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Full text of "The social evil in Chicago; a study of existing conditions with recommendations by the Vice commission of Chicago: a municipal body appointed by the mayor and the City council of the city of Chicago, and submitted as its report to the mayor and City council of Chicago"

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The Social Evil 
in Chicago 



A STUDY OF EXISTING CONDITIONS 

WITH RECOMMENDATIONS BY 

The Vice Commission of Chicago 



A MUNICIPAL BODY APPOINTED 
BY THE MAYOR AND THE CITY 
COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF 
CHICAGO AND SUBMITTED AS ITS 
REPORT TO THE MAYOR AND 
CITY COUNCIL OF CHICAGO 




. CHICAGO 

GUNTHORP-WARREN PRINTING COMPANY 
1911 



Copyright 1911 

By 
The Vice Commission 

of the 
City of Chicago 



First Edition, April 5th, 1911 
Second Edition, April 30th, 1911 
Third Edition, August 1st, 1911 



C 



THE VICE COMMISSION OF CHICAGO. 



DEAN WALTER T. SUMNER, 

Chairman , 

EDWIN W. SIMS, 



W. L. BAUM, M. D. 

DAVID BLAUSTEIN 

REV. J. F. CALLAGHAN 

ANNA DWYER, M. D. 

W. A. EVANS, M. D. 

REV. ALBERT EVERS 

REV. F. W. GUNSAULUS, D. D. 

W. W. HALLAM 

ABRAM W. HARRIS, LL. D. 

WM. HEALY, M. D. 

ELLEN M. HENROTIN 

REV. ABRAM HIRSCHBERG 

PROF. CHARLES R. HENDERSON 

REV. E. A. KELLY 



REV. J. G. KIRCH ER 
Louis O. KOHTZ 

P. J. O'KEEFFE 

JUDGE HARRY OLSON 
JUDGE M. W. PINCKNEY 
ALEXANDER ROBERTSON 
JULIUS ROSENWALD 
L. E. SCHMIDT, M. D. 
BISHOP C. T. SHAFFER 
EDWARD M. SKINNER 
PROF. GRAHAM TAYLOR 
PROF. WILLIAM I. THOMAS 
PROF. HERBERT L. WILLETT 
JOHN L. WHITMAN 



GEORGE J. KNEELAND, 
Director of Investigation. 



NOTE. James M. Hyde, M. D., one of the original members of The Vice 
Commission, died September 6, 1910. Prof. Charles R. Henderson was appointed 
by the Mayor to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Dr. Hyde. 



685081 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Preface i 

Outline of Study. ; 13 

Resolution of Appreciation 21 

Introduction and Summary 25 

Proposed Ordinance 51 

Recommendations 55 

Chapter I. Existing Conditions in Chicago 69 

Chapter II. The Social Evil and the Saloon 119 

Chapter III. The Social Evil and the Police 143 

Chapter IV. Sources of Supply 163 

Chapter V. Child Protection and Education 235 

Chapter VI. Rescue and Reform 261 

Chapter VII. The Social Evil and its Medical Aspects 289 

Appendices Text of Revised Statutes of Illinois and Ordinances 

of the City of Chicago 309 

Appendices Tables 357 

Appendices Exhibits 365 

Index , 393 



PREFACE. 



On January 31st, 1910, a meeting was held at the Central Y. M. C. A. 
Building, Chicago, by the Church Federation composed of Clergy repre- 
senting six hundred congregations in Chicago. The topic for dis- 
cussion was the Social Evil Problem in Chicago, and Dean Sumner 
was invited to read a paper on the subject. At its conclusion he 
presented the following resolution : 

"Resolved, that the Mayor of the City of Chicago be asked to appoint 
a Commission made up of men and women who command the respect 
and confidence of the public at large, this Commission to investigate 
thoroughly the conditions as they exist. With this knowledge obtained, 
let it map out such a course, as in its judgment, will bring about some 
relief from the frightful conditions which surround us. Taking this 
report as a basis, let us enlist the support of every civic, protective, 
philanthropic, social, commercial and religious body in the city to carry 
out the plans suggested. If the present administration feels that it can- 
not subscribe to such a plan, make the report the basis of a pledge from 
the political parties at the next election and make it the basis for an 
election issue. But first get the plan. The city press will be back 
of any sane movement to improve present conditions. The Church 
certainly is. Social settlements have been agitating and endeavoring 
to reach some decision. The general public is in a mood to listen to 
such conclusions as such a Commission would reach." 

This resolution was unanimously adopted and a committee from the 
Federation of Churches was appointed to call upon the Mayor, and 
present it to him for his consideration. This committee was composed 
of the following named gentlemen: 

Prof. Herbert L. Willett, University of Chicago.; 

Rev. J. A. Vance, Pastor of the Hyde Park Presbyterian Church ; 

Rev. Smith T. Ford, Pastor of the Englewood Baptist Church, 
and President of the Church Federation Council; 

Rev. Frank D. Burhans, Pastor of the Washington Park Congre- 
gational Church, and Vice-President of the Church Federation 
Council. 

Prof. Benjamin L. Hobson, Secretary of The McCormick Theo- 
logical Seminary. 

As a result of a conference with this Committee, the Mayor, through 



2 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

his Secretary, transmitted the following letter to Dean Walter T. 
Sumner, under date of March 5, 1910 : 

"DEAR SIR : 

I am directed by the Mayor to say that he has appointed you a 

member and temporary chairman of the so-called Vice Commission 

which he has been asked to appoint, and with the purpose of which 

you are, of course, familiar. As Chairman of said Commission 

it will be incumbent upon you, of course, to issue the call for the 

first meeting of said Committee. 
The members are as follows : 

Baum, Dr. W. L., Chicago Medical Society; 

Blaustein, David, Superintendent, Chicago Hebrew Institute; 

Callaghan, Rev. James F., Pastor, Saint Malachy's Roman Cath- 
olic Church ; 

Dwyer, Dr. Anna, President, Mary Thompson Hospital ; 

Evans, Dr. W. A., Health Commissioner; 

Evers, Rev. Albert, Pastor, Saint Boniface's Roman Catholic 
Church ; 

Gunsaulus, Dr. Frank W., President, Armour Institute; 

Hallam, W. W., Corresponding Secretary, Chicago Society of 
Social Hygiene; 

Harris, Dr. Abram W., President, Northwestern University; 

Healy, Dr. William, President, Psychopathic Institute; 

Hyde, Dr. James M., Professor, Rush Medical College ; 

Henrotin, Mrs. Ellen M., Federation of Women's Clubs; 

Hirschberg, Rev. Abram, Rabbi, North Chicago , Hebrew Con- 
gregation ; 

Kelly, Rev. E. A., Pastor, Saint Anne's Roman Catholic Church; 

Kircher, Rev. John G., Pastor, German Evangelical Church; 

Kohtz, Louis O., Agent, Aetna Fire Insurance Company; 

O'Keeffe, P. J., Lawyer. 

Olson, Judge Harry, Chief Justice, Municipal Courts; 

Pinckney, Judge Merritt W., Judge, Juvenile Court; 

Robertson, Alexander, Vice-President, Continental National Bank ; 

Rosenwald, Julius, President, Sears, Roebuck & Company; 

Schmidt, Dr. Louis E., Professor, Northwestern Medical College; 

Shaffer, Bishop C. T., African Methodist Episcopal Church; 

Sims, Edwin W., United States District Attorney; 

Skinner, Edward M., Association of Commerce; 

Sumner, The Very Reverend Walter T., Dean, Episcopal Cathedral 
SS Peter and Paul ; 

Taylor, Professor Graham, President, Chicago Commons ; 

Thomas, Professor William I., University of Chicago; 

Willett, Professor Herbert L., University of Chicago ; 

Whitman, John L., Superintendent, House of Correction. 

I also enclose a copy of the statement sent by Mayor Busse 

to the press in connection with appointment of the Commission. 
Yours very truly, 

BERNARD J. MULLANEY, 
Secretary to the Mayor. 



PREFACE 



MAYOR'S STATEMENT TO THE PRESS. 

A short time ago I received a communication from representa- 
tives of the Federated Protestant Churches, calling my attention to 
vice in Chicago, and requesting that a Commission be appointed 
to study the subject, with a view to determining a plan of control 
as well as considering the moral and physical harm which results 
from vice. 

These are the most perplexing questions with which modern 
civilization is confronted. Since Chicago has been a city, we 
have drifted as regards this question. In this we have not differed 
from other American cities. 

I think we can fairly assume that our vice problem is exactly 
like that of any American city. To exploit publicly the details 
of it, can serve no useful end and such exploitation is not the pur- 
pose of this commission proposition. On the other hand exploita- 
tion may do much harm by leading the uninformed to believe 
that conditions exist here which are of recent origin or which are 
worse than exist in other American cities. 

As a matter of fact, the conditions incident to the vice problem 
in Chicago, a problem as old as the city itself are better than 
they have ever been within present day memory. This I think 
will be conceded by all who are fully acquainted with the facts. 
But we all want still better conditions if they can be had. 

Many years ago, the authorities of the city attempted to localize 
vice in certain districts of the city. From time to time, property 
holders and heads of families have objected to their neighbors, 
thereupon these establishments have been widely scattered over 
town. The various neighborhoods into which they have moved 
have speedily secured enough of influence to drive them back in- 
to the neighborhoods from which they have been driven. 

Executives have acted, in doing this, with the best of motives 
and often times with the advice of Ministers of the Gospel, and 
other men of character. The only criticism that can be offered is 
that none of these moves was based on careful investigation and 
far-seeing planning. Our statute books State and Municipal 
are crowded with laws on the subject. Quite generally such laws 
have been ignored, since every one knew that they were not based 
on careful thought, either by trained students or investigators, 
or men closely in touch with the situation; rather have they grown 
out of temporary outbursts of sentiment. 

I was informed that Detroit, Michigan, and New York City 
have experimented along certain lines. Many European cities have 
tried certain plans. The Japanese government has proceeded along 
certain lines. Investigation will probably discover many other 
attempts at a solution of these questions. 

We can as a basis agree, I believe, that the practices as to vice 
in Chicago have been of long continuance ; and that in this respect 



4 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

we are no better and no worse than other American or European 
cities. These conditions are with us. To pretend that they do not 
exist is hypocrisy, far-reaching in its harmful effects. 

These premises being accepted, we find there are many questions 
springing from them to which thinking men and women, careful 
students of society and government, are giving deepest thought. 
Such questions are: 

Should the existence of the "social evil" and of the men and 
women connected with it, be ignored ? 

Should vice be segregated? If so, what would be the method 
of maintaining control of segregation districts? 

What is the best method of controlling, as to communicable dis- 
ease, those who make practice of vice their trade, and preventing 
spread of disease amongst innocent men, women and children as 
well as among practitioners of vice? 

What treatment of vice as a disease of society is best as a 
protection against crimes other than vice? 

What treatment of vice as a disease of society, is best for all 
concerned ? 

I am sure that we have men and women amongst us who can 
help us in finding a slow and partial solution for these questions, 
pending perfection in the men and women who make up society. 
We will welcome such help. I am sure that all over the world 
governments will welcome the results of these deliberations. I 
therefore respectfully appoint the following as a commission on the 
problems of vice, requesting them to deliberate on the question 
and to present the results of their deliberations for the consid- 
eration of this community and the guidance of those charged with 
administration of the municipal government." 

On March 14, 1910, the Mayor appointed Bishop C. T. Shaffer, of 
the African M. E. Church, as a member of the Commission. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE COMMISSION. 

During the regular meeting of the Commission on March 15, 1910, 
held in the Public Library Building, the temporary officers, Chairman, 
Dean Walter T. Sumner, Secretary, Edwin W. Sims, were made per- 
manent officers of the Commission. 

At this meeting the following resolution was submitted : 

"RESOLVED, That there be an Executive Committee, consisting 
of nine members, seven of whom shall be appointed by the Chair- 
man of the Commission, the Chairman and the Secretary to be 
ex-officio members of the Executive Committee ; 

"That it shall be the duty of the Executive Committee to ar- 
range a program of study and investigation, divide the Commission 
into committees, assign to each committee the subject to be in- 



PREFACE O 

vestigated by it, and from time to time consider and make recom- 
mendations as to the methods and disposition of the work of the 
Commission." 

This resolution was unanimously adopted. 

Subsequently the Chairman appointed the members of the Executive 
Committee . 

This committee appointed the following sub-committees: 

Committee on Existing Conditions in Chicago. 
Committee on Social Evil and Saloon. 
Committee on Social Evil and Police. 
Committee on Sources of Supply. 
Committee on Social Evil and Crime. 
Committee on Child Protection and Education. 
Committee on Rescue and Reform. 
Committee on Literature and Methods. 
Committee on Medical Questions. 
Committee on Law and Legislation. 

At the regular meeting of the Commission on May 5, 1910, a motion 
prevailed that the permanent name of the Commission should be the 
"Vice Commission." 

A committee was appointed to appear before the Committee on 
Finance of the City Council on May 6, 1910, and request that an 
appropriation be made for the work of the Vice Commission. 

At the regular meeting of the City Council on Monday, June 27, 
1910, Alderman Foell moved to proceed to the consideration of the 
report of the Committee on Finance concerning an appropriation for 
the expenses of the "Vice Commission," deferred and published May 9, 
1910, page 143. 
The motion prevailed. 

Alderman Foell presented an ordinance creating a Commission of 
the City Government to be known as the "Vice Commission," and ap- 
propriating the sum of $5,000.00 for the expenses of the said Commis- 
sion during the year 1910. 

Alderman Foell moved to substitute the said ordinance for the ordi- 
nance recommended in the report. 

The motion prevailed and the said substitute ordinance was passed 
by yeas and nays as follows : 

Yeas Kenna, Coughlin, Shu felt, Foreman, Pringle, Dailey, 
Richert, Sheahan, Long, Parker, Merriam, Emerson, Derpa, Egan, 
Fick, Scully, Vavricek, Cullerton, Danisch, Zimmer, Fulton, Buck- 
ley, Lawley, Lucas, Utpatel, Beilfuss, Kunz, Koraleski, Sitts, Dever, 



6 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Healy, Powers, Bowler, Stewart, Murray, Taylor, Foell, Hauler, 
Clettenberg, Britten, Haderlein, Dunn, Thomson, Lipps, Rein- 
berg, Capp, Wilson, Littler, Twigg, Mueller, McDermott, Mclner- 
ney, Mahoney, Kearns, Bergen, Fisher, Rea, Reading, Block, Dona- 
hoe, Clark, Forsberg 62. 
Nays None. 

The following is the said ordinance as passed: 

AN ORDINANCE CREATING THE VICE COMMISSION. 

Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Chicago: 

SECTION 1. That there is hereby created a commission of the 
city government to be known as the "Vice Commission," which 
shall consist of thirty members to be appointed by the Mayor. 

SECTION 2. The Mayor shall appoint a chairman of the Com- 
mission from among its members. The chairman of the Com- 
mission shall call meetings of the Commission whenever he may 
see fit and whenever he shall be requested, in writing, so to do 
by any five members of the Commission. 

SECTION 3. It shall be the duty of the Vice Commission and 
the members thereof to inquire into conditions existing within the 
limits of the city with reference to vice of various forms including 
all practices which are physically and morally debasing and de- 
grading, and which affect the moral and physical welfare of the 
inhabitants of the city. 

The Commission shall from time to time transmit to the Mayor 
and the City Council, a written report of existing conditions, as it 
may find them, respecting vice, with such recommendations as it 
shall deem advisable for the suppression thereof. 

SECTION 4. That there be and is hereby appropriated from 
miscellaneous receipts for the year 1910 the sum of five thousand 
dollars ($5,000.00) for the payment of the necessary expenses of 
the Vice Commission to be paid out by the Comptroller upon the 
written order of the chairman of the Commission. 

SECTION 5. This ordinance shall be in full force and effect 
from and after its passage. 

At the regular meeting of the Vice Commission on June 28, 1910, 
it was reported that the Finance Committee of the City Council favored 
granting the Vice Commission funds, the question had arisen, how- 
ever, as to the legality of such action by the City Council with respect 
to the Commission as then constituted, the Corporation Counsel ex- 
pressed the opinion that there must be, in order to make such action 
lawful, the appointment of the Commission by the Mayor must be ap- 
proved by the City Council; that he understood the objectionable points 
had been overcome and the funds should be voted by the City Council 
at their next meeting. 



PREFACE 7 

At the regular meeting of the City Council on Tuesday, May 5, 1910, 

the following communication was read: 

"MAYOR'S OFFICE, 
CHICAGO, July 5, 1910. 
To the Honorable, the City Council: 

GENTLEMEN: In accordance with the power vested in me by 
an ordinance of your Honorable Body, passed June 27, 1910 (page 
942 of the Proceedings), I hereby appoint the following gentlemen 
members of the commission, to be known as the Vice Commission, 
and ask the concurrence of your Honorable Body : 
Dean Walter T. Sumner, 
Dr. W. L. Baum, 
David Blaustein, 
Rev. J. F. Callaghan, 
Dr. Anna Dwyer, 
Dr. W. A. Evans, 
Rev. Albert Evers, 
Rev. Dr. Frank Gunsaulus, 
W. W. Hallam, 
Dr. Abraham W. Harris, 
Dr. Wm. Healy, 
Mrs. Ellen M. Henrotin, 
Rev. Abraham Hirschberg, 
Dr. James M. Hyde, 
Rev. E. A. Kelly, 
Rev. John G. Kircher, 
Louis O. Kohtz, 
P. J. O'Keeffe, 
Hon. Harry Olson, 
Judge M. W. Pinckney, 
Alexander Robertson, 
Julius Rosenwald, 
Dr. Louis E. Schmidt, 
Bishop C. T. Shaffer, 
Hon. Edwin W. Sims, 
Edward M. Skinner, 
Prof. Graham Taylor, 
Prof. Wm. I. Thomas, 
Prof. Herbert L. Willett, 
Hon. John L. Whitman. 

Respectfully, 

(Signed) FRED A. BUSSE, 

Mayor." 

At the regular meeting of the City Council on Monday, July 11, 1910, 
Alderman Foell presented an ordinance amending an ordinance passed 
June 27, 1910, creating the "Vice Commission." 

Unanimous consent was given for the consideration of the said ordi- 
nance. 



8 

The following is the said ordinance as passed: 

"Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Chicago: 

SECTION 1. That an ordinance heretofore passed by this Coun- 
cil on June 27th, 1910, creating a Vice Commission, and shown 
at page 942 of the Council Proceedings of that date, be and the 
same is hereby amended by adding at the end of Section 4 in 
the left hand column the following: 'and the Comptroller shall 
set up this appropriation as Account No. 45 and under the proper 
letters designating the standard accounts in accordance with the 
Appropriation bill.' 

SECTION 2. This ordinance shall be in force and effect from 
and after its passage." 

On July 15, 1910, the Vice Commission secured offices and began 
active work with Mr. George J. Kneeland in charge. 

On July 18, 1910, the chairman announced the resignation of 
Bishop William F. McDowell, on account of absence from the country. 
During the summer the business of the Commission was attended 
to by the Chairman and Executive Committee. 

At the regular meeting on September 28, 1910, the Chairman an- 
nounced that the Mayor had appointed Professor Charles R. Hen- 
derson of the Chicago University as a member of the Vice Commis- 
sion to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Dr. James M. Hyde. 

On motion the chairman appointed a committee to draw up appro- 
priate resolutions commemorating the death of Dr. Hyde. 

These resolutions were submitted at the regular meeting of the Vice 
Commission on October 25, 1910, and adopted as follows : 



"WHEREAS, our fellow member, James Nevins Hyde, 
having been taken from us by death, 

BE IT RESOLVED by us, the Vice Commission of Chicago, 
sitting in general session, that we hereby express our sense of 
deep sorrow at our own loss of anticipated counsel and advice, 
and of our earnest sympathy with the family of the deceased; 

AND, FURTHERMORE, that we order this resolution to 
be inscribed upon our records and a copy of it forwarded to 
the7amily." 



PREFACE 9 

In addition to the regular meetings of the Commission, ninety- 
eight conferences were held during a period of six weeks. These 
conferences were arranged for by letters of invitation and by press 
notices. As a result representatives appeared before the Commis- 
sion from philanthropic, civic, social and reform and business organ- 
izations ; among these were the following : 

Anti-Cigarette League Hull House 

Anti-Saloon League Immigrant Protective League 

Baptists Ministers' Union Juvenile Court 

Chicago Deaconess' Home Juvenile Protective Association 

Citizens' Association Legal Aid Society 

Chicago Law and Order League Lincoln Center 

Central Howard Association Law Enforcement League of the 

Congregational Ministers' Union Northwest Side 

Catholic Abstinence Union of II- " Methodist Brotherhood of Chi- 

linois cago 

Chicago Refuge for Girls Midnight Mission 

Chicago Rescue Mission Northwestern University Settle- 
Douglas Neighborhood Club ment 

Brewers' Exchange Salvation Army Maternity Home 

South Park Improvement Asso- Retail Liquor Dealers' Protective 

ciation. Association. 

Florence Crittenton Anchorage 

Prominent citizens were also heard. 

Inspectors of Police, Captains, Lieutenants and Patrolmen were like- 
wise heard in conference. 

At various times interviews were held with keepers and inmates 
of houses. 

At a regular meeting of the Commission held January 5, 1911, the 
chairman appointed a committee to appear before the Finance Com- 
mittee of the City Council to ask for an appropriation of five thou- 
sand dollars to carry on the work of the Commission for the year 
1911. 

The petition of the committee was granted and the sum of five 
thousand dollars was set aside in the annual budget for 1911, for 
the use of the Vice Commission. 



10 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

On April 5th, 1911, the report of the Vice Commission was pre- 
sented to the Mayor and City Council of the City of Chicago and the 
following action was taken: 

The Clerk presented the following communication submitted by the 
Vice Commission: 



CHICAGO, ILL., April 5, 1911. 
Hon. Fred A. Busse, 

Mayor of Chicago, and the 
Honorable, the City Council, 

SIRS: 

The Chicago Vice Commission, authorized by ordinance of the City 
Council of the City of Chicago passed June 27, 1910, and appointed 
by you under date of July 5, 1910, transmits herewith, in compliance 
with the terms of the ordinance, its report on existing conditions re- 
specting vice, together with its recommendations for the suppression 

thereof. 

Very respectfully, 

(Signed) WALTER T. SUMNER, 

Chairman. 
(Signed) EDWIN W. SIMS, 

Secretary. 

Alderman Foell moved that the report transmitted with the foregoing 
communication be placed on file, and that the said Commission be con- 
tinued in existence until June 1st, 1911, or until such time thereafter 
as might be necessary to finish its outstanding business. The motion 
prevailed. 

Alderman Foell thereupon presented the following order, which was, 
on motion, duly passed : 

Ordered: That the Vice Commission be authorized to print, pub- 
lish and distribute such number of copies of its report as the appro- 
priation already made will warrant and that it be further authorized 
to print, publish and distribute such extra copies of its report as the 
Commission may deem necessary, provided that the publication of 
such extra copies be without expense to the City. 



Outline of Study 

Made by the 

Commission. 



OUTLINE OF STUDY MADE BY THE COMMISSION: 

I. COMMITTEE ON EXISTING CONDITIONS. 

1. Houses. 

a. Number. 

b. Vocation. 

c. Type. 

d. Owners. 

e. Keepers. 

f. Number, age, previous occupation of inmates. 

g. Price, character and amount of service demanded. 
'. h. Sanitary conditions. 

i. Character of neighborhood. 

How are police rules obeyed. 

What are the police relations to the resorts. 
1. Social allurements in resorts, 

1. Music. 

2. Obscene shows. 

3. Liquor. 

4. Dances, etc. 

in. Medical inspection in resorts at present time. 

n. Extent of venereal diseases. 

o. Public and private graft. 

p. Robbing of patrons. 

q. The "Cadet" problem. 

r. Extent of use of cocaine and drugs at present time. 

s. Method of advertising. 

2. Assignation houses. 

a. Number. 

b. Location. 

c. Character of neighborhood. 

d. Methods of advertising. 

e. Sale of liquors. 

3. Hotels. 

a. Number. 

b. Location. 

c. Prices for rooms. 

d. Prices of women who solicit for these places. 

4. Lake Boats. 

5. Picnics. 

6. "Kept" women. 

7. Manicure parlors. 

8. Massage parlors. 

9. Turkish baths. 

10. Dance Halls. 

11. Tenement Houses. 



13 



14 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

II. COMMITTEE ON SOCIAL EVIL AND SALOON. 

1. How the saloon makes for prostitution. 

a. Saturday night dance. 

b. Saloon dance. 

c. Vaudeville and music in the saloons. 

d. Women in the saloons. 

e. Solicitation. 

2. Co-operation between the saloon and resorts. 

a. Resorts with entrances through saloons. 

b. Bed houses and saloons. 

c. Midnight closing. 

d. The sale of liquor in resorts, sociability; physical in- 

fluence. 

e. Joint ownership between saloons and resorts. 

f. Saloon keepers and prostitutes. 

g. Resort runners in saloons. 

III. COMMITTEE ON SOCIAL EVIL AND POLICE. 

1. Efficiency of Police under present conditions. 

2. Records. 

a. Character of records desirable to be kept: 

1. Owners of property. 

2. Houses. 

3. Keepers. 

4. Inmates. 

b. Should police officers be permitted to retain such rec- 

ords, or 
1. Should they be filed at headquarters as official matter. 

c. Advisability of establishing a bureau at headquarters for 

records of entire city, and from which point, and 
through which bureau a more or less complete control 
of the situation might be had. 

3. Inspection. 

a. Should police inspection and surveillance of resorts in- 
clude a room to room visit at unstated periods, to 

1. Search for liquor. 

2. Examine into sanitary conditions. 

3. Collect data for reports. 

4. Listen to complaints. 

5. See that rules and regulations of Department are 

carried out. 

4. Protection, question of: 

a. Police protection of inmates and keepers against dis- 

turbance of the order of the places. 

b. Should resorts be guaranteed police protection, when 

they comply with rules and regulations. The word 
"protection" used in its legitimate sense, and not in 



OUTLINE OP STUDY 15 

the sense of guaranteeing immunity under any circum- 
stances whatever. 
c. Preventing tribute to police. 

5. Police detail, should the same police officers either in plain 
clothes or uniform be permitted: 

a. To remain in any district for more than a brief period 

of time, 

b. Should police rules and regulations be framed and dis- 

played in each room of a resort. 

COMMITTEE ON SOURCES OF SUPPLY. 

1. How much slavery exists among women in Chicago? 

2. What is the extent of the "cadet" system; runners? 

3. What is the extent of fake marriages? 

4. Prostitute's husbands. 

5. How are girls secured abroad from what state or country 

are they drawn? 

6. How are they secured? 

7. How are they held? 

8. What does the girl get? 

9. What does the house get? 

10. How much service must she render? 

11. How do girls escape? 

12. What can be done to stop the importation of girls from 

abroad ? From the city ? From the country ? 

13. What can be done to prevent the traffic in girls? 

14. What can be done to furnish a way of escape for girls? 

15. What is the remedy for the "cadet," the fake marriage 

situation, and the practices of other deceit, trickery and 
f rattd ? 

COMMITTEE ON SOCIAL EVIL AND CRIME. 

1. Contempt for law on the part of those promoting the Social 

Evil. 

2. Relation of prostitutes to habits, 

a. Whiskey. 

b. Morphine. 

c. Cocaine. 

d. Murder. 

e. Theft. 

3. Are resorts necessary to prevent rape, and violence 

against children and innocent women? 

4. The prostitute's man. 

5. The psychological and moral effect of prostitution on the 

neighborhood. 

6. The criminal history of the old prostitute. 

7. Remedies. 

a. Emasculation. 

b. Permanent confinement. 

c. Parole system. 



16 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

VI. COMMITTEE ON CHILD PROTECTION AND EDUCATION. 

1. Lectures to school children; to boys and girls, offices and 

stores. 

2. Sex hygiene. 

3. Venereal diseases. 

4. Improper Literature. 

5. The stage. 

6. Children near sporting houses. 

7. Children in relation to segregated prostitution. 

8. Children and youths employed in resorts. 

VII. COMMITTEE ON RESCUE AND REFORM. 

1. Houses for reformed prostitutes. 

2. Work for the reformed prostitutes. 

3. Plan ior getting girls out of debt and out of houses of pros- 

titution. 

4. Hospitals for sick prostitutes. 

5. Venereal disease hospitals. 

6. Maternity homes for pregnant prostitutes; for girls illegiti- 

mately pregnant, to see that they do not fall into houses of 
prostitutes. 

7. Homes for children of prostitutes. 

VIII. COMMITTEE ON LITERATURE AND METHODS. 

1. Literature : 

a. All literature obtainable in all languages. 

b. Seek co-operation of some research library who handle 
such literature. 

c. Furnish all the members of the Commission with list of 

literature covering the various phases of the subject 
from time to time, and where such literature may be 
found. 

d. Statistics as to prostitution in relation to crime; to 

venereal diseases, to illegitimacy. 

2. Methods : 

a. Methods employed in other cities and abroad. 

b. Methods proposed but not adopted. 

IX. COMMITTEE ON MEDICAL QUESTIONS. 

1. The harm done by venereal diseases, directly; indirectly. 

For example, in relation to blindness and sterility. 

2. The extent of venereal disease among professional prostitues, 

among casual protitutes; among "kept" women; among 
men; among children; among innocent women, and in 
children's hospitals. 



OUTLINE OP STUDY 17 

3. Remedies. 

a. Preventive medication. 

b. Silver in the eyes of newly born children. 

c. Sanitation in houses of prostitution. 

d. The registration of venereal disease. 

e. Registration of prostitutes. 

4. Medical aspects of hospital relief of venereal cases : Prosti- 

tutes, men, women and children. 

5. Laboratory measures for the control of syphilis, gonorrhoea. 

6. Inheritance. 

7. Environment. 

8. Sexual history, especially with relation to conception. 

9. Medical aspects of emasculation of criminals. 

a. The question of defectives, especially degenerates and 
sexual perverts. 

10. The prevention of conception by prostitutes. 

11. Sterility among prostitutes. 

12. The illegitimate child; its chance of living. 

13. The registration of maternity hospitals, homes and baby 

farms. 

14. Psychology of the system. 

X. COMMITTEE ON LAW AND LEGISLATION. 

1. The laws of other countries in relation to prostitution. 

2. The underlying principles of police power devise a legal 

basis for a control which probably will conflict with the 
lines of decisions of the courts of this country. 

3. Methods suggested will be referred to this committee in order 

that this committee may make them conform to the broad 
principles of police power for which the Commission may 
stand; especially, that they investigate present laws which 
should be repealed. 

4. New laws to be enacted by the Legislature. 

5. Treatment of children as witnesses. 

6. A Commission for the control of prostitution with a certain 

amount of Legislative power. 

7. Laws controlling segregation, regulation and registration. 

8. Laws making venereal disease a contagious disease, and under 

this provision transferring the entire question to health 
authorities. 

9. Laws with reference to the legitimatizing of the illegitimate 

child. 

10. Hygiene and sanitation. 

11. Laws to prevent the detention of prostitutes for debt. 



Resolution 

of 
Appreciation. 



RESOLUTION OF APPRECIATION. 

At the regular meeting of the Commission when the final vote on 
its report was taken, the following resolution was unanimously 
adopted with instructions that it be spread on the records of the Com- 
mission and be printed in its report. 

BE IT RESOLVED, That the members of the Vice Commission of Chi- 
cago hereby express their high appreciation of the services of their 
executive officers, Dean Walter T. Sumner, Chairman, and Edwin 
W. Sims, Secretary. 

Dean Sumner has presided over the many sessions of the Commis- 
sion and its sub-committees with unvarying courtesy and the best of 
good fellowship. Throughout the prolonged and trying inquiries his 
steadfastness and patience have been equal to the ordeal. In col- 
lecting the voluminous and complex data gathered and canvassed and 
in formulating in large part the text of the report he has proved him- 
self to be adequate to the exacting task both in constructive ability 
and in his spirit of concession to the opinions of his colleagues. 

Mr. Sims' legal ability and experience in the discovery, punish- 
ment and prevention of crimes against immigrant women, as prosecut- 
ing officer of the United States Court have been of invaluable 
service throughout the work of the Commission. His judicial judg- 
ment, tempered by warm sympathy and working through self-ex- 
acting co-operative effort with every phase of the Commission's in- 
quiry and deliberation, has contributed valuably to the thoroughness 
and practical conclusions of this difficult and delicate inquiry. 

To the ability and spirit of their Chairman and Secretary, the 
Commission owes much of its ability to render a unanimous report. 



21 



Introduction 

and 
Summary. 



CONSTANT AND PERSISTENT REPRESSION OF PROSTITU- 
TION TEE IMMEDIATE METHOD: ABSOLUTE ANNI- 
HILATION THE ULTIMATE IDEAL. 



Such is the recommendation of this Commission. That it 
may be put in force effectually and unremittingly we fur- 
ther recommend : 

FIRST: THE APPOINTMENT OF A MORALS COMMISSION. 
SECOND: THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A MORALS COURT. 



THE honor of Chicago, the fathers and mothers of her children. 
the physical and moral integrity of the future generation de- 
mand that she repress ptihlir prostirntinn. 

Prostitution is pregnant with disease, a disease infecting not only 
the guilty, but contaminating the innocent wife and child in the home 
with sickening certainty almost inconceivable; a disease to be feared 
with a^greqf horror as a leprous plague; a disease scattering misery 
and leaving in its wake sterility, insanity, paralysis, the 



Jjlinded_ey_es of little babes, the twisted limbs of deformed children, 
degradation, physical rot* and mental decay. 

That there must be constant repression of this curse on human 
society is the conclusion of this Commission after months of ex- 
haustive study and investigation a study which has included the 
academic with the practical; moral ideals with human weaknesses; 
honesty of administration with corruption; the possible with th im- 
possible. It has sought to meet all question fairly; it has made every 
effort to work with intelligence ; it has kept constantly in mind that to 
offer a contribution of any value such an offering must be, first, 
moral; second, reasonable and practical; third, possible under the 
Constitutional powers of our Courts; fourth, that which will square 
with the public conscience of the American people. 

We believe that Chicago has a public conscience which, when 
aroused, cannot be easily stilled a conscience built upon moral and 

25 



26 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

ethical teachings of the purest American type a conscience which 
when aroused to the truth will instantly rebel against the Social Evil 
in all its phases. 

Some who have a superficial knowledge of the "Continental System" 
of segregation and regulation based on a cursory reading or surface 
investigation might bring it forward as a method of relief. One has 
but to read scientific works on the subject; to study the reports of 
international conferences held in Europe, and to hear the findings 
of careful investigators to see the unreliability and futility of such a 
system, and to learn of its failures as a permanent institution wherever 
it has been undertaken in this country or abroad. The Commission 
is convinced that the so-called System has proved itself degenerating 
and ineffective. 

Furthermore the overwhelming majority of the citizens of Chi- 
cago, and the fathers and mothers of her children will never coun- 
tenance the recognition or legalization of a commercial business 
which spells only ruin to the race. It is, therefore, incumbent upon 
us to take a bold stand against this curse of society. It behooves us 
to raise social life to the highest possible standard of righteousness 
to teach the youth of our land loyalty and honor to womanhood. 

The immensity of the Social Evil problem is no excuse for us to 
stand idly by and do nothing in an attempt to solve it. The sin of 
impurity may not be cured in a day, a year, or perhaps in genera- 
tions. But that prostitution as a commercialized business or any- 
thing akin to it, is necessary, can never be conceded. We assume that 
by earnest, wise, united, and persistent effort on the part of indi- 
viduals and organized groups in society, we can do something how 
much we can only discover by trial. To say we can do nothing may 
be left to the morally inert; of course, they can do nothing but 
evil. 

As plagues, epidemics and contagious diseases old as the world 
have given way before the onslaught of medical science; as slavery 
in this country has been rooted out by the gradually growing con- 
viction of an American conscience; so may the Social Evil be re- 
pressed proportionately as the American people grow in righteousness 
and in the knowledge of this curse, which is more blasting than any 
plague or epidemic; more terrible than any black slavery that ever 
existed in this or any other country; more degenerating to the morals 



INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 27 

id ideals of the nation than all other agencies against decency com- 
ined. 

We may enact laws ; we may appoint Commissions ; we may abuse 
ivic administrations for their handling of the problem ; but the prob- 
m will remain just as long as the public conscience is dead to the 
sue or is indifferent to its solution. 

The law is only so powerful as the public opinion which supports 
. It is the habit of Americans when they make laws to insist on 
:hical ideals. They will not compromise. They have been en- 
Dwed, however, with a fine ability to be inconsistent, and having once 
eclared their ideals to find no difficulty, when it comes to the ad- 
linistration of the laws, to allow officials to ignore them; to do 
lings not in the laws ; and to substitute a practice which is a de facto 
.w, though technically illegal. This is the basis of graft and the 
reatest evil in Municipal government. 

Commissions may be appointed. However valuable their findings 
tid recommendations may be, unless the public insist no changes in 
le situation will obtain. 

The Social Evil in its worst phases may be repressed. So long as 
icre is lust in the hearts of men it will seek out some method of ex- 
ression. Until the hearts of men are changed we can hope for no 
bsolute annihilation of the Social Evil. Religion and education alone 
in correct the greatest curse which today rests upon mankind. For 
lis there is a mighty work for agencies and institutions of righteous- 
ess in our land. 

With these facts in mind the Commission has squarely faced the 
roblem. It has tried to do its duty by placing before the public 
ic true situation in Chicago. It presents recommendations carefully 
nd conscientiously drawn. Its contribution to the subject of the 
ocial Evil has to do most particularly with Chicago and her prob- 
:ms. The Commission entertains the hope, however, that its find- 
igs, its discussions, and its recommendations may help other similar 
lunicipal Commissions in their work and deliberations. The first 
'ommission to be appointed by a municipality and financed from the 
'ity Treasury, it has begun by blazing the way. Other Commissions 
r ith the experience and knowledge gained from this first municipal 
ffort may go farther and present greater contributions to the sub- 
net. We sincerely hope that such will be the case. 



28 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Attitude of Commission. Throughout this report the Commission 
has made every effort to publish only such results as would give the 
municipality a correct and unexaggerated idea of conditions. At all 
times, while honest in the statement of conditions, it has assumed 
an ultra-conservative attitude in its criticisms. It believes that only 
through such an honest and conservative study can the true situation 
be given to the citizens of the city. Its statements, therefore, are 
not made to bring discredit upon the city. Loyalty is a prime requi- 
site of good citizenship. In that loyalty which is based upon a 
thorough knowledge of its conditions and without seeking to con- 
demn other cities, the Commission desires to state its belief that, in 
contrast, Chicago is far better proportionately to its population than 
most of the other large cities of the country. This statement is made 
after a careful study of conditions in fifty-two of the largest cities 
of the country a study based on the replies received from, first, the 
City Clerk, second, the head of the Health Department, and third, 
Superintendent of Police in these fifty-two municipalities. In addition 
personal investigation by the Commission was conducted in some 
fifteen of the largest of these cities. Much data is in the possession 
of the Commission showing the conditions existing elsewhere upon 
which to base its conclusions. 

Criticism. The Commission has refrained from unnecessary criti- 
cism of public officials. Present day conditions are better in respect 
to open vice than the city has known in many years. But they are 
by no means a credit to Chicago. However, this must be remem- 
bered; they are not unique in the history of the city. Present day 
public officials are no more lax in their handling of the problem than 
their predecessors for years; as a matter of fact, the regulations re- 
specting flagrant and open prostitution under the present police ad- 
ministration are more strict in tone and repressive in execution than 
have been issued or put in operation for many years. Public opinion 
has made no united demand for a change in the situation. The Com- 
mission feels, therefore, that all public officials who are equally re- 
sponsible for the present conditions are equally open to criticism. 
Further, that the greatest criticism is due the citizens of Chicago, first, 
for the constant evasion of the problem, second, for their ignorance 
and indifference to the situation, and third, for their lack of united 



INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 29 

effort in demanding a change in the intolerable conditions as they now 
exist. 

The Police. No one will doubt that in many instances such an 
attitude on the part of the public and their officials leads to the break- 
ing down of the morale of the police. But to make the sweeping 
statement of general inefficiency and dishonesty would be unjust to a 
large number of men endeavoring to do their duty. The Commission 
believes, therefore, that the large majority of the police are honest and 
efficient ; it believes that some are neither honest nor efficient. For the 
former it has the warmest praise for the latter it has the most se- 
vere condemnation. If the citizens cannot depend upon the men ap- 
pointed to protect their property, and to maintain order, then chaos 
and disorganization resulting in vice and crime must follow. In the 
interest of good government and a competent police regime, and in 
justice to the honest and conscientious men of the department who 
desire to do their duty, the dishonest and incompetent should be 
driven out most speedily. For the type of officer who frequents 
saloons and drinks openly with prostitutes, who acts as a guide to 
houses of assignation, and who recommends certain women for the 
purpose of prostitution for this type of police officer Chicago has no 
place. 

As above stated, the Commission does not condemn the personnel 
of the police as a whole, but it does condemn the System a System 
which has grown notoriously inactive in the handling of the Social 
Evil, partly because of the tolerative attitude of the citizens of "Chi- 
cago, and partly because of its own desire to perpetuate itself as a 
System: A System which makes it easier for the police to accept 
graft from the tremendous profits reaped from the sale in women's 
bodies than to honestly do their duty. All credit to the great body 
of men who have withstood these temptations, and who some day will 
find a condition where their courage will be amply rewarded. 

A Word of Appreciation. To the Honorable Fred A. Busse, 
Mayor of Chicago, belongs the honor and distinction of having ap- 
pointed this, the first Municipal Commission to study the exist- 
ing conditions of a great city respecting vice and to report such rec- 
ommendations as it may deem advisable for the suppression thereof. 
This fact in itself speaks more forcibly than any mere words of appre- 



30 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

ciation which this Commission might offer for the honor and privi- 
lege extended to its members. 

Credit likewise belongs to the members of the City Council in that 
they unanimously concurred in the recommendation of the Mayor and 
appropriated the funds used in the preparation and the printing of 
this report. 

Reports of Committees. The plan of work as outlined in the be- 
ginning of the Commission's study was to give certain subjects to 
different Committees asking them to inquire into their subjects and 
report to the Commission as a whole. It was found, however, that 
the subjects overlapped and as a result the different Committees re- 
ported on subjects assigned to other Committees. It has been neces- 
sary, therefore, to classify this material and bring it all under proper 
headings. This has meant a re-arrangement of the reports, so that 
the separate chapters are not the work of any special Committee, but 
a compilation of the work of several Committees. In other words 
the full report stands as the report of the Commission as a whole, 
and no one chapter can be designated as the findings of any special 
Committee, although the title of the chapter is the same as the name 
of the Committee given in the preface. 

Scope of Commission's Work. The Commission is an investigating 
and not a prosecuting body. The ordinance by which it was created 
gave it no powers of prosecution and specifically stated the object in 
view to be to obtain the results of a scientific study of existing condi- 
tions and to point out methods of relief for such. 

The Commission has carefully omitted from the report all names 
of offenders against the law, as well as addresses. It has also re- 
frained from publishing the numbers of police officers who have been 
actually seen violating police rules regarding conduct while on duty 
as well as overlooking the violation of the law and of police regula- 
tions. In place of these the Commission has used the letter "X" with 
a number following. These definite addresses, names and numbers, 
however, are on file in the records of the Commission. 

It must be remembered that the typical cases throughout the report 
are taken from the daily reports of the field investigators in the em- 
ploy of the Commission, and are given as their findings. 

Investigations. The Commission entering upon its duties decided 



INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 31 

that the first step was to learn of present conditions in the City of 
Chicago. Mr. George J. Kneeland was secured as Director of In- 
vestigation to take charge of the investigation, organize the work and 
assist in the preparation of the final report. Mr. Kneeland is a col- 
lege graduate, a social worker of experience, and has had charge of 
important investigations in other cities. It was in connection with the 
work of the Research Committee of the Committee of Fourteen of 
New York, for which he had charge of the field investigation, that the 
Commission came in touch with him. The Commission desires to ex- 
press the deep obligation which the Commission and the community are 
under for his painstaking, efficient, and conscientious efforts, and the 
Commission does so in these, its opening paragraphs. 

Trained expert investigators, both men and women, highly recom- 
mended for their efficiency and reliability, were placed in the field. The 
full results of their findings it is impossible to publish; first, because 
of the volume, and, second, because of their unprintable character. 

Two Standards of Morality. Unfortunately there are two standards 
of morality in Chicago. One standard permits and applauds dances 
by women almost naked in certain public places under the guise of art, 
and condemns dances no worse before audiences from the less pros- 
perous walks of life. This same hypocritical attitude drives the un- 
fortunate and often poverty stricken prostitute from the street, and 
at the same time tolerates and often welcomes the silken clad pros- / 
titute in the public drinking places of several of the most preten- 
tious hotels and restaurants of the city. Houses of prostitution 
patronized by the lowly are closed at various times for various rea- 
sons, but the gilded palaces of sin patronized by the wealthy are im- 
mune from punishment, even to the extent of being saved the humil- 
iation of appearing upon a police list. 

Ignorance of Conditions Certainty Concerning Methods. This 
Commission has been greatly impressed in its studies with these two 
facts: first, the citizen's wilful ignorance of the immoral conditions 
within the city, and second, his off-hand advice as to the proper meth- 
ods of handling the vice problem, given with absolute confidence and 
finality. The Commission has met this latter fault with real sym- 
pathy. Its members entered upon the initial deliberations and inves- 
tigations with a smiliar certainty. As time went on and facts were 



32 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

presented this certainty as to the best solution of the problem 
gradually disappeared. A period of revulsion against conditions and 
of doubt as to the best course to pursue followed. Then began the 
constructive period, months filled with progressive studies based upon 
incontrovertible facts, with never a backward step, illuminating con- 
ferences, wide-spread investigations in other cities as well as Chi- 
cago, the fullest possible discussion and debate amongst its members 
in frequent meetings often times from four to twelve hours in dura- 
tion, with the result that new uncertainty was changed to a final cer- 
tainty and thirty minds were absolutely unanimous in their conclusions. 
We believe such harmonious unanimity on the part of men and women 
representing so many diversified callings in life, and so many groups of 
society, must be a fair indication of the public mind and conscience 
of the citizens of Chicago. Again, this unanimity gives to the decision 
a weight which it could not have possessed had there been a decided 
difference of opinion amongst its members with the possible presenta- 
tion of a minority report. 



What is the situation today in Chicago? In detail, this may be 
learned in the first Chapter of this report; as a summary we call es- 
pecial attention to the facts which follow. 



Prostitution a Commercialized Business. The first truth that the 
Commission desires to impress upon the citizens of Chicago is the fact 
that prostitution in this city is a Commercialised Business of large 
proportions with tremendous profits of more than Fifteen Million 
Dollars per year, controlled largely by men, not women. Separate 
the male exploiter from the problem, and we minimize its extent and 
abate its flagrant outward expression. In addition we check an artificial 
stimulus which has been given the business so that larger profits may 
be made by the men exploiters. It is abhorrent to the moral sense 
of a community like Chicago the second largest city in the country 
a city rightly ambitious to stand high in the world's achievements for 
civic and social betterment that there should be within its borders 
a group or groups of men, vicious and ignorant to a degree who are 



INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY l>3 

openly and defiantly breaking the laws of the State, and bringing into ill 
repute the honor of the city. 1 

In juxtaposition with this group of professional male exploiters 
stand ostensibly respectable citizens, both men and women, who are 
openly renting and leasing property for exorbitant sums, and thus 
sharing, through immorality of investments, the profits from this 
Business. A Business which demands a supply of five thousand souls 
from year to year to satisfy the lust and greed of men in this city 
alone. These statements may seem exaggerated and highly colored, 
but a careful, ultra conservative study of conditions in this municipality 
has put the Commission in possession of absolute facts upon which 
to base these conclusions. No language can be too strong, no con- 
demnation too severe, for those who have brought upon Chicago this 
intolerable situation. 

Present Laws Not Enforced. In the second place the Commission 
believes that something can be done by law honestly and efficiently 
administered. Practically no attempt has been made in Chicago to en- 
force the present laws. 2 In place of enforcing the law the police have 
been allowed to adopt arbitrary rules and uncertain regulations of their 
own, whereby certain sections of the city have become restricted dis- 
tricts. ^Here they established their own regulations which were 
without adequate legal foundation. We have, then, a combined 
administrative and legislative power in the hands of a department of 
the local government, which, in turn, is in closest touch with, and 
influenced by, the political factors within the city. With the tre- 
mendous financial profits from the Social Evil Business from which 
to draw funds, is it any wonder that the administrative function is 
tempered and exceptions made? Where one makes a rule which is 
known to be in itself contrary to law, is it not to be expected that a 
corresponding sense of freedom will result where the question of 
leniency is raised as to its enforcement. Again, it must not be for- 
gotten that the law cannot be made subservient to any rules and regu- 
lations by any group of officials, whether they believe the law wise or 
unwise, effective in operation or futile in execution. 

Number of Prostitutes. What is the number of prostitutes in the 



^ee Chapter I, "Existing Conditions " 

'See Chapter III, "Social Evil and the Police." 



34 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

City of Chicago? The Commission, after careful deliberation, fixes 
the number as approximately, Five Thousand. This includes those 
who do nothing else for a livelihood. The clandestine and casual 
groups made up of immoral girls and women, married and other- 
wies, it makes no attempt to estimate as there are no definite figures 
upon which to base an assumption. In the instance of professionals 
figures were obtainable. The police lists, supplemented with the lists 
furnished by the Commission investigators, give a total of Four 
Thousand, One Hundred and Ninety-four. 1 Eight hundred is not 
too large a number to allow for those omitted from the police list 
and not discovered by the Commission for lack of time and money 
for a more thorough census. 

Assignation Houses. The Commission feels that one of the greatest 
menaces to young people, and an evil for which there is absolutely 
no excuse and for which there should be no room in Chicago, is the 
assignation hotels in the loop district and on the main streets lead- 
ing from the same to the three sides of the city. They furnish a 
place of ruin for young girls who are living at home as well as for 
those at work, and enable men to wreck many lives without fear of 
danger to themselves. They are large in number and flagrant and 
bold in operation. 

Prostitution and the Saloon. The Commission has found in its in- 
vestigation that the most dangerous immoral influence, and the most 
important financial interest, outside of the business of prostitution as 
carried on in houses, is the disorderly saloons. The proprietors of 
these places are using prostitutes as an adjunct to the sale of beer and 
liquor, and are allowing them to openly solicit for immoral purposes 
in their rear rooms. This is done in spite of the constant statements 
of the brewers and wholesale liquor dealers that they are against the 
use of prostitutes in saloons which they supply. 2 

During the period of its investigation the Commission has secured 
definite information regarding 445 saloons in different parts of the 
city. The investigators have counted 929 unescorted women in these 
saloons, who by their actions and conversation were believed to be 
prostitutes. In fact they were solicited by more than 236 women in 

'See Chapter I, "Existing Conditions." 
"See Chapter II, "Social Evil and Saloon." 



INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 35 

236 different saloons, all of whom, with the exception of 98, solicited 
for rooms, "hotels," and houses of prostitution over the saloons. 

Another feature of the saloon which is pernicious, is the vaudeville 
shows of lewd nature conducted in the rear rooms. This is so wide- 
spread in the saloons mentioned in the class above that the public 
and police seem to have taken the attitude that because it exists, it 
should be allowed to continue. Many young men, to say nothing of 
women, have been lured by the entertainment provided in these re- 
sorts to acts which they never contemplated when they entered the 
saloon for drinks only. Could the general public know the extent 
of the saloon's degrading influence in so many instances it would in- 
sistently demand an immediate and permanent change in the situation. 
The Commission is absolutely convinced that there should be a com- 
plete separation of the saloon and the business of prostitution, and 
this immediately. 

Protection of Children. We often forget that society owes much 
to the protection of the children. Those of mature years can be left 
generally to guard themselves ; but in the case of youth and ignorance, 
society must take the part of the elder brother, and in many cases, 
the part of the father as an educator and guardian. 

From its study of existing conditions in Chicago the Commission 
feels that if there is to be any permanent gain in the fight against the 
Social Evil in this city, much care and thought must be given the 
problem of child protection and education. In the Chapter devoted to 
this situation it is shown that the children in certain sections of the 
city are surrounded by many immoral influences and dangers. They 
are compelled by reason of poverty to live within, or in close prox- 
imity to, restricted prostitute districts. Even in residential sections 
children come in contact with immoral persons, and gain an early 
knowledge of things which may influence their whole life and guide 
them in the wrong direction. 

One of the sad spectacles in this great city is the night children 
who sell gum, candy and papers on the streets. These little vendors 
become creatures of independent habits before they reach the age of 
puberty. Through habits learned by loitering near saloons, and 
even in the rear rooms frequented by prostitutes and vile men, they 
become familiar with the vulgarity and immorality of the street and 



36 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

learn their language and ways of life. All of this knowledge, far 
beyond their years, results in defiance on the part of these children 
against parental will and authority. That children should be kept off 
the streets at night by the police, and that parents should be impressed 
with the importance of the most strict supervision of the child's 
recreational hours, are two matters of the greatest moment in the pro- 
tection of the child. 

The investigations by the Commission show that messengers and 
newsboys have an intimate knowledge of the ways of the underworld. 
Their moral sense is so blunted as to be absolutely blind to the degre- 
dation of women and the vile influence of vicious men. Thus early in 
life they become diseased both in body and soul and grow up to enter 
upon a career of crime and lust. 

Much good is being accomplished by various philanthropic organ- 
izations, particularly the Juvenile Protective Association, in calling the 
public attention to these grave dangers, and caring for children who 
are victims of such environments. 1 

The Commission heartily endorses all attempts to provide health- 
ful and carefully guarded places of recreation for the children. It 
does not sympathiz with those who simply stand by to criticize with- 
out doing anything in a constructive way to provide something whole- 
some for that which may demoralize. Children must and should have 
amusement and recreation, and they will find it in some way. Let 
Chicago increase her small parks and recreation centers. Let the 
churches give of their facilities to provide amusement for children. 
Let the Board of Education extend its efforts in establishing more 
social centers in the public schools. Let the city provide clean dances, 
well chaperoned as they are now in the public schools Social Centers. 

Sex Education. Many of the immoral influences and dangers which 
are constantly surrounding young children on the street, in their 
amusements, and in business life, may be counteracted and minimized 
by proper moral teaching and scientific instruction. Educators have 
come to feel something should be done directly by teachers in schools 
and elsewhere to impart some kind of instruction to counteract the 
evil knowledge which children acquire from evil sources. 

The Commission believes that in the case of children beyond the 

'See Chapter V, "Child Protection and Education." 



INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 37 

age of puberty sex hygiene may be taught in schools under carefully 
trained and scientifically instructed teachers. For younger children 
the parents should do the teaching as the part of a sacred duty. In 
the case of the father being unwilling to do so, let the family physician 
be asked to teach the son. The mother, with her maternal instinct, 
will find the way and means to warn the daughter of the dangers 
which may beset her. In colleges and universities sex hygiene should 
be universally taught. The Commission feels that the teaching of sex 
hygiene in schools is an important movement which, while not yet 
past the experimental stage, promises great advances in the promo- 
tion of child protection for the future. But it is certain that knowl- 
edge of sex hygiene alone can never be successful in saving the child 
until it is based upon religious conviction and sound moral training. 

The lack of home instruction in the use and abuse of sex organs 
and relationship leads many children to a knowledge gained in sad 
ways with unhappy results. Fortunate, indeed, is the boy or girl, who 
has a father or mother as a confidant with whom there may be free 
conversation concerning the natural functions of the body a conver- 
sation raised almost to a point of spirituality because of the parent's 
pure love for the child, and the child's unfaltering trust in the 
parent. If more fathers and mothers could be companions and com- 
rades with their children there would be far less need of Commis- 
sions of this kind to solve perplexing problems for the parents. 

We record our conviction that while intelligence regarding sexual 
matters, if dictated by moral sentiment, is a safeguard to the youth 
of the community, yet the indiscriminate circulation of sexual 
information among children by means of books and pamphlets sug- 
gests a danger which ought not to escape attention. These publica- 
tions are of two sorts. The first includes the vicious prints which even 
assume the guise of helpful instruction to accomplish their purpose. 
The second comprises those works on sexual science which, with the 
best intent, are prepared for the use of children. We are firmly of 
the opinion that such material should be used by parents and other 
instructors of the children in securing information which they may 
impart to those in their care, rather than by the children themselves 
in whose hands it is liable to awaken morbid curiosity and to result in 
harm. 



38 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

We recommend the careful examination of all material of this na- 
ture offered to children for purchase and the suppression of such 
evidently vicious in intent. Publishers and booksellers of the ob- 
jectionable material should not be allowed to sell to children. 

The Situation in Colored Communities. The history of the social 
evil in Chicago is intimately connected with the colored population. 
Invariably the larger vice districts have been created within or near 
the settlements of colored people. In the past history of the city, 
nearly every time a new vice district was created down town or on 
the South Side, the colored families were in the district, moving in 
just ahead of the prostitutes. The situation along State street from 
16th street south is an illustration. 

So whenever prostitutes, cadets and thugs were located among white 
people and had to be moved for commercial or other reasons, they 
were driven to undesirable parts of the city, the so-called colored resi- 
dential sections. A former Chief of Police gave out a semi-official 
statement to the effect that so long as this degenerate group of persons 
confined their residence to districts west of Wabash avenue and east of 
Wentworth avenue they would not be apprehended. This part of the 
city is the largest residence section of colored families. Their churches, 
Sunday schools and societies, are within these boundaries. In this 
colored community there is a large number of disorderly saloons, 
gambling houses, assignation rooms and houses of ill-fame. An in- 
vestigation shows that there are several thousand colored people in 
the First, Second and Third Wards where these vicious conditions 
obtain. Under these conditions in the Second and Third Wards there 
are 1,475 young colored boys and girls. 

In addition to this proximity to immoral conditions young colored 
girls are often forced into idleness because of a prejudice against 
them, and they are eventually forced to accept positions as maids in 
houses of prostitution. 

Employment agents do not hesitate to send colored girls as servants 
to these houses. They make the astounding statement that the law 
does not allow them to send white girls but they will furnish colored 
help! 

In summing up it is an appalling fact that practically all of the 
male and female servants connected with houses of prostitution in vice 



INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 39 

districts and in disorderly flats in residential sections are colored. The 
majority of entertainers in disorderly saloons on the South Side are 
colored men who live with, and in part upon, the proceeds of white 
women. 

The apparent discrimination against the colored citizens of the city 
in permitting vice to be set down in their very midst is unjust, and 
abhorrent to all fair minded people. Colored children should receive 
the same moral protection that white children receive. 

The prejudice against colored girls who are ambitious to earn an 
honest living is unjust. Such an attitude eventually drives them into 
immoral surroundings. They need special care and protection on the 
maxim that it is the duty of the strong to help the weak. Any effort, 
therefore, to improve conditions in Chicago should provide more whole- 
some surroundings for the families of its colored citizens who now 
live in communities of colored people. 

Perversion, As the very outset of the Commission's investigation 
its attention was called by several persons to the practice of sexual 
perversion which was said to be very prevalent and growing in Chi- 
cago. The investigation of the Commission bears out this assertion. 

It must be understood that the perpetrators of these various forms of 
sexual perversion can be regarded as those who may be punished under 
the law relating to infamous crimes. The result of the investigation 
of this evil has been incorporated in the chapter on "The Social Evil 
and Its Medical Aspects." 1 

Sources of Supply. The investigation of the Commission on the 
sources of supply has resulted in a large amount of illuminating data, 
sad and pitiful in its details. This information has been supplemented 
by the results of other investigations undertaken by various protective 
organizations, including the Juvenile Court, which has been compiled 
by the Commission. The chapter on "Sources of Supply" is one of 
the most important in this report and it is suggested that it be read 
in full. On account of its length, it is difficult to make a summary; 
some prominent features may be noted, however, as bearing upon 
the general problem. 

Wherever there is a demand, artificial or otherwise, there must be 
a supply. In another part of this report the conservative estimate 

'See Chapter VII, page 295. 



40 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

is made that there are at least five thousand professional prostitutes 
in Chicago. Medical men affirm that the average life of these un- 
fortunate women for service is from five to seven years. Thus it 
follows that fresh young girls must be continually supplied to take 
the place of those who die or are rendered useless by disease. Where 
do these new victims come from? Is the demand supplied? 

From the mass of evidence we learn that the path which leads down 
to disease and death is constantly filled with young recruits who go 
stumbling on, blinded by the want of necessities of life, by a desire 
for some simple luxuries, by ignorance, by vain hopes, by broken 
promises, by the deceit and lust of men. 

The Immigrant. The immigrant woman furnishes a large supply 
to the demand. Generally virtuous when she comes to this country, 
she is ruined and exploited because there is no adequate protection 
and assistance given her after she reaches the United States. That 
some prostitutes come from foreign countries is of course true, but 
the Federal Government, especially through its officials in Chicago, 
has done considerable to stop this importation. The White Slave Act, 
recently passed by Congress, has been most effective in minimizing the 
traffic in foreign women. Much needs to be done, however, to protect 
the innocent immigrant who is betrayed and led into an immoral life 
after landing in New York or elsewhere. The care of immigrant 
women, upon their arrival in Chicago, needs supervision. Immigrant 
girls should not be left to private expressmen and cab drivers, to be 
lost to their relatives and friends in the city, because of incorrect 
addresses or the carelessness or vicious intent of the drivers. 

Bad Home Conditions. The subject under consideration should bring 
forward most prominently, too, the fact that the supply comes largely 
from bad home conditions and lack of recreational privileges. In a 
large number of cases investigated, the home conditions have con- 
tributed to, if not caused, the downfall of many a wife and daughter. 
As will be seen in the chapter on "Sources of Supply," l the perversion 
of the natural sex relationships by immorality of the guardian, by the 
evil example of a brother, sister, or other relative, and by the abuse 
of the marriage relation is the specific source of the ruin of many 
lives. 



'See Chapter IV, "Sources of Supply." 



INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 41 

Statements are often made and, in some instances warranted by 
facts, that the excessive demands upon the mother because of a large 
family of children, without sufficient income or help to care for them, 
is also the occasion for many neglected children going astray. The 
statement is also made and supported by facts, learned from long and 
faithful experience in caring for dependent and delinquent children, 
that more delinquent girls come from small families where they are 
spoiled, than from large families where there may be poverty, but a 
sort of unconscious protective union of the children shielding one 
another. 

White Slave Traffic. The subject of the so-called White Slave Traf- 
fic has attracted much attention throughout this and foreign countries. 
The term "white slave," is a misnomer. As a matter of fact the traffic 
is not confined to white girls, but to all unfortunate girls and women 
of all colors, races and nationalities. The use of this term, however, 
is authorized by the National Government and was incorporated in 
the international law on the subject. A "white slaver" in reality is a 
man who employs men or women or goes out himself to secure girls 
upon some false pretense, or misrepresentation, or when the girl, in- 
toxicated or drugged, and not in possession of her senses, is conveyed 
to any place for immoral purposes. 

If the girl is wayward and goes of her own free will she would 
not be a white slave in the true sense of the word; nor the man or 
woman who induced her to go or accompanied her to an immoral 
place a "white slaver." However, any man or woman who induces 
or accompanies any woman to enter an immoral place is guilty under 
the Illinois Pandering Act. 

It has been demonstrated that men and women engaged in the 
"white slave traffic" are not organized. Their operations, however, 
are so similar and they use the same methods to such an extent that it 
is safe to infer that they are in some way working together. 

Divorce. The Vice Commission, after exhaustive consideration 
of the vice question, records itself of the opinion that divorce to a large 
extent is a contributory factor to sexual vice. No study of this blight 
upon the social and moral life of the country would be comprehensive 
without consideration of the causes which lead to the application for 
divorce. These are too numerous to mention at length in such a report 



42 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

as this, but the Commission does wish to emphasize the great need 
of more safeguards against the marrying of persons physically, men- 
tally and morally unfit to take up the responsibilities of family life, in- 
cluding the bearing of children. 

Selection Guarded. An application for a license of any kind, whether 
it be to construct a house, run a push cart, peddle shoe strings, or keep 
a dog, must be accompanied with evidences that the applicants are 
responsible and reliable agents. But for a marriage license, one per- 
son, unattended and unknown and, as far as one can know, an epileptic, 
a degenerate, or who has in his blood a loathsome venereal disease, 
may pass his name through a window with that of a similarly ques- 
tionable female, likewise unknown, and be granted the divine right 
to perpetuate his kind and in turn thereby placing a burden and a blight 
on society and the community for generations to come. The whole 
subject of selection in connection with the institution of marriage is of 
vital importance in connection with the social evil. Unwise selection 
produces innumerable contributory agencies through unhappy mar- 
riages, inherited degeneracy and disease, and the divorce evil. 

The Economic Side of the Question. The life of an unprotected 
girl who tries to make a living in a great city is full of torturing 
temptations. First, she faces the problem of living on an inadequate 
wage: Six dollars a week is the average in mercantile establish- 
ments. If she were living at home where the mother and sister could 
help her with mending, sewing and washing, where her board would 
be small perhaps only a dollar or two towards the burden carried 
by the other members of the family where her lunch would come 
from the family larder then her condition might be as good as if she 
earned eight dollars per week. 

The girl who has no home soon learns of "city poverty" all the more 
cruel to her because of the artificial contrasts. She quickly learns 
of the possibilities about her, of the joys of comfort, good food, enter- 
tainment, attractive clothes. Poverty becomes a ^menace and a snare. 
One who has not beheld the struggle or come in personal contact 
with the tempted soul of the underpaid girl can never realize what the 
poverty of the city means to her. One who has never seen her bravely 
fighting against such fearful odds will ever understand. A day's sick- 
ness or a week out of work are tragedies in her life. They mean trips 



INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 43 

to the pawn brokers, meagre dinners, a weakened will, often a plunge 
into the abyss from which she so often never escapes. 

Hundreds, if not thousands, of girls from country towns, and those 
born in the city but who have been thrown on their own resources, 
are compelled to live in cheap boarding or rooming houses on the 
average wage of six dollars. How do they exist on this sum? It is 
impossible to figure it out on a mathematical basis. If the wage 
were eight dollars per week, and the girl paid two and a half dollars for 
her room, one dollar for laundry, and sixty cents for car fare, she would 
have less than fifty cents left at the end of the week. That is pro- 
vided she ate ten cent breakfasts, fifteen cent luncheons and twenty- 
five cent dinners. But there is no doubt that many girls do live on 
even six dollars and do it honestly, but we can affirm that they 
do not have nourishing food, or comfortable shelter, or warm clothes, 
or any amusement, except perhaps free public dances, without outside 
help, either from charity in the shape of girls' clubs, or friends in the 
country home; How can she possibly exist to say nothing of live? 

Is it any wonder that a tempted girl who receives only six dollars 
per week working with her hands sells her body for twenty-five dol- 
lars per week when she learns there is a demand for it and men are 
willing to pay the price? On the one hand her employer demands 
honesty, faithfulness and a "clean and neat appearance," and for all 
this he contributes from his profits an average of six dollars for every 
week. Her honesty alone is worth this inadequate wage disregarding 
the consideration of her efficiency. In the sad life of prostitution, on 
the other hand, we find here the employer demanding the surrender 
of her virtue, pays her an average of twenty-five dollars per week. 
Which employer wins the half starved child to his side in this unequal 
battle ? It would be unjust, however, to cast any reflection upon those 
girls who are brave and pure, by intimating that because they earn 
so small a wage they must necessarily be in the same class with those 
other girls who, unable to survive longer the heroic battle against 
poverty and self-sacrifice, have succumbed and gone down. 

Prostitution demands youth for its perpetration. On the public 
rests the mighty responsibility of seeing to it that the demand is not 
supplied through the breaking down of the early education of the 
young girl or her exploitation in the business world? What show 



44 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

has she in the competitive system which exists today? Whatever her 
chances may be, to stand or to fall, she is here in hordes in the business 
world as our problem. Let us do something to give her at least a 
living wage. If she is not sufficiently skilled to earn it let us mix 
some religious justice with our business and do something to in- 
crease her efficiency which she has never been able to develop through 
no fault of her own. 

Are flesh and blood so cheap, mental qualifications so common and 
honesty of so little value, that the manager of one of our big de- 
partment stores feels justified in paying a high school girl, who has 
served nearly one year as an inspector of sales, the beggarly wage 
of $4.00 per week? What is the natural result of such an industrial 
condition? Dishonesty and immorality, not from choice, but neces- 
sity in order to live. We can forgive the human frailty which yields 
to temptation under such conditions but we cannot forgive the soul- 
less corporation, which arrests and prosecutes this girl a first of- 
fender when she takes some little articles for personal adornment. 

The Man's Part. The end of the battle is not yet for those girls 
who struggle on alone and unprotected with their more pressing 
financial problems. The greatest menace is before her the Man. 
See her as he meets her at the door of her place of employment ! See 
her as she returns to her cheap boarding house ! Huddled away among 
coarse and vulgar male companions, lonely, underfed and hungry- 
hungry not only for food, but for a decent shelter, for a home, for 
friends, for a sympathetic touch or word; tired from a hard day's 
toil even to the point of recklessness starving for honest pleasures 
and amusements and with what does she meet? The advances of 
men without either a spark of bravery or honor, who hunt as their 
unlawful prey this impoverished girl, this defenseless child of pov- 
erty, unprotected, unloved and uncared for as she is plunged into the 
swirling, seething stream of humanity; the advances of men who are 
so low that they have lost even a sense of sportsmanship, and who 
seek as their game an underfed, a tired, and a lonely girl. 

She suffers, but what of him? She goes down, and is finally sacri- 
ficed to a life of shame, but what of him? He escapes as a "romancer." 
It is not just! 



INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 45 

Rescue and Reform. One of the most important tasks undertaken 
by the Commission was that of reporting on the subject of the rescue 
and reform of immoral girls and women. This problem presents many 
interesting phases, and can only be solved by wise methods and with 
the help of good men and women. Too often this help is withheld 
by the very ones who should extend it. The feeling against these 
unfortunate women is still very strong in these days, and it is seldom 
that persons can be found who will furnish a wholesome Christian 
home environment which is so much needed in any plan to touch the 
lives so troubled and degraded. Outside of this very effective method 
of reaching this class of women there has not been any scheme sug- 
gested for their reformation. One of the chief reasons for this, no 
doubt, is that no system of reformation substitutes anything for the 
abnormal impulses to which these women are subjected. Some life 
must be devised whereby the abnormality of their existence can be 
controlled. Unless this is done it would seem that the reformation 
of the professional prostitute is almost hopeless. 

Causes Which Lead to Downfall. Any plan of reformation must 
take into consideration the causes which lead to the downfall of these 
unfortunates. After an exhaustive study of the whole field the Com- 
mission feels that among the causes which influence girls and women 
to enter upon a life of semi-professional and professional prostitution 
are the following: First, lack of ethical teaching and religious in- 
struction; second, the economic stress of industrial life on unskilled 
workers, with the enfeebling influences on the will power; third, the 
large number of seasonal trades in which women are especially en- 
gaged; fourth, abnormality; fifth, unhappy home conditions; sixth, 
careless and ignorant parents; seventh, broken promises; eighth, love 
of ease and luxury; ninth, the craving for excitement and change; 
tenth, ignorance of hygiene. 

Once plunged into this life through these or any other causes the 
prostitute sinks lower and lower. She finds herself a part of a cruel 
commercialized business. She is driven to excessive indulgence in all 
kinds of vice, besides the one particular vice so abhorrent, in order 
to bring extra profits to her keeper, and to the men who profit off 
her sin and shame. These attendant vices, such as drink and the use 
of drugs, coupled with the demands upon her nervous system in per- 



46 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

forming the services demanded of her, soon render her the most pitiful 
of all beings. As one physician who has had a large practice in venereal 
disease wards put it, "The life is against biology as well as sociology, 
they are in most cases gone physically, gone nervously, gone socially." 

How Can Unfortunate Women Be Rescued? How can these un- 
fortunate women be helped and saved to society? Some well meaning 
persons declare that they should be left to their fate; that they are 
criminals, and should be treated as such. The Commission does not 
feel that this is an answer to the problem. They are human beings 
still, for a time stumbling in the depths of sin and shame, but not- 
withstanding how low they have sunken in the social scale they can be 
rescued, if by some method they can be made to feel the touch of 
divine sympathy and human love. 

No doubt, during the coming months many of these women, now in 
houses, and on the streets, and in the saloons, will be cut loose from 
their surroundings by the effective operation of the law. Some wise 
provision must be made to help them. To put them in prison with no 
provisions for their spiritual or physical needs would only tend to 
degrade them still lower and send them back to a life of shame in some 
other community in a worse condition than they were before. 

Abolish Fining System. Two very practical things can be done. 
The first is to abolish the fining system now in vogue against the semi- 
professional and professional prostitutes. This system leads to many 
abuses and is in no way reformatory. If the girl does not have the 
money to pay her fine or secure bail, she must borrow, often from 
men, and this generally adds a link in the chain which binds her to an 
immoral life. If she has money the fine or the cost of the bail bond 
will probably make her penniless. In either case she must return to 
the street, the house or the saloon, and plunge into reckless excesses 
in order to earn the money. First offenders, especially, instead of 
being fined or imprisoned should be placed on probation under the 
care of intelligent and sympathetic women officially connected with 
the court. These women can not only watch over these unfortunate 
girls and advise with them, but can secure employment for them or 
return them to their homes. This adult probation system has proved 
to be most successful in other cities in reaching this class of cases. 
The following is suggested in the form of relief: 



INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 47 

Industrial Homes. Old and hardened offenders, weakened by dis- 
ease, their wills sapped and gone by drugs and the artificial excite- 
ment of their degraded lives, should be sent to an industrial farm 
with hospital accommodations on an indeterminate sentence. Ob- 
viously it is necessary that some such measures of almost drastic con- 
trol should obtain, if such women are to be permanently helped and 
society served. Such women are described by one writer as : "These 
dubious divinities of the gas light and the pavement represent the 
eternal sacrifice of woman, the tragedy of her abasement, her obedi- 
ence to the world." 

To Men A Closing Word. In closing this introduction the Com- 
mission desires to say one more word to those who support this busi- 
ness of women's souls, whether as barterers of the body, or those who 
demand the service the Man. There is only one moral law it is alike 
for men and women. Again, there is a contract called matrimony 
which is a solemn contract made between those who love. It carries 
with it the elements of vested rights even a solemn promise before 
God. A signature represents honor it is there likewise a promise 
it is there. Has this contract been kept inviolate ? If not, why not? 

To one who hears the ghastly life story of fallen women it is ever 
the same the story of treachery, seduction and downfall the flagrant 
act of man the ruin of a soul by man. 

It is a man and not a woman problem which we face today 
commercialized by man supported by man the supply of fresh victims 
furnished by men men who have lost that fine instinct of chivalry 
and that splendid honor for womanhood where the destruction of a 
woman's soul is abhorrent, and where the defense of a woman's purity 
is truly the occasion for a valiant fight. 



Proposed Ordinance, 



PROPOSED ORDINANCE. 

The Vice Commission presents the following ordinance for the con- 
sideration of the Mayor and City Council of Chicago: 

Be it Ordained by the City Council of Chicago: 

SECTION 1. That there shall be and hereby is created in and for 
the City of Chicago, a commission to be known as the "Morals Com- 
mission of the City of Chicago," the members of which shall be ap- 
pointed by the Mayor with the approval of the City Council, and 
which commission shall consist of five (5) persons who shall be quali- 
fied electors of said city and each of whom shall have resided therein 
at least one year preceding his appointment. The Commissioner of 
Health of the City of Chicago shall be ex-officio one of the members 
of said commission. A second member of said commission shall be a 
physician in good standing. 

SECTION 2. The members of said commission shall take the oath 
of office and file the bond provided by law for officers of said city: 
Provided that no additional bond shall be required of the member 
of said commission who shall be the Commissioner of Health of said 
city. Such bond shall be in the penal sum of One Thousand Dollars 
($1,000), and shall be conditioned according to law. 

SECTION 3. The term of office of the Commissioner of Health as 
ex-officio member of said commission, shall be during the time that 
he shall be Commissioner of Health of the City of Chicago. The 
term of office of the other members of said commission shall be two 
(2) years and until their successors shall be appointed and qualified. 
The Commissioner of Health of the City of Chicago shall not receive 
any additional compensation as a member of said commission. The 
other members of said commission shall serve without compensation. 
It shall be the duty of the Commissioner of Public Works of the City 
of Chicago to furnish to said commission suitable quarters without 
charge. 

SECTION 4. Said commission shall have power to appoint a chief 
clerk and assistant clerk, one attorney and assistant attorney, one 
medical inspector and assistant medical inspectors, and such other help 

51 



52 THE~SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

as may be necessary. The compensation of all such officers and help 
and other expenses of said commission shall be such as may from 
time to time be fixed by the City Council. 

SECTION 5. It shall be the duty of said commission to take all 
legal and necessary steps towards the effectual suppression of bawdy 
and disorderly houses, houses of ill-fame or assignation within the limits 
of the City of Chicago, and within three (3) miles of the outer 
boundaries of the city; to collect evidence of the violation of any state 
laws and city ordinances concerning any of such houses, and the keep- 
ers, inmates and patrons of the same; and to institute and carry on 
prosecutions in the name of the City of Chicago against any of said 
houses, said keepers, inmates and patrons. 

SECTION 6. Said commission shall have power and authority to 
make rules and regulations for the conduct of the business of said 
commission and otherwise not inconsistent with the provisions of 
this ordinance. 



Recommendations. 



RECOMMENDATIONS. 



The Vice Commission presents the following recommendations for 
the consideration of the Federal, State, County and City authorities, 
public officials and various organizations : 



RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE FEDERAL AUTHORITIES. 

I. A Federal Bureau of Immigration should be established in great 
distributive centers, such as Chicago, to provide for the safe conduct 
of immigrants from ports of entry to their destination. Efficient 
legislation should be enacted and present laws enforced in such a man- 
ner as to deal the traffic in women within the boundaries of each State 
as thoroughly as the Federal authorities have dealt with the inter- 
national traffic. 

II. The law regarding the use of boats for prostitution purposes 
should be enforced. 

III. The owners of lake steamers should exercise more vigilance 
enforcing their rules. 

IV. There should be more officers with police powers on board 
lake steamers. 

V. The sale of intoxicating liquor to minors should be absolutely 
prohibited on lake steamers. 

VI. All gambling devices should be suppressed on lake steamers. 

VII. The Commission condemns the ease with which divorces 
may be obtained in certain States, and recommends a stringent, uni- 
form divorce law for all States. 



55 



56 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE STATE AUTHORITIES. 

I. We recommend that the State authorities, the Chicago Medical 
Society, or the Morals Commission investigate and report on mid- 
wives, advertised maternity hospitals, medical advertisements, adver- 
tising doctors and regular physicians who are suspected of being or 
known to be abortionists. 

II. Physicians who advertise treatment and cure of venereal dis- 
eases should come under the provisions of Section 12, Chapter 91, 
of the Illinois Revised Statutes, providing for the licensing of itinerant 
physicians. 

III. We recommend that the State authorities or the Morals Com- 
mission conduct an investigation of employment agencies. 

IV. The advertisements of employment agents who advertise in 
Chicago papers published in foreign languages should be carefully 
watched and the advertisers investigated. 

V. Publishers should be warned against inserting the advertise- 
ments of suspicious employment agencies. 

VI. Employment agents should be carefully instructed regarding 
the law applicable to them. 

VII. We recommend the enactment of a new Illinois law providing 
that medical certificates must be secured showing bearer is free from 
syphilis, gonorrhoea and other venereal diseases before a marriage 
license can be issued. 1 

VIII. The law regarding infamous crimes should be altered and 
made specific under the guidance of scientific men who understand 
these practices so as to make it clearly understood that society regards 
these abhorrent deeds as crimes. 

IX. We recommend the passage of an amendment to the present 
child labor law to the effect that no person under the age of twenty- 
one shall be employed in the night messenger service. 

X. We recommend the enactment of State laws and City ordi- 
nances whereby a house of prostitution may be declared a public 
nuisance, and containing provisions expressly giving to any c.tizen 

'See Exhibit N. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 57 

the right to institute simple and summary proceedings in equity for the 
abatement of the nuisance. 

XL We recommend the repeal of the law of 1874, as to houses 
of ill-fame or prostitution (Chapter 24 Revised Statutes, Part 1, Arti- 
cle 5, Section 1, paragraph 45) in so far as such limits the powers 
of the Department of Health ; and most strongly recommend the enact- 
ment of such legislation as will empower the Commissioner of Health, 
after due investigation, to declare any such house a place of con- 
tagious disease and to order same closed and abandoned. 

XII. There should be a relentless prosecution and punishment of 
professional procurers. 

XIII. There should be constant prosecution of all keepers and in- 
mates of existing houses of prostitution, as well as owners of the prop- 
erty rented or leased for immoral purposes. 

XIV. There should be a more strict supervision in licensing and 
inspecting the practice of midwives and physicians and prosecution 
of druggists who sell drugs and certain appliances illegally. 

XV. An identification system for prostitutes should be established 
in the State Courts. 

XVI. In dealing with prostitution fines should be abolished and 
imprisonment or an adult probation system substituted. 

XVII. A law should be enacted providing a penalty against any 
person who knowingly places or permits to remain in a disorderly 
house or in an unlicensed saloon, inn, tavern or other unlicensed place 
where malt or spirituous liquors or wine are sold, any instrument or 
device by which communication can be had between such disorderly 
house, saloon, inn, tavern, or unlicensed place, and any office or place 
of business or habitation of a corporation or person. 

XVIII. A law should be enacted providing a penalty against any 
corporation or person employing messenger boys, or knowingly sending 
any messenger boy under twenty-one years of age to any disorderly 
house, unlicensed saloon, inn, tavern, or other unlicensed place where 
malt or spirituous liquors or wines are sold, on any errand or business 
whatsoever. 

XIX. We recommend that immediate legislation be sought to es- 



58 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

tablish a second school for wayward girls in the State of Illinois, said 
institution to be established in some other part of the State, rather 
than to extend the institution at Geneva. The latter institution is 
overcrowded and the numbers there are all that can be governed satis- 
factorily by one superintendent. 

XX. We recommend legislation providing for the organization of 
a sympathetic agency with paid agents who have followed a special in- 
struction, and who would be charged with the regular supervision of 
the children of unmarried mothers. 

XXI. We also recommend that the City or County provide a phy- 
sician with assistants who shall receive the reports of agents and in- 
quire into the state of health of such children and care for those who 
are sick. 

XXII. We further recommend that this general guardianship and 
regular supervision over all such children of the City be extended 
until they have passed through the school age. 

XXIII. We recommend that Section 8, Chapter 17, of Kurd's Re- 
vised Statutes relating to Bastardy be amended by striking out the 
words, "He shall be condemned by the order and judgment of the 
Court to pay a sum not exceeding $100 for the first year after the 
birth of such child, and a sum not exceeding $50 yearly for the nine 
years succeeding said first year, for the support, maintenance and 
education of such child," and amending same so that responsibility 
for the care and support of the child of an unmarried mother shall be 
borne by the father until the child's majority. 



RECOMMENDATIONS TO COUNTY OFFICIALS. 

I. We recommend the appointment of a permanent Committee on 
Child Protection, with ample funds from the County Treasury. 

II. All hospitals receiving County funds in whole or in part sliould 
be obliged to treat cases of venereal disease. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 59 



RECOMMENDATIONS TO CITY AUTHORITIES. 

I. We recommend that the City Council of the City of Chicago 
enact an ordinance creating a commission to be known as the "Morals 
Commission of the City of Chicago." 1 

II. Enforce the laws and regulations, especially those, 

(a) Prohibiting the harboring of prostitutes and disorderly 
persons in saloons. 

(b) Prohibiting wine rooms &nd stalls in saloons. 

(c) Prohibiting assignation rooms, houses of prostitution and 
"hotels" in connection with saloons. 

(d) Prohibiting dances in buildings where there is a saloon. 

III. To this end 

(a) Maintain a strict surveillance of the police. 

(b) Discharge policemen who are guilty of gross or petty 
graft in their relations with the saloons. 

(c) Make frequent rotation of policemen. 

(d) Provide investigation of complaints, within twenty- four 
hours, by picked men, taken from "outside" districts. 

