phytologia, volume 22 (1971), pages 46-51. 
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Critoniadelphus. "Phytologia, volume 22 (1971), pages 52-5 3. 
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Urbananthus. " Phytologia, volume 22 ( 1 97 1 ), pages 54-55. 
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Symphyopappus. "Phytologia, volume 22 (1971), pages 1 15-117. 
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Disynaphia. "Phytologia, volume 22 (1971), pages 123-125. 
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Gyptidium. "Phytologia, volume 23 (1972), pages 310-31 1. 
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Jones, Clyde. "Notes on the Anomalurids of Rio Muni and Adjacent Areas." Journal 
of Mammalogy , volume 52 (1971), pages 568-572. 

. "Natural Diets of Wild Primates." Pages 58-77, in R. N. T-W. 

Fiennes, editor. Pathology of Simian Primates, Part I: General Pathology. Basel: 
S. Karger, 1972. 

. "Observations on Dental Deposits and Deficiencies of Wild 

Talapoin Monkeys (Cercopithecus talapoinj Collected in Rio Muni, West Africa." 

Laboratory Primate Newsletter, number 1 1 (1972), pages 28-34. 
Jones Clyde, and J. Paradiso. "Mammals Imported into the United States in 1969." 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Sport 

Fisheries and Wildlife, Special Scientific Report -Wildlife, number 147 (1972), ii 

+ 33 pages. 
Jones, Clyde, and R. Suttkus. "Notes on Netting Bats for Eleven Years in Western 

New Mexico." Southwestern Naturalist, volume 16 (1972), pages 261-266. 
"Wing Loading in Plecotus rafinesquii." Journal of Mammalogy, 

volume 52, pages 458-460. 
Lachner, Ernest A. "Proposed Suppression Under the Plenary Powers of Two Nomina 

Oblita in the Family Echeneididae (Pisces)." Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 

volume 28, parts 5/6 (December 1971), pages 168-170. 
Lachner, Ernest A., and Robert E. Jenkins. "Systematics, Distribution, and Evolution 

of the Chub Genus Nocomis Girard (Pisces: Cyprirudae) of the Eastern United 

States, with Descriptions of New Species." Smithsonian Contributions to 

Zoology, number 85 (17 August 1971), 97 pages, 30 figures, 27 tables. 
"Systematics, Distribution, and Evolution of the Nocomis 

biguttatus Species Group (Family Cyprinidae: Pisces) with a Description of a New 

Species from the Ozark Upland." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 

91 (6 October 1971), 28 pages, 8 figures, 9 tables. 
Lachner, Ernest A., and Martin L. Wiley. "Populations of the Polytypic Species 

Nocomis leptocephalus (Girard) with a Description of a New Subspecies." 

Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 92 (12 November 1971), 35 

pages, 4 figures, 15 tables. 
Locke, Louis N., and Richard C. Banks. "Avian Cholera in Cedar Waxwings in Ohio." 

Journal of Wildlife Diseases, volume 8 (1972), page 106. 
Manville, Richard H. (Anon.) "Kellogg Memorial Fund." Journal of Mammalogy, 

volume 52, number 1 , page 258. 
"Malcolm Davis (1899-1970)." [Obituary.] Auk, volume 88, 

number 4, pages 962-963. 
"Study Shows Sea Harvest Conducted in Humane Manner." The 

Wildlife Society News, number 137, page 72. 
Olson, Storrs L. "Two Vagrants to Ascension Island." Bulletin of the British 

Ornithologists' Club, volume 91 (1971), pages 90-92. 
. "Taxonomic Comments on the Eurylaimidae." Ibis, volume 113 

(1971), pages 507-516. 

. "The Ascension Island Rail." Lecture. American Ornithologists' 

Union, Seattle, Washington, September 1971. 
. "The Extinct Avifauna of St. Helena." Lecture. Society of 

Vertebrate Paleontology, Washington, D.C., November 1971. 
"The Evolution of the Rails of the South Atlantic Islands." 

Lecture. Cooper Ornithological Society, Las Cruces, New Mexico, April 1972. 
Paradiso, John L. "A New Subspecies of Cynoptems sphinx (Chiroptera: Ptero- 

podidae) from Serasan (South Natuna) Island, Indonesia." Proceedings of the 

Biological Society of Washington, volume 84 (1971), pages 293-300. 
. "Status Report on Cats (Felidae) of the World, 1971." U.S. 

Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Sport Fisheries 

and Wildlife, Special Scientific Report -Wildlife, number 157. 
Paradiso, John L., and R. Nowak. " A Report on the Taxonomic Status and 

Distribution of the Red Wolf." U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife 

Service, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Special Scientific Report - 

Wildlife, number 145, (1972), ii + 36 pages. 
Paradiso, John, and R. Nowak. "Taxonomic Status of the Sonoran Pronghorn." 

Journal of Mammalogy , volume 52, number 4 (1971), pages 855-858. 
Peters, James A. "A New Approach in the Analysis of Biogeographic Data." 

Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 107 (21 October 1971), pages 

1-28, 15 figures. 2 tables. 
"The Computer and the Collection-at-Large." Curator, volume 13, 

number 4 (1970 [ 19721 ), pages 263-267. 
. "Biostatistical Programs in BASIC Language for Time-shared 

Computers: Coordinated with the Book 'Quantitative Zoology'." Smithsonian 
Contributions to Zoology, number 69 (reprinted 1 March 1972, original 10 March 
1971), pages 146. 
"Career Opportunities for the Evolutionist." Society for the Study 

of Evolution, 1971, pages \A. 
"Time-shared Computer Programming." Two lectures. Smithsonian 

Institution, Washington, D.C. 5 and 6 July 1971. 
. "Computer Use in the Systematics Laboratory." Lecture. Univer- 

sity of Kansas, Lawrence, 1 February 1972. 
Peters, James A., and Julie Booth. "Behavioral Studies on the Green Turtle, Chelonia 

mydas, in the Sea." Lecture. American Association for the Advancement of 

Science, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 29 December 1971. 
Peterson, Roger T., and George E. Watson. "Franklin's Gull and Bridled Tern in 

Southern Chile."/!?/*:, volume 88, number 3 (1 July 1971), pages 670-671. 
Pine, Ronald H. "A Review of the Long- Whiskered Rice Rat, Oryzomys bombycinus 

Goldman." Journal of Mammalogy , volume 52, number 3 (1971), pages 590-596. 
Pine, Ronald H., Dilford C. Carter, and Richard K. LaVal. "Status of Bauerus Van 

Gelder and its Relationships to Other Nyctophiline Bats." Journal of Mammalogy , 

volume 52, number 4 (1971), pages 663-669. 
Ripley, S. Dillon. "Umweltprobleme in Amerika: Ein Paradigma?" Schweitzer 

Monatshefte, volume 50, number 6 (September 1970), pages 508-511. [Not 

previously reported.] 
"Conservation Comes of Age." American Scientist, volume 59, 

number 5 (September-October 1971), pages 529-531. 
. "Extinction's Tide and the Ripples and Eddies of Hope." 

Smithsonian, volume 2, number 11 (February 1972), pages 20-26. 
Ripley, S. Dillon, and Gorman M. Bond. "Systematic Notes on a Collection of Birds 
from Kenya." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 111 (16 November 
1971), 21 pages, 1 figure. 


Setzer, Henry W. "New Bats of the Genus Laephotis from Africa (Mammalia: 

Chiroptera)." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 84, 

number 32, pages 259-264. 
Setzer, Henry W., and Gary L. Ranck. "A New Gerbil (Genus Gerbillus) from the 

Chad." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 84 3 number 

7 (30 June 1971), pages 55-58. 
Schlitter, Duane A., and Henry W. Setzer. "A New Species of Short-tailed Gerbil 

(Dipodillus) from Morocco (Mammalia: Cricetidae: Gerbillinae)." Proceedings of 

the Biological Society of Washington, volume 84, number 45 (29 February 1972), 

pages 385-392. 
Solomon, G.B., and CO. Handley, Jr. "Capillaria hepatica (Bancroft, 1893) in 

Appalachian Mammals." Journal of Parasitology, volume 57 (1971), pages 

Springer, Victor G., and William F. Smith-Vaniz. "Mimetic Relationships Involving 

Fishes of the Family Blenniidae." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 

1 12 (2 February 1972), 36 pages, 4 figures, 7 plates. 
"A New Tribe (Phenablenniini) and Genus (Phenablennius) of 

Blenniid Fishes Based on Petroscirtes heyligeri Bleeker." Copeia, number 1 

(1970), pages 64-71. 
Thorington, Richard W., Jr. "Survey of Nonhuman Primates Being Maintained on 1 

January 1971." ILAR News, volume 15, number 1 (1971), pages 7-10. 
"The Identification of Primates Used in Viral Research." Labora- 
tory Animal Science, volume 21, number 6 (1971), pages 1074-1077. 
"Censusing Wild Populations of South American Monkeys." In 

"Second International Symposium on Health Aspects of the International 
Movement of Animals." Pan American Health Organization Scientific Publication, 
number 235 (1972), pages 26-32. 
"Importation, Breeding, and Mortality of New World Primates in 

the United States." International Zoo Yearbook, volume 12 (1972), pages 18-23. 
'Rhesus Monkeys for Dissection." Carolina Tips, volume 35, (1 

June 1972), pages 21-22. 

Tuck, Robert G., Jr. "Rediscovery and Redescription of the Khuzistan Dwarf 
Gecko, Microgecko helenae Nikolsky (Sauria: Gekkonidae)." Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington, volume 83, number 42 (9 February 1971), 
pages 477482, 3 figures. 

"Amphibians and Reptiles from Iran in the United States National 

Museum Collection." Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society, volume 7, 
number 3 (September 1971), pages 48-86, 9 figures, 23 maps, 1 table. 

"The Snakes of Southern Maryland." Lecture. Southern Maryland 

Audubon Society, La Plata, Maryland, 4 April 1972. 

Tuck, Robert G., Jr., M. Kathleen Klimkiewicz, and Kay G. Ferris. "Notes on Pilot 
Blacksnake (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta) (Serpentes: Colubridae) Eggs and 
Hatchlings." Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society, volume 7, number 
4 (December 1971), pages 96-99, 1 table. 

Watson, George E. "Diomedea leptorhyncha Coues, 1966 (Aves): Proposed Sup- 
pression Under the Plenary Powers." Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 
volume 28, page 106. 

"Slender-billed Gull Larus genei at Lake Manyara, Tanzania." 

Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Qub, volume 91, number 6 (20 December 
1971), page 167. 

. Eudyptes sclateri Buller, 1888, and Eudyptes robustus Oliver, 

1963 (Aves, Spheniscidae): Proposed Preservation Under the Plenary Powers." 


Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 28, parts 3/4 (December 1971), 

pages 92-93. 
Watson, George E., and George J. Divoky. "Identification of Diomedea leptorhyncha 

Coues 1966, An Albatross with Remarkably Small Salt Glands." The Condor, 

volume 73, number 4 (Winter, 1971), pages 487-489. 
Watson, George E., J. Phillip Angle, Peter C. Harper, Margaret A. Bridge, Roberto P. 

Schlatter, W.L. N. Tickell, John C. Boyd, and Maria M. Boyd. "Birds of the 

Antarctic and Subantarctic." Antarctic Map Folio Series, Vivian C. Bushnell, 

editor, number 14, pages 1-18, 1 plate, 39 maps. 
Wilson, D., and J. Findley. "Randomness in Bat Homing." American Naturalist, 

volume 106, pages 41 8424. 
Weitzman, Stanley H., and William L. Fink. "A New Species of Characid Fish of the 

Genus Nematobrycon from the Rio Calima of Colombia (Pisces, Characoidei, 

Characidae)." Beaufortia, volume 19, number 248 (27 July 1971), pages 57-77 . 
Zug, George R. "Buoyancy, Locomotion, Morphology of the Pelvic Girdle and 

Hindlimbs and Systematics of Crypotodiran Turtles." Miscellaneous Publications, 

Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, number 142 (1971), pages 1-98. 
"American Musk Turtles, Sternothaerus or Sternotherus. " 

Herpetologica, volume 27, number 4 (1971), pages 446-449. 
"Frog Locomotion and Morphology." Lecture. Wildlife Labora- 

tory, D.A.S.F., Moitaka, Papua-New Guinea, January 1972. 
Zug, George R., and A. Schwartz. "Deirochelys, D. reticularia. " Catalogue of 
American Amphibians and Reptiles, number 107 (1971), pages 1-3. 

National Air and Space Museum 

Casey, Louis S. "Introduction" In Mohler and Johnson, Wiley Post, His Winnie Mae, 
and the World's First Pressure Suit." Smithsonian Annals of Flight, number 8 
(22 November 1971), vii + 127 pages, 139 Figures. 

Mikesh, Robert C. Aircraft in Museums Around the World. Sections 1 and 2. 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

Ahmad, I. A., and W.A. Deutschman. "Ultraviolet Photometry of the Moon with the 

Celescope Experiment on the OAO-II." Presented at the Orbiting Astronomical 

Observatory Symposium, Amherst, Massachusetts, August 1971. 
Allison, A.C. "Spin-Change Frequency Shifts in H-H Collisions." Physical Review A, 

volume 5 (1972), pages 2695-2696. 
"The Calculation of Absorption and Elastic Cross Sections Using 

the Optical Potential." Computer Physics Communications, volume 3 (1972), 

pages 173-179. 
Allison, A.C, and A. Dalgarno. "Continuity at the Dissociation Threshold in 

Molecular Absorption." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 55 (1971), pages 

"Rotational Excitation of CN by Electron Impact." Astronomy 

and Astrophysics, volume 13 (1971), pages 331-332. 
Allison, A.C, A. Dalgarno, and N.W. Pasachoff. "Absorption by Vibrationally 

Excited Molecular Oxygen in the Schumann-Runge Continuum." Planetary and 

Space Science, volume 19 (1971), pages 1463-1473. 


Allison, A.C., and F. J. Smith. "Transport Properties of Atomic Hydrogen." Atomic 

Data, volume 3 (1971), pages 317-321. 
Avrett, E.H., and R. Loeser, "Radiative Transfer in Two-Component Stellar 

Atmospheres." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 

volume 11 (1971), pages 559-571. 
Baker, B.H., P.A. Mohr, and L.A.J. Williams. "Geology of the Eastern Rift System." 

The Geological Society of America Special Paper, number 136 (1972), 67 pages. 
Bottcher, C, A.C. Allison, and A. Dalgarno. "Potential Curves for Nat and 

Resonnance Charge Transfer Cross-Sections." Chemical Physics Letters, volume 

11 (1971), pages 307-309. 
Dalgarno, A., and G.W.F. Drake. "An Energy Maximization Method for Autoionizing 

States." Chemical Physics Letters, volume 11 (1971), pages 509-511. 
D'Amico, J., J. DeFelice, E.L. Fireman, C. Jones, and G. Spannagel. "Tritium and 

Argon Radioactivities and Their Depth Variations in Apollo Samples." Pages 

1825-1839, in Proceedings of the 2nd Lunar Science Conference, Geochimica et 

Cosmochimica Acta, volume 2. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1971. 
Davis, R.J. "The Celescope Catalog of Ultraviolet Observations." Presented at the 

Orbiting Astronomical Observatory Symposium, Amherst, Massachusetts, August 

. "New Astronomy Space Experiments with Television Scanning." 

Presented at the International Conference, Space Applications of Television 

Tubes, Paris, November 1 97 1 . 
Davis, R.J., W.A. Deutschman, C.A. Lundquist, Y. Nozawa, and S.D. Bass. 

"Ultraviolet Television Data from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory, I: 

Instrumentation and Analysis Techniques for the Celescope Experiment." 

Presented at the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory Symposium, Amherst, 

Massachusetts, August 1971. 
Decker, R.W., P. Einarsson, and P.A. Mohr. "Rifting in Iceland: New Geodetic Data." 

Science, volume 173 (1971), pages 530-533. 
Deutschman, W.A. "A Calibration Model for a Stellar Photometer Using a SEC 

Vidicon." Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, volume 84 

(1972), pages 123-126. 
"Ultraviolet Photometry of the Moon with the Celescope 

Experiment on the OAO-II." Presented at the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 

Symposium, Amherst, Massachusetts, August 1971. 

"Orbital Operation and Calibration of SEC Vidicons in the 

Celescope Experiment." Presented at the Fifth Symposium on Photo-Electronic 

Image Devices, London, September 1971. 
Deutschman, W.A., and C.A. Lundquist. "A Search for the Pulsar Centaurus X-3 with 

the Celescope Experiment on OAO 2." Presented at the 15th International 

COSPAR Meeting, Madrid, May 1972. 
Esposito, R., and M.D. Grossi. "Channel Characterization for Digital Communica- 
tions in Ground-to-Space HF Paths." Presented at the 11th Technical Meeting of 

the Joint Satellite Studies Group, Florence, October 1971. 
Fazio, G.G., P. Albats, S.E. Ball, J.P. Delvaille, K.I. Greisen, D.K. Koch, B. McBreen, 

D.R. Hearn, and H.F. Helmken. "A Large Area Gas-Cerenkov Telescope for 

High-Energy Gamma -Ray Astronomy." Nuclear Instruments and Methods, 

volume 95 (1971), pages 189-194. 
Fazio, G.G., H.F. Helmken, E. O'Mongain, G.H. Rieke, and T.C. Weekes. "A Search 

for 10 1 1 to 10 12 -eV Gamma Rays from Discrete Soruces." Pages 1697- 1702, in 

Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Cosmic Rays, volume 5. 

Hobart, Tasmania: University of Tasmania, 1971. 
Fireman, E.L., J. D'Amico, J. DeFelice, and G. Spannagel. "Radioactivities in 

Returned Lunar Material." Presented at the 3rd Lunar Science Conference, 

Houston, Texas, January 1972. 


Fireman, E.L., and G. Spannagel. "Fresh Meteorites in 1970 and the Cosmic-Ray 

Gradient." Chemie der Erde, volume 30 (1971), numbers 1/4. 
Flannery, M.R. "The Binary -Encounter Theory for a General Interaction." Journal of 

Physics B, volume 4 (1971), pages 892-895. 
"Excitation and Ionization of Hydrogen by Hydrogen Atom 

Impact." Canadian Journal of Physics, volume 50 (1972), pages 61-64. 
Franklin, F.A., G. Colombo, and A.F. Cook. "A Dynamical Model for the Radial 

Structure of Saturn's Rings. II." Icarus, volume 15 (1971), pages 80-92. 
Gaposchkin, E.M. "Ephemeris Calculation for Geos C." Presented at the Sea Surface 

Topography Conference, Miami, Florida, October 1971. 
Gaposchkin, E.M., and K. Lambeck. "The Earth's Gravity Field to 16th Degree and 

Station Coordinates from Satellite and Terrestrial Data." Journal of Geophysical 

Research, volume 76 (1971), pages 4855-4883. 
Gaposchkin, E.M., G. Veis, Y. Kozai, and G.C. Weif f enbach . "Geodetic Studies at the 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory." Presented at the International Union of 

Geodesy and Geophysics Conference, Moscow, August 1971. 
Giacaglia, G.E.O., and C.A. Lundquist. "Sampling Functions as an Alternative to 

Spherical Harmonics." Pages 149-153, in S. Yumi, editor, Rotation of the Earth, 

Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 48. Sendai, 

Japan: Sasaki Printing and Publishing Company, 1972. 
Gingerich, O. "Apianus's Astronomicum Caesaieum and its Leipzig Facsimile." 

Journal for the History of Astronomy , volume 2 (1971), pages 168-177. 
. "Kepler and the Rudolphine Tables." Sky and Telescope, volume 

42(1971), pages 1-8. 

'Kepler's Treatment of Redundant Observations or, The Computer 

Versus Kepler Revisited." Presented at International Kepler Symposium, Weil de 

Stadt, 1971. 
Gingerich, O., R.W. Noyes, W. Kalkofen, and Y. Cuny. "The Harvard-Smithsonian 

Reference Atmosphere." Solar Physics, volume 18 (1971), pages 347-365. 
Grindlay, J.E. "Possible Evidence for Pulsed 10 12 eV Gamma Rays from NP0532." 

Nature (Physical Science), volume 234 (1971), pages 153-155. 
"New Studies of EAS and Cosmic-Ray Composition at Energies 3 

X 10 eV." Presented at the 12th International Conference on Cosmic Rays, 

Hobart, Tasmania, August 1971. 
"Detection of Pulsed Gamma Rays of 10 1 eV from the Pulsar in 

the Crab Nebula." Astrophysical Journal Letters, volume 174 (1972), pages 

Grindlay, J.E., and J. A. Hoffman. "Compton-Synchrotron Spectrum of the Crab 

Nebula with the Pulsar Magnetic Field." Astrophysical Letters, volume 8 (1971), 

pages 209-213. 
Grossi, M.D. "Radio Communications and Wind Measures by Meteor Trail Forward 

Scattering." Presented at the 23rd International Science Conference, Pakistan 

Association for the Advancement of Science, Peshawar, West Pakistan, September 

"Comparative Analysis of the Results of Two Recent Experiments 

of HF Magnetoconjugate Propagation." Presented at USNC/URSI Spring Meeting, 

Washington, D.C., April 1972. 

'ULF Propagation Experiments." Presented at the 2nd Conference 

on sub-LF Downlink Satellite Communications, Washington, D.C., June 1972. 
Grossi, M.D., H.T. Chang, R.K. Cross, and J.V. Harrington. "Propagation of e.m. 

Waves at Subhertz Frequencies in the Earth Crust Waveguide." Presented at the 

Navy Long Radio Wave Propagation Symposium, Washington, D.C., April 1972. 
Grossi, M.D., R.B. Southworth, and S.K. Rosenthal. "Radar Observations of Meteor 

Winds above Illinois." Pages 205-208, in W.L. Webb, editor, Thermospheric 

Circulation. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1972. 
Hall, D.N.B., R.W. Noyes, and T.R. Ayres. "The Identification of 13 C 16 in the 

Infrared Sunspot Spectrum and the Determination of the Solar C/ C 

Abundance Ratio." Astrophysical Journal, volume 171 (1972), pages 615-620. 


Haramundanis, K. "The Construction and Documentation of the Celescope Catalog." 
Presented at the International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 50, 
Argentina, October 1971. 

Hawkins, G.S. "Micrometeorite and Cosmic Dust Data Near the Earth's Orbit." 
Presented at the 15th International COSPAR Meeting, Madrid, May 1972. 

Hegyi, D.J., W.A. Traub, and N.P. Carleton. "Cosmic Background Radiation at 1.32 
mm." Physical Review Letters, volume 28 (1972), pages 1541-1544. 

Helmken, H.F., and J. A. Hoffman. "Gas-Cerenkov Detector for Gamma-Ray 
Astronomy." Presented at the 12th International Conference on Cosmic Rays, 
Hobart, Tasmania, August 1971. 

Hodge, P.W. "The Population I Content of the Elliptical Companions of M31." Pages 
4647, in D.S. Evans, editor, "External Galaxies and Quasi-Stellar Sources," of 
Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 44. 
Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1972. 

. "Dwarf Galaxies." Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astro- 
physics, volume 9 (1971), pages 35-66. 

Hodge, P.W., D. E. Brownlee, and W. Bucher. "Micrometeoroid Flux from Surveyor 
Glass Surfaces," Pages 2781-2789, in Proceedings of the 2nd Lunar Science 
Conference, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, volume 3. Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts: MIT Press, 1971. 

Hodge, P.W., W. Porch, E. Mannery, and R. Charlson. "Use of Astronomical 
Telescopes to Measure Background Aerosol Pollution." Nature, volume 233 
(1971), page 326. 

Hodge, P.W., and F.W. Wright. "Dust Fall Measures-An Arctic Clean Air Baseline." 
Project ASTRA Publication Number 5 (1972). 

"A Study of the Meteoritic Particles in the Soil Surrounding the 

Henbury Meteorite Craters." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 76 (1971), 

pages 3880-3895. 
"Summary of a 10-year High Altitude Atmospheric Dust Collect- 

ing Program." Project ASTRA Publication Number 7 (1971). 
"Note on LMC Variable Stars" In L. Detre and B. Szeidl, editors, 

Commission 27 of the International Astronomical Union Information Bulletin on 

Variable Stars, number 590, pages 1-8. 
Horowitz, P., C. Papaliolios, and N. Carleton. "Stability of the Crab Pulsar." 

Astrophysical Journal, volume 172 (1972), pages L51-L54. 
Hummer, D.G., and G. Rybicki. "Formation of Spectral Lines." Annual Reviews of 

Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 9 (1971). pages 237-270. 
Jacchia, L. "Semi-Annual Variation in the Heterosphere: A Reappraisal." Journal of 

Geophysical Research, volume 76 (1971), pages 4602-4607. 
Jacchia, L.G., and J.W. Slowey. "A Study of the Variations in the Thermosphere 

Related to Solar Activity." Presented at the 15th International COSPAR Meeting, 

Madrid, May 1972. 
Jura, M., and A. Dalgarno. "Time-Dependent Models of the Interstellar Gas." 

Astrophysical Journal, volume 174, number 2 (1972), pages 141-143. 
Kalaghan, P.M., and A. Dalgarno. "Hyperfine Structure of the Molecular Ion H^." 

Physics Letters A, volume 33 (1972), pages 485-486. 
Kirshner, R.P., and R.W. Noyes. "Extreme Ultraviolet Observations of a Surge." 

Solar Physics, volume 20 (1971), pages 428437. 
Kleinmann, D.E.. E. Becklin, J.A. Frogel, G. Neugebauer, E. Ney, and D. Stecker. 

"Infrared Observations of the Core of Centaurus A, NGC 5128." Astrophysical 

Journal Letters, volume 170 (1971), page LI 5. 
Kleinmann, D.E., J.A. Frogel, and S.E. Persson. "Infrared Observations of the Small 

H II Region Sh 266." Astrophysical Letters, volume 1 1 (1972), page 95. 
Lecar, M., editor. "The Gravitational N-Body Problem." in Proceedings of the 10th 

International Astronomical Union Colloquium, Astrophysics and Space Science, 

volume 13. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1972. 


Lehr, C.G., M.R. Pearlman, G.M. Mendes, and C. Tsiang. "The Laser Network of the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory." Presented at the XV th General As- 
sembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, Moscow, August 

Levine, M. "Measurement of the Gravitational Redshift Using a Clock in an Orbiting 
Satellite." In R.W. Davies, editor, "Proceedings of the Conference on Experi- 
mental Tests of Gravitational Theories," Jet Propulsion Laboratory Report 
33-499, 1971. 

"Recent Developments Affecting the Hydrogen Maser as a 

Frequency Standard." In D.N. Langenberg and B.N. Taylor, editors, "Precision 
Measurement and Fundamental Constants," National Bureau of Standards Special 
Publication No. 343. Washington, D.C.: National Bureau of Standards, 1971. 

Levy, H., II. "Normal Atmosphere: Large Radical and Formaldehyde Concentrations 
Predicted." Science, volume 173 (1971), pages 141-143. 

Litvak, M. "Masers and Optical Pumping." Presented at the National Radio 
Astronomy Observatory Symposium on Interstellar Molecules, Charlottesville, 
Virginia, October 1971. 

Lundquist, C.W., W.A. Deutschman, and R.E. Young, "Digital Processing Techniques 
Used in Determining Stellar Ultraviolet Magnitudes from OAO-Celescope Image 
Data." Presented at the Symposium on Processing of Telescopic Images, Quebec, 
October 1971. 

Lundquist, C.A., and G.E.O. Giacaglia. "Use of Altimetry Data in a Sampling 
Function Approach to the Geoid." Presented at the Sea Surface Topography 
Conference, Miami, Florida, October 1971 . 

Marsden, B.G. "Annual Report of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams." 
International Astronomical Union Information Bulletin No. 26. (1971), pages 4-6. 

. "Letter to the Editor." Monthly Notes of the Astronomical 

Society of Southern Africa, volume 30 (1971), page 96. 

"On Choosing a Comet." Proceedings of the Cometary Science 

Working Group, Yerkes Observatory (1971), pages 110-113. 

'Report of Meeting of Commission 6." Transactions of the 

International Astronomical Union, volume 14B (1971), page 90. 

"Reports on Progress in Astronomy: Comets in 1970." Quarterly 

Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, volume 12 (1971), pages 244-273. 
. "Catalogue of Cometary Orbits." International Astronomical 

Union Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, Cambridge, Massachusetts 
(1972), 70 pages. 
"Evolution of Comets into Asteroids?" International Astronomical 

Union Colloquium No. 12 (1972), pages 413421. 
. "Frost, Edwin Brant." Dictionary of Scientific Biography, volume 

5 (1972), page 199. 
"Gould, Benjamin Apthorp." Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 

volume 5 (1972), pages479480. 

. "Letter to the Editor." New Scientist, volume 53 (1972), page 


page 224. 

"Letter to the Editor." Sky and Telescope, volume 43 (1972), 

"Precision of Ephemerides for Space Missions." International 

Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 12 (1972), pages 639-642. 
Marsden, B.G., T. Gehrels, and E. Roemer. "Minor Planets and Related Objects. VII. 

Asteroid 1971 FA." Astronomical Journal, volume 76 (197 1), pages 607-608. 
Marsden, B.G., and Z. Sekanina. "Comets and Nongravitational Forces. IV." 

Astronomical Journal, volume 76 (1971), pages 1135-1151. 
Marvin, U.B. "Lunar Niobian Rutile." Earth and Planetary Science Letters, volume 

11 (1971), pages 7-9. 
Marvin, U.B., and G.J. Taylor. "Indications of Lunar Peridotite." Presented at the 

34th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, Tubingen, August 1971. 


Marvin, U.B., J.A. Wood, G.J. Taylor, J.B. Reid, Jr., B.N. Powell, J.S. Dickey, and 
J.F. Bower. "Relative Proportions and Probable Sources of Rock Fragments in 
the Apollo 12 Soil Samples." Pages 679-699, in Proceedings of the 2nd Lunar 
Science Conference, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, volume 1 . Cambridge, 
Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1971. 

Megrue, G.H. "Search for Gas-Rich Meteorites." Presented at the 34th Annual 
Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, Tubingen, August 1971. 

Megrue, G.H., and F. Steinbrunn. "Classification and Source of Lunar Soil; Clastic 
Rocks; and Individual Mineral, Rock, and Glass Fragments from Apollo 12 and 14 
Samples as Determined by the Concentration Gradients of the Helium, Neon, and 
Argon Isotopes." Presented at the 3rd Lunar Science Conference, Houston, Texas, 
January 1972. 

Menzel, D.H. "The History of Astronomical Spectroscopy, 1: Qualitative Chemical 
Analysis and Radial Velocities." Presented at the International Conference on 
Education in and History of Modern Astronomy, New York, August 1971. 

. "The History of Astronomical Spectroscopy, 2: Quantitative 

Chemical Analysis and the Structure of the Solar Atmosphere." Presented at the 
International Conference on Education in and History of Modern Astronomy, 
New York, August 1971. 

Menzel, D.H., M. Minnaert, B. Levin, and B. Bell. "Report on Lunar Nomenclature 
by the Working Group of Commission 17 of the International Astronomical 
Union." Space Science Reviews, volume 12 (1971), pages 136-186. 

Mertz, L. "Analysis of Telescope Costs." Presented at the Orbiting Astronomical 
Observatory Symposium, Amherst, Massachusetts, August 1971. 

. "Fourier Reconstruction for the Rotation Collimator." Presented 

at the Symposium on Processing of Telescopic Images, Quebec, October 1971. 

Michael, W.H., Jr., D.L. Cain, G. Fjeldbo, G.F. Levy, J.G. Davies, M.D. Grossi, I.I. 
Shapiro, and G.L. Taylor. "Radio Science Experiments: The Viking Mars Orbiter 
and Lander." Icarus, volume 16 (1972), pages 57-73. 

Mohr, P.A. "The Ethiopian Triple-Rift Junction in Terms of Plate Tectonics." 
Bulletin of the Geophysical Observatory of Addis Ababa, number 13 (1971), 
pages 1-17. 

"Smithsonian Geodimeter Survey." Bulletin of the Geophysical 

Observatory of Addis Ababa, number 13 (1971), page 121. 

"Outline Tectonics of Ethiopia." Earth Sciences, volume 6 (1971), 

pages 447-458. 

"Regional Significance of Volcanic Geochemistry in the Afar 

Triple Junction Ethiopia." Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, volume 

83 (1972), pages 213-222. 
Moran, J. "Some Characteristics of an Operational System for Measuring UT-1 Using 

Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI)." Presented at the 15th International 

COSPAR Meeting, Madrid, May 1972. 
Noyes, R.W. "models of the Quiet and Active Atmosphere from Harvard OSO Data." 

Pages 192-218, in C.J. Macris, editor, Physics of the Solar Corona. Dordrecht, 

Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1971. 
. "Solar Astronomy from Space." Astronautics and Aeronautics, 

volume 9 (1971), pages 18-24. 

"Ultraviolet Studies of the Solar Atmosphere. "Annual R eviews of 

Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 9 (1971), pages 209-236. 
Nozawa, Y. "Engineering Aspects of Uvicon/Celescope System." Presented at the 

International Conference, Space Applications of Television Tubes, Paris, 

November 1971. 
Parsons, S. "Comparison of Celescope Magnitudes with Model Atmosphere Fluxes for 

A, F, and G Supergiants." Presented at the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 

Symposium, Amherst, Massachusetts, August 1971. 
Payne-Gaposchkin, C. "Comparison of the Cepheid Variables in the Magellanic 

Clouds and the Galaxy." Pages 34-46, in A.B. Muller, editor, The Magellanic 

Clouds. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1971. 


Peytremann, E. "Theoretical Effect on Various Broadening Parameters on Ultraviolet 

Line Profiles." Presented at the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory Symposium, 

Amherst, Massachusetts, August 1971. 
Peytremann, E., and R.J. Davis. "Stellar Ultraviolet Colors and Interstellar 

Extinction." Presented at the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory Symposium, 

Amherst , Massachusetts, August 1 97 1 . 
Radford, H.E. "Remeasurement of the Rest Frequency of the 36-cm Radio Line of 

Methanol." Astrophysical Journal, volume 174 (1972), pages 207-208. 
Reeves, E.M., M.C.E. Huber, G.L. Withbroe, and R.W. Noyes. "Real-time Control of 

an Orbiting Solar Observatory." Pages 336-347, in F. Labuhn and R. Lust, 

editors, New Techniques in Space Astronomy , Proceedings of the International 

Astronomical Union Symposium No. 41. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publish- 
ing Company, 1971. 
Reid, J.B., Jr., G.J. Taylor, U.B. Marvin, and J. A. Wood. "Luna 16: Relative 

Proportions and Petrologic Significance of Particles in the Soil from Mare 

Fecunditatis." Earth and Planetary Science Letters, number 13 (1972), pages 

Rybicki, G. "Relaxation Times in Strictly Disk Systems." Astrophysics and Space 

Science, volume 4, number 2 (1971). 
Salisbury, W., and D. Fernald. "Post-Occultation Reception of Lunar Ship Endeavour 

Radio Transmission." Nature, volume 234 (1971), page 95. 
Sando, K.M. "The Emission of Radiation Near 600 A by Helium" Molecular Physics, 

volume 21 (1971), pages 439447. 
Schild, R., and F. Chaffee. "Energy Distributions and Spectra of Orion B Stars." 

Astrophysical Journal, volume 169 (1971), pages 529-536. 
Schild, R., and J. Oke. "Energy Distributions and K Corrections for the Total Light 

from Giant Elliptical Galaxies." Astrophysical Journal, volume 169 (1971), pages 

Simon, G.W., and R.W. Noyes. "Observations of the Coronal Network." Pages 

663-666, in R. Howard, editor, Solar Magnetic Fields, Proceedings of the 

International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 43. Dordrecht, Holland: D. 

Reidel Publishing Company, 1971. 
"Observed Heights of EUV Lines Formed in the Transition Zone 

and Corona." Solar Physics, volume 22 (1972), pages 450458. 
Spannagel, G. "Reduction of 37 Ar and 39 Ar Counting Data." Presented at the 34th 

Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, Tubingen, August 1971. 
Stephens, T.L., and A. Dalgarno. "Spontaneous Radiative Dissociation in Molecular 

Hydrogen." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, volume 

12(1972), pages 569-586. 
Strom, S., K. Strom, and J.N. Bregman. "The Blue Stars above the Turn-Off in M67: 

Horizontal Branch or Blue Stragglers?" Publications of the Astronomical Society 

of the Pacific, volume 83 (1971), pages 768-779. 
Taylor, G.J., and U.B. Marvin. "Dunite-Norite Lunar Microbreccia." Meteoritics. 

volume 6 (1971), pages 173-180. 
Taylor, G.J., U.B. Marvin, J.B. Reid, Jr., and J. A. Wood. "Noritic Fragments in the 

Apollo 14 and 12 Soils and the Origin of Oceanus Procellarum." Presented at the 

3rd Lunar Science Conference, Houston, Texas, January 1972. 
Vernazza, J.E., and R.W. Noyes. "Inhomogeneous Structure of the Solar Chromo- 
sphere from Lyman Continuum Data." Solar Physics, volume 22 (19/2), pages 

Victor, G.A., and C. Laughlin. "Model Potential Calculation of the Electron Affinity 

of Lithium." Chemical Physics Letters, volume 14 (1972), page 74. 
Victor, G.A., and K. Sando. "Long-Range Interaction between Metastable Helium 

and Ground-State Helium." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 55 (1971), pages 

Weekes, T.C. "Time Variations in High-Energy Cosmic Rays." Nature (Physical 

Science), volume 233 (1971), pages 129-130. 


Weekes, T.C., G.G. Fazio, H.F. Helmken, E. O'Mongain, and G. H. Rieke, "A Search 

for Discrete Sources of Cosmic Gamma Rays of Energy 10 1 1 to 10 1 eV." 

Astrophysical Journal, volume 174 (1972), pages 165-179. 
Weiffenbach, G.C. "An Observational Philosophy for Geos-C Satellite Altimetry." 

Presented at the Sea Surface Topography Conference, Miami, Florida, October 

Weisheit, J.C., and A. Dalgarno. "Spin-Orbit and Core Polarization Effects in 

Potassium." Physical Review Letters, volume 27 (1971), pages 701-703. 
Whipple, F.L. "Accumulation of Chondrules on Asteroids." Pages 251-256, in T. 

Gehrels, editor, Physical Studies of Minor Planets. Washington, D.C.: National 

Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1971. 
. "The Incentive of a Bold Hypothesis-Hyperbolic Meteors and 

Comets." Presented at the New York Academy of Sciences Symposium, New 

York, August 1971. 

"On the Amount of Dust in the Asteroid Belt." Pages 389-393, in 

T. Gehrels, editor, Physical Studies of Minor Planets. Washington, D.C.: National 

Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1971. 
Wood, J. A. "Thermal History and Early Magmatism in the Moon." Icarus, volume 16 

(1972), pages 229-240. 
Wood, J.A., A. Burlingame, D. Burnett, B. Doe, D. Gault, L. Haskin, H. Schnoes, D. 

Heymann, W. Melson, J. Papike, R. Tilling, and N. Toksoz. "Primal Igneous 

Activity in the Outer Layers of the Moon Generated by a 40 km Thick Feldspathic 

Crust." Presented at the 3rd Lunar Science Conference, Houston, Texas, January 

Wood, J.A., J.B. Reid, Jr., G.J. Taylor, and U.B. Marvin. "Petrological Character of 

the Luna 16 Sample from Mare Fecunditatis." Meteoritics, volume 6 (1971), 

pages 181-194. 
Wright, EX., and A. Dalgarno. "Infrared Emissivities of H2 and HD." Astrophysical 

Journal Letters, volume 174 (1972), pages L49-L51. 
Wright, F.W. "Examples of Moon Sights to Obtain Time and Longitude." Navigation, 

volume 18 (1971), pages 292-297. 
Wright, F.W., and P.W. Hodge. "Further Studies of Variable Stars of the Large 

Magellanic Cloud." Astronomical Journal, volume 76 (1971), pages 1003-1165. 


Through its Special Report series, the Observatory distributes catalogs of satellite 
observations, orbital data, and scientific papers before journal publication. 

336. R.E. McCrosky, A. Posen, G. Schwartz, and C.-Y. Shao. "Lost City Meteorite: 
Its Recovery and a Comparison with Other Fireballs." 20 August 1971. 

337. P.W. Hodge. "Color-Magnitude Diagrams of Five Faint Clusters of the Large 
Magellanic Cloud." 24 August 1971. 

338. E. Chipman. "Analysis of Solar Ultraviolet Lines." 15 September 1971. 

339. P.A. Mohr. "Ethiopian Tertiary Dike Swarms." 6 October 1971. 

340. W.W. Hauck, Jr. "Foundations for Estimation by the Method of Least Squares." 
27 December 1971. 

341. J.L. Elliot. "Atmospheric Fluorescence as a Ground-based Method of Detecting 
Cosmic X-rays." 24 January 1972. 

342. E.M. Gaposchkin. "Empirical Data and the Variance-Covariance Matrix for the 
1969 Smithsonian Standard Earth (II)." 17 April 1972. 

343. R.F.C. Vessot. "The Significance of the Redshift Rocket Probe Experiment to 
Theories of Gravitation." 1 May 1972. 


Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Birk eland, Charles, and F.S. Chia. "Recruitment Risk, Growth, Age and Predation in 
two Populations of the Sand Dollars, Dendraster excentricus." Journal of 
Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, volume 6 (1971), pages 265-278. [Not 
previously reported.] 

Birkeland, Charles, F.S. Chia, and R. Strathmann. "Development, Substratum 
Selection, Delay of Metamorphosis and Growth in the Seastar Mediaster aequalis 
Stimpson." The Biological Bulletin, volume 141 (1971), pages 99-108. 

Croat, Thomas B. "Gnetaceae. Flora of Panama, Part II, Family 2A." Annals of the 
Missouri Botanical Garden, volume 57, number 1 (1970), pages 14. [Not 
previously reported.] 

. "Studies in Solidago I: S. gra mi no folia- gymnospermoides 

Complex." Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, volume 57 (1970), pages 
250-251. [Not previously reported.] 

. "History of Summit Garden, Canal Zone." Taxon, volume 20 

(1971), pages 769-772. 
Croat, Thomas B., and D.M. Porter. "The Flowers of Trattinnickia aspera 

(Burseraceae) Discovered." Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, volume 57 

(1970), pages 152-154. [Not previously reported.] 
Dressier, Robert L. "Una Pleurothallis extrana de Panama." Orquideologia ', volume 5 

(1970), pages 75-78. [Not previously reported.] 
. "Una Gongora Interesante del Ecuador." Orquideologia, volume 6 

(1971), pages 769-772. 
. "Phymatidium panamense, un Genero "Brasileno" en Panama." 

Orquideologia, volume 6 (1971), pages 142-143. 

"El Complejo de Encyclia fragrans en los pafses Andinos." 

Orquideologia, volume 6 (1971), pages 195-203. 
."Una Teuscheria nueva del Ecuador." Orquideologia, volume 7 

(1972), pages 3-6. 
"Epidendrum ibaguense, Its Distribution and Variation." Souvenir 

Program, 7th World Orchid Conference, (April 1972), pages 87-91. 
Dressier, Robert L., and N.H. Williams. "An Overlooked Genus in the Oncidiinae." 

American Orchid Society Bulletin, volume 39 (1970), pages 988-994. [Not 

previously reported.] 
"Dark Pollinia in Hummingbird-pollinated Orchids, or Do 

Hummingbirds Suffer from Strabismus?" The American Naturalist, volume 105 

(1971), pages 80-83. [Not previously reported.] 

'Dos Orquideas nuevas de Mexico Occidental." Anales del 

Instituto de Biologfa, Mexico, Serie Botanica, 39 (1971), pages 117-120. [Not 
previously reported.] 
. "Local Polymorphism in Brachyrhaphis episcopi (Poeciliidae)." 

Copeia, 1971, pages 170-171. [Not previously reported.] 
Glynn, Peter W. "Growth of Algal Epiphytes on a Tropical Marine Isopod." Journal 

of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, volume 5 (1970), pages 88-93. 

[Not previously reported.] 
. . "A Systematic Study of the Sphaeromatidae (Crustacea: Isopoda) 

of Isla Margarita, Venezuela, with Descriptions of Three New Species." Memorias 

de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle, volume 30, number 85 (1970), 

pages 5-48. [Not previously reported.] 
. "Rediscovery of Paracerceis edithae Boone (Isopoda, Sphaero- 

matidae) with Supplementary Notes on Morphology and Habitat." Crustaceana, 
supplement 3, 1972. 


Goreau, Thomas F., J.C. Lang, E.A. Graham, and P.D. Goreau. "Structure and 
Ecology of the Saipan Reefs in Relation to Predation by Acanthaster planci 
(Linnaeus)." Bulletin of Marine Science, volume 22, number 1 (1972), pages 

Graham, Jeffrey B. "Temperature Tolerances of Some Closely Related Tropical 
Atlantic and Pacific Fish Species." Science, volume 172 (1971), pages 861-863. 
[Not previously reported.] 

. "Aerial Vision in Amphibious Fishes." Fauna, volume 3 (1971), 

pages 14-23. 

. "Low Temperature Acclimation and the Seasonal Temperature 

Sensitivity of Some Tropical Marine Fishes." Physiological Zoology, volume 45, 

number 1 (1972), pages 1-13. 
Graham, Jeffrey B., I. Rubinoff, and M.K. Hecht. "Temperature Physiology of the 

Sea Snake Pelamis platurus: An Index of its Colonization Potential in the Atlantic 

Ocean." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, volume 68 (1971), 

pages 1360-1363. [Not previously reported.] 
Healey, Ian N., and J.M. Anderson. "Improvements in the Gelatin-embedding 

Technique for the Sectioning of Woodland Soils." Pedobiologia, volume 10 

(1970), pages 108-121 . [Not previously reported.] 
. "The Study of Production in Soft Bodies Micro-arthropods." 

International Biological Programme Handbook, volume 13 (1971), pages 203-329. 

[Not previously reported.] 
. "The Habitat, the Community, and the Niche: A Review of 

Concepts." Pages 307-342, in R.N. Fiennes, editor, Biology of Nutrition. New 

York: Pergamon Press, 1971. [Not previously reported.] 
Hespenheide, Henry A., and R.L. Dressier. "Una Stelis Notable de Panama." 

Orquideologia, volume 6 (1971), pages 21-23. [Not previously reported.] 
. "Food Preference and the Extent of Overlap in some Insectivorous 

Birds, with Special Reference to the Tyrannidae." Ibis, volume 113 (1971), pages 

59-72. [Not previously reported.] 
Hladik, Annette. "Contribution a l'etude biologique d'une Araliaceae d'Amerique 

Tropicale: Didymopanax morototoni." Adansonia, series 2, volume 10, number 3 

(1970), pages 383-407. [Not previously reported.] 
Hladik, Annette, CM. Hladik, J. Bousset, P. Valdebouze, G. Viroben, and J. 

Delort-Laval. "Le regime alimentaire des primates de Barro-Colorado (Panama)." 

Folia Prima tologica, volume 16 (1971), pages 85-122. [Not previously reported.] 
Hladik, Claude Marcel. "Les singes du nouveau monde." Science et Nature, number 

102 (1970), pages 1-9. [Not previously reported.] 
Karr, James R. "Ecological, Behavioral, and Distributional Notes on Some Central 

Panama Birds." The Condor, volume 73, number 1 (1971), pages 107-111. [Not 

previously reported.] 
"Structure of Avian Communities in Selective Panama and Illinois 

Habitats." Ecological Monographs, volume 41 (1971), pages 207-233. 
.. "Wintering Kentucky Warblers (Oporornis formosus) and a Warning 

to Banders." Bird-Banding, volume 42 (1971), page 299. 
Karr, James R., and R.R. Roth. "Vegetation Structure and Avian Diversity in Several 

New World Areas." The American Naturalist, volume 105, number 945 (1971), 

pages 423-435. 
Kropach, Chaim. "Sea Snake (Pelamis platurus) Aggregations on Slicks in Panama." 

Herpe tologica, volume 27, number 2 (1971), pages 131-135. [Not previously 


. "Another Color Variety of the Sea Snake Pelamis platums from 

the Panama Bay ." Herpetologica, volume 27, number 3 (1971), pages 326-327. 
Lang, Judith C. "Interspecific Aggression by Scleractinian Corals, I: The Rediscovery 

of Scolymia cubensis (Milne-Edwards and Haime)." Bulletin of Marine Science, 

volume 21 (1971), pages 952-959. 
Leigh, Egbert G., Jr. "Sex Ratio and Differential Mortality Between the Sexes." The 

American Naturalist, volume 104 (1970), pages 205-210. [Not previously 

"Natural Selection and Mutability." The American Naturalist, 

volume 104 (1970), pages 301-305. [Not previously reported.] 
. Adaptation and Diversity: Natural History and Mathematics of 

Evolution. 288 pages. San Francisco: Freeman, Cooper & Co., 1971. 
MacArthur, R.H., J.M. Diamond, and J.R. Karr. "Density Compensation in Island 

Faunas." Ecology, volume 53, number 2 (1972), pages 330-342. 
McCosker, John E. "Faunal Investigations of Pacific and Caribbean Reef Fishes." 

Research Reports (Alpha Helix Research Program, 1969-1970, University of 

California, San Diego), page 38. [Not previously reported.] 
. "A Review of the Eel Genera Leptenchelys and Muraenichthys, 

with the Description of a New Genus, Schismorhynchus, and a New Species, 

Muraenichthys chilensis." Pacific Science, volume 24, number 4 (1970), pages 

506-516. [Not previously reported.] 
. "A New Species of Para percis (Pisces: Mugiloididae) from the Juan 

Fernandez Islands." Copeia, volume 4 (1971), pages 682-686. 
McCosker, John E., and R.F. Nigrelli. "New Records of Lymphocystis Disease in 

Four Eastern Pacific Fish Species." Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of 

Canada, volume 28 (1971), pages 1809-1810. 
McCosker, John E.. and R.H. Rosenblatt. "Eastern Pacific Snake-eels of the Genus 

Callechelys (Apodes: Ophichthidae)." Transactions of the San Diego Society of 

Natural History, volume 17, number 2 (1972), pages 15-24. 
Meyer, David L. "The Collagenuous Nature of Problematical Ligaments in Crinoids 

(Echinodermata)." Marine Biology, volume 9, number 3 (1971), pages 235-241. 

[Not previously reported.] 
"Ctenantedon, A New Antedonid Crinoid Convergent with 

Comasterids." Bulletin of Marine Science, volume 22, number 1 (1972), pages 

Morton, Eugene S. "Food and Migration Habits of the Eastern Kingbird in Panama." 

The Auk, volume 88, number 4 (1971), pages 925-926. [Not previously 

"Nest Predation Affecting the Breeding Season of the Clay-Colored 

Robin, a Tropical Song Bird." Science, volume 141 (1971), pages 920-921. [Not 

previously reported.] 
Moyruhan, Martin H. "Control, Suppression, Decay, Disappearance, and Replacement 

of Displays." Journal of Theoretical Biology, volume 29 (1970), pages 85-112. 

[Not previously reported.] 

. "Successes and Failures of Tropical Mammals and Birds." The 

American Naturalist, volume 105 (1971), pages 371-383. 
Oppenheimer, John R. "Mouthbreeding in Fishes." Animal Behaviour, volume 18, 

number 3 (1970), pages 493-503. [Not previously reported.] 
Ramirez, William B. "Die Besta'ubung der Feigen durch Feigenwespen." Umschau, 

volume 15 (1971), page 571. 
Rand, A. Stanley, and E.E. Williams. "An Estimation of Redundancy and 

Information Content of Anole Dewlaps." The American Naturalist, volume 104 

(1970), pages 99-103. [Not previously reported.] 


Reimer, Amada A. "Uptake and Utilization of Carbon C 14 Glycine by Zoanthus and 
its Coelenteric Bacteria." Pages 209-217, in Lenhoff, Muscatine, and Davis, 
editors, Experimental Coelenterate Biology. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 
1971. [Not previously reported.] 

. "Chemical Control of Feeding Behavior and Role of Glycine in the 

Nutrition of Zoanthus (Coelenterata, Zoanthidea)." Comparative Biochemistry 
and Physiology , volume 39A (1971), pages 743-759. 
. "Chemical Control of Feeding Behavior in Palythoa (Zoanthidea, 

Coelenterata)." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, volume 40A (1971), 
pages 19-38. 

'Observations on the Relationships Between Several Species of 

Tropical Zoanthids (Zoanthidea, Coelenterata) and their Zooxanthellae." /oimw/ 
of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology , volume 7 (1971), pages 207-214. 
. "Feeding Behavior in the Zoanthids Palythoa and Zoanthus." 

Pacific Science, volume 25, number 4 (1971), pages 512-522. 

"Specificity of Feeding Chemoreceptors in Palythoa psammophilia 

(Zoanthidea, Coelenterata)." Comparative and General Pharmacology , volume 2, 
number 8 (1971), pages 383-396. 

Robinson, Michael H., L.G. Abele, and B. Robinson. "Attack Autotomy: A Defense 
Against Predators." Science, volume 169 (1970), pages 300-301. [Not previously 

Robinson, Michael H., and H. Mirick. "The Predatory Behavior of Nephila clavipes 
(L)." Psyche, volume 78 (1971), pages 123-139. 

Robinson, Michael H., and B. Robinson. "The Stabilimentum of the Orb Web Spider, 
Argiope argentata: An Improbable Defense Against Predators." Canadian Ento- 
mologist, volume 102 (1970), pages 641-655. [Not previously reported.] 

"Prey Caught by a Sample Population of the Spider Argiope 

argentata (Araneae: Araneidae) in Panama: A Year's Census Data." Zoological 
Journal of the Linnean Society of London, volume 49 (1970), pages 345-357. 
[Not previously reported.] 

. "The Predatory Behavior of the Ogre-faced Spider Dinopis longipes 

F. Cambridge (Araneae: Dinopidae)." American Midland Naturalist, volume 85 
(1971), pages 85-96. [Not previously reported.] 
. "Animals that Mimic Parts of Plants." Morris Arboretum Bulletin, 

volume 21 (1970), pages 51-58. [Not previously reported.] 

. "Methods of Observing Spider Behaviour." Bulletin of the British 

Arachnological Society, volume 4 (1972), pages 58-59. 
Robinson, Michael H., B. Robinson, and W. Graney. "The Predatory Behaviour of the 

Nocturnal Orb-Web Spider Eriophora fuliginea (C.L. Koch)." Actas del Primer 

Congreso Latinoamericano de Entomologia, 1972. 
Rosenblatt, R.H., and J.E. McCosker. "A Key to the Genera of the Ophichthid Eels, 

with Descriptions of Two New Genera and Three New Species from the Eastern 

Pacific." Pacific Science, volume 24, number 4 (1970), pages 495-505. [Not 

previously reported.] 
Rubinoff, Ira. "The Sea-Level Canal Controversy." Biological Conservation, volume 

3. number 1 (1970), pages 33-36. [Not previously reported.) 
Rubinoff, Ira, and C. Kropach. "Differential Reactions of Atlantic and Pacific 

Predators to Sea-Snakes. " Nature, volume 228 (1970), pages 1288-1290. [Not 

previously reported.] 
Rubinoff, Roberta W., and 1. Rubinoff. "Geographic and Reproductive Isolation in 

Atlantic and Pacific Populations of Panamanian Bathygobius. "Evolution, volume 

25, number 1 (1971), pages 88-97. [Not previously reported.] 


Smith, Neal G. "On Change in Biological Communities." Science, volume 170 

(1970), pages 312-313. [Not previously reported.] 
. "Biovarianism in Insular Populations of a Neotropical Passerine 

Bird." American Midland Naturalist, volume 86 (1971), pages 238-241. [Not 

previously reported.] 
. "Migration of the Day-flying Moth Urania in Central and South 

America." Caribbean Journal of Science, volume 12 (1971). [Not previously 
. "Reproductive Behavior." Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1972. 

Smith, W. John. "Displays and Message Assortment in Sayornis Species." Behaviour, 

volume 37 (1970), pages 85-112. [Not previously reported.] 
"Song-like Displays in Sayornis Species." Behaviour, volume 37 

(1970), pages 4-84. [Not previously reported.] 
Smith, W. John, and F. Vuilleumier. "Evolutionary Relationships of Some South 

American Ground Tyrants." Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 

volume 141, number 5 (1971), pages 181-232. [ Not previously reported.] 
Smythe, Nicholas. "The Adaptive Value of the Social Organization of the Coati 

(Nasua narica)" Journal of Mammalogy, volume 51 (1970), pages 818-820. [Not 

previously reported.] 
. "On the Existence of 'Pursuit Invitation' Signals in Mammals." 

The American Naturalist, volume 104 (1970), pages 491-494. [Not previously 

Stephens, J.S., R. K. Johnson, G.S. Key, and J.E. McCosker. "The Comparative 

Ecology of Three Sympatric Species of California Blennies of the Genus 

Hypsoblennius Gill (Teleostomi, Blenniidae)." Ecological Monographs, volume 40 

(1970), pages 213-233. [Not previously reported.] 
Thien, L.B., and R. L. Dressier. "Taxonomy of Barkeria Orchidaceae)." Brittonia, 

volume 22 (1970), pages 289-302. [Not previously reported.] 
Todd, Eric S. "Respiratory Control in the Longjaw Mudsucker Gillichthys mirabilis." 

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, volume 39, number 1 A (1971), pages 

147-163. [Not previously reported.] 
"Hemoglobin Concentration in A New Air-breathing Fish." 

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, volume 41 A, number 5 (1972). 
Topp, Robert W. "Behavior and Color Change of the Rudderfish, Kyphosus elegans, 

in the Gulf of Panama." Copeia, volume 4 (1970), pages 763-765. [Not previously 

Vermeij, Geerat J., and J.W. Porter. "Some Characteristics of the Dominant Intertidal 

Organisms in Pernambuco, Brazil." Bulletin of Marine Science, volume 21, 

number 2 (1971), pages 440-457. 
Wolda, Hindrik. "Variation in Growth Rate in the Landsnail Cepaea nemoralis." 

Researches in Population Ecology, volume 12 (1970), pages 185-204. [Not 

previously reported.] 
. "The Role of Food in the Dynamic of Populations of the 

Landsnail Cepaea nemoralis. " Oecologia, volume 7 (1971), pages 361-381. 

"Ecological Variation and its Implications for the Dynamics of 

Populations of the Landsnail Cepaea nemoralis. " In P.J. den Boer and G.R. 
Gradwell, editors. Dynamics of Populations." Proceedings of the Advanced Study 
Institute on Dynamics of Numbers in Populations, Oosterbeck, The Netherlands, 
7-18 September 1970 (1971), pages 98-108. 
Zaret, Thomas M. "The Distribution, Diet, and Feeding Habits of the Atherinid Fish 
Melaniris chagresi in Gatun Lake, Panama Canal Zone." Copeia, volume 2 (1971), 
pages 341-343. [Not previously reported.] 

"Predator-prey Interaction in a Tropical Lacustrine Ecosystem." 

Ecology, volume 53, number 2 (1972), pages 248-257. 
Zaret, Thomas M., and A.S. Rand. "Competition in Tropical Stream Fishes: Support 
for the Competive Exclusion Principle." Ecology, volume 52 (1971), pages 
336-342. [Not previously reported.] 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 

Brooks, C. "The Bilin-Apoprotein Bonds in Cryptomonad Phycoerythrin." Presented 
at the Annual Meeting of the Washington Area Section, American Society of Plant 
Physiologists, Beltsville, Maryland, 5 May 1972. 

