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Officers of the Society 

( Term of office expires March / of the year indicated ) 



Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, New York 


Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 


(1957) (Ex-officio) 
University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 



University of California, Berkeley, California 


Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 


University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 


Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 

Secretary -Treasurer 


#55 Kimbark Avenue, Chicago #r> Illinois 


The Fifty-sixth Yearbook of the 
National Society for the Study of Education 


Prepared by the Yearbook Committee: RALPH c. PRESTON (Chairman), 


Edited by 



The responsibilities of the Board of Directors of the National 
Society for the Study of Education in the case of yearbooks pre- 
pared by the Society's committees are (i) to select the subjects to 
be investigated, (2) to appoint committees calculated in their per- 
sonnel to insure consideration of all significant points of view, (3) 
to provide appropriate subsidies for necessary expenses, (4) to pub- 
lish and distribute the committees' reports, and (5) to arrange for 
their discussion at the annual meeting. 

The responsibility of the Yearbook Editor is to prepare the sub- 
mitted manuscripts for publication in accordance with the principles 
and regulations approved by the Board of Directors. 

Neither the Board of Directors, nor the Yearbook Editor, nor 
the Society is responsible for the conclusions reached or the opin- 
ions expressed by the Society's yearbook committees. 

Published 7^57 by 

Kimbark Aventte, Chicago 57, Illinois 

Copyright, i^l> by NELSON B. HENRY, Secretary of the Society 

No part of this Yearbook way be reproduced in any form 
without written permission from the Secretary of the Society. 

First printing, 10,000 Copies 

Printed in the United States of America 


The Society's Committee on Social Studies 
in the Elementary School 


Associate Professor of Education, New York University 
New York, New York 


Dean, School of Education, Boston University 
Boston, Massachusetts 


Professor of Education, University of Michigan 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 


Dean Ernentus, School of Education, New York University 
New York, New York 


Stiperintendent, De?zver Public Schools 
Denver y Colorado 



Professor of Education, University of Pennsylvania 
Philadelphia, Penn sy hania 

Associated Contributors 


Research Assistant, Cincinnati Public Schools 
Cincinnati) Ohio 


Assistant Professor of Education, College of the City of New York 
New York, New York 


Professor of Education, Stanford University 
Stanford, California 


Chief , Bureau of Ele?nentary Education, 

California State Department of Education 

Sacramento, California 


Professor of Education, San Diego State College 
San Diego, California 


President, Bank Street College of Education 
New York, New York 


Director, Iowa Child Welfare Research Station 

State Univetsity of Iowa 

Iowa City, Iowa 


Secretary, Educational Policies Cownmsion 

National Education Association 

Washington, D.C. 

Editor's Preface 

In connection with the announcement of publication of Part II 
of the National Society's Fifty-sixth Yearbook, Social Studies in the 
Elementary School, it is interesting to note that three of the four 
volumes comprising the First and Second Yearbooks in this series 
dealt with the social studies in the common schools. Part I of the 
First Yearbook, Some Principles in the Teaching of History, was 
written by Professor Lucy M. Salmon of Vassar College for dis- 
cussion at the general meeting of the Society held in conjunction 
with the meeting of the Department of Superintendence of the 
National Education Association at Chicago in February, 1902. The 
text of this volume stressed the selection of materials, methods of 
teaching, the relation of history to other school subjects, and the 
organization of an instructional program in history from grade one 
to grade twelve. 

In February, 1903, Part I of the Second Yearbook was published 
and was devoted to the consideration of an outline for the course 
of study in history in grades three to eight. This volume was largely 
prepared by Charles A. McMurry, Secretary of the Society. In the 
meantime, the Society published (July, 1902, for presentation in 
connection with the summer meeting of the N.E.A.), as Part II of 
the First Yearbook, The Progress of Geography in the Schools. 
This volume was prepared by W. M. Davis of Harvard, who em- 
phasized the importance of showing causal relations and urged 
greater use of laboratory equipment and techniques in the teaching 
of geography. At a later time and after many changes had been in- 
stituted in the programs of the social studies, the Society published 
The Social Studies in the Elementary and Secondary School as Part 
II of the Twenty-second Yearbook. This volume, prepared by a 
group of writers under the direction of Professor Harold Rugg> 
reflects the trend toward broader conceptions of the social implica- 
tions of democracy in education and points the way to an effective 
implementation of programs of instruction based on newly rec- 
ognized objectives and more vital subject matter. 

The present yearbook, Social Studies in the Elementary School, 
undertakes to define the role of this field of study in terms of its 



peculiar relation to the over-all program of elementary education 
and new knowledge of the needs of children of this age group as 
well as in light of current theory respecting curriculum organiza- 
tion and the psychology of learning. It is the hope and expectation 
of the contributors to this volume that it will promote further 
progress in the improvement of instruction in the area of the social 


Table of Contents 






INTRODUCTION, Ralph C. Preston . . i 


Ralph C. Preston . . . . . ... 

Problems and Purposes of Social Education. Examples of the 
Impact of Culture on Social Studies. Creative Power of the 
School. A Look Ahead. 



Learning Social Concepts. Generalization Defined. Sources 
of Generalizations and Values. Examples of Search for Gen- 
eralizations and Values. Design of the Social-Studies Program 



Factors Conditioning Social-Studies Teaching. The Impor- 
tance of Social-Trend Analysis Current Social Trends An 
Operative Framework. Conclusion. 


Ralph H. Ojemann 76 

The Nature of Child Behavior. The Selection of Concepts. 
How Learning Takes Place. The Development of Values. 
The Development of Selected Behavior Patterns. Implica- 
tions for the Teacher, 




PROGRAM, Helen Heffeman .... 120 

Purposes of the Elementary School. The Purposes of the 
Social Studies. The Place of Social Studies in the Curriculum 
The Relation of Social Studies to Science. The Relation of 
Social Studies to Health Education, The Relation of the So- 
cial Studies to the Arts. The Relation of the Social Studies 
to the Skill Subjects. Social Studies The Integrating Center 
of the Curriculum. 


CURRICULUM, Dorothy McClure Prater . . .129 

Curriculum Organization and the Aims of Instiuction. Pat- 
terns of Organization for Elementary Social Studies. Fstablish- 
ing Scope and Sequence for Elementary Social-Studies Pro- 
grams. Organizing Learning Experiences for Classroom Study 
Some Factors Affecting Social-Studies Programs. Summary 
and Conclusions. 


Chaw .... 

The Learning Needs of School Children. Role of the Teacher 
in Providing for Individual Differences Making Social Studies 
Important to Children. Handling Intake and Output of Ideas*. 
Developing Social-Civic Behavior. 


Alvma Trent Em tows ...... ..... 187 

The Learning Process. Relation of Learning Skills to Com- 
munication in Society. Problems of Special Inipoitancc ro 
Reading. Kinds of Research in Elementary Schools, Tech- 
niques of Reporting in Social Studies. 

EX. EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP, John H. Niwieyer ..... ,114 

Gtizenship Education Defined. The Foundation: Emotional 
Health. A Planned Program. In Conclusion: The Long View. 


Wilson and Miller R. Colling* ......... ^K 

Sense of Space. Sense of Time. Sense of Cultural Variation 
and Contact. Farsighted Loyalty to One's Own Nation, Prob- 
lem-solving. Teacher Understanding of International Rela- 
tions. International Organization* The Group Process, 


holtzer and Richard Madden .......... ^ 

A Case Study in Evaluation* Denver, Its People, and Its 
Schools. The Elementary-School Social-Studies Program. An 


Over-all View of Evaluation in Denver. The Use of Generally 
Accepted Tests in Evaluating Social Studies. The Use of 
Locally Made Tests. Special Types of Evaluating Instruments. 
A Critical View of the Denver Program. General Questions 
Relating to Evaluation of the Social Studies. Conclusion 


Melby .... 285 

Educational Leadership in the Social Studies. Importance 
of Individual Attitudes. Preparation of Teachers and Super- 
visors. Factors Influencing Teacher and Pupil Behaviors. 
Maintaining Teacher Morale Democracy and Freedom. Parti- 
cipation and Learning. The Community as a Learning Labora- 
tory. Conclusion. 



Why Instruction Lags Behind the Hopes of Subject Special- 
ists. Ways in Which the Work of the Elementary-School 
Teacher Can Be Made More Compatible with Reality. To- 
ward More Realizable Goals 

INDEX . . ... 315 











The social studies today should occupy a position of supreme 
importance in education. This view is obscured for many by the 
prominence and tangible achievements of science and by the widely 
publicized shortage of citizens adequately trained in the essentials 
of social understanding and civic behavior. To be sure, we do 
have a shortage of scientists. Witness industry's frantic search for 
them. The ultimate key to our nation's future security and well- 
being, however, does not rest entirely with science. 

The evidence is overwhelming that the fundamental problems 
of our citizens, both as individuals and as a society, lie chiefly in 
the realm of social engineering. In so far as we have failed as a 
nation, it has been in the political, social, and economic realms. 
Our failures are illustrated by our continual difficulties in estab- 
lishing satisfactory relations in international diplomacy and trade, 
management-labor disputes, minority-group dealings, and in person- 
to-person contacts in all spheres of life. Other basic social problems 
are conservation of natural resources, control of crime, management 
of farm surpluses, efficiency in government, and maintenance of 
security without violation of personal freedom. 

The elementary-school child naturally is not expected to solve 
or even to cope with national and international problems of such 
complexity and magnitude. However, he will be faced as an adult 
with these or with new ones of equal size and importance. How 
can he be educated so that his generation will be less naive, less 
superstitious, less shortsighted, and less ill-informed than the gen- 
eration of his elders? How fast and how far can he be introduced 
to society and its problems? The committee has sought to produce 
a yearbook which will help answer such questions. 

The conviction is strong among the members of the yearbook 
committee that the area of the social studies is far more central in 
the education of children than is implied by the place it now holds 


in the minds of the general public and in the curriculum of many 
elementary schools. In many respects the social studies are flourish- 
ing, but a large number of school administrators and teachers view 
social studies as a field marked by elusive objectives, vague concepts, 
and controversy concerning ends, means, and emphasis. 

In view of the prevalence of such an attitude, the committee 
has chosen to devote the yearbook to a study of those aspects of 
social studies which seem to be causing the most indecision and 
vexation and which seem to need fresh treatment. An effort has 
been made to avoid duplicating what has been adequately presented 
elsewhere. The committee has thus ruled out any attempt to make 
the yearbook a comprehensive or systematic treatment of all aspects 
of the social studies. 

The yearbook begins with an appraisal of the role of social- 
studies instruction in the current period of our national history 
(chap. i). This is followed by three unique chapteis cm the raw 
materials of social studies viz., the child's world (chaps, ii and iii) 
and the child himself (chap. iv). Consideration is then given to 
the troublesome problems of organization. Here two basic ques- 
tions are taken up. How can the social studies best be fitted into 
the total elementary-school curriculum so that they will facilitate 
unity in the curriculum and encourage the child's learning in other 
areas (chap, v)? And, what is the status of the organization of the 
social studies in the elementary schools throughout the nation 
(chap, vi)? Two vital aspects of classroom instruction as applied 
to social studies are then dealt with: (a) providing for individual 
differences of pupils (which has long needed a new and vigorous 
treatment) (chap, vii); (b) providing reading, research, and re- 
porting experiences for children (processes which arc tending 
toward a hackneyed level, both in the literature and in practice) 
(chap. viii). 

Next, two of the most imperative objectives of the social studies 
development of responsible citizenship and promotion of world 
understandingare discussed, with full recognition of the complex 
and often elusive factors involved (chaps, ix and x). The ways and 
means of evaluating social-studies instruction are described by means 
of the case history of an actual, particularly imaginative appraisal 
program as carried out in one school system (chap, xi). Chapter 


xii is addressed chiefly to the school administrator and the super- 
visor, enumerating and describing the human characteristics, re- 
lationships, and activities of administrators, supervisors, and teach- 
ers that form the basis of effective instruction in the social studies. 
The yearbook closes with a brief commentary on significant fea- 
tures of the text. 

The committee, in its selection of contributors, sought educators 
whose thinking would represent a range of opinion and would in- 
clude the distinct and significant points of view which exist today. 
The committee has relied on specialists in the social studies to 
present individual aspects of the subject It has recognized, too, 
that the yearbook would be strengthened by contributions from 
several educators who are specialists in the related fields of cur- 
riculum, child development, language arts, and school administration 
and has recruited them. 

This volume appears at a time when the professional educator 
and his work are under criticism when his role as an "expert" is 
being challenged and caricatured. Social-studies programs are 
bearing a share of the attack. Some of the charges are uninformed, 
such as one based on a confusion of the term "social studies" with 
"socialism." The criticism ranges from this sort of thing through 
many gradations to the sophisticated position of a few scholars that 
the social studies are so vague and complex that a child cannot 
bring to them the requisite critical understanding. Despite the 
prevalence of criticism, the committee believes that the yearbook 
should not constitute an apologia. The yearbook does provide, 
however, important data which critics have ignored or distorted. 
It also points out certain excesses and weaknesses which do exist 
in social-studies programs. 

We as a nation are in desperate need of a citizenry possessing, 
in a measure as yet unattained, social literacy and a sense of social 
responsibility, who will be capable of grasping intelligently and 
then wrestling productively with the complex problems of our 
social order. Only with a majority of citizens so equipped can we 
hope to destroy the threat to mankind's moral fulfilment and very 
existence which ignorance and complacency pose today. This 
yearbook indicates ways in which the elementary school can con- 
tribute to such social literacy and responsibility. 


The Role of Social Studies in Elementary Education 


Problems and Purposes of Social Education 

The role of the social studies in elementary education is to aid 
the child, from kindergarten or first grade through sixth grade, to 
understand the concepts that describe and explain human society 
and to develop the insights and skills required by democratic citizen- 
ship. This is a large order. Naturally, the school cannot take sole 
responsibility for it. 

But the school's responsibility for the child's social education is 
great and it extends well beyond the social btudies* The school 
discharges part of its responsibility quite apart from any formal, 
academic study. For example, social education is stimulated as the 
teacher cultivates a classroom atmosphere which is permeated by 
mutual regard and respect; when a class discusses together even 
such small matters as keeping the classroom tidy; or when a teacher 
helps a withdrawn child find confidence in group activity. Through 
such means, elementary-school teachers are continually conditioning 
social attitudes and habits. 

It is clear that the social studies do not and cannot deal with 
the whole range of social education. While they may provide chil- 
dren with opportunities for working out problems of human rela- 
tions, the social studies focus chiefly upon the systematic widening 
of the child's knowledge and understanding of the world that lies 
beyond his own small peer society. 

There is an urgency about teaching knowledge and understand- 
ing as never before. Only knowledge and understanding will revcnl 
to the individual, for example, the supreme and universal issues of 
freedom versus slavery, creativity versus conformity, ;tmt integrity 
versus sham. Only knowledge and understanding will disclose the 


important facts that man is a co-operative and productive creature 
and need not be a slave to his self-centered or destructive impulses, 
that natural resources exist in abundance but must be conserved and 
harnessed for everyone's benefit; that significant progress toward 
world order has taken place; and the like. 

Social studies, by widening knowledge and understanding, ac- 
complish a host of other tasks. Through social studies we have 
perhaps a better chance than through any other curriculum area to 
assist children in the development of loyalty, courage, and a will 
to act in the preservation of the prized values of our culture. 

How can the social studies be employed to establish this kind 
of social literacy and to create appreciation of our cherished and 
hard-won values? The urgency of the question makes us want to 
plunge immediately into the problems of methodology. It will be 
more productive in the end, however, if we first re-examine from 
a distance the areas we are exploring, the interrelations between 
school and society, the problems which are obstructing the effective- 
ness of social studies, and ways to clear the road ahead. This chapter 
is written with the purpose of conducting such a re-examination. 

Examples of the Impact of Culture on Social Studies 

Each distinctive period of social progress has its unique culture, 
technology, and mode of thought, all of which have an enormous 
impact upon the schools of the time. The virtues, evils, and excesses 
of the schools are almost always the virtues, evils, and excesses of 
society at large. The social studies taught in any one period are 
inevitably influenced by the environmental pressures of the time 
and by man's interpretation of his current needs. 

Colonial schools reflected colonial values and needs. Most of 
the early settlers lived close to the soil, intimately dependent upon 
and observant of the processes of nature the germination of seeds, 
the ripening harvest, the sun's annual recession, and its invariable 
return. Life's uncertainties and risks were great, but its rewards 
were deeply satisfying. Colonial man, being simultaneously iden- 
tified with and dwarfed or expanded by infinite forces, and being 
relatively free of the countless artifices which clutter life today, 
was peculiarly receptive to spiritual influences. 

Jt was quite natural, therefore, that the colonial school should 


have been infused with a religious outlook. Indeed, the chief aim 
of the elementary school was to teach church doctrine, and social 
studies, so far as they could be said to exist, dealt with the nature 
and obligations of man as interpreted by the church. 1 

Another example of the impact of culture upon schools is seen 
in mid-nineteenth century. Its passion for diffusion of knowledge 
had roots in the technological improvements in paper production, 
printing, and transportation. These made possible the communica- 
tion of ideas on a mass basis. Coupled with this development, and 
partly resulting from it, was the rapid increase in the number of 
schools, which created a new and enormous reading public. Thirst 
for reading caused a boom in books. Publication of books, importa- 
tion of books from abioad, and establishment of newspapers, maga- 
zines, and libraries soared. 

These materials were by no means entirely religious in content, 
for a change in emphasis was occurring. The moral standards of 
reading matter now seemed Jess important to a large section of the 
public than its ability to inform the reader about the new world 
which was being developed by brisk scientific, economic, and geo- 
graphic expansion. Boundless public curiosity had been aroused. 
Popularization of knowledge became a dominant theme of the cen- 
tury. A new faith supplemented religious faith --a belief that widely 
disseminated knowledge, as the enemy of ignorance, was a power 
that would set men free. 2 

The expanding school curriculum reflected this faith. School- 
books in geography and history came into general use for the first 
time, crowded with items of factual information. To be sure, the 
information was not always weighed for its significance or relevance, 
but it was considered valuable nonetheless, primarily because it was 
information. The belief was that, if thoroughly drilled into the 
child, it would add to his stature and effectiveness as an individual 
and citizen. 

Today, as in times past, the elementary school mirrors the value*? 

1. Edgar W, Knight, Twenty Centuries of Education, p, 392. Boston: Oinn 
& Co., 1940. 

2. Merle Curd, The Growth of American Thought, chap, xiv. New York: 
Harper & Bros., 1943. 


of society. Riesman and his associates direct attention to the wide- 
spread tendency today for "other people," i.e., our neighbors, to 
constitute the focus of our problems, represented in our earlier 
history by the natural environment. We are preoccupied with what 
our neighbors may think of us, with their aspirations, their values. 
Consequently, Riesman points out, social conformity and social 
adjustment have become important contemporary goals, and our 
schools reflect this temper in their emphasis upon "the skills of 
gregariousness and amiability." 3 By way of evidence, one might 
call attention to the increasing popularity in education of such con- 
cepts as "social living," "human relations," "sociometiy," "teacher- 
pupil planning," and "group dynamics." 

Creative Power of the School 

Educators who ignore or dispute the fact that the school is 
essentially a conserving and stabilizing agency succumb easily to 
fads. Ignorant of the history and sociology of education, they may 
think they are battling on the frontiers, only to find themselves 
eventually on a desert island. But such educators are outnumbered 
by others who have become overly preoccupied with the conserving 
function of education and object to the suggestion that schools also 
have a creative role to fulfil 

Education, though a mirror of society, is not a mirror which 
mechanically icilecrs the milieu. A school can scarcely be an im- 
personal agency, since it is in the hands of human beings, not auto- 
matons* Many schoolmen possess scholarship, imagination, vision, 
and conscientiousness. In addition to performing their routine and 
traditional duties, they have always tried to keep abreast of changes 
in society and to remain discriminatingly receptive to the stirrings of 
contemporary thought such as to the words of Benjamin Franklin 
in colonial times, to Horace Mann in the nineteenth century, to 

3. David Riesman et al., The Lonely Crowd, chap. ii. Garden City, New 
York: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1955. This is but one of many voices warning 
us of our drift to ever greater conformity. Crawford H. Grcenewalt, presi- 
dent of E. I. <lu Pont de Nemours & Co,, pictures man as bcins threatened by 
a growing emphasis on group action and conformity (Neiv York Times, April 
27, 1956). A similar view is expressed by Alan Valentine (The Age of Con- 
formity. Chicago: Henry Regnery Co., 1954), Adlai Stevenson (What 1 
Think, pp. 140-41, 148. New York: Harper & Bros., 1956), and others. 


John Dewey in the twentieth century. Each of these men con- 
tributed to a broadening and revitalization of education. 

Today the school has acquired a degree of self-direction which 
is uniting it more closely than ever with the social aspirations and 
needs of the American people. Since the beginning of this century, 
educators have been searching out pertinent data from history, 
sociology, and psychology in order to evaluate the schools con- 
tinuously and deliberately to see how they can be made to serve 
society better, to find out what is neglected and what is performed 
in excess, what is primary and what is sccondarv. 

The yearbooks of the National Society for the Study of Educa- 
tion are notable examples of the thoughtful evaluation and rc-cvalua- 
tion of education which help schools serve society creatively as 
well as to pass on the accumulation of beliefs, knowledge, and skills 
For example, the last yearbook of the National Society to be devoted 
entirely to the social studies, issued thirty-four years ago, proposed 
methods for reducing the inertia of tradition which had produced 
a stagnant body of social-studies content 4 In the words of Harold 
Rugg, in the "Foreword 1 ' of that yearbook, "the methods of the 
laboratory must supplant those of the armchair." The approaches 
suggested in that volume by Rugg, Wa&hburnc, Horn, and Harap 
presented a radical departure from the conventional methods of 
selecting subject matter. These men showed in detail how more 
useful subject matter could be brought into the curriculum by deriv- 
ing it from analysis of the current social scene practices, usages, 
problems, issues, opinions, and the frequency with which topics 
occur in periodical literature. While many educators now believe 
their procedures were excessively atomistic, these pioneers provided 
part of the leverage which the schools of a generation ago needed 
toward relating the subject matter of education more closely to the 
world of that day. 

The significant developments in elementary-school social studies 
since that time are apt illustrations of the school's creative power. 
Some of these developments should be noted* 

4. The Social Studies in the Elementary and Secondary School, Twenty 
second Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Parr II, 
Chicago: Distributed by the University of Chicago Press, 1923. 


Community studies, once confined to a rather sterile civics, are 
now pursued in many schools on a par with the thoroughgoing 
Heimatkunde community studies of the German Volkschule. 

The current scene is given greater attention. For example, some 
of the trends discussed in chapter iii of this yearbook are encoun- 
tered by children today in their study of such commonly taught 
topics as farming, transportation, communication, and conservation. 
Studies of foreign cultures are more realistic and up-to-date and 
avoid the rigid romantic stereotypes which were so widely dissem- 
inated in classrooms of the past. 

Geography has been increasingly humanized. 

The unit concept has spread. Its absurdities have been sloughed 
off, and it is filling many needs of children which hitherto had been 
largely overlooked. 

Textbooks have improved. They are more readable, contain 
better pictures and, in general, aie more appropriate for children. 

Children are now taught to supplement textbook learning with 
effective research. They learn to make use of a variety of published 
sources, to judge and compare them, to deal with conflicting data, 
to interpret maps, graphs, and tables, and to perform other skills 
which are important in learning about society. 

Social-studies instruction, along with other areas of instruction, 
has improved as a result of the substitution of broad teacher-educa- 
tion for narrow teacher-training, increased emphasis on mental 
health, and improved classroom book collections. 

In view of such gains over a comparatively brief period of time, 
we have every reason to be optimistic both about the elementary 
school and about social studies. 

However, our seething era does not permit complacency. Ele- 
mentary-school social studies today require clarification of their 
role. Honesty forces the acknowledgment that the experimentation 
and thinking during the past generation have been conflicting. One 
contribution this yearbook can make is to suggest how some of the 
tangled strands can be straightened out. This particular chapter 
will limit itself to the identification of our problems which require 
solution as a prerequisite to dispelling the confusion caused by 
divergent philosophies and practices. They center around (a) re- 
storing emphasis upon the social heritage, (b) using the social her- 


itage as a vehicle for developing social attitudes and social behavior, 
(<?) developing patterns of constructive social thought, and (V) fac- 
ing popular doubts about social studies. 


The transmission of the social heritage has been an enduring con- 
cept of the school's role. 5 It has served the purpose of providing 
each generation with a broad base of experience and knowledge for 
judging with perspective its own thought and action, for enabling 
overlapping contemporary generations to live and work together 
with mutual understanding and respect, and for demonstrating 
today's bond with the past and with the spatially remote. Trans- 
mission of the social heritage has thus promoted a sense of con- 
tinuity and has made the school an agent of social stability. Thus, 
children become oriented to their world, feel at home in it, sense 
how their homeland is related to other lands, and rcnH/e what man 
has thought and built. The social studies' make a particularly im- 
portant contribution to this process. 

The majority of educators appreciate the necessity for trans- 
mitting the social heritage. However, a number of articulate and 
influential workers in elementary education give little emphasis to 
and exhibit little enthusiasm for transmitting the social heritage. 
They accept only grudgingly the transmission of the social heritage 
as a role of social studies and relegate it to a subordinate position, 
with low priority. 

One objection to heavy emphasis on the social heritage in teach- 
ing children stems from the belief that children can sec the meaning 
only of that which touches their own lives. Thus, one textbook 
for primary-grade teachers suggests that social studies should be 
limited to generalizations which are related to the social circum- 
stances of the pupils and their physiological and psychological needs 
and which can be translated in terms of actual behavior. 6 A doctoral 
study claims to demonstrate that children of elementary-school age 

5. Isaac L. Kandcl, "History of the Curriculum," p, i. New York: The 
Author (Teachers College, Columbia University), 1935 (mimeographed). 

6. Roma Cans ** */., Teaching otm% Children, pp, 91 ff,, $33, Yonkt'i*- 
on-Hudson, New York. World Book Co., 1952, 


lack the interest and maturity to deal understandingly with remote 
foreign cultures. 7 A leader in educational and psychological research 
attaches significance to his finding that children, in writing on what 
they liked about themselves, made slight mention of their intellectual 
abilities. He argues that schoolteachers and administrators tend to 
impose their own intellectual approach to life upon the child, to 
the neglect of considerations which lie closer to the child's needs. 8 
A large number of teachers of children will recognize this kind of 
speculation as misleading* After one scans a shelf of such books, he 
is not surprised that some critics charge contemporary education 
with anti-intellectualism. 

Part of the difficulty lies in an oversimplification of how the 
child learns, as explained by exponents of child-centered education. 
They assume that all learning is inductive and that learning of the 
social heritage must hence proceed very gradually from close-at- 
hand, concrete experiences. The fallacy of this extreme position 
has been analyzed elsewhere. The position overlooks the facts that 
life demands both deductive and inductive thinking, that both types 
are "natural/ 7 and that the child learns both types. Granted that 
study materials must, in Dewey's words, "at the outset fall within 
the scope of ordinary life experience," 10 the pace at which they 
can advance beyond that narrow scope is probably much more 
rapid, particularly in this age of television and other forms of mass 
communication avidly patronized by children, than many protago- 
nists of child-centered education are ready to acknowledge. 

The fact that few children mention intellectual abilities when 
polled on their interests does not necessarily mean that they do not 

7, Wanda Robertson, An Evaluation of the Culture Unit Method for Social 
Education. New York' Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia 
University, 1950. 

8 Arthur T. Jersild, In Search of Self, chap. x. New York: Bureau of Pub- 
lications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1952. 

9, For example, see William A. Brownell and Gordon Hendrickson, "How 
Children Learn Information, Concepts, and Generalizations," Learning and 
Instruction, chap. iv. Forty-ninth Yearbook of the National Society for the 
Study of Education, Part I. Chicago: Distributed by the University of Chicago 
Press, 1950, 

10. John Dcwey, Experience and Education, p. 87. New York: Macmillan 
Co., 1938. 


value these abilities. Every teacher has found that even children 
who would normally not be classed as "intellectual" actually do 
desire and enjoy intellectual experiences. Moreover, not all surveys 
of children's interests show an indifference to social studies. For 
example, one study of children's spontaneous questions revealed 
that almost half of all questions fell in the category of social studies, 
and many of these dealt with matters remote from the "social cir- 
cumstances" of children. The subject matter of their questions 
included the origins of early man, ancient peoples, the development 
of nations and governments, pioneer life, and other remote topics. 11 

Teaching the social heritage via social studies sometimes gives 
the illusion of being inappropriate, because in some classrooms 
teachers are not skilful in applying one principle of effective teach- 
ing, i.e., helping learners establish definite and worth-while goals. 
While many teachers fail to elicit much enthusiasm from their 
pupils in studying the social heritage, there is no justification to 
conclude that this is because of inappropriate content. Other teach- 
ers using the same content develop lively interest among their pupils. 
They make sure their pupils sense the challenge of a topic to be 
explored, a concept to be clarified, a problem to be solved, "a direct- 
ing overview, a skeleton to be filled in." 12 They help children sec 
how ideas from the past and from distant regions are working at 
their own doorsteps. 

Another reason why teaching the social heritage sometimes ap- 
pears inappropriate is the teacher's attempt to introduce too many 
topics. Many courses of study arc conceived and installed in naive 
ignorance of one of the oldest and most fundamental precepts of 
teaching, Whitehead states it thus- "Do not teach too many sub- 
jects, . . . What you teach, teach thoroughly. . . . Ler the main 

11. Emily V. Baker, Children's Questions and Their ImpUcxtians fur Plan 
ning the Curriculum. New York: Bureau of Publications', Teachers Coil<*^% 
Columbia University, 1945. Another study revealing the strength of chiUlien^ 
intellectual interests is leported by Herbert C. Rudimn, "The Infuruurional 
Needs and Reading Interests of Children in Grades IV through VHI," /C/c 
mentary School Journal, LV (May, 1955), 502-12. 

12. G. T, Buswell, "Organization and Sequence of the Curriculum,*' The 
Psychology of Learning, p. 458. Forty-first Yearbook of the National Society 
for the Study of Education, Part IL Chicago; Distributed by the University 
of Chicago Press, 1942. 


ideas which are introduced into a child's education be few and im- 
portant, and let them be thrown into every combination possible." 13 
Brownell and Hendrickson, in their exposition of the psychology 
of children's learning, estimate that the number of concepts taught 
in elementary school "comprise a learning load that is far beyond 
the capacity of school children to master successfully." They point 
out that many school administrators and teachers overload the cur- 
riculum because they "oversimplify the psychological nature of 
concepts." 14 

In 1955 the writer surveyed six series of social-studies textbooks 
and 65 state and city social-studies programs. The third-grade find- 
ings are typical: The textbooks contain an average of 1 12 categories 
of concepts; some of the courses of study provide for the teaching 
of as many as 1 3 unit topics. With the subsequent load of concepts 
to assimilate, children are scarcely apt to show much interest or 
understanding. The cause of their common dislike of social studies 
is less frequently the inappropriateness of the concepts than the 
sheer bulk of the concepts. 

One of the great needs is for the teacher to limit the number 
of unit topics and concepts and to seek more thorough and more 
leisurely study of each. An illustration of how to satisfy this need 
is seen in the Denver third-grade program, which requires only four 
units, two of which are predominantly social studies in content and 
two of which are predominantly science in content: (a) Living in 
Denver, (&) Animals Near and Far, (c) Money, and (d) Learning 
about Plants. 15 

Another factor in the current devaluation of teaching the social 
heritage is the practice in some quarters of using the terms "social 
studies" and "social living" more or less interchangeably. 16 The 

13, Alfred North Whitehead, The Avms of Education and Other Essays, 
p. 2. New York: Macmttlan Co., 1919. 

14. Brownell and Hendrickson, op, tit,, p. 105. 

15* The Social Studies Program of the Denver Public Schools. Denver, 
Colorado: Denver Public Schools, 1954. 

1 6. The Elementary Course of Study. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction, 1949. Henry Harap, Social Living in the Cur- 
riculum. Nashville, Tennessee: Division of Surveys and Field Services, George 
Peabody College for Teachers, X95Z. 


relationship between the two areas is obvious, but using the terms 
interchangeably does not promote clear thinking. Such usage re- 
sults in the practice of referring to social studies as "something that 
goes on all day." Since schools consist of groups of children who 
work and play together throughout the day, it is obvious that oppor- 
tunities for socialization exist practically all day long. But it would 
be equally plausible to say that, since opportunities for considering 
the quantitative dimensions of the environment exist all dtiy (as 
Whitehead, Russell, and other mathematicians have shown), arith- 
metic "goes on all day." Statements of this sort cause confusion 
and drain useful terms of their customary meaning. It is no wonder 
that some supervisors and teachers, equating "social studies" with 
"social living," conclude that a program which develops amiable 
relationships in the classroom satisfies the major requirements of the 
social-studies curriculum. 

Few educators would deny the teacher's responsibility to help 
children practice democratic citizenship through classroom living, 
to understand their feelings, and to develop insight and skill in 
their relations with their peers. It is axiomatic that the elementary- 
school child's first need is a teacher who takes a personal interest 
in him. The insistence of some educators that child is more im- 
portant than subject, while valid, has led to hurtful neglect of sub- 
ject matter hurtful because the child suffers from intellectual 
malnutrition, and organized society suffers from a shallow citixcn. 

If those of us whose special interest lies in elementary-school 
social studies sometimes say more about the content than \ve do 
about the child, it is not because we minimize the importance of 
the child; it is more likely because we take the child's importance 
for granted. When a teacher overlooks a child's adjustment, it is 
serious; it is equally serious for a teacher to engage in what Buswell 
aptly phrased the "naive conceit" of those who "assume that a cur- 
riculum can grow out of the concrete life experience of the present 
and disregard the organized patterns of understanding that previous 
learning has made available." u The need is for sensitive teachers 
who can make forthright presentations of appropriate portions of 

xy. Buswell, op. ch>, p. 456. 


the social heritage in a manner that will start children growing 
toward depth, breadth, and perspective in their social thinking. 


The social heritage has a contribution to make to the child's 
personal development. If it becomes an end in itself, its content 
becomes inert and produces the mental dryrot against which White- 
head protested so forcefully. "The only use of a knowledge of the 
past," he wrote, "is to equip us for the present." He viewed the 
proper purpose of education as one which "preserves the connection 
between knowledge and the zest of life." 1S 

Most workers in elementary education probably find such a 
position theoretically agreeable. It disparages neither the past nor 
the present. More than that, it suggests the union of knowledge 
and life, of past and present. A question may arise, however, con- 
cerning specific ways in which the social heritage can aid the child. 
Three major ways will be mentioned here. 

The social heritage can contribute to the child's adjustment. 
From the earliest school years the teacher can help the child con- 
solidate and integrate his fragmentary, lopsided image of the world 
and find an orderliness in it. Seeing the underlying and abiding 
order beneath the surface of confusion is one of the first steps in 
achieving personal adjustment. By the time the child enters school 
he has seen a great deal of the chaotic surface. His here-and-now 
world contains its own unpredictability and contradiction (such as 
his parents 7 calling the postman by his first name and the family 
physician by his title and last name.) Added to this are his hap- 
hazard glimpses of the distant past and of remote regions, often 
apocryphally revealed on the television or movie screen, in refer- 
ences and anecdotes of parents and others, and by pictures in the 

Teachers have a duty to help the child discover coherence in the 
social heritage, to help him distinguish, relate, sort out, and arrange 
the myriad details things, places, persons, names, ideas which he 
has met in narrow contexts. Dewey pointed out the fundamental 

18. WMtehead, op. cn^ pp. 3, 139. 


nature of this task of the school. "No experience is educative," he 
wrote, "that does not tend both to knowledge of more facts and 
entertaining of more ideas and to a better, a more orderly, arrange- 
ment of them." 19 

Everything studied under the heading of social studies has organi- 
zation. For example, communities, social processes, rivers, and 
natural resources all have names, limits, types, and subcategories. 
Man's activities are governed by instinct, season, climate, and topog- 
raphy. Teachers should consciously introduce the child to the 
world so that intellectual law and order emerge; so that society 
begins to make sense, despite mankind's unpredictable behavior. 
They should help the child discern the infinite as well as the ad hoc, 
to develop a framework for arranging and interpreting fresh experi- 
ences and data as he encounters them. In the earlier years a topic 
of study may focus on no more than the local neighborhood, yet 
the teacher sees and exploits the relationship of that neighborhood 
to the past and to the outside world. 

