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Full text of "Snap shots"

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v^ 



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""^ ^«TS umZ. 




1barvar^ Colkae Xibrari? 

GIFT OF THE 

AMERICAN PHOTOGRAPHIC 
PUBLISHING COMPANY 



OF BOSTON 



FINE ARTS UBPAJa 



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Google 



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MO. Sfeoa? REQJ STER-ED^., , . <: r-?. 



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January* 1915 



CONTENTS 

Titles On Negatives - • 

Acid Fixing And Clearing 
Bath - - 



1 



Drying Prints And Nega- 
tives 4 

Notes on the Hydra Plate - 7 

Fixing Baths for Plates 

and Prints 13 



Trade New^s and Notes 



Studio Wants 



rA H.'^'ii 




ift 

20 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



fA msrj^^jA i^iC^ 








Sec rciding matter on tu*. 



PRICE LIST 

Per Number Suggested 



Specialix designed for mailing photographic 
calendars, or prints, flat, thus ensuring their 
delivery in perfect condition. As indispen- 
sable to the customer as it is to the photog* 
rapher. Made in fourteen sizes, attrac- 
tively printed in brown ink. Strong, light 
and perfectly adapted to its purpose. Un- 
questionably the fcesf mailing device and 
the best selling mailing device ever offercdp 
Samples on request. A glance at the Photo- 
mailer will show you its superiority over all 
others* 

Aft shown in Ctit Nu. 2 helow» the rbotomailer can be used 
for one or several enclosures if desired. 



131 
1 3 a 
136 

li2 

Ifil 
234 

246 



4'lx 7 

8^x11 ^ 
9^x1 US 

ll»ixl4;i 
5*4x11 ^ 
({VSxl3'4 
7 ?4 * 1 3 ! 4 



Hun- 
dred- 
$1,00 
1.40 
1.80 
2J>0 
2.10 
2. 40 

a . fin 
2.75 

SJ>0 
3. 25 
3.50 
S.OQ 
3.60 
3.30 



m a 
box, 
104> 
50 
50 
25 
25 
85 
25 
!5 
85 
25 
25 
25 
25 
S5 



Prices to ihc 

Consunier. 

Sc. each 

Sc. each 

4e. each 

5c. CHCll 

5c each 
6c. each 
Cc. each 
7 c* rach 
6c. each 
9c. each 
lOc. each 
frn. each 
7c. each 
9c. each 



With tlie eitceptinn of the frst three eiies,/ 
the Fhotoinailer ta fumishcd in boxes contain-' 
Ing 25. Order by number. 

Prices suhfect to attractive discount* 



The Photomailef doea nol Wnd ar 
fold and therefore givea iti enda- 
aurea perfect protection. Aa ihown 
tn Cut No, n, the hacking i» cellular 
bo&rdr double-faced corfufoted 
paper* Tbia material ia rigid, 
posaeaaea greftt reaiatance And ia 
very light. 

The Th0mpfoii & Norris Co. 

Concord and Princt Streets 

Brookljn, N* Y< 




; Jnllcli. Ganawnr 



«1m» at Bwtoft, M«i I Br.3«k»ai«. Ind; Niafar. F.Ik. Can^d.; Undoa, Eat.; 

EAUblisbtrd 1875 /-^ | 



-D i y i iiLuU Uj 



I,/ 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



''HOW IT IS DONE" 



An ExpUsatory Diagram Bbowinf th« 
Varlotti Btaf ei in th« Production of 



AUTOTYPE CARBON PHOTOGRAPHS 

The Produotion of an Autotype Carbon Photograph 



Tho Coated Bnrfaco of Sxpoied Gar- 
ten Titano (Pifmontod Oelatue). 
B 
Binf U Tranif or Paper. 


Boak A and B in oold water, l»rinff 
coated inrfaoei tof ether in contact and 
Kveefee. 

D 
Place the adherent tliiue and trani- 
fer paper between blottinf boardi for 
a few minntei. Hezt immerse in warm 
water, until the colored f elatine begini 
to owe out at the adgea. 



Btrip off the Tiiine backinf paper 
and throw it away. 

A dark mail of colored felatine is 
left on the transfer paper. This re- 
mains in the warm water and the gela- 
tine surface is splashed over until the 
picture gradually makes its appearance. 
O and H 

Continue until completed. 

The picture is now placed in an alum 
bath tftve per cent) to harden the film 
and discharf e the bichromate sensi- 
tisinf salt. A rinse in cold water com- ' 
pletes the operation. 



^-PRODUCTtQhJ 


1 


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■ 


MjiorYPcd^l 


M 


^^M 



WAdtoty.p<? 

L^OlSJDOfSl 



Wc'iT n A LING 





DDCD 



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Important to Amateur Photographers 

TRIAL SETS OF CARBON PRINTING MATERIALS 

In order to combat the erroneous notion, somewhat prevalent amongst Amateur 
Photographers, that a trial of the Carbon Process necessariW entails the expenditure 
of a considerable sum on costly apparatus, the Autotype Company have decided to 
introduce cheap trial sets of the absolutely essential materials, particulars of which 
are appended. 

In these cheaply-priced outfits it is, of course, impossible to include developing, 
washing or fixing tanks. For purely experimental purposes, however, some of the 
ordinary household crockery will serve as a makestiift. and the bathroom will be 
found a not altogether unsuitable apartment for carrying on operations. 

PBICEB OF TBIAL 8ETB 

Outfit Ho. 1 |l.iO 

Outtt Complete for 6 x 7 1.00 

Outftt for 8 X 10 7.00 

American Agents : GEORGE MURPHY. Inc.. 57 E. 9th St.. New York 

When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



^le 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



THE ROTAL FWEGROUND RAY SCREEN 

(Patented April 14th, 1911) 

BTTLE A. 

The Lateit and Oreateit Improvement In Bay Filtert. 

The only Ray Screen ever invented that will give an even, equal exposure 
to both sky and foreground, and produce a perfect cloud effect instanta- 
neously with ordinary plates. 

The Royal Foreground Ray Screen is so constructed that the color, which 
is a strong orange yellow at the top, is gradually diminished until perfect 
transparency is attained at the bottom. The practical effect of the gradual 
blending of color is to sift out or absorb the powerful chemical rays from 
the clouds and sky, which pass through the strongly colored top of the filter, 
without perceptibly decreasing the weak illumination of the reflected light 

from the foreground, which 
comes through the trans- 
parent or colorless lower 
part of the screen in frill 
intensity. 

The reason that daylight 
cloud pictures are rare is 
that the strength of the il- 
lumination from the sky is 
many, many times that of 
the partially absorbed and 
reflected light from objects 
on the ground. 

If a correct exposure is 
given to the clouds, then 
the landscape is badly un- 
der-exposed; if the correct 
exposure is given to the 
landscape, then the clouds 
are literally burnt up from 
over-exposure, and no mat- 
ter how contrasty they may 
have appeared to the eye, 
an unscreened photograph 
shows only a blank white 
sky. 

The Royal Foreground 
Ray Screen is also very 
useful for subjects which 
are more strongly illumi- 
nated on one side than on 
the other, as in photograph- 
ing by the light of a side 
window or in a narrow 
street. By simply turning 
the dark side of the fore- 
ground screen toward the 
bright side of the object a 
good, even exposure will 
result. 




Made With the Royal Foreground Ray Screen 

PHOTO. Bv //. F. SCHMIDT, Seattle, IVashington. 

SfOPie. EXPOSURE YA-second. 

September \hth, 10 A. M, Distance to snoW-covered 

Mt. Baker 8 Miles, 



NO. 

OA 
lA 
2A 
8A 

A A 



DIAMETER INCHES 



1V,« 



for box cameras 

IV,, 
1 1/ 



PRICE 

11.50 
1.50 
1.50 
1.50 

1 RA 



STYLE A. 



KO. 

8A 
9A 

lOA 
llA 
18A 



DIAICXTER INCHES 
8 



^Ya 



Digitized by 



PRICE 

8.00 
3.26 
8.60 
4.00 
4.50 



Google 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



111 



r. 




»120?? 



will place 
the new 

No. 8 

CENTURY 

OUTFIT 

in your 
Studio. 



HERE IS WHAT THE PRICE INCLUDES : 

1 11 X 14 Century Grand Portrait Camera mtii new focusing 

arrangements 
1 11 X 14 Semi -Centennial Stand. 
1 Reversible Back for 11 x 14 Century View Plate Holders?, 

Adjustable for making either one or two exposures on 

a plate^ 
1 Sliding Attachment for 8 x 10 Curtain Slide Plate Holder, 
1 Adapter for 8 x 10 Attachment to take 5x7 Curtain Slide 

Holder. 
1 11 X 14 Century Double View Plate Holder. 
1 8 X 10 Century Curtain Slide Holder with 6?| x Sj^ Kit. 
1 5 X 7 Curtain Slide Holder. 
1 Plate Holder Rack, 



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IV 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMEXTS 



Royal Postal Folder 




If you wish to command a better price for your post-card work 
and give it a higher tone than your competitor, this is a folder that 
will serve that purpose. It is made of a heavy, handsomely embossed 
cover paper with a delicately tinted border-line running around the 
entire edge of both folder and opening, w'ith an embossed head on 
the outside flap that is in perfect color accord with the stock itself. 
We suggest this folder to all who desire to put forth high class postal 
card work. 

Colors: Sepia, Nut Brown, White, Gray 
Sizes Per 1,000 

J Folder, 4^9i/4, Oval, 2^x5 120.00 

S Folder, 41^x914, Square Opening, 2?4x5 20.00 

(Packed 100 in a box) 



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SNAP-SHOTS 

A Monthly Magazine for Photographers 



suBscurrxoir iatss fob d. s. and Canada fbk ybak, $1.00; iix monthi, SO cents 

SINGLE corr, 10 cents, foeeign counteies, $1.S6 
ruausHEs by the snap-shots publishing CO., 67 east ninth stbebt, hew toek 



Volume 24 JANUARY, 1913 



Number 1 



TITLES ON NEGATIVES 
By W. H. E. 



Photographs have their titles 
printed on the negatives commer- 
cially by methods which are out of 
the reach of the amateur, unless he 
is prepared to take a great deal of 
trouble and has considerable photo- 
graphic skill. They are usually 
printed on paper with type, and are 
then photographed down, many at 
a time, on to a thin collodion film 
which can be cut up into as many 
strips as there are titles, and at- 
tached to the negatives in the parts 
selected. 

The amateur must content him- 
self with a less elaborate proced- 
ure, and although none of the plans 
which are open to him can be com- 
pared in their results with the deli- 
cacy and accuracy of a photographic 
reduction of letterpress, still they 



need not be the eyesore which, from 
want of a little care and trouble, 
the lettering on a print often is. 
Even the plan of "setting up" the 
title in reversed rubber-faced type 
and printing it on the negative, if 
not done properly, may be very dis- 
figuring; while, of course, a great 
many amateur photographers so 
seldom put any titles on their nega- 
tives that they hesitate before pur- 
chasing an outfit for the purpose. 

As far as written titles are con- 
cerned, there are two forms which 
they may take. Either the title may 
appear in white letters on the dark 
ground of the print, or it may ap- 
pear in dark letters, which, how- 
ever dark the groundwork, will at 
least be blacker. The latter are 
usuallv much less obtrusive, but 



V ^RVARD COLLEOE UMIARY 
0»fT9FTHC 

AMERICAN f W Q fmm m m fm \ m m% eo. 



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SNAP SHOTS 



January, 1913 



photographers do not often resort 
to them, possibly because the meth- 
od seems more complex and messy. 
It is not at all difficult, however. 

SEEING THE TITLE REVERSED 

If the title is to be in white let- 
ters, these may be written on the 
film of the negative with opaque 
ink and a fine pen or brush. The 
writing must be reversed, right lor 
left, so that it will appear the cor- 
rect way round in the print; and 
this itself seems difficult and awk- 
ward. The awkwardness can soon 
be overcome with a little practice, 
which should be done on paper, 
I'Ot attempting to print on a nega- 
tive until one feels a certain free- 
dom. A copy for the reversed let- 
tering is easily made by printing 
the letters the right way round on 
a sheet of paper underneath which 
is a piece of "carbon** duplicating 
paper, face upwards, and then turn- 
ing the sheet over and working 
from the impression left by the 
"carbon*' on the back. It is well, 
at first at any rate, always to make 
a reversed copy of this kind for 
any actual printing to be done on 
the negative. 

THE BEST INK TO USE 

The ink used may be "Liquid In- 
dian Ink,** such as is sold at deal- 
ers in artists' materials ; or it may 
be one of the special preparations 
supplied for work on negatives. It 
is a great advantage of the photo- 
graphic preparations that after 
they are dry they can be wiped 
completely off the negative and 



leave it uninjured, should any mis- 
take be made in the lettering, or 
should there be no further need for 
it. Some liquid Indian inks also 
allow of this, but many do not, and 
unless wiped off before drying, or 
very soon after, cannot be got off 
at alL 

Some prefer to use a very fine 
brush, but a "mapping pen" is the 
easiest tool in the writer's experi- 
ence. The ink should be poured 
into a little palette or saucer to ex- 
actly the depth required by the pen, 
which is then dipped vertically ir 
it for each letter or two, and is fre- 
quently wiped clean and dry. If 
the pen is dipped into the bottle it 
is very difficult to avoid getting too 
much ink on it at times, and so 
making a blot. Unless it is con- 
stantly wiped clean there is great 
danger of it clogging. 

SETTING-OFF METHODS 

A setting-off method of titling 
has been described, but it has never 
worked very well in the writer's 
hands. In this the title is written 
the right way round on a smooth 
glazed writing paper in violet du- 
plicating ink (such as is used for 
**graphs'*). The negative is wetted 
and allowed to drain until it is sur- 
face dry, and then the writing, 
which should be quite dry, is laid 
down in the required position, gen- 
tly rubbed into contact, left a few 
moments, and then peeled off. 

The same method, using ordi- 
nary copying ink, has been suggest- 
ed, getting in this way a reversed 



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January, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



inscription, which is not very 
strong, but which, when the film is 
quite dry, can be strengthened by 
going over it with a pen, as just 
described. 

TITLES IN DARK LETTERING 

In order to get an inscription in 
dark letters, some ink must be used 
which will dissolve the image in the 
negative. There are a number of 
solutions which answer the pur- 
pose. An easy one to prepare is 
made by taking a crystal of potas- 
sium bromide and one of copper 
sulphate, each the size of a pea, 
crushing them and dissolving them 
in a few drops of water. A drop 
or two of gum may be added to 
prevent the liquid from "running/ 
and, if preferred, a little white or 
black ink to make it easier to see 



the writing; but this is not usually 
necessary. Such a solution is bet- 
ter used with a brush rather than 
a pen, as the metal might affect the 
chemicals. After it has been ap- 
plied to the negative for a minute 
or two, the letters will be found 
bleached out quite white. The writ- 
ing is then held under the tap for 
a minute or two, and the negative 
is placed in clean hypo, which soon 
makes the lettering clear. The 
plate is then washed in the usual 
way and dried. 

The method of lettering the neg- 
ative that may be chosen is not very 
important in its bearing on the final 
appearance. What does count is 
the care and neatness with which 
the work is done, and this is not a 
matter of instruction, but of the 
personal factor. — Photography, 



ACID FIXING AND CLEARING BATH 

4 c.c.m. Sulphuric Acid. 1 drachm (GO c.c.m.) of water, and pour 

480 grammes Hyposul- slowly into the sulphite soda solu- 

phite of Soda 16 oz. tion, and add to the hyposulphite, 

60 grammes Sulphite of then dissolve the chrome alum in 

Soda 2 oz. 8 ounces (240 c.c.m.) of water and 

30 grammes *C h r o m e add to the bulk of solution, and 

Alum 1 oz. the bath is ready. This fixing bath 

1920 c.c.m. Warm Wa- will not discolor until after long 

ter 64 oz. usage, and both clears up the 

Dissolve the hyposulphite of soda shadows of the negative and hard- 
in 48 ounces (1440 c.c.m.) of ens the film at the same time, 
water, the sulphite of soda in 6 After negative is cleared of a 1 
ounces (180 c.cm.) of water, mix appearance of silver bromide, w^ash 
the sulphuric acid with 2 ounces '" runnmg water for not less than 
half an hour to free from any 

•N. B.— During cold weather use only half tracp of hvno solution 

the quantity of Arome Alum in above. trace OI nypo SOIUllOU. 



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SNAP SHOTS 



January, 191 3 



DRYING PRINTS AND NEGATIVES 



The question of drying prints and 
negatives is one of greater impor- 
tance for the amateur photographer 
than appears at first sight, ^lany 
workers seem to get through de- 
velopment and the production of 
negatives and prints successfully to 
the time when the washing process 
is completed, and then manage to 
strike various troubles in the shape 
of uneven markings, dust, pin- 
holes, etc., during the drying pe- 
riod. The beginner generally buys 
a drying rack for negatives, fills up 
all the grooves with the washed 
plates, and puts the rack in a cor- 
ner, expecting by some occult 
means that the rack itself will per- 
form the process of drying with- 
out any further thought from him- 
self. If by chance he has placed 
the rack full of negatives in a di- 
rect current of air, all may be well ; 
but if not, drying marks will prob- 
ably result ; that is to say, the mar- 
gins of the plates will dry first, and 
because the air cannot freely circu- 
late between 'the closely packed 
negatives the central portions will 
remain moist for a long time. If, 
as frequently happens, the nega- 
tives are then conveyed to a warmer 
atmosphere to hasten the drying, 
these patches will dry with a differ- 
ent density and remain as unremov- 
able marks in the negative. 

The trouble with the average 
drying rack which is sold commer- 
cially is that the grooves are too 
close together. Always invest, 



therefore, in a rack with plenty of 
space between the grooves, or only 
use every second or third groove. 
The worker should always remem- 
ber also to shake off as much ad- 
herent water as possible when re- 
moving the plates from the wash- 
ing water, and clean the back of the 
negative with a piece of dry rag. 
If the negatives are then stood up 
to dry, they should be moved to a 
fresh position after the first minute 
or two, as it retards drying to leaye 
the glass side wet or the rack 
standing over a pool of drippings. 
Other things being equal, plates 
dry quicker in cold weather than in 
hot, in dry weather than in wet, in 
a draught than in still air. The 
reason is found in the cause of a 
plate getting dry at all. Air takes 
up water — water evaporates from 
the liquid form to make water va- 
por, which mingles with and es- 
capes in the air. When the air 
holds a great deal of this water 
vapor in suspension it is slow about 
taking up more. The water vapor 
m the air is known as humidity. 
Its quantity is expressed in per- 
centage of the total quantity which 
the air can hold at the prevailing 
temperature. In summer the air is 
much more heated than in winter 
and takes up much more moisture. 
Consequently it is slower to dis- 
solve more than would the same air 
colder and possessing less water va- 
por. This is why plates generally 
dry more quickly in winter than in 



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January, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



summer. Of course, a winter's day 
may be very humid, and a summer's 
day, after a storm, may be very dry, 
and the conditions be reversed. 

If time presses, one can hasten 
drying by bathing the plate in a 
mixture of formalin and water 
(e.g., formalin 1 drm., water 4 oz.) 
for about ten minutes, then wash 
the plate in water as warm as the 
hand can bear for, say, five min- 
utes, and then dry the plate in front 
of a fire or over a gas stove. 

As most photographers are 
aware, negatives can be dried very 
rapidly — within ten minutes of 
leaving the washing water, in fact 
— ^by taking advantage of the prop- 
erty of methylated spirit to displace 
the water within the pores of the 
gelatine. There is a right and a 
wrong way of doing this. Once the 
water is removed the spirit volatil- 
izes quite readily in the air, leaving 
the negative dry within a few min- 
utes, but to succeed with the meth- 
od it is most necessary that the wa- 
ter should be thoroughly removed, 
and this will not be the case unless 
it is placed in a bath of strong 
spirit. If a number of negatives 
are being handled, the water ex- 
tracted from each soon weakens 
the spirit, and that is why the fol- 
lowing procedure should be adopt- 
ed. Take three batches of spirit, 
place the negatives in Nos. 1, 2 
and 3 in turn, each for five min- 
utes, filling bath No. 1 with a fresh 
negative as soon as the first is in 
No. 2, and so on, keeping the three 
dishes occupied. As soon as the 



negative comes from the third bath, 
it will dry almost instantly on be- 
ing waved in the air. 

Prints may be dried with alcohol 
too; and inasmuch as the fluid can 
get at the emulsion from both sides 
it forms a very effective method, 
one bath of fresh spirits usually be- 
ing sufficient. It should be remem- 
bered, however, that a spirit-drying 
bath should not be used with collo- 
dion-surface paf)ers. These papers, 
in fact, can be most readily dried 
between blotters, and finished with- 
in the warmth of a fire. Practically 
all prints can be blotted under pres- 
sure, and if laid out on blotters in 
front of a fire can generally be 
dried in about ten minutes. There 
is one point to remember, however, 
in the speedy drying of any emul- 
sion paper — drying them before the 
fire tends to make a stiff and easily 
cracked surface, which is difficult to 
straighten out again without dam- 
age. To overcome this defect, the 
following plan may be adopted: 
After the prints have been blotted.' 
wipe the surface with a piece of 
clean raw cotton dipped in a ten 
per cent, solution of glycerine and 
water. The surface should not be 
wetted — merely wiped — and they 
will then remain sufficiently soft, 
even under heat drying, to allow 
straightening with the edge of a 
ruler. 

A method for the more rapid 
drying of plates, which has been 
brought forward in France by Lu- 
miere and Seyewetz, seems to be 
designed especially for the press 



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SNAP SHOTS 



January, 1913 



photographer or dealer, who at very 
short notice has to develop plates 
for the tourist. The alcohol meth- 
od of drying is not always so rapid 
as might be wished, and, more- 
over, it is unsuitable for films. The 
new method is based upon the fact 
that certain chemical products have 
a great affinity for water. The 
plate, with its wet gelatine, is placed 
for four or five minutes in a ninety 
per cent, solution of potassium 
carbonate, by means of which, to 
a great extent, the water is aspirat- 
ed. On withdrawal the negative 
shows only the slightest trace of 
moisture, and this can be wiped 
away after exposure to a current of 
air without any fear of the deteri- 
oration of the image. The nega- 
tives thus treated are said not to 
turn yellow, and to be free from the 
white veil sometimes manifested 
after drying with alcohol. This 
veil, by the way, is generally due 
to insufficient fixing, and can be re- 
moved if the plate is replaced in 
the fixing bath for ten minutes, then 
washed and dried again. 

Both roll and cut films are best 
allowed to dry spontaneously. The 
former, when removed from, the 
wash water, should be fixed up by 
a wooden film-clip to a piece of cord 
and stretched across a corner of a 
little-used room (warm, if possi- 
ble). Another film-clip fastened to 
the other end will cause the roll to 
hang straight down and dry flat. 
This is a much better way than cut- 
ting it up and drying the separate 
pieces. • Cut films are best dried by 



pinning by one comer to the edges 
of wooden shelves, or they may be 
held by small clips to the stretched 
cord referred to above. 

This piece of stout cord stretched 
across a room — near the ceiling — 
is also very useful in drying large 
prints and enlargements. The 
prints are held by two top corners 
with the small print clips sold by all 
dealers, and are then attached to the 
line, where they may hang out of 
reach until dry. If the amateur 
does his photographic work in the 
evening, both plates, films, and 
prints can be easily dried in the 
morning, if the warm kitchen is 
taken advantage of for the purpose. 
Take care, however, to issue suit- 
able warnings to the domestic de- 
partment, and, if possible, get up 
early enough to remove the plates 
or prints before the day's work 
begins — The Amateur Photogra- 
pher & Photographic News. 



A FLASHLIGHT HINT 

Hang over the point where the 
ignition is to take place a large flat 
pad of damp wool lint. This may 
be done by tacking the lint to the 
underside of a board supported on 
legs. When ignition takes place 
the products of combustion for the 
most part will become absorbed by 
the wool. In this way it is possible 
to do away in a measure with the 
annoying fumes that always accom- 
pany a flashlight exposure. — Tech- 
nical World, Chicago, 



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SNAP SHOTS 



NOTES ON THE HYDRA PLATES 

By Malcolm Dean Miller, A. B., M. D. 

(Reprinted by permission of American Annual of Photography) 



During the summer of 1911 ihe 
photographic world was over- 
whelmed by the information that 
over-exposure had been abolished 
by the discovery of the action of 
hydrazine. Mr. W. H. Caldwell, 
the scientific head of the Paget 
Prize Plate Company, had been for 
a long time investigating sub- 
stances which he hoped would act 
as binders for nascent bromide, 
which, according to the theory of 
leading authorities, is set free in 
the sensitive film by the action of 
light on silver bromide. 

Without going into the chemistry 
of the problem, it is sufficient to 
state that exposures in excess of a 
certain maximum produced so 
much free bromide that the normal 
process of development could not 
take place. Or, in other words, the 
action of light undid itself and in- 
stead of producing a denser deposit 
in the more exposed portions gave 
a thinner one. This property of 
gelatine-bromide emulsions made it 
necessary to secure technically cor- 
rect exposure for two reasons : 
first, to register correct values or 
differences in gradation between 
the tones of the subject; and sec- 
ond, to avoid the untrue rendering 
which inevitably resulted from ex- 
posing for very dark shadows when 
the lights were very bright. The 
old rule, "expose for the shadows 
and develop for the high lights." 



was applicable to ordinary subjects, 
but failed when the ejcposure neces- 
sary to register shadow detail was 
too great for the highest lights. 
The saving grace, however, lay in 
the latitude of the plate, which, in 
the case of a good emulsion, might 
run from exposures half normal to 
ten times normal without flattening 
the natural contrasts by partial re- 
versal of the high lights. 

It was stated that the addition 
of certain derivatives of hydrazine 
to the finished emulsion conferred 
upon it absolute immunity to over- 
exposure. In other words, any time 
whatsoever could be given without 
producing reversal of the image. 
Exposures which with ordinary 
emulsions yielded positives instead 
of negatives could now be made, 
and the only point the user had to 
look out for was to give time 
enough for the shadows. 

Illustrations were printed show- 
ing the sun in landscape views — 
probably the most extreme test 
which could be devised. In short, 
the public was led to expect that 
the hydrazine plates would solve 
forever the exposure problem. In 
this, I confidently assert, the pub- 
lic is not deceived. The new 
plates accomplish in a perfect man- 
ner everything they are stated to 
perform. 

The Hydra plates were placed on 
the English market in the early 



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January, 1913 







Figure 1. 
(Correct Exposure on Ordinary Plate.) 



summer of 1912. I was fortunate 
enough to obtain some at once and 
put them through all the tests I 
could devise in the endeavor to 
prove, or disprove, their value and 
the accuracy of the statements 
published about them. Setting 
aside for the moment the extreme 
subjects. I tried moderate '*over- 
exposures," because I have found 
that even double-coated orthochro- 
matic plates sometimes lack the 
power to preserve the full range 
of tones when deep foreground 
shadows contrast with open, sun- 
lighted reaches. It seemed to me 
that the Hydra plates should prove 
ideal in such cases, because a 
straightforward exposure for the 
deepest tones could be given with- 



out fear that the lights would be 
thinned and flattened. 

I chose a subject with willow 
trees and open meadow, the light- 
ing being from behind the trees. 
I tested the light in the shade of 
the trees, holding the Watkins Bee 
meter to face the camera, and found 
that the detail in the trunks would 
require 1-2 second at f/6.5 on a 
common plate of the same rapidity 
as the Plydra (200 H. and D.). I 
gave this exposure and then took a 
Hydra plate of the same subject 
with an exposure of 10 seconds, or 
twenty times normal. The result 
surpassed my expectations. 

The first negative was allowed to 
develop a little too long and was 
rpther hard, though well suited to 



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Figure 2. 
(Twenty Times Normal Exposure on a Hydra Plate.) 



"professionar' gas-light paper; but 
the time was as accurate as only 
the meter can make it (Figure 1). 
The Hydra negative was developed 
in the same trayful of Paget for- 
mula pyro-soda with bromide and 
taken out when the principal high 
lights came through to the glass. 
Printed on the same grade of paper 
as the first, it gave a softer and 
more harmonious print, with val- 
ues in the greens as good as though 
it had been made on an orthochro- 
matic plate through a ray-filter 
(Figure 2). On a sheet of "nor- 
mal" paper it gave a print which 
could be distinguished from the 
other only by close observation. In 
other words, it was evident that any 
outdoor subject could be timed 



without regard to the high lights 
and still yield a perfect negative — 
a result hitherto impossible. 

The importance of this applica- 
tion of the new plates will be at 
once realized by pictorial workers. 
Take, for instance, one of the soft- 
focus lenses, such as the "Verito," 
which gives just the results one de- 
sires at f/5.6 (Figure 4). The 
Studio shutter with which it is 
equipped will hardly work faster 
than 1-5 second, yet this is too 
much time for many subjects if a 
rapid plate is used. With the Hy- 
dra plate it would not make a par- 
ticle of difference how long the ex- 
posure lasted, and a bulb exposure 
of reasonable duration could be 
given with the certainty of secur- 



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Figure 3. 
{Flatness from Overexposure and Reversal of Sun.) 



ing a fine negative. On the other 
hand, with ordinary plates one 
would have to stop down and lose 
the sketchy effect of the large aper- 
ture or else resort to slow isochro- 
matic plates and a deep ray-screen 
in order to avoid overtiming. 

Another obvious application of 
the new plates is to interiors. Most 
workers know the tremendous dif- 
ference between the times needed 
for the view outside of a window 
and for the shadowy corners of the 
room ; and though passable results 
have been obtainable with double- 
coated, backed or "Isolar" plates, 
some subjects have remained im- 
possible. With the Hydra plates 
one can time for the deepest shad- 
ows and retain the exterior un- 



marred by halation. This is due to 
three things: first, the fact that 
only the grains which have been 
acted on by light are developed — 
no spreading to unaffected par- 
ticles, as with common plates; sec- 
ond, the perfect qualities of the 
Paget Invisible Backing; third, the 
grainless structure of the image, 
rivaling the wet collodion process 
in this respect. 

Passing for a moment to screen- 
plate color photography, one is led 
to speculate on the advantages of 
a panchromatic hydrazine emul- 
sion. It is well known that with 
Autochromes the exposure must be 
within five per cent to ensure passa- 
ble results, and that the shghtest 
overtiming washes out the colors in 



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January, 191 3 



SNAP SHOTS 



II 




Figure 4. 
(Prolonged Exposure on a Hydra Plate.) 



the high lights because of partial 
reversal and the dissolving away of 
too much of the negative image. 
The hydrazine emulsion would al- 
low practically any exposure over 
a fixed minimum to be given. It is 
said that patents have been granted 
for a roll-film having a ray-filter on 
the face and the screen on the back 
of the celluloid, with the emulsion 
coated on this. Think how advan- 
tageous it would be to make the 
coating fool-proof by incorporating 
the hydrazine! To me it seems 
that this discovery of the Paget 
Company opens up almost unlim- 
ited possibilities, and I consider it 
quite the most important advance 
in photography in recent years. 
The manipulation of the Hydra 



plates is simple. If the exposure is 
known to be within forty times nor- 
mal, a regular pyro-soda with bro- 
mide can be used. The contrast of* 
the negative may be controlled by 
altering dilution and temi)erature ; 
dilute, warm solutions giving soft 
results. For times greater than 
those just mentioned a special de- 
veloper containing hydrazine is re- 
quired, and this may be used con- 
centrated and ice-cold if the ex- 
posure is 5,000 or 10.000 times too 
great. 

Some notes on the illustrations 
may be of interest. Figures 1 and 
2 have already been sufficiently ex- 
plained. Figure 3 was made at 
0.12 P. M. in June at f/16.5 with 
an exposure of two seconds. The 



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January, 1913 




Figure 6. 
(A 5 Ampere Arc on a Hydra Plate.) 



disc of the sun is reversed and all 
the tones suffer from partial re- 
versal. Figure 4 was made on a 
Hydra plate at 6.16 P. M. with an 
exposure of ten seconds at the same 
aperture. The visual impression is 
accurate and the sun is not re- 
versed. Unfortunately the halftone 



fails to give the full scale of the 
print and the print itself does not 
bring out the sun quite clearly. 

Figure 5 represents an exposure 
of two minutes at f/16.5 — sufficient 
to print out the flame of the arc 
lamp on the surface of the 
plate! 



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SNAP SHOTS 



13 



FIXING BATHS FOR PLATES AND PRINTS 



H3rposulphite of soda, or hypo, as 
it is universally termed, is prac- 
tically the only substance used as a 
fi^ng agent. Other substances, 
such as sulphocyanide, which like- 
wise dissolve silver bromide, have 
been recommended but very little 
used, though potassium cyanide 
continues in use as the fixing agent 
in the wet-collodion process be- 
cause the impurities in the com- 
mercial cyanide exert a certain 
"cutting" or clearing action and 
contribute to the brilliancy and 
clearness of the lines in wet-collo- 
dion negatives. 

H)rpo, if of reasonable purity, 
keeps for an unlimited time in the 
dry state without special precau- 
tions as to corking or bottling; 
those who use it in large quantities 
and buy it in hundredweight casks 
have no need to fear that its prop- 
erties become impaired during the 
time it remains on hand. 

DISSOLVING HYPO 

Though hypo is very soluble in 
cold water it is best never to use 
cold water for dissolving it. The 
reason is that, by dissolving, it 
greatly chills the water ; the process 
of solution then goes on much more 
slowly, and the fixing bath when 
made needs to be warmed or to be 
left to come to the temperature of 
the darkroom, otherwise it fixes 
very slowly and is apt to give rise 
to blisters in prints as a result of 



the inequality of temperature be- 
tween it and the developer and the 
wash-water which follows it. 

There is no harm in using even 
boiling water in dissolving hypo it- 
self, but water about as hot as the 
hand can bear is hot enough. This 
use of hot water applies to the hypo 
itself, but not to chemicals such as 
metabisulphite, with which the hypo 
may be combined in preparing an 
"acid** fixing bath. Such chemicals 
should be dissolved only at a tepid 
heat. 

In making up fixing bath in 
quantity — in gallons — it is best to 
suspend the hypo at the top of the 
water so that the chemical as it dis- 
solves falls down, and thus tends 
to keep comparatively fresh water 
acting on the hypo. A porcelain 
cage or a bag of stout muslin al- 
lows of this being done, and either 
results in much economy of time 
and attention in making up a solu- 
tion of hypo or indeed any sub- 
stance. 

A STOCK HYPO SOLUTION 

As hypo solution is used of dif- 
ferent strengths and in admixture 
with various other substances, ac- 
cording to the plate or paper which 
is being fixed, it may often be con- 
venient to keep it in an extra strong 
solution, mixing this latter with wa- 
ter or with solutions of the chemi- 
cals used in making the acid or 
hardening fixing baths. A conven- 



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SNAP SHOTS 



January, 1913 



ient strength for such hypo stock is 
one containing 1 oz. of hypo in 2 
ozs. of the solution. Then instead of 
weighing out 1 oz. of the hypo we 
measure out 2 ozs. of the stock. 
Such a stock is made by dissolving 
1 lb. of hypo in hot water, and mak- 
ing up the total bulk of the solution 
to 32 ozs., or 5 lbs. similarly dis- 
solved to make 1 gallon in all. This 
solution allows of any one of the 
strengths of hypo solution in gen- 
eral use being quickly made by 
addition of water according to the 
following table, which may be cut 
out and pasted on the jar of hypo 
stock : 

Hypo 

required Mix of 
per 20 ozs. stock 

of fixing solution Water 

8 ozs. 16 with 4 ue.. stock, 4; water, 1 

6 ozs. 12 with 8 t.<*., stock, 3; water, 2 

5 ozs. 10 with 10 i.e., equal parts. 

4 ozs. 8 with 12 i.^., stock, 2; water, 3 

3 ozs. 6 with 14 t.^., stock, 3; water, 7 

2 ozs. 4 with 16 t.^.. stock, 1 ; water, 4 

bath solution Water 

FIXING BATHS FOR PLATES AND 
PAPERS 

The weakest fixing bath which 
should be used for plates is one con- 
taining 4 ozs. hypo per 20 ozs. ; 
about as strong as is ever necessary 
is one containing 8 ozs. hypo per 
20 ozs. Something between the 
two, say 6 ozs. per 20 ozs , is a 
good working formula. The exact 
strength is not material except that 
if a bath is either too weak (or 



wrongly made bath is greater or 
less waste of time. Not so, how- 
ever, in the case of paper prints, 
in fixing which the only safe p.an 
is to use a fixing bath of known 
strength and allow a suflicient time 
for it to act. 

In the case of bromide and gas- 
light prints, the image is akin to 
that on a plate, and a fixer of like 
strength may be used so far as the 
image is concerned. But there is 
another reason for using a bath of 
somewhat less strength, namely, the 
liability to frill or blister which 
many bromide papers possess if 
fixed in too strong a hypo bath. 
One of 4 ozs. hypo per 20 ozs. is 
about right. Some makers of bro- 
mide papers direct 3 or 2 ozs. per 
20 ozs., but as a rule no ill effects 
will result from the stronger bath, 
and the latter has the advantage of 
requiring less time for its work. 
And this is all to the good since 
bromide papers often do not get 
the turning over and free exposure 
to the fixer that they should. 

In the case of print-out papers — 
P. O. P., or collodio-chloride — the 
hypo bath has an effect on the 
image, and it is advisable to use a 
lesser strength, not more than 2 or 
3 ozs. per 20 ozs. Self -toning pa- 
pers are in a class by themselves in 
this respect, since in some cases 



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therefore it is necessary to say here 
that these baths should never be 
used for print-out papers for the 
reason that they exert a rather 
more pronounced effect upon the 
tone and depth of the print than 
does plain hypo. On the contrary, 
an advisable addition to the print- 
out-paper fixing bath is a little car- 
bonate or bicarbonate of soda. This 
is particularly advisable in the case 
of prints which have been platinum- 
toned since this toner is acid, and 
though the acid should be all 
washed out before the prints are 
passed into the fixer, the carbonate 
or bicarbonate in the latter is a dou- 
ble safeguard which it is wise not 
to neglect. A very little is suf- 
ficient, say about 30 or 40 grains 
per 20 ozs. of fixer. 

I believe in the same thing for 
the fixing of those self-toning pa- 
pers where the makers direct put- 
ting the prints unwashed into a 
fixing bath. The paper itself con- 
tains acid as a rule, and the result 
of placing the prints direct in plain 
hypo solution unthout washing is to 
set up a species of toning which is 
not of assured permanence. The 
paper, I know, will usually give a 
better tone in this way, but I pre- 
fer to dose the fixer with a little bi- 
carbonate or carbonate and prevent 
acid-hypo toning. If the result is 
not so good, one has the consola- 
tion that at any rate it will last, 
which cannot be said for a certainty 
in the case of the other method 
This, I think, ends all that there is 
to say about plain hypo baths ; we 



can now come to the two other 
classes of fixing bath, viz., (1) the 
acid or anti-stam, and (2) the hard- 
ening, which perform the func- 
tions of an alum or tanning bath, 
in addition to fixing pure and sim- 
ple and preventing stain. 

ACID FIXING BATHS 

To write as I have just done in 
the preceding paragraph of the evils 
of acid in the hypo bath, and then 
straightway to turn to the advan- 
tages of an *'acid" bath is doubt- 
less puzzling to many. But here is 
the matter in a nutshell. Of the 
many acids which exist, one only is 
harmless in the fixing bath. This 
is sulphurous acid (the acid of sul- 
phite), and even it is not innocuous 
except under certain conditions. 
Roughly we may say that just as 
sulphite in the developer prevents 
staining of the film by the devel- 
oper, so sulphurous acid in the fix- 
ng bath prevents staining due to 
the developer which is carried into 
the fixer. Sulphurous acid itself 
(a liquid strongly smelling of burn- 
ing sulphur) would do, but for the 
fact that it gradually becomes ox- 
idized to sulphur 'c acid, and there 
we should be with a bath which con- 
tained the seeds of decomposing the 
hypo; a bath which could not be 
depended upon for permanent fixa- 
tion. There is an easy way out of 
this difficulty. It is to mix the 
sulphurous acid wMth some sulphite. 
The sulphite takes up the sulphuric 
acid, combining it as innocuous sul- 
phate and liberating more sulphur- 
ous acid. In fact, we can gfo a 



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January, 1913 



step further and dispense with the 
sulphurous acid as such, but use 
instead a mixture of sulphite and 
an acid, such as tartaric or even 
sulphuric. Either of these acids if 
mixed with a sufficient quantity of 
sulphite may be added to the hypo 
bath without fear of decomposing 
the hypo. I do not think that this 
is the best method of making the 
acid fixing bath, but nevertheless 
it is a quite practicable method, and 
one which -i largely adopted. The 
best method, so I think, is to use a 
substance which for our present 
purpose may be taken as combining 
both the sulphite and the acid 
within itself. This is metabisul- 
phite, and there is no better or sim- 
pler acid fixing bath than one made 
up, say, as follows : 
Hypo 4 ozs. 

(or hypo stock, 8 ozs. fluid) 

Potass metabisulphite 1 oz. 

Water to make 20 ozs. 

This bath will remain clear as long 
as it retains reasonable speed of 
fixing, and its anti-stain properties 
are of service equally for negatives 
and bromide or gaslight papers. 

If we choose to compound an 
acid fixer in another way — a some- 
what cheaper way — it is important 
to bear in mind that the acid and 
the sulphite should be dissolved in 
one lot of water, and this solution 
added to that of the hypo. You 
must not let the acid come into 
solution with the hypo save in the 
protecting presence of the sulphite. 
Therefore the formula for the bath 
should be adhered to both as re- 



gards the proportions and the or- 
der of mixing: 

A 

Hypo 5 ozs. 

or hypo stock, fluid 10 ozs. 

Water to make 10 ozs. 

B 

Tartaric acid 160 grains. 

Soda sulphite, crystals 1 oz. 

Water to make 10 ozs. 

Prepare A and B separately, and 
mix together to form the acid-fix- 
ing bath. 

Just a note here as a reminder to 
those who make much use of the 
Farmer reducer and are in the habit 
of preparing it by adding a little 
ferricyanide solution to an ounce or 
two of fixing solution. This is not 
a good practice in any case, but it 
will not do at all with a fixing bath 
containing much sulphite. The sul- 
phite destroys the ferricyanide so 
far as its reducing effect on the 
plate are concerned, and a great 
deal more ferricyanide requires to 
be added when making the reducer 
in this wrong way. Solution of 
hypo and of nothing but h3rpo 
should be used. 

HARDENING-FIXING BATHS 

This type of fixing bath is of 
more use for bromide or gaslight 
papers than for plates, since frilling 
troubles with the latter, except in 
tropical countries, are practically 
non-existent. In the case of pa- 
pers, however, it is often necessary 
to harden the gelatine emulsion 
chiefly when the prints are to be 
glazed by squeegeeing or when 



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January, 1913 SNAP SHOTS 17 

they are to be sulphide-toned. The ing mixture, which should be pre- 

saving of time, by performing the pared by adding the acid to the 

hardening process simultaneously water, not vice versa, and leaving 

with fixation, is an advantage in to cool: 

commercial work, whilst as regards Strong sulphuric acid 2 drams fluid. 

sulphide-toning it is found that the Water 2 ozs. 

use of a hardening-fixing bath This mixture of acid and sulphite 

containing chrome alum favors the is then poured into a solution of : 

production of a good tone. Hypo 16 ozs. 

The principles of compounding Water 48 ozs. 

an acid-hardening fixing bath are and addition finally made of: 

the same as those in preparing the Chrome alum 1 oz. 

ordinary acid anti-stain bath, name- Water 8 ozs. 

ly the mixture of an acid with sul- This gives a fixer containing 4 ozs. 

phite and admixture of this solution hypo in 20 ozs., a suitable strength 

with the hypo and the hardening so- for papers and plates, 
lution, this latter either ordinary or Now for the hardener-fixer made 

chrome alum. Chrome alum is a with ordinary alum, or, rather, as 

fairly pure substance as purchased I have said above, with pure alum : 
in commerce, but care requires to Prepare first the hypo solution : 

be taken in buying ordinary alum, Hypo 1 lb. 

since this latter in the cheap va- Water 60 ozs. 

riety contains iron and other im- To this add the hardening solution, 

purities which give rise to bluish made as follows, the substances be- 

stains on the prints and a degrada- ing dissolved in the order named 

tion of the high-lights. It is best in the formula : 

to purchase alum which is guar- Soda sulphite, crystals 1 oz. 

anteed free from iron. As regards Acetic acid, glacial }i oz. 

the choice of baths for one pur- Alum 1 oz. 

pose or the other of the two named Water 5 ozs. 

above, use the chrome-alum formula Lastly, a word requires to be said 

given below when sulphide toning as to the exhaustion of the fixing 

only, and employ the alum formula bath when using it for bromide or 

to harden prints at time of fixing gaslight prints. I know of no 

without subsequent sulphide-toning, means of telling when the bath is 

The chrome-alum bath is made losing its powers except putting 

up as follows : into the bath a slip of ordinary un- 

Soda sulphite, crystals 2 ozs. developed dry plate. The time 

Water 6 ozs. required for the silver bromide to 

This solution may be made with aid dissolve out from the emulsion is a 

of heat, but sulphite dissolves best useful test of the degree to which 

at a temperature of about 100 degs. the bath has become exhausted. — 
F. When dissolved add the follow- B. J. of Photography. 



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January, 191 3 



TRADE NEWS AND NOTES 



We hear very favorable reports of the 
new Hydra Plate, imported by George 
Murphy, Inc., New York. Within rea- 
sonable limits it is practically impos- 
sible to over-expose this plate, thus mak- 
ing it of great advantage ifor certain 
classes of work, such as interiors, work- 
ing against the light, etc. While these 
plates are slightly higher in price than 
most American plates, the results are 
well worth the additional cost. We ad- 
vise our readers to give them a trial. 



The Berlin Aniline Works wish to 
announce that they now have in stock 
Autochrome Screens adjusted to the 
"Agfa" Blitzlicht Powder. 

They are made in seven sizes, the 
prices ranging from $1 to $5, according 
to size. Send to them for circular. 
Mention you saw it in Snap Shots; it 
helps us. 



Tke manifold applications of photog- 
raphy to scientific, artistic and commer- 
cial purposes has led Syracuse Univer- 
sity to establish a Department of Pho- 
tography, giving instruction in all its 
branches. The university is enabled to 
do this through the generosity of an 
alumnus who does not desire to have his 
name mentioned. 

The aim of the department is to pro- 
vide for students a thorough grounding 
in- th^ o p t- cs and -c he m^ s tfy -of photo- 
graphic processes; a practical course 
dealing with every department of pho- 
tography ; the art training necessary for 
the utilization of photography for ex- 
pressing artistic feeling, and advanced 
or specialized courses to enable stu- 
dents to take positions as studio opera- 
tors, photo-chemists and investigators. 



Dufay Color Plates. — Many beautiful 
colored transparencies are ready for ex- 



U,. *U» ->-» *. 



Acrol. The developing agent which 
has been placed on the market by the 
Eastman Kodak Company, under the 
above trade name, is unusually quick in 
action, produces negatives of good print- 
ing quality and is especially adapted for 
use with bromide papers. 

Acrol requires only the addition of a 
solution of sodium sulphite to make a 
ready-for-use developer. The rich, vel- 
vety black prints produced with Acrol 
will make it a favorite with the bro- 
mide worker, to whom we can heartily 
recommend its use. 



Photo-Flat. — This new product over- 
comes one of the troubles of photogra- 
phy, namely, curled prints. No more 
curled prints should exist, and its ease 
of applying adds to its efficiency. Put 
up in pint, quart and one-half gallon 
bottles. This can be procured from any 
dealer or from the sales agents. See 
their advertisement in this issue. Give 
them an order and don't forget to men- 
tion that you saw it in Snap Shots. 



Rough & Caldwell Co.'s new cata- 
logue of photographic accessories should 
be in the hands of all interested in see- 
ing what accessories are and where they 
apply to the helping of the artistic pho- 
tograph. Write them; please mention 
Snap Shots 



Ross Homocentric Lenses. — These cel- 
ebrated Ross lenses, made in all grades 
of speed and for all classes of photog- 
raphy, are constantly increasing in their 
field. The illustrated catalogue of Ross 
lenses gives a full, detailed description 
and enables the reader to form an idea 
of the qualities of this world-known 
make of lenses. See advertisement in 
this issue. 



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January, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



19 



Safelights. There is a certain satis- 
faction in recommending an article that 
has real merit and is needed by every 
photographer to safeguard the quality of 
his negatives. 

In most cases the fogging of plates 
is blamed to everything but the dark- 
room light, and the trouble is usually 
found after the damage has been done. 

W ratten Safelights have been placed 
on the market by the Eastman Kodak 
Company, in six series, each one being 
perfectly safe when used with the grade 
of plates for which it is suited. These 
safelights consist of two sheets of glass 
coated with a colored gelatine film with 
paper between. They transmit a per- 
fectly safe light for handling the plate 
for which they are recommended. 

The Wratten Safelight Lamp is an 
excellent form of dark-room lamp, 
which is fitted with one of these safe- 
lights, as well as a covered slide, which 
may be drawn when white light is re- 
quired. You should have one of these 
scientifically correct and safe dark-room 
lights. 



The Berlin Aniline Works, 213 Water 
Street, New York, inform us that they 
are shortly putting out a second edition 
of the now well-known "Agfa Book of 
Photography by Flashlight" ; also a new 
book, "The Agfa Way." Better write 
for it at once so as to be among the 
first. Ask for booklet "F." 



Owing to the continued increase in 
business, the Northern Photo Supply 
Company, conceded to be one of the 
largest independent photo supply houses 
in the United States, have found it nec- 
essary to move into new and larger 
quarters, and have secured a long lease 
in the Reid Corners, corner Ninth and 
Nicollet Avenue, Minneapolis, which is 
a new modern building on the main 
thoroughfare. 

They will move on or about February 
1st, and will be in a better position than 
ever to handle their rapidly growing 
business. 

Their new place will contain more 
than 9.000 square feet, and is more than 
twice the size of their present quarters. 



LUDWIG F. HAMMER, JR. 

Mr. Hammer was one of the best- 
known men in the photographic materials 
trade. He was sales manager of the 
Hammer Dry Plate Company, and had 
been connected with them for many 
>ears, his father being the president. 
He was a genial, whole-souled man, and 
had many friends, and, aside from his 
business connections, was greatly loved 
for his genial qualities. He was a prom- 
inent man in the city of St. Louis, having 
been at one time a City Collector and 
president of the South Broadway Mer- 
chants and Manufacturers' Association. 

Mr. Hammer died in early middle life, 
being only forty-five years of age. Heart 
disease, from which he has suffered the 
past two years, was the cause of his 
death. His death will be a loss not only 



♦rt *U- _l-^#. 



WILLLAM B. HOLMES 
We have just learned of the death of 
Mr. William B. Holmes, one of the vet- 
eran photographic materials merchants 
of New York. Mr. William B. Holmes 
was for many years connected with the 
Scoville Manufacturing Company, being 
their superintendent of the photo mate- 
rials department until 1865. He then 
started and opened a photo materials 
business at 555 Broadway. From there 
he moved to 644 Broadway, with a beau- 
tiful store, in 1871, and continued along 
in business until 1890, and then retired, 
entering into the real estate business 
until his death. He died at Montclair, 
N. J., at the age of eighty-one years, and 
leaves a widow and three sons. He was 
one of the photo merchants who handled 
photographic goods from the Daguerro- 



i.u_ i-:-«.i- ^r 4.u^ 



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20 SNAP SHOTS January, 1913 

STUDIO WANTS 

Galleries for Sale or Rent Positions Wanted— Retouchers, Recep- 

D. R M., gallery in New York City. '*^* ^^^^ 

$3,500. Miss M. F., retoucher and spotter. 

R S. W., on Long Island. $900. Miss F. B. N., retoucher. 

A. M. C, in New Jersey. $900. Miss L. N. C, retoucher and printer. 

G. B., gallery in New Jersey. $800. S. I., retoucher and printer. 
A. D. v., gallery in New York. $500. 



Parties Desiring Galleries 

N. S., wants gallery in N. Y. City. 
R. L. C, in New York City. 



Positions Wanted— Printers 



H. 1. Z., printer; all papers. 
L. S., printer. 

IT. A.I warns gallery in'N. Y. State. ^''' ^' ^' ^^ P""^^^ ^"^ retoucher. 



T. D., wants gallery in small city. S' ^- P"nter and retoucher. 

Positions Wanted— Operators Parties Desiring Help 

A. L., operator and retoucher. ^ S. W., wants operator. 

J. E. J., an all-round man. a. W. S., all-around man as manager. 

C. C. P., operator and retoucher. V. C. D., wants retoucher. 

V. S., all-around operator. C., wants lady spotter and assistant. 

Hotioe— Letten addre8i«d to anyone In our oare ihoiild be aooompanied with itamp 
for each letter ao that they can be re-mailed. 



SEND YOUR SUBSCRIPTION NOW 

Our Year expires January 1st and we want your Renewal. $1.00 per year. 
Photographic news from every section is worth five times our subscription 
price. 

OUR SPECIAL CLUBBING LIST 

We ofiFer the Special Clubbing List of Snap Shots with American and Eng- 
lish Annuals and the English Journals. A combination that places to the 
American photographer photographic news that combined gives him the field 
covering the English-speaking photographic world: 

1 year's Snap Shots with American Annual (cloth edition) 1913 |1 . 75 

1 year's Snap Shots with British Journal Almanac (cloth edition) 1913 1.50 
1 year's Snap Shots with 1 year's subscription to British Journal of 

Photography 3 . 75 

Snap Shots and 1 year's subscription to Photography and Focus (Eng.) 3.50 
Snap Shots and 1 year's subscription to Amateur Photography and Pho- 
tographic News (English) 4. 50 

SNAP SHOTS PUB. CO. 57 East 9th St., New York 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



POSITIONS OFFERED and WANTED, FOR SALE, 
TO RENT, WANT to PURCHASE,EXCHANGE,&c. 



Announcements under these and similar headings of {ort:^ words or less, will be inserted 
for forty cents. For each additional word, one cent. Displayed advertisement* 60 cents 
per inch. Cash must accompany order. When replies are addressed to our care, 10 cents 
at least must be added to cover probable postage on same to advertiser. Advertisements 
should reach us by the 20th to secure insertions in the succeeding issue. A copy of the 
Journal sent free to every advertiser as long as the "ad" is continued. Advertisements in 
Snap Shots bring prompt returns. 



AN ADVERTISEMENT IN THESE COLUMNS 

li an rrcrilrnt and safe medium of commtsnicatloii between Pfiotographen 



Salesman Wanted: Large stock 
house in East wants traveling sales- 
man, also store salesman. Must be 
experienced. Give full particulars in 
first letter. P. Y. H., care Snap Shots. 

Studio for Sale: Best location in 
Newark and old established but new- 
ly rebuilt. Most modern equipped 
studio in State of New Jersey. Must 
sell on account of ill health. K. S., 
care **Snap Shots " 

For Sale: Stereoscopic pictures of 
Southern Indiana scenery. These 
views are regular photographic ste- 
reoscopic pictures, finished on double- 
weight paper, and consists of views 
along the picturesque streams and 
hills of Southern Indiana. One dozen, 
all diflFerent, 75 cents. Alonzo Price, 
Waldron. Ind. 

For Sale: Seneca No. 2 5x7 cam- 
era and outfit in new condition; sell 
for $15. Also Smith Premier type- 
writer; cost $100. sell for $25; in very 
?:ood condition. For further informa- 
ion write to Charles I. Reid, Box 
510, Millersburg, Pa. 



Autotype Transfer Pictures. The 

ncAvest stunt in picture-making; are 
easily and quickly transferred to any 
surface. Post-cards, letter-heads, 
wedding hivitations, etc. Made in 
any color — black, sepia, brown, red. 
green, blue, etc. Send us a good pic- 
ture and 35 cents and we will send 
you one dozen miniature transfer pic- 
tures that will more than please you. 
Or, to convince you, send us three 
two-cent stamps and we will send you 
two beautiful samples. We will also 
send full instructions how to make 
.Autotype transfer pictures for $1.00 
American Autotype Company. Bloom- 
ington. 111. 

When writing advertisers 



For Rent: Best located photo- 
graphic studio in the City of York, 
Pa., close to Center Square, on sec- 
ond floor; good North light, and fine 
developing room. The studio has 
been in constant operation for th^ 
past twenty-five years; the tenant can 
get possession April 1st. The rental 
is low. Inquire of Harry S. Ebert, 
No. 10 W. Market Street, York. Pa. 

For Sale: A well located, well fur- 
nished photo studio in New York City 
in prominent thoroughfare. Owner 
desires to sell on account of other 
business interests. Price $3,500; lease 
three years; rent $2,150 per year. To 
a good photographer a fine opening, 
but letters must be addressed in our 
care and will be answered only as the 
owner decides. Address *'D. F. M." 
rnre Snap Shots. 

For Sale: Lampron Studio, Dan- 
bury. Conn.; National Bank Building; 
population. 23,000. Big country trade. 
Electric light, steam heat, fitted to 
11 X 14. Everything O. K. for a good 
man; 20,000 negatives. Rent $30 00. 
Price, $1,200. Am going on my 
plantation at Isle of Pines 

For Sale: Studio in a town of fif- 
teen thousand, New York State; good 
opportunity. Will sell reasonable. 
W. F. K 

For Rent: Photographic Studio, 
been occupied continuously for the 
past twenty years; newly decorated 
throughout; ready for occupancy. No 
business to buy out. simply pay rent 
at $25 per month. Five years* lease to 
reliable party. Address J. B., care 
Snap Shots. 

Wanted: A copy of "The American 
Annual of Photography 1903." Ad- T 
dress: Albert E. Sloan, 4014 SprueOQlC 
Street. Philadelphia. Pa. ^ 

please mention Snap Shots. 



VI 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



HIGH GLASS LANTERN SLIDES 

Made from any size films, plates and 
photographs Prices and bargain 
catalogue of intcresiitig slides free. 
Sample slide, AMERICAN EAGLE, 
postpaid for thirtj'- one-cent stamps. 

BROMIDE ENLARGING 

Trial Order Solicited 

URI MULFOUD 

Lantern Slide Exchange, 

Coming; N. Y, 



ROCK BOTTOM PRICES 

On Cameras, Lenses and Photoiraphic Supplies 

Why pay exorbitant prices for your pho- 
tographic accessories when you can obtain 
from us everything you need in your photo- 
graphic work — whether amateur or profes- 
sional — ^at greatly reduced prices. 

New BARGAIN LIST just of! press* 
Send for copy to-day. 

NEW YORK CAMERA EXCHANGE 

lOd Fulton St. New York 



E.W. N. Hon NalatlM Plats Backing 

Willi this I lacking, which is most <t;isily applied 
and fcmoved. oTJinar>- gla$A plaits are made 
perfect. It prevrnts tJiat white fog around 
light objcels. Tenders persfjcciive truthfully- 
lends atmospiiere ami rerooyes all rrsitricticjns 
as to source or iniensily of li^bt. With Backed 
Plates vou can takr nature afl you iind her 
triithfutly and artistically. The thihK for 
snow scenes or interiora. 

Ffio« EO G«ttti, wltli full dleecttoTiB. Will 
perfect 250 6x7 pUt^i- Trial slie 20 eenti. 

Beorge Murph), Inc., &7 E. 9tb St., New Ytrk 



CAMERA OWNERS 

H you would like to sec a copy of a 
beautiful, practical, interesting, modern 
photographic Tnagazine, written and 
edited with the purpose of teaching all 
photographer! how to use their mate- 
rials and skill to the best advantage, 
either for profit or amusemeni, send us 
your name on a posl-canL UonH for- 
get or delay, but write at once. The 
three latest numbers will be sent for 2S 
cents. $1 50 a year. 

AMERICAN PHOTOGRAPHY 



60 1 Pop« Building 



BO&TOH, MASS. 



You Can Take Pictures on a Day like This ! 

That is, if your lens is right Tlie lens is the soul of your camera. Ordinary lenses 
will take ordinary pictures xxTid^r Javarable conditions. Arc you satisfied with that? 
Or would you like the hesi results under ail conditions? If so, you should know the 

GOERZ LENSES 

Universally used by war photographers and professionals, who must 
be sure of their results, TTity can easiiy be filled to ike camera 
you now oivn. 

Send for Our Book on "Lenses and Cameras" 

of the greatest value to ^ny one interested 
in good photography. 

C. P. Gocn Amcricui OpticAi 
317 East 34A StiMt 




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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



DISTORTO 



(Patent applied for) 

A NEW OPTICAL INSTRUMENT, 
USED WITH AN ORDINARY CAMERA 
LENS. WHICH PRODUCES ANY DEGREE 
OF DISTORTION IN THE PICTURE. 
ANY ONE MAY BE PHOTOGRAPHED 
AS TALL OR SHORT. FAT OR THIN, 
AS A GROTESQUE MONSTROSITY OR 
ARTISTICALLY BEAUTIFIED BY MEANS 
OF SIMPLE USE OF THIS WONDERFUL 
INSTRUMENT. 



vil 



The Distorto is the only practical invention ever devised to produce 
effects in a photog:raph similiar to those so often seen in distorting; 
cylindrical mirrors. Instead of being fixed in one position and of one 
curviture, however, as mirrors must be, the Distorto, by means of a simple 
adjustment, may be set to produce anything from the slightest variation 
to the most absurd and ridiculous extremes. 

The Distorto is composed of an oblong prism lens, pivoted at the side, 
so as to swing through a large angle. It is handsomely mounted in nickled 
brass, with adjustable rubber covered tongues to fit over the front of the 
camera lens. 

When the prism lens stands parallel to the camera front it produces no 
distortion, but by simply tipping the thick end toward the camera lens, any 
degree of expansion or elogation of the image is produced in one direction, 
and by tipping the thin end of the prism-lens toward the camera lens any 
amount of contraction or shortening is obtained. 

You simply slip the Distorto over the front of the camera lens, set the 
prism-lens at the angle to give the desired degree of distortion and make the 
exposure as usual. 

Anything animal, vegetable or mineral, that can be photographed is 
a subject for experiment, ridicule or improvement. Thousands of serious 
and ludicrous effects suggest themselves continually. 

Photograph your pet poodle and then show your friends a picture of your 

new duchs-hund, or maybe its a long legged gray-hound he has turned into. 

Remember that every peculiarity of feature or form is rigidly held in 

the picture, so that portraits no matter how ridiculous are instantly recognized. 

Photosraohers evervwhere can arise interest and arearlv sfimnlafa frarl<» 



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viii SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Attention— Sometliiztg Nwv 

A plate that cannot be over-exposed 

THE HYDRA PLATE 

These plates^ while possessing all the qualities of the best dry plates, 
have properties peculiar to themselves, the chief of which is that they 
DEFY OVER-EXPOSURE. The advantage to photographers of every 
class is the assurance that the quality of the negative will in no way 
suflFer by abnormal over-exposure. The extreme contrasts of bright 
sunshine and deep shadow in the same subject presents no difficulty to 
the user of "HYDRA" plates. Expose for the shadows is all that is nec- 
essary. "HYDRA" plates are supplied "backed" only — invisible backing 
which requires no rubbing off, as it disappears in most of the popular 
developers without leaving any stain. The speed of the "HYDRA" 
plate is as follows: 

At per : Harter & Drii&eld system. No. 800 
As per: Wjmne Meter speed F 90, or ITS 618 

Sizes Per dozen 

Sy^ X 4J4 10.60 

4 X 6 1.00 

6 X 7 2.00 

6J4 X 8^ 8.60 

8 X 10 4.C0 

We have a stock of these plates now ready for distribntion. 

Send a trial order. Descriptive booklet on request. 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 57 E. 9th Street, New York 



C P^ Nitrate Silver Crystals 
Pure Chloride Gold 



For Photograplieny Aristo 
Paper and Dry Plate Makers 



Chemicals for Photo Engraving and the Arts 



All Kindt of saver and Gokf 
Waste Refined 



H2=!E2^ PHILLIPS & TACOBS 

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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS ix 

FOR THE PORTRAIT THAT YOU PUT AM A OLASS BY 
ITSELF TO MAKE YOUR AFTER HOLIDAY RUN ON 

THE BUOXI 

Listed Pave 42 of 
Fall Bnpplement. 

For single weight 3 x 4 and 
3x6 prints. Made in pai\e) 
styJe— simple and rich in 
design— and in three beau 
tiful shades, Buff, Grey 
and Brown. 

Sample of the BILOX 1 
free; or, for six one 
cent stamps we will 
send you five styles 
each different, for 
double and single 
weight half and 
panel sized prints. 

Call for Sample 
Offer No. 162. 

Designed and Manufaotured by 

TAPRELL, LOOMI8 & COMPANY - CHICAQO, U. S. A. 

The Leading Card Novelty House of America. 




8x10 Plate Holders 

Will fit any 8x10 Century 
or New York Studio Outfit 

These Holders are Single Curtain Slide Holders with Kits 
for 6^x8^, 5x7 and 4x5 Plates 



PRICE, - $4.00 - EACH 



QEORQE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 East Ninth Street New Yorlc> , , 

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When writing advertisers please mention Snaf Shots. 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Start The New Year Right 

USE 

"AGFA'' Products 



*Agfa" Metol 
•Agfa*' Glycin 
'Agfa" Pyro 
'Agfa'* Hydrokinone 



"Agfa" Ortol 
"Agfa** Eikonogen 
"Agfa** Rodinal 
"Agfa" Amidol 



"Agfa** Flashpowder 

Any photographic dealer anywhere 



American Representatives 
ai3 Water Street MEW YORK 



Royal Foreground Ray Screen 

Patented April 4th, 1911 

Style B (Universal) 

An oblonr nj filter rradad from a deep yellow on one end 
to practically colorleu rlaii on the other, mounted in a 
tlidinr frame eo ai to brint a Ulter of any dealred depth of 
color in front of the camera lent. 




In the Style B Foreground wc oflFer a ray filter for every 
conceivable oi thochromatic purpose. 

Maximum speed is attained for instantaneous exposures by 
means of the colorless or faintly tinted sections ana maximum 
orthochromatism, or rendering of the true color values, by using 
the deeply colored portions, with every possible gradation inter- 
vening. 

The frame of the filter is num- atvyw n 

bcred consecutively according to the oTXliB a 

depth of color and these numbers No. Dia. Inchei 

show through a circular opening on 1 B l*/i« $8.00 

the mount, so that any special color 8 B lVi« 8.00 

intensity is readily located and the 4 B 1]^ 8.00 

exact conditions for any previous 5 B 1^ 4.00 

exposure may be instantly duplicated 6 B 2 4.50 

if desired. 7 B 2J4 6.00 

It slips over the front of the lens 8 B 2J^ 6.00 

the same as a lens cap, and may be 9 B 2^ 6.60 

instantly attached or removed. 10 B 8 7.00 

The Style B Foreground is the last word in Orthochro- 11 B 8J4 8.00 

matics and its immense field of usefulness must commend 12 B 8^ 9.00 

it to every photographer desiring to obtain the best results 18 B 4 10.50 

in his art. 14 B 4^ 18.00 

QEORQE MURPHY. Inc., 57 E. 9tti St, NEW YORK 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 

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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XI 



Increase the Artistic 
Merit of Your Work 




and the public demand will take care 

f^f Itself. One of the shortest roads to 

,t1fi^*t *s to combnie your artistic skill 

^^^'^^^^ wonderful optical qualities of 

HELIAR LENS 

nJFfl^^^^^^^^ ^as QYcry feature that a 
f^il^ ,?^nraii lens should have^htgh 
erit?o=il , ^"*' i^erfect flatness of field. 
at wUi ^^^*^^^^^Q" that can be softened 
^t>^c>l t "^^^nderful covering power and 

^^^^'^ B^tiastigmatic correction. 
lens '* ^^^^ argument of all is the 

^-Txd 1^ 11*^^^* ^^ ^^ ^'^^^^ dealer to-day 
in <r*^ ^^^ >'^^ ^'^"^ *^ ^^y ^ Heliar 

^ ^Ur studio for ten day !^— he'll make 



in 



\ 



oS^*^^^^^^-' arrungements. 
^^^, ^^'^ Ticw catalog is now ready, 
Vfc^^^^'if progrt'ssive photographer should 
^-L^ ]["^ a copy. Votir copy will he sent 
'^ day ^^ 'get your request. 



OUTDOOR 

PHOTOGRAPHY 




Nature is a grand symphony of 
colors, but the average landscape 
picture is a tonal tragedy. Why? 
Because the ordinary photographic 
plate will not produce the correct 
color value unaided. 

Send for our Booklet "Outdoor 
Photography," and you will have the 
key to the successful photographing 
of all colored objects such as trees, 
flowers, clouds, etc. 

The Ingento Color Filters are the 
solution; they are made in three se- 
ries, A, B, and C, meeting every de- 
mand from the most rapid to the 
most highly corrected color filter 
made. Your dealer carries Ingento 
Color Filters, go to him. 



New York Office and Sample Room 
S25 FIFTH AVENUE 

BURKE & JAMES. Inc. 



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Xll 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



A NEW PAPER. 

Ivory Black Platinotype 

in smooth (Buff) and rough (White) surfaces. 

Artistic, Refined and Beautiful Results 

The tone is warm black and very popular in every country 
in Europe. Send for sample Print. 

Our regular papers, sepia and black — in smooth, rough 
and Japine surfaces — continue to be in good demand by the 
best photographers. 



WILLIS & CLEMENTS 

PHILADELPHIA 



^ountjed 



HIGGINS' 
PHOTO 



IV/irfcf IMTCD 



Have an excellence pecoUarl j their 
own. The best result! are only 
produced by the best methods and 
means — the best results in Photo- 
graph, Poster and other mountinf 
can only be attained by using the 
best mounting paste— 

HIQQINS' PHOTO MOUNTER 

(Bzoellent noyel bnuh with eaeh Jar^ 



At Dealers In Photo 8apiiUos» 
ArtUU' M»toriAU bud StattOBoij. 



▲ t-oB. jar prepaid bj mall for 80 es at s. 

or oironlan free from 

CHAS. M. HIQQINS & CO.* Mfn. 

NBW YORK CHICAQO LONDOW 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Xlll 



The QUICKEST plates possessing the widest range and 
greatest power of rendering detail are the ONLY plates suited 
to winter work. 

Hammer's Special Extra Fast (red label) and Extra Fast 
(blue label) Plates answer these requirements and are abso- 
lutely the BEST plates in the market today. 




Hammer's little book, *'A Short Talk on Negative Making," 
mailed free. 

HAMMER DRY PLATE COMPANY 



Ohio Av«. and Miami St. 



St. Leuia. Ma. 



Rough & Caldwell Background and 
Accessory Company 

announce that their new catalogue of photographic ac- 
cessories is now ready; accessories that are really 
an accessory to the subject producing finished pic- 
tures. For these there is a constant inquiry, and there 
is not on the market a catalogue showing the various 
styles that can be adapted by the photographer in the 
making up of his artistic picture, or a picture with artistic 
service. Send your name and address, and one will be 
mailed you. You can order these from any dealer in 
photographic materials. 

Rough & Caldwell Background and Accessory Co. 

140th St. and Walton Avenue, New Yoric City, N. Y. 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. igitized byVjOOQlC 



xiv SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Rhodol 



METOL, SATRAPOL and other trade names have been 
adopted by different manufacturers for the chemical Mono- 
methylpara-amidophenol sulphate. We are supplying this 
chemical under the name RHODOL and guarantee our 
article when used in the same way, to produce identical 
results. 

Obtainable from All Photo Supply Houses at Lowest Prices. 

Mallinckrodt Chemical Works 

St. Louis New York 

XANTrFAOTVBERS OF HIGH ORADB, 8TANDABB PHOTOORAPKIO OHSmOAIS 



JXJ8T OVT JViT OVT 

Landscape and figure Composition 

BY BADAXIOHI HAXTMAn 

Hia greateit work. A book no photographer am afford to be without. Profnaely Ulat- 
trated with handsome photo^ngraTingi from celebrated paintings and original photographs. 
Large quarto size, full gilt, in a box. Price, |t.OO. 

''Photographing In Old £.ngland" 

With Some Snap-Shots in Scotland and Wales 

BY W. I. UNOOLV ADAXS 
Bdltor of "The Photographic Times.'* Anther of <<8«iUght and Shadew," 
"In Hatnre's Image," etc., etc. 
The record of a journey in England by a master photographer — a delightful record of 
the charm of Old England, accompanied by photographs remarkable for their beauty and 
for the exquisite reproductions here giren. Mr. Adams' inland voyages took him from 
Windsor to Oxford on the Thames, to London and the Cathedral Towns, Shakespeare's 
Country, the Doones, Qovelly, the Lake Country, Scotland, and Wales. There is also a 
chapter giving many practical hints and suggestions for photographing abroad. Price |S.iO. 

OTHSB BOOKS BY W. Z. LINOOLB ADA1I8 

BvBlight and Shadow In Hatvre'i Image 

A book for Photographers. Illus- Chapters on Pictorial Photoc- 

trated by original Photographs raphy. Richlv illustrated. Urn- 

from nature. A new edition, third form with above. Only a few 

thousand. 4to, cloth, decorated, copies left |S.iO 

fuU gilt, in box IS.SO 

Seat poit-peid by mail en receipt of price by 

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES PUBLISHING ASSOCIATION 
135 West I4th Street, New York Qty 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XV 




We Are Head-quarters for 

the following photographic products and commend 
the same to your attention. Booklets or circulars re- 
ferring to these will be sent on request. 

Kli^Colors 

Talbot's Photo Retouching Colors 

Eagle Enlarging Lantern 

Eagle Marl (for Working in Backgrounds) 

Eagle Negative Varnishes 

Magic Retouching Fluid 

Star Negative Files 

Eagle Developing Powders (Tested) 

Strengtho (a powerful single solution intensif ier) 

E. W. N. Preparations 

Also anything in the photographic line. 



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>8' 



XVI 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 





AT L^ASX 




Lantern Slides in 




NATURAL. COL.ORS 




Made with 


D 


ufay Color Folate 


Process the simplest, results the most perfect reproduction of natural colors possible to 1 
obtain. Dufay color plates are of very fine texture, rapid, and are guaranteed for six 1 


81x4 - 
8lx4r 

s! I Iv 

6x7".. 


PRICE LIST FEB BOX OF FOTTB 
11.80 4x6" tl.OO 


1.28 6x7" 8.00 

G0MFEK8ATINO 80BEEN8 
$1.80 81 X 81" 18.00 


1.00 4| X 41" 4.00 

2.00 

OBEEN EXCEL8I0B FAFEB FOB DABK BOOM 
FEB FACBAOE OF 6 8HEET8 

90.18 8 X 10" 10.80 

Complete tet Solutions fl.26 




Send a trial order. Descriptive booklet on request. 


GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 Ea»t^9th Street, New York 



Send your name and address 
for 

King's 
Booklet on 
"Lighting" 

(Eight pages with illustrations) to 

GEORGE MURPHY 
57 E. gth St., New York 

Send IOC. (pottage) for 
Complete Catalogve 

Manufacturers and 

Importers of Every Kind of 

Photographic Material 



WANTED 

mton PHitiinpHs 

NOT the fuzzy, foggy, out-of- 
focQS kind. 

Something from Nature that is 

■•vel. Especially leaitiM 
•r tatersstiag 

Shown in Clear, Sharp Photo- 
graphs. Please Submit 
Will make Proposition, if arail- 
able. 

Send IOC for Sample Copy 

"TheBMMett Natm" 



EDWARD F. BIQELOW 

MsBsiiai Eiitsr 

Also "Nature and Scieace" 
Editor of " St Nicholas " Mag- 
azine. 

Aroailla« 
S«und BMMhi 0#m»o»tl««t 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XVI 1 



SEED 




PLAIB 



Speed in a plate is a decided 
advantage to the portrait photog- 
rapher, but not speed at a loss of 
quality. 

It's Seed quality combined ^vith 
extreme speed that has made the 
Seed Gilt Edge 30 so popular ^vith 
the best portrait photographers. 



Ifs the speed that has been increased- 

not the price. 



SEED DRY PLATE DIVISION, 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, 

ROCHESTER. N. Y. 



AU Dealers. 



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xvm 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



V 



v<)) 



ir. *.^'i 



^5Nn f/^ 



'')/. 



«i 





'^[[jO'K 



The best seller — because the best 
buyers demand Artura quality. 



^n Artura customer is a pleased 
customer. 






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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XIX 




THE NEW 

Ross "Telecentric" Lens 

(PATENT) 

QWlng Critical Definition at Pull Aperture 

Tele-Photography with Focal Plane Shutter Ex- 
posures. Large Image at Short Camera Extension 

AN IDEAL LENS FOR 
SPORTING EVENTS 

VERY SUITABLE FOR 
PORTRAITURE 

Two Series, f/s-A and //6.8 

The new "Telecentric" Lens gives a universally flat image with ex- 
quisite definition to the corners of the plate. Coma and spherical aber- 
ration away from the axis have been so fully corrected that the bril- 
liancy of image equals that of the finest Anastigmat. Like the Ross 
"Homocentric," the "Telecentric" is absolutely free from spherical zones, 
and negatives taken with it are perfect in detail. The chromatic correc- 
tion is also perfect. It fills the want so forcibly felt of a lens possess- 
ing the sharp definition and other good qualities of the Anastigmat, and 
at the same time enlarging the image of distant objects. 

In the "Telecentric" Lens, f/6.8, which is slightly faster than other 
lenses of this type, the definition and brilliancy at full aperture are quite 
equal to those of the most perfectly corrected modern Anastigmats. 

In the extra rapid "Telecentric" Lens, the extreme aperture of £/5.4 
has been attained, and this without any sacriflce of critical defining 
power. 

The "Telecentric" gives an image about twice as large as that given 
by an ordinary lens requiring the same bellows extension. Therefore — 
pictures of objects that from circumstance or of their nature cannot be 
sufiBciently approached to allow of the desired size of image may be sat- 
isfactorily obtained b^ using the Ross "Telecentric." These pictures 
will have critical definition secured with the shortened exposure afforded 
by the large full aperture of the "Telecentric." 



room 

Bsek-XtQiT. 

In....4j4''-8'' 

F 8.8, $37.50 

F5.4» 50.00 


Foeui 
Bmok-Eqitiv. 

•ji"— ir 

$45.00 
64.00 


Fooui 

Baok-EaulT. 

6"— 18" 

$48.75 
67.50 


Fooni 

Baok-Equiv. 

654"— 18" 

$52.50 
78.00 


Fooni 
Baok-Eqniv. 

sji^-n" 

$67.50 
95.50 



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I 



ROYAL FLASH LAMP 

Patented 

For Instantaneous Exposures 



f 


1 

^^1^^^ 




t ' 


1^ 

m 


11 ^ ff^l^^^^fi ^^ 



This Flash Lamp is the best ever invented for giving 
instantaneous exposures with Flash Compound. It is 
absolutely safe, the alcohol reservoir is perfectly bal- 
anced, whether full or empty, but a slight air pressure is 
necessary to set off the flash, consequently as long a 
rubber tubing may be used as is desired. With a large 
bulb the lamp may be operated through over 100 ft. 
of tubing, or for special effects two or more lamps may 
be operated with one bulb. 

Another point to be mentioned is that the powder 
is ignited at the top and burns downward, consuming 



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PHOTO- FLAT 

No More Curling of Your Prints 




A liAlCJI OF DRIED PRIXTS 




THE SAME PRINTS AFTER BEIXG TREATED WITH PHOTO- FLAT 

Apply 10 back of print, after they are thoroughly dry. 
An effective and simple way to flatten curled prints. 
Easy to use— no special care needed in drying prints to 
be treated with PHOTO-FLAT. Leading professionals 
have given an emphatic endorsement to PHOTO- FLAT. 

PRICES: 4 Oz, Bottles, 35c; Pint Bottles, $1,00. 
Quart Bottles, $1.75 Half Gal, Bottles, $3.00 

Sold throughout the entire trade. Your dealer will have it. 



I AGENTS : 



GEORGE MURPHY. Inc. 



57 East Ninth Street 



NEW YORK 



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Show your Individuality — 

The greatest opportunity for the ex- 
pression of this individuality is found in 
the new albumen printing-out paper. 







Matt Surface, Ready Sensitized, 
Four Grades. 

Widest range of tones and effects, yet 
is simple and certain in manipulation. 

Your stock house has it. 



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CONTENTS 

Quick Work 21 

Wild Animal Photography - 24 

Report of the Executive 
Committee of the Photo- 
graphers Association of 
An\erica - 29 

The First Person Photo- 
graphed ---..-.- 30 

The Second New Jersey 
State Annual Convention 51 

Press Photography - - - - 32 

Exposures on Snow Scenes 34 

Eye Strain in Retouching - 36 

Trade Notes and News - - 38 






^^L::r 



"^ 



■/i 



\ 



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matter on cut. 



PRICE LIST 

Per Numlicr 



Specially designed for mailing photographic 
calei.dars, or prinUp flat^ thus ensuring their 
detivery in perfect condition. As indispen* 
sable to the customer as it is to the photog* 
rapher. Made in fourteen sizes» attrac> 
tiirely printed in brown ink. Strong* light 
and perfectly adapted to its purpose. Un- 
questionably the bent mailing device and 
the best selling mailing device ever offered. 
Samples on request. A glance at the Photo- 
mailer will show you its superiority over all 
others* 

As shown in Cut No* 2 below, the Photomailer can be used 
for one or several enclosures if desired. 



Xo. 
123 
ISO 
131 
135 
13« 

lag 

ISO 
Hi 
24.1 

no 

151 

94 iV 
S46 






drcd. 

1.40 

2.00 
2.1ft 

a. 75 
3.00 
3.S5 
a. 50 

a. 00 

2.60 
B.SO 



in a IVicci 



ho 

100 
.^0 
fiO 
25 
2^ 
25 
86 
25 
25 
S6 

iS 

25 
85 
25 



With the exception of the first three 
the Pholomailer is furnished in boxes con 
iriK 25. Ordtr by nnmhcr. 

Friccs subject to attractive discounts 



The Photomailer doe» n<^t bend or 
f ^Id And therefore gives its enclo' 
surei perfect protection. Am ihown 
in C11I No. 3t the b^ckinf 11 cellular 
bo«rdv double-faced corrugated 
paper. This material it rigid, 
pOMei«ei £reat re»Ut«nce and it 
▼erj light. 

The Tbompion & Norrit Co, 

Concord and PrtDce Streets 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 




Faetorict aho at Bocton, Mut. 



BrcrnkTilleJad.; Na«B«r« FalU, Canadai l^n4sm^ssmS^3iS3kOw^ 



EttAblisK«d 197$ 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XXI 



"HOW IT IS DONE" 



An Explaaatory Diafram Bhowinf th« 
Varioug StAffeg in th« Prodnotion of 



AUTOTYPE CARBON PHOTOGRAPHS 

The Produotion off an Aut«typ« Carbon Photograph 



The Coated Bvrface of Exposed Car- 
bon Tiisne (Fiffmented Oelatlne). 
B 
Single Tranifer Paper. 

C 
Soak A and B in cold water, bring 
coated mrfaoea tofother in contact and 

D 
Place the adherent tiiine and trans- 
fer paper between blotting boards for 
a few minutes. Next inunerse in warm 
water, until the colore^ gelatine begins 
to cose out at the edges. 



Strip off the Tissue backing paper 
and throw it away. 

A dark mass of colored gelatine Is 
left on the transfer paper. This re- 
mains in the warm water and the gela- 
tine surface is splashed over until the 
picture gradually makes its appearance. 
Q and H 

Continue until completed. 

The picture is now placed in an alum 
bath (live per cent) to harden the film 
and discharge the bichromate sensi- 
tising salt. A rinse in cold water com- 
pletes the operation. 



Diagram 



pi?onucTiuWj 



AUTOrvPECAfiU 

Pl!OTO(iP\PJ1 



I'l^^sT' 



_^OTsjr>OM 



WtST rAUNC 



nDCD 



Important to Amateur Photographers 

TRIAL SETS OF CARBON PRINTING MATERIALS 

In order to combat the erroneous notion, somewhat prevalent amongst Amateur 
Photographers, that a trial of the Carbon Process necessarily entails the expenditure 
of a considerable sum on costly apparatus, the Autotype Company have decided to 
introduce cheap trial sets of the absolutely essential materials, particulars of which 
are appended. 

In these cheaply-priced outfits it is, of course, impossible to include developing, 
washing or fixing tanks. For purely experimental purposes, however, some ot the 
ordinary household crockery will serve as a makeshift, and the bathroom will be 
found a not altogether unsuitable apartment for carrying on operations. 

PBICES OF TRIAL SETS 

Outfit Ho. 1 11.50 

0«tllt Complete for 5x7 5.00 

Ovtftt for 8 z 10 7.00 

Aients: GEORGE MURPHY. Inc.. 57 E. 9th St.. New York 



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xxii SNAP PHnrS— Ar>VERTT?FMF\TS 



Start The New Year Right 

USE 

"AGFA" Products 

"Agfa" Metol "Agfa" Ortol 

"Agfa" Glycin "Agfa'* Cikonogen 

"Agfa" Pyro "Agfa" Rodinal 

"Agfa" Hydrokinone "Agfa" Amidol 
"Agfa" Flashpowder 

Any photographic dealer anywhere 

BERL.IN A.NIL.INE: WORKS 

American Representatives 
213 Water Street NEr%V YORK 



You Can Take Pictures on a Day like This ! 

That is, if your lens is right Tlie kns is the soul of jour camera. Ordinary lens^e? 
will take ari/imiry lectures nu di:r Jln-ora^/e conditions- Arc jou satisfied ^vith that? 
Or would yun like the Sest results under a/l conditions? If so, yon should know the 

COERZ LENSES 

Universally used by war pliotographers and professionab, who must 
be sure of their results. Thty cun easily be fiiled to ihe Citmera 
yau now orvn. 

Send for Our Boak on '"Lenses and Cameras" 

in good photography. 

C. P, Gocrz American Optical Co.^^g^ # 
317 Eiil Z40i StT«t _^ -- T 




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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XXlll 



i 




»120?? 



will place 
the new 

No. 8 

CENTURY 

OUTFIT 

in your 
Studio. 



HERE IS WHAT THE PRICE INCLITDES: 

1 11x11 Century Grand Portrait Cuinera with new focusing 

arrange 111 ent* 
1 11 X 14 beoii-Centennial Stand, 
1 Reversible Bark for 11x11 Century View Plate HolJers, 

Ailjiiiit^ble for making cither one or two exposures on 

a platin 
1 Sli*Hng Attachment for 8 x 10 Curtain Slide Pliite llolilt r. 
1 AJaoter for 8 x 10 Attachment lii take 5x7 Curtain Slide 

Holder, 
1 11 X H Century Double Vit^w Piute Holder. 
1 8x 10 Century Curtain Slide Holdir with 6v; x Hyi Kit* 
1 S X 7 Curtain Slide Holder. 
1 Plate Holder Raek. 

Tfie newest and mo^t elabomiP of the Centurg OutfflH 

Century Camera Division 

Ea&tman Kailak Co. Rochester, N* Y. 

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1 



xxiv SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 

Island View Mount 

Ash Oray, White and Burmese Brown 




We have no hesitancy about recommending the Island 
View to those desiring a substantial mounting for strong 
prints. 

It is made of the heaviest stock with straight edges and an 
embossed surface that combines both tlie linen finish and moire 
silk effect, something entirely unique and distinct .from the 
time worn surfaces we are accustomed to find everywhere. 
It has at the same time a conservative, solid simplicity that 
has earned it a lasting popularity. 

Size Per loo 

B Cards 8 x lo for Square Photographs 5 x 7 $2.50 

C Cards 10 x 12 for Square Photographs 6%x S% 3.50 

D Cards 12 x 14 for Square Photographs 8 x 10 4.50 

Packed 50 in a Box 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 East Ninth St., New York City, N. Y. 

^ .. ,,r.. 

When writing advertisers please mention Snaf Shots. 



SNAP-SHOTS 

A Monthly Magazine for Photographers 



SUBSCUPTION KATXf FOE U. S. AMD CANAOlA PEK TKAK, $1.00; UZ IfONTHI, 50 CBWTt 

SINGLI COrr« 10 CKNTS. FORBZGN COUNTKISS, $1J6 
PUBUSHED BY TBI iNAP-IHOTg PUBLIIHING Ca« 67 KAST NINTH tTBSBT, NSW TOtK 



Volume 24 FEBRUARY, 1913 Number 2 



QUICK WORK 

By J. N. Jockcl 



Most photographers, doubtless, 
are familiar with the stock method 
of dr\'ing negatives quickly with al- 
cohol, and making bromide prints 
from wet negatives, but perhaps 
the following notes will be of in- 
terest to many readers. 

Let us suppose that a finished 
photograph "while you wait'' is re- 
quired. About the actual making 
of the negative there is little to be 
said, except as regards the devel- 
opment and fixing. Pyro-nietol, 
and preferably the well-known 
"Imperial" formula, is the most 
rapid developer, but my preference 
is for a one-solution metol-hydro- 
quinone developer, which is equally 
satisfactory for negatives, prints, 
and slides, and fairly rapid in ac- 
tion. Fixation is greatly acceler- 



ated if the hypo (about 5 oz. to the 
pint) is used at a temperature oi 
about 75 deg. F. and the plate is 
stood up in a tank of solution^ or 
rocked well. After a rinse of 
about three minutes under the tap, 
the plate may be quickly dried. 

The negative should be given 
three or four baths of spirit, being 
allowed to remain in each for about 
two minutes, and the dish rocked 
well; the plate may then be dried 
by gentle heat, or the spirit allowed 
to evaporate spontaneously. Any 
milky sediment which may have 
formed on the film of the negative 
should be wiped off before drying. 
This method is not, of course, ap- 
plicable to celluloid films, which are 
soluble in alcohol. The spirit may 
be kept and used several times. 



21 



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February. 191 3 



HARDENING THE FILM AND DRYING 
BY HEAT 

If the photographic film can be 
hardened to a sufficient extent, it 
becomes an easy matter to dry the 
plate or print by heat. Of the vari- 
ous chemicals which harden, or 
raise the melting point of gelatine, 
the most efficient is formaldehyde 
or formaline, the commercial prod- 
uct being a forty per cent, solution 
of the gas in water. It is a color- 
less, somewhat oily-looking liquid, 
with a pungent and irritating smell, 
and for use should be diluted to 
eight times its bulk with water, 
making a five per cent, solution. 
After fixing, the plate or print 
should be given a rinse, and im- 
mersed in the formaldehyde for 
three or four minutes; if the sur- 
face is dabbed with a clean soft 
handkerchief, it can then be dried 
by heat in as little as two minutes 
without injuring the film. By this 
treatment the gelatine seems to be 
rendered quite insoluble — at any 
rate, in boiling water — and very 
often it becomes impossible to af- 
terwards intensify or act upon the 
image in any way. This method of 
drying is applicable to either plates 
or films, and paper prints with a 
gelatine surface, and is much to be 
preferred to the use of spirit for 
this purpose. I have used a solu- 



to the fixing bath, but as far as I 
have tried it, there is no gain in 
time, and I do not recommend it. 
Care should be taken that the for- 
maline is strong enough, as the so- 
lution becomes weaker through ex- 
posure to the air. I may point out 
that a saturated solution of com- 
mon alum can be used for hard- 
ening, but it must be allowed to 
act for about eight minutes, and 
even then there is a good chance of 
the film melting. 

PRINTING 

The usual method of obtaining a 
photograph quickly is to print from 
the wet negative on bromide paper. 
The negative must be washed for 
three or four minutes under the 
tap, and a piece of the paper 
soaked in water till quite limp, and 
its coated side lightly squeegeed to 
the film of the negative, care being 
taken that no bubbles remain; if 
the paper is cut a little smaller than 
the plate, no printing frame is nec- 
essary. After fixing and washing, 
the print may be dried by either 
of the means previously described, 
but the second method is certainly 
the better. When working in the 
daytime, if there is plenty of light, 
and only one print is required, it 
may be better to dry the negative, 
and print on a self-toning collodion 
paper, such as Seltona or Paget 



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February, 191 3 



SNAP SHOTS 



23 



happens, too, that the negative is 
wanted dry within a few hours for 
another purpose. It is almost use- 
less, however, trying to print from 
yellow-stained negatives in this 
way, as the yellow color greatly in- 
creases the time of printing. 

Talking about quick bromide 
printing reminds me of my home- 
made Christmas greeting cards. I 
had only one evening to spare for 
them, and commenced by hunting 
up two mounted prints of suitable 
subjects, copying them (with 
mount) postcard size, the negatives 
being exposed by magnesium rib- 
bon, and the plates dried by heat. 
The title and greeting were then 
printed on the glass side with thick 
Indian Ink, and the pictures print- 
ed on bromide cards. Some of 
these had to be toned brown, and I 
tried the experiment of giving 
them a bath of formaldehyde pre- 
vious to the sulphiding, as blister- 
ing sometimes occurs in that proc- 
ess, and I found they could then 
(after a final washing) be dried by 
heat. About 168 square inches of 
postcard were thus covered with 
tragedy (on the film-side, of 
course!) in less than two hours. 
I may mention that the prints were 
thoroughly washed. 

Of the usefulness of these meth- 
ods as applied to lantern-sHde mak- 
ing, I might instance the following 
as being a fairly good example. I 
had been asked by a friend to pre- 



photographs of machinery, and dia- 
grams, etc. Not having much time 
for this kind of work, I had un- 
avoidably to leave the making of 
a few of the negatives and some of 
the slides till the date of the lecture 
— about four hours before the pa- 
per was to be read I started work, 
exposing the negatives by magnesi- 
um. I found that with F/16 (ac- 
tual) and an ordinary plate, about 
one foot of ribbon burnt at nine 
inches from the original was re- 
quired. The negatives were dried 
by heat after the formaline treat- 
ment, and after a few minutes' 
washing and immersion in the for- 
maline bath the slides were blotted 
oflF and placed on a large dish, and 
dried under the grilling burner of 
the gas stove. The pictures di.d not 
fade while being shown. 

They were not in the lantern 
long enough. — The Amateur Pho- 
tographer & Photographic News. 



A USEFUL TABLE 

Below is given a very handy 
table for those who do not already 
know it: 

In every fluid ounce of a 

1% solution there is 4-37 grains. 

2% solution there is 8.74 grains. 

3% solution there is 13.11 grains. 

4% solution there is 17.48 grains. 

5% solution there is 21.85 grains- 

6% solution there is 26.22 grains. 

7% solution there is 30.59 grains. 



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SNAP SHOTS 



February, 1913 



WILD ANIMAL PHOTOGRAPHY 

By Walter L>. Beasley 

(Reprinted by permission of American Annual of Photography) 



Outside of an actual journey to 
the remote game region of Anier- 
ice, Africa and other places, the best 
spot to pursue the fascinating and 
thrilling art of wild animal pho- 
tography is unquestionably to be 
found in New York's great Zoo- 
logical Park. Here within its spa- 
cious land area covering two hun- 
dred and sixty-four acres, two- 
thirds in virgin forest growth, has 
been gathered together from all the 
corners of the earth the largest and 
rarest collection of living animals 
to be seen in captivity. 

One of the crowning features of 
this fine animal sanctuary is the 
open-air ranges, pastures, extensive 
corals, enclosures, etc., many with 
the picturesque and rugged back- 
grounds of high rocky summits, 
green foliage, etc., which provide a 
splendid home for the animal in- 
habitants — a slice of Nature's do- 
main. These large open-air pre- 
serves afford most favorable oppor- 
tunities for obtaining wild animal 
photographs. 

The writer, through the courtesy 
of Professor Henry Fairfield Os- 
born, president of the New York 
Zoological Society, and Director 
W. T. Hornaday, was accorded the 
highly esteemed privilege of mak- 
ing a series of pictures of many of 
the large and rare forest and jungle 
'Creatures. I found that a few of 
the essentials necessary for success 



in animal photography, in captivity 
at least, was patience, good temper, 
a little nerve, a reflecting camera 
with focal-plane shutter and, pref- 
erably, a rapid, long-distance lens. 

The accompanying photographs 
here reproduced I obtained the past 
summer with the new Ross "Tele- 
centric" lens, seventeen-inch focus, 
F/6.8, with eight-inch bellows ex- 
tension on a 5 X 7 reflecting cam- 
era. This new instrument I found 
to be of decided advantage from a 
point of personal safety while mak- 
ing exposures of savage and bad- 
tempered animals. At twenty-five 
feet or more one could obtain sharp 
and large sized images without ven- 
turing within dangerous range such 
as a nine or ten-inch lens would re- 
quire. "Don't get too near" has 
been a most familiar warning which 
I have heard from the keepers many 
times in the past in attempting to 
get too close to an animal for a 
large picture while taking a daring 
chance inside a den enclosure. 

Among the "stars" of the park, 
and one of the largest of all living 
carnivorous beasts in captivity, is 
"Ivan," the mighty Alaskan brown 
bear, one of the animal wonders of 
the world. A sudden outburst of 
rage and spring of this wiry mon- 
ster, if one was operating inside the 
den at close range, would mean 
partial annihilation of both man and 
camera. With the long focus 



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P'ebruary, 1913 



**Telecentric" I found I could easily 
operate through the bars on the 
outside and secure the proper size 
image. Owing to his gigantic size, 
and being likewise a magnificent 
representative of the species, Ursus 
Merriami, unfortunately nearing 
extinction, *lvan'* is of great zoo- 
logical value to naturalists as well 
as to the general public — being the 
unrivalled attraction at the bear 
dens. I desired to catch a few real- 
istic pictures of this colossus of the 
Alaskan wilds, especially in the 
novel and commanding attitude of 
standing on his hind limbs. To 
entice him to pose I had to resort 
to the following tactics. On Mon- 
days, after "Ivan's" fast of Sunday 
from his customary rations of 
twelve to fifteen loaves of graham- 
rye bread and several pounds of 
fresh fish or beef, he is quite eager 
to welcome the appearance of his 
keeper and chef. To coax the big 
fellow to stand upright the keeper 
used a half dozen good-sized fish. 
Twenty-five feet in the rear of his 
den the huge bear was watching our 
approach to the front bars of the 
den. A fish w^as at once thrown and 
eagerly devoured. This was prelim- 
inary and just to put us on a friendly 
footing. Having camera ready and 
in focus, "Up, up, Ivan." rang out 
the familiar voice of the keeper. 
Then the herculean form, possess- 
ing the phenomenal strength of 
three Africian lions, towered up 
nearly ten feet in the air, present- 
ing a thrilling and overwhelming 
picture of power and ferocity. 



The great monster stood, seem- 
ingly at bay, a stupendous ava- 
lanche of savage flesh, an uncon- 
querable warrior of the forest, the 
massive forearms, terrible batter- 
ing-rams of death, ready to give 
fight against an approaching en- 
emy. Quickly I made several ex- 
posures, for the bulky creature 
with his fifteen hundred pounds 
could only keep his pose for a few 
seconds. With the release of the 
shutter each time a fish was tossed 
as a reward which was deftly 
caught between the ponderous fore- 
paws and quickly consumed on all 
fours on the den floor. I consid- 
ered myself fortunate, however, for 
I secured three or four animated 
pictures of this giant of all bear- 
dom. 

The great Gothic Flying Cage, 
one hundred and fifty feet long and 
seventy-five feet high, one of the 
wonders of the Zoological Park, en- 
closing a series of forest trees and 
a lake one hundred feet long, af- 
fords a remarkable place for bird 
photography. This is the summer 
home of a numerous colony of large 
and handsome water birds in which 
they can swim, fly to and fro, build 
nests and rear their young in real 
freedom. Many are rare with 
beautiful plumage, such as the 
snowy white egret, scarlet ibis, 
herons and flamingoes. 

Among the most showy, owing 
to their size and pure white plum- 
age, which I selected for camera 
subjects, were the big pelicans. 
They are quite shy of strange in- 



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i-uary, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



27 




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28 



SXAP SHOTS 



February, 1913 



truders inside their cage, but I used 
a dense cluster of foliage for a 
"blind" and awaited the animated 
occasion of feeding time. Then 
the pelicans do their spectacular 
*'stunt" of fish-svvailowing. Open- 
ing their long amber-colored bills 
and gular pouch, they earnestly 
solicit a good size fish to be thrown 
by the keeper. Thus in ambush, 
some thirty feet away, with aper- 
ture F/H and using shutter speed 
of 1/100 of a second, I caught a 
bevy of the hungry pelicans with 
wide open pouches, quite ready to 
eiigulf a fish displayed in the keep- 
er's hands. 

Among the noteworthy wild cap- 
tives in the park is "Sultan/* who 
has been the favorite model for all 
the leading animal sculptors and 
painters of recent times, and like- 



wise the despair of many photo- 
graphic artists. I was lucky, after 
several mornings of reconnoitering, 
to find this handsome and regal 
beast idly resting and sunning him- 
self in the rear of his outdoor cage. 
L'or the instant I attracted his at- 
tention when 1 secured the spirited 
picture here reproduced, showing 
this king of beasts w^ith head 
proudly erect and on the alert. The 
stop being F/8, time 1/50 of a sec- 
ond. 

From my practical experience 
the "Telecentric" should prove a 
handy and valuable lens for all 
those bent on obtaining wild animal 
pictures, in the field or near home, 
especially bird explorers, sports- 
men, big-game hunters who desire 
large, sharp images of distant ob- 
jects. 




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29 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF 

THE PHOTOGRAPHERS' ASSOCIATION 

OF AMERICA 



At the call of the president, Chas. 
F. Townsend, the board of officers 
of the Photographers Association 
of America met in executive session 
at the Bahimore Hotel, in Kansas 
City, Mo., on January 6th; pres- 
ent were: 

Chas. F. Townsend, president, 
Des Moines, Iowa; Manly W. 
Tyree, first vice-president, Raleigh, 
X. C. ; Will H. Towles, second vice- 
president, Washington, D. C. ; L. A. 
Dozer, treasurer, Bucyrus, O. ; Ho- 
mer T. Harden, secretary, Wichita, 
Kan. 

President Townsend appointed 
the following committees : Station- 
ery, Mr. Tyree; buttons, Mr. Do- 
zer; headquarters, Mr. Dozer; dec- 
orations, Messrs. Harden and Ben 
Strauss; auditing, Messrs. Towles 
and Harden ; entertainment, the en- 
tire board ; press, D. P. Thompson, 
Will H. Towles and Ben Strauss; 
hotels, L. H. Studebaker and O. B. 
Reeder ; information bureau, the lo- 
cal committee ; transportation, Z. T. 
Brigg's and Henry Moore ; associa- 
tion annual, Messrs. Tyree, Towles 
and Dozer; publicity, the entire 
board ; legislation, Messrs. Holsin- 
ger, Holloway, Harris, Ben Lari- 



ger, Charlottesville, Va. ; G. W. 
Harris, Washington, D. C. ; P. A. 
Free, Davenport, la.; Ed. Brush, 
Minneapolis, ^linn. ; Samuel Hurst, 
Hutchinson, Kansas; progress of 
photography, W^m. H. Rau, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; Emma Gerhard, St. 
Louis, Mo.; Edward J. Davidson, 
Kansas City, Mo. ; foreign affairs, 
Carl Ackerman, New York. 

The secretary was instructed to 
have prepared a letter of resolutions 
to the Senators and Representatives 
in Congress of the five states repre- 
sented on the board, asking them 
to assist in defeating the portion of 
the Lodge Bill relating to the sale 
and display of photographs. 

Various suggestions and matters 
pertaining to the conducting of the 
1913 national convention were dis- 
cussed and the following resolu- 
tions were unanimously adopted : 

That a six day convention 1^ 
held beginning July 21, 1913; that 
Kansas City's offer of the use of 
Convention Hall be accepted; that 
a practical studio in operation un- 
der the best talent obtainable be ar- 
ranged on the floor of Convention 
Hall and under the charge of the 
president, assisted by the secretary. 



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SNAP SHOTS 



February, 1913 



evening of convention week at Elec- 
tric Park as their guest be ac- 
cepted with thanks. 

That not more than five pictures 
be solicited from each exhibitor to 
be passed upon by a jury; that the 
association publish a record of the 
convention. 

That not more than twenty pic- 
tures be selected from the exhibits 
for reproduction in the record, but 
that no picture be selected ex- 
cept those made by members in 
good standing of the P. A. of A. 

A general advertising campaign 
was arranged. 

A contract was signed with a lo- 
cal decorating company for con- 
struction of all booths of a uni- 
form design. 

A very interesting program was 
outlined. Details will be given out 
later. 

Convention Hall is the largest 
and most conveniently arranged 
building the association has had for 



many years. The booths will be 
10 x 12 feet, instead of 8 x 8 as at 
Philadelphia last year. There is 
plenty of room for wide aisles, and 
even the desk space will not be 
crowded. 

The board was given an elab- 
orate banquet at the Baltimore 
Hotel on January 10th by the Kan- 
sas City photographers. There 
were about sixty present. 



SUMMARY OF TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 
FOR 1912. 



Cash on hand Jan. 1, 1912 




$7,629.16 


Received from: 






Membership and dues.. 
Sale of ladies* pins. 


$3,729.00 




16.50 




Per capita tax of affili- 






ated societies 


234.75 




Advertising in 1918 an- 






nual 


1,510.00 




Sale of floor space in 






Convention Hall — 


4,428.78 




Interest, 2nd Nat'l Bank 


176.26 




Tickets to Atlantic City 


36.00 




Sale of annuals, gum 
printing books, glass, 










etc 


17.46 


10,148.75 



17.777.91 
Paid out on vouchers, 

1134-1248 inclusive.. 12,316.16 
Cash on hand Jan. 1, 1913 5,461.75 17.777.91 



THE FIRST PERSON TO BE PHOTOGRAPHED 



Miss Dorothy Catherine Draper, 
who died at Hastings-on-Hudson in 
1902, at the age of ninety-five, had 
the reputation of being the first per- 
son who ever sat for a photograph. 
She posed for her brother, Dr. John 
W. Draper, who had discovered a 
process by which a daguerreotype 
could be made in a few min- 
utes. 



The photograph was made in 1839, 
when Miss Draper was known in 
New York society as **Dolly" Dra- 
per, and the picture, with the state- 
ment that the subject had to pose 
"only about six minutes," created a 
sensation in artistic circles. The 
original picture became the posses- 
sion of Lord Herschell, whose heirs 
still retain it. 



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31 



THE SECOND NEW JERSEYi STATE ANNUAL 

CONVENTION 



The second annual convention of 
the professional photographers of 
New Jersey took place in Newark 
(Turnbull Auditorium) January 
21st and 22nd. It was well at- 
tended, and under the able man- 
agement of President Sherman all 
matters referring to the business of 
the association were carefully han- 
dled. 

Demonstrations w ere made by : 

Wm. S. Ellis, of Philadelphia; 
Ira D. Schwartz, New York ; A. F. 
Bradley, New York; Charles Hal- 
len, New York. 

And addresses were made by 
Pirie MacDonald, of New York, 
and Dudley Hoyt, of New York, 
and a business lecture given by 
Juan C. Abel, Cleveland, Ohio; 
and a business lecture regarding 
advertising given by Theo. S. Fet- 
tinger, advertising manager of 
Hahne & Co., Newark, N. J. 

The display of pictures was fine ; 
the attendance of the professional 
photographers was large, and the 
exhibits of the various manufac- 
turers and dealers represented by: 

Eastman Kodak Company ; John 

Haworth Company, Philadelphia ; 

George Murphy, Inc., New York; 

Prosch Mfg. Company, New York : 

A. M. Colh'ns Mfg. Company, and 



second convention was a decided 
step forward. 

New officers were elected, and 
the retiring president, John F. 
Sherman, was made an honorary 
member, and the thanks of the as- 
sociation was given him enthu- 
siastically for his hard work in ma- 
king the convention a great success. 

ITINERARY OF THE KODAK 
EXHIBITIONS— 1913 

Memphis, Tenn., February 10th 
to 15th, Goodwyn Institute. 

New Orleans, La., February 17th 
to February 22d, Artillery Hall. 

Atlanta, Ga., February 24th to 
March 1st, Auditorium. 

Jacksonville, Fla., March 3d to 
March 8th, Morocco Temple. 

Charleston, S. C, March 10th to 
March 15th, German Artillery Hall. 

Richmond, Va., March 17th to 
March 22d, Jefferson Auditorium. 

Washington, D. C, March 24th 
to March 29th, Convention Hall. 

New York, N. Y., March 31st to 
April 5th ; April 7th to April 12th, 
Carnegie Music Hall. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., April 14th to 
April 19th, Brooklyn Academy of 
Music (Music Hall). 

Baltimore, Md., April 21st to 
April 26th, Lyric Theater. 

Tnrnntn Ont.. Mav 5th to May 



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SNAP SHOTS February. 1913 

PRESS PHOTOGRAPHY 



The sale of a photograph to a 
newspaper now and again will go a 
long way to pay for the materials 
used by the amateur photographer. 
Moreover, it is a thing which may 
very easily grow, if it find a favor- 
able soil. The amateur who has 
had a few prints accepted gradually 
learns what it is the editors want. 
He learns also that wherever he 
may happen to be, there is almost 
sure to lie to his hand subjects from 
which salable photographs may be 
made. When once he has learned 
to make clean, bright prints from 
sharp, clear negatives, he is in a 
position to start; but he has got 
the business to learn. 

Because the supplying of prints is 
a business. There is an immense 
demand for pictures by the illus- 
trated papers. It is a demand that 
is growing ; but it is a demand that 
there are many trying to supply. 
The editor who wants, let us say, 
twenty pictures for his paper, will 
have some hundreds from which to 
select them. What the amateur has 
to learn is how to get his pictures 
amongst those selected. 

He can put aside all ideas of 
favoritism, personal introductions, 
and such like. The editors have to 



trivial kind ; in fact, these are often 
the most favored of all. A potato 
that looks like a man's face, a cou- 
ple that have survived seventy-five 
years of married life, a notorious 
author, or murderer, or parson, or 
jockey, anything that is odd or out 
of the common, or for the time 
being is in the public eye. The best 
plan — that which in the long run is 
likely to meet with most successes — 
is to provide both photograph and 
interest ; to find the reason for tak- 
ing the picture, and then to take it 
and send it in with a brief note of 
its subject. 

This will seem hard at first; but 
it is undoubtedly the amateur's best 
chance. It appears so much easier 
to get photographs of some great 
event in the neighborhood that he is 
tempted to do so, or if there is no 
such event to bemoan the fate that 
locates royal visits and railway ac- 
cidents elsewhere. This is a mistake. 

The photographs which are least 
likely to secure acceptance are those 
of big events, things of great im- 
portance the date and place of 
which are settled beforehand. Here 
the amateur can only compete with 
the regular press photographer un- 
der great handicaps. The best posi- 



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february, 1913 



SXAP SH'OTS 



33 



\ 



Xiie amateur is apt to overlook 
the fact that the publication of pho- 
tog^raj>hs of an event is usually a 
compel ^te bar to the publication of 
2riy i-fc^ore. His pictures may be 
niucFi better, they may show more 
tnan the pictures already repro- 
duced show; the editor may admit 
^^^ thiis, he may regret that he did 
^^^ l^^ve them in time, but he will 
^^t Tji ^e them. The thing has been 
^one, it has gone by ; from a news- 
paper^ point of view it is ancient 

T^W^ idea seems to prevail in the 
"^'^^^ of some of those who think 
^^ attempting to sell photographs 
^^. "tl-^^ papers that their acceptance 
™^ di epend on some minutiae, some 
^r^^^ which may reveal the fact 
^^ the sender is inexperienced. 
^^3^" wonder whether they should 

Pr-^ their prints on well-toned 
•^^--^ « I^. or on glossy gaslight paper, 

^^^^"ttier they should be direct or 

^Ir^-^K^lged, mounted or unmounted. 

^i^^^^ are absolutely unimportant 

^^1^« thing that is important, the 

thing that counts, is to give 

editor something which he will 

^^^■^^ to use. If that can be done, 

i!!l^""^3^hing else is of little moment. 

J^. ^ prints must not be of the fuzzy 

^^"^^3.3^ because such work is neither 

^^^^^Tstood nor appreciated outside 

^ "^^Ty small circle of photograph- 

^^^> ^ circle which certainly does not 



on 
th( 



contain either the editor or the 
readers of a successful magazine^ 
The public demands a photograph 
in which it can see details. The 
suppression of detail may safely be 
left to the block maker and printer. 

This rules out all such processes 
as bromoil, gum printing, etc. But 
between a smooth surface bromide 
or gaslight paper and a good P.O.P. 
print there is nothing much to 
choose. The reddish-brown print 
often obtained on self-toning paper 
is useless, but good self-toning 
prints will do. 

The most convenient method of 
making prints for press purposes 
from quarter-plate or similarly 
small negatives is to use a fixed fo- 
cus enlarger and glossy bromide 
paper, so as to get half -plate or 
whole-plate prints. The original 
negatives should be as sharp as it 
is possible to get them, which means 
that the photographer must not only 
use a good anastigmat, but that he 
must focus accurately and be able 
to hold the camera quite still. — 
Photography. 



TANK DEVELOPERS 

"agfa"' rodinal 

Water 60 oz. 

Rodinal 1 oz. 

Temperature, 65° Fahren- 
heit. 
Time, 25 minutes. 



V 



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34 SNAP SHOTS February. 1913 

EXPOSURES ON SNOW SCENES 

By C. H. Claudy 



In determining the proper ex- 
posure on any subject there are 
several methods which may be fol- 
lowed. One can use a meter of 
some variety and measure the light 
by it, and one's ability to see when 
a piece of sensitive paper has dark- 
ened in the available light to match 
a certain tint in the meter — one can 
go by the dictates of experience 
from previous exposures on simi- 
lar subjects or the appearance of 
the image on the ground glass, or 
one can begin then and there to 
make test exposures, develop them, 
and from these results find out what 
exposure to give the subject. 

The first is the easiest and most 
simple method — but isn't always ac- 
curate or available. The second is 
usually accurate if the experience 
has been long, but is certainly not 
an exact method, and the third, if 
exact and practical, is cumbersome 
and slow. 

So we must make shift, no mat- 
ter which method we follow, and 
do the best we can. 

But that doesn't mean that you 
are to tramp out into the snow-cov- 
ered fields and snap away with no 
idea of what you are doing. In a 
previous paper in this magazine — 
Snow Photography — I indicated 
something of the methods which 
must be followed in determining 
exposures. Indeed before you ex- 
pose a plate, you have, or should 



have, a definite idea in your mind 
as to how you want your photo- 
graph of the scene in iront of you 
to look. If you desire an exact 
transcription of it to your plate and 
paper, you do one thing — if you 
w^ant to tone it down and flatten it, 
you do another, and if you want to 
brighten it, make it more brilliant, 
you do still a third in adjusting 
your exposure and stop. 

But having determined what you 
want to do, there still remains the 
vital question — how to do it! Now- 
neglecting for the present the idea 
of a meter — for, good as that device 
is, it is not always at hand (and, 
anyway, the average photographer 
makes his head his meter in i\u 
long run — let us see how our ex- 
posures should compare w^th those 
we usually give. In the first place, 
we know the light is poorer in win- 
ter than in summer. This poorness 
is from one to four and even more 
times, depending on latitude ar 
month. It is from four to a hun- 
dred times poorer than summer 
light, depending on the time of day. 
At bright noon, in December, with 
no snow on the ground, at least 
four times a July exposure should 
be given for the average landscape. 

But bringing down the snow 
complicates matters. Here the re- 
flective power of that white blanket 
comes into play. And how much 
light it will reflect will depend not 



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February, 191 3 



SNAP SHOTS 



35 



only on how much light there is to 
reflect, but how much snow there i> 
to reflect it, and the direction of 
that light. 

If we can imagine a brightly lit, 
snow-covered field, with no dark ob- 
jects anywhere near, then the ex- 
posure will be not far from that 
normally required to successfully 
photograph a winter brighly lit sky 
— perhaps from one-tenth to one- 
fifteenth of the landscape exposure. 
Considering one second at U. S. 
256 a normal exposure for a sum- 
mer landscape and sky, we have to 
multiply that by four for our win- 
ter landscape and sky — then divide 
by ten for our snow scape. This 
works out to be two-fifths of a sec- 
ond at 256, one-fifth at 128, on.- 
tenth at 64, which is more incline i 
to be too little than too much. 
Without exact knowledge of condi- 
tions, it is a very fair guess at the 
exposure required for a brightly lit 
open plain of snow-covered land- 
scape — but the one-tenth must be a 
real one-tenth and not one-fourth 
or one-fiftieth — and many shutters 
are none too accurate in this re- 
s])ect. 

But bright, open plains will not 

be the general choice of the snow 

photop^rapher. Most of these will 

want to photograph the tree, hung 

with snow garments; the street, 

after the storm, the hillside path. 



of getting a flat effect for a nor- 
mally contrasty scene. If we cal- 
culate it out according to the rule 
given above as a suggestion, we 
have a table which looks like this: 

For street scene, bright sun, 
shadows, July, stop 256, 4 seconds. 

For street scene, bright sun, 
shadows, December, stop 256, 16 
seconds. 

For street scene, bright sun, 
shadows, December, stop 256, snow 
on the ground, 16 divided by 10, 
1.6 seconds. 

But we know this is too little, for 
hard experience has told us that so 
short an exposure at so small a stop 
in winter gives us black tree trunks 
and dark objects against the white 
paper of our print which we miscall 
"snow." So we again multiply and 
say: 

"To decrease too great contrast, 
take factor of five, and multiply, 
giving, for street scene, bright sun, 
shadows, December, stop 256, snow 
on ground, 8 seconds." 

This figures out to be one-eighth 
of a second at stop U. S. 4 — the 
largest stop on most amateur in- 
struments. For one-eighth, read 
the one-tenth second which most 
simple types of shutters supply, and 
you will have a very fair beginning 
for your street scene exposure. 

I am well aware that all this is 
not in accord with the text books 



^^j xu^ :-,„4-..,^ 






i»rl-nr>Vl 



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SNAP SHOTS 



February, 1913 



EYE STRAIN IN RETOUCHING 

By Harold Baker 



A recent editorial note on special 
spectacles for retouchers prompts 
some notes on the subject. My ex- 
perience leads me to the conclusion 
that if the eyes are properly used 
there is Httle or no real strain. But 
if the retoucher endeavors to see 
every stroke made by the pencil the 
eyes will be very much strained and 
the retouching will be bad. It will 
have a peculiar sandy and scratchy 
appearance, and will look uneven 
and patchy. I think the retoucher 
will produce his best work without 
eye-strain at all, the result will be 
even, and the modelling preserved. 
The whole secret seems to me to be 
to work at such a distance from 
the negative that the general effect 
of many strokes is seen, and not 
each individual line produced by 
the pencil strokes or dots. Just 
such a distance as the water-color 
artist works at when he is "stip- 
pling" the face in a portrait, or a 
large surface where an even tint is 
required. If a water-color drawing 
containing figures is carefully ex- 
amined it will be seen that whereas 
the drapery or accessories are gen- 
erally done in fairly broad washes, 
the flesh parts consist of small dots 
of color, which at the proper dis- 
tance gives beautifully graduated 
tones. This is exactly the effect 
that good retouching should pro- 
duce, and it should be obtained in 
the same way, by working at a dis- 



tance just great enough to lose 
sight of each individual stroke. But 
the work should be examined quite 
closely, at frequent intervals, to 
make sure the stippling is not too 
coarse. I am confident that such a 
method of working reduces eye- 
strain, for I have often retouched 
till one or two o'clock in the morn- 
ing and suffered less from tired 
eyes than from an evening's read- 
ing. I would advise every retouch- 
er who suffers from eye-strain to 
try this method of working. I do 
not think special spectacles ought 
to be used, unless there is some 
error of refraction in the eyes, such 
as astigmatism, when spectacles be- 
come a necessity at an early age. In 
my own case as soon as I had to 
wear spectacles, through astigma- 
tism, I ceased to be able to retouch 
with ease, but no doubt my eyes 
were losing their power of adapta- 
bility, which fact caused the astig- 
matism to assert itself. 

A mirror for reflecting light 
through the negative is about the 
worst possible thing to use, as it 
strains the eyes badly; a piece of 
clean white paper is best, or if the 
negative is extra dense, or the light 
poor, a sheet of matt aluminum 
gives a brighter light, but too stron 
for average negatives. On the 
whole, artificial light is less tiring 
than daylight, as it is less variable, 
especially in winter. It is terribU^ 



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February, I9I3 SNAP SHOTS Z7 

trying to the eyes to work with the tousled head to attend to customers, 
constantly changing light of a dull The series of carriers to fit the 
winter's day. Incandescent gas various sizes of plates are quite 
gives a cool and pleasant light, eec- useless, as the position of the Head 
trie light from metal filament lamps is so often different, and tliey do 
is also good, and it does not pro- not allow movement of the negative 
duce so much heat as gas, and if in different directions. Besides, 
neither gas nor electric light is too, they show far too much of the 
available a good paraffin lamp can negative uncovered, which is try- 
be used; but it must give a good ing to the eyes. A hole about 3 
light, a duplex or circular wick inches square near the middle of the 
lamp is best. If artificial light is desk is best, so that the negative 
found to be tiring to the eyes, a may be moved freely in any direc- 
piece of pale blue glass, such as can tion, according to the angle of each 
be obtained from an optician, is pencil stroke. Sometimes a piece 
very useful, as it gives a very cool, of black card with a smaller hole, 
restful light; lamp light is apt to even an inch in diameter, will be 
look "hot'' and to tire the eyes un- useful to lay over the negative 
less the blue glass is used. when small heads are being re- 
A proper retouching desk will touched. Retouching constantly 
prevent eye-strain to a great extent ; must, of course, be tiring to the 
the miserable little hinged boards eyes, but eye-strain may be avoided, 
sometimes seen in use are enough i believe, to a great extent if the 
to blind the poor retoucher w^ho hints given above are carried out. — 
has to work with them, especially B, J. of Photography, 

when half choked by a dusty cur- 

tain. A good desk should be at TANK t)EVELOPERS 

least eighteen inches square inside, ^^ ,^ 

with curtains at the sides, but ndt ^^^^ ^^"^^^ 

behind the head ; if the work has to Water 60 oz. 

be done in a reception-room or any Metabisulphite of Potas- 

room with light coming at the back sium 15 gr. 

of the retoucher, a folding screen Sodium Sulphite (anhy- 

should be used to cut off such drous) 100 gr. 

light; and it need not be at all un- Sodium Carbonate (anhy- 

sightly, even in a reception-room. drous) 100 gr. 