Brooks, C, and E. Gantt. "A Comparative Study of Cryptophyte Phycoerythrin." 
Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Washington Area Section, American 
Society of Plant Physiologists, Beltsville, Maryland, 5 May 1972. 

Correll, D.L. "The Measurement of Phosphorus Metabolism in Natural Populations of 
Microorganisms." Presented at Symposium on Bioassay Techniques and Environ- 
mental Chemistry of the 162nd National American Chemical Society Convention, 
Washington, D.C. 14 September 1971. 

"Early Products of Photophosphorylation in Chlorella." Presented 

to Biology Department, the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, 14 
March 1972. 

"Phytochrome, Part I: History and Biological Responses." "Part 

II: Biochemical Properties." Presented to Biochemistry Department, Johns 

Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, 13-14 March 1972. 
Edwards, M.R., and E. Gantt. "Phycobilisomes of the Thermophilic Blue-Green Alga 

Synechococcus lividus." Journal of Cell Biology, volume 50 (1971), pages 

Gantt, E. "Micromorphology of the Periplast of Chroomonas sp. (Cryptophyceae)." 

Journal of Phycology , volume 7 (1971), pages 177-184. 
"Photosynthetic Accessory Pigment Localization in Algae." 

Presented to the Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Louisiana State 

University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 16 November 1971 . 
. "Organization of a Phycobiliprotein Pigment Complex on Photo- 

synthetic Membranes." Presented at the Botany Graduate Student Seminar Series, 
University of Texas at Austin, 11 February 1972. 
"Organization of a Phycobiliprotein Pigment Complex on Photo- 

synthetic Membranes." Presented at Seminar of the Washington Section of the 

American Society of Plant Physiologists, 18 February 1972. 
Gantt, E., and C.A. Lipschultz. "Phycobilisomes of Prophyridium cruentum. 

Isolation." Presented at the Washington Section of the American Society of Plant 

Physiologists," Beltsville, Maryland, 5 May 1972. 
Gettens, Rebecca. "Influence of Light Quality During Seed Development on 

Subsequent Germination." Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Washington 

Area Section of the American Society for Plant Physiologists, Beltsville, 

Maryland, 5 May 1972. 
Goldberg, B., and W.H. Klein. "Comparison of Normal Incident Solar Energy 

Measurements at Washington, D.C." Solar Energy, volume 13 (1971), pages 

Harding, Roy W. "Inhibition of Photoinduced Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Neurospora 

crassa by inhibitors of Protein Synthesis." Presented at Annual Meeting of the 

Washington Area Section, American Society of Plant Physiologists, Beltsville, 

Maryland, 5 May 1972. 


Honeycutt, R.C., and M.M. Margulies. "Synthesis of Chloroplast Proteins in 
Chlamydomonas, I: Detection and Properties of Nascent Proteins." Presented at 
the Annual Meeting of the Washington Area Section, American Society of Plant 
Physiologists, Beltsville, Maryland, 5 May 1972. 

Klein, W.H. "Qualitative and Quantitative Aspects of Solar Radiation." Presented at 
Meeting on Photoalteration of Pesticides at National Academy of Science, 
Washington, D.C., 17 April 1972. 

Margulies, M.M. "Concerning the Sites of Synthesis of Proteins of Chloroplast 
Ribosomes and of Fraction I Proteins (ribulose-1, 5-diphosphate carboxylase)." 
Biochemical Biophysical Research Communications, volume 44 (1971), pages 

"An Evaluation of The Evidence Concerning the Sites of Synthesis 

of Chloroplast Proteins." Lecture. University of Bari, Italy, 2 July 1971, and 
Biologisches Institut II, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, West 
Germany, 5 July 1971. 

. "Effect of Cold-Storage of Bean Leaves on Photosynthetic 

Reactions of Isolated Chloroplasts. Inability to Donate Electrons to Photosystem 
II and Relation to Manganese Content." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, volume 
267 (1972), pages 96-103. 

Margulies, M.M., and R.C. Honeycutt. "Synthesis of Chloroplast Proteins in 
Chlamydomonas, II: Effect of Chloramphenicol and Cycloheximide on Synthesis 
of Ribosomal Proteins and Ribulose Diphosphate Carboxylase." Lecture. Annual 
Meeting, Washington Area Section, American Society of Plant Physiologists, 
Beltsville, Maryland, 5 May 1972. 

Shropshire, W., Jr. "Phototropic Bending Rate in Phycomyces as a Function of 
Average Growth Rate and Cell Radius." In "Biophysics of Cells and Organs," of 
Proceedings of First European Biophysics Congress, volume 5 (1971), pages 

. "Physical and Chemical Properties of Phytochrome. Action and 

Absorption Spectra of Phytochrome in vivo.'" Presented to NATO Advanced 
Study Institute on Phytochrome, Eretria, Greece, 2 September 1971. 

(1) "Phycomyces - An Opening Block Box." (2) "Theory and 

Techniques for Determining Action Spectra in Biological Systems." (3) "Phyto- 
chrome-A Photochromic Sensor." Visiting Scholar Lectures. Virginia Polytechnic 
Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, 3-5 April 1972. 

Shropshire, W., Jr., H. Lange, and H. Mohr. "An Analysis of Phytochrome-Mediated 
Anthocyanin Synthesis." Presented to American Society of Plant Physiologists, 
Pacific Grove, California, 23 August 1971 . 

Stuckenrath, Robert. "C-14 vs Paleo-Indian." Presented at the Annual Meetings of 
the Canadian Archaeological Society, St. John's, Newfoundland, 24-27 February 

. "So How Old Is It?" Presented at the Annual Meeting of Maryland 

Archaeological Society at Annapolis, Maryland, 8 April 1972. 

Weintraub, Robert L., and Verna R. Lawson. "Effects of Growth Regulators on 
Elongation of Excised Apices of Coleoptiles of Barley, Corn, Oats, Rye, and 
Wheat." Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Washington Area Section, 
American Society of Plant Physiologists, Beltsville, Maryland, 5 May 1972. 

National Zoological Park 

Buechner, H.K. "Ecosystem Level of Organization." Hierarchically Organized 
Systems in Theory and Practice (1971), pages 45-58. 

"Radiotelemetry for Research on Large Land Mammals." Inter- 

national Telemetering Conference Proceedings, volume 7 (1971), pages 387-392. 
. "Lek Behavior in the Uganda Kob." Zoonooz, volume 45, number 

2 (1972), pages 10-14. 
Buechner, H.K,. F.C. Craighead, Jr., J.J. Craighead, and C.E. Cote. "Satellites for 

Research on Free-Roaming Animals." Bioscience, volume 21, number 24 (1971), 

pages 1201-1205. 
Collins, L.R., and J.F. Eisenberg. "The Behavior and Breeding of Pacaranas Dinomys 

branickii) in Captivity." International Zoo Yearbook, volume 12 (1972), pages 

Cook, James E., Embert H. Coles, and F.H. Garner. "Detecting Leptospires in 

Formalin-fixed Hamster Tissues by Fluorescent Antibody Techniques." The 

American Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 33, number 1 (1972), pages 

Egoscue, H.J. "A Laboratory Colony of the Polynesian Rat (Rattus exulans)." 

Journal of Mammalogy , volume 51 , number 2 (1970), pages 261-266. 
. "Nonagouti' A New Recessive Color Mutation in Deer Mice." 

Journal of Heredity, volume 62, number 2 (1971), page 372. 

'Breeding the Long-tailed Pouched Rat (Beamys hindei) in 

Captivity." Journal of Mammalogy, volume 53, number 2 (1972), pages 296-302. 
Egoscue, H.J., J.G. Bittmenn, and J. A. Petrovich. "Some Fecundity and Longevity 

Records for Captive Small Mammals." Journal of Mammalogy, volume 51, 

number 3 (1970), pages 622-623. 
Eisenberg, J.R., and P. Leyhausen. "The Phylogenesis of Predatory Behavior," 

Zeitschrinft fur Tierpsychologie, volume 30 (1972), pages 59-93. 
Eisenberg, J.F., and M. Lockhart. "An Ecological Reconnaissance of Wilpattu 

National Park, Ceylon.*' Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 101 

(1972), pages 1-1 18, 76 figures, 16 tables. 
Eisenberg, J.F., N. Muckenhirn, and R. Rudran. "The Relation between Ecology and 

Social Structure in Primates." Science, volume 176 (1972), pages 863-874. 
Gray, C.W. "Immunization of the Exotic Felidae for Panleukopenia." Journal of Zoo 

Animal Medicine, volume 3, number 1 (1972), pages 14-15. 
"Lead Toxicosis." Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine, volume 3, 

number 1 (1972), page 20. 
. "Conjunctivitis in the Jungle Cat (Felis chaus)." Journal of Zoo 

Animal Medicine, volume 3, number 1 (1972), page 26. 
Jainudeen, M.R., J.F. Eisenberg, and N. Tilakeratne. "Estrous Cycle of the Asiatic 

Elephant (Elephas maximus) in Captivity." Journal of Reproduction and 

Fertility, volume 27, pages 321-328. 
Kleiman, D.G. "The Courtship and Copulatory Behavior of the Green Acouchi 

(Myoprocta pratti)." Zeitschrinft fur Tierpsychologie, volume 29 (1971), pages 

Migaki, G., H.R. Seibold, R.H. Wolf, and F.M. Garner. "Pathologic Conditions in the 

Patas Monkey." The Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 

volume 159, number 5 (1971), pages 549-556. 
Morrison, J.A., and H.K. Buechner. "Reproductive Phenomena During the Post- 
partum Preconception Interval in the Uganda Kob." Journal of Reproduction and 

Fertility, volume 26, pages 307-317. 
Sauer, R.M., and B.C. Zook. "Selenium-Vitamin E Deficiency at the National 

Zoological Park." Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine, volume 3 (1972), pages 

Stroman, H.R., and L.M. Slaughter. "The Care and Breeding of Pigmy Hippos in 

Captivity." International Zoo Yearbook, volume 12 (1972), pages 126-1 31. 


Wemmer,C. "Scent-Marking and Anointing: Behavioral Parallelism in Mammals." 

American Zoologist, volume 11 (1971), page 623. 
Xanten, W.A., Jr. "Gestation Period in the Bongo." Journal of Mammalogy, volume 

52, number 1 (1972), page 232. 
Zook, B.C. "Biologic Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants. Lead: Airborne Lead in 

Perspective." National A cade my of Sciences (1972), page 185. 
Zook, B.C., L. Kopito, J.L. Carpenter, D.V. Cramer, and H. Schwachman. "Lead 

Poisoning in Dogs: Analysis of Blood, Urine, Hair, and Liver for Lead," American 

Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 33, number 5 (1972), pages 903-909. 
Zook, B.C., J.L. Carpenter, R.M. Roberts. "Lead Poisoning in Dogs: Occurrence, 

Source, Clinical Pathology, and Electroencephalography." American Journal of 

Veterinary Research, volume 33, number 5 (1972), pages 891-902. 

Office of Environmental Sciences 


Harinasuta, C, S. Sornmani, V. Kitikoon, C.R. Schneider, and O. Pathammavong. 
"Infection of Aquatic Hydrobiid Snails and Animals with Schistosoma 
japonicum-hke parasites from Khong Island, Southern Laos." Transactions of 
the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, volume 66 (1972), pages 


Boyes, J.W., L.V. Knutson, and Janny M. van Brink. "Further Cytotaxonomic 
Studies of Scimyzidae, with Description of a New Species, Dichetophora boyesi 
Steyskal (Diptera: Acalyptratae)." Genetica, volume 43 (August 1972), pages 

Jenkins, D.W. "Global Biological Monitoring." Pages 351-370, in Man's Impact on 
Terrestial and Oceanic Ecosystems. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology Press, 1971. 

"Remote Sensing of Environment and Ecology of Developing 

Countries." Pages 3448, in Proceedings Symposium on Potential Application of 
Remote Sensing to Economic Development in Developing Countries, Smithsonian 
Institution, November 19-20, 1970. 1971. 

"Agriculture and Forestry -Identification, Vigor and Disease." In 

"Proceedings, Remote Sensing of the Chesapeake Bay, April 5-7, 197 '1." National 
Space and Aeronautics Administration, Special Publication, number 294 (1971), 
pages 91-102. 
"International Ecological Program of the Smithsonian Institution" 

In Proceedings Symposium on Ecology and Developing Countries, Stockholm, 

April 27-28, 1971. 5 pages. 1971. 
Jenkins, D.W., and R. Poole. "Taking Ecology Overseas." Journal of Environmental 

Education, volume 3, number 2 (1971), pages 24-26. 
Knutson, L.V. "Description of the Female of Pherbecta limenitis Steyskal (Diptera: 

Sciomyzidae), with Notes on Biology, Immature Stages, and Distribution." 

Entomology News, volume 83 (1972) pages 15-21. 
Knutson, L.V., and CO. Berg. "The Malacophagous Flies of Norway (Diptera: 

Sciomyzidae)." In Knutson, L.V. and CO. Bert, "The Malacophagous Flies of 

Norway (Diptera; Sciomyzidae)." Norsk ent. Tidsskr. volume 18, pages 119-134. 


Knutson, L.V., and Oliver S. Flint, Jr. "Pupae of Empididae in Pupal Cocoons of 
Rhyacophilidae and Glossosomatidae (Diptera: Trichoptera)." Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington, volume 73, number 3 (September 1971), 
pages 314-320. 


Higgins, R.P., contributing author. In N.C. Hulings and J.S. Gray, editors, "A Manual 
for the Study of Meiofauna." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 78 
(1971). [Not previously reported.] 

"A Historical Overview of Kinorhynch Research." In N.C. Hulings, 

editor, "Proceedings of the First International Conference on Meiofauna." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. Number 76 (1971), pages 25-31. 

. "The Kinorhyncha as Bibliocryptozorns." Lecture. University of 

Pittsburg, 15 December 1972. 
. "The Mediterranean Sea: Aristotle was Right." Lecture. University 

of Massachusetts, 1 March 1972. 
. "The Lesser-known Invertebrates." Lecture. Clarke University, 20 

April 1972. 


Fehlmann, H.F. "USARP Activities at the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting 
Center." Antarctic Journal of the United States, volume 6, number 6 (1972), page 

Houbrick, R.S. "Some Aspects of the Anatomy, Reproduction, and Early Develop- 
ment of Cerithium nodulosum (Bruguiere)." Pacific Science, volume 25, number 
4 (1972), pages 560-565. 

Landrum, B.J. "Documentation of U.S. Antarctica Collections." Antarctic Journal of 
the United States, volume 6, number 6 (1972), pages 25 1-252. 

Simkin, Tom. "Rocks from the Antarctic Seas." Antarctic Journal of the United 
States, volume 6, number 6 (1972), page 251. 


White, CM., W.B. Emison, and Francis S. L. Williamson. "Dynamics of Raptor 
Populations on Amchitka Island, Alaska." BioScience, volume 21 (1971), pages 

Williamson, Francis S.L. "Biology and the Chesapeake Bay." Presented at the 
Symposium on Science and the Environment, January 1972. 

The Ecology of Poxvirus Disease in the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris L. 

Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1971. 

Williamson, Francis S.L., and W.B. Emison, "Variation in the Timing of Breeding and 
Molt of the Lapland longspur (Calcarius lapponicus) in Alaska, with Relation to 
Differences in Latitude." BioScience, volume 21 (1971) pages 701-707. 

Williamson, Francis S.L., W.B. Emison, and CM. White. "Studies of the Avifauna on 
Amchitka Island, Alaska, July 1970-June 1971." United States Atomic Energy 
Commission Report Battele Memorial Institute, number 171-131 (1971). 

. "Geographical Affinities and Migrations of the Avifauna on 

Amchitka Island, Alaska." BioScience, volume 21 (1971), pages 627-631. 


Williamson, Francis S.L., and J. Kevin Sullivan. Road River Estuary: Interdisciplinary 
Research on a Watershed-Estuarine System of the Chesapeake Bay. Volume 1 
and 2 (September 1971). [Multilith.] 

(Reports issued by the Center) 

Annual Report 1971. 310 pages. May 1972. 

Cameron, Winifred Saw tell. "Comparative Analyses of Observations of Lunar 

Transient Phenomena." October 1971 . 
Citron, Robert. "Outline for a Feasibility Study for the Establishment of an 

International Natural Disaster Warning System." Prepared for the Office of 

Science and Technology of the United Nations, July 1971. 
Elizalde, Manuel, Jr. "The Tasaday Forest People". A Data Paper on a Newly 

Discovered Food Gathering and Stone Tool Using Manubo Group in the 

Mountains of South Cotabato, Mindanao, Phillippines, July 1971. 
Fourcardt, N., and H. Viramonte. "Present Situation of Volcanic Activity in 

Deception Islands- South Chetland Island, Antarctica." 8 pages. May 1972. 
Heroun, T. "Neragongo Volcanic Activity." 7 pages. February 1972. 
Redhead, R.E. "Army Worm (Spodoptera exempta) Predation by Yellow-Necked 

Spurfowl (Pternistis leucoscepus) in the Longido Game Controlled Area." July 

Rittman, Alfredo. "The Mt. Etna Volcanic Eruption of 1971." The Volcanology 

Institute of the University of Catania and the International Institute of 

Volcanology of the National Research Council. Event Chronology: 23 April- 14 

June 1971. July 1971. 
Schoen, Ivan L. "Report of the Emergency Trip Made by the West Indies Mission to 

the Akoerio Indians, June 1971." July 1971. 
Shepherd, J.B., H. Sigurdsson, J.F. Tomblin, and W.P. Aspinall. "The Soufriere 

Volcanic Eruption-St. Vicents Island Carribean Sea." 17 pages. 1972. 
Smithsonian Institution. "Natural Disaster Research Centers and Warning Systems: A 

Preliminary Survey." July 1971. 
Tomblin, J.F., and H. Sigurdsson. "The Soufriere Volcanic Eruption-St. Vicent 

Island Caribbean Sea. Event Chronology: 1-15 November 1971." 20 December 



Foster, W.R., and G.E. Clipper. "A Special Research Center-Smithsonian Science 
Information Exchange Builds International Bridges of Information". A Current 
Bibliography on African Affairs, series 2, volume 5 (1972), pages 49-54. 

Foster, W.R., and F.J. Kreysa. "SSIE: An Interdisciplinary Resource for Teachers." 
Journal of College Science Teaching (December 1971). 

Hersey, D.F., W.R. Foster, E.Q. Stalder, and W.T. Carlson. "Free Test Word Retrieval 
and Scientist Indexing: Performance Profiles and Costs." The Journal of 
Documentation, volume 27, number 3 (September 1971), pages 167-183. 

Office of Assistant Secretary for History and Art 

Grove, Richard. "Understanding Your Art Museum." Art Education, volume 24, 
number 9 (December 1971), pages 18-21. 

"Final Address." 1971 Shakespeare Seminars, McMaster University 

in association with the Stratford Festival, Stratford, Ontario, 6 August 1971 . 
The National Museum of History and Technology 


Bedini, Silvio A. "The Tube for Long Vision: An Iconographic History of the 

Telescope in Its First Fifty Years." Physis, volume 13, fascicle 2 (1971), pages 

. "Benjamin Banneker and the Survey of the District of Columbia." 

Records of the Columbia Historical Society of Washington, 1969-1970 (May 

1972). pages 7-30. 
. The Life of Benjamin Banneker. 434 pages. New York: Charles 

Scribner's Sons 1972. 
Boorstin, Daniel J. The Image. Reprint. 315 pages. New York: Atheneum, 1971. 
. "Democracy and the Sense of Place." Lecture. U.S. Capitol 

Historical Society, Washington, D.C., 15 September 1971. 
. "Democracy and the Sense of Place." The Capitol Dome (197 1), 

pages 2-3. 

"The New Segregation." Life (10 September 1971), pages 36-69. 

. "Education and National Power." Lecture. The National War 

College, Washington, D.C., 10 September 1971. 
"What Historians Don't Talk About." Lecture. Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Indiana, 25 October 1971. 
. "Une lecon pour la France: Les Americains en ont assez de leur 

TV." Science & Vie, volume 120, number 71 (November 1971), pages 100-104. 
. "Technology and Democracy." Lecture. Auburn University, 

Auburn, Alabama, 1 1 November 1971. 
. "Divergent Views in American History." Broadcast. BBC, London, 

England, 3 January 1972. 
. "Technology and Democracy." Lecture. Wabash College, Craw- 

fordsville, Indiana, 9 February 1972. 

. "The Exploring Spirit." New Worlds (March 1972). pages 17, 25. 

. "Frontiers of Ignorance." The William W. Cook Lectures on 

American Institutions, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Lecture 
1: "The Idea of Negative Discovery," 3 April 1972; Lecture 2: "Illusions of 
Historical Knowledge," 4 April 1972; Lecture 3: "Prisons of History," 5 April 
1972; Lecture 4: "Temptations of the Well-informed," 6 April 1972; Lecture 5: 
"The Omnipresent Present," 7 April 1972. 
. "Axe We Talking Too Much." Syndicated Article. Field Enter- 

prises, Inc., April 1972. 
. "A Look at American Politics." Address. The Washington 

Journalism Center, Washington, D.C., 12 April 1972. 
. "Revolution: Future Prospects." Lecture. University of Missouri, 

St. Louis, Missouri, 21 April 1972. 
"The Future-What's up for America?" Address. Republican 

Governors Association meeting, White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, 2 May 
. "The American Social Order and Public Policy." Address. 

Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C., 16 May 1972. 

"It's Dangerous to Talk about 'National Sickness'." U.S. News and 

World Report (29 May 1972), pages 18-20. 
Gorr, Louis F. "The Rise and Fall of the Foxall-Columbia Foundry, Georgtown: A 

Profile of an Early American Defense Contractor." Paper delivered to the 

Columbia Historical Society, April 1972. 
. "Is the Scientist Responsible?" Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 

(June 1971), pages 36-37. 
"Technology and Humanism." The Humanist (July/August, 

1971), pages 39-42. 
"The Maximum Automatic Machine Gun." Exhibit brochure. 

United States Marine Corps Museum, Quantico. Virginia, Fall, 1971. 
Skramstad, Harold K. "American Things: A Neglected Material Culture." American 

Studies, volume 10 (Spring 1972), pages 1 1-22. 
"The Anatomy of Washington: Contours of Capital City Growth." 

Lecture. Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University, 14 March 1972. 
. "Historical Archeology and its Role in Historic Preservation." 

Lecture. Tenth Annual National Trust Woodlawn Conference for Historic 
Preservation, 21 February 1972. 
. "Material Aspects of American Civilization." Graduate Seminar. 

Smithsonian American Studies Program, Fall 1971. 
. "American Technology and its Cultural Impact." Graduate 

Seminar. Smithsonian American Studies Program, Fall 1971. 
. "American Technology and its Cultural Impact." Graduate 

Seminar. Smithsonian American Studies Program, Spring 1972. 
. "Dialogue on Preservation in Washington." Session at First Annual 

Washington Preservation Conference, 14 April 1972. 


Adrosko, Rita J. "American Textiles, 1750-1850." Lecture. School of Architecture, 
Columbia University. March 1972. 

. "Early European and American Handlooms." Lecture. Hand- 
weavers' Guild of Westchester. March 1972. 

"Textiles from the Smithsonian's Collection." Handweaver & 

Craftsman, volume 23, number 2 (March/ April 1972) pages 20-22,4 illustrations. 
Bruns, Franklin R., Jr. "Visiting the Smithsonian: Color Slides Available." Scott 

Monthly Journal, volume 52, number 10 (January 1972) pages 4-5, 31. 
. "The Honorable Discharge Emblem Commemorative of 1946." 

American Philatelic Congress Book (1971), pages 11-25. 
. "Visiting the Smithsonian: The National Parks." Scott Monthly 

Journal, volume 53, number 5 (July 1972), pages 18-19, 38, 43. 
Clain-Stefanelli, Elvira. "Artistic Evolution of Medals in the United States." National 

Sculpture Review, (Fall 1971), pages 14-1 7, illustrated. 
"Kunstler U.S.A." In Katalog XIV. Inter Medaille Koln 1971. 

Cologne, 1971. 
. "Deutsche Beitrage zur Kiinstlerischen Entwicklung der Ameri- 

kanischen Medaille." [German Contributions to the Art of the Medal in the 
United States"] Lecture. F.I.D.E.M. (Federation Internationale de la Medaille) 
Congress, Cologne, Germany, 15 September 1971. 
"LTtalia e glTtaliani nelle loro monete". ("Italy and the Italians as 

Reflected in Their Coinages"] . Lecture. Italian Society of Washington, Washing- 
ton, D.C., 18 November 1971. 


Clain-Stefanelli, V. "Deutsche Beitrage zur Technischen Entwicklung der Ameri- 

kanischen Medaille u'nd Munze," ["German Contributions to Medal- and 

Coin-manufacturing Techniques in the United States"]. Invitational lecture. 

F.I.D.E.M. Congress, Cologne, Germany, 17 September 1971. 
Cooper, Grace R. The Copp Family Textiles. 65 pages, 68 illustrations. Washington, 

D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1971. 
. "Handweaving and the Powerloom in 18th Century America." 

Handweaver & Craftsman, volume 22, number 9 (Fall 1971), pages 5-9, 6 figures. 
Haberstich, David E. "The Smithsonian's History of Photography Collection." 

Lecture. National Institutes of Health Camera Club, 21 December 1971. 
Harris, Elizabeth M. "The American Common Press." The Journal of the Printing 

Historical Society, volume 7 (1971). 
Marzio, Peter C. "Carpentry in the Southern Colonies during the Eighteenth Century 

with Emphasis on Maryland and Virginia." Winterthur Portfolio, volume 7 

(1972), pages 229-250. 
"Early American Prints as a News Medium." Lecture. Library of 

Congress Print Conference, June, 1972. 
Norby, Reidar. "Unique Swedish Printing Technique." Scandinavian Scribe, volume 7 

number 7 (July 1971), pages 123-124, 2 figures. 
. "Postal Economy of the Northlands for 1970." Scandinavian 

Scribe, volume 7, number 7 (July 1971), pages 135-137. 
. "Postal Stationery." Scott Monthly Journal, volume 52, number 8 

(November 1971), pages 18-19,4 Figures. 
. "Postal Look at Scandinavia, 1969, 1970." Scandinavian Scribe, 

volume 7, number 9 (Oct/Nov. 1971), page 178. 
. "Five Nordic Philatelic Centenaries in 1972." Scandinavian Scribe, 

volume 8, number 2 (February 1972), pages 19-21, 10 figures. 
"New Counterfeit of Norway 3 Skill 1863?" Scandinavian Scribe, 

volume 8, number 2 (February 1972), pages 27-28, 8 figures. 
. "Off-set-What Is It, Really?" Scandinavian Scribe, volume 8 

number 3 (March 1972), pages 35-37, 2 figures. 
Watermarks - What Are They, Really? 12 pages, 11 illus. 

Washington, D.C.: Scandinavian Scribe, 1972. 
. "A Three-strip Returns Home." Scandinavian Scribe, volume 8, 

number 6 (June 1972), pages 88-89, 3 figures. 
"Scandinavian Varieties." Scandinavian Scribe, volume 8 (1972), 

pages 14, 46, 60, 75, 94, 6 figures. 
"Philatelic Gems of the Smithsonian Collections." Lecture. CIA 

Stamp Club, June 1971. 
. "Smithsonian's Special Exhibition - Stamps and Posts of Scandi- 

navia". Lecture. General Directorate of Post and Telegraph of Denmark, 
Copenhagen, Denmark. August 1971. 
. "Smithsonian's Special Exhibition - Stamps and Posts of Scandi- 

navia." Lecture. Royal Postal Administration of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden, 
August 1971. 
"Preparations for Philatelic Exhibitions." Lecture. Washington 

Chapter of Scandinavian Collectors Club, February 1972. 
Ostroff, Eugene. "Foreword." In Edward M. Estabrooke, The Ferreotype and How 

to Make It. Revised edition. Hastings-on-the Hudson, New York: Morgan and 

Morgan, March 1972. [First edition 1872.] 
. "Preservation and Conservation of Photographs and Related 

Documents." Seminar. National Museum of History and Technology, 5, 6, 7 

March 1972. 


Roney, Ellen E. "The Photograph Collection." Scott Monthly Journal, volume 53, 

number 2 (April 1972), page 5. 
Roney, Ellen E., Reidar Norby, and Carl H. Scheele. "Smithsonian Philatelic 

Booklist." S.P.A. Journal, volumes 33, 34 (1971). 
Scheele, Carl H. "The Burden of the Far West: U.S. Mails and the Turner Thesis." 

The American Philatelist, volume 85, number 7 (September 1971), pages 

. "The Western Post Office under Buchanan and Lincoln." The 

American Philatelist, volume 85, number 9 (September 1971), pages 781-791. 
. "Visiting the Smithsonian: The Headsville Post Office." Scott 

Monthly Journal, volume 52, number 6 (September 1971), pages 10-11. 
. "Philatelic Rarities in the National Postage Stamp Collection." 

Lecture. Collectors Club of Washington, D.C., 7 June 1972. 
Turner, Craig J. "The Early United States Revenues." The New Orleans Collector 

(November-December 1971), pages 112, 113, 114, 115. 
. "The Last Railway Mail Car." The American Philatelist, volume 

85, number 2 (February 1972), pages 127, 128,129,130, 131. 
Vann, Lois M. "Natural Fibers, Processing and Spinning." Lecture. Department of 

Home Economics, Howard University, November 1971. 


Ahlborn, Richard E. "Spanish New Mexico, 1775-1875." Lecture. Cedar Crest 

College, Allentown, Pennsylvania, March 1972. 
"Objects as Historic Documents." Lecture. American University, 

Washington, D.C., November, 1971 . 
. "Spanish New Mexican Material Culture." Lecture. American 

Studies Program at the Smithsonian, October, 1971. 
"Space and Form in Spanish New Mexican Architecture." Lecture. 

D.C. Chapter of the Society for Architectural Historians, April, 1972. 
. "Spanish New Mexican Folk Art." Lecture. Cooperstown, New 

York, July, 1971. 
. "Spanish American Arts, Old Mexico to New." Lecture. Shelburne 

Village, Vermont, August, 1971. 
. "Spanish-American Material Culture, 1600-1900: Spain; Mexican 

Colonial Architecture; Spanish Colonial Arts: New Mexican Arts." Lectures (4). 

University of Vermont Course at Shelburne, August, 1972. 
Fesperman, John. "Three Snetzler Organs in the U.S." Volume 2 of TJte Organ 

Yearbook, London (1972). 
Kidwell, Claudia B. "Women's 19th Century Dress -Evolution and Inspiration." 

Daughters of the American Revolution, Washington, D.C. 19 February 1972. 
. "Care and Maintenance of Collections: Textiles and Costume." 

Lecture. National Trust for Historic Preservation Workshop: "What to do before 

the Conservator is Hired." 1 3 May 1972. 
. Lectures: (1) "17th Century American Costume as Listed in 

Maryland Inventories." November 1971. (2) "Introduction to 18th Century 
Costumes." 26 January 1972. (3) "18th Century Costume Construction Tech- 
niques." February 1972. (4) "18th Century Costumes in Paintings." 17 May 
1972. The Costume Study Group National Museum of History and Technology. 

Murray, Anne Wood. "The Copp Family Silhouettes." Antiques, volume 101 (March 
1972), pages 506-509, 1 1 figures. 

Odell, J. Scott. "Folk Instruments." Arts in Virginia, volume 12, number 1 (Fall 


Roth, Rodris. "Pieces of History: Relic Furniture of the Nineteenth Century." 

Antiques, volume 101 (May 1972), pages 874-878, 8 figures. 
. "Furnishing the Victorian House 1840-1860." Illustrated lecture. 

Decorative Arts Society, City Art Museum of St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, 9 

December 1971. 
Watkins, C. Malcolm. "Artifacts from the Sites of Three Nineteenth Century Houses 

and Ditches at Darien Bluff, Georgia." University of Georgia Laboratory of 

Archaeology Series Report, number 9. 
. "Albert Wells and the Genesis of Old Sturbridge Village." Lecture. 

Old Sturbridge Village, Sturbridge, Massachusetts, 1 November 1971. 
. "A Waspish View of Early California: Anglo-Colonialism in the 

Material Environment." Lecture. Smithsonian 19th Century Seminar. 16 Novem- 
ber 1971. 
"An Essex County Girl in the Gold Rush." Lecture. Middleton 

Historical Society, Middleton, Massachusetts, 19 May 1972. 


Berkebile, Don H. "The Motor Truck and its Place in the National Museum's 

Collections." Lecture. U.S. Truck Historical Society, National Museum of 

Transport, St. Louis, Missouri, March 1972. 
Gardner, Paul V. The Glass of Frederick Carder. 373 pages, illustrated. New York: 

Crown Publishers, Inc.. 1971. 
Hoffman, John N. Centennial Year in Review, Prince Edwin Lodge, Middletown, 

Pennsylvania. 30 pages, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Central Publishing Company, 

. "Coal's Future in the Energy Market." Lecture. Industrial War 

College, Ft. McNair, Washington, D.C., 8 February 1972. 
. "Minerals for the Future-U.S. Position." Lecture. Industrial War 

College, Ft. McNair, Washington, D.C., 15 February 1972. 
"Stockpiling-A Need of the Future." Lecture. Industrial War 

College, Ft. McNair, Washington, D.C. 22 March 1972. 

'The Search for Space Age Minerals." Lecture. U.S. Army Corps 

of Engineers Mobilization Detachment, Army Map Service, Washington, D.C, 29 
March 1972. 

'Mechanization of the Anthracite Industry." Paper presented to 

the 7th Annual Conference of the Pennsylvania Research Association, Harrisburg, 

Pennsylvania, 29 April 1972. 
Miller, J. Jefferson II. "English Yellow-Glazed Earthenware, Part I." Antiques 

Magazine (July 1971), pages 93-98. 
"English Yellow-Glazed Earthenware, Part II." Antiques Magazine 

(August 1971), pages 236-240. 

. "The Porcelain Trade of America." Discovering Antiques, number 

43, (Fall 1971), pages 1019-1023. 

. "Analysis of the Ralph Wark Collection of Meissen Porcelain." 

Paper read to the American Ceramic Circle, New York, New York, November 

Schlebecker, John T. "Farmers in the Lower Shenandoah Valley, 1850." The 

Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, volume 79 (October 1971), pages 

"Curatorial Agriculture." Agricultural History, volume 46 (January 

1972), pages 95-103. 

"Farming on the Western Frontier." Lecture. The Western History 

Association Convention, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 15 October 1971. 
Schlebeckei, John T., and Gale E. Peterson. "Living Historical Farms Handbook" 

Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology, number 16 (24 April 1972), 91 

Sharrer, G. Terry. "The Indigo Bonanza in South Carolina, 1740-90." Technology 

end Culture, volume 12, number 3 (July 1971), pages 447455. 
. "International Impact of Selected Agricultural Pressures." 

Graduate research seminar. University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural 

and Resource Economics, Spring semester 1972. 
White, John H., Jr. "The Railway Museum -Does it Have a Future." Paper read to the 

American Railway Museum Association, Baltimore, Maryland, October 1971. 


Collins, Herbert Ridgeway. Presidents on Wheels. Washington, D.C.: Acropolis 

Books, 1971. 
Klapthor, Margaret B. "Furniture in the Capitol: Desks and Chairs Used in the 

Chamber of the House of Representatives, 18 19-1 857." Records of the Columbia 

Historical Society (May 1972), pages 190-211. 
Langley, H.D. "Early Diplomatic Couriers. " Foreign Service Journal (October 1971), 

pages 6-10. 
. "An Adventurer Critiques the Custer Disaster." Montana History 

(Spring 1972), pages 20-33. 
Lundeberg, Philip K. "The Museum Perspective." Military Affairs, volume 35 (1971), 

pages 111-113, 157-158; and volume 36 (1972), pages 22-24, 65-67. 
Peterson, Mendel L. "Buried Treasure Beneath the Spanish Main." Courier (May 

1972), UNESCO: Paris. 
. "Bermuda Underwater Expedition, 1965." National Geographic 

Society Research Reports, number 506. 1971. 


Davis, Audrey B. "Magnesia Alba Before Black." Presented at the History of Phar- 
macy meeting, Houston, Texas, 24 April 1972. 

Eklund, Jon B. "Duhamel du Monceau." Pages 223-225, in Dictionary of Scientific 
Biography, volume 4. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971. 

_. "The Medical Student's Experience in Edinburgh." Lecture. 

Conference on Scottish Studies, Banner Elk, North Carolina, 5-6 May 1972. 

, . "Some Applications of Philosophy of Science to the History of 

Chemistry." Lecture to curators. Department of Science and Technology, Smith- 
sonian Institution, 16 February 1972. 

Finn, Bernard S. "Telegraphy: Theory and Practice in the 19th Century." Lecture. 
XIII International Congress for the History of Science, Moscow, August 197 1 . 

_. "History in Three Dimensions." Lecture. Delta Epsilon Sigma 

Honor Society, Stonehill College, North Easton, Massachusetts, April 1972. 

"Alexander Graham Bell." Pages 582-583, in Dictionary of Scien- 

tific Biography, volume 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970. [Not 
previously reported.] 

"Josiah Latimer Clark." Pages 288-289, in Dictionary of Scientific 

Biography, volume 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970. [Not previously 

. "James dimming." Page 497, in Dictionary of Scientific Bio- 

graphy, volume 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970. [Not previously 
reported. ] 
. "Thomas Alva Edison." Pages 283-284, in Dictionary of Scientific 

Biography, volume 4. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971 . 
"Richard Tetley Glazebrook." Pages 423-424, in Dictionary of 

Scientific Biography, volume 5. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1972. 
Hamarneh, Sami K., Pharmacy Museums, U.S.A. vi + 49 pages, illustrated. Madison, 

Wisconsin: American Institute of the History of Pharmacy, 1972. 
. "The Physician and the Health Professions in Medieval Islam." 

Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, volume 47 (September 1971), 

pages 1088-1110, 6 illustrations. 
. "Contributions of Ah al-Tabari to Ninth Century Arabic Culture." 

Folia Orientalia, volume 12 (1971), pages 91-101. 
"Arabic Medicine and its Impact on the Teaching and Practice of 

the Healing Arts in the West." Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (Rome, Italy), 
volume 13 (1971), pages 395-425, 10 plates. 
"Development of Arabic Medical Therapy in the Tenth Century." 

Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, volume 27 (1972), pages 
"Dental Exhibition and Reference Collection at the Smithsonian 

Institution." HSMHA Health Reports, volume 87, number 4 (1972), pages 
291-303, illustrated. 
. "Physicians and Practitioners during the Arabic Golden Age." 

Lecture. Medical Faculty, University of Alexandria, Egypt, 28 October 1971. 
. "Origins and Concepts of Arabic Medical Therapy." Lecture. Na- 

tional Library of Medicine, 15 March 1972. 

.. "Educational Impact of Pharmacy Museums: A Historical Survey. 

Lecture. National Pharmaceutical Association of Washington, D.C. 17 March 
. "Museum Curators and Displays." Lecture. International Students 

Incorporated, Washington, D.C, 25 March 1972. 
_. "Greco-Roman Medical Legacy and its Influence on Arabic 

Medicine." Lecture. North-Carolina State University at Raleigh, 20 April 1972. 
Mayr, Otto. "Feedback Mechanisms in the Historical Collections of the National 

Museum of History and Technology." Smithsonian Studies in History and 

Technology, number 12 (20 July 1971), 133 pages, 145 figures. 
"Victorian Physicists and Speed Regulation: An Encounter 

Between Science and Technology." Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 

volume 26 (1971), pages 205-228. 
"Maxwell and the Origins of Cybernetics." Isis, volume 62 (1971), 

pages 425-444. 

Multhauf, Robert P. "The French Crash-Program for Saltpeter Production, 1776-94." 
Technology and Culture, volume 12 (1971), pages 163-181. 

Laurits Christian Eichner: Craftsman, 1894-1967. 60 pages. Wash- 
ington, D.C: Privately printed, 1971. 

Warner, Deborah Jean. "The Celestial Cartography of Giovanni Antonio Vanosina da 
Varese." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, volume 34 (1971), 
pages 366-367. 

"Lewis Boss." Pages 332-333, in Dictionary of Scientific Bio- 
graphy, volume 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970. [Not previously 

. "John A. Brashear." Pages 423424, in Dictionary of Scientific 

Biography, volume 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970. [Not previously 
. "William Robert Brooks." Pages 502-503, in Dictionary of Scien- 

tific Biography, volume 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970. [Not pre- 
viously reported.] 
. "Ernest William Brown." Page 516, in Dictionary of Scientific 

Biography, volume 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970. [Not previously 
"Sherburne Wesley Burnham." Pages 614-615, in Dictionary of 

Scientific Biography, volume 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970. [Not 
previously reported.] 
. "Alvan Graham Clark." Page 288, in Dictionary of Scientific Bio- 

graphy, volume 3. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971. 
. "George Cary Comstock." Page 374, in Dictionary of Scientific 

Biography, volume 3. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971. 

Freer Gallery of Art 

Atil, Esin. Exhibition of 2500 Years of Persian Art. 83 pages. Washington, D.C.: 
Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, 1971. 

. "A Stunning Display of Art with a 2500-year History." Smith- 
sonian, volume 3, number 1 (1972), pages 16-22. 

. "Ottoman Art at the Freer Gallery." Sanat Tarihi Arastirmalari, 

volume 4 (1971), pages 185-213. (Annual bulletin of the History of Art Depart- 
ment of Istanbul University.) 

Chase, W. Thomas. "Science in Art." In The McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and 
Technology 1971. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1972. 

. "Egyptian Blue as a Pigment and Ceramic Material." Chapter 5, in 

Robert H. Brill, editor, Science and Archaeology. Cambridge and London: MIT 
Press, 1971. 

"Discussion of Gondus's Analytical Results." Lecture. Fogg Art 

Museum, January 1971. [Not previously reported.] 

.. "Optics and the Examination of Works of Art." Lecture. For the 

Optical Society of America at Georgetown University, May 1971. [Not previously 

"Chinese Belt-Hooks." Lecture. Archaeology Seminar, Kyoto 

University, Japan, October 1971. 

'Chinese Belt-Hooks and Their Technical Examination." Lecture. 

The National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, October 1971. 
. "Some Thoughts on Analyses of Ancient Chinese Bronzes." Lec- 

ture. Nuclear Engineering Seminar, National Tsing-hua University, Hsinchu, 
Taiwan, October 1971. 
"Analyses of Ancient Bronzes." Lecture. Indian National Museum, 

New Delhi, November 1971. 
"Aspects of Analysis of Chinese Bronzes." Lecture. Oriental 

Bronze Seminar. The Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada, December 1971. 
"My Trip to Taiwan." Lecture. Washington Region Conservation 

Guild, January 1972. 
"Practical Problems and Technical Concepts in Treatment of 

Bronze Disease." Lecture. Washington Region Conservation Guild, February 

. "Thermoluminescence and the Freer Chinese Bronzes." Lecture. 

American Oriental Society, 182nd Annual Meeting, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 

April 1972. 
Chase, W. Thomas, Rutherford J. Gettens, and Roy S. Clarke, Jr. "Two Early Chinese 

Bronze Weapons with Meteoritic Iron Blades." Freer Gallery of Art Occasional 

Papers, volume 4, number 1 (1971). 
Chase, W. Thomas, and Jeremy Hutt, "Aaron Draper Shattuck's Patent Stretcher 

Key." Studies in Conservation, number 17 (1972), pages 12-29. 
Chase, W. Thomas, and Maurice Salmon. "Spectroscopy in the History of Materials." 

Lecture. Society for Applied Spectroscopy, Baltimore-Washington Section, May 

The Freer Gallery of Art I: China, 184 pages, Tokyo: Kodansha, Ltd., 1971. In 

English and Japanese. 
The Freer Gallery of Art II: Japan, 184 pages, Tokyo: Kodansha, Ltd., 1971. In 

English and Japanese. 
Lawton, Thomas. Eugene and Agnes E. Meyer Memorial Exhibition. 11 pages. 

Washington, D.C.: Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, 1971. 
"Notes on Five Paintings from a Ch'ing Dynasty Collection." Ars 

Orientalis, volume 8 (1970), pages 191-215. [Not previously reported.] 
"Aspects of Chinese Culture." Course. Institute for Sino-Soviet 

Studies of the George Washington University. September 1970-January 1971. 

[Not previously reported.] 
"Chinese Buddhist Art." Lecture. Johns Hopkins University, 

November 1970. [Not previously reported.] 
_. "Chinese Buddhist Art: Han through Sune." Lecture. Allentown 

Art Museum, April 1971. [Not previously reported.] 
"Charles Lang Freer as a Collector." Lecture. Metropolitan 

Museum of Art, October 1971. 
"Charles Lang Freer as a Collector." Lecture. Cosmos Club, 

Washington, D.C., December 1971. 
Lovell, Hin-cheung. "Notes on Chll-lu Hsicn." Oriental Art, volume 16, number 3 

(Autumn, 1970), pages 259-261. [Not previously reported.] 
. "Wang Hui's Dwelling in the Fu-ch'un Mountains: A Classical 

Theme, Its Origin and Variations." Ars Orientalis, volume 8 (1970), pages 

217-242. [Not previously reported.] 
, "The Art of the Ch'ien-lung Period." Lecture. The Hermitage 

Foundation, Norfolk, November 1971. 
. "Chinese Ceramics." Lecture. Chinese Community Church, Wash- 

ington, D.C., April 1972. 
Pope, John A. "The Beginnings of Procelain in Japan." Pages 1-7 in 200 Years of 

Japanese Procelain. Exhibition catalog. St. Louis, Missouri: City Art Museum of 

St. Louis, 1970. [ Not previously reported.] 
. "The Freer Gallery of Art." Records of the Columbia Historical 

Society of Washington, D.C, 1969-1970 (June 1971), pages 380-398. 
. "Chinese Influences on Iznik Pottery: A Reexamination of an Old 

Problem." Pages 125-139, in Richard Ettinghausen, editor, Islamic Art in the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: 1972. 

. "Chinese Porcelains at Home and Abroad." Lecture. The Alex- 
andria Association, Alexandria, Virginia, October 1970. [Not previously re- 

. "Japanese Porcelains and The Dutch Trade." Lecture. City Art 

Museum of St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, December 1970. [Not previously 

. "Charles Lang Freer and His Collection." Lecture. The Alexandria 

Association, Alexandria, Virginia, October 1970. [Not previously reported.] 
. "Japanese Porcelain and the Dutch Trade." Lecture. William 

Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas City, Missouri, December 1970. [Not 
previously reported.] 
"Ming Porcelain: A Retrospective." Lecture. China Institute in 

America, Inc., New York, November 1970. [Not previously reported.] 
Stern, Harold P. "Preface." In Zaigai Hiho-Suzuki Haronobu (Ukiyoe Prints in 

Western Collections.) Tokyo: Gakken, 1972. 
. "Introduction." In Hosomi Kokoan. Toki ni Hana. Osaka: Naniwa 

Sha, 1971. 
. "Japan, Fine Arts, and Architecture." Pages 57-59, in East Asia: A 

Bibliography for Undergraduate Libraries. Williamsport, Pennsylvania: Bro-Dart 
Publishing Co., 1970. [Not previously reported.] 

Rimpa: Master-works of the Japanese Decorative School. New 

York: Japan Society, 1971. 

. "Rimpa." Lecture. Japan House, New York, September 1971. 

, . "Mirror, Mirror." Lecture. The Art Institute of Chicago, November 

. "Technical Problems Relating to Ukiyoe." Lecture. The Art Insti- 

tute of Chicago, November 1971. 
. "Ukiyoe Paintings in the Freer Gallery of Art." Lecture. Tokyo, 

January 1972. 
"Japan and the United States-The Future of Ukiyoe Studies.' 

Lecture. Tokyo, January 1972. 
"The Paintings of Tachibana Tenkei." Lecture. West Texas State 

University, June 1972. 
Winter, John. "Thermoluminescent Dating of Pottery." Chapter 4, in H.N. Michael 
and E.K. Ralph, editors, Dating Techniques for the Archaeologist. Cambridge and 
London: MIT Press, 1971. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

Breeskin, Adelyn D. "20th Century American Artists." Lecture. Wives Seminar For- 
eign Service Institute, Washington, D.C. (Monthly lecture), 1971-1972. 

. "Kathe Kollwitz." Lecture. Temple Oheb Shalom, Baltimore, 

Maryland, 15 November 1971. 

"The Delaware Art Center." Lecture. Wilmington Society of the 

Fine Arts, Wilmington, Delaware, 19 November 1971. 
. "Philadelphia Museum of Art. Lecture. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 

18 November 1971. 
"Mary Cassatt." Lecture. The Norfolk Society of Arts, Norfolk, 

Virginia, 7 January 1972. 
. "Early Years of Print Collecting in Baltimore." Lecture. Baltimore 

Print Club, Maryland, 27 February 1972. 
. "The Rise of Women Artists." Lecture. The Cosmopolitan Club, 

New York, New York, 16 March 1972. 
"The Rise of Women Artists." Lecture. The North Carolina Mu- 

seum of Art, Raleigh, North Carolina, 28 March 1972. 
"Two American Painters: Fritz Scholder and T.C. Cannon." Lec- 

ture. National Collection of Fine Arts. Washington, D.C. 11 April 1972. 

"The Rise of Women in the Arts." Lecture. Corcoran Gallery of 

Art, Washington, D.C., 21 April 1972. 
"20th Century American Art in the National Collection of Fine 

Arts." Lecture. National Collection of Fine Arts, Washington, D.C., 20 June 

William H. Johnson: 1901-1970. Catalog. 208 pages, 168 illustra- 
tions. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1971. 

Lee Gatch, 1902-1968. Catalog. 64 pages, 40 illustrations. Wash- 

ington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1971. 

.. "Introduction." Edith Gregor Halpert, Memorial Exhibition. Cata- 

log checklist. 4 pages, 1 illustration. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution 
Press. 1972. 

Two American Painters: Fritz Scholder and T.C. Cannon. Catalog. 

45 pages, 15 illustrations. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1972. 
Feldman, Arthur M. "The History of the Renwick Gallery." Lecture. The Corcoran 

Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 26 April 1972. 
. "The History of the Renwick Gallery." Lecture. National 

Collection of Fine Arts, Washington, D.C., 20 May 1972. 

'American Furniture 17th, 18th & 19th Centuries." In Oxford 

Companion to the Useful Arts. London, England, Oxford University Press. 1972. 
Flint, Janet. Boris Anisfeldt: Twenty Years of Designs for the Theater. Catalog. 35 

pages, 12 illustrations, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1971. 
Drawings by William Glackens, 1870-1938. Catalog. 20 pages 12 

illustrations. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1972. 
"Art Nouveau: American Posters and Prints." Discovering Anti- 

ques, London, England, issue 79 (April 1972), pages 1882-1886. 

/. Alden Weir: An American Printmaker. Catalog. 96 pages, 88 

illustrations. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 1972. 

Herman, Lloyd E. "Crafts in America: Who Needs Them Today?" Lecture. Montgo- 
mery College, Takoma Park, Maryland, 17 April 1972. 

"Preface." Page 2, in Woodenworks. Catalog. 48 pages, 41 

illustrations. Saint Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Museum of Art, January 1972. 

Muhlert, Jan K. "William H. Johnson." TV interview. WTTG-TV, Channel 5, 
Washington, D.C., 11 and 14 November 1971: "Panorama," Channel 5, Wash- 
ington, D.C., 12 November 1971; and WTOP-TV Channel 9, Washington, D.C., 
1 December 1971. 

. "William H. Johnson." Lecture. United States Information 

Agency, Washington, D.C., 16 March 1972. 

Taylor, Joshua C. "To Catch the Eye and Hold the Mind: The Museum as Educator." 
Art Education (October 1971). 

. "The National Collection of Fine Arts." Lecture. Educational and 

Cultural Attaches, Cosmos Club, Washington, D.C., 12 October 1971. 

. "Sculpture as the Exploration of Space." Lecture. The J.B. Speed 

Art Museum, Louisville, Kentucky, 13 November 1971. 
. "The Malbin Collection." Lecture. American Institute of De- 

signers, Detroit, Michigan, 21 March 1972. 
"The Modern Image." Lecture. The High Museum, Atlanta, Georgia, 

10 April 1972. 
. "Where is Art?" Lecture. University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 

22 April 1972. 
. . "The Obligation of the Artist." Lecture. The Art Academy of 

Cincinnati, 19 May 1972. 

. "What is an Art School?" Commencement address. Portland, 

Oregon: Museum Art School, August 1971. 
"The Concept of Abstraction in Italy." In Color & Form 1909- 

1941. San Diego, California: The Fine Arts Gallery of San Diego, November 1971. 
Truettner, William H. "Collecting Activities of William T. Evans." The American Art 

Journal, (November 1971). 
Truettner, William H., and Robin Bolton-Smith. "National Parks and the American 

Landscape." Pages 13-33 in, National Parks and the American Landscape. Catalog. 

Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1972. 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design 

Dee, Elaine Evans. "Catalog of the Exhibition." In Winslow Homer, 1836-1910. 
Catalog. 125 pages [unnumbered], 106 illustrations. Washington, D.C.: Smith- 
sonian Institution Press, 1972. 

Frangiamore, Catherine. "On Wallpaper." The Designer (March 1972), pages 4-6. 

Goodrich, Lloyd. "Introduction." In Winslow Homer, 1836-1910. Catalog. 125 pages 
[unnumbered], 106 illustrations. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution 
Press, 1972. 

Sonday, Milton. "A Second Type of Mughal Sash." Textile Museum Journal (1971). 

Wilmerding, John. "Winslow Homer's Drawings." In Winslow Homer, 1836-1910. 
Catalog. 125 pages [unnumbered], 106 illustrations. Washington, D.C.: Smith- 
sonian Institution Press, 1972. 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 

Elliott, John M. "Wonder Where Ole Yellow Went." Journal of American Aviation 
Historical Quarterly, volume 17, number 1 (1st quarter 1972), pages 18-20. 

. . "Another Look at the Record." Marine Corps Gazette (June 

1972), pages 56-57. 

"Sparrowhawk Remarked." Journal of American Aviation Histori- 

cal Quarterly, volume 17, number 2 (2d quarter 1972), pages 117-121. 
Hutchins, James S. "Westward with the United States Dragoons." Lecture. Potomac 

Corral, The Westerners, Washington, D.C., 21 October 1971. 
"Henry Dodge, George Catlin, and the 'Grand Western Tour,' 

1834." Lecture. Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis, Missouri, 25 February 

Stokesberry, James J. "Washington, D.C., in the Civil War." Lecture. Point Park 

College, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, April 1972. 
"The Tecumseh Project." Lecture. John Fricsson Republican 

League of Illinois, St. Charles, Illinois, April 1972. 

Joseph Henry Papers 

Molella, Arthur P. "Philosophy and Nineteenth-Century German Electrodynamics: 
The Problem of Action at a Distance." PhD dissertation, Cornell University, New 
York, 1972. 

Reingold, Nathan. "Cleveland Abbe." Page 6, in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 
volume 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970. [Not previously reported.] 

. "Alexander Dallas Bache." Pages 363-365, in Dictionary of Scien- 
tific Biography, volume 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970. [Not pre- 
viously reported.] 

"Louis Agricola Bauer." Pages 521-522, in Dictionary of Scientific 

Biography, volume 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970. [Not pre- 
viously reported.] 

'Nathaniel Bowditch." Pages 368-369, in Dictionary of Scientific 

Biography, volume 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970. [Not previously 

'James McKeen Cattell." Pages 130-131, in Dictionary of Scien- 

tific Biography, volume 3. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971. 

'James P. Espy." Pages 410-411, in Dictionary of Scientific Bio- 

graphy, volume 4. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971 . 

'O.W. Gibbs." Pages 393-394, in Dictionary of Scientific Bio- 

graphy, volume 5. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1972. 

'Joseph Henry: The Improbable Creator of an Improbable Institu- 

tion." Lecture. 125th Anniversary of the Founding of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, September 1971. 

'Joseph Henry as a Two Cultures Myth." Lecture. History of 

Science and Technology Forum, Iowa State University, March 1972. 

'Historical Editing." Lecture. Graduate Program, New York State 

Historical Association, Cooperstown, March 1972. 
. "History of Science in the United States, 1800-1950." Seminar. 

Smithsonian Institution, September 1971-June 1972. 
Reingold, Nathan, and A.P. Molella. "Theories and Ingenious Mechanics: Joseph 
Henry Defines Science." Paper presented to joint session of the History of 
Science Society and the American Historical Association, December 1971. 

Office of American Studies 

Washburn, Wilcomb E. "American Indians." Pages 355-357, in The Americana An- 
nual, 1970: Yearbook of the Encyclopedia Americana, 48th edition. New York: 
Americana Corporation, 1970. [Not previously reported.] 

. "American Indians." Pages 348-349, in The Americana Annual, 

1971: Yearbook of the Encyclopedia Americana, 49th edition, New York: 
Americana Corporation, 1971. 

. "American Indians." Pages 342-343, in The Americana Annual, 

1971: Yearbook of the Encyclopedia Americana, 50th edition. New York: 
Americana Corporation, 1972. 
. Red Man's Land/ White Man's Law: A Study of the Past and 

Present Status of the American Indian, x + 288 pages. New York: Charles 
Scribner's Sons, 1971. 

"Representation of Unknown Lands in XIV-, XV-, and XVI- 

Century Cartography." In Revista do Instituto Historico e Georgafico Brasileiro, 
volume 287, pages 449-462. Rio de Janeiro: Departamento de Imprensa Nacional, 
1970. [A variation, with some material omitted, some added, of paper of similar 
title published at Coimbra, Portugal, listed in last annual report.] 
Editor. Proceedings of the Vinland Map Conference, xv + 1 87 pages. 

Published for the Newberry Library. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971. 
"The Writing of American Indian History: A Status Report." Pa- 

cific Historical Review, volume 40, number 3 (August 1971), pages 26 1-281. 


Office of Seminars 

Dillon, Wilton S. "Anthropological Perspectives on Violence." Chapter 4, in Gene 
Usdin, editor, Perspectives on Violence. New York: Brunner/Mazel, publishers, 

Conservation- Analytical Laboratory 

Eirk, K.G. "An Experimental Evaluation of Accepted Methods for Removing Spots 
and Stains from Works of Art on Paper." Bulletin, International Institute for 
Conservation - American Group, volume 12, number 2 (1972), pages 82-87. 

Goodway, M.E. "Reaching the Verdict on a Pair of Earrings: Not Gilty." Bulletin, 
International Institute for Conservation - American Group, volume 12, number 2 
(1972), pages 117-118. 

McMillan, E. "Notes on Paper." Bulletin, International Institute for Conservation - 
American Group, volume 12, number 1 (1971) pages 11-15. 

Olin, J.S. "Neutron-Activation Analysis of Medieval Window Glass." Lecture. Tenth 
National Meeting of the Society for Applied Spectroscopy, St. Louis, Missouri, 
October 1971. 

Olin, J.S. and E.V. Sayre. "Compositional Categories of Some English and American 
Pottery of the American Colonial Period." Chapter 14, in Science and Archae- 
ology. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1971. 