IV. By any proper means, especially by publicity, put pressure 
(1). Upon the Brewers' Exchange and the Wholesale Liquor 

Dealers' Association members doing business with saloons which 
violate the laws or regulations referred to, or who are, as bonds- 
men, responsible for such saloons. 

(2) Upon the Retail Liquor Dealers' Association to discipline 
members who may violate these laws or regulations. 

V. Licenses of saloons that violate these laws or regulations should 
be permanently, not temporarily, revoked. 

VI. The city should provide public comfort stations in different 
sections of the city, especially in the loop district. 

VII. Licenses of saloons in the near neighborhood of school houses 
and other public institutions should be revoked. 

VIII. Give the facts regarding conditions in saloons, both general 
and detailed, to the public. 

*For copy of proposed ordinance, see page 51. 



60 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

IX. No women without male escorts should be permitted in sa- 
loons. 

X. No professional or paid escorts for women should be permitted 
in any saloon. 

XL No solicitation for drinks or for prostitution purposes by men 
or women should be permitted in any saloon. 

XII. No immoral or vulgar dances or entertainments should be 
given in any room connected with saloons. 

XIII. The ordinances prohibiting wine rooms should be strictly 
enforced and any attempt to provide booths, screens, curtains about 
tables in rear rooms of saloons should be immediately suppressed. 

XIV. All connections leading to rooms over saloons from any part 
of saloon should be immediately and permanently closed. 

XV. The violation of any of these rules and regulations should 
be sufficient to secure the permanent revocation of a saloon license. 

XVI. We recommend that no intoxicating liquor be sold at any 
public dance. 

XVII. We recommend that an ordinance be passed providing for 
a license fee of Fifty Dollars annually for the privilege of operating 
a public dance hall and also that a corresponding Department of In- 
spection be provided. 1 

XVI. Prostitutes who desire to avail themselves of the opportunity, 
or who are arrested and convicted on charges, should be sent to an 
industrial home with hospital accommodations. To this end such an 
institution should be established. 

XVII. Semi-delinquent girls should be segregated from delinquents 
and more enlightened methods of care and education be given them. 
They should not be associated with prostitutes or semi-professional 
prostitutes. 

XVIII. A Municipal Detention Home for Women should be es- 
tablished, controlled by probation officers. 

XIX. The City authorities should see to it that immigrants ar- 
riving at the railroad station are protected and, if necessary, escorted 
to their destination within the city. 

'See Exhibit O. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 61 

XX. Municipal dance halls should be established, properly policed 
and supervised. 

XXI. The city ordinances regarding moving picture shows should 
be revised in such a way as to provide for the presentation of pictures 
in well lighted halls. 

XXII. A municipal lodging house should be established for women. 

XXIII. Wards should be established in the city hospitals for the 
treatment of venereal diseases. 

XXIV. All hospitals receiving city funds in part or in whole should 
be obliged to treat cases of venereal disease. 

XXV. We recommend that the municipality secure a farm on which 
a trade school and hospital could be established to which professional 
prostitutes could be committed on an indeterminate sentence. 



RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE CORPORATION COUNSEL. 

I. The city ordinances relating to houses of prostitution should be 
enforced. 

II. The city ordinances prohibiting advertisements purporting to 
treat and cure venereal diseases should be enforced. 

III. Daily papers that publish such advertisements should be prose- 
cuted. 



62 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE POLICE DEPARTMENT. 

I. Accurate monthly reports on all places in the City of Chicago 
where immoral and dissolute persons congregate, should be made to 
the General Superintendent of Police by inspectors of all police divi- 
sions. 

II. If any inspector, captain or officer fails to report to the Gen- 
eral Superintendent of Police all places where immoral and dissolute 
persons congregate, as suspicious or otherwise, he should be reduced 
in rank or dismissed from the service. 

III. Inspectors of police should immediately report to the General 
Superintendent of Police all known assignation hotels and suspected 
places of like character and these places should be immediately sup- 
pressed. 

IV. When complaints are received by the General Superintendent 
of Police, he should have them investigated by officers directly con- 
nected with his private office, and a report should be made to him 
direct at the earliest possible moment. 

V. A special morals police squad should form a part of the police 
force of the city. 

VI. We recommend that women officers be added to the police 
force, "whose duty should be to render assistance to women or girls 
throughout the city, especially at all railroad stations or other places 
where inexperienced women are liable to need help. We also recom- 
mend that some of these women officers be able to speak foreign lan- 
guages. 

VII. Police officers should be compelled to designate whether or 
not an offender was charged with street walking, when arrests are 
made under Section 270 of the Criminal Code, and -Sections 1476 and 
1454 of the City Ordinances. 

VIII. The General Superintendent of Police should direct all police 
officers to send to their homes all children and all young boys and 
girls under sixteen years of age found on the streets, away from 
their home neighborhoods and unattended by parents or guardians, 
after 9 o'clock in the evening. 

IX. The police should wage a relentless warfare against houses 
of prostitution, immoral flats, assignation rooms, call houses, and dis- 
orderly saloons in all sections of the city. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 63 

RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. 

I. We recommend that the Department of Health of the City of 
Chicago investigate and report the extent of venereal diseases in Chi- 
cago each year, together with the sources of infection. 

II. We recommend that the Department of Health investigate and 
report on the question of the practice of midwifery in Chicago, with 
such recommendations looking to its improvement as may be deemed 
proper. 

III. We recommend that the Department of Health institute a rigid 
investigation into the use of cocaine and other noxious drugs, with a 
view at least of limiting such sales by the druggists. 

IV. We recommend that the Board of Health direct especial at- 
tention to so-called massage practice. 

V. We recommend that the Department of Health be given power 
to suppress as a public nuisance any place where venereal and other 
contagious diseases flourish. 



RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

I. We recommend that the Board of Education appoint a com- 
mittee to investigate thoroughly the advisability and methods of teach- 
ing social hygiene to the older pupils in the public schools. 

II. Girls between the ages of fourteen and sixteen should receive 
definite vocational training in continuation schools. 

III. We recommend that the Board of Education extend the use 
of public schools as social centers. 

IV. We recommend that school grounds be open for children, 
always under close supervision. 



64 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE PARK COMMISSIONERf 

I. The parks should be better policed and playgrounds supervised 
more carefully. 

II. Managers of dancing pavilions should be more vigilant in ex- 
cluding professional prostitutes. 

III. Soliciting by prostitutes within park enclosures should be 
rigidly suppressed. 

IV. Park managers should extend greater protection to unaccom- 
panied young girls, especially in the evening. 

V. Public parks should be better lighted and equipped with search 
lights. Seats should be removed from the deep shadows. 

RECOMMENDATIONS TO CHURCHES AND OTHER RELIGIOUS BODIES. 

I. Pastors and religious workers should aid in arousing public 
opinion against the open and flagrant expression of the social evil in 
this city. 

II. The churches should endeavor tQ counteract the evil influences 
in the community by opening rooms attached to the church buildings 
as recreational centers during week day evenings. 



RECOMMENDATIONS TO PARENTS. 

I. Great emphasis should be placed on parental responsibility and 
upon the effects of church and school in informing parents how to safe- 
guard their children in sex life and relationship. 

II. Parents should demand a signed statement from a reputable 
physician that the man asking permission to marry their daughter is 
free from venereal disease. 

III. We recommend the careful examination of all printed material 
offered to children and purporting to give helpful instruction along 
sexual lines, and the suppression of such as is evidently vicious in in- 
tent. Publishers and book sellers should not be allowed to sell this 
material to children. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 65 

RECOMMENDATIONS TO PHILANTHROPIC AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS. 

I. An intensive study should be made of the working conditions 
and wages paid by those establishments in Chicago which depend upon 
the labor of girls and women. This investigation should also ascer- 
tain living conditions, cost o^ living of different groups, and decide 
on what constitutes a "living wage" for each group. 

II. Greater publicity should be given the conditions which exist 
on lake steamers so that parents will warn their sons and daughters 
of the moral dangers surrounding them while on such excursions. 

III. Immigrant homes for foreign girls should be established and 
supported by different nationalities. 

IV. Immigrant girls should be warned not to go to employment 
agents who advertise in the press, especially in foreign languages, until 
the agents have been investigated. 

V. More hotels and homes should be established for working women 
and girls. 

VI. Provision for the rescue and reform of prostitutes should 
include some plan for the hospital care of drug users. 



GENERAL RECOMMENDATION. 

I. We recommend that the daily press publish an appeal or protest 
to parents that their children be not given too much liberty; that 
parents and guardians accompany children of all ages upon their amuse- 
ment excursions. 



Chapter I. 



Existing Conditions. 



CHAPTER I. 

EXISTING CONDITIONS IN CHICAGO. 

The Commission, in beginning its labors, decided that, in order to 
work intelligently, local conditions must be thoroughly known. Much 
time and thought were given, to the matter of selection of methods and 
the character of the field investigation. To make a complete census 
of all houses of ill-fame, flats and assignation houses, with the names 
of owners, keepers and inmates, would mean months of work on the 
part of a large corps of investigators, and an expenditure of money 
beyond the resources of the Commission. It was, therefore, decided t'"> 
accept such a list as the Police could supply as the basis of investi- 
gation, adding to it such other places as might come to the knowledge 
of the Commission, directly or indirectly. The General Superintendent 
of Police ordered a special census to be taken, showing the disorderly 
resorts in the precincts of the city. Such a list was submitted in 
August, 1910, and the Commission began its investigation. It was 
soon found that the list was incomplete, as shown in another place in 
the Commission's report. 1 A second census was taken and the list 
submitted to the Commission in October, 1910. This also proved in- 
complete, as is shown elsewhere. However, it was decided by the 
Commission that, whether a complete census was, or could be obtained, 
sufficient information was forthcoming to give a clear knowledge of the 
character and extent of the conditions in Chicago. 

Seven expert and trained investigators were put in the field. In 
order to eliminate as many errors as possible, each investigator's work 
was verified and checked up, unbeknown to him, by other investigators. 
In some instances this was done three times. We have every reason 
to believe, therefore, that the statements contained in this report are 
as correct and reliable as could possibly be obtained. 

In addition to the field investigators, the conferences with repre- 
sentatives of various organizations and citizens, referred to in the 
preface of the report, were prolific of much valuable and reliable 
information. 

School census reports, issued by the Compulsory Department of 

'See Chapter III, page 148. 

69 



70 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

the Board of Education, were most illuminating and reliable, and gave 
the Commission much helpful data regarding the dangers to children. 

Court records were examined most thoroughly, and tabulated figures 
are in possession of the Committee, too voluminous to print in this 
report, showing the disposition of cases which relate directly or in- 
directly to the Social Evil. The Municipal Court records for the 
three years of its existence were most valuable to the Committee on 
Law and Legislation in determining the extent to which the laws 
now existing had been applied to the local situation. 

The rules and regulations, with the daily bulletin of the General 
Superintendent of Police, gave such information regarding the re- 
peated attempts to regulate the Social Evil in Chicago. In this con- 
nection, it is interesting to note the rules and regulations issued by the 
Police, which in many instances are disobeyed in part, or in whole. 1 

The Commission does not attempt to give absolutely accurate figures 
as to the number of professional prostitutes in Chicago. But, taking 
the Police list as a basis, even though proved incomplete, and adding 
to this the number of resorts found by investigators which are not on 
the Police list, and allowing for those which lack of time and money 
prevented discovery, the Commission believes, after the most careful 
survey, that there are not far from 5,000 who devote their time wholly 
to the business of prostitution. In its careful estimation larger figures 
would be an exaggeration and probably unfair. 

As showing how these figures were obtained, the following may be 
of interest. 

According to the official Police list issued October 26, 1910, it is 
shown that there are 192 houses of prostitution with 2343 rooms in 
seven precincts, with 1012 inmates and 189 madames or keepers. In 
addition, the list gives 272 flats with 960 rooms, at 151 separate ad- 
dresses, with 419 inmates and 252 keepers. The list also contains the 
addresses of 42 hotels, with 1222 rooms, which cater to an immoral 
flats and hotels contain 4525 rooms used for immoral purposes. This 
gives a total of 506 places where immoral conditions exist, at 385 sep- 
arate addresses, 449 keepers, and 1431 inmates, or a total of 1880 
women engaged in this business. 2 



'See Table I, Chapter III, "The Social Evil and the Police." 
'Table I. 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 71 

According to the Commission investigation, there are 514 houses, 
flats and hotels and saloons, used for immoral purposes not on the 
police list, with 1314 women not included in the police list. This 
gives a grand total of known women engaged in the business as 4194. 
We again emphasize the fact that the Commission was unable to cover 
the entire city in its investigations, and that many resorts, their keep- 
ers and inmates, are still unrecorded. The estimation of 5000 is, there- 
fore, considered conservative but fair. 1 

As intimated, the Commission has not sought to inquire into the 
extent of clandestine prostitution in the city. The clandestine prosti- 
tutes (or more correctly the immoral girls or women, married or 
otherwise) form a large class in Chicago. Because of the peculiar 
phase of the evil it was impossible for the Commission to investigate 
conditions or make an estimate of the number in this class. 

The Commission, after careful examination of the data at hand, 
has made an ultra conservative estimate covering the annual profits of 
those interested in the Social Evil in Chicago. This includes the 
owners, keepers and inmates of the houses and flats given in the 
police list; the immoral places discovered and investigated by the 
Commission; and the profits from the sale of liquor in resorts and 
236 disorderly saloons. 

From this estimate the Commission can assert that the annual 
profits in the City of Chicago alone, is between 15 and 16 million 
dollars. 2 

That this is a man problem and that the support of this illicit 
traffic in bodies comes from men is easily understood when the fol- 
lowing facts are learned. 

The Commission makes a rather conservative statement as to the 
amount of profit; it makes a similar conservative statement concern- 
ing the men who demand service from the prostitute. Taking the 
number of women on the police lists alone, (who are in recognized 
houses), or 1012, and multiplying that number by the average number 
of services daily, or 15 instances, or 15,180 daily, this makes a grand 
total of 5,540,700 per annum. 3 

In order to bring out vividly the present conditions the Commission 



'Tables III-V. 
! See page 113. 
*See page 114. 



72 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

submits the information which immediately follows with typical cases 
as illustrations. It must be borne in mind that these typical cases 
are but a few of hundreds which have been reported on by investigators 
and recorded. They have been carefully selected as being normal and 
representative types under the various phases of the problem. Names 
and addresses have been suppressed, being designated as (XI), 
(X2), etc. The actual names and addresses are in the possession of, 
the Commission. This statement is made that it may be understood 
that they are real and not hypothetical cases. 

The Commission calls attention to the following phases of the evil 
based on its investigations. 

(a) There has been lax observance of police regulations so long 
that police orders are not taken seriously. 

(b) That new houses, especially in the flat buildings, are being 
established in residential districts to an alarming extent. In fact, 
there are more houses of this character in these sections of the city 
than in the so-called restricted districts. When the order was issued 
prohibiting the sale" of liquor in the houses, many of the keepers moved 
from the restricted districts into the residential sections and opened 
flats. In other cases the former inmates established small flats with 
the assistance of some of their regular customers. The telephone is 
the main agency used in conducting these flats. Most keepers have a 
list of young girls "on call," that is, girls who are employed during the 
day and who are ready to come to these flats during the evenings when 
there is a rush of business. 

The keepers of houses in flats invariably have young and fresh 
girls or know where they can be found. Some of these girls live 
in nearby towns and come to Chicago at different times, earn some 
pocket money, or enough to buy outfits of clothes, and then return 
home. They usually tell other girls of their own neighborhoods of this 
"easy graft" and these in turn come to Chicago. Inmates from some 
of the smaller flats spend the early hours of the evening soliciting 
on the street or in downtown saloons and restaurants where they 
increase the number of their acquaintances, giving out cards with 
their addresses and telephone numbers. After 1 :00 A. M. they re- 
turn to the flats and sell beer and liquor. 

(c) There is a large number of men who make a business of con- 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 73 

ducting houses of prostitution in Chicago. These men are in close 
tpuch with cadets and panders and spend most of their leisure time 
in gambling. In some houses the keepers insist on the inmates hav- 
ing cadets of their own choosing, and these men keep watch over the 
girls. In one house of white inmates the "cadets" are all colored 

young men. 

/ 

(d) Pervert methods are on the increase in the higher priced 

houses. The inmates who perform these services earn from two to 
three times as much money as the so-called "regular" girls. In one no- 
torious place known all over the country and which caters to a so- 
called high class trade, these methods are used almost exclusively. 
The inmates gave testimony before the Commission that they do this 
on the advice of their physician, who says it prevents disease and 
other troubles. 

(e) Solicitation is still going on from doorways, stoops and win- 
dows of houses, but to a small extent compared with that of former 
years. The inmates sit behind curtained windows and as men ap- 
proach the houses they tap on the window panes. Lookouts are sta- 
tioned near the windows and in front of saloons and warn the so- 
licitors when the officer on the beat approaches. In some instances 
these lookouts touch an electric bell concealed behind a sign or make 
significant motions with their hands. 

(f) There is quite a number of massage parlors, manicure estab- 
lishments and Turkish baths, especially in the downtown business dis- 
trict, which are in reality nothing but houses of prostitution of the 
most revolting and insidious type. It is practically impossible to se- 
cure legal evidence against these places, and they continue their in- 
famous practices. 

(g) Assignation hotels are scattered all over the city, especially 
in the downtown district, and on the West and North sides. Prosti- 
tutes in saloons and on the street use these cheap places. The charge 
for rooms varies from 25 cents to $2.00. The conditions in many of 
these hotels are insanitary. The furniture is cheap and the beds are 
used by many different persons each night without change of linen. 
These places, as used by street walkers and women soliciting in 
saloons, are the source of the spread of venereal disease to a greater 
extent than any other expression of the social evil. There are practically 



74 THH SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

no provisions for cleanliness on the part of either the men or the 
women. 

There are also a great many assignation rooms especially on the 
North side from the river to Chicago avenue and on the side streets 
West of State. These rooms are used to the same extent as the 
hotels and the conditions in them are about the same. These so-called 
rooming houses are a source of great danger to young men and women 
who are compelled to live in cheap quarters. Young men or women, 
strangers in the city, may find themselves living next door or on the 
same floor with vile men and women. 

(h) The so-called medical inspection of inmates in Chicago by 
private physicians employed by madames of houses is practically 
worthless and has become a source of graft. Instances have come to 
light where inmates have been allowed to remain as workers in houses 
when they were afflicted with disease. This has been done with the 
knowledge of the attending physician and the keepers. 

(i) The conditions regarding immoral shows and exhibitions have 
greatly improved, but they are not wholly eradicated. A description 
of these shows as given by investigators is too vile and disgusting to 
appear in print. 

(j) Certain theatrical managers in the city are inclined to present 
plays which are on a low moral plane. The advertisements of these 
plays, as well as of others, appear on many of the bill boards, and 
are offensive to the eyes of decent citizens, and suggestive to the 
young boys and girls. Such matters should be adequately supervised 
in the interest of public morality. 

The investigations conducted by the Commission show that most 
of the crimes such as robbery and gambling are committed by men 
who are attached to houses of prostitution, or who live off the proceeds 
of their women. 

But the thefts and crimes of violence in connection with the Social 
Evil are no more prevalent than one would naturally expect who is 
acquainted with the actual conditions of the existence of the Social 
Evil in a large community like Chicago. 

There can be no doubt that much money is stolen from men who 
take their chances in going into houses of prostitution or consorting 
with street walkers. These losses are probably only reported in the 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 75 

exceptional case, and even the attempted prosecution is often promptly 
squelched when, for an example, certain tricks are resorted to by attor- 
neys for the defense, such as threatening to bring the complainant's 
wife or family into court as witnesses. Any loss would be stood 
rather than have this occur, and indeed the shame of acknowledging 
the incidents connected with the theft will prevent almost anyone from 
reporting the loss to the police. Extortionate charges for small items, 
such as in the old days for beer and now-a-days for its substitutes, 
form other methods of parting a visitor from his cash. On the other 
hand, the older and grosser forms of theft combined with personal 
violence and extortion, such as the panel and strong-arm game, have 
been largely discontinued, and it must be remembered that those houses 
of prostitution which rely upon regular customers and the recommen- 
dations of well-to-do people cannot afford, for definite business rea- 
sons, to allow criminal transactions to be connected with their places. 
The very commercialization of the vice would tend to strip it of the 
dangerous connection with crime. No doubt men befuddled by drink 
will always be regarded as victims by vicious women, but the chances 
of their being unmolested are certainly greater in a regular house, 
than when they associate with casual acquaintances in vice. All told, 
the Commission has heard of nothing on this point that calls for 
special recommendations. 

TYPICAL CASES. 

The following typical cases are given as illustrations of conditions 
surrounding houses, flats, assignation rooms and hotels. 1 

7. Houses, (XI) avenue No. (Xla). According to the records this 
house is owned by an estate and is under the trusteeship of a woman. 
The house is a two-story frame building. The lower floor front is 
used as a reception room with a piano which is played by a white 
woman who collects money for the music. A man by the name of 
(Xlb) operates the house and lives with the keeper. This man checks 
up the receipts and pays off the inmates every day at 4 :00 P. M. The 
rent for this house is $175.00 per month on a yearly basis. A colored 
girl named (X2) has immediate charge and collects the money. The 
charge for service is $1.00. The sanitary conditions are very poor. 
There are six inmates in the house as follows : l 



Text of Laws and Ordinances see Appendices I-II-III-V. 



76 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Eva (X3), is about 30 years of age. Has been an inmate of this 
resort for three years. Her parents live in (X3a), Michigan. She 
says they are well off. She sends $10.00 home each week for her 
parents to save for her. She has no cadet and lives on the premises. 

Violet (X4), alias May (X5). May is about 25 years of age* 
Been an inmate of this house two and one-half years. Has no cadet. 
Lives with another inmate, Ray (X6) at the (X7) Hotel (X8) State 
street. 

Ray (X9). Fictitious name. Ray was brought to this city five 
years ago from New York by (X10). She claims to have been inno- 
cent up to this time. Is about 24 years of age. (X10) put her in (X12) 
house on Custom House place. She lived with him and gave him her 
money for about six months. This inmate lives with Margaret (X13) 
at the (X14) Hotel. She and Margaret leave the resort at 4:00 A. M. ; 
they must return at 2 :00 P. M. except on their day off. 

Pearl. Last name not given ; about 21 years of age. Been in house 
one year. 

Mignon. About 23 years of age. Been in house two years. Lives 
on premises. 

Fifie. About 28 years old. Been in house two years. Lives on 
premises. 

II. Disease in House of Prostitution. This is a case of an in- 
mate afflicted with syphilis who was allowed to remain in the house, 
the keeper and her physicians knowing of her disease. 

Bebet (X15). Born in (X16), Mo., came to Chicago about 10 years 
ago. She is 28 years of age, and seems to be fairly well educated. 
She still writes to her parents. She entered the (X17) House at (X18) 
avenue, owned by (X19) and kept for him by Madame (X20), (X21) 
avenue. Is on Police List. In August, 1908, when Bebet contracted 
this disease, she went to Dr. (X22), (X23) State street, who grad- 
uated from (X24), a night medical school, in 1902. At this time Dr. 
(X25) was house physician for (X26) avenue. Dr. (X27) wanted 
$200.00 to cure her. He gave her a prescription but she did not have it 
filled, as she did not want this doctor to treat her, because he was a 
negro. She then went to Dr. (X28), 22nd street, corner of (X29) 
and she gave him $100.00. This doctor treated her for some time 
without results. One day necrosis of the palm of the hand set in 
and she was advised to go to Dr. (X30), (X31) street. This doctor 
wanted $400.00 to cure her. She made arrangements to pay a stated 
amount on each visit. At this time she was forced to give up her 
service in the house; the week she was in bed was the only time she 
refrained from rendering service. All of the physicians knew she was 
receiving men. The landlady, (X32), offered no objections. At one 
time she was so hoarse she could not talk and her mouth was so sore 



real names of girls referred to throughout this report have been changed 
practically in every instance. 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 77 

she could not eat. Dr. (X33) gave her a red mouth wash and later 
told her it was time to go to Hot Springs, which she did. Bebet is 
now living with a man on (X34) avenue when she was seen by in- 
vestigator. Later, Jan., 1911; Bebet is now an inmate of (X35) ave- 
nue. There are eighteen girls in this house, and twelve of them, it 
is claimed, have syphilis. 1 

///. Immoral Shows in Houses. (X36) street, on police list. 
Owner (X37), keeper (X38). Eight inmates, according to the police 
list. 

On October 2, 1910, about 11 :30 P. M., eight men entered this house 
and were taken to the rear parlor. Four girls took part in the show. 
The description of this show and the one given at (X39) Dearborn 
street is too vile to print. 

IV. Sale of Beer in Houses. (X40) street. On police list. 

On October 8, 1910, investigator purchased a pint bottle of beer in 
this resort, for which he paid the sum of $1.00. At hrst the madame 
did not want to serve the beer, saying they had been prohibited from 
doing so on May 1. She said she was not afraid of trouble, but they 
only sold to persons they knew personally. She sold beer to the in- 
vestigator whom she did not know. 

(X41) West Madison street. On Police List. (X42) two inmates. 

On October 24th investigator purchased beer at 25 cents per pint in 
this house. When the Police came around to see if there was beer in 
this place, they looked in the ice box, and not rinding any, went away. 
As a matter of fact the beer was kept in the flush box in the toilet 
room. The keeper, Mrs. (X43), is a notorious woman well known 
to the police. 

During the evening of November 17th, while investigator was in the 
(X44) saloon at (X45) Dearborn street, a colored maid from a house 
of ill-fame, (X46) Dearborn street, came in with a large shawl over 
her shoulders. She went to the bar and was given six bottles of beer, 
which she covered with the shawl and left the saloon. She did not pay 
for the beer, but the charge was noted down by the bartender. 

Not long afterward a maid from a house of ill-fame at (X47) Dear- 
born street came into this same saloon and was given six bottles of 
beer, which were concealed in the same manner. The charge was also 
noted down by the bartender. 

V. Exploitation of Inmates. An inmate of (X48) avenue said 
that the kimona she had on could be purchased over the counter for 
$3.00. She had paid $15.00 for it to a man who came to the house. Of 
this amount the madame received $9.00 and the salesman $6.00. She 



Commissioner of Health has placarded certain houses because venereal 
diseases were known to exist therein. 



78 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

further stated that the madame receives a "rake-off" on everything the 
girls purchase. They never "kick" on any bills. They know they get 
"the worst of it" all the time. Neither does the madame "kick" at 
her bills; they are paid without question, every bill, whether for light, 
ice, laundry, coal, etc., is padded, and they are compelled "to stand 
for it." 

Jan. 29. Dolly, an inmate of (X49) avenue, recently paid (X50), 
keeper of the house, $110.00 for a hat, which he had bought for $40.00. 
Another inmate of this house paid this same man $65.00 for a dress 
which he had purchased for $35.00. Two weeks ago this same man 
had a number of rings which he had purchased for $5.00 and $7.00. 
He sold $5.00 rings to inmates for $11.00 and $15.00 and the $7.00 rings 
for $20.00. He is continually urging the girls to buy clothes, hats, 
jewelry and other things. 

VI. Methods of Advertising. The madames of houses, like the 
proprietors of other enterprises always have regular business cards 
which they distribute as occasion requires. The inmates also use 
cards with which they endeavor to establish a regular line of cus- 
tomers. 

A Dearborn street resort distributes a very elaborate booklet which 
describes in glowing terms the comforts to be found within the walls 
of that "sumptuous" house. In fact no one need "feel the chill of 
winter nor the heat of summer" in this place. 

The madames of flats also have cards and a system of passing 
the word along to exclusive gentlemen who desire "quiet and safe ac- 
commodations." 

Girls on the streets and in saloons use cards giving telephone num- 
bers and suggestive inscriptions. 

The chief advertising, however, is the district itself. The lighted 
street, the sound of music, the shrill cries and suggestive songs of the 
inmates and entertainers, all of these features tend to bring the busi- 
ness to the attention of the public and to spread the news to other 
towns and cities. 

The recent Gypsy Smith parade gave the 22nd street district un- 
fortunate advertising both in this city and throughout the county. The 
scenes in 'this district after the parade were beyond description; hun- 
dreds of men and women of mature years and an equal number of 
young men and women apparently from respectable walks of life who 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 79 

had never been in the district before were drawn there. Reliable per- 
sons who went to observe the effects of the parade declare the 
saloons never did such a large business nor were the houses so crowded 
with men and boys. 

VII. Men Connected with Houses. For several years it has been 
customary for a certain political club to give an annual ball in the 
Coliseum for the purpose of raising money for a campaign fund. This 
ball was notorious from the fact that those who attended it were for the 
most part immoral women and men who are engaged in the social evil 
business, the sale of liquor and gambling. The giving of this ball has 
always been a disgrace to the City of Chicago. 

It is the opinion of the Commission that this and any other similar 
affair should never be allowed again. 

VIII. Flats. (X51) South Park avenue. Flat (X52), not on 
Police List. Bee (X53) solicited on Indiana avenue to go to this place. 
Price of room, $2.00. 

(X54) Indiana avenue. Not on Police List. Kept by Mrs. (X55). 
She has a list of girls whom she calls in by telephone. Rents rooms for 
$2.00. Has been in this business two years. During this time she has 
paid for a home. Investigator was solicited on street to go to this flat. 

(X56) East 21st street. Esther (X57) lives in flat (X58). She is 
18 years old and came from Michigan. Beer is sold here, price $1.00 
per bottle. There are 18 flats in this building which are used for im- 
moral purposes. 

(X59) West 22nd street. On Police List. Addie (X60) lives on top 
floor. Said she paid a fine of $200.00 for selling beer two months ago. 
On November 15th detectives went through the flat and searched for 
beer, but only looked in the ice boxes. The beer was on the fire escape, 
and it was sold for $1.00 per quart. 

One woman, Mollie (X61), lives near Oak Park and solicits in 
(X62). Her husband is dying in (X62a). She said that she began this 
life only recently because of her extra expense in caring for her hus- 
band. 

A TYPICAL FLAT. 

During the month of September, investigator discovered a flat which 
is being conducted as a house- of prostitution in a large apartment 
house in a residential section of the city. 

As the woman who operated this place seemed willing to talk, 
and was not suspicious, it was determined to find out as much as pos- 
sible about the method of conducting such a place, as, ownership, 



80 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

agent, securing inmates, prices, sale of beer, police, etc. Four in- 
vestigators at different times, one a woman, worked on this case 
and their findings, all of which were verified, are given below. 

Ownership of Property. According to the records the owner of this 
building is Emma (X63), living at (X64) East 24th street. 

Real Estate Agent. The real estate agent, according to the rent 
collector, is (X65), (X66) Dearborn street. 

Rent Collector. A man by the name of (X67) collects the rents. 
He lives at (X68) East 24th street, the same address as the owner of 
the property. Investigator called on Mr. (X67) and spoke of renting 
one of the flats in this building giving him to understand that he 
wanted it for immoral purposes. Mr. (X67) said that he was only the 
attorney for the building, but would see what he could do. 

Keeper of Flat. The particular flat in this building which was 
investigated in on the police list. Mrs. (X71) is the keeper. She has 
been in this business between four and five years. At one time she 
lived on East 33rd street. Mrs. (X71) has been very successful 
and has a home which she has purchased out of the proceeds of her 
business. At present she wants to retire and offers her furniture and 
business for $1,400.00. 

Description of Flat. There are six rooms in this apartment, four 
of these being bedrooms. A couch is in the dining room for special 
occasions. There is a bath room and a kitchen. 

Expenses of Conducting the Flat. The rent is $50.00 per month, 
legitimate price $30.00, light about $3.50, maid $5.00 per week. In 
addition to this the expense for laundry, ice and food must be added. 

Receipts. Mrs. (X71) said the lowest amount taken in by her in 
a month was $165.00, the highest $340.00. She charges each of her 
Iwo inmates from $10.00 to $15.00 per week for board. The prices 
charged in this flat are $5.00, $7.00 and $10.00 according to the length 
of time the customer stays. She receives $2.00 on every $5.00 earned 
by the girls. In addition she sells beer at $1.00 per bottle, and rents 
her rooms to couples for such prices as $2.00 for a short time and 
$4.00 and $5.00 for all night. 

Securing Inmates. This keeper seems to take great pride in the 
fact that her girls are always fresh, young and attractive. She will 
not have a prostitute in her place who has ever been in houses of 
ill-fame, such as exist on Dearborn street and (X69) avenue. These 
girls, she said, will never do in a quiet place. They love excitement, 
the music, lights and large business at small prices. They also want 
to have cadets. Once she took such a girl, but she could not keep her 
as she longed to return to the excitement of her former life and her 
cadet. 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 81 

The girls who do come to her, are in many instances from sur- 
rounding towns or from other States. They stay long enough to earn 
a few clothes and then return home, where they tell other girls of the 
easy way they earned their clothes. 

Mrs. (X71) has a list of 20 or 22 girls who have been with her 
at different times. They come and go. 

One of the girls now in the flat is called Rosie. This girl lives in 
Iowa and was so wild at home, that her mother could do nothing with 
her so she came to Chicago. Sometimes Rosie and the keeper have a 
quarrel and the girl returns home. After awhile she writes and says 
she wants to return to the flat, so Mrs. (X71) sends her a ticket. 
Rosie is one of a family of three or four boys and three girls. One 
of these sisters, called Violet, has also been an inmate of the flat and 
comes occasionally. Rosie's mother says she realizes that Mrs. 
(X71) can do more with her daughter than she can so she allows 
her to come. 

The last time Violet was in the flat she stayed 10 days and earned 
$50.00, then went home again. She is 25 years old. Rosie is younger 
and a good money maker. During July, Rosie earned $156.00 as her 
share. During 27 days in August she earned $171.00. 

Customers. The men who come to this flat are mostly married. 
Mrs. (X71) says they are "gentlemen" and do not make any trouble. 
They prefer a place that is quiet and secret. Other customers are 
buyers from commercial houses, bringing out of town men who are 
here to purchase goods. In addition to this there are many traveling 
men who bring friends who gradually become regular customers. 

The Flat as a Call House. The business in Mrs. (X71) flat depends 
largely on the telephone service. The girls are summoned to go to 
similar flats about town if they are needed, and in turn Mrs. (X71) 
secures girls from other flats when her regular inmates are out when a 
customer calls. For instance on September 20th the investigator was 
in the flat when only one girl was at home. In a few moments a tele- 
phone call came for the girl, Helen (X80), to go to a flat near by. 
On September 30th a 'phone call came for three girls to go to (X81) 
restaurant on Madison street and report in the back room where they 
had been the previous night. There was only one girl in the flat at 
the time, so Mrs. (X71) called up Calumet (X83) and Douglas (X84) 
and arranged for two other girls to meet this girl and go to the 
restaurant. 

Renting a Flat. Mrs. (X71) gave the investigator who was the 
supposed purchaser of her flat, the following advice regarding the 
renting of a flat for immoral purposes : 

"Do not go to an agent, they will increase the rent. Ask the 
servants or janitor the price. You can rent furnished rooms, but 
only from month to month from different keepers who want to 
go away or take a rest. But you must be careful for they often 
come back and put you out after you Jiave started." 



82 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

She then mentioned a Mrs. (X86) and said she charges $60.00 for 
her $40.00 flat on such terms. 

Another one of the keepers was Edna (X87) who has three flats 
at (X88) Wabash avenue. Edna has been in this business since she 
was 21 years of age, and has conducted these flats with her sister 
seven years. She does not keep girls in the flat except during the 
time when there is some special celebration in Chicago. During a re- 
cent celebration which continued for one week she made $700.00. At 
such times she gives her inmates half the proceeds. Her prices are 
$5.00 an hour, $7.00 and $10.00 for longer periods. She receives 
$1.00 for beer, 50 cents for a glass of wine, $3.00 for a pint of cham- 
pagne and $5.00 for a quart of champagne. 

She declares that her customers are all first class, managers, buy- 
ers and salesmen from department stores, such as (X89), the different 
clubs and hotels. She is tired of it and wants to sell out, buy an orange 
grove in California and be a good woman. She took care of her 
mother and father for years, but they are now dead. She never mar- 
ried and would not have a cadet. She claims to make from $6,000.00 
to $7,000.00 each year. Her rent is $37.50 per month. Not long ago, 
a former keeper, Rose (X90) came to the flat and asked Edna to put 
her on call. At one time this woman had $150,000.00, but she gave it 
all to a man and is now penniless. 

IX. Sale of Liquor in Houses, Flats and Hotels. The profits from 
the sale of beer and other liquors in these places is enormous. 1 

Madames of houses and flats testify that the privilege to sell 
liquor in connection with the business is a valuable asset and if de- 
prived of it their business as a whole would suffer. In many houses 
the inmates spend practically all of their time during the early part 
of the evening in persuading visitors to buy drinks. One of the most 
practical moves to reduce the evil effects of this business as it ex- 
ists in houses and flats is to strictly enforce the regulation forbidding 
the sale of liquor in those places. This is seen by the effect of the 
police order issued May 1, 1910. As a result, rents of houses in the 
restricted districts have decreased, many inmates have been compelled 
to leave the district, madames have established houses elsewhere, and a 
general depression has settled down on the business. 

The madame at (X91) Dearborn street told investigator that this 
house previously rented for $500.00; after the order went into effect 
she only pays $250.00. She would be more than glad to pay the 
$500.00 if she could sell beer. 

^ee page 111. 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 83 

Another madame declared that the income from her business had 
decreased $2,000.00 per month since this order was issued. One in- 
mate said that the girls were each losing from $25.00 to $45.00 per 
week on commissions. 

One keeper of a regular house on Dearborn street, at least, has become 
so desperate that he is remodeling his house, which is connected with 
a saloon on the corner, and turning it into a hotel. His plan is to 
secure a hotel license in order to evade the regulation. 

The atmosphere at the present time in houses where liquor is not 
sold is far different from what it was before. The girls, deprived of 
this stimulant, are depressed and sullen. They sit about the parlor 
making feeble efforts to earn commissions on the soft drinks which 
are sold at the same prices formerly charged for beer, but the sales 
are small. 

Another trouble which has grown out of the order, according to 
some, is the practice of visitors of bringing bottles of whiskey into 
these resorts and taking them to the rooms of inmates and compelling 
them to drink. Many of the inmates are not used to strong intoxi- 
cants, and they resent this sort of treatment. As every one knows, a 
person who is a beer drinker, does not, as a rule, touch whiskey and 
vice versa. 

Another objection is made by the madames. They consider it a 
great injustice for them to be deprived of the benefits of selling 
liquor, when a saloon probably on the same street or next door, which 
uses immoral women as an adjunct to its business in the rear rooms, 
and which is in reality a house of ill fame, is unmolested. 

Of course, the objections by madames and keepers are not to be 
considered, but there is one bad feature which can and should be 
remedied. The effect of the police rule has been good as shown by 
the objections of the madames and inmates. The bad feature is that 
a large number of the inmates, through the aid of friends, have es- 
tablished private flats in residential sections where they are free to 
sell beer and liquor unmolested. Some of the madames have also 
moved into residential sections, taking with them a certain number 
of inmates, the others going on the streets or are frequently in the rear 
rooms of saloons. 

This has increased the trouble in controlling the evil in these sec- 
tions. 



84 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

X. Massage Parlors and Baths. One of the most insidious and re- 
volting forms of immorality in Chicago is that which finds its ex- 
pression in so-called massage parlors and baths. It has not been 
possible to make an extended investigation of this phase of the prob- 
lem. Enough has been done, however, to show that it does exist and to 
recommend that a more vigilant supervision be exercised over them. 
Fortunately, this revolting type of immorality is not as extensive as it 
might be. 

These so-called massage parlors and baths are for the most part 
located in the down town districts, within the loop. 

XL Hotels. (X92) Hotel. (X93) West Erie street. Not on police 
list. Minnie solicited on street for this hotel. 

October 4th. (X94) Hotel, (X95) North Clark street. Not on 
police list. Woman soliciting by the name of (X96) said this place was 
an assignation place. 

(X97) Hotel, (X98) North Clark street. Not on police list. In- 
vestigator was solicited on North Clark street by Hilda (X99) and 
Chilla (X100) to go to this hotel. 

(X101) Hotel, (X102) North Clark street. Not on police list. 
Investigator solicited on North Clark street by Hilda (X103) and 
Chilla (X104) at different times to go to this hotel. 

(X105) West Madison street. On police list. Solicited investigator 
on street to go to this hotel. 

Hotel (X106), (X107) West Monroe. May solicited investigator to 
go to this hotel. 

Hotel (X108), Wabash avenue. Eight girls solicited investigator to 
go to this hotel. 

Hotel (X109), State street. Six girls solicited investigator to go to 
this hotel. 

Hotel (X110) Plymouth court. Ruth solicited investigator to go to 
this hotel. 

Hotel (Xlll), Michigan avenue. Maud solicited investigator to go 
to this hotel. 

XII. Use of Cocaine and Morphine by Prostitutes. It is generally 
recognized that immoral women and their "cadets" are addicted to the 
use of cocaine and morphine as well as other drugs and liquor. Most 
of the cocaine purchased by habitues is secured through physicians. 
Much of the morphine is nearly always obtained from druggists by 
merely asking for it and paying the price asked. 

In a canvas of drug stores outside the restricted district it was 
found that they do not sell more than three drams of cocaine and four 
ounces of morphine each month. On the other hand the four drug 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 85 

stores within this district sell at least four pounds of morphine and 
six ounces of cocaine each month. It is practically impossible to as- 
certain exactly how much cocaine or morphine any particular drug 
store buys in spite of the fact that wholesale houses keep a record. The 
druggist who sells cocaine illegally, orders some through his friends or 
orders direct from the manufacturer. Again the records of the whole- 
sale houses are apt to be in error. For instance a clerk in a drug store 
at (X112) West 22nd street turned in an order for one ounce of 
cocaine and asked for three ounces, which were given him. The 
records show he ordered one ounce. This is often done. 

It appears that prostitutes use little cocaine as compared with the 
amount of morphine they consume. 

TYPICAL CASES. 

There are four druggists whose method of catering to the pros- 
titutes is to send clerks to their respective customers in the various 
houses of prostitution to solicit orders, including cocaine and mor- 
phine. 

(XI 13) makes up one ounce vials of cocaine in one per cent, 
solution which he sells under great secrecy. He caters to the 
(X114), (X115) avenue, where two prostitutes named Blanche and 
Alice order on an average of 500 tablets a week of morphine sul- 
phate, using a hypodermic syringe and injecting the drug. He 
also caters to a house operated by madame (X116), (X117) ave- 
nue, where Florence, a prostitute, uses on an average thirteen 
grains of morphine and cocaine interchangeably every day. 

At the (X118), (X119) Dearborn street, Violet and Bebe have 
been buying morphine in large quantities from (X120). He also 
supplies cocaine to Rosie (X121) avenue. He carries a large stock 
of hypodermic syringes which he sells to habitues, and prostitutes 
known to him are in the habit of going to the store, stepping 
behind the counter and obtaining morphine and cocaine without 
any record being kept. 

The (X122) Drug Store, (X123) 21st street, also has a clerk 
soliciting orders in a similar manner. In (X124) avenue, known 
as (X125), practically every girl in the house uses cocaine or 
morphine which were introduced by a prostitute named Sadie 
(X126), who originally purchased the drug at the (X127) Drug 
Store and who now caters to their trade. 

(X128), corner of (X129) and (X130), have a boy called 
(X130a) who solicits orders in a like manner from a number of 
the larger houses, and procures orders for as much as one ounce 
of cocaine and ten ounces of morphine a day. 



86 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Such drug stores as (X131) Pharmacy, (X131a), and (X132) 
street, and (X133) Dearborn street, have boys who solicit from 
the various houses. 

Many prescription blanks have been presented to the drug stores 
in that locality bearing the name of Dr. (X136), (X137) street. 
Upon investigation it was found that this was a fictitious name, and 
that these prescriptions were for the most part incorrectly written. 
Nevertheless they were filled by druggists in that vicinity. 

The physician, the most important element in the sale of cocaine, 
disobeys the law more openly than the druggist. It has been claimed 
that practically all physicians who examine inmates in houses dispense 
cocaine and morphine. 

Dr. (X138), (X139) State street, while treating a girl at 
(X140) Dearborn street, accustomed her to the use of mor- 
phine and cocaine. He still continues to furnish her with pre- 
scriptions for these drugs. There are at present two girls' at 
(X141) avenue who also secure morphine and cocaine through 
Dr. (X138). 

Dr. (X143), (X144), is the examining physician in a house of 
ill fame. Many of the inmates claim to secure their drugs from 
him. 

Investigator claims to have seen many prescriptions of Dr. 
(X145), (X146) State street, calling for cocaine. 

It is well known by inmates that a physician, (X147), (X148) 
22nd street, will for the price of $1.00 administer a hypodermic 
injection of cocaine. On or about March 15, 1910, a cocaine 
victim called (X149), an actor, visited Dr. (XI 50) and secured 
from him six prescriptions for cocaine for $6.00. 

During the first two weeks of September, 1910, Sadie (X151), 
an inmate at (X152) avenue, a house owned by (X153), was 
rooming at (X154) South State street with another inmate who 
is a street solicitor named "Tantine." Tantine has in her pos- 
session a complete hop layout, and was teaching Sadie how to 
smoke opium. They are not living together now. Sadie has 
discontinued the practice. She informed investigator that Tan- 
tine purchased opium in a playing card which was bent in half 
with a wad of opium stuck in the inside like an ordinary piece of 
chewing gum. She purchased the opium in this form at (X155) 
drug store, (X156) street, and (X157). She also purchased it 
from Chinamen, who sold it put up in the following form. An 
ordinary Chinese nut is cut in half, the kernel being removed, the 
hollow shell is then filled with opium, and the two parts of the 
shell are glued together. It is then sold in this manner, which 
makes it very difficult to detect from the ordinary nut. She 
said she was in two places with Tantine where she had purchased 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 87 

it in that form, both being on Clark street near Harrison. She 
does not know the exact number. 

During the early part of the year 1909, Sadie (Xlol) roomed 
with an immoral woman called "Carmen" who also solicited at 
(X159) avenue and purchased cocaine from (X160). She had a 
little box which was used for cocaine only. Sadie further states 
that she is acquainted with a young man whose name she does not 
remember, who comes in{o the house to see her quite often. This 
man is the owner of an opium den on (X161) street. He has in- 
vited her down there at various times, but she does not like the 
idea of going alone. (X162) of (X163) drug store secures her 
orders for drugs now. She says (X164) is an old friend of hers, 
and formerly supplied her with morphine tablets, but she does not 
use any at present. 

XIII. Owners and Real Estate Agents. The court records show 
that practically no effort has been made during the past three years to 
prosecute owners and real estate agents who are leasing and renting 
property for immoral purposes. The law affecting these persons is a 
dead letter. 

The reasons for this are very apparent, first, the indifference of 
the public, and second, but perhaps the most vital, is because such 
property brings an exorbitant rate of interest on the capital in- 
vested. 

These artificial values in the last analysis are the basis of a great 
many difficulties in connection with the problem of the social evil. It 
was shown that the main reason why it is so difficult to suppress 
prostitution in connection with saloons was because of the enormous 
profits which are made from drinks in the rear rooms and from the 
rental of rooms over the saloon. The same argument applies to as- 
signation hotels. 

This difficulty is very apparent When entire houses or apartments 
are rented outright for this purpose. On the West Side there are a 
number of properties which are practically worthless for legitimate 
purposes. A business man endeavored to buy a lot on which was 
erected a frame building, which was being used as a house of ill fame. 
The lot is 90 feet and the owner was offered $36,000.00, or $400.00 
per front foot. He declined to sell, saying that he was securing an 
income on a value of $700.00 per front foot, and that he would not 
sell even for that amount. 



J See Chapter II, "The Social Evil and the Saloon 



88 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

In another instance a lot was held for $450.00 per front foot, when 
its legitimate value was only $350.00. 

In still another case a lot was held for $850.00 per front foot when 
its appraised value by an expert for legitimate purposes was only 
$500.00. 

The amazing part of the whole matter is that while these properties 
are so valuable to the owner, the taxes on them are practically noth- 
ing in comparison. The assessments are on a legitimate basis. 

There is another side of the story also. While these properties are 
increasing in value, without a cent of expense on the part of the 
owner in improvements, the property in the neighborhood is decreasing, 
or at a standstill. 

The Commission has secured a large list of owners of houses where 
prostitution is openly practiced. In some instances these owners are 
vile and abandoned men who make a business of exploiting these un- 
fortunate women. And side by side with these men, ignorant and vile, 
stand so-called respectable citizens who are also sharing in the in- 
creased values from property used to extend the business of prostitu- 
tion. Indeed evidence has been produced tending to show that a highly 
honored and respectable company, in whose hands respectable citizens 
entrust their money, has apparently assumed the trusteeship of four 
of the vilest houses of ill-fame in the 22nd street restricted district. 

Another disgraceful fact is that some ostensibly respectable women 
are owners or have control of property where prostitution is practiced. 

Again several wealthy and prominent business men, whose advice 
is sought in matters pertaining to the civic welfare and development 
of Chicago, are leasing their houses on (X164a) street and (X164b) 
avenue for this business. One of these men has six houses in a part 
of the district where the most disgusting and flagrant violations of the 
law and police rules occur. Young men hardly out of their teens have 
been seen reeling in an intoxicated condition from one of these houses 
to the other. One Saturday night it was all one officer could do to 
keep a crowd of drunken young men moving and prevent fights on the 
streets. In one instance he brutally kicked a young fellow and shoved 
him into the street. In another instance, at the request of the keeper 
of one of these low resorts, the officer entered her house and threw a 
drunken young man out on the street, menacing him with his club. 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 89 

A field investigation was made in order to determine the ease with 
which flats and houses can be leased from real estate agents for 
immoral purposes. During the month of October investigator visited 
65 real estate agents and owners, most of whom were of the city, located 
in residential sections of the city, and in 44 instances they offered to 
rent rooms and flats. In each instance the investigator stated she 
wanted to rent the premises for a "sporting house." 



TYPICAL INSTANCES. 

South Side Of the 22 real estate owners and agents visited on the 
South Side, 15 were willing to rent flats or houses for immoral pur- 
poses. Among these were the following: 

Mr. (X165), said to be agent or owner of flat building from 
(X166) to (X167) Wabash avenue. He offered to rent a five 
room flat on the third floor of one of these buildings for $35.00 
per month. The applicant could have same for two months, rent 
in advance, if she behaved herself and did not play the piano after 
11 :00 P. M. She must be careful whom she let in and to whom 
she sold beer. 

Mr. (X165) said it was not necessary to "stand in" with the 
officer on the beat, but must be with the "higher ups." 

(X169) Wabash avenue. Janitor told investigator that she might 
be able to sublet a flat in this building. The agent was (X170). 
One office being at (X171) East 47th street. This firm also rents 
the (X172) flats at (X173) East 21st street. There are 18 im- 
moral flats in this building. 

(XI 74) East 23rd street. Janitor showed investigator a flat 
of six rooms for $37.50 per month. (X175) in a saloon nearby, 
rented the flats. The owner was an old man who was away much 
of the time. Could do anything in this place, but must be quiet. 

(X176), (X177) Wabash avenue. One of the aldermen of the 
(X176) ward. (X179) showed investigator a flat at (X180) 
22nd street, rent $35.00 per month. It was a very dirty place. 
The agent said she could do as she pleased in this flat. 

West Side. Of the 11 real estate agents visited on the West Side, 
eight were willing to rent flats or houses for immoral purposes. 

(X181), (X182), West Madison street. Agent said he was 
sure the landlord would rent a flat at (X183) West Van Buren 
street for $25.00 or at (X184) Honore street for $22.50 for that 
purpose. Was not sure about (X185) West Madison street. 



90 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

(X186), (X187) West Madison street. Agent tried to induce 
investigator to buy a house. He had just the thing and would 
divide the commission with her. The house he mentioned was 
(X188) West Monroe, price $7,500.00. He had another place at the 
corner of (X189) terrace, southwest corner (X190) street, $60.00 
per month. Advised investigator to go and see the house, de- 
claring she could make a "pile of money" if house was run right 
and quiet. "Then," he added, "we can help you." 

(X191), (X192) West Madison street. Agent offered to rent 
flats at (X193) West Madison street, 2nd flat $40.00, 3rd flat 
$40.00, very poor, no heat. (X194) West Madison street, 2nd 
flat $40.00. He said she would have to see the lieutenant of 
(X195) station before renting any of these places and fix it up 
with him. He then told investigator to go to (X196), (X197) 
West Madison street and talk with her. This woman conducts a 
disorderly house at this address, which is on the police list. She 
has one inmate. She told investigator that she did not sell liquor. 

North Side Of the 12 real estate agents visited on the North Side, 
10 were willing to rent flats or houses for immoral purposes. 

(X200), (X201) North Clark street. Agent offered to rent 
house, seven rooms, at (X202) Roscoe street for $47.50 for im- 
moral purposes. 

(X203), (X204) North Clark street. Agent gave the following 
addresses: (X205) Roscoe street, $45.00; (X206) Evanston ave- 
nue, $65,00, and (X207) Roscoe street, $50.00. All of these are 
houses. The agent cautioned the investigator not to tell the land- 
lord what the house was to be used for. 

(X208), (X209) Lincoln avenue. Had one flat he could rent 
for immoral purposes, at (X210) Fremont street, 2nd flat, eight 
rooms, steam heat, $40.00. 

(X211), (X212) Lincoln avenue. Agent submitted the follow- 
ing for immoral purposes: 

(X213) Seminary avenue, $33.00. 

(X214) Newport avenue, $32.00. 

(X215), (X216) submitted the following for immoral purposes: 

(X217) Sheffield avenue, $35.00. 

(X218) Early avenue, $33.00. 

(X219) Southport avenue, $45.00. 

(X220), (X221) North Clark street. Agent submitted the fol- 
lowing places which could be rented for immoral purposes: 

(X222) Briar place, 7 rooms, $35.00. 

(X223) Oakdale avenue, 8 rooms, $45.00. 

(X224) Oakdale avenue, 9 rooms, $47.50. 

(X225) Barry avenue, 8 rooms, $37.50. 

(X226) Barry avenue, 7 rooms, $35.00. 

Mr. (X227) accompanied investigator to (X222) Briar place, 
and said they needed a good house out there. He said he knew 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 91 

of a woman on Wilson avenue who had a place and a list of 
married women she called in when necessary. He offered to do 
all he could to help investigator to secure a good business and 
put her "on to" a man who would send all the women she needed. 

The Loop Of the 11 real estate agents visited, eight offered to rent 
flats or houses for immoral purposes or said they did do such business. 

(X229), (X230) Washington street gave the following ad- 
dresses and said they might have something by December 1st : 

(X231) Calumet avenue, 1st flat, $32.00. 

(X232) Calumet avenue, $35.00. 

(X233), room (X234), (X235) Dearborn street submitted 
(X236) Ellis avenue, nine rooms. Offered to show place, after 
he had seen the owner. Asked how many inmates she would have. 

(X237), room (X238), (X239) Washington street submitted 
(X240) Michigan avenue. Rent, $50.00, which he said would be 
vacant in about one month. Advised seeing the janitor, Mr. 
(X241). 

(X242), (X243) Dearborn street. Investigator spoke to Mr. 
(X242). He said he had nothing in that line except in the very 
cheapest neighborhoods. 

XIV. Street Solicitation It is only fair to say that the conditions 
on the streets in the downtown business district at present are much 
better than they have been in many years in the City of Chicago. This 
improvement has been gradual during the past three or four years. 
It seems, however, that the policy of restriction has been carried out 
in regard to street walking in much the same way as to houses. While 
street solicitors have been seen in respectable residential sections, the 
most flagrant violations occur in certain districts of the city, and on 
certain streets. Roughly speaking these sections and streets are as 
follows : 

The downtown business district, on such streets as Wabash 
(south from Van Buren) to Peck court, from thence to State street, 
the side streets, and on State to Van Buren. 

In vicinity of the 22d street restricted district, and as far south as 
63d street. 

On the North Side from the river on Clark and the side streets, west 
of State to Chicago avenue, and even beyond. 

On the West Side, on such streets as Madison, Halsted, Green, 
Peoria, Sangamon. 

The following extract from a report made by a missionary worker 
gives her impression of conditions on the North Side: 



92 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

"From the river to Chicago avenue, including Wells, LaSalle 
and Clark streets, are certainly growing worse very fast. It is 
simply alarming. Dearborn avenue, North Clark street, is fast 
becoming a red light district. I have worked in all these places, 
and can speak from deep experience. It is going farther north 
all the time, even as far as North avenue. On all the cross streets, 
from the river to Chicago avenue, one can see soliciting going on 
almost any time of night." 

This conclusion has been verified by the field investigation. One 
worker who has covered the North Side from the river to Chicago 
avenue, State, Wells and Clark, and all intersecting streets, three dif- 
ferent times in as many years, declares that conditions are worse in 
that section than they were three years ago. Prostitutes are soliciting 
on practically all of these streets. For instance, on North State street, 
from Michigan to Chicago avenue; on North Clark the women walk 
from Kinzie as far as North avenue, and openly solicit in front of 
rooming houses, and entrances to hotels. On LaSalle avenue, from 
Michigan street to Chicago avenue, the same conditions exist. 

Again on Wells street, girls from the rear rooms of saloons en- 
deavor to entice men to go to rooms over saloons, or to the rear rooms 
for drinks. On Indiana from Wells to Clark, Erie street, from Wells 
to State, Ohio from Wells to State, Huron from Wells to State, 
Ontario from Wells to State, street solicitation prevails. 

There are two classes of prostitutes on the streets, professional and 
semi-professional. By the latter is meant girls who are employed dur- 
ing the day, and use this method of finding excitement or increasing 
their income. The ages of these girls range from 16 to 21, and they 
work in department stores, factories, as domestic servants, as waitresses, 
as stenographers, and in other occupations. 

The following typical cases illustrate the foregoing statements : 

North Side Carmen solicited on North Clark street near Divi- 
sion. She did not appear to be over 18 years of age, was timid 
and seemed afraid. Lives on LaSalle avenue. Works downtown. 
Takes men to hotel on West Erie street. 

Lucille solicited on street. Lives on Dearborn avenue. Will go 
to any hotel. Frequents buffet on North Clark street. Lucille 
is about 20 years of age. Coarse and ignorant. 

Flossie solicited on corner of Ohio and Clark streets to go to 
hotel over saloon on North Clark street. 

November 15th investigator was solicited by nine different street 
walkers on the corner of Michigan and North Clark streets from 
8:55 to 9:15 P. M. 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 93 

All of the women invited him to go to a hotel on North Clark 
street. This hotel has an entrance from the back room of a 
saloon on North Clark street. 

The price asked by the women was $1.00 and 50 cents for the 
room. 

10:30 until 11:30 P. M. saw four different girls soliciting on 
North Clark street, from Ohio to Indiana. 

Violet solicited five men from Indiana to Illinois on North Clark 
street from 8 :30 to 9 :00 P. M. 

Bete solicited in front of palm garden on North avenue; said 
her father worked for street department, and don't give her any 
money or clothes. She goes with fellows for 50 cents; knows of 
no place to go except up the track near Division street. She said 
she was 17 years old. Speaks poor English. Has been in country 
five years. 

1 :30 to 2 :00 A. M. Nine girls soliciting from Erie to Huron. 

10:00 to 10:30 P. M. Seven girls soliciting on North Clark 
from Huron to Erie. 

8 :00 to 9 :00 P. M. Four girls soliciting on Ohio from North 
Clark to LaSalle avenue. 

9 :00 to 10 :00 P. M. Ten girls on North Clark street from On- 
tario to Ohio streets. 

After 10:00 P. M. Five girls on Ontario from North Clark 
to LaSalle avenue. 

September 9th, 9:00 to 9:30 P. M. Fourteen girls soliciting 
on corner of Illinois and North Clark. 

West Side. October 13th. Flossie, 21 years of age, a waitress, 
solicited on corner of Ada and West Madison streets to go to 
(X245) West Madison street, where she has a room. 

Paulette solicited on corner of Curtis and West Madison streets, 
is 22 years old, married. "Hustles" to support two-year-old baby. 
Said she could get a room on West Madison street. 

Mignon solicited on street to go to hotel on West Madison street. 
Mignon said she was 19 years old. 

South Side Investigator was solicited on Indiana avenue be- 
tween 42nd and 43rd streets by two girls. One named (X246), 
married to a traveling salesman, and lives on (X247) avenue, 
near (X248) street. She is employed during the day in the 
(X249) building, one goes out at night "on the quiet." Will not 
take anyone home, but will go to hotels or assignation houses. The 
other woman, Rosie, is married and lives in Milwaukee, where 
she lives at (X250) Wells street, flat (X251). She has stored 
her furniture and is separated from her husband. Is staying on 
South Park avenue for a few days. Expects to visit Mrs. (X252), 
who keeps an assignation flat at (X253) Indiana avenue. She 
expects to come to Chicago to live and open a flat of her own 
on the South Side as soon as she can earn sufficient money. Two 
or three of her men friends here in Chicago have offered to give 



94 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

her $10.00 each for that purpose. She has a flat in view and 
knows where she can secure all the girls she needs when she is 
ready to start. 

Solicited by girl on Jackson and LaSalle street at 12.20 A. M. 
Girl gave name of Jennie and invited investigator to call on her 
at flat (X255), 31st street. Kept by Mrs. (X256). Says Mrs. 
(X256) receives herself, that she runs a regular assignation place, 
can have liquor, as there is plenty in the place. Flat is over the 
(X258) cafe. 

Mariette solicited on South State street. Said she was 18 years 
old, lives at home and "don't have to hustle." Frequents saloon 
at South State street. 

Sue solicits on South State street to go upstairs over saloon at 
(X259) South State street. 

A plain clothes man spoke to a woman who solicits on the 
street in the 22nd street district. He said, "Well, how is business 
tonight?" 

"Bum," she replied, "I haven't broken my luck yet." 

The detective then walked toward 22nd street. 

On January 3rd 24 houses of prostitution were closed on Sangamon, 
Green and Peoria streets. According to a police report there were 
124 inmates in these houses. On the nights of January 21 and 22, 1911, 
an investigator was solicited by 48 different women on Madison, Hal- 
sted, Sangamon, Lake, Peoria, and Green streets. He secured the 
names of 13 of these women, and they correspond with the names 
of the former inmates of these houses. 

West Side During period of 15 minutes, three girls solicited 
on Adams between Morgan and Sangamon. 

During period of 15 minutes, seven girls soliciting on Monroe 
from Halsted to Peoria. 

10 :30 P. M., three girls soliciting on Monroe between Green and 
Halsted. 

10 :30 to 11 P. M., nine girls soliciting on Madison street from 
Sangamon to Morgan. 

Downtown, South to East 22nd Street 1 :30 A. M. Clark 
street, near river. Met waitress who works in lunch room, said 
she would go to a room from 7 A. M., when she leaves her work, 
until time to go back to work. 

9 :30 to 11 :30 P. M. Investigator was solicited by 14 different 
girls in vicinity of Wabash avenue, between Van Buren and 
Congress. Eight solicited for a hotel on Wabash avenue, and six 
for hotel on State street. 

10 :10 to 10 :50 P. M. Investigator was solicited by following 
women : 

(a) Miss (X259) on State between Jackson and Adams; 
would go to any hotel,' 'phone (X260). 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 95 

(b) Helena; lives on South Side, would go to any hotel. 

(c) Rosie, corner Congress and Wabash. This was 11 :45 
P. M. 

10:10 to 10:50 P. M. Nine girls soliciting on Congress be- 
tween Wabash and State. Investigator was solicited by six dif- 
ferent women. Gave names as Rose, May, Ruth, Kate, Grace, 
Ella. Two of them wanted to go to hotel on Wabash avenue, two 
to hotel on State, and two any place investigator desired. 

Met Bessie on Michigan avenue. She is 19 years of age. 
Came from (X261), Indiana, about three months ago. Works 
in restaurant on 22nd street. Lives in rooming house on Michigan 
avenue. Is not a regular prostitute, goes with men for presents 
or money. Is poorly paid at restaurant. Don't like the country, 
prefers city life. Expects to move to a room where landlady 
has promised to allow her to do as she pleases about bringing 
friends to her room. 

South Side from East 22nd to 6$rd Street 31st and Indiana 
avenue. Lucille lives on Prairie avenue. Fairly well educated. 
About 19 years ; would go to hotel. 

On Michigan avenue near 24th street. Carmen, 22 years old, 
goes to hotel on Michigan avenue, lives on Michigan avenue; 
'phone Calumet (X262) ; does not take men to her room. 

At 61st street and Cottage Grove avenue. Flossie lives with 
her parents on West (X263) street. About 21; goes to hotel on 
63rd street. 

At 28th street and Michigan avenue. Two mulatto girls, one 
named (X264), about 22, other 20, neither look over 18. Both 
live on Wabash avenue in rear apartment and take men there. 

Southwest Side Met Lilly in front of a five cent theatre. She 
is a dressmaker's apprentice and receives $3.50 per week. 
"Hustles" at night. Her parents are dead. Her aunt first per- 
suaded her to become immoral. Frequents saloon on South Hal- 
sted street. 

Paulette's parents made her leave home because she went out 
at night. She says she is "going to hell proper" now. Is 18 years 
old. Frequents saloon on South Halsted street. 



THE PROFITS FROM PROSTITUTION IN CHICAGO. 

That the profits from prostitution are enormous is well known, but 
until certain facts are known and studied, no clear idea can be obtained 
regarding them. When two or three of the principal factors are ex- 
amined a flood of light is thrown on the problem. 

The police list of disorderly houses and flats submitted to this Com- 
mission gave the following: 



96 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

WEST SIDE. 

2?th and s8th Precincts These precincts contain the so-called West 
Side vice district. 

Number of houses 38 

Number of inmates in these houses 180 

Number of flats 93 

Number of inmates and keepers in these flats 321 

Let us confine the present inquiry as to profit to two factors, viz., 
first, that from increased rent, and second, from fees paid to the 
woman for the rental of her body. 

As a preface to mathematical statements, and to show that the 
figures given are ultra-conservative, take the following excerpts from 
statements given in conferences before the Commission, first as to 
profits from rentals of houses used for purposes of prostitution, and 
second, as to the amount made by the individual prostitute. 

(X265) leases a house for $50.00 per month in a section where it 
would be ' impossible to sublet to respectable parties for a legitimate 
increase of $75.00 per month. He then expends, say $200.00 in par- 
titioning off 10 small bed rooms ; total expense so far $250.00. 

He subleases to a landlady for $200.00 per month, and she often 
pays a bonus in addition to the $200.00. 

He thus gets his money back during the first month's rental, and a 
profit of $150.00 that month and every month thereafter. 

Mr. (X266) had a certain unoccupied piece of property on (X266a) 
street which he formerly leased for $50.00 per month. He rented it 
for $200.00 per month for purposes of prostitution. 

A keeper of a house of ill-fame stated in conference that she paid 
$8,000.00 per year on a 10-year lease for the house. 

Evidence on file with the Commission shows largely increased rents, 
sometimes double paid for flats to be used far assignation purposes. 

As a typical instance, see page 80, under heading "Expense of 
Conducting the Flat." Rent $50 legitimate rent $30. Revenue, 
lowest amount taken in $165 per month; highest $340 covering a 
four year period. She had two inmates, and charged $10 to $15 per 
week board. 

The prices charged were $5, $7 and $10. Rooms were also rented 
for assignation purposes, price $2 for a short time, and $5 for all 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 97 

night. She received $2 for every $5 earned by the inmates. 

One inmate, Rose, once stayed 10 days with her, and earned $50 
for herself. During one July, Helen earned $156. During 27 days in 
August she earned $171. 

"During one week of a celebration, Edna (X267), who has three 
flats at (X268) Wabash avenue, made $700 prices $5, $7 and $10." 

She claims to make $6,000 to $7,000 per year. 



INDIVIDUAL PROFITS OF PROSTITUTES. 

The universal practice is that the "madame takes half." 

If the profit, therefore, of the inmate is given that of the keeper 
is known. 

One madame testified before the Commission that in a 50-cent house 
on the West Side, she with one girl took in $175 to $200 per week. 
She also testified that she herself entertained 60 men in one night at 
50 cents each. 

This madame is supporting members of her family, and has $7,000 
in the bank. 

Other testimony shows that girls are not encouraged to stay in these 
cheap houses who do not turn in $25 per week at least. 

Testimony from a keeper and inmates shows that her girls earn 
from $100 to $400 a week, and in one or two cases where the girl is 
especially attractive and "womanly" even $500 per week. This keeper 
has 24 "boarders." 

Investigator's report gives the case of one woman who had conducted 
a flat on the South Side in the residence district for a few years, who 
had made enough to purchase property on the North Side, and "retire 
from business," and of another who proposed to retire, and wanted 
to purchase an orange grove. 

Inmates of other houses not so pretentious ($2 and $3 houses) testify 
to making $50 per week and upwards. 

That there is even published and obtainable data to prove con- 
clusively the conservatism of the estimates that are given further on, is 
shown by the two following instances: 

In May, 1907, Leona Garrity, keeper of a house at 75 South Peoria 
street, was arrested on the charge of "allowing an unmarried female 



98 THE~SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

under 18 years of age to live, etc., in a house of prostitution." The 
case was tried by a jury, and a verdict of guilty returned, and appeal 
taken to the Supreme Court, where the verdict was sustained. 

In the printed abstract of record filed in the Supreme Court in this 
case, certain pages are reproduced, taken from a book kept by the 
madame of the house. These pages give the record of the inmates 
of the house for five consecutive days in May, 1907, and shows the 
number of men received by each inmate each day, and the amount 
each girl received. 

The price for' "service" in this house was 50 cents. It is shown 
that six regular inmates on four consecutive days received 394 men, 
an average of between 65 and 66 per day, or 13 per day each, and were 
paid a total of $98.50, or approximately $4 per day each. This would 
show weekly earnings of $28 each, and as the total amount of money 
received was divided equally between the inmates and the madame, 
the madame's earnings on this basis from these six inmates would be 
$112 per week, or $5,824 per year. 

The record, however, of two of the six inmates who worked five 
consecutive days is as follows: 

Sun. Mon. Tues. Wed. Thur. Total Av. 

KITTY: 

No. of men 24 14 12 9 17 76 15 

FLORINCE: 

No. of men 20 23 21 21 45 130 26 

"Kitty" therefore averaged a little over 15 visitors per day, and 
her weekly earnings would be about the same as those given above. 

"Florince," however, who was the 16-year-old girl of the case in 
court, on one day received 45 men, averaged 26 per day, and was 
paid $32.50 for the 5 days, or at the rate of $45.50 per week. And, 
of course, "earned" a similar amount for the keeper. 

The total amount the six girls received for the five days was $114 
(although four of them "worked" only four days). The weekly 
profit of the madame, therefore, from these six inmates, taking this 
as the average would be $159.60, or $8,299.20 per annum. 1 

It should be remembered that this house was one of the lowest and 
cheapest sort, a 50-cent house. 

'Exhibit Q. 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 99 

In 1908, in connection with the arrest of the keeper of a disorderly 

house, the authorities seized his books and papers. Among these books 
was one giving the names of the inmates, and amounts turned in by 

them each day ; total for one month daily, and total receipts per month 
for 22 consecutive months. These records were held as part of the 
evidence in this case, and are given below in detail. (The figures 
given are all taken from the records ; the "averages" and other analyses 
of the tables are ours.) 

The price for service in this house was $1. 

The regular number of inmates of this house was 18. Sometimes 
these were a few more or a few less. 

Record for one day (March 14) names of girls and amount turned 
in by each : 

Carmen $36 

Blanch 28 

Marcella 37 

Martha 25 

Jeannie 16 

Lucille 41 

Flossie 23 

Lilly 13 

Helene 20 

Paulette 14 

Mariette 23 

Suzanne 23 

Violette 13 

Tantine 24 

Mignon 11 

Jennie 16 

Bessie 11 

Rosie 10 

Alice 20 

Marcette 12 

Bete 27 



Total 21 inmates $443 
Average $ 21.10 

Average profit per inmate (1/2) $10.05 per day; per week $70.35. 
Average profit per inmate for keeper, $10.05 per day; per week, 
$70.35. 



100 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Daily record of inmates for one week, March 7th to 13th 



7th 


8th 


9th 


10th 


llth 


12th 


13th 


$24 


$33 


$16 


$16 


$18 


$17 


$16 


40 


18 


22 


18 


14 


11 


20 


25 


19 


18 


7 


18 


14 


12 


20 


10 


14 


23 


4 


8 


10 


24 


22 


22 


9 


21 


16 


18 


20 


13 


21 


11 


7 


10 


5 


22 


13 


11 


14 


9 


12 


11 


9 


38 


11 


14 


12 


7 


13 


35 


25 


15 


4 


30 


14 


12 


26 


16 


7 


7 


7 


13 


19 


12 


25 


12 


5 


10 


16 


9 


16 


12 


9 


15 


7 


9 


9 


29 


10 


10 


23 


11 


4 


5 


15 


10 


8 


13 


10 


6 


4 


27 


11 


11 


21 


10 


4 


7 


20 


10 


11 


2 


6 


3 


3 


16 


30 


5 




10 


9 


7 


13 


20 


10 




8 


6 


8 


13 


18 


7 




19 




4 




11 






11 







$406 $364 $240 $202 $250 $179 $192 

Total for seven days $1,833 

Average number of inmates 18 

Average per week for each inmate (1/2) $50 
Average per week from each inmate (1/2) 
for madame $50 

Record of daily receipts from inmates for one month: 

Mar. 2, $247 12, $197 22, $339 

3, 228 13, 202 

4, 229 14, 500 

5, 206 15, 350 

6, 235 16, 233 

7, 419 17, 231 

8, 379 18, 226 

9, 255 19, 226 

10, 214 20, 246 

11, 260 21, 420 

Total for 30 days $8,144 

Average number of inmates, 18 

Average earnings per inmate for month (1/2) $220 

Average earnings per inmate for week 55 

Average earnings for keeper for month (1/2) $4,072 




EXISTING CONDITIONS 101 

Record of total business per month for 22 months (August, 1906, to 
June, 1908) : 

1906 1907 1908 

August $ 6,526 April $ 8,180 December. ... $ 9,229 

September.... 6,816 May 8,465 January 1908 7,837 

October 7,221 June 8,613 February 7,894 

November.... 7,074 July 9,008 March 8,494 

December.... 7,790 August 10,061 April 8,266 

January 1907. 7,294 September. . . 9,325 May 8,936 

February 6,588 October 9,109 

March 8,226 November... 8,647 

Total for 22 months $179,599 

Average per month 8,164 

Average earnings of inmates (18) per week (^) 55 

With these facts in mind, note the following figures confined en- 
tirely to "rent of house and body." 

WEST SIDE. 

Rent of House 38 houses (from police list). 
Average excess profit from rental, $1000 per year, to 

owner or lessor $ 38,000 

93 flats (from police list). 
Average excess profit from rental, $300 per year, to 

owner or lessor 27,900 

180 inmates of houses (from police list) 

Profit of $25 per week; aggregate per annum 234,000 

Profit of $25 per week for keeper from inmates 234,000 

321 inmates of flats; same as above ($25 per week) 

aggregate per annum 417,300 

Keeper's profit from 321 inmates 417,300 



Total West Side $1,368,500 

SOUTH CHICAGO. 

This so-called "restricted district" is of practically the same chat 
acter as that of the West Side. 

i$th Precinct This precinct contains the South Chicago re- 
stricted district. 
25 houses (from police list). 
Excess profit from rentals, $1000 per year each, to 

owner or lessor $ 25,000 

120 inmates, profit of $25 per week, aggregate per 

annum 156,000 

Keeper's profit from 120 inmates 156,000 



Total South Chicago $337,000 



102 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

SOUTH SIDE. 

In this district, while the excess revenue from rentals of houses and 
flats must be very largely in excess of that on either the West Side 
or South Chicago, the same amount is used in the estimate for houses, 
or $1,000 per year, and $50 per month (or $GOO per year) for flats 
instead of $300. 

The weekly average profit of the prostitute in this district is esti- 
mated at $50. 

2d, sd and 4th Precincts South Side restricted district. 119 houses 
(from police list) : 

Average excess profit of $1,000 per year to owner or 

lessor $ 119,000 

686 inmates of houses (from police list). 

Weekly profit of $50 each, aggregate per annum 1,783,600 

Keeper's profit from 686 inmates 1,783,600 

143 flats (from police list). 

Average excess profit of $600 per year to owner or lessor 85,800 
277 inmates of flats (from police list) 

Weekly profit at $50 each, aggregate per annum 720,200 

Keeper's profit from 277 inmates 720,200 

Total South Side $5,212,400 



RECAPITULATION OF THREE RESTRICTED DISTRICTS (HOUSES AND 

FLATS ONLY). 

West Side $1,368,500 

South Chicago 337,000 

South Side 5,212,400 



Total $6,917,900 

This appalling aggregate covers only the houses and flats in the 
three so-called restricted districts. 

In addition to these houses and flats, the police list gives 17 
assignation hotels in the 2d, 3d and 4th precincts, having 1086 rooms, 
and 6 in the 27th and 28th precincts, having 45 rooms. These rooms 
rent for from 25 cents to $2. 

Assuming that each room is rented only once each night at an 
average price of 50 cents, and that this is all profit (as most of these 
rooms are rented many times each night, and many of them for higher 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 103 

prices) the sum of $206,407 must be added to the above aggregate 
for rental only (for the West Side $8,212 and for the South Side 
$198,195). Estimating that only one prostitute entertains once each 
night in each room at a price of $1, the "body rental" amounts to 
$412,815. (For the West Side $16,425 and for the South Side 
$396,390.) It is an ultra-conservative assumption that considering 
the total business done, these sums may be called "profits." To con- 
clude with the police list, 10 houses with 26 inmates, 36 flats with 73 
inmates and 19 assignation hotels having 91 rooms are given for the 
38th precinct, North Side. 

An estimate of these on the West Side basis, given below (which is 
entirely too low) gives an additional sum of $328,022. (See estimate 
in final table.) 

We thus have, dealing with the police list only a grand total profit 
from the two factors mentioned, from tolerated or regulated vice in 
the city of $7,865,144. 

And even this is not all. The investigation of the Commission, 
which covered only a part of the city, showed 398 disorderly saloons 
catering to immoral wornen, practically assignation rooms, or houses 
of ill-fame, in which 928 prostitutes were seen; it showed 33 hotels 
over saloons, 37 hotels not over saloons, 82 rooms over saloons, 24 
houses over saloons, and 60 rooms not over saloons. None of these 
saloons, houses, hotels or assignation places are given on the police 
list, or considered in the above statement. 

Estimating on the lowest basis given above (and omitting entirely 
the 398 disorderly saloons and the 928 prostitutes seen in them), a 
sum amounting to $611,545 must be added, considering each "hotel" 
as a flat with two inmates only, and each of the 24 houses as having 
only two. The final sum is therefore $8,476,689.00. 

It must be borne in mind that the vast revenue from the sale of 
liquor is entirely neglected in this sum, nor are any of the lesser 
sources of profit considered, such as tips given to the girls by patrons 
(testimony shows this amounts to $25 per week per inmate in the better 
houses) nor from music, or the large sums made by giving indecent 
shows, etc. Nor has it anything to do with the matter of clandestine 
prostitution. 

In the above estimates, the total number of prostitutes considered 



104 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

is 3,233. This figure does not include the 928 prostitutes counted in 
disorderly saloons mentioned, but only inmates of houses, flats and 
rooms. The "per capita" annual profit, therefore (from rentals of 
property and fees paid women) of this business, found by dividing 
the aggregate given by 3,233, is approximately $1,480.00. 

What must be the value of real estate and property where such possi- 
bilities of revenues are found ? 

Analyzing further the figures given, omitting the first factor of 
rental of property and the keeper's or madame's share, and consid- 
ering only the aggregate earnings of the individual prostitute (amount- 
ing to $4,167,531) and dividing the sum by 3,233, we have a "per 
capita" earning capacity of approximately $1,300 per annum, or $25 
per week. This is 5 per cent, on $26,000. The average wage paid in a 
department store is $6.00 per week, or $300 per year. This is 5 per 
cent, on $6,000. In other words, a girl represents a capitalized value 
of $26,000 as a professional prostitute, where brains, virtue and all other 
good things are "nil," or more than four times as much as she is 
worth, as a factor in the industrial and social economy, where brains, 
intelligence, virtue and womanly charm should be worth a premium. 

The statements were made above that the "madame gets half," 
and that even in the cheap houses the girl who cannot turn in $25.00 
per week is not encouraged to remain. As has been shown, the aver- 
age weekly earnings (as much underestimated as the above figures 
certainly are) amount to that, and the keeper's or madame's share 
is shown to amount to millions. 

Why wonder then at the commercialization of prostitution, or at 
its permanence ? A madame with 10 girls in a house has a sure revenue 
of $250 per week, or $13,000 per year. After paying her exorbitant 
rent of $2,400 per annum, is there not enough left for "protection" 
and graft of every conceivable description? 

The reasons for the statements of a keeper that she pays $8,000 per 
year rent for a house that would ordinarily rent for less than $2500, 
and that her daily expense for 24 servants, breakage of furniture, 
glassware, etc., etc., is $225, are easily accounted for, when compared 
with the accompanying statement that "I have accommodations for 24 
young ladies," and the further statements both from her and the 
inmates, that the "earnings" are from $100 to $500 per week per 
inmate, and remembering that the "madame gets half." 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 105 

Assuming the lowest figure with 24 girls earning $50 per week, 
the madame's share is $62,400. 

If, however, the statement of daily expense amounting to $225 is 
correct, this must be too low, as there would be a deficit. 

On the basis of $100 per week for each inmate as the madame's 
share, there would be a profit of $42,675 per year. 

These figures speak for themselves, and show in a startling manner 
why vice exists in Chicago, why it is allowed to exist, and why politics 
and graft are inseparable from it under existing conditions. 

The rich hoard thus offered explains the reason for the army of 
cadets and thieves, exploiters and scoundrels who live on the earnings 
of the bodies of the unfortunate women, who are led to believe the 
life is "easy." It also accounts for the commercial interests that sup- 
port, bolster, and live upon it, the real estate owners, and agents, the 
liquor interests, costumers, furriers, jewelers, druggists, doctors and 
many others who live on or share in the earnings of the prostitute. 

The girl is peculiarly susceptible to all forms of graft, and is per- 
sistently grafted upon by all. Nobody respects, admires or loves her; 
no one wants her but for one purpose. 

Confined as in a prison, her only resource is in "blowing in her 
easy money" for what she can get to make the hours fly, and she is 
an easy victim to each and every grafter who gets the chance to prey 
upon her. It is the ease of her exploitation that largely accounts for 
the so-called commercialization of prostitution and its perpetuation. 



106 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

RECAPITULATION OF ESTIMATES GIVEN ABOVE ITEMIZED. 

From Police List West Side Houses and Flats. 

Profits of owners or lessors, 

$ 38,000 
27,900 

$65,900 

Profits of inmates, 

180 inmates, houses at $25 week, 234,000 

321 inmates, flats at $25 week, 417,300 

Profits of keepers or madames, 

501 inmates, houses and flats at $25 week 651,300 

. 1,302,600 

6 assignation hotels, 
Profits of owners or lessors, 

45 rooms at $.50 per night 8,212 

45 inmates at $1 per night 16,424 

. 24,636 



Total West Side, $1,393.136 

SOUTH CHICAGO. 

Profits of owners or lessors, 

25 houses at $1,000 per year each $ 25,000 

Profits of inmates, 

120 at $25 week each, 156,000 

Profits of keepers or madames, 

120 inmates at $25 week each 156,000 



Total South Chicago, 337,000 

SOUTH SIDE. 

Profits of owners or lessors, 

119 houses at $1,000 per year each $119,000 
143 flats at $600 per year each 85,800 

204,800 

Profits of inmates, 

686 inmates houses $50 week 1,783,600 

277 inmates flats at $50 week 720,200 

Profits of keepers or madames, 

963 inmates at $50 per week 2,503,800 

5,007,600 

Profits of owners or lessors, 

17 assignation hotels, 1086 rooms, at 

50 cents night 198,195 

Profits 1,086 inmates at $1 per night 396,390 

594,585 



Total South Side $5,806,985 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 107 

NORTH SIDE. 