Thus, the child gradually becomes aware of the organization of 
the world and fits together many of the facts and ideas he has 
accumulated. His curiosity becomes directed to exploring new 
areas, in which he collects and catalogues and interprets new data. 
He finds deep satisfaction in his increasing feeling of at-homencss 
in his world. This process is dependent upon an imaginative teacher 
who sees the importance of this aim of the social studies and who 
finds in the educational enterprise the excitement of which White- 
head wrote. 

Knowledge of the social heritage can broaden the child?* per- 
spective. If presented in the spirit already described, knowledge 
overwhelms the child's natural provincialism. It opens up a view of 
the world in its full range of fascination and conflict. Knowledge 
is the building stone of understanding, and from understanding 
emerges perspective, With perspective, the child can acquire cer- 
tain insights which so many in preceding generations have missed: 
realization that changes are inevitable, that social changes do not 
occur overnight, that change is not always progress, and that man 
has not always been and need not be supine prey to hJs physical 
environment, to social inertia, and to his immature emotions. 


Knowledge of the social heritage can contribute to the child's 
developing sense of i esponsibihty as a citizen. Information about 
society, if imparted so the child has a conscious goal in examining 
and considering it, will prod his thought and fire his imagination. 
There is probably no other route by which responsible action 
emerges. To be sure, right information does not guarantee right 
behavior. Educators' recent preoccupation with this negative propo- 
sition, however, obscures the fact that, after all, the thought is 
father to the deed. 

It is folly to suppose that adjustment, perspective, and responsible 
behavior can be induced through the content of social studies alone. 
The fields of religion and psychiatry, for example, employing other 
means than classroom experiences, play vital roles. But the full 
possibilities of teaching the social studies in order to build ideals, 
disciplined thought, and responsible action have been underplayed. 
They have been underplayed both by exponents of group dynamics, 
who tend to belittle subject matter, and by exponents of cut-and- 
dried social-studies programs, who purvey inert information in the 
name of education. The probability is strong that social studies, 
properly taught, can have a positive impact upon personal develop- 
ment. A wholesale dedication on the part of the elementary school 
to such social studies is in order. 


Einstein is credited with the remark. "Education is that which 
remains if one has forgotten everything he learned in school." One 
element of education he undoubtedly had in mind was mode of 
thinking. Modes of thought are more potent than knowledge in 
controlling one's behavior and determining the use to which one 
puts his knowledge. Despite the obvious importance of teaching 
the child to think and how to think, these matters have not received 
much systematic attention from educators and psychologists at 
least not in comparison with the attention given to teaching the 
child to remember. There is even lack of clarity concerning the 
precise patterns which are needed. Two of particular significance 
to the social studies will be discussed here: thought that demands 
evidence, and thought that perceives social change. 

Thought that demands evidence. Loyalty to free inquiry comes 
not throucrh nreachment but throucrh a nattern of thoucrht which 


is congenial to it. Such loyalty emerges in a child through his 
being encouraged to look for facts, for evidence, as a means to 
establishing authority. Whether the child is studying the duties of 
the policeman, the life of Columbus, the invention of the telephone, 
the height of Mt. Everest, or the beliefs of Mohammed, he should 
be encouraged to compare sources including books, films, acquaint- 
ances, television, pictures, etc., as well as reading sources to judge 
them, and to check differences against still other sources. Those in 
whom this habit is formed are not easily deluded by propaganda, 
by appearances, by high-pressure salesmanship, or by the prestige 
of authority or power. The child who learns to look for evidence 
also learns to value truth and freedom. 

Some teachers fear that if the child becomes accustomed to the 
process of open-minded inquiry he will direct it to his own heroes, 
his own actions, and his own convictions, and that he will develop 
an unhealthy, iconoclastic, cynical, suspicious spirit. If this happens, 
it probably comes as a result of warped personality development 
more than as a result of learning to search for the truth. Many 
teachers have demonstrated, however, that this need not occur. 
In these cases, the teacher himself sets the model He demon- 
strates earnest seeking of evidence, not "debunking." He respects 
children's honest doubts and helps them seek relevant data. 

Teaching the child to look for evidence does not obviate all 
indoctrination. The value of free inquiry is itself established in 
the child's mind through indoctrination. Furthermore, as is well 
stated by Morgan, "There is a great body of attitudes, habits, and 
convictions which are scarcely at all controversial and which can 
be safely taught. These include courtesy, honesty, good will toward 
men, co-operativeness, responsibility, courage, and a feeling of 
human brotherhood. If less time were spent in indoctrinating chil- 
dren in controversial matters and more time were spent in training 
them in [developing in them, partly through indoctrination] such 
generally approved qualities, the results of human harmony would 
be better." 20 

Thought that perceives social change realistically. In periods 

20. Arthur E. Morgan, The "One True Faith" as a Cause of War, p. 5, 
Human Affairs Pamphlet No. 36. Chicago: Henry Regnery Co., 1948. 


of rapid social change, such as the present one, orderly progress is 
blocked by two groups: those who naively believe change can be 
thwarted, and those who see it as a means to Utopia. Both the 
reactionaries and the dreamers are doomed to disillusionment. 
Teachers can help children build the foundation for a disciplined 
kind of reaction to social change, based on the habit of appraising 
change realistically. This involves thinking how prized values can 
be preserved amid change and how change can be controlled by 
gradual, orderly processes. 

One conspicuous social change is the much publicized "shrink- 
ing" of the globe. Due to advances in aviation and communication, 
remote corners of the earth now have access to each other formerly 
undreamed of. They have the opportunity of either exchanging 
ideas and goods to their mutual benefit or bombarding each other 
with propaganda or deadly missiles. Toynbee writes that if this 
shrinking of the earth is not to end in mankind's self-destruction, 
"the only alternative possibility is that it will end in a worldwide 
social fusion of all the tribes, nations, civilizations, and religions of 
Man." 21 

Children's thinking must be attuned to the pressing need for 
understanding peoples everywhere and establishing neighborly atti- 
tudes toward them. This matter is dealt with in detail in chapter x. 

Another example of social change requiring disciplined think- 
ing is the new industrial revolution wrought by automation (see 
chap. iii). Experts predict that automation will increase American 
productivity by one-third in the next ten years; that it will be 
accompanied by increasing pressure on the consumer to clutter his 
life still more with dispensable gadgets, extra automobiles, and the 
like; that the length of the work week will fall drastically; and 
that leisure will increase for most workers. Through social studies 
the child can become acquainted with this revolution and learn to 
face the changes it will bring about Through various curriculum 
areas he can be helped to discover values (such as "it is better to 
create than to look on" and "it is better to participate than to criti- 
cize") and occupations (such as working with tools, studying nature, 

21. Arnold J. Toynbee, "New Vistas for the Historian," Saturday Review, 
XXXDC (January 7, 1955), 7-8, 63-65. 


collecting significant objects, and performing music) which will 
encourage his constructive use of abundant leisure in adulthood. 

Automation, with its flood of goods, may heighten more than 
ever the already tremendous impulse among us to do and to own 
what our neighbors do and own. Through social studies, it would 
be possible for children to "discover that their own thoughts and 
their own lives are quite as interesting as other people's 7 '; and for 
each child to realize "the enormous potentialities for diversity . . . 
so that he will not be tempted and coerced into adjustment" and 
shallow conformity. 22 


Those of us who take a special interest in social studies, and 
responsibility for promoting them, should face frankly the fact that 
many school administrators and teachers, not to mention a large 
segment of the lay public, are skeptical of the value of social studies, 
Before social studies can gain wider acceptance and support, we 
shall need to consider sympathetically some of the more persistent 

The charge that social studies lack definitcness. Social studies 
cause irritation in certain quarters because of alleged nebulous con- 
tent. Social scientists unwittingly contribute to this irritation by 
the lack of a common perspective from which to see and discuss 
the same problems and by ignoring the conclusions of their co- 
workers when drawing conclusions of their own.- a The irritation is 
sometimes expressed as follows: "Why plague children with such 
vague ideas as standard of living, differences between nationalities, 
and theories of government? Why not stick to teaching simple facts 
and skills which they can use? Why not simply tell them about 
the superiority of their country, how it came to be, and what the 
rest of the world is like?" 

These questions are raised partly because of the comparative 
newness of the interdisciplinary approach within the social sciences, 
their recent rapid expansion, public unawareness of their potential 
in solving problems of human relations, and a persistent public view 

22. Riesman et <*/., op. cit., p. 349. 

23. J a y Williams, "The Aspects of Social-Science Education," Journal of 
General Education, VI (April, 1952), 180-86. 


that social problems are best solved through elected officials, on-the- 
spot bargaining and compromise, and common sense. Much of this 
form of opposition may disappear with the passage of time, the 
maturing of the social sciences, and increased public awareness of 
contributions to the solution of current problems by economists, 
city planners, and other social scientists. 

The point need hardly be labored that social studies are not in- 
herently nebulous. While they deal with abstractions such as prog- 
ress, leisure, and competition and with complexities such as inter- 
national trade, industrial relations, and public opinion, most ele- 
mentary-school social-studies programs emphasize how people live 
(or lived), how things work (or worked), the location and uses of 
natural resources, the lives and qualities of great men and women, 
and other specifics. 

Perhaps the best thing educators can do to remove public sus- 
picion of vagueness in social studies is to establish a more leisurely 
approach to each topic, with less concern to cover so many topics 
in a school year. The children would then have time to explore 
more thoroughly those details and take part in those activities which 
supply the meaning, imagery, and concrete illustration that make 
learning worth while to children. 

The charge that social studies are unsuitable for children. The 
charge that social studies are unsuitable for the young child often 
comes from adults who feel their security and authority threatened 
when children discuss controversial matters like the role of the 
government in forest conservation or the rights of minority groups 
in the community. They see their children looking objectively at 
aspects of society which for themselves are emotionally colored by 

Even when conflict of opinion is not involved, there is fear that 
telling the child the whole truth about social problems invites dis- 
illusionment concerning ideals which we adults are seeking to estab- 
lish. Thus, many sincere critics maintain, it is better not to teach the 
child that some members of George Washington's army were in- 
subordinate and irresponsible, or that neighborhood stores sometimes 
engage in cut-throat competition, or that there are ominous rumors 
of war. We should spare the child, they believe, such disillusioning 
and upsetting ideas by simply withholding them. 

Yet most educators know that concealing facts is futile. Children 


are bound to learn "the worst," one way or another, through such 
means as books, television, or the overtones of adult conversation. 
Children's play, art, and conversation reveal that they sense the 
world's unpleasantnesses. They recognize unconsciously the inaccu- 
racy of teaching which emphasizes only agreeable facts. They will 
have a firmer understanding of human nature and society and more 
faith in their teachers if they are helped to integrate the unpleasant 
with the pleasant, the disillusioning with the ideal; and they will 
thus be saved later shock and disillusionment in adolescence when 
it is important for them to be able to accept the world with a 
measure of poise. 

This is not a plea for a diet of controversial current events in 
the elementary school which could embroil children, in their imma- 
turity, in unhealthfully critical, bewildering discussion. "One must 
be loyal before one is critical." Furthermore, the teacher has the 
charge to inspire dreams of what life might hold and to help bring 
about a renaissance of faith. Nevertheless, a plea must be entered 
for giving the child a truthful account of society. Whether the 
child studies the neighborhood, transportation, or Marco Polo, he 
should not be denied relevant facts on the grounds that they will 
spoil a pretty picture. It is a job for educators to help the public 
recognize the child's capacity to assimilate social realities, under- 
stand how inaccurate much of his knowledge is, and realize how 
much better it is for the teacher to help him integrate and interpret 
good and bad social realities than to leave them to the lurid distor- 
tions of comics and television and the ignorance of his companions. 

Other doubts about the suitability of social studies for children 
arise from research findings that children's quality of reasoning is 
inferior, 24 and from the writings of certain sociologists who believe 
the child lacks sufficient critical understanding to justify any serious 
study of society until he is beyond the high-school years. 25 

24, Jean Piaget, Language and Thought of the Child. New York: Harcourt, 
Brace & Co., 1926. Anselm Strauss and Karl Schnessler, "Socialization, Logical 
Reasoning, and Concept Development in the Child,** American Sociological 
Review, XVI (August, 1951), 514-23. 

25. David Ricsman, "Some Observations on Intellectual Freedom," Ameri- 
can Scholar, XXIH (Winter, 1953-54)* ai. Erich Fromm, The Sane Society, 
p, 346, New York: Rinehart & Co., 1955* 


This position is, however, in large part speculative, its data are 
spare, and it runs counter to many established facts of child develop- 
ment. The elementary-school curriculum should not be diluted on 
the basis of it. These writers have usefully called attention to the 
fact that social concepts in childhood should have a foundation in 
concrete experience. They overlook the fact that the child mind 
darts swiftly and surely from the concrete to concern with the 
origin of things, how man acquires and verifies his knowledge, and 
faraway places. 26 

The charge that social-studies programs lack substantial content. 
Ground for this criticism is the practice in some schools of deriving 
subject matter from trivial events. In one school, for example, a 
series of interviews with seventy second-grade pupils disclosed that 
the social-studies content was insubstantial, unchallenging material, 
which the children had already known and understood. 27 Attempts 
to strengthen content have met with resistance from a variety of 
sources. One writer believes that learning history requires "cognitive 
qualities" which children do not possess and prefers a "program of 
social education which is built around children's everyday living 
problems." 28 Another believes elementary-school children are too 
immature to study foreign cultures. 29 Such underestimation of chil- 
dren's capacities renders the elementary school lamentably vulnerable 
to attack. 

The charge that social studies fail to produce adequate social 
literacy. Surveys have reported that elementary-school pupils, sec- 
ondary-school students, college students, and adults miss, on the aver- 

26. Illustrations of children's skill in thinking appear in many sources. See, 
for example, Victoria Hazlitt, "Children's Thinking," British Journal of Psy- 
chology t XX (April, 1930), 354-61; and Jean M. Deutsche, The Development 
of Children's Concepts of Carnal Relations. Minneapolis- University of Minne- 
sota Press, 1937. Illustrations of children's readiness to deal with remote times 
and places also appear in many sources. See, for example, Robert J. Havig- 
hurst, Human Development and Education, chap. vii. New York: Longmans, 
Green & Co., 1953; and Alvina T. Burrows, Teaching Children in the Middle 
Grades, chap. v. Boston: D. C. Heath & Co., 1952. 

27. J. D. McAulay, "Social Studies in the Primary Grades," Social Educa- 
tion, XVIII (December, 1954), 357-58. 

28. Leo J. Alilunas, "History for Children Too Much Too Soon,*' Ele- 
mentary School Journal, LII (December, 1951), 215-20. 

29. Robertson, op. cit. 


age, more than half of the items in tests covering various branches 
of the social sciences; 30 that the attitudes of college students toward 
social problems leave much to be desired; 31 and that secondary- 
school students have "a marked tendency to think in terms of catch- 
words or slogans rather than in terms of facts." 32 Some critics, in 
dramatizing these findings, have overlooked two facts: (a) The 
test items tend to be few and highly specific, whereas the social- 
studies area contains almost limitless specific information, (b) The 
tests cover only a narrow segment of learning outcomes. 33 

Despite the inadequacy of the tests, the schools cannot afford 
to ignore the challenge of their critics. Without a doubt, schools 
should be teaching facts with greater effectiveness and permanency 
than in the past. It is encouraging to note that many educators are 
re-establishing the importance and respectability of knowledge. 

The elementary school has a part to play in meeting the chal- 
lenge. In the first place, it can work toward improving social- 
studies instruction so as to create greater genuine interest on the 
part of children. 34 The elementary school also has a responsibility 
for developing in children a respect for factual information. Some 
teachers are still misguided by the meaningless slogan, "Teach the 

30. William H. Burton, Children's Civic Information) 1924-193$. Los 
Angeles: University of California Press, 1936. Francis T. Spaulding, High 
School and Life. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1938. Delbert 
Clark, "Dangers in What We Don't Know," New York Times Magazine, 
March 22, 1953, pp. 17, 62-64* John W. Gates, "The Civic Competence of 
High-School Seniors/' Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Educa- 
tion, University of Chicago, 1945. 

31. Albert W. Levi, General Education in the Social Studies. Washington: 
American Council on Education, 1948, James M. Gillespie and Gordon W. 
Allport, Youth's Outlook on the Future, Garden City, New York: Doubleday 
& Co., 1955. 

32. Spaulding, op. cit., p. 32. 

33. These and other points are presented by Benjamin Starr in a letter to 
the editor of the New York Times Magazine, April 12, 1953. 

34. Four important studies of children's subject preferences published be- 
tween 1937 and the present show social studies ranking low in popularity. They 
are summarized by Ralph C. Preston, Teaching Social Studies in the Ele- 
mentary School, chap, iv* New York: Rinehan: & Co., (revision in prepara- 
tion). One of these is discussed in this yearbook in chapter vii. 


child and not the subject," and look guilty when visitors to their 
classroom catch them imparting knowledge to their pupils! 

Imparting knowledge, of course, can be done in such a drab 
manner that neither interest nor respect is engendered. The teacher 
creates both interest and respect through careful planning of objec- 
tives, through providing for pupil participation in a variety of 
activities, through developing study and research skills, and through 
use of differentiated reading materials to conform to the varied 
levels of reading represented in the class. 35 

Successful teaching, of course, involves more than making the 
study interesting. Equally important is attention to study skills, to 
principles of drill and practice, and to conditions which minimize 
forgetting. 36 

The need for better survey instruments is obvious. Educators 
and the public alike should be able to assay the social literacy, atti- 
tudes, and behavior of pupils and the schools' graduates, who are 
now adults, with greater certainty than is now possible. The tradi- 
tional tests of social-studies achievement are too narrow in scope, 
emphasizing the measurement of information, much of which is 
not universally taught. At least one new series of tests promises to 
to supply the need by measuring understandings and skills which 
probably all social-studies programs aim to develop. 87 Many ex- 
cellent approaches to surveying social attitudes and values at the 
college level are now under study by the Hazen Foundation. 88 

The best hope for increasing public awareness of the value of 
social studies lies in establishing improved social-studies programs 

35. These and other methods which build interest are discussed by W. Lin- 
wood Chase, "Characteristic Differences between High-rated and Low-rated 
Social-Studies Classrooms," National Elementary Principal) XXDC (October, 
1949), 17-20. 

36. G. Lester Anderson and Arthur I. Gates, 'The General Nature of 
Learning,'* Learning and Instruction, chap. i. Forty-ninth Yearbook of the 
National Society for the Study of Education, Part I. Chicago: Distributed by 
University of Chicago Press, 1950. 

37. Educational Testing Service, Co-operative Sequential Tests of Educa- 
tional Progress: Social Studies. Probably available for distribution in September, 
1957. The tests appropriate for the elementary-school level (Grades IV to VI) 
will be labeled <( Level 4." The tests extend through the second year of college. 

38. Philip E. Jacob, Cban&ng Values in College. New York: Edward W. 
Hazen Foundation (in preparation). 


containing more substantial, lucid, interesting, and useful experiences 
and content. Subsequent chapters give illustrations of social-studies 
experiences which enable children and their parents to sense the 
possibilities of the social sciences in providing more intelligent and 
better informed direction of social affairs. 

A Look Ahead 

How can the elementary school and its social-studies program 
help the child acquire resources and equipment equal to the demands 
of citizenship in the atomic age? 

The first requirement is for elementary-school teachers to grasp 
the implications of this task and the driving necessity for perform- 
ing it. A second requirement is for serious dedication by teachers 
to the objectives of the social studies. 

The momentum of elementary education may prove the aroused 
teacher's best ally. Institutions, like persons, grow from their 
strengths. The elementary-school's strengths are legion. The school 
has a tradition of stability and common sense. It has shown recep- 
tivity to new insights from the fields of psychology and child de- 
velopment. It has a fair record of openmindedness in revising pro- 
cedures and materials to meet new needs. In the vitality of these 
qualities rests one of the great promises that today's elementary 
school will fulfil its difficult modern role. 


Generalizations and Universal Values: Their Implica- 
tions for the Social-Studies Program 


Learning Social Concepts 

The social studies deal with man's ways of living with his fellow 
men in the present as well as in the past and in the future. 

The purpose of the social studies in the elementary school is 
to provide children with learning experiences out of which will 
develop the understanding, attitude, and behavior essential for 
effective participation in social, economic, and political affairs. Such 
participation takes place in a series of expanding communities, com- 
mencing in the smallest and most fundamental community (the 
family group), and moving constantly outward through the school, 
the neighborhood, the state, the nation, and the world. Effective 
participation in man-to-man affairs in all of these expanding com- 
munities simultaneously is necessary for survival and progress of 
our democratic Republic. 

It is a thesis of this volume that the understandings and attitudes 
characteristic of good citizenship cannot all be learned through a 
separate and direct experience with each and every understanding 
and type of behavior; efficiency of learning suggests a wise alterna- 
tion of direct experience (inductive) and derived experience (de- 
ductive). Once a child has had a direct experience, he can be aided 
in generalizing; from such inductively arrived at generalization, he 
can learn to deduce the consequences of untested action where the 
the elements and relationships are similar to the situation directly 

It is a second thesis of this volume that the development of 
understanding and behavior of the good citizen cannot be left to 
chance; the stakes of cultural survival and progress are too high to 


permit anything less than a careful and comprehensive selection of 
those generalizations and values which are thought to give the great- 
est assurance of sound social arrangements and progress. 

Other chapters in this volume treat of the current social scene 
and the crucial problems it poses for the social-studies program; 
still other chapters deal with the methodological factors of child 
growth and the nature of the teaching-learning activities from which 
generalizations and values are developed. This chapter will review 
the nature and source of the generalizations and the more universal 
values that form the basis of the content for the social-studies 

Generalization Defined 

There is a considerable difference in meaning between two uses 
of the term generalization. One use denotes a process while the 
other use indicates the product resulting from the process. To keep 
our meaning clear in this discussion, we will use generalizing when 
we refer to the process, and generalization when we speak of the 
product of generalizing. 

Brownell and Hendrickson have termed a generalization as 
". . . any verbalized formulation of a relationship which is of broad 
applicability.'* 1 Such an inclusive definition would, of course, cover 
statements at many levels of abstraction and accuracy. The laws of 
gravity, memory gems, and rules of punctuation could all be classi- 
fied under such a definition. To delimit the definition in such a 
way that it can be used as a tool for improvement of the social- 
studies curriculum, the element of relationship indicated above needs 
further explanation. 

Relationship implies the presence of two or more of "something' 7 
to be related; in the case of a generalization, a concept is related 
to one or more different concepts. For instance, "The exploitation 
of ore deposits is encouraged by high prices" certainly indicates 
relationship ("exploitation is encouraged") between two concepts 
("ore deposits" and "high prices"). Of course, one could argue 

i. William A. Brownell and Gordon Hendrickson, "How Children Learn 
Information, Concepts, and Generalizations," Learning and Instruction, p. 117. 
Forty-ninth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, 
Part I. Chicago: Distributed by University of Chicago Press, 1950. 


hat each word of the quotation is a concept; but such a view only 
omplicates a working definition of a generalization. 

Restatement of Brownell and Hendrickson's terms now results 
n this definition* A generalization ts a descriptive statement of 
woad applicability indicating relationship between two or more 

Sources of Generalizations and Values 

It is the writer's assumption that the primary source of gen- 
ralizations about and of values for directing man-to-man relations 
s the literature of the social sciences. It is not necessary to argue 
bout terms or to defend the use of the older (social sciences) or 
he newer (behavioral sciences). All will agree that the scholars 
iave analyzed, sorted, and organized a vast body of facts and 
>henomena out of which have emerged concepts and generaliza- 
ions in the several separate strands or disciplines of the social 
ciences. From these reservoirs of scholarly generalizations, the 
lementary school may draw subject matter for the social-studies 

It must be said at this point, and said emphatically, that the 
ogical order of the generalizations and the methods of teaching- 
earning traditionally utilized by these same scholars to teach their 
dvanced students in the university are not appropriate for the 
mmature pupils in the elementary schools. The psychology of 
;hildhood clearly demonstrates that we have better ways of direct- 
ng the learning of the young than is implied in the traditional 
'ollegiate model. But the problem of method in the social-studies 
>rogram of the elementary school is dealt with elsewhere in this 
r olume. This chapter focuses on the nature and source of generali- 
-ations and values, not on their acquisition. 

There are several ways to group and classify the interests and 
ctivities of man. The ancient Chinese divided man's interests into 
hree: (a) man-to-thingj (b) man-to-man; and (c) man-to-spirit. 
These divisions correspond rather closely with our modern labels 
f (a) the natural sciences; (b) the social sciences; and (c) the 

The social sciences, the man-to-man relationships, are divided 
nto several branches* The Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences lists 


seven "purely social sciences," four "semisocial sciences," and five 
"natural sciences or humanities with significant social implications." 2 
The more purely social-science disciplines include. 

1. Political Science, the study of the theory and practice of institutions 
of control or government of the organized community 

2. Economics, the study of the theory and practice of the ways in which 
groups of men extract or grow raw materials, process them and make 
goods and services, and distribute them to satisfy human wants 

3. Hist oj y, the study of the record of man's past in all the basic human 

4. Jurisprudence, the study of the theory and practice of law 

5. Anthropology, the study of the customs, habits, attitudes, and insti- 
tutions of men in cultural evolution 

6. Penology, the study of crime, its punishment, and the management 
of prisons 

7. Sociology, the study of the totality of the basic human activities in 

The four semi-social sciences are: 

1. Ethics, the study of the standards for judging the rightness or wrong- 
ness of human conduct in communities 

2. Education, the study of the process by which communities enculturate 
their young for perpetuation and improvement of the culture and the 

3. Philosophy, the study of the principles which underlie all human 

4. Social psychology, the study of the behavior of the individual and 
of groups as they react in groups 

The Encyclopedia still further lists five disciplines which are 
more accurately classified as natural sciences or humanities but which 
have significant implications for the social sciences: 

1. Biology, those aspects that have social content, such as eugenics 

2. Geography, those aspects that deal with man living in his physical 

3. Medicine, those aspects that have to do with the social causes and 
management of health or lack of health 

4. Linguistics, those aspects of comparative language that show the his- 
tory of development of societies of men 

2 Edwin R. A, Seligman, "What Are the Social Sciences*" Encyclopedia 
of the Social Sciences, I (1937), 3-7. New York: Macmillan Co., 1937. 


5. Art, the study of man's efforts to interfere with nature for his own 

There is much current interest in reclassifying the activities of 
men living in communities; the emergence of the new phrase, 
"behavioral sciences" is one manifestation of the thought and in- 
vention along these lines. But this discussion is limited to a con- 
sideration of these disciplines as sources from which generalizations 
and values may be abstracted for use in the elementary social-studies 

Traditionally, only three of the above sixteen disciplines were 
thought to contain content for the social-studies program- history, 
civics (politics), and geography. This narrow conception of the 
range of content for school use is responsible for much criticism 
of today's social-studies program. Recent curriculum work has 
broadened the range of generalizations and the values to be included. 

For the purpose of this chapter the writer has somewhat arbi- 
trarily chosen nine of the sixteen disciplines listed above as con- 
stituting the primary sources for social-studies generalizations and 

1. Anthropology (cultural) 

2. Economics 

3. Ethics 

4. Geography (human) 

5. History 

6. Jurisprudence 

7. Political science 

8. Psychology (social) 

9. Sociology 

It is the writer's belief that within the literature of these sepa- 
rate social sciences we will find a rich pool of generalizations and 
values that have been too long ignored in the social-studies program. 
There is much evidence, however, that the tide has turned and 
educators are earnestly seeking help from these disciplines. 

Examples of Search -for Generalizations and Values 

Six examples of such activity are here sketched to provide illus- 
trations of some approaches to the identification of generalizations 
and values from the social sciences. Then, in turn, each of the 


illustrations will be given some elaboration. The six illustrations are. 

1. A national conference of cultural anthropologists and educators, held 
in 1954, explored anthropological content of significance to education 

2. A comprehensive effort by a state department of education is being 
made to work with scholars to explore content from the social sci- 
ences for use in the social studies. 

3. A recent educational magazine devoted an issue to exploring possible 
contributions of the social sciences to education. 

4. An intensive investigation was made of the more scholarly literature 
in one social-science discipline, human geography, to find the con- 
cepts that could be useful in the social studies. 

5. Other investigations have been made of the selected literature from 
another social-science discipline, ethics, to find values that could be- 
come content for the social studies. 

6. An extensive group research is now under way to identify the gen- 
eralizations from most of the social-science disciplines and to classify 
them according to a design proposed for the social-studies program 
of the elementary school. 


One attempt to identify the interrelations between education 
and a social-science discipline is demonstrated by the 1954 Educa- 
tion and Anthropology Conference sponsored by the American 
Anthropological Association and the Stanford University School of 
Education and Department of Sociology and Anthropology. Less 
interested in an evaluation of the education-anthropology inter- 
relationships of the past than in the possible co-operative frontiers 
of the future, the group made tentative contributions to both areas. 8 

As Lawrence Frank pointed out in the preface to the conference 
report, when the schools are faced with problems of educating 
within a cultural community, they "should look for whatever in- 
sights and understandings may be available from other professions 
to help them undertake . . . relatively new and unprecedented edu- 
cational tasks." 4 


The California State Central Committee on the Social Studies, 

3. Education and Anthropology. Edited by George D. Spindler, Stanford, 
California: Stanford University Press, 1955. 

4. Ibid., p. ix. 


created to conduct an "intensive and comprehensive analysis of the 
social-studies program in California at all levels," probably involves 
the widest participation to date. 5 Three groups one of educators, 
one of lay citizens, and one of social-science specialists from Cali- 
fornia colleges and universities assist the Central Committee. These 
working groups seek to identify the core of human knowledge 
essential for competent citizenship behavior in modern society. 
Scholars from the various social-science disciplines explain, at a 
series of regional conferences, the concepts and generalizations they 
regard as basic and essential to citizenship. Out of these analyses, 
presented first by scholars and reacted to by laymen and educators, 
the Central Committee hopes to draw the raw material useful to 
local curriculum committees throughout the state of California. 


A third example of interest is the recent issue of Educational 
Leadership devoted to the topic "What Are We Finding Out from 
Related Fields 5 " 6 As the guest editor, an anthropologist, stated the 
rationale for the issue: 

The premise upon which this special issue of Educational Leadership 
was initiated and has been organized is that education in our mass, 
suburbanizing society is so complex, so encompassing, that methods, data, 
concepts and understandings from all sources are needed to help maintain 
and improve it. It is further presumed that there is a sociological, his- 
torical, economic, psychological, etc., aspect to most if not all that goes 
on in educational institutions. On these bases, eight authorities repre- 
senting as many presumably relevant disciplines have been asked to 
provide a brief statement of what major possibilities of application they 
see realized or potential in their special fields. 7 

This special issue is of great significance for it represents in the 
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development a recog- 
nition that curriculum rests on content as well as on method. Fur- 
ther, such an effort by specialists to be intelligible to educators 

5. Jay D. Conner, "The State Central Committee on the Social Studies," 
California Schools, XXVI (February, 1955), 73. 

6. George D. Spindler, guest editor, "Editorial: An Overview of the Re- 
lated Fields," Educational Leadership, XIII (May, 1956), 4(53-66. 

7. Ibid^ p. 463. 


through publication in an educational journal indicates a degree of 
empathy between social scientists and educationists. Such efforts 
may germinate curricular improvement in the social studies that 
will be both academically and functionally sound. 


A fourth example is an investigation by Douglass. 8 Because it is 
considered the most comprehensive and scholarly report based on 
the assumption that the educator must draw on the specialists in 
selecting curriculum content, the study receives extended treatment 
here. Douglass undertook to identify and classify interrelationships 
persisting between man and his physical environment The author 
asserted that, just as the activities of man are modified by his physical 
environment, so man everywhere struggles to adapt that environ- 
ment to his own purposes. The interactions between man and his 
physical environment received extensive definition by Douglass as 

Seeking more than factual information, which changes from 
generation to generation, Douglass sought fundamental relation- 
ships deemed essential by human geographers to "citizenship com- 
petency in a complex, industrial society." His stated purpose was 
to provide a resource document for all persons teachers, admin- 
istrators, parents, writers influencing the selection of content for 
the social-studies curriculum. 

For the purposes of his study, Douglass listed three elements that 
had to be identifiable in each interrelationship: (a) the human ele- 
ment; (b) the natural environmental element; and (c) the element 
of relationship. The extensiveness of these elements is best illus- 
trated by the accompanying chart reproduced from Douglass. 

From a collection of the periodicals and books of approximately 
700 authors, Douglass narrowed the tentative list to a working 
bibliography of nineteen books and forty-two articles. After initial 
analysis, nearly 3,500 statements of interrelationship were extracted 

8. Malcolm P. Douglass, "Interrelationships between Man and the Natural 
Environment for Use in the Geographic Strand of the Social Studies Cur- 
riculum." Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1954. 

9. Ibid., p. 192. 



Physical Spatial Biotic 

Elements Resources Raw Materials 



73 a 

g i 

pH (J 


P^ Cfl 


from this working bibliography. The definitional criteria were then 
applied, and the statements containing all three elements of defini- 
tion were coded and filed. Comparable statements were then syn- 
thesized and again classified. This final processing of data "yielded 
824 discrete statements illustrating interrelationships between man 
and his environment." 10 

Douglass reported his data in logical form. He organized them 
under the seven headings listed under the subtitle, "Scope of the 
Interrelationships," in the chart reproduced above. Further analysis 
of each interrelationship for "cause and result" factors required 
further classifications under seventy subheadings. The selected and 
organized data provide an extensive, accurate listing of the "more 
fundamental and significant environmental influences which pervade 
man's relationships to man throughout the globe." n 

The findings, of significance to geographers and educators alike, 
now serve as basic source materials for any thorough consideration 
of the geographic strand of the social studies. The work of Douglass, 
organized and indexed in its final report, serves equally well as refer- 
ence materials for any type of social-studies curriculum pattern. 

To illustrate the nature of these interrelationships, two selections 
from each subheading of one major scope factor are reported here. 
The number [e.g., (8)] after a statement indicates the number of 
times Douglass reports finding this interrelationship stated in the 
working bibliography. 

