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Full text of "A social service field guide to psychological testing"

6 
153 ^ 

SEP 2 3 1976 



A Social Service Field Guide to 
Psychological Testing 



MORTON L. ARKAVA, Ph.D. 



"""" '3 0864 00025397 4 



A SOCIAL SERVICE FIELD GUIDE TO 
PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING 



By 



Morton L. Arkava, Ph.D. 

Professor and Chairman, Departnnent of Social Work 

University of Montana 

1974 



Published by the Governor's Crime Control Commission 

Departnnent of Institutions 

State of Montana 

(Under the Provisions of Sub-Grant #736147) 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

PREFACE 1 

CHAPTER I - PURPOSES OF TESTING 3 

What is a Test? 3 

The Uses of Tests 4 

Institutional decisions 5 

Individual decisions 6 

Misuses of tests 6 

NOTES - CHAPTER I 8 

CHAPTER II - CLASSIFICATION OF TESTS 9 

Intelligence Tests 11 

Aptitude Tests 12 

Achievement Tests 13 

Personality and Interest Tests 14 

Personality tests 14 

Interest tests 16 

Specific Diagnostic Tests 18 

NOTES - CHAPTER II 19 

CHAPTER III - BASIC TEST CONCEPTS 20 

Reliability 20 

- i - 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) 

Page 

CHAPTER III (continued) 

Factors afFecting reliability 21 

Determining reliability 22 

Validity 23 

CHAPTER IV - BASIC STATISTICAL. CONCEPTS 26 

Norms 26 

Measures of Position 30 

Measures of Central Tendency 31 

Mean 31 

Median 32 

Mode 32 

Measures of Variability 32 

Range 32 

The semi-interquartile range 33 

Standard deviation 33 

Measures of Correlation 34 

TABLE I - COMPARISON OF SOME STANDARD 

SCORES 35 

Inferential Statistics 36 

Raw and Standard Scores 37 

Ratio Scores and Placement Scores 40 

NOTES - CHAPTER IV 42 



- II - 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) 

Page 

CHAPTER V - LIMITATIONS OF TESTS 43 

Supplennentary Measures 43 

Test Construction Limits 43 

Effects of Culture 45 

Other Limitations 47 

NOTES - CHAPTER V 48 

CHAPTER VI - HOW TO MAKE A TEST REFERRAL 49 

Suggested Guide for Test Referrals 49 

Some Hints for Dealing with Psychologists 50 

CHAPTER VII - SOME COMMONLY USED TESTS 52 

Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) 52 

Goodenough-H arris Drawing Test (Draw-A-Man Test) 53 

Other Drawing Tests 53 

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) 58 

Otis Self-Administrating Test of Mental Ability 63 

General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) 64 

Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB) 68 

Stanford-Binet Scale 71 

Vineland Social Maturity Scale 73 

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) 75 

Symonds Picture Story Test (SPST) 78 

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) 78 

- iii - 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) 

Page 

CHAPTER VII (conttnued) 

Wide Range Achievennent Test 81 

Bender-Gestalt 84 

Rorschach 87 

Wechsler Pre-School and Primary Scale of 

Intelligence (WPPSI) 90 

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test 93 

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) 96 

Tests for Special Purposes 101 

The Culture Fair Intelligence Test 101 

Tests for the orthopedic handicapped 102 

Tests for the hearing handicapped 1 03 

Tests for the blind 1 03 

CHAPTER VIII - HOW TO LEARN ABOUT SPECIFIC TESTS 104 



- IV - 



PREFACE 

The production and consunnption of educational and psychological 
tests have increased dramatically since their developnnent over fifty 
years ago. Greater numbers of tests are being used to both evaluate 
and guide individuals and to aid in administrative decisions. Workers 
in the social services today will confront the results of various kinds 
of psychological and educational tests, since most case histories in 
use contain test information. 

Because many persons currently practicing in the social services 
lack basic educational preparation in test use, they tend to misuse and 
underutilize test information. It is imperative that persons engaged 
in the delivery of human services understand some sinnple test concepts 
for use in effective case management. 

This guide was developed to help the social service practitioner 
utilize test results more rationally and consistently . It is not intended 
to serve as a comprehensive textbook on psychological test administra- 
tion, interpretation, or utilization, but rather to serve as a basic guide 
to those persons who have little or no background in the use and 

- 1 - 



interpretation of psychological and educational tests. For those who have 
had graduate-level coursework in psychological testing or extensive in- 
service training, more advanced texts on the subject are advised. 



CHAPTER I 
PURPOSES OF TESTING 

What is a Test ? 

Cronbach, a noted authorit/ on testing, has defined a test as 
"... a systematic procedure for comparing the behavior of two or 
more individuals."^ Others have defined tests as standardized procedures 
for obtaining a sample of an individual's behavior. Psychologists and 
others use tests in order to predict what a person might do or to dis- 
cover what he could do. Similarly, tests may reveal why a person does 
certain things. While undoubtedly the answers to these questions would 
be more accurate if the individuals involved could be observed over a long 
period of time, this is generally not practical in clinical or industrial 
settings. Therefore, one must rely on the brief samples of behavior 
provided by tests. Thus, a test involves both a sample of behavior and a 
procedure for comparing that behavior with the results obtained by others . 

The accuracy of the predictions, from test behavior to actual life 
behavior, depends upon many factors, including the nature and con- 
struction of the test — especially with respect to the concepts of validity 

- 3 - 



and reliability, the conditions under which the tests are given, and the 
clinical and social sophistication of the examiners. 

The concept of validity refers to the degree to which a test instru- 
ment actually nneasures or predicts specific behavior. For exannple, if 
intelligence is of spjecific interest, a desirable test instrument is one 
which will give an accurate measure of the concept of intelligence as 
currently defined and accepted . The concept of reliability refers to the 
consistency of test results over repeated testings: how closely will an 
individual's test score, or a test score on an alternate version of the 
same test, approxinnate the score he obtains on earlier or later testings 
with the same instrument? From a statistical point of view, reliability 
is a necessary condition for validity. These concepts will be explored 
later in greater detail. 

The Uses of Tests 



The purposes of tests are many, but generally tests are used to 
provide information for decision nnaking. Cronbach has suggested that 
"... the value of test information should be judged by how nnuch it 

improves decisions over the best possible decisions made without the 

2 
test." He p>oints out that if one desires to predict school grades, the 

information obtained fronn a scholastic aptitude test will not provide any 

greater accuracy than previous school grades. Generally speaking, then, 

tests provide information that is not easily obtained otherwise. 



Test information assists in nnaking two different types of decisions: 
institutional and individual . The purposes of decision making create the 
major difference between these two categories. 

Institutional decisions . Institutions make decisions according to 
their goals in contrast to the goals and wishes of the individual. Decisions 
are made from the perspective of the operation and maintenance of that 
institution. Forexannple, school personnel typically make institutional 
decisions concerning possible admission of students into college or special 
training programs. Test results usually affect those decisions. Similarly, 
the Army uses tests to assess special aptitudes and skills and to place 
personnel in special assignments or training programs . 

Industries, schools, and social service agencies typically make 
institutional decisions in similar ways. One such agency, a parole board, 
often needs to decide upon the possible release of a prisoner. To the 
extent that parole boards attempt to predict the offender's behavior and to 
select only those who exhibit the least potential for antisocial behavior, they 
engage in institutional decision making. In a similar way, probation 
officers and judges attempt to select good risks for probation. A "good 
risk" is defined as someone whose potential for repeating his offense is 
thought to be nninimal . In such cases, information is not always complete 
enough to make an intelligent decision. A test's value lies in its potential 
to provide greater accuracy in decision making over the best possible 
decisions nnade without test information. 



Individual decisions . Individual decisions pertain to unique and 
personal conditions. They are those a person nnakes about some aspect 
of his or her own life: the determination of a career, whether or not to 
enter a special training program or to go to college, the selection of a 
potential mate. In the social services, individual decisions may be made 
from the perspective of the person involved. Under certain conditions, for 
example, the social worker will make a decision for the client. 

There are several ways test information can be utilized in individual 
decision making. Vocational and aptitude tests are commonly used to help 
people make career choices. Numbers of young people often wonder what 
career best suits them or offers them the best chance of success. Fre- 
quently, vocational interest and aptitude batteries allow them focus on 
areas of interest with high success potential. 

Misuses of tests . Many counselors tend to rely too heavily on test 
information . As a result they may seriously linnit the options available 
to an individual . The writer has observed a number of persons who 
sought college preparation in social work simply because their high 
school counselor told them they had a high score in this area on a voca- 
tional interest test. One student decided to enter the field because of 
her high scor^ on a vocational interest battery and social work was the 
specific field nnentioned. Upon close examination, however, her interests 
and aptitudes did not support her test score, personal commitments, or 
her common sense. The writer has also talked with students who 



decided not to pursue paKicular programs in higher education because they 
had Tow test scores, despite the fact that in at least two such instances 
both students had achieved very commendable previous records of 
academic success . 

Research has demonstrated that success in academic programs 
predicts future success better than test scores. Thus, it would seem that 
a major decision made on the basis of a test score alone is undesirable . 

Tests do not naake decisions, they merely provide supplementary 
information for those who do make the decisions. An institutional or 
individual decision made on the basis of a single test score alone is a 
gross misuse and a misunderstanding of the purposes and limitations of 
tests . Tests merely sample behavior at any given time and place , and 
as such, are subject to various errors. Consequently, in many cases 
test scores and interpretations are insufficient tools, not to be 
exclusively relied upon. The reader is urged to utilize all the available 
information in making any kind of decision . 



NOTES 
CHAPTER I 

1 . L.J. Cronbach, "New Light on Test Strategy from Decision Theory," 
Proceedings of 1954 Invitational Conference on Testing Problenns 
(Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Service, 1955), pp. 31-32. 
2. Ibid. 



- 8 - 



CHAPTER II 
CLASSIFICATION OF TESTS 

Tests can be classified in a variety of ways — according to structure, 
purpose, and method of administration. They may be more or less 
objective or subjective, highly structured or unstructured, designed for 
administration to groups or individuals. Tests employed in clinical 
practice include intelligence tests, achievennent tests, aptitude tests, 
interest tests, and personality tests. There are other "special diag- 
nostic tests" frequently used to assess some particular limitation or 
potential — such as those especially designed to measure the nature and 
severity of certain types of reading or learning disabilities as well as 
those disabilities imposed by organic deterioration or damage . Some 
tests nneasure "talents" inherent to artistic or musical productivity. 
Intelligence tests have probably the longest and most comprehensive history 
in clinical, industrial, and academic settings, a fact due, perhaps, to the 
belief long inherent in Western society, that achievement and productivity 
highly correlate with a concept known as "intelligence." Controversies 
regarding the actual nature of intelligence have raged for thousands of 

- 9 - 



10 

years so that conflicting opinions and experinnental data occupy many 
volunnes. 

Since direct social service practitioners are likely to be most con- 
cerned with a test's intended purpose, a classification of tests was 
developed: 

1 . achievement and aptitude tests, including intelligence tests; 

2 . personality and interest tests; and 

3 . special diagnostic tests . 

A considerable amount of confusion exists concerning distinctions 
between intelligence, achievement, and aptitude. The crux of the 
argument is whether intelligence as a specific concept can be separated 
from other factors such as previous learning, achievement, and special 
kinds of aptitudes. Most theorists today would argue that intelligence 
tests, aptitude tests, and achievement tests all sample and measure 
various parts of the same thing. For example, Wechsler — who authored 
several intelligence tests — defined intelligence as "the aggregate or 
global capacity of the individual to act purposefully and think rationally 
and to deal effectively with his environment."^ Others argue that intelli- 
gence is a function of the total personality and cannot be separated from 
other aspects of the personality. However, Wesman advocates perhaps 
the most comprehensive and one of the nnost generally accepted definitions 
of intelligence in the literature: "Intelligence . . . is a summation of 
learning expediences." This definition recognizes that when measuring 



1 1 

intelligence the result of many learning experiences and diverse perfor- 
mances are actually sannpled. Wesman's definition, by implication, does 
away with artificial distinctions between intelligence, aptitude, and 
achievement tests . He contends that all of these devices measure what 
the individual has learned. The difference in labeling merely signifies 
the different purposes for which the tests will be used. This can be 
clarified by considering each of the three separate categories — intelli- 
gence tests, aptitude tests, and achievement tests. 

Intelligence Tests 

Intelligence tests comprise a highly specialized field with a vast 
body of literature and research surrounding their use. A tremendous 
variety of intelligence tests are available and in use . Each test reflects 
the specific definition of intelligence and different personality theory 
connmitment of the author. Sonne tests only include verbal material, 
others contain nnuch non-verbal material. Sonne stress problenn solving, 
while others ennphasize nnennory. Certain intelligence tests result in a 
single total score, for exannple an I.Q., whereas others yield several 
scores or subscores . 

Varying emphases lead to different test results. One should expect 
to find differences in the intelligence test scores of the same person who 
is examined with different tests. In each test, nneasures of different 
kinds of abilities are obtained. Under the circumstances it would be sur- 
prising if each intelligence gave us nearly the same test result. 



12 

For most purposes, intelligence tests are considered measures of 
general learning or scholastic aptitude, most useful in predicting achieve- 
ment in school, college, or training progranns. 

Aptitude Tests 

Aptitude tests also attempt to measure an individual's potential for 
achievement. However, aptitude tests focus on more circumscribed 
varieties of achievement than do intelligence tests in determining 
whether an individual has the potential for achievement in a specifically 
defined area. For example, an individual's artistic or nnechanical 
aptitude may be measured. Although intelligence correlates to a degree 
with both aptitude and achievement, studies have shown that high 
intelligence does not necessarily guarantee astuteness or potential in 
certain areas. Recent data shows that intelligence as generally defined 
does not highly correlate with creativity, especially in the artistic sense, 
as has been supposed. It is not unconnmon to observe individuals who 
appear extremely intelligent in the traditional sense of the word but who 
simply do not seem to possess or have developed certain aptitudes. Witness 
the college professor or physician who is a whiz in the classroom or 
operating roonn but who is helpless when faced with an ailing carburetor. 

An aptitude test uses a sample of behavior to predict future perfor- 
mance in some specific occupation or training program . 

In general use are two major types of aptitude tests: (1) broad-range 
aptitude test batteries to sample general aptitudes, and (2) specific 



13 

< 

aptitude tests to sample special aptitudes such as music, mathematics, 
and art . 

The most widely used broad-range batteries are the Differential 
Aptitude Tests (DAT), for high school students, and the General 
Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) currently utilized by the United States 
Employment Service. In addition, a myriad of multi-score aptitude 
test batteries exist. 

Often aptitude tests are employed in selecting individuals for jobs, 
for admission to special training programs, or for scholarships. 
Primarily, the tests predict an individual's potential for achievement 
in specific occupations or endeavors . 