It is far more healthy and conven- *^Agfa" Ortol ... •-;•••• ^0 gr. 



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SNAP SHOTS 



February, 1913 



TRADE NEWS AND NOTES 



Concerning Fotettes: Among the 
many unique mountings ofifered to the 
photographers none is attracting more 
favorable attention in the trade-at- 
large than the little Fotettes, made by 
the A. M. Collins Manufacturing Com- 
pany. These mountings, called by the 
manufacturers "the steps to higher 
prices," are made for photographs 
smaller than cabinets, and are furnished 
in seven styles and a great variety of 
sizes. They lend distinction and qual- 
ity to miniature photographs which, 
when mounted upon them, will com- 
mand much higher prices than cabinet 
postcards, which are almost as costly 
to produce as the smaller print mount- 
ed on a Fotette. You will find it worth 
your while to investigate the merits of 
these mountings. An attractive little 
advertising sign is supplied with the 
initial order of Fotettes. Write to the 
manufacturer for samples. Mention 
Snap Shots, please. 

Autotype Carbon Materials. Tissues, 
single and double transfer papers, trial 
outfits, sensitized texture films and bor- 
der negative films are fully described in 
the new separate catalogue of Carbon 
materials just issued by the American 
agents. It contains condensed instruc- 
tions and articles on different manipula- 
tions. All should have a copy of this 
Carbon price list and booklet. Drop a 
postal to the agents; mention Snap 
Shots. 



The Rough & Caldwell Background 
and Accessory Co. report great success 
with their new tapestry backgrounds. 
The effect produced is pleasing and 
gives the old-time tapestry effect to the 
print. This company announces that 
their new catalogue of photographic ac- 
cessories is now ready. As they have 



System does not mean red tape. The 
simplest and most efficient method of 
accurately taking care of your business 
is the best definition of system, and in 
the photograph business, the best ex- 
ample of such a method is the Eastman 
Studio Register System. 

A full account of every transaction 
with your customer is kept by card in- 
dex, and when the transaction is fin- 
ished the card is filed in a transfer box, 
where it remains as a permanent regis- 
ter of your negatives and record of 
your customers. The same card is used 
for duplicate orders, it being trans- 
ferred to the desk box when duplicate 
order is taken. Ask your dealer to 
show you this complete and inexpensive 
Studio Register System. 

Wynne Meters of all grades, namely. 
for "F" and "US" system for snapshot 
work and the various parts referring to 
these meters; also the different styles of 
meters, both exposure and print, with 
description and instruction regarding 
their use, are now given in a small book- 
let published by the agents, George Mur- 
phy, Inc., 57 East Ninth Street, New 
York. 



Fast Plates. The principal objection 
to a fast plate has been the fact that it 
was not possible to get great speed and 
retain the quality so essential to the 
plate used for portraiture. 

Fast plates would 'not give a finely 
grained deposit of silver and the steps 
of gradation were too sharp — ^too much 
on the soot and chalk order to be used 
by the portrait photographer. These 
objections have all been overcome by 
one of the famous Seed Plate emul- 
sions, the result being the plate known 
as the Seed Gilt Edge 30. It is a plate 
of gilt edge quality, as the name im- 



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February, 191 3 



SNAP SHOTS 



39 



Dufay Color Plates. Many beautiful 
colored transparencies are ready for ex- 
hibition by the agents, and without 
doubt the Dufay Color Plate, by its 
fine texture, its rapidity, its ease of 
manipulation, bids fair to be a great 
help to color photography. 

Zelta. — The photographer of the 
present day, whose experience does not 
date back to the days of albumen paper, 
has at least heard of "good old albu- 
men," and many now use the new albu- 
men paper, Zelta, which has all the good 
points of albumen, with the many objec- 
tionable features omitted. 

Zelta is a ready sensitized albumen 
paper of exceptionally good keeping 
quality- It is made in three distinct 
matte surfaces — gross-grain, semi-rough 
and smooth-laid, each surface having a 
velvety texture that is impossible of de- 
scription. The two colors of stock used 
are white and chamois. 

But of greatest importance in this 
new paper is the wonderful range of 
tones that may be so easily secured in 
a single toning bath. All the objections 
to a printing-out paper that may be 
brought forth are quickly overcome by 
the quality of the finished Zelta print, 
and each photographer may find a tone 
to his particular liking and which will 
best express his individuality. More- 
over, he can repeatedly secure the same 
tone or vary it at will. 

Zelta will appeal to your best and 
most appreciative customers. 

Photographic Mounts. To those who 
are interested in photographic mounts 
something different from the stock lines 
published by the large factories, we 
would suggest to send and procure one 
of the George Murphy, Inc., 57 East 
Ninth Street, New York, new catalogues 
of photographic mounts of their o>vn 
manufacture. 



picture that has been placed on the mar- 
ket up to this time. Clouds are photo- 
graphed, halation is dispensed with, and 
the difference between a blue sky and a 
dark-green foreground is easily distin- 
guished. These screens are now made 
in two styles — one in a circular flange 
that fits over the front of the lens, and 
the other the style "B," having a ring 
screw that fits over the lens in a circular 
flange that is in front of it, the long 
flange allowing the screen to be moved 
up and down ; and the screen, being clear 
at one end and graduating to a strong 
tint at the other, enables the operator to 
be in perfect command of the amount 
of foreground he desires to control. 
Send to the agents for their descriptive 
booklet. 



Frederick B. Core. As we go to 
press we learn with deep sorrow and 
regret of the death of the young rising 
photographer, Frederick B. Core. Fred- 
erick B. Core gave great promise of 
being one of the leading photographers 
in the United States. Not only as an 
artistic worker, but also one who had 
great practical inventive power. His 
latest production, viz., the Core Neg- 
ative Frame, has proved one of the 
most practical photographic accessories 
yet introduced. He devoted himself 
closely to his photographic work, and 
was constantly improving mechanical 
appliances that had had he lived and 
continued would have made his name 
known throughout the United States. 
Cut off early in his career, being only 
thirty-one years of age, the photograph- 
ic profession loses one of its bright 
young members. Mr. Core was taken 
with a cold on Wednesday, January 8th, 
which developed into pneumonia and he 
passed away on Monday, January 13th. 
His death was a shock to all his friends. 



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SNAP SHOTS 



February, 1913 



STUDIO WANTS 

Galleries for Sale or Rent 

D. F. M., gallery in New York City, 
$3,500. 

F. S. W., on Long Island. $900. 
A. M. C, in New Jersey. $900. 

G. B., gallery in New Jersey. $800 
A. D. v., gallery in New York. $500. 



Positions Wanted— Operators 
M. K., all-round man. 
A. L., operator and retoucher. 
J. E. J., an all-round man. 
C. C. P., operator and retoucher. 
V. S., all-around operator. 
H. K., operator and retoucher. 



Parties Desiring Galleries 

Miss F. C, wants gallery in town of 10,- 

000-15,000. 
N. S., wants gallery in N. Y. City. 
R. L. C, in New York City. 
J. T. A., wants gallery in N. Y. State. 
T. D., wants gallery in small city. 
A. M., wants to buy or rent within 40 

miles of N. Y. 



Positions Wanted— Retouchers, Recep- 
tion Room 
Miss I. S., retoucher. 
Miss M. F., retoucher and spotter. 
Miss F. B. N., retoucher. 
R. N., retoucher. 

Positions Wanted— Printers 
Miss K. D., printer, receptionist, etc. 
S A. M., printer. 
S. T. D., printer. 

Parties Desiring Help 
J. H. T., printer and retoucher. 



Notloe— Letters addressed to anyone in our care should be accompanied with staisy 
for each letter so that they can be re-mailed. 



SEND YOUR SUBSCRIPTION NOW 

' Our Year expires January 1st and we want your Renewal. $1.00 per year. 
Photographic news from every section is worth five times our subscription 
price. 

OUR SPECIAL CLUBBING LIST 

We offer the Special Clubbing List of Snap Shots with American and Elng- 
lish Annuals and the English Journals. A combination that places to the 
American photographer photographic news that combined gives him the lield 
covering the English-speaking photographic world: 

1 year's Snap Shots with American Annual (cloth edition) 1913 $1 . 75 

1 year's Snap Shots with British Journal Almanac (cloth edition) 1913 1 . 60 
1 year's Snap Shots with 1 year's subscription to British Journal of 

Photography 3 . 75 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



POSITIONS OFFERED and WANTED, FOR SALE, 
TO RENT, WANT to PURCHASE, EXCHANGE, &c. 



Announcements under these and similar headings of forty words or less, will he inserted 
for forty cents. For each additional word, one cent. Displayed advertisements 60 cents 
per inch. Cash must accompany order. When replies are addressed to our care, 10 cents 
at least must be added to cover probable postage on same to advertiser. Advertisements 
should reach us by the 20th to secure insertions in the succeeding issue. A copy of the 
Journal sent free to every advertiser as long as the "ad" is continued. Advertisements in 
Smap Shots bring prompt returns. 



AN ADVERTISEMENT IN THESE COLUMNS 

li an excellent and lafe medltsm of communication between Photographefs 



For Sale: Studio doing high-class 
work, and finest reputation. Estab- 
lished twenty years. Almost given 
away. Cost over $6,000. Up to date 
and not run down. An exceptional 
opportunity for a permanent business 
and will bear close investigation. Re- 
tiring from business. Studio, 155 Elli- 
son Ave., Paterson, N. J. 

Owing to the sickness of the bwner, 

an old established Studio is offered 
for sale. Same has always done an 
excellent business, and is located in 
a New England town of 15,000 popu- 
lation. Situated in a fine location, 
it occupies two floors, is thoroughly 
fitted up to date. The rent for the 
two floors is $29.00 per month, in- 
cluding a 6 room flat. The prices for 
the work average $6.00 per dozen and 
the receipts have never run below 
$6,000.00 per year. It is a rare chance 
to anyone looking for a paying bus- 
iness For full particulars address 
C. B.. this Journal. 

Opportunity. For hustler, one of 
Denver's leading studios doing good 
business. Equipped up to 11 x 14 and 
everything in good condition. Rent 
reasonable with lease. Will sacrifice 
for quick sale. Finest climate in the 
world. G. M. C, care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: An Aristo Lamp, 220 
volts, direct current, 25 amperes. 
Complete, boxed ready for shipment, 
$35. Address, M. G., care Snap Shots. 

STOLEN: The photographic pub- 
lic is hereby notified that a 7-inch 
Ross Homocentric Lens F-6, 3 No. 
67569, fitted in a Koilos Shutter, has 
been stolen from me. Any informa- 
tion regarding the same will be thank- 
fully received. Purchasers of lenses 
are hereby warned. R. H. Payne, 
Kingston, N. Y. 

When writin£ advertisers 



For Sale: Old established busi- 
ness at Kingston, N. Y. Located in 
heart of the business section. Very 
low rent. Write for further particu- 
lars. The price will suit. Address 
L. Short, 329 Wall Street, Kingston, 
N. Y. 

Wanted: Anyone wishing to dis- 
pose of a pair of Condensing Lenses 
(14 inches diameter) at a bargain, will 
find a purchaser by addressing Pho- 
tographer, Box 55, Morse Hall, 
Tthaca. N V. 

For Sale: Studio in Long Island 
City; no competition within 22 miles, 
with a good surrounding trade. Large 
operating room, reception room, 
dressing room, dark room and stock 
room. Will inventory close to $200, 
with good prices. Price, $1,200. This 
is a fine opportunity for a live, active 
photographer. Address, F. S. W., 
care Snap Shots. 

Salesman Wanted: Large stock 
house in East wants traveling sales- 
man, also store salesman. Must be 
experienced. Give full particulars in 
first letter. P. Y. H., care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: A well located, well fur- 
nished photo studio in New York City 
in prominent thoroughfare. Owner 
desires to sell on account of other 
business interests. Price $3,500; lease 
three years; rent $2,150 per year. To 
a good photographer a fine opening, 
but letters must be addressed in our 
care and will be answered only as the 
owner decides. Address *'D. F. M." 
care Snap Shots. 

For Rent: Photographic Studio, 
been occupied continuously for the 
past twenty years; newly decorated 
throughout; ready for occupancy. No 
business to buy out, simply pay rent 
at $25 per month. Five years' lease to 

Dlease mention Snap Shots. 



XXVI 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



ROCK BOTTOM PRICES 

On CameraSy Lenses and Photofraphic Supplies 

Why pay exorbitant prices for your pho- 
tographic accessories when you can obtain 
from us everything you need in your photo- 
graphic work — whether amateur or profes- 
sional — at greatly reduced prices. 

New BARGAIN LIST just off press. 
Send for copy to-day. 

NEW YORK CAMERA EXCHANGE 

109 Fulton St.. New York 



Eagle Vignette Adjuster 

This is a unique device for adjusting 
tissue paper over the printing frame for 
vignetting purposes. It is a great time 
saver, and is of the greatest assistance 
to the printer, as the tissue paper lies 
perfectly smooth and flat. The vignette 
for each negative can be saved and filed 
with the negative. 

27 for 6x7 Printing List Sell for 

Frames $1.50 75c each 

18 for 8x10 Printing 

Frames 2.00 90c. each 

QEORQE MURPHY, Ino. 
•7 East 9th St. New York 



E.W.N. NonHalaHon Plate Backing 

With this backing, which is most easily applied 
and removed, ordinary glass plates are made 
perfect. It prevents that white fog around 
light objects, renders perspective truthfully, 
lends atmosphere and removes all restrictions 
as to source or intensity of light. With Backed 
Plates vou can take nature as you find her 
truthfully and artistically. The thing for 
snow scenes or interiors. 
Price 60 cents, with full directions. Will 
perfect S50 6x7 plates. Trial sise 90 cents. 

6eorge Murpby, Inc., 57 E. 9tli St., Niw Yark 



CAMERA OWNERS 

If you would like to see a copy of a 
beautiful, practical, interesting, modern 
photographic magazine, written and 
edited with the purpose of teaching all 
photographers how to use their mate- 
rials and skill to the best advantage, 
either for profit or amusement, send us 
your name on a post-card. Don't for- 
get or delay, but write at once. The 
three latest numbers will be sent for 25 
cents. $1.50 a year. 

AMERICAN PHOTOQRAPHY 
601 Pope Building BOSTON, MASS. 






HIGGINS' 
PHOTO 



ii«fif'<!il 



Haye an excellence pecaliarl j their 
own. The best results aie only 
produced by the best methods and 
means — ^the best results in Photo- 
graph, Poster and other mounting 
can only be attained by using the 
best mounting paste — 

HIQQIN8' PHOTO MOUNTER 

CBxoellent norel bnuh with each jar.) 



At Dealers in Pboto Supplies, 
Artieto' K»teriale und Stattonerj. 



A t-oB. jar prepaid by mall for 80 esati. 
or clroalan free from 

CHAS. M. HIQQINS ± CO.* Mfrs. 

NBW YORK CHICAGO LONOOM 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XXVll 



Furniture for Child Photography 

For years there has been a demand for accessories suitable for por- 
traits of children. We have a set of small furniture for this class of work, 
and can now offer a small child's rocker, desk, table and chair, neatly made 
and attractive in appearance. These will enable the photographer to make 
pictures of children in groups or singly with ease and afford many attractive 
poses. 




N9 444 S3.00 



m42t> ^ 375 ^ 



The above designs are made in weathered oak, neat and elegant in 

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XXVUl 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 




Royal 
Printing Masks 

Use them on your vacation negatives. 
They give a finished effect which 
cannot be obtained otherwise. Made 
for all sizes of cameras. Two styles. 
Assorted designs, or all oval and 
squares (9 in package). 

PER PACKAGE, 10 CENTS. 

Mailed on receipt of price. 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc., 57 East 9th St., New York 



I 



ROYAL CARBIbE bEVELOPING UNP 

The Calcium-Carbide Lamp furnishes a lamp that is always ready. 
No gas ! No oil ! A Roya! Lamp for the tourist, the Carbide being a crystal 
easily carried. Simply fill your tank with water and you liave the light* 

No heat in the dark room, no oxygen in the air absorbed by the use of the 
Royal Lamp. A bright steady flame of 15 candle power is produced. Each 
lamp supplied with sufficient Carbide for six hours' steady use, and if lamp is 
desired to be used for a short time only, simply place sufficient Carbide in the 
holder for the time needed, and when lamp is not in use empty the Carbide 
bolder, clean well and dry. Carbide can be procured anywhere cheaper than 
oil or gas and we can supply you with any quantity. 

Royal Carbide Lamp, with material for six hours' use, $1.50. Postage 25c. 
Calcium Carbide, per pound can, 25c. Full instructions with each lamp. 




GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 
57 East 9th Street 



New York 



Orvis Print Shade 

WITH BASE 

A most convenient arrangement for the home. 
It enables one to correctly expose their D. O. P. 
prints. The shade is so constructed that it re- 
flects the light so as to reduce by one-half the 
length of exposure to an ordinary gas jet. It 
also gives a perfectly even illumination over the 
entire negative. 

By means of the base it can be set on the table 
in a convenient position. It is only necessary to 
attach by a gas tube the base to the gas jet. 

Orvis reflecting Print Shade 




^ ^ 



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SXAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 




Tfl«^C)C^>AtlK 



THE STEPS TO HIGHER PRICES 

WRITE FOR SAMPLES AND LITERATVRE TO 
A. f1. COLLINS MFG. CO. 

230 COLVMSIAAVe.. PHILADELPHIA 



C p. Nitrate Silver Crystals 
Pore Chloride Gold 

For Photographers, Aristo 
Paper and Dry Plate Makers 

Cbcmicals for Photo Engraving and the Arts 

All Kinds of Silver and Gold 
Waste Refined 



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XXX 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



The Question: 

Why An Anastigmat? 




The Ans^ver: 

Because it is the only type of lens which 
makes possible better results under all 
conditions. For the amateur 

THE DYNAR 

=F6= 

is an ideal anastiemat. It is constructed 
of a special, hard, colorless Jena glass, 
famous for its superior light transmit- 
ting quality, uniformity and definition, 
and brilliancy of its pictures. 

The speed of the DYNAR is 100 per 
cent greater than is possessed by the 
better grade rapid rectilinears, and it is 
therefore especially adapted for rapid 
instantaneous exposures and home 
portraiture. 

Sold in cells that At directly all 
modern shutters. This feature saves 
time and fitting charges. 

Price for 4x5 or 3j4x5'/4 cells, $25.00 

A.^K. your l^ealer 



EDWARD P. BIQCLOW 

ArMidla. Sound ■••oh, O^nnootiMit 

desires for the "Nature and Science" 
Department of the "St. Nicholas" Maga- 
zine (New York), photographs of inter- 
esting inventions, and of natural objects 
that are novel, instructive or especially 
beautiful. He particularly desires photo- 
graphs of machines, or of mechanical 
appliances of interest to the readers of 
"St. Nicholas." They may be mounted 
or not, of any size and on any kind of 
paper. The only requirements are that 
they shall clearly show something worth 
showing, and be interesting or instruc- 
tive. Do not send "snap shots" of 
scenery that can be equalled for beauty 
and for general interest in almost any 
part of the earth. 

Pay will be at the usual magazine 
rates, and will vary with the interest 
and the novelty. A small photograph 
may be more valuable than a big one. 

* The Guide to Nature," Arcadia: 
Sound Beach, Connecticut, is a maga- 
zine for adults, and has a definite pur- 
pose. It is published by an association 
of students and lovers of nature — not 
for pecuniary gain, but to be helpful. 
Its aepartment, "The Camera," is con- 
ducted by enthusiastic camerists, each 
of whom, as in a camera society, desires 
to help all his associates and colleagues. 
Editor, associates and contributors are 
paid by the satisfaction of benefiting 
others. There is no better remunera- 
tion. All income is devoted directly to 
the interests and improvement of the 
magazine 



Send your name and address 
for 

King's 
Booklet on 
"Lighting" 

(Eight pages with illustrations) to 

GEORGE MURPHY 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XXXI 







TTpon the accurmcy of your aniwer 
to thii all-important queBtlon depend t 
yovr Teiy euocett in photography! 



Watlcins' 
Oee MIeter 

gives you the correct exposure every time — for any light 
— any weather — any condition. 

Especially difficult is the question of exposure during 
the winter, because the actinic strength of the light is far 
less than it appears to be. The only way to be sure you 
are right is to use the Bee Meter. 

If your exposure is correct, you can develop your plates 
or films automatically and will be absolutely sure of good 
negatives. No guessing; no uncertainty. 

The price of the Bee Meter is only $1.25 — so low that 
you cannot afford to be without one. It solves the hard- 
est problem in photography quickly and accurately. 

Clrculari on Request 
At Yonr Dealers 

BURKE & JAMES 



240-268 E. Ontario Street 
Chicago 

^^« ^. 8. Agents for Watkins' Specialties. 




iPiBW syppuEsi 

No larirer than a watch. 



8x10 Plate Holders 

Will fit any 8x10 Century 
or New York Studio Outfit 

rbese Holders are Single Curtain Slide Holders with Kits 
for 6^x8^, 5x7 and 4x5 Plates 

PRICE, - $4.00 ■ EACH 



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xxxii SiNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMEN^TS 

AT LAST 

Lantern Slides in 

NATURAL. COLORS 

Made with 

ETvtfiav Color Folate 

Process the simplest, results the most perfect reproduction of natural colors possible to 
obtain. Dufay color plates are of very fine texture, rapid, and are guaranteed for six 



PRICE LIST PEB BOX OF FOTTB 

91.80 4x6" f 1.60 



months. 

8iz4 " 

si X 41" 1.86 6x7" 8.00 

COMPENSATING SCREENS 

11 X ir f 1.80 81 X sr f8.00 

l| X 11" 1.60 41 X 4r 4.00 

8lx8r 8.00 

GREEN EXCELSIOR PAPER FOR DARK ROOM 
PER PACKAGE OF 6 SHEETS 

6x7" 90.18 8 X 10" 90.80 

Complete set Solationt 91.85 
Send a trial order, 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 East 9th Street, New York 



SOMETHING REALLY GOOD 

THE 'PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES' ALBUMS 

FOR UNMOUNTED PHOTOGRAPHS 

These Albums for Unmounted Photographs are made precisely like the old-fash- 
ioned scrap book, with a guard between every leaf. The leaves themselves are made 
of a gray linen-finished cover paper, from extra heavy stock, weighing 120 pounds 
to the ream. The books are bound in genuine Seal grained Leather, backs and corners, 
with stronff Cloth sides. The covers are tooled with genuine gold leaf, and the word 
Photoffrapnt is stamped in gold on the sides. These Albums are sewed in the regular 
bookbinders* style, to open flat, and they are made to stand the hardest kind of -wear. 
We are putting them out over the reputation of the "Photographic Times,'* and 

WE GUARANTEE EVERY BOOK 

These Albums contain fifty leaves each, for holding from one hundred to two 
hundred unmounted photographs, according to the size of the prints. The prices and 
sizes of these Albums for Photographs are as follows: 

"PHOTOGRAPHIC" TIMES ALBUM 

With a Year'i 
Albam Betail Price Subscription to 

Photographic Times 

No. 1 8i2e of leaf, 4iz5i inchei fl.OO 12.00 

No. 8 Size of leaf. 5iz 8 " 1.20 2.20 

No. 8 Size of leaf, 7x10 *' 1.60 2.60 

No. 4 Size of leaf, 10x12 " 2.40 8.40 

No. 5 Size of leaf, 11x14 " 2.80 8.80 



Piiotograpliic Times Pull. Association 



135 West FiBrtteith ttrttt 
■EW TOIK 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. C 



\oo(^^ 



fi. 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XXXlll 



"HIGHEST EFFICIENCY" PLATES are plates that do 
the most work, of the best quality in the shortest time. 
Hammer Plates are such, giving full detail, depth and round- 
ness with the shortest possible exposure. 

Hammer's Special Extra Fast (red label) and Extra Fast 
(blue label) Plates, best for winter work. 




Hammer's little book, "A Short Talk on Negative Making," 
mailed free. 



HAMMER DRY PLATE COMPANY 



Ohio Ave. and Miami St. 



St. Louis, Mo. 



Attention— Something Neiv 

A plate that cannot be over-exposed 

THE HYDRA PLATE 

These plates, while possessing all the qualities of the best dry plates, 
have properties peculiar to themselves, the chief of which is that they 
DEFY OVER-EXPOSURE. The advantage to photographers of every 
class is the assurance that the quality of .he negative will in no way 
suffer by abnormal over-exposure. The extreme contrasts of bright 
sunshine and deep shadow in the same subject presents no difficulty to 
the user of "HYDRA" plates. Expose for the shadows is all that is nec- 
essary. "HYDRA" plates are supplied "backed" only — invisible backing 
which requires no rubbing off, as it disappears in most of the popular 
developers without leaving any stain. The speed of the "HYDRA" 
plate is as follows: 

Ai per: Hurter ft Driffield system No. 800 
As per: Wyniie Meter speed F 90, or ITS 618 

Sizes Per dozen 
;J4 X 4^ 10.60 

4 z 6 1.00 

5 X 7 8.00 

6J4 X Syz 8.60 

8 X 10 4.00 

We liave a stock of these plates now ready for distribution. 
Send a trial order, 

GEORGE MURPHY, I5r~57 ErStiTSt^i^tTNeVYSifk 

When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. ^ ^ 



s 



le 



XXXIV 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



EAGLE SODA SCALES 

Especially constructed for 
daily photographic use. 

Will weigh from J^^ ounce to 
4 pounds, conveniently and accu- 
rately. 

Just the scale for weighing your 
sodas and hypo. Fan removable. 

PRICE, $6.00 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc., 57 East 9th Street, New York 

Importers and manufacturers of every kind of photographic material 




EAGLE FORM HOLDER 



The Eagle Form Holder is su- 
perior to any of the form hold- 
ers on the market. You place 
the form and print in position 
and by simply pressing down a 
lever it securely locks the form 
so that it can not slip, thus facili- 
tating quick and accurate cutting 

of the prints. Will accommodate any size form up to 8 x lo. 

The base is of steel, and the cutting plate of zinc which does 

not dull the cutter. Price, $2.00. 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 57 East 9th Street, New York 

Manufacturers, Importers and Dealers in Photog- 
raphers' Materials off Every Description 




EAGLE MASK FRAME 




(Patented) 
FOR TINTED BORDERS 

The Eagle Mask Frame makes it pos- 
sible to quickly and accurately obtain 
artistic borders on all kinds of printing 
papers. By cutting your own masks you 
can obtain an unlimited number of de- 
signs. This frame is what you have 
been looking for to simplify your print- 
ing. Complete instructions given. 
For 5x7 Negatives, Price $2.50 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 Cast 9th Street NEW YORK 



When writing: advertisers please mention SNAi^'ifeli'^V 



VJJ^^VIC 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XXXV 



f 



GOOD INSURANCE. 

Every good photographer judges his chemicals by the 
results obtained. If the chemical is low grade, if the con- 
tainer is the cheapest to be had, if the system of packing 
is taken care of at the minimum of expense, you will agree 
there is little likelihood of the chemicals keeping properly 
or giving the best results. 

That is why we either make or procure the best 

chemicals to be had— use mostly glass containers, vv^hich 

insure the chemicals reaching your hands in a perfect 

condition— see that all containers are properly stoppered, 

labeled and accompanied by suitable formulas for the 

preparing of solutions. If there is any difference in price, 

and in most cases there isn't, the difference covers these 

little precautions that insure your results. 

Get acquainted with the mark of 
Chemical Certainty. 




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XXXVI 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



The success of Artura is based 
on that invariable quality which 
has made it the standard of devel- 
oping-out papers. 





C^ 



r^ 




Knows no EquaL 





ARTURA DIVISION, 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



xxxvu 



t- 



E4GLE FL4SH L4NP 

gives a flash with a broad spread like a gas flame. Quick (about 1-50 
second), sure, noiseless, practically accident proof. The bulb release 
is sure and self-clearing. Made of hard brass, nickel plated. Will not 
rust. Umbrella of blue cloth. 





\ 



Eagle Junior 
Flash Lamp 

for Home Portraiture and General 
Amateur Use. Constructed exactly 
like our Regular Eagle Flash Lamp. 
For use without or with the Eagle 
Flash Bag. Capacity ^ to 1 oz. 
Flash powder, ample for home 
portraits and small groups. 

Prices $10 and $12.50 according 
to equipment. 



PRICES t 

The Eagle Flash Lamp outfit complete, including lamp, stand, 

blue umbrella, caps and flash powder $15.00 

The Eagle Flash Lamp Stand 6 . 00 

Umbrella made of a special blue cloth 1 . 50 

Eagle Junior Lamp, including umbrella, stand, caps and 1 oz. 

powder 10 . 00 

Or with Eagle Junior Smoke Bag (no umbrella) 12.50 

Eagle Flash Lamp (without stand) 7 . 50 

Eagle Flash Bags 



I 



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XXXVUl 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Rhodol 



METOL, SATRAPOL and other trade names have been 
adopted by different manufacturers for the chemical Mono- 
methylpara-amidophenol sulphate. We are supplying this 
chemical under the name RHODOL and guarantee our 
article when used in the same way. to produce identical 
results. 

Obtainable from All Photo Supply Houses at Lowest Prices. 

Mallinckrodt Chemical Works 



St. Louis 



New York 



MANTTFACTUBEBS OF HIGH OBADE, 8TANDABD PHOTOGBAPHIC CHEMICALS 



Rough & Caldwell Background and 
Accessory Company 

announce that their new catalogue of photographic ac- 
cessories is now ready; accessories that are really 
an accessory to the subject producing finished pic- 
tures. For these there is a constant inquiry, and there 
is not on the market a catalogue showing the various 
styles that can be adapted by the photographer in the 
makiner uo of his artistic picture, or a picture with artistic 



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SXAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XXXIX 



A NEW PAPER. 

Ivory Black Platinotype 

in smooth (Buff) and rough (White) surfaces. 

Artistic, Refined and Beautiful Results 

The tone is warm black and very popular in every country 
in Europe. Send for sample Print. 

Our regular papers, sepia and black — in smooth, rough 
and Japine surfaces — continue to be in good demand by the 
best photographers. 



WILLIS & CLEMENT5 

PHILADELPHIA 



Royal Foreground Ray Soreen 

Patemed April 4th, 1911 

Style B (Universal) 

An oblong ray filter graded from a deep yellow on one end 
to practically colorless glass on the other, mounted in a 
sliding frame so as to bring a filter of any desired depth of 
color in front of the camera lens. 




In the Style B Foreground we offer a ray filter for every 
conceivable oithochromatic purpose. 

Maximum speed is attained for instantaneous exposures by 
means of tlie colorless or faintly tinted sections and maximum 
orthochromatism, or rendering of the true color values, by using 
the deeply colored portions, with every possible gradation inter- 
vening. 

The frame of the filter is num- 
bered consecutively according to the 

depth of color and these numbers Jlo. 

show through a circular opening on 1 B 

the mount, so that any special color 8 B 

intensity is readily locate<l and the 4 B 

exact conditions for any previous 5 B 

exposure may be instantly duplicated 6 B 

if desired. 7 B 

It slips over the front of the lens 8 B 

the same as a lens cap, and may be 9 B 

*°»{antly attached or removed. 10 B 



STYLE B 

Dia. Inches 

iVie 
iVie 

2 

2H 
3 



$3.00 
3.00 
3.00 
4.00 
4.50 
5.0O 
6.00 
6.60 
7.0O 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Studio Cabinet 
Photography 




The Ross Rapid Cabinet Portrait Lens differs from 
ordinary portrait lenses, as it is constructed to give as 
flat a field as consistent with good marginal definition. 
Invaluable for the production with full aperture of 
either standing or sitting figures. Rapid results with 
brilliancy. 

No. 3 Portrait Lens, 3!/{>'' diameter, 12" equiva- 
equivalent focus for use when studio 
exceeds 20 ft.; the distant subject for 
cabinet portraits $133.00 

No. 3 A Portrait Lens, 4'' diameter, 16'' equiva- 
lent focus, for promenade portraits and 
cabinets in long studios 189.00 



All 



t A It 



Qfnrli'r^c ftl-»rMiM R^ Qiiool if»r1 WifVi o 



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THE ROYAL FOREGROUND RAY SCREEN 

i Paienutl April Mili, 191 U 

STitE A. 

Tho L&teit and Greatest Improvement In Ea? Filters. 

The only Ray Screen ever invented that will give an even, equal exposure 
lo both sky and lorcgrountl. and produce a perfect cloufj effect nisinnin- 
neously with ordinary plate*. 

The Royal Foreground Ray Screen is so constructed that the color, which 
IS a strong orange yellow at the top. is gradually diminished until perfect 
transparency is attained at the bottom. The practical effect of the gradual 
blending of color is to sitt out or absorb the powerful clKinical rays from 
the clouds and sky. which pass through thi: strongly colt>rcd lop of the rilter, 
without percfptildy decreasing the weak flhiniin^jtion oi the rcllt!ctid light 

From the foreR^round, which 
I umcs through the trans- 
parent or colorless lower 
!^art of I he screen in full 
fUensily. 

The reason that dnylight 
< loud pictures are rare is 
iliat the strength of the il- 
lumination frr>m the sky is 
many, many times that of 
ihe partially absorhed and 
redected light from objects 
in the ground. 

If a correct exposure is 
^iven to the clouds, then 
I lie landscape is badly nn- 
der-exposcd; if the correct 
ixposure is given to the 
landscape, then the clouds 
ire literally burnt up from 
civer-exposure. and no mai- 
ler how contrasty they may 
Have appeared to the eye, 
an unscreened photojtjraph 
shows only a blank white 
'^ky. 

The Royal Forepronnd 
Ray Screen is also very 
useful for sub j eels which 
arc more stronj^ly illumi- 
nated on one side than on 
the other, as in photojtrraj^h- 
mn; l)y the light of a side 
window or in a narrow 
street. By simply lurMJug 
the dark side of the fore- 
ground screen toward the 
bright side of the object a 
irood. even exposure will 
result. 




If^de With the Royjil Forei^round Ray Screen 

PjfOTO. By If. F,SCfnifnf\ S.uittic n'a.ihnt-t'H. 

STOPlK EXPOSURE \iiccimd. 

i^.f,tfm^if^ ^^ffi, ni .'f. M, ni.it,}ttce to suow-covtrcd 

M(. Baker S Mites* 



^^ DiAMrTEK tSCIIES PHtCE 

jj^ tor br>x cameras l..i<^ 



BT¥L£ 



KC. 

8A 

lf)A 
11 A 



DIAMETEK INCHES 

s 



pin* E 

8.50 
4,00 



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If s your individuality that counts. 

Your work must be different — will 
be different if you select as a means 
of expression, the new albumen 
printing-out paper. 





nt 




Matte-Surface, Ready-Sensitized, 
Four Grades. 

A range of tone from red chalk to 
cold black, yet is simple and certain in 
manipulation. 

Your stock house has it. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY. , 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. ^ 




NO. 360B7 REGl STEREB 



March. 1913 



CONTENTS 

rinkle In Titling Nega- 
es - - 41 

Intensification of Nega* 
es After Drying - - - 42 

V Scenes - * - - - - 45 

ubstitute For Ground 
iss - - ' 48 

ion - 50 

oducing Manuscripts - 54 

[th in the Darkroonn - 56 

le News and Notes - 5S 

lio Wants - _ ^ - - - 60 






< 











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The above illustration is a little difficult to fathom. 
Is it not? You will readily understand, however, by 
examining closely. A 200- lb. man is standing on a 
sheet of our 

Cellular Board 

and his heels hardly make a dent: The illustration 
tells its own story! 

This material, made by our t)wn special process, 
possesses remarkable resistance and is at the same time 
vcr)- light. Just the thing for protecting all kinds of 
packages in shipment. Can be used to advantage in 
any number of ways. We can furnish any size you wish. 

Particulars on request. 




THE THOMPSON & NORRIS CO. 

6 PRINCE STREET, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Boston, Mass.; Brookvillc* Ind,; Niagara Falls, Canada; London, 
England; Jiilich, Germany. 

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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



xli 



PHOTO- FLAT 

No More Curling of Your Prints 




A BATCH OF DRIED PRINTS 




TPIE SAME PRINTS AFTER BEING TREATED WITH PHOTO- FLAT 

^Apply to back of print, after they are thoroughly dry. 

-An eflfective and simple way to flatten curled prints. 

Ea,sy to use — no special care needed in drying prints to 

t>c treated with PHOTO-FLAT. Leading professionals 

ha\rc given an emphatic endorsement to PHOTO-FLAT. 

PRICES: 4 Oz. Bottles, 35c; Pint Bottles, $1.00. 
Quart Bottles, $1.75 Half Gal. Bottles, $3.00 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



AT LAST 

Lantern Slides in 

NATURAL. COL.ORS 

Made with 

Dufav Color Plate 



Process 

obtain. 

months. 

8}z4 " 
81 X 4r 

uxir 
u z ir 

8l z 2r 



6x7" 



the simplest, results the most perfect reproduction of natural colon possible to 
Dufay color plates are of very fine texture, rapid, and are guaranteed for six 

PRICE LIST PER BOX OF FOUR 

11.20 4x5" |l.eO 

1.26 5x7" 2.00 

COMPENSATING SCREENS 

11.20 8J X 34" 18.00 

1.60 4J X 41" 4.00 

2.00 

GREEN EXCELSIOR PAPER FOR DARK ROOM 
PER PACKAGE OF 6 SHEETS 

10.18 8 X 10" 10.80 

Complete set Solutions |1.25 
Send a trial order. 



GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 East 9th Street, New York 



You Can Take Pictures on a Day Like This! 

That is, if your lens is right. The lens is the soul of your camera. Ordinary lenses 
will take or^/>/^ry pictures under /lit'orad/e conditions. Arc you satisfied with that? 
Or would you like the desf results under a/I conditions ? If so, you should know the 

GOERZ LENSES 

Universally used by war photographers and profcssir>nal ■, who must 
be sure of their results. TTiey can easily he fitted to the camera 
you now own. 

S^JkA fnr Onr RaaIt am ''I amcac ati«l TamAra*'' 




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xliii 



I 



»120»? 



will place 
the new 

No. 8 

CENTURY 

OUTFIT 

in your 
Studio. 




IWKE IS WHAT THE PRICE INCLUDES; 

1 11x11 Century Grand Portrait Camera with bcw focusing 



5irrutijj«*m#?tiL 
11x11 bemi-Centenniiil SuiikI 
Keversible Back l\>r 11 x It Croliirv View Plate IlDlders. 

Adjustable for making eilber um* or two exposures un 

a plate. 
Slidiu^ Attachment for 8 x 10 Curtain Slide Plate Haider, 
Adapter for 8x10 Attaehtiienl to lake 5 x 7 Curtain SUd« 

Hiilder. 
11 X 14 On titrj Double View I'lute Hidder, 
Hx 10 Century Curtain Slide Holder with (ij4 x 8 j'^ Kit, 
S X 7 Curtaiu Slide lloidrr- 
Plate Holilcr Rack. 

Th'^ newest and most eiaborrue of the Centtirp Outfits 

Centurv Camera Division 



■L 



Ea^tinan Kmlak Co. 



Rochester, N, Y. 

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I 



xliv 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Hildeg^arde Folder 

Antique Brown Cover, enclosing Duplex Sepia° 
Brown Card 

Quaker Drab Cover, enclosing White Card 




The constant and continued appeals for a large folder for double 
weight prints makes the "Hildegarde" a successful response to a long 
felt want. 

It is the acme of severe refinement, and with its heavy cover and 
appropriate card, furnishes a suitable mounting for all high-class work. 

For Sepias it is particularly attractive, giving with the Duplex card a 
variety of tones. The plain card, of course, aflFords plenty of latitude in 
trimming prints, and any size picture will find it a graceful background 
to enhance its value. 

Folder 11x14 for all photographs 8x10 or smaller, |14 00 per 100 
Packed 50 in a box. 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 E. Ninth Street New York 

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When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



'( 




SNAP-SHOTS 

A Monthly Magazine for Photographers 



9UBSCUPTXOV BATIS VOI U. I. AMD CAMAIU PES TIAK, |1*00; HZ MOMTHt« 60 CBWTt 

tiMGLS COrr, 10 CSIITt. fouigm coumtubi, %\M 
FUUISHO IT TBB SMAT-SBOTS PUBLItHXIfO Ca, 67 BAST NIlfTB BTBSBT, WBW YOBK 



Volume 24 



MARCH, 1913 



Number 3 



Statement of Ownership, Management, etc., of "Snap-Shots," published monthly 
at New York City, N. Y., required by the Act of August 24th, 1912. 

Editor— Percy Y. Howe, 57 East 9th Street, New York City, N. Y. ; Publishers- 
Snap Shots Pub. Company, 57 East 9th Street, New York City, N. Y. ; Owner- 
George Murphy, 57 East 9th Street, New York City, N. Y. 

Known bondholders, mortgages, and other security holders, holding 1 per cent, 
or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities — None. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this Tenth day of March, 1913. 

Warren W. Sigler, Notary Public Queens County, 

Certificate filed in N. Y. County. 

(My Commission Expires March 30th, 1913.) 

A WRINKLE IN TITLING NEGATIVES 






This may be an old dodge to 
some, but as I have never seen it 
in print, I will air it. Whatever 
title may be desired is lettered, with 
Chinese white, upon a slip of 
smooth black paper. If this slip 
be placed carefully in the desired 
position on the wet negative, after 
the latter has drained and looks 
smooth, rubbed carefully into good 
contact, left a few moments and 
then removed, the lettering will ap- 
pear in reverse, in white, on the 
negative film. As Chinese white is 



nearly opaque, the title may or may 
not be sufficiently dense; if not, it 
can easily be followed over with a 
fine pen, using Higgins' or other 
waterproof ink, after the negative 
is dry. This method, accidentally 
discovered, simplified the making 
of letters in reverse, as the copy 
left by the Chinese white, being 
easily seen against the black of the 
negative, is very easy to follow; 
lettering or printing in reverse 
without some sort of guide being 
not so easy. — Camera Craft. 



41 



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SNAP SHOTS 



March, 1913 



THE INTENSIFICATION OF NEGATIVES 
AFTER DRYING 



It not unf requently happens that, 
after drying a negative and tak- 
ing a print it is found to be ca- 
pable of improvement by means of 
judicious intensification, or the re- 
verse — reduction; but many pho- 
tographers are reluctant to meddle 
with matters as they stand, if a 
moderately satisfactory result is 
obtainable, in the belief that, after 
drying, the film is less amenable to 
successful treatment. To some 
slight extent this is actually the 
case, but by suitable preparation al- 
most any film, after once drying, 
may be brought into a perfectly fit 
condition for the application of the 
usual methods of treatment. Nat- 
urally the means adopted will dif- 
fer according to the character of 
the films, gelatine requiring totally 
diflFerent treatment from collodion, 
and a bath plate from one 
prepared from collodion emul- 
sion. 

We say that almost any film may 
be so treated, and practically it may 
be that all are susceptible of being 
brought into proper condition, 
though occasionally, under very ab- 
normal circumstances, instances 
may be met with which refuse to 
give way to the ordinary processes. 
For instance, we have more than 
once met with gelatine negatives 
which, from some peculiarity in the 
character of the gelatine employed, 
coupled no doubt with the action 
thereon of the alum bath, have 



proved utterly beyond the reach ol 
any form of intensifier or reducer, 
after they have been some time 
dried; and, in cases where chrome 
alum was used after development, 
we have known the films to refuse 
to fix, so thoroughly had the gela- 
tine been hardened. Again, many 
years ago, when on a holiday tour, 
with collodion dry plates in order 
to save trouble while away from 
home, the negatives developed were 
simply washed and dried without 
fixing, that operation being left un- 
til our return; but, after drying, it 
was found that the collodion was of 
so **homy'* a character that it had 
become quite impervious, not Only 
to aqueous solutions, but also re- 
sisted the penetrating action of al- 
cohol, and in this case also the 
films refused to fix, although those 
treated immediately after develop- 
ment gave no trouble whatever. 
These and similar abnormal cases 
may, however, be left out of con- 
sideration. 

In a general way, with gelatine 
plates, no special treatment will be 
required beyond a thorough soak- 
ing in water, but, before any ab- 
solutely uniform and complete ac- 
tion can be expected, the entire 
thickness of the film must b^ per- 
meated. It is not of the slightest 
use to just moisten the surface of 
the plate before applying the inten- 
sifying or reducing liquids, as this 
is only tantamount to courting fail- 



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March, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



43 



ure; the film must be submitted to 
the action of clean, soft water, un- 
til the latter has soaked completely 
through the whole thickness and 
brought it to an even degree of 
saturation. The length of soaking 
necessary to bring about this result 
will vary according to circum- 
stances, the character of the gela- 
tine, the development used, and 
whether or not alum has been used 
in the process. Some plates will, 
in fact, require ten times the 
amount of soaking to bring them 
into suitable condition that others 
do, and, without knowing the 
plates, it is difficult to judge at 
sight when the proper stage has 
been reached. Generally speaking, 
those which appear to repel the wa- 
ter and to become quickly surface- 
dry may be set down as requiring 
a lengthy soaking, and this will 
usually be found to be the condition 
of plates that have remained a long 
time in the dry state, especially if 
alum has been applied to them be- 
fore drying. Those, on the other 
hand, that take the water readily, 
and after a minute or so allow it 
to flow smcMDthly over the surface, 
will be ready for treatment after a 
comparatively short soaking; but, 
as there is no satisfactory method 
by which the exact minimum time 



can be ascertained, it is as well to 
allow plenty in all cases. 

If it should occur, in spite of 
very prolonged soaking, that irregu- 
larity of action follows, it is pretty 
sure evidence that alum has been 
largely employed, either in the proc- 
ess of manufacture of the gelatine 
or the films or in development, and 
steps will have to be taken to coun- 
teract its hardening action and to 
restore the permeability of the film. 
For this purpose nothing surpasses 
a weak solution of acetic acid, one 
part of the acid to one hundred of 
water, in which the plate should 
be soaked instead of in plain water. 
After the use of this bath the film 
should be further soaked in plain 
water to remove the acid, more es- 
pecially if the subsequent treat- 
ment is to consist of reduction by 
means of hypo and ferricyanide of 
potassium. A weak solution of am- 
monia or other alkali is also found 
to exercise a softening action, but 
this has also a tendency to rot the 
gelatine, which the acetic acid does 
not. The alkali must be thoroughly 
removed before applying such solu- 
tions as mercuric chloride, and, in 
fact, wherever it is possible to dis- 
pense with either acid or alkali, it 
is preferable. — The British Journal 
of Photography. 



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SNAP SHOTS 



March, 1913 







u-c;; 



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March, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



45 



SNOW SCBNES 



By P. 

(Reprinted by permission of A 

One thing very sure is that we 
all have more or less our own way 
of doing things, and the above title 
is one that I think is treated in the 
greatest variety of ways. 

The most universal instructions 
that you will find in all kinds of 



Hunt 

merican Annual of Photography) 

written from theory and not from 
practice. It seems impossible for 
me to get anything like results from 
such short exposures. 

Another thing that we find so 
often in instruction books, magazine 
articles, etc., is to keep the sun be- 




FlGURE 2. 



magazines are to give 1/12 normal 
exposure for snow or clouds. Some 
vary on the question of clouds from 
Yi to 1/12 the exposure that a land- 
scape should have. Do not think 
that I will attempt to tell some of 
these that they do not know what 
the>' are talking about. I do think, 
though, that the most of them are 



hind you, or nearly so. Just ask 
yourself a few questions and see if 
you think this is right. 

How would a portrait look if the 
light came from the back of your 
camera? Take a properly lighted 
print and place it beside one that is 
lighted from back of your camera 
and compare them. Take any sub- 



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46 



SNAP SHOTS 



March. 1913 



ject and make like comparisons. To 
make the point clear so that you 
will understand why I differ from 
so many, I will say that it is my 
opinion that the instructions orig- 
inated with makers of cameras in 
the earlier days, when the lenses 
were very imperfect, and it was 



tide will more strongly emphasize 
the point I am trying to make clear. 
In Figure 1 you will note that the 
light is coming from nearly behind 
me; the picture is quite flat; the 
frost on the trees (and snow) is 
merely white stuff on the trees — 
that on the ground is a trifle better. 




Figure 3; 



necessary to take snapshots in that 
way in order to get all the light 
possible. 

Now this is not what the title 
calls for. It is, however, very im- 
portant and right to the point, and 
is to impress upon your mind the 
real points that are at issue. Source 
of light, the time, place and ex- 
posure — things that will vary with 
every picture. 

The illustrations with this ar- 



In Figure 2, taken within ten 
minutes of the other, the light 
comes at right angles and the snow- 
looks like snow, not a white mass 
as in Figure 1. However, the low 
light (low sun) assists the latter 
very much. If the sun had been 
higher it would merely have been 
two masses, one white, the other 
black. In fact it is not the snow 
that you should look for, but the 
shadows. Select the point where 



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March, 1913 



SXAP SHOTS 



47 




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48 



SNAP SHOTS 



March, 19 13 



you can get the best picture of the 
shadows. The snow part will come 
out to your satisfaction. Just try 
this on all kinds of subjects. Look 
for the best point from which to 
take a picture of the shadows. Very 
few subjects would be a failure 
from this way of selecting your 
position. 

In Figure 2 note how the frost 
on the trees stands out like frost, 
the snow looks like snow, the 
shadows as you can see are the 
whole picture, soft, transparent and 
pleasing. One thing, though, that 
makes the picture please you most 
is the low position of the sun. If 
the sun had been behind me the tree 
on the extreme left would have been 
almost invisible against a white 
hill behind. 

The three views of my old studio 
are another set that will prove the 
very same points. In Figure 3 the 
sun was nearly behind me ; in Fig- 



ure 4 at right angles, and in Fig- 
ure 5 nearly in front of me, ex- 
cept that the sun was lower, and as 
you can see, the effects are very 
much better. 

The moral is to get at least half 
of the subject in shadows, if not 
three-fourths, merely tipping the 
edges and tops with the high light, 
then "expose for the shadows and 
let the high lights take care of 
themselves.'* I would no more 
think of underexposing a snow 
scene or cloud picture than a green 
lawn full of red flowers. 

The time to take snow scenes is 
when the air is perfectly clear, 
not the least haze. Early in the 
morning is much better than late 
in the evening. I say early or late, 
the air as a rule being much clearer 
in the morning. 

The light must be sufficiently 
strong to give full and decided 
shadows. 



A SUBSTITUTE FOR GROUND GLASS 



A formula which was more i 
use fifteen or twenty years ago 
than at present may be mentioned 
for the. information of several cor- 
respondents asking for a suitable 
means of backing up large glass 
transparencies with a semi-trans- 
parent deposit. An emulsion of 
carbonate of lead in collodion per- 



cipitate the lead as carbonate. The 
precipitate is washed first with 
water, and finally with alcohol, and 
is then added to plain collodion, 
in which it is well shaken up. The 
exact proportion to add is judged 
by one or two trial coatings on a 
sheet of glass. Although the lead 
carbonate is about the best pigment. 



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March, 191 3 



SNAP SHOTS 



49 




5; 



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SNAP SHOTS 



March, 1913 



CARBON 
By Charles M. Clark 



This is a story of how a success- 
ful carbon print was made, and the 
writer thinks those who imagine 
carbon work to be in that high re- 
gion of photography to which but 
few can ascend will find it interest- 
ing. After all, the carbon process, 
while taking considerable more time 
and patience, is just as easy as the 
making of prints on developing pa- 
per or P. O. P., and far more fas- 
cinating. The results, after some 
failures, are ample compensation 
for failures. A good carbon print 
is certainly something worth going 
after. 

To start with, aside from having 
seen some carbon prints, the man- 
ner of operation was all dark to me, 
and my attention was first attracted 
after some poor gum prints had 
been made. While starting in to 
make prints without any knowledge 
of the matter resulted in the worst 
kind of a failure, I am glad I start- 
ed as I did. After getting some 
unsensitized tissue and a couple of 
ounces of bichromate of potassium, 
I dissolved some of the chemical 
and sensitized the paper. 

I do not know whether that bath 
was a 2 or 20 per cent solution, but 
I do know that, had I known how 
the print should have been handled, 
I would at least have gotten some- 
thing. Some one said something 
about hot water, and, after remov- 
ing the print from the frame under 
the hot water faucet it went. 



There was an indecisive moment, 
as if the pigment was disgusted 
with this treatment, and then the 
emulsion started to slide away. But 
during that period I could see my 
picture. I knew something about 
being expected to use a piece of 
transfer paper, but I thought for 
that time I would take a chance and 
use the paper which was used as a 
support when I purchased the tis- 
sue. 

In a very short space of time 
there was nothing remaining but a 
piece of blank paper, and then I 
started in to get some "book'* 
knowledge of the affair. After read- 
ing what some one said regarding 
putting the tissue, after printing, 
into water until it had the curl taken 
out of it and bringing it into con- 
tact with a support, I made another 
print. This was kept in the water 
about two minutes, not warm this 
time, and then a piece of drawing 
paper was brought into contact and 
the two squeegeed together and put 
under a book. About that time I 
was wondering what was going to 
happen. In about five minutes I 
took the print and support and put 
them into warm water, and waited 
until the pigment started to come 
out from under the sides of the 
print and support, as the book said 
it would. Then, taking it out of 
the water (that was a mistake, as I 
afterward found out, and started 
pulling), most of the pigment still 



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March, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



SI 



adhered to the original support, but 
there was a portion which stuck to 
the drawing paper. This I started 
to work on, and with my fingers 
dropped the warm water over it, 
and the soluble pigment started to 
run away, and in a short time there 
was a face on the paper. Here at 
least was a part of a carbon print, 
and just enough to make me feel 
that it was worth going after. 

Back to the book again, and there 

I learned the support paper must 

have a coating upon it to make the 

pigment stick ; and it said to boil an 

ounce of gelatine in ten ounces of 

water and then put in some alum. 

This I did, but found the gelatine 

would congeal as soon as the alum 

was put in, and so I started to rub 

the dissolved gelatine over some 

drawing paper, and then, when it 

was dry, put it into a tray where 

chrome alum had been dissolved. I 

found that after putting the sized 

paper into contact with the pigment 

without having given it the chrome 

^hm bath the gelatine would 

^C)iten, but not after having been 

Woug-ht into contact with the alum 

bath for five minutes. 

Then there followed a lot of trou- 
bles of various kinds, and there 
^'^t^ Wmes when it looked as if a 
V^tl^ct print could never be made. 
1 had tnade an 8x10 negative of an 
Indian he^^^ ^^^ decided that I 



if it does not any one else. You 
see, after a time I did what I should 
have done at first — took a book 
which devoted a lot of pages to 
carbon work and started in, read 
and re-read what it said, and after 
a couple of weeks felt I had a pretty 
good idea of the theory of why 
pigment, brought into contact with 
bichromates, would become insolu- 
ble, and then started in to make 
prints. Things went better, but 
there were troubles which bobbed 
up which I had to contend with. 
One of the chief of these, after I 
had gotten to be able to strip the 
support which carried the pigment 
when purchased, was to have the 
soluble pigment sort of blister and 
form a circle, where it would be 
very thick and leave a bare space 
inside the circle. This generally 
happened to be in the high lights, 
and I found seldom did any dam- 
age, as the thick pigments would 
dissolve. Then there would be a 
number of little blisters, and when 
the pigment was drying it would be 
thick there and have a lighter space 
around it. One print started to 
frill, which was a new trouble, and 
a good many other things hap- 
pened. But all this time I was get- 
ting a print now and then which 
was free from flaws, and gradually 
worked the thing down until I 
could make a good many prints 



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52 



SNAP SHOTS 



March, 1913 



making pictures. Now, I do not 
claim to be a carbon worker, but 
for the benefit of some one who 
might want to try, I am going to 
tell how I do it. 

Starting off, one has to have a 
negative, and I prefer to work from 
a 5x7 or larger, generally 8x10, 
and as most of my negatives are 
4x5, I had to make an enlarged 
negative. I had fairly good luck 
by taking an 8x10 unmounted en- 
larged print and placing it face 
up in a printing frame. Of course, 
one has to have a clear piece of 
glass in the frame, and then, tak- 
ing an unexposed plate the size of 
the paper, put it into the frame and 
put on the back. The plate is 
then exposed through the print, and 
when it is developed one will find a 
fair negative. It may show the 
grain a little, but it will do to 
work from. Sometimes I make a 
positive and throw it up in the en- 
larging camera, but find there is a 
bad grain and the high lights are 
apt to clog up when using con- 
densers. 

The pigment (one can get many 
colors) can be purchased at any 
stock house, and I make a bath of 
bichromate of potassium for sen- 
sitizing by adding to an ounce of 
saturated solution 50 ounces of wa- 
ter, about 5 drops of ammonia and 
10 grains of carbonate of soda, 
and, if the weather is sticky, 5 drops 
of a saturated solution of bichloride 
of mercury. The bath is then ready 
and the tissue is immersed. Small 
air bubbles will stick to it, and 



these can be removed by rubbing 
the finger over the part; and then, 
after two minutes and a half or 
three minutes, I take the tissue out 
and place it on a ferrotype tin, rub 
it into good contact and place be- 
fore a fan to dry. This drying 
takes an hour or more. 

The negative I use has been cov- 
ered for about half an inch with a 
piece of black paper, so as to have 
what the book calls a "safe edge," 
and in strong sunlight, for an aver- 
age negative, it takes from a min- 
ute and a half to three minutes to 
print. I usually calculate by judg- 
ing how long it would take to print 
a proof from the negative on print- 
ing-out paper. 

I put my support into the water 
about an hour before I am ready to 
make a print, and right here I might 
remark that the support, ready for 
use and in a variety of surfaces, 
can be purchased at the stock 
houses; and when the print is re- 
moved from the frame I place it 
face down in water, turn it over 
and remove all air bubbles, and 
when it has been in the cold water 
about two minutes remove it and 
the support. I try and center the 
print on the support before remov- 
ing it from the water. After rub- 
bing into contact, I take a piece of 
damp blotter, place it on the back, 
and put all under a couple of books. 
I have lately secured an old letter- 
press, which works very satisfac- 
torily, giving a good even pressure. 
After five minutes I remove it and 
place it in water which is just 



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March, 191 3 



SNAP SHOTS 



53 



warm, not hot, and wait until the 
water has had time to thoroughly 
dissolve all the pigment that it will, 
and then, holding the support un- 
der water, gently remove the pa- 
per which first held the pigment 
I find it works much better if this 
is done under water. 

True, there is not much beauty in 
the mass of paint which one now 
sees, but gently throw the warm 
water over the mass and the solu- 
ble pigment starts to wash away, 
and this is done until one has the 
paper free from all the loose pig- 
ment, and there is the picture. 
Easy? Sure it is; and one will 
find it fascinating enough to make 
it interesting. After removing the 
print from the warm water, I wash 
it in a tray of cold water for a 
time and then place it in a bath of 
an ounce of powdered white alum 
dissolved in about 20 ounces of 
water, and, after a few minutes in 
this, wash it to remove the free 
alum and hang it up to dry. 

Of course, but one print can be 
handled at a time after it has been 
stripped, unless a very large tray 
has been used ; and, just for the fun 
o£ making carbon prints, one is 
enough to go after. One will learn 
by experience that the tissue, be- 
fore it is dry, is very delicate and 



in the double transfer process this 
stain is lost. For starting the sin- 
gle transfer is much the easier, and 
while the print may be reversed 
from the negative for a good many 
things, this does not matter. To 
overcome this reversal, in making 
an enlarged negative from a posi- 
tive I put the emulsion side of the 
negative next to the condensers. 
This will give a properly turned 
print by the single transfer 
process. 

As I said before, my experience 
in making carbon prints is very 
limited, but in the coming months I 
am going to know more about it, 
and believe those who have had the 
patience to read this confession will 
have a lot of genuine enjoyment if 
they give carbons a trial and stick 
at it until they have made a suc- 
cessful print. 

Rivers with low, flat shores are 
by no means as favorable for se- 
curing pictorial effect, but a care- 
ful attention to the foreground and 
the judicious introduction of a boat 
or sail just at the proper place, or . 
a well-balanced sky prospect, will 
not only enable you to steer clear 
of running into monotony, but very 
often will convert your otherwise 
tame production into a veritable 
picture. I see there is a good deal 

mrfct-A tn cav nn this tnnir than 



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54 



SNAP SHOTS March, 1913 

REPRODUCING MANUSCRIPTS 



The reproduction of old manu- 
scripts is one of the most interest- 
ing applications of photography. It 
permits of multiplying at a small 
cost valuable documents, the study 
of which, without its aid, would 
often be impossible. It places at 
the disposal of the savant and of 
the artist, not, as with drawing, con- 
ventional reproductions, but au- 
thentic copies. The designer and 
the copyist have generally a tend- 
ency to interpret the work they re- 
produce; they render not always 
what is there, but what they see. 
With a photograph one possesses in 
^ome form the original itself. Still 
better, it sometimes gives details 
not visible to the eye; half-effaced 
writing or drawing will appear 
more distinctly in the copy than in 
the original without subjecting the 
latter to any operation that would 
change it. 

This class of reproductions does 
not generally present any serious 
difficulties. It is desirable, as far as 
possible, to preserve the original di- 
mensions of the original, so that an 
apparatus sufficiently large to em- 
brace the whole of the piece to be 
copied will be. needed; otherwise it 
would have to be copied a portion 
at a time, and the pieces mounted 
together afterward. However, with 
lenses giving a very sharp defini- 
tion, a reduction is in most cases 
admissible, so that the reproduction 
may be made two-thirds or even 
one-half the size of the original ; 



besides, it is always possible to en- 
large it afterward. Generally, old 
papers and parchments are folded, 
and so do not present a flat sur- 
face; it is necessary to correct th 
to obtain copies that will be uni- 
formly clear. If the sheet is de- 
tached nothing is more simple; all 
that has to be done is to place the 
manuscript in a printing frame and 
press it against the glass with the 
aid of a piece of felt. The paper or 
parchment may first be wrapped for 
a few minutes in a moist paper or 
cloth, be placed between two pieces 
of slightly damp blotting paper, so 
as to restore its suppleness and 
eliminate the creases. This opera- 
tion, however, is not without dan- 
ger, and must be used with extreme 
caution. 

If the sheets to be copied are 
fixed in a volume the work will be 
more complicated, and special 
means will have to be erhployed. 
Each page to be copied must be 
placed on a thin board, which will 
extend somewhat above and below 
the page, putting a piece of felt or 
blotting paper between them, and 
covering the page with a pane of 
glass the same as the board. Then 
fasten each end with a piece of 
strong twine or a screw-clamp, so 
as to hold the page perfectly flat 
Care must be taken to have the back 
margin of the volume as free as 
possible, and the glass should be 
clear and colorless, and free from 
spots or a;r-bubbles. 



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March, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



55 



These prelminary arrangements 
completed, the next thing is to place 
the page to be copied so that it will 
be perfectly parallel with the 
ground glass of the camera. If a 
camera stand with a tilting head is 
available this may be utilized to 
advantage; or the volume may be 
set up at one end of a sufficiently 
long table and the camera at the 
other end, using such means to se- 
cure the page in a perpendicular 
position as may be devised for the 
occasion, and taking care that the 
optical center of the camera coin- 
cides with the center of the piece 
to be copied. In this case the whole 
apparatus may be moved so as to 
take advantage of the best lighting 
position without disturbing the 
focus or relation of the parts. Care 
should be taken that there are no 
reflections on the glass plate cover- 
ing the page. 

Focusing should be done with 
scrupulous care, with the aid of a 
magnifying glass, reducing the dia- 
phragm enough to g^ve clear defini- 
tion from center to edges. Then 
there remains only the exposings. 

Any ordinary plate will answer 
ii it is merely a matter of reproduc- 
ing writing, but slow plates are best. 
The time of exposure will neces- 
sarily vary greatly, but should not 



manuscript has illuminations and 
miniatures in many colors, ortho- 
chromatic plates with a color fitter 
will be indispensable, and the time 
of exposure greatly increased. In 
copying oil or water-color paintings 
ordinary plates must be abandoned, 
and panchromatic plates with a 
dark yellow filter used. Develop- 
ment is same as usual. 

After some inevitable experi- 
menting one will soon acquire skill 
in this special line of work. — Revue 
Photo graphique du Sud-Esf, 



WATERPROOF GLUE 

The following recipe for a water- 
proof glue is recommended: To a 
bottle of ordinary glue add one- 
quarter ounce of bichromate of 
potash dissolved in a little hot wa- 
ter. This glue can be made any 
consistency that your work re- 
quires. It should be kept in the 
dark as much as possible after be- 
ing mixed, under which conditions 
it will remain good for a week or 
so. It is a little slow in asstuning 
its waterproof character, but when 
it is set nothing less than a strong 
acid, which would destroy it, will 
dissolve it. If it is for gluing leath- 
er, add a little glycerine, when it 



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56 



Sx\AP SHOTS March, 191 3 

HEALTH IN THE DARKROOM 



*'Half an hour's work in the dark- 
room generally lands me with a 
headache/' is by no means an un- 
common remark. Other complaints 
about the red light fatiguing the 
eyes, producing catarrh or drowsi- 
ness are not infrequent. These 
troubles, serious enough in their 
way, point to the fact that health 
considerations do not always receive 
the attention they deserve. 

It is easy to say it is all a ques- 
tion of ventilation, and so dismiss 
the matter, but the problem is per- 
haps not quite so simple as it may 
seem. 

Respiration or breathing consists 
of two acts — inspiration, or draw- 
ing in breath, and expiration, or 
sending it out. Our needs in these 
two acts are fundamentally differ- 
ent. We need to take in oxygen 
and to get rid of carbonic acid 
(CO2). Failure in either direction 
soon means trouble, and, ultimately, 
death. Ordinarily fresh air consists 
roughly of twenty-one parts of oxy- 
gen and seventy-nine parts of ni- 
trogen, as a mixture — i. e., not in 
combination. The latter gas (ni- 
trogen) plays no important part in 
the business beyond diluting the 
oxygen. It has been estimated that 
a ten-stone man requires about 11,- 
000 grains weight of oxygen per 
twenty-four hours, or, roughly, say 
lJ/2 pounds of this gas, so that he 
uses up all the oxygen in about 7j4 
pounds weight of ordinary air per 
(twenty-four hours) day. During 



this time he gives out about 
12,000 grains of carbonic acid 
(gas). 

The average rate of quiet breath- 
ing is seventeen times per minute, 
but when the mind or body is occu- 
pied this rate goes up somewhat, as 
most people know from experience. 
The air we inspire contains 21 per 
cent of oxygen, while that expired 
has only about 16 per cent of oxy- 
gen. 

These figures are given so that 
the worker in a small room may be 
made to realize the rapid rate the 
oxygen in the air is being used up 
by the lungs. Or one can put it in 
another way, by saying that we re- 
quire to use up all the oxygen con- 
tained in about four cubic feet of air 
per hour. Of course, we cannot 
use up all the oxygen in the air, for 
several reasons ; one is that by the 
time we had put into it 10 per cent 
of carbonic acid it would be time to 
set a doctor at work. 

Now a word about the carbonic 
acid side of the question. Ordinary 
town **fresh air" contains about 
three parts per 10,000 of carbonic 
acid before we have spoiled it by 
taking it into the lungs ; but in two 
seconds this expired air contains 
from four to five parts per 100! 
Just take note what a tremendous 
jump up that is. It is an augmenta- 
tion of something like a hundred 
times the initial quantity. 

We can thus see how quickly the 
air of a railway carriage — with 



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March, 191 3 



SNAP SHOTS 



57 



"five a side'' and the windows 
closed — ^becomes foul. Experts tell 
us that when the proportion of COj 
rises to 5 per 10,000 it is not pure 
enough for healthy breathing ; while 
if it runs up to seven or eight parts 
we are pretty certain quickly to ex- 
perience drowsiness, malaise, and 
frontal headache — the symptoms 
we associate with ill-ventilated lec- 
ture rooms, theatres, exhibitions, 
churches, etc. But, curiously 
enough, while th« open-air living 
country dweller often experiences 
discomfort on his introduction to 
closed and crowded rooms in towns, 
yet a certain kind of immunity or 
acclimatization follows. In many 
country cottages bedroom windows 
are seldom opened — indeed, it is 
frequently impossible to open the 
windows — ^and something not un- 
like this is not unknown in some 
darkrooms. 

To put matters in a practical 

form, what it amounts to is this: 

Taking three parts of COj per 10,- 

000 as average "fresh,*' usable air, 

3fjd ^ve per 10,000 as the limit for 

/jeBlthy we have a working margin 

\ ^o parts per 10,000. Now it 

^^ \)een ascertained by experiment 

^^^ the average adult puts three- 

^^^ths of a cubic foot of CO2 per 

j^our into his expired air. This 

^eans that he requires 3,000 cubic 

^eet of ^^^ fo^ comfort. But in a 



then, we assume our darkroom has 
a good inlet and outlet, but door 
closed, a three - times - an - hour 
change would be a generous esti- 
mate. This means that such a room 
should contain not less than 1,000 
cubic feet — i, e,, 10 feet long, 10 
feet wide, and 10 feet high, or the 
equivalent in other proportions, if 
one is to work in comfort. 

So far not a word has been said 
about that enemy of health and 
comfort in our darkrooms, viz. : the 
evil-smelling oil lamp or gas flame. 
Not only do they rob the air of 
oxygen, but they also pour into it 
CO2, as well as many other com- 
bustion products, to say nothing of 
giving us much more heat than is 
always acceptable. The evils of 
gas and oil are strong arguments 
in favor of electric light, but un- 
fortfunately this counsel of perfec- 
tion is not always capable of prac- 
tical application. But if we are 
tied to oil or gas, the important 
point is to provide an outlet near 
and well above the lamps, so that in 
ascending hot air and gas fumes 
may pass out freely. This will help 
the inflow of air to take the place 
of that passing out. It is not possi- 
ble to say how much space or air 
must be allowed for the lamp or 
gas jet, as these vary greatly, but 
it is advisable to estimate them on 
a generous basis. — The Amateur 



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58 



SNAP SHOTS March, 1913 

TRADE NEWS AND NOTES 



Professional Photographers' Society 
of Pennsylvania will hold their conven- 
tion at Harrisburg on March 17th to 
19th. Don't miss this. It will be well 
worth attending. 



Look at the inside of the front cover 
and you will learn something new about 
the Photomailer for mailing prints to 
your customers. It insures their reaching 
the customers in good order. Write to 
the manufacturers for further partic- 
ulars. Don't forget to mention Snap 
Shots. 



Stolen. From the Obrig Camera Co.. 
147 Fulton Street, New York City, 1 
No. 3A Folding Pocket Kodak, No. 
35186-A, fitted with Goerz-Dagor Lens 
Series 3, No. lA, No. 180117, and Vo- 
lute Shutter; 1 No. 3 Folding Pocket 
Kodak, No. 53469, fitted with Zeiss Ko- 
dak Lens No. 1085088, and Compound 
Shutter; 1 No. 14x5 Film Premo, No. 
3445. 



Hof.ie Portrait Reflector. With the 
increasing popularity of home portrait- 
ure, the demand arises for convenient 
apparatus which the photographer can 
pack in a very small space and carry 
into the home of the customer. One of 
the most important things is a good re- 
flector and the most convenient piece of 
apparatus which has come to our no- 
tice is the Eastman Home Portrait Re- 
flector. The telescoping stand is about 
the size of the ordinary music rack 
when folded, and measures 8 feet 6 
inches when extended. The reflector is 
of opaque Holland shade cloth which 
will reflect the maximum amount of 
light. An adjustable rod holds the re- 
flector at any angle, and when not in 
use, it is rolled up and placed with the 
carrier in a neat bag. This is an ideal 
reflector for the home portrait photo- 
grapher. 



The Parallax Booklet which contains 
a comprehensive exposition of the Paral- 
lactic Principle of Lighting, with a 
description of the complete series of 
lamps, including new Parallax arc 
searchlight and photographic views tak- 
en by their light at night will be mailed 
to inquirers to illustrate and prove the 
power and economic character of these 
lamps. Send to R. D. Gray, Ridgewood 
New Jersey. 

Photo-Flat. Have you tried this prep- 
aration? If not, we would suggest that 
you do. It will overcome all the trouble 
you have experienced with your double 
weight prints curling. Simple to use; 
does not injure the prints. Makes 
them flat, and they stay flat. Your cus- 
tomers will appreciate this. See adver- 
tisement in this issue. 



Distort 0. If you want to surprise 
your friends and show them how they 
would look if longer, shorter, broader, 
and thinner, get one of the Distorto 
attachments advertised in this issue. 
Some photographs recently shown us 
were truly laughable. Just the things 
for postcards. 



The Eagle Vignette Adjuster is a new 
device for adjusting tissue paper over 
the printing frame for vignetting pur- 
poses, being the invention of a practical 
photographer. It is a great time saver, 
and of the greatest assistance to the 
printer. The tissue paper lies perfectly 
smooth and flat. The vignette from 
each negative can be saved and filed 
with the negative, and in case of dupli- 
cate orders can be adjusted on the 
frame in a moment. Professional pho- 
tographers should investigate this de- 
vice. Descriptive circular will be mailed 
by the manufacturers, George Murphy, 
Inc.. 57 East Ninth Street, New York 
City. 



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SNAP SHOTS 



59 



Iks have a new surprise 
aphic trade. It's the 
to their customers. 
1 your request for one 
i" products, and if you 
ay, and you will. Ber- 
cs. 213 Water St., New 



kv albumen paper, Zelta, 
)portunities to the pho- 
ishes to get away from 
y results and offers his 
better work at a higher 

takes a little longer to 
*n print, but the man- 
)le, the results certain 
ility of the print makes 
while. 

e not only appreciated, 
higher price, because 
successfully imitated, 
i of tone offers the 
lity for the expression 
individuality, 
use has it. 



t will stick, will stay 
Dior the prints, is Hig- 
en on the market for 
prints mounted with it 
ever come off nor has 
red them. All dealers 



m. The new price list 
jon Tissues and Mate- 
y. To those who have 
lis beautiful permanent 
nge of thirty-seven dif- 
lis manual will be a 
tion to the carbon pic- 
price list is combined 
irtions, articles on man- 
erent transfer papers, 
amic tissues, and the 
n process. If you will 



Dufay Dioptichrome Color Plate. The 
new booklet referring to the Dufay di- 
optichrome color plate is now ready. To 
those interested in photography it will 
be well to procure one of these booklets, 
as they contain explanations, causes of 
failure, and formulae referring to color 
work. Write to the American agents, 
George Murphy. Inc., New York. 

Write the Berlin Aniline Works, 213 
Water St., New York, for a copy of 
The "Afga" Way. Mailed to you gra- 
tis; ask for booklet. Mention you saw 
it in Snap Shots. 

Norman L. Coe. 

Norman L. Coe, who for fifteen 
years before the Bertillon system was 
installed was official photographer at 
Police Headquarters, died yesterday 
morning at his home at 631 Broadway, 
at the age of 65. He is survived by 
two sons and his widow. 

Mr. Coe was bom in Cold Spring on 
the Hudson, came to this city when he 
was 24 years old, and established a 
photograph gallery in the building in 
which he died. When he retired from 
the Police Department he kept up a 
private collection of his own, containing 
pictures of more than 10,000 criminals. 

After he left the department Mr. Coe 
took up the work of photographing 
scenes of crime for the District Attor- 
ney's office. He worked in the Thaw, 
Nan Patterson, Rosenheimer, Wolter, 
Stokes, Patrick, Rosenthal, "Jack the 
Ripper" and many other cases. At the 
time of his death Mr. Coe was engaged 
in photographing the scene and bombs 
in the Herrera case. 

Mr. Coe was stricken with an attack 
of heart disease, which his sons, Harold 
and Clifford, say was brought on by his 
work in photographing the aqueduct 
work at 145th Street. The funeral will 



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SNAP SHOTS 
STUDIO WANTS 



March, 1913 



Galleries for Sale or Rent 
D. F. M., gallery in New York City, 
$3,500. 

F. S. W., on Long Island, $900. 
A. M. C. in New Jersey, $900. 

G. B., gallery in New Jersey, $800. 
A. D. v., gallery in New York, $500. 
Mrs. S., gallery in New York City, $650. 
D. studio, in Connecticut. 

Parties Desiring Galleries 

Miss F. C, wants gallery in town of 

10,000-15,000. 

N. S., wants gallery in N. Y. City. 

R. L. C, wants gallery in N. Y. City. 

J. T. A., wants gallery in N. Y. State. 

T. D., wants gallery in small city. 

A. M., wants to buy or rent within 40 

miles of N. Y. 
R. S. D., desires gallery. 



Positions Wanted — Qperatcrc 
J. G. J., all-round. 
A. M., first-class all-round. 
M. K., all-round man. 
H. K., operator and retoucher. 
J. C, all-round, in or out of city. 
C. L. B.. all-round. 
T. L., all-round. 

Positions Wanted — Retouchers, Recep- 
tionists 

Miss A. S., receptionist, finisher, etc 
Miss F. B. N., retoucher. 
R. N., retoucher. 

Miss M. P., retoucher, printer, etc. 
Miss M. C. M., hand-color work, spot- 
ting, sketching, receptionist, etc. 

Positions Wanted — Printers 
Miss K. D., printer, receptionist, etc 
S. A. M., printer. 
S. T. D., printer. 



Votloe— Letttn addreued to anyone in our oaro should bo aoeompanlod with ataay 
for OAOh letter lo that they oan he ro-mailed. 



SEND YOUR SUBSCRIPTION NOW 

Our Year expires January Ist and we want your Renewal. |1.00 per year. 
Photographic news from every section is worth five times our subscription 
price. 

OUR SPECIAL CLUBBING LIST 

We offer the Special Clubbing List of Snap Shots with American and Eng- 
lish Annuals and the English Journals. A combination that places to the 
American photographer photographic news that combined gives him the field 
covering the English-speaking photographic world: 

1 year's Snap Shots with 1 year's subscription to British Journal of 

Photography 8.75 

Snap Shots and 1 year's subscription to Photography and Focus (Eng.) S.50 
Snap Shots and 1 year's subscription to Amateur Photography and Pho- 
tographic News (English) 4.50 



SNAP SHOTS PUB. CO. 



67 East 9th St, New York 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



xlv 



POSITIONS OFFERED and WANTED, FOR SALE, 
TO RENT, WANT to PURCHASE, EXCHANGE, &c. 



Announcements under these and similar headings of forty words or less, will be inserted 
for forty cenU. For each additional word, one cent. Displayed advertisements «0 cents 
per inch. Cash must accompany order. When replies are addressed to our care, 10 cents 
at lea&t must be added to cover probable postage on same to advertiser. Advertisements 
should reach us by the 20th to secure insertions in the succeeding issue. A copy of the 
Journal sent free to every advertiser as long as the **ad" is continued. Advertisements in 
Snapshots bring prompt returns. 



AN ADVERTISEMENT IN THESE COLUMNS 

ii an excellent and safe medltan of commtmlcatfon between Pfiotographefi 



For Sale: Photo business and outfit 
for sale cheap. For particulars write: 
J. F. Martin. Sixth Street, Springfield, 
Oregon. 

Wanted: I make it a specialty of 
retouching for the trade, having had 
ten years' experience. Prices reason- 
able, objectionable points skilfully re- 
moved, permanently established. Ad- 
dress Mrs. M. H; Exton, 236 Grove 
Place, Utica, N. Y. 

For Sale: Best paying photo busi- 
ness in Florida. Ideal all the year 
climate. I have good health, a good 
business and will sell at a reasonable 
price. Family ties and other business 
demand my going West at an early 
date. My place is located on busiest 
corner in center of Tampa. Am 
equipped for commercial, portrait and 
Quick finish (Theatre right opposite). 
Get best prices: cabinet, $7.50 dozen; 
8 X 10, $15.00 to $25.00 dozen. Weekly 
pay roll of cigar makers here $230,000. 
If you want a bargain act quick. 
Write J. Watson, Suite 12, Campbell 
Bldg., Tampa, Florida. 

For Sale: Good modern studio, 
plumbed and electrical lighted, north 
light, well located in town of 2,500; 
twenty-six miles from Portland, Ore- 
gon. Right price. If interested write 
W. H. Boswell, Newberg, Oregon. 

Aristo Lamp Wanted, alternating 
current, suitable for making enlarge- 
ments. Also want pair of 14-inch con- 
densers. State lowest cash price. 
F. B. H oward, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Position Wanted: In strictly first- 
class studio by A-1 all-round man 
(Japanese), expert in all branches of 
photography; also skilled in oil tint- 
ing and work in backgrounds. Ad- 
dress K., care Snap Shots. 

When writing advertisers 



Bought Euryscope Lens — suspect 
it*s stolen. Owner can claim it by 
proper identification, lens number and 
my nominal cost. H. J. Thein, 476 
Broad Street, Newark, N. J. 

For Sale: One 5x7 Tintype Outfit 
complete; one pair Gem Tubes; one 
set nine Lenses; one 5x7 Plate; one 
8x10 Portrait Camera and Stand ^ or 
^ size); one Voightlander Portrait 
Lens (4 in. in diameter). All in first- 
class condition Price complete $45.00, 
or will sell separate any of the above. 
F. B. Nickerson, Lake George, N. Y. 

For Sale: 3B Dallmeyer Lens in 
good condition, $75.00; also one 2B 
Dallmeyer, good condition, $40.00. 
J. F. Farrell, Watertown, Conn. 

Wanted: A lady or gentleman to 
solicit orders for home portrait work 
on a commission basis. A person of 
refined instincts, good address, and 
having some knowledge of the require- 
ments of photographic patrons, is im- 
perative. Only high-class customers 
desired and nothing but first-class 
work executed. Address "Home Por- 
traiture," care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: First-class ground floor 
Studio connected with dwelling in 
business section. Good and long es- 
tablished business in Billings, Mon- 
tana, a city of eleven thousand inhabi- 
tants. Studio fitted with up-to- 
date 11x14 Outfit, First-class Lenses, 
Enlarging Outfit, Air Brush and 
Frame Outfit. Reason, owner wishes 
to remove to Europe. Address A. B., 
care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: An Aristo Lamp, 220 
volts, direct current, 25 ampcres,j^QTp 
Complete, boxed ready for shipment, ^-^"^^ 
$35. Address, M. G., care Snap Shots, 
please mention Snap Shots. 



81 



xlvi 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



For Sale: Old established busi- 
ness at Kingston, N. Y. Located in 
heart of the business section. Very 
low rent. Write for further particu- 
lars. The price will suit. Address 
L. Short, 329 Wall Street, Kingston, 
N. Y. 

For Sale: Studio in Long Island 
City; no competition within 22 miles, 
with a good surrounding trade. Large 
operating room, reception room, 
dressing room, dark room and stock 
room. Will inventory close to $200, 
with good prices. Price, $1,200. This 
is a fine opportunity for a live, active 
photographer. Address, F. S. W., 
care Snap Shots. 

Salesman Wanted: Large stock 
house in East wants traveling sales- 
man, also store salesman. Must be 
experienced. Give full particulars in 
first letter. P. Y. H., care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: A well located, well fur- 
nished photo studio in New York City 
in prominent thoroughfare. Owner 
desires to sell on account of other 
business interests. Price $3,500; lease 
three years; rent $2,150 per year. To 
a good photographer a fine opening, 
but letters must be addressed in our 
care and will be answered only as the 
owner decides. Address **D. F. M." 
care Snap Shots. 



ROCK BOTTOM PRICES 

Od Cameras, Lenses and Photographic Supplies 

Why pay exorbitant prices for your pho- 
tographic accessories when you can obtain 
from us everything you need in your photo- 
graphic work — whether amateur or profes- 
sional — at greatly reduced prices. 

New BARGAIN LIST just off press. 
Send for copy to-day. 

NEW YORK CAMERA EXCHANGE 

109 Fulton St., New York 



ARALLAX L 



THE POWEK OFA SEAICHU6BT , 

Adapted to Photocnpiiic and G< 

Uie.4S«rfeiCPaia]lazo(301 . 

lDcrea8eftli6ttg|itofalIazdabii]b20tiiiiM , 
Eii]arg8spliototln<mefecoDd.4 lltiLdze 
(or 5x7, $S.O0: 15 in. Reaoctar,8xlO, $15.00 ^ 
q Studio PaxaOax, 40 Mbron, soin. diameter— 
ForQrcnlarWttte R.D.GtAY, Mdgewood,HJ. 



CAMERA OWNERS 

If you would like to see a copy of a 
beautiful, practical, interesting, modem 
photographic magazine, written and 
edited with the purpose of teaching all 
photographers how to use their mate- 
rials and skill to the best advantage, 
either for profit or amusement, send us 
your name on a post-card. Don't for- 
get or delay, but write at once. The 
3iree latest numbers will be sent for 2$ 
cents. $1.50 a year. 

AMERICAN PHOTOGRAPHY 
601 Popo Building BOSTON. MAM. 



Eagle Etching Pen 





Art ^tiiHii^Q 



A double-pointed steel knife made 
the size of a pen which will fit into any 
ordinary pen holder, or we supply a 
special holder for them. 



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xlvii 



The Anastigtnat 

VERSUS 

The Rectilinear 




Why should I discard my rapid 
little rectilinear for an anastig- 
tnat? You have probably asked 
yourself this very question — here 
is the answer. 

Speed— The Dynar works at 
F:6, which is about 100% faster 
than the better rectilinears. 

Covering Power — The Dynar 
covers the plate sharply from 
edge to edge, working at full aper- 
ture. To get the same definition, 
your rectilinears must be stopped 
down to F :16, making the Dynar 
really eight times as effective. 
^. ij^NESs OF Field — The Dynar 
, *'^^{ectly corrected and has an 
& ^ ;^tely flat field. The recti- 
• A is only partially corrected 
^Xhsis a flat field only in the 
Zter. 



/'^ter. 

/fhc sJJfirhtly increased cost of the 
^rt^r is more than outweighed by its 



EDWARD F. BIQELOW 

Aroadia, Sound Beaoh, Canntetloul 

desires for the "Nature and Science" 
Department of the "St. Nicholas" Maga- 
zine (New York), photographs of inter- 
esting inventions, and of natural objects 
that are novel, instructive or especially 
beautiful. He particularly desires photo- 
graphs of machines, or of mechanical 
appliances of interest to the readers of 
"St. Nicholas." They may be mounted 
or not, of any size and on any kind of 
paper. The only requirements are that 
they shell clearly show something worth 
shovring, and be interesting or instruc- 
tive. Do not send "snap shots" of 
scenery that can be equalled for beauty 
and for general interest in almost any 
part of the earth. 

Fay will be at the usual magazine 
rates, and will vary with the interest 
and the novelty. A small photograph 
may be more valuable than a big one. 

"The Guide to Nature," Arcadia: 
Sound Beach, Connecticut, is a maga- 
zine for adults, and has a definite pur- 
pose. It is published by an association 
of students and lovers of nature — not 
for pecuniary gain, but to be helpful. 
Its aepartment, "The Camera," is con- 
ducted by enthusiastic camerists, each 
of whom, as in a camera society, desires 
to help all his associates and colleagues. 
Editor, associates and contributors are 
paid by the satisfaction of benefiting 
others. There is no better remunera- 
tion. All income is devoted directly to 
the interests and improvement of the 
magazine 



Send your name and address 
for 

King's 
Booklet on 
"Lighting" 

(Eight pages with illustrations) to 

GEORGE MURPHY 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



"HOW IT IS DONE" 



An Explanatory Diagram Bhowlaf tht 
Yarioui BtagM in tht Produetioa of 



AUTOTYPE CARBON PHOTOGRAPHS 

The Produetlon off an Autotypo Carbon Photograph 



:*>• 



% 



Tho Ooatod Bnrfaoo of Szpoood Oar- 
Iran Tiiano (Piffmentod Oolatino). 
B 
Binglo Tranif or Papor. 

C 
Soak A and B in oold water, brins 
coated inrfacei together in oontaot ana 
Kneegee. 

D 
Plaoe the adherent tiesne and trani- 
fer paper between blotting boardi for 
a few minntei. Next immerte in warm 
water, until the eolored gelatine begint 
to oose ont at the edgei. 



Strip off the Tiirae backing paper 
and throw it away. 

r 

A dark man of colored gelatine li 
left on the transfer papev. Thii re- 
maim in the warm water and the gela- 
tine rarfaoe ii splaihed over until th« 
picture gradually makei ite appearance. 
O and H 

Continue until completed. 

The picture ii now placed in an alnm 
bath (flve per cent) to harden the film 
and discharge the bichromate lenii- 
tiling lalt. A rinse in cold water com- 
pletes the operation. 









u^PRCDUCIIOSlfl 

AUTOTYPE CARBdl 


IT 


LoMr^oTsi 

& 




Mi 


3 






•^' -4 



Important to Amatour Photographors 

TRIAL SETS OF CARBON PRINTING MATERIALS 



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Ixiii 




THE 

DEVELOPER 

YOU 

WILL 

EVENTUALLY 

USE 



PLACE 
YOUR 
ORDER 
NOW 




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C P* Nitrate Silver Crystals 
Pure Chloride Gold 



Fof PhotogfraphcfSy Arifto 
Paper and Dry Pl&« Makers 

Chemicals for Photo Engraving and the Arts 

All Kinds of Silver and Gold 
Waste Refined 



2£±22:ii PHILLIPS & JACOBS 

622 RACE STREET, PHILADELPHIA 



'gictnvzs 
piountjed 



HIGGINS' 
PHOTO 



Have an excellence peculiarlj their 
own. The best results are onlj 
produced by the best methods and 
means— the best results in Photo- 
graph, Poster and other mountinf 
can only be attained by using the 
best mounting paste— 

HIGGIN8' PHOTO MOUNTER 

(Bxoellent novel bnuh with eaeh jarO 



At D«al«ni in Photo SnppUafl* 
Artlsto' KaterlaU und StatiOBMry. 



A S-oz. Jar prepaid by mall for SO mai 
or oiroulars free from 

CHAS. M. HIQQINS & CO., Mfrs. 



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GET GOOD NEGATIVES 



than any other one thing. 



More depends on the correct exposure 
Twenty-five cents invested in a 

SIX-FAX EXPOSURE DISC 

will save you many times that sum before you have used it a month. 
This Exposure Disc is based on the six essential conditions that govern 
the correct exposure. 

THE SIX FACTS 

1st The speed of your plate or film. 

2nd The character of your subject. 

3rd The strength of the light. 

4th The size of your stop. 

5th The time of the day. 

6th The time of the year. 

All of these facts are taken into consid- 
eration on every reading which you get on 
a Six-Fax Exposure Disc, and it is done 
by simply turning the dials, and without 
special tables or calculations. 

So simple, you can determine the correct 
exposure in a few seconds for any outdoor 
subject. 

The Six-Fax Disc gives simultaneous 
readings for all stops, enabling you to in- 
stantly select the stop best suited for the 
subject and give the correct exposure ac- 
cordingly. 

Carry it in Your Pocket-Book. 




'^> 










Kew York Office 

and Sample Room 

225 Fifth Ave. 



BURKE & JAMES, Inc. j^^^^ ^ 

240-258 Fast OBtarit St. CHICAGO I PHOTO SUPPLIES I 

For Sale By All Dealers. 



pj; 



i 



SOMETHING REALLY GOOD 

THE "PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES" ALBUMS 

FOR UNMOUNTED PHOTOGRAPHS 

These Albums for Unmounted Photographs are made precisely like the old-fash- 
ioned scrap book, with a guard between every leaf. The leaves themselves are made 
of a gray linen-finished cover paper, from extra heavy stock, weighing 120 pounds 
to the ream. The books are bound in genuine Seal grained Leather, backs and corners, 
with strong Cloth sides. The covers are tooled with genuine gold leaf, and the word 
PhotogTapns is stamped in gold on the sides. These Albums are sewed in the regular 
bookbinders' style, to open flat, and they are made to stand the hardest kind of wear. 
We are putting them out over the reputation of the "Photographic Times,'' and 

WE GUARANTEE EVERY BOOK 

These Albums contain fifty leaves each, for holding from one hundred to two 
hundred unmounted photographs, according to the size of the prints. The prices and 
sizes of these Albums for Photographs are as follows: 

"PHOTOGRAPHIC" TIMES ALBUM 

With A Year's 
Album Retail Price Subscription to 

Photographic Timet 
No. 1 Size of leaf, 4iz5i inches fl.OO fsT.OO 



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Y«u Set the ONE Seale, It Does the Rest 

THE WYNNE 1IIFIiLLIBLE"El(Pl)Sy«E METER 

THC CHOICK OF AMERICA'S FOREMOST PHOTOQRAPHERS 

NOT LIKE OTHER METERS 




For F Systcin. 



For Uniform System. 



An unerring guide to the correct exposure required for every speed 
of plate, on cvei^ kind of subject, and under every condition of light. 
For any set of conditions of Light, Plate, and Lens Aperture, only 
two simple operations are necessary to find simultaneouslv the cor- 
rect exposure for every stop from the largest to the smallest, viz.: 

Firstly — Turn the milled edge of the instrument, and thus expose 
through the slot a fresh surface of sensitive paper until it assumes 
the color of the painted tint, and note the number of seconds or min- 
utes it takes to color. This is called the Actinometer Time. 

Secondly — Set the movable scale until this Actinometer Time is 
against the Speed Number of the Plate to be used, then against every 
stop in outer scale will be found the correct corresponding exposure, 
or, shortly, you set the one Scale, it does the rest. 

These Meters are furnished in the F. and U. S. systems. When 
ordering please specify what system you desire. 

Negative Exposure Meter, watch pattern, nickel case, each $2.50 

Negative Exposure Meter, watch pattern, silver case, each 5.00 

Negative Exposure Meter, locket pattern, silver case, each 4.50 

Negative Exposure Meter snap-shot (Focal Plane) 2.50 

Gem Exposure Meter, solid silver (Hall marked), each, complete 4.00 

Extra packets of Sensitive Paper 25 

Extra Books of Instructions and Speed Card, each 10 

Extra dial and glass "U. S." or "F." system, per pair 40 

New springs for inside of watch meters, each 15 

Pocket cases of tan leather 50 

YOUR DCALER HANDLES THESE GOODS 



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liii 



Speed, Detail and Brilllanoy! 

Three great assets of a photographic Dry-Plate. 

Hammer Plates are noted the world over, for these and other 

good qualities. They hold the record of efficiency for all kinds 

of work under all sorts of light conditions. 

Hammer's Special Extra Fast (red label) and Extra Fast (blue 

label) Plates. 




Hammer's little book, "A Short Talk on Negative Making," 
mailed free. 

HAMMER DRY PLATE COMPANY 

Ohio Av«. and Miami St. St. Louis, Mo. 



Lot No. 55 



Royal Noo^Slippiog Printiog Frames 




This frame is made of the 
best seasoned Ash, natural 
finish, and without sharp 
edges. It is built on the 
English principle and the 
most inexperienced person 
can examine the print with- 
out the slightest risk of mov- 
ing it. The back of the frame 
is provided with new project- 
ing metal pins which drop 
into corresponding slots in 
the side of the frame. This 
prevents all possibility of the 
print shifting. 

This is an Ideal Frame for 
printing postals and using 
masks. We offer them, while 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



EAGLE VIGNETTE ADJUSTER 



(PATENT APPLIED FOR) 




THE PRINTER'S CHUM 

ONCE USED, ALWAYS USED 

A great time saver of the greatest assistance to the printer. Ad- 
justs the vignette in a moment. Perfectly smooth and flat. Vignettes 
for each negative can be saved and filed with the negative and re- 
adjusted on the frame in a moment. 

Does away with tacking the vignette on to the printing frame, thus 
resulting in a great saving of frames. The frames saved in a month's 
time will more than pay for this attachment. 

Give it a trial, we know that you will be pleased. 

Size for 5 X 7 Printing frame, 75c. 
Size for 8 x 10 Printing frame, 90c. 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 



57 East Ninth Street, 



New York City. , 

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>8' 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS Iv 



There's nothing so near an etching 
in tone — in quality — in general effect, 
as the print on 

EASTMAN 




OR 




PLATINUM 

The superior quality of pure plati- 
num prints is appreciated by the 
worth-while customer. 

Warm blacR prints with cold bath 
on t"^it^ — rich sepias with hot 
bath on 



Att Dealers. 



EASTMAN KODK CO.. 

ROCHESTER. N. Y, r^^^^ll 

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Ivi 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



a: 



Make your standard of print 
quality the highest — the most 
invariable, by using the paper 
which has set this standard: 



Ui. Ill 




For sepia or black and white tones — on 
bufF or white stock, — there's a grade for 
every need. 




ARTURA DIVISION, 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, 



ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



Jll Dealers. 



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Ixi 



INGRAVO 

PRINTING 
PLATES 



(Trade Mark. Reg. U. S. Pat. Off.) 




Designed for produc- 
ing artistic effects. 

Large assortment of 
sizes and designs. 

Simple to use — only 
two printings nec- 
essary. 

Made on special 
heavy glass. 



STYLE M 



rCabinet Ovals, A, AA, B, G, D, F, H, L, M. N. 
i Cabinet Ovals, A, B, G, D, F, M, N. 



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Ixii 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Every Photographer io the land should know 







Send for a print 



WILLIS & CLEMENTS, Philadelphia 



m 



Rough & Caldwell Background and 
Accessory Company 

announce that their new catalogue of photographic ac- 
cessories is now ready; accessories that are really 
an accessory to the subject producing finished pic- 
tures. For these there is a constant inquiry, and there 
is not on the market a catalogue showing the various 
styles that can be adapted by the photographer in the 
making up of his artistic picture, or a picture with artistic 
service. Send your name and address, and one will be 
mailed you. You can order these from any dealer in 
photos:raphic materials. 



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Ixiii 




THE 

DEVELOPER 

YOU 

WILL 

EVENTUALLY 

USE 



PLACE 
YOUR 
ORDER 
NOW 




Any photographic dealer anywhere 

BERLiIN AJNILANE WORKS 

American Representatives 
213 WATEa^ STREXrr NEW YORK 

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When irriting advertisers please mention Huat Shots. 



txiv 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Island View Mount 

Ash Gray, White and Burmese Brown 



^ ' 




We have no hesitancy about recommending the Island 
View to those desiring a substantial mounting for strong 
prints. 

It is made of the heaviest stock with straight edges and an 
embossed surface that combines both the linen finish and moire 
silk effect, something entirely unique and distinct from the 
time worn surfaces we are accustomed to find everywhere. 
It has at the same time a conservative, solid simplicity that 
has earned it a lasting popularity. 

Size Per loo 
B Cards 8x lo for Square Photographs 5 x 7 $3.50 



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SNAP-SHOTS 

A Monthly Magazine for Photographers 



tUBScmzmow katxs fos u. s. and canaoa pbi yias, $1.00; isz momthi, 60 cbnts 

tlWGLB COPT, 10 CBNTS. POKUGN COUNTUBt, $1J6 
POBUIHXD BT TBB 8NAP-SHOT1 PUBLIIHINO CO., 67 BAIT NINTH BTBBBT, MBW TOBK 



Volume 24 



APRIL, 1913 



Number 4 



Statement of the Ownership, Management, Circulation, etc., of Snap Shots. 
Published Monthly at New York, N. Y. Required by the Act of August 24, 1912 
Editor, Managing Editor, Business Manager, Percy Y. Howe, 422 Park Hill 
Avenue, Yonkers, New York. 

Publisher, Snap Shots Publishing Company, 57 East Ninth Street, New York. 
Owner, George Murphy, 57 East Ninth Street, New York. 
Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders, holding 1 per 
cent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities, None. 

PERCY Y. HOWE, Editor. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 27th day of March, 1913. 
WARREN W. SIGLER, 

Notary Public, Queens County. 

Certificate filed in N. Y. County, No. 41, N. Y. Register No. 5234. 
(My commission expires March 30, 1915.) 



PHOTOGRAPHING CHILDREN 

By Nemo 



CMcf studies form quite a dis- 

^inct branch of the photographic 

^^^, and 3L failure to reahze this is 

ihe chki cause of many of the stiflf 



ters posed in more or less unnat- 
ural attitudes — such evidently posed 
attitudes, too. One of the first 
points to be realized, and very thor- 



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SNAP SHOTS 



April. 1913 



How then say 'never pose'?" Just 
take another careful glance at that 
studio picture and see in what, 
apart from its careful workman- 
ship, the charm lies. Solely, in nine 
cases out of ten, in its absolute 
naturalness, its unposed pose, so to 
say. The successful operator, 
where he wants a special result, 
first proceeds to pose the small sit- 
ter without letting the fact be 
guessed, and then to beguile, by any 
and every artifice, a series of un- 
posed poses till he gets just the 
composition he desires for his pic- 
ture, and thus achieves a finished 
result totally different to what the 
posed attitude would have given. 
The child, its interest aroused, has 
been coaxed into a characteristic 
attitude, and the result gives us that 
"speaking likeness" too seldom met 
with. This is what the successful 
child photo stands for. 

But you say, *T do not want 
studio effects; a good amateur re- 
sult is what I am aiming at. I 
only want a natural photograph of 
the youngster.'* Very true, but the 
same sound principles underlie both 
the studio and amateur child study, 
and from one who speaks thus, how 
often do you get "natural" pic- 
tures? Who is not familiar with 
the photo of the youngster, its arms 
crammed with toys or flowers, best 
clothes on, staring straight ahead, 
with a "never was on land or sea 
or any childish face" expression? 
Photographing children is an art in 
itself, a fascinating pastime, and 
there is a very wide field (and, if 



it be desired, many commercial dol- 
lars) for the successful child pho- 
tographer. The main item in the 
outfit is patience — infinite patience, 
Job's patience, the "de'il's own," as 
the canny Scot would say. You 
must never, never lose patience with 
your small sitters, however often 
they hurl themselves out of just the 
attitudes you wanted them to keep. 
Infinite patience will coax them back 
again, and the lost opportunities 
teach the second great lesson — 
lightning rapidity in making an ex- 
posure. Wasn't it an American 
who said "to get there, get there 
first, and stay there spelt business 
success"? Certainly to get there, 
get there before the kiddy decides 
to move, and stay there, makes for 
successful exposures in child pho- 
tography. Bearing this necessity 
for rapidity of work in mind I 
would advise the amateur wherever 
possible to make his child studies 
out of doors ; better, surer, safer re- 
su'ts will follow. The scope is 
wider, better backgrounds can be 
obtained, shorter exposures given, 
lighting presents less difficulty, and 
even where an indoor effect 'is re- 
quired a large rug spread out, with 
a white sheet thrown over a clothes- 
horse as background, will serve 
most purposes. Even for the pic- 
ture-maker with a cheap camera, 
with but one instantaneous speedy 
who is neither sure enough of him- 
self or his sitter to venture at first 
on a time exposure, there is rarely 
a day without some moments in it 
that will allow of snapshot work. 



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April, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



63 



Quite frequently one hears the re- 
mark, "What a splendid camera 
so-and-so must have," when often 
the much-admired results are mere- 
ly produced by the cheapest of 
cameras plus brains. There are 
just a few points that the novice 
must beware of at starting to work 
in the outdoor studio. Experience 
will soon furnish him with a useful 
store of others. Get, if possible, a 
natural background of trees or 
shrubs, with spaces between which 
will give a broken effect — not one 
of those horrible trellis back- 
grounds — and do not have the sitter 
too close to the background. A 
lawn fringed with shrubs and 
bushes is ideal for the purpose. If 
you are working with a fixed focus 
camera you are saved the bother of 
focusing, as beyond a certain dis- 
tance the youngster can move as it 
pleases and still keep in focus. With 
a focusing camera be first on the 
scene ; fix your camera on some box 
that is longer than wide, to allow 
of raising or lowering for sitting 
or standing photos, to have the lens 
on a level with the sitter's mouth 
is a fair average, and size up good 
spots for the picture. Then toss 
something of interest to the child — 
doll, book, horse, gun, etc. — at the 
spot, and nine times out of ten when 
the youngster spies it you will get 



tures of anything it sees. I arrange 
the doll or horse or open picture 
book and beguile the sitters to come 
and look at these in Mugwump's 
eye. Then back they trot to arrange 
dolly prettily, to sit astride the 
horse to show how he ought to be 
ridden, to find the prettiest picture 
in the book, and all I have to do is 
to keep watch and snap. The kid- 
dy's chum has as big "a pull" from 
a photo-making point of view as 
any political wire puller. Get to 
know your sitters, chat with them — 
don't talk down to them. 

There's the making of cakes ; how 
the small mites love rolling a 
dough, washing and ironing, water- 
ing or digging in the garden, train- 
ing the dog or cat, acting boy 
scouts, playing hide and seek, hunt- 
ing for fairies ; the child's world is 
open to whomsoever owns the 
magic key. As to lighting, ex- 
perience is the best teacher. In 
good light the shadier side of the 
house is preferable to strong sun- 
light. The latter needs careful 
handling. Don't be misled into call- 
ing the veranda open air. The 
full light of the sky must fall on 
the sitter without any roof to break 
it. If photos can only be taken in 
strong sunlight an L-shaped frame 
about six feet high and four feet 
wide, with a length of white lawn 



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64 SNAP SHOTS April, 1913 

PHOTOGRAPHERS' ASSOCIATION OP AMERICA 



May 1st the treasurer of the 
Photographers* Association of 
America will b^^ an active mem- 
bership campaign. It is his pur- 
pose to close the Kansas City con- 
vention with a membership of 
2,500. In order to reach this figure 
it will be necessary for everyone 
who attended the Philadelphia con- 
vention last July to renew their 
membership for 1913, and for those 
who paid at St. Paul in 1911, but 
not last year, to pay for 1912 and 
1913. Members will receive state- 
ments May 1st, and it is hoped 
everyone will remit. In addition to 
the above, we must have many 
new recruits. If each member of 
the association will secure one new 
member in addition to taking care 
of his own dues for the current 
year, we will have the membership 
asked for. Can we not count on 
YOU to do your share? 

The Kansas City convention, 
which is booked for the week of 
July 21st, is to be a memorable one. 
It will be an educational conven- 
tion, with enough entertainment in- 
troduced to make a well-balanced 
week. Kansas City Convention 
Hall, where the convention will be 
held, is the largest hall ever placed 
at the disposal of the association. 



est Since there are no state con- 
ventions west of the Mississippi 
River this year, all the new inven- 
tions and productions will be shown 
here. Exhibitors will have uni- 
form booths, all handsomely deco- 
rated, the whole presenting a scene 
that will eclipse all previous at- 
tempts of the P. A. of A. 

The business meetings will be 
held in the balcony at one end of 
the Convention HaJl. At the other 
side provision will be made for 
meetings of any state association 
whose convention has been post- 
poned for 1913. On the program 
there will be no long, tedious, unin- 
teresting lectures; instead, a few 
crisp, snappy talks, full of good 
meat, that you will not only enjoy, 
but there will be something you can 
take home with you. 

The picture exhibit will be placed 
in the corridors. Pictures being dis- 
played on special desk-shaped 
screens, all properly lighted so that 
there will be no choice of position. 
Five pictures have been requested 
from each exhibitor, and all prints 
will be passed on by a competent 
jury before being hung. Only those 
considered worthy will be accepted. 
A jury will also select a few (not 
over twenty) of the best pictures 



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mercial Men's Federation, headed 
by President R. W. Johnson, of the 
same city, are planning programs 
that will be of special interest to 
the ladies and to those who are en- 
gaged in commercial photography. 
The exhibits of both these organi- 
zations will be made under the rules 
governing the regular exhibition. 
Lady photographers and commer- 
cial men will find much of special 
interest to them at the Kansas City 
convention. 

All pictures sent for exhibition 
must be sent to First Vice-Presi- 
dent Manly W. Tyree, care Con- 
vention Hall, Kansas City, Mo., and 
must reach their destination by 
July 14th. No packages will be ac- 
cepted after that date. Prints for 
the picture exhibition may be 
framed or not, they may be of any 
size and printed on any medium, 
and must not bear the name of the 
maker. Pack them carefully and 
send them prepaid, with the name 
and address of the sender on the 
under side of the box cover. 

The Association Annual for 
1913, which will be issued soon 
after the convention, will be illus- 
trated with some of the pictures 
shown and will contain a full re- 
port of the proceedings. A copy 
will be sent to anyone who pays 
dues for 1913. 

The Kansas City photographers 
and dealers are very actively en- 



any previous meeting of the Na- 
tional. The hotel facilities are am- 
ple and of the best quality. The 
Baltimore Hotel, the headquarters, 
is equal to any of the high-class ho- 
tels in the East and there are nu-, 
merous other hotels, any of which 
will be found satisfactory. 

Detailed information concerning 
the program will be given out later. 
Watch for it. While you are wait- 
ing, if already a member, pay your 
dues, line up your neighbor for a 
membership and make your plans 
to attend the convention together in 

July. 

In this issue you will find an ap- 
plication blank for membership, 
also a blank for reserving space for 
your picture exhibit. We trust you 
will make use of both. 

LETTER FROM PRESIDENT 
TOWNSEND 

The thirty-third annual conven- 
tion of the P. A. of A., which is to 
be held at Kansas City July 21st to 
26th inclusive, ought to be the best 
ever held in America. 

At this early date it would be 
unwise to make any estimate as to 
the attendance, or to boast of what 
will happen in Kansas City in July, 
but one thing may honestly be said 
by the most conservative and that 
is the 1913 convention ought to be 
the best ever held by the Associa- 
tion for the following reasons : 



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-I 



Second, at a time when most 
photographers are not busy and 
prosperity reigns supreme. Never 
before in the history of photography 
has the profession stood at a higher 
water mark. 

Third, every state association in 
the Mississippi Valley has decided 
to hold their meetings in abeyance 
and join in making the Kansas City 
convention an enormous success. 
Hundreds of photographers who 
have never before attended a Na- 
tional Convention should lay plans 
to make this their summer vaca- 
tion. Special trains should be 
planned for transportation from all 
of the states. North, East, South, 
West and from the Middle 
States, 

Fourth, the officers or executive 
board are arranging a program 
along practical lines which will ap- 
peal to every one in the profession 
from a financial, artistic and tech- 
nical standpoint. This embraces 
every live wideawake man in the 
business, big or little. Announce- 
ment of these arrangements will 
appear in detail later. Watch for 
them. 

Fifth, we have the undivided 
support of the manufacturers, deal- 
ers and the photographic press, 
which insures thorough publicity. 



beautiful boulevard system of Kan- 
sas City. 

Let every photographer who is 
interested in the advancement of 
his own interests as well as in the 
development of his own profession 
now join hands and help boost this 
great convention in July. 

President Townsend has received 
word from Illinois that there will 
be three train loads from that state 
alone, also word from the Colo- 
rado boys that arrangements have 
been made with the Inter- Moun- 
tain Association to hold their meet- 
ing in abeyance and join with the 
other state associations in swelling 
the attendance of the National, and 
the president desires to take this 
method to thank not only the Illi- 
nois association but all who have 
acted in accordance with this spirit, 
especially the officers of the various 
associations, and would urge that 
they consider themselves a com- 
mittee to arrange for the transpor- 
tation of special parties. Conven- 
tion hall being so large makes it 
possible for the executive board to 
provide special headquarters for 
every state, and one afternoon will 
be left open on the program for 
meetings of the state associations 
in various parts of the hall. These 
state officers will be introduced at 



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April, 1913 SNAP SHOTS 67 

PHOTOGRAPHERS' ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA 

Application for Membership 

To be mailed to Treasurer L. A. Doser, Bucyrus, Ohio 



I am 



owner 

part owner of a studio in State of 

manager 
employee 

I enclose $ membership fee and $ dues for 1913. 

Name 

Street and number 

City State 

If an owner, part owner or manager of a studio, you must have an 
active membership. Membership fee, $3.00; dues, $3.00 per annum; 
$6.00 in all. If an employee of a studio, a manufacturer or dealer or his 
representative, send $2.00 dues ; no membership fee required from asso- 
ciate members. Employees are requested to show a card of identification 
from their employer. 

Application for Space 
Mail to Manly W. Tyree, Raleigh, N. C. 

I will submit for exhibition at the Kansas City convention 

f ran z-^ 

pictures. Please reserve for me necessary space. 

unframed 

Name 

Street and number 

City State 



AN IMPROVISED FOCUSING "And they asked me how I did it, 

SCREIEN And I gave 'em the Scripture text. 

Paste a piece of plain white oiled *You keep your light so shining 

paper, or, better still, a piece of fine A little in front o' the next !' 

white tissue paper, across the cam- jhey copied all they could follow, 



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April. 1913 




LUMPS OF POLLEN GRAINS ON THE LEGS OF HONEY BEES. 

Edward F. Bigelow. 

{Photographed With 3 Inch Cclor — Acetylene Illumination.) 



PHOTOGRAPHING HONEY BEES 

By Edward P. Bigelow 

(Reprinted by permission of American Annual of Photography.) 



For the greater part of nature 
photography I am an advocate of 
long- focus lenses wherever they 
may be used, but have difficulty in 
convincing some of my friends that 
half a lens, of the divisible kind, is 
better than the whole, by reason 
of the greater perspective and 
greater depth of focus, contrary to 
the unqualified statement of the 
photographic catalogues that short 
focus gives greater depth than long 
focus. It does and it does not. 

In photographing honey bees, the 



long focus not only gives greater 
perspective and additional safety, 
but I feel sure that many of my 
photographic friends will carry the 
argument to the extreme and say 
that they prefer a telephoto for 
such work! 

I have always found the 16J^- 
inch front section of a Portar No. 
9 advantageous for this kind of 
work. A telephoto would be useful 
in many cases when the swarming 
bees attach themselves to a high 
branch, but the telephoto would lack 



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April, 1913 



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April. 1913 



speed and would not give the neces- 
sary detail to the individual bees of 
a cluster on a high and swaying 
limb. You, of course, recall the 
classic advice of a fond mother of 
ye olden times, who told her son 
when he complained that his sword 
was not long enough, that he should 
add a step to the sword. 

That advice applies photograph- 
ically to the clustering honey bees. 
The better method is to add several 
rungs to the ladder and to get a 
saw to assist in focusing the lens. 
If the bees are suspended more 
than ten feet from the ground, get 
a strong ladder that will reach not 
only to the bees, but far^bove, be- 
cause it is usually impossible to ob- 
tain a firm support for the ladder 
without getting inside of the tips of 
the branches. The better way is to 
have the combined ends of long 
branches support the ladder. One 
is then left far out toward the edge 
of the tree. 

Bees at swarming time can sting, 
and often do sting, with extreme 
vindictiveness, contrary to the 
newspaper statement that they may 
be safely handled at such time. 
Such newspaper assertions have a 
grain of truth, but only on gen- 
eral principles. Bees when swarm- 
ing are much milder in tempera- 
ment than at certain other times, 
but are probably no more willing 
to pose before the camera than they 
are on those days when the nectar 
is coming regularly and rapidly 
from the fields. 

Having sawed the limb, drop the 



saw to the ground, take a firm hold 
of the limb and take it to the 
ground. It would not be possible 
to nail this branch to any perpen- 
dicular support, because the ham- 
mer would jar oflF every bee. Have 
in readiness some ordinary metal 
clamps, such as may be obtained at 
any hardware store for a few cents, 
and by them clamp the branch to 
an upright support. One may then 
focus at leisure, preferably using 
a focusing glass to get every detail 
of the markings on the body of the 
bee, as well as sharply to define 
their wings and other parts. The 
focusing must be done largely in 
one plane. 

Not much dependence can be had 
upon stopping down the lens for 
great range of depth, because the 
exposure cannot be slower than 1-25 
of a second, and it must be remem- 
bered that when the bees are first 
taken from a tree they are in rapid 
motion. The individuals of the en- 
tire mass are vibrating rapidly and 
the two essentials are depth by long 
focus and speed by open lens. This 
use of long focus is advantageous 
in photographing the worker and 
his bees. 

There must be speed to photo- 
graphically "stop'* the motion of the 
bees running rapidly over the comb, 
and there must be sharp detail to 
show each cell within the comb, as 
is well exemplified in the lower 
frame that stands comerwise on the 
box in the accompanying illustra- 
tion (Figure 1). This I regard as 
an exceptionally good piece of 



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April, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



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SNAP SHOTS 



April. 1913 



honey bee photography. Apply a 
lens, a pocket microscope or a fo- 
cusing glass to the half-tone cut and 
you will see that every detail of the 
bees, as well as of each individual 
cell, is perfect, though the bees are 
running rapidly over the comb in 
every direction. 

Here a focal plane shutter is use- 
ful, but not necessary, if the lens 
is a good one and there is plenty of 
strong light. In the upper left-hand 
comer of the illustration the frame 
held in the right hand of the bee- 
keeper is a marked example of good 
definition of each individual bee, as 
well as of each individual cap of 
the brood. The term brood is ap- 
plied by the bee-keeper to the cap 
over the pupae. The cappings of 
these cells show clearly in the low- 
er right-hand comer of that upper 
left-hand frame. 

The photographer of honey bees 
and of their manipulators must not 
only be a perfect master of his lens, 
but he must be master of the art of 
dealing with people. He must be 
perfectly calm to inspire calmness 
in those who are manipulating the 
bees. No one better than the ex- 
perienced photographer of honey 
bees knows the danger to those 
who are handling them, but he must 
withhold all such knowledge, and, 



honey bees. In the accompanying 
illustration (Figure 2) of a veteran 
bee-keeper with a workman at his 
left (the right in the illustration) 
the workman has had not more than 
one-half hour's experience with 
bees. He was engaged to bring 
some hives and boxes for the con- 
venience of the apiarist. Several 
bees got after him and he ran fran- 
tically across the fields for some 
half a mile, vigorously working 
arms and legs like an animated 
jumping- jack. Slowly and hesitat- 
ingly he ventured back to within 
some forty rods of the apiary, and 
by a fair amount of urging and 
encouragement was then induced to 
come up the the line of hives and 
take his first lesson. The great dif- 
ficulty in such photography is to 
get the subjects to banish all ap- 
pearance of self -consciousness. En- 
courage them in every possible way, 
talk a good deal about bravery and 
work in a funny story or two. The 
secret is to have the people who are 
handling the bees forget what they 
are doing and the risk, and, para- 
doxical as it may seem, if they 
really forget the danger there is no 
danger. 

In photographing the details of 
honey bees and their work, the 
most difficult thing I have ever at- 



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April, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



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Figure 2. 
^2^ y«*52n B«g.Keeper Is Giving the Workman His First Lesson in Handling 



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April, 1913 



9 



feet. Of course, with such short 
focus lens it is not possible to brin^ 
into the same plane the top and the 
bottom of the cell at the same time. 
So for extremely sharp definition 1 
find it convenient to take a razor 
and slice off all the comb that is 
above the top of the Qgg. The eggs 
are curved and are usually placed 
in the bottom of the cell, with a 
little slant to them, which lessens 
the difficulty. It would be impos- 
sible to show more than the white 
speck of the end of the egg if the 
eggs were placed perpendicular to 
the cells of the comb. 

By using a focus of medium 
length, say about nine inches, it is 
possible to get the requisite mag- 
nification by an extremely long bel- 
lows, but even with so long a fo- 



cused lens it will be better to stop 
down pretty well. The accompany- 
ing illustration (Figure 3) shows 
the best photograph of the kind that 
I have ever taken. If someone can 
show a better I shall be glad to 
examine it. 

Perhaps the best that I have been 
able to secure are the legs of the 
bees and the pollen masses on them, 
with a reasonably sharp definition 
of the hairs at the side of the legs 
that, like the stakes on a hay wagon, 
hold the load in place. For this 
purpose I have used with advan- 
tage the short focus Celor lens 

Success in photographing honey 
bees induces the photographer to 
love them better and better and 
leads him on to enchanting realms 
of photography of other insects. 




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April, 1913 



1913 KODAK ADVERTISING CONTEST 
$3,000.00 in Cash Prizes 



ihe Kodak Advertising Contests 
are not for the purpose 01 securing 
sample prints. They are for the 
purpose of securing illustrations to 
be used in our magazine advertis- 
ing, for street car cards, for booklet 
covers and the like. 

We prefer photographs to paint- 
ings, not only because they are more 
real, but also because it seems par- 
ticularly fit that photographs should 
be used in preference to drawings 
in* advertising the photographic 
business. The successful pictures 
are those that suggest the pleasures 
that are to be derived from the use 
of the Kodak, or the simplicity of 
the Kodak system of photography 
— pictures around which the adver- 
tising man can write a simple and 
convincing story. Of course the 
subject is an old one — therefore the 
more value in the picture that tells 
the old story in a new way. Origi- 
nality, simplicity, interest, beauty — 
and with these good technique — are 
all qualities that appeal to the 
judges. 

In addition to the prize pictures, 
we often purchase several of the 
less successful pictures for future 
use in our advertising. So it will 
be seen that in reality our prize 
money is even bigger than we ad- 
vertise. 

There is a big future for the 
camera in the illustrative field. 
There's a growing use of photo- 



graphs in magazine and book illus- 
trations, to say nothing of the rapid 
advance along the same lines in ad- 
vertising work. There's a constant 
demand for pictures that are full of 
human interest. Such are the pic- 
tures that we need, that others need. 
The Kodak Advertising Contests 
offer an opportunity for your en- 
try into this growing field of pho- 
tographic work. 

Recognized professional photog- 
raphers, including commercial and 
newspaper photographers, in short, 
all persons depending upon the use 
of a camera for a livelihood, will 
compete in Class "A." Class **B" 
is open to amateurs only. 

This contest will close November 
1, 1913, at Rochester, N. Y., and 
October 20th at Toronto, Canada. 

THE PRIZES 

Grand Prize Class : First, $500 ; 
second, $400; total, $900. Open 
only to professional photographers 
who have won prizes in profes- 
sional class in previous Kodak Ad- 
vertising Contests. Negatives, 5x7 
or larger. 

Qass A, professional photogra- 
phers only (winners in 1907 and in 
Class A, 1908, 1909 1910 and 1911 
are not eligible), negatives, 5x7 or 
larger: First prize, $500; second 
prize, $400; third prize, $250; 
fourth prize, $150; fifth prize, 
$100; total, $1,400. 