Profits of owners or lessors, 

10 houses at $1,000 per year each $ 10,000 

36 fiats at $300 per year each 10,800 

20,800 

Profits of inmates, 

26 inmates houses $25 week each 33,800 

73 inmates flats $25 week each 94,900 

Profits of keepers or madames, 

99 inmates, houses and flats $25 week 128,700 
19 assignation hotels 

Profits 9 rooms at 50c per night each 16,607 

Profits 91 inmates at $1 per night each 33,215 



Total North Side $ 328,022 



Total from houses, flats and assignation 

hotels given in police list $7,865,143 



PLACES INVESTIGATED (NOT ON POLICE LIST). 

Profits to owners or lessors, 

70 hotels, considered as flats, $300 per 

year each $ 21,000 

24. houses $1,000 per year each 24,000 

Profits of inmates, these houses and flats, 

188 at $25 per week each 244,400 

Profits of keepers or madames, 

188 inmates at $25 per week each 244,400 

Profits of owners or lessors of 142 rooms 

at 50c per night 25,915 

Profits 142 inmates of these rooms at $1 per 
night 51,830 



Total, not on police list 



Grand total, $8,476,688 



108 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

PROFIT FROM THE SALE OF LIQUOR IN CONNECTION WITH PROSTITU- 
TION DISORDERLY SALOONS. 

There are 7,153 saloons in the City of Chicago. The present ratio 
of saloons to population is 1 to about 300 people. According to the 
testimony before the Commission, given by the President of the Brew- 
ers' Exchange and the representative of the Retail Liquor Dealers' 
Protective Association, it will be 20 to 25 years before any new 
licenses will be granted, because the city ordinances provide that none 
shall be issued until the ratio of saloons to population shall be 1 to 500. 
This in a measure accounts for the fact that saloon licenses that cost 
$1,000 per annum are now worth $2,000 to $2,500, are rapidly increasing 
in value, and are being bought up whenever possible by the liquor 
interests. 

The organizer of the Liquor Dealers' Association states that 25 per 
cent, of the saloon keepers in the city, go out of business every six 
months. On the face of it, this would lead to the belief that the busi- 
ness was unprofitable, but that must be far from the truth. A license 
when granted is not restricted as to locality but is good in any por- 
tion of the city; neither is it restricted as to person, but is valid for 
whomsoever owns it. These two latter features undoubtedly account 
for the shifting character of the ownership. At any rate, the number 
of saloons does not diminish and the fact that it does not, that others 
are not only always ready and anxious to get in, but are willing to 
pay more than twice the cost of the heavy license, proves that the in- 
centive is the enormous profit that can be made under existing con- 
ditions. 

There can be no doubt that the profits of an orderly, well conducted 
saloon under proper management, are large, but when the tremendous 
profit made by the disorderly saloon which not only allows, but seeks 
the aid of the prostitute as an adjunct to its business (and is permitted 
to do so) is considered, further light is thrown upon the subject. 
These saloons, with rear rooms frequented by prostitutes soliciting 
men to buy drinks and for immoral purposes, either directly connected 
with rooms or hotels in the same building, or indirectly with others 
in the near vicinity are virtually houses of prostitution, and the nuclei 
of vice, <the places where many take the initial step, and on the other 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 109 

hand the business headquarters and rendezvous of the lowest char- 
acters of both sexes. 

There are many such saloons in the city. The investigation covered 
445 (scattered over the city). In 236 of these investigator was so- 
licited, and 928 prostitutes were counted in them. 

In considering the question of the profits made, attention should 
be given to the following facts: 

The usual price for a pint bottle of beer (in rear room of saloon) 
is 25 cents. 

The per cent, of gross profit to the saloon keeper is 178 per cent, 
the commission being included in the cost. When sold in rooms up- 
stairs the prices are doubled and the per cent, of gross profit is 250 
per cent. 

Counterfeit mixed drinks for the women, Manhattan and other cock- 
tails, consisting of colored water and a cherry, sell for 25 cents. The 
per cent, of gross profit on these is over 300 per cent., and much 
greater when sold upstairs. 

In the majority of such saloons, prostitutes are not only permitted 
to solicit, but are paid a commission on the sale of drinks. 

A low estimate of the amount earned per day by such girl sellers 
of drinks is $3.00. 

The average number of girls found in the 236 saloons where in- 
vestigator was solicited was approximately 5. 

On the basis of only 200 per cent, profit, which eliminates prac- 
tically everything from the question except beer, the daily net profit 
from 5 girls earning $3.00 per day on a 20 per cent, commission would 
be $50 or $18,250 per year. 

Assuming that the 236 disorderly saloons mentioned, employed only 
5 girls each, the aggregate profits on the above basis would be $4,- 
307,000. 

Of course, there are many more such saloons than those investigated, 
and the average number of girls employed must be much more than 5, 
but even on this conservative basis, the total figures are startling, and 
the reason why such saloons are allowed to exist is not far to seek. 

Another big source of profit for the disorderly saloon is from the 
rental of rooms for assignation purposes. Small bed rooms, directly 
connected with the saloon or in some cases, controlled by it, are fitted 



110 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

up at an expense of not to exceed $5 for a bed, 2 chairs and a few 
towels. These rooms are rented many times during each 24 hours. 
The average price for such rooms is 50 cents. From 5 rooms of this 
kind rented only twice day at 50 cents, the annual revenue amounts 
to $1,825. 

Bearing in mind that these enormous revenues are only "side lines," 
additions to the natural or normal business of the saloon, some idea 
may be formed as to the value of the business of prostitution as an 
adjunct, and as to the difficulty of properly regulating, controlling or 
suppressing these disorderly places. 

Comparing the earnings of the women employed in this manner 
for themselves, and for those who hire them with what they could 
make as employes of department stores, or as factory hands, some 
interesting deductions may be drawn. 

In the first place, most of these women or girls are not necessarily 
unintelligent, but certainly, from their opportunity and environment 
since birth, uneducated, unskilled and with little opportunity or possi- 
bility for social advancement or betterment. 

Owing to the fact that the law of supply and demand regulates 
the price of such labor as they can do, rather than the earning capacity 
of the employe for the employer, the average wage these women could 
expect to earn in the ordinary course of employment is $6.00 per week, 
hardly enough to support life certainly not enough to supply even 
the most modest and mtural desire of a girl for dress or what one 
"madame" called "fluffy ruffles." In other words, the apparent "good 
things" of life, which she sees enjoyed by women and girls all around 
her, as matters of course. Small hope for advancement or better- 
ment, or a home of her own or of earning enough for a modest outfit 
for what is every woman's natural aim, marriage. 

Her "capitalized" value as one of the army of the employed is 
$6,000, as $6 per week, or $300 per year is 5 per cent, of this sum. 

Selling drinks for a saloon keeper at 20 per cent, commission, she 
earns for herself $21 per week, as a minimum, or $1100 per year. 
Her capitalized value now, as such agent, based on her earnings is 
$22,000, or nearly four times as much as in the industrial ranks, and 
when the further profits from the rental of her body in connection 
with her "business" are considered, is it strange that the life appears 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 111 

to her "easy" or that her "reformation" is difficult, or that it is difficult 
to control or suppress this crying evil? 

What can be offered to such women to replace the "luxury" unat- 
tainable to them in any other known way, but made possible by the 
life they are almost inevitably bound to follow, and why wonder at 
the perpetuation (in spite of all the alleged efforts at control) of the 
disorderly saloon, when the profits these women make for the saloon 
keepers are so enormous as shown by the above facts? 

PROFITS FROM SALE OF LIQUOR IN HOUSES OF PROSTITUTION. 

The following facts are taken from statements made in confer- 
ences before the Commission with madames and inmates, and from 
data furnished by investigators. 

Beer costing four cents per bottle (pint) is sold in cheaper 
houses for 25 cents, in more expensive houses for 50 cents, and 
though quart bottles are sold for double prices, often a pint bottle 
is sold for $1.00. 

"Champagne" so-called, mostly a very cheap quality, costs $12 
to $16 per dozen bottles. It is sold in the cheaper houses for 
$3.00 per bottle; in the more expensive houses for $5.00 per 
bottle. 

One madame stated that, prior to May 1, 1910, before the rule pro- 
hibiting the sale of liquor in the houses was in force, she "averaged 
on beer $1,200 to $1,500 per month." 

Another madame of "a dollar" house stated, "We used to make a 
good deal of money out of beer and liquor. We made $2,000 a month. 
We charged 50 cents for a bottle of beer and $3 for champagne. I 
now lose $1,000 and my partner $1,000 a month." 

A Dearborn street madame said that where she formerly (prior to 
May 1, 1910) paid $500 per month rent, she now paid $250, and would 
gladly pay $500 if permitted to sell beer. 

Inmates, according to a madame's statement, formerly made $35 to 
$45 per week in commissions on sale of beer and wine, and the 
madame who testified that she made $1,200 to $1,500 per month 
said, "the girls got 40 per cent, commission." As she had ten girls, 
their earnings on that basis would be $12 to $15 per week each. 

It is practically impossible to make definite mathematical state- 
ments regarding the aggregate profit of this business in the three 



112 THE SOCIALLY IL IN CHICAGO 

restricted districts, but in order to show how vast it must be, assum- 
ing that the average annual profit to each house is $5,000 and for each 
flat $2,000, and $10 per week each for inmates as commission, the re- 
sult would be as follows: 

FROM POLICE LIST. 

West Side Houses 38 at $ 5,000 $ 190,000 

West Side Flats 93 2,000 186,000 

West Side Inmates 501 520 260,520 

South Chicago Houses 25 5,000 125,000 

South Chicago Inmates 120 520 62,400 

South Side Houses 119 5,000 595,000 

South Side Flats 143 2,000 286,000 

South Side Inmates 963 520 500,760 

North Side Houses 10 5,000 50,000 

North Side Assignation Hotels 19 5,000 95,000 

North Side Flats 36 2,000 72,000 

North Side Inmates 99 520 51,480 

Total from Houses, Flats, Assignation Hotels and In- 
mates given in police list $2,474,160 



PLACES INVESTIGATED NOT ON POLICE LIST. 

70 Hotels 5,000 350,000 

24 Houses 5,000 120,000 

188 Inmates of these Houses and Hotels 520 97,760 

142 Inmates, Rooms, etc 520 73,840 



Total not on police list $641,600 

Total on police list $2,474,160 

Grand Total $2,915,760 

On May 1, 1910, the rule of the General Superintendent of Police 
prohibiting the sale of liquor in houses of prostitution went into effect. 

On the whole it has been fairly well obeyed. No liquor is openly 
sold in houses, with the exception of the most famous house of all, 
where an investigator recently purchased a bottle of beer and one 
of wine in the same unrestricted way, and at the same prices. Other 
houses on the same street sold only soft drinks. 

As to the benefit derived from this order, either to the inmates 
or the public, opinions differ. Of course, the keepers and madames 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 113 

protest. Those of the higher priced houses admit they can still con- 
tinue in business, though at greatly reduced profits. Others claim 
their business is ruined. 

There can be no doubt that the business of the saloons in these 
restricted districts has enormously increased. The madames almost 
all say that the girls are drinking more than before, and are uneasy 
and hard to control. 

Many inmates have left the houses and now live in flats, where they 
sell liquor under a government receipt, secured at a cost of $25.00. 

"There are 500 flats opened up on the South Side since May 1st." 
An inspector states, "There are 360 flats with prostitution on Cottage 
Grove avenue and all over ; that is from 22nd street, south and east of 
State street." 

It is undoubtedly true that the result of the order has been to 
scatter the prostitutes over a wider territory and to transfer the sale 
of liquor carried on heretofore in houses to the nearby saloon keepers 
and to flats and residential sections, but it is an open question whether 
it has resulted in the lessening of either of the two evils, of prostitution 
and drink. 

FINAL RECAPITULATION OF ANNUAL PROFITS FROM THE BUSINESS OP 
PROSTITUTION IN THE CITY OF CHICAGO. 

Rentals of property and profits of Keepers and Inmates. ... $ 8,476,689 

Sale of liquor, disorderly saloons only 4,307,000 

Sale of liquor in houses, flats, and profits of Inmates on 

commissions 2,915,760 



$15,699,449 



114 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

AN INQUIRY INTO THE NUMBER OF PATRONS OF HOUSES OF PROSTITUTION 

IN CHICAGO. 

The enormous aggregate of the amount spent in houses of prostitu- 
tion, as shown in the section of this report entitled "The Profits from 
Prostitution in Chicago," naturally suggests the inquiry Who are the 
supporters of this vice, and how many must there be to keep it up? 

Confining the inquiry entirely to the houses given in the police list 
for the three so-called restricted districts and the North Side, and 
briefly summarizing some of the facts will help to elucidate this 
problem. 

POLICE LIST. 

No. of inmates in 38 houses, West Side 180 

No. of inmates in 25 houses, South Chicago 120 

No. of inmates in 119 houses, South Side 686 

No. of inmates in 10 houses, North Side 26 

Total number of inmates 1,012 

The records taken from the books of a keeper of a 50 cent house, 
with six regular girls, at 75 South Peoria street, show that the average 
number of men per day for each inmate was 15. 

The records taken from the books of a $1.00 house with 18 in- 
mates give 15 plus per day. 

The madame of a $1.00 and $5.00 with 18 to 20 inmates, testified 
in a conference with the Commission as follows: "We receive from 
300 to 400 men per night." This also shows an average of 15 plus 
per inmate per day. 

It is pretty conclusively proven, therefore, that it is safe to assume 
that number as a basis for purposes of this estimate, especially when 
taken in connection with the known fact that girls who cannot turn 
in at least $25.00 per week in the cheapest houses, are not encouraged 
to remain in them, and somewhat more than 15 visitors per day at 
25 cents each is requisite to produce that amount. 

On this assumption, then, the figures would be as follows: 

Total number of inmates in houses, 1,012. 

If each inmate receives 15 men per day, the total number per day 
would be 15,180 or 5,540,700 per annum. 

The population of Chicago is approximately 2,000,000. On the 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 115 

census basis of estimate there are approximately 400,000 families. 
Assuming that there are two males (one father and one son) in each 
family who may be considered as coming within the scope of this 
inquiry (or 800,000) and that three-fourths of these because of age, 
state of health, poverty, religious influences or other causes, are left 
out, there are 200,000 "eligible" males left a number wholly inad- 
equate to bear the burden of the millions (approximately $5,400,000) 
of estimated expenditure in houses of prostitution as shown in the 
article referred to. 

(Note. This sum of $5,400,000 covers only the receipts of in- 
mates and keepers from patrons for services, and the receipts for the 
sale of liquor in houses, as per the police list, and leaves out of the 
problem the receipts from all sources in flats, assignation hotels, 
rooms and disorderly saloons.) 

It is undoubtedly true that the bulk of support comes from "The 
stranger within our gates." 

In New York City there is a daily influx of over 150,000 strangers. 

If we assume that only 60,000 visitors come into Chicago every day 
and that 20,000 (or one-third of these) are "eligible'' as possible 
"patrons" there is an army of 7,300,000 to be added to the home num- 
ber. 

The men from other towns who come to Chicago "To see the 
sights." The man who is moral (apparently) in St. Louis or Cleve- 
land or New York "relaxes" in Chicago. Thousands nightly "Go down 
the line" here, who at home find conditions too strict to even suggest 
a "fling." 

It is certainly true that during conventions or "Show" occasions, the 
business of the restricted districts is enormously increased. It is a 
conclusion from fact, that can hardly be gotten 'away from, that the 
bulk of the support of prostitution in the better houses and apartments 
in Chicago, as well as in other large cities, comes from the outside 
the visitor and not from the resident. 

In considering this conclusion, however, two facts should be borne 
in mind: first, that the above estimate is restricted entirely to the 
houses given in the police list, and does not cover prostitution in flats 
or assignation hotels and rooms, or that due to the disorderly saloon; 
neither does clandestine prostitution enter into it at all, and, second, 



116 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

the numbers given for patrons are "instances" only, and not separate 
patrons. 

As to the first of these two facts, it is perhaps sufficient to say 
that the amount estimated for the houses alone is but one-third of 
the entire total, and further, that from the known facts it is prob- 
able the cheaper houses are more largely supported by the resident, 
and the more expensive or "show" places and the better apartments 
by the "visitor." 

As to "instances," assuming that there are 200,000 "residents" who 
may be considered as supporters of this vice, it would be necessary 
for each one to expend approximately $28 per annum to make up 
the entire sum of $5,400,000. If each one spent $4 per evening on 
his dissipation, it would necessitate his making 7 visits a year to houses 
of prostitution. 

This number of visits by each would take care of the matter 
without any reference to the help of outsiders. 

And thus the question arises, "How immoral is the average man 
addicted to the indulgence in vice?" One at all familiar with local 
conditions, or who frequents disorderly saloons or restaurants cater- 
ing to the "sporting element," must have often been impressed by the 
fact that the same people visit the same places night after night, week 
in and week out, and such an one also knows that there are apparently 
thousands of men whose whole occupation seems to be the haunting 
of disorderly or immoral places and the so-called "pursuit of 
pleasure," and others who devote all their spare time and means 
to it. 

These suggestions are made with the idea of showing the conserva- 
tism and reasonableness of the appalling sum given for the profits 
from prostitution a sum which to one unfamiliar with the subject 
would undoubtedly seem incredible. 



Chapter II. 

The Social Evil and 
the Saloon. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE SALOON. 

In the Commission's consideration and investigation of the Social 
Evil, it found as the most conspicuous and important element in con- 
nection with the same, next to the house of prostitution itself, was 
the saloon, and the most important financial interest, next to the 
business of prostitution was the liquor interest. As a contributory 
influence to immorality and the business of prostitution there is no in- 
terest so dangerous and so powerful in the City of Chicago. The 
Brewery Companies, the Liquor Dealers' Protective Association of 
Illinois, and the Wholesale Liquor Dealers' Association have all gone 
on record as in favor of the elimination of the sale of liquor in con- 
nection with prostitution. 

In spite of this fact hundreds of prostitutes (928 counted by the 
Commission investigators) are permitted and encouraged in no less 
than 236 saloons, which were investigated by the Commission. Many 
of these disorderly saloons are under the control of brewery com- 
panies as will be seen later in the report. These saloons are 
frequented by immoral women who openly solicit for drinks and for 
immoral purposes and receive the protection of the saloon keepers 
and interests. 

The Commission is strongly convinced that there should be imme- 
diate and complete separation of the saloon and the Social Evil and 
that no house of assignation or prostitution or rooms above or ad- 
jacent should be allowed in connection with a saloon. 

Bawdy houses found by the Commission were appalling enough, but 
the abuse of liquor selling privileges is equal in viciousness through 
its open and alluring flaunting of vice and degeneracy, and in its de- 
struction of the moral character of men who frequent the saloon pri- 
marily for drink only. 

The following definite information and specific cases bring out 
very forcibly the conditions as they exist. Names and addresses have 
been suppressed, signs such as XI Xll etc., being inserted. 1 

*For text of laws and ordinances regarding saloons see Appendices XI-XII- 
XIII-XIV-XV-XVI. 

119 



120 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 



EXISTING CONDITIONS AND TYPICAL CASES. 

/. Saloons and the Brewers. The records show that there are 
7,152 saloons in the City of Chicago. The City Ordinances limiting 
the issuing of dramshop licenses which went into effect November 1, 
1006, declares that a license may be renewed upon strict and full 
compliance with the law and ordinances in force at the time of the 
application. No new license, however, can be issued until the licenses 
in force at the time are less than 1 for every 500 of the population, as 
determined by a school census. When this occurs, new licenses may 
be issued. 

The ordinance further provides that the owner or owners or his 
or their legal representatives, of a license may be given the right 
to a renewal or reissue at the same or different place of business. 
Also the owner of a license may assign or convey his right to the 
renewal or reissue to another person. This privilege of renewal or 
reissue shall apply only so long as the license in each case shall 
have been kept in force continuously and uninterruptedly in the name 
of the licensee, or his successor in interest. 

The ordinance also provides that no license to keep a saloon shall 
be hereafter issued to a firm except in the name of the individual 
members of the firm, and no such license shall be hereafter issued to 
a corporation, provided, however, that any corporation now holding 
such license in its name may designate the person or persons who shall 
be entitled to a renewal or reissue for the license period beginning 
November 1, 1906. 1 

At the present time, the ratio of saloons to population is practically 
one to three hundred. Before any more licenses can be issued, there- 
fore, according to this ordinance, the population of Chicago will have 
to be nearly doubled. Some think this will take 25 years. 

This makes the saloon problem in Chicago a very interesting one. 

The brewers recognize this fact and are endeavoring to control as 
many licenses as possible. 

The following news item which appeared in the daily press October 
2, 1910, is illuminating: 

*Appendix XII. 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE SALOON 121 



SALOON LICENSES WORTH $2,000. 

Contests before City Officials for Their Possession shows Value. 
The "saloon court" composed of City Collector Magerstadt and 
Assistant Corporation Counsels Barge and Beilman, yesterday 
heard fifteen cases in which breweries and the supposed owners 
of saloons were contesting for the ownership of licenses. While 
in most instances the breweries won, having for some considera- 
tion been given an assignment by the saloon keepers, in several 
cases they were beaten. The value of a saloon license in Chi- 
cago, owing to the restrictions placed on their issuance by the 
$1,000 ordinance, is now approximately $2,000. The breweries 
are making every effort to secure enough licenses to give them 
full control of the saloons. 

It is also worthy of note that a saloon keeper of a disreputable re- 
sort in South Chicago declared that certain brewers are trying to buy 
up the licenses of similar resorts in that vicinity, offering $1,500 for 
the $1,000 licenses. In one instance it was reported that a certain 
brewery paid $1,700 for such a license. Only recently a representa- 
tive from a well known brewery has purchased four licenses from 
owners of saloons in the South Chicago vice district. The price paid 
for one of these licenses was $1,800. The reason these licenses were 
sold, it is said, was because of the agitation against the sale of 
beer in houses of prostitution. When things were running smoothly 
in the houses these licenses could not be purchased for $5,000. 

The Brewers' Exchange, which is composed of 90 per cent, of the 
brewing companies in Chicago, has repeatedly affirmed that it is ab- 
solutely opposed to the sale of liquor in connection with prostitution. 

An investigation with reference to 236 disorderly saloons shows 
that representatives of fourteen brewing companies are on the surety 
bonds for sixty-three of these saloons. 

In addition there are a number of individuals on the surety bonds 
for other disorderly saloons who are also connected with brewing 
companies but are not given as being representatives. 

II. The Liquor Dealers' Protective Association of Illinois 
and the Saloon. This organization has about 500 members in Chi- 
cago and all of them are owners of saloons. This body of men has 
passed resolutions and has worked for the separation of prostitution 
from the sale of liquor in saloons, yet the nuisance is not abated. 



122 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

///. The Wholesale Liquor Dealers' Association. This is an 
other important organization in the liquor trade. It also claims that 
as an organization it is interested in the elimination of disorderly 
saloons. 

Attention has been called to these organizations because they might 
become very strong factors in any concerted effort to divorce the sale 
of liquor from prostitution, especially in relation to saloons, and could 
do much to really change the situation for the better. 

IV. Disorderly Saloons. During the period of this investigation 
the Commission has considered conditions in 445 saloons in different 
parts of the city. 1 

The investigators have counted 928 unescorted women in these 
saloons who by their actions and conversation were believed to be pros- 
titutes. In fact they were solicited by one or more different women in 
236 different saloons to go to 33 hotels over saloons, to 82 rooms over 
saloons, to 23 regular houses of prostitution over saloons, to 37 hotels 
not over saloons and to 61 flats not over saloons. 2 

Of the 455 saloons investigated, 47 were on the police list as fur- 
nished by the General Superintendent of Police on October 26, 1910, 
'and 398 were not. 

Of the 37 hotels to which investigators were solicited to go by 
prostitutes in saloons, and which were not over saloons one is on the 
police list, 32 are not and 3 are doubtful. 

Of the 61 flats to which investigators were solicited to go by pros- 
titutes in saloons, and which were not over saloons, three are on the 
police list, 32 are not and 26 are doubtful. 3 

It is a fact that many saloons, especially those on the North Side, 
are beginning to put in partitions in the rear rooms. In some in- 
stances the entrance to these small rooms are hung with curtains 
so that it is difficult to see over or into the booths. 

V. Saloon Advertising. Saloon keepers often issue cards for dis- 
tribution. These cards call attention to the "joys to be found within" 
the saloon, the effect of the liquor drank and the possibilities of 
pleasure. 

'Table IV. 
'Table IV. 
'Table IV. 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE SALOON 123 

Clambake in Saloon. The following is a description of a clambake 
in one of the saloons, which illustrates a method of attracting patron- 
age and advertising. 

(X2G9) State street. Invitations to this clambake were spread 
broadcast two or three weeks before the event. On the night of Oc- 
tober 2, the rear rooms of this saloon were crowded, there being 
about 150 women present besides men. Of this number probably 50 
were without escorts. Those who came with escorts sat at the tables 
with them for a while and then sought out other men. 

One case was that of a young woman about 21 years of age, the 
wife or woman of a waiter named (X270). This woman came to 
the rear room of the saloon with a child about three or four years 
of age. During the evening she asked men to buy drinks for her and 
later went away with a man, leaving the child to be taken care of by 
another woman. 

A brother of this woman, (X271) by name, was also a waiter. He 
was trying to induce men to sit at the same table with his sister. All 
of the waiters in fact were asking men if they were not lonesome 
and would not like to have a lady companion. 

One waiter came to the investigator three different times and in- 
vited him to sit with a certain woman. Said she was all right and 
would give him a good time. The waiter lives with this girl. 

VI. Lookouts. These lookouts or "Lighthouses" are usually young 
men. They stand in front of the saloon and when an officer in uni- 
form or a plain clothes man approaches in the distance they press an 
electric button concealed in the, woodwork or behind a beer sign. 
Typical places where these lookouts were seen operating are as fol- 
lows : 

(X272) Harbor avenue. 

(X273) Dearborn street. 

(X274) Dearborn street. 

(X275) Avenue. 

(X276) Avenue. 

(X277) West 22nd street. 

(X278) West Madison street. 

VII. Bartenders and Waiters Connected with Disorderly Saloons. 

(X279) North State street. Not on police list. Bartender said if a 
couple did not want a room he would allow them to go to a rear room 
in the saloon and lock the door. 



124 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN 6HICAGO 

(X280) Wells street. On police list. Bartender said they would 
not have anything but young girls in this place. This is the saloon 
frequented by Rosie, the "Kid," who said she was not yet 18 years 
old. 

(X281) South Halsted street. Not on police list. Waiter said that 
he had been married four times. Beside this he had had a dozen 
women who had solicited for him. 

(X282) North Clark street. On police list as (X283) North Clark 
street. This place has been investigated at three different times. Girls 
solicit in rear rooms and take men upstairs to (X284) Hotel. It is 
sometimes called the (X284a) Club. A man who wants a position as 
waiter here expects to have a girl come from New York to solicit in 
the place, so that it will be easier for him to obtain the position. 

(X286) East Sixty-third street. Not on police list. Colored man 
connected with the saloon offered *to "fix it" so that Rosey could have 
a room upstairs. 

(X287) West North avenue. Not on police list. Proprietor said 
the women upstairs had been driven out, but he had a nice little girl 
by the name of Violet in the back room waiting for a fellow named 
Frank. If investigator desired he would introduce him and "fix it 
up." 

(X288) South Park avenue. Not on police list. Julia said Harry, 
the bartender, could "fix them up" with a room. 

(X289) West Madison street. Not on police list. Waiter told 
investigator that if he came around some other night he could give 
him a "real young chicken." 

(X290) Strand. On police list. Bartender has girl who works 
for him upstairs in house of prostitution. Said he was thinking of 
taking some girls to Panama. Said a friend of his made a "lot of 
money" over there, and that he would probably go very soon. 

(X291) Strand. Not on police list. Bartender solicits men to 
go upstairs to house of prostitution. This saloon is run by a man 
who is a cadet for the landlady. 

(X292) Harbor avenue. On police list. Proprietor also operates 
house of prostitution upstairs. His woman solicits and is landlady 
of brothel upstairs. 

(X293) Strand. On police list. Proprietor is cadet for land- 
lady who conducts house of prostitution upstairs. Bartender solicits 
men to go upstairs. Rear room has side entrance. Women solicit 
in rear room. 

(X294) Strand. On police list. Landlady of house of prostitu- 
tion upstairs is the woman of one of the proprietors. Bartender said 
they expected to have seven more women in a few days. 

(X295) Harbor avenue. Not on police list. Bartender solicits men 
to go to the house of prostitution upstairs. 

(X296) South Halsted street. Not on police list. Bartender 
induced investigator to go to rear room to meet a girl, saying that 
she wanted to see him. She solicited investigator to go upstairs. 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE SALOON 125 

(X297) South Halsted street. Not on police list. Bartender said 
a girl could be found in the Chinese restaurant upstairs. Drinks are 
sent up to this place from the saloon. 

(X298) South Halsted street. Not on police list. Bartender said 
it was his birthday and his girl, Rose, 20 years of age, who works 
in a lawyer's office for $20.00 per week, gave him a diamond stud as a 
present. 

(X299) Root street. Not on police list. Minnie solicited investi- 
gator to go upstairs. Price, $2.00, $1.00 for room. She said the 
bartender was her sweetheart and when he wanted a dollar she gave 
it to him. She was 20 years old. 

(X300) South Halsted street. Not on police list. Investigator met 
a cadet named Frank, who said his "woman," Fifie, lived on 62nd 
street. 

(X301) South Halsted street. Not on police list. Heard three 
men talking about a cadet named Jack (X302) who had brought 
a girl from (X303), Indiana, and had promised to marry her. When 
she received money from home he took it away and left her. Her 
father is a wealthy farmer. She is 19 years of age and they call 
her Carmen. 

(X304) South State street. Not on police list. (X305) said he 
didn't work, as Maggie, his girl, keeps him. She is in a flat at (X306) 
street and (X307) avenue. Maggie had been supporting him for six 
weeks. 

(X308) State street. Not on police list. (X309) told investigator 
that he had a sister at (X310) avenue who was "sporting." Also 
that he had a girl at (X311) avenue who "comes across with the 
coin." This man claims to work for a railroad company. Spends his 
salary on himself and lives "off what she makes." 1 

VIII. Entertainment. In the majority of saloons the entertain- 
ments consist of piano playing and singing. In some instances a 
vaudeville performance is given, as at (X312), (X313) South Hal- 
sted street, (X314), (X315) West Madison street, (X316), (X317) 
South Halsted street, and the (X318), (X319) West Madison street. 
The singers usually receive $10.00 per week and a percentage on drinks. 
These performers mingle with the men at the tables and solicit for 
immoral purposes. 

On August 10th, at (X320) La Salle avenue investigator saw a 
colored woman playing the piano while her son played the violin. The 
bartender said the boy was 14 years of age. There is a regular house 
of prostitution upstairs conducted by the wife of the proprietor of 
the saloon. On August 30th the boy was not seen in the place. 

*For further data on Men in Saloons, see "Under Special typical cases," also 
under Panders and Cadets, Chap. IV. 



126 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

IX. Robbing in Saloons, (X321) avenue. Not on police list. 
Conducted by colored men. Bebe, a white woman who solicits here, 
told investigator how she had robbed a fellow of a pocket book con- 
taining $40.00. 

As pointed out above under "Entertainment," men who imperson- 
ate females are among the vaudeville entertainers, in these saloons. 
Unless these men are known, it is difficult to detect their sex. They 
solicit men at the tables -for drinks the same as the women, and ask 
them to go upstairs for pervert practices. 

X. Dance Halls. In many cases public dance halls are located in 
the same buildings with saloons. While bar permits are usually given 
for the sale of liquor in the dance halls, the dancers have been seen 
to frequent the rear rooms of saloons. In other cases the dance 
halls are in the immediate vicinity of saloons and the dancers go to 
these. 

August 23. Investigator saw girls come out of a dance hall on 
the northwest corner of (X322) and (X323) streets and go into a 
saloon on ground floor with escorts. 

August 37. Investigator saw four girls come out of (X324) dance 
hall over saloon at (X325) West Madison street and go into rear 
room with escorts. Girls appeared to be quite young. 

XI. Children in Saloon. (X326) Wentworth avenue. Not on 
police list. A bowling alley is connected with this saloon at rear of 
bar. Proprietor told investigator that he had four "kids" employed 
to set up the pins in the alley. The boys, he said, were 10 and 12 
years old. They received two and one-half cents per game. 

(X327) South Halsted street. Not on police list. Investigator saw 
girl about 12 years of age behind the bar. Thought she was the 
daughter of proprietor. 

(X328) Noble street. While investigator was attending a dance in 
a hall over this saloon on October 15th, he saw a girl not over 16 
come into this saloon with a pitcher and buy five cents worth of 
beer at the bar. 1 

XII. Midnight Closing. (X329) North Clark street. On police 
list. September llth, investigator in this saloon until 1 :30 A. M. 
Three girls in here, one solicited him to go upstairs. 

(X330) West Madison street. Not on police list. September 5th, 
investigator went into this saloon at 1 :30 A. M. with Blanche 

*See Chapter V, "Child Protection and Education," page 239. 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE SALOON 127 

(X331), a vaudeville ginger at (X332), (X333) West Madison 
street. 

(X333a) avenue. Not on police list. Conducted by colored men. 
White women soliciting in room upstairs. Was in this place until 
4:00 A. M. 

August 18th. (X334) West Madison street, in this saloon after 
1 :00 A. M. 5 girls rooms upstairs. 

August 27th. (X335) West Madison street, in this saloon at 2:30 
A. M. 5 girls rooms upstairs. 

August 27th. (X336) West Madison street, in this saloon at 3:10 
A. M. 2 girls hotel over saloon. 

August 23rd. (X337) West Madison street, in this saloon at 1:50 
A. M. 14 girls, rooms upstairs. 

August 13th. (X338) South State street. Proprietor will admit 
persons in this saloon after 1 :00 A. M. if known. 5 girls in rear 
room. (X338a) Hotel is over this saloon. 

XIII. Police and Saloons zvhere Immoral Conditions Exist. This 
subject is treated in full with typical instances in Chapter III, "The 
Social Evil and The Police," page 143. 

XIV. How Women Enter Lives of Prostitution through the Saloon. 
Many of the women who frequent the saloons at the beginning are 
not professional prostitutes. They are weak morally with a strong 
desire for drink. They learn that generous men are there who wil- 
lingly buy them drinks. Gradually these women find that they are 
able to earn commissions from the saloon management on drinks. 
Thus their visits become more frequent until they gradually drift into 
a life of professional prostitution for the extra money. 

A second class of women is the widow or divorced woman with 
children. Many of these women are left without support and are 
incapable of earning a living in the industrial world, and finally 
resort to the saloon as an avenue to money making. As an illustration. 
A woman now known as "the (X338a)" solicits in the (X339) Cafe 
at (X340) South Halsted street. She told the investigator she was 
a widow with two children. When her husband died she attempted to 
work but found it impossible to support herself and her children on 
the wages she received. As she had a fair voice she began to sing in 
cafes. At this time she had no idea of "hustling," but when she 
had to sit and drink with men, night after night, she was advised by 
the waiters, by proprietors and by men she drank with to "hustle," 
as "she could make so much more out of it." 



128 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

She resisted the temptation, however, until one night she was at- 
tracted by a "cadet," and it was through his influence that she began 
a life of prostitution, giving him part of the proceeds. She is not 
living with the "cadet" at present, and consequently has saved some 
money. This woman is about 40 years old and has been in the 
business for several years. She testified to the fact that she had seen 
many young and decent women "go to the bad" just through the 
habit of frequenting saloons for the sake of persuading men to buy 
drinks. At first these women come with a woman friend for a 
sociable time. Soon they become acquainted with the waiters who 
often give them drinks and are kind in other ways. These waiters 
compliment them upon their physical charms. Then a waiter will 
introduce one of his friends who buys them drinks. These men 
see that the women are "green," and at first talk to them in a modest 
way, and make them feel that they are friends. When the women 
leave, they agree to come again in a few days. 

As time goes on the supposed "friends" gradually lead up to a 
conversation of a more suggestive nature. The women, probably loose 
in morals, do not resent this familiarity and take it in good part. 
As their circle of acquaintance among the, men grows, they begin to 
receive a commission on drinks. They find they are earning from 
$1.00 to $2.00 in an evening besides having a sociable time. This 
opens their eyes to the possibility of making money so easily. The 
men take advantage of this, and they all conspire in encouraging the 
women to continue. It is only a matter of a short time until the 
women are going upstairs or to nearby hotels as professional pros- 
titutes. 

The method used by the waiter, the proprietor and the cadet is 
in appealing to the woman's vanity. They make them feel that they 
are honored by having the privilege of giving them drinks. Thej 
use this form of flattery and thus gradually attach the woman to their 
particular saloon, saying they are glad to have them there, and that 
they can make more money in their place than in any other. 

This is the way which such women as Marcella (X341), the 
(X341a), Violet (X341b), and Tantine (X342), became professional 
prostitutes. 

The third class includes the professional prostitute who started in 
the dance hall, where she has acquired a liking for drink or others 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE SALOON 129 

who have come from the street or from low priced houses. 

This is a large class. They enter into business arrangements with 
saloon keepers from the start, and it is through these that the pro- 
prietor derives his large and abnormal profits. 

XV. Solicitation in Connection with Saloons by Women. Aside 
from solicitation in rear rooms of saloons, women stand in doorways 
near the end of the bar and ask men to come into rear room and 
buy drinks; then the men are solicited to go upstairs or other places. 

(X343) West Madison street. Not on police list. Girls stood at 
end of bar near door leading to rear room, asking men to buy them 
drinks. Bartender "called" one girl because she spoke in a loud 
voice to one man while a "fly cop" was in the place. 

(X344) Wells street. On police list. Girls stood in doorway lead- 
ing to bar and invited men into the rear room. 

(X345) North Clark street. Not on police list. Rosie sat at end 
of bar near door to rear room smoking a cigarette. Invited investigator 
to enter room. 

XVI. Protection of Women. It is the common practice for pro- 
prietors to protect the girls who frequent their places. By protection 
is meant the habit of paying the fine or bailing out the girls who are 
arrested. Bebe at No. (X345a) Wabash avenue said that (X346), 
the proprietor, offers this protection, and in return does not give the 
girls commissions on drinks sold by them in the concert room at- 
tached to the saloon. 

XVII. Vulgarity in Saloons. On November 6th, (X347) saloon. 
Investigator saw two dancers in the rear room of this saloon. One 
of these women had on a loose blouse and when she danced this 
blouse was lifted up, exposing her naked body. Two detectives came 
in during this performance. One of them is called (X347a). 

At (X348) West Van Buren street, a girl exposed herself to men 
in the room. Proprietor conducts a house of ill-fame at (X349) Curtis 
street. 

At (X350) West Lake street. The men and women use the toilet 
room at the same time. This place was ordered closed by police on 
August llth. It was open on August 23rd. 

(X351) South Halsted street. Is a rough place with noisy and 
vulgar women. It is a common practice for women in the saloons to 
stand at the door of the toilet, and ask men to buy drinks or solicit 
them as they come out. 

(X352) South Halsted street. Not on police list. Women vulgar 
and dirty exposed themselves. 



130 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

(X353) South State street. Not on police list. Entertainers tell 
vulgar and smutty jokes and sing suggestive and indecent songs. 

(X354) South Halsted street. Not on police list. Women vulgar 
and dirty. One woman with breasts hanging outside of dress sat in 
the balcony with a man at a table. Detectives in room at this time. 

XVIII. Hozv Saloon Keepers Make Abnormal Profits by Allowing 
Professional Prostitutes to Frequent Rear Rooms or Upstairs. As 
pointed out above certain saloon proprietors make a business of en- 
couraging professional prostitutes to make their headquarters in the 
rear rooms. Some have a definite understanding with these women 
and they are protected in different ways, as well as given commission 
on the drinks they persuade men to buy. In some instances the 
fines of the women are paid by the proprietors, or bail is furnished 
by them. In other words the saloon keepers stand in much the same 
relation to the prostitute in his saloon as madames do towards in- 
mates of regular houses of prostitution. 

Instances have been found where prostitutes actually live in rooms 
over the saloon, and spend the afternoon as well as evenings in the 
rear room, in much the same way as inmates appear in the parlors of 
regular houses of prostitution. 

To all intents and purposes, then, many saloons are actually houses 
of prostitution with inmates. 

Another class of saloon is that which allows prostitutes who so- 
licit on the street, or for nearby hotels and flats, to make the rear 
rooms their rendezvous for the purpose of bringing men or to solicit 
customers. 

This system has enabled many saloon keepers to become wealthy 
in a short time. They receive abnormal profits from the sale of 
liquor in the rear rooms and upstairs. They also receive enormous 
rents by the month for assignation rooms upstairs. These rooms are 
often rented several times during the afternoon or evening. The 
following observations bring these points out more clearly. 

a. Profits on Beer when Sold in Rear Rooms of Saloons. When 
a man enters the rear rooms of a saloon of the type mentioned above, 
the prostitutes endeavor to persuade him to buy drinks, on which 
she receives a commission. The usual price for a pint bottle of beer 
when purchased by a man under these circumstances is 25 cents. 
This pint does not cost the saloon keeper more than four cents. 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE SALOON 131 

b. Profits on Counterfeit Drinks when Sold in the Rear Rooms of 
Saloons. The largest profit, however, is made on mixed drinks of 
various kinds which prostitutes in the rear rooms encourage the men 
customers to buy. When such a man orders any kind of drink besides 
beer the portion brought to the prostitute is counterfeit, though the 
customer has paid the usual rear room price. 

It must be remembered also that the price of these counterfeit drinks 
is doubled if served upstairs, so the margin of profit is much larger. 

On the night of October 14, a contractor spent several hundred 
dollars buying wine in the rear room of a saloon at (X355) Soutfe 
Halsted street. 

Looking at the matter with these facts in mind one may imagine 
why it is so difficult to enforce the police regulations prohibiting the 
presence of prostitutes in the rear rooms of saloons. 

The investigation of the (X356) Cafe at (X357) South Halsted 
street, shows that on September 27th, 23 prostitutes were in the 
rear room of this saloon asking men to buy drinks and soliciting them 
for immoral purposes. The price of a pint of beer in this rear room 
is 25 cents. In some cases it was sold for 15 cents. The entertain- 
ment in the rear room consists of cheap vaudeville. 

Mr. (X358) told the investigator that he would have to close his 
business in a month if he did not have the women in the rear room. 
This place is not on the police list. 

Harry (X358a), who has been a waiter in saloons and manager 
of such places for the past 15 years, said that the majority of these 
saloons which cater to prostitutes, could not exist over six weeks with- 
out them. He further stated that (X359), at (X360) South Halsted 
street, for whom he is now working, had absolutely nothing when he 
opened his place. He is reported to have made a large fortune in 
this business in a short time. 

On August 11, 1910, investigator counted eight prostitutes in the 
rear room of (X361) saloon. On August 29th, seven prostitutes, on 
September 27th, 10 prostitutes, all asking men to buy drinks and 
soliciting them for immoral purposes. The entertainment in this 
place consists of cheap vaudeville. This saloon is not on the police 
list. 

On the night of August llth, investigator- witnessed a crap game 
in one of the upstairs rooms. It lasted until 9 :00 A. M. August 12th. 
This is another source of profit to many of these saloon keepers. 
Perhaps even more than the sale of liquor. 

c. Cumulative Rent for Assignation Rooms Over Saloons. In ad- 
dition to the abnormal profit on liquor, the saloon keeper who caters 
to prostitutes increases his profits, in many instances, by renting rooms 



132 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

upstairs in the same building for assignation purposes. 

These rooms as a rule are fittted up at very little cost, with a rude 
bed, two chairs, a wash stand, with cheap pitcher and wash bowl and 
two towels, laundered many, many times. 

The following cases showing methods of soliciting and selling drinks 
are typical: On August 15th, investigator counted 15 prostitutes in 
the rear room of a saloon at (X362) North Clark street. (Not on 
police list.) He was solicited to go to room in hotel over saloon, 
price of room, 50 cents and $1.00 for a short time. Beer is sold in 
rear room for 25 cents per pint. 

Saloon at (X363) North Clark street. On police list. August 10th, 
investigator counted nine prostitutes in rear room. Solicited by 
Goldie. September 23rd, 11 prostitutes, solicited by "Tommy At- 
kins," price of room upstairs, $1.00. 

It is seen then, that the sale of liquor in connection with prostitu- 
tion in saloons and hotels, as in the case with regular houses, is an 
enormous source of profit and one of the most practical ways to deal 
a blow at the Social Evil, is to absolutely divorce the sale of liquor 
from prostitution in all of these places. 

The reason why this is so difficult to do is easily seen. The proper 
enforcement of the law is hindered because of the enormous profits in 
this business to the lawbreaker. 1 



TYPICAL CASES IN CONNECTION WITH SALOONS. 

XIX. Cases of Girls in Saloons and their Condition at Present 
Time, or Previous to Taking up this Life. 

(X264) South State street. Not on police list. Violet, 20 years 
old. Ruined by waiter at (X365), (X366) Cottage Grove avenue. 
Lived with him. While away attending her father's funeral he left 
her. She then went into business "proper." 

(X367) South State street. Not on police list. Mignon lives at 
(X368) street and Wabash avenue,. Married, but husband would not 
support her and made her go to work. Found prostitution easier 
way to make a living. Left husband and went into business "right." 

(X369) South Halsted street. Not on police list. Rosie (X369a) 
said she ran away from home to go on stage six years ago and drifted 
into the life. 

(X370) avenue. Not on police list. Conducted by colored men. 
White women solicit in room upstairs. Bebe (X371) and Tantine 

'For further data on "Profits from Prostitution in Chicago," see Chapter I, 
page 95. 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE SALOON 133 

(X372) live in a private house in Englewood. Gave 'phone number but 
not address. Tantine said she was trying to secure a divorce from Her 
husband, and when she did she was going to open a flat. 

(X373) Wells street. On police list. Little Rosie, "the Kid," said 
she was not yet 18 years old, and that all the girls in the saloons were 
"chickens." They appeared to be quite as young to investigator. Four- 
teen girls in this saloon. 

(X374) Western avenue. Violet (X375) said she did not go around 
much. Lives at home but wants spending money. She knew of no 
place to go except brick yard two blocks away. Said she was 18 years 
old. Seven other girls in this saloon. 

(X376) Rush street. Not on police list. Betty and Bebe were at 
side door. Said they were out for a good time. Live in furnished 
room. Would go any place for $1.00. 

(X377) North State street. Not on police list. Met Marcella at 
side door. Has a private room at (X378) North State street. Mar- 
ried in (X379), deserted in (X380) and had to go out and "hustle." 
Been immoral one year. 

(X381) North Clark street. Not on police list. Investigator saw 
girl come out of this place and meet girl friend across the street. They 
both came back and went into saloon. Investigator followed. Girls 
drank sherry wine. Said they had run away from home so they 
would not have to go to school. They met a fellow who got them 
a job in (X882) department store, where they each make $5.50 per 
week. They can't live on this so they "hustle" on the side. They 
think this is better than going to school, and not having any spend- 
ing money, besides they were their own boss. Mignon said she was 
18, Violet said she was 19. They have a private room in a furnished 
room house in middle of block on (X383) street east of Clark, but 
would not give the number. 

(X384) Harbor avenue. On police list. Girl a hard drinker. 
While investigator was in saloon she had two fainting spells, one last- 
ing 20 minutes, the other 10 minutes. This was the ninth spell she had 
had that evening. 

This girl was formerly a domestic servant, but says she "don't want 
to work at that hard graft any more." To quote her own words, 
"The ladies when they got money to hire servants imagine they have 
some kind of a dog to kick around, and I don't want to be kicked 
around." 

(X385) Harbor avenue. On police list. Girl said her cousin had 
put her in the business soon after she came to this country. 

(X836) South Halsted street. Not on police list. Violet (X387) 
about 35 years of age. Working in mailing department of (X388). 
"Hustles" in cafes on Halsted street at night. Has a cadet. 

Violet came from Louisville, Kentucky. She is trying to save 
enough money to open a rooming house in this city. 

(X839) North Clark street. Not on police list. Rosie (X390) so- 
licited in here. Lives on La Salle avenue. Does not take men 



134 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

to her room, but would go to hotel (391), (X392) North Clark 
street, or any other hotel. Came to Chicago from Nebraska. 

(X393) South Halsted street. Not on police list. Josey, 19 years old. 
Said she was afraid she was in trouble. Does not care what becomes 
of her. First went out with a man for a good time. Afterwards 
met other fellows. Don't know who is to blame for her condition. 
Expects to leave town as soon as she can earn enough money. Going 
to Saginaw, Michigan, and enter a house of prostitution she knows 
of there. 

(X394) Root street. Not on police list. Violet solicited investi- 
gator to go upstairs. Price $1.00 or $2.00. Room, 50 cents. Has a 
mother to keep and needs the money. Could not make anything 
working so she and her girl friend, Georgie, started to "hustle." Violet 
is 23 years old. 

(X395) West Madison street. Not on police list. May solicited in- 
vestigator. Said she was 16 years old. Left home because she had 
to work in a department store for $4.00 per week and "hustling" was 
easier. 

(X395a) South State street. Not on police list. Tantine, solicited 
investigator, is 19 years of age and just started to "hustle." Says it 
is easier than waiting on table for $1.00 per day. 

(X396) Wentworth avenue. Not on police list. Lizzie was stand- 
ing in doorway. Invited investigator into saloon. Five men were 
gambling in rear room. Lizzie said she could get a room upstairs, 
price of room, 50 cents and $1.00. 1 



SPECIAL TYPICAL CASES. 

A. (X397) Wabash avenue. Not on police list. This saloon is 
operated by Jim (X398) and John (X399). The partnership was 
formed only recently. The cafe is known as the (X400). This place 
is open all the time, the entertainment lasting until 5 :00 A. M. Ad- 
mittarice after 1 :00 A. M. is made through the side door, leading 
off a main passageway from the street, to the left of the building. 
Jule (X401), a waiter in this place and brother of (X402), one of the 
proprietors, lives on (X403) avenue near (X404) street with a girl 
.who is kept by Rube (X405), alias Si (X406), one of the entertainers 
in the cafe. "Rube is a married man and his wife lives at (X407 and 
(X408) avenue. 

1. Entertainment. The entertainment is by means of an electric 
piano and three men singers, who sing popular ragtime songs wkh 
indecent parodies, wearing various costumes. These entertainers re- 

*For other cases of women in saloons, see "Special Typical Cases." 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE SALOON 135 

ceive $2.00 per day each, besides the money they are able to collect 
from the customers. 

2. Waiters and Prostitutes. There are two waiters who make an 
average of $75.00 per week on tips and such money as they carl 
make on overcharges, which custom is very extensively practiced 
by them. After 1:00 A. M., the bar at the front of the place is 
closed, but a closet containing all the intoxicating beverages necessary 
is opened, and beer in bottles and all liquors are sold from this 
closet. There are but few solicitors who actually stay in this saloon 
continuously, most of them traveling from one cafe to another, us- 
ually to (X409) and (X410) and back again. There are three girls 
who really belong there, one Marjie (X411), a girl of about 20 years 
old, who has only been in the restricted district for about two months. 
Previous to this, she was in the habit of frequenting the (X412), a 
dance hall at (X413) and (X414) streets, which place she blames for 
her downfall. Fifie (X415), a girl living on (X416) street with her 
parents, solicits very irregularly, her principal reason for frequenting 
this place is because she likes the associations. 

Gladys (X417), formerly a habitue of (X418) resort, frequents this 
place and solicits. 

The rest of the girls soliciting in this saloon are all habitues of 
other resorts, who are here at various intervals, and go back and forth. 
The girls are not paid by the keeper, nor do they receive any com- 
mission on the drinks sold. One of the partners,, Jim (X398), was, 
up to the time he bought this place, a waiter in (X420), otherwise 
known as the (X421) on (X422) street, corner of an alley, between 
(X423) and Wabash. He is a habitual user of cocaine and opium. 
His brother, one of the waiters there, has been charged with abduc- 
tion in the case of Bessie (X424), who formerly lived at (X425) 
Lake avenue. The charge was dropped, due to the fact that the 
girl left for New York City, where she is at present. On or about 
October 1, 1909, he married this girl at (X426), Indiana, in spite 
of the fact that he was previously married and had two children. The 
parents of Bessie (X424) then had him arrested for bigamy, and he 
was sentenced to serve two months in jail at (X428), which he did. 
The marriage was then annulled. Jim (X398) secured the finances 
for the opening of this saloon from his brother, Hal (X431), who is 
the owner of the (X432) and the (X433) cafes on (X434) street. 
There is no hotel directly connected with this cafe. The nearest 
hotel is about one-half block away, but the solicitors usually cater to 
the (X435) hotel, where they receive a commission of about 50 p'er 
cent. 

The (X436) Cafe, (X437) West Madison street. Located in the 
heart of the West Side levee, it has a greater patronage than any ' 
cafe on the West Side. House upstairs, two women. On police list. t 
This cafe is owned by two partners. One of the partners, (X438), 
is the active head of the business, and was a popular saloon keeper. 
He is at present living with a woman called (X439), who is a solicitor 



136 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

in (X440) Cafe at (X441) and (X442) street. The other partner is 
(X443). He is living with a woman called Paulette (X444), who keeps 
a house of prostitution at (X445) West Madison street. 

This house is popularly known by the old number, (X446), and 
receives most of its patronage from the West Side. Mr. (X447) is 
king here and his brother is a cadet attached to the house. There are 
five girls in this house. They charge $1.00 and sell beer at 50 cents a 
pint. The cafe at (X448) West Madison street consists of a main 
entrance and one entrance for the saloon, as there is a bar on one 
side. On the other side is an entrance leading into a hallway, which 
has a little side door leading into cafe. The stairs lead up into a 
house of prostitution, but this house is not connected in any way 
with 'the owners of the cafe. 

There are four waiters working here, one (X449), is living with a 
prostitute on Wabash avenue. The woman he has now is (X450), 
who is one of the regular solicitors in (X451) hall. The other waiter 
called (X452) is living with some prostitute at (X453) place at 
(X454 West Madison street. Not on police list. The third waiter 
named (X455) goes out when he is invited. The fourth is a fellow 
who is trying to become a cadet. 

The entertainment consists of three men singers and a piano 
player (man), also one woman singer. The oldest one here is 
(X455a), he has worked at this place for about one year. He lives 
with (X456) at No. (X457) Dearborn street. 

The partonage on Saturday, Sunday and Wednesday nights is 
largely from (X458) dance hall at the corner of (X459) and (X460), 
about one-half block away. 

There are a large number of hotels around here, but the one doing 
the most business is the (X461), (X462) and (X463) hotel, all at the 
corner of (X464) and (X465), or a few doors away. 

Quite a number of young girls come to this cafe from the dances 
and become intoxicated. 

At 1 :00 A. M. the entertainment promptly stops, the lights are 
turned low and outside entrance to bar locked and window shades 
pulled down. Most of the people leave, but such as are known or are 
invited by the owners move to the rear of the saloon. 

Any one can gain admittance to this saloon after closing hours if 
they are known. The signal is to knock on the little door in the hall- 
way, and if they are not suspicious the person knocking is invited to 
enter. 

(X466) Cafe (X467) West Madison street. House of prostitution, 
seven room over (X467). On police list. Two women, named Violet 
and Rosie (X469), owners of the saloon, said to be (X470 and 
(X471). (X472) owned place for five years. In spring of this year 
he sold to (X473), owner of saloon at (X474) South Halsted street. 
(X475) in turn sold to (X476), who is said to own a house of prosti- 
tution on (X477) street./ Later (X478) sold to (X470) and (X471). 

One of the waiters in this place has a record. His name is (X481). 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE SALOON 137 

Until last summer he lived with a prostitute at (X482) West Madison 
street. She went to Canada, but writes to him. When she came 
back he was arrested on a charge of importing women for immoral 
purposes. He was released on $5,000.00 bail furnished by (X483), 
for whom he was working at that time. The girl was not allowed to 
return. (X484) was finally released and the matter dropped. 

He then became a cadet for a girl called (X485), whose parents 
live on (X486) avenue. She was a prostitute in (X487) house at 
(X488) West Madison street. She left this house when (X489) 
left (X490) and (X491) employ and entered a house at (X492) West 
Madison street. She stayed there until some time in September. At 
present she is soliciting at (X493) saloon at (X494) South Hal- 
sted street. 

(X495), another waiter in this cafe, is married and has one child. 
He has a prostitute in a house at (X496) street ; her name is Fifie. The 
price is 50 cents in this house but she gives him on an average of 
$6.00 per day. 

In July, 1910, (X497) was taken to Washington on some charge, he 
said it was for buying stolen property. His friends took up a col- 
lection, and he finally came back. (X498) took care of his wife and 
child while he was away. 

There is a chop suey restaurant next door to this cafe, with an 
entrance to the saloon through the kitchen. ' There is also an entrance 
from the alley which leads into a small rear room with a closet 
connected with it. This is said to be the exclusive entrance for 
ofHcers. Investigator has seen four officers in uniform in this room 
at one time, drinking bottled beer, which is in the closet. 

Lights are out at 1 :00 A. M., the music stops, but no one is asked 
to leave if they are known or have not aroused any suspicion. Others 
enter after knocking on the door leading from the chop suey restaurant 
next door. 

(X499) Saloon, (X500) Dearborn street. Not on police list. Oc- 
tober 26th, investigator saw women from the rooms over the saloon. 
They called to men at the bar to buy them drinks. Investigator was 
invited to go upstairs. 

October 29th. Eight women unescorted in the rear room. They 
opened the door leading to the bar and invited men to enter the rear 
room. 

Officer No. (X501) came into the saloon in uniform, but paid no 
attention to women in rear room. He was given a bottle of beer which 
he drank at the bar. He was there about thirty minutes. After 
1 :00 A. M. the women went to wine room upstairs where drinks are 
sold all night. 

November 2. Women stood in doorway leading to rear room 
and invited men at bar to enter. Investigator saw a man standing 
in front of a saloon who was seen to press an electric button at- 
tached to a buzzer, when an officer approached the place. 



138 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Disorderly Saloons near School Houses. The attention of the 
Commission has been called to several disorderly saloons which are 
in close proximity to certain public schools. One of the most notorious 
is on (XSOla) street. The school property adjoins the lot on which the 
saloon building is erected. The distance from the entrance to the 
saloon to the entrance to the school is eighty-two steps. The distance 
from the "ladies" entrance to the saloon to the edge of the school 
property is thirty-five steps. 

On Saturday, November 26th, an investigator counted eighteen 
prostitutes in the rear room of this saloon. Five of these women 
solicited investigator for immoral purposes. The bartender named 
(X502) has two women who "hustle" for him, one in the rear room 
of this saloon, and one in a house of prostitution. 

Every effort to secure the revocation of the license has been in 
vain. The bartender said it did no good to make complaints against 
this place. 



SUMMARY. 

1. Some of these disorderly saloons are under the control or favor 

2. The facts show that .a certain brewing company is endeavoring 
to buy the licenses of saloons in the restricted district of South Chi- 
cago at a premium. 

3. The president of the Brewers' Exchange declares this organi- 
zation is opposed to the sale of liquor in connection with houses of 
prostitution. 

4. Brewers furnish beer for saloons which are disorderly. 

5. Saloon keepers have a regular system of advertising their 
places, by use of cards and special entertainments. 

6. Some disorderly saloons employ "lookouts" to stand in front 
and "tip off" the approach of police. They use electric buzzers and 
hand' signals. 

7. Proprietors, bartenders, waiters and entertainers in certain sa- 
loons are willing to aid in securing women for houses of prostitu- 
tion. 

8. These disreputable saloons are frequented by panders, cadets 
and other dissolute and vicious men. 

9. Immoral and disgusting entertainments are given on a stage in 
the rear rooms of certain disorderly saloons. 

10. Professional escorts are hired by keepers of disorderly sa- 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE SALOON 139 

loons to sit with prostitutes in the rear rooms to evade the police 
rules. 
-11. Intoxicated men in rear rooms are often robbed by the women. 

12. Degenerate men frequent the rear rooms. Some are female 
impersonaters who solicit for drinks and endeavor to induct customers 
to indulge in pervert practices. 

13. Some saloons frequented by prostitutes are in the same build- 
ing in which dances are given by so-called pleasure clubs. Fre- 
quently the managers of these dance halls are the proprietors of the 
saloons. 

14. Children are allowed to peddle gum and papers in certain dis- 
orderly saloons. 

15. The sale of beer in the rear room when drunk in company 
with a prostitute returns a margin of profit of nearly 180 per cent, 
to the proprietor of the saloon. 

16. The sale of counterfeit drinks which are given prostitutes 
who are drinking with men in the rear room returns a margin of 
profit of over 350 per cent., when the drink is a champagne cocktail, 
and a profit of over 300 per cent, when the drink is a Manhattan 
cocktail. 

17. The margin of profit on beer when sold to occupants of as- 
signation rooms over the saloon is 360 per cent. 

18. As a result of the practice of using prostitutes as agents to 
sell liquor, the profits are so large as to be a source of constant temp- 
tation to the police and others in authority. 

19. The rule regarding midnight closing is constantly violated in 
these disorderly saloons. 

-20. Certain police officers do not report all saloons where immoral 
and dissolute persons congregate. 

~~^B1. Officers on the beat and plain clothes men do not enforce 
the rule regarding soliciting in rear rooms, keeping open after 1 :00 
A. M., etc. 

22. Certain police officers afe on friendly terms with "cadets" and 
waiters who have women soliciting on the street, in the same saloon or 
some other in the vicinity. 

- 23. Police officers in uniform and plain clothes men frequent 
disorderly saloons and drink at the bar and in rooms connected with 



140 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

the saloons while on duty. They have been seen in saloons after 1 :00 
A. M. 

24. Proprietors of disorderly saloons have a regular system of 
securing women to solicit men to buy drinks in the rear rooms, and 
these women are often tempted to take up a life of professional prosti- 
tution, if they are not doing so already. 

25. Professional prostitutes are to all intent and purposes used 
as adjuncts to the business of selling liquor in the rear rooms, in 
connection with their immoral trade. 

26. Certain saloons are in reality houses of prostitution for the 
women actually live in rooms upstairs, and solicit in the rear rooms 
for upstairs trade. They pay a certain amount each week for board 
and room, to the proprietor of the saloon. 

27. Young working girls, who are now semi-professional prosti- 
tutes, are admitted to rear rooms of certain disorderly saloons. 

28. In certain saloons the prostitutes actually expose parts of their 
naked body and use vulgar and obscene language. 

29. In some saloons the prostitutes actually use the same toilet 
with the men. 

30. Prostitutes stand in doorway leading to rear rooms in cer- 
tain disorderly saloons and solicit men at the bar. 

31. Certain keepers of disorderly saloons offer protection to pros- 
titutes who solicit in their rear rooms. This consists of paying fines 
and bailing out the offenders who are apprehended by the police. 

32. Efforts are being made, especially on the North Side, to again 
create wine rooms or booths enclosed by curtains in the rear rooms. 

33. Some disorderly saloons are within a short distance of public 
school buildings, and it seems utterly impossible to secure the revoca- 
tion of the licenses or persuade the proprietors to move. 

34. Exact data is not at hand, but it is estimated by a city official, 
. who is in a position to know, that about 25 licenses have been perma- 
nently revoked on the ground that disreputable persons were allowed 
to congregate in saloons. 



Chapter III. 



The Social Evil and 
the Police. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE POLICE. 

Whenever an attempt is made to study the Social Evil problem, 
the police become at once the object of interest and investigation. 

Before a just criticism can be made, however, it is necessary to 
investigate the causes that have brought about conditions which the 
police are supposed to control. When this is not done, well mean- 
ing persons, after a superficial investigation of existing conditions, are 
inclined to make the sweeping statement that the entire department is 
corrupt, that all the officers on the beat are grafters, and that pro- 
tection money is paid to Inspectors of Divisions and Captains of 
Precincts. 

In order, therefore, to be fair in reporting upon the Police and the 
Social Evil, it becomes necessary, first, to point out the peculiar condi- 
tions, with the underlying causes that exist in a city, and, second, 
to show what influences these conditions have had upon men who are 
sworn to enforce the law. 

In the first place, then, the laws now on the statute books for the 
protection of society against the Social Evil were enacted by legislators, 
the majority of whom came from the country districts, and who ex- 
pected them to regulate affairs in large cities as well as in country 
towns. 

Unfortunately, experience has shown that this is quite impossible. 
The laws prohibiting houses of ill-fame can be and are enforced in a 
small community. But the situation is more difficult in a city the 
size of Chicago. Here an individual may, if he chooses, live any 
life he pleases, so far as his personal habits are concerned, and no 
one be the wiser. 

Often the country man, who stands as a pillar of strength in his 
rural community, does not live up to his home standard when he 
comes to the city, and helps to encourage disregard for law, and thus 
increases the difficulties of the problem. If such a man, fresh from 
a town where this law is strictly enforced, does not hesitate to violate 
it when he comes to the city, what can be expected of citizens of 

143 



144 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

the city, if they look upon the conditions with indifference, and thereby 
grow callous to the violation of the law. 

Thus it has come to pass that the law against houses of prostitu- 
tion has become inoperative in cities, and in its place has grown up a 
custom of tolerance and indifference, which has resulted in peculiar 
conditions, strange to the eyes of law-abiding men. 

Is it fair, then, to fasten the entire blame for such conditions 
upon the police as a whole, who in the last analysis are merely the 
servants of the people, and as servants do their will? 

But go a step further, and see how these conditions grow even 
more complex, and difficult to handle. 

This tolerance and indifference toward the law by the citizens have 
gone so far in Chicago, that for years the people have seen de- 
velop under their very eyes a system of restricted districts under 
police regulation, the result of which has been to nullify the law, and 
render it inoperative. In one district a police regulation takes the 
place of the law. In another, the law becomes operative to a slight 
degree, while in still a third it is apparently enforced. 

So it happens that the people of Chicago, by their tacit consent, 
have put aside the operation of the law, and made it a thing to be 
manipulated this way or that, according to expediency. 

Again, it is submitted that it is not fair to lay the blame entirely 
upon the police, the servants of the people, who as servants, do their 
employer's will. 

As a result of this attitude toward the law on the part of the 
community, the police department has been in a sense demoralized and 
has come to exercise a discretion which was never intended it should 
have. 

One of the Municipal Court judges who appeared before the Com- 
mission in a conference said that in his opinion "it is this discretion 
which makes graft in the police department possible. The law-abiding 
citizen will not pay graft to anyone, for the protection of his busi- 
ness. He relies upon the law's protection. It is only the man who 
is engaged in an unlawful business who will pay graft, for the pro- 
tection of that unlawful business. We have in every large city in 
this country the anomalous situation of the police officers, the guard- 
ians of the law, attempting to regulate an unlawful business, a con- 
dition which is certain to produce more or less corruption." 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE POLICE 145 

The words of this judge sum up the situation, and if it can be 
shown that the police have abused the discretion given them by the 
people; that by their connivance, the Social Evil is fostered and al- 
lowed to grow, through bribery and corruption, then the facts should 
be ascertained to the end that the public be aroused to its responsi- 
bility, and that such practices cease. 

It is stated that the police force of Chicago is made up of eight 
inspectors and 4,288 officers, or one policeman for every 590 inhab- 
itants. 

No fair-minded man would say that this large body of men has 
been swept into this system of bribery and corruption and that they 
deliberately foster the Social Evil. To so affirm would be a libel 
not only against the Department, but against the City of Chicago. 

But it is within reason to say that owing to the peculiar conditions 
which the people have allowed to exist so long, temptations have de- 
veloped which some have not been able to resist. 

These temptations have assailed officers high in control and no doubt 
some have fallen. Some men under these officers have seen the 
rewards, and no doubt they too have fallen. It remains to show 
by presentation of facts as shown in the typical cases just to what 
extent these temptations have assailed members of the police force, 
and how far the corrupting influences of the conditions of which 
they are the victim have extended. 

EXISTING CONDITIONS. 

I. The Social Evil in Chicago. The evil of prostitution finds its 
most acute expression in Chicago in the following ways: In recog- 
nized houses in so-called restricted districts; in semi-recognized flats 
in residential districts; in assignation hotels, in restricted, residential 
and business districts; in rear rooms of saloons, in assignation rooms 
over saloons, in restricted, residential and business districts, and on 
the street in restricted, residential, and business districts. 

II. Police Rules and Regulations. When the present General Su- 
perintendent of Police was appointed, he found that there were cer- 
tain so-called restricted districts, where the operation of the law 
had been nullified by custom and precedent. Under such conditions, 



146 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

he felt that in order to lessen as far as could be the evil influences of 
prostitution, the best he could do would be to issue certain rules and 
regulations for the guidance of the police and demand that they be 
obeyed. 

These Rules and Regulations were issued on April 29, 1910. 1 
In transmitting these rules and regulations, the General Superin- 
tendent of Police issued certain instructions to the inspectors. In 
these instructions he said : 

"In order that there may be no misunderstanding, the inten- 
tion of this order is to absolutely divorce the liquor traffic from 
prostitution, professional or casual. 

Saloons that are adjacent to resorts shall have all connection 
absolutely and permanently barred; nor will saloons be permitted 
to sell drinks to be carried into resorts. 

A general announcement on this matter some weeks since 
has given all interested ample time to dispose of stock on hand. 
All should be given to understand that those offending in this 
regard may expect that their place shall be immediately and per- 
manently closed. 

In order to insure the practical abolition of this liquor traffic 
as referred to above, the patrolmen on the posts must watch 
all known suspected places, and report to their commanding of- 
ficer wherever the delivery of goods, or any suspicious incident 
suggests, that the place should be investigated. A report is ex- 
pected from each inspector as made to him by his subordinates 
each month, stating just what has been done and the conditions 
existing in his division at the time of report. 

In a word it is to be absolutely understood that this regula- 
tion is permanent and complete, and must be rigorously enforced, 
and permanently and faithfully observed." 

///. Police Records. As the business of the police department 
regarding the Social Evil is to enforce the law, and the rules and 
regulations in districts where the law has become inoperative, it is 
natural to suppose that all places where the regulations are being 
violated, or where there is a suspicion of violation would be known 
and classified by the Department. 

With this in mind, the investigation of the Social Evil as under- 
taken by the Commission was based upon a list of such places, fur- 
nished by the General Superintendent of Police. This list was made 
up from the reports of Inspectors throughout the city, as to condi- 

x For text of Rules, see Appendix XXI. 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE POLICE 147 

tions found by their subordinates in their different police divisions. 
This list was received August 16, 1910. 

An analysis of this list showed, briefly, that there were 142 houses 
of prostitution in the City of Chicago, known to the police of seven 
different precincts, namely, the 3d, 4th, 12th, 15th, 27th, 28th and 
38th. These houses harbored 860 inmates and 142 madames or keep- 
ers, making a total of 1,002 women engaged in this business in recog- 
nized houses. In addition, the list gave 549 inmates in 261 flats located 
at 181 separate addresses with 261 madames or keepers, making a total 
of 810 women engaged in this business in flats. The record further 
stated that there were 51 hotels which cater to an immoral trade. 
Thirty-eight of these places were conducted by men and 13 by women. 
This made a grand total of 1,825 women engaged in the business of 
prostitution, according to the police list, either as inmates or keepers, 
at 374 separate addresses. 

It is interesting to note that no saloons where immoral and dissolute 
persons congregate were given as such in this list. Which fact was 
quite contrary to the instructions issued by the General Superintendent 
of Police when transmitting the new rules and regulations to the 
inspectors. 

With this list as a basis, a field investigation was undertaken. From 
July 15th to September 30th inclusive the investigators found 35C 
houses, hotels, flats and assignation rooms. They counted 370 prosti- 
tutes connected with 150 of these places, and were solicited by 150 
different women for immoral purposes. Of the 150 places where 
prostitution existed, 45 were on the police list and 105 were not. 
Of the 78 houses, hotels, flats and assignation rooms discovered by 
saloon investigators, and which were not in the same building with the 
saloon, four were on the police list, 45 were not, and 29 were doubtful, 
as the addresses were not secured. This made a total of 150 ad- 
dresses of this character, which the police apparently had no record 
of. 

During this same period investigators secured information con- 
cerning 275 saloons. They counted 779 women who were frequenting 
these saloons, and were solicited for immoral purposes by more than 
206 different prostitutes in 206 different saloons. Of the 275 saloons 
visited, 46 were on the police list and 229 were not, making a grand 



148 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

total of 379 places where immoral and dissolute persons actually con- 
gregated or where there was a strong suspicion of such conditions, 
which were not on the police list received August 16, 1910. 

In view of the facts brought out by the field investigation, it was 
thought that the list received August 16, 1910, was incomplete, and 
did not give an accurate account of the conditions prevailing through- 
out the city. The General Superintendent of Police felt the same way 
and ordered another list prepared for the Commission. 

The- new list was received on October 26, 1910. 

It is interesting to compare the police list received on October 26th 
with the previous list received on August 16th. An analysis of the 
list received October 26th, shows that there are 192 houses of pros- 
titution (August list, 142) with 2,343 rooms, in 7 different precincts 
(August list, 5) with 1,012 inmates (August list, 860), and 189 
madames or keepers (August list, 142). In addition the list gives 272 
flats (August list, 261) with 960 rooms at 151 separate addresses 
(August list, 181) with 419 inmates (August list, 549), and 252 keep- 
ers (August list, 261). 

The list also contains the addresses of 42 hotels (August list, 51) 
with 1,222 rooms which cater to an immoral trade, and among the 
keepers are 8 women (August list, 13). This makes a grand total of 
1,880 women (August list, 1,825) engaged in the business of prosti- 
tution, either as inmates or keepers at 385 separate addresses. (Au- 
gust list, 374.) These houses, flats and hotels, contain 4,525 rooms 
used for immoral purposes. There seems to be some confusion in the 
minds of inspectors regarding the order from the General Superintend- 
ent of Police to report disorderly places in the precincts within their 
particular districts. One inspector said that such a list is kept, but the 
places are not reported to headquarters unless asked for. Two other 
inspectors said that there is an order for each inspector to report all 
disorderly places found in the different police precincts each month, 
and these reports should include all saloons frequented by prostitutes. 

The list received from police headquarters on October 26th contained 
the addresses of 15 hotels and 9 houses in the 2nd police precinct; 

2 hotels, 107 houses and 42 flats in the 3rd police precinct; 3 houses 
and 101 flats in the 4th precinct; 25 houses in the 15th precinct; 

3 hotels, 38 houses, and 59 flats in the 27th precinct; 3 hotels and 34 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE POLICE 149 

flats in the 28th precinct; 19 hotels, 10 houses, and 36 flats in the 
38th precinct. 1 

Of this number which were on the police list, 3 hotels and 9 houses 
were investigated in the 2nd precinct; 13 flats in the 4th precinct; 
9 houses in the 15th precinct; 3 hotels, 22 houses and 1 flat in the 
27th precinct; 2 hotels, 2 houses, and 1 flat in the 28th precinct; 
16 hotels, 8 houses and 15 flats in the 38th precinct. 

The saloon investigation revealed the fact that there were a large 
number of hotels, flats and houses in these precincts, which were not 
on the police list as follows: 

In the 3rd precinct, 10 hotels, 6 over saloons and 4 nearby; 8 flats, 
5 over saloons and 3 nearby; and 1 house over a saloon. 

In the 4th precinct, 2 places with assignation rooms, 1 over a 
saloon, and 1 nearby. 

In the 15th precinct, 3 places with assignation rooms, over the 
saloons, and 13 houses over saloons. 

In the 27th precinct, 14 hotels, 6 over saloons, and 8 nearby; 50 
assignation rooms or flats, 38 over saloons and 12 nearby, and 6 houses 
over saloons. 

In the 38th precinct, 19 hotels, 15 over saloons, 4 nearby; 35 as- 
signation rooms or flats, 18 over saloons and 17 nearby; and 1 house 
over saloon. 

In addition to this, investigators have found disorderly places in 
police precincts, reports of which have not apparently been received at 
police headquarters. These are as follows: 

In the 1st precinct, 25 hotels and 2 assignation rooms or flats. 

In the 5th precinct, 2 hotels, 12 assignation rooms or flats, and 1 
house. 

In the 8th precinct, 1 hotel. 

In the 10th precinct, 1 flat and 1 house. 

In the llth precinct, 4 hotels and 9 assignation room or flats. 

In the 12th precinct, 1 hotel and 4 assignation rooms or flats. 

In the 17th precinct, 13 assignation rooms or flats. 

In the 19th precinct, 10 assignation rooms or flats. 

In the 39th precinct, 3 hotels, 6 assignation rooms or flats, and 2 
houses. 

'Table I. 



150 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

In the 41st precinct, 1 flat. 

The above, of course, only include places which were actually in- 
vestigated. There are others. 

In other words, the investigation of 236 saloons in all the pre- 
cincts, namely the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 15th, 27th, 28th, 38th, 5th, 8th, 10th, 
llth, 12th, 17th, 19th, 39th, and 41st, led to the location of 33 hotels 
over saloons, 37 hotels, not over saloons, 82 assignation rooms or flats 
over saloons, 60 not over saloons and 24 houses over saloons. 1 

In addition, an investigation of precincts where no places were re- 
ported and indepedent of saloons showed 8 hotels in the 1st precinct; 
1 house and 8 assignation rooms or flats in the 5th precinct; 1 hotel 
and 4 assignation rooms or flats in the llth pracinct; 1 hotel and 1 
flat in the 12th precinct; 1 hotel and 1 house and 2 flats in the 39th 
precinct. 1 

The above facts show beyond question, one of two things, first, 
that the inspectors of police divisions or captains of police precincts 
in these divisions are ignorant of conditions as they actually exist 
in their districts, or second, that they have withheld the exact in- 
formation asked for by the General Superintendent of Police. From 
these facts the reader can draw his own conclusions as to the knowl- 
edge of the police of these conditions. 

At this point, we discover a weak spot in the administration of law 
and regulations by the Police Department, as they apply to the Social 
Evil in Chicago. The remedy is so obvious it need not be stated. 

IV. The Police Officer on the Beat. The police officer on the beat 
is nearer the Social Evil conditions than any other official in the City of 
Chicago. He is, therefore, subject in a peculiar way to the tempta- 
tions of the system as it exists. Upon him falls the heaviest burden 
of criticism. His attitude toward the law and regulations can easily 
be ascertained. It is reasonable to suppose that he reflects in some 
degree the attitude of his superiors toward the law and regulations. 

If this is true, the inspectors and captains do not tell the truth 
when they plead ignorance of the actions of their subordinates, and 
ne can hardly suppose these men are ignorant of things that any citi- 
zen, who takes the trouble, may see. 

In order to show as clearly as possible to what extent the "police 

'Tables II-IV. 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE POLICE 151 

officer on the beat" is influenced by custom, or by his superiors, or 
whatever prevents law enforcement against certain phases of the 
evil, a few of the facts as found are given below under different head- 
ings. 

In every case mentioned the place and number of the officer is 
omitted, and signs such as XI Xll inserted. It should be borne 
in mind that these instances do not represent an investigation of all 
houses, saloons, hotels, flats or streets frequented by prostitutes, but 
only such as the money, time and authority at the command of the 
Commission felt would be indicative of the conditions as applying 
to the whole. Following these specific instances, general observations 
are given. 

TYPICAL CASES. 

V. Houses, Assignation Hotels and Flats. On August 16th, a look- 
out stood in front of (X504), at the corner of West (X504a) street 
and (X505) street. Two inmates of the houses next to the saloon 
were soliciting from windows of the resort. Officer No. (X505a) 
approached from (X505b) street. The lookout stepped to the door of 
the saloon, placed his hand behind a brass shield over the post, and 
a bell was heard to ring in the building. As soon as he did this, he 
hurried to the windows, and motioned to the women who were so- 
liciting. A moment later the officer came to the corner and the 
lookout greeted him with "Hello (X506)," and (X506) stood chatting 
with him for some time. 

Officers Nos. (X508) and (X509) were standing on the corner 
near a furnished room house in the afternoon, while investigator was 
solicited by a woman standing in doorway. 

VI. Houses, Assignation Hotels and Flats General. On August 
25th a new force of officers in uniform and plain clothes men came 
into the 22nd street district. It was interesting to note in a general 
way the reception of these men by saloon keepers, cadets and look- 
outs connected with the resorts. For some time one of the new men 
in uniform stood on the corner of (X510) and (X511) streets, and 
held a conversation with four young men, one of whom was the 
lookout who tipped off the women soliciting from windows at (X512) 
avenue. Another was a cadet who sings in the concert room of a 
saloon frequented by prostitutes at the corner of West (X513) and 
(X513a),next to (X514) avenue. Other receptions were held in different 
parts of the district; on the corner and at the entrance of the (X515), 
the (X516), corner of (X517) and (X518) streets, and near the police 
signal box, corner of (X519) and (X520) streets. One detective, who 
had been in the district, and who was evidently to be transferred, 



152 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

walked through the district with a man, who appeared to be his 
successor. 

One night during October, investigator was in a house of prosti- 
tution in the same building with a saloon on the corner of (X521) 
and (X522) streets. While in here two officers in plain clothes en- 
tered and talked with the girls; two glasses of beer were standing 
on a table, at which sat a man and one of the inmates. The officers 
paid no attention to the matter. 

The (X523), at (X524), (X524a) Dearborn street. This is^ prob- 
ably the most famous and luxurious house of prostitution in the 
country. The list received from the General Superintendent of Police 
on August 16, 1910, did not give the address of this house, nor of eleven 
other similar places on the street. The revised list received October 
26th, did mention the place, as well as the others. 

On January 15th a man stayed all night in a house of prostitution 
at (X525) avenue. On January 16th, he returned to this house with 
two plain clothes men and told the landlady that he had been robbed 
of $50 the night /before by one of the inmates. The landlady was in- 
dignant and said to the officers in the hearing of the investigator that 
"I am telling you that that man did not have that much money on 
him, and I don't see why you are bothering me, for protection was 
just paid two days ago." 

The man wanted the inmate arrested, but the officers said he 
would have to swear out a warrant. No warrant was served. 

VII. Street Soliciting. On the evening of August 19th, between 
9:30 and 10:15 investigator counted six (6) prostitutes soliciting men 
on the north side of (X526), between (X527) and (X528). They 
took the men to a hotel over a storeroom marked 47-49 (X529). At 
10 o'clock, officer No. (X530) stood alone at the corner, when two of 
the prostitutes stopped two men and walked with them to the entrance 
of the hotel. 

a. Downtown. On September 25th, between 10:10 and 10:50 P. 
M. investigator was solicited by Miss (X531), Rosie (X532), and 
Josie, on streets in the downtown district. Josie was standing at the 
corner of (X533) and (X534), near the (X535) store. This was 
11:45 P. M. Officer No. (X536) stood at corner about 10 feet away. 
The girl Josie spoke to a cabman, and went into the (X535) store. 
Officer spoke to investigator about the- weather, then about girl. Of- 
ficer went into (X335) store and spoke to the girl. He came back in 
a few moments, and said that she was a nice girl. During this time 
women were soliciting across the street, and officer took no notice 
of it. 

On September 25th, between 10 :10 and 10 :50 P. M. investigator 
was solicited on (X537), between (X538) and (X539) streets by six 
different women, Rose, Mignon, Bete, Violet, Tantine and Marcella. 
Two of them wanted to go to (X540) hotel, (X541) avenue, two to 
the (X542) hotel, (X543) street, and to any place investigator de- 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE POLICE 153 

sired. While talking to these girls a sergeant of police and officer No. 
(X544) talked together at corner of (X545) and (546) streets. They 
took no notice of solicitation. One of the girls told investigator that 
the police do not interfere with them. 

IX. Street Soliciting General. 

a. North Side. September 11, 10:30 until 11:30 P. M. Saw 4 
different girls soliciting on North (X546a), from (X546b) to In- 
diana. Two officers passed. 

September 10th. 1 :30 to 2 A. M. Nine girls soliciting from 
(X546c) to (X546d). Saw one policeman. 

September 9th. 10 to 10 :30 P. M. Seven girls soliciting on 
(54Ge) from (X546f) to Erie. Saw one officer. 

September 8th. 9 to 10:00 P. M. Ten girls on (X546g) from 
(X546h) to (X546i) avenue. No officer in sight. 

September 9th. 9 to 9 :30 P. M. Fourteen girls soliciting on corner 
of (X546J) and North Clark. No officer in sight. 