Social and Cultural Interrelationships 


The material aspects of modern civilization are completely dependent 
upon minerals. (8) 

Religious beliefs and rituals and social rites are influenced by the 
natural environment. (5) 


Mountains tend to isolate and separate the communities within the 
mountain regions [as well as] ... the peoples on either side. (5) 

Soil differences and the patterns of natural vegetation often produce 
profound social differences. (3) 

10. Ibid., p. 196. 
n. Ibid., p. 197. 



Isolated living tends to separate men psychologically as well as eco- 
nomically. (6) 

Man adjusts, modifies, and compromises his group behavior in order 
to live in his natural surroundings. (4) 


Seaside locations often attract tourists for health and recreation. (7) 
Inland waters [serve] as centers for health and recreation. (8) 12 

Other illustrative statements selected from the remaining six 
major headings of the Douglass study indicate the breadth of the 
reported generalizations: 

Interrelations between Man and the Natural Environment in General 

Man satisfies virtually all of his needs for food, clothing, and shelter 
from the land. (6) 

Where man upsets the balances in nature, he frequently modifies the 
environment to his detriment. (4) 

Physiological Interrelationship 

Water, soil, and sunlight are the basic needs of life. (8) 
Related to each of the sources of water man uses are factors pro- 
ducing or inhibiting disease. (4) 

Population Interrelationships 

The distributional pattern of the world's population is characterized 
by marked unevenness both in total numbers and in density. (13) 

All cities face the problem of securing and maintaining an adequate 
supply of pure water for their residents. (5) 

Economic Interrelationships 

Transportation stimulates regional specialization of production and 
the exchange of products for goods in which other areas specialize. (10) 

As a population increases, an accompanying increase occurs in pres- 
sure upon natural resources which support that population. (6) 

Political Interrelationships 

The size and form of a state alone has an important bearing on its 
development and organization as a political unit, its internal political, 
economic, and cultural life, its role in international affairs, and its 
destiny in time of war. (5) 

Certain areas possess strategic significance in world affairs, often 

jz. Ibid., pp. 1840. 


because of their position alone, not only in war but in times of peace as 
well (8) 

Military Interrelationships 

Strategic considerations have been modified by the changes brought 
about in modern warfare. ( i ) 

Domination of the earth and domination of the air are today in- 
separable. (i) 18 

The results of such an investigation of the literature in one 
social-science discipline have many implications for the instructional 
program of the elementary schools. The report can serve teachers 
as a guide to content selection; the interrelationships can serve as 
focusing points for the selection of materials and activities as well 
as "anticipated outcomes" of inductive thinking about experiences 
provided by the schools. 

Supervisors and other administrators can use the generalizations 
to assist in curriculum development, in in-service programs, for 
selection of instruction materials, for evaluation of growth toward 
objectives of geographic understanding, and for clarifying to par- 
ents the role of geography in the social studies. Persons responsible 
for preparation of instructional materials texts, audio-visual aids, 
standardized tests 14 can use them as guides or as check devices 
to determine the comprehensiveness of their products. 


A fifth illustration of content selection from our cultural heritage 
consists of three studies in the field of ethics. 

Ethics is the study of moral behavior which, in turn, is largely 
determined by values. Values, rooted in human experience, largely 
determine whether or not behavior is moral. Out of the totality 
of human experience transcending all human cultures, we find values 
that apparently are common to all mankind and, therefore, common 
to all human experience. These, by definition, will be called uni- 
versal values. 

13. Ibid., passim. 

14. Robert L. West and Claude E. Norcross, "The Preparation of Teachers 
in Geography." Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1955. 
These investigators used interrelationships from the Douglass study to construct 
and standardize a test on geographical understandings. 


Within this mainstream of experience there are different social, 
economic, and political systems that engender unique cultural inter- 
pretations of experience. Within the American national community, 
men have shared experiences in which certain unique values have 
been realized. Within regional, state, local, and family communities, 
certain experiences have been interpreted as satisfying particular 
needs. As man in any and all of these communities has acted in a 
desired manner and found the action to be desirable, values have 
become established in the minds and behaviors of men. The values 
of each American community are generally in agreement with and 
support those of each other community. And as our American 
values grew out of many experiences undergirded by universal 
values, many democratic values and universal values reciprocally 
reinforce each other. 

Values, for the purposes of this chapter, can be thought of as 
objectives in the sense that they are ideal goals. In this context, 
some values will be apparently universal (as is the Golden Rule), 
and some values will be common within great systems of socio- 
political thought (like the tenets of democracy). It is with (a) those 
values that are apparently universal throughout human society and 
(b) those common to the free world of democracy that we are 
immediately concerned here. 

As teachers, we have the responsibility to understand the values 
of our several communities, values which give direction to our 
pupils whenever they must make a choice or solve a problem. As 
teachers, we also have an obligation to help pupils develop be- 
haviors that realize value-choices based on man's highest ideals. 
To write of values in terms of the curriculum is difficult, for values 
are abstract and highly elusive. Values always belong in a context 
of experience and are rightly bound to processes of action. Stated 
and taught in isolation, value instruction lacks the proper psycho- 
logical conditions of pupil interest and experience. However, values 
clearly stated provide the curriculum-maker with goals that "ought" 
to be striven for in any teaching-learning situation. 

Again we say we do not wish to fall into the error of implying 
that verbal values and behavioral values are always the same; there 
is often discrepancy between the values one asserts and those one 
acts upon. There is also a tremendous difference between stating 


values as objectives in a curriculum design and helping pupils to 
have experiences in which these values are intrinsic and from which 
they become consciously understood and accepted by the learner. 
Bridging the gap between understanding and behavior, however, is 
largely a matter of method and must receive extensive treatment 
elsewhere. 15 

The values of democracy have received extensive treatment in 
educational literature. In fact, every major American educator has 
given consideration to these values, as have our professional organi- 
zations. The Educational Policies Commission 16 and the American 
Association of School Administrators 17 have clearly set forth the 
relationship between school practices and the moral and spiritual 
values of democracy. 

In the volume Moral and Spiritual Values in the Public Schools, 
the Educational Policies Commission lists one value as basic to nine 
other values: 

The basic moral and spiritual value in American life is the supreme 
importance of the individual personality. 

If the individual personality is supreme, each person should feel 
responsible for the consequences of his own conduct. 

If the individual personality is supreme, institutional arrangements 
are the servants of mankind. 

If the individual personality is supreme, mutual consent is better 
than violence. 

15. F. Theodore Perkins, "Research Relating to the Problem of Values," 
California Journal of Elementary Education, XXIII (May, 1955), 223-24, This 
issue of the Journal and the one preceding it (February, 1955) are devoted 
entirely to a consideration of values. Also see: Lawrence G, Thomas, Edu- 
cational Research in Values," California Journal of Educational Research, VII 
(March, 1956), 51-56. 

1 6. Educational Policies Commission, The Purposes of Education in Ameri- 
can Democracy (1938), Education for All American Youth (1944), Education 
for All American Children (1948), and Moral and Spiritual Values in the 
Public Schools (1951). All published: Washington: Educational Policies 
Commission, National Education Association, and the American Association 
of School Administrators. 

17. "The Ideals We Live By," Educating for American Citizenship, pp. 
51-66. Thirty-second Yearbook of the American Association of School Ad- 
ministrators. Washington: American Association of School Administrators, 


If the individual personality is supreme, the human mind should be 
liberated by access to information and opinion. 

If the individual personality is supreme, excellence in mind, character, 
and creative ability should be fostered. 

If the individual personality is supreme, all persons should be judged 
by the same moral standards. 

If the individual personality is supreme, the concept of brotherhood 
should take precedence over selfish interests. 

If the individual personality is supreme, each person should have the 
greatest possible opportunity for the pursuit of happiness, provided only 
that such activities do not substantially interfere with the similar oppor- 
tunities of others. 

If the individual personality is supreme, each person should be offered 
the emotional and spiritual experiences which transcend the materialistic 
aspects of life. 18 

The sources quoted to this point are by nature and definition 
most acceptable to the United States as a national community and 
to all component communities within the national community. But 
we live in an expanding world-setting, and the social-studies program 
must give attention to those world-held values that are consistent 
with democratic ethics. As Lewis Browne has said, "What we need 
is a keener awareness of the kinship between all religions, and 
nowhere is this kinship so marked as on the ethical level. Men may 
differ grossly in what and how they worship but not in why and 
how they believe they should behave." 10 The Golden Rule, for 
instance, has been found to have the same meaning in all major 
religions. This is a major ethical value; one that deserves highest 
place among the citizenship objectives of the social studies. As 
Browne says, "Witness . . . 

BRAHMANISM: "Do naught unto others which would cause you pain 
if done to you." Mahabharata, 5: 1517. 

BUDDHISM: "Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find 
hurtful." Udana-Varga, 5. 18. 

18. Moral and Spiritual Values in the Public Schools, pp. i8ff. Wash- 
ington: Educational Policies Commission, National Education Association, 
and American Association of School Administrators, 1951. 

19, Lewis Browne, The World's Great Scriptures, p. xv. New York: 
MacmiUan Co., 1046. 


CONFUCIANISM: "Do not unto others what you would not have them 
do unto you." Analects, 15: 23. 

TAOISM: "Regard your neighbor's gain as your own gain, and your 
neighbor's loss as your own loss." T'ai Shang Kan Ying P'ien. 

ZOROASTRIANISM: "That nature alone is good which refrains from 
doing unto another whatsoever is not good for itself." Dadistan-i-dinik, 

94' 5- 

JUDAISM: "What is hateful to you, do not to your fellowman." 

Talmud, Shabbat 313. 

CHRISTIANITY "All things whatsoever ye would that men should do 
to you, do ye even so to them." Matthew, 7-12. 

ISLAM- "No one of you is a believer until he desires for his brother 
that which he desires for himself." Sunnah 20 

An example of recent research on such values apparently com- 
mon to most of mankind is that by Virginia Woods, who sought 
to find a "common core of basic beliefs upon which all major 
denominations and religions agree." 21 Woods selected a common 
core of moral and spiritual values from the literature of six major 
world religions. Each list of items making up this "common core" 
was found stated in equivalent terms within each religious group's 
literature. For example: 

CHRISTIANITY: "As a man sows so shall he also reap." Gaktians, 6. 7. 

JUDAISM: "Sow to yourself in righteousness till the Lord come and 
gain righteousness upon you. If ye have plowed wickedness, ye have 
reaped iniquity." Hosea, 10: 12. 

MOHAMMEDANISM: "Shall ye be recompensed but as ye have 
wrought^" i: 1306. 

HINDUISM: "A man reaps that at that age at which he had sowed 
it at a previous birth." 1:122. 

BUDDHISM: "There is fruit and results of deeds well done and ill 
done." i. 292. 

CONFUCIANISM: "He who loves and respects others is constantly 
loved and respected by them." i: 449. 22 

20. Ibid., p. xv. 

21. Virginia Newhall Woods, "Spiritual and Moral Education in the Public 
School Curriculum," p. 22. Unpublished EdJX thesis, Stanford University, 

22. Ibid., pp. 94-95. Woods quotes Robert Ballou, The Bibles of the World 
(New York: Viking Press, 1939), for four of these examples. We have re- 
produced her bibliographic style in this instance i : 1306 means p, no6 in 
Ballou. * * 


Twelve such lists of items each from the Christian religion but 
supported in meaning by five other religions were presented to 
forty-seven religious leaders representing all major denominational 
groups in the United States. Each list of items represented a value 
or values that might be used as objectives in public schools. The 
nine lists of items meeting with unanimous approval by all forty- 
seven e valuators were: 

A Proposed Common Core of Spiritual and Moral Values 
for Public School Use 

A. The Ten Commandments 

1. Thou shalt have no other gods before me. 

2. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image. 

3. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. 

4. Remember the sabbath day to keep it holy. 

5. Honor thy father and thy mother. 

6. Thou shalt not kill. 

7. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 

8. Thou shalt not steal. 

9. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor. 
10. Thou shalt not covet. 

Exodus 20: 3-17 

B. The Two Commandments 

1. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart and with 
all thy soul and with all thy strength and with all thy mind; 

2. and thy neighbour as thyself. 

Luke 10: 27 

C. The Golden Rule 

All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye 
even so to them. 

Matthew 7. 12 

D. The Beatitudes 

1. Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 

2. Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted. 

3. Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. 

4. Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness, 
for they shall be filled. 

5. Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy. 

6. Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. 

7. Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the children 
of God, 


8. Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake for 
theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 

Matthew 5- 3-10 

E. A Prophet's Requirements 

What doth the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and to love 
mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God ? 

Micah 6. 8 

F. The Fruits of the Spirit 

But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentle- 
ness, fondness, faith, meekness, temperance. 

Galatians 5: 22 

G. For Meditation 

Finally brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are 
honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, what- 
soever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report, if 
there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things. 

Phihppians 4- 8 

H, For whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap. 

Galatians 6: 7 

I. For what shall it profit a man if he shall gain the whole world and 
lose his own soul? 

Mark 8: 36 23 

Such value statements as were reproduced above from the Edu- 
cational Policies Commission's Moral and Spiritual Values in the 
Public Schools, from Browne's The World's Great Scriptures, and 
from Wood's research furnish the educator with objectives of pri- 
mary importance. These values, common to all ethical systems of the 
free world, must find their place within the design of the social- 
studies curriculum. The moral behavior for which these values 
stand must then develop out of the guided experiences of the ele- 
mentary school and the social-studies program must contribute 
positively to such citizenship development. 


Several educators in the San Francisco Bay area among them 
curriculum co-ordinators, general consultants, principals, and college 
instructors furnish us with our sixth and final illustration of draw- 
ing social-studies content from the social sciences. Banded together 

23. Ibid., pp. 121-22. 

H A N N A 45 

as a research team of advanced graduate students, these men elected 
to work on a problem of concern to their teachers and school sys- 
tems. 24 They realized that as individuals they could not satisfactorily 
solve the vast problem of selecting and organizing social-studies 
content; but as a research team, their co-operative effort could make 
possible a comprehensive investigation of generalizations in a num- 
ber of social-science disciplines. 

The problematic situation, as they saw it, rested on three factors: 
(a) teachers should be expected to know and understand the field 
in which they teach; (b) scholarship constantly advances the boun- 
daries of knowledge; and (c) teachers in the elementary school, 
chiefly concerned with the general education of children and thus 
dealing with several subject fields at once, have neither the energy 
nor the time to follow all scholarly publications. For these reasons, 
teachers and other curriculum-makers should find a synthesizing 
investigation of generalizations and values of the social sciences of 
practical and conceptual value. 

Working from the same rationale and using the same pro- 
cedures, all members of this research team are identifying and ex- 
tracting social-science generalizations which will then be organized 
for use in an elementary-school social-studies program. The litera- 
ture used in this project was selected by specialists in the social- 
science disciplines and consists of a bibliography of approximately 
one hundred books. This bibliography is probably the most ex- 
tensive yet used in any analysis of generalizations from the social 

The purposes stated by this research team as basic to their 
studies are the selection and organization of generalizations in such 
form that: (a) a portion of our expanding social heritage recorded 
by social-science disciplines will be made available to many edu- 

24. The following students are currently engaged in this co-operative re- 
search project: Clay Andrews, assistant professor, San Jose State College; 
Harold Ernmerson, supervisor of student teachers, Stanford University; John 
Lee, administrative assistant, Palo Alto Unified School District; Jack Rambeau, 
general consultant, Sonoma County Schools; George Rusteika, curriculum co- 
ordinator, Alameda County Schools; and, Vinton Stratton, elementary-school 
principal, San Jose. Further information on their investigations -will be avail- 
able from Cubberley Library, School of Education, Stanford University, Stan- 
ford, California. 


cators who otherwise might not readily have such sources at hand; 
(V) teachers and other personnel responsible for curriculum-making 
in the social studies can use the data as "anticipated outcomes" in 
planning experiences from which pupils may induce generalizations 
affecting them as youthful citizens; and, (c) school systems and 
other research groups may test a currently accepted social-studies 
curriculum pattern for its suitability and modify that pattern on 
the basis of the empirical consequences of experimentation and 

No report on the data is possible here, for these studies are 
under way as this chapter is being written and will not be com- 
pleted until after this volume has been published. It is to be ex- 
pected, however, if this team research is as fruitful as its antecedent 
study by Douglass, that educators will have available in an organized 
structure the most comprehensive single source of generalizations 
yet produced by educational research. 

Design of the Social-Studies Program 

It is the writer's belief that some pattern or design is essential 
for the social-studies program. Without a design, there is no possible 
way of assuring the society which supports schools that our children 
will acquire the wealth of generalizations and values considered 
basic to citizenship understanding and behavior. 

Elsewhere in this volume the problem of design is treated at 
length. All we care to say here is that it is possible and feasible to 
construct a social-studies design. A three-dimensional design can 
be made by using: 

1. The basic human activities as the co-ordinates for the scope or 
vertical components. Nine activities that provide a comprehensive 
check list for planning experiences are: protecting and conserving 
life, health, resources, and property; producing, distributing, and 
consuming food, clothing, shelter, and other consumer goods and 
services; creating and producing tools and technics; transporting 
people and goods; communicating ideas and feelings; providing edu- 
cation; providing recreation; organizing and governing; expressing 
aesthetic and spiritual impulses. 

2. The expanding communities can be used as the horizontal compon- 
ents and assigned to the grades as emphases to be taken up sequentially 
from kindergarten to the eighth grade. 


3. The generalizations and values discussed in this chapter can be used 
as the third dimension of our design and the specifics applied where- 
ever one of the basic human activities and one of the communities 

To illustrate: 25 If we assign the neighborhood community to 
Grade II as the social-studies emphasis, then the scope of the work 
for that grade would include all of the basic human activities that 
are carried on by neighbors within the arena we call our neighbor- 
hood community. Further, the third dimension, generalizations and 
values about these activities in this arena would suggest to the 
teacher the nature and range of objectives she and the pupils should 
strive to acquire. 

25. Paul R Hanna, "Social Studies for Today," National Education Asso- 
ciation Journal, XLV (January, 1956), 36-38. 


Current Social Trends and Their Implications 
for the Social-Studies Program 


Factors Conditioning Social-Studies Teaching 

The social studies in the elementary school have a dual focus: 
(a) the individual and (b) the society. The immaturity of the child 
in the elementary school is a conditioning factor for any teacher 
of the social studies. The nature of the individual's growth and 
development, consequently, determines much of what we teach, 
when we teach, and how we teach. Teaching the social studies in 
the elementary school requires serious consideration of the growth 
processes of children. 

The society in which these children live and grow, however, 
is also a conditioning factor for any teacher of the social studies. 
The child reared in a simple agricultural economy requires a cur- 
riculum adapted to different social needs from those of a child reared 
in a complex interdependent industrial society. Growing up in an 
urban, industrial community requires a long process of social edu- 
cation that, to a large extent, is centered in the social studies. Or, 
to use another illustration of the effect of society on social-studies 
instruction, the child reared in a totalitarian society gets a quite 
different type of instruction in social studies from that provided 
for the child reared in a democratic society. 

This duality of social-studies teaching has been emphasized by 
Sand in his analysis of the ten required tasks for improving the 
social-studies curriculum. The first two tasks he discusses are: 
Task 2 Study children and youth; Task .2 Study contemporary 
society. 1 

i. Ole Sand, "Tasks To Be Done in Improving the Social-Studies Cur- 
riculum," Improving the Social-Studies Curriculum, pp. 238-39. Twenty-sixth 
Yearbook of the National Council for the Social Studies. Washington: Na- 
tional Council for the Social Studies, 1955, 



At an earlier period, the Commission on the Social Studies Cur- 
riculum of the Department of Superintendence noted similarly that 
the nature of society and the nature of the learner were two of the 
major factors conditioning the social studies. 2 

Although these two factors interact rather than operate in iso- 
lation, for purposes of analysis they are treated separately in this 
yearbook. This chapter is concerned with society; the next chapter 
discusses the individual learner. 

The Importance of Social-Trend Analysis 


The study of society and the analysis of social trends is a task to 
which educators have given attention for a long time. Curriculum- 
workers, particularly those concerned with the social studies, have 
devoted major attention to social-trend analysis. 

A major influence was the publication, a quarter of a century 
ago, of Recent Social Trends by a committee of distinguished 
scholars appointed by the President of the United States. 8 This 
comprehensive report with its authoritative presentation of the facts 
of social change focused attention during the depression years on 
the impact of social forces. Educators were alert to these changes. 
Superintendents, teachers, and curriculum-leaders devoted much 
attention to ways in which schools should adjust to these changes. 

As the rise of dictators in Europe, a few years later, underlined 
the impact of social forces on education, Bode, in Progressive Edu- 
cation at the Crossroads^ highlighted the dangers to education of 
failure to recognize the nature of world events. With a world dis- 
aster impending, he called attention to the provincialism of "the 
notion that educational needs can be determined by studying the 
individual . . . ." 4 His denial of this doctrine as the chief basis for 

2. The Social-Studies Curriculum, p. 9. Fourteenth Yearbook of the De- 
partment of Superintendence. Washington: Department of Superintendence, 
National Education Association, 1936. 

3. President's Research Committee on Social Trends, Recent Social Trends 
m the United States. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1933. 

4. Boyd H. Bode, Progressive Education at the Crossroads, p. 6*7. New 
York: Newsom & Co., 1938. 


determining educational objectives caused increased searching for 
the proper relation of education and social change. 

Other writers contributed to this movement. Counts had placed 
emphasis on schools building a new social order. Marshall analyzed 
social processes. The Lynds made their studies of Middletoiun. 
W. L. Warner and his associates added their descriptions of the 
class structure in America. Individual curriculum-writers and year- 
book commissions of the educational organizations were stressing 
the fundamental importance of understanding social change if edu- 
cational programs were to be effective. 

Over a period of years, the examination of social change was 
a tremendous force in influencing thought concerning our schools. 
Of the many aspects of our educational programs it was natural 
for the social studies to be directly influenced by such study of 
social trends. 


The effects of the long process of social-trend analysis on the 
social-studies program today are difficult to assess. After a genera- 
tion of educators have studied social trends, how influential has this 
approach been? At present there are five common criticisms of 
the effects of this concern of educators about the impact of social 
conditions on schools. 

1. Analysis of social trends neglects fundamental values, and 
teaching becomes too contemporaneous. Some who view the schools 
today are fearful that teachers have become so concerned about the 
present that they are neglecting eternal verities and virtues. These 
critics would have schools stress the lessons of the past. They 
fear the "cult of the contemporaneous." They protest against 
"presentismu" They argue that "what is contemporary today is 
gone tomorrow." They think of "education for a changing world" 
as an overworked clich6. 5 

2, Present-day life changes too rapidly. Basing education on 
predictions about the future is too great a gamble. Some who have 
tried to keep abreast of social change become overwhelmed by the 
terrific pace of change. Classroom teachers become appalled by the 
fantastic claims about the future. They argue that one might just 

5. See for example: William Lee Miller, "The Wastelands Revisited," 
Reporter, XHI (October 6, 1955), 20-25. 


as well read the phantasies of science fiction and that these imagina- 
tive writings do not provide an appropriate foundation for develop- 
ing the school curriculum. They are especially wary of the pre- 
dictions about the future and cite as evidence of the errors of pre- 
diction the inaccuracies of the population studies of the i93o's. 

3. Study of social change neglects the changes in the local com- 
munity. Some leaders become concerned that trends as reported 
are based primarily on national or world conditions. Teaching, they 
say, occurs in a local community where the impact of social change 
is difficult to assess at a given moment. They point out that local 
facts on which to base sound judgments are difficult, if not im- 
possible, to obtain. To these critics the study of social trends is an 
academic exercise remote from the actual community. 

4. No analysis or classification is completely satisfactory. Some 
teachers and curriculum committees have expressed difficulty in 
finding an analysis or classification scheme which adequately sum- 
marizes available data about social trends. These groups have spent 
considerable time searching out the facts of social change, but 
have been frustrated by their own inability to get at the facts in a 
systematic manner. They express concern that their ventures in 
this direction may be inadequate and not substantial enough to use 
for sound programs of curriculum change. 

5. The implications of social change are beyond the interest and 
experience of elementary-school children. Some contend that social- 
trend analysis is a fine thing for the secondary-school and college 
teachers but that it is not necessary for those concerned with the 
elementary-school curriculum. Young children, it is argued, will 
acquire the newer ideas resulting from social change as a natural 
part of growing up, and teachers of these children need not be 
unduly concerned about the changing nature of our society. After 
all, they say, the elementary-school child is neither interested in nor 
able to deal with the facts of social change. 

There is some truth in each of these criticisms. It is conceivable 
that schools might deal too greatly with contemporary life, that 
predictions about the future may be in error, that changes in local 
communities may be neglected, that analysis of change is difficult, 
and that selecting content by social-trend analysis might result in 
getting beyond the interest and maturity of children. These criti- 


cisms, however, are more in the nature of danger signals. They do 
not support the conclusion that teachers concerned with the social 
studies should not give serious consideration to the changing nature 
of the society in which we live. The contrary is true. Teaching 
the social studies in elementary schools requires careful study and 
analysis of the changing nature of contemporary society. 


Social-trend analysis makes four definite contributions to teach- 
ing the social studies in the elementary school. 

1. Objectives are initiated and verified. Objectives must be 
chosen wisely. Modern life is exceedingly complex. Social change 
is being accelerated. Knowledge has accumulated in vast array. 
Out of this intricate fabric of modern life someone must choose 
what is to be taught, and his reasons must be grounded in sub- 
stantial data. It is necessary to gear educational efforts to the crucial 
aspects of contemporary life. As Tyler has pointed out, "Many 
sociologists and others concerned with the pressing problems of 
contemporary society see in an analysis of contemporary society 
the basic information from which educational objectives can be 
derived. 6 

The study of society, it should be noted, is only one source of 
educational objectives. It is not intended to be the exclusive source. 
The needs and interests of the learner, the cultural heritage, and 
philosophical values are also important sources for objectives. At 
the same time, analysis of society is one of the fruitful avenues for 
deriving objectives. 

2. The neglect of important content areas is avoided. The 
analysis of social trends does not produce a body of facts, concepts, 
or understandings that can be used as the basis of the content to 
be taught in the elementary-school social-studies class. Rather, such 
an analysis provides a check against the current body of content 
that is now taught in the elementary-school social-studies cur- 
riculum. The student of social-trend analysis pertinently asks, "Is 
what you are currently teaching accurate^ Is it of value?" 

6. Ralph W. Tyler, Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction, p. 4. 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950. 


An example illustrates the process. The traditional elementary- 
school class has been taught that the United States is a land of 
great abundance, with unlimited natural resources. As will be 
pointed out later in this chapter, war and modern industries use 
up raw materials so rapidly that there are real dangers that our 
country, in the lifetime of the child now in the elementary school, 
may be a land of limited resources. In teaching social studies, at 
some point in the teaching-learning process, the elementary-school 
teacher must acquaint students with the present situation concerning 
natural resources and stimulate thinking about this critical national 
issue. In this teaching the analysis of current trends makes an im- 
portant contribution. 

3. The interests of pupils and teachers are enlarged. Social 
change, even considered on the most superficial level, exhibits the 
tendency for enlarging pupil and teacher interest. There is scarcely 
an elementary-school teacher who has not come to realize that pupils 
in a class may know more about airplanes, or guided missiles, or tele- 
vision than he does. Changes in transportation and communication 
have been prolific in enlarging interests both in scientific and social 
phenomena* To a less observable degree, this is equally true of other 
social changes. Many teachers, for example, are aware of the in- 
creased experiences within a class when pupils have lived in more 
than one community. While the transiency of our population has 
created many problems, it has also contributed to an enlarged area 
of pupil interest. 

The careful analysis of social trends helps to reveal to teachers 
other ways in which such changes contribute to new and more 
varied interests of children. 

4. Variety in method is encouraged. The analysis of social trends 
provides one more educative lever to help teachers become really 
creative teachers. The teacher, after careful study of the changes 
occurring in modern life, tends to be more receptive to the use 
of varied methods. The emotional strains of modern living as re- 
flected in mental-health statistics the ways of living in different 
social classes, the effects of automation on the factory-worker, the 
influence of machinery on farm life create an understanding of 
what growing up in modern society is like. As this knowledge 
about the impact of our culture on children changes attitudes, 


teachers tend to make greater use of teaching procedures that will 
alleviate and counteract the pressures of modern society. Group 
activity, the social climate of the room, the use of many sources 
for information books, people, excursions, visual aids and unit 
types of organization are seen as important tools. More teachers 
see their role in the elementary school as supportive. They become 
less the taskmaster and more the teacher. 


The continued study of social trends as a part of the process of 
improving the teaching of social studies in the elementary school 
is necessary because we are living in one of the great periods of 
social, economic, and technological change. Scientists and engineers 
are serving grim notice that life is not static but ever changing. 
International statesmen search for peace while they warn us of the 
newest destructive weapon. The gulf between the school and the 
world widens because of the changes that take place in modern life. 

If social-studies teaching is not to be divorced from the realities 
of living, continued analysis of social trends is a necessity. Ragan 
has stated the case for this type of continued study clearly: 

The needs of children can be fully understood only as they arc 
studied in relation to the conditions and values of the society in which 
children live. Child development does not take place in a vacuum; the 
culture is the sustaining environment of human personality, in the same 
sense that soil, air, and water are necessary for plant growth. . . , 

Any program for improving the elementary-school curriculum must 
include an analysis of the problems of living in our times. 7 

Current Social Trends: An Operative Frwn&work 

The analysis of social trends for use by teachers requires some 
type of framework or scheme of operation. Curriculum committees 
engaged in this type of activity have found it advisable to: (a) have 
access to authoritative sources of information, (b) make use of 
some classification scheme for recording data, and (c) suggest 
learning experiences that emerge from the analysis. 

An excellent example of this process in operation was the work 
of the Wisconsin Co-operative Educational Planning Program, A 

7. William B. Ragan, Modern Elementary Curriculum, p. 74. New York: 
Dryden Press, 1953. 

D I M O N D 


sub-committee based on research in the social sciences studied the 
characteristics of group life and American social institutions. From 
this study they developed a chart organized around nine major 
functions or goals of a democratic society. 8 These goals they 
listed as: 

1. To keep the population healthy. 

2. To provide physical protection and guarantees against war. 

3. To conserve and wisely utilize natural resources. 

4. To provide opportunity for people to make a living. 

5. To rear and educate the young. 

6. To provide wholesome and adequate recreation. 

7. To enable the population to satisfy aesthetic and spiritual values. 

8. To provide sufficient social cement to guarantee social integration. 

9. To organize and govern in harmony with beliefs and aspirations 

These goals were stated and analyzed in one column of a fifty- 
page chart. Pupil needs defined as what things the pupil must 
believe, know, do, and experience for the preservation and enrich- 
ment of a goal were stated in a second column, A third column 
analyzed what the school could do with reference to these needs. 
One illustration from the numerous ones of the chart will show the 

The Situation We 

America must con- 
serve and wisely 
utilize and replace 
its natural re- 


What the Pupil 


To recognize waste- 
ful practices in his 
own community. 


What the School 

Can Do 

Provide opportunity for 
pupils to meet with 
farmers, lumbermen, 
park commissioners, and 
others in order that 
they may find out first- 
hand the importance of 
resources to human wel- 
fare and also to learn 
what can and should be 
done for their wiser use 
and replacement. 9 

8. Curriculum Guiding Committee, Wisconsin Co-operative Educational 
Planning Program, Guides to Curriculum Building Junior High School Level, 
pp. 74-131. Madison, Wisconsin: State of Wisconsin, 1950* 

9. Ibid., p. 94. 


Other curriculum groups have pursued a similar process in less 
detail, but they have been equally concerned with the nature of 
social change and with the implications for the school. 10 The bal- 
ance of this chapter is devoted to a summary of current social trends 
based on this type of analysis. 


The Ideological Struggle. The struggle between democracy and 
totalitarianism is the great social issue of our times. Man's liberty 
is once again in danger of being destroyed. Free institutions as we 
have cherished them are again going through one of their great 
testing periods. The Educational Policies Commission has stated: 

Recent decades have witnessed the rise of sustained and powerful 
challenges to the principle of freedom, equality, and self-government. 
Not a few of these challenges derive from the vast transformation in 
American life brought about by science and technology, by industrial, 
agricultural, and commercial revolutions. . . . More recently the most 
powerful attacks have come from totalitarian ideologies which proclaim 
the necessity of total state regulation. . . . Totalitarian arguments, either 
Fascist or Communist, are opposed to freedom, equality, and self-gov- 
ernment. 11 

This struggle between democracy and dictatorship has been a 
central concern of schools for approximately twenty-five years. 
Not that American schools have not always been concerned about 
freedom and self-government. They have. But with the growing 
power of Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin in the 1930'$, leaders in edu- 
cation saw the struggle in new perspective. They realized that the 
unique role which our forefathers saw for the public school, as the 
great training-ground for citizens of a free government, would be 
tested in the lives of the present generation. 

The response of educators to these challenges to our way of life 
has gone through an evolution in the past quarter-century with 

10. For example, see: "Curriculum Planning: Kindergarten through Grade 
Fourteen," pp. 130-54. Dearborn, Michigan: Dearborn Public Schools, 1952 

11. Public Education and the Future of America, pp. 6-7* Washington: 
Educational Policies Commission, National Education Association, and the 
American Association of School Administrators, 1955* 


three stages. There was a period of exhortation to teach democracy. 
These exhortations resulted in an increased use of symbolic and 
emotionalized teachings in the schools. The Pledge of Allegiance, 
the Flag Salute, and the National Anthem, for example, received 
greater stress. There then followed a period which emphasized the 
use of intelligence. Understanding the meaning of democracy, criti- 
cal thinking, and problem-solving became key concepts. In the 
third stage "participation" gained the center of attention. Demo- 
cratic living, student government, group planning, and civic action 
were featured. In any given school these efforts to teach democracy 
have not been separated nor have they always followed this par- 
ticular sequence. But each has had its period of central attention 
(see chap. ix). 

War and the Threats of War. The struggle between democracy 
and totalitarianism is more than a struggle for men's minds, however. 
It is a day-to-day conflict which may erupt into another "big" 
war as for the past ten years there have been nibbling "wars" in 
various parts of the world. The Berlin Airlift, the Korean War, 
the invasion of Indo-China, the protection of Formosa, the Arab- 
Israeli disputes are episodes in this prolonged campaign. 

The effects of this war atmosphere take many forms. For one 
thing governments are geared to the "warfare state." High taxes 
are necessary to pay for large expenditures for defense. The national 
security expenditures of the United States federal government, for 
example, are 51 per cent of the total 1957 budget. 

Another aspect of the threat of war is the change that has 
occurred in the life plans of youth. Because of the military man- 
power needs of the United States, Congress has required that all 
young men be prepared to spend six years in the military services 
either in active service or in the military reserve. This is a new 
fact of American life. Never before has an entire generation had to 
think in terms of military service. Never before have we had such 
a large percentage of our population who have experienced military 

The development of atomic bombs and H-bombs brings fear of 
total destruction of civilization. The possibility of long-continued 
stalemate, because each side now possesses these powerful weapons, 


is constantly balanced against the chance that one foolish act may 
result in devastation by nuclear warfare. 

Another effect of past wars and the current threats has been to 
move the United States into a position of world leadership. As 
England in the past century held the keystone position in world 
affairs, our country has now been catapulted into world leadership. 
Lacking experience and trained leadership, we have, nevertheless, 
become the leader of the democratic coalition with the resulting 

The United Nations continues to be the one international organi- 
zation providing a common meeting place for the conflicting forces 
m the world today. While critics have not destroyed the faith of 
the American people in the United Nations, there is a realistic 
appraisal of the work of the United Nations. The admission of 
the sixteen new members in 1955 gave indication that the small, 
undeveloped nations of the world may come to have a greater voice 
and may perhaps control the balance of power in the United Nations. 

Educational Implications. The implications for teaching ele- 
mentary-school social studies resulting from the democratic-totali- 
tarian conflict are numerous. Developing an understanding of the 
meaning of our democratic way of life needs to continue as a major 
objective. The use of emotional, intellectual, and pupil-participation 
approaches all have merit and need to be employed in some balanced 
relationship. Democracy should not be just a vague generality; 
basic elements such as liberty, concern for the general welfare, 
respect for the individual, and majority-rule operating within a 
framework of respect for minority rights need to emerge as basic 
understandings as children mature. This means that children have 
chances to make decisions, that individual differences are respected, 
and that the virtues and weaknesses of competition and co-operation 
are recognized in planning social-studies experiences. Group activity 
is an essential part of method, but there must be ample opportunity 
for individual creativity. Locating and assembling information as 
part of the problem-solving process should expand with the maturity 
of pupils. Giving consideration to varied points of view needs to be 
practiced. The role of the teacher with the class is to provide first- 
hand experiences in democratic living by being authoritative rather 
than authoritarian. 