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April, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



77 



Class B, amateurs only, negatives, 
4x5 or 3^4x5^ or larger; First 
prize, $300; second prize, $200; 
third prize, $100 ; fourth prize, $50 ; 
fifth prize, $50 ; total, $700. 

SUGGESTIONS 

First of all, it should be remem- 
bered that these prizes are not of- 
fered for the sake of obtaining sam- 
ple prints made with our goods. 
Merely pretty pictures, merely ar- 
tistic pictures will not he consid- 
ered. The pictures must in some 
way connect up with the Kodak 
idea — ^must show the pleasure that 
is to be derived from picture tak- 
ing, or the simplicity of the Kodak 
system, or suggest the excellence of 
Kodak g-oods. Must, in short, help 
to sell Kodak goods, by illustration 
of some of the many points in their 
favor. 

The jury will be instructed to 
award prizes to those contestants 
whose pictures, all things consid- 
ered, are best adapted to use in Ko- 
dak (or Brownie Camera) adver- 
tising. 



As reproductions of the pictures 
will often be in small sizes, too 
much detail should not be intro- 
duced. 

Pictures for reproduction should 
be snappy — vigorous, for they lose 
much by the half-tone process. 

Where apparatus is introduced, 
it must be up-to-date. If you 
haven't the goods, you can borrow. 

It is highly probable that we 
shall want to secure some negatives 
aside from the prize winners. In 
such cases special arrangements will 
be made. 

THE JUDGES 

The jury of award will consist 
of photographers and of advertis- 
ing men who are fully competent 
to pass upon the work submitted. 
Full attention will be paid, there- 
fore, to the artistic and technical 
merit of the work, as well as to its 
strength from an advertising stand- 
point. Announcement of the names 
of the judges will be made later. 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



FORMULAE FOR TANK DEVELOPMENT 



"agfa'' metol-hydro Potassium Bromide 2 gr. 

Hot Water .,,.•... 12 oz. For use take 1 ounce of 

"^/^ S^- the above solution to 

^^, each 4 ounces of water. 



^^^ Sulphite (anhy. 



q o d i U m 



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SNAP SHOTS 



April, 191^ 



TRADE NEWS AND NOTES 



Eagle Vignette Adjuster. The most 
practical and most easily adjusted vig- 
netting attachment yet produced for the 
photo printer. By its means tissue 
paper can be placed and held at once, 
and the tissue coverings can be num- 
bered and filed, thus enabling duplicate 
orders to be filled quickly and easily and 
accurately — a time saver and conveni- 
ence. Get one! George Murphy, Inc., 
trade agents. 



Zelta. Whether or not a majority of 
the profession will be induced to take up 
with a printing-out paper, the fact re- 
mains that Zelta prints are superior to 
those made by any developing-out 
process. 

We have seen a series of Zelta prints 
ranging in tone from red chalk, through 
all the delicate intermediate tones of 
sepia, brown, olive and warm black, to 
a rich lustrous blue black, not one of 
which could be approached by a develop- 
ing-out paper print. The two methods 
are so entirely different in nature that 
there is no comparison in the results. 

As the Eastman Company have claimed 
in their advertising of this new product, 
it IS a paper for the man who wishes to 
make his work distinctive — to express 
his individuality in the texture, tone and 
general quality of the print he delivers, 
as well as his method of posing and 
lighting the subject. 

Zelta will appeal to the best trade of 
the high-class studio, where quality is 
the one consideration. It is a matte- 
surface, ready-sensitized Albumen paper 
of exceptionally good keeping quality, 
and is made in four grades. It is sim- 
ple and certain in manipulation, any de- 
sired tone being readily secured and re- 
produced at will. 

Make up a sample case of Zelta prints 
and a set of studio samples and let the 
customer be the judge. 



Ross 'Telecentric' Lens. This new 
lens, specially suitable for sporting 
events, life in motion, enlarged images 
from distant objects, is in great demand 
by newspaper photographers and out- 
door photographers who require life in 
motion pictures with large images from 
a distance. It is also adapted for por- 
traiture, saving the photographer con- 
siderable work in retouching. Write to 
the American agents, George Murphy, 
Inc., New York, for descriptive booklet 
and sample photos. 



Carbon Tissue. The Autotype Com- 
pany are now offering a folder display 
booklet of eighteen standard carbon card 
prints, including some of the late sepia 
additions, enabling the photographer to 
show his customer in this one display 
book the main tints that are mostly in 
demand. This new display book can 
be secured from the agents. We believe 
the price is $1.50, however, write to the 
agents for full particulars. 



When Mailing Your Prints use the 
Photomailer advertised in this issue by 
the Thompson & Norris Co. They save 
time, trouble and postage. 



Six- Fax Exposure Disc- A new in- 
expensive exposure meter being intro- 
duced by Burke & James, Inc, of Chi- 
cago. Its calculation is based on the 
six facts which determine the correct 
exposure, namely : First, the speed of the 
plate or film in use; second, the size of 
the stop ; third, the strength of the light ; 
fourth, the character of the subject; 
fifth, the time of the day; sixth, the 
time of the year. Notwithstanding this 
a single turn of the dial gives the correct 
exposure. The price is only 25 cents. 
Write to Burke & James, Inc. Mention 
Snap Shots. 



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April, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



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The Rough & Caldwell Co, are now 
distributing their new catalogue of pho- 
tographic accessories, the most complete 
catalogue of photographic studio acces- 
sories that has ever been published. 
Over fifty different varieties are shown, 
and photographers can readily make se- 
lections from the illustrations. This 
catalogue meets a demand that has ex- 
isted for quite sometime. Write to them 
for a copy. 



A New Line of Roll Film Pocket 
Cameras have just been placed on the 
market by Burke & James, Inc., of Chi- 
cago. We understand that they are 
manufacturing these in their own plant, 
and that they intend to add new styles 
constantly until they have a complete 
line to fill every need of the amateur. 

Their new No. Folding Ingento is so 
small that it can be easily carried in 
the hip pocket, or in a lady's handbag, 
yet it will take a picture 2^x3V4 inches. 
It is constructed entirely of metal and 
is handsomely finished in every detail. 
See their advertisement in this issue. 



Plate-Holders- As our professional 
readers will see by the advertisement of 
George Murphy, Inc., in this issue, they 
have an excellent opportunity to increase 
their stock of 8x10 holders at a very 
low price. 

Usually only one 8x10 holder comes 
with your outfit, and you quite frequent- 
ly needing more for some special job. 
This is an unusual price for these 
goods. When ordering from our ad- 
vertiser please mention Snap Shots. 



Dufay Color Plates. Color photog- 
raphy seems to be steadily increasing 
and the American agents for the Dufay 
Color Plates advise us that their de- 
mand is constantly increasing, especially 
[" the lantern slide size. They evidently 



Ingravo Printing Plates- These new 
printing plates have been a success. 
With their use not only is the photo of 
the subject enhanced with a neat artistic 
design, but the outside margin is also 
covered, thus producing a large surface, 
finished and needing only a folder to 
complete the setting. 



The Eagle Adjustable and Reversible 
Developing Tank. This new patented 
tank is a superior article. It combines 
every feature desired in tank develop- 
ment. The adjustable rack for any size 
plate smaller than the tank size makes 
one tank serviceable for various sizes of 
plates. Cover is held with clamps so 
that the tank can be reversed as often as 
desired. The rack is so constructed that 
it slides up and down on four rods 
which project above the solution serving 
as a handle for removing rack without 
touching the solution. The adjustment 
of the rack can be made quickly for dif- 
ferent size plates, and the rack locks se- 
curely. Advertised by the manufactur- 
ers in this issue. 

L. P. OGDEN 

L. P. Ogden, of Pittsfield, Mass., died 
of pneumonia at his home, on February 
11th. When a young man he joined his 
father in the photographic business, un- 
der the name of F. B. Ogden & Son. 
The firm conducted a gallery in New 
York and Massachusetts. Mr. Ogden 
first maintained a gallery in Holyoke, 
from which he came to Pittsfield twenty 
years ago. He has since made his home 
there, identifying himself with the City 
Social and Military Associations; and. 
in fact, with anything which tended to- 
wards the uplift of the community. 

He was a fine type of a gentleman 
and good citizen, generous and charita- 
ble to an unusual degree, ever interested 
in the best interests of Pittsfield. He 



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SNAP SHOTS 



April, 1913 



STUDIO WANTS 






Galleries for Sale or Rent 

D. F. M., gallery in New York City, 
$3,500. 

F. S. W., on Long Island, $900. 
A. M. C. in New Jersey, $900. 

G. B., gallery in New Jersey, $800. 
A. D. v., gallery in New York, $500. 
Mrs. S., gallery in New York City, $650. 



Parties Desiring Galleries 

Miss F. C, wants gallery in town of 
10,000-15,000. 

N. S., wants gallery in N. Y. City. 
R. L. C, wants gallery in N. Y. City. 
J. T. A., wants gallery in N. Y. State. 
T. D., wants gallery in small city. 
A. M., wants to buy or rent within 40 
miles of N. Y. 



Positions Wanted — Operators 
C. E. R., commercial photographer. 
A. M., first-class all-round. 
M. K., all-round man. 
J. C. all-round, in or out of city. 
C. L. B., all-round. 

Positions Wanted — Retouchers, Recep- 
tionists 

M. H. O., retoucher and etcher. 
Miss E. L. S., colorist — first-class. 
Miss A. S., receptionist, finisher, etc 
Miss M. P., retoucher, printer, etc 
Miss M. C. M., hand-color work, spot- 
ting, sketching, receptionist, etc. 

Positions Wanted— Printers 
Miss K. D., printer, receptionist, etc 
S. A. M., printer. 
S. T. D., printer. 



Notiee— Letters addretied to anyone In our oare ihonld be aooompanled with ecaaf 
fer each letter ao that they can be re-mailed. 



SEND YOUR SUBSCRIPTION NOW 

Our Year expires January Ist and we want your Renewal. $1.00 per year. 
Photographic news from every section is worth five times our subscription 
price. 

OUR SPECIAL CLUBBING LIST 

We offer the Special Clubbing List of Snap Shots with American and Eng- 
lish Annuals and the English Journals. A combination that places to the 
American photographer photographic news that combined gives him the field 
covering the English-speaking photographic world: 

1 year's Snap Shots with 1 year's subscription to British Journal of 

Photography S.75 

Snap Shots and 1 year's subscription to Photography and Focus (Sag.) S.fO 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Ixv 



POSITIONS OFFERED and WANTED, FOR SALE, 
TO RENT, WANT to PURCHASE,EXCHANGE,&c. 



Announcemcntt under these and similmr headings of fort^ words or less, wdl be inserted 
for forty cents. For each additional word, one cent Displared advertisements 60 cents 
per inch. Cash mast accompany order. When replies are addressed to our car% 10 cents 
at least mast be added to cover probable postage on same to advertiser. Advertisements 
should reach us by the 80th to secure insertions in the succeeding issue. A copy of the 
Journal sent free to every advertiser as long as the "ad" is continued. Advertisements in 
Snap Shots bring prompt returns. 



AN ADVERTISEMENT IN THESE COLUMNS 

li am excellent and tafe meditsm of commttnteatton between Pliotostaplien 



For Sale : Long established 
and centrally located Studio, 
having the best trade in town, 
including considerable com- 
mercial trade, rare oppor- 
tunity for up-to-date photog- 
rapher. Satisfactory reasons 
given for selling. Price rea- 
sonable. Chas. M. Hiller, 
103 Broad Street, Elizabeth, 
New Jersey. 

For Sale: A well paying, old estab- 
lished photograph Studio. Retiring 
from business, reason for selling. Box 
No. 26, care Snap Shots. 

Help Wanted: Assistant Photog- 
rapher, male or female. State what 
you can do and salary expected. Ad- 
dress Rembrandt Studio. 299 Central 
Avenue, Jersey City, N. J. 

Negative Retouching for the trade. 
Negatives done promptly and in first- 
class manner. Best reference. Twelve 
years' experience. Bert Tanner, 320 
Main Street, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 



Big Opportunity: My main Studio 
in Oneonta, N. Y., and three branches 
for sale; going at a bargain. Estab- 
lished twenty-five years. Doctors ad- 
vise change of climate; a great chance. 
P. R. Young, Box 12. Oneonta, N. Y. 

For Sale or Rent or will take a 
partner. Oldest established Gallery 
in New Haven. A chance for a first- 
class photographer and a hustler. In- 
quire at "Cramer's, 818 Chapel Street, 
New Haven, Conn. 

(First come, first served.) 

For Sale: Studio in Watervliet, 
N. Y. Only studio in a city of nine- 
teen thousand people. Owner desires 
to sell on account of poor eyesight. 
Price $500. Rent $8 per month. 
North light reception dressing and 
dark rooms. Will lease to suit buyer. 
A good opportunity for active man. 
An easy snap. Empire Photo Studio, 
Watervliet. N. Y . 

For Sale: First-class Studio. Good 
light, six rooms, furnished to 11x14. 
Eighty thousand population. G, care 
Snap Shots. 

For Sale: A well located, well fur- 
nished photo studio in New York City 
in prominent thoroughfare. Owner 
desires to sell on account of other 
business interests. Price $3,500; lease 



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Ixvi 



SXAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



■^^ 



' AUTOTYPC 

Autotype Carbon 
Tissues 

We can now furnish a Carbon Dis- 
play Booklet showing eighteen card 
Carbon prints of the standard tints, 
including the new line of sepia tints 
lately added. These will be found in- 
valuable to the photographer in reach- 
ing orders and demonstrating ' the 
beauties of the various shades of the 
Carbon tints. As this display book- 
let is produced at quite some cost to 
the factory, a price has been made of 
$1.50, it being deemed that the value 
would be easily reached .through its 
use. 

OEORQE MURPHY, Inc. 
f7 EAST NINTH STREET NEW YORK 



STOP!! LOOK!! 

Have you a camera you wish to sell or 
exchange? Write us. We have been 
in the exchange business for twenty 
vears and are known all over the 
country as THE LEADER. 

WRITE for our NEW No. i8 
BARGAIN LIST. It's a HUMMER. 

NEW YORK CAMERA EXCHANGE 

109H FULTM SHEET NEW lOIK 



Art Studies 

PHOTOGRAPHS FROM LIFE MODELS 

Finest Collection for Artists 
and Art Lovers 



iilastrated Cataiosue aent free on demand 



C. KLARY 




itteUtta(iHiidiMb20tliiiaf ^ 

_|fe«tMllflMMCail«lltlLilM 

f« 6t7, |t.Oi: 16 tn. Itflecta,tzl0, IIS.00 
4 SMit Panlu, M nnran. 30 ta. dliiBrtflr 



CAMERA OWNERS 

If ^ou would like to see a copy of a 
beautiful, practical, interesting, modern 
photographic magazine, written and 
edited with the purpose of teaching all 
photographers how to use their mate- 
rials and skill to the best advantage, 
either for profit or amusement, send us 
your name on a post-card. Don't for- 
get or delay, but write at once. The 
three latest numbers will be sent for 25 
cents. $1.50 a year. 

AMERICAN PNOTOQRAPNY 
SOI Pope Building BOSTON, MASS. 



Eagle Professional Tank 

PATENTED 

Made especial- 
ly to meet the 
requirements of 
the Professional 
Photographer. 

Practical ; a 
time saver; a 
money saver. 
Does away with 
dark room trou- 
bles. 

Try one and 
be convinced. 

Made in seven 
sizes of brass, 
nickel plated. 

Grooves. 
No. 8 for 12, 5x7. 4^x6^/$, 4x5. 

35<4x4^4, or lantern slide 6 $3.00 

No. 9 for 12, eVixSVi, 5x7, 4x5.. 6 3.50 
No. 10 for 12, 8x10, 6j4xSj4, 6x7. 6 6.00 
No. 11. Professional size for 48. 

5x7 and smaller 24 6 . 00 

No. 12. Professional size for 24, 

8x10 and smaller 18 7.50 

No. 13. Professional size for 6, 

11x14 S 12.50 

No. 14. Professional size for 86, 

5x7 and smaller 86 10.00 

QEORQB MURPHY, Inc., 57 B. M St, New York 




103 Avenae de Villlcre PARIS (FRANCE) 

When writing advertisers please mention Snat Shots. 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Ixvii 




Eagle Adjustable and Reversible 
Developing Tank 

(Patented) 

Both Reversible 
and Adjustable 

Instantly Adjusted to Any 
Sized Plate 

Superior to all other makes, for the 
reason that it is adjustable to any 
sized plate smaller than the size for 
which it is listed ; thus one tank will serve for various sizes of 
plates. The cover is held with clamps, so that the tank can 
be reversed as often as de- 
sired. The rack is so con- 
structed that it slides up and 
down on four rods. These 
rods project above the solu- 
tion serving as a handle for 
removing rack without 
touching the solution with 
your hand. This is not pos- 
sible with any other tank on 
the market. Made of brass 
heavily nickel plated. 

Prices 

No. 100. . For 4 x 5, 3J4 x 5^^, 3% x 4'54. 3% x 4, 3J4 x 3>i 

— 6 grooves $3.50 

No. 101. For 5 X 8, 5 X 7, 454 x 6^, 4 x 5, 3% x 5J^~6 grooves 4.50 

No. 103. For 6K' X 8H» 5 x 8, 5 x 7, 4^4 x 6^—6 grooves 7.50 

No. 104. For 8 x 10, 6J^ x 8J^, 5 x 8, 5 x 7—6 grooves 8.50 

Eagle Tank Developing Powders, per package 6 powders each.. .25 

GEORGE nURPHY, Inc. 
57 East 9th Street NEW YORK 




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Ixviii 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



AT LAST 

You Can Reproduce Your Pictures in 

NATURAL COLORS 

on the 

Dufav Color Plate 

the simplest, results the most perfect reproduction of natural colors possible to 
Dufay color plates are of very fine texture, rapid, and are guaranteed for 12 

PEICE LIST PES BOX OF FOTTE 

fl.aO 4x6" 

1.86 6x7" 

OOMPENSATINO 8CEEEN8 

11.80 SI X «r 

l.eo 41 X 41" 

8.00 

GREEN EXCELSIOR PAPER FOR DARK ROOM 
PER PAOKAOE OF 6 SHEETS 

90.18 8x10" 90.80 

Complete set Solntlons 91.86 
Send a trial order. Descriptive booklet mailed free on request. 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 East 9th Street, New York 



Process 

obtain. 

months. 

8^x4 ". 
81x41". 

11 X 11". 



91.00 

8.00 



98.00 
4.00 



6x7". 



I^ktures 
piounted 



Hare an excellence pecoliarl j their 
own. The beet results are only 
produced b j the best methods and 
means—the best results in Photo- 
graph, Poster and other mountinf 
can only be attained bj using the 
best mounting paste^ 

HIQQIN8' PHOTO MOUNTER 

(Exoellent novel brush with aaeh JarO 



HIGGINS' 
PHOTO 
MOUNTER 



At Deftlera la Photo Sapplioet 
ArtUte* MAtoriale uad Stattonoij. 



A 8-OB. Jar prepaid hj mail for 80 eeots. 

or ciroolan free from 

CHAS. M. HIQQINS & CO., Mfrs. 

NBW YORK CHICAQO LONDOU 



Main Office, 271 Ninth Street ) Braoklja. N. V. 
Factory, 240-344 BIfhth Street f U. 8. A. 



.iginzecJby^ 
When writing advextisers please mention Snap Shots. 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Ixix 




DAINTY— COMPACT— EFFICIENT 

No. F0LDIN6 INGENTO 

A l^Qw Bail Film Pocket Camera Xakinff Pic- 
turei 2^x8K. 
This TAniera is so small that it can be easily 
carrkcfi] in the hip pocket or in a lady's hand-bag, 
yet it makes clear, sharp pictures 
2>:ix3^ inches, a size plenty large for 
practical work. The equipment in- 
cludes a fine achromatic meniscus uni- 
versal focus lens, speed U. S. 8, and 
automatic shutter for time, bulb and 
I n Titan tan eo us exposures, a dust-proof, 
1 ^ersible, brilliant finder and two tri- 
"1 sockets for taking either vertical 
■: horizontal pictures. One operation 
M ags the camera front automatically 
li'j position for immediate use. This 
]^! ration requires only two seconds, 
riie No. Ingento is constructed en- 
lirt'ly of metal. The body is covered 
with levant grain cowhicfe, the trim- 
mings are nickel-plated and polished. 
Tt is handsomely finis'' ed in every de- 
tail. Strength, rigidity and extreme 
^^ompactness are its special features. 
rjises No. 4A Ansco or No. 2 Brownie 
Film. 

Price 110.00. 

BURKE A JAMES, Ino. 

240-258 E. Ontario 8t.» 
CHICAGO. 
New York Office and 

Sales Room, /"^y j^J S 

225 Fifth Ave. fpiJOTD SimJES] 



Rhodol 



METOL, SATRAPOL and other trade names have been 
adopted by different manufacturers for the chemical Mono- 
methylpara-amidophenol sulpliate. We are supplying this 
chemical under the name RHODOL and guarantee our 
article when used in the same way, to produce identical 
results. 

Obtainable from All Photo Supply Houses at Lowest Prices. 

Malllnckrodt Chemical Works 



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Ixx 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 




Lens Hood Partly Extended, Showing 
Attachment. 



CORNELL LENS HOOD 

The Cornell Lens Hood 
keeps all stray light from the 
lens and insures clear and 
bright negatives. Will close 
out of the way when you wish 
to change your lens or dia- 
phragm. Can be set sidewise 
when working toward the light, 
and the camera will not move 
if you run against it. 

Cornell Lens Hood, each |3.50 

GEORGE MURPHY, he. 
57 E. 9th St New York 



THE CORNELL LIGHT 
RESTRAINER 

The Cornell Light Restrainer 
does not vignette, but gives full 
detail all over the plate and pre- 
vents over-exposure in the bottom 
of the dress without changing 
modeling or roundness, and does 
not naturally prolong the expos- 
ure. 

Cornell Light Restrainer, each |1.00 

IE0R6E MURPHY. Inc. 
57 E. 9th St. New York 




Showing Light Restrainer in Position. 





ROUND'S BABY HOLDER 

PAT. APPLIBD FOR 

First Prise ftt Detroit 
CoBTentloii 

This Holder can be tised without atuching 
to accessory :: Place the baby on the base 
and let the garment drop down over the 
whole device, thus entirely concealing it :: 
Taking a small portion of the dress under 
each shoulder and drawing it in the clutch, 
it holds the baby from moving in any way 

Easy, practical and limple. Price 
12.60; per mall, postage 40e. 



Geo.liurphy,lD(^II|.^"l5^X 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Ixxi 



I 



4209? 



will place 
the new 

No. 8 

CENTURY 

OUTFIT 

in your 
Studio. 




1 
1 

1 
1 
I 
1 



HERE IS WHAT THE PRICE INCLUDES: 

11 X 14 Century Grand Portrait Camera with new foe using 

arrangeDient, 
11 X 14 bemi-Centennial Statid* 
Reversible Back for 11 x 11 Century View Plate HolclerB. 

Adjustable for making eitber one or two exposures on 

a plate. 
Sliding Atlaeluneat for 8 x 10 Curtain Slide Plate Holder. 
Adapter for 8 x 10 Attachment to take S xl Curtain Slide 

Holder, 
11 X 14 Centnry Double View Plate Holder. 
8x10 Century Curtain Slide Holder with 6}i%%)4 Kit. 
5x7 Curtain SHde Holder. 
F/are Holder Each, 



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Ixxii 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



C P. Nitrate Silver Crystals 
Pure Chloride Gold 



For Photographers, Ariito 
Paper and Dry Plaiot Makers 



Chemicals for Photo Engraving and the Arts 



All Kinds of Sflver and Gokf 
Waste Refined 



Mamifactorcd 



i: PHILLIPS & JACOBS 



622 RACE STREET, PHILADELPHIA 



Lot No. 55 

Royal Nofl-Slipping Printing " Frames 

This frame is made of the 
best seasoned Ash, natural 
finish, and without sharp 
edges. It is built on the 
English principle and the 
most inexperienced person 
can examine the print with- 
out the slightest risk of mov. 
ing it. The back of the frame 
is provided with new proiect- 
ing metal pins which drop 
into corresponding slots in 
the side of the frame. This 
prevents all possibility of the 
print shifting. 

This is an Ideal Frame for 
printing postals and using 
masks. We offer them, while 
they last, as follows: 

99 3 14 x4 '4 List 40c. Sell for 15c. each 

28S 4 xo List 45c. Sell for 20c. each 

In 5 x7 List 50c. Sell for 26c. each 

75 6J4x8»^ List 90c. Sell for 48c. each 

68 8 xlO List $1.25 Sell for 68c. each 

QEORQE MURPHY, Inc., 57 East Ninth Street, New York 

When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 




SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Ixxiii 



Speedy, Brilliant, Rich in Color Values, 

Hammer Plates Are Unsurpassed! 

Each plate in every box is equal to the BEST in any box! 

Hammer's Special Extra Fast (red label) and Extra I'ast 
(blue label) Plates head the list. 




RE6. TRADE MARK 



Hammer's little book, *'A Short Talk on Negative Making," 
mailed free* 

HAMMER DRY PLATE COMPANY 

Ohi» Aw, and M&aml St* Bh Louis, Mo^ 



You Can Take Pictures on a Day Like This ! 

Th*t j^ if your lens i^ right. The lens is the soul of your camera. Ordinan' lensc'^ 
will utc ardinarv piclurcs -^tidoiT Jln'orMe conditions. Are }'au s alb lied wilJi tlrat ? 
Of would you like the hvst results utitSex all conditions? If so, yon sliould knmv thi" 

GOERZ LENSES 

l^mvcrgayj' used l>v war photi>gra pliers and professionals, vvh<j must 
W sure of their rcsultjii, The}^ can easily if^ fifed hf ihe camtra 

Send for Our Book on "Lenttt and Catnerat" 



"i the iJ^r*tc^t viiiue t<* ikiiy *jne irjt..'ri.^tt:d 


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Ixxiv 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 




BOYD ADJUSTABLE 
PMNTING MASK 



(Patent applied for) 

This adjustable Printing Mask is the in- 
vention of an enthusiastic amateur, and 
has been used by him for several years. 

It is so constructed that the size open- 
ing can be instantly adjusted to suit the 
negative printing just the part which is desired. Also very useful in 
straightening crooked negatives. An excellent post card printing arrange- 
ment giving any position on the post card. Fits into 6^x8^^ printing 
frame. Price 75 cents. 



GEORGE MURPHY. Inc. 



57 East 9th Street 



NEW YORK 




oepiatonE 

reoOUOSR KM POUIAliaiT TOKS OP 

~^^ SEPIA b=i> 

m»tAmjmumfrmmmoimmrmim 



J Royal Sepiatone 



Royal Sepiatone will give double sepia tones on Velox, Azo, Cyko, 
Argo, Bromide, or any other developing paper. The Sepia tones pro- 
duced are rich and permanent. The process is simple, efficient and 
cheap. One tube will tone seventy-five 4x5 prints. Full directions with 
each tube. 

It is packed in hermetically sealed glass tubes, insuring perfect keep- 
ing qualities of tones. Can be used repeatedly until the solution be- 
comes exhausted. 

Price per tube 10c. Per box twelve tubes, $1.20. 
Send 10c. in stamps for sample tube. 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc., 57 East 9th Street, New York 

Digitized by VJ^^^V IC 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Ixxv 



UNIFORMLY RMLIABLB 

Seed Plates for every occasion where the result 

is of greatest importance. The reliability 

of Seed Emulsions insures success. 



SEED NON-HALATION L ORTHO 
for difficult interiors- A superior 
double coated plate. 

SEED L ORTHO for correct color 
rendering in landscapes or other sub- 
jects where a plate extremely sensitive 
to yellow is required. 

SEED 26 X for all general landscape or 
portrait work. The extreme latitude 
of this plate allows for the greatest 
variation in exposure. 

SEED GILT EDGE 30 is ideal for all 
work where quick exposures are of 
great importance. Seed Gilt Edge 30 
is the only plate combining extreme 
speed with the finest qualities of the 
ideal portrait plate. 





..vdlMft^^. 



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Ixxvi 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMEN IS 



Use the paper that 
has no equal. 



a: 








TORH 



Superiority made Artura the 
real success. 




ARTURA DIVISION, 

A EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, 



All Dealers. 



ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC , 



>8' 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Ixxvii 



"HOW IT IS DONE 



II 



An Expl&n&tory Dl&rr&m Showiiif the 
YATlout Stares in the Production of 



AUTOTYPE CARBON PHOTOGRAPHS 

The Produotion of an Autotype Carbon Photograph 



Tho Coated Smrfaoe of Exposed Car- 
Wn TiMue (Pifmented Gelatine). 
B 
Binf le Transfer Paper. 


Soak A and B in cold water, bring 
coated surfaces together in contact and 
squeegee. 

D 
Place the adherent tissue and trans- 
fer paper between blotting boards for 
a few minutes. Next immerse in warm 
water, until the colored gelatine begins 
to oese out at the edges. 



Strip oiT the Tissue backing paper 
and throw it away. 

A dark mass of colored gelatine is 
left on the transfer paper. This re- 
mains in the warm water and the gela- 
tine surface is splashed over until the 
picture gradually makes its appearance. 
G and H 

Continue until completed. 

The picture is now placed in an alum 
bath (tLY9 per cent) to harden the film 
and discharge the bichromate sensi- 
tising salt. A rinse in cold water com- 
pletes the operation. 





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Important to Amateur Photographers 

TRIAL SETS OF CARBON PRINTING MATERIALS 

In order to combat the erroneous notion, somewhat prevalent amongst Amateur 
Photographers, that a trial of the Carbon Process necessarily entails the expenditure 
of a considerable sum on costly apparatus, the Autotype Company have decided to 
introduce cheap trial sets of the absolutely essential materials, particulars of which 
are appended. 

In these cheaply-priced outfits it is, of course, impossible to include developing, 
washing or fixing tanks. For purely experimental purposes, however, some oi the 
ordinary household crockery will serve as a makeshift, and the bathroom will be 
found a not altogether unsuitable apartment for carrying on operations. 

PHICE8 OF TRIAL SETS 

Ostflt »e. 1 fl.lO 

Ovtflt Complete for 6x7 6.00 

Ovttt for i X 10 7. 00 

American A|ents: GEORGE MURPHY. Inc.. 57 E. 9th St.. New York 

When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots, igitized by VJjOOQIC 



Ixxviii 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



ARTISTIC 
PORTRAITURE 




Is the kind that pays best and is the 
result of the skill of the operator and 
excellence of his optical tools. With a 

Yoigtlaoder Heliar 

F 4.5 

you have fulfilled the latter condition 
perfectly, for there is no better por- 
trait lens made. 

But as the "proof o fthe pudding is 
the eating," so is the proof of our 
statement in the actual testing of the 
lens in your own studio. 
Let us arrange this ten-day test 
through your dealer. Many of the 
greatest photographers in this coun- 
try are using the Heliar Lens. 

VOIQTLANDER & SOHN 

240-258 E. Ontario St., Chicago 
225 Fifth Ave, New York 

WORKS— 
Bnintwlck, Germany 

Canadian Agents— Hnpf eld, Lndecking & Co. 
Montreal, Can. 



EDWARD F. BIQELOW 

Aroadki, Sound Boaoh, Connaotiottt 

desires for the "Nature and Science" 
Department of the **St, Nicholas" Maga- 
zine (New York), photographs of inter- 
esting inventions, and of natural objects 
that are novel, instructive or espedally 
beautiful. He particularly desires photo- 
graphs of machines, or of mechanical 
appliances of interest to the readers of 
"St. Nicholas." They may be mounted 
or not, of any size and on any kind of 
paper. The only requirements are that 
they shall clearly show something worth 
showing, and be interesting or instruc- 
tive. Do not send "snap shots" of 
scenery that can be equalled for beauty 
and for general interest in almost any 
part of the earth. 

Pay will be at the usual magazine 
rates, and will vary with the interest 
and the novelty. A small photograph 
may be more valuable than a biff one. 

"The Guide to Nature," Arcadia: 
Sound Beach, Connecticut, is a maga- 
zine for adults, and has a definite pur- 
pose. It is published by an association 
of students and lovers of nature — not 
for pecuniary gain, but to be helpful. 
Its oepartment, "The Camera," is con- 
ducted by enthusiastic camerists, each 
of whom, as in a camera society, desires 
to help all his associates and colleagues. 
Editor, associates and contributors are 
paid by the satisfaction of benefiting 
others. There is no better remunera- 
tion. All income is devoted directly to 
the interests and improvement of the 
magazine 



8x10 Plate 
Holders 

Will fit any 8 x lo Century 
or New York Studio Outfit 

These Holders are Single Cur- 
tain Slide Holders with Kits for 
6^4x854, 5x7 and 4x5 Plates. 



PRICE, - $4.00 - EACH 



GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 East Ninth Street, New Yori 



Vvn^n writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Ixxix 



Progressive Photographers 

will find the kind of mountings which build 
business and increase profits in the Collins 
Spring Line, 

This Line consists of unique Fotettes, 
substantial solid nnountings, distinctive fold- 
ers and enclosures— all of superior design 
and quality. 

These goods are now in the hands of 
your dealer. Ask the salesnnan to show you 
our complete Line of samples, 

A. M. COLLINS MFC- CO. 



230 Columbia Avenue 



PHILADELPHIA 



SOMETHING REALLY GOOD 

THE 'PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES" ALBUMS 

FOR UNMOUNTED PHOTOGRAPHS 

These Albums for Unmounted Photographs are made precisely like the old-fash- 
ioned scrap book, with a guard between every leaf. The leaves themselves are made 
of a gray linen-finished cover paper, from extra heavy stock, weighing 120 pounds 
to the ream. The books are bound in genuine Seal grained Leather, backs and corners, 
with strone Cloth sides. The covers are tooled with genuine gold leaf, and the word 
PhotogTApni is stamped in sold on the sides. These Albums are sewed in the regular 
bookbinders' style, to open flat, and they are made to stand the hardest kind of wear. 
We are putting them out over the repuUtion of the "Photographic Times,*' and 

WE GUARANTEE EVERY BOOK 

These Albums contain fifty leaves each, for holding from one hundred to two 
hundred unmounted photographs, according to the size of the prints. The prices and 
sizes of these Albums for Photographs are as follows: 

"PHOTOGRAPHIC" TIMES ALBUM 

with a Year's 
Albnm Retail Price Subsorlptlen to 

Photographlo Times 

No. 1 Blse of leaf, 41x6} Inches 91.00 98.00 

Kg. 8 Size of leaf, sIx 8 " 1.80 8.80 

No. 8 Size of leaf, 7x10 " 1.60 8.00 

No. 4 glze of leaf, 10x18 " 8.40 8.40 

Ko. 6 Size of leaf, 11x14 " 8.80 8.80 

Photographic Times Pah. Association '"%'w'^fsr''"' 

When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



m> 



S 



le 



Ixxx 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Studio Cabinet 
Photography 




The Ross Rapid Cabinet Portrait Lens differs from 
ordinary portrait lenses, as it is constructed to give as 
flat a field as consistent with good marginal definition. 
Invaluable for the production with full aperture of 
either standing or sitting figures. Rapid results with 
brilliancy. 

No. 3 Portrait Lens, 3j/^'' diameter, 12'' equiva- 
lent focus for use when studio exceeds 
20 ft.; the distant subject for cabinet 
portraits $133.00 

No. 3 A Portrait Lens, 4'' diameter, 16'' equiva- 
lent focus, for promenade portraits and 
cabinets in long studios 189.00 



A «« T 



11 T> 



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I 



EAGLE VIGNETTE ADJUSTER 



f PATENT APPLtED FOR> 




THE PRINTER'S CHUM 

ONCE USED, ALWAYS USED 

A ji^rcat lime saver ai ilic grcaicst assistance in the primer. Ad- 
justs the vigncuc in a mnmenL Perfectly r=.mooth and flat, Vignellcs 
for each ncRiUive can he ^^avcd and hkd with the nc^^ntivc and rc- 
adjUa^^d on the frame it! a moment. 

Hties avvay with tackini^ the vigncUe on to the printing iramc, thiu 
resultnt^ in a great <iavin£r of frames. The framcf i^avcd in a niotith"? 
tin\c Will more than pay for this attachment. 

GlVc it a lri.ll, we know that you will be pleased. 




Si^e for 5 X 7 Printing frame, 75l 
Size far B x 10 Printing frame, 80c. 



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CHARACTER IN THE 

PRINT 

The photographer striving for 
originality will find distinctive quality 
in the new albumen printing-out 
paper: 



z 





Matte-Surface, Ready-Sensitized, 
Four Grades. 

Z/clta offers each worker a means 
of expressing his individuality in the 
print as well as in composition, pos- 
ing and lighting. A range of tone 
from red chalk to cold blacl 




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Jmc 2$, I9N. Tnie AUuk ftcfislcrai 



This device is designed for mailing photographs, 
fancy cards and similar enclosures flat. 

Excellent For The Purpose 

Seventeen sizes carried in stock, as below: 



No. Size 

123 4;^ X 7 

126 5>1 X 7^ 

131 6^/2 X Q^<i 

135 7^8 X loMi 

136 7j4x gVj 

137 7'4 X ii'4 

138 S'Ax loyz 

139 8>ii X ii>^ 

142 9^/> X II 5^ 



Xo. Size 

143 9;4 X 12^4 

146 IO'4 X 12^^ 

151 1 1 14 X 144^ 

155 12J4X1514 

162 13I4 X I7> 

234 5'<^x ii>^^ 

240 6y2 X 13^ 

246 7.^/2 X .55-4 



THE THOMPSON & NORRIS CO. 

6 Prince Street 

BROOKLYN, N. V. 

Boiton, Kam.; BrookTille, Ind. ; Niag&ra F&lk, Canada; London, England: 
Jullch, Germany. 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Ixxxi 



THE NEW 

Ross "Telecentric" 
Lens 

(PATENT) 




lens 



sporting 



at 



An ideal 
events. 

Very suitable for portraiture 

Giving critical dehnition ai 
full aperture. 

Make Tele-Photography with 
Focal Plane Shutter exposures. 

Large image at short camera 
extension. 

Two Series: F 5.4 and F 6.8. 



Focut 

Back-EqulT. 

Ixii..4r— 9" 

F 6.8, $37.50 

F 5.4, 50.00 



Focus 

B&ck-EqniT. 

6i"— 11" 

$45.00 

04.00 



Focut 

B&ck-EquiT. 

Int. .6"— 12" 

F 6.8, $48.75 

F 5.4, 67.50 



Focus 

Back-EquiT. 

er— 13" 

$52.50 

73.00 



Focut 

B&ck-Equiv. 

Int..8r— 17" 

F 6.8, $67.50 

F 5.4, 95 50 



The new "Tclcccntric" Lens 
gives a universally flat image 
with exquisite definition to the 
corners of the plate. Like the 
Ross **Homocentric/' the "Tel- 
ecentric" is absolutely free 
from spherical zones, and nega- 
tives taken with it are perfect 
in detail. 

In the "Tclcccntric" Lens 
F 6.8, which is slightly faster 
than other lenses of this type, 
the definition and brilliancy at 
full aperture are quite equal to 
those of the most perfectly cor- 
rected modern anastigmats. 

AMERICAN AGENTS 

QEORaE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 East fth St. New York, N. Y. 




^j6c Ross 

"-CABINET-" 

Portrait Lens 



ia somewhat different from the ordi- 
nary portrait letia* In addition to 
its F'4 aperture, which Is often wanted 
when dull days, refit less children, and 
the like make speed necessary, it is 
so constructed as to give as flat a field 
as is consistent with good tnarginal 
definition. Tliese qualities enable 
one to secure that atmosphere and 
plastic TtKxleling so all important 
in the best portrait work. A portrait 
is not pleasing when the figure has 
the appearance of being cut out and 
pasted against the back^ound. The 
sitters hould appear as if surrounded 
by au envelope of air. That, and 
the modeling tliat gives roundness, 
is associated with the Ross Cabinet 
Lens b J many of the best workers in 
London, Paris and New Vork. You 
have seen a few portraits that were 
almost stereoscopic in their soft yet 
plastic mo<leling. Von can imagine 
the ** bloom '* in the negatives from 
which they were prititecL Just try a 
ROSS CABINET RORTRAIT L£NS 
and get the same ^ne ' 'plastic" effect. 

No, 3—12 Inches focus * ^ |133.00 
No, 3 A— Hi inches focus - 189.00 

Write us if yon want fnjthpr In- 
formatlnli, or TA<nild lika to 
see sii tuple prints. PitrJmps 
yon woald liko to trir one. 

Send for Complete Catalogue. 

GEORGE MURPHY. Inc. 

57 East 9th St., New York 



J^le 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



Ixxxii 



SX'AP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Every Photographer in the land should know 




Send for a print 



WILLIS & CLEMENTS, Philadelphia 






HIGGINS' 
PHOTO 
MOUNTER 



Haye an excellence peculUrly their 
own. The best results are only 
produced by the best methods and 
means — ^the best results in Photo- 
graph, Poster and other mounting 
can only be attained by using the 
best mounting paste— 

HIQQIN8' PHOTO MOUNTER 

CExoellent noTel brush with each jarO 



At Dealers in Photo Snpplioa, 
ArtUto' Materials ond StattOMsy. 



A 8-oK. Jar prepaid by mail for SS Mali. 
or oircolars free from 

CHAS. M. HIQQINS & C0.« Mfrt. 

NEW YORK CHICAQO LOBIOOII 



Main Office, 271 Ninth Street ) Brooklyn. N. ¥• 
Factory, 340-344 Eighth dtreetf U. S. A. 



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When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEM F.XTS 



ci 



B«D= 



ID«« 



Cirkut Cameras 





^\\t Cirkut is a certain means of 
securing more business. Cirkut pict- 
ures are easy to make and easy to sell. 



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Cll 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVKRTISEMEXTS 



\ 




For School And Summer Work. 
Ask Your Dealer, Or Write For 
Samples And Information To 

A. M. COLLINS MFG. CO. 

230 Columbia Avenue Philadelphia 



Every Photographer in the land should know 




Send for a print 



I 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



cm 



ROYAL. ORTHO Ea>n-.ARGING UBNS 

In construction this lens is a combination of our 
Eagle Enlarging Lens and our Royal Ray Filter; 
a combination which cannot be made with the two 
separately, as it would be impossible to slip both of 
them on the regular lens at the same time. 

Slipped on over the regular lens it enlarges the 
ima^e, and at the same time corrects it orthochro- 
matically. It is a well-known fact that in ordinary 
photography the yellows appear too dark, while the 
blues are too light, and every color is more or less 
modified, according to its position in the spectrum. 
The Royal Ortno Enlarging Lens corrects this 
defect automatically. With it a faded photograph 
may be copied or enlarged, and reproduced in bright, clear tones. 

Oil paintings, water colors, and other colored pictures may be copied with absolute 
fidelity. A small flower, or a natural history specimen, may be photographed full size or 
larger with every delicate tint showing its true light value, and its proper contrast with 
the neighboring colors. 

RoyflLl Ortho Enlarging Lenses are made in fourteen sizes, each furnished in a hand- 
some case, packed in a cardboard box, with full instructions for use. 




PRICES 



No. 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 


10 
11 
12 
13 



Diameter Inches. 


For Cameras. 


A 


F. P. K. 


4x5 


lVi« 


5x7 


For Box Cameras 




1V,« 


4x5 


IVi. 


6x7 


1^ 


4x5 


154 


5x7 


l^^ 


arry size 


2!4 


«i «• 


2y, 


«( «4 


m 


(< •• 


8 


«• <« 



Price. 

$1.75 
1.75 
1.75 
1.75 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.50 
3.00 
3.50 
3.75 
4.00 
4.50 



QEORQE MURPHY, Ino , 57 East 9th Street, New York 



EAGLE VIQNETTER 

(Patented) 




In every studio the need is 
felt of a 'simple, yet efficient, 
vignetter, which can be oper- 
ated instantly, noiselessly and 
_ from the rear of the camera 

by the operator without his having to leave his position at the ground glass. In the Eagle 
simplicity has been simplified, and to our patrons we offer a before-the-lens vignetter 
worked entirely from behind the camera and controlled entirely by one handle. The card 
i« removable. SO thiat any varietv of shapes mav be used at the will of the operator. 



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SXAf SI lOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Island View Mount 

Ash Gray, White and Burmese Brown 







• 


^^ 










P?^ 




1^ 






m 


! ' 

i 






^ 


k 


^ 




h. 


4 

i 

■ 


PI 


^ 


i^ 


I 


1 


— ^ 


- 




•ai^^^l 






^t»^ 




L 




^ 


^ 


^^ 


■i 



We have no hesitancy about recommending the Island 
View to those desiring a substantial mounting for strong 
prints. 

It is made of the heaviest stock with straight edges and an 
embossed surface that combines both the linen finish and moire 
silk effect, something entirely unique and distinct from the 
time worn surfaces we are accustomed to find everywhere. 
It has at the same time a conservative, solid simplicity that 
has earned it a lasting popularity. 
Size Per loo 



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SNAP-SHOTS 

A Monthly Magazine for Photographers 



suaacupnoM iatbs poi u. s. amd camaba fbk ysax, $1.00; tiz iiomtbs, 60 csim 

UMGLB COPT, 10 CBMTS. fOUlOM COUMTUBS, $1J6 
PUBUSBID BT TBB SNAP-SHOTS PUBUiHIITO Ca, 67 BAfT MIMTB ITBEBT, MBW TOBX 



Volume 24 



JUNE, 1913 



Number 6 



Statement of the Ownership, Management, Circulation, etc., of Snap-Shots. 
Published Monthly at New York, N. Y. Required by the Act of August 24, 1912. 
Editor, Managing Editor, Business Manager, Percy Y. Howe, 422 Park Hill 
Avenue, Yonkers, New York. 

Publisher, Snap-Shots Publishing Company, 57 East Ninth Street, New York. 
Owner, George Murphy, 57 East Ninth Street, New York. 
Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders, holding 1 per 
cent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities. None. 

PERCY Y. HOWE, Editor. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 27th day of March, 1913. 
WARREN W. SIGLER, 

Notary Public, Queens County. 

Certificate filed in N. Y. County, No. 41, N. Y. Register No. 5234. 
(My commission expires March 30, 1915.) 



INSBRTING OR REPLACING FIGURES IN 

GROUPS 



It is frequently necessary to add 
a figure to a group, in consequence 
of the absence, from death or other 
reason, of the person to be depict- 



process in which the copies are to 
be printed, and the number re- 
quired. In some cases it may be 
possible, where it is known before- 



^A ¥\y^ 



■»n oKoianf 



-i*»mK/»f 



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SNAP SHOTS 



June. 1913 



act his part, leaving only the head 
to be altered. To give an example 
I may instance a family group 
taken after a wedding group had 
been made. The bride's father was 
absent through illness, and before 
he could possibly sit for a portrait 
some of the other members of the 
family had to return to Canada, 
making a complete group impossi- 
ble. The difficulty was got over by 
inducing one of the guests who was 
about the same size as the missing 
parent to sit in the position which 
the latter should have occupied. 
Blocking out the one head and 
printing in the other was an easy 
matter, the result being entirely 
satisfactory. 

THE MISSING FIGURE AS A PORTRAIT 

In the case of a portrait of a 
deceased friend or relative being in- 
cluded, it is, as a rule, better to 
insert it in the form of a picture on 
the wall or upon an easel, especially 
if the portrait is an old one and 
the other members of the group 
have naturally aged in the mean- 
while. The well-known group of 
Queen Victoria with her family, in 
which Prince Albert's portrait is 
shown as hanging on the wall, is a 
good precedent for this style, and 
it is none the less acceptable to 
the photographer from the fact that 
it is the easiest of all ways of ex- 
ecuting the work. There is also 
the possibility of securing an order 



THE PAINT-OUT PROCESS — FOR A 
PRINT OR TWO 

If only one or two copies are 
required it is best to adopt ttie well- 
known plan of double printing, us- 
ing P. O. P. or albumenized pa- 
per. The first step is to make a 
negative exactly the size required 
from the original picture, reversing 
it if necessary so that it is lighted 
from the same side as the group, 
then carefully to block out the 
background, in order that it may 
fit accurately between the other fig- 
ures. A mask for the bust should 
be made by printing a P. O. P. 
proof of part of the group, cutting 
it out to the outline of the other 
people's shoulders and fixing it 
upon the copy negative. The head 
should be blocked round with 
opaque. We can now proceed to 
print, placing the single head first 
as nearly as possible in the correct 
position upon the full-sized piece of 
paper, which should be large 
enough to allow a little latitude in 
this respect. When printed, the 
figure should be painted over with 
gamboge water color used as dry as 
it will leave the brush, and thick 
enough to prevent any light from 
penetrating. If the head is fairly 
large, only the margin need be 
blocked and the centre may be cov- 
ered with a piece of opaque paper. 
This saves time and color and 
avoids cockling the sensitive paper. 



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June, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



103 



the other figures, and the printing 
done as usual. The gamboge is 
removed during the preliminary 
washing before toning by gently 
rubbing with a tuft of cotton wool, 
and toning and fixing proceeded 
with. If the blocking-out has been 
carefully done, little spotting round 
the inserted figure will be necessary. 

FOR LARGER NUMBERS OF COMPOSITE 
PRINTS 

When any considerable number 
of prints is required this combina- 
tion printing is too slow and trou- 
blesome, and further, it cannot be 
practised if copies are required in 
platinotype, carbon or bromide. It 
is, therefore, necessary to effect the 
combination in the negative so that 
only straightforward printing has 
to be done. There are two ways of 
going to work, one being the actual 
transplanting of the required figure 
from its own negative to the group 
negative, and the other simply mak- 
ing prints from the two negatives, 
cutting out the required figures 
from the one, and, after pasting 
them upon the other, making a 
fresh negative from the print. The 
first method is more difficult, but it 
is undoubtedly better than the sec- 
ond because the greater part of the 
picture is printed from an original 
negative, which will always yield a 
better proof than a copy, provided 
that the negative is a good one to 
start with. 

GRAFTING NEGATIVES 

I have found that the best way to 
graft one portion of a negative 



upon another is to take a P. O. P. 
print from the negative of the sin- 
gle figure, and without toning or 
fixing, to cut out the figure very 
carefully. I then fix this in its 
correct position upon the group 
negative, using rubber solution as 
the adhesive, and carefully trace 
round it with a sharp needle, so as 
to make a distinct mark upon the 
film. After removing the print I 
carefully scrape away the film in- 
side the line until the glass is per- 
fectly clean (a bit of moistened 
wood cut chisel-wise is very use- 
ful for rubbing oflF small bits of 
film). The next step is carefully to 
cut round the portion of the figure 
negative so that there is a clean line 
right through to the glass. The 
negative is then placed upon a level- 
ling stand and covered with a 
stripping solution composed of a 
five per cent solution of alvun, to 
one ounce of which a few drops of 
hydrofluoric acid have been added. 
In a few minutes it will be found 
that the film will begin to loosen, 
and it will be advisable first to re- 
move that portion which is not re- 
quired and to throw it away. Then 
transfer the plate to a celluloid or 
ebonite dish of clear water, and 
float off the figure. If it does not 
come quite readily it may be coaxed 
with a soft camel hair mop. It 
should then be washed in one or 
two changes of water, one of which 
may be rendered alkaline with a 
few drops of soda solution, finish- 
ing with plain water. Meanwhile 



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SNAP SHOTS 



June, 1913 



the group negative should be soak- 
ing in a dish of water to which the 
loose bit of film must be trans- 
ferred, lifting it upon a piece of 
glass. It should then be floated into 
position and smoothed down with 
the camel-hair brush. It will most 
likely be found that the figure has 
expanded, and is too large for the 
allotted space. It is, however, quite 
easy to shrink it till it fits exactly 
by gently mopping it with methylat- 
ed spirit mixed with a little water. 
If the spirit is used "neat" it will 
shrink the gelatine too much ; if so, 
use spirit containing more water 
till it expands again. When a per- 
fect join has been made, the com- 
bined negative should be blotted off 
with clean smooth tissue paper, 
which is better than all the special 
"photographic'' blotting papers, and 
set aside to dry. This appears a 
somewhat tedious process, but in 
practice it occupies only a short 
time, and there is the satisfaction 
of knowing that the job is done 
with for all time. 

HYDROFLUORIC ACID 

It must be borne in mind that 
hydrofluoric acid dissolves glass, so 
that it must be kept in a gutta 
percha bottle, and that glass or 
porcelain dishes or measures must 
not be used. The little paper cups 
in which cream is sold answer well 
for mixing the solution in. I have 



rosive and will bum the flesh if 
used carelessly. 

THE PASTE-DOWN PRINT METHOD 

The pasting-on method is easiest 
of all, but has the disadvantage that 
the result is always a "copy.*' Nev- 
ertheless it has its good points, and 
is especially useful for press work, 
as a considerable amount of hand 
work can be put upon the combined 
print before making the final n^;a- 
tive. Glossy bromide I have foimd 
to be the best for the purpose, as 
it always copies just as it appears 
to the eye, and there is not the 
chance of the different portions 
copying to different depths, as 
sometimes happens when P. O. P., 
or a mixture of P. O. P. and bro- 
mide paper, is used. The large print 
should be mounted upon a some- 
what spongy card, and the applied 
figures should be cut out with scis- 
sors and not with the knife, as the 
latter tends to give a square edge, 
while the scissors compress the 
edges and make them catch less 
light. Ordinary flour paste, or the 
commercial dextrine mountants are 
good for fixing. They should not 
be too wet, and rubbed on with the 
finger in preference to using a 
brush, thus ensuring a thin smooth 
coating which will not ooze out. If 
possible the print should be rolled 
or pressed in a printer's hydraulic 
press. This will have the effect of 



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June, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



105 



PHOTOGRAPHING SMALL ARTICLES FOR 
CATALOGUES AND ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES 

By ** Practicus" 



A glance through the catalogues 
of any of our great stores will 
show how completely pure photog- 
raphy — if we may so call the half- 
tone process — has ousted hand- 
drawn work for the purposes of il- 
lustration. This class of work has 
tended to drift away from the 
ordinary photographer, much to his 
loss, and I am inclined to think that 
a loss of quality may be attributed 
to the same cause, as it can hardly 
be expected that an operator whose 
daily practice is mainly confined to 
copying from the flat will have the 
same feeling for light and shade as 
a man who is skilled in studio por- 
traiture. The three essentials to 
successful working are correct 
drawing or pleasing perspective, ap- 
proximately correct color-render- 
ing, and appropriate illumination. 

THE LENS — OF LONG FOCUS. 

Regarding the first of these fac- 
tors, I have often remarked the 
absolutely false impression pro- 
duced by using a short focus lens, 
which is most noticeable in rectan- 
gular subjects such as boxes, and 
more particularly when these are 
photographed with the lid open. 
For an example of this I would 
recommend the student to make a 



box placed to show the front and 
one side, using for the purpose a 
lens of seven or eight inches focal 
length ; then to make another nega- 
tive with the longest focus lens that 
the camera will accommodate, and 
to compare the two results. Nor is 
it only in subjects containing 
straight lines that bad perspective is 
objectionable. Such articles as 
bracelets, hair brushes and scent 
bottles show it in a general ungrace- 
fulness of outline. I would there- 
fore recommend that no lens be em- 
ployed which does not permit of a 
distance of three feet between 
camera and object when photo- 
graphing in natural size. If the 
photographer possess a telephoto 
lens, it may be employed for this 
class of work, especially when small 
objects have to be taken. 

many subjects beyond the 
"ordinary'' plate. 

Color-rendering is of the greatest 
importance, and here the everyday 
photographer usually fails griev- 
ously, rarely using a color-sensitive 
plate, and practically never in con- 
junction with a properly adjusted 
light-filter. Now, there are many 
objects possessing no pronounced 
color contrasts which cannot be 



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SNAP SHOTS 



June, 1913 



small articles — clocks, stationery 
cases, etc., made of "Chippendale" 
mahogany, and also dark brown 
and green leather purses, pocket- 
books and card cases. On an or- 
dinary plate tliese only yield an im- 
pression of the surface shine with 
no value of the real color of the 
material. For example, a dark 
brown crocodile purse will give no 
more detail than it would if it were 
absolutely black. Panchromatic 
plates, although more costly, are 
greatly to be preferred, even to the 
green and yellow-sensitive variety 
known as *'orthochromatic," and it 
is essential that a selection of color 
screens of various densities should 
be at hand so that one appropriate 
to the subject may be used. In 
many cases the red filter of a tri- 
chromatic set may be used with ad- 
vantage. Of the old brownish-yel- 
low "screens," the most that can be 
said in their favor is that they are 
better than nothing, but their cor- 
recting effect is very small com- 
pared with the increase of exposure 
which they necessitate. 

ARRANGING THE SUBJECTS. 

The arrangement or grouping of 
articles for catalogue illustration 
calls for some skill; the photogra- 
pher must study and profit by the 
methods of the window-dresser, and 
it is always advisable to secure the 
help of the owner of the articles, 
who will indicate to which the 
greatest prominence should be 
given, and also any special features 
of design or texture which have 



to be emphasized. Small wire 
stands or easels, such as are used 
for supporting price tickets and 
small portraits in the window, are 
often very useful for holding such 
things as purses and card cases, 
while the small wire drawer parti- 
tions which terminate in a screw 
make handy little shelves to screw 
into the background. In many cases 
the manufacturers of fancy articles 
have special fittings for the display 
of their goods, and they are usually 
willing to lend these if requested. 
For many articles the so-called 
''shadowless" photography is the 
only satisfactory method, and once 
the needful apparatus has been ar- 
ranged a large number of negatives 
can be made quickly. For this the 
camera must be arranged so as to 
point downwards, and the articles 
arranged upon a horizontal sheet 
of glass beneath, which at a suit- 
able distance and angle is a sheet of 
card or paper, light, dark, or me- 
dium, according to the effect de- 
sired. A very convenient way of 
working, which, however, gives a 
reversed negative, is to employ the 
camera in its usual position, and to 
fix a prism or mirror on the lens. 
This allows of focusing being done 
while standing in the usual position, 
the glass plate being supported be- 
tween two boxes or chair seats. If 
much work has to be done, it is bet- 
ter to have a special stand con- 
structed. I have found the model 
designed by the late T. C, Hep- 
worth quite excellent. It consists 



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107 



of two strong triangles of wood 
with sides about twenty-four inches 
in length, one forming the base and 
the other the top, united by stout 
pieces of quartering for legs, be- 
tween these a square frame resem- 
bling a picture frame fitted with a 
sheet of glass slides up and down, 
capable of being clamped at any 
height. The top triangle is perfo- 
rated with a hole about 8 inches 
square, and the camera is supported 
in any convenient way above it. A 
useful variation of this idea is to 
make a strong frame with a car- 
riage to hold the camera exactly as 
for copying prints, but instead of 
the copying board the glazed frame 
is substituted, efficient clamping ar- 
rangements being provided. This 
may be used at any angle from hori- 
zontal to vertical, and also for ordi- 
nary copying and enlarging. It is 
essential that it be strongly made, or 
the result will probably be disas- 
trous. With some subjects the 
glass-plate idea may be carried out 
with the plate in a nearly vertical 
position. I have photographed a 
series of shells by hanging them in 
iront of a glass plate by means of 
fine cotton which was chosen to 
match the color of the background. 
If the plate is at angle of sixty de- 
grees many small objects can be 
fixed upon it by means of the rub- 



DEALING WITH GLITTERING 
SUBJECTS. 

All sorts of dodges have been 
given for photographing polished 
articles, but as a rule all sophistica- 
tion of the object itself should be 
avoided. Frosting with putty, whit- 
ening and the like destroys the ef- 
fect of the polished portions, and 
it is better to rely on careful light- 
ing. A few cards covered with dark 
material to cut off reflections, and 
a sheet or two of tissue paper are 
all that is needed to secure a good 
result. 1 have photographed thou- 
sands of bright articles, and have 
always been sorry when I have at- 
tempted to "prepare" them for 
photography. Dark and dull ob- 
jects require quite different treat- 
ment, many being best photo- 
graphed in full sunshine or by the 
unscreened arc light. In winter, if 
the arc is not available, a few inches 
of magnesium ribbon will often 
give an amount of vigor unobtain- 
able by weak, diffused daylight. A 
group of, say, three good inverted 
gas lights answers well for copying 
small articles, especially if ortho- 
chromatic plates be used. 

AN AID TO PHOTOGRAPHING TO 
SCALE. 

It is frequently necessary to pho- 
tograph to scale ; that is to say, that 



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measure accurately. To save time 
I have scaled the camera for use 
with the lens most generally em- 
ployed by the following simple 
method: A piece of newspaper is 
carefully cut out and pasted upon 
a dark mount. It should be ex- 
actly six inches long after mount- 
ing, and any convenient width. A 
series of slips of card should hi: 
provided, their lengths being in pro- 
portion to the reductions required: 
4, 2, 41^, 3, iy2, and ^ inches will 
give a range of ^, J^, ^, >4, J4, 
and ys scale. The printed card 
must now be focused, and its image 
made to correspond in length 
with each of the card gauges in suc- 
cession, marking the position of the 
camera front or back, as the case 
may be, for each size upon the 
baseboard, or upon a lath of wood, 
which can be placed in some con- 
venient position between the cam- 
era back and front. Now all that 
has to be done, if it is desired to 
photograph, say, a vase to half- 
scale, is to extend the camera to the 
point marked yi in the scale, and to 
focus by sliding the camera to and 
from the object. In the case of a 
studio camera it will often be found 
more convenient to move the object. 
On no account must the length 
of the camera be altered. It 
should always be clearly under- 
stood whether a photograph is to be 
made to size or to scale. Ftill siVp 



to 3 inches, that is half -scale, but it 
is only quarter-size. 

BACKGROUNDS. 

If the photographs are required 
for reproduction — and this is gen- 
erally the case — a good effect may 
be obtained and much time saved in 
arrangement, finding suitable back- 
grounds, etc., by making up com- 
posite sheets or pages by cutting 
out the separate prints and pasting 
them upon a suitably tinted paper, 
putting in a soft cast shadow to 
each with the air-brush or with the 
crayon and stump. Pale green or 
light French gray cards come out 
well in the subsequent reproduction. 

Nothing is better for back- 
grounds than stout paper, and I 
have found the "nature" paper as 
used for mounts very suitable, 
every depth of tint being readily 
obtained. The large sheets (28x26 
inches) will serve as continuous 
backgrounds and foreground if 
fastened with two drawing pins at 
the top about fifteen inches from 
the table, and the lower part bent 
into a curve and fastened to the 
table by two more pins at the ex- 
treme front corners. It is very 
necessary to fasten the bottom cor- 
ners, as a sudden draught may 
cause the paper to lift and upset 
whatever may be upon it. I have 
used this arrangement very suc- 



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BACKED PLATES. 

It need hardly be said that abso- 
lute sharpness is essential, and that 
it is always advisable to use a fo- 
cusing magnifier. When using 
telephoto lenses it will often be 
found necessary to use quite a small 
aperture, and in order to secure 
contrast the subject must be strong- 
ly lighted. Backed plates are al- 
most indispensable, especially with 
china, silverware, and other pol- 
ished goods. Not only is the blur- 
ring of the outlines prevented, but 
the detail m the high-lights is pre- 
served. It is not necessary to buy 
ready backed plates for home use. 
If a pot of backing color is kept 



ready to hand it may be smeared on 
after the plate is in the dark-slide, 
a piece of brown paper being placed 
behind it to keep the spring of the 
partition from touching it. 

Exposures should, as a rule, be 
full, and it is well to remember that 
the values of the diaphragm aper- 
tures alter enormously when work- 
ing at close quarters. When work- 
ing to full size //8 practically be- 
comes //1 6, and requires a corre- 
sponding increase of lime. Over- 
development must be avoided, a 
soft, bright negative which will 
give a good print on glossy bromide 
or gaslight being required for the 
process man. — British Journal of 
Photography, 



THE THINGS THAT MATTER'' 

By the Autotype Company 



Editor's Note: — Readers of that 
excellent evening news paper The 
Pall Mall Gazette will be familiar 
with the above title. 

To the non-readers we would ex- 
plain that under this heading the 
well-known novelist, Filson Young, 
has for some time past been writ- 
ing a series of clever paragraphs 
devoted to current occurrences of 
general interest. His comments are 
penned in a forcible commonsense 
style and illumine the subjects with 
which he deals. 



Our remarks are reprinted from 
the British Journal of Photography, 
January 10, 17, 24 and 31, 1913. 

In every calling of life, profes- 
sional, commercial, or be what it 
may, there are usually things of 
paramount importance, the observ- 
ance or neglect of which make just 
the difference between success and 
failure. 

The professional singer depends 
not only on his past laborious train- 
ing and the later successful achieve- 
ment. By constant practice the 



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June. 1913 



The wholesale manufacturer, in 
addition to possessing first-class 
modem machinery and a reputation 
for producing the finest articles, is 
constantly studying the markets in 
order to take advantage of the new- 
est and best raw materials and to 
purchase at the closest prices. 
These things matter to him. 

The professional photographer 
relies not only on his attractive, 
well-appointed studio and up-to- 
date apparatus. He studies the 
materials employed in his craft, and 
these, perhaps more than anything 
else, are the things which most 
matter to him. 

His plates must be of some first- 
rate brand, in order that he may 
achieve the finest technical results 
with his negatives, but most im- 
portant of all is the question of 
printing paper. It is a fact that the 
prints sent out claim the final ver- 
dict of a photographer's work. By 
these results he is judged. 

In large studios the annual pa- 
per bill is one of the most impor- 
tant items of expenditure, and the 
careful photographer gives it his 
closest consideration, and sees that 
he gets proper value for money. 

By common consent it is ad- 
mitted that the artistic taste of 
the general public has grown enor- 
mously during the past twenty-five 
years. A fastidious clientele is no 
longer content with the highly 
glazed cartes and cabinets in vogue 
in the days of our fathers, but now 
demands photographs possessing 



**breadth of eflfect," variety of color, 
rough surfaces, etc., etc., which 
would have puzzled the earlier gen- 
erations of photographers to pro- 
duce. 

The Autotype Carbon Process 
places at the disposal of the modem 
photographer wider means of 
gratifying these artistic aspirations 
than any other existing printing 
method. 

No matter how difficult the prob- 
lem. Autotype Carbon can, as a 
rule, be of the greatest service in 
solving it. 

Autotype Carbon Tissues are 
manufactured in upwards of thirty- 
six distinct color varieties. These, 
with the immense range of transfer 
papers available, make it possible to 
ring an almost indefinite number of 
changes in tone and surface effect. 

Autotype Carbon is by far the 
CHEAPEST practical PERMA- 
NENT printing process in exist- 
ence, and photographers study- 
ing economy as well as the many 
other advantages offered by the 
process would be wise to very care- 
fully examine the question of rela- 
tive cost. A saving of some 50 per 
cent on the paper bill is surely one 
of those things that matter. 

An important feature in a mod- 
ern progressive photographer's 
business is, or should be, the sup- 
plying of enlarged portraits to his 
sitters and their connections. 

When once a pleasing portrait 
and good likeness is accomplished, 
it is not, as a rule, difficult to intro- 



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June, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



III 



duce an enlarged version which 
possesses an altogether special 
value and application. 

There are so many occasions and 
events when good enlargements 
are acceptable and invaluable. In 
every town and village there are 
public personages of greater or 
minor importance whose portraits 
are required to figure in prominent 
positions: the mayor, the sheriff, 
the town councillors, are instances. 

There may also be presentations 
to the local clergy, squire, doctor, 
etc., when enlarged portraits would 
be appropriate and welcome. What 
more suitable family gifts than 
nicely framed enlarged portraits of 
parents and children — for birthday 
celebrations, wedding gifts, and 
those numerous occasions of family 
festivals and rejoicing? Instances 
will occur to all, and might be mul- 
tiplied almost indefinitely. These 
are things that matter. 

The Autotype Company make a 
specialty of the highest class per- 
manent Autotype Carbon enlarge- 
ments, and have a unique experi- 
ence in their production dating back 
upwards of forty years. All work 
is produced in permanent Autotype 
Carbon tissues, and by a suitable 
combination of tissue and support 
an immense range of harmonious, 
artistic results can be achieved. A 
head and bust enlargement of a 
child printed in delicate red chalk 
on fine white drawing paper has a 
charm almost impossible to de- 
scribe. A lady's portrait may be 



printed in Sepia on toned rough pa- 
per with plate mark and margin. 
A fine profile picture of a bearded 
man looks well produced in ivory 
black on Whatman paper. Suitably 
framed, the effect is magnificent. 

In Autotype Carbon no chemical 
toning takes place. The "Red 
Chalk,^' "Sepia" and "Ivory Black'' 
referred to are permanent pigments 
combined with gelatine and made 
insoluble in the process of develop- 
ment. 

The results are absolutely dura- 
ble. No fading or discoloration, 
as with prints, in which the colors 
depend on chemical toning with 
fugitive metallic salts. 

We still possess Autotype Car- 
bon prints made in the year 1876, 
and imitating the tone of the purple 
brown silver prints then in vogue. 
Our copies are as fresh as on the 
day produced. Over the fate of 
the contemporary silver prints it is 
better, perhaps, to draw a veil. It 
matters to you whether your work 
is fugitive or permanent. 

Our recent observations in the 
columns of the British Journal 
have dealt entirely with the things 
that matter to other people and to 
professional photographers in par- 
ticular. On the present occasion 
we propose to vary the theme, and 
deal with the things that matter to 
ourselves. 

One of the most important con- 
siderations in a business of the 
magnitude of Autotype, with heavy 
permanent standing charges big 



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June, 1913 



wages bill, and other regular out- 
goings, is to maintain the highest 
quality of production, keep together 
the clientele of many years' stand- 
ing, and secure new friends. 

We have been established over 
forty years. Most of our earliest 
clients have passed away or retired, 
but the newer generation has been 
loyal, and we have the good fortune 
to number amongst our closest 
friends the descendants of those to 
whom in those far-off days the firm 
first introduced the Autotype Car- 
bon process. 

Our aim has always been to offer 
our friends nothing but the best, 
and the fact that during the past 
thirty-eight years Autotype produc- 
tions have received distinctions at 
almost as many exhibitions speaks 
for itself of excellence maintained 
and progress achieved. Grand 
Prix, gold and silver medals, diplo- 
mas, etc., at about the rate of one 
a year, has been the steady average 
all along. 

We claim to be the largest house 
in this country, and probably in any 
other, devoted exclusively to per- 
manent photographic processes. We 
started with this object in view, and 
have never swerved from it. Our 
plant embraces cameras, dark 
rooms, enlars^ins^ and develoDins^ 



ent of daylight during the dark 
months of winter. 

With us carbon tissues, transfer 
papers, and supports are manufac- 
tured by the mile, in steam-heated 
drying rooms, enabling an immense 
output to be dealt with rapidly. Of 
our staff we cannot speak too high- 
ly. Some of the older hands, now 
passing middle age, entered our em- 
ployment as lads, and their sons, 
many of them, are "following in 
father's footsteps," to quote a well- 
known ballad of the "Halls"; and 
new hands are recruited on the ap- 
prenticeship plan. 

All these things matter — a well- 
equipped factory, a highly skilled 
staff, and a contented and increas- 
ing clientele. These are matters we 
study, and to which we devote our 
constant attention. 



Titling Negatives 

With a small tuft of cotton mois- 
tened in negative varnish, varnish 
a strip on the back of the negative 
where you want the title to ap- 
pear on the print. You will find 
that it is not at all diflScult to write 
or print on the varnished place- 
no need to reverse. I use Diamond 
lettering ink, thinning with water 
until it flows easilv. 



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June, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



"3 



PHOTOGRAPHERS' ASSOCIATION OP AMERICA 

33d Annual Convention, Kansas City, Mo., July 21-28, 19x3 



Snap Shots, 

New York, N. Y. 

Gentlemen — We want this entire 
country to be on fire with news of 
the coming convention, and to this 
end a circular will be sent out about 
the 1st of June containing portraits 
of the splendid talent that has been 
secured to operate the working 
studio which will be in operation on 
the convention floor July 21st to 
26th inclusive. Every photographer 
will look forward with interest to 
the arrival of this announcement. 

This circular will contain a gen- 
eral idea of what may be expected, 
including portraits of the heads of 
the various departments of the stu- 
dio, as well as the actors that will ap- 
pear on the program. Or, in other 
words, and perhaps more properly 
stated, the portraits of the employ- 
ees from the receptionists down to 
the porter. Geo. G. Holloway, man- 
ager of the operating and finishing 
departments, has secured twelve of 
the leading lights of this country to 
give practical demonstrations of the 
proper way of handling subjects 
under the sky light. Five hundred 
can be comfortably seated in this 
operating room, where every move- 
ment of the operator can be care- 
fully noted. Here is an opportunity 
to see how these people can handle, 
not altogether the beautiful models 
usually exhibited at photographic 
conventions, but instead arrange- 



ments are being made to provide 
difficult subjects, such as the every- 
day photographer is obliged to han- 
dle in the daily routine of his 
business. 

Miss Katherine Jamieson, presi- 
dent of the Woman's Federation, 
has selected five or six receptionists 
of national reputation. In this de- 
partment Daddy Lively, so well 
known to the photographic profes- 
sion all over the world, will be the 
main attraction, and will give his 
personal attention to introduce and 
acconmiodate visiting photogra- 
phers. Any questions relative to re- 
ception room methods will be 
cheerfully answered. 

Frank W. Medlar, head of the 
printing department, reports prog- 
ress, and is securing talent in that 
particular line which will be a real 
treat to the employee who wishes 
to perfect his knowledge in devel- 
oping papers, as well as masking 
and printing stunts. No retoucher 
can aflford to miss the demonstra- 
tion of the eminent specialist who 
has been selected to demonstrate 
background work by use of the 
belloptican or projecting lantern. 

Your readers will doubtless look 
forward to June 1st as the time set 
for the first big circular, which will 
contain not only the above-men- 
tioned features but half-tones of 
the convention hall; a photograph 
of the street front, with magnificent 



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June, 1913 



studio entrance, as well as a list of 
every actor who will appear in the 
studio, together with announce- 
ments concerning the general ex- 
hibit; a list of the Manufacturers' 
Congress, and dealers who will ex- 
hibit ; news concerning the Associa- 
tion record; as well as an interest- 
ing article from the treasurer, with 
instructions concerning dues, etc. 
This will be followed shortly after 
by a complete program. 

We desire to have your readers 
understand that greater prepara- 



tions are being made this year than 
ever before to make the Kansas 
City Convention most interesting 
not only from an educational stand- 
point, but the social features in 
the hands of the Kansas City local 
committee will excel all previous 
efforts. Prepare now to attend, 
and allow nothing to interfere, as 
no one can afford to miss it. Very 
truly yours, 

Chas. F. Townsend, 
Pers. P. A. of A. 



INTENSIFYING SOLUTION 



Intensification, With correct ex- 
posure and development, intensifi- 
cation need never be resorted to. 
The following formula is, how- 
ever, very effective, and the most 
permanent of all methods : 

NO. 1 
16 grammes Bichlor. 

Mercury 240 grains 

16 grammes Chloride 

Ammonia 240 grains 

600 c.c.m. Distilled 

Water 20 ounces 

NO. 2 

16 grammes Chloride 



perfect elimination of the hypo. 
The least trace of yellowness after 
intensifying shows that the wash- 
ing was not sufficient; then im- 
merse negative in about Xo. 1 solu- 
tion, observing that the longer it 
remains in the solution, the greater 
will be the final density. Wash 
well, and flow over for a few sec- 
onds the solution of Ammonium 
Chloride No. 2. Wash after this 
application, and immerse in dilute 
Ammonia water 1 dram strong 
Ammonia, in 8 oz. water until the 
white image is darkened through 



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MAKING SOFT VIGNETTES 



115 



The photographer who aims at 
the production of really well vign- 
etted prints will soon learn that 
not only knowledge but consider- 
able amount of practice is neces- 
sary, for so many apparently un- 
important points have to be borne 
in mind in order to avoid failure. 
Even the old hand who has done 
no vignetting for a few months will 
find that he cannot do his best on 
the first day he resumes this work. 
At first sight it seems a very sim- 
ple thing to cut a hole in a card 
and fix it over a negative — which 
is all that it is really necessary to 
do in the majority of cases — and 
yet how seldom is it done in just 
the right way. 

Various special vignetting frames 
have been invented and sold from 
time to time, but one may visit 
many establishments before one is 
found in use. The majority of 
printers prefer to fit up their ordi- 
T\ary printing frames for the pur- 
pose. As the distance between the 
face of the frame and the surface 
of the negative is usually too short 
to enable a soft vignette to be ob- 
tained, the first step to be taken is to 
get some slips of soft wood which 
can be nailed onto the front of the 
frame to raise the vignette card to 
a sufficient height. This will vary 
with different sizes and classes of 
negative, the vignette spreading 



an inch to an inch will be found a 
good average. The slips of wood 
may either be nailed on all around 
the frame, or they may be laid on 
ancf held in position by the card 
and a couple of elastic bands. It 
is, as a rule, better to nail them on. 
Soft wood is recommended, so that 
the drawing pins or tacks used to 
keep the card in place can be in- 
serted and removed without diffi- 
culty — a necessary precaution, as 
the vignetter may require adjust- 
ment when a print is half done, and 
the use of a hammer would prob- 
ably cause it to shift. 

Many patterns of vignetter are 
used, varying in simplicity from 
the old mount with a suitable aper- 
ture to the elaborate serrated ar- 
rangements sandwiched between 
glass; but probably the simpler the 
appliance the better. The best way 
to cut a vignette is to sketch out as 
nearly as possible the general out- 
line of the portion to be vignetted. 
If an ordinary bust portrait, little 
should be left over the shoulders 
unless the background is very 
dense. The opening is cut by fol- 
lowing the line with a pointed knife, 
and the margin cut into saw-teeth 
with a small pair of scissors. 

The negative is put into the 
frame and the card adjusted in 
place and nailed down. In the case 
of a dark coat or bodice, it is ad- 



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June, 1913 



creeping too far down. The wool 
must, of course, be pulled out with 
a pen or the point of a penknife 
so as to make a soft edge. If the 
background is at all dark, cotton- 
wool may be used all round the fig- 
ure with advantage, and may be 
pulled out until it nearly fits the 
outline. 

It is advisable to print upon a 
flat table, and, of course, in the 
shade, turning the frame round two 
or three times. It is very neces- 
sary to watch the printing of each 
print : it will not do to consider that 
because one frame is going all right 
a dozen others similarly treated are 
doing equally well. If there is any 
sign of the print being lopsided, a 
piece of paper should be placed 
partly across the opening until the 
light side has caught up. Care 
must be taken not to expose the 
print to a strong light when ex- 
amining it, or a tinted margin will 
result. 

I have so far assumed that some 
form of printing-out paper is in 
use, and the beginner will do well 
to acquire some proficiency with 
this material before proceeding 
with platinum, carbon or bromide, 
it being (with these processes) im- 
possible to judge as to the success 



made by a naked light, the printing 
frame must be kept moving all the 
time, so that a soft edge is obtained. 
This is best effected by moving the 
frame in a small circle, at the same 
time rocking it to and from the 
light. It is, however, desirable to 
have a ground-glass diflFuser be- 
tween the light and the printing 
frame whenever possible. In most 
cases there will then be no neces- 
sity to move the frame while print- 
ing, but care must be taken that 
the light falls quite equally upon 
the opening. In every case a softer 
vignette is obtained by covering the 
opening with tissue or tracing pa- 
per, but as this prolongs the time 
of printing, it is not usually done 
except in the case of thin negatives. 
When a figure has to be vignetted 
out of a group and there are deep 
shadows fairly near, it is a good 
plan to matt-varnish the back of 
the negative, and to work up the 
surrounding portions with black 
lead and stump until fairly even. 
This will save much work on the 
prints. 

VIGNETTES IN CARBON 

These require special care, not 
only in printing but in the sensitiz- 
ing of the tissue and in develop- 
ment. To begin with, anything in 



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SNAP SHOTS 



117 



gas or coal fumes. If the tissue 
is home-sensitized, great care must 
be taken in drying it for the same 
reason. I remember taking over 
a business which was doing quite 
a good business in carbon vignette 
portraits, but all came out of the 
printer's hands with decidedly tint- 
ed margins, which had to be cleaned 
up with piunice powder. This took 
considerable time, and spoiled the 
surface of the print. On drying 
the tissue on ferrotype plates the 
trouble disappeared, and the qual- 
ity of the prints was greatly im- 
proved. The print being made and 
transferred to the temporary sup- 
ports can be considerably modified 
by means of local development, 
either with a jet of hot or cold wa- 
ter or even with a camel-hair mop. 
It is necessary to use the latter with 
great caution, as it is quite easy 
to remove the waxing from the 
temporary support, and to cause 
the transfer paper to stick to the 
temporary support whether it be 
flexible or opal. Even a too long 
application of the hot spray some- 
times has this effect. 

VIGNETTING IN THE CAMERA 

This mode of producing effects 
has always been more popular in 
America than in this country. It 



fixing a white serrated card in front 
of the lens at such a distance that it 
is quite out of focus, and moving 
it until the desired effect is sent 
upon the screen. A universal joint 
fitted to the holder enables it to be 
manipulated from the back of the 
camera. Gardiner's vignetter is a 
tube fitting on the camera front, 
carrying translucent and opaque 
vignette forms, which are to be 
used according to whether ordinary 
or black margin vignettes are re- 
quired. The latter, which are often 
called Russian or Egyptian vign- 
ettes, can also be produced by put- 
ting an ordinary vignette shape in- 
side the camera between the lens 
and plate. Such pictures are now 
often seen on postcards, but were 
formerly issued by first-class 
houses at high prices. Gray vign- 
ettes are produced by taking an 
ordinary vignette and tinting the 
border before fixing. An easy way 
of doing this is to fix a pad of 
cotton-wool upon a clean glass so 
that it covers the figure when the 
print is laid under it. The glass 
is kept in gentle motion till the mar- 
gin is tinted, which only occupies 
a few seconds in a good light. 

Among the commercial appli- 
ances I have found Salmon's vign- 



^^,,1 00 4^V. 



o-tr •allr^tir 



fV. 



f^ xriom- 



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June, 1913 



TRADE NEWS AND NOTES 



The Trox Film Washer is a new, 
cheap and simple device for the rapid 
and thorough washing of photographic 
roll films, without danger of injury 
from handling, rubbing or scratching 
which so frequently spoils valuable 
negatives when washed in the old way 
in a basin of water. 

The Trox Film Washer can be at- 
tached to any faucet in the home or of- 
fice. With one end of the film fastened 
in the washer it is suspended over the 
bath tub or lavatory bowl, the water 
turned on, and without further atten- 
tion the film is washed free of "Hypo" 
in about ten minutes. The rapidity with 
which the "hypo" is eliminated is due 
to the constant flow of fresh water over 
both sides of the film. The film is then 
suspended in an inverted position by a 
clip and the washer prevents curling 
while the film is drying. See advertise- 
ment in this issue. 



Higgius Paste. It sticks every time. 
Ask your dealer. Will not discolor 
your prints or injure them in any way 
as it is prepared especially for photo- 
graphic use. The standard photographic 
paste for many years. 



Titfie and tem/>erature is everything 
in the printing room, especially in the 
winter time, when solutions are usually 
cold and the tendency is to overtime in 
order to get quick development. 

No printing room is complete without 
an accurate thermometer and timer, and 
there is no necessity of being without 
them. The large and plainly marked 
dial of the Elastman Timer is easily read 
in subdued light. The hand traverses 
the dial in one minute. Runs thirty 
hours. 

The Eastman Thermometer is suitable 
for either Plate Tanks or developing 
trays. The figures and degree marks 
are easily read. Inexpensive but ac- 
curate. 



The new papers manufactured by the 
Rochester Photo Works are being re- 
ceived with great favor. 

The Velour Black, a portrait enlarg- 
ing paper made in surfaces; Velvet, 
Matte, Semi-Matte and Rough both in 
single and double weight; also BuflF 
Matte and Buff Rough in double weight 
give beautiful results for both enlarging 
and contact. 

The Velour Black Soft — a distinctly 
different emulsion from the Velour 
Black giving soft effects with strong 
negatives. 

The Velour Gold, another distinct 
emulsion; slower than the Velour Black 
made in Semi-Matte and Rough; also 
in buff producing warm brown tones. 

Brome Black — an enlarging paper, very 
quick, strong contrast, non-abrasion, in 
semi-matte and glossy. 

Special Chloride — a contact paper for 
platinum and commercial nhotography. 

White Laurel— a contact developing 
paper niade in glossy, light matte and 
rough, both single and double weight. 

Black Laurel — a contact paper pro- 
ducing platinum tones, made in Semi- 
Matte, smooth matte, both single and 
double weight. Also buff double weight 
— a beautiful portrait paper. Write to 
the makers for sample of their paper; 
mention Snap Shots. 



Ross Teleceutric Lens. This is a new 
lens made especially for sporting events, 
or life in motion, for long distance, en- 
larged objects and high speed. The 
.American agents advise that these lenses 
are being sold as fast as thev reach them 
from abroad. They are expecting photo- 
graphs showing large cabinet heads and 
half figures made with the Telecentric 
lens at 12 foot distance which opens up 
a new field of usefulness for this lens. 
They also advise that the Ross Company 
have just put on the market the Ross 
Anastigmat Wide Angle Lens, thus of- 
fering the trade a wide angle lens of 
correct value. 



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'*\e, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



119 



■National Convention. We hope you 
^"^ve already made your plans for at- 
tending the National Convention. You 
cannot afford to miss it. Its educational 
features will be unusually attractive. 
We have been telling you for the past 
few months some of the good things ar- 
ranged. More will follow. Let us all 
attend and make the convention the best 
and largest ever. 



Carbon: All interested in Carbon 
should procure a Carbon price-list and 
<^ondensed instructions; also new illus- 
trated circular sheet giving illustrations 
of the various stages of Carbon, from 
the Unexposed tissue to the finished 
print, which is in itself a clear picture 
?^, 5^e progress of the manipulat ion. 
>Vrite the American agents, George 
-^lurphy, Inc., New York. 



The Panama - Pacific International 

Convention invites all photographers of 

^" classes, schools, all supply dealers 

^^^ moving picture makers, to exhibit 

^^ the Universal Exposition to be held 

^u ^^^ Francisco in 1915 to celebrate 

^^ completion and opening of the 

^^nama Canal. Blank applications for 

Space and other ^ information prepared 

^^r the guidance* of exhibitors will be 

^nvarded on request. Write Theodore 

*/ardee, Chief of Liberal Arts, Exhibi- 

'on Building. San Francisco, Cal. 



\Ti 



f^oyal Ortho Enlarger. This is some- 
'^g new in the line of supplementary 
^nses. It is a combination of an en- 
^^Sed lens and a ray filter, a combina- 
tion which cannot be made with the two 
^^Parately. Oil paintings, water colors, 
^1 any colored object may be copied 
^*^H absolute accuracy, and a small 
^>ver, or natural history specimen, may 
r^ Photographed full size in its true 
'Snt value. These lenses are made in 
"^ N^T*iet>' of sizes to fit any lens. See 
•^e advertisement in this issue. 



Autotype Rotary Carbon Tissue. The 
Autotjrpe Company have just added to 
their extensive line of carbon tissues a 
new tissue prepared especially for 
photogravure work by the rotary proc- 
ess. It is being largely used by il- 
lustrated newspapers in their work. The 
new tissue is called "G.4 Rotary." An 
expert in photogravure work recently 
declared it to be superior to anything on 
the market. Write to the American 
agents for further information. 



Do you want to know something 
about "Spots and Pinholes," **Fog," 
"Stains," "Frilling" and a score more of 
such subjects? Just drop a postal to the 
Hammer Dry Plate Co., St. Louis, Mo., 
for a free copy of "Hammer's Little 
Book — a Short Talk on Negative Mak- 
ing." 



Eagle Vignetter. Our advertiser re- 
cently demonstrated to us one of these 
vignetters, and it is certainly one of the 
simplest and easily operated vignetters 
which we have ever seen. It can be 
instantly adjusted to practically any 
position, and taken off and put on the 
camera stand in a moment. It has no 
rods or joints, or any mechanism what- 
ever to get out of order. When not in 
use the vignetters can be placed in a 
perpendicular position out of the way. 



Photographic Mounts. We have just 
received a copy of the new photographic 
mount catalogue of the George Murphy, 
Inc. It is gotten up in a very attractive 
style, on good quality of paper, and 
represents in addition to the standard 
styles and grades several lines which are 
somewhat different from the general 
run, and should be very attractive to 
photographers. This company makes a 
specialty of manufacturing exclusive de- 
signs for photographers. Write them 
for a copy of this new catalogue. 



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SNAP SHOTS 



June, 1913 



STUDIO WANTS 



Galleries for Sale or Rent 

D. F. M., gallery in New York City, 
$3,500. 

F. S. W., on Long Island, $900. 
A. M. C. in New Jersey, $900. 

G. B., gallery in New Jersey, $800. 
A. D. v., gallery in New York, $500. 
Mrs. S., gallery in New York City, $650. 

Parties Desiring Galleries 

Miss F. C, wants gallery in town of 

10,000-15,000. 
J. T. A., wants gallery in N. Y. State. 
T. D., wants gallery in small city. 
A. M., wants to buy or rent within 40 

miles of N. Y. 



Positions Wanted — Operators 
J.T., all-round. 
N. C, all-round. 
H. H., all-round. 
V. S., operator. 
H. C, all-round. 
L. I., operator and retoucher. 

Positions Wanted — Retouchers, Recep- 
tionists 
M. H. O., retoucher and etcher. 
Miss E. L. S., colorist — first-class. 
Miss M. P., retoucher, printer, etc. 
Miss M. C. M., hand-color work, spot- 
ting, sketching, receptionist, etc. 

Studios Desiring Help 

F. P., wants operator and printer. 

J. B. O., wants operator and retoucher. 
A. V. P., wants operator. 

G. Studio, wants retoucher. 

C. K. P., wants amateur finisher — man- 
ager of framing department. 



Votioe— Letters addretted to uijone in our eare tbould be aocompanled witli naap 
for each letter so that thej can be re-mailed. 



SEND YOUR SUBSCRIPTION NOW 

Our Year expires January 1st and we want your Renewal. $1.00 per year. 
Photographic news from every section is worth five times our subscription 
price. 

OUR SPECIAL CLUBBING LIST 

We offer the Special Clubbing List of Snap Shots with American and Eng- 
lish Annuals and the English Journals. A combination that places to the 
American photographer photographic news that combined gives him the field 
covering the English-speaking photographic world: 

1 year's Snap Shots with 1 year's subscription to British Journal of 

Photography S.7« 

Snap Shots and 1 year's subscription to Photography and Focus (Eng.) S.fO 
Snap Shots and 1 year's subscription to Amateur Photography and Pho- 
tographic News (English) 4.fO 



SNAP SHOTS PUB. CO. 



57 East 9th St., New Yo^ 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



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POSITIONS OFFERED and WANTED, FOR SALE, 
TO RENT, WANT to PURCHASE, EXCHANGE, &c. 



Annotmcementt under these and similar headings of forty words or less, will be inserted 
for forty cents. For each additional word, one cent. Displayed adTertisomentt 60 cents 
per inch. Cash must accompany order. When replies are addressed to our car*, 10 cents 
at least must be added to cover probable postage on same to adrertiser. AdTcrtisements 
should reach us by the 20th to secure insertions in the succeeding issue. A copy of the 
Journal sent free to every advertiser as long as the "ad" ii continued. Adrertisements in 
Snap Shots bring prompt returns. 



AN ADVERTISEMENT IN THESE COLUMNS 

h an eiccUent and safe medium of commtmicatlon between Photographen 



Wanted: A good live paper printer 
who is practically posted on enlar- 
ging and contact printing, and who has 
had road experience and acquaintance 
with the trade. Address, stating qual- 
ifications, W P. R., care Snap Shots. 

Wanted: A 5x7 Century, Empire 
State, R. O. C. or other good View 
Cameras, with swing back, double 
lens and shutter, carrying case and 
plate holders. Will pay cash or will 
exchange a 5x7 Ajax Improved P. P. 
Camera. Let me know what you 
have. Senecal Studio. Rutland, Vt. 

Wanted: A lady retoucher, also a 
good all-round man, for a studio 
opening the first of July. References 
and photographs required. Address 
A. B. Castonguary, 48 Murray Street, 
Ottawa, Canada. 

Wanted: Lady or gentleman of 
good address, energetic and reliable, 
to solicit orders which will enable me 
to take portraits in the home. A lib- 
eral commission paid for every cus- 
tomer secured. Address *'Home Por- 
traiture." care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: Studio in Long Island 
City; no competition within 22 miles, 
with a good surrounding trade. Large 



For Sale: Studio, one flight up; 
side light and Paralax Lamp, fitted to 
8 X 10, centrally located, in Stamford, 
Conn. Thirty thousand population; 
four rooms in all, only $12.50 rent. A 
good place for a man who would do 
small work along with cab. Com- 
mercial, amateur finishing and en- 
larging. Will sell very cheap, good 
reason for selling. Write or call. 
John A. Marshall, 16 Park Row, 
Stamford, Ccnn. 

Wanted: Young man as salesman 
and manager of retail department in 
large photo supply house in New 
York City. Must be experienced in 
selling professional goods. Send pho- 
tograph and give full particulars in 
first letter. Howe, care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: A well located, well fur- 
nished photo studio in New York City 
in prominent thoroughfare. Owner 
desires to sell on account of other 
business interests. Price $3,500; lease 
three years; rent $2,150 per year. To 
a good photographer a fine opening, 
but letters must be addressed in our 
care and will be answered only as the 
owner decides. Address "D. F. M." 
care Snap Shots. 

For Salft* OIH <icfoK1i*eVi»/4 K«<cJri»e« 



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STOP!! LOOK!! 

Have you a camera you wish to sell or 
exchange? Write us. We have been 
in the exchange business for twenty 
years and are known all over the 
country as THE LEADER. 

WRITE for our NEW No. i8 
BARGAIN LIST. It's a HUMMER. 

NEW YORK CAMERA EXCHANGE 

ion FOLTM f mEET lEW INK 



Art Studies 

PHOTOGRAPHS FROM LIFE MODELS 

Finest Collection for Artists 
and Art Lovers 



iilustnited Cstsiosue sent free on demend 



C. KLARY 

IM Avenue de Villiere PARIS (PBANCE) 



Eagle Professional Tank 



PATENTED 

Made especial- 
ly to meet the 
requirements of 
the Professional 
Photographer. 
I Practical ; a 
1 time saver; a 
money saver. 
Does away with 
dark room trou- 
bles. 

Try one and 
be convinced. 

Made in seven 
sizes of brass, 
nickel plated. 

Grooves. 
No. 8 for 12, 6x7, 4^x6j4, 4x6, 

8^ix4^, or lantern slide 6 $3.00 

No. 9 for 12, 6»^x8j4, 6x7. 4x6.. 6 3.60 
No. 10 for 12, 8x10, 6^x8H. 6x7. 6 6.00 
No. 11. Professional size for 48, 

6x7 and smaller 24 6.00 

No. 12. Professional size for 24, 

8x10 and smaller 12 7.60 

No. 13. Professional size for 6, 

11x14 8 12.60 

No. 14. Professional size for 86, 

6x7 and smaller 86 10.00 

QEORQB MURPHY, lac^S? B. 9tb St, New York 




E.W.N. Nonlalatifln Plate Backing 

With this backing, which is most easily applied 
and removed, ordinary glass (>Iates are made 
perfect. It prevents that white fog around 
light objects, renders perspective truthfully, 
lends atmosphere and removes all restrictions 
as to source or intensity of light. With Backed 
Plates vou can take nature as you find her 
truthfully and artistically. The thing for 
snow scenes or interiors. 
Price 60 oentt, with full directions. Will 
perfect 860 5x7 pUtet. Trial tise 80 ceati. 

6eorgiMirpky, lie, 57 E. (Hh St., Nra Ywh 



CAMERA OWNERS 

If ^ou would like to see a copy of a 
beautiful, practical, interesting, modem 
photographic magazine, written and 
edited with the purpose of teaching all 
photographers how to use their mate- 
rials and skill to the best advantage, 
either for profit or amusement, send us 
your name on a post-card. Don't for- 
get or delay, but write at once. The 
three latest numbers will be sent for 25 
cents. $1.50 a year. 

AMERICAN PHOTOQRAPHY 



60 1 Pope Building 



BOSTON, MASS. 



^!k 



" AUTOTYPB. 

Autotype Carbon 
Tissues 

We can now furnish a Carbon Dis- 
play Booklet showing eighteen card 
Carbon prints of the standard tints, 
including the new line of sepia tints 
lately added. These will be found in- 
valuable to the photographer in reach- 
ing orders and demonstrating the 
beauties of the various shades of the 
Carbon tints. As this display book- 
let is produced at quite some cost to 
the factory, a price has been made of 
$1.50, it being deemed that the value 
would be easily reached through its 
use. 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 
57 BAST NINTH STREET NEW YORK 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



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TROX F'lL.M WASHER 

(PattitW) This Trox Film Washer is one of the 
most useful articles for the amateur that 
we have introduced in some time. It is in- 
tended for the amateur who uses the bath- 
room as his darkroom. Any size roll of 
film can be placed in the washer. It is 
fastened by two pins. A rubber hose is 
attached to the washer and to the faucet 
of the bathtub, the washer being placed 
high enough over the bathtub so that the 
film does not touch the bottom. It is 
completely washed in a few minutes, as 
the construction of the washer is such 
that the water flows over each side of the 
film its entire length. 

Price, 50 cents, postpaid 
QEORQE MURPHY. Ino., 67 East 9th Street. New York 




TROX niM IIMSNER 

. _ George Murphy, !««. 




EAGLE FLASH POWDER 






We are now supplying our NEW FLASH 
COMPOUND (Eagle Flash Powder) put up in 
new style packing in round wooden boxes. 

This powder is equal to any flash compound 
on the market and costs you less, consequently 
more profit to you. It is practically smokeless, 
makes very little noise, and gives a very powerful 
light with very little powder. 

No. I 1 5^ oz. Box 30c. No. 2 2 oz. $1.10 

aiORGE MURPHY. Inc.. 57 East 9th Street, New York 





ROYAL GLASS FIXING BOX 
WITH COVER 

This new Amber Glass Fixing Box will ac- 
commodate plates 334x4, 3^x4J4. 3/4x5J^ 
and 4x5, all the popular sizes. 
It is supplied with a glass cover which not 
only protects the solutions from dust, but 
preserves the solutions so that they can be 
used several times before a new solution 
is necessary. 



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Lot No. 55 



i 



> : 



Royal Non-Slippiog Priflting Frames 



This frame is made of the 
best seasoned Ash, natural 
finish, and without sharp 
edges. It is built on the 
English principle and the 
most inexperienced person 
can examine the print with- 
out the slightest risk of mov. 
ing it. The back of the frame 
is provided with new project- 
ing metal pins whicn drop 
into corresponding slots in 
the side of the frame. This 
prevents all possibility of the 
print shifting. 

This is an Ideal Frame for 
printing postals and using 
masks. We offer them, while 
they last, as follows: 



09 3J4x4}^ List 40c. Sell for 16c. each 

288 4 x5 List 45c. Sell for 20c. each 

76 eVixSVi List 90c. Sell for 48c. each 

68 8 xlO List $1.26 Sell for 68c. each 

GEORGE MURPHY, inc., 57 East Ninth Street, New Yoric 




FREE— The Photog:raphic Times— FREE 

SUNLIGHT AND SHADOW 

A BOOK FOB PHOTOGBAPHEBS AXATETTB AND PBOFEBBIOVAL 

By W. I. LINCOLN ADAMS (Hit Beit Book) 

Editor of "The Photographic Times," Author of "Amateur Photography,** "In Nature's 

Image," Etc., Etc. With More than 100 Beautiful Photo-Engravings, 

Many of Them Full-page Pictures. 

It contains Chapters and Illustrations by well-known photographic writers and workers. 

It covers the field fully, as shown by the following Contents: 

The Choice of Subject Landscape Without Figures Landscape With Fignret 

Foregrounds The Sky Outdoor Portraits and Groups The Hand Camera 

Instantaneous Photography Winter Photography Marines Photography at Night 

Lighting in Portraiture Photographing Children Art in Grouping 

Printed on heavy wood-cut paper, with liberal mar8[ins and gilt edees. Beautifully 

and substantially bound in art canvas, with gilt design. PBICE IN A BOX, |2.Ml. 

So long as the supply holds out, we will continue to furnish this book at only one dollar 

per copy, with a new subscription to 

"THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES" 



Regular price of "Sunlight and Shadow 

Regular Subscription price of "The Photographic Times" 



$2.60 
1.60 



14.00 

By this Special Offer we sell Both for . . $2.50 

which is the regular price of "Sunlight and Shadow" alone; so you get "The Photographic 



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Speedy plates, with breadth of color range and least 
possible liability to frill, are needed for Spring and Summer 
work in studio and field. That's why 

Hammer Plates Are BEST 

Hammer's Special Extra Fast (red label), Extra Fast (blue 
label) and Hammer's Orthochromatic Plates hold the record 
of efficiency for all climates and conditions. 




Hammer's little book, "A Short Talk on Negative Making," 
mailed free. 

HAMMER DRY PLATE COMPANY 

Ohl« Av«. and Miami St. St. Lauia, Ma. 



Rhodol 



METOL, SATRAPOL and other trade names have been 
adopted by diflFerent manufacturers for the chemical Mono- 
methylpara-amidophenol sulphate. We are supplying this 
chemical under the name RHODOL and guarantee our 
article when used in the same way. to produce identical 
results. 



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PHOTO -FLAT 

No More Curling of Your Prints 




A BATCH OF DRIED PRINTS 




THE SAME PRINTS AFTER BEING TREATED WITH PHOTO- FLAT 

Apply to back of print, after they are thoroughly dry. 
An effective and simple way to flatten curled prints. 
Easy to use — no special care needed in drying prints to 
be treated with PHOTO-FLAT. Leading professionals 
have given an emphatic endorsement to PHOTO-FLAT. 

PRICES: 4 Oz. Bottles, 35c; Pint Bottles, $1.00. 
Quart Bottles, $1.75 Half Gal. Bottles, $3.00 

Sold throughout the entire trade. Your dealer will have it. 



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You Can Reproduce Your Pictures in 



NATURAL COLORS 

on the 

DUFAY COLOR PLATE 

Process the simplest, results the most perfect reproduction of natural colors 
possible to obtain. Dufay color plates are of very tine texture, rapid, and 
are guaranteed for 12 months. 



8ix4 " 

81x44" 

U X ir |1.» 



PBICE LIST FEB BOX OF FOXTB 

11.90 4x6" 

l.SS 6x7" 



COMFENSATIVO SOBEENS 



u X ir^ 
a! X a! ■ 



UxU" 



11.60 
2.00 



IS.00 

4.00 



5x7". 



1.0 

8.00 

OBEEN EXCEL8I0B FAFEB FOB DABX BOOM 
FEB FAOXAOE OF 6 SHEETS 

90.18 8 X 10" 90.80 

Complete let Solutiont 91.86 

Send a trial order. Descriptive booklet mailed free on request. 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 East 9th Street, New York 



Wiith 

HIGGINS' 
PHOTO 

MOUNTER 



Hsre an excellence pecoliarlj their 
own. The beet reeolta are onlj 
produced bj the beet methods and 
meano— the best results in Photo- 
graph, Poster and other moontinic 
can only be attained bj using the 
best mounting paste— 

HIQQIN8' PHOTO MOUNTER 

(Excellent noTel brush with eaeh jar.) 



At Dealers in Photo SappUeev 
ArtUte' MaterlaU CAd Statteaevj. 



A 8-08. jar prepaid by maU for 80 ooats. 
or olronlan free from 

CHAS. M. HIQOINS <& CO.* Mfrt. 

NBW YORK CHICAGO L0ND08I 



Main Office. 271 Ninth Street I Brooklyn. N. V. 
Factory, a40.a44 Bislith Street f U, S. A. 



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C P. Nitrate Silver Crystals 
Pure Chloride Gold 



For Photographers^ Ariito 
Paper and Dry Plate Makers 



Chemicals for Photo Engraving and the Arts 



AHKindsof Sfhrer and Gol^ 
Waste Refined 



«s±£si^ PHILLIPS & JACOBS 

«22 RACE STREET, PHILADELPHIA 




The "FAVORITE" 

INTERIOR BENCH 

ACCESSORY 

The No. 5086 B Interior Bench 

Pfice $35,00 
Crated F. O, B, , New York 

Artistic Photographic Chairs, 
B^nches^ Balu&tradef, Pedes- 
tal s^ and Special Accessories 

from any design. 

ROUGH & CALDWELL 
COMPANY 

IVIANUraCTUflCRS 

1 4O1I1 St. & War ton Ive., New Tort 

TE OlDE SEAVEY SfUOlO 



iOilized by ^ 
Shots. ^ 



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AN ASSURANCE 



-OF- 



PERMANENT RESULTS 

INSIST ON THE GENUINE 

"AGFA" 



BERLIN ANILINE WORKS 
213 Water Street, Iff. Y. 

STOCKED BY ALI^ PHOTOGRAPHIC DKAT.KRS 



You Can Take Pictures on a Day Like This ! 

- Tliat is^ if your lens is right, Tlic kns is the s^ml of your cumtTn, Ordinary Itns^e*? 
yalll take ordmary pwiurt^s unddT Jin'ornlf/e c^jnditiifiis. Are you satisfied with tlsat? 
Or would you like the ifes^ results under a// crmditions? If so, you should know tlic 

GOERZ LENSES 

UGivcrsaHy used by war photographers and profession ab, who must 
be sure of their results, T^ey can east/v h* Jilied io ike camera 
yau now awn. 

Seod for Our Bdok tm "Lemef and Cameras'' 

ri the greatest value ti* any one ititereHed 
itk good [iliot)ograpby< 



C« F. G«cnc Ani«ncaa Opikil I 
fix Cadt U^ StTMt 



KN«i»Twt 


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JH 



CXIV 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



PROFITS IN 
THE STUDIO 




Depend primarily on the results 
you obtain for your customers. How 
important it is, then, that your lens 
be right — it will be, if it is a 

tlELI4R 

In this wonderful lens you will find 
all those qualities which make up a 
perfect portrait objective. Critical 
definition or infinite softness are read- 
ily obtained. Of speed, there is enough 
and to spare. Its covering power is 
perfect. In a word, it is the one lens 
which will enable you to make more 
money as a photographer. 

Try it ten days in your studio — 
that is the real test. We'll arrange it 
through your dealer. 

Our latest catalog on request. 

Voigtlancler& Sohn 

240-258 E. Ontario St., Chicago 
226 Fifth Ave, New York 

Works— 

Bruniwick, Germany 

Canadian Agents — Hupfeld, Ludecking ft Co., 

Montreal, Can. 



Wynne << Infallible" 
Exposure Meter 

You aet the OVE leaie and 
the Meter doei the reit 

tin ef a Watch. FttalkePtcM 
SIMPLE. CHtECT 




Tot T or Trnlform Byatem, Nickel f2.M 

For Focal Plane 2.50 

BllTor 6.00 

SilTer, Oem tise 8.60 

Print Meter 2.50 

Bend for Detailed Liit 

AMimCAN AaiNTS 

Bmik llvpbf.lM..S7E.8tlSt..llcw fork 



EDWARD F. BIQELOW 

Areadia, Sound Boaoh, Conneotloul 

desires for the "Nature and Science" 
Department of the "St. Nicholas" Maga- 
zine (New York), photographs of inter- 
esting inventions, and otnatural objects 
that are novel, instructive or especially 
beautiful. He particularly desires photo- 
graphs of machines, or of mechanical 
appliances of interest to the readers of 
"St. Nicholas." They may be mounted 
or not. of any size and on any kind of 
paper. The only requirements are that 
they shall clearly show something worth 
shozving, and be interesting or instruc- 
tive. Do not send "snap shots" of 
scenery that can be equalled for beauty 
and for general interest in almost any 
part of the earth. 

Pay will be at the usual magazine 
rates, and will vary with the interest 
and the novelty. A small photograph 
may be more valuable than a big one. 

"The Guide to Nature." Arcadia: 
Sound Beach. Connecticut, is a maga- 
zine for adults, and has a definite pur- 
pose. It is published by an association 
of students and lovers of nature — not 
for pecuniary gain, but to be helpful. 
Its department. "The Camera," is con- 
ducted by enthusiastic camerists, each 
of whom, as in a camera society, desires 
to help all bis associates and colleagues. 
Editor, associates and contributors are 
paid by the satisfaction of benefiting 
others. There is no better remunera- 
tion. All income is devoted directly to 
the interests and improvement of the 
magazine. 



When writing adveitisers please mention Swap Shots. 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



cxv 



Give the customer something new — 
prints with the quality and individuality 
that command better prices — effects that 
can only be secured on the new albumen 
printing-out paper : 





t 




Matte-Surface, Ready-Sensitizedy 
Four Grades. 

Zelta offers the greatest range of 
tones and effects, yet is simple and cer- 
tain in manipulation. 

Tour stock-house has it. 



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CXVl 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 






SEED 




PUTES 



The superior quality of Seed 
Dry Plates is invariable. 

Seed Gilt Edge 30 is the de- 
pendable plate for all emergencies 
where speed, as well as quality, is a 
necessary consideration. 



SEED DRY PLATE DIVISION 
EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, 

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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



cxvn 






A Sepia Sensitizing Powder 

ROYALINE produces sepia prints of Platinum like qualities. It can be 
applied to paper, cards, linen, silk, etc., producing upon development in 
water, rich platinum like sepia prints. It is as simple to use as the Blue 
Print Process. Each tube makes two ounces of Sensitizing solution. Try 
it. You will be delighted with the results. 

Price per tube, 26c. 

GEORGE MURPHY. Inc.. 57 East 9th Street. New Yerk 



r 




ELITE GAS LAMP 

This is the most practical gas ruby lamp 
on the market 

The lamp is provided with side doors 
for shutting off the side illumination if 
not desired. The front window is fitted 
with ground, orange, and ruby glasses. 
Side windews with ground and ruby 
glass. The lamp has two hooks on the 
hack for hanging it on a nail on the wall 
if so desired. 

The lamp is certainly the most con- 
venient, reliable and practical gas lamp 
made. Price $6.oo 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

S7 E. 9th St., New York 



EAGLE MORTAR AND PESTLE 
GRADUATE 

This is a four-ounce Graduate, with the bottom espe- 
cially reinforced, so as to make it act as a mortar. It is 
also supplied with a Pestle, one end of which is round and 
the other end flat, for breaking up crystals. 

The bottom of the graduate on the inside is rounded so 
that no sediment can collect, and so that all crystals can 
readily be reached by the pestle and broken up. 

This is an excellent article and costs very little more 
than the ordinary Engraved Graduate. 

Price, 50 cents 

GEORGE MURPHY. Inc.. 57 East 9th Sireet. New York 

When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 




o 



'8 



le 



cxviii SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Rochester Photo Works, New Canaan, Conn.. April 9, 1913. 

Rochester, N. Y. 
Gentlemen : 

I have received the samples of Velour Black enlarging paper which you 
sent me per my request, and must say that I am very much pleased with 
the results, especially the buff. There is a soft brilliancy and richness to 
the buff paper which I have never been able to secure in an enlargement on 
any bromide paper before. The other grade you sent me, Velvet, I think, 
I have not tried out fully as yet but think it is going to be satisfactory. 

Yours truly, 

Howard B. Raymond. 

Chicago, October 22, 1912. 
To Whom It May Concern : 

Our photo department is at present using Velour Black Bromide Paper 
and find it invaluable for fast and good work. 

C. S. Washburne, 
Manager Tribune Photo Bureau. 



Rochester Photo Works, 22-24 Witherell Street, Detroit, Mich. 

Rochester, N. Y. 
Gentlemen : 

We find the paper is everything, and even more, than your representative 
claimed it was. We are more than pleased with it, and we have recom- 
mended it to a number of our fellow commercial photographers. W. D. 
Benham told me that he had already ordered a supply. 

Please send us a sample package of double weight matt paper suitable for 
portraits that will make sepia prints, and oblige 

Very truly, Manning Bros. 
Per J. J. Manning. 

Mr. W. M. ScHULTZ, 204 West 43rd Street, New York. 

Rochester, N. Y. April 25, 1913. 

My Dear Dr. Schultz : 

Replying to your letter of the 23rd inst. we beg to state that we have used 
your photographic papers for the past three years, and have always been 
satisfied with the hig^h quality of your products. 

As to prompt service, we can truthfully state that you have given us better 
and more prompt service than any other company that we have ever done 
busiijess with. 
Wishing you success, we are Yours very truly, 

Drucker & Company. 
Geo. A. Drucker. 



Rochester Photo Works,. 4 East 8th Street. 

Gentlemen: New York, April 24, 1913. 

We wish to compliment you on the paper you are turning out. We are 
getting excellent results on all your grades, particularly on the buff. 

\'ery truly, Clark & Freed. 



ROCHESTER PHOTO WORKS 

ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 

VVii*ii writinc advcrtucrs please mention Snap SMO^k^V ^^-'^^''^^Vs- 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS cxix 

New Papers For Portrait, 
Enlarging, Contact 



VELOUR BLACK — Highest portrait quality, warm 
black tones, transparent shadows. 

VELOUR GOLD — Highest quality for warm olive 
brown tones. 

VELOUR BLACK SOFT— For softest effect from 
strong high-grade negatives. 

VELOUR BLACK GLOSSY— White and Pearl 
White: For copying and enlarging. 

BROME BLACK — For extreme contrast; fast for 
enlarging; non-abrasion. 

WHITE LAUREL— Three tints, three emulsions; 
for contact. 

BLACK LAUREL— Black and sepia platinum 
effects; for contact. 

SPECIAL CHLORIDE— Semi-Matte and fast Chlo- 
ride Paper for commercial work. 



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cxx 



SNAP SHOTS— ADX'KRTISEMEXTS 



THE NEW 

Ross "Telecentric" Lens 

(PATENT) 

Giving: Critical Definition at Full Aperture 




Tclc-Photography with Focal Plane Shutter Ex- 
posures. Large Image at Short Camera Extension 

AN IDEAL LENS FOR 
SPORTING EVENTS 

VERY SUITABLE FOR 
PORTRAITURE 

Two Series, 7/5.4 and //6.8 

The new "Tdcccntric" Lens gives a universally flat image with ex- 
quisite definition to the corners of the plate. Coma and spherical aber- 
ration away from the axis have been so fully corrected that the bril- 
liancy of image equals that of the finest Anastigmat. Like the Ross 
"Homocentric," the *'Telecentric" is absolutely free from spherical zones, 
and negatives taken with it are perfect in detail. The chromatic correc- 
tion is also perfect. It fills the want so forcibly felt of a lens possess- 
ing the sharp definition and other good qualities of the Anastigmat, and 
at the same time enlarging the image of distant objects. 

In the "Telecentric" Lens, f/6.8, which is slightly faster than other 
lenses of this type, the definition and brilliancy at full aperture are quite 
equal to those of the most perfectly corrected modern Anastigmats. 

In the extra rapid "Tclecentric" Lens, the extreme aperture of f/5.4 
has been attained, and this without any sacrifice of critical defining 
power. 

The "Telecentric" gives an image about twice as large as that given 
by an ordinary lens requiring the same bellows extension. Therefore— 
pictures of objects that from circumstance or of their nature cannot be 
sufficiently approached to allow of the desired size of ima^e may be sat- 
isfactorily obtained by using the Ross "Telecentric." These pictures 
will have critical definition secured with the shortened exposure afiPorded 
by the large full aperture of the "Telecentric." 



Fooui 

Baok-EqulT. 

Int... 4^4*— 8" 

F 6.8, $37.50 
F5.4, 50 00 



Focus 

Back-Eqniv. 

5^4"— 11" 

$45.00 
64 00 



Fooui 

Baok-Equiv. 

6"— 18" 

$48.75 
67.50 



Focus 

Baok-EqulT. 

ej4"— 18" 

$52.50 
73.00 



Fooua 

Baok-EqulT. 

854"— 17* 

$67.50 
95.50 



AMERICAN AGENTS 

6E0R6E MURPHY. Inc. 57 Fast 9th St. New York. N. Y. 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap SHorsiby VJ^^V 



IC 




Furniture for Child Photography 

For years there has been a demand for accessories suitable for por- 
traits of children. We have a set of small fyrntture for this class of work, 
and can now offer a small child*! rocker, desk, table and chair, neatly made 
and attractive in appearance. These will enable the photographer to make 
pictures of children in groups or singly with ease and afford many attractive 
poses. 




N5 444 I 3,00 



N5 426 ^3.75 



The above designs arc made in weathered oak, neat and elegant in 
design. 

PRICES: Child*s Rocking Chair No. 444, $3.00. Desk No. 426, $3,75. 
Table No. 425, $3 25, and Chair No. 445. $2.50. 

GEO. MURPHY Inc., 57 East 9th St., New York 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



The proof of superiority — 
the number of successful pho- 
tographers who use 



* III 




Q. 



,Pi 



^ 




a 




For sepia or black tones — on 
buff or white stock — a grade tor 
every need. 




ARTURA DIVISION, 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, 

ROCHESTER. N. Y. 

All Dtaleri. 



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A q^ooi! pn doctor will not make a good pliotograph, but 
it will preserve a ^^ood ijliotop^raph or any fine cartl from 
heiiiLf <iestrovc(l hi llie mails. 




TEADE MARK 
Ffttented Jun« 26. 1900. Tride Mark Heffiitered 




^ves perfect protfction to the 
photagra[)h or enclosure. 

Give SNAP SHOTS an oppor- 
tunity^ to demonstrate i^tticiencv. 




CELLULAR BOARD, DOUBLE FACED CORRUGATED 
made by special process. Cellular lUianl t^^ives the PHOTO- 
MAILER tlie |>ropt'r resistance and strciig:th. 



THE THOMPSON & NORRIS CO. 

6 Prince Street 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Boston, Mass.: Brookville. Ind, ; Niagara Falls, Canada; 



London, EngLand; JuUch, Germany. 



ujyiiiiyu uy 



Goj gle 



SNAP SH-OTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



CXXl 



Best 

For 

Home 



Portraiture 



,i<V, 




'pHE new 8 x 10 F. & S. Home Portrait Camera 
-'- is designed especially for Home Portraiture. 
It is easily portable, finished in the best possible 
manner and fitted with every necessary adjustment. 
The front is large enough to permit the fitting of 
Portrait lenses, and the bellows capacity is ample 
for the most exacting work. 

SPECIFICATIONS: 



Foc^ eipaeitr 

Size of IcM board 
Weilht 



22 inches 
7x7 inches 
11^ lbs. 




THE PRICE: 

F. & S. Home Portrait Camera, 8x 10 with- 
out lens, including carrying case and 1 
double plate holder - • $60.00 

No. Auto Studio Shutter - 8.00 

Extra 8 X 10 Sterling Plate Holders, each 2.50 

F. & S. Home Portrait Tripod - 7.50 

Send for Circular 



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CXXll 



SNAP SHHTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Every Photographer in the land should know 



Send for a print 



WILLIS & CLEMENTS, Philadelphia 



You Can Take Picture on a Day Like This 

That is, if your lens is rigliL Tlie lens is the soul of your camera. Ordinary lens* 
will take ordimiry pictures Mndi:t /avorahle conditions. Are you satisfied with that 
Or would you like tjic bcsi results under aii conditions? If so, you should know tl: 

GOERZ LENSES 

Universally tised bv war photogra pliers and prrjfcssionab, who must 
be sure of tlieir results. I7iey can easily be fiiied to the camera 
you now own. 

Send for Our Book on "Lenses acd Cameras" 



r^f 4Ka »^-Aof& 




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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



CXXIIl 



» 




You Set th« ONE Seal*, It !>•«• th* Rest 

ll!fM"!l!lL!l"l!!lSEi!EE 

THB CHOICE OF AMERICA'S FOREMOST PHOTOORAPHERS 

NOT LIKE OTHER METERS 



Locket Meter. ^^SiEi/iRy^1*\ 

Actual sue. ^^t^I^^i*\'^- 

For F System, For Uniform System. 

An unerring guide to the correct exposure required for every speed 
of plate, on. every kind of subject, and under every condition of light. 
For any set of conditions of Light, Plate, and Lens Aperture, only 
two simple operations are necessary to find simultaneously the cor- 
rect exposure for every stop from the largest to the smallest, viz.: 

Firstly — Turn the milled edge of the instrument, and thus expose 
through the slot a fresh surface of sensitive paper until it jissumes 
the color of the painted tint, and note the number of seconds or min- 
utes it takes to color. This is called the Actinometer Time, 

Secondly — Set the movable scale until this Actinometer Time is 
against the Speed Number of the Plate to be used, then against every 
stop in outer scale will be found the correct corresponding exposure, 
or, shortly, you set the one Scale, it does the rest. 

These Meters are furnished in the F. and U. S. systems. When 
ordering please specify what system you desire. 

Negative Exposure Meter, watch pattern, nickel case, each $2.50 

Negative Exposure Meter, watch pattern, silver case, each 5.00 

Negative Exposure Meter, locket pattern, silver case, each 4.50 

]feg3tive Exposure Meter snap-shot (Focal Plane) 2.50 

^/n jETxposure Meter, solid silver (Hall marked), each, complete 4.00 

rxfr^ packets of Sensitive Paper 25 

Sj^trS J^P^^s of Instructions and Speed Card, each 10 

& ^'?^ and ^lass "U. S." or "F." system, per pair 40 

^yenr ^>^""^s for inside of watch meters, each 15 

cases of tan leather 50 

YOUR DIALIR HANDLES THEftI QOODft 



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CXXIV 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



ROSSLYN 

Colors: White, Gray and Sepia 




The rich simplicity of the "Rosslyn" with its handsomely 
embossed linen surface has made it popular for all high grade 
solid mountings. It is the heaviest of stock and with its well 
adapted colors for all tones it attracts attention and enhances 
the value of all pictures mounted on it. 