September 9th. 8:15 to 8:40 P. M. Seven women on La Salle. 
Nelly solicited investigator to go to (X548) Hotel, (X549) La Salle. 
No officer in sight. 

b. West Side. September 6th. During period of 15 minutes 3 
girls soliciting on (X546k) between (X5461) and Sangamon. No officer 
in sight. 

September 6th. During period of 15 minutes, 7 girls soliciting on 
(X546m) from (X546n) to Peoria. No officer in sight. 

September 1st. 10:30 P. M., 3 girls soliciting on Monroe between 
(X546o) and Halsted. One girl talked to two officers near rear door 
of (X547) saloon. A few minutes later police officer and a sergeant 
came east on Monroe street, and all girls disappeared. 

September 2nd. 10 :30 to 11 P. M. Nine girls on (X547a) from 
(X547b) to Morgan. No officer in sight. 

September 23rd. 9 :30 to 11 :30 P. M. Investigator was solicited 
by 14 different girls in vicinity of (X549a) avenue, between (X549b) 
and (X549c). Eight solicited for Hotel (X550), (X551) avenue, and 
6 to Hotel (X552), (X553) street. One officer at (X553a) and 
(X553b), but he stayed only a moment, and walked toward (X553c). 

c. South Side from East 2$rd to 6$rd streets. 

September 26th. (X553d) street and Indiana avenue, Violet (X554). 
Lives on Prairie avenue. Fairly well educated. About 19 years, 
would go to hotel. Officer stood on northeast corner (X553d) street 
at time investigator was approached. 

Saloons. August 27th. Officer No. (X555) was drinking at bar 
at No. (X556) Wells street (not on police list). Bartender told in- 
vestigator the girls were having an off night. He should come around 
and get Violet, the best on the street for $1. Room upstairs. 

August 31st. Officers (X557), called into (X558) West Randolph 
street (not on police list). He drank a pint of beer at the bar. There 
are assignation rooms over the saloon. 



154 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

September 7th. Officer No. (X559) was seen in saloon at (X560) 
West Madison street (not on police list), drinking bottle of beer. Ger- 
trude stood at the end of the bar, leading to rear room, and invited 
investigator to buy her a drink. She afterwards solicited him to go to 
a room. 

September 23rd. Officer No. (X561) entered saloon at (X562) 
State street (not on police list). The proprietor, (X563), gave the 
officer two cigars. He left in a few moments, after warning all the 
people in the rear room to keep quiet. Five prostitutes were in the 
rear room. One by the name of Kitty solicited investigator to go to 
(X564) hotel, (X564a) State street. The rear room of this saloon 
was open and drinks served after 1 A. M. 

September 14th. Officer No. (X565) was leaning against the bar 
in a saloon at (X566) avenue (not on police list). 

September 14th. (X567) Lake (X568). Not on police list. A sus- 
picious saloon. Officer No. (X569) was leaning against the bar. 

(X570) 37th street. Not on police list. Investigator in here with 
Mignon (X571), a street walker. Officer came into rear room and 
went through to bar. Stayed there all the time investigator was in the 
place. 

(X572) Strand. Saloon, house of prostitution upstairs. On police 
list. Two officers on the beat and both seem to be especially friendly 
with people in the house, came in looked around. Two women in 
rear room. One escorted. Officers were offered drinks and cigars 
but did not accept. Afterwards they were invited to go upstairs 
by the proprietors. 

(X573) South Halsted street (not on police list). Investigator 
matched pennies for drinks with officer No. (X574) in this saloon. 

(X575) Halsted street (not on police list). Investigator had drink 
with officer No. (X576) in this saloon. The rear room is frequented 
by prostitutes. One of these is Gertrude, age 18. 

(X577) Root street (not on police list). 'Investigator was solicited 
by Minnie to go upstairs. Saw two officers, Nos. (X578) and (X579) 
drinking beer in this place. 

(X580) South State street. At 1:30 A. M. an officer No. (X581) 
walked along 22nd street, and tried the front door of saloons. Finally 
he stopped in front of the side entrance of saloon at (X582) South 
State steet. This entrance is on 22nd street. While he stood there, 
11 men and women went through this side entrance into the saloon. 
He paid no attention to the matter. 

This same officer walked west on 22nd street, and tried the front 
door of the (X583) Cafe, on the corner of West (X584) street and 
(X585) street. The side door on (X585) street was open, and music 
and singing could be heard. While officer stood on the corner, 2 men 
and 1 woman went through the side door. 

(X587) avenue. (Not on police list.) Conducted by colored men. 
White women soliciting. Investigator here until 4 A. M. Two of- 
ficers passed on street twice while investigator was in room upstairs. 
Music and dancing. 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE POLICE 155 

(X588) Wabash avenue (not on police list). October 8th at 2:33 
A. M. officer No. (X589) knocked on the side door of this saloon 
and was admitted. The officer seemed to be well known to the pro- 
prietor. When he came in, he went to the closet. Later the inves- 
tigator saw him in the closet sitting on the box drinking a bottle of 
beer. At 2 :40 A. M. another officer came in through the side door 
and joined the other officer in the closet. The waiter called him 
(X590). 

Jim (X591), a waiter, in speaking of the two officers, said they 
came in every night about that time, 2 :40 A. M. 

(X592) saloon, (X593) Dearborn street (not on police list). This 
saloon is connected with a house of prostitution. On October 29th, 
8 unescorted women were soliciting in the rear room. They opened 
the door leading to the bar and asked investigator to come back. 
Officer No. (X594) came into the saloon in uniform, but paid no 
attention to the women in the rear room. He was given a bottle of 
beer, which he drank at the bar. He was there about 30 minutes. 
After 1 A. M. the women went to wine room upstairs where drinks 
are sold all night. 

November 2nd. (X595) saloon, (X596) Dearborn street (not on 
police list). Women stood in doorway leading to rear room, and 
invited men at bar to enter. Investigator saw a man standing in 
front of saloon who pushed an electric button attached to a buzzer 
when an officer approached the place. 

November 20th. (X597) Buffet, (X598) Wabash avenue. The pro- 
prietor offered to secure women for houses of prostitution in China. 
Assignation rooms over saloon. Prostitutes solicit in the rear room. 
On this date, officer in uniform, No. (X599), came in and asked for 
beer and cigars, for which he did not pay. 

XL Saloons General. August llth. The police ordered the sa- 
loon at (X600) West Lake street closed to women. On the evening 
of this day investigator was solicited in this resort. While there he 
saw a woman and a man in the toilet room at the same time. (Saloon 
not on police list.) 

August 23rd. Investigator again visited saloon at (X600) West 
Lake street, which had been ordered closed, and in which he had been 
solicited on August llth, and saw four prostitutes in the rear room. 
He was solicited to go upstairs by a woman who said her name was 
Trixy. 

On August llth, the police were ordered to close the saloon at 
(X602) West Lake street (not on police list) to women. On the 
evening of this date, investigator was solicited by Frances to go up- 
stairs. Frances said the rest of the women connected with the place 
were upstairs. 

On August 19th, the saloon at (X602) West Lake street was again 
visited. Investigator was solicited to go upstairs, this time by Jennie. 
Three other girls were in the concert room at this time. 

August 16th. Police officer in uniform was seen by investigator 



156 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

to take a drink of whiskey in saloon at (X604) Peoria street (not 
on police list). Prostitutes frequent the rear room. 

August 23rd. Lillian solicited investigator in saloon at (X607) 
North Clark street (not on police list). While talking to her a police 
officer came in and talked with the girls at another table. The girls 
called him (X608), said he was a good sport and drinks with them. 

August 23rd. Bartender in saloon on the northwest corner of 
(X609) and (X610) streets spoke of a poker game going on in the 
rear room, and stated the police did not bother. While in here investi- 
gator saw two prostitutes, and was solicited by Hazel to go to an 
assignation house in middle of block. 

September 16th. (X611) North Clark street. (On police list.) 
Officer entered this saloon at 12:45 A. M. and drank bottle of beer; 
talked with bartender about 10 minutes. 

September 27th. Vaudeville performance in the rear of (X612) 
Halsted street (not on police list). Twenty-three women were in this 
place, most of them vulgar and dirty. One woman with her breasts 
exposed sat in balcony with a man at a table. Two plain clothes 
men on floor below looked up at her, but made no sign. 

September 24th. A lieutenant of police, whom men in saloon 
called (X613) drank beer in saloon at (X614) avenue (not on police 
list). A young man in the place said that he, the lieutenant, was a 
good sport, and as long as the saloon keepers used him all right he 
was O. K. 

(X615) Wabash avenue (not on police list). October 31st at 2:30 
A. M. place was crowded at this hour, and several persons were in- 
toxicated. Two strangers, who had the appearance of being farmers, 
were with two prostitutes. They complained to the waiter that 
he had overcharged them, and proceeded to argue with him, about 
the right price of the drinks. They were ejected from the saloon. 
Later they returned with two officers, who called the waiter and spoke 
a few words to him. 

The officers then turned to the farmers and told them to "beat 
it or they would be arrested." The men appeared surprised, and 
finally left as one of the officers was about to hit one of them with his 
club. The two officers then entered the cafe, and holding their hands 
over their stars, went to the rear closet, took their uniform coats 
off, and put on ordinary coats, which were much too small for them. 
They then took off their helmets and sat down with the same prosti- 
tutes who had been drinking with the two farmers. They did not 
pay for their drinks. Investigator recognized them as being two who 
were patrolling the district. The following men witnessed the action 
of the officers : 

(X616) North Shore avenue. 

(X617) Ashland boulevard. 

November 10. The attitude of police towards the cadets may be 
seen from the following incident. A woman by the name of Frances 
(X618), who solicits in cafes on South Halsted street, was sick and 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE POLICE 157 

went to her room about 11:00 P. M. Her cadet a waiter in (X619) 
saloon at (X620) South Halsted street, followed and had a fight with 
her. When seen by investigator she was bleeding from her mouth, her 
hands were lacerated, and her clothes almost torn off. 

Two detectives were called. They did not attempt to go into the 
room or arrest the "cadet." After the fight was over the girl camr 
out, and one of the officers told her that she would have to take her 
trunk and leave the next day. One of the other women took her to a 
hotel for the rest of the night. 

November 26th. While investigator was standing at the bar of 
saloon at (X620a) Wells street talking to (X621), the bartender, two 
men came in who appeared from their conversation, to be plain clothes 
officers. They were telling (X622), the proprietor, about a man named 
(X623), whom they had arrested, and asked him if he wanted to get 
the fellow out. The proprietor gave cigars to these men. 

This is the saloon referred to in Chapter III as being within 35 steps 
from a public school. 

November 28th. Investigator spoke again to (X621), the bartender, 
and asked him if the saloon was ever bothered by the police, and 
he said, "Hell, no, they can make all kinds of complaints and the police 
officers are our friends, and they are sent to investigate and find 
everything O. K. So it does not do anybody any good to make com- 
plaints." 

While talking to (X621), two men came in and (X621) said they 
were detectives. They were given cigars and drinks, for which they 
did not pay. Three men were playing cards in the rear room. 
(X621) said they were cadets. A fourth man was sitting at the 
table watching the game. Investigator entered the read room and 
sat down at a table with an unescorted woman named Violet (X628), 
who lives at (X629) Wendell street. She solicited him to go upstairs 
for immoral purposes. She pointed out the man watching the game, 
and said he was a detective. 

(X621) introduced investigator to a cadet, named (X631), who 
spoke about "getting jobs," and he (X631)), made the following re- 
mark: "It is a hell of a note when you got to go to the police offi- 
cers to get a job in these joints. (X633) got me a job here with 
(X634) once, and at another time (X635). The last job I got was 
from a higher source than that. One night (X636) and I were to- 
gether and both of us were pretty well stewed. We came in this 
place, and without saying anything (X634) called (X638) on the 
side and told him to put me to work, (X638) came over to me ana 
said, 'I'll put you to work as soon as I possibly can.' " 

November 27th. Investigator was in this saloon at 12 P. M. on 
this date, two men who appeared to be plain clothes officers were sit- 
ting on chairs in the bar room. At 12:15 P. M. an officer in uni- 
form No. (X640) entered the saloon and spoke to the two men men- 
tioned above about a murder. At 12:28 this officer, No. (X640), 
stepped to the bar and ordered a drink of whiskey. He drank it, but 



158 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

did not pay for it. In about 10 minutes the three men started to leave 
the saloon. The two men stopped at the cigar case and the bar- 
tender gave them each two cigars. The three men then left the 
place. 

While investigator was in the rear room, an unescorted woman 
named Anna solicited him to go upstairs for immoral purposes. She 
said that they never have any trouble with the police. The girls 
come and go as they please. 

XI 7. Dance Halls. September 10th. (X642) hall, North Clark 
street. Officer in uniform No. (X643) was selling tickets at door. 
Many of the girls in this hall were semi-prostitutes. One girl who 
offered to go to a hotel with investigator, works in one of the depart- 
ment stores. She receives a salary of $6 per week, and "hustles" three 
nights each week for extra money. She told investigator that she 
could be found in the rear room of (X644) saloon, (X645) North 
Clark street. Investigator was solicited in this hall by two other 
girls, Gladys and Flora, who said they would go to any of the rooms 
in houses nearby or to (X646) North Clark street. One man in the 
hall called (X647) said he was living with a big blonde, another 
boasted to investigator that he was a "cadet" and never worked. 

September 17th. (X648) hall, (X649) avenue. Two officers, Nos. 
(X650) and (X651) were on duty in this hall. A young man called 
Steve, about 19 years of age, was intoxicated, and was put out of the 
hall by the two officers. In about 5 minutes he returned to the 
bar room, and bought these officers drinks of whiskey. He stayed 
in the hall after this, and became very noisy, but the officers did 
not say anything to him. Four other boys drinking beer did not 
appear to be older than from 17 to 19. Two professional prostitutes 
were seen in this place. 

September 24th. (X652) hall, (X653) Milwaukee avenue. In- 
vestigator met a number of semi-prostitutes at this dance. For in- 
stance, Violet (X654), Rosie (X655), and Tantine. Officers No. 
(X656) was on duty at this dance hall. He became friendly with in- 
vestigator, and went with him to (X657) saloon, (X658) Division 
street, where officer had a drink of whiskey at the bar. He told in- 
vestigator that if he "picked up anything" he should take her to 
(X659) hotel on corner of (X660) street and (X661) avenue. A 
room could be secured there at any time. It was the only place in 
that vicinity, except private houses, and one had to get some one who 
was acquainted to introduce him in order to get in. Later investi- 
gator saw same officer in (X662) saloon, which is under the dance 
hall, described above, eating a meal. He heard bartender ask waiter 
if this officer was on the free list also, and waiter said "Yes." 

(X663) hall, corner of (X664) and (X665) streets. October 15th, 
two officers, Nos. (X666) and (X667) were on duty in this hall. In- 
vestigator met a girl who said she was not working any more, as 
she had a few "good fellows" who gave her money. She goes to 
the (X668) hotel on (X669) and (X670). The men she goes with 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND THE POLICE 159 

give her as much as they want to. There were about 200 women and 
girls. Some of the girls appeared to be about 16 years of age, and 
when he left the hall he noticed several were intoxicated. While in 
the saloon downstairs, investigator saw a girl not over 16 come in 
with a pitcher and buy 5 cents worth of beer at the bar. A man 
in the saloon pointed out two plain clothes men who were standing at 
the bar when the child bought the beer. A few minutes later an- 
other plain clothes man came in and joined the others. They were 
served with bottled beer while the third took a cigar. 

(X671) hall, (X672) South State street. October 1, a dance 
was given in this hall. The bar was in a room adjoining the dance 
hall, and drinks were served in the hall. Investigator counted 17 
waiters, 3 bartenders and estimated that there were 250 or 300 women 
and girls present. The youngest girls appeared to be about 17 years 
of age. He met officers Nos. (X673) and (X673a) and had drinks 
with them. They both drank whiskey at the bar. 

(X674) hall. Corner of (X675) avenue and (X676) street. Entire 
building is owned by (X677) Brewing Company. (X678) is the 
representative of this company, and manages the saloon and dance 
hall. The latter is rented out at different times to organizations and 
pleasure clubs. The charge for the ball is $25.00 per night. 

The dance on October 15 was conducted by the (X679). The bar 
is a room at the end of the hall. The conditions in the hall on this 
particular night were disgraceful. There were about 115 girls pres- 
ent, from 15 to 23 years of age, and many of them seemed to vie 
with each other in being "tough." Investigator saw nine professional 
prostitutes whom he had previously seen while investigating conditions 
in the West Madison street district. 

The dance was a masquerade. Most of the girls had on short 
skirts. A description of the actions of many of the dancers cannot 
be printed. 

By 1 o'clock many of the girls were intoxicated, or partially so, 
and the dancing became more and more suggestive. Two young girls 
about 16 years of age were dancing together and went through vulgar 
and suggestive motions. Investigator danced with one of these girls 
afterward and she offered to go to a room at the (X680) hotel, 
(X681) Milwaukee avenue. The room would cost 50 cents. These 
girls "hustle" at (X682) and (X683) saloon at (X684) Milwaukee 
avenue. Investigator also danced with four other girls who frequent 
this saloon, Josie, Bebe and Fifie (X685), and Flora (X686). The 
two officers on duty here are Nos. (X687) and (X688). 

(X689) Club, (X690) North Clark street. The women who come 
to this hall are for the most part professional or semi-professional 
prostitutes. Among them are Violet (X691), Be (X692) and Mig- 
non. 

On Saturday and Sunday nights the attendance is about 300 in this 
hall. The girls are from 17 to 25 years of age. Many of these girls 
are waitresses, house maids and clerks in department stores. They 
are called "charity" as they do not charge for their services. Among 



160 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

the cadets seen here was (X693), who at present is living at the 
(X634) hotel with a girl called Marcella (X695). This girl is a pros- 
titute in a house at (X696) avenue. (X697), the proprietor, seems 
to have ample police protection. One of his right hand men is a 
mounted policeman by the name of (X698). Two plain clothes men 
were seen drinking at the bar of the saloon one night, while a dance 
was going on upstairs. 

(X699) hall, (X700) 35th street. This dance hall is frequented 
by clandestine, semi-professional and professional prostitutes. The 
conditions are open and flagrant. On October 23rd, Officer No. 
(X701) in uniform was seen sitting at a table drinking beer with 
women. Another officer, No. (X702), stood at the entrance of the 
hall and later went into the ladies' retiring room where he stayed 
about ten minutes 

(X703) 22nd street. This notorious dance hall situated in the 
restricted district caters to professional prostitutes who take men to 
nearby hotels or to assignation rooms or flats. 1 

SUMMARY. 

First. Custom and precedent has established in Chicago certain re- 
structed districts, where the laws and ordinances of the state and city 
are practically inoperative in suppressing houses of prostitution. 

Second. Because of this condition certain public officials have 
given a certain discretion to the Police Department and have allowed 
police rules and regulations to take the place of the law and ordinances 
in these districts. 

Third. As a result of this discretion certain members of the police 
force have become- corrupt and not only fail to strictly obey the 
rules and regulations in the restricted districts themselves, but have 
failed to adequately enforce the law and ordinances, outside the re- 
stricted districts. 

Fourth. This attitude has not only been assumed toward the law 
and the rules and regulations, but has resulted in failure to report 
to headquarters places in all section of the city where immoral and 
dissolute persons congregate. 

Fifth. In addition, officers on the beat are bold and open in their 
neglect of duty, drinking in saloons while in uniform, ignoring the 
solicitations by prostitutes in rear rooms and on the streets, selling 
tickets at dances frequented by professional and semi-professional 
prostitutes; protecting "cadets," prostitutes and saloon keepers of dis- 
orderly places. 

*Sec Chapter IV, "Sources of Supply," page 194 



Chapter IV. 



Sources of Supply. 



CHAPTER IV. 

SOURCES OF SUPPLY. 

1. Purpose of Report. The purpose of this report is to discover 
and report as nearly as possible all the sources which supply the 
victims of the social vice; and also to recommend measures to re- 
strict and suppress the supply. 

2. Sources of Information. As far as possible the Commission 
has sought first hand sources of information, from which to discover 
the facts which it reports and classifies, and from which its conclu- 
sions are drawn. 

These sources of information are : 

(a) Personal histories secured from 30 women, who are 
either now inmates of houses of prostitution, or have been until 
very recently. These histories have been secured and carefully 
verified through repeated interviews by a woman who is the con- 
fidential friend of these women, and who has carefully safe- 
guarded their confidence. 

(b) Accounts of themselves given by prostitutes to the in- 
vestigators on the Commission: 

(1) in amusement parks under private man- 

agement, 5 

(2) in dance halls, 40 
, (3) in saloons and on the street, 49 

(4) flats and assignation hotels, 15 

(5') in houses of prostitution, 19 128 

(c) Delinquent girls investigated by the Juvenile 

Protective Association, 51 

A total of 179 cases whose careers, both before 
and after their downfall have been studied 
intensively. 

(d) Records of young girls in the custody of the 

Juvenile Court of Cook County during the 

first ten years of its operation 2,241 



Total number of cases reviewed, 2,420 

While many of these girls were personally interviewed, and their 
cases thoroughly investigated by the Department of Social In- 
vestigation in the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy, 
the conclusions regarding the delinquency of the total number are 

163 



164 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

based upon a careful study of official and other records regarding 
them during an investigation continued for more than two years, 
and reported to the Russell Sage Foundation, by which the results 
of the inquiries are about to be published. 

(e) The investigations of the Commission on panders and 
cadets, dance halls, employment agencies, department stores, 
amusement parks under private management, lake steamers, and 
reports of other committees bearing on the sources of supply. 

(f) Investigations of the United States Immigration Commis- 
sion and the Immigrants' Protective League of Chicago on the 
relation of immigrant women and colonies of foreign laboring 
men in construction camps, lodging houses in cities, and else- 
where. 

(g) Alienists' inquiry into the sub-normal physical and mental 
condition of boys and young men committed to the State Re- 
formatory of Minnesota. 

(h) As the basis of estimates of the profits and male patronage 
of houses of prostitution : l 

(1) Brief and argument of plaintiff in error before the 
Supreme Court of Illinois, October Term, 1908, in case of 
People v. Bessie Lee and Leona Garrity. 

(2) Books and papers of a keeper of a disorderly house 
showing daily and monthly receipts, which was seized by the 
authorities and form part of the records of the case of the 
prosecution. 

(3) Verified reports of investigators. 

(4) Statements made at conferences with madames and 
inmates of disorderly houses. 

(i) Conferences with representatives of reform and philan- 
thropic agencies and other interested individuals. 

3. The tabulation and classification of the data derived from these 
sources. 

4. Summary of conditions involved in the personal histories and 
investigated records of 2,420 women and girls under review which 
suggest the recommendations herein submitted. 

Ca) Home conditions; 

(b) Economic conditions; 

(c) Pursuit of pleasure and provision for recreation; 

(d) Procuring; 

(e) Involuntary entrance upon or continuance in prostitu- 
tion under so-called "white slavery"; 

(f) Sub-normality as a factor in the social evil; 

(g) The supply ^of male patrons of prostitution; 
(h) Education in sex physiology and hygiene. 



'See Chapter I, Existing Conditions, page 95. 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 165 

Exhaustive tables have been prepared from the data collected from 
108 cases by the Commission in its investigations. For lack of space 
these tables are omitted and analyses of them are given instead. To 
show how the data were collected, one table is given as an exhibit cover- 
ing the cases of thirty girls investigated in a most careful and pains- 
taking way by a woman intimately connected with the rescue and 
reform work of the city. Similar tables are in possession of the Com- 
mission which have been furnished by the organizations mentioned. 



166 



THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 



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SOURCES OF SUPPLY 169 

ANALYSIS OF "TABLE GIVING DATA REGARDING THIRTY INMATES OF 
HOUSES OF PROSTITUTION IN CHICAGO." 

Age. 

Average age of entrance to life 18 years 

Average present age 23^ years 

Average years in business to date, over 5 years 

These women are the heavy money earners of some of the "best" 
houses in Chicago. The majority of them are apparently in robust 
health. At any rate they are in physical condition good enough and 
attractive enough to patrons to hold the lead in professional prostitu- 
tion and to earn weekly from $50 to $400. 

This would seem to largely disprove the statement so frequently 
made "that the average life of the prostitute is five years" and also 
the solemn statement of one Municipal Court Judge that "in five 
years these girls will all be dead." 

It is undoubtedly true that the women in houses are longer lived 
and better off than the street walker or possibly than the clandestine 
prostitute with her, service is largely mechanical not an act appeal- 
ing to sentiment of affection while with the latter type especially, 
the physical stress upon the body and nerves and strength caused by 
expression of "love" as they understand it, makes demands upon en- 
durance that are unknown to the professional prostitute. 

Occupation. 

Studying the occupations, it is found that of the thirty only three 
never worked; one of these was educated in a convent; of the other 
two, no data is given. The rest tried to earn their living as follows : 

Domestics 6 

Waitresses 5 

Clerks 3 
Saleswomen dept. store 3 

Dressmakers 2 

Milliner 1 

Stenography 1 

Governess 1 

Telephone girl 1 

Vaudeville 1 

Factory 1 

25 



170 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Wages. 
The average wages of the twenty-five given is $5.00 per week. 

Family. 

One was an orphan, two boarded, one lived with an aunt, the 
rest had apparently drifted away from their homes. Twenty-three 
of the inmates enumerated thirty-eight brothers and forty- four sisters, 
so it would seem that most of them come from good sized families. 

Price of House. 

The price for "service" of the houses in which these inmates 
"worked" are $1.00, $1.50 and $5.00. Of these prices the madame 
received one-half except in the $1.50 house. This particular house 
has white girls who receive Chinamen only no man of any other 
nationality is permitted to enter; the madame receives one-third the 
girl getting one dollar and the madame fifty cents for each "service." 

Monev How Spent. 

As to the disposition of the money made by these prostitutes the 
table shows that three allege they are supporting or helping their 
family or mother; one, a mother and her own seven-year-old child; 
one is saving money so she can give up the life. The other twenty-five 
apparently spend the money on themselves. It is rather remarkable 
that no one speaks of supporting a lover or "cadet." 

Causes for Entering Life. 

Nine were seduced; three could not earn enough to live on in any 
other way; two were enticed by other women into the life; two 
were too ignorant to do any ordinary work; two lost their husbands 
by death and two by desertion; two said they were naturally bad, one 
said she wanted to, was "born with the devil in her," the other that 
she "was bad with boys before she was 15"; two for dress; two ruined 
by drink and one each on account of trouble with family, poverty, 
money and because she was tired of drudgery (this girl said dance 
halls ruined her). 

Twelve, therefore, out of the thirty may be sard to have gone 
wrong because of economic conditions and most of those seduced 
found prostitution the only or at least the "easiest" way. 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 171 

B ANALYSIS OF "DATA REGARDING PROSTITUTES IN DANCE HALLS. 

Total number of cases, 40. 

Age. 
Of the 25 whose ages are given the average is 20.4 years. 

Occupation. 

The occupations of the 18 whose employment is given are as 
follows : 

Department stores, 9 ; nurse, 3 ; trained nurse, 1 ; lunch room, 1 : 
waitress, 1 ; cashier restaurant, 1. 

Wages. 
Eight give wages earned ; the average is $6.00. 

Family. 

Fourteen give meagre data. Of these 6 are married, 2 board, 3 live 
at home (one of these has a "good home"), 1 father a drunkard, 1 no 
home, 1 home in New York, married twice. 

Money How Spent. 
Two say they support parents ; no other data. 

Price. 

One for price of a silk waist. The prices of those given as $5.00 and 
up are for inmates of (X706a) dance hall. 

Causes for Entering Life. 

For money, 13 (one of these says for "spending money," she gets 
$5.00 per week in a department store and supports parents) ; seduced, 
3; violated, 2; 2 to support others (la husband and 1 a lover); 1 
for finery; 1 for clothes ; 1 for a good time (won't take money) ; 1 for 
love of her fellow; 2 bad home conditions; 1 husband a pervert, di- 
vorced ; 1 induced by bad girl friends ; 1 "brother put me on the bum" ; 
1 employer (a doctor) gives her money; 1 had operation and can't 
work ; 1 fellow turned her down ; 1 better than ruining her eyes sew- 
ing ; 1 "always was immoral." 



172 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

ANALYSIS OF DATA REGARDING PROSTITUTES ON STREET OR IN SALOONS. 

Total number of cases, 49. 

Age, 

Thirty-one give ages. The average is 20.4 years. (Two are 35 
years old.) 

Occupation. 

Twenty give data as follows: Department store, 6; waitresses, 4; 
domestics, 1 ; stenographer, 1 ; store, 1 ; mail order house, 1 ; factory, 1 ; 
dressmaker, 2 ; clerk, 1 ; "works," 1 ; ticket seller, 1. 

Wages. 

Only four state amount of wages received; the average is $4.87 
per week. 

Family. 

Seven are married, 8 live at home, 1 with private family, 2 stated 
they had good homes, 1 is an orphan and 1 a widow. 

How Money is Spent. 

Only one made any statement except regarding her own needs; this 
one used her money to support her mother. 

Causes for Entering Life. 

Thirteen for money ; 4 because they liked it ; 2 ruined and deserted ; 
2 deserted by husband ; 2 "easier than working" ; 2 seduced ; 1 to sup- 
port baby; 1 parents turned her out; I persuaded by aunt; 1 put in 
business by a cousin ; 1 husband wouldn't support her ; 1 ran away to go 
on stage ; 1 "didn't want to be kicked around as a servant. 

ANALYSIS OF DATA REGARDING INMATES OF HOUSES OF PROSTITUTION 

IN CHICAGO. 

Total number of cases 19 

Total number giving ages 13 

Average age of these 13 23.4 years 

Occupation. 

Former occupation is given by only 6: Department store, 2; fac- 
tory, 1 ; waitress, 1 ; domestic, 1, and chorus girl, 1. 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 173 

Wages. 

Data given by only 2. Chorus girl, $18.00 per week; 1 department 
store girl, $6.00. 

Family. 

Data given by 6; 3 stated they were married; 2 came from "fine 
families" and 1 said her parents were "farmers." 

How Money is Spent. 

One sends $10.00 per week to parents, the "farmers" referred to 
above; 1 supports a child. No data regarding the others. 

Causes for Entering Life. 

Twelve give causes as follows: 2 of the workers "salary too small 
to live on"; :horus girl, "bad life of the stage"; 1 went wrong in 
high school ; 1 influenced by bad girl friends and by house of prostitu- 
tion opposite her home; 2 enticed into life by bad men; 1 put in house 
by her husband at age of 15; 1 "left home"; 1 couldn't get along at 
home; 1 drank and parents cast her off; 1 "sported before she mar- 
ried." 

C ANALYSIS OF "DATA REGARDING DELINQUENT GIRLS." 

Total number of cases, 51. 

Age. 
The average of the 47 whose ages are given is 15.7 years. 

Occupation. 

Only 30 stated to have been workers. Of these 8 were domestics; 
7 worked in factories; 5 in department stores; 2 in laundries; 2 were 
waitresses in saloons, and the following 1 each: Piano player in 
nickel theater, telephone company, sweat shop, bakery, news stand, 
scaled fish. 

Wages. 

Only six give data as to wages. The amounts ran from $2.50 to 
$8.00 per week. The average was $4.90 per week. 



174 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Causes. 

To the total number given (49), 23 are directly due to bad home 
conditions, of these 2 were actually sold by the mothers (la girl of 12 
to a man 75 years old), 1 driven out by stepfather; 5 were violated; 
4 seduced; 4 by nickel theaters; 2 ruined by Greeks in fruit stores; 
1 ice cream parlor ; 1 at home by Greek peddler ; 2 by "immoral house 
parties"; 1 in a saloon; 1 at the soldiers' encampment; 1 in a dance 
hall; 1 was deserted by her husband after an early marriage; 1 was 
drugged ; 1 says that drink was the cause ; 1 poverty, and 1 ignorance. 

ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM JUVENILE COURT RECORDS. 

The records of 2,241 young girls brought before the Juvenile Court 
of Chicago during the first ten years of its operation, charged with 
immorality, or other offenses involving sexual irregularity. The cases 
of all these girls were carefully investigated by the Department of 
Social Investigation of the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy, 
in preparing a report on the Juvenile Court of Cook County for the 
Russell Sage Foundation, soon to be published in two volumes. The 
cases of these girls were patiently and carefully examined, not only as 
they appear upon the records of the court, but by personal inquiry 
of several hundreds of these girls themselves, their parents, and others 
acquainted with their history. 

The offenses for which they were brought into court were as fol- 
lows: On the charge of being disorderly or incorrigible, 1.370; and 
on the direct charge of immorality, 871. It should be understood 
that the word "immoral" is never used in the petition or statement 
of the case, if it can be avoided. The offenses disguised in the court 
records under the terms "incorrigibility" or "disorderly conduct" in- 
volve in a large percentage of cases of sexual irregularity. This percent- 
age is estimated from 65 to 80 per cent, of all these 2,241 young girls, 
arraigned before the Juvenile Court as delinquents. This fact is more 
significant in view of their youth, since only 15 per cent, of them 
are over sixteen years of age, and nearly half of them are fourteen 
years, or younger. 

The degraded condition in the homes from which many of these 
girls came is pitifully apparent. Among 168 girls committed to the 
State Training School from Chicago, 30 had intemperate fathers, 8 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 175 

intemperate monthers, 20 had fathers who were of vicious habits, 16 
were children of immoral, vicious or criminal mothers, while in the 
families of 12 there were others than the parents who had vicious 
or criminal records. In 24 cases the father had shirked all responsi- 
bility and deserted the family. Eleven of these girls were illegitimate 
children, or had been abandoned, and 10 had been victims of gross 
cruelty, 29 had been in houses of prostitution, or had been promiscu- 
ously immoral, one having been a "common street walker" at eleven 
years of age. Thirteen had sisters who had become immoral, and had 
been committed to public institutions on that account. Fourteen had 
brothers who had been in such institutions for the care of delinquent 
boys and men. 

Among the girls committed from other sections of the State, 31 
allege that the companion of their first experience in sexual irregu- 
larity was a member of their own family, and 16 Chicago girls had 
the same experience. In 19 cases it was the father, in 5 the uncle, in 
8 the brother or older cousin who had wronged the child; in 72 other 
cases, girls brought in as delinquents before the Juvenile Court had 
been wronged in this way, 32 by their own fathers. In 189 other 
cases in which the girls were charged with immorality, the mother or 
the legal guardian was implicated in the offense, if not responsible for 
it. In 18 cases, the delinquent girls were children of common prosti- 
tutes, in 23 cases their mothers were known to be immoral, though not 
"professionally." In 74 other cases, the mother was described as "of 
questionable morals" or "of doubtful character," and in 51 cases the 
mother was intemperate. We are thus confronted by a total of 348 
cases, in whjch the court records show that the guardian under whose 
care the girl was growing up was obviously unfit to be trusted with 
the care of a young girl. 

From the records of 156 girls committed to legal custody from 
other portions of the State than Chicago, 86 were the children of 
intemperate fathers and 13 of intemperate mothers. These cases of 
degradation in country families parallel the conditions found in many 
homes from which the Chicago children came before the court. Un- 
regulated play in early childhood and prurient pleasures in youth were 
the occasion of the perversion of many of these children, both in the 
city and the small town as well as in the country. The first experi- 



176 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

ence in sexual irregularity came to 14 Chicago girls and 22 country 
girls while at play when very young ; to 45 Chicago girls and 65 country 
girls it came as an incident to such forms of recreation as the theater, 
walking in the parks, picnics, skating rink, and buggy riding. In 
3 cases the girls were going to or from church. To 35 Chicago girls 
and 39 country girls their first experience of wrongdoing came in the 
gratification of a certain curiosity; to 14 from Chicago and 24 from 
the country there was an attraction of something like affection; to 
23 from Chicago and 34 from the country it meant obtaining small 
sums of money, from $1.00 to $3.00, and in some instances only some 
candy. The victims of force and fraud numbered 25 from Chicago, 
62 from the country. Those who were only ten years old or younger 
numbered 18 from Chicago, 24 from the country. 

The careful study of the experience of these 2,241 delinquent girls 
impressed the experienced investigators with the need of developing 
the most skillful agencies for dealing with such families as many of 
these girls came from; the need to provide and regulate recreation; 
and with the necessity to include instruction in personal and social 
hygiene in the curricula of schools, both public and private, at the age 
of puberty. 

THE SITUATION IN CHICAGO BASED ON INVESTIGATION OF THE COM- 
MISSION. 

Panders and Cadets. 



1. Panders. 1 This investigation has shown that panders often work 
in groups and are in communication with gangs in other cities. In- 
dividuals, working independently are also willing and eager to procure 
prostitutes for houses not only in this city, but for houses in other 
cities and countries. 

These individuals and members of these gangs are very often waiters 
in saloons, bartenders and proprietors of saloons and houses of prosti- 
tution. They are scattered all over the city, and the individuals are 
known to each other, and confer together when their services are 
demanded. 

The subject of the so-called white slave traffic has attracted much 

*For text of laws, see Appendix VI. 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 177 

attention all over the country. The term "white slave," however, is 
a misnomer. As a matter of fact the traffic in girls includes negroes, 
Chinese and all sorts of girls. A "white slaver" in reality is a man 
who employs men and women, or goes out himself to secure girls upon 
some false pretense or misrepresentation, or when the girl is intoxi- 
cated, or drugged, and not in possession of her senses, is conveyed to 
any place for immoral purposes. 

If the girl is wayward and goes of her own free will, she would not 
be a white slave, but the man or woman who induced or accompanied 
her to an immoral place would be guilty under the Illinois pandering 
act just as much as if he or she had enticed or used force in placing 
her in a house of prostitution. 

It has been demonstrated that men and women engaged in the so- 
called "white slave" traffic are not organized. Their operations, 
however, are so similar and they use the same methods to such an 
extent that it is safe to infer that they are in some way working 
together. 

This fact is illustrated by the following incidents brought to light 
through the court records as cited in conference with the Commission 
by the prosecuting attorney of the offenders. 

The first is the case of Mollie Hart. In the trial of this case, it was 
shown that Albert Hoffer, Michael Hart, David Garfinkle, Maurice 
Van Bever, Julia Van Bever, Dick Tyler and Frenchy Tolman all 
belonged to the same crowd, and operated together. The headquarters 
of this gang in Chicago was operated by Maurice Van Bever. This 
man was found guilty of pandering and sentenced for one year and 
to pay a fine of $1,000. His wife, Julia, was also found guilty. 

The Van Bevers had two houses of prostitution in Chicago, one 
called the Paris, located at the southeast corner of Armour avenue 
and 21st street, the other the San Souci located at the southwest corner 
of Dearborn and 21st streets. These two houses back up against each 
other. This gang operated in a clever manner, which still further 
proved that the combination existed. This gang had a combination 
with other gangs in other cities. The following is an illustration : 

At the time the above arrests were made, an investigation was car- 
ried on in the South Side restricted district. With few exceptions, St. 
Louis girls were found in houses, and the presence of these girls was 



178 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

traced to this crowd, who brought them to Chicago. Some of the St. 
Louis girls were found in the two houses operated by a man named 
Colisimo. He could not be reached. His two managers were arrested, 
however, but they could not be convicted, because the man who brought 
them from St. Louis would not turn State's evidence. This man, named 
Joe Bovo was convicted and sentenced to imprisonment for six months, 
and to pay a fine of $300. His home was in St. Louis. While the 
girls could not testify that Hart and Tolman had hired him (Bovo) 
to bring them to these houses, and although it was not proved in 
court, the prosecutor could see very clearly how it worked out. When 
Van Bever was arrested and released on bonds, it was understood that 
conferences were held with owners of resorts in the basement of 
Colisimo's saloon. All of the above defendants employed the same 
lawyer, who has fought a great many of these cases. This is addi- 
tional proof that it was one crowd operating together. 

There can be no doubt, then, that these men work in gangs and 
that in addition there are individuals known to each other in different 
parts of the city who work along this line. The fact is further illus- 
trated and proved beyond question by the following typical investiga- 
tion conducted by the Commission : 

The account of the investigation is made clear by the diary method, 
giving under date of each day new developments in the work. At the 
end one can see the devious ways these men work, the processes under 
which thy communicate with each other, and the steps taken in the 
deal by which the woman who has been actually purchased is trans- 
ferred from one house to another or from one city to another, located 
in this country or abroad. 

This investigation deals, as will be seen, in transactions by which 
prostitutes form the basis of trade. 

There were a number of individuals involved in this investigation 
who are referred to as "A," the Agent for the man in China ; "B," the 
Keeper of a house who wanted to purchase the women; "C," the 
"Cadet" from whom the women were to be purchased ; "D," the other 
"Cadets" who also agreed to furnish women, and "E," the women 
who were to go to the house. 

Sept. 28, jpio. A met C in a saloon at (X707a) street. C is 
a waiter in this saloon. During the conversation, A said that he 
was a successful sporting man from Macao, China. That he was 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 179 

here on business, and expected to take five or six women back 
to China. 

C at once offered to get one woman, who, he said, was very 
wise, good looking and a money getter. He promised to see the 
woman the next day. 

Sept. 29. Saw C as agreed. He had seen the woman and said 
she wanted to know more particulars. He promised to see her 
again. During the conversation C said, "Hell, I can get you as 
many women as you want." 

A then said that he had a friend from China who was running 
a sporting house in Shanghai. This friend was in this country 
to get some women for his place. "If you know so many women," 
he said to C, "and are on to the ropes you can probably help him 
get them." 

C then said, "I'll get him as many women as he wants, when you 
introduce me, and we will agree on the price, etc." 

Oct. 3. A talked with D, a saloon keeper at (X708) Strand, 
over which there is a house of prostitution conducted by his wife. 
A intimated to D that he expected to stay in Chicago, and 
go into business. D took it for granted that he meant the same 
business he was in. D then said, there were well known agents 
on the West Side who supply women for houses. 

Oct. 4. Saw C. He was in the same frame of mind as at the 
last meeting. Wednesday is his day off, and he will try to see 
the woman whom he had spoken of. He further stated that if he 
"did business" with the other man from China he would get 
A what he wanted for nothing, but a few dollars, etc. 

Oct. 6. C is getting anxious to earn some money in the man- 
ner suggested. 

A had said his friend had gone to New York on business. C 
wanted to know if the friend had returned, and was told that he 
had not. 

"When he does come," said C, "bring him around, I can do 
business with him." 

Before the next visit to C a telegram was written purporting to 
come from B (A's friend from China). 1 

Oct. 8. A saw C and showed him the telegram from his sup- 
posed friend in New York, instructing him to get prices, etc., for 
women to go to China. 

C said he did not know just how much he should ask for his 
services. He finally agreed to $50.00 for each woman. A then 
wrote out a letter in the presence of C to be sent to B in New 
York. This letter stated the price asked by C per woman and 
asked him to send money. 2 

While waiting for a reply to this letter, the plan was to keep C 
interested. Before A left him on the evening of Oct. 8, C said 



Exhibit K. 
Exhibit L. 



J80 THE bOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

he was sure of getting two women, and was going to work to 
get them at once. 

In the meantime, a letter which had been sent to New York 
to be written there, and sent back to Chicago by a friend was re- 
ceived. This letter had been delayed one week, and the telegram 
used the day before was supposed to take its place. 

Oct. 10. A saw C and showed him a letter which verified the 
telegram and did much to throw off any suspicion. This letter 
was written on paper from a New York hotel, and gave instruc- 
tions to go ahead. 1 

When C saw the letter he said he would make it his business 
to get the women. He then telephoned to three places to make 
appointments for himself and A. 

Oct. ii. C said that he had told a woman on the West Side 
with whom he had lived two years to look out for women in the 
neighborhood who wanted to go to China. He promised her a 
good present if she helped him. 

He also 'phoned to a friend on the South Side and gave him 
the same instructions. 

In the meantime, another letter had been sent from New York, 
saying that $150 had been sent to pay for three women. 2 

Oct. 12. C was shown this letter, and said that he was on the 
job, and would keep on it until he got the women. Said he had 

to be very careful as the "fly mugs are looking out so d 

sharp for those things." He declared that he would go around 
that night. 

Oct. 13. C said he had been around to a number of places 
the night before, and had talked to several women. He had made 
arrangements with two to call him up and make appointment to 
see A. 

One of the women was named Tantine. Both lived on the South 
Side. One weighs 135 Ibs., the other 169 Ibs. They are American 
girls, and good looking. They have signified their willingness to 
to go China. 

C also left word with seven men whom he knew on the South 
Side who have been in the business for years. One in particular 
has been living off of prostitution and pandering for 25 years. 
He is a great friend of C. This man said he would be able to 
get the women within a few days. 

All of the men were given to understand there was money in 
it, and they are all anxious to make it. 

Oct. 14. Afternoon. C received two messages, one from a 

man on the South Side, who said he had two women, and would 

. . bring them to the saloon that night, if possible. The other message 

was from a man who asked if a French woman would do to go to 



Exhibit J. 
'Exhibit ML 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 181 

China. The man would call up during the evening. Both men 
are working to get the money. 

Oct. 14. Evening. About 11:20 P. M. D, about 35 years of 
age, 5 ft. 7 inches, weighing about 150 Ibs., came in saloon. He 
was one of the men who had called up during the afternoon. He 
said that if the women were wanted for any place in the United 
States he would send two of his own, as they were not making 
very much at present. 

The two women who were expected did not come to the saloon. 
C telephoned to make another appointment. 

D, the man mentioned above, verified C's claim that it was 
slow work getting women to go out of town, as they were watched 
closely by the keepers of resorts. "They are all in debt and are 
not allowed to get out of it; the keepers do not want to lose 
the women, if they are good money getters." 

In some instances, the keepers have girls arrested on a trumped 
up charge, if they want to leave. If they promise to stay the 
charge is dismissed. 

D would not talk to A in the cafe, but followed him outdoors. 
Said he did not want any of the others to see that he had any 
business transactions with him. He seemed to be afraid, but 
anxious to make the money. 

Oct. 15. C said he had again spoken to his friends on the 
South Side. They all told him they were on the job. The woman 
he had spoken to, and who had signified her willingness to go to 
China, had been drunk for three days. He will see her again 
when she sobers up. 

Oct. 16. C said that on account of the cadets and other men 
as well as women who are watching the women it was going 
to take some time to get them. He thought it would be better 
to make them believe they were going to Seattle, Washington, or 
California, and when they were out there, it would be easy to get 
them drunk and take them aboard the steamer, 

Oct. 17. C is growing impatient because his friends do not 
act quicker. 

He went over to the South Side, to see one of his friends. 
A said he thought the plan to take the women to Seattle, 
and then ship them to China, would be a good one. C said if 
that could be done it would be easier. 

A met a "cadet" from the South Side, who said that he had a 
woman "hustling" for him and makes plenty of money. This 
"cadet" did not say so in as many words, but gave A the 
impression that he would be willing to look for women to go out 
of town. 

Oct. 21. A went to the (X712) saloon at (X713) Dearborn 
street. Met D, an entertainer, who said he had spoken to a girl 
named Rose, about going into a house in China. She said she 
was willing to go. 

A then went to the (X714) cafe on (X715) avenue, between 



182 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

(X716) and (X717) streets, to see D, the proprietor. He was 
out. The following men, all "cadets," and several others whose 
names could not be learned, agreed to get women to go to China: 
D, D and D. 

D has one woman on the South and one on the West Side. D 
and the other men know C. 

Oct. 24. After telling C that he would not lose anything, he 
gave A the following names of two friends on the South Side 
who would help him get women: D, proprietor of (X718), and 
D. D has several sporting houses. (X719) could be found in 
(X720) saloon at (X721) avenue at 11 P. M. 

Oct. 2p. A spoke to D, an entertainer in (X722) saloon, at 
(X723) Dearborn street. This waiter said he would help A get 
women to go to China, if he would agree to take him and his 
woman. 

Later in the evening, D introduced A to a prostitute named 
Agnes (X724), alias Agnes (X725), had told her about the 
man who was looking for women to go to China. Agnes is getting 
a divorce from her husband. She had no "cadet" at present, but 
will have to get one soon "so as to have police protection," as 
she said. 

While A was sitting at the table with this woman, D, the enter- 
tainer, told her an imaginary story of the free way in which A 
spent money. He said that one evening in San Francisco, 
when this "generous man" was sitting in a cafe with the police 
commissioner, the proprietor and one of the supervisors, he ha^d 
purchased about $1,000 worth of wine, and had "thrown $50 in 
gold to the entertainers. He further stated that he had known his 
friend for several years, and also knew about his sporting house 
in China. 

This story so impressed the woman that she was more eager 
than ever to go. 

During the evening of the 29th, A went to the (X726) cafe, 
at (X727) avenue, of which D is the proprietor, to see D, whose 
name had been given him by C. 

A asked D if D was in his place, saying he had been sent by 
C, D replied that he thought D was out of town. He then asked 
if he wanted to see D on any particular business. A then told D 
that he was looking for women to go into a sporting house in 
China. At this D became very confidential, and said that he 
could get two women for this purpose, the price to be fixed later. 
He then introduced A to several men about the saloon. One of 
these was D, a "cadet" who had his woman "hustling" on 22nd 
street. D said he would be on the lookout for women. A also 
spoke to a boy about 18, who is an entertainer and "cadet." He 
knows C and the proprietor of the saloon where C works. He 
was also willing to get women. 

When A was leaving, D invited him to come again and repeated 
that he could get two women by the end of November. 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 183 

Nov. 17. D asked A when he expected to go to China. A 
replied in a couple of weeks. D then said he would try to get 
the women by that time. 

Nov. 20. D introduced A to a man named "D," a former 
saloon keeper. D said this man would get some women to go to 
China. 

D also said that the man who was indicted by the Federal 
Grand Jury for importing women, and who jumped a $24,000 
bond, would never have gotten into trouble, if he had listened to 
him. He (D) had offered to get him all the women he wanted for 
$100 each, but the man thought he would be wise, and so he sent 
some French "cadets" to France and imported the women. 

D went on to tell of his long experience in the business, extend- 
ing over about 20 years. "I am not a cadet myself," he said, 
"but I have gotten women for others a good many times, and 
I can get you as many as you want, if you want to pay for it." 

He warned A not to talk as there were a lot of "stool pigeons" 
around. 

Nov. 26. A went to the (X727a) cafe, (X727b) street, corner 
of (X727c) and (X727d) streets, and A introduced himself to 
the bartender, named D, as the proprietor of a sporting and gam- 
bling house in Macao, China. The bartender said he had two 
women "hustling," one in the rear room of this saloon, and one 
in a house. He said he might take a notion to go to China, 
and take his two women with him. He also stated that he could 
get other women to go. He declared that he was tired of this 
town, that here was not much money here any more, and he 
would like to go where a lot could be made. About 12 :00 P. M. 
on Nov. 27, 1910, D introduced A to a "cadet" named D, who 
was in the saloon, and told him of the China proposition. 

D also has one woman "hustling" in the rear room of this sa- 
loon, and another in a house on (X727e) street. He declared that 
he was willing to take a woman to China. He pointed out this 
woman to A. He further stated that he had had a few hundrei 
dollars, but lost it gambling a few days ago. 

The record of above events, under the dates given, show beyond a 
doubt the connection of these men with each other, and how easy it 
is to enter into negotiations for women to go to other states or for- 
eign countries for purposes of prostitution. 

If the Commission had desired to carry these transactions to a final 
conclusion by the payment of the sums demanded there is no ques- 
tion but that all of the men above mentioned could and would have 
produced the "white slaves" for exportation. After consideration of 
the matter the Commission decided that inasmuch as it was not a 
prosecuting body sufficient evidence had been secured and the inves- 
tigation was closed. 



184 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

II. The Cadet." 1 The word "cadet" is generally used in place of 
the uglier title "pimp." He, with the pander or procurer, is the lowest 
specimen of humanity, and whenever apprehended should be dealt with 
to the fullest extent of the law. The report of The Committee of Fif- 
teen (New York City) issued in 1902, thus describes this type: "The 
'cadet' is a young man, averaging from eighteen to twenty-five years 
of age, who, after having served a short apprenticeship as a 'light- 
house' secures a staff of girls and lives upon their earnings. He 
dresses better than the ordinary neighborhood boy, wears an abundance 
of cheap jewelry, and has usually cultivated a limited amount of gen- 
tlemanly demeanor. His occupation is professional seduction." 

The cadet is the go-between, he is the agent through whom business 
is directed toward his own woman, or the house in which she works. 
He looks after her when apprehended by the law, and either uses some 
political influence in her behalf, or sees after her fine or bail. In many 
cases, he is the lover or "sweetheart," and by some power so attaches 
his girl to himself that she will never betray him no matter if he has 
beaten and abused her. This strange paradox often prevents justice 
being meted out to this outcast of society, for in many cases he can be 
convicted only on her testimony. Often the "cadet" belongs to political 
organizations, and exchanges shady work at the polls for protection 
from men in power for his "woman." Again, these "cadets" are often 
attached to clubs as preliminary boxers and prize fighters. 

While negotiating with these panders, the investigator met sev- 
eral "cadets," who are also procurers when they have sufficient courage. 

Among these "cadets" were the following: 

(X728), alias (X729), house at (X730) Madison street, in- 
troduced investigator to one of his women who had come from 
(X730a), 111. She is about 22 years of age. He has two other 
girls, one in South Chicago, and one in Chicago Heights. This 
man conducted an employment agency at one time. 

(X731) and (X732). These men can be found generally at the 
(X733) cafe on (X734) street, or (X735) saloon on the corner 
of (X735) and (X736) streets. Both of these men are "cadets" 
and procurers. 

(X732) sold a girl to a keeper of a house of pros- 
titution in Omaha, Nebraska, for $25 a few weeks ago. He 
told the girl he was going with her. He went with her and the 
keeper of the Omaha house to LaSalle Street Station, put the girl 

*For text of laws and ordinances see Appendices V-VI-VIII. 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 185 

on the train and left her saying he was going to buy a ticket. He 
did not return. Two years ago, this same procurer persuaded 
a girl to leave her home. The parents instituted a search and 
(X732) grew afraid after he had lived with her for several 
months. He left and went south to work on a farm to keep 
out of the way. 

(X73S). Cadet and procurer. Is legally married to one woman 
who is "soliciting" for him. He has another woman in a house 
of prostitution in Indiana. 

As above stated, many of the bartenders and waiters in saloons are 
"cadets." In fact a waiter or bartender is often required to have 
women soliciting for drinks, the two positions go hand in hand. 1 

DANCE HALLS. 

There are approximately 275 public dance halls in Chicago which 
are rented periodically to so-called pleasure clubs and societies or are 
conducted by individuals. 

It has been possible during a brief investigation to observe condi- 
tions in only nineteen of these dance halls. Those investigated, how- 
ever, are located in different sections of the city, so that the findings 
indicate general conditions in places of this type. 

Many of these halls are frequented by minors, both girls and boys, 
and in some instances they are surounded by great temptations and 
dangers. Practically no effort is made by the managers to observe 
the laws regarding the sale of liquor to these minors. Nor is the 
provision of the ordinance relating to the presence of disreputable per- 
sons observed. 2 

In nearly every hall visited, investigators have seen professional 
and semi-professional prostitutes. These girls and women openly made 
dates to go to nearby hotels or assignation rooms after the dance. In 
some instances they were accompanied by their cadets who were con- 
tinually on the lookout for new victims. Young boys come to these- 
dances for the express purpose of "picking up" young girls with whom 
they can take liberties in hotels, rooms or hallways of their homes. 

The following are typical instances illustrative of these conditions : 
Sept. 5. (X744a) hall, corner (X745) and (X746) streets. Con- 

'See Chapter II, The Social Evil and The Saloon. Also Chapter I, Existing 
Conditions in Chicago. 

*For text of ordinances regulating Dance Halls, see Appendices XVI-XVTI- 
XVIII-XIX. 



186 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

ditions here were bad. A number of young girls were in the 
balcony drinking with fellows between dances. Investigator met 
girl who said she was 17 years of age this month. He danced 
with three different girls, two of whom proposed going to a 
hotel if he had the money, the third girl said they could get 
a room on West Madison street. Beer is sold in the dance hall 
for 15 cents per bottle. 

Sept. 4. (X746a) hall, West Madison street. Saloon under 
dance hall. Conditions bad. One girl was quite drunk. She 
afterwards came down from the dance hall and entered the rear 
room of the saloon. Investigator saw girl named Violet drinking 
beer in dance hall, drinks were sent up to the hall from the saloon 
below by dumb waiter. Another girl by name of Rosie also left the 
dance hall and came to the rear room of saloon. Rosie said she 
was 18 years old, Violet said she was 19. 

Sept. 10. (X746b) hall, North Clark street. Investigator 
counted 51 girls. Some appeared to be 18 or 19 years of age. 
Investigator met one girl who gave the name of Marcella (X746c) 
and said that she worked in the basement of department store. 
Marcella said her salary was $6 per week, out of this she pays 
$3 for meals and $2 room rent, besides 60 cents carfare. She 
"hustles" three nights a week for extra money to pay for wash- 
ing, clothes and other things. She told investigator that she can 
be found in rear room of saloon on North Clark street. She is 
about 20 years old. 

Another girl who said her name was Fifie claimed to be mar- 
ried to a man who was at the dance. The husband knew his 
wife solicited other men and was satisfied if she brought home 
some money, but if she "went for charity he would beat her up." 
When she married this man two years ago she was a street walker, 
and he was one of her steady fellows. 

Investigator was also solicited by two other girls, Bessie and 
Frankie, who said they would go to any of the rooms in houses 
nearby or to (X747) North Clark street. 

One girl called Violet was partially intoxicated, she would not 
dance but sat at one of the tables drinking beer with different 
men. She is about 20, and looked like a professional prostitute. 
The rest room contains about 20 tables, and three waiters are in 
attendance. Beer was 15 cents per bottle, or 5 cents per glass. 
There is a regular bar in the front of the hall with two doors 
leading to it. 

Rough dancing is not allowed, but the language used is coarse 
and full of oaths. A fellow called Jack said he was living with a 
big blonde, another boasted to investigator that he was a cadet, 
and never worked. 

Sept. 18. (X746d) hall, Wells street. Conditions good. About 
225 girls, some did not appear to be over 16 years of age. No 
rowdy actions allowed. No liquor sold in hall. No smoking al- 
lowed only in retiring room. The girls do not go out with fellows. 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 187 

Several told investigator this was the most decent dance hall in 
that section of the city. It had a bad name three years ago. In- 
vestigator met one girl whom he knew to be a professional prosti- 
tute from saloon on North Clark street. He danced with her, 
and she asked him not to let on that he knew what she was as 
everybody in the hall thought she was decent. She offered to go 
to hotel. 

Sept. 17. (746e) hall, West North avenue. Only two women 
were seen whom investigator knew to be professional prostitutes. 
One, named Bebe, said she was from a house on North Clark 
street. She would not give the number, as the house was posi- 
tively private, but said if she was given $5 to show that everything 
was O. K. she would take him to the house after the dance. 

Sept. 21. (X746f) hall on North Clark street. Counted 185 
girls and women from 17 to 30 years of age. Dance hall is on 
third floor, with two stairways leading down to second floor, 
where there is a bar. On this floor are tables which are 
crowded with girls drinking with fellows, between the dances. 
Dances are conducted here every night and on Sundays. The hall 
has a bad reputation and a man can "pick up" a girl any time. 
Investigator talked with the following girls who were all drink- 
ing: 

Violet works in department store, salary $5 per week. Was 
seduced and left home. Baby died and she "solicits" on the side 
to support herself. Is 19 years of age, born and raised in (X748). 
Rooms on North Clark street, but would not give number. 

Rosie, 20 years old. Born in Chicago. Lives with fellow at 
hotel, and "solicits" for him. Will go any place with fellows. 

Bessie, 20 years old, works in department store. Salary $6 
per week, and "solicits" on the side. Left home on account of step- 
mother. Rooms with chum. Will go any place with fellows. 

Mag, 18 years old. Works in department store. Salary $5.50 
per week. Tells parents she receives more. Helps support parents 
and "solicits" at dances for spending money. Father is sickly. 

Investigator met three professional prostitutes from saloon, and 
two from another saloon. These women were seeking business. 

A woman conducting a furnished room house on North La Salle 
street told investigator that most of the girls at this dance worked 
downtown and roomed along North Clark street, and "solicited" 
at night. 

Sept. 24. (X748a) hall, Milwaukee avenue. Condition fair. 
Bar in connection on same floor. Tables all around dance hall, 
and in balcony. Five waiters. Boys and girls are kept very 
orderly. About 200 girls. Investigator talked with following 
girls : 

Lillie, 19 years old, works in department store, salary $5 per 
week. Will go out for a "good time"; but will not take any 
money. Her friend gave her a bracelet last week. He is a clerk 
in the same store. 



188 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Gerty, 18 years old. Works in department store, salary $6 per 
week. Has two steady fellows, who go to see her every week, 
and give her $2 each. They take her to a room downtown, but 
she did not know the name of the place. She lives at home with 
parents, and when she goes out she tells them that she goes to a 
show with a girl friend. 

Aside from the above, investigator met a number of girls from 
(X749) department store, who were with their steady fellows. 
One of them named Violet offered to make a "date" with inves- 
tigator, if he knew of a place to take her. All she wanted was the 
price of a silk waist. Several other girls wanted investigator to 
take them to shows or dances. 

Sept. 29. (X749a). Dance hall on 31st street. Regular bar. 
Ladies drinking parlor next to dance hall. Six colored waiters. 
A mixed crowd, but a large proportion are "sporting" women. 
About 200 girls, ages from 17 to 35. Investigator talked with fol- 
lowing girls: 

Miss (X750). Trained nurse, but she cannot stand the work, 
because of a recent operation. She has a few friends who help 
her out, and as soon as she can earn enough to buy some good 
clothes, she expects to go home. 

Girl (no name), 18 years old. Rooms on East 31st street. 
Said she wanted to get drunk because her fellow, a singer, whom 
she had been going with as the "only girl," had turned her down, 
"she didn't care what happened to her." If investigator wanted 
her she "would go any place, it didn't make any difference." 
Later this girl was seen to leave the hall with a young man. 

Amy, 20 years old. Lives on East 31st street. She would go 
out, but not that night, as her steady fellow was with her. He is 
a street car conductor, and keeps her. Had just given her a new 
fall hat, which had cost $20, and is going to buy her a new winter 
coat after pay day. She called him (X751). Amy was a cashier 
in a restaurant downtown until she met him. The only reason 
she goes with anyone else is to get a little more spending money. 

Rosie is a dressmaker. Said she was the only member of the 
family who was "sporty." The reason why she goes out is be- 
cause if she stays at home, she would be sewing and when she 
worked by gas light her eyes hurt so that she started to going to 
this dance hall. She took her first drink in this place, and finally 
went out with a fellow who offered her $5. When she saw she 
could make money so easily, she made up her mind it was better 
than ruining her eyes and health by sewing. She "learned it all 
by going to this dance hall," and now she "likes her beer, and drinks 
quite a lot." 

Tantine. Lives on South Park avenue. Tantine is learning to 
dance. She comes to the dance with a man who drives a grocery 
wagon. He is good to her, takes her to shows, buys her presents, 
and she likes him. He tells her she could make a lot of money, 



SOUKCES OF SUPPLY 189 

but she "likes him too well to go with anyone else." He encour- 
ages her to drink with the other fellows. 

Tantine and her friend Bell both were from a hospital. Tan- 
tine is a nurse and Bell only works there. They go to this 
dance regularly and both will go out with two men anytime. Tan- 
tine told investigator that they had two "Interns" on their staff, 
and were "bleeding" them for all that was in it. (The hospital 
telephone was given and the fact verified. Hospital (X752a). 

Rosie. Works in millinery store, learning the trade. Salary 
$4 and can't hardly exist. Proposed going out as she was nearly 
"broke." Said she had gone out with fellows before she left home, 
and her folks were going to send her away. So she ran away 
with a fellow. This man wanted her to "get out and hustle 
for him," so she thought if she was going to do it for a living 
she would keep all she earned herself, so she "quit" this fellow, 
whom she called Jim. Rosie said she was 20 years of age. She 
is very good looking. 

Emma. A professional prostitute, stays at (X752) State 
street. 

The dance on October 8th on corner of (X753) and (X754) ave- 
nue, was given by the (X755) club. Mr. (X756) had the bar privilege. 
The bar is located at the back of the hall. There were four bar- 
tenders and drinks were sold to "ladies" at the tables around the hall 
and in the balcony. There were nine waiters. Beer was sold for 
5 cents per glass, 15 cents per pint bottle, whiskey 15 cents a drink. 

There were about 400 women and girls in the hall. Some of the 
girls were from 7 to 12 years of age, and they remained until 1 A. 
M., when investigator left the dance. 

During the evening the investigator met 5 professional prostitutes 
from the 2nd street district. He also met three cadets, by the 
names of Jack (X757) and (X.758) and (X758a) with Gertie, Hattie 
and Mag. While dancing with these girls, they told investigator that 
these men were their "lovers," and did not work. 
Investigator also met the following girls: 

Rosie (X759), boards at (X760), (X761) avenue. Said she 
had a friend who gave her a pair of gloves, and is going to 
give her an old-gold bracelet. He is an insurance agent. She 
works at (X762) department store. Receives $11 per week in 
the (X762a) department. Her sister Violet works at (X763) 
department store as a clerk at $7 per week. Rosie said she 
would make a date and go out anytime (was verified). 

While he was at the dance, investigator saw 6 women who were 
very much intoxicated. 

(X766) street and (X767) avenue. The dance described above was 
in the (X768). This one was held in the (X769) proper on the 



190 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

same evening, October 8th. Investigator entered this hall after 1 
A. M. when he left the dance at the (X770). The dance was being 
given by the (X771) and (X772) Union. 

The bar was at the end of the hall and tables were placed all 
around the room. There were 5 bartenders, 4 helpers and investi- 
gator counted 23 waiters. He estimated the number of women pres- 
ent to be 700 ; and at least one-third were either intoxicated or partly 
so. Two women were put out of the hall for using vulgar language 
and starting fights. 

Investigator counted 20 professional prostitutes from the 22nd 
street district, and other districts. One of the prostitutes frequents 
(X773) saloon. She told investigator that she was there with a fellow 
whom she had "kept up" for a year. She had just bought him a 
new suit. This couple had a quarrel during the dance on account of 
another girl. 

Some of the girls present were as young as 16. A man by the 
name of (X774), said that many of the girls were sporting, "and 
the dance was as bad as the First Ward Ball in some ways." 

Investigator met two girls who work in (X775) department store. 
These girls "solicit" every night in one of the saloons in the 22nd 
street district. One by the name of (X776), has a man by the name 
of (X777) whom she keeps. They have a furnished room at (X778) 
street and (X779) avenue. 

(X780) hall, corner of (X781) and (X782) streets. Hall rented 
by (X783), who is manager for the woman who owns the place. 
He also manages the saloon downstairs, (X784) street. On the night 
of October 15th there was a (X785) dance in this hall. 

Investigator met one girl who said she was not working any more, 
as she had a few "good fellows" who gave her money. She goes 
to the (X786) hotel on (X787) and (X788) avenue. The men she 
goes with give her as much as they want to. The room rent is 50 
cents. 

Investigator estimated that there were 200 women and girls, most 
of whom were (X789), in the hall. Some of the girls appeared to 
be about 16 years of age. The girls were drinking freely and when 
he left the hall, he noticed several who were intoxicated. 

(X790), near (X791) street on (X792) avenue. The dance given 
on October 4th in this hall was quite respectable. There were about 
35 girls and women from 17 to 35 years old present. Investigator 
talked to four girls who work at (X793) department store. A man 
in the hall said that the crowd that came in this hall was very select, 
and had been for two years. No drinks were sold in the hall, the 
nearest saloon is at (X794) street and (X795) avenue. 

(X796) hall. Corner (X797) avenue and (X798) street. The 
dance hall is over a saloon. The entire building is owned by the 
(X799) brewing company. (X800) is the representative of this 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 191 

company, and manages the saloon and dance hall, the latter is rented 
out at different times to organizations and pleasure clubs. The 
charge for the hall is $25 per night. 

The dance on October 15th was conducted by the (XS01) club. 
The bar was in a room at the end of the hall. 

The investigator declares that the conditions on this particular 
night were disgraceful. There were about 115 girls present from 
15 to 23 years of age, and many of them seemed to vie with each 
other in being "tough." Several of the girls said that a decent girl 
would not go to this hall. Investigator saw 9 professional prostitutes 
whom he had previously seen while investigating conditions in the 
West Madison street district. The details connected with this par- 
ticular dance are too vile to appear in print. 

Investigator danced with one of the girls who was particularly 
vulgar, and she said she would go to a room in the (X802) hotel, 
(X803) avenue. The room would cost 50 cents. This girl had a 
girl friend with her. Both came from St. Louis. Their parents think 
they are working in Chicago. They "solicit" at (X804) and (X805) 
saloon (X806) avenue. 

Investigator also danced with four other girls who frequent this 
saloon. In addition he met a number of girls who work as waitresses 
in downtown restaurants, the following information was given by the 
girls. 

Jennie. 19 years old. Said her own brother was the cause of her 
donwfall. She got into trouble and left her home in (X807). Came 
to Chicago and lived with an old man and his wife on 26th street, 
until she had a baby. It died the same day it was born. She left 
the old man eight months ago, and now works in one of (X808) 
lunch rooms and "solicits at night." She said she would go to the 
(X809) hotel for $1.00, room rent 50 cents. 

Mag. Said she was 21 years old. Came from (X810), Ken- 
tucky, two years ago. Could not make enough money waiting on table 
to pay expenses. Finally she met a fellow who took her out, bought 
her some clothes, gave her money and not long afterward they took 
a room together. He left her and is now tending bar "on the line." 
She then, went "on the turf for the money." 

Investigator estimated that there were three boys to every girl. 
He asked different boys why the fellows didn't dance more. Three 
told him that the boys come to the dance to get a girl to go home 
with. 

There were quite a number of boys under age who were served with 
drinks at the bar, 19 of them could not have been over 18 years of 
age. 

(X811), corner (X812) and (X813) streets. The dance hall is on 
the second floor with a balcony surrounding it. The bar is in the 
front end and nearby two rooms filled with tables and chairs. 



192 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

The owner of the building is (X814). He also owns the saloon 
on the ground floor. The rear room of this saloon is filled with setees, 
closed in so that no one can see those at the tables. Prostitutes 
soliciting on the street frequent this rear room. In addition some of 
the girls who attend the dance on the floor above come here, some with 
and some without escorts. 

(X815) is the manager for the dance hall. He lives with a 
girl named (X815a), who acts as his cashier. 

Investigator recognized a number of girls from the South Side, 
whom he knew to be professional prostitutes. 

The large percentage of the girls at the dance October 10th were 
immoral, and would go out for money. Others go with boys and 
men whom they like. 

The investigator declares that a great many of the girls at the dance 
were apparently under age. They all were served with drinks. Some 
became intoxicated, and had to be carried out of the room. 

One girl acknowledged to a doctor, who was with the investigator, 
that she had syphilis, but did not have enough money to have it treated. 
She pointed out three other girls in the same condition, and said that 
there were others who were diseased. 

During the evening quite a number of the girls were seen to go to 
the (X816) and (X817) cafes. Afterwards, between 12 and 1:30 A. 
M. investigator counted 14 couples enter (X818) hotel. He had seen 
these couples at the dance earlier in the night. Hotel (X819) and 
(X820) hotel, both assignation places, are in this neighborhood. 

(X821) hall, (X822) 35th street. On the evening of October 3rd, 
according to the investigator's estimate, there were about 125 girls 
and women at the dance. The ages were from 16 to 25. Investigator 
talked with 5 girls whom he knew to be professional prostitutes; two 
from a flat on the corner of (X823) street and (X824) avenue, one 
from a flat on (X825) avenue, and two who said they were from Mrs. 
(X826) near (X827) avenue on the (X828) side of the street. 

Investigator talked with 4 girls from (X829) store and with one 
from (X830) department store. 

One of the girls showed investigator a comb which (X831) gave 
her. She further said that she goes out with (X831) two nights 
each week and he takes her to the (X833) hotel, (X834) street and 
(X835) avenue. She offered to make a date with investigator. 

The other girls also offered to make dates. One said she had 3 
steady friends, one of whom has a private room with a friend which 
he keeps for the purpose of taking girls. This room she said was 
on (X836) street near (X837) avenue, but she would not give the 
number. 

Investigator talked with another girl whom he had met in the 
rear room of (X838) saloon on (X839) avenue, near (X840) street, 
and she had solicited him. He asked her if she was still living with 
her "cadet." She replied that she was but he had gone to Milwaukee 
for a few days and had taken nearly all of her money. 






SOURCES OF SUPPLY 193 

The majority of the girls at the dance on this particular evening 
were from 16 to 20 years of age, and many of them were very good 
looking. 

The conditions in this hall appeared to be so revolting that it was 
determined to send another investigator of entirely different type to 
verify the other's report. This was done on October 23rd. The 
following is his condensed report, substantiating the former investiga- 
tion. 

(X841) hall, (X842) 35th street. On second floor. Benches about 
the room. Extreme left is a stairway leading to the rear room of the 
saloon on the ground floor. Girls from the dance hall mingled with 
immoral women who solicit in this rear room. 

The charge for admittance to the dance hall is 25 cents, with 10 
cents extra for wardrobe check. 

A large number of the girls were quite young. Investigators talked 
with two who were 15 years of age. Many appeared to be from 16 
to 18 years of age. 

The language used by the girls and their men acquaintances is un- 
printable. Investigator talked with several of the girls. Among them 
the following: 

Rosie. Sixteen years old. Said she had no home. All she pos- 
sessed was the clothes she wore. At one time she was in a house of 
prostitution, but was not allowed to stay because she appeared to be 
so young. 

Girl. Name not secured. Said she had been to a hotel the previ- 
ous Saturday night. She was going home on this particular even- 
ing, but would go out for all night the following Wednesday, if in- 
vestigator would come to the dance hall and get her. She said that 
many of the fellows who come to this dance hall go out with her. 
"The fellows and girls are always changing off." She does not take 
money but the fellows buy her breakfasts. She works in the (X842a). 

This dance hall is owned by (X843), and his manager is (X844). 
(X845) also owns the (X846) hall, (X847), the manager of the 
(X848), lives with a girl called (X849), who solicits in (X850) cafe. 
Her parents live at (X851) street, between (X852) and (X853) 
streets. 

(X854), (X855) North Clark street. In 1900 (X856), a cab- 
driver, opened this hall under the name of (X857). In 1906 the name 
was changed to the (X858). 

One of the worst features of this dance hall is the number of pro- 
fessional prostitutes and cadets who come to the dances. It is es- 
timated that 75 per cent, of the girls who come here on weekday 
nights are prostitutes. An innocent girl is in great danger for the 
cadets are constantly on the lookout for them. 

On Saturday and Sunday night the attendance is about 300. The 
girls are from 17 to 25 years of age. Many of the girls are wait- 
resses, house maids, and clerks in department stores. They are called 
"charity," as they do not charge for their services. 



194 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

The dance hall is on the 3rd floor of the building. The cafe or 
bar is on the floor below. There is a private wine room on this 
floor, in which (X859) entertains girls whom he has taken a fancy 
to. Just off of this room is another private room furnished in elab- 
orate style including a couch. It is asserted that (X859) has used this 
room for purposes of seduction. 

By 12:30 A. M. on the nights of the dances many of the girls 
were intoxicated, and were "picked up" by young men who frequented 
the place for that purpose. There are a few assignation hotels in 
the vicinity. One is the (X8G1) on the corner of (X862) and (X863) 
streets. 

Among the cadets seen here was Robert (X864), who at present is 
living at the (X865) hotel with a girl called "Jessie" (X866). This 
girl is a prostitute in a house at (X867) avenue. 

(X868) hall, (X869) 22nd street. This dance hall is the most no- 
torious place in Chicago. In fact it is to Chicago what the Haymarket 
is to New York. A description is given here in order to contrast it 
with the other dance halls described above on the proposition that 
some of them are to all intents and purposes just as much a part 
of the expression of this phase of prostitution. 

The only difference is that no respectable girl enters (X868), unless 
taken there by silly and thoughtless people, who want to show the 
sights of the city. Every girl who frequents this place is a professional 
prostitute, grooomed and trained to coax money out of the pockets 
of visitors for the benefit of the managers and then to persuade him 
to go to a hotel or to their own flats. One of the rules of this place is 
that a girl is supposed to make each man spend at least 40 cents for 
every round of drinks. 

The price of admission to men is 25 cents, in addition to a tip of 
10 cents for checking a hat. 

The building in which this hall is located is owned by (X871), who 
leases it to a combination like the following: 

(X872), (X873), owner of the (X874) cafe, and one other per- 
son, who is said to be a representative of (X875). (X876) acts as 
manager for this trio. 

The entertainment in this place is given by two men and one woman 
singer. These men pass the basket and the collection goes to help 
defray the expenses. The singers are paid $30 per week. 

After a song, an orchestra in the balcony begins to play, and the 
"guests" form in couples and dance. 

The girls are very aggressive, and do not wait for an invitation, 
but sit down at the tables, and as pointed out above, order a round 
of drinks that costs no less than 40 cents. 

The mixed drinks brought to the prostitutes are counterfeit. For 
instance the girl orders a "B" ginger ale highball. This is colored 
water made in imitation of this drink. The cost is probably less than 
a cent, but the victim pays 25 or 50 cents for it. 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 195 

The business is run in a systematic manner; the prostitutes must be 
in their places at 9 :00 P. M. If they are tardy, the manager "calls 
them down." The force of prostitute attaches numbers about 20 at the 
present time. They charge $5.00 and generally go to the (X877) 
hotel at the corner of (X878) and (X879) streets. The price of the 
room here is usually $5.00 and the girl gets half. If she wants it 
cheaper, she will hold up a certain number of fingers indicating the 
price to be charged. The woman in attendance at the (X877) hotel 
is colored and they call her (X881). 

The following are among the prostitutes who solicit in this dance 
hall and act as assistants to the managers in the sale of liquor. 

(X886). This girl is called (X887) on account of her beauty and 
money making ability. She came from New York City three years 
ago. Is about 24 years of age; has been married twice. About five 
months ago she entered the (X888), where she stayed two weeks. 
During this period she became a pervert, and this has added to her 
popularity with the men, particularly those who are advanced in years. 

After returning to the dance hall she met an entertainer named 
(X889) with whom she now lives on (X890) street, near (X891) ave- 
nue, and bears his name. He sings in nickel theaters and restaurants. 

Violet (X893). About 21 years of age. Came to Chicago about 
two years ago from (X894), Illinois, where her parents still live. 
She lives with a (X895) named (X896), at (X897) avenue. Violet 
became immoral when she was 15 years old, and left (X894) because 
she fell in love with a married man, who would not leave his wife. 

Rosie (X899), alias Rosie (X900). About 20 years of age. Came 
from (X900a), Minnesota, about two years ago. Violet (X901) is 
her chum. Rosie lives with (X901) at (X903) avenue. 

Bebe, correct name Bebe (X904). Came to (X905) about three 
years ago. For the past two years has lived with a fellow named 
(X906), who was an entertainer in the dance hall. Last year (X906) 
was arrested for mistreating a 7 year old girl. He has a wife living 
in (X908). Bebe recently quarreled with (X906), and she sent for 
his wife who had him arrested. He is now living in (X910) with 
his wife. Bebe lives with (X911), a waiter in the (X912) cafe. 

Marcella (X913), alias Tantine (X914). About 20 years of age. 
Was born in (X915), Wisconsin. Came to Chicago about two years 
ago and started to work in the (X916) department store. One of the 
managers insisted on taking her out, which she finally had to do "to 
hold her job," as she asserts. At one time, she declared, she had a 
miscarriage in the store. Finally she left the (X917) and became a 
waitress for (X918) and Company at (X919) Park. While here she 
started to go to dances at (X920) hall. One night she met a girl 
who induced her to go to (X921) cafe to "hustle." At this time she 
lived at (X922) avenue. Her married brother heard that she was 
"hustling" and made her come to live with him on (X923), near 
(X924) avenue. Afterward she left her brother, and entered a flat 
operated by Mrs. (X925), room (X926), (X927) apartment building, 



196 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

(X928) avenue and (X929) street. Two months after she began so- 
liciting she was infected, and was confined in the Cook County Hos- 
pital for two weeks. She has solicited in (X930), a saloon on the 
corner of (X931) and (X932) streets. 

Rosie (X933). About 21 years of age. Her parents live at the 
(X934) hotel at present. She was married at one time to (X935), 
but secured a divorce because he was a pervert. 

Babette (X936). Solicits in (X937) and (X938). She is about 
19 years of age. She lives with (X939), a salesman for (X940), 
northeast corner of (X941) and (X942) streets. His salary is $20 
per week. He first met her at the (X943) hall, where she attended 
dances when she first came to the city. They live at the (X944) 
hotel or flats at (X945) avenue and (X946) street, telephone 
(X947). 

Mag (X947a). Correct name is (X948), home in (X949), Ohio. 
Parents still live there. Told investigator she was 16 years old. Said 
(X876), manager of (X868), instructed her to tell everybody that 
she is 19, and that if he ever found out that she told anyone her right 
age, she would be put out and he would "beat her up beside." Mag's 
chum also told investigator that she (Mag) was only 16. She also 
said that Mag would be getting into trouble soon. Mag said she 
was sending money home as her parents needed it. Her father is a 
drunkard, she said. She has two sisters. 

Tantine (X952). About 19 years of age. Is a blonde. Has been a 
prostitute for three years. Been soliciting in (X953) for six months. 
She lives at (X954) Wabash avenue. Flat (X955). Quite a num- 
ber of prostitutes live in this flat. She pays four dollars per week 
for room and bath. 

Tantine's parents live in (X956). She went home last summer, and 
told her parents she was married and had a "rich husband." 

When she was 16 years of age she met a man named (X957), who' 
promised to marry her, and on the strength of this promise seduced 
her. They then planned to elope. He took her to (X958), Wyoming, 
and put her in a sporting house. 

The following is given in practically her own words: 

"I was a little mutt, then, and I did not know where I was. 
The landlady just asked my name and how old I was. I told her 
16. She said I looked it. You bet I did. I wore my hair in a 
braid, and it was parted in the center flat on my head. I also 
wore short skirts. It was a pretty house, and the madame told 
me to stay up in my room. She asked how I came to know 
(X957), and I told her he was my husband. I did not see him 
again until late that night. In a short while the landlady called 
me down from my room and introduced me to an elderly gen- 
tleman, and told me to go up to my room with him. I told her 
I did not want to go up to my room with any one but my hus- 
band. She said that man was going to give me a whole lot of 
money, if I just went up to my room with him. I finally decided 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 197 

to go up with him. He asked me if I wanted some wine. I 
told him no. Then the landlady called me aside and said 'Order 
it anyway, and if you can't drink it, why ditch it.' When we 
got up to my room, I said, 'Yes, I'll have some wine, and ditch it.' 
He started to laugh, and called the landlady up and told her what 
I had said. The landlady laughed and said, 'She is only a little 
rum, don't mind her.' He then explained to me that ditch it 
meant to throw it away, when he was not looking. 

After talking for a short while, he said it was about time that 
he made me work. I asked what he meant, and he said, 'Take 
your clothes off, and I'll show you.' I felt highly insulted and 
told him so. He then told me where I was, and what I was up 
against, and I started to cry. He then gave me $50 and told me 
to go home to my mother, cause he said that was where I be- 
longed. 

1 did not see anybody else that day, and late that night (X957) 
came back and told me that he already was married and he had 
a child. He said that he was going to (X961) to get a divorce 
and then marry me. At the same time he took the $50 away 
from me. 

I was only here one day, because the next day I met a fellow 
who was going to (X962), and he asked me to go along. I con- 
sented and went with him. I lived with him for nearly a year. 
He was the second fellow I ever stayed with. (X957) actually 
violated me. He forced me, and I was going to tell my mother 
only he promised to marry me. No, I did not like him so very 
much. 