Communism needs to be studied. Comparison and contrasts of 
the United States and Russia need to be undertaken. By knowing 
thoroughly the communistic system, children can appreciate better 
our own heritage of freedom. 

There needs to be steady emphasis on life's enduring values: 
kindness, consideration, helpfulness, brotherly love. Daily illustra- 
tion of these values in the classroom plus talking and reading about 
them from current happenings will do much to counteract the 
deterioration of values that can accompany the aggressions of a 
society immersed in a war atmosphere. 

The United Nations and other examples of international co- 
operation can be kept constantly before children. Specialized 
agencies, such as UNESCO or World Health Organization, fre- 
quently provide a good approach to a better understanding of 
world relations (see chap. x). Young children need to appreciate 
not only the power of national government but the hopes and 
possibilities of international organizations. Yet a "peace-at-any-price 
generation" would not serve mankind well. The virtues of defend- 
ing what one believes warrant an important place in social-studies 

And what should be taught about war itself 3 George Counts 
has advocated: 

The young should be given a realistic understanding through the 
generous use of moving pictures of the meaning of total war as waged 
from 1939 to 1945 the sinking of ocean liners, the bombing of cities, 
the slaughter of armies, the massacre of peoples, the enslavement of 
labor, the torture of prisoners, and the explosion of atomic bombs that 
vaporize steel and turn sand into green glass. In so far as the techniques 
of instruction make possible, nothing of the horror and the tragedy of 
war as already waged should be left to the imagination. 12 

Should such realistic teaching be done? At what ages? Is this 
a task for the elementary or the secondary school? What would 
be the effects of such teaching? The mental hygienist cautions 
against overstimulation. By the end of the sixth grade, children 
have encountered much of the reality of war through television or 

12. George Counts, Education and American QiiMlmuon^ p. 4*6. New 
York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1952. 


other media. The elementary-school teacher bears some responsi- 
bility for getting the nature of war into a balanced setting. Does 
this mean adding the soldier to our list of community helpers? Does 
it mean teaching a unit in the middle grades on the nature of war? 
Teachers usually answer "No" to these questions, but curriculum 
committees in elementary schools need to examine such questions. 
The world-wide ideological struggle cannot be avoided in the ele- 
mentary school. If war is to occupy a central part in our lives, 
elementary schools must lay a foundation by which young children 
can understand the issues and the effects of war. 


The Status of Raw Materials in the United States. The economy 
of the United States is geared to the use of enormous quantities of 
raw materials. For many years we have believed that our resources 
were inexhaustible, but World War II, followed by a period of 
great prosperity, has brought the realization that this condition may 
no longer be true. 

The Defense Production Administrator during the Korean War 

Partly as a result of the depletion of our natural resources and partly 
as a result of the changing technology and scale of military and indus- 
trial production, we have become to a considerable extent a "have not" 
nation. A recent report of the United States Bureau of Mines indicates 
that out of 38 important industrial minerals, we are self-sufficient in 
only 9. For another 20, domestic production provides less than 60 per 
cent of our requirements. For 7 of these 20 minerals, we are dependent 
on other countries for just about 100 per cent of our needs. 13 

The President's Materials Policy Commission in a five-volume 
report on the shrinkage of America's natural resources recommended 
a thorough search, at home and abroad, for sources of materials. 
The commission reported that the United States is already unable 
to supply its own needs and by 1975 may be compelled to import 
one-fifth of the material it consumes. In the face of foreseeable 
demand, the conclusion was reached that the depletion of raw ma- 

13. Manly Fleischmann, "An International Raw-Materials Policy," Foreign 
Policy Bulletin, XXXI (March 15, 1952), 2. 


terials is a definite threat to the nation's living standards and national 
security. 14 

In contrast to this bleak picture, Eugene Holman, President of 
Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, holds to a thesis of unlimited 
raw materials. He believes that increasing knowledge operates in 
numerous ways to expand the natural resources available to us. 
Scientific progress, he contends, has continuously found new ma- 
terial resources and will continue to do so. His view is: 

For many years, I believe, people have tended to think of natural 
resources as so many stacks of raw material piled up in a storehouse. A 
person with this sort of picture in his mind logically assumes that the 
more you use of any natural resource, the sooner you get to the bottom 
of the pile. Now I think we are beginning to discover that the idea of 
a storehouse or, at least, a single-room storehouse does not correspond 
with reality. Instead, the fact seems to be that the first storehouse in 
which man found himself was only one of a series. As he used up what 
was piled in that first room, he found he could fashion a key to open 
a door into a much larger room. And as he used the contents of this 
larger room, he discovered there was another room beyond, larger still. 15 

His expectation is that science will find new resources or new 
processes as they are needed. 

Which of these views is correct? One holds that our raw ma- 
terials are dangerously near depletion; the other, that science will 
provide us with unlimited resources. Great questions of national 
policy depend upon which view the American people decide is 
correct. The conservation movement has been handicapped by a 
willingness to gamble on future miracles by the scientists. Wise 
use of resources plus strategic stockpiling of essential raw materials 
seems to be basic national policy today. Drucker believes that "we 
will come to the new experience of a raw-materials shortage be- 
coming for the first time a 'have not' nation." 16 

Power Resources. For generations human brawn supplied the 
energy to do man's work. But as Dewhurst points out: "The 

14. President's Materials Policy Commission, Resources for Freedom. Wash- 
ington: Government Printing Office, 1952. 

15. Eugene Holman, "Our Inexhaustible Resources," Atlantic Monthly, 
CLXXXIX (June, 1952), 32. 

i<5. Peter F, Drucker, "America's Next Twenty Years," Harper's Magazine, 
OCX (June, 1955), 58. 


nineteenth was the century of coal, the steam engine, and the horse. 
The twentieth has been the century of electricity, petroleum, and 
the automotive vehicle." 17 

Two dramatic examples of the effects of energy uses are cited 
by Fenton Turck. 

Americans increased their annual use of electric energy more between 
1940 and 1950 than in the entire previous time since electric power has 
been installed in America. . . . 

In a steel plant, it takes 5 hours to anneal a ton of strip steel instead 
of 120; in a textile plant, an electronic device checks dye color in i l A 
minutes instead of 1 1 /2 hours. 18 

These effects of the use of power are perhaps part of our com- 
mon knowledge. Not so well known are the shifts that have taken 
place in the sources of energy as shown in the following table: 





Per Cent 

Per Cent 

Per Cent 





Natural gas . 











* Adapted horn the President's Materials Policy Commission, 
Resources for Freedom, III. 106 Washington: Government Printing: 
Office, 1952 

Since most of these energy sources were converted into electrical 
energy, it may be of interest to note that, in 1950, 26 per cent of 
electrical energy produced in the United States came from water 
power while 74 per cent came from coal, gas, and oil. 19 Electrical 
energy output increased 318 per cent from 1939 to 1954^ 

Atomic energy is now with us* At this writing, it is impossible 

17. J. Frederic Dewhurst and Associates, Americas Needs and Resources, 
p. 856. New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1955, 

18. Fenton Turck, "American Explosion," Scientific Monthly, LXXV 
(September, 1952), 187-88. 

19. President's Materials Policy Commission, op. cit+> III, p. 33, 

20. The National Industrial Conference Board, Road Maps of Industry, 
No. 1045. New York: National Industrial Conference Board, January 6, 1956. 


to predict how rapidly atomic eneigy will be available for industrial 
use. The President's Materials Policies Commission estimated that 
by 1975 atomic energy would supply slightly more energy than 
coal, gas, oil, and water power combined. It is probable that the 
peacetime uses of atomic energy have been developed more rapidly 
than was contemplated at the time of that report. It appears that 
in the foreseeable future a power resource greater than man has ever 
known will be available to modern technology. The general pre- 
diction is that atomic energy will be in addition to and not a re- 
placement for the present energy sources. 

Economic Controls. The development of atomic energy has once 
again dramatized the issue of control of these gigantic economic 
resources. There seems little doubt that those who control atomic 
energy may in the future actually have the power to determine the 
destiny of the economic system. Atomic research and development 
began as a government enterprise for a war emergency. As peace- 
time uses have been permitted, private business has gradually been 
granted more atomic information. At present, it seems likely the 
future development of atomic energy will follow the pattern em- 
ployed with other energy sources. This is a pattern of private 
ownership through public utilities with governmental regulation. 
Is this the pattern desired by the American people^ 

The American people in their ideological struggle with com- 
munism and by their traditional altitudes are committed to a free 
enterprise system. But this system is no longer a system of small, 
free, independent businessmen. While individual enterprise has not 
disappeared, the corporation has taken over the dominant role in 
our economic system. As described by Smith, Stanley, and Shores: 

These great companies are, of course, private in the sense that they 
are nongovernmental and are managed for private ends. But it is obvious 
that in no sense are they individual enterprises. On the contrary, they 
are giant economic units, embracing collective efforts and accomplishing 
ends which individual enterprise would be powerless to achieve. They 
have developed a concentration of economic power which can compete 
on almost equal terms with the political power of the state. 21 

21. B, Othanel Smith, William O. Stanley, and J. Harlan Shores, Funda- 
mentals of Curriculum Development, p. 69* Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York: 
World Book Co., 1950, 


The successful operation of the gigantic business corporation 
has required the development of a new science of management 
which may eventually become a profession. The highly trained and 
expert manager appears necessary for the co-ordination of the 
workers, the technology, the raw materials, and the financing of 
modern industry. The ease with which some managers have moved 
from one highly complex industry to another has demonstrated that 
management itself makes a unique contribution to our economic 

The growth of pension funds, banking, and investment trusts 
has introduced another relatively new factor into the economy 
the fiduciary investor. These financial groups are the trustees of 
other people's money. As investors in American corporate business 
they now own "almost one-third of all the marketable shares of 
American business." 22 

The trend toward bigness is not unique to business enterprise, 
however. It is also true of labor unions and farming. Labor-union 
membership was about three million in 1935. Today it is estimated 
to be about eighteen million, with the unified AFL-CIO having a 
membership of about sixteen million members. 

The size of farms has been increasing, and the number of farmers 
has been decreasing. In 1940 the typical farm contained 174 acres; 
by 1950 the size was 215 acres. 23 In 1929 there were 5,566,000 active 
farm proprietors, but in 1952 there were only 3,967,ooo, 24 The 
expectation is that the trend toward larger farms and fewer owners 
will continue because production per man-hour increases with 

These changes in the controlling factors of our American econ- 
omy point up the need for serious consideration of the part that 
government plays in the economic aspects of our life. Business, 
labor, and farm interests are active in political affairs with a result- 
ing search for the proper role of government in its relations with 
economic interests. 

22. Drucker, op. cit.> p. 52. 

23. Dewhurst, op. cit. y p. 809. 

24. The National Industrial Conference Board, Economic Almanac, 1953-54, 
p. 396. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1953. 

D I M O N D 65 

Automation. Two Canadian physicists at the end of World 
War II wrote: 

Nowhere is modern man more obsolete than on the factory produc- 
tion floor. Modern machines are far more accurate and untiring than 
men. Available and in use are hundreds of electronic gadgets that can 
do everything a workman can, and do it faster, better, and more con- 
tinuously. 25 

With such statements a new word was introduced to the Ameri- 
can people automation. Rapidly the idea gained credence that the 
factory of the future would be fully automatic, with workers being 
little more than baby-sitters to machines. Similarly, white-collar 
operations which required many office-workers were to be replaced 
by electronic machines. Before automation could get into the dic- 
tionaries it was becoming a reality in American business. A new 
Ford plant processed an engine block in 14.6 minutes which has 
previously taken nine hours under traditional methods. 26 

Commenting on the trend toward automation, Stuart Chase 

During the First Industrial Revolution, machines took over many 
forms of manual labor, so that output per man-hour doubled, trebled, 
went up ten-fold. In this Second Revolution, output per man-hour 
promises to go through the roof, and electronic brains are going to take 
over much work from the human mind. 2T 

This trend toward automatic procedures based on new-found 
knowledge of electronics raises the serious question of how men 
can live satisfying lives with so little time spent in remunerative 

Transportation and Communication. Developments in transpor- 
tation and communication have closely paralleled those in other 
economic spheres. Startling examples appear: 

In 1955 the American Airlines carried 7,300,000 passengers the 

25. E. W. Leaver and J. J. Brown, "Machines without Men," Fortune, 
XLVI (November, 1946), 165. 

26. 'Tush-Button Labor," Fortune, L (August, 1954), 50. 

27. Stuart Chase, "Automation and Education," NBA Journal, XLIV 
(October, 1955), 393, 


first time any airline has carried more than 7,000,000 people in a 
single year. 

The fifteen billion dollars that Americans spent for television sets 
and maintenance from World War II to 1955 is 15 per cent more 
than they spent in that same time for new school and college 

The future transportation developments were summarized in 
America's Needs and Resources as follows: 

First will be the continued growth of private transportation through 
expanded automobile ownership and a nation-wide acceleration of high- 
way improvement. 

Second will be the growth of airline travel as flight safety and depend- 
ability and innovations . . . triple the volume of air traffic in the course 
of a decade. 

Third . . . our cities . . . will awaken to the necessity for extensive 
capital investment for all forms of transportation. 28 

Similar continuation of current trends is expected in the com- 
munications field. Mass communication has become the dominant 
factor in American life. There were 2,400 daily newspapers in 
1920; 1,785 in 1954. The small independent newspaper is having 
a hard struggle against chain ownership or domination by the big 
city dailies. The syndicated columnist has become a common de- 
nominator for most papers. Television, like radio at its height, has 
been dominated by the big networks. But radio refused to fulfil the 
prediction of a slow, lingering death and has staged a comeback 
under the stimulus of the independent, local radio station. The 
danger in the trends toward common ownership and centralized 
distribution of news is that uniformity of ideas may result in uni- 
formity of thinking and a loss of freedom through failure to stimu- 
late critical minority opinion. 29 

Educational Implications. What are the implications for ele- 
mentary social-studies teaching from the economic and technological 

28. Adapted from Dewhurst, op* cit^ p. 292, 

29. Recent books that describe future implications of economic and tech- 
nological trends include: Victor Cohn, 19$$: Ottr Hopeful Future (Indian- 
apolis: Bobbs-MerriU Co., 1956); Morris L. Ernst, Utopia 1^6 (New York: 
Rinehart & Co., 1955) ; and David Sarnoff, The Fabulous Future: America in 
1980 (New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1956). 

D I M O N D 67 

trends ? One implication lies in the sources of the content for the 
elementary-school curriculum. The predominant role of economics 
in American life indicates that economic processes should have a 
larger place in the elementary-school content. Similarly, political 
life requires additional attention if the economic forces are to remain 
under democratic control. Needless to say this content will have 
to be geared to the maturity levels of the children, but this can be 
accomplished by relating content to such objectives as are implied 
in the topics: wise use of resources, interdependence, community 
improvement, and occupational understanding. Some teachers in the 
primary grades, for example, report valuable learnings in a unit on 
"Fathers" in which pupils talk about the work of their fathers, visit 
them at their work, and in which some fathers come to class to 
demonstrate their occupational skills. 

The teacher needs to be well informed about community changes 
that are taking place. Much of the teaching of economic and tech- 
nical change will take place by a kind of "educational osmosis" 
from the casual illustrations that teachers use in the normal teacher- 
pupil classroom discussions. Some of this teaching will also occur 
because individual pupils or their parents are better informed about 
airplanes, or television, or automation than the teacher can be. The 
use in classrooms of those citizens who participate in these tech- 
nological changes should be encouraged. 

Some communities have found it helpful to prepare instructional 
materials about the local community to provide examples that are 
readable for children in the elementary social-studies program. 80 

The economic and technological trends also require a continued 
emphasis on thinking as a major objective of social-studies teaching. 
It is important that children be given an opportunity to share their 
thinking with other members of the class before arriving at final 
conclusions. The beginnings of the ability to sift fact from opinion, 
to discern dishonest propaganda from sincere argument, to distin- 
guish among sources of information, and to choose the relevant 
rather than the irrelevant are in the elementary school 

30. Among the school systems that have prepared such materials are 
Detroit, Michigan; Bucks County, Pennsylvania; Eastrnanville, Michigan; 
Glencoe, Illinois; Grand Rapids, Michigan; Kansas City, Missouri; and Lead, 
South Dakota. 


Relationships with other content areas need to be carefully 
nourished. Science and practical arts in particular make a great 
contribution to the social education of small children. Relating 
social studies to these areas will do much to emphasize the social 
implications of technological change. Hanna, Potter, and Hagaman 
give a practical illustration in a unit on "Pioneers Move Westward" 
in which pupils make powder horns, axes, spoons, cornbread, and 
soap to use as they act out the lives of the pioneers. 81 


Population. Elementary-school teachers are well aware of the 
most dramatic aspect of the population changes in the United States 
the enormous increase in the birth rate with the resultant crowd- 
ing of schools from the elementary grades through the colleges. 
The magnitude of the educational task of providing teachers and 
buildings has occupied a central place in educational thinking for 
a decade. Perhaps a single statistical example will suffice to under- 
line this ever-present problem: In 1935 the all-time low in birth 
rate was reached with 16.9 births per 1,000 inhabitants; the high 
point was reached in 1947 with a birth rate of 25.8. In recent years 
the rate has stayed around 24 per 1,000 inhabitants. Commenting 
on birth-rate factors Dewhurst noted: "It is too early to know to 
what extent . . . [the birth rate] may reflect a fundamental change 
in the ideas of married couples about family size." 32 

Aging of the population is another change that has been gradu- 
ally taking place over a long period of time. In 1850, 2.6 per cent 
of the population were 65 years of age or over; in 1900 slightly 
over 4 per cent; in 1950 more than 8 per cent. Present estimates 
are that more than 9 per cent or approximately 15 million persons 
in the United States are 65 or over. 

The mobility of our population continues to be a major popula- 
tion trend. In a single recent year, approximately 20 per cent of 
our people moved their homes. Of those who moved, one-sixth 
moved from one state to another. The trend has been westward 

31. Lavone A. Hanna, Gladys L. Potter, and Neva Hagaman, Unit Teach- 
ing in the Elementary School, pp. 475-76. New York: Rinehart & Co., 1955. 

32. Dewhurst, op. cit^ p. 58. 

D I M O N D 69 

with the center of population now in eastern Illinois. For more 
than thirty years there has been a movement of Negroes from the 
South chiefly to Northern metropolitan areas. 

The trend from farms and rural communities to the large urban 
centers has continued, and within the urban centers the movement 
has been away from the central city to suburbia with an accompany- 
ing decentralization of industry. Drucker has pointed out that 
"40 per cent of the American population and 56 per cent of all 
manufacturing are concentrated in forty metropolitan areas." 33 
From 1940 to 1950 the population of the central cities increased by 
less than 14 per cent while surburban areas increased 36 per cent. 
More than half of the population gains in this decade took place in 
the outlying parts of 168 standard metropolitan areas. 84 

Regional trends indicate that the Pacific and Mountain states will 
grow more rapidly than the rest of the country. California and 
Florida with estimated growths of approximately 38 per cent are 
expected to lead all the other states. 85 

Health. Progress in medical science and in public health activi- 
ties has continued to lower infant mortality rates in this country 
and to increase life expectancy. Turck summarizes these trends in 
this way: 

Medical discoveries have added 9 to 12 years to life expectancy in 
the last generation. The average life expectancy for Americans stands 
today at a high of 68 years; at the turn of the century, it was only 47 
years. In constant dollars, Americans spent 94 per cent more for medical 
care, paid 154 per cent more to private hospitals, laid out 460 per cent 
more in payments to group hospitalization associations, and paid 159 per 
cent more for accident and health insurance in 1950 than in i940. 36 

In spite of these enormous gains in the past decade, Drucker in 
discussing the "Eleven Coming Issues in Politics" which will occupy 
the center of the political stage for the next twenty years listed 
medical care as one of these issues. Medical care, including im- 
proved hospitalization and increased provisions for medical educa- 

33. Drucker, op. cit^ p. 58. 

34. Dewhurst, op. cit., p. 73. 

35. Ibid., p. 78. 

36* Turck, op. cit., p. 190. 


tion, was included among the important political issues because we 
have not yet achieved the goal of making such care available to 
everyone. 87 

On a world basis, the advances in medical science are causing 
concern that the control of diseases and the reduction in infant 
death rates in underdeveloped populous parts of the world are 
destroying the balance between deaths and births. The resulting 
explosion in population growth has become the object of serious 
study. Poverty, starvation, and degradation are poor rewards for 
the privilege of staying alive which medical science now presents 
to the world population. 38 

Leisure. The American worker has achieved leisure. The forty- 
hour week is an actuality, with a shorter week predicted. The five- 
day work week is now commonplace. Vacations with pay are ac- 
cepted as standard practice. Retirement under old-age insurance 
and pension plans gives new opportunities for leisure to older people. 
While professional people have not obtained the same amount of 
leisure, they too have had more leisure-time opportunities. Anxiety 
arises in terms of whether as a people we can use this time wisely. 

Will our leisure hours be used for integrating experiences or 
will they result in personal deterioration 5 Much of the answer lies 
in the nature of education within families, churches, and schools. 
But the evidence is certainly not all in the negative, in spite of many 
forebodings. Turck, keeping the value of the dollar constant, has 
assembled some interesting facts: 

In 1950 compared with 1940, Americans spent 96 per cent more 
constant dollars for books, 140 per cent more for toys and sports equip- 
ment, 219 per cent more for photo developing and printing, 129 per 
cent more for flowers and seeds, and 263 per cent more for phonographs 
and records, musical instruments, radios and television sets. Personal 
expenditures for the legitimate theatre and the opera are up 85 per cent 
in the ten-year period in comparison with only 42 per cent for motion 
pictures. . . . 

Americans spent more dollars to go to classical musical concerts than 
to baseball games [in 1952] . . , attendance at concerts of serious music 

37. Drucker, op. dt., p. 55. 

38. See Robert C. Cook, Human Fertility. New York: William Sloanc 
Associates, Inc., 1951. 


jumped 88 per cent between 1941 and 1951. The last decade saw an 
increase of 80 per cent in the number of symphony orchestras and 550 
per cent in the number of local opeia companies. . . . 

Americans spent 412 per cent more for steamship and overseas air- 
craft fares in 1950 than they did in 1940. There were 55 per cent more 
overseas travelers in 1950 than in 1937 spending 67 per cent more dollars 
in foreign countries. 89 

In contrast to these evidences of changes in our cultural pattern, 
it should be noted that, in constant dollars, from 1929 to 1950 ex- 
penditures for horse- and dog-racing increased 1,579 per cent, and 
for nonvending coin (pin-ball) machines 975 per cent. 40 

Spectator sports continued their popularity. Expenditures in 
constant dollars for professional baseball increased 1 1 2 per cent in 
this period. Those for professional football 500 per cent, for college 
football 205 per cent, and for professional hockey 34 per cent. 41 

The automobile has become a chief form of recreation for many 
families as is shown by the fact that tourist travel to our national 
parks has doubled during the last decade. 

Adult book-reading as a leisure-time activity does not occupy 
as much time as might be assumed in a literate nation. While nearly 
all adults read a newspaper and about two-thirds read one or more 
magazines, to what extent do adults read socially valuable material? 
In this sense, Clift in the 1956 yearbook of the National Society 
for the Study of Education, Adult Reading, noted: "The known 
facts on individual reading, library use, and bookstore sales con- 
tribute strongly to the uncomfortable feeling that we are very 
nearly a nation of nonreaders," tt 

Asheim, in the same yearbook, after reviewing the studies of 
adult reading, stated: 

When we say that Americans by and large are not readers, we 
mean that they are not sustained readers of serious content; not that 

39. Turck, op, cit., pp, 187-90. 

40. Adapted from Dewhurst, op. cit., p. 368, 

41. Loc. cit. 

42. David H. Clift, "Introduction," Adult Reading, p. 2. Fifty-fifth Year- 
book of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part II. Chicago: 
Distributed by the University of Chicago Press, 1956. 


they do not indulge in the simple act of deriving meaning from written 
symbols. 43 

The problem for the future seems to be one of finding ways to 
get literate adults to use their reading abilities for socially valuable 

The long-term trends indicate that leisure time will increase in 
the next decade. The degree to which this greater leisure will be 
employed for socially and personally valuable activities depends in 
part on the work of the schools. 

Integrity. Individual integrity is the ultimate reserve of any 
great democratic society. All the miracles of technology, science, 
and industry are of little importance if men are less honest, less 
concerned about their fellow-men, or less motivated by altruistic 
goals. Our ultimate standing before the people of the world depends 
on their belief in our fundamental integrity. 

There are discomforting aspects in these matters. Hollywood 
movies plus the abandon of some American tourists and soldiers has 
presented a picture of aggression, lawlessness, and drunkenness to 
a world that looks to us not only for economic and political leader- 
ship but for moral leadership as well. 

At home the ebb and flow of the tides of juvenile delinquency 
has caused questioning as to whether the education of our youth 
is adequate for the pressures of these times. The 50 per cent drop- 
out rate from our high schools has been intensively studied during 
the past ten years. 

The ethical and moral values of our people are matters of funda- 
mental importance. Church membership increased from 65 million 
in 1940 to 87 million in 1950. In terms of total population this was 
a percentage increase from 49 to 57. Enrolments in theological 
seminaries increased during and after World War II. 44 

During this same period the prison population in this country 
decreased from 172,996 to 165,796, but the total number of crimes 
reported increased from a million and a half in 1940 to over two 
million in 1953. In part, this latter increase may be the result of 
better reporting* 

43. Lester Asheim, "What Do Adults Read?" Adult Reading, op, cit., p. 7, 

44. Yearbook of Americm Churches. New York: National Council of 
Churches of Christ in America, 1953. 


These contrasting paragraphs indicate the complexity of esti- 
mating the trends concerning the fundamental moral attributes of 
our society. They can only underline the necessity of careful 
scrutiny of what happens to children and youth as they grow up 
in our complicated changing society. 

The School. A survey of social trends would be incomplete 
without some brief mention of the direction of social change in the 
schools themselves. The outstanding trend for many years has been 
the rise in the general educational level of our people. As reported 
in Dewhurst: "The typical young adult today completes four years 
of high school, while the chances are that his father had less than a 
year in high school and that his grandfather did not go beyond 
grade school" 45 

The combination of increased birth rates plus the trend to remain 
in school longer has taxed the school facilities in ways that all 
teachers are aware. Currently the colleges are beginning to feel 
the pressure of these increased enrolments. One of the issues that 
now faces the colleges is the same that faced the high schools fo'l- 
lowing World War I. Shall the colleges be open to all youth of 
college age or shall they be restricted to those of outstanding ability? 
The high schools opened their doors to all. The social forces cer- 
tainly contributed to making high-school education generally avail- 
able. Will changed economic and social conditions also force the 
colleges to admit more youth? The trend has been for a larger 
percentage of college-age youth to attend college, but whether this 
trend will continue depends to a great extent on the ability of 
colleges to provide teachers and facilities and on admission policies. 

The adult-education movement and the community-school move- 
ment are closely related to this trend for more people in our country 
to continue their education. The barriers between school and com- 
munity are slowly being breached, and closer interaction is occur- 
ring. Twenty years ago, in an appraisal of social trends, Schorling 
and McClusky stated that there was a growing conviction among 
the masses regarding the desirability of education. 46 While mass 

45. Dewhurst, op, cit., p. 380. 

46. Raleigh Schorling and Howard Y. McClusky, Education and Social 
Trends, p. 128. Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York: World Book Co., 1936. 


education has undergone careful scrutiny in the past few years, all 
the evidence indicates that the American people still believe in 
education and are willing to give their time and money to make 
good education possible for all children in America. 

Educational Implications. The elementary-school teacher must 
share responsibility for the emotional security of children who are 
growing up m a changing social culture. This supportive role is 
a great one. In a mobile population the child of the transient family 
frequently has difficult adjustment problems in moving from one 
school to another. The sincere interest of the teacher in the indi- 
vidual child alleviates some resulting insecurity. Skill in creating a 
feeling of belonging is an important skill in social-studies teaching. 

As is pointed out in the next chapter, the changing culture itself 
influences the development of children. The teacher needs to be 
aware of the cultural pattern in the neighborhood of the local school 
and in the school community. Social-studies classes engaged in 
community study help children establish roots to the local situation. 

Some of the content of the elementary social-studies curriculum 
can be drawn from the societal trends that have been described. 
Programs that are organized around basic human activities or social 
processes will naturally include many of the considerations dis- 
cussed in this section at the maturity level of the children. Ex- 
amples include units on the school, life in cities, and communication. 

As children clarify the problems of life through discussion in an 
atmosphere of freedom, they are helped to develop the values that 
are cultivated by the person of integrity. The behavior of children 
is influenced by the nature of school experiences if the teacher has 
stimulated understanding and sympathy for the roles of others, 
There is some therapy for the maladjusted too in the opportunity 
to identify life's problems in such a congenial atmosphere. 

The leisure-time value of the social studies has not always been 
sufficiently recognized in the elementary school Yet the success 
of the Landmark books 4T and the Childhood of Famous Americans 
series, 48 for example, as attested by children's librarians, indicates 

47. Published by Random House, New York. 

48. Published by the Bobbs-Merrill Co., Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana. 


that for many children reading in social-studies areas is extremely 
valuable as recreation. Similarly, the success of television programs 
of a social-studies nature from Disney's "Davy Crockett" to "See 
It Now" indicate that social studies for leisure could be an im- 
portant stimulus to an ongoing interest in innumerable aspects of 
community life. 

Respect for honest differences of opinion, an appreciation for 
persons in different types of work, sensitivity to social problems 
and conditions are among the objectives which, by implication, 
deserve high priority because of the societal changes. 


A brief summary of social trends necessarily omits all but the 
strongest currently discernible forces. But the major thesis of this 
chapter has been that the elementary-school teacher, as one aspect 
of developing a sound teaching program, should seriously consider 
the implications of social trends. If the social-studies program is not 
based on a careful analysis of our changing society, the accusation 
that schools teach for the past half-century and not for the next 
half-century could become true. 


Social Studies in Light of Knowledge about Children 


When we think of teaching the social studies, we tend to think 
of teaching social concepts, ideas, and skills in obtaining, sifting, 
and assimilating information relative to social problems. We think 
of learning about historical events, geographical locations, the 
nature of the life of early pioneers, and so on. 

However, we are interested not only in the teaching of concepts 
or skills but also in the child's behavior. We hope that through 
work in social studies the child will become a more effective citizen 
both in the immediate groups in which he finds himself and in 
the larger society of which he develops a gradual awareness. 

Since concepts, skills, and behavior are all interrelated, it seems 
most helpful to begin our exploration of the implications of research 
findings in child development for social studies by examining the 
nature of the child's behavior. Beginning with behavior does not 
imply that concepts and skills are of less importance. In fact, our 
analysis will show that, rightly understood, they are indispensable 
in human development, 

The Nature of Child Behavior 

Studies of the development of numerous behavior patterns have 
indicated that the same outward form of behavior may develop in 
a variety of ways. Two children may fight frequently, but each 
pattern may have developed quite differently. One child may fight 
as an attempt to overcome feelings of discrimination and to demon- 
strate his power. Another may fight as the only way he has learned 
thus far of getting responses from others. One child may neglect 
his studies because he feels they are of little use to him and has 
not yet learned to appreciate other ways of handling such a feeling, 



Another may refuse to apply himself as a way of avoiding the 
difficulties he has experienced in reading, since he has not as yet 
learned more constructive ways of overcoming this difficulty. 

Studies of child development have also suggested that we may 
think of behavior as the resultant of some "feeling" or "goal" or 
"impulse" or "motivating force'* which the individual is trying to 
work out, using whatever resources in the form of ideas, concepts, 
and skills that he has available at the time. Behavior is a complex 
phenomenon produced by the interaction of several factors. 

The feeling the person is trying to work out may be of a con- 
scious character, as illustrated by the example of a person who 
experiences hunger and proceeds to satisfy his feeling by securing 
food. Sometimes these forces are relatively unconscious and may 
be very difficult to identify. This may be the case when an indi- 
vidual feels the loss of personal worth and satisfies this feeling by 
bullying. He may have a vague feeling of unpleasantness, but he 
may not be able to identify the feeling nor the experiences that pro- 
duced it. The forces may vary in strength from person to person 
and at different times in the same person. 

Examples of feelings or forces that most students of the problem 
recognize are: the desire for activity and rest; the desire of being 
free from, or having control over, or being protected from things 
the person assumes will harm him; the desire for sex expression; 
the desire for status, self-respect, or personal worth. In cultures in 
which the problem of supplying sufficient food has not yet been 
worked out, we would be especially concerned with the feeling of 

The person uses whatever concepts, skills, and energy he pos- 
sesses to achieve his goal. These concepts, ideas, and skills may be 
thought of as representing the organization of the nervous and 
muscular systems at the time the motivational forces are passing 
into action. The organization of the nervous system at any given 
moment before present stimulation is applied is the result of the 
interaction of the organism with its past experiences. 

Whenever a strong motivating force is blocked, the individual 
feels a difficulty and attempts to overcome this difficulty* If he 
does not possess the necessary concepts and skills to identify the 
nature of the difficulty and to formulate constructive ways of 


working it out, he may resort to methods that are nonconstructive 
in the sense that they disregard the feelings of others, the effects 
on others and on himself, and the extent to which they are effective 
in solving the real problem. In the many studies that have been 
made of non-constructive and non-co-operative behavior, the vast 
majority of cases reveal some difficulty or "block" which the child 
was trying to work out. In only a relatively small proportion of 
cases does the behavior appear to arise from situations other than 
those in which the child was blocked. For example, in an important 
study of delinquent behavior, Healy and Bronner 1 examined 105 
cases of delinquency, each matched with a control child who was 
a sibling of the delinquent. In only nine cases was there a relative 
absence of emotional strain in the etiology of the behavior. In the 
other 96 cases there were clear evidences of difficult emotional 
situations which the child faced and which he attempted to solve 
in various ways, only to find that, in the light of the concepts and 
skills he possessed, the delinquent approach was about the only way 
open to him. In the nine cases in which no intensive emotional 
strain could be identified, the child had grown up in a culture in 
which the delinquent behavior was definitely taught as the way to 
live or was suggested by the neighborhood group as "something 
to do*" As we shall see later, the finding that a great proportion of 
non-co-operative or "antisocial" behavior arises from the child's 
attempt to work out a difficult situation which he cannot solve con- 
structively will be of considerable importance to social studies. 

Thus, behavior may be considered as a resultant of a feeling or 
goal or motivating force interacting with whatever skills and con- 
cepts the individual has at the moment. This framework will clarify 
many aspects of this discussion of the teaching of social studies. For 
example, one of the forms of behavior of much interest to teachers 
is the behavior of a child toward the property of others. One of 
the oft-stated goals of social studies is to help the child learn respect 
for the property of others. Consider now this situation: Dick and 
Tom, both age 9, came into the room where Dick's brother Jerry, 
age i r, was working very carefully with some special stamps in his 

z. W. Healy and A. F. Bronner, New Light on Delinquency and Its Treat- 
ment, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1936. 


collection. Tom said, admiringly, "You sure have a lot of stamps 
there, Jerry. I wish we had a collection like that at our house." 

Dick showed no direct interest in Jerry's collection. Instead, 
he threw his books carelessly on the table. Several stamps were 
crumpled and torn. Of course this made Jerry angry. 

When we first hear about Dick's behavior we may agree with 
Jerry that Dick should be told about property rights and perhaps 
should be reprimanded. But there are other factors to be considered. 
Dick and Jerry shared a room together and the stamp collection took 
up most of that room. Jerry used the whole table most of the time. 
Then, too, Jerry had been making fun of Dick's smaller collection 
of stamps. 