Per IDG 

Card s% x 7% for Oval Pictures 2^ x 35^. $i.6o 

Card 6x8 for Oval Pictures 37/s x s% i-8o 

Card 6x9 for Oval Pictures 3^ x 554 2.00 

Card sH x 7% for Square Pictures 254 x sJ/s 1.60 

Card 6x8 for Square Pictures 3^ x s% 180 

Card 6x9 for Square Pictures s7/g x 5 J4 2.00 

Card 6 x 10 for Square Pictures 3 x sH 2.00 

Packed 100 in a box. 



B. 

C. 

CL, 

E. 

F. 

FL. 

S. 



GEORGE MURPHY. Inc., 57 East Ninth St^ New York City 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap SHra^^ed by VjOOQIC 



SNAP StrOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



CXXXVII 




AN ASSURANCE 



-OF- 






PERMANENT RESULTS 



MMX 



mmmm 
metol 



INSIST ON THE GENUINE 



ii 



AGFA" 



BERLIN ANILINE WORKS 



213 WwAbv Street, Ilil. T. 

STOCKED BY ALL PHOTOGRAPHIC DEALERS 



EAQLE VIQNETTER 

(Patented) 

A A- 




In every studio the need is 

felt of a simple, yet efficient, 

EAfitE vignetter, which can be oper- 
ated instantly, noiselessly and 
^ from the rear of the camera 

bv the operator without his having to leave his position at the ground glass. In the Eagle 
simpKcity has been simplified, and to our patrons we offer a bcfore-the-lens ^^Kl^^^^f^ 



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cxxxviii SNAP SH-QTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



New Papers For Portrait, 
Enlarging, Contact 



VELOUR BLACK— Highest portrait quality, warm 
black tones, transparent shadows. 

VELOUR GOLD— Highest quality for warm olive 
brown tones. 

VELOUR BLACK SOFT— For softest effect from 
strong high-grade negatives. 

VELOUR BLACK GLOSSY— White and Pearl 
White: For copying and enlarging. 

BROME BLACK — For extreme contrast; fast for 
enlarging; non-abrasion. 

WHITE LAUREL— Three tints, three emulsions; 
for contact. 

BLACK LAUREL — Black and sepia platinum 
effects ; for contact. 

SPECIAL CHLORIDE— Semi-Matte and fast Chlo- 
ride Paper for commercial work. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMEXTS 



CXXXIX 



THE GRADES OF THE 
NEW PAPERS 






VELOUR BLACK 

Made in Velvet, Semi-Matte, Matte, Rough, Glossy, 
Buff, Buff Matte. 

VELOUR GOLD 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Semi-Matte, Double; Buff, 
Double. 

VELOUR BLACK, SOFT 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Semi-Matte, Double; Matte, 
Double ; Rough, Double ; Buff. 

BROME BLACK 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Glossy, Single. 

WHITE LAUREL 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Glossy, Single; Rough, 
Single; Semi-Matte, Double; Rough, Double; Matte, 
Double. 

BLACK LAUREL 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single ; Semi-Matte, Double ; Smooth 
Matte, Double ; Buff Matte. 

SPECIAL CHLORIDE 

Semi-Matte, Single; Semi-Matte, Double. 



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cxl Sx\AP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 

New Ross 

Wide Angle Anastigtnat 

Lenses 



This doublet consists of four single 
lenses cemented to form two combina- 
tions. 

The field measures, in the smaller 
numbers, over ioo°, in the larger ones 
about 90**. 

The seven sizes are specially useful 
for interiors or work in confined situations. 

Larger sizes to order, for reproduction of maps, plans, and 
drawings. They yield a perfectly flat and anastigmatic 
image, and are entirely free from distortion. 




Number Equiv. Focus F16 



I. 
2. 
3. 
4- 
5. 
6. 

7- 



434'' 
734" 

I2J4" 



3^4x43^4 

4 X5 

5 X7 

8 X 10 

10 X 12 

11 X 14 



P32 

4 X5 

5 X7 
6^x8}4 
8 X 10 

10 X 12 

11 X 14 

12 X15 



Price 
$24.00 
24.00 
30.00 
37.50 
46.85 
58-00 
69.35 



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GEISLER'S 
INTENSIFIER 

For Redeveloping 

NEGATIVES FOUND TO LACK CONTRAST AND QUALITY 

^ Cffi>lcr's Intfnsiiler has for ten years 
or more stuod at the head of inren- 
si Tiers— a strong fvolutton that can W 
UriccI in any strength for hoth under 
or over-toned flat or weak neRativtvs. 
or lo snap up good riegativt^s and 
make them stronger for enlarge- 
ments, i'ull directions come on each 
bottle- 

Geisler's Intensiher is a poison, as h 
ali s:ood in ten si hers. This eompnuml 
in pnwdor form is more nn^safe an<l 
much more l>olher to use. The only 
reason iar putting up is cheapness in 
transportati«m and savinj^s ou bottle"^. 
Geisler's can be safely mailed any- 
where in the United States Gallon 
jug size can be furnished for moving 

picture tihiis and commercial developing houses, $10.00 per gallon, 

inclusive. 




BKt-Okl 



AiTiiK 



Every person in this country who has a camera costing $1 00 and up 
to the best Gradex or ReHex camera made, has some negatives to 
improve which they would give the price twice over of a bottle of 
simple one solution in ten si her. that they could use as easy as dipping 
a cracker into a glas?? of milk. Isn*t it worth a trial? 
Do you want GEISLER'S INTENSIFIER. or the just-as-good kind 
that arc always eheaper. in price and futility? 

Sold at every St^ck House in the country. 



2 ounce, 30c* 



Concentrated Solution 
4 ounce, 50c, 



129 ounce, $10,00 



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Retain the contact quality. 




ARTURA DIVISIO: 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 




TRABEMPiRK 



NO. S6CQ7 REQl STERED 



fW 



iXr 



Q 



MV 



-^ 



[^ 



y 



August* 1915 



CONTENTS 



Titles on Negatives 



Pk(a 

- 141 



Photographers' Association 
of New England - - 144 

Glazing Prints By Stripping 146 

Aquarelle-Printing - - 149 

A New Direct Carbon 



Process 



152 



Spots On Negatives - - 155 

Photographing Glassware 157 

Trade Ne^vs and Notes - 158 

Studio Wants - - - U>0 



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We want you to know 
about the wonderful 
T & N CELLULAR 
BOARD, and these il- 
histrations will brings to 
your mind some salient 
features. 

CELLULAR BOARD 

IS far lig-hter than wood 
of equal thickness and 
much stiffer than paste- 
board of equal weight 

SHEETS OF THIS 
MATERIAL in your 
studio would seem al- 
most indispensable. 




CELLULAR BOARD 
Demonstrating the stiffness of Cellular Board as com- 
pared with pasteboard of equal 'we'ght. 



WHENEVER YOU WANT TO PROTECT ANYTHING 

from damag^c, either in the mails or otherwise, CELLULAR 
BOARD COMES IN HANDY. 




Showing the construction of 
our Cellular Board. 



BO.X wool) lAVj oz. 

Showing lightness of Cellular Board as compared 
with Box Wood. 



Send for Particulars. 



WE CAN SUPPLY YOU ANY SIZE YOU WISH. 

THE THOMPSON & NORRIS CO. 

6 Prince Street 
BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Boston, Mass.; Brookville, Ind.; Niagara Falls, Canada; 
London, England; Julich, Germany. 



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'8' 



SXAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



cxli 



Best 

For 

Home 



Portraiture 




'pHE new 8x 10 F. & S. Home Portrait Camera 
^ is designed especially for Home Portraiture. 
It is easily portable, finished in the best possible 
manner and fitted with every necessary adjustment. 
The front is large enough to permit the fitting of 
Portrait lenses, and the bellows capacity is ample 
for the most exacting work. 



SPEaFICATIONS : 



Focal capacity 
Size of lent board 
Wei^t 



22 inches 
7x7 inches 
11>^ lbs. 




THE PRICE: 

F. & S. Home Portrait Camera, 8x 10 with- 
out lens, including carrying case and 1 
double plate holder - - $60.00 

No. Auto Studio Shutter - 8.00 

Extra 8 X 10 Sterling Plate Holders, each 2.50 

F. & S. Home Portrait Tripod - 7.50 

Send for Circular 

Folmer & Schwing Division 

EASTMAN KODAK CO. 

ROCHESTER, N. Y._ , „ 

Digitized by 'LjOOQIc 



cxiii 



SXAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



THE PUTINOTYPE 



A portion of a letter from a prominent New England 
photographer: — "After almost two years of Developing 
Paper, I am writing to confess that I am getting tired 
of it and the craving for GOOD OLD PLATINOTYPE 
is coming back." 

x^ Write for sample Japine sepia. 

WILLIS 6? CLEMENTS 

PHILADELPHIA 



^ 



^kturjes 
Pl0untied 



Have an excellence peculiarl j their 
own. The best results are onlj 
produced bj the best methods and 
means— the best results in Photo- 
graph, Poster and other mountinf 
can only be attained by using the 
best mounting paste — 

HIQQIN8' PHOTO MOUNTER 

(Bxoellent noyel bnuh with eaeh Jar4 



HIGGINS' 
PHOTO 

MOUNTER 



At Dealers in Photo Si&pplles» 
AxtUto' MftterUU SAd BtmUamnj. 



A 8-os. Jar prepaid by mall for SS mbIs. 
or oironlars free from 

CHAS. M. HIQQINS A CO.* Mfrt. 

NBW YORK CHICAGO LONDOII 



Main Office, 271 Nlntii Street ) Bfooklvo. N. Y. 
Factory, 240-344 Bighth Street f U. S. A, 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap jS^fg^.|-)y y^j^|^v/|^^ 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



cxliii 











„„^^ 


■4 


% 


EAGLE 
ANTI-FRICTION 




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For preventing f 
veloping papers, als 

No. l—l^ pouni 
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i pa< 
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r producing snappy, warm tones. 

PRICE 

:kagc $ .25 

ckagc 50 


GEORGE MURPHV 


ic, 57 East Ninth Street, New York 



99 XRIMMER 

It Does the ^^orU. 




:fC& 



The Photographer has long felt the need of a good revolving trim- 
mer—one that is "SURE" to cut the print wet or dry. does not wear 
out the brass form, cuts smooth edges on any kind of a print. Every 
Photographer should have one of these trimmers. We guarantee all 
the parts of the "Sure" Trimmer — and will replace any defective or 
broken parts free of charge. PRICE, 75c. 

GEORGE MURPHV, Inc., 57 East Ninth Street, New York 




EABLE MASK FRAME 



(Patented) 
FOR TINTED BORDERS 

The Eagle Mask Frame makes it pos- 
sible to quickly and accurately obtain 
artistic borders on all kinds of printing 
papers. By cutting your own masks you 
can obtain an unlimited number of de- 
signs. This frame is what you have 
been looking for to simplify your print- 
ing. Complete instructions given. 
For 5x7 Negatives, Price $2.50 

GEORGE MURPHY. Inc. 

67 East 8th Street NEW YORK 



Dogle 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Royal Postal Folder 




If you wish to command a better price for your post-card work 
and give it a higher tone than your competitor, this is a folder that 
will serve that purpose. It is made of a heavy, handsomely embossed 
cover paper with a delicately tinted border-line running around the 
entire edge of both folder and opening, with an embossed head on 
the outside flap that is in perfect color accord with the stock itself 
We suggest this folder to all who desire to put forth high class postal 
card work. 

Colors: Sepia, Nut Brown, White, Gray 
Sizes Per 1,000 

J Folder. 4f4x9i/i, Oval 23/ix5 $2000 

S Folder, 4^x914. Square Opening, 2^x5 20.00 



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A Monthly Magazine for Photographers 



MmCUmOM BATBS FOB U. & AND CANADA FBB TEAS, $1.00; UZ MONTH^ 50 CBNTt 

siNOLB can, 10 cbnts. rounoN covntbxis, $l.Si 

POBUIBD BT THE INAr-IHOn WBU8H1NO OCk« «7 BAtT NI«T« ■nSBT, P^ TOM 



Volume 24 



AUGUST, 1913 



NU|4B£R 8 



N. I HI.Ni l 



TITLES ON NEGATIVES 



It can hardly be claiiped that a 
title of any sort printed upon the 
surface of a photograph possesses 
anything of the nature of an embel- 
lishment, yet it is often desirable 
and sometimes absolutely necessary 
that such an addition should be 
made, and it is as well that the let- 
tering should not be a disfigurement 
by reason of poor workmanship or 
bad taste in the choice of style. It 
is not unusual to find a technically 
good photograph of a building or 
piece of machinery made to appear 
quite third rate through a title hav- 
ing been daubed on the negative in 
uneven schoolboyish characters. 
There is not a wide range of styles 
available for the purpose, the object 
being clearness and distinctness 



often called block letters, the sort 
of italics known to lithographers ae 
**stump,'' and the fine hairline let-» 
tering used by pen and ink 
draughtsmen for titling their draw- 
ings. 

A TIP FOR NEAT LETTERING \ 

When the letterihg is done direct* 
ly upon the surface of the negativie 
it is necessarily reversed, and i)^^ 
beginner will probably make rather 
a botch of his first essay. How- 
ever, with a very little practice any 
person who can write decently, and 
to my knowledge some who catinot) 
will be able to work sufficiently wtU 
to pass muster. It is advisable to 
sketch out the desired wording on 
paper, so that when titling the n^ga- 



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SNAP SHOTS 



August, 1913 



special attention. When using 
"block" lettering two fine lines 
should be ruled in pencil upon the 
film and the top and bottoni of 
each character should just touch 
these lines; round letters such as 
O, C and Q should go a shade be- 
yond the top line, or they will ap- 
pear smaller than their neighbors. 
I may say that this tip was given 
me by a very skilful lithographic 
draughtsman, and its observance 
will prevent an otherwise good title 
from looking amateurish. 

GETTING LETTERING TO ''tAKE'' ON 
THE NEGATIVE 

We may wish either to produce 
black letters on a white ground or 
the reverse, according to the nature 
of the negative in hand. If there is 
a clear or thin space in the position 
selected for the letters white char- 
acters are needed, and they are best 
put in with a good photographic 
opaque and a steel pen, after, hav- 
ing previously wiped the surface 
with a tiny pad of cotton wool 
charged with diluted ox-gall and 
allowed to dry, In nine cases out 
of ten the corners of the negative 
are slightly greasy through han- 
dling, and it is often difficult to 
get water color to "take" upon it 
in this state. If no ox-gall is at 
hand a trace of yeflow soap on the 
cotton wool w^ill answer the same 
purpose. 

FIXING LETTERING 

The color used must not be too 
liquid and only a small quantity 



taken up in the pen each time. The 
writing may be done upon a re- 
touching desk, but I prefer to work 
with the negative flat upon an ordi- 
nary bench. The red color of the 
opaque is easily seen in this posi- 
tion, and any thin places can be 
touched in afterwards. I have 
found genuine vermilion a fine color 
for opacity and visibility, but it 
is a little more expensive and not 
always to hand. Naturally letter- 
ing done in this way requires some 
protection, or it will soon wear oflF. 
If put directly on the gelatine sur- 
face the ordinary varnishing will 
eflfectively fix it, but if the negative 
is already varnished a little "cold" 
varnish, either celluloid or gold size 
and benzole, may be used ; a thin 
streak just a trifle wider than the 
letters can be applied with a brush. 
The professional writer usually 
employs a fine sable brush instead 
of a pen, and black varnish instead 
of watercolor. The method is ex- 
cellent, but it requires much more 
practice to produce clean work. 

TRANSP.VRENT LETTERING ON NEGA- 
TIVES 

If it be found necessary to pro- 
duce the lettering upon a whitd 
ground the lines must be cut 
through the film. It is fairly easy 
for anyone who can use a retouch- 
ing knife to do this. The one 
thing to be avoided is scratching the 
letters through. Anything in the 
nature of a needle point must not 
be used. A spear-bladed retouch- 
ing knife does very well ; so do the 



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SXAP SHOTS 



143 



pen-nib print trimmers, while a 
very useful tool may be made of a 
very stout needle broken in half 
and fixed in a penholder, and the 
broken end ground down on an oil- 
stone to an angle of 45 to 50 degs., 
this gives an oval cutting face 
which will scrape lines out of a 
film very cleanly. 

It is a good plan to draw the let - 
tering in lead pencil upon the film 
before starting to cut. If the place 
where the title occurs is patchy it 
should be evened up with pencil or 
color, so that the black lettering will 
stand out clearly. In the case of a 
slip or error in working the place is 
filled in with opaque and the cor- 
rect letters cut through this. 

PRINTED TITLES 

These vary in character as much 
as written ones. I have before me 
some stereoscopic slides on which 
the titles have been produced by 
sticking a paper label with ordinary 
type upon it on the negative. This 
is the most oflFensive form of titling, 
as anything appearing like a label or 
ticket will ruin the appearance of 
the best photographs. Even if the 
title is upon a gelatine film care 
jnust be taken not to show the 
edges. Perhaps the most satisfac- 
tory method of printing a title is 
by means of reversed rubber type, 
fViP impression beiner made in a 



upon a very thin film, which is fixed 
to the negative by a suitable ad- 
hesive. The weak point of all print- 
ing methods is the loss of time 
caused by having to set up and ad- 
just a row of type for a single im- 
pression. Most methods involving 
the use of type necessitate white 
lettering on a dark ground. A 
semi-photographic method in com- 
mon use gives a dark lettering on 
a white ground or the reverse at 
will. If the former style be wanted 
the necessary titles are set up in 
type and a proof pulled on white 
paper. This is copied to any de- 
sired size upon a slow plate giving 
full density; the film is stripped in 
the ordinary way and cut into sep- 
arate titles, each being attached to 
its own negative. It is obvious that 
this system can be applied to writ- 
ten titles in cases where the pho- 
tographer doubts his powers of re- 
versed lettering. 

A word as to arrangement or 
^'display." One frequently sees on 
negatives of mechanical and sim- 
ilar subjects certain details and 
measurements stretched out in a 
long line across the negative. In 
most cases these would look better 
if arranged in two or three lines. 
In such cases it is better to com- 
mence all the lines level, like poetry, 
and not to arrange them like a title 



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August, 1913 



PHOTOGRAPHERS* ASSOCIATION OF NEW 

ENGLAND 

Magnificent Picture ExUbita^Big Prixef--nA Or^t Conventioci— COMEl— 
.. jFifteenth Annual Coavcintion, September 2, 3 and 4, 1918, Boston, Mast, 



While the 1911 convention was 
in progress in Bridgeport, the re- 
iquest was made by the National 
^ppci^tjon official$ that we post- 
rppne oqr meeting for 1912, so that 
A larger att^dance could be se- 
jcMred and more enthusiasm given 
Xq the Philadelphia convention, it 
btmg the great attraction for this 
-Section of the country, 

A late vote of the P. A. of A. 
obliges their convention to alternate 
in location edch year from East to 
Wfcst, and the one to.b^ held in 
Kansas City this year leaves the 
Eastern seaboard free from any 
-coUpter conventic«i attractions. 

ilibe executive board of the New 
England Association is getting into 
shape a program for the rfieeting 
this year, which will be very prac- 
tical knd instructive to a high de- 
gree. 

Demonstrations and talks by 
men of national reputation will add 
to the educational :^eature$; ad- 
dresses by rrtembers of the craft on 
every-day conditions which con- 
front "US will be of great benefit to 
all who listen, and Juari C. Abel's 
talfe on advertising and ^*How to 
F^re Profits and Overhead Ex- 
penses in the Studio'* cannot fail 
to be of help. 

''Whenever less than half a 
dozen men endeavor to originate 



plans or create a prograi^i that shall 
absolutely satisfy a hundred times 
as many other meh, they undertake 
the impossible i the extreme diver- 
sity of interests and standing repre- 
sented in our field presents suffi- 
cient difficulties ; add to this a uni- 
versal majnifestation of indifference 
to either seK-interest tir nwtual 
welfar^^nd the probl€i»i l^tands re- 



i^ealech 



' . ) v-i fV 



• *: Careful 'Study of th^hifltoty of 
our ass^c^tion gn-d the'aff)3iir$>^ 
siinilar orjgfanizaftpns h^s demon- 
strated cdhdusively • that success 
dries' i5fdt reie in " tlie ^tJlnitbi- ex- 
pense of talent/ the boufity bf the 
entertainment, or tW6' ittagmuitfe ^f 
the" crowd! True success dependj, 
wholly upon the benefits derived by 
each individual member attending 
the convention." 

Your executive board for this 
year recognizes the above senti- 
ments of a former presioent as be- 
ing most appropriate and truthful. 
You by your sentiment and suf- 
frage have directed us to bring 
forth a program for your obser- 
vation, education, gratification and 
entertainment, and we are trying to 
make good, but the returns for this 
work and thought depend wholly 
upon you, and if these conventions 
are to be continued your support 
and co-operation are necessary. 



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SNAP SHX3TS 



145 



The Gran^ Portra^ Class, a/cw 
to the world, with a prize of a sohd 
gold medal for the best 8 x 10 or 
larger (one picture only, framed or 
not), will induce many of oui" lead- 
ers to compete, and the qii^ity of 
the entries oug^t to be worthy of 
careful study. 

We ask for exhibits in portrai- 
ture, genre, landscape, marine, au- 
tochromes, animals and pelts, to 
make the largest exhibit ever 
shown at any ,Ncw England con- 
vehtion. ' - ' 1 




by a juiy. (beHevihg that this plan 
will tend tio^ upHft the quality of 
the exhibits), and a certificate of 
honor wffl be given to those of 
acknowledged merit. 

Loie no time, in getting your in- 
tended exhibit ready, and help 
ihake this collection erf portraiture, 
and special Imc of iridividual work 
ain €yie-c4)ener in the associadon's 
history. . 

A very large and meritorious 
loan collection from the studios of 
our ieadec? in America has been 



J The dealers and inpigifacturers 
will have their standard as well as 
improved 24>pliances of special use- 
fulness for the live worker, show-^ 
ing in comparison with each other 
the worthiness of their devices, and 
we bespeak for them a large share 
of your patronage for fall orders. 

Unusual prominence will be 
given to demonstrations of HOME 
PORTRAITURE in a specially ar- 
ranged room, and by men of high 
renown in that branch of the work, 
on Tuesday and Wednesday. 
' The entertainments given in the 
past to the members have always 
been of pleasurable interest, aad 
the dance on Tuesday evening will 
be as popular as" ever. 

The practical demonstrations, 
suggestions, criticisms and advice 
given by "Daddy" Lively and oth- 
eirs of national reputation will keep 
the New England Association in 
the front rank as heretofore com- 
plimented upon. — The Executive 
Board. 



DONTS 

Djon't forget to use an ample, but 
not too large quantity of developer. 
. Don't forget to rock the dish, or 
y<>u may have mottle skies. 

Don^t use the developer for a 
second plate ; it is false economy. 

Don't iorgtt to th(D(roughly rinse 
the, blate after develoi>naent, or vou 



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SXAP SH'OTS 



August, i()i3 



GLAZING PRINTS BY STRIPPING 



The method of producing a high- 
ly glossy surface by stripping off 
prints from a polished support ap- 
plies to prints made on a gelatine 
paper, that is to say, to P.O. P., 
bromide and gaslight. Prints on a 
collodion paper, such as many of 
the brands of self-toning paper 
upon the market, may, by a suit- 
able modification of the process, be 
glazed by the stripping method, but 
in this article I shall neglect the 
collodion papers for the reason that 
the bulk of glossy prints produced 
commercially are made on a gela- 
tine paper. Collodion P.O.P. or 
self-toning paper is almost always 
used for the sake of the fine natural 
surface of the paper ; there is no in- 
ducement to use it for glossy prints 
when this effect may be obtained 
more readily and cheaply on gela- 
tine paper. 

HARDENING THE SURFACES OF 
PRINTS 

One-half of the difficulties which 
are met with in stripping prints is 
occasioned by the want of sufficient 
hardness of the gelatine surface. 
Now that glazing by stripping is a 
process which is so widely used, 
many papers, chiefly of the bromide 
and gaslight varieties, are manu- 
factured with a specially hardened 
emulsion. Prints on such papers 
call for no special treatment with a 
view to easy stripping. On the 
other hand, many P.O.P.^s and nu- 
merous brands of bromide and gas- 
light require attention in regard to 



this point, particularly in hot weath- 
er, when the gelatine coating is lia- 
ble to become more than normally 
softened in the washing baths. One 
method of hardening prints is to let 
them become thoroughly dry after 
the final washing for removal of 
hypo. They are again soaked in 
water for a few minutes before lay- 
ing them down on the glazing 
plates. But this is a time-wasting 
method which usually cannot be 
employed when working upon a 
considerable scale. It is necessary 
to make the prints ready for squee- 
geeing to the glazing plates imme- 
diately they are washed free from 
hypo. Where hardening is neces- 
sary, the usual plan is to treat them 
for about ten minutes in 5 per cent 
alum solution (1 oz. of alum and 
20 ozs. of water), or in a bath of 
formaline of strength of from 10 to 
5 per cent, that is to say, 1 oz. of 
formaline, as purchased, in 10 to 
20 ozs. of water. The cheaper 
alum bath is actually preferable 
when working in quantity, since the 
vapor given off by formaline baths 
in constant use is apt to prove irri- 
tating, if not injurious, to the nasal 
organs. It is, however, not difficult 
to arrange for the bath to be placed 
where the vapors from it are car- 
ried off into the outer air. In the 
case of alum it is important to use 
a pure material ; much cheap alum 
is contaminated with iron. Such 
alum is liable to act quite positively 
as a reducer of P.O.P. prints ; also, 
there is the danger of irregular blue 



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August, 1913 SNAP 

stains on bromide or gaslight prints 
which have been sulphide-toned. 
Perhaps, in the case of develop- 
ment papers (bromide and gas- 
light), as good a plan as any is to 
do the hardening at the same time 
as fixing. The bath for this pur- 
pose is made up with chrome alum, 
soda sulphite and sulphuric acid, in 
addition to the hypo. I gave the 
formula for this in a previous ar- 
ticle ("B. J.," January 3rd, last), 
but may repeat it here : — 

Soda sulphite, crystals 2 ozs. 

Water 6 ozs. 

This solution may be made with aid 
of heat, but sulphite dissolves best 
at a temperature of about 100 degs. 
F. When dissolved add the follow- 
ing mixture, which should be pre- 
pared by adding the acid to the 
water, not vice versa, and leaving 
to cool: — 
Strong sulphuric acid. .2 drs. fluid 

Water 2 ozs. 

This mixture of acid and sulphite 
is then poured into a solution of : — 

Hypo 16 ozs. 

Water 48 ozs. 

and addition finally made of : — 

Chrome alum 1 oz. 

Water 8 ozs. 

This gives a fixer containing 4 ozs. 
hypo in 20 ozs. It is suitable 
strength for bromide and gaslight 
papers, but I should prefer the 
plain alum bath after fixing in the 
case of P.O.P. 

MATERIALS ON WHICH TO SQUEEGEE 

The materials with which to 
produce a glazed surface are glass, 



SH'OTS 



147 



enamelled ferrotype plate and cellu- 
loid. Of these there is no doubt 
that glass gives the finest glos§, 
whilst, short of occasional break- 
age, the glass plates may be kept 
in use for years without replace- 
ment. Both ferrotype and celluloid 
give a high gloss, and have the ad- 
vantage — which may be great in 
certain circumstances — of lightness. 
A large number of ferrotype or cel- 
luloid plates bearing prints may be 
hung up from lines or light laths 
quite easily, whereas, in the case of 
glass plates, a much more substan- 
tially built rjack or staging would 
be necessary. Thus, in the case of 
a large batch of glazed prints be- 
ing undertaken in a business which 
was not regularly doing such work, 
ferrotype or celluloid would prob- 
ably be found to lend itself more 
readily to the job than glass. The 
ferrotype plates may now be ob- 
tained of large size and enamelled 
on both surfaces. Celluloid sheets 
are sold chiefly in the form of the 
well-known "squeegee pads'' of the 
Altrincham Rubber Company. Each 
sheet of celluloid is sandwiched be- 
tween a pair of thin rubber sheets, 
which serve as a protection of the 
prints when the latter are being 
squeegeed down, and also provide a 
ready means of suspension of the 
celluloid when hanging up to dry. 

PREPARING THE SURFACE 

The first essential to ready strip- 
ping of the prints is perfect clean- 
liness of the glass or other plates. 
When taking glass plates into use it 



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SNAP SHOTS 



August, 1913 



1^ well to let them pickle in a mix- 
ture of about three or four parts 
•of water with one part of strong 
nitric acid. They are then well 
flushed with water, given a scrub 
over with hot soda solution, again 
rinsed, and may then be taken to be 
as clean for die purpose as they 
can be made. Celluloid or ferro- 
type plates must not, of course, be 
treated in this way, but such pre- 
llhiinary cleansing is not necessary, 
the plates being suitable for use 
ttfter the final preparation to be 
liow described. 

I The plates, of whatever kind, 
how require to be cleaned and pol- 
ished. The polishing materials 
ge^rally used are either French 
<:halk or a solution of wax. French 
chalk is the older method, but one 
still adhered to by many photogra- 
phers. A little is dusted over the 
^late, well rubbed over the whofe 
surface, arid then lightly dusted off 
again with a clean duster, which, as 
it picks up French chalk in use, is 
relegated to the first duty of apply- 
'Jtlg the chalk and a clean duster 
taken into use for the dusting off. 
The alternative cleaning prepara- 
tion is a solution, such as beeswax, 
^0 grains in turpentine, 1 oz. ; or 
'ipermeceti wax dissolved, in the 
same proportion, in benzole. This 
is rubbed over the plate with a piece 
of flannel, and polishing then done 
with a soft silk duster or a. piece of 
chamois. 

Some workers prefer to place the 
polished plate, under water when 



placing the prints upon it, but there 
is no real necessity to do so, so 
long as air bells between print and 
glass are thoroughly expelled by the 
use of a squeegee, which will give 
a firm and even pressure. The 
sque^ee may be of either the roller 
or bar variety, but whichever it is 
it should be of ample size and of 
good quality resilient rubber. Perr 
ished rubber will fail to make the 
necessary contact, and, moreover, 
will tear the prints. 

DRYING THE SQUEEGEED PRINTS . 

So long as the prints are not ex- 
posed to a temperature which 
causes the gelatine coating actually 
to soften, the more quickly they 
dry the better for readiness of 
stripping. On the commercial scale, 
where woric has to be got out in 
the minimum of time it is cus- 
tomary to provide a drying cup- 
board fitted with racks to take tht 
glass plates, and provided with an 
artificial draught of warmed air. 
An average time for the drying of 
a whole batch of prints on their 
glasses in such a cupboard will be 
from half an hour to three-quartets. 
In default of a special drying cup- 
board, prints are placed in a well- 
ventilated room, in which they wiH 
dry, as a rule, within a few hours. 
With proper preparation both of 
prints and glasses the glazed prints 
should drop off at a toilch, or at any 
rate should require only the slight- 
est pull to remove them from the 
plates. 



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August, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



i4p 



GLAZING SOLUTIONS 

Of late years a much more rapid 
and, at the same time, highly labor- 
saving method of glazing prints has 
come into use by the introduction 
^f sj>ecial solutions into which the 
prints are simply immersed for a 
^^w- minutes on removal from the 
y^aslx water, and are then laid down 
^'^irn^diately. and squeegeed to the 
^*asscs or ferrotypes. Several 
'"^^^^c3s of this form of preparation 
. ^^ on the market, and the method 
^^rtainly most valuable to all 
^'^^J^visiasts on both a larg^ and 
J^^IX scale. 

'^"'^^ING PRINTS BY SQUEEGEEING 

^^Ithough the chiei purpose of the 



squeegee and stripping method is 
for the glazing of prints, it may be 
used in precisely the same way f or 
.producing a matt surface on printis 
made on glossy paper, enajdoyi^g as 
the temporary support for the 
prints either ground glass or matt 
■celluloid. ScHne amateur workers 
have preferred the matt obtained in 
this way to that produced on a matt 
paper, but, personally, I think there 
is nothing in it. If I were required 
to produce a batch of matt-surface 
prints I should think I was wasting 
my time by using the method whilst 
the choice of almost endless degrees 
of mattness in commercial papers is 
now available. — B. J. of Photogra- 
phy. 



AQUARELLE-PRINTINO 



By Max 

^_^^nder the name of "Aquarelle- 
\Vmting" the European photo- 
graphic papers have a good deal to 
say about a new process similar to 
gum-printing. The method orig- 
inated in England, and is said to be 
superior to gum-printing and even 
to the newer oil process, giving 
beautiful matt prints with fine, 
deep shadows, and — ^last but not 
least— it is very simple to manipu- 
late. Nevertheless, while simple in 
principle, there are a few points 
that need special attention. 

A good water-resisting paper is 
first sized and then brushed over 
^ith a weak gelatinie-solution. 
When this is dry a simple coat of 



Wilcke 

water-color paint is applied, suffi- 
ciently thick to cover, but not so 
strong as to hide the texture of the 
paper when looked tfirough. When 
this is dry it is ready to be sensi- 
tized, and, when the sensitizer is 
dry the paper can be exposed with 
the aid of a photometer. It is now 
placed for a time in warm water 
and afterwards developed by means 
of an atomizer. In this last opera- 
tion, which is the most interesting 
part, a large measure of personal 
control is possible. The picture 
comes in the proper position, has 
fine modulation, a very soft inter- 
blending of the tones and extraor- 
dinary i^asticity. 



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SNAP SHOTS 



August. IQI^^ 



With so many excellences to its 
credit, I thought I should like to 
make a closer acquaintance with the 
process, although I had never tried, 
practically, either the gum or the 
oil printing method ; and, I may say 
in advance, that the success ob- 
tained justifies fine hopes if photog- 
raphers will take it up seriously. 

I will now endeavor to describe 
in a succinct but sufficiently com- 
prehensive way the various phases 
and delicate points of manipulation, 
and feel convinced that anyone who 
once tries the process will not 
quickly lay it aside. 

PREPARING THE PAPER 

Any paper that does not absorb 
water too readily can be employed, 
the most suitable being that used 
for water-color painting, prefer- 
ably with a nearly smooth surface, 
because the finished print shows a 
slight granularity, and if a rough 
paper is selected this may become 
excessive. For sizing — which must 
be done on the back of the paper — 
any desirable sizing material may 
be used; personally I have used a 
thin celluloid solution (first dis- 
solved in amyl-acetate and then 
thinned with denatured alcohol), 
because I happened to have this on 
hand, and the results were quite 
satisfactory. The quick drying of 
this solution also influenced my se- 
lection. After the sizing has dried 
the following gelatine solution is 
applied in a very thin coat : 

Water 100 parts. 

Sugar 4 " 

Gelatine (swelled). 4 " 



The sugar is first dissolved and 
then the gelatine, cut in small 
pieces, is added. After a short 
soaking the solution is placed in a 
water-bath and slowly heated; but 
the temperature must in no case ex- 
ceed 113 degrees Fahr. Keep it 
stirred constantly — with the ther- 
mometer itself is best — and remove 
from the water-bath as soon as the 
desired temperature is reached. 
The solution is now applied to the 
paper with a broad paste-brush in 
the proportion of about a quarter 
of an ounce to an 8x10 sheet. In 
order to spread the gelatine more 
thinly and evenly it is well to beat 
it into a rich froth before laying it 
on, afterwards going over it with a 
soft, damp linen rag, rubbing with 
gentle pressure in a circular direc- 
tion as when cleaning glass plates. 
Of course the coat must be as even 
as possible over the whole surface. 
After drying a second coat is to be 
given in exactly the same way. If 
three sheets are prepared at once, 
by the time the third sheet has re- 
ceived the first coat the first sheet 
will be ready for the second one. 
Between each operation the board 
on wTiich the work is done should 
be wiped oflF with hot water, to pre- 
vent any particles of hardened gela- 
tine from getting rubbed on to the 
paper and causing streaks. When 
dry the surface should be quite 
matte and the paper is ready for 

APPLYING THE COLOR 

For this the instructions are 
seemingly complicated ; but in prac- 
tice they are comparatively simple. 



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151 



Good, fresh water-color, such as 
can be obtained in tubes ahtiost 
anywhere, is thinned out to a half 
liquid mass and applied to the paper 
with the same stiff bristle brush that 
was used for the gelatine, going 
over the sheet in all directions. 
This is done with lighter and 
lighter pressure until the color dries 
under the brush. When finished 
the coat should be thin, but the 
white paper must not show through 
anywhere. Black is the easiest to 
work, and reddish colors are not 
difficult; but the purest colors pos- 
sible should be used. Mixed colors 
have not given me good results. 

SENSITIZING 

This is done best with an alco- 
holic solution of bichromate. Make 
a six per cent, solution of ammo- 
nium bichromate in water and thin 
it out with an equal quantity of de- 
natured alcohol. This is applied to 
the coated side with a soft brush, 
using only just enough to cover the 
surface evenly, otherwise streaks 
and rings will appear. This will 
dry completely in half an hour. 

PRINTING 

Any well modulated negative is 
suitable ; but a good density is nec- 
essary in the high-lights, as proper 
gradation in the whites is desirable. 
The tone-scale is particularly rich. 
Printing must be regulated with a 
photometer. It should be noted 
that red colors should be exposed 
one-third longer, while blue takes 
one-third less. 



DEVELOPING 

Developing is particularly inter- 
esting, and it is a real pleasure to 
watch the picture slowly appear, 
entirely under the control and the 
personal influence of the operator. 
The print is first soaked for about 
ten minutes in water heated to 
about 100 degrees Fahr. ; this is 
then poured off, leaving the print 
sticking to the bottom of the tray, 
which is stood on edge and the 
print sprayed with an atomizer. 
This should be of metal; for, in 
case of over-printing, hot water 
must be used, which is likely to 
crack glass receptacles. The high- 
lights appear first, and the details 
come out soon after. By bringing 
the atomizer nearer or .moving it 
away from the paper, and by using 
more or less pressure on the bulb, 
various effects can be produced in 
developing, such as intensifying the 
high-lights, holding back the shad- 
ows, etc. Moreover, the print can 
be modified at will by dipping a 
soft brush in the same color used 
for coating and touching up the 
shadows where needed. After the 
print is dry this retouching is not 
noticeable. 

When finished the picture shows 
a slight granulation that softens the 
contours, eases the gradations, and 
gives the whole a sort of high- 
toned, idealized appearance that re- 
sembles an etching mare than a 
photograph. On account of the 
grain, small pictures should not be 
selected ; in the larger sizes the ef- 
fect is that of a beautiful painting. 



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152 SNAP SHOTS August, 1913 

A NBW DIRECT CARBON PROCESS 

By J, L. Htiokc 



• ' A carbon printing process which 
renders unnecessary transference, 
and gives, therefore, non-reversed 
pictures direct, has long beeit a 
aesideratum. From time to time 
such papers have appeared on the 
market, without apparently becom- 
' ing a permanent success, but latter- 
ly a German firm (E. Bfihler and 
Company, Schriesheim, Heidel- 
|befg) has brought out an article 
'Which possesses many excellent 
^^characteristics, and deserves the 
ierious attention of all photogra- 
phers who aspire to produce some- 
thing better than the usual thing. 
It places a new power in the hands 
of pictorialists, and a description of 
It may hence be of interest to many 
readers who wish to produce prints 
of great depth in the shadows, and 
delicacy in the high lights, com- 
bined with a perfect velvety matt 
surface. 

As compared with the ordinary 
carbon process this dead matt char- 
acter of its surface and the quality 
and life with which it renders shad- 
ows are the distinguishing charac- 
teristics of the new paper. 

The most suitable type of nega- 
tive is one which will give a well- 
graded platinotype or vigorous (but 
not hard) P.O.P. print, but good 
results can be obtained from almost 
all but weak or fqggy negatives. 
.Until, however, familiarity with the 
process is gained, it is advisable to 



sdect those of the character above 
described. 

SENSITIZING 

The paper,, wj^ich is preferably, 
but not necessarily, a little larger 
than the negative to be printed 
from, is introduced face down- 
. wards into ordinary methylated 
spirits contained in a smooth dish. 
Allow to remain one minute, give 
an occasional rock, and avoid fric- 
tion with the bottom of the dish. 
This preliminary spirit bath is 
necessary to ensure even penetra- 
tion of the subsequent bichromate 
sensitizer. Lift the paper by one 
comer, allow to (hain for a mo- 
jnent or two, and immerse face up- 
wards for two minutes in a 2 per 
cent solution of potassium or am- 
monium bichromate (94 oz. bichro- 
mate to 1 quart of water). Tem- 
perature 50 to 60 deg. F. Keep the 
dish gently rocked. In hot summer 
weather it is advisable to carry out 
the sensitizing in a cellar or other 
cool place, unless ice is available 
for reducing the temperature of the 
solution, and it \s well, but not es- 
sential, to neutralize the sensitizer 
by the gradual addition of ammonia 
until the orange color just begins 
to turn yellow. 

Now take hold of the paper by 
two hands, draw the back of it over 
the edge of the dish so as to free it 
as far as possible from adhering 
solution, and pin by one comer to 



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Ajogust, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



fS3 



a sjielf or bosird to dry. While wet 
the pape^r is not seasitive tq light, 
h^nce s^siti^ii^ can b^ performed 
iijt daylight, but drying must be con- 
ducted m the dark, or in a room il- 
luminated by artificis^ lip[bt, or at 
ipost very feeble d^yli§^t Ii^ an 
ofdinary warm r^iwn tji^* Pftfier, ow- 
ing to the thinness of its C9a;t^ng» 
will ^ dry in from one-half to one 
hour; the.proc^^ should, however, 
iq no case be pienhitted to ^ke 
linger than thre^ hours, rpMrpct 
b^ fropi a sfove or fir^.i^ tq be 
a(voide^, but ^ warin (;up))Qar4* pr 
comer i3 ben^ciai rather ^thanpl^;^ 
erwise. In the aqueous biQ^lro^lf^te 
b^th thf film becomes very tender, 
. and great care nuist be ^ej^eirqised 
that nothing conies in contact with 
it until perfectly dry, or abrasions 
*fe ^otmd to reisuk. tiWforttttwfte- 
h^, this paper scannot be ien9iti;ted 
tri^ the ^idt sensitizer which acts 
so well in the ekse oi orflimirytak-- 
btti paper. ^ i ' ^ 

^'* KEEPING QUALltlES ' ■ 

In sunmier the paper will keep 
for two or three days after being 
sensitized, and in wintet* f6t at 
leait a week. Stored In a calcium 
cM6riai ^be or;box, W wfll* prdb^ 
*ly Tcltop longer/but the^^rfritei- has 

'[ " ;". PRiirniTG • " 

. The. perfectly dry paper is placed 
in ;|hc printing frame. as u^ual, np 
j^ie e^Vbeiflg fUecessary. Ex- 
pQStifi^ i3. best determined by. acti- 
ncmicter. The time ^ecessary for 
P.O.P. to yield a satisfactory un- 



toned print will be about right foi; 
tbje black paper. Brown, sepia and 
^ed ^halk papers require a rather 
l^^g^r, green and blu^ a shorter e^^-f 
ppsure. In the c<^e of negative 
with a good range of contract;, 
printing may also be controlled by 
inspection by transinitted light. It 
is. finished when the halftones are 
distinctly visible but the high lights 
not yet indicated. With some prac- 
tice it is in this w^y possible to dis;^ 
pense with an actinpmeter, but tm- 
til experience has been gained it is 
better not to do so. 

DEVELOPMENT 

This must take place as soon 
^fter printing as possible, since, as 
with all bichromate papers, a con- 
tinuing action of light proceeds so 
^at a normally printed proof, if 
left more than a few hours, may 
develop up as if over-printed. Pos- 
sibly storage in a calcium tube pr 
box would check this action. 

Development is effected by 
pieans of warm water and a fine 
rose. The latter is three to four 
inches in diameter, with holes not 
more than l-50th to l-70th inche;^ 
diameter. (If not obtainable else-: 
where the manufacturers of the pa^ 
per will supply such roses,) It is 
wired io a short length of stout 
rubber tubing of best quality, and 
this is pushed over a tap from 
which a gqod .pressure of water is 
obtained, for qu ^ufllioient pressure 
the successful ^development of the 
pripta in a^eat Jjwasure 4^pend$. 
Two dishes are required, one con- 



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August, 1913 



taining cold, the other warm water 
at 100 to 120 deg. F. Soak the 
print face upwards in cold water 
for a minute or two, place it on a 
sheet of glass or on the back of 
a developing dish, and gently spray 
it to remove any adherent air bub- 
bles. (A camel-hair brush cannot 
be used for this purpose.) The 
print is now transferred, always 
face upwards, to the warm water, 
the temperature of which should be 
determined by a thermometer, and 
not by the fingers. Have a jug or 
kettle of boiling water at hand to 
occasionally add to the warm water 
to keep its temperature up. H cor- 
rectly exposed, all the details of the 
print should, as a rule, be visible in 
from one-half to one minute. The 
surplus pigment, however, does not 
entirely dissolve away, but has to 
be removed by the spray. As be- 
fore, the print is placed on a piece 
of glass or smooth board (to which 
it can conveniently be attached by 
means of a bull-dog clip), held ver- 
tically under and an inch or two 
away from the rose, and, while 
the latter is kept moving, the water 
is gradually turned on. The pres- 
sure is increased by degrees until 
the print is thoroughly cleared and 
the high lights are pure. H neces- 
sary, it may be returned for a few 
seconds to the warm water and 
again sprayed. 

If the water pressure is not good, 
it is preferable to leave the print 
for two or more minutes in the 
warm water before spraying it, but 



treatment as above described will 
give the best results with normal 
negatives. For over-printed proofs 
the water may be used at tempera- 
tures up to 150 deg. F., but in this 
case the spray must, to begin with, 
be carefully used, or portions of 
the film may be washed away, espe- 
cially in the high lights. 

Considerable control can be exer- 
cised by locally pouring hot water 
over parts which it is desired to 
lighten, and spraying off. Or a 
very small rose, about one-half inch 
in diameter, may be employed. 
With it high lights can be intro- 
duced, too solid shadows reduced, 
and, indeed, undesirable features 
sometimes entirely removed. 

ALUM BATH 

When the bichromate stain is no 
longer visible, the prints are im- 
mersed in a 5 per cent alum bath 
(1 oz. to the pint) for from five to 
ten minutes. This hardens them, 
and removes the last traces of 
bichrome. 

WASHING 

Ten to fifteen minutes is suffi- 
cient. Suspend the prints in a 
bucket of water or a bath by Jay- 
nay or other wooden clips, or wash 
in a dish with three to four changes 
of water at five-minute intervals. 
Washing troughs, in which the 
prints are kept circulating, must not 
be used, or their surface, which is 
very tender, will be injured. — The 
Amateur Photographer & Photo- 
graphic News. 



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August, 19 1 3 



SNAP SHOTS 



'55 



SPOTS ON NEGATIVES 

How They May Be Removed or Touched Out 
By L. Steele 



Every amateur photographer at 
some time or another has had the 
misfortune to want to be able to 
make a good print from a negative 
which is disfigured by one or more 
spots; and he has no doubt made 
the attempt to remove or conceal 
these spots, not always with suc- 
cess. Yet "spotting/' as the opera- 
tion of removing spots from nega- 
tives or prints is termed, is not at 
all difficult if it is set about the 
right way, and with the right tools. 
The requisites are one or two 
fairly small camel hair brushes, 
some water color Indian ink and 
Payne's grey, and some means by 
which the negative can be support- 
ed at a convenient angle, like the 
paper on a writing desk, and il- 
luminated from below. Nothing as 
elaborate as a retouching desk is 
required for this purpose. A 
rough board, such as the lid of a 
packing case, 18 X 14, or there- 
abouts, will serve very well. It is 
supported, deskwise, by two legs, 
about four inches long, at two of 
its corners. In the middle of it 
is cut an opening, an eighth of an 
inch smaller each way than the 
negatives, and its upper surface is 



fVtori /»mr/»r/»/4 -_ •^t- -» ...^.^^^l. _1 a. ..^^1^1^^ 



act as a reflector is laid upon it, 
and the board is placed over this. 
The negative fits in the hole in the 
card, while the wood below pre- 
vents it from falling through. If 
preferred, a cardboard shield may 
be attached vertically to the edge 
of the board nearest the window, 
so as to cut off some of the light 
falling on the top of the negative; 
but although for retouching work 
this is a necessity, it is not required 
for mere spotting, in fact most 
people, I think, will find it easier to 
work without it, seeing more what 
they are about. 

Every negative has, or should 
have, some parts along its edges, 
where there is little or no deposit 
at all. A little of the water colors 
should be mixed on the palette and 
tried, by brushing the merest trace 
of the mixture upon such a bare 
place, until it is seen to be a very 
fair match in color with the de- 
posit of the negative itself. A mere 
touch of the brush will convey 
enough pigment to the palette to 
spot several negatives. 

The first attempt to fill up a 
transparent spot with water color 
generally ends by the spot itself re- 



.,.l,;i^ 4.U« «r^1^«. ^••^r. 



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August, 1913 



difficult to convince utrybtko vuXtJl 
he actually tries it for hinself fxow 
very little moisture the brush need, 
nay must, contain. It is just 
touched upon the |>alette, laid near- 
ly flat on a piece of paper,, and. 
"twizzled" round until it almost 
ceases to make a mark at aU ; and 
then, in that condition, its point is 
brotight gendy down on the nega- 
tive, where there is a transparent, 
pin-hole. Inall probability, if these 
directions have been carefully fol- 
lowed, the pin-hole will be foimd to 
have^raniAed under the brush. Of 
course, when the brush is used air 
most dty, it will only serve to block 
a very few holes, before it must 
go to the palette again. 

It is best to start the spatting 
by filling up all those holes, which 
occur in the densest parts of the 
negative, as these will be the most 
conspicuous in the print. Those 
which are to be found in the more 
transparent parts, especially, where 
the subj^t is of a broken, irregular 
character, are not likely to need 
filling up^at all. 

So ^ar, only transparent spots 
have bieen referred to. As a matter 
6( fact, it is not at all easy to re- 
move opaque spots from a n^*- 
ttve; the better course is to niake 
them invisible by spotting the 
print. This is done with water 



the bru^, IpjfvfQ only a very faint 
mark upon the paper. 

Some workers advocate making 
all transparent spots on a n^ative 
into opaque ones, not troubling 
about either n^atching the color of 
the image, or the density; so that 
the spots print out quite white. 
They are then spotted out on the 
print Although this sounds like 
doubling the work, it is, perhaps, 
of the, twp methods, the easier ; but 
it is olten possible to save a good 
deal of subsequent spotting on the 
print by taking a little trouble to 
m4tch dey^sities when spotting the 
negative. — Photography. 



A FRW DON'TS 

Don't be too hasty in withdraw- 
ing the n^ative from the fixiog- 
bath or parts of the film will be in- 
sufficiently fixed. 

Don't let dust rest on your plate ; 
to remove it grasp the plate on 
two edges and strike the bottom 
edge lightly on the table. 

DoH't usp a dusting-brush; it is 
apt to collect the dust, and by force 
of attraction this dust will prob- 
ably be transferred to the plate. 

Don't forget to dust your slides 
and camera frequently, especially 
after they have been laid aside ior 
some time. 



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157 



PHOTOORAVHIHQ GLAS&WARS 



We frequently receive queries re- 
lating to the photography of glass, 
such as cut-^ass services, etc.j and 
the queries generally include a re- 
quest for some medium that can be 
appHed to the glass, presumabl}' to 
tone down reflections. The objec- 
tions to using any such medium are 
fairly obvious, for while it renders 
an elaborate clearing necessary, it 
must also destroy the natural ap- 
pearance of the glass in the result- 
ing photographs. As a matter of 
fact, all that is wanted is a little 
extra care in arranging and light- 
ing the subject; this, coupled wiih 
correct exposure and developing, 
producing as good a result as can 
be desired. Indeed, the matter is 
really such a simple one that no 
experienced practical photographer 
should need to ask for advice, all 
that is required being good pho- 
tography. Suppose we are dealing 
with a cut-glass vessel of some 
kind showing numerous bright re- 
flecting facets. If the light is ob- 
tained direct from an ordinary win- 
dow each facet will reflect the win- 
dow bars and numerous other ob- 
jects, and in the photograph it 
will be broken up into a number of 
confusing lights and darks. This 
confusion will obscure the pattern 



But tht remedy is obvious. Let all 
t"he light that reaches the glass from 
the window be diffused by ground 
glass or a sheet of thin tissue pa- 
per, and then there can be no re- 
flected images of the window, or if 
reflections of any other objects 
standing uear are visible remove 
those objects, and then the trouble 
is got ovfer. Another source of 
confusion may be objects behind 
the glass that are seen through it, 
and . to avoid this a plain back- 
ground is necessary. Possibly black 
velvet is about as good as anything, 
but plain white will also serve in 
some cases. In settling the ex- 
posure we must consider the sub- 
ject to be one of strong contrasts, 
and therefore must give an ample 
exposure and develop for a soft 
negative. The contrasts can be 
diminished considerably by using a 
color sensitive plate, and a yellow 
screen for this will cut out a good 
deal 6i the light from the more 
brightly reflecting facets. Similar 
methods to these will serve equally 
well ^ith polished silver goods, and 
if we rely on simple photographic 
measures the results will be far bet- 
ter than any obtainable after be- 
dewing the metal by the use of ice 
water, or after adopting any other 



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August, 1913 



TRADE NEWS AND NOTES 



New England Convention. On ac- 
count of the National Convention hav- 
ing been such a distance away this year 
most of the Eastern photographers were 
unable to attend, but you should not 
fail to attend the New England Con- 
vention to be held in Boston, September 
2nd, 3rd and 4th. This will be the lar- 
gest Eastern convention of the year. The 
executive board asks for exhibitions in 
portraiture, genre, landscape, marine and 
autochromes. They desire to make the 
exhibition the largest ever shown at any 
New England convention. Send them a 
sample of your best work and don't fail 
to make arrangements to attend your- 
self. 



Developing Tanks. If you contem- 
plate installing a department for doing 
amateur finishing there is only one 
proper method of developing and that is 
the tank method. Our advertiser, 
George Murphy, Inc., is advertising in 
this issue a set of concrete developing 
tanks which are the most perfect in con- 
struction and arrangement which we 
have seen for this purpose. If you have 
a system of these tanks installed ' you 
can do better work, turn out a larger 
volume in less time, and much more 
economically than your competitor. 



Ross Teleceniric Lens. The Ameri- 
can agents advise us that the tele- 
centric lens is now being used in several 
of the largest studios for portrait work, 
as in addition to its special advantages 
for photographing sporting events, etc., 
it' has been found to be unequalled as a 
portrait lens. 



National Convention. As we go to 
press the National Convention is in ses- 
sion at Kansas City. Before this reaches 
you the happenings will be a matter of 
history. We hope in our next issue to 



give you a concise account of the con- 
vention and what has been done for the 
good of the photographer. A detailed 
report will appear in the Association 
Annual which will be issued some time 
during August. 



Special Autotype Tissues for Photo- 
gravure Process. The Autotype Com- 
pany have recently added to their very 
large assortment of carbon tissues two 
grades of tissue especially suitable for 
the rotary photogravure process, their 
G 4 and G 5. If you are interested in 
photogravure work you should consult 
the American agents regarding these 
new tissues. We understand they are 
being largely used by European workers. 



Velour Black Papers. The new ve- 
lour black papers manufactured by the 
Rochester Photo Works, and which they 
have recently placed on the market, have 
already found a great many constant 
users. This is a new enlarging paper, 
not a bromide, but it can be used for 
either contact or enlarging. It is made 
in several surfaces to meet all require- 
ments. Portrait enlargements made on 
this paper can hardly be distinguished 
from originals. Write to our advertiser 
for samples. 

Also send for some of their new con- 
tact developing paper "White Laurel." 
This is made in three emulsions: soft, 
medium and hard. It is a paper which 
has great latitude, and for portrait work 
and amateur finishing it gives perfect 
satisfaction. 



Everything being equal, the profes- 
sional photographer invariably buys 
those materials which produce the best 
results— we had E. K. Tested Chemicals 
in mind. From price list, which has just 
reached us, we are particularly pleased 
to note the large assortment of these 



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g^ust, 191 3 



SNAP SHOTS 



159 



^ ^^Hals listed. There is a developing 
^cirf^^ for every conceivable want, sodas, 
toj/^^ and every chemical that has a pho- 
si^^Phic use being listed, all in various 



<^<i 



Containers to fill the wants of all 



%jj ^- All of the photographic publica- 

^f ^^.Have been telling you of the merits 

(i^ti 's line, just what they are and why 

Uo^i^ ^^ould use them. These facts, we 

Yvv ^. are sufficient argument for you 

r\v ^^c sure your next chemical pur- 

^^S^^ bear this mark of identification — 

*'^. IC. Tested." 



^^ 



Ross Convertible Lens. The Ross 
Company have recently added a new 
series of convertible lenses working at 
F/6.3 and F/6.8. They are specially suit- 
able for portraits and groups in the 
studio and all classes of outdoor work. 
The F/6.3 series have two different foci, 
the back and front combination working 
at the same focal length. The converti- 
ble lenses working at F/7 and F/8 have 
three different foci. Write to the Amer- 
ican agents, George Murphy, New York, 
for detailed description. 



Cooper-Hewitt Light. Artificial light- 
ing has become very popular on account 
of the ease with which it can be handled, 
and the economy in producing large 
quantities of work irrespective of the 
weather or time of day. The new 
Cooper-Hewitt light' is furnished in a 
proper form for printing, operating and 
enlarging. Send to George Murphy, 
Inc., New York, for their new book de- 
scribing this system of artificial lighting. 



Home Portrait Camera. The new 
SxlO F. & S. home portrait camera is 



designed especially for home portraiture. 
It is fitted with every adjustment neces- 
sary, is very portable, and has a front 
large enough to permit of the fitting of 
portrait lenses. Send to your dealer for 
a circular describing this new camera. 



The Rough & Caldwell Co. are now 
distributing their new catalogue of pho- 
tographic accessories, the most complete 
catalogue of photographic studio acces- 
sories that has ever been published. 
Over fifty different varieties are shown, 
and photographers can readily make se- 
lections from the illustrations. This 
catalogue meets a demand that has ex- 
isted for quite sometime. Write to them 
for a copy. 



Distorto. If you want to surpise 
your friends and show them how they 
v/ould look if longer, shorter, broader, 
and thinner, get one of the Distorto 
attachments advertised in this issue. 
Some photographs recently shown us 
were truly laughable. Just the things 
for postcards. 



Look at the inside of the front cover 
and you will learn something new about 
the Photomailer for mailing prints to 
your customers. It insures their reaching 
the customers for further partic- 
ulars. Don't forget to mention Snap 
Shots. 



The paste that will stick, will stay 
and will not discolor the prints, is Hig- 
gins'. It has been on the market for 
many years, and prints mounted with it 
years ago have never come off nor has 
the paste discolored them. All dealers 
have it in stock. 



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August, 1913 



STUDIO WANTS 



GQlleries for Sale or Rent 
D, F. M., gallery in New York City, 

$3,500. 
F. S. W., on Long Island, $900. 
A. M. C, in NeVrjersey, $900. 
F. S., gallery in New 'York state. 
W, C. O., gallery in New Jersey. 
jL. B, Ci gallery in Pennsylvania. 
p. R-,F., gallery in Ix)ng Island. 
A, J. G., gallery in Adirondack moun^ 

tains 

Parties Desiring Galleries 

Miss F. C, wants gallery in town of 

10,000-15,000. 
T. D., wants gallery in small city. 
A. M., waints to bwy or rent within 40 

miles ol New York. 
R. S. GL, wants. gallery in small city. 



V«tl«*— Litttrt fkd«r»tMd to •9jm» is 
for •aoh itMt m that tboy can bo ro-nailod. 



Positions Wanted— Operators 
J. W. J.» coninftcrcial photc^rapher. 
G. L., expert all-around photographer. 
H. F., (^)erator and retoucher. 
T. N. E., all-round man. 

Positions Wanted— Retouchers, Recep- 
tionists 

Miss C. E, O., retoucher, receptionist. 
Miss E. L. S., colorist — first-class. 
Miss B. M., reception-room. 
M. H. O., retoucher and etcher. 

Studios Desiring Help 
J, D. S., wants an all-roimd operator. 
M4 C. & P„ wants view photographers. 
V. L. & A., wants manager of studio. 
P. Studio, wants operator and printer. 
W. O. B., wants retoucher, background 
worker and manager^ 

ovr ouro ikovU ¥0 •ocomfnioa wttk Bmii 



SEND YOUR SUBSCRIPTION NOW 

Our Yttar expires January 1st and we want your Renewal. 91*00 per year. 
Photographic nowa from every aection ia worth five timea oar anbacriptioa 
price. 

OUR SPECIAL CLUBBING LIST 

We offer the Special Clubbing List of Snap Shots with American and Biq^ 
lish Annuals and the English Journals. A combination that gives to die 
American photographer photographic news that combined gives him the field 
covering tiie English-speaking photographic world: 
4 year's Snap Shots with American Annual of Photography (1914 paper 

y .e4itton) , $1.50 

1 year's Snap Shots witii British Journal Photo. Almanac OOl^ paper 

editioti) ^..: 1.25 

1 year's Snap Shots wiUi 1 year's subscription to British Journal of 

Photography S . 7i 

Snap Shots and 1 year's subscription to Photography and Focus (Bng.) S.90 
Snap Shots and 1 year'a subscription to Amateur Photography and Pho- 
tographic News (English) 4.90 

SNAP SHOTS PUB. CO. 17 Bast Mi St, Now York 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTTSEMENtS 



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POSrflONS offeredW ^AiltED, POR S^K 
TO KENT,'W'ANT to PURCHASE, EXCHANGE»&c. 



AiiiMtinceiiiciiti under these and siiniUr iiea<^g8 of lort^ ;words or Ie«s, wiH b^ inietted 
for forty cents. For each additional wold, «U ceitt . Dispfartd advertistme^tt CO .cents 
per inch. Cash must accompany order. When rep|ifs« are. addressed to our oaac^.lOt c^ts. 
at least must be added to cover probable postage on same t6 adrertiKr. - A d y ci lis e iaaau 
should reach ta by the 80th to secuvf insertions in the aftecaedinf ia^t. ^ A copy •! the 

Jonmal sent f see 'to every advertiser Is lang as the^'^ad" is* eontin«e<' * ^ ' 

Snap Shots bring prompt returns. 



eontinaedL-' AMTtiiftflMafa in 



AN ADVERTISEMENT IN THESE GOLUM^IS 

li fto OTcrfJgn^ Mad nf e mcdliim of comnmni— Htnt Mi»t«tt PkoCo|^|iiin 



' ■ ' f ' I ■ ■ ■ I I ■ I I . 

Flashlight Outfit Foe Sale: One 
14x20 Banquet Camera, fitted with 
No. 7 Dagot Lend, Series III, 16J4 
inch; eight Prosch Flash Bags, com- 
plete, $200; Lens only $100; Camera 
only $40; flash bags only $10 each. 
George Murphy, Inc., 67 East 9th St., 
New York. 



For Sale: Studio in Long Island 
City;. no coraQetition within 22^ miles, 
with a good surrounding trade. Large 
o pefating re^ W y reeeptioa ro o m, 
dressing room^^dark room and stooc 
room. W^lMtiventory close to $20j, 
with good prifes. Price, $1,200. Th^B 
Is a fine tpfotftunity for a live, active 
photo^aphJr. ' Address, F. S. W;, 
care Snap Shots. j 

— fc- 

Flir Sale: An Ansto Lamp, 220 
vAM, ' direct 4:uxrelit, 2&, amperel 
Complete, boxed ready for shipment, 
$S$. Address; M. G., care Snaip Shoti 

Wanted: Young man as salesmaii 
and manager o£ retail department iti 
large photo supply house in Neilf 
York City. Must be experienced in 
selling professional goods. Send pho- 
t^gtaph and give full particulars in 
Ur^i letter. Howe, care Snap Shot$. 



For Sale: One 18x22 Anthony Ma- 
hogany Reversible Back Studio Cam- 
era, double bellows, curtain slide 
holder with statkl, in good condition. 
Price, boxed ready for shipment, $46. 
One 14x17 Rerersible Back View 
Camera with two double holders ki 
very good condition. Price, boxed 
ready for shipment, $32.00. Address, 
R. N., care Sna^ Shots. 

Enlarging — Send 50 cents, stampe. 
for diagram, instructions and photo- 
graph, g jtpfa itts Irew to make appa* 
ratus to use in connection with cam- 
era, if back is detachable. Mine cost 
me less than $2 to make. Can enlarge 
4x5 or smaller (plate or filnij^ or can 
use same idea for larger size. En- 
larges any size. R. W. Dodson, lOT. 
McCartney St., Easton, Pa. 

For Sale: Photo Studio, best lofa- 
tion hi the heart bf tfie city. - CMh^ 
good business; good surrounding 
country. Established over thirty 
years. Studio worth about $3,000, 
but will sell for less in cash. Rea- 
,son for selling is on accotmt of 
.other business. All letters must be 
/?;?? to: Tony Leo, 5 West Main St., 
. 'Middletow n, N. Y. 

/ For Sale: Owing to the death of 
finy husband, I desire to sell studio 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



STOP!! LOOK!! 

Have you a camera you wish to sell or 
exchange? Write us. We have been 
in the exchange business for twenty 
years and are known all over the 
country as THE LEADER. 

WRITE for our NEW No. i8 
BARGAIN LIST. It's a HUMMER. 

NEW YORK CAMERA EXCHANGE 

189H FBLTM SHEET lEW lOIK 



COOPER HEW 

FOR PHOT< 

We now have res 
ferring to the Coop 
as prepared for th 
graphic purposes, 
factory. 

Giorge Murphy, Inc., 57 



Art Studies 

PHOTOGRAPHS FROM LIFE MODELS 

Finest Collection for Artists 
and Art Lovers 



Illustrated Catalogue sent free on denuind 



C. KLARY 

103 Avenue de Vllllers PARIS (PRANCE) 



CAMERA i 

If you would like i 
beautiful, practical, ii 
photographic magazi 
edited with the purpc 
photographers how t 
rials and skill to tli 
cither for profit or ai 
your name on a post 
get or delay, but wi 
three latest numbers 
cents. $1.50 a year. 
AMERICAN PH< 
501 Pope Bulldino 



You Can Reproduce Your Pictures in 

NATURAL COLO 

on the 

DUFAY COLOR PLv 

Process the simplest, results the most perfect reproduction of na 
possible to obtain. Dufay color plates are of very fine texture 
are guaranteed for 12 months. 



8ix4r 



si z sr 



PBIOE LIST PE& BOX OF FOTTB 

$1.80 4x6" 

1.85 



6x7" 

00MPEK8ATINO 80BEEN8 
$1.20 8iz8) 



1.60 
8.00 



8i z 81" 
41 X 41" 



OBEEK EXCEL8I0B PAPEB FOB DABS BOOM 
PEB PACKAGE OF 6 SHEETS 

6x7" 10.18 8 X 10" 

Complete set Solntioni $1.86 

Send a trial order. Descriptive booklet mailed free on request. 



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sxAP SHOTS— advertisp:ments 



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The Improved Focal Plane Wynne 
Exposure Meter calculates the short- 
est allowable exposures to i-iooo 
second. Saves its cost in plates alone 
in a very short time — to say nothing 
of the saving in vex- 
ation and disappoint- 
ment. 



Focal 
Plane 



The same meter has the 
usual full adaptability to 
all classes of exposure 
determinations, requirirg 
but the turning of the 
dial to the time required 
for tinting the sensitive 
paper. 




We are at all times prepared to sup- 
ply shutters, speed testers, extra 
dials, plate and film speed cards, and 
fresh sensitive paper for use in the 
Wynne Meter, if your 
dealer is not. 



Wynne 
Meter 



Write us for full descrip- 
tive circulars concerning 
the new Wynne Meter. 
You will be convinced 
that the use of a reliabFe 
means of timing your 
exposures correctly is the 
ooe thing lacking. 



GEORGE: MURPHY, Inc. 

— Manufacturer and Importer of — 
Every Description of Photographic Material 

57 East Ninth Street New York 

Send 10c for our new complete catalogue. An encyclopedia of photographic goods. 



Rhodol 



METOL, SATRAPOL and other trade names have been 
adopted by different manufacturers for the chemical Mono- 
methylpara-amidophenol sulphate. We are supplying this 
chemical under the name RHODOL and guarantee our 
article when used in the same way, to produce identical 
results. 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEME^ltS 




Qet a Trox Film Washer 



jEE 



TROX nun lASHEA 



3 




1/^;.- 



GCORQC MURFHY, lite. 



and do your own developing at homo^ 
No tnofe stooping over a basili fof 
tn hour. Wash yonr roll films in 10 
minutes without ^ny handling or at- 
tention. 

NO MORE RUINED NEGATIVES 

Attach to aQy cold water faucet aod 
turn on the Water. The TROX will 
do the rest and DO IT in id MIN- 
UTES. 

Fool proof and thorougb. Simple asi 
durable. 

Pricet 50 cents 

67 Catt mh Str#«t, Htw Y^rlt 



'}m^' 



SEPIA PILLOCLOTH 

A clotb wbieti civei ik S«^ tvam lO 
the foUowina colors » 

N<s. 1 Gold "" TJo, 4 White 
Ne, t Yellow Ifo^ 5 Purple 

No. 3 Fixik No. Green, 

Simple to lac — siiPply wjs&h id odJd 
water and &x in Hypo. W'iW keep va- 
definiteiy* Age does n&t adect it iKfoft 
or after printing- just the ttiiiig tur 
PllLaw^topAf table covers, lambccQUialto 
etc, 
S%7L 4^ cats of It ihefte. ....... I .SI* 

Sliit BH can <Jf Tf HUfWrrTTTTTr .81 

4x5 citi of 13 *heeu. - .&5 

Ft X 7 cm of 13 sheets.,,.,.,, 1,00 
OHx S^ can of li sheets.... ..,. I,i0 

B xll> caa of U sheet* 1,04 

12 J£3i can of line sheet.. .,,.,. .f^ 
la nclt can of otte sheet. .-. ,.*- .H 
to x^ can of ojre sheet- ...,,,. -TO 
90 x34 can of one sheet........ 1,00 

IS x55 can of one shecl- * , 1*U 

67 Fv«t Oth Straol, fi«w Yorlt etty 



IF YOU USE THE 



STAR NEGATIVE FILE 



(Patented >uly l!5, If^O) 




you can instantly lo^tf anjf 

negative desired. This file prtt* 
vjdes ^ pttrftfct tucan^ of stortog 
and indexm^ negatives. It is a 
heav V pastchrtard box covefed ill 



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No Matter VHwrelie Mercury Stands 

HAMMER PLATES M]^T THE ISSUE! 

"Working farst anid drying quickly, with firm, tough films, 
tMey hare little tenderity to frill- and are the BEST plates 
made. 

Hammer's Special E;xtra Fast (red label) and Extra Fast 
(blue label) and Hammer's Orthoelil-omatic Plates fill all 
requirements. ' 




Hammer's little book, "A Short Talk on Negative Making," 
mailed free. 

HAMMER DRY PLATE COMPANY 

Oki« Av«. and Miami St. St. toula, Mo. 




SS 



The "FAVORITE 
INTERIOR BENCH 
ACCESSORY 

The No. 3086 B Interior Bench 

Price I35.00 
Crated F. O. B., New York 

Artistic Photographic Chairs, 
Benches, Balustrades, Pedes- 
tals, and Special Accessories 
from any design. 

ROOM & CALDWELL 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



) 




CONVERTIBLE LENSES 





F.63 TO F.8 DOUBLETS 

Universal Series of Lenses Specially Suitable for Portraits 
and Groups in the Studio, and for all Classes of Outdoor 
photography, Interiors and Copying — 

No. Front Back Combined Ap'ture Plate Price 

1 734" 7'4" aVs" 6.3.. 3Kx3M $47-75 

2 9" T'A" 4>4" 7 S'AmVa • , 5145 

4 9" 9" 5" 6.3 4 x5 55.10 

4a.... 9H" 9H" 9A" 6.3 4 x5 62.50 

5 "K-" 9" 5^" 7 5 x6 • 60.65 

7 11/2" ii'A" 6//' 6.3 5 x7 66.15 

8 14" iiJ-^" 7" 7 5 x7 74.25 

II 161/2" 14" 8>^" 7 6«x8* 92.75 

13 16J/" 16//^" 9'4" 6.3 62x8* 106.25 

14 igi4" YdVi" 10" 7 7 x9 126.75 

17 23i/>" 1914" 12" 7 8 xio 169.00 

And all sizes to 12x15. Send for detailed list. 

AMERICAN AGENTS 

QEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

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SXAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



cli- 



Do You Get 

Pictures 

Like This? 




It requires a lens of speed, covering 
power and definition, such as are pos- 
sessed by the 

DYNAR M 

This lens will more than double the 
value of your camera. It is 100 per 
cent faster than the best rectilinears, 
and is about 8 times as efficient, for to 
obtain the same covering po<«er and 
definition, the rectilinear would have 
, to be stopped down to F 16. 

Sold in cells that fit all the modern 
shutters. 



Price for 3 JKx 5;^ 
or 4x5 cells . . 



$25.00 

ASK YOUR DEALER 



Voigtlander & Sohn 

240-258 E. Ontario St., Chicago 
225 Fifth Avenue, New York 

WORKS-BRUNSWICK, GERMANY 



CANADIAN AGENTS 
HUPFELD, LUDECKINQ ft CO., Mootreal, Canada I 



8x10 Plate 
Holders 

Will fit any 8 x lo Century 
or New York Studio Outfit 

These Holders are Single Cur- 
tain Slide Holders with Kits for 
6^x8^, 5x7 and 4x5 Plates. 



PRICE, - $4.00 - EACH 



GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 East Ninth Street, New York 



EDWARD F. BIQELOW 

Aroadia, Sound Baaoh, Connaotiout 

desires for the "Nature and Science" 
Department of the "St. Nicholas" Maga- 
zine (New York), photographs of inter- 
esting inventions, and of natural objects 
that are novel, instructive or especially 
beautiful. He particularly desires photo- 
graphs of machines, or of meclmnical 
appliances of interest to the readers of 
"St. Nicholas." They may be mounted 
or not, of any size and on any kind of 
paper. The only requirements are that 
they shall clearly show som^thin^ worth 
showing, and be interesting or instruc- 
tive. Do not send "snap shots" of 
scenery that can be equalled for beauty 
and for general interest in almost any 
part of the earth. < 

Pay will be at the usual magazine 
rates, and will vary with the interest 
and the novelty. A small photograph 
may be more valuable than a big one. 

"The Guide to Nature," Arcadia: 
Sound Beach, Connecticut, is a maga- 
zine for adults, and has a definite pur- 
pose. It is published by an association 
of students and lovers of nature — not 
for pecuniary gain^ but to be helpful. 
Its department. "The Camei-a," is con- 
ducted by enthusiastic camerists, each 
of whom, as in a camera society, desires 
to help al] his associates and colleagues. 
Editor, a.ssociates and contributors are 
paid by the satisfaction of benefiting 
others. There is no better remunera- 
tion. All income is devoted directly to 
the interests and improvement of the 
magazine. 



When writing advertisers please Aention Snap Shots. 



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clii SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



C P. Nitrate Silver Gry^tals 
Puti Chloride Golcl 



Pof PiiologtApiiicf% Afiito 
Paper and Dry Pttat Makcn 



Chemicals for Photo Engraving and iht Arts 



AIlKindiof Sihrcr and Gold 
WasU Refined 



l^ifiiffactifttrd 



SPHD-LIPS& JACOBS 

^22 RA^^. STREET, PHILADELPHIA 



Y4i| Can Take lectures on a Day Like This! 

Thati is, if your tens is right. The lens is the €oul of jour cameja* OrdMa^ l^s^ 
will take ordinary pictures under /avora^e conditions. Are you satisfied Vt« iiat? 
Or would yoa like the ic*^ results under to// conditions ? If so, you should |tnov^ tht 



GOERZ : LENSES 



Universally used by war photographers a^d profession alB, wlio must 
be silre of their results. Tlke^ can easily Bt fiHed to the camera 
you \(yu) awn. 



9^^A\ fm. n» vu^ ^ ^t ...^^ .^j r...^.^.'' 




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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS cliji 

-1 



. 



. , .-. -: ' i 

'THE A.M. COLLINS MFG. CO, announces the early' 
distrfbiltion of its extensile. I>ine of Photographic, 
Mountings for the Fall of 1913. ! ! 

This is the finest and most m^vel selection which this 
house has offered the trade in. its half-century of business. 
Solid Mountings, Folders, Slip-in and TipK>n Mountings, 
Covers andEncl^wrea^c^ rw^V^^t^^^^fifi every pho- 
tograpfi^f 1 Jan (find i& this'dbfitclftonaiiliiUisorlaient^^^^ to 
bis^ eyenrr^qiifrement. _ j J'/ 

- Mak« no aeleotions for Fall un l il you see dm Line. 
Your ' dealer '9 salesman ean snow you samples. 



A, M. COLLrNS MFG. CO. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



i 



FREE—The Photographic Times— FREE 
SUNLIGHT AND SHADOW 

A BOOS rOB PROraOBAPHSBS AXATZXnt ABD PBOFBSSZOVAL 

By W. I. LUrOOLV ADA1C8 (Hli Ba^Book) 

Editor of •TTie Photographic Tiinef." Author of "Amateur l^otography/' "In Natore'i 

Image/' Etc, Etc. With More than 100 Beautiful Photo^Engravinga, 

Many of Them Full-page Pictures. 



ftdMSftMSfc riiiiM»,M4 THyarrtfipni |hi JBBllilyinwft nhgrnffinhir writrrt and wflirkfnh . 
t coYcrs the field fully, as shown by the following Contents: I 

Z^tautameova Photography "^mter Photography Marines Photography at Bight 

Ltghttag.in Portraiture Photographlnt Children Art in Oronpiaf 

Printed on heavy ^ood-cut paper, with liberal margins and gilt edges. Beautifully 

and nAMantially bound in art canvas, wHh gilt design. PBZOI IXT A BOX, IS.W^ 

So Tonj! aa tte supply holds out, we will continue to furnish this book at only ••• dollar 

pet ^o^jf wHh a new subscription to 

r "THE PHOTOQRAPHIC TIMES" 

Begmlar prlM of «*i«sll|rht and Shadow" piM 

EtgYtlar Bnbaortptlon price of "The Photographic Times" .... l.BO |4*00 

By this Special Offer we sell Both for . . $2.50 

whkh is the regular price of "Sunlight and Shadow" alone; so you get "The Photographic 

Tim^s" in this way tor nothing. Tnere are less than 60 copies left, so you must send in 

yodr order at once if you want to be sure of securing jrour "Photographie Times" and a 

copy of "Sunlight and Shadow" at this special price. 

Photographic Times Publishing Association 

UB West Fourteenth Street NEW YORK* N. Y. 

^^ When writing advertisers. please mention Snap Show. gitized by VjOOv IL 



cliv 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMEXTS 







Eagle Marl 

For Operator, Printer, Retoucher 

Is an invaluable aid to operator, printer 
and retoucher. For working^ in shadows 
and backgrounds on the negative it has no 
equal. Invaluable for blocking out and vig- 
netting. Far superior to any opaque. Sold 
in glass jars with metal screw top. 

Price, per jar $1.00 



GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 East Ninth Street - - - New York City 




Eagle Tubing Coupler 

Small But So Handy 1 1 

Will connect any number of pieces 

of tubing 

It enables you to instantly attach and detach 
your bulb from shutter. Simply pull apart to 
detach and press together to attach. Abso- 
lutely airtight. 

Price 25 cents 

GEORGE MURPHY, INC. 
57 EAST 9TH ST, NEW YORK 

Tmporters and mfrs. of every kind of pho- 
tographic material. 



ROYAL WOOD FIXING AND WASHING BOX 

These boxes are made of selected 
and thoroughly seasoned wood, with 
tongue corners. They are finished 
dead black, with three heavy coatings 
of Probus paint, and will last a life- 




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It is printing quality that counts — 
the printing quality you get in the 
Pyro developed negative. 

The color gives the printing density, 
and the color may be varied at will. 

Eastman 
Permanent 
Crystal 
Pyro 

The chemical in the 
form of clean crystals, 
acidified, ready for use. 



1 


/I 


Etalf pound 




1 


mmBn Permanent 






F Crystal Pyro 


/ 


m 


riMAM KODAK CO. 


/ 


T>«.4r 


U..V. K...l.^ p*--'^ 




r. 






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WORK FOR (XADAllQft 

• t 

Gradation is that gradued blending from light 
to shade which gives objects their natural lorm 
and rouncbiess*. Therefore the plate with the. 
longest scale of gradation will give a negative 
with the greatest amount .of quality. 

Excessive contrast, or lacK'of halftones, is a 
fault found in most fast plates. 

Seed Gilt ETdge 30 is the one plate which 
combines ii^xireme speed whh a long scede of 
gradation, -giving roundness and form— quality 
in the negative identical with the quality of 
the lighting. 

It^s a Seed Plate you need. 



.-^«^, 




Ali Deaiers, 



Seed. Dry Plate Division, 
EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. ^ , 

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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



clvii 




AN ASSURANCE 



-OF- 



PERMANENT RESULTS 



INSIST ON THE GENUINE 



ii 



AGFA" 



BERLIN ANILINE WORKS 
213 Water Street^ N. Y. 

rOOKKD BY ALL. PHOTOGRAPHIC DEALERS 



J^Jsiik 



UXOTYPE. 



AUTOTYPE CARBON TISSUES 



New introductions suitable for the Copper Intaglio Print- 
ing Process for the production of lUustrations. 

In bands of 30 inches wide, 12 feet long. Tissue of 36 
inches can be furnished if desired, as in many cases 36 inches 
avoids waste. 

Per Band 
Photogravure Tissue G. ^ for flat bed orintinsr $6.40 



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New Papers For Portrait, 
Enlarging, Contact 



VELOUR BLACK — Highest portrait quality, warm black tones, 
transparent shadows. 

Made in Velvet, Semi-Matte, Matte, Rough, Glossy, Buff, Buff 
Matte. 

VELOUR GOLD — Highest quality for warm olive brown tones. 
Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Semi-Matte, Double; Buff, Double. 

VELOUR BLACK SOFT— For softest effect from strong high- 
grade negatives. 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Semi-Matte, Double; Matte, Double; 
Rough, Double; Buff. 

BROME BLACK — For extreme contrast; fast for enlarging; non- 
abrasion. 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Glossy, Single. 

WHITE LAUREL— Three tints, three emulsions; for contact. 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Glossy, Single; Rough, Single; 
Semi-Matte, Double; Rough, Double; Matte, Double. 

BLACK LAUREL — Black and sepia platinum effects; for contact. 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Semi-Matte, Double; Smooth Matte, 
Double; Buff Matte. 

SPECIAL CHLORIDE— Semi-Matte and fast Chloride Paper for 
commercial work. 

Semi-Matte, Single; Semi-Matte, Double. 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



clix 



EAQLE CONCRETE 
DEVELOPING TANKS 




These developing tanks are made of the best concrete in 
one piece, and are far superior to any stone tank made in 
pieces and bolted together. They have been in successful 
use in a great many amateur finishing departments for the 
past three years. 

The height of the tanks is 4 feet 4 inches; width, i foot 
I inch, and the length i foot 11 inches. 

The large developing tank is made with a separate outer 
tank, and with a 3 inch space between the two tanks which 
permits of running water flowing around the tank containing 
the developer so as to keep it at the proper temperature. The 
cut fully illustrates the tanks, and also a method of attaching 
same. 

Price for large developing tank, each $30.00 

Price for small developing tank, each 16.00 

Prices are crated F. O. B. factory New Haven, Conn. 
Send your orders to 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 East Ninth Street New York 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



New Ross 

Wide Angle Anastigmat 

Lenses 



This doubtlet consists of four 
single lenses cemented to form 
two combinations. 

The field measures, in the 
smaller numbers, over too°, in 
the larger ones about 90**. 

The seven sizes are specially useful for interiors or work 
in confined situations. 

Larger sizes to order, for reproduction of maps, plans, and 
drawings. They yield a perfectly flat and anastigmatic 
image, and are entirely free from distortion. 




Niunber Equiv. Focus F16 



I. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 






sVa^aVa 

4 X5 

5 x7 

6y2xsy2 

8 X 10 

10 X 12 

11 X 14 



F32 

4 X5 

5 X7 
6^ X 8J4 
8 X 10 

10 X 12 

11 X 14 

12 X 15 



Price 

$24.00 

24.00 

30.00 

37.50 
46.85 
58.00 
69.35 



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DISTORTO 




(Patent applied for) 

A NEW OPTICAL INSTRUMENT, 
USED WITH AN ORDINARY CAMERA 
LENS. WHICH PRODUCES ANY DEGREE 
OF DISTORTION IN THE PICTURE. 
ANY ONE MAY BE PHOTOGRAPHED 
AS TALL OR SHORT. FAT OR THIN, 
AS A GROTESQUE MONSTROSITY OR 
ARTISTICALLY BEAUTIFIED BY MEANS 
OF SIMPLE USE OF THIS WONDERFUL 
INSTRUMENT. 



The Distorto is the only practical invention ever devised to produce 
effects in a photograph similiar to those so often seen in distorting: 
cylindrical mirrors. Instead of being fixed in one position and of one 
curviture, however, as mirrors must be, the Distorto, by means of a simple 
adjustment, may be set to produce anything from the slightest variation 
to the most absurd and ridiculous extremes. 

The Distorto is composed of an oblong prism lens, pivoted at the side, 
so as to swing through a large angle. It is handsomely mounted in nickled 
brass, with adjustable rubber covered tongues to fit over the front of the 
camera lens. 

When the prism lens stands parallel to the camera front it produces no 
distortion, but by simply tipping the thick end toward the camera lens, any 
degree of expansion or elogation of the image is produced in one direction, 
and by tipping the thin end of the prism-lens toward the camera lens any 
amount of contraction or shortening is obtained. 

You simply slip the Distorto over the front of the camera lens, set the 
prism-lens at the angle to give the desired degree of distortion and make the 
exposure as usual. 

Anything animal, vegetable or mineral, that can be photographed is 
a subject for experiment, ridicule or improvement. Thousands of serious 
and ludicrous effects suggest themselves continually. 

Photograph your pet poodle and then show your friends a picture of youi 
new duchs-hund, or maybe its a long legged gray-hound he has turned into. 
Remember that every peculiarity of feature or form is rigidly held in 
the picture, so that portraits no matter how ridiculous are instantly recognized. 
Photographers everywhere can arise interest and greatly stimulate trade 
by putting out a distinctly original and highly effective line of souvenir 
post-curdSf ping-pongs, tin types, etc. made with the Distorto. 



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vr », 



Reproduce the quality 
of the negative in ith^ 
print. ^ 



.W 



'/ ^< 



Ui. Ill 



f ' '« 







E 



Pr^ 




has unequaled graditioti; 
quality — the capacity for 
rendering flesh tones. 




ARTURA DIVISION, 

EA.STMAN KODAK COMPANY, 



ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



All DeaUrt. 



*#*« 



e««Uli|k^^lU' 



:ic 




m 



M 



CONTENTS 



P«ie 



y 



A Method of Titling Post- 
cards - - - - - 161 

National Photographers^ 
Convention _ , . 165 

The Printing of a Gigantic 
Post-card • - - . ](>5 

Stains on the Fingers: Their 
Prevention and Removal 170 

President of the P. A, of A. 
— Manley W, Tyree * 172 

Stops and the Speed of 
Lenses - - . - I73 

Restoring Faded or Dis- 
colored Photographs - 176 

Trade News and Notes - 178 

Studio Wants * - - 180 









X 



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TRADK MARK 
Patented June 86. 1900. Trade Hark Seristered 




How often we hear of photographs or fine cards being; 
spoiled in the mails. This is usually due to the manner in 
which enclosure is sent, and the consequent result is not 
surprising when we consider the vast amount of matter that 
is handled by the various post offices 




is the best device made for mailing photographs and cards 
of every descripti<:>n. Its construction gives protection to 
the enclosure and saves it from damage in the mails. 

THE THOMPSON & NORRIS CO. 

Concord and Prince Streets 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Address Department 6 

Boston, Mass.; Brookville, Ind.; Niagara Falls, Canada: 
London, England ; Jiilich, Germany. 



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clxi 



Ross Telecentric Lens 

Taken respectively with the Rom '*Homooentrio" and "Teleoentrlo" Lenses, to 

demonstrate the advantages of the latter for photoeraphy of objects that from circum- 
stance or their nature cannot be sufficiently approached to permit of the desired size of 
image being obtained. 

Observe the relative size of image in these pictures taken from the same standpoint. 




TAKEN BY [Negative by H, P. Hopkins. 

ROSS' 'HOMOCENTRIC LENS, f/4-5. 

stopped to f/6.6. 




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clxii SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 

From Equator to the Poles 

HAMMER PLATES 

have shown themselves to be unmatched. With the 
best qualities of Ihe BEST, Hammer's Special Extra 
Fast (red label) and Extra Fast (blue label) Plates 
cover the widest range with the greatest speed and 
reliability. 




Hammer's little book, "A Short Talk on Negative 
Making," mailed free. 

HAMMER DRY PLATE COMPANY 

Ohto Av«. and Mismi St. St. Lauis, Mo. 



You Can Reproduce Your Pictures in 

NATURAL COLORS 

on the 

DUFAY COLOR PLATE 

Process the simplest, results the most perfect reproduction of natural colors 
possible to obtain. Dufay color plates are of very fine texture, rapid, and 
are guaranteed for 12 months. 

PRICE LIST PES BOX OF FOXm 

•ixi" ll.tO 4x5" I1.M 

HtH" 1.M 5x7" MM 

OOXPEKBATING SCREENS 

11x11" I1.B0 tixsr 

li«l|! !.«• 41x41" 



4.M 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



clxiii 



Best 

For 

Home 



Portraiture 




npHE new 8 x 10 F. & S. Home Portrait Camera 
■*- is designed especially for Home Portraiture. 
It is easily portable, finished in the best possible 
manner and fitted with every necessary adjustment. 
The front is large enough to permit the fitting of 
Portrait lenses, and the bellows capacity is ample 
for the most exacting work. 



SPECIFICATIONS: 



Focal capacity 
Size of lens board 



22 inches 
7x7 inches 
11^ Ibt. 




THE PRICE: 

F. & S. Home Portrait Camera, 8z 10 with- 
out lensi including carrying case and 1 
double plate holder - - $60.00 

No. Auto Studio Shutter - 8.00 

Extra 8 X 10 Sterling Plate Holders, each 2.50 

F. & S. Home Portrait Tripod - 7.50 

Send for Circular 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Holly Calendar 

Colors, Buff and 5flver Gray 



/ / 




Ai an offeriaff in the oalendar line, the "H0U7" is a very artiitic and select CTta- 
tion. The colon are admirably adapted to both black and white and lepia pnati 
and the entire color icheme is one harmonious blend. 



Size 


Cards 


Sq. Opening 


Horizontal Photos 


PeL??5 


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6x7 


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8'/$xl0 


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51/2x31^ 




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GH 


8^x11 


4>4x3)4 


5x4 
Vertical Photos 




10.M 


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SNAP-SHOTS 

A Monthly Magazine for Photographers 



SUMCXZFTIOW SATBS FOl U. %, AXD CAWAAA YBS YBAS, $1.00; SIX IfOKTHS, 60 CBMTf 

uwGLs corr, 10 csirrt. voisigw coumtuxs, $U6 

FtTBUIBID BY TBB INAP-IHOTS PlTiUSHIWO CO., 57 XABT WIWTH tTBBT, «BW YOIK 



Volume 24 SEPTEMBER, 1913 Number 9 



A METHOD OF TITLING POST-CARDS 

By P. Fredk. Visick 



It is said that necessity is the 
mother of invention, and it cer- 
tainly is so in my case, in so far 
as titling post-cards is concerned. 

I liave used glass negatives show- 
ing the title as made from printer's 
ty^^y vjh\c\\ necessitates double 
printing, and I have also used film 
negatives showing transparent let- 
ters in an opaque mask that is 
placed betw^een the negative proper 
and the printing medium, without 
detriment, providing the substance 
is thin. This latter method wants 
a lot of beating, but the time taken 



mend to any reader who cares to 
adopt it. 

I need hardly point out that 
when there is an opportunity of a 
local **scoop" by selling post-cards 
of such things as the scene of a 
big fire, the opening of a public 
building, or even the mysterious 
"sea-serpent," it is extremely con- 
venient to be able to do the work 
oneself; as even a few hours, let 
alone several days, might spell the 
difference between augmenting the 
freelancers income to the tune of a 
few pounds, or, on the contrary. 



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1 62 



SNAP SHOTS 



September, 1913 



employed), due, I think, to the fact 
that "slow'* fihns are, so far as I 
am aware, unobtainable! The as- 
sumption should prompt some en- 
terprising film maker to market 
such a commodity, for they would 
be very useful for copying draw- 
ings, manuscripts, and for nimier- 
ous other purposes where negatives 
of the "soot and whitewash'* va- 
riety are a sine qua non, in cases 
where plates cannot conveniently 
be employed, to render breakage 
impossible, or transmission by post 
more convenient. Flat films, of 
course; and why not in packets of 
a dozen? 

My method, which I wish to de- 
scribe, is to make the masks, upon 
glass, yet without the need of dou- 
ble printing. One or more titles are 
set up by means of rubber type, or 
carefully written by hand (using 
black ink), a by no means difficult 
task upon a large scale. Attention 
must be paid to spacing, and it will 
be found a great convenience to 
have the original titles upon a piece 
of white paper or cardboard pro- 
portionate to a post-card in length, 
so to speak. 

The original is then photo- 
graphed upon an "ordinary*' plate 
if a "process** plate is not available, 
and your aim must be to get as 
much contrast with negative as pos- 
sible. In short, the letters must 
appear quite transparent, and the 
remainder opaque. Providing the 
letters are transparent the re- 
mainder need not be an intense 
black (though it is better if this can 



be secured) ; a layer or two of tis- 
sue paper over the whole of the 
mask, or over the base only if an 
all-round-border mask, will enable 
the worker to secure a pure white 
margin, the letters appearing light- 
er in tone than would otherwise be 
the case — grey, in fact, instead of 
black. Personally I use a hydro- 
quinone developer and "process** 
plates, and there is never any diffi- 
culty. 

The title negative, when finished, 
has to be cut into strips, the num- 
ber depending upon the nimiber of 
titles in hand, and this must be 
done from the glass side with either 
a glazier's diamond or a good 
wheel. To ensure a clean edge 
on the film side, bend and snap the 
plate backwards, so to speak. A 
strip of very thin paper, and, by the 
way, very narrow, is then used to 
connect the title negative with the 
negative proper, and strips of paper 
can be employed to pack them per- 
fectly level upon a piece of clean 
glass the size of the printing frame. 
A strip must obviously be removed 
from the base of the n^^ative for 
attaching the title strip, also it will 
be necessary to cut (from black pa- 
per) a three-sided mask, fitted so 
that the ends meet the title strip, if 
an all-round-border mask is de- 
sired. Many subjects look well 
printed "solid^' as trade workers 
say, that is, with no border or 
margin at all, or, in the present 
case, with a white margin at the 
base only. — The Amateur Photog- 
rapher & Photographic News. 



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September, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



163 



NATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHERS' CONVENTION 
KANSAS CITY, MO. 



OFFICERS ELECT 

President, Manly W. Tyree, Ra- 
leigh, N. C. ; first vice-president. 
Will H. Towles, Washington, 
D. C. ; second vice-president, Ho- 
mer T. Harden, Wichita, Kan.; 
treasurer, L. A. Dozer, Bucyrus, 
0.; secretary (to be selected). 

women's federation 

President, Pearl Grace Loehr, 
New York City; first vice-presi- 
dent, Clara Louise Hagins, Chi- 
cago; second vice-president, May- 
belle Goodlander, Muncie, Ind. ; 
secretary-treasurer, Sara F. T. 
Price, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia. 

commercial federation 

President, R. W. Johnston, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. ; vice-president, Chas. D. 
Kaufman, Chicago; Secretary, E. 
S. Caywood, Philadelphia; treas- 
urer, S. W. Cole, Danville, Va. 

A three-ring show would describe 
the convention of the Photograph- 
ers' Association of America at 
Kansas City. It was a busy one, 
and not only busy but the most 
instructive we have ever attended. 
From the beginning to the closing 
there was not an idle moment. 

The immense amount of infor- 
mation was appreciated by those 
who attended, numbering over 



vention paid him." "Paid me," said 
he, *'why I have gained $10,000 
worth of information in to-day's 
session alone. It is the most prac- 
tical and useful affair I ever at- 
tended. It is great. Money could 
not buy the knowledge I have 
gained." And that was the con- 
sensus of opinion of others. 

The photographers from the 
Eastern states were very conspicu- 
ous by the large numbers not in 
attendance. They could be counted 
on one hand if the thumb was not 
included. However, that's their 
loss and the Westerners gained 
thereby. The Southern states 
brought out quite a large delega- 
tion. By the East we refer to east 
of Pittsburgh and north of the Ma- 
son and Dixon line. 

Bad politics endeavored to have 
only a three-"man" executive 
board, but the sensible element won 
the day and a four-man board, with 
a paid secretary, was finally decid- 
ed upon. 

Much credit is due to Frank 
Medlar (past president) for his un- 
tiring work in acting in Homer F. 
Harden's place as secretary for the 
days of the opening session. Seri- 
ous illness of Mr. Harden's father 
called him away and Mr. Medlar 
immediately assumed Mr. Harden's 



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SNAP SHOTS 



September, 1913 



ing that of having double work (he 
being in charge of the printing 
demonstrators), in assuming Mr. 
Harden's duties. He deserves much 
praise. His able assistant, Mr. 

C. A. Smith, will not be forgotten 
for his efficient work. 

The manufacturers* exhibit was 
the largest we have ever seen at a 
convention, and many meritorious 
inventions were shown for the first 
time. 

The plan of having a paid secre- 
tary was passed and a salary of 
$2,000 per year was allotted for the 
office. The selecting of the secre- 
tary was left to a committee com- 
posed of the following past presi- 
dents: G. W. Harris, chairman, 
1317 F street, N. W., Washington, 

D. C. ; Ben Larrimer, Marion, Ind. ; 
Chas. F. Townsend, Des Moines, 
Iowa. Here's a chance for a bright 
and fearless man to get a good 
position, and if any of our readers 
think they can fill the bill just write 
Mr. Harris and tell him so. The 
job is open and the right man will 
get it. 

The judges of the pictures ex- 
hibited were Joseph Knaffl, G. 
Hammer Croughton and H. E. 
Voiland. Thirteen pictures were 
selected to be published in the As- 
sociation Record. These were by: 

Bessie L. Meiser, Richmond, 
Ind.; A. F. Bradley, New York; 
Belle Johnson, Monroe City, Mo. ; 
Gerhard Sisters, St. Louis ; the Kid 
Studio, Roanoke, Va. ; B. J. Falk, 
New York: Ryland W. Phillips, 
Philadelphia: S. H. Lifshey, 



Brooklyn; Bell's Studio, Pensacola, 
Fla.; Sara F. T. Price, Mt. Airy, 
Philadelphia; Helmar Lerski, MU- 
waukee; Mrs. Ethel Stand^ford, 
Louisville, Ky., and the Camp Art 
Company, Jamestown, N. Y. 

The working studio was the 
greatest of successes and every ses- 
sion was crowded with an enthu- 
siastic audience. When one en- 
tered the reception-room he had 
the opportunity of listening to the 
following ladies, who demonstrat- 
ed how they sold the goods: 

Mesdames Jeanette Bahlman, St. 
Joseph, Mo. ; Julia Reith, St. Louis ; 
Clara Louise Hagins, Chicago; 
Blanche Reineke, Kansas City; 
Belle Johnson, Monroe City, Mo.; 
Maybelle Goodlander, Muncie, 
Ind.; Miss Watson, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. ; Mamie Berhard, St. Louis ; 
Blanche Wharton, Kansas City. 

This department was under the 
charge of **Daddy" Lively. 

Edward Blum, of Chicago, 
demonstrated the use of the air 
brush in making dainty vignettes, 
etc. He made a big hit. 

C. L. Venard, Lincoln, 111., 
showed his skill in retouching and 
working in "grounds." 

The operating department, under 
the charge of George Graham Hol- 
loway, was a busy one. He was 
assisted by the following, who 
showed their various methods of 
working behind the lens: Charles 
Wallinger, Chicago ; Helmar 
Lerski, Milwaukee, Wis. ; Belle 
Johnson, Monroe City, Mo. ; C. R. 
Reeves, Anderson, Ind. ; Emma 



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September, 191 3 



SNAP SHOTS 



i6s 



Gerhard, St. Louis, Mo.; E. Gold- 
ensky, Philadelphia; Henry P. 
Dexheimer, Marion, Ind. ; E. E. 
Doty, Battle Creek, Mich., and 
"Papa" Cramer, who told about the 
"Methods of Yesterday and To- 
day." 

Artificial lightings were used ex- 
clusively — gas, electricity and flash- 
light. 

In the printing department Frank 
W. Medlar had the following print- 
ing teams : J. R. Zweifel, Duluth, 
Minn., and Ed. C. Peterson, 
Parsons, Kas. ; Milton Costing, 
Kansas City, Mo., and Roy Moose, 
Greensboro, N. C. ; Hugh Scott, 
Independence, Kans., and Donald 
Baker, Kansas City, Mo. J. R. 
Loomis worked the Welsbach gas 
machine, while the Artura, Ansco 
and B. & J. New Rapid Printer 
were used by the others. Ed 
Watson, of Middletown, Ohio, 
worked his new print-driving 
machine, and R. Q. Hunter 
handled the B. & J. vaccum print 
dryer. 

Cyko Buff, Artura Iris E, Haloid 
Buff Portrait and Argo Buff were 
the papers used. In the operating 
room each operator used the plate 
that he was accustomed to. 

Miss Reineke entertained the 
ladies at her studio with a breakfast 
and musicale on Wednesday. 

Several hundred took advantage 
of her invitation and all spent a 
very delightful morning with Miss 
Reineke and her guests. 

The guests were met by Mrs. 
Z. T. Briggs and Mrs. O. B. Reed- 



er, who directed them to the re- 
ceiving party. 

Atlanta, Ga., has a big victory 
over Cedar Point, Ohio, gaining the 
1914 convention by a vote of 168 
to 93. 

The only contest for office was 
between Will H. Towles, Washing- 
ton, D. C, and C. H. Galbraith, 
Minneapolis, Minn., for first vice- 
president. A tie vote of 122 re- 
sulted, and Mr. Galbraith withdrew. 

The entertainment provided by 
the Kansas City Photographic As- 
sociation was enjoyed by all, and 
much credit is due Messrs. Stude- 
baker, Thompson, Strauss, Mullet.. 
Colfey, Miss Reineke and Nate 
Corning for its success. 

The members boarded chartered 
cars for Electric Park, "The Coney 
Island of the West," where all en- 
joyed the many amusements await- 
ing their pleasure. The delightful 
band concert was given by a cele- 
brated military band. The wonder- 
ful electric fountain was something 
worth one's while. Nearly one 
thousand entered the German Vil- 
lage, where cake and ice cream 
were served. The vaudeville pre- 
sented was something unusually 
good, and very much photographic. 
Especially so was Nate Coming's 
original part of the program, "Liv- 
ing Pictures in Folders.'' 

The photographers of Kansas 
City may well feel proud of a de- 
lightful evening entertainment 
given to the P. A. of A. at Elec- 
tric Park. — Missouri Valley Pho- 
tographer. 



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SNAP SHOTS 



September, 1913 



THE PRINTING OF A GIGANTIC "POST-CARD^' 

By W. A. Somerset-Shum 

Reprinted by courtesy of The Southern Cross 



When Charles M. Alexander, 
Gospel song-leader and evangelist, 
was in Australia in 1909, he en- 
gaged the services of Mr. Norman 
Thomas, a young photographer who 
had taken for the Southern Cross 
a number of excellent flashlight pic- 
tures of meetings conducted by Dr. 
Chapman and Mr. Alexander in 
Melbourne. Mr. Thomas has been 
with Mr. Alexander ever since, not 
only accompanying him through 
evangelistic mission tours in China, 
Japan and the Philippines, in Can- 
ada and the United States, and in 
England, Ireland and Wales, but 
staying at intervals at the beautiful 
home of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander 
in Birmingham. During this period 
he has made over 3,000 negatives 
for Mr. Alexander, thus establish- 
ing by far the most wonderful col- 
lection of records of evangelistic 
work in the world. In the collec- 
tion are many fine examples of 
flashlight work, but in this depart- 
ment he reached his top note in 
May of last year with a flashlight of 
a crowd of some 8,000 people in the 
Melbourne Exhibition Building. 
On this occasion he arranged for 
two "flashes" — one, as usual, at the 
back of the camera, which was sta- 
tioned at the top of the choir gal- 



dience, about three-parts of the way 
back. Mr. Alexander claims it as 
the best flashlight in the world, and 
was so proud of it that he asked the 
manager of the Melbourne branch 
of Kodak to enlarge it **as far as 
it would go.'* 

A representative of the South- 
ern Cross, in which the picture 
was reproduced, had the privilege 
of seeing the enlargement made, 
and the process is worth describing. 
Those who know anything of the 
first principles of photography will 
know what the procedure is; but 
for those who do not, it might be 
explained that the negative is placed 
in a lantern and thrown on to a 
screen. When the picture is fo- 
fused, the light is shut oflF while a 
sheet of sensitized paper is pinned 
upon the screen. The light is again 
uncovered and the picture is pro- 
jected on to the sensitized paper for 
a number of seconds, or minutes, 
as the case may be. The sensitized 
paper is then developed and fixed. 
Two things are obvious — the 
greater the distance the bigger the 
picture and the longer the exposure. 

V/HERE THE ENLARGEMENT WAS 
MADE 

In a nearby suburb of Melbourne, 



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September, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



167 



that of Kodak (Australasia), Lim- 
ited. One hundred and fifty men 
and women are engaged in mak- 
ing, not cameras, but the accessories 
— coating plates and films, paper 
and post-cards, manufacturing 
mounts, chemicals and boxes, and 
the hundred and one items that 
make the amateur's way easy and 
pleasant. 

Through the portals of this fac- 
tory, however, none but employees 
and specially privileged visitors 
may pass; for, with promiscuous 
visiting, dust may leak in and trade 
secrets may leak out — both of 
which, as the general manager ex- 
plained, are bad for the photo- 
graphic business. 

With an official passport, and un- 
der the friendly guidance of the 
factory manager, I passed through 
a jungle of machinery, till we came 
to a dim-lit room. In one comer 
of the room hung a baize curtain, 
and, passing through the doorway 
behind this, we were in **the dark- 
room.'* The only visible items in 
the room were three red lanterns 
that glowed in what I guessed were 
comers of the room. Suddenly a 
clean-shaven face glowed redly for 
an instant and disappeared, a fa- 
miliar voice pronounced the for- 
mula of an introduction, and an un- 
familiar voice acknowledged it, 
while an unseen hand grasped the 
hand that I extended at random into 



ble, the face passed again through 
the vivid shaft of red light, which 
we now saw came from the side of 
a huge "magic lantern''; benches, 
troughs, water-pipes — all the para- 
phemalia of the ordinary dark- 
room took shape and position. At 
the end of the room was a screen, 
perhaps ten feet square, and on it 
presently appeared a huge repre- 
sentation of the Exhibition flash- 
light, brilliantly projected there by 
a 1,000-candle power arc-light in 
the lantern. A little focusing to 
get it sharp, and the illumination 
was suddenly dimmed. A yellow 
cap had been placed over the lens to 
enable the operator to pin the sen- 
sitized paper safely in position. By 
previous exposures of trial strips, 
the length of exposure necessary 
had been determined, and a roll of 
stiff paper forty inches wide was 
pinned at one end and unrolled till 
it stretched across the whole ten 
feet of the screen, when it was cut 
and pinned there. As this is the 
widest paper manufactured, it was 
necessary to fasten a similar strip 
above it, edges slightly overlapping, 
so that a big sheet ten by six and a 
half feet was secured. 

MAKING THE EXPOSURE 

"That paper," explained my 
guide, "is chemically pure, and is 
the same as the ordinary photo- 
postcards are made of ; we coat it 
1 t^_. ^1 ii_ >» 



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i68 



SNAP SHOTS 



September, 1913 



glass cap. "The exposure will take 
twelve minutes." 

"Five minutes!" exclaimed the 
timekeeper; and instantly a semi- 
circular blob, as big as half a din- 
ner plate, obscured the figures of 
the missioners in the centre of the 
picture. It quivered and danced 
up, down, east and west, but only 
in flashes did the faces of the mis- 
sioners peep over its edge. 

"Why this shadow dance?" I 
queried. 

"Because," answered the oper- 
ator, "some parts of the negative 
are thin, and if they got the same 
exposure they would come up too 
black and strong in the print. If 
we covered them with a mask it 
would show a hard edge, but this 
dodge limits the exposure of the 
thin parts and avoids the harsh 
edges." 

"Seven and a half !" broke in the 
timekeeper, and a second blob ap- 
peared, to dance madly to and fro 
across another part of the picture; 
"ten" — and the top half was ob- 
scured; "eleven" — and only a cor- 
ner of the picture remained upon 
the screen ; "twelve" — ^and the light 
went out. 

"Now to develop!" One of the 
ten-feet strips was rolled off the 
screen and unrolled into a wide 
trough of water. "Real Yarra 
water^ only a different color; 
you can see through it," I was 



it is poured on, otherwise it might 
develop in patches." 

Close to the troughs was a big 
wooden tray lined with black oil- 
cloth. The great sheet was laid out 
flat at the bottom of the tray — 
which, by the way, was improvised 
to develop two big pictures of the 
King and Queen ten years ago — ^and 
the assistant emptied a bucketful of 
developing solution over it. Almost 
instantly a few dark patches ap- 
peared in the centre, and the oper- 
ator began to rub the sheet lightly 
and rapidly with the palms of his 
hands. "She's all right," he an- 
nounced, with confidence, in less 
than a minute, and, after a little 
more manipulation, "she" was de- 
clared to be "ready to come out." 
The developer was removed by 
pulling out a plug. The tray was 
swabbed and the picture put back 
and rinsed — all in a few moments. 
Then it was transferred to an ad- 
joining bath to be fixed. "A fellow 
wants a bathing suit for a job like 
this," declared the assistant, as he 
dabbled cheerfully across five feet 
of "hypo," rubbing the surface of 
the print with open hands, as if 
swimming; then, as a safe green 
light was switched on, he exclaimed, 
"She is all right. There is the Rev- 
erend Barnaby . . . and Charles 
Carter . . . ; and, by Jove, there's 
a fellow I know right up in the gal- 
lery . . ." But at this point it be- 



tt^*/^«-vt-i^ 



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SNAP SHOTS 



169 



PAPER BY THE MILE 

The same performance was re- 
peated with the second half of the 
picture, and we left it soaking, 
while we toured the factory. Any 
trade secrets that we acquired in 
that journey could not be extracted 
by a dentist, but two vivid impres- 
sions may be noted. One is of a 
patent washing machine, in which 
hundreds, probably thousands, of 
prints whirled and swam and dived 
like so many live fish. They repre- 
sented the snapshots of an army of 
camera fiends, who had pressed the 
button, and this machine was taking 
its part in **doing the rest." In this 
literally moving-picture show, one 
caught glimpses of landscape and 
seascape, picnic parties and family 
groups, pet dogs and prize babies — 
one could almost tell how and 
where the Kodak customers had 
spent their Christmas holidays. The 
other memorable sight was of the 
interior of the room in which the 
papers are sensitized. The process 
must, of course, be done practically 
in the dark, so that, though the 
room is on the second floor up, one 
has the sensation of walking in a 
basement. At one end is a machine 
that looks like a magnified domestic 
mangle, with big shiny rollers, and 
from it one looks down a long 
vista of ruby globes. It was prob- 



inches wide and a mile long can be 
coated, hung in festoons till it dries, 
and rewound on to a reel, to be cut 
up to required lengths. The room 
is dustproof, the cleansed and tem- 
pered air being constantly changed. 
A feature of this department is the 
room in which the films are dried 
after coating; the doors of this 
room swing outward, and a con- 
tinuous stream of air blows out, so 
that no particle of dust can find its 
way in. Situated inside the already 
dustproof room it is as safe as a 
cash-box in a strong-room. 

THE PICTURE COMPLETED 

By the time we returned from the 
coating-room, via the machine- 
room, where all the electricity for 
the works is generated, and the hot- 
and-cold chamber where the air that 
is distributed throughout the work- 
rooms is rendered torrid or polar by 
the mere turning of a switch, the 
two sections of the gigantic post- 
card were soaking in the baths, 
through which had run a constant 
stream of water until every trace of 
chemical had been soaked out of the 
paper. 

Two days later an interested 
crowd blocked the entrance to the 
Collins Street shop, gazing in won- 
der at the biggest enlargement ever 
made in Australia, and by the time 
these lines are in print the picture, 
motinted on linen, will be safelv 



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I70 SNAP SHOTS September, 1913 

STAINS ON THE FINGERS: THEIR PREVEN- 
TION AND REMOVAL 



Some photographers manage to 
conduct the various operations con- 
nected with their hobby without 
soiling their hands to the slightest 
perceptible extent; while others go 
through life labelled on their finger- 
tips for all to see how they amuse 
themselves. A "problem of the mo- 
ment" with a great many must be 
how to prevent this staining, or 
how, when it has taken place, to re- 
move all signs of it. Prevention 
being better than cure, we will con- 
sider it first. 

Although some developers are 
much worse than others in the way 
they stain the skin and nails, it is, 
broadly speaking, correct that all of 
them will do so, so that the first 
warning to be given is to keep the 
fingers out of such solutions as 
much as possible. When time de- 
velopment is practised this is quite 
simple; as a very slight degree of 
neatness suffices to keep the solu- 
tions off the skin altogether. It is 
the habit of dipping the tips of the 
fingers into the dish to pick up the 
negative to look through it, which is 
the source of almost all the trouble 
with which we are dealing. If the 
dish has a lifter, or if a length of 
thread is laid across it before the 
plate is put in, so that it can be 
raised clear of the solution by 
means of the two ends of the 
thread, most of the staining is pre- 
vented, as the nails need not in such 



a case get wetted ; and it is the nails 
and the recesses round them where 
the stains will be found to be most 
persistent. 

Rubber finger stalls and rubber 
gloves can be purchased for the pro- 
tection of the skin; but they are 
either very cumbrous, or else are 
costly and very speedily damaged. 
Moreover, there are much simpler 
methods which are quite efficacious. 

One plan is to make the skin re- 
pellent, by a slight coating of 
grease. Vaseline or lanoline is em- 
ployed; but the humble beeswax 
and turpentine answers quite well. 
A little is rubbed over the finger- 
tips and well down and round the 
nails, and then almost all is wiped 
off again. Of course, one must be 
very careful not to touch the sur- 
face of plate or paper with such 
fingers ; but this should not be done, 
grease or no grease. A nail brush, 
warm water and soap, will remove 
the last traces of the grease and 
with it any slight stain. 

If there is running water in the 
dark room, and a nail brush and 
soap are handy, it is quite possible 
to prevent all staining, in spite of 
the fact that the plates are freely 
handled. None of the developing 
solutions stain on application; it is 
when they are left on to oxidize 
and discolor that they cause such 
disfigurement ; and if every time the 
fingers are wetted, they are held in 



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September, 191 3 



SNAP SHOTS 



171 



the stream of running water and 
brushed there will be no fear of 
marks. 

Sulphite is known as an anti- 
stain, and developers which contain 
a liberal share of it give very little 
trouble. It is still more efficacious 
if acidified ; but this is not possible 
with the developer itself. What can 
be done, however, is to have on the 
workbench a cup containing a lit- 
tle of a five per cent solution of 
sodium sulphite, to which a few 
drops of some strong acid are 
added just before use. Only two or 
three drops to the ounce are need- 
ed; and any acid almost will serve. 
If every time the fingers are wetted, 
they are dipped in this for a 
few moments and then rinsed in 
plain water there will be no 
staining. 

Sulphite is not only an anti-stain, 
it is the best remover of stains after 
they have appeared ; but it is much 
more trouble to remove them than 
to prevent them. 

There is one thing which must be 
borne in mind all along, and that is 
that the sooner the task of remov- 
ing the stains is put in hand the 
easier it is. Hot water, nail brush, 
and plenty of soap should first be 
used ; and when these have done all 
that is possible, the fingers may be 
dipped into the acidified solution of 
sulphite just mentioned, left there 



for a minute, and then well brushed 
with soap and warm water again, 
the operation being repeated until 
it is clear that no further repeti- 
tions will do any more. Instead of 
acidified sulphite, an acidified or a 
plain solution of metabisulphite 
may be used, or a little of the bi- 
sulphite lye diluted. 

Developer stains exclusively have 
been treated up to the present, as 
they are those which most fre- 
quently trouble the amateur; but 
the general lines of their preven- 
tion will be found applicable to 
other staining liquids. Bichromate 
stains yield to acidified sulphite, as 
also do a good many stains due to 
aniline dyes. 

A weak solution of bleaching 
powder slightly acidified is a good 
remover of stains in general. Per- 
manganate stains yield in a moment 
to a two per cent solution of oxalic 
acid (very poisonous), and the 
same solution forms an excellent 
detergent in the case of ink stains. 

Keeping the fingers out of the 
developer is not only a direct but 
an indirect preventive of staining; 
as the powerfully alkaline charac- 
ter of almost all developers rough- 
ens the skin, removes its natural 
grease, and leaves it far more ac- 
cessible to attacks by other staining 
solutions than it was before. — Pho- 
tography. 



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172 SNAP SHOTS September, 1913 

PRESIDENT OF THE P. A. OF A.— MANLEY 

W. TYREE 



It's a far cry from a young fel- 
low as an amateur photographer in 
his sophomore year at college and 
the same young fellow — still young, 
mind you — as president of the Pho- 
tographers' Association of Amer- 
ica. It means a rapid rate of prog- 
ress in the art of photography and 
the growing recognition of the 
thousands of fellow artists of the 
great national association of pho- 
tographers of America. 

That marks the progress of Man- 
ley W. Tyree, of Raleigh, who on 
Friday was unanimously elected 
president of the Photographers' 
Association of America, an organ- 
ization with a membership ap- 
proaching ten thousand, having in 
its membership the leading photog- 
raphers of America. President 
Tyree had this great honor con- 
ferred on him at the annual con- 
vention which closed yesterday in 
Kansas City, Mo., an honor which 
comes with his election to Raleigh, 
to North Carolina and to the South, 
for he is the first Southern man to 
be elected president of the associa- 
tion in thirty-four years. Hence 
Raleigh, North Carolina and the 
South take keen pleasure in his 
election and the fact that with it 
the association, now thirty-three 
years old, meets next year for the 
first time in the South, when it 
goes to Atlanta. 

Mr Tyree is the youngest man 



ever elected president of the Pho- 
tographers' Association of Amer- 
ica. His selection for the high post 
was because of the high rank which 
he has taken as an artist photog- 
rapher, backed up hy his personal 
qualities as a maker of friends. 
The election is a high recognition, 
both of the man and his work, and 
comes after a long acquaintance 
with the membership. Twice he 
has been elected secretary, and in 
1912 was elected first vice-presi- 
dent, reaching the climax of official 
position this year in his elevation 
to the presidency, as successor to 
Charles F. Townsend, of Des 
Moines, Iowa. For a number of 
years he has represented North 
Carolina as a member of the Pho- 
tographic Congress, and in 1909 
was elected president of the \'ir- 
ginia, North Carolina and South 
Carolina Association of Photog- 
raphers after serving one year as 
vice-president. 

Manley W. Tyree 's work as an 
artist-photographer has given him 
nation-wide recognition, his studio 
in Raleigh being far famed, for he 
is an artist in the true sense of that 
much abused word. His work has 
won first prizes wherever shown, 
and he has been in many national 
contests. He came to Raleigh in 
1905 from Louisville, Ky., where 
he was receiving the highest salary 
paid by any Louisville photogra- 



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September, 191 3 



SNAP SHOTS 



^73 



pher. He had become interested in 
photography in his sophomore year 
at Bethel College, Russellville, Ky., 
and kept at it in college for 
pleasure. 

At the end of his junior year 
he went to his home photographer, 
who gave him six month's instruc- 
tion for $50, when he launched out 
for himself at Clinton, Tenn., later 



selling out and going to Louisville. 
His career is that of application to 
his work, and this, backed by his 
artistic temperament, has carried 
him to the front rank. And the 
high honor that has come to him is 
gratifying to all his friends, and 
shows the esteem in which he is 
held by his fellow artists. — Raleigh 
(N. C.) Observer. 



STOPS AND THE SPEED OF LENSES 



The question was asked us the 
other day by a lady photographer, 
"Are all lenses of the same rapidity 
when used at the //8 stop?" A 
considerable experience of this type 
of question caused us to answer, 
"Yes, of practically equal rapidity, 
but Kodak lenses marked 8 have an 
aperture of //ll, and the 8 in those 
cases does not mean //8." Neither 
the lady nor her chief assistant, 
who had been a photographer over 
fifteen years, and had served a 
proper apprenticeship, knew the 
meaning of the / ratio method of 
stop marking, nor that most Kodaks 
with the original lenses were 
marked on the U. S. method. Some 
little time ago one of the best- 
known firms of lens manufacturers 
showed us a letter they had received 
from an articled pupil inquiring the 
meaning of //6, //8, and so on, and 
stating that though he had repeat- 
edly asked his master for an ex- 
planation he had got nothing but 
the evasive answer it is so easy for 
an employer to give to an appren- 



tice. The fact of the matter is 
that the majority of photographers 
and photographic assistants do not 
know, and work to a great extent 
by rule of thimib methods. 