Olin, J.S., B.A. Thompson, and E.V. Sayre. "Characterization of Medieval Window 
Glass by Neutron Activation Analysis." Developments in Applied Spectroscopy, 
volume 10(1972). 

Organ, R.M. "Conservation Problems." Lecture. Williamsburg Historic House Semi- 
nar, National Trust, Smithsonian Institution, 9 July 1971. 

. "Artefact Conservation." Lectures No. 21 to 40 and 61 to 80 of a 

series delivered in fall and winter at Smithsonian Institution, 1971-1972. 

. "Practical Problems and Technical Concepts in Treatment of 

Bronze Disease." Lecture, shared. Washington Region Conservation Guild. Smith- 
sonian Institution, 3 February 1972. 
. "Conservation Problems". Lecture. Woodlawn Conference, Na- 

tional Trust. Smithsonian Institution, 24 February 1972. 
. "Conservation of Museum Artifacts". Lecture. Department of Art, 

University of Maryland, 15 March 1972. 
. "Care and Restoration of Ceramics, Glass, and Metals." Lecture. 

Virginia History Federation. Gunston Hall, 8 April 1972. 
. "Stone Diseases." Lecture. School of Architecture, Columbia 

University, 11 April 1972. 
Salmon, M.E. "Uses of Spectroscopy in the History of Materials." Lecture. 
Baltimore-Washington Section of Society for Applied Spectroscopy. Hyattsville, 
23 May 1972. 

Office of Public Affairs 
(Leaflets issued by the Office) 

"Color Slides of Items Exhibited in the American Costume Hall. Division of Cos- 
tumes and Furnishings, Information Leaflet 71-17. 

"Archeology as a Career." Office of Public Affairs, Information Leaflet 71-18. "Select- 
ed Readings in Archeology." Office of Public Affairs, Information Leaflet 71-19. 


"Instructions for Completing Smithsonian Photographic Order Form for Reproduc- 
tion of Manuscripts." Department of Anthropology, Information Leaflet 71-20. 

"Announcement of Publication, Copp Family Textiles," Division of Textiles, In- 
formation Leaflet 71-21. 

"Making a "Limberjack'." Office of Elementary and Secondary Education. Informa- 
tion Leaflet 71-22. 

"Numismatic Dealers in New York City." Division of Numismatics, Information Leaf- 
let 71-23. 

"Selected Resources for the Study of Human Ecology." Office of Elementary and 
Secondary Education, Information Leaflet 71-24. 

"Procedure for Motion Pictures, TV Filming." Office of Public Affairs, Information 
Leaflet 71-25. 

"SI Photographic Lighting Restrictions." Office of Public Affairs, Information Leaf- 
let 71-26. 

"Numismatic Dealers in N.J., N.Y., Pa." Division of Numismatics, Information 
Leaflet 71-27. 

"Numismatic Dealers in N.C., S.C., Ga., Fla., etc." Division of Numismatics, 
Information Leaflet 71-28. 

"Numismatic Dealers in Md., D.C., Va., Ky., etc." Division of Numismatics, 
Information Leaflet 71-29. 

"Numismatic Dealers in Minn., Neb., Kan., Okla., etc." Division of Numismatics, 
Information Leaflet 71-30. 

"Numismatic Dealers in Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, etc." Division of Numis- 
matics, Information Leaflet 71-31. 

"Numismatic Dealers in Oregon, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, etc." Division of Numis- 
matics, Information Leaflet 71-32. 

"Numismatic Dealers in Hawaii, Alaska, California, Washington." Division of Numis- 
matics, Information Leaflet 71-33. 

"Numismatic Dealers in New England." Division of Numismatics, Information Leaf- 
let 71-34. 

"Photos of Women's 19th Century Dresses." Division of Costume and Furnishings, 
Information Leaflet 71-35. 

"Photos of Items in American Costume Hall." Division of Costume and Furnishings, 
Information Leaflet 71-36. 

"Photo Services Division Slide Price List." Photo Services Division, Information Leaf- 
let 71-37. 

"Photos Available from National Anthropology Archives." Department of Anthropo- 
logy, Information Leaflet 71-38. 

"Sources of Non-Technical Information on Zoology." Department of Vertebrate 
Zoology, Information Leaflet 71-39. 

"BAE Manuscript Collection." Department of Anthropology, Information Leaflet 

"Sources of Information on Mollusks." Division of Mollusks, Information Leaflet 

"Making a 'Limberjack' " (revision). Office of Education, Information Leaflet 72-2. 

"Suggested Publications on Fishes- West Coast North America-Marine. Division of 
Fishes, Information Leaflet 72-3. 

"Hammer Dulcimer History and Playing." Office of Education, Information Leaflet 

"Making a Hammer Dulcimer." Office of Education, Information Leaflet 72-5. 

"Publications Available on Exchange." SI Libraries, Information Leaflet 72-6. 


"Suggested References on Dolls." Division of Costumes and Furnishings, Information- 
Leaflet 72-7. 
"Suggested Publications on Fishes- Asia Fresh-Water and Marine." Division of Fishes, 

Information Leaflet 72-8. 
"Suggested Publications on Sharks." Division of Fishes, Information Leaflet 72-9. 
"Suggested Publications on Fishes-North American-Fresh-water." Division of Fishes, 

Information Leaflet 72-10. 
"Suggested Publications on Fishes (General)." Division of Fishes, Information Leaflet 

"Bibliography of Selected Readings on the Presidents of the U.S. and Presidential 

Campaigning." Division of Political History, Information Leaflet 72-12. 
"Recommended Readings for Political Campaign Collecting." Division of Political 

History, Information Leaflet 72-13. 
"The Foucault Pendulum." Division of Physical Sciences, Information Leaflet 72-14. 
"Photographs of American Presidential Memorabilia in the SI Collections." Division of 

Political History, Information Leaflet 72-15. 

Division of Performing Arts 

Rinzler, Ralph C, and Norm Cohen. "Uncle Dave Macon: A Bio-Discography."/o/w 
Edwards Memorial Foundation Special Series, number 3. 

Rinzler, Ralph C. "Foreword." In The Songs of Doc Watson. New York: Oak Publi- 
cations, 1971. 

Smithsonian Institution Press 

Hubel, Gordon. "Subsidiary Rights." Chapter 2, in Marketing Handbook. New York: 
The Association of American University Presses, 1971. 

Reading Is Fundamental 

RIF's Guide to Book Selection. Supplement 2. 68 pages. October 1971. 

RIF Newsletter, volume 1, issue 3 (August 1971), 4 pages, and volume 1, issue 4 

(November 1971), 6 pages. 
Reading Is Fun-damental. Descriptive brochure. 4 pages. September 1971. 

Information Systems Division 

Creighton, Reginald A., and James J. Crockett. "SELGEM: A System for Collection 
Management." Smithsonian Institution Information Systems Innovations, volume 
2, number 3 (August 1971). 

Roth, H. Daniel. "Cluster Analysis for the Biological and Social Sciences." In 
Cuadernos de Historia Economica de Cataluna, VI. Barcelona, Spain: Publication 
Interna del Depaitamento de Historia Econ6mica de la Facultad de Ciencias Polit- 
icas, Econbmicas y Comerciales de las Universidad, y del Instituto Municipal de 
Historia de Barcelona, October 1971. 

"Statistical Reviews." International Journal of Mathematical 

Geology, volume 4, number 2 (June 1972). 

Roth, H. Daniel, and J. Pierce, "Multivariate Discriminant Analysis of Brollastic 
Turbidites." International Journal of Mathematical Geology, volume 4, number 2 
(June 1972). 


National Gallery of Art 

Bullard, E. John. "The Centennial Year of Artist John Sloan." Smithsonian Magazine, 

volume 2, number 7 (October 1971). 
"John Sloan as an Illustrator." American Artist, volume 35 

(October 1971), page 52. 
Bullard, E. John, and David W. Scott. John Sloan 1871-1951. Washington, D.C.: 

National Gallery of Art, 1971. 
Cain, Fred. "Introduction." In Masters of the Passion: Durer and Rouault. Catalog. 

Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles, 1971. 
Campbell, William P. "The American Heritage at the National Gallery of Art." The 

Connoisseur, volume 178 (December 1971), pages 268-276. 
Cooke, H. Lester. Eyewitness to Space. New York: Harry Abrams, Inc., 1971. 
Painting Techniques of the Masters. New York: Watson-Guptill, 

Feller, Robert L. "Analysis of Pigments." Pages 327-344, in American Painting to 

1776: A Reappraisal. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1971. 
. "Notes on the Chemistry of Bleaching." Bulletin of the American 

Group- The International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic 

Works, volume 11, number 2 (1971), pages 39-56. 
"Scientific Examination of Artistic and Decorative Colorants." 

Journal of Paint Technology, volume 44 (1972), pages 51-58. 
Feller, Robert L., and Catherine W. Bailie. "Solubility of Aged Coatings Based on 

Dammar, Mastic, and Resin AW-2." Bulletin of the American Group-The Inter- 
national Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, volume 12, 

number 2 (1972), pages 72-81. 
Feller, Robert L., and M. Curran. "Lightfast Soluble Colorants." Bulletin of the 

American Group-The International Institute for Conservation of Historic and 

Artistic Works, volume 1 1, number 2 (1971), page 15. 
Feller, Robert L., B. Keisch, and M. Curran. "Notes on Modern Pigments." Bulletin 

of the American Group-The International Institute for Conservation of Historic 

and Artistic Works, volume 12, number 1 (1972), pages 60-62. 
Feller, Robert L., Nathan Stolow, and Elizabeth H. Jones. On Picture Varnishes and 

their Solvents. Revised edition. Cleveland: The Press of Case Western University, 

Grossman, Sheldon. "An Anonymous Florentine Drawing and the 'So-Called Ver- 

rocchio Sketchbook'." Master Drawings, volume 10 (1972), pages 15-19. 
Lewis, Douglas. "Romantic Classicism in America: The Full Temple Form." Paper 

delivered at 13th International Congress in the History of Architecture, Vicenza, 

Italy, September 1971. 
Oberhuber, Konrad. I grandi disegni italiani dell' Albertina di Vienna. Milan: Silvana 

editrice, 1971. 
"Raphael and the State Portrait-II: The Portrait of Lorenzo de' 

Medici." The Burlington Magazine, volume 113, number 821 (1971), pages 

Parkhurst, Charles. "A Color Theory from Prague: Anselme de Boodt." Bulletin of 

the Allen Memorial Art Museum, volume 29 (1971), pages 3-10. 
"Red-Yellow-Blue, A Color Triad in Seventeenth-Century Paint- 
ing." Annual of the Baltimore Museum of Art, volume 4 (1972), pages 33-39. 
Russell, H. Diane. Rare Etchings by Giovanni Battista and Giovanni Domenico 

Tiepolo. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1972. 
Scott, David W. "Plans and Programmes-The National Gallery's East Building." The 

Connoisseur, volume 178 (December 1971), pages 263-265. 


Scott, David W., and Bullard, E. John. John Sloan 1871-1951. Washington, D.C.: 

National Gallery of Art, 197 1 . 
White, Christopher. D'urer: The Artist and his Drawings. London and New York: 

Phaidon and Watson-Gupthill, 1972. 
"The Durer Exhibition at Nuremberg." The Burlington Magazine, 

volume 113, number 821 (1971), pages 484-488. 
. "The Armand Hammer Collection: Drawings." Apollo Magazine, 

new series, volume 95, number 124 (June 1972), pages 456463. 

Williams, William J. "Architecture." "Bridge," "Building Materials," "Caisson," 
"Castle," "Cathedral," "Construction," "Construction Equipment," "Empire 
State Building," "Gothic Architecture," "House," "Tower," Young Students 
Encyclopedia. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, Inc., 1972. 

. "A 400-yeai Survey of Italian Stage Design." Smithsonian Maga- 
zine, volume 2, number 9 (December 1971), pages 38-45. 

Appendix 7 


Postdoctoral Visiting Research Associates 

Asterisks indicate Fellows whose research was supported through a grant for 
American Indian Historical, Cultural, and Social Studies awarded by the National 
Endowment for the Humanities for tenure at the Smithsonian Institution. 

Program in American History 

Paul Kleppner. Symbols of American politics, 1860-1892, with Dr. Wilcomb E. 

Washburn, American Studies Program, from 1 September 1971 to 31 August 

Allison W. Saville. American submarine technological development, 1919-1941, 

with Dr. Philip K. Lundeberg, National Museum of History and Technology, from 

1 September 1971 to 31 August 1972. 

Program in Anthropology 

James M. Adovasio. The relationship of ethnographic North American textile and 
basketry techniques to their archeological antecedents, with Dr. Waldo R. Wedel, 
National Museum of Natural History, from 1 September 1971 to 31 August 1972. 

*Karen I. Blu. Research into the nature and content of Lumbee Indian ethnic 
identity under conditions of social change, with Dr. William C. Sturtevant, Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History, from 15 September 1971 to 14 June 1972. 

*Raymond J. DeMallie. Cultural and historical studies of the Dakota (Sioux) Indians, 
with Dr. John C. Ewers, National Museum of Natural History, from 1 October 
1971 to 30 June 1972. 

*Jerald T. Milanich. Woodland Pattern Formative cultures of the southeastern 
United States 1000 B.C. to 1000 A.D., with Dr. William W. Fitzhugh, National 
Museum of Natural History, from 15 September 1971 to 15 June 1972. 

James H. Rauh. Investigation of interrelationships of the Borgia group of Mexican 
manuscripts and the Maya Codex Madrid, with Dr. Clifford Evans, Jr., National 
Museum of Natural History, from 1 September 1971 to 31 August 1972. 

Program in Environmental Sciences 

Clarke Brooks. Analysis of algal biliproteins, with Dr. Elisabeth Gantt, Radiation 
Biology Laboratory, from 1 July 1971 to 30 June 1972. 

Stephen I. Rothstein. An experimental investigation of host preferences in the 
brown-headed cowbird, with Dr. Francis S.L. Williamson, Chesapeake Bay Center 
for Environmental Studies, from 1 September 1971 to 31 August 1972. 

Program in Evolutionary and Behavioral Biology , Tropical Zones 

Madeline Andrews. Insular-Continental comparisons of A nolis ecology, with Dr. A. 
Stanley Rand, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from 1 August 1971 to 
31 July 1972. 



Jeffrey B. Graham. Studies in the biology of the amphibious clinid, Mnierpes mac- 
rocephalus, with Dr. Ira Rubinoff, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from 
15 September 1971 to 15 June 1972. 

Annette F. Hladik. Comparative studies of tropical forests, with Dr. Martin H. 
Moynihan, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from 1 July 1971 to 30 June 

James R. Karr. Comparisons of structure of avian communities in selected tropical 
areas with emphasis on the Old World Tropics, with Dr. Neal G. Smith, Smith- 
sonian Tropical Research Institute, from 1 July 1971 to 30 June 1972. 

Program in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

Thomas D. Eichlin. Revision of the lepidopterous family Aegeriidae of North 

America, with Dr. W. Donald Duckworth, National Museum of Natural History, 

from 1 July 1971 to 30 June 1972. 
Richard U. Gooding. Studies of Animals associated with shallow-water diadematid 

sea urchins in the Pacific and Western Atlantic, with Dr. Roger F. Cressey, Jr., 

National Museum of Natural History, from 1 December 1971 to 31 November 

Chong Kun Park. Research in the genera and species of the Pterodectinae (Acarina: 

Proctophyllodidae), with Dr. Ralph E. Crabill, Jr., National Museum of Natural 

History, from 1 September 1971 to 31 August 1972. 
Rudolf Schmid. Comparative floral anatomy of the Myrtaceae, subfamily Myr- 

toinae, with Dr. Richard H. Eyde, National Museum of Natural History, from 1 

October 1971 to 30 September 1972. 
Adam Urbanek. Research on ultrastructure of peridermal derivatives in Grapto- 

lithina and Pterobranchia and studies on modern evolutionary theories and their 

application for fossil material, with Dr. Richard S. Boardman, National Museum 

of Natural History, from 1 August 1971 to 31 January 1972. 
John Utgaard. The classification of cystoporate Bryozoa, with Dr. Richard S. 

Boardman, National Museum of Natural History, from 1 January 1972 to 30 June 

Norris H. Williams. Systematic anatomy of the subtribes Laeliinae, Cyrtopodiinae, 

Catasetinae, Stanhopeinae, Sygopetalinae and Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae), with Dr. 

Edward S. Ayensu, National Museum of Natural History, from 1 September 1971 

to 31 August 1972. 
Richard Winterbottom. The Phylogeny of stomiatoid fishes as evidenced by their 

myology, with Dr. Stanley H. Weitzman, National Museum of Natural History, 

from 1 October 1971 to 30 September 1972. 

Program in the History of Art and Music 

Lena Lee. A new study of the problem of the identity of the so-called "Pratyeka 

Buddha" images in Chinese Buddhist Sculpture, with Dr. Thomas Lawton, Freer 

Gallery of Art, from 1 January 1972 to 31 December 1972. 
Sonya Monosoff. Research in the history and development of violins and bows, 

with Mr. John T. Fesperman, National Museum of History and Technology, from 

1 October 1971 to 31 August 1972. 
Francis V. O'Connor. Research in the history of American art during the 1930s, 

with Dr. Joshua C. Taylor, National Collection of Fine Arts, from 1 September 

1971 to 31 August 1972. 


Program in the History of Science and Technology 

Maxine Benson. Advanced documentary editing in the history of science with Dr. 
Nathan Reingold, The Joseph Henry Papers, from 1 September 1971 to 31 Au- 
gust 1972. 

Bert S. Hall. German technological manuscripts in the age of Leonardo da Vinci, 
with Dr. Otto Mayr, National Museum of History and Technology, from 1 August 
1971 to 31 July 1972. 

Emilie S. Smith. An investigation of the Galenic origins of early Islamic writings on 
the anatomy of the eye, theories of vision, and the treatment of certain 
pathological conditions of the eye, with Dr. Sami K. Hamarneh, National Museum 
of History and Technology, from 1 September 1971 to 31 August 1972. 

Program in Physical Sciences 

Martin R. Flannery. Theoretical investigation of certain atomic and molecular 
processes relevant to the earth's atmosphere, stellar and planetary atmospheres, 
and HI, HII regions of the sun, with Dr. Owen J. Gingerich, Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory, from 1 March 1971 to 30 September 1971. 

Andrew L. Graham. The major element composition of meteoritic chondrules, with 
Dr. Brian H. Mason, National Museum of Natural History, from 1 September 
1971 to 31 August 1972. 

Stanley A. Mertzman. The geology, petrology, and geochemistry of Lake Yohoa 
volcanic field, northeastern Honduras, with Dr. William G. Melson, National 
Museum of Natural History, from 1 September 1971 to 31 August 1972. 

G. Jeffrey Taylor. Petrological and chemical research on lunar samples and theoreti- 
cal interpretation and research on the metallic minerals in chondritic meteorites, 
with Dr. John A. Wood, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 July 
1971 to 31 August 1972. 

Predoctoral Visiting Research Associates 

Program in American History 

Patrick H. Butler III. Study of attitudes toward death and afterlife in the colonial 
Chesapeake Bay Region as determinants in social, political, and cultural behavior, 
with Dr. Wilcomb E. Washburn, American Studies Program, from 1 July 1971 to 
30 June 1972. 

Susan Falb, Smithsonian Institution-Georgetown University Cooperative Fellow. 
Studies in American material culture, with Dr. Wilcomb E. Washburn, American 
Studies Program, from 1 September 1971 to 30 June 1972. 

Yvonne Lange. Santos, the household wooden saints of Puerto Rico, with Mr. 
Richard E. Ahlborn, National Museum of History and Technology from 1 August 
1971 to 30 June 1972. 

Arthur C. Townsend. Pattern and change in the material culture of Junction City, 
Kansas, between 1890 and 1922, as seen through the life and lens of Joseph Judd 
Pennell, with Dr. Wilcomb E. Washburn, American Studies Program, from 1 July 
1971 to 30 June 1972. 

Lawrence Velten, Smithsonian Institution-Georgetown University Cooperative Fel- 
low. Studies in American material culture, with Dr. Wilcomb E. Washburn, 
American Studies Program, from 1 September 1971 to 30 June 1972. 


Program in Anthropology 

Mun Woong Lee. Rural North Korea under Communism: a study of sociocultural 

change, with Dr. Eugene I. Knez, National Museum of Natural History, from 1 

June 1971 to 31 May 1972. 

Program in Environmental Sciences 

Edward DeFabo. A biphasic response in the inactivation of some microorganisms 
by ultra-violet light, with Dr. Walter A. Shropshire, Jr., Radiation Biology Labora- 
tory, from 15 September 1971 to 14 September 1972. 

C. John Ralph. Research on the migration of birds, with Dr. Francis S. L. William- 
son, Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies, from 1 July 1971 to 30 
June 1972. 

Program in Evolutionary and Behavioral Biology, Tropical Zones 

James W. Porter. Structure and diversity of Panama coral reefs with particular 

emphasis on those of the eastern Pacific, with Dr. Peter W. Glynn, Smithsonian 

Tropical Research Institute, from 1 August 1971 to 31 July 1972. 
Wayne L. Smith. Population studies of the mysid Heteromysis actiniae Clarke living 

symbiotically with the sea anemone Bartholomea annulata Leseur, with Dr. Peter 

W. Glynn, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from 1 August 1971 to 31 

July 1972. 
Joseph G. Strauch, Jr. Communal behavior of the Crotophaginae, with Dr. Neal G. 

Smith, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from 1 August 1971 to 1 March 

Bernice Tannenbaum. The adaptive significance of social behavior in neotropical 

bats, with Dr. Neal G. Smith, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from 1 

August 1971 to 31 July 1972. 

Program in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

Theodore Gary Gautier. Cryptostome Bryozoa from the Permian (Leonardian) of 
the Glass Mountains, Texas, with Dr. Richard S. Boardman, National Museum of 
Natural History, from 1 July 1971 to 30 June 1972. 

Storrs L. Olson. The history, adaptations, and relationships of the fossil Rallidae, 
with Dr. George E. Watson, National Museum of Natural History, from 1 Septem- 
ber 1971 to 31 March 1972. 

Program in the History of Art and Music 

Peter Bermingham. Barbizon art in America: its influence on American painting, 

1850-1890, with Dr. Joshua C. Taylor, National Collection of Fine Arts, from 15 

June 1971 to 14 June 1972. 
Richard N. Murray. A study of figurative mural painting, public and private in the 

United States, 1890-1920, with Dr. Joshua C. Taylor, National Collection of Fine 

Arts, from 1 September 1971 to 31 August 1972. 

Program in the History of Science and Technology 

Saroj Kumar Ghose. History of electric telegraphy in the 19th century, with Dr. 

Bernard S. Finn, National Museum of History and Technology, from 24 May 

1971 to 30 June 1972. 
Barbara B. Kaplan. The relevance of alchemical and hermetic ideas to 13th and 

14th century medicine in western Europe, with Dr. Sami K. Hamarneh, National 

Museum of History and Technology, from 1 September 1971 to 31 August 1972. 


John D. Kazar. The United States Navy and scientific exploration, 1837-1860, with 
Dr. Nathan Reingold, Joseph Henry Papers, from 1 September 1971 to 31 August 

John T. Kelly. American science of the eighteenth century, with particular con- 
sideration of the science curricula of the colonial colleges, and the science of the 
city of Philadelphia, with Mr. Silvio A. Bedini, National Museum of History and 
Technology, from 1 September 1971 to 31 August 1972. 

Clay McShane. Studies dealing with the reaction of large American cities to the 
automobile, 1900-1930, with Mr. Don H. Berkebile and Mr. Harold K. Skramstad, 
National Museum of History and Technology, from 1 July 1971 to 30 June 1972. 

Robert Post. Research and study of the career of Charles Grafton Page, with Dr. 
Bernard S. Finn, National Museum of History and Technology, from 1 September 
1971 to 31 August 1972. 

Program in Museum Studies 

Shelley Fletcher. Special problems in paper conservation, with Mr. Anton Konrad, 
National Collection of Fine Arts/National Portrait Gallery Conservation Labora- 
tory, from 1 October 1971 to 30 September 1972. 

Elaine Sloan. Museum libraries as information systems for professionals and for the 
general public, with Dr. Russell Shank, Smithsonian Libraries, from 1 September 
1971 to 31 August 1972. 

Program in Physical Sciences 

James Elliot. Investigation of atmospheric fluorescence as a means of detecting 
transient X-ray phenomena from cosmic sources, with Dr. G.G. Fazio, Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory, 1 July 1971 to 31 January 1972. 

William R. Forman. Study of magnetic field structure in the Crab Nebula, with Dr. 
R.E. Schild, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 July 1971 to 30 
June 1972. 

Richard I. Klein. Studies on the effect of shock waves on the formation of spectral 
lines in pulsating variable star atmospheres, with Dr. Wolfgang Kalkofen, Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 July 1971 to 30 June 1972. 

Robert L. Kurucz. Research in radiative transfer and model stellar atmospheres, 
with Dr. E.H Avrett, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 1 July 1971 
to 30 June 1972. 

Charles J. Lada. Research in astrophysics, with Dr. D. Kleinmann, Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory, from 15 September 1971 to 15 June 1972. 

Joseph Schwarz. A study of the formation of interstellar clouds and filaments in 
the ionized zone created by an ultraviolet radiation burst from a supernova, with 
Dr. A. Dalgarno, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 15 September 
1971 to 15 June 1972. 

Graduate and Undergraduate Research 
and Study Appointments 

Asterisks indicate students whose research was supported through grants from the 
National Science Foundation's Undergraduate Research Participation Program (grants 
GY8823: Social Sciences and GY9057: Geological Sciences). 


Program in American History 

Group study project in historical archeology at St. Mary's City, Maryland, supervised 

by Dr. Wilcomb E. Washburn, Office of American Studies: 

Rachel Baker, Brown University. 

Frederick DeMarr, University of Maryland. 

Ross Kimmel, University of Maryland. 

Antoinette Lee, The George Washington University. 

Nancy Nutt, The George Washington University. 
Richard Schaffer, University of Maryland. Research on development of air trans- 
portation from the balloon era to the present, with Mr. Louis S. Casey, National 

Air and Space Museum. 

Program in Anthropology 

Geraldine Anderson, University of California, Los Angeles. Investigation of Har- 
rison manuscripts in National Anthropological Archives, with Dr. William C. 
Sturtevant, National Museum of Natural History. 

*Ellison Banks, Wellesley College. Dating Navajo rugs and blankets, with Dr. 
William C. Sturtevant, National Museum of Natural History. 

*Sharon Couch, Bennington College. Reconstructing Mayan Ritual Almanacs, with 
Dr. James H. Rauh, National Museum of Natural History. 

Sheri Finkel, Kutztown State College. Establishing Motul dictionary in semantic 
categories for further ethnographic analysis, with Dr. James H. Rauh, National 
Museum of Natural History. 

*Eva Hoffmann, The City College of New York. Research on the Venus Tables of 
the Dresden Codex, with Dr. James H. Rauh, National Museum of Natural His- 

*Stephanie Nathanson, The City College of New York. Study project correlating 
Maya daynames with glyphs, with Dr. James H. Rauh, National Museum of Na- 
tural History. 

*Celia Orgel, University of Chicago. Development of criteria for the biographical 
dictionary of the Handbook of North American Indians, with Dr. William C. 
Sturtevant, National Museum of Natural History. 

*Lisa Rhudy, The George Washington University. Protein-decay analysis to deter- 
mine the archeological age of burials, with Dr. Donald J. Ortner, National Mu- 
seum of Natural History. 

Winfield Swanson, The American University. Ethnographic studies of Eskimos, 
with Mr. George E. Phebus, National Museum of Natural History. 

James Wells, University of Maryland. A study of primate basicranial morphology to 
determine functional relationships with associated nonmorphological variables, 
with Dr. Lucile St. Hoyme, National Museum of Natural History. 

Program in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

Raymond Bouchard, University of Tennessee. Studies of the crayfish of Tennessee, 

with Dr. Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., National Museum of Natural History. 
Meade Cadot, University of Kansas. Research in the systematics and biogeography 

of Benthic Ostracoda from southern oceans, with Dr. Richard H. Benson, 

National Museum of Natural History. 
Jarrett L. Cross. Research on the salt marsh insects of an impoundment on Assatea- 

gue Island, with Dr. Paul J. Spangler, National Museum of Natural History. 


Daryl Domning, University of California, Berkeley. Study of the anatomy of Si- 
renians, especially myology of Dugong, with Dr. Charles O. Handley, National 
Museum of Natural History. 

Christine M. Feely, Stephens College. Research in physiological aspect of marine 
zoology, with Dr. Victor G. Springer, National Museum of Natural History. 

Joel Friedman, Emory University. Research on African primates, with Dr. Richard 
W. Thorington, Jr., National Museum of Natural History. 

*Andrew Janoff, American University. Ontogenetic study of polypide cycle of skel- 
etal structures in cyclostome bryozoa, with Dr. Richard S. Boardman, National 
Museum of Natural History. 

Sanford Leffler, Washington State University. Research in Smithsonian collection 
of shore birds, with Dr. Richard L. Zusi, National Museum of Natural History. 

*James McClammer, University of Maryland. Investigation into the ecological suc- 
cession of Lodgepole pine in the forest of the Bighorn Basin, with Dr. Leo J. 
Hickey, National Museum of Natural History. 

Keith Serafy, University of Maine. Variation in the polytypic sea urchin, Lytech- 
inus variegatus in the North Atlantic, with Dr. David L. Pawson, National Mu- 
seum of Natural History. 

Program in the History of Art 

Jerry Adelman, Georgetown University. A study of the art of federal art projects, 
with Dr. Francis V. O'Connor, National Collection of Fine Arts. 

Jocelyn Brown, The George Washington University. A study of the Gellatly Collec- 
tion, with Mr. Robert T. Davis, National Collection of Fine Arts. 

Ellen Meyer, The George Washington University. A study of contemporary Ameri- 
can art, with Mrs. Adelyn D. Breeskin and Mrs. Jan I.K. Muhlert, National Collec- 
tion of Fine Arts. 

Peter Munsing, University of Michigan. Development of a study booklet for high 
school students, Department of Education; Cataloging furnishings, Barney House, 
with Mr. Darrell L. Sewell and Mr. Donald R. McClelland, National Collection of 
Fine Arts. 

Program in the History of Science and Technology 

James Auerbach, University of Maryland. Research on the social impact of machine 

tools, with Dr. Otto Mayr, National Museum of History and Technology. 
Joe Cameron, Maryland Institute, College of Art. A study of photography in the 

Washington area, with Mr. David E. Haberstich, National Museum of History and 

*Lorraine Daston, Harvard University. Research and review of papers of Alexander 

Dallas Bache, with Dr. Nathan Reingold, Joseph Henry Papers. 
*Donald Hoke, Beloit College. Research into the history of American pocket 

watches, with Mr. Edwin A. Battison, National Museum of History and Tech- 
*David Hounshell, Southern Methodist University. Research on Elisha Gray, with 

Dr. Bernard S. Finn, National Museum of History and Technology. 
*Brian Jensen, Virginia Commonwealth University. Research in the Clark Radio 

collection, with Mr. Elliott N. Sivowitch, National Museum of History and 

*Marci Kramish, Duke University. Research in medicinal plants and pharmaceutical 

objects, with Dr. Jon B. Eklund, National Museum of History and Technology. 


*Maria Quinlan, Smith College. Comparative study of kitchens from 1750, 1850, 
and 1950, with Mr. Silvio A. Bedini, National Museum of History and Tech- 

*Warren A. Ramey, Duke University. Bibliography on Naval technology during the 
American Revolution, with Dr. Philip K. Lundeberg, National Museum of History 
and Technology. 

Nancy Rexroth, Ohio University. Research on platinum printing and photography, 
with Mr. David E. Haberstich, National Museum of History and Technology. 

Allan Rhodes, Southern Methodist University. Research in historical model con- 
struction, with Dr. Otto Mayr, National Museum of History and Technology. 

Michael Shapiro, Brown University. Research on the Centennial Exposition of 
1876, with Mr. Richard H. Lytle, Smithsonian Archives. 

Program in Museum Studies 

Kermit L. Baumgartner, Jr., Elizabethtown College. A study of regular Army uni- 
forms, 1821-1911, with Mr. Donald E. Kloster, National Museum of History and 

Donald B. Christman, St. Mary's College of Maryland. Studies of military heraldry 

and museum collection management, with Mr. Donald E. Kloster, National 

Museum of History and Technology. 
John Ehrmann, Macalester College. Studies of nineteenth-century Presidential cam- 
paign artifacts and literature, with Dr. Wilcomb E. Washburn, Office of American 

Lynn Felsher, Philadelphia College of Art. Studies in preservation, cleaning, and 

Collection management of textiles, with Mrs. Grace R. Cooper, National Museum 

of History and Technology. 
Joel F. Janosky, Syracuse University. Studies of the zoogeography of midwater 

fishes from Southeastern Pacific Ocean, with Dr. Robert H. Gibbs, Jr., National 

Museum of Natural History. 
James H. Myersburg. Studies of basic audiovisual techniques, with Mr. Roy V. 

LaRoche, Office of Exhibits Programs. 
Susan Olsen, University of Arizona. Studies in the conservation of anthropological 

objects in the collections, with Mrs. Bethune M. Gibson, National Museum of 

Natural History. 
Charles Potter, Syracuse University. A study of rodent genus Atlantoxerus and 

studies of museum curatorial techniques, with Dr. Henry W. Setzer, National 

Museum of Natural History. 
George Ronkin, Beloit College. Studies of computer programming and systems 

analysis, with Mr. Dante Piacesi, Jr., Information Systems Division. 
Linda Southwick, Tufts University. A bibliographic study of tropical marine algae 

and coral reef ecology with Dr. Arthur L. Dahl, National Museum of Natural 

Sharon N. White, University of Pennsylvania. Studies in organizing and cataloging 

Jewish materials; compiling various bibliographies with Mr. Richard E. Ahlborn, 

National Museum of History and Technology. 

Appendix 8 


News Releases Issued 

Smithsonian To Keep 3 More Buildings Open Until 9 p.m. through 

Labor Day 1 July 71 

Notable Prints from Smithsonian Collections Show Three Centuries of 

American Art Mastery 1 July 7 

Live Insects Doing Their Thing Daily for Natural History Museum Visitors 8 July 7 
NCFA To Show "Romare Bearden: The Prevalence of Ritual" 8 July 7 

Photo Contest Held for District Youths; Smithsonian Museum Will 

Show Top Entries 1 2 July 7 

NASA To Make Formal Presentation of Lunar Module to 

Contributions of Black Scientists Outlined in Anacostia Exhibition 
Concerts Set for Smithsonian's Museum of History and Technology 
Dr. David Challinor Named Assistant Secretary for Science 
Registration Open Through August 6 for Associates Summer Courses 
Wilson Center Appoints 16 Additional Fellows 
Yale Scholar Will Lecture on Contemporary Black Art 
Smithsonian Puppet Theatre To Be Closed August 18-20 
Smithsonian Will Celebrate 125th Birthday September 26 
Smithsonian Exhibit Shows Slovenian Culture in U.S. 
Year -Long Survey Offers Picture of "Typical" Smithsonian Visitor 
Freer Gallery Announces Retirement of John Pope 
Participation Workshops at NCFA Designed To "Make Art Sensible" 
Special Program Will Commemorate 100th Birthday of Orville Wright 
Thomas Nast Self-Portrait on Exhibit at Smithsonian 
Tom Sawyer To Begin Fall Season at Smithsonian's Puppet Theatre 
Coast Guard To Hoist 25-Ton Engine From Ship for Smithsonian 

Freer Gallery To Stage Meyer Memorial Exhibit 
Insect Zoo Closing Announced 
Smithsonian Museums Break Out in Hives 
Langley Medal Will Be Presented to Lt. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips 
Spiders Star in New Exhibit at Museum of Natural History 
Street Theater Version of "Macbeth" To Be Presented in Museum 

Angel Finds Even Ancient Greeks Affected by Ecological Problems 
National Portrait Gallery Exhibition Salutes Opening of Kennedy 

Center for Performing Arts 31 Aug. 7 

National Collection of Fine Arts To Show Russian Ballet Designs by 

Boris Anisfeldt 2 Sept. 7 

Lecture at Freer to Focus on "Uncommon" Japanese Artist 2 Sept. 7 

Professor To Lecture at Art Museum on Exotic 20th Century Stage 

Decor 2 Sept. 71 


12 July 71 

15 July 71 

15 July 71 

19 July 71 

21 July 71 

28 July 71 

28 July 71 

29 July 71 

30 July 71 

4 Aug. 7 

4 Aug. 7 

9 Aug. 7 

9 Aug. 7 

10 Aug. 7 

12 Aug. 7 

16 Aug. 7 

16 Aug. 7 

19 Aug. 7 

19 Aug. 7 

23 Aug. 7 

25 Aug. 7 

27 Aug. 7 

30 Aug. 71 

31 Aug. 71 



Associates Present Free Lecture on Art, Architecture of Russia 

Musician To Lecture on Elements of Rock 

MHT Post Office-General Store 

Early Plastic Products Donated to Smithsonian Collections 

Industrial Archeology Conference Set for October 16 at 

Smithsonian Seeks Volunteers To Guide School Groups 
"The Proposition" To Be Presented at Smithsonian 
Smithsonian To Present "Proposition Circus" October 9 
Smithsonian Anniversary Day Schedule 
Wilson Center Sets October 1 Deadline for Applications 
NCFA Announces '72 Exhibition Schedule 
Smithsonian Receives Grant for Seminar 
Museums Can Bring Together Generations, Dr. Mead Says 
Smithsonian, Folklore Society To Open Concert Series October 1 
Anniversary Exhibition Chronicles Smithsonian's 125 Years of Growth 
National Collection of Fine Arts To Show Lee Gatch Retrospective 
Smithsonian Schedules January Opening for Renwick Gallery of Design, 

New Exhibit Shows Changes in Korean Village Culture 
Smithsonian Free Film Theatre To Open Fall Season October 6 
Lecture on Painter Lee Gatch Will Be Given at NCFA October 30 
The Restoration: "Eyesore" to Art Museum 
Smithsonian Names 2 Key Staff Members for Renwick Gallery of 

Design, Crafts 
An American Architectural Monument 
Chronology of the Renwick Gallery 

Smithsonian To Open Bookstore in History & Technology Museum 
Concerts Set for Smithsonian's Museum of History & Technology 
National Board Established for Smithsonian Associates 
Grant Rogers Will Perform at Smithsonian Folk Concert 
First Music from Marlboro Concert Scheduled for Nov. 6 at 

Smithsonian's Hodgkins Medal Goes to Author Lewis Mumford 
Panel Will Discuss Impact of Mechanization of Music 
Malvina Reynolds To Perform at Smithsonian November 19 
G. Evelyn Hutchinson Named First Browning Award Winner 
Freer Gallery of Art Names Lawton Assistant Director 
Smithsonian Will Exhibit Appliances Given by Donors Throughout 

200 Eakins Photographs To Be Shown at NCFA 
Smithsonian Publishes First Major Catalog on Art of Black Painter 

William H. Johnson 
Black Painter Being Accorded Major Retrospective at Smithsonian's 

Chinese Blue and Green Art Style To Be Discussed 
Symposium on Print Prices To Be Held at National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
Bishop Museum's Gregory Medal Goes to Smithsonian's Fosberg 
November Schedule - Free Film Theatre 

NPG Opens Exhibition Focusing on Washington's Black Community 
Harvard Professor Will Discuss Effect of Herbicides in Vietnam 

3 Sept. 71 

3 Sept. 71 
9 Sept. 71 

13 Sept. 71 

16 Sept. 71 
16 Sept. 71 
16 Sept. 71 

16 Sept. 71 

17 Sept. 71 

21 Sept. 71 

22 Sept. 71 

22 Sept. 71 

23 Sept. 71 

24 Sept. 71 
24 Sept. 71 

27 Sept. 71 

28 Sept. 71 

29 Sept. 71 

30 Sept. 71 
30 Sept. 71 
30 Sept. 71 

30 Sept. 71 

30 Sept. 71 

30 Sept. 71 

1 Oct. 71 

4 Oct. 71 

4 Oct. 71 
8 Oct. 71 

12 Oct. 71 

13 Oct. 71 
15 Oct. 71 
15 Oct. 71 
20 Oct. 71 
20 Oct. 71 

22 Oct. 71 
26 Oct. 71 

26 Oct. 71 

26 Oct. 71 
28 Oct. 71 

28 Oct. 71 
28 Oct. 71 

28 Oct. 71 

29 Oct. 71 
1 Nov. 71 


Statement- Bicentennial Outdoor Museum 5 Nov. 71 

Smithsonian Announces Forty-Six Research Appointments for 71-72 5 Nov. 71 
Portrait of Religious Leader Joseph Smith Will Be Given to National 

Portrait Gallery 5 Nov. 71 

Carl Larsen Appointed Director of Smithsonian Public Affairs 8 Nov. 71 

Russell Bourne Named Consultant on Book Publishing at Smithsonian 10 Nov. 71 

Smithsonian Appoints Williams To Set up Jazz Studies Program 10 Nov. 71 
Smithsonian Women's Committee To Present Afternoon with Sikkimese 

Royalty November 17 12 Nov. 71 

The Proposition Returns to Smithsonian December 2-6 15 Nov. 71 
Smithsonian To Present Proposition Performance for Children 

December 4 1 6 Nov. 7 1 

Notice for Correspondents and Photographers-Museum Shops Toys 19 Nov. 71 
2 Scientists, 2 Views: Should Man Try To Save Bay Island from 

Erosion 22 Nov. 71 

Smithsonian Art Museum To Exhibit John Steuart Curry Retrospective 22 Nov. 71 

"Eccentric, Optimist," Scientist, Spilhaus Keeps Looking to Future 22 Nov. 71 

EUREKA! Opens Winter Season at Smithsonian Puppet Theatre 23 Nov. 71 

Tapestry Presented to Air and Space Museum 23 Nov. 71 
Smithsonian Names Douglass Williams To Traveling Exhibition Liaison 

Job 24 Nov. 71 
Portfolio Day at National Collection Brings Educators to Students 

Dec. 11 24 Nov. 71 
Historic and Beautiful Biblical Manuscripts Among Treasures of Freer 

Gallery of Art 24 Nov. 71 

One-Eyed Flyer Wiley Post Revolutionized Aeronautics 29 Nov. 71 
Films by Chris Marker Will Be Shown December 7 in Place of Carson 

Movie 30 Nov. 71 

Wilson Center Sets January 1 Deadline for Applications 2 Dec. 71 
Smithsonian Enlists Trust Officers' Assistance in Fund Raising 

Efforts 3 Dec. 71 

Freer Lecturer To Discuss Ottoman Art Production 8 Dec. 71 

500 Cast Iron & Tinplate Toys Going on Display at Smithsonian 1 3 Dec. 71 

National Collection of Fine Arts Will Show Art of Roaring Twenties 15 Dec. 71 

Wilson Center, Starting 2nd Year, Appoints Six Additional Fellows 22 Dec. 71 

Painting by Important Woman Artist Goes to National Portrait Gallery 22 Dec. 71 

Portrait Gallery Acquires Painting of Zachary Taylor 22 Dec. 71 

Portrait Gallery Obtains Pastel of Robert E. Lee 23 Dec. 7 1 
Smithsonian Schedules January 29th Opening for New Renwick Gallery 

of Design, Crafts 28 Dec. 7 1 
Michigan "Friends" Help Smithsonian Preserve Memory of President 

Arthur 29 Dec. 71 

Smithsonian Art Museum To Show Karl Schrag Print Retrospective 4 Jan. 72 

Press Preview- Renwick Gallery 4 Jan. 72 

MacAgy Named Exhibition Curator for Opening of Hirshhorn Museum 5 Jan. 72 

Bust of Architect James Renwick To Be Presented to Smithsonian 6 Jan. 72 

Peter Hoover Will Perform in Folklore Concert Jan. 14 6 Jan. 72 

Lucy M. Stanton Portrait of "Uncle Remus" Author Given to NPG 7 Jan. 72 

Press Preview- Greenland: Arctic Denmark 7 Jan. 72 

Freer Gallery To Present Exhibition of Persian Art 1 1 Jan. 72 

Air Force Art on Display in Smithsonian Air Museum 1 1 Jan. 72 


Historic Zuni, Acoma Pottery Will Be Shown in 1 st Exhibit Honoring 

American Indian Arts 
Major Opening Exhibition at Renwick Gallery Will Spotlight Furniture 
Frederick Carder's 80-Year Achievement in Glassmaking To Be 

Celebrated With Exhibit at Renwick 
New, High-Quality Volumes on Freer Art Now Available 
Showing of Architectural Photographs at Renwick To Document 

U.S. Heritage 
"Design Is . . ." Exhibition Ranges from Indian War Club to Plastics 
Music from Marlboro Artists To Perform at Smithsonian Feb. 5 
Eureka! Will Begin Extended Run at Smithsonian Puppet Theatre on 

March 15 
Symbolism in Yuan Paintings Is Subject of Freer Lecture 
William Eilers Appointed Director of Smithsonian Environment Office 
Portrait Gallery Exhibit To Focus on History of D.C. Black Community 
New Mark Twain Portrait Added to NPG Collection 
Neighborhood Museum Exhibit Relates History of Anacostia 
Eighth Annual Link Lecture To Be Held at Smithsonian 
Museum of History and Technology To Show Early Mine Rescue 

Electronic Musician Steve Reich Will Perform at Renwick Gallery 
GE Donates Early Carrier-Current Telephone to Smithsonian Museum 
Radiation Biology Lab to Sponsor Lectures on Genetics, Evolution 
Smithsonian Announces Plans for Maritime Hall at National Museum 

of History and Technology 
Bill Williams Will Perform in Folklore Society Concert 
Portrait of Temperance Leader Given to Smithsonian Gallery 
History and Technology Museum To Exhibit Memorabilia of Washington 

and Lincoln 
Smithsonian's Annual Folklife Festival Set for June 30 to July 4 in 

Background-Japanese Attack Balloon 
Portraits of 80 Presidential Candidates Displayed in Major Spring 

NPG Exhibition 
Environmental Law Course To Be Held at Smithsonian 
Swedish Environmentalist To Speak at Smithsonian 
March 2 Conference To Consider Study of World Growth Problems 
Smithsonian To Stage 3 Forums on History, Meaning of Science 
National Collection of Fine Arts Stages One-Month Showing of 

Contemporary Art 
Smithsonian Exhibit Will Trace Colorful History of Ballooning 
"French Chef" Julia Child Will Give Cooking Demonstration at 

Guitar Player Jon Wilcox To Perform at Smithsonian 
National Collection of Fine Arts To Show 60 Drawings by Glackens 
D.C. Grade School Art To Be Shown at National Collection of Fine 

Arts 25 Feb. 72 

Landscape Show at NCFA Will Honor Centennial of National Park 

System 28 Feb. 72 

Smithsonian To Present "Music from Marlboro" 29 Feb. 72 

New Archeological Discoveries Seen in Chinese Film at Freer 3 Mar. 72 

Nixon Portrait Unveiled Today 3 Mar. 72 

13 Jan. 


13 Jan. 


13 Jan. 


13 Jan. 


14 Jan. 


14 Jan. 


17 Jan. 


17 Jan. 


17 Jan. 


19 Jan. 


20 Jan. 


20 Jan. 


24 Jan. 


25 Jan. 


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1 Feb 


2 Feb 


3 Feb 


4 Feb 


9 Feb 


9 Feb. 


9 Feb 


14 Feb 


15 Feb 


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16 Feb 


23 Feb 


23 Feb 


24 Feb 



World War II V-Mail Camera Given To Museum of History & 

Technology 7 Mar. 72 
Hirshhorn Museum To Receive $7 Million in Additional Art Works 

from Benefactor 7 Mar. 72 
Walter Hopps To Organize Exhibition for 36th Venice Art Biennial 

in June 9 Mar. 72 

Textile Designer Will Be Accorded Retrospective by Renwick Gallery 10 Mar. 72 
National Collection of Fine Arts Will Exhibit Protest, Put-on 

Paintings by 2 American Indians 10 Mar. 72 
National Collection of Fine Arts To Hold Exhibition as Memorial 

to Edith Halpert 13 Mar. 72 

Freer Lecturer Will Discuss Paintings of "Three Laughers" 13 Mar. 72 
Exhibition of Portraits and Campaign Items Will Open May 3 at 

National Portrait Gallery 1 7 Mar. 72 
National Portrait Gallery Will Spotlight Defeated Presidential 

Candidates 1796-1968 17 Mar. 72 
Koss Stereo Headphones Presented To Museum of History & 

Technology 17 Mar. 72 

Balloon Exhibit Features Unusual Philatelic Items 20 Mar. 72 

Woodrow Wilson Center Appoints New Fellows 21 Mar. 72 

Woodrow Wilson Center Seminars Will Examine Political System 21 Mar. 72 

World War I Fighter Aircraft Highlighted in New Exhibit 21 Mar. 72 

Background on the World War I Fighter Plane Exhibit 22 Mar. 72 

Musical Weekend in D.C. Offered by Smithsonian 23 Mar. 72 

Irwin Will Speak at Freer on Indian Art Masterpiece 23 Mar. 72 

Old, New, Electric Ranges Contrast at Smithsonian 23 Mar. 72 

National Collection of Fine Arts Showing 17 Oils by Folk Painter 23 Mar. 72 
Military Power May Not Be Applicable to World Problems of '70's, 

Vance Says 24 Mar. 72 

Local, National Kite Contests Set for April 1 at Monument 24 Mar. 72 

Smithsonian Museums Start Evening Hours 27 Mar. 72 

Background -Exhibit Techniques 29 Mar. 72 
"Lost" Stuart Portrait of John Adams Acquired by National 

Portrait Gallery 29 Mar. 72 
Graphics by J. Alden Weir To Be Shown at Smithsonian's 

National Collection 29 Mar. 72 
Music by American Indian Composer To Be Played at Smithsonian 

Museum 29 Mar. 72 

Smithsonian Balloon Show Holds Attractions for Numismatists 30 Mar. 72 

Wilson Center Sets May 1 Deadline for Applications 31 Mar. 72 

Exhibit Surveys Rich Culture of 5 Ancient Arabian Kingdoms 31 Mar. 72 
Smithsonian Exhibits Statuette, Plaque for "Fallen 

Astronauts" 4 April 72 

Puppet Theater Will Bring Land of Oz to Smithsonian 4 April 72 

British Singers To Perform in Folklore Society Concert 4 Apr. 72 

Paul Perrot Named Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs 4 Apr. 72 
World Health Exhibit Opens April 7 at Museum of History & 

Technology 4 Apr. 72 

Odd Places Hold Clues to Peril of Toxic Metals in Environment 6 Apr. 72 

Air Museum Acquires Bust of Record-Holding Pilot 6 Apr. 72 
Wendell Castle To Give Illustrated Talk on Furniture at 

Renwick Gallery 6 Apr. 72 



National Collection of Fine Arts Plans See-and-Do Day for 

Children on May 13 6 Apr. 72 

Colonial Bed Rug on Exhibition at History & Technology Museum 6 Apr. 72 

Ceramic Exhibition Shows Traditional Craftsmanship by Contemporary 

Artists 6 Apr. 72 

Folklife Researchers Discover Greece in Downtown Baltimore 6 Apr. 72 

Museum Reopens Exhibition of Korean Village Culture 12 Apr. 72 

2-Hour Movie Programs on Restoration Scheduled at Renwick 

Gallery April 18 12 Apr. 72 

Lecture on Renwick Gallery Planned at National Collection on 

May 20th 14 Apr. 72 

NPG Historian Speaks at Peale Birthplace Dedication 14 Apr. 72 

Folk Musician Bill Vanaver To Perform at Smithsonian 19 Apr. 72 

Work of 6 Artists Will Be Exhibited in U.S. Pavilion at 

Venice Biennale 19 Apr. 72 

Rhode Island School of Design Students To Give Sculpture 

Demonstrations, Show at Art Museum 20 Apr. 72 

Smithsonian To Dedicate Urn to First Landscape Architect 21 Apr. 72 

National Portrait Gallery's Catalog of American Portraits 21 Apr. 72 

Catalog of American Portraits-Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 21 Apr. 72 

New Mixed Media Educational Resources Produced for National 

Portrait Gallery 24 Apr. 72 

Nigerian Potter To Give Demonstration of Her Art at Renwick 

Gallery on May 6 25 Apr. 72 

Smithsonian Offers Photos of Ling-Ling, Hsing-Hsing 26 Apr. 72 

Presidential Candidates, Pundits, Politicians Invited to 

Opening of NPG "If Elected..." Show 27 Apr. 72 

Smithsonian Handbook Explains How To Start Historical Farms 28 Apr. 72 

Climbers Scale Mt. McKinley To Pick Up Trash at 17,000' 28 Apr. 72 

Drugs: A Special Exhibition 28 Apr. 72 

Wildlife Ecologists Claim Benefit From Some Controlled Forest 

Fires 1 May 72 

Martin Williams Will Lecture on Jazz May 6 at Smithsonian 2 May 72 

Indian Writer, Philosopher To Lecture on Gandhi May 10 2 May 72 

Archeology of Malta, Western Mediterranean To Be Illustrated 

in Lecture at Smithsonian 3 May 72 

Textiles Display at Renwick Gallery Will Demonstrate "The 

Swedish Touch" 4 May 72 

Tooth Fantasy Exhibit Opens May 19 at Museum of History and 

Technology 9 May 72 

Statement by S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the Smithsonian 

Institution 9 May 72 

Ethnic Food Will Be Highlight of Smithsonian Folk Festival 9 May 72 

Smithsonian Special Exhibition Puts Drug Use in Social 

Context 10 May 72 

Special Activities To Accompany Smithsonian Exhibition 

on Drugs 1 1 May 72 

Indians of Southwest Will Demonstrate Cultural Heritage at 

Folklife Festival 1 1 May 72 

Voices of Bryan, Debs, Al Smith Now Heard at National Portrait 

Gallery 11 May 72 

New Policy Adopted for Investment of Smithsonian Endowment Funds 1 1 May 72 


Curator of Stockholm Craft Museum To Lecture on Modern Swedish 

Textiles at Renwick Gallery 12 May 72 

Guitarist To Play Flamenco Concert at National Collection of 

Fine Arts 12 May 72 

Film Maker L.M. Kit Carson Presents New Work at Natural History 

Auditorium 1 2 May 72 

Background: Credits 15 May 72 

Scholars Meet in Cairo To Focus Attention of Anthropologists 

on Problems of World Concern 17 May 72 

Smithsonian Puppet Theatre Will Bring Back Tom Sawyer 18 May 72 

Smithsonian Seeks Student Volunteers To Serve as Tour Guides 

During Summer 18 May 72 

Live Insects To "Perform" for Smithsonian Visitors 18 May 72 

Three Citizen Members Appointed to Smithsonian Board of Regents 19 May 72 

Arvid Pardo, Lincoln Gordon Named Wilson Center Fellows 23 May 72 

John E. Anglim, Smithsonian Exhibits Director, Dies 23 May 72 

"Space Art" by Bonesteil on Display at Smithsonian 25 May 72 

Washington Artist Adam Peiperl To Show Light Sculptures at 

Smithsonian 25 May 72 

Bronze Bust of Walter Reuther Will Be Given to the NPG 25 May 72 

Smithsonian, Folklore Society Will Present Concert of 

Southern Mountain Music June 9 25 May 72 

Union Workers Will Demonstrate Skills at Folklife Festival 

June 30-July 4 30 May 72 

Smithsonian To Stage 3rd Annual Boomerang Workshop & Competition 30 May 72 
M-G-M, Disney Highlights Recall Heyday of Movie Musicals in 

Smithsonian Exhibit 30 May 72 

Smithsonian Names Miss Scott To Direct Air Museum Library 30 May 72 

Smithsonian Personnel Office Offers Learning Lab for Staff 30 May 72 

Lorton's Inner Voices, Panel on Historic Perspective Highlights 

of June Drug Activities at Smithsonian 30 May 72 

Private Collectors To Show Prizes in Washington Print Club 

Exhibit 1 June 72 

Ecology, Attica, Africa, Food Are Themes in Art Exhibit by 

D.C. Junior High Pupils 1 June 72 

Public Exhibition of Prints To Be Held at Swiss Embassy 1 June 72 

Unusual Annual Report Outlines 1971 's Offbeat Natural Events 2 June 72 

RCA Gives Grant to Smithsonian for U.S. Art Exhibit in Venice 2 June 72 

Former Aide To Give Smithsonian Talk on Frederick Carder, Genius 

of Glass 2 June 72 

What Is a Monotype Print? Art Exhibit To Give Answer 2 June 72 

Gold & Silver Botanical Sculptures on Display in Smithsonian 

Gem Hall 6 June 72 

National Collection of Fine Arts To Show 70 Prints, Watercolors 

of American Fauna 6 June 72 

Maryland Police Captain Will Give Own Time To Talk to 

Smithsonian Visitors about Drugs 9 June 72 

Record Number of Acquisitions Added to National Portrait Gallery 

Collection 9 June 72 

Panel at Smithsonian Will Examine Socio-Cultural Patterns of 

Drug Misuse 13 June 72 


Concert of American Music To Be Played in Courtyard of 

Smithsonian Art Museum 14 June 72 

First-Day Stamp Talks To Open at Smithsonian 14 June 72 
The Smithsonian's NCFA and Renwick Gallery List Exhibit 

Schedules 15 June 72 

"Ethics of Addiction" Topic of Smithsonian Panel July 10 16 June 72 

Rosenblatt Honored 16 June 72 

Smithsonian Appoints Euell Acting Assistant Secretary 20 June 72 
Early Films of Presidential Candidates Shown Daily at 

National Portrait Gallery 20 June 72 
Special Exhibition of Political Cartoons Now on Display at 

NPG 20 June 72 
Smithsonian Institution Appoints Robert Brooks Assistant 

Secretary 21 June 72 

Films at the Festival of American Folklife 21 June 72 
Smithsonian Names Archie Grimmett To Direct Equal Employment 

Office 22 June 72 

Parks Centennial Honored by Show at Smithsonian 22 June 72 

Smithsonian Receives Islamic Archives 22 June 72 
New Dining Facility at Smithsonian Building Will Offer 

Moderately Priced Natural Food 23 June 72 
National Collection of Fine Arts To Honor Centennial of National 

Parks with Exhibit 26 June 72 

The Marvelous Land of Oz Returns to Smithsonian Puppet Theatre 27 June 72 

Statement by George Meany 27 June 72 

Smithsonian To Get Plates Marking Confederate Era 29 June 72 

"Radio Smithsonian" Programs 

JULY 1971 

"What IS the Archives of American Art?" Garnett McCoy, Deputy Director and 

Archivist. "Behind the Scenes," with Ted Mack, for years the host of the "Original 

Amateur Hour." 
"How About a Change of Face?" Dr. Blair Rogers, plastic surgeon. "How to Protect 

Your Painting," Charles Olin, Head Conservator for the National Collection of 

Fine Arts and the National Portrait Gallery. 
"Government and the Press, Part I." A panel of journalists and government officials 

discusses their relationship today. 
"Government and the Press, Part II." A panel discussion of possibilities for the 


AUGUST 1971 

"Sing for Your Votes." A short history of campaign songs from 1800 to 1968, with 

Herbert Collins, Curator of Political History. 
"A Zoo for Insects," Dr. Ronald Goor of the National Museum of Natural History. 