Dick was really very proud of Jerry and his stamp collection 
and wished he had one, too. He tried to start one with a few stamps 
one day, but Jerry laughed at him and told him the stamps were 
no good. Also, Dick had complained to Jerry about taking up so 
much room. Moreover, he had tried to talk it over with his parents, 
but they didn't help. In other words, Dick was being put in a posi- 
tion where his feeling of counting for something of having a self- 
respecting place was constantly blocked. He had tried to solve 
the problem as best he knew, but the situation was getting beyond 

A study of the whole affair indicated that what Dick needed 
was not so much being told he should respect the rights of others 
as receiving help in understanding how his desire for a self-respecting 
place could be satisfied at the same time that he was showing con- 
sideration for Jerry. 

Tom's entirely different reaction to Jerry's stamps was under- 
standable, too, since he had a room of his own with plenty of 
space for his things and did not have someone in the room with 
him who laughed at him when he tried to do something. 

In other words, if we are interested in developing behavior, we 
will have to take account of both the motivating forces (or feelings 
or needs) as well as the ideas, attitudes, and skills. If a person is in 
a position where his security, or self-respect, or hunger, or activity 
is seriously blocked, it will be difficult for him to co-operate with 

This is true even for adults. It has been shown experimentally, 


for example, that, if we take a group of college students, obtain 
their attitudes toward their friends or toward different nationalities, 
subject them to repeated blockings in situations that do not appear, 
but actually are, beyond their abilities to solve, and then ask them 
to rate their friends again, they will tend to rate them appreciably 
lower. 2 They will do this even though their friends were not present 
at the experiment and could have had nothing to do with the failures. 
Furthermore, very probably the subjects were not aware that they 
were lowering the ratings. 

If we are interested in developing persons who can work with 
others, who can recognize in actual behavior the feelings and "rights" 
of others and can respect their property, we have to make sure that 
each individual has opportunities to develop a measure of dignity, 
self-respect, and emotional security through such behavior. We 
cannot develop a given pattern if it means that the child's own 
self-respect and personal worth are sacrificed. The problem of de- 
veloping persons who can live and work together seems to be one 
of helping each individual work out his self-respect and security in 
ways that make it possible for others also to achieve their measure 
of personal worth. 

There are several ways in which we can go about setting up 
such learning conditions. For example, Dick's parents perhaps could 
be taught to understand what he was trying to tell them when he 
complained to them. Likewise, if his teachers had sufficient training 
in child behavior, they would tend to be more sympathetic with 
his feelings and encourage him to come to them for help. Further- 
more, Dick could be taught at school and at home that all of us 
get in difficult situations in which everything we try fails and that 
one of the things we can do is to talk such situations over with 
some of our teachers and counselors. By adding to Dick's store of 
concepts relative to the nature of such feelings and to his knowledge 
of ways in which difficulties might be worked out he might be 
stimulated to take the initiative in conceiving of more constructive 
methods. Through a similar analysis we could develop some sug- 

2. N. E. Miller and R. Bugelski, "Minor Studies of Aggression: IL The 
Influence of Frustrations Imposed by the In-Group on Attitudes Expressed 
toward Out-Groups," Journal of Psychology, XXV (January, 1948), 437-42. 


gestions as to how Jerry could learn to solve his problems without 
imposing on others. 

Thus our conception that behavior involves feelings or motivat- 
ing forces interacting with concepts and skills gives us some leads 
as to how various forms of behavior can be developed. It also helps 
us to see more clearly where social concepts and social skills fit in. 
It is quite possible that a child may know what the adult thinks he 
ought to do, as in Dick's case, but he may not see how following 
that line of action will help him solve the difficulties he is facing. 
What Dick needed as far as concepts are concerned was to know 
more about the place of the teacher and the counselor, to know 
more about the nature of the feelings that were bothering him, to 
know more about other methods which might be used which would 
accomplish the double purpose of helping him grow in the feeling 
of self-respect and personal worth. In other words, concepts are 
an important part of what the child needs, but they must include 
those aspects which help the child to work out constructively the 
feelings that stir within him. 

The Selection of Concepts 

This helps us at once to throw more light on the question of 
what concepts and skills the citizen requires. The answer to this 
question makes it necessary for us to consider not only what feel- 
ings or basic goals the child is trying to work out but also what 
concepts and skills he needs to work these out constructively. 

For example, at the kindergarten and primary levels the child 
is very much engaged in learning to control the impulses to activity. 
He has not yet learned how to do this to the same extent as adults. 
It would be helpful if he could learn more about the nature of these 
impulses. He should understand that we all have such feelings and 
that if we proceed to satisfy them by jumping up and running 
about as we please we may be making it difficult for others. Also, 
he should know that there are several ways in which such impulses 
can be worked out so that his needs and those of the other members 
of the group, including the teacher, can be respected. It may be 
helpful for the kindergarten and primary child to know how the 
teacher plans the day's activity so that periods of relatively active 
work and play alternate with periods of relatively passive work and 


play, such as listening to stories, contributing to a discussion, work- 
ing with clay, drawing, and similar activities. 3 One of the important 
things the child is learning at these early levels is the ability to 
deliberately channel his activity impulses more and more into the 
less active features of the school program, such as discussion, read- 
ing, and drawing. It would, therefore, be helpful for the child to 
understand that if the listening, reading, or drawing periods seem 
too long or too short for him he can talk it over with the teacher. 

In a similar way, we could take the other major feelings with 
which the child has to deal and consider what concepts and skills 
he needs in order to work them out through constructive channels. 

When we examine the usual curriculum in social studies at the 
primary grades, we find relatively little attention being given to 
helping the child understand the situations he faces and extend his 
knowledge about the many different ways in which human feelings 
can be worked out constructively (Le., respecting the needs of self 
and others). The child is not born with such concepts. They have 
to be developed like other concepts. 

Perhaps another way of demonstrating the importance of con- 
sidering concepts in relation to the situations the child faces is to 
examine some of the concepts commonly included in the social- 
studies curriculum. One idea to which the child is introduced is 
that of taking turns. He is provided with a demonstration of and 
opportunities for practice in taking turns in such activities as telling 
time, using interesting apparatus on the playground, or serving on 
room committees. An important aspect of such activities is the 
extent to which the child gains assurance that when a pupil stands 
aside for others to take their turns his turn will also come. When 
it does not come, he needs to know what he should do, such as 
feeling free to ask the teacher about it. In this connection it is 
helpful to remember that the child's first experiences in a group of 
twenty-five or thirty children may be quite confusing* To wait 
until twenty-nine children have had their turns may seem very 
long. Helping the child to find out for himself if his turn comes 
as often as that of others may be very reassuring. Taking turns 

3. R. H. Ojemann, "It Takes Time," National Education Association 
Journal, XL (February, 1951), 100-101. 


should not mean for the child that he cannot be sure that his time 
will come too. 

Another concept is that of sharing. When we consider this 
concept from the standpoint of the situations the child faces, we 
soon observe that in addition to the meanings usually taught such 
aspects as the following are involved: Suppose I share some play 
material that is breakable, what happens if it is broken^ 3 If I share 
some favorite object that some of the other children want, will 
I get it back? My parents don't want me to let anyone handle the 
object that I am asked to share; what am I to do? 

The development of concepts to include those aspects that relate 
to the child's goals is perhaps more clearly illustrated in the majority- 
vote procedure. To help the child develop a meaning of this con- 
cept we will have to consider such questions as these: How can 
I be sure that my needs will be taken into account when others 
take part in the decision? What can I do when a clique controls 
all the votes? What should I do when I am asked to "gang up" on 
someone^ 3 If the child's experiences with majority-vote procedure 
are such that it frequently results in a failure to take account of 
the needs of all the children or if in his own group it is frequently 
used as a device for exploiting others, it is not difficult to see what 
meaning the concept "majority vote" will come to have for him. 
When questions of democratic procedures come up, they will not 
represent for him a device through which people achieve satisfying 
ways of living, but more likely a device for exploitation. 

Another example of this general point is the concept of inter- 
dependence. The child can learn rather early how, in our culture 
with its degree of specialization, we are much dependent upon each 
other. But if the child in his experiences with interdependence 
finds that he is often blocked or frustrated, then interdependence 
will come to mean essentially something to be avoided. 

In one second-grade class in an elementary school, the teacher 
attempted to enrich the meaning of social interaction by having 
the children play in miniature some of the life activities of adults. 
For example, in a unit on the farm, one group of children would 
play at feeding and caring for the cows, someone would operate 
the milk truck, still others would operate the creamery, and so on. 
Following such role-playing, the children would come together and 


discuss their experiences. One day when the teacher opened the 
discussion, one of the children immediately pointed to another and 
complained with some feeling, "You didn't get the milking done on 
time so that I couldn't get the milk to the creamery. When I got 
there the creamery was closed." Such situations may be used to 
begin the discussion of the importance of mutual confidence and 
understanding in interdependence or teamwork. 

Thus, when we examine in the light of the nature of the child's 
behavior the question of what concepts the citizen requires, we are 
able to identify concepts and aspects of concepts that appear rather 
important. There is evidence to indicate that our social-studies 
curriculum has not included many concepts relating to human feel- 
ings, or concepts relating to the variety of methods by which a 
given situation can be worked out. The concepts relating to human 
feelings, the effects of blocking, and the difficulties that man experi- 
ences can be taught as an integral part of the historical, geographical, 
and community-living units. 4 


In teaching, the question often arises as to what to do if we 
find children are not interested in, say, some historical material that 
we deem essential to the development of perspective. Our concep- 
tion of the nature of the child's behavior enables us to make an 
analysis of what we mean when we say the child is not interested. 
The child is continually engaged in meeting the personality demands 
of maintaining self-respect, being respected as a person, developing 
a sense of achievement, maintaining a balance between activity and 
rest, feeling emotionally accepted and secure. When he is not 
interested in some activity, it means that he feels it will not help 
him achieve these goals. Hence, if we have some units in which 
he is not interested, it means that he does not see or feel how the 
material will help him grow. The child often expresses this idea by 
saying that he doesn't see how the "stuff" will do him any good* 

The solution to such situations does not lie in postponing just 

4. R. H. Ojemann, Anne Nugent, and Martha Corry, "The Place of an 
Analytical Study of Human Behavior in the Social-Science Program,*' Social 
Education) XI (January, 1947), 25-28. 


because the child is "not interested." The solution lies, rather, in 
first making sure that it will help the child become a more effective 
person and citizen (i.e., we want to exercise care in selecting con- 
tent) and then developing the necessary background so the child 
can appreciate in some measure how it will help him become the 
kind of person he wants to become. It may take some time to 
develop this background in a group of children. It may mean that 
in making assignments the teacher will have to take special care to 
help the children see where the assignment fits into the general 
scheme of things. It means that the teacher will have to take into 
account the experiences both direct and vicarious which the chil- 
dren have already had and build on them. In geography, for ex- 
ample, some children may have had close relatives in the Pacific 
area or in North Africa, whereas other children may not have had 
such experiences. Helping them understand how schoolwork bene- 
fits them is an important part of the art of teaching. 

Another question that arises at this point is that of sex differ- 
ences in interests. From the above analysis of the nature of interests 
we might expect certain similarities as well as differences in sex 
interests. Since both boys and girls are involved in working out 
essentially the same motivating forces, we would expect considerable 
similarity. Because our culture tends to approve, and thus to teach, 
some sex differences in methods of meeting personality demands, 
we would expect some differences to begin to appear as the later 
years of the elementary school are approached. For example, our 
culture tends to favor aggressive behavior in boys more than in 
girls. There is, in general, more approval of a boy's being quite 
active, restless, and pugilistic. Such behavior is considered "unlady- 
like" in girls. Children are not born with these differences. They 
are taught by the culture in the home, at school, and in the com- 
munity. We would expect boys to be more interested in military 
campaigns, active sports, construction, and what might be called 
"doing things/' On the other hand, we would predict that girls 
would tend to be more interested in intimate friendships, in home 
relationships, school relationships, and status-giving activities which 
have what our culture calk "the feminine touch," 

Some of these predictions are borne out by observations on sex 
differences in interests. Baker, for example, reports that boys tended 


to exceed girls m contributions to discussions of sports at the sixth 
grade, science at the fourth grade, the "World's Fair" at the sixth 
grade. 5 On the other hand, girls exceeded boys in number of con- 
tributions to discussion of pets in Grades II and IV, "other U.S. 
happenings" (i.e., other than national affairs, state affairs, crime, 
sports, etc.) in Grade VI, and home affairs and pleasure trips in 
Grade VI. On the other hand, Lacey's summary of her study of 
children in the kindergarten and first three grades makes no mention 
of sex differences. 

In interpreting sex differences we must remember that findings 
such as those of Baker are relative to the nature of the culture in 
which the child grows up. It is an interesting question whether 
any sex differences in interests would appear if social studies were 
oriented more toward the conception of learning how people can 
live together in creative and satisfying ways. 


In the discussion of the development of concepts we have two 
factors to consider, (a) the nature of the child, and (b) the ex- 
periences that are available to him. The importance of both factors 
has not always been recognized. Those who have been primarily 
concerned with experiences have often placed concepts at a given 
grade level without reference to ability of the child to incorporate 
them in his development. On the other hand, those who have been 
interested in studying the nature of the child and the development 
that one finds under present conditions have often neglected to con- 
sider what experiences the child has had and whether other experi- 
ences would have been equally or more satisfying and produced a 
different level of development. Jensen, in his review of studies of 
development of concepts, repeatedly pointed out the failure of in- 
vestigators to indicate the background of experiences of the subjects 

5, H. V. Baker, Children's Contribution in Elementary -School General 
Discussion. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia 

6. Joy Muchmore Lacey, Social-Studies Concepts of Children in the First 
Three Grades. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Colum- 
bia University, 1932* 


used in the investigations. 7 Studies of the development of concepts 
such as those by Jersild have shown that what a child knows depends 
a great deal upon the experiences he has had. 8 Some of the studies 
that have been made in connection with intelligence tests have also 
thrown some light on this problem. In a study of children's intelli- 
gence Shimberg prepared two groups of tests. One test was scaled 
by using children from a rural environment; the other by using 
subjects from an urban environment. As might be expected, on 
the test scaled by using rural subjects, children from the city en- 
vironment scored lower than rural children, while the reverse was 
true for tests scaled by using urban subjects. 9 

Further evidence showing how the development of concepts 
depends upon experiences is indicated in some studies of the de- 
velopment of the concept of a causal approach to human behavior. 
Ojemann 10 and Stiles n have provided evidence indicating that 
under present cultural conditions the approach to human behavior 
that is taught tends to be essentially noncausal in character. Both 
of these investigators used children at the fourth-, fifth-, and sixth- 
grade levels and both found that the vast majority of approaches 
to behavior made by the children in room council meetings were 
at or below the midpoint on a scale representing a causal-noncausal 
continuum. Few or no responses appeared at the causal end. On 
the other hand, when pupils were provided with a causally-oriented 

7. K. Jensen, "The Social Studies," Child Development and the Curriculum, 
pp. 325-60. Thirty-eighth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of 
Education, Part L Chicago: Distributed by die University of Chicago Press 

8. Arthur T. Jersild, Child Psychology. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 

9. M. E. Shimberg, "An Investigation into the Validity of Norms with 
Special Reference to Urban and Rural Groups," Archives of Psychology, XVI, 
No. 104, 1928-29, 

10. R. H. Ojemann, "The Effect on die Child's Development of Changes 
in Cultural Influences," Journal of Educational Research, XL (December, 
1946), 258-70. 

it. Frances S. Stiles, "Developing an Understanding of Human Behavior at 
the Elementary-School Level," Journal of Educational Research ; XLIII (March, 
1950), 516-24. 


teacher using causally-oriented content, marked changes in the 
development of this concept appeared. 12 

It is not sufficient, therefore, to investigate the development of 
concepts or their interrelationships without considering the experi- 
ences the child has had. The ideal approach is to consider both the 
nature of the child and his experiences. 

In a discussion of development, it is well to include a reminder 
about the complexity of concepts. A concept is essentially a group 
of meanings put together under one label. Thus, when we refer 
to a child's concept of time we may include many aspects. We may 
put the emphasis on sequence, such as prior to and following certain 
events, time of day by the clock, day of the week, the month, the 
year of a century, or centuries. In addition, we may consider dura- 
tion such as an hour, a day, a week, a year, the sweep of centuries. 
This complexity of concepts is quite important in considering their 

Studies of the development of concepts have suggested the 

i. Not all aspects develop at the same rate. 

The four-year-old, under our usual cultural conditions, can indi- 
cate that something took place before or after a meal but cannot 
indicate the time of day or the day of the week. 15 The ordinary 
six-year-old in our culture has some conception of length of the 
school day but cannot give a very meaningful description of the 
length of a year. Children tend to refer to the present before re- 
ferring to the future, and to the future before the past. 

Springer investigated the ability of children four to six years of 
age to perform such tasks as telling the time at which certain familiar 
activities come in their daily schedule, telling the time by the clock 
and setting the hands of the clock to indicate a given time. Forty- 
seven per cent of the five-year-olds and 80 per cent of the six-year- 

12. R. H. Ojemann, E. E. Levitt, W. H. Lyle, and Maxine Whiteside, "The 
Effects of a 'Causal' Teacher-Training Program and Certain Curricular Changes 
on Grade-School Children/* Journal of Experimental Education, XXIV (De- 
cember, 1955), 95-114, 

13. L. B, Ames, "The Development of the Sense of Time in the Young 
Child/' Journal of Genetic Psychology, LXVIII (March, 1946), 97-125. 


olds could tell the time their school starts, but only about 25 per cent 
of the five-year-olds and 33 per cent of the six-y ear-olds could set the 
hands of the clock to indicate a given hour. 14 Studies by Friedman 15 
and Bradley 16 provide further data. 

An indication of the development of children's ideas of his- 
torical time is found in a study by Oakden and Sturt. They asked 
children to arrange names of outstanding historical personages in 
order of chronological sequence. They found that not until age 
eleven or so were concepts of historical time sufficiently developed 
to carry out an activity of this type. 17 

A further indication that the various aspects of a concept do 
not develop at the same rate is found in a study by Scott. She 
investigated sixth- and eighth-grade children's understanding of 
various statistical concepts by the use of multiple-choice ques- 
tionnaires. When the data relative to the understanding of the 
meaning of "average" were examined, results such as the following 
were found: Eighty per cent of the pupils could identify the rule 
for finding averages, but only 25 per cent were aware that a state- 
ment regarding sugar consumption used in the test was a statement 
of the "average" amount of sugar consumed. In the test item in- 
volving ages of ten people in a music club, only 41 per cent of the 
pupils were aware that the average age multiplied by ten would 
give the sum of the ages of the members of the club. On three 
exercises testing knowledge of facts that should be used to find the 
average, 75 per cent passed the item relative to facts needed to find 
average rainfall, 55 per cent the item relating to average cost of a 
list of presents. 18 

14. Doris Springer, "Development in Young Children of an Understanding 
of Time and Clock," Journal of Genetic Psychology, LXXX (March, 1952), 83. 

15. K. C. Friedman, "Time Concepts of Elementary-School Children," 
Elementary School Journal, XLIV (February, 1944), 337-42. 

1 6. N. C, Bradley, "The Growth of the Knowledge of Time in Children of 
School-Age," British Journal of Psychology, XXXVIII (December, 1947), 67-78. 

17. E. C, Oakden and M. Sturt, "Development of the Knowledge of Time 
in Children," British Journal of Psychology, XII (April, 1922), 309-36. 

1 8. Lucy Scott, "A Study of Children's Understanding of Certain Statistical 
Concepts in Social Studies." Unpublished Master's thesis, State University of 
Iowa, 1942. 


The development of some aspects of a concept may depend upon 
the growth of other concepts. In a study of the development of 
time concepts in 160 children from kindergarten through third 
grade, Harrison found that some of the concepts are dependent 
upon number meanings and relationships. For example, it is difficult 
for a child to develop a conception of "month" until he has some 
appreciation of what 30 or 31 means. Similarly, the concept of a 
year involves the idea of twelve months. 19 It is, of course, possible 
to develop these concepts without direct reference to the number, 
such as "a year is as long as from one summer to the next/' or "from 
one Christmas to the next," or "from one of your birthdays to the 
next," but even here the importance of basic number concepts tends 
to enter. 

2. Differences ^n development within a given age or grade level are 
usually greater than among successive age levels. 

Lacey's study of 125 common social concepts in the first three 
grades found that, although there tends to be a continuous develop- 
ment in children's concepts from grade to grade, the differences 
within a grade group seem to be of more importance than the 
differences between grades. 20 

Harrison, using a group of fifty common terms relating to time, 
found that the /?/g&-intelligence level in kindergarten achieved 
almost as many correct responses as the toou-intelligence group in 
the third grade. The high-intelligence group in the first grade 
achieved a higher per cent of correct responses than the low-intelli- 
gence group in the third grade. 21 Similar results were reported by 
Macomber, 22 Jersild, 38 and Baker. 24 

19. M. Lucile Harrison, "The Nature and Development of Concepts of 
Time among Young Children," Elementary School Journal, XXXIV (March, 
*934) 507-14- 

20. Lacey, op, ctt. 

21. Harrison, op, cit. 

22. F. G. Macomber, "A Placement Study in Secondary-School Economics," 
Journal of Experimental Education, IV (June, 1936), 353-58, 

23. Jersild, op. cit 

24. Baker, op. cit. 


3. Since there is no intrinsic or inevitable connection between the 
meaning of a concept and its label, it is quite possible -for a child 
to use the label with a minimum of meaning or the 'wrong 

This phenomenon is well known under the name of "verbalism" 
and requires no extensive documentation. Scott and Myers, for 
example, found that children may give correct answers to direct 
questions, as in a class recitation, even though they had only a vague 
or incorrect conception of their meanings. Many children were 
able to give the names of two explorers but were then unable to 
describe what was meant by an "explorer." 25 

Aitchison found not only vague meanings but also many mis- 
conceptions among sixth, seventh, and eighth-graders as to the 
meanings of such words as "torrid," "temperate," and "frigid." 26 

Horn reports a number of studies by his students in which the 
meaning elementary-school children had developed of such concepts 
as "many people," "very irregular," and "a great deal" was investi- 
gated. The interpretations by fifth-grade pupils of "many people" 
as used in "many people in Alaska are engaged in the fishing in- 
dustry" varied from 50 to "as many people as Chicago has." Fourth- 
graders interpreted "thick cap of ice" in the sentence, "Most of 
Greenland is covered with a thick cap of ice and snow which never 
melts away," with such meanings as "one inch," "three feet," "fifty 
feet," "thousands and thousands of feet." 27 Similar findings are 
reported by Preston. 28 

4. Some concepts are developed by experiences 'which the child gets 

25. Flora Scott and G. C, Myers, "Children's Empty and Erroneous Con- 
cepts of the Commonplace," Journal of Educational Research, VIE (Novem- 
ber, 1923), 327-34. 

26. Allison E. Aitchison, "Torrid, Temperate, and Frigid Zones: Sources 
of Error in Children's Thinking," The Teaching of Geography, pp. 483-85. 
Thirty-second Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. 
Chicago; Distributed by the University of Chicago Press, 1933. 

27. Ernest Horn, Methods of Instruction in the Social Studies. New York 
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1937. 

28. Ralph C. Preston, Teaching Social Studies in the Elementary School. 
New York: Einehart & Co., 1957 (revised). 


out of school as well as in school, 'while other concepts depend 
more on school experiences, 

Burton, in a study of children's specific information, found that 
such a concept as "legislator" was learned primarily through school 
experiences, whereas the term "divorce" seemed to be developed 
primarily through out-of-school experiences. 29 Eaton, in a study of 
pupil achievement of sixth-grade pupils found that the amount of 
understanding children develop with respect to concepts ordinarily 
considered in the social studies in school is not directly related to 
the amount of time devoted to such topics in the school program. 30 

In this connection, Harrison points out that, in developing con- 
cepts of time, teachers and parents have to be careful in the use of 
such phrases as "just a minute." 31 As one child expressed it to her 
mother, "In one of your minutes, Mother." 

5. Concepts that have a personal reference or those that deal 'with 
something immediate and personal tend to be more readily 
learned than concepts dealing 'with something more remote. 

Farrell, in a study of time-relationships in five-, six-, and seven- 
year-old children of high intelligence quotients, found that time 
questions involving the personal and immediate were better an- 
swered at the lower chronological- and mental-age levels than ques- 
tions that involved the remote and nonpersonal. 32 

6. The development of concepts depends upon both the experi- 
ences the child has and his level of development. 

A study of time concepts in sixth-grade children investigated 
this problem by using two groups of subjects. One group had 

29. William H. Burton et al, 3 Children's Civic Information^ i$24$$* Los 
Angeles: University of California Press, 1936* 

30. M. T, Eaton, "A Survey of the Achievement in Social Studies of 10,220 
Sixth-Grade Pupils in 464 Schools in Indiana," Bulletin of the School of Edu- 
cation, Indiana University, XX (1944), 1-14. 

31. Harrison, op, cit, 

32. Muriel Farrell, "Understanding Time Relations of Five-, Six-, and 
Seven-Year-old Children of High I.Q.," Journal of Educational Research, 
XLVI (April, 1953), 587. 


received systematic training in both history and geography in the 
fourth and fifth grades. In the sixth grade they received intensive 
training in historical events. The children in the other group re- 
ceived training mainly in geography, with less attention to historical 
events. When tested early in the seventh grade, both groups showed 
gains over scores achieved in the sixth grade, but there were no 
significant differences in the scores between the two groups. 33 
Bender and Frosch found that younger children tended to respond 
to more situations in terms of the immediate and personal. With 
advancing age, however, a more conceptual development of the 
implications farther removed from children's immediate experiences 
appeared. 34 

An important problem that arises in the development of concepts 
in social-studies teaching is the question of when the child's con- 
cepts of time, geographical location, and distance are sufficiently 
developed so that he can profit from a study of history and geogra- 
phy. Since the development of a concept depends on both the 
nature of the child and the experiences he has had, this question 
cannot be answered in the same way for all children of a given 
age or grade level since the experiences they have had will differ 
greatly. Most of the studies of the development of concepts, such 
as those of the concepts of time, have examined children without 
reference to the experiences they have had. Furthermore, as Preston 
has indicated, there are many devices the teacher can use to help 
the child develop a concept of historical time that make use of 
something closely related to the child, such as "the time when your 
father was born" or "the time when your grandfather was a boy." 35 
Baker found that, in the spontaneous discussion of children in the 
second grade, 83 per cent of the material contributed was obtained 
through "personal presence" (i.e., events they had directly experi- 
enced). At the sixth-grade level, this figure stood at 25 per cent. 36 

33. F. Pistor, "How Time Concepts Are Acquired by Children," Educa- 
tional Method, XX (November, 1940), 107-12. 

34. L. Bender and J. Frosch, "Children's Reactions to the War," American 
Journal of Onhopsychiatry, XII (October, 1942), 571-86. 

35. Preston, op, cit. 

36. Baker, op. cit. 


None of the studies of the development of the concept of time has 
asked the question, "What concepts can the child develop when 
he is placed in an environment in which there are many uses of 
such meaningful and enriching experiences?" Furthermore, as 
investigators become interested in such a question, our ability to 
devise ever more meaningful experiences will very probably grow, 
and children will be able to develop meanings that we now con- 
sider too difficult for them. 

Present studies of the concept of time have shown that at the 
kindergarten level the child is aware of such differences as before 
and after lunch (morning or afternoon), before and after certain 
activities, and a general "tomorrow" and a general "yesterday." 
Practically all of the children in kindergarten in our present culture 
can learn to give the name of the day (i.e., Monday, Tuesday, etc.). 
By the time they have learned some of the number concepts, that 
is, when they are about seven years of age, they c<m learn the 
number of days in a month, can tell the approximate time by the 
clock, and give the seasons of the year. By eight or nine years of 
age, such concepts as "a year is as long as from one Christmas to 
the next" or "as long as from one of your birthdays to the next" 
appear to have considerable meaning. By the time the fifth and 
sixth grades are reached, such concepts as "a hundred years ago" 
can acquire some meaning, provided the meaning is developed from 
experiences which have meaning for the child, such as "when your 
grandfather was a boy" or "when the first railroad was built" or a 
series of sequences such as a series of meaningful events on a time 
line. From our discussion of concepts, it appears that providing 
meaningful experiences closely related to the activities of the child 
deserves more emphasis than a timetable to be applied to all children, 

A somewhat similar statement can be made with respect to the 
development of such study skills as ability to read maps, ability to 
interpret graphs, and ability to find additional information in refer- 
ence books. Studies such as those of Howe, 87 Thomas, 88 and 

37. George F, Howe, "A Study of the Ability of Elementary -School Pupils 
To Read Maps," The Teaching of Geography, op. clt^ pp. 486-92, 

38. Katheryne Colvin Thomas, "The Ability of Children To Interpret 
Graphs,*' The Teaching of Geography, op. cit., pp. 491-94. 

O J E M A N N 95 

Wrightstone 39 show that the elementary-school child has consider- 
able difficulty in using geographical and historical tools and that 
the growth in ability to use such tools continues well into the high 
school. However, as such studies as those by Thorp 40 and by 
Whipple and Preston 41 indicate, systematic teaching hastens growth 
in ability to use social-studies tools. Here again, as Preston 42 and 
Bruce 43 point out, more ingenuity is needed in devising methods of 
teaching which take into account the backgrounds of the children 
with whom one is working and which break up the process of 
learning the use of complicated tools, such as maps, into a series of 
simpler learning tasks. The first maps may be maps of the imme- 
diate neighborhood with which the child is familiar* The first maps 
may also show only one or two major points. When these have 
been mastered more can be added. 

How Learning Takes Place 

The studies of the development of concepts and skills have 
already suggested some of the conditions for effective learning. In 
discussions of learning, such as those of Mowrer, 44 Munn, 45 and 
Hilgard, 46 the question has been raised as to whether learning as 
it takes place in the acquisition of sensory motor skills is comparable 
in all respects to learning as it takes place through problem-solving. 

39. J. W. Wnghtstone, "Conventional versus Pictorial Graphs," Progressive 
Education, XIII (October, 1936), 460-62, 

40. Mary Tucker Thorp, "Studies of die Ability of Pupils in Grades Four 
to Eight To Use Geographic Tools," The Teaching of Geography, op. cit., 
pp. 494-556. 

41. Gertrude Whipple and E. J. Preston, "Instructing Pupils in Map Read- 
ing," Social Education, X (May, 1947), 205-8. 

42. Ralph C. Preston, op. tit. 

43. Paul Bruce, "Vitalizing United States History," Social Studies, XLV 
(April, 1954), 137-39. 

44. O.. H. Mowrer, Learning Theory and Personality Dynamics. New 
York: Ronald Press Co., 1950. 

45. N. L. Munn, "Learning in Children," Manual of Chtld Psychology, 
chap. vii. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1954. 

46. E. R. Hilgard, Theories of Learning. New York: Appleton-Century- 
Crofts, 1948. 


For example, there is a great deal of experimental evidence indi- 
cating that repetition and also reinforcement (i.e., the effect of 
satisfying the motivating forces involved in the activity) are im- 
portant factors in learning skills and a variety of "habits." But the 
role of repetition when there is no apparent repetition, as in the 
case of seeing a sudden solution to a problem or developing a 
sudden fear, is not so clear. 

There are a number of other basic issues on which investigators 
in learning are divided. Hilgard, 47 for example, lists five. This is 
an indication that our knowledge of learning is still incomplete and 
our answer to the question as to how learning takes place will have 
to attempt to identify the aspects on which most investigators agree. 
We will not come out with a complete picture, but we will attempt 
to develop those suggestions for the teacher that our present state 
of knowledge permits. 

For example, most theories of learning give emphasis to motiva- 
tion. For effective learning there is some motivating force that is 
being satisfied or some goal which the learner is trying to reach, 
and through reaching it he is rewarded. The reward may be an 
intrinsic one, as in the case when the need he feels is being satisfied 
by the activity itself. As the process is repeated, the repeated satis- 
faction of the motivating forces may provide reinforcement of the 

In addition to the reward that comes with satisfying the motivat- 
ing forces, there may be various external rewards, such as praise 
from others or various types of additional recognition. What has 
been called "secondary reinforcement" may be provided by the 
giving of some valid object or a payment of money which may 
become associated with the original "need producer" and thus serve 
as a substitute for it. 

However, in animal experiments, some evidence has been ob- 
tained to indicate that there may be "latent learning." What is meant 
here may be explained as follows: It has been observed that rats 
placed in a maze without hunger and given no food while in the 
maze show no reduction in time or errors in running the maze. 
But later, if they are put in while hungry, they learn the maze more 

47. Hilgard, op. cit. 


quickly than rats which have not had the first experience. It 
appears that the rats, during the first experience in the maze, learned 
something, even though it appeared unrewarded by factors which 
the experimenter manipulated. Some investigators have thus pro- 
posed a kind of learning without apparent motivation. Not all ani- 
mal investigators have accepted this explanation, however, and ex- 
periments with children have not produced consistent evidence of 
such latent learning. 48 

In the case of children there may be many factors, such as 
finishing the learning task to get out to play, pleasing the experi- 
menter, doing what one is asked to do by the teacher since it is 
considered the thing to do, pleasure experienced in manipulating 
ideas as in the "provisional try" in problem-solving, that could 
operate to produce a reward. It appears that the weight of present 
evidence points to the importance of a child's having a goal toward 
which he works in his learning and the teacher's knowing what the 
child is trying to do. 

It should also be recognized that what the child feels during the 
learning process depends in some measure upon his awareness of 
the effects of his activities in reaching his goal. If he is rather 
clearly aware now of the probable effects on him in the future of 
acquiring an understanding of some relationship, the reward situa- 
tion will be a different one from that which obtains if he is aware 
of only immediate effects of his activity. For example, if a child 
is aware that becoming a skilful reader will help him find out about 
many things he wants to know, the feeling he has about the imme- 
diate task of reading will be combined with the feeling he has about 
the activities he may be able to do in the future. If both are reward- 
ing, this will help make the learning conditions more effective. If 
the effects of one are rewarding and those of the other are "punish- 
ing," their combined effect will depend upon their relative strength. 

From studies in reinforcement gradients, it appears that imme- 
diate effects tend to be quite powerful, and hence it would seem 
that the most effective learning conditions would be those in which 
both the feeling of the immediate and the awareness of the remote 

48. L. B. Abel, "The Effects of Shift in Motivation upon the Learning of 
a Sensori-Motor Task," Archives of Psychology, XXDC, No. 205, June, 1936. 


effects could be combined at the time the learning is taking place. 
An example of such a condition would be one in which the child 
feels that he is mastering something which is worth while, both now 
and in the future, and at the same time his feeling of security, his 
desire for activity, and similar demands continue to be satisfied. 

Two closely related problems, namely, the extent to which the 
development of a task is dependent on the maturation of the physio- 
logical structures regardless of the experiences supplied and the 
extent to which learning can modify the basic or fundamental 
nature of the personality, have been the objects of study and theo- 
retical analysis. Relative to the first question, it appears that the 
development of such skills as sitting up and walking, which are 
developed in very early childhood, has thus far not been changed 
to a considerable degree by special exercises. Munn 40 provides a 
rather extended summary of the studies by Dennis, McGraw, and 
others. With skills of greater complexity, such as those with which 
the teacher of social studies is concerned, the kinds and amounts 
of experience supplied by teachers, parents, and other adults become 
very important. Learning number concepts and then learning to 
tell time by the clock, learning to use an atlas, developing self- 
confidence in social relations are all examples of activities in which 
the quality of the learning program plays a large part. 