Let us, then, very briefly explain 
some of the points in connection 
with the matter. The first, and this 
is the fundamental idea in connec- 
tion with apertures, is that the size 
of the stop must be regarded in 
relation to the focal length of the 
lens; that is, its distance from the 
plate when in use. Early lenses 
were marked 7x5 or 9x7, indicat- 
ing the size of plate for which they 
were intended, but the modern and 
much better method of marking is 
to engrave the focal length on the 
mount. So "8 inch" on a modem 
lens means that the distance from 
the optical center of the lens (usu- 
ally about the position of the dia- 
phragm) to the plate when a very 
distant object is sharply focused 
will be 8 inches. It is, then, the size 
of the stop in relation to this focal 
length which is all important, just 



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September, 1913 



as the light on the far side of a 
room away from the window de- 
pends not only upon the actual size 
of the window, but upon the dis- 
tance from window to opposite 
wall. Once this principle of rela- 
tionship between focal length and 
size of stop is clearly grasped the 
whole matter is comparatively sim- 
ple. The method of expressing the 
relative size or ratio is by adopting 
the form of a vulgar fraction. Thus 
//8 really means focal length, or 
focal length divided by eight, and 
if we substitute for the words "fo- 
cal length" the actual figure we 
have our fraction at once. Thus in 
the case mentioned above, a lens 
with a focal length of 8' inches, we 
get 8, which equals 1, so that the 
size of the //8 stop in the case of a 
lens of 8 inches focus is 1 inch. In 
other words, the diameter of the 
stop (1 inch) will go just eight 
times tyetween the center of the lens 
and the plate when a distant object 
is sharply focused. 

This is an approximate state- 
ment, because owing to the slight 
conrerging effect of the front com- 
ponent of a doublet lens the bundle 
of rays passes through an aperture 
slightly smaller. Thus in the case 
of our 8-inch doublet lens the actual 
size of the //8 aperture would 
probably be, not 1 inch, but, say, 
15-16 of an inch. In the case of a 
single lens, however, the size would 
be actually the exact inch. We 
mention this, it is optically impor- 
tant, but need not trouble the work- 
er from the practical point of view. 



So much, then, for the / ratios. 
What about the U. S. markings? 
These were suggested some years 
ago by the Royal Photographic So- 
ciety — then the P. S. G. B. — and 
the letters U. S. stand for Uni- 
form System, not United States. 
The society's committee fixed the 
aperture //4 as the largest we were 
likely ever to enjoy, and called that 
U. S. 1. The sizes of the succeed- 
ing stops were then fixed so that 
each stop smaller doubled the ex- 
posure, as, of course, is the case 
with the usual series of / ratio 
markings. The numbers given to 
these stops indicate the required in- 
crease of exposure. So that if at 
U. S. 1 we give one second, at U. S. 
32 we must give 32 seconds. The 
method of marking has never be- 
come popular in this country, and 
we do not know that it is seen at 
all except on Kodaks with the orig- 
inal lenses. 

It is necessary, then, to guard 
against confusion between the two 
systems of marking. Lenses marked 
on the / ratio system usually have 
either F or / at one end of the 
series of numbers, but if this is not 
so the numbering may be identified 
by noting whether each alternate 
number is doubled. These are the 
numbers in each of the scales set 
opposite to each other : 

F. 4 5.6 8 11 16 22 32 64 

U. S. 1 . . . . 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 

There is one other point which it 
may be well simply to allude to, 
though it is of more interest to iht 
optician than to the practical man. 



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September, 191 3 



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175 



There are slight differences of 
speed in lenses, even though the 
stop-markings correspond, due to 
differences in the thickness of glass, 
the number of reflecting (glass to 
air) surfaces and the color of the 
glasses employed. These differ- 
ences are immaterial for all ordi- 
nary work. That is, they are bare- 
ly sufficient to make the difference 
between normal and noticeable un- 
der- or over-exposure. When the 
exposures are cut down to the sub- 
minimal, as in the case of rapidly 
moving objects, then the question 
is one which must be considered. A 
number of reflecting surfaces will, 
it is true, sometimes give sufficient 
scattered light to produce a fog veil 
over the negative, and this may be 
mistaken for over-exposure, and re- 
sult in great rapidity being attribut- 
ed to the lens. On the other hand, 
the brilliancy which characterizes 
the image produced by the single 
lens with its two glass-to-air sur- 
faces may by its clearer shadows 
lead one to think the exposure is 
inadequate and the lens slow, 
though, as a matter of fact, it is 
faster than a doublet of the same 
aperture owing to there being a 
less thickness of glass. These are 
little points which lead the work- 
er to draw fallacious conclusions. 
Exposure meters, as a rule, do 

nni- Atir i»txrr*%fA fn 4-nocA i^/\ec<«V%lA 



number or aperture. The original 
Actinograph of Messrs. Hurter and 
Driffield did draw such distinction, 
and make a provision for the dif- 
ference between a single and a dou- 
ble lens in the calculation of ex- 
posure, and more recently the same 
allowance has been made in the 
meter designed by Mr. E. A. Bier- 
mann. It is unlikely that anything 
like a correct allowance for differ- 
ences in exposure caused by the 
composition of the glasses of the 
lens or the greater or less thickness 
of the latter is ever likely to be 
made, at any rate nothing of gen- 
eral use in practical work. And in 
point of fact, apart from the the- 
oretical interest, there is very little 
occasion for the use of such fac- 
tors. The differences, as we have 
said, probably fall within the lati- 
tude of the plate, and no useful 
purpose is served in unduly adding 
to the factors in the calculation of 
ordinary outdoor exposures. In 
special work, such as the photog- 
raphy of paintings, or other col- 
ored originals, where the exposures 
are liable to run into long times, it 
is quite possible that a determina- 
tion of the extra exposure neces- 
sitated by the construction of the 
lens may be worth while, and this a 
worker can readily carry out for 
himself by comparing the lens with 



tif^f 



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f tV»P 



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176 



SNAP SHOTS 



September, 1913 



RESTORING FADED OR DISCOLORED 
PHOTOGRAPHS 

By Walter Binfield 



A task which is often thrust upon 
the amateur photographer is to 
make the most of some silver print 
which has faded or yellowed, until 
it is no longer much more than the 
ghost of what it once was. The 
task is one which is by no means 
easy, in fact, it is often impossible 
to do anything to the print itself 
that shall make it look much better ; 
while whatever may be done, car- 
ries with it the risk of injuring the 
print beyond all hope of restoration. 
On this account, the first step that 
should be taken is to rephotograph 
the picture, either with the idea of 
making the fresh photograph serve 
instead of the faded one, or at least 
to provide a record of its subject 
should the restoration process 
prove to be a failure. 

It may not be well known that 
many silver prints, in which the 
fading action is mostly a yellowing 
of the image, photograph very 
easily, the yellow appearing to the 
non-orthochromatic plate almost as 
if it were black, and so the copy 
negative has plenty of contrast and 
gives nice bright prints. In order 
to do this, the whites of the old 



yellowed, then instead of using an 
ordinary plate the best result will 
be obtained on an orthochromatic 
plate with a yellow screen. 

Copying work of this kind is usu- 
ally best when done out of doors, 
in as bright a light short of direct 
sunlight as possible. The exposure 
must be a full one, and develop- 
ment full also. It is economical to 
expose the first plate in a series of 
strips, so as to find out by actual 
trial the exposure which will give 
as vigorous an image as possible. 
When in this way a record of the 
subject of the faded print has been 
obtained, then and only then should 
it be exposed to any operations 
which involve wetting it 

The danger of attempting to re- 
store a faded print lies in one's 
ignorance of the state of things 
which has brought about the fad- 
ing, and consequently the risk of 
doing something to the picture 
which shall leave it in a worse con- 
dition than it was originally. Hence 
the stress which has just been 
placed upon photographing it be- 
fore doing anything else to it, in 
case it should be irretrievably dam- 



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September, 1913 SNAP SHOTS 177 

also a fertile source of stains and as far as it will. It b then washed 

marks in mercurial intensification in six or eight changes of dilute 

the first stage of the process must hydrochloric acid (one to fifty, as 

be to remove all risk of this. Alum just mentioned), and finally in three 

decomposes hypo if it is given suffi- or four changes of water, and is 

cient time; and alum also hardens ready to have the image darkened. 

the gelatine itself and makes it less The dilute ammonia which is 

likely to be injured by the other generally used for this purpose 

processses. So the first stage is to when negatives are being intensified 

place the print in a solution of is best avoided when the intensifica- 

alum. Half an ounce of ordinary, tion process is being used for re- 

or potash, alum to the pint of hot storing prints, as it has a tendency 

water is the correct strength, and to stain and to act irregularly. The 

the solution may be used as soon as most satisfactory darkening agent 

it is cold. The print should be left appears to be a metol developer of 

in this for three or four hours, face the following composition, which is 

downwards, and may then be due to Mr. Blake Smith. It should 

washed in four or five complete be freshly made up for the purpose : 

changes of water, draining well in \f^] Af{ 

between each, leaving: it for five i, ,. ''','; ' ' ' / " ' '\' W^r. ^ ^' 

' ^ • u u T^ • <.u bodmm sulphite (crystals) 130 ers. 

minutes in each change. It is then ^ j- u ^ / 

. , f ^, ^ ^^' bodium carbonate (crys- 

ready for the restoration process. - . ^ -^ 

The first stage of this is to im- ^ ^ ^^^' 

merse it in a solution of mercuric ^ ^^ ^ °^^* 

chloride slightly acidified with hy- Placed in this solution, the print 
drochloric acid. The usual stock ought to darken very rapidly, and 
saturated solution of the mercury when it has done so all that is need- 
salt may be diluted with an equal ed is a further washing in six or 
bulk of dilute hydrochloric acid eight changes, when it may be put 
(one part of acid to fifty parts of up to dry. The whole of the opera- 
water). In this the print is left, tions may be carried out in daylight, 
with occasional rocking, until the and on no account should any at- 
action seems to have gone as far tempt be made to curtail any of 
as it will. No particular appear- them, such as by omitting any of 
ance at this stage can be described, the washing, the extent mentioned 
as different prints differ very much above should be regarded as suffi- 
in the extent to which they bleach cient, but as the minimum, 
in this solution. All that can be Should the result of this treat- 
done is to keep the print therein ment not be satisfactory, the print 
until there seems to be no possible must be looked upon as beyond 
doubt as to the action having gone restoration.— Photography, 



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178 



SNAP SHOTS September, 1913 

TRADE NEWS AND NOTES 



Eagle Home Portrait and Studio 
Lamp. This lamp is one of the most 
portable which we have ever seen, and 
while primarily intended for home por- 
trait work, on account of its compact- 
ness it is in every respect just as satis- 
factory a lamp for studio use. It can 
be fitted to any electric light socket. It 
is fitted with a collapsible reflector and 
light diifuser, so that it is possible to get 
just exactly the lighting desired. 



British Journal Almanac, 1914. From 
the prospectus which has just reached us 
we note that this world-wide almanac 
will have several special features in the 
new edition which will reach this coun- 
try early in December, among them a 
series of short articles on "Lens Facts 
for Amateurs," and also an article on 
"Exposure and Development." It will 
also contain the usual glossary of pho- 
tographic terms, formulae for daily work 
and advertisements of the leading manu- 
facturers. The paper edition is 50 cents, 
postage 27 cents; cloth $1.00, postage 37 
cents. Send us your order. Address 
Snap Shots Publishing Co. 



Photomailer. Have you noticed the 
monthly advertisements of this most ex- 
cellent method of mailing photographs? 
They tell a different story each month. 
It is a story which the photographer 
should appreciate, as it is very impor- 
tant to him that his pictures reach the 
customer in perfect condition. They 
will, if mailed in the Photomailer, as 
this is made especially for this purpose. 



Rochester Photo Works Papers. This 
company report to us a steadily in- 
creasing demand for their new brands of 
papers, especially for their Velour Black 
Enlarging Paper, which is free from 
the defects of bromide paper, giving 
pure blacks and pure whites. It is un- 



excelled for either contact or portrait 
enlarging. Portrait enlargements made 
on this paper cannot be told from con- 
tact prints. It is made in various grades 
of surface to suit any grade of nega- 
tive. Their White Laurel and Black 
Laurel papers for contact printing have 
also been well received by the photo- 
graphic public. White Laurel Paper 
has a very wide latitude. It is furnished 
in several grades. It is being largely 
use^ by photographers doing amateur 
finishing. The Black Laurel Paper 
gives beautiful platinum effects, and is 
intended especially for portrait work. 
It is also made in several surfaces to 
suit any negative. Their Brome Black 
is a contrasty enlarging paper, non- 
abrasion. It is especially adapted for 
enlarging, and is largely used by news- 
paper photographers. Send to them for 
samples of any, or all, of these grades. 
When writing don't forget to mention 
Snap Shots. 



Ross Lenses Fitted with Shutters. 
The celebrated Ross Lenses are now 
furnished with "N. S." Accurate Shut- 
ters. The "N. S." Accurate Shutter is, 
as its name implies, "accurate," which is 
of the utmost importance. Each shut- 
ter is furnished with a National Physical 
Laboratory Certificate. Write to the 
American agents, George Murphy, Inc., 
New York, for further information. 



Photogravure Carbon Tissues. The 
American agents advise that they have 
just received a shipment of the new 
grades of Photogravure Carbon Tissue 
especially adapted for rotary gravurc 
printing. The Nos. 1, 2 and 3 grades 
are adapted for bed-plate gravurc print- 
ing, and the Nos, 4 and 5 for rotary 
gravure printing. They are very largely 
used for newspaper illustrations, and are 
now being placed before the American 
trade. 



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September, 191 3 



SNAP SHOTS 



179 



The Berlin Aniline Works, 213 Water 
Street, New York City, American agents 
for the well-known "Agfa" products, 
beg to announce the second edition of 
the "Agfa" Book of Photographic For- 
mulae. Copies are now ready. The book 
will be sent only on receipt of an 
•'Agfa" label taken from any of the 
**Agfa" products, together with 10 cents 
in stamps or coin. 



Wallace Sepia Platinum Paper. The 
Wallace Chemical Co. have been manu- 
facturing tor the past two years a re- 
liable platinum paper which is consid- 
ered by many prominent photographers 
to give the most delicate platinum prints. 
They have recently reorganized their 
plant and are now oflFering their Sepia 
Platinum Paper in two grades, namely, 
heavy rough and heavy smooth. This is 
a pure platinum paper, absolutely per- 
manent, developed by the cold develop- 
ment process, with no danger to the 
hands from chemical manipulations. 
Send to them for samples. See their 
advertisement in this issue. 



Home Portrait Camera. The Folmer 
& Schwing Division of The Eastman 
Kodak Co. have just placed on the mar- 
ket a new 8 x 10 Home Portrait Camera 
designed especially for home portraiture. 
It is easily portable, and fitted with 
every necessary adjustment, the front 
being large enough to permit the fitting 
of portrait lenses. Send to them for 
circular. 



Ross Telecentric Lenses. As you will 
see by the advertisement in this issue, 
the Ross Telecentric Lens, while prima- 



rily adapted for giving large images on 
short bellows cameras, has been found 
to be an excellent portrait lens, giving 
fine perspective and soft results. The 
American agents advise that they have 
already placed this lens in many of the 
leading studios. 



The American Annual of Photogra- 
phy for 19 1 4* This celebrated Annual 
as usual will be ready for distribution 
about the middle of November. From 
the publishers we learn that from the 
material they have on hand they believe 
that this edition of the Annual will be 
the finest which they have ever pro- 
duced. You should not miss having a 
copy of this great American Annual for 
reference, as it contains all kinds of 
tables for daily reference. We will send 
you a copy of the paper edition and a 
year's subscription to Snap Shots for 
only $1.50. Address Snap Shots Pub- 
lishing Co. 



Calendar Mounts. Now is the time 
when you should place your order for 
calendars for the holidays, so as to have 
same on display and book orders before 
the holiday rush begins. The Holly Cal- 
endar advertised in this issue is an ex- 
cellent article, and you should write to 
the manufacturers for a sample, which, 
we understand, they will gladly send 
you on request. 



Seed Plates. If you want to obtain 
negatives with the whole gamut of tone, 
contrast without steepness, snap without 
harshness, vigor in the negative and 
roundness in the print, without a harsh 
line or clogged shadow, you should use 
Seed Plates. 



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i8o 



SNAP SHOTS 
STUDIO WANTS 



September, 1913 



City, 



Galleries for Sale or Rent 

D. F. M., gallery in New York 

$3,500. 
F. S. W., on Long Island, $900. 
A. M. C, in New Jersey, $900. 
W. C. O., gallery in New Jersey. 
L. B. C, gallery in Pennsylvania. 
C. R. F., gallery in Long Island. 
M. H. R., gallery in Mass. 
C. Z., gallery in Long Island. 



Parties Desiring Galleries 

Miss F. C, wants gallery in town of 

10,000-15,000. 
T. D., wants gallery in small city. 
R. S. G., wants gallery in small city. 



Positions Wanted — Operators 
G. L., expert all-round photographer. 
T. N. E., all-round man. 
J. L. J., all-rotmd. 

F. C. W., operator and carbon, 
H. D., all-round. 

Positions IVanted^Retouchers, Recep- 
tionists 
Miss C. E. O., retoucher, receptionist 
Miss B. M., reception-room. 
M. H. O., retoucher and etcher. 
N. A. B., experienced retoucher. 

Studios Desiring Help 
J. D. S., wants an all-round operator. 
F*. Studio, wants operator and printer. 
W. O. B., wants retoucher, background 
worker and manager. 

G. G. D., first-class operator. 
R H. R., good operator. 



Votloe— Letten addretted to anyone in our eare ihovld bo aooompanlod with otamf 
for oaoh letter 10 that they oan bo ro-mallod. 



SEND YOUR SUBSCRIPTION NOW 

Our Year expires January Ist and we want your Renewal. $1.00 per year. 
Photographic news from every section is worth five times our subscription 
price. 

OUR SPECIAL CLUBBING LIST 

We ofiPer the Special Clubbing List of Snap Shots with American and Eag- 
lish Annuals and the English Journals. A combination that gives to die 
American photographer photographic news that combined gives him the field 
covering the English-speaking photographic world: 
1 year's Snap Shots with American Annual of Photography (1914 paper 

edition) $1.50 

1 year's Snap Shots with British Journal Photo. Almanac (1914 paper 

edition) l.tf 

1 year's Snap Shots with 1 year's subscription to British Journal of 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



clxv 



POSITIONS OFFERED and WANTED, FOR SALE» 
TO RENT, WANT to PURCHASE^EXCHANGE^&c 



Annotmcementt under these and similar headings of fort^ words or less, will be inserted 
for forty cents. For each additional word, one cent. Displayed advertiscmentg 60 cents 
per inch. Cash must accompany order. When replies are adaressed to our care, 10 cents 
at least must be added to cover probable postage on same to advertiser. Advertisements 
should reach us by the 20th to secure insertions in the succeeding issue. A copy of the 
Journal sent free to every advertiser as long as the "ad" is continued. Advertisements in 
Snap Shots bring prompt returns. 



AN ADVERTISEMENT IN THESE COLUMNS 

h tn excellent and safe medium of communication between Photographefa 






For Sale: Studio in Elizabeth, New 
Jersey. Population, 75,000; best loca- 
tion in town. Almost newly fitted. 
Rent, $20 per month. Will sell for 
$600. J. J. Herlick, 87 Broad Street, 
Elizabeth, N. J. 

C. P. — Understands washing and 
spotting prints; also learning retouch- 
ing. Desires position with opportu- 
nity of advancement. Address C. P., 
care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: Two studios doing fine 
business; fully equipped, good loca- 
tions, and long leases; best terms. 
Forced to sell on account of perma- 
nent illness. Large stock on hand. 
Write for particulars to M. H. Raz- 
zouk, 315 Main Street, Holyoke, Mass. 

Wanted: Position as operator and 
retoucher or manager of a studio on 
salary and commission by October 
10th. Address M. O., care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: Summer and winter gal- 
lery. Retiring from business. Gallery 
run over fifteen years. Rent reason- 
able if lease is taken. For particulars 
address Real Estate, 100 Washington 
Avenue, Bell eville, N. J. 

For Sale: Studio doing good, steady 
business in manufacturing city; good 
hght; low rent; steam heat; other 
business reason for selling. J. Gar- 
^'l-ifl? A/air» Street. Ansonia, Conn. 

For 53«il^- An Afi'efi-k T i*v^«^ €%€%t\ 



For Sale: One 18x22 Anthony Ma- 
hogany Reversible Back Studio Cam- 
era, double bellows, curtain slide 
holder with stand, in good condition. 
Price, boxed ready for shipment, $45. 
One 14x17 Reversible Back View 
Camera with two double holders in 
very good condition. Price, boxed 
ready for shipment, $32.00. Address, 
R. N., care Snap Shots. 

Flashlight Outfit For Sale: One 
14x20 Banquet Camera, fitted with 
No. 7 Dagor Lens, Series III, 1654 
inch; eight Prosch Flash Bags, com- 
plete, $200; Lens only $100; Camera 
only $40; flash bags only $10 each. 
George Murphy, Inc., 57 East 9th St., 
New York. 

Wanted: A good live paper printer 
who is practically posted on enlar- 
ging and contact printing, and who has 
had road experience and acquaintance 
with the trade. Address, stating qual- 
ifications, W P. R., care Snap Shots. 

Wanted: Young man as salesman 
and manager of retail department in 
large photo supply house in New 
York City. Must be experienced in 
selling professional goods. Send pho- 
tograph and give full particulars in 
first letter. Howe, care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: A well located, well fur- 
nished photo studio in New York City 
in prominent thoroughfare. Owner 
H^sir<^s to sell on account of other 



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clxvi 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



STOP!! LOOK!! 

Have you a camera you wish to sell or 
exchange? Write us. We have been 
in the exchange business for twenty 
years and are known all over the 
country as THE LEADER. 

WRITE for our NEW No. i8 
BARGAIN LIST. It's a HUMMER. 

NE« YORK CAMERA EXCHANGE 

111^ FOLTOi SmCET HEW fOIK 



DURABILITY in SHUTTERS 

Means mnch to the uiier, becautie It does away with the 
trouble and expense that comes wltb something vou're 
never sure of. It means a shutter that can be de- 
pended on, and that will work every time. Such is the 

PACKARD-IDEAL 

«^==^s^=s MADE ONLY BY ^s^^^bbs^^ 

■ICHiaAH PHOTO SHUHER CO. 

aoi East Water St., KALAMAZOO, MICH. 

Write for fnlly illnstrated booklet that describes the 
many styles and sizes. EVERY SHUTTER IS SOLD 
UKDBR AN ABSOLUTE GUARANTEE. All the dealers. 



COOPER HEWin UGHTS 

FOR PHOTOaRAPHV 

We now have ready a booklet re- 
ferring to the Cooper Hewitt Lights 
as prepared for the various photo- 
graphic purposes. Prices boxed, at 
factory. 

DMrgs Mirphy. lie, 57 E. 9th St., Nw York 



CAMERA OWNERS 

If you would like to see a copy of a 
beautiful, practical, interesting, modem 
photographic magazine, written and 
edited with the purpose of teaching all 
photographers how to use their mate- 
rials and skill to the best advantage, 
either for profit or amusement, send us 
your name on a post-card. Don't for- 
get or delay, but write at once. The 
three latest numbers will be ^ent for 25 
cents. $1.50 a year. 

AHHCRICAN PHOTOGRAPHY 
60 I Pope •ulldlfio BOSTON, MASS. 



^ountjed 



K'V'^i^si- 



Have an excellence pecoUarl j their 
own. The best results are only 
produced by the best methods and 
means— the best results in Photo- 
graph, Poster and other mounting 
can only be attained by using the 
best moimting paste— 

HIQQIN8' PHOTO MOUNTER 

(Bxoellent novel brush with each JarO 



HIGGINS' 
PHOTO 
MOUNTER 



At Dealon In Photo Biipplioa» 
ArtUta' XatoriAU bad Sta tt oaat y . 



A S-08. jar prepaid by maO forSSMBli. 
or oiroalars free from 

CHAS. M. HIQQINS & CO.* Mfrs. 

NEW YORK CHICAGO LONDOU 



Main Office, 271 Ninth Street I Brooklya. N. Y. 
Factory, 240-244 Blghth Street f U. 8. A, 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap SHigi^zed by VJ^^V 



IC 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS clxvii 

New Papers For Portrait, 
Enlarging, Contact 



VELOUR BLACK — Highest portrait quality, warm black tones, 
transparent shadows. 

Made in Velvet, Semi-Matte, Matte, Rough, Glossy, Buff, Buff 
Matte. 

VELOUR GOLD — Highest quality for warm olive brown tones. 
Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Semi-Matte, Double; Buff, Double. 

VELOUR BLACK SOFT— For softest effect from strong high- 
grade negatives. 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Semi-Matte, Double; Matte, Double; 
Rough, Double; Buff. 

BROME BLACK — For extreme contrast; fast for enlarging; non- 
abrasion. 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Glossy, Single. 

WHITE LAUREL— Three tints, three emulsions; for contact. 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Glossy, Single; Rough, Single; 
Semi'Matte, Double; Rough, Double; Matte, Double. 

BLACK LAUREL — Black and sepia platinum effects; for contact. 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Semi-Matte, Double; Smooth Matte, 
Double; Buff Matte. 

SPECIAL CHLORIDE— Semi-Matte and fast Chloride Paper for 
commercial work. 

Semi-Matte, Single; Semi-Matte, Double. 



ROCHESTER PHOTO WORKS 

ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 

"" When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. uigiiizea oy UOOg IC 



\ 



dxviii 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



C P. Nitrate Silver Crystals 
Pure Chloride Gold 



For Photographers^ Aritto 
Paper and Dry Pl&ce Makers 

Chemicals for Photo Engraving and the Arts 

All Kinds of Silver and GM 
Waste Refined 

5s±2sii: PHILLIPS & JACOBS 

«22 RACE STREET, PHILADELPHIA 




The "FAVORITE" 

INTERIOR BENCH 

ACCESSORY 

The No. 3086 B Interior Bench 

Price $35.CMD 
Crated F. O. B., New York 

Artistic Photogra phic Chairs, 
Benches, Balustraces, Pedes- 
tals, and Special Accessories 
from any design. 

ROUGH & CALDWELL 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



dxix 



Building a Reputation 




The quickest way to eliminate com- 
petition is by producing pictures of the 
highest artistic quality, and the easiest 
way to accomplish this is to use a 

HELIAR LENS 

This lens has every quality needed 
for the production of pictures of the 
highest merit. Its speed, so important 
in portraiture, is F 4.5, sufficient to 
make instantaneous exposures in a well 
lighted studio. Its optical corrections 
are the highest. Sharp definition or 
exquisite softness can be obtained at 
the desire of the operator. 

Add your skill to the Heliar quality 
and your reputation as a photographer 
is safe- 

Voigtiander & Solin 

840-258 E. Ontario St., Chicago 

225 Fifth Ave., New York 

Works — 

Bmniwick, Germany 

Canadimn Agent*— Hupfeld, Lndecking ft Oo. 

Xontreal, Can. 



Send your name and address 
for 

King's 
Booklet on 
"Lighting" 

(Eight pages with iUustntiont) to 

GEORGE MURPHY 
57 E, gth St., New York 

Send IOC. (postage) for 
Compute C«taloK«o 

Manufacturers and 

Importers of Every Kind of 

Photographic Material 



EDWARD F. BIQELOW 



Areadia, Sound Baaoh* Coanaatlout 

desires for the "Nature and Science" 
Department of the "St. Nicholas'* Maga- 
zine (New York), photographs of inter- 
esting inventions, and of natural objects 
that are novel, instructive or especially 
beautiful. He particularly desires photo- 
graphs of machines, or of mechanical 
appliances of interest to the readers of 
"St. Nicholas." They may be mounted 
or not, of any size and on any kind of 
paper. The only requirements are that 
they shall clearly show something worth 
showing, and be interesting or instruc- 
tive. Do not send "snap shots" of 
scenery that can be equalled for beauty 
and for general interest in almost any 
part of the earth. 

Pay will be at the usual magazine 
rates, and will vary with the interest 
and the novelty. A small photograph 
may be more valuable than a big one. 

"The Guide to Nature," Arcadia: 
Sound Beach, Connecticut, is a maga- 
zine for adults, and has a definite pur- 
pose. It is published by an association 
of students and lovers of nature — not 
for pecuniary gain, but to be helpful. 
Its department. "The Camera," is con- 
ducted by enthusiastic camerists, each 
of whom, as in a camera society, desires 
to help all his associates and colleaguea 
Editor, associates and contributors are 
paid by the satisfaction of benefiting 
others. There is no better remunera- 
tion. All income is devoted directly to 
the interests and improvement of the 
magazine. 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



igiiizea oy v_jv/'^^ 



yc 



\ 



clxx 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



EAGLE CONCRETE 
DEVELOPING TANKS 




These developing tanks are made of the best concrete in 
one piece, and are far superior to any stone tank made in 
pieces and bolted together. They have been in successful 
use in a great many amateur finishing departments for the 
past three years. 

The height of the tanks is 4 feet 4 inches; width, i foot 
I inch, and the length i foot 11 inches. 

The large developing tank is made with a separate outer 
tank, and with a 3 inch space between the two tanks which 
permits of running water flowing around the tank containing 
the developer so as to keep it at the proper temperature. The 
cut fully illustrates the tanks, and also a method of attaching 
same. 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMEXTS 



clxxi 



THE PLATINOTYPE 



A portion of a letter from a prominent New England 
photographer:— "After almost two years of Developmg 
Paper, 1 am writing to confess that I am getting tired 
of it and the craving for GOOD OLD PLATINOTYPE 
i^ coming back/' 

Write for sample Japine septa. 



WILLIS & CLEMENTS 

PHILADELPHIA 



You Can Take Pictures on a Day Like This 1 

Tliat is, if your lens ia right. T!ie lens is the soul of your camera. Ordinary lenses 
will take n'rdiHary pictures under /<xvorahk conditions. Arc you satisfied with that ? 
Of would jott like the best results under all conditions? If so, you should know the 

GOERZ LENSES 

Universally used bv war pliotographers and prnfosionals, wlio must 
be sure of their results, Hiey can eanly be fiUed to ihe camera 
jau n&tD €um, 

SeaJ for Our Book on "Lenses mi Cameras" 

«.i tbe giTLitc^t value t*j a.tiy one iiiterestud 



C. F; Coco AmerictA Optical 




clxxii SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



^^ AUTOnPE CARBON TISSUES 



AUTOTYPE, 



New introductions suitable for the Copper Intaglio Print- 
ing Process for the production of Illustrations. 

In bands of 30 inches wide, 12 feet long. Tissue of 36 
inches can be furnished if desired, as in many cases 36 inches 
avoids waste. 

Per Band 
Photogravure Tissue G, 3 for flat bed printing $6.40 

Photogravure Tissue G, 4 for Rotary Gravure Printing. . . 6.40 
Photogravure Tissue G, 5 for Rotary Gravure Printing. . . 6.40 



GEORGE MURPHY, Ino. 

AMCRIOAN AQENTS 

57 EAST 9th STREET NEW YORK 



Rhodol 



METOL, SATRAPOL and other trade names have been 
adopted by different manufacturers for the chemical Mono- 
methylpara-amidophenol sulphate. We are supplying this 
chemical under the name RHODOL and guarantee our 
article when used in the same way, to produce identical 
results. 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS dxxxvii 



WALLACE'S 
SEPIA PLATINUM 

NOTHING SUPERIOR TO PLATINUM 

Cold development — Great range of tone — always under control. 
Absolutely permanent. Pure Platinum 

No. 99 Heavy Rough. No. lOO Heavy Smooth. 

4 X 5 $o.6o per dozen 

Cabinet o.6o " " 

4^x 6y2 o.8o " " 

5 X 7 o.go " " 

6y2x sy2 1.40 " " 

7 xg 1.65 " " 

8 xio 1.95 " " 

10 X 12 3.00 " " 

11 X 14 4.25 " " 

14 X 17 6.50 " " 

16 X 20 7.75 " " 

20 X 26 11.50 " " 

20 X 26 i.oo " sheet 

Rolls 20 inches by 26 feet $11.50 

Half rolls 20 inches by 13 feet 5.75 

Wallace's Developing Salt No. 4, J/^ lb 30 

Wallace's Developing Salt No. 6, i lb , 60 

Wallace's Sepia Solution, 8 oz., % pint 60 

Wallace's Sepia Solution, 64 oz., % gal 5.00 



Full Direotions In Eaoh Paokage 



GEORGE MURPHY, Ino. 

S7 East Ninth Street NEW YORK 

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clxxiv 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 




Gourson Electric 
Rapid Printer 

(Patent Applied For) 



Goursen Post Card 
Rapid Printer 

In one hour's work with the 
Counen Rapid Printer jon can 
■ave in time and material more 
than its cost. It enables you to 
accomplish more than double the 
work with half the effort; besides 
every print will have a uniform 
margin. 

The matt may be instantly ad- 
justed to its position, and it stays 
there. From a negative you get 
just that portion wanted, and at 
the same time cut out all the un- 
desirable. When the matt is once 
adjusted, prints may be literally 
thrown in one after another and 
th-y instantly find their true 
center. 

Oval and circniar mattt nip- 
plied with each frame. 
Price 12.00 



The Coursen Electric Printer 
has all the good points of the well 
known Coursen Rapid Postcard 
Printer, plus the electrical arrange- 
ment, ready to screw into any 
electric lipht socket. 

It consists of a box containing 
2 white lights in the No. 1 size, 
four white lights in the No. 8 size, 
and one amber light. At one end 
on the outside are the indicating 
switches, making it possible to 
turn on or off any white light as 
desired. It has a removable and 
adjustable printing frame at the 
top. The size No. 1 has a clear 
glass ayixSl/i set in even with the 
surface; 6j4x8j4 negatives or 
smaller may be adjusted to print from any part, 
will accommodate 10x12 negatives or smaller. 




The No. 2 has a 10x12 glass and 



The felt faced clamping back holds the negative and matt in position; this is divided, 
leaving a 5x7 opening with guide to feed the paper against. 

At the right end of the frame is a clamping bar to hold negative and matt in place. 
The negative may be examined at any time, either by amber or white light. Printing 
time commences only when the paper is in perfect contact with the negative. 

It has a throw out device for fast printing. The swinging frame drops the i>aper 
in box at the back of the machine. It has an arrangement for dodging glass below 
printing frame, also the rising and falling device at the back of the machine for 
adjusting the light on an uneven negative. 

Price 
No. 1. With two white lights and one amber for printing any lise up to 

6;^x8v^, eipecially adapted for 6x7, complete with attachment pluff I1S.0O 

No. 2. with four white lighta and one amber for printinf anj lise up to 

10x18; eapecially adapted for 8x10, complete with attachment plvf.... 88.00 

GEORGE MURPHY. Inc.. Retail Department 

S7 East Mb StrMt NEW YORK 



SK«SH*td^v'-^'J'Jglt 



When writing advertisers please mention 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS clxxv 

dl SIXTY DAYS LEFT 

KODAK ADVERTISING 
COMPETITION 

CLOSES NOVEMBER 1st, 1913. 



$3,000.QQ 



IN 



CASH PRIZES 

FOR PICTURES TO BE USED IN ILLUSTRATING 

KODAK ADVERTISEMENTS 

Write for Circular giving details. 



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clxxvi SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 

SEED CAPABILITIES 

Make your lightings round and 
brilliant — put quality into them. 
Then use the one plate that will 
reproduce that quality. 

Seed plates will give the whole 
gamut of tones — contrast without 
steepness — snap without harsh- 
ness. With them you can obtain 
vigor in the negative and round- 
ness in the print without a harsh 
line or clogged shadow. 

Ifs Seed you need. 






■mm-] 

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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



clxxvi 



THE AMERICAN ANNUAL 
OF PHOTOGRAPHY-1914 



'£1914 m 



GEORGE MURPHY. Ine. 

»r BAST MKIH ITBirr. NEW YORK 



The Most Interesting and 
the Most Beautifully Illus- 
trated Photographic Annual 
in the World : : : : : 



28th EDITION 

Ready About November 25th 



Practical Papers on cvcry-day 
Photography. Full of Helpful 
Information and Suggestion. 
More than 200 Illustrations 
from the Best American and 
European Photographic Work 
of the Year. 



FULL-PAGE PICTURES IN COLOR 
A BEAUTIFUL PHOTOGRAPHIC FRONTISPIECE 



Paper Covers, 75 cents. 
Library Edition, $1.25. 



Postage Extra, 15 cents 
Postage Extra, 20 cents 



PLACE YOUR ORDERS NOW 



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dxxviii SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 




AN ASSURANCE 



-OF- 



PERMANENT RESULTS 



INSIST ON THE GENUINE 



"AGFA" 



BERLIN ANILINE WORKS 
213 Wafer Street, llil. 7. 

STOOKBD BY ALL PHOTOGRAPHIC D'EJALiERS 



FREE— The Photographic Times— FREE 

SUNLIGHT AND SHADOW 

A BOOK FOB FH0T0OBAFHEB8 AMATEITB AND PB0FE88I0NAL 

By W. I. LINCOLN ADAXB (Hii Best Book) 

Editor of "The Photographic Times," Author of "Amateur Photography/' "In Nature's 

Image," Etc» Etc. With More than 100 Beautiful Photo-Engrayings, 

Many of Them Full-page Pictures. 

It contains Chapters and Illustrations by well-known photographic writers and workers. 

It covers the field fully, as shown by the following Contents: 

The Choice of Subject Landscape Without Figures Landscape With Flcuras 

Foregrounds The Bkj Outdoor Portraits and Groups The Hand Camera 

Instantaneous Fbotography Winter Photography Marines Photography at Nlffht 

Lighting in Portraiture Photographing Children Art In Grouping 

Printed on heavy wood-cut paper, with liberal margins and gilt edses. BeautitulW 

and substantially bound in art canvas, with gilt design. PBICE IN A BOX, f 2.60. 

So long as the supply holds out, we will continue to furnish this book at only one dollar 

per copy, with a new subscription to 

"THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES" 



Begular price of "Sunlight and Shadow" .... 
Begular Subscription price of "The Photographic Times' 



13.80 
1.60 



94.00 

By this Special Offer we sell Both for . . $2.50 

which is the regular price of "Sunlight and Shadow" alone; so you get "The Photographic 

Times" in this way tor nothing. There are less than 60 copies left, so vou must send in 

your order at once if you want to be sure of securing your "Phot08[raphic Times" and a 

copy of "Sunlight and Shadow" at this special price. 

Photographic Times PubGshing Association 

135 West Fourteenth Street NEW YORK, N'.^.'^ 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



clxxix 



The British Journal 

Photo Almanac 1914 



This standard photographic work, not only 
throughout the British Empire, but in every 
English-speakinp: trade centre in the entire 
world, is now in its 53rd year, and is up- 
to-date. This 1914 edition is 25.000 and 
will be sold out entirely. It will contain 
many new and valuable features, and be 
ready for delivery about December 10th, 
1913. Some of the new features of the 
1914 BRITISH JOURNAL ALMANAC. 



LENS FACTS FOR AMA- 
TEURS 

A series of short chapters by 
the Editor on the practical 
properties of lenses. It deals 
fully, yet in an elementary way, 
with the selection and use of 
every description of modern 
lens, providing an instruction 
book in brief on lenses as they 
require to be used in outdoor 
and indoor work. 



EXPOSURE AND DEVELOPMENT 

By 0. H. HEWITT, F.B.P.S. 

An article which deals with the everyday problems of 
every amateur photographer, and — ^more than this— shows, 
by a series of reproductions of negatives, the results of mis- 
takes in exposure and development: how these mistakes 
affect the prints and how they can be avoided or remedied. 

A GLOSSARY OF PHOTOGRAPHIC TERMS 

Short explanations of the apparatus, materials, processes, 
etc., commonly employed in present-day photography. 

FORMULA FOR DAILY WORK 

A revised series of formulae, in each case telling how to make 
up the solution and the best ivay to use it. The most 
reliable of guides to practical photography. 




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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



EAGLE HOME PORTRAIT 
AND STUDIO LAMP 




The Eagle Home Portrait and Studio Lamp is the most 
perfect and compact lighting device ever offered for photo- 
graphic use. It is ideal for home portrait use, as the entire 
outfit is very light and packs into a small space. It can be 
attached to practically any electric light socket, as it will 
work on either direct or alternating current from no to 220 
volts. Fitted with a collapsible reflector and light diflfuser, 
it is possible to get just exactly the effect you are after. 

The length of exposure, of course, depends on the size 
and the color of the room, the lens, and stop used. Exposures 
vary from a fraction of a second upward. 

Be independent of sunlight by getting an Eagle Home 
Portrait and Studio Lamp, and you can make exposures at 
any time of the day or right, and under all conditions. The 
lamp can be used in fireplaces with or without sunlight, and 
most beautiful effects produced. In fact there is no end 
to the variety of artistic effects that can be produced with this 
wonderful light. PRICE $50.00 

6E0R6E MURPHY. Inc., 57 East Ninth Street. New Yerk 

u uy d O Q^^ 

When writing advertisers please mention Skap ShotsI^ 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



CXClll 



An Explanatory Diagram Showing the 
Yariotts Stages in the Production of 



"HOW IT IS DONE" 

AUTOTYPE CARBON PHOTOGRAPHS 



The Production off an Autotype Carlion Photograph 



The Coated Surface of Exposed Car- 
hon Tissue (Pigmented Gelatine). 
B 
Single Transfer Paper. 

C 
Soak A and B m cold water, bring 
eoated surfaces together in contact and 
tqueegee. 

Place the adherent tissue and trans- 
fer paper between blotting boa,rds for 
a few minutes. Next immerse in warm 
water, until the ooiored gelatine begins 
to ooze ont at the edges. 



Strip oir the Tissue backing paper 
and throw it away. 
F 

A dark mass of colored gelatine is 
left on the transfer paper. This re- 
mains in the warm water and the gela- 
tine surface is splashed over until the 
picture gradually makes its appearance. 
O and H 

Continue until completed. 
I 

The picture is now placed in an alum 
bath (five per cent) to harden the Him 
and discharge the bichromate sensi- 
tising salt. A rinse in cold water com- 
pletes the operation. 



lOlYPlC 

PttlJIO«l 






DHCD 




Important to Amateur Photographers 

TRIAL SETS OF CARBON PRINTING MATERIALS 

-^ In order to combat the erroneous notion, somewhat prevalent amongst Amateur 
*^otograpberB, that a trial of the Carbon Process necessariW entails the expenditure 
P* a considerable sum on costly apparatus, the Autotype Company have decided to 
'^troduce cheap trial sets of the absolutely essential materials, particulars of which 
**"« appended. 

In these cheaply-priced outfits it is, of course, impossible to include develooing, 
^^^shing or fixing tanks. For purely experimental purposes, however, some of the 
^vdinary household crockery will serve as a makeshift, and the bathroom will be 
«ound a not altogether unsuitable apartment for carrying on operations. 

PRICES OF TRIAL SETS 

S^tftt No. 1 fl.50 

Jutat Complete for 6 x 7 5.00 

"*tat for J X 10 7.00 

IB Aients: 6E0R6E MURPNT. Inc.. 57 L 9th St. New York 



When wrhiaf adrertiaers please mentioa Snap Shots. 




8 



le 



CXCIV 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



(( 



The Greatest Ever" 

THIS is the unanimous opinion of all the 
photographers who have seen our remark- 
able Line of Photographic Mountings for 
Fall. This Line includes nothing old or hack- 
neyed. Each offering is a surprise, a source of 
pleasure to those who delight in harmonies of 
color and design. Solid mountings, folders, slip- 
in and tip-on mountings, covers and enclosures 
are all represented, and each photographer can 
find in this surpassing collection an assortment 
of mountings suited to his every requirement. 
Ask your dealefs salesman to show you 
this Line. 

A. M. COLLINS MFG. COMPANY 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



You Can Reproduce Your Pictures in 

NATURAL COLORS 

on the 

DUFAY COLOR PLATE 

Process the simplest, results the most perfect reproduction of natural colors 
possible to obtain. Dufay color plates are of very fine texture, rapid, and 
are guaranteed for 12 months. 



»x4 " 

six 411' 



FBICE LIST PEB BOX OF FOITB 
fl.M 4x6'' 



l.tf 5x7" 

C01CFEK8ATIN0 8CBEEN8 






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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



cxcv 



r 



HAMMER PLATES 

are uniformly quick, clean and brilliant with firm, tough films 
and wide range of tone between high lights and shadows. 

Hammer's Special Extra Fast (red label) and Extra Fast 
(blue label) Plates are best for all round work and Hammer's 
Orthochromatic Plates for color values. Adapted to every 
climate and temperature. 




RCG.TRAOe MARK 



Hammer's little book, "A Short Talk on Negative Making," 
mailed free. 

HAMMER DRY PLATE COMPANY 

OM* Av«. antf Miami St. St. Lovis, Mo. 



'I 

ti 



P^ottntied 

math 

HIGGINS' 



PHOTO 



HftTe an excelle&ca pecullari j llMir 
own. The beet reralti ara only 
produced bj the beet methode and 
means— the beet reeulti in Photo- 
graph, Poster and other monntinf 
can only be attained by nilng tho 
best mounting paste— 

HIQQIN8' PHOTO MOUNTBR 
(BzoeUent noTal bniih with eaoh jar^ 



At Dealers la Photo Sapplios, 
Artists* Materials aad 1 



▲ t^ 



. jar prepaid bj msll for It i 
or olroiilsrs free from 



CHA8. M. HIOOINS & CO.. Mfrs. 

NBW YORK CHICAGO LOilDOIf 



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cxcvi SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Beacon View Mount 

COLORS— SILVER GRAY AND ARTIST BROWN 



The "Beacon," we feel safe in saying, is the heaviest tinted 
view mount of its kind on the market. Its finish is an artistic 
roughness that gives, quality and richness to the photograph. 
Within the embossed mounting space there is a tinted border 
which allows some latitude in trimming and affords an elegant 
gradation of color from photograph to mount. 

Size Per loo 

B — Card, 8xio for 5 x 7 $3.00 

C — Card, 10x12 for 6J/ix 8J4 4.00 

D — Card, 12x14 for 8 xio 5.00 

(Packed 50 in a box) 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS cxcvii 



THIRTY DAYS LMFT 

KODAK ADVERTISING 
COMPETITION 

CLOSES NOVEMBER Isi, 1913. 

$3,000.02 

IN 

CASH PRIZES 

FOR PICTURES TO BE USED IN ILLUSTRATING 

KODAK ADVERTISEMENTS 

Write for Circular giving details. 



EASTMAN KODAK CO., 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. D,Biiiz.db,Googli 



cxcviH SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 

The greatest advance for portraitists 
since the advent of the dry plate — 

Eastman 
Portrait Films 



Every desirable quality that is to be found in 
the best portrait plates — speed, gradation, fineness 
of grain, and in addition they are light, unbreak- 
able and non-halation. 

The weight of his plates and the halation caused 
by harsh lightings have been the greatest draw- 
back to the work of the Home Portraitist. 

Eastman Portrait Films overcome them both. 
They can be readily mailed to the studio for devel- 
opment — may be developed several at one time 
as you would handle prints, and may be retouched 
on the face or back, or both. 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



CXCIX 




.4^ ASSURANCE 



-OF- 



PERMANENT RESULTS 



INSIST ON THE GENUINE 



ii 



AGFA" 



BERLIN ANILINE WORKS 
213 Water Street^ N. T. 

STOCKED BY ALL PHOTOGRAPHIC DEALERS 



^^ 



.mm. AUTOTYPE CARBON TISSUES 

AUTOTYPE. 



New introductions suitable for the Copper Intaglio Print- 
ing Process for the production of Illustrations. 

In bands of 30 inches wide, 12 feet long. Tissue of 36 
inches can be furnished if desired, as in many cases 36 inches 
avoids waste. 

Per Band 
Photogcavure Tissue G, 3 for flat bed printing $6.40 

Photogravure Tissue G, 4 for Rotary Gravurc Printing. . . 6.40 
Photogravure Tissue O, 5 for Rotary Gravure Printing. . . 6.40 



GEORGE MURPHY, Ino. 

AMERiCAN AttENTS ^ 

57 EAST 9th STREET NEW YORK 



/'^r^r^ r> 






cc 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



The British Journal 

Photo Almanac 1914 



This standard photosraphic work, not only 
throughout the BritisB Empire, but in erery 
English-speaking trade centre in the entire 
world, is now in its 68rd year, and is np- 
to-date. This 1914 edition is 26.000 and 
will be sold out entirely. It will contain 
many new and valuable features, and be 
ready for delivery about December lOth, 
1913. Some of the new features of the 
1914 BRITISH JOURNAL ALMANAC 



LENS FACTS FOR AMA- 
TEURS 

A series of short chapters by 
the Editor on the practical 
properties of lenses. It deals 
fully, yet in an elementary way, 
with the selection and use of 
every description of modem 
lens, providing an instruction 
book in brief on lenses as they 
require to be used in outdoor 
and indoor work. 



EXPOSURE AND DEVELOPMENT 

By C. H. HEWITT, F.B.P.8. 

An article which deals with the everyday problems of 
every amateur photographer, and — more than this— -shows, 
by a series of reproductions of negatives, the results of mis- 
takes in exposure and development: how these mistakes 
affect the prints and how they can be avoided or remedied. 

A GLOSSARY OF PHOTOGRAPHIC TERMS 

Short explanations of the apparatus, materials, processes, 
etc., commonly employed in present-day photography. 

FORMULA FOR DAILY WORK 

A revised series of formulae, in each case telling how to make 
up the solution and the best way to use it. The most 
reliable of guides to practical photography. 




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EAGLE HOME PORTRAIT 
AND 5TUDI0 LAMP 




The Eagle Home Portrait and Studio Lamp is the most 
perfect and compact lighting device ever offered for photo- 
graphic use. It IS ideal for home portrait use, as the entire 
outfit is very light and packs into a small space. It can be 
attached to practically any electric light socket, as it will 
work on either direct or alternating current from no to 220 
volts. Fitted with a collapsible reflector and light diffuser, 
it is possible to get just exactly the effect you are after. 

The length of exposure, of course, depends on the size 
and the color of the room, the lens, and stop used. Exposures 
vary from a fraction of a second upward. 

Be independent of sunlight by getting an Eagle Home 
Portrait and Studio Lamp, and you can make exposures at 
any time of the day or night, and under all conditions. The 
lamp can be used in fireplaces with or without sunlight, and 
most beautiful effects produced. In fact there is no end 
to the variety of artistic effects that can be produced with this 
wonderful light. PRICE $50.00 

GE0R6E MURPHY. Inc.. 57 East Ninth Street. New York 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



a: 



Give your customer the best 
print you can make from every 
negative. 






111 





^^TT^TT V 



OR 



R>E' 



makes the perfect print possible. Its 
superior quality is appreciated by the 
majority of good photographers. 




ARTURA DIVISION, 



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TRADEMARK. 



NO. 360B7 REGISTERED 







November, 1913 



CONTENTS 

How to Obtain Soft 

Negatives ... 

Tent Photography 

Copying a Blue Print 

Copying and the Help Given 
by Color Screens - 207 

The Preparation and Reno- 
vation of Backgrounds 

The Negative and 

The Print ^ - - 213 

Shading During Printing 216 

Trade News and Notes - 21S 

Studio Wants - - - 220 




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How Clumsy and Crude 

some packages ap- 
pear when they 
arrive at destina- 
tion ! How often 
one receives a 
photograph or 
similar enclosure in wretched con- 
dition, owing to the so-called pro- 
tection — a i^iece of flimsy paste- 
board, perhaps, as a protector, and both 
thrown carelessly into an envelope more or 
less inadequate. Why not save time, patience and 
labor by using 





TRADE MARK 
Patented June 26, 1900. Trade Mark Registered. 



XOTHIXG LIKE IT! IT PROTECTS THE 
PHOTOORAPII. 

Seventeen Sizes. 

The Thompson & Norris Co. 



\ 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



cci 



EAQLE HOME PORTRAIT 
AND STUDIO LAMP 




The Eagle Home Portrait and Studio Lamp is the most 
perfect and compact lighting device ever offered for photo- 
graphic use. It is ideal for home portrait use, as the entire 
outfit is very light and packs into a small space. It can be 
attached to practically any electric light socket, as it will 
work on either direct or alternating current from no to 220 
volts. Fitted with a collapsible reflector and light diffuser. 
it is possible to get just exactly the effect you are after. 

The length of exposure, of course, depends on the size 
and the color of the room, the lens, and stop used. Exposures 
vary from a fraction of a second upward. 

Be independent of sunlight by getting an Eagle Home 
Portrait and Studio Lamp, and you can make exposures at 
any time of the day or night, and under all conditions. The 
lamp can be used in fireplaces with or without sunlight, and 
most beautiful effects produced. In fact there is no end 
to the variety of artistic effects that can be produced with this 
wonderful light. PRICE $50.00 

eEORSE MURPHY, Inc.. 57 East Ninth Street. New Yark 



When writing advertiserg please mention Snap Shots. 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



WALLACE'S 
SEPIA PLATINUM 

NOTHING SUPERIOR TO PLATINUM 

Cold development — Great range of tone — always under control. 
Absolutely permanent. Pure Platinum 

No. 99 Heavy Rough. No. loo Heavy Smooth. 

4 X 5 $o.6o per dozen 

Cabinet o.6o " 

4J4 X 6J4 o.8o " 

5 X 7 o.go " 

6J^x Sy2 1.40 •' 

7 XQ 1.65 " 

8 X 10 1.95 " 

10 X 12 3.00 " 

11 X 14 4.25 " 

14 X 17 6.50 " 

16 X 20 7.75 " 

20 X 26 11.50 " 

20 X 26 i.oo " sheet 



Rolls 20 inches by 26 feet $11.50 

Half rolls 20 inches by 13 feet 5.75 

Wallace's Developing Salt No. 4, J4 lb 30 

Wallace's Developing Salt No. 6, i lb 60 

Wallace's Sepia Solution, 8 oz., % pint 60 

Wallace's Sepia Solution, 64 oz., 54 gal 5.00 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS cciii 



The F. & S. Banquet Camera 




U 



ARGE GROUPS 
made indoors at ban- 
quets, meetings, public 
gatherings, etc., are very 
profitable to the photo- 
grapher who is equipped to 
do the work right. 

The F. & S. Banquet 
Camera is constructed es- 
pecially for this class of work, and is supplied in two sizes, 
12 X 20 inches and 7 x 17 inches. The adjustments on this 
camera make it possible to operate close to the wedl in 
order to include every person in 
the room. 

Outdoor groups and views find 
a ready sale when made with 
the 12 X 20 F. & S. Banquet 
Camera. 

Send for 
Circular 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



THE AMERICAN ANNUAL 
OF PHOTOGRAPHY-1914 

28th Edition 
NOW READY 




PRICe'rs CBNTS 



^r* n^ y * * iff ^nr^ V 

111914 m 



The most interesting and the 
most beautifully illustrated pho- 
tographic annual in the world. 

The new 1914 edition contains 
practical papers on almost every 
phase of photography. The fol- 
lowing are a few of the subjects 
especially treated on by experts 
in the various lines: Color Pho- 
tography, Gum-Bichromate Print- 
ing, Moonlight Pictures, Develop- 
ing, Composition, Microscopic 
Work, Home Portraiture, Enlarg- 
ing, Architectural Photography, 
Interior Grouping, Use of Dia- 
phragms, Carbon Printing, Sys- 
tem, Cinematography. 

The formula section has been revised and contains many new and up- 
to-date formulae and tables for every-day reference. Among the new 
tables are: Reflecting Power of Various Surfaces, Solubility of Pho- 
tographic Chemicals. Strength of Various Lights. 



GEORGE MURPHY. Inc. 

»T EAST NINTH STUETT. NEW YOU 
•ou AMUUCAN AoiNTS roft ftOM Lnwu. 



Beautifully illustrated with over 200 illustrations selected from the best 
American and European work of the year. 

32 FULL PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS IN COLOR 



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\ 




SNAP-SHOTS 

A Monthly Magazine for Photographers 



tUBSCUmOH lATIS FOB U. S. AMD CANADA PBB YBAm, $1.00; SIX MOKTHS, SO dKTt 

siHGLs corr, 10 cbhti. roBiicH covntuu, $l.t6 

rUBUIRKD BY THB IlTAP-IHOTi PUBLIBIIINC Ca, 67 BAST NINTH BTBXBT, MBW< TOBK 



Volume 24 NOVEMBER, 1913 Number 11 



Statement of the Ownership, Management, Circulation, etc., of Snap Shots. 
Published Monthly at New York, N. Y. Required by the Act of August 24, 1912. 
Editor, Managing Editor, Business Manager, Percy Y. Howe, 422 Park Hill 
Avenue, Yonkers. New York. 

Publisher, Snap Shots Publishing Company. 57 East Ninth Street, New York. 
Owner, George Murphy, 57 East Ninth Street, New York. 
Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders, holding 1 per 
<^ent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities, None. 

PERCY Y. HOWE, Editor. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 22nd day of September, 1913 
WARREN W. SIGLER, 

Notary Public, Queens County. 

Certificate filed in N. Y. County, No. 41, N. Y. Register No. 5234. 
(My commission expires March 30, 1915.) 

HOW TO OBTAIN SOFT NEGATIVES 

By A. von Palosay 



In the production of photo- 
graphic prints it is often very de- 
sirable to have what is known as 
a soft or thin negative. Modern 
reproducing processes and artistic 
^ste demand a certain degree of 
softness in the negative — a quality 
that is also important in order to 
obtain satisfactory diapositives, 
whiie for bromide enlargements it 
^s quite indispensable. In fact, for 



all subjects that by their nature 
are apt to give a hard effect or 
strong contrasts, such as interior 
views, flashlight pictures, etc., an 
effort must be made to reduce the 
intensity of the high lights. It 
would be easy to mention many 
similar cases where it would be a 
great advantage to have at one's 
disposal the means of modifying 
the hardness of negatives to im- 



20I 



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202 



SNAP SHOTS 



Xovember, 1913 



prove their printing qualities. We 
will mention briefly a few of the 
most effective. 

An excellent means of securing 
softness of contrasts is to give the 
plate a certain degree of over-ex- 
posure. "Look after the shadows 
and pay no attention to the high 
lights'* is an old photographic 
axiom, and the same rule holds 
good if it is a diapositive that is 
to be reproduced, whether in the 
printing frame or in the camera — 
a slight excess of exposure is to 
be recommended. Then the over- 
exposed plates should be developed 
in a special way, which we will ex- 
plain later. Besides, in cases where 
a little coarser grain would not be 
objectionable, a more speedy plate 
may be used, because the more sen- 
sitive a plate is the weaker in its 
scale of tone gradations, and the 
limit is reached soonest in the shad- 
ows. Thus, while emulsions of low 
sensitiveness, like those used on 
diapositive plates, give very black 
tones in the deep shadows, the ex- 
tra-sensitive plates will give the 
same shadows in a rather gray tone 
and all the details with the least 
amount of contrast. 

Another very simple and effect- 
ive means is the use of a pre- 
liminary bath of potassium bichro- 



coating, the image appears more 
slowly than normally, allowing time 
to stop development at the right 
moment before it reaches the full 
depth of the film. We shall speak 
further on this action on the deep- 
er parts of the coating in relation 
to the subject we are discussing. 

The longer the plate treated with 
bichromate is allowed to remain in 
the developer the more dense it be- 
comes and the stronger the con- 
trasts, so that if development is 
pushed very far the negative will 
be just as strong as if no bichromate 
had been used and its effect is 
nullified. 

We come now to the develop- 
ment, which may be so regulated as 
to give a negative of the desired 
gradation. It may be remarked in 
beginning, that prolonged develop- 
ment gives hard negatives, while 
rapid development tends towards 
softness. To attain our object, 
then, it will be necessary to stop 
development as soon as the details 
of the picture fully appear. Watch 
the shadows, which are the darker 
portions of the negative, and as 
soon as the details in these places 
cease to appear, stop developing, 
for if it is left to continue longer 
it will only accentuate the con- 
trasts as it penetrates deeper into 



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Xovember, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



203 



from the subject the more active 
are the rays and the more deeply 
they affect the film. The silver 
halogen is, therefore, reducible to 
a greater depth in proportion to 
the amount of light that strikes 
the plate: in the shadows the re- 
ducible portion is right on the sur- 
face ; in the half lights it goes pro- 
portionately deeper, and in the 
highest lights it may penetrate right 
through the coating. So, when the 
developer is applied, it acts first on 
the surface, gradually penetrating 
further and further, reducing all 
the affected silver salt that it meets 
with. That is why the high lights, 
half lights and shadows differ but 
little at the beginning of develop- 
ment and no contrasts are to be 
seen. These only appear when the 
developer has penetrated deeper 
into the gelatine coating. As the 
developer does not find any more 
reducible silver in the shadows, they 
therefore do not increase in 
strength; but in the half lights it 
still finds some and continues to 
bring out details till it reaches the 
lowest point affected. If develop- 
ment is now pushed further, so as 
to act still deeper in the film, it can 
only do so on the high lights, as 
these are the only places where 
there is still reducible silver to be 



recommended as an aid in obtaining 
the desired result. 

The kind of developer used has 
also an influence that should be 
taken into account, since the color 
of the reduced silver differs with 
each. It is better not to use a de- 
veloper that gives very black tones, 
but rather one that gives a clear 
gray, such as metol. 

Finally, we may have a negative 
already developed, on which we 
would like to reduce the contrasts. 
That may be the case if the precau- 
tions we have just indicated have 
not been observed. The best 
means for doing this is, a 3 per cent 
solution of ammonium persulphate. 
The negative must be thoroughly 
washed, to eliminate the hypo com- 
pletely before placing it in the re- 
cJucer, otherwise the latter will not 
act, or will only produce stains. 
The persulphate has the peculiarity, 
under correct conditions, of first at- 
tacking the denser parts of the 
image, thus reducing the contrasts. 
When the desired effect has been 
produced, the plate is at once 
plunged for a few seconds in a 10 
per cent bath of sodium sulphite, 
to stop further action of the per- 
sulphate, as a simple washing will 
not do so. Then wash the plate 
very carefully. 



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204 



SXAP SHOTS 



Xovember, 1913 



plates, which, as we have already 
stated, give a softer gradation of 
tones than diapositive plates, and 
whose coarser grain will be no 
drawback for this work. Soft con- 
trasts can be obtained from the in- 
termediate plate in the enlarging ap- 
paratus. 

It should also be observed that a 
strong light gives soft pictures; a 
weak light hard ones. In copying 
a photograph, whether by contact, 
in the camera, or by enlargement, 
this effect of the light is always 
noticeable. Every one knows that 
a print made in the sun will be soft. 



while one made in diffused light 
will be harsher ; but what is not so 
generally known is that, when copy- 
ing with a camera or an enlarging 
apparatus, the reproductions are 
harder with a weak light and softer 
with a strong one. If we use a 
diaphragm in reproducing, we get 
a harder copy because the light is 
reduced, and the same effect is pro- 
duced when a ground glass is used 
between the source of light and the 
negative. To secure soft enlarge- 
ments we should use a strong light, 
a large diaphragm and no ground 
glass. — Wiener Mitteilungen, 



TENT PHOTOGRAPHY 

By Frank Frost 



Many small towns may be prof- 
itably worked, using a tent as a 
studio, for a few weeks or months 
in each year. A chain or circle 
of small towns may be made to 
yield good results by this method 
during the entire year providing 
that good work is uniformly turned 
out. 

The selection of an outfit suited 
to this class of work is of much 
importance. Many things that are 
useful and necessary in a large es- 
tablished studio are of no practical 
value or use and should never be 



tent. The color must be brown- 
nothing else should be considered— 
a white tent allows the light to 
come in from every direction, and 
flat lightings are the result. 

Next is the size; 14 feet wide 
is a good width, the length may be 
24 or 28 feet, depending on the 
focal length of the lenses used; 
14 X 28 will be found a very ser\'- 
iceable and suitable size, with walls 
6 feet high and ridge pole 12 feet 
high. Have the skylight run from 
side wall to within ? foot of ridge 
pole. The width should be about 



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quality duck. Have the manufac- 
turer submit samples of the duck 
in making estimates on the tent. 
You will be surprised to see the 
difference in the samples furnished 
by the different tent makers claimed 
^0 be the same weight, etc. In order- 
ing a tent get it *' without poles and 
pins," as those furnished by the 
tent manufacturers are not worth 
the freight. 

When you are ready to put up 
the tent go to a lumber yard and 
get 2 X 6 timber for ridge poles; 
this should be in two lengths, 14 
and 10 feet for the 24-foot length 
tent and 16 and 12 feet for the 
U X 23 size. Use 2x4, one on 
each side, 4 feet long for splicing, 
using four bolts to hold it together. 
Bevel the upper edge of the 2 x 4s 
to prevent the wind from wearing 
the tent through by whipping on 
the sharp edges. Take a plane and 
round the top side of ridge pole. 
The upright poles should be 2 x 4s, 
Uy2 feet long. Have your black- 
smith put an iron band around the 
top of each of the three upright 
poles after they have been rounded 
and tapered down to about 23/2 
inches in width at top, and then 
have heavy iron pins well set down 
in the upright poles. The two end 
poles should have the iron pins 
project 4 inches above top of tent, 
while the center pin should reach 
to near the top of the ridge pole. 
Xow for the bottom of the tent 
get 1x8 inch planks to go around 
the tent ; take 2 x 4s and cut into 
stakes at least two feet long, drive 
one in each corner, and nail the 



first boards to these, then drive 
them in between about 4 feet apart 
and nail the boards to them; now 
cut a ditch around the tent, and 
throw the dirt inside, banking it 
up against the boards. This done, 
take laths and three-penny nails 
and nail the bottom of tent to the 
boards — do not draw the sides of 
the tent down tight — allow two 
inches slack, then when the tent 
gets wet with rain it will not pull 
your laths off. 

The stakes for holding the guy 
ropes may be made of old spokes 
from the wheels of a spring wagon 
or buggy. You will always find 
them around the village blacksmith 
shop, and they may be had for the 
asking; sharpen them well, and 
they will give you much better 
service than those sent out when 
you buy a tent **with poles and 
pins.*' In putting the ropes on the 
stakes, after drawing the rope 
tight, wind it once around the stake 
and then it will not slip off. Watch 
your tent, and when it begins to 
rain, day or night, get out and 
slacken the ropes, as they will draw 
up when wet, and something must 
give way. 

As to the inside equipment, when 
you get the tent, get a dark-room 
with it — 6 X 6 feet and 6 feet high. 
Make a frame, bolt it together, and 
brace it well and stretch your dark- 
room over it. Be sure it is dark. 
Dry dirt may be used to cut out 
the light at the bottom by banking 
on the inside next to frame of 
dark-room. Next take scrim or 



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scrim sacks and make a carpet for 
the tent, nailing it to the planks 
around bottom of tent with laths 
over edges of carpet. 

For instruments, a good 8 x 10 
view box with a good anastigmat 
lens working at /6.8.13 inch focus 
with good shutter will do all cab- 
inet work and larger sizes, also 
your outside views. For smaller 
work, a 5 X 7 universal is a splen- 
did camera which may be fitted 
with an anastigmat lens of about 
8-inch focus; this will be fine for 
post-cards, half cabinets, stamps, 
etc. As to backgrounds, do not 
try to have many; the continuous 
grounds may be used by driving 
a stake well into the ground at each 
end of the background roller, leav- 
ing the stakes about 2 feet high, 
then take a 2 x 4 8 feet long, rip 
it in two and nail piece at top to 
engage background roller, then 
strap these to your stakes. This 
will hold your background secure- 
ly. When the wind blows, take 
the 8-foot pieces down so as to 
avoid wearing a hole through the 
tent just over them. 

We will now come back to the 
dark-room. Put a table in it 2 feet 
wide and 6 feet long, cut a place in 
the top and put in a small sink on 
one end of table. Put a keg or 
half-barrel near to hold the water 
supply. The waste water may be 
run from sink out through a pipe 
or into a bucket and carried out. 
Study how to make your outfit 
handy, yet simple. 

Tent photography may thus be 



made pleasant and profitable, and 
good health assured by living out 
doors day and night. — Abel's Pho- 
tographic Weekly. 



COPYING A BLUE PRINT 

Although the **blue print," in the 
trade or workshop sense of the 
term, is an impression taken by 
contact printing from a draughts- 
man's tracing, it must not be for- 
gotten that the blue printing proc- 
ess is admirable for rendering cer- 
tain classes of landscape and ma- 
rine subjects. Further, this print- 
ing process is almost an acme of 
simplicity, the sensitizing solution 
for the paper being merely a solu- 
tion of twenty grains of potassium 
ferricyanide and twenty grains of 
ammonia-citrate of iron to one 
ounce of water, development and 
fixation being effected by the wash- 
ing in water of the sheet as taken 
from the printing frame. More- 
over, the paper for blue prints can 
be purchased ready sensitized, so 
that water alone is required by an 
amateur adopting this method of 
printing. A blue print, if cc^ied 
on an ordinary plate, will give 
scarcely a trace of image, the blue 
and white having nearly the same 
actinic effect; but if a deep yellow 
screen be used there is no difficulty 
in obtaining a vigorous negative. 
Another procedure recommended is 
to interpose a sheet of yellow pa- 
per between the source of light and 
blue print. — The Amateur Photog- 
rapher's Weekly. 



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COPYING AND THE HELP GIVEN 
BY COLOR SCREENS 

By T. Macbean 



Copying written or printed mat- 
ter, illustrations, etc., is an opera- 
tion in which color often plays a 
very important part. This is very 
well seen if we attempt to pho- 
tograph a blue print, for example. 
The blue of the print comes out al- 
most as white as the white lines 
upon it, and all the contrast of the 
original, unless special means have 
been taken to ensure otherwise, will 
be lost. On the other hand, if the 
subject is a very red- toned photo- 
graph, the plate exaggerates the 
contrast to such an extent that it is 
difficult to keep the half-tones of 
the picture to their true values. 

Though in some ways this may 
be regarded as due to defects of 
the photographic process, it is prac- 
ticable to take advantage of them, 
and so to obtain a result by copy- 
ing, in which the contrasts of the 
original are increased or decreased 
at will. 

To do this, it is necessary to in- 
terpose in the path of the rays a 
colored screen of some kind. This 
may be placed just in front of the 
plate itself, or upon the lens of the 
camera, in either of which cases it 
is important that it should be trans- 



case its flatness and transparency 
are unimportant. If there is any 
quantity of such work to be done, 
it is doubtless advisable to get prop- 
erly made and adjusted light filters, 
such as Messrs. Wratten and Wain- 
wright supply; but for occasional 
work, such as is all that is likely to 
come in the amateur's way, a great 
deal can be done by very simple 
devices, when once the principle is 
understood and realized. 

This may be expressed very 
briefly. If we are photographing a 
colored object against a white back- 
ground, and wish to increase the 
contrast, the light chosen should be 
of a color complementary to that 
of the object. If, on the other 
hand, we wish to reduce contrasts, 
the course to follow will be exact- 
ly the reverse. 

It is important, of course, in all 
cases to use a plate which will be 
as sensitive as possible to the light 
which is being used for the work. 
For example, we may want to copy 
a blue print. As red or orange is 
the complementary of blue, we shall 
get the best contrast if we illum- 
inate the print by red or orange 
light ; and with that a red-sensitive 



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The violet ink which is used for 
typewriters and for rubber stamps 
in such a Hght will be almost invisi- 
ble. What it requires to give it 
the maximum of contrast is a green 
light or bluish green light. 

In copying faded prints two con- 
ditions may be studied. If the pa- 
per is fairly white, but the image 
has faded to a yellow or yellowish 
red, the greatest contrast is to be 
obtained by the use of light of a 
complementary color to ^ yellow or 
red, that is to say, blue or violet. 
As everyone knows, an ordinary 
(that is to say non-orthochromatic) 
plate is hardly sensitive to a yellow 
or red at all, but very sensitive to 
blue or violet, so that no color 
screen need be used in such a case. 
We simply make the copy on an 
ordinary plate, preferably by day- 
light, since artificial light is weak 
in the blue and violet. 

But if the original is one in which 
the whites are yellowed while the 
blacks remain vigorous; instead of 
using an ordinary plate and plain 
daylight, we can use an orthochro- 
matic plate and a yellow screen. 
Yellow or orange tissue paper over 
the window, with a good color-sen- 
sitive plate, will help to keep 
the yellowed whites as light as 
possible. 

The usefulness of color screens 
in copying work is by no means lim- 



black and white subject to copy, on 
which there is a bad red stain, such 
as might result from the upsetting 
of some red ink upon it. If we 
photograph this on an ordinary 
plate, the stain will come out al- 
most black, far worse than it ap- 
pears to the eye. If we use a pan- 
chromatic plate and a color screen 
which is supposed to give a correct 
rendering, we should see the red 
stain in the photograph about as 
deeply as it appears to the eye. But 
if we can use a color screen of 
suitable depth and color, we might 
make the stain quite invisible in the 
photograph. A rough and ready 
method of doing this in such a case 
as we have supposed would be to 
use some of the same red ink to 
stain sheets of tissue paper or gela- 
tinized glass, and to filter all the 
light reaching the subject through 
such media. If the coloring of the 
filter were deep enough, the stain 
would no longer be visible to the 
eye; and when that is the case the 
same combination of panchromatic 
plate and color screen just men- 
tioned would give us a copy in 
which also the stain was almost 
or quite invisible. 

This, however, is work of a more 
advanced character, and needs a 
little study in each case in order 
that it may be done under the most 
favorable conditions. It is men- 



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THE PREPARATION AND RENOVATION 
OF BACKGROUNDS 

By Practicus 



There are few photographers who 
have not at some time or other felt 
a desire to paint a background, but 
of those who have essayed the task 
only a small proportion have felt 
satisfied with the result. In the ma- 
jority of cases this is due to the use 
of improper materials and tools, and 
to ignorance of the proper methods 
of mixing and employing them. 

BACKGROUND MATERIAL 

The materials usually employed 
as the basis of backgrounds are 
stout unbleached sheeting and 
scene-painter's canvas. The former 
is cheap and good enough for all 
ordinary purposes, while the latter 
is more expensive and at the same 
time more durable and of a better 
substance, being much less liable to 
accidental punctures with head-rest 
or the corners of accessories. Our 
first requirement is a frame on 
which the material may be strained 
for painting ; if none of suitable size 
exists in the studio, one should be 
made of stout "slate battens," which 
may be bought very cheaply at any 
timber yard. They should be 
"halved" at the corners so that 
^he frame has a flush surface, and 
fastened together with quarter- 
inch bolts and nuts. The former 



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stretchers should be nailed on to 
the back, diagonally across two op- 
posite corners. These are best fixed 
on with wire nails, so that they can 
be easily removed when the frame 
is to be taken to pieces. It is ad- 
visable to procure the sheeting be- 
fore making this frame, as some- 
times the width is barely as wide 
as it is supposed to be, and make- 
shift methods of stretching have to 
be adopted. The fabric should be 
brought over the edge of the frame 
and fastened with ordinary tin 
tacks, taking care not to drive these 
quite home, so that they may be 
easily pulled out with pincers when 
the work is completed. The object 
of putting the nails on the edge of 
the frame instead of on the flat is 
to provide a smooth surface to the 
extreme edge of the frame, so that 
the brush will not catch on the 
tacks. Whether the medium to be 
employed be distemper or oil color, 
it is always desirable to size the 
canvas well first, and in the case of 
oil it is absolutely necessary. This 
is done by giving a coat either of 
warm size, such as is used by pa- 
perhangers, or one of starch 
paste, as made for mounting. This 
may be applied with an ordinary 
distemper brush, and must be well 



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made at the commencement of the 
job, as it works smoother after 
having been mixed a few days. 

MIXING THE COLOR 

The popular idea of mixing size 
color is to start with a lot of white 
and to attempt to bring it to the 
proper tint by adding the black or 
brown pigment, but for back- 
grounds, at all events, it is better to 
take the dark color first and to add 
the white to it until the desired 
tint is obtained. If scenic or 
clouded backgrounds are to be 
made, it is a good plan to mix the 
black or brown and the white sepa- 
rately, and to make the intermedi- 
ate shades from them in separate 
pots or basins. Small quantities 
can be mixed on a piece of board, 
which serves also as a palette. The 
color may be mixed in any deep 
basin or small pail. It is advisable 
to mix the powder color to a 
creamy consistency with cold water, 
and when all lumps are broken up 
to add enough hot size to make it 
as thick as ordinary oil paint. 
When cold it should form a thin 
jelly, which can readily be spread 
with the brush without going into 
lumps. If possible, the paint should 
be squeezed through muslin or 
rubbed through a hair sieve; this 
prevents streaks in the coating caus- 
ed by undissolved particles of color. 

THE CAUSE OF STREAKS 

It must always be remembered 
that size color is many shades 
darker when wet than when dry, so 
that it will be necessary to place 



a dab from each pot of color upon 
a piece of brown paper, and to dry 
them thoroughly, before commenc- 
ing the painting. This rough 
"color chart" will show the value 
of each touch on the finished back- 
ground. A common mistake is to 
make the color too thin, for if this 
is the case it will be found impos- 
sible to secure freedom from 
streaks, besides being very messy 
and unpleasant to use. If the paint 
shows the slightest tendency to run 
when applied freely to the canvas 
it will be necessary to add more 
strong size to it and to allow it to 
cool. A little melted glue is very 
useful, as it stiflfens the color with- 
out further diluting it. 

BRUSHES 

Good brushes are essential to 
successful work, as there is nothing 
so annoying as to have to keep 
stopping work to remove loose 
bristles, while a harsh stiff brush 
which has perhaps been used for 
oil paint will inevitably produce a 
rough scratchy effect, not perhaps 
harmful from the photographic 
point of view, but not by any 
means workmanlike in appearance. 
Perfectly plain backgrounds can 
be covered by means of an ordinary 
flat distemper brush, such as is 
used for walls and ceilings, but for 
clouds or scenic work round 
brushes are much better. One 
about two and a half inches in 
diameter will be as large as is nec- 
essary, with one or two "sash 
tools" for smaller details; for 
straight lines, as in doors or win- 



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211 



(lows, large hog tools are useful, as 
they are somewhat firmer in their 
touch. These are used in conjunc- 
tion with a long ruler made of a 
strip of wood about three inches 
wide and a half -inch thick. 

No useful purpose is served by 
giving the whole surface a coat of 
the lightest tint and then working 
the darker portions over it ; on the 
contrary, it is better to sketch out 
the effects in faint outlines, say, in 
blue chalk, and to work up to full 
strength in each part at the first 
painting. By so doing there will 
only be one thickness of color on 
the canvas, and there will be no 
tendency for it to flake off when 
the background is rolled up. As a 
general rule, the texture of the 
sheeting should only just be lost 
when the background is dry, and 
the surface should feel decidedly 
rough to the hand. If it feels 
smooth and the cloth is quite stiff, 
it means either that the color has 
been laid on too thickly or that too 
much size has been used. The 
novice will do well to confine his 
first attempts to some clouded head- 
grounds about 54 inches square. 
These will be more easily managed, 
and if unsuccessful will not be so 
disappointing as would one of the 
full size (8 ft. square). 

DISTEMPERED MATERIALS 

The materials used for the dis- 
temper are, for grey tones, ordi- 
nary whiting and lamp-black, with 
a trac^ of Venetian red to give a 
little warmth : the red takes off the 
cold slaty tint and gives a better 



effect in the negative. For browns, 
whiting and burnt umber for warm 
tones, with a little lamp-black ad- 
ded for colder ones. For white 
"sketch" grounds, whiting, with 
ordinary laundry blue squeezed in 
to the mixed color till the mass is 
of a fairly bright blue. This will 
dry to a bluish white. For the 
darkest shades the black or brown 
should be used without any admix- 
ture of white. Vegetable black 
may be used instead of lamp-black ; 
it is easier to mix, but has not the 
same depth. 

OIL AND PASTEL GROUNDS 

Oil colors are now seldom used 
for background painting, possibly 
on account of the extra time neces- 
sary to apply them and their great- 
er cost. The chief difficulty with 
them is to avoid gloss. It is almost 
impossible to do this when using 
ready mixed paints. The right way 
to get to work is to go to a good 
colorman and to ask for. the neces- 
sary color, say, burnt umber or 
black, "ground in oil." This should 
be in a thick paste, which is re- 
duced to a workable consistency 
with turpentine alone. A little 
should be tried upon a piece of 
sized wood, and if it cannot be 
rubbed off when dry it is fit to use ; 
if powdery, a little raw linseed oil 
may be added to the turpentine, 
and another trial made. When 
there is no gloss, and yet the color 
is fast, then the paint is in good 
condition. It is hardly necessary 
to bay that, in all cases, the sheeting 
or canvas must be well sized before 



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coating with oil paint. The great 
advantages of oil-painted grounds 
are durability and the fact that the 
true effect can be judged while ac- 
tually painting without waiting for 
the work to dry. Alterations may 
also be made at any time without 
making the work look patchy. 

A method which is periodically 
referred to is the dry or pastel pro- 
cess of making backgrounds, in- 
vented by Robert Faulkner. In 
this, powder colors are used, the 
umber, black, or white being mixed 
with dextrine and dusted upon a 
damp canvas, into which they are 
scrubbed with an ordinary clothes 
brush. It is, of course, only pos- 
sible to get very **soft" effects in 
this way, and I fancy the process 
is more talked about than prac- 
tised. 

SKETCH AND SCENIC GROUNDS 

Sketch backgrounds may easily 
be made from continuous cartridge 
paper, the desired design being put 
in with shoemaker's heelball. As 
this is rather hard, it is necessary 
to work upon a smooth table to 
avoid damaging the paper. Conte 
crayons are easier to use, but are 
liable to smear, which the heelball 
is not. 

When attempting to paint a sce- 
nic background, it is always desir- 
able to make a small sketch, say, of 
cabinet size, and to test the effect 
with a figure or two cut out from 
ordinary prints. This will insure 
the correct disposition of light and 
shade. This sketch should then be 



ruled over into one- inch squares, 
and the background ruled with the 
same number of squares on a larger 
scale. Thus with an 8-in. sketch 
the squares will have to be 12 
inches wide on an 8- ft. background. 
The lines may be made in chalk or 
pencil, and are covered up by the 
painting. The idea is to facilitate 
the placing of the sketch upon the 
canvas, as the portion contained in 
each little square is drawn in on 
the corresponding square on the 
canvas. Another plan is to make 
a negative of the sketch, and to 
project it upon the canvas by 
means of an enlarging lantern and 
lightly drawing in the outlines in 
chalk or pencil. 

Old backgrounds are treated in 
the same way as new ones, and 
some very hard and obtrusive 
specimens may be greatly improved 
by giving a coat of thin color all 
over, and allowing the subject to 
show through. I once cured a very 
aggressive conservatory ground by 
this treatment. Before you saw 
the background instead of the sit- 
ter, afterwards it gave a mere 
sketchy suggestion. Tom or dam- 
aged grounds should be patched at 
the back with a piece of sheeting 
glued on and a piece of tough thin 
paper over the rent on the face: 
this will be quite invisible when 
worked over. 

Many of the ready-made distem- 
pers or water paints are available 
for background work, although 
they do not handle so nicely as good 
size colors. — B, J. of Photography. 



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THE NEGATIVE AND THE PRINT 



At this season of the year there 
is always a tendency on the part of 
the amateur photographer to gravi- 
tate towards the dark-room or room 
wherein his photographic work is 
mostly done. Every amateur has 
experienced during the autumn or 
winter the keen desire to overhaul 
his summer negatives, perhaps to 
make prints or enlargements, but 
generally with a view to consider- 
ing whether they can be improved 
so as to produce good pictorial re- 
sults with a minimum of trouble. 

All pictorial workers are in 
agreement that, notwithstanding 
the facilities placed in the hands of 
the modem auiateur by the various 
"contror* printing processes, there 
is always a likelihood of the best 
results being produced and repeated 
when all **working up" necessary 
has been done on the negative it- 
self. 

Before attempting to divide one's 
negatives into the two main groups 
of those which require assistance 
towards perfection and those which 
do not, it is desirable that a print 
should be made from every nega- 
tive. These should be contact 
prints on either p.o.p., bromide, or 
gaslight paper, and there is no rea- 
son why they should not be made 
as carefully as bigger finished 
prints. The advice is sometimes 
given to make rough prints from 
negatives for filing purposes, and 
the advice is frequently taken liter- 



ally. The prints are carelessly 
made, and although they may af- 
ford a clue to the negative, the 
same cannot be said of the picture 
the negative may contain. It often 
happens that an indiflFerent-looking 
negative, if carefully printed, will 
produce a very striking pictorial 
print, while many a "pretty" nega- 
tive, and one that appears on inspec- 
tion to be technically perfect, gives 
a hard and spotty print, utterly 
lacking in pictorial tonality. When, 
therefore, all the negatives have 
been printed, the collection of con- 
tact prints should be carefully con- 
sidered with a view to their possi- 
bilities for enlarging or working up. 
A proportion of the negatives, of 
course, if they have been produced 
by a careful worker — one who has 
not snapshotted wildly at every- 
thing that came within the range of 
his camera — should need little or no 
additional treatment, and afford a 
further argument for straight pho- 
tography. 

Some of the negatives may, of 
course, be hopeless, and not worth 
the trouble of either working up or 
even attempting a controlled print. 
The remainder, however, which 
may contain the elements of good 
pictures, but require "pulling to- 
gether," should be set aside for 
treatment. 

The negatives requiring after- 
treatment can be arranged in three 
groups — those which are too weak 



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and thin, and need general intensifi- 
cation : those which are too dense 
or hard, and require general reduc- 
tion; and those which require local 
treatment, which may be either 
chemical or physical, and this group 
may include negatives which need 
the addition of clouds. The ordi- 
nary methods of intensification and 
reduction can be applied to the first 
two groups, but the third group will 
probably afford more possibilities 
for individual treatment, and both 
the back and the front of the nega- 
tive can be utilized for carrying out 
the necessary modifications. The 
back of the negative, however, is 
likely to offer greater opportunities 
for altering the tone values and 
pulling the composition together, 
and, moreover, without injuring the 
film should the work be unsatisfac- 
tory. The thickness of the glass 
when printing also assists in fur- 
ther disguising any handwork on 
the negative if it is applied to the 
back. It may generally be taken, 
therefore, that broad masses of tone 
can be altered by working on the 
back of the negative, the details be- 
ing treated on the film side. Inci- 
dentally, a certain amount of work 
can be done on a separate piece of 
glass, which is placed in contact 
with the back of the negative, and 
added strength and further diffu- 
sion is thus obtained, so far as the 
handwork is concerned. This work- 
ing on a separate piece of glass is 
also to be advocated when dealing 
with films. 

The application of matt varnish 



to the back of the negative or to a 
sheet of plain glass is one of the 
most useful methods of providing 
a base upon which to work with 
pencil, chalk, or stump. The recent 
introduction of *'Billdup" by the 
X'anguard Company also supplies a 
remarkable medium for both the 
glass and the film side of the nega- 
tive, which can be worked upon by 
pencil or with a special black pow- 
der provided for the purpose. The 
second method, and one specially to 
be recommended for large nega- 
tives, is the application of a thin 
sheet of papier mineral to the back 
of the negative. This material is 
easily obtainable from any reliable 
photographic supply stores or from 
artists' colormen, such as Roberson 
or W'insor and Xe\tton. 

A piece about an eighth of an 
inch smaller each way than the 
negative is taken and soaked in 
clean water until thoroughly limp. 
It is then carefully dried between 
smooth blotting paper, and a thin 
line of strong adhesive, such as sec- 
cotine, applied to the entire length 
of each edge. See that no spot 
along the edge is left untouched 
with the adhesive, or the paper may 
stretch unevenly and buckle at this 
point when dry. It will be found 
that the paper when damp is slight- 
ly larger than when dry, and will 
now probably cover the entire back 
of the negative. The glass should 
be perfectly clean before applying 
the paper, and the paper must be 
applied very carefully indeed, so 
that the seccotine does not touch 



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anywhere but along the edges. If 
it is placed carefully in position and 
smoothed out from the center, the 
paper will dry as smooth and tight 
as a drum-head. 

It will be found a pleasure to 
work upon the surface of this 
stretched paper, and the temptation 
will be strong to do too much. It 
should be remembered, however, 
that practically the whole of the 
work will consist of lightening por- 
tions of the print by darkening cor- 
responding parts of the negative. 
Both pencil and stump may be em- 
ployed, the former for more de- 
tailed spots of light, the latter, with 
stumping pow^der or powdered black 
lead, for broader masses. If the 
application is too heavy, as shown 
by a trial print, a pointed piece of 
india rubber or rolled-up bread- 
crumb will speedily remove the 
faulty work. 

This method of applying hand- 
work to the back of the negative 
is usually sufficient for the correc- 
tion of practically all defects in 
negatives brought about by faulty 
exposure, with the exception of lack 
of shadow density for the print. 
To increase the depth of the shad- 
ows in a print means that those 
parts of the negative must be made 
more transparent, not more opaque. 
To achieve this with the papier 
mineral is somewhat difficult unless 
it is cut clean away, in which case 
it is almost impossible to avoid 
harsh markings. 

The correct method of dealing 
with this problem is, of course, by 



means of a soft transparency and 
reproduced negative; but if hand- 
work only is wanted for the back of 
the negative we can recommend the 
following plan : 

A sheet of fairly fine ground 
glass the exact size of the negative 
is employed, and this is placed, 
ground side out, in contact with the 
back of the negative in the printing 
frame; or, if necessary, the nega- 
tive and glass can be securely at- 
tached to each other by means of a 
small spot of seccotine at each cor- 
ner. If the two pieces of glass are 
pressed together, this spot of ad- 
hesive spreads between them into a 
thin, transparent film that is practi- 
cally invisible, yet renders them al- 
most inseparable when dry- The 
film side of the negative can now 
be retouched if necessary in the 
ordinary manner in the retouching 
desk, and by reversing the plate 
further work can be applied to the 
ground glass. Here not only can 
the high lights and other portions 
be strengthened by the application 
of pencil or chalk, but the great ad- 
vantage is presented of being able 
to render the shadows more trans- 
parent where required. This is 
effected by the application of a little 
glycerine, vaseline, or oil to those 
parts where stronger shadows are 
required. Either of these immedi- 
ately renders the ground glass 
transparent, and broad masses of 
shadow or fine detail can be "as- 
sisted" with the greatest ease. 
— The Amateur Photographer and 
Photographic News. 



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November, 1913 



SHADING DURING PRINTING 



Amongst the negatives which 
the amateur photographer wishes 
to print he will sometimes find one 
which, for some reason or another, 
would be very much improved if 
one end of it could have a good 
deal more printing than the other; 
or perhaps it would be better if 
both ends could be printed more 
than the center, or vice versa. The 
need for this may arise from re- 
flected light in the camera, or from 
some other technical defect in the 
production of the negative, or it 
may be required purely for picto- 
rial reasons. Certainly, from one 
cause or another, negatives which 
may be all the better for such shad- 
ing in printing are met with fre- 
quently enough to justify the ama- 
teur making some simple arrange- 
ments for dealing with them. 

In some cases it is thought suffi- 
cient to shade the negative with a 
card or bunched up focusing cloth 
during printing, keeping whatever 
is used for the shading on the move 
during the whole time of the print- 
ing, so as to do away with any 
chance of a line showing between 
the shaded and the unshaded parts. 
When the shading has to be done in 
at all an intricate or irregular man- 
ner, this is almost the only method ; 
but when it is comparatively 
straightforward, when all that is 
wanted is a regular and gradual de- 
crease of the light action from one 
side of the plate to the other, hand 
shading of this kind need not be 



attempted ; a result at least as good 
can be obtained with a tithe of the 
trouble by making use of some 
graduated screen for the purpose, 

If we take a dry plate and expose 
it in the dark room to a feeble 
white light, say, for example, the 
light of a candle eight or ten feet 
away, and while doing so we shade 
it with a card, keeping the card 
moving, so that one end of the plate 
receives, say, ten or a dozen times 
as much exposure as the other, we 
can develop and fix that plate, and 
in that way provide ourselves with 
such a graduated screen as we have 
suggested. 

Simple as the making of such a 
screen seems from the description, 
it will be found by those who try 
it that it is not so easy as it seems ; 
and, as a matter of fact, it is much 
easier to get the result we want in 
another way. A piece of glass 
about twice the size of the negative 
that is to be shaded is taken, and 
a line of gum not more than an 
eighth of an inch wide run round 
its edges. A piece of very thin 
white tissue paper is smoothly fas- 
tened all over the glass by means of 
the gum. On top of this is put a 
second sheet, and on that a third, 
and so on, each successive sheet of 
tissue being the same size as the 
glass plate except in one direction, 
and in that particular one it is half 
an inch shorter than the piece be- 
neath it. 

In this way we build up a screen 



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which at one end has an opacity ot 
one thickness of tissue paper, and 
at the other of as many pieces as 
there are half inches in its length. 
While one is about it several such 
screens may be made — one getting 
thinner towards the center, one 
with its most opaque part in the 
center, one thinning off diagonally 
from corner to corner. It is impor- 
tant to use very thin transparent 
paper, especially for the first two 
or three steps. When complete a 
second piece of glass may be put 
over the whole and bound up like 
a lantern slide. 

The use of such shading devices 
is easiest when the negative is 
printed in a frame much larger 
than itself. For instance, if a quar- 
ter-plate negative is used, it may be 
printed in a whole-plate frame, 
using a shading plate of half-plate 
size or thereabouts. This allows 
the shader to be placed anywhere 
over the negative that may be 
wished, which cannot be done so 
easily when a small printing frame 
is used. 

Although when such shaders are 
held up to the light, the boun- 
daries of the different layers of tis- 
sue paper can be seen very dis- 
tinctly as straight lines, they will 
disappear entirely in the prints, their 
effect being- a perfectly gradual and 



and how very effective they may 
be made in practical work. 

That defect of uneven density hi 
negatives, thin in the center, denser 
at the two ends, which is so often 
troublesome in modern cameras, 
may be remedied almost entirely 
with a graduated screen made on 
these lines, with its densest part in 
the center to correspond with the 
thinnest part of the negative. — 
Photography. 



One year's sub- 
scription to Snap 
Shots and the 
American An- 
nual of Photog- 
raphy, 19 1 4 paper 
edi tion, only 
$1.50. 

Address 



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November, 1913 



TRADE NEWS AND NOTES 



American Annual of Photography. 
The distribution of this great Ameri- 
can "Annual" will commence about the 
same time as this issue reaches you. 
If you have not already placed your or- 
der yoi4 should do so at once, as we 
understand from the American agents 
that the entire edition has practically 
been taken by the wholesale trade. We 
will send you a copy of the paper edi- 
tion and a year's subscription to Snap 
Shots for $1.50, or a copy of the "An- 
nual" only for 90 cents postpaid. Ad- 
dress Snap Shots Publishing Company. 



Ground Glass Real and Imitation. — By 
A. J. Jarman. This article which ap- 
peared on page 181 to 186 in our Octo- 
ber issue was credited simply to "Bul- 
letin" through an error in the printer 
dropping one line of type. It should 
have been credited to the Bulletin of 
Photography from which publication it 
w^s taken. 



Cleveland Camera Club will hold an 
exhibition of the work of its members 
and associates from November 15th un- 
til December 7th. It will be held in the 
Case Library. A very large display is 
assured. 



Ross Homocentric Lens. The Ex- 
tra Rapid Ross Homocentric for F. 4 
lens has three foci. Each combination 
can be used singly. The back combi- 
nation has a focal length of one and 
one-half times that of the complete lens, 
and the front combination has a focal 
length of twice that of the complete 
lens. When stopped down to F. 5.6 the 
definition of this lens is in all respects 
as perfect as that given by the 5.6 
Homocentric Series when used at full 
aperture. Write to the American 
agents for descriptive booklet of the 
various sizes and prices in which these 
extremely rapid lenses are now fur- 
nished. 



British Journal Photographic Alma- 
nac. This world wide "Annual" is in 
its fifty-third year, and will contain 
special articles this year on lenses and 
developing in addition to numerous for- 
mulae. This "Annual" contains over 
1,000 pages, and will be ready for dis- 
tribution about December 10th. We 
will send you a copy of the paper edi- 
tion and Snap Shots for one year for 
$1.25, or a copy of the paper e'dition of 
the "Annual" postpaid for 77 cents. Ad- 
dress Snap Shots Publishing Company. 



Bromc Black Paper. The manufac- 
turers, the Rochester Photo Works, 
Rochester, New York, advise us that 
there is a marked increase in the de- 
mand for this paper during the past 
month. It is a fine enlarging paper pro- 
ducing extreme contrast, being fast and 
especially adapted for thin and soft 
negatives and entirely free from non- 
abrasion. Write to them for samples. 



John IVanamaker of Philadelphia 
will hold their Ninth Annual Exhibition 
of Photographs from March 2 to 31, 
1914 Entries close February 14, 1914. 
The purpose of their annual photo- 
graphic exhibition is to stimulate the 
love for the beautiful inherent in every 
one. To the thousands of camera users 
who have been making pictures aim- 
lessly they wish to give this thought 
Why not study some of the rules of 
composition and observe the harmonies 
of light and shade? Think a little and 
make pictures that are worth while. 
Write them for full particulars. 



Wallace Sepia Platinum Paper. This 
is a fine grade of sepia platinum paper 
intended for cold development whidi 
gives a great range of tones, and is 
guaranteed permanent. Made in heavy 
rough and heavy smooth surfaces. 



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Hammer Plates. Hammer plates have 
shown themselves to be unmatched for 
studio use as they cover the widest 
range with the greatest speed and relia- 
bility, are uniform, quick, clean and 
brilliant, with firm, tough films, and a 
wide range of tone between high lights 
and shadows. If you are having diffi- 
culty try the Hammer plates. 



Eastman Portrait Films. The intro- 
duction of the Eastman portrait film for 
studio use is one of the greatest steps 
forward which have been made in re- 
cent years. It is undoubtedly only a 
question of time when they will be used 
practically exclusively in all galleries on 
account of their unbreakable qualities, 
and the small amount of space which 
they take. They are especially wel- 
comed by the home portrait worker. 



Banquet Camera. The Folmer & 
Schwing Division of the Eastman 
Kodak Company have just placed on the 
market two new cameras suitable for 
the photographer taking pictures of 
banquets and public gatherings. Sizes 
are right : 7" x 17" and 20" x 20". Write 
to them for further information. 
Please mention Snap Shots. 



Sepia Pillowcloth. This is a cloth 
coated with a sensitized emulsion which 
when developed in cold water and fixed 
in hypo will give a beautiful sepia tone. 
The cloth is supplied in different shades 
The combination of the colored cloth 
and the sepia tone print gives a very 
rich and beautiful effect. Especially 



qualities of the 3A Heliar Lens, 
to them for descriptive circular. 



Send 



Blaek Laurel Royal Silk Finish. 
This is a new paper just placed on the 
market by the Rochester Photo Works, 
of Rochester, N. Y. It is a high grade 
studio paper producing platinum black 
and sepia effects. It has a fine silk 
finish giving a beautiful effect for por- 
trait work. It is made in buff and 
heavy white. 



Rough & Caldwell Background and 
Accessory Co. Send to this company 
for their new catalogue of backgrounds 
and accessories, as they manufacture 
the most complete and serviceable ac- 
cessories for the photographic trade. 



Eagle Home Portrait and Studio 
Lamp. This lamp while especially 
adapted for home portrait work has 
proven very satisfactory for studio use. 
It enables the photographer to have his 
light under control at all times, whether 
in the studio, or in the home. It is 
very portable, as the complete lamp can 
be packed in a small neat case, and car- 
ried in the hand. The weight complete 
is only 22 pounds. It gives a light of 
1,000 candlepower, and in addition has 
a flash attachment which will produce 
3,000 candlepower when attached. It is 
furnished with a collapsible reflector, 
and can be used on a tripod or table. 
Write to our advertiser for further in- 
formation and descriptive circular. 



Th^ Wvnne Infallible Meters. The 



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SXAP SHOTS 
STUDIO WANTS 



November, 191 3 



Galleries for Sale or Rent 

C. F. M., two galleries in New Jersey. 
J. F. A., gallery in New York State. 

D. F. M., gallery in New York City, 
$3,500. 

F. S. W., on Long Island. $900. 
W. C O., gallery in New Jersey. 
C. R. F., gallery in Long Island. 
C. Z., gallery in Long Island. 

Parlies Desiring Galleries 

G. F., wants gallery in small city. 
T. D., wants gallery in small city. 

R. S. G., wants gallery in small city. 



Positions Wanted — Operators 

F. C. W., operator and carbon. 
M. D. H., all-around man. 

J. L. J., all-around man 

L. I., all-around man; 

H. F., all-around man. 

A. E. S., general and carbon. 

Positions Wanted — Retouchers, Recep- 
tionists 
M. H. O., retoucher and etcher. 
N. A. B., experienced retoucher. 
Miss M. H E., retoucher. 
K. W., retoucher. 

Studios Desiring Help 
H. H. H., wants printer and retoucher. 
L. Bros., want operator and retoucher. 

G. G. D., first-class operator. 
R. H. R., good operator. 

C. W. C, wants all-around man. 



Notice — Letters addreMetf to anyone In onr earo ihonld be aocompaaied with eumf 
for each letter to that they can bo re-mailed. 



SEND YOUR SUBSCRIPTION NOW 

Our Year expires January Ist and we want your Renewal. $1.00 per year. 
Photographic news from every section is worth five times our subscription 
price. 

OUR SPECIAL CLUBBING LIST 

We offer the Special Clubbing List of Snap Shots with American and Eng- 
lish Annuals and the English Journals. A combination that gives to the 
American photographer photographic news that combined gives him the field 
covering the English-speaking photographic world: 
1 year's Snap Shots with American Annual of Photography (1914 paper 



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POSITIONS OFFERED and WANTED, F<» SALE, 
TO RENT, WANT to PURCHASE, EXCHANGE, &c. 



Announcements under these and similar headings of forty words or less, will be inserted 
for forty cents. For each additional word, one cent Displayed advertisement! 00 cents 
per inch. Cash must accompany order. When replies are addressed to our car*, 10 cents 
at least must be added to cover probable postage on same to advertiser. Advertisements 
should reach us by the 20th to secure insertions in the succeeding issue. A copy of the 
Journal sent free to every advertiser as long as the '*ad** is continued. Adrertisementt in 
Smap Shots bring prompt returns. 



AN ADVERTISEMENT IN THESE COLUMNS 

Is an ezceOeat Mod safe medltim of commtsnlaitlon between Pfaoftographen 



For Sale: Best located and fur- 
nished Studio in manufacturing town 
of 15,000 near Boston; 20,000 addi- 
tional trade by electrics. Only one 
other studio. Unusual opportunity 
for a live man. Get in now for the 
Christmas business. Price reduced to 
$700. Address X., care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: Studio doing good busi- 
ness; good light; steam heat; living 
accommodation; low rent. Will sell 
cheap for cash; other business reason 
for selling. J. Garner, 178 Main St., 
Ansonia, Conn. 

For Sale: Established studio of 
thirty-nine years in city of 20,000, me- 
tropolis of Arizona. Business of last 
two years over $6,000 annually. State 
University and railroad division head- 
quarters and terminals located here. 
Studio in center of city over Post 
Office. Finest opportunity. Cash 
necessary. Reason of sale, death of 
owner. A. R. Buehman, Tucson, Ari- 
zona. 

Send fifty cents (50c.) money order 
and get full instructions for making 
freak post-cards. One potato, cab- 
bage, ear of corn, fish, etc., large 
enough to cover farm wagon or auto- 
truck. Simple and easy to do. Thou- 
sands sold. Address W. E. Graham, 
fnot ographer. Fair Haven, Vt. 

Wanted; To lease studio. Some 

"•'Sr proposition for high-grade man; 

!Ju^^^ Purchase. Address Photogra- 

£v^''» ICiAn^ Euclid Av«- n^v^^lanH 



For Sale: Studio in town of 55,000 
population. Doing a good business; 
equipped with 11x14 camera, with at- 
tachment for 5x7 plate-holders; large 
north light; operating room 17x35 
feet; living rooms on the same floor. 
Best location. Must be sold by Janu- 
ary 1st on account of other business. 
Write for particulars. Ebie Studio, 
Canton, Ohio. 

Have operated a gallery for over 
twenty-five years. Will be at liberty 
this winter to accept a position in a 
good gallery as all-around man. Can 
do carbon work, platinum and bro- 
mide enlarging. Address George A. 
Walrath, Potter Co., Ulysses. Pa. 

For Sale: Photo studio, best loca- 
tion in the heart of the city. Doing 
good business; good surrounding 
country. Established over thirty years. 
Studio worth about $3,000, but will 
sell for less in cash. Reason for sell- 
ing is on account of other business. 
All letters must be addressed to Tony 
Leo, 5 West Main St., Middletown, 
N. Y. 

For Sale: One 18x22 Anthony Ma- 
hogany Reversible Back Studio Cam- 
era, double bellows, curtain slide 
holder with stand, in good condition. 
Price, boxed ready for shipment, $45. 
One 14x17 Reversible Back View 
Camera with two double holders in 
very good condition. Price, boxed 
ready for shipment, $32.00. Address, 
R. N., care Snap Shots. 

Flanhliflrht Outfit For Sale: One 



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STOP!! LOOK!! 

Have you a camera you wish to sell or 
exchange? Write us. We have been 
in the exchange business for twenty 
years and are known all over the 
country as THE LEADER. 

WRITE for our NEW No. i8 
BARGAIN LIST. It's a HUMMER. 

NEW TORK CAMEM EXCHANGE 

10IH FULTON SHEET NEW IMK 



Art Studies 

PHOTOGRAPHS FROM LIFE MODELS 

Finest Collection for Artists 
and Art Lovers 



Illustrated Catalogue sent free on denuind 



C. KLARY 

m Avemw de Villiere PARIS (FRANCQ 



COOPER HEWin UGHTS 

FOR PHOTOaRAPHY 

We now have ready a booklet re- 
ferring to the Cooper Hewitt Lights 
as prepared for the various photo- 
graphic purposes. Prices boxed, at 
factory. 

eeorge Mnrphir, Inc., 57 E. 9tli St., New Yirl 



CAMERA OWNERS 

If ^ou would like to see a copy of a 
beautiful, practical, interesting, modem 
photographic magazine, written and 
edited with the purpose of teaching all 
photographers how to use their mate- 
rials and skill to the best advantage, 
either for profit or amusement, send us 
your name on a post-card. Don't for- 
get or delay, but write at once. The 
Siree latest numbers will be sent for 25 
cents. $1.50 a year. 

AMERICAN PHOTOQRAPHY 
601 Pop« BulMIng BOSTON, MASS. 



Sktures 



Haye an excellence peculiarly Uielr 
own. The best resoltt are only 
produced by the best methods and 
means— the best results in Photo- 
graph, Poster and other moiintinf 
can only be attained by uaiiig the 
best mounting paste— 

HIQQINS' PHOTO MOUNTER 

CBxoellent novel bnuh with eadk Jm4 



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Wew Papers For Portrait, 
Enlarging, Contact 



VELOUR BLACK — Highest portrait quality, warm black tones, 
transparent shadows. 

Made in Velvet, Semi-Matte, Matte, Rough, Glossy, BufiF, Buff 
Matte. 

VELOUR gold — Highest quality for warm olive brown tones. 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Semi-Matte, Double; Buff, Double. 

VELOUR BLACK SOFT— For softest effect from strong high- 
grade negatives. 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Semi-Matte, Double; Matte, Double; 
Rough, Double; Buff. 

^KOME BLACK — For extreme contrast; fast for enlarging; non- 
abrasion. 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Glossy, Single. 

White laurel— Three tints, three emulsions; for contact. 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Glossy, Single; Rough, Single; 
Semi-Matte, Double; Rough, Double; Matte, Double. 

HLACK laurel — Black and sepia platinum effects; for contact. 

Made in Semi-Matte, Single; Semi-Matte, Double; Smooth Matte, 
Double; Buff Matte. 

Special chloride— Semi-Matte and fast Chloride Paper for 
commercial work. 

Semi-Matte, Single; Semi-Matte, Double. 



ROCHESTER PHOTO WORKS 

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ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 

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C P* Nitrate Silver Crystals 
Pure Chloride Gold 



For PhotograpbcrSy Aritto 
Paper and Dry Pkict Makers 



Chemicals for Photo Engraving and the Arts 



All Kindt of Sihrer and Gok? 
Waste Refined 



MtfUffactored 



ii PHILLIPS & JACOBS 



622 RACE STREET, PHILADELPHIA 



FREE— The Photographic Times— FREE 
SUNLIGHT AND SHADOW 



A BOOK FOR PHOTOGRAPHERS 

By W. I. LIKCOLN ADA1C8 



AMATEUR AHD PR0FES8I0VAL 
(Hli Beit Book) 

Editor of "The Photoffraphic Times." Author of "Amateur Photography," "In Nature*! 

Image," Etc., Etc. With More than 100 Beautiful Photo-Engravings, 

Many of Them Full-page Pictures. 

It contains Chapters and Illustrations by well-known photographic writers and workers. 
It covers the field fully, as shown by the following Contents: 

The Choice of Buhject Landscape Without Figures Landscape With Fignrei 
Foregrounds The 8kv Outdoor Portraits and Groups The Hand Camera 
Instantaneous Photography Winter Photography Marines Photography at mght 
Lighting in Portraiture Photographing Children Art in C^ouping 



Printed on heavy wood-cut paper, with liberal marfi[ins and gilt edffes. Beautifully 
and substantially bound in art canvas, with gilt design. PRICE IN A BOX, f2 



18.50. 



So long as the supply holds out, we will continue to furnish this book at only one dollar 
per copy, with a new subscription to 



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THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES" 



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Regular Subscription price of "The Photographic Times*' 



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1.60 



By this Special Offer we sell Both for 



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$2.50 



which is the regular price of "Sunlight and Shadow*' alone; so you get "The Photographic 

Times in this way tor nothing. Tnert are less than 60 copies left, so vou must sena in 

your oruer at once if you want to be sure of securing your "Photo|^phic Times" and a 

copy of "Sunlight and Shadow" at this special price. 

Photographic Times Publishing Association 



135 West Fourteenth Street 



NEW YORK, N. Y. 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS ccix 



THE PLATINOTYPE 



A portion of a letter from a prominent New England 
photographer: — "After almost two years of Developing 
Paper, I am writing to confess that I am getting tired 
of it and the craving for GOOD OLD PLATINOTYPE 
is coming back." 

Write for sample Japine sepia. 

WILLIS & CLEMENTS 

PHILADELPHIA 



You Can Take Picture on a Day Like This ! 

That is, if your lens is right. The lens is the soal of your camera. Ordinary lenses 
will take ordinary pictures under /hvorai/e conditions. Are you satisfied with tliatf 
Or would you like the iest results under a/l condition!: ? If so, you should know the 

GOERZ LENSES 

^ XJniversally used by war photograpliers and professionals, who must 
i t^^ s\ire of their results. I^ey can mnly Refilled io the camera 
J^^:2u now own. 



for Our Book on ''Lenses and Camerai*' 

o^E" the greatest value to any one inti^rtisted 
irm. good photography. 




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EAGLE FLASH POWDER 

We are now supplying our NEW FLASH 
COMPOUND (Eagle Flash Powder) put up in 
new style packing in round wooden boxes. 

This powder is equal to any flash compound 
on the market and costs you less, consequently 
more profit to you. It is practically smokeless, 
makes very little noise, and gives a very powerful 
light with very little powder. 

No. I iy2 oz. Box 30c. No. 2 2 oz. $1.10 

GEORGE MURPHY. Inc.. 57 East 9tli Street, New Terk 





I'^TliffT^B I>nii1»« ft. II9 



Olmsted Lantern 
Slide Mats 

(Patented Deo. M, ISKI) 

This is without doubt, the 
most convenient form of 
lantern slide mat It is so 
constructed that with the aid 
of a knife, and without the 
use of a rule, any opening 
of any size or shape can l»e 
cut in a few seconds. It 
combines every desirable 
feature, including place for 
name and number and indi- 
cating mark. Mats are full 
Lantern Slide size. 85ix4. 

Prioei 

Per pkg. of 26 |0.»0 

Per box of 100 TS 

QBOROe MURPHY, be, 
J 57 Eaft 9th Stftet, New Y«k 



EAGLE FORM HOLDER ^^^ f ^^'^ ^°r- "f - '^ - 

penor to any of the form hold- 
ers on the market. You place 
the form and print in position 
and by simply pressing down a 
lever it securely locks the form 
so that it can not slip, thus facili- 
tating quick and accurate cutting 




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Ninety-five Miles An Hour 




Copyright 1913 — Elgin Photo Supply Co. 

Is "going some/' but it is not too fast for 
the peerless 

HELIAR F:4.6 

This remarkable picture, showing all four 
wheels of Gil Andersons's Stutz car off 
the ground at one time, was caught by the 
proprietor of the Elgin Photo Supply Com- 
pany, on August 28th, during the Elgin Na- 
tional Road Races. His equipment was a 
5x7 Mentor Reflecting Camera fitted with 
a 3A Heliar, 8J4-inch focus; the exposure 
was 1/1300 of a second and a Lumiere 
Sigma plate was used. It is considered 
by the automobile people as the most re- 
markable picture ever taken. The negative 
was fully timed and the shutter speed was 
sufficiently rapid to stop motion. With a 
lens of less aperture than the Heliar, such 
a picture would be out of the question, as 
it would not permit enough light to pass 
to give a fully timed negative at such a 
high shutter speed. This same quality, to- 
gether with its brilliancy and covering 
power, has placed the Heliar in the front 
rank of high speed anastigmats. It is the 
lens that "makes good" when conditions 
are most trying. 

Ask any photographer who owns one. 

Descriptive circular on request, or at 
your dealer's. 

Voigtiander & Sohn 

MO-868 E. Ontario St., OhioAffO 

285 Fifth Ave., New York 

WORKS 

Brunswick, Germany 

Canadian Agents — Hupfeld, Ludecking & Co., 

Montreal, Can. 



Wynne "Infallible" 
Exposure Meter 

Ton Mt the ONE loale and 
the Meter does the reit 

tbtefiWatdi. FMt Ikt Ptclat 
tIMPU. CtUECT 




7or 7 or trniform Byitem, Nickel fS.60 

7or Eooal Plane 8.50 

BUver J.OO 

SiWer, Oem lise S.50 

Print Meter «.50 

Bend for DetaUed Liit 

AMimCAII A«lliTS 

Btarit Mirpby.lM..57E.8thSt..Nnp Tarli 



EDWARD P. BIQELOW 



Sountf 

degireg for the "Nature and Science" 
Department of the "St Nicholas" Maga- 
zine (New York), photographs of inter- 
esting inventions, and of natural objects 
that are novel, instructive or especially 
beautiful. He particularly desires photo- 
graphs of machines, or of mechanical 
appliances of interest to the readers of 
"St. Nicholas." They may be mounted 
or not, of any sixe and on any kind of 
paper. The only requirements are that 
they shall clearly show sotnethin^ worth 
showing, and be interesting or instruc- 
tive. Do not send "snap shots" of 
scenery that can be equalled for beauty 
and for general interest in almost any 
part of the earth. 

Pay will be at the usual magazine 
rates, and will vary with the interest 
and the novelty. A small photograph 
may be more valuable than a big one. 

"The Guide to Nature," Arcadia: 
Sound Beach, Connecticut, is a maga- 
zine for adults, and has a definite, pur- 
pose. It is puolished by an association 
of students and lovers of nature — not 
for pecuniary gain, but to be helpfuL 
Its acpartment. "The Camera," is con- 
ducted by enthusiastic camerists, each 
of whom, as in a camera society, desires 
to help all bis associates and colleagues. 
Editor, associates and contributors are 
paid by the satisfaction of benefiting 
others. There is no better remunera- 
tion. All income is devoted directly to 
the interests and improvement of the I 
magazine. igitized by VJ^I^^l 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



ccxii SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



BLACK LAUR£L 

"Royal Silk Finish" 

The high grade paper for Studio Portraiture in 
Platinum Black and Sepia Effects. 

The paper of great latitude and richness — The 
"Royal Silk Finish" Black Laurel Paper, is the Buif, 
Heavy Weight, Black Laurel, with a delicate silk 
effect. A tracing of fine silk, giving a beautiful finish. 

Ready for Delivery— Dec. 10th- 15th. 

Rochester Photo Works 

65 Atlantic Ave.» Rochester* N. Y. 



Rhodol 

METOL, SATRAPOL and other trade names have been 
adopted by different manufacturers for the chemical Mono- 
methylpara-amidophenol sulphate. We are supplying this 
chemical under the name RHODOL and guarantee our 
article when used in the same way, to produce identical 
results. 

Obtainable from All Photo Supply Houses at Lowest Prices. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 






SXAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS ccxiii 



AN ASSURANCE 



PERMANENT RESULTS 

INSIST ON THE GENUINE 

"AGFA" 

BERLIN ANILINE WORKS 
213 HVTater Street, N. T. 

STOCKED BY ALL. PHOTOGRAPHIC DHJAIiERS 




.^^ AUTOTYPE CARBON TISSUES 



AUTOTYPE. 



New introductions suitable for the Copper Intaglio Print- 
ing Process for the production of Ilhistrations. 

In bands of 30 inches wide, 12 feet long. Tissue of 36 
inches can be furnished if desired, as in many cases 36 inches 
avoids waste. 

Per Band 
Photogravure Tissue G, 3 for flat bed printing $6.40 

Photogravure Tissue G, 4 for Rotary Gravure Printing... 6.40 
Photogravure Tissue G^ 5 for Rotary Gravure Printing. . . 6.40 



GEORGE MURPHY, Ino. 

87 EAST Ml STREET ""mm YORK^^^ 



CCXIV 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEIMENTS 



i^-r 




ROSS 

Homocentric 
Lenses 



Definition of Rapid Homocentric Lenses in Comparison with 

Slower Ones. 

The new F4,5 Homocentric Lens stopped down to F5,6 
is as perfect in all respects as that given by F5,6 Homocentric 
Lens used at full aperture. 

Taking lenses of the same series, having their corrections 
alike, such as Homocentrics, the extra rapid lenses when 
stopped down give equal definition to that of the slower lenses 
working at the same aperture. 

The extra rapid Homocentric F4,5 Lens is also a three 
foci lens; each combination can be used singly. The back 
combination has a focal length of one and one-half times that 
of the doublet or complete lens, and the front combination 
has a focal length of twice that of the complete lens. For 
instance: the No. 3 Extra Rapid Homocentric F4,5 Lens has a 
focal length of 6}i^^ ; the front combination is 12'' focus, and 
the back combinaton 9'' focus. These three different focal 
lengths are covered with the extra rapid F4,5 Homocentric 
Lens. 



No. 

I 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 



Focus. 

4/2'' 

10 1/16' 



Plate. 

354x4^ 

4 X5 
3y2X5i/4 
45^x61/^ 

5 X7 
5 x8 

6y2 X 8^2 

8 X 10 
10 X 12 



Price. 

$37.50 

43.25 

48.75 

54.50 

60.00 

75.00 

112.50 

165.00 

225.00 

300.00 



GEORGE MURPHY. Inc. 

Amer lean Agents 57 East Ninth Street, New York 



/'^ r^r^ 



I. 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



ccxv 




For full, rich negatives with depth, roundness and bril- 
liancy. 

Use HAMMER PLATES 

Made on honor, of best material and under the most per- 
fect process known, there are none better. 

Hammer's Special Extra Fast (red label) and Extra Fast 
(blue label) Plates are unequaled. 




REG. TRADE MARK 



Hammer's little book, "A Short Talk on Negative Making," 
mailed free. 

HAMMER DRY PLATE COMPANY 

Ohio Ave. and Miami St. St. Louis, Mo. 




The "FAVORITE" 

INTERIOR BENCH 

ACCESSORY 

The No. 3086 B Interior Bench 

Price $35^00 
Crated F. O. B., New York 

Artistic Photographic Chairs, 
Benches, Balustrades, Pedes- 
tals, and Special Accessories 
from any design. 

ROU6H & MLOWELL 
nnuPANY 



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CCXVl 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



ROSSLYN 

Colors : White, Gray and Sepia 




The rich simplicity of the "Rosslyn" with its handsomely 
embossed linen surface has made it popular for all high grade 
solid mountings. It is the heaviest of stock and with its well 
adapted colors for all tones it attracts attention and enhances 
the value of all pictures mounted on it. 

Per 100 

Card sYs x jYs for Oval Pictures 2?/g x sVs $i-6o 

Card 6x8 for Oval Pictures 3% ^ sH 180 

Card 6x9 for Oval Pictures 3^ ^ 5l4 200 

Card sVs x jYs for Square Pictures 2^ x sVs i-^ 

Card 6x8 for Square Pictures 3^ x sVi 180 

Card 6x9 for Square Pictures ^Vs x 5% a.oo 

Card 6 x 10 for Square Pictures 3 x 5^4 2.00 

Packed 100 in a box 



B. 

C. 

CL. 

E. 

F. 

FL. 

S. 



6E0R6E MURPHY, Inc. 57 East Ninth St., New York City 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS ccxvii 



The Element of Certainty 

The uniformity of your chemicals is of equal 
importance Avith their quality. Once a formula is 
compounded to produce a certain result, that same 
result can continuously be reproduced only by the 
use of chemicals Avhich are maintained at a uniform 
strength and quality, 

This is especially true of Carbonate and Sulphite 
of Soda. And the variation in strength of these E- K. 
Co. Sodas, by actual test, does not average over \%. 

The use of chemicals of such a high degree of uni- 
fornftity, not only insures the uniform quality of 
your work, but reduces waste and the consequent 
loss in time and material. 



LOOK FOR THIS SEAL ON EVERY 
PACKAGE OR BOTTLE. 




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ccxviii SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 

Eastman 
Portrait Films 

Combining the speed, gradation 
and fineness of grain of the best 
plate made, the Seed 30, with a 
flexible, non-breakable film base. 
Are non-halation in a greater degree 
than any plate. 

May be retouched or etched on 
either side or on both sides. 

No special skill required for manip- 
ulation. 

T Ufff) • <; V 7 fiu. V sti « V 1 n 1 1 V 1 4 

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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



ccxix 



>ll 



An Explanatory Diarrani^ Showing the 
roan 



HOW IT IS DONE Varlout Starei in the Proauctlon of 

AUTOTYPE CARBON PHOTOGRAPHS 

The Production of mn Autotypo Carbon Photograph 



Tlie Coated Surface of Expoied Car- 
bon Tissue (Pigmented Gelatine). 
B 
Single Transfer Paper. 