"How Do You Serve Your Soup?" A look at soup tureens with Bill Parker, 

President of the Campbell Museum. 
"Folk Concert." West Virginian Franklin George and some of his friends play tunes 

on the dulcimer, the banjo, and the fiddle. 
"The Prevalence of Ritual." Artist Romare Bearden talks about black life as reflected 

in his work. "Prints as Art," Jacob Kainen, artist and consultant to the National 

Collection of Fine Arts. 


"Concert." Catharina Meints and James Caldwell, violists da gamba, and James 
Weaver, harpsichord, playing works by Ste.-Colombe and Marais. 


"Creating an Exhibit." How a Smithsonian exhibit comes into being, from 
conception to realization. 

"The 1971 Festival of American Folklife, Part I." 

"The 1971 Festival of American Folklife, Part II." 

"Charles Lang Freer as Collector." Dr. Thomas Lawton, Curator of Chinese Art at the 
Freer Gallery of Art, talks about the Gallery's distinguished and dedicated 
founder. "The Improbable Creator of an Improbable Institution," with Dr. 
Nathan Reingold, Editor of the Joseph Henry Papers, Smithsonian Institution, on 
the subject of the germinal early days of the now 125-year-old Smithsonian. 


"The Gagliano Trio." A Smithsonian concert featuring the Trio in C Minor by 

Beethoven, performed by Jacqueline Anderson, violin; Lane Anderson, cello; and 

Helen Hollis, piano. 
"A Visit with the Spider Lady." Mrs. Anne Moreton tells how you can learn to love 

spiders. "What Does a Microlepidopterist Do?" with Dr. Gates Clarke, Senior 

Entomologist at the National Museum of Natural History. 
"Street, Blues, and Gospel Music of Washington, D.C." Excerpts from a concert 

presented at the Smithsonian. 
"You and Your Teeth," with Dr. Lucile St. Hoyme, Curator of Physical 

Anthropology. "The Center for Short-Lived Phenomena," explained by Robert 

Citron, Director. 
"Can They Survive?" A report on endangered species of wildlife and the efforts being 

made to protect them. 


"Can They Survive? Part II." A report on endangered species of wildlife and the 

efforts being made to protect them. 
"The Concentus Musicus of Vienna," under the direction of Nikolaus Harnoncourt, 

in a program of music by Bach. 
"A Conversation with Dr. Louis S.B. Leakey." The distinguished anthropologist talks 

about his discoveries and theories concerning the evolution of man. 
"The Tower of London and its Treasures," with Howard Blackmore, Assistant Master 

of the Armouries at the Tower. "Ask a Simple Question..." and get an answer from 

an expert at the Smithsonian. 


"Social Customs in the Animal World," with Dr. Martin Moynihan, Director of the 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. "Spanish Armor in Kansas?" Dr. Waldo 
Wedel of the National Museum of Natural History discusses his finds. 

"Portraits-History or Art?" with Marvin Sadik, Director of National Portrait Gallery. 
"Postmark: Smithsonian." Carl Scheele, Curator of Postal History , tells about the 
reconstructed 19th century post office in operation at the Smithsonian. 

"Presidents on Wheels." Some fascinating stories about Presidents and their vehicles, 
with Herbert Collins, Curator of Political History. "Ecology Is Nothing New," with 
Dr. G. Evelyn Hutchinson, who has spent his life studying the environment. 


"Saving the Asian Lion." An interview with Michael Huxley, Special Assistant to the 
Smithsonian's Assistant Secretary for Science. "Ask a Simple Question..." and get 
sn answer from a Smithsonian expert. 


"Concert: The Concentus Musicus, Vienna," under the direction of Nikolaus 

Harnoncourt, in a program of Italian baroque music. 
"The Middle East: What's Really Hapening?" A discussion with Dr. Amos Perlm utter, 

Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, and Dr. Abdul 

Said, Professor at the American University School of International Service. 
"Folk Concert," featuring Grant Rogers, folksinger, fiddler, and guitarist. 
"The Renwick: A Showcase for American Design." Interview with Lloyd Herman, 

Director of the Renwick Gallery, the newest of the Smithsonian's branches. 

"Perception and Society," with Dr. Robert Livingstone, Visiting Professor at Brain 

Research Institute of the University of Zurich. 
"Life Among the Chimps." Dr. Jane van Lawick-Goodall talks about some of the 

striking discoveries she has made about chimpanzees over the past decade. 


"Rodin: True or False." Kirk Varnedoe of the National Gallery of Art explains how 
you can tell a real Rodin drawing from the many fake ones. "Carbon Dating: What 
Is It?" Dr. Robert Stuckenrath of the Smithsonian Radiation Biology Laboratory 
tells how he determines the age of organic remains. 

"Folk Concert." A program of old-time fiddle music. 

"Exploring the Meaning of Discovery." with Dr. Melvin Jackson, Curator of Maritime 
Transportation, and Dr. Wilcomb Washburn, Director of the Smithsonian's Office 
of American Studies. 

"Listening to Brain Waves." Dr. Reginald Bickford, a neurophysiologist, discusses 
and plays recordings of "brain music." "Cotton Comes to America." Mrs. Grace 
Cooper of the Division of Textiles talks about Samuel Slater, considered the father 
of the American textile industry. 

MARCH 1972 

"Concert." Malcolm Bilson plays music for the fortepiano. 

"A Conversation with Dr. Edward Teller." 

"How Birds Communicate," with Dr. Gene Morton of the Smithsonian Chesapeake 

Bay Center. "The Art of John Held, Jr." Mrs. Held talks about her late husband, 

the creator of the flapper cartoons of the 1920s. 
"Science at the Smithsonian." An interview with Dr. David Challinor, Smithsonian's 

Assistant Secretary for Science. "Israel: An Archeologist's Dream," with Dr. 

Avraham Biran, Director of the Department of Antiquities and Museums of Israel, 

and Dr. Gus Van Beek, Smithsonian Curator of Old World Anthropology. 

APRIL 1972 

"Folk Concert." Alan Jabbour and Pete Hoover playing fiddle and banjo. 

"How to Live in a Stately Home and Stay Solvent." An interview with Lord Montagu 
of Beaulieu, owner of one of England's most impressive mansions. "Ecolibrium." 
Dr. Athelstan Spilhaus, Chairman, American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, discusses his thoughts on maintaining an environmental balance. 

"Ballooning: Man's First Step into the Air," with Roger Pineau, historian for the 
Smithsonian's new exhibit on ballooning, and Constance Wolf, holder of the major 
world's records for women balloonists. 


"Concert." The Danzi Woodwind Quintet of Amsterdam. 

"Latest Discoveries at Lake Rudolf." Dr. Richard Leakey talks about his newest 
findings concerning man's ancestors. "A Global View of the Human 
Environment," interview with Swedish statesman Rolf Edberg. 

MAY 1972 

"Underwater Treasure." Mendel Peterson, Curator of Historic Archeology, discusses 

treasures lost by Spanish fleets sailing to and from the New World. "What's New in 

Chinese Archeology?" An interview with Dr. Thomas Lawton, Assistant Director 

of the Freer Gallery of Art. 
"The Talents of Frank Sinatra." Music critic Henry Pleasants explains why he 

considers Sinatra "a peat vocal artist." 
"World War I Fliers." General EP. Curtis, USAF Retired, recalls his experiences as a 

pilot during World War I. "The French Chef Off Camera." Julia Child discusses her 

life as TV's leading chef. 
"Congress and Foreign Policy." Discussion between Alton Frye, Fellow of the 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, and Henry Brandon, 

Washington correspondent for the London Sunday Times. 

JUNE 1972 

"Concert." Sonya Monosoff, violin, Judith Davidoff, cello, and James Weaver, 

harpsichord, play violin sonatas of Corelli. 
"Terms of the Social Contract." Robert Ardrey, author, discusses the structure of 

society with Wilton Dillon, Director of Seminars at the Smithsonian. 
"The Also Rans." Lillian Miller, National Portrait Gallery Historian, talks about 

candidates who ran for president-and lost. "Are Heavy Metals Dangerous?" with 

Dale Jenkins, Director of the Smithsonian's Ecology Program. 
"Where is the Melody?" Martin Williams, noted jazz critic and Director of the 

Smithsonian's Jazz Program, discusses and illustrates jazz fundamentals. 

Appendix 9 


National Museum of History and Technology 

Hall of Monetary History and Medallic Art 

Electricity Phase II 

Graphic Arts 
1864 Post Office 


A Children's World 1875-1950 
(Sears Toy Collection) 

American Holidays Exhibit- 
Fourth of July 
Labor Day 

Art and Physics-Adam Pieperal 

Micro Film 

National Parks Centennial (Philately) 

Objects of the Month 

Slovenians in America 

World Health Organization 

Why Teeth? 

National Museum of Natural History 

Our Restless Planet (Physical Geology) 

Animal Artists 
Arabia Felix Archeology 
Baird Exhibit (Rotunda) 

Greenland: Arctic Denmark 
(Traveling Exhibit) 


Insect Zoo 
Japanese Armor 
Korean Village 
Spanish Burial 
Spider Lady 

Air Force Art Show 
Apollo 15Pre-Flight 
Apollo 1 6 Pre -Flight 
Bonestell Art Show 
Fallen Astronaut 

National Air and Space Museum 

Lunar Rover Vehicle 

Mategot Tapestry 

Recent Acquisitions Exhibit 

Vertical Flight 

World War I Fighter Aircraft 




National Collection of Fine Arts 

Boris Anisfeldt: 20 Years of Designs 

for the American Theatre 
Drawings by William Glackens 
Edith Gregor Halpert Memorial 

J. Alden Weir, An American 

Jennie Cell Paintings 
John Steuart Curry: Theme and 

Lee Gatch 
National Collection of Fine Arts 

Collection (Contemporary Painting 

and Sculpture) 

Prints by Karl Schrag 
Romare Bearden: The 

Prevalence of Ritual 
The Art of John Held, Jr: 

"The Roaring Twenties" 
Thomas Eakins: His Photographic 

Two American Painters: 

Fritz Scholder and T.C. Cannon 
William H. Johnson (SITES) 

Renwick Gallery- 

Architectural Photographs of Frank Roos 

Design Is 

Four Continents 

Glass of Frederick Carder 

Grand Salon (Permanent) 

Index of American Design 

Jack Lenor Larsen Retrospective 

James Renwick of Washington 

Pueblo Pottery 

Octagon Room (Permanent) 

The Swedish Touch 


Freer Gallery of Art 

Christian Art 

Eugene and Agnes E. Meyer 

Memorial Exhibition 
Exhibition of Japanese Rimpa 

school art 

Japanese Art- Recent Accessions 
Special Exhibition of Japanese 

Pottery (RAKU Ware) 
2500 Years of Persian Art 

National Portrait Gallery 

A Glimmer of Their Own Beauty 

If Elected 

Portraits of the American Eagle 

Temporary Student Exhibit 
Washington in the New Era 
Washington from Banneker to Douglass 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

Accent '71 

Evolution of a Community, Part I 

Science -Man's Greatest Adventure 

National Zoological Park 
The Pandas 



Smithsonian Building (Great Hall) 
125th Anniversary 

Arts and Industries Building 
(Smithsonian Institution) 


Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Services 

A Children's World 1875-1950 

(Versions 1, 2, 3) 
Contemporary American Drawings V: 

Norfolk Biennial 
Graphics '7 1 : West Coast U.S.A. 
Greenland: Arctic Denmark 
Indian Images (Version 2) 
James Weldon Johnson 
Just Before the War 

(Versions 1 and 2) 

Movie Palace Modern 
Norway Now: 11 Painters 

Nutrition in Burundi 
Paleolithic: Paintings of France 

and Spain 
Swiss Posters: The Best of 1969-1970 
The Art of the Comic Strip 
The Graphic Art of Felix Valloton 
The Monotype: An Addition of One 
The Story of a Goblet 
UNICEF-Helping the World's Children 
Victorian Glass 
Vision of Peace in Painting 
William H. Johnson 

Appendix 10 



Air and Space Building. Construction of a planetarium exhibit started in April and 
is expected to be completed in July. 

Arts and Industries Building. Decking the northwest range was completed in 
February. Painting the east hall and the rotunda was completed in April. In June 
sewage systems were completed to effect sanitary and storm sewer separation, 
contracts were let for decking the west -north range, construction of offices on the 
first floor northwest range was completed, and bids were opened for exterior lighting. 

Freer Gallery of Art. Sewage systems were completed in June to effect sanitary 
and storm sewer separation. 

History and Technology Building. Bids were opened in June to extend the 
sanitary sewer on the north side. 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Construction continued but 
various unforeseen delays have extended the expected completion date. 

National Air and Space Museum. The National Capital Planning Commission 
approved the design concept for the new building and working drawings were in 
progress at the close of the year. All possible steps are being taken to complete 
construction in time for the Bicentennial of the American Revolution. 

National Zoological Park. No major construction projects were completed during 
the year. Ground was broken for an annex to the Hospital and Research Building, 
which is scheduled for completion late in 1972. An emergency construction need 
arose when the Zoo was designated to receive the two giant pandas. As suitable 
quarters were not available, some animals were transferred from one of the Delicate 
Hoofed Stock buildings and two large cages were remodeled. At year's end the entire 
building and associated outdoor paddocks were being remodeled for the pandas. 

The Zoo's perimeter fence was rehabilitated; the old hospital building, originally a 
cookhouse, was remodeled for use by the Division of Interpretation; necessary 
changes were made in Paddock 8 to receive the bongos, displaced by the giant 
pandas; and new fencing was erected for a large crane yard. A trial section of the Bird 
House roof was repaired to correct leaks; the balance will be completed in fiscal year 

Natural History Building. In April a contract was awarded to expand the Library's 
facilities and completion is expected in July. 

Renwick Gallery. In January work was completed on replacing sidewalk and 
stairs, providing exterior lighting, cleaning and sealing main stone staircase, altering 
and renovating a portion of the interior, providing glass etching for main entrance, 
marbleizing main stairwell, painting interior and exterior, and birdproofing the 
building. In May, manufacture of an ornamental railing for the roof was completed 
and exterior brickwork was cleaned. 

Silver Hill Facility. In June bids were opened for improvement of the sewage 
system, a contract was awarded for construction of the Ramsey Building, and 
erection of a wood-frame structure in Building 15 for storing musical instruments was 
started with completion expected in July. 

Smithsonian Institution Building. In June sewage systems were completed to 
effect sanitary and storm sewer separation and bids were opened for exterior lighting. 


Appendix 11 



Smithsonian Arts & Natural Air & Freer History & 
Institution Industries History Space Gallery Technology 
Building Building Building Building of Art Building 



September .... 


November .... 








113,353 282,174 384,348 213,316 26,286 991,398 
109,696 333,831 405,419 239,506 28,955 884,735 
44,222 128,100 175,862 88,981 14,544 335,171 
57,681 133,853 202,686 87,830 19,232 415,308 
54,729 122,781 234,469 72,490 13,703 354,048 
25,011 73,946 140,230 32,817 13,029 269,092 
35,655 77,601 152,484 46,906 12,725 277,121 
27,753 82,438 169,270 66,397 13,226 299,451 
61,176 164,939 282,872 114,270 22,627 498,257 
107,093 367,519 496,320 141,638 25,032 978,728 
89,024 271,276 397,078 Closed 18,901 747,351 
92,629 260,834 363,533 Closed 21,637 739,713 


818,022 2,299,292' 3,404,571 1,104,151* 229,897 6,790,373 3 


Fine Arts National Anacostia 
& Portrait Renwick Zoological Neighborhood 
Galleries Gallery Park Museum Totals 


24,663 695,190 3,712 2,734,440 





18,224 650,850 5,086 2,676,302 
18,186 264,574 3,576 1,073,216 
25,241 313,141 5,033 1,260,005 
22,819 - 308,093 4,922 1,188,054 


17,931 - 84,178 9,654 665,888 


20,491 11,814 81,340 7,467 723,604 



16,270 29,576 171,124 7,682 883,187 
20,071 21,524 457,312 13,788 1,656,836 
20,364 16,676 957,402 6,393 3,117,165 
23,602 12,547 1,160,138 4,974 2,724,891 
18,334 12,744 699,796 2,691 2,211,911 




246,196 104,881" 5,843,138 74,978 s 20,915,499 6 

Increase due to extended night hours and to the wide interest in new exhibits opened during the 

year, including: the balloon and World War I halls, the drug exhibit and its associated activities, and 

the lunar module. 
Decrease due to building being closed in May and June for installation of planetarium exhibit. 

Increase partially due to popularity of Headsville, West Virginia, Post Office Special Exhibit. 

Gallery opened in January 1972. 

40,357 adults and children visited museum; the mobile unit was viewed by 34,621 children at 
their schools. 

Increase of 7,114,291 visits is partially due to the Folklife Festival and to the inclusion of visits 
to the National Zoological Park and the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. This total does not include 
over 4,000,000 persons who visited the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service's displays 
in museums and educational institutions throughout the United States and Canada. 







•^,-;, '■-'-■ : 


miHIHMfl ' 

-■ — ~ ^: ■-— ■ * ■• .^-- - 



S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and three Secretaries 
Emeritus of the Institution at the celebration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the 
Freer Gallery of Art, 2 May 1973. The Secretaries and their terms of office, 
reading from left to right, are Leonard Carmichael (1953-1964), S. Dillon Ripley 
(1964- ), Charles G. Abbot (1928-1944), and Alexander Wetmore (1945- 

1952). Photograph by Margaret Thomas, courtesy The Washington Post. 

Smithsonian Year 






City of Washington 


Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 67-7980 

For vil<- by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Priming Office 

Washington, D.C., 20402— Price $:* (papei cover) 

Sunk Number: 4700-00292 

The Smithsonian Institution 

The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 
1846 in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson 
of England, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United 
States of America "to found at Washington, under the name of 
the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase 
and diffusion of knowledge among men." In receiving the 
property and accepting the trust, Congress determined that the 
federal government was without authority to administer the 
trust directly, and therefore, constituted an "establishment," 
whose statutory members are "the President, the Vice President, 
the Chief Justice, and the heads of the executive departments." 

The Establishment 

Richard M. Nixon, President of the United States 

Spiro T. Agnew, Vice President of the United States 

Warren E. Burger. Chief Justice of the United States 

William P. Rogers, Secretary of State 

George P. Shultz, Secretary of the Treasury 

James R. Schlesinger, Secretary of Defense 

Elliot L. Richardson, Attorney General 

Elmer T. Klassen, Postmaster General 

Rogers C. B. Morton, Secretary of Interior 

Earl L. Butz, Secretary of Agriculture 

Frederick B. Dent, Secretary of Commerce 

Peter J. Brennan, Secretary of Labor 

Caspar W. Weinberger, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare 

James T. Lynn, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 

Claude S. Brinegar, Secretary of Transportation 

Board of Regents and Secretary 

30 June 1973 

Presiding Officer ex officio 
Regents of the Institution 

Executive Committee 

The Secretary 
Under Secretary 
Assistant Secretaries 


Richard M. Nixon, President of the 

United States, Chancellor 
Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the 

United States, Chancellor 
Spiro T. Agnew, Vice President of the 

United States 
J. William Fulbright, Member of the 

Henry M. Jackson, Member of the Sen- 
Hugh Scott, Member of the Senate 
George H. Mahon, Member of the 

House of Representatives 
William E. Minshall, Member of the 

House of Representatives 
John J. Rooney, Member of the House of 

John Paul Austin, citizen of Georgia 
John Nicholas Brown, citizen of Rhode 

William A. M. Burden, citizen of New 

Robert F. Goheen, citizen of New Jersey 
Crawford H. Greenewalt, citizen of 

Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of Washing- 
ton, D.C. 
A. Leon Higginbotham Jr., citizen of 

Thomas J. Watson, Jr., citizen of Con- 
James E. Webb, citizen of Washington, 

Warren E. Burger, Chancellor (Board 

of Regents) 
William A. M. Burden- 
Caryl P. Haskins 
James E. Webb (Chairman) 
S. Dillon Ripley 
Robert A. Brooks 
David Challinor, Assistant Secretary for 

Charles Blitzer, Assistant Secretary for 

History and Art 
Julian Euell, Acting Assistant Secretary 

for Public Service 
Paul N. Perrot, Assistant Secretary for 

Museum Programs 
T. Ames Wheeler 



The Smithsonian Institution v 

Board of Regents and Secretary vi 

Statement by the Secretary 1 

Financial Report 16 

Science 45 

National Museum of Natural History 46 

National Air and Space Museum 66 

Smithsonian Astrophvsical Observatory 72 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 77 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 84 

National Zoological Park 86 

Office of Environmental Sciences 91 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 95 

Center for the Study of Man 96 

Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, Inc 97 

Fort Pierce Bureau 98 

History and Art 100 

National Museum of History and Technology 104 

Archives of American Art 117 

Freer Gallery of Art 119 

National Collection of Fine Arts 120 

National Portrait Gallery 124 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 127 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design 133 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 136 

Joseph Henry Papers 137 

Office of American Studies 138 

Office of Academic Studies 139 

Smithsonian Institution Archives 140 

Office of Seminars 141 

Special Museum Programs 143 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 144 

Conservation-Analytical Laboratory 145 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 146 

Office of the Registrar 147 

Office of Exhibits Programs 147 

National Museum Act Program 148 

Public Service 150 

Smithsonian Associates 151 

Office of Public Affairs 153 

Office of International Activities 154 

Division of Performing Arts 155 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 158 

Smithsonian (magazine) 160 

Smithsonian Institution Press 161 


Reading is Fundamental, Inc 162 

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 163 

Belmont Conference Center 164 

Administrative Management 165 

Support Activities 165 

International Exchange Service 1 72 

National Gallery of Art 1 74 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 177 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 182 


1. Members of the Smithsonian Council, 30 June 1973 184 

2. Smithsonian Associates Membership, 1972-1973 186 

3. Academic Appointments, 1972-1973 194 

4. National Museum Act Grants, 1972-1973 204 

5. Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program Grants Awarded in Fiscal 

Year 1973 207 

6. List of Publications Produced with Smithsonian Foreign Currency 

Support Since the Inception of the Smithsonian Foreign 

Currency Program 210 

7. Public Affairs 223 

8. Publications and Selected Contributions of the Smithsonian Institu- 

tion Staff in Fiscal Year 1973 235 

9. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press in Fiscal Year 1973 300 

10. Smithsonian Exhibits 307 

11. Progress on Building Construction, Restoration, and Renovation . . 310 

12. Visitors to the Smithsonian Institution During Fiscal Year 1973 .... 312 

13. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution, 30 June 1973 313 


Statement of the Secretary 


Look Backward, Lest You Fail 
To Mark the Path Ahead 

rr-iHESE words are useful to remember when you are walking in 
■*- the woods. If you keep a line of sight backwards on the trail 
along which you have come, leaving various prominent objects in 
view, or perhaps blazing the tree trunks, it is often possible to get a 
straight bearing forward. It sometimes seems as if we were all in 
the woods thinking about the Bicentennial year 1976. What is the 
path ahead? Where are we going and where have we come from? 
It might be useful to think about what happened in the Cen- 
tennial year of 1876. By 1873 there was considerable agitation in 
the country to hold a great World's Fair to commemorate the hun- 
dredth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. In January 
1874, President Ulysses S. Grant authorized the creation of a 
Centennial Board from the Departments of the Treasury, War, 
Navy, Interior, Postmaster General, Agriculture, and from the 
Smithsonian to plan a federal exhibition at Philadelphia. Fore- 
sightedly as always, Joseph Henry some years before, writing on 
the Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1851, had jotted down some 
unpublished notes: 

It is highly important that we should be truly represented at the great 
exhibition but by the proper men and well selected articles. As a general 
rule new countries like ours are too much occupied in developing their 
immediate resources to devote much thought to the progress of the 
world in arts and civilization, but this is not the case with this country. 
We have from the first kept a keen eye on every discovery of science 
and every invention in art. 

He goes on to warn against our tendency to arrogate undue credit 
to ourselves in improving and refining inventions which may belong 
to others, and warns that our representatives, 

should be well acquainted with what has been actually accomplished 
as well as with our deficiencies in order that the first may be properly 
exhibited without any over or under statement which might tend to 
lessen the effect intended to be produced. 

This could be a good moral for today. No "puffs" for America, 

Following the planning of the Centennial Board, a request to 
the Congress for an appropriation produced an authorized budget 



of about half what had been thought necessary, to the total sum 
of $505,000. In addition to preparing the exhibits, this money was 
to include up to $150,000 for the construction of a building in 
Philadelphia to house the exhibition. A building was erected for 
$60,000 plus landscaping costs, containing 102,000 square feet of 
which about a quarter was assigned to the exhibits of the Smith- 
sonian and its subsidiary organization, the U.S. Fish Commission 

The exhibition covered the agricultural and the mineral king- 
doms of the United States, showing the Nation's resources as then 
understood, as well as the animal resources ranging from fish, 
whales, and seals to the game animals and birds of the continent, 
and their method of capture as well as the products to be made 
from them, extending from food to fertilizer, all to sustain human 
life. In addition to fur, feathers, bones, teeth, and useful oils to be 
derived from these resources, the clothes and equipment of the 
hunters whether commercial or amateur were shown. The fish 
collections were most elaborate and included plaster casts of species, 
realistically colored, as well as a special feature under the manage- 
ment of a Mr. E. G. Blackford, a refrigerator covered with a glass 
top in which fresh fish "from all portions of the United States" 
were kept and changed every day so that some of the restaurants 
on the grounds could take the fish at the close of the day and 
"serve them up to those calling for them." 

An important part of the exhibit, done in collaboration with 
the Indian Bureau of the Interior Department consisted of an 
illustration of the past and present condition of the native tribes 
of the United States. Ethnologists and anthropologists, including 
Major J. Wesley Powell, prepared collections especially for the 
Centennial including archaeological remains from tribes from such 
places as the southeast coast of California, that had already become 
extinct, as well as living tribes from as far north as the Haida 
territory, from whence a canoe was procured "60 feet long, 8 feet 
wide, and 4 feet high, cut from a single log of cedar, profusely 
ornamented with carvings and paintings." 

It had originally been proposed that representatives of living 
Indian tribes in family groups would be brought to Philadelphia 
with their own clothing, utensils, and dwellings to create a tem- 
porary community on the Centennial grounds where they could 
all carry on their various occupations, including their "aboriginal" 
arts from pottery and silver to the dressing of buffalo hides. 
Apparently lack of funds prevented what might have been a useful 
demonstration indeed to the aboriginal Easterners of the skills 


and high art of the Indians. 

As Professor Baird pointed out in the Smithsonian Report for 
1875, "it is quite reasonable to infer that by the expiration of a 
second hundred-year period of the life of the American republic 
[namely 1976] the Indians will have entirely ceased to present 
any distinctive characters, and will be merged in the general 

Despite the lack of living Indians, the Centennial exhibit ended 
up being a great success. It was a World's Exposition in truth. It 
exhibited for all to see the resources of our fair land, ready to be 
developed and utilized by man, the chosen instrument of the 
Creator. Fin, fur, and feathers were all at his disposal, and like a 
cupbearer of the gods, of Ceres, Mr. Blackford opened his refrig- 
erator each evening and dispensed the natural products of the 
seas and lakes for gustatory delectation. And so out of the more 
than two hundred varieties shown, we can imagine cod and had- 
dock, salmon and lake trout being trundled off to the local restau- 
rants on the Centennial grounds. 

It was all an immensely popular exhibit, and lasted for six 
months, after which the Smithsonian received more than fifty car 
loads of material from a number of states and territories of the 
U.S.A. as well as thirty-four foreign nations. Subsequently Congress 
appropriated $250,000 to build a building adjacent to the Smith- 
sonian building on the Mall to house this vast increase of objects 
to the collections of the National Museum, and also approved 
subsequent donations of duplicate specimens to educational and 
industrial establishments throughout the United States. 

So much for the World's Fair of 1876, which appears to have 
captured the imagination of the American people. Many of the 
objects are still on exhibition in Washington. In 1966, President 
Johnson created an American Revolution Bicentennial Commission 
to foretell and plan the events surrounding the year 1976. (From 
an historical point of view, the Smithsonian views the commemora- 
tion of the Revolution as extending over a period of years, at least 
from the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776 on to Yorktown in 
1781.) The Commission this time was an amalgam of presidential 
appointees from private life, and ex officio heads of departments, 
such as State, Commerce, Health, Education, and Welfare, and 
Interior, as well as agencies such as the General Services Admin- 
istration, the National Endowment of the Arts and Humanities, 
the Library of Congress, and, finally, the Smithsonian. Three chair- 
men have served this Commission, the first a museum administrator, 
the second a university president, and the third a business executive. 


The appointed members were often distinguished historians like 
Katherine Drinker Bowen and Daniel Boorstin, or people well 
versed in the management of tourists and their gustatory needs 
like the fine and dedicated George Lang, lineal descendant of Mr. 
Blackford. Then there were administrators of historic sites like the 
then-Director of the National Park Service, George Hartzog, or the 
equally dedicated James Biddle, President of the National Trust for 
Historic Preservation. 

With the best will in the world the Commission has now 
foundered. The first blow was resources, for the Congress did not 
allot funds to the embryo Commission for two years. The second 
blow to the Nation, in retrospect, was that it was firmly decided 
that there would be no World's Fairs in 1976. A World's Fair by 
the latter part of the Twentieth Century, far from being the 1876 
concept of a proud display of technological mastery of a new 
continent evoking pride and patriotism from everyone, had degen- 
erated into hard-sell show of Disneyland proportions with vast 
commercial companies vying with each other to capture fleeting 
segments of tourists' attention with razzle-dazzle multimedia adver- 
tising. The Bicentennial Commissioners in solemn assembly listened 
to proposals for multibillion-dollar expenditures by such diverse 
centers as Boston, Miami, Washington, and Dallas. Philadelphia, 
an obvious choice, teetered on the brink of a fair, any sort of fair, 
a World's Fair or a Philadelphia Fair, but finally found that the 
citizens of the city itself were against the idea. All proposals were 
eventually politely turned down. Not only was the Nation at war, 
but the divisiveness of the times was against the lollipop and con- 
fetti image of a World's Fair, and no one could face up to such 
vast and untidy budgets. 

Why then would I say that giving up the idea of a World's Fair 
was a blow? Because time has seemed to prove the truth of what a 
tea planter said to my wife in India in the nineteen fifties, "Why 
can American only sell goods and not themselves?" He was speak- 
ing about the flood of cheaply produced colorful peasant-directed 
literature in native tongues flooding through the coolie lines in 
India from Russian sources, so effective in relating the simple 
peasant life of the Socialist Republics to the simple peasant lives 
of Indian tea workers. American life is at such an unimaginable 
standard compared to over seventy-five percent of the rest of the 
world that we have no truths to tell such people. We can only sell 
them objects or foodstuffs. We cannot sell ideas. In the same way, 
we are finding difficulty in listening any more to our own prophets. 
Who are they and where are they? Truth is a revolutionary kind 


of thing. We do not deal any more in revolutions, because we 
have garnered more objects to ourselves than we know what to do 
with, we have not only conquered the continent with our tech- 
nological skill but fiimly enslaved it, and unlike Professor Baird's 
prophecy, the Indians are still on the reservations. We have gotten 
pretty much what we were striving for one hundred years ago, and 
in the pursuit of skills, ease, and happiness have come perilously 
near to losing our faith. 

In retrospect, then, I, as a Commissioner, might well have 
settled for another World's Fair. After all what is the Fourth of 
July all about? We celebrate it with a holiday, with speeches, band 
concerts, hot dogs, a day at the beach or a day at the Smithsonian's 
Folk Festival, and end up with a fireworks display. Why not? If 
life itself has become something of a put-on, as the young would 
have us believe, and truth is no more with us, why not just try to 
provide a good time for as many foot-sore tourists as possible and 
celebrate the occasion with a big bang and a bust. One good hang- 
over deserves another. But the Commission, including myself, voted 
down the idea, feeling that solemnity decreed against it, and that 
sobriety must be the watchword in such austere times. Thus 
several years later, and awaiting the formation of still another 
Commission (the first one having been disbanded as an expression 
of governmental displeasure) , there is no sensible concept of what 
people will find themselves driving to in the summer of 1976. 

In any case the Smithsonian knows, as I pointed out last year, 
that some thirty-odd million tourists will find themselves inexorably 
driving to Washington, D.C., in the year 1976. They want objects 
to look at, not vague and wordy evocations of ideas or even 
ideals. The Smithsonian and its co-workers in the vineyard of 
providing something for everyone in Washington, the National 
Park Service, the Library of Congress, the National Archives, and 
all the wonderful smaller galleries and cultural centers of the 
Nation's capital, know that vast crowds of quiet, orderly, decent 
people will be coming, people who still make up the heart and 
soul of our country, as well as our neighbor countries on both 
sides of the oceans. They have faith, mirabile dictu, and in them 
we are renewed. We see them in all their splendour and diversity 
for what they are. We see their honest awe, their love of things, 
and their reverence for history, despite the scoffing of the literati. 
Teachers are today the first to admit that they have lost a great 
deal of their own faith in what they are teaching. Academia is 
suffering from a hangover and a new-found inferiority complex. 
The world of teaching today is itself in the woods, and as history 


is not being seriously taught anymore in most places, there is no 
way of finding directions by looking backwards for tree blazes in 
order to see if the pathway lies ahead or somewhere off in a circle. 

In this uncertain climate the Smithsonian is looking ahead firmly 
toward our own objectives. We can teach the truth as we know it, 
sticking to our lathe, being ever mindful of the past, in fact, rever- 
ing the past for the truths it tells us of the path ahead. And so in 
the end we are producing our own Bicentennial Fair right in 
Washington, without razzle-dazzle, without what Joseph Henry 
termed "over statement," without all the gushy pseudo-emotion- 
alism of the advertising media that surrounds public entertainment 
today. For example, we are preparing a comprehensive exhibit in 
the National Museum of History and Technology on the multi- 
plicity of our peoples, shown against the backdrop of immigration. 
Who came here and when and how? What were they like? What 
did each element provide for the warp and woof of that tapestry 
which is ourselves? What were the unities, the divisions of that 
coming, and to what extent are the Old World's ways which they 
brought with them still discernible? There is so much to learn about 
the truth of this country, so much still to be told. Such truth 
should provide us with insights about the future. We can use 
them as markers to chart the course ahead. We can of course only 
delineate these things, but in their exposition there is a message 
which can be absorbed as a teacher teaches. There is also help to 
reinforce faith and turn away lies. If lies can be put in perspective, 
surely the truth is not far away, and without revolution. 

In a sense this exhibit about the diversity of our peoples is re- 
flected in most of the Smithsonian activities, beginning in this past 
year and continuing under our program until at least 1981. 
The National Portrait Gallery opened an exhibit on the black in 
the Revolution, The Black Presence in the Era of the American 
Revolution, 1770-1800, which received high acclaim. With this 
exhibition, the first of a whole program of exhibits geared to 
1976, went a masterful work of scholarship, a catalogue by Professor 
Sidney Kaplan of the University of Massachusetts, which stands by 
itself as a dissertation on the subject. Next year's exhibit in the 
sequence is to be In the Minds and Hearts of the People: Prologue 
to Revolution, 1760-1774, with a catalogue by Professor Lillian 
B. Miller. 

The National Collection of Fine Arts has continued its thought- 
ful series of exhibits in the history of American art. As Hilton 
Kramer said, speaking of one of the exhibits last year, "Under the 
directorship of Joshua C. Taylor, the National Collection has 


emerged as our most responsible museological custodian of Ameri- 
can art, addressing itself to those disinterested tasks of scholarship 
and connoisseurship that have been spurned by more fashion- 
conscious museums elsewhere." He was referring to the exhibit, 
Alfred H. Maurer, 1868-1932. 

Another exhibit which received acclaim was The Hand and the 
Spirit, which was a pioneer exploration of American religious art. 
In this new-found tradition of quiet and assured competence, the 
NCFA plans Painting and Sculpture from the Pacific Northwest 
for next year, leading to an understanding of the immense range 
and strengths of American art. No finer undertaking in its field 
could be devised to celebrate the Nation's first two hundred years. 

This past year the National Gallery of Art continued a tradition 
of showing archaeological objects as art, this time in the "American" 
field, with a seminal show of arts of the Northwestern Indians and 
Eskimos. I did not see the "Haida canoe, 60 feet long, 8 feet wide, 
and 4 feet high . . . profusely ornamented," but perhaps size was a 
consideration? In any case, Haida objects were there demonstrating 
once again the difficulty of discussing such art as "aboriginal." The 
line between an object as art and an object as a utensil or a 
religious vessel is a transparently slippery one, over which historians 
of art feel concerned lest their discipline become watered by sub- 
jectivism or the easy assimilation of questionable truths. But to 
the audience no matter. Both the aboriginal of yesterday or the 
aboriginal in a business suit of today may be possessed of an innate 
sense of line and economy of design which produces a satisfactory 
esthetic reaction. These shows are wonderful to experience. 

This is the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Freer Gallery of Art, "the 
aristocrat of American museums," as John Canaday has described 
it. The Freer is the antithesis of the noisy, something-for-everybody 
art gallery of today, a fashion into which so many of the largest 
art galleries are slipping. How fortunate for Washington and for 
the Smithsonian that we have a Freer. 

The first of the Freer's "Fiftieth" was a splendid Japanese show 
of Ukiyoe painting, with a magnificent catalogue underwritten by 
friends. At the dinner celebrating the occasion, the formulation of 
a group of "Friends of the Freer" was announced, to help that 
gallery seek a modest, largely below-ground addition for temporary 
exhibits and additional work in curation and conservation. The 
Freer will have its mind on '76, as will the Hirshhorn, scheduled 
to be open within the year. 

The addition of the National Air and Space Museum to our 
"museum mile along the Mall" will help enhance the appropriate 

521-552 O - 74 - 2 


Bicentennial Fair that Washington will be that summer of 1976. 
The history of the conquest of air and space is one of America's 
proudest accomplishments in the years since the Centennial Exhibi- 
tion. The exhibits planned for that great building will justify our 
intuitive feeling that people are eager to look at objects, to savor 
their meaning, and to come away with the sense of having brushed 
against history. This is a kind of teaching, a transmission through 
the stuff of material culture, of a sense of reality and consequent 
excitement which leaves its mark, a step along the learning process. 

The central axis of the Arts and Industries building, as we call 
that 1879 tribute to the solicitude of Congress toward the artifacts 
brought back from Philadelphia in all those freight cars, will be 
restored to appear as it mirrored the Centennial. It will be a 
delightful as well as an instructive exhibition of where we were in 
1876, what our accomplishments represented, what our taste 
had become, and what the priorities of the time were. In 
addition the Smithsonian plans, in collaboration with foreign 
nations and State bicentennial groups, a series of exchange and 
traveling exhibits which will circulate outside Washington. Small 
exhibits and kits are also planned to be available for communities 
across the country planning their own Bicentennial celebrations. 
We hope that these kits will be financed in collaboration with the 
National Endowments on the Arts and Humanities, as part of the 
support that the Endowments are planning^ for the nationwide 
observance. For certainly many hundreds of smaller cities and 
towns will be wanting to have their own celebration, their own fun, 
recreate their own sense of time. 

To add to the eight museums that will then line the Mall there 
will be a two- to three-month Folk Festival of living performers, 
describing the persistence of "old ways in the New World," with 
sample troupes from countries abroad, as well as groups from 
regions of this country, making things, playing folk and ethnic 
music, and showing regional variations. Above all there will be 
many native Americans demonstrating their traditional skills in 
crafts, arts, music, and the dance. Indian folklore among the tribes 
will be described by native American specialists. 

And so one hundred years later, the Smithsonian will be able to 
fulfill the thwarted hopes of Professor Baird for the Philadelphia 
Centennial. As he had said at the time, "There is reason ... to 
believe that no feature on that occasion would be more interesting 
to our own people and to foreign visitors than [this one]." 

Thus we in the Smithsonian, with the help of the Park Service, 
and the participating agencies whicli will be having exhibits, sense 


that Washington will be a world's fair in 1976. It will just happen 
that way. It will be an endlessly fascinating series of exhibits, live 
as well as automated and still, that will present a panoramic view 
of American life to thirty millions of peoples of the globe. In the 
process ideas will be conveyed, for we won't be selling anything. 
Looking back, we think we see our way out of the woods. If there 

is to be a slogan for the event let it be, Let us prepare at this 

Bicentennial for our Tricentennial. And if there is to be a Tricen- 
tennial at all, let us hope that by that time the Smithsonian will 
be recognized for what it is, the delineator of a continuous chain. 
Dean Sayre gave a moving address at the Memorial Service for 
the late President Truman at the Washington Cathedral in January 
last. He said, "Like a great chain are the generations of man, 
linked across the endless span of time." 

Could we not complete the chain of museums on the Mall in 
Washington with a final museum, a museum of the Family of Man? 
In such a museum we could perhaps transmit something that has 
eluded museums as collections of objects. We could show the con- 
cept of the creations of the spirit of man, the development of ideas 
which arise in the human species wherever it happens to exist. 
Could we show the unity of man as an explorer of ideas — in art, 
science, invention — all the stuff of culture, moved by spirit, which 
occurs in our species no matter how diverse our environments? 

This preoccupation with 1976 has been much in our thoughts 
the past year. It is reflected in the premonitory series of exhibits 
opened in the art museums. It has had an inordinate share of our 
planning. The detailed work of the Museum of History and Tech- 
nology's staff in opening renewed halls and exhibits provides a 
foretaste. The results of the disastrous fire in that museum's exhibit 
area in 1970 have now finally been erased with the redoing of the 
affected halls. The redesigned space is highly effective, in places 
spectular. Among the museum's other accomplishments has been 
the agreement, in collaboration with the National Armed Forces 
Museum Advisory Board, to set up the Dwight D. Eisenhower In- 
stitute for Historical Research. 

The Renwick Gallery continues to attract throngs of people inter- 
ested in its fascinating series of exhibits in the decorative arts. 
Work continues in the restoration of the building, and late this 
past spring, the cast-iron grillage atop the high-pitched mansard 
roof was finally reinstalled to lend the proper fillip to the Ren- 
wick's roofline. We hope to be able to copy the statues of Rubens 
and Murillo that once graced the niches on the west side of the 
Gallery. They should provide a romantic adornment to the Seven- 


teenth Street elevation. 

In New York, the Cooper-Hewitt, our National Museum of 
Design, continues with plans and preparations for the restoration 
of the Carnegie Mansion at 91st Street and Fifth Avenue. Exhibits, 
loan shows, and research keep the small, highly skilled staff of 
this Museum working at full pace. Only additional restoration 
funds are required for the necessary full-steam ahead. 

Archival and historic studies assume an even-larger share of 
Smithsonian effort. The Archives of American Art, the Smithsonian 
Archives itself, and the National Anthropological Archives are 
among the most important in the Nation in the fields of the history 
of art and science and of American ethnology. In addition this past 
year marked the publication, timed to coincide with the mid-winter 
meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, of the first volume of The Papers of Joseph Henry. Great 
credit is due Nathan Reingold and his staff for the masterly ground 
work in developing this project which, organized under a new 
method in such historical series, and highly automated, is planned 
to consist of a finite series of volumes, some fifteen or more, to be 
published with the expected lifetime of a single editor. The volume 
has been very handsomely edited and produced, already winning 
acclaim for the Smithsonian Press, and the first reviews have been 
most encouraging. The National Academy of Sciences, the American 
Philosophical Society, and the National Science Foundation can 
all be proud of the part they have taken in supporting this fascinat- 
ing project. 

In the areas of science, the Smithsonian proved active in the 
international field in 1972, serving on a number of committees of 
commissions, advising the Government on such diverse matters as 
international whaling regulations and endangered species. Close 
collaboration continues with the British Royal Society on the 
research programs of Aldabra Island in the Indian Ocean, as well 
as with a UNESCO-sponsored international consortium in the 
administration of the Charles Darwin Foundation and research 
station in the Galapagos Islands. Additionally, our interest in the 
environmental sciences brings us into touch with cooperative proj- 
ects with scholars in the Mediterranean, the Caribbean, northern 
South America, and the East from South Asia to Indonesia. The 
Institution has developed a considerable competence in ecological 
assessment studies, particularly in connection with tropical areas; 
and, we have suggested more than once that in any continuing 
long-range study of ecological succession and regeneration in such 
devastated zones as Southeast Asia, more especially in parts of 


Vietnam and associated states, the Smithsonian could be helpful 
as a coordinating force. 

Whether by war or commercial exploitation, tropical areas of 
the world are being changed so radically in their environment 
today, that comparative ecological studies are already at a very 
high priority. Unfortunately, long-term interest in ecological 
research largely resides in the minds of specialists in the temperate- 
zone countries whose voices make little current impression on their 
governments. The tropics of the world today have become a vast 
frontier for exploitation by a relentless juggernaut of foreign capital 
and the exploitation technology of the developed nations, com- 
bined with the inexorable surge of population in the emerging, 
less-developed nations. The prospect is horrifying, but by prefer- 
ence no one cares. It is perhaps the "apres nous le deluge" syndrome. 
The deserts of the Middle East and Southwest Asia, themselves 
largely man-made, are inexorably marching across southern Asia. 
Laterization of soils, now the increasing curse of central and 
northern South America, can be seen as the eventual result of 
massive forestry coupled with new agricultural practices in South- 
east Asia. The deserts of northern Africa are progressing south and 
southwestward as well. Tropical land and soil is fragile compared 
to the temperate lands, poorly adapted to respond to modern 
agricultural techniques, but long-term warning signs seldom prove 
effective in influencing government policies. 

While tropical-land environments seem easily influenced by 
exploitation, much remains to be learned about the responses of 
tropical seas. Such environments may be more resistant by far than 
those of the high latitudes, such as the Arctic or Antarctic. Here 
again enormously important areas of research remain to be 
developed in order to foretell long-term changes either harmful 
to or beneficial toward man. Some first important steps have been 
taken this past year by the Smithsonian's Tropical Research Insti- 
tute. Much of tropical ecology has a strongly applied flavor in its 
relation to the health of man; but, like all ecology, it is a difficult 
subject for general human understanding or even for sophisticated 
planning because of the seeming impossibility of coming to quick 
and tidy conclusions. There are no miracle drugs or instant 
panaceas in the study of the environment, as we are discovering 
to our dismay. This does not make the subject any less vital, nor 
lessen the necessity of assigning priority to its support. 

In our international activities a first grant has been approved 
by the Congress in the award of dollar funds held in foreign cur- 
rencies, in this case Egyptian pounds, in support of the restoration 


of the Temple of Philae inundated by the waters of the Aswan 
Dam. It is heartening in the midst of the political disarray of the 
relations of our country with the Arab world to find that we can 
think objectively about international cultural monuments, part 
of the world heritage. How many other nations and national 
legislatures can? 

A major event of the early spring, 1973, was the fifth Smith- 
sonian symposium, this one held in conjunction with the National 
Academy of Sciences to celebrate the quincentennial of the birth 
of Nicholas Copernicus. In addition to a fine exhibit of Copernican 
memorabilia and a number of musical and social events, some of 
them sponsored by Mr. Edward J. Piszek of Philadelphia, a series 
of illuminating talks and seminars were held before a distinguished 
audience by panel speakers in the history of science and in physics. 
The results will be published in 1974. 

Elsewhere in this report there are detailed accounts of progress 
of the science bureaux in the past year. A principal hazard in our 
operations has been financial support which has slowed down gen- 
erally in the scientific community at the very time that costs have 
increased in goods, materials, and services. The Institution con- 
tinues to find budget difficulties in administering support services 
for its science departments, but this area still has our highest 
priority. During the past year a useful seminar held at the Belmont 
Conference Center on Institution goals reaffirmed the principal of 
support services being at the top of our list of future needs. A 
notable improvement in the past year has been the organization 
of the Office of Protection Services which is headed by Mr. Robert 
B. Burke. This office directs the Institution's health, safety, and 
security programs. In 1972 the Smithsonian won the President's 
Safety Award. 

Several major staff changes have occurred during the past year. 
Professor Fred L. Whipple lias retired as Director of the Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory, although not as professor in 
Harvard University. His vital work for the Smithsonian stretches 
back to 1955, when the two laboratories first were conjoined in a 
common program of research. As Director, he is being succeeded 
by Professor George Field, formerly of the University of California. 
Dr. Richard S. Cowan has retired as Director of the National 
Museum of Natural History to resume his active role in the 
Department of Botany, and has been succeeded by Dr. Porter M. 
Kier, Chairman of the Department of Paleobiology. Dr. Martin H. 
Moynihan is stepping down after eleven years as Director of the 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and will be succeeded by 


the present Assistant Director, Dr. Ira Rubinoff. Dr. Adair Fehl- 
mann has succeeded Dr. Eugene Wallen (Acting Director) as 
Director of the Fort Pierce Bureau in Florida. Colonel John H. 
Magruder III, Director of the National Armed Forces Museum 
Advisory Board, died tragically by drowning in the autumn of 
1972, and has been succeeded as Director by Mr. James S. Hutchins. 
Mrs. Janet W. Solinger has been appointed Director of the Resident 
Associates Program. Mr. Benjamin H. Read has resigned as Director 
of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars to 
become President of the new German Marshall Fund of the 
United States. 

In the central administration of the Institution, Dr. Robert A. 
Brooks has been named Under Secretary, Mr. Julian T. Euell 
was appointed Acting Assistant Secretary for Public Service; Mrs. 
Margaret C. Gaynor was appointed Congressional Liaison for the 
Institution; Mr. Richard Griesel was appointed Business Manager 
for the Smithsonian revenue-producing activities; Mr. James A. 
Mahoney became Director of Exhibits Central under the Assistant 
Secretary for Museum Programs; and Mr. Edward H. Kohn 
became Deputy Director for Administration at the National Zoo- 
logical Park. 

On May 16, 1973, Lewis A. Lapham succeeded Thomas J. Watson, 
Jr., as Chairman of the National Board of the Smithsonian Asso- 
ciates, a group of twenty-seven industrial and citizen leaders com- 
mitted to assisting the Institution to extend its appeal to business 
organizations for private financial support. The Board held their 
second annual meeting at the Smithsonian on November 9, 1972. 
In February, six members accompanied me to the Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute for an introduction to research being 
conducted by Smithsonian scientists in the Panama Canal Zone. 

The Women's Committee of the Smithsonian Associates com- 
pleted a most successful year under the energetic chairmanship of 
Mrs. Helen Belding Smith. The Committee's services benefited the 
public and several Smithsonian organizations. The popular Free 
Film Theater was revived for the enjoyment of lunch-hour visitors, 
and a first Smithsonian appointment calendar was designed and 
produced for sale in Museum Shops. One group of volunteers 
undertook the laborious work of organizing a part of the Institu- 
tion's photographic files. 

Three meetings of the Board of Regents were held during the 
past year. The autumn meeting was convened on November 20, 
1972, in the Regents' Room of the Smithsonian Institution 


Senator Clinton P. Anderson, upon completion of more than 
twenty-eight years in the Congress of the United States and twenty- 
four years as a member of the Smithsonian Board of Regents, 
announced his retirement to become effective at the conclusion 
of the 92d Congress. The Board of Regents recommended that a 
resolution be adopted and a citation be presented to him in 
tribute to his distinguished service with admiraton and gratitude 
for his participation in the affairs of the Institution. 

The death of Frank T. Bow, a distinguished member of the 
Board of Regents for fourteen years, and an outstanding member 
of the House of Representatives, occurred on November 13, 1972. 
A citation in recognition of Mr. Bow's many contributions to the 
Smithsonian Institution was unanimously approved. 

The Chancellor appointed a study group organized under the 
Chairmanship of Dr. Caryl P. Haskins to review all senior positions 
in the Institution and report to the Board at its next meeting. The 
Regents received a number of status reports including construc- 
tion progress on the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 
which continues to be slow although renewed assurances have 
been received that the building will be completed by June 30, 1973. 

The final design and building plans of the National Air and 
Space Museum were approved by the National Capital Planning 
Commission, construction funds were transferred to the General 
Services Administration and construction started on September 18, 

The National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board will work 
with the National Park Service in developing plans for Fort Wash- 
ington and exploring other possible sites around the District of 
Columbia for the Bicentennial Outdoor Museum. 

The Smithsonian projects planned for the American Revolution 
Bicentennial, many of which are contained in the President's 
schedule of events for the celebration, will include the Nation of 
Nations exhibits in the National Museum of History and Tech- 
nology; Ecology 200-U.S.A. in the National Museum of Natural 
History; Centennial 1876 in the Arts and Industries Building; the 
Artist and the American Scene and Design and the City in the 
National Collection of Fine Arts and the Renwick Gallery; Revo- 
lutionary Period exhibits in the National Portrait Gallery; Exhibits 
Design and Production Laboratory in Anacostia Neighborhood 
Museum; Festival of American Folklife by the Division of Perform- 
ing Arts; National Bicentennial Traveling Exhibits; and the open- 
ing of the National Air and Space Museum. 

As authorized by the Regents, the Smithsonian has entered into 


a product development program which will create authentic repro- 
ductions of objects in our collections; and these objects are expected 
to be on the market by 1974. 

The National Zoological Park master plan has been approved, 
and the Executive Committee urged that the parking project be 
pushed ahead. 

The Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies received 
an additional parcel of land which is vital to the physical integrity 
of the Center. 

Following the meeting, the Board of Regents went to the con- 
struction site of the National Air and Space Museum where the 
Chancellor and the Secretary made dedicatory addresses in ground- 
breaking ceremonies. 

The winter meeting was held at Hillwood, the estate of Mrs. 
Marjorie Merriweather Post, on January 24, 1973. The newly 
appointed Congressional members of the Board of Regents were 
Senator Henry M. Jackson (replacing Senator Anderson) and 
Representative William E. Minshall (replacing Representative 
Bow) . 

The Board of Regents approved the resubmission of legislation 
that would authorize planning and construction of museum sup- 
port facilities; a bill to establish certain senior-level positions in 
the Executive Level Salary Scale; and a bill to reserve a site for 
future public uses of the Smithsonian Institution. 

The James Smithson Society Medallion, the Regents' benefactor 
honor, was awarded to Mrs. Marjorie Merriweather Post in appre- 
ciation for her most generous renewal of James Smithson's chal- 
lenge to mankind for the increase and diffusion of knowledge. 

The spring meeting of the Board was held in the Regents' Room 
in the Smithsonian Building on May 9, 1973. The Regents approved 
the production of a series of prime-time, commercial network, tele- 
vision specials drawing on areas concerned with its programs in the 
fields of art, science, and history. The specials are expected to 
begin with the 1974-1975 television season. 

A statement declaring the policy on Museum Acquisitions and 
addressing particularly the subject of illicit traffic in art, antiquities, 
and natural objects, which broad international efforts now seek to 
control, was wholeheartedly endorsed by the Board of Regents. The 
policy statement was given wide circulation in the hope that 
museums will support the laws and adopt standards for acquisitions. 

At the conclusion of the meeting, the Board of Regents and other 
invited guests honored Mr. Joseph H. Hirshhorn in presenting to 
him the James Smithson Society Medallion. 

Financial Report 

T. Ames Wheeler, Treasurer 

tt isa pleasure to report that substantial progress was made in 
■*- the financial affairs of the Institution in Fiscal Year 1973. In- 
ceased federal support was provided for on-going educational, 
research, and exhibition programs, the construction of the new 
National Air and Space Museum, and preparation of major exhibi- 
tions for the 1976 program for celebration of the Bicentennial of 
the American Revolution. Support in the form of grants and 
contracts, gifts and bequests, and other nonfederal-funds income 
also increased. Additional funds are, however, now urgently needed 
to meet Institutional commitments toward a number of important 
projects, notably the reestablishment of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum 
of Decorative Arts and Design and completion of the land acquisi- 
tion and building .program of the Chesapeake Bay Center for 
Environmental Studies. 

The Institution's revenue-producing activities, representing an 
important element of our efforts toward "self-help," produced an 
overall gain for the first time and contributed to the much larger 
favorable FY 1973 balance in our relatively small but vitally impor- 
tant unrestricted private trust funds. As a part of such efforts we 
continued to lay the groundwork for a collections-related product 
development program which, in addition to extending our educa- 
tional efforts, should soon become an important source of addi- 
tional financial support. 

Overall Sources and Application of Financial Support 

Financial affairs of the National Gallery of Art, the John F. 
Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, and the Woodrow Wilson 
International Center for Scholars which are related to, but largely 
administered independently of the Smithsonian, are not included 
in this Financial Report. Total financial support from all sources 
for the Institution, exclusive of those organizations is summarized 
in Table 1. 



Table 1 . — Overall Sources of Financial Support 
[In 51,000's] 

Sources FT 1970 FT 1971 FT 1972 FT 1973 

Federal appropriation: 

Salaries and expenses $32,679 $36,895 $44,701 $51,633 

Smithsonian Science Infor- 
mation Exchange * * 1 , 600 1 , 600 

Special Foreign Currency 

Program 2,316 2,500 3,500 3,500 

Subtotal $34,995 $39,395 $49,801 $56,733 

Research grants and contracts . 1 , 825 * 9,312* 8 , 088 8 , 996 

Nonfederal funds: 

Gifts (excluding gifts to 

Restricted purpose 2,290 1,905 2,618 3,107 

Unrestricted purpose 18 304** 26** 33** 

Income from endowment and 
current funds investment 

Restricted purpose 999 1,372 1,573 1,736*** 

Unrestricted purpose 281 330 334 436 

Revenue producing activities 

(gross) 2,800 4,706 6,445 8,483 

Less costs and expenses . (3,841) (5,240) (6,586) (8,313) 

Miscellaneous 503 406 548 1,118 

Total nonfederal funds . 3,050 3,783 4,958 6,600*** 

Total Operating 

Support $48,870 $52,490 $62,847 $72,329 


( Federal ) 

National Zoological Park $ 600 $ 200 $ 200 $ 675 

National Air and Space 

Museum -0- -0- 1 ,900 40,000**** 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum. 3,500 5,200 3,697 -0- 

Restoration and renovation of 

buildings 525 1,725 550 5,014 

Total Construction 

Funds $4,625 $7,125 $6,347 $45,689 

*SSIE funded by NSF contract in FY 1970 ($1,707,000) to FY 1971 ($1,400,000) 
and thereafter by direct federal appropriation. 

** Excluding gifts to Associates (included under Revenue Producing Activities). 
*** Includes $225,000 of FY 1973 income transferred from Endowment Fund #3 
' for this purpose in FY 1972. 

****$ 13,000,000 in new obligational authority plus $27,000,000 in contract 


Table 2.— Source and Application of Funds for Tear Ended June 30, 1973 

[In $l,000's] 

Nonfederal funds 

Unrestricted Restricted 

Total Endow- G 

Federal nonfederal Revenue ment 

f une j s funds funds General producing income Gifts coi 


1 July 1972 8 -0- $4,888 $1,781 $ -0- $ 551 $2,506 $ 


Federal Appropriations $53,233 

Investment Income 

Grants and Contracts 9,027 


Sales and Revenue 


$ 1,947 $ 436 $ - $1,460 $ 51 $ 

3,297 33 157 72 3,035 

8,948 297 8,319 332 

Less: Cost of Sales (5,207) - (5,207) - 


496 77 7 117 295 

Total Provided $53,233 $18,508 $ 843 $3,276 $1,649 $3,713 $' 

Total Available $53,233 $23,396 $2,624 $3,276 $2,200 $6,219 



Environmental Science $1,201 $1,264 $ 42 $ — $— $ 165 

Natl. Museum of Nat. Hist.... 6,277 1,323 3 114 160 

Natl. Zoological Park 4,057 28 12 13 

Fort Pierce Bureau 1,082 I. 082 

Science Info. Exchange 1 ,600 

Smithsonian Astroph. 