Achievemient Tests 

Achievement tests, although in many ways similar to intelligence 
tests, are generally designed to determine what an individual has 
actually achieved in a certain area of endeavor. They are used to 
measure a person's present level of knowledge or competence in, for 
example, courses like nnathennatics, science, reading, chemistry, etc. 
Many achievement tests, unlike other types, are not standardized but are 
produced locally. For example, teachers normally develop achievement 
tests to deternnine mastery of the course material. Thus, an achieve- 
ment test examines a person's success in past or present study; in 
contrast, aptitude tests forecast success in some future study. 
Achievement tests, most widely used in academic settings, are usually 



14 

reported in the form of grade levels or similar measures of compari- 
son. 

Personality and Interest Tests 

Personality and interest tests focus on what a person typically does 
or might do in a given situation. What personality and interest tests 
nneasure, in contrast to intelligence or achievement tests, is far less 
clearly defined . Here a trennendous number of different ternns describe 
sinnilar kinds of things — ternns like adjustment, personality, tempera- 
nnent, interest, preferences, values, attitudes all describe similar, 
broadly defined attributes. It is difficult to say what a specific person- 
ality test score means, even after having given the matter careful 
consideration . 

Personality tests . Clinical psychologists and others interested in 
the prediction of human behavior have long favored personalib/ tests. 
They realize that those patterns of behavior usually referred to as "per- 
sonality" have a strong influence on what we do. Personality, for 
exannple, can largely determine how people characteristically use or 
direct their intelligence and special creative aptitudes. Indeed, person- 
ality "deficits" or distortions lead to little constructive use of one's 
talents. Thus, an assessnnent of personality is vital to those who attempt 
to help a person channel his or her efforts toward constructive vocational 
or social use. 



15 



Most personality tests rely on vaguely defined scores and scales 
used inconsistently fronn one author to the next, based on an unde in- 
lying rationale not always specified . 

Few people agree on a standard classification of personality tests. 
However, at least three different types of tests are in general use: 
1 . The objective test batteries not directly subject to clinical 
interpretation for initial scoring. The Minnesota Multi- 
phasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is one example of this 
particular test. 

2. The less commonly used situation test measures performance 
in complex life-like situations or simulated situations and 
tests special kinds of abilities involving overall responses 

of an individual to specific situations. Industry commonly 
uses it to test leadership abilities. When a person is given 
a group and a specific task to accomplish, he or she is 
observed in the process of completing the task, 

3 . Projective tests are designed to elicit subjects' responses to 
an ambiguous stimulus such as a picture or an inkblot. 

The individual's response is interpreted and scored on the 
assunnption that the way he organizes and responds to 
unstructured or ambiguous stinnuli indicates the way he 
organizes and responds to the world around him. Responses 
are assunned to be projections of the subject's unconscious 



16 

wishes, attitudes, and values. The scoring method is similar 

to the psychoanalytic method of dream interpretation. 

Typical projective tests in wide use are the Rorschach (inkblot) 

and the Thematic Appreception Test (TAT). 
Personality tests are primarily used to predict the future behavior 
of individuals in both general and specific situations . They commonly 
aid in predicting post-institutional adjustment for persons released 
from prisons, hospitals, and schools, or in predicting the likelihood of 
marital success or job performance. Test reports typically contain 
terms such as anxiety, ego, libido, cathexis, sublimation, etc. A 
great deal of controversy surrounds the use of various personality tests, 
especially regarding their validity and reliability. In general, projective 
tests are not uniformly accurate in predicting the behavior of individuals 
in either a specific or general situation, but are accurate, given extreme 
individuals and extreme situations. Although it may be fascinating, a 
projective test may prove disappointing if used to accurately predict 
behavior in a way that might be useful to most practitioners. 

Interest tests . Interest tests are specific personality tests used 
mainly in vocational and educational guidance . They are difficult to 
separate from aptitude tests, but come under the general category of 
personality tests because they are directed toward such things as predict- 
ing a person's potential satisfaction with a given type of work. The two 
nnost widely u^ed interest inventories are the Strong Vocational Interest 
Blank and the Kuder Preference Record (see exannple below). 



17 

Mr. Williams' scores on the Kuder Preference Record indicate that he 
is highly interested in science, computational activities, and clerical work. 
These interests are at the 95th, 91st, and 87th percentiles respectively. He 
demonstrates moderate interest in art and mechanical areas also. The latter 
interests are at the 75th and 70th percentiles . Training areas he may wish 
to consider then are: computer programming, computer technology, x-ray 
technology, laboratory technology, drafting, mechanical drawing, connputer 
systems analyst, electronics technology, radar technology, chemical standards 
work, industrial standards work, bookkeeping, accounting, printing, etc. As 
noted earlier, his intellectual level and academic preparation are quite 
sufficient for hinn to be successful in a four-year college or technical 
program . 

Interest tests generally rely on self-reporting techniques and are 
designed to sample both leisure time and work-related activities given 
specific personality aspects in the area of personal likes and dislikes. 
They are used to determine the amount of preference a person displays 
for one activity over another. For example, the inventories typically 
sample reading interest by asking people if they would prefer to read about 
adventure, business, science, or ronnance . Another example, the California 
Occupational Preference Survey, samples eight interest categories: science 
technical, outdoor, business, clerical, linguistic, aesthetic, and service. 

Although the interest inventories are considered separately for 
analysis, they are generally regarded as special personality nneasures 



18 

used specifically to predict occupational, vocational, and educational 
adjustment. However, for purposes of classification, we may regard 
them as personality measures that fall under the subcategory of objective 
testing devices. Almost all of the interest batteries rely on objectively 
scored testing methods based on standardized methodologies. 

Specific Diagnostic Tests 

A widely diverse group of tests developed for highly specific 
purposes tend to defy classification. Most such tests were developed 
to measure specific abilities or disabilities. Some tests diagnose 
cerebral pathology such as brain lesions or other organic abnormalities . 
There is disagreement as to how much these tests actually measure 
underlying pathology or primary causation as contrasted to possible poor 
learning conditions. For example, the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test , 
sonnetimes regarded as a test for the diagnosis of possible brain damage, 
may also be considered a straight-forward ability test. This test requires 
the subject to produce various geometric designs using a pencil and paper. 
The way in which they go about achieving this task is subject to various 
scoring procedures. Most examiners agree that the Bender Test (ByMOT") 
is basically a performance test since the examinee is affected by previous 
learning. However, ther^ is indication that the Bender does some rough 
screening for identifying persons with possible brain dannage. 



NOTES 
CHAPTER II 

1 . David Wechsler, The Measurement and Appraisal of Adult 
Intelligence, 4th ed. (Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1958), 
p. 7 . 

2. Alexander G, Wesman, "Intelligence Testing," American 
Psychologist 23 (1968) : 267. 



- 19 - 



CHAPTER III 
BASIC TEST CONCEPTS 

A knowledge of some basic testing concepts, including their con- 
struction and utilization, is central to understanding the Unnitations of 
various tests. Two concepts constitute the criteria used forjudging 
a test in its totality: reliability and validity. 

Reliability 

Reliability refers to the consistency of nneasurement of any test. 
A test cannot nneasure anything well unless that sonnething is measured 
consistently. It is important to realize that although a test measures 
things consistently it may not measure the desired characteristic. 

In Chapter I, tests were defined as samples of behavior. Because 
they are, they will show variation from sample to sample — that is, we 
nnay expect differences in the behavior of an individual from one testing 
situation to another. Reliability of a test is measured by the extent to 
which results vary from sample to sample . It is necessary to obtain a 
high degree of reliability in test results to ensure confidence in that 
test and to achieve validity. 

-■ - 20 - 



21 



Factors affecting reliability . A number of variation sources affect 
the reliability of tests. They are: 

1 . Test length . Assuming that fatigue does not become a major 
factor, a longer test is more likely to be reliable than a 
shorter test. 

2 . Time between tests . The length of time between two testings 
will affect reliability. The shorter the time between the two 
tests the more likely it is that the re-test will be similar. 

3 . Irregularity of testing conditions . Changes in conditions 
from one testing situation to another will affect the test 
reliability. Failure to follow specific directions for giving 
the test may reveal a considerable amount of difference on 
the scores obtained from the same test taken by the same 
individual at different times. Extreme differences in 
physical conditions — overly heated, uncomfortable test roonns, 
or poor lighting conditions — will also affect reliability. Other 
factors such as the examiner's responses, racial differences 
between the examiner and subject, moods, illness, cheating 
by the examinee, etc., may threaten test reliability. 

4. Scorer error . When tests are not scored objectively, or 
the details of scoring ignored, unreliability results. 
Objective tests reduce the possibilities for scorer error. 
Tests designed to elicit subjective responses require special 



22 

training for scoring. Indeed, many score errors occur as a 
result of the exanniner's inexperience. 

Determining reliability . Two basic procedures are used to establish 
test reliability: the test/re-test procedure and the alternate form 
procedure . The test/ re-test procedure involves testing and re-testing 
the same individuals at different tinnes using the same instrument. Test/ 
re-test results are usually reported as a reliability coefficient which 
represents the degree of agreement between the two nneasures. 

The alternate fornn procedure involves using two different tests 
designed to measure the same thing. Alternate fornn tests are used 
when the examiner believes that exposure to one test will contanninate 
the later responses of an individual if he or she is tested again with the 
same instrument. In other words, a person may have learned what to 
expect fronn a set of specific test questions, therefore, influencing 
his or her second response to the same set of questions. In this case, 
an alternate form of test may be developed to test similar attributes. 
Alternate form reliability is also reported as a reliability coefficient 
representing the degree of agreement between the two measures. 

In addition to reliability deternnined by the actual construction of 
the test, it is imperative that the reliability of test scoring be controlled. 
Scorer reliability may be an important factor for some tests — 
especially projective tests such as the Rorschach . Scorer reliability 
can generally be highly developed by providing standardized training 



23 

for scorers and by comparing the scoring of several examiners for the 
same test. It may also be reported as a numerical figure which is 
usually referred to as an interscorer reliability ratio. 

Validity 

In order to make a statement about the general validity of a test, 
it is essential that the user of any psychological test information 
determine what kinds of decisions he or she is going to make regarding 
the use of that test. In its broad sense, validity denotes the extent to 
which a test measures or predicts that for which it was designed. In 
other words, validity is the most basic and perhaps the most important 
single attribute of the test for it must do what it is designed to do. If 
a test is supposed to predict occupational success, the extent to which 
it does so may be said to be a measure of its validity. However, it is 
important to recognize that psychological tests may have a high degree 
of validity for one purpose but almost no validity for other purposes . 

Various measures of validity, used in psychological testing, 
include face validity, content validity, predictive validity, and 
construct validity . Although a great deal has been written about validity 
measures, for practical purposes most social service practitioners will 
prinnarily concern themselves with predictive validity. 

Predictive validity, also called empirical or criteKon validity, 
is established by detemnining how well a test predicts perfornnance 



24 

against a specific criterion. A test's validity is deternnined by opera- 
tionally defining what the test should do and what outcomes it can 
predict: The test's success in predicting that outcome is the extent to 
which the test proves valid. Thus, if a practitioner uses an instrument 
to screen people for discharge from a correctional institution, how well 
that instrument predicts specific aspects of post-institutional adjustment, 
such as recidivism, determines the test's validity. Again, validity is 
determined by a specific definition of what the test should do . The 
same test, for example, might prove ineffective in identilVing potential 
salesmen for an automobile agency. 

Schools establish predictive validity by using intelligence tests 
to predict potential achievement. Scores obtained on specific intelli- 
gence tests are compared with grades earned in school . In a similar 
way the predictions of occupational preference tests are validated by 
comparing ratings by individuals and employers at a later date. 
A number of factors influence predictive validity. 
1 . The specific criteria used to establish validation may vary 
from study to study with different scores obtained from each 
criteria. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully consider 
which criteria is most important for the decision at hand . 
2. Some tests are defined mKDre specifically than others in 

terms of what they are intended to do. For example, easily 
identified criteria such as school grades can validate a 



25 

scholastic aptitude test but it is very difficult, if not impossible, 
to establish an acceptable criteria for an anxiety scale or a 
value scale. Where such difficulty in defining criteria related 
to the intended results of the test exists, high validity cannot 
be expected. 
Practitioners should keep in mind a general, useful rule of thunnb: 
For a test to have any utility, it must provide accurate information that 
can help to predict behavior . Thus, the less specific the objectives of 
the test, the less useful it is in predicting behavior. 

Predictive validity is generally reported as a numerical figure 
called a validity coefficient; a nneasure of validity achieved by connputing 
a coefficient of correlation between the test and a criterion. 



CHAPTER IV 
BASIC STATISTICAL CONCEPTS 

In addition to understanding reliability and validity as essential 
concepts underlying test construction, the consumer of test infornnation 
should know how test results are typically reported . 

Nornns 

The fanniliar expression, "How are you?" and the response, "In 
relation to what?", best expresses what norms are all about. That is, 
they provide those standards against which a given value is compared . 
Norms may be used to determine how well a person does in connparison 
to other people. 

Many people in the social services view test results simply in the 
form of a raw score. Without more information, it is impossible to use 
the test results to make a productive decision. For example, the raw 
score of 65 may mean that 65 test items were answered correctly. 
If there is no nornn for comparing that score with other people's responses, 
one can attach no meaning to that score. A set of norms is imperative to 
understand the meaning of raw test scores. 

.. - 26 - 



27 

Cronbach has defined a test as "a systematic procedure for compai — 
ing the behavior of two or more persons." In spite of the philosophical 
difficulties one may have with making comparisons, psychological 
testing does just this. A norm is nothing nnore than an average score 
for a specified group used to make comparisons between individuals and 
groups. On some tests, for example, the performance of persons in a 
specific geographic location is connpared with the performance of 
persons nationally. 

It must be perfectly clear to the social service practitioner just how 
an individual's test results compare with specific responses from other 
groups. Who or what a person is compared to nnakes a great deal of 
difference. Consider the following exannple. Jane Sloe, a seventeen- 
year-old inmate in the state correctional institution for girls, received 
a raw score of 163 on a vocabulary test designed to predict acadennic 
success in collegiate programs. At this point, her probation officer 
nnust decide whether to release her by September 1 so she may enter 
college. Her raw score of 163 nneans that she did as well or better than: 

99 percent of the residents of the state school for girls; 

87 percent of the twelfth-grade students in Capital City; 

83 percent of the entering freshmen at State University; 

75 percent of the graduating seniors at State University; 

96 percent of the custodial and treatment staff at state school for 
girls; 



28 

15 percent of the faculty in the English Departnnent at State 
University . 
Although Jane's absolute performance remains unchanged, the impression 
of how well she has done may differ considerably as the norm groups 
change. Admittedly, this illustration is extreme, but it does point up 
the importance of specifying the norm group to which one compares a 
person. 

Thus, to fully understand a norm group one must gather as much 
infornnation describing the norm group as possible and determine how 
the person tested differs fromi it. In viewing any norm group, consider 
such innportant variables as age, sex, previous education, socio-economic 
background, ethnic membership, and occupation. In other words, one 
should use the most appropriate norm group for the individual examinee 
and the situation involved . 