C 
Soak A and B in cold water, bring 
coated surfaces together in contact and 
•qneegee. 

D 
Place the adherent tissue and trans- 
fer paper between blotting boards for 
a few minutes. Next immerse in warm 
water, until the colored gelatine begins 
to ooze out at the edges. 



Strip off the Tissue backing paper 
and throw it away. 

r 

A dark mass of colored gelatine is 
left on the transfer paper. This re- 
mains in the warm water and the gela- 
tine surface is splashed over until the 
picture gradually makes its appearance. 
O and H 

Continue until completed. 
I 

The picture is now placed in an alum 
bath (five per cent) to harden the film 
and discharge the bichromate sensi- 
tizing salt. A rinse in cold water com- 
pletes the operation. 




Important to Amateur Photographero 

TRIAL SETS OF CARBON PRINTING MATERIALS 

In order to combat the erroneous notion, s tniewhat prevalent amongst Amateur 
Photographers, that a trial of the Carbon Procef^s necessariW entails the expenditure 
of a considerable sum on costly apparatus, the Autotype Company have decided to 
introduce cheap trial sets of the absolutely essential materials, particulars of which 
arc appended. 

In these cheaply-priced outfits it is, of course, impossible to include developing, 
washing or fixing tanks. For purely experimental purposes, however, some of the 
ordinary household crockery will serve as a makeshift, and the batliroom will be 
found a not altogether unsuitable apartment for carrying on operations. 

PRICES OF TRIAL SETS 

OutlLt Ho. 1 11.60 

OQtilt Complete for 5x7 5.00 

Qutfit for 8 X 10 7.00 

American A|ents : SEORfiE MURPHY. Inc.. 57 E. 9th St.. New York 



J>o 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



s 



le 



ccxx 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



The British Journal 

Photo Almanac 1914 




This standard pbotoKraphic work, not only 
throughout the British Empire, but in every 
English-speaking trade centre in the entire 
world, is now in its 68rd year, and is up- 
to-date. This 1914 edition is 86.000 and 
will be sold out entirely. It will contain 
many new and valuable features, and be 
ready for delivery about December 10th. 
191S. Some of the new features of the 
1914 BRITISH JOURNAL ALMANAC. 



LENS FACTS FOR AMA- 
TEURS 

A aeries of short chapters by 
the Editor on the practiced 
properties of lenses. It deals 
fully, yet in an elementary way. 
with the aelection and uae of 
every description of modem 
lens, providing an instruction 
book in brief on lenses as they 
require to be used in outdoor 
and indoor work. 



EXPOSURE AND DEVELOPMENT 

By C. H. HEWITT, F.R.P.S. 

An article which deals with the everyday problems of 
every amateur photograi^ier, and — more than this— shows, 
by a series of reproductions of negatives, the results of mis- 
takes in exposure and development: how these mistakes 
affect the prints and how they can be avoided or remedied. 

A GLOSSARY OF PHOTOGRAPHIC TERMS 

Short explanations of the apparatus, matmals, processes, 
etc., commonly employed in present-day photography. 

FORMULAE FOR DAILY WORK 

A revised series of formulae, in each case telling how to make 
up the solution and the best way to use it. The most 
reliable of guides to practical photography. 

THE BRITISH JOURNAL PHOTO ALMANAC appeaU to everyone connected with 

photography, and is kept as a reference and guide: 

Paper, 60 oanti. Poit«s«» >7 centi. dotb, fl.OO. Poftace, S7 oeati. 

BEHD YOJSB, 0BDBR8 VOW 

The advertising pages will present the introductions of the leading manufacturers of 
the world; and these alone are interesting and instructive. 

TRADE AGENTS: 

GEORGE MURPHY. Inc.. 57 E. 9th St., New York 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. ^ ^^ (^ ^ ^ 



THE E4QLE M4SI1 L4NP 



(Patented) 




The Eagle f'lash Lamp is built on 
entirely new UiieSp superior to any- 
thing hcretuforc offered, involving 
new principles. Special accident pTooi 
powder igniter, blue urnbrelhi, bulb 
release and pan conslructcd so as to 
give a very broad ITame. 

The Eagle Fl.isli Lamp is very 
compact, being but lo inches long, and 
is filled wi[h a bulb release, also a 
slatid thai may be raised 12 feet, and 
a large special blue umbrella that may 
be used behind the lamp as a reflector 
(►r in front as a light softener when 
I a king portraits, tlic new blue giving 
a light that Iras no cqnal for portrait- 
ure. 

Prices 

The Eagle Flash Lamp outfit 

complete, including lamp, 

stand, bine nmbrella, bulb and 

15 feet tubing, caps and flasli 

powder $15 00 

Eagle Flash Lamp complete 

with Flasli T^ag {no nmbrelln^ 2350 
The Faglc Flash Lamp Stand 

Only .......,, 6.00 

UmbreUa made of a special blue 

cloth - 1.50 

Lagle Flash Lamp caps in a tube ,05 
I Inn flics for Eagle I'lash Lamp, t.oi^ 



E4GLE f LAStf BAG FOR USE WITH THE 
EAGLE fLASH LAMP 



(Patented) 

Eagle Flash Bags for collecting the smokr 
and dust are furnished for either the Eagle 
Flash Lamp cjr Eagle Jn Fla^h Lamp, These 
bags are made of heavy mu"^lin in the back, 
top and sides with a front of very transpcir- 
ent material, fire-proofed and folds up very 
compactly. By use of these bags all tlic 
objectionable features of flash light photog- 
raphy are done away with, as they make 
flash work as clean and easy as day-light. 

While the Eagle Flash P^ags are intendfd 
fspecially for use with the Eagle Flash 
Lamp, they can be used with anv other 
style of tripod flash lamp now on the market. 

Full instructions for use with earb bag. 

Eagle Flash Bag* only $1000 

Eagle Flash Bag and Eagle Flash 

Lamp, complete .\ 2.150 

Eagle Jr. Flash Bag and Eagle Jr. 

Flash Lamp, complete , 1250 




George Miirphy, Inc., 57 East 9ih St., New Vorft 



^Og 



le ^ 



Make contact quality 
enlargements on 



a: 



*^i' 1, 



^. % 



y^vj' 



iv 



" * 




ORH 





C 










They please the customer — 
add to your profits. 




ARTURA DIVISION, 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, 



ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



AH Dealtn. 



Digitized by 



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TRADEMARK 



NO. S6CB7 REOl STERED 



1 



December, 1913 







CONTENTS 



The Ruby Lamp 



221 




Harmonious Enlargements 
from Harsh Negatives - 223 



Moving Obfects and 
Exposure ... 

The Photography of 
Machinery - - - 

Drying Postcards 

Portraiture with a White 
Background 

Miniature Photographs 

Obituary : M. A. Seed 

Trade News and Notes 

Studio Wants 



■ 226 

- 230 

- 232 

- 233 

- 236 

- 237 
. 238 

- 240 



i^ 



.>.>' 



^7^ 



X 



bote Publishing Co.. 57 East Ninth St., .P^^^JTftrk 

A - PtibllAhed Monthly. Ten Crnita oer copy. Sl.OO oer vear a.t «^ . ^ 




TRADE MARK 
Pttcfltctf Jine M, 19M. Trade Mark Reflstcred. 



1 "*/* 



rof^ WAiUMC PHOTOCIUPNS 



TMt aat^&i* TO 9MeWfH« 

rftcc or T»»t n40Toa«A*w «iwft 
%«vt» It riMoai avvva >iNr 



^ 




A sample of our PHOTOMAILER will prove an eloquent 
advocate. Nothing we can say would prove so convincing 
to you as the article itself. With our PHOTOMAILER before 
you, you will see at once how superior it is. Designed to mail 
photographs and other enclosures flat, it assures its purpose 
fully and has no drawbacks. 

We Make Seventeen Sizes. 

The Thompson & Norris Co. 

Conoord and Prlno« Streets 
Addr*ss Depaiiment 6 BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

■••ton, Mass.; Brookville^ lnd.| Niagara Falls. Canada; 
London, Kngland; Jiilieb, Germany. 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



CCXXI 



THE AMERICAN ANNUAL 
OF PHOTOGRAPHY-1914 




<k 



/ « 



JimikmJbmA 
ttf itbdDidiuito 

~iii9i4 ffi 



The most interesting and the 
most beautifully illustrated pho- 
tographic annual in the world. 

The new 1914 edition contains 
practical papers on almost every 
phase of photography. The fol- 
lowing are a few of the subjects 
especially treated on by experts 
in the various lines: Color Pho- 
tography, Gum-Bichromate Print- 
ing, Moonlight Pictures, Develop- 
ing, Composition, Microscopic 
Work, Home Portraiture, Enlarg- 
ing, Architectural Photography, 
Interior Grouping, Use of Dia- 
phragms, Carbon Printing, Sys- 
tem, Cinematography. 

The formula section has been revised and contains many new and up- 
to-date formuke and tables for every-day reference. Among the new 
tables are: Reflecting Power of Various Surfaces, Solubility of Pho- 
tographic Chemicals, Strength of Various Lights. 



GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

•r BATT NINTH VTUBT. NEW YORK 
foia AtoucAM ioom ros m>m unih. 



28th EdMon 
NOW READY 



Beautiftilly illustrated with over 200 illustrations selected from the best 
American and European work of the year. 

32 FUL.I. PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS IN COLOR 
A beautiful photographic print as a frontlspleoe 

Paper Covers, 75 o^nts. F«stag« Extra, 15 o«nta. 
Library Ultloa, SI .25. P«stafl« Extra, 20 oants. 

PLACE YOUR ORDERS NOW 



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ccxxii SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Velour Black 

The Brilliant Portrait Eolargios Paper 

Convenient Speed Bright Shadows Soft High Lights 

LIGHT WEIGHT— Made in Velvet, Semi Matte, Matte, and Rough 
Surfaces. 

DOUBLE WBIGHT— Made in Velvet, Matte, Rough, Buff and Buff 
Matte. 

PRICES OF POPULAR SIZES 

LIfhiWelfM DMkltWcMt 
SiM Ptrin. fwiH 

5x7 $ .40 $ .45 

8x10 80 1.00 

11x14 1.60 2.00 

14x17 3.40 3.00 

16x20 3.20 4.00 

20x24 4.80 6.00 

Discounts per quantity. Full lists furnished. 

QEORQE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 Ea»t Ninth StrMt NEW YORK 



C P* Nitrate Silver Crystals 
Pure Chloride Gold 



For PbOtogtaLfbettf Aristo 
Paper tani Dry Plate Makers 

Chemicals for Photo Engraving and the Arts 

All Kinat of Silver and GoU 
W^ftstc Rcftncd 

2s±2siS PHILLIPS & JACOBS 

622 RACE STREET, PHILADELPHIA 

Wben writing adyertitert please mention Snaf Shots. O 



SNAr SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



ccxxin 



The F. & S. Banquet Camera 




LARGE GROUPS 
J made indoors at ban- 
quets, meetings, public 
gatherings, etc, are very 
profitable to the photo- 
grapher who is equipped to 
do the work right 

The F. & S. Banquet 
Camera is constructed es- 
pecially for this class of work, and is supplied in two sizes, 
12 X 20 inches and 7 x 17 inches. The adjustments on this 
camera make it possible to operate close to the wall in 
order to include every person in 
the room. 

Outdoor groups and views find 
a ready sale when made with 
the 12 X 20 F. & S. Banquet 
Camera. 

Send for 
Circular 




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CCXXIV 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



EAQLE HOME PORTRAIT 
AND STUDIO LAMP 




The Eagle Home Portrait and Studio Lamp is the most 
perfect and compact lighting device ever offered for photo- 
graphic use. It is ideal for home portrait use, as the entire 
outfit is very light and packs into a small space. It can be 
attached to practically any electric light socket, as it will 
work on either direct or alternating current from no to 220 
volts. Fitted with a collapsible reflector and light diflFuser, 
it is possible to get just exactly the effect you are after. 

The length of exposure, of course, depends on the size 
and the color of the room, the lens, and stop used. Exposures 
vary from a fraction of a second upward. 

Be independent of sunlight by gfettingf an Eagfle Home 



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SNAP-SHOTS 

A Monthly Magazine for Photographers 



SUBSCRIPTION RATES FOR U. S. AND CANADA PER YEAR, $1.00; SIX MONTHS, 50 CENTS 

SINGLE COPY, 10 CENTS. FOREIGN COUNTRIES, fl.25 
PUBLISHED BY THE SNAP-SHOTS PUBLISHING CO., 67 EAST NINTH STREET, NEW YORK 



Volume 24 DECEMBER, 1913 Number 12 



THE RUBY LAMP 

By F. G. Palmer 



The merest glimmer of light and 

that of the darkest red possible is 

what some amateurs delight in, 

and finding it is too dark to work 

by, they like to have a beam of 

Mfhite light pouring into the dark 

(?) room, under or round the door. 

For working autochromes, the 

less intense the light the better 

(white light in the earlier stages 

being as fatal as it is necessary in 

the latter), but for ordinary work 

a good light may be used without 

any fear of fogging. 

Ruby glass is certainly the most 
popular form of light-mask, and if 
of good quality there is little or 
nothing to be said against it, save 
that it is very trying for the eye- 
sight. Orange and canary glasses 
are very good for bromide or lan- 
tern-slide work, but are too risky 



for ordinary plates, and no use at 
all in orthochromatic work. 

The writer pins his faith to the 
amber glass for all purposes, and 
has found that it is perfectly safe 
for all kinds of plates, be they 
color-sensitive (not autochrome) or 
the most rapid makes on the mar- 
ket. The lamp in question is made 
from the common or garden hock 
bottle, with the top of the neck and 
the lower end removed. Such a 
lamp may be purchased for about 
fifteen pence, and lasts a lifetime. 
The light is not at all irritating, 
and is fairly brilliant, but the glare 
of the ruby lamp and its consequent 
unpleasant eflPect on the eyes is 
absent. 

This glare may be avoided, or, at 
any rate, lessened, by pasting a 
piece of thin white tissue paper over 



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222 



SNAP SHOTS 



December, 1913 



the glass, or dabbing it with soap 
or oil and whitening, thus getting 
a frosted effect! 

Daylight should be avoided as a 
lighting medium, because owning to 
its variable intensity, judging the 
density of a negative is very diffi- 
cult. A red window, however, 
might be of advantage sometimes, 
especially if it be possible to have 
the light outside the room. It cer- 
tainly does away entirely w^ith the 
unpleasant odors occasioned by the 
use of unclean lamps. A good nortr 
actinic medium for use over win- 
dows is the following. It is made 
by soaking sheets of pink blotting 
paper in a scarlet dye, red ink, or 
similar liquid, to deepen the color, 
and when it is dry, rubbing in vase- 
line until it is translucent; or, bet- 
ter, the dried blotting-paper may be 
soaked in melted vaseline. The 
paper is then laid between two 
sheets of glass, and the whole 
bound together with tape glued on. 
Instead of this, the ordinary ruby 
fabric can, of course, be used, but 
several thicknesses must be used, 
with consequent sacrifice of light. 

It is most imperative that the 
light be tested, for few, if any, 
lamps or fabrics are absolutely safe 
if a very sensitive plate happens to 
be undergoing a prolonged develop- 
ment. The simplest method of test- 
ing the light is to take a dark slide 
containing a plate into the dark- 
room, and when the lamp is lit or 
the window in position, open the 
slide to show about one-qnarter of 
the plate. Leave this for fifteen 



minutes, and then pull the slide still 
further out, thus exposing another 
quarter. After an interval of a 
quarter of an hour, pull the slide a 
little further. In fifteen minutes 
you can develop the plate, and you 
will thus be able to see at a glance : 
(1) If the light be safe, and (2) 
how long a plate must be exposed 
to the light before it gets badly 
fogged. In this test the plate must 
on no account be shielded by lay- 
ing a piece of cardboard across it, 
for cardboard is very radio-actinic, 
and a perfectly innocent lamp might 
easily be accused of causing the fog 
produced by the card shield. 

Should the source of light prove 
to be unsafe, it must be made less 
actinic by thickening the fabric or 
by increasing the density of the 
shade with another piece of glass. 

Do not risk ruining good nega- 
tives by working in the dark ; use a 
good safe light, but at the same 
time do not get too close to it. As 
we used to learn at school, the in- 
tensity of the light varies inversely 
with the square of the distance, and 
there is, therefore, far less danger 
of fogging two feet away from the 
lamp than at six inches. 

Again, until development is al- 
most finished, do not hold the plate 
against the lamp to examine it; if 
this be done at all, let it be but for 
a very little while, and then be sure 
to hold only the glass side of the 
plate towards the light, lest the 
warmth cause irregularity of de- 
velopment locally. — The Amateur 
Photographer. 



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HARMONIOUS ENLARGEMENTS PROM 
HARSH NEGATIVES 

By Capt. J. Hinde 



The process of enlarging on bro- 
mide paper has the effect, as every 
photographer knows who has ever 
tried it, of increasing the contrast 
of the picture. If we take a nega- 
tive and make a print from it by 
contact on bromide paper, and then 
make a second print on the same 
brand of paper, using the enlarging 
lantern to do so (whether the print 
is the same size or an enlargement 
is immaterial), it will be found that 
the print made with the lantern has 
more contrast than the other. 
There are times when this is very 
nseful, and enables a bright print 
to be obtained from a negative 
which is a little too flat to give one 
by contact. If the contract-giving 
property of **gaslight" paper is also 
made use of, by making the en- 
largement on that instead of on 
rapid bromide paper, a very great 
increase in vigor is obtained. 

The problem of getting reduced 
rather than increased contrast when 
enlarging is a more difficult one; 
yet it has to be tackled at some time 
or another by everyone w^ho does 
any enlarging at all. Perhaps one 
of our best negatives, which gives 
a beautiful print on platinum or on 



self-fnn;^- 



+u^ 



to do so, only to find that all the 
highest lights in the picture come 
out a blank white in the enlarge- 
ment. There are several ways by 
which this can be prevented. 

The plan which I always adopt 
with the best negatives of this kind 
is to make enlarged negatives from 
them; because this not only allows 
the contrasts to be controlled at 
will, but also gives great scope in 
the use of printing processes. An 
enlarged negative is by no means a 
difficult thing to produce — no more 
difficult, in fact, than it is to make 
a good bromide enlargement, al- 
though it takes longer, necessarily. 
In the case of original negatives 
which are inclined to be vigorous, 
I find that a carbon transparency is 
the most suitable. 

Carbon transparencies are merely 
carbon prints transferred to glass 
instead of to paper. A special 
transparency tissue is made, and it 
is best to use this for the purpose,, 
as the pigment in it is more finely 
ground. " A number of pieces of 
glass may be prepared at a time, as 
they keep indefinitely. They are 
first thoroughly cleaned and then 
are dipped in a solution of gelatine 



^fU 



■\* ft»rot1<-» 



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a decided yellow color. If the glass 
does not take the gelatine nicely, it 
may be applied by rubbing it over 
with a rag, and then immersing it 
in the liquid. The glasses are stood 
up in daylight to drain and dry, and 
are then ready for use. 

There is no need to describe the 
operation of carbon printing. The 
tissue in this case is treated exactly 
as if it was to make a paper print 
instead of a glass transparency, ex- 
cept that a longer exposure is gen- 
erally necessary. It is squeegeed to 
the glass and developed in the usual 
manner; but the density must be 
determined by looking through the 
transparency, not down on it. 

A carbon transparency can be in- 
tensified very easily and very grad- 
ually, should this be necessary, by 
placing it in a solution of potassiiun 
permanganate, washing and drying 
it. The degree of intensification 
will depend on the strength of the 
solution, and if the first application 
is insufficient, any additional num- 
ber that may be necessary can be 
given. It is better to do too little 
than too much, at first. The yellow- 
brown color given by the perman- 
ganate is very non-actinic. There 
is no satisfactory method of reduc- 
ing a carbon transparency. Should 
it need reduction, it is better to 
make another. 

As the carbon process requires a 
fairly vigorous negative, it will be 
found that the mere selection of 
that process for making the trans- 
I)arency will generally be sufficient 
to meet with the extra vigor of the 



original negative, and so carbon 
gives the result we want. 

Should the photographer not be 
familiar with the carbon process, 
and prefer to make his transpai- 
ency on a plate, he can do so, and 
, can, to some extent, control the 
density by the extent to which he 
carries the development (1) of the 
transparency and (2) of the en- 
larged negative. 

A COMPLEMENTARY TRANSPARENCY 

Instead of dealing with a vigor- 
ous negative by making an enlarged 
negative from it, it is possible to 
enlarge it direct on bromide paper, 
and still not to get too great con- 
trast in the result. There are two 
methods whcih may be used, one 
employing a transparency to tone 
down the contrasts, and the other 
known as "Sterry's process." 

The former plan does not seem 
to be so well known as it deserves 
to be, since it is very simple and 
has the great advantage that it 
leaves the original negative quite 
unaltered, although temporarily re- 
ducing its contrasts. To carry it 
out, a dry plate, which may either 
be one of the kind usually used in 
the camera, or a special lantern or 
transparency plate, is exposed in 
contact with the negative exactly 
as if a transparency were to be 
made from it. The plate is then 
developed, taking care not to get it 
too dense. In fact, it is usually re- 
quired quite thin, and is fixed, 
washed, and dried. When dry it is 
carefully adjusted on the negative. 



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SNAP SHOTS 



225 



film to film, until the two images 
are in exact register, and when this 
is the case the plates are bound to- 
gether temporarily by means of 
lantern-slide binding strips. The 
negative with the positive attached 
to it in this way may be placed in 
the lantern and an enlargement 
made on bromide paper in the ordi- 
nary way. 

The effect of the transparency in 
contact with the negative is very 
much the same as if the negative 
itself had been developed to a less 
extent. The negative and transpar- 
ency in combination are much more 
opaque than either of them singly, 
but the contrast of the negative is 
less. This will be apparent on a 
moment's consideration, as it will 
be realized that the densest parts of 
the transparency come against the 
most transparent parts of the nega- 
tive and mce versa. 

DEVELOPING THE TRANSPARENCY 

The extent to which this "com- 
plementary transparency'' should 
be developed will depend upon the 
extent to which it is necessary to 
reduce the contrasts of the nega- 
tive. Quite a thin transparency is 
generally sufficient, its effect being 
more marked than one is at first 
inclined to suppose. As the origi- 
nal negative is in no way affected, 
one can go on making transparen- 
cies until exactly what is required 
is obtained. It is quite possible to 

m^lrf^ n f-^ »^ :.. j.i_!_ 



put together, a dense deposit is 
given, but one which is of the same 
opacity all over, with no sign of an 
image anywhere, unless the regis- 
tration is imperfect. 

The complementary transparency 
may be reduced or intensified if 
necessary. At times it is very help- 
ful to reduce parts of it either par- 
tially, or even to clear glass, leaving 
only an image on just those parts 
which correspond to the places 
where the negative is too transpar- 
ent. The ferri-cyanide and hypo 
reducer is very serviceable for work 
of this kind. 

There remains to be considered 
*'Sterry's process." This, also, does 
not involve any alteration or modi- 
fication of the original negative, but 
is based on treating the bromide 
paper with a very weak solution of 
chromic acid or of potassium bi- 
chromate after exposure and before 
development. 

STERRY's PROCESS 

The first thing to be done in this 
process is to ascertain the exposure 
which must be given to the bromide 
paper in order that the densest 
parts of the negative rriay imprint 
their image on it to the correct ex- 
tent. In doing this the shadows — 
that is to say, the more transparent 
parts of the negative — may be ig- 
nored altogether. They will be 
much over-exposed, of course, and 
were the j)aper to be developed in 

^1- _ 1: ,,,^«,1^ 'ill K/» 



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for a few minutes in the chromic 
acid or bichromic solution. The 
latter is the compound most likely 
to be used by the photographer. A 
solution of thirty grains of potas- 
sium bichromate in ten ounces of 
water may be taken as the standard 
strength, and the paper immersed 
in this, in the dark-room, of course, 
for three minutes. It is then taken 
out, washed in four or five changes 
of water, and developed as usual. 
It will be found that the effect of 
the bichromate is to prevent the 
shadows in the enlargement from 
getting too dark, while it does not 



seem to have any influence upon the 
lighter parts. The consequence is 
that the final result is much softer 
and more harmonious. 

The strength of the bichromate 
solution and the length of time it 
is allowed to act must be adjusted 
to the extent of softening that is 
necessary. The data given above 
may be taken as suitable for a nega- 
tive that is distinctly but not ex- 
cessively harsh. In milder cases 
the bichromate may be diluted : in 
aggravated cases it may be used 
in greater concentration. — Photog- 
gapliy. 



MOVING OBJECTS AND EXPOSURE 
By F. Dudley 



One of the things which makes 
the photography of moving objects 
difficult is the fact that the expo- 
sure problem is complicated by the 
necessity which exists of taking the 
movement of the image of the ob- 
ject into consideration, as well as 
the exposure that the plate itself 
may require to give a good nega- 
tive. Since it is impossible to cal- 
culate on the spur of the moment 
how short an exposure is neces- 
sitated by the movement, the re- 
sults are necessarily largely a mat- 
ter of luck. 

In considering the subject of ex- 
posures on moving objects, we pro- 
pose to simplify it for our present 
purpose by putting on one side all 



photographs taken on purpose to 
show how the camera can record 
rapidly moving things under ad- 
verse conditions. These are not 
things with which the amateur with 
a comparatively simple and inex- 
pensive outfit can deal ; they require 
a costly lens and an elaborate shut- 
ter, and when they have been ob- 
tained they are much more to the 
credit of the apparatus than of its 
user. For the present we will look 
at the subject from the point of 
view of the photographer whose 
aim is to get good pictures, and 
who, when he finds that he has to 
deal with moving objects, endeavors 
not so much to defy their difficulties 
as to circumvent them. 



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The first thing that has to be 
realized is that the actual speed at 
which the object is moving does not 
concern us in the least. This may 
seem a startling paradox, but a 
minute's consideration shows that 
it is a truism. An express train 
traveling at sixty miles an hour 
may be photographed sharply with 
an exposure which is not half fast 
enough to catch a man, or even a 
telegraph boy walking. The expo- 
sure is governed, not by the rate at 
which the object moves, but by the 
rate at which the image would 
move upon the plate. This is not 
at all the same thing ; since the rate 
of movement of the image is influ- 
enced not only by the rate of the 
object, but also by the direction of 
the movement with reference to the 
line of sight. It is also affected by 
the distance of the object and by 
the focus of the lens. These differ- 
ent factors may be taken separately. 
It is obvious that the direction of 
the movement influences the move- 
ment of the image. When the ob- 
ject moves directly across the line 
of sight, at right angles to the line 
in which the lens is pointing, tb 
movement of its image on the plate 
is at a maximum. If its only move- 
ment is in the direction of the line 
of sight, then, except that the size 
of the image alters as the object 
approaches or recedes, there is no 
movement of the image. Between 
these two extremes come most of 



slow an exposure as possible in or- 
der to get a fully-exposed negative, 
it is necessary to select a standpoint 
as nearly as possible in front of the 
moving object. A curve of the 
road or railway not only enables us 
to photograph a motorcar or train 
in full speed with a comparatively 
slow exposure, but is also, fortu- 
nately for us, very often the most 
pictorially effective position for the 
moving object. 

The more distant the moving ob- 
ject, the slower may be the expo- 
sure without any sign of blurring. 
Thus, in street scenes and similar 
subjects, the figures that are fifty 
yards or more from the camera sel- 
dom give much trouble, whereas 
figures close at hand, even if they 
are moving very much more slow- 
ly, will be blurred unless the ex- 
posure is very short indeed. 

The focus of the lens employed 
influences the extent of movement 
of the image on the screen, just 
as it influences the size of the 
image. If the exposure is of such 
a duration that the object itself 
moves, say, six inches during the 
time the shutter is open, the blur- 
ring with a lens of ten-inch focus 
will be just twice as much as with 
a lens of five-inch focus, because 
the space on the image correspond- 
ing to six inches on the object is 
twice as great with a ten-inch lens 
as it is with a five-inch one. 

There is another point to note in 



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raphy is now done with small cam- 
eras with a view to subsequent en- 
larging, that the old ideas as to 
what constitutes a aharp image have 
to be revised. A degree of blurri- 
ness that we might very well over- 
look in a contact print from a quar- 
ter-plate negative may become very 
aggressive when that quarter-plate 
has been enlarged up to 12x10. 

Such are the principal consid- 
erations in the photography of 
moving objects, other than high- 
speed work. It remains for us to 
see how they apply in actual prac- 
tice. The first thing the reader 
will gather will be the impractica- 
bility of using tables of exposures 
for different classes of subjects. 
The conditions vary so widely and 
influence the results so much that 
such tables are perfectly useless. 
All we can do is to give the short- 
est exposure which will give us a 
properly exposed plate; instead of 
varying the exposure to cope with 
the movement, studying to get the 
moving object in such circum- 
stances that the movement of the 
image is as little as possible. 

The great majority of amateur 
photographers have snap-shot cam- 
eras of which the full speed of the 
shutter (actual speed, not marked 
speed) may be put down at some- 
where about the thirtieth or fortieth 
of a second, with a lens of, say, 
four and a half to six inches focus. 
With such an outfit, a horse and 
cart, with the horse walking neither 
in the direction of the line of sight 
nor at right angles thereto, but 



about midway between the two, 
will usually be sharply rendered if 
the horse is not more than about an 
inch and a half high on the plate. 
A man walking may be taken on 
the same scale. A trotting horse 
would have to be on a smaller scale 
to be sharp. Trains, motorcars and 
ships, provided the direction is kept 
fairly well in the line of sight, and 
the objects do not occupy more than 
about an inch or an inch and a 
quarter, are quite within the scope 
of such apparatus, which is also 
very capable of dealing with mov- 
ing ships, etc. 

The photographer with such an 
outfit must not hope to be able to 
repeat the successes seen in the il- 
lustrated papers, where rapidly 
moving objects are rendered on a 
large scale; partly because his ap- 
paratus is not able to cope with 
such work, and partly also because 
much of the very high speed pho- 
tographs seen in the illustrated 
press have been submitted to the 
most elaborate hand work. 

There is one other aspect of the 
subject which requires mention. 
Afany of the moving objects upon 
which we photographers make ex- 
posures are not moving uniformly 
either in rate or direction. A com- 
mon case is that of a man walking. 
As a whole, he is progressing at 
a rate which can be expressed in 
figures; let us say, four miles an 
hour. But if his body moves with 
some uniformity at that rate, other 
parts of him do not do so. When 
he puts one leg forward to take a 



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229 



step, his foot must be moving at 
much more than four miles an hour, 
or it would not be able to catch up 
his body and get to the ground in 
front of it, as it actually does. Then 
while that same foot remains on the 
ground, we know it does not move 
at all ; it is the leg that swings for- 
ward on the foot as a pivot. If we 
look at a lot of snap shots of 
street scenes, where there has been 
any trouble from moving figures, it 
will comparatively seldom be found 
that it is the bodies that are blurred, 
but nearly always a foot or leg. In 
rowing there is a similar series of 
movements at entirely different 
rates, so that it is quite impossible 
to express the movement of all the 
different parts by any one figure. 

In dealing with subjects of this 
kind, when the movements are not 
so rapid that they cannot be fol- 
lowed, it is well to look out for the 
phases in which the movement is at 
a minimum, and make the exposure 
then. Thus, if we were photo- 
graphing children playing at see- 
saw or swinging, we could get a 
sharp picture with a tenth or a 
fifteenth of a second, even with the 
subject on quite a large scale, if 
we make the exposure, not when 
they are in full flight, but at the 
moment when the swing or board is 
at the end of its movement in one 
direction and has not yet begun th<^ 
return movement. When photo- 
graphing from a rolling vessel, the 
conditions are very similar, al- 
though in this case it is the camera 
and not the subject that moves. 



By making the exposure when the 
ship is at the end of a roll, a much 
longer exposure can be given with- 
out signs of movement than when 
the shutter is released during the 
roll itself. 

The subjects are so many and so 
diverse that one cannot give definite 
directions to meet all cases; but 
what has already been written 
should be sufficient to indicate to 
the photographer how to regard 
each task as it comes along, how to 
minimize the diflficulties which it 
presents, and how to secure at the 
same time the most realistic and 
satisfactory suggestion of move- 
ment. — Photography, 



One year's sub- 
scription to Snap 
Shots and the 
American An- 
nual of Photog- 
raphy, 1 9 1 4 paper 
edi tion, only 
$1.50. 

Address 

Snap Shots 
Pub. Co. 



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December, 1913 



THE PHOTOGRAPHY OF MACHINERY 

By W. H. McCormick 



Photography is of the highest 
possible importance to the engineer. 
It has its uses in advertising, in the 
preparation of catalogues, in mak- 
ing records of standard types of 
machines and their parts, and in 
many other everyday matters. Ma- 
chine photographs, of whatever 
kind, must be of the highest quality 
if they are to be of any service, for 
in no other branch of photography 
do defects assert themselves so 
strongly and so disastrously. At 
the same time the work is not so 
difficult as some writers would have 
us believe. All that is required, 
beyond the ability to turn out a 
good negative, is a knowledge of 
exactly what is to be aimed at, and 
a little careful study of the condi- 
tions under which the work has to 
be done. 

THE Camera and lens 

The necessary apparatus is not 
out of the ordinary. A triple-ex- 
tension camera, preferably of not 
less than whole-plate size, will an- 
swer every purpose. The lens is a 
more important matter. The slight- 
est distortion, due to the use of a 
lens of short focus, is very notice- 
able in machine photographs, par- 
ticularly if the machine is long in 
proportion to its width. The focus 
of the anastigmat lenses usually 
sold for any given size of plate is 
too short for this work, and though 
the rectilinears are a little better in 



this respect, even they are on the 
short side. Therefore, for general 
work, a long-focus lens must be 
chosen, or one of the convertible 
anastigmats giving a range of three 
foci. Now and then, however, it is 
necessary to photograph a large 
machine in a confined situation, and 
in such cases there is no option but 
to use a short-focus or wide-angle 
lens. There is no object in having 
lenses of great rapidity, as they are 
seldom or never used at full aper- 
ture. The plates should be of fast 
medium speed, for though a slow 
plate undoubtedly has many ad- 
vantages, these are outweighed by 
the great length of exposure re- 
quired with a small stop and in a 
poor light. Orthochromatic plates 
are very much to be recommended ; 
for combinations of metals, such as 
steel, copper, and brass, present 
many varieties of color, and an 
ortho. screen may often be used 
with advantage. All plates should 
be backed. 

dealing with reflections 

Coming to the actual work, the 
most serious troubles met with are 
the reflections from polished metal, 
the lighting, and the foreground 
and background. Many ways of 
getting rid of reflections have been 
recommended, but the simplest is 
that of dabbing the shiny parts 
with putty. The lighting is not 
quite so easily disposed of. The 



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SNAP SHOTS 



231 



upper parts of a machine are usu- 
ally of brighter work than the 
lower, and a top light accentuates 
this relative brightness. If the only 
available light comes from a very 
high position, it is advisable to 
partly screen it off, and at the same 
time to help the darker parts by 
means of reflected light. It has 
been suggested that these dark 
parts should be painted over with 
dull, light grey paint, but if reflec- 
tors are used this is not necessary. 
The reflectors may be made of 
white paper tacked on light frames, 
or loose sheets may be used, but 
these are not so easy to arrange in 
the best positions. The main light, 
of course, must be a front light. 
The floor of a machine shop is not 
exactly of the purest white, and it 
is usually wise, if not absolutely 
necessary, to make a temporary 
floor of sheets of paper or white 
painted boards. These should ex- 
tend as far as possible round and 
under the machine, so as to provide 
a foreground and to show no dark 
patches. A background is neces- 
sary, both to diffuse the light and 
to isolate the machine from its sur- 
roundings. This consists of a 
white sheet, and it should be clean 
and free from creases. If the sheet 
^s not smooth and clean, and espe- 
cially if it must be hung to the ma- 
chine, it should be kept moving dur- 
ing exposure. 



.ACCTr. * r* 'nrrr? rT*-T 



obtainable during the daytime, and 
in this case, unless the machine is 
small enough to be moved to a 
better place, the work must be done 
by artificial light. This may be 
either flashlight or magnesium rib- 
bon. If the former, the light should 
be diffused by muslin or other ma- 
terial, and if the latter, the light 
should be kept moving. Shorter 
lengths of ribbon may also be used 
to give the darker parts a better 
chance. 

However the photograph is taken 
it is important that the maker's 
name-plate should show prominent- 
ly, and this is best made sure of by 
whitening the raised lettering with 
chalk. Chalk also may be used for 
other details which it is desired to 
show clearly, such as the teeth of 
wheels. 

THE INCLUSION OF FIGURES 

Occasionally it is required to pho- 
tograph a workshop as a whole. 
Here little can be done in the way 
of preparation, and things must be 
taken pretty much as they are. The 
best view-point must be carefully 
chosen, and the lens should be of as 
long focus as possible. If work- 
men are to be included — and a large 
shop looks strange without them — 
they should be arranged a little if 
possible. A good space should be 
allowed between the camera and the 
nearest man, and most of the men 
should be apparendy engaged in 



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from their work. In any case the 
men should know when the photo- 
graph is to be taken, so that they 
can keep still, for nothing looks 
worse than men here and there 
with two faces and several arms 
and legs. 

The several parts of a machine 
are best photographed on a white 
sheet or board, with a white back- 
ground ; or, if they cannot be stood 
up, they may be hung in front of 
the background. If these parts are 
to be referred to individually in a 
catalogue or pamphlet, each must 
have a large nimiber attached to it. 

It is impossible to give any guide 
to exposure, as conditions vary al- 
most infinitely, and the only way is 
to use an exposure-meter. This 
should be of the special indoor 
type, for the ordinary meter takes 
far too long to darken to the tint. 
There is nothing unusual about the 
development of machine photo- 
graphs, the only thing to avoid 
being a too dense negative. 

With photographs of single ma- 
chines or parts, the best results are 
got by blocking out the background 
entirely. This is done on the film 
side of the negative with "Photo- 
pake'' or other similar preparation, 
but unless the photographer has 
had considerable experience in this 



Prints of any kind of machiner}- 
look most effective on glossy 
P.(J.P., toned to a cold purple, bro- 
mide paper giving the next best 
results. — The Amateur Photogra- 
pher and Photographic News. 



DRYING POSTCARDS 

Those who do much printing on 
the ever-popular postcard have 
noted the difficulty of drying them 
without curl unless one has some 
way of controlling them on net 
screens, or otherwise. 

Not caring to be cumbered with 
such screens, I hit upon the method 
of drying on blotters, not between. 
After the final washing the excess 
water is squeezed out with the rub- 
ber roller; the cards are then laid, 
backs down, on clean dry blotters. 
When the upper side no longer 
shows visible moisture, and the 
cards have begun to turn up slight- 
ly, just turn them over, face down 
on the same blotters. 

The backs will show dry, but the 
moisture in the same blotter seems 
to prevent undue curling before the 
cards are dry enough to put under 
pressure safely without damage. It 
is understood that it is best to take 
up the cards when just right to put 
under pressure, a stage easily de- 



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December, 1913 SNAP SHOTS 233 

PORTRAITURE WITH A WHITE BACKGROUND 



The predominating idea in the 
production of white-background 
portraits must be to secure a deh- 
cate picture. For this reason, 
ladies and children are more suit- 
able subjects than men ; since th 
are able to wear light, flimsy gar 
nients, and draperies which lend 
themselves well to the style. Fancy 
costumes, also, are often very suit- 
able. I do not say that successful 
results cannot be produced with the 
darker, heavier draperies; but they 
are, at any rate, more difficult to 
secure. 

The background itself must be 
one of the first objects of our at- 
tention. It is difficult to secure a 
pure white, so many of them con- 
taining a strong tinge of yellow 
The ordinary plate is not sensitive 
to yellow, so we must avoid such 
a shade as much as possible. On 
the other hand, it is very sensi- 
tive to blue, and wherever that 
color appears in a photograph it is 
easy to secure density in the nega- 
tive. So the best white background 
to use is one of a blue-white. As 
the background has to surround the 
subject, a continuous background 
is necessary, that will hang behind 
and also extend along the floor to 
some distance in front of the model. 
The rnaterial used is the same as 



IC coir! f^^ "^^Inin" Ko/>l^or.. 



exposed it is difficult to get a clean 
negative with them. On the other 
hand, if the plate employed is a 
slow one, harshness often results. 
A plate of medium speed, say, 220- 
250 H. and D., will be found best. 

Exposure is a very important 
matter. We must remember that 
we are dealing with a subject con- 
taining a great deal of light, and 
over-exposure will result in a weak, 
dirty negative. If this is obtained, 
it is better to destroy it at once, 
so as not to be tempted to waste 
time in trying to obtain a nice deli- 
cate print from it. Under-exposure 
is just as bad the other way, and 
over-development, resulting in a 
negative that is too hard and thick, 
will be fatal to success. Instead 
of giving a delicate print, we shall 
have a **study in black and white." 
In short, for this work it is essen- 
tial to have the negative correctly 
exposed and correctly developed. 
In the plates which I use, develop- 
ment is correct when the outline of 
the image is clearly shown on the 
back of the plate. 

The scheme of lighting to be 
adopted in white background work 
will depend upon the fancy of the 
worker. The great tiling is to bear 
in mind that no strong contrast*- 
must be used. For instance, the 



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SNAP SHOTS 



December, 191 3 



plified, allowing the light to play 
on one side of the face, but only 
a little more than on the other, so 
as to avoid strong contrasts, will 
give good results. When quite or- 
dinary round lighting is employed, 
a great improvement in effect is 
often secured by allowing a little 
light to play on the light side of 
the costimie, so as to cause it to 
stand away from the background. 
Dark furniture should not be used 
with light costumes, if it can be 
avoided, as it is very often the cause 
of too much contrast in the finished 
print. 

Provided the quality of the nega- 
tive is good, almost any process of 
printing may be employed, from p. 
o. p. to bromoil, so it cannot be 
said that ihe worker wuh white 
backgrounds has a limited selection 
of papers. Those most generally 
used are platinum, carbon, and 
bromide; and in this article it will 
be assumed that bromide or gas- 
light paper is being used. The 
choice of surfaces is a very wide 
one; smooth matt being as suitable 
as any. 

In making the print, we have 
to get a soft effect, the picture 
gradually passing into the white 
ground; and it is here where new 
workers are likely to experience the 
most trouble. It is done by vig- 
netting, which, although apparently 
a simple matter in the eyes of 
many, is, to judge from a number 
of the results I have seen, anything 
but simple. The fault has been 
that, although the actual edges of 



the print may have been more or 
less soft, the general effect was a 
mask rather than a vignette. The 
cause of this defect is that the 
vignetting cards were fixed too near 
the negative, and the frame was 
not moved about enough during the 
exposure. 

The print may be larger than 
the negative that is used; and for 
that purpose a larger printing frame 
will be needed. A piece of glass 
being put in the frame, a piece of 
card of the same thickness as the 
negative has a hole cut in its centre 
the size of the negative, and 
laid on the glass. The negative is 
placed in the opening of the card, 
which then, in conjunction with the 
negative, makes a level surface on 
which the bromide paper can 1 
evenly. For the actual vignetting, 
we take a rough proof from the 
negative and mount it on a piece 
of thin card. On the print we 
draw a serrated edge from an inch 
to an inch and a half away from 
the figures, and following the out- 
line of the subject, and then cut 
out along this line with a sharp 
penknife. If this card were to be 
fixed down close on the rim of 
the printing frame, and a print 
made, it would give the hard vig- 
nette to which I have already re- 
ferred. This can be avoided if, in- 
stead of fixing the card down tight- 
ly, we allow it to bend upwards 
in a sort of arch. The edge of 
the opening should have two thick- 
nesses of tissue-paper pasted round 
it, one larger than the other, and 



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December, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



235 



the whole may then be covered 
with a third sheet of tissue-paper. 
This allows the rays of light to 
spread more over the surface of 
the paper, and so produces a soft, 
fading edge to the subject. 

In the case of many pictures 
trouble may be experienced in deal- 
ing with the bottom portion of the 
negative, because, although in a 
full-length portrait the white 
g^round will surround the figure on 
the negative, and consequently the 
vignetting will then be the same 
all round, in a half or three-quar- 
ter length it is different. The fig- 
ure extends right to the bottom 
edge of the negative, and, accord- 
ing to the strength of it, it will 
be more or less difficult to get the 
required softness. This difficulty 
is best overcome by putting cotton 
wool between the vignette and the 
negative, pulling out the edge of 
it to allow of soft printing. 

Another way to help towards soft 
results is to matt varnish the back 
of the negative, and then to work 
it up either with stump or pencil, 
making the edges as solid as pos- 
sible, and graduating off as the 
subject is approached. The matt 
varnish can also be made to serve 
another very useful purpose. It is 
ohen necessary to emphasize a few 
high lights or to make one part of 
a costume print to a lighter tone 



printing frame in such a manner 
as to allow as varied a direction of 
light to strike the plate through the 
vignette as possible, there is no 
need to say more on the subject 
of printing. 

As a support for pictures of this 
kind nothing, to my mind, is bet- 
ter than to mount them on a stiff, 
plain mounting board, and then to 
bevel the edges of print and mount 
by means of a very sharp knife. 
Another plan which looks very well 
is to use a pale gray, limp mount- 
ing board, which may or may not 
have a few pencil lines ruled round 
the edge of the print to serve as 
a boarder. A narrow, faint wash 
of some suitable water-color may 
be used in place of the lines. 

Those who like to put hand work 
on their prints will find that in 
this work they have plenty of scope 
for the exercise of their artistic 
talent. A sable brush and ordinary 
water-color (lamp-black), or a 
black lead-pencil, used as if on or- 
dinary drawing paper, will enable 
some charming effects to be ob- 
tained. Hard India rubber, or a 
sharp knife, enables us to pick out 
high lights on a print, as either will 
remove as much of the image as 
may be required, but a very light 
touch is necessary to ensure not 
scraping through the prepared sur- 
face. 



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236 



SNAP SHOTS December, 1913 

MINIATURE PHOTOGRAPHS 



Miniature photographs find mani- 
fold application in all kinds of nov- 
elties, such as penholders, charms 
and other trinkets, but the majority 
of what we see is so bad that one 
does not wonder at the decline of 
taste in this interesting branch of 
work. We have seen minute photo- 
grams, hardly the dimensions of a 
pin's head, showing over 400 por- 
traits distinctly, when microscop- 
ically examined. This shows that 
micro photographs might be of con- 
siderable importance. 

The main point is to get a sensi- 
tive film without a grain to it. Of 
course, gelatine is out of the ques- 
tion on account of its large grain of 
structure. Collodion is finer in 
grain, but still too coarse for such 
delicate work. 

Albumen is the only medium ap- 
plicable. 

The following formulae are rec- 
ommended : 

A. 

Alcohol lyi oz. 

Ether 1 dr. 

Soluble cotton 16 gr. 

Ammonium iodide ... .16 gr. 
Tincture of iodine.... 17 drops. 

B. 
Take 160 parts of fresh white 
^^^ cg^gj "^ix with 1 part glacial 
acetic acid in 20 parts water, avoid- 
ing formation of air bells when stir- 
ring. Leave the mixture stand for 
2 hours and pour off the clear por- 
<^ion. 



A thick film will separate from 
the lower clear liquid, which is re- 
moved. 

The next preparation is: 

The above white of egg ^Yi oz. 

Ammonium bromide . . 4 gr. 

Ammonium (strong).. 15 drops. 

Ammonium iodide. ... 18 gr. 

Coat the thin piece of microscopic 
glass first with the collodion and 
wash it until all greasiness disap- 
pears from the surface, then coat 
with the albumen preparation (B). 
Place the plates edgewise to dry in 
a place free from dust. When thor- 
oughly dry they keep indefinitely. 

The sensitizing solution is made 
as follows: 

Xitrate of silver 154 gr. 

Glacial acetic acid 1 dr. 

Distilled water 3>< oz. 

When the film becomes opaque, 
or rather opalescent, wash in dis- 
tilled water and dry. 

Development is effected with con- 
centrated gallic acid, to which is 
added : 

Citric acid 15 gr 

Distilled water V/2 ot, 

Pixmg and toning is done in the 
following bath: 

Chloride of gold 15 gr. 

Chalk 60 gr. 

Hypo 120 gr. 

Water 4 oz. 

The tone is purple brown to 
black. — Photo IVochenblatt, 



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December, 191 3 



SNAP SHOTS 



237 



M. A. SEED 



As we go to press we have just 
learned of the death of Mr. M. A. Seed. 
Regretting that we have no further in- 
formation regarding his death, and as 
this reaches us just as the issue closes, 
we can only advise that the funeral was 
held Monday, December 8th, at the First 
Mehodist Church, Mount Vernon. 

Mr. Seed was one of the pioneer 
manufacturers of the photographic dry 
plates in the United States. He was 
an expert photographic operator in the 
employ of L. A. Scholten, in the city 
of St. Louis, Mo., in 1880, when he 
commenced experimenting with the view 
of producing a dry plate. His experi- 
menting continued for two years, and 
he was convinced that he could pro- 
duce a photographic dry plate that 
would meet the requirements of the 
photographers in 1882, and with some 
friends who invested their capital em- 
barked in the manufacture of photo- 
graphic dry plates in the town of Wood- 
land, Mo., some ten miles from St. 
Louis, and met with good success, until 
1885, when, owing to a fire, the factory 
was burnt down and completely de- 
stroyed. With renewed vigor and added 
capital a new factory was built, and in 
1885, with improved machinery and with 
the experience gained by the previous 
years' work, the M. A. Seed dry plates, 
under the supervision of M. A. Speed, 
started to produce what is generally 
acknowledged as the best dry plate in 
the world. Mr. Seed was an enthusi- 
astic worker, persistent in his efforts 
to improve the quality of the photo- 
graphic dry plate, and his one great 
maxim was that no matter what the cost, 
no matter what the work, trouble, and 
inconvenience was, that the plates that 
were turned out to the trade should be 
all guaranteed quality. 

On one occasion a photographer wrote 



to Mr. Seed and stated that as his loca- 
tion was far away from any of the 
leading distributing centres, he would 
thank him for sending him the formulae 
used in making his plates. To this Mr. 
Seed replied that the formul«e used in 
the production of the Seed plates was 
the same as when he commenced making 
the plates in 1882, but owing to the 
many improvements in machinery and 
in methods, and in handling, and all 
other saving devices, the Seed dry plate 
was placed in the hands of the practical 
photographer at a price that it would 
not pay to be made by the consumer, 
and that while the Seed plate was of 
the highest grade and merit, it was 
made from the same formulse as orig- 
inally started, yet it was only by over- 
coming the many troubles and difficul- 
ties that the Seed dry plate was given 
in its perfection. Mr. Seed was an 
earnest student, not only in articles 
used in the manufacturing of dry plates, 
but also in the troubles, and failures, 
and causes for annoyance that he met 
in the various studios. He was at all 
times willing and only too glad to help 
his brother photographer, and to stare 
him on the right road to reach good 
photographic results. He was an earn- 
est, enthusiastic worker in photography 
and a great admirer of art, and deeply 
religious, and one who carried out his 
religious feelings. He was a practical 
and earnest Christian, a good father, 
and sincere friend, and his loss will be 
deeply regretted, not only in the photo- 
graphic fraternity, but to men all over 
the entire world. 

His life was a success and a great 
pillar of light, and while his loss will 
be felt deeply, yet his work done leaves 
behind him a monument representing 
everything honorable in business and 
everything high in Christian life. 



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238 



SNAP SHOTS December, 191 3 

TRADE NEWS AND NOTES 



American Annual of Photography. 
In speaking of the new 1914 edition, 
which has just been issued, the former 
editor stated that he considered this 
new volume to be an improvement over 
any previous issue, both in the quality 
of the illustrations and text matter. You 
should not miss securing a copy of this 
Annual. The general sales agent ad- 
vises us that they have booked orders 
for almost the entire edition. We have 
secured a number of copies, and as long 
as these last we can furnish you with a 
copy of the paper edition, and a year's 
subscription to Snap Shots, commenc- 
ing January 1st, for $1.50; or a copy of 
the Annual only for 90 cents postpaid. 
Address Snap Shots Publishing Co. 



Collins Mounts. The new fall lines 
of the Collins Co. are designed to at- 
tract the eye, to enhance the value of 
your prints, and to give a rich, distinct- 
ive tone to your work. If you are not 
familiar with these new mountings you 
should write to the A. M. Collins Mfg. 
Co., Philadelphia, and ask them for 
samples. Kindly mention Snap Shots 
It helps us. 



Eastman Portrait Film. In the short 
time that these films have been on the 
market they have met with a wonderful 
reception from the professional photog- 
raphers, due to their many advantages 
over the dry plate. They have the speed 
of the Seed 30, and are non-halation in 
a greater degree than any plate. Their 
unbreakable qualities practically recom- 
mend them for portrait work. 



Seed Plates. The dependable quality 
of Seed Plates is something which you 
particularly appreciate at this season of 
the year, when it is necesary to make 
every plate count. Seed plates are not 
only uniform, they have superior 



gradation, five-grain, latitude and speed. 
The Seed 30 Gilt Edge is particularly 
adapted to these short winter days. 



British Journal Photo Almanac, 1914. 
Before this issue reaches our readers 
this mammoth Annual will have been 
distributed to the photographic dealers 
by the American agents, as they advise 
they have notice that the shipment is 
now on the ocean. They also advise 
that the demand from the dealers is 
considerably larger than last year, and 
that despite the fact that they have a 
larger quantity coming, they expect to 
be entirely sold out within a week after 
the books reach this country. They 
have assured us that our order will be 
filled complete, and we can, therefore, 
offer you a year's subscription to Snap 
Shots and a copy of the paper edition 
for $1.25 ; or a copy of the paper edition 
only, postpaid, for 77 cents. Address 
Snap Shots Publishing Co. 



Eagle Home Portrait and Studio 
Lamp, This lamp was designed espe- 
cially for home portrait use, but it is 
equally serviceable in the studio. It is 
very compact, packs neatly in a case 
which can readily be carried in the 
hand. 

The lamp has a normal light of 1,000 
candle power. This, with the flash at- 
tachment, can be increased to 3,000 can- 
dle power when necessary. Our adver- 
tiser advises that they are having diffi- 
culty in keeping up with their orders for 
these lamps. Now that the holiday 
season is here it is just the time when 
you need one of these lamps in your 
studio, so as to be independent of 
weather conditions. Write to them for 
illustrated circular. 



Black Laurel Paper. This is a high- 
grade professional studio paper for 
platinum black and sepia effects. It is 



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December, 1913 



SNAP SHOTS 



239 



simple, economical to use, and the re- 
sults are pleasing both to the printer 
and to the customer. Write to the fac- 
tory for sample. Mention Snap Shots. 



The Bogue Enlarging Lamp. This is 
a new style of flaming arc lamp par- 
ticularly adapted to enlarging. It is un- 
doubtedly the most satisfactory lamp 
for enlarging purposes on the market, 
as it reduces the length of exposure, 
and enables the operator to use all kinds 
of paper for enlarging. With this light 
and condenser it is possible to use any 
of the regular D. O. P. papers. The 
Type "G" lamp is made for direct or al- 
ternating current 8 to IX) amperes. If 
you are having trouble in your enlarg- 
ing department, and cannot get suffi- 
cient light for quick work, or if you 
contemplate installing a department to 
do this work, you should certainly get 
acquainted with this lamp. See the 
advertisement in this issue. 



Photomailcrs, When you send out 
your Christmas work you want it to 
reach your customer in perfect order. 
Enclose it in the Photomailer manu- 
factured by the Thompson & Norris Co. 
They have studied the needs of the 
photographer, and have designed their 
Photomailer especially for his use. 
Write to them for a description of the 
various sizes in which they supplj 
these. Kindly mention Snap Shots. 



Banquet Camera. The Folmer A 
Schwing Division of the Eastman Ko- 
dak Co. have just placed on the market 
a camera especially adapted for large 
grroups indoors at banquets and public 
gatherings. It is made in two sizes: 



this camera. Write to the manufactur- 
ers for descriptive booklet. 



Carbon Tissue. This is the season of 
the year when there is a large demand 
for carbon materials, as carbon is with- 
out doubt the best known medium for 
high-grade work, such as is particularly 
desired at this time of the year. The 
very large range of colors, and the 
great variety of surfaces of transfer 
papers, enables the operator to produce 
practically any result desired. The 
American agents will gladly send you 
descriptive booklet if you are not thor- 
oughly familiar with the process. 



Ross Lenses. The new Ross Extra 
Rapid Lens F 4.5 is being well received 
by the American public, not only on 
account of its perfection as a lens, but 
from the fact that with this lens it is 
possible to secure three different foci. 
The front combination has double the 
focus, and the back combination one 
and one-half times the focus of the 
complete lens. Their new Wide Angle 
Anastigmat Lenses have also proven 
very popular, as they yield perfectly flat 
images, free from astigmatism, and with 
a very wide angle. They cannot be 
surpassed for wide angle work. The 
leading newspapers are now using al- 
most exclusively the Ross Telecentric 
Lenses for their records of sporting 
events. It is the best lens for use on 
the reflex style of camera, as it is pos- 
sible with these lenses to produce a very 
large image on a plate from a distance 
even at the high speed at which these 
cameras operate. In addition the larger 
sizes have proven admirable portrait 
lenses. 



-• «-k — «^^ 



Velour Black Paper. This is a high- 



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240 SXAP SHOTS December. 1913 

STUDIO WANTS 

Galleries for Sale or Rent Positions IVanted— Operators 

L. I., all-around man. 
M. E. K., fine gallery, $7,000. t. E. M., general operator. 

C. F. M., two galleries in New Jersey. J- H., all-round operator, 
A. S. T., gallery in N. Y. State. 

D. F. M., gallery in New York City, 
$3,500. 



R. L. M., general operator. 
L. H., operator and retoucher. 



Positions Wanted — Retouchers, Recep- 
tionists 



F. S. W., on Long Island, $900. ^*»ss M. H. E., retoucher. 

««r ^ ^ It . XT T H. S., retoucher. 

W. C a, gallery m New Jersey. ^ ^ ^^^^^^^^^ 

C R. F., gallery in Long Island. n. a. B., experienced retoucher. 

Studios Desiring Help 
Parties Desiring Galleries Q Studio, general operator, good. 

D. E., wants retoucher. 

G. K. wants gaUery in small city. g ^^ ^^^^3 all-round man. 

R. S. G., wants gallery in small city. R. H. R., good operator. 

Notioe»L6tter9 addressed to anyone in our care should be aooompanled with stamp 
for each letter so that they can be re-mailed. 



SEND YOUR SUBSCRIPTION NOW 

Our Year expires January Ist and we want your Renewal. $1.00 per year. 
Photographic news from every section is worth five times our subscription 
price. 

OUR SPECIAL CLUBBING LIST 

We offer the Special Clubbing List of Snap Shots with American and Eng- 
lish Annuals and the English Journals. A combination that gives to the Amer- 
ican photographer photographic news that combined gives him the field 
covering the English-speaking photographic world: 
1 year's Snap Shots with American Annual of Photography (1914 paper 

edition) $1.50 

1 year's Snap Shots with British Journal Photo. Almanac (1914 paper 

edition) 1 25 

1 year's Snap Shots with 1 year's subscription to British Journal of Pho- 
tography 3.75 

Snap Shots and 1 year's subscription to Photography and Focus (Eng.) 3.50 
Snap Shots and 1 year's subscription to Amateur Photography and Pho- 

tographic News (English) 4. 50 

SNAP SHOTS PUB. CO. 57 East 9th St, New York 

/GooQle 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



ccxxv 



POSITIONS OFFERED and WANTED, F<» SALE, 
TO RENT, WANT to PURCHASE, EXCHANGE, &c. 



Announcetnentt under these and similar headings of fort^ words or less, will be inserted 
for forty cents. For each additional word, one cent Displayed advertisements 60 cents 
per inch. Cash must accompany order. When replies are addressed to our care, 10 cents 
at least must be added to cover probable postage on same to advertiser. Advertisements 
should reach us by the 20th to secure insertions in the succeeding issue. A copy of the 
Journal sent free to every advertiser as long as the "ad" is continued. Adrertisementv in 
Shap Shots bring prompt returns. 



AN ADVERTISEMENT IN THESE COLUMNS 

ii an ezcdient and lafe fnedlum of commtmlcatlon between Photographcfi 



For Sale: Studio in Canton. Ohio. 
Population 55,000. Equipped with 
11x14 Camera, attachment for 5x7 
plate holders; best location in the 
city. Fine display entrance, with fine 
living rooms on the same floor. Large 
north light. Operating room, 17x35 
feet. Must be sold on account of 
other business. Will sell at a reason- 
able price. Write for particulars. 
Ebie Studio, Canton, Ohio. 



Old established gallery for sale, or 
will take a partner. Large skylight, 
operating room and reception room. 
Low rent. A chance for a good pho- 
tographer. Come and talk it over. 
Cramer. 818 Chapel St., New Haven, 
Conn. 

For Sale: Good paying studio with 
good reputation in live factory city of 
80,000. Population of territory to 
draw from is 135,000. Yearly busi- 
ness, $6,000. Good opportunity for 
good operator. Price, $2,500. Inves- 
tigate. Krueger & Bud, 319 River St., 
Troy, N. Y. 

Wanted: A good live paper printer 
who is practically posted on enlarging 
and contact printing, and who has had 
road experience and acquaintance with 
the trade. Address, stating qualifica- 
tions. W . P. R., care Snap Shots. 

.Per Sale: A well located, well fur- 
nished photo studio in New York 
X'ty in prominent thoroughfare. 

C j\ir.« J : 4.^ _^ii — *. ^r 



For Sale: An Aristo Lamp, 220 
volts, direct current. 25 amperes. 
Complete, boxed ready for shipment. 
$35. Address, M. G.. care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: Photo studio, best loca- 
tion in the heart of the city. Doing 
good business; good surrounding 
country. Established over thirty years. 
Studio worth about $3,000, but will 
sell for less in cash. Reason for sell- 
ing is on account of other business. 
All letters must be addressed to Tony 
Leo. 5 West Main St., Middletown. 
N. Y. 

For Sale: One 18x22 Anthony Ma- 
hogany Reversible Back Studio Cam- 
era, double bellows, curtain slide 
holder with stand, in good condition. 
Price, boxed ready for shipment, $45. 
One 14x17 Reversible Back View 
Camera with two double holders in 
very good condition. Price, boxed 
ready for shipment, $32.00. Address, 
R. N., care Snap Shots. 

Flashlight Outfit For Sale: One 
14x20 Banquet Camera, fitted with 
No. 7 Dagor Lens, Series III, 1654 
inch; eight Prosch Flash Bags, com- 
plete, $200; Lens only $100; Camera 
only $40; flash bags only $10 each. 
George Murphy, Inc., 57 East 9th St.. 
New York. 

BLACK LAUREL, SILK FINISH 
Something entirely new in developing 



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ccxxvi SNAP SHOTS— ADV 

STOP!! LOOK!! 

Have you a camera you wish to sell or 
exchange? Write us. We have been 
in the exchange business for twenty 
years and are known all over the 
country as THE LEADER. 

WRITE for our .NEW No. i8 
BARGAIN LIST. It's a HUMMER. 

NEW YORK CAMERA EXCHANGE 

}Wi FOLTM IHEET lEW INK 



ERTISEMENTS 



COOPER HEWn U6HTS 

FOR PHOTOaRAPHV 

We now have ready a booklet re- 
ferring to the Cooper Hewitt Lights 
as prepared for the various photo- 
graphic purposes. Prices boxed, at 
factory. 

SMrge Mirphy. lie. 57 E. 9tk St., New Y<rk 



Art Studies 

PHOTOGRAPHS FROM LIFE MODELS 

Finest Collection for Artists 
and Art Lovers 



iiiostrated Catalogue tent free on demaiul 



C. KLARY 

m Aveone de YUliers PARIS (FRANCE) 



Don't throw away any of your thin, weak 
negatives, but make good printing nega- 
tives of them by using 

S(l^^^ENSlFlER) g^ 
trenqthU 

A powerful single solution Intensifier 

The most powerful Intensifier in the mar- 
ket. Simple to use. only the one solution 
necessary. Put up in hermetically sealed 
tubes. 

Tube for 4 ot. of solution, lOe. 

Tube for 8 os. of tolutlOB, 15c. 

1 ot. botUe S6c. 

GEORGE MURPHY. Inc. 

57 East 9th Street New York City 



^^. 



AUTOTYPE. 



AUTOnPE CARBON TISSUES 



New introductions suitable for the Copper Intaglio Print- 
ing Process for the production of Illustrations. 

In bands of 30 inches wide, 12 feet long. Tissue of 36 
inches can be furnished if desired, as in many cases 36 inches 
avoids waste. 

Per Band 
Photogravure Tissue G, 3 for flat bed printing $6.40 

Photogravure Tissue G, 4 for Rotary Gravurc Printing. . . 6.40 
Photogravure Tissu^e G^ 5 for Rotary Gravurc Printing. . . 6.40 



GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

AMKRICAN AQKNTS 

67 EAST 9th STREET NEW YORK 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap SHors. ^ o 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS ccxxvii 



/ 



No. 11956 Mount 

Colors: Ash Gray and White 

r 



\ 






•/ 




This is a heavy and effective mounting at an unusually low 
T:>rice. A very fancy, embossed design and w-ell beveled edges 
J^ive any picture an agreeable setting on this mount. It is a 
x^ery attractive, extra heavy mount at the price. 

Per ICG 

C Card 6x8 for Cabinet Oval $1.30 

^. Card 6x8 for Cabinet Square 1.30 

dLr. Card 6x9 for Cabinet Oval 1.40 

^Lr. Card 6x9 for Cabinet Square 1.40 

Packed 100 in a box. 

Send for our Illustrated Mount Catalogue. 

George Murphy, Inc. 

57 East Ninth Street New York 



When writing advertiien please mention SwA^ii^dTiay ^^^OOQIC 



CCXXVIII 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 




The Bogue 

Enlarging 

Lamp 

Enlarging Made 
EASY— PERFECT 

The New Bogue 

Flaming Arc 

Lamp 

Type."Cr'Made for Direct 
or Alternating Current. 

REDUCES 
EXPOSURE 



8-IO Ampere — no Volt — Direct $40.00 

8-10 Ampere — no Volt — Direct, With Hood 45.00 

FOR 220 VOLT— DIRECT 

Single Lamps on 220 Volt, Will Require Extra Rheostat. 

Price $10.50 

Two Lamps on 220 used in Series will not require an extra 

Rheostat. 

FOR ALTERNATING CURRENT 

Lamps for Alternating — no Volt $45.00 

Lamps for Alternating — no Volt, With Hood 50.00 

When Volt is 220 Alternating and Lighting Companies 
cannot transform, Extra Rheostat will be needed. 
Rhi>^ORtats ^▼'* '-'* 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS ccxxix 

Increase Your Profits 

by using the styles of mountings which enable 
you to charge higher prices for your. work. 

You will find these mountings in the Collins 
Line for Fall, 1914. They are designed to at- 
tract the eye, to enhance the values of the pho- 
tograph and to give that rich and distinctive 
tone to your work which makes the customer 
willing to pay a little more for it. 

Start the New Year right by filling your show- 
case with these novel and beautiful offerings. 

A. M. Collins Mfg. Co. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



FREE— The Photog:raphic Times— FREE 
SUNLIGHT AND SHADOW 

A BOOK FOB PHOTOaBAPHEBS AXATEXTB AND PB07E88I0NAL 

By W. I. LIKCOLK ADAMS (Hli Best Book) 

Editor of "The Photographic Times," Author of "Amateur Photography," *'In Naturc'a 

Image," Etc., Etc. With More than 100 Beautiful Photo-Engravings, 

Many of Them Full-page Pictures. 

It contains Chapters and Illustrations by well-known photographic writers and workers. 

It covers the field fully, as shown by the following Contents: 

The Ohoioe of Subject Landioape Without Figures Laadsoape With Figures 

Foregrounds The Sky Outdoor Portraits and Groups The Hand Camera 

Instantaneous Photography Winter Photography Marines Photography at Night 

Lighting in Portraiture Photographing Children Art in Grouping 

Printed on heavy wood-cut paper, with liberal margins and gilt edses. Beautitullv 

and substantially bound in art canvas, with gilt design. PBIOE la A BOX, |8.60. 

So long as the supply holds out, we will continue to furnish this book at only one dollar 

per copy, with a new subscription to 

"THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES" 

Begulai; price of "Sunlight and Shadow" |8.50 

Begular Subacription price of "The Photographic Times" .... JU50 |4.00 

By this Special Offer we sell Both for . . $2.50 

which is the regular price of "Sunlight and Shadow" alone; so you get "The Photograohic 

Times' in this way tor nothing. There arc less than 50 copies left, so you must send in 

your order at once if you want to be sure of securing your "Photographic Times" and a 

copy of "Sunlight and Shadow" at this special price. 

Photographic Times Publishing Association 

135 West Fourteeotb Street NEW YORK, N. Y. 

When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ccxxx 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



An Explasatory Diagram Bhowinf tlie 
Yariottt Btaffet in the Production of 



"HOW IT IS DONE*' 

AUTOTYPE CARBON PHOTOGRAPHS 



The Produoiicn of an Autotype Carbon Photograph 



The Coated Surface of Exposed Car- 
bon Tissue (Pigmented Gelatine). 
B 
Single Transfer Paper. 

C 
Soak A and B in cold water, bring 
coated surfaces together in contact and 
squeegee. 

D 
Place the adherent tissue and trans- 
fer paper between bioiting boards for 
a few minutes. Next immerse in warm 
water, until the coiored gelatine begins 
to ooze out at the edges. 



Strip off the Tissue backing paper 
and throw it away. 
F 

A dark mass of colored gelatine is 
left on the transfer paper. This re- 
mains in the warm water and the gela- 
tine surface is splashed over until the 
picture gradually makes its appearance. 
Q and H 

Continue until completed. 

The picture is now placed in an alum 
bath (Ave per cent) to harden the film 
and discharge the bichromate sensi- 
tizing salt. A rinse in cold water com- 
pletes the operation. 



DlAGPL^^T 



' PRODUCT ION. ^- 



AUTOTVPECAM 

PHOTOliI?\Plt 



M 






DDCD 



■ in 




Important to Amateur Photographers 

TRIAL SETS OF CARBON PRINTING MATERIALS 

In order to combat the erroneous notion, somewhat prevalent amongst Amateur 
Photographers, that a trial of the Carbon Process necessarily entails the expenditure 
of a considerable sum on costly apparatus, the Autotype Company have decided to 
introduce cheap trial sets of the absolutely essential materials, particulars of which 
are appended. • 

In these cheaply-priced outfits it is. of course, impossible to include developing^ 
washing or fixing tanks. For purely experimental purposes, however, some of the 
ordinary household crockery will serve as a makeshift, and the bathroom will be 
found a not altogether unsuitallc apartment for carrying on operations. 

PBICES OF TBIAL SETS 

Outilt No. 1 |1.M 

Outfit Complete for 5x7 ft.00 

Outfit for 8 X 10 7.00 

AsKrican Afents : GEORSE MURPHY. Inc.. 57 E. Sth St. New Tirk 

When writing advertisers please mention SNAr9S!^l^.y ^^-'^^^^^■^'^ 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



CCXXXl 



A Christinas Gift 

Well Worlh Giving 




fast, ^vvh^" ^ friend who is an enthu 



r^ember r>, ^'°" would like to re- 
Z^i this TV. ^^^ appropriately the 25th 
^ tn,s month? If so, think over the 

D^/iar Cells 

^% ^ 'S>>\U^'^V.\on for a gift well worth 
\V^ ^\NW<^ ^nd sure to be highly ap- 
V^^t\^\^^ by the recipient. 

The Dy"2ir Lens is a very rapid, 



^igb. 



grade anastigmat, speed F 6, 



twice that of the best rectilinears, and 
four times as efficient, for to get the 
saiTje definition and covering power 
possessed by the Dynar, your recti- 
^'>7ear must be stopped down to F 16. 
^^ \V/^^ ^^^ Dynar you can make snap 

>Q\-.f5 on dull, winter days. 
(■ ^f^ybe you would like a Dynar for 
• — X^^^ ^iv/i camera. Start planning for 
4^ \^ 
^{(^ V rt//V^ '" ^^^^ which fit into your 
^ \ \^>/^/^ shutter, without special ad- 

"^ oi Ceils for 4x5 and ^% x 5^ 
Cameras and Kodaks, $25.00 

'^^KDlBK THROUGH YOUR 
Z>EAL£R 

s^^ietlander & Sohn I 



Wynne "Infallible" 
Exposure Meter 

Ton set the ONE scale and 
the Meter does the rest 

Sizs eff s Watcb. Tits Iht Psetot 
MMPLE. niRECT 




For F or XTnlform System, Nickel |8.50 

For Focal Plane 8.50 

Silver 6.00 

Silver, Gem size 8.60 

Print Meter 8.60 

Send for Detailed List 

AMKIIICAN AQKNTS 

Geerie Morplif . Ik.. 57 E. 9tfe St.. New f trk 



EDWARD F. BIQELOW 

Aroadla. Sound BMoh, Connoetloiit 

desires for the "Nature and Science" 
Department of the "St Nicholas" Maga- 
zine (New York), photographs of inter- 
esung inventions, and of natural objects 
that are novel, instructive or especially 
beautiful. He particularly desires photo- 
graphs of machines, or of mechanical 
appliances of interest to the readers of 
St. Nicholas." They may be mounted 
or not, of any size and on any kind of 
paper. The only requirements are that 
they shall clearly show something worth 
shotnng, and be interesting or instruc- 
tive. Do not send "snap shou" of 
scenery that can be equalled for beauty 
and for general interest in almost any 
part of the earth. 

Pay will be at the usual magazine 
rates, and will vary with the interest 
and the novelty. A small photograph 
may be more valuable than a big one. 

"The Guide to Nature." Arcadia: 
Sound Beach, Connecticut, is a maga- 
zine for adults, and has a definite pur- 
pose. It is published by an association 
of students and lovers of nature—not 

X 1 »»irt Km* fn h#» hHnful. 



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ccxxxii SNAP SHOTS— ADVERHSEMENTS 



1 



BLACK LAUREL 

THE MOST ADVANCED PORTRAIT PAPER 

SIMPLE— SURE— ECONOMICAL 

For the highest grade of portraiture, in Platinum, Black and 
Sepia effects. 

Prices of a Few of the Popular Sizes : 

Light Weight Double Weight 

Size Gross Gross 

Cabinet, 4x6 $2.00 $2.50 

5 x7 3.50 4.40 

ej/i X ^ 6.00 7.50 

8 X 10 9.00 11.25 

II X 14 17.50 21.90 

Full Lists Furnished. 
Quantity Orders Specially Quoted. 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 EAST NINTH STREET NEW YORK 



You Can Take Pictures on a Day Like This! 

That is, if your lens is right. The lens is the soul of your camera. Ordinar}- lenses 
will take ordinary pictures under favorable conditions. Are you satisfied with thai.' 
Or would you like the best results under all conditions: ? If so, you should know tie 

GOERZ LENSES 

Universally used by war photographers and professionals, who mu^t 
be sure of their results. TJiey can cauJy he pied io Ike camera 
you now own. 

Send for Our Book on ''Lenses and Cameras*' 

cf the greatest value to any one intenri^t^d 
in good photography. 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



CCXXXllI 



THE PLATINOTYPE 



A portion of a letter from a prominent New England 
photographer: — "After almost two years of Developing 
Paper, I am writing to confess that I am getting tired 
of it and the craving for GOOD OLD PLATINOTYPE 
is coming back." 

Write for sample Japine sepia. 

WILLIS & CLEMENTS 

PHILADELPHIA 



Rhodol 



METOL, SATRAPOL and other trade names have been 

adopted by different manufacturers for the chemical Mono- 

methylpara-amidophenol sulphate. We are supplying this 

chemical under the name RHODOL and guarantee our 

article -when used in the same way, to produce identical 

results. 



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CCXXXIV 



SXAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



cc 



E. W. N." FAMOUS PHOTO 
PREPARATIONS 



With this backing, which is most 
easily apphed and removed, or- 
dinary glass plates are made per- 
fect. It prevents that white fog 
around light objects, renders 
perspective truthfully, lends at- 
mosphere and removes ail re- 
strictions as to source or intensity of light. With Backed Plates you can 
take nature as you find her truthfully and artistically. The thing for snow 
scenes or interiors. 



Non Halation Plate Backing 

Price 10 cents, with full directions. Will 
jtrfect 260 5x7 plates. Trial size 20 cents. 



The latest and best article for 
filling-in holes in the negative, 
so no spot will show on the 
print; also for touching up all 
black and white prints. Two 
shades of medium to match any 
tint. Any one can use it, and 
improve negatives and prints amazingly. Spot your negatives before print- 
ing, or before sending them to be printed, for best results. A radical im- 
provement over the old-fashioned red opaque. 



Ideal Spotting Medium 



Price, Two Tints, warm and cold black, 60 
cents. Trial size 20 cents. 



Persulphate Ammonia Reducer 

60 cents. In sealed glass tubes, each tube a 
bath. Trial size 10 cents. 



This salt possesses the extraor- 
dinary property of reducing 
only the parts of a negative ac- 
tually requiring reduction, thus 
preserving full detail in the 
shadows. For negatives with 
too much contrast, it is worth 
its weight in gold, as it retains all the good and makes the dense parts print 
well. It is freely used by all the knowing ones now. Over-develop your 
snapshots till the shadows are full of detail — that ruins the highlights of 
course. Then use Persulphate and the lights at once reduce to a beautiful 
printing density. In hermetically sealed glass tubes, each tube making a bath 
for many plates. Sealed tubes are nece.ssary. as the bulk chemical keeps 
poorly. 



NOTHING BUT WATER 
REQUIRED. The blue print 
has again become the rage. It 
is seen on paper, postals, menus, 
cloth, and in many forms. Each 
of these tubes makes half an 
ounce of the best deep-blue sen- 
sitizer, making about three 
dozen 4x5 sheets, or a yard of 
cloth. Don't buy blue paper ; it will not keep ; make your own and see the 
beautiful results to be had from Fresh Paper. Prints are absolutely perma- 



Blue Print Powders 

in Dainty Tubes 

Twelve tubes in each box, 50 cents per box. 
Trial sise 10 cents. 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



ccxxxv 




AN ASSURANCE 



-OF- 



PERMANENT RESULTS 

INSIST ON THE GENUINE 

"AGFA" 

BERLIN ANILINE WORKS 
213 Water Street, Iff. T. 

3CK:Er> BY ALL, PHOTOGRAPHIC DEALERS 






Have an excellence peculiarl j their 
own. The best results are onlj 
produced bj the best methods and 
means — the best results in Photo- 
graph, Poster and other mountinf 
can only be attained bj using the 
best mounting paste— 

H1GG1N8' PHOTO MOUNTER 

(Exoellent noyel bnuh with Mch )arO 



HIGGINS' 
PHOTO 



At I>«mlen in Pboto 8uppU«s, 
AxtUU' Materials bnd BttMoamrjm 



▲ a-oz. jar prepaid by mail for SO < 
or oiroolars free from 



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viii SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 

WALLACE SEPIA 
PLATINUM PAPER 

ABSOLUTELY PERMANENT PURE PLATINUM 



Cold, Warm or Hot Development. Producing all kinds of 
Sepia Tones. Our Claim — Absolutely Permanent. It is a 
fact. Time is the only SURE test. 

It is stated that Ferri-Cyanide, or Chloride of Lime, are 
tests of the permanency of Sepia Platinum Prints. This is not 
a test. Time is the only test. 

WALLACE SEPIA PLATINUM PAPER 

developed in the Oxalate Developer will not show bleaching; 
neither will the Wallace Black Platinum Paper show bleach- 
ing- under this test. 

The Wallace Sepia Platinum Print, owing to the combina- 
tion made to produce the rich Sepia Tones, will bleach under 
these, because of the chemicals named. This is not a test 
affecting permanency. 

We offer you a Rich Sepia Permanent Paper, giving wide 
gradation in tones, under the easy control of the printer, and 
with Cold, Warm or Hot Development as desired. 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



IX 







iiiJ\rfi-fif iil 




Send 

for 
these 
Books 
to the 

BERLIN 

ANIUNE 

WORKS 

213 Water Sl, 
NEW YORK 




THE FORMULAE BOOK 
sad 10 cents ia coia or stamiM 
id • label from anj "Agfa'* 
bemical package. 



THE FLASH UGHT BOOK 
Send 10 cents in coia or stanqie 
■ad a lal>el from any "Agfa** 
Cliemical padcage. 



'Agfa" Products are Photographic Standards. 



C R Nitrate Silver Crystals 
Pure Chloride Gold 



For Photosraphcn, Aristo 
Paper and Dry Pla^t Makers 



Chemicals for Photo Engraving and the Arts 



All Kinds of Silver and Gold 
Waste Refined 



1 ^ • 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Start the New Year Right! 

That's every man's slogan at this time 
of the year, and it should be yours, 
Mr. Amateur. 

The first step in the right direction 
photographically is a 

Dynar Lens 




These cells will fit directly into the 
shutter already on your camera, and 
they will increase its efficiency four 
fold. Twice the speed at full aperture, 
eight times the speed possible when your 
R. R. lens is stopped down to the point 
where it will give the same definition as 
the Dynar at full aperture. 

You will especially appreciate the 
extra speed of the Dynar during the 
short winter days, as it will practically 
double the working hours of your cam- 
era and enable you to take successful 
snapshots under conditions which would 
prove prohibitive with a slower lens. 

Price for ZM x hV^ eOC AA 

or 4 z 6 CelU.... ^^^'W 

Our complete illnitrated cat&log on reaneit. 

Voigtlander & Sohn 

240-258 £. OnUrio St., Chicago 
225 Fifth Ave, New York 

Wor k ! 
Bmniwick, Oennanj 
O&n&dUn Agents— Hitpf eld, Ludecklng ft Co., 
Montreal, Can. 



Wynn# "Inffalllbto" 
Exposure M#t#r 

To« Mt tlie OVX Male asd 
the Meter doei tlie reit 

tin eff 1 Walrii, Rt Ike Psdtl 
tlllPlE.I 




for r or TTnlf orm BTttem, ITlekel |t.» 
or Vocal Plane ■•■• 

Silver *••• 

Silver, Gem lise J-JJ 

Print Meter vvv;a* *••• 

Bend for Detailed Lift 

AMKiiicAii aacirrs 

iMTit llw^|.lK..57E.Mtt.lnifM 



Eagle Etching Pen 




When writing advertisers 



A double-pointed steel knife mad^ 
the size of a pen which will fit into anj 
ordinary pen holder, or w^e supply i 
special holder for them. 

These pens are very useful for re 
moving defects from negatives oi 
prints. 

Peas only lOe each. %\Mb per dei. 
Pen holder extra iOe. Pifipaid. 

BEOME MORPNT. he.. HlaH le»t 
S7 Emt 9th SlT^y V3^^vi^ "•^ ^•^ 

please mention Swap Shots. ^ 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XI 



THE PLATINOTYPE 



A portion of a letter from a prominent New England 
photographer: — "After almost two years of Developing 
Paper, I am writing to confess that I am getting tired 
of it and the craving for GOOD OLD PLATINOTYPE 
is coming back." 

Write for sample Japine sepia. 

WILLIS & CLEMENT5 

PHILADELPHIA 



FREE— The Photographic Times— FREE 
SUNLIGHT AND SHADOW 

▲ BOOK FOB PHOTOeBAPHEBB AXATZVB ABD PBOFESSZOBAL 

By W. Z. ZJVCOLK ABAXS (Hii Beit Book) 

Editor of "The Photographic Times." Author of ''Amateur Photography," "In Nature's 

Image," Etc, Etc. With More than 100 Beautiful Photo-EngraTings, 

Many of Them Full-page Pictures. 

It contains Chapters and Illustrations by well-known photographic writers and workers. 

It corers the field fully, as shown by the following Contents: 

The Oholoe of Bubjeot Landsoepe Without Fignres Landsoape With Fifurei 

Foregroiudi The Bkr Outdoor Portraits and Oroupi The Hand Oamera 

Inttantaneous Pbetonaphy Wlater Photography Xarlnei Photography at Bight 

Lighting in Portraiture Photographing Children Art in Grouping 

Printed on heavy wood-cut paper, with liberal mar^ns and gilt edfts. Beautifully 

and substantially bound in art canvas, with gilt design. PBIOB la A BOX, |t.SO. 

So long as the supply holds out, we will continue to furnish this book at only eie dollar 

per eopy, with a new subscription to 

"THE PHOTOQRAPHIC TIMES" 

BegmUr prioe of "Sunlight and Shadow" M'M 

Begttlar Suhsoription prioe of "The Photographio Times" .... l.BO 14*00 

By this Special Offer we sell Both for . . $2.50 

which is the regular price of "Sunlight and Shadow" alone; so you get "The Photographic 

Times" in this way tor nothing. There are less than 60 copies left, so vou must send in 

your order at once if you want to be sure of securing your "Photo^aphic Times" and a 

copy of "Sunlight and Shadow" at this special price. 

Photographic Times Publishing Association 



135 West Fourteenth Street 



NEW YORK, N. Y, 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



£i>ogle 



Xll 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



.n 



The Bogue 
^mf Enlarging 
Lamp 

Enlarging Made 
EASY— PERFECT 

The New Bogue 

Flaming Arc 

Lamp 

Type."G"Made for Direct 
or Alternating Current. 

REDUCES 
EXPOSURE 



8-IO Ampere — no Volt — Direct $40.00 

8-10 Ampere — no Volt — Direct, With Hood 45.00 

FOR 220 VOLT— DIRECT 
Single Lamps on 220 Volt, Will Require Ebctra Rheostat. 

Price $10.50 

Two Lamps on 220 used in Series will not require an extra 

Rheostat. 

FOR ALTERNATING CURRENT 

Lamps for Alternating — -no Volt $45.00 

Lamps for Alternating — no Volt, With Hood 50.00 

When Volt is 220 Alternating and Lighting Companies 
cannot transform, Extra Rheostat will be needed. 
Rheostats $10.50 

With the Bogue Arc Lamp, enlarging on all papers is at 
the command of the operator. 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

67 East Ninth Street NEW tORK 

Send for new maU order cash catalogue No. 14. 

■ ' r'^-w-..,.-,T,..,. 

When writing adyertisers please mention Snap Shots. 




SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XXIX 



If They Bear the HAMMER Ubel 

each plate in every box is as good as the BEST in any box. 
Hammer's Special Extra Fast (red label) and Extra Fast 
(blue label) Plates are unexcelled for speed, with detail and 
color values. 




RE6. TRADE MARK 



Hammer's little book, "A Short Talk on Negative Making," 
mailed free. 

HAMMER DRY PLATE COMPANY 



■mi St. 



St. Louis, Mo. 



You Can Take Pictures on a Day Like This ! 

That iBj if your lens is right. TIjc lens is the soul of your camera. Ordinary lenses 
will take rdinary p i ct u res u n d er favor aMe co nd i t ion s. Arc you sat i s fi e d w i th 1 1 1 a t ? 
Or would you like the besi results under tj// conditions? If so, you should know llic 

GOERZ LENSES 

Universally used by war photogr a pliers and profesi^ionals, who must 
^"^ Siifc of their results. 77; fy can easily be filitd (a the camera 
\ -^^^ nmv rnvn. 

^^^ far Our BcKik 4id "Lenitf and Camens*' 

*^%e grc;itc>t value h> anyone interested 
^* ^ ^ G«<rt Awtrican O^fied €o,^ 



XXX 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Matted Free 

Our New No. 14 Tariff Changed 
Mail Order Cash Catalogue 

is just off the press. Send us your name and we will 
gladly mail you a copy. 



Retail 



QEORQE MURPHY, Inc., Dep.,...^ 



57 EttAt Ninth Street 



NEW YORK 



WiiXh 

HIGGINS' 
PHOTO 

MnilMTCD 



HaTe an excellence peonliarij their 
own. The beat reanlta are onlj 
produced b j the beat methoda and 
means— the best results in Photo- 
graph, Poster and other mooatiiig 
can onl J be attained by nabif tb* 
beat mounting paste— 

HIQQINS' PHOTO MOUNTBR 

(Bxoellent noT«l bmih with each |ar^ 



At DMUn la Photo 8««pliMW 
▲rtUU' KatMrljUs fAd 1 



▲ S-cB. jar prepaid by mall for •• «Hiiu 
or oironlan fTM fMa 

CHAS. M. mOQINS A C0.» MfrSe 

NBW YORK CHICAQO LONOOV 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XXXI 



Dark Days 
Demand Speed 




This Lens Supplies It. 

The Heliar enables the photographer 
to raise the artistic and commercial 
value of his work, and to maintain this 
high standard every day in the year. 

It possesses great speed — the one es- 
sential for good results on dark winter 
dav8 when the actinic quality of the 
light is weakest. 

_ For portraiture it is supreme. Its 
high speed, covering power and flat field 
make it especially desirable for all 
studio work, as extremely rapid ex- 
posures are possible without the neces- 
sity of stopping down. 

Write for our catalog, fully describing 
this and other high-grade lenses. 



Voigtlamler & Solio 

240-258 E. Ontario St., Chicago 



CHICKEN MD ECC 




Design Pat'd Oct, 



Do You Want to Make 
More Money? 

The Chicken and Egg Accessory brings 
Mothers with their Children to your 
Studio. Novelty Accessories for Fost 
Cards are Money Makers. 

Write for Descriptive Circulars and 
Price List. 

Manufactured by 

A. H. SIPLB 

M29 E. Il7th Street CLEVEUND, 0. 



Do You Use 

Your Camera 

In Nature? 

If 80, write at once to 

"TKellfliiletoliatflni" 

Edited by EDWARD F. BIGELOW. 

Send lOc for copy 

It can aid you and you can aid it. 

That's it— co-operation for the good of 
the Cause. 

The co-operation as well as the incor- 
poration is 



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xxxii SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 

^ AUTOTYPE CARBON 

"2;^^ TISSUES 

IMPORTANT TO AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHERS 

TRIAL SETS OF CARBON PRINTING 
MATERIALS 

In order to combat the erroneous notion, somewhat preva- 
lent amongst Amateur Photographers, that a trial of the 
Carbon Process necessarily entails the expenditure of a con- 
siderable sum on costly apparatus, the Autotype Company 
have decided to introduce cheap trial sets of the absolutely 
essential materials, particulars of which are appended. 

In these cheaply-priced outfits it is, of course, impossible 
to include developing washing or fixing tanks. For purely 
experimental purposes, however, some of the ordinary house- 
hold crockery will serve as a makeshift, and the bathroom will 
be found a not altogether unsuitable apartment for carrying 
on operations. 

PRICES OF TRIAL SETS 

Outfit No. I $1.50 

Outfit Complete for 5 x 7 5.00 

Outfit for 8 X 10 7.00 



New introductions suitable for the Copper Intaglio Print- 
ing Process for the production of Illustrations. 

In bands of 30 inches wide, 12 feet long. Tissue of 36 
inches can be furnished if desired, as in many cases 36 inches 
avoids waste. 

Per Band 

Photogravure Tissue G, 3 for flat bed printing $6.40 

Photogravure Tissue G, 4 for Rotary Gravure Printing. . . 6.40 
Photogravure Tissue G, 5 for Rotary Gravure Printing. . . 6.40 



GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

AMKRICAN AQENTS 

87 EAST 9th STREET NEW YORK 






When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots, IOOIp 

igi ize y ^ 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XXXllI 



44 



»♦ 



A new, simple and inexpensive Photographic Printing Paper pre- 
pared with platinum and silver salts, yielding: 

First: Permanent prints of artistic quality in two 
tones, black and warm black. 

Second: Wonderfully rich blacks — clear and sparkling. 
Third: Prints that lie flat — an important feature. 

Price of "Satista" 

Doz. 

8/10 $1.25 

5/7 50 

Cabinet 35 

Other sizes in proportion. Special quotation on large quantities. 
Send postal for Booklet of Instructions, Sample Print, and Special 
Introductory Offer which expires April 15th. 

WILLIS & CLEMENTS 
1814 Chestnut Street Philadelphia 

Patented and Manufactured by The Platinotype Co., London, England. 
Willis & Clements, Sole Representatives, United States. 




^^jM 



Send 
for 

these 
Books 
to the 

BERLIN 

ANILINE 

WORKS 

213 Water St., 




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XXXIV 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



New Ross 

Wide Angle Anastigmat 

Lenses 



This doublet consists of four 
.^ -^^i single lenses cemented to form 
^' two combinations. 

The field measures, in the 
smaller numbers, over lOO**, in 
the larger ones about 90**. 

The seven sizes are specially useful for interiors or work 
in confined situations. 

Larger sizes to order, for reproduction of maps, plans, and 
drawings. They yield a perfectly flat and anastigmatic 
image, and are entirely free from distortion. 

Number Equiv. Focus F16 F32 Price 

I sVa'' sVa^aVa 4 x5 $24.00 

2 454" 4 X5 5 x? 24.GO 

3 5/^'' 5 X7 6j4x8J^ 30.00 

4 7%" 6y2xSy2 8 xio 37.50 

5 854'' 8 XIO 10 X 12 46.85 

6 loj/^" 10 X 12 II X 14 58.00 

7 12 J4" II X 14 12 X 15 69.35 




GBORGE: murphy, inc. 

American Amenta 
Maaufacturers, Importers aod Dealers la Photo Goods 

57 East 9th Street New York 



i oogk 



When writing advertisers please mention 



~ . igiiizea oy ' 
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XXXV 




Skelb 



urne 



A CHOICE 7 X 11 
aouUe-UdfoUer 
for cabinet pnotographd 

iDSertea Deneatn a mat. 
it IB made in rick color 
combmatioiis; tke card 
W an exceptionally at- 
tractive mosaic surface 
axia a ricn border de^i^n 
a rounotbc opening. Tkc 
cover baa decklecl edgee. 



i Ubrie surface and a fleur-de-Iis creit. Sbelbume is tbe kind of mounting 
wbick belps you to command better pricca, $6.00 per bytidred. 

'W^rite for free sample to 

A. M. COLLINS MANUFACTURING CO. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Q P* Nitrate Silver Crystals 
Pure Chloride Gold 



For Photosraphen, Aristo 
Paper and Dry PU.ce Makers 



Chemicals for Photo Engraving and the Arts 



AllKlfuitof SiWer and Gold 
Waste Refined 



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XXXVl 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Velour Black 

The Brilliant Portrait Enlargiag Paper 

Convenient Speed Bright Shadows Soft High Lights 

LIGHT WEIGHT 



Made in 


Velvet; 


Semi Matte 


, Matte, and 


Rough Surfaces. 








AMPMcdPMtOafiMai 


F«lbwt: 








FintaaJ 


ThMtoSistk 


SevMlhaaJ 




Lktptr 


N«lCasb 


SmmJZmc*. 


ZMM.lKl»h«, 


EigMZMt.. 


SiMt 


D«w 


PriM 


ItolM 


lMtol4M 


AlOvOT 








Ma» 


MUM 


14MHfl» 


3^x 5^ 


$0.25 


$0.15 


$0.05 


$0.07 


$0.11 


(Cabinet) 












4x5 


.25 


.15 


.05 


.07 


.11 


4x6 


.30 


.18 


.05 


.07 


.11 


5x7 


.40 


.24 


.05 


.07 


.11 


5x8 


.45 


.27 


.05 


.07 


.11 


6x8 


.50 


.30 


.05 


.07 


.11 


6Hx 8^ 


.60 


.36 


.05 


.07 


.11 


7x9 


.65 


.42 


.05 


.07 


.11 


8 xlO 


.80 


.48 


.05 


.07 


.11 


10 xl2 


1.20 


.72 


.08 


.13 


.26 


11 xl4 


1.60 


.96 


.08 


.13 


.26 


14 xl7 


2.40 


1.44 


.13 


.21 


.42 


16 x20 


3.20 


1.92 


.14 


.25 


.54 


18 x22 


4.00 


2.40 


.15 


.29 


.66 


20 x24 


4.80 


2.88 
DOUBLE 


.16 
WEIGHT 


.33 


.78 


Made 


' in Velvet, Matte, Rough, BufiP and Buff Matte. 








AMParMlPMtCkmctu 


F«Ww.: 








Vk^mmi 


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S«««tli«a4 




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$fmi Z— ■, 


ZM«,hd.sh«. 


EigMZM». 


SiM 


Dosn 


Prie* 


li«lM 


lMtol4M 


AUOvOT 








MOm 


UBm 


1410 Kle 


3?^x 5J4 


$0.30 


$0.18 


$0.05 


$0.07 


$0.11 


(Cabinet) 












4x5 


.30 


.18 


.05 


.07 


.11 


4x6 


.30 


.18 


.05 


.07 


.11 


5x7 


.45 


.27 


.05 


.07 


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5x8 


.50 


.30 


.07 


.09 


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6x8 


.65 


.39 


.07 


.09 


.13 


6^x 8H 


.75 


.45 


.07 


.09 


.13 


7x9 


.80 


.48 


.07 


.09 


.13 


8 xlO 


1.00 


.60 


.07 


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10 xl2 


1.50 


.90 


.08 


.13 


.26 


11 xl4 


2.00 


1.20 


.08 


.13 


.26 


14 xl7 


3.00 


1.80 


.13 


.21 


.42 


16 x20 


4.00 


2.40 


.14 


.25 


.54 


18 x22 


5.00 


3.00 


.15 


.29 


.66 


20 x24 


6.00 


3.60 


.16 


.33 


.78 



GEORQE MURPHY, Inc., t^^^ 

57 East Ninth Street NEW YORK 

Send for New Tariff Changed No. 14 Mail-Order Cash Catalogue 

When writing advertisers pleaw mention Swa» SM>Ta. ~ cj 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XXXVll 



SEED 




PLATES 



Get the most out of your light these dull days 
with the plate of greatest efficiency — the Seed Gilt 
Edge 3o, Its exceptional speed saves many a neg- 
ative when exposure has of necessity been short. 

However, Seed 30 speed has not been secured 
at the sacrifice of any of those qualities which have 
made Seed Plates the standard for portrait quality. 
They have exceptional latitude, gradation and 
fineness of grain — are consistently uniform and 
dependable. 

Ifs a Seed Plate you need. 




Seed Drv Plate Division. 



gitized by VjOOQIC 



CS^ 



Eastman 
Portrait Films 

For Studio or Home Portraiture 

Embody those special qualities so essential to 
home portraiture, speed and non-halation, com- 
bined with the latitude, gradation and fine grain 
of the best plate made, the Seed Gilt Edge 30. 

The light, flexible, unbreakable film base re- 
duces weight, prevents loss, facilitates handling. 

May he retouched or etched on 
either side or on hoth sides. 

No special skill required for manipulation. 

Listed: 5 x 7, 6>^ x 8>^, 8 x 10, 11 x 14. 

Price — Same as Seed 30 Plates. 

Special illustrated circular at your dealers or by mail. 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XXXIX 



THE PLATINOTYPE 

A portion of a letter from a prominent New England photographer: 

•'After almost two years of Developing Paper, I am writing to confess 
that I am getting tired of it and the craving for GOOD OLD PLAT- 
fNGTYPE is coming back." 
Write for sample Japine sepia. 

WILLIS & CLEMENTS 

PHILADELPHIA 




The Welghmeter 

The Latest 
Photographic Discovery 

Indispensable to photographers, obomists, 
physicians, or anyone en^affed in woirh- 
ing chemicals. 

The WeiRhmeter instantly indicates by 
one turn of the dial exactly what weifrhta 
are to be used on the scale for any giTcn 
formula. Saves time, trouble, annoyance, 
and opportunities for errors in making the 
usual computations. Beautifully printed in 
two colors on ivory celluloid, and of jtist 
the right size to fit the vest pocket. 

Price 60o., postpaid. 



MURPHY, Ii«o. 

RKTAIL DIPARTMINT : 
67 last 9.h StrMt NKW YORK 




SEPIA PILLOCLOTH 

A cloth which gives a Sepia tone in 
the following colors: 

No. 1 Gold No. 4 White 

No. 8 Yellow No. 6 Purple 

No. 8 Pink No. 6 Green 

Simple to use — simply wash in cold 
water and fix in Hypo. Will ke«p in- 
definitely. Age does not affect it before 



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xl 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



\ 




You Set the ONE Scale, It Does the Keot 

THE WYIIIIE " IIIFmilBlE"El(POSyRE HETEIt 

THI CHOICK OF AMERICA'S FOREMOST PHOTOaRAPHERS 

NOT LIKE OTHER METERS 



Locket Meter. ^^^^-^M^^ 

Actual SiM€, ^^^^±11 

For F System. For Uniform System. 

An unerring guide to the correct exposure required for every speed 
of plate, on every kind of subject, and under every condition of light 
For any set of conditions of Light, Plate, and Lens Aperture, only 
two simple operations are necessary to find simultaneously the cor- 
rect exposure for every stop from the largest to the smallest, viz.: 

Firstly — Turn the milled edge of the instrument, and thus expose 
through the slot a fresh surface of sensitive paper until it assumes 
the color of the painted tint, and note the number of seconds or min- 
utes it takes to color. This is called the Actinometer Time. 

Secondly— Set the movable scale until this Actinometer Time is 
against the Speed Number of the Plate to be used, then against every 
stop in outer scale will be found the correct corresponding exposure, 
or, shortly, you set the one Scale, it does the rest. 

These Meters arc furnished in the F. and U. S. systems. When 
ordering please specify what system you desire. 

Negative Exposure Meter, watch pattern, nickel case, each $2J25 

Negative Exposure Meter, watch pattern, silver case, each 5.00 

Negative Exposure Meter, locket pattern, silver case, each 4.50 

Negative Exposure Meter snap-shot (Focal Plane) 2.25 

Gem Exposure Meter, solid silver (Hall marked), each, complete 4.00 

Extra packets of Sensitive Paper 25 

Extra Books of Instructions and Speed Card, each 10 

Extra dial and glass "U. S." or "F." system, per pair 40 

New springs for inside of watch meters, each 15 

Pocket cases of tan leather 50 

' YOUR DEALER HANDLES THESE QOODS 



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EAQLE HOME PORTRAIT 
AND STUDIO LAMP 




The Haggle Home Portrait and Studio Lamp is the most 
perfect and compact lighting device ever offered for photo- 
graphic iii^e- It is ideal for home portrait xi^t, as the entire 
otitfit is very light and packs into a small space. It can be 
attached to iiracticaHy any electric light socket, as it will 
work on either direct or alternating current from iio to 220 
volts. Fitted with a collapsible reflector and light diffuscr, 
it is possible to get just exactly the effect you are after. 

The length of exposure, of course, depends on the size 
and the color of the room, the lens, and stop used. Exposures 
vary from a fraction of a second upward. 

Be independent of sunlight by getting an Eagle Home 
Portrait and Studio Lamp, and you can make exposures at 
any time of the day or night, and under all conditions. The 
lamp can be used in fireplaces with or without sunlight, and 
most beautiful effects produced. In fact there is no end 
to the variety of artistic effects that can be produced with this 
wonderful light. PRICE $50,00 

GEORGE MURPHT. Inc^ 57 East iintti Street, New Terk 

Send for our new mail order cash catalogue No. 14. 



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Establish the highest 
standard of quality 
with 






The paper without a 
disappointment. 



ARTURA DIVISION, 



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March, 1914 



*Jb\ 



M' 



jflD 



CONTENTS 

Taking the TemperMvire 41 

How Blotting Paper was 
Discovered • - - - 45 

Clouds in Enlargements - 46 

Practical Hints for Beginners 49 

Flashlighit Pointers - - 55 

Progress in Retouching - 55 

Matt or Ground Glass Var- 



nish for Negatives 
Trade Notes and News 
Studio Wants - 



57 

58 
60 



m7 



-0-^ 






'/i 



/ 



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BUY 




-vA 



y/i* 



won MAIUN& PHOTOOfUPHS 



ft*>* •LLi<«THAT<OH iicnrt»i«rr« 




As a mailing Hevice, 
it is unequalled for the 
following reasons ainon^ 
others : 

!t \< EXCEEDING^ 
LY LIGHT, but at the 
<*anie time EXCRP- 
TTOKALLY STRONG. 

The combmation of 
streiijsrtli and lisjht 
weight is due to the cel- 
lular biard which is the 
pnDtective material used 
in thisc mailers. 

C E I. L U L A R 
BOARD IS a double- 
faced corrugated stock 
made hv machinery of 
our own design and by 
special proce>5;. 



It pfives you just what you want — strength and resistance 
with weight that h hardly a factor. 

S[>ace limits us, fjiit write to us for further particulars. 

We carry >fventecn sizes. 

The Thompson & Norris Co. 

Cofioord and Prince Streets 
Address Department 6 BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Boston, Mass.; BrookYillo, Ind,; liiQiri Fills. Ciiiii; 
Londoii, Eitglsnil; Jiilich. Cermafly. 



thc mo- torn to •mow 

m4vt« »T moM •«•*!& *tnr 

am Kwofttir mi t.kaMtiaT 
*N» MOAT CaufvrMtdtT tmn 




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jUU< 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



xli 



EAGLE HOME PORTRAIT 
AND STUDIO LAMP 




The Eagle Home Portrait and Studio Lamp is the most 
perfect and compact lighting device ever offered for photo- 
graphic use. It is ideal for home portrait use, as the entire 
outfit is very light and packs into a small space. It can be 
attached to practically any electric light socket, as it will 
v^'ork on either direct or alternating current from no to 220 
volts. Fitted with a collapsible reflector and light diffuscr 
it is possible to get just exactly the effect you are after. 

The length of exposure, of course, depends on the size 
and the color of the room, the lens and stop used. Exposures 
vary from a fraction of a second upward. 

Be independent of sunlight by getting an Eagle Home 
Portrait and Studio Lamp, and you can make exposures at 
any time of the day or night, and under all conditions. The 
lamp can be used in fireplaces with or without sunlight, and 
most beautiful effects produced. In fact there is no end 
to the variety of artistic effects that can he produced with this 
wonderful light. PRICE, $50.00; FREIGHT PAID. 

6E0R6E MURPHY. Inc.. 57 East Ninth Street New York 

RETAIL DEPARTMENT 

Send for our new mail order cash catalogue No. 14. 

When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. Digitized by \ 



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xlii 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 




Bogue Enlarging Lamp 

EnUrging Made EASY— PERFECT 

Type **G'* Made for Direct or Alternating Current 

REDUCES EXPOSURE 

8-10 Ampere— 110 Volt— Direct ^0.00 

S'lO Ampere— 110 Volt— Direct, with Hood... 45.00 

FOR 220 VOLT— DIRECT 
Single Lamps on 220 Volt Will Require Extra 

Rheostat. Price |10.60 

Two Lamps on 220 used in Series will not require an 
extra Rheostat 

FOR ALTERNATING CURRENT 

Lamps for Alternating— 110 Volt ^5.00 

Lamps for Alternating— 110 Volt, with Hood.. 50.00 

When Volt is 220 Alternating and Lighting Com- 
patiies cannot transform, Extra Rheostat will be 
needed. 
Rheostats $10.50 

With the Bogue Arc Lamp, enlarging on all papers 
is at the command of the operator. 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 East Ninth Street NEW YORK 



C P* Nitrate Silver Crystals 
Pure Chloride Gold 



For PbotogtApihuif Aritto 
Paper and Dry Place Makers 

Chemicals for Photo Engraving and the Arts 

All Kindt of Sihrer and Gold 
Waste Refined 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



xliii 



F. & S. Professional Printer 

HERE IS A PRINTER THAT WILL GIVE YOU 

THE SERVICE YOU HAVE 
BEEN LOOKING FOR 




8x10 

(without lamps) 

$25.00 



11x14 
(without lamps) 

$35.00 



It is operated by a foot treadle, leaving both hands perfectly 
free to adjust paper and negatives. The two large folding leaves at 
Ihft wrip .afFord amole room for paper, nesratives and finished work. 



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aiv 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



THE ROYAL FOREGROUND RAY SCREEN 

(Patented April 14tb, 1911) 

STYLE A. 

Tlie Latest and Greateit Improvement in Bay Filten. 

The only Ray Screen ever invented that will give an even, equal exposure 
to both sky and foreground, and produce a perfect cloud effect instanta- 
neously with ordinary plates. 

The Royal Foreground Ray Screen is so constructed that the color, which 
is a strong orange yellow at the top, is gradually diminished until perfect 
transparency is attained at the bottom. The practical eflfect of the gradual 
blending of color is to sift out or absorb the powerful chemical rays from 
the clouds and sky, which pass through the strongly colored top of the filter, 
without perceptibly decreasing the weak illumination of the reflected light 

from the foreground, which 
comes through the trans- 
parent or colorless lower 
part of the screen in full 
intensity. 

The reason that daylight 
cloud pictures are rare is 
that the strength of the il- 
lumination from the sky is 
many, many times that of 
the partially absorbed and 
reflected light from objects 
on the ground. 

If a correct exposure is 
given to the clouds, then 
the landscape is badly un- 
der-exposed; if the correct 
exposure is given to the 
landscape, then the clouds 
are rterally burnt up from 
over-exposure, and no mat- 
ter how contrasty they may 
have appeared to the eye, 
an unscreened photograph 
shows only a blank white 
sky. 

The Royal Foreground 
Ray Screen is also very 
useful for subjects which 
are more strongly illumi- 
nated on one side than on 
the other, as in photograph- 
ing by the light of a side 
window or in a narrow 
street. By simply turning 
the dark side of the fore- 
ground screen toward the 
bright side of the object a 
jGTOod, even exposure will 
result. 




Made With the Royal Foreground Ray Screen 
PHOTO. Bv II. F. SCHMIDT, Seattle, IVashittgton. 

STOP-16. EXPOSURE-M-second, 

September Ibth, 10 A. M. Distance to snovhcovered 

Mt, Baker 8 MiUs, 



NO. DIAMETER INCHES PKICS 



OA 


Ji 


$1.35 


lA 


lVi« 


1.85 


2A 


for box cameras 


1.85 


8A 


I7i« 


1.86 


4A 


154 


1.35 


6A 


m 


1.80 


6A 


2 


2.00 


7A 


2% 


2.25 



NO. DIAMETER INCHES PRICE 





8A 




9A 




lOA 


STYLE A. 


llA 




13A 




18A 




14A 



2^ 
8 

4 
4J5 



$2.70 Postpaid 
2.90 



8. 

8.60 
4.05 
4.70 
5.40 



GEORGE MURPHY, Inc., %tS^^^, 

57 East Ninth Street NEW YORK 

Send for New Tariff Changed No. 14 Mail-Order Cash Catalogue 

When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



SNAP-SHOTS 

A Monthly Magazine for Photographers 



tUBSCKIPnON RATES PCX U. 8. AND CANADA PBt YBAI^ $1.00; SIX MONTHS^ 60 CSHTS 

SINGLE COPY, 10 CENTS. POSBIGN C0UNTKIE8, $1.26 
PUBLISHED BY THE SNAP-SHOTS PUBLISHING CO., 67 EAST NINTH 8TBBBT, NXW YOBK 



Volume 25 



MARCH, 1914 



Number 3 



TAKING THE TEMPERATURE 

By J. W. Browne 



Doubtless a thermometer will 
form part of the equipment of 
comparatively few of those who 
read these lines; were it otherwise 
this article itself might not receive 
editorial approval, as it is intended 
to show the great use which such 
a piece of apparatus can be to the 
photographer in more processes 
than one. Temperature plays a 
very important part in photography. 
Some of the actions upon which we 
depend are not to be carried out 
at all at low temperatures; the so- 
lutions simply do not act. This is 
particularly the case with certain 
developers and with gold toning 
baths. Even when the temperature 
is not so low as to make the solu- 
tion inert, it may slow down its 
action to a great, and often mis- 
leading, extent. 



Just at this time of year, when 
the cold weather is coming on, 
many a worker has been deceived 
into thinking that his plates were 
under-exposed, when what was 
really the matter was that his de- 
veloper was much colder than it 
had been of late. On the other 
hand, at the approach of summer, 
over-exposure may be suspected as 
the reason for the image flashing 
up in the developer, when it is that 
the solution is actually at a higher 
temperature, and so is more ener- 
getic. Those who use time develop- 
ment are not misled like this, but 
then with them a thermometer is a 
positive necessity. 

There are troubles also from the 
use of warm solutions, frilling, blis- 
tering, and reticulation, against 
which a thermometer will put us 



41 



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42 



SXAF SHOTS 



March. 1914 



oil our guard. The developer Used 
in platinum printing should be em- 
ployed at a definite temperature to 
secure regular results, and here, 
again, a thermometer must be used. 
In carbon printing, and in bromoil, 
we must have reliable means of 
ascertaining the temperature of the 
baths. Hypo-alum toning is an- 
other case in point. 

These instances do not by any 
means exhaust the list, but they 
are quite sufficient to show the as- 
sistance the thermometer may give 
the photographer, and a few notes 
on the method of its use may there- 
fore not be out of place here. 

There have been three chief sys- 
tems for the graduation of ther- 
mometers, the Fahrenheit, the Cen- 
tigrade or Celsius, and the Reau- 
mur. Of these, the first-named is 
most generally employed in Eng- 
lish-speaking countries, the Centi- 
grade by the French, on the 
Continent generally, and for scien- 
tific purposes, the Reaumur going 
out of use at the present time. 

In the Fahrenheit system, the 
freezing point of water is at 32° 
and the boiling point at 212** ; there 
are thus 180** between the two. In 
the Centigrade, freezing is 0**, boil- 
ing 100**, while in the Reaumur 
graduation freezing is 0** and boil- 
ing 80**. It is clear, therefore, that 
9 Fahrenheit are equal to 5 Centi- 
grade or 4 Reaumur degrees; and 
if we can remember these three fig- 
ures, 9, 5, and 4, it is easy to trans- 
pose readings by one system into 
another. 



For example, if we have some 
formula in which 20° C. is men- 
tioned, we can find what this is in 
the Fahrenheit system by dividing 
20 by 5 and multiplying by 9. The 
result (36) gives us the number of 
Fahrenheit degrees equal to 20 Cen- 
tigrade degrees, but, as the Fahren- 
heit enumeration starts at 32° be- 
low freezing, while the Centigrade 
starts at freezing, we must add 32 
to 36, getting 68. So that 20** C 
is the same as 68° F. On the other 
hand, to transpose degrees Fahren- 
heit into degrees Centigrade, we 
first deduct 32 and then multiply 
what is left by 5 and divide by 9. 
To find out what any given temper- 
ature in degrees Reaumur is when 
expressed in degrees Fahrenheit, 
we divide by 4 and multiply by 9. 
finally adding 32 ; or in going from 
Fahrenheit to Reaimiur, we sub- 
tract 32, then divide by 9 and mul- 
tiply by 4. 

Whenever we deal thus with de- 
grees Fahrenheit, the first opera- 
tion must be to deduct 32, or when 
we deal with degrees by the other 
systems, changing them into de- 
grees Fahrenheit, the last operation 
is to add 32. The other two opera- 
tions may be done in either order, 
whichever happens to be the more 
convenient. Thus, when we were 
transposing 20° C, we divided by 
5 before multiplying by 9, because 
20 is easily divisible by 5, and we 
thus are able to deal with smaller 
figures than if we had multiplied by 
9 before dividing by 5. 

Those who are not quick at sim- 



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March. 191 4 



SNAP SHOTS 



43 



pie mental arithmetic will find the 
tables in which the three thermome- 
ter scales are compared very con- 
venient ; but it is usually quicker to 
carry out the calculations mentally 
or on paper than it is to get down 
the reference book from the shelf 
and find the table. 

The most frequently used figures, 
as far as photographers are con- 
cerned, are 65° and 70° F. respect- 
ively; and these are represented, 
approximately, on the Centigrade 
scale by 18° and 21°. For opera- 
tions when a great degree of refine- 
ment is not required, as, for ex- 
ample, in timing development, it 
will suffice to take these as equiva- 
lents. 

There are various patterns of 
thermometers on the market. Th 
ordinary bath thermometer, with an 
enclosed paper scale, will serve 
well enough when it is reasonably 
accurate; but it must be taken 
of its wooden holder before use, 
as this would transfer impurities 
in its pores from one solution to 
another, to say nothing of soon get- 
ting stained and corroded. A sim- 
ilar form of thermometer, but with- 
out the wooden holder, is made for 
chemical purposes, and can be got 
through any dealer. 

Whatever thermometer is used, 
it should be graduated as high as 
boiling point or a little beyond, even 
if it is not likely to be used at much 
above 120° F., as otherwise there 
is the chance that it may be put in- 
advertently into boiling water and 
burst. 



The best chemical thermometers 
have the graduations engraved on 
the stem itself. They are quite 
suitable for photographic purposes; 
but there is no necessity to pur- 
chase a very costly thermometer, 
with a high degree of accuracy, for 
what is essentially rough work. 
When cleaning a thermometer of 
this type, it should not be rubbed 
so violently as to take the black 
filling out of the engraved lines, 
which will happen with some ther- 
mometers very readily. A type of 
instrument which can be read very 
easily is that which has what is 
called a "milk" scale, a kind of 
tablet of opalescent glass, against 
which the numbers stand out very 
distinctly. 

In selecting a thermometer, there 
is a little trick which was published 
some time ago in Photography and 
Foci4S, but which may be worth re- 
peating. Although extreme accu- 
racy for photographic purposes is 
not required, one may as well get 
as accurately marked an instrument 
as one can. This is particularly im- 
portant with very cheap thermome- 
ters, as they are often very far from 
precise in their graduation. The 
dodge is to look over the stock gen- 
erally, if a number are on sale, and 
to choose one the reading of which 
seems to be about a mean between 
the highest and lowest, or which is. 
generally speaking, in fairly good 
agreement with most of its fellows. 

The "boiling point" of water can- 
not be used as a means of check- 
ing the graduation of a thermome- 



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SNAP SHOTS 



March, 1914 



ter without certain appliances being 
used and certain precautions taken, 
which are outside the scope of the 
average user of the instrument; as 
water only boils at 212°, when the 
vessel is of a certain kind, the water 
is quite pure, and the barometer 
standing at a certain point. Even 
then, if the thermometer were 
placed in the boiling water, the in- 
dication would not be an absolutely 
reliable guide. 

If one wishes to do so, the freez- 
ing point may be tested by putting 
the bulb and as much of the sten 
as possible in a tin with a hole in 
the bottom, and packing it round 
with crushed ice or snow. As the 
ice or snow melts, the water wil^ 
drip out of the hole, and when this 
has been going on for twenty min 
utes or half an hour, the thermome- 
ter should be standing at 0° C. or 
;]2'' Fahr. It is an experiment the 
photographer may amuse himself 
by trying; but not a necessary test, 
nor if it were would it be a suffi- 
cient one, of the accuracy of the 
graduation. 

In order that the reading of a 
thermometer may be reliable and 
useful, there are two or three pre- 
cautions which must be observed. 
What we take the temperature for 
is to ascertain how the solution will 
act, usually how fast it will act. 
What we want to know, therefore, 
is its temperature while it is ac- 
tually acting. If we mix up some 
developer with water straight from 



the main in winter, for example, 
and ascertain its temperature at 
once, that will not be any guide as 
to the time of development, if the 
liquid is going to be used in a com- 
paratively warm room. On the 
other hand, warm solutions used in 
a cold dark room, put, perhaps, into 
very cold porcelain dishes, will be 
cooled very quickly. As a general 
rule, it is enough if we draw the 
water and let it stand for half an 
hour or so in the room in which it 
is going to be used, or if the solu- 
tions themselves are kept in the 
room in which they are used. 

The thermometer takes a little 
time for its reading to become cor- 
rect, and it should, therefore, be left 
in the liquid for a minute or two 
before any attempt to observe its 
reading is made. For a similar rea- 
son, if steam or the shape of the 
vessel makes it difficult to see the 
graduation, the thermometer may 
be taken out quickly and read be- 
fore it has had time to alter very 
much. 

One point remains on which a 
word of caution may be given. The 
thermometer should have a place 
where it is not likely to get con- 
taminated with chemicals and so 
contaminate the solutions into 
which it is put. It should be washed, 
dried and put away clean after use. 
Some of the chemical thermometers 
have a loop of glass at the top, by 
which they can be hung up out of 
the way of dirt. — Photography. 



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HOW BLOTTING PAPER WAS DISCOVERED 



Blotting paper was discovered 
purely by accident. Some ordinary 
paper was being made one day at a 
mill in Berkshire when a careless 
workman forgot to put in the siz- 
ing material. It may be imagined 
what angry scenes would take place 
in that mill, as the whole of the 
paper made was regarded as being 
quite useless. The proprietor of the 
mill desired to write a note shortly 
afterward, and he took a piece of 
waste paper, thinking it was good 
enough for the purpose. To his 
intense annoyance the ink spread 
all over the paper. All of a sudden 
there flashed over his mind the 
thought that this paper would do in- 
stead of sand for drying ink, and he 
at once advertised his waste paper 
as "blotting." There was such a 
big demand that the mill ceased to 
make ordinary paper and was soon 
occupied in making blotting only, 
the use of which spread to all coun- 
tries. The result now is that the 
descendant of the discoverer owns 
the largest mills in the world for 
the manufacture of this special kind 
of paper. The reason the paper is 
of use in drying ink is that really it 
is a mass of hairlike tubes, which 
suck up liquid by capillary attrac- 
tion. If a very fine glass tube is 
put into water the liquid will rise 



.._ :ii 



CHOICE OF COLOR 

All blotting paper is made from 
rags. The original blotting paper 
was of a pink color, due to the fact 
that red rags were used — rags 
which could not be used for mak- 
ing the ordinary paper, as the color 
could not be removed. Here was a 
method for using the apparently 
useless matter, and so for a long 
time pink was the predominant col- 
or. It is a matter for surprise what 
curious preferences are shown by 
various people with regard to the 
color of the blotting paper they use. 
Business men greatly prefer that of 
a buff color. This is preferred to 
white from the fact that it is more 
easily distinguished from the let- 
ters that are handled, while at the 
same time it is not sufficiently strik- 
ing to seem out of place in an of- 
fice. It is only in England that 
buff-colored blotting paper is the 
favorite. Countries which possess 
hot climates prefer green, and this 
preference can be understood read- 
ily when it is remembered that green 
is such a restful color to the eyes. 
The people on the Continent have 
quite a different taste with regard 
to the color of the paper; they pre- 
fer vivid colors, showing especial 

preference for deep pink. Ladies 
«f «ii 1^.,,! r J-:-.*.. — 1 



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SNAP SHOTS 



March. 1914 



red rags became mixed together, 
and so this color was produced. 

king's blotting paper 

There is an opinion which seems 
to be fairly prevalent that colored 
papers do not blot as well as white. 
As a matter of fact the color makes 
no difference at all to the absorbent 
quality of the pape^, the particular 
tint depending purely upon the 
blending of the rags. Quite the 
newest tint is black. This is pre- 
ferred by persons who do not wish 
anybody to see what has been writ- 
ten. If an ordinary piece of blot- 



ting paper, say white, has been used, 
it is quite easy to read what has 
been blotted simply by holding the 
paper up to a mirror. The black 
paper, however, absorbs the ink 
marks without showing them. In 
the case of the sovereign, any piece 
which has blotted his Majesty's sig- 
nature is at once destroyed. As 
a matter of fact, King Edward \'II 
always uses an extra thick white 
sheet of blotting paper, known tech- 
nically as "Fords 80-pound white,'' 
though until recently very thin pink 
paper was that preferred for official 
use. 