Experimental evidence, as well as general observation, indicates 
that in the development of a concept or of a relationship between 
several concepts as in a principle or rule, the child must be helped 
to differentiate one concept from another; that is, one aspect of 
the meaning of a concept may be discerned in its differentiation 
from closely related concepts. There must be some regularity in 
the use of the concept or rule, and this can be pointed out to the 
child verbally, by demonstration, or in other ways. Thus, if the 
child is to learn concepts through direct teaching, such teaching, 
with its system of rewards and punishment, must have a measure of 
consistency to help clarify its meaning. Baldwin, 50 in his analysis 

49. Munn, op, cit. 

50. Alfred L. Baldwin, Behavior and Development m Childhood, New 
York: Dryden Press, 1955, 


of the learning process points out the importance of the "clarity of 
the concept" on the cognitive level. 

An example of the influence of learning experiences working 
in opposite directions and thus not helping to clarify the situation 
is found in a study by Zelen and others. 51 The purpose of the study 
was to extend children's understanding of the forces that operate in 
human behavior and thus help them take a more dynamic or "causal" 
approach to their social environment. He attempted to do this by 
having a well-trained teacher take the children for an hour a day. 
The remainder of the day the regular classroom teacher continued 
her usual teaching. Previous studies had shown, however, that the 
usual school content relating to human behavior as found in the usual 
school texts was essentially noncausally oriented and that the teach- 
er's behavior also tended to be mainly of a noncausal character. 
The learning situation, thus, was one in which the child learned a 
causal approach in one situation and a noncausal approach in an- 
other. The results of the investigation showed that under these 
conditions it was possible to make only small changes on the cog- 
nitive level and no changes on the deeper appreciation level. 

This brief summary of the learning process has suggested several 
implications for the teaching of social studies. It appears that, for 
effective learning, conditions characterized by the following are 

1. The opportunity to engage in tasks that are suited to the background 
of the learner and are a challenge to him 

2. A goal toward which the child can work and the significance of 
which he can feel 

3. A learning task of such a character that the various motivating forces, 
such as the desire for security, the demands for activity, or the feel- 
ings of hunger, are satisfied either through the learning activity or 
through the general arrangements under which learning activity takes 

4* Provision for repetition, with intrinsic rewards if feasible, when skills 

or habits are involved 
5. Situations involving problem-solving so designed that, when the child 

arrives at the solution, he feels he has accomplished something worth 

while, with a gain in security and status and without frustration of 

other motivating forces 

51. Seymour Zelen et al., "Effect of a Causal Learning Program." Unpub- 
lished report, Preventive Psychiatry Project, State University of Iowa, 1954. 


The Development of Values 

The problem of the development of values is usually thought 
of in such terms as the following: How does the child learn desir- 
able behavior? How does he learn what is good and bad? How 
does he learn what he ought to do and what he ought not to do* 
It seems, however, that it would be helpful to approach this problem 
in a more dynamic way. In the first place, when we raise the ques- 
tion of how the child does acquire his ideas as to what he ought 
to do, we usually do not make a distinction between what the 
adult says he ought to do and what the child thinks he ought to do. 
In most studies of values, the child is presented with situations and 
then is asked what he thinks should be done in the situation. There 
is evidence that when the child responds to such questions he may 
respond in terms of what the adult wants him to say rather than in 
terms of what he really thinks. This may lead to a disjunction be- 
tween so-called knowledge and behavior. Fite 62 observed in three- 
and four-year-old children, for example, that a child may say during 
an interview that fighting is bad but may, in his actual behavior, 
exhibit a good deal of fighting. In phrasing our question, we want 
to make a distinction between the child's values and the adult's 
values, and we want to know how the former develops. 

Secondly, if we assume that values as applied in the area of 
conduct are essentially designations of ways of living that man 
has found creative and satisfying or that he assumes to be most 
satisfying, then we can rephrase our question in some such way as 
this: How does the child learn what are the creative and satisfying 
ways of solving various situations? Since we want to keep in mind 
the distinction between what the child knows and what he does, we 
would add a second question, namely, when the child is free to 
choose from among many methods of solving a situation, how does 
he learn to select those ways which will lead to creative and happy 
relationships with others and with himself? When we put the ques- 
tion of the development of values in terms of learning ways of 
solving ethical or moral situations, we seem to have a more mean- 

52. M. D. Fite, "Aggressive Behavior in Young Children and Children's 
Attitudes toward Aggression," Genetic Psychology Monographs, XXII (May, 
1940), 151-319- 


ingful starting point. We will discuss each of these questions in turn. 

The process of learning knowledge of values is somewhat as 
follows: The child is engaged in the process of working out his 
impulses to activity, his desire for security, the feelings of hunger, 
and so on. In his early years he will receive many suggestions from 
his parents and teachers as to how to do this. They may be methods 
which the parent or teacher has chosen for the child and not neces- 
sarily those which he has chosen for himself. The child will tend 
to accept many of these suggestions. Since in our culture most 
parents and teachers do not have much insight into the needs of 
children, the child may soon find that many of the suggestions of 
the adults often do not help him solve his problem. He is then 
forced to devise other ways of meeting the situation. Since the 
child's ideas are quite limited, he may try a variety of immature 
methods. If he attempts an immature method, the adult usually 
will not approve of it and expresses his disapproval in a variety of 
ways. He may frown, scold, admonish, reprimand, demand, or 
punish. Since the child is still confronted with his problem, he 
may, if the disapproval becomes sufficiently severe, conform out- 
wardly to the adult's demands as long as parent or teacher is in 
effective range. But when he is beyond the effective range of 
parent or teacher, he may try other methods, most of them still im- 
mature. He will tend to keep on trying until he finds a method 
that gives at least an immediate solution to his problem. Since his 
concern with more remote or "long run" effects is not well devel- 
oped in the early years, he may accept the more immature but 
immediately satisfying method. 

It is well known that the child may soon learn that he can obtain 
the adult's approval or at least avoid punishment if he verbally 
expresses approval of the adult's suggestions when he is asked 
directly what he should do. But when he is confronted with the 
actual situation, he may follow a different line of action. 

There are some studies which describe various aspects of this 
process of the development of values in the early years. Hill 58 
questioned urban children as to their ideals, finding that 30 per cent 

53. D. S. Hill, "Personification of Ideals by Urban Children," Journal of 
Social Psychology, I (1930), 379-92. 


of the seven-year-olds named their fathers and mothers as their 
ideals. In contrast, only 9 per cent of the ten-year-olds gave a 
similar reply, and the percentage was practically zero for the 
fifteen-year-old group. 

Brown and others 54 obtained correlations between children's 
ratings of aff ectional relationships within the family and ratings on 
various character traits for these same children given them by their 
peers. It was found that the correlations between affectional rela- 
tionships within the family and character-reputation scores were 
consistently higher in the ten-year-old group than in the sixteen- 
year-old group. 

Havighurst and others 55 obtained a similar result in a study of 
the development of the ideal self in children and adults. Children 
were asked to respond to questions on the topic "The Person I 
Would Like To Be When I Grow Up." Concepts as to the ideal 
self in early childhood tended to represent an identification with 
one or both parents. In early adolescence, there were more evi- 
dences of identification with movie stars, sport's heroes, or out- 
standing historical characters. 

Some evidence of the powerful influence of adult example at 
the intermediate-grade levels was furnished in a study by Zelen, 56 
to which reference has already been made. As a child grows older 
he may adopt, as in Havighurst's study, the suggestions of char- 
acters he encounters in his reading, on TV programs, in the comic 
books, or elsewhere. 

When we examine the school curriculum, it appears that although 
there is much suggestion as to what is good behavior, there is very 
little that helps the child understand the nature of his social environ- 
ment so that he will have more resources which he can use in work- 
ing out for himself the appropriate form of behavior. In this respect, 
the approach of the school to value concepts appears to be quite 

54. A. W. Brown, J. Morrison, and G. B, Couch, "Influence of Affectional 
Family Relationships on Character Development," Journal of Abnormal and 
Social Psychology, XLII (October, 1947), 422-28. 

55. R, J. Havighurst, M. Z, Robinson, and M. Dorr, "The Development of 
the Ideal Self in Childhood and Adolescence," Journal of Educational Research, 
XL (December, 1946), 241-57. 

56. Zelen, op. cit. 


different from the procedures that are used in developing other 
concepts. It is quite generally recognized that the child develops 
more meaningful concepts if he can build them up out of a variety 
of experiences, either direct or vicarious or both. Thus, to develop 
an appreciation of the differences between the slower hand-methods 
of grinding grain which the Indians used and the more rapid 
machine-methods, children often actually grind grain by hand. But 
in developing an appreciation of the differences between "good" 
and "bad" methods of solving a situation, the various methods are 
not discussed in terms of their effects, nor is the child encouraged 
to judge for himself. More often, he is told what is the right way. 

Often the suggestions of the adult are more punitive than under- 
standing in character, as illustrated by the frequency with which 
the judgmental rather than the understanding approach is used in 
our culture. Children under present cultural conditions tend to 
adopt such a judgmental, punitive approach in their relations with 

Studies such as those by Stiles, 57 who observed children's be- 
havior during room council sessions in which problems of conduct 
in the classroom and on the playground were discussed, and those 
by Lyle and Levitt 58 indicate that children in the fourth, fifth, and 
sixth grades tend to be quite punitive in their approaches to situa- 
tions. The study by Stiles, however, showed that when children have 
an opportunity to learn something about how behavior situations de- 
velop and thus have more of a basis for making a decision, they tend 
to become much less punitive and more causal in their approach. 
Ojemann, Levitt, Lyle, and Whiteside 59 also found that when chil- 
dren were taught a causal approach to social situations their scores 
on the punitive test showed a significant decrease when compared 
with those of carefully matched control groups. 

Thus we develop a very interesting answer to our question, how 
does the child acquire knowledge of what are creative and satisfy- 

57. Stiles, op. cit. 

58. W. H. Lyle and E. E. Levitt, "Punitiveiiess, Authoritarianism, and 
Parental Discipline of Grade-School Children," Journal of Abnormal and 
Social Psychology, LI (July, 1955), 42-46'. 

59. Ojemann, Levitt, Lyle, and Whiteside, op. cit. 


ing ways of solving situations? On the one hand, he has the sug- 
gestions of adults who through oral injunction, through written 
methods, and through demonstration suggest what he "ought to do." 
Sometimes what adults tell him either orally or through writing- 
conflicts with what he sees adults do. Why such discrepancies 
occur is not discussed with him or explained to him. He does not 
gain an appreciation of the fact that adults, too, are engaged in 
working out situations which are difficult and that inconsistencies 
represent man's fumbling attempts to find a creative way of liv- 
ing. Furthermore, what adults communicate to him often does not 
coincide with his own experience. When we examine a given 
child's knowledge of values, we find the results of these conflicting 

In the process of developing his value concepts the child soon 
learns that there are situations in which it is "safer" to say what 
the adult "wants you to say" than what "you really think." In- 
vestigators of children's knowledge of values have repeatedly ob- 
served that they have to exercise extreme care to separate in the 
child's responses what the child really thinks and what the child 
thinks the adult wants or will approve. 

The answer to our question as to how the child acquires knowl- 
edge of what are creative and satisfying ways of solving social 
situations has another interesting aspect. There are some creative 
and satisfying ways of solving situations which the child has but 
little chance to learn. As we indicated earlier, ideas of value under 
our present home and school conditions are not developed by show- 
ing the child a variety of methods of solving a situation, having 
him examine the various methods in terms of their effects both 
short-term and long-run effects and then helping the child to 
learn which are the more creative and satisfying and which are 
less so. Some methods, such as seeking to understand how the 
situation came about and what forces are operating and then shap- 
ing the course of action accordingly, are not taught very extensively 
either at home or at school, and the child has but little opportunity 
to learn them. 

So far, we have been discussing how the child develops ideas of 
desirable behavior. There still remains the important question, how 
does he learn to put these ideas into practice? That is, when he is 


in a situation where he is free to choose from a variety of approaches 
to the problem, such as when the teacher is not around to watch him 
or the parent is not around, how does the child learn to select and 
apply those methods of working out situations which lead to 
creative and happy human relationships 5 There are only a few 
studies which throw light on this problem. It appears that the crux 
of the matter lies at two points which are closely related. As has been 
indicated, the child tends to try out the suggestions of his parents 
and teachers in the early years. Since parents and teachers in our 
culture do not, on the whole, have extensive insight into the needs 
of children, the child soon finds that many of the suggestions of 
his parents do not help him solve his problem. The child may even 
find that following the adult suggestion may make the situation 

The second part that appears important In the development of 
socially mature behavior is that it appears difficult for a child to 
take account of the long-term effects of his behavior on others and 
on himself if he is presently bothered by feelings of insecurity and 
inadequacy, if he has great difficulty in working out his impulses 
to activity, if he is hungry or fatigued. In other words, when a 
strong motivating force is blocked and the child can find no solu- 
tion to his problem, the emotional strain makes consideration of 
other than his immediate situation difficult It is well known that 
when a person is emotionally disturbed, thinking is difficult. Thus, 
if we are interested in developing socially constructive behavior, we 
will have to help the child achieve a measure of personal adjustment 
in his daily activities so as to remove the intense emotional strains 
that interfere with thinking of the larger consequences of behavior. 

Our study of the development of value concepts and their appli- 
cation in daily living has some important implications for the social 
studies. Under present cultural conditions children receive rela- 
tively little help in learning different ways of solving a situation 
and then examining these situations in terms of the effects that they 
have. The situation in teaching ideas of values appears to be quite 
different from that which obtains under present conditions in the 
teaching of other ideas. In the area of values we tend to proceed 
rather dictatorially. We tell the child this is what he ought to do 
rather than discussing with him the bases from which he can figure 


out what he ought to do. These bases consist in knowledge of the 
ways in which situations develop, of a rich variety of ways of 
working out a given situation, and of the piobable effects of these 

The second implication for social studies is that if we expect 
the child to put constructive value ideas into practice we have to 
make sure that he is emotionally free to think his way through the 
situation he faces. If, because of his experiences at home, in the 
school, and on the playground, he feels quite insecure or feels that 
he does not have a fair chance or that he isn't respected as a person, 
he may become so concerned with his own feelings that he finds 
it difficult to think of the larger implications of his behavior. We 
also have to make sure that there is a solution to the daily situations 
which the child faces, that is, that the problem can be worked out 
in such a way that the child can grow in security and self-respect 
without interfering with the plans of others. 

The Development of Selected Behavior Patterns 

It was indicated at the outset of the discussion that students of 
social studies are interested not only in the development of knowl- 
edge about social phenomena but also in the development of social 
behavior. It may be helpful to bring together the foregoing dis- 
cussion on the nature of behavior, the development of concepts, 
and the nature of learning and focus on the development of selected 
behavior patterns. It is not possible to consider all the various forms 
of behavior involved in the social studies, such as conflict, respect 
for property, and co-operation. But we will select three to demon- 
strate some of the major principles in the development of behavior. 
The first pattern we may select is the development of aggressive 


A number of studies have been made of this form of behavior, 
and a brief summary of the major findings will help us delineate 
some of the factors in its development. 

i. Fighting or related forms of aggressive behavior tend to ap- 
pear when children in American culture are placed in a situation in 
which their ability to plan and think is not recognized. When the 


same children are placed in a situation in which planning is done 
with them within the limits of their abilities, the incidence of fight- 
ing and related forms of behavior tends to decrease. For example, 
Lewin and others 60 placed a group of fifth-grade boys under an 
"autocratic" leader. The boys were in a playgroup and were 
engaged in such activities as making masks. Observers carefully 
recorded the behavior of the children while they worked under the 
conditions of autocratic leadership. After a period of several weeks, 
the situation was changed, and a leader who did more planning with 
the children took over. Fighting and similar forms of behavior were 
reduced to about one-thirtieth of their incidence under the "auto- 
cratic" leader. Similar results were obtained by Anderson and 
Brewer 61 in their observations of "doirunative" and "integrative" 

2. Studies of fighting have also indicated that it tends to arise 
in situations in which the subjects are under psychological stress. 
The hostility may be directed to the person or persons assumed to 
be responsible for the difficulty or it may be directed toward per- 
sons or groups not directly responsible for the stress. For example, 
Miller and Bugelski 62 administered a series of long and difficult tests 
to a group of twenty-one young men between the ages of eighteen 
and twenty who were working in a camp. Attendance at the test- 
ing session precluded attendance at an important program at a local 
theater. The tests were sufficiently difficult so that considerable 
failure was assured for everyone. Prior to the taking of the test 
the men were asked to rate foreigners on a variety of traits, such as 
selfishness, friendliness, stinginess, and slyness. Half of the men were 
asked to rate Japanese, and the other half rated Mexicans. 

Following the series of tests, the subjects were again asked to 
rate the foreigners on the same scale. The results showed that the 

60. Kurt Lewin, R. Lippitt, and R. K. White, "Patterns of Aggressive Be- 
havior in Experimentally Created 'Social Climates,'" Journal of Social Psy- 
chology, X (May, 1939)* 27^-99' 

6*1, H. H, Anderson and J. E, Brewer, "Studies of Teachers' Classroom 
Personalities. II. Effects of Teachers* Dominative and Integrative Contacts on 
Children's Classroom Behavior," Applied Psychology Monograph, VIE (July, 

62. Miller and Bugelski, op. cit. 


ratings of the foreigners given by the group as a whole at the close 
of the series of experiences were less favorable than they had been 
before taking the tests, even though the foreigners had nothing to 
do with the arrangement of the experiment or the amount of failure 
the men experienced. Further evidence of the effect of psycho- 
logical stress is found in the literature. 63 

3. Aggressive behavior also tends to increase when subjects are 
tired, hungry, or exposed to other physiological stress. Goode- 
nough, 64 in a study of anger in forty-five young children in the 
home environment, found that the peak of "anger frequency" tended 
to occur before meals. A similar tendency was noted by Gates 65 
in a study of college women. 

Sears and others 66 placed a group of twelve college students in 
an experimental situation in which the subjects were kept awake 
all night, forbidden to smoke, forced to stand for long periods of 
time, required to remain silent for several hours, and promised food 
which was not delivered. Running accounts of the subjects' com- 
ments were kept, including a time-sample record of aggressive be- 
havior occurring during selected ten-minute periods. The time- 
sample observations showed a steady increase in the amount of 
aggression during the course of the experiment. 

4. Aggressive behavior tends to occur among children who are 
rejected in their home environments. 67 The aggressive tendencies 

63. A. F. Zander, "A Study of Experimental Frustrations," Psychological 
Monographs, Vol. LVI, No. 3, 1944, Isabel Young-Mastcn, "Behavior Prob- 
lems of Elementary-School Children' A Descriptive and Comparative Study," 
Genetic Psychology Monographs, XX (May, 1938), 123-81; John P. McKee 
and Florence B. Leader, "The Relationship of Socioeconomic Status and 
Aggression to the Competitive Behavior of Preschool Children," Child De- 
velopment, XXVI (June, 1955), 135-42. 

64. F. L. Goodcnough, Anger in Young Children. Institute of Child Wel- 
fare Monograph Scries, No. 9. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 

65. G. S. Gates, "An Observational Study of Anger," Journal of Experi- 
mental Psychology, IX (August, 1926), 325-36. 

66. R. R. Sears, C. I. Hoveland, and N. E. Miller, "Minor Studies of 
Aggression: L Measurement of Aggressive Behavior," Journal of Psychology, 
IX (January, 1940), 280-96. 

67. E. L Grant, "The Effect of Certain Factors in the Home Environment 
upon Child Behavior," University of Iowa Studies, Studies in Child Welfare, 
XVII (December. 10*0"). 61-04. 


of the rejected child were characterized by considerable bullying, 
quarreling, and use of physical force in shoving, pushing, and 
grabbing toys. 

5. A number of studies have indicated that if the child is given 
some adult help by his parents and teachers in working out a solu- 
tion to the frustrating situations he meets, fighting and related pat- 
terns tend to become less frequent. Appel found a number of tech- 
niques used by the teachers helpful to the child. 68 Grant reports a 
correlation of .55 between co-operativeness in children and scores 
of the parents as to the extent to which they evidenced giving help 
to the child in learning how to solve social-problem situations con- 
structively. 69 

6. If a child grows up in an environment in which overaggressive 
behavior is considered and taught as the approved way of solving 
difficulties, he may adopt this method. In the study by Healy and 
Bronner referred to earlier in this paper, there were a number of 
examples of delinquent behavior that had developed in this way. 70 

When we examine this series of six findings relative to over- 
aggressive behavior, we seem to observe two major lines of develop- 
ment. One group is represented by those children who grow up in 
an environment where they are taught the overaggressive behavior. 
In some cultural groups, for example, the child is taught to carry a 
knife to use in defending his "rights." Such instances are decreasing 
in number in American culture, but children who are taught that 
fighting is the best way to solve social difficulties are found in sig- 
nificant numbers. 

The second major line of development is represented by that 
large group of cases in which there is a blocking of some of the 
major motivating forces such as occurs when the individual is under 
intense psychological or physiological stress, or when he is sub- 
jected to discrimination, rejection in the home environment, or 

68. M. H, Appel, "Aggressive Behavior of Nursery-School Children and 
Adult Procedures in Deahng with Such Behavior," Journal of Experimental 
Education, XI (December, 1942), 185-99 

6*9. Grant, op crt 

70. Healy and Bronner, op, cit. 


similar experiences, and when in such situations he receives no help 
in learning how to solve such situations constructively. It will be 
noted that there are two conditions that are specified. There is a 
frustration represented by the blocking of the path to some goal 
which the child is trying to reach, but there is also the condition 
that the child receives no help in working out constructively the 
frustrating situation. 


Since we have been discussing the development of conflict and 
aggressive behavior, it will help to balance the picture if we also 
consider the development of withdrawal behavior. The teacher is 
interested in both types. At one time, as shown in the study by 
Wickman, teachers tended to be much less concerned about shyness 
than about the overaggressive forms of behavior. 71 However, 
recent work in this area has made it clear that the withdrawal 
behavior may be indicative of difficulties the child is having, just 
as the overaggressive behavior may be. 

Submissive behavior may appear in several different forms. 
There may be withdrawal from a stranger or a strange situation, 
there may be withdrawal from work or play with others who are 
not strange but whom the child has known for some time, and there 
may be nonparticipation as in a class or group. In the latter form, 
the child does not withdraw physically, but he withdraws mentally 
or emotionally. There may also be physical withdrawal from school. 
Since we are interested here in children of elementary-school age, 
the forms of most interest to us are those involving relationships 
with strangers and relationships with schoolmates and playgroups. 

Several studies have thrown light on some of the factors that 
are related to this type of behavior. Grant, in a study of thirty- 
three preschool children, found a correlation of .54 between 
"seeking and playing with a group" and the protection or rejection 
which the child experienced in the home environment. Children 
who were overprotected in the home environment tended to seek 

7*. E. K. Wickman, Children's Behavior and Teachers 9 Attitudes, New 
York: Commonwealth Fund, 1928. 


:mt and play with the group less frequently than children from 
aomes with less protection. On the other hand, she found a corre- 
'ation of .64 between fostering social development and playing with 
:he group. 72 

Jack, in an attempt to find out some of the factors that underlie 
submissive behavior, compared a group of ascendant children with 
i group of more submissive subjects. In her study of the two groups, 
the chief difference appeared in the frequency of evidences of the 
lack of self-confidence. The submissive children more frequently 
exhibited behavior showing fear of competition, such as appealing 
to adults for response or attention, interfering with other activities 
apparently to gain attention, or reacting strongly to criticism and 
threats. 78 

These results suggested to Jack that perhaps the nonascendant 
behavior could be changed by providing a series of experiences that 
would have a high probability of developing a feeling of self-con- 
fidence. She selected activities such as learning how to tell a story, 
using a picture book, building interesting mosaics, and solving pic- 
ture puzzles which she felt would have a high prestige value for the 
group. These experiences were designed to help the child make a 
distinct contribution to activities involving the group. Jack found 
positive results in changing submissive behavior, and her results have 
been verified by other investigations, such as those of Page 74 and 
Mummery. 75 

Some light on the factors involved in withdrawal behavior may 
be obtained from the sociometric studies of factors associated with 
popularity. Popular children tend to be favored by health, pleasing 
appearance, good physique, somewhat above-average intelligence, 

72. Grant, op. cit. 

73. Lois M. Jack et al., "An Experimental Study of Ascendant Behavior 
in Preschool Children. L Behavior of the Preschool Child," University of 
Iowa Studies. Studies in Child Welfare, DC (1934), No. 3. 

74. M. L. Page, "The Modification of Ascendant Behavior in Preschool 
Children," University of Iowa Studies, Studies in Child Welfare, XH (August, 
1936), No. 3. 

75. D. V. Mummery, "An Analytical Study of Ascendant Behavior of 
Preschool Children," Child Development, XVIII (March-June, 1947), 40-81. 


and friendliness. 76 On the other hand, factors associated with un- 
popularity suggested a distinterest in the general environment which 
was exemplified in behavior problems, restlessness and the like. 77 
There is a suggestion from these studies that at the elementary-school 
level unpopularity tends to be associated with difficulties in adjust- 
ment, but there are large individual variations. Sometimes these 
difficulties are with the child, sometimes with the other members of 
the group. Clinical analyses of shyness have indicated that some- 
times the abilities and interests of the child are not appreciated by 
the group. Examples of such cases are found in some outstandingly 
capable historical characters who were not accepted by their imme- 
diate group. 

For the teacher, these findings have several implications. With- 
drawal behavior may be an indication of difficulty in social adjust- 
ment as well as overaggressive behavior. The child may use with- 
drawal behavior as a way of solving a difficult social situation. But 
not all cases of shyness are of this type. Sometimes the child's 
abilities and interests are such that they appeal only to a very few 
children. In such cases the problem seems to be more one of helping 
the group understand and appreciate these individual differences. 
History may furnish some examples that can be used in such 

Since withdrawal behavior may develop in many different ways 
and since the meaning it has for the child may differ greatly from 
child to child, the importance for the teacher of knowing individual 
children as personalities is again indicated. 

76. M. E. Bonney, "A Study of the Relation of Intelligence, Family Size, 
and Sex Differences with Mutual Friendships in the Primary Grades," Child 
Develop?nent, XIII (June, 1942), 79-100; M. E. Bonney, "Personality Traits 
of Socially Successful and Socially Unsuccessful Children," Journal of Educa- 
tional Psychology, XXXIV (November, 1943), 449-72; M, E. Bonney, "A 
Sociometric Study of the Relationship of Some Factors to Mutual Friendship 
on the Elementary, Secondary, and College Levels," Sociometry, IX (February, 
1946), 21-47; R. Cunningham, A. Elzi, J. A. Hall, M. Farrell, and M. Roberts, 
Understanding Group Behavior of Boys and Girls (New York: Bureau of 
Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1951); R. G, Kuhlen and 
B. J. Lee, "Personality Characteristics and Social Acceptability in Adolescence," 
Journal of Educational Psychology, XXXIV (September, 1943), 321-40. 

77. M. L. Northway, "Children with Few Friends," School, XXXII 
(January, 1944), 380-84; and F. Laughlin, "A Study of the Peer Status of 
Sixth- and Seventh-Grade Children." Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Teachers 
College, Columbia University, 1953. 

O J E M A N N 113 


The studies of the development of co-operative behavior are 
much less numerous than those of aggressive behavior. In a sense, 
the studies of both aggressive and withdrawal behavior have sug- 
gested some of the lines along which development of co-operative 
behavior may take place. It appears, for example, that placing the 
child under psychological or physiological stress and then giving 
him no help in working out the situation will tend to produce con- 
flict rather than co-operative behavior. On the other hand, if the 
child has some opportunity to succeed in his work, such as making 
some good grades in school, or is given some help to acquire the 
prerequisites of working with others, more co-operative behavior 
tends to appear. Hartshorne and May, in their studies of service 
and self-control, found a low but significant relationship between 
school marks and service scores although there were no significant 
relationships between intelligence and service scores. 78 Wolfle and 
Wolfle found that one of the important factors determining co- 
operative behavior in young children in an experimental situation 
is facility in the use of language so the children could readily com- 
municate their suggestions and feelings. 79 

A further factor in the development of co-operative behavior is 
an understanding and appreciation of the forces that operate in the 
social environment. Morgan and Ojemann, for example, found that 
when young people were helped to understand more of the situa- 
tions faced by the people in their environment, i.e., their teachers, 
parents, and employers, and some of the ways in which they were 
trying to work them out, thus increasing their understanding of 
behavior, there was a tendency for interpersonal conflict to decrease 
and co-operative behavior to increase. 80 One boy who was about 
ready to run away from home learned that his father's neglect of 
his family started when, some years earlier, the father had lost his 

78. H. Hartshorne and M. A. May, Studies in the Nature of Character. L 
Studies in Deceit. New York: Macmillan Co M 1928. 

79. Dael Wolfle and Helen Wolfle, "The Development of Co-operative 
Behavior in Monkeys and Young Children," Journal of Genetic Psychology, 
LV (September, 1939), 137-75. 

80. Mildred I. Morgan and R. H. Ojemann, "The Effect of a Learning 
Program in the Understanding of Behavior Development upon Personality 
Adjustment of Youth," Child Development, XIII (September, 1942), 181-94. 


business and had not recovered from this experience. When he 
learned something about that situation, the boy showed less bitter- 
ness toward his father and more willingness to work with him. 

The study by Levitt provides data showing that anti-democratic 
attitudes tend to decrease and willingness to assume responsibility in 
social situations tends to increase as the child acquires an under- 
standing and appreciation of the causal approach to his social en- 
vironment. 81 

These findings suggest that if the child learns how to understand 
and appreciate the forces that operate in his social environment and 
if he has opportunity to develop a sense of accomplishment, self- 
respect, and personal worth through his daily activities, a founda- 
tion for the development of co-operative behavior has been started. 

Implications -for the Teacher 

Throughout this discussion of social studies in the light of 
knowledge about children, numerous implications for the teacher 
have become apparent. We may summarize these briefly as follows: 

1. Child behavior, in both its non-co-operative and co-operative 
forms, is a complex resultant of the interaction of motivating forces 
and the ideas, skills, and attitudes the child has available at a given 
moment. Concepts and skills are thus some of the factors involved 
in behavior, but they are not all the factors. If we arc interested in 
developing a child who not only "knows" but "will do," we have 
to take account of the feelings the child is trying to work out or 
the goals he is trying to reach. The daily tasks of the child consist 
in working out feelings of self-respect, a sense of accomplishment, 
and emotional security. The work of the teacher, the parents, and 
other associates consists in helping him find ways of working out 
his feelings which not only meet his needs but also make it possible 
for him to avoid interfering with the plans of others, 

2. In selecting concepts and skills to be taught, we have to begin 
by considering both the basic motivating forces that affect the 
child's personality and what resources the child will need to be 

81. E. E, Levitt, "Effect of a ^Causal* Teacher-Training Program on Au- 
thoritarianism and Responsibility in Grade-School Children," Psychology Re- 
ports, I (1955), 449-58- 


able to work them out under the prevailing conditions. When we 
examine curricular offerings in this light, we find concepts relating 
to human behavior, to the variety of ways in which situations can 
be worked out, and to the probable effects of these alternative pro- 
cedures, while the child's skill in identifying some of his own striv- 
ings are often only lightly touched. Historical, geographical, and 
community living units have vast possibilities in helping the child 
appreciate the difficulties man has experienced and is experiencing 
in forging a creative and satisfying life for the variety of person- 
alities to be found in almost any sizable social group. 

3. Since behavior is quite complex and may develop in a variety 
of ways, each group of children presents significant individual 
differences. Since the child's concerns, ambitions, knowledge, and 
fears are the starting point in working with him, it follows that 
the teacher must make at least a beginning in knowing each child 
so that he can effectively guide him in his learning. If the teacher 
is interested in developing citizens who can co-operate with other 
citizens, it becomes doubly important for the teacher to know how 
the child is coming along in his personal adjustment at home and 
at school and what he needs by way of concepts and skills to help 
him master the social environment in which he finds himself. 

4. Since adults parents, teachers, other citizens are also en- 
gaged in finding creative ways of living and since man's knowledge 
of such ways is still quite limited, it often happens that adult be- 
havior is not entirely consistent. Since the child tends to be influ- 
enced, especially at the early years, by the examples which adults 
set, he will find many inconsistencies between what adults say and 
what they do. Furthermore, since adults as a rule in our culture 
have not extended very far their understanding of child behavior, 
the suggestions which parents and teachers give the child may not 
be effective in helping him solve the situations he faces. Thus, in 
both example and precept, our present culture presents a very con- 
fusing "value picture" to the child. 

Teachers should try to help the child understand the basic causes 
of these confusions so that he can interpret them more adequately. 
It would also be helpful if teachers and parents could straighten out 
their own concepts of effective ways of living to the end that they 
may set a reasonably consistent example for the children to emulate. 


In this connection the teacher often faces such questions as 
these: Suppose differences arise between home and school, or sup- 
pose the child is confronted with differences between father and 
mother, what can the school do? The problem of working with 
parents is a complex one, but there are several suggestions that 
might be useful: 

a) The teacher may be able to establish a relationship with the parents 
so that through conferences and visits he is able to influence them 
to try other ways of guiding the child. If the attitudes of the 
parents are very deep-seated, it would require a very skilful teacher 
to establish rapport and secure co-operation. But in numerous cases, 
much of the problem arises from the failure of the home to under- 
stand child behavior, and the teacher finds the parents eager for in- 
formation. Certainly, in approaching the home, the teacher must also 
tiy to understand parent behavior and to make sure that he does not 
add further complications to the situation. 

b) The classroom teacher, through the parent-education program of the 
school and clinic, can lend his support to efforts to help parents. 
While the teacher may not have the time or the training to participate 
actively in such a program, he can lend his "moral" support to it. 

c) The classroom teacher can support the parent- teacher meetings by 
his attendance. His influence in developing the program and his 
endeavor to get acquainted with the parents of the children in his 
class may be of value long before trouble develops. Parent-teacher 
meetings offer an opportunity for teachers and parents to get ac- 
quainted in an informal setting not dominated by a problem situation 
that must be worked out. 

d) In spite of every attempt by teachers, it may be difficult to win the 
confidence of a few parents and, even if they are reached, the emo- 
tional tension aroused by the situation may be so strong that litde 
can be done to get their continuous co-operation. . . . Such situations 
may be part of the price society is paying for not providing oppor- 
tunities for young parents to receive preparation for the complex 
task of rearing children. Family-life education programs in schools 
are a recent development. Many parents, now guiding children, did 
not receive such training, and it may not be possible through con- 
ferences to establish the background necessary to understand the 
behavior of children. 

e) Without minimizing the influence of the home or excusing parental 
behavior, the classroom teacher can do everything in his power to 
make the school environment a place where the child finds security 
and respect where he finds activities that are challenging and worth 
while. Thus, his desire for security and personal worth, even though 


they may be threatened at home, will find some opportunity for 
fulfillment at school. 

f ) As the child grows older, the teacher can do much to help him gain 
insight into the behavior of his parents. The child can be taught to 
think of the causes or reasons for parental behavior, he can be helped 
to adjust to his own family situation. Evidence suggests that such 
help by the school can be very effective. 82 

5. Since effective learning conditions require that the child 
feels that he is gaining in significant achievement as he masters the 
learning tasks, it is important that the daily social-studies program 
be so devised that each child feels the significance of what he is 
asked to do and feels a challenge in it. How to do this is perhaps 
one of the most important and most difficult questions in teaching. 
Keeping the experiences meaningful; casting questions, exercises, 
and problems in such a form that the child sees the connection 
between the goals he is attempting to reach and the learning tasks 
he is asked to perform; and arranging conditions in such a way 
that the child feels he has made a significant step in becoming the 
kind of person he basically wants to become these are some of the 
suggestions that developed from our analysis. 

This problem is of such widespread significance that it deserves 
far more emphasis than it has received. Through the social studies, 
an effort is made to help the child understand and appreciate the 
social component of his culture. This culture has been in the making 
a long time, and the child cannot feel the significance of a current 
"social issue" or "social problem" unless he appreciates how the 
problem affects people like himself or those in whom he is interested. 