Publishers supply norm information on most standardized tests, 
especially educational achievement tests. Most test publishers routinely 
report norm information and specify if they will make available both 
local and national norm information. In addition, standard test 
references also report nornns . Social service practitioners should use 
this rule of thunnb regarding norms: the more infornnation provided 
describing the norm group, the more accurately you can assess to what 
extent a given individual resennbles the norm group. 



29 

Test manuals usually provide brcadly based or "national" norms. 
When using such norms it is innportant to get more detailed information 
about the groups used to establish these norms . Most of the norm groups 
will not comprise an entire population; they sample what the test con- 
structors think of as the relevant population. To establish norms, they 
divide the relevant population into subgroups that appear in the sample in 
proportion to their numbers in the population. Ideally, those individuals 
who connprise the sample from each subgroup are selected randomly. 
Frequently, test constructors subdivide populations according to such 
characteristics as rural-urban residence, age, sex, race, socio- 
economic status, religion, and geographic region. Sonnetimes they 
seek to establish from a specific stratified population of people what 
they consider to be normal performance ranges. In sonne cases, 
however, they nnay leave out certain elements of the population in the 
original norming groups, thus making the specific test irrelevant for 
use on that population. For example, one of the most frequent 
cirticisms of intelligence tests is that adequate sannples of Anne ri can 
Indians were not included in the original norming group. Such tests, 
like the Wechsler Intelligence Scales , may make a poor basis for connparing 
the performance of American Indians to other segments of the population. 

Social service practitioners, then, nnust focus on the detailed 
description of the norm group's relevant characteristics. Furthermore, 
when subgroup differences are known to be related to test performances. 



30 

it is important to report separate norms for the subgroups. A case in 
point involves the effects of early child-rearing practices and develop- 
ment in multi-lingual homes . A test that focuses on the development of 
English vocabulary, standardized on a population of midwestern school 
children, nnay not be a valid basis for comparing the performance of 
southwestern Chicano children who come from Spanish-speaking homes. 
Again, it may be desirable and even necessary to establish separate 
norms for people from a similar population before meaningful comparisons 
are made. One must remember that how accurately a norm group repre- 
sents the population to be tested is nnore essential than the absolute size 
of that norm group. True, the larger the sample the more stable the 
statistics based on the sannple, but a representative norm group of modet~- 
ate size is more useful than a large, poorly defined group. 

Measures of Position 

Numbers which tell us where a score value stands within a set of 
scores are measures of position. There are two comnnonly used 
nneasures of position: rank and percentile rank. 

Rank is the simplest description of position. It designates the 
highest, the next highest, the third highest, and on to the lowest — a simple 
way of describing the position of a person or a score with respect to a 
distribution of scores. However, it has a major limitation: its interpre- 
tation depends on the size of the group. It is generally used in an informal 
sense such as designating a person's standing in their high school 



31 

graduating class; but the meaning of graduating first in a class of three 
in the Polaris, Montana High School is not as clear as graduating first 
in a class of 5,000. 

Percentile rank states a person's relative position within a defined 
group. Thus, a percentile rank of 97 indicates a score as high or higher 
than those made by 97 percent of the people in that particular group. 
Percentile ranks are one of the nnost widely used nneasures of position 
for reporting test scores, especially on scholastic achievement tests. 
Although easily understood and commonly used, percentile ranks have a 
major limitation; they are based on the number of people with scores 
higher or lower than the specified score value. Percentile ranks tend 
to obscure all information about those scores' distribution and the 
absolute differences in raw scores achieved by individuals. However, 
this information can be regained by focusing on other measures of 
variability and central tendency. 

Measures of Central Tendency 

A measure of central tendency is a representative common denomina- 
tor for a set of scores . Three common measures of central tendency are 
in general use: the arithmetic mean, the crude mode, and the median. 

Mean . The mean, or arithmetic mean, is nothing nnore than an 
average. To arrive at the nnean, all the scores are added up and divided 
by the number of scores . 



32 

Median . The median is the nnidpoint of an array of scores . It 
is the point above which and below which 50 percent of the scores fall. 
The median is determined by simply ordering the scores from the lowest 
to the highest and selecting the middle score in the range of scores 
represented. For example, if there are five scores present, as follows, 
1-3-6-9-12, the middlemost score in this distribution, or the median, is 6, 
The median is the score's position with respect to others and has very 
little to do with the absolute value of that score . 

Mode . The mode is the nnost frequent score occurring in a distribu- 
tion . Thus, for the scores 1-5-5-2-5-3-5, the mode is 5. This is one of 
the crudest measures of central tendency and is used only for rough 
estinnates. 

Measures of Variability 

Measures of variability describe the extent of score dispersion in a 
particular distribution and the degree to which scores vary from each 
other. It is important to know about variability nneasures in order to 
compare the score of a given person or group of persons with the disper- 
sion that is logically or reasonably expected. Comnnon measures of 
variability include range, semi-interquarterile range, and the standard 
deviation . 

Range . Range arrives at a rough measure of variability by 
identifying the two nnost extrenne scores, i.e. , the highest and lowest 



33 

score. Thus, the range is simply the difference between the highest and 
the lowest score . 

The senni-interquartile range . The senni-interquartile range 
describes the dispersion represented by the middle half of a distribution. 
In other words, the semi-interquartile range represents the distance 
between the twenty-fifth and the seventy-fifth percentile on a distribution. 
It is used in conjunction with the median as a measure of central tendency, 
especially where the test achieves atypical and highly unexpected distribu- 
tions . 

Standard deviation . Standard deviation is perhaps the most widely 
used, most dependable measure of variability because it fits mathematically 
with other statistics and thus becomes the basis for a number of other 
statistical measures, including standard scores, deviation I.Q.s, T 
scores, and z scores. The standard deviation is the square root of the 
mean of the squared deviations from the mean (of a distribution). The 
standard deviation is generally represented either by the Greek symbol a 
or the letter s . Thus s = a = standard deviation . 

The standard deviation is used to make interpretations of the 
variability of scores in a distribution. For example, the standard devia- 
tion has known characteristics. In a normal distribution of scores, about 
34 percent of those scores lie between the mean and a point that is one 
standard deviation on either side of the mean. Thus, 68 percent of the 
scores on that distribution will be dispersed between a point lying one 
standard deviation below and one standard deviation above the mean. In 



34 

other words, we know that in a nornnal distribution we can expect approxi- 
mately 68 percent of the population to fall within one standard deviation + 
of the nnean . 

You will find knowledge of this dispersion useful because if you know 
the standard deviation of a test and a person's score you can use this 
infornnation to estimate how that person compares with others who have 
taken the same test. For example, the standard deviation on the Wechsler 
Adult Intelligence Scale is 15 and the mean is 100. Thus, if we find a 
person who scores at 145 on the Wechsler , we can translate that information 
as follows: he has scored three standard deviations above the mean or 
higher than 99 percent of the people who have taken the examination. This 
calculation was achieved by adding the number of standard deviations above 
the mean to the percentage of cases included below the nnean (the bottom 
50 percent). The standard deviations can be converted into percentages 
of cases by reference to standard tables such as found in Table I. 

Measures of Correlation 

Measures of correlation determine how much two or more variables 
relate to each other. A correlation coefficient is an index number which 
expresses, in nunnerlcal values which range from .00 (no relationship) 
to +1 .00 (perfect relationship) or to -1 .00 (negative relationship), the 
degree of relationship between two or more variables . The higher the 
number expressed as a coefficient of correlation, the more clearly 
related the two variables — and one must rennember that negative correla- 
tions are as important as positive correlations. 



35 



TABLE I 
COMPARISON OF SOME STANDARD SCORES 



Percent of scores in 
that portion of the 
distribution 

Standard Deviation 
Units 




-4s -3s -2s -1s Mean +1s +2s +3s +4s 



Approximate Cumulative 
Percentages 



0.1% 2% 16% 50% 84% 98% 99+% 



T Scores 



Deviation I .Q.S 
Wechsler 



Stanford-Binet 



IT ED 



CEEB 



A OCT 



20 30 40 



5 10 



50 



15 



60 70 80 



55 70 85 100 115 130 145 



52 68 84 100 116 132 148 



20 25 30 



200 300 400 500 600 700 800 



J_ 



J L 



40 60 80 



100 



120 140 160 



36 

Correlation coefficients are utilized in testing to report measures 
of validity and reliability. Validity studies use them to express the 
degree of relationship between the test scores and certain criterion values, 
Reliability studies use them to express the degree of relationship between 
scores for both test/ re-test and alternate forms of reliability. 

Two of the several methods used to compute correlation coefficients 
are the popular Pearson Product Moment Correlation Method and the 
Spearman Rank Difference Correlation Method. Any elementary statisti- 
cal textbook contains these and other methods for calculating correlation 
coefficients and for determining the reliability of those coefficients. 

Inferential Statistics 



Inferential statistics are sonnetimes called probability statistics 
because these measures tell us how much confidence nnay be placed in 
descriptive statistics — those numbers used to describe the actual results 
that people achieve on tests. Generally, inferential statistics are 
reported as "probability values." They indicate how likely the results 
obtained on a given test would occur by chance alone. Of the few inferen- 
tial statistics referred to in test literature, perhaps the most important 
is the standard error of measurement. The standard error is a statistic 
used to estinnate how likely a specific test score will diverge from the 
true score achieved by a person. In other words, the standard error indi- 
cates how much a person's score would vary if he or she were exannined 



37 

repeatedly with the same test. This standard error of measurement is 
one way of expressing a test's reliability. 

Other inferential statistics commonly used include thejK^ (Chi 
Square) test and the Fisher's t. For further information regarding 
inferential statistics, a basic textbook on probability statistics should be 
consulted . 

Raw and Standard Scores 

The direct numerical report of a person's test performance is 
called the raw score. This score may represent the number of questions 
answered, the time required to connplete the test, or any other numerical 
value representing test perfornnance. Raw scores are easily misundei — 
stood because they do not include a basis for connparison. Testers 
generally convert them into standard scores which are then reported. 

Standard scores, derived from raw scores, are used as part of a 
scoring systenn which usually offers other infornnation so that all scores 
provide a basis for comparison. They are used to report test results in 
almost all intelligence and achievement tests . Rennemiber: (1) most 
standard scores are based on the properties of the nornnal curve, and 
(2) standard scores generally include such infornn ation as the mean and 
the standard deviation of the distr ibution . They are extremely useful 
because they pernnit comparisons between tests that have similar types of 
scoring systems. The basic standard score is the z score — a nnethod of 
comparing scores on one test with scores on other tests. 



38 

Following is an example of the use of standard scones in comnnon 
psychological tests. The I.Q., or Intelligence Quotient , used around the 
turn of the century as a way of measuring the intellectual capacities of 
people, was computed by determining the ratio between mental age and 
chronological age . Although this particular method was used in the 
original Stanford-Binet Individual Intelligence Test , it is now nearly 
obsolete. Instead, the Stanford-Binet and other tests such as the Wechsler 
have converted to a standard score known as a deviation I.Q. 

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale s (WAIS) established the 
deviation I.Q. by utilizing six verbal subtests and five perfornnance sub- 
tests, each of which yield a raw score, establishing different norm groups 
to cover different age ranges from 16 to 64 years. A raw score distribu- 
tion resulted for each of the eleven subtests. Each subtest raw score was 
then converted into a standard score with a mean of 10 and a standard 
deviation of 3. The sunn of all the subtests provides an overall raw score 
which is converted to a standard score with a standard deviation of 15 and 
a mean of 100. Tables are provided for the conversion and to adapt for 
different age groups. Thus, the WAIS user now only needs to consult the 
appropriate table to find the I.Q. value which corresponds to the sum of 
the subtest scores. 

In a similar way, the 1960 revision of the Stanford-Binet was con- 
verted to adopt the deviation I.Q. so that the standard deviation would be 
consistent from age to age . Previously it was noted that the standard 



39 

deviation for different ages in the 1937 revision of the Stanford-Binet 
differed by as nnuch as 8 I.Q. points. Thus, the Stanford-Binet evolved 
to have a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 16. The way in which 
the raw scores are converted to scaled scores and thus the deviation I.Q. 
is very sinnilar to the procedure ennployed in the Wechsler tests. 

Another comnnonly encountered test which is based on a standard 
score is the College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) , administered 
by the Educational Testing Service. The CEEB was standardized on a 
population of college applicants in 1941 . Using the scores based on the 
applicants of 1941 , the testers have developed the CEEB as follows. The 
mean of the test is 500, the standard deviation is 100. With this informa- 
tion in mind, the test user can estimate the relative position of any 
person's given score. For example, a score of 800 on the CEEB is three 
standard deviations above the mean . This means that the examinee 
achieved a higher score than over 99 percent of the population on which 
the test was standardized. 

Other connmonly used standard scores include the Stanine Score, 
the T Scale Score, the C Scale Score, the Sten Score, and the Iowa Test 
of Educational Development (ITED) Score. Although a number of other 
types of standard scores are used. Table I will give the reader a general 
idea of how the commonly used scales compare with each other. 



40 



Ratio Scores and Placement Scores 

Because the term "I.Q." can mean several different things, it is 
frequently misused and nnisunderstood. The original I.Q. concept 
developed by Terman was a ratio type I.Q. found by the formula I.Q. = 
100 X p^ , where MA is mental age figured fronn an intelligence test and 
CA is the exanninee's chronological age at the time of testing. The 
rationale of the ratio type I.Q. is widely understood but this type of score 
has many limitations for it imiplies that mental age units are of equal size, 
which is not verified by research evidence. Ratio I.Q.s work reasonably 
well if the examinee's age is between five to fifteen. Outside of these 
approximate limits, they tend toward invalidity. This is because the 
differences (in nnental growth) between the ages of five and six, for 
example, are nnuch greater than between the ages of fifteen and sixteen 
or between twenty-five and twenty-six. Unlike chronological age units, 
nnental age units are not equal. Thus, when interpreting an MA or ratio 
I.Q., the social service worker nnust be cautious . 

Another type of comnnonly used ratio score is the educational quotient. 
It resembles the mental age concept and is used to estimate a person's 
nnininnal perfornnance in comparison with other people who perform in 
educational settings. Dividing an educational age score achieved on a 
test (EA)by the chronological age and multiplying by 100 will result in the 
educational quotient (E.Q. = 100 x ■^). Educational quotients have the 
same advantages and limitations as ratio I.Q.s. However, they are only 
used with school-level achievement tests . 



41 

The most common score used in reporting performance on standard- 
ized achievement tests for school children is the grade placement score 
which resembles the age scores. It is found by determining the average 
score of school students at a corresponding grade placement. Grade 
placement scores are usually stated in tenths of a school year. For 
example, 6.2 refers to the second month of grade six. This approach 
assumes that children learn relatively uniformly throughout the school 
year but that no learning occurs during the summer vacation — an assumption 
not necessarily true. Grade placement scores, however, are generally 
used to estimate where a person should be placed in school- related work. 