While in (X964) city, I had a quarrel with my fellow, and 
left him. I took the train for (X965), because I had heard so 
much about it. I "hustled" there for about a week, when I met 
(X966), a very prominent doctor of (X965). He was a mar- 
ried man, and he put me up in a swell hotel and gave me all 
the money I needed; he only came to see me about three times a 
week. All went well for about a month until one day I was ar- 
rested by the chief of police himself. He took me into his of- 
fice, and showed me a picture of myself which my father and 
mother had sent him in order to locate me. I denied that I was 
Tantine and said I did not have any parents and that I came from 
(X968). He then asked me to name a few of the principal 
streets of (X968) and I was stuck. I told him I could not re- 
member them now, as I was not there very long, as I spent most 
of my life in (X968). He asked me about (X968), and I got 
away with that all right. I then told him that that picture could 
not be of me as I was much older. I did age fearfully after 
that. I look much older than 19, don't I? He talked to me for 
about two hours, and I bulled him, and he finally let me go. 

Everything was all right until one day I ran into a fellow 
from home who also knew (X966). He promised to take me to 



198 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Chicago and I decided to go with him. He then wrote to (X973), 
who was in (X974) at the time with his wife and child. When we 
arrived in Chicago my friend put me in (X975) house, (X976) 
Dearborn street, About a week later (X957) and his wife came to 
Chicago. He came up to see me and wanted me to live with 
him. I bawled him out and threatened to turn him over to the 
police or kill him, if I ever saw him again. That same day his 
wife came over to see me and she told me that he did the same 
thing to her. He seduced her and when she had a baby her folks 
made him marry her. She said he was leading her and the 
child a dog's life, but she stuck for the child's sake. He was the 
prettiest baby I ever saw. I believe they are living in (X978) 
now. 

I left (X975) house in about two months, and have been in 
a lot of houses. I have been in places where they graft, almost 
hold you up. I have hustled on the street. Yes, I used to pay 
lots of protection money to policemen. But I got wise in time. 
If they threaten to pinch me, why I say, go ahead and pinch 
me, then they won't. No, you can't make any money hustling 
on the street any more. If you want to be in right you have 
got to give half of what you make to the coppers. No, I never 
knew any of their names, but I could point them out to you 
any time. Hell, they all graft. There is not a policeman around 
here that doesn't hold us girls up, and I know it from experience. 
But you see us girls who have been around a long time get wise, 
and they don't get a nickel out of me any more. 

I go home at 3 :00 A. M. every morning, and I don't hustle 
any place any more but here. I think I make more than any of 
the girls around here, and I don't spend it on booze like the rest 
of them. That's why they never have anything. I make on an 
average of $100 a week. That's pretty good, isn't it. Well, 
come up to the house some afternoon, and see me. No, I don't 
live with anybody. It don't pay." 

Enforcement of the Law and Ordinances. On June 6, 1910, the 
ordinance regarding bar permits went into effect. From this date 
until October 31, 1910, the Department issued 1,207 bar permits. Of 
this number 1,157 were issued for places where dances were to be 
held. None of the surety bonds on which these permits have been 
granted have been forfeited during that time. 

DEPARTMENT STORES. 

As an introduction to the study of Department Stores it may be 
well to call particular atention to the fact that the present economic 
and insanitary conditions under which the girls employed in factories 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 199 

and department stores live and work, has an effect on the nervous 
forces of the girl in such a way as to render her much more susceptible 
to prostitution. 

This is true as a basis. The whole tendency of modern life, which 
places a greater strain on the nervous system of both men and women 
of all classes than has ever been placed at any time in the history of 
the civilized world, cannot but help, to a great extent, develop consid- 
erable eroticism. The sexual senses of the brain, as well as the sem- 
inal parts, are from the very nature of their natural functions, sus- 
ceptable organisms and they will be the most readily influenced by 
modes of life, and highly speeded modern life must stimulate these or- 
ganisms. 

It is a sound medical fact that practically the same condition in 
regard to stimulation of nerve cells exists at the point of extreme ex- 
haustion, where a person has a feeling of strength which is unnatural, 
and that point is usually reached after exceedingly hard and exacting 
labor, or at the point where high feeling, improper exercise, and a 
considerable amount of alcohol can bring the nerves to a point of 
stimulation. That is the explanation of the fact that people try to dis- 
prove the economic explanation of prostitution from the fact that there 
are people of all classes of society addicted to immorality. 

It is unfortunate that it has not been possible to undertake a full 
investigation of hours of labor and the results of nervous strain caused 
by machinery and occupations where machinery is chiefly employed and 
operated by women and girls. 

Without this accurate economic data, it is practically impossible to 
established a firm foundation on which to deal with the sources of 
vice in its various forms. 

This lack of data is supplied, to a degree, by the following quota- 
tions showing the effect of this nervous strain upon working people, 
men, women and girls. 

D. BAD EFFECT OF LONG HOURS ON MORALS. 

"The effect of overwork on morals is closely related to the injury 
to health. Laxity of moral fibre follows physical debility. When the 
working day is so long that no time whatever is left for a minimum 
of leisure or home life, relief from the strain of work is sought in 
alcoholic stimulants and other excesses." Massachusetts Legislative 
Document House, 1866, No. 98. 



200 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

"Overwork is the fruitful source of innumerable evils. Ten and 
eleven hours daily of hard labor are more than the human system 
can bear, save in a few exceptional cases. * * * It cripples the body, 
ruins health, shortens life. It stunts the mind, gives no time for 
culture, no opportunity for reading, study or mental improvement. It 
leaves the system jaded and worn, with no ability to study. * * * It 
tends to dissipation in various forms. The exhausted system craves 
stimulants. This opens the door to other indulgences, from which 
flow not only the degeneracy of individuals, but the degeneracy of the 
race." (Page 24.) Relations Between Labor and Capital. U. S. 
Senate Committee, 1883. Vol. I. 

"I have noticed that the hard slavish overwork is driving those girls 
into the saloons, after they leave the mills evenings * * * good re- 
spectable girls, but they come out so tired and so thirsty and ex- 
hausted * * * from working along steadily from hour to hour and 
breathing the noxious effluvia from the grease and other ingredients 
used in the mill." Testimony of Robert Howard, Mulespinner in Fall 
River Cotton Mills. 1 

E. BAD EFFECT OF FATIGUE UPON MORALS. 2 

The dangers attendant upon excessive working hours are shown 
also by the moral degeneration which results from over fatigue. Laxity 
of moral fibre follows physical debility. When the working day is so 
long that no time is left for a minimum of leisure and recreation, re- 
lief from the strain of work is often sought in alcoholic stimulants. 
In extreme cases the moral breakdown leads to mental degeneracy 
and criminal acts. 

(1) GENERAL LOSS OF MORAL RESTRAINTS. 

"There can be little doubt that working 10 hours a day would be 
more favorable to health and the enjoyment of life than 12 hours 
a day can be ; but without entering into the question of health, no one 
will hesitate, I think, to admit that, in a moral point of view, so en- 
tire an absorption of the time of the working classes * * * must be 
extremely prejudicial, and is an evil greatly to be deplored. Some 
there are, undoubtedly, who, by more than ordinary natural energy, 
overcame this disadvantage; but with the great mass it has had the 



'These extracts were taken from the decision of The United States Supreme 
Court in the case of Curt Muller v. State of Oregon, upholding the constitu- 
tionality of the 10 hour law for women and Brief for State of Oregon by Louis 
B. Brandeis. 

'Brief and Argument in case of Ritchie et al. v. Wayman and Davies. Filed 
in the Supreme Court of Illinois by Louis B. Brandeis at the December, 1909, 
term. 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 201 

effect of rendering them ignorant, prejudiced, addicted to coarse 
sensual indulgences, and susceptible of being led into mischief and 
violence by any appeal to their passions or prejudices. With so few 
opportunities of mental culture, and of moral and religious training, 
it is surprising that there should be so many respectable and virtuous 
people among them. For the sake, therefore, of public morals, of 
bringing up an orderly population, and of giving the great body of the 
people an enjoyment of life, it is much to be desired that in all trades 
some portion of every working day should be reserved for rest and 
leisure." (Page 30.) British Sessional Papers. Vol. XXII, 1842. Re- 
ports of Inspectors of Factories. 

"Wherever you go * * * near the abodes of people who are over- 
worked, you will always find the sign of the rum shop. Drinking 
is most prevalent among working people where the hours of labor 
are long." The case for the Factory Acts. Edited by Mrs. Sidney 
Webb. London, 1901. 

"If working long and irregular hours, accepting a bare subsistence 
wage and enduring insanitary conditions tended to increase women's 
physical strength and industrial skill if these conditions or unregu- 
lated industry even left unimpaired the woman's natural stock of 
strength and skill we might regard factory legislation as irrelevant. 
But as a matter of fact a whole century of evidence proves exactly the 
contrary. To have women's labor unregulated by law means inev- 
itably to leave it exposed to terribly deteriorating influences. The 
woman's lack of skill and lack of strength is made worse by lack of 
regulation. And there is still a further deterioration. Anyone who 
has read the evidence given in the various inquiries into the Sweating 
System will have been struck by the invariable coincidence of a low 
standard of regularity, sobriety and moraltity, with the conditions to 
which women, under free competition are exposed." (Page 209.) 
Dangerous Trades. Thomas Oliver, MD., London. 1902. 

"On the morals of the workers there has been a marked effect." 
If working long and irregular* hours, accepting a bare subsistence 
wage, and enduring insanitary conditions tended to increase women's 
physical strength and industrial skill if these conditions of unregulated 
industry even left unimpaired the woman's natural stock of strength 
and skill we might regard factory legislation as irrelevant. But as 
a matter of fact a whole century of evidence proves exactly the con- 
trary. To leave women's labor unregulated by law means inevitably 
to leave it exposed to terribly deteriorating influences. The woman's 
lack of skill and lack of strength is made worse by lack of regulation. 
And there is still a further deterioration. Any one who has read the 
evidence given in the various inquiries into the Sweating System will 
have been struck by the invariable coincidence of a low standard of 
regularity, sobriety and morality, with the conditions to which women, 
under free competition, are exposed. (Pages 209-210.) The Case of 



202 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

the Factory Acts. Edited by Mrs. Sidney Webb, London, Richards, 
1901. 

"Girls in factories are expected to keep up a certain 'pace/ while 
at work, and ten hours of driving work at a hot pace are not to be 
considered conducive to good health physically or to leave the worker 
in any humor for applying herself to educational improvement. Dances 
and shows will be the most attractive things to be indulged in after 
work, if the chance offer." (Pages 33-34.) Charities and the Com- 
mons. March 6, 1909. Vol. XXI. No. 23. New York. The In- 
dutsrial Environment of Pittsburgh's Working Women. Elizabeth 
Beardsley Butler, Former Secretary New Jersey Consumers' League. 

"Although very many girls are brought here, innocently betrayed 
into a slavery rigid in its strictness and purports in its nature, the price 
offered to the victim is only that of higher wages and better economic 
conditions, the greater number of women who have already been 
living an immoral life abroad, and who come to the United States 
willingly to continue open-eyed practices of their former life, come to 
secure higher wages, often profit ten times as great as they have re- 
ceived in Europe, though they are subject to their pimps, and have 
little or no opportunity to save for themselves, there is yet the op- 
portunity for higher gains, a higher economic standard of living, an 
opportunity for travel and the interest of a new environment, and 
perhaps at times a hope of real betterment of conditions. Page 6 
Senate Document 196. 

There are many men who own large establishments, who pay wages 
which simply drive women into prostitution. 

Some of the girls who are most tempted, and who enter lives of pros- 
titution, work in the big department stores, surrounded by luxuries, 
which all of them crave, and sell large quantities of those luxuries 
for a wage compensation of about $7.00 or $8.00 a week, and even 
less. 

This subject is treated in the Pittsburg Survey under the head of 
"The Woman and the Trades," published by the Russell Sage Founda- 
tion. On page 305, the writer said: 

"Where the store is particular as to the mode of life of its em- 
ployes, and makes it a point of dismissing those who offend against its 
standards, the percentage of girls that lead irregular lives is lower 
than in those stores where it is sometimes tolerated and sometimes 
encouraged; yet from among the girls themselves, and those dealing 
with it from those sources, my information is that in the moral 
jeopardy of shop girls lies one of the serious problems of the women 
employed in trades." 

In all large citise there is a system of common school education, 
which is thorough and very good in most cases. It educates the de- 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 203 

sires of young boys and girls to a point of at least decent living in 
comfort. It also gives them the power of analyzing their own posi- 
tions, and the positions of those who surround them. It is inevitable 
that when such young men and young women go out into life, they 
should be very ambitious that in a few years they will be running some 
establishment. But later on a man reaches $12.00 or $15.00 a week, 
and the woman $7.00 or $8.00, and find themselves units in a vast 
array of clerical and office help, with no hope for bettering their con- 
dition. This results in creating a class in society, too intelligent to 
burden the world with children whom they cannot .support and edu- 
cate, and fill society with homes where only the father works, and 
homes which naturally will be more frequented by installment col- 
lectors for furniture, than by happiness or any other socially com- 
fortable thing. 

EXISTING CONDITIONS. 

The girl in the department store is confronted with certain tempta- 
tions which are ever pressing harder upon her. The first of these 
is the procuress, the second the "cadet," and third, the man directly 
over her, who may even be the manager or the proprietor himself. 

But in spite of these temptations it is only fair to say that many 
of these girls never fall before these allurements. They work grimly 
on enduring and suffering to the end. 

It has been established after exhaustive study that it is quite im- 
possible for a working girl in any large city to live on less than eight 
dollars per week, yet employers of these department stores say that 
they pay on an average of from $6.00 to $7.00 per week. 

This is - all the girls are worth, they maintain, the law of supply 
and demand regulates all this. 

And because the unskilled girl workers are a drug on the market 
the employer keeps piling up enormous profits and paying great divi- 
dends, sometimes extra dividends. 

In writing upon this subject in Pearson's Magazine for February, 
1911, at page 178, Richard Barry refers to a census taken last year by 
the Woman's Trade Union League of Chicago, which showed that 
"from 25 per cent, to 30 per cent, of the women employed in the 
department stores were not receiving sufficient money to enable them 
to procure the necessities of life." 



204 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

And again, Mr. Barry calls attention to the work of a New York 
home for women, the matron of which is said to have declared that 
"16 per cent, of the girls who applied there for refuge, have entered a 
life or immorality in the greatest city in the country because of in- 
sufficient wages, which do not allow them to pay for food and lodg- 
ing." 

Under the heading "Profits from Prostitution in Chicago," in this 
Commission's report, attention is called to the earnings of the in- 
mates of houses of prostitution giving as an average $25.00 per week 
or $1,300.00 per annum, which is ultra conservative. This is five 
per cent, on $26,000.00. The average wage paid in a department store 
is $6.00 per week or $300.00 per annum. This is five per cent, on 
$6,000.00. In other words a girl represents a capitalized value of 
$26,000.00 as a professional prostitute, where brains, virtue and all 
good things are "nil," or more than four times as much as she is 
worth as a factor in the industrial and social economy where brains, 
intelligence, virtue and womanly charm should be worth a premium. 1 

Does it surprise one in the face of these conditions that many weak, 
tempted, nervously exhausted girls realizing the financial profits from 
the sale of their virtue enter upon what they believe for the moment 
to be the "easiest way," only to experience finally its sad consequence. 

A former salesgirl in a department store was seen in a fashionable 
all-night restaurant. She said that four weeks previous she had been 
earning $8.00 per week. She enumerated different articles of clothing 
which she was wearing, and gave the prices of each, including her hat. 
The total amount came to over $200.00. Her eyes had been opened 
to her earning capacity in the "sporting" life by a man who laughed 
at her for wasting her good looks and physical charms behind a 
counter for a boss who was growing rich from her services, and the 
services of others like her. 

A girl who had been employed as a misses' model in another de- 
partment store at $10.00 per week also learned that she could easily 
become a "$5.00" girl, by frequenting a notorious dance hall. She had 
been in this hall two weeks when she remarked that the "graft" was 
so easy she was almost "ashamed to take the money," and "it beat the 
department store game all to hell." 



*See Chapter I, Existing Conditions, page 95. 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 205 

The plain blunt facts tell more than pages of theorizing on the 
subject. 

Let us look for a moment at the results of the field investigation as 
undertaken by the Commission showing some of the methods used in 
the stores, the wages now actually being paid and then the various 
forms of temptations surrounding the girls. 

METHODS USED IN THE STORES. 

/. Application for Employment. The application blank which a 
prospective salesgirl must fill out usually contains blanks for a record 
of a girl's entire business experience, as well as educational quali- 
fications, etc. A study of these application blanks would be intensely 
interesting if it were possible to obtain them. 

//. Rules. These rules are usually very elaborate and cover a wide 
field. One rule generally conspicuous calls attention of the employe 
to dress requirements. 

A case is on record where a girl actually purchased 24 shirt waists 
in one year in order to "be cleanly and neat in appearance, avoiding 
extravagance and display," as required by the rules. Of course the 
girl knew that $5.00 waists would last longer than 98 cent ones, and it 
would be economical to buy such waists, but in her case she never 
could amass a sum like $5.00, so she purchased the 98 cent ones, 
washed them once or twice and when they fell to pieces, threw them 
away. No doubt other girls could do better, having a knowledge of 
sewing and washing. Another washed her one waist every night, in 
order to appear "cleanly and neat," and avoid "extravagance and dis- 
Play." 

///. The Fining System. Another method used by certain depart- 
ment stores under the guise of "maintaining discipline" is the fining 
system. For every mistake an employe makes, for every moment 
they are late in their places, there is a regulated system of fines. These 
natural, and often unavoidable losses are watched and recorded, and 
the amounts deducted from the weekly salary. 

IV. Wages Paid. The information given below was obtained from 
the girls in the different stores by a woman who has worked among 
them for fifteen years and knew they were telling the truth. 



206 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

(X980) pays a uniform scale of wages, amounting to $2.00 per 
week to all clerks, and they allow in addition a percentage on goods 
which are sold in the house as follows : 

On Hat selling for $2.48 15 cents 

4.98 25 " 

" Fur " " 4.98 25 

Feathers " " .69 5 

a a 98 5 a 

" Underwear 

garments . " 2.19 10 " 

a a 24 1 " 

Waists " " 1.98 7 

Hose " " .19 1 

Gloves " " .24 1 " 

Young sales inspectors receive a straight salary of $4.00 and older 
ones $5.00 per week. If a mistake is made by any of the clerks in mak- 
ing out sales, they are charged 10 cents, an error slip for this amount 
being put in against them. 

Another store (X981). A girl in the china department receives $6.00 
per week. She has been in the employ of this firm for a long time. 
This house pays 2 per cent, over a certain amount of sales for the 
week. Young inspectors receive $4.00 and older girls $4.50 to $5.00 
per week. 

Another store (X982). A salesgirl without much experience receives 
$6.00 per week. Some are raised to $7.00 after a year or two. They 
offered a young lady with some experience $10.00 per week to work in 
the curtain department. This is one of the most difficult positions to 
hold in a department store, as a salesgirl must know how to display the 
goods, as well as the names of the different grades. 

One of the girls in the hosiery department receives $6.00 per week ; 
one in the hardware department $6.00. Some girls in these different 
departments receive $7.00 per week; one girl in the grocery depart- 
ment $6.00. A woman about 45 years of age in the general department 
works from 11 :00 A. M.. to, 4 :00 P. M. and receives $6.00 per week. 
Another clerk works from 10:00 A. M. to 6:00 P. M. and also re- 
ceives $6.00 per week. A girl has to be a very good saleswoman to 
get more than $6.00 in this department store. 

(X983). This department store pays from $4.00 to $5.00 per week 
for new help. One of the managers told a young lady who had had a 
great deal of experience that they would not pay more than $6.00 per 
week, for it was possible to get a great many girls for $5.00. "Most 
of our girls," he declared, "live at home and only work for pin 
money." 

(X984). This department store will take new help on at $6.00 
per week, if they have had any experience. They pay young in- 
spectors $3.00, $3.50 and $4.50 per week, and older ones $5.00 per 



SOURCES OP SUPPLY 207 

week. Some of the older women are paid $7.50 in such departments 
as suits, hats and coats. 

One of the girls in the hardware department of this store says she 
went to dances two or three times a week, and was only working for 
the holidays. When asked what she expected to do after that, she 
said, "I will get along all right." 

(X985) pays $6.00 per week to a great many of their salesladies. 
Inspectors are receiving $3.00, $3.50 and $4.00 per week. One young 
lady was very bitter in her remarks, and said, "If the folks who were 
getting up the tag days would go into the department stores and help 
the poorly paid girls they would be doing something worth while." 

A manager of a department in this store who has charge of 10 girls 
said he knew that seven of them went to houses of prostitution on 
certain nights of the week to earn extra money. 

One of the girls in the waist department said she had to wash 
her waist at night, so as to have it clean for the next day, as it was 
the only waist she had. 

A girl working in one of these department stores was found by 
a detective of the store in a saloon. She told the detective she had a 
boy to take care of, and could not do it on the salary she received, 
which was $10.00 per week. She was discharged by the store, and 
afterwards became a professional prostitute. 

Some of the girls in the suit, cloak and millinery departments make 
as high at $15.00 per week, but few of them are assured of a perma- 
nent position. 

TEMPTATIONS TO WHICH SALESGIRLS IN DEPARTMENT STORES ARE SUB- 
JECTED. 

As pointed out above, the girl in the department store is subjected 
to certain temptations to which some yield, and from which many flee. 
These temptations appear in the following guises: 

I. The Procuress. The woman who appears before the girl's 
counter or in the waiting room and compliments her on her good 
looks and bewails with her the injustice which prevents her from 
having the beautiful clothes to which she is entitled and the good 
times, because of her youth and beauty. Too often the girl listens 
and accepts the "elegant" lady's invitation to come to her flat for 
dinner or to spend Sunday. 

One of these women did so appear before a young girl and did in- 
vite her to her "beautiful flat," in fact she was continually asking other 



208 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

girls to do the same thing. But her flat was a disorderly house and 
her own daughter was one of the inmates. 

Again, one day a saleslady went to the rest room to wash. A woman 
dressed in very rich apparel came to her and asked her to meet a 
young man. The girl was afraid and told the house detective who 
went to the room, but the woman had disappeared. 

Another woman who posed as a rich lady, traded several times 
with a girl at the drug counter in one of the department stores. One 
day she asked the girl to visit her home, saying that her husband was 
away. The girl accepted this hospitality, and afterward went to live 
with a man who conducted a surgical instrument house. 

II. The "Cadet." This boy or man may be seen any evening near 
the employes' exit of department stores with the avowed purpose 
of making the acquaintance of some attractive girl and bear her off in 
triumph to the restaurant and the theater. 

A few weeks ago two young men were attempting to talk with a 
little girl who was an inspector at one of the stores. They were put 
off the floor at two different times. The girl had about made up her 
mind to go with them. She was changed to another floor. 

A young saleswoman, 19 years of age, in one of the department 
stores, formed the habit of going to cafes in the evening. One night 
she met a young man, and he persuaded her \.o live with him. After- 
ward she became acquainted with a rich man who gave her a great 
many presents. Finally, she gave up her position, and shared the 
rich man's gifts with her first lover. She continued to send money 
home to her mother, who lived in a small town, and and thought her 
married. The girl eventually paid off a mortgage on her mother's 
home. 

During the past summer five different men and women were fre- 
quenting the rest rooms at one of the department stores. One was 
arrested, but was finally released. One of these persons was a colored 
woman who said the girls she was talking to were her own daughters. 
She made this statement in spite of the fact that the girls were white, 
and one had red hair. While one of the employes of the store went 
for the girls to identify the woman, she disappeared. 

///. Married Men. Married men are among the worst offenders 
against salesgirls, and use all sorts of methods to induce them to ac- 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 209 

cept invitations to dine, or go to the theater. These men come to the 
counters while their wives are shopping, and thus enter into conversa- 
tion with the girls. They are very bold and aggressive in their 
actions, and if the girls resent these attentions, some of these men 
actually report them to the floor walkers, claiming they neglected 
their business. In some cases these complaints have led to the dis- 
charge of the girls in the store. 

IV. Men Employers, Salesmen and Women. A certain floor walker 
had been in the habit of taking girls out. He was continually 
harassing the girls who did not accept his invitation. A house de- 
tective finally succeeded in having him discharged. Some salesgirls 
will testify their downfall was caused by their employers, and they 
actually wore diamonds belonging to these employers. Two girls who 
are employed in a department store (X985a) came to work one day in 
an intoxicated condition. They went to the office of one of the 
partners, sat down in chairs, and put their feet on his desk. An em- 
ploye of the store tried' to persuade them to leave. They said they 
would not, and dared him to put them out. He did not do so. 

An employe of (X985b) store said she actually heard a superin- 
tendent ask a girl who had complained that she could not work for 
$6.00 per week, if this was the only zvay she had of earning money. 
She answered that it was. He then told her that the house could not 
pay her any more. 

A man at (X985c), a large department store, had charge of in- 
spectors. One day he went so far as to take one of the girls to his 
home when his wife was away. The girl got into trouble and he 
left the city. The firm cautioned all the employes not to speak of 
the incident. 

The head of (X985d) department store told an employe he did not 
care what the girl did outside of working hours, so long as they did 
not bring disgrace on the name of the store. 

The superintendent of (X985e) department store mistreated his 
stenographer. She was a very good looking girl, just from the country, 
and boarded at the Y. W. C. A. After her downfall, she left the store, 
and was finally put out of this charitable and religious institution. 
The superintendent proved to be a cigarette fiend, and finally committed 
suicide in Denver. The girl lived with this man after her trouble. The 



210 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

last time she was seen by a friend, she was about to leave the city, 
saying she was going to kill herself soon. 

A matron at one of the large department stores once told a salesgirl 
she was foolish to work there, as she could make money easier in 
the "sporting life." About two weeks later this girl resigned, and was 
found by a detective from this store in a basement saloon on Madison 
street. 

V. Voluntary. One day a house detective in one of the stores 
actually heard several young cash girls relating their experience while 
out with men during the evening. They made such remarks as, "He 
opened a bottle for me," and "We had a swell time." 

One salesgirl, 17 years of age, by the name of Sadie, was heard to 
remark in one of the stores that she wasn't going to work again, as 
she had "touched a guy last night for $50.00, and now I will have a 
swell hat." The man from whom she had stolen the money came to 
the store with an officer, and the girl was compelled to return the 
money. This man would not prosecute. 

Several young salesgirls, who entered a life of professional prosti- 
tution, have done so on the plea that they could live on "easy street." 
One of these girls died, another married a doctor on the North Side. 

One night while the detective was in the (X986) and (X987) cafes 
at (X988) Wabash avenue, he saw five salesgirls in these places whom 
he recognized as being from a certain department store on State 
street. 

An employe of a great many years in the department stores said 
that she knew many salesgirls who lived with men who were not their 
husbands. 

One girl who worked in the suit department of one of the stores 
left to enter a life of prostitution. At the present time she is what 
is known as a "kept woman." 

Mrs. (X989), who conducts an immoral flat at (X990) 24th street, 
said that the whole success of a flat like hers depends upon getting 
young fresh girls. She spoke of two who came during certain even- 
ings, and who worked in (X990a) department store. 

VI. Typical Cases. September nth. Bebe was soliciting on North 
Clark street. She works at one of the large department stores. 

On September loth. Rosie was seen in a dance hall at (X991) 
North Clark street. She works in the basement of one of the large 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 211 

f 

department stores, and receives $6.00 per week. Out of this she pays 
$3.00 for her meals and $2.00 room rent, and 60 cents per week car- 
fare. She "hustles" three nights every week, as a business proposi- 
tion. She said that during these nights she could be found in the rear 
room of (X992) saloon at (X993) North Clark street. She is about 
20 years of age. 

September 2ist. Mag was seen at the dance hall on North Clark 
street. She works in one of the large department stores at a salary 
of $5.00 per week. She has a furnished room on North Clark street. 
At one time she had a baby which died. She was "hustling" certain 
nights in the week, and claims she does it to help support herself. 

September 24th. There were about 200 girls in a dance hall at 
(X994) avenue. One of these, Lillie, about 19 years of age, works in 
a department store and receives a salary of $5.00 per week. She will 
take presents from her men friends, but refuses the actual money. 
One of these friends gave her a bracelet the week previous. He is a 
clerk in the same store. 

Violet, another girl at this dance, is about 18 years of age, and 
works in a department store at $6.00 per week. She has two steady 
friends, who take her out each week, and give her $2.00 a week. This 
brings up her salary to $10.00 per week. They take her to a room 
downtown, but she would not give the name of the place. She lives 
at home with her parents, and when she goes out tells them she is going 
to a show with a girl friend. 

Bell, another one of the girls at this dance, works in a millinery 
store and receives $4.00 per week. One day when she was nearly 
broke a fellow proposed to take her out, and she agreed to the propo- 
sition. Bell is about 20 years of age and very good looking. . 

Bessie solicits every night in (X995), a notorious cafe at (X996) 
State street. Until recently she worked in a department store at $6.00 
per week, but concluded this was not enough, and as she had no 
other way of increasing her salary, started to solicit in this place. 
She goes home in the morning at either 2 :00 or 2 :30 A. M. and often 
takes with her from $5.00 to $30.00; she charges $5.00. 

October 8th. Dora was attending a dance at the (X997). At pres- 
ent she works in one of the large department stores and receives 
$11.00 per week. Recently a friend gave her a pair of gloves, and has 
promised her an old gold bracelet. He is an insurance agent. She 
makes dates with anyone who asks her. Her sister, Tantine, works in 
another department store as a clerk and receives $7.00 per week. 

On this same date there was another dance held in the (X998) and 
was given by the (X999) Union. Violet was at this dance. She is in 
the habit of "hustling" every night in one of the saloons in the 22nd 
street district. She works in one of the department stores downtown. 
At present she is keeping a man and they live together in a furnished 
room on (X1000) avenue. 

There was another girl of the same character, who also works in 
the same department store with Violet. 



212 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

October 3rd. A dance was held at (X1001) 35th street and several 
of the girls who were there were professional prostitutes; two es- 
pecially have a flat at the corner of (X1002) street and (X1003) ave- 
nue and one on (X1004) avenue, and two others were from Mrs. 
(X1005) place at (X1006) near (X1007) avenue on the north side 
of the street. There were four girls at this dance from two of the 
department stores downtown. One of these girls had a pair of garters 
and a comb which (X1008) gave her. She stated that (X1009) goes 
with her a few nights each week, and takes her to the (X1010) hotel, 
(X1011) street and (X1012) avenue. She was willing to make a sim- 
ilar date for the money there was in it. 

Three other girls, who also work in a department store, were willing 
to make dates of a similar nature. One said she had three steady 
friends, one of whom has a private room which he keeps for the pur- 
pose of taking girls. This room is on (X1013) avenue, but she would 
not give the number. 

One of the most notorious dance halls in Chicago is at (X1014) 
North Clark street. On Saturday nights many girls who come to 
this dance are semi-professional or professional prostitutes. On Sat- 
urday and Sunday nights the attendance is about 300, and many of 
these girls are waitresses, house maids and clerks in department stores. 
The ones who do not charge for their services are all called "charity." 
Among the cadets who were present at one of these dances was 
(X1015), who lives in one of the hotels near the restricted district with 
his girl Jessie. The girl is a prostitute at a house at (X1016) avenue. 

Among the prostitutes who solicit in (X1017) dance hall is one 
named Mignon (X1018), alias Violet. She is about 20 years old. She 
came to Chicago two years ago from (X1019), Wisconsin, and suc- 
ceeded in obtaining a position on one of the large department stores. 
One of the managers of this store insisted on taking her out, and she 
finally accepted his invitation. She claims she did it in order to hold 
her job. Finally Violet got into trouble, and she actually had a mis- 
carriage in the store. 

An inmate of a house of prostitution at (X1025) Dearborn street 
by the name of Paulette said that she was 22 years of age, but she 
looks much younger. She formerly lived in (X1026), Massachusetts, 
where she married at 17. After living with her husband two years, 
they had a misunderstanding and parted. She first came to Chi- 
cago to work in one of the department stores downtown in the shirt 
waist department, and received $7.00 per week. This sum was after- 
ward reduced to $6.00. "I could not live on that," she said, "so I 
took up the sporting life, because it appealed to me. It was impossible 
to make a living where I was. And even while I was in the store 
I made money on the side. I was in the habit of taking men to hotels, 
one, two or three times a week, when I wasn't too tired. After I had 
been working two months, I left the position and entered the house." 

Paulette, in speaking further of her experience in department stores, 
says: "One can't live downtown; that is no district for a girl to 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 213 

live in; she might as well be here. If a girl in a store wears soiled 
clothing, they will tell her about it. You have to work in a depart- 
ment store for years and years and years before you get anything. 
While in the store," she continued, "I heard of a case of a good girl 
getting $6.00 a week. She asked for more money. She said she 
couldn't live on that. The man said, 'Can't you get somebody to 
keep you'?" 

At the present time Paulette earns $17.00 to $23.00 above her ex- 
penses each week. 

AMUSEMENT PARKS. 

Social workers who have paid particular attention to conditions in 
amusement parks in the city declare that incidents have come to their 
notice showing a laxity of supervision, and the moral dangers sur- 
rounding young girls who frequent these places for amusement. 1 

During the time given to this part of the work three amusement 
parks were investigated by two investigators whose reports corroborate 
each other. These parks were (X1026a), (X1026b) and (X1026c). 

According to common report the conditions in these parks, es- 
pecially (X1026a), had been unfavorable earlier in the summer. In 
September, the time of the investigation, these conditions had m> 
proved. In general it was found that there were many young girls 
who were unaccompanied, flirting with young boys and men and sug- 
gesting participation in different forms of amusement. 

Usually there are saloons near the entrances of these parks, and 
young girls were seen in the rear rooms of these places. Couples also 
came into these saloons from the park. 

September i^th. Investigator met Rose (X1027), a girl about 21 
years old, from (X1028), Illinois. She stood near the Scenic Railway, 
and remarked that it was tiresome not to have some one to take her 
around, and she had never been on a Scenic Railway. She works in 
a butter factory and has a private room and a few steady friends 
who came to see her. She receives $1.00 per day in the butter factory 
and pays $2.00 for her room and has to eat two meals per day in a 
restaurant. She lives at (X1028a) avenue and would go out for $2.00. 

Ella (X1029) and Rosie (X1030) said they lived on (X1031) ave- 
nue, telephone (X1032). She boards with her mother. Gave their 
ages as 24 and 25. They both work for (X1033), each receives 
$7.00 per week. They go out once in a while to earn a little spending 
money. Would have to go to (X1034) avenue for a room. 



'For the City Ordinances, see Appendix XX. 



214 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Investigator danced with two girls in the park dance hall. One 
was 16, the other 17. Later he saw these girls drinking beer with 
two men in the Casino. He also danced with two professional prosti- 
tutes, who were in company with fellows. One invited him to join 
the crowd and go downtown to a place on North Clark street where 
a room could be secured for the night. While in Casino investigator 
saw another professional prostitute whom he had seen in the rear of 
(X1035) saloon on North Clark street. The man who was with her 
called her Josie. She was intoxicated. 

ANOTHER PARK. 

September pth. Three hours at this amusement place. Counted 
17 women soliciting within the place, nine of these were recognized by 
investigator, who had seen them soliciting in the downtown (Loop) 
district. Five of these women went downtown with men after they 
had been drinking beer in the cafe. 

September nth. While in this park on this date, investigator saw 
three girls whom he knew to be street walkers on downtown streets 
take men in that direction. 

September i^th. Investigator met girl in front of a weighing ma- 
chine. She said she lived with her husband at (X1036) avenue and in- 
vited investigator to go to her home while her husband was away, if he 
had any money. 

Violet in front of the "mixer," an amusement device. Solicited 
him to go to (X1037) avenue to a room. She would not give the 
address. 

Tantine and Pauline. Two professional prostitutes, from (X1037) 
avenue. They invited investigator to this house, offering vulgar and 
unnatural inducements. 

While investigator was in dance hall, conducted with this amusement 
place, he counted 45 girls, among them the two professional prosti- 
tutes mentioned above. The girls in general appeared to be decent. 

CONDITIONS IN VICINITY OF THIS PARK. 

One of the dangers connected with the amusement parks and resorts 
of this nature is the presence of saloons in front, of entrances and on 
the side streets in the vicinity. The following are saloons so situated 
in the neighborhood of this park. 

(X1038). Not on police list. Met Rosie in this saloon. Waiter 
said he could "fix it" so they could get a room upstairs but it would 
be useless without his "say so." 

(XI 039). Not on police list. Met Josie in this saloon. She said 
Harry, the bartender, could "fix it up" so they could get a room, her 
price was $2.00. 

(X1040). Not on police list. Bebe said a colored man at side door 
would see that she got a room, but she would not say where the room 
was located. 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 215 

Investigator met a girl on 63rd street who invited him to go to 
a private flat. Later this girl took another fellow to (X1041) avenue 
which is a flat building. 

ANOTHER PARK. 

Sept. 9th. Three hours at this place. Investigator counted 11 women 
who were professional prostitutes. In fact he recognized five who 
solicit on Wabash avenue between Peck court and Van Buren street 
in the down down district. These girls frequent a hotel on (X1040a), 
near (X1040b). 

In dance hall investigator met two girls, one of whom frequents 
(X1042) saloon at (X1043) avenue, a "tough" place. Bella told him 
that sporting women were not allowed in the dance hall. If they find 
such a girl they make her leave the floor. She and her sister were 
the only ones that had not been caught. 

LAKE STEAMERS. 

There are two classes of boats on the lake, those which carry the 
holiday crowds and those which cater to the regular vacation traffic. 

The excursion boats, as a rule, carry an element which is more or 
less disorderly. The other boats are less frequented by this element. 1 

There are several classes of these disorderly groups on the holiday 
boats; first, girls who are evidently professional or semi-professional 
prostitutes, together with young men whom they find it easy to at- 
tract; second, the class of vile young men who make these excursion 
trips for the purpose of seeking out girl recruits; and third, a group 
which is very important, especially when the preventive end of the 
work is considered as conducted by the Juvenile Protective Association. 
The following is a typical story which illustrates this last group : 

A young couple who are sweethearts starts on one of these excur- 
sions. The trip is longer than is expected, or the girl is taken sick. A 
state room is secured and this one act may change the whole aspect 
of the future relationship of these two and may entirely spoil what 
might have developed into a happy married life. 

Of the excursion steamers the (X1044) was the worst and the 
(X1045) the least offensive. The (X1044), in addition to being a 
very large boat capacity approximately 5,000 people makes a rather 
long trip. This boat also has a large number of easily acquired state 
rooms. 



'For text of law, see Appendix IV. 



216 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Practically all of the boats were equipped with bars and the quantity 
of liquor sold depended entirely on the character of the crowd aboard. 
The bar in the (X1047) was extremely popular and liquor was openly 
sold to both young men and young women who were evidently minors. 

Gambling machines were openly used on nearly all of the boats 
in the early part of the season, but were taken off for some reason in 
August. A lottery game for selling candy was another means of 
gambling, but was not nearly so popular with the boys and young men 
as the nickel gambling wheel. 

TYPICAL INSTANCES. 

The following are typical instances of conditions found on these 
boats: 

Investigator left South Haven on August 21st at 5:30 P. M. for 
Chicago on the (X1044). Almost every state room on the boat was in 
use. The decks were crowded, and many of the young men were 
getting acquainted with the girls. Observation of the state rooms 
was as follows: 

In No. 66 were four men. Two girls visited the room during the 
trip. In No. 61 there was one girl. She was visited by four men at 
different times. No. 69 was occupied by two girls and two young men. 
In No. 21 three men and three girls were in the lower berth. 

In the bar room about twenty young girls were drinking beer, five 
of them not over twelve years of age. One child, eight years old, was 
drinking beer with older people. 

September 3rd, 1910, investigator left Chicago on the steamship 
(X1049) for South Haven, Michigan. In the bar room there were 
about twenty young girls and boys sitting at tables drinking beer. 

In state room No. 28, two boys and two girls girls were lying in the 
berths and all under the influence of liquor. In room No. 56 were 
found two men and two girls; one of the girls appeared to be very 
drunk. Three boys visited state room No. 51 during the trip. A young 
woman was in this room. In state room No. 64 a man about sixty-five 
years old was sitting at the door reading. Later he was seen in the 
crowd talking very earnestly to a young woman. After a while they 
went into state room No. 64 and locked the door, and did not appear 
again until the boat arrived in South Haven. 

On September 5th, 1910, this boat had a very large crowd on its 
return trip to Chicago. On the upper deck a man was in earnest con- 
versation with a girl. The girl was very good looking and well dressed. 
The man had been talking some time when he was heard to say, "I 
will get a state room." She said, "All right, I will see." He went 
downstairs and when he returned she went with him to state room 
No. 19. 



SOURCES OP SUPPLY 217 

One girl and three different men entered stateroom No. 53. 

Saturday, July 2nd, 1910, investigator left Chicago for South 
Haven at 2:00 P. M. on the steamer (X1050). The passengers con- 
sisted principally of boys and girls between the ages of twelve to twenty- 
one. The boat was loaded to its full capacity. 

Shortly after the boat left Chicago groups of men began to crowd 
the deck, and one group of six young men, all under age, stood in a 
circle drinking whiskey. Another party of eight had suit cases filled 
with beer. They drank the beer and threw the empty bottles over- 
board saturating the men and women in their vicinity with the froth 
from the bottles. Sitting on the upper deck were three women talking. 
Soon a young man came up and said, "The bunch are all down in the 
state room stewed and Arvella is the only girl in the crowd." The 
number of this state room was 71. 

The bar room was filled with boys and girls. Two girls in par- 
ticular could not have been over sixteen years old; were singing in 
drunken discord, lying in the arms of two men. Sitting at the next 
table was a young woman with her skirts up to her knees talking to the 
young men who were sitting next to her. She pounded the table with 
beer bottles to emphasize her remarks, and to attract the attention of 
other men in the bar room. In fact the whole boat seemed filled with 
intoxicated boys and girls. 

Some of the state rooms were occupied by boys and others by girls. 
In state room No. 50 there were two boys in bathing suits, and two 
girls in kimonos, lying in each others arms; anyone passing could have 
seen them as the door was open most of the time. Room No. 64 was 
occupied by two boys and two girls; all appeared under the age of 
twenty. They were lying in each others arms, and at least three dozen 
empty beer bottles were on the floor and wash stand. 

Two girls and two boys were standing in front of state room No. 20. 
One of the girls refused to enter saying, "I ain't no saint, but I can't 
do anything like that." Later her companions succeeded in persuading 
her to enter the room and they did not come out during the entire 
trip. 

For a while investigator stood in front of state room No. 71 and 
watched a young girl who was in the room with four young boys. 
One of the boys was very much intoxicated and every time his com- 
panions tried to make him stand on his feet he would throw himself 
back in the berth. This young boy could not have been over eighteen 
years old. 

Returning from South Haven July 3rd at 6:00 P. M. the condi- 
tions were very bad. Just before the boat left the dock four couples 
came up the companion way, all under the influence of liquor. 

State room No. 74 was occupied by two girls and two young men; 
one of the girls was standing in front of the dressing table with nothing 
on except a dress skirt while the other called to a boy who happened 
to pass. 



218 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES. 

One of the most serious problems in any large city is the practice 
of certain employment agencies in sending young girls and women to 
houses of prostitution, assignation flats and hotels as servants. Once 
in these places, surrounded by indications of ease and excitement 
these girls are not always able to withstand the temptation and soon 
become regular inmates. This is true especially if they are of good 
figure and attractive face. 

The presence of such girls in a house, gives the madame an excellent 
opportunity to persuade them to leave their life of drudgery, pointing 
out to them the good clothes and easy work of the other inmates. 
Thus a clear field for supplying their house with fresh girls is given 
these keepers. 

While the improvement in regard to the conduct of employment 
agencies in Chicago has been marked, yet some of the agents are willing 
to send females as servants to houses of a questionable character. 

These agents appear to understand the law but they have peculiar 
notions as to its interpretation. 

For instance, some will send a girl to such a place if the applicant 
is 30 years or over. Others will refuse to send a girl, and then in the 
same breath ask if a colored girl will do. 1 

EXISTING CONDITIONS. 

The time has been too limited to go into a thorough investigation of 
employment agencies. 

The investigators, one elderly woman with a young lady assistant, 
were able to visit 28 employment agents who advertise in a public 
way. Of this number, thirteen agreed to send servants to a supposed 
immoral place. In each case the agent was given to understand that 
this was the character of the place. 

The following gives in detail the thirteen employment agents in 
different sections of the city who agreed to the proposition. In no 
case would they accept a fee, saying that would be collected when the 
girl actually began work. 



Tor text of law, see Appendix XXV. 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 219 

NORTH AND NORTHWEST SIDES. 

November 4, Mrs. (X1051), (X1052), (X1052a) avenue. Thought 
she would have one by Monday who would go to a sporting house 
to work. "Some of them liked to." 

October 31, (X1053), (X1054) (X1054a) avenue. This woman 
advertised in the September 14, 1910, issue of a Chicago paper pub- 
lished in a foreign language. Mrs. (X1054) agreed to send a girl the 
next day. The fee was $1.00 and was to be paid when the girl came 
to the supposed sporting house. 

November 1, Mrs. (X1056), (X1057), (X1057a) avenue. Repre- 
sentative of agent said she would not send a girl as the agency was 
bonded, but would send a rvoman the next morning. 

November 1. Reliable (X1058) agency, (X1059) (X1059a) street. 
Mrs. (X1059), proprietor. Saw Mrs. (X1059), she promised to send 
a second girl at $6.00 per week the next day. Said she knew what a 
sporting house was. 

SOUTH SIDE. 

November 2, (X1062) Bureau, (X1063) (X1063a) avenue. Was 
willing to send a colored servant to a sporting house. The law would 
not allow her to send white help. 

November 2, (X1064), (X1065) (X1065a) avenue. Agent said 
it was against the law to send a girl to a sporting house. She had a 
colored girl she could send. She did not like to give her business card 
to investigator, but finally did, trusting to her not to say anything about 
it. "Of course," she explained, "if she told the girl where she was 
going, it would be all right." 

November 2. Mrs. (X1066), X1067) (X1067a) street. A man in 
the office said they could not send girls to sporting houses as it was 
against the law. Then the woman, Mrs. (X1068), came in and told 
him she could send a woman over 30. This woman was introduced, she 
looked like a dope fiend. She said she had been in a house for three 
years. 

November 2. (X1069), (X1070) (X1070a) street. The woman, 
Mrs. (X1071) said she could only furnish colored help as the 
law did not allow employment agents to send a girl to a sporting 
house. 

SOUTHWEST SIDE. 

October 31. (X1072), (X1073) (1073a) avenue. Agent said he 
could not send a young girl to a sporting house, but would send a 
woman 30 years old, the next day, 

November 2. (X1074) office, (X1075) (X1075a) street. Agent 
said the law would not allow him to send a girl to a sporting house. 
Then asked if a married woman would do. Asked again if he could 
depend on it that the woman would not be wanted for any other pur- 
pose; if so he might have one to send later. 



220 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

November 4. Mrs. (X1076), (X1077) (X1077a) avenue. Agent 
said she might have a chambermaid on Saturday or Monday who would 
like to work in a sporting house. "You do not want her for anything 
else," she asked. 

WEST SIDE. 

November 5. (X1078), (X1079) (X1079a) avenue. Mrs. (X1080) 
proprietor and manager. The woman said she thought they would 
have one to send, but preferred to have investigators see her son. Re- 
turned later but office was closed. 

November 5. (X1081), (X1081) (XlOSla) street. Mrs. (X1082). 
Invited investigators .to call Monday A. M. as she expected a gird in 
who wanted to work in a quiet sporting house to see how it was run. 

ENFORCEMENT OF THE LAW. 1 

The chief inspector of private employment agencies, says that in 
1906 a vigorous effort was made to warn resort keepers not to secure 
servants through the aid of employment agents. He feels that as a 
result this practice has been abandoned. The Commission's limited in- 
vestigation as outlined in these typical cases shows plainly that the 
practice has not been abandoned. 

During the year 1908 there were two prosecutions of an agent for 
sending a woman as a servant to a house of questionable character; 

one was the owner, the other the employe of the same agency. 

In 1909 up to September 1, one agent was prosecuted for the same 

offense and his license revoked. This man was a vaudeville agent 
and had booked some girls to a questionable place of amusement. 

During the year ending August 31, 1910, eight agents were prose- 
cuted, but none for sending women as servants to immoral places. 

From August 31st to November 10th, 1910, the date when above 
information was secured, the chief inspector has instituted proceedings 
against one agent for violation of Section 6 of the law. This case was 
brought before the Commissioners of Labor who instructed the As- 
sistant State's Attorney to prosecute the case, which is still pending. 
One charge was brought before the Municipal Court which imposed 
no sentence, the age of the defendant having some weight, as she was 
quite an old lady and the women who had been sent to the place were 
beyond middle life, and employed but a short period each as servants. 



'Appendix XVIII. 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 221 

It is the custom of inspectors employed by the department to warn 
all agents and tell them to be very careful regarding the places where 
females are sent, as no excuse for carelessness would be sufficient 
to prevent prosecutions and revocations of their licenses. 

A female inspector also speaks to the women conducting such 
agencies, advising them not to succumb to temptations and asking them 
to report if keepers of resorts approach them on the subject. 

The department finds that there is a class of women who are anxious 
to work as servants in these immoral places because the wages are 
higher, the hours of service fewer, and they have opportunities of re- 
ceiving cast off clothing that they do not find elsewhere. These servants 
are willing to pay the agent higher fees than for legitimate places. 
This is a great temptation to agents. 

ADVERTISEMENTS ANNOUNCING THE TREATMENT AND CURE OF VENEREAL 

DISEASES. 

In spite of the penalties attached, the practice of advertising cures 
and treatments of venereal diseases, both in newspapers and in toilets 
of certain saloons is open and flagrant. 

It is high time that determined efforts were made to eliminate from 
the daily press these obnoxious and misleading advertisements. As an 
eminent authority says in a recent article: "The statements of quacks 
you read in the papers are all lies." In the foot note the writer refers 
to a young man who has been arrested for stealing money. His excuse 
was that he had been told that he was "losing his manhood" that the 
"doctor" wanted $25.00 to cure him. 

Sometimes these quacks offer to return the patient's money if he 
is not cured. The guarantee they give is legal and binding but it is 
a trap for the ignorant and helpless. The patient must give reasonable 
proof that he was a victim of injurious habits before the treatment, 
and that the treatment has not affected a cure. 

When the money is demanded back, a blank is sent to be filled out 
and returned. When this is done the money is to be refunded. 

The blank the patient is asked to fill out is such that he will not 
return it. It required him to get the signatures of his minister, one 
of the principal business men in his community, his father or next 
of kin, certifying that he had the habit before taking treatment and 



222 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

that he still has it. All of this must be sworn before a notary and 
witnesses. 1 

Many young girls working in factories and stores have contracted 
venereal diseases through clandestine prostitution. They see the ad- 
vertisements of these quacks in the newspapers. The girl calls upon 
the "doctor," who offers to cure her secretly for $50.00 or $75.00. She 
is in despair, for these sums are far beyond her means. Cases have 
actually come to light where such victims have deliberately entered upon 
a life of professional prostitution to earn the money, and the doctors 
knew it. 

Many young men, ignorant and afraid, have awakened to the horri- 
ble reality that they have contracted a disease. They eagerly scan the 
pages of the papers for advertisements and read of their symptoms 
and the awful consequences. They hurry to the "quack doctor" and 
a large sum is demanded at once with a specific sum of one dollar 
or two dollars for daily treatments and additional sums for drugs 
to be purchased from friendly druggists. So for months they go 
day after day and the bill grows larger and larger. They are now in 
the power of these exploiters, and so the days are spent in worry and 
scheming to raise the money and escape detection. Sometimes these 
"quacks" use certain medicines which force a temporary relief, and 
the patient feels that he is really cured. A few months later after 
some unusual excitement caused by drink or sexual intercourse his 
trouble returns and again he takes up the treatment from the same or a 
different advertiser. 

The methods of these "quacks," therefore, ought to be exposed, and 
papers which print these advertisements ought to* be prosecuted along 
with the advertisers. 

EXISTING CONDITIONS. 

Certain papers published in Chicago, both in English and foreign 
languages, contain advertisements of physicians purporting to treat 
and cure diseases of men. Some of these announcements describe in 
detail certain symptoms which are recognized as the results of venereal 
diseases. 



'Pearsons Magazine, November, 1910, page 595. 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 223 

Eight of these advertisements appeared in the November 8th issue 
of the (X1083), five in the November llth issue of (X1084) and one 
in the September 14th, 1910, issue of (X1085). 

The majority of the announcements in English refer to urinary 
troubles, the one in a paper published in a foreign language actually 
mentions syphilis. 

In many of the toilet rooms of saloons in the city, advertisements 
of physicians purporting to cure men's diseases are tacked up on the 
wall. In other instances the name of certain drugs for the treatment 
of such cases are also in evidence. One of the most common is a 
drug named (X1086). This is printed on tin and tacked to the wall 
of these toilets. The sign contains the name of (X1086a) from whom 
this nostrum can be purchased. 

Another method employed to advertise this same drug is by the use 
of small boxes of matches. The word (X1086) is printed in red 
letters on the box, also the name of (X1086a) from whom it can be 
purchased. 

It would certainly appear that these advertisements come within the 
statutes and ordinances. 1 

THE PRACTICE OF ABORTION AND ITS RELATION TO THE SOCIAL EVIL. 

Illinois is one of the very few states that have laws regulating the 
practice of midwifery. 2 

There is some doubt as to whether or not there is any connection 
between the practice of abortion and the social evil. This connection, 
if any exists, is much more difficult to establish than any of the recog- 
nized causes. Everyone will agree, however, that any experience 
which tends to undermine the moral sense of girls or young women 
is dangerous and should be prevented. Incidents are on record where 
girls who have had abortions performed have become reckless and 
discouraged, and have actually entered upon a life of prostitution. 

It has not been possible for the Commission to undertake a very 
extensive investigation into this phase of the subject, but enough has 
been done to establish the fact that such conditions exist in Chicago. 
It has been unfortunate also that the time has been too limited to in- 
vestigate certain suspicious physicians, also druggists who dispose of 

Appendices XXIX, XXX. 
'Appendices XXI-XXIa-XXIb. 



224 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

abortion drugs and instruments over the counter, or through advertise- 
ments in the papers. 

The brief investigation was confined to a small number of midwives, 
especially those who advertise in a public way. 

Attention is first called to certain advertisements which appeared 
in foreign papers, and in some papers published in the English 
language. 

An advertisement appeared in the (X1088) (foreign) on Septem- 
ber 15, 1910. This announcement declared that a graduate midwife 
would send invaluable information for girls and married women telling 
them what and what not to do before and after marriage. "Thousands 
are made happy by this knowledge. The reader must send four cents 
in stamps." 

This postage was sent by the Commission office to the address given 
and in a few days two circulars in the Polish language were received. 
One of these circulars again set forth the value of having the book 
which would tell things "girls and married women should know." The 
book, declares the advertiser, "is worth many dollars," but she "wants 
to make everybody happy so she will send it for one dollar only." 

The second circular, also published in the Polish language, is writ- 
ten in indecent and vulgar language. Among other things the adver- 
tiser describes a rubber instrument which is to be used to prevent con- 
ception. 1 

This is certainly a case for the Federal Government, as well as State 
authorities to investigate and punish. 

Two other advertisements appeared in many papers published in 
English. They are worded, however, in such a way as to render prose- 
cution difficult and practically impossible. Both of these advertise- 
ments appeared in the (X1089) of Chicago (English) under date of 
November 11, 1910. 

Another advertisement is that of Dr. (X1090), (X1091) avenue, and 
calls attention to the (X1092) College of Midwifery. The announce- 
ment says that this college is incorporated under the laws of the 
United States in the year 1891 and its diplomas are recognized all 
over the United States. 



'The translation of the matter sent through the mails by this advertiser is 
full of vile and abhorrent information, It cannot be printed. 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 225 

On November 21, 1910, investigator called at the address given in 
the advertisement of the (X1092) College. Dr. (X1090) said that 
the course for a diploma in midwifery would cost $100.00, with an 
additional five dollars for a book. He further stated that the student 
would have to pay $25.00 for an examination. This money was to be 
given to him and he in turn would give it to the State Board of Health, 
when he made the application for the examination. 1 

The doctor said that the course usually took eight weeks to com- 
plete. The practical part of the work is given by his wife, who takes 
the student with her when she attends births. She is a midwife. When 
the investigator left, the doctor gave her his business card and one 
other card which contained practically the same information that ap- 
peared in the advertisement. 

TYPICAL CASES. 

During the period of this investigation twenty midwives were visited. 
Of this number, six absolutely refused to perform abortion, one was 
not at home, and two said they would not do the operation, but re- 
ferred investigators to midwives who would do so. The remaining 
twelve agreed to perform the supposed abortion for different sums of 
money. One woman (X1095), it was learned from court records, 
was arrested twice during 1908-09 on the charge of committing abor- 
tions, but her cases were dismissed, probably for lack of proper evi- 
dence which is difficult to secure. 

The following are typical instances: 

November 8. Miss (X1096), (X1097) (X1097a) street. Four 
young women were waiting for abortion operations. Charge for service 
$10.00. The method required two treatments. Miss (X1096) is a 
German; speaks very broken English. In personal appearance she 
is dirty and queer. She lives in a basement, which appeared to be 
insanitary. From her conversation she is an old offender. 

November 10. Mrs. (X1099), (X1100) (XllOOa) street. Offered 
to perform an abortion for $50.00. Uses drugs. She said the patient 
could stay with her so she could watch the case. Her home was clean. 

November 10. Mrs. (X1101), (X1102) (X1102a) avenue. This 
midwife would not perform the abortion herself, but agreed to send 
the supposed patient to another midwife who would. This other 
woman worked with a doctor. Mrs. (X1101) would not give the name 
of this midwife or the doctor until she herself had examined the case. 
The price would not be less than $50.00. 



'Section 5 of the law states that the examination fee for the practice of mid- 
wifery is five dollars, and three dollars for a certificate if one is issued. See 
Appendix XXI. 



226 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

November 12. Mrs. (X1104), (1104a) (1104b) street. The sup- 
posed patient said she was unmarried. The midwife then agreed to 
perform the abortion for $25.00, but the patient must stay with her. 
After arguing about the price, she dropped to $20.00 and $1.00 for 
visits. She said it was "a great risk as the law was after them." 

November 12. Mrs. (X1105), (XllOSa) (X1105b) street. The 
woman was dirty, and the room dark and dismal. The supposed patient 
said she was not married. Mrs. (X1105) agreed to perform the oper- 
ation for $15.00. 

November 12. (X1107), (X1108) (XllOSa) street. Formerly at 
(X1109). She agreed to perform the abortion for $25.00 but finally 
came down to $20.00. Said the patient would have to stay with 
her for two or three days. The midwife said she had a patient in 
the house and another one who had just had an operation was in the 
next room. 

November 14. Mrs. (X1110), (X1112) (X1112a) street. She said 
she would not perform the abortion but said that a Mrs (X1113) 
on (X1114) near (X1115) street would do it. 

November 14. Mrs. (X1116), (XlllGa) (XlllGb) street. She 
said she would perform the abortion if she felt the patient was on "the 
square," or had been sent by some one she knew. She had to be 
careful as detectives were sent out from the City Hall to try the mid- 
wives. 

November 14. (X1117), (X1118) (XlllSa) street. She was 
afraid to deal with strangers as the people at the City Hall watched 
them. If she could feel sure there would be no trouble she would per- 
form the abortion for $30.00. The patient would have to stay with 
her for two or three days. The flat appeared to be clean. 

November 17. Mrs. (X1119), (X1120) (X1120a) avenue. She 
was afraid at first that the supposed patient had been sent out from 
the City Hall. "Of course," she said, "it is against the law, but we all 
do it, if any detective came to her home she would put him out 
of the door quick." 

Mrs. (X1119) then agreed to perform the abortion for $40.00 if 
she had to take her into the house. She worked with a doctor, to 
whom she gave $10.00. She said that she has a good many young 
girls coming to her. 

November 17. Mrs. (X1121), (X1122) (X1122a) avenue. As the 
investigators entered two young girls who had had treatments were 
leaving the house. Mrs. (X1121) then said she would perform the 
abortion for $30.00. She declared that a great many girls seventeen 
and eighteen years of age came to her, and she was very busy all the 
time. 

November 19. Mrs. (X1123), (X1124) (X1124a) street. Offered 
to sell pills -for $5.00, and if they did not work would give another 
treatment for $25.00. She remarked that the "girls were not to 
blame." 

November 22. Mrs. (X1125), (X1126) (X1126a) avenue. She 
agreed to perform the abortion for $20.00. 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 227 

November 23. Mrs. (X1127), (X1128) (X1128a) street. Offered 
to perform the abortion for $25.00, but the patient would have to stay 
with her. During the interview, the midwife said if these abortions 
were not performed there would be a lot of babies in the streets. She 
believed in helping the girls for they were grateful and would not tell 
on her. If a doctor did it he would charge $75. OO. 1 



INVESTIGATIONS OF THE IMMIGRANTS PROTECTIVE LEAGUE OF CHICAGO 
ON THE RELATION, OF IMMIGRANT WOMEN AND COLONIES OF FOREIGN 
LABORING MEN IN CONSTRUCTION CAMPS, LODGING HOUSES IN CITIES, 
AND ELSEWHERE. 

The investigation of the United States Immigration Commission 
into the relation of the immigrant woman to the social evil showed 
that very few prostitutes are brought into the United States. The 
great majority of young immigrant women who were found in resorts 
were virtuous when they came here, and were ruined because there 
was not adequate protection and assistance given them after thy 
reached the United States. Such protection is especially needed on 
the journey to Chicago, and in the location of her relatives and friends, 
because of her ignorance of English and the country, a girl may 
through her own mistake or the carelessness of railroad officials be 
left at the wrong station or persuaded by some unscrupulous person 
to get off and see some town en route. Some few immoral women 
and men doubtless give false declarations at ports of entry and wel- 
come the opportunities which the journey from New York to Chicago 
offers. Federal inspectors on the trains, some of them women and 
all of them able to speak to the immigrant in his own language, could 
make it easy for the girl who wants to reach her relatives and friends 
to do so, and difficult for those who have entered the country by fraud 
and misrepresentation to accomplish their purpose. The delivery of 
immigrant women upon their arrival in Chicago also needs supervision. 
At present they are turned over to private expressmen and cabmen 
and as a result because of incorrect addresses and the carelessness or 
vicious intent of the drivers the Immigrants' Protective League finds 
that a good many girls do not find their relatives and friends in Chi- 
cago. These girls are nearly all from the country districts of eastern 



midwife was arrested twice in 1908-09 on the charge of abortion. Both- 
cases were dismissed. 



228 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Europe and are therefore peculiarly helpless in such a situation. Better 
policing of the railroad stations which would keep runners from cheap 
and disreputable hotels from the neighborhood of the immigrant wait- 
ing rooms, more supervision of express and cabmen might do some- 
thing but the situation can be properly handled only by the establish- 
ment of the Federal Protective Bureau under the Immigration Depart- 
ment which would have full authority to detain the immigrants and 
regulate their release in Chicago. 

Chicago is a great labor market from which thousands of foreign 
men ship out in groups of 30 or more to work on the railroads and 
canals that are being built all over the country. These men are young, 
between 20 and 30 generally, they are the pioneers of their race, and 
have come in advance of their families, most of them are without friends 
or connections of any sort. They spend their summers in railroad 
camps in complete isolation from all normal social contact. The camps 
are usually most insanitary, the food poor, the work hard and mo- 
notonous. In all these camps there are usually some American work- 
men who have become diseased and demoralized by this unnatural 
life. From them the others are unprotected and the Bulgarians, the 
Greeks and the Poles who come to us in good physical conidtion and 
with decent habits contract disease and learn unnatural practices. It 
would seem most important that a careful study should be made of 
these camps in order that some practical scheme of inspection and 
supervision should be worked out for the protection of the men and 
the community to which they return. For these men return by the 
thousands to spend the winter in Chicago. Here they are also isolated 
and of necessity live together in large groups in neighborhoods where 
they are exposed to vice. The public should realized that unless some 
effort is made to reach these groups of foreign men and furnish them 
with proper social contact they will not only lose their own health 
and virtue, but become a menace to the community. 

INQUIRY INTO THE SUBNORMAL PHYSICAL AND MENTAL CONDITION OF 
JUVENILE AND OTHER DELINQUENTS, BOTH MALE AND FEMALE. 

The superintendent of a large State school for delinquent girls re- 
ports a large proportion of them to be the children of alcoholic degen- 
erates, who in addition are infected with venereal disease. From chil- 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 229 

dren with such an heredity, it is claimed many criminals are reared. 
"If children of this class could be examined by an expert psychologist, 
and cared for in early life, as they should be, the larger number of 
them would never reach the jails and penitentiaries." The superin- 
tendent emphatically asserts that "the girls who come to us, possessed 
of normal brain power, or not infected with venereal disease, we look 
upon as a prize indeed, and we seldom fail to make a woman worth 
while of a really normal girl, whatever her environment has been. 
But we have failed in numberless cases, where the environment has 
been all right, but the girl was born wrong. Normal girls, who have 
drifted into houses of ill-fame, can be saved, for they will help the 
work of saving themselves, and when once they understand, the work 
is well under way. For moral inbeciles there will be little else than 
forcible restraint that will keep them right." 

Inquiries into the subnormal condition of boys and young men 
in certain State institutions, although not yet considered to be suf- 
ficiently scientific to be trustworthy, yet indicate that while feeble- 
mindedness decreased the strength of the sexual instinct with that of 
other capacities, the weakness of will and judgment lays these de- 
fectives open to temptation and exploitation. 

SUMMARY OF CONDITIONS INVOLVED IN PERSONAL HISTORIES, AND IN- 
VESTIGATED RECORDS, SUGGESTING THE RECOMMENDATIONS OFFERED 
BY THE COMMISSION. 

(a) Home Conditions. 

In a large proportion of the 2,420 cases under review, the home 
conditions have contributed to, if they have not caused, the downfall 
of the daughters or wives. The perversion of natural sex relationships 
by incest, by immorality of the mother or guardian, or by the evil 
example of a brother, sister, or other relative, and by the abuse of the 
marriage relation in prostituting the wife by and for the benefit of 
the husband, is the specific source of the ruin of many of these lives. 
The failure of the parental relation by reason of divorce and deser- 
tion, and, in some instances, by the excessive demands upon the mother 
by the care of a large household without sufficient income or help, is 
also the occasion for many neglected children going astray. The lack 
of home instruction in the use and abuse of sex organs and relation- 



230 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

ships, together with a neglect to safeguard the leisure time, especially 
in the evening, and the failure to supervise the reading and the asso- 
ciation of the children, account for much of their demoralization. 

(b) Economic Conditions. 

Among the ecomonic conditions contributory to the social evil are 
low wages, insanitary conditions, demoralizing relationships in stores, 
shops, domestic service, restaurants and hotels; the street vending of 
children in selling papers and gum, collecting coupons and refuse; 
the messenger service of boys, especially in the vicinity of disorderly 
houses, vicious saloons, dance halls and other demoralizing resorts; 
employment agencies, which send servants to immoral places; the rest 
rooms or waiting places where applicants for work resort; too long 
hours and the high pressure of work ; the overcrowding of houses upon 
lots, of families in the house, and of persons in single rooms. 

(c) Recreational Conditions. 

Among the recreational conditions directly tributary to the increase 
of the victims of vice, are the privately managed amusement parks; 
dance halls, where bar permits are granted, or which are in the 
vicinity of saloons; candy, ice cream and fruit stores used as pleasure 
resorts; immoral shows, theater plays and moving pictures; saloons 
where music, vaudeville performances, and other recreational attrac- 
tions are accessory to the drink habit; drug stores, where gambling 
devices and the selling of cocaine and other drugs are accessories. 

(d) Procuring. 

The supply of victims of the social vice, both female and male, is 
increased and perpetuated far beyond the number whose vicious in- 
clinations lead them astray, by the direct, persistent, often concerted 
efforts of procurers. They include both men and women, bartenders, 
waiters in saloons and restaurants, managers and employes in theaters, 
nickel shows, penny picture arcades, employers, floor walkers and in- 
spectors in stores and shops, keepers of employment offices, hackmen, 
expressmen and runners at railway stations and boat landings, mid- 
wives and doctors, fortune tellers, cadets, keepers and attendants in 
dance halls, private recreation parks, assignation houses, hotels and 
flats, call houses, disorderly saloons, and houses of prostitution. 

They work through advertisements in newspapers published in for- 
eign languages as well as in English, rest rooms in departmment stores 



SOURCES OF SUPPLY 231 

and even at the counters in certain departments ; at theaters, especially 
on amateur nights; at employment agencies including those connected 
with mercantile and industrial establishments and in many other ways. 
The general delivery of the post office is both used and watched as a 
secret and safe way of spotting, inveighling and trapping young girls. 

(e) The inquiry in Chicago regarding white slavery, or the in- 
voluntary participation in the social vice, for the profit of exploiters, 
reaches conclusions similar to those of the Research Committee of the 
Committee of Fourteen in New York City, and to those presented by 
the additional Grand Jury for the January term of the Court of Gen- 
eral Session of the County of New York, "in the Matter of the In- 
vestigation as to the Alleged Existence in the County of New York 
of an Organized Traffic in Women for Immoral Purposes." 

The findings of the Grand Jury include the following: 

"It appears from indictments found by us and from the testimony 
of witnesses that a trafficking in the bodies of women does exist, and 
is carried on by individuals, acting for their own individual benefit, 
and that these persons are known to each other, and are more or less 
informally associated. We have also found that associations and clubs, 
composed mainly or wholly of those profiting from vice, have existed, 
and that one such association still exists. These associations and clubs, 
are analogous to commercial bodies in other fields, which, while not 
directly engaged in commerce, are composed of individuals all of whom 
as individuals are so engaged." 

The Committee of Fourteen, through its Research Committee, 
charged with the study of Law Enforcement against the Social Evil 
in New York City, report on this point as follows: 

"Some of the profit sharers must be dispensed with through the 
force of public opinion or by means of heavy penalties, before 
the growth of vice can be checked. These include those who 
profit off the place the landlord, agent, janitor, amusement dealer, 
brewer, and furniture dealer; those who profit off the act the 
keeper, procurer, druggist, physician, midwife, police officer, and 
politician ; those who profit off the children employers, procurers, 
and public service corporations ; those who deal in the futures of 
vice publishers, manufacturers and vendors of vicious pictures 
and articles; those who exploit the unemployed the employment 
agent and employers ; a group of no less than nineteen middlemen, 
who are profit-sharers in vice." 



232 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Facts, such as these and many more, proving the international traffic 
and interstate trade in women and girls for immoral purposes, are 
abundantly substantiated in the report on the White Slave Traffic 
rendered to the House of Representatives by the Committee on Inter- 
State and Foreign Commerce on December 21, 1909 (report No. 47), 
and by the records of the United States Circuit and District Courts 
for the Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division. 

(f) The lack of authentic information regarding the relation be- 
tween subnormality and sexual delinquency suggests recommendations 
to be found elsewhere. 1 

(g) The lack of information, education and training with refer- 
ence to the function and control of the sexual instinct, and the conse- 
quences of its abuse and perversion, appears at every point of our 
inquiry for the sources of the supply of the victims of vice, either as 
the cause of the perversion of children and youth or as a complication 
of all other causes. This conclusion is abundantly substantiated by 
Prof. Charles Richmond Henderson's discussion of "Education with 
Reference to Sex Pathological, Economic and Social Aspects," in the 
Eighth Yearbook of the National Society for the Scientific Study of 
Education. The necessity for giving information, the paths of approach 
in formal instruction to be given to the young child, at the age of 
puberty, in the adolescent period, to adults about the time of mar- 
riage, and to parents, together with the difficulties encountered, the 
need to train teachers, and the value of making such instruction a part 
of the general education of the child instead of a separate and formal 
branch of instruction, are frankly and fully discussed in this valuable 
monograph. 

For recommendations by the Commission on above subjects see 
page 55. 



'See page 60, Recommendations. 



Chapter V. 

Child Protection and 
Education. 



CHAPTER V. 

CHILD PROTECTION AND EDUCATION. 

The problem of social vice cannot be solved by any short and sure 
method. The efforts to protect children from evil influence require 
the consideration of many problems. The greatest influence in the 
child's life is religion. We may educate the child and improve his 
economic condition, but without a moral instinct he will not be a 
moral child. Another great factor in immorality is the taint of heredity. 
For this there can be but one solution the growth in righteousness and 
the overcoming of the immoral instinct through religious conviction, and 
passing to the future generation a pure mind and a clean heart. 

Five factors enter into the moulding of a child's character the 
church, the home, the school, social environment, and the amusements 
which it employs during its leisure hours. 

Children of all ages need guidance and protection. While many 
children develop into useful citizens in spite of evil surroundings, a 
few eventually become a menace to society in spite of every effort 
in their behalf. Next to a religious influence, the rule still holds that 
a good home, a good education and environment, healthful employment 
and recreation under moral conditions, are very much to be desired, 
and it is a great misfortune when these have not been given. Immoral 
influences are frequently thrust upon children through the pernicious 
activities of immoral people, and because of lack of protection, proper 
instructions or guidance from those who should have the child's wel- 
fare at heart. 

The problem of the care of children in the school is not within the 
scope of this report, except in so far as schools are affected by vice 
districts in their neighborhood, or by immoral children or adults in 
or near them, or by the dangers from children who' may be afflicted 
with disease. To protect children from these dangers all possible 
means should be adopted. 

Education alone has seldom protected either children or grown 
people, except in a limited way, unless a moral character is developed 



235 



THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

along with the instruction. However, for those who have moral char- 
acter, or those in whom it can be developed, a proper education will 
enable them to avoid or protect themselves from what is wrong, and 
help them to choose those things which make for health and right 
living. 

Investigation into city conditions shows that it is often difficult and 
sometimes impossible to protect children and young people from the 
activities of vicious people. Harm sometimes comes from a misunder- 
standing of their own physical and emotional life. Each young person 
should know how and what to avoid, to understand the meaning of 
improper advances. In order to know what is needed for the pro- 
tection of young people the dangers to which they are subjected must 
be pointed out. 

According to the law all persons under the age of twenty-one years 
are considered wards of the State of Illinois, and their persons are 
subject to the care, guardianship and control of the courts, provided, 
however, that guardianship of the child be had by the court before 
child has reached eighteen years. For the purpose of this report then, 
it is understood that this study refers to the protection of all children 
rvhatever their age, and education of all young persons between the 
age of puberty and the age of majority. 

It should be borne in mind that the immoral influences and dangers 
which surround children and young people affect them to a greater 
or less degree according to their ages. For instance, if the child is 
quite young, these evil impressions may become fixed and have a 
marked influence throughout its whole life, or these evil impressions 
may be counteracted by wise methods, if administered in time. After 
the age of puberty these influences become grave and often result in 
the immediate downfall of the child. This downfall becomes perma- 
nent unless heroic measures are taken to save him. 1 

The following report, therefore, points out the immoral influences 
surrounding children of all ages. 



*For text of laws and ordinances, see appendices XVIII. XX. XXII, XXIII, 
XXIV, XXV, XXXI, XXXVIII. 



CHILD PROTECTION AND EDUCATION 237 

IMMORAL INFLUENCES AND DANGERS. 

/. Children in Vicinity of Vice Districts. It is a notorious fact 
that many children of all ages are compelled by poverty or circum- 
stances to live within or in close proximity to the restricted districts 
in Chicago. Because of this these children are subjected to great 
moral dangers. They become familiar with scenes of debauchery and 
drunkenness until they are careless and indifferent. Their moral stand- 
ards are lowered to such an extent that it is difficult to fill their minds 
with wholesome thoughts and high ideals. In addition to the presence 
of prostitutes near their homes, the children are in danger from vicious 
men and boys who frequent such districts. 

According to the school census taken in 1910, there were 3,931 
children under twenty-one years of age in the First Ward. Of this 
number, 1,246 were under four years of age, 259 from four to five, 216 
from five to six, 257 from six to seven, 1,124 from seven to fourteen, 
313 from fourteen to sixteen, and 513 over sixteen and under twenty- 
one. 

The principal restricted district in the City of Chicago is located in 
the southern part of the First Ward. Within the boundaries of this 
district there are 298 children of all ages from babies in arms to those 
twenty years of age. 

Sixty-seven of these children live in a row of houses on South 
Clark street, one block in length. The rear of these houses overlooks 
the rear rooms of a row of houses of prostitution with front entrances 
on the next street. The houses are dilapidated tenements and are 
used by the families on account of the cheap rent. The majority of 
these are children of foreign parents. The ages of these children 
range from three months to seventeen years. 

It is asserted that these families may witness scenes of depravity 
through the windows of their houses, and that the children are in great 
moral danger from the intimate association with vice. 

Some of the children within these boundaries are living in close prox- 
imity to houses of prostitution and saloons frequented by prostitutes. 

For instance, nine children, from one to nineteen years of age live 
at (X1129) State street. There is a notorious saloon at (X1130) 
State, a few doors away. 

Twenty-four children live on State street from (X1131) to (X1132) 



238 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

near disreputable saloons, and only one block away from the notorious 
houses on Dearborn street. 

18th Ward. According to the school census for 1910 there were 
4,364 children in the 18th Ward. Of this number, 1,032 were under 
four, 84 from four to five, 98 from five to six, 87 from six to 
seven, 1,518 from seven to fourteen, 330 from fourteen to sixteen 
and 1,215 over sixteen and under twenty-one. 

Within the boundaries of the restricted district in this district there 
are 433 children from babies in arms to twenty-one years of age. Of 
these, 154 live on the boundaries. 

The children living within these boundaries are in close proximity 
to houses of prostitution and disorderly saloons. 

The Commission has a record of a prostitute on Randolph street 
soliciting two boys in knee pants to enter and offering as an induce- 
ment "two for a quarter." 

One day a man was solicited by a prostitute standing on the porch 
of her home in one of the restricted districts while a number of young 
boys were playing in the street in front of this house. 

The following history of a tenement family near the 22nd street dis- 
trict is a case in point: 

A skilled mechanic had a wife and four children (one boy and three 
girls). The children were well cared for and went to Sunday school 
as long as the mother lived. The father drank some but seemed to 
take good care of his family, and his wages were frequently as high 
as $4.50 a day. When the oldest girl was eleven the mother died. 
The father continued to care for his family, and, while he drank, it 
did not seem to be a case where the courts should take the children 
away from him. The boy was killed while playing in the street. The 
girls took care of the house, but the denizens of the restricted district 
made the acquaintance of the children as they went to neighborhood 
stores or when they were on the street. As fast as each little girl was 
old enough she was enticed into the vice district and. in time all be- 
came public prostitutes. 

II. Prostitution in Residential Sections. The investigation of ex- 
isting conditions in Chicago proves conclusively that there are many 
immoral women living in flats and furnished rooms all over the city 
in residential sections. Here again children of the neighborhood come 



CHILD PROTECTION AND EDUCATION 239 

to know the character of the women and instances have come to light 
where they have actually been enticed into their homes. The children 
run errands for these women and receive presents of candy and fruit 
in return for such services. In one particular instance a woman so- 
licited from the doorway of a house while a child was playing on 
the porch. 

Special reference should be made here to the colored children who 
are compelled to live in one of the colored communities on South 
State street just outside the boundaries of the restricted district on 
the South Side. 

It is said there are 173 saloons in this community, many of which are 
given over to gambling and are frequented by immoral women and 
vicious men. In this neighborhood there are a great many flats and 
assignation rooms occupied by prostitutes. 

Many colored and white children live among these immoral and 
degrading conditions. 

As these young colored girls reach maturity they easily fall a prey 
to prostitution. Many of them are employed in houses and flats of 
prostitution where they act as maids, cooks and attendants. 1 

///. Disorderly Saloons and Schools. There are a number of sa- 
loons in the city frequented by dissolute and vicious men and immoral 
women in close proximity to school houses. One school property in 
particular on the North Side adjoins the lot on which a disorderly 
saloon building is located. 

The rooms over the saloon are used for immoral purposes, and the 
school authorities testify that the children may see into these rooms 
from the school windows and from the playgrounds. 2 

IV. Disorderly Saloons and Children. In addition to the proximity 
of schools to disorderly saloons, the investigation shows that very 
young boys are allowed to frequent disorderly saloons. The follow- 
ing cases are typical : 

A boy about ten years of age named Jimmie has frequently been 
seen selling gum after 12:00 o'clock at night in disreputable saloons 
on South Halsted and West Madison streets. 

One evening a boy about' fifteen years of age was loitering about 
the rear room of a disorderly saloon on Chicago avenue. 



'See Chapter IV, "Sources of Supply," page 218. 

'This is the same saloon referred to in Chapter III, page 138. 



240 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

A girl who said she was seventeen years of age, and appeared to 
be, was singing in this saloon. 

A small colored boy, who the bartender said was only fourteen years 
of age, was playing the violin in another disorderly saloon. 

One afternoon investigator saw two very young boys, one selling 
newspapers, the other blacking the shoes of the piano player in the 
rear room of a disreputable saloon on West Madison street. There 
were four prostitutes in this room at the same time who were soliciting 
men to go to rooms over the saloon. 

This is a condition which should be remedied, even if the State has 
to step in and provide homes for such children. 

V. Vicious and Degenerate Men. The court records show that 
vicious and degenerate men seek out young boys and girls and fill their 
minds with filthy and obscene suggestions and teach them lewd and un- 
natural practices. Some of these men frequent the neighborhood 
of school houses and distribute obscene cards and literature. They go 
to public parks and take liberties with innocent children. Some of these 
men are afflicted with chronic venereal diseases, and have a super- 
stitution that they can be cured of their trouble by transferring it to a 
virgin. Many prostitutes have this same belief. As a result, innocent 
children both boys and girls, have been contaminated. 

Within a period of two weeks the courts tried three men on the 
charge of perverting the morals of young girls. One offender was 
seventy-five years of age. He was found guilty of trying to seduce ten 
or twelve girls between the ages or eight and twelve. One man was 
in the habit of loitering about the (X1137) school on the South Side. 
He drew obscene pictures which he gave to little girls who went to 
the school. He also offered them money and had ruined four or five 
girls before he was indicted. 

One man named (X1138) ruined a little girl near the (X1139) 
school and gave her a reprehensible disease. The facts brought out 
at the trial so inflamed the jury that after being out a few minutes 
they returned a verdict of ninety-nine years. 

Another person named (X1140) was called the "doll man" because 
he gave dolls to young girls to whom he was attracted. 

Recently a graduate of (X1141) University, a member of a leading 
social club on the (X1142) side was apprehended. He had a habit 
of riding a bicycle in the public parks and persuading young girls 
to go into the park with him. It was proved that he had ruined seven 



CHILD PROTECTION AND EDUCATION 241 

of these girls, all under fourteen years of age. This man also photo- 
graphed his victims and a number of these pictures were seized when 
he was arrested. One was a little girl not over ten years of age. 

Many such cases are available, but most of the details are too re- 
volting to print. The public should be aroused in behalf of better 
protection of children from such dangers. 

VI, Venereal Disease Among Children. One of the saddest aspects 
of the whole problem of the social evil is the fact that hundreds of 
innocent children have become infected by venereal diseases. 

During a period of twenty-seven months 600 children under twelve 
years of age have passed through the venereal ward of the Cook 
County Hospital. Sixty per cent, of the children had been innocently 
infected, twenty per cent, inherited the disease, and twenty-five per 
cent, had been assaulted by diseased persons. About fifteen per cent, 
had syphilis and eighty-five per cent, had gonorrhoea. 

At one time there was an epidemic of gonorrhoea among little girls 
in the contagious ward of the County Hospital. Eighty-six cases of 
this dreadful disease were brought in by fifteen children. The dread- 
ful results of venereal diseases among children are almost beyond 
belief. 

ECONOMIC AND HOME CONDITIONS AFFECTING CHILDREN AND YOUNG 

PEOPLE. 

The economic and home conditions under which children and young 
people are compelled to work and live present many phases of danger 
to their moral well being. 

/. Newsboys. Small boys are selling papers in and about the re- 
stricted district, especially on the South Side. On Saturday night, 
August 27th, investigator counted twenty newsboys from eleven to 
apparently twenty years of age selling papers at 12:00 o'clock and 
afterward. While the majority of the boys were over seventeen, quite 
a number were much younger. 

Photographs were secured of four of these newsboys. 1 One of these 
boys was rescued and it was found that he had no home nor anyone 
to look after him. 