Observatory 2,972 5,330 18 33 16b 

Radiation Biology Lab 1,313 100 3 21 

Smithsonian Tropical 

Research Inst 947 68 2 2 4 

Interdisciplinary Communica- 
tions Pgm 

Natl. Air and Space Museum. . 

Other Science 


















Total 20,329 10,704 121 352 1,681 

History and Art: 

Natl. Portrait Gallery 1 ,028 

Natl. Collection of Fine Arts ... 1 , 36 1 

Freer Gallery 177 

Natl. Museum of History and 

Technology 2,858 344 61 38 197 

















le 2.— Source and Application of Funds for Tear Ended June 30, 1973— Continued 

[In $l,000's] 

Nonfederal funds 

Unrestricted Restricted 

Total Endow- Grants 
Federal nonfederal Revenue ment and 
Funds funds funds General producing income Gifts contracts 

;r-Hewitt Museum — 417 — — 339 28 

ves of American Art 203 135 — — 135 _ 

tennial of the American 

Levolution 780 — — 

horn Museum 1 , 125 43 43 — 

History & Art 490 245 2 — — 143 100 

Tot al 8,022 2,276 120 1,057 913 186 


iue Producing Activities 

thsonian Press 761 99 — 99 

forming Arts 353 472 270 — 12 190 

'hsonian Magazine — 1,015 1,015 — — 

>ciates — 671 671 — — — 

seum Shops — 610 — 610 — 

er 407 407 — — — 

>stia Museum 258 69 22 — — 18 29 

ng Is Fundamental 542 — — . 542 

Public Service 881 63 32 — — 3 28 

Total 2,253 3,948 54 3,072 575 247 

71 Programs: 

ies 1 ,048 4 — — — 4 _ 

^ 3,039 52 — 30 22 

Museum Act Pgms 794 — — 

Museum Programs 1,779 50 14 — 34 2 

Total 6,660 106 14 — — 68 24 

gs Management and Pro- 

:tion Services 11, 982 — — 

pration 3,987 2,822 175 410 106 259 1,872 

rhead Recovered (2,772) (125) (410) (106) (259) (1,872) 

ers for Designated Pur- 

>ses 90 (59) 204 278 (322) (11) 

Total Funds Applied... $53,233 $17,174 $ 300 $3,276 $1,687 $2,915 $8,996 


J une I 973 S -0- $6,222 $2,324 $ -0- $ 513 $3,304 $ 81 



Thus, total support for operating purposes in FY 1973 exceeded 
$72 million, up about $10 million from the previous year. Of this 
amount, federal appropriations provide 79 percent, research grants 
and contracts another 12 percent, and the Institution's nonfederal 
income the remaining 9 percent. 

In addition Congress approved construction fund appropriations 
of $45,689,000 principally to complete, over a four-year period, the 
new National Air and Space Museum. Other construction funds 
will provide for air conditioning and renovation of the 1879 Arts 
and Industries Building. 

The sources and applications of all of these operating funds 
(excluding construction funds and also excluding the Special For- 
eign Currency Program) are shown in Table 2. 

Federal Operating Funds 

As shown in the tables, Smithsonian federal appropriations for 
operating purposes totaled $56,733,000, including $1,600,000 for 
the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, a separately incor- 
porated organization, and $3,500,00 for the Special Foreign Cur- 
rency Program in the form of blocked currencies of certain foreign 
countries administered as grants to some 220 U.S. universities and 
similar institutions to conduct research studies in those countries 
(see Table 3) . 

Table 3. — Special Foreign Currency Program, Fiscal Tear 1973 Obligations 









and earth 











. SI, 299.0 


$ 3.4 

$ 21.9 



Morocco .... 











■ — 
























Yugoslavia. . . 










■ — 




Total . 

. $2,501 .1 






* Includes unexpended balance of FY 1972 appropriation carried forward for 
use in FY 1973. 


Excluding such special purpose appropriations, federal operat- 
ing funds of $51,633,000 were $6,932,000 greater than in FY 1972. 
Of this increase, over $3,500,000 was needed for legislated increases 
in federal salaries. Nevertheless, the increased federal funds will 
also provide for continued preparations for the opening of 
the Hirshhorn Museum, for increased Bicentennial activities, for 
National Air and Space Museum exhibits and for maintenance, 
protection and other support areas which will be a high priority 
in future years' budgets. Allocation of the appropriations for oper- 
ating purposes (excluding Foreign Currency Program) by broad 
activity areas over the past several years is shown in Table 4. 

Grants and Contracts 

Many of the Institution's important research programs are sup- 
ported by grants and contracts, the major portion of which are 
from federal agencies; see Table 5. This type of support increased 
to nearly $9 million in FY 1973, approximately half of this amount 
coming from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
for projects of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, such as 
satellite tracking, analysis of lunar samples, and the operation of the 
Mount Hopkins, Arizona, Observatory. The remainder went largely 
to support a large variety of other scientific projects ranging from 
study of endemic Asian diseases to ecological studies of the Chesa- 
peake Bay area. 

Table 4. — Application of Federal Appropriations, FT 1970 through FT 1973, 
Excluding Special Foreign Currency Program 

[In 51,000's] 

Area FT 1970 FT 1971 FT 1972 FT 1973 

Science 511,761 $13,495 $18,365* $20,329* 

History and Art 5,081 5,878 6,285 8,022 

Public Service 1,445 1,442 2,093 2,253 

Museum Programs .. : 3,592 3,744 5,881 6,660 

Administration 2,733 3,051 3,235 3,987 

Building Maintenance and Protection ... 8 , 067 9 , 285 1 , 442 1 1 , 982 

Total $32,679 $36,895 $46,301 $53,233 

* Includes $1,600,000 for the Science Information Exchange which had been 
funded prior to 1972 by grants from the National Science Foundation. 



Table 5. — Grants and Contracts 
[In $l,000's] 

Federal agencies FT 1970 FY 1971 FT 1972 FT 1973 

Atomic Energy Commission $ 86 $ 91 $ 73 $ 76 

Department of Commerce 4 166 392 203 

Department of Defense 1 , 103 843 916 969 

Department of Health, Education and Wel- 
fare 447 409 411 306 

Department of Interior 112 258 247 230 

Department of State 21 176 195 593 

National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 
tration 6,561 4,930 4,605 4,923 

National Science Foundation 2,246* 2,028* 560 957 

Other 245 411 689 739 

Total $10,825 $9,312 $8,088 $8,996 

* Includes funding for SSIE of $1,707,000 in FY 1970 and $1,400,000 in FY 1971. 

Private Trust Funds 

In addition to federal appropriations and grants and contracts, 
the Smithsonian also received $6,600,000 of private funds from 
gifts (excluding gifts to endowment funds) , endowment fund 
income, revenue-producing activities, concession fees and other mis- 
cellaneous sources, as shown in Table 1. While such support has 
increased in recent years, it is still well below the Institution's goal 
for achieving a better balance of support from nonfederal sources. 
This income is, furthermore, largely dedicated to specific restricted 
purposes as shown in Table 6. 

Table 6. — Total Private Funds Income for Fiscal Tear 1973 

[In $l,000's] 

Unrestricted Restricted 

Revenue sources purposes purposes 

Investments $ 436 $1,736* 

Gifts 33** 3,107 

Revenue Producing Activities 1 70 

Concessions and miscellaneous 374 744 

Total $1,013 $5,587 











* Includes $225,000 of FY 1973 income transferred from Endowment Fund #3 
for this purpose in FY 1972. 

** Excluding $157,000 gifts to Associates (included under Revenue Producing 
Activities) and $114,000 gifts to Endowment Funds. 



Unrestricted Private Funds. — As has been continually emphasized 
in these reports, a strong and well-balanced position for the Insti- 
tution's unrestricted private funds is absolutely essential to the 
maintenance of its unique character among government-related or- 
ganizations. These funds permit the flexibility of operation and 
high degree of nonpolitical objectivity which contribute impor- 
tantly to innovative and lively programs, create special attraction 
to visitors and donors of collections of objects of national interest, 
and maintain the Institution's worldwide acceptance in scientific 
and cultural fields. The attention given by management to strength- 
ening this portion of Smithsonian finances in recent years has re- 
sulted in very substantial improvement as shown in the summary 
of its unrestricted private accounts given in Table 7. 

Table 7. — Unrestricted Private Funds 
[In $l,000's] 

FY 1970 FY 1971 FY 1972 FY 1973 


Investment $ 323 S 334 $ 334 5 436 

Gifts 18 304 26 33 

Concession and Miscellaneous 540 215 197 374 

Total Income $ 881 S 853 $ 557 $ 843 


Administrative Expense 3 , 256 2,723 2 , 994 3 , 242 

Less Administrative Recovery 2,435 2,254 2,639 2,772 

Net Administrative Expense 821 469 355 470 

Revenue Producing Activities 

Associates — Smithsonian Magazine .... (472 ) (209 ) 2 330 

—Other (41) 10 74 (43)* 

Shops (28) (80) 19 47 

Press (200) (159) (111) (109) 

Performing Arts (167) (78) (50) (65) 

Product Development 69 

Other Activities (133) (18) (75) (59) 

Total Activities (1,041) (534) (141) 170 

Total Expenditures 1 ,862 1 ,003 496 300 

Net Gain (Loss) (981) (150) 61 543 

Ending Balance $1,870 81,720 51,781 $2,324 

* After charges for portion of Development Office treated as administrative ex- 
pense in prior years. 


From this it may be seen that after gaining a small positive bal- 
ance in Fiscal Year 1972, Fiscal Year 1973 showed very substantial 
further improvement. The net gain of $543,000 for the year raised 
the unrestricted fund balance to $2,324,000, moving it a considerable 
distance toward our goal of restoring unrestricted working capital 
funds to at least the $3,000,000 needed to finance more comfortably 
the advances required for our participation in contract research 
work, to carry our Museum Shop and publications inventories, and 
to handle normal financial needs for payrolls, services, and supplies. 

Increased investment income, principally from short-term invest- 
ment of larger advance magazine subscription monies, was a factor 
in this improved FY 1973 result. Most important to the achieve- 
ment of the more favorable result for unrestricted funds in FY 1973 
was the $311,000 improvement in the overall results of the revenue- 
producing activities which for the first time enabled them to make 
an overall positive contribution to Institutional finances. Addi- 
tional detail on these activities is shown in Table 8. 

Among these activities the most outstanding improvement was 
shown by the magazine Smithsonian which produced a net gain of 
$330,000, compared with approximately a break-even performance 
in FY 1972. The enthusiastic reception given to this publication, 
which is designed primarily to extend the Institution's educational 
efforts and build a constituency of interested citizens throughout 
the Nation, is evidenced by the rapid gain in circulation in FY 1973 
which rose from 330,000 National Associate members as of 30 June 
1972 to 458,000 as of 30 June 1973. 

The increased attention being devoted to our Museum Shops is 
producing favorable results. The 33 percent gain in sales in FY 
1972 was followed by a further 18 percent increase in FY 1973 to 
$1,622,000, and net income rose to $47,000 this year compared to 
$19,000 in FY 1972. Planning is now underway for relocation and 
redesign of some of the Shops and for an upgrading of the type of 
merchandise handled. Continuing gains are, therefore, expected 
over the next several years. It is interesting to note that the new 
guidebook, Seeing the Smithsonian, which became available only 
in June 1973 has obviously met a strong visitor need and is having 
a distinct impact on the Museum Shop sales. 

The first tangible financial results of the new Product Develop- 
ment Program appeared in FY 1973 with advance royalty receipts 
of $118,000. This program, which was originated to further the ed- 
ucational efforts of our museums through obtaining closely related 
merchandise for our Museum Shops, shows great promise not only 
of accomplishing this objective but also providing substantial and 



Table 8. — Revenue Producing Activities for Fiscal Tear 1973 

[In Sl.OOO's] 


Smith- Per- Product 

Museum sonian forming develop- 

Item Total shops Press* magazine Other Arts ment Other** 

and Revenues $8,319 SI, 622 $ 81 54,731 81,104 $205 $118 $458 

Cost of Sales 5,207 966 97 3,386 633 125 

Gross Income .. . 3,112 656 (16) 1,345 471 205 118 333 

157 157 — — 

r Income 7 — 6 — — — — 1 

Total Income .. . 3,276 656 (10) 1,345 628 205 118 334 

nses 2,696 484 87 865 610 246 49*** 366 

me (loss) before 
charge for admin- 
istrative costs 580 172 (97) 480 18 (41) 69 (21) 


Costs 410 125 12 150 61 24 38 

Income (loss) $ 170 $ 47 $(109)$ 330 $ (43)**** $ (65) $ 69 $(59) 

rhe privately funded activities of the Press as opposed to the federally supported publication of 
rch papers. 

Includes Traveling Exhibitions, Belmont Conference Center, Photo Sales, and the "Commons" 

* This includes a transfer of $34,000 to Smithsonian bureaus participating in this program. 
**After charges for portion of Development Office treated as administrative expense in prior 

increasing income in future years. Agreement was reached during 
FY 1973 with the Tonka Corporation, a leading U.S. toy manufac- 
turer, under which that corporation will manufacture and sell, in 
close coordination with the Smithsonian, a line of museum-related 
products, the first of which should appear in the spring of 1974. 
Somewhat similar arrangements with CBS/Education & Publication 
Group led to the publication of the new Smithsonian guidebook, 
now being sold in large numbers both in our Museum Shops and 
outside the Institution. A reprinting of the guidebook, including 
four foreign-language translations, is expected in October 1973. 
Similar agreements with manufacturers in a number of other prod- 
uct fields are now under consideration. Great care is being taken 
in these efforts to insure strict standards of quality, authenticity, 


and good taste in all phases of the products' design, manufacture, 
promotion, and sale. 

Additional "self-help" efforts include a variety of other under- 
takings from the attractive new Smithsonian-McGraw Hill Book- 
store in the National Museum of History and Technology and the 
inauguration of modest parking fees at the National Zoological 
Park to audiophone museum guidance operations, catalogue pub- 
lishing, and the sale of photographic slides and "first-day covers" 
of historic events in aviation history. The Bookstore, opened in 
June 1972, completed a successful first year in FY 1973. The opera- 
tion of the parking-fee facilities at the Zoo begun in April 1973 is 
handled by the Friends of the National Zoo, who also operate the 
Zoo shops and mobile train service, under an agreement whereby 
they direct a portion of the net receipts to new educational pro- 
grams at the Zoo with the remaining portion of these net receipts 
being reserved by the Institution toward improving and enlarging 
Zoo parking facilities in the future in a manner designed eventually 
to make available an additional 12 acres of park area for animal 

These growing Smithsonian efforts appear to promise greater 
success in the future in bolstering private funding to a somewhat 
better balance with our federal support. There is, nevertheless, a 
real need for an increase also in donations from corporations, foun- 
dations, and individuals and a need to build a nationwide constitu- 
ency of interest in and support for this national institution. This 
is a major purpose of our National Associates organization. 

Restricted Private Funds. — Funds made available to the Institu- 
tion for specific purposes, largely from gifts or from income of en- 
dowment funds previously dedicated to such purposes, are also of 
great importance. In some cases, such as the Freer Gallery of Art, 
the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, and the Fort Pierce Bureau, private 
restricted funds provide all or the greatest share of their support. 
All of the land of the Chesapeake Bay Center has been acquired 
either by direct gift or purchased with private funds donated for 
this purpose. Hundreds of separate accounts are maintained for 
funds dedicated to a tremendous variety of similar purposes. The 
largest of these are given in Table 9. 

As may be noted, gifts provided $3,107,000 of this total restricted 
purpose income, up from $2,618,000 in the previous year. Endow- 
ment fund income added $1,736,000, with another $744,000 coming 
from membership fees, rentals, sales of publications, museum 
shops, etc. 



Table 9. 

— Restricted Private Funds, 
[In $l,000's] 

Fiscal Tear 1973 







end of 


Invest- Miscel- 
ment Gifts laneous 


er Gallery 

t Pierce Bureau 

$ 862 $ 72 $111 
483* 297 



$ 29 

$ 149 

DES Land Acquisition Pro- 
gram — 

>per-Hewitt Museum 

)perations 51 

unds for Collection 

pecial Purpose Funds 

uilding Renovation 

ding is Fundamental 

icostia Museum — 

aives of American Art 6 

er 334 























































Total Restricted Funds . $1,736* $3,107 $744 $5,587* $4,602 $985 $3,816 

Includes $225,000 of FY 1973 income transferred from Endowment Fund #3 for this purpose in 

Adoption of the Total Return Concept of Income for all endow- 
ment funds (see below) this year raised the Freer Gallery income 
substantially and enabled it to increase collection purchases and 
still operate within its resources. The exceptionally large expendi- 
tures of the Fort Pierce Bureau, met in part from an additional 
contribution of approximately $300,000, reflected continued work 
to complete the tender ship, R/V Johnson. 

Two important operations which are dependent largely upon re- 
stricted funds are in urgent need of greater support. The land ac- 
quisition program at Chesapeake Bay Center benefitted by another 
$100,000 donation from the A. W. Mellon Foundation but another 
$500,000 will still be required to complete this land purchase pro- 
gram, and still more funds are needed for conference and study 
buildings at that location. And the Cooper-Hewitt Museum in 
New York City, although adding to its building renovation and 
collection purchase funds in FY 1973, ran an operating deficit of 
$97,000 even at its present minimal "holding" level when certain 
expected contributions did not materialize by year-end. 

The Archives of American Art, which like the Freer Gallery and 
Anacostia Museum also receives some federal funds support, devel- 


oped a healthy private funds surplus in FY 73 as the result of a 
mounting membership campaign and other successful fund-raising 
efforts. Reading is Fundamental has now been incorporated as a 
separate organization although it will continue to operate in close 
association with the Smithsonian. 

Endowment Funds 

The Institution has three endowment funds as follows: The Freer 
Fund is dedicated entirely to the operation of the Freer Gallery of 
Art; Endowment Fund No. 3 supports research work in underwater 
oceanography at the Fort Pierce Bureau in Florida; the Consoli- 
dated Fund includes all other endowment funds both for restricted 
and unrestricted purposes, with investments of the fund being 
pooled for investment purposes, although maintained separately for 
accounting and administrative purposes. 

Changes in market values of endowment funds since 1960, reflect- 
ing additions from donations, reinvestment of income, and changes 
in securities valuations are shown in Table 10. 

Table 10. — Market Values of Endowment Funds 
[In Sl.OOO's] 

Fund 6/30/60 6/30/65 6/30/70 6/30/71 6/30/72 6/30/73 

FreerFund $13,389 $17,276 $14,987 $18,805 $21,973 $18,279 

Endowment Fund 

No. 3 5,433 12,331 14,641 13,196 

Consolidated Fund. . 4,498 7,853 8,998 11,470 13,287 12,393 

Total $17,887 $25,129 $29,418 $42,606 $49,901 $43,868 

The policies and procedures governing the management of our 
endowment funds and other investment accounts were outlined in 
full in the financial reports of the past two years. In brief, they in- 
clude the delegation of the investment management to three profes- 
sional advisory firms, with full discretion to act, subject to policies 
adopted by the Board of Regents and to continual close monitoring 
by the Investment Policy Committee and the Treasurer. In addi- 
tion, the principles of the Total Return Concept of investment are 
followed as to the establishment of investment goals and the deter- 



mination of annual income. Such income has been set at 4l/ 2 per- 
cent of the latest running five-year average of market values of the 
funds as of March 31st of each year. 

Fiscal Year 1973 was a difficult one from the standpoint of finan- 
cial management and all of the Institution's funds suffered a decline 
in values as the result of the general fall in stock prices. Results for 
the past year of these funds is shown in Table 11. 

Table 1 1 . — Changes in Endowment Funds, Fiscal Tear 1973 

Gifts Interest Decline 

Market and and Income in Market 

Value Trans- Divi- Paid Sub- Market Value 

Fund 6/30/72 fers dends* Out total Value 6/30/73 

Freer Fund $21,973 $- $ 611 8 862 521,722 $3,443 $18,279 

Endowment Fund 

No. 3 14,641 149 258 14,532 1,336 13,196 


Fund 13,287 197 384 531 13,337 944 12,393 

Total $49,901 $197 $1,144 $1,651 $49,591 $5,723 $43,868 

Income earned less managers' fees. 

The decline in the value of the funds due to the fall in security 
values alone during the past fiscal year was greater than that shown 
by the more widely recognized stock market averages but for the 
past two-year period as a whole has been closely comparable to 
those averages. 

Additions to the Consolidated Fund during the year included 
$114,000 from bequests and gifts and also $83,000 of transfers of 
income for reinvestment in accordance with terms of certain be- 
quests. Income paid out, as determined by Total Return policies 
mentioned above, amounted to $1,651,000 in FY 1973. Such income 
will increase further in FY 1974, principally in Endowment Fund 
No. 3. A listing of the individual investments held in the various 
endowment funds may be obtained upon request to the Treasurer 
of the Institution. 



Table 12. — Consolidated Fund, 30 June 1973 



Funds participating 
in pool 


Abbott, William L 

Archives of American Art . . . 
Armstrong, Edwin James . . . 

Arthur, James 

Bacon, Virginia Purdy 

Baird, Spencer Fullerton .... 

Barney, Alice Pike 

Barstow, Frederic D 

Batchelor, Emma E 

Becker, George F 

Brown, Roland W 

Canfield, Frederick A 

Casey, Thomas Lincoln .... 
Chamberlain, Frances Lea. . 
Cooper, G. Arthur, Curator's 


Cooper-Hewitt Museum .... 

Desautels, Paul E 

Div. of Mammal Curator 


Div. of Reptiles Curator 


Drake, Carl J 

Dykes, Charles 

Eickemeyer, Florence 


Guggenheim, David and 


Hanson, Martin Gustav and 

Caroline Runice 

Hillyer, Virgil 

Hitchcock, Albert S 

Hrdlicka, Ales and Marie. . . 

Hughes, Bruce 

Johnson, E. R. Fenimore . . . 
Kellogg, Remington, 


Lindsey, Jessie H 










$ 4,639,163 

$ 4,652,782 


$ — 































































































































Table 12. — Consolidated Fund, 30 June 1973 — Continued 



Funds participating Book 

in pool value 

Loeb, Morris 181,675 

Long, Annette E. and 

Edith C 894 

Lyons, Marcus Ward 8,941 

Maxwell, Mary E 32,260 

Myer, Catherine Walden .. . 42,014 

Nelson, Edward William 39 , 1 38 

Noyes, Frank B 2,023 

Pell, Cornelia Livingston. . . 15,434 

Petrocelli, Joseph, Memorial. 12,192 
Rathbun, Richard, 

Memorial 22,139 

Ramsey, Adm. and Mrs. 

DeWitt Clinton 534, 704 

Reid, Addison T 36,984 

Roebling Collection 1 98 , 50 1 

Roebling Solar Research 5 1 , 220 

Rollins, Miriam and William 304 , 922 

Ruef, Bertha M 65,716 

Smithsonian Agency 

Account 168,734 

Sprague, Joseph White 2 , 2 1 7 , 248 

Springer, Frank 29,494 

Stevenson, John A 9,925 

Strong, Julia D 20,810 

T. F.H. Publications, Inc. . . 8,967 

Walcott, Charles D 195,201 

Walcott, Charles D. and 

MaryVaux 756,802 

Walcott Botanical Publica- 
tions 95,190 

Zerbee, Francis Brinckle. ... 1 ,561 

Total Restricted 

Funds $ 7,261,814 

Total Consolidated 

Funds $11,900,977 




































1,024 10,762 

















































$ 7,740,085 $331,823 $292,471 

$12,392,867 $531,315 $292,471 


Table 13. — Endowment and Similar Funds Summary of Investments 

Book value Market value 

Funds 6/30/73 6/30/73 


Freer Fund: 

Cash j .$ 60,958 $ 60,958 

Bonds 3,564,934 3,604,385 

Convertible Bonds 1 ,784, 133 1 ,658,362 

Stocks 11 ,764,610 12,955,449 

Total $17,174,635 $18,279,154 

Consolidated Funds: 

Cash $ 43,873 $ 43,873 

Bonds 2 , 929, 742 2 , 923 , 584 

Convertible Bonds -0- -0— 

Stocks 8,927,362 9,425,410 

Total $11,900,977 $12,392,867 

Endowment Fund No. 3: 

Cash $ 254,522 $ 254,522 

Bonds 5,738,342 6,502,133 

Convertible Bonds 1 12,000 80,000 

Stocks 6,432,317 6,358,898 

Total $12,537,181 $13,195,553 


Bonds $ 10,063 $ 10,412 

Common Stocks 3,322 1 1 ,509 

Total $ 13,385 $ 21,921 

Total Investment Accounts $41 ,626, 178 $43,889,495 

Other Accounts 

Notes Receivable $ 51 ,486 $ 51 ,486 

Loan to U. S. Treasury in perpetuity 1,000,000 1,000,000 

Total Other Accounts $ 1 ,051 ,486 $ 1 ,051 ,486 

Total Endowment and Similar Fund Balances. . . $42,677,664 $44,940,981 

Accounting and Auditing 

The private finances of the Institution are regularly audited by 
independent public accountants. Accounts of the Smithsonian Sci- 
ence Information Exchange and the Smithsonian Research Founda- 



tion are also audited regularly in this same manner. All accounts 
relating to grant and contract monies received from federal agencies 
are audited annually by the Defense Contract Audit Agency. Feder- 
ally appropriated funds are subject to occasional audit by the Gen- 
eral Accounting Office. In addition, our internal audit staff, which 
has been strengthened considerably in the past two years, performs 
continuous audits on a wide range of operations of the Institution. 
Such audits are particularly helpful in bringing about improved 
administrative practices. 

Donors to the Smithsonian 

The Smithsonian Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts and be- 
quests received during fiscal year 1973 from the following: 

$100,000 or more: 

The Atlantic Foundation The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation 

The Edna McConnell Clark Foundation Time, Incorporated 
S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. 

$10,000 or more: 

American Council of Learned Societies 
American Federation of Information 

Processing Societies, Inc. 
The Annenberg Fund, Inc. 
The Arcadia Foundation 
The Trustees of the Archives of 

American Art 
Battelle Memorial Institute 
Mary Duke Biddle Foundation 
Mrs. Rosemary B. Carroon 
Mary Flagler Cary Charitable Trust 
The Robert Sterling Clark Foundation 
Copernicus Society 
Dr. William H. Crocker 
Ford Foundation 
Mary L. Criggs & Mary G. Burke 

The Daniel and Florence Guggenheim 

Henry J. Heinz, II 

Interdisciplinary Communication 

Associates, Inc. 
Mrs. Marguerite H. Kellogg 
Keystone Shipping Co. 
Lilly Endowment, Inc. 
The Charles E. Merrill Trust 
The Ambrose Monell Foundation 
Philip Morris, Incorporated 
National Geographic Society 
New York State Council on the Arts 
State of Ohio 

Mr. and Mrs. Ralph C. Rinzler 
J. W. Robinson Company 
Estate of Bertha M. Ruef 
The Seafarers International Union 
Seatrain Lines, Inc. 
Mrs. Arthur Hays Sulzberger 
Transporation Institute 
Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation 
Estate of George Widener 
World Wildlife Fund 



1,000 or more: 

Academy Tankers, Inc. 
Aldine-Atherthon, Inc. 
American Bureau of Shipping 
American Conservation Association, Inc. 
American Export Lines, Inc. 
American Metal Climax Foundation, 

Mr. and Mrs. Amyas Ames 

Arthur Andersen & Company 
Mrs. Edward L. Ayers 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert R. Barker 
Mrs. Evelyn F. Bartlett 
Bath Iron Works Corporation 
Bethlehem Steel Corporation 
Mr. William Blackie 
Dr. and Mrs. Morton K. Blaustein 
Mrs. Arthur H. Buhl, Jr. 
Burlington Industries Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. John A. Burnham, Jr. 
Mrs. Douglas Campbell 
Caterpillar Tractor Company 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward C. Childs 
The Coca Cola Company 
Mr. Marvin J. Coles 
Continental Oil Company 
Mr. Richard P. Cooley 
The Ben Cooperman Memorial 

Dana Corporation 
Dart Industries, Inc. 
Mr. Paul L. Davies 
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Dearholt 
John Deere Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. John de Menil 
Elsie DeWolfe Foundation 
Mr. John Henry Dick 
Drug Abuse Council 
Mr. and Mrs. Maitland A. Edey 
Dr. William L. Elkins 
El Paso Natural Gas Company 
Mr. and Mrs. Alfred U. Elser, Jr. 
Charles Engelhard Foundation 
Entomological Society of America 
Esso Production Research Company 
Esso Research and Engineering 

Dr. Clifford Evans 
Exxon Company, U. S. A. 

Exxon Corporation 

Mrs. Sophie Fenykoevi 

First National Bank of Miami 

Mr. Lawrence Fleischman 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Flint 

Mr. H. Crowell Freeman 

The Fund for Preservation of Wildlife 

and Natural Areas 
Mr. Howard M. Garfinkle 
General Electric Company 
Sumner Gerard Foundation 
Gollin Foundation, Inc. 
Goethe House New York 
Dr. and Mrs. Crawford H. Greenewalt 
Mr. Charles A. Greenfield 
Dr. and Mrs. Morton S. Grossman 
Mrs. David L. Guyer 
Edith G. Halpert Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. N. Vadim Hammer 
Dr. and Mrs. Herbert E. Hawkes 
Hewlett-Packard Company 
Mrs. J. E. Hightower 
Susan Morse Hilles Agency 
Hiram Walker & Sons, Inc. 
The Holderness Foundation, Inc. 
Honeybrook Foundation, Inc. 
International Business Machines 

Interstate Oil Transport Company 
The Iran Foundation, Inc. 
International Telephone & Telegraph 

Johns Hopkins University 
Felix and Helen Juda Foundation 
Kominers, Ford, Schlefer & Boyer 
S. S. Kresge Company 
Mr. and Mrs. F. David Lapham 
Mr. Lewis A. Lapham 
Mr. Frank Y. Lark in 
Mr. James F. Lawrence 
Adele R. Levy Fund, Inc. 
Mr. Edwin A. Link 
Mrs. Ellen Lehman Long 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph W. Lund 
Maritime Overseas Corporation 
Mr. Robert J. Masser 
Mayuyama & Company 
Charles A. Meyer Trust 
University of Michigan 
Midgard Foundation 



The Mobil Foundation, Inc. 

Moore- McCormack Lines, Inc. 

Bequest of Conrad V. Morton 

National Bank of Detroit 

National Home Library Foundation 

National Steel and Shipbuilding Co. 

The Nature Conservancy 

Nautilus Foundation, Inc. 

The Newport News Shipbuilding and 

Dry Dock Company 
Northrop Corporation 
Northwest Industries Foundation, Inc. 
Madame Nesta Obermer 
Ohio Arts Council 
Olin Corporation Charitable Trust 
Palisades Foundation, Inc. 
Mr. and Mrs. Perry R. Pease 
James C. Penney Foundation, Inc. 
The Petrie Foundation 
Piasecki Foundation 
Mrs. Marjorie Merriweather Post 
Price Foundation, Inc. 
R. J. Reynolds Industries, Inc. 
Mr. and Mrs. Donald H. Robinson 
Mr. John D. Rockefeller, 3rd 
Mr. Nelson A. Rockefeller 
Helena Rubinstein Foundation, Inc. 
Mr. Merritt K. Ruddock 

Sidney Printing and Publishing Co. 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry H. Silliman 
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation 
Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth 
Leonard and Rose A. Sperry 

Philanthropic Fund 
Stack's Coin Company 
Mr. Norman C. Stone 
Mr. and Mrs. Gardner D. Stout 
The Allie L. Sylvester Fund, Inc. 
The Tai-Ping Foundation, Inc. 
Mr. and Mrs. Bertrand L. Taylor, III 
Texas Instruments Foundation 
Mr. John S. Thacher 
Mr. and Mrs. John L. Tishman 
Todd Shipyards Corporation 
Marcia Brady Tucker Foundation 
Tupper Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. Milton Turner 
The Raymond John Wean Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. Clifford B. West 
Mr. and Mrs. Joshua C. Whetzel 
Winn Dixie Stores Foundation 
Mrs. Frank Wisner 
Woodheath Foundation, Inc. 
Charles W. Wright Foundation of 

Badger Meter, Inc. 
Xerox Corporation 

$500 or more: 

Mr. Edward E. Abrahams 

Allied Chemical Foundation 

Alsdorf Foundation 

American Petroleum Institute 


Mr. Arthur R. Armstrong 

Avco Corporation 

Mr. and Mrs. Leonard L. Bacon 

Mrs. James C. Barbour 

Mr. Harry Hood Bassett 

Mr. Clay P. Bedford 

Mr. William Peter Blatty 

Joe Brotherton-Digiorgio Corp. 

Brunschwig & Fils, Inc. 

Dr. and Mrs. Curt Buhler 

Mrs. J. Oliver Cunningham 

Ms. Priscilla Cunningham 

Catholic University 

Mr. Raymond Cerf 

Charron Foundation 

Miss Mary Croyle 

Dr. Jo Ann Deatherage 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert S. Dickerman 

Mr. and Mrs. Theodore Dominick 

Dover Publications 

Mr. Raphael Esmerian 

Dr. and Mrs. Charles B. Fals 

Ferndale Foundation, Inc. 

Mr. David E. Finley 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Fuller 

George Washington University 

B. F. Goodrich Company 

Greeff Fabrics, Inc. 

Dr. and Mrs. John N. Grekin 

Miss Margaret Gurney 

Mr. David J. Hasinger 

Colonel and Mrs. G. Frederick Hawkins 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank Henderson 



$500 or more; — (.out. 

Mr. and Mrs. Leopold Hirschfeldt 
Johnson City Foundation 
Mr. Samuel C. Johnson 
Mrs. Phillis B. Lambert 
Mr. Harold F. Linder 
Dr. and Mrs. Merrill Lipsey 
Mr. Earl L. Loe 
Mrs. Katherine Adams Lusk 
Mrs. John H. Magruder 
Mr. Frank E. Masland 
Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Mautner 
Mr. Paul Mellon 

Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Assoc. 
Mr. and Mrs. Myron A. Minskoff 
Mr. Otto Natzler 
Mr. and Mrs. Newton Noble 
New York Zoological Society 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Nourse 
Ogden Marine, Inc. 
Mr. Israel Orr 
Ove Arup &.- Partners 
Overseas Bulktank Corporation 
Propeller Club of U. S., Port of Detroit 
Propeller Club of U. S., 
Port of New Orleans 

Propeller Club of U. S., 

Port of Washington 
Mr. John Shedd Reed 
Dr. S. Dillon Ripley 
Dr. and Mrs. David Sacks 
Mr. and Mrs. Milton Sass 
F. Schumacher & Company 
Mr. Sidney N. Shure 
Mr. Walter H. Simson 
Mrs. Helen Belding Smith 
Mrs. Albert F. Sperry 
Colonel and Mrs. Pat M. Stevens 
Mr. Julius Stolow 
Levi Strauss Foundation 
Stroheim & Romann 
Mr. Walter A. Stryker 
Summerhill Foundation 
Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corp. 
U. S. News & World Report 
Mrs. Velma P. Watts 
Mr. and Mrs. H. Westcott 
West Point Pepperell 
Wyeth Endowment for American Art 

We also gratefully acknowledge other contributions in the amount 
of $115,187.87 received from 5,038 persons during 1973. 






The Board of Regents 
Smithsonian Institution: 

We have examined the balance sheet of the Private Funds of 
Smithsonian Institution as of June 30, 1973 and the related state- 
ments of changes in fund balances for the year then ended. Such 
statements do not include the accounts of the National Gallery of 
Art, the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, nor other 
departments, bureaus and operations administered by the Institu- 
tion under Federal appropriations. Our examination was made in 
accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, and accord- 
ingly included such tests of the accounting records and such other 
auditing procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. 

In our opinion, the aforementioned statements present fairly the 
financial position of the Private Funds of Smithsonian Institution 
at June 30, 1973, and the changes in its fund balances for the year 
then ended, in conformity with generally accepted accounting prin- 
ciples applied on a basis consistent with that of the preceding year. 

Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. 

September 19, 1973 



Balance Sheet, June 30, 1973 

(With comparative figures for 1972) 


1973 1972 



In U. S. Treasury 8 293,324 172,821 

In banks and on hand 413,499 290,917 

Total cash 706,823 463,738 

Investments, at cost (market value $6,078,226; 

$4,149,530 in 1972) (note 1) 6,223,305 4,186,224 


Accounts 935,486 774,332 

Advances — travel and other 172,568 160, 106 

Reimbursements — grants and contracts 1 ,061 ,872 986,797 

2,169,926 1,921,235 

Inventories, at lower of average cost or net real- 
izable value 602,254 567,210 

Prepaid expenses 456 , 659 1 1 4 , 047 

Deferred magazine expenses (note 1) 769,670 749,226 

Equipment (less accumulated depreciation of 

$303,385; $189,804 in 1972) (notes 1 and 3)... . 328,107 408,211 

Total current funds $11,256,744 8,409,891 

endowment and similar funds (notes 1 and 2): 

Cash 359,353 1,299,088 

Notes receivable 51 ,486 95,316 

Investments — at cost (market value $43,530,142; 

$48,629,718 in 1972) 41 ,266,827 32,273,457 

Loan to U. S. Treasury in perpetuity 1,000,000 1,000,000 

Total endowment and similar funds $42,677,666 34,667,861 


Real estate, at cost or appraised value at date of 

gift (note 1) 3,471,825 3,326,956 

Total real estate acquisition fund $ 3,471 ,825 3,326,956 

See accompanying notes to financial statements. 



Balance Sheet, June 30, 1973 

(With comparative figures for 1972) 

Liabilities and Fund Balances 

1973 1972 


Note payable (note 3) $ 295,761 383,691 

Accounts payable 875,716 421,213 

Accrued liabilities 825,949 669,065 

Deferred income: 

Magazine subscriptions 2 , 746 , 892 1 , 93 1 , 3 1 1 

Other 290,560 117,019 

Total liabilities 5,034,878 3,522,299 

Fund balances: 

Unrestricted 2,323,958 1,781,105 


Unexpended income from endowments 512,895 550,580 

Gifts' 3,304,054 2,505,906 

Grants and contracts 80,959 50,001 

Total fund balances 6,221,866 4,887,592 

Total current funds 511,256,744 8,409,891 


Fund balances: 

Endowment funds 36,913,730 29,320,809 

Funds functioning as endowment 5,763,936 5,347,052 

Total endowment and similar funds $42,677,666 34,667,861 


Mortgage notes payable (note 4) 432,534 353, 138 

Fund balance 3,039,291 2,973,818 

Total real estate acquisition fund S 3,471 ,825 3,326,956 


Statement of Changes in Current Fund Balances 

Year ended June 30, 1973 

Unrestricted funds Restricted funds 

Income from Grants am 

Total General Activities endowments Gifts contracts 


Netsales $8,704,654 $ 68,242 $8,318,992 $ 317,420 

Less cost of goods sold 5,206, 784 5,206, 784 

Gross profit 3,497,870 68,242 3,112,208 317,420 

Grants and contracts, net 9,027,076 9,027,07 

Investment return from endowment and 
similar funds: 

Investment income 1,211,762 176,244 1,035,518 

Portion of investment gain appro- 
priated (note 2) 506,769 82,463 424,306 

Total investment return from 

endowment and similar funds . 1,718,531 258 , 707 1 , 459 , 824 

Other investment income 228,043 177,210 50,833 

Gifts, bequests and foundation grants .. . 3,296,958 32,697 157,089 72,004 3,035,168 

Rental and commissions 243,184 229,149 14,035 

Other 495,476 76,744 6,687 116,805 295,240 

Total revenue and other additions 18,507,138 842,749 3,275,984 1,648,633 3,712,696 9,027,0) 


Salary and benefits 10,233,027 2,494,621 1,777,108 488,246 1,131,469 4,341,5) 

Purchases for collection 390,888 22,759 279,183 70,054 18,8! 

Travel and transportation 698 , 1 66 63 , 749 49 , 7 75 58 , 520 1 45 , 820 

Equipment and facilities 822 , 883 1 82 , 338 54 , 759 26 ,104 92 , 949 

Supplies and materials 1,116,006 73,501 106,718 74,860 406,394 

Rent and utilities 100,905 29,350 5,634 21,215 

Communications 139,966 59,960 20,274 69 14,997 

Contractual services 3,615,593 204,077 557,970 375,890 1,094,031 

Promotion and advertising 70,389 70,389 

Depreciation 19,990 19,990 

Administrative expenditures (125,000) (2,771,674) 409,400 106,241 259,218 1,871,8 

Total expenditures and other 

deductions 17,082,813 358,681 3,072,017 1,409,113 3,236,147 9,006,8| 

Excess of revenue and other addi- 
tions over expenditures and 
other deductions 1 ,424,325 484,068 203,967 239,520 476,549 .'0,2! 


Real estate acquisition fund (65,473) (65,473) 

Donor designated endowment (5,500) (5,500) 

Income added to endowment principal (66,350) (66,350) 

Cost sharing — grants and contracts. . . . (7,816) (15,856) "'J 

For designated purposes (21 , 128) l 1 < >2 , 964 ) (34 , 402 ) (279 , 255 ) 408 , 428 (12,9: 

Endowment appropriated 68,400 68,4(111 

From activities to general funds 169,565 (169,565 

Total transfers (90,051) 58,785 (203,967) (277,205) 321,599 10,7. 

Net increase (decrease) in fund balances 1,334,274 542,853 (37,685) 798,148 

Fund balances at June 30, 1972 4,887,592 1,781,105 550,580 2,505,906 

Fund balances at June 30, 1973 $6,221,866 $2,323,958 $ 512,895 $3,304,054 S 8(1 

See accompanying notes to financial statements. 



Statement of Changes in Endowment and Similar Fund Balances 

Year ended June 30, 1973 

Enrloicmen! funds Funds func- 

Iioning as 

Total Total Freer Other endowment 


Investment return: 

Realized gain on investment S 8,383,058 7,971,017 1,978,319 ".,992,098 412,041 

Less portion of investment gain 

appropriated to current funds . 506,769 424,306 250,805 173,501 82,463 

Net gain added to principal . 7,876,289 7,546,711 1,727,514 5,819,197 329,578 

Gifts and bequests 108,938 42,760 42,760 66,178 

Total revenues and other 

additions 7,985,227 7,589,471 1,727,514 5,861,957 395,756 


Donor design endowment fund ... . 5,500 5,500 5,500 

Income added to principal 66,350 66,350 66,350 

Designated purposes 21,128 21,128 

Endowment appropriated (68 , 400 ) (68 , 400 ) (68 , 400 ) 

Total transfers 24,578 3,450 3,450 21,128 

Net increase for the year 8,009,805 7,592,921 1,727,514 5,865,407 416,884 

Fund balances at June 30, 1972 34,667,861 29,320,809 15,447,121 13,873,688 5,347,052 

Fund balances at June 30, 1973. ... $42,677,666 36,913,730 17,174,635 19,739,095 5,763,936 
See accompanying notes to financial statements. 


Statement of Changes in Real Estate Acquisition Fund Balance 

Year ended June 30, 1973 

Fund balance at June 30, 1972, as previously reported $1 ,973,81b" 

Adjustment — to record gift funds received for the acquisition of 

Freer Gallery of Art building (note 1) 1 ,000,000 

Fund balances at June 30, 1972, as adjusted 2,973,818 

Transfer from gift funds — land acquisition: 

Chesapeake Bay Center $78, 104 

Hillwood Estate 10 78, 1 14 

Transfers to gift funds — land sales — Chesapeake Bay Center (12 ,641 ) 

Fund balance at June 30, 1973 $3,039,291 

See accompanying notes to financial statements. 



Notes to Financial Statements 
June 30, 1973 

J. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies 

a. The accompanying financial statements have been prepared on the accrual 
method of accounting, except that: 

(1) No liability is reflected for annual leave earned by employees but not 
taken (approximately $200,000 at June 30, 1973) . 

(2) Investments are stated at cost or market value at date of gift. Bond 
premiums and discounts are not being amortized. 

(3) Interest income is not accrued on endowment and similar fund invest- 

The aggregate effect of the above accounting policies, which are commonly 
followed by not-for-profit organizations, is estimated not to have a material 
effect on the accompanying financial statements. 

b. The accounts of the Institution are maintained in accordance with the prin- 
ciples of "fund accounting" whereby resources are classified into funds in 
accordance with activities or objectives specified. 

Restricted funds may only be utilized in accordance with the purposes estab- 
lished by the source of such funds and are in contrast with unrestricted funds 
over which the Institution retains full control to use in achieving any of its 
institutional purposes. 

Endowment funds are subject to the restrictions of gift instruments and are 
not wholly expendable on a current basis. Funds functioning as endowment 
have been established by the governing board for the same purposes as 
endowment funds, any portion of such funds may be expended on a current 

c. Subscription income and promotional expenses in respect to the Institution's 
magazine are deferred and taken into income and expense over the subscrip- 
tion period. 

d. Fixed assets are recorded as follows: 

Museum shop and computer equipment — those purchased with private funds 
are capitalized in the current fund. 

Land and buildings — those acquired by gift or by use of gift funds are 
recorded in the real estate acquisition fund at cost or appraised value at date 
of gift, except for gifts of certain islands in the Chesapeake Bay, Carnegie 
Mansion, and Hillwood Estate, which have been recorded at nominal values. 
Gift funds in the amount of SI, 000,000 received toward the acquisition of 
the Freer Gallery of Art were not recorded in the real estate acquisition fund 
when received in 1916. In order to reflect land and buildings on a consistent 
basis, the prior years' financial statements have been restated to reflect such 
amount in the real estate account. All other land and buildings (principally 
acquired with federal funds) and furniture, equipment, works of art, living 
or other specimens are not reflected in the accompanying financial statements. 

Museum shops and computer equipment are depreciated on a straight-line 


basis over an estimated useful life of five years. In accordance with generally 
accepted accounting principles for not-for-profit organizations, depreciation 
is not provided on non-income producing assets. 

2. Endowment Funds and Funds Functioning as Endowments 

Effective July 1, 1972, the Institution adopted the "total return" approach 
to investment management of endowment funds and funds functioning as en- 
dowment. Under this approach, the total investment return is considered to 
include realized and unrealized gains and losses in addition to interest and 
dividends. In applying this approach, it is the Institution's policy to limit the 
amount available for current expenditures to interest and dividends received 
where the market value of the assets of any fund is less than 110 percent of 
the historic dollar value (value of gifts at date of donation) . For 1973, the 
Institution provided 4y 2 percent of the five year average of the market value 
of each fund (adjusted for gifts and transfers during this period) as being 
available for current expenditures. 

The change to the total return approach resulted in appropriations of gains 
(realized or unrealized) from endowment funds and funds functioning as en- 
dowment to the current unrestricted fund (S82.463) and to the current restricted 
fund ($424,306) representing the excess of the amount made available for current 
expenditures over interest and dividends received for the year ended June 30, 

3. Note Payable 

The note payable in the principal amount of S295,761, which is non-interest 
bearing, is secured by computer equipment and is payable in monthly install- 
ments of S7.993 to June 30, 1976. 

4. Mortgage Notes Payable 

The mortgage notes payable are secured by first deeds of trust on property 
acquired in connection with the Chesapeake Bay Center. Funds for the repay- 
ment of these notes will be transferred from certain restricted funds — gifts, 
which are designated for the development of the Chesapeake Bay Center. The 
details of the mortgage notes payable are as follows: 

a. A S199,500 note on property acquired for $376,000. The note is payable in 
fifteen consecutive semi-annual installments of $13,300, plus interest at the 
prevailing prime rate on the due date of payment but not less than 8 percent, 
with the final payment due July 1, 1980. 

b. A S33.034 note on property acquired for $118,533. The note is payable in 
monthly installments of $451, including interest at the rate of 6 percent, 
with the final payment due on November 1, 1989. 

c. A $60,000 note on property acquired for $120,000. The note is payable in 
annual installments of $30,000, plus interest at the rate of 7 percent on the 
unpaid balance, with the final payment due November 1, 1974. 

d. A $140,000 note on property acquired for $157,500. The note is payable in 
semi-annual installments of $10,000, plus interest at the rate of 6 percent on 
the unpaid balance, with the final payment due November 7, 1979. 


5. Real Estate Acquisition Fund 

The real estate acquisition fund includes certain land and buildings acquired 
by gift or purchased from restricted funds. This property is currently being used 
for museums, the Chesapeake Bay Center and a conference center. 

6. Pension Plan 

The Institution has a contributory pension plan providing for the purchase 
of retirement annuity contracts for all employees meeting certain age and length 
of service requirements. Under terms of the plan, the Institution contributes 
the amount necessary to bring the total contribution to 12 percent of the par- 
ticipants' compensation subject to social security taxes and to 17 percent of the 
participants' compensation in excess of that amount. The total pension expense 
for the year was $688,782. 


The past year was a period of increased activity for 
Science, in all of its aspects, at the Smithsonian. The 
year saw plans for expansion, new construction, and a turnover 
of key personnel. 

Fred Whipple, Director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory, announced his retirement after 17 years of out- 
standing service to the Smithsonian. He has been succeeded by 
Dr. George Field, Professor of Astronomy at Harvard, who 
heads the newly created Center for Astrophysics, which will 
bring together, under one administrative head, the cooperative 
programs which the Smithsonian and Harvard have enjoyed 
since 1955. 

The year 1973 also brought a change in the directorship of 
the National Museum of Natural History. Dr. Richard Cowan, 
who served as Director for 10 years, stepped down to pursue 
his research interests in his new position as Senior Scientist in 
the Department of Botany. He was succeeded by Dr. Porter 
Kier who served as Chairman of the Museum's Department of 
Paleobiology from 1967 to 1972. 

Dr. Adair Fehlmann, Director of the Smithsonian Oceano- 
graphic Sorting Center, was named this past year as the Acting 
Director of the Fort Pierce Bureau. 

In 1973 ground was broken and construction begun for the 
newest museum on the mall, the National Air and Space 
Museum. This museum, which will chronicle man's achieve- 
ments in flight, is expected to open to the public on 4 July 

The Master Plan for the National Zoological Park received 
final approval from all necessary bodies, and plans are now 
going forward on a new lion and tiger exhibit and the complete 
renovation of the 1904 monkey house. 

The Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 
(cbces) began a pilot program in environmental education this 
past year. The program, designed to introduce concepts of 
ecology in urban and natural settings to inner city and suburban 
tenth graders, was conducted in cooperation with Camp Letts, a 



ymca facility adjoining the Center. A number of other 
educational programs were offered at cbces to carry out the 
"increase and diffusion of knowledge" theme of the Smithson- 

The Institution-wide conference on priorities in February 
recommended closer cooperation among the science bureaus in 
environmental sciences; and the past year witnessed an increase 
in such cooperation. Substantial progress also was made in 1973 
in interbureau research of the Environmental Science Program. 
Closer cooperation was seen among the bureaus on many 
problems, including the problem of endangered species, which 
received wide national scrutiny this past year. 

Finally, the science bureaus at the Smithsonian once again 
played a prominent role in matters of national and international 
concern. Smithsonian scientists and administrators provided 
representatives and advisory services to the Council on Environ- 
mental Quality (ceq), to the United States delegation to the 
International Whaling Commission, the Second World Confer- 
ence on National Parks, the Endangered Species Convention, 
and to the Royal Society for ecological studies of atolls in the 
Pacific and Indian Oceans. Smithsonian scientists continued 
their fruitful collaboration with foreign governments on every 
continent and provided technical assistance on environmental 
projects. The joint Smithsonian-Peace Corps program continued 
to provide scientific technicians to many developing countries. 

Details of these concerns and scientific accomplishments in 
other areas of research by the individual bureaus, in fiscal year 
1973, follow. 

National Museum of Natural History 

The year 1973 saw another of the infrequent .changes in the 
directorship of the National Museum of Natural History. Dr. 
Richard S. Cowan who for 10 years served in the Office of 
Director, first as Assistant Director and for the past 7 years as 
the Director, returned to his major interest — research on New 
World Leguminosae — and is now a Senior Scientist in the 
Museum's Department of Botany. Dr. Cowan brought to the 
Office of Director many innovative and stimulating ideas and 
programs. Now, well-equipped facilities ranging from physical 
sciences and palynology laboratories to sophisticated research 
tools, such as the Scanning Electron Microscope, have been 


provided the scientists. Support for the scientific staff, both in 
terms of well-qualified technicians and of more adequate 
resources, was increased substantially. A new system of evalua- 
tion of the scientists, through peer group study and delibera- 
tion, has brought more prompt and adequate recognition of 
professional competence. These and many other solid achieve- 
ments will surely provide Dr. Cowan with a sense of accomplish- 
ment fully justifying his 10-year detour from full-time involve- 
ment in botanical studies. 

After months of careful deliberations by a search committee 
established by the Secretary and chaired by Dr. David Challinor, 
Assistant Secretary for Science, that body concluded the person 
best qualified for and suited to the demanding role of Director 
of one of the world's largest natural history museums was a 
member of the Museum's own staff, Dr. Porter M. Kier. 
Previously Dr. Kier had served from 1967 to 1972 as Chairman 
of the Department of Paleobiology. After completing under- 
graduate studies at the University of Michigan, Dr. Kier 
remained at that institution to receive his M.S. degree, majoring 
in paleontology. In 1951-1952 he was a Fulbright Scholar at the 
University of Cambridge (England) being awarded a Ph.D. 
degree by that institution in 1954. After joining the staff of 
nmnh in 1957, Dr. Kier was named a Guggenheim Fellow in 
1967 and served as President of the American Paleontological 
Society in 1972-1973. Within the past few months Dr. Kier was 
accorded the signal honor of being awarded the Sc.D. degree by 
the University of Cambridge. 

Dr. Kier brings to the directorship an outstanding record as 
an innovative researcher of almost indefatigable energy and a 
dedication to the Museum and the magnificent collections which 
it contains. Thus, as we open a new chapter in the life of this 
the largest of the museums, we can look forward to another 
chronicle of scientific accomplishments under his stimulating 
and perceptive leadership. 

Over the past 3 years the National Museum of Natural 
History has been the primary supporter of the development of 
the Smithsonian's computer system (selgem), which is an 
automatic data processing system with wide versatility. Use of 
selgem expanded rapidly in the Museum during fiscal year 
1973 and now all seven departments are applying the system in 
some phases of research and collection management. Primary 
emphasis is placed on capture of data about incoming speci- 
mens, but older collections which are of some special interest to 


scientists are not neglected. Over 200,000 specimen records 
already have been compiled through selgem, and innovations 
and improvements in procedures promise to bring about a 
rapid increase in that figure. Scientists and collection managers 
can retrieve any information rapidly from any of more than 80 
files and the data can be printed in almost any order and 
format, or the data analyzed statistically and even charted. 
Projects now getting underway will increase production and 
decrease record costs by using selgem files and the computer to 
produce specimen labels, catalogue cards, and ledgers. In 
specific examples — in the Department of Entomology a proce- 
dure has been fully tested which will use a computer-driven 
typesetting machine to publish a revised edition of the Hyme- 
noptera catalogue and permit updating at any time at a 
minimum cost, selgem is being used in the Department of 
Mineral Sciences to gain better inventory control over collec- 
tions of valuable gems and minerals, and in 1973 the Depart- 
ment of Vertebrate Zoology began developing plans for the use 
of selgem to process and account for loans of specimens. The 
overall effect of selgem application has been to bring greater 
thoroughness and organization to collection management and to 
provide a better system for storing and retrieving information 
in a readily available form for use in manifold ways by scientists, 
not only in this but in other countries. 

Dr. Gordon D. Gibson, an anthropologist and curator in 
nmnh, spent almost the entire past year in Angola continuing 
ethnographic research among the Himba people. The results of 
his earlier work among Himba and Herero in Namibia were of 
such significance that the present studies received support from 
the National Institutes of Health through a grant to include a 
study of the fertility of the Himba population. 

Two aspects of the current work are of outstanding impor- 
tance. First, from a technical standpoint, for the first time, so 
far as we know, a film (made earlier) entitled Himba Wedding 
was shown to Himba audiences during which their spontaneous 
reactions and comments were recorded. This technique of 
developing "feedback" was found extremely useful in clarifying 
some of the rites recorded in the film, permitting a more 
complete interpretation of their culture and better record for 
use of students of life crisis ceremonies. Clearly, this new and 
important research tool will find many applications and will 
enhance considerably an understanding of other peoples, their 
cultures, customs, and important ceremonies. 


Secondly, and perhaps of greater social significance is the 
information developed on marital patterns and childbirth. A 
carefully selected sample of Himba women ranging in age from 
fifteen years upward were studied in detail. While the results 
are still being analyzed, it is apparent that in spite of the 
absence of any methods of birth control or, in fact, any real 
interest in limiting birth, the Himbas have a remarkably low 
birth rate. The interest of public health and United Nations 
officials, as well as the medical profession in almost all countries, 
in this phenomenon is obvious. The explanation for this 
situation is not yet clear, but an area for important research has 
been identified and further studies in collaboration with medical 
researchers will follow. 

During the summer of 1972, Dr. William W. Fitzhugh and his 
associates continued archeological studies at Hamilton Inlet, 
Labrador, on prehistoric cultures and paleo-ecology that were 
begun in 1969. This research, which in the past few years has 
received support from the National Geographic Society, has 
resulted in the complete excavation of a large site at Rattlers 
Bight that was occupied 4000 years ago by Indians of the 
Maritime Archaic tradition. This is one of the largest prehistoric 
settlements known on the icy shores of Labrador and has over 
the past 2 years yielded information on these seagoing Indians 
which allows us to describe their activities in some detail. The 
site was occupied seasonally from spring to fall while the 
Indians hunted seals and sea birds and fished for salmon, trout, 
cod, and perhaps whales using techniques which today we 
associate more with Eskimos. 

The site has confirmed that Indians were actually the first 
occupants of the subarctic and arctic regions of the Labrador 
coast, preceding the Eskimo by some 500-1000 years. Further, it 
now appears that toggling harpoons were used for open-water 
seal hunting by these Maritime Archaic people and that this 
important hunting device was passed to Eskimos in northern 
Labrador by 2000 B.C., becoming the dominant feature of 
Eskimo technology. 

In 1973, in conjunction with the archeological field work, a 
new program of paleo-ecological research was begun. Funded 
under the Museum's new palynology program, a series of 
samples were taken from pollen-rich lake sediments on the 
central Labrador coast ranging from the boreal forest to the 
tundra. Preliminary results of this research suggest that glacial 
ice had melted off the interior of Labrador by approximately 


6000 years ago and that following this deglaciation the Hamil- 
ton Inlet region was tundra for 2000 years before the introduc- 
tion of the boreal forest. Surprisingly, the outer Labrador coast 
appears to have remained ice-bound virtually until the arrival of 
the Maritime Archaic Indians 4000 years ago. This suggests, 
contrary to expectation, that the Hypsithermal warm period (ca. 
6000-4000 years ago) was not felt in the coastal Labrador 
region and that higher ocean temperatures in the North 
Atlantic may actually have increased the flow of cold arctic 
waters from the polar sea southward along the Labrador coast. 