NOTES 
CHAPTER IV 

1 . Cronbach, Essentials of Psychological Tests , pp. cit. , p. 21 



- 42 - 



CHAPTER V 
LIMITATIONS OF TESTS 

Supplementary Measures 

The full assessment of a person's abilities, disabilities, and various 
personal qualities requires a progressive type of approach. Since a test 
is simply a behavior sample to be regarded cautiously, it follows that test 
scores are minimal estimates of behavior and abilities. Broad spectrum 
tests like the Wechsler Intelligence Scales are initial steps to assessing 
general ability. When a social service worker must make an important 
decision, he or she should move through progressive stages of assess- 
ment, using test information that deals with specific intellectual, perceptual, 
and/or cognitive factors. Existing tests can only provide clues and rough 
estinnates regarding an individual's abilities and capacities. REGARD THE 
RESULTS OF ANY ONE TEST CAUTIOUSLY. 

Test Construction Limits 



One of the major difficulties in deciding how to best use the various 
kinds of test results springs fronn the uncertainty over what tests actually 
measure . Some tests are designed to measure verbal learning and 

- 43 - 



44 

abstractions, while others assess manual skill potentials. The Wechsler 
and the Stanford-Binet were originally constructed to nneasure both 
performance and verbal factors. Yet many psychologists agree that the 
weighting of the Stanford-Binet is more toward measuring verbal ability 
than are the Wechsler tests which strike a more even balance between 
verbal and performance items. However, a person's achievement on 
either verbal or performance tests partially reflects previous learning 
experiences. Thus a number of other factors, all related to previous 
exposure to similar materials, are important determinants for assessing 
test limitations . 

Factors such as membership in specific geographic groups are 
related to mastery of subject content. For example, urban residents 
are exposed to a more diverse range of stimuli than are rural residents. 
A rural resident may define an elevator as a grain storage facility, while 
an urban resident nnay describe an elevator as a device used to nnove 
people up and down in a building. If this were a test question, i.e. , define 
an elevator, standardized on an urban population, the rural answer might 
be judged unacceptable. Such a question will not fairly measure the rural 
resident's potential ability to acquire knowledge. Similarly, many 
achievement and ability tests do not fairly sample the potential abilities 
of members of various ethnic groups. 



45 

Effects of Culture 

For a test to be truly fair, all of the examinees should have had an 
equal opportunity to acquire the needed background . There have been 
many attempts to construct culture-free or culture-fair tests — those that 
supposedly do not depend on previous experience — but most social 
scientists believe that experience affects all behavior. 

A number of cultural factors affect test performance. Previous 
training experiences influence outcome. The Zuni Indians are taught 
cooperation rather than competition, and so the performance of a Zuni 
Indian on a competitive test may reflect this teaching and could vary 
considerably fronn a person reared in a culture which stresses connpeti- 
tion . Some tests may exhibit a cultural bias simply because the examinee 
is not familiar with the testing materials. 

Additional factors that affect test scores include the sex and race 
of the examiner. Carkhuff and Pierce have reported that the race of both 
the examiner and the tester appear to have a significant effect upon the 
outcome of clinical interviews . "• Unless the culture and communication 
patterns of the group tested are thoroughly understood, the examiner, no 
matter how unprejudiced or objective, may not obtain maximum results 
in the test procedure. Sensitivity to all aspects of a subject's behavior is 
essential for acquiring a fair test result. This type of sensitivity does not 
develop through academic efforts, but rather through prolonged, intimate 
contact with the specific ethnic group. 



46 

Most tests used for individual mental testing do not truly represent 
Sonne of the ethnic groups in the United States. For example, since 
the Stanford-Binet standardized on white, nniddle-class subjects, it 
primarily nneasures verbal ability and generally reflects this culture; 
subjects from other ethnic groups often do poorly on this scale. The WAIS 
and the WPPSI include black subjects in the norming group, but not other 
ethnic groups. Furthermore, since the WISC includes only white students 
in the standardization sample, the scoring criteria used in establishing 
correct and incorrect responses discriminate against the responses made 
by Chicanes and American Indians. Thus, when these standard instruments 
for determining the ability of ethnic minority nnennbers, especially American 
Indians, rural residents, Chicanos, and others not represented, are used 
they should be interpreted with extreme caution and regarded as minimal 
estimates of ability. 

When test results are used to evaluate the potential performance of 
a minority group member, the purpose those results serve should be 
constantly kept in mind by the social service practitioner. Although a 
test may discriminate against members of a specific minority group, this 
will not necessarily diminish the test's predictive validity when used to 
determine success in, say, a school program. If you want to obtain an 
estimate of a minority person's chances of succeeding in a training 
program, a standard intelligence test may prove a valid predicting instru- 
ment. 



47 

Other Limitations 

Keep in mind, always, that the performance of a ny ind ividual on a 
t est is simply a sample of behavior , and as such, performance in any one 
test is a minimal estimate. Naturally, the more measures of similar 
variables the more reliance one can place on such estimates^ but any 
contradictory scores on two or more tests that measure similar attributes 
should be noted. If such a contradiction exists, seek professional inter- 
pretation of the differences — at least three different variables may be 
involved, including differences between the tests themselves, differences 
in the individual or the group being tested, and differences in the conditions 
of test administration fronn one test to another. 



NOTES 
CHAPTER V 

1 . R.R. Carkhuff and R. Pierce, "Differential Affects of Therapist , 
Race, and Social Class upon Patient Depth of Self-Exploration in the 
Initial Clinical Interview," Journal of Consulting Psychology 31 (1967) 
632-35. 



- 48 - 



CHAPTER VI 
HOW TO /W\KE A TEST REFERRAL 

Most social service personnel should nnake test referrals as a 
nornnal or routine part of their work. The best test referrals identify 
the specific information sought . 

Since testing should have as its major purpose the provision of 
useful information for decision making, the psychologist who selects a 
test that will provide such information needs to know what kinds of deci- 
sions the social service worker intends and, in addition, will need to 
know what kinds of information are already available about the subject. 
Following is a suggested guide for making test referrals . 

Suggested Guide for Test Referrals 

1 . Reason for referral — what kind of information do you want and 

what kinds of decisions will you try to make . 
2. Description of the subject, including: 

a. age; 

b . sex; 

c . education; 

d . occupation and employment history; 

- 49 - 



50 

e. ethnic membership and experience; and 

f. note any special disabilities, handicaps, or physical 
abnormalities . 

3. The results of any previous testing, if available — including 
testing dates, scores, and test names. 

4. A brief history of the subject's involvement with the agency. 

5 . A brief statennent of any case-management plans you have 
for the subject. 

Given this information, a competent examiner should be able to 
select the tests that will best provide the information you need . The 
examiner should also be able to interpret the tests' results in a way 
that is useful in making specific case management decisions , 

Some Hints for Dealing With Psychologists 

If your test report is in a form that is difficult to use in decision 
making, ask the exanniner for a consultation or interpretation. But 
remember, what you get out of such a meeting largely depends on the 
questions asked , It is advisable to key your questions to specific decisions 
about the subject. For example, will Johnny get through college at 
State University? Or, is there a possibility Johnny may commit suicide? 

Although no examiner can answer either question with certainty, 
he/she can provide some information about the probability of either event 
occurring . Ethical examiners will also provide the necessary explanations 
about the limitation of the instrunnent . 



51 

Some test reports may be confusing because the examiner used 
special tests which the test results do not explain. It is always appropriate 
to ask the examiner to explain the purpose of all tests given. 

You should also prepare people referred for psychological tests for 
the actual examination procedure . Such preparation should include an 
explanation of why the referral was made and a description of what they 
should expect in the testing situation — how long it will take, where it will 
be done, etc. You can obtain this information from the examiner on request. 

It is not generally appropriate to request the examiner to administer 
a specific test. Leave test selection up to the examiner unless you can 
make a special case to justify an exception. 

Many test reports contain much technical jargon. You can always 
ask examiners to explain all terms you do not understand in a test 
report. Technical jargon is meant for other psychologists and does not 
generally convey a great deal of meaning to many test information users. 

Psychological examiners have no magical powers. The same infor- 
mation coming out of a psychological examination might well come from 
others in everyday situations. People who have known the subject over 
a period of time and have observed him/her in different situations can often 
tell you more about the subject than most examiners. Remember that 
tests only sample behavior; what happens in real life also fully indicates 
what to expect from that person. 



CHAPTER VII 
SOME COMMONLY USED TESTS 

Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) 

The DAT battery, originally published in 1947, is currently avail- 
able in two forms. High schools use it for counseling students in grades 
eight through twelve. The eight tests measure aptitudes which previous 
research had found important in guidance. 

The DAT prinnarily provides a standardized procedure for mea- 
suring boys' and girls' nnultiple aptitudes for educational and vocational 
guidance . It yields separate scores from eight subtests plus a score 
resulting fronn a combination of two of the eight subtests . The eight tests 
are: Verbal Reasoning, Numerical Ability, Abstract Reasoning, Clerical 
Speed and Accuracy, Mechanical Reasoning, Space Relations, Language 
Usage (which includes Spelling and Language Usage) which deals with 
grammar. The tests require six to thirty minutes of working time, plus 
additional time for directions. Thus, each of three sessions need eighty 
nninutes. Except for the clerical test, tests are not timed. 

Both test/ re-test and alternate forms of reliability determination 
have achieved highly acceptable reliability figures. 

- 52 - 



53 

Validity has primarily been established by attempting to match test 
performance with later course grades. In this respect, predictive 
validity has been high enough to demonstrate correlations ranging from 
.70 to .80. In general, however, the predictive validity for the subscales 
instrument is not very high, usually around the area of .50. The best 
overall predictor of grades is the combination score reported for verbal 
reasoning and numerical ability. 

The sampling of over 50,000 students from 195 different schools 
in 43 states, representing all major geographic areas in the United 
States, established DAT norms. (There are separate norms for boys 
and girls and also for Fall and Spring Semester testing.) These norms 
are expressed as percentile ranks and stanines . Remennber: Although 
the DAT predicts success in coursework and grades reasonably well, it 
does not adequately predict vocational success. Therefore, use it with 
considerable caution when advising students on career selection. The 
DAT should be used with other instruments for best results . 



Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test (Draw-A-Man Test) 

This test was designed for children five to fifteen years of age to 
evaluate intelligence by analysis of the child's drawings of a man and a 
woman. It can be used as an initial screening test, a rapid way of gaining 
an impression of a child's general ability levels and as a means of esti- 
mating the mental ability of children for whom the usual verbal tests of 
ability are inappropriate . 



54 

The test booklets provide three spaces for the child to produce 
drawings: one for the drawing of a nnan, one for a woman, and one for 
a self-portrait. The examiner asks the child to draw the very best 
picture possible of a man, a woman, and himself or herself. The child 
is cautioned to make a whole person, not simply a head and shoulders 
view. Although the test is not time limited, the child usually completes 
it in ten to fifteen minutes. Tests may be administered either to groups 
or to individual children. 

The test contains fairly explicit scoring directions. It has, according 
to research, relatively high coefficients of interscorer reliability (approxi- 
mately .90), but tests for test/ re-test reliability only range from a test/ 
re-test reliability of .94 for a one-day interval between testing to .65 
for a three-year interval between testings. Most test/ re-test reliability 
coefficients for other tests range between .60 and .70. 

The Draw-A-Man Test 's validity has been prinnarily demonstrated 
by correlations with scores on other tests. Correlations with the earlier 
fornns of the Stanford-Binet range fronn .30 to .74, and range similarly 
in other tests: reports show correlations of this test and the WISC 
between .40 and .50. 

Samples of 300 children at each age level fromi 5 to 15 years, 
selected as representative of the population of the United States accord- 
ing to father's occupation and geographic region, established norms for 
these scoring scales . (The test manual reports standard score norms 
which have a mean of 100 and' a standard deviation of 15.) 



55 

Limitations. Because, on this test, the standardized sample of 
population held only a few critical variables constant (such as father's 
occupation and geographic region) the nornns may not be useful for special 
ethnic groups such as American Indians or residents of extremely rural 
areas. Also, this test's validity has been established prinnarily by 
comparison with scores on other tests , 

Thus, the Draw-A-Man Test may only generally indicate the 
likelihood of a child scoring well on another test, and nnay be invalid as 
a predictor of potential performiance in training programs. In sumnnary, 
the social service practitioner should regard this test with caution for 
it only roughly estinnates intellectual ability. Other nneasures of general 
intellectual ability should supplement it. 

Other Drawing Tests 

Although almost every art media, technique, and type of subject 
matter has been investigated in the search for significant diagnostic 
clues, special attention centers on drawings of the human figure. The 
Machover Draw-A- Person Test is a well-known example. In this test, 
the examiner provides the subject with a letter-size sheet of paper and a 
medium-soft pencil and tells him/her to simply "draw a person," or — to 
young children — "draw somebody" or "draw a boy or girl." Upon comple- 
tion of the first drawing, the examiner asks the subject to draw a person 
of the opposite sex from the first figure. While the subject draws, the 
examiner notes comments, the sequence in which parts are drawn, and 



56 

other procedural details. An inquiry nnay follow this drawing in which 
the subject is asked to make up a story about each person drawn "as if 
he were a character in a play or novel." During the inquiry a series of 
questions elicits specific information about age, schooling, occupation, 
family, and other facts associated with the characters portrayed. 

Qualitative judgements, involving the preparation of a composite 
personality description from the analysis of the many features of the 
drawing, and considering the absolute and relative male and fennale figures' 
size, their position on the page, quality of lines, sequence of parts drawn, 
stance, front or profile view, position of arms, depiction of clothing, 
and background and grounding effects — all of these make up the scoring 
of this test. Omission of bodily parts, disproportions, shading, amount 
and distribution of details, erasures, symmetry and other stylistic 
features produce special interpretations. Each major body part, 
such as head, individual facial features, hair, neck, shoulders, breast, 
trunk, hips, and extremities, is regarded as significant. 

The interpretive guide to the Draw-A- Person Test contains sweeping 
generalizations, such as "disproportionately large heads will often be 
given by individuals suffering from organic brain disease" or "the sex 
given the proportionately larger head is the sex that is accorded more 
intellectual and social authority." But no evidence supports these 
statements. The guide also refers to a "file of thousands of drawings" 
examined in clinical context and a few selected cases are cited for 



57 

illustrative purposes, but no systematic presentation of data acconnpanies 
the published test reports . 

Validation studies of this test by other investigators have yielded 
conflicting results. Attempts to develop semi-objective scoring procedures 
which utilize rating scales or checklists have met with little success. The 
test may succeed nnore with children and other relatively naive subjects 
than with sophisticated adult groups. Although it appears to differentiate 
between seriously disturbed persons and normals, its discriminative 
value within relatively nornnal groups is questionable . Research on the 
P raw- A- Person Te st has been inadequate largely because of failure to 
cross-validate . 