CLOUDS IN ENLARGEMENTS 

By E. W. Palmer 



How many landscape negatives 
would be vastly improved if only 
what prints out as a blank white 
sky could be rendered with the 
beautiful cloud forms and the fine 
gradations of tone which the paint- 
er would put into the subject as a 
matter of course! In fact, there 
must be a good many amateurs 
who, like the writer, have a number 
of such negatives, which have been 
laid aside on this one particular 
ground. The defect of a blank sky 
is made all the worse when we 
come to make enlargements from 
our negatives, because the enlarg- 
ing process generally increases the 
contrasts; and, even if it does not 
do this, at least it enlarges the 
space occupied by the sky, and so 
makes its emptiness more apparent 



than when it is merely part of a 
small contact print. 

Those who are accustomed to 
the printing in of clouds when 
making P. O. P. prints by contact 
will find that it is very good pre- 
liminary practice for the printing 
in of clouds when enlarging, as, 
although the procedure is difficult, 
the general lines of both are the 
same, as will be seen by what fol- 
lows, which describes the writer's 
own method. 

The apparatus for this work 
must be an enlarging lantern. 
Whether clouds can be put in when 
daylight enlargers of the ordinary' 
form are used is not for us to 
say ; we have had no opportunity of 
trying it, but it certainly must be 
more difficult. On the other hand. 



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SNAP SHOTS 



47 



that form of daylight enlarger in 
which the negative, is fixed in an 
openiiig in the window, with the 
camera up against it, the whole 
room in which the work is to be 
done being darkened, could ob- 
viously be employed. But the lan- 
tern is the most convenient form 
of all. It must be provided with 
a yellow glass cap, and a number 
of pieces of thin card for shading 
will be wanted, but otherwise noth- 
ing in the shape of apparatus that is 
not used in the ordinary way. 

The first step in work of this 
kind must be to select the cloud 
negative. As it is to be enlarged, 
and as there is no reason why the 
degree of enlargement should be 
the same as that of the landscape, 
one has a much wider choice than 
when the clouds are being put in 
by contact printing. Moreover, if 
the lighting of the cloud negative, 
which is otherwise suitable, comes 
from the wrong side, we are able 
to put It into the lantern the other 
way round, and so change the ap- 
parent direction of the lighting 
from right to left, or vice versa. 

It would be beyond the scope of 
this article to say much on the 
forms of the clouds, and how they 
must be arranged so as to compose 
properly with the landscape, as this 
is a matter which, of necessity, 
must be left to the taste and skill 
of the photographer. But not only 
must they be in pictorial harmony, 
they must be physically harmoni- 
ous, and this can only be secured 
by taking care that the horizon in 



the finished picture falls at very 
much the same distance below the 
clouds as it did in the original cloud 
negative. 

It is a great mistake to hurry 
over these preliminaries too much, 
as, however much trouble may be 
taken at a later stage, it is all trou- 
ble thrown away if the clouds and 
landscape are unsuitable. I myself 
make it a practice invariably to 
project the landscape negative on 
to a sheet of white paper on the 
easel the size of the finished pic- 
ture, and then with a thick blue 
pencil to sketch in its outlines ac- 
curately, but not with much detail. 
This paper is mounted on a piece 
of cardboard larger than itself, and 
the card is stood upon two pins on 
the easel, and is pushed up against 
a third, before being pinned down 
on the easel, so that it can be taken 
away and then replaced, by again 
pushing it up against the pins, in 
exactly the same position. A sec- 
ond piece of card is placed on the 
easel, and the sky-line of the land- 
scape negative is drawn on it. 

The cloud negative is then put 
into the lanteni, and is tried with 
different degrees of enlarging, un- 
til what is wanted has been se- 
cured. To make quite sure, the 
outlines of the clouds are also 
sketched in, in the same way and 
on the same sheet as was used for 
the first. When this has been done, 
a trial exposure of the clouds is 
made on a strip of paper, and the 
distance of the front of the enlarg- 
ing lantern from the easel is mea- 



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March. 1914 



sured and noted. If the degree of 
enlargement of both clouds and 
landscape is the same, this may be 
omitted. 

The next stage is to cut the sec- 
ond piece of card along the sky- 
line traced upon it, so as to divide 
it into two masks — one for the 
landscape and one for the sky. 
When this has been done, all is 
ready for making the landscape ex- 
posure. It may seem to have taken 
long to describe, but actually these 
preparations are neither lengthy nor 
difficult, and by taking time over 
them they very much simplify the 
final work. 

It is certainly good policy to as- 
certain the exposure required by 
the landscape portion by means of 
a trial strip, so as not to waste 
the time and trouble of putting in 
clouds on an improperly exposed 
landscape print. It may be well to 
point out that both trial strips must 
be fully developed out, using iden- 
tical developer for both, and it is 
well in determining the exposures 
from them not to do so by looking 
at the one strip only, but by putting 
landscape and sky strips together, 
so as to see how the two match. 

The card bearing the sheet of 
white paper on it is now put back 
on the easel, and the landscape 
negative inserted and focused up, 
so that its outlines register with 
those which have been sketched on 
the card; the orange glass cap is 
then put on, the card removed, and 
the bromide paper pinned up on the 
easel, usin^ flat-headed drawing 



pins for the purpose, as ordinary 
dark room pins will not allow the 
card to be put back over the bro- 
mide paper, as will be necessar)- 
later on. The landscape exposure 
is then made. 

During this exposure the sky has 
to be shaded with the card mask 
that has been cut for the purpose : 
and, due care having been exercised 
in other directions, the successful 
blending of sky and landscape will 
depend upon the way this shading 
is carried out. The card must be 
held two or three inches at least 
(perhaps a good deal more) in 
front of the bromide paper, and 
should be kept moving slighdy up 
and down, so as not to show a hard 
outline. It should not be allowed 
at any time to shade more than the 
extreme edge of the landscape out- 
line, the gradual whitening out of 
the sky part only commencing there. 

When the landscape has been ex- 
posed in this way, the bromide 
paper is covered with the card, 
which is pushed back into register 
by means of the pins, and, the cloud 
negative being substituted for the 
landscape negative, its image is ar- 
ranged so that it corresponds with 
the sketch of the cloud outlines 
drawn on the card. When this is 
the case, we can be sure that when 
the card is withdrawn the image 
of the clouds will fall in the right 
place on the bromide paper under- 
neath. The adjustment having been 
made, the card is removed, and the 
exposure for the clouds is made as 
before. 



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March, 1914 



SNAP SHOTS 



49 



PRACTICAL HINTS FOR BEGINNERS 
By R. T. AUars 



How many tyros have gone to a 
camera dealer's, purchased a cam- 
era, then gone out to take photo- 
graphs and stopped, wondering 
what exposure to give the subject, 
notwithstanding the advice given 
by the salesman? 

The writer's experience tends to 
show that not nearly enough help- 
ful advice is given to novices, and, 
even when really good advice is 
given, it is nearly always cloaked 
in language that does more to mys- 
tify than help the recipient. 

Exposure is the beginner's worst 
bugbear, and many contrivances 
have been placed on the market to 
simplify it Out of many tried, the 
writer finds that Watkins' "Bee" 
Meter is about the handiest. Its 
cost is not excessive, and the plates 
and films that will be saved by its 
use will soon pay for that cost. 

The best way for a beginner in 
photography to use a meter is at 
first to depend wholly on it for 
guidance in the matter of exposure. 
Then gradually work himself or 
herself into the way of gauging 
the exposure to be given to any 
particular, subject, and verify it by 
the meter. Very soon the photo- 
grapher will be able to depend on 
his or her own judgment, and not 
refer to the meter at all. Even 
when exposure is no longer a prob- 
lem, it is advisable to carry the 
meter, because it is only after long 
experience that a photographer can 



be quite certain of gauging the cor- 
rect exposure under any circum- 
stances. 

There seems to be an erroneous 
idea rife that to carry an exposure 
meter is puerile ; that is not so. A 
meter is simply a means to an end, 
the same as a yellow screen used 
with an orthochromatic plate. Some 
of the best-known photographers 
in the world always carry an ex- 
posure meter, and the beginner can- 
not do better than follow their ex- 
ample. 

Now let us say something with 
regard to variety of speed in plates. 
With films this difficulty does not 
exist, as they are made with one 
speed only. The ' beginner knows 
Mr. So-and-so, a photographer of 
some experience, who uses, say, or- 
dinary plates, with which he obtains 
nice, contrasty negatives, and 
straightway experiments with the 
same plate. Then he meets Mr. 
Somebody Else, who specializes in 
taking portraits and uses the spe- 
cial sensitive variety of plate, and 
sees that good negatives are ob- 
tained. He promptly tries them, 
and becomes discouraged at his 
failure to get good results. The 
beginner should make up his mind 
on one speed of plate and stick to 
it. A plate with a speed of about 
200 H. and D. takes a lot of beat- 
ing for all-round work. 

Development is a process which 
has been much simplified by the 



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SNAP SHOTS 



Marclui9i4 



tank system, but there are still some 
who take a pleasure in watching the 
image come up on a plate, and the 
writer is one, even after some 
years' experience. When to stop 
development is a vexing question 
to all beginners who do not use ;i 
tank, and the best way to get over 
it is to use Watkins' Factorial 
method. This is fully explained in 
**Watkins' Manual'* (which costs 
about 35 cents), and if the advice 
therein contained is followed poor 
negatives will not be the fault of 
development. "Watkins' Manual* 
contains much other informa- 
tion, and is a good investment, 
apart from the development ques- 
tion. 

With regard to developers, those 
who have not used pyro-soda 
should do so, as it is generally rec- 
ognized to be the best developer 
for plates and films. Of course, it 
is obtainable in the familiar **Tal)- 
loid" form which is very conveni- 
ent, but if much is used it is chea])- 
er to make up the developers your- 
self. 

When solutions are home-made 
it is advisable to filter them 
through the proper filter paper. The 
paper is not very expensive, and 
the method is much more satisfac- 
tory in use than any other medium. 

The soda solution should never 
be kept in a glass-stoppered bottle : 
the writer finds that bottles with a 
screw-in cork and rubber washer 
are very suitable. Such bottles are 
to be obtained containing "sum- 
mer beverages," and the cost is very 



small, even if the contents be noi 
consumed ! 

When the difficulties of exposure 
and development are overcome 
other trials beset the path of the 
photographer, and have been aptly 
named "hot weather troubles." 
Such are frilling, blistering, and 
reticulation of the film. Develop- 
ers take on an access of energy, 
often bringing fog in its trail. 

If the reader develops by hand 
the addition of 2o or 50 per cent 
of water to the volume of the de- 
veloper will nearly always obviate 
the fog. 

Frilling, blistering, and reticula- 
tion can be absolutely done away 
with. 

These troubles are generally 
caused by a diflference in tempera- 
ture between the developing and the 
fixing baths. This can to a certain 
extent be guarded against by keep- 
ing a supply of hypo in solution 
ready for use instead of making up 
a bath every time it is needed. Pur- 
chase a Winchester (an 80 ounce 
bottle) with a rubber cork. Empty 
into this a 1 lb. packet of h>'po 
and fill up with water, and you will 
have a stock of hypo solution of 
the correct strength for the fixation 
of plates. This will minimize the 
danger of frilling, etc., but the best 
thing to do is to use a hardening 
agent. Formalin is very effective, 
but the fumes that arise from it 
are irritating to the nostrils, and its 
use necessitates an additional oper- 
ation in the dark-room — a draw- 
back in hot weather. A combined 



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March, 1914 



SNAP SHOTS 



51 



fixing and hardening bath is much 

better. After the above solution is 

obtained add V/4 oz. of metabisul- 

phite of potassium, and when that 

is dissolved 1J4 oz. of chrome alum 

(or 3 ozs. of ordinary alum may 

be used in place of the chrome 

alum, but it is not so good). The 

mixture should be filtered through 

two thicknesses of muslin. Plates 

and films treated with this bath can 

be handled very freely while wet, 

and may be washed in water up to 

100 degrees without taking the 

slightest harm. 

When washing plates in the usual 
tank it is a good thing to empty 
the tank when washing has pro- 
ceeded for ten minutes, and then 
make another start. Twenty min- 
utes more washing is usually suf- 
ficient to remove all traces of hypo. 
After the plates or films have 
been washed hold them separately 
under a running tap and swab with 
ihe fingers, or a pad of cotton wool, 
to remove any particles of foreign 
matter that may have collected. If 
the negatives have been treated in 
the hardening bath there is no fear 
of doing any damage, and even if 
the film has not been hardened the 
operation can be carried out, pro- 
viding care is taken. Then roll up 
an old handkerchief (an old one is 
^^st, because no fluflf will come 
^rom it) into a soft ball and care- 



dry negative, treated with the hard- 
ening bath, can be easily removed 
by simply rubbing the film of the 
negative with the fingers. 

So much for the making of the 
negative. Now we can examine it. 
There is not much danger if the 
foregoing procedure be followed, 
but the negative may be under-ex- 
posed, over-exposed, or under-de- 
veloped, or over-developed. In 
such cases the beginner's mind at 
once turns to intensifiers and reduc- 
ers, but I would advise not to resort 
to these methods. If it is at all pos- 
sible, go out and expose another 
plate, paying particular attention to 
the fault in the first one. Of 
course, it is not always possible to 
take a second picture of the same 
subject, and the use of an intensifier 
or reducer is justified. There are 
many of these on the market; the 
writer finds very useful "Tabloid'- 
Ferricyanide Reducer and "Tab- 
loid" or "Kodak" Chromium Inten- 
sifier. The latter can be used with 
profit on under-developed bromide 
or gaslight prints — these seem to 
be rather prevalent with the begin- 
ner. 

It is not much use advising any 
photographer to try "Nepera" pa- 
per for printing, as nearly every be- 
ginner knows it! It is a fine, all- 
round paper, and those who take 
the trouble to learn what it is cap- 



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SNAP SHOTS 



March, 1914 



but for those who make their own 
developer up the following formula 
will come somewhere near the 
mark : 

Amidol 40 grs. 

Soda Sulphite (anhydrous) 240 grs. 
Water 10 ozs. 

This is practically the same for- 
mula as that given for Pearl paper, 
but with the amount of Amidol 
doubled and the bromide omitted. 
If soft grey tones are desired half 
the quantity (20 grains) of Amidol 
only should be used. Bromide is 
very rarely required with Gaslight 
paper, but, if it be found necessary, 
it can be added afterwards. Ne- 
pera can be immersed for anything 
up to five minutes in the above de- 
veloper without suffering degrada- 
tion. 

When developing glossy paper, if 
plenty of solution is used and the 
developing dish rocked very gently, 
fewer pencil-like markings will ap- 
pear. 

A good fixing bath for all kinds 
of bromide and gaslight papers is 
obtained by adding an equal quan- 
tity of 5 per cent. (1 oz. hypo to 
20 ozs. water) plain hypo solution 
— such as is used for fixing self- 
toning papers — to the fixing bath 
for plates and films. For this pur- 
pose it is handy to keep another 
Winchester containing 5 per cent, 
hypo solution. This fixing bath is 
acid, which is desirable with devel- 
oping papers, and the alum in it 
hardens the film sufficiently for all 
after-purposes, toning, etc. The 



alum (i. e., if chrome alum be 
used) also renders the finished pic- 
tures immune from the attacks of 
insects. 

Toning developing papers is 
hardly a process that beginners will 
attempt ; but if some are so far am- 
bitious as to try sepia toning 1 
would suggest that the "Liver of 
Sulphur" method be used. This is 
very simple, and it has two ad- 
vantages. One is that only one 
solution is required, and the other 
— not a small one either — is that the 
odor from it is not so overpower- 
ing as that from sodium sulphide, 
while the results are quite as good. 
In addition, Liver of Sulphur does 
not attack the skin and nails of the 
fingers like Sodium Sulphide. 

The writer's formula is as fol- 
lows: 

Water 4 ozs. 

Liver of Sulphur 12 grs. 

Ammonia (.880) 4 drops 

(i. e., 1 drop per oz. of solution). 

Liver of Sulphur may be ob- 
tained from any photographic store 
dealer. 

The dish containing the solution 
should be placed on a water bath 
of from 100 degrees to 120 degrees 
F. Toning will occupy from five 
to ten minutes, and can be watched 
and the print removed when the 
desired tone is reached. 

The writer has not tried this bath 
out to see how many prints can be 
done with a stated amount, but 4 
ozs. will do for at least a dozen 
post-cards. 



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SNAP SHOTS 



53 



FLASHLIGHT POINTERS 



Flashlight Work in Homes. — ^The 
studio photographer is missing a 
great many opportunities for en- 
larging his business by not carrying 
his work into his patrons' homes. 
Of course, some of this work can 
be done by clever manipulation of 
daylight, but usually the best work 
of this nature is done by flashlight. 
The average studio photographer . 
has not become sufficiently familiar 
with the possibilities of modem 
flashlight apparatus to make him 
feel like attempting this new work. 
He looks upon it in the old-fash- 
ioned way as a dirty job and a 
nuisance and thinks he is fortunate 
if he can get out of making flashes 
at all. 

But with modem apparatus he 
can walk into the home carrying 
the entire outfit in a very neat 
carrying case and can set it up in 
a few minutes, and even though he 
makes a dozen or two flashes he 
can do them successively and when 
he leaves the house he has left none 
of the smoke or sediment behind 
to annoy the occupants. 

How can this be done ? The proc- 
ess with which I am most familiar 
is that by using the Prosch Flash- 
bags, not the single bag, but the 
double or triple bag outfit that en- 
ables him to distribute the light in 
various places and produce real 
daylight effects. I have known 
many photographers who have 
taken as many as two or three 
dozen n^^atives in the home where 



they had orders at first to make 
only one portrait. Photos of dif- 
ferent rooms in the house, comers 
of a den, etc., are very attractive to 
the occupants and prove to be a 
profitable side issue. Some photog- 
raphers whom I know have almost 
abandoned their studio work and 
are carrying their artistic work into 
their patrons' homes almost entire- 
ly, and with much better results. 
The outfit of bags which I use is 
the one made by the Prosch Com- 
pany, a set of three bags working 
simultaneously and using the reliable 
electric Prosch envelope cartridges. 
I load these bags in the studio, tie 
them up and pack in the carrying 
case — when I arrive at the house, 
all I do is to hang them up on an 
improvised stand that I carry (or 
a regular tripod). I then hitch up 
the electric light plug to the house 
current (or use several six-inch dry 
batteries when the house current is 
not available) and make the first 
picture which I was ordered to 
make with so little trouble that it 
astonishes the patrons. Then it is 
an easy matter to get more nega- 
tives right then and there. On the 
other hand, had I gone in and 
fussed and fumed around in the 
usual way, and acted scared and 
frightened as if I were going to 
blow the house up and alarm the 
subjects whom I was to photograph, 
they would have considered it good 
riddance when I had made the first 
picture and gotten out, and they 



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54 



SNAP SHOTS 



March, 1914 



would probably never have another 
flashlight taken in the house. This 
work must be done smoothly and 
noiselessly, and with as little annoy- 
ance as possible, and then people 
will be educated up to the delights 
of having their homes photo- 
graphed by flashlight. 

Painting Pictures by Flashlight. 
— Some photographers go to infinite 
pains with systems of windows and 
reflectors to use daylight at various 
angles and various degrees of in- 
tensity for the puq)ose of creating 
beautiful lighting effects. Of course 
this is their pleasure as well as 
their work. However delightful 
this may be for the daylight photog- 
rapher there is still greater pleas- 
ure of a similar kind in store for 
the flashlight photographer who will 
be a painter of portraits and in- 
teriors by flashlight. Modem ap- 
paratus and powders have become 
so efficient that he has at his dis- 
posal wonderful facilities for such 
real art work. For instance, he 
can study his interior. There may 
l)e a few rays of daylight here and 
there. He can use his pure mag- 
nesium lamp inside his flashbag to 
place a little light in this dark cor- 
ner or that, and on this side of the 
subject or that, under or over at his 
pleasure, or he can place his elec- 
tric cartridges inside the flashbags 
at various points (having them con- 
nected with the one system of wir- 
ing) , a very small 20-grain cartridge 
here and a large one of ^ oz. there, 
and in this manner can control his 



lighting perfectly. What a delight- 
ful hobby as well as a profession 
it is to manipulate lighting effects 
in this way, and to produce just the 
effect that the artist sees in his 
vision before he makes the picture. 

As to portraits and groups, he 
can do almost the same thing. He 
can place his flashbags, small and 
large, in any numbers and in any 
positions he pleases, and is perfect- 
ly independent of the expensive 
daylight fittings of the old-fash- 
ioned studio. With such a delight- 
ful prospect before the artist-pho- 
tographer, I sometimes wonder why 
more of them do not take up this 
kind of work. 

Orthochromatic Effects by Flash- 
light, — I wonder if some of these 
artist-photographers have ever tried 
screening their flashbags with vari- 
ous tinted fireproofed gauze such as 
violet, purple, green, blue and pink 
to work with highly-orthochromatic 
plates in much the same way as the 
color screen is used with daylight. 
Such a tinted gauze can with safety 
be thrown over the front and sides 
of the flash bags when the flash is 
made and produce some wonderful 
effects. This method is especially 
useful and attractive in photograph- 
ing interiors where delicate tex- 
tures and color schemes must be 
reproduced, and in photographing 
groups or making portraits where 
the detail of the costumes and the 
ensemble effect should be produced. 
This is a hint that may be worth a 
great deal to some photographer. 



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March. 1914 



SNAP SHOTS 



55 



PROGRESS IN RETOUCHING 



I am afraid that in most busi- 
nesses the beginner who is desir- 
ous of learning to retouch gets little 
or no overlooking and instniction. 
It seems to be one of those things 
that people are expected to "pick- 
up," and yet it is one of the most 
indispensable parts of the portrait 
photographer's business. Some- 
times this arises from the fact that 
the retoucher is always busy, some- 
times because it is too much trouble 
to take the tyro in hand, and some- 
times, I am sorry to say, because 
the retoucher does not wish to help 
another competitor to enter his 
own special line. Whatever the 
cause, however, the fact remains 
that the beginner gets very little 
supervision, and this often leads 
to much wasted time and effort. 

The great aim of retouching is 
to help out, not to alter the opera- 
tor's results. Therefore, if the 
would-be retoucher can get some 
simple, but good idea of lighting, 
it will prove of great assistance. 

The retouching pencil is a deli- 
cate instrument, therefore do not 
grab it in an iron grip as if you 
meant to kill somebody. If you do 
you will only poke holes in the film 
of the negative which you will find 
it difficult to spot out, and you will 
also find it next to imoossible to 



graving of a head you will find 
that it is composed of thousands of 
little evenly spaced dots, varying 
only in shades of color. Now on 
any pen and ink sketch, cut from 
a newspaper, try to copy the en- 
graving effect with your retouching 
pencils. You will find it very dif- 
ficult, if not impossible, yet this en- 
graving effect and the **stipple'* re- 
touchers so much seek after are 
very much alike, and one will help 
you to acquire the other, and will 
also teach you that what you seek 
for is the ultimate appearance or 
effect of the tnasses of light and 
shade and the knowledge of where 
the high lights and shadows ought 
to come. High lights give lift to a 
print and keep it from looking som- 
bre and muddy ; therefore give them 
your most careful attention. Do 
not make them look like a white 
plaster-of-paris cast, and see that 
they soften off into the half-tone 
nicely, which means delicate work. 
A word of warning here may 
not be amiss. Do not let your male 
sitters' cheeks look as if they had 
only been shaved in patches, while 
the ladies look as if their com- 
plexions had been out in a shower 
and were coming off. Let your va- 
rious masses of light and shade be 
clean and even, according to their 



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SNAP SHOTS 



March, 1914 



Be careful not to take out the 
delicate half-tones that come be- 
tween high light and shadows, and 
do not let the hair look as though 
it were a wig, with a very heavy 
dark jwn running all round the 
forehead. Seek to keep the face 
round and natural looking, and if 
you get a softly focused negative, 
do not try to make it look as if it 
were very sharply in focus. You 
will only make a hash of it and 
spoil the resulting prints. Work 
according to the negative itself, soft 
for soft and harder for sharper neg- 
atives, remembering that a man's 
skin is almost always coarser and 
shows the pores more distinctly 
than a woman's. Therefore, only 
smooth and even it up; do not al- 
ter it. 

In dealing with copy negatives, 
be especially careful not to lose the 
tiniest bit of half-tone, and not on 
any account to take out or alter the 
expression as compared with the 
original. A little fining up will most 
likely be wanted as the grain shows, 
but do take care not to alter any- 
thing. Only keep the high lights 
nice and clear and bright-looking. 

The forehead, nose, and cheek- 
bones usually take most high lights, 
and sometimes they are noticeable 
over the eyebrows, but always no- 
tice first when they come in your 
negatives, and work accordingly. 

Keep an eye open for shadows 
that are too heavy under the nose, 
down the side of the nose, and un- 
der the chin. These may come 
from under-exposure or defective 



lighting, but if they are there yoa 
must help them out. Also on wrist, 
shadow side of arm, elbow, and 
children's knees you will frequently 
find the shadows are unduly heavy 
and want lightening, just a trifle 
only. 

Ugly creases also often come in 
coats and blouses, and are all the 
better for your, careful attention 
and a soft pencil. No. 3 is the most 
used, I think, with 1 or 2 for shad- 
ows, etc. and 4 and 5 for lighter 
work wanting a harder pencil. 

Do not worry too much about 
speed and stipple; it will come in 
time. But see that your negatives 
are clean and free from noticeable 
defects. Turn them round glass 
side to you before you consider 
them done; you will then often 
notice any little extra touches that 
are wanted. And do not look too 
closely at it; keep a foot or two 
away, and look only for the all-over 
eflFect. 

Sometimes it will happen that the 
younger retouchers will get a bit 
downhearted about their progress if 
they have not anyone specially to 
help them. They think that they 
are not getting on, or else that they 
are going back. If that is so, try 
this little test : Pick out a few fairly 
difficult negatives you have already 
retouched some little time before 
and take just a rough proof from 
them as they stand. Next remove 
the retouching and get a proof from 
the unretouched negative. And 
now set to work and retouch it all 
over again. But do not look at ei- 



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March, 1914 



SNAP SHOTS 



57 



ther of those proofs; notice how 
long it takes you, and whether you 
find it difficult to know what to do 
or not. Just go right on and put on 
as much finishing as you can. When 
at last you feel that you have done 
it as well as you possibly can, just 
get off another proof, and now put 
the three together and compare 
them. 

You probably will find, or at least 
you should, that the last proof is 
much better done than the first, that 
it is clearer, freer from dirty 
patches, has a nicer grain, and bet- 
ter kept high lights, and you wfll 
feel that all this came more easily 
and naturally, and probably it did 
not take you so long; and you will 
notice, also, that such little things 
as the high lights on the lips and 
chiij and the shadow under the low- 
er lip are better finished in the last 
than in the former prints. 

Now all this is as it should be, 
and will encourage you. It will 
show you that, slowly and surely 
and almost unnoticed by you, you 
have been making progress and 
learning to see, and that is the best 
g^ft a retoucher can have, and you 
will find that the more you improve 
the more opportunities for practice 
you will get and the more ready 
other people will be to help you. 

Just one word more. Whenever 
possible, try to see the printed re- 



sults of your work. As the order is 
going out, look at it critically, notice 
what you might have done, also 
what you need not have done, and 
you will soon find yourself getting 
to know by instinct what finish to 
give, and then you will be what you 
started by wanting to be — a prac- 
tical retoucher. — E. G. H. G. 
The British Journal of Photography 



m 



Matt or '^Ground Glass" Var- 
nish for Negatives 

The following formula for pre- 
paring a matt or "ground glass" 
varnish, to be applied to the backs 
of negatives, can be recommended, 
in view of the frequent advice 
given to those who wish to apply 
hand work or otherwise work up 
the plate for its improvement: 

Sandarac 200 gr. 

Mastic 50 gr. 

Ether 5 oz. 

When the resins are dissolved in 
the ether add 

Benzole .... ^ to 3 oz. 
The quantity of benzole added 
renders the grain either fine or 
coarse. The varnish is poured on 
to the back of the cold plate in a 
manner similar to varnishing a 
negative. When dry and hard, the 
surface can be worked on with 
pencil or chalk. — Amateur Photo- 
grapher, 



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SXAP SHOTS 



March. 1914 



TRADE NOTES AND NEWS 



l*lwtomailcr. As a mailing device it 
is unequaled. It is exceedingly light, 
but exceptionally strong; gives you just 
what you want — strength and resistance, 
with weight that is hardly a factor. 
Write to the manufacturers, the Thomp- 
son & Norris Co., Prince and Concord 
streets, Brooklyn, N. Y., Department 6, 
for price list of sizes. Don't forget to 
mention Snap Shots. 



Weighmeter. This device instantly 
indicates the exact weights to be used 
on the scale for any given formula, 
whether the apothecary, avoirdupois or 
metric system is used. It saves time, 
trouble, annoyance and opportunities for 
errors when making the usual computa- 
tions. It is made of ivory, just the size 
to fit in the vest pocket, and will be 
fotmd indispensable to all photographers. 



Black Laurel. George Murphy, Inc., 
have a special introductory offer on this 
paper. Write to them for particulars. 
They take .this means of introducing 
this excellent professional paper to you. 
It is made in various grades to suit any 
negative, in both black and white and 
sepia. 



Portrait Films. The new Eastman 
Portrait Films embody those special 
qualities so essential to home portraiture 
— speed, combined with latitude, grada- 
tion and fine grain. They are light, 
flexible, unbreakable, thus reducing the 
weight and preventing loss from break- 
age. 



Gold and Silver Waste. Do you save 
your waste containing gold or silver? 
If so, you will find that Phillips & Ja- 
cobs, 622 Race Street, Philadelphia, will 
treat you right in the matter of refining 
it. You will find it worth while to save 
all waste containing these expensive 
chemicals. 



Telecentric Lenses. The new Ross 
Telecentric Lens is adapted to any gra- 
flex or reflex camera, or any camera 
with focal plane shutter, as it gives a 
large image with short camera exten- 
sion. It is an ideal lens for photo- 
graphing sporting events, or any subject 
where it is desired to get a large image 
from a distance. The Telecentric pos- 
sesses all the good features of the well- 
known Ross Homocentric series. Write 
to the American agents for a copy of 
their new Ross catalogue, giving the 
reductions in price due to tariff changes 



Home Portrait Lamp. The agents for 
the Eagle Home Portrait and Studio 
Lamp report the steady increase in sales 
all over the country, as this lamp has 
been found to be ideal for home portrait 
work. Can be instantly attached to the 
light socket in any home. It packs into 
a small space and can readily be carded 
in the hand. It has been found of the 
greatest assistance to the home portrait 
worker. It is just as useful in the 
studio, as it makes the operator inde- 
pendent of daylight. The agents will 
very gladly send you a descriptive book- 
let giving full details of this lamp upon 
request 



Star Negative File. These files are 
made of heavy pasteboard fitted with 
separators, and made to accommodate 
50 glass negatives, or a larger number 
of films. This is an ideal method for 
storing either negatives or films so that 
you can instantly locate any negative de- 
sired. 



Eagle Mask Frame. This is a print- 
ing frame especially constructed so as 
to make it possible to quickly and accu- 
rately obtain artistic borders on all 
kinds of printing papers. By cutting 
your own masks you can obtain an un- 
limited number of designs. 



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March. 1914 



SNAP SHOTS 



59 



.\fail Order Cotaloyuc. If you are in- 
terested in photoKraphic materials you 
should certainly write at once to George 
Murphy, Inc., 37 East Ninth St.. New 
York, for a copy of their new No. 14 
Mail Order Catalogue. This catalogue 
is unique in that it states exactly what 
each article will cost you landed at your 
door, irrespective of what part of the 
country you may be located in. They 
will gladly mail you a copy upon request. 



Hammer Plates. These well-known 
plates hold the record for detail and 
color values with short exposures and 
weak light. Just the plates for this sea- 
son of the year. Send to them for their 
little book. *'.\ Short Talk on Negative 
Making." 

Pyro gallic Acid. The Mallinckrodt 
Chemical Works claim that their Pyro- 
gallic acid is as pure an article as can 
be made. Dissolves perfectly, and may 
always be relied upon to produce the 
best photographic results. Specify M. 
C. W. Pyro when ordering. 



Photo Flat. Photo Flat applied to the 
back of your prints after they are thor- 
oughly dried is an effective and simple 
way to prevent curling. It is easy to 
use; simply applied to the back of the 
print and allowed to dry. It is being 
used by the leading professionals. 



Saiista. This is a new and inexpen- 
sive printing paper prepared with plati- 
num and silver salts, yielding prominent 
prints of artistic quality in two tones — 
black and warm sepia. Write to the 
agents, Willis & Clements, 1814 Chestnut 
.St.. Philadelphia, regarding their special 
introfluctory. 

Backgrounds. If you have not one 
of the Rough & Caldwell Co. Catalogues 
of Photographic Accessories and Back- 
grounds, you should write them, as 
their new catalogue fully illustrates the 
latest in photographic accessories. 



P. &" S. Professional Printer. The 
Folmer & Swing division of the East- 
man Kodak Co. have just placed on the 
market a new model of the Century 
Professional Printer. It has been 
greatly improved over previous models, 
several new features having been added 
which assist and simplify the work of 
the printer. See their advertisement in 
this issue. Write to them for descriptive 
circular. 

The Royal Foreground Ray Screen. 
This is the only screen which will give 
a 6ne, equal exposure to both sky and 
foreground. It is constructed so that 
the color is gradually shaded from a 
strong orange yellow at the top to clear 
glass at the bottom. With its use it is 
possible to reproduce the clouds in all 
landscape pictures and still give instan- 
taneous exposures. The manufacturers 
advise that for the past few months they 
have been unable to keep up with their 
orders for these screens, but that they 
are now in a position where they expect 
to be able within a couple of weeks to 
fill all orders promptly. If you are not 
familiar or have never used one of these 
screens, write to them for descriptive 
booklet. 



Another of New Haven's oldest pho- 
tographers, Mr. Orrin Nelson Hull, has 
passed away. 

Born in New Haven, July 22, 1840, 
he made that city his home for his en- 
tire life. He had been engaged in the 
photograph business for the past fifty 
years, taking up the work at an early 
age. 

Though quiet and retiring, he had a 
genial manner and kind-hearted dispo- 
sition, which endeared him to all who 
knew him. It is with deep regret that 
his friends and associates in business 
learn of his death, which occurred after 
a very short illness with pneumonia. 
Mr. Hull died December 5, 1913. 



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SNAP SHOTS 
STUDIO WANTS 



March. 1914 



Galleries for Sale or Rent 

C. F. M., two galleries in New Jersey. 
A. S. T., gallery in N. Y. State. 

D. F. M., gallery in New York City, 
$2,000. 

F. S. W., on Long Island, $900. 
W. C O., gallery in New Jersey. 
C R. F., gallery in Long Island. 
L. M. S., gallery in N. Y. State. 

Parties Desiring Galleries 

G. K. wantfi gallery in small city. 

R.. S. G., wants gallery in small city. 



Positions IVanted-^Operators 

L. I., all-around man. 

T. E. M., general operator. 

J. H., all-round operator. 

L. H., operator and retoucher. 

C. M., operator and retoucher. 

Positions Wanted — Retouchers; Recep- 
tionists 

N. A. B., experienced retoucher. 
M. L. C, printer, enlarger, finisher. 
Mrs. G. J., printer, sepia enlarging. 
Miss F. L., retoucher. 

Studios Destnng Help 

R. H. R., good oi)erator. 

C. H. P., operator, all-round 



Votioe— Letters addressed to anyone in our oare shonld be accompanied with stamp 
for eaoli letter so tbat they can be re-mailed. 



SEND YOUR SUBSCRIPTION NOW 

Our Year expires January 1st and we want your Renewal, f 1.00 per year. 
Photographic news from every section is wor^ five times our subscriptioii 
price. 

OUR SPECIAL CLUBBING LIST 
We o£Fer the Special Clubbing List of Snap Shots with American and Eng- 
lish Annuals and the English Journals. A combination that gives to the Amer- 
Icmn photographer photographic news that combined gives him the fidd 
covering the English-speaking photographic world: 
1 year's Snap Shots with American Annual of Photography (1914 paper 

edition) ll.fO 

I year's Snap Shots with 1 year's subscription to British Journal of Pho- 
tography i.Ti 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



xiv 



POSITIONS OFFERED and WANTED, FOR SALE, 
TO RENT, WANT to PURCHASE, EXCHANGE, &c. 



Announcements under these and similar headings of fort;^ words or leu, will be inserted 
for forty cents. For each additional word, one cent. Displayed advertisements 00 cents 
per inch. Cash must accompany order. When replies are addressed to our care, 10 cents 
at least must be added to cover probable postage on same to advertiser. Advertisements 
should reach us by the 20th to secure insertions in the succeeding issue. A copy of the 
Journal sent free to every advertiser as long as the "ad" is continued. Advertisements in 
Snap Shots bring prompt returns. 



AN ADVERTISEMENT IN THESE COLUMNS 

It an ezcelkot and safe medium of communication between Photographert 



For Sale: Photographic business at 
Gettysburg. The famous battlefield 
town — also college town. An old 
establishe portrait and commercial 
business. Address The Mumper 
Studio, Gettysburg, Pa. 

For Sale: Owing to other business, 
must sell my studio at a sacrifice; 
good location; low rent and doing 
good business. Come and see me. 
Will make the price right to quick 
buyer. J. Garner, 178 Main Street, 
Ansonia, Conn. 



-A $2,000,000 Per Year Salary and 
Profit": Excellent proposition for 
man with family. Only studio in 
town; ground floor; pop. 6,000, also 
modern single home, three blocks 
from studio. Value of combination 
$7,300.00. Quick sale price $5,000 00. 
Part cash, balance mortgage. Abso- 
lutely a great bargain. Address .'iOO. 
care Snap Shots. 

Wanted: Young man twenty-four 
years old, with eight years' experience 
in commercial line, wants permanent 
position with reliable commercial 
firm. Address James D. Maher, 27 
Chestnut St., Schenectady. N. Y. 

Wanted: 11 x 14 Good Portrait 
lens, Anastigmat preferred. State 
lowest cash price wanted for. 26 Eason 
Ave., Detroit, Mich. Jos. Sowinski. 



Great Opportunity — A neat gallery 
in New York City, in a fine location; 
established seven (7) years; is offered 
for sale at $2,500 to a prompt cash 
buyer. Address G. F. M., care Geo. 
Murphy, Inc., No. 57 East Ninth street. 
New York. 



For Sale: Splendidly equipped 
modern ground floor. Studio in 
wealthy town of 10,000, thirty miles 
from New York City. Established 
fifty years. In main thoroughfare 
and has just been beautifully decora- 
ted. Inventory amounts to $2,200. 
Owner wishes to live abroad. Price 
$1,800. Very easy terms will be made. 
Photograph upon request. Address 
Hudson River Town, care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: Ground floor Studio in 
best residence district of San Diego, 
Calif., with or without fixtures. Home 
sickness reason for selling. If you 
wish the benefit of the coming Fair 
and opening of the Panama Canal, 
this is your chance. Address Photog- 
rapher, 3318 5th street. San Diego. 
Calif. 

Flashlight Outfit For Sale: One 
14x20 Banquet Camera, fitted with 
No. 7 Dagor Lens, Series III, 16>4 
inch; eight Prosch Flash Bags, com- 
plete, $200; Lens only $100; Camera 
only $40; flash bags only $10 each. 
Gfrorge Murphy, Inc.. 57 East 9th St.. 
Nfw York. 



Wanted: A good live paper printer 
who is practically posted on enlarging 
and contact printing, and who has had 
road experience and acquaintance with 
the trade. Address, stating qualifica- 
tions, W. P. R., care Snap Shots. i^-vrvT/^ 

wru •*• J *i , . r, r, igitizedby VjOOyi^- 

When wntinff adTertiten pleau mention Snap Shots. 



For Sale: 12 5/7 or ^ Double Film 
Holders made to take and hold flat 
Eastman Portrait Films. $6.00 takes 
them. Address Roberts, 171 Stryker 
Ave., Woodside, L. I. 



>8l 



xlvi 



S.VAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEM EXTS 



For Sale: A well-located, well-iur- 
nished photo studio in New York 
City, in prominent thoroughfare. 
Owner desires to sell on account of 
other business interests. Price, $3,500; 
lease, three years; rent, $2,150 per 
year. To a good photographer a fine 
opening, but letters must be addressed 
in our care and will be answered only 
as the owner decides. Address **0. 
F. M.," care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: An Aristo Lamp, 220 
volts, direct current, 25 amperes. 
Complete, boxed ready for shipment, 
$.35. Address. M. G., care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: Pluto studio, best loca- 
tion in the heart of the city. Doing 
good busines.s; good surrounding 
country. Established over thirty years. 
Studio worth about $3,000, but will 
sell for less m cash. Reason for sell- 
ing is on accouni of other business. 
All letters must be addressed to Tony 
Leo, 5 West Main St., Middletown 
\. Y. 

For Sale: One 18x22 Anthony Ma- 
hogany Reversible Back Studio Cam- 
era, double bellows, curtain slide 
holder with stand, in good condition. 
Price, boxed ready for shipment, $45. 
One 14x17 Reversible Back View 
Camera with two double holders in 
very good condition. Price, boxed 
ready for shipment, $32.00. .\ddress. 
R. N., care Snap Shots. 

Wanted : By a practical photog- 
rapher, a studio, to purchase, but to 
first manage same for three months to 
e.stimate value. Address, Nuhwal, care 
Snap Shots. 

STOP!! LOOK!! 

Have you a camera you wish to sell or 
exchange? Write us. We have been 
in the exchange business for twenty 
years and are known all over the 
country as THE LEADER. 



Send Your Subscription to 

"THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF 
PHOTOGRAPHY" 

Per Year, Post-Paid, $3.25 

Per Half Year, Post-Paid, Si. 65 

Sole American Agents: 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 East Ninth Street, New York 



8x10 Plate 
Holders 



Will fit any 8 x 10 Century 
or New York Studio Outfit. 

These Holders arc Single 
Curtain Slide Holders with 
Kits for 6H X S%, 5x7 and 
4x5 Plates. 



PRICE, - $4.00 - EACH 



QEORQE MURPHY, Inc. 

57 Eaa Nioth Street, New York 



Art Studies 

PHOTOGRAPHS FROM LIFE MODELS 

Finest Collection for Artists 
and Art levers 



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xlvii 



Warrington Folder 

Sable Brown Cover Enclosing Royal Buff Card, Light Gray 
Cover Enclosing Pigeon Gray Card 




A select niountinj^ hjr all your best ])ictures. The general 
tone and effect of this folder will please all who desire the last 
word in elegance and refinement. The cover is our heavy 
bristol stock embossed in something new and original in the 
fresco style. The card is of rough textures, with a simj)le, har- 
monious tinted border surrounding the opening. Around this 
tint is a neat sunk ])late-mark. 

I^\)r all your work of high grade use this folder. Try 
a box of each color and you will be an ardent user of the 
"Warrington.'' 



Size. Folder. 

58 8^ X 1314 

80 i6fgx 11^ 



Square 
Opening. 

4HX7H 



Photograph. Per 100. 
5x8 $10.00 

8 X 10 15.00 



(Packed twenty-five in a box.) 

George Murphy, Inc. 

57 East Ninth Street New York 

Send for our Illustrated ^ Fount Cataloe"ue. 



gl( 



When wriiinjij adveiMiscrs plca^^e mention Snap Sik 



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xlviii 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Hi* Brilluuit Portrait Enlargiag Paper 

Convenient Speed Bright Shadows Soft Hig^ Lights 

LIGHT WEIGHT 

Made in Velvet, Semi Matte, Matte, and Rough Surfaces. 

DOUBLE WEIGHT 

Made in Velvet, Matte, Rough, BufF and Buff Matte. 

UQMT WEIQHT DOUSLC WCIQNT 

AM farMl Pm CInrffN M FdhM : AM ParMi fnl CkniM » NiMt : 

Firal m4 IkM «• SMIi Fbst mmI AM •• lirik 

IMpm iMCaak Smm^Zmm I— m. ImIhIii. LMpv ■•tCari 



(Cabinet) 


90.25 


f0.15 


$0.05 


f0.07 


$0.30 


$0.18 


$0.05 


$0.07 


4x5 


.25 


.15 


.05 


.07 


.80 


.18 


.06 


.07 


4x6 


.30 


.18 


.05 


.07 


.80 


.18 


.05 


.07 


5x7 


.40 


.24 


.05 


.07 


.45 


.27 


.05 


.07 


5x8 


.45 


.27 


.05 


.07 


.50 


.80 


.07 


.00 


6x8 


.50 


.30 


.05 


.07 


.65 


.80 


.07 


.00 


6^x 8^ 


.60 


.86 


.06 


.07 


.75 


.45 


.07 


.00 


7x9 


.66 


.42 


.05 


.07 


.80 


.48 


.07 


.00 


8 xlO 


.80 


.48 


.05 


.07 


1.00 


.60 


.07 


.00 


10 xl2 


1.20 


.72 


.08 


.18 


1.50 


.90 


.08 


.18 


11 xl4 


1.60 


.06 


.08 


.18 


2.00 


1.20 


.08 


.18 


14 xl7 


2.40 


1.44 


lis 


.21 


3.00 


1.80 


.13 


.81 


16 x20 


8.20 


1.92 


.14 


.25 


4.00 


2.40 


.14 


.25 


18 x22 


4.00 


2.40 


.15 


.20 


5.00 


3.00 


.15 


.to 


20 x24 


4.80 


2.88 


.16 


.88 


6.00 


3.60 


.16 


,w 



Retail MiirpHy, Inc., g:S!it«^t 

07 Elast NintH Street rOEW YORK 

Send for New Tariff Changed No. 14 Mail-Order Cash Catalogue 



IF YOU USE THE 

Star Nesrative File 




(Patented July 10, 1900.) 

you can instantly locate any 
negative desired. This file pro- 
vides a perfect means of storing 
and indexing negatives. It is a 
heavy pasteboard box covered in 
imitation morocco, fitted for 50 
Jilass neeratives. or a lareer num- 




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SNAP SHOTS-ADVERTISEMENTS 



xiix 



Pyrogallic 4cid 



The relative merits of the various photographic developers may be 
discussable, but if a photographer decides to employ PYROGALLIC 
ACID, he should insist upon his dealer supplying the 

"M. C. W." Brand 

Our Acid is as pure an article as can be made, light and bulky in 
appearance, dissolves perfectly and may always be relied upon to produce 
tkc best photographic results. 

When placing your orders for "PRYO/' specify "M. C. W." 

Nalllnckrodt Chemical Works 

ST. LOUIS NEW YORK 




The "FAVORITE" 

INTERIOR BENCH 

ACCESSORY 

The No. 50S6 B Interior Bench 

Price $35*00 
Crated F. O, B.. New York 

Artistic Photographic Chairs, 
Benches. Ealuttfades, Pedes- 
tals, and Special Accessories 

from any design. 

ROUGH & CM-DWEU. 
COMPANY 

MANUFACTURERS 

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PHOTO -FLAT 

No More Curling of Your Prints 




A BATCH OF DRIED PRINTS 




THE SAME PRINTS AFTER BEING TREATED WITH PHOTO-FLAT 

Apply to back of print, after they are thoroughly dr}'* 
An effective and simple way to flatten curled prints. 
Easy to use — no special care needed in drying prints to 
be treated with PHOTO-FLAT. Leading professionaj^ 
have given an emphatic endorsement to PHOTO-FLA^ 

PRICES: 
4 Oz. Bottles, 35c., Postpaid; Pint Bottles, 90c., Postpaid 



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SNAP. SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



"SATISTA" 

A new. simple and inexpensive Photographic Printing Paper prepared 
with Platinum and Silver salts, yielding: 

First: Permanent prints of artistic quality in two tones, 
black and warm black. 

Second: Wonderfully rich blacks— clear and sparkling. 
Third: Prints that lie flat — an important feature. 

Doz. 
Price of "Satista": 8/10 |1.25 

5/ 7 .50 

Cabt. .35 

32 oz. "Satista" developing salts 20 

^ lb. Clearing salts 20 

ALL OTHER SIZES AT PROPORTIONATE PRICES. 

Special quotation on large quantities. 

Send postal for Booklet of Instructions, Sample Print and Special 
Introductory OflFer which expires April 15th. 

WILLIS & CLEMENTS 
1814 Chestnut Street PHILADELPHIA 



Patented and Manufactured by the IMatinotype Company, London, Kngland. 
Willis & Clements, Sole Representatives in L nited Slates. 



l 



Z^, :z^<\ 



>^^ 






wmm. 




Send 

for 
these 
Books 

to the 

BERLIN 

ANILINE 

WORKS 

213 Water St, 
NEW YORK 







rM 



^-d:^Jv'^ 







He 




THE FORMULAE BOOK 
Sand 10 cents in coin or ttampt 
•ad a label from any '^Agfa** 
CKemical package. 

^^ Agf a'' Products are Photographic Standards. 

■qitizedhYVJ^.^V/VI^ 



THE FLASH UGHT BOOK 
Send 10 cents in coin or ttampe 
and a label from any ^'Agfa** 
Chemical package* 



-cr 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



Matted Tree 

Our New No- 14 Tariff Changed 
Mail Order Cash Catalogue 

IB just off the press. Send ys your name and we witl 
gladly mail you a copy. 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc., K'.lc. 



57 En.st Ninth Street 



NEW YORK 



I 



You Can Take Pictures on a Day Like This! 

That is, if your lens is right. The lens is the soul of four canv r.i. C.)rdi«an Vn*^ 
will take ordinary pictures \s.xidcT /ctoraMe conditions. Arc y<»u satisfied witlt ilm' 
Or would you like t!ie best results undir all conditions? If so, you sltoald kno" i*" 

GOERZ LENSES 

Universally used by war photographers and professional?, Mh*> mu-t 
be sure of their results. Tliey can eaniy he fiiied to Ihe camera 
you natv own. 

Send for Oar Boak en ^'Leosef and Camerms" 

ui the greatest %-ilue tu any one interested 
in good pUotograpljy, 






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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



liii 



SPEED and RELIABILITY mark 

Hammer Plates 



Xhey hold the record for detail and color values under 
short exposure and weak light. 

Special Extra Fast (red label) and Extra Fast (blue label) 
Plates are best for all round work. 




REG. TRADE MARK 



Hammer's little book, "A Short Talk on Nej^ative Making-," 
mailed free. 

HAMMER DRY PLATE COMPANY 

Ohio Avo. and Miami St. St. Louis, Mo. 



pictures 

plountM 
Mitlx 

HIGGfNS' 
PHOT O 

MOUNTEB 




H&Tc An ezeellenee peeuliarl j tbelr 
own. Tbe beet resultB are only 
produced by the best methodt and 
means— the beat results in Ptioto- 
grapb, Poster and other inouDtinj; 
can only be attained by tiiliig the 
beet mounting paste — 

H1GGINS' PHOTO MOUNTER 

CEioeLlent noTcl bmBh wltb eftch ]«r.> 






A a-OT. Jar prepaid by mall tor 10 ««it»- 

©r alrmilar» fre© from 

CHAS. m* HIOOrNS & CO*, Mtrs. 
NEW YORK CHICAGO l-0«DOlf 



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SNAl» SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



THE PLATINOTYPE 

A portion of a letter from a prominent New England photographer : 

•'After almost two years of Developing Paper, I am writing to confess 
that I am getting tired of it and the craving for GOOD OLD PLAT- 
INOTYPE is coming back." 
Write for sample Japine sepia. 

WILLIS 6; CLEMENTS 

PHILADELPHIA 




The Weighmeter 



The Latest 
Photographic Discovery 

Indispentable to photofraphert, ehemlits* 

Ehytioians. or anyono onra-ired in woigb-' 
IK ohomlcals. 

The Weighmeter instantly indicates l>y 
one turn of the dial exactly what weights 
are to be used on the scale for any givcx* 
formula. Saves time, trouble, annoyance* 
and opportunities for errors in making tb« 
usual computations. Beautifully printed it} 
two colors on ivory celluloid, and of ju%t 
the right size to fit the vest pocket. 
Prioe 60o., poftpftld. 

c2ex>roe: murphy, inc. 

MTAIL OIPARTM&IIT 

67 last 9th Str««t NEW YORK 



7 



Simplify the Work in Your Printing Room! 

The half dozen different papers you believe you have to use now to do justice to 
your various negatives, upset your printers, cause waste, delay, and give poor prints 
after all! 

'&' BUCK UUREL 

It takes care of all of your negatives and of all your work — black and white and sepias. 

Send one dollar (f 1.00) and we will send three dollars (fS.OO) worth of paper. 
Our SPECIAL OFFEB shipment direct from factory. If the paper proves satisfactory 
you can remit the balance ($2.00). If unsatisfactory, return paper and we will refund 
the fl.OO paid. 

GEORGE MURPHY. Inc.» Retail Dept 

57 East 9th Street NEW YORK CITY 

When writing advertiscrTTlease mention Snap SHO^Iiized by VJ^^V l( 



4l 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Iv 



Would You Riso 

IN THE 

World of Pholographii? 




-s-r 




Then tit a 

HELIAR F 4.5 

to your camera. 

This peerless lens has a world of 
speed, wonderful definition and cover- 
ing power. It is the ideal lens for 
your reflecting camera, being almost 
four times as fast as the best recti- 
iinears working at U, S. 4, while in 
point of definition at the extreme aper- 
ture, there is no comparison. Indeed, 
it would be necessary to stop down 
your R. R. Lens to U. S. 16 to secure 
anything like the Heliar definition at 
full aperture. 

For sparkling, brilliant negatives at 
highest speed, use a Heliar. It is also 
an ideal lens for home portraiture. 
You can catch every fleeting expres- 
sion, the cutest attitudes of the kid- 
dies at play. 

A ten-day trial will prove the true 
worth of the Heliar. We'll arrange it 
through your dealer. 

Voigtiander & Fohn 

240-258 East Ontario St., Chicago 

225 Fifth Ave, New York 

WOBKS 
Bmnswick, Germany 

CaBa4ian Agenti— Hnpfeld, Lndecking ft Co., 
Montreal, Can. 



CHICKEN AND EGG 




Design Pat'd Oct. 17, 1911 

Do You Want to Make 
More Money? 

The ( h cken and Egg Accessory brings 
Mothers with their Children to your 
Studio. Novelty Accessories for Post 
Cards are Money Makers. 

Write for Descriptive Circulars and 
Price List. 

Manufactured by 

A. H. 5IPLB 

1329 E. inth Street CLEVELAND, 0. 



Do You Use 

Your Camera 

In Nature? 

If so, write at once to 

"meliDiiietQllitDre" 

Edited by EDWARD F. BIGELOW. 

Seod 10c for copy 

It can aid you and you can aid it. 

That's it — co-operation for the good of 
the Cause. 

The co-operation as well as the incor- 
poration is 

ThB Agassiz Association, Inc. 

ArcAdU 
Sound Beach, Connecticut 



When wriiinR advertisers please mention SnaF Shots, igjtized by VjOOQ IC 



Ivi SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



BL.A.CK I-.A.URE: 


L. 






Tli« Mo«t AdTuie«i Portrait Pap«r 










SIMPLE— SURE— ECONOMICAL 






For 


the highest grade of portraiture, in Platinum, 


Black and Sepia | 


e£Fect8. 




LIGHT WEIGHT— SEMI ] 


MATTE 




1 


DOUBLE WEIGHT 


' — Three grades: Semi, 


Smooth Matte and Buff | 




UQNT WnONT 


DOUBLE WBQNT 


1 






Mi 


r«Ml PMl CtariM M Mm* : 


MifwwIPMlCteiiHffMMN: | 








rmiMi TWrtftoBiBlh 




nntMi AMttMiA 1 




1M9« 


■•tCMk t 




■•tCMk ] 


r I tmm 


.laritailMi. 1 


ans 


■mm 


PrtM 


1 to in IM to I4« 9mm 

•Mm Mm 


PrtM 


itoift la 

IMm 


toMM 1 


3Hx 6J4 $0.26 


$0.20 


$0.06 $0.07 $0.80 


$0.24 


$0.06 fO.OT 1 


(Cabinet) 














4x0 


.85 


.20 


.06 .07 .80 


.84 


.05 


.•T 


4}ix 6^ 


.80 


.24 


.06 .07 .40 


.82 


.06 


.or 


5 X 7 


.86 


.28 


.06 .07 .45 


.36 


.06 


.07 


6x8 


.40 


.82 


.05 .07 .60 


.40 


.06 


.or 


0x8 


.50 


.40 


.05 .07 .66 


.52 


.07 


.09 


OHx 8H 


.60 


.48 


.07 .09 .76 


.60 


.07 


.09 


7x9 


.66 


.52 


.07 .09 .80 


.64 


.07 


.09 


7}^x 9}^ 


.75 


.60 


.07 .09 .90 


.72 


.07 


.09 


8 xlO 


.80 


.64 


.07 .09 1.00 


.80 


.07 


.09 


10 xl9 


1.20 


.96 


.08 .13 1.60 


1.20 


.08 


.18 


11 xl4 


1.60 


1.28 


.08 .13 2.00 


1.60 


.06 


.18 


14 xl7 


2.40 


1.92 


.18 .21 8.00 


2.40 


.18 


.81 


16 x20 


8.20 


2.56 


.14 .25 4.00 


8.80 


.14 


.85 


18 x22 


4.00 


8.20 


.15 .29 5.00 


4.00 


.16 


.89 


20 x24 


4.80 


3.84 


.16 .38 6.00 


4.80 


.16 


.88 


George MurphVf Inc. g:SSt«^t 




07 Elast NIntK Street 


IME:W YORK 


1 Send for 


New Tariff Changed No. 14 Mail-Order Cash Catalogue 1 



FREE— The Photographic Times— FREE 
SUNLIGHT AND SHADOW 

A BOOK FOB PH0T0UBAPHEB8 AMATETTB AlTD PBOFEflSIOVAL 

Bj W. I. LINCOLN ADAMB (Hii Best Book) 

Editor of "The Photographic Times," Author of "Araateur Photography," "In Nattir«*a 

Image," Etc., Etc. With More than 100 Beautiful Photo>£ngravings. 

Many of Them Full-page Pictures. 

It contains Chapters and Illustrations by well-known photographic writers and workera. 

It covers the field fully, as shown by the follow. ng Contents: 

The Choice of Subject Landscape Without Figures Landscape With Wigvrm 

Foregrounds The Sky Outdoor Portraits and Groups Tne Hand Camera 

Inscantaneous Photography Winter Photography Marines Photography at Might 

Lighting in Portraiture Photographing Children Art in Oroaping 

Printed on heavy wood-cut paper, with liberal margins and gilt edees. Beautifullr 

and substantially bound in art canvas, with gilt design. PBICE IN A BOX, |2.i0. 

So long as the supply holds out, we will continue to furnish this book at only OS 

per copy, with a new subscription to 



"THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES" 

price of "Sunlight and Shadow" |2.8fl 

Subscription price of "The Photographic Times" .... 1.80 

By this Soeclal Offer we sell Both for . . $2.50 

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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS Ivii 

QUALITY plus CONVENIENCE 

Eastman 
Portrait Films 

For Studio or Home Portraiture 

Embody those special qualities so essential to 
home portraiture, speed and non-halation, com- 
bined with the latitude, gradation and fine grain 
of the best plate made, the Seed Gilt Edge 30. 

The light, flexible, unbreakable film base re- 
duces weight, prevents loss, facilitates handling. 

May he retouched or etched on 
either side or on hoth sides. 

No special skill required for manipulation. 

Listed: 5 x 7, 6>^ x 8j^, 8 x 10, 11 x 14. 

Price — Same as Seed 30 Plates. 

Special illustrated circular at your dealers or by maiL 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, 

ROCHESTER. N. Y. Digitized by Googib ^ 



Iviii SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 

To secure increased prices for 
your work, make the print on paper 
of such distinctive quality as can be 
found in 

EASTMAN 

OR 

PLATINUM 

Prints of character not only appeal 
to discriminating patrons, but com- 
mand a price consistent with their 
quality. 

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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



lix 




Eagle Adjustable and Reversible 
Developing Tank 

(Patented) 

Both Reversible 
and Adjustable 

Instantly Adjusted to Any 
Sized Plate 

Superior to all other makes, for the 
reason that it is adjustable to any 
sized plate smaller than the size for 
which it is listed ; thus one tank will serve for various sizes of 
plates. The cover is held with clamps, so that the tank can 
be reversed as often as de- 
sired. The rack is so con- 
structed that it slides up and 
down on four rods. These 
rods project above the solu- 
tion serving as a handle for 
removing rack without 
touching the solution with 
your hand. This is not pos- 
sible with any other tank on 
the market. Made of brass 
heavily nickel plated. 

Prices 

No. 100 For 4x5, :V4 x 5j/^, 'S^ x 4^, 3^ x4. :j^x35^, 

— 6 grooves $3 . 00 Postpaid 

No. 101 For 5x8, 5x7. 4)4 x6J/^, 4x5,3^x55^— 

6 grooves 4 . 00 " 

No. 103 For ej/^ x8^. 5x8. 5x7, 4»4 x6j4— 6 grooves 5.85 
No. 104 For 8 X 10, 63^ X 85^, 5x8. 5 X 7— 6 grooves... 7.20 
Eagle Tank Developing Powders, per package 6 pow- 
ders, each 22 " 

QEORQE MURPHY, Inc., 5:Slt.e«t 

57 East Ninth Street NEW YORK 

Send for new Tariff Changed Xo. 14 Mail-Order Cash Catalogue 




When writinf adTertiten plMM mention Swap Shots. Digitized by 



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Ix 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



i^^ AUTOTYPE CARBON 

TISSUES 



AUTOTYPE. 



IMPORTANT TO AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHERS 

TRIAL SETS OF CARBON PRINTING 
MATERIALS 

In order to combat the erroneous notion, somewhat preva- 
lent amongst Amateur Photographers, that a trial of the 
Carbon Process necessarily entails the expenditure of a con- 
siderable sum on costly apparatus, the Autotype Company 
have decided to introduce cheap trial sets of the absolutely 
essential materials, particulars of which are appended. 

In these cheaply-priced outfits it is, of course, impossible 
to include developing washing or fixing tanks. For purely 
experimental purposes, however, some of the ordinary house- 
Hold crockery will serve as a makeshift, and the bathroom will 
be found a not altogether unsuitable apartment for canying 
on operations. 

PRICES OF TRIAL SETS 

Outfit No. I $1.50 

Outfit Complete for 5 x 7 5.00 

Outfit for 8 X 10 7.00 



New introductions suitable for the Copper Intaglio Print- 
ing Process for the production of Illustrations. 

In bands of 30 inches wide, 12 feet long. Tissue of 36 
inches can be furnished if desired, as in many cases 36 inches 
avoids waste. 

Per Band 

Photogravure Tissue G, 3 for flat bed printing $6^ 

Photogravure Tissue G, 4 for Rotary Gravure Printing. . . 640 
Photogravure Tissue G, 5 for Rotary Gravure Printing. . . 640 



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THE NEW 

Ross "Telecentric" Lens 

(PATENT) 

Qivinjc Critical Definition at Full Aperture 




Tele- Photography with Focal Plaoe Shtitier Ei- 
poaures. Large Image at Short Camera Extension 

AN IDEAL LENS FOR 
SPORTING EVENTS 

VERY SUITABLE FOR 
PORTRAITURE 

Two Series, //5.4 and/ 6.8 

The new "Telecentric" Lens gives a universally flat image with ex- 
quisite definition to the corners of the plate. Coma and spherical aber- 
ration away from the axis have been so fully corrected that the bril- 
liancy of image equals that of the finest Anastigmat. Like the Ross 
"Honiocentric,*' the "Telecentric'* is absolutely free from spherical zones, 
and negatives taken with it are perfect in detail. The chromatic correc- 
tion is also perfect. It fills the want so forcibly felt of a lens possess- 
ing the sharp definition and other good qualities of the Anastigmat, and 
at the same time enlarging the image of distant objects. 

In the *'Teleccntric"' Lens, f/6.S, which is slightly faster than other 
lenses of this type, the definition and brilliancy at full aperture are quite 
equal to those of the most perfectly corrected modern Anastigmats 

In the extra rapid "Telecentric" Lens, the extreme aperture of f/5.4 
has been attained, and this without any sacritice of critical defining 
power. 

The "Telecentric" gives an image about twice as large as that given 
by an ordinary lens requiring the same bellows extension. Therefore — 
pictures of objects that from circumstance or of their nature cannot be 
sufficiently approached to allow of the desired size of itnage may be sat- 
isfactorily obtained by using the Ross '*Teleccntric." These pictures 
will have critical deflnition secured with the shortened exposure afforded 
by the large full aperture of the '*Tcleccntric." 



Focui 
Back-Equip. 

Fe.8, $37:^0 
F5.4. 50 00 


F<rcui 
Back-Equlif. 

s/i-— ir 

$45.00 
64 00 


Foctli 

$4SJ5 
fi7.50 


Fi>cui 

B&ek-EqalT. 

AH-— IS" 

152.50 
7300 


FocvJ 

Baek-EqalT. 

167-30 
85.50 



AMERICAN AOENTS 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. 57 East Slh St.. New Tork. N. Y. 



Si'fid for Xcw Tariff ( hainjcd S'K 14 Mai!-Order Cash Catalngue 



i^ogle 



/— 



If it's a matter of 
quality, use 







l^Tr^ 



The paper zvithout a 
disappointment. 



ARTURA DIVISION 



EASTMAN KODA 



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CONTENTS 

Photographing Children To- 
gether - • - - 

Opening and Conducting a 
Studio - - . , 

To Blacken Lens Stops 

Hot Weather Troubles 

Some Facts About the Na- 
tional Convention 

How to Make Good in the 
Photograph Business - 

Flashlight Pointers 

Permanganate as a Hypo 
eliminator . . , 

Trade Notes and News 

Studio Wants - - - • 

Digitized by 



61 

64 
66 
69 

71 

75 
75 

77 
78 
60 



Google 




The above illustration is a little difficult to fathom. 
Is it not? You will readily understand, however, by 
examining closely, A ZOO-lb. man is standing on a 
sheet of our 

Cellular Board 

and his heels hardly make a dent. The illustration 
tells its own story! 

This material, made by our own special process, 
possesses remarkable resistance and is at the same time 
very light. Just the thing for protecting all kinds of 
packages in shipment. Can be used to advantage in 
any number of ways. We can furnish any size you wish. 

Particulars on request. 




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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Ixi 



THE QUIGK-SETMETAL TRIPOD 




(Patented) 



Embodying all the Features of a Good Tripod* 

RIGID When Extended 

COMPACT When Closed 

QUICK When Operated 

The Quick-Set is Rigid because made of brass tubing, nickel plated 
When extended it is a continuous rod of metal and will bear any reason- 
able weight. 

The Quick-Set is Compact because when closed it is shorter than 
any other make, when extended longer. 

The Quick-set is Quick because it can be 
extended in a moment by pulling out each leg 
fully and giving a short twist to the left, 
®*^urely locking all sections at once. 
- The Quick-Set eHminates all the defects 
ound in other makes of tripods. It has no 
buttons or pins, and the legs 
cannot become loosened. 

The Quick-Set Tripod, where 
fastened to the head, is rein- 
forced by a pinion, making it 
absolutely unbreakable. How- 
ever, in case of accident any sec- 
tion of the legs can readily be 
replaced at slight expense. 
Again, the Quick-Set does away 
with the objectionable buttons 

and springs used on other makes of metal tripods. It has 
no projecting parts, and the lock is so constructed that it 
is impossible to slip or unlock under pressure. Another 
feature of superiority over other metal tripods is the 
adjustable one; can be locked at any section, thereby 
shortening it, if needed. 

Nos. 51 to 53, inclusive, are made with the legs fastened 
to a circular head 1^ inches in diameter. No. 60 lies per- 
fectly flat, the head being a flat piece of metal ^-inch wide, 
Jong; it is so made as to fold over, when extended, and form 
mangular-shaped head. 

z^. 75 is constructed with a loose tripod screw, with a long 
t^ing it very easy to turn the camera in any desired direction, 
z^lamp firmly. The top is covered with green felt, to prevent 
. e camera. 





No. 60. 



'Kb ^ 









Iiongth Extended. 
393^ in. 
4.) " 

.50 *' 
50J^ *' 



PBICES 
Length Closed. 
15 in. 

14 " 
12 " 

15 " 



Weight. 

i:iy2 uz. 

141/. - 

11) 

21 ^" 



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George MurphVf I«c, gSSSt«^t 

07 East NIntK Street NEIW YORK 

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FREE— The Photog:raphic Times— FREE 
SUNLIGHT AND SHADOW 



AMATEim AND PBOTSSSIOVAX 
(Hli Best Book) 



A BOOK FOB PH0T0UBAPHEB8 

By W. I. LINCOLN ADAXfl 
Editor of "The Photographic Times," Author of *'Amateur Photography," "In Nature's 
Image," Etc., Etc. With More than 100 Beautiful Photo-Engravings, 
Many of Them Full-page Pictures. 



It contains Chapters and Illustrations by well-known photographic writers and workers. 

It covers the field fully, as shown by the following Contents: 

The Choloe of Subject Landscape Without Figures Landscape With Ilriirea 

Foregrounds Tbe Sky Outdoor Portraits and Groups Tne Hand Camera 

Instantaneous Photography Winter Photography Marines Photography at Vlrkt 

Lighting in Portraiture Photographing Children Art in Grouping 

Printed on heavy wood-cut paper, with liberal mar^ns and gilt edges. BeautifuUr 

and substantially bound in art canvas, with gilt design. PBiCE ISr A BOX, 9t.iO. 

So long as the supply holds out, we will continue to furnish this book at only one 

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HERE IS A PRINTER THAT WILL GIVE YOU 

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THE ROYAL FOREGROUND RAY SCREEN 

(Patented April 14th, 1911) 

8T1LE A. 

The Latest and Oreateat Improvement in Bay Filtera. 

The only Ray Screen ever invented that will give an even, equal exposure 
to both sky and foreground, and produce a perfect cloud effect instanta- 
neously with ordinary plates. 

The Royal Foreground Ray Screen is so constructed that the color, which 
is a strong orange yellow at the top, is gradually diminished until perfect 
transparency is attained at the bottom. The practical effect of the gradual 
blending of color is to sift out or absorb the powerful chemical rays from 
the clouds and sky, which pass through the strongly colored top of the filter, 
without perceptibly decreasing the weak illumination of the reflected light 

from the foreground, which 
comes through the trans- 
parent or colorless lower 
part of the screen in full 
intensity. 

The reason that daylight 
cloud pictures are rare is 
that the strength of the il- 
lumination from the sky is 
many, many times that of 
the partially absorbed and 
reflected light from objects 
on the ground. 

If a correct exposure is 
given to the clouds, then 
the landscape is badly un- 
der-exposed; if the correct 
exposure is given to the 
landscape, then the clouds 
arc literally burnt up from 
over-exposure, and no mat- 
ter how contrasty they may 
have appeared to the eye, 
an unscreened photograph 
shows only a blank white 
sky. 

The Royal Foreground 
Ray Screen is also very 
useful for subjects which 
are more strongly illumi- 
nated on one side than on 
the other, as in photograj^h- 
ing by the light of a side 
window or in a narrow 
street. By simply turning 
the dark side of the fore- 
ground screen toward the 
bright side of the object a 
good, even exposure will 
result. 




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PHOTO. Bv H. F. SCHMIDT, Seattle, li'ashingt^m. 

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SINGLE COPY, 10 CENTS. FOREIGN COUNTRIES, $1.S5 
PUBLISHED BY THE SNAP-SHOTS PUBLISHING CO., 67 EAST NINTH STREET, NEW YORK 



Volume 25 



APRIL, 1914 



Number 4 



PHOTOGRAPHING CHILDREN TOGETHER 



Children are not always easy to 
do alone — unless the photographer 
is very unambitious — but when it 
comes to groups he literally groans. 
What one aims at in a child's pho- 
tograph is spontaneity, charm, and 
to obtain this result with two more 
than doubles the difficulty, for when 
one child may be looking pretty and 
unconscious, probably at the same 
moment the other is decidedly not 
appearing at its best. 

If the photographer is wise, he 
will never attempt children's 
groups: there is always the excel- 
lent and well-worn excuse that jus- 
tice can only be done to one sitter, 
and he will save himself a lot of 
trouble and wear of nerve tissue. 
However, there are some misguided 
photographers w^ho are not wise, 
and who consider it rather dull to be 
too wise, and who have discovered 
that the difficult are often the in- 



teresting things, and who mean to 
try and photograph children to- 
gether. 

First of all, we should like to 
advise these enterprising folk to de- 
vote a little thought to preliminaries 
beforehand, for when once the chil- 
dren appear on the scene they will 
have little time to spare. 

The first essential is a good light, 
and unless they have a studio or 
their room is decidedly bright and 
well lighted, they had better be out 
of doors. They must see the cam- 
era is in good working order, look- 
ing especially to the shutter — to find 
it faulty when once the children are 
on the scene is a harassing business 
— and have as many slides as pos- 
sible filled with ultra-rapid plates. 
They must arrange the background 
and foreground tautly and firmly, 
that there is no likelihood of the 
former coming down or the latter 



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SNAP SHOTS 



April. 1914 



getting untidy. Personally, I have 
always advocated a plain white 
background for children, because, to 
me, it was the only one possible. 
It is, of course, really entirely such 
a matter of individual taste; but if 
the reader agrees with me about 
the advisability of leaving a single 
child's figure free of distracting 
surroundings, he will probably, with 
me, think it still more important 
that a group be given the same 
chance and that nothing be allowed 
to interfere with the delicate out- 
lines of the children. 

Perhaps a description of a suit- 
able room may be of some help to 
those contemplating the same kind 
of work. A white background — 
a sheet will do pulled out a little 
at the bottom and just as well — is 
hung on the wall ; it is pulled out a 
little at the bottom and fastened to 
the floor with small tin tacks. The 
object of this is that by slanting 
thus it catches more light and so 
appears whiter in the photograph. 
Then a white foreground, which in 
my case consists of a piece of oil- 
cloth painted white, is laid in front 
of the background, pulled well up 
over the tin tacks to hide them, and 
also to avoid an ugly line where 
the background and foreground 
join. When children have bare feet 
it is kinder to have a large piece 
of white flannel. There are two 
windows in the room, one opposite 
the background and one on the side 
of it. "But that is wrong," says the 
expert ; "you are using a cross light, 
which is inartistic." Perhaps so, 



but we are obtaining ai good light 
and a flat one, which surely is more 
suitable to children than one which 
renders them with heavy shadows 
and dark, solid-looking bodies. To 
get a light, delicate eflfect, really sug- 
gestive of childhood, seems far 
more desirable than academic recti- 
tude over certain orthodox light- 
ings. Besides which, the window 
opposite the background is the chief 
source of light, the other acting 
rather like a reflector. 

But to come back to our groups. 
Now the photographer is so far 
ready he must get some goixi an- 
chor before the children come. It 
must be something so important and 
absorbing that it will not only keep 
them in one spot, but will also drive 
away all thoughts of self -conscious- 
ness and the camera. The white 
rabbit was a successful anchor, be- 
cause both children wanted it at 
once, and were only allowed to 
nurse it five minutes at a time each 
on condition they stayed just where 
they were put. That the rabbit died 
next day does not perhaps belong 
to this story. 

A doll's tea-service makes an ex- 
cellent anchor, because it has to 
stand on something and has enough 
pieces for two to play with, and it 
is also so very absorbing. 

Some toys are hopeless : for in- 
stance, a ball is not only useless but 
maddening to the poor photogra- 
pher, who sees his model never still, 
nor in the least on the same plane. 
His only chance of getting good 
groups is to focus first and then put 



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April, 1914 



SNAP SHOTS 



63 



in the plate and watch, bulb in hand, 
for a good opportunity, hoping he 
can catch a spontaneous and pretty 
attitude. If luck is against him 
and one or both of the children have 
moved enough to be out of focus, 
then out must come the plate and 
back he must go to the ground-glass 
and focus and begin all over again. 
It is for this reason an anchor is so 
very important. 

The photographer must also re- 
member the question of compromise 
comes largely to the fore in groups 
of children. There is so often 
something to be sacrificed; it is no 
good waiting, bulb in hand, for a 
perfect group. This would mean 
dropping the substance for the 
shadow indeed, and by so doing he 
would probably lose many charming 
and spontaneous little pictures. 
Even if a limb has to be sacrificed, 
it is still worth recording such busy 
unconsciousness. 

It is no good either letting 
chances slip in the hope of seeing 
both faces; even if one has almost 
disappeared altogether, the little 
body will probably show quite 
enough individuality. With no an- 
chor at all sometimes one child will 
help the other, as when the elder is 
taken into our confidence and asked 
to keep her smaller brother still. 
The interest of it very successfully 
banished all traces of self-con- 



there would be no easier group to 
do than a mother and child, for 
with its own mother as an anchor 
a child is no trouble to manage. 
But with a grown-up, every angle 
needs study and care, face is not 
satisfactory at any and both of 
which it is difficult to give when 
there is a piece of quicksilver on 
the scene at the same time. 

Exposures, of course, vary ac- 
cording to the quality of the light- 
ing. In the room with the two 
windows it is possible to get a rea- 
sonably full exposure in about one- 
third of a second from March to 
October, using very fast plates and 
working with the lens at f-8. A si- 
lent studio shutter is employed, and 
the bulb is pressed and released 
just as fast as the hand can work 
it; and if experience and care are 
combined in exposing, there need be 
very few failures through move- 
ment. If the work is being done 
out of dcK)rs. naturally much shorter 
exposures may be given, and an 
instantaneous shutter is a neces- 
sity. 

Like most difficult things, photo- 
graphing groups of children is fas- 
cinating work, and there is so much 
more variety and greater possibili- 
ties in tw^o than one, and as what 
we obtain is always sure to be a 
little charming in spite of its faults, 
because of its attractive subjects, 



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April, 1914 



OPENING AND CONDUCTING A STUDIO 

By L. C. Biflhop 



Capital is of first importance. 
The required amount depends larg^e- 
ly on expenses, such as rent and liv- 
ing in the location decided upon. 
The extent of one's acquaintance 
with the trade sought will also 
have considerahle hearing. Fifteen 
hundred dollars should he the least 
cash t)n hand for a small city studio ; 
eight hundred if a country town. 
The surplus after equipment is paid 
for should not he less than five 
hundred dollars in the city; in the 
country, three hundred. 

We are supposing the owner to he 
a capahle photographer, up in all re- 
quisite hranches, free from deht, 
and in gcKxl health. 

The location should he selected 
with a reference to the trade ex- 
pected, hor popular-priced work, 
one must be where some prominence 
can he secured, where his place is 
easily reached, and where many 
l)eople pass the door. The district 
most popular with the better class 
of workingmen is good; so also is 
"downtown'* proper. If one aims at 
the new photography, he must 
figure on a different class of patrons. 
One must be more than a working- 
man himself and be able to produce 
the real work ; not simply fuzzy 
focus on what he shows in that line, 
but have a real knowledge of what 
it is that brings the money from the 
better class who ask for this work. 
The residence district is good for 
this, but the place shoidd be near 



some old, well-established shop 
catering to the fashionable trade in 
millinery, tailoring, or the like. 
This store must have a good reputa- 
tion long retained. 

The operating light is very im- 
portant, lie sure to have enough, 
and with the light coming from one 
principal direction. There should 
be no red or yellow buildings in 
front of the light or near enough to 
influence it. There should be 
enough room each side of the light 
to allow one to work in either direc- 
tion. One may be experienced with 
all sorts of lights, but, if possible, 
get one that any one can work 
easily. 1 prefer a north light of 
clear glass, starting three and one- 
half feet from the floor, running 
ten or twelve feet straight up, with 
four feet of top light, witli a width 
of not less than ten feet. Have 
blinds of tracing cloth that can be 
pulled over the entire light, with a 
set of opaque ones working over 
them. 

The equipment consists of lenses, 
cameras and other apparatus. No 
one lens can be used for all things. 
Have a big one working at / 4, and 
not less than nineteen inches focus, 
for heads. Diffusing attachment 
must be included. For figures, 
groups, home portraiture and the 
like, an anastigmat of thirteen or 
fourteen inches focus, working at 
/ 5.6, should be used. One will also 
want a wide angle working at / 16, 



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SNAP SHOTS 



65 



or a little larger, with a focal length 
of about eight and one-half inches. 
There should be two cameras ; an 
11x14 regular studio camera with 
an attachment taking 8x10 view 
holders and the regular cabinet out- 
fit as supplied ; and a home-portrait 
camera outfit, 8x10 size, like the 
Century, and an extra studio stand, 
on which it can be used for groups 
in the studio. 

As to help, right on the start ad- 
vertise in the daily papers for a neat 
girl with no experience, but with 
references as to personal character. 
One can expect many to answer, but 
be prepared to choose the most use- 
ful locjcing one for the try-out. tak- 
ing the names and addresses of 
others that seem favorable. 1 f you 
find your room full, waiting a hear- 
ing, announce that the salary will 
be only three dollars a week as a 
starter ; this will clean out many of 
the undesirable ones. The young 
lady is to meet visitors at the door, 
show samples, which should always 
have prices marked on them, answer 
the telephone and, most important 
of all, keep beggars and agents from 
seeing you and taking your time. 
Any bright girl will soon learn 
when to call you and when to say 
she is instructed not to call you for 
any other purpose than to arrange 
for sittings. 

If you are not a first-class oper- 
ator yourself, you had better engage 
one, for a while at least. If you are 
not an experienced platinum print- 
er, engage an all-round man for at 
least long enough to get an insight ; 



it*s cheaper in the end. Any branch 
you may be weak on can be 
strengthened by employing a good 
man for Sunday morning oc- 
casionally. Find him by advertising 
or call up your stock house. If you 
don't get a good one that way, look 
around at the exhibits at various 
studios and, when you see what you 
like, address a letter to the operator 
or printer of So-and-So's studio, 
offer him the position, and get his 
price for some Sunday morning 
with you. Treat him well if you 
want him again : you will get many 
valuable tips if you are sharp. Pay 
him three to five dollars. You will 
make that and much more through 
the advanced prices your work will 
command. 

The young professional- can 
charge from three to eighteen dol- 
lars a dozen for regular work. If 
he is capable of doing the new 
photography, his charges should be, 
for 5x8 platinums, five dollars for 
the first print and three dollars each 
for duplicates. A cabinet can be 
made in black and white platinum 
for eight dollars a dozen : sepias, ten 
dollars; half cabinets, five and six 
dollars. If a popular-priced studio, 
make the prints on matt surface 
printing-out paper, mounted solid, 
and run them through a cold burn- 
isher. Half -cabinets, two dollars a 
dozen; cabinets, three dollars; 5x8. 
five dollars, and 8x10, twelve dol- 
lars. Double mounted, that is, 
backed prints, should be tastily 
mounted, and they command double 
prices. Give your work some style ; 



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SNAP SHOTS 



A|mt 1914 



the mounting means much to the 
picture. Study the mounting of 
prints shown in the art stores, for 
your better class of work. The 
regular cabinets should be mounted 
solid on a rather plain mount of 
good quality, the prints being on 
printing-out paper, and run through 
a cold burnisher. Anything you 
want to deliver mounted by the 
corners should be on platinum 
paper, or on printing-out paper, 
backed. Great claims are made for 
double-weight developing paper, 
but, personally, I would not use it 
unless I was doing cheap work. 
The large finishing plants are pre- 
pared to deliver prints 00 develop- 
ing paper so that they will not curl 
badly, but the professional with the 
small studio can't afford the ma- 
chinery they use. If you want to 
see just how bad the paper is, ex- 
amine the displays made by some of 
the medium-priced studios where 
rhey mount their developing paper 
like platinum. They look cheap to 
anybody upon even superficial ex- 
amination. Some of these papers 
are better than others, but the public 
has learned much and it knows that 
one can get developing paper prints 
from the Kodak finishers for five 
cents a print, while they can't get 
platinum or matt printing-out paper 
prints from these houses. Use the 
matt printing-out paper, mounted 
flat, for the cheapest work, the same 
paper backed and loose mounted for 
the next, black and white platinum 
for the next higher, and sepia 
platinum for the most expensive. 



Do not copy the work of the oper- 
ators who make popular-priced 
work ; study some of the work done 
by our big professionals of ten or 
fifteen years ago. This last is better 
and work of this kind is more de- 
sirable to the public to-day. The 
new photography acquires its 
greatest stimulant from the work 
done by the advanced amateurs. 
These people study art from ever>' 
conceivable viewpoint, and use the 
camera to express their ideas, much 
as a painter uses his brush. They 
study pictures and use their knowl- 
edge intelligently. They do not. as 
some of the less progressive seem 
to Aink, use a bad lens or focus im- 
properly in order to become one of 
the new school. 

Pictures that you sell by the dozen 
should not be fuzzy enough to at- 
tract attention to that particular. 
The softness of focus should be 
regulated according to size. The 
large heads can be made quite soft, 
but any double lines must be worked 
out. Landscapes can be quite fuzzy 
for beautiful broad effects. A single 
combination of an ordinary rapid 
rectilinear lens, if it has goc>d speed, 
is capable of making large heads of 
better quality than the average 
anastigmat, even when the latter is 
fitted with a diffusing attachment. 
Make your regular run of studio 
work thus: Half cabinets, a trifle 
softer than the sharpest rectilinear 
will give at full opening; the 
cabinets a trifle softer; and extend 
this idea until you can tell by the 
groundglass what degree of dif- 



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SNAP SHOTS 



67 



fusion is right. The sharpest focus 
of the anastigmat is too sharp for 
contact printing in portraiture. 

Visitors and old customers mfist 
be carefully handled; they can be 
influenced for or against you ac- 
cording to the impression your 
treatment of them creates. Never 
allow anybody to stay too long or 
yourself to become too well ac- 
quainted with them. Just a favor- 
able impression is all you need, and 
more than that is usually detri- 
mental. You may offer the visitor 
a seat while you show the work and 
quote prices, but you do not sit 
down for a visit. After you have 
accomplished what you consider a 
fair explanation, show a desire to 
get back to your work. If the visitor 
attempts to hang on longer, your as- 
sistant should come from the work- 
room and say your attention is 
needed at that moment. 

Salesmen like to loaf around and 
take your time. Better say at the 
start that you can give them a cer- 
tain number of minutes, five, ten or 
fifteen, and end it at the expiration 
of the time set. See them outside 
of the workroom always. While the 
cases are rare, some salesmen are 
full of valuable information, and 
these are to be appreciated. It is 
therefore well to ask a few questions 
while your time is being taken, as 
valuable information is often worth 
more than a sitting. 

When you deliver pictures to a 
patron who is just a little disap- 
pointed, be willing to do the right 
thing. Oflfer to print over or even 



do the retouching over before re- 
printing. You must show them that 
you' are willing to do your part in 
order that they may be . pleased. 
Caring for those once sold is the 
building of your foundation in any 
business. Be as courteous after you 
have the money as you were before. 

A good personal appearance is of 
the greatest value. You slK>uld 
dress and look like the sensible, up- 
to-date people of your age. Shave 
every day and get your hair cut 
every three weeks. People of good 
taste do not like to be depicted by 
a photographer of bad taste; one 
with a long and greasy foretop. Be 
clean. Try to associate with people 
who are as good as the best of the 
friends you have ever known. Don't 
invite your friends to call during 
business hours, unless you believe 
they are in the market for your 
goods. Don't drink during business 
hours. Use good language, but 
simple words. 

Don't say silly things while oper- 
ating; old chestnuts are a bore to 
any one, and the small-talk business 
just before pressing the bulb is out 
of date. Replace it with some intel- 
ligent conversation. Natural man- 
ners on your own part reflect them- 
selves in your subjects best of all. 

Don't expect to achieve par excel- 
lence with some new, quick-working 
apparatus. The market is full of 
them. Don't sell coupons or make 
cut prices. Once in two years you 
can send out to your old customers 
a reduced rate on duplicate orders, 
cash to accompany the order, and 



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good for ten days. Tliat will be 
sufficient and will keep you in touch 
with them. Keep yourself informed 
in all that is new ; visit art exhibi- 
tions, and read the best photogra- 
phic magazines. Paste a slip on the 
cover for notation of valuable 
formulas you may want later, or clip 
them out and file. Read other 
mag vines, like Harper s Weekly, 
that will give you a grasp of what is 
going on in the world ; go and ex- 
amine the displays of other photog- 
raphers; invite criticism. 

Collect a deposit on all work and 
if it is necessary to explain to Mrs. 
Newrich, say that you must do this 
in order to be considered prompt 
pay by your dealer, and that, unless 
you do collect a part payment, the 
outlay per day would greatly impede 
your progress. If you discount 
your bills every month you will save 
a snug sum in a year, and the stock 
house does not regret the 3 per cent. 

Make your work appear clean. 
Above all, get pure tones ; real white 
in the black-and-white prints, not 
lead-colored ones. In the sepias 
avoid yellow whites and muddy of 
bronzed shadows. Give your show- 
windows your close personal atten- 
tion. Criticize them daily. Not too 
many pictures, but good ones, 
should be the rule. Use the best 
material, regardless of whether so- 
called trust or anti-trust. There are 
no bargains in material. The relia- 
ble goods are so well known that 
any one can readily decide. 

Try to get a good picture with 
every plate and do not be stingy 



with them, making three or four for 
your moderate-priced work and five 
or six for the better grades. Keck- 
lei» firing of plates is worse than the 
practice of the fellow who only 
makes one, providing the subject 
didn't move. Retouch your nega- 
tives somewhat before proofing, 
paying the most attention to the 
better ones. Never show a bad one 
— Camera Craft. 

To Blacken Lens Stops 

Make a strong saturated solu- 
tion of copper nitrate, either by 
dissolving the salt as purchased or 
by dissolving copper wire in strong 
nitric acid. Clean the stops thor- 
oughly, being especially careful to 
remove all grease. Dip each stop 
in turn in the copper nitrate solu- 
tion, and then dry it over a Bunsen 
burner or spirit lamp, continuing 
the application of heat until the 
green deposit first formed changes 
to a black one. Do this three times 
with each stop, or as many times 
as is necessary to get an even coat- 
ing. Then wipe oflf all loose black 
deposit, and give a final rub with a 
slightly oily soft rag, or with an 
old black-lead brush, holding just a 
trace of blacklead. — B. J. of P. 



Don't attempt to dry celluloid 
film negatives with methylated 
spirit; they will shrink and buckle 
up into all manner of shapes. The 
advice to dry negatives by this 
means only refers to glass plates,- 
which can be treated without harm 
resulting. 



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April, 1914 SNAP SHOTS 69 

HOT WEATHER TROUBLES 

By U. L. Upson 

"The evil days draw nigh/' and ers in the States, which meant a 
it may not be amiss at this time to month or more of delay. I was en- 
tell readers how one amateur, a tirely at a loss as to how to proceed 
resident in the tropics, has avoided with the chemicals at my command, 
frilling, blisters, reticulation, and all when I came across a brief state- 
the ills to which the gelatine film ment, tucked away in one corner 
is heir, in a climate in which the of one of the booklets issued by a 
thermometer rarely or never regis- dry-plate manufacturer, to the ef- 
ters less than eighty degrees Fah- feet that prolonged immersion in 
renheit, and without the use of spe- fresh, strong chrome alum fixing 
cial appliances or chemicals. bath, with a short washing in run- 
When I first arrived on the Isth- ning water, would harden the film 
iiuis of Panama I was ill prepared and cause the negative to dry more 
either in knowledge or in equipment, rapidly. I tried it, and my troubles 
for the difficulties which are inci- were over, so far as negatives were 
dent to photography in this climate, concerned. 

It was the height of the "rainy I am an ardent advocate of tank 

season," and my first negatives, de- development, for plates as well as 

veloped and fixed in the manner in films, and, after a twenty-minute de- 

which I had always developed and velopment in a sixty-degree pyror 

fixed them in the States, were badly soda solution, my negatives are 

frilled and blistered, and required thoroughly rinsed and placed in a 

more than forty-eight hours to dry, chrome alum bath, prepared as fol- 

owing to the excessive amount of lows: A. 

moisture in the air. Furthermore, Pure water 128 oz. 

the roaches, water-bugs, and other Hypo 32 oz. 

crawling and flying things, seemed B. 

to take very kindly to the gelatine Water 32 oz. 

film and ate great holes in the nega- Sulphite soda, dry 2 oz. 

tives before they were dry. Sulphuric acid, C. P J^ oz. 

T saw at once that I would have Powd. chrome alum 2 oz. 

to adopt other means, and tried to This solution should be com- 

find in the magazines, booklets, pounded in the order given, and 

pamphlets and advertising sheets of "B" should be poured into "A," 



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April, 1914 



fimi and rubberlike to the touch. 
They are then placed in running 
water for fifteen minutes, careful 
watch being kept on them to see 
that they do not soften. However, 
if fixing bath has been properly pre- 
pared and has not become exhaust- 
ed by use, fifteen minutes in run- 
ning water will leave them firm and 
hard. 

Even in the damp atmosphere pre- 
vailing in this country for seven 
months of the year, 5x7 plates will 
dry in from eight to ten hours. 

After drying, all my negatives are 
heated, and a varnish, prepared as 
follows, is flowed over them : 

Eest grain alcohol 20 oz. 

Crushed dark shellac 1 oz. 

After placing shellac in alcohol 
the bottk containing it should be 
set aside for several days and shel- 
lac allowed to dissolve without heat. 
An occasional shaking will facili- 
tate this process. After the alco- 
hol has taken up all the shellac that 
it will, the clear solution should be 
poured off and two drams of oil of 
lavender added. 

This varnishing is not necessary 
for the preservation of negatives in 
many parts of the United States, 
but is absolutely essential, I find, in 
very moist atmospheres. 

I have demonstrated, to my own 
satisfaction, at least, that negatives 
fixed and washed as above will 
withstand the exposure to air fully 
as well as, if not better than, those 
fixed for fifteen minutes and washed 
for an hour or more, besides having 
the advantage of avoiding the 



softening of the film and.' the con- 
sequent prolonged period of dry- 
ing. Many of the negatives which 
I had taken, developed, and fixed 
in the manner generally in use in 
the United States have become dis- 
colored and unfit for use long 
since, in spite of the fact that they 
were varnished at the same time 
that I discovered the desirability of 
varnishing all negatives in this cli- 
mate. 

In conclusion, I wish to empha- 
size the necessity of using fresh, 
strong fixing bath, for in that and 
in the prolonged immersion therein 
is the whole secret of the avoid- 
ance of frilling, reticulation, and 
the like. It is false economy to 
save a few cents' worth of fixing 
bath and lose half a dozen or more 
valuable and hard-earned negatives. 
— Camera Craft. 



Measuring Drops 

It is often very diflftcult to meas- 
ure a certain number of drops of 
a solution, such as a 10 per cent, 
solution of potass, bromide from 
an ordinary bottle; this can, how- 
ever, be done quite easily and cor- 
rectly if, instead of the ordinary 
cork in the bottle there is substi- 
tuted one of the screw-top corks 
such as are found in scent or bril- 
liantiue bottles. The cork should 
be thoroughly washed in warm 
water to remove all traces of scent 
or brilliantine, and if the bottle is 
held steadily in a horizontal posi- 
tion the drops will come quite 
easily and at regular intervals. 



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71 



SOME FACTS ABOUT THE NATIONAL 
CONVENTION 



The National Convention to be 
beld June loth to 20th at Atlanta, 
Ga., promises to be one of the best 
the Photographers Association has 
ever held. 

The Picture Exhibit will be more 
than a showing of portraits. The 
pictures will be graded by the 
judges and all those rating above 
65% will be placed in the accepted 
class. All the prints will be hung 
and the judges will be in charge of 
the exhibit at all hours of the day, 
ready to give private criticism of 
the pictures to any one. This will 
enable every one to obtain specific 
information as to the judges' 
opinions of the relative value of the 
portraits and will be much more in- 
structive than a careless examina- 
tion of the exhibit. Never before 
has the opportunity been given to 
every one to secure the private 
criticism of competent judges. 
Twenty-five dollars will be paid for 
each of the best pictures (not to ex- 
ceed twenty in number) which will 
form the nucleus of a permanent 
salon. 

The manufacturers and dealers 
are preparing their exhibits of the 
new Fall styles and these with all 
the latest discoveries and inventions 
which benefit the profession will be 
on display. Educationally there is 
nothing in the country to equal this 
convention. Every one who attends 
may feel sure that he has up-to-date 
information on the newest and best 
things in photography. 



National publicity will be given 
this convention through the As- 
sociated Press and other media. 
This publicity will benefit the 
profession in every section of the 
country. 

Parcel post rate on photographs, 
revision of the fire insurance rates of 
studios, the licensing of photograph- 
ers and other live issues are ex- 
pected to be brought before the Con- 
gress of Photography for definite 
action. 

A special train is being arranged 
for the photographers of New York 
City and vicinity and one for the 
photographers of Chicago, also St. 
Louis. There will be a load from 
New England who will travel by 
water to Savannah, Ga., thence by 
rail to Atlanta. Two salesmen who 
made a 1,500 mile trip through the 
Southern States report that every 
photographer upon whom they 
called is planning to attend. Thu 
meeting place this year is one that 
will attract the men from the North, 
South, East and West. 

Photographers who want to grow 
in the profession cannot aflPord to 
miss this convention. The P. A. of 
A. is the one organization through 
which each photographer may 
secure the reforms which he would 
like to see accomplished but which 
he cannot bring about single 
handed. This is the year we all get 
together and make the Association 
strong enough to accomplish Na- 
tional reforms for the profession. 



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April, 1914 



Atlanta is 74 years old and was 
first called "Terminus," being: a little 
village at the end of the Western 
and Atlantic Railroad. About the 
time General Sherman reached At- 
lanta the population was 10,000. 
To-day it is 185,000 and the 200,000 



Atlanta is justly called the 
metropolis of the **New South." 

Atlanta is 1,050 feet above the sea 
level, at the foot-hills of the Blue 
Ridge Mountains. Part of its water 
drains to the Atlantic Ocean and 
part to the Mississippi River. There 




Copyright 1914 by International News Service. 
COL. GOETHALS RFXEIVING THE CIVIC 
FORUM MEDAL OF HONOR FROM STATE 
COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION JOHN H. 
FINLEY AT CARNEGIE HALL, NEW YORK 

CITY. 

Flashlight taken with .Sunlite Prosch powder 

(speed "F"), the grade recently endorsed and now 

used by the United States Cjovernment. 



mark will be reached in a short time. 

Atlanta has 200 miles of modernly 
equipped electric railway, 600 man- 
ufacturing plants and it covers 26 
square miles. 

It is reached by 13 railroads over 
which there daily run 136 pas- 
senger trains. 



is ahvays a breeze and a bracing at- 
mosphere. 

The reports of the United States 
Weather llureau show that the 
average temperature in June for the 
last 34 years has been 76 degrees; 
the highest temperature 98 degrees 
and the lowest 39 degrees. 



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73 



HOW TO MAKE GOOD IN THE PHOTOGRAPH 

BUSINESS 
By G. W. McLain 



Remember I am dealing with the 
professional, and not the kodak or 
photo cannon. The kodak is a good 
thing and does much that the or- 
dinary camera cannot do. Yet they 
all would be at the bottom of the 
sea with inventor, if some photog- 
raphers could have their say. '*How 
selfish mankind are?" The photo 
cannon you find working here and 
there, but the work is usually bad, 
often lasts but a few hours. Has 
any of these workers made any 
money clear of expense? In fact 
does the ordinary photographer 
make much above his expenses? 
Here are his drawbacks. Expense 
of opening up his place of busi- 
ness. Advertising and waiting, 
while rent, board and other expense 
keeps right on. Then when you get 
a shot, probably you miss and have 
to take it over. Then comes a proof 
to be criticised. It must be re- 
touched, ugly faces made pretty. 
Then the printing which may be too 
dark or too light. Mother is dis- 
pleased with baby's picture. The 
young Miss says "how horrid." 
Just try it for fifteen years, and if 
you escape the poor house and 
lunatic asylum both, you are a 
winner. To get the money make 
tin-types with a show. There is no 
wait. The show draws the crowd. 



Your patrons get their picture there 
and then. You get your money, and 
no worry. Besides every picture 
sent out is a walking advertisement. 
What? Tin-types not good, you 
say? They are, if made good by 
the wet plate process. First, deal 
with a good stock house. Second, 
have a good outfit. Third, where, 
and how to use it. 

A tent about 12x18 with a double 
skylight, set with the door to the 
south; use one at a time in clear 
weather, changing about 12 o'clock, 
using both on cloudy days and late 
in the evening. A wood dark- 
room 3x3j4, just high enough to 
clear your head. Place dark-room 
just inside to the left as you enter 
tent with door facing background. 
Opposite door have a sliding win- 
dow of yellow glass 8x10 : thus you 
get a good light in any kind of 
weather. 

Have the tent door split clear 
up to the top so as you can open one 
or both sides as you may need them. 
Have a shelf outside under window 
for oil stove and fixing tray. Un- 
der window on inside have your 
silver bath. Have other shelves for 
plates, collodion and developer. I 
did not intend this to be a book of 
instructions, you get that from your 
stock dealer. 



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THE FERROTYPE, AND HOW 

TO MAKE IT 

By E. M. EsUbrook 

I point out such as no one else 
gives you. Get a 5x7 Ferrotype 
camera fitted with 4^ Gem lenses. 
Get a piece of tin about 3x5, bend 
the edges in so it fits over the top 
or bottom lenses, so if you want to 
make four pictures leave tin off. If 
in a rush some only want two, cover 
two lenses, make the exposure, push 
in plate holder slide, change your 
tin and expose the other two on 
someone else. Cut some plates in 
two halves when in no rush ; if only 
two are wanted use a half -plate and 
two lower lenses. Our prices run 
as follows : Babies, no less than four 
taken, 50c. One person, **not 
babies," two for 30c. ; four for 50c. ; 
two together, two for 40c. ; four for 
75c. ; three or more together, two 
for 50c.; four for $1.00. Teams, 
houses, groups, etc., same price. 
Often we make groups of a dozen 
or more, each taking a picture at 
25c. each. 

And we could make four pictures 
about every 2 minutes. Now here is 
more the book doesn't give. It needs 
two men, one to take them, the other 
to finish, deliver and collect the 
cash. All done, I say, in about two 
minutes. In a rush keep a plate in 
silver bath all the time. Have your 
crowd waiting for the chair so as to 
grab it as soon as vacant. Operator 
pulls dark-room door to, takes plate 
from bath and puts it in holder, gets 
a focus, makes the exposure, flows 



another plate with collodion, puts it 
in bath, closes door, takes up de- 
veloper bottk, flows it over Ae ex- 
posed plate. As soon as die image 
comes oat, dome it 4ip and 4(hvii in 
a bucket of water that sits under the 
window. This must be done until 
the water will flow even without 
streaks. Slide window open and 
drop it in fixing bath. As soon as it 
clears up assistant washes it good in 
another bucket of water, dries it 
over his oil stove, flows varnish over 
plate, heats it good and hot so as to 
dry the varnish. Cut apart with a 
pair of shears, put in Ferrotype en- 
velopes and get the tin. Two 
buckets of water, in a rush, will do 
$30.00 or $40.00 worth of work. 
But, of course, good clean water 
when you can, for good clean per- 
manent work. Now as to profit on 
tin-types. We always counted 95c. 
clear out of every $1.00. How 
about this show privilege? It is an 
easy matter to get with any show or 
carnival. I was with Sun Bros. 
Circus one season. I have several 
openings every season, beginning 
about the 20th of April, closing 
November 1st. Professional or 
amateur. Free privilege, including 
board, transportation and rent. 



Don't, after filling your slides, 
open your darkroom door and leave 
your box of unexposed plates un- 
covered. How many experienced 
photographers have forgotten this, 
and how many plates wasted! 



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75 



FLASHLIGHT POINTERS 

Accurate Lighting vs. Guesswork 



Most flashlight operators simply 
pile on the powder — all the lamp 
will hold — and bang away no matter 
what the subject is. Of course, this 
is fine for the powder maker, for in 
this way the average operator uses 
about twice as much powder as he 
needs which he does not have to pay 
for. 

Now. I have wondered why such 
a photographer does not use more of 
the brains he was born with and 
study his subject, first — the color of 
the reflecting walls, shape of the 
room and its size — and then judge 
how many points of the light he will 
need, how much powder he will 
need at each point and at just what 
angle in height from floor, etc., and 
just what opening of the lens to give 
fully exposed (correctly exposed, 
not over or under) impression 
on the particular plate he is using. 
The best flashlight operators can 
train themselves to keep all of these 
things in mind if they will. Most 
of them just guess at it intuitively 
— more or less correctly. 

Years ago I suggested to the old 
Prosch Mfg. Co. that they could 
make a hit if they would solve this 
problem in some way. I suggested 
serving the powder to nervous oper- 
ators in tabloid form — in some fool- 
proof style — so that if any fluttering 
Miss Nancy should happen to break 
into our fold, he would not be so 
likely to blow out the front of a 
building by placing a whole box 



(2 oz.) of Victor, Agfa, or Sunlite 
special extra fast powder on a 75c. 
Caywood lamp, for instance. 

The result of my suggestion, I 
flatter myself, was the Prosch en- 
velope cartridge — followed by many 
near imitations in square covered 
oblong form to avoid the Prosch 
basic patents on their more simple 
and sensible form of cartridge. I 
have watched the development of 
this cartridge w^ith great interest, 
for I have used nothing else in my 
regular work. I will venture to say 
that the Prosch D-2 Electric cart- 
ridges have long been the standard 
for banquet and stage work — and 
very deservedly — for the busy op- 
erator has learned that he can al- 
ways count on their giving just the 
same amount of lighting every time 
under all conditions, so that with a 
certain plate at a certain lens aper- 
ture, wnth average colored walls he 
can figure accurately on a correct 
exposure by using one D cartridge, 
for instance, for each 25 square feet 
of floor space. No more guesswork 
for me! 

Otitfit for the Home Work.— I 
have been asking the Prosch people 
recently to supply a very urgent 
present need in designing an outfit 
for small flashbags for work in 
patrons' homes. We no doubt feel 
that this is coming to be a very im- 
portant part of our work which can- 
not be altogether done by daylight. 
Then the big flashbags designed for 



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the banquet halls where ceilings are 
high are not practical for the rooms 
in dwelling houses. Then again we 
cannot always find electricity in 
these homes. Did you say dry bat- 
teries? Not for me-! 

I will not monkey with any con- 
traption of dry batteries, storage 
batteries or paper caps for igniting 
flash powder where I need multiple 
points of light. I do not mean to 
imply that I am supplying the old 
Prosch concern with all or any large 
number of new ideas, but simply 
find this concern responds more 
readily to suggestions as to the 
needs of practical men such as I 
(very conceitedly perhaps) consider 
myself. Who am I ? Never mind, 
just "run along and sell your 
papers.'' We are discussing flash- 
light problems now, so listen with 
some degree of respect to an old 
timer who has not been blown sky- 
high yet. 

Let's see, I was talking about 
some small flashbags for home work 
suitable for our work in homes — 
that is, for amateurs and profes- 
sionals. Now the specifications I 
gave to the Prosch people as to what 
such bags should be and do are 
about as follows : they must be small 
so we can get the actual light as 
high as possible and as near the ceil- 
ing as possible without scorching it. 
They must be cheap enough so we 
can aflFord to have several of them, 
because not enough powder can be 
burned in any one of them. They 
must be all capable of being fired off 



simultaneously with absolute cer- 
tainty — without needing a house 
current of 110 volts to do it, and 
without having to carr>' a ton of 
dry batteries or storage batteries 
alone to do it — I mean, try to do it 
with certainty^ of failure. Now this 
is *'some stunt!" 

Now you just practise a little of 
"Doc" Wilson's ''watchful waiting* 
and see what these ver\' versatile 
Proschlite people evolve as a result 
of my suggestion. I can't tell many 
tales out of school — but you just 
watch for the next announcement. 

Orthochrotnatic June Weddings. 
— This sounds rather interesting, 
but I have no intention of applying 
any such epithet to the character, 
complexion or drapings of either 
brides or grooms — simply trying to 
reproduce all the gradations of 
color schemes in photographing 
wedding groups. If you can entice 
them into your studio where you 
have all the accessories, or out under 
the trees where nature can do won- 
ders for you — you will not need any 
suggestions. But if you have to 
take them indoors at their home or 
in church, use flashlight in flashbags 
of course. Use the best double 
coated Orthochromatic plates, and 
drape your flashbags with various 
colored fire-proofed fine gauze rang- 
ing from violet to yellow as needed 
to place your strongest and weakest 
lights where they will do the most 
good. You need not wait until June 
to do this — of course, get an out- 
fit now and practice during April. 



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77 



PERMANGANATE AS A HYjPO ELIMINATOR 



Potassium permanganate is a 
cheap salt, and a very little of it 
goes a long way in the removal of 
hypo. It can be kept in solution, 
but it is better to dissolve a little 
as it is required. One small crystal 
about the size of a split pea will 
make quite enough solution to pre- 
pare at once. It can be dissolved 
in an ounce or two of very hot wa- 
ter, as, although it immediately col- 
ors a large bulk of cold water into 
which it may be put, it is a long 
while dissolving altogether, whereas 
in hot it dissolves quickly. So lit- 
tle of the solution is needed, in 
proportion to the bulk of the cold 
water to which it is to be added, 
that there is no need to wait for it 
to cool. 

If it is a negative that is to be 
treated, it is first washed in several 
changes of water, draining it well 
between each, and is then placed in 
water colored slightly pink with a 
few drops of the permanganate so- 
lution, and the dish rocked. The 
pink color of the liquid will soon be 
found to change to a very pale 
brow^a, and when this is the case it 
must be poured away, dish and 
negative drained, and fresh pink 
solution poured over it. In this 
way we go on until the negative 



its pink color. When this is the 
case \^ know that the last traces 
of the hypo have been decomposed, 
and a rinse in one or two changes 
of plain water will complete the 
operation. — Photography. 



Don't think it an impossibility to 
photograph with a hand camera 
held above the head. It may some- 
times happen that this is the only 
way of securing a particular sub- 
ject. The camera should be held 
upside down, so that the view-finder 
can be seen by looking upwards 
into it. 

Don't leave your tripod screw be- 
hind. To keep it always attached 
to the tripod head is a wise pro- 
ceeding. Few things are more ex- 
asperating to the photographer on 
a ramble or tour than to find when 
about to set up his camera that his 
tripod screw is missing. 

Don't fail to bear in mind that 
the temperature has an important 
influence on development. In a 
high temperature the first appear- 
ance of the image and completion 
of development is considerably less 
than in a low one, so much so that 
in very cold solutions it is some- 
times impossible to obtain sufficient 



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April, 1914 



TRADE NOTES AND NEWS 



P. A. of A. Conz'itulioH. It is not too 
early to be jnakin^ plans to attend the 
national convention, to he held in At- 
lanta June ISth to 20th. The head- 
qoavters will be in iht Kolet Anstey, 
and the offieialc-of the National Asso- 
ciation are makings every effort to have 
this convention surpass all previous ones. 
Vou cannot afford to miss it. Details 
regarding the convention will be given 
in our pages from time to time. 



Photographic Dealers' Association, 
The Photographic Dealers' Association 
held their third annual convention at 
Chicago on March 24th to 27th. The 
convention was a success in every way. 
the attendance being over double what 
it was at the previous convention. There 
was a large exhibit of goods by the 
various camera and moving picture man- 
ufacturers. Many matters of interest 
to the photographic dealer were brought 
forward for discussion and considera- 
tion. The next convention is to be held 
in New York City, and the officers elect- 
ed for the ensuing year are president, 
E. H. Goodhart, of Atlanta, Ga.; first 
vice-president, H. M. Fowler, Cleve- 
land, Ohio; secretary, E. C. Cross, 
Louisville, Ky. ; treasurer, Geo. L. 
Kohne, Toledo, Ohio. 



Onns Print Shade. This is a conve- 

ni^nt arrangpmpnf fnr hnlHmg ^hp ^[p^ 

firm and for correctly exposing develop- 
ing paper. It is so constructed as to 
reduce by one-half the length of expos- 
ure to an ordinary gas jet. It also gives 
perfectly fine illumination over the entire 
negative. Supplied with a base which 
can be set on a table, or the shade itself 
can be placed over the gas jet. 



Novelty Foregrounds. Our advertiser, 
A. H. Siple, Cleveland, Ohio, has vari- 
ous attractive and money-making acces- 
sories. Write to him for descriptive 
circular and price list. Don't forget to 
mention you saw it in Snap Shots. 



Home Portrait Lamp. The agents of 
the new Eagle Home Portrait and Stu- 
dio Lamp advise us that the sale of this 
lamp has been such that they have been 
able to manufacture them in very much 
larger <iuantities, and they have, there- 
fore, been able to reduce the price from 
$50.00 to $40.00. At this low price you 
should certainly investigate the merits 
of this lamp. It is ideal for home por- 
trait work, as the entire outfit is very 
light and packs into a small space. It 
can be attached to any electric light 
socket. It is fitted with a collapsible 
reflector and light diffuser, making it 
possible for you to get just the effect 
desired. Equally useful in the studio. 



M ail-Order Catalogue, George Mur- 
phy, Inc., New York, have through 
their retail department just issued a 
complete photographic mail-order cata- 
logue. It is unique in that it gives the 
price of any photographic article landed 
at your door. If you have not one of 
these catalogues send them your name 
and ask for their No. 14 Tariff Changed 
Mail-Order Cash Catalogue. 



Platinotype and Satista Papers. The 
manufacturers, Willis & Clements, of 
Philadelphia, advance as an argument 
for their use that they can be worked 
in the open: that you can do better 
work^ eniftx ^better health and work in 
the open, than in the stuffy darkroom in 
gaslight papers. They have a special 
offer on Satista to introduce same. 
Write to them for particulars. 



No Slip Mask. This is a new style 
of printing mask intended for film nega- 
tives. It does away entirely with the 
slipping of the negative when placing the 
paper in position in the printing frame, 
which is a frequent occurrence with all 
other masks. It also does away with all 
bad and ill-shaped edges, leaving a neat 
white border all around the print. The 
mask is made with pockets in the four 



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April, 1914 



SNAP SHOTS 



79 



comers into which the iilm is slipped. 
Packed in sets of three masks. 



Mmimg B m m rd, The ceUular board 
need %y Ac Thompson & Norris Com- 
pany 4n manufacturing their Photo- 
mailer possesses remarkable resistance, 
and is at the same time very light. It 
is just the thing for protecting all kinds 
of packages in shipment. It can be used 
to advantage in a great many ways. It 
can be furnished in any size you desire. 
Write to them for particulars. 



Tele centric Lens. The new Ross 
Telecentric Lens, in addition to being 
a rapid long-distance lens giving en- 
larged images at high speed, is also an 
ideal inexpensive portrait lens for 5x7 
plate work. It can be used at full 
aperture and is sufficiently rapid for all 
requirements. The long focus gives 
good prospective and insures the most 
pleasing results. Write to the Amer- 
ican agents for further particulars. 



Quick-Set Metal Tripod. The manu- 
facturers have recently improved this 
special line of metal tripods, and are 
now furnishing same in a nickel-plated 
tubing which gives this tripod a very 
handsome appearance. It is superior to 
all other metal tripods in that it can be 
adjusted very quickly, is very rigid when 
extended, compact when closed, and can 
be adjusted to any height desired. It 
has no projecting parts, and the lock is 
so constructed that it is impossible to 
slip under pressure. 



F. & 5". Professional Printer. This 
printer is one of the latest productions 
of the Folmer & Schwing Division of 
the Eastman Kodak Company. It is a 
printer that will give you satisfaction. 
It is operated by a foot treadle leaving 
both hands perfectly free to adjust the 
paper and negatives. It has two large 
folding leaves which afford ample room 
for paper, negatives and finished work. 



It is fitted with nine Mazda lamps, and 
the current is only on during exposure. 
Send to the manufacturers for circuhtr 
giving -further particulars. 



Royal Foreground Ray Screen. This 
is the only ray screen ever invented 
which will give an even, equal exposure 
to both sky and foreground, and will 
produce perfect cloud effects instanta- 
neously with ordinary plates. It is made 
in all sizes to fit any lens. Prices range 
from $1.50 to $6.00. Write our adver- 
tiser for booklet giving full description. 



Wynne's Infallible Exposure Meter, 
The American agents for these cel- 
ebrated meters wish us to announce that 
they have made a reduction in the list 
price from $2.50 to $2.25. They are able 
to do this on accotmt of tariff changes. 
This reduction in price should tend to 
make these meters even more popular 
in the future than they have been in the 
past. They are as their name implies, 
"infallible." 



Riverside Mount. The Riverside 
Mount described in this issue by our 
advertiser, George Murphy, Inc., is a 
rich slip-in view mount. It is something 
out of the ordinary run. It is fur- 
nished in two colors suitable for any 
style of printing. This firm makes a 
specialty of manufacturing exclusive de- 
signs for photographers. Write to them 
for samples. 



Autotype Carbon Tissue. The Amer- 
ican agents report a gratifying increase 
in the demand for carbon materials, es- 
pecially in the amateur sizes. They also 
state that they are having a large de- 
mand at present for the new photo- 
gravure tissues G.4 and G.5, which are 
prepared especially for rotary photo- 
gravure printing. This is being adopted 
by all of the leading newspapers for 
their colored supplement work. 



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8o 



SNAP SHOTS 



April, 1914 



STUDIO WANTS 






Galleries for Sale or Rent 

W. A. J. & S., gallery, New York State 
for rent. 

P. H. McC, gallery, Long Island, for 
rent. 

W. C. W., gallery, N. Y. City, for rent. 

C. F. M., two galleries in New Jersey. 

D. F. M., gallery in New York City, 
$3,000. 

F. S. W., on Long Island, $900. 
W. C. O., gallery in New Jersey. 

Parties Desiring Galleries 

G. K. wants gallery in small city. 

R. S. G., wants gallery in small city. 
C. B. S., wants gallery in N. Y. City. 



Positions Wanted — Oferators 
F. A. H., general, all-aroutf^^* 
^1* J- Q) general, all-arOtttHle^ 
C. M., general, all-around. 
E. R. T., general, all-around. 
J. C, general, all-around. 

Positions Wanted — Retouchers; Recep- 
tionists 

Miss C. P., spotting; finishing. 
Mrs. H., retoucher; colorist. 
Miss F*. L., retoucher; spotter. 
Miss C. B., colorist. 

Studios Desiring Help 

R. H. R.. good operator. 

C. H. P., operator, all-round 

\V. A. S., wants operator. 

J. T. H., wants all-around man. 

L. J. S., wants all-around man. 

S., wants operator. 



Votio«— Letteri addreiied to anyone in our care thoold be accompanied with stamp 
for each letter 10 that they can be re-mailed. 



SEND YOUR SUBSCRIPTION NOW 

Our Year expires January 1st and we want your Renewal. $1.00 per year. 
Photographic news from every section is worth five times our subscnp^tion 
price. 

OUR SPECIAL CLUBBING LIST 
We offer the Special Clubbing List of Snap Shots with American and ^<iS* 
lish Annuals and the English Journals. A combination that gives to the A*^*^" 
ican photographer photographic news that combined gives him the ^*^" 
covering the English-speaking photographic world: 
1 year's Snap Shots with American Annual of Photography (1914 paper 

edition) ^1^ 

1 year's Snap Shots with 1 year's subscription to British Journal of Pho- 
tography 9^ ^ 

Snap Shots and 1 year's subscription to Photography and Focus (Eng.) ^^ 
Snap Shots and 1 year's subscription to Amateur Photography and Pho- 
tographic News (English) ^-^ 

SNAP SHOTS PUB. CO. 57 East 9th St., New '^^^^ 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Ixv 



POSITIONS OFFERED and WANTED, FOR SALE, 
TO RENT, WANT to PURCHASE, EXCHANGE, fcc- 



it^-- 



Announcements under these and similar headings of fort^ words or lets, will be inserted 
for forty cents. For each additional word, one cent Displayed advertisements 00 cents 
per inch. Cash mnst accompany order. When replies are addressed to our care, 10 cents 
at least must be added to cover probable postage on same to advertiser. Advertisenient* 
should reach us by the 20th to secure insertions in the succeeding issue. A copy of the 
Journal sent free to every advertiser as long as the "ad" is continued. Advertisement* in 
Snap Shots bring prompt returns. 



AN ADVERTISEMENT IN THESE COLUMNS 

fg an ezcelleat and safe medium of commtmlcatton between Photographen 



For Sale: One of the finest oppor- 
tunities for a young couple. My 
studio at New London, Conn. Would 
you accept a Ford Touring Car and a 
line Hunter's Cabin Power Boat, free 
of charge, if you find my studio was 
a bargain at $1,200 cash? Write and 
I will give you particulars. F. L. 
Hale, Box 339, New London, Conn. 

Position Wanted by an all-around 
man, good retoucher and operator. 
Address, R. R. 