Since 1971 the nmnh has been host to annual seminars on 
paleopathology, the most recent of which was begun in January 
1973. The major objective of these seminars is to provide high- 
level instruction for scholars studying the significance of disease 
in human microevolution. During the past 10,000 years man has 
been subject to the same basic pressures for biological change 
that have characterized the evolutionary processes of all biologi- 
cal organisms. Human adaptation to different or changing 
environmental situations involves complex relationships between 
the genetic potentials of a human population and its natural 
and cultural environment. In addition to disease, other factors, 
such as climate, vegetation, and nutrition, provide limiting 
conditions on the survival and reproductive potential of individ- 

Dr. Donald J. Ortner has given leadership to this major 
research and teaching program directed to the study of the 
effect of disease on biological change in human groups. Since 
the major source of data on disease in nonliving populations is 
skeletal remains, the major focus of this program is the study of 
those diseases which affect bone. To encourage high-level 
research, the seminar series brings together leading interna- 
tional authorities on orthopaedic pathology, radiology, calcified 
tissue biology, and physical anthropology for a 10-week period. 
Advanced students having a research interest in paleopathology 
are drawn primarily from universities in North America. The 
Museum is uniquely equipped to provide leadership in this field 
because of its professional staff and the outstanding collection 
of human skeletons in the Department of Anthropology. 

These seminars have provided a significant impetus for 
studies on ancient disease as evidenced by the growing interest 
in them and the fact that at least three participants are now 
preparing doctoral dissertations related to the training they 
received during the series. 



Dr. Edward S. Ayensu, Chairman of the Museum's Department of Botany, 
using night vision equipment in observing the habits of fruit-eating bats in West 
Africa. Bats have been known to destroy over one-third of the ripe mangoes in 
this region and a better understanding of plant/animal relationships is needed to 
aid in protecting this food supply. 


The establishment of a Palynological Laboratory this past year 
in the National Museum of Natural History represents a highly 
significant achievement in the Museum's research program. The 
Laboratory functions primarily in basic research — the morphol- 
ogy and anatomy of pollen grains, their identification and the 
adaptive significance of the external variations found. This 
information is utilized to interpret and clarify systematic rela- 
tionships and breeding systems. As a direct result of the 
operation of this new laboratory, the Museum is in a position to 
develop an exchange program with other palynological institu- 
tions and an extensive reference collection of modern pollen 
slides is being acquired which will be conveniently available to 
the botanical community. 

The behavioral studies of nocturnally active animals, such as 
bats, have recently been greatly enhanced by the use of various 
types of night-vision equipment. Of special interest is the "Owl 
Eye," which is capable of multiplying a unit of ambient light 
about twenty thousand times. This sophisticated equipment 
developed by the Department of Defense and loaned to the 
Museum for its research is being used for the study of tropical 
fruit-eating bats and will permit a more accurate assessment of 
the interaction between bats and plants without interfering with 
the normal behavior of these flying mammals during feeding, 
mating, or roosting. 

It is expected that the availability of this night-vision device 
will contribute substantially to an understanding of the myster- 
ies surrounding nocturnal activities of plants and animals. 

During the year, a number of the Museum's entomologists 
commenced studies utilizing the remarkable capabilities of the 
Scanning Electron Microscope (sem). For example, Dr. Richard 
W. Baumann of the newly instituted Aquatic Entomology 
Program included in his studies a survey of the eggs of 
stoneflies (order Plecoptera). Quite unexpectedly, the detailed 
photographs made possible by the sem revealed that the eggs of 
Neoperla clymene (Newm.) from different parts of the United 
States differ radically in structure. This led to a closer study of 
all stages, with the result that what has appeared to be one 
widely distributed species, turns out to be two complexes of 
closely related species. One complex possesses ribbed eggs and 
the other complex punctate eggs, which suggests major differ- 
ences in habits or habitat selection. Such discoveries underline 
the necessity for careful systematic studies before the initiation 
of large-scale environmental projects that might result in the 



Cliona lampa, burrowing sponge from Bermuda. Top: As formerly observed 
through light microscope (1200x). Bottom: Details as observed through Scan- 
ning Electron Microscope (6600 x). 

extinction of species of restricted range or whose success 
depends on the accurate prediction of the behavior of a species. 
The case closely parallels that of the European malaria-bearing 
mosquito that was finally resolved with the discovery, after an 
examination of the egg stage, that a complex of closely related 
species were involved, each of which differed significantly in its 
ability to transmit malaria, thus explaining for the first time why 


the presence of the "Anopheles mosquito" could not be 
correlated with the presence or absence of malaria. 

A second project involving the sem undertaken this past year 
was the investigation by Dr. Paul J. Spangler of the possible use 
for taxonomic purposes of the maxillary palpi of water beetles 
(order Coleoptera). It was discovered that the irregularities 
previously observed actually were caused by branched sensillae 
(totally different from anything before reported) that were 
embedded in the cuticle. It has long been known that their 
antennae (usually the primary sensory structure) had evolved 
into organs associated with respiration. This new information 
gained from the study of photographs produced by the sem 
now makes it clear that these palpi have assumed much of the 
sensory function that is found in the antennae in most other 
insects. Thus, a study designed to improve the identification of 
these beetles has led to a new understanding of the ability of 
these insects to ^dapt themselves to their environment. 

Another important study of the past year being conducted by 
Dr. W. Donald Duckworth and Dr. Thomas D. Eichlin (a 
presidential intern) involves a complex of moths whose distribu- 
tion appears to be related to the distribution of gourds and 
squashes in the Western Hemisphere. The larval forms of the 
moths, commonly referred to as squash borers, live within the 
stems and roots of the host plant. The insect and plant 
obviously are intimately associated, the structure and chemistry 
of the squash species being essential to the survival of the moth 
species. The researchers hope, therefore, to be able to correlate 
the evolution of the species of the squash borer complex with 
the evolution and dispersal of their respective plant hosts. 
Information can thus be generated for the botanist and the 
entomologist by studying either side of the relationship. There 
is now good reason to believe that this relationship will prove to 
be a textbook example of animal-plant coevolution. Some 
conclusions resulting from this study also may shed further light 
on the history of man in the New World Tropics. Archeological 
evidence indicates that man probably has cultivated squashes 
and gourds for nearly 10,000 years. It appears that the 
distributional ranges of the moth species converge on that 
region in southern Mexico thought by some to be the center of 
origin and dispersal of these plants and possibly associated with 
the migrations of early man. 

A few years ago Museum scientists became aware of a 
potentially serious problem at Charlotte Harbor, Florida, which 


is threatened by pollution as a result of rapid exploitation of 
nearby land through a nationwide promotion campaign. Dr. 
Roger F. Cressey, together with his associates, is now conducting 
a long-term investigation of the copepods of Charlotte Harbor, 
with emphasis upon study of life cycles of the parasites, 
population densities and fluctuations, "susceptible ages" for the 
fish hosts, and effects of environmental changes upon parasite 

The results of this long-term study will be of extreme value to 
scientists working in many fields. "Natural pollution" in the 
form of a Red Tide which killed a great number of fishes in 
1971 has had some spectacular effects on their copepod 
parasites. Data from the summers of 1970, 1971, and 1972 show 
that during the Red Tide summer (1971), the number of 
parasites per fish dropped to 10-20 percent of the numbers 
found in 1970. However, in 1972, numbers increased to a level 
far higher than those recorded before the Red Tide. The 
reasons for such an increase are unknown; but it is expected 
that present investigations will show whether or not such high 
numbers have been maintained and should allow some predic- 
tion of causes and effects of this phenomenon. 

Scientists in the nmnh during the past year have been 
involved in seeking answers to such questions as: What kinds of 
animals and plants can one find on an undisturbed Caribbean 
coral reef? How do they interact with each other? What effects 
do changes in light, temperature, and wave action have on these 
organisms? How do populations change with time, and with 
increasing influence of man? Partial answers to some of these 
questions have already been provided by previous research on 
coral reefs but many remain unanswered. The imswe Program 
(Investigations of Marine Shallow-Water Ecosystems), supported 
by the Smithsonian's Environmental Science Program, is de- 
signed to provide answers to these questions by enabling 
Smithsonian and collaborating scientists to undertake long-term 
studies of selected Caribbean reefs. The current site is Carrie- 
Bow Cay, a very small (100 x 350 feet) island which stands on 
the barrier reef extending along the coast of British Honduras. 
Approximately seventeen Museum scientists are involved in the 
imswe Program; their studies range from the analysis of the 
structure of the reefs themselves to a study of the effects of 
terrestrial plant and animal communities on the Cay ecosystem. 
The program has been in operation for approximately eighteen 
months and much baseline data on the kinds of animals living 


in association with the reef have been acquired. Current 
investigations include observations of ecological changes with 
passage of time, so that such changes can be better understood, 
and their effects properly interpreted. 

Although marine nematodes, a type of worm, are a major 
part, in numbers of species and individuals, of the living 
creatures found in the ocean depths, they have remained 
essentially unstudied because of the technical problems of 
retrieving them. Improved sampling techniques have recently 
been developed so that now large collections are available for 
study. While these collections have yielded many species similar 
to those of shallow-water sediments, they have provided inter- 
esting and unique species as well. An example is the discovery 
by Dr. W. Duane Hope of new species of the family Mermithi- 
dae. Nematodes of this family are common parasites of insects 
and some fresh-water crustaceans in their immature stages but 
as adults they become inhabitants of soil or fresh-water sedi- 
ment. There exist no previously well-documented reports of 
mermithids parasitic in marine crustaceans. Samples taken using 
the new technique have yielded four new species of abyssal 
mermithids inhabiting the sediment as nonparasitic adults. 
Their hosts remain unknown. What appears to be a fifth 
species, however, was found to be parasitic in an ostracod (a 
small crustacean). Apparently adult as well as juvenile ostracods 
may become infected. As the nematode reaches maturity it 
destroys the ostracod, not unlike the fate inflicted on infected 
insects. The young nematodes are provided with a minute, 
hollow stylet which they use to puncture host tissue. Presum- 
ably, enzymes are secreted through the stylet into the tissue and 
the stylet then used to ingest the liquified tissue. All that 
remains of the ostracod after the nematode has fully developed 
are the undissolved valves and appendages. Having destroyed 
their hosts, the fully developed male and female nematodes 
apparently enter the sediments where they subsist on their 
stored food reserves, until they mate, lay eggs, and die. 

An interesting aspect of mermithids is that they are among 
the few nematodes whose sex may be influenced by external 
environmental factors, such as crowding. Mermithids number- 
ing less than nine in grasshoppers, for example, are always 
females. Where nine or more adults occur in a single host, all 
are males. To date, all ostracods examined have no more than 
two nematodes and all are females. 

An international conference on echinoderms was organized 


by Dr. David L. Pawson and Miss Maureen E. Downey, and held 
at the Natural History Museum in September 1972. Approxi- 
mately 100 echinoderm specialists from 15 countries attended, 
and 45 papers were presented during the 3-day conference. 
The conference was highly successful, and a resolution was 
passed to hold a second conference in Yugoslavia in 1975. 

The Allende meteorite is assuming the importance of a major 
scientific event. During the past year it has been called both a 
"Rosetta Stone of the Solar System" and a "Solar Nebula 
Trashcan" by speakers at a national symposium devoted to the 
cosmochemical implications of this remarkable messenger from 
space. No other single meteorite has received anything like the 
scientific attention that has been focused on Allende. The 
multitude of observations and the ideas they have suggested 
give new insight into the earliest history of the solar system, a 
history that is not available to us from terrestrial or lunar rocks. 
The Allende meteorite is an accumulation of materials that 
formed under very different conditions, ranging from mineral 
associations that formed at unusually high temperatures to 
organic compounds that would not be expected to survive for 
long at temperatures much in excess of those needed to bake a 
cake. A new idea that is gaining considerable acceptance is that 
Allende accumulated in a region of the condensing solar nebula 
of surprising heterogenity, perhaps a boundary region between 
materials that produced the inner planets and those which 
produced the outer, major planets. 

The Smithsonian has been deeply involved in Allende re- 
search since the meteorite fell in northern Mexico on February 
8, 1969. Dr. Brian H. Mason and Mr. Roy S. Clarke, Jr., of the 
Museum staff were in the field promptly, collecting considerable 
amounts of material that was widely distributed to interested 
scientists, beginning as early as 12 days after the fall. In the 
following months we supplied samples to 99 individual scientists 
in 79 different organizations in 18 countries. In the meantime 
the Museum staff prepared the basic comprehensive description 
of this largest known stony meteorite shower. In the Museum 
laboratories a comparative interlaboratory study of the chemis- 
try of this rare type meteorite has been initiated. This is the first 
serious attempt at this type of study using meteoritic material. 

Since the start of the Lunar Program the nmnh has made 
many important contributions to the understanding of the 
chemical and mineralogical make-up of lunar rocks. This past 
year saw the beginning of intensive studies of samples from the 



The recent volcanic eruption on the island of Heimay (Iceland) began at 2:00 
a.m. on 23 January 1973. The next morning a Museum scientist was on the 
scene to make observations and working with Icelandic scientists to collect 
specimens of the erupted material. By 23 March 1973, the house shown in this 
picture was covered completely by lava and ash. 


Apollo 17 mission. Apollo 16 samples taken from the lunar 
highlands were found to be distinct from most samples of the 
other four lunar regions sampled and are markedly enriched in 
plagioclase, probably reflecting the original composition of the 
lunar crust, formed over four billion years ago. The Apollo 17 
samples now under study include typical lava (basalt) samples of 
the Mare as well as highland-type samples, collected along the 
sides at the base of the mountains of the Taurus-Littrow 
landing site. 

Early on the morning of January 23, 1973, after less than 2 
days of mild earthquakes, a new volcanic fissure sprang to life 
on Haimay, a small but heavily populated island midway 
between Iceland and the volcanic island of Surtsey, which was 
"born" 10 years ago. A Museum scientist, Dr. Thomas E. 
Simkin, was on the scene almost immediately and began studies 
and observations on the second morning of the eruption. 
Samples of lava were collected during the next 4 days, during a 
time of rapid changes in its character. Back in the laboratory, 
these samples showed small but significant changes in the lava 
composition, changes which indicated that this would probably 
turn out to be a major, large-volume eruption. Volcanic action is 
still continuing at this important eruption; and scientists from 
Iceland together with members of our staff are at the site and 
much valuable data has already been recorded. 

The determination of the chemical and mineralogical make- 
up of natural history objects, ranging from studies of lunar 
samples to chemical pollutants in organisms, is an important 
function of the Department of Mineral Sciences' newly ex- 
panded Physical Science Laboratory which is under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Eugene Jarosewich. In addition to the ongoing 
program of providing data for research on the origin and 
composition of meteorites, minerals, and rocks, in 1973 the 
Laboratory participated in studies of the make-up and develop- 
ment of human bone, both in recent and fossil materials. Other 
recent studies contributed to understanding the composition of 
fossil and recent shelled organisms, including phosphorous and 
magnesium uptake during life and during fossilization. Inqui- 
ries were made into the suitability of museum specimens, 
especially fish, to establish pre-pollution levels of trace elements. 
Contamination of such specimens in their containers by labels 
and the preservation solutions were shown to be important 
sources of error in establishing baseline levels of certain 
elements, thus raising grave doubts as to the feasibility of using 


such specimens for baseline studies for certain trace elements. 
This work is being pressed since the findings have great 
significance to current research in many institutions. 

Smithsonian scientists are in the forefront of a "revolution" 
which is occurring in the underlying ideas and methods of the 
science of paleobiology that is nearly as profound as the one 
taking place in concepts of mobility of the earth's crust and the 
drifting of continents, although not so widely heralded. The 
trend for the past decade has been increasingly on direct 
observation of living counterparts of fossil organisms, to provide 
insights into the anatomy of the soft tissues and interpretations 
of the living habits and ecology of the fossils. These methods 
have paid off handsomely and several important discoveries 
were made in the past year. 

Dr. Richard S. Boardman's work on the Bryozoa is illustrative 
of the advances which are being made. These tiny invertebrate 
animals form colonies made up of thousands of individual 
animals, much as corals do. They are important fouling 
organisms in the modern oceans and are abundant in ancient 
strata extending back more than 500 million years. New 
techniques of dissection of the living and fossil species for direct 
comparison under high magnification have revealed impressions 
of fleshy organs in the fossils that are analagous to those in the 
living descendants. Preservation of these incredibly fragile 
structures for more than 500 million years is most extraordinary 
and fortunate indeed. Prior to the insights gained by thorough 
study of the living forms, this had remained an uninterpretable 

A similar breakthrough has been made this past year in 
studies of the group of shelly organisms known as Brachiopoda 
which, while only a minor constituent of the modern seas, were 
extremely abundant in the past and nearly a dominant organism 
in the Paleozoic Era. The study of living forms by Drs. G. 
Arthur Cooper and Richard E. Grant has resulted in reinterpre- 
tation of the muscle systems in Ordovician shells (500 million 
years ago) and feeding organs of Permian shells (250 million 
years ago). This new understanding will require revisions of 
statements that have appeared in the standard textbooks for as 
long as 100 years. 

Studies of fossils are important to interpretation of physical 
events in the past. For example, the work of Dr. Richard H. 
Benson on tiny bivalved crustaceans has been helpful in 
interpreting an extremely complex series of events in the history 


of the Mediterranean Sea, involving opening and closing of the 
Sea itself, the warming and cooling of its waters, the near 
drying of the entire Basin so that only warm saline lakes 
remained, and then renewed flooding in of ocean water from 
the Atlantic. These small organisms known as Ostracoda are 
abundant in modern lakes, rivers, seas, and oceans and are 
extremely sensitive to changes in temperature, depth of water, 
and salinity. Study of fossil ostracodes that are obtained in drill 
cores from the Mediterranean Sea floor, from surface outcrops 
in the high mountains some now more than a thousand miles 
from that Sea, and from salt and gypsum quarries that have 
been worked since Roman times have revealed the record of 
these drastic changes in the Mediterranean region during the 
past 15 million years. 

Similar comparisons between the living and the fossil speci- 
mens made this past year by Dr. Leo J. Hickey have resulted in 
a new ordering in the history of the angiosperm plants. 
Botanists for years have been confused by the seeming resem- 
blance of fossil leaves to those of living plants and were unable 
to make sense out of the evolutionary history of the angio- 
sperms. New techniques in the study of venation of leaves and 
other aspects of leaf architecture, interpreted in light of the 
biologic functions of the various parts, now allows significant 
distinctions to be made. For the first time a workable taxonomy 
of leaves is possible, based on a reasonable phylogenetic 
interpretation. This promises to have wide effect upon the 
conceptual framework of all botany and to revolutionize ideas 
on the history of the development of terrestrial vegetation. 

Some phases of paleobiological research are so new that "the 
book hasn't been written yet" and the scientist must conduct 
original research in the field in order to establish the funda- 
mentals of his subject. Dr. Walter H. Adey, a Smithsonian 
paleobotanist who undertook the study of fossil representatives 
of the little-known marine plants called coralline algae, found 
that hardly anything was known of the living species in the 
existing oceans. He began what he thought would be a brief 
study of a minor constituent of the marine biota. Instead, he 
found that much of what had been called "coral reef was in 
fact reef made primarily by coralline algae. This has led to on- 
the-spot underwater research on these algae almost continu- 
ously for the past 9 years, off the coasts of Norway, Spain, 
Eastern Canada, and Japan. This year a program in the 
Caribbean was initiated. Operating from a seagoing catamaran 

Research vessel designed and constructed by members of the staff of the 
National Museum of Natural History. This "floating laboratory" is now in the 
Caribbean being used in studies of coralline algae. 


that he built himself and equipped with a laboratory designed 
especially for the study of rock-secreting algae, the specimens 
are collected, prepared aboard the vessel, and the findings 
dispatched to various scientific journals for publication and 
circulation literally throughout the world. 

The African Mammal Program, under the direction of Dr. 
Henry W. Setzer, has been involved for more than a decade in 
the collection of specimens from all parts of Africa for 
systematic and distributional studies. Field teams of foreign 
nationals have been trained in many countries to carry out such 
studies after the Smithsonian's work was completed. The program 
has cooperated with several microbiologically oriented organiza- 
tions in assays of wild mammals and their ectoparasites for 
diseases, especially viral and rickettsial infections, that might be 
potentially transmissible to man. 

Analyses of almost 8000 small mammal tissues were completed 
by the Ibadan Virus Laboratory at the University of Ibadan, 
Nigeria, and the results that were collated this year showed 
some 84 positive viral recoveries. Bat virus was recovered from 
specimens of free-tailed bats and Uganda S virus was obtained 
from rodents and shrews. Lassa Virus, responsible for the lethal 
Lassa Fever in humans, was isolated for the first time in a 
rodent, Aethomys stannarius. 

In previous years studies of yellow fever in Senegal and 
monkey pox in Liberia were carried out in cooperation with the 
National Institutes of Health's Communicable Disease Center in 
Atlanta. An important discovery was that the primary reservoir 
of monkey fever is in arboreal and semiarboreal rodents, rather 
than in nonhuman primates. 

A pioneering effort to provide baseline data on small 
mammals, their ectoparasites and viruses prior to construction 
of several large dams on the Orange River in South Africa was 
conducted by our field teams together with the South African 
Institute for Medical Research. Waters of the Orange River are 
to be diverted by means of a tunnel to another drainage basin, 
the Fish River, thus creating the potential for transferring 
aquatic insects that may be infected vectors of viruses. The 
South African government will use personnel trained during 
this project to continue monitoring ecological and faunal 
changes as the Orange River dams mature. The mammal and 
ectoparasite data from many parts of Africa are being comput- 
erized for ready recovery and association and will provide 


similar baseline information for major development projects in 
other African countries. 

The addition to our staff this year of Dr. James G. Mead, a 
marine mammalogist, has served as a stimulus to development 
and study of our collections of these important animals. Because 
study material is not available through routine collecting meth- 
ods, a salvage program has been established by means of which 
animals that are stranded may be studied on the spot and 
valuable specimens recovered for laboratory investigations. 
Eventually, the Museum hopes to be able to respond to any 
report of a stranded marine mammal on the East Coast of the 
United States and to encourage knowledgeable scientists else- 
where to do the same. This year the East Coast program 
obtained biological data for, and preserved 19 specimens of 7 
species of whales or porpoises and 3 specimens of 2 species of 
seals. One highlight was a stranded Blainville's Beaked Whale 
(Mesoplodon densirostris) which was maintained alive for 3 days. 
This was the first time this species has been seen alive by 
biologists, and a group of marine mammalogists from several 
institutions responded to the report in time to gather significant 
functional information. Future activities of the salvage program 
will be greatly enhanced by the donation from the Ford Motor 
Company of a specially equipped truck. 

Photographs of whales and porpoises that had been scattered 
in several different files and storage areas were brought 
together this year in a central file that is now useful in curation, 
research, and as a source of additional information concerning 
specimens in the collection. Visiting investigators have used the 
new file extensively, notably for preparation by the Navy of a 
guidebook to Atlantic species. 

On Saturday, June 2, 1973, a group of metropolitan Washing- 
ton area children, carrying "Save Whales" balloons and posters, 
gathered under the 90-foot, life-size model of the blue whale in 
the National Museum of Natural History to demonstrate their 
concern that whales are in danger of becoming extinct because 
of the excesses of commercial fishing fleets. 

The Smithsonian Institution is supporting a proposed morato- 
rium on the killing of whales and other cetaceans, such as 
dolphins and porpoises, and for this reason the National 
Museum of Natural History, which has long been a center of 
cetacean research and a leader in working for their conserva- 
tion, cooperated in the march. The march sponsor was "Project 
Jonah," a nonprofit international society which had organized 



Children's march in connection with "Save Whales" program. 


similar marches in cities throughout the world in advance of the 
June 1973 annual meeting of the International Whaling Com- 
mission. Dr. Porter M. Kier, Museum Director, and Dr. James 
G. Mead, nmnh authority on cetaceans, were present to greet 
the children and answer their questions about whales. 

National Air and Space Museum 

For the National Air and Space Museum, 1973 was an 
important and productive year. Ground was broken for the new 
museum building in an impressive ceremony presided over by 
the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. The Chancellor of 
the Institution, The Honorable Warren E. Burger, delivered the 
groundbreaking address to an enthusiastic crowd of National 
Air and Space Museum friends. 

When completed, the building will have a clean and crisp look 
which will create a harmonious balance between the sleek 
aerodynamic shapes within it and the classical elegance of its 
neighbor, the National Gallery of Art. The exterior of the 
building will be Tennessee marble of a pinkish hue, matching 
that of the National Gallery of Art, and grey glass designed to 
filter out harmful ultraviolet rays. 

To achieve the ideal blend of subject matter in the Museum, 
the interior of the building and its contents require special 
planning, experimenting, refining, and changing. The National 
Air and Space Museum's charter is an extremely broad one, 
beginning with man's first aspirations to fly, spanning his first 
faltering ascents in hydrogen and hot air balloons, and then 
recording the surge of powered flight which followed the 
fateful day in 1903 at Kitty Hawk. From Kitty Hawk to the 
moon, the pace has been increasingly swift, the technology more 
and more sophisticated, the story ever more complex. No 
important segment of it can be slighted — not the contributions 
of a Goddard or a Lindbergh, nor the story of the aerospace 
industries and what they contribute to the quality of our lives. 
In addition, the Museum not only will display artifacts, but will 
act as a catalyst in exchanging information, and will become a 
true national center for aerospace historical research. 

Opposing these grandiose concepts are the realities of space 
and budget. The fuselage of a Boeing 747 is longer than the 
building is wide; a Saturn V, if parked along side it, would loom 
four times as high. Clearly, an alternative must be found to 



Secretary S. Dillon Ripley and The Honorable Warren E. Burger break ground on 
20 November 1972 for the new National Air and Space Museum building, while 
Senator J. William Fulbright and Senator Jennings Randolph observe. 

simply parking machines and putting velvet ropes around them. 
Modern technology must be translated into creative communica- 
tions. The Museum must communicate in a wide variety of 
ways: by showing objects, by labels, by sound, by film, by 



Michael Collins, Director of the National Air and Space Museum, and Chief Justice 
Warren E. Burger on the happy occasion of the groundbreaking ceremony for the 
new National Air and Space Museum building. At right, Meredith Johnson, Smith- 
sonian Special Events Officer. 

electromechanical and audiovisual devices of the highest fidelity 
and reliability. It is recognized that a technique well suited for 
one subject may be completely inappropriate for another. For 
example, the Hall on Ballooning will include a light, even 
frivolous treatment of some byproducts of the crazy era of 
ballooning, featuring balloon music, art, furniture — even a 
puppet show. On the other hand, the hall devoted to the 
Earthbound Benefits of Flight will be a thoughtful, carefully 
researched, highly documented treatment of the spinoffs result- 
ing from air and space technology. In some areas, such as Early 
Rocketry, the collection may be far from complete, and substi- 
tutes for actual artifacts will be found. In some cases, however, 
the National Air and Space Museum has more machines than 
floor space for their display, and the process of winnowing and 
selecting will be accomplished with an eye toward displaying 
only those machines of the greatest historic significance. 

In all, the National Air and Space Museum has 250 airplanes, 
and, of course, not all of them will fit into the new building at 
once. For this reason, exhibits will be rotated as funds allow, 



Model of the new National Air and Space Museum. 

and only a few of the very finest (such as the Wright Flyer) will 
be on permanent display. The National Air and Space Museum 
also has acquired a representative sampling of spacecraft, 
supporting hardware, documentation, and photographs. An art 
collection has been started, small at present, but one which will 
grow, for frequently the artist's eye has captured the flavor of 
an important event with incomparable power and precision. 
Also, from a practical standpoint, color photographs fade, but 
oils have been known to retain their original color for 500 
years. In the new building, one hall will be devoted to air and 
space art; and in addition, paintings and three-dimensional art 
objects will be added wherever they enhance other exhibits. 

The Museum will have 26 exhibit halls as well as 2 special- 
purpose chambers for education and entertainment. One will be 
an auditorium with a rather steeply slanted floor, seating 400 
persons. The front of this room will accommodate a curved 55' 
x 75' screen, while the projection booth will be capable of 
handling the finest 70 mm projection equipment. With this 
I potential for large-scale visual presentations of the highest 
| possible fidelity, it will be possible to offer a dramatic substitute 



View of the new National Air and Space Museum under construction. Work 
goes forward in anticipation of a 4 July 1976 opening. 

for viewing three-dimensional objects. The auditorium will, of 
course, also be available for more conventional purposes, such 
as various lecture series which are now presented in borrowed 

The second special-purpose chamber, called the Spacearium, 
will most closely resemble a planetarium. An audience of 300 
persons will be seated under a pierced aluminum dome 70 feet 
in diameter. Upon this dome, from the center of the room, can 
be projected the night sky, including accurate simulations of any 
part of the celestial sphere. Special-effects projectors also will be 
used, both inside and outside the dome, to assist in creating the 
illusion that the spectator has left the surface of the planet and 
has traveled out into space. In keeping with the Smithsonian's 
reputation for research and accuracy, every attempt will be 
made to explain recent discoveries in the fields of astronomy 


and astrophysics, such as pulsars, quasars, and black holes. On a 
more frivolous, but entertaining level, the Spacearium can be 
used as a backdrop for a variety of nonscientific productions. A 
powerful teaching tool, it will be available to the District of 
Columbia and neighboring school systems as special school 
presentations are developed. 

Another extremely valuable component of the new National 
Air and Space Museum will be the research library and 
information center. Unlike most other libraries, which have 
aerospace material diffused throughout their collections, the 
visitor will find concentrated in one spot a wealth of material 
relating to the history of flight. With over 20,000 bound 
volumes and 200 periodicals, the library is today the broadest 
and most accessible source of scholarly research in a variety of 
aerospace fields. 

In 1973, a 30-foot, domed planetarium was opened in the Air 
and Space Building and daily shows are being given to the 
visiting public. In addition to serving as an entertainment and 
education tool, the planetarium will serve as a laboratory for the 
experimentation and design of equipment and programs to be 
used in the 70-foot, domed chamber of the new National Air 
and Space Museum Building. 

The National Air and Space Museum, in conjunction with the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, hosted a nine-lecture 
series called, "Man and Cosmos." During this series, some of the 
finest astronomers in the country provided (to standing-room- 
only crowds) a comprehensive and current survey of man's past 
and present concepts of the solar system, with particular 
emphasis on the results of space science research during the 
past decade. The lecture series is now being edited for 
publication by the Norton Publishing Company. 

The Roscoe Turner Aviation Collection, which includes the 
aircraft, Turner Special, and the Thompson Trophy, was donated 
to the Museum. A large number of artifacts also were added to 
the astronautics collection, including several flown space suits 
and spacecraft-recovery parachutes. Fifteen works of art were 
acquired, including a large Aubusson tapestry, Aerosonique. 

Restoration work is progressing on eight major artifacts: the 
Douglas World Cruiser, Douglas D558-2 Skyrocket, Mes- 
serschmidt ME-109, Curtiss XF9C-2, Spitfire MK VII, Piper L4B, 
the Curtiss VX engine, and the 1926 Goddard Rocket. The latter is 
the first of a series of astronautic artifacts being restored for an 
Apollo exhibit. 


Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

The past year at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
(sao) saw the attainment of several major milestones, as long- 
term research programs were brought to fruition and other 
promising investigations aimed at extending the frontiers of 
astronomy were begun. Although the Observatory has enjoyed a 
position at the forefront of astrophysical research, the potential 
for further contributions to man's better understanding of the 
physical universe are strengthened. 


The results from sao's Celescope experiment aboard the 
Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (oao-2) now appear in 
published form as the Celescope Catalog of Ultraviolet Stellar 
Observations. The catalogue is based on more than 8000 ultraviolet 
television pictures taken by special Uvicon cameras and repre- 
sents observations of approximately 10 percent of the entire 
sky, including 20 percent of the region near the Milky Way, 
where the majority of ultraviolet stars are found. The final 
catalogue lists for each of 5068 stars, the magnitude, position, 
spectral type, and other information, including cross references 
to ground-based catalogues. 

A companion volume, Blanketed Model Atmospheres for Early- 
Type Stars, representing an analysis of the Celescope data as 
applied to stellar theory, is in publication as well. 

In collaboration with Harvard University and the University 
of Arizona, sao flew two test flights of a 40-inch-aperture 
balloonborne telescope designed to obtain far-infrared (100 
micron) data from altitudes high above the obscuring effect of 
the earth's atmosphere. The experiment is expected to give new 
insights into the structure and energetics of our own Milky Way 
Calaxy, the processes of birth of stars and planetary systems, 
and the structure of planetary atmospheres. 

Using imagery of the African rift system provided by tne 
Earth Resources Technology Satellite (efts), one scientist has 
detected new structural features that indicate a direct relation 
between the degree of obliquity in the pattern of recent faulting 
and the older and underlying Precambrian structures. These 
results could have important implications for mining interests 
throughout East Africa. 


Work began on an experiment to test the equivalence 
principle — the cornerstone of Einstein's General Theory of 
Relativity — by employing a master clock in a rocket probe. This 
3.5-hour experiment will use the stability of the hydrogen maser 
to measure the expected gravitational redshift to an accuracy of 
about 20 parts per million. The NASA-supported experiment 
employs a two-way doppler cancellation system that may be 
useful for further experiments of this type. 

sao staff members continued their deep involvement with 
observations from the Orbiting Solar Observatories during 
1972, with one scientist reducing spectra of solar prominences 
and filaments obtained by the Harvard extreme ultraviolet (euv) 
spectrometer aboard oso 4 and 6. He is also involved in the 
program of euv solar observations conducted with the Harvard 
experiment on the Apollo Telescope Mount (atm) aboard the 
Skylab satellite. 


A new Earth Dynamics Program (edp) combines many aspects 
of sao's highly successful satellite-tracking and geophysical 
research programs in anticipation of nasa's proposed Earth and 
Ocean Physics Applications Program. The program's main 
objectives are the following: (1) To develop theoretical models 
and to improve understanding of the kinematics, internal 
structure, and mechanics of the earth, particularly through the 
mapping, with 1- to 2-cm accuracy, of polar motion, rotation, 
plate motion (continental drift), crustal motions in active regions 
such as fault zones and rifts, and core-mantle interactions; and 
(2) to use the results of this research in applications such as 
earthquake predictions. 

sao's own network of lasers and cameras produced data that, 
when combined with other satellite and vlbi data, formed the 
foundation for the complex calculations culminating in the SAO 
Standard Earth III. For these calculations, sao greatly extended 
those computer programs treating lunar and solar perturba- 
tions, air drag, tidal effects, radiation pressure, and other 
effects to derive a highly significant model of the earth as a 
whole with respect to gravitational variations and geodetic 
positions and networks. 

Satellite-tracking data were also used to produce models of 
the earth's atmosphere. The most important recent finding is a 
variation, as a function of solar activity, in the coefficients 


relating to the 27-day variation on the atmosphere to those in 
decimetric solar flux. 


The Observatory continues its analyses of lunar samples and 
of meteors and meteorites. One group conducted petrographic 
surveys of samples returned by both the Apollo and the Soviet 
lunar missions, singling out for special study several materials, 
including types of rock found at considerable depth under the 
lunar terrae, a variety of green glass containing quenched 
crystallites of a type not yet identified among other lunar reck 
fragments, and a heretofore unrecognized iron-rich basalt that 
apparently forms in the final stages of crystallization of certain 
lunar magmas. A second group is making isotopic analyses of 
lunar samples to learn about recent and ancient solar flares. 
Solar flares occurring within months of the Apollo missions 
were determined from the 35-day Ar 37 activity, and the values 
agree with satellite measures. Solar flares averaged over the past 
thousand years were determined from the 300-year Ar 39 
activity. A third group is studying the distribution of gases in 
lunar samples to gain an understanding of how, when, and why 
these constituents were implanted in the surface layers. 

Statistical studies of fireball trajectories done in collaboration 
with the Ondrejov Observatory in Czechoslovakia and based on 
data obtained by sao's Prairie Network led to better observa- 
tional distinctions between ordinary stony meteorites and other 
types that seldom, if ever, survive atmospheric entry. These 
results have great relevance to evolutionary problems of the 
solar system. 

Two scientists developed theories related to lunar evolution, 
the first attempting to explain the apparent asymmetry of the 
moon's surface, the other developing a model for explaining the 
extreme differences in the geochemical composition of the earth 
and moon. ' 


As part of a ground-based observation program conducted in 
support of spacecraft observations, one sao group continued its 
acquisition and analysis of high-resolution spectra of absorption 
lines on Mars, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, using a 60- 


inch telescope and the three-etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer 
at Mount Hopkins. They detected for the first time the 
presence of HD molecules in the atmosphere of Jupiter. Aside 
from having intrinsic interest, this measurement provides useful 
information bearing on the evolution of the atmospheres of the 

Using the pepsios high-resolution optical spectrometer, the 
same group observed interstellar lithium in the spectrum of 
Zeta Ophiuchi, a finding that has implications in support of the 
"big-bang" theory of the universe. 

An sao scientist has developed a low-cost and simple device 
for detecting muons and, by implication, neutrinos. Muons are 
extremely unstable secondary particles produced by both cosmic 
rays and neutrinos. According to theory, the number of muons 
produced by cosmic rays should decrease the deeper one goes 
into the earth. At a depth of some 2000 feet below sea level, the 
only muons detectable would be those produced by the neutri- 
nos. The sao muon detector, then, is a relatively small and 
portable device that so far has been carried to locations in 
Massachusetts railway tunnels and to a deep gold mine in India 
to establish baseline levels. 

In confirmation of results obtained on Apollo 15, scientists 
again received radio signals from a lunar orbiting vehicle after 
it had been occulted by the moon. On 15 December 1972, at 
01:43:23 gmt, the Apollo 17 lunar ship America was occulted by 
the moon; approximately 40 seconds later, its radio signal 
reappeared, about 20 decibels above noise, and persisted for 
about 42 seconds. 

After having been lost since its first discovery 41 years ago, 
the minor planet Apollo — the prototype for those crossing the 
earth's orbit — has been rediscovered by sao astronomers. The 
asteroid was recovered on photographic plates taken 28 March 
with a 61 -inch reflector at Harvard's Agassiz Station. 

Joint Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory- Harvard efforts 
in radio astronomy continued to produce new observations of 
interstellar molecules, including silicon monoxide (SiO) and 
cyanoacetylene (HC3N). One group, using the 36-foot radio 
telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory, successfully identi- 
fied sulfur monoxide (SO). Another group determined the 
correlation between long-period variables and the radial velocity 
patterns of the hydroxyl (OH) molecule. Related efforts by this 
group to observe quasars and to study the interstellar medium 
in the millimeter-wave regions of the spectrum continued with 


the cooperation of Bell Laboratories and the use of facilities at 
the University of Texas. 

At Mount Hopkins, construction of a road to the summit area 
was completed in preparation for the installation of the large 
Multiple-Mirror Telescope (mmt) being built by sao and the 
University of Arizona for optical and infrared studies. The 
design and early construction of this unique telescope are 
progressing rapidly and smoothly. 


In cooperation with the National Air and Space Museum, sao 
sponsored a 9-week series of free lectures on astronomy in 
Washington, D.C. The highly successful series, entitled "Man and 
Cosmos," will be published as a book by W. W. Norton. 

sao hosted a 5-day symposium on "cosmochemistry" to discuss 
topics such as the composition of the sun, meteorites, and 
cosmic rays; the solar wind; the moon and planets; and the 
interstellar medium; and the significance of these factors in 
terms of origin and evolution. 

A number of sao scientists and administrators played major 
roles in preparation for the Polish and American celebrations 
honoring the 500th anniversary of Nicholas Copernicus' birth. 

A combined group of sao and Harvard scientists was selected 
to direct the instrument definition team for the low-dispersion 
(faint object) spectrograph on the Large Space Telescope (lst). 
Other sao scientists were asked to serve on the planning panel 
for space missions to Jupiter and Saturn in 1976. 


Dr. Fred L. Whipple, Director of SAO since 1956, announced 
his retirement effective 1 July 1973- Dr. George Field, a 
physicist and member of the Harvard College Observatory staff, 
was named to succeed him. 

Mr. Robert V. Bartnik, Assistant Director for Administration, 
resigned, and Mr. John G. Gregory, formerly head of SAO's 
Systems Management Department, was named to succeed him. 

Dr. Charles A. Lundquist, Assistant Director for Science, 
resigned to take a position as Director of the Space Sciences 
Laboratory, NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center. 

Drs. John Wood and Luigi Jacchia both received nasa's 


Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medals: Wood for his contri- 
butions to the Apollo program, and Jacchia for his "unique dis- 
coveries of the exosphere and the interactions of solar terrestrial 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

This year marked the fiftieth anniversary of the Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute (stri). It was on 17 April 1923 that 
Governor Dwight Morrow issued the order setting aside Barro 
Colorado Island as a nature preserve, the first step in the 
development of the Institute which has now become active in 
research and education as well as in conservation. 

For the last decade, the research of the staff has been 
primarily concerned with the behavior and ecology of the 
organisms of two important series of tropical habitats: humid 
forest (and related scrub and second growth), and inshore 
marine environments, including coral and other reefs. Work in 
these areas has continued in 1973. At the same time, stri has 
begun on a small scale, several new programs in other fields, 
and it is hoped that these programs will evolve and become 
additional major foci of interest. 

One of the new programs is concerned with human ecology 
and paleoecology. Man himself is a species of tropical origin. 
The human populations of the tropics have developed a wide 
range of adaptations to their surroundings. The analysis of 
these adaptations may have considerable scientific and intellec- 
tual value; it is also of practical significance now, with the 
accelerating changes of the so-called developing world, stri has 
a further special interest in the subject. It is becoming evident 
that tropical habitats have been continuously modified by man 
for many thousands of years (even in the New World), long 
before the current population explosion. It must be assumed 
that the distribution and behavior of most of the other 
organisms that we are studying have been profoundly affected, 
directly or indirectly, as a result of human intervention. The 
present situation can be understood only by placing it in 
historical perspective. 

One of the postdoctoral fellows, Dr. Anthony Ranere, has 
been investigating preceramic sites in Panama in order to 
determine the settlement patterns, migration routes, and tech- 
nological apparatus of the earliest human inhabitants of the 


area. An associate of the U.S. National Museum of Natural 
History, Dr. Olga Linares, is conducting research on some of 
the later Indian cultures, especially in the west of Panama, in 
the provinces of Chiriqui and Bocas del Toro. This work is 
providing new information on ecological changes correlated 
with variations in human subsistence patterns and methods of 
exploiting the environment. Some of the changes are proving to 
be surprisingly large. Both Dr. Linares and Dr. Ranere, and 
some of their collaborators have also prospected sites for future 
paleoecological, archeological, and anthropological research in 

Another relatively new program, devoted to the analysis of 
tropical grasslands, is being carried out jointly with the Institute 
of Ecology of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Two Polish 
scientists, Dr. Lucyna Andrzejewska and Dr. Andrzej Myrcha, 
have begun to study the roles and effects of small animals, 
arthropods and certain vertebrates, in several different kinds of 
grasslands in central Panama. This and subsequent studies 
should bring our knowledge of savannah and related habitats, 
both natural and artificial, up to the level of our understanding 
of the forest ecosystems. 

Comparative studies of different regions of the tropics are 
continuing as planned. An associate of stri and previous 
postdoctoral fellow, Mme. Annette Hladik, has been compiling 
the results of her botanical studies in Gabon. Dr. Peter Glynn is 
visiting Indonesia to investigate possibilities for marine research 
there. Dr. and Mrs. Michael Robinson are returning to New 
Guinea to resume their studies of orthopteroid insects and 
spiders. Dr. Stanley Rand continued his studies of lizard 
communication with two visits to different parts of the Lesser 
Antilles. During the past year, however, special attention has 
been paid to the fostering of research in northern South 
America, most notably in Colombia. The Cali station is being 
used by increasing numbers of visiting scientists and students as 
well as staff. (Remarkably, it is also producing a small financial 
profit. This enables us to give small grants-in-aid to support 
specific research projects of modest scope in Colombia.) Dr. 
Neal Smith traveled widely in Surinam and Venezuela pursuing 
his interests in nest and brood parasitism in birds. 

With the general expansion of stri activities, it has been 
decided to seek closer and more regular connections with the 
Panamanian and Colombian governments, to supplement our 
existing arrangements with local universities, museums, and 



Coring of the coral reef at Galeta Island, 
Atlantic Coast of Panama. 



other scientific organizations. Agreements with both govern- 
ments have been drawn up and are expected to be signed 
shortly. A new, additional, office is being prepared in Panama 
City to facilitate contacts and cooperation with stri's Panama- 
nian colleagues. 

Research on coral continues to be an important focus of many 
of our marine scientists. A drilling program was initiated on the 
Galeta reef flat to determine the thickness and age of this 
much-studied reef. With cores across only half of the reef, Drs. 
Maclntyre and Glynn have determined that the corals are at 
least 50 feet thick and are resting on a base of mudstone of the 
miocene Gatun formation. All the species in the cores represent 
modern classes of corals. They plan to continue the drilling 
toward the reef crest where 60- to 70-foot depths are expected. 
P. Glynn has also described a form of mobile spherical corals. 
He believes that planula larvae settle on algae modules which 
are continuously tumbled by the feeding action of certain fishes. 
A nearly uniform radial growth results from periodic move- 
ments, preventing prolonged growth on any particular axis. 

Dr. Moynihan has continued studies of the behavior and 
ecology of squids, especially Sepioteuthis sepioidea. Cephalopods 
are interesting because they are molluscs but convergent to 

Spherical growth form of Pavona gigantea. 

Shown at left, Sepioteuthis sepioidea, squid behavior is 
under study at the Islas San Bias on the Atlantic side of Panama. 



V * 

r t 


•i> Cross section of spherical form 
of Pavona clibosa showing the 
algae growth nucleus. 

■ *,■ ' ' 

vertebrates. They have become large and predatory, developed 
large brains, good eyes, etc., but their social behavior has been 
very little studied (essentially not at all in the field). 5. sepioidea, 
at least, turns out to have a complex social structure, elaborate 
and flexible organization of size (age), and sex classes. It has 
evolved a complex visual signaling system. 

The Environmental Science Program continued to develop 
and to implement monitoring techniques and procedures for 
both physical and biological fluctuations. Work was largely done 
in the forest on Barro Colorado Island and on the coral reef 
flat at Galeta. With the completion of 1973, data are beginning 
to be accumulated to permit the comparison of successive years 
both in terms of meteorological differences and in terms of the 
responses of both animals and plants. It is already clear that 
even in the tropics the "typical year" is a rare event. 

With the joint sponsorship of the Office of Academic Studies, 
stri brought together five people from the United States and 
the West Indies to discuss current studies of the display 
behavior of Anoline lizards in a 4-day workshop on Barro 
Colorado Island. 

stri was fortunate in obtaining five excellent postdoctoral 
fellows during fiscal year 1973. In addition to their research, 
several of these fellows and the stri staff taught formal courses 
at the University of Panama and in the Canal Zone Branch of 
Florida State University. These courses included "Analysis of 
Archaeological Materials" for advanced training of local archeol- 
ogists, "Marine Biology," "Basic Biology," and an advanced 
botany seminar. 

Use of stri Facilities by visitors increased again after several 
years of leveling off. stri was host to 669 visitors representing 



Canopy catwalk under construction on Barro Colorado Island. 

more than 60 universities and over 50 other organizations, 
among these were marine biologists from the University of 
Panama who are using stri's laboratory space at Naos Island as 
well as the stri research vessels. 

During the past year major changes were made in stri's 
facilities in Panama. An ideal site was obtained in Balboa 
convenent to Panama City. The site includes a concrete struc- 
I ture of 4680 square feet which was formerly part of the 
facilities of the now-demolished Tivoli Guest House. Adjacent to 
this building, which needs extensive renovation, are about 6 
acres of land; ample space for future construction of offices and 
laboratories, as well as cages and plant houses. 


This year stri also obtained three peninsulas in Gatun Lake 
opposite Barro Colorado Island. These areas, totaling 2480 
acres, will enable certain sorts of destructive sampling and 
experimentation to be conducted which are not compatible with j 
the policy of strict conservation on Barro Colorado Island. Parts ' 
of these areas are young second growth, a habitat lacking on : 
Barro Colorado Island. 

The central library, one of the most complete in the world in j 
the field of tropical biology, was remodeled. 

On Barro Colorado Island, gradual replacement of the j 
original frame structures, most now badly infested with dry rot I 
and termites, was continued. Kodak House was completed and 
Chapman House is in process of reconstruction. Plans were j 
drawn up to replace the boathouse. A 45-foot launch was ] 
obtained surplus from the Panama Canal Company and after I 
major restoration it is now carrying passengers and materials to 
and from the Island. 

During 1973 stri's research vessel situation changed com- 
pletely. The Institute received from the Navy a 65-foot surplus 
T-boat, which was named the Dos Mares. Conversion work is 
being done at stri with the help of the University of Panama. 
The 65-foot Tethys, twice before declared surplus by other j 
agencies, was finally retired after 18,000 miles and 72 cruises 
for 66 different scientists in stri's service, stri was fortunate in 
obtaining as replacement a 42-foot boat that had been confis- 
cated for drug running by the United States Coast Guard. The 
craft was renamed Stenella, and its duties will be redefined as 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 


The measurement of time and the chronology of events has 
always fascinated man, and the natural production of radioac- 
tive 14 C in the atmosphere by cosmic rays provides a means of 
dating those events. 14 C, as 14 C02, enters the carbon cycle 
through photosynthesis and respiration, and all living organisms 
are then in equilibrium with the environmental reservoir, since 
the decay rate approximately equals the atmospheric production , 
rate. On death of the organism, its 14 C content decays with a 
half-life of nearly 5600 years. Therefore, the measurement of 


present 14 C content of the sample permits calculation of the 
time elapsed since the death of the organism over a span of 
about 40,000 years. 

The Carbon Dating Laboratory has dated about 400 samples 
this year of interest to a wide variety of professionals, including 
anthropologists, sedimentologists, paleontologists, and marine 
biologists. For example, the chronology of development of the 
Chesapeake Bay is now being constructed. Marine flooding of 

the Bay basin began about 10,000 years ago, and careful 
sampling and dating of marine and freshwater peats and 
sediments will provide a chronology of this flooding. In 
addition to being of sedimentological and marine geological 
interest, the chronology will provide archeologists with a meas- 
ure of the reduction of habitable land available to early 


Flowering plants have evolved in such a way that those with a 
time measuring system have had an advantage for survival. The 
Radiation Biology Laboratory for a number of years has been 
studying such time measuring processes. For example, three 
representative species (Wintex barley, a long day plant; Biloxi 
soybean, a short day plant; and Black Valentine, a day neutral 
plant) have been found to utilize sunlight between 400 and 700 
nm for photosynthesis with equal effectiveness. There is no 
difference in the total dry weight produced in these three 
species, even though grown in a greenhouse under natural 
daylight or in growth rooms under artificial lighting conditions. 

Differences, however, do occur in the manner in which the 
dry weight is distributed morphologically. Wintex barley re- 
sponded to changes in the red/far-red spectral regions by 
changes in elongation. In Black Valentine an increase in stem 
length is dependent upon increased levels of far-red; without 
far-red the plant stems are considerably shortened over controls 
grown in the greenhouse. 

Measurements of the ratios of total global irradiance at 

several locations (Barrow, Alaska; Rockville, Maryland; and 

Jerusalem, Israel) were continued. Sharp transitions in the ratio 

f , , 500-600 , , . A ., 

ot green to red ( fi00 _ 7 QQ nm) occurred in April at all three 

stations. Similarly, the ratio blue to red ( fioOQOO nm ^ reached a 


maximum in the summertime around July and a minimum in 
winter. These ratio values are now being correlated with growth 
measurements of biological material grown at the same time. In! 
addition, a new station has been constructed and is operating in 
the tropics at Flamenco Island, in the Canal Zone. 

Similarly, a prototype scanning radiometer for detailed meas-! 
urements in the ultraviolet has been completed. This instrument 
has a maximum sensitivity at the 290 nm band of 1 mV equal to 
4 x 10" 8 Wcm ~*nm -1 . Fluctuations in the solar ultraviolet energy 
are of great interest as man continues to affect the transmission 
properties of the atmosphere by his activities. 


As microorganisms evolved, it is believed that one of the 
protective mechanisms that evolved against intense or toxic 
levels of sunlight was the formation of yellow pigments, 
carotenoids. A detailed action spectrum for the formation of 
these pigments by the fungus Neurospora crassa has been 
completed in the ultraviolet and visible spectral regions. Radiant 
energy at 280, 450, and 480 nm is most effective in inducing! 
the biosynthesis of carotenoids. The action spectrum indicates' 
that a carotenoid may itself be the photoreceptor for this | 
induction and suggests that the low levels of the pigment 
present in dark grown cultures respond to sunlight signals for 
subsequent protection from harmful levels of sunlight. 

National Zoological Park 

Fiscal year 1973 has been exceedingly active and stimulating 
at the National Zoological Park. Public interest in the giant, 
pandas, presented to the people of the United States by the 
people of The People's Republic of China, continued to be 
intense. The lines of persons waiting to see Hsing-Hsing and 
Ling-Ling were long, particularly on fair-weather Sundays and 
holidays. The increased attendance at the Zoo brought about by 
these two marvelous animals naturally has caused some prob- 
lems in parking and visitor trash, but the animals have brought' 
great happiness and pleasure to the millions of visitors who 
have paid their respects to our Chinese guests. 

Scientific studies of the behavioral growth and development 
of the animals have continued. Both animals have more than 


doubled body weight and are developing into young adults. In 
the latter part of May, Ling-Ling came into estrus at an 
estimated 30 months of age. This is the earliest age reported of 
estrus occurring. The two animals were placed together al- 
though it was recognized that Hsing-Hsing, who it is estimated 
is 5 months younger and 15 pounds lighter, was probably 
immature. The animals got on well, without serious fighting, 
and with the expected semiserious mating play. Breeding did 
not occur, but there is optimism concerning the next breeding 
season, which may be next autumn or spring. 

Many citizens in the Washington area have volunteered the 
bamboo patches from their gardens so that, even though the 
bamboo is being consumed at the rate of over 24 pounds a day, 
the Zoo's supply is not in danger of being overly utilized. Also, 
additional bamboo has been planted. 

On 29 May 1972, Femelle, the 12-year-old female gorilla, 
gave birth to her first offspring, a male, who was named Mgeni 
Mopaya. Despite hopes that she would raise the baby herself, 
Femelle showed little interest; so, the baby was taken to the 
home of Headkeeper Bernard Gallagher, where his wife Louise 
raised it for 7 months. Mgeni Mopaya has been sent to the New 
York Zoo to keep company with a young female gorilla of 
approximately the same age. Femelle is pregnant once again. 

Orangutan Jennie gave birth to female Nancy on 2 March 
1973. Jennie had great affection and concern for her baby but, 
unfortunately, no milk. So, the little female had to be removed; 
it was placed on loan with the Kansas City Zoo, where it is being 
raised with a young male orangutan born about the same time. 

Well over a year ago, the population of the eagle cage was 
reduced to a trio of American bald eagles. Early this spring it 
became evident that a pair was bonding and that the third bird 
was an unwanted member of a marital triangle; so, it was 
removed. The two remaining birds built their nest and an egg 
was laid, which successfully hatched during the latter part of 
May. It is rare to have a bald eagle hatch under captive 
conditions, although at the time of this writing, the Miami Zoo 
has also hatched a bald eagle chick. Both little chicks are 
growing nicely. 

The lesser pandas, sometimes referred to as the little red 
pandas, gave birth to two kits on 23 June 1972, during 
hurricance Agnes. The animals were raised successfully by their 
mother and provide an interesting show for our visitors. 

As reported in previous years, the white tigers have been 




Top left: Moving day for the Komodo monitor lizard. He emerges out of the 
transfer crate onto woven mesh. Top right: The lizard is then wrapped up in the 
mesh. Bottom left: Dr. Bush and helpers trim the lizard's claws. Bottom right: The 
keepers and crate leave the yard and the Komodo lizard investigates his summer 

successfully breeding. The last two litters, however, have shown 
signs of genetic weakness. It has become obvious that five 
generations of direct inline breeding has weakened the strain. 
Therefore, the loan of a male Bengal tiger, named Poona, was 
secured from the Brookfield Zoo. Under the guidance of Dr. D. 
G. Kleiman and the staff, he successfully bred with Kesari, the 7 
year-old, yellow daughter of Mohini, and six cubs were delivered 
on 30 April 1973. After two days, the mother picked up the last 
born, which was the smallest, and carried him to the door of 
her cage, thus signifying that she was abandoning this cub to 
the care of humans. Keeper Art Cooper took this little 
foundling into his home and heart, and has raised him. Kesari 



has performed the remarkable achievement of successfully 
raising her first litter of the remaining five cubs. This coming 
summer they will be a glorious show. 

The majestic and awe-inspiring Indian rhinos, which have 
thrilled visitors with their massive appearance for the past 10 
years, decided that this was the year that they should set up 
housekeeping. Rajkumari came into season in August. Because 
of the danger of injury during the pre-mating "play," a 24-hour 
watch was kept on these animals with the assistance of the 
Friends of the National Zoo (fonz) under the guidance of Dr. 
Helmut Buechner of the staff. After some rather earth-shaking 
pre-mating roughhouse play, breeding was accomplished. Next 
December or January Rajkumari should deliver, if conception 
took place. 

The golden lion marmoset project continues well. From 15-17 
February 1972 a conference, sponsored jointly by the National 
Zoological Park and Wild Animal Propagation Trust, convened 
at the Zoo and those scientists in this country and Brazil who 
are most knowledgeable and concerned about this animal 
attended. All known facets of breeding and behavior of the 
golden lion marmoset were reviewed and discussed. From this, a 
cooperative breeding program was established. The National 
Zoological Park was designated one of the breeding centers for 
this beautiful, delicate, rare, South American primate. A build- 
ing has been erected adjacent to the hospital-research building, 
which is now occupied by marmosets. We hope that all of their 
psychological and physiological needs have been met and that 
they will, within the next several years, reproduce in sufficient 
quantities to supply American zoos and return to the recently 
established parks and reserves in Brazil. The National Zoo now 
exhibits 15 of these animals, 2 of which are on breeding loan 
from other zoos. Also, 1 is on loan to another zoo. Of these 
animals, 1 1 were born here at the National Zoological Park. 

In keeping with the Zoo's program and objectives of breeding 
rare and endangered animals for possible eventual return to 
their native habitats, two Zoo-born scimitar-horned oryx were 
donated to the Hai Bar Reserve is Israel. This species has been 
extinct in that area for many centuries. The Israeli Government 
is now establishing a program to reintroduce these and other 
animals to their former habitats. It is most gratifying to 
participate in the return of these beautiful animals to their 
former range. 


The study of sloth ecology and behavior in Panama continued 
this year by Dr. G. G. Montgomery, with much valuable 
information being gained relative to the ecosystem of the 
tropical rain forest. Within the next few months, the technical 
papers resulting from this study will be published. 

The veterinary staff of the National Zoological Park has 
developed techniques and skill to permit difficult, complicated, 
and esoteric surgical procedures, two examples of which follow. 