The House-Tree- Person Projective Technique (H-T -P) devised by 
Buck, has aroused considerable interest as witnessed by the number of 
relevant research publications. In this test, the subject is told to draw 
as good a picture of a house as possible, then the sanne for a "tree" and 
a "person." Meanwhile, the exanniner takes copious notes on tinne, 
sequence of parts drawn, spontaneous comments by the subject, and 
expressions of ennotion. Oral inquiry, including a long set of standardized 
questions, follows completion of the drawings. The examiner analyzes the 
drawings both quantitively and qualitatively, chiefly on the basis of their 
formal or stylistic characteKstics. 

In discussing the rationale underlying the choice of objects to draw. 
Buck maintains that "house" should arouse association concerning the 



58 

subject's home and those lived with; "tree" should evoke associations 
pertaining to life goals and ability to derive satisfaction from the environ- 
nnent in general; and "person" should call up associations dealing with 
interpersonal relationships. Some clinicians may find helpful leads in such 
drawings when considered jointly with other information about the individual 
case. The elaborate, lengthy adnninistrative and scoring procedures 
described by Buck appear unwarranted in light of the highly inadequate 
nature of the supporting data. 

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) 

The design of the MMPI provides an objective assessment of sonne 
of the major personality characteristics that affect personal and social 
adjustment. The scales provide a measurement for the personality status 
of literate adolescents and adults together with a basis for evaluating the 
acceptability and dependability of each test record . Nine scales were 
originally developed for the test's clinical use and were named for the 
abnornnal conditions on which their construction was based. Since they 
have proved meaningful within the normal range of behavior, these scales 
are now referred to by their abbreviations — Hs (hypochondrasis), 
D (depression), Hy (hysteria), Pd (psychopathic deviate), Mf (masculinity- 
feminity). Pa (paranoia), Pt (psychoasthenia), Sc (schizophrenia), and Ma 
(hypomania) — to avoid possible misleading connotations . Development of 
these test items has produced a number of other scales: Si (social 



59 

introversion) is connnnonly scored, as well as three validating scales: 
L (lie), F (validity), and K (correction). A wide variety of untrained 
personnel can administer this inventory, however, a thoroughly trained 
clinical or educational psychologist should interpret the results . 

One can expect test subjects sixteen years of age or older with at 
least six years of successful schooling to complete the MM PI without 
difficulty. When an individual is specifically referred for testing, one 
can generally ascertain beforehand whether the MM PI is appropriate for 
use and thus avoid the embarrassment that would arise from failure during 
the actual administration. The full-scale edition of the MM PI r equires the 
subject to give a true or false response to 566 separate questions (see 
Table I). The raw scores thus obtained are converted to a kind of 
standardized score called a T score on which the MM PI profile and code 
are based . The test itenns are presented either in a card form for 
individual use or in a booklet with a separate answer sheet for individual 
ex amination or large-scale group testing programs. Such a profile 
provides a scale for clinical comparison of the relative "strength" of various 
personality trends. 

Clinicians who use the MM PI usually tend to emphasize one 
particular scale of the nine. The MMPI should not be evaluated on the 
basis of one scale alone but rather on the pattern of scores for the 
entire nine scales including the validity indicators. The test affords an 
infinitely large number of patterns. Thus, although scorers nnay often 



60 

feel that they have seen some given pattern a number of times before, 
alnnost no exact duplicates exist. 

Although originally thought of as an aid to psychiatric diagnosis and 
evaluation, the MMPI has been used in many different settings and 
validated against hundreds of different criteria. The rapid rise of 
these tests' non-psychiatric application has stimulated a substantial 
growth in new scales and scoring procedures. 

Reliability and validity research on the MMPI are not entirely 
convincing. Validity studies do not show high correlations between 
MMPI profiles scores and actual psychiatric diagnoses, although the 
instrument was initially developed for this purpose . 

Indeed, the available categories of psychiatric diagnoses are subject 
to criticism since it is questionable whether or not the MMPI actually 
achieves its intended objectives when used strictly clinically. But 
where the MMPI is used to screen large populations, such as military 
recruits, college students, or business executives, it serves as a 
reasonably reliable, general screening device. It is most useful in 
identifying those persons who achieve extreme scores on the subscales — 
thus identifying those who require further study. 

The use of the MMPI requires professionally trained, experienced, 
and sophisticated practitioners, because of the complexity of the 
personality characteristics of the inventory, the meanings of the scales, 
and the way ip which the scales relate to each other in predicting behavior. 



61 

The original MM PI was standardized on a sample of about 700 nornnal 
visitors at the University of Minnesota Hospital (ranging in age from 16 to 
55 and representing a cross section of the Minnesota population) in 
contrast to sonne 800 clinical cases (from the Neuro- Psychiatric Division 
of the University of Minnesota Hospital). 

The test/ re-test method determines the reliability for the MM PI . 
Reliability results show that the coefficients of correlation vary consider- 
ably with different subscales . The test/ re-test reliability coefficients 
range fronn .46 to .93 with the majority lying between .70 and .90 — 
a fairly high degree of reliability. 

The predictive nnethod, which compares the scores obtained on 
special scales with clinical diagnoses for newly admitted psychiatric 
patients determined validity for the MM PI . In approximately 60 per- 
cent of the cases this method predicted the corresponding clinical 
diagnosis. 

Sample test reports . The client's responses to the MM PI indicate 
a dependent, immature, impulsive, demanding woman who attempts to 
exploit and control others. She seems able to maintain relationships only 
with those she can keep in subservient positions. Probably her fear 
of abandonment creates this fear. Unfortunately, she seems not to 
recognize the alienating effect of her domineering tactics. Her imperious 
manner and her repeated demands will drive any away from her except 



62 

those even more emotionally disturbed than she. She is a very angry 
woman who seenns especially resentful toward men . While she pretends 
to heterosexuality, she may spend a great deal of her tinne trying to prove 
this through sexual acting out, repeated love affairs, etc. , probably 
because she has an annorphous sexual identity. While not psychotic, 
apparently she is poorly controlled, disorganization-prone, moody, and 
hypertensive. Her obesity is probably a function of anxiety. She eats to 
ward off the loneliness and to control the gnawing ennptiness of feared 
abandonment. She has a personality disorder, perhaps a passive- 
aggressive personality of the aggressive type . She needs individual 
psychotherapy and will probably not lose weight nor be able to stabilize 
vocationally without this. She will benefit best fronn a reality-oriented, 
problem-solving approach although she nnight make use of "insight." 
She will probably have a stormy relationship with any therapist. 

Minnesota Counseling Inventory 

An effort to adapt the previously discussed Minnesota Multiphasic 
Personality Inventory for use with normal high school students and college 
freshmen led to the development of the Minnesota Counseling Inventory. 
Many of the 355 true/false itenns of the latter inventory came from the MM PI , 
and several other scales have a close resemblance to the MM PI scales. 
With norms based on over 20,000 high school students tested in ten states, 
this test provides scores in seven areas designated as: Family 



63 

Relationships, Social Relationships, Emotional Stability, Conformity, 
Adjustment to Reality, Mood, and Leadership. The "Confornnity" scale 
has a strong resemblance to the MM PI Pd scale and "Adjustnnent to 
Reality" sinnilarly resennbles the Sc scale. Also, two vertification scores 
exhibit similar traits to the MM PI validity scales. The comparison of 
random samples of students with groups nominated by teachers as out- 
standing examples of the quality tests, validated the total scores on the 
different scales . Test reliability established by split-half and re-test 
procedures is at an acceptable level. But the seven area scores are not 
as distinct as their titles imply. Only counselors familiar enough with 
its construction to evaluate its complex scores should use this inventory. 

Otis Self-Administrating Test of Mental Ability 

An early test that has been widely used in personnel screening on 
a group basis is the Otis Self -Administrating Test of Mental Ability. 
This test also helped to develop the basis for the highest level norms for 
Otis Quick-Scoring Mental Ability Tests used as an academic screening 
device from the early grades through high school level . Industry uses the 
Otis Self-Administrating Test of Mental Ability for screening applicants 
for such varied jobs as clerks, calculating machine operators, assembly 
line workers, and foremen and other supervisory personnel. A number of 
validation studies have checked the Otis against an industrial criterian, 
most of which have demonstrated that the scores of the applicants compare 
with actual job performance creating significant validity coefficients. In 



64 

semi-skilled jobs, the Otis Test correlates moderately well with success 
in learning the job and ease of initial adaptation. It does not, however, 
correlate highly with subsequent job achievement. This would be expected 
for routine jobs, but also holds true for high-level, professional jobs 
since it discrinninates poorly at these upper levels. 

General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) 

The U.S. Ennployment Service produced this battery. Throughout 
the country it helps to guide people seeking work . State employment 
services give these tests as well as other non-profit agencies whose 
personnel have been trained in the use of the test by the Employment 
Service. High school juniors and seniors often take thenn through a 
cooperative plan which makes the results available to both the high school 
counselor and the employment service . Versions of the tests have been 
prepared for a nunnber of foreign countries. 

The Employment Service constructed the test to help guide persons 
into suitable work. Each of the thousands of jobs in the modern industrial 
world has its own aptitude requirements. When an employer asks for 
referrals of potential employees, he wants applicants likely to succeed. 
The U.S. Employment Service working with state agencies, therefore, 
conducts studies of the psychological characteristics of particular jobs 
and accumulates information on the meanings of a test score . The 
following illustrates the small sample of the occupations studied: 
assembler of dry cell batteries, aircraft electrician, teacher, x-ray 



65 

technician, nurses' aide, sheet metal worker, baker, cook, spot welder, 
comptonnetor operator, corn husking nnachine operator, knitting-machine 
fixer, food packer. 

Predictions for such jobs takes us far beyond the academic ability 
and reasoning ability which predominate nnost aptitude tests. The diversity 
of occupations rules out the possibility of devising a separate aptitude test 
for each job. For guidance, a limited number of diversified tests are 
needed which everyone can take and which can be linked together in various 
combinations to predict success in different situations. With this end in 
view, the current GATB measures nine distinctive factors: 

G - General reasoning ability (a composite of tests entitled 
Vocabulary, Three-Dimensional Space, and Arithmetic 
Reasoning) 

V - Verbal aptitude (Vocabulary) 

N - Numerical aptitude (Computation, Arithmetic Reasoning) 

S - Spatial aptitude (Three-Dimensional Space) 

P - Form perception (Tool Matching, Form Matching) 

Q - Clerical perception (Name Comparison) 

K - Motor coordination (Mark Making) 

F - Finger dexterity (Assemble, Disassemble) 

M - Manual dexterity (Place, Turn) 



66 

No other similar test exceeds the efficiency of the OATR . Each of 
its paper-pencil tests takes about six minutes . The psychomotor tests 
require even less working time but several minutes are used for demon- 
stration practice. The entire battery can be given in two and one-quarter 
hours. The simple procedures allow trustworthy administration of the 
tests by relatively untrained testers to subjects who have limited education 
or poor command of English. The psychomotor tests are designed so that 
each subject leaves all the materials as they were found — ready for the 
next subject. 

This marked speeding of nearly all the GATB subtests may reduce 
their validity for many purposes, especially if the person has some reading 
deficit, is upset by tests, or has taken few tests. But since the U.S , 
Employment Service had access to workers in all areas of the country, 
all types of industry and agriculture, and most occupational levels, it 
could obtain a highly representative normal sample. It drew 4,000 cases 
from the records on hand to form a group which properly represented 
all occupational, sex, and age groups in proportion to census data. 

Test results are reported as standard scores with a mean of 100 and 
a standard deviation of 20. Extensive research has demonstrated good 
reliability and validity. Validity does vary between and among different 
occupations. The social service practitioner should use the GATB in 
conjunction with the U.S. Employment Service's Dictionary of Occupational 
Titles . 



67 

An example of a HATR test result is as follows: Mr. Smith's 
scores on the Intelligence, Verbal Aptitude, and Numerical Aptitude 
sections of the General Aptitude Test Battery indicate that his achieve- 
ment is far above average in each of these categories. His Intelligence 
score is at the 99th percentile as compared to the general working popula- 
tion, while his Verbal and Numerical scores compared to the same population 
are both at the 96th percentile. All of his scores on the remaining 
aptitudes of the battery are at the 75th percentile or above including his 
scores on the Manual and Finger Dexterity Form Board. It is apparent, 
then, that Mr. Smith is intellectually capable of undertaking technical or 
college training in any of the occupational aptitude patterns covered by the 
GATB . That is, he has the intellect and dexterity necessary to handle 
any of the many occupational categories listed fronn Occupational Aptitude 
Pattern 1 through Occupational Aptitude Pattern 35 inclusive . His interest 
profile from the other tests in the battery suggests that he may wish to 
consider any of the following occupations listed in Occupational Aptitude 
Pattern 1: physician, civil engineer, highway engineer, etc. Under 
Occupational Aptitude Pattern 2, he may wish to consider training as a 
pharmacist, cost accountant, tax accountant, or statistician. Appropriate 
occupations from Occupational Aptitude Pattern 3 are teacher, survey 
worker, group worker, or caseworker. 



68 

Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB) 

One of the most widely used interest tests is the Strong Vocatio nal 
Interest Blank , first published in 1927. The Strong contains questions on 
hundreds of activities both vocational and avocational. Most of the 400 
items require a "like-indifferent-dislike" response to activities or topics: 
biology, fishing, being an aviator, planning a sales cannpaign, etc. 
Because research has demonstrated that the majority of nnen in a particular 
occupation have roughly similar interests, the Strong assumes that a 
person having a typical occupational group pattern will find satisfaction in 
that field . 

The Strong determined the interest pattern for a profession by giving 
the questionnaire to successful members of that particular profession and 
by comparing the responses of the group with those of men of similar age 
selected randomly from the whole range of occupations ordinarily entered 
by college men. A weighted scoring key assesses how closely the subject's 
interests correspond to those of the professional group. On each item, the 
percentage of nnen-in-general for each answer was compared to the pei — 
centage of nnen-in-the-occupation giving the answer. Engineers dislike 
"actor" more commonly than other men; therefore, response D or dislike 
is assigned a positive weight in the engineers' scale. "Liking to be the 
author of a technical book" (a significant indicator of engineering interests) 
is especially common among engineers, thus acquiring a weight of plus 
three. In contr^ist, 40 percent of artists respond "like" to "actor." So 



69 

the artist's scale weights "actor" at plus two for like, zero for indifferent, 
and minus 1 for dislike. 

Occupational scores convert into letter grades ranging from A to C . 
Seventy percent of successful men in the occupation fall into the A group on 
that scale. Interests of a person who falls below B plus are quite different 
from those of the bulk of the occupational group. Only 2 percent of the men 
in the occupation fall as low as C. 