For example, a social-studies topic of importance to adults is 
that of conservation of human and natural resources. But why 
would we expect the ordinary child in our culture to be interested 
in it? He and most of his associates have enough to eat and some- 
thing to wear. If he or his associates do not have as adequate a 
shelter as they think they should have, the relation between this 
problem and conservation is not apparent on the surface. 

The interesting fact is that if we examine the history of such 

82. Ralph H. Ojemann, Personality Adjustment of Individual Children, 
pp. 28-29. Washington: Department of Classroom Teachers and the American 
Educational Research Association, 1954 (pamphlet). 


a concept as conservation, we soon begin to realize that it took 
adults man as a whole a long time to realize its significance. Its 
importance as applied to natural resources did not become apparent 
to many adults until the soil, forest, and mineral resources of large 
areas of our country had been depleted. Many adults had to have 
some bitter experiences before they were willing to give attention 
to the problem. By and large, they were not interested in conserva- 
tion until they began to realize how destruction of resources made 
it difficult for them to grow in significant and happy accomplish- 
ment. Even today, the problem of conservation of human resources 
being our own and our brother's keeper is not too clear to many 

The problem of teaching such a topic as conservation at the 
child level is thus essentially one of providing vicarious experiences 
that will help the child feel how an understanding of it will aid 
him and his associates to grow in worth-while and happy accomplish- 
ment. One way of doing this is to provide many opportunities to 
learn about the effects when conservation measures are not prac- 
ticed. Perhaps the teacher can read and discuss with the class some 
accounts of the effects of soil, forest, or mineral depletion on the 
fortunes of families and individuals like the child himself. Such 
accounts must be accurate and sincere. Perhaps the teacher can 
discuss with the class accounts of the difference in yield or income 
in comparison to costs in terms of hours of labor expended that 
appear when soil, forests, or businesses are "conserved" and when 
they are exploited. It may be necessary to consider the effects over 
several generations with emphasis on the effects on children of each 
succeeding generation. 

It may be possible to find and bring in young men and women 
who are now working on farms, in forests, or mines that were not 
wisely handled in years past and have them tell the class how they 
feel, how they have suffered, and what problems they face. It may 
be possible to find and bring in men and women who took over a 
"run-down" farm, forest, factory, business, or mine, who applied 
conservation practices and are now experiencing some of the results. 
By using examples from a variety of occupations, the teacher is 
more likely to help each class member. Not every child is inter- 
ested in farms. For some, the factory has more meaning. For some, 


a business. This is another reason why the teacher must know th< 
ambitions and concerns of each child. 

To summarize: The reason why it appears difficult to teacl 
children many of the topics in social studies is that the issues o: 
problems which the topics represent crystallized in man's thinking 
as a result of a long series of experiences. The purpose of educatioi 
is not to have the child relive those experiences in all their time 
consuming, trying, and brutal aspects but, through vicarious anc 
carefully planned direct experiences, develop the basic understand 
ing and appreciation. The teacher, textbook-writer, and curriculum 
maker have to get clearly in mind what man's experiences were 
what effects they had on him, and then select those that will, in i 
measure duplicate these effects. Since social-studies topics deal witl 
people, teachers and curriculum-makers have to give much though 
to what the experiences of man were and what the effects on peopL 
were of the experiences which resulted in the crystallization of th< 
topic and then seek to produce through abbreviated experience 
awareness of significance in the child. We have discussed sonu 
examples of how to do this with the topic of conservation o 
natural resources. We could take any topic and apply this genera 

6. Since co-operative behavior requires not only knowing ho~v 
to co-operate but also finding in co-operation an enhancement o 
one's self-respect, dignity, security, and personal worth, it is im 
portant to examine the conditions under which the child lives. It i 
not sufficient to confine our concerns to the classroom. The teache 
must be aware of the conditions under which the child lives so tha 
he can provide either directly or indirectly through additional hel] 
whatever the child needs to build the security and self-respect h< 
needs to be emotionally free to continue his learning of the creativ< 
ways of living with others. 


Social Studies in Relation to the Total 
Elementary -School "Program 


Into the elementary schools come the raw materials of our 
democracy. Here these children the bright, the less well-endowed, 
the timid, the forward, every kind from every manner of home 
and background meet as members of a distinct social group. Their 
experiences in this group will influence, for better or worse, their 
lifelong attitudes and ideas regarding ways of living and working 
together in a democratic society. From their experiences here, also, 
they are to acquire the skills, the knowledge, the loyalties, the com- 
mon understandings which are essential both for the unity and 
stability of society and for self-respecting competence and responsi- 
bility as individual citizens. Out of the needs of children and of 
society are developed the purposes of the elementary school. 

Purposes of the Elementary School 

Primarily, the elementary school is concerned with those out- 
comes of learning which should be the common possession and 
attainment of all citizens. Language, customs and manners, common 
loyalties and cherished values, history and traditions; the commonly 
used practices of community life needed by all for the unity, co- 
operation, and smooth working of society are the foremost responsi- 
bilities of the elementary school. Some of these can be learned as 
facts. Many of them must be learned through experiences in wil- 
lingly shared responsibilities and must be made vital by the eager 
response of the children to a challenging situation. The full pur- 
poses of elementary education can be achieved only in a school 
where there is willing participation and increasing self-direction. 

The broad purposes of elementary education, growing out of 
fundamental needs, may be summarized as follows: 


1. To develop the basic skills and understanding essential to the effective 
use and comprehension of the arts of communication 

2. To promote the development of character and right social conduct 
through activities which give satisfying experiences in co-operation, 
self-control, and fair play 

3. To provide instruction and practice leading to the building of habits 
conducive to health, safety, and physical well-being 

4. To develop the skills and understanding necessary for effective 
measurement, computation, and problem-solving in situations of 
significance to the pupils 

5. To help children learn how basic human needs for food, clothing, 
shelter, safety, and comfort are met in their community and in typical 
regions throughout the world, and thus to lead them to an under- 
standing of the relationships and interdependence of agriculture, in- 
dustry, and other essential services in civilized society 

6. To develop a sympathetic understanding and appreciation of the 
movements, struggles, and ideals interwoven with the building of our 
nation, and of the responsibilities resting upon its citizens 

7. To provide through classroom organization and activities, the first- 
hand experience of working in a democratic environment, in which 
participants learn the satisfaction of growth in self-direction and 

8. To promote wholesome recreational and cultural interests through 
experiences with music, art, literature, and similar forms of enjoy- 
able expression which brighten life and give it richer meaning 

To achieve these purposes, the elementary school strives to pro- 
vide learning experiences which contribute: 

1. To the development of sound physical and mental health and con- 
trolled emotional reactions 

2. To command of the skills of learning reading, oral and written ex- 
pression, mathematics 

3. To the knowledge, attitudes, and abilities needed to understand the 
physical and social environment and to live effectively in it 

4* To the understanding and appreciation of music, the graphic and 
industrial arts, literature, and the dance in general, the arts which 
add beauty and richness to life 

The Purposes of the Social Studies 

The entire school program contributes to the realization of the 
purposes of elementary education when all the activities of the 
school are carried on within the framework of democratic prin- 
ciples and ideals. Every experience the school provides must rein- 


force our commitment to the chief values of American society. 
These include the desire and the ability to seek and face facts, re- 
spect for human dignity, and moral integrity loyalty to the basic 
values one has accepted to live by. 1 At the same time, the social 
studies have a very special responsibility because they are con- 
cerned also with the physical environment of man and with man's 
activities as he has endeavored to make his environment satisfy his 
basic needs for food, clothing, shelter, and spiritual satisfaction. The 
social studies are concerned further with man's development of the 
institutions essential to group living, such as: the family, the church, 
the school, the community, the state, the nation, and international 
organizations of various types. 

American education has directed much attention to the task of 
defining the goals of the social studies in the elementary school. 
It is evident that the social studies deal with the very warp and 
woof of living. Their importance to human welfare is so great that 
the social-studies curriculum should be most carefully constructed 
and related as significantly as possible to many of the learning ex- 
periences the school provides. Within the social-studies curriculum 
itself arise needs for many of the skills of learning. In studying any 
area of the social studies, needs arise for observing, listening, dis- 
cussing, reading, and for collecting, organizing, and evaluating in- 
formation. All of these activities are needed in the social studies 
because they are basic to clear and analytical thinking. 

The Place of Social Studies in the Curriculum 

In growing from infancy to maturity, the individual devotes a 
large part of his time and energy learning about and adjusting to 
the world of nature and the world of people. Broadly conceived, 
social studies and science comprise the whole field of significant con- 
tent in the school curriculum. The subject matter of the social 
studies involves people, their activities, aspirations, and achieve- 
ments; that of sciences, the phenomena of nature. The subjects of 
the elementary-school curriculum, consequently, do not stand upon 
one plane of importance. The social studies in particular occupy 

i. Herbert Fingaretce, "Background of American Values," California Journal 
of Elementary Education., XXIII (February, 1955), 155-72- 


a unique position in the school program, since their purpose, as 
has been pointed out, is fundamentally the major purpose of the 
whole school. The school is a social institution, and everything in- 
cluded in the curriculum must be justified in terms of its social value. 
The child learns to read in order to share in the experiences and 
thoughts of other members of society. He learns arithmetic so that 
he may participate later on in business and technical affairs with 
an understanding of quantitative relationships. The child studies 
oral and written expression so that he may communicate with others 
effectively and use socially acceptable standards of speech and 
writing. Similarly, art, music, and literature are social expressions; 
the artist, musician, or writer is expressing his observation of man's 
relationship to man or man's relationship to his environment. Even 
health instruction in the schools is largely determined by social 
motives and standards. 

It is obvious that social studies merit an important place in the 
curriculum of the elementary school as important a place as civic 
literacy, civic responsibility, and civic competence must have in 
contemporary life if we are to continue a free people. 

The Relation of Social Studies to Science 

The answers to many questions and the solution of many prob- 
lems which arise in social situations or as a consequence of social, 
economic, or political changes are to be found in the field of science. 
Some of the significant learnings that involve science include: 

1. Learning about our world, the natural setting in which human beings 
live, and the resources in the form of materials and energy upon 
which human beings depend for existence and well-being 

2. Learning to think reasonably about what is learned from studying the 
conditions that exist in the physical world 

3. Learning to establish factual truth by observation and to test con- 
clusions by experimentation 

4. Learning to apply scientific knowledge to the solution of problems, 
the answering of questions, and the explanation of occurrences 

5. Learning that science has made great contributions to human welfare 

Examples of the use of science in relation to social studies can 
be found in almost any curriculum unit. In a study of community 
life, for example, young children may learn how food is produced 


or distributed, how food is protected to make it safe for human 
consumption, how the community provides for heat, light, water, 
how it protects itself from fire. In a study of Japan, the children 
wanted to know about the kind of clothing worn by the Japanese 
people. This led to a study of the silkworm, during which the 
children actually raised silkworms and reeled the silk from cocoons. 
In their reading they discovered that most of the people did not 
wear silk clothing, or wore it only rarely. This led to an intensive 
study of how cotton is cultivated, how it is shipped in bales to 
Japan, and how it is woven into cloth in Japanese mills. In pursu- 
ing their study of the Japanese people, the children studied the 
weather conditions, volcanoes, the food of the people. All of these 
understandings developed important science concepts in relation to 
the life of a people. 

Many questions involving science learnings arise in social studies 
What makes an airplane fly? How is fire extinguished in the hold 
of a ship? How is oil that is spilled in a harbor picked up? These 
are illustrations of a few questions involving significant science learn- 
ings. Exceedingly interesting classroom experiments can be de- 
veloped in answering such questions. 

A sixth grade, studying communication, carried on an extensive 
series of experiments with electromagnets which helped them 
understand how man has used natural forces to make communica- 
tion throughout the world almost instantaneous. Both social studies 
and science become more meaningful to children when the oppor- 
tunities for science experiences and science learnings are recognized 
and utilized. This, then, becomes the task of the curriculum-worker: 
to identify those significant science learnings which increase the 
depth of understanding of children in each social-studies area they 

The Relation of Social Studies to Health Education 

Because the elementary-school period is one during which chil- 
dren experience great physical growth, constant attention in the 
school must be given to sound health practices in cleanliness, nutri- 
tion, relaxation, and exercise as a part of daily living. The social 
studies, apart from their traditional functions, provide innumerable 
opportunities for health learnings. In a study of farm life in the 


second grade, emphasis was placed on the value of the protective 
foods, the importance of cleanliness in the handling of foods, how 
the government works to safeguard health, and how the water 
supply is protected from contamination. Almost every study of a 
culture or a historical period offers opportunity to study the health 
problems which have confronted the people and the effect of 
meeting or failing to meet these problems wisely. 

The Relation of the Social Studies to the Arts 

The social studies act as a strong stimulus for aesthetic expression 
through painting, creative writing, music, and rhythms. Through 
creative expression the children have the opportunity to share their 
experiences and to develop standards of judgment and performance. 
The creative power which the child develops and the creative 
learning which takes place are more important than the created 
product. In a study of the people of Mexico, the children made a 
pictorial map with a border of individual pictures of Mexican people 
in native costumes, Mexican architecture, plates and pottery show- 
ing Mexican designs, plants, and animals. Historical events were 
shown on a time line with appropriate pictures painted by the 
children. Murals were painted showing a market, rural Mexico, the 
volcanoes, and modern developments in Mexico City. The children 
learned to dance El Jarabe and Los Viejetos, listened to Mexican 
music on record, and learned to sing Cielito Undo and L# Cucaracha. 
in Spanish. 

Understanding and appreciation of any culture develop from 
acquaintance with the music, crafts, paintings, dance, and literature 
of the culture. The aesthetic expressions produced by a culture or 
in a historical period truly interpret the life of the people. Great 
emphasis on the cultural products of a people should be an integral 
part of the experiences children have in the social studies. 

The Relation of the Social Studies to the Skill Subjects 

The social studies create a genuine need for all the skill subjects 
in the curriculum. The social studies stimulate learnings which are 
difficult to achieve without the motivation of need which the social 
studies supply. 

The social studies provide opportunity for much meaningful 


reading as children seek for information. Materials read must be 
organized and the information used in discussion, reports, and other 
language activities. No better means of evaluating comprehension 
has been devised than evidence of how well a child is able to apply 
the material read. His reading in social studies develops his reading 
vocabulary by introducing him to new words. To read effectively, 
he must master the use of the table of contents, the index, and the 
reading of maps, simple charts, and graphs. His wider reading also 
creates a need for learning dictionary skills. 

As important as the motivation to acquire reading skills which 
the social studies provide is the stimulation to wide reading which 
social studies engender. In one sixth grade in a school with extensive 
library resources, fifty trade books on aviation were supplied in 
connection with a study which occupied half of the school year. 
The books represented a wide range of reading difficulty, so each 
child was able to select books he could read successsfully. The 
average number of books read per child was fifteen. Reading tests 
given at the beginning and at the end of the study of aviation 
showed growth in reading ability beyond normal expectation for 
every child in the group. 

The social studies contribute to increased proficiency in writ- 
ing. Children encounter meaningful situations which require using 
a good business letter form and occasions requiring thank-you letters 
as well. Creative writing of stories and poems is an expected out- 
come of any social-studies unit which has been taught in such a 
way as to stimulate the imagination and help children identify them- 
selves with the persons and events studied. Writing of reports, 
taking notes, and outlining are needed here. In the process of pre- 
paring written material, children have opportunity to use what they 
have learned about sentence and paragraph construction and punc- 
tuation. The manuscript handwriting usually learned in the pri- 
mary grades is maintained and improved as children find this skill 
useful in lettering on bulletin boards, maps, charts, and books. New 
words found in reading and needed in writing add to the pro- 
ficiency of the children in spelling; frequently class charts as well 
as individual spelling lists are kept of the new words acquired during 
the exploration of a social-studies unit* 

Good oral expression requires experiences which the children 


wish to talk about. Conversation goes on quite naturally in connec- 
tion with social studies in the modern classroom during construc- 
tion, industrial arts, and dramatic play. More formal discussion is 
carried on while making plans, raising questions, stating problems, 
making decisions, exchanging information, and evaluating ideas. 
When a group of children is working on some broad area in social 
studies, need arises for making brief talks and reports on interviews, 
trips, and related reading. 

Many situations in the social studies provide insightful experi- 
ences with arithmetic. Children have need to use units of measure 
inch, foot, yard in construction: in making costumes and stage 
sets, time lines, and murals; and in many other situations. The ruler 
and yardstick become indispensable tools. Making a time line or 
map provides opportunity to put to use learnings about reducing to 
scale. Plans must be made to scale for all construction. The cost 
of materials must be figured. Buying and selling, figuring freight 
costs, and similar activities are needed according to the particular 
unit being studied. Other measurements, such as quart, gallon, and 
bushel, are used in a wider variety of situations, as are measurements 
of weight, distance, and time. 

Many of these needs may first arise in the social studies and be 
carried over to the skills period in the school program. The social 
studies do not take the place of the regular periods provided for 
instruction in arithmetic and the language arts. When the children 
have already encountered these skills as a part of their instruction 
in arithmetic or the language arts, they are gratified to find prac- 
tical application in social studies and to see meaning in their learning. 

Social Studies: The Integrating Center 
of the Curriculum 

Since the school has a social purpose, the content of the curricu- 
lum must be chiefly concerned with man and his society. The units 
of work which constitute the curriculum of the elementary school 
must relate to various aspects of social life of the past, the present, 
or the future and to the phenomena of nature. This content con- 
stitutes the integrating center of the curriculum. Reading, writ- 
ing, and the other skills are necessary tools used in learning about 
man and nature. These skills together with music, art, literature, 


dramatics, rhythms, and the like provide the pupils with means of 
giving expression to the appreciations they acquire. Thus the skills, 
the social studies, science, and the expressive arts have a reciprocal 
relationship to each other, and because of this relationship each 
realizes its most educative potentialities. Each type of experience 
the school provides is important in its own right and contributes 
to the development of personality, but no subject can make its proper 
contribution in isolation. Skills and processes are important only in 
relation to individual and social purposes. 

Emphasis on integration of the school program does not imply 
disregard for the school subjects. There is need for systematic 
practice in each useful skill. Definite time must be allotted in the 
school program for mastering the skills and for experience in the 
arts. No worth-while learning need be sacrificed in a program 
which emphasizes helping children see relationships. On the con- 
trary, increased appreciation of the values and improved command 
of the techniques of all subjects should result when they are con- 
tinually used to further socially motivated activities. The academic 
skills are not ends in themselves but means by which an individual 
attains an education. The motivation for mastering the skills should 
come from the child's desire to use them in carrying on group and 
social activities. Teachers should not think of social studies as a 
subject-matter field but rather as a broad area of experience which 
serves to help children relate skills, arts, social sciences, and physical 
and biological sciences into one unified learning experience which 
has meaning for them. 


The Organization of the Elementary -School 
Social-Studies Curriculum 


Curriculum Organization and the Aims o-f Instruction 

The organization that is selected for the social-studies curriculum 
in the elementary school is a means to an end. The end consists of 
pupils' achievement of agreed-upon goals of social-studies instruc- 
tion. Thoughtful teachers and other curriculum-workers will recog- 
nize that to examine organization in isolation from purposes is 
futile. The facts and issues discussed in this chapter, therefore, 
must constantly be related to and evaluated in terms of social-studies 
goals. They must be evaluated also in the light of the factors that 
make a given curriculum organization effective or ineffective in a 
particular situation, including such factors as the characteristics of 
learners, the resources available for the program, and the experience 
and attitudes of the teaching staff. 

To recognize curriculum organization as a means rather than an 
end in itself is not to derogate its significance to the learning situa- 
tion. Most teachers at work in the classroom will agree with Burton 
that, "The type of curriculum organization is, next probably to the 
ability and personality of the teacher, the most potent factor in 
determining how teaching and learning proceed." 1 The principles 
accepted as a basis for organizing the curriculum determine the 
selection and placement of content. They affect the nature of pro- 
cedures and activities carried on in the classroom. The structure of 

i. William H. Burton, "Implications for Organization of Instruction and 
Instructional Adjuncts," Learning and Instruction, p. 224. Forty-ninth Year- 
book of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part I. Chicago. 
Distributed by the University of Chicago Press, 1950. 



the social-studies curriculum may facilitate or impede the child's 
social learnings his establishment of relationships and development 
of insights concerning his social world as he attempts to relate it, at 
an increasingly mature level, to other people and things in it. 

Despite consensus on the importance of an effective organiza- 
tion for the social-studies curriculum, there is great variance in 
practice and also in opinion as to what constitutes such organization. 
The principle of local control of schools makes this condition in- 
evitable. Variety is desirable, also, in the eyes of those who envision 
successful curriculum development as a co-operative process in- 
volving the school staff, students, and community representatives 
that is, the variety is welcome to the extent that it results from 
efforts to plan a curriculum with reference to the needs of a given 

Three general patterns of organization for elementary-school 
social studies are commonly found. They are: (a) separate subject 
curriculum (history, geography, civics taught as separate subjects, 
with or without correlation with other subjects); (b) fusion of the 
social-studies subjects (content drawn from the various social-studies 
subjects and organized into blocks of work that are usually focused 
on topics, geographic areas, chronological periods, or problems; 
and (c) integrative curriculum (content drawn from any subject, 
without regard to lines between subjects or content fields, and 
organized into blocks of work). 

Few if any programs fit exactly into one of these categories. 
The distinction between a separate subject and a social-studies 
fusion curriculum, or between the fusion type and the integrative 
curriculum, is hard to establish with precision. Or in a given 
school, the third-grade social studies may provide an excellent illus- 
tration of an integrative curriculum pattern and be followed in the 
fourth grade by a separate-subject organization. Despite all such 
qualifications, however, an elementary-school social-studies program 
or segments of the program will probably fit more readily into one 
of the described curriculum patterns than into the others. 

Patterns of Organization for Elementary Social Studies 

In many school systems one kind of organization is used for the 
social-studies program at the primary level, another in the inter- 


mediate grades. In examining practice and trends, therefore, the 
primary and intermediate levels must be considered separately. 


In the primary grades, social-studies fusion and the integrative 
curriculum, which draws upon all subject fields, are the predomi- 
nant patterns of organization. Hodgson, in a questionnaire study 
completed in 1953, found that these patterns were employed by 
91 per cent of 113 city school systems in Grades I and II and by 
88 per cent of 118 city systems in Grade III. 2 These forms of 
organization were also reported for Grade I by 100 per cent of 
22 state departments of education that participated in the Hodgson 
study, while all but one of 23 state departments indicated that 
these forms prevailed in Grades II and III. 3 In a study completed 
in 1954, Duffey questioned 538 elementary teachers and student 
teachers, graduates or students of Temple University, most of whom 
were teaching in Pennsylvania or New Jersey. 4 He found the same 
predominance of social-studies fusion and integrative programs in 
the primary grades. Of 227 primary teachers, 27.3 per cent reported 
a social-studies fusion program, while an additional 56.8 per cent 
included science materials in the fusion of social studies to provide 
a social studies-science core for the primary curriculum. Likewise, 
other subject fields were fused with social studies, as indicated in 
Table i. 

Early in 1956, fourteen elementary supervisors, curriculum co- 
ordinators, and specialists in social-studies education gave their im- 
pressions concerning the prevailing practices in organization of 
elementary-school social-studies programs. 5 They were located in 
various parts of the nation and, through their work, were familiar 

2. Frank Milton Hodgson, "Organization and Content of the Social-Studies 
Curriculum," p. 143. Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Southern 
California, 1953. 

3. Ibid., p. 1 1 8. 

4. Robert V. DufTey, "A Study of the Reported Practices of 538 Temple 
University Graduates and Students in Their Teaching of Social Studies in the 
Elementary School," pp. 91-92. Unpublished EdD. dissertation, Temple Uni- 
versity, 1954. 

5. Unpublished survey conducted by the writer. 









Teachers (277) 

Teachers (278) 




Language arts . 



Arts and crafts 









Mathematics ... 



Physical education 



* Adapted from Robert V Buffey, "A Study of the Reported Practices of 538 
Temple University Graduates and Students in Their Teaching of Social Studies in the 
Elementary School," pp 110 and 111 Unpublished Ed D dissertation, Temple Uni- 
versity, 1954. 

with the schools of their areas. For the primary grades, seven re- 
ported the predominance of social-studies fusion programs, three 
indicated that social studies were included in the integrative cur- 
riculum units, while four reported a variety of practices ranging 
from separate subjects to an integrative curriculum. 

Analysis of social-studies programs in the intermediate grades 
indicates that a majority of schools continue to use curriculum 
patterns involving the study of materials drawn from more than 
one of the social sciences and fused around topics or problem 
centers. The proportion of schools, however, that employs a sub- 
ject organization in the intermediate grades is greater than at the 
primary level. Hodgson, for example, found that the percentage 
of city school systems teaching social studies by separate subjects 
varied from 11.3 per cent in Grade III to 41.73 per cent in Grade 
VI. 6 The state departments of education included in his study re- 
ported the same shift from fusion to subject organization for the 
social studies between the primary and intermediate grades. 7 

Duffey, who reported that only 6.1 per cent of the primary- 
teacher respondents in his study used a subject organization for 
social-studies materials, found that this was the practice in 17 per 

6. Hodgson, op. eft., p. 143, 

7, Ibid,, p. n 8. 


cent of 278 intermediate-grade respondents. As compared with 56,8 
per cent of the primary teachers who fused science with social 
studies, only 36.3 per cent of the intermediate-grade teachers did 
so. 8 His data, drawn upon for Table i, also reveal a drop from 
the primary to the intermediate grades in the percentage of teachers 
who reported that they fused other curricular areas with the social 

The fourteen specialists cited above indicated a similar change 
from the primary to the intermediate grades. Nine of them re- 
ported considerable or general use of separate subjects in inter- 
mediate-grade social-studies programs in schools of their respective 
geographic regions, although seven indicated that fusion programs 
were widely used. Only two specialists indicated any considerable 
use of the integrative curriculum pattern in the intermediate grades. 

From the foregoing data it seems clear that in most schools social 
studies are taught in the primary grades through a curriculum 
organization based on fusion of subject fields. As the child advances 
to higher-grade levels, the likelihood that he will study history, 
geography, and civics separately increases. Nevertheless, a majority 
of schools employ some degree of fusion in organizing the social- 
studies program for the intermediate grades. 


Current practice in the general organization of elementary social- 
studies programs represents no break with the past. Harap 9 and 
Leary 10 analyzed courses of study in the mid- 1930'$; each reported 
that more than half of those examined combined elements drawn 
from the various social sciences instead of organizing those elements 
as separate subjects. Turner, comparing elementary-school social- 
studies courses of study published from 1917 to 1939, found "... a 
decided trend away from the presentation of history and geography 

8. Duffey, op. cit., p. 92. 

9. Henry Harap, "A Survey of Courses of Study Published in the Last Two 
Years," Journal of Educational Research, XXVTO (May, 1935), 641-56. 

10. Bernice E. Leary, A Survey of Courses of Study md Other Curriculum 
Materials Published Since 1934, p. 59. United States Office of Education Bul- 
letin, No. 31, 1937. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1937. 


as separate subjects in the elementary school." u Preston, in 1943, 
reported a substantial body of experimentation with fusion courses 
in the elementary social studies. 12 Thus, the predominance today 
of the fusion pattern of organization represents an expanding trend 
that has been discernable for at least two decades. 

Hodgson inquired, in his survey, as to changes that had been 
made in the organization of social-studies programs during the pre- 
ceding five years. Respondents from more than half of the cities 
included in the study indicated that major changes in content and/or 
organization had been made. Those involving organization indi- 
cated a trend away from separate subjects in the direction of the 
unified forms of organization. Thus, some had moved toward closer 
correlation of subjects, some toward a fusion organization, and some 
toward greater use of functional units involving materials drawn 
from any of the social sciences. Slightly less than half of the re- 
spondents from state departments of education reported major 
changes in the same period. Those who so replied indicated a trend 
away from the emphasis on subjects and toward forms of organi- 
zation that placed more emphasis on the psychological needs of the 
learner. 13 The respondent from one state said, for example, "There 
have been no radical changes. There has been an increased emphasis 
upon the further development of an integrated program in social 
studies." Another reported the following changes: 

1. More emphasis upon work around large enterprises 

2. More emphasis on areas of interest to children requiring history, 
geography, science, etc., vs. content of an isolated subject 

3. Much emphasis on present problems of children 

4. Procedures placing more emphasis on pupil planning, discussion, re- 
search, and organization 

Respondents in the Hodgson study were asked to state any plans 
for changing the social-studies curriculum in the immediate future. 
Thirteen city systems reported plans for change in organization. 

11. Charles S. Turner, "Changing Content in Elementary Social Studies," 
Social Education, V (December, 1941), 600-603. 

12. Ralph C, Preston, "An Appraisal of Fusion of Social Studies in the Ele- 
mentary School,'* Elementary School Journal, LXTV (December, 1943), 205-7. 

13. Hodgson, op. cit., pp. 297-300, 


With one exception, these plans involved movement toward a fusion 
or integrative program. When asked to say what changes they 
would wish to see made in the organizational pattern for elementary 
social studies, the statements of the respondents showed that the 
great majority were in sympathy with the trend toward more uni- 
fied forms of organization. 14 

Besides circularizing elementary-school teachers, Duffey polled 
23 specialists in elementary social studies to learn their recommenda- 
tions as to the organization of the social-studies programs. None 
favored a subject organization, either separate or correlated. Fusion 
within the social-studies area or a social studies-science fusion was 
recommended by over three-fourths of them, and there was a pre- 
ponderance of opinion in the group in favor of drawing upon other 
curriculum areas at least to some extent. 15 

The social studies-science fusion seems to represent an accelerat- 
ing trend. Duffey's evidence, that more than half the primary 
teachers and more than one-third of the intermediate teachers ques- 
tioned said they fused science content with social studies, would 
suggest that this broader fusion is gaining ground. Responses from 
the fourteen specialists cited above indicate that there is widespread 
fusion of science and social-studies content in the primary grades, 
for over half of them reported that most schools in their region 
followed this practice. In the intermediate grades, however, they 
found much less fusion of science and social studies. An example 
of a social studies-science program developed from kindergarten 
through the sixth grade is found in the curriculum guide published 
by the Missouri State Department of Education. In that program, 
content drawn from science and health is specifically included in a 
majority of the units recommended for each grade level. 16 

The development of a social studies-science fusion for the ele- 
mentary grades has much to recommend it. In the modern world, 
societal developments and problems are inevitably affected by sci- 
ence and technology and vice versa. Lack of scientific literacy 

14. Ibid., pp. 149, 318, 326, 3*9- 

15. Duffey, op. cit., pp. 89-90, 107-8. 

16 Missouri's Elementary Curriculum Guide, Grades One-Six, p. 62. Pub- 
lication No. zoo. Jefferson City: State Board of Education, 1955. 


on the part of the general public, or a failure to relate scientific and 
social knowledge, is a handicap to social progress in a society domi- 
nated by technology. Many of the social-studies topics that are 
included in the elementary-school curriculum involve aspects of 
science and will be better understood by pupils if those aspects are 
studied in relation to the social-studies content. Teachers who wish 
to move from a subject organization to a broader unified program 
will find in the social studies-science core a useful approach. 

A considerable body of evidence exists to demonstrate the ad- 
vantages of a curriculum pattern based on the psychological needs 
of the learner rather than on the logical demands of systematized 
areas of knowledge. Numerous studies and experiments, several of 
which were summarized by Preston, 17 have indicated definitely if 
not conclusively that, as compared with separate subject programs, 
organizational patterns providing for fusion of the social-studies 
subjects facilitate superior learning. Findings indicate that such 
unified programs have resulted in greater social learnings in the 
areas of attitudes and skills as well as in comprehension and reten- 
tion of subject matter. 

In view of the evidence of the effectiveness of the more unified 
forms of curriculum organization and considering the accumulated 
reservoir of experience in handling them, it seems clear that in a 
functional elementary-school social-studies program separate sub- 
jects have little place. Rather, social-studies materials, along with 
pertinent content drawn from other subject fields, should be organ- 
ized around topics or problem centers. The trend toward teaching 
elementary-school social studies through a fusion or an integrative 
curriculum seems likely to develop with continuing acceleration. 
In the judgment of many social-studies specialists, including the 
writer, this is a healthy trend that should be encouraged. 

Establishing Scope and Sequence for Elementary 
Social-Studies Programs 

The twentieth century has seen a variety of approaches used to 
determine scope and sequence for various curricular areas. The 

17. Preston, op, cit. 


reader who has followed efforts to improve educational programs 
in American schools over the past three or four decades needs no 
reminder of this fact. He will remember that through these years 
the elementary school took on new functions and, of necessity, ex- 
panded its curriculum to carry them out. As it did so, the series of 
separate subjects that had previously provided the framework for 
the child's learning experiences, although persisting in the inter- 
mediate grades particularly, has increasingly been recognized as 
inadequate and inappropriate. 

To find a more acceptable framework, curriculum-planners have 
turned to analysis of areas of living, social functions, social processes, 
persistent life situations, developmental tasks, or some combination 
and adaptation of these to establish the scope of the child's experi- 
ences in school. Frequently, they have developed lists of concepts 
or generalizations, about which the child should gain a deeper and 
richer understanding as he progresses from grade to grade, and lists 
of values and skills in which he should show growth. To provide a 
learnable, effective sequence from year to year through the school 
program, curriculum-planners have selected centers of interest or 
themes that seem appropriate for given age groups and that seem 
to provide for the child's learning in the areas designated in the 
statement of scope. Themes or centers of interest are arranged 
according to some organizing idea, such as expanding geographic 
areas from the known and close-at-hand to the unknown and far- 
away. Of all curricular areas, the social studies is likely to be most 
directly affected by such arrangements for determining scope and 

Plans for Establishing Scope 

Basic social functions, the functions that must be discharged to 
meet human needs, have been used in many school systems to define 
the scope of elementary social-studies programs since this scheme 
was employed in the Virginia curriculum-development program in 
the early ipso's. The helpfulness of this approach in determining 
scope is indicated in its continued use by social-studies curriculum 
committees into the 1950'$. The scope of the current elementary- 
school social-studies programs in Seattle (Washington) and San 
Francisco (California), for example, has been established in part in 


terms of social functions. 18 In Los Angeles County the committees 
which developed the social-studies program have defined the scope 
of the program in terms of ". . . universal human needs, the social 
functions through which they are met, and the part that each plays 
in human life." 19 State-wide committees working over a period of 
years to develop Missouri's curriculum guide utilized the following 
statement of social functions to establish the scope of the social 
studies-science curriculum cited above: 20 

Protecting life and health. Conserving and utilizing the physical en- 
vironment. Understanding the relationships among people. Understand- 
ing the role of growth in education. Cultivating and nurturing moral 
and spiritual growth. Stimulating aesthetic interest and expression. 

Frequently curriculum-planners have utilized statements of social 
processes, activities that individuals and groups must perform in daily 
living, along with lists of social functions to define the scope of the 
elementary-school social-studies curriculum. Thus, in the San Fran- 
cisco program such processes as the following are used: 21 

Processes involved in utilizing values as determiners of choice. Proc- 
esses involved m thinking. Processes involved in communicating. 
Processes involved in working with others and being worked with. 
Processes involved in making a vocational contribution. 

1 8. For descriptions of these programs, see Chester D. Babcock and Emlyn 
D. Jones, "Social Processes and Persistent Problems" and Mabel Delevan and 
Others, "Program Based on Social Functions and Processes," Social Education 
of Young Children: Kindergarten-Primary Grades, pp. 75-80, 87-110. Cur- 
riculum Series No. 4, National Council for the Social Studies. Washington- 
National Council for the Social Studies, 1956 (second revised edition); Chester 
D. Babcock and Emlyn D. Jones, "The Seattle Program: A Program Based on 
Social Functions, Social Processes, and Persistent Problems of Living," and 
John U. Michaelis, "The San Francisco Program: A Program Based on Social 
Functions and Social Processes," Social Studies -for Older Children: Programs 
for Grades Four, Five, and Six, pp. 63-75, Curriculum Series No. 5, National 
Council for the Social Studies. Washington: National Council for the Social 
Studies, 1953. 