The Zoo's young West African bongo, L'Ehania, was unable 
to deliver her calf because of adhesions which, for some 
unknown reason, had developed between the wall of the 
abdomen and uterus. These adhesions prevented her from 
having normal labor. This fact was unknown until a Caesarean 
section was performed after she had passed her normal 
gestation period. Unfortunately, the calf was not alive. However, 
the female survived the surgery and is doing well. 

The 15-year-old, male African forest elephant had developed 
an infection at the base of his right tusk as a result of an injury 
inflicted by the older and larger female elephant, Nancy. The 
female had also bitten his tail, which resulted in severe necrosis. 
Dzimbo was operated on for what can be best described as a 
"root canal" on the tusk to curette and drain the tusk cavity, 
and to amputate 6 inches of his tail. So far, the tusk seems to 
be coming along fine. 

The Master Plan for the complete renovation and moderniza- 
tion of the National Zoological Park has been completed and 
approved by all necessary reviewing bodies. Plans are now going 
forward on a new lion and tiger exhibit and the complete 
renovation of the 1904 monkey house. 

In April of this year a one-dollar parking fee was established. 
FONZ are operating this program for us. Twenty-five percent 
of the profits from this operation will be used by FONZ for 
their educational programs at the Zoo, and the remaining 75 
percent will be held in escrow by the Smithsonian Institution to 
partially defray the cost of a new parking facility to be 
constructed in conjunction with the Master Plan. 

In summary, it can be said that the fiscal year of 1973, which 
started with the disastrous flood caused by hurricane Agnes 
(7 feet of water in the shop building) and has ended with 
our first hatching of an American bald eagle chick, has been 
exciting, stimulating, and portends well for the future years of 
the National Zoological Park. 


Office of Environmental Sciences 

The Institution-wide conference on priorities in February 
recommended that new ways be found to demonstrate the value 
of the Smithsonian's basic and traditional interests in the 
environment. One such program initiated during the year was a 
series of ecological assessment studies in Southeast Asia. Of 
concern is the optimal future use of land and water resources in 
this region for the most rapid and enormous change of a 
tropical ecosystem in recorded history is taking place in 
Southeast Asia. A program of environmental assessment is 
necessary to better understand the impact of these changes 
upon the postwar reconstruction and development of the 
countries involved. Studies are continuing on offshore oil 
pollution in Indonesia, and the control of schistosomiasis in the 
Mekong River Basin, and new research is projected on the 
environmental impact of man-made lakes in Laos and aquatic 
weeds in freshwater impoundments throughout the region. 

The Office of Environmental Sciences assists other Smithson- 
ian bureaus and centers to carry on strategic and contemporary 
research on environmental problems, making extensive use of 
the national reference collections as an ecological data bank. 
The Institution's tradition of scientific research in the distribu- 
tion and evolution of organisms is being applied in ecological 
studies required by federal and private agencies to comply with 
new legislation. 

Staff members serve on a wide range of national and 
international advisory committees and work with Smithsonian 
scientists involved in biological monitoring and biological con- 
trol, identification and conservation of natural areas, research 
on marine and freshwater pollution, appraisals of research on 
environmental problems, and studies of rare and endangered 
species of plants and animals. 


The Smithsonian Center for Natural Areas provides ecological 
competence in planning and setting priorities for selection and 
preservation of ecologically significant areas. Natural areas 
include habitats of rare and endangered animals, plants, and 
communities; sites of unique research interests, important 
breeding and over-wintering areas; archeological, paleontologi- 


cal, and other locations which should be preserved. A quantita- 
tive evaluation system of ecological indicators has been devel- 
oped as a scientifically sound basis for selection of sites in 
priority order for acquisition by procuring agencies to be set 
aside as permanent reserves. 

A 2-year, exhaustive natural areas study has been made of the 
Chesapeake Bay region. All presently preserved land was 
identified, and ecologically significant plants, animals, and 
communities were plotted on a series of maps. Natural* areas 
were rank ordered in terms of scientific criteria for recom- 
mended procurement and designated as protected areas. 

A comprehensive conservation plan has been developed for 
the Coast of Maine involving more than 200,000 acres and 
1100 miles of coastline, with support from the New England 
Regional Commission and the Maine Coastal Foundation. 

The Center for Natural Areas, in cooperation with the Nature 
Conservancy, is developing a natural area registry. A current 
inventory of approximately 15,000 natural areas in the United 
States is being compiled and programmed for computer re- 
trieval. Special emphasis is placed on endangered flora, fauna, 
and ecosystems. The Center also is assessing environmental 
inventory activities throughout the United States for the Army 
Corps of Engineers. A comparative review is being conducted of 
alternative methodologies employed in making environmental 

The Center is helping evaluate the ecological impact of 
activities at U.S. Air Force Bases in the continental United States 
in order to promote a basis to recommend improvements in the 
conservation practices. A model is being constructed for the Air 
Force to use in subsequent surveys. 

The Smithsonian Peace Corps Environmental Program con- 
tinues to provide assistance in two general areas: (1) develop- 
ment of Peace Corps projects and volunteer assignments in 
developing countries in the environmental and natural resource 
fields, and (2) recruitment and placement of applicants skilled 
in the environmental and biological sciences. 

To date over 1000 applications have been received and of 
these 480 volunteers with environmental skills have been 
assigned to 34 countries. The program staff is in contact with 
258 international and host-country scientific or conservation 
organizations. Program development assistance will continue to 
be emphasized in less advanced countries and through interna- 


tional organizations (iucn, fao, unesco, etc.) that cooperate in 
placement of volunteers in environmental positions. 

The first national list of rate and endangered higher plants of 
the United States is being compiled by the Ecology Program and 
the Botany Department of the U. S. National Museum of 
Natural History with assistance from the Department of Agricul- 
ture and other organizations. The list includes plant species of 
the continental United States as well as Hawaii and Alaska. 


During the past 10 years the Smithsonian's 2 oceanographic 
sorting centers have processed and distributed for scientific 
study over 50 million specimens of marine organisms. This 
achievement has resulted in recognition of the Centers as 
leading institutions in the taxonomic sorting, community analy- 
sis, and specimen and sample data management of marine 
plants and animals. 

The Oceanographic Sorting Center at the Navy Yard in 
Washington processed nearly 9 million specimens in fiscal year 
1973, distributing roughly 10 percent of the collections to 
scientists in the United States and abroad for taxonomic, 
distribution, and population studies. The Center also assisted a 
number of national and international agencies in environmental 
analysis programs, particularly the National Science Founda- 
tion's Antarctic Research Program (usarp) and the Marine 
Resource Monitoring and Assessment Progam (marmap) of the 
National Marine Fisheries Service. 

The Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center (mmsc) in Tunisia 
continued to participate in the UNESCO-FAO-sponsored Coopera- 
tive Investigations of the Mediterranean and made available 2.5 
million marine organisms to scientists, who depend upon these 
research services. The mmsc also organized in cooperation with 
the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization an 
international workshop on the Identification of Fish Eggs and 
Larvae of the Mediterranean. The purpose of this meeting was 
to pull together and up-date all available information on this 
increasingly significant subject area, compare criteria for identi- 
fication, and develop illustrative materials for identification 

A report was completed and published on the "Existing 
Conditions of the Biota of the Chesapeake Bay" for the Army 
Corps of Engineers. It will be used to develop a broad-based 


program on environmental management for this important 
national estuarine system. The first nine volumes in a series of 
identification manuals, The Biota of Freshwater Ecosystems of the 
United States, were published this fiscal year under a contract 
from the Environmental Protection Agency. Two additional 
manuals were completed in manuscript and others are planned. 
The biota selected for inclusion in this series are considered to 
be water quality indicative organisms. Information on their 
biology and ecology is included with the keys to enhance the 
value of the manuals in environmental studies. 

A preliminary study was completed on the levels of chlori- 
nated hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the Caspian coastal 
zone of Iran, where chemical contaminants appear to be 
contributing to the decline of sturgeon and other commercial 
fishes. Studies of Skadar Lake, the largest of the Balkan Lakes, 
were continued in cooperation with the Institute for Biological 
Research at Belgrade, Yugoslavia. The objectives of this 5-year 
project are to describe the physical, chemical, biological, and 
geological nature of this lake, to develop a capability for 
management of the lake and its drainage basin as the regional 
impact of man increases. 


The Center operates the global environmental alert system 
for rapid communication of scientific information on natural 
phenomena of short duration. During the year, the Center 
reported 142 short-lived events that occurred in 52 countries, 
an increase of 43 percent over the number of significant 
happenings described in the preceding year. The reporting 
network now consists of 2784 scientists, scientific institutions, 
and field stations located in 144 countries and covering every 
continent and ocean of the earth. 

Scientific teams investigated nearly 90 percent (126) of the 
events. Events included 57 in the earth sciences, 77 of biological 
interest, and 8 astrophysical phenomena. They included signifi- 
cant modifications in biological and ecological systems, rare or .] 
unusual animal migrations, population explosions, major mor- 
talities of plants and animals, volcanic eruptions, birth of new 
islands, earthquakes, landslides, cyclonic storm surges, floods, 
major fireball events and meteorite falls, and environmental 
pollution of significant proportion and short duration, such as 


major oil spills, wide ranging smoke, and herbicide contamina- 

During fiscal year 1973, the Center formed a new National 
Environmental Alert Network which mobilized more than 
40,000 high school and university students in over 700 schools 
and colleges as part of an International Environmental Alert 
Program. The program will become part of the United Nations 
Earthwatch Program, an international environmental monitor- 
ing activity that will be administered by the United Nations 
Environmental Program. 

Contracts and grants were awarded by other organizations to 
facilitate participation of the Center in support of their pro- 
grams. These included the Earth Resources Technology Satellite 
program and the Skylab Manned Orbital Workshop Program of 
nasa, and the United Nations Natural Disaster Program. For 
example, the Center alerted Skylab astronauts on short duration 
natural events in progress that could be described from orbit. It 
also asked its worldwide network of correspondents to identify 
events observed from orbit but not fully understood by the 
rapidly moving astronaut team. 

The Center prepared publications on environmental monitor- 
ing and science information communications under contract to 
the United Nations Environmental Secretariat and the United 
Nations Office of Science and Technology. 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental 


The Center has become the focal point of a model watershed 
program for the Rhode River, a sub-estuary of the Chesapeake 
Bay, along which the Center has 14 miles of shoreline and 
controls 2500 acres of land. This research is being conducted as 
a part of the program of the Chesapeake Research Consortium, 
an organization comprised of the Smithsonian Institution, the 
Johns Hopkins University, the University of Maryland, and the 
Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences, and is funded by the 
National Science Foundation. This funding was renewed in 
April 1973 to continue through September 1974. 

The Center's programs involve integration of intensive ecosys- 
tem research with land use planning and the development of 
public participation in environmental decision-making processes. 


This integration is being realized in part through development 
of a public information/education program utilizing data from 
scientific research. The information-transfer program, funded 
by the Noble Foundation, is intended to: (1) create a wide- 
spread understanding of the functioning dynamics of a regional 
ecosystem; (2) identify crucial problems affecting such a system; 
and (3) develop linkages between scientists, planners, and 
managers and the general public whereby solutions to these 
problems can be identified and implemented. An education 
center for workshops and seminars has been designed to carry 
out this public information/education program and will be 
constructed in the fall of 1973. 

The potential of the Center for education in the environmen- 
tal sciences has begun to be realized with the initiation of 
several new programs. A pilot environmental education pro- 
gram, designed to introduce concepts of ecology in urban and 
natural settings to inner city and suburban tenth graders, was 
conducted in May of 1972 in cooperation with Camp Letts, a 
ymca facility adjoining the Center. The Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare will provide funding for this program, 
beginning in June of 1973 for 12 months. In the spring of 
1973, another educational program was begun that utilized the 
Center as a research site by high schools. Under this program, 
students and teachers have been afforded an opportunity to 
design and carry out research projects in consultation with the 
Center's staff. This program provides students with the unusual 
opportunity of working with practicing scientists and of utilizing 
the background of information on environmental variables that 
are available in the Center's data bank. An experimental 
educational program in ecology, intended to emphasize affective 
skills and focusing on interesting children in ecological relation- 
ships, was also begun in 1973. Finally, the Center continued its 
ongoing program of providing summer research opportunities 
for undergraduate students, and cooperating with local elemen- 
tary schools in environmental education field studies. In the 
latter program, trips to the Center are arranged to illustrate 
various aspects of the curriculum under study in the classroom. 

Center for the Study of Man 

The program initiated at the Cairo Conference last year has 
grown according to expectation. Monographs are being pre- 


pared by 20 authors and 6 behavioral scientists are submitting 
questions to them. Two monographs are completed and will be 
submitted for publication. A direct outgrowth of this program 
has been the organization of five fully funded conferences for 
the forthcoming IXth International Congress of Anthropology 
and Ethnological Sciences in Chicago from August 28 to 
September 9. The pre-Congress conferences focus on the cross- 
cultural uses of cannibus, of alcohol, on American Indian 
economic development, on a general theory of cultural trans- 
mission, and on the relationship between anthropology and 
population studies. The results of these conferences will be 
reported to the Congress and subsequently published in the 
proceedings of that body. The effect of the Center's efforts, 
which have been occurring over the past year, should be some 
noticeable shift of emphasis within the field of anthropology 
from past-oriented static studies to a concentration on world 
problems presently in need of solution. 

The Urgent Anthropology Program continues to support, 
with small grants, work which is pressing, immediate, and 
scientifically valuable. During the past year, 11 final reports 
have been received, including a detailed account of Japanese 
bear hunting and the adaptation of an outlawed caste to the 
social structure of modern India. 

The Center's American Indian program remains concentrated 
on the production of the encyclopedic Handbook of North 
American Indians. Over a thousand manuscripts have now been 
received and editing of them is a major preoccupation of the 

A 2-year study of the relationship between economic develop- 
ment and social organization has just been completed. The 
study, directed by Dr. Sam Stanley, involves seven American 
Indian communities, Navajo, Papago, Lummi, Pine Ridge Sioux, 
Oklahoma Cherokee, Morongo, and Passamaquoddy. 

The Center also co-sponsored an Ethnographic Film Festival 
at the Smithsonian from May 10 to 12. This is a part of the 
continuing effort to establish an ethnographic film archive in 
the Center for the Study of Man. 

Smithsonian Science Information 
Exchange, Inc. 

The Smithsonian Science Information Exchange (ssie) contin- 
ues to expand its coverage and services as the nation's major 


source of information on research in progress. Efforts to 
increase both the completness and timeliness of its data base 
have met with success, and more potential users of the system 
both in and out of government have been reached through an 
improved educational program. 

A number of accomplishments have been achieved in 1973 in 
improving the system internally including the establishment of 
an on-line retrieval system using video display terminals for 
retrieval of information by ssie's staff of professional scientists 
and engineers. Initial plans have been developed for a com- 
puter-assisted indexing system designed to improve the present 
system of indexing projects from a scientific viewpoint, thus 
saving the scientists' time for more difficult conceptual indexing 
which cannot be achieved by computer systems currently 
available. Plans for remote on-line interrogation of the Ex- 
change's data base are also being developed in order to provide 
wider and more rapid access to the material presently available. 

The Exchange is currently carrying out, under a Food and 
Agricultural Organization (fao) contract, a pilot project which 
will create a data base of ongoing research in agriculture in 
some 14 African countries. In addition to the possible inclusion 
of this information into ssie's own data base, the material will be 
utilized to develop a catalogue of the research and provide 
information and costs that might be expected in the develop- 
ment of a broader base system. Preparation of a 12-volume 
series of catalogues listing current research efforts by broad fields 
of science was completed and published by a commercial 
company during the year. Plans to supplement the volumes on a 
regular basis are currently being developed. An agreement for 
publication of information in the Exchange's data base with 
actual reprints of journal articles has also been negotiated, thus 
making information in the Exchange available to more scientists 
in a wider variety of forms. 

Fort Pierce Bureau 

The Fort Pierce Bureau, located at link port between Fort 
Pierce and Vero Beach, Florida, has continued its basic mission 
of research in marine biology and geology. Studies include life 
histories of sipunculan worms, pressure physiology, analysis of 
gases in submarine and decompression chambers, development 
of artificial habitats for receiving sabellariid worm larvae or 


living worm-reef transplants, preliminary work on decapod 
crustaceans and fishes of the Indian River region, and comple- 
tion of a nine-month behavioral study of the American alligator. 

Fifty-eight persons attended a national Submersible Safety 
Seminar hosted at link port in September to identify problems 
associated with submersibles and to make recommendations for 
safe submarine usage. Diving and submarine personnel partici- 
pated in a simulated 1000-foot dive at the Duke University 
Hyperbaric Laboratory in January to test performance under 
the stress of deep diving. 

The conversion of the Bureau's submarine tender, the R/V 
Johnson, has been practically completed with such innovations as 
an aluminum-alloy superstructure, an anti-roll tank located in 
the pilot house and "flopper-stoppers" off the mast for stabiliza- 
tion, and a recompression chamber below decks aft. Test dives 
of the Smithsonian's research submersible, the Johnson-Sea-Link, 
have been successfully completed to below 1000 feet. An 
aluminum-alloy crane, capable of launching and recovering the 
submersible from the stern of the R/V Johnson, has been 
developed and tested — and this machine completes the mother- 
ship-submersible-diver system. 

A floating laboratory barge obtained in early April from the 
Environmental Protection Agency is undergoing renovation to 
become self-contained. It will be used initially as a stationary 
facility at link port from which to carry out a biological survey 
of the Indian River lagoon. Conversion and outfitting of the 
laboratory barge and the R/V Johnson have been made possible 
by the generous support of Edwin A. Link and J. Seward 

At the close of the fiscal year the submersible Johnson Sea-Link 
suffered a tragic accident off the Florida Keys. The Smithsonian 
convened an expert panel to investigate the circumstances which 
surrounded the incident. 


public is often viewed as simply an obligation to accom- 
modate larger and larger numbers of people. Statistics reflecting 
the sheer number of viewers, readers, and attenders are 
proudly circulated as evidence of success in bringing culture and 
enlightenment to "everyone." But just as our political tradition 
insists that the rule of the majority must be reconciled with the 
rights of minorities and of individuals, so too the management 
of cultural institutions must ever be mindful of the multiplicity 
of audiences and the variety of tastes. The record of the 
Smithsonian's museums of art and history provides heartening 
evidence that a great national institution, supported to a 
substantial extent by funds appropriated by the Congress, can 
serve both a mass audience and a number of specialized 
audiences without developing schizophrenia and without com- 
promising its high standards of scholarship and interpretation. 
The key to the Institution's success in this regard lies in its 
encouragement of diversity. 

The fiftieth anniversary of the Freer Gallery, which is being 
appropriately celebrated in its own right by three special 
exhibitions, catalogues, and symposia, serves to remind us of the 
extraordinary variety and individuality of the Smithsonian's 
museums of art and history. On the occasion of the Freer 
anniversary, the New York Times published an article by John 
Canaday entitled, "The Aristocrat of American Museums Has A 

Born rich and beautiful just fifty years ago, the Freer Gallery of Art in 
Washington is the aristocrat of American museums. Like all true 
patricians who have neither lost their money nor gone to seed, the 
Freer is so secure in its station that any hint of snobbism, the first 
symptom of decline from high places, is out of the question. 

Mr. Canaday goes on to praise the museum's unfailing devotion 
to the purpose enunciated by its founder: "the promotion of the 
finest ideals of beauty as seen in the civilizations of the East." 
The Freer's success in serving this ideal is a tribute to its four 
directors — John Ellerton Lodge, Archibald G. Wenley, John A. 
Pope, and Harold P. Stern — to the successive Regents and 



Secretaries of the Smithsonian, and not least to the successive 
Congresses which have appropriated funds for the support of 
the Freer without requiring that it depart in any way from its 
lofty purposes. 

If the Freer Gallery is a delight in itself, it is even more 
remarkable as a counterpoint to its neighbor across the Mall, the 
National Museum of History and Technology. A year ago we 
reported here that attendance at the Museum of History and 
Technology had reached the astonishing figure of 978,728 
during a single month; attendance in the month of April 1973 
exceeded one million. Drawn by the museum's permanent 
exhibitions and by the new third-floor galleries that were 
opened during the year, as well as by a succession of special 
exhibitions and lectures, visitors to the Museum of History and 
Technology outnumbered those to any other museum in the 
world. If they found little of the serenity of the Freer, the 
exhibits they saw embodied the same high standards of scholar- 
ship and excellence of display translated into terms appropriate 
to the size and nature of a vast and vastly popular museum of 
American history and technology. 

One of the activities that has brought great credit to the 
Museum of History and Technology is its program of concerts. 
Making use of ancient instruments in the museum's collection, 
these concerts by the Division of Musical Instruments present 
classical or little-known works to small audiences in an appropri- 
ately intimate setting. The theme of variety and individuality is 
again evident when we think of these performances in relation 
to the enormously popular Festival of American Folklife held on 
the Mall each year to the delight of hundreds of thousands of 
visitors. A sampling of reviews of the past year's concerts at the 
Museum of History and Technology shows that here too the 
Smithsonian succeeds in maintaining the highest standards of 

Like a born aristocrat, everything Smithsonian's Division of Musical 
Instruments does is touched by elegance. In a city known for 
wonderful chamber music, the Smithsonian's offerings stand out 
because of the unassuming, almost casual dignity of the performances, 
and because the Smithsonian's fine collection of playable old instru- 
ments makes it possible for them to perform 18th-century music in its 
own rather than in modern terms. (Joan Reinthaler, Washington Post.) 

Leave it to the Smithsonian to treat us to one of the most unusual 
cultural offerings of a half-decade, nothing less than a neglected slice 
of musical and balletic history brought intriguingly to life. (Alan 
Kriegsman, Washington Post.) 


Rarely has the art of music been more perfectly served than in last 
night's exquisite concert in the Smithsonian's Hall of Musical Instru- 
ments. (Paul Hume, Washington Post.) 

The variety of subject, scope, and approach so vividly 
illustrated by the contrasts between the Freer Gallery and the 
National Museum of History and Technology, between chamber 
music concerts and the Folklife Festival, is even more striking 
when one looks at the full range of Smithsonian art and history 
museums. The National Collection of Fine Arts, the successor to 
the Institution's original gallery of art, has now clearly come 
into its own as the national museum of the history of American 
art. It has developed an identity and a style of its own. Hilton 
Kramer, writing in the New York Times on the occasion of a 
major exhibition of the works of Alfred Maurer, recognized this 

Under the directorship of Joshua C. Taylor, the National Collection has 
emerged as our most responsible museological custodian of American 
art, addressing itself to those disinterested tasks of scholarship and 
connoisseurship that have been spurned by more fashion-conscious 
museums elsewhere (particularly in New York). Certainly, it is difficult 
to think of another institution that would have approached the 
problems of a Maurer show with the same seriousness and devotion. 

Similar enthusiasm was expressed by Paul Richard in his 
Washington Post review of a National Collection of Fine Arts 
show of religious art in America: 

I have never seen a show like "The Hand and the Spirit," now on 
exhibition at the National Collection of Fine Arts. . . . Jane Dillenber- 
ger and Joshua C. Taylor have produced a brilliant show, illuminating 
the varying religious impulses that have fueled, this nation's art .... 
the great virtue of this exhibition is that it does not struggle to evade 
[basic questions]. It is a patient show, so thoughtfully selected, so 
intelligently conceived, that it allows us all our quibbles and then uses 
them to teach us. In the end it points at truths Uiat few of us have seen 
. . . Taylor's [catalogue] essay is a classic, as fine a study of American 
art as I have read in years. 

With its brilliant permanent installations, its succession of 
thoughtful and handsome temporary exhibitions, and its active 
and imaginative educational programs, the National Collection 
of Fine Arts meets in its own way the Smithsonian's high 
standards of excellence in scholarship and communication. 

The National Portrait Gallery, which shares an historic 
building with the National Collection of Fine Arts, has devel- 
oped its own style during its relatively brief history, and 
particularly during the last 4 years under the direction of 


Marvin Sadik. As something of a hybrid — a history museum that 
collects and displays works of art to tell the story of the 
American people — the National Portrait Gallery has developed a 
reputation for imaginatively conceived and impeccably mounted 
exhibitions, accompanied by catalogues as handsome as they are 

Anyone who has attended exhibition openings at both the 
National Collection of Fine Arts and the National Portrait 
Gallery will have sensed immediately that two quite different 
spirits and philosophies are at work in these two museums. 
Happily, the Smithsonian can embrace both and can take pride 
in both. 

Undoubtedly this same individuality will characterize two new 
Smithsonian museums, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden and the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, when they open to the 
public. Each has a role to play — one as a museum of modern 
art, the other as a museum of design — and each is already 
developing its own techniques and its own style. 

Continuing delays in the construction of the Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden have been a source of deep 
concern and frustration, but there is now every reason to expect 
that it will open to the public in 1974. The museum's staff and 
its distinguished Board of Trustees have meanwhile been busy 
preparing for the opening exhibition of the museum's own 
collection, and charting the museum's course in fulfillment of 
the donor's (and the Smithsonian's) hope that it will "act as an 
intermediary between the artist and the public, and that by 
acquiring and showing what is new, significant, and vital, we will 
be instrumental in helping to narrow the aesthetic and cultural 
generation gap." As for the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, the 
acquisition of the Carnegie Mansion and the receipt of several 
substantial grants for renovation and for an opening exhibition 
give promise that the exciting plans of Lisa Taylor and her staff 
for using the superb Cooper-Hewitt collections as the basis for a 
new kind of museum of design will soon begin to be realized. 

The separate reports that follow give further evidence of the 
remarkable diversity and vitality of the Smithsonian. The 
publication and the enthusiastic critical reception of Volume I 
of the Papers of Joseph Henry is both a satisfying reward for the 
past efforts of Nathan Reingold and his staff and a happy 
augury for the future of this great enterprise, undertaken by 
the Smithsonian in cooperation with the National Academy of 
Sciences and the American Philosophical Society. The Smithson- 


ian's collaboration with the National Academy of Sciences 
extended also to the cosponsorship of a symposium on the 
nature of scientific discovery in commemoration of the Coperni- 
cus quinquecentennial, organized on the Smithsonian's side by 
the imaginative and indefatigable Office of Seminars. The 
Board of Trustees of the Archives of American Art, which 
manages to combine a strong sense of fiscal responsibility with a 
clear vision of the national potentialities of the Archives, 
continued to preside over the measured growth of the Archives 
by authorizing the establishment of a small office in San 
Francisco, which is already contributing substantially to the 
study of American art on the West Coast. 

Finally, we must sorrowfully record here the untimely death 
of Colonel John Magruder of the National Armed Forces 
Museum Advisory Board. 

National Museum of History and 

A most active and productive year at the National Museum of 
of History and Technology, 1973 was highlighted by the 
opening of five new exhibition halls and the detailed planning 
for three more. 

An exciting and educational challenge from U. S. Treasury 
Secretary George P. Shultz, formerly Director of the President's 
Office of Management and Budget, provided an opportunity to 
attempt to explain what productivity means and how it affects 
all people, in a large special exhibition on American Productiv- 
ity: "If We're So Good, Why Aren't We Better?". Utilizing a 
wide range of exhibit techniques, plain words, striking graphics, 
and workaday tools, the exhibition brought to focus the many 
different meanings of productivity together with the advantages 
and disadvantages, while permitting the visitor to develop his 
own conclusions and make his own choices for the future of the 
changing and complex American economy. 

The restoration of the center section of the third floor of the 
museum, a cooperative curatorial and exhibits staff accomplish- 
ment of considerable dimension, provides the visitor with a 
unique panorama of American communications history and new 
insights into subject areas previously unexplored in the mu- 
seum, among them a hall of News Reporting which was made 



The new Hall of Money and Medals, which opened in July J 972 in the National 
Museum of History and Technology, attracts many visitors. 



possible with the generous support of Time-Life Inc. Included 
in this area are the Hall of Stamps and the Mails, the Hall of 
Printing and Graphic Arts, the Henry R. Luce Hall of News 
Reporting, the Hall of Photography, and the Hall of Money and 
Medals. These halls represent the first major renovation within 
the museum since its opening in 1964, and with the publication 
of descriptive guides of the exhibits, represent a major contribu- 
tion by the staff of the Department of Applied Arts during the 
past year. 

The Hall of Money and Medals, which opened in July 1972, 
emphasizes the evolution of the money economy as an integral 
aspect of the cultural, economic, and social development of 
human society. The various forms under which money ap- 
peared, from primitive media of exchange to coins, tokens, and 
paper money, or to deposit currencies are shown in their 
general historical context. 

Also opened in July, the new Hall of Printing and Graphic 
Arts features period shops and significant machinery in the 
history of printing and type-setting. Demonstrations are offered 
4 days a week in the 18th-century printing shop-post office, a 
19th-century job printing shop, a 19th-century newspaper shop 

The Henry R. Luce Hall of News Reporting, which opened 1 May 1973 in the 
National Museum of History and Technology, provides a colorful history of 
American journalism. 



The new Hall of Photography in the National Museum of History and 
Technology, which opened in May 1973, illustrates the history of the art and 
technology of photography. 

and in a typefounder's shop in which 18th-century hand molds 
are employed. 

Stamps and the Mails, while retaining many popular exhibits 
from the previous hall, explores the search for speed in moving 
our mail through the utilization of major national transportation 
systems and improved mechanical mail-handling devices and 
free city and rural deliveries. The reconstructed front of the 
Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, post office of 1913 provides another 
dimension of postal history. 

The Henry R. Luce Hall of News Reporting, opened on 1 
May 1973, provides a multimedia chronicle of the colorful 
history, important personalities, and technological advances of 
American journalism. The new gallery offers an informative 
look at how news has been gathered and how it has reached 
Americans from colonial times to our own days of instantaneous 
satellite reporting. 

The Hall of Photography, also opened to the public in April, 
illustrates the history of the art and technology of photography, 



Sir Peter Medawar, distinguished guest speaker for the Frank Nelson Doubleday 
Lecture Series receives congratulations from Daniel J. Boorstin, Director of the 
National Museum of History and Technology, 15 February 1973. 

including the invention of the earliest light sensitive black and 
white and color systems. Period settings of the first photo- 
graphic laboratory (1835), the first professional photojournalist 
at work (Crimea, 1855), and explorer-photographers in the Far 
West (about 1875) are among the important exhibit units. 
Changing print shows, a silent film era nickelodeon theater, and 
tintype photographs which are taken of visitors enhance the 
visual and educational experiences available in the new hall. 




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Secretary S. Dillon Ripley addressing guests at the quinquecentennial celebration 
of Copernicus at the Smithsonian Institution. 

Significant progress has been made during the past year on 
the Museum's major exhibitions being prepared for the future. 
A new hall of American political history, entitled "Of the 
People, By the People, For the People," which will occupy the 
east half of the second floor, is scheduled for completion within 
the following year. It will present a thematic exploration of how 
Americans have shaped their government and, in turn, how the 
American government has touched the lives of the American 
people throughout their history. 


The Museum's major contribution to the Bicentennial, "A 
Nation of Nations," will be the largest single exhibition to be 
produced by the Smithsonian Institution. It will occupy the west 
side of the second floor of the National Museum of History and 
Technology, nearly 30,000 square feet. The theme is the 
contribution of varied streams of people to the making of a new 
nation with a new identity. The exhibit will concentrate on the 
formation of a new people and will express the idea that each 
of these people has woven his own evolving uniqueness into the 
fabric of a common nation. Experimental modular units of the 
exhibit have been developed, some objects have been acquired, 
and the final script is being completed. 

When "Of the People" and "A Nation of Nations" are 
completed, the entire second floor of the Museum will have a 
thematic unity: the American Experience with the peopling of 
America occupying the west end of the building; the center area 
devoted to the fabric and texture of everyday life in the 
American past; and the east end of the building treating the 
formalized process of nationhood. The First Ladies Hall will 
provide a personalized focus of the general themes treated in 
these other exhibits. 

Considerable research and discussion during the year by 
members of the staff resulted in the furtherance of plans to 
develop a reconstruction of portions of the 1876 Centennial 
Exposition in Philadelphia, utilizing objects in the Smithsonian's 
collections that have been preserved since the closing of the 
Centennial Exposition. 

A new lecture series "Technology and the Frontiers of 
Knowledge" was undertaken this past year with the sponsorship 
of Doubleday and Company on the 75th anniversary of the 
firm, as part of an effort to make the National Museum of 
History and Technology an even more lively center for the 
study of our civilization in its many dimensions. Concerned as a 
whole with the relation between technology and experience in 
our time, the 1972-1973 Frank Nelson Doubleday Lecture 
Series presented five distinguished guest lecturers: Saul Bellow, 
"Literature in the Age of Technology"; Daniel Bell, "Technol- 
ogy, Nature and Society"; Edmundo O'Gorman, "Technology 
and History"; Sir Peter Medawar, "Technology and Evolution"; 
and Arthur C. Clark, "Technology and the Limits of Knowl- 
edge." The series will continue in the coming year. 

By action of the National Armed Forces Museum Advisory 
Board, the Dwight D. Eisenhower Institute of Historical Re- 



Drawing by Leonard Baskin, an interpretation of Copernicus, 
commissioned by the Smithsonian for the Copernican celebrations. 



Representative of outstanding craftsmanship and mechanical ingenuity of the 
Old World, the Jagellonian Globe, ca. 1510, was one of thirty priceless objects 
loaned to the National Museum of History and Technology from the University 
of Cracow, Poland, for The Copernican Century exhibition. 


search was established in the National Museum of History and 
Technology. The Institute will concern itself with the "meaning 
of war, its effect on civilization, and the role of the Armed 
Forces in maintaining a just and lasting peace by providing a 
powerful deterrent to war." Dr. Forrest C. Pogue of the George 
C. Marshall Research Foundation has been retained to assist in 
planning and programming for the Institute's early years. 

The Copernican Century exhibit in April was one of a 
continuing series of events held to mark the quinquecentennial 
of Copernicus at the Smithsonian. A special seven-case exhibit 
featured priceless 15th- and 16th-century astronomical instru- 
ments, paintings, wood blocks and other memorabilia borrowed 
from the Jagellonian University of Cracow, Poland, as well as 
objects from the Museum's collections to present the changing 
European scene and view of the world. 

The Museum was the site for the issuance of two first-day 
commemorative stamps by the U.S. Postal Service with appro- 
priate ceremonies. On 23 April 1973 the 8-cent Copernicus 
stamp was issued as part of the Copernicus celebration, followed 
on 30 April with the release of 10 8-cent stamps honoring 
"Postal People." In cooperation with the U.S. Postal Service, the 
Division of Postal History sponsored Philatelic Dedicatory lec- 
tures in the auditorium on these occasions and a third lecture in 
conjunction with the opening of the new Hall of Stamps and the 

The Division of Musical Instruments sustained an unusually 
successful year of performances, highlighted by the assembling 
of a baroque chamber orchestra of 18th-century instruments for 
a May performance of cantatas of Handel and Rameau with 
Carole Bogard, soprano. A "Record of the Year" award went to 
the Division's recording (released by Nonesuch Records) of 
Songs of Stephen Foster with Jan de Gaetani. 

The collections were enriched in many areas with the addition 
of numerous significant gifts, such as Irving Berlin's transposing 
piano and a violin by Gagliano. The Division of Mechanical and 
Civil Engineering was fortunate in acquiring a large Swiss- 
American refrigeration compressor of 1884, believed to be the 
earliest extant in the country, acquired from the American 
Brewery in Baltimore, Maryland. Other acquisitions include a 
sundial made by Christopher Colles of New York, a prominent 
early technologist and Revolutionary figure; a unique collection 
of miniature firearms from the late Harry C. Knode of Dallas, 
Texas; a collection of 300 political campaign objects donated by 



Renaissance music and dancing at the formal opening of The Copernkan Century. 
an exhibition of scientific instruments and art of Copernicus' time. 


former Governor Michael Di Salle of Ohio in memory of 
Thomas Williams; and the bugle used to sound taps for the 
funerals of Presidents Kennedy, Eisenhower and Truman from 
the Secretary of the Army. 

The Division of Medical Sciences acquired a large collection 
of artifacts and instruments from the pioneer bronchoscopist, 
Dr. Chevalier Jackson. 

Numerous important pieces were added to the extensive 
collections of Ceramics and Glass including Chinese porcelain of 
the K'ang Hsi Period (1662-1722), gift of Mrs. Jean Mauze; a 
rare Bow porcelain figure of Spring, c. 1770, gift of Mr. Hanns 
Weinberg; an extremely fine pair of Meissen vases with 
chinoiserie decoration, c. 1724, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Henry 
Arnhold; eight pieces of late 19th-century "slag" glass (English 
and American), gift of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur P. Coe; and a fine 
collection of American glass of the 19th century, gift of Mrs. 
Alma Duckworth. 

A valuable addition to the reference collection of war-ship 
plans in the Division of Naval History was the gift of 1100 
copies of plans of 18th-century frigates, brigantines, brigs, 
schooners, sloops, and cutters by Historian Emeritus Howard I. 

With support from the Mary E. Maxwell Fund, the Division of 
Pre-Industrial Cultural History acquired materials related to 
Appalachian rural life, as well as ash-glazed stoneware pottery. 
Mrs. Alma Duckworth donated 18th- and 19th-century pewter, 
significantly enriching our collection of American-made metal- 

Collecting and research by the Division of Ethnic and Western 
Cultural History were focused on Poland and Polish-American 
materials, resulting in a traveling exhibit, "The Persistent Crafts 
of Poland," supported by The Copernicus Society, and includ- 
ing gifts from the Polish Peoples' Republic. 

C. Malcolm Watkins was appointed Senior Curator in January 
after having served as a museum curator for 37 years, 24 of 
them at the Smithsonian Institution. His distinguished career 
has included the formation of the Division of Cultural History 
in 1957 of which he was the first curator and Chairman of the 
Department of Cultural History, and the development of the 
popular Hall of Everyday Life in the American Past. 

In the Department of Science and Technology an important 
vacancy in the Division of Electricity and Nuclear Energy was 
filled with the appointment of Dr. Paul Forman, formerly with 


the University of Rochester. He will continue his work in the 
field of modern physics. In a cooperative venture with the 
London Science Museum, Dr. Bernard S. Finn, Curator of 
Electricity, developed an extensive and comprehensive exhibit 
on the development of the Atlantic Cable while on sabbatical 

Cooperative efforts with organizations dedicated to historic 
preservation continued to be of major importance within the 
museum. Robert M. Vogel represented the Smithsonian at the 
First International Congress on the Conservation of Industrial 
Monuments in Ironbridge, England, continuing at the same 
time his role as editor of the International Society for Industrial 
Archeology, producing the bimonthly newsletter and, recently, a 
series of special publications. 

Dr. John T. Schlebecker spent most of the year in England 
conducting research on American agriculture during the Revo- 
lutionary War. While there, he lectured at the Museum of 
English Rural Life and the Portsmouth City Museum. 

The vacancy in the Division of Manufacturing, created by the 
retirement of Dr. Philip W. Bishop, was filled by Assistant 
Curator George T. Sharrer. Mr. Sharrer was formerly in the 
Division of Agriculture and Mining. He is completing a history 
of the early flour milling industry and has published articles on 
the indigo trade. 

In October 1972 a new Registrar's office within the Museum 
was established with Miss Virginia Beets appointed Collections 
Management Officer in charge. During the year Miss Beets and 
her staff have surveyed registration needs within the Museum 
and in a number of other private and public museums. It is 
anticipated that this office will initiate the latest and most 
comprehensive registration and collection procedures by July 

At the conclusion of this year two of the Museum's senior 
curators retired. Mr. Mendel L. Peterson, Curator of the 
Division of Historic Archeology, and Mr. Edgar M. Howell, 
Curator of the Division of Military History, both in the 
Department of National and Military History. 

Mr. Peterson was appointed as Curator of the Division of 
Military and Naval History in 1948. He served as Chairman of 
the Department of Armed Forces History from 1956 to 1969 
and became Curator of Underwater Archeology in 1969. Mr. 
Peterson is an established historian on breech-loading ordnance, 
and his area of specialization is the systematization of techniques 


in the rapidly developing field of underwater archeology. Since 
1952 he has explored numerous underwater sites in the Florida 
Straits, the West Indies, and Bermuda, serving as leader or 
senior staff member on many underwater expeditions. Mr. 
Peterson is the author of publications on naval and military 
history and numismatics, and his work on History Under the Sea 
has become a standard reference. 

Mr. Howell came to the Museum in 1956 as Curator of the 
Division of Military History and was appointed Chairman of the 
Department of National and Military History in 1969. Previously 
he had served as Historian in the U.S. Army's Office of the 
Chief of Military History and as Chief of the Organizational 
History and Honors Branch of the Department of the Army. 
Mr. Howell's area of specialization are the uniforms and insignia 
of the regular Army of the United States. Among his publica- 
tions are Uniform Regulations for the Army of the United States 1861 
and United States Army Headgear to 1854 which have become 
standard references. A third catalogue, United States Army 
Headgear 1854-1907 , is presently in press. 

Archives of American Art 

Fiscal year 1973 was marked by sharply increased activity in 
the Archives branch offices in Boston, New York, Detroit, and 
on the West Coast. The appointment of directors for the 
Midwest and California offices greatly stimulated the acquisition 
of archival material from those areas. The establishment of the 
West Coast office in particular will encourage an expansion of 
research in American art on the part of students in the Western 

Among the more important collections received during the 
year are the complete correspondence and business records of 
two of New York's most active galleries over the past forty 
years — the Downtown Gallery and the Midtown Gallery — as well 
as the business records of the American Art Association, New 
York's leading art auction house from 1885 to 1925. Personal 
papers given or lent to the Archives for filming include those of 
the 19th-century painters Jasper Cropsey, R. Swain Gifford, 
John F. Weir, and Robert W. Weir, and of the 20th-century 
artists Gaston Lachaise, Peggy Bacon, and Harold Weston. A 
small group of early letters from Thomas Eakins to his sister 
Frances is of much interest to scholars, and the extensive papers 


of the sculptor Joseph Cornell and of the art writer Aline 
Saarinen were particularly significant acquisitions. 

This year the Archives has further implemented its policy of 
microfilming papers owned by other institutions. The records of 
the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, and those of Isabella 
Gardner and of the Isabella Gardner Museum were filmed. The 
filming of art-related papers at the New-York Historical Society 
was initiated during the year and a film of Charles Freer's 
correspondence with artists was acquired. 

The accelerated flow of new collections was matched bv 
increased productiyity in processing and cataloguing at the 
Archives' Washington office; 53 collections were thoroughly 
organized and indexed and more than a hundred additional 
ones were briefly catalogued. 

Archives of American Art, A Directory of Resources, compiled by 
the staff and published by R.R. Bowker Company in the fall of 
1972, pro\ides an easily accessible guide to the Archives' 
holdings. It has been widely and favorably reviewed in profes- 
sional journals and was chosen by the American Library 
Association for its list of outstanding reference books of 1972. 

Partly as a result of publication of the guide, use of the 
Archives resources showed a substantial increase oyer the 
previous vear; 1200 visits were made bv researchers in all 
offices and 900 letters of inquiry were answered by the staff. 

Books acknowledging assistance from the Archives during the 
vear include Scribner Ames, Marsden Hartley in Maine; Ian 
Dunlop, The Shock of the Xew; Arnold Glimcher, Louise Nevelson; 
Russel Lvnes, Good Old Modern; Garnett McCoy, David Smith; 
Richard McKenzie, New Deal for Artists; and Francis P. 
O'Connor, Art for the Millions. Among exhibition catalogues and 
articles dependent on Archives material were Susan Macdowell 
Eakins (Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts); Alfred Maurer 
(National Collection of Fine Arts); Lily Martin Spencer (National 
Collection of Fine Arts); George Luks (Munson-Williams-Proctor 
Institute); Alice Trumbull Mason (Whitnev Museum); and Abe 
Ajav. "WPA Years" in Art in America (September 1972). 

One of the most useful Archives activities is its oral history, 
program. Taped interviews conducted during the vear caught 
the recollections of the artists Robert Motherwell, Zoltan Se-|| 
peshv, and Saul Steinberg; the collectors Ben Heller, Raymond ( 
Horowitz, Mrs. Vera List, and Mrs. Eloise Spaeth; the art] 
writers John Rewald and Harold Rosenberg; and the dealers j ; 
Clvde Xewhouse and Sidney Tanis. 


Freer Gallery of Art 

The fiftieth anniversary of the opening of the Freer Gallery 
of Art to the public was celebrated on May 2. To commemorate 
this auspicious Jubilee Year, three special events which highlight 
the research, curatorial, and exhibition activities of the Gallery 
have been planned. The first program took place on May 2. On 
that date the Freer Medal "For distinguished contribution to the 
knowledge and understanding of Oriental civilizations as re- 
flected in their arts" was presented to Professor Tanaka 
Ichimatsu of Tokyo, Japan, in recognition of his valuable 
contributions to the study and protection of Japanese art and 



■ Detail from illustrations for traditional texts written bv six Ming dynasty 
calligraphers. By Ch'iu Ying (ca. 1510-1552). Ink on paper; handscroll. Height: 
.230 (9") Width: 4.824 (15' 10"); dimensions are "overall"; actual paintings and 
inscriptions vary throughout entire length of scroll. Freer Gallery of Art. 


that nation's cultural heritage. That evening a dinner was held 
in honor of the scholars, staff, and friends who have contrib- 
uted immeasurably to the growth and stature of the Gallery. 
Later in the evening there was a reception to celebrate the 
anniversary and a special exhibition of Japanese ukiyoe painting 
was formally opened. The exhibition marks the first time the 
Freer has devoted approximately half of its exhibition space to a 
single theme or school of art and placed on exhibition for the 
first time large numbers of fine paintings never publicly 
exhibited before either in the United States or abroad. A 
handsome 320-page illustrated catalogue was prepared by the 
Director, and on May 3 and 4 a symposium with scholars 
attending from all parts of the United States and abroad was 
organized to discuss ukiyoe painting. 

The Director and staff of the Freer Gallery of Art wish to 
salute all those who contributed with grants of funds enabling 
the realization of this event. 

The remaining two exhibitions and symposia planned for the 
anniversary year are Chinese Figure Painting, scheduled to open 
in September 1973, and Ceramics from the World of Islam, which will 
begin in January 1974. Staff members are preparing catalogues for 
each of these special exhibitions. In addition, the Freer Medal will 
be awarded to distinguished scholars for their contribution to 
Chinese and Near Eastern Art. 

In the course of the year, the Study Collection grew 
extensively with the addition of 13 items from the noted von 
der Heydt Collection. Several fine objects from the estate of 
Mrs. Agnes E. Meyer were transferred to the Collection and 
have served to enrich it. 

In addition to the usual programs, members of the staff 
produced a movie properly documenting, for the first time on 
film, the restoration of three Far Eastern paintings by the hyd- 
gushi of the Gallery: Takashi Sugiura, the master restorer, and 
his two assistants, Shigero Mikkaichi and Makoto Souta. The 
film was ably directed by Thomas Chase and filmed by James 
Hayden, both members of the staff. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

May 6 marked the fifth anniversary of the opening of the 
National Collection of Fine Arts (ncfa) in the renovated Patent 
Office Building. The permanent collection now occupies some 



The Goldfish Bowl (Mrs. Richard C. Morse and Family) by Samuel F. B. Morse, a 
recent accession to the National Collection of Fine Arts. 

50,317 square feet of gallery space, each curatorial department 
has a temporary exhibition space for its own use aside from the 
area for large temporary exhibitions, and that part of the 
collection not on view is readily available for study by scholars. 
A computerized listing of the collection has been made and, 
apart from the decorative arts, includes more than 15,000 
works. The Collection accessions, on an average, 525 works a 
year. With the completion of two galleries now under construc- 
tion, all space allotted to the NCFA in the building will be in 



View of the Hiram Powers Gallery in the 
National Collection of Fine Arts. 


active use for exhibition, research, or administration, and some 
activities have had to be located outside the building. Another 
14,447 square feet of exhibition area was added with the 
opening of the Renwick Gallery, which has completed an active 
and successful first year of operation. 

The program of studying and presenting the works of less 
well known artists continued with exhibitions and thorough 
publications on Alfred Maurer and Lilly Martin Spencer, with 
smaller presentations of Solon Borglum and Johann Hermann 
Carmiencke. The Hand and the Spirit: The Religious Impulse in 
American Art, produced in cooperation with the Museum of the 
University of California at Berkeley, and the Print and Drawing 
Department's Artist Naturalist and The Ways of Good and Evil 
(early 19th century moral and religious prints) continued the 
museum's investigation of little-explored themes in American 
art. In all, 33 exhibitions were presented in the Fine Arts 
Building; of these only 5 were wholly prepared elsewhere. In 
addition, 9 NCFA exhibitions were maintained in circulation 
abroad during the year. 

A museum training program under a staff committee had its 
first full year of operation, and included a Master of Arts 
program with George Washington University and a year-long 
intern program in museum practice and in conservation. Seven 
resident scholars, both post-doctoral and doctoral, carried on 
research in the museum during the year. The Bicentennial 
Inventory of American Painting before 1914 now has computer 
listings of 30,000 works, with 3,000 more to be filed. 

The Department of Education's Discover Graphics program 
has expanded to include portable presses for use in the schools. 
A participatory exhibition for children produced by cemrel, The 
Five Sense Store, proved to be a useful and popular experiment. 
An active complement of docents helped in this and the many 
public activities of the Department, including Portfolio Day, in 
which aspiring high school artists could discuss their work with 
visiting art school representatives, and a successful Children's 
Day for some 3,000 children. 

The Renwick Gallery's special opening exhibition, Wooden- 
works, was followed by the popular American Pieced Quilts 
(accompanied by a series of quilting bees); Objects for Preparing 
Food, organized with the Museum of Contemporary Crafts, New 
York; and The Arts and Crafts Movement in American 1876-1916. 
Of the exhibitions originating abroad, Brazilian Baroque, with 
objects from the 17th and 18th centuries, was particularly 



noteworthy and was augmented by two concerts of Brazilian 
music. Other concerts, lectures, and demonstrations, held for 
capacity audiences in the Grand Salon, supplemented the 
exhibition program. 

National Portrait Gallery 

The exhibition "If Elected ..." Unsuccessful Candidates for the 
Presidency, 1796-1968, which opened in early May 1972, contin- 
ued through the end of the year. To celebrate the 139th 
anniversary meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science held in Washington in late December, 
the Gallery opened an exhibition about The Lazzaroni, a group 
of 19th-century American scientists who banded together in an 
effort to establish standards of excellence for an American 
scientific community. 

Lady Bird Johnson with sculpture of Sam Rayburn by Jimilu Mason. This bust 
was presented to the National Portrait Gallery by Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Parten, at 
which time Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson was the principal speaker. 



An exceedingly rare acquisition to the collections of the National Portrait Gallery 
in fiscal year 1973 was this bust of W 'infield Scott, executed by William Rush in 
painted terra cotta about 1814. 

Several important portraits were displayed publicly for the 
first time, and were generally shown with associative material 
relating to the subjects portrayed. One of the most significant of 
these occasions was the presentation to the Gallery by Mr. and 
Mrs. J. R. Parten of a bust of Sam Rayburn by Jimilu Mason, at 
which time Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson was the principal speaker. 

A large share of the efforts of many members of the staff was 
spent in the preparation of a book being published by the New 
York Graphic Society to accompany a forthcoming exhibition, In 



F. Scott Fitzgerald, oil painting from life by David Silvette, one of the 20th-century 
figures added to the National Portrait Gallery in fiscal 1973. 

the Minds and Hearts of the People: Prologue to Revolution, 1 760- 
1774. The elaborate installation for The Black Presence in 
the Era of the American Revolution, 1770-1800 was performed in the 
spring of 1973 in preparation for the exhibition's opening on July 

Seventy-seven portraits were acquired by purchase, and 40 by 
gift, during the year. Of special note among the portraits of the 
18th and 19th centuries were a miniature of John Paul Jones 
painted in 1780 by Constance de Lowendal, Comtesse de 


Turpin de Crisse; an oil of Revolutionary War General Henry Knox 
by Charles Peale Polk after Charles Willson Peale; one of only five 
known casts of Peter Cardelli's bust of Thomas Jefferson, done in 
1819, when the former President was 76; and an exceedingly rare 
work by William Rush, a bust of W infield Scott as a young General 
executed about 1814. 

Among the 20th-century figures added to the collection were 
the only known life portraits of composer Charles Ives (a 
drawing by Raymond Crosby), the gift of George G. Tyler; and 
an oil of writer F. Scott Fitzgerald by David Silvette. The Gallery 
received a grant of $10,000 from the National Endowment for 
the Arts which was matched by two private contributions of 
$5,000 each from Lawrence Fleischman and Howard Garfinkle 
for the purchase of 10 portraits of major figures of the Harlem 
Renaissance by Winold Reiss. 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 


Fiscal year 1973 was a period of transition and preparation 
for the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Construction 
neared completion; plans for moving the Museum's Collections 
were accelerated; and temporary office quarters in Washington 
were made available for a cadre professional staff. The public 
opening of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden is 
scheduled for 1974. 

The manuscript for the book-catalogue of the inaugural 
exhibition was completed. One thousand paintings and sculp- 
tures will be documented and reproduced — approximately 300 
in color — in this volume, which will serve as an introduction to 
the scope and variety of the Museum's Collections. Essays by 
outstanding scholars will contribute to a fuller understanding of 
the works of art. 

Further plans were developed for the inaugural exhibition 
and future programs. Models, photographic aids, and full-scale 
mock-ups were used to advance installation ideas and to help 
determine placement of works in the building and sculpture 
garden. A Building Manager, Mr. Keith Cumberland, was 
appointed. Production was begun on postcards, reproductions, 
and color slides illustrating outstanding works from the Collec- 
tions which will be available to the public in the Museum shop. 
Plans were also made for a flexible audio system in the galleries 



Monument to Balzac, 1898. By Auguste Rodin. Bronze, 8 feet 10 inches high. 
The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 



Darabjerd III, 1967. By Frank Stella. Fluorescent acrylic on canvas, 10 by 15 feet. 
The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

to provide the visitor with a sophisticated individual listening 

A pilot computer program, incorporating data on the thou- 
sand works in the inaugural catalogue, was completed during 
fiscal year 1973. Documentation of remaining works in the 
Collections will continue. In addition, research was begun on 
future exhibitions, including participation in the Smithsonian 
celebration of the Bicentennial of the American Revolution. 

The Board of Trustees met on 11 November 1972 and 12 
April 1973. At the spring meeting, the Honorable Daniel P. 
Moynihan was reelected Chairman and Dr. George Heard 
Hamilton was reelected Vice-Chairman. Dr. Brian O'Doherty 
and Dr. William C. Seitz were appointed Advisors to the 
Committee on Collections. 

During this period of transition and growth, the Museum has 
continued to respond to requests and inquiries from scholars 
and researchers and has maintained its policy of lending 
outstanding works of art to national and international exhibi- 
tions. More than 125 requests for research information and 
photographs were answered. Sixty-two paintings and sculpture 
were loaned to 27 museums, galleries, and institutions. More 
than 60 scholars, artists, and officials visited the Hirshhorn 
Museum offices and warehouse. Approximately 1,370 people 



Head of a Woman (Tete de Femme), 1923. By Antoine Pevsner. Plastic construction j 
on wood panel, 1 4 '/4 inches high. The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 


attended 33 tours of the Hirshhorn Sculpture Garden, Green- 
wich, Connecticut, for the benefit of educational, cultural, and 
philanthropic organizations. 

Mrs. Kate A. Moore, 1884. By John Singer Sargent. Oil on canvas, 70 by 44 inches. 
The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 



Ratapoil, ca. 1850. By Honore Daumier. Bronze, 17% inches high. The 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 


Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts 

and Design 

Architects and surveyors were a happy sight on the Carnegie 
property as the first visible sign that planning for the 
renovation of the Museum's new home is far advanced. A 
contribution of $400 thousand to underwrite the opening 
exhibit for these new quarters was generously provided by S.C. 
Johnson and Son, Inc. 

Parts of the Cooper-Hewitt collections, lent to exhibitions 
throughout the country, were shown in 33 institutions, includ- 
ing the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, National Collection of Fine Arts, Art Institute of 
Chicago, Worcester Art Museum, Munson-Williams-Proctor In- 
stitute, and the M. H. deYoung Memorial Museum. 

The collections also had exceptional exposure in London, 
where they were included in the Age of Neo-Classicism show and 
featured at the opening of the Heinz Gallery and as the major 
summer exhibition at the Victoria & Albert Museum. 

Ninety-six donors gave 3778 works of art. Among the most 
notable were the entire collection of the Museum of Graphic 
Arts, 438 prints by leading contemporary artists, including 
Albers, Archipenko, Baskin, Buffet, Oldenberg, Rauschenberg, 
Rivers, Shahn, and Warhol; and the Haines marionettes, over 
500 items representing the life work of these puppeteers. 

Other noteworthy gifts included two Queen Anne needlework 
covered chairs, two 18th-century French lacquered chests, books 
of 19th-century textile designs, stage and costume designs by 
Ariel and by Simon Lissim, architectural designs by Otto 
Gaertner, an important collectiom of early wallpapers, and 
contemporary textiles by Dorothy Liebes. 

The Library, too, has grown considerably in the past year. 
The gift of 300 items (color charts, manuals, and portfolios) by 
the color consultant, Walter Granville, has been a significant 
addition to the Color Archive. A Symbols Archive was estab- 
lished as the result of a major gift by Henry Dreyfuss, who also 
left to the Museum his research files and examples of work 
spanning his distinguished industrial design career. 

The Giuliano & Castellani jewels acquired for resale were sold 
at public auction after 15 of the best examples were retained for 
the collection. A number of duplicate prints were sold at public 
auction and several important fabrics were purchased for the 



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The Cooper-Hewitt Museum has acquired the important design collection of the 
late Henry Dreyfuss, including drawings, correspondence, and speeches, and the 
world's largest data bank of symbols. This material will form the nucleus of the 
Doris and Henry Dreyfuss Memorial Study Center. Mr. Dreyfuss is seen in this 
photograph sketching the logo for his famous Symbol Sourcebook. 

The Cooper-Hewitt Museum organized a series of computer-run urban games in 
conjunction with the Environmental Simulation Laboratory of the University of 
Michigan. At this session of HOUSINGPLAN participants are discussing the 
development of different kinds of urban construction and the consequences of 
such construction over a 20-year period. 


Following last year's successful conference in Paris, another 
was organized involving the American design community. The 
participants explored ways in which the Museum could heighten 
public awareness of the design process. The Museum's first 
"Sidewalk Show," sponsored by the National Endowment for the 
Arts, featured interviews with several leading architects and city 

A grant from the New York State Arts Council enabled the 
Museum to sponsor a series of Urban Games for architects, 
designers, city planners, politicians, developers, and others 
influential in shaping the public environment. The purpose of 
these simulation exercises was to probe various decision-making 
processes involved in urban development. The Museums Collab- 
orative provided funds to undertake a study on public housing 
for the elderly. 

The Carnegie facilities were made available to a wide variety 
of educational and professional organizations. Members of the 
community were offered a program of events which included 
lectures, tours, and children's workshops. The Friends of the 
Drawings Department established an acquisition fund to pur- 
chase annually one fine drawing or print related to architecture 
or ornament. In addition to the purchase of several textiles for 
the collection, the Friends of Textiles have established a color 
slide catalogue, which eventually will include the Museum's 
entire holdings. 