Exhibits A, B, C. 



242 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

//. Street Vendors. In addition to the newsboys selling papers late 
at night in the vicinity of restricted districts, there are many little 
boys and girls engaged in selling gum near disorderly and suspicious 
cafes and saloons where prostitutes were soliciting. The following are 
examples : 

On October 8th between 7:30 and 8:30 P. M., investigator saw six 
boys on Wabash avenue between (X1143) and (X1144) all apparently 
under the age of fourteen. These boys were selling gum. At 10:45 
P. M. on this same date, the same boys were still selling gum in this 
vicinity. In addition, three boys, two of whom appeared to be fifteen 
or sixteen years of age, and one about ten, were selling morning 
papers. At 11 :10 P. M. these same boys were in this vicinity. 

After 12 :00 A. M. investigator visited the 22nd street restricted 
district and saw several small boys, both white and colored, selling 
Sunday papers on 22nd street. These boys were not older than 
fifteen. 

10 :50 P. M. Three boys, none of whom appeared to be over fifteen, 
and two wearing knockerbockers came out of a museum of anatomy 
at (X1150) South State street 

9 :25 P. M. Saw two girls of about eleven in company of small boy 
about eight selling gum at the corner of (X1157) and Harrison. The 
(X1158) Cafe. 

9:40 P. M. On State street in front of (X1163) Museum, No. 
(X1164), boy of about fourteen selling gum on corner of Van Buren 
and (X1165), southwest corner, another boy of fourteen in company 
with three older boys. 

11:10 P. M. One boy on 22nd street near (X1170) avenue. Did 
not appear to be sellng anything. 

October 26th. Investigator saw several boys from seven to fifteen 
years of age selling gum and papers on the street, and in the rear 
rooms of saloons on the West Side. The following are some of the 
saloons where boys of this age were seen: The (X1171) Cafe, 
(X1172) South Halsted street. (X1173) saloon, (X1174) South 
Halsted street. (X1175), (X1176) South Halsted street. One boy 
about ten was heard to use vulgar and obscene language to a man 
who spoke to him. 

///. Messenger Boys. The (X1177) Telegraph Company occupies 
an office at (X1178), which is their nearest branch office to one of the 
restricted districts. There are about eight messenger boys employed 
here, ranging from fifteen to eighteen years of age. The majority of 
these boys are colored. These messengers are called upon to work at all 
hours of the day and night. As part of their duties they answer calls 
from prostitutes, to purchase lunch at nearby restaurants, or to go drug 
stores to purchase drugs and various articles. In this way the mes- 



CHILD PROTECTION AND EDUCATION 243 

senger becomes an important link in the system whereby cocaine and 
various other drugs used by habitues are secured by them. A few 
instances illustrating this fact are as follows: 

(X1179), colored, who lives at (X1180) avenue, messenger No. 
(X1181), works from 12:00 A. M. (midnight) to 10:00 A. M., was 
called about September 1st by a prostitute known as (X1182) who 
occupies room (X1183) of the (X1184), a house of prostitution 
located at (X1185) Dearborn street, and was sent to a drug store 
owned by (X1186), (X1187) street, where he purchased a small pack- 
age of cocaine hydrochloride, which was wrapped and sealed with 
sealing wax. He paid $5.78 for this package and was given $1.00 by 
prostitute as a tip for his service. Messenger (X1170) repeated 
this errand about the middle of September and in addition purchased 
a hypodermic needle for said (X1189) which she attempted to place 
upon the syringe she had. The needle did not fit and he was then 
asked to return same, and secure another, which he did, the needle 
fitting this time. He was charged $2.00 for this needle, the cost of 
the needle to the druggist being nineteen cents. About one week 
after this incident he was again called by (X1190) and was sent on a 
different errand, being told she had discontinued the use of mes- 
senger boys for the purchase of "dope" as she remarked, "They talked 
too much and cannot be trusted." She further said that she was now 
having a newsboy, who sells papers at the immediate corner, purchase 
the cocaine for her. 

Another instance which occurred during the month of October: 
This same messenger was called by madame (X1191) who lives in 
an apartment building at the corner of (X1192) and (X1193) avenue, 
and is the proprietor of a house of prostitution called by her own 
name and sometimes known as (X1194), located at (X1195) Dearborn 
street. She is also the owner of other property in the restricted dis- 
trict. Madame (X1191) is in the habit of calling up Mr. (X1197) 
and ordering a certain quantity of cocaine, who in turn calls this mes- 
senger boy and sends it out to her residence. This messenger at 
one time, opened one of the packages, and suspecting it was cocaine, 
sniffed some of the stuff himself, and proved conclusively thereby 
that it actually was cocaine. He stated that he had done this a con- 
siderable number of times since and seemed to have derived a good 
deal of pleasure out of it. 

A man whose name this messenger has forgotten, but who lives 
on the second floor of the building at the corner of (X1191a) street 
and (X1158) avenue, sends him about three times a month to a place 
owned and operated by a Chinaman at (XI 199) South Clark street, 
where he secures a package of opium, and for which he pays $4.00. 
Upon returning from one of these trips, he watched this man open 
the package and take a quantity of the stuff, which looked very much 
like tar to him, and roll and heat it. At this point the messenger was 
told to leave the room. 

This messenger boy (X1200) is about seventeen years old and has 



244 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

been in the service of the (X1201) Company at this particular office 
for over three years and makes an average of about $10.00 per week, 
including tips. Mentally he is not very bright, rather undersized for 
a boy of his age, and at present afflicted with syphilis of three months' 
duration. 1 

(X1202), No. (X1203) is a little boy of foreign parentage. He is 
but fifteen years old and lives at (X1204) South State street. He 
seems to take considerable pride in showing his knowledge of the 
underworld. He told investigator confidentially that he has often 
been stopped by policemen, as well as ordinary citizens, who inquire 
his age, which he invariably says is eighteen. Recently he has been 
called quite often to (X1205), house of prostitution, (X1206) Dear- 
born street, where a prostitute whose name he has forgotten, gives him 
a box with a note to Mr. (X1207). The box when filled costs $1.75. 
Upon returning to the woman he tells her that he paid $2.50 for the 
package, thus making seventy-five cents. She would then give him 
a fifty cent tip. On one of his trips for her to Mr. (X1207), he 
opened the note and read it. It was just a requisition for cocaine. 
This time he did not have the little box he usually took to the drug 
store, and the cocaine was delivered to him in a small bottle. He 
opened the bottle and placed some of the contents upon his tongue. 
He did not like the sensation and so never repeated it. He has a habit 
of picking up cigarette ends that have been discarded and smoking 
them. 

He knows the name of nearly every prostitute in the restricted 
district and can recognize them at sight. Whenever he comes into a 
house of prostitution the girls fondle him and nearly always kiss him. 
At different times he has had sores on his lips. 2 

Joe (X1209), a high school boy, was employed by the (X1210) 
company in the downtown district during Christmas week of last year. 
He was sent to deliver a message in a house of prostitution at (X1211). 
The girl to whom he delivered the message offered to cohabit with him 
free of charge as a "Christmas present," she stating that it was the 
custom to do that for messenger boys on Christmas day. 

Some of the other boys whose photographs were secured by the 
investigator and who are employed by the (X1210) Telegraph Com- 
pany in the restricted district are (X1213), (X1214) Dearborn street, 
messenger No. (X1214) 3 , colored, (X1215), white, (X1216) Went- 
worth avenue, messenger No. (X1217) 4 , and messenger No. (X1218), 
whose name was not secured. 5 These boys have had similar experi- 
ences. These boys also state that at various times they have been called 

'Exhibit E. 
'Exhibit D. 
Exhibit F. 
Exhibit G. 
Exhibit H. 



CHILD PROTECTION AND EDUCATION 245 

to houses of prostitution to perform small personal services for pros- 
titutes. 

On October 8th at 11:40 P. M., messenger No. (X1221), who ap- 
peared to be about nineteen years of age, was sent with a letter from 
the (X1222) office at (X1223) and (X1224) to a house of prosti- 
tution at (X1225) Dearborn street. At 12:20 A. M. the messenger 
boy was seen coming out of this house. 

IV. Girls Employed in Various Occupations. This subject has 
been treated in full elsewhere in this report. It is shown there that 
young girls who work in factories, department stores, offices, res- 
taurants, hotels, and as domestic servants, are subject to many dangers 
and temptations. 1 

V. Home Conditions. Bad home conditions often drive the daugh- 
ters of the family into prostituion and the sons into lives of crime. 
In such cases the parents are indifferent or ignorant. They allow their 
children to seek improper amusements without question or guidance. 
Many cases have come to light where girls have gone to dances or the 
theater and remained away from home all night telling their parents 
they stayed with girl friends. Again, they are not required to come 
home at any hour, the door is left unlocked and the wayward children 
return at all hours of the night. Many families in the congested dis- 
tricts take in boarders who sleep in the same room with members of 
the family. This accustoms children to the presence of strangers and 
it is no wonder that they lose their moral sense and easily accept the 
improper attentions of others. 

The time has come in Chicago when better housing conditions should 
be studied and applied. The population in certain quarters of the city 
is becoming more and more congested. Aside from the dangers re- 
sulting from insanitary conditions, bad housing breeds vice and crime. 

The Commission commends the Association of Commerce for its 
recent step in appointing a committee to study and report on these con- 
ditions. 

VI. Rooming Houses and Hotels. One of the chief dangers sur- 
rounding out of town girls and boys who are employed in the city 
is the cheap rooming and boarding houses. 

'See Chapter IV. "Sources of Supply," page 163. 



246 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

The immoral conditions in some of the hotels in Chicago form one 
of the gravest menaces in city life and should be corrected. 1 

VII. Protection of Immigrant Girls. One of the most serious 
problems in Chicago is how to prevent immigrants, especially young 
girls and women, from falling into the hands of unscrupulous persons 
while en route from New York and when they arrive in this city. 2 

VIII. Underfed Children. Many of the delinquent children who 
pass through the Juvenile Court are underfed and have no home care 
or training. They sometimes start by stealing food to eat. Out of 
this class of anemic children come prostitutes and criminals. The 
Commission commends the Board of Education in its attempts to meet 
this situation by the sale of food at cost to the pupils. For the safety 
of the well fed as well as in sympathy with the underfed, the unfor- 
tunate should be cared for and protected. 

IX. Employment Agencies. Some of the employment agencies in 
Chicago have been more or less careless in the past in obeying the law 
against the sending of girls as servants to immoral or suspicious 
places. The conditions in this respect are better now than they have 
been for some time, but the danger still lurks in these places. 3 

AMUSEMENTS. 

The affording of proper amusements for young people in the City 
of Chicago is one of the chief duties of the Municipality and private 
individuals. The amusements of one's leisure hours has more to do 
with character building than work or any other external influence, 
because amusement is a matter of choice. It should therefore be pos- 
sible for 'all young people to have an opportunity for proper amuse- 
ment. The investigations of dance halls, cheap theaters, amusement 
parks and lake steamers, show that these places are surrounded by 
vicious dangers and temptations which result in sending many young 
girls into lives of immorality, professional, semi-professional, and clan- 
destine. 4 



*See Chapter I, "Existing Conditions," page 84. 
'See Chapter IV, "Sources of Supply," page 227. 
*See Chapter IV, "Sources of Supply," page 218. 
4 See Chapter IV, "Sources' of Supply," page 163. 



CHILD PROTECTION AND EDUCATION 247 

7. Cheap Theaters. The five and ten cent theaters which have 
sprung up all over the city are conducted in an orderly manner. The 
entertainment consisting of moving pictures is generally clean. The 
vaudeville acts and singing are very often coarse and inclined to be 
vulgar but not immoral. The great danger seems to be that which 
always besets children congregated without proper supervision. We 
believe that the pictures are a menace to the eyes, which will be shown 
later in life. The use of glass screens with lighted interior of theater 
would undoubtedly do much to remove moral dangers and eye strain. 

The police are to be commended for their strict censorship over all 
films exhibited in Chicago. No film may be shown without the signa- 
ture of the General Superintendent of Police. 

It is estimated that there are over 310 of these places of amusement 
in Chicago. Investigations by individuals interested in the welfare 
of children have pointed out many instances where children have been 
influenced for evil by the conditions surrounding some of these shows. 
Vicious men and boys mix with the crowd in front of the theaters and 
take liberties with very young girls. 

The men and boys outside the theaters speak to the young girls 
and invite them to go to the show. 

In one very respectable residential district three very serious things 
have happened in connection with these theaters. 

A man by the name of (X1230), a proprietor of one of these nickel 
theaters, assaulted fourteen young girls. 

Another man, seventy-six years of age, was in the habit of enticing 
young girls to go to the show. 

At another theater the stage manager committed a serious offense 
with several little boys. 

All these things happened in the afternoon. 

Many liberties are taken with young girls within the theater during 
the performance when the place is in total or semi-darkness. Boys 
and men slyly embrace the girls near them and offer certain indignities. 

The following extracts from conferences with widely known workers 
on the influence of the nickel theater in child protection are worthy 
of note : 

"I think the nickel theaters have an immoral tendency. While I 
believe some are instructive, the general tendency is toward im- 
morality. I know a good many of my young girls have told me 



248 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

their first wrong came when they attended nickel theaters. The 
people who conduct them may be morally all right and the shows in- 
structive to the class of people who go there ofttimes, but they are not 
what they should be. That applies also to dance halls and is one of 
the great sources of their downfall. 

"I think the nickel theater is a recruiting station for vice. In the 
first place from the type of pictures often shown there; in the second 
place from the association. Often young people are without super- 
vision, and it is an easy matter for a wrong character to get acquainted 
with a girl. Evil minded men can very easily make an acquaintance 
there, when it wouldn't be possible under other circumstances. 

"Nickel theaters exert an evil influence. Parents and in some cases 
delinquent children testify that they started in these places. They 
have a tendency to keep the children out away from home at night 
very late." 

Another immoral feature in connection with the cheap theater is the 
amateur nights and conditions back on the stage. Workers among de- 
linquent girls testify that these are the influences that first started 
many of the girls into immoral lives : 

"Many girls from 12 years of age on have a dramatic tendency. 
They hear of the money made on the stage and they become anxious 
to appear before the public. They get acquainted with an usher or 
some of the people on the stage ; they will do anything to get a chance, 
especially on some amateur night." 

"The immoral influences back of the stage are very bad. I know 
of one case where two girls and two fellows simply shut the doors 
of one of the dressing rooms, and stayed there for a long while, and 
step by step the downfall of the girls was brought about." 

"Many theaters have little dressing rooms, and many of the girls 
stay there over night. Many girls sell themselves in order to get on 
the stage before the public. Then they find they can make easy money. 
Their one idea is to get before the public. I think it is one of the worst 
things ever invented." 

"Children ought not to be permitted on the stage. The law against 
it is certainly not enforced. We have delinquent girls 12 to 16 years 
of age, who have been on the stage on amateur nights. A little girl 
just left us who had been on the stage at a five cent show dancing. 
She called herself a 'professional.' " 

Chicago has a number of cheap burlesque theaters which have a 
demoralizing influence upon young boys and men. The actresses as 
a rule in these cheap shows have no modesty. The men connected 
with the entertainment are even worse in their actions, and suggestive 
songs and language are used on the stage. In one of these shows on 
State street some weeks ago a brazen women gave a shocking ex- 
hibition of an obscene and suggestive dance. She threw garters to the 



CHILD PROTECTION AND EDUCATION 249 

audience as souvenirs while small boys in the gallery hooted and made 
noisy demonstrations during her performance. There are permanent 
shows on State street, almost in the heart of the business district, 
where an announcer inside the building makes a suggestive speech to 
entice the audience to descend to the basement where dancers from 
the "Orient will stir their blood and make them feel like real men." 

These cheap and vulgar exhibitions are crowded with young boys 
and men to whom they cater. 

//. Immoral Literature and Pictures. Probation officers connected 
with the Juvenile -Court testify that a great many delinquent girls 
have been influenced for evil by improper literature and pictures. 
This matter is often printed on the backs of the business cards of 
saloon keepers and invitations to dances. Investigators have collected 
a quantity of these cards. In addition, printed poems describing 
in a most suggestive and obscene manner the experience of lovers 
have also been found in circulation in the rear rooms of saloons. 

A young man in this city has a collection of obscene books of the 
vilest type. He lends these books to his friends. Another man has 
a collection of vile pictures and obscene poetry which he exhibits. 
Many of these are in possession of the Commission. 

The bill boards still present advertisements of certain shows which 
could well be censored. 

A boy of fifteen, a pupil in the high school, said the other boys 
were in the habit of passing lewd pictures and addresses of women in 
the restricted districts among themselves. One day this boy was 
preparing to visit the district when he was prevented from doing so. 

Young girls have been seen with hand written copies of obscene 
poems which were passed from one to another. 

There are also vulgar and suggestive advertisements of cigarettes 
and cigars in circulation. Some of these cards are circulated by so- 
called reputable firms and are in possession of the Commission. 

///. Confectionary and Ice Cream Parlors. A city ordinance de- 
clares that it shall be unlawful for any person owning, conducting 
or managing candy and fruit stores or ice cream parlors to allow any 
male under the age of twenty-one years or any female under the age 
of eighteen to remain in such places between the hours of 10 :00 P. M. 
and 7 :00 A. M. unless accompanied by one or both parents. This or- 






250 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

dinance also forbids these stores to maintain curtains, screens or 
partitions of any kind that will serve to divide such places into small 
rooms or compartments. The penalty is a fine of from $5 to $100 
for each offense. 1 An injunction has been issued restraining the en- 
forcement of this ordinance. The Commission feels that if this in- 
junction is made permanent it will work a great injustice to many help- 
less and unprotected children. 

There is no doubt that conditions surrounding many of these candy 
and fruit stores and ice cream parlors in certain districts of the city 
are particularly dangerous to young boys and girls. In fact the court 
records show that a large number of young girls have been ruined in 
these places. 

The following typical instances came under the observation of in- 
vestigators of the Commission during its study: 

October 10th. (X1230), confectionary and ice cream soda parlor, 
(X1231) street. Two girls and two boys were seen in this place after 
10:00 P. M. The girls appeared to be from fifteen to sixteen years 
of age, the boys from seventeen to twenty. There was a Japanese 
screen in the room, which could be used to put around tables. One 
of the boys took hold of the breast of one of the girls and took other 
liberties. 

October 10th. (X1232) Kitchen. Confectionary and ice cream 
parlor; (X1233) street. One girl and four boys at this place after 
10:00 P. M. The girl appeared to be sixteen years of age; the boys 
from twelve to seventeen. A screen was in the room, which 
could be used to go around the tables. There was a room in the rear 
which opened off from the ice cream parlor. 

October 10th. (X1234), (X1235; street. Ice cream soda and 
confectionary. Several girls and boys were seen in this place at 
10:35 P. M. Two of the girls appeared to be 16, and 3, 18 years of 
age; the boys 14 to 20. One of the younger boys asked a girl to 
hurry up, and they would go to the hallway where they could talk by 
themselves. 

October 10th. Cigars, candy, soda and drugs. (X1236) and 
(X1237). One girl and four boys were seen in this place at 10:45 
P. M. The girl appeared to be 16, and the boys from 15 to 18 years 
of age. The girl was accompanied by one of the boys, and the other 
boys were making fun of him for going around with a "chicken." 

October 10th. (X1238) store, (X1239) avenue. Two girls and 
four boys were seen in this place at 10:50 P. M. The girls ap- 
peared to be from 15 to 17 and the boys from 15 to 19 years of age. 
There are curtains in this place, which can be arranged around the 

Appendix XVII. 



CHILD PROTECTION AND EDUCATION 251 

tables. One of the boys was seen conducting himself in an indecent 
manner with one of the girls. Their names were May and Fred. 

October 10th. (X1240) ; ice cream and candy. (X1241) avenue. 
Two girls and one boy were seen in this place at 11 :30 P. M. The 
girls appeared to be 13 to 16 years of age, and the boy 17. 

October llth. (X1242), confectionary and ice cream parlor; 
(X1243) street. Eleven girls and 9 boys were here at 11:20 P. M. 
The youngest of the girls appeared to be 15 and the youngest boy 16. 
Two girls about 16 were flirting with two boys, and when the boys 
left the girls followed them. One of the girls flirted with the in- 
vestigator and he sat down at the table with her. She said she was 
17 years of age and "hung out" most of the time in (X1244) saloon. 
She further stated that her name was Georgia (X1245), and came 
from the upper peninsula of Michigan. She is a prostitute and takes 
men to the (X1246) hotel, (X1247) street. 

October llth. Ice cream parlor, (X1248) South (X1249) street. 
Eight girls and 5 boys were seen in this place at 10:50 P. M. Tne 
youngest of the girls appeared to be 16 and the youngest boy 17. 
Three girls who appeared to be 16 were acting very giddy, and one 
of the boys told the investigator that they were "to be had." 

October 13th. (X1250), drug store and ice cream parlor, (X1520a) 
street. Five girls and 3 boys were in this place at 11:35 P. M.; the 
youngest of the girls appeared to be 11, and the youngest boy 19 years 
of age. 

October 13th. Ice cream parlor, (X1251) street. Four girls and 
6 boys were in this place at 10:35 P. M. The youngest of the girls 
appeared to be 15, and the youngest boy 18 years of age. There 
was a curtain in the room, which could be arranged around 
the tables; also a door to rooms in the rear. One of the girls was 
alone, and sh afterwards went out on the street and met a fellow 
on the corner, and walked away with him. 

October 13th. Ice cream parlor. (X1257) street. Three girls 
and 4 boys were seen in this place at 11 :10 P. M. The youngest of 
the girls appeared to be 18 and the youngest boy 19 years of age. 
There was a screen around one of the tables in the room. 

October 13th. Ice cream parlor; (X1258) street. Three girls 
and one boy were seen in this place at 11 :20 P. M. The youngest of 
the girls appeared to be 15 and the boy about 17 years of age. 

October 13th. Ice cream parlor, (X1259) street. Five girls and 
6 boys were seen in this place at 11 :30 P. M. The youngest of the 
girls appeared to be 16 and the youngest boy 18 years of age. There 
were booths and stalls arranged on both sides of the room, where 
persons could be by themselves. There was a door leading to rooms 
in the rear. 

October 14th. Ice cream parlor; (X1260) street. Seven girls and 
8 boys were seen in this place at 11:45 P. M. The youngest of the 
girls appeared to be 16, the youngest boy 18. There was a room 



252 THE SOCIAL EVIL OF CHICAGO 

enclosed in the rear right hand corner. The room also contained 
screens to put around the tables. 

October 14th. Ice cream parlor, (X1261) street. Five girls and 3 
boys were seen in this place at 11 :05 P. M. The youngest of the 
girls appeared to be 16 and the youngest boy 17 years of age. There 
are screens in the room that can be placed around tables. There is a 
door leading to rooms in the rear. An Italian clerk was joking with a 
girl called Frances about loving another fellow, and she said, "I know 

1 love him." 

October 14th. Ice cream parlor. (X1262) street. Four girls and 

2 boys were seen in this place at 10:25 P. M. The youngest of the 
girls appeared to be 16 and the younger boy 18 years of age. There 
are partitions in the rear of this room. 

IV. Amusement Parks. Social workers who have paid particular 
attention to conditions in amusement parks declare that incidents 
have come to their notice showing a laxity of supervision and of the 
moral dangers surrounding young girls who frequent these places for 
amusement. 1 

V. Public Parks. No definite investigation was made of the 
conditions in public parks by the Commission. Other organizations, 
however, have reported on the same. These investigations show that 
there are evil influences in such places. During the summer time young 
girls frequent these places and sit around on the grass with boys, or go 
with them into the dark corners and among the shrubbery at night. 

Garfield, Douglas and Lincoln parks are mentioned where these 
conditions have been observed. 

The Commission recommends a better lighting of the parks; the 
removal of seats from the deep shadows and better policing. Search- 
lights might be of assistance to the proper policing of such spots as are 
not covered by arc lights. 

VI. Lake Steamers. Investigations of conditions on the lake 
steamers which cater to holiday and excursion crowds shows that 
these boats afford many opportunities for immoral practices. 

These boats then must be considered as affording dangers to young 
people which must be vigorously guarded against. 2 

*See Chapter IV, "Sources of Supply," page 213. 
*See Chapter IV, "Sources of Supply," page 215. 



CHILD PROTECTION AND EDUCATION 253 

EDUCATIONAL AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES. 

There is a difference of opinion whether children below the age of 
puberty should be taught sex hygiene in schools. That they should 
be taught this subject is being widely discussed. Both sides present 
argument for and against. At this period of experiment in the public 
or semi-public education of sex hygiene to children, under fourteen 
or fifteen years of age, the Commission is convinced the movement is so 
early in its development that it furnishes little absolute proof of its value 
and therefore it would hesitate to make recommendation. It is the 
bounden duty as well as the privilege of fathers and mothers, how- 
ever, to teach their young children such facts as are necessary to 
guard them from the dangers of immoral lives. But this is pre- 
eminently the work for parents and not for schools or for public 
societies. Beyond the age of puberty or in colleges or universities this 
may be done with safety and probably good results if done with care 
and from the viewpoint of morals, as well as the care of the physical 
body. 

There are parents, unfortunately, who do not feel capable or willing 
to undertake to teach children the knowledge of sex hygiene. It is 
not an easy duty in many instances, but a very necessary one. When 
such is the case a father has recourse to a very excellent teacher for 
the son, the family physician. In the case of the mother, her ma- 
ternal instinct will suggest how to protect her daughter. 

Where children have no parents the Commission feels that these 
children should be taught necessary knowledge by those who are their 
moral guardians. If the child be in an institution then by those in 
charge of the same; if wards of the court, then by probation officers 
of the same sex; and for those in school without advisers, by the 
teachers of the school in private interviews. 

It is most desirable that college students of both sexes should 
receive instruction in sex hygiene. The greatest emphasis should be 
placed upon their responsibility in protecting future generations from 
hereditary immoral tendencies and physical degeneration. 

Books and other literature on the subject are limited and some 
of them unfortunate, or based upon error or misvalued evidence. 
Consequently, great care should be used in selecting or advising on 
that subject. 



254 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

The Commission presents the following brief history of the pres- 
ent educational movement, both in this country and abroad, for the 
education and protection of young people of both sexes. 

The essential feature of this educational effort is that its teach- 
ing was planned to be, and has been moral and helpful as well as hy- 
gienic and scientific. In other words, it has not endeavored to delve 
into all the details of vice, and spread before the public all the re- 
pulsiveness and depravity of people who lead lives of vice, but the 
purpose has been to give young men such information as will be 
helpful to them in controlling their own passion or to assist them in 
avoiding the vice and depravity into which their uncontrolled emo- 
tional nature may lead them. 

While this educational work has pointed out the consequences of 
vice, and the causes which lead many into immorality, it has en- 
deavored to place the emphasis upon those things which are normal 
and right. In addition this educational program includes instructions 
regarding things which make for the health and welfare of the family, 
and to a proper regard for the sense of honor which is a part of the 
lives of normal men and women. 

In matters of sexes, as in other problems of life, knowledge without 
honor is a power without a guide. In much of the best recent liter- 
ature, the question of honor is taken for granted rather than ex- 
pressed. Nevertheless, the basic principle is justice to others as well 
as avoidance of injury to one's self. 

For nearly one hundred years European cities have been trying to 
reduce the volume of venereal disease by medical and sanitary ef- 
forts. Disease, however, has persisted unchecked, statistics often 
showing an increase in spite of all the sanitary efforts available. 
Finally, in 1899, an International Congress was called to meet at 
Brussels, and discuss every known means of reducing this constantly 
growing peril. Many people expected great results from a sanitary 
point of view from this conference. It developed, however, that 
even the supporters of sanitary control of vice could not give as fa- 
vorable a report as they wished to, and freely admitted they were 
disappointed with the result of their efforts. 

This International Council after discussing the matter for several 
days, finally disbanded, with the recommendation they report no 



CHILD PROTECTION AND EDUCATION 255 

definite conclusions to their respective governments, and with the un- 
derstanding that this subject would be studied further, and a second 
council meet in 1902. 

The results of the second council were similar to those of the first, 
except that it was finally decided that the only hope for reducing 
present distressing conditions was to organize an educational effort 
along both sanitary and moral lines. 

The deliberations of this Congress crystallized into the conviction 
that the preventive measures hitherto employed were insufficient and 
ineffective. It was decided also that the whole question must be 
studied anew, from a broader standpoint, with special reference to 
the social conditions involved in the causation of these diseases. It 
was recognized that vice was a voluntary evil, and that moral, as well 
as medical issues were involved. 

One of the American representatives to this Congress was author- 
ized by the society to organize in America, Societies of Sanitary and 
Moral Prophylaxis. 

After four years of hard work, the American Society of Sanitary 
and Moral Prophylaxis in New York City was organized in Feb- 
ruary of 1905. This society was composed of some of the most prom- 
inent members of the medical profession, and others interested in 
public welfare. Their plan of work was soon approved by people 
in other communities and similar societies were organized in Phila- 
delphia, in Chicago and elsewhere. The Chicago Society bearing the 
name of "The Chicago Society of Social Hygiene," was organized in the 
spring of 1906. Since then some twelve or fifteen similar city or state 
organizations have sprung up in different parts of the United States, 
and one in Mexico. These have all been composed of medical people 
and others, and they have had the benefit of some of the best medical 
advice in their communities. As a consequence, the general public has 
come to realize as never before the amount of disease and physical 
suffering caused by vice, and the benefits to be derived by a possible 
freedom from vice in a community. Up to the present time most 
of the education has been directed towards young men and their 
parents, or towards assisting Y. M. C. A. and college authorities in 
giving young men such information as will enable them to know the 
dangers incident to the association with vice. 



256 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

In addition to the above, an effort has been made by women's 
clubs to educate certain groups of women regarding such facts as 
are necessary to enable them to guide and protect their own children 
or children in their charge. This work has been conducted largely 
by women physicians. The necessity for such work, and the value 
of the work given, .has been very much appreciated by a large number 
of women in several of the cities of the United States. 

The first society to undertake the teaching of Social Hygiene to 
adults in Chicago was the Chicago Society of Social Hygiene, teach- 
ing the facts from a hygenic and medical point of view, and endeav- 
oring mostly to reach young men. Second, the Chicago Woman's 
Club, teaching from the standpoint of a proper protection of women 
and children. Third, the Illinois Vigilance Association, organized 
under the auspices of a union meeting of ministers' associations. 

The work of teaching young men has perhaps progressed farther 
and accomplished more than among the people of any other class, 
outside of those especially interested in the public welfare. This 
teaching has been accomplished through lectures delivered to colleges 
and Y. M. C. A.'s, usually by physicians. For the past four years 
one physician delivered a lecture on reproduction and sexual hygiene 
at most of the large colleges in the Middle West and many of the 
Y. M. C. A.'s in the larger cities from Denver to New York. 
In Indiana, the State Board of Health has taken up the 
work, and the Chairman of the Board or one of his assistants goes 
nearly every Sunday and occasionally during the week, to talk be- 
fore Men's Clubs in churches and social clubs, or other organizations. 

The Chicago Society of Hygiene and the Spokane Society of Social 
and Moral Hygiene have issued four leaflets entitled, "Sexual Hy- 
giene for Young Men," "Family Protection," "Community Protec- 
tion," and "Comments on the Aim and the Efforts of the Society of 
Social Hygiene," the later being principally a compilation of letters 
telling of the value and usefulness of the literature which they have 
issued. 

The education of the rising generation is of the utmost importance, 
and this education should reach as many as possible, but in order to 
have the movement permanently established it is more important that 
the method should be right rather than energetic. In other words, 



CHILD PROTECTION AND EDUCATION 257 

the quality of the work is of more importance than the quantity, al- 
though a large quantity is urgently needed and should be supplied as 
rapidly as skill and care can manage. 

The following extracts are from statements made by representa- 
tive workers among children selected from the testimony of twenty-six 
who appeared with others in conference with the Commission. They 
represent fairly the general opinion of the twenty-six who discussed the 
subject: 

"I am very far from being committed broadly to the idea of 
teaching social hygiene in the public schools. It depends en- 
tirely upon the age of the child and in what grade it is to be 
taught. It is a matter of the greatest difficulty to give this in- 
struction properly, and I am very much in doubt whether it would 
accomplish much good. 

When you consider how few parents have the moral or mental 
equipment to discuss this question with their children I some- 
times think it is better to leave them without definite instruction 
from such sources." 



"The time has come when the teachers should be instructed 
to teach the children. This does not mean that they must tell 
them everything about the physiology of the human body, but it 
does mean they must change their attitude about this matter, and 
instead of talking about the stork, talk plainly; otherwise, they 
will be on the wrong track. I am quite in sympathy with the 
movement to teach social hygiene in the public schools. This 
should be done by changing the trend of thought, and the form 
of expression, and gradually by introducing actual physiology 
study. The peculiar thing about the public school teaching of 
physiology as it is now taught is that it is a physiology of ani- 
mals and does not touch the physiology of man, as related to re- 
production." 



"It depends a good deal upon the age of the children, as to 
whether or not they should be taught physiology in the public 
schools. Some children are capable of understanding instruc- 
tion in that science at a much earlier period than others. You 
will find some girls ten years of age who understand more about 
the science of life and evil than others at fifteen. It would be 
hard to suggest any age at which it would be proper to com- 
mence teaching. I believe that parents or the guardians of children 
should teach these delicate subjects. It is my conviction, gen- 
erally speaking, that the longer children are kept innocent the 
better calculated it is to promote goodness." 



258 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

"I am in favor of teaching physiology to school children, but 
I would not wish to give an opinion regarding the age when 
this subject should be taught. I feel sure that when they reach 
puberty they ought to know. This subject should be imparted 
to the children through the schools, because we have so large a 
number of parents who will not do it. I know personally of 
girls who have been allowed to come to the marriage age with- 
out a word of instruction; their mothers say they could not talk 
on the subject with their daughters. I do not believe innocence 
and ignorance go hand in hand. I think a girl brought up on a 
farm would see the natural processes; she knows the secrets of 
sex without being taught. She is just as innocent as the city 
girl who has never seen anything. The mothers of Italian girls 
who marry at fourteen or fifteen years of age have been per- 
fectly frank with them, yet these girls are perfectly innocent. 

I am in sympathy with the movement to teach social hygiene 
with reference to morals in the public schools." 



The Commission, therefore, heartily recommends the further study 
into proper and effectual methods of teaching sex hygiene to young 
people beyond the age of puberty, especially to young men. For 
other recommendations see page 63. 



Chapter VI. 



Rescue and Reform, 



CHAPTER VI. 

RESCUE AND REFORM. 

The Social Evil presents one of the ( sombre phases of modern life. 
Perhaps there is no problem more complex and baffling within the 
range of present day experience. The evils of which it is the cause 
and the perils with which it besets the lives of even the purest and 
least suspecting members of the social order afford ample justifica- 
tion for the most earnest efforts to abate and conquer it. 

In the discussion of the means of rescue and reform, it is natural 
that emphasis should be placed upon institutions and agencies which 
have proved of value or promised relief. Yet it must be remembered 
that the most serious evils of this traffic in virtue are not physical 
but moral, and that the most effective means of counteracting them 
must ever be in the elevation of the moral sentiment of the com- 
munity to a sense of individual responsibility for upright conduct in 
behalf of decency and virtue. 

The safety of the city as of the nation, lies in the intelligence, 
morality and ethical sensitiveness of the people. And the agencies, 
educational, moral and religious, which inspire and promote these 
qualities are the truest safeguards. 

With a sure and unfailing emphasis upon these primary factors in 
the problem it is appropriate that attention be given to the specific 
problems connected with the work of rescue and reform. 

A. Social changes. The community is undergoing great economic 
social and political changes which affect the status of respectable 
women. They are evidenced by: 

I. The disproportionate increase in the number of wage earning 
women as compared with wage earning men, and with female popu- 
lation. The twelfth census (1900) reports that 6,000,000 women 
were then wage earners outside their homes, and it is anticipated that 
the thirteenth census (1910) will find 9,000,000 women engaged in 
wage earning pursuits. Between 1890-1900 gainfully employed 
women increased more rapidly than gainfully employed men in num- 
ber, and more rapidly than the female population. 

261 



262 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN^CHICAGO 

II. The disintegration of the older forms of family life and 
multiplication of divorces obtained on the motion of the wife: Dur- 
ing the past twenty wears 954,000 divorces have been granted in the 
United States; two-thirds at the request of women who in most 
cases have assumed the burden of supporting themselves, and often of 
supporting their children. 

III. The gradual admission of women to political privileges : For 
all constiutional governments tend to give at least the municipal 
franchise to women. While these changes are not of such a char- 
acter as to promise the overthrow of the institution of prostitu- 
tion, they throw a new light on the causes which lead women into 
immoral and disreputable lives, and must be considered in framing 
any program for the rescue and reform of women who have become 
disreputable. It is of the essence of the immoral act that the two 
sexes are involved. The question of the immoral man is, however, 
left to other reports 1 while this discussion is devoted exclusively to 
the girl, semi-delinquent or delinquent, and the woman semi-profes- 
sional or professional. 

B. Reasons for Choice of Immoral Life by Women. One result 
of these changes in the status of respectable women is a gradual al- 
teration in the attitude of respectable women towards their disrep- 
utable sisters, and the recognition of the fact that the position of the 
disreputable woman can be readily understood only when the effect 
of these changes upon the tastes, the possibilities, the opportunities 
of reputable women is considered. The problem then of rescue and 
reform of these women who have supplied the demand for purposes 
of prostitution has now been recognized as one belonging to the whole 
community, to be solved only with the help of both decent men and 
women, and as one so complicated that the formulation of adequate 
recommendations is extremely difficult. 

A brief discussion of the apparent causes for the selection of this 
life by women is essential to a discussion of their subsequent rescue 
from it. A removal of these causes would act in a preventive man- 
ner. Until they are removed subsequent and remedial treatment of 
some kind will remain necessary. The difficulties which surround 
the various efforts to care for and reform girls and prostitutes are 

*See Chapter V, "Child Protection and Education," page 240. 



RESCUE AND REFORM 263 

largely inherent in social life and industrial conditions. Social insti- 
tutions and public opinion lag behind industrial demands, and of no con- 
ditions is this more true than of those under which women and girls 
offer themselves in the labor market ; and it is true not only of Condi- 
tions in Chicago but in the entire United States, in England, and on 
the Continent. 

In public opinion, also, women prostitutes have been in the past all 
grouped together; young and old, confirmed prostitutes and girls who 
have made but their first misstep, were all placed in one class, as im- 
pelled into the life by their own evil inclinations. 

This naive explanation to account for such a prevalent institution 
still survives among those whose experience of life has been so lim- 
ited as to allow them no conception of the subtle and complicated 
social conditions which produce the social evil. 

In the public conscience neither was any discrimination made be- 
tween the various degrees of responsibility for evil-doing, nor any 
effort exerted in economic or social directions to lessen the supply, 
and return the victims to society, which has never in law or educa- 
tion sufficiently recognized the strength and force of the sex instinct. 
This instinct has been ignored in educational methods, and society 
has sought to correct its abuses by punishing the woman, and by ex- 
acting from her absolute chastity under pain of social death. Thus 
the evil, nourished by silence, unchecked by wise enlightment, has 
grown apace. The social conscience, however, is now awakening, and 
recognizes that the causes which produce the social evil, which in 
truth is the most unsocial of all evils, are as varied as the individuals 
who supply the demand. 

Among these causes a few may be enumerated. The economic 
stress of industrial life on unskilled workers, with its enfeebling in- 
fluence on the will power; the large number of seasonal trades in 
which women are especially engaged; unhappy homes; careless and 
ignorant parents; broken promises; love of ease and luxury; the 
craving for excitement and change; lack of both ethical teaching and 
religious conviction; ignorance of hygiene; all these are more or less 
contributing causes. But above all is the fact that "commercialized 
vice" is now a business in which but a small part of the profits are 
paid to the women, who are exploited for the benefit of certain groups 



264 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

of men; and parallel with this is the further fact that certain classes 
of women have discovered that luxuries and ease come to them when 
they sell their bodies, rather than the work of their hands, "It is the 
easiest way." 

/. Unfavorable Home Conditions. First among these causes 
should be named unfavorable home conditions and family relation- 
ships. Where the parents are drunken, immoral, degraded, the home 
crowded and filthy, and the child neglected and abused, there is little 
hope of the girl escaping sex-violation. Such consequences are illus- 
trated by the experience of the girls now in the State Home for Girls 
at Geneva. 

Among 168 girls in that institution at one time (Summer 1908) 
30 were the daughters of drunken fathers, 8 had drunken mothers, 
20 had fathers of vicious habits, 16 were children of immoral or 
vicious mothers. In the families of 12 there were others of criminal 
or vicious habits; 24 were children of fathers who had deserted the 
family; 11 were illegitimate, and 10 were victims of gross cruelty. 
Twenty-nine of these girls had already been in houses of prostitution, 
13 had sisters who were immoral, 31 country girls at Geneva and 16 
Chicago girls each testified that the companion of her first experience 
was a member of her own family. Of course it is apparent that in 
many of these instances more than one of the unhappy conditions 
would be operative, so that some overlapping must be recognized. 
Many other instances could be obtained from among the girls who 
have been wards of the Juvenile Court. 1 

More serious still are the cases of venereal infection in families 
where some members of the group, usually the father, spreads the 
disease. In one case under observation, the father, while living away 
from home became infected. A few weeks later he came home and 
infected a six year old daughter. 2 Often when the home is not en- 
tirely degraded there are conditions of crowding and poverty which 
lead to misfortune. Working all day, the girls are often obliged to 
help at home in the evening; and if they live in a crowded house, 
they must go on the streets to receive their friends. They are thus 
practically forced on the street for social life. 

'See Chapter IV, "Sources of Supply," page 228. 
'Monthly report of the Juvenile Protective Association. 



RESCUE AND REFORM 265 

The poor of the working class usually raise large families, and the 
income is proportionately small. The responsibilities are often too 
heavy and the parents cannot wait until the children are fourteen 
years old before they are sent out to help support the family. Many 
girls go astray because they are obliged to turn over their earnings to 
their father or mother. Naturally, where children of fourteen con- 
tribute to the support of their family they pass beyond the parents' 
control. A self-supporting individual becomes in the nature of things 
a self-directing individual and the parents become less exacting about 
morals when they become dependent on the use of the child's wages. 

There are, too, of course, in our city many girls who are in fact 
homeless, who live in unprotected ways in boarding and lodging 
houses. The superintendent of the Compulsory Department of the 
Board of Education cites cases in which the practice of taking board- 
ers in the congested districts results in immorality. The "star" 
boarder has contributed in large measure to the number of illegiti- 
mate children. Many young girls who are nominally under the pro- 
tection of their own families have either been mistreated by mem- 
bers of their family or have been made the victims of their neglect. 
A little lame girl 12 years of age may be cited as an illustration from 
a large group. She was absent from school. On investigation, it 
was found that her father had mistreated her. The child was used 
by a boarder, 46 years old, who paid the father $4.50 a week for board 
and the use of the child. 

II. Lack of Supervision on the Street. The life on the streets is 
dangerous for young girls, indeed for all children who are forced 
upon them for social life. All of the Commission investigators speak 
of the large number of young girls on the streets late at night. One 
social worker reported seeing a girl of 14 or 15 at half past ten in the 
evening with two boys in an indecent attitude, and another little 
girl of 13 and a boy of 14 on the corner of La Salle avenue and Locust 
street at 10 o'clock, also in an indecent attitude. 

The conditions on the streets, especially in the summer after 11 
o'clock make it unfit for young girls to be abroad, and after that hour 
on many car lines the passengers are noisy, profane and often in- 
toxicated. The police leave the parks and boulevards about 10 
o'clock, so that the danger in them is even greater. One member 



266 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

of the Commission found two children, not more than 12 or 13, hid- 
den in the bushes in Lincoln Park on the Lake Shore last summer. 
She went up to them to persuade them to go home and they ran away. 
A young man arose from under the same clump of bushes and ran 
after them. No policeman was in sight and one could only leave 
them to their fate. On the subject of children out late at night in 
the streets, this same worker says: "You must educate the parents. 
You must do some strong talking to them. Many parents seem not 
to care what becomes of their daughters." 

///. Dishonest Practice by Theatrical Agents. The theatrical 
agencies occasionally deceive girls, and under promise of finding po- 
sitions for them on the stage, really intend to put them in houses, or 
at least get money from them. A ward of the Illinois Industrial 
School, nineteen years of age, who was not very bright, but a fairly 
decent girl, was placed in a home where she received $4.00 a week. 
For six months she spent almost all her money learning to dance 
so as to go on the stage. When one of the Commission ascertained 
how her money went, she at once put a stop to the whole performance 
as the child was a person of such low mentality and awkward ways 
that it was impossible to teach her to dance. While this agency prob- 
ably did not intend to put her in any danger, at the same time it 
took her money so that she worked for six months for instruction, 
which under no possibility could be of any value. 

IF. The Unregulated Dance Hall and Other Places of Amusement. 
The chapter on "The Social Evil and the Saloon" points out the evil 
resulting to women from the saloon and the dance hall attached to 
it, and it is significant that a very large number of girls attribute their 
first downward step to the dance hall. 

The last report of the Juvenile Protective Association states that: 

"There are 266 dance halls in Chicago, a very large number 
disreputable, with saloon attached, patronized by young girls. 
* * * Dancing is only a secondary consideration; drinking is the 
principal object. The girl is not welcome unless she drinks. 
From this sort of amusement the end is sure." 

One investigator tells of seeing a very nice looking young girl who 
came with another young girl to a dance on the North Side. Two men 
joined them and the girl refused to drink at first when wine was 
offered. The friend and the man after trying vainly to persuade 



RESCUE AND REFORM 267 

her, finally seized her, and poured the liquor down her throat in such 
a way as to force her to swallow it; as she was unused to drinking 
she was quickly overcome, but no one interfered, and everyone 
around seemed to think it perfectly legitimate and good fun. 

The amusements available for young people are cheap and often 
of a semi-indecent character. The investigation of the five and ten 
cent theaters show that nearly all need supervision. It is estimated 
that 400,000 children visit these theaters and moving picture shows in 
one day in the United States, and in Chicago alone at least 30,000 
children; and yet, as the President of Juvenile Protective Association 
writes, "We are making no use of what would be a great educational 
power." 

In those shows where the lights are turned down many indecent acts 
take place, which accustoms the girls to familiar treatment. All so- 
called "amateur nights" should be abolished, as the dressing rooms are 
small and dirty, and there is usually no separation of men and women, 
or boys and girls. The crowd of evil men who congregate in front of 
the cheap resorts, waiting for girls to come out, is another element of 
danger. They make indecent suggestions and use vile language. 

Many groups of girls go to summer parks without their parents or 
other friends; they start together, but are separated, and in many 
cases accept invitations from perfect strangers, "to go in and see the 
show." The possibilities offered to men for becoming acquainted 
with young girls in this way and taking advantage of them are end- 
less. 

Some young girls go regularly to these parks. They come with 
the price of admission and carfare, and as they have no money for 
amusements, seek a good time at some one's expense. A girl may 
"have a date with some man," or she will "pick one up." The man 
knows what is expected of him, she knows what is expected of her, 
and if she fails to fulfill her part of the bargain, he feels justified in 
using force. The girls often seem to have no idea of chastity, and as 
a matter of business make the first advances. They belong to a class 
of people who seem non-moral rather than immoral. And yet these great 
amusement parks which offer the only recreation many can procure, 
are a necessary part of city life, and they are here to stay. All that 
is immoral should, therefore, be strictly eliminated from them. 1 

*See Chapter IV, "Sources of Supply," page 213. 



268 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

During the summer the excursion boats are often floating assigna- 
tion houses. Some of those between Chicago and Milwaukee, Chicago 
and St. Joseph, Grand Haven and Michigan City, are the worst. The 
state rooms are rented over and over again. The boys carry whiskey 
in their suit cases or buy it at the bar. They are soon drunk and 
the trip becomes an orgy. The state rooms are rented many times 
in the course of three or four hours; boys and girls lie in these 
berths together in an undressed condition. 1 

Thus the perils of unregulated and unsupervised recreation are re- 
sponsible for hundreds of girls now in homes and reformatories, and 
many of these girls would bear witness that their irregular experi- 
ence came to them as an incident to visits to theaters, walks at night 
in parks, picnics, steamer rides, etc. Those whose young daughters 
are carefully guarded can never imagine or realize the perils to which 
the young, ignorant pleasure-loving girls are exposed. 

V. Isolated Employments. Domestic Service. It is an entirely new 
experience to find domestic service classed as a dangerous moral 
trade, but such is the expert's point of view, which is entirely justified 
by the statistics of prisons and reformatories. 

Of the 3,966 unfortunates who came under the examination of the 
Massachusetts State Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1,115, nearly 30 per 
cent., had been in domestic service. In the Bedford Reformatory 
of New York, of 1,000 women, 475 had been servants. Of the 127 
girls in the Industrial School at Rochester, New York, there were 
only 51 wage earners, 29 of whom had been domestic servants. In 
1908, in the Albion Home in New York there were 168 girls, 92 of 
whom were servants. 

A woman who has been investigating the social condition of women 
throughout the country, and has given the subject much thought feels 
that the explanation lies in the isolation of the workers, the fact that 
they have no place to receive their friends, and that, therefore, their 
social opportunities are limited to the park bench, the steamboat and 
recreation after dark. 

VI. Lack of Knowledge of Sexual Matters. A well known woman 
physician of Chicago affirms that ignorance is often responsible for 
the attitude of the girl toward immorality. As an instance she cites 

1 See Chapter IV, "Sources of Supply," page 215. 



RESCUE AND REFORM 269 

the case of a girl now working at one of the establishments in the 
stockyards whose mother "didn't tell her things." She is now five 
months pregnant. The man is a fellow workman, 40 years old, who 
has hitherto borne a most excellent reputation. 

VII. Undue Nervous Strain from Economic Pressure. On the 
economic side, the whole tendency of modern industrialism is to 
place too heavy a strain on the nervous system of all classes, men and 
women alike. How much more serious is this, when the strain is 
placed on the growing girl at the period of adolescence when the 
child has to assume the burden of self-support and self-direction, and 
often aid in the support of her family. 

An investigation was recently made into the living conditions of 
200 respectable working girls, not one among them vicious or im- 
moral, and it was found that only six per cent, of them had control 
of their wages. The rest were obliged to help relatives either in the 
home or out of it. The average wage of these 200 women was $6.00 
to $10.00 a week. It goes without the saying that if you have con- 
ditions which make living with comfort impossible for any large 
number of men and women, some of the men will become criminals 
and some of the women, prostitutes. 

From these investigations, it will be seen that the tradition that 
women are usually in the labor market for additional spending money 
has little foundation in fact. The average girl does not enjoy work 
outside of her own home and will not work unless spurred on by the 
necessity of gaining her daily bread. This is a general rule and does 
not apply to all cases such as many high school girls and the higher 
class of working girls who have considerable ambition and independ- 
ence of feeling. A student of economic problems says: 

"Any investigation which did not involve a full inquiry into 
hours of labor, the nervous strain caused by machinery and oc- 
cupations where machinery is employed operated by women and 
girls, would fall short of obtaining accurate data, and would 
have no foundation whatever on which to deal with vice. There 
are many men who own large establishments who pay wages 
which simply drive women into prostitution. In all large cities 
the common school educates boys and girls to desire at least 
a decent living comfort. It also educates them to discrimina- 
tion, and they realize their own hard lot when compared with 
that of others who are well off." 

They go with ambition into business or trades, but the girl soon finds 



270 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO ' 

out that she has reached the maximum $7.00 or $8.00 a week, when 
she becomes discouraged, and either loses her ambition and joy of 
life, or essays some adventure, more or less hazardous, to supplement 
her meager wages. 

Thus among the reasons why women or girls enter the life of pros- 
titution the economic question plays a more or less conspicuous part. 
The low wages paid, the fact that in nearly all the employments open 
to women, the maximum wage is $10.00 to $15.00 a week, and the 
average wage about $6.00, the lack of skill, the exacting demands 
especially in the department stores for good dressing, the long hours 
of standing, and the extra fatigue which girls must endure at certain 
periods, insanitary conditions under which girls work in factories 
all these have a powerful effect on a woman's or girl's nervous or 
physical force. Then many girls cannot marry, or if married they 
must work to help out the family income, and cannot afford to have 
children. 

As an instance in point. One of the girls in a large department 
store said that some of the girls are married, but both the girl and 
man work. If the wife becomes pregnant she feels compelled to resort 
to an operation for they cannot live on the husband's salary and 
have children. Overwork is the cause of innumerable evils. It ends 
by crippling the body, ruining the health and shortening life. It cer- 
tainly dwarfs the mind and leaves no room for reading or mental de- 
levopment. So a craving for excitement is general among girls who 
work long hours, for they feel the necessity of stimulation, and thus 
attend the shows which make less demand on them for attention. The 
department store girls are specially tempted, for they have low wages 
and long hours, and they are the victims of low minded people who 
use the store as a field for operation, and who are alert to tempt 
girls into an immoral life. 

In 1908 and 1909 the Juvenile Protective Association made a study 
of the waiting rooms in the department stores, and during this in- 
vestigation 16 arrests were made of procurers, 15 men and 1 woman. 
All of whom were convicted and fined. These rooms are used by 
girls looking for employment, and if the girl who is employed is often 
in danger, she is safe compared to the girl looking for work. In one 
of the waiting rooms there were counted 48 girls, ranging from 14 
years to 20. A large number of them were continuously studying 



RESCUE AND REFORM 271 

the Want-Ad columns of the newspaper. Some of the girls were in 
groups, but many were alone, and a large number spent all day with- 
out food. 

One girl said in answer to questions of the investigator that her 
landlady gave her something to eat in the morning, that she absolutely 
had not a cent, that she owed for six weeks' board, and that she 
walked down town and trusted to picking up a newspaper, as she 
hadn't a cent to buy one. 

The men procurers come two or three together, and use all sorts 
of schemes to get acquainted with the girls. Other public waiting 
rooms, such as those in railway stations, are used in this manner. 
In any place where the poorer girls congregate, there are found the 
largest number of procurers. 

After this investigation, a report was made to the managers of 
department stores, and conditions were much improved; but all 
public waiting rooms should be supervised and policed. It is believed 
that during the past winter the conditions in the department store 
waiting rooms have deteriorated. Eternal vigilance is the price of 
safety for young girls. 

In Chapter IV "Sources of Supply," attention is called to the wages 
received by girls in department stores. It is shown there that these 
wages are very low, hardly enough to supply the necessities of life, 
especially if the employe happens to be alone in the city and thrown 
on her own resources. The temptations, therefore, to a moneyless 
girl to accept invitations even from strangers, for luncheon, dinner or 
the theater are very great. One night while an investigator was in the 
(X1262a) and (X1262b) Cafes on (X1262c) avenue, he saw five sales- 
girls in these places whom he recognized as being from a department 
store. 

The fining system under the guise of maintaining discipline, which 
exists in some of the stores, should be regulated by law. 

VIII. Semi-Professional and Professional Prostitutes. From the 
testimony of the investigators employed by the Commission a fairly 
large number of girls employed in department stores supplement their 
income by a certain amount of prostitution, and with such girls the 
economic question is probably the main one. They feel they cannot 
live on the wages they receive, and they are compelled to earn more 
money in order to live with the decency their position requires. 



272 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

The number of professional prostitutes is estimated in Chapter I, 
"Existing Conditions," at 5,000. The number of clandestine prostitutes 
it is impossible to estimate. The rescue and reformation of 
the habitual prostitute presents a problem of the most difficult 
character. Such a woman is the vanishing material of so- 
ciety. She leaves nothing behind her, has usually severed her 
family connections and has no social life. If she ever had religious con- 
victions, they are in abeyance and her concern for ethics is abso- 
lutely gone. Her economic value cannot be reckoned with, as she is 
always more or less unskilled. Every opportunity should be offered 
such individuals of this class as may desire to abandon their evil 
life, and earnest support should be given to all such agencies as seek 
to reach out and reclaim these to rectitude, to moral integrity, and a 
career that may yet prove wholesome and serviceable to society. Yet 
the problems of the restoration to social competence is most perplex- 
ing and puts strong emphasis upon the need of moral and religious 
education at an earlier stage of individual life. 

REMEDIAL MEASURES. 

1. Legal Enactment. 

(a) Equitable. 

Among the laws which attempt to secure protection to girls should 
be mentioned first, the Juvenile Court Law. This law provides that all 
persons under the age of twenty-one years shall, for the purposes of 
this act, be considered wards of the State, and their persons subject to 
the care, guardianship and control of the Court, and so defines de- 
pendent and delinquent children as to bring under the jurisdiction of 
the Court girls whose morals are in peril because of home conditions, 
inadequate training or any other unfavorable conditions. 1 It must be 
noted, however, that the Juvenile Court must acquire jurisdiction of 
the child before the age of eighteen in order to exercise the super- 
vision and guardianship up to the age of twenty-one. 

(b) Criminal. 

The laws which attempt to protect girls and women by punishing 
offenses against their virtue prohibit: 

(1) Enticing an unmarried female of chaste life to enter a house 
of prostitution. Penalty, imprisonment one to twenty years. 

Appendix XXXVIII. 



RESCUE AND REFORM 273 

(2) Detaining any female in such a house. Penalty, imprison- 
ment of from one to ten years. 

(3) Allowing an unmarried female under eighteen to live in a 
house of prostitution. Penalty, imprisonment of from one to five 
years. 

(4) Enticing any female under eighteen to come into the State 
for immoral purposes. Penalty, imprisonment one to five years. 

(5) Pandering. Penalty for the first offense, imprisonment in the 
county jail six months to one year, or a fine of $300 to $1,000; for 
subsequent offenses imprisonment of from one to ten years. 

(6) Detaining a female in a house of prostitution against her 
will to compel the payment, liquidation or canceling of a debt. Pen- 
alty, first offense, imprisonment six months to a year, and a fine of 
from $300 to $3,000. Subsequent offenses, imprisonment one to five 
years. 1 

(7) Contributing to the delinquency or dependency of children.? 

(8) Regulations governing the maintenance of houses of prostitu- 
tion, declaring such a house to be a nuisance, imposing a penalty of 
$200.00 for the offense of maintaining, patronizing, keeping such a 
house, or letting a house for such purposes. 3 

(9) Prohibition directed towards the patrons and inmates of such 
houses. 4 

(10) Provision intended to prevent and punish the immoral solic- 
itation on the streets. 

(a) Definition of vagabond so as to include persons who commit 
such acts. 5 

(b) Defining and penalizing disorderly conduct. 6 

(11) Abandonment of wife and children. Penalty, fine of $100 
to $500, imprisonment one to twelve months, or both fine and impris- 
onment with power in Court to substitute regular contribution to fam- 
ily support for statutory penalty. 

(12) The Bastardy Law; collection of $100 for first year and $50 
each of nine succeeding years, or allowing release on payment of 
$400. 7 



'Appendix VI. 
'Appendix XXXVII. 
'Appendices I-II. 
4 Appendix V. 
'Appendix VIII. 
'Appendix VII. 
'Appendix XXXIV. 



274 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

One of the difficulties of securing convictions under the laws for 
the protection of women is that so many women prefer to suffer 
rather than brave the notoriety and unpleasant experiences which they 
must endure in court trials. This is especially the case where young 
children are involved. The following incident exemplifies the hard- 
ship and humiliation to which young children are very often sub- 
jected in the conduct of the court. It would seem that such things 
might be avoided and yet keep within the legal requirements of the pub- 
licity of trials. The following is an extract from a report of March 
1, 1911, on the Gibson case: 

"On Monday the counsel for the defense asked the judge to 
have the two ladies leave the court room (truant officer and 
myself). The judge saw no reason for this. Lawyer said, 'This 
is not a fit case for ladies to hear.' The judge said we could re- 
main. 

At this time there were about seventy-five (75) men in the 
court room little girl in the witness chair. 

In rape cases where little girls are involved could not men (ex- 
cepting those connected with court or case) be kept out of court 
room? 

(X1053) occupied the witness chair one and a half days 
was made sick from nervous strain. She said to me, 'The men 
looked at each other and smiled at what I said, that was what made 
me get nervous and jerk so.' 

And more than this, such an ordeal can but have a hardening 
effect on girls, when so many men are in the court room." 

(c) Institutional Agencies for the Care and Reformation of Girls. 
These institutions are established by the city, the state, by churches 
and by non-religious voluntary societies. 

1. The Juvenile Court. 

The first institution to be noted is the Juvenile Court. This court 
handled during the year 1909, 332 delinquent girls who had never 
been in court; 500 dependent girls who had never been in court; 132 
delinquent girls who had already been wards of the court; 177 de- 
pendent girls who had already been wards of the court. Of these 236 
delinquent and 404 dependent girls were committed to institutions. 
Not so many girls as boys are brought into court; but they come in 
under circumstances of great peril as the very large proportion are 
charged with immoral conduct or are taken from immoraf surround- 
ings. A very large proportion of them are, therefore, either com- 



RESCUE AND REFORM 275 

mitted at once to institutions or if put on probation are soon returned 
to court and committed. They are in shocking physical condition. 
For example, 65 per cent, of the delinquent and dependent girls had 
bad teeth, 30 per cent, needed medical or surgical care, 29 per cent, 
of the girls were inflicted with venereal diseases. Of the 369 delin- 
quent girls examined, 33 per cent, were diseased, while among the 
dependent girls only 13 per cent, were diseased. 1 

2. The Juvenile Protective Association. 

Second in influence must come the Juvenile Protective Association, 
"which investigates and endeavors to remedy all the conditions con- 
tributing to the dependency and delinquency of children." The city 
is divided by it into districts, in each of which is placed an officer 
whose duty it is to supervise all conditions detrimental to childrens' 
morality. During the year 1909-10, this Association cared for 4,305 
cases, referred 865 to other organizations, and investigated 136 com- 
plaints found to be groundless. It has carried on nine investigations 
into conditions prevailing on steamboats, in amusement parks, cheap 
theaters and the home life of working girls. 

3. The Geneva State Home. 

The Geneva Home for Girls is the state institution, intended solely 
for the care of delinquent girls. It is on the cottage plan. The girls 
are committed on indeterminate sentences. As it is the only state 
institution for the reform of girls, there are at present over 500 girls 
with a very long waiting list, and it is so overcrowded that it is 
difficult to grade the girls, or to give them the personal supervision 
necessary in such cases. 

4. The House of the Good Shepherd. 

The House of the Good Shepherd is conducted under the auspices 
of the Roman Catholic Church. It receives delinquent and semi- 
delinquent girls. These two classes are kept strictly separate. 

5. The Chicago Refuge for Girls. 

The Chicago Refuge for Girls receives delinquent girls and ma- 
ternity cases, many from the Juvenile Court. In January, 1909, there 
were 129 girls in the Refuge. During the year 84 were admitted and 



'See Annual Report Juvenile Court, 1909. 



276 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

92 were dismissed. The number applying for admission is ever on 
the increase, so that the directors feel that "something must be done" 
to enlarge its facilities, which at present are overcrowded and in- 
adequate. The girls are taught housework, dressmaking, and some of 
the arts and crafts work. They are not allowed to leave until they 
have been taught the various industries to the point of money earning 
proficiency. 

6. General. 

There are many other small institutions which receive delinquent 
girls, and even prostitutes. The Salvation Army conducts a most suc- 
cessful small home. The Beulah House, the Pacific Garden Mission, 
the Florence Crittenton Anchorage, all maintain homes, but they can 
accommodate only a very limited number. The Home for the Friend- 
less takes care of almost anyone who applies. The city has also made 
a small appropriation to furnish shelter for homeless women. The 
Martha Washington Home provides a retreat for victims of al- 
coholism and drugs, and makes an effort to reform them. 

The Episcopal Cathedral in the center of the West Side restricted 
district maintains a small refuge under the direction of the Sisters of 
St. Mary. 

Several of the national groups in the city support homes for home- 
less or immigrant girls. Among these are the Home for Swedish 
Girls, and the Jewish Home for Girls, the latter under the auspices of 
the Chicago branch of the National Council of Jewish Women. A 
movement is now in progress to establish a home for Hungarian girls, 
of whom a large number have recently arrived in Chicago. 

Many of the maternity homes, and those institutions conducted by 
religious societies, report that their work is encouraging, with a fair 
percentage of reformation. They have a very difficult hygenic 
problem, as it is said that at least (^5) per cent, of the girls received 
by them are infected with gonorrhoea. This is due to the fact that 
these ignorant girls, who rarely enter into the class of professional 
prostitutes, are more apt to be diseased than the professional prosti- 
tutes who are taught to take care of themselves and to exact 
certain precautions of their men visitors. 

It is, however, impossible to secure any exact data from these homes 
and institutions. The reports are always colored by the temperament 



RESCUE AND REFORM 277 

of those who make them, and are, therefore, either optimistic or pessi- 
mistic, without justification in carefully compiled figures. The deacon- 
esses, the sisters and the lay workers bring to, their hard and un- 
gracious task a divine patience and faith, but in some cases it is 
evident that the same amount of effort expended in a more scientific 
manner, and with the application of more advanced ideas of institu- 
tional work would result in greater efficiency. 

The Maternity Ward of the Cook County Hospital is a sad place. 
The provisions for the patients are fairly adequate, but the entire 
situation is terribly depressing. It is estimated that 50 per cent, of the 
babies born there are the children of unmarried mothers. 

As the poor lose their fear and prejudice regarding hospitals many 
reputable married women who have small and poor homes, and can- 
not pay the expense of confinement at home, go to the county hos- 
pital. In many Euroepean countries the "maternity assistant societies" 
would come to the aid of such cases and see to it that the expectant 
mother has the necessary care and. rest in her own home. These 
maternity assistant societies are composed of well-to-do and poor 
women all contributing to a fund for this purpose. Jhe ^ffinr* *"-"* 10 
a double purpose, as it interests the more fortunate women in the less 
'fortunate. The conservation of life is attracting much attention 
among foreign physicians, who insist that a woman should have three 
weeks of rest before the child's birth and four or six weeks after in 
order to give birth to a healthy infant and give it the necessary at- 
tention. Some attempts along these lines have been made in this 
country but much more care should be given expectant mothers than 
is now the case. In the new county hospital it may be possible to re- 
serve one ward for married mothers, and one for young girls.. It 
must add to the bitterness of their coming trial to be shut up with 
the class of women of whom so many go to the county. 

7. "Abortion Mills." There are many private hospitals which are 
simply abortion mills. It is extremely difficult, however, to bring the 
responsible man in charge of these establishments to justice. 1 Mid- 
wives, too, are responsible for many abortions ; the license system is 
so carelessly administered that difficulties are experienced in follow- 
ing and bringing to justice any cases of malpractice. The number of 

*See Chapter IV, "Sources of Supply," page 225. 



278 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

women and girls who die as the result of this malpractice will never 
be known; but one woman physician, who has a large practice among 
working girls, estimates that the practice of abortion is very prevalent 
and that the health of large numbers of women is permanently im- 
paired by malpractice. 

8. Treatment of Venereal Disease. 

Of the hospitals for venereal diseases of women, the ward at the 
Cook County Hospital is the only example in Chicago. 

There is a small home for children, the Frances Juvenile Home, 
but the accommodations are limited, as only fifteen children can be 
cared for at a time. There is no proper provision for girls of four- 
teen and upward. These children often become innocently infected 
and should not be placed in public institutions. 

There is no more shocking crime than the infection of innocent per- 
sons, nor one having such a tremendous effect on the physical and moral 
welfare of a family, and yet there is no legal redress. A wife may be 
infected and really die from a venereal infection contracted from her 
husband. So far as our laws go she is helpless. This is a question 
which should have the careful consideration of our legal advisors. 

9. Immigrants' Protective League. 

Employment offices often send girls to improper homes. The im- 
migrant girls are the chief victims. These girls arrive in Chicago 
with insufficient addresses and as they do not speak the language, they 
are in great danger of being victimized, both as regards money and 
virtue. Many typical cases are cited in the last report of the League 
for the Protection of Immigrants. One girl of seventeen years was put 
off a train in South Chicago by mistake, and as she did not speak a 
word of English she wandered about almost all night. Finally 3 
man offered assistance and conducted her in safety to her friends on 
the Northwest Side of the city. Several other cases are given in the 
report, which adds : 

"Several girls told of being approached on the trains and invited 
by strange men to get off at 'some big city and see the town.' " 

The League has an excellent program for future work, and it only 
remains for the public to support it to enable it to render effective 
service. 



RESCUE AND REFORM 279 

IV. Conclusion: Remedial Measures. 

From the foregoing statement several remedial measures suggest 
themselves. 

tit: Revision of the criminal law either in substance or in regard 
to theeyfdence required to convict. 

*"; More skillful treatment of the girl who is semi-delinquent only. 

3r^ tyLore rational treatment of arrested women. 

4r More rational treatment of the occasional prostitute. 

''fir IVfofe intelligent treatment of cases of illegitimate maternity. 

x^^Better supervision and more intelligent administration of rescue 
institutions. 

^fT Better recognition of the connection between low wages and 
occasiprial prostitution. 

UK More adequate provisions for the cure of the professional pros- 
titute. 



1. Revision of the criminal law. 

(a) Relating to Male Offenders. 

From the foregoing, it is apparent that while the law is in form 
fairly adequate for the protection of women and girls, yet in sub- 
stance since very few male offenders are tried under these sections of 
the criminal code relating to the protection of girls and women, and 
since when they are brought to trial the great majority have been dis- 
charged, it seems of slight avail. 

(b) Relating to Female Offenders. 

It appears from the records that these women are in many instances 
fined. Such a penalty, of course, place the women more completely in 
the power of those in whose behalf she plys her trade. 

Others are imprisoned for short periods of time. Imprisonment 
without intelligent treatment adapted to their physical, social and in- 
dustrial weakness is obviously futile. Attention should be called to 
such undertakings as that of The Waverly House in New York City, 
which is supported by the Probation Association of New York. It is 
in a sense a detention home for wayward girls, and their cases are 
studied, their history ascertained, and the girls themselves are en- 
couraged to tell of their lives, and made to feel that they are not among 
judges but among friends. The superintendent sums up the whole 



280 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

matter by saying, "We could save 75 per cent, if only we could find 
a way to begin nearer the beginning," and she thus has stated the 
crux of the whole matter. 

Z. More Intelligent Treatment of Semi-Delinquent Girls. 

It is evident that better methods of classification should be adopted 
so that the semi-delinquent girls would not be classed with the de- 
linquent, nor, except in extreme cases, or where diseased, placed in an 
institution for delinquents like that at Geneva. They should be sent 
to a school where industrial training is given to them and their in- 
dustrial value increased. The atmosphere of such a school should be 
that of a .boarding school, and as soon as any girl shows sufficient ability 
to earn a living, and a desire to do so, she should be allowed to leave 
on probation, under the supervision of a probation officer, who is a 
woman of experience and training. While in the school the girls' 
health should be carefully supervised, and physical training, as well as 
social hygiene should be a part of her curriculum. When she leaves 
the school, if possible, a good home, not too strict, should be found 
lor her. With a change in surroundings and the substitution of a 
regular life for the former lawless one, combined with education for 
^elf support, and the feeling that they are among friends, eighty per 
cent, of the semi-delinquent girls could be returned to society. 

3. More Intelligent Treatment of the Occasional Prostitute. The 
semi-professional prostitutes are usually the only ones that ply their 
trade for their own advantage. As long as they are not attached to a 
house and do not solicit for a particular man, there is hope for them. 
This class is largely composed of those who are so unskilled as 
workers as to be useless in the labor market. They work for low 
wages, often at seasonal trades, many living away from home and 
while they make a good appearance on the street they are very ignor- 
ant and untrained. They do not reside in houses of prostitution but 
go on the streets to solicit two or three times a week. 

These occasional prostitutes when arrested by the police are fright- 
ened and confused. They are new to the life and not having as yet 
attached themselves to the usual crowd, who watch for such cases 
to bail them out or to pay their fines, they receive the maximum sen- 
tence. This is the psychological moment in which the probation officer 
can influence the girl. Such cases should all come before one judge 



RESCUE AND REFORM 281 

in one court, and the officers in charge should be experienced women. 
When the officer is the right sort she can be a friend to such a girl, 
which is often all that is needed. These girls should be paroled and 
sent back when possible to their work under friendly and close super- 
vision. 

A prominent clergyman who is also a social worker in conference 
before the Commission made the following statement \ 

"A lot can be done if we believe that a very large percentage of 
those who pass through a period of prostitution are capable of 
climbing upward instead of downward by the momentum of their 
own better nature. We will have to change our theory about the 
woman criminal, if we are going to save her. And if the woman 
is a prostitute, it is only through (1) the foolish uncontrolled 
passion of youth, and (2) financial stress. To my mind she can 
fight both of these, but she can't fight those and the added 
damnation of the saloon and the cool sagacious business man, 
who simply stands by and drains her for profit. She could break 
through the economic dangers and the physical temptations if you 
will give her a chance but when you make her fight alcohol and 
capitalization, she has no show. 

"The first step is usually on account of some man, and then 
he ill-treats and deserts her. After she has taken the first step 
it is easy to take the second. The girls that go to maternity 
homes, nine out of ten can be saved, but it seems to me the real 
prostitute who goes into it for business, she is a one-eighth part of 
the business, and I think the world is making a mistake in the way 
it is looking at this whole question. They are putting their minds 
on this poor unfortunate woman, when really, she is just a side 
issue of the real thing." 

4. Improvement in Industrial Conditions. One of the chief 
reasons why girls enter the life of prostitution is evidently the economic 
one. They cannot live on the wages paid them. Contrary to the usual 
.opinion, it costs a girl more to live respectably than a man. She must 
reside in a better neighborhood, her clothes are more expensive and 
the family makes more demands on her resources. 

An investigation should be made of all establishments employing 
girls and young unmarried men, for the purpose of securing accurate 
figures as to the salaries paid, hours of work, including overtime. 
The contracts made by employes with those establishments should 
also be studied. These contracts go into the life history of each person, 
and will show instability of employment in such places. When these 
facts are secured, a study should be made showing rents, cost of 



282 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

living, etc. It should be determined what should be the living wage 
for this particular class of workers, and if such an investigation were 
made public, it would assist in creating an "industrial conscience" and 
would educate the community to demand the living wage. We recorrN 
mend to the Chicago Association of Commerce or some similar body, 
the appointment of a Committee or a Commission to undertake such an 
inquiry in establishments where women and girls are employed. The 
Congress for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic held in Vienna 

in 1909, passed a resolution, asked that "social life be so modified that 



young girls in every country receive a wage which enables them to live. 

"It is a profound truth that social institutions do not keep pace 
with economic changes." 

In addition to higher wages, the present working conditions need 
modification in many ways. Since the ten-hour law was declared 
constitutional, the hardship of overtime for women has been much 
mitigated. But America is slow to protect her working women. 
Since 1844 England has had protective legislation for women, and in 
1847 in the textile mills women were only allowed to work ten hours. 
Five years ago France established the ten-hour law, and in some 
countries special provision for giving extra time off for women who 
have home responsibilities is made by law. The tendency is espe- 
cially marked in France towards very liberal interpretation of the law 
as regards working women, and in Belgium certain classes of work is 
forbidden to women. 

5. More Humane Treatment of Extra-Conjugal Maternity, (a) The 
maternity cases present great difficulty on account of the frequent 
impossibility of learning the name of the man and so bringing him 
to justice, and (b) because of the baby which may be sometimes a 
blessing, but is often a burden. It is impossible to lay down definite 
rules for these cases to determine whether the mother should keep the 
child or give it up. Some there are who question if a child can be ille- 
gitimately born? The law at the least should provide whereby the 
parents should support the child ; good results would undoubtedly fol- 
low. It would at least prevent the innocent child from suffering from the 
brand which society now places upon it. This law under which the child 
would inherit from the father or mother would perhaps have the effect 
of making the girl and her parents more anxious to secure the co-oper- 



RESCUE AND REFORM 283 

ation of the father, and of inducing the parents of the girl to receive 
her into their home. As it is at present, thanks to the foundling homes, 
etc., it is entirely too easy to abandon children. 

A large number of maternity cases, especially where the child is the 
first born, often represent a most lovable type of woman, who gives 
herself for love's sake, not counting the cost. She sometimes sins 
through her better nature and her higher impulses, and if her child 
were legitimatized, and she herself had the family recognition, a woman 
of this type would rapidly rehabilitate herself. It should at least no 
longer be possible for a man to be quit of all obligation toward his 
child and its mother by paying down $500. 

Attention may be called, however, to the Norwegian law, which went 
into effect January 1, 1910, in accordance with which an illegitimate 
child has equal claim on its father and mother ; it may bear its father's 
name; it has the same rights of inheritance as his legitimate children; 
it has the right to an education equal to the wealthier of the parents; 
it may live with its mother or can be placed elsewhere to board. 
Whichever parent has not the care of the child must pay for its sup- 
port and education. The mother's confinement expenses must be borne 
by the father, and he must also pay her pre-confinement expenses if 
her condition has incapacitated her for work. He must in any case 
pay her expenses six weeks before her confinement, and three months 
after, or nine months after if she nurses the child. If several men are 
implicated, all must pay their share. 

Just as the law compels the father, when he is able, to support his 
minor children, so it is urged, the law should extend to the support 
of children where there has been no lawful marriage. For the children, 
in the interests of the state, need to be brought up in a respectable 
manner, cared for, supported, and educated, to become reputable 
citizens. 

If this reasoning is sound, as we believe it is, sections 24 and 25 
of the Criminal Code of the State of Illinois, relating to Abandonment, 
might be enacted into law to cover children born out of wedlock, com- 
pelling the father, if it can be shown to the court he is financially 
able to do so, to support all such children until the age that the law 
allows them to seek employment. 

Such a law would make ample provision for such children, and 



284 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

would impose no heavier obligation upon the true father than he 
should bear. It might well be provided in such a law, that in case of 
a legal adoption by a third party, a covenant may be entered into, be- 
tween such third party and the father, releasing the latter from the 
further support, maintenance and education of the child upon proof 
that the adopting parents are able to take care of such child. 

A very large number of prostitutes are divorced, and in that con- 
nection some investigation in regard to desertion and non-support 
should be made. No study of the subject has been made in Chicago 
that gives any description of the family, its previous dependence, or 
previous desertions, the number and age of the children, the national- 
ities, religious belief, difference in age of man and woman, and cir- 
cumstances of marriage. Neither is there anything to show the char- 
acteristics of the deserted wives, such as reputation as mother or 
housekeeper, and habits or economic status beforehand. 

6. Better Regulation of Rescue Homes. The rescue homes in 
Chicago do not meet the needs of the present situation. They are 
overcrowded, such industrial training as is given is very superficial and 
they are hampered by want of means and workers; thus it is im- 
possible for them to follow up the girls during the critical period 
after they leave the homes. As above stated, the methods employed 
are not sufficiently modern to meet existing conditions. 

Very little attention has been given to this branch of social work; 
as yet no accepted technique has been worked out. Almost all other 
kinds of philanthropic and social effort have been scientifically inves- 
tigated, statistics compiled and a serious study made of the results. 
The time has come in which the same investigation should be made 
of the class of agencies which attempt to serve this class of women. 
Too little interest is taken and too little attention devoted to these 
homes. From the neglect and lack of criticism has resulted the reten- 
tion of antiquated methods and ineffctual management. The Russell 
Sage Foundation could accomplish no more valuable work than a 
really exhaustive and scientific investigation of the institutions, prisons 
and homes to which these classes of women are committed or to 
which they go voluntarily. The Commission recommends to the 
Foundation the prosecution of such an inquiry. 

The only State reformatory for girls, the State Home at Geneva, 



RESCUE AND REFORM 285 

is very much overcrowded. On account of this overcrowding the 
methods are necessarily more or less those of a prison. This state- 
ment is not intended as a reflection upon those responsible for the 
management. They are as much the victims of circumstances as 
are the unfortunate inmates. We urge upon the proper State author- 
ities the need of immediate and adequate enlargement of this institu- 
tion or the provision of others of similar character. 

7. The Professional Prostitute. The public prostitute who is an 
inmate of a house is an important factor in the complicated problem. 
Into the trade of these women enter powerful business interests, as 
well as the demoralization which comes to men and women by its 
attendant vices and diseases. The confirmed prostitute, if she is to 
be reformed and helped, must be entirely separated for a long period 
form her former environment of commercialized prostitution. 

Against these powerful business interests, the liquor dealer, the 
house owner and his agents, the man who runs the place, the furnishers 
of all sorts from the butcher and grocer to the dry goods houses and 
the supported men, against these stands the girl, usually young, feeble 
of will, unskilled as a worker, a lover of ease, perhaps at first de- 
ceived, and always after a time the victim of liquor, "dope" and 
other stimulants. One physician who has a large practice in venereal 
disease wards, says: 

"They all use some drug or stimulant such as opium, tobacco, 
anything that is near ; the abnormal habits of life, the excitement, 
the terrible physical strain demanded; the life is against biology 
as well as sociology; they are in most cases gone physically, 
gone nervously, gone socially." 

It is obvious that the weaker factor, the girl, will be crushed in so 
unequal a conflict. ' On her falls the ignominy, the loss of health, of 
social position and final physical and social death. While the men 
who profit by this vice, live on, sleek and prosperous often so power- 
ful in politics that even decent men dare not expose them. 

Most of these women do not know where to turn if they should 
leave the house, and their physical condition and mental state render 
them absolutely incapable of self-direction or normal conduct. 

A suggestion well worthy of consideration is that the municipality 
secure a farm on which a trade school and hospital could be estab- 
lished, to which prostitutes found in houses of ill-fame could be 



286 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

committed on indeterminate sentences. Obviously it is necessary that 
measures of almost drastic control should be established if such 
women are to be helped permanently and society served. Yet society 
should remember the deep pathos of their evil estate as described by 
a character in a recent work : 

"These dubious divinities of the gaslight and the pavement 
represent the eternal sacrifice of woman, the tragedy of her 
abasement, her obedience to the world." 

Attention is called to the recommendations of the Commission, 
page 55. 



Chapter VII. 

The Social Evil and Its 
Medical Aspects. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE SOCIAL EVIL AND ITS MEDICAL ASPECTS. 

No phase of the social evil can be demonstrated with more scientific 
certainty than the physical aspect. It has been clearly proved through 
many and accurate sources that no danger to the integrity of the race 
is so great as the diseases which accompany prostitution. The greatest 
attention must be paid to every means which makes for the control 
of venereal diseases and of dissemination of reliable information con- 
cerning them for the protection of the innocent 

With these facts in mind let us study the various classes of men and 
women who are involved in this vice. 

The Professional Female Prostitute. The testimony shows that 
the professional female prostitute is broken down within ten years 
after she begins to ply her trade. No better argument as to physical 
harm could be offered than this statement. PracticaJly-alLp^ofessional 
prostitutes have had syphilis or gonorrhoea or both. It is the exception 
when either of these diseases is completely cured. During a certain 
part of the time they are communicable. Not infrequently these dis- 
eases are communicable and at the same time difficult to recognize. 
Therefore, a professional prostitute having intercourse with from ten 
to sixty men in a single night will infect a large number of men. Drug 
habituation also is more widespread ampngst prostitutes than amongest 
any other class of society. 

Occasional Prostitutes. Occasional prostitutes are frequently in- 
fected with venereal disease. They are highly dangerous when so 
infected. Venereal diseases are bacterial in origin. From the epi- 
demiologic standpoint they belong in the category with smallpox, 
diphtheria and scarlet fever. They cause most of the sterility, most 
of the peritonitis in females, most of the salpingitis. They cause a 
large part of the joint inflammations a large part of the insanity and 
nervous diseases and a long train of diseases which go by other 
names but have syphilis as an underlying factor. Congenital defects 
and deformities are largely syphilitic in origin. 

In spite of all this a study of mortuary statistics does not give us 

289 



290 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

much information, since the immediate or determining cause is usually 
some factor other than the venereal disease. The group of men who 
are infected by occasional prostitutes are somewhat more liable to 
spread venereal disease to innocent women, children and men than 
those who are infected by professional prostitutes. 

Clandestine Prostitutes. Clandestine prostitutes spread infection. 
They get peritonitis and salpingitis. They are prone to have babies 
born with infected eyes and therefore they increase blindness. They 
are frequently sterile. Amongst this and the preceding class are most 
of the illegitimate children. The death rate amongst illegitimate chil- 
dren is barbarously high. The morbidity rate amongst clandestine 
and occasional prostitutes is higher than amongst moral women of 
the same age-periods and in the same strata of society. 