The test has available a great number of keys for male occupations 
and a woman's blank which can be scored for a number of occupations 
typically entered by women . The Strong contains items varied enough 
to predict almost anything, and a new key can be made for any vocational 
or specialized interest group. Strong keys can score not only vocational 
interests, but also it can score answers which men give more frequently 
than women, for example, and create a "masculinity-feminity key." 

Extensive research has demonstrated considerable predictive 
validity for this instrunnent. Strong demonstrated that interest scores 
obtained by college undergraduates predicted their occupations of eighteen 
years later. His interest scales successfully differentiate nnembers of an 
occupation from the population in general and the occupations from each 
other. Given the amount of research on both the reliability and validity of 
the Strong, it is reasonably assumed to be one of the best occupational 
predictive instruments available . 



70 

However, caution seems indicated in interpreting the results for 
both the Strong and the Kuder for a number of studies have demonstrated 
that examinees can fake these inventories: Examinees, told to attennpt 
responding in a way that they thought life insurance salesnnen would, 
generally succeeded in making themselves appear like life insurance 
salesmen. In other words, if a person suspects what characteristics are 
being screened, this person can fake a response. However, evidence does 
not suggest that people in general fake their responses but that most 
people are genuinely interested in their test outcomes. Below is an 
example of a Strong test . 

The results of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank indicate a 
client highly interested in religious activities, social service, and music, 
as well as public speaking, business management, art, teaching, mathema- 
tics, technical supervision. His general interests show a similarity to 
those men successful as music teachers and music performers, but also 
sinnilar to those of credit managers, chamber of commerce executives, 
business education teachers, social workers, YMCA staff members, 
rehabilitation counselors, public administrators, physical therapists, and 
librarians. Surprisingly, in view of his stated vocational aspirations, his 
interests do not parallel those of computer programmers. With this in 
mind, he must revise his planning. While connputer science is not an 
altogether inappropriate career choice, the client would probably be 
happier in a career more oriented toward administration and dealing with 
the public. Connputer science may provide an opportunity for this. 



71 

especially if supplemented by general business and/or nnanagennent courses. 
He nnay also wish to consider a business curriculunn, college, or trade 
school . Counseling also appeals to hinn so various types of social work nnay 
be feasible. But since he shows ardent interests in music, he should explore 
the possibility of becoming a music teacher or performer. 

Stanford-Binet Scale 

The Stanford-Binet scales for measuring intelligence (since 1937 
known as the Stanford-Binet Scale ) has gone through several revisions, all 
of them using a common principle: the average capacities of children of 
various ages represent differences in degrees of brightness along with 
differences in levels of development. Thus, knowledge of intellectual 
performance levels of typical children of a given age facilitates comparison 
with any specific child by comparing his/her score with the average. The 
principal criterion employed by Binet and Simon in the standardization and 
age-placement of tests was: any item successfully completed by two-thirds 
to three-fourths of a representative age group of children of a given age was 
designated as "average" performance for that age group, and their ideal 
standard placed the test at a year-level passed by 75 percent in that age 
group. 

The following procedure describes the method of scoring the Stanford- 
Binet Scale . The examiner selects a starting point in a range of tasks 
where the subject can pass all items. This is called the "basal year." 
The examiner then proceeds upward in the scale until the subject fails all 



72 

items, a level called the "terminal year." Each item carries specified 
credit in terms of nnonths contributing to the mental age score . These 
credits, added to the age value of the basal year, total the mental age. 
For example, assume a basal year of six; then, three test items passed at 
the seven-year level give additional credit of six nnonths, two passed at 
the eight-year level give further credit of four months, but all failed at 
the nine-year level. Thus, the subject's mental age is six years, ten 
months . 

The 1937 revision of the 1916 scale differs in many details from its 
predecessor (unsatisfactory items were eliminated and new ones added), 
but it shares the essential and basic conception , It has two equivalent 
fornns, L and N, each of which contain 129 test items as compared with 
the 90 items in the first Stanford-Binet . The 1937 scale extends down- 
ward to the level of age two and upward through three levels of "superior 
adult" (known as superior adult I, II, and III) thus increasing its usefulness. 

From the ages of two through five, this scale provides groups of 
test items at half-year intervals and thus obtains more accurate and highly 
differentiating test results. The half-yearly intervals are possible because 
the mental growth rate proceeds most rapidly in the earlier years creating 
more rapid periodic increments susceptible to testing. 

Although the 1937 scale like that of 1916 relies predominantly on its 
verbal character, it does provide performance and other non-verbal materials, 
especially through the age of four years. Performance materials demand 



73 

the subject to do something — build a pattern or make a design with blocks 
or fill in a form built with variously shaped blocks. Other non-verbal 
materials include such activities as copying a geometric figure, completing 
the picture of a man, discriminating between forms, etc. In all these, the 
child must use verbal ability inasmuch as he/she must understand verbal 
directions. In these tests, verbal ability can also be a factor if the child 
knows the names of the objects or geometric figures and this knowledge 
helps the manipulation or classification of them. 

Since the 1937 scale was standardized on only Amierican-born, 
white, primarily urban subjects, it is also extremely verbal and thus 
additionally culturally loaded. Though this test is still used with children, 
the Wechsler Intelligenc e Scales have largely replaced it, 

Vineland Social Maturity Scale 

This scale, designed for use with individuals from infancy to the age 
of thirty years, models itself on the construction and standardization of 
the Stanford-Binet scale . 

Unlike nnany other scales, this one is based upon a well-defined 
rationale and systennatic construction. It groups behavior items at 
age levels as in the Stanford-Binet; these items represent progressive 
maturation and adjustment to the environment in the following categories: 

Self-help - reaches for nearby objects (age 0-1) 

Self-direction - buys own clothing (age 15-18) 

Locomotion - walks about room unattended (age 1-2) 



74 

Occupation - helps at little household tasks (age 3-4) 
systematizes own work (age 25 plus) 

Connmunication - makes telephone calls (age 10-11) 

Socialization - demands personal attention (age 0-1) 

advances general welfare (age 25 plus) 

Examiners score items after interviewing someone well-acquainted 
with the subject or the subject himself. Then, a social age is obtained 
which is divided by chronological age, yielding a social quotient (S.Q.). 

Although this social maturity scale highly correlates with intelli- 
gence test results (about .80), the author maintains that its content and 
rated function are distinct enough for use in the study of an individual's 
general behavioral development, since social age provides a procedural 
basis to guide the care and training of an individual . 

While the scale aids in diagnosing the normal population as well as 
the mentally deficient, it was first conceived to facilitate the diagnosis of 
mental retardation. Primarily it differentiates between mentally retarded 
individuals who can conduct their personal and social life with greater 
independence and the mentally retarded who are socially inadequate . 

Clinics widely use the Vineland Scale with children and adolescents. 
And, in addition, it is a valuable device for interviewing and counseling 
both parents and children. 



75 

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) 

Commonly referred to as the TAT, this projective personality 
test consists of thirty picture cards plus one blank card. An examiner 
uses the cards in various combinations depending upon sex and age; some 
are used with all subjects and others with only one sex or age group. 
The examiner uses only twenty total pictures with any subject which are 
usually administered in two test sessions, ten pictures at a tinne. 

Examinees are told that the TAT tests imagination. They are to 
make up stories to suit themselves and are assured no right or wrong 
responses exist. The examiner shows pictures one at a time, giving 
simple instructions and asking the subject: 

1 . to tell what he/she thinks led up to the depicted scene, how 
it came about; 

2 . to give an account of what is happening and the feelings of 
the characters in the picture; and 

3 . to tell what the outcome will be . 
The test has no time limits and an examiner encourages the subject to 
continue for as long as five minutes on a picture . Sometimes the 
examiner uses an interview to learn the origins of the stories, especially 
associations to places, names of persons, dates, specific and unusual 
information are sought. This is an important aspect of the process because 
it enables the examiner to clarify stories' meanings. For instance, a 
boy ten years of age made up a surprisingly large number of stories 



7G 

dealing with death. The interview revealed these as nornnal responses: 
his father was an undertaker and they lived above the funeral parlor. 

Although the TAT uses pictures more structured than an inkblot, 
they possess enough ambiguity to allow wide latitude for individual 
differences in responses. The TAT is, like the Rorschach, a projective 
method. Murray designed the TAT to elicit "drives, sentiments, and 
conflicts" by analysis of the story produced by the subject. He based the 
test upon the principal that when interpreting an ambiguous social situation, 
one is apt to reveal aspects of one's own personality that would not or 
could not be admitted otherwise because they are unconscious . The 
subject, while absorbed in the picture and attempting to construct an 
appropriate account of it, is off guard and becomes less aware or quite 
unaware of himself/herself in the situation. In creating stories based 
upon somewhat vague pictures, the subject utilizes and organizes content 
of unique personal experiences. The examiner regards everything the 
subject says as having meaning. From these stories, the skilled 
examiner/interpretor draws inferences regarding the subject's person- 
ality traits and their organization. The limitations of other projective devices 
also limit the TAT . A number of different elaborate and special-purpose 
schemes allow scoring of the TAT, but they show little uniformity in pro- 
cedure for analysis of test results and few clinicians report the specific 
system in use. Thus, comparisons between examiners are often impossible. 



77 

Unless one of two objective, specific scoring systems is used along with 
a specially trained scorer, reliability for the TAT is generally low. 

Validity research has not demonstrated the TAT 's practical use. 
It helps little in predicting behavior and thus is of little value in decision 
nnaking. However, it has been useful for research in achievement motiva- 
tion . Below is an example of the TAT . 

The client's responses to the TAT indicate a chronically anxious, 
impulsive person who becomes flighty, disorganized, and hypernnanic 
under stress. He avoids close relationships because he can relate only 
in a superficial, exploitive way. He wishes those stronger than himself 
would take care of him and thus he may go to rather great lengths to nnake 
people he sees as superior notice him. He has a negative, poorly defined 
identity. He feels alone, helpless, and unable to function without high 
anxiety unless involved in a constant frenzy of activity. His feminine 
interests equip him little to compete with more aggressive peers. While 
he is not necessarily an overt honnosexual, he may be prinnarily homo- 
erotic in his sexual responses. He fears exploitation and attack. He is 
afraid of failure and so may not see tasks through to their conclusion. He 
has many personality deficits and functions in a way which will interfere 
with constructive achievennent in a vocational training program. In fact, 
his enrollment in a training program should probably be made contingent 
upon regular psychological treatment. He will respond best to supportive, 
problenn-solving approach and behavior modification techniques ennphasizing 
reward for constructive efforts. 



78 

Symonds Picture Story Test (SPST) 

The Symonds Picture Story Test is a projective technique designed 
for the study of the personality of adolescent boys and girls. The SPST 
is identical to the Thematic Apperception T est except that it uses a 
different set of pictures especially designed for the study of adolescent 
fantasy. But, the SPST similarly uses twenty pictures divided into two 
sets. If both sets are used, the examiner should use one set at a first 
setting and the second set at a second setting at least a day later (usage 
has demonstrated Set B the more effective of the two). The examiner 
individually administers the test in an interview situation which requires 
about an hour to run through the ten pictures . The author recommends 
interpreting the results of the test within the context of the subject's life 
history nnaterial secured by casework with psychoanalytic study. 

Many of the limitations inherent in the use of any projective device 
affect this test, and the connments about the use of the Thematic Apper - 
ception Test apply fully to the SPST — with the additional observation that 
the SPST has not been subject to as nnuch research as the TAT . Normative 
data based on forty cases are available in the manual . 

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) 

Examiners frequently use the WISC — an individually adnninistered 
general intelligence test — to predict academic success or discover 
intellectual or academic deficiencies which may be interfering with school 
achievement. Like the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the WISC 



79 

obtains I.Q.s by comparing each subject's test penfornnance with the scores 
earned by individuals in his or her age group. I.Q.s obtained by successive 
yvISC re-tests always compare the subjects to their own age group at each 
time of testing. Each person tested is assigned an I.Q. which represents 
the intelligence rating relative to his or her age. The WISC uses a mean 
of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, and places I.Q.s from 90 to 110 in 
the average range. In terms of percentile limits, the highest 1 percent 
would have I.Q.s of 135 and above, and the lowest 1 percent I.Q.s to 65 
and below. The middle 50 percent of children in each age will have I.Q.s 
ranging fronn 90 to 110. 

The WISC consists of 12 subtests which, like the adult scales, divide 
into two subgroups identified as verbal and performance. The verbal sub- 
tests are: Information, Comprehension, Arithmetic, Similarities, 
Vocabulary, Digit Span; the performance subtests are: Picture Completion, 
Picture Arrangement, Block Design, Object Assembly, Coding, Mazes. 

In the standardization of the WISC, every subject took all twelve 
tests, but to shorten the time required for examination the scale has been 
reduced to ten tests. (The Digit Span in the verbal, and Mazes in the 
performance part were omitted primarily on the basis of their relatively 
low correlation with the other tests on the scale, and, in the case of Mazes, 
the time factor.) One can use all subtests but in this case all twelve tests 
must be prorated before computing the I.Q.s. Usually a trained clinical or 
school psychologist administers the test. 



80 

An original norming group of only white urban children sampling 
1 , 100 girls and 1 , 100 boys in 11 age groups standardized the WISC . Its 
present limitations as a diagnostic instrument for intelligence probably 
lie in these inadequate sampling procedures — how can the WISC validly 
test those who radically depart from those in the original sampling? The 
onnission of rural American Indian children in the original sampling 
procedures sharply limits this test's usefulness with them. Shifts in 
population distribution, general levels of education, and increased use of 
information dispersennent by nnass media means may further invalidate 
WISC results on present day populations. 

Though I.Q. tests can and will be adnninistered to so-called disad- 
vantaged groups, the social service practitioner must remember to interpret 
the results with great caution, as most items on these tests are culturally 
biased in one way or another. Rennember: These tests mininnally estimate 
"intellectual ability" and the results should be supplemented by intelligence 
tests when the nneaning of the I.Q. test is vague. Use special care in 
making future predictions on the basis of I.Q. tests alone — especially with 
young children. Research suggests that the I.Q. does change under certain 
conditions. Below is an exannple of a WISC test. 

Jimmy Jones is functioning in the bright normal range of intelligence . 
On the WISC , he achieved a Verbal I.Q. of 112, a Performance I.Q. of 115, 
and a Full Scale I.Q. of 114. Although Jimmy's relatively high scores on 
General Comprehension, Similarities, and Picture Arrangement indicate 



81 

that he has considerable abstracting ability and that his intellectual potential 
is quite high, the discrepantly low scores on Arithmetic, General Infornnation, 
and Vocabulary indicate that he has not been able to nnake the nnost of his 
intellectual potential. Judging from his history and present living circum- 
stances, the discrepancy is probably due to the effects of severe cultural 
deprivation. The relatively low score on Digit Span also suggests a signifi- 
cant level of anxiety which may be indigenous to test situations. This often 
appears in children from culturally deprived environments and, of course, 
adds to the type of school under-achievennent that nnay be reflected in his 
low scores on the Verbal subtests correlated with such achievennent . 
Certainly, his high scores on Picture Completion, Block Design, and Object 
Assembly indicate extremely good perceptual-nnotor functioning. This lends 
strength to the impression of intellectual functioning that is substantially 
higher when measured by his overall performance on the Verbal subtests. 
Probably, his potential lies well within the superior range of intelligence 
(I.Q. = 120-130). 