For Sale: Studio and Amateur Sup- 
ply Business in the best spot in town 
of 16,000. No competition. Had an 
income of 15 per cent over 1912 last 
year. Good reasons for selling, and 
will sell cheap to a quick buyer. Ober 
Studio, P. O. Building, New Brighton, 
N. Y. 

For Sale: A splendid Studio for one 
wanting to go to a high altitude for 
their health, and also make good 
money. Old established studio at 827 
Sixteenth Street (positively the best 
location in Denver). Newly fur- 
nished and right up to date. This 
proposition can be handled with $850 
cash and $600 private notes. Ex- 
penses to Denver paid if not as de- 
scribed. Write for description, etc., 
to J. C. Cooley, 1526J4 Champa St., 
Denver. Col. 

Rare Bargains in Books: Marton's 
Modem Methods of Carbon Printing 
— the best book ever published on the 
process. Printed on fine paper, 260 
pages, regular price $2.50; bargain 
price (while they last) paper, $1.00; 
cloth, $1.50. A hundred-page book 
on up-to-date methods of painting 
and coloring photographs, price $1.50. 
Bargain price while they last, 50 
cents. Marton's Carbon Studio, Bloom- 
ington, 111. 

When writing adTertisert 



For Sale: Studio fitted to 8x10 
Heliar lens, printing machine. Low 
rent, established thirty-four years 
ago. Good business. Reason for sell- 
ing, blindness. M. H. Razzouk, 315 
Main St., Holyoke, Mass. 

Studio for Sale in Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa. City of 80,000 with a drawing 
community of double the population. 
Low rent, located in center of city, 
doing a good business and high-class 
work with good prices. Reason for 
selling, wife wants to leave city. 
F. Franklin Seiwell, Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa. 



Wanted: Position that can talk and 
and would like to travel. References 
required. Address R. 

Position Wanted: Young man, 
thirty years old; sixteen years' expe- 
rience as operator and printer — good 
clean workman, and a sticker — de- 
sires position. A commercial studio 
preferred. Salary $24.00. Phtog- 
rapher. Box 117, Rowayton, Conn. 

"A $2,000 Per Year Salary and 
Profit": Excellent proposition for 
man with family. Only studio in 
town; ground floor; pojp. 6,000, also 
modern single home, three blocks 
from studio. Value of combination 
$7,300. Quick sale price $5,000. Part 
cash, balance mortgage. Absolutely 
a great bargain. Address 500. care 
Snap Shots. 

Great Opportunity — A neat gallery 
in New York City, in a fine location; 
established seven* (7) years; is offered 
for sale at $2,500 to a prompt cash 
buyer. Address G. F. M., care Geo. 
Murphy, Inc., No. 57 East Ninth street. 
New York. j 

pleftM mention Smap Shoti. igitized by VjjOOSIC 



>8' 



Ixvi 



SXAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



For Sale; A well-located, well-fur- 
nished photo studio in New Yoiic 
City» in prominent tfaottrnghhire. 
Owner desires to sell on account of 
other business interests. Price, $3,500; 
lease, three years; rent, $2,150 per 
year. To a good photographer a fine 
opening,, but letters must be addressed 
in. our care-and will br answered only 
as the owner decides. Address *'D. 
F. M.," care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: An Aristo Lamp, 220 
volts, direct current, 25 amperes. 
Complete, boxed ready for shipment. 
$35. Address, M. G., care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: Photo studio, best loca- 
tion in the heart of the city. Doing 
good business; good surrounding 
country. Established over thirty years. 
Studio worth about $3,000, but will 
sell for less m cash. Reason for sell- 
ing is on account of other business. 
All letters must be addressed to Tony 
Leo, 5 West Main St., Middletown 
N. Y. 

For Sale: One 18x22 Anthony Ma- 
hogany Reversible Back Studio Cam- 
era, double bellows, curtain slide 
holder with stand, in good condition. 
Price, boxed ready for shipment, $45. 
One 14x17 Reversible Back View 
Camera with two double holders in 
very good condition. Price, boxed 
ready for shipment, $32.00. Address, 
R. N., care Snap Shots. 




THE REFLECnWG COWDDISER 

Works <m house current— mazda buO), and 
Enlgirge« Quickly 

in. Reflector for 6x7 necati^ei, takes 
160 watts, Price $8.00; 16 in. for 8x10 
260 watts $16.00. For Orcular on home 
made enlarcer, time table etc. write to 
R. D. Gray, tidgewood, I. J. 



STOP!! LOOK!! 

Have you a camera you wish to sell or 
exchange? Write us. We have been 
in the exchange business for twenty 
years and are known all over the 
country as THE LEADER. 

WRITE for our NEW No. i8 
BARGAIN LIST. It's a HUMMER. 

NEW YORK CAMERA EXCHANGE 



lltH FILTOI IfREET 



REW IIRK 

When writing advertisers 



■AM ■■■tfiTmnaiainf *- 



FOR 

We sofw haw 
refttRiar.to^ the Oet y r 
as prei^tf«d for tne 



svapiifo 
factory. 



ymyuMi. FricM boxed, at 



QEOIIQK HURPHV. Ino. 
•7 Kast Ninth St., Hmw Y«rk 



Wynne 'Mnffallible" 
Exposure Meter 

Yon let the OKE icale and 

the Meter does the rest 

Bise of a Watch, Flti the Pocket 

SIMPLE, COBBECT 




Poitpaid 
For F or XTniform Syitem, Nickel 1^.25 

For Focal Plane ^-W 

BiWer JO® 

BlWer, Gem tise '-W 

Print Meter 8W 

Bend for Detailed Lilt 

AMERICAN AGENTS 

QEORQB MURPHY, lac. Retail Dept. 

S7 EAST NINTH STREET. NEW YORK 



Art Studies 

PHOTOGRAPHS FROM LIFE MODELS 

Finest Collection for Artists 
and Art Lovers 



lifustnited Catalogue seat free oa 



C. KLARY 



m Atcow de Vniien 

igitize 
please mention Snaf Shots. 



Q PARIS (HUNCE; 



fKJWlSL 



SNAP SHOTS— AD\KRTISEMENTS 



Ixvii 



Riverside Mount 



ROYAL FAWN AND LIGHT GRAY 




The "RIVERSIDE" is a rich slip-in Mount. The mat stock 
is embossed in rough pattern tinted around the openini^ with 
a neat plate mark. For Horizontal pictures this is what 
you need. 

Per lOO 
BH Card ii x lo For Square Horizontal Photographs 

5x7 $6.50 

DH Card 14 x 14 For Square Horizontal Photographs 

8 X 10 10.00 

(Packed twenty-five in a box.) 



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Ixviii 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



^^ AUTOTYPE CARBON 

TISSUES 



AUTOTYPK. 



IMPORTANT TO AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHBRS 

TRIAL SETS OF CARBON PRINTING 
MATERIALS 

In order to combat the erroneous notion, somewhat preva- 
lent amongst Amateur Photographers, that a trial of the 
Carbon Process necessarily entails the expenditure of a con- 
siderable sum on costly apparatus, the Autotype Company 
have decided to introduce cheap trial sets of the absolutely 
essential materials, particulars of which are appended. 

In these cheaply-priced outfits it is, of course, impKDSsible 
to include developing washing or fixing tanks. For purely 
experimental purposes, however, some of the ordinary house- 
hold crockery will serve as a makeshift, and the bathroom will 
be found a not altogether unsuitable apartment for carrying 
on operations. 

PRICES OF TRIAL SETS 

Outfit No. I ; $1.50 

Outfit Complete for 5 x 7 5.00 

Outfit for 8 x 10 7.00 



New introductions suitable for the Copper Intaglio Print- 
ing Process for the production of Illustrations. 

In bands of 30 inches wide, 12 feet long. Tissue of 36 
inches can be furnished if desired, as in many cases 36 inches 
avoids waste. 

Per Band 

Photagravure Tissue G, 3 for flat bed printing, 30 inches |^40 

Photogravure Tissue G, 4 for Rotary Gravure Printing, 30 inches 6.40 
Photogravure Tissue G, 5 for Rotary Gravure Printing, 30 inches 0.40 
Photogravure Tissue G, 4 for Rotary Gravure Printing, 36 inches 8.00 
Photogravure Tissue G, 5 for Rotary Gravure Printing, 36 inches 8.00 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Ixix 



Photographic Success Spelled 
With Five Letters 

DYNAR F-6 




So much depends on the lens that 
one may fairly say that your very 
success depends on it. 

Take the Dynar, for instance. There 
is no denying that its efficiency is far 
greater than the best rapid recti- 
linear. In the first place it has dou- 
ble the speed at full aperture, where 
there is no comparison between the 
covering power and definition of the 
two lenses. Indeed, in order to equal 
the Dynar in this respect, your recti- 
linear must be stopped down to F 16. 
making the Dynar just eight times as 
efficient. That is about the right 
ratio; is it any wonder so many ama- 
teurs prefer the Dynar — a high-grade 
but moderate-priced anastigmat? 

Sold in cells that fit all modern 
shutters. 

31^x51/2 or 4x5 cells. $25.00 
Catalog on Request 

Voiytlander S Sohn 

240-208 East Ontario St., Chicago 
225 Fifth Ave, New York 

WORKS 

Brunswick, Oermany 

CftBadiAn Agents — Hnpfeld, Ludecking ft Co., 

Montreal, Can. 



Mr. Post Card Man 

DO YOU WANT 

To Make More Money? 

Would You 
lovest $5.M? 



Made in 
your Cam- 
era with 
one Expo- 



Shipped 
Pipe Drbam Prepaid 

Novelty Foreground and Accessories .ire 
money makers. Write for descriptive 
circular and price lisL 
Made by 

A. H. SIPLB 

1328 E. Il7th Street CLeVELAND, 0. 




Do You Use 

Your Camera 

In Nature? 

If 80, write at once to 

"Tttllfllilii to nature" 

Edited by EDWARD F. BIGELOW. 

Seod 10c for copy 

It can aid you and you can aid it. 

That's it— co-operation for the good of 
the Cause. 

The co-operation as well as the incor- 
poration is 

Tha Agassiz Association, Inc. 

ArcAdIA 
Sound Beach, Cooo«cttcut 

jigitized by VjO 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



o^l( 



Ixx 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Malted Free 

Our New No. 14 Tariff Changed 

I 

Mail Order Cash Catalogue 

is just oflf the press. Send us your name and wc will 
gladly mail you a copy. 

QEORQE MURPHY, Inc., ""^L^ 



57 E«L8t Ninth Street 



NEW YORK 






m 





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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS Ixxi 




tsa 




to work in the open with Platinotype and Satista papers. 
If y|)u wish to do better work, enjoy better health and 
greater happiness, give up your stuffy dark room and 
"gaslight" papers, and send for our booklets on 
Platinotype and Satista — the daylight, fresh air papers. 

Sample prints on either paper on receipt of your 
name and address. 

N. B. — ^The special offer on Satista continues. 

WILLIS & CLEMENTS 

PHILADELPHIA 



You Can Take Pictures on a Day Like This ! 

That h, if your lens is right. The lens h tlic soul of your camera. Ordinary Ictiscs 
^ill take ordinary pictures under /avaraMe conditions* Are you satisfied with tliat ? 
Or would you like the hesi results under aii conditions? If so, you should know the 

GOERZ LENSES 

Universally used by war photographers and professional?, who must 
be sure of their results, T/icj can eanfy be fiiied io (he ctimera 
jou n&w awn. 

Send for Our Book on '' Lenses and Catmeras" 

*'i llie greatest vakie \*t an}' one interested 
in g^xtd pliDtcigrapliy. 



r« It #* 




Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Ixxii 



SNAP SHOTS— AU\1£RT1SEME\TS 



^ 



VB]_OUR B 



CK 



Th« BriUianl Portrait EnlArging Paper 
Convenient Speed Bright Shadows Soft High LiglitB 

LIGHT WEIGHT 

Made in Velvet, Semi Matte, Matte, and Rough Surfaces. 

DOUBLE WEIGHT 

Made in Velvet, Matte, Rough, Buff and Buff Matte. 

UOHT WKMHT DOUBLE WrONT 

■ Fainn: 

LMpv 




mx byi 
(Cabinet) 
4x6 


$0.S6 


$0.16 


$0.06 


$0.07 


$0.30 


$0.18 


$0.05 


fO.07 


.26 


.16 


.06 


.07 


.30 


.18 


.05 


.07 


4x6 


.30 


.18 


.06 


.07 


.80 


.18 


.06 


.07 


5x7 


.40 


.24 


.05 


.07 


.45 


.27 


.05 


.07 


6x8 


.4^ 


.27 


.05 


.07 


.50 


.30 


.07 


.09 


6x8 


.60 


.30 


.05 


.07 


.65 


.39 


.07 


.09 


6j4x 8J4 


.60 


.86 


.05 


.07 


.76 


.45 


.07 


.09 


7x9 


.66 


.42 


.05 


.07 


.80 


.48 


.07 


.09 


8 xlO 


.80 


.48 


.05 


.07 


1.00 


.60 


.07 


.09 


10 xl3 


1.20 


.72 


.08 


.13 


1.50 


.90 


.08 


.13 


11 xl4 


1.60 


.96 


.08 


.13 


2.00 


1.20 


.08 


.13 


14 xl7 


2.40 


1.44 


113 


.21 


3.00 


1.80 


.13 


.21 


16 x20 


3.20 


1.92 


.14 


.25 


4.00 


2.40 


.14 


.25 


18 x82 


4.00 


2.40 


.15 


.29 


5.00 


3.00 


.15 


.29 


20 x84 


4.80 


2.88 


.16 


.33 


6.00 


3.60 


.16 


.3} 



Retail MurpHv9 I«c., gS£i,.^t 

OT Ekist NintK Street NEnV YORK 

Sen^for New Tariff Changed No. 14 Mail-Order Cash Catalogue 






««TH^ 



HIGGINS' 



Have an excellence pecoUarl j their 
own. The best results are onlj 
produced by the best methods and 
means— the best results in Photo- 
graph, Poster and other mounting 
can only be attained by using the 
best mounting paste — 

HIGGINS' PHOTO MOUNTER 

(Bxoelleiit novel brash with eaeh JacO 



At Dealem In Photo SuyifUmm, 
Artiste' MatoriAls bud i 



A S-oa. jar Drex>ald bv mall for St eMSa 

, Google 



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>8' 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Ixxiii 



(Patented) 



NOSLIP PRINTING MASK 

FOR PKIlfTIlfG FILM ffCGATlVES 

The Noslip Printing Mask is 
the latest improvement in print- 
ing masks. It does away en- 
tirely with the slipping of the 
negative when placing the paper 
in position in the printing frame 
which frequently occurs with all 
of the old style masks. It does 
away with all bad and ill-shaped 
edges, leaving a neat even white 
border all around the print. This 
mask has pockets in the four 
corners into which the film is 
slipped. Full directions with 
eacn set of masks. Each set 
consists of three masks, one for 
post cards and one each wjth 
oval and square opening the size 
of the negative film. 

No. 4— For Z 14x6 1/2 FUm Neya- 
tivei, per let, 50 centi Poitpaid. 

OEOKQB MURPHY, Inc., g?,S' 57 East 9lh St., New York City 





The Weighmeter 

The Latest 
Photographic Discovery 

Indlipensable to pbotorraphers, ohemiits, 
phyticUni. or anyone enyaged in weigh- 
lag chemicals. 

The Weighmeter instantly indicates by 
one turn of the dial exactly what weights 
are to be used on the scale for any given 
formula. Saves time, trouble, annoyance, 
and opportunities for errors in making the 
usual computations. Beautifully printed in 
two colors on ivory celluloid, and of just 
the right size to fit the vest pocket. 

Price BOc, poitpaid. 

ClEX>RCaE: MURPHY, Iito. 

RKTAIL DIPARTMIIIT 

57 EMt 9th StrMt NKW YORK 



Simplify the Work in Year Printing Hoom! 






The half dozen different papers you believe you have to use now to do justice to 
your various negatives, upset your printers, cause waste, delay, and give poor prints 
after all! 

'iiS' BLACK UUREL 

It takes care of all of your negatives and of all your work — ^black and white and sepias. 






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Ixxiv 




SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Bogue Enlarging Lamp 

Enlarging Made EASY— PERFECT 

Type "G" Made for Direct or Alternating Current 

REDUCES EXPOSURE 

8 10 Ampere— 110 Volt— Direct $40.00 

3 10 Ampere— 110 Volt— Direct, with Hood... 45.00 

FOR 220 VOLT— DIRECT 
Single Lamps on 220 Volt Will Require Extra 

Rheostat. Price $10.50 

Two Lamps on 220 used in Series will not require an 
extra Rhegstat 

FOR ALTERNATING CURRENT 

Lamps for Alternating- 110 Volt $45.00 

Lamps for Alternating- 110 Volt, with Hood. . 50.00 

When Volt is 220 Alternating and Lighting Com- 
pel riics cannot transform, Extra Rheostat will be 
iictded. 
Rheostats $10.50 

With the Bogue Arc Lamp, enlarging on all papers 
h tit the command of the operator. 

GEORGE MURPHY. Inc. 

57 Cast Ninth StrMt NEW YORK 



Pyrogallic 4cid 



The relative merits of the various photographic developers may be 
discussable, but if a photographer decides to employ PYROGALLIC 
ACID, he should insist upon his dealer supplying the 

«M. C. W." Brand 



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HMation is done away with — the cause 
removed J in 

EASTMAN 
PORTRAIT FILMS 

For Studio or Home Portraiture. 



Portrait Films have all the speed, gradation and fineness of 
grain of the best portrait plate made, the Seed Gilt Edge 30, and 
in addition a non-halation quality so perfect that it preserves every 
delicate light and shadow within the whitest drapery — so perfect 
that negatives may be made directly against a window without 
a trace of halation. 

The light flexible, unbreakable film base also reduces 
weight, prevents loss and facilitates handling. 

May be retouched or etched on 
either side or on both sides. 

No special skill required for manipuktion. Listed: 5x7, 
63^ x8K, 8x 10, 11 X 14. 

PRICE-SAME AS SEED 30 PLATES. 



special illustrated circular at your dealers or bv mail. 



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Ixxvi SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 

The paper you use determines the real 
character of the print. And the character 
of the print determines its worth to the 
customer — the price it will command. 

EASTMAN 

OR 

PLATINUM 

Yields prints of a distinctive quality 
and richness that are readily appreciated 
by discriminating patrons. 




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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Ixxvii 



I 



From Depth to Delicacy! 

Hammer's Orthochromatic Plates interpret every tone of 
color value from solid mass to dainty detail of exquisite 
coloring. They work with great speed and sparkle with 
brilliancy. 

Hammer's Special Extra Fast (red label) and Extra Fast 
(blue label) Plates for all-round work. 




Hammer's little book, ''A Short Talk on Negative Making," 
mailed free. 

HAMMER DRY PLATE COMPANY 

Ohi* Av*. and Miami St. St. Louis, Ma. 



V 



C P» Nitrate Silver Crystals 
Pure Chloride Gold 






For Photosfraphcn^ Aristo 
Paper and Dry Plate Makers 



Chemicalsfor Photo Engraving and the Arts 






All Kinds of Silver and Gold 
Waste Refined 



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IXXVIll 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Orvis Print 5hade 

WITH BASE 

A most convenient arrangennent for the home. 
It enables one to correctly expose their 1). O. I*, 
prints. The shade is so constructed that it re- 
flects the light so as to reduce by one-half the 
length of exposure to an ordinary gas jet. It 
also gives a perfectly even illumination over the 
entire negative. 

By means of the base it can be set on the table 
in a convenient position. It is only necessary to 
attach by a gas tube the base to the gas jet. 

Onrit refleotinff Print Bluide 

with Base $1.85 Poitpaid 

Prnlt Shade Only (to fit 

over gat Jet) 68 Postpaid 

OEOROE MURPBY, lac. ^„^ 

57 East Ninth St. New Vork 





'K'^wchinft and l^> 



EAQLE MARL 

For Operator, Printer. Retoucher 

Is an invaluable aid to operator, printer 
and retoucher. For working in shadows 
and backgrounds on the negative it has no 
equal. Invaluable for blocking out and 
vignetting. Far superior to any opaque. 
Sold in glass jars with metal screw top. 
Price, per jar $0.75 postpaid 



QEORQE MURPHY, Inc. K^^„. 



57 East Ninth Street 



New Yorit City 




I Sepia Pillocloth 



A cloth which gives a Sepia tone in 
the followinx colors: 

No. 1 Gold No. 4 White 

No. 3 Yellow No. 5 Purple 
No. 8 Pink No. 6 Green 

Simple to use — simply wash in cold 
water and fix in Hypo. Will keep in- 
definitely. Age does not affect it be- 
fore or after printins. Just the thing 
for Pillow tops, table covers, lambre- 
quins, etc. 

Postpaid 

3Vj X 4% can of 12 sheets.. $ .50 

3^^ X 6J4 can of 12 sheets.. .55 

4 X 5 can of 12 sheets.. .55 

5x7 can of 12 sheets.. 1.00 

dVi x Syi can of 12 sheete. . 1.60 

8 X 10 can of 12 sheets.. 2.00 

12 x 36 can of one sheet.. .70 

18 X 18 can of one sheet . . .55 

20 X 20 can of one sh«et.. .70 

20 X 24 can of one .sheet.. 1.00 

18 X 36 can of one sheet . . l.l<^ 



QEORQE MURPHY, Inc., Reuii ikp«t>eK, 57 East Nlotb Street, New Vork 



When writing advertisers please mention Snat'^^^ts.^^ 



KJKJKJWISL 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS Ixxix 




Olympia 
View Mount 



A CAPITAL mounting (or 
^ "^ nonzontal or vertical pnoto- 
gfrapks insertecl beneatk a mat. It 
is made (or 5x7, 6ix8i, 6x10 
and 8x10 prints. Xliick bevelecl 
card, "With cut-out mat, in a har- 
monious tint, decorated witk tne torder and (rame design around tte 
opening. A winner (or view work. Tke prices will interest you. 
Write for free sample and information to 

A. M. COLLINS MFG. COMPANY 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 




The "FAVORITE" 

INTERIOR BENCH 

ACCESSORY 

The No, 3086 B Interior Bench 

Pnce IJ5.00 
Critcd F. O. B,, New York 

Artistic Photographic Chairs, 
Benches, Balustrades, Pedes- 
tals, and Special Accessories 



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Ixxx 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



EAQLE HOME PORTRAIT 
AND STUDIO LAMP 




The Eagle Home Portrait and Studio Lamp is the most 
perfect and compact lighting device ever offered for photo- 
graphic use. It is ideal for home portrait use, as the entire 
outfit is very light and packs into a small space. It can be 
attached to practically any electric light socket, as it will 
work on either direct or alternating current from no to 220 
volts. Fitted with a collapsible reflector and light diffuser. 
it is possible to get just exactly the effect you are after. 

The length of exposure, of course, depends on the ^^^^e 
and the color of the room, the lens and stop used. Exposures 
vary from a fraction of a second upward. 

Be independent of sunlight by getting an Eagle Home 
Portrait and Studio Lamp, and you can make exposure^ at 
any time of the day or night, and under all conditions. The 
lamp can be used in fireplaces with or without sunlight, anJ 
most beautiful effects produced. In fact there is no cTid 



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Ross Telecentric Lens For Portraiture 




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If you want every 
result to count, use 





>C?1T^ 




The paper zvithout a 
disappointment. 





ARTURA DIVi:_ 

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TRADEnRRK 



HO S60S7 REQl STER-ED 



tUlr 






-CT 



May. 1914 




/ 



• CONTENTS 

Lantern Slides by Physical 

Development - - - SI 

Flashlight Pointers - - S3 

Blocking Out Thin Skies to 

Print White - - - S5 

Plate and Print Washing - 87 

Photography at The Pan- 
American Exposition - 90 

Some Successful Lantern 
Slide Toners and How 
to Use Them - - - 93 

How Shall We Develop - 95 

Trade Notes and News - - 9ii 

Studio Wants .... 100 







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Here Is A Material That You Will Find 
Useful In Your Business 




Our CKLLLLVk ISOARD ib 
maiiufaciuref] by >pccial pr*»ccss 
and ^rive-i maximiini strenj^ih aiitl 
rests t.incc ai iiitriimiim weighs 

This- stock i& a sptfcially |>rt*- 
l»arc(J double faced corrugated, 
and can be use<l for any ^ nriety 
of purposes. 



Showing- CoDitrnctlon of Cellular 

Vi>n wnuld find it very handy to 
bjivf sheets t»i thi!. material in 
y^^nr stndi*> t(» tut up as nicasi^n 
required. 

Can be nsed tn excellent afl van- 
tage for protect in ji all kinds oi 
packages in the mails, etc. 

Space limits us in 
descriliin.i4 its many 
uses, 



SEND FOR PAR- 
TTCULARS. 





Larg-e Untrimmed Sheet of Cellulfir Bo&rd 
and Stack of Sheets Cut to Sfie 



The Thompson & Norris Co. 

Concord and Prinoa Streets 

Address Department 6 BROOKLYN, N. V. 

BostOH, Miss.; Ireokville, Ind.; iiioara Fills, Ciitadi; 
Ltadon, Enolaiii; Jitlich, Gernvany. 



Di( 



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k- 



THE NEW 

Ross "Telecentric" Lens 

(PATENT) 

Qivinjc Critical Definition at Full Aperture 




Tele-Photography with Focal Plane Shutter Ex- 
posures. Large Image at Short Camera Extension 

AN IDEAL LENS FOR 
SPORTING EVENTS 

VERY SUITABLE FOR 
PORTRAITURE 



Two Series, //5.4 and // 6.8 

The new "Telecentric" Lens gives a universally flat image with ex- 
quisite definition to the corners of the plate. Coma and spherical aber- 
ration away from the axis have been so fully corrected that the bril- 
liancy of image equals that of the finest Anastigmat. Like the Ross 
"Homocentric," the "Telecentric" is absolutely free from spherical zones, 
and negatives taken with it are perfect in detail. The chromatic correc- 
tion is also perfect. It fills the want so forcibly felt of a lens possess- 
ing the sharp definition and other good qualities of the Anastigmat, and 
at the same time enlarging the image of distant objects. 

In the "Telecentric" Lens, f/6.8, which is slightly faster than other 
lenses of this type, the definition and brilliancy at full aperture are quite 
equal to those of the most perfectly corrected modern Anastigmats. 

In the extra rapid "TelecentFic" Lens, the extreme aperture of f/6.4 
has been attained, and this without any sacrifice of critical defining 
power. 

The "Teleccntric** gives an image about twice as large as that given 
by an ordinary lens requiring the same bellows extension. Therefore— 
pictures of objects that from circumstance or of their nature cannot be 
sufiiciently approached to allow of the desired size of image may be sat- 
isfactorily obtained by using the Ross "Telecentric." These pictures 
will have critical definition secured with the shortened exposure afforded 
by the large full aperture of the "Telecentric." 






Foeti.a 

Baok-E^vlT. 

Ins... 454-—®" 

P6.8,$S7.50 

F5.4, 50-00 



Focus 

Baok-Eqnlv. 

SH"— 11" 

145.00 

64 00 



Foous 

Baok-Eqviv. 

6"— IS* 

$48.75 
67.50 



Foons 

Baok-EqiiiT. 

6^"— M" 

$58.60 

73.00 



Foous 

Baok-Equlv. 

•Ji"— 17" 

$67.60 
86.60 



AMERICAN AQKNTS 



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Ixxxii 



SNAP SHOTS— AD\'KRTISE^^E^■TS 



^'Curiosity Killed a Cat" 

That is a well-known old-time saying; but it does not apply to 
you, because You are Not a Cat. It is safe for you, and for 
your wife and your children, to want to know what is to b^ 
found in the w(X)ds and the fields around you, in the swamj)s 
and meadows, the ponds and ditches. Do not hesitate to indulge 
in the Joy of Curiosity. You are not a cat. You can satisfy 
the desire to know by reading 

THE GUIDE TO NATURE 



It is ten cents a copy; one dollar a year. 



Address 

ArcAdiA 

Sound Beach, Connecticut 




Bogue Enlarging Lamp 

Enlarging Made EASY— PERFECT 

Tyi)c "G" Made for Direct or Alternating Current 

REDUCES EXPOSURE 

8-10 Ampere— 110 Volt— Direct $40. 00 

8-10 Ampere— 110 Volt— Direct, with Hood... 45.00 

FOR 220 VOLT— DIRECT 
Single Lamps on 220 Volt Will Require Extra 

Rheostat. Price |10.50 

Two Lamps on 220 used in Series will not require an 
extra Rheostat 

FOR ALTERNATING CURRENT 
Lamps for Alternating— 110 Volt. $45.00 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Ixxxiii 



F. & S. Professional Printer 

HERE IS A PRINTER THAT WILL GIVE YOU 

THE SERVICE YOU HAVE 
BEEN LOOKING FOR 




8x10 

(without lamps) 

$25.00 



11x14 
(without lamps) 

$35.00 



It IS operated by a foot treadle, leaving both hands perfectly 
free to adjust paper and negatives. The two large folding leaves at 
the side afford ample room for paper, negatives and finished work. 

Nine Mazda Lamps in three rows illuminate the printing surface. 






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Ixxxiv 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



SOMFTHINQ NEW 

Atom Enclosure 




Colors, Antique Brown and Silver Gray 

This little novelty is the most popular enclosure we 
have ever offered. Just the thing for post-cards. Com- 
pact, easily folded, quickly handled and the convenient 
size for the inside pocket. It is made of heavy Bristol 
stock, neatly embossed with an appropriate design and 
dainty serrated edges. 

Per 100 Per 1000 
Enclosure 3>^ x 5% for post- 
cards ' $1.25 net $10.00 net 

100 in a box. 



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SNAP-SHOTS 

A Monthly Magazine for Photographers 



tUBSCIIPTIOIf RATES FOR U. 8. AND CANADA PBK YBAI^ |1>00; SIX MONTHS, 60 CSKTS 

SINGLE COPY, 10 CENTS. FOREIGN COUNTRIES, |1.86 
PUBLISHED BY THE SNAF-SHOTS PUBLISHING CO., 67 EAST NINTH STISBT, NKW TOIK 



Volume 25 



MAY, 1914 



Number 5 



LANTERN SLIDES BY PHYSICAL 
DEVELOPMENT 



By W. Arthur Long 



The ^'physical" development of 
lantern plates for certain classes 
of subject, such, for instance, as 
snow scenes, seascape and distant 
landscape pictures, in the opinion of 
the writer, has great advantages 
over ordinary or *'chemicar' devel- 
opment, and deserves to be much 
better known and practised than it 
appears to be. The wonderfully 
delicate tone, slightly bluish, which 
it gives, is so eminently suited to 
snow and sea pictures, and the sug- 
gestion of distance in mountainous 
scenery is so superior to that ob- 
tained by any other method, that it 
well repays the slight extra trouble 
involved. 

Without entering very far into 
the rationale of the process, it may 
be said to depend upon the action 



of a developer consisting of silver 
nitrate and acid which, like the in- 
tensifiers usually employed by 
photographers to strengthen nega- 
tives, leaves a deposit of silver upon 
the image. It is not a very difficult 
process, but it requires even greater 
cleanliness than other photographic 
work, in consequence of the staining 
effects of the least trace of silver 
deposit upon dishes, etc. 

The developer which I have 
found most successful is made up 
as follows: 

A. — Metol, 88 grains : citric acid, 
1 ounce; water, 10 ounces. 

B. — Silver nitrate, 480 grains* 
water, 10 ounces. 

Two or three dishes (quarter- 
plate size are best) are required. 



8i 



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82 



SNAP SHOTS 



May, 1914 



and also a large dish containing a 
fresh hypo solution of the usual 
strength. The plates should be used 
as fresh as possible, and as they 
will be exposed during working 
rather freely, care must be taken 
to use a thoroughly safe light. A 
weak solution (say 10 per cent.) of 
nitric acid and water is useful for 
cleaning dishes (and the hands, 
which may be badly stained), and 
should be placed near at hand for 
immediate use. 

It is a little difficult to give reli- 
able data relating to exposure, but 
with a fairly fast bromide lantern 
plate it will generally work out at 
about four times that given for 
black tones. But as the process per- 
mits a certain amount of control in 
development the exposure problem 
is not a very great one. 

The plate after exposure is 
placed in a dish, and the developer, 
which must consist of ten parts of 
A to one part of B, poured over 
it. The dish is kept moving for 
four minutes. It is then poured off, 
the plate removed from the dish, 
and, after a rinse, laid upon thej 
flat surface of the bench, upon a 
sheet of clean paper or glass. Per- 
sonally, I use a small board, upon 
which have been tacked four very 
thin strips of wood to form a square 
slightly larger than the plate. A 
clean, evenly-folded tuft of cotton 



the whole of the silver deposit has 
been removed, when the image will 
show itself upon the surface. 

If, on examination at this stage, 
it is not considered sufficiendy 
dense it may be placed in a dean 
dish and fresh developer until 
further density is attained — the 
scrubbing' being repeated. The plate 
is then fixed and washed in the or- 
dinary way. 

Great care must be taken that the 
scrubbing does not scratch or in- 
jure the emulsion, and the word 
"vigorously*' must not be taken too 
literally. It is important that not 
more than the stated strength of 
developer be used, and the neces- 
sity for absolute cleanliness cannot 
be too strongly impressed. 

Wratten and Wainwright's plates 
will be found to give admirable re- 
sults, but other brands of bromide 
lantern plates have been found to 
work perfectly so long as they were 
quite fresh. The temperature of 
the solutions in use must not be 
higher than 60 to 65 degrees, as 
anything above that tends to soften 
the emulsion, so that it may not 
bear the scrubbing. 

It may be noted that the "C*' solu- 
tion used in the Autochrome proc- 
ess is quite satisfactory for clean- 
ing dishes, etc. 

Such is the process, and I have 
yet to find the amateur who has not 



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May, 1914 SNAP SHOTS • 

FLASHLIGHT POINTERS 



83 



Flashlights and War — It will be 
interesting to see what effect the 
probable war with Alexico will 
have on the development of un- 
usual ability and resourcefulness 
on the part of newspaper photog- 
raphers who will go along as an 
adjunct to the war-correspondent's 
staff. It will also be interesting 
to note in what new ways flashlight 
work will prove to be an assistant 
in gathering pictorial evidence. It 
is most fortunate for the news- 
paper photographers at large who 
will be called upon to go with the 
army that they can secure such a 
handy little device with which to 
steal evidence that they could not 
otherwise get by means of the 
Prosch flashlight shutter attach- 
ment. It may be interesting for 
the reader to note that the Interna- 
tional Xews Service, which is con- 
ducted by the Hearst newspapers, 
has equipped every one of its op- 
erators with one of the attach- 
ments, which he is instructed to 
always carry with him for emer- 
gencies, and that every man repre- 
senting this service who goes to 
Mexico with the armies will prob- 
ably have one of these devices 
more than any other one kind of 
lamp. The samples of work done 
by these little $15 attachments can 
be seen every day in any of the 
Hearst newspapers and others to 
which this service goes. Other 
newspaper organizations are quick 
to see the advantage of these little 



devices, and I understand the fac- 
tory is working night and day to 
make them fast enough to supply 
urgent demands. I may just re- 
mind you that it will not be neces- 
sary for you to go to war in order 
to use one of these little devices, 
but that you will find a hundred 
and one ways in which you can 
use them in your regular work even 
this summer. 

Summer Hotels — The live pho- 
tographer should be alert to the 
fact that there is a big field for 
summer work in getting up illus- 
trations of summer resorts and ho- 
tels, their buildings, interiors as 
well as exteriors and grounds for 
the very elaborate kind of adver- 
tising matter which is now being 
put out by these places. Of course, 
a lot of this work is a high grade 
of daylight work, but many of the 
interiors can be greatly assisted by 
the use of flash-bags. 

Home Interiors — As the general 
photographic work is now easing 
up, it would be a good plan for 
the photographer to urge upon his 
patrons who have beautiful homes 
that this is the best time of the 
year in which to get good interior 
photographs of their homes. The 
idea of having family groups and 
sittings included in the plan would 
add attractiveness to the appeal. 
A neat little folder, about four 
inches square on dainty deckle- 
edged paper just fitting into an en- 
velope made of the same stock. 



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84 



SXAP SHOTS 



^lav, iQia 



would not be a bad thing to send 
out to all patrons just at this time. 
This could announce the fact that 
during the months of May and 
June before the family goes away 
for the summer the conditions are 
most favorable for taking such in- 
terior views, as the lighting during 
this season is most perfect. An- 
other reason which could be given 
in tactful hints if not in plain state- 
ment that before the family sepa- 
rates for the summer they should 
have the entire group photographed 
in the home surroundings and each 
member photographed in a most 
natural pose in his or her most fa- 
miliar attitude and environment. 

In photographing these interiors, 
groups and portraits, flashlight 
work will prove a good adjunct 
and a flash-bag will prove indis- 
pensable to assist daylight. If 
those Prosch people would only ad- 
vance the date from the fall until 
now for putting out that complete 
set of little flash-bags, which can 
!)e operated with absolute accuracy 
simultaneously by means of a little 
pocket dry-battery, every home- 
portrait photographer could aflFord 
to "blow" himself now for a set 
of these, for they would be indis- 
pensable for just this class of work. 
I have had a lot to say in this 
series of articles about home inte- 
riors and groups, and before the 
Prosch people decided to put out 
this outfit of little bags, a set of 
which they made up for me in ad- 
vance, I had devised something of 
the same sort myself, which I used 



for all of this work. I remember 
telling the readers about these ar- 
ticles over a year ago. I think it 
was at my suggestion that the 
Prosch concern decided to put these 
out this fall. They will certainly 
open up a large additional field of 
great profit for the enterprising 
photographer who can then trans- 
fer a lot of his studio work to 
the home and thereby multiply it 
by ten or more. 

Catalogue Work — The commer- 
cial photographer should be alive 
to the customs and habits of all 
of his possible patrons. An un- 
limited field for his work is pro- 
vided by advertising and catalogue 
illustrations, which the manufac- 
turers of all kinds have to do in 
all of their commercial work. 
Someone will get the job to make 
all of these photographs, which are 
much better than drawings and so- 
called artists' work for such pur- 
pose, and there is no reason why 
the reader of this article should not 
start right now to lay plans to get 
his share of it.' Keep in mind, 
please, that in going after this work 
you will be dealing with very pro- 
saic conditions and not theories, 
and that every first-class concern 
that gets out good advertising mat- 
ter has an advertising manager who 
thinks he knows more about just 
what is needed than even N. W. 
Ayer, of the advertising fame, ever 
hoped to know. So the poor little 
photographer must knuckle down 
tactfully, show some mighty good 
work that he has done for others, 



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May, 1 91 4 



SNAP SHOTS 



85 



and get a chance to show what he 
can do for this Httle tin god who 
sits at the apex of the advertising- 
publicity campaign of his big con- 
cern; but don't get discouraged, 
study human nature as well as pho- 
tography and get your chance and 
a foothold. 

Thus far your work has been 
that of a diplomat instead of an 
artist; from now on you must be 
an artist of the most practical kind. 
Do not try to "put anything over" 
on your newly found customer by 
trying to take photographs around 
his factory, or wherever it may 
be, with cheap or worn-out appa- 
ratus, get the best you can find from 
the best dealer you know, and don*t 
forget to drop a hint to the adver- 
tising manager that the reason you 



get good photographs is because 
you use the best apparatus and 
material to be had. Now, I am 
particularly interested in seeing you 
get something that will enable you 
to make some wonderful interior 
by flashlight. You may remember 
in some of my articles over a year 
ago I told about my experience in 
getting absolutely instantaneous 
factory interiors with the men 
working naturally at their ma- 
chines or benches, instead of pos- 
ing like a lot of boobs in the most 
awkward fashion, and I did the 
whole trip by simply using Prosch 
extra fast envelope cartridges, 
strung along down the side and 
across the end of the room, setting 
them off simultaneously by elec- 
tricity. Try this stunt. 



BLOCKING OUT THIN SKIES TO PRINT WHITE 



By G. Emerson 



One of the difficulties which con- 
front the amateur photographer 
who wishes to print in clouds with 
his landscapes is that the sky of the 
landscape negative is frequently too 
thin to keep the print beneath quite 
white; and if the sky is a little 
printed out or degraded to start 
with, the printing-in of clouds from 
another negative is sure not to be 
very successful. The popularity of 
orthochromatic, and especially of 
'*screened" plates, has tended to 
make the difficulty, when it does oc- 
cur, more pronounced; since these 



plates are calculated to give the sky 
portions of a landscape negative 
proper printing value. When the 
sky in the original subject is just 
what we want, this quality is a very 
valuable one; but when, as in this 
case, another sky is to be introduced, 
true printing value is precisely what 
we do not want. There is no other 
course but to block out the sky on 
the negative. 

Blocking out may be done either 
on the film or on the glass side of 
the negative; but the latter is very 
much to be preferred. AA'hen the 



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86 



SXAP SHOTS 



May, 1914 



blocking out material is applied to 
the film side, it gives a very hard, 
sharp line of demarcation between 
the blocked and the unblocked por- 
tions. This line is frequently much 
sharper than the photographic 
image, and so at once draws atten- 
tion to the fact that the negative has 
been blocked out. If the blocking 
out is done on the glass side, there 
will be a little softening of the out- 
line, which is what we want. 

In the writer's hands, nothing has 
answered so well for blocking out 
purposes as ordinary matt varnish, 
to which sufficient red dye has been 
added to give its film a strong color. 
This is now obtainable ready made 
under the name of Rubine. Holding 
the negative, glass side uppermost, 
in the left hand, the fingers of the 
hand being extended underneath the 
plate while one comer is just caught 
by the thumb, a liberal pool of the 
varnish is poured into the centre of 
the glass. The plate is then tilted 
slightly so that the varnish runs 
from one corner to the next, start- 
ing at the corner next the thumb. 
The varnish should not be allowed 
actually to touch the thumb, or it 
will run oflf the plate there. When 
it reaches the fourth corner, the 
plate is boldly tipped up and the 
varnish allowed to run off into the 
bottle. As this is done, the plate 
must be rocked from side to side on 



the rocking should be continued for 
half a minute or more. The plate 
is then put aside for the varnish to 
get quite hard. Any spilt on the 
film side will do no harm, as it can 
be wiped oflF when dry, wath a ball 
of cotton wool moistened with 
methylated spirit. 

The removal of the varnish from 
the parts where it is not required is 
put in hand when it is quite dry. 
The negative must be supported so 
that the light passes straight 
through it, at right angles to its 
surface, to the eye, and a thin line 
should be drawn with a pencil, 
representing approximately the 
border that is to be cut aw^ay; the 
pencil line itself must be w^ell over 
the border, so that it is cut away 
with the film. Then, with the point 
of a knife, the boundary is scraped 
clean for an eighth of an inch or 
more, and most of the varnish where 
it is not wanted is scraped away. 
The final cutting must be done with 
the negative illuminated from be- 
hind, and the knife applied very 
carefully, so as to go just up to the 
border and no further. If the line 
is to be a vignetted one, the border 
may be given a sawtooth outline, 
making the teeth long, narrow, and 
tapering. A wipe with a doth 
moistened with methylated spirit 
will remove all the varnish left by 
the knife point, and will leave the 



tVip rrvrnpr ncraincf tViP hnttlf tn nrp- rrlnoc r\r»rfinn r\i thp nlatf* nice and 



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May, 1914 SNAP SHOTS 87 

PLATE AND PRINT WASHING 

By "Practicus" 



In ante-gelatine days, photogra- 
phers were not much troubled with 
the question of washing their neg- 
atives, particularly if they used, as 
they generally did, the cyanide fix- 
ing solution. A rinse under the 
tap was considered sufficient, and 
washing tanks found no place in the 
dealers' catalogues. With the ad- 
vent of gelatine dry-plates this was 
all changed. It was found that the 
old procedure resulted in a crop of 
crystals in dry weather and a sticky 
surface in wet, accompanied in 
either case by a rapid deterioration 
of the image. Since that time we 
have had many fearful and wonder- 
ful contrivances, in the shape of 
tanks and trays, many of which 
seemed to be designed to give the 
minimum of efficiency with the 
maximum of trouble. Most of 
these have fortunately disappeared 
from the market, and we have set- 
tled down to some form of rectang- 
ular tank fitted with a set of either 
fixed or movable grooves. 

BUT FIRST FIX 

Before going into the question of 
washing, it may be as well to touch 
on that of fixing, for all the water 
which ever flowed down the 
Thames or the Tyne will not wash 



1880, I sometimes find a beauti- 
fully graduated yellow stain upon 
it, which now tells me that I was 
then apt to fix upon wet-plate lines, 
and to transfer the negative from 
the hypo to the washer as soon as 
fixing appeared, to the eye, to be 
complete. Sometimes one finds a 
negative which has suffered from 
want of washing, but all my ex- 
perience points fo the fact that a 
trace of silver salt is more danger- 
ous to the negative than a trace of 
hypo. Especially is it necessary to 
fix thoroughly when the mercury 
intensifier has to be used, and I am 
certain that many cases of staining 
which are attributed to insufficient 
washing are really due to imperfect 
fixing. 

A TEST OF WASHING EFFICIENCY 

Those who remember Messrs. 
Haddon and Grundy's investiga- 
tions will know that a large pro- 
portion of the hypo is removed 
from a gelatine film at a very early 
stage in the washing process, but 
that absolute elimination of this 
salt did not result after a very pro- 
longed period of soaking. The 
point to be aimed at is therefore 
a sufficiently thorough washing in 
the least possible time with the 



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SNAP SHOTS 



May, 1914 



or what answers equally well, some 
stale pyro developer, one will be 
struck with the quantity of water 
required to get the effluent quite 
colorless if the usual system of 
running a continuous stream 
through the tank be adopted. When 
a siphon is fitted the change will 
be more rapid, but there are ob- 
jections to the siphon as ordinarily 
used. !My own practice, which I 
have found to answer well, is to 
give each plate as taken from the 
fixing tank a good rinse on both 
sides under the* tap, before put- 
ting into the washer. When the 
water has been running for five 
minutes, it is turned off, and the 
tank entirely emptied by means of 
a tap at the bottom ; it is then rap- 
idly refilled, and the water allowed 
to run for ten minutes, when the 
draining process is repeated. The 
water is then allowed to run for 
half an hour, at the end of which 
the negatives are taken out, care- 
fully swabbed with a pad of cotton 
wool, and given a final flush under 
the tap before setting them up to 
dry. I thankfully • acknowledge a 
tip which was recently published in 
the journal for avoiding "tears" 
upon negatives. The writer of this 
said that if the negative were 
flushed with water and immediate- 
ly placed in the rack without inter- 
rupting the flow of the water by 
tilting the plate back that "tears" 
did not form and that the drying 
off was quite even. This I have 
found quite correct, and I commend 
it to the attention of all who have 



been troubled in this way. In my 
own tanks I have preferred to dis- 
pense with the siphon, and to run 
the water supply to the bottom, 
letting the exit be over the top. 
If this be objected to, the siphon 
may remain and sufficient water 
used to keep it running all the 
time without allowing the overflow 
at the top to cease. In most cases 
when the siphon is used in the nor- 
mal way the top ends of the nega- 
tives are only covered w4th water 
for a very short time, while the 
lower ends receive all the washing. 

A WASHER FOR ODD SIZES OF NEGA- 
TIVES 

When a number of odd-sized 
plates have to be washed, as in 
the case of amateurs' work, an ex- 
cellent washer may be made of a 
series of trays fitting in an outer 
frame like a chest of drawers. 
These should be arranged so that 
the water overflows from one into 
the other from the ends, and not 
as is sometimes done from the holes 
in the bottom of the trays. In the 
former case the surfaces of the 
plates are always covered, but in 
the latter, unless an enoniious quan- 
tity of water is used, there is al- 
ways a risk of uneven washing. I 
have used such a tank as this for 
a whole day without emptying it 
altogether at any time, and yet 
was certain that the plates, which 
ranged from 12 by 10 inches to 6 
by 4^ centimetres, were properly 
washed. My practice was as fol- 
lows: When the top trayful was 



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SNAP SHOTS 



89 



sufficiently washed, the negatives 
were taken out, and all the other 
trays given a shift one place up, 
and then, the empty tray replaced 
in the bottom groove. With six 
trays, each carrying eight half- 
plates, quite a large quantity of 
work can be dealt with. The trays 
may either be of metal or wooden 
frames with zinc bgttoms. It does 
not matter if they are not water- 
tight, as the constant flow keeps 
them full. 

WASHING PRINTS 

Print-washing differs in many 
important respects from that of 
plates, inasmuch as the prints are 
allowed to float freely, while the 
plates are necessarily confined in 
a rack. There is only one excep- 
tion to this, and that is in the case 
of Marion's sectional washer, in 
which the prints are placed in sep- 
arate layers upon lattice-bottomed 
frames, between which the water 
circulates. This apparatus is ex- 
cellent for large prints, especially 
platinotypes, which are easily torn 
or crumpled; but most people find 
the insertion and removal of a 
number of small prints rather too 
troublesome for every-day use. In 
the majority of cases a tank of 
some form which permits of the 
circulation of the prints, and is 
fitted with a water jet or spray, 
which gives the necessary motion, 
is the form of washer in use, and, 
if properly constructed and of suffi- 
cient size, is very effective. The 
best washer I have ever used was 



made of an external slate tank 
about 5 feet long and 30 inches 
in diameter. Inside this was an 
internal lining made of white- 
enameled metal, perforated all over 
with fine holes, like the perforated 
zinc used for ventilators. This lin- 
ing was cylindrical in shape and 
just fitted the outer tank. About 
one-third of the side of the cylin- 
der was cut away, and along one 
side of this ran a pipe perforated 
with holes. The spray from this 
kept the prints in constant motion, 
and the outlet for the water being 
broken up by the innumerable small 
holes, there was no risk of suc- 
tion of prints towards the outlet. 
It was therefore impossible for an 
overflow to take place, and matting 
together of the prints was avoided. 
Even this washer, however, wanted 
occasional inspection to see that 
too many prints did not hang to- 
gether, but on the whole it worked 
very well. I believe, however, that 
for absolute safety nothing can 
touch hand-washing, that is to say, 
transferring the prints singly from 
one dish to another, clean water 
being, of course, used for each 
change. If I were fitting up a 
washer for a large business I would 
arrange it upon the model of the 
salmon-hatching nursery at the Na- 
tional History Museum. In this 
there is a series of trays, each on 
a little lower level than its prede- 
cessor, a continuous stream of wa- 
ter flowing through. If the prints 
were started at the lowest tray and 
worked "up-stream," they would 



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SNAP SHOTS 



May, 1914 



be well washed by the time they 
reached the top, while other batches 
would be following in each lower 
division. 

For quick washing there is noth- 
ing to equal sponging the backs of 
prints as dry as possible while they 
are laid face downwards upon a 
sheet of glass. Ten minutes of this 
treatment will secure any reason- 
able degree of permanence. The 
use of formaline has some advan- 
tages for quick work, especially in 
the winter, as cold water does not 
eliminate hypo quickly enough. 
After hardening, the prints will 
easily stand a temperature of 80 de- 
grees, and the hypo is quickly re- 
moved. 

COLLODION PRINTS 

Collodion papers require very 
careful treatment, as there is a 
great risk of scratching if they are 
sent whirling about in a tank. Be- 



sides this the edges of the film are 
liable to fray, which is objection- 
able in prints trimmed before ton- 
ing. Whenever possible, the dish 
system of washing should be used 
and running water avoided. Much 
less spotting will then be needed. 

TWO FINAL HINTS 

One word of caution is neces- 
sary when working in the summer, 
and that is to avoid prolonged 
washing, either of negatives or 
prints. Many mysterious spots on 
the former, and incipient fading 
of the latter are caused by decom- 
position of the gelatine which has 
been caused in this way. It should 
not be forgotten that wet platino- 
types are easily rubbed, although 
there is no gelatine coating, and 
that they should therefore be care- 
fully guarded against abrasion. — 
The British Journal of Photog- 
raphy. 



SPECIAL REGULATIONS 

Issued by the Department of Liberal Arts Governing Exhibits of 

Photography at the Panama-Pacific International 

Exposition, San Francisco, February 20 

to December 5, X915 



The Panama-Pacific Interna- 
tional Exposition will display in a 
comprehensive manner the achieve- 
ments and activities of mankind 
during the last decade. Notably in- 
teresting and significant among the 
exhibits will be the products of 
PHOTOGRAPHY, which will be 



shown in a complete and character- 
istic manner in the Department of 
Liberal Arts. The most recent de- 
velopments in photography, includ- 
ing moving or motion pictures, will 
attract much attention. 

The photography group of ex- 
hibits must be housed in the Palace 



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May, 1914 



SNAP SHOTS 



91 



of Liberal Arts. They will be SE- 
LECTIVE in character because of 
the comparative limitation of space, 
which, by reason of wider partici- 
pation and the world's increased 
productivity, will be more restrict- 
ed than at previous international 
expositions. 

By reason of the national char- 
acter of this celebration and the 
substantial interest manifested by 
both American exhibitors and for- 
eign governments, an exposition of 
the most representative interna- 
tional scope is assured at San Fran- 
cisco in 1915. Latin America and 
the Orient will take very prominent 
parts. Thirty-five foreign countries 
have already accepted the invita- 
tion to participate extended by the 
President of the United States, and 
thirty-eight States have likewise 
signified their intention to take 
part. 

The Palace of Liberal Arts will 
be ready to receive exhibits before 
this fall, and only a few months 
later (February 20, 1915) the ex- 
position gates will be opened to the 
public. While exhibit space is free, 
the cost of booth construction, as 
well as the transportation, installa- 
tion and maintenance of exhibits, 
must be defrayed by the exhibitor. 
We aim to commence the allot- 
ment of space in May, 1914, and 
only those applications on file will 



The following information is 
submitted for the guidance of pho- 
tographers, photographic organiza- 
tions, the moving-picture industry 
and the manufacturers of photo- 
graphic apparatus and supplies de- 
sirous of exhibiting at the Univer- 
sal Exposition, which opens in San 
Francisco on February 20, 1915. 

First: The official classification 
of exhibits for this exposition re- 
quires all exhibits of the equip- 
ment, processes and products of 
photography to be displayed in 
Group 33, entitled "Photography," 
in the Department of Liberal Arts, 
which will provide suitable Aoor 
space free of charge for this pur- 
pose. 

Second: Applications for exhibit 
space should be made without de- 
lay on blanKs furnished by this of- 
fice. In the case of pictures full 
information should be given as to 
the number, character and size of 
those to be submitted, together with 
a sketch showing proposed arrange- ' 
ment on walls, folding screens or 
in albums. 

Third: Intending exhibitors of 
photographs that require only the 
necessary wall or screen spac«. par- 
ticularly in Class 124 (Pictorial 
Photography), may disregard, in 
the printed form of application for 
space, the request for scale draw- 
ing and details concerning dimen- 



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92 



SXAP SHOTS 



May. 191 4 



Fourth: All accepted pictures, 
except those in Class 124 (Pictorial 
Photography), must be unobtru- 
sively framed, preferably unglazed : 
Autochromes, micrographs, etc., 
must be properly prepared for 
ready installation. The owner 
must assume all risk and expense 
of transportation to and from the 
exposition, as well as the installa- 
tion and care of same while on 
exhibition. 

Fifth : Special forms of illumina- 
tion or facilities for display, such 
as may be required for lantern- 
slides, transparencies, etc., will be 
at the expense of the respective 
exhibitors. 

Sixth: All intended exhibits 
should be forwarded so as to reach 
the exposition not later than Jan- 
uary 2, 1915. Shipping-labels will 
be sent to accepted exhibitors up- 
on application to the Department 
of Liberal Arts. The railroad com- 
panies have agreed to grant free 
return of exhibits sent by freight 
on payment of full rate to San 
Francisco, provided shipments are 
made in accordance with adopted 
regulations. Freight and all other 
charges appertaining to the trans- 
portation of photographic exhibits 
must be fully prepaid at the point 
of shipment and the packages de- 
livered at the Palace of Liberal 



defray the cost of the booths which 
they are required to erect for the 
suitable display of their exhibits. 

(b) To minimize the expense 
to individual exhibitors and to 
avoid a number of small and un- 
impressive booths, thereby insuring 
a proper degree of dignit>' and at- 
tractiveness in the photography 
group, the Department of Liberal 
Arts has decided that one large 
booth is desirable to harmonize the 
artistic requirements of this dis- 
play. 

(c) While the construction of 
this large booth will be charged to 
exhibitors, the cost to them will 
be proportionately less and its erec- 
tion by the department will save 
exhibitors ,the inconvenience and 
trouble of planning and construct- 
ing individual booths. 

(d) To cover the actual cost of 
this large booth all exhibitors, other 
than those in Class 124 (Pictorial 
Photography), will be charged two 
dollars for €ach square foot of 
floor space occupied by them. It 
must be distinctly understood, how- 
ever, that exhibit space itself is free 
in the Palace of Liberal Arts, and 
that this charge of tivo dollars per 
square foot is made merely to cover 
the exhibitor's share of the cost of 
constructing the large booth named. 
It must likewise be understood that 



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May, 1 91 4 



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93 



two dollars per square foot for 
each foot of floor space occupied 
by them. The purpose is for the 
Department of Liberal Arts to have 
this money collected and in hand 
before the contract is let for con- 
structing this booth, as the depart- 
ment has no funds or other means 
of defraying this cost. 

(e) Part or the whole of the 
upper or mezzanine floor of this 
large booth will be equipped as a 
special gallery with screen walls, if 
necessary, or other facilities for the 
display of selected exhibits of pic- 
torial photography. No charge will 
be made for exhibit space occupied 
by exhibits of selected pictorial 
photography (Class 124) admitted 
to this special gallery, it being un- 
derstood that such exhibits are of- 
fered and accepted purely in the 
interest of photography as an art, 
and for no advertising value or 
commercial advantage to the exhib- 
itors. 

(f) From the exhibits offered 
in pictorial photography (Class 
124) a committee appointed by the 



Department of Liberal Arts will 
carefully select a limited number 
of the choicest specimens for dis- 
play in this special gallery. Intend- 
ing exhibitors of these examples 
of purely pictorial photography 
may, in order to avoid the expense 
of framing those not accepted and 
to minimize the cost of transpor- 
tation, submit their pictures tem- 
porarily unframed, with the under- 
standing that the Department of 
Liberal Arts will order the accept- 
ed pictures framed in an inexpen- 
sive yet appropriate manner at the 
expense of the exhibitor. 

(g) Photographs oflfered as ex- 
hibits in the section reserved for 
pictorial photography must be the 
individual work of the exhibitor or 
exhibitors named in their respect- 
ive formal applications for space. 

Eighth: General rules governing 
the admission of exhibits and their 
installation and maintenance, the 
system of awards, shipping regu- 
lations, etc., will be furnished upon 
application to the Department of 
Liberal Arts. 



SOME SUCCESSFUL LANTERN SLIDE TONERS 
AND HOW TO USE THEM 



By T. Thome Baker, F.C.S., F.R.P.S. 

There is rather a tendency in purpose ; and ordinary "black-tone** 
these days to get tones on lantern- lantern-plates can also be employed 



-f?j-- U-. j: i. j„ 



•T^^ rNkfoi.- 



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94 SNAPSHOTS May, 1914 

the certainty of repeating the same The milky appearance of the 

tone every time. lantern-slide disappears quickly, as 

A lantern-slide has to be so bril- the film of emulsion is extremely 

liant, transparent and **fogless," in thin, yet at least ten minutes should 

order to look well on the screen, be allowed for the^ fixing, and the 

that, as a rule, the best results in bath should be one of plain hypo 

warm colors are generally produced and water for preference, not acid. 

by straightforward development Thorough washing can only be done 

for clean black and white eflfects by using sei'eral changes of water, 

and subsequent toniug. But the A toning-bath made up of equal 

toning-bath itself requires con- parts of A and B gives the ordinary 

sideration, for the simple fact that uranium tones; in this bath the 

a toner usually deposits a colored black image gradually becomes 

compound on the image, and this brown, and eventually tones to 

may, or may not, be transparent; bright, foxy red. A deposit of 

if not, it will be quite unsuitable uranium ferricyanide is in the or- 

f or lantern-work. dinary way thrown down, owing to 

A large variety of brown, the reducing action of the metallic 
green and blue tones can be ob- silver on the ferricyanide. The 
tained with the three solutions toning may be stopped at any stage ; 
given below, which are about the thus a wide range of cold and warm 
most useful and simplest of all the tones can be obtained. After ton- 
numerous lantern-slide toners so ing, the slides should be rinsed in 
far discovered. Three ten-ounce water containing a drop or two of 
bottles should be well rinsed out, acetic acid to the ounce, then 
labeled A, B and C respectively, washed for ten minutes in five or six 
and filled up with these toning changes of water, 
solutions: Toning by any method in which 

A. Uranium nitrate 60 gr. one employs a deposit of a metallic 

Distilled water 10 oz. salt on the image causes more or less 

B. Potassium ferricyanide . 60 gr. intensification, hence slides to be 
Distilled water 10 oz. toned should be made rather thinner 

C. Ferric chloride 45 <rr. than usual. The intensification be- 

Distilled water 10 07. comes noticeable more particularly 

An ounce each of glacial acetic when the slides are drying, 

acid and pure sulphuric acid should Slides toned brown in ^"^ 

also be kept handy. uranium-ferricyanide bath c^n be 

There is a little trick about the toned blue by subsequent ^' 

uranium toner — a very simple key mersion in bath C, given abov^ 

to success. It is merely the really and by stopping the operation ^^ 

thorough washing of the slides as the early stages a very fair gr^^^ 

well as the thorough fixing of them, can be obtained. There is a ce^' 



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May, 1914 SNAP SHOTS 95 

tain knack in obtaining this green, bleacher, or the halftones may be 

as only just the right amount of destroyed by the action of the hypo 

time in the iron bath (C) must combined with ferricyanide. 

be allowed. It must also be borne A. Ammonium bromide % oz, 

in mind that whatever "green" is Potassium ferricyanide.. }ioz. 

obtained will become bluer during Water 10 oz. 

the drying of the plates. B. Pure (fresh) sodium sul- 

Blue-toned slides should be phide 1 dr. 

soaked after toning for about three Water 10 oz. 

minutes in a little water acidulated The plate is first bleached in the 

with five drops of the sulphuric to A solution, when the silver image is 

each two ounces. They must then converted to silver ferrocyanide. 

be well rinsed and dried in the rack. This process should be allowed to 

A bath for giving blue tones di- continued for a few minutes, until 
rect may be made with a ferric the action has taken place through- 
salt, as follows: out the entire image. 
I. Ammonio-citrate of iron. 50 gr. The bleached slide is then 

Water 5 oz. washed for ten minutes under the 

II. Potassium ferricyanide. .. 50 gr. tap, put into a clean dish and 

Water 5 oz. flooded with the sulphide solution, 

]\Iix the two solutions, and add which, unlike the bleaching bath, 

two drams of glacial acetic acid. should be used only once, and then 

The ever-popular sulphide-toner thrown away. When the "redevel- 

will be found to answer quite sat- opment'' is complete, the lantern- 

isfactorily for lantern-slide work, plate should be well washed and 

and the two solutions given here- after a careful swabbing set in a 

under may be taken for the pur- dust-free place to dry. A fine 

pose. Great pains must be taken to brownish sepia image of silver sul- 

ensure that the plate is quite free phide is obtained in this way — The 

of hypo before placing it in the Amateur Photographer. 



HOW SHALL WE DEVELOP? 

Some Practical Notes on the Treatment of Films 



We are probably not far wrong 
in saying that at least one-half of 
all the exposures made by amateur 
photographers in this country are 
on films, and that of these more 
than three-quarters are on roll films. 



The ease with which the spool of 
film can be carried and inserted in 
the camera in daylight is largely re- 
sponsible for its general acceptance 
by all classes of workers, particular- 
ly those on a holiday tour. But 



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SNAP SHOTS 



May, 1914 



apart from this, the modem film is 
a splendid production, and runs 
the dry plate very close indeed in all 
the latter's fine qualities. We do 
not, however, wish to enter into 
a discussion as to the comparative 
merits of plates and films, but to 
deal with the simplest methods of 
developing them. 

Users of roll films may be di- 
vided into two classes — those who 
use the Kodak developing tank and 
those who do not. For the former 
class it is only necessary to touch 
on one or two points of failure that 
may arise, as the instructions ac- 
companying the tank are so ex- 
plicit that it would be difficult for 
even the veriest novice to go far 
wrong if they are carefully fol- 
lowed. Possibly the best advice 
we can give the film user would be 
to equip himself with the Kodak de- 
veloping outfit, and follow the in- 
structions of the makers. But as 
there are a great number who elect 
to develop their films by means 
other than the tank, the following 
points may be helpful to such. 

First, when unrolling the film in 
the darkroom to separate it from 
the black or red paper backing, it is 
well to observe a regular procedure, 
for if the paper becomes unrolled 
and coils about in the darkroom, 
trouble is likely to arise ; whereas it 
is quite simple to roll the film in the 
palm of one hand as it comes oflf the 
spool, the backing paper in the palm 
of the other hand, while the spool 
itself is turned by the tops of the 
fingers and thumbs of both hands. 



The entire action can be accom- 
plished expeditiously with very lit- 
tle practice and no risk of the 
backing paper getting on to the 
floor, or the film tied up into a 
knot, which it frequently exhibits 
a tendency to do. 

I'revious to this, the largest avail- 
able deep developing dish should 
have been filled with plain w^ater, 
and still holding the roUed-up fihn 
in one hand, the end is taken by the 
other and introduced to the water. 
The film is then steadily unrolled 
from one hand as it is pulled under 
the water and rolled up with the 
other until the entire film has been 
submerged. The film is then un- 
rolled again under water, and 
rolled with the other hand at the 
opposite side of the dish, the proc- 
ess being repeated until the film is 
quite limp. 

The water is now poured off, and 
the developer, of which an adequate 
supply should be ready, is substi- 
tuted. There are now two alter- 
natives open for the development 
of the film, bearing in mind that on 
no account should it be allowed to 
renjain stationary in the solution, 
or markings will result. The first 
is to continue the rolling and un- 
rolling process under the surface 
of the developer. This means, of 
course, literally paddling in the so- 
lution with the fingers as the film is 
being unrolled from side to side. 
In this method there is ahvays a 
portion of the film under observa- 
tion — that is, the piece that is visi- 
ble between the portions of rolled- 



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97 



up film at either end of the dish. 
The second method is to take the 
two ends of film, one in each hand, 
and bring the hands together over 
the dish of developer so that the 
bottom of the loop of film thus 
formed is well under the surface of 
the developer. If now the right 
hand is .-owered and at tne saine 
time the left hand is raised so that 
the film is steadily passed through 
the developer, a repetition of the 
action — raising the right hand and 
lowering the left — will enable the 
whole surface of the film to come 
into contact with the solution, un- 
til development is complete. This 
is probably the process most fre- 
quently employed by the film user 
who does not possess a tank, and 
has the advantage of being rapid 1 1 
action (as a quick-acting developer 
should be used), and if the dark- 
room light is safe there is little risk 
of fog. 

The sticking down of the end of 
the film is the point most frequently 
overlooked, and many a good seiz- 
ure of exposures has been spoilt by 
this oversight. Nothing is more 
annoying than to open the lid of the 
winding-box in bright light and find 
the entire film coiled up on top 
in full view, and, of course, hope- 
lessly fogged at once. As each 
spool has a distinct query printed 
on it ("Have you stuck down the 
end of the film?"), the remedy is 
in the user's own hands ; but as an 
additional safeguard we would sug- 



gest that a similar query be written 
on a piece of paper and stuck on 
the top of the box, so that it may 
be observed when the cover is 
replaced and the winding com- 
mences. 

Another frequent source of 
trouble is uneven developing mark- 
ings. These arise through the film 
not being tightly wound and taut on 
the celluloid apron. It is obvious 
that if the film buckles at all be- 
tween the two surfaces of the 
rolled-up apron, the developer has 
access more readily to some parts 
of the film than others, and uneven 
densities result. These generally 
take the form of vertical lines and 
patches in the finished negative. To 
overcome the difficulty it is quite 
necessary that both handles of the 
winding-box be held during the op- 
eration of winding the spool into 
the apron, so that any tendency for 
the winding to be uneven is con- 
stantly checked by an even pressure 
on both handles. It is also well to 
wind a considerable amount of the 
backing paper (until the word 
**Stop'* or "Halt" appears) before 
attaching the hooks of the apron. 
This will bring the film nearer to 
the centre of the roll than to the 
circumference. When inserting the 
rolled-up apron containing the spool 
of film into the tank of developer, 
it should be allowed to sink into the 
liquid by its own weight, and should 
not be pushed in, otherwise air- 
bubbles are very likely to form. 



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98 



SNAP SHOTS 



May, 1914 



TRADE NEWS AND NOTES 



If you are looking for something that 
will help you increase your business and 
increase your prices, notice ad on 
another page, of the Pipe Dream 
Novelty for post cards. 

There is a place for a novelty studio 
and novelty pictures in every city and 
town. Are you getting your share of 
business? Post card pictures are a big 
item with many photographers; most 
people have a dollar to spend for pic- 
tures and the studio that has the new 
catchy novelties get their business. 



Platittotypc and Satista. Both platinum 
papers printed in the open ; absolutely 
permanent. There is no developing 
paper that is just as good as platinotype, 
as platinotype has a quality all its own. 
Willis & Clements, of Philadelphia, the 
American agents, will gladly send a 
sample of either paper to any of our 
subscribers upon request 



Ross Lenses. On the inside of the 
back cover of this issue you will note a 
new use for the celebrated Ross Tele- 
centric Lenses : that is, portrait work. 
It has been found that this lens is ex- 
cellent for portraiture as well as long 
distance photography. Most of the 
newspapers are now using the telecen- 
tric lens for all their photographic work 
in connection with sporting events, life 
in motion, or any purpose for which 
they use the Reflex Camera. We un- 
derstand from the manufacturers that 
on account of the reduction in tariff 
that they will shortly announce a re- 
duction of from 7 per cent to 12 per 
cent in the list price on the Ross lenses. 
This will make the selling price on 
these lenses very low. These new 
prices will appear in their new cata- 
logue which we understand is to be 
ready the latter part of February. Send 
them your name and address for a copy. 



gives an equal, even illumination to both 
sky and foreground, advise us that for 
the past few months they have been be- 
hind in filling orders due to the unex- 
pected demand for same; but that they 
have recently increased their facilities 
for manufacturing these, and that they 
are now in a position to fill all orders 
promptly. If you have never tried one 
of these screens you should certainly in- 
clude one in your outfit They are 
entirely different from the ordinary ray 
filter in that one part of the screen is 
shaded, the other part clear glass, and 
the color blends off between the two, so 
that perfect cloud effects can be ob- 
tained instantaneously with ordinary 
plates when this screen is used. 



Seed so Plates. During these short 
days when the light is weak a fast plate 
is necessary. The Seed 30 has great 
speed latitude and uniformity, a feature 
most desirable in a plate at all times. 
If you have not used them specify Gilt 
Edge 30 in your next order. 



Eastman Portrait Films, The new 
Eastman Portrait Films have all the 
speed, gradation and fineness of grain 
of the best portrait plate, and in addi- 
tion a non-halation quality so perfect 
that it preserves every light and shadow 
within the whitest drapery. These light, 
flexible, unbreakable films also reduce 
weight, preventing loss and facilitating 
handling. 



The Atom. This is a new post card 
enclosure, just the thing for the pho- 
tographer at the seaside and summer re- 
sorts for delivering the post card. Com- 
pact, easily folded, quickly handled, and 
of a convenient size to fit into the vest 
pocket. Send for a sample. 



Royal Foreground Ray Screen. The 
manufacturers of this ray screen, which 



Dynar Lens. There is no denying the 
efficiency of the Dynar Lens, It is far 
greater than the best rapid rectilinear, 
as it has double the speed at full apcr- 



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May, 1914 



SNAP SHOTS 



99 



ture. There is no comparison between 
the covering power and definition of the 
two lenses. The Dynar is a high-grade 
moderate-priced anastigmat sold in cells 
that fit all modern shutters. Write to 
Voightlaender & Sohn, Chicago, for 
catalogue. 



IVeighmeter. This new device in- 
stantly indicates exactly what weights 
are to be used on the scale for any 
given formulae. It saves time, trouble, 
annoyance, and opportunity for error. 
Adjusted for either the apothecary, 
avoirdupois or metric systems. Beauti- 
fully printed in two colors on celluloid. 
Just the size to fit in the vest pocket. 



King's Book of Lighting. The pub- 
lishers, George Murphy, Inc., New 
York, have just issued another edition 
of this little booklet on lighting. It will 
be mailed free to any of our sub- 
scribers upon request. It is full of prac- 
tical information with designs illus- 
trated by drawings, written by a mas- 
ter in the art of lightings. Send your 
name and address to-day. 



Photo-Flat. This preparation, applied 
to the back of prints after they are 
thoroughly dried, is an eflfective and 
simple way to flatten curled prints. It 
is used by the leading professionals who 
have given it an emphatic endorsement. 



Camp Five Islands. If any of our 
readers are interested in Summer plans 
for their boys we would suggest that 
they write to Prof. F. H. Dodge, New 
Brunswick, N. J., who conducts a Sum- 
mer camp for boys at Schoodic Lake, 
Maine. We are just in receipt of a 
booklet from Prof. Dodge describing the 
wonderful attractions of his particular 
camp. It certainly should be an ideal 
place for boys, particularly from a 
photographic standpoint, as Prof. Dodge 
is an expert photographer in addition 



C O. BICKELMANN 
It is with sorrow that we have learned 
of the death of the veteran photogra- 
pher, Mr. C. O. Bickelmann, of Tan- 
nersville, New York. Mr. Bickelmann 
was formerly one of the leading pho- 
tographers of the city of Williamsburg, 
Long Island, which is now a part of 
Greater New York City. He was 
an earnest and enthusiastic photogra- 
pher and kept pace with the advances 
in photographic business. Mr. Bickel- 
mann, in addition to his photographic 
interest, was a taxidermist and made 
this his hobby. Some years ago he sold 
out his business in Williamsburg and 
moved to Tannersville, New York, 
where he purchased a large tract of 
land and erected a studio and building 
suitable for taxidermy. He has just 
passed away after a busy life, at the 
age of fifty-eight years and nine months. 
We know that his many friends among 
the fraternity join wnth us in extending 
to his family our sincere sympathy. 



GEORGE M. BOLTON 
George M. Bolton was for many 
years a photographer in New England, 
previous to his connection with the M. 
A. Seed Dry Plate Company. He was 
a demonstrator for this company in the 
New England territory for quite a few 
years, and was intimately known by all 
the professional photographers in that 
section. It is with great sorrow that his 
many friends will learn of his death at 
West Springfield, Mass., on April 25th. 
Mr. Bolton took great pleasure in 
demonstrating photographic dry plates, 
giving his whole mind and heart to this 
special line. He was always glad to do 
everything possible to benefit the studio 
photographer, and he leaves behind him, 
in the minds of many, the knowledge 
of the benefits they have derived from 
his practical knowledge of the photo- 



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loo SNAP SHOIS— ADVERTISEMENTS May, 1914 

STUDIO WANTS 

Galleries for Sale or Rent Positions Wanted— Operators 

C. K. F., gallery for rent, Long Island. T. G. T., operator; tirst-class. 

l\ A. S., printer; asst. operator. 
W. A. J. & S., gallery, New York State x. A. G., all-around operator. 

^or rent. M. J. Q., general, all-around. 

P. H. McC. gallery, Long Island, for C. M., general, all-around. 

rent. 

r-' T^ x€ . 11 • ' XT T Positions Wanted — Retouchers; ReceP- 

C. F. M., two galleries in New Jersey. tionists 

D. F. M., gallery in New York City, ^-^^ ^ p spotting; finishing. 
$^i^^^- Mrs. H., retoucher; colorist. 

F. S. W., on Long Island, $900. Miss F. L., retoucher; spotter. 

W. C. O., gallery in New Jersey. ^'^^ ^' ^> ^°^^"s^- 

Studios Desiring Help 

Parties Desiring Galleries ^- ^- Co., want good commercial pho- 

tograpner. 

G. K. wants gallery in small city. A. L., wants general operator for ama- 
^ ^ _ „ . ,, . teur finishing. 

R. S. G., wants gallery in small aty. ^y ^^ g^„^,^i operator. 

C. B. S., wants gallery in N. Y. City. W. A. S., wants operator. 

Hotlce— Letters addressed to anyone in our care should be accompaided with itaap 
for each letter so that they can be re-mailed. 

SEND YOUR SUBSCRIPTION NOW 

Our Year expires January Ist and we want your Renewal. |1.00 per year. 
Photographic news from every section is worth five times our subscription 
price. 

OUR SPECIAL CLUBBING LIST 
We offer the Special Clubbing List of Snap Shots with American and Eng- 
lish Annuals and the English Journals. A combination that gives to the Amer- 
ican photographer photographic news that combined gives him the field 
covering the English-speaking photographic world: 
1 year's Snap Shots with American Annual of Photography (1914 paper 

edition) |1.50 

1 year's Snap Shots with 1 year's subscription to British Journal of Pho- 

tography |S.75 

Snap Shots and 1 year's subscription to Photography and Focus (Eng.) 3.60 
Snap Shots and 1 year's subscription to Amateur Photography and Pho- 
tographic News (English) 4. 50 

SNAP SHOTS PUB. CO. 57 East 9th St., New York 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



Ixxxv 



POSITIONS OFFERED and WANTED, FOR SALE, 
TO RENT, WANT to PURCHASE, EXCHANGE, &c. 



Annottncementf under these and simiUr headings of forty words or less^ will be inserted 
for forty cents. For each additional word, one cent Displayed advertisements 60 cents 
per inch. Cash must accompany order. When replies are addressed to our care, 10 cents 
at least must be added to cover probable postage on same to advertiser. Advertisements 
should reach us by the 20th to secure insertions in the succeeding issue. A copy of the 
Jottrnal sent free to every advertiser as long as the "ad" is continued. Advertisements in 
Snapshots bring prompt returns. 



AN ADVERTISEMENT IN THESE COLUMNS 

fi tn czcdlent and safe medltim of commisnicatloii betwctn Pfiotographcfi 



A good Bug, in live Western town 
of 18,000. Well established studio, 
invoicing $2,800.00 with 15,000 regis- 
tered negatives. Proprietor going 
cut of business on account of poor 
health. $1,000.00 cash, balance on 
time, will handle this. Price, invoice 
and full particulars mailed on re- 
quest. If you want a good, well-pa>r- 
ing proposition, investigate, but don't 
write unless you mean business. The 
Parker Studio, Salem, Oregon. 

Known all over the state. 

■ « _— 

For Sale: (Studio) Cottage all 
modern improvements, dentist par- 
lors on first floor; Photograph Stu- 
dios second floor back — the healthiest 
and most popular summer resort of 
the Catskills. About 3.000 summer 
guests and cottagers. Fine opportu- 
nity for an invalid; fully equipped, 
making money. Those meaning busi- 
ness address E. A. L., care Snap 
Shots. 

Photo Studio for Sale: Good bar- 
gain. Established thirty years. Only 
two owners. Fitted to 14x17 camera 
stands and lenses, Voightlander mam- 
mouth, 8x10 half-plates, 8x10 viewing 
outfit. Owner, elderly man retiring. 
Good opening for smart young man. 
For immediate sale. Sacrifice at 
reasonable offer. B. J., care Snap 
Shots. 

Studio in Kansas City. Mo. Good 
business; fully equipped: fine lease; 
best location. Price $2,350.00. Cash 
$1,000.00. balance easy terms. Best 
chance for a good man. Address 
Photo Studio, 1023 Main street, Kan- 
sas City. Mo. 

Wanted: Position by lady re- 
toucher, also do printing, spotting 
and reception room work. Eight 
years' experience. Address M. L. B., 
care Snap Shots. 

When writing advertisers pi 



For Sale: A well-located, well- 
furnished photo studio in New York 
City, in prominent thoroughfare. 
Owner desires to sell on account of 
other business interests. Price. $3,- 
500; lease, three years; rent, $2,150 
per year. To a good photographer a 
fine opening, but letters must be ad- 
aressed in our care and will be an- 
swered only as the owner decides. 
Address "D. F. M.,'* care Snap Shots. 

For Sale: Photo studio, best loca- 
tion in the heart of the city. Doing 
good business; good surrounding 
country. Established over thirty 
years. Studio worth about $3,000, but 
will sell for less in cash. Reason for 
selling is on account of other busi- 
ness. All letters must be addressed 
to Tony Leo, 5 West Main St., Mid- 
dletown. N. Y. 

For Sale: Studio and Amateur 
Supply Business in the best spot in 
town of 16,000. No competition. 
Had an income of 15 per cent over 
1912 last year. Good reasons for 
selling, and will sell cheap to a quick 
buyer. Ober Studio. P. O. Building. 
New Brighton, N. Y. 

"A $2,000 Per Year Salary and 
Profit": Excellent proposition for 
man with family. Only studio in 
town; ground floor; pop. 6,000, also 
modern single home, three blocks 
from studio. Value of combination 
$7,300. Quick sale price $5,000. Part 
cash, balance mortgage. Absolutely 
a great bargain. Address 500. care 
Snap Shots. 

For Sale: Studio fitted to 8x10 
Heliar lens, printing machine. Low 
rent, established thirty-four years 
ago. Good business. Reason for sell- j 

ing, blindness. M. H. Razzouk, 315 ^OQ IC 
Main St., Holyoke, Mass. ^ 



case mention Snap Shots, 



Ixxxvi 



SXAP SHO'l'S— ADV^ERTISEMENTS 




LEARN A PAYING PROFESSION 

•vwtMD jTMra w« have •ucc«-»lully umhi 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

_Pfc«>to.E mr«yiag and Tlir«e<:olor Work 



t« SSO a wMh, 



rWork 

W« asslsi Umm 



til WabMb AvaniM, CNIntlMm, llllaals 



Photogravure 

Plate-making, printing, steel-facing, 
etc. Plants installed, the process 
taught, errors rectified. A lifetime 
of experience in England, France and 
United States. 

Correspondence invited. 

M RAOUL PELLISSIER 

Consulting Expert 
RIDLEY PARK, PENNA. 




THE REFLECnilG CONDENSER 

Works OQ house current—maida bulb, and 
Efilargeg Quickly 

11 In. Reflector for 6x7 negatives, takes 
160 watts, Price $8.00; 16 in. f or 8 zio 
260 watts $16.00. For Orcular on home 
made enlarger, time table etc write to 
R. D. Gray, Ridgewood, N.J. 



STOP!! LOOK!! 



I GAVE UP 

the Photograph Busineaa for a Good, 
Easy Job that has paid mo over 
$76.00 a week for yean. Tou could 
also enter this work. A 2c stamp will 
hring Particulars. 

D. MACK 

5t. StcpbMS Charcb, Va. 



Wynne "Infallible" 
Exposure Meter 

Ton set the OKE scale and 

the Meter does the rest 

Size of a Watch, Fits the Pocket 

SIMPLE, CORaECT 




Postpaid 
For F or TTniform System, Nickel |a.S5 

For Focal Plane S.SS 

Silver 6.00 

Silver, Gem sise S.50 

Print Meter 8.50 

Send for Detailed List 

AMERICAN AGENTS 

QEORQB MURPHY, Inc^ ReUil Dept. 

57 EilST NINTH STREET. NEW VORK 



Art Studies 



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sxAP SHOTS— advp:rtiseme\ts 



Ixxxvii 



EAGLE SODA SCALES 

Especially constructed for 
daily photoj^raphic use. 

Will weigh from j/i ounce to 
4 pounds, conveniently and accu- 
rately. 

Just the scale for wei^^hing your 
sodas and hypo. Pan removable. 
PRICE, $5.40, Postpaid. 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc. ^l^' 

67 EAST 9th STREET NEW YORK 

Importers and manufacturers of every kind of photographic material 




EAGLE FORM HOLDER J- ^t/Z^I^ tS: 

ers on the market. You place 
the form and print in position 
and by simply pressing down a 
lever it securely locks the form 
so that it can not slip, thus facili- 
tating quick and accurate cutting 

Gi the p^J]U.^, \\ ill acciininiodate any size form up to 8x10. 

The base is of steel, and the cutting plate of zinc which does 

not dull the cutter. Price, $1.80, Postpaid. 

GEOR6E MURPHT. Inc.. ^ 57 East 9th Street. New York 

Miw ficti ri r t, Niptrttrt aU Otatori ii PlMtofraplnrs* Materials af Evary Baseriptiaa 




ROYAL WOOD FIXING AND WASHING BOX 

These boxes are made of selected 
and thoroughly seasoned wood, with 
tongue corners. They are finished 
dead black, with three heavy coatings 
of Probus paint, and will last a life- 
time. Any special size can be made 
to order. 

No. I. 5x7 size, 50 grooves, each 

groove holds two plates, back 

to back, thus the box holds 100 

5x7 plates Price. $6.00 

No. 2. Holds 12 11x14 plates or 

17 8x10 or 17 10x12 — one 

plate in each groove. Price, $6.50 




QEORCE MURPHY, Inc., 57 East Ninth Street, New York 



When writing advertisera please mention Snap Shots. 



uigiiizea oy 



^ 



00 



s 



le 



Ixxxviii 



SXAP SHOTS— ADVF.RTISEMFATS 



Matted Free 

Our New No. 14 Tariff Changed 
Mail Order Cash Catalogue 

is just of¥ the press. Send us your name and we will 
gladly mail you a copy. 



Retail 



QEORQE MURPHY, Inc., 

57 E«LSt Ninth Street NEW YORK 



Pyrogallic 4cid 



The relative merits of the various photographic developers may be 
diseossable, but if a photographer decides to employ PYROGALLIC 
ACID, he should insist upon his dealer suppl3ring the 

"M. C. W.»' Brand 



Our Acid is as Dure an article as can be made, liirht and bulky i 



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^ 


A'AP SHOTS— AD VERTISKMJ^XTS 


Ixxxix 


BL.A.CIC 1-,AJJREl^ 






Tli« Most AdTancad Portrait Paper 










SIMPLE— SURE— ECONOMICAL 






For 


the h 


ighest grade of portraiture, in Platinum, 


Black and Sepia | 


effects. 




LIGHT WEIGHT— SEMI 


MATTE 






DOUBLE WEIGHT—Three grades: Semi, 


Smooth Matte and Buff 1 




LIGHT WEIGHT 


DOUBLE WEIGHT | 






kH nntH PMt CtoriM m F«Imm : 


kH PtrMi PmI Charw 


1 M FaiMM : 








rmwfmt TMpiI M liidk 




First u^ 


tmpii t« tfami 




UttpOT 


■MCMk 




■MCMk iMMrfZMM. 


Z«M*. iMinif*. 


lius 


■nw 


Prtn 


t it tSt tSt t« I4M Snw 

MiM MiM 


PriM 


Itain 

MilM 


ini«i4M 


SHx 6J4 $0.26 


$0.20 


$0.06 $0.07 $0.80 


$0.24 


$0.06 


$oI^ 


(Cabinet) 














4x6 


.25 


.20 


.05 .07 .30 


.24 


.05 


.07 


4J4x 6J4 


.30 


.24 


.05 .07 .40 


.32 


.06 


.07 


5x7 


.85 


.28 


.05 .07 .46 


.36 


.06 


.07 


6x8 


.40 


.82 


.05 .07 .60 


.40 


.06 


.07 


6x8 


.50 


.40 


.06 .07 .66 


.62 


.07 


.89 


eyix 8J4 


.60 


.48 


.07 .09 .76 


.60 


.07 


.09 . 


7x9 


.65 


.52 


.07 .09 .80 


.64 


.07 


.09 


7Hx 9^ 


.76 


.60 


.07 .09 .90 


.72 


. .07 


.09 


8 xlO 


.80 


.64 


.07 .09 1.00 


.80 


.07 


.09 


10 xl« 


1.20 


.96 


.08 .13 1.60 


1.20 


.08 


.18 


11 xl4 


1.60 


1.28 


.08 .13 2.00 


1.60 


.08 


.18 


14 xl7 


2.40 


1.92 


.13 .21 3.00 


2.40 


.13 


.21 


16 x80 


8.20 


2.56 


.14 .25 4.00 


3.20 


.14 


.26 


18 x22 


4.00 


8.20 


.15 .29 6.00 


4.00 


.16 


.29 


20 x24 


4.80 


3.84 


.16 .33 6.00 


4.80 


.16 


.88 


George Murphy. I«c. g:SSu«e«t | 


97 East NintH Street 


NEW YORK 1 


5 ^^w</ /<?>• iV^tc/ ran# Changed No. 14 Mail-Order Cash Catalogue 1 



You Can Take Pictures on a Day Like This ! 

That i^ if your lens is right. Tlif len^ is the soul af jnur camera. Ordinan lenses 
will take ordinary pictures nnd^r /^:vorMe cnnditions. Arc you ^atisfiid wiih tliat? 
Or would you like tlic k'st results un Jer afi conditiuni^ ? If su, you should know tlic 

COERZ LENSES 



Universally ustd by war phrftograplitTS and professionals, win 
h^ sure f>( their result:^, 77/ fv am easi/v le fitied In ihe oinh^ra 
^ you nmv oum. 

Semi for Our Book on *f Leases and Cameras" 

fj| the pneate^t valtic to any tme ijitLTirskd ^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ 
In good pfh*:fltirg:niphy. ^^^^^^^^^^■iLi ▼ 

C P- GoiTi Amo-icAa Optied Co^ 
rT4rk 



miL-t 






When writing advertisers pletse mention Snap Shots. 



xc 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



NOSLIP PRINTING MASK cPafnfd, 

FOR PRINTING PILM NEGATIVES 

The Noslip Printing Mask it 
the latest improvement in print- 
ing masks. It does away en- 
tirely with the slipping of the 
regative when placing the paper 
in position in toe printing frame 
which frequently occurs with all 
of the old stvle masks. It does 
away with all bad and ill-shaped 
rdges, leaving a neat even white 
border all around the print. This 
mask has pockets in the four 
corners into which the film is 
slipped. Full directions with 
each set of masks. Each set 
consists of three masks, one for 
post cards and one each with 
oval and square opening the size 
of the negative film. 

No. 4— For S^x5K FUm Hen- 

tivei, per set, 60 centi Poit^d. 

QEORQE MURPHY, Inc., ^ 57 East 9lh St., New York City 





The Weighmeter 

The Latest 
Photographic Discovery 

Indispensable to photographers, dhemisis, 
physicians, or anyone engaged in weigh- 
ing chemicals. 

The Weighmeter instantly indicates by 
one turn of the dial exactly what weights 
are to be used on the scale for any given 
formula. Saves time, trouble, annoyance, 
and opportunities for errors in making the 
usual computations. Beautifully printed in 
two colors on ivory celluloid, and of just 
the right size to fit the vest pocket. 

Price 60c., postpaid. 

0EX>R0E: murphy, inc. 

RETAIL DCPARTMINT 

67 East 9th StrMi NEW YORK 



Simplify the Work in Yonr Printing Room! 

The half dozen different papers you believe you have to use now to do jtistioe to 
your various negatives, upset your printers, cause waste, delay, and give poor prints 
after all! 

"SS' BLACK LAUREL 

It takes care of all of your negatives and of all your work — ^black and white and sepias. 

Bend one dollar ($1.00) and we will send three dollars (18.00) worth of pap«r. 
Our SPECIAL OFFER shipment direct from factory. If the paper proves satisfactory 

you can remit the balance ($2.00). If unsatisfactory, return paper and we will reftmd 
the $1.00 paid. 

GEORGE MURPHY. Inc., Retail Dept 
57 East 9th Street NEW YORK CITY 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 

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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



xci 



The Question: 

WhyAnAnastigmat? 




The A nsw er : 

Because it is the only type of lens which 
makes possible better results under all 
conditions. For the amateur 

THE DYNAR 

=F 6= 

is an ideal anastigraat. It is constructed 
of a special, hard, colorless Jena glass, 
famous for its superior light transmit- 
ting quality, uniformity and definition, 
and brilliancy of its pictures. 

The speed of the DYNAR is 100 per 
cent greater than is possessed bv the 
better grade rapid rectilinears, and it is 
therefore especially adapted for rapid 
instantaneous exposures and home 
portraiture. 

Sold in cells that fit directly all 
modern shutters. This feature saves 
time and fitting charges. 

Price for 4x5 or 3J4x.')J^ cells, $23.50. 

Send for our Catalog and Revised 
Price List. 

'A.^K your Theater 



VOIGTUHDER & SOHN 

240-258 E. Ontario St., Chicago 
225 Fifth Avenne, • New York 

WORKS— BRUNSWICK, GERMANY 



CANADIAN AGENTS: 

HUPFELD, LUDECKING & CO.. 

Montreal, Canada 



Mr. Post Card Man 

DO YOU WANT 

To Make More Money? 



Would Yoo 
lovest S5.00? 



Made in 
your Cam- 
era with 
one Expo- 



Shipped 
Pipe Dream Prepaid 

Novelty Foreground and Accessories are 
money makers. Write for descriptive 
circular and price list. 
Madk by 

A. H. 5IPLB 

1328 e. Il7th Street CLEVELAND, 0. 




Send your name and address 
for 

King's 
Booklet on 
"Lighting" 

(Eight pages with iUustrations) to 

GEORGE MURPHY 
57 E. gth St„ New York 

Send IOC. (postas^e) for 
Complet* Catalogue 

Manufacturers and 

Importers of Every Kind of 

Photographic Material 



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ve:l.our bl<a.ch: 






lh% Brilliant Portrait Enlaiving Paper 






Convenient Speed 


Bright Shadows 




Soft Hig)i lights 1 








LIGHT WEIGHT 








Made in 


Velvet, 


Semi Matte, Matte, and 


Rough Surfaces. | 








DOUBLE WEIGHT 










Made 


in Velvet, Matte, Rough, BuflF and Buff Matte. 






UQHT WEIGHT 


DOUBLE WEtQNT 1 








MiPwMlPn«GtarwB«iff«M«: I 








FkttMri TfeMtattalii 




HralMri 1 


nMtaSMft 1 




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PrlM 


1 !• in IM !• 14M Snw 

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$0.25 


10.15 


$0.06 $0.07 $0.30 


$0.18 


$0.05 


$«?W 


(Cabinet) 














4x5 


.26 


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.05 .07 .80 


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4x6 


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.05 .07 .30 


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5x7 


.40 


.24 


.05 .07 .45 


.87 


.05 


.07 


5x8 


.45 


.27 


.05 .07 .50 


.80 


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6x8 


.50 


.30 


.05 .07 .65 


.89 


.07 


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6^x 8^ 


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.05 .07 .75 


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7x9 


.65 


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.06 .07 .80 


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8 xlO 


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.60 


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10 xl2 


1.80 


.72 


.08 .18 1.50 


.90 


.08 


.18 


11 xl4 


1.60 


.96 


.08 .13 2.00 


1.20 


.08 


.18 


14 xl7 


2.40 


1.44 


.13 .21 3.00 


1.80 


.18 


.81 


16 x20 


8.20 


1.92 


.14 .25 4.00 


2.40 


.14 


.85 


18 x2S 


4.00 


2.40 


.15 .29 6.00 


8.00 


.15 


.80 


80 x84 


4.80 


2.88 


.16 .83 6.00 


8.60 


.16 


.88 


1 


Retail Murphv^ Inc.< 


RetaU 
1 E>epartment 


1 


97 Ekuit NintH Street 


NEnVYORK 1 




Send for New Tariff Changed No. 14 MaU-Order Cash Catalogue 


1 



C p. Nitrate Silver Crystals 
Pure Chloride Gold 



For Photographcfs, Aristo 
Paper and Dry Pl^^tfe Makers 



Chcmicak for Photo Engraving and the Arts 



All Kinds of saver and QfAi 
Waste Refined 



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SNAP SHOTS—ADVERTISEMENTS 



XCUl 



FREE— The Photographic Times— FREE 
SUNLIGHT AND SHADOW 

A BOOK FOR PHOTOUBAPHEBS AM ATEUB AHD PROFEBSIOVAL 

By W. I. LINCOLN ABAICB (His Best Book) 

Editor of "The Photographic Times," Author of "Amateur Photography," "In Naturc'i 

Image," Etc., Etc. With More than 100 Beautiful Photo-Engravings, 

Many of Them Full-page Pictures. 

It contains Chapters and Illustrations by well-known photographic writers and workers. 

It covers the field fully, as shown by the following Contents: 

The Choice of Subject Landscape Withont Figures Landscape With Figures 

Forerrounds The Sky Outdoor Portraits and Groups The Hand Camera 

Instantaneous Photography Winter Photorraphy Marines Photorraphy at Night 

Lighting in Portraiture Photographing Children Art in Grouping 

Printed on heavy wood-cut paper, with liberal margins and gilt edses. Beautifullv 

and subsUntially bound in art canvas, with gilt design. PRICE IN A BOX, |8.50. 

So long as the supply holds out, we will continue to furnish this book at only one dellar 

per copy, with a new subscription to 

"THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES" 

Bernlar priee of "Sunlight and Shadow" $8.50 

Regular Subscription price of "The Photographic Times" .... 1.50 f4<M 

By this Special Offer we sell Both for . . $2.50 

which is the regular price of "Sunlight and Shadow" alone; so you get "The Photographic 

Timea^ in tliis way tor nothing. There are less than 50 copies left, so vou must send in 

your order at once if you want to be sure of securing your "Photographic Times*' and a 

copy of "Sunlight and Shadow" at this special price. 

Photographic Times Publishing Association 



135 West Fourteenth Street 



NEW YORK, N. Y, 







Send 

for 
these 
Books 

to the 

BERUN 

ANILINE 

WORKS 

213 Water St., 
NEW YORK 



THE FORMULAE BOOK 
Send 10 cenU in coin or stamps 
and a label from any "As^a** 




« 



THE FLASH UGHT BOOK 
Send 10 cents in coin or stamps 
and a label from any ^A^9l** 
Chemical package. r~\r^]r 



Agfa" Products are Photographic Standards. 



:P8' 









SXAP SI UrrS— ADVF.RTISE.AtEXTS 





£^--^^fe3l 






w^^^m 


^^^^=^*iSa? 4I 


P^ ^ 


^^^- - _- M 


g^^:^^^ 


m 


A Batch of Dried Prints 


^^ 



The Same Prints After Being 
Treated with Photo-Flat 



No More Curling of Your Prints 

Apply to back of print, after they are 
thoroughly dry. An effective and sim- 
ple way to flatten curled prints. Easy 
to use — no special care needed in dry- 
ing prints to be treated with PHOTO- 
FLAT. Leading professionals have 
given an emphatic endorsement to 
PHOTO-FLAT. 

PRICES: 
4 Oz. Bottles, 35c^ Postpaid; Pint 



Bottles, 90c., Postpaid. 

GEORGE MURPHY. Ino.. S^nm^nt 

57 East Ninth Street NIW YORK 

Bend for Kew Tariff Changed Ko. 14 ICail-Order Cash Oataloffne 



Lot No. 55 

Royal Noo-Slippiog Prioting Frames 

This frame ia made of the 
best seasoned Ash, natural 
finish, and without sharp 
edges. It is built on the 
English principle and the 
most inexperienced^ person 
can examine the print with- 
out the slightest nak of mov. 
ing it. The back of the frame 
is provided with new project- 
ing metal pins whicn drop 
into corresponding slots in 
the side of the frame. This 
prevents all possibility of the 
print shifting. 

This is an Ideal Frame for 
printing postals and using 
masks. We offer them, while 
they last, as follows: 

99 Zy^xiy^ List 40c Sell for 16c. each 

388 4 x5 List 45c. Sell for 20c. each 

76 6H3C8J4 List 90c. Sell for 48c. each 

68 8 xlO List 91.S6 Sell for 6Sc. each 

QEORQE MURPHY, Inc., g:^' 57 East Miatk Street, Mew Yerk 

When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. ^ "'0~ 




SXAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



xcv 



It is a Joy 

to work in the open with Platinotype and Satista papers. 
If you wish to do better work, enjoy better health and 
greater happiness, give up your stuffy dark room and 
"gaslight" papers, and send for our booklets on 
Platinotype and Satista — the daylight, fresh air papers. 

Sample prints on either paper on receipt of your 
name and address. 

N. B. — The special offer on Satista continues. 

WILLIS & CLEMENTS 

PHILADELPHIA 




91 



The "FAVORITE 
INTERIOR BENCH 
ACCESSORY 

The No. 3086 B Interior Bench 

Price $35.00 
Crated F. O. B., New York 

Artistic Photographic Chairs, 
Benches, Balustrades, Pedes- 
tals, and Special Accessories 
from any design. 

ROUBH i CALDWELL 



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^^ AUTOTYPE CARBON 



0t^^^^^ TIQQIIPQ 



AUTOTYPE. 



IMPORTANT TO AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHERS 

TRIAL SETS OF CARBON PRINTING 
MATERIALS 

In order to combat the erroneous notion, somewhat preva- 
lent amongst Amateur Photographers, that a trial of the 
Carbon Process necessarily entails the expenditure of a con- 
siderable sum on costly apparatus, the Autotype Company 
have decided to introduce cheap trial sets of the absolutely 
essential materials, particulars of which are appended. 

In these cheaply-priced outfits it is, of course, impossible 
to include developing, washing or fixing tanks. For purely 
experimental purposes, however, some of the ordinary house- 
hold crockery will serve as a makeshift, and the bathroom will 
be found a not altogether unsuitable apartment for carrying 
on operations. 

PRICES OF TRIAL SETS 

Outfit No. I $1.50 

Outfit Complete for 5 x 7 5.00 

Outfit for 8x10 7.00 



New introductions suitable for the Copper Intaglio Print- 
ing Process for the production of Illustrations. 

In bands of 30 inches wide, 12 feet long. Tissue of 36 
inches can be furnished if desired, as in many cases 36 inches 
avoids waste. 

Per Band 

Photogravure Tissue G, 3 for flat bed printing, 30 inches |6.40 

Photogravure Tissue G, 4 for Rotary Gravure Printing, 30 inches 6.40 
Photogravure Tissue G, 5 for Rotary Gravure Printing, 30 inches 6.40 
Photogravure Tissue G, 4 for Rotary Gravure Printing, 36 inches 8.00 
Photogravure Tissue G, 5 for Rotary Gravure Printing, 36 inches 8.00 



GEORGE MIURPHY, Inc. 

AMnneAM AQENTS 

67 EAST 9th STREET NEW YORK 

When writinR advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



XCVll 



wide Range off Color Sensitiveness 

and chemical perfection that insures high speed and great 
latitude of exposure, make 

Hammer's Orthochromatic Plates 

ideal plates for the varying and uncertain values of Spring. 
Hammer's Special Extra Fast (red label) and Extra Fast 
(blue label) Plates are recognized standards. 




Hammer's little book, "A Short Talk on Negative Making," 
mailed free. 

HAMMER DRY PLATE COMPANY 

Ohio Ave. and Miami St. St. Lauia, Ma. 



P^ountjed 



HIGGINS' 
PHOTO 



Haye an excellence pecaliarl j their 
own. The best results are onlj 
produced by the best methods and 
means— the best results in Photo- 
graph, Poster and other mountinf 
can only be attained by using the 
best mounting pasta— 

HIQQIN8' PHOTO MOUNTER 

(Sxoellent noyel bmsh with MMh JarO 



▲t I>«Al«TS In Photo SnppUoSt 
AtHbW MftterUU und St»«l«Mvy. 



A S-OB. Jar prepaid by maU for St «ala 

or oiroQlars.fna from 

CHAS. M« HIOaiNS ft C0.» MffS. 

NBW YORK CHICAGO LOMOOV 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



SEED 




PUTES 



It is the same Seed quality, based on years of 
uniform excellence in the Seed product, that has 
raised the Seed standard a step higher to a plate 
of greater speed and utility. 

Seed 30 Gilt Edge Plates combine exceptional 
speed with those essential points of excellence 
which for years have made Seed 2 7 Gilt Edge the 
standar-d of quality in portrait plates. 

Use Seed 30 Gilt Edge Plates for portraiture 
and secure the best results under all conditions. 



jg^ 



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Halation is done away with — the cause 
removed^ in 

EASTMAN 
PORTRAIT FILMS 

For Studio or Home Portraiture. 



Portrait Films have all the speed, gradation and fineness of 

grain of the best portrait plate made, the Seed Gilt Edge 30, and 

in addition a non-halation quality so perfect that it preserves every 

delicate light and shadow within the whitest drapery — so perfect 

that negatives may be made directly against a window without 

a trace of halation. 

The light flexible, unbreakable film base also reduces 
weight, prevents loss and facilitates handling. 

May be retouched or etched on 
either side or on both sides. 

No special skill required for manipulation. Listed: S ^1 y 
yl4 X 8^, 8x10, 11 xl4. 

PRICE— SAME AS SEED 30 PLATES. 



CA ^ ^-'y 7 V//.^ r S^r, 4^rl y 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



THE ROYAL FOREGROUND RAY SCREEN 

(Patented April 14th, 1911) 

STYLE A. 

The Lateit and Qreateit ImproTement in Bay Filteri. 

The only Ray Screen ever invented that will give an even, equal exposure 
to both sky and foreground, and, produce a perfect cloud effect instanta- 
neously with ordinary plates. 

The Royal Foreground Ray Screen is so constructed that the color, which 
is a strong orange yellow at the top, is gradually diminished until perfect 
transparency is attained at the bottom. The practical effect of the gradual 
blending of color is to sift out or absorb the powerful chemical rays from 
the clouds and sky, which pass through the strongly colored top of the filter, 
without perceptibly decreasing the weak illumination of the reflected light 

from the foreground, which 
comes through the trans- 
parent or colorless lower 
part of the screen in full 
intensity. 

The reason that daylight 
cloud pictures are rare is 
that the strength of the il- 
lumination from the sky is 
many, many times that of 
the partially absorbed and 
reflected light from objects 
on the ground. 

If a correct exposure is 
given to the clouds, then 
the landscape is badly un- 
der-exposed; if the correct 
exposure is given to the 
landscape* then the clouds 
are literally burnt up from 
over-exposure, and no mat- 
ter how contrasty they may 
have appeared to the eye, 
an unscreened photograph 
shows only a blank white 
sky. 

The Royal Foreground 
Ray Screen is also very 
useful for subjects which 
are more strongly illumi- 
nated on one side than on 
the other, as in photograph- 
ing by the light of a side 
window or in a narrow 
street. By simply turning 
the dark side of the fore- 
ground screen toward the 
bright side of the object a 
jorood, even exposure will 
result. 




Made With the Royal Foreground Kay Screen 

PHOTO. Bv H. F. SCHMIDT, Seattle, Washington. 

STOP-16. EXPOSURE-Y^-second. 

September 15th, 10 A. M. Distance to snow-covered 

Mt. Baker 8 Miles, 



NO. DIAMETER INCHES PRICE 



NO. DIAMETER INCHES PRICE 



OA 


H 


$1.35 


Postpaid 




8A 


2J4 


$2.70 


lA 


iVn 


1.36 




9A 


^Va 


8.00 


2A 


for box cameras 


1.85 


'* 




lOA 


8 


8.15 


3A 


lVi« 


1.86 


<« 


STYLE A. 


llA 


854 


3.60 


4A 


1^ 


1.36 


•• 




12A 


8^ 


4.05 


5A 


m 


1.80 


•* 




13A 


4 


4.70 


6A 


2 


2.00 


« 




14A 


4^ 


6.40 


7A 


2% 


2.26 


i< 











GEORGE MURPHY. Inc. ItS^^, 

57 East Ninth Street NEW YORK 



Send for New Tariff Changed No. 14 MaiUOrder Cash Catalogue 



When writing advertisers please mention Snap Shots. 



EAGLE HOME PORTRAIT 
AND STUDIO LAMP 




The Kaj:,di; Ilonic rortrait and Sliidiu I. amp is the most 
perfect and comiiact h'ghting device ever offered for photo- 
grai*hic use. It is ttleal for home portrait use, as the entire 
outfit is very liglit anil packs into a small sj>ace. It can be 
attaclied to practicall}' any electric light socket, as it will 
work on cither direct nr alternating current from Tio to 220 
volts. Fitted with a cnllapsilVle reflector and light diffuser. 
it is nossihle tn get just exactly the effect yon are after. 

The length of exposure, of conrse, depends on the size 
and the color of the room, the lens and stop nserl. Kxposnres 
vary from a fraction of a second upward. 

Re independent of sunlight hy getting nn Eagle Home 
Prn'trait and Stndio Lamp, and you can make exposures at 
any time of the day or nigl\t, anrl under all conditions, Hie 
lamp can he usl'A in firefdaces with or without sunlight, and 
most licautifnl effects produced. In fact there is no end 
to the varietv of arti^tte effects that can he prorfuccd with this 
wonderful light. PRICE, $4aoo; FREIGHT PAID, 

GEORGE MURPHY, Inc., 57 East Ninth Street, New York 

RCTAtL DEPARTMENT 

Send for our Mrrt vufU ptder task fntalofjuc Nik 14. 



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a; 



For the lar<^e print, make / 



\Ip¥ 



jjjjj^^ 




w 




El^lg 









Enlartyements. They have all 
the quality of contact prints. 




ARTURA DIVISION, 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, 



ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



All Dealtrt. 



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TRADEMaRt^ 



HO 560S7 REG J STERED 



E 



June, 1914 




L^iUOT 




I 



CONTENTS i 



Fl&shllght Pointers - - 

The Field for Connmerciiil 
Photography 

On Sunshine Effects - 

Photographing M ovin g 
O bjects — Some Practi- 
cal Points for the Speed 
Photographer 



101 



104 
108 



110 



Groups, Indoors and Out 113 

An Intensifier for Under- 
Exposed Negatives 116 

Drying Prints - - - 117 

Trade Notes and News - 118 

Studio Wants - - - - 120 



X 



Pv 



_«. .^..... _ . "MQJtizea by VJV^^^^v • 

lap-Shots Publishing Co.. 57 East Ninth St.. New York 

Publlvhed Monthly. Ten C«nts p«r copy. SI. 00 iwr vmmr 



W— i. 



-I 




TRADE MARK 
Fttentfld June 26, 1900. Trade Mark Befistered 



This device is designed for mailing photographs, 
fancy cards and similar enclosures flat. 

Excellent For The Purpose 

Seventeen sizes carried in stock, as below: 



^^.^ ^'-•^' 4>2 X 7 

i^(^ 5'^ X /M 

ij^^ 6;/. X yl^ 

135 7H ^ lO'^ 

I .V ' , 7 ' J X €^lA 

i.v- ■ 7'^ ^ '1' I 

ijS, .. , SK N inf^i 

130 H'^ X II ^ 

M-'.. ^ 9>1 ?« ti5>S 



No, Size 

143 • 9/^ X iJ' J 

14^, 10^ 2 X 12^ J 

151 1 1 '4 X J4^ 

155 ^^' » ^ "5^4 

iri2..,_.. , ..13'i X 17VS 

234 , 5V2 X H ^ 4 

24'> 6;'5 X 13'4 

24^1 7)4 X i5Vt 



The Thompson & Morris Co. 

Concord and Prince Streets 

Address Etopsrtment 6 BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Boitoi, Mass.; Bnakville, M.; Nianara Falls, CafMa; 

LindM, Eoiltii; Jiilich. Germaiy. 



EJiyiiliLU 



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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



ci 



£clipse jf older 

Chocolate Brown Cover Enclosing Phototone 
Brown Card, Gray Cover Enclosing Gray Card' 




A beautiful cover, embossed in a new furrow design, surmounted 
with a gold design for a name die, makes THE ECLIPSE a rich 
folder. The insert is of a new deep tone Brown, rough surface, deli- 
cately printed with a neat border around the opening. The opening 
and printed line border arc bounded by a well defined plate mark. 
This is a rich creation. 

Post Paid Pott Paid 
Cash Oaih 

Size Trades Opening Picture Per Box Per Dozen 



46 



7X11 



3Hx5H 



4x6 



13.25 



$0.85 



Send for copy of our mount catalogue 



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cii SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMEXTS 



Th« BriUiaiit Portrait EnlargiBf Paper 
Convenient Speed Bright Shadows Soft High Lights 

LIGHT WEIGHT 

Made in Velvet, Semi Matte, Matte, and Rough Surfaces. 

DOUBLE WEIGHT 

Made in Velvet, Matte, Rough, Buflf and Bu£F Matte. 

UOMT WKIQHT DOUBLE WETQHT 

"-«•■< TfeMtMiirtk Firataai 



Sim IMM PriM lUtm IMt>14M tMM Mm lii. 

,«%* *^ •®*^ ^^-^^ ^®-®5 ^007 $0.80 10.18 |o!o6 $0% 
(Cabinet) 

* X 6 .26 .18 .06 .07 .80 .18 .06 07 

* X 6 .30 .18 .06 .07 .80 .18 06 'vt 
5x7 .40 .24 .06 .07 .46 .27 06 "eT 
6x8 .46 .27 .06 .07 .50 .80 [o? 'S 
6x8 .60 .30 .06 .07 .66 .89 07 M 
6J4x 8J4 .60 .36 .06 .07 .76 .46 107 *S 
7x9 .66 .42 .06 .07 .80 .48 .07 'S 
8 xlO .80 .48 .06 .07 1.00 .60 .07 ' 09 

10 xl2 1.20 .72 .08 .13 1.60 .90 08 "it 

11 xl4 1.60 .96 .08 .18 2.00 1.20 .08 iJ 
14 xl7 2.40 1.44 .13 .21 8.00 1.80 18 11 
16 x20 3.20 1.92 .14 .25 4.00 2.40 .14 16 
18 x22 4.00 2.40 .15 .29 6.00 8.00 16 M 
10 x24 4.80 2.88 .16 .83 6.00 8.60 .16 iS 

George Murphy, Inc., gS:Su^t 

07 East Nintli Street IME^V YORK 

Send for New Tariff Changed No. 14 Mail Order Cash Catalogue 




The relative merits of the various photographic developers may be 
discussable, but if a photographer decides to employ PYROG.AIXIC 
ACID, he should insist upon his dealer snpplymg the 



66 



M. C. W.»» Brand 



Our Acid is as pure an article as can be made, Hght and bul^ m 
appearance, dissolves perfectly and may always be relied upon to produce 
the best photographic results. 

When placing your orders for 'PRYO ' ^npi^lfu "M r W" I 

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SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEM EXTS 



cm 



F. & S. Professional Printer 

HERE IS A PRINTER THAT WILL GIVE YOU 

THE SERVICE YOU HAVE 
BEEN LOOKING FOR 




8x10 

(without lamps) 

$25.00 



11x14 
(without lamps) 

$35.00 



It is operated by a foot treadle, leaving both hands perfectly 
free to adjust paper and negatives. The two large folding leaves at 
the side afford ample room for paper, negatives and finished work. 

Nine Mazda Lamps in three rows illuminate the printing surface, 
and the current is on only during exposure. 

Let us send you a circular describing the F. & S. Professional 
Printer. 

Folmer & Schwing Division, 

EASTMAN KODAK CO. ROCHES^^gJ^ ^O^lc 



CIV 



SNAP SHOTS— ADVERTISEMENTS 



EAQLE HOME PORTRAIT 
AND STUDIO LAMP 




The Eagle Home Portrait and Studio Lamp is the most 
perfect and compact lighting device ever offered for photo- 
graphic use. It is ideal for home portrait use, as the entire 
outfit is very light and packs into a small space. It can be 
attached to practically any electric light socket, as it will 
work on either direct or alternating current from no to 220 
volts. Fitted with a collapsible reflector and light difFuser, 
it is possible to get just exactly the effect you are after. 

The length of exposure, of course, depends on the size 
and the color of the room, the lens an<l stop tt>ed. Exposures 
vary from a fraction of a second upward. 

Be independent of sunlight by gettini^ on Eagle Home 
Portrait and Studio Lamp, and you can make exposures at 
any time of the day or night, and under all conditions. The 
lamp can be used in fireplaces with or without sunlight, and 
most beautiful effects produced. In fact there is no end 



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SNAP-SHOTS 

A Monthly Magazine for Photographers 



SUBSCRXPTIOIC RATES FOR U. S. AND CANADA PER YBAR, $1.00; SIX MONTHS, 60 CmNTl 

SINGLE COPY, 10 CENTS. FOREIGN COUNTRIES, $1.26 
PUBLISHED BY THE SNAP-SHOTS PUBLISHING CO., 67 BAST NINTH STREET, NEW YOIK 



Volume 25 



JUNE, 1914 



Number 6 



Statement of the Ownership, Management, Circulation, etc., of Snap Shots. 
Published Monthly at New York, N. Y. Required by the Act of August 24, 1912. 
Editor, Managing Editor, Business Manager, Percy Y. Howe, 422 Park Hill 
Avenue, Yonkers, New York. 

Publisher, Snap Shots Publishing Company, 57 East Ninth Street, New York. 
Owner, George Murphy, 57 East Ninth Street, New York. 
Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders, holding 1 per 
cent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities. None. 

PERCY Y. HOWE, Editor. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 7th day of April, 1914. 
WARREN W. SIGLER, 

Notary Public, Queens County. 

Certificate filed in N. Y. County, No. 41, N. Y. Register No. 5234. 
(My commission expires March 30, 1915.) 

FLASHLIGHT POINTERS 



Summer Fldshlight Work. — As 
the banquet season is about coming 
to a close the flashlight operator is 
casting about for other fields in 
which he can use his flashbags and 
cartridges. Of course, the June 
weddings are coming and some will 
be fortunate enough to have some 



keep their staffs busy to hold them 
over for next season should not 
overlook the great opportunities for 
flash work at the big resorts. These 
are the meeting places of many or- 
ganizations for the summer and fre- 
quently the annual conventions are 
held at these places during* the sum- 



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SNAP SHOTS 



June. 1914 



business will naturally be reduced 
to a minimum during the summer 
should take some ordinary precau- 
tions for keeping their outfits in 
good condition for next season. 
First of all, do not roll up or pack 
away your flashbags in a confined 
space such as a trunk or carrying 
case. The lack of fresh air will 
cause the fireproofing chemicals to 
turn the cloth to a yellow hue 
which will retard the light consid- 
erably. Be sure to clean the bags 
thoroughly and hang them up loose- 
ly in some closet where the air can 
circulate through the cloth fibre. If 
you leave much of the residue from 
the smoke in the cloth for the sum- 
mer it will have a tendency to rot 
the cloth. It will be a good time 
now also to test out all of your line 
and bagwires and connections to 
see if they are in perfect condition 
and with no breaks in the wires or 
loose screws in the connections. 
Sometimes a kink in the wire 
strands when pulled to straighten 
out will cause some of these strands 
to break ; this may not be noticed at 
the time because one or two of these 
little strands may carry the current 
for an exposure or two before re- 
fusing to work, so go over your 
wires carefully now, for you may 
need them in a hurry next fall. Be 

ciirf nlcn tr» r»lpon vr»iir lomoc fVtnr^ 



have the opportunity to use during 
the summer as readily as you have 
been using them heretofore. The 
efficiency of this powder will be 
greatly enhanced if you keep it in 
the proper condition. Let me sujjgest 
a few dont's: Don't leave it hing 
around loosely scattered in any old 
cupboard you happen to have 
handy; don't keep it in a moist 
place, even though the boxes are 
paraffined by the process inaugu- 
rated by the Prosch concern, for 
there may be some little opening 
where the cover fits on which has 
pried itself loose since the deiler 
or you received the powder. Damp- 
ness and the nitrates used in the 
powder are great affinities, but the)- 
raise havoc with the powder and 
you will find this will be caked in 
the fall. 

Another reason for being careful 
in storing your powder and car- 
tridges is the danger that some spirk 
from a cigar or cigarette or elec- 
trical short circuit may come in can- 
tact with some of the loose powder 
scattered about a table or cupboard 
or shelf and lead quickly to the 
main supply. I suggest getting a 
large tin box with a lock and always 
keeping your flashpowder, that is, 
every particle of it you ha\^ 
around, locked safely up where no- 



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seen such dangerous stuff as flash- 
powder put up for the ordinary dub 
photographer's consumption. I 
really do not think that it is safe 
for the average photographer to be 
given much latitude in handling 
loose powder. As a rule, he is such 
a nervous individual that he is like- 
ly to use too large a dose, or set it 
off prematurely, or do some other 
fool thing. In the Prosch cartridges 
the stuff is measured out and sealed 
up in the proper doses and all he 
has to do is to follow directions to 
get a certain result. I cannot see 
how the Prosch people can continue 
to put up their powder in such an 
accurate and convenient style and 
sell it cheaper than even they sell 
loose powder. 

Good Time to Take Stock. — 
While you are packing away your 
flashlight apparatus for the sum- 
mer, it will be a good idea to make 
mental note of how many good 
jobs and how much money you 
have lost during the past season by 
not having the proper kind of ap- 
paratus or supplies; better throw 
away some of that old truck that 
has apparently been^ handed down 
to you for a century or more, even 
those old Prosch lamps that were 
made in the time of the Revolution, 
and read a little about some of the 
new things that have revolutionized 
the flashlight work during the past 
few years. For instance, look at 



every month at least during the 
past twenty-five years, and then 
look up and examine at your deal- 
ers the new style Prosch magnesium 
lamps that are a hundred per cent 
better than the old style and will 
make you double the profit per 
month because they will enable you 
to do your work at least twice as 
good, and then consider whether or 
not in view of these facts you can 
afford to start out next fall with a 
complete new set of the most up-to- 
date apparatus that anyone could 
have. In these modern competitive 
times when it is quality of work as 
well as personality that counts in 
competition, the man behind the gun 
is not so important as the style of 
gun itself and how far it can shoot. 
You must not forget that although 
you may persist in being an old fogy 
in your field, some bright young up- 
to-date photographer with the best 
outfit to be had will come in and 
take away your business if you 
don't watch out. You will then find 
that "the oldest established studio'* 
is not going to count much against 
such competition. I hope these few 
words of advice to the wise will be 
sufficient. It is a good time now, as 
I said before, to ask your dealer for 
up-to-date information about the 
newest and best things in your field, 
and I am glad to give you a quiet 
tip that you must not overlook the 
Prosch concern's little red book 



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June, 1914 



THB FIELD FOR COMMERCIAL