Amongst the medical phases of these forms of prostitution is their 
tendency toward professional prostitution. 

Male Prostitutes. (Principally perverts.) They spread infection. 
They have a high mortality and morbidity rate. They increase the 
number of drug habitues. 

Occasional and Clandestine Male Prostitute. They spread infec- 
tion. An infected man will not infect as many people as an infected 
woman, but an infected woman usually infects non-virtuous people; 
a large part of those infected by men are virtuous wives and young 
children. An infected man usually takes infection into a clean 
home an infected woman seldom does. 

Amongst male occasional and clandestine prostitutes there is an 
increase in the morbidity and mortality rate. The diseases caused 
are in some measure immediate. Such as brain disease, insanity, 
paralysis, kidney and heart disease. They are usually remote. They 
spread infection of eyes and add to blindness. They beget children 
that are defective and deformed. Men given to great sexual excesses 
die from conditions due to those excesses. But the disability and in- 
efficiency caused by such excesses is greater than its effect on the 
death rate. 

A consideration of the medical aspects of vice is not complete 
without reference to the congenital and acquired physical conditions 
which tend towards prostitution, the woman or man being d:iven 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND ITS MEDICAL ASPECTS 291 

to it almost irresistibly as the result of congenital or acquired physical 
conditions. 

Of more importance in a consideration of the meJical aspects of 
this subject is the inefficiency which follows the Increased morbidity 
and morality. The short period of self-maintenance is followed by 
the long years of dependency in hospitals and poor houses, the spread 
of contagious diseases, the inherited defects and the blindness, the 
syphilis and gonorrhoea amongst innocent children. 

The medical aspects of control are: 

1. Registration of venereal disease. 

2. Segregation of the infectious. 

3. Supervision of candidates for marriage. 

4. Registration of births. 

5. Compulsory treatment of the eyes of newly born babes. 

6. Hospitalization of infected prostitutes. 

7. Hospitalization of those innocently infected. 

8. A study of eugenics. 

VENEREAL DISEASES. 

How to Diminish Venereal Diseases. The time is ripe for a united 
attempt to diminish venereal diseases. To accomplish this both sexes 
should be taught the social and personal dangers of the black plague, 
far more to be dreaded than the white plague venereal disease. They 
should be taught with emphasis that these diseases, like all other con- 
tagious diseases, may be innocently acquired and transmitted. Woman 
peculiarly needs such instruction, not only that she may protect her- 
self, but that she may protect her child against danger from those 
to whose care it may be intrusted. Both sexes should be so instructed 
that they may teach sexual hygiene in all its relations. Innocence is too 
often dangerous ignorance. The period of instruction should be at 
the onset of adolescence since careful studies by Fournier in France 
and Erb in Germany have shown that it is about this period that first 
infection is most likely. The work of national, state and municipal 
organizations with the fundamental aim of instruction in sexual hygiene 
and sanitation should be encouraged and broadened. The public 
should be educated when practicable by exhibits as to the results of 
venereal diseases, its causes and germs, its methods of spreading and 



292 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

control. In this instruction the viewpoint should be that of prophylaxis 
and not the impracticable one of creating terror. Public lectures should 
be given at night at social centers, at school, and churches, so that 
the parents of school children can obtain information needed to en- 
able them to give proper instruction at home. Similar instruction 
should be given the employes of large business houses, manufacturing 
plants, etc., so that this class which is thrown on its own resources at 
an early age may profit by this training. 1 

Infection of the Innocent. No marriage should be legal unless both 
parties furnish certificates of health and freedom from venereal dis- 
eases given by legally qualified physicians. In these certificates, the 
physician giving them should assume all civil and criminal responsi- 
bility for them. The person officiating at a marriage ceremony should 
be obliged by law to require such certificate. 

Infection of an innocent wife by a husband under the common law 
principle of the Kentucky decision in Hoove v. Hoove is a criminal 
offense in itself and unlike adultery cannot be condoned by the wife. 
Under the Canon law since infection interferes with procreation which 
the Canon law regards as essential to marriage. Such infection can 
under the spirit of the Canon law create annulment of marriage, like 
any other factor of sterility. Under these principles the marital 
limitations of evidence would be nullified. The penalty for such 
infection should be one which would punish the criminal and not the 
family or the innocent wife as does most of the legislation against 
cruelty, abandonment and like offenses involved in marital relations. 
As quarantine and isolation require increased hospital provision, espe- 
cially since, as shown by experience, police regulation is a failure so 
far as venereal disease is concerned being replaced in the Scandanavian 
speaking countries by sanitary supervision quarantine and isolation, 
hospital provision and dispensary facilities for the care of venereal 
disease should be increased along the lines shown to be practicable by 
the English lock hospitals. 

Health Department and Venereal Diseases. Under the police powers 
now granted by the State, except where specifically limited by statute, 
the Department of Health could quarantine persons when notified 

'See Chapter V, "Child Protection and Education," page 253. 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND ITS MEDICAL ASPECTS 293 

of venereal diseases in them by physicians. To secure proper en- 
forcement of this right, it should be specifically guaranteed by statute. 
This should embody the common law view that venereal infection of 
the innocent is an assault with intent to do bodily harm, laid down 
by the English courts in Regitia v. Taylor, by the Oregon courts in 
Geis Mardo v. The People, by the Kentucky courts in Hoove v. Hoove, 
and by courts in other states where the principles of the common law 
obtain. That the Health Department must have the power under thL 
principle now practically denied it, is shown by the existence of folk- 
lore beliefs peculiarly affecting the venereal diseases, that one can get 
rid of a disease by infecting an innocent person. Under this belief 
rapes have been committed which have sometimes, but very rarely, 
led to penitentiary sentences. Another great danger against which the 
Health Department requires power to guard, is that pointed out by 
Isadore Dyer before the International Congress on Venereal Disease 
at Brussels in 1899. A harlot infected with syphilis refused to be 
treated until ske had infected five hundred men in revenge for her 
own infection. When seen by Dyer she had infected two hundred 
men who in all probability later infected at least the same number 
of persons. In Louisiana, where this occurred, the Code Napoleon 
voices the Roman law with its supremacy of the State, yet statutory 
limitation prevented interference with this woman's revenge on 

society. 



That the Health Department should have the right to inspect prosti- 
tutes by a legal extension of the right granted it to inspect other per- 
sons exposed to contagious disease. This will require an amendment 
of the statute which interferes with the logical right of the Health 
Department in this particular. To secure proper inspection the fact 
should be recognized that experience in despotic and theocratic govern- 
ments has shown that suppression of prostitution has often driven it 
into the mass of the community making it take the peculiarly dangerous 
clandestine type.' The existence of venereal diseases among people 
is much underestimated. There are credible statistics to show that 
one-half of the population of civilized countries have had or 
have gonorrhoea, and that from one-fifth to one-tenth have 
had syphilis. Not infrequently gonorrhoea produces many dan- 
gers, constitutional results and exerts a very decided influ- 



294 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

ence in the production of many female disorders. It underlies 
many cases of what are called rheumatism and joint disorders. It is 
an exceedingly common cause of blindness in the new born. According 
to German statistics, 30,000 cases of blindness in that country are due 
to gonorrhoea. According to recent statistics much of the sterility in 
the male is due to gonorrhoea. About 40 per cent, of the cases in 
women result from gonorrhoea as a determining cause. Gonorrhoea 
is very easily spread from the fact that nostrum advertisements and 
popular beliefs practically teach it is simply a catarrh. This has led 
to the belief that female discharges due to gonorrhoea are often what 
is called "whites," and therefore not likely to occasion disease in other 
persons. The germ of gonorrhoea may infect any mucuous membrane 
with which it may in any manner come in contact. This has been the 
source of gonorrhoea epidemic in little children, so that in infant hos- 
pitals gonorrhoea has required special observation and care to prevent 
its spread. The local instillation of silver in the eye of the new born, 
while yielding good results, has not been quite the success which it 
was claimed. The employment of ignorant midwives had been a 
factor in this case. To some extent this indicates the registration 
and license of all hospitals where women are confined, whether 
designated maternity hospitals or not. The registration of venereal 
diseases could be best effected through making the names of the af- 
flicted a strict matter of confidence with both the physician reporting 
and the Health Department. The statute which obtains in some 
States forbidding the revelation of information given by a patient 
to a physician that is necessary to enable him to treat the patient 
unless the confidence is waived by the patient, should be amended 
in this State so as to extend to venereal diseases and to the officials 
of the Health Department. 

Hospitals and Venereal Diseases. The Cook County Hospital has 
40 beds for male cases and 40 beds for female cases. This at present 
is the only institution to which these patients can be sent for treat- 
ment. At this hospital is a small isolation building with a capacity 
of 40 beds for the care of the children suffering from gonorrhoeal 
vaginitis. This is always filled. The Alexian Brothers' Hospital is 
the only one in the city receiving pay patients which receives venereal 
cases without objection. There should be at least one bed set apart 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND ITS MEDICAL ASPECTS 295 

for these cases for every 2,000 of the population. The hospitals 
and dispensaries should be instructed to issue educational leaflets in- 
forming patients as to the means of preventing and spreading the 
disease and of its dangers, such as are now issued in regard to tuber- 
culosis. The value of the laboratory methods while great, is not 
fully settled. There are many diseases varying from scarlet fever to 
leprosy and some forms of anaemia that give the Wassermann re- 
action. It also occurs with certain patients subjected to some 
anaesthetics. For this reason, since a question of criminality is involved, 
too great stress cannot legally be laid on this form of detecting 
syphilis. The bacteriologic and protozoologic methods of detecting 
the germs when properly done, are, of course, decisive. This is par- 
ticularly true of gonorrhoea. 

Inheritance of Venereal Diseases. In the inheritance of venereal 
diseases, two factors are involved, the direct infection of the foetus, 
and the arrest of its development. The last occurs with both gonor- 
rhoea and syphilis, since the infant of gonorrhoeal mother shows more 
decrease in weight after birth than do healthy infants. The arrested 
development cases may produce any of the forms of brain or organ 
disorders which result from defects in structures in function or form. 
Of course, environment turns largely on the question of parentage. 
All other things being equal, defective parentage will give rise to a 
defective environment. The majority of defectives are a product 
not of heredity directly, but of arrested development due to defect. 
In this the mother plays a larger part than the father since the ovum 
before fecundation is the chief factor in the future being, while the 
ovum after fecundation is nourished by her alone, and the child 
when born is nourished by her alone for some time after birth. 
While paternal defect plays a large part, much of its alleged influence 
is due to the bad environment in which it keeps the mother. The 
mass of the prostitutes, as has been shown in this country, in Italy, 
in France, in Russia, and in Germany, belong to the defectives. 

Sex Perversion. While the subject of sex perversion is included under 
the heading of this chapter it must be understood that, correctly speak- 
ing, it should come under the subject of crime and be treated as such. 
The law specifically states that these practices are "infamous crimes" 
and provides certain punishments, among which is the loss of citizenship. 



296 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Because no chapter was devoted to crime it was decided to incorporate 
this subject in the report where it now stands. 

At the very outset of the Commission's investigation, its 
attention was called by several persons to a condition of 
affairs with regard to sexual perversion which was said to be enor- 
mously prevalent and growing in Chicago. In reporting their im- 
pression of their work on the Municipal bench at the Harrison street 
court, Judges ((X1270a) and (X1270b) said that the most striking 
thing they had observed in the last year was the great increase of sex 
perversion in Chicago. Police officers state the same thing. The 
testimony of others, and the results of investigations by the Com- 
mission corroborate these statements. The Commission already 
had considerable information, including estimates which seemed in- 
credible before an investigator was put in the field to find out the 
nature and extent of this form of vice. 

It must be understood that under the law, the perpetrators of 
these various forms of sexual perversion can be regarded as those 
who may be punished by application of Section 47, Chapter 38, of the 
Revised Statutes of Illinois (1909), the wording of which remains 
unchanged since the statutes were revised in 1845. 

"The infamous crime against nature, either with man or beast, 
shall subject the offender to be punished by imprisonment, in the 
penitentiary for a term not more than ten years." 1 

The Commission's investigator was, of course, unable to gain en- 
trance into those circles of the very well-to-do, which are engaged in 
these practices, nor did he concern himself with the lowest stratum 
of society, which is the class most observable in our courts. Nor 
'did he gain any information about the much more occasional cases 
among women, of which the Commission heard something from other 
sources. He most readily, however, became acquainted with whole 
groups and colonies of these men who are sex perverts, but who do 
not fall in the hands of the police on account of their practices, and 
who are not known in their true character to any extent by physicians 
because of the fact that their habits do not, as a rule, produce bodily 
disease. It is noteworthy that the details of information gained from 
a police officer, who was once detailed on this work, and from a young 

'Appendix XXXV. 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND ITS MEDICAL ASPECTS 297 

professional student, who himself, for a time, has been partially en- 
gaged in this practice, were completely substantiated by the Commis- 
sion's investigator. 

It appears that in this community there is a large number of men 
who are thoroughly gregarious in habit; who mostly affect the car- 
riage, mannerisms, and speech of women; who are fond of many 
articles ordinarily dear to the feminine heart; who are often people 
of a good deal of talent ; who lean to the fantastic in dress and other 
modes of expression, and who have a definite cult with regard to 
sexual life. They preach the value of non-association with women 
from various standpoints and yet with one another have practices which 
are nauseous and repulsive. Many of them speak of themselves or 
each other with the adoption of feminine terms, and go by girls' 
names or fantastic application of women's titles. They have a vo- 
cabulary and signs of recognition of their own, which serve as an 
introduction into their own society. The cult has produced some 
literature, much of which is uncomprehensible to one who cannot read 
between the lines, and there is considerable distribution among them 
of pernicious photographs. 

In one of the large music halls recently, a much applauded act was 
that of a man who by facial expression and bodily contortion repre- 
sented sex perversion, a most disgusting performance. It was evi- 
dently not at all understood by many of the audience, but others wildly 
applauded. Then, one of the songs recently ruled off the stage by the 
police department was inoffensive to innocent ears, but was really 
written by a member of the cult, and replete with suggestiveness to 
those who understood the language of this group. 

Some of these men impersonate women on the cheap vaudeville 
stage, in connection with disorderly saloons. Their disguise is so 
perfect, they are enabled to sit at tables with men between the acts, 
and solicit for drinks the same as prostitutes. 

Two of these "female impersonators" were recently seen in one 
of the most notorious saloons on (X1262c) street. These "supposed" 
women solicited for drinks, and afterwards invited the men to rooms 
over the saloon for pervert practices. 

The Commission hesitates about making recommendations for the 
specific amelioration of the evils which it has learned about. It de- 



298 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

sires, however, to insist that first and foremost, as a remedy stands 
the thoroughly practical ideal of a straight and pure sexual life both 
before and after marriage. 

With regard to sex perversion, it appears that the law framed in 
1845 should more definitely recognize the dangers of this latter day 
growth of degenerate traits. It should be so altered and made specific, 
under the guidance of scientific men who understand these practices, 
as to make it clearly understood that society regards these abhorrent 
deeds as crimes. Better definition would probably make it more pos- 
sible to readily obtain conviction when desirable. 

It would appear very doubtful, however, whether any spread of the 
actual knowledge of these practices is in any way desirable. Prob- 
ably the purity and wholesomeness of the normal sexual relationship 
is all that is necessary to dwell on. 

Ravages of Venereal Diseases. The following extracts from vari- 
ous authorities show the ravages of venereal diseases : 

"If the whole tale were told, the physician must shoulder no 
small share of the moral responsibility for the prevalence of 
libertinism in America, whether we mean by this term that form 
permitted and sanctioned in high life by the divorce court, or, 
among both high and lowly, the crime of the brothel. The phy- 
sician, at least, has a thorough knowledge of the consequences of 
both forms of immorality, as shown in retrograde and degenerate 
processes in the human economy. From such a mother influence 
and environment sprang the famous family of Jukes in New York 
State, one vicious couple, with 1,200 direct descendants or offspring, 
all traced, of whom 300 died in infancy, 300 were paupers, seven 
were murderers, 50 prostitutes, 60 thieves, 130 general criminals, 
400 early physical wrecks, and many imbecile or insane. 

"There are about 200,000 leutic subjects in New York City 
and probably four times that number, (800,000), cases of 
gonorrhoea. While all prostitutes are considered gonorrhoeic sub- 
jects, it is estimated that every fourth one is qualified to transmit 
syphilis. 

"In Prussia there are annually 773,000 venereal cases. 

"Seventy per cent, of 1,155 cases treated (mostly venereal) 
at Hot Springs, had at the time of examination, or had had 
gonorrhoea. 

"Of 60,000 soldiers in the Philippine service, 10,000 were cases 
of venereal diseases. 

"Blindness. Between 10 and 20 per cent, of all cases of infan- 
tile blindness are due to gonorrhoea. Statistics of the German 
Empire for 1894 show 80 per cent, of all children born with 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND ITS MEDICAL ASPECTS 299 

healthy eyes, who became blind, did so as the result of trans- 
mitted gonorrhoea." THE SOCIAL EVIL IN AMERICA, Willson, 
1905, page 80. 

"1. Ophthalmia neonatorum furnishes 10.8 per cent, of the 
blind a larger proportion than any other single cause. Blindness 
from this cause means an entire life of blindness. 

"2. Acquired blindness, (a) Gonorrhoeal conjunctivitis forms 
0.9 per cent, of all acquired blindness, (b) Diseases of the eyes 
from syphilis forms 0.4 per cent, of acquired blindness. REFER- 
ENCE HANDBOOK OF THE MEDICAL SCIENCES, 1901, page 9. 

"Noeggerath states that 50 per cent, of sterile women owe 
their sterility to gonorrhoea. 

"Sanger says that abortion occurs as frequently owing to 
gonorrhoea as it does as the result of lues. 

"Noeggerath cites the cases of 53 women pregnant during 
gonorrhoea, of whom 19 aborted. 

"Fruhingsholtz cites 101 cases, of which 23 aborted, and seven 
went into premature labor. 

"Price, of Philadelphia, says that of 1,000 abdominal oper- 
ations in women, 95 per cent, were the result of conditions due 
to gonorrhoea. 

"German Empire statistics of 1894 showed 80 per cent, women 
who died of uterine and ovarian diseases. THE SOCIAL EVIL IN 
AMERICA, WILSON, 1905, page 80. 

1. Thirty per cent, of venereal infections of women in private 
practice in New York City are communicated by the husband. 

2. Fournier states that in France 5 per cent, of luetic women 
were infected during marriage. 

3. Morrow, of New York, states that 70 per cent, of all 
women at New York Hospital for treatment of venereal trouble 
were respectable married women infected by their husbands. 

4. Gonorrhoea cause of abortion. Of 53 pregnancies, 19 
aborted. (Noeggerath.) 

5. In one year not less than 2,000 women in England and 
Wales had their entire procreative organs removed owing to 
disease. 

6. Sterility in women due to gonorrhoea, 45 per cent. (Neis- 
ser.) RACE CULTURE OR RACE SUICIDE, 1906, ROBERT RENTOUL, 
M. D., page 113. 

Female Sterility. 

1. General accepted ratio among civilized nations of sterility 
is 11 per cent. 

2. In 1900 sterility among native born white women U. S. 
was 20 per cent. 

3. Two children to a family in the United States. 

4. A healthy woman living in wedlock all of her child bearing 
life, under favorable circumstances for natural procreation, 
should have a family of ten children. 



300 



THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 



5. A woman who has been married three years without con- 
ception, and no preventive used, may be presumed to be sterile. 

6. The average ratio of unfruitful marriages is 1 in 10. (Dun- 
can of Great Britain.) 

7. The male has been stated at fault in percentages from 
16 2/3 to 70 per cent. REFERENCE HANDBOOK OF THE MEDICAL 
SCIENCES, 1904, page 455. 



ARMY STATISTICS INDICATIVE OF THE PREVALENCE OF VENERAL DIS- 
EASES IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES. 

Number of Venereal Cases admitted to treatment in each 1,000 ap- 
plying for hospital treatment. 





Year 


Syph- 
ilis 


Chan- 
croids 


Gonorr- 
hoea. 


Total 
Venereal 


U. S. Army 


1908 


26.40 


32.19 


135.56 


194.13 


U. S. Army 


1909 


26.49 


28.23 


105.11 


159.84 


Prussian Army 


1907 


4.4 


2.1 


12.2 


18.7 


Bavarian Armv. . 


1907 


3.3 


0.97 


10.9 


15.1 



PREVENTIVE MEASURES AGAINST VENEREAL DISEASES AND RESULTS OB- 
TAINED. 

Administrative Measures. The remarkable progressive reduction 
in the ratio of venereal disease in the British Army is shown in the 
following tables: 



CASE RATIO OF VENEREAL DISEASE. 

Ratio per 1,000 of strength. 



Year 


Home Army 


Indian Army 


1884 
1908 


270.7 

68.4 


293.9 

69.8 



Notes on Administrative Against Enthetic Disease, H. M. Wilson, 
M. D., London, Appendix B. 

In the British Army in India, Lord Kitchener, the Commander in 
Chief, issued a leaflet to every soldier in the army, with instruction 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND ITS MEDICAL ASPECTS 301 

that it be carried in his small book of instructions for constant refer- 
ence. This order of the Commander in Chief warned the soldier 
against the dangers from venereal disease, emphasized the importance 
of a moral sex life, the soldier's duty to himself, his regiment, and 
his government, not to disable himself through venereal contamina- 
tion. It also recommended proper recreation, study or work for his 
leisure hours. In addition to this leaflet, the army, the church people, 
and philanthropic agencies endeavored to supply the soldiers with 
proper amusement, and an opportunity for helpful work or study. 
The consequences of this movement, at least to a great extent, was a 
notable reduction in the amount of venereal disease in the British 
Army in India. To be explicit. In 1884 the English laws permitted 
the medical inspection of prostitutes in Great Britain and India. At 
that time the number of venereal cases in England was 270 per 
thousand soldiers, in the Indian army 293 per thousand; in 1908, the 
number of venereal cases in the home army was 68.4 and in the In- 
dian army 69.8 per thousand. The record of the intervening years 
shows a marked decrease from the date of issuing of Lord Kitch- 
ener's instructions to the soldiers. The law permitting army officials 
or others to examine prostitutes was repealed in 1886. The effort 
to introduce a moral influence was not attempted in India until 1897. 
Lord Kitchener enlarged and extended the efforts of his predecessors 
from that date on, and a marked improvement in the condition of 
the soldiers was noted. Prior thereto, the percentage of diseased 
soldiers was as high as 522 per thousand in 1895. Consequently, the 
drop to 69 per thousand in 1908 deserves special notice. 

In the American army, similar efforts have recently been intro- 
duced, though in some posts more effort is placed on medical pre- 
ventives or cures than on moral influence. While everything should 
be done to prevent disease, or to cure it after contracted, experience 
shows that the best results have never been accomplished without the 
assistance of moral and educational influences, and the endeavor to in- 
culcate self control on the part of the men. 

Prophylaxis. "The researches carried out in France by Metch- 
nikoff and Roux on syphilis, in Germany by Neisser on gonor- 
rhoea, have shown that these two infections can be prevented in 
a great number of cases. 



302 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

These proofs are of considerable practical importance. They 
furnish fresh arms for contending against the venereal peril. 
In regard to this matter, it is indispensable to take, in the army, 
every necessary prophylactic measure. 

In a matter of this kind, one must put aside all prejudice. It 
concerns the public health, the preservation of the race, even 
the peace of families, so that no precaution should be neglected 
in order to stop venereal infection. 

Moreover, the morality of individuals has never gained any- 
thing by ignorance or dissimulation. It is only doing a social 
duty to instruct the young soldiers about certain dangers which 
threaten them, and to provide them with the means of avoiding 
as much as possible the consequences when they are exposed to 
them." 

H. N. Robson, Social Disease and Its Prevention, London, 
Simpkin, Marshall Hamilton, Kent and Co., Limited, 1909. 

Preventive Measures in United States Army. "Among the 
measures which have been found most successful in other services in 
controlling this disease have been the following: 

1. The organization of soldiers' clubs, canteens, etc., where en- 
listed men can find amusement and recreation sufficiently attractive to 
keep them at home and away from vile resorts. 

2. The formation of temperance associations among the enlisted 
men, the association of intemperance and venereal indulgence being 
well understood. 

3. The early detection of all cases of venereal diseases by peri- 
odical physical examination of the men stripped. 

4. Keeping all cases of venereal disease under continuous ob- 
servation and treatment until they are cured. For this purpose, 
venereal registers are kept, and a case once on the books is never 
lost sight of until cured. Should a man be transferred while under 
treatment to another post or station, his venereal history goes with 
him. 

5. Instruction of the men by lectures and by informal advice 
whenever the opportunity offers as to the nature of venereal dis- 
eases, the extent of their prevalence among prostitutes, and the grave 
peril not only to those who contract them, but to their families and 
posterity. They should also be taught that sexual intercourse is not 
necessary to good health and the highest degree of mental and physical 
vigor. 

6. Approved measures of personal prophylaxis of those who will, 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND ITS MEDICAL ASPECTS 303 

contrary to advice, expose themselves to venereal infection. All the 
principal European armies, with the exception of that of Great 
Britian, have officially authorized or directed the use of such prophy- 
lactic measures, and a considerable degree of success has attended 
their use. In some of the Austrian garrisons this system is said to 
have effected a decrease of 62 per cent, in the cases of venereal dis- 
ease. In the German army equally good results have been reported. 
The general procedure in all the armies is about the -same, though 
there are slight differences in the details, especially in regard to the 
particular antiseptic employed. 

The importance of personal cleanliness was emphasized and sug- 
gestions made for the providing of appropriate prophylactic prepara- 
tions where they would be accessible to men who desired to use 
them." 

Report of the Surgeon-General of the United States Army to the 
Secretary of War, 1910, pp. 60 and 62. 

Results of Examinations. "My Dear Colleague: Police-President 
Kottig has just sent me your letter, which arrived today, and re- 
quests me to give an answer to it. I am sorry to say that, owing to 
the short period of time at our disposal (I had asked to have his 
answer by October 12), I shall be unable to give you the desired data, 
since the entire material, the publication of which was planned for 
the International Exposition of Hygiene, which takes place next 
year, is still in course of arrangement. On the whole, however, I 
can inform you that, since the introduction of these methods of ex- 
amination which you witnessed with us, the number of cases of dis- 
ease has become so minutely small it is no longer possible to advance 
an earnest argument against the justifiability of our regulations." 

Social Diseases, Vol. 1, No. 4. Letter to Dr. Bierhoff from Police- 
Surgeon Winkler of Dresden. 

Dr. Fournier says : 

"Supervision must be humane; that is, must be free from the 
persecutions of an intolerant discipline, and from all punishment; 
in a word, from all requirements which simply exasperate women 
and compel them to shake off an odious yoke, to the great detriment 
of the public health. The women under restraint by reason of con- 
tagious disease should be treated as sick, and not as criminal per- 
sons, with all the kindness which is due any sick person. They 
should not be kept in a prison but in a special asylum, until a cer- 
tificate of health is given. Moral influences should be used during the 
stay in the asylum; a trade should be taught by which the woman 
can earn an honest living, and she should then be encouraged and 
helped to lead a better life. Perhaps a more authoritative and com- 
petent representation of the system of reglementation could not be 
furnished." 

The Eighth Yearbook of the National Society for the Scientific Study 
of Education, 1909, part 1, page 55. 



304 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Examination of Prostitutes by the Board of Health. 

1. Physical examination. 

2. Laboratory examination. 

3. Gonorrhoea, discharges by microscope for gonococci. 

4. Syphilis; microscopic examination for spirochaetae. 
(a) Wassermann blood test for syphilis. 

5. Quarantine: in hospitals, 
(a) In homes when under age. 

6. Notification of venereal diseases to the Department of Health. 
Physicians should be supplied with blank forms. They should fill these 
out, as in the case of other contagious diseases, omitting the name of 
the patient. When the physician is convinced that the patient is 
spreading the disease, the name should be supplied to the Department 
of Health, as such conduct is a menace to the public health. 

7. The names of all infected persons should be supplied to the 
Department of Health, as the nature of their occupation insures the 
spread of disease. 

SUMMARY. 

1. In order to diminish the spread of venereal diseases, both 
sexes should be taught the social and personal dangers that surround 
them. 

2. No marriages should be legal unless both parties furnish cer- 
tificates of health and freedom from venereal diseases given by legally 
qualified physicians. 

3. The Department of Health should have power to quarantine per- 
sons afflicted with venereal diseases. 

(a) The Department of Health should have the right to inspect in- 
fected persons. 

4. There is only one hospital in Cook County where venereal 
patients can be sent for treatment free of charge. 

5. There is only one other hospital in Chicago where pay venereal 
disease patients may be received without objection. 

(a) There should be at least one bed set apart for these cases for 
every 2,000 of the population. 

6. In the inheritance of venereal diseases, two factors are in- 
volved, the direct infection of the foetus and the arrest of its develop- 
ment. 



THE SOCIAL EVIL AND ITS MEDICAL ASPECTS 305 

7. The mass of prostitutes in this and other countries belong to 
the defectives. 

8. The sexual perverts also belong to the defectives. 

9. Much of the moral responsibility for the prevalence of lib- 
ertinism in America rests up the physician. 

10. The ravages of venereal diseases are past comprehension. 
Among the results mentioned are: 

(a) Criminals. 

(b) Blindness. 

(c) Sterility. 

(d) Abortion. 

(e) Abdominal operations. 

(f) Uterine and ovarian disease. 

(g) Death at an early age. 

11. Army statistics show that there are more cases of venereal 
diseases among the soldiers in the United States army where there is 
no legal control, than among soldiers in foreign countries where con- 
trol is exercised. 

12. It is estimated there were over 30,000 public prostitutes in 
New York City (1897). 

(a) Rates of mortality among children of these prostitutes is 
greater than ordinary ratio among children. 

(b) Average duration of prostitute's life, four years. 1 

(c) Nearly one-half of the prostitutes in New York City are or 
have been luetics. 

(d) Destitution or poverty is said to be the greatest cause of pros- 
titution, inclination next. 

13. Administrative measures have reduced the amount of venereal 
diseases among European troops in India. 

14. Infection from gonorrhoea and syphilis can be prevented in 
a great number of cases. 

15. Preventive measures are now being introduced among the 
soldiers in the United States army. 

16. The modern program for the reduction of venereal diseases 
should command the support of the majority of medical men. 

J This estimate is too low. It is now thought to be from five to ten years. 



306 THE SOCIAL EVIL OF CHICAGO 

(a) This program of action is to reduce the physical evils 01 pros- 
titution. 

17. The examination of infected persons by the Department of 
Health should include: 

(a) Physical. 

(b) Laboratory. 

(c) Gonorrhoea, by microscope. 

(d) Syphilis, by microscope and Wassermann blood test. 

(e) Quarantine in hospitals. 
(1) In homes when under age. 

(f) Notification of venereal diseases to Department of Health. 

(g) Names of all infected persons supplied to Department of 
Health. 

Attention is called to the recommendations of the Commission, page 
page 55. 



Appendices 



Text of Revised Statutes of Illinois and Ordinances 
of the City of Chicago 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 309 



APPENDIX I. 

DISORDERLY HOUSE HOUSE OF ILL-FAME, Kurds' Revised Stat- 
utes of Illinois (1909), Chapter 38, Section 57. 

m 

SECTION 57. Whoever keeps or maintains a house of ill-fame 
or place for the practice of prostitution or lewdness, or whoever pa- 
tronizes the same, or lets any house, room or other premises for any 
such purpose, or shall keep a common, ill-governed and disorderly 
house, to the encouragement of idleness, gaming, drinking, fornica- 
tion or other misbehavior, shall be fined not exceeding $200. When 
the lessee or keeper of a dwelling house or other building is convicted 
under this section, the lease or contract for letting the premises shall, 
at the option of the lessor, become void, and the lessor may have the 
like remedy to recover the possession as against a tenant holding 
over after the expiration of his term. And whoever shall lease to 
another any house, room or other premises, in whole or in part, for 
any of the uses or purposes finable under this section, or knowingly 
permits the same to be so used or occupied, shall be fined not ex- 
ceeding $200, and the house or premises so leased, occupied or used 
shall be held liable for and may be sold for any judgment obtained 
under this section, but if such building or premises belongs to a minor 
or other person under guardianship, then the guardian or conservator 
and his property shall be liable instead of such ward, and his property 
shall be subject to be sold for the payment of said judgment. (R. S. 
1845, p. 174, sec. 127.) 



APPENDIX II. 

HOUSE OF ILL-FAME OR ASSIGNATION. Revised Municipal Code 
(1905), Sections 1456, 1458, 1458A, 1460. 

SECTION 1456. No person shall keep or maintain a house of ill- 
fame or assignation, or place for the practice of fornication or pros- 
titution or lewdness, under a penalty of not to exceed two hundred 
dollars for every twenty-four hours such house or place shall be kept 
or maintained for such purpose. 

SECTION 1458. Every house of ill-fame or house of assignation 
where men and women resort for the purpose of fornication or pros- 
titution is hereby declared to be a nuisance. 

SECTION 1458A. Any person leasing to another any house, room 
or other premises in whole or in part for any of the uses or purposes 
set forth in Section 1456 of the Revised Municipal Code of Chicago 
of 1905, or knowingly permitting the same to be used or occupied 
for such purpose, shall be fined not exceeding $200. (Passed Feb. 
7th, 1910, Council Proceedings, p. 3111.) 



310 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 



Ill-Governed or Disorderly Houses. 

SECTION 1460. Every common, ill-governed or disorderly house, 
room or other premises, kept for the encouragement of idleness, gam- 
ing, drinking, fornication or other misbehavior is hereby declared 
to be a public nuisance, and the keeper and all persons connected 
with the maintenance thereof, and all persons patronizing or fre- 
quenting the same shall be fined not exceeding two hundred dollars 
for each offense. 



APPENDIX III. 

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND ITS RELATION TO HOUSES OF PROS- 
TITUTION. Kurd's Revised Statutes of Illinois (1909), Chapter 24, 
Sections 245, 246. 

SECTION 245. LICENSING AND MEDICAL INSPECTION FORBIDDEN. 
Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illinois, represented in 
the General Assembly, That it shall be unlawful for the corporate 
authorities of any city, town or village in this state to grant a license 
to any person, male or female, to keep what is known as a house of 
ill-fame or house of prostitution. And it 'shall be unlawful for any 
board of health (or any member or employee of the same) now ex- 
isting, or which may hereafter exist under the laws of this state, 
to interfere in the management of any house of ill-fame or house of 
prostitution, or to provide in any manner for the medical inspection 
or examination of any inmate of the same. (See sec. 62, item 45.) 

SECTION 246. EMERGENCY. Whereas, the legislative authorities 
of certain cities in this state are about to license houses of ill-fame, 
therefore an emergency exists why this act should take effect imme- 
diately; therefore, this act shall take effect and be in force from and 
after its passage. 



APPENDIX IV. 

BOATS FOR PROSTITUTION. Hurd's Revised Statutes of Illinois 
(1909), Chapter 38, Section 57A. 

SECTION 57A. KEEPING BOATS, ETC., FOR PURPOSES OF PROS- 
TITUTION. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illinois, repre- 
sented in the General Assembly, That any person who shall keep a 
boat or other water craft for the purposes of prostitution on any of 
the navigable waters of this state, breakwater or other stream, over 
or upon which this state has jurisdiction, shall be guilty of a felony, 
and upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the penitentiary 
for a period of not less than one nor more than three years, and shall 
be fined in any sum not exceeding one thousand dollars. (1.) 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 311 



APPENDIX V. 



FREQUENTING HOUSES OF ILL-FAME. Revised Municipal Code of 
Chicago (1905), Section 1457. 

SECTION 1457 No person shall patronize, frequent, be found in 
or be an inmate of any house of ill-fame or assignation, or place for 
the practice of prostitution or lewdness under a penalty of not ex- 
ceeding $200 for each offense. 



APPENDIX VI. 

DISORDERLY CONDUCT ENTICING, DETAINING AND ALLOWING FE- 
MALES IN HOUSES OF PROSTITUTION, AND SEDUCTION. Kurd's Revised 
Statutes of Illinois (1909), Chapter 38, Sections 55, 57B, 57C, 57D, 
57E, 57F, 57G, 57H, 571, 57J, 57K, 525. 

SECTION 55. PUNISHMENT. Whoever shall be guilty of open lewd- 
ness, disorderly conduct, or other notorious act of public indecency, 
tending to debauch the public morals, shall be fined not exceeding $200. 
(R. S. 1845, p. 174, Section 127.) 

SECTION 57B. ENTICING FEMALE TO ENTER HOUSE OF PROSTITU- 
TION, ETC. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illinois, repre- 
sented in the General Assembly, Whoever within this state, shall, by, 
or under any false pretense, entice, induce or procure any unmarried 
female of a chaste life and conversation, residing or being in this state, 
to enter a house of prostitution or any dance house, garden or premises 
where prostitution, fornication or concubinage is practiced or allowed 
in this state, or shall entice, induce or procure such unmarried female 
to leave this state and go to any other State or Territory of the United 
States, or any foreign State or Territory, for the purpose of prostitution 
or fornication, or to enter any house, garden or premises where prosti- 
tution or fornication is practiced or allowed, and whoever aids, assists 
or abets any person or persons in committing aforesaid offenses or 
either of them, on conviction, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary 
not less than one nor more than ten years. 

SECTION 57C. UNLAWFULLY DETAINING FEMALE IN HOUSE OF 
PROSTITUTION, ETC. Whoever shall unlawfully detain or confine any 
female, by force, false pretense or intimidation, in any room, house, 
building or premises in this State, against the will of such female, for 
purposes of prostitution or with intent to cause such female to become 
a prostitute, and be guilty of fornication or concubinage therein, or 
shall by force, false pretense, confinement or intimidation attempt to 
prevent any female so as aforesaid detained, from leaving such room, 
house, building or premises, and whoever aids, assists or abets by force, 
false pretense, confinement or intimidation, in keeping, confining or 



312 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

unlawfully detaining any female in any room, house, building or prem- 
ises in this State, against the will of such female, for the purpose^ of 
prostitution, fornication or concubinage, shall on conviction, be im- 
prisoned in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten 
years. (2) 

SECTION 57D. PENALTY FOR ALLOWING FEMALE UNDER EIGHTEEN 
TO LIVE IN HOUSE OF PROSTITUTION. Whoever, being the keeper of 
a house of prostitution, or assignation house, building or premises in 
this State where prostitution, fornication or concubinage is allowed or 
practiced, shall suffer or permit any unmarried female under the age of 
eighteen years to live, board, stop or room in such house, building or 
premises, shall on conviction, be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less 
than one nor more than five years. (As amended by act approved 
and in force June 3, 1889. L. 1889, p. 112; Legal News Ed., p. 79.) 

SECTION 57E. PENALTY FOR ENTICING TO COME INTO STATE FOR, 
ETC. Whoever shall entice, induce or procure to come into this State, 
any unmarried female under the age of eighteen years, for the pur- 
pose of prostitution, fornication or concubinage, or to enter any house 
of prostitution in this State, shall, on conviction, be imprisoned in the 
penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years. (2) 

SECTION 57F. NOT AFFECT ACT AS TO ABDUCTION OF FEMALES. 
The passage of this act shall not affect Section 1 of Division 1 of the 
Criminal Code, entitled, "Abduction of Females," or any indictment 
heretofore, or that may hereafter be found under said act. (2) 

AN ACT in relation to pandering; to define and prohibit the 
same; to provide for the punishment thereof, for the com- 
petency of certain evidence at the trial therefor and provid- 
ing what shall be a defense. (Approved June 1, 1908. In 
force July 1, 1908.) 

AN ACT to amend an act entitled, "An act in relation to pan- 
dering: to define and prohibit the same, to provide for the 
punishment thereof, for the competency of certain evidence 
at the trial therefor, and providing what shall be a defense," 
approved June 1, 1908, in force July 1, 1908, and also the 
title of said act. (Approved June 12, 1909. In force July 
1, 1909. L. 1909, p. 180.) 

SECTION 57G. DEFINING THE OFFENSE OF PANDERING. Section (1) 
2. Any person who shall procure a female inmate for a house of prosti- 
tution or who, by promises, threats, violence or by any device or scheme, 
shall cause, induce, persuade or encourage female person to become an 
inmate of a house of prostitution, or shall procure a place as inmate 
in a house of prostitution for a female person, or any person who shall, 
by promises, threats, violence or by any device or scheme, cause, induce, 
persuade or encourage an inmate of a house of prostitution to remain 
therein as such inmate, or any person who shall, by fraud or artifice, or 
by duress of person or goods, or by abuse of any position of confidence 
or authority, procure any female person to become an inmate of a 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 313 

house of ill-fame, or to enter any place in which prostitution is encour- 
aged or allowed within this State, or to come into this State or leave 
this State for the purpose of prostitution, or who shall procure any 
female person who has not previously practiced prostitution to become 
an inmate of a house of ill-fame within this State, or to come into this 
State or leave this State for the purpose of prostitution, or who shall 
receive or give, or agree to receive or give, any money or thing of value 
for procuring, or attempting to procure, any female person to become 
an inmate of a house of ill-fame within this State, or to come into this 
State or leave this State for the purpose of prostitution, shall be guilty 
of pandering, and upon a first conviction for an offense under this act 
shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail or house of correc- 
tion for a period of not less than six months nor more than one year 
and by a fine of not less than three hundred dollars and not to exceed 
one thousand dollars, and upon conviction for any subsequent offense 
under this act shall be punished by imprisonment in the penitentiary 
for a period of not less than one year nor more than ten years. 

SECTION 57H. EVIDENCE FOR PROSECUTION. It shall not be a de- 
fense to a prosecution for any of the acts prohibited in the foregoing 
section that any part of such act or acts shall have been committed out- 
side this State, and the offense shall in such case be deemed and alleged 
to have been committed and the offender tried and punished in any 
county in which the prostitution was intended to be practiced, or in 
which the offense was consummated, or any overt acts in furtherance 
of the offense shall have been committed. 

SECTION 571. FEMALE COMPETENT WITNESS NOTWITHSTANDING 
MARRIAGE TO ACCUSED. Any such female person referred to in the 
foregoing sections shall be a competent witness in any prosecution under 
this act to testify for or against the accused as to any transaction or as 
to any conversation with the accused or by him with another person or 
persons in her presence, notwithstanding her having married the ac- 
cused before or after the violation of any of the provisions of this 
act, whether called as a witness during the existence of the marriage 
or after its dissolution. 

SECTION 57J. WHAT is NOT A DEFENSE. The act or state of mar- 
riage shall not be a defense to any violation of this act. 

AN ACT to prevent the detention, by debt or otherwise, of female 
persons in houses of prostitution or other places where pros- 
titution is practiced or allowed, and providing for the pun- 
ishment thereof. (Approved June 9, 1909. In force July, 
1909. L. 1909, p. 179.) 

SECTION 57K. DETAINING FEMALE AGAINST HER WILL IN A HOUSE 
OF PROSTITUTION PENALTY. Section 1. Be it enacted by the People 
of the State of Illinois, represented in the General Assembly, That 
whoever shall by any means keep, hold or detain against her will or 
restrain, any female person in a house of prostitution or other place 
where prostitution is practiced or allowed, or whoever shall, directly or 



314 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

indirectly, keep, hold, detain or restrain, or attempt to keep, hold, detain 
or restrain, in any house of prostitution or other place where prostitu- 
tion is practiced or allowed, any female person, by any means, for the 
purpose of compelling such female person, directly or indirectly, to 
pay, liquidate or cancel any debt, dues or obligations incurred or said 
to have been incurred by such female person, shall, upon conviction, 
for the first offense under this act be punished by imprisonment in the 
county jail or house of correction for a period of not less than six 
months nor more than one year, and by a fine of not less than three 
hundred dollars and not to exceed one thousand dollars, and upon con- 
viction for any subsequent offense under this act shall be punished by 
imprisonment in the penitentiary for a period of not less than one year 
nor more than five years. 

SEDUCTION OF FEMALES. 

AN ACT to punish the seduction of females. (Approved April 
19, 1899. In force July 1, 1899. L. 1899, p. 148; Legal 
News Ed., p. 124.) 

SECTION 525. CRIME DEFINED PUNISHMENT FOR. Be it enacted 
by the People of the State of Illinois, represented in the General Assem- 
bly, That any person who shall seduce and obtain carnal knowledge of 
any unmarried female under the age of eighteen years of previous 
chaste character, shall, on conviction, be punished by a fine of not less 
than one thousand dollars and not more than five thousand dollars or 
by imprisonment in the county jail not exceeding one year, or by both 
such fine and imprisonment, and to stand committed until such fine 
and costs are fully paid, but no conviction shall be had of said crime 
upon the testimony of the female unsupported by other evidence: 
And, provided, that the subsequent intermarriage of the parties shall 
be a bar to the prosecution of said offense. 



APPENDIX VII. 

NIGHT WALKERS. Revised Municipal Code of Chicago (1905), 
Sections 1454-1459-1476. 

SECTION 1454. DISORDERLY CONDUCT. All persons who shall 
make, aid, countenance or assist in making any improper noise, riot, 
disturbance, breach of the peace or diversion tending to a breach of 
the peace within the limits of the city ; all persons who shall collect in 
bodies or crowds for unlawful purposes, or for any purpose, to the 
annoyance or disturbance of other persons; all persons who are idle 
or dissolute and go about begging; all persons who use or exercise 
any juggling or other unlawful games or plays; all persons who are 
found in house of ill-fame or gaming houses; all persons who are 
in or found at any time, in out-houses, sheds, barns, stables or unoc- 



LAWS^AND'ORDINANCES 315 

cupied buildings, or underneath sidewalks, or lodging in the open air 
and not giving a good account of themselves; all persons who shall 
wilfully assault another in said city, or be engaged in or aid or abet 
in any fight, quarrel or other disturbance in said city; all persons 
who stand, loiter or stroll about in any place in said city waiting or 
seeking to obtain money or other valuable thing from others by trick 
or fraud or to aid or assist therein; all persons that shall engage in 
any fraudulent scheme, device or trick to obtain money or other 
valuable thing in any place in said city, or who shall aid or abet or in 
any maner be concerned therein ; all touts, ropers, steerers or cappers, 
so called, for any gambling room or house who shall ply or attempt 
to ply their calling on any public street in said city; all persons found 
loitering about in any hotel, block, barroom, dram-shop, gambling 
house or disorderly house, or wandering about the streets either by 
night or day without any known lawful means of support, or with- 
out being able to give a satisfactory account of themselves; all per- 
sons who shall have or carry any pistol, knife, dirk, knuckles, slung- 
shot or other dangerous weapon concealed on or about their persons ; 
and all persons who are known to be thieves, burglars, pickpockets, 
robbers or confidence men, either by their own confession or other- 
wise, or by having been convicted of larceny, burglary or other crime 
against the laws of the state of Illinois, who are found lounging in or 
prowling or loitering around any steamboat landing, railroad depot, 
banking institution, -place of public amusement, auction room, hotel, 
store, shop, thoroughfare, car, omnibus, public conveyance, public 
gathering, public assembly, courtroom, public building, private dwell- 
ing house, out-house, house of ill-fame, gambling house, tippling 
shop, or any public place, and who are unable to give a reasonable 
excuse for being so found, shall be deemed guilty of disorderly con- 
duct, and upon conviction thereof shall be severally subject to a fine 
of not less than one dollar nor more than two hundred dollars for 
each offense. 

SECTION 1459. NIGHT WALKERS. All prostitutes, solicitors to 
prostitution, and all persons of evil fame or report, plying their vo- 
cations upon the streets, alleys or public places in the city, are hereby 
declared to be common nuisances and shall be fined not to exceed one 
hundred dollars for each offense. 

SECTION 1476. VAGABONDS AND VAGRANTS. All persons who are idle 
and dissolute, or who go about begging, all persons who use any shell 
game, sleight of hand or juggling trick or other unlawful game to 
cheat, defraud or unlawfully obtain money or other valuable thing; 
pilferers; confidence men; common drunkards; common night walk- 
ers; persons lewd, wanton or lascivious in speech or behavior; com- 
mon brawlers ; persons who are habitually neglectful of their employ- 
ment or their calling, and do not lawfully provide for themselves or 
for the support of their families; and all persons who are idle or 
dissolute and who neglect all lawful business, and who habitually 
misspend their time by frequenting houses of ill-fame, gaming houses 



316 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

or tippling shops; all persons lodging in or found in the night-time 
in out-houses, sheds, barns or unoccupied buildings or lodging in 
the open air, and not giving a good account of themselves; and all 
persons who are known to be thieves, burglars or pickpockets, either 
by their own confession or otherwise, or by having been convicted 
of larceny, burglary, or other crime against the laws of the state, 
punishable by imprisonment in the state prison, or in a house of cor- 
rection of any city, and having no lawful means of support, are habit- 
ually found prowling around any steamboat landing, railroad depot, 
banking institution, broker's office, place of public amusement, auction 
room, store, shop or crowded thoroughfare, car or omnibus, or at 
any public gathering or assembly, or lounging about any court room, 
private dwelling houses or out-houses, or are found in any house of 
ill-fame, gambling house, or tippling shop, shall be deemed to be 
and they are declared to be vagabonds, and shall be fined not to ex- 
ceed one hundred dollars for each offense. 



APPENDIX VIII. 

VAGABONDS. 

Kurd's Revised Statutes of Illinois (1909), Chapter 38, Sections 
270, 271. 

SECTION 270. VAGABONDS WHAT SHALL CONSTITUTE. All per- 
sons who are idle and dissolute, and who go about begging ; all persons 
-who use any juggling or other unlawful games or plays; runaways; 
pilferers ; confidence men ; common drunkards ; common night-walkers ; 
lewd, wanton and lascivious persons, in speech or behavior; common 
railers and brawlers; persons who are habitually neglectful of their 
employment or their calling, and do not lawfully provide for them- 
selves, or for the support of their families; and all persons who are 
idle or dissolute and who neglect all lawful business, and who habit- 
ually misspend their time by frequenting houses of ill-fame, gaming 
houses or tippling shops ; all persons lodging in or found in the night- 
time in out-houses, sheds, barns or unoccupied buildings or lodging in 
the open air, and not giving a good account of themselves; and all 
persons who are known to be thieves, burglars or pickpockets, either by 
their own confession or otherwise, or by having been convicted of 
larceny, burglary, or other crime against the laws of the state, punish- 
able by imprisonment in the state prison, or in a house of correction 
of any city, and having no lawful means of support, are habitually 
found prowling around any steamboat landing, railroad depot, banking 
institution, broker's office, place of public amusement, auction room, 
store, shop or crowded thoroughfare, car or omnibus, or at any public 
gathering or assembly, or lounging about any court room, private dwell- 
ing houses or out-houses, or are found in any house of ill-fame, gam- 
bling house, or tippling shop, shall be deemed to be and they are de- 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 317 

clared to be vagabonds. (As amended by act approved April 27, 1877. 
In force July 1, 1877. R. S. 1845, p. 175, sec. 138; L. 1877, p. 87; 
Legal News Ed., p. 90.) 

SECTION 271. How PUNISHED. It shall be the duty of the sheriff, 
bailiff of the municipal court of Chicago, constable, city marshal and 
police officers of any county, town, village, city or other municipality 
in this state, to arrest, upon warrant, and bring before the nearest jus- 
tice of the peace or police magistrate, or, if within the city of Chicago, 
before the municipal court of Chicago, any such vagabond, wherever 
he may be found, for the purpose of examination; and if he pleads 
guilty, or if he be found guilty, either by the verdict of a jury or by 
the finding of the said justice of the peace, police magistrate, or munici- 
pal court, where a jury trial is waived, the said justice of the police, 
police magistrate or municipal court may sentence the said vagabond 
to imprisonment at hard labor upon the streets or highways, or in the 
jail, calaboose or other building used for penal purpose of the county, 
town, village, city or other municipality in which such vagabond was 
convicted; or to the house of correction of any city having a contract 
with such county for the care of prisoners, for a term of not less than 
ten (10) days and not exceeding six months, in the discretion of the 
said justice of the peace, police magistrate or municipal court; or the 
said justice of the peace, police magistrate or municipal court may 
sentence the said vagabond to pay a fine of not less than twenty dollars 
($20) nor more than one hundred dollars ($100) and costs of suit ; and 
in default of the immediate payment of said fine and costs so imposed, 
said vagabond shall thereupon be sentenced by said justice of the peace, 
police magistrate or municipal court to imprisonment at hard labor 
in said jail, calaboose, or other building used for penal purposes, or in 
said house of correction, or on the streets or public highways until said 
fine and costs are worked out at the rate of $1.50 per day for each day's 
work, or until said fine and costs shall have been otherwise paid or 
until said vagabond is discharged according to law. (As amended by 
act approved May 24, 1907. In force July 1, 1907. L. 1907, p. 271.) 



APPENDIX IX. 

SALE OF COCAINE. Hurd's Revised Statutes of Illinois (1909), 
Chapter 91, Sections 32A, 32B and 32C. 

SECTION 32A. SALE OF COCAINE, ETC., FORBIDDEN EXCEPT UPON 
WRITTEN PRESCRIPTION EXCEPTION. (14a.) It shall be unlawful for 
any druggist or other person to retail, sell or give away any cocaine, 
alpha or beta eucaine, or any salt or any compound, or derivative of 
any of the foregoing substances, or any preparation or compound con- 
taining any of the foregoing substances, or any of their salts or com- 
pounds, or derivatives, except upon the written prescription of a duly 
registered physician, which prescription shall contain the name and 



318 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

address of the person for whom prescribed, and the date the same shall 
have been rilled, and shall be permanently retained on file by the person, 
firm or corporation, where the same shall have been filled, and it shall 
be filled but once, and of it no copy shall be taken by any person, and 
the original shall at all times be open to the inspection of the prescriber, 
to the state board of pharmacy, and all officers of the law ; except, how- 
ever, that such cocaine, alpha or beta eucaine, or any salt, or any com- 
pound or any derivative of the foregoing substances, or any prepara- 
tion or compound containing any of the foregoing substances, or any 
of their salts or compounds, or derivatives, may lawfully be sold at 
wholesale upon the written order of a licensed pharmacist, or licensed 
druggist, duly registered practicing physician, licensed veterinarian, or 
licensed dentist, provided, that the wholesale dealer shall affix or 
cause to be affixed to the bottle, box, vessel or package, containing the 
article sold, and upon the outside wrapper of the package as originally 
put up, a label distinctly displaying the name and the quantity of co- 
caine, alpha or beta eucaine, or any salt or compound, or derivative 
or any of the foregoing substances, sold, and the word "poison," with 
the name and place of business of the seller, all printed in red ink ; and 
provided, also, that the wholesale dealer shall, before delivering any 
of the articles, make or cause to be made in a book kept for the pur- 
pose, an entry of the sale thereof, stating the date of sale, the quantity, 
name and form in which sold, the name and address of the purchaser, 
and the name of the person by whom the entry is made ; and the said 
book shall be always open for the inspection by the proper authorities 
of the law, and shall be preserved for at least five years after the date 
of the last entry made therein. (As amended by act approved and in 
force January 17, 1908. See People v. Zito, 237 111., 434.) 

SECTION 32B. WHEN UNLAWFUL FOR PHYSICIAN TO PRESCRIBE. 
(14b.) It shall be unlawful for any duly registered physician or other 
person, to prescribe, sell or offer for sale, dispense or give away co- 
caine, alpha or beta eucaine, or any salt or compound or derivative of 
the foregoing substances, or any of their salts or compounds or deriva- 
tives, or preparation or compound containing any of the foregoing sub- 
stances, to any person addicted to the habitual use of cocaine, alpha or 
beta eucaine, or any salt or compound or derivative, of the foregoing 
substances in any form. (As amended by act approved and in force 
January 17, 1908.) 

SECTION 32C. PENALTY. Any person violating any of the provi- 
sions of the foregoing sections 14a and 14b shall be guilty of a mis- 
demeanor, and for the first offense shall be fined not more than one 
thousand ($1,000) dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not more 
than one year, or both, and for each succeeding offense fined not less 
than two hundred ($200) dollars, nor more than one thousand ($1,000) 
dollars, or imprisoned not less than three months nor more than twelve 
months in the county jail, or both, and if the person so offending shall 
have a license as a physician, dentist or pharmacist, such license shall 
be revoked; and the prosecution for the violation of the foregoing 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 319 

Sections 14a and 14b shall be carried on in the same manner as for 
violations of the criminal code, and all fines collected in prosecution 
shall inure to the benefit of the State Board of Pharmacy: Provided, 
That suits for the recovery of the penalties prescribed in the other sec- 
tions of this act shall be prosecuted as provided in Section 15. (Added 
by act approved and in force January 17, 1908.) 



APPENDIX X. 

SALE OF COCAINE FORBIDDEN EXCEPT ON WRITTEN PRESCRIPTION. 
Revised Municipal Code of Chicago (1905), Section 1470. 

SECTION 1470. No druggist or other person shall sell or give 
away any morphine, cocaine, hydro-chlorate, or any salts of any com- 
pound of the same, or any preparation containing cocaine, morphine, 
hydro-chlorate, or any salts or any compound thereof, except upon 
the written prescription of a licensed physician or a licensed drug- 
gist licensed under the laws of the State of Illinois; which prescrip- 
tion shall be filled only once and shall have written upon it the name 
and address of the patient; Provided, that the provisions of this sec- 
tion shall not apply to the sale at wholesale by any manufacturer or 
wholesale druggist to retail druggists or to any other person, of such 
cocaine, morphine, hydro-chlorate, or any salts or any compound of 
the same in original packages only, with such packages having affixed 
thereto a label specifically setting forth the preparation of cocaine, 
morphine, or hydro-chlorate contained therein. 

Any person who shall -violate any of the provisions of this sec- 
tion shall be fined not less than fifty dollars nor more than two hun- 
dred dollars for each offense. 



APPENDIX XL 

THE SALOON AND IMMORAL PLACES. Revised Municipal Code 
(1905), Section 1345. 

SECTION 1345. REVOCATION OF LICENSES. Any license granted 
under this article may be revoked upon written notice by the mayor, 
whenever it shall appear to his satisfaction that the party so licensed 
shall have violated any provision of any ordinance of the city relating 
to intoxicating liquors or any condition of the bond provided for in 
section 1336 of this article. Upon complaint to the mayor that any 
place licensed as a saloon is a resort of disreputable persons, the mayor 
shall cause an investigation to be made as to such complaint, and if 
found to be true he shall forthwith revoke the license issued to keep 
such saloon. Upon report to the mayor by the police department, that 
any saloon is the resort of disreputable persons, the mayor shall at 
once revoke the license of the keeper of such saloon. 



320 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 



APPENDIX XII. 

AN ORDINANCE Limiting the Issuance of Dramshop Licenses in the 
City of Chicago. Passed by City Council, June 25, 1906. 

Be It Ordained by the City Council of the City of Chicago: 
SECTION 1. That no license for the keeping of a saloon or dram- 
shop within the City of Chicago shall at any time hereafter be issued 
or granted to any person except as hereinafter provided. 

SECTION 2. All lawful licenses issued and in force on the thirty- 
first day of July, 1906, for the keeping of a saloon or dramshop within 
the City of Chicago shall be renewed or reissued upon strict and full 
compliance with the laws and ordinances in force in the City of Chi- 
cago at the time of the application for such renewal or reissue, but 
no new license (other than a renewal or reissue as hereinafter pro- 
vided) for the keeping of a saloon or dramshop shall at any time there- 
after be granted or issued until the number of licenses in force at the 
time shall be less than one for every five hundred of the population of 
the City of Chicago as ascertained by the then last preceding school cen- 
sus, whereupon such new licenses may be issued from time to time to 
lawful applicants, according to priority of application, upon full com- 
pliance by the applicant with the laws and ordinances in force in the 
City of Chicago at the time of the application for such license until the 
total number of licenses in force shall equal one for every five hun- 
dred of the population of the City of Chicago, as ascertained by the 
then last preceding school census. 

SECTION 3. The owner or owners, or his or their legal representa- 
tives, of a license to keep a dramshop or a saloon shall have and be 
given the right to a renewal or reissue of such license at the same or 
different place of business upon compliance with the ordinances now 
in force in the City of Chicago, or which may hereafter be passed gov- 
erning the licensing of dramshops or of saloons, and such owner or 
owners, or his or their legal representatives, of a dramshop or saloon 
license may assign or convey his right to the renewal or reissue thereof 
to another person, who, upon full compliance with the ordinances then 
in force in the City of Chicago governing the licensing of saloons or 
dramshops shall be entitled to a renewal or reissue of such license in 
his own name, and each holder of a license, or his legal representatives, 
in turn may assign or convey such right of renewal or reissue of such 
license upon the same terms and conditions as the original owner 
thereof could do hereunder. The privilege of renewal or reissue pro- 
vided by this ordinance shall apply only so long as the license in each 
case shall have been kept in force continuously and uninterruptedly 
in the name of the licensee, or his successor in interest. No license to 
keep a saloon or dramshop shall be hereafter issued to a firm except 
in the names of the individual members of the firm, and no such li- 
cense shall hereafter be issued to a corporation; provided, however, 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 321 

that any corporation now holding such a license in its name may desig- 
nate the person or persons who shall be entitled to a renewal or reissue 
of such license for the license period beginning November 1, 1906; 
provided further, however, that such person or persons shall duly 
qualify by complying with all the laws and ordinances in force at the 
time in the City of Chicago. 

SECTION 4. Any and all ordinances of the City of Chicago so far 
as they are in conflict with any of the provisions of this ordinance are 
hereby repealed. 

SECTION 5. This ordinance shall be in force from and after its 
passage. 



APPENDIX XIII. 

AN ORDINANCE Fixing the Annual Fee for Dramshop Licenses at 
$1,000.00. Passed by City Council, March 5, 1906. 

AN ORDINANCE Amending Sections 1339 and 1340 of the Revised 
Municipal Code of 1905. 

Be It Ordained by the City Council of the City of Chicago: 

SECTION 1. That Section 1339 of the Revised Municipal Code of 
the City of Chicago of 1905 is hereby amended to read as follows: 

"1339. FEE. Any person on compliance with the aforesaid re- 
quirements and the payment in advance to the City Collector of a li- 
cense fee at the rate of one thousand dollars per annum, shall receive 
a license under the corporate seal, signed by the Mayor and attested by 
the City Clerk, which shall authorize the person or persons therein 
named to keep a dramshop or saloon and to sell, give away or barter 
intoxicating liquors, in quantities less than one gallon, in the place 
designated in the license and for the period stated therein." 

SECTION 2. Section 1340 of the Revised Municipal Code of Chi- 
cago of 1905 is hereby amended to read as follows : 

"1340. PERIODS OF PAYMENTS. The saloon license year is hereby 
divided into two periods as follows : From May first to October thir- 
ty-first, inclusive, shall be known as the first period; from November 
first to April thirtieth of the following year, inclusive, shall be known 
as the second period. Licenses may be issued for the full license year 
or for the unexpired portion thereof, and the fee payable therefor 
shall be one thousand dollars in advance for the full license year, or 
five hundred dollars in advance for each period; provided, that if any 
license shall issue for the unexpired portion of the license year or 
for the unexpired portion of any period, the fee to be paid therefor 
shall bear the same ratio to the sum required for the whole year that 
the number of days in such unexpired portion bears to the whole 
number of days in the year ; and provided further that no license shall 
extend beyond the 30th day of April next following its issuance." 



322 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

SECTION 3. This ordinance shall be in force from and after its 
passage and due publication according to law and shall take effect on 
the first day of May, A. D., 1906. 



APPENDIX XIV. 

Revised Municipal Code (1905), relating to WINE ROOMS, Sec- 
tions 1341, 1342, 1343 and 1344. 

SECTION 1341. WINEROOMS PROHIBITED. No person operating, 
maintaining or conducting a saloon, dramshop or other place in which 
malt, vinous, spirituous or intoxicating liquors of any kind what- 
soever are sold, given away, or otherwise dealt in, shall establish or 
maintain in connection with such saloon, dramshop or other place, 
either as a part thereof or as an adjunct thereto, any wineroom or 
private apartment the interior of which is shut off from the general 
public view by doors, curtains, screens, partitions, or other device 
of any kind whatsoever. 

SECTION 1342. NUMBER OF PERSONS TO BE SERVED. No person 
operating, maintaining, or conducting a restauraunt, cafe, dining room, 
or other like place shall serve, or permit to be served, any malt, 
vinous, spirituous or intoxicating liquors of any kind whatsoever in 
any private apartment which may be maintained as a part or an ad- 
junct to such restaurant, cafe, dining room or other like place, to any 
number of persons less than four, unless all the members of such 
party numbering less than four be of the same sex. 

SECTION 1343. PENALTY. Any person violating any of the pro- 
visions of the two preceding sections shall be fined not less than ten 
dollars nor more than one hundred dollars for each offense; and 
provided further, that in any case where any person maintaining 
or conducting a saloon, dramshop, restaurant, cafe, dining room or 
other like place at or in which malt, vinous, spirituous or intoxicating 
liquors of any kind are sold, given away, or otherwise dealt in, shall 
violate any of the provisions of the two preceding sections, in addi- 
tion to the penalty above fixed, such person shall have his license re- 
voked, and shall not be permitted to again obtain a license to operate, 
conduct or maintain a saloon, dramshop, restaurant, cafe, dining room, 
or other like place at or in which malt, vinous, spirituous or intoxi- 
cating liquors are sold, given away, or otherwise dealt in, within the 
city, for a period of two years from and after the date of the con- 
viction of any such person of the violation of any said provisions. 

SECTION 1344. ILL-GOVERNED PLACES PENALTY. Every com- 
mon or ill-governed house, or other place kept by any person licensed 
under this article where any person is permitted or suffered to play 
any game of chance for money or other valuable thing, is hereby 
declared a public nuisance; and no person shall keep or maintain 
such public nuisance, under a penalty of not less than five dollars 
nor more than one hundred dollars for each offense. 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 323 



APPENDIX XV. 



DRAMSHOPS. Kurd's Revised Statutes of Illinois (1909), Chapter 
43, Sections 9, 14 and 15. 

SECTION 9. SUIT FOR DAMAGES BY HUSBAND, WIFE, CHILD, ETC. 
FORFEITURE OF LEASE, ETC. Every husband, wife, child, parent, guard- 
ian, employer or other person, who shall be injured in person or prop- 
erty, or means of support, by any intoxicated person, or in consequence 
of the intoxication, habitual or otherwise, of any person, shall have a 
right of action in his or her own name, severally or jointly, against any 
person or persons who shall, by selling or giving intoxicating liquors, 
have caused the intoxication, in whole or in part, of such person or 
persons; and any person owning, renting, leasing or permitting the 
occupation of any building or premises, and having knowledge that 
intoxicating liquors are to be sold therein, or who having leased the 
same for other purposes, shall knowingly permit therein the sale of any 
intoxicating liquors that have caused, in whole or in part, the intoxica- 
tion of any person, shall be liable, severally or jointly, with the person 
or persons selling or giving intoxicating liquors aforesaid, for all dam- 
ages sustained, and for exemplary damages ; and a married woman shall 
have the same right to bring suits and to control the same and the 
amount recovered, as a feme sole ; and all damages recovered by a 
minor under this act shall be paid either to such minor, or to his or 
her parent, guardian or next friend, as the court shall direct ; and the 
unlawful sale or giving away of intoxicating liquors, shall work a for- 
feiture of all rights of the lessee or tenant, under lease or contract of 
rent upon the premises where such unlawful sale or giving away shall 
take place ; and all suits for damages under this act may be by any 
appropriate action in any of the courts of this state having competent 
jurisdiction. (Roth v. Eppy, 80 111., 283 ; Hackett et al. v. Smelsley, 
77 111., 109; Horn v. Smith, 77 111., 381 ; McEvoy v. Humphrey, 77 111., 
388; Reget v. Bell, 77 111., 593; Bates v. Davis, 76 111., 222; Frees v. 
Tripp, 70 111., 496; Meidel v. Anthis, 71 111., 241 ; Emory v. Addis, 71 
111., 273;Kellerman v. Arnold, 71 111., 632.) 

SECTION 14. EVIDENCE. In all prosecutions under this act, by in- 
dictment or otherwise, it shall not be necessary to state the kind of 
liquor sold ; or to describe the place where sold ; nor to show the knowl- 
edge of the principal to convict for the acts of an agent or servant ; and 
in all cases the persons to whom intoxicating liquors shall be sold in 
violation of this act, shall be competent witnesses. 

SECTION 15. CITY OR VILLAGE ORDINANCE No DEFENSE. It shall 
be no objection to a recovery under this act that the offense for which 
the person is prosecuted is punishable under any city, village or town 
ordinance. 



324 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 



APPENDIX XVI. 

SELLING LIQUOR TO MINOR. Kurd's Revised Statutes (1909), Sec- 
tions 6, 6 l / 2 , 7, Chapter 43. 

SECTION 6. SELLING OR GIVING TO MINOR OR DRUNKARD. Who- 
ever, by himself, or his agent or servant, shall sell or give intoxicating 
liquor to any minor without the written order of his parent, guardian, 
or family physician, or to any person intoxicated, or who is in the habit 
of getting intoxicated, shall, for each offense, be fined not less than 
twenty dollars ($20), nor more than one hundred dollars ($100), or 
imprisoned in the county jail not less than ten nor more than thirty 
days, or both, according to the nature of the offense: Provided, This 
act shall not affect any prosecution pending at the time this act takes 
effect, but in every such prosecution the accused shall, upon conviction 
be punished in the same manner in all respects, as if this act had not 
been passed. (As amended by act approved May 18, 1877. In force 
July 1, 1877. L. 1877, p. 99; Legal News Ed., p. 101. Farmer v. The 
People, 77 111., 322; Mullinix v. The People, 76 111., 211.) 

SECTION 6 l / 2 . BUYING OR PROCURING FOR MINOR. Every person, 
whether the keeper of a dram shop or not, who shall buy or in any 
manner procure or aid in procuring any wine, rum, brandy, gin, whisky, 
lager beer, hard cider, alcohol, or other vinous, malt, spirituous, fer- 
mented or mixed liquor or any intoxicating liquor whatever, for any 
minor, without the written order of such minor's parent, guardian or 
family physician, or shall so procure or aid in procuring any of said 
liquors for any person intoxicated, or who is in the habit of getting 
intoxicated, shall, for every such offense be fined not less than twenty 
dollars nor more than one hundred dollars or confined in the county 
jail not less than ten nor more than thirty days or both in the discretion 
of the court. (Added by act approved June 19, 1891. In force July 1, 
1891. L. 1891, p. 105; Legal News Ed., p. 83.) 

SECTION 7. NUISANCES PENALTY BOND EVIDENCE. All places 
where intoxicating liquors are sold in violation of this act, shall be 
taken, held and be declared to be common nuisances, and all rooms, 
taverns, eating houses, bazars, restaurants, drug stores, groceries, 
coffee nouses, cellars, or other places of public resort, where intoxi- 
cating liquors are sold in violation of this act, shall be deemed public 
nuisances ; and whoever shall keep any such place, by himself, or his 
agent or servant, shall for each offense, be fined not less than $50 nor 
more than $100, and confined in the county jail not less than twenty 
nor more than fifty days, and it shall be a part of the judgment, upon 
the conviction of the keeper, that the place so kept shall be shut up 
and abated until the keeper shall give bond, with sufficient security to 
be approved by the court, in the penal sum of $1,000, payable to the 
People of the State of Illinois, conditioned that he will not sell intoxi- 
cating liquors contrary to the laws of this state, and will pay all fines, 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 325 

costs and damages assessed against him for any violation thereof ; and 
in case of a forfeiture of such bond, suit may be brought thereon for the 
use of the county, city, town or village, in case of a fine due to either 
of them. It shall not be necessary in any prosecution under this sec- 
tion to state the name of any person to whom liquor is sold. (Streeter 
v. The People, 69 111., 595.) 



APPENDIX XVII. 

INTOXICATING LIQUORS AT PUBLIC ENTERTAINMENTS AND SELL- 
ING TO MINORS. Revised Municipal Code (1905), Sections 117, 1352. 

SECTION 117. INTOXICATING LIQUORS. It shall not be lawful for 
any person to sell or give away any spirituous, vinous, malt, or other 
intoxicating liquors, in any theater, hall, building, structure or premises 
in which public entertainments are given for gain, nor in any room 
or rooms connected with the same, without a special permit from the 
mayor under a penalty of not more then $100 for each offense. 

SECTION 1352. MINORS PENALTY. No person owning or oper- 
ating a saloon, dramshop, grocery, or other place where intoxicating 
liquors are sold or given away shall permit any minor to drink therein 
intoxicating drinks of any kind, or to play with dice, dominoes, cards, 
balls or other articles used in gaming ; nor shall any such person own- 
ing or operating any saloon, dramshop, grocery, or place aforesaid, 
sell, give away or deliver to any minor any malt, vinous, spirituous or 
intoxicating liquors, either to be drunk on the premises or carried away. 

Any person violating any of the provisions of this section shall be 
fined not less than twenty dollars nor more than one hundred dollars 
for each offense. 



APPENDIX XVIII. 

REGULATING ADMISSION OF MINORS TO PUBLIC DANCE HALLS 
WHERE INTOXICATING LIQUORS ARE SOLD: 

An Act regulating the admission of minors to public dance halls 
where intoxicating liquors are sold or given away and providing for 
penalties for violation of this act. (Approved May 17, 1907. In force 
July 1, 1907, L. 1907, p. 305.) Kurd's Revised Statutes of Illinois 
(1909), Chapter 43, Section 48, 49. 

SECTION 48. ADMISSION OF MINORS REGULATED. Be it enacted 
by the People of the State of Illinois, represented in the General As- 
sembly: That it shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corpora- 
tion, as owner, agent, lessee or otherwise, that maintains or conducts 
any public dance hall where intoxicating beverages or liquors are 
sold or given away, or any such dance hall that is adjacent or con- 
nected with any room, building, park or enclosure of any kind where 



326 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

such intoxicating beverages or liquors are sold or given away, to 
permit any minor to enter and be and remain within such public 
dance hall or be and remain upon the premises where such public 
dance hall is located, unless such minor is accompanied by his or her 
parent or parents. 

SECTION 49. PENALTY. Any person, firm or corporation vio- 
lating section one (1) of this act shall be guilty of a misdemeanor 
and shall, upon conviction, be fined a sum not less than twenty-five 
($25.00) dollars for each offense nor more than two hundred ($200.00) 
dollars for each offense. Any person falsely representing himself or 
herself as parent of any minor shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and 
shall, upon conviction, be subject to the foregoing penalties. 



APPENDIX XIX. 

AN ORDINANCE Authorizing the Mayor of the City of Chicago to 
Issue "Bar Permits." Passed June 6th, 1910. 

Be It Ordained by the City Council of the City of Chicago: 

SECTION 1. The Mayor of the City of Chicago is authorized and 
empowered upon written application, accompanied by a good and suffi- 
cient bond and the payment of a fee as hereinafter provided, to issue 
a bar permit for the sale or dispensing at retail, of vinous and malt 
liquors, to any corporation, voluntary association or society of persons 
organized in good faith for fraternal, educational or charitable pur- 
pooses, or to any person or persons for such sale or dispensing at re- 
tail of vinous and malt liquors at any gathering or entertainment held 
by any such corporation, voluntary association or society. 

SECTION 2. The applicant for such permit shall furnish proof 
to the satisfaction of the Mayor of the good character and reputable 
standing of said society or corporation, and also as to the respectability 
of the gathering for which said bar permit is sought. And nothing 
herein contained shall be construed to authorize the issuance of bar 
permits to persons or alleged pleasure clubs or corporations for the 
sale of intoxicating liquors at dance halls where disreputable persons 
gather and young boys and girls are lured to vice and crime. 

SECTION 3. Said corporations, societies and organizations respec- 
tively described in Section 1 hereof shall each be entitled to receive 
not to exceed six permits in each calendar year, nor shall more than 
six permits be issued in each calendar year to any person or persons 
for such sales at any such gathering or entertainment held by any one 
of such corporations, voluntary associations or societies, and such per- 
mits shall not be granted for a longer time than from three o'clock 
P. M. until three o'clock A. M., and the fee to be paid therefor shall 
be six dollars in advance, and the bond required by Section 1 shall 
be executed to the City of Chicago, and conditioned the same as a 
city bar permit bond heretofore used by the City Collector. The City 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 327 

Collector shall report to the City Council at every regular meeting a 
complete list of the special bar permits issued hereunder since the 
last Council meeting. Whenever a dance is to be held at any gathering, 
licensed as hereinbefore stated, a police officer shall be detailed, whose 
duty it shall be to see that none of the city ordinances for the main- 
tenance of good order and decency is violated. The sum of $3.00 of 
said $6.00 fees shall be set aside for the payment of such police de- 
tail. 

SECTION 4. Any and all ordinances of the City of Chicago so far 
as they are in conflict with any of the provisions of this ordinance are 
hereby repealed. 

SECTION 5. This ordinance shall be in force from and after its 
passage. 



APPENDIX XX. 

"AN ORDINANCE Amending Section 99 of the Revised Municipal 
Code of Chicago of 1905, as amended, Sections 100 to 111 of the Re- 
vised Municipal Code of Chicago of 1905 and Section 112 of the Re- 
vised Municipal Code of Chicago of 1905, as amended, and repealing 
certain sections of the said Code, and certain ordinances." 

"7th Class. All grounds, gardens or other enclosures of the kind 
commonly known and described as 'Amusements Parks' wherein shows 
of different classes are offered or presented by one or more conces- 
sionaries." Sections 100, 101, 103, 112, appearing upon pages 2148, 
2149, 2153, of Council Proceedings, dated December 17, 1909. 

SECTION 100. LICENSE PENALTY. No person ,or corporation 
either as owner, lessee, manager, officer or agent, or in any other ca- 
pacity shall give, conduct, produce, present or offer for gain or profit 
any of the entertainments mentioned in any of the first eleven of the 
foregoing classes anywhere within the city, excepting in a duly licensed 
place, nor shall any such person or corporation give, conduct, pro- 
duce, present, operate or offer for gain or profit any of the entertain- 
ments mentioned in the last ten of the foregoing class without a li- 
cense issued for that purpose, which said license shall be issued and 
procured in the manner hereinafter set forth. 

Any person or corporation violating any of the provisions of 
this section shall be fined not more than two hundred ($200.00) dol- 
lars for each offense and each and every day upon which any such 
person or corporation shall give, conduct, produce, present, offer 
or operate any such entertainment contrary to or in violation of any 
of the provisions of this section shall constitute a separate and dis- 
tinct offense. 

SECTION 101. LICENSES FOR PLACES OF ENTERTAINMENT OF THE 
FIRST ELEVEN CLASSES. Any person or corporation, the owner or 
lessee of any place at or in which it is intended tos produce, offer, 



328 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

present or carry on any of the entertainments of the first eleven 
classes desiring to secure a license for such place shall be granted 
such license under the following conditions : 

The applicant shall make application in writing to the Mayor set- 
ting out his full name and address, if an individual, and if a cor- 
poration, the full name and residence of its principal officers; also 
a description of the place for which a license is desired and a state- 
ment of the class of entertainment which it is intended to produce, 
offer or present at such place; also the highest price to be charged 
for admission to any entertainment offered or presented at such place, 
and also the seating capacity of such place. 

Whereupon, the Mayor shall make, or cause to be made, an ex- 
amination of the place for which such license is desired, and if all 
of the provisions of this ordinance and all of the ordinances of the 
City of Chicago relating to the giving of entertainments and of the 
location, construction and maintenance of the places within which 
such entertainments are given, are complied with and if the Com- 
missioner of Buildings, the City Electrician and the Fire Marshal 
shall so certify, the Mayor shall issue, or cause to be issued, a li- 
cense to such applicant, attested by the City Clerk, which shall enti- 
tle the licensee named therein to present, offer, produce or conduct 
at the place designated in such license and for the period of time 
specified in such license, entertainments of any one of the foregoing 
first eleven classes mentioned in said application, upon payment of 
the license fee hereinafter specified. 

SECTION 103. MAYOR MAY REFUSE A LICENSE WHEN. If the 
place at which it is desired to offer any of the foregoing entertain- 
ments be not a fit or proper place and not constructed, maintained, 
operated or conducted in accordance with the provisions of the ordi- 
nances of the City governing and controlling said places, or if the en- 
tertainment desired to be produced or offered be of an immoral or 
dangerous character, or if the person making application for a license 
be not of a good moral character, the Mayor may refuse to approve 
such application and no license shall be issued by the City Clerk, ex- 
cept upon the approval of the Mayor. 

SECTION 112. INTOXICATING LIQUORS. It shall not be lawful for 
any person to sell or give away any spirituous, vinous, malt or other 
intoxicating liquors in any place in which public entertainments are 
given for gain, nor in any room or rooms connected with the same 
without a license or a special permit from the Mayor under a pen- 
alty of not more than one hundred ($100.00) dollars for each offense. 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 329 



APPENDIX XXI. 



RULES GOVERNING THE REGULATION OF VICE. 

Office of the General Superintendent of Police, 
Chicago, April 28, 1910. 

The following orders regulating vice, which have been heretofore 
promulgated, are reissued in this form in order that every member 
of the department may be personally advised concerning them and 
govern himself accordingly : 

To COMMANDING OFFICERS: The following rules governing the 
regulation of vice are hereby promulgated and will be rigidly enforced 
by all commanding officers : 

1. MESSENGER AND DELIVERY BOYS, or any person over the age of 
three or under the age of eighteen years, shall not be permitted either 
in the district or to enter the premises. 

2. HARBORING OF INMATES UNDER LEGAL AGE. The law on this 
subject is to be rigidly enforced and all keepers held strictly account- 
able. If inmates under age are found, the houses shall be suppressed, 
and it shall be definitely understood that this action will be taken in 
any and all cases where this law is violated. 

3. FORCIBLE DETENTION. No person, regardless of age, shall be 
detained against his or her will, nor shall iron bars or other obstacles 
be permitted upon any exit. 

4. No WOMEN WITHOUT MALE ESCORTS shall be permitted in a 
saloon. All soliciting of this nature to be vigorously suppressed. 

5. SHORT SKIRTS, TRANSPARENT GOWNS OR OTHER IMPROPER AT- 
TIRE shall not be permitted in the parlors, or public rooms. 

6. MEN will not be permitted to conduct or be domiciled in a 
house of prostitution or to loiter about the premises. Males evidently 
subsisting on the income of inmates will H arrested as vagrants. 

7. SOLICITING in any form shall not be permitted, either on the 
streets, from doorways, from windows or in saloons. 

8. SIGNS, LIGHTS, COLORS OR DEVICES, significant or conspicuous, 
indicative of the character of any premises occupied by a house of ill- 
repute, shall not be permitted. 

9. OBSCENE EXHIBITIONS OR PICTURES shall not be permitted. 

10. RESTRICTED DISTRICTS. No house of ill-fame shall be per- 
mitted outside of certain restricted districts, or to be established within 
two blocks of any school, church, hospital or public institution, or upon 
any street car line. 

11. DOORS. No swinging doors that permit of easy access or a 
view of the interior from the street shall be permitted. All resorts shall 
be provided with double doors which shall be kept closed. 



330 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

12. LIQUOR. On and after May 1, 1910, no liquor will be per- 
mitted to be sold, carried in stock or given away in connection with 
any immoral place. 

The foregoing rules shall govern throughout the city. These regu- 
lations are permanent and commanding officers will hold all responsible 
to rigid accountability for their enforcement. 



APPENDIX XXII. 

EMPLOYMENT OF MINORS. Kurd's Revised Statutes of Illinois 
(1909), Chapter 48, Sections 20, 201, 20J and 20M, and Chapter 38, 
Sections 42A, 42B, 42C, 42D and 42E. 