Objects from the collection were reproduced in 171 cata- 
logues, periodicals, and books. The Museum received considera- 
ble and favorable publicity through major articles in the New 
York Times, Washington Post, Baltimore Sun, Christian Science 
Monitor, Antiques, Antiques Monthly, Architectural Record, The 
Designer, Harper's Bazaar, After Dark, and the Smithsonian Maga- 
zine. The press set a very challenging goal by predicting that the 
Cooper-Hewitt will become "one of the most significant mu- 
seums to open in many years." 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory 


The National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board contin- 
ued to provide advice and assistance to the Board of Regents 
regarding the portrayal of the historical contributions of the 


Armed Forces to national development. The Advisory Board 
continued its investigation of lands suitable for the site of the 
proposed Bicentennial Park and commenced detailed planning 
for a special "living history" activity to take place there in 
observance of the Bicentennial of the American Revolution. 

The Advisory Board approved establishment of the Dwight D. 
Eisenhower Institute for Historical Research in the National 
Museum of History and Technology. The Institute has as its 
goal the advancement of knowledge concerning the "meaning of 
war, its effect on civilization, and the role of the Armed Forces 
in maintaining a just and lasting peace by providing a powerful 
deterrent to war." 

All were saddened by the untimely death by drowning of 
Colonel John H. Magruder III, Director of the staff of the 
Advisory Board, on 2 September 1972. Mr. James S. Hutchins, 
Assistant Director of the staff since 1963, was appointed 

Joseph Henry Papers 

The culmination of five years of preparatory work occurred 
on 26 December 1972. In the Great Hall of the Smithsonian 
Building staff members of the Institution and friends gathered 
to celebrate the publication of the first volume of The Papers of 
Joseph Henry. The handsome book, the first of a series of 
fifteen, reflected more than favorably on its publisher, the 
Smithsonian Institution Press. To the members of the Henry 
Papers, the event was a reminder of the work still undone on 
volume two and its fellows. 

An exhibition of rare books, original manuscripts, photo- 
graphs, and maps illustrating the career of Joseph Henry, the 
first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, was opened on 
the 26th of December and remained on display through April 
1973. While concentrating on the Albany period of the first 
volume (1797-1832), the exhibit's coverage also included mate- 
rials on Henry's years of teaching at Princeton (1832-1846), 
documents on his service at the Smithsonian (1846-1878), and 
items illustrating his role as a leader in the American scientific 

The early reviews have been very gratifying. The Press has 
received honors for its role in producing the first volume. The 
Henry Papers staff is exploring the possibility of producing a 



S. Dillon Ripley and Nathan Reingold viewing Volume I of The Papers of Joseph 
Henry at the formal release ceremonies, 26 December 1972, Great Hall, 
Smithsonian Institution. 

special volume outside the main series. This would contain a 
selection of unpublished essays and lectures, principally on the 
nature of science and its social setting. 

Office of American Studies 

The Office of American Studies conducts a formal graduate 
program in material culture of the United States which is 
directed to the original Smithsonian purpose: "the increase and 
diffusion of knowledge." Graduate students from area universi- 
ties participated in the program, gaining academic credit toward 
advanced degrees at those universities. 

The course in "Material Aspects of American Civilization" was 
taught by Dr. Washburn (with the assistance of curators and 
others inside and outside the Smithsonian) to an overflow crowd 
of 42 students. During the spring semester four seminars were 
conducted. Cary Carson, Coordinator of Research of the St. 
Mary's City Commission and Honorary Visiting Research Associ- 


ate of the Smithsonian, again gave his seminar in "Vernacular 
Architecture for Historians." The 14 students enrolled exam- 
ined and prepared measured drawings of several colonial 
Maryland houses. Arthur Townsend, Executive Secretary of the 
Maryland Historical Trust and Honorary Visiting Research 
Associate of the Smithsonian, gave a seminar to nine students 
on "The Great Plains," and to three students on "The Photo- 
graph As An Historical Document." A seminar on "Museum 
Behavior" was conducted by Ross Loomis, Visiting Research 
Psychologist; Robert Lakota, Research Psychologist; and Jean 
Chen, Learning Research Specialist — all of the Office of Mu- 
seum Programs. The three participating students were actively 
involved in measuring visitor behavior in Smithsonian museums 
as part of their work. A Work-Study Program in Historical 
Archaeology, offered by the St. Mary's City Commission in 
cooperation with the American Studies Program of the Smith- 
sonian, George Washington University, and St. Mary's College 
of Maryland, was held from 18 June to 24 August 1973, with 
participation by graduate students and Smithsonian staff mem- 
bers. In addition to these formal seminars, supervision of 
individual reading and research projects, thesis direction, and 
preparation of comprehensive examinations were undertaken by 
the director and cooperating Smithsonian staff members. 
Staff publications for 1972-1973 are listed in Appendix 8. 

Office of Academic Studies 

The Office of Academic Studies, under the direction of the 
Board of Academic Studies, administers Smithsonian Institution 
programs in higher education, including fellowship and admin- 
istrative support for predoctoral and postdoctoral Fellows 
engaged in independent research, for graduate and undergrad- 
uate students in directed research and study assignments, for 
short-term visitors studying in the Smithsonian's collections, and 
for departmental seminars. 

For academic year 1973-1974, 20 predoctoral and 28 post- 
doctoral fellowships were awarded. Two of these postdoctoral 
fellowships were supported by a grant from the National 
Endowment for the Humanities for research training in Ameri- 
can Indian studies. For several years the Smithsonian has 
cooperated with universities in jointly funding fellowships for 
graduate students pursuing course work concurrently at their 


home universities and at the Institution. This year two such 
fellowships were awarded in American History at Georgetown 
University and one in American Civilization at The George 
Washington University. With the continued development of 
conservation training programs, the Smithsonian is cooperating 
in offering laboratory experience to advanced students in 
conservation. This year three students were supported jointly 
with the Cooperstown Graduate Programs, and one graduate of 
the Institute of Archaeology of the University of London was 
supported by the Smithsonian. 

Appointments for directed research and training were 
awarded to 31 graduate and undergraduate students during the 
summer and the academic year, of which 8 were supported 
under grants from the National Science Foundation. In addi- 
tion, 28 students were appointed under the Museum Study 
Program. Many of these students receive academic credit from 
their home institutions for studies conducted at the Smithson- 

Two departmental seminars were supported. The number of 
short-term visitors to the Institution again increased, with 35 
individuals receiving partial or full support. 

Smithsonian Institution Archives 

Archives of the Smithsonian exist throughout the Institu- 
tion — in the Office of the Registrar, in possession of curators, in 
all the Museums, and in the central Smithsonian Archives. 
Archival material not related to the Smithsonian has been 
received over many years. For example, records related to 
Indians collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology are 
kept in the National Anthropological Archives and records 
documenting the development of the computer are held by the 
National Museum of History and Technology. The responsibil- 
ity of the central Archives for these materials varies widely, but 
given the diversity of the situation, a central source for 
information about archives is imperative. The Smithsonian 
Archives and the Smithsonian Information Systems Division 
have developed a computer program for control of information 
about archives which is being submitted to curators for com- 
ment. Comprehensive intellectual control of archives through- 
out the Institution will benefit Smithsonian curators and the 
wider scholarly community. 


During 1973, most of the Smithsonian Archives' work oc- 
curred in the National Museum of Natural History. One 
department was completely surveyed, and many records were 
accessioned to the central Archives; segments of several other 
departments have been completed and yet others are underway. 
A guide to archives and manuscript collections of this Museum, 
including records held in the central Archives and those 
retained in the Museum, is planned for 1976. 

Office of Seminars 

The chief contribution of the Office of Seminars during the 
year was the Smithsonian's fifth international symposium "The 
Nature of Scientific Discovery," April 22-26, organized jointly 
with the National Academy of Sciences as the major American 
tribute to Nicolaus Copernicus in the year of the quincentennial 
of his birth. Invited to address the formal sessions of the 
gathering of scientists, historians, philosophers, men of letters 
and the arts, and other scholars were: Jacob Bronowski; Charles 
Eames; Owen Gingerich; Janusz Groszkowski (honorary chair- 
man); A. Rupert Hall; Werner Heisenberg; Gerald Holton; 
Heiko Oberman; Maarten Schmidt; Owsei Temkin; Stephen 
Toulmin; and John Archibald Wheeler. These presentations 
were supplemented by collegia centering on "Science and 
Society in the Sixteenth Century," "Science, Philosophy, and 
Religion in Historical Perspective," "Interplay of Literature, Art, 
and Science," and "The Public Reception of Science: Its 
Intellectual and Institutional Modalities." Additional features of 
the symposium comprised special exhibitions (including "The 
Copernican Century," scientific instruments and art objects of 
the early Renaissance on loan from the Universitv of Cracow), 
I award of the Hodgjkins Medal to Walter Orr Roberts and two 
I Copernicus Society of America Medals to Jerzy Neyman and 
I Edward Rosen, and presentation of the United States commem- 
: orative postal issue. Leonard Baskin was commissioned to do an 
l interpretation of Copernicus for the official poster and the 
souvenir program of the observance. A concert with Leon 
i Kirchner conducting players of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
! made possible through the support of Edward J. Piszek, 
President of the Copernicus Society and a patron of the 
symposium, concluded the formal program. 

Carrying the theme, "The Call of Science," 26 April was 


designated Education Day to explore the educational implica- 
tions of the Copernicus revolution. Speakers included S. P. 
Marland, Jr., Gene Roddenberry (author and producer, "Star 
Trek" and "Genesis II"), and Athelstan Spilhaus; also offered 
for young students were a behind-the-scenes presentation on 
"Scientific Discovery at the Smithsonian" by the Institution's 
professional staff, seminars, forums, and workshops, nearly all 
designed to result in the future development of educational 
audiovisual materials of various kinds. The U. S. National 
Commission for unesco cosponsored Education Day with the 
Smithsonian. Teachers College, Columbia University, helped 
with the organization of a special seminar on "Human Re- 
sources Planning," dealing with various countries' approaches to 
scientific manpower. The Folger Shakespeare Library was 
another collaborator in the symposium by helping assemble a 
seminar on science and the liberal arts. 

The Office of Seminars also conducted a series of regular 
seminars on "Voluntarism and the Public Interest in American 
Society" in joint association with the Smithsonian's Office of 
Development and the Wood row Wilson International Center for 
Scholars. Audiences of about 40 persons representing the 
executive and legislative branches of the Federal Government 
and the foundation, academic, and cultural communities took 
part in discussions on such diverse approaches as "The Third 
Sector in American Society" (i.e., philanthropic endowments), 
"Foundations and Governments: Enemies or Allies?" and "Citi- 
zen Apathy and Initiative." Other activities comprised hosting 
the American Universities Field Staff documentary film confer- 
ence, the visiting Chinese Medical Mission to the United States, 
a seminar on the Yale University study of problems of private 
intervention in a community conflict, and a seminar sponsored 
jointly with the Hazen Foundation on the role of esthetic, 
religious, and ethical values in development. 

Wilton S. Dillon, Director, conducted an anthropology semi- 
nar, "Human Universals and Particulars," at the University of 
Alabama in May 1973, and gave a public lecture on Copernicus 
at the university's new student union. He also participated in 
the September 1972 Pugwash conference at Oxford University 
on science and world affairs. He continues to serve as President, 
Board of Directors, Institute of Intercultural Studies, New York. 


The assistant secretary for Museum Programs has over- 
all responsibility for the Smithsonian Institution Librar- 
ies, the Conservation-Analytical Laboratory, the Traveling Exhi- 
bition Service, the Office of the Registrar, the Office of 
Exhibits, and the administration of the National Museum Act. A 
detailed report concerning each of the divisions follows. In 
addition, the Office of the Assistant Secretary is responsible for 
coordinating Smithsonian-wide activities related to training in 
museology and museography and the development of new 
techniques relating to museum administration and procedures. 
The Office administers workshops, seminars, and training 
courses which are developed for the benefit of the Smithsonian 
staff as well as for museum professionals and para-professionals 
who come to the Smithsonian from museums and historical 
societies across the United States. 

The Office of Museum Programs has recently formed a 
special Department of Psychological Studies, which is concerned 
with developing methods to gauge the educational effectiveness 
of exhibits and exhibit techniques as well as to develop 
programs so that a larger segment of the visitor population can 
be effectively enriched by participating in museum-related 

With the cooperation of the curatorial and exhibit staffs of 
the National Museum of History and Technology, the National 
Museum of Natural History, and the Renwick Gallery, several 
exhibits and educational programs will be studied and modified 
to reflect the new knowledge gained from the studies of the 
behavioral scientists in this office. 

Other studies are being conducted, under the direction of the 
Assistant Secretary, to determine ways by which exhibit design 
and production activities of the Institution can be made more 
responsive to the needs of each of the museums and to the 
demands of an increasingly more aware museum audience. 

Recognizing the vital need for increasing the profession's 
knowledge in conservation, both within and without the Smith- 
sonian, a series of video-taped programs on specific conserva- 
tion subjects has been initiated in cooperation with the Conver- 



sation Analytical Laboratory. It is expected that these will be 
available, probably in the form of cassettes, during the latter 
part of next year. In addition, a series of slide lectures, 
accompanied by taped commentaries on specific conservation 
problems, will be available for distribution. 

In realization that the Smithsonian's growth over the last 
decade has seriously stressed the various support activities which 
are directed by this office, a series of studies have been 
conducted so that they may become more responsive to the 
needs of the Institution as a whole and to the requests for 
advice or service which are coming from museums and museum 
professionals from all parts of the country. It is planned by next 
year that the results of these studies can be implemented and 
that more responsive administrative structures can be estab- 
lished to meet the challenge posed by the Bicentennial festivities 
in which the Smithsonian, locally and nationally, will play a 
primary role. 

The interest in "Drugs: A Special Exhibition," held in the Arts 
and Industries Building in the summer and fall of 1972, 
resulted in a major conference on "Altered States of Conscious- 
ness," jointly sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and the 
Drug Abuse Council, in February 1973, and funded by the Drug 
Abuse Council. This conference, attended by some 200 specialists, 
will be summarized in a publication of the papers which are now 
being edited under the auspices of the Drug Abuse Council. 

Finally, the Office of Museum Programs has been closely 
involved, through members of its staff and the Assistant 
Secretary, in the activities of a number of professional organiza- 
tions. Among them, the American Association of Museums, the 
International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and the 
Restoration of Cultural Property, and the Advisory Council for 
Historic Preservation. 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

A highlight of 1973 has been the opening of a Rare Book 
Room in the Arts and Industries Building. The room is 
furnished in 19th-century style but contains modern equipment 
to insure maximum security and preservation for this valuable 
collection. A number of Smithsonian Institution curators and 
distinguished rare book authorities from outside of the Institu- 


tion serve as Rare Book Consultants to advise on the acquisition, 
preservation, and use of rare books. 

The reorganization of the Libraries was completed. The 
objective of the changes involved was to improve services to the 
users by making the Libraries more responsive to the goals and 
priorities of the Institution. The Libraries' management staff 
has established as its highest priority the improvement of direct 
services to the bureaus of the Institution. 

All aspects of the management of the Smithsonian Institution 
Libraries are now being studied by a team of Smithsonian 
Institution Libraries staff members. The purpose of this pro- 
gram is to recommend changes which will result in improved 
services to the users of the Libraries. 

The Director of Smithsonian Institution Libraries has been 
active in the Federal Library Committee's study of potential 
cooperative activities, particularly with respect to the automation 
of shared cataloging. The Director of Libraries has also served 
as President of the 12,000-member Association of College and 
Research Libraries. 

Conservation- Analytical Laboratory 

The Laboratory's thrust toward greater effort in conservation 
has been increased this year by additional staff, made possible 
by the borrowing of space in two other divisions. Here, one 
extra permanent conservator and three temporary internes 
from institutions in London and Cooperstown have helped 
reduce the backlog. The Laboratory has continued advice, on 
request, to 12 bureaus, other museums, and over 800 casual 
inquirers concerning safe environments for many different 
kinds of objects and on methods of mounting and cleaning. 
Documents, graphics, and objects made of leather, metal, wood, 
ceramics, and merely corrosion products, ranging in date from 
prehistoric to the present and in culture from Ancient Greek to 
aerospace, collected or excavated, have been cleaned, repaired, 
and chemically stabilized. Basic needs have been served by 
operation of a fumigation plant, installed in cooperation with 
the National Museum of History and Technology. 

Members of the staff have contributed to national and 
international meetings on various conservation subjects includ- 
ing: training, the icom Working Group on metals, medieval 
window-glass, treatment of paper, neutron-activation analysis, 


historic buildings, and have been active in educating the 
profession by facilitating courses in microscopy of pigments, 
through the lectures of the Washington Region Conservation 
Guild, and by collaboration in producing tape-slide lectures. 

Analyses have been provided to curators on over 270 samples, 
resulting in some 6000 elemental and other analyses, using the 
techniques of ultra-violet emission spectrography, X-ray fluores- 
cence and diffraction, electron-beam microprobe, infrared spec- 
trophotometry, microscopy and neutron activation, applied to 
resins, pigments, fur, and fibers on objects, such as an 
Ecuadorian writing box, decorated leather saddles, pigments 
for application to pottery, colors on a completely decayed 
lacquer bowl, and stained glass. 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 


The Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 
(sites) concluded its twenty-first year of operation increasing its 
production of exhibitions that mirror the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. The year witnessed many efforts to improve sites' 
program, including the development of a computer listing of 
institutional exhibit customers (some 2000 in all), the completion 
of a survey of customer needs and views about sites' program, 
and the completion of a survey of the educational materials that 
customers of the service want most to accompany traveling 
shows. Gifts and contracts to develop traveling exhibitions 
totaled nearly $100,000 during the 12-month period; and were 
received from individuals, government agencies, corporations, 
and private foundations interested in furthering sites' efforts to 
make the Smithsonian available regardless of place of residence. 

After completing their tours, seven exhibitions were given to 
museums in Alaska, Texas, Delaware, and Florida with the 
proviso that the recipient museum recondition the show and 
either circulate it locally or exhibit it periodically in their 
permanent galleries. 

sites' current catalog lists 102 shows covering a wide range of 
subjects from art, history, and science to urban affairs, social, 
and world problems. 

Approximately 500 exhibit installations were viewed by 
4,000,000 persons. 


Forty-seven sites exhibits began their tours between July 
1972 and June 1973. Seven exhibits were rebuilt for extended 
tours. Five catalogues were published by sites for new exhibits; 
in addition, 1 1 catalogues, originally done to accompany shows, 
were accepted by sites for exhibitions that began their tours 
under sites' auspices during fiscal 1973. 

Office of the Registrar 

Registrarial activities throughout the Smithsonian have re- 
ceived increased management attention this year. A Registrarial 
Council was established, at the suggestion of the Assistant 
Secretary for Museum Programs, to examine existing procedures 
and to make recommendations for the development of an 
improved system with a fully responsive registrar in each 

While the above portends change, the Office of the Registrar 
this year has continued its functions as in the past, serving the 
public and the museums, staff in various ways. 

As usual, more than two million pieces of mail were handled, 
addressed to the Smithsonian "Institute" in general as well as to 
individuals and offices in the various museum buildings. Public 
inquiry mail continued unabated, much of it stimulated by 
television programs, elementary school projects, and Smithsonian 
magazine articles. 

The Office of the Registrar processed 2681 accession memoranda, 
covering the acquisition of a much greater number of items for 
the collections. Museum objects flowed in and out on loan for 
study by professional colleagues and for exhibit purposes, with 
records of accountability handled by this office. 

The shipping office had its normal busy year, processing over 
21,000 shipments totaling more than 50,000 pieces. Inbound 
shipments entailed the accomplishment of more than 140 
entries through the United States Customs. 

The microfilm project begun last year for the photographing 
of the original accession records is proceeding on schedule with 
a great deal of interesting information emerging during the 
processing of the old papers. 

Office of Exhibits Programs 

During the past year, a thorough study of all exhibits 
operations within the Smithsonian Institution was carried out to 


review the processes by which exhibitions are created and 
completed for public presentation. The result of these studies 
was a recommendation to rearticulate certain resources of the 
Office of Exhibits Programs to create individual exhibit design 
and production components to work in closer relationship with 
the bureaus that utilize the major amount of exhibit resources. 
All administrative processes necessary to carry out the recom- 
mendation have been completed and newly established exhibit 
operations will be in effect at the beginning of fiscal year 1974. 

Exhibits design and production laboratories at the National 
Museum of Natural History will be supervised by Mr. Harry T. 
Hart, at the National Museum of History and Technology by 
Mr. Benjamin W. Lawless, and at the National Air and Space 
Museum by Mr. Melvin B. Zisfein. Each of these operations will 
respond to the Director of the respective bureau. An Office of 
Exhibits Central (oec), responsible to the Assistant Secretary for 
Museum Programs, will be supervised by Mr. James A. Maho- 

The Office of Exhibits Central will provide exhibit design and 
production resources to all Smithsonian bureaus and offices that 
do not have on-staff capabilities and will provide specialized 
exhibit resources to all Smithsonian units. The oec will also 
participate in international and intrabureau exhibits emanating 
from the Secretariat, training programs in all aspects of exhibits, 
in coordination with the Office of Museum Programs, and will 
establish research, evaluation, and development programs in the 
use and techniques of communication media in museum exhibi- 

During the year and throughout the period of study and 
reassignments, the Office of Exhibits Programs continued to 
perform its assigned tasks in exhibits and exhibit-related activi- 
ties for all Smithsonian units. The Office successfully completed 
several major exhibitions: among them are the halls of Photog- 
raphy, News Reporting, and Postal History for the nmht; and 
special exhibitions on Synthetic Crystals for the nmnh, and on 
the Joseph Henry Papers presented in the Great Hall of the 
Smithsonian Institution building. The Office also provided 
assistance to many other public presentations. 

National Museum Act Program 

The National Museum Act, authorized in 1966, received an 
appropriation of $800,000 in the fiscal year of 1973. In 


accordance with the appropriation legislation, the National 
Endowment for the Arts and the National Endowment for the 
Humanities each received $100,000 from the above sum. 
Through the National Museum Act, the Smithsonian Institution 
is able to provide technical aid and assistance to museums 
throughout the United States and abroad. In addition, funds 
may be granted for specific proposals that will advance the 
museum profession at large, either through research, publica- 
tion, or training. Every proposal funded must clearly describe 
how it will upgrade the museum profession — its methods, 
techniques, and approaches. Organizations, museums, universi- 
ties, and colleges, who have the facilities and staff to undertake 
programs, are eligible to apply. 

Twenty-seven applications were funded including, for exam- 
ple, support for the six Regional Conferences of the American 
Association of Museums, research on the conservation of flood- 
damaged books, professional assistance/consultation programs in 
the states of Kansas, South Dakota, and Massachusetts, a 
publication Craft Doumentation, internships in conservation, sup- 
port for an international exchange program for museum 
professionals, internships and graduate training for members of 
minority groups. A full list of projects supported since the Act 
was initially funded appears in Appendix 4. 


Many of the divisions within the Office of the 
Assistant Secretary for Public Service have been engaged 
in what can best be described as a "national outreach" program 
this past year. There is a general feeling that the Smithsonian 
should share its vast resources with audiences other than those 
who can actually come to its museums, and that the Smithsonian 
must even improve or enhance the quality of the museum 
visitor's experience. 

Smithsonian magazine continues to be one of our prime 
examples of national outreach. There are now some 450,000 
subscribers who became National Associates of the Smithsonian, 
and who in turn provide us with an expanded audience to relay 
information about our exhibits, collections, and research. 

Each year the Division of Performing Arts conducts extensive 
field research in the state chosen to be featured in the annual 
Festival of American Folklife. Through this research, which has 
been undertaken for the past 6 years, the Division has compiled 
a unique record of folk arts and crafts throughout our country, 
and is frequently called upon for consultation — yet another way 
to extend our knowledge and resources. Some 800,000 people 
attended last year's Festival, featuring the State of Maryland, 
and following the Festival, the Division sent many of the 
popular performances on tour to .colleges and universities in 23 

In other ways Washington, D.C., serves as a laboratory for 
testing many of our outreach programs. The Office of Elemen- 
tary and Secondary Education sends out trained docents to 
schools in the area with objects from the collections and 
specialized instruction in conjunction with existing curricula. We 
hope ultimately to have kits of reproduced artifacts with 
accompanying manuals or film strips that can be used through- 
out school systems, nationwide. Local school children are taken 
on personalized tours through the various museums under the 
docent program of the Office of Elementary and Secondary 
Education (oese), and more and more requests are coming in 
from out-of-town schools to arrange such tours when they come 
here. In order to reach the widest number of school children, 


oese has also sponsored teacher workshops here at the 

With the realization that television continues to attract the 
largest number of persons as a medium of communication, the 
Smithsonian recently has signed a contract this year with a 
major independent producer for a series of educational docu- 
mentaries on various aspects of the Smithsonian. On other 
communication fronts, the Smithsonian radio program and all 
of the publications of the Press and the Office of Public Affairs 
continue to bring to the public more than just a momentary 
glimpse of an exhibit or a rapid walk-through of a hall. 

Smithsonian Associates 

The Associates enjoyed a burst of expansion during the past 
year, with the introduction of new services and programs for a 
rapidly growing membership. 

Chairman Thomas J. Watson, Jr., convened the National 
Board in November to consider corporate fund raising. The 
members agreed to assist in the solicitation of additional 
Corporate Members, and by the end of the year enrolled a total 
of 33 companies. Income from 26 corporations was $67,115. In 
February, the Secretary and six Board members and their 
spouses met at the Tropical Research Institute for an intensive 
introduction to the Smithsonian's Panama Canal Zone scientific 
program. In May, Regent Watson retired as chairman after two 
years. He was succeeded by Lewis A. Lapham. 

The Contributing Membership (persons making substantial 
annual donations) grew to 168 members, contributing $32,966 
for Smithsonian research and education as the Institution 
introduced new membership benefits. 

The Women's Committee continued its valuable assistance to 
several programs, including $12,000 in proceeds from the third 
annual Christmas dance. Funds provided scholarships to Associ- 
ates' classes and supported an Insect Zoo and a student intern 
at the Museum of Natural History. The Committee produced an 
appointments calendar, operated the popular Free Film Thea- 
ter, and assisted in organizing part of the Institution's photo- 
graphic files. 

In July, Janet W. Solinger became director of the Resident 
Associates' Program. In the year, the area membership grew to 
15,000 as an exciting program unfolded; 5,579 persons regis- 

521-552 O - 74 - 11 


tered for 171 classes, workshops, and seminars for adults and 
children. An estimated 15,000 members enjoyed 30 free events. 
Another 18,000 persons attended 125 subscription events. 
Through the generosity of the Women's Committee and the sale 
of posters donated by the designer, Vera, 260 children were 
awarded scholarships to Associates' classes. 

The Resident Associates drew heavily on the resources of the 
Institution as 240 members of the staff taught classes or 
conducted special events. All bureaus in Washington partici- 
pated, including the Kennedy Center and the National Gallery 
of Art. Members visited the Cooper-Hewitt Museum in New 
York. Other institutions cooperating with the Associates in- 
cluded five Washington theaters; Metro; the British and Swed- 
ish Embassies; Wolf Trap Foundation; Goddard Space Center; 
Bethlehem Steel; comsat; the Museum of African Art; the 
Phillips Gallery; the Textile Museum; the Metropolitan, Whit- 
ney, and Guggenheim Museums; the American Federation of 
Art; and Winterthur, and Longwood Gardens. Activities of 
particular appeal included behind-the-scenes visits to four 
museums, the Kennedy Center performance/discussion series, 
"Collectors and Collections" classes which alternated discussions 
of museum collections with visits to private collections in the 
same genre, Zoo Night, the Kite Festival, the New American 
Filmmakers Series, and a seminar on "What's Washington 
Supposed to Be?" 

The Resident Program made a substantial contribution to the 
unrestricted private funds of the Institution even after introduc- 
ing Smithsonian magazine and a monthly newsletter, the Associate, 
as new benefits at no increase in dues. 

More than 550 Associates took advantage of 30 Domestic and 
Foreign Study Tours to travel with Smithsonian scholars to such 
places as the museums of the Soviet Union, the Atlas Moun- 
tains, archeological sites in Greece and Yugoslavia, the whale- 
breeding grounds off Baja California, the Apollo and Skylab 
launches from Cape Kennedy, and Death Valley in the time of 
flowering. Eighty-five members converged on Washington for 
Christmas Weekend at the Smithsonian. 

The Associates' Reception Center, staffed and in full swing 7 
days a week for fiscal 1973, provided over 2900 member 
families with a cordial welcome and orientation to the Institu- 
tion. Acting as the Smithsonian's central information office, the 
Center, with the able assistance of 146 volunteers, handled some 
49,000 public and member telephone inquiries. This volunteer 


cadre contributed over 12,000 hours of service staffing Center 
and museum information desks for an 80 percent average 
coverage rate. Volunteers working on independent projects 
within various museum departments contributed another 20,300 
service hours. 

The Museum Reference Service was inaugurated in October, 
its objective twofold: to provide an additional service for 
Associate members and to encourage museum-going across the 
country. Members traveling within the United States were 
invited to request folders comprised of brochures and lists, by 
state, of a cross-section of our country's museums, galleries, and 
historic sites. 

The newest service to members and the public, the National 
Speakers Bureau, has filled over 300 requests since its introduc- 
tion in October. 

Office of Public Affairs 

The problems, potentials, and challenges of the telecommuni- 
cations revolution for the Smithsonian, including those in the 
fields of video cassettes, cable television, and audio cassettes 
have been the subject of exhaustive study by the Office of 
Public Affairs (opa) in the past year, in cooperation with other 
Smithsonian Institution divisions. The Office of Public Service, 
working with the opa and other Smithsonian groups, has been 
negotiating with experienced commercial film producer for joint 
production of a series of video nature guides, opa also has de- 
veloped a contract with a major national television producer for a 
series of prime-time commercial television programs which hope- 
fully will begin in the 1974-1975 season. 

The opa staff also cooperated in the production of numerous 
television programs and films by major producers from 
throughout the world. Work was completed on a half-hour 
motion picture The Dilemma of the Modern Urban Museum, which 
features discussions by Smithsonian officials of museum audi- 
ences and tells how to reach them. 

In the past year the opa news bureau wrote and distributed 
325 news releases and 90 radio announcements. These releases, 
as well as other activities by opa staff members, played major 
roles in publicizing the numerous newsworthy events that took 
place at the Institution. "Radio Smithsonian" began its fourth 


year of programming in September 1972. The past year also 
saw continued publication and expanded worldwide distribution 
of Smithsonian Institution Research Reports, a quarterly launched 
last year to publicize research work in all fields at the 
Institution. Other opa activities included processing a number 
of information leaflets for various Smithsonian Institution 
divisions, publication of the Smithsonian Torch and Calendar of 
Events, as well as the revision of guides to Smithsonian 
museums. These included for the first time translations of three 
guides into French, German, and Spanish. Visitors' questions 
were answered around the clock by the Dial-A-Museum and 
Dial-A-Phenomenon answering services, opa staff members also 
handled thousands of other inquiries from visitors and media 

Office of International Activities 

The Office of International Activities fosters new dimensions 
to Smithsonian programs abroad. The Office has been giving 
special attention to the development of cultural and scientific 
exchanges with the People's Republic of China and the Soviet 
Union, and has been focusing as well on the development of 
support for American research centers abroad and unesco 
programs for preservation of cultural monuments, notably 
Philae in Egypt, Moenjodaro in Pakistan, Borobudur in Indone- 
sia, and Carthage in Tunisia. The Office is continuing to work 
with the United States Information Agency toward expanding 
the exhibits support provided by the Smithsonian for American 
cultural presentations abroad. With five currently scheduled 
exhibitions, the Office has more than doubled its activity in 
coordinating the presentation of foreign exhibitions in the 
Smithsonian. With 95 visitors, the Office has also more than 
doubled the programming of visits by foreign officials to the 
Smithsonian. During the year, the Office absorbed from the 
Office of the Registrar responsibility for visa and passport 
services for Smithsonian staff. 

The Office of International Activities administers the Smith- 
sonian Foreign Currency Program, which received an appropri- 
ation of $3.5 million in "excess" foreign currencies for fiscal 
year 1973 for the support of grants to United States institutions 
of higher learning for "museum programs, scientific and 
cultural research, and related educational activities." The pro- 



gram has awarded more than $18 million in foreign currency 
grants to more than 70 United States institutions of higher 
learning over the past 8 years. This year the Program has added 
support for Bicentennial-related exchanges of performing art- 
ists and craftsmen to its major interests in archeology, anthro- 
pology, geophysics and astrophysics, systematic and environ- 
mental biology, and museum programs. In addition, the 
Program has engaged in extensive negotiations with the Depart- 
ment of State and with other Federal agencies to ensure 
support for research in these major fields from the new United 
States-Israel Binational Science Foundation and the United 
States-Yugoslav Joint Fund for Scientific and Technological 
Research, which are replacing U.S. Government excess currency 
programs in the support of research. 

Division of Performing Arts 

The Festival of American Folklife, the Jazz Program, the 
Puppet Theater, and the Smithsonian Touring Performance 

One of the participants from 
the International Ladies Gar- 
ment Workers Union in the Un- 
ion Workers Area of the Festi- 
val of American Folklife 1972. 




An Indian participant from the 
State of New Mexico at a Pow- 
Wow at the 1972 Festival of 
American Folklife. 

Service were the major focal points of activity in the Division of 
Performing Arts. 

The sixth annual Festival of American Folklife featured the 
State of Maryland and presented Indian tribes from the 
Southwest. The Department of Labor joined the Smithsonian in 
cosponsorship of the Union Workers exhibit, which was pre- 
sented for the second year as a major theme of the Festival. In 
1973 the Festival was expanded and evaluated as a base for an 
extended festival to take place during the national Bicentennial in 

The Jazz Program presented a series of highly successful 
concerts together with workshops and master classes, which 
provided a unique educational service to area colleges, universi- 
ties, and schools. The development of a six-volume history of 
jazz on recordings was completed with a publication date 
scheduled for late 1973. 



Calvin E. Crouch and Calvin E. Crouch, Jr., boatbuilders from Rock Hall. 
Maryland, and participants in the Waterways presentation at Hains Point Festival 
of American Folklife, 1972. Maryland was the featured State this year. 
Photograph courtesy of Ralph Rinzler. 

The Smithsonian Puppet Theater moved to a new location in 
the Arts and Industries building. Expanded seating capacity and 
increased technical flexibility for productions substantially in- 
creased the audience appeal. The Puppet Theater continues as 
the Smithsonian's prime attraction for young visitors to the 
museums and has successfully established a continuing audience 
of area school children and visitors throughout the country. 

The Smithsonian Touring Performance Service brought a 
traveling company from the Folklife Festival, tours of Smithson- 
ian Puppet Theater productions, and performances of unusual 
music and theater presentation to audiences in 23 states. As 
requests increased from state and local communities for Smith- 
sonian aid in booking Bicentennial programs, the Touring 
Performance Service entered a crucial period of expanded 
national outreach. 

The Division of Performing Arts again joined the John F. 
Kennedy Center and the American Theater Association in the 
production of the American College Theater Festival. The 10 



First Annual Fiddlers Convention and Walt Roken. 
a prize-winner, at the 1972 Festival of American Folklife. 

productions selected for the Washington Festival were drawn 
from more than 300 participating colleges and universities 
throughout the nation. 

The Indian Awareness Program contributed an important 
portion of the Festival and began a coordinative role with other 
Smithsonian bureaus to provide greater assistance and accessi- 
bilitv for the national museums to the Native American Com- 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

The Anacostia Neighborhood Museum celebrated its fifth 
anniversarv on 15 September 1972 with a re -creation of the 
program and festivities which took place on the dav the 



Visitors watch the TV Monitor in the section on drugs during 
The Evolution of a Community Part II exhibition. 

Museum opened. Smithsonian officials and community leaders 
addressed an audience of neighborhood residents and visitors 
from all over the city. 

The highlight of the celebration was the opening of the 
exhibit "The Evolution of a Community Part II," which brought 
Anacostia's history up to date and focused attention on the five 
most serious problems plaguing this area of the city: crime, 
drugs, unemployment, housing, and education. Individuals in 
the community told how they felt about these problems during 
sidewalk interviews which were video-taped and shown over 
TV-Monitors throughout the exhibit. 

To document the history of the Museum, a Fifth Anniversary 
Book was published through a grant from the Hattie M. Strong 
Foundation. Written by members of the staff, the book serves a 
need that had become more and more apparent as the Museum 
continued to expand its activities and requests for the story of 
the Anacostia experience increased. Thousands of copies have 
been distributed to schools, libraries, community agencies, 
students, museum people, and visitors from near and far. 



The Anacostia Neighborhood Museum and the D. C. Art Association co- 
sponsored the Fourth Annual Exhibit of painting and sculpture by members of the 

The Fourth Annual Exhibit of painting and sculpture by 
members of the District of Columbia Art Association marked 4 
years of cooperative effort and mutual support on the part of 
the Association and the Museum. 


The past year was one of continued growth and acceptance 
for Smithsonian, the Institution's national magazine. Net paid 
circulation has climbed above 450,000, an encouraging sign of 
health at a time when many other magazines are faltering or 
failing. Since these subscribers are National Members of the 
Smithsonian Associates, they provide a nationwide constituency 
to which the Institution may increasingly look for understand- 
ing and support. 

No mere "house organ," the magazine from the beginning has 
reflected not only the interests of the Smithsonian but also of 
the world community of museums and research institutions. 
Nevertheless, a great deal of the editorial content is directly 


related to Institution activities. During the past year 21 major 
articles were either written by Smithsonian staff members or 
covered, with full-color illustrations, Smithsonian exhibitions, 
collections, and research projects. 

Among other important articles were three on various aspects 
of the energy crisis (at a time when this subject had not yet 
reached the front pages), two on the pros and cons of 
methadone maintenance programs, two generated by the world- 
wide observance of the 500th anniversary of Copernicus' birth, 
and virtually one every issue on endangered wildlife species or 
threatened terrains. All were lavishly illustrated, and often by 
such widely recognized photographers as Dimitri Kessel, Erich 
Lessing, Terence Spencer, David Lees, Loomis Dean, Fritz 
Goro, and two who tragically died during the year, Stan 
Wayman and Eliot Elisofon. 

In June the Institution's highest honor, the Henry Medal, was 
presented to the editor of Smithsonian, Edward K. Thompson, 
"for distinguished achievements in the growth and prestige of 
this Institution." 

Smithsonian Institution Press 

A highlight of our publishing program this year was the 
publication on 27 December of the first volume of a projected 
15 volumes of The Papers of Joseph Henry. Volume 1, December 
1797-October 1832, The Albany Years, designed by Crimilda 
Pontes, has been chosen by the Association of American 
University Presses for excellence of design and production. It 
will be on display at major universities throughout this country 
and, under the sponsorship of the United States Information 
Agency, in numerous countries overseas. Additionally, The 
Papers of Joseph Henry won the design/production award of the 
Printers Institute of America. 

Members of the Press staff wrote and prepared Seeing the 
Smithsonian: The Official Guidebook to the Smithsonian Institution — its 
Museums and Galleries (published by CBS Education & Publishing 
Group), and so for the first time in many years our visitors have 
an attractive, informative, and inexpensive guide to the richness 
and complexity of our offerings. 

Two Press editors won Federal Editors Association Awards 
for Outstanding Government Publications in 1972: Louise 
Heskett a first award for "If Elected . . . Unsuccessful Candidates 


for the Presidency 1796-1968; Nancy Link Powars a second award 
for The Papers of Joseph Henry, volume 1, December 1797 -October 
1832, The Albany Years. 

Three publications, two designed by Stephen Kraft and one 
by Elizabeth Sur, have received Certificates of Merit in the Art 
Directors Club of Metropolitan Washington 1973 competition 
and will be displayed in their exhibition: for the National 
Collection of Fine Arts, National Parks Centennial catalogue; for 
the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, Winslow Homer catalogue; for the 
National Portrait Gallery, If Elected. . . catalogue. 

Production costs of 121 publications were funded by federal 
appropriations in the amount of $301,369; nine were supported 
wholly by Smithsonian Institution private funds in the amount 
of $106,200. The publications list for 1973 is given in Appendix 
9. The Press warehouse, the Superintendent of Documents, and 
George Braziller, Inc. (the Press' sales and distribution agent) 
shipped, on order and subscription, a total of 161,634 publica- 
tions during the year. In addition, 93 recordings were distrib- 
uted by the Press. 

Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. 

The National Reading Is* Fundamental (rif program is now in 
its sixth year as an independent unit under Smithsonian 
sponsorship. The purpose of Reading Is Fundamental, Inc., is 
to promote the establishment of local rif projects throughout 
the country to give impetus to reading motivation at an early 
age by making inexpensive books, particularly paperback, acces- 
sible to children through ownership, loan, and purchase. More 
and more, rif is moving toward a design as a dynamic evolving 
process — not merely giving books to children but moving from 
that initial motivational factor to lending and selling, and to 
developing a variety of programs to use books in increasingly 
more effective ways, rif hopes this will lead to the increased use 
of school and neighborhood libraries and to the acquisition of a 
personal home library by young people and their families. 

The number of active rif programs has grown from 55 in 
1972 to 122 in 1973. Another 50 projects are in the developing 
stage, rif programs distributed around 850,000 books to 
250,000 children during the past year. To date one million 
children have received over three million books. 


The national rif program sets goals and guidelines, provides 
project development materials and technical assistance to local 
rif projects throughout the United States. But the strength of 
rif projects lies in their grass-roots involvements, for each 
community organizes, develops, funds, and runs its own pro- 

All of the projects, however, need help and guidance from 
national rif in various stages of their development and growth. 
Therefore rif is expanding and developing varieties of new 
materials and services which only the national office can provide 
to meet the needs of the rapidly growing number of local 
programs. The Edna McConnell Clark Foundation grant of 
$1,150,000, covering the period 1972-1975, is on a declining 
scale annually. The grant gives rif the opportunity and time to 
stabilize in its current period of rapid growth and to develop a 
broad base of support for the future. 

Policy direction is provided by a Board of Directors on which 
the Secretary of the Smithsonian, S. Dillon Ripley, serves as an 
ex-officio member. Mrs. Robert S. McNamara is Chairman of 
the Board. 

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

An impressive 30 percent increase over last year in the number 
of school children of the Washington metropolitan area who have 
been served by the program offerings of this Office in the 
Museums on the Mall is reflected in the totals of 100,200 students 
served by 2996 tours plus 292 outreach presentations. 

Four new lesson tours for the National Museum of History and 
Technology and four new lesson tours for the National Museum of 
Natural History were developed and offered during the current 
academic year. 

An expanded force of Volunteer docents, now numbering 
235, has been recognized for its important role in educational 
programming at the Smithsonian by the receipt of a grant of 
$10,000 from the Ambrose Monell Foundation awarded to the 
Institution to be utilized specifically for docent training. 

With a critical awareness of the impending need to vitalize the 
lines of communication between the Smithsonian and the school 
community it serves, as well as others concerned with museum 
education, major developments have been undertaken to point 


up the potential for using the Washington area in a more 
effective fashion for education programming. The newsletter to 
schools has been modified in format, given the new title Let's Go, 
and increased to six issues. A variety of subjects has been 
treated in an endeavor to bring instant awareness to teachers of j 
on-going programs by way of this medium. Museum Education i 
Day at the Smithsonian was conducted this year in March, j 
utilizing the format of twelve workshops where invited partici- 
pants dealt with problems and interests affecting museums as an ! 
educational resource. Additionally, separate workshop sessions 
for teachers have been conducted throughout the year both 
under the aegis of this Office as well as with our staff in 
conjunction with the Museum Education Roundtable of Wash- 

Belmont Conference Center 

The Belmont Conference Center, entering its seventh year of 
providing facilities for off-site meetings, finds itself increasingly in 

Previous records have been exceeded in every facet of operations 
during fiscal year 1973: an increase to 1,730 guests, over 1,650 in 
1972; a total of 88 conferences compared to 79 in 1972, and a 
sizable rise in the number of days of occupancy. Representatives of 
Federal agencies make up about 60 percent of Belmont's schedule 
with the balance from universities and colleges, international study 
groups, foundations and philanthropic agencies, and private in- 

The 240-year old manor house, renovated and modernized, can 
accommodate 24 residents with facilities for meetings of 30 people. 
The rural atmosphere of the residence and 365 acres of fields and 
forests are particularly productive and enjoyable for guests. The 
existence of such an environment, together with the advantages of 
easy access to Washington and to Baltimore's Friendship Airport 
continues to be most attractive and convenient to Belmont confer- 


Support Activities 

During the past year several support staff members actively 
participated with the Smithsonian Agenda Working Group in 
studying and helping to resolve serious, major management 
issues. The individual and collective contributions they made 
toward improved management are recognized and duly appreci- 

Of the conclusions reached at the Belmont Priorities Confer- 
ence in February 1973, the most significant decision with 
respect to the support group units was: "Institutional manage- 
ment will give high priority to obtaining a better funding 
balance for support activities. . . for the coming year, in order 
to bring them more nearly in line with program requirements." 
Significant in making this determination was the acknowledg- 
ment that "In the face of less than satisfactory financial 
resources, the support organizations have performed exception- 
ally well." These actions are gratifying indeed, but they do not 
lessen, in fact, they reinforce the responsibility of each support 
organization to continue efforts to improve its operations, to 
examine its performance, to establish realistic goals, and to 
assure that its program plans are designed to coincide with and 
support enthusiastically the Smithsonian Institution's goals and 
priorities. Brief summaries of the major activities of the units in 
this group are given below. 


The Buildings Management Department carried out its basic 
responsibilities for the operation, maintenance, renovation, and 
repair of Smithsonian buildings. Continuing efforts were made 
to improve the effectiveness of these operations. This included 
monitoring and updating standards for housekeeping and 
maintenance; developing a centralized supply inventory; estab- 
lishing a special unit to handle warehousing, moving, and 



operation of outlying buildings; and expanding the landscaping 
program. A professional horticulturist was employed to super- 
vise the Landscaping and Grounds Section and to develop 
overall planting plans for the Institution, which includes an 
indoor planting program for the museum buildings. 

Major projects undertaken during the year included contin- 
ued planning and assistance on the construction of the new 
National Air and Space Museum; developing the design and 
contract documents for the major restoration of the Arts and 
Industries Building; designing and installing architectural exte- 
rior lighting for the major museum buildings; and preparing 
design work for alteration of the National Portrait Gallery's area 
on the third floor of the Fine Arts and Portrait Galleries. 

In January 1973, the Protection Division, Safety Management 
Office, and Health Services were transferred to the new Office 
of Protection Services which reports to the Director of Support 


Information Systems Division develops and coordinates the, 
use of automatic data processing support throughout the 
Institution. Advances continued to be made through computer 
utilization in the areas of administration, management of 
national collections, and scientific research, and most bureaus 
increased their use of this support. Research was conducted to 
enhance the ways of entering data into the computer and 
methods of obtaining better output products, such as optical 
character recognition for entering data directly from a printed 
page, terminal devices to enable telephone communication with 
the computer, and computer output to microfilm and micro- j 
fiche, as well as plotted maps and other graphic presentations. 

Individual research assistance to curators and scientists ex- 
panded and broadened in scope as the Division made available ; 
additional mathematical techniques and software packages. New 
developments and refinements enhanced support for the man- 
agement of the national collections in history, art, and science. 
A recently developed, but not yet completed, generalized 
information management package called selgem has aroused 
much attention within and outside the Institution because of its 
potential as a standard for the computerized management of 

Within the Institution, data from 85 various collections has 


been entered into the system. Outside of the Institution 7 
university-museums are using it in their collections management 
processes. As a service to the museum and university community 
at large, the Division publishes information about the selgem 
system in its technical bulletin, Smithsonian Institution Information 
Systems Innovations. The "Innovations" series acquaints the 
reader with automated systems and procedures specifically 
designed to solve collection and research problems in museums 
and herbaria. 

Though no totally new systems evolved during the year, many 
specialized systems for administration, curation, and analysis 
were expanded to meet changing requirements. 


The Management Analysis Office continued to carry out its 
major responsibilities for providing assistance to meet selected 
administrative management issues and problems, administering 
the Smithsonian's management issuances system, and directing 
the Institution's active program for the efficient and economical 
management of forms and other formatted issuances. The 
increasing importance of the analysis and solution of problems 
was evidenced by the three large-scale studies made during the 
year in conjunction with the Smithsonian Agenda Working 
Group. Another survey, started in June, is expected to continue 
for several months. In the spring, the Office made an intensive 
review of its role, its functions, and its work performance, 
status, and reporting. The visible results of this self-analysis 
provided: a management report that summarized projects 
completed over a 12-month period and the work status of other 
projects on hand; a simple but comprehensive system designed 
to categorize, assign, monitor, and report work projects; and a 
statement for the Secretary's signature describing the Office's 
several responsibilities and functions. 

The Automatic Data Processing (ADP) program developed to 
support forms management and control was placed in opera- 
tion. It will be tested during the early part of fiscal year 1974 
with full implementation anticipated some 6 months later. 


The Office of Equal Opportunity, under the leadership of the 
Secretary, continued the Smithsonian Institution's affirmative 


policy for the realization of equal opportunity objectives. This 
year saw an acceleration of action plan goals by the training and 
appointing of 19 part-time EEO Counselors and 2 part-time 
Invstigators, the selecting and training of a part-time Coordina- 
tor for the Sixteen-Point Program for Spanish-surnamed Ameri- 
cans, and the augmenting of the Equal Opportunity staff by the 
addition of a Women's Program Coordinator and a Civil Rights 

The bylaws of the Smithsonian's Women's Council have been 
drawn up and early adoption is anticipated. Discussions concern- 
ing a Day Care Center program generated much staff interest 
and enthusiasm. Plans are being developed for museum exhibits 
portraying the contributions women have made to American 
history and to the work of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Matters of personal concern to a number of employees were 
reviewed, factual information developed, and necessary adjust- 
ments made to the satisfaction of those involved. In three 
instances, formal complaints were filed and investigatory steps 

Four special training Work Shops were conducted for em- 
ployees assigned to supervisory positions. These discussions 
concerned all levels of supervision relating to the acceptance, 
fulfillment, and continuing support of the equal employment 
program philosophy. 


Emphasis on responsiveness and positive assistance was com- 
plemented by increased effort in human resources program 
development. Workload volume expanded, but efforts to in- 
crease productivity provided enough manhours to upgrade 
some existing programs while establishing new ones. A Person- 
nel Management Effectiveness Evaluation Program was estab- 
lished that includes management participation, consultation, 
formal surveys, feedback, and internal assessment. A survey was 
conducted by the Office at the National Zoological Park, and 
staff members participated on four management studies con- 
ducted by the Smithsonian Agenda Working Group. 

A goals document that encompassed the gamut of personnel 
management programs was prepared as a first step toward 
better program planning. This was one of the methods explored 
in our desire to achieve maximum productivity without ad- 
versely affecting service or quality. The document included 


individual projects, names of responsible individuals, and target 
dates. Some projects are aimed at improving existing services and 
others represent new or innovative services. 

This Office worked closely with the Equal Opportunity Office 
to assure that all personnel management related projects and 
activities were being accomplished. A new monitor system was 

Labor-Management Relations continued to be an active pro- 
gram as one new contract was negotiated and two other contract 
renegotiations commenced. There was marked improvement in 
direct communications between union officials and supervisors. 
The union was consulted step-by-step as two major reorganiza- 
tions were accomplished. This process contributed to the fact 
that no grievances or formal complaints emanated from these 

Training activities included a special program for supervisory 
personnel in one bureau, Learning Lab programs, a course for 
EEO Counselors, a new course entitled "The Supervisor's Role 
in EEO" and another new course called "Dealing Effectively 
with People." 

A Handbook for Employees was distributed to all employees and 
also is distributed during the orientation sessions for new 
employees. A slide/tape presentation was developed for use 
during these orientations. 

An Employee Action Program that emphasizes the identifica- 
tion of potential problems and the prevention of serious 
problems in employee relations was developed to assist in the 
area of discipline. The Awards Program was highlighted by a 
second Annual Awards Day. 

This was a year of complex major reorganizations, compli- 
cated by conflicting priorities in average grade reduction, 
upward mobility efforts, manpower and budget restrictions, 
increasing productivity, more effective position management, 
and equity in promotion actions. With the support of the 
Executive Committee, Bureau Directors, supervisors, union 
representatives, employees, and other staff offices we were able 
to make significant progress toward more efficient and more 
economical management of our human resources without com- 
promising quality or human values. 

In January, the Health Units were transferred to the new 
Office of Protection Services which reports to the Director of 
Support Activities. 



The Office of Protection Services was organized on 7 January 
1973, and assigned the responsibility of directing the health, 
safety, and security protection programs for the Institution. 
Special emphasis placed on safety program goals resulted in the 
Institution's being nominated for and successfully winning the 
President's Safety Award for 1972. 

The Protection Division stressed personalized assistance to 
visitors in addition to its primary responsibility for the security 
of the Smithsonian buildings and their occupants and contents. 
Guards were furnished for 232 special events. Among the most 
prominent activities in which the security guards participated 
during the period were the two 1973 Presidential Inaugural 
Balls held in the History and Technology Building and in the 
Natural History Building, and the reception for Vice President 
Spiro T. Agnew in the History and Technology Building. These 
events were attended bv members of the Executive, Judicial, 
and Legislative branches of the government as well as the entire 
Diplomatic Corps, and required extensive planning, coordina- 
tion with other security officials, and the highest degree of 

The basic guard school which must be completed satisfactorily 
bv newly employed permanent guards before they may be given 
Special Police Commissions was increased from 40 hours to 80 
hours of instruction. Refresher training classes were conducted 
for guards and supervisors. 


With receipt of its first major budget increase in October 
1972, the Division hired some additional personnel, purchased 
equipment, and improved production techniques. Production of 
photographic services increased and much work formerly con- 
tracted out to commercial sources was accomplished in-house. A 
new adp production reporting system was inaugurated and will 
be implemented fully on 1 July 1973. 

Assignment Section: Compared to last year, studio and 
location photography increased approximately 20 percent and 
microfilm photography increased by 470,000 frames. Over 30 
million documents in various stages of deterioration must be 
microfilmed soon. 

Laboratory Section: Production increased 15 percent over last 


year, with the largest increases in copy work, slide duplication, 
and microfilm processing. The laboratory processed 432 100- 
foot rolls of microfilm representing 520,000 frames. Black and 
white print production is expected to increase by 10,000 over 
last year. Restoration was begun, by photographic processes, on 
5,700 glass and nitrate negatives. Plans were initiated to 
remodel the laboratory in the Arts and Industries Building for 
color slide and transparency duplicating and processing. 

Library Section: The Information Systems Division and Man- 
agement Analysis Office programmers and analysts developed 
an adp program for cataloguing and retrieving data on all 
negative holdings. Information about 200,000 Smithsonian pho- 
tographs soon will be entered in this system. 

Customer Service Section: The Customer Service Section, 
formerly the Sales Section, received approximately 7,200 public 
inquiries, involving over 1,800 orders for photographic mate- 
rials, and sales receipts increased by 20 percent over last year. 
The Section administers the color slide lecture program by 
producing color slides with lectures on the Smithsonian's many 
subjects and objects. These materials, designed for every grade 
level from kindergarterj. through college, including adult educa- 
tion programs, will be available to every school library in the 
country for use by teachers in classroom lectures. They also are 
available to other interested groups. Sets on the First Ladies 
Gowns and on Rare Stamps are available. Three sets on our Zoo 
Animals, one on Air and Space, and two on American Indians 
will be ready in January 1974. In June, 8,000 sleeves of 5 slides 
each of Zoo animals and the Air and Space exhibits were 
completed for sale in the Museum Shops. 


The Supply Division again experienced an increased workload 
in its procurement and contracting responsibilities primarily due 
to the general expansion of the Smithsonian Institution, and all 
indications point to continuing accelerated growth of both these 
responsibilities. The successful accomplishment of this increas- 
ing workload, with no additional personnel, is recognized as a 
major contribution to the achievement of the program goals of 
all Smithsonian organizations and a testimonial to the ingenuity, 
resourcefulness, and dedication of all Division employees. 

The initial major procurements for the new Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden will be finalized this fiscal year. 


Preliminary planning is underway for the Division's involvement 
in the opening of the new National Air and Space Museum. 

The Division continues to be an active participant in the 
acquisition of useful excess government property to satisfy the 
needs of the Institution's many organization units. Excess 
property acquired this year is valued at $850,000. 


The Travel Services Office has experienced yearly increases in 
all of its major activities since its first full year of operation in 
1968. Factors responsible for this growth are twofold — as 
Smithsonian programs have expanded and travel needs have 
become more unusual, complex, and essential, Smithsonian 
travelers concurrently developed complete confidence in the 
Office's ability to meet urgent and intricate requests on a timely 
basis. The staff of only four employees has not increased since 
1969 but, despite this, the high performance standards main- 
tained by the Office have not deteriorated. Travel services are 
provided efficiently, economically, and courteously. To cite only 
one of many satisfied travelers, "tso delivers when the chips are 

During the year, in addition to furnishing travel services, 
program planning assistance, and technical guidance on a day- 
to-day basis, travel arrangements, advisory services, and detailed 
planning data were furnished for the Annual Folklife Festival; 
for national and international conferences; and for meetings 
and archeological expeditions in Yugoslavia, Israel, and Greece. 
Of particular interest was the Fifth International Symposium 
held in Washington, D. C, in observance of the 500th anniver- 
sary of the birth of Nicolaus Copernicus. Closer liaision had to I 
be maintained this year with the airlines to accomplish increas- 
ingly complicated travel performed under the Smithsonian's 
Special Foreign Currency Program. 

International Exchange Service 

The International Exchange Service is the one program 
bureau included in the support group. During the year, the 
Service received approximately 800,000 pounds of publications 
from organizations in more than 100 countries. Approximately 


100,000 pounds of publications were received from the foreign 
exchange bureaus for distribution in the United States. 

Over 800,000 official United States documents weighing 
approximately 450,000 pounds were exchanged with 94 organi- 
zations in 64 countries for their official publications. 

The daily issues of the Congressional Record and the Federal 
Register were exchanged with 132 foreign libraries for the 
parliamentary journals of other countries. 

Publications weighing approximately 530,000 pounds were 
forwarded by ocean freight to 38 exchange bureaus in 32 
countries for distribution to the addressees. Over 250,000 
pounds of publications were mailed to addressees in countries 
not having exchange bureaus. 

The number of medical and dental organizations in the 
United States exchanging their duplicate journals and books 
with medical and dental libraries in other countries has contin- 
ued to increase. 

The Duplicating Section, administered by the Director of the 
International Exchange Service, eliminated considerable backlog 
during the year. This was accomplished through recruitment of 
one additional member as well as by adding some new equipment 
to the Section. 


J. Carter Brown, Director 

The national gallery of art, although technically estab- 
lished as a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, is an 
autonomous and separately administered organization. It is 
governed by its own Board of Trustees, the statutory members 
of which are the Chief Justice of the United States, Chairman; 
the Secretary of State; the Secretary of the Treasury; and the 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, all ex officio; and five 
general trustees. Paul Mellon continued as president of