Wide Range Achievennent Test 

The Wide Range Achievement Test first standardized in 1936 and revised 
most recently in 1965, consists of three subtests, each divided into two 
levels — Level I designed for children between the ages of five years and 
eleven years and eleven months, and Level II designed for persons from 
twelve years to adulthood. The three subtests at both levels are: 



82 

1 . Reading - recognizing and nanning letters and pronouncing words. 

2. Spelling - copying marks resembling letters, writing the name, 
and writing single words to dictation. 

3. Arithnnetic - counting, reading nunnber symbols, solving oral 
problems, and performing written connputations . 

Untrained school personnel can administer this test to large groups. 
The Wide Range Achievement Test has proved valuable in a number of areas: 
1 . the accurate diagnosis of reading, spelling, and arithmetic 
disabilities in persons of all ages; 

2. the deternnination of instructional levels in school children; 

3 . the assignment of children to instructional groups progressing 
at similar rates and their transfer to faster or slower rates 
in keeping with individual learning rates; 

4. the establishment of degrees of literacy and arithmetic pro- 
ficiency of mentally retarded persons; 

5. the checking of school achievement of adults referred for 
vocational rehabilitation and job placement; 

6. the selection of personnel at various occupational levels for 
pronnotion in business, industry, and the National Services; and 

7. the selection of students for professionalized technical schools. 
Test scores are reported as grade rorms and standard scores. 

Originally the actual mean grade levels of the children in each age group 
tested established the grade norms. Such an arbitrary score as grade 



83 

rating may vary with promotion practices and socioeconomic levels. For 
example, in 1936, the average person in the nornn group obtained a 9.1 
grade rating at age 17, but in 1963, the average person obtained a grade 
rating of 10.8 at the age of 17. This may mean that more people stay in 
school longer, or that more persons obtain higher grade ratings but not 
necessarily higher achievennent than they did 25 years earlier. Despite 
these variations, the grade ratings tend to be a rather stable score. The 
comparability of the old and new grade ratings are striking through nearly 
all educational levels except the upper ratings. The grade ratings above 
age 14 are more arbitrary than those below 14. 

The standard score in the Wide Range Achievement Test connpares 
to the I.Q. of standard tests. Persons of different ages may receive 
identical grade scores. For exannple, a 5.5 grade stands for superior 
achievement if obtained by a 7-year-old, but represents defective achieve- 
ment if obtained by a 25-year-old person. The standard score shows whether 
the grade rating lies above average or below average for any particular age 
level . The standard scores used are based on the distribution of the grade 
ratings for each group. 

While the Wide Range Achievement Test provides a useful measure of 
actual achievement, the social service practitioner should not use it alone 
for it contains multiple and varying reasons for underachievement . For 
this reason, as with any other test, a lone achievennent test score may mis- 
lead especially if interpreted by those unfanniliar with the complexities of 
achievement testing. 



84 



Bender-Gestalt 

The Bender-Gestalt was designed to test visual nnotor performance 
skills. It is used as an aid in assessing perceptual-motor coordination 
disorders which are often related to organic brain dysfunction. The test 
has proven somewhat useful in diagnosing various types of retardation, and 
personality patterns or trends . 

The Bender-Gestalt consists of nine different geometric figures, 
printed on cards, which the subject is asked to reproduce. This basic 
procedure, called the "copy phase," is in some adaptations of the Bender - 
Gestalt . For example, the examiner may ask subjects to recall the figures 
they drew, elaborate upon or change the figures they reproduced. 

While an extremely experienced clinician may profitably use this test, 
it does not lend itself well for "cook book" interpretation or for use by 
unexperienced examiners, nor should it be used in making final determina- 
tions regarding organic brain dysfunction, perceptual -motor deficits, or 
personality nnalfunction . A visual-motor task, in testing personality 
reaction, provides a sannple of behavior involving connplex functions. 
Like other so-called "projective" procedures, such complex behavior 
examples are best interpreted from a consistent theoretical frame of 
reference. The Bend er-Gestalt results only hint at possible brain disorders 
or personality malfunctions. The theory underlying personality testing 
through a visual-motor task is that such testing has some special 
characteristics and possible advantages. The theory notes that probably 



85 



styles of perceiving and reproducing figures which are relatively neutral, 
i.e. , have few associations with one's past, tap sonne personality facets 
which conscious attempts cannot disguise . A few highly skilled clinicians 
piece together some good hunches about a subject from the drawings, but 
since they rely on hunches the Bender-Gestalt remains an experimental 
instrument, and validation studies prove disappointing despite extensive use. 
Most social service practitioners would not find Bendei — Gestalt test results 
useful in decision making. After all, how does the social worker use a 
a test report indicating "suspicion of organicity"? Thus, regard this tests' 
results with caution. Below is an example of a Bender-Gestalt test result. 

This is a record of a 15-year-old girl who is quite inhibited and 
generally fearful in her behavior. There is evidence of some mild, diffuse 
organic damage probably occuring in early childhood, perhaps between 4 and 
7 years of age, and possibly due to an encephalitic condition. Although she has 
partially compensated for the intracranial damage, the organic factor still 
exerts something of a handicap to her adjustment. However, at present, 
her central problem appears to be neurotic inhibition accompanied by some 
depression and apathy. The organic factor certainly contributes to her 
present adjustment difficulties but is insufficient to explain them. At present, 
her prime means of defense are withdrawal, denial, and isolation. She is 
quite fearful of rejection in general and is especially fearful of rejection 
at the hands of those she perceives as authority or parental figures. While 
she usually tries to conform on a conscious level, she shows fairly 



86 

pronounced passive, oppositional tendencies. Under stress, there nnay be 
some regression to narcissism and orally dependent behavior. Despite 
this, she shows some progression and has established some behavioral 
configurations characteristic of both anal and oedipal periods of adjustment. 
She desperately needs closeness with people but is fearful of interpersonal 
relationships and has not developed skills for encouraging these. Rather, 
she remains in superficial, rather distant relationships, while embellishing 
these with fantasy. Presently she is moderately depressed, partly because 
she does not get the attention she needs and partly because of guilt over 
impulses which she ordinarily inhibits. At this point, she seems to be 
especially fearful of heterosexual relationships and may suffer fronn 
unresolved sexual feelings for her father. Although her major identification 
is female, her self-image is that of an inadequate person. Characteristically, 
she remains withdrawn, aloof, and rather "retarded" in her behavior. An 
estimate of her intellectual abilities nneasured by her present Bender 
performance would yield an I.Q. of approximately 75. This rough estimate 
probably characterizes her present school performance but is not a good 
reflection of her potential. Despite her attempt to cooperate on the test, 
there is considerable evidence of marked impairment of intellectual 
functioning on the basis of neurotic problems . If her neurotic difficulties 
were resolved, and her severe inhibitions rennoved, she should probably 
function within or near the average range of intelligence . 



87 

Rorschach 

The Rorschach test, or "Inkblot," originally developed in 1921 
by Hermann Rorschach, has been considerably researched to expand and 
improve upon its diagnostic virtues and uses. It is used primarily as a 
personality test based on the "projective" method. The test consists of 
ten inkblots presented one at a time to the subject. The first seven blots 
are essentially black and white although blots two and three have smaller 
red blotches. The last three blots are multi-colored. Typically, the test 
is individually administered in three phases. During the first, the subject 
gives spontaneous responses to the inkblots. During the second, or "inquiry" 
phase, the examiner asks questions to determine how "the characteristics" 
of the inkblots triggered the subject's response, such as if color, shape, 
or shading helped the person see what he or she saw. In a later phase 
(sometimes used), called "testing the linnits," the examiner attempts to 
get additional scoring material, especially if the subject has given extremely 
unusual responses or has not "seen" the concepts commonly "seen." 

The Rorschach scoring systenn allots five scores to a response. The 
scoring is deternnined according to the "area chosen," the content chosen, 
the form level of the response (this refers to how accurately or arbitrarily, 
or how definitely or vaguely the response fornn is conceived), and the 
"popularity" of the response (whether or not the response is found often or 
considered extremely rare). 



88 

In addition to the Rorschach's complex scoring, a qualitative 
approach can also add further data. The way a subject approaches the 
card, the pauses, the difficulties, the apparently extraneous comments 
can all add further data when interpreted by a skilled clinician. 

The theory implies that persons' reactions to these abstract blots 
will give clues to their reactions to life — one person organizes the blot in 
minute detail while another may give it a slap dash once over. Is the 
subject interested in unusual details or in the more common ones? Are 
colors perceived and reported in the blot description? And so forth. 

Although the Rorschach has been used for over fifty years and has 
been extensively researched to establish its predictive validity, the 
results have proven somewhat disappointing and uneven. In research 
experiments, clinicians asked to make a diagnosis based on Rorschach 
responses alone, without any other data available, could not accurately 
predict behavior nor diagnose psychiatric disorders. The research 
indicates that the Rorschach is fickle — sometimes it works while other 
tinnes it does not. In general, most clinicians agree that the Rorschach 
has some predictive validity which does better than chance alone. But 
experienced exanniners do equally well by asking subjects direct questions. 
However, apparently no empirical evidence demonstrates that the Rorschach 
or any other projective instrument will reliably predict behavior in the day- 
to-day world. Thus, as a tool in making decisions on practical problems, 
the instrument \s limited. 



89 

A number of split-half and test/re-test reliabiUty studies are 
available on Rorschach protocals. Reported values differ considerably 
fronn study to study and for different types of subscores. However, in 
general, the use of a specific scoring system produces unifornnly positive 
and fairly high correlations in nnany cases. 

The Rorschach , as other projective tests, is a clinical instrument 
that should give reliable, valid results only when used by persons having 
both the special technical training and an advanced sophistication in the 
understanding and application of a specific personality theory. The tests 
are generally time consuming, both to give and to score, and they are 
sometimes hard to justify by the results obtained. It is the author's 
impression that a highly experienced clinician, willing to engage the 
subject in in-depth interviews, can obtain similar results and perhaps 
make nnore meaningful inferences regarding behavior prediction than the 
Rorschach . Below is a sample test report on the Rorschach . 

The Rorschach results indicate that the client is a relatively well 
adjusted man whose personality conflicts are not sharp enough to cause 
hinn chronic or severe anxiety. Indeed, the anxiety he experienced in 
the present testing situation is probably germane to those circunnstances 
in which he feels he is being evaluated or judged. He fears being found 
in need — not an unrealistic fear in our society. He is overly concerned 
about his physical functioning at present, probably due to his history of 
physical disorder. A sensitive young man responsive to the needs of 



90 

others, he is motivated to improve himself and has the impulse control 
necessary for ennotional and intellectual growth. He seems to get along 
well with others and will probably work hard to do a good job in anything 
he undertakes. He likes to make friends and seenns something of an extro- 
vert. He will probably be popular with his peers, co-workers, etc. 

Wechsler Pre-School and Prinnary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) 

Published in 1967, this scale is designed to test the intelligence of 
children fronn ages four to six and one-half years . The scale includes 
eleven subtests, ten of which determine the I.Q. score. Eight of the 
subtests are downward extensions and adaptations of the Wechsler 
Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) . The other newly constructed 
three replace WISC subtests that, for a variety of reasons, proved 
unsuitable . As in the WISC and the WAIS , the subtests group into Verbal 
and Performance scales from which Verbal, Perfornnance, and Full Scale 
I.Q.s are found. However, in order to enhance variety and to help main- 
tain the young child's interest and cooperation, the adnninistration of 
Verbal and Performance subtests are alternated in the WPPSI . Total 
testing time ranges from 50 to 75 nninutes in one or two testing sessions. 
Abbreviated scales or short forms of the scale are not recommended . The 
subtests include Information, Vocabulary, Arithmetic, Similarities, 
Comprehension, Sentences, Animal House, Picture Completion, Mazes, 
Geometric Design, and Block Design. "Sentences" is a memory test 
substituted for the WISC Digit Span. The child repeats each sentence 



91 

immediately after the exanniner orally presents it. This test can be 
alternatively used for one of the other Verbal tests; or it can be admin- 
istered as an additional test to seek further information about the child 
and so it is not included in the total score for calculating the I.Q. 
"Animal House" is basically similar to the WATS Digit Symbol and the 
Wise Coding test. A key at the top of the board has pictures of a dog, 
chicken, fish, and cat, each with a differently colored cylinder (its 
"house") under it. The child should insert the correctly colored cylinder 
in the hole beneath each animal on the board. Time, errors, and omissions 
determine the score. "Geometric Design" requires the copying often 
simple designs with a colored pencil . 

The WPPSI was standardized on a national sample of 1 ,200 boys 
and girls in each of six and one-half year age groups from four to six 
and one-half, where each child was tested within six weeks of the required 
birthday or mid-year date. The sample was stratified against 1960 census 
data with reference to geographical region, urban-world residence, pro- 
portion of whites and non-whites, and father's occupational level. Raw 
scores on each subtest are converted to normalized standard scores with 
a mean of ten and a standard deviation of three within each one-fourth 
year group. The sum of the scaled scores on the Verbal, Perfornnance, 
and Full Scale are then converted to deviation I.Q.s with a mean of 100 
and a standard deviation of 15. Although Wechsler advises against using 
nnental age scores because of their possible misinterpretation, the 



92 

manual provides a table for converting subtest raw scores to "test ages" 
in one-fourth year units . 

Reliability coefficients for the Full Scale I.Q. are acceptably high 
and consistent \Aath the other Wechsler scales. The manual also provides 
tables for evaluating the significance of score differences. This data 
suggests that a difference of fifteen points or more between the Verbal 
and Performance I.Q. is significant enough to be investigated. Stability 
over time was also checked in a group of fifty kindergarten children 
re-tested after an average interval of eleven weeks. Under these condi- 
tions, the reliability coefficients for the Full Scale I.Q. , the Verbal I.Q. , 
and the Performance I.Q. were satisfactorily high. 

The manual reports comparisons with the Stanford-Binet and the 
Wise . Along with the WISC . the Stanford-Binet correlates higher with 
the Verbal I.Q. (.76) than with the Performance I.Q. (.66). This group, 
which was sonnewhat below average in ability, had approximately the 
same mean on Stanford-Binet and the WPPSI (91 .3 versus 89.6), Similar 
comparisons at different ability levels are needed , 

Owing to its recent publication, little can be concluded at this time 
about WPPSI 's validity and practical use. The procedures followed in 
standardizing the scale and estimating reliability and validity are of 
uniformly high technical quality. Both the size and composition of the 
norm and sample are considerably advanced over the pre-school tests 
previously available. But observe caution when using any test score 



93 

involving young children, for many variables, difficult to control, affect 
the uncertain procedure of assessing young children. 