SECTION 20. CHILD UNDER FOURTEEN YEARS. Be it enacted by 
the People of the State of Illinois, represented in the General Assembly, 
That no child under the age of fourteen years shall be employed, per- 
mitted or suffered to work at any gainful occupation in any theatre, 
concert hall or place of amusement where intoxicating liquors are sold 
or in any mercantile institution, store, office, hotel, laundry, manufac- 
turing establishment, bowling alley, passenger or freight elevator, fac- 
tory or workshop or as a messenger or driver therefor, within this 
state. That no child under fourteen years of age shall be employed at 
any work performed -for wages or other compensation, to whomsoever 
payable, during any portion of any month when the public schools of 
the town, township, village or city in which he or she resides are in 
session, nor be employed at any work before the hour of seven o'clock 
in the morning or after the hour of six o'clock in the evening. Pro- 
vided, That no child shall be allowed to work more than eight hours in 
any one day. 

SECTION 201. HOURS OF LABOR. No person under the age of six- 
teen years shall be employed or suffered or permitted to work at any 
gainful occupation more than forty-eight hours in any one week, nor 
more than eight hours in any one day; or before the hour of seven 
o'clock in the morning or after the hour of seven o'clock in the evening. 
Every employer shall post in a conspicuous place in every room where 
such minors are employed a printed notice stating the hours required 
of them each day of the week, the hours of commencing and stopping 
work and the hours when the time or times allowed for dinner or for 
other meals begins and ends. The printed form of such notice shall 
be furnished by the State Inspector of Factories, and the employment 
of any such minor for longer time in any day so stated shall be deemed 
a violation of this section. 

SECTION 20J. EMPLOYMENTS FORBIDDEN CHILDREN UNDER SIX- 
TEEN YEARS OF AGE. No child under the age of sixteen years shall be 
employed at sewing belts, or to assist in sewing belts, in any capacity 
whatever ; _nor shall any child adjust any belt to any machinery; they 
shall not oil or assist in oiling, wiping or cleaning machinery ; they shall 



LAWS AND OEDINANCES 331 

not operate or assist in operating circular or band saws, wood shapers, 
wood jointers, planers, sandpaper or wood polishing machinery, emery 
or polishing wheels used for polishing metal, wood-turning or boring 
machinery, stamping machines in sheet metal and tinware manufac- 
turing, stamping machines in washer and nut factories, operating corru- 
gating rolls, such as are used in roofing factories, nor shall they be 
employed in operating any passenger or freight elevators, steam boiler, 
steam machinery, or other steam generating apparatus, or as pin boys 
in any bowling alleys; they shall not operate or assist in operating, 
dough brakes, or cracker machinery of any description ; wire or iron 
straightening machinery; nor shall they operate or assist in operating 
rolling mill machinery, punches or shears, washing, grinding or mixing 
mill or calendar rolls in rubber manufacturing, nor shall they operate 
or assist in operating laundry machinery; nor shall children be em- 
ployed in any capacity in preparing any composition in which dangerous 
or poisonous acids are used, and they shall not be employed in any 
capacity in the manufacture of paints, colors or white lead; nor shall 
they be employed in any capacity whatever in operating or assisting to 
operate any passenger or freight elevator; nor shall they be employed 
in any capacity whatever in the manufacture of goods for immoral pur- 
poses, or any other employment that may be considered dangerous to 
their lives or limbs, or where their health may be injured or morals 
depraved; nor in any theater, concert hall, or place of amusement 
wherein intoxicating liquors are sold; nor shall females under sixteen 
years of age be employed in any capacity where such employment 
compels them to remain standing constantly. 

SECTION 20M. PENALTY. Whoever, having under his control a 
child under the age of sixteen years, permits such child to be employed 
in violation of the provisions of this act, shall for each offense be fined 
not less than $5 nor more than $25, and shall stand committed until 
such fine and costs are paid. 

A failure to produce to the Inspector of Factories, his assistants 
or deputies, any age and school certificates, or lists required by this act, 
shall constitute a violation of this act, and the person so failing shall, 
upon conviction, be fined not less than $5 nor more than $50 for each 
offense. Every person authorized to sign the certificate prescribed by 
Section 7 of this act, who certifies to any materially false statement 
therein shall be guilty of a violation of this act, and upon conviction 
be fined not less than $5 nor more than $100 for each offense, and 
shall stand committed until such fine and costs are paid. 

Any person, firm or corporation, agent or manager, superintendent 
or foreman of any firm or corporation, whether for himself or for such 
firm or corporation, or by himself or through sub-agents or foreman, 
superintendent or manager, who shall violate or fail to comply with any 
of the provisions of this act, or shall refuse admittance to premises or 
otherwise obstruct the factory inspector, assistant factory inspector, or 
deputy factory inspector in the performance of their duties, as pre- 
scribed by this act, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and upon 



332 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

conviction thereof shall be fined not less than $5 nor more than $100 
for each offense, and shall stand committed until such fine and costs 
are paid. 

SECTION 42A, CHAPTER 38. CERTAIN EMPLOYMENTS OF CHILDREN 
FORBIDDEN. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illinois, rep- 
resented in the General Assembly, It shall be unlawful for any person 
having the care, custody or control of any child under the age of four- 
teen years, to exhibit, use or employ, or in any manner^ or under any 
pretense, sell, apprentice, give away, let out, or otherwise dispose of 
any such child to any person in or for the vocation or occupation, 
service, or purpose of singing, playing on musical instruments, rope or 
wire walking, dancing, begging or peddling, or as a gymnast, contor- 
tionist, rider or acrobat in any place whatsoever, or for any obscene, 
indecent or immoral purpose, exhibition or practice whatsover, or 
for, or in any business, exhibition or vocation injurious to the health 
or dangerous to the life or limb of such child, or cause, procure or 
encourage any such child to engage therein. Nothing in this section 
contained shall apply to, or affect the employment or use of any such 
child as a singer or musician in any church, school or academy, or 
at any respectable entertainment, or the teaching or learning the science 
or practice of music. (1) 

SECTION 42B. UNLAWFUL TO EXHIBIT. It shall also be unlawful 
for any person to take, receive, hire, employ, use, exhibit, or have in 
custody any child under the age and for the purposes prohibited in the 
first section of this act. (1) 

SECTION 42C. ORDER As TO CUSTODY. When upon examination 
before any court or magistrate it shall appear that any child within 
the age previously mentioned in this act was engaged or used for 
or in any business, or exhibition, or vocation, or purpose prohibited 
in this act; and when upon the conviction of any person of a criminal 
assault upon a child in his or her custody, the court or magistrate before 
whom such conviction is had, shall deem it desirable for the welfare 
of such child, that the person so convicted should be deprived of its 
custody ; thereafter such child shall be deemed to be in the custody of 
court, and such court or magistrate may in its discretion, make such 
order as to the custody thereof as now is, or hereafter may be, provided 
by law in cases of vagrant, truant, disorderly, pauper, or destitute 
children. (1) 

SECTION 42D. ENDANGERING LIFE OR HEALTH. It shall be un- 
lawful for any person having the care or custody of any child, wilfully 
to cause or permit the life of such child to be endangered or the health 
of such child to be injured, or wilfully cause or permit such child to be 
placed in such a situation that its life or health may be endangered. ( 1 ) 

SECTION 42E. PENALTY. Any person convicted under the provi- 
sions of the preceding sections, shall for the first offense be fined not 
exceeding one hundred dollars ($100) or imprisoned in the county 
jail not exceeding three months, or both, in the discretion of the court; 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 333 

and upon conviction for a second of any subsequent offense shall be 
fined in any sum not exceeding five hundred dollars ($500), or im- 
prisonment in the penitentiary for a term not exceeding two years, or 
both, in the discretion of the court. (1) 



APPENDIX XXIII. 

4 

CRUELTY TO CHILDREN, AND EMPLOYMENT FORBIDDEN. Revised 
Municipal Code of Chicago (1905), Sections 1446-1447-1448 and 1586. 

SECTION 1446. EXHIBITION OF CHILDREN. No person having the 
care, custody or control of any child under the age of fourteen years, 
shall cause or permit any such child to be exhibited, used or employed, 
or shall apprentice or let out, or otherwise dispose of any such child 
to any person or corporation for the vocation, occupation, service or 
purpose of singing or playing on musical instruments, in any saloon or 
saloons, or on the streets or alleys, or of rope or wire walking, dancing, 
begging or peddling, or as a gymnast, contortionist, rider, or acrobat 
in any place whatsoever, or for any obscene, indecent or immoral pur- 
pose, exhibition or practice whatsoever, or in or about any business, 
exhibition or vocation injurious to the health or dangerous to the life 
or limb of such child, or cause, procure or encourage any such child 
to engage therein. 

SECTION 1447. LIFE OR HEALTH ENDANGERED. No person shall 
take, receive, hire, employ, use, exhibit or have in custody any child 
under the age of fourteen years for the purpose of employing such 
child in the manner expressly prohibited in the provisions of section 
1446, and no person having the care or custody of any child shall wil- 
fully cause or permit such child to be placed in such a situation that 
its life or health may be endangered. 

SECTION 1448. PENALTY. Any person who violates, neglects or 
refuses to comply with any of the provisions of sections 1446 and 1447, 
or is guilty of crulty to any child in any of the ways mentioned 
herein, viz. : 

1. By cruelly beating, torturing, overworking, mutilating or caus- 
ing or knowingly allowing the same to be done. 

2. By unnecessarily failing to provide any child in his or her 
charge or custody with proper food, drink, shelter or raiment. 

3. By abandoning any child ; or who shall wilfully or unnecessarily 
expose to the inclemency of the weather, or shall wilfully or unnec- 
essarily in any manner injure in health or limb any child under the 
age of fourteen years shall for each offense be fined not less than five 
dollars nor more than one hundred dollars. 

SECTION 1586. EMPLOYEES UNDER SIXTEEN PROHIBITED. No 
person licensed as aforesaid shall permit any person under the age of 
sixteen years to take pledges in pawn for him. 



334 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 



APPENDIX XXIV. 

AN ORDINANCE Licensing Fruit Stores and Ice Cream Parlors, 
Passed May 28, 1906. 1 

Be It Ordained by the City Council of the City of Chicago : 

SECTION 1. It shall n6t be lawful for any person to keep, con- 
duct or manage any retail fruit store, or ice cream parlor in this city 
unless a license therefor is first obtained. 

SECTION 2. Any person desiring a license to keep, conduct or manage 
a retail fruit store or ice cream parlor, shall make written application 
therefor to the Mayor, setting forth the full name of the applicant and 
the location of the place at which such sales are proposed to be made. 
Such application shall be accompanied by evidence satisfactory to the 
Mayor that the applicant is a person of good character, and if the 
Mayor shall be satisfied that such person is of good character and a 
proper person to have such license, he shall cause the City Clerk to 
issue a license to such applicant upon the payment to the City Col- 
lector of a license fee at the rate of twenty-five dollars ($25.00) per 
annum, for each fruit store and ten dollars ($10.00) per annum for 
each ice cream parlor. No such license shall issue until the applicant 
shall file with the City Clerk a bond, with sureties to be approved by 
the Mayor in the sum of five hundred dollars ($500.00), conditioned 
that the licensed person will faithfully observe and obey all laws of 
the State of Illinois and all ordinances of this city now in force or 
which may hereafter be passed for the government of such places. 
Every such place shall be open to inspection by the probation officers 
at all times it is open for business. 

SECTION 3. It shall not be lawful for any person owning, con- 
ducting or managing a retail fruit store or an ice cream parlor to 
allow any male person under the age of twenty-one or any female 
person under the age of eighteen to be or remain in such place between 
the hours of 10 P. M. and 7 A. M., unless accompanied by one or 
both parents, or to maintain or have any curtains or screen or parti- 
tions of any kind that will serve to divide such place into small rooms 
or compartments. 

SECTION 4. Every person convicted of a violation of any pro- 
vision of this ordinance shall be fined not less than five dollars ($5.00) 
nor more than one hundred dollars ($100.00) for each and every 
offense. 

SECTION 5. This ordinance shall be in full force and effect from 
and after its passage and due publication. 

*An injunction has been issued restraining the operation of this 
ordinance. 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 335 



APPENDIX XXV. 

LAWS GOVERNING FREE EMPLOYMENT OFFICES AND PRIVATE EM- 
PLOYMENT AGENCIES IN ILLINOIS, as Amended and in Force on and 
from July 1, 1909. Kurd's Revised Statutes of Illinois (1909),, Chap- 
ter 48, Sections 67 f, 67h. 

SECTION 67f. CHARACTER OF EMPLOYMENT FRAUD. No such 
licensed person shall send, or cause to be sent, any female help or 
servants, or inmate or performer, to enter any questionable place or 
place of bad repute, house of ill-fame, or assignation house, or to any 
house or place of amusement kept for immoral purposes, or place 
resorted to for the purpose of prostitution, or gambling house, the 
character of which such licensed person knows, either actually or by 
reputation. 

No such licensed person shall knowingly permit questionable char- 
acters, prostitutes, gamblers, intoxicated persons, or procurers to fre- 
quent such agency. No such licensed person shall accept any appli- 
cation for employment made by or on behalf of any child, or shall 
place or assist in placing any such child in any employment what- 
ever, in violation of the child labor law, approved May 15, 1903, and 
in force July 1, 1903, and an Act to regulate the employment of 
children, approved June 9, 1897, and in force July 1, 1897. For 
the violation of any of the provisions of this section, the penalty 
shall be a fine of not less than fifty dollars ($50) and not more than 
two hundred dollars ($200), or imprisonment in the county jail or 
house of correction for a period of not more than one year, or both, 
at the discretion of the court, in addition to the revocation of such 
person's license. No such licensed person shall publish or cause to 
be published any fradulent notice or advertisements of such employ- 
ment agencies by means of cards, circulars or signs, and in newspa- 
pers and other publications; and all of its letter heads, receipts and 
blanks shall contain the name and address of such employment agency, 
and shall state in all such notices the fact that such licensel person 
is or conducts an employment agency. No agency shall print, pub- 
lish or paint on any sign, window, or insert in any newspaper or 
publication a name similar to that of the Illinois Free Employment 
Office. All written communications sent out by such licensed person, 
directly or indirectly, to any person in regard to help or employment, 
shall have contained therein definite information, that such person 
is an employment agent; and no such licensed person shall knowingly 
give any false information or make any false promise concerning 
employment to any applicant who shall register for employment or 
help. No such licensed agent shall divide fees with or pay a com- 
mission to any person to whom applicants are sent for employment 
or help. 

SECTION 67h. ENFORCEMENT. The enforcement of this Act shall 
be entrusted to the State Board of Commissioners of Labor, and an 



336 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

officer to be known as the Chief Inspector of Private Employment 
Agencies, which officer shall be recommended by the State Board of 
Commissioners of Labor and appointed by the Governor of the state 
and whose term of office shall be for the period of the incumbency 
of the Governor appointing him, or until his successor is appointed. 
He may appoint by and with the approval of the Governor one (1) in- 
spector for every fifty (50) licensed agencies or major fraction thereof, 
who shall make at least bi-monthly visits to every such agency. Said 
inspectors shall have a suitable badge which they shall exhibit on de- 
mand of any person with whom they may have official business. Such 
inspectors shall see that all the provisions of this Act are complied 
with, and shall have no other occupation or business. Complaints 
against any such licensed person may be made orally or in writing 
to the State Board of Labor Commissioners or to the Chief Inspector 
of Private Employment Agencies, and reasonable notice thereof, not 
less than one (1) day, shall be given in writing to said licensed per- 
son by serving upon him concise statement of the facts constituting 
the complaint, and the hearing shall be had before the State Board of 
Labor Commissioners or the Chief Inspector of Private Employment 
Agencies as the State board aforesaid, shall designate, within one 
week from the date of the filing of the complaint and no adjourn- 
ment shall be taken for a period longer than one (1) week. Reason- 
able notice of the place of hearing of any complaint shall be given 
to such licensed person complained against. A calendar of all hear- 
ings shall be kept by the State Board of Labor Commissioners of 
the complaints they are to hear, and by the chief inspector of those 
he is to hear, and shall be posted in a conspicuous place in its or his 
public office for at least one (1) day before the date of such hearing. 
The result of such hearings shall be rendered within eight (8) days 
from the time the matter is finally submitted. The said State Board 
of Commissioners of Labor may refuse to issue and may revoke any 
license for any good cause shown within the meaning and purpose 
of this Act, and when it is shown to the satisfaction of the said Board 
of Commissioners of Labor that any person is guilty of any immoral, 
fraudulent or illegal conduct in connection with the conduct of said 
business, it shall be the duty of said Board of Commissioners of La- 
bor to revoke the license of such person, but notice of such charges 
shall be presented and reasonable opportunity shall be given said li- 
censed person to defend himself in the manner and form heretofore 
provided in this section of the Act. Whenever said Board of Com- 
missioners of Labor shall refuse to issue or shall revoke the license 
of any such employment agency, said determination shall be subject 
to review on writ of certiorari. Whenever for any cause such license 
is revoked said revocation shall not take effect until seven (7) days 
after such revocation is officially announced, and such revocation shall 
be considered good cause for refusing to issue another license to said 
person or his representative, or to any person with whom he is to be 
associated in the business of furnishing employment or help. The vio- 
lation of any provision of this Act except as provided in section one 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 337 

(1) and six (6), shall be punishable by a fine not to exceed twenty- 
five dollars ($25), and any city magistrate, judge of a municipal court, 
police justice, justice of the peace or any inferior magistrate having 
original jurisdiction in criminal cases, shall have power to impose said 
fine, and in default of payment thereof to commit to the county jail 
or house of correction the person so offending for a period not ex- 
ceeding thirty (30) days. The said State Board of Labor Commis- 
sioners or the Chief Inspector of Employment Agencies or any of the 
inspectors created by this Act, may institute criminal proceedings for 
its enforcement before any court of competent jurisdiction. The 
State Board of Commissioners of Labor shall employ legal advice or 
services whenever in its opinion such advice or services are necessary 
in or to the enforcement of this Act. 



APPENDIX XXVI. 

PAYMENT OF WAGES DUE LABORERS, SERVANTS AND EMPLOYES 
FROM CORPORATIONS DOING BUSINESS IN THIS STATE. Kurd's Revised 
Statutes of Illinois (1909), Chapter 48, Sections 16, 17, 18 and 19. 

"AN ACT to regulate and enforce the payment of wages due 
laborers, servants and employes from corporations doing 
business in this state." (Approved May 14th, 1903. In force 
July 1, 1903. L. 1903, p. 198; Legal News Ed., p. 155.) 

SECTION 16. UNLAWFUL FOR SUCH CORPORATION TO WITHHOLD 
FROM ITS LABORERS, SERVANTS OR EMPLOYES WAGES BEYOND DATE OF 
REGULAR PAY DAY, ETC. PROVISO. Be it enacted by the People of the 
State of Illinois, represented in the General Assembly, It shall be un- 
lawful for any corporation doing business within this state to with- 
hold from any of its laborers, servants or employes any part or per 
cent of the wages earned by such laborer, servant or employe, beyond 
the date of the regular pay day of said corporation, under the guise or 
pretext, that the amount of wages so withheld, is to be given or pre- 
sented to such laborer, servant or employe, as a present or gratuity 
from said corporation at the expiration of any future date, on condi- 
tion that the services of such laborer, servant or employe have been 
performed to the entire satisfaction of said corporation or upon condi- 
tion that such laborer, servant or employe shall, unless sooner dis- 
charged by said corporation, remain in its employ until the expiration 
of some future date designated by said corporation, or under any other 
similar pretext or condition, but all such wages shall be paid in full by 
said corporation on its regular pay day, Provided, that nothing in this 
act contained shall be held to abridge the right of any corporation not 
making or requiring contracts of the class specified above to make such 
contract or arrangement as may be legal, concerning the payment of 
wages to employes, and Provided, further, nothing herein contained 
shall be construed to affect the right of any corporation to contract for 



338 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

the retention of a part of the wages of said laborers, servants and em- 
ployes for the purpose of giving to said servants, laborers, and employes 
insurance, hospital, sick or other similar relief. 

SECTION 17. SUCH CONTRACTS MADE BY ANY CORPORATION ARE 
ILLEGAL, AGAINST PUBLIC POLICY AND VOID. That all contracts or 
agreements of the kind and character referred to and described in 
Section 1 of this act hereafter made by any corporation doing business 
in this state, are hereby declared to be illegal, against public policy and 
null and void, and no such agreement or contract shall constitute a 
defense upon the part of any such corporation, to any action brought 
by any such laborer, servant or employe, for the recovery of any wages 
due him, and withheld from him by any such corporation, contrary to 
the provision of this act. 

SECTION 18. PENALTY FOR VIOLATING PROVISIONS OF THIS ACT. 
That any such corporation doing business in this state who shall violate 
the provisions of this act, shall for each offense, forfeit the sum of 
two hundred dollars to be recovered from it in any action of debt in 
the name of the People of the State of Illinois, or by any person who 
may sue for the same. 

SECTION 19. DUTY OF STATE'S ATTORNEYS. It is hereby made the 
duty of the several state's attorneys of this state in their respective 
counties, to prosecute all actions commenced in the name of the People 
of the State of Illinois, under the provisions of this act. 



APPENDIX XXVII. 



Extracts from an Act to regulate the Practice of Medicine in the State 
of Illinois, and to repeal an Act therein named, approved April 24, 
1899, as amended by Acts Approved June 4, 1907, and January 25, 
1908. Kurd's Revised Statutes of Illinois (1909), Sections 7, 8, 
9, 10, 11, 13, 14 and 16, Chapter 91. 

The following Sections apply also to Midwives : 

SECTION 6. LICENSES FROM STATE BOARD OF HEALTH REQUIRED 
APPLICATIONS FOR LICENSES EXAMINATIONS GRADUATES OF LE- 
GALLY CHARTERED MEDICAL COLLEGES IN ILLINOIS IN GOOD STANDING 
GRANTED CERTIFICATES. No person shall hereafter begin the practice 
of medicine or any of the branches thereof, or midwifery, in this state 
without first applying for and obtaining a license from the State Board 
of Health to do so. Application shall be in writing, and shall be ac- 
companied by the examination fees hereinafter specified, and with 
proof that the applicant is of good moral character. Applications from 
candidates who desire to practice medicine and surgery in all their 
branches shall be accompanied by proof that the applicant is a gradu- 
ate of a medical college or institution in good standing, as may be 
determined by the Board. When the application aforesaid has been 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 339 

inspected by the Board and found to comply with the foregoing pro- 
visions, the Board shall notify the applicant to appear before it for ex- 
amination, at the time and place mentioned in such notice. 

Examinations may be made in whole or in part in writing by the 
Board, and shall be of a character sufficiently strict to test the quali- 
fications of the candidate as a practitioner. The examination of those 
who desire to practice medicine and surgery in all their branches shall 
embrace those general subjects and topics, a knowledge of which is 
commonly and generally required of candidates for the degree of doc- 
tor of medicine, by reputable medical colleges in the United States. 
The examination of those who desire to practice midwifery shall be 
of such a character as to determine the qualification of the applicant to 
practice midwifery. The examination of those who desire to practice 
any other system or science of treating human ailments who do not use 
medicines internally or externally, and who do not practice operative 
surgery shall be of a character sufficiently strict to test their qualifica- 
tions as practitioners. 

All examinations provided for in this act shall be conducted under 
rules and regulations prescribed by the Board, which shall provide 
for a fair and wholly impartial method of examination : Provided, that 
graduates of legally chartered medical colleges in Illinois in good stand- 
ing as may be determined by the Board may be granted certificates 
without examinations. 

SECTION 7. LICENSE TO PRACTICE PROVISIONS. If the appli- 
cant successfully passes his examination, or presents a diploma from 
a legally chartered medical college in Illinois of good standing, the 
Board shall issue to such applicant a license authorizing him to prac- 
tice medicine, midwifery or other system of treating human ailments, 
as the case may be: Provided, that those who are authorized to prac- 
tice other systems can not use medicine internally or externally or 
perform surgical operations: Provided, further, that only those who 
are authorized to practice medicine and surgery in all their branches 
shall call or advertise themselves as physicians or doctors : And pro- 
vided, further, that those who are authorized to practice midwifery 
shall not use any drug or medicine or attend other than cases of labor. 
Such license shall be in such form as may be determined by the Board 
and in accordance with the provisions of this act : Provided, however, 
that any wilful violation on the part of an applicant of any of the 
rules and regulations of the Board governing examinations shall be 
sufficient cause for the Board to refuse to issue a license to such 
applicant. Such certificates shall be signed by all members of the 
Board and attested by the Secretary. 

SECTION 8. CERTIFICATES TO BE RECORDED IN OFFICE OF COUNTY 
CLERK RECORDS OF COUNTY CLERK. Every person holding a cer- 
tificate from the State Board of Health shall have it recorded in the 
office of the clerk of the county in which he resides or practices within 
three months from its date, and the date of recording shall be en- 
dorsed thereon. Until such certificate is recorded, as herein provided, 



340 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

the holder thereof shall not exercise any of the rights or privileges 
conferred therein. Any person practicing in another county shall 
record the certificate in like manner in the county in which he prac- 
tices, and the holder of the certificate shall pay to the county clerk 
the usual fee for making the record. The county clerk shall keep, in 
a book provided for the purpose, a complete list of the certificates 
recorded by him, with the date of the issue of the certificate. The 
register of the county clerk shall be open to public inspection during 
business hours. 

SECTION 9. EXAMINATION FEES. The fees for examination and 
for a certificate shall be as follows: Ten (10) dollars for examina- 
tion in medicine and surgery, and five (5) dollars for a certificate if 
issued. Five (5) dollars for an examination in midwifery, and three 
(3) dollars for a certificate if issued. For all other practitioners ten 
(10) dollars for an examination and five (5) dollars for a certificate 
if issued. 

SECTION 10. UNPROFESSIONAL OR DISHONORABLE CONDUCT 
BOARD MAY WITHHOLD OR REVOKE CERTIFICATES HEARING. The 
State Board of Health may refuse to issue the certificates provided 
for in this act to individuals who have been convicted of the practice 
of criminal abortion, or who have by false or fraudulent representa- 
tion, obtained or sought to obtain practice in their profession, or by 
false or fraudulent representation of their profession have obtained 
or sought to obtain money or any other thing of value, or who adver- 
tise under names other than their own, or for any other unprofessional 
or dishonorable conduct, and the Board may revoke such certificates 
for like causes. Provided, that no certificates shall be revoked or 
refused until the holder or applicant shall be given a hearing before 
the Board. 

SECTION 11. DEFINITION OF THIS ACT. Any person shall be re- 
garded as practicing medicine, within the meaning of this act, who 
shall treat or profess to treat, operate on or prescribe for any phys- 
ical ailment or any physical injury to or deformity of another: Pro- 
vided, that nothing in this section shall be construed to apply to the 
administration of domestic or family remedies in cases of emergency, 
or to the laws regulating the practice of dentistry or of pharmacy. 
And this act shall not apply to surgeons of the United States army, 
navy or marine hospital service in the discharge of their official duties, 
or to any person who ministers to or treats the sick or suffering by 
mental or spiritual means, without the use of any drug or material 
remedy. 

SECTION 13. PENALTY FOR PRACTICING WITHOUT LICENSE. Any 
person practicing medicine or surgery or treating human ailments in 
the state without a certificate issued by this Board in compliance with 
the provisions of this act, or any itinerant vender violating the pro- 
visions of section 8 of this act, shall for each and every instance of 
such practice or violation forfeit and pay to the people of the State of 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 341 

Illinois, for the use of the said Board of Health, the sum of one hun- 
dred (100) dollars for the first offense, and two hundred (200) dol- 
lars for each subsequent offense, the same to be recovered in an action 
of debt before any court of competent jurisdiction, and any person 
filing or attempting to file as his own the diploma or certificate of 
another, or a forged affidavit of identification, shall be guilty of a fel- 
ony, and upon conviction shall be subject to such fine and imprisonment 
as are made and provided by the statutes of the state for a crime of 
forgery: Provided, that this section shall not apply to physicians 
who hold unrevoked certificates from the State Board of Health issued 
prior to the time of the taking effect of this act. 

SECTION 14. ENFORCING PENALTIES APPEALS. Upon conviction 
of either of the offenses mentioned in this act the court shall, as a 
part of the judgment, order that the defendant be committed to the 
common jail of the county until the fine and costs are paid, and upon 
failure to pay the same immediately the defendant shall be committed 
under said order for first offense not more than thirty (30) days, and 
for each subsequent offense not more than ninety (90) days: Provided, 
that either party may appeal in the same time and manner as appeals 
may be taken in other cases, except that where an appeal is prayed in 
behalf of the people, no appeal bond shall be required to be filed, 
whether the appeal be from the justice of the peace or from the county 
or circuit courts, or from the appellate court. But it shall be sufficient 
in behalf of the people of the State of Illinois, for the use of the State 
Board of Health, to pray an appeal, and thereupon appeal may be had 
without bond or security. 

SECTION 16. REPEAL. An act to regulate the practice of medicine 
in the State of Illinois, approved June 17, 1887, in force July 1, 1887, 
and all other acts and parts of acts inconsistent with this act are hereby 
repealed. 

APPENDIX XXVIII. 

ABORTION. Kurd's Revised Statutes of Illinois (1909), Chapter 38, 
Sections 3, 4, 5, 6. 

SECTION 3. PRODUCING. Whoever, by means of any instrument, 
medicine, drug or other means whatever, causes any woman, pregnant 
with child, to abort or miscarry, or attempt to procure or produce an 
abortion or miscarriage, unless the same were done as necessary for 
the preservation of the mother's life, shall be imprisoned in the peni- 
tentiary not less than one year nor more than ten years; or if the 
death of the mother results therefrom, the person procuring or causing 
the abortion or miscarriage shall be guilty of murder. (R. S. 1845, 
p. 158, Section 46; L. 1867, p. 89, Sections 1, 2, 3.) 

SECTION 4. ECBOLIC, OR ABORTIFACIENT DRUGS. If any druggist, 
dealer in medicine, or other person, sells to any person any drug or 
medicine, known or presumed to be ecbolic or abortifacient, except upon 



342 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

the written prescription of some well known and respectable practicing 
physician, or keeps on hand, or advertises or exposes for sale, or sells 
any pills, powders, drugs or combination of drugs designed especially 
for the use of females, without keeping the certificate as required in 
the next succeeding section, he shall for each offense be fined not less 
than $50 nor more than $500, or be confined in the county jail not less 
than thirty days nor more than six months, or both: Provided, This 
section shall not be construed to apply to compounds known as 
"Officinal." (L. 1871-2, p. 369.) 

SECTION 5. CERTIFICATE REQUIRED. Before any pills, powders, 
drugs or combination of drugs designed expressly for the use of fe- 
males, shall be kept or exposed for sale or sold, the proprietor thereof 
shall submit under oath a true statement of the formula by which the 
same is compounded, to five well known and respectable practicing 
physicians, in the county where the same is proposed to be sold, and 
shall procure their certificate, signed and verified by the affidavit of each 
of them, that such combination. is not abortif acient ; and every person 
keeping on hand, or in any manner advertising or exposing for sale or 
selling such combination, shall keep such certificate, or a sworn copy 
thereof, with the formula attached, for the inspection of any person 
desiring to see the same. (L. 1871-2, p. 369.) 

SECTION 6. ADVERTISING ABORTIFACIENT DRUGS. Whoever adver- 
tises, prints, publishes, distributes or circulates, or causes to be adver- 
tised, printed, published, distributed or circulated any pamphlet, printed 
paper, book, newspaper, notice, advertisement or reference, containing 
words or language giving or conveying any notice, hint or reference to 
any person, or to the name of any person, real or fictitious, from whom, 
or to any place, house, shop or office where any poison, drug, mixture, 
preparation, medicine, or noxious thing, or any instrument or means 
whatever, or any advice, information, direction or knowledge may be 
obtained for the purpose of causing or procuring the miscarriage of 
any woman pregnant with child, shall be punished by imprisonment 
not exceeding three years, or fine not exceeding $1,000. 



APPENDIX XXIX. 

ITINERANT VENDOR OF ANY DRUGS TO PAY A LICENSE OF $100 PER 
MONTH. Hurd's Revised Statutes of Illinois (1909), Chapter 91, Sec- 
tions 12, 13, 14 and 15. 

SECTION 12. That any itinerant vender of any drug, nostrum, oint- 
ment or appliance of any kind intended for the treatment of diseases or 
injury, who shall, by writing or printing, or any other method, profess 
to the public to cure or treat disease or deformity by any drug, nostrum 
or application, shall pay a license of one hundred dollars ($100) per 
month into the treasury of the Board, to be collected by the Board in 
the name of the People of the State of Illinois, for the use of said 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 343 

Board. And it shall be lawful for the State Board of Health to issue 
such license on application made to said Board, said license to be signed 
by the president of the Board and attested by the secretary with the seal 
of the Board; but said Board may, for sufficient cause, refuse said 
license. And such itinerant vender who shall, by writing or printing, 
or any other method, profess to cure or treat disease or deformity by 
any drug, nostrum or appliance without a license so to dp, shall be 
deemed guilty of a violation of this section, and upon conviction shall 
be subject to the penalties hereinafter provided. 

SECTION 13. PRACTICING WITHOUT CERTIFICATE PENALTY. Any 
person practicing medicine or surgery or treating human ailments in 
the state without a certificate issued by this Board in compliance with 
the provisions of this act, or any itinerant vender violating the provi- 
sions of Section 8 of this act, shall for each and every instance of such 
practice or violation forfeit and pay to the People of the State of Illi- 
nois, for the use of the said Board of Health, the sum of one hundred 
(100) dollars for the first offense, and two hundred (200) dollars for 
each subsequent offense, the same to be recovered in an action of debt 
before any court of competent jurisdiction, and any person filing or 
attempting to file as his own the diploma or certificate of another, or 
a forged affidavit of identification, shall be guilty of a felony, and upon 
conviction shall be subject to such fine and imprisonment as are made 
and provided by the statutes of the State for a crime of forgery : Pro- 
vided, that this section shall not apply to physicians who hold unrevoked 
certificates from the State Board of Health, issued prior to the time of 
the taking effect of this act. 

SECTION 14. CONVICTION UNDER THIS ACT PROCEEDINGS. Upon 
conviction of either of the offenses mentioned in this act the court shall, 
as a part of the judgment, order that the defendant be committed to 
the common jail in the county until the fine and costs are paid, and 
upon failure to pay the same immediately the defendant shall be com- 
mitted under said order for first offense not more than thirty (30) days, 
and for each subsequent offense not more than ninety (90) days: 
Provided, That either party may appeal in the same time and manner 
as appeals may be taken in other cases, except that where an appeal 
is prayed in behalf of the people, no appeal bond shall be required to 
be filed, whether the appeal be from a justice of the peace or from the 
county or circuit courts, or from the appellate court. But it shall be 
sufficient in behalf of the People of the State of Illinois, for the use 
of the State Board of Health, to pray an appeal, and thereupon appeal 
may be had without bond or security. 

SECTION 15. STATE BOARD OF HEALTH REPORT OF. On the 30th 
day of September of each year the State Board of Health shall make 
report of its proceedings, showing all items of receipts from all sources 
and disbursements for all purposes, and all funds in the treasury on 
said date which have been received in the enforcement of this act shall 
be paid into the state treasury. 



344 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 



APPENDIX XXX. 

IMPURE LITERATURE RELATING TO DISEASES. ADVERTISEMENTS PRO- 
HIBITED, AND ADVERTISING QUACK NOSTRUMS. Revised Municipal 
Code of Chicago (1905), Sections 1461, 1462-1463 and 1471. 

SECTION 1461. No person shall sell or offer to sell, give away or 
offer to give away, distribute or have in his possession with intent to 
give away, sell or distribute in or upon any street or sidewalk, or 
park or public property of the city, any book, pamphlet, circular, hand- 
bill, advertisement or notice of any kind purporting to treat of or 
treating of diseases known as "venereal diseases," describing or ex- 
plaining or purporting to describe or explain the genital organs, giv- 
ing or purporting to give the nature and remedies of diseases peculiar 
to females, uterine diseases, or the nature or cause of nervous debil- 
ity, impotency, sterility or barrenness, gonorrhea, gleet, stricture, syphi- 
lis, affection of the prostate gland or the remedies therefor, or the 
cause or remedies for abortion or miscarriage or articles or means 
of preventing conception, under a penalty of not less than twenty dol- 
lars nor more than fifty dollars for each offense. 

SECTION 1462. No person shall sell or offer to sell, give away 
or offer to give away, distribute or have in his possession with intent 
to give away, sell or distribute in or upon any street, sidewalk, park 
or public property in the city, any book, pamphlet, circular, handbill, 
advertisement or notice of any kind giving or purporting to give in- 
formation from whom or where medicine or anything whatever may 
be obtained for the cure, prevention or treatment of uterine diseases, 
or diseases peculiar to females, venereal diseases, or diseases of the 
genital organs, or nervous debility, impotence, sterility, or barrenness, 
gonorrhea, gleet, stricture, syphilis, affection of the prostate gland, 
abortion or miscarriage, or articles or means of preventing conception. 
Any person or corporation violating any of the provisions of this sec- 
tion, shall be fined not less than twenty-five nor more than two hundred 
dollars for each offense. 

CERTAIN ADVERTISEMENTS PROHIBITED IN NEWSPAPERS PENALTY. 

SECTION 1463. It shall be unlawful for any person to advertise, 
print or publish, or cause to be advertised, printed or published, in any 
newspaper or other publication having a general circulation in the city, 
or which is sold or offered for sale within the city, any advertisement, 
notice or mention of any kind whatsoever giving or purporting to give 
any information of, from whom, or where, apparatus, medicine, rem- 
edies or alleged cures may be had or obtained for the cure, preven- 
tion or treatment of uterine diseases or of diseases peculiaar to fe- 
males, or of venereal diseases, or of diseases of the genital organs, 
or of nervous debility, impotence, sterility or barrenness, or of gonor- 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 345 

rhea, gleet, stricture, syphilis or affection of the prostate gland, or 
from whom or where, may be obtained any advice, information, direc- 
tion or knowledge of any drug, medicine, mixture, preparation, in- 
strument, apparatus or means of any kind whatever for the purpose of 
causing or procuring a miscarriage by any woman pregnant with child, 
or for the purpose of causing or producing an abortion, or for the 
purpose of preventing conception. Any person violating any of the 
provisions of this section shall be fined not less than twenty-five nor 
more than two hundred dollars for each offense. 

ADVERTISING QUACK NOSTRUMS. 

SECTION 1471. No person shall place or post, or cause to be 
placed or posted, in any street or other public place in the city any 
handbill or advertisement giving notice of any person having or pro- 
fessing to have skill in the treatment or curing of any disorder or 
disease, or giving notice of the sale or exposure for sale of any nos- 
trum or medicine, under a penalty of not more than twenty-five dol- 
lars for each offense. 



APPENDIX XXXI. 

OBSCENE BOOKS, ETC. Kurd's Revised Statutes of Illinois, Chap- 
ter 38, Sections 223 and 224. 

SECTION 223. CIRCULATING. Whoever brings, or causes to be 
brought into this state, for sale or exhibition, or shall sell or offer to 
sell, or shall give away or offer to give away, or have in his possession, 
with or without intent to sell or give away, any obscene and indecent 
book, pamphlet, paper, drawing, lithograph, engraving, daguerreotype, 
photograph, stereoscopic picture, model, cast, instrument or article of 
indecent or immoral use, or shall advertise the same for sale, or write 
or cause to be written, or print or cause to be printed, any circular, 
handbill, card, book, pamphlet, advertisement or notice of any kind, or 
shall give information orally, stating when, how, or of whom, or by 
what means any of the said indecent and obscene articles and things 
hereinbefore mentioned can be purchased or otherwise obtained, or 
shall manufacture, draw and expose, or draw with intent to sell, or to 
have sold, or print any such articles, shall be confined to the county 
jail not more than six months, or be fined not less than $100 nor more 
than $1,000 for each offense one-half of said fine to be paid to the 
informer upon whose evidence the person so offending shall be con- 
victed, and one-half to the school fund of the county in which the said 
conviction is obtained. (Section 1 of act approved May 3, 1873. 
L. 1871-2, p. 577, Section 1 ; R. S. 1845, p. 174, Section 128.) 

SECTION 224. DEPOSITING WITH COMMON CARRIER. If any person 
shall deposit or cause to be deposited in any postoffice within this state, 



346 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

or place in charge of any express company, or person connected there- 
with, or of any common carrier or other person, any of the obscene and 
indecent articles and things mentioned in the preceding section, or any 
circular, handbill, card, advertisement, book, pamphlet or notice of any 
kind, or shall give oral information stating where, how or of whom 
such indecent and obscene articles or things can be purchased or other- 
wise obtained in any manner, with the intent of having the same con- 
veyed by mail or express, or in any other manner, or if any person 
shall knowingly or willfully receive the same with intent to carry or 
convey, or shall carry or convey the same by express, or in any other 
manner (except in the United States mail), he shall be subject, for 
each offense, to the same fines and penalties as are prescribed in the pre- 
ceding section, and said fine shall be divided and paid in the same man- 
ner as therein provided. (Section 2 of act approved May 3, 1873.) 



APPENDIX XXXII. 

OBSCENE OR IMMORAL PICTURES PENALTY. Revised Municipal 
Code of Chicago (1905), Section 177. 

SECTION 177. No person or corporation, carrying on the business 
of bill posting, shall, within the city, post, or cause to be posted, so 
that the same can be seen from the streets, alleys or other public places 
of said city, any advertisement containing pictures or illustrations of 
an obscene or immoral character, under a penalty of not less than 
twenty-five nor more than two hundred dollars for each offense. 



APPENDIX XXXIII. 

INDECENT LITERATURE IMMORAL EXHIBITIONS. Revised Munici- 
pal Code of Chicago (1905), Section 1464. 

SECTION 1464. No person shall exhibit, sell or offer to sell or 
circulate or distribute any indecent or lewd book, picture or other 
thing whatever of an immoral or scandalous nature, or shall exhibit 
or perform any indecent, immoral or lewd play or other representa- 
tion, under a penalty of not less than twenty dollars nor more than 
one hundred dollars for each offense. 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 347 



APPENDIX XXXIV. 

BASTARDY. Kurd's Revised Statutes of Illinois (1909), Chapter 17, 
(I Sections 1, 3, 8 and 9. 

SECTION 1. COMPLAINT BY MOTHER. Be it enacted by the People 
\of the State of Illinois, represented in the General Assembly, That 
when an unmarried woman who shall be pregnant, or delivered of a 
child which by law would be deemed a bastard, shall make complaint 
to a justice of the peace or judge of a municipal court in the county 
where she may be so pregnant or delivered, or the person accused may 
be found and shall accuse, under oath or affirmation, a person with 
being the father of such child, it shall be the duty of such justice or 
judge to issue a warrant against the person so accused and cause him 
to be brought forthwith before him, or in his absence, any other justice 
of the peace or judge in such county. (As amended by act approved 
and in force February 11, 1907. L. 1907, p. 56.) 

SECTION 3. EXAMINATION BAIL. Upon his appearance, it shall 
be the duty of said justice or judge to examine the woman, upon oath 
or affirmation, in the presence of the man alleged to be the father of 
the child, touching the charge against him. The defendant shall have 
the right to controvert such charge, and evidence may be heard as in 
cases of trial before the county court. If the justice or judge shall be 
of the opinion that sufficient cause appears, it shall be his duty to bind 
the person so accused in bond, with sufficient security, to appear at the 
next county court to be holden in such county, to answer such charge, 
to which court said warrant and bond shall be returned, except that in 
the county of Cook, where said warrant and bond shall be returned to 
the criminal court of Cook county. On neglect or refusal to give bond 
and security, the justice or judge shall cause such person to be com- 
mitted to the jail of the county, there to be held to answer the complaint. 
(As amended by act approved and in force February 11, 1907. L. 
1907, p. 56.) 

SECTION 8. WHEN JUDGMENT Is AGAINST DEFENDANT. In case 
the issue be found against the defendant or reputed father, or whenever 
I he shall, in open court, have confessed the truth of the accusation 
against him, he shall be condemned by the order and judgment of the 
court to pay a sum of money not exceeding one hundred dollars for 
I the first year after the birth of such child, and a sum not exceeding fifty 
dollars yearly, for nine years succeeding said first year, for the support, 
maintenance and education of such child, and shall, moreover, be 
adjudged to pay all the costs of the prosecution, for which costs execu- 
tion shall issue as in other cases. And the said reputed father shall be 
required by said court to give bond with sufficient security, to be ap- 
proved by the judge of said court, for the payment of such sum of 
money as shall be ordered by said court, as aforesaid ; which said bond 



348 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

shall be made payable to the People of the State of Illinois, and con- 
ditioned for the due and faithful payment of said yearly sum, in equal 
quarterly installments, to the clerk of said court, which bond shall be 
filed and preserved by the clerk of said court. 

SECTION 9. REFUSAL TO GIVE SECURITY COMMITMENT DIS- 
CHARGE. In case the defendant shall refuse or neglect to give such 
security as may be ordered by the court, he shall be committed to the 
jail of the county, there to remain until he shall comply with such order, 
or until otherwise discharged by due course of law. Any person so 
committed shall be discharged for insolvency or inability to give bond : 
Provided, such discharge shall not be made within six months after 
such commitment. (As amended by act approved June 4, 1889. In force 
July 1, 1899.) 



APPENDIX XXXV. 

INFAMOUS CRIMES AGAINST NATURE. Kurd's Revised Statutes of 
Illinois (1909), Sections 47, 279, Chapter 38 (Criminal Code). 

SECTION 279. INFAMOUS CRIMES. Every person convicted of the 
crime of murder, rape, kidnaping, wilful and corrupt perjury or sub- 
ornation of perjury, arson, burglary, robbery, sodomy, or other crime 
against nature, incest, larceny, forgery, counterfeiting or bigamy, shall 
be deemed infamous, and shall forever thereafter berendered inca- 
pable of holding any office of honor, trust or profit, or voting at any 
election, or serving as a juror, unless he is again restored to such rights 
by the terms of a pardon for the offense, or otherwise, according to the 
law : Provided, however, that the foregoing shall not apply to any per- 
son who has been heretofore convicted and sentenced, or who may be 
hereafter convicted and sentenced to the Illinois State Reformatory at 
Pontiac. (As amended by Act approved April 21, 1899, in force July 
1, 1899, L. 1899, p. 141 ; Legal News Ed. p. 120.) See "Penitentiary," 
ch. 108, sec. 49, R. S. 1845, p. 182, sec. 174. 

SECTION 47. PUNISHMENT. The infamous crime against nature, 
either with man or beast, shall subject the offender to be punished by 
imprisonment in the penitentiary for a term not more than ten years. 

SECTION 48. EMISSION. It shall not be necessary to prove emis- 
sion, to convict any person of the crime against nature. 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 349 



APPENDIX XXXVI. 

ABDUCTION. Kurd's Revised Statutes of 111. (1909), Chapter 38, 
Sections 1 and 2. 

SECTION 1. OF FEMALE. Be it enacted by the People of the State 
of Illinois, represented in the General Assembly: Whoever entices or 
takes away any unmarried female of a chaste life and conversation 
from the parents' house or wherever she may be found, for the pur- 
pose of prostitution or concubinage, and whoever aids and assists in 
such abduction for such purpose, shall be imprisoned in the peniten- 
tiary not less than one nor more than ten years. 

SECTION 2. OF CHILD. Whoever unlawfully takes or decoys 
away any child under the age of twelve years, with intent to detain or 
conceal such child from its parents, guardian or other person having 
the lawful charge of such child, shall be confined in the county jail 
not exceeding one year, or fined not exceeding $2,000, or both, in the 
discretion of the court: Provided, this section shall not apply to any 
one who, in good faith, interferes to protect the child from abuse or 
cruel treatment. 



APPENDIX XXXVIL 

PENALTY FOR CRIMES AGAINST CHILDREN. Hurd's Revised Stat- 
utes of 111. (1909), Chapter 38, Section 42ha. 

SECTION 42ha. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illinois, 
represented in the General Assembly: That any person, of the age of 
seventeen years and upwards who shall take, or attempt to take, any 
immoral, improper or indecent liberties with any child of either sex, 
under the age of fifteen years, with the intent of arousing, appealing 
to or gratifying the lust or passions or sexual desires, either of such 
person or of such child, or of both such person and such child, or who 
shall commit, or attempt to commit, any lewd or lascivious act upon or 
with the body, or any part or member thereof, of such child, with the 
intent of arousing, appealing to or gratifying the lust or passions or 
sexual desires, either of such person or of such child, or of both such 
person and such child, or any such person who shall take any such 
child or shall entice, allure or persuade any such child, to any place 
whatever for the purpose (1) either of taking any such immoral, im- 
proper or indecent liberties with such child, with such intent, or of 
committing any such lewd, or lascivious act upon or with the body, 
or any part or member thereof, of such child with said intent, shall 
be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than 
twenty years: Provided, that this act shall not apply to offenses con- 
stituting the crime of sodomy or other infamous crimes against nature, 
incest, rape or seduction. (1) 



350 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 



APPENDIX XXXVIII. 

TREATMENT AND CONTROL OF DEPENDENT, NEGLECTED AND DE- 
LINQUENT CHILDREN. Kurd's Revised Statutes of Illinois (1909), 
Chapter 23, Sections 169, 170 and 171, 175, 176, 177, 177a, 177b, 180, 
183. 

SECTION 169. DEFINITION. That all persons under the age of 
twenty-one (21) years, shall, for the purpose of this act only, be con- 
sidered wards of this State and their persons shall be subject to the 
care, guardianship and control of the court as hereinafter provided. 

For the purpose of this act, the words "dependent child" and "neg- 
lected child" shall mean any male child who while under the age of 
seventeen years or any female child who while under the age of eight- 
een years, for any reason, is destitute, homeless or abandoned; or de- 
pendent upon the public for support; or has not proper parental care 
or guardianship ; or habitually begs or receives alms ; or is found living 
in any house of ill- fame or with any vicious or disreputable person ; or 
has a home which by reason of neglect, cruelty or depravity on the part 
of its parents, guardian or any other person in whose care it may be, 
is an unfit place for such child; and any child who while under the 
age of ten (10) years is found begging, peddling or selling any articles 
or singing or playing any musical instrument for gain upon the street 
or giving any public entertainments or accompanies or is used in aid of 
any person so doing. 

The words "delinquent child" shall mean any male child who while 
under the age of seventeen years or any female child who while under 
the age of eighteen years, violates any law of this State; or is incor- 
rigible, or knowingly associates with thieves, vicious or immoral per- 
sons; or without just cause and without that (the) consent of its 
parents, guardian or custodian absents itself from its home or place 
of abode, or is growing up in idleness or crime; or knowingly fre- 
quents a house of ill-repute; or knowingly frequents any policy shop 
or place where any gaming device is operated; or frequents any sa- 
loon or dram shop where intoxicating liquors are sold; or patronizes 
or visits any public pool room or bucket shop; or wanders about the 
streets in the night time without being on any lawful business or law- 
ful occupation; or habitually wanders about any railroad yards or 
tracks or jumps or attempts to jump onto (any) moving train; or en- 
ters any car or engine without lawful authority; or uses vile, obscene, 
vulgar, profane or indecent language in (any) public place or about any 
school house ; or is guilty of indecent or lascivious conduct ; any child 
committing any of these acts herein mentioned shall be deemed a de- 
linquent child and shall be cared for as such in the manner hereinafter 
provided. 

A disposition of any child under this act or any evidence given in 
such cause, shall not, in any civil, criminal or other cause or proceed- 
ing whatever in any court, be lawful or proper evidence against such 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 351 

child for any purpose whatever, except in subsequent case (cases) 
against the same child under this act. The word "child" or "children" 
may be held to mean one or more children, and the word parent or 
parents may be held to mean one or both parents, when consistent with 
the intent of this act. The word "association" shall include any asso- 
ciation, institution or corporation which include in their purposes the 
care or disposition of children coming within the meaning of this act. 

SECTION 170. JURISDICTION. The circuit and county courts of the 
several counties in this State, shall have original jurisdiction in all cases 
coming within the terms of this act. In all trials under this act any 
person interested therein may demand a jury of six or the judge of 
his own motion may order a jury of the same number to try the case. 

SECTION 171. JUVENILE COURT. In counties having over 500,000 
population, the judges of the circuit court shall at such times as they 
shall determine, designate one or more of their number, whose duty 
it shall be to hear all cases coming under this act. A special court 
room, to be designated as the juvenile court room, shall be provided 
for the hearing of such cases, and the findings of the court shall be 
entered in a book or books to be kept for that purpose, and known 
as the "Juvenile Record," and the court may for convenience be called 
the "Juvenile Court." 

SECTION 175. DEPENDENT AND NEGLECTED CHILDREN. If the court 
shall find any male child under the age of seventeen years (17) or 
any female child under the age of eighteen (18) years to be depend- 
ent or neglected within the meaning of this act, the court may allow 
such child to remain at its own home subject to the friendly visita- 
tion of a probation officer. And if the parent, parents, guardian or 
custodian consent thereto, or if the court shall further find that the 
parent, parents, guardian or custodian of such child are unfit or im- 
proper guardians or unable or unwilling to care for, protect, train, 
educate (or) discipline such child and that it is for the interest of 
such child and of the people of this State that such child be taken 
from the custody of its parents, custodian or guardian, the court may 
make an order appointing as guardian of the person of such child 
some reputable citizen of good moral character and order such guar- 
dian to place such child in some suitable family home or other suit- 
able place, which such guardian may provide for such child, or the 
court may enter an order committing such child to some suitable 
State institution, organized for the care of dependent or neglected 
children, or to some training school or industrial school or to some 
association embracing in its objects the purpose of caring for or ob- 
taining homes for neglected or dependent children, which association 
shall have been accredited as hereinafter provided. (As amended by 
act approved June 4, 1907. In force July 1, 1907.) 

SECTION 176. GUARDIANSHIP. In every case where such child 
is committed to an institution or association, the court shall appoint 
the president, secretary or superintendent of such institution or asso- 
ciation, guardian over the person of such child and shall order such 



352 THE SOCIAL_EVIL IN_CHIAGO 

guardian to place such child in such institution or with such associa- 
tion, whereof he is such officer and to hold such child, care for, train 
and educate it subject to the rules and laws that may be in force from 
time to time governing such institution or association. 

SECTION 177. DISPOSITION OF DELINQUENT CHILDREN. If the 
court shall find any male child under the age of seventeen years or 
any female child under the age of eighteen years to be delinquent 
within the meaning of this act, the court may allow such child to 
remain at its own home subject to the friendly visitation of (a) pro- 
bation officer, such child to report to. the probation officer as often 
as may be required, and if the parents, parent, guardian or custo- 
dian consent thereto, or if the court shall further find either that the 
parent, parents, guardian or custodian are unfit or improper guar- 
dians, or are unable or unwilling to care for, protect, train, educate or 
discipline such child and shall further find that it is for the interest 
of such child and of the people of this State that such child be taken 
from the custody of its parents, parent, custodian or guardian, the 
court may appoint some proper person or probation officer, guardian 
over the person of such child and permit it to remain at its home, 
or order such guardian to cause such child to be placed in a suitable 
family home, or cause it to be boarded out in some suitable family 
home, in case provision is made by voluntary contribution or other- 
wise for the payment of the board; or the court may commit such 
child to some training school for boys if a male child or to an indus- 
trial school for girls if a female child or to any institution incor- 
porated under the laws of this State to care for delinquent children, 
or to any institution that has been or may be provided by the State, 
county, city, town or village suitable for the care of delinquent chil- 
dren, including St. Charles School for Boys and State Training 
School for Girls, or to some association that will receive it, embra- 
cing in its objects the care of neglected, dependent or delinquent chil- 
dren and which has been duly accredited as hereinafter provided. 
In every case where such child is committed to an institution or asso- 
ciation, the court shall apoint the president, secretary or superintend- 
ent of such institution or association, guardian over the person of 
such child and shall order such guardian to place such child in such 
institution or with such association, whereof he is such officer and to 
hold such child, care for, train and educate it subject to the rules 
and laws that may be in force, from time to time governing such in- 
stitution or association. 

SECTION 177a. PROCESS AGAINST DELINQUENT CHILD. The 
court may in its discretion in any case of a delinquent child permit 
such child to be proceeded against in accordance with the laws that 
may be in force in this State governing the commission of crimes or 
violation of city, village, or town ordinance. In such case the petition 
filed under this act shall be dismissed. 

SECTION 177b. PLACING IN PUBLIC HOSPITAL, ETC. The court 
may, when the health or condition of any child found to be dependent, 



LAWS AND ORDINANCES 353 

neglected or delinquent requires it, order the guardian to cause such 
child to be placed in a public hospital or institution for treament or 
special care, or in a private hospital or institution which will receive 
it for the purposes, without charge to the public authorities. 

SECTION 180. AGENTS OF JUVENILE REFORMATORIES. It shall 
be the duty of the Superintendent of the State Reformatory at Pon- 
tiac and the board of managers of the State Home for Juvenile Fe- 
male Offenders at Geneva, and the board of managers of any other 
institution to which juvenile delinquents may be committed by the 
courts, to maintain an agent of such institution, whose duty it shall 
be to examine the homes of children paroled from such institution, for 
the purpose of ascertaining and reporting to said court whether they 
are suitable homes; to assist children paroled or discharged from 
such institution in finding suitable employment, and to maintain a 
friendly supervision over paroled inmates during the continuance of 
their parole; such agents shall hold office subject to the pleasure of 
the board making the appointment, and shall receive such compensa- 
tion as such board may determine out of any funds appropriated for 
such institution applicable thereto. 

SECTION 183. ADOPTION OF CHILD. Whenever the petition filed, 
as is provided in section 3 hereof, or a supplemental petition filed at 
any time after the appointment of the guardian shall pray that the 
guardian to be appointed shall be authorized to consent to the legal 
adoption of the child, and the court upon the hearing shall find that 
it is the best interest of such child that the guardian be given such 
authority, the court may, in its order appointing such guardian, em- 
power him to appear in court where any proceedings for the adop- 
tion of such child may be pending, and to consent to such adoption; 
and such consent shall be sufficient to authorize the court where the 
adoption proceedings are pending to enter a proper order or decree 
of adoption without further notice to, or consent by the parents or 
relatives of such child: Provided, however, That before entering 
such order the court shall find from the evidence that (1) the parents 
or surviving parent of a legitimate child or the mother of an illegiti- 
mate child, or if the child has no parents living the guardian of the 
child, if any, or if there is no parent living and the child has no guar- 
dian or the guardian is not known to the petitioner, then a near rel- 
ative of the child, if any there be, consents to such order; or (2) that 
one parent consents and the other is unfit for any of the reasons here- 
inafter specified to have the child or that both parents are or that 
the surviving parent or the mother of an illegitimate child is so unfit 
for any of such reasons the grounds of unfitness being (a) de- 
pravity, (b) open and notorious adultery or fornication, (c) habitual 
drunkenness for the space of one year prior to the filing of the peti- 
tion, (d) extreme and repeated cruelty to the child, (e) abandon- 
ment of the child or (f) desertion of the child for more than six (6) 
months next preceding the filing of the petition. 



Appendices 



Tables 



TABLES 



357 



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358 



THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 



Saloons in which investigators were solicited 
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TABLES 



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360 



THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 



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Appendices 



Exhibits 



EXHIBITS 



365 



EXHIBIT A. 

Newsboy found selling papers in Restricted District after 12 :00 P. M. 
(Zl) John , Age 14. 




OF THE 
UHlVEBSlTlf OF ILUWM* 



EXHIBITS 



367 



EXHIBIT B. 

Newsboy found selling papers in Restricted District after 12 :00 P. M. 

(Z2) George - , Age 11. 

Reported to Juvenile Court and rescued by Probation Officer. 




IIBK&RY 
OF THE 
OINERSITY OF 



EXHIBITS 



369 



EXHIBIT C. 

Newsboys found selling papers in Restricted District after 12 :00 P. M. 
(73) Fred - , Age 15. 
(Z4) Sam , Age 10. 




EXHIBITS 



371 



EXHIBIT D. 



(Z5) Photograph of 



-, 15 years old. 



Messenger No. 



(Name and number in possession of the Commission.) 




THE LIBRARY 
OF THE 
OF 



EXHIBITS 



373 



EXHIBIT E. 

(Z6) Messenger Boy found working in the Restricted District. 

Photograph of , 17 years old. 

(Name and number in possession of the Commission.) 




THE LIBRARY 
DFM 

OF ILLINOIS 



EXHIBITS 



375 



EXHIBIT F. 



(Z7) Photograph of 
Messenger No. 



, 1C years old. 

in Restricted District. 



(Name and number in possession of the Commission.) 




OF THE 
OF ILLINOIS 



EXHIBITS 



377 



EXHIBIT G. 



(Z8) Photograph of 



-, Messenger No. in 



Restricted District. 




imunr 

OF 1M 

of ILUNOIS 



EXHIBITS 



379 



EXHIBIT H. 



(Z9) Photograph of 



in Restricted District. 



Messenger No. 




Of IfcL 
ITY Of 



THE SOCIAL EVIL OF CHICAGO 381 



EXHIBIT I. 



Copy of card used by physician who examines inmates of houses of 
prostitution. 



CHICAGO, 111., 19, .. 

This is to certify that I have examined this day. M 

, and found free 



from infectious and contagious diseases. 

M. D. 

Office. 



282 THE SOCIAL EVIL OF CHICAGO 



EXHIBIT J. 

Copy of actual Letter from man whom we will call "C", instruct- 
ing agent, whom we will call "A" to continue transaction with 
procurer, whom we will call "B" for the purchase of women. 

HOTEL 

BROADWAY AND STREET, 

NEW YORK. 

October 17, 1910. 
Mr. "A"., 

Gen. Del. Chicago. 

Dear : 

I am busy on a deal here and probably will have to stay here for a 
cupple weeks yet. I wish you would see that friend of yours, the 
one that you spoke about to me and get from him how much it will 
cost to get what I want over there, send me the prices, etc. and if I 
cannot do any better here I will ask you to handle the deal you know 
what I want and if as you say your friend has been in business all 
over the country he also will know what to look for. If I can get them 
in Chicago it will save me a cupple of hundred in fares alone. Do 
that as soon as you can as I dont want to waste to much time in going 
back to Shanghai. Write soon as you can. 

Your friend, 



EXHIBIT K. 

Copy of a telegram supposed to have been received from "C" in 
New York to "A" in Chicago, instructing him to get women through 
"B" for his house in China. 

THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH CO. 

RECEIVED AT Station., 

9 gy h i8 paid, 
New York. 

"A" 

House, 

Chicago. 

You know what I want. See your friend, get prices and number I 

can get. Will forward money to the Company of Illinois. 

"C" 



EXHIBITS 383 



EXHIBIT L. 

Copy of letter sent to Hotel , New York, to "C" who 

wanted to secure women for his house in Shangai. 

Hotel. 

Chicago. 
Mr. "C" 

Hotel 

New York City. 
Dear Sir : 

I have spoken to my friend, he believes he can get you two, maybe 
more. The price will be for expenses, spending money, etc. $50.00 for 
each. Send what you want according to how many you want I cer- 
tainly will not spend more than will be necessary. 
Answer at once. 

Yours truly, 

"A" 



EXHIBIT M. 

Copy of Letter from New York from "C," giving Instructions to 
"A" about the payment of money to "B" for three women. 

HOTEL 

BROADWAY AND STREET. 

NEW YORK. 
Mr. "A," 

Gen. Del., Chicago. 
Dear Sir: 

Have received your letter, go ahead and let your friend get the 
two you write about and let me know as soon as possible how many 

more he can get. I have sent $150.00 to your account to the 

Co., that will be enough at present, when you need more tele- 
graph. 

Answer as soon as possible and keep me posted as to progress as 
I am anxious to return to China as soon as possible. 

Yours truly, 

"C" 

P. S. Tell your friend that if he will do his best and get me what 
I want, I will not only pay him, but will make him a nifty present as 
well. 



384 THE SOCIAL EVIL OF CHICAGO 



EXHIBIT N. 

A Bill for an Act Entitled an Act to Prevent the Transmission of 
Venereal Diseases. 

House Bill 357. Introduced by Hon. R. K. Bedgood. 

SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State 
of Indiana, 

That it shall be unlawful for County Clerks to issue a license to 
marry to any male who fails to present a medical certificate showing 
him to be free from all venereal diseases ; said certificate to be sworn 
to by a licensed physician and to be filed with the usual application for 
license to marry. 

SECTION 2. The certificate required in Section 1, shall read as 
follows, to-wit: 

I, , M. D., being a licensed physician in the 

State of Indiana, do hereby certify that I have carefully and thorough- 
ly examined , having applied the recognized 

clinical and laboratory tests of scientific medicine and find him to be 
free from all symptoms and taint of any venereal disease. 



(Here follows affidavit of examining physician.) 

SECTION 3. If persons resident of this State, with intent to evade 
the provisions of this act, go into another State and there have their 
marriage solemnized with the intention of afterward returning and 
residing in this State, and do so return and reside in this State, such 
marriage shall be null and void and such parties, upon returning to this 
State, shall be subject to all the penalties provided for in this act. 

SECTION 4. Violation of this act shall be punished by a fine of one 
hundred dollars. 

SECTION 5. All acts or parts of acts in conflict with this act are 
repealed. 



EXHIBITS 385 



EXHIBIT O. 

AN ACT TO AMEND THE CHARTER OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK, IN RELA- 
TION TO REGULATING AND LICENSING PUBLIC DANCE HALLS. 

The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and 
Assembly, do enact as follows : 

SECTION 1. The Greater New York Charter, as re-enacted by 
chapter four hundred and sixty-six of the laws of nineteen hundred 
and one, is hereby amended by adding after Section fourteen hundred 
and eighty-seven, seven new sections, to be sections fourteen hundred 
and eighty-eight, fourteen hundred and eighty-nine, fourteen hundred 
and ninety, fourteen hundred and ninety-one, fourteen hundred and 
ninety-two, fourteen hundred and ninety-three, and fourteen hundred 
and ninety- four thereof, to read, respectively, as follows : 

SECTION 1488. The words "public dance hall" when used in this 
title shall be taken to mean : 

Any room, place or space in the City of New York in which danc- 
ing is carried on and to which admission can be had by payment of a 
fee, or by the purchase, possession or presentation of a ticket or token, 
or in which a charge is made for caring for clothing or other property, 
other than a hotel having upwards of fifty bedrooms, or 

Any room, place or space in the City of New York, located upon 
premises which are licensed to sell liquors, other than a hotel hav- 
ing upwards of fifty bedrooms, in which dancing is carried on and to 
which the public may gain admission, either with or without payment 
of fee. 

The word "Dancing" as used in this and the succeeding sections 
shall not apply to exhibitions or performances in which the persons 
paying for admission do not participate. 

PUBLIC DANCE HALL DANCING ACADEMY FORBIDDEN WITHOUT LICENSE. 

SECTION 1489. No public dance hall shall be conducted nor shall 
dancing be taught or permitted in any public dance hall unless it shall 
be licensed pursuant to this act and the license be in force and not 
suspended. Any person violating this section shall be guilty of a 
misdemeanor. 

PUBLIC DANCE HALLS LICENSE OF REQUIREMENTS. 

SECTION 1490. All public dance halls shall be licensed by the 
Mayor or other licensing authority of the City of New York; the fee 
for each such license shall be fifty dollars for each year or fraction 
thereof. All licenses issued on or between the first day of April and 
the thirtieth day of September of any year shall expire on the thirty- 
first day of March of the succeeding year. All licenses issued on or 



386 THE SOCIAL EVIL OF CHICAGO 

between the first day of October and the thirty-first day of March of 
any year, shall expire on the thirtieth day of September of the suc- 
ceeding year. No license shall be issued unless the place for which 
it is issued complies with all laws, ordinances, rules and the provisions 
of any building code applicable thereto and is a safe and proper place 
for the purpose for which it shall be used, properly ventilated and 
supplied with sufficient toilet conveniences. Every licensed public 
dance hall shall post its license at the main entrance to its premises. 



NO LICENSE WITHOUT REPORT AFTER INSPECTION. 

SECTION 1491. No license shall be issued until the licensing au- 
thority of the City of New York shall have received a written report 
of an inspector that the building or premises to be licensed complies 
with section fourteen hundred and ninety of this title. All inspectors 
shall be permitted to have access to all public dance halls at all reason- 
able times and whenever they are open for dancing, instruction in danc- 
ing or for any other purpose. Inspectors shall be required to report 
all violations. All reports shall be in writing and shall be filed and 
made public records. 



PUBLIC DANCE HALLS SALE OF LIQUOR THEREIN. 

SECTION 1492. Dancing shall not be permitted in any place in the 
City of New York licensed to sell liquors, except in a hotel having 
upwards of fifty bedrooms, unless such place shall also be licensed 
under section fourteen hundred and ninety. Violation of this provi- 
sion shall be deemed a violation of the liquor tax law with respect to 
such premises. No liquors shall be sold, served, or given away, in 
any public dance hall in which dancing is advertised to be taught, or 
in which classes in dancing are advertised to be maintained, or in 
which instruction in dancing is given for hire; or in any room con- 
nected with such hall. The word "liquors" as used in this section, 
shall be construed as defined in the liquor tax law of this state. 

The licensing authority shall immediately notify the state commis- 
sioner of Excise of the granting or renewal or revocation or forfeiture 
of any license issued under this title to any place or premises which 
are licensed to sell liquor. 



LICENSE WHEN FORFEITED OR REVOKED. 

SECTION 1493. The license of any public dance hall may be for- 
feited for habitual disorderly or immoral conduct permitted on the 
premises and shall be forfeited on conviction of any person for viola- 
tion of section fourteen hundred and ninety-two of this act, or upon 
the conviction of any person for violation of section fourteen hun- 
dred and eighty-four or section eleven hundred and forty-six of the 
penal law in or with respect to the premises of any public dance hall. 



EXHIBITS 387 

The license of any public dance hall may be revoked by the licensing 
authority whenever the licensed premises do not comply with section 
fourteen hundred and ninety of this act, provided that licensee or per- 
son in charge shall be served with a copy of the report or complaint. 
In any case where a license is revoked or where the licensing authority 
refuses to grant a new license, reasons for the action must be stated 
in writing and shall be made public records. Should the license of 
any place have been revoked twice within a period of six months, no 
new license shall be granted to such place for a period of at least one 
year from date of the second revocation. 

SECTION 1494. The Mayor or licensing authority of the City of 
New York may appoint such inspectors and other officials necessary 
to carry out the provisions of sections fourteen hundred and eighty- 
nine, fourteen hundred and ninety, fourteen hundred and ninety-one, 
fourteen hundred and ninety-two and fourteen hundred and ninety- 
three as may be authorized by the board of estimate and apportion- 
ment of the city or authority having the right to appropriate public 
money. The money paid for licenses under this act shall be applied 
toward the payment of the salaries of the inspectors appointed here- 
under. Any deficiency and any other expense of carrying this act into 
effect until appropriation can be made therefor, shall be met by the 
issue of special revenue bonds of the city. The inspectors to be ap- 
pointed under this section shall be designated as inspectors of public 
dance halls. 

SECTION 2. This act shall take effect immediately. 



388 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 



EXHIBIT P. 

Facsimile of page of an account book used by madam of a house in 
giving credit to inmates for services rendered: 

Wednesday, May 8th. The totals-are inserted. 

Sunday, May sth. NUMBER OF MEN. 

BESSIE. 
ALINE. 



A y TOtp 

//////////////////// ...... ' - ............................ 20 

VERE. 
//////////////// ......................................... 16 

KITTY. 
//////////////////////// ............................... 24 

MlNA. 
//////////////////////////////////// ................. 36 

EDITH. 



FLORINCE. 

//////////////////// .................................... 20 



i. This book formed part of the evidence in the Leona Garrity 
case, tried in the Supreme Court. 



EXHIBITS 



389 



Monday, May 6th. 



BESSIE. 



/ 

////////////////.. 


ALINE. 
ALICE. 


//////////////.. 


KITTY. 


////////////////// 


MINA. 
//// 


////////////////// 

/////////////// . 


EDITH. 


/////////////// 

////////////////// 


FLORINCE. 

/////.. 


////////////////// 

/////////////////.. 


VERA. 



16 



15 



'7 



390 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Tuesday, May 7th. 
BESSIE. 

ALICE. 
/////////// ............................................... n 

VERA. 
////////////// ............................................ 14 

KITTY. 
//////////// ............................ ': ................. 12 

MlNA. 
//////////// .............................................. 12 

EDITH. 
/////////////// ........................................... iS 



FLORINCE. 

///////////////////// ................................... 21 

SOPHY. 
////////////////// ....................................... 18 



EXHIBITS 



391 



Wednesday May 8. 



BESSIE. 



ALICE. 



VERA. 



16 




KITTY. 



MlNA. 



EDITH. 



10 



FLORINCE. 



21 



SOPHY. 



21 



392 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Thursday, May Qth. 
BESSIE. 



KITTY. 
///////////////// 17 

FLORINCE. 

///////////////////////////////////////////// 45 

ANNIE. 

////////////////////// 22 



Total, Florince, 5 nights, 130 men at fifty cents each of which she 
received twenty-five cents each. 
Average, per night, 26 men. 



INDEX. 

Page 

ABDUCTION law 349 

ABOLISH FINING SYSTEM 46 

ABORTION 223 

Mills 277 

Law 341 

ACTION OF CITY COUNCIL ON REPORT 10 

ADVERTISEMENTS cure of diseases 221 

ADVERTISING: methods of houses 78 

ADVERTISEMENTS prohibited ordinance 344 

AGENCIES FOR CARE AND REFORMATION OF GIRLS 274 

AMUSEMENTS: parks 213, 246 

Ordinance 327 

ARMY STATISTICS AND VENEREAL DISEASE 300 

APPRECIATION, a word of 29 

APPROPRIATION FOR COMMISSION 5,9 

ASSIGNATION: houses 34 

Hotels 73 

Typical cases 75 

Rooms over saloons 131 

ATTITUDE OF COMMISSION 28 

BAR PERMITS ordinance 326 

BARTENDERS AND WAITERS IN DISORDERLY SALOONS 123 

BASTARDY law 347 

BEER: sale of, in houses 77 

BOARD OF EDUCATION: recommendations to 63 

BOATS FOR PROSTITUTION law 310 

BREWERS AND SALOONS 120 

Companies 119 

BUSSE, MAYOR FRED A 29 

CADET, the 184 

And panders 176 

CALL HOUSE flat 81 

CAUSES 45, 174, 262 

CHILD PROTECTION AND EDUCATION 235 

CHILDREN: protection 35 

In saloons 126 

In vice districts 237 

Venereal diseases among 241 

Underfed 246 

Ordinance 333 

CHURCHES recommendations to 64 



394 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Page 

CITY AUTHORITIES recommendations to 59 

CITY COUNCIL action on report 10 

CLANDESTINE PROSTITUTES 290 

COCAINE: use of by prostitutes 84 

Law 317 

Ordinance 319 

COLORED COMMUNITIES situation in 38 

COMMERCIALIZED BUSINESS prostitution a 32 

COMMISSION'S WORK scope of 30 

COMMITTEES OF COMMISSION study by 13 

COMMITTEE OF FIFTEEN 184 

COMMITTEES reports of 30 

CONDITIONS ignorance of 31 

CONFECTIONERY AND ICE CREAM PARLORS 249 

CONFERENCES BEFORE COMMISSION 9 

CORPORATION COUNSEL recommendations to 61 

COUNTY OFFICIALS recommendations to 58 

CRIMES AGAINST CHILDREN law 349 

CRITICISM BY COMMISSION 28 

CUSTOMERS flat 81 

DANCE HALLS 185, 210, 266 

In saloons 1 26 

And police 158 

And prostitutes 171 

DELINQUENT GIRLS 173 

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HOUSES law 310 

DEPARTMENT STORES 198 

DEPENDENT, NEGLECTED AND DELINQUENT CHILDREN law 350 

DISEASES: in houses 76 

Advertisements 221 

DISORDERLY CONDUCT law 311 

DISORDERLY HOUSE law 309 

DOMESTIC SERVICE 268 

DRAMSHOPS law 323 

DRUGS: typical cases 85 

Itinerant vendor, law 342 

ECONOMIC SIDE OF QUESTION 42 

Conditions ' 230 

EDUCATION sex 36 

EDUCATIONAL METHODS 253 

EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES 218, 246 

Law 335 

ENTERTAINMENT IN SALOONS 125 

ENTICING FEMALE IN HOUSE law 311 



INDEX 395 

Page 

EXHIBITS: newsboys 365, 367, 369 

Messenger boys 371, 373, 375, 377, 379 

Card used by physician 381 

Regarding purchase of women 382, 383 

Copy of bill to prevent transmission of venereal disease 384 

Copy of act regarding dance halls 385 

Copy of account book kept by a "Madame" 388 

EXISTING CONDITIONS IN CHICAGO 69 

EXPLOITATION OF INMATES 77 

FEDERAL AUTHORITIES: recommendations to 55 

FINING SYSTEM 46 

FLATS: typical cases 75 

A typical 79 

As a call house 81 

Customers 81 

Renting 81 

And police 151 

FREQUENTING HOUSE OF ILL FAME: law 311 

FRUIT STORES AND ICE CREAM PARLORS: ordinance 334 

GRAND JURY: New York 231 

HEALTH DEPARTMENT: recommendations to 63 

And venereal diseases 293 

HOME CONDITIONS: bad 40, 229, 245, 264 

HOSPITALS AND VENEREAL DISEASE 294 

HOTELS: typical cases 75 

And police 151 

HOUSES: typical cases 75 

Profits from sale of liquor ; in 

And police 151 

Law 309 

Ordinances 309 

IMMIGRANT: the 40 

Women 227 

Protection of girls , 246 

Protective league 278 

IMMORAL SHOWS 74, 77 

Literature and pictures 249 

INDECENT LITERATURE: immoral exhibitions, ordinance 346 

INDUSTRIAL HOMES 47 

Conditions 281 

INFAMOUS CRIME: law 348 

INHERITANCE OF VENEREAL DISEASE 295 

INMATES: exploitation of 77 

In flats 80 

Data regarding thirty 166 

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 25 



396 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Page 
JUVENILE: court records 174 

And other delinquents 228 

LAKE STEAMERS 215 

LAWS: not enforced 33 

LIQUOR DEALERS PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION 119 

And saloon 121 

LIQUOR: sale of in houses, flats and hotels 82 

LITERATURE RELATING TO DISEASE: ordinance 344 

LOOKOUTS AND SALOON 123 

MALE PROSTITUTES 290 

MAN'S PART: the 44 

MASSAGE PARLORS AND BATHS 73, 84 

MATERNITY: extra-conjugal 282 

MAYOR'S STATEMENT TO THE PRESS 3 

To City Council.. 7 

MEDICAL INSPECTION 74 

MEDICINE: practice of, law 338 

MEN: a closing word to 47 

Connected with houses 79 

Vicious and degenerate 240 

MESSENGER BOYS 242 

Exhibits 371, 373, 375, 377, 379 

MIDNIGHT CLOSING: saloons 126 

MIDWIVES 225 

MINORS: selling liquors to, law 324 

Admittance to public dance halls, law 325 

Employment of, law 330 

MORALITY: two standards of 31 

MORALS: bad effect of long hours on 199 

Effect of fatigue on 200 

NERVOUS STRAIN 269 

NEWSBOYS 241 

Exhibits 365, 367, 369 

NIGHT WALKERS : ordinance 314 

OBSCENE BOOKS: law 345 

OBSCENE AND IMMORAL PICTURES: ordinance 346 

OCCASIONAL PROSTITUTE: intelligent treatment of 280 

ORDINANCE: a proposed 51 

ORDINANCE CREATING VICE COMMISSION 6 

ORGANIZATION: vice commission 4 

OWNERS AND REAL ESTATE AGENTS 87 

PANDERS AND CADETS 176 

Law 312 

PARENTS: recommendations to 64 

PARK COMMISSIONERS: recommendations to 64 



INDEX 397 

Page 

PATRONS OF HOUSES 114 

PERVERSION 39 

PERVERT METHODS 73 

PHILANTHROPIC AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS: recommendations to 65 

POLICE 29 

Recommendations to 62 

List 70 

And social evil 143 

Rules and regulations 145 

Records 146 

On the beat 150 

And houses, assignation hotels and flats 151 

And typical cases 151 

And street soliciting 152 

And saloons 155 

And dance halls 158 

PREVENTIVE MEASURES 253 

And veneral diseases 300 

PROCURING , 230 

PROFESSIONAL PROSTITUTE 285 

PROFITS FROM PROSTITUTION 95 

Sale of liquor in disorderly saloons 108 

Sale of liquor in houses in 

How disorderly saloons make abnormal 130 

On beer in rear room of disorderly saloons 130 

On counterfeit drinks 131 

PROPHYLAXIS 301 

PROSTITUTION AS A BUSINESS 32 

And saloon 34 

PROSTITUTES: use of cocaine and morphine by 84 

In dance halls 171 

In saloon 172 

On street 172 

PROTECTION OF CHILDREN 35 

Of women in saloon 129 

PUBLIC ENTERTAINMENTS: sale of liquor and ordinance 325 

PUBLIC PARKS 252 

RAVAGES OF VENEREAL DISEASE 298 

REAL ESTATE AGENTS 87 

RECOMMENDATIONS 55 

RECEIPTS: connection with flat 80 

RECREATIONAL CONDITIONS 230 

REGULATION OF VICE: police rules 329 

RELIGIOUS BODIES: recommendations to 64 

REMEDIAL MEASURES 272 



398 THE SOCIAL EVIL IN CHICAGO 

Page 

RENT OF ASSIGNATION ROOMS OVER SALOONS 131 

REPORT PRESENTED TO CITY COUNCIL 10 

RESCUE AND REFORM 45, 261 

RESCUE HOME 284 

RESIDENTIAL DISTRICTS 72 

Prostitution in 238 

REASEARCH COMMITTEE OF COMMITTEE OF FOURTEEN 231 

RESOLUTION: presented to Mayor i 

Commemorating death of Dr. James Nevins Hyde 8 

Of appreciation 21 

ROBBING IN SALOONS 126 

SALESGIRLS: wages 205 

Temptations 207 

SALOON AND PROSTITUTION 34 

Profits from sale of liquor in disorderly 108 

And social evil 119 

And brewers 120 

Liquor dealers protective association and 121 

Licenses 121 

Advertising 122 

And lookouts 123 

Bartenders and waiters in disorderly 123 

And entertainment 125 

And midnight closing 126 

And dance halls 126 

And prostitution 127 

And police 155 

And prostitutes 172 

Ordinance 319, 320 

License fee 321 

SEDUCTION: law 311 

SEMI-DELINQUENT GIRLS: intelligent treatment of 280 

SEMI-PROFESSIONAL PROSTITUTES 271 

SEX EDUCATION 36 

SEXUAL MATTERS: lack of knowledge of 268 

SOCIAL EVIL AND ITS MEDICAL ASPECTS 289 

SOCIAL EVIL AND SALOON 119 

And police 143 

SOLICITATION 73 

On street 91 

In saloon 129 

SOURCES OF SUPPLY 39, 163 

STATE AUTHORITIES: recommendations to 56 

STERILITY: female 299 



INDEX 399 

Page 

STREET SOLICITATION 91 

Police 152 

Prostitutes , 172 

STREET: lack of supervision on 265 

STREET VENDORS 242 

STUDY OF THE COMMISSION: outline of ^X- J 3 

SUBNORMALITY .'+.. 228 

SUPPLY: sources of 39 

TABLES: data regarding thirty inmates 166 

Conditions in seven police precincts 357 

Hotels, flats and saloons investigation 358 

Houses, hotels, assignation houses investigated 359 

Saloons investigated 360 

Houses, hotels, assignation houses, saloons investigated 361 

THEATRES: cheap 247 

THEATRICAL AGENTS 266 

THEFTS AND CRIME 74 

TYPICAL CASES: houses, flats, assignation rooms and hotels 75 

Owners and real estate agents 89 

Street solicitation 92 

Saloons 132 

Police 151 

Dance halls 210 

Department stores 210 

Amusement parks 213 

Lake steamers 216 

Employment agencies 219 

Midwives 225 

UNITED STATES ARMY AND VENEREAL DISEASE 302 

VAGABONDS AND VAGRANTS: ordinance 315 

Law 316 

VENEREAL DISEASE: among children 241 

Treatment of 278, 291 

VULGARITY IN SALOON 129 

WAGES: payment due, law 337 

WINE ROOMS: ordinance : 322 

WHITE SLAVE TRAFFIC 41 

WHOLESALE LIQUOR DEALERS 119, 122 

WOMEN: unfortunate, how can be rescued 46 

How enter life through saloon 127