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test 

The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test , designed to provide a verbal 
intelligence estimate through nneasuring hearing vocabulary, is effective 
with average subjects, and has special value with certain other groups. 
Reading is not required, so the scale is especially fair for non-readers, 
and since responses are non-oral , the test can be used for the speech 
impaired (expressly the aphasic and the stutterer). It is also used with 
certain autistic, withdrawn, and psychotic persons. Since neither point- 
ing nor oral responses are required the test can be used with orthopedically 
handicapped and cerebral palsied persons, and also with some visually 
handicapped and perceptually impaired persons. Thus, the scale allows 
for any English-speaking resident of the United States between two years, 
six months and eighteen years who can hear words, see the drawings, 
and indicate "yes" or "no" in a manner which connmunicates . The Peabody 
Picture Vocabulary Test has a number of advantages: 

1 . The test has high interest value and thus establishes good 
rapport. 

2. It needs no extensive, specialized preparation for its administra- 
tion. 

3. It is quickly given in ten to fifteen minutes. 



94 

4. Scoring is completely objective and quickly acconnplished in 
one to two minutes. 

5. It is completely untimed and thus is an ability rather than a 
speed test. 

6. No oral response is required. 

7. Alternate forms of the test are provided to facilitate repeated 
measures. 

8. The test covers a wide age range. 

The administration of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test requires 
no special preparation other than complete fanniliarity with the test 
materials which include giving the test prior to its use as a standardized 
measure. The exanniner must know the correct pronunciation of each of 
the test words as given in Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary . If all the 
instructions are completely observed, psychologists, teachers, speech 
therapists, physicians, counselors, and social workers should be able to 
give the scale accurately. 

Only ten to fifteen minutes are usually required for this untimed test. 
The scale is adnninistered only over the critical range of items for a 
particular subject. The starting point, basal, and ceiling vary from 
testee to testee . The examiner presents a series of pictures to each 
subject. There are four pictures to a page and each is numbered. The 
examiner says a word describing one of these four pictures and asks the 
subject to point to or tell the number of the picture which the word 



95 

describes. Subjects are encouraged to "guess" if they do not know which 
picture best conforms to the nneaning of the word presented. The exanniner 
starts subjects at different "picture levels" according to the age ranges 
specified in the manual, and proceeds forward from the starting point until 
the subject makes the first error. If the subject does not make eight 
consecutive correct responses prior to this first error, the examiner 
returns immediately to the starting point and works backwards (through 
the next lowest age range) until a total of eight consecutive correct answers 
are made by the subject. Responses above the starting point — as well as 
below — are counted in order to establish the basal of eight consecutive 
correct answers. The exanniner then continues testing forward from the 
point of the first error until the subject makes six errors in any eight 
consecutive presentations, counting the last itenn presented as the subject's 
ceiling. The total score is the number of correct responses. All items 
below the basal point are assumed correct; all itenns above the ceiling 
item are assumed incorrect. To get the total raw score, the examiner 
subtracts the errors from the number of the last item presented, or 
ceiling item. By using special tables, the raw score can be converted to 
three types of derived scores: 

1 . an age equivalent (nnental age); 

2 . standard score equivalent (intelligence quotient); and 

3. a percentile equivalent. 



96 



The age norms for converting raw scores on the Peabo dy Picture 
Vocabulary Test to nnental age scores are given in the manual . Age 
equivalents supposedly provide an index of the level of a given subject's 
development. For example, 75 is the mean raw score on Form A for 
children who have a chronological age of 10.0. Therefore, regardless 
of subjects' chronological ages, if they obtain a raw score of 75 on a 
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, they supposedly possess a mental 
age of ten years since their ability to score on this test is like the average 
10-year-old's. Approximate grade equivalents derive from age equivalents 
by the rule of five . Thus , a child with a mental age of 11.0 would have a 
grade equivalent of six (subtract five from the mental age) indicating an 
accumulative capacity to achieve at the beginning grade six level . Age 
norms have a number of advantages. They provide an easily understood 
index of the subject's developmental level. They are useful in comparing 
mental age with chronological age, achievement age, social age, and so 
on. In addition to the age norms, they provide standard score norms which 
may provide an "index of brightness" for a given child in comparison with 
other children of the same age. The Peabody was standardized with a mean 
of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. 

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) 

The WAIS , the adult form of the Wechsler Intelligence Test, is used 
to assess general and specific intellectual ability for persons sixteen 



97 

years and above. The WAIS consists of eleven subtests grouped into a 
verbal scale and a perfornnance scale. 
Verbal Scale 

1 . Infornnation: Twenty-nine questions covering a wide variety 
of information that adults presunnably should acquire in our 
culture . An effort was made to avoid specialized or academic 
knowledge . 

2. Comprehension: Fourteen items in each of which the subject 
explains what should be done under certain circunnstances, 
why certain practices are followed, the meaning of proverbs, 
etc. These are designed to measure practical judgment and 
connmon sense . This test resennbles the Stanford-Binet 
comprehension items but its specific content was chosen to 
be nnore consonant with the interests and activities of adults. 

3. Arithmetic : Fourteen problems similar to those encountered 
in elementary school arithmetic. Each problem, orally 
presented, is to be solved without the use of paper and pencil. 

4. Sinnilarities : Fifteen items requiring the subject to say how 
two things are alike . 

5. Digit Span: Orally presented lists of three to nine digits to be 
orally reproduced. In the second part, the subject must 
reproduce backwards lists of two to eight digits , 



98 



6. Vocabulary: Forty words of increasing difficulty presented both 
orally and visually. The subject is asked what each word nneans , 

Performance Scale 

7. Digit Synnbol: This is a version of a fanniliar code-substitution 
test which dates back to the early Woodworth-Wells Assoc iation 
Test and has often been included in non-language intelligence 
scales. The key contains nine symbols paired with nine digits. 
The subject's score is the number of symbols correctly 
written within one and a half minutes. 

8 . Picture Completion: Twenty-one cards , each containing a 

picture with sonne part missing . The subject must tell what is 

missing from each picture . 
9 . Block Design: This test is reproduced in designs increasing 

in complexity requiring from four to nine cubes. The cubes 

or blocks have only red, white, and red-and-white sides. 
10. Picture Arrangement : Each item consists of a set of cards 

containing pictures to be rearranged in proper sequence so as 

to tell a story. 
1 1 . Object Assembly : This test includes a number of pieces to 

be assembled very much in the manner of a jigsaw puzzle. 

The subtest includes four pictures to be reproduced including 

mannequin, hand, profile of a face, and side view of an 

elephant. 



99 

Both speed and accuracy of performance are taken into account in 
scoring A rithnnetic. Digit Synnbol , Block Design, Picture Arrangement, 
and Object Assembly. 

The WAIS standardization sample was carefully chosen to ensure 
its representativeness. The principal normative sample consisted of 
1 ,700 cases including an equal nunnber of men and women distributed over 
7 age levels between 16 and 64 years. Subjects were selected to match 
as closely as possible the proportions of the 1950 U.S. Census with 
regard to geographic residence, urban-rural residence, race, white 
versus non-white, occupational level, and education. At each age level, 
one nnan and woman from an institution for mental defectives was included . 
Supplementary norms for older persons were established by testing an 
"old-age sannple" of 475 persons aged 60 years and over in a typical 
mid-western city. 

Raw scores on each WAIS subtest are converted into standard scores 
with a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3. These scaled scores were 
derived fronn a reference group of 500 cases which included all persons 
between the ages of 20 and 34 in the standardization sample . All subtest 
scores are thus expressed in comparable units. Verbal, Performance, and 
Full Scale scores are found by adding the scaled scores on the six verbal 
subtests, the five performance subtests, and all eleven subtests respectively. 
The manual provides tables which convert these three scores to deviation 
I.Q.s with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. However, such 



100 

I.Q.s are found according to the specific age group. Thus, they show an 
individual's standing in comparison with persons of his or her own age 
level. Deriving I.Q.s separately for each age level compares the indivi- 
duals with the declining norm beyond the peak age. The age decrement 
is greater in performance than verbal scores and also varies from one 
subtest to another. Thus, Digit Symbol, with its heavy dependence on 
speed and visual perception, shows the maximunn age decline. However, 
on the other performance subtests speed may be an unimportant factor in 
the observed decline. In a special study on this point, subjects in the old- 
age sample were given those tests under both timed and untinned conditions. 
Not only were the score differences under the two conditions slight but 
the decrements from the 60-64 to the 70-74 age group were virtually the 
same under timed and untimed conditions. 

The WAIS has demonstrated consistently high reliability coefficients 
through the split-half reliability technique. Validity has primarily been 
established through demonstrating correlations between test scores and 
scholastic achievement. The WAIS has also been compared to other 
instruments for similarity in scores achieved by the same subjects. In 
all respects the WAIS has demonstrated relatively high correlations . In 
summary, the WAIS is perhaps the best general adult intelligence test 
currently available . Following is a sample test report on the WAIS . 

The client is functioning within the normal range of intelligence. 
On the WAIS, she achieved a Verbal I.Q. of 92, a Performance I.Q. of 



101 

95, and a Full Scale I.Q. of 92 . The client's vocabulary Is snnaller 
than average, she thinks in a slightly "scattered" way and has trouble 
completing tasks that require concentration or the systennmatic organiza- 
tion of intellectual nnaterial. There is great variability in her intellectual 
perfornnance, in fact, and this is typical of the intellectual functioning of 
those who experience severe anxiety. In this client's case, the results 
are blocking, inattention to detail, nnild confusion, and diminished ability 
to maintain cognitive set. She works better at structured and unambiguous 
problems than she does at those requiring her to be organized or to work 
out novel solutions. The degree of variability in her perfornnance suggests 
that she would be functioning near the bright normal range had she had 
better learning opportunities and were she not handicapped by chronic 
anxiety and emotional difficulties. 

Tests for Special Purposes 

A variety of tests have been developed for a number of specialized 
purposes . The following are examples of special purpose tests with 
references to further information for the consumer. 

The Culture Fair Intelligence Test . This is a paper and pencil test 
developed by Cattell and Cattell, published by the Institute for Personality 
and Ability Testing. The test is available for three different age levels, 
ranging from children to adults. The test's purpose is to provide a 
measure of ability directed at separating the evaluation of natural 
intelligence from that contaminated or obscured by education . The 



102 

Culture Fair Intelligence Test used both the classical I.Q. with a mean 
of 100 and a standard deviation of 24 and a standard score I.Q. with a 
mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 16. The best research available 
on the test indicates that when used in industrial countries sinnilar to 
the United States the results have been consistent from country to 
country. In very dissimilar countries, however, the results are signi- 
ficantly different from those obtained with the standardization sample. 
Extrenne caution is urged in interpreting the results of this test for 
people who come from markedly different cultures. The Institute for 
Personality and Ability Testing, Channpagne, Illinois, offers a manual 
providing more infornnation about this test. 

Tests for the orthopedic handicapped . The Pictorial Test of Intelli - 
gence, available through Houghton-Mifflin Company Publishers, requires 
neither nnanipulative nor speaking responses. It was designed to assess 
the general intellectual ability of children between the ages of three and 
eight and can also be used to test those children who are orthopedically 
handicapped and cannot respond orally or in writing. The manual provides 
information with regard to deviation I.Q. norms and mental age norms 
and percentile norms. Thus, scores may be reported in all three forms. 
Other tests which have been used with orthopedically handicapped include 
the Progressive M atrices Test, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, 
and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale . 



103 

Tests for the hearing handicapped . Several tests have been used to 
assess the nnental ability of people who are hearing handicapped: the 
Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude, the Pintner- Peterson Performance 
Scale, the Arthur Point Scale, and the Point Scale of Performance. 

Tests for the deaf include the Point Scale of Performance Te sts 
available in two forms from C.H . Stoelting Co. and from the Psycho- 
logical Corporation. Both are designed to test persons from five years 
of age to adulthood. The purpose of the scale is to provide a measurement 
of the intellectual ability of deaf children, children suffering fronn reading 
handicaps, and non-English-speaking children. The test was standardized 
on about 1 , 100 public school children from middle-class American homes. 
Scores are reported in the form of mental age norms and a ratio I.Q. 

Tests for the blind . Several standard tests have been adapted for 
use with blind populations, including the Stanford-Binet and Wechsler 
scales . The Interim Hayes-Binet Scale is composed of items in forms 
L and M of the Stanford-Binet which do not require vision. Currently, 
a special adaptation of the Wechsler scale is widely used for testing the 
blind . The major adaptation of the Wechsler omitts the performance 
subtests. The Haptic Intelligence Scale for Adult Blind is also available 
which was designed to test blind adults aged sixteen and above. This test's 
results are reported in the form of deviation I.Q.s with a nnean of 100 and 
a standard deviation of 15, The test manual published by Psychology Research 
in Chicago authored by Shurrager and Shurrager contains further infornnation . 
The test is also described in Buros' Mental Measurements Yearbook. 



CHAPTER VIII 
HOW TO LEARN ABOUT SPECIFIC TESTS 

Although detailed information is provided here about a number of 
different tests, this is not intended to be a comprehensive reference guide 
describing all of the large number of tests available. Following are some 
standard references which social service practitioners might use to obtain 
more infornnation about specific tests. 

Mental Measurements Yearbook , Oscar K . Buros, editor, Island 
Park, New Jersey: Gryphon Press, 7th edition, 2 volumes, 1972. Also 
by the same author Tests in Print , Island Park, New Jersey: Gryphon 
Press . Currently there are seven editions of the Mental Measurements 
Yearbook, the latest published in 1972. The Mental Measurennents 
Yearbook lists most of the published standardized tests in print as of 
the year the book was printed. Those tests not reviewed in the earlier 
editions are described and criticized by various authorities . The Tests 
in Print book is a comprehensive test bibliography and index and provides 
the following information about available tests: the name of the test, the 
levels for which it is used, the publication date, specialized comments 

- 1 04 - 



105 

about the test by various authorities, the number and types of scores pro- 
vided, the authors, the publisher, and the reference to test reviews in 
Mental Measurennent Yearbook . 

Other good books on testing include: 

Cronbach, Lee J . Essentials of Psychological Testing . New York: 
Harper and Row, 1970. 

Thorndike, Robert L. and Elizabeth Hogen. Measurement and 
Evaluation in Psychology and Education, 3rd edition. New York: John 
Wiley and Sons, 1969. 

Robb, George, L. C. Bernardoni, and R. W. Johnson. Assessment 
of Individual Mental Ability . San Francisco: Intext Ed. Publishers, 1972. 

Berdie, Ralph, et . al . Testing in Guidance and Counseling . New 
York: McGraw Hill Book Co. , 1963. 

Other sources of infornnation are the test reviews and research in 
professional periodicals. Journals such as Educational and Psychological 
Measurement , The Journal of Educational Measurement , The Journal of 
Counseling Psychology , and the Personnel and Guidance Journal typically 
carry reviews of some of the more recent published or revised tests . 



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