19. Educating the Children of Los Angeles County: A Course of Study for 
Elementary Schools, p. 83. Los Angeles: Office of the County Superintendent 
of Schools, 1955. 

20. Missouri's Elementary Curriculum Guide, op. tit., p. 48. 

21. From the description of the San Francisco program given in Social 
Studies for Older Children, op. cit., p. 67. 


A more recently developed approach is that of using persistent 
life situations to define the scope of a curriculum area. 22 In this 
approach, the daily experiences of individuals, as they carry on 
activities in the home and community, at work and play, and as 
they meet spiritual and aesthetic needs, are analyzed to identify 
those problem situations which recur many times in one form or 
another. Such situations involving social learning become one meas- 
ure for establishing the scope of the social-studies program. 23 The 
committees which recently developed a guide for elementary social 
studies in the schools of Newark (New Jersey), for example, 
adapted the ideas suggested by Stratemeyer to describe the scope 
of their program in terms of the following areas in which growth 
is needed to meet persistent life situations: 24 

Individual competencies: critical thinking, communication of ideas, 
work-study skills and methods. Social participation, person-to-person 
relations, group membership, intergroup relations. Ability to deal with 
environmental factors and forces: adaptation to environment, conserva- 
tion of resources, democratic way of life, interdependence of man, moral 
and spiritual values. 

In Wilmington (Delaware), teacher committees used the fol- 
lowing problem areas to help define and organize the school experi- 
ences of boys and girls: We learn about ourselves. We learn how 
groups function. We learn about our world. We develop the skills 
and tools we need. 25 Each problem area was described in terms 
of needs of children at successive levels of maturity. 


Sequence for social-studies programs was once thought of solely 

22. See Florence Stratemeyer, Hamden Forkner, and Margaret McKim, 
Developing a Curriculum for Modern Living. New York: Bureau of Pub- 
lications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1947. 

23. For an example of a primary-grade program based on persistent prob- 
lems, see May Devereus and Others, "Program Based on Persistent Problems, 
Bowerman School, Springfield, Missouri," Social Education of Young Children, 
op. cit., pp. 8 1 -86. 

24. Social Studies in Our Schools: A Guide to Improvement of Instruction 
in the Elementary School. Newark, New Jersey: Board of Education, 1954. 

25. Opening Doors: A Social Studies Bulletin, charts i and ii. Wilmington, 
Delaware: Wilmington Public Schools, 1954. 


in terms of content and was determined largely by chronology, 
moving from ancient times toward the modern period. Few ele- 
mentary schools today plan sequence in terms of chronology, 
although Hodgson found that almost one-third of the respondents 
from the cities in his study indicated that they used chronology as 
a "principle of internal organization" for the social-studies offerings 
in the fifth and sixth grades. 26 The most widely used plan for 
establishing sequence of content in elementary social-studies pro- 
grams is that of expanding geographic areas, or expanding areas of 
experience. Under this plan the child begins in the kindergarten 
and first grade with study of his home and school, then moves out 
to the community, the state, the nation, and finally the world. 
Hodgson found, among the city systems included in his survey, an 
"overwhelming preference" for the expanding environment or cycle 
plan as a scheme of internal organization of the social-studies pro- 
gram. 27 Every recent curriculum bulletin or guide for elementary- 
school social studies examined by the present writer utilizes to some 
extent this plan for establishing sequence, although there is variation 
from one program to another in the implementation of the plan and 
the use of other determinants with it. 

The expandmg-environment approach has been defended as 
providing a psychological, as opposed to a logical, basis for the 
sequential arrangement of content and, so, as being more learnable 
for children. It emphasizes direct experiences and concrete learnings 
in the primary years and moves into a higher proportion of vicarious 
experiences and abstract learnings for the older child. Undoubtedly 
such a plan in the hands of an imaginative, energetic teacher can 
make social-studies content more meaningful than a sequence based 
on chronology or a series of separate subjects. Yet there are some 
questions to be raised as to the validity of the expanding-geographic- 
areas approach if it is adhered to rigidly. Do children really move 
from home to school to community to state to nation to world in 
their experiences? Or do not most of them push out the frontiers 
of their experience irregularly, jumping via television, radio, and 
other experiences from home to foreign lands and back to distant 

26. Hodgson, op. cit t) p. 169. 

27. Ibid., p. 176. 


parts of their own nation, perhaps before they ever go to school? 
Fathers and brothers who return home from military service with 
stories and souvenirs from far-away countries contribute to this 
irregular, haphazard, but perfectly normal expansion of experience. 
Motion pictures, vacation trips, and moving about with parents as 
the family changes its residence have an impact. These and many 
other factors in our fast-moving modern world cause a child's 
horizons to be considerably wider and to expand in directions un- 
thought of a generation or two ago. The principle of selecting and 
arranging learning experiences in terms of children's experiential 
backgrounds remains valid. Implementation of the principle requires 
a realistic appraisal of the experiences and needs of today's children. 

In an effort to meet this situation and to provide for well-rounded 
growth, modern curriculum-planners have looked for ways of pro- 
viding sequence in other aspects of learning besides knowledge of 
factual information. In addition to or sometimes in place of 
devices for providing sequence in terms of definite content, they 
are concerned with continuity in the development of basic concepts, 
values, and skills. These organizing elements, when utilized along 
with attention to children's interests and purposes, can provide more 
flexible and more functional guides to sequence in the social-studies 
program than can a preplanned arrangement of content. Curricu- 
lum committees in Los Angeles County, for example, identified 
twelve basic generalizations toward the understanding of which all 
elementary-school social-studies work should be directed. Selected 
aspects of these generalizations were suggested for specific develop- 
ment at the various grade levels. 28 In Port Arthur, Texas, one dimen- 
sion of sequence was provided through agreement that given social- 
studies skills, selected on the basis of appropriateness for a given 
age group, would be emphasized at particular grade levels. 29 

Developing sequence that is meaningful to children does not pre- 

28. Educating the Children of Los Angeles County, op. cit., pp. 81-82, 94, 
98, 102, 107, 113, 118, 123. 

29. George F. Gray, "Port Arthur, Texas, Social-Studies Program for 
Grades Seven to Nine," Social Studies for Young Adolescents: Programs for 
Grades Seven, Eight, and Nine, pp. 60-62. Curriculum Series No. Six, Na- 
tional Council for the Social Studies. Washington: National Council for the 
Social Studies, 1951- 


elude broad, flexible, and tentative preplanning for content as well 
as for growth in skills and values. The issue is not content vs. no 
content, nor is it preplanning vs. no preplanning by the teacher and 
the total school staff. It should be recognized that some curricular 
framework is necessary for an effective teaching-learning program, 
whether in social studies or in other fields of instruction. Content 
areas or themes can be blocked out, along with provision for con- 
tinuity in the development of skills, values, and concepts, without 
hampering the creative teacher. For the teacher who is less well 
prepared or less imaginative in approach, the existence of a guiding 
framework which is stated in terms of skills, values, and concepts 
along with suggested content areas may make the difference between 
effective and ineffective work with children. In our efforts to elim- 
inate the rigidly planned, content-centered social-studies program 
which may make little sense to children, we need not fall into the 
opposite trap a program so unplanned, using content so insignificant 
and unrelated that it, too, will make little sense for the learner. 


Since the expanding-environment or expanding-geographic-areas 
plan for establishing sequence in content selection is predominant, 
it is not surprising that centers of interest assigned to given grades in 
elementary social-studies programs show considerable similarity from 
one school to another and from one part of the country to another. 
Table 2 summarizes recent research concerning the themes and 
topics commonly utilized at each grade level in social-studies pro- 
grams today. 

These findings are not materially different from those reported 
by Burress, 80 who studied twenty-one courses of study issued be- 
tween 1946 and 1950, or Wesley and Adams, whose most recent 
listing was published in I952. 81 Nevertheless, examination of courses 
of study issued since 1953 and statements from the fourteen spe- 
cialists cited above indicate that some gradual changes are taking 

30. Robert N. Burress, "A Desirable Social-Studies Curriculum for the 
Middle Grades," pp. 66-67. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, George Peabody 
College for Teachers, 1951. 

31. Edgar B. Wesley and Mary A. Adams, Teaching Social Studies in Ele- 
mentary Schools, pp. 44-46. Boston: D. C. Heath & Co,, 1952 (revised edition). 



Off ei ings 

As Pound by Both 
Preston and Hodgson 

As Found by 
Preston Only 

As Found by- 
Hodgson Only 

Grade I 

Home, school, 

Farm life 


Grade II 



Farm life, pets 


Grade III . 

Food, clothing, 

Community; other 

and shelter 



communication ; 


Grade IV . 

Type regions of 


Indians, Eskimos 

world, U.S. 

history; com- 


Grade V 

U.S. geography: 

Latin America; 

v -' e^vo-*-** 1 .^"/ > 

U.S history 


Grade VI . . 

Latin America; 

World geography, 

Canada; Asia; 

old world back- 





* From Ralph C. Preston, Teaching Social Studies m the Elementary School, chap 
ill New Tork: Rinehart & Co (revision in preparation) 

place in the content areas assigned to each grade level as well as 
in the topics suggested for implementation of the grade-level themes. 
For the kindergarten and Grades I and II, the theme of "home, 
school, and community" is almost universally utilized. In the kinder- 
garten the emphasis continues to be placed on group living, holidays, 
getting acquainted with the school, and exploring the immediate 
neighborhood. In Los Angeles County it is suggested that a be- 
ginning be made in studying "Workers who help us at home, at 
school, and in the neighborhood." 32 The guide developed by 
curriculum committees in Aberdeen (South Dakota) moved some- 
what away from the customary pattern for the kindergarten to in- 
clude some study of community helpers and transportation as well 
as more customary materials on home, school, and holidays. 83 

32. Educating the Children of Los Angeles County^ op. dt. y pp. 86-87, 

33. "Learning through Action: A Guide Book for Social Studies," Part I, 
"Kindergarten-Primary Area." Aberdeen, South Dakota: Public Schools, 
1954 (mimeographed). 


There seems to be an increasing tendency to treat aspects of the 
"community-helpers" theme throughout the Kindergarten-Grade II 
sequence, rather than concentrating this material in one year, and 
to focus on services people need and use rather than on the "helpers" 
themselves. Playground attendants, ministers, doctors, nurses, dent- 
ists, and shoe repairmen may be studied along with the milkman, 
the postal worker, and the policeman. Units on the farm and aspects 
of transportation and communication continue to be used in the 
sequence from kindergarten through Grade II. 

Specific attention is given to safety in the Kindergarten-Grade II 
sequence, often through "units" or "interests" on "How people meet 
their health and safety needs," "Learning to grow healthfully and 
to practice safety," "Safety in the home," or "Safety on the farm." 
Often some science elements are woven into these health and safety 
units. Other science experiences commonly suggested in connection 
with social studies are study of the weather, seasonal changes and 
their effects on ways of living, and plants and animals of the imme- 
diate area. Aspects of conservation are sometimes brought into such 
experiences. Science information related to transportation and com- 
munication is frequently included, also. 

Holidays and other special days, once the major social-studies 
content in the first school years, continue to be celebrated. Other 
long-used approaches to the development of understanding and 
acceptance of national traditions continue to be employed. They 
include studying about the flag and its symbolism, learning and 
reciting the pledge of allegiance, and hearing stories of great Ameri- 
cans of the past and present. 

In Grade III a continuation of the community study which is 
begun as early as the kindergarten seems likely to become the pre- 
dominant theme in place of the "food-clothing-shelter" theme car- 
ried out through culture units. However, any change from the 
content previously followed at this level may be less drastic than 
the change in statement of the theme would suggest. In some cases 
the community is studied through investigation of the ways in which 
basic human needs are met within the home community and then in 
other communities. The "basic needs" are likely to be limited to 
those for food, clothing, and shelter, although in some cases it is 
suggested that others such as recreational, educational, and religious 


needs be considered. Sometimes attention is given to conservation 
of natural resources in connection with the food, clothing, and 
shelter units. 

The "other communities" studied in Grade III may be con- 
temporary and within the United States, or they may be remote 
in time and/or space. Study of Indians continues to appear at this 
level with some frequency. Sometimes the topic is recommended 
as an example of a primitive, "simple" culture in which the basic 
needs must be met; in this case, other "culture units" dealing with 
far-away lands may also be included. In some cases the community 
study in Grade III involves a historical approach. Then, Indians are 
likely to be studied as part of the investigation of the community's 
past, with a block of work on colonial or pioneer life following. 

Perhaps the most definite change that is occurring in content 
placement in elementary social-studies programs is in Grade IV. 
More recent curriculum guides and the reports of specialists indicate 
that study of the state, or of "the community within the state," is 
winning considerable popularity. However, study of type regions, 
which has long served to introduce formal geography at this level, 
persists in many schools. In a number of cases there seems to be a 
compromise, with attention to both the home state and various 
regions of the world. Thus, the suggested program for Grade IV 
in Newark (New Jersey) begins with study of "other commu- 
nities" in New Jersey and of the history of the state and concludes 
with geographic units on the Netherlands, the Belgian Congo, the 
Arabian Desert, and the Far North. 34 

In Grade V, while content drawn from the history and geogra- 
phy of the United States is usually treated, there is no general agree- 
ment as to whether the emphasis shall be historical or geographic, 
and whether other parts of the Americas shall be studied along with 
the United States. One arrangement includes study of the earlier 
periods of the national history (discovery, exploration, settlement, 
and westward movement) along with attention to the economic 
geography of the various regions. Another utilizes study of the 
regions as the framework, starting with ways of earning a living in 
each region today and drawing in historical background. The 

34. Social Studies in Our Schools, op. cit. 


United States and Canada, the United States and its neighbors to 
the north and south, and the United States and the other American 
lands today are other arrangements of content that are found in 
Grade V. 

The almost universal use of United States history content in 
Grade V undoubtedly reflects legislative or other legal requirements 
for the teaching of the national history in the elementary school as 
well as a traditional curriculum arrangement inherited from the 
nineteenth century. Hodgson found that, of 40 cities having local 
legal requirements for the study of United States history in the 
elementary school, 57.5 per cent required it in Grade V. 35 A sur- 
vey conducted by the Research Division of the National Education 
Association in 1953 indicated that 18 states had statutory or regu- 
latory provisions for the teaching of American history and govern- 
ment that would almost certainly affect the intermediate grades. 
An additional 2 1 states have adopted provisions such as those requir- 
ing instruction in American history to begin not later than Grade 
VIII, making it mandatory for all elementary schools to teach United 
States and state history and civics. 86 

More variation exists in the content placed in the sixth grade. 
There is fairly even division between study of the western hemi- 
sphere continued from Grade V and study of the eastern hemisphere 
with emphasis on Europe. Where the focus is on Europe, con- 
siderable historical content is included along with some geography. 
One specialist, for example, reported that the most frequently studied 
topics in the sixth-grade classes in her geographic area were: pre- 
historic times; Europe and the Middle East, yesterday and today. 
It seems significant that specialists reported this historical emphasis 
as current practice much more frequently than it was recommended 
in recent curriculum bulletins. The "old-world-backgrounds'* ma- 
terial, once so generally taught in the intermediate grades, appar- 
ently persists in many schools, probably modified by fusion with 

35. Hodgson, op. cit. 9 p. 220. 

36. "Statutory and Regulatory Provisions for the Teaching of American 
History and Government." Information Bulletin of Research Division of the 
National Education Association, August, 1953 (mimeographed). 


geographic content. A third arrangement found in Grade VI uses 
"world geography" as the basic content. In some cases this seems 
to be the traditional country-by-country examination of physical 
features, products, and so on. In others it involves the study of 
selected regions and comparisons with appropriate regions of the 
United States. If the United Nations is studied in the elementary- 
school program, it is found most frequently in the fifth or sixth 
grade, usually in connection with the interest of the United States 
in world affairs. 

Writing in 1941, Turner noted some trend toward placing 
"general" topics, such as transportation, communication, inventions, 
arts of man, and money and trade, in Grades V and VI as sub- 
stitutes for the history and geography previously studied there. 37 
Today such topics are found in a few programs, but the over- 
whelming emphasis continues to be on historical and geographic 


In evaluating the scope and sequence of content in a social- 
studies program, the teacher and curriculum-maker must always 
return to two questions: Are the themes and the topics within 
themes appropriate to the levels at which they are placed? Are 
the topics chosen to implement the themes useful and significant 
for children living in mid-twentieth-century America? To neither 
question, of course, can the answer be a simple "yes" or "no," for 
the factors to be considered (maturity of the group, previous ex- 
periences, local conditions, trends in national and international 
affairs) evoke different answers in different situations. Nevertheless, 
some evaluation of the significance of content currently in general 
use can be made. 

As an over-all framework, the themes most frequently used at 
each grade level seem appropriate, if they are implemented in a 
flexible manner that takes into account the various factors mentioned 
in the preceding paragraph and the considerations of sequence sug- 

37. Turner, op. cit., p. 603. 


gested above. The trend away from the traditional culture units 
and type region studies in Grades III and IV, and toward themes 
that can be implemented through a high proportion of direct experi- 
ences, represents a positive gain. The value of such a change, how- 
ever, will be in direct relation to the extent that the new themes of 
expanded community and home state are handled through topics and 
methods that provide fresh, stimulating experiences. As one social- 
studies specialist has put it, "The payoff really comes in the way 
topics are developed at each grade level, how comprehensive and 
complete they are, how they are related to life situations, and 
whether or not real continuity exists from one level to another." 

A major problem in the handling of the commonly-used themes 
is that, in an effort to provide a program grounded in the child's 
experience, the content presented may be unduly restricted. It may 
become repetitious and lacking in challenge. One social-studies spe- 
cialist recently commented that in elementary-school social-studies 
programs there is often "excessive attention to the here and now," 
especially in the primary grades. Another observed that in practice, 
current social-studies instruction may tend to hold primary-grade 
children back in relation to their own experience and to duplicate 
experiences from one grade to another. 

Kern and Fair report how one kindergarten class developed a 
social-studies program around the experiences and interests of the 
children, utilizing particularly their television viewing. 38 The result 
was the study of a series of topics that went considerably beyond 
the social-studies experiences typically offered to kindergarteners. 
Some of the questions studied were: Who owns the flag? How is 
our flag different from other flags? Americans we know. Americans 
are not all alike. Americans help each other. Americans choose their 
leaders. Some things belong to many people. Everyone owns some- 
thing. Americans have rules. 

Evidence collected through interviews with 70 second-graders 
and reported by McAulay supports the view that content offered 
to primary-grade children is often pitched below a challenging 

38. Stella Kern and Jean Fair, "Teachers and Children Improve the Cur- 
riculum," Improving the Social-Studies dtrriculitm, pp. 86-91. Twenty-sixth 
Yearbook of the National Council for the Social Studies. Washington: Na- 
tional Council for the Social Studies, 1955. 


level. 39 He found that, as a result of watching television, taking 
vacation trips, and engaging in the ordinary activities of their lives, 
these children had already gained experience ". , . beyond the con- 
tent of the unit on the interdependence of farm and city . . ." that 
they would study in the second-grade program. Ninety per cent 
of the children already had considerable information about the work 
of firemen and policemen, although they would devote a unit of 
study to each of these "community helpers." It seems likely that 
these findings are typical of many primary-grade children in the 
United States today. 

A related problem in the development of the predominant grade- 
level themes is the sudden jump found in many schools at Grade IV, 
from a light fact-load, direct-experience treatment of topics in the 
primary grades to the more abstract, heavily factual materials used 
in the intermediate grades. Although the transition to greater use 
of vicarious experiences might be facilitated by the abandonment of 
culture units and units on type regions in favor of study of the 
larger community, the state, and the region, the crucial factor is 
the way in which the new themes are dealt with. Living in a given 
state does not automatically make the topic of state history or 
state government closer to the experience of a fourth-grader than 
is the topic of "living in a hot, wet land." The state capitol may 
be as far away as the Amazon, in terms of the child's experience. 
A too-heavy fact load and an effort to "cover" too many topics 
can be as deadly within the new themes as it has been within the 
old. The new themes simply provide more opportunities than the 
old for relating the study to the child's experience or for providing 
direct experiences through which he can gain understanding of the 
topics. No more is use of the new themes a guarantee of continuity 
in development of understandings, skills, and values. It provides 
better opportunities to create such continuity. 

The solution to this problem of the abrupt break between the 
primary and the intermediate grades from too little to too much 
is not to drop potentially desirable themes but, rather, to treat 
them more appropriately and evenly. To do so requires what Taba 

39. John D. McAulay, "What's Wrong with the Social Studies?" Social 
Education, XVI (December, 1952), 377-78. 


has called the articulation of content with children's experience 
rather than with other bits of content per se. 40 Such articulation 
must rest on careful study of the particular group of children, their 
previous experience, and their out-of-school opportunities for social 
learning. It requires a clearer perception by teachers of the different 
levels at which a topic can be treated and the selection of the level 
appropriate for the given class. Finally, it requires that the school 
staff plan together for sequential development of concepts, skills, 
and values, so that the third-grade teacher, for example, will not 
only avoid repetitive treatment of material that has already been 
studied by his pupils but will also provide readiness experiences for 
the geography skills that he knows will be emphasized in the fourth 

Selection of content for social-studies programs must be evalu- 
ated in terms of the significance of the content for understanding 
and living in the modern world as well as its appropriateness for 
given age levels. Certain critical areas have been identified by stu- 
dents of mid-twentieth-century American society, (See chap, iii 
for discussion of significant current social problems.) Many of them 
are closely interrelated. These problem areas include: the conserva- 
tion of natural resources in a technological era which is consuming 
them at previously unheard of rates; the conservation of human 
resources in a machine-age society, where daily living has become 
increasingly hazardous in terms of mental strain and physical in- 
jury, and where the contribution of each individual is needed in 
the effort to reach higher levels of cultural as well as economic 
and political life; the easing of tensions among ethnic, religious, and 
racial groups in the nation and in the world; the development and 
maintenance of a healthy economy in an increasingly complex sys- 
tem of production and distribution of goods; the invention of effec- 
tive approaches to the relief of international tensions and the 
maintenance of world peace; and, fundamental to all, the achieve- 
ment of an increasingly high level of citizenship activity on the 
part of the American people. Problem areas such as these can and 
are being treated, to greater or lesser extent, in elementary-school 

40. Hilda Taba, "An Articulated Social-Studies Curriculum in the Ele- 
mentary School," Social Education, XVH (December, 1:953), 369-72. 


social-studies programs today. A review of the content commonly 
placed at each grade level from kindergarten through Grade VI 
indicates that such topics as safety, conservation of resources, eco- 
nomic relationships, and human relations are being studied in many 

To say that significant content can be used in developing the 
grade-level themes which predominate in social-studies programs 
is not to say that such content is always used or, at least, that it is 
used effectively. There are several conditions that may stand in 
the way. 

Narrow interpretations of the grade-level themes are likely to 
preclude the use of much content that is both appropriate and 
significant. Focusing too rigidly on the child's "here and now" 
may limit his horizons with regard to critical areas of his own 
culture as well as acquaintance with other peoples of the world. 
For example, conservation of resources, certainly a problem present 
in the immediate environment of every child, may not be dealt with 
if the immediate environment is defined narrowly and superficially. 
Under the same condition, study of other peoples and parts of the 
world may be ignored through most of the elementary-school pro- 
gram. The trend away from the culture unit, with its frequently 
sentimentalized and stereotyped portrayal of other peoples, and 
the type region study, with its tendency to overemphasize the 
physical aspects of environment, is healthy. But failure to introduce 
other more significant materials through which the child can de- 
velop basic understandings concerning the peoples and affairs of 
the world is to encourage provincial attitudes. The development of 
understandings concerning such problem areas as those mentioned 
above is not, of course, a matter of learning a given set of facts 
marked as "significant." But we must recognize that unless chil- 
dren have opportunity to study some content related to a problem, 
such as improving human relations or maintaining world peace, they 
cannot grow in understanding of the critical problem area. 

Too little attention is probably given, in most elementary-school 
social-studies programs, to current events or contemporary affairs. 
Most children today have access to radio, television, daily news- 
papers, and illustrated news magazines. Such access does not mean 
that they always comprehend the significance of the events which 


they see or hear reported. The fact that children have established 
familiarity with contemporary events at some level, however, gives 
an opening that the elementary social-studies teacher can use to 
establish relationships and expand understandings. Current-events 
material selected with reference to the maturity and interests of 
the particular group of children and presented as a regular part of 
the program may help to stimulate interest in other aspects of the 
social studies. Richardson found that fifth-graders who chose social 
studies as a preferred subject had a greater knowledge of current 
affairs than their classmates who chose other subjects in preference 
to social studies. 41 Particularly in the intermediate grades, a great 
deal of significant content can be brought into the social-studies 
program through study of current affairs. 

The persistence of traditional content instead of fresh selection 
of the most significant material available to implement a given theme 
or topic may cripple the social-studies program. An obvious illus- 
tration of the result of such persistence is the continued lack of 
attention to the peoples of Asia, Africa, and the Middle East in most 
elementary social-studies programs; at the same time, nations or 
regions formerly studied as type regions, such as Switzerland, Hol- 
land, and Norway, continue to be included regardless of their rela- 
tive importance in the modern world. The same persistence of 
traditional materials can often be found in the treatment of other 
problem areas. 

Finally, understandings related to such important problem areas 
as those cited do not depend entirely on presentation of significant 
content. Children must also be helped to use the content to increase 
their understanding, to draw logical conclusions, and, where pos- 
sible, to follow through with action. The class that studied soil 
conservation but took no action to correct a bad erosion situation 
on the school grounds failed to make significant use of its informa- 
tion. A sixth grade in a city of 50,000, where economic life is 
dominated by one corporation, made a study of labor unions. One 
of the pupils drew from his study the conclusion that it would be 
good for his city if labor unions existed there, but that it would 

41. Clarence O. Richardson, The Relationship between Knowledge of 
Current News and Preferences for Social Studies on a Fifth-grade Level, 
pp. 37-40. Unpublished Ed.M. thesis, Boston University, 1948. 


probably be a long time before they would because of the size of 
the city. He had not been helped to interpret and apply his in- 
formation so as to draw correct conclusions. (One suspects that a 
hesitant teacher aided in the drawing of an incorrect conclusion, 
which points up another difficulty in using significant social-studies 
information significantly.) Greater attention to the application of 
skills in critical thinking and to the use of problem-solving situa- 
tions in handling social-studies content can be as important for the 
social-studies program as selection of significant content. 

Organizing Learning Experiences for Classroom Study 

Whatever the general curriculum pattern, whatever the plan for 
determining scope and sequence, the problem of organizing learning 
experiences within the classroom from day to day remains to be 
solved. Within the past generation a great proportion of elementary- 
school teachers, especially at the primary level, have come to use 
what they call a "unit" organization. Duffey found that 48.1 per 
cent of 227 primary teachers reported that they used teacher-pupil- 
planned units as a source of content organization for social studies 
half of the time or more, and that 30.9 per cent said they used 
teacher-planned units at least half of the time. At the intermediate- 
grade level, although the percentages were slightly lower, 40.1 per 
cent of the teachers again reported use of teacher-pupil-planned 
units at least half of the time, and 23.6 per cent reported using 
teacher-planned units to the same extent. 42 The fourteen specialists 
cited earlier reported an even stronger emphasis on unit organiza- 
tion. Twelve of them thought almost all schools in their regions 
were teaching social studies through units in the primary grades. 
As for the intermediate grades, five of the specialists considered 
units to be used in almost all schools in their regions, and another 
seven thought the unit was commonly used to organize social- 
studies instruction in more than half the schools. 

Many quite varied organizations of material may be described 
as "units," of course. We think at once of the integrative unit 
drawing on many fields of knowledge, the experience unit in which 
the major activities involve direct experiences, the problem-centered 

42. Duffey, op. cit^ p. 99. 


unit in which the study is directed at solving a problem, the subject 
unit in which the major purpose is teaching information about a 
particular topic, and many variations between and beyond these. 
There are some teachers, especially at the intermediate-grade level, 
who speak of "teaching a unit" when they are actually proceeding 
through a series of daily piecemeal assignments. 

The value of the unit as the sole approach for organization of 
social-studies experiences has been questioned. Some of the dis- 
satisfaction undoubtedly arises from the confusion in the minds of 
both teachers and children about what constitutes a unit. Some 
critics of the unit as a form of organization consider it too rigid 
to be an effective vehicle for the guidance of live learning experi- 
ences. Probably in their eyes most units turn out to be subject- 
centered and to follow formalized procedures. 

Other curriculum specialists point out the need to use everyday 
situations as vehicles for social learning whether or not they are 
related to the unit study of the moment. Thus, Ellsworth suggests 
that, "Life is not all lived in units, but also in strands, in interests, 
in jobs to be done." 48 She emphasizes the necessity of keeping a 
subject open, even though its study in an organized unit may have 
been completed. Hill warns that if unit study occupies an undue 
proportion of the elementary-school day, interest may lag. "Read- 
ing, writing, talking about, and drawing airplanes at all hours, day 
after day, can become a monotonous and unrewarding experience." 44 

The answer to such criticism is not the abandonment of organ- 
ized social-studies or integrative units but, rather, a more appro- 
priate use of them in the elementary-school program* Units that 
grow out of functional situations, including those created through an 
enriched classroom environment, can be chosen. Through teacher- 
pupil planning and use of resources in the community, the unit 
study can be effectively related to the total experience of group 
members. Variety in procedures and learning materials can help 
provide for individual differences in interests and abilities and avoid 

43. Ruth E, Ellsworth, "Suggested Emphases for the Elementary-School 
Curriculum," Social Education,, XVH (February, 1953), 57-0*1. 

44, Wilhelmina Hill, "Guided Experiences: The Unit Method," Social 
Education of Young Children, op. cit., p. 35. 


stereotyped routines. Organizing units around problems that are real 
to group members can bring vitality to the social-studies program. 
Not every unit can or should be completely problem-centered, but 
a substantial proportion of those included in the elementary social- 
studies program should have a problem-solving emphasis. 

Curriculum-planners in Wilmington (Delaware) have proposed 
that three types of internal organization be utilized in the elemen- 
tary-school social-studies program. 45 The first involves learning 
activities centered around a specific purpose or goal, such as carrying 
out a drive for the Junior Red Cross or making a classbook for the 
school library. A second type is focused on a center of interest, 
such as a study of an aspect of transportation or communication, 
housing, and so on. The third is the problem-centered block of 
work, in which the group studies a topic in organized fashion in 
order to find possible ways of dealing with the problems associated 
with it. 

Alongside the organized blocks of work there should be room 
for study of particular situations about which children have become 
concerned. An incident on the playground may have significant 
social learnings if followed up in the classroom at once. A visitor 
to the school or a child's report during the sharing period may 
create an interest about a social-studies topic that should be satis- 
fied. Frequently an elementary-school child raises questions that 
could be developed into full-scale units with older students but 
which are more appropriately treated at a less intensive level with 
young children. Thus, an event reported on television may arouse 
a curiosity that should be met, but at the level of the curious-one's 
maturity and capacity to understand. 

A satisfactory plan for organizing social-studies learning experi- 
ences from day to day must help the child to integrate within 
himself his experiences with his social world, to see relationships, 
and to apply what he understands to his own situations. It must 
take into account the need for flexibility, to satisfy immediate ques- 
tions and interests, and for continuity, to provide for the develop- 
ment of basic understandings, attitudes, and skills. A plan which 
satisfies these requirements will include a combination of short 

45. Opening Doors, op. cit., pp. 15-16. 


"interests," specific-purpose activities, center-of-interest units, and 
problem-centered blocks of work. The exact proportions in which 
these various types of organization will be utilized must be deter- 
mined by teachers and pupils working together in their own class- 

Some Factors Affecting Social-Studies Programs 

As the foregoing discussion suggests, a variety of factors within 
and beyond the school have determined the characteristics of social- 
studies programs. Efforts to improve the social-studies curriculum 
must be planned with reference to these several factors. 


Legislative requirements have played and continue to play a 
considerable role in shaping the social-studies curriculum. Statutes 
enacted by state legislatures requiring the teaching of United States 
history and constitution at certain grade levels have already been 
referred to. Other statutory measures found in many states require 
the teaching of state history and constitution, observance of special 
days in the schools, instruction in patriotism and duties of citizen- 
ship, and other related topics which fall in the field of social studies. 46 

In some cases the legislation is drawn in general terms, with the 
specifics of implementation left to be determined by the state or 
local educational authorities. In others such specifics as time allot- 
ment and the placement of a topic in the curriculum are stated in 
the law itself. Curriculum patterns are affected directly when the 
law, for example, requires that state history be taught in public 
schools "... in and only in the history course of all such schools," 
or that ac least ten minutes each day be spent in teaching patriotism 
and one-half hour each week during the school year (or one hour 
each week during one semester) be devoted to study of the state 
and national constitutions.* 7 

The first approach, in which the state legislature indicates civic 

46. Ward W. Keesecker, Education for Freedom as Provided by State 
Laws. Office of Education Bulletin, No. it, 1948. Washington: Government 
Printing OfHce, 1948. Also, "Statutory and Regulatory Provision for the Teach- 
ing of American History and Government," op. cit. 

47. Keesecker, op. cit., p. 36. 


goals toward which the schools should strive but leaves school au- 
thorities free to work out details of implementation, is clearly de- 
sirable from the educational point of view. The laws stating spe- 
cifics have for most part been drawn with little regard for the ma- 
turity and needs of the learners; such measures hinder the school's 
efforts to attain the very goals stated in the laws. Plischke, in his 
study of legislative control of the elementary-school curriculum, 
concluded that there is a real danger that opportunities for experi- 
mentation and improvement of the curriculum may be endangered 
by inflexible statutory requirements. 48 Although there is a slight 
trend toward laws delegating curriculum-making responsibilities to 
educational agencies, Plischke found this to be more than offset by 
the amount of legislation dictating specifics. Educators and other 
citizens with an intelligent interest in the schools should recognize 
the need to prevent the passage of restrictive curricular laws. They 
should also examine existing statutes affecting the curriculum in- 
cluding the social-studies program with a view to revision of legis- 
lation which hampers curriculum improvement. 

Legal provisions of other types affect the elementary social- 
studies curriculum by limiting the selection of learning materials 
and experiences. Mandatory use of a particular textbook adopted on 
a state-wide or city-wide basis hampers efforts to work out a pro- 
gram in terms of a particular group's needs and interests. The text- 
book thus imposed is likely to determine curriculum pattern and 
almost certainly dictates content to be studied. Legal regulations 
which make it difficult for schools to use field trips and other ex- 
periences beyond the school grounds constitute another limitation. 
Freedom to use a variety of learning materials, including a high 
proportion of nontextbook readings, sensory materials, and field 
experiences is essential for improvement of the elementary-school 
social-studies program. 


When asked to comment on factors limiting the development of 
the social-studies curriculum, one educator from a midwestern city 

48. John Ruff PHschke, "Legislative Control of the Elementary Curriculum 
from 1941 to 1950," University of Pittsburgh Bulletin: Abstracts of Doctoral 
Dissertations) L (July 10, 1954), 287-91. 


-eplied that his school system was not hampered by legal restric- 
ions but rather by ". . . self-imposed standards by teachers and 
iradition deeply implanted in our culture." 49 Many aspects of 
existing social-studies programs undoubtedly result from the force 
D tradition and the reluctance of teachers and administrators to 
move in new directions. New approaches to curriculum-planning 
may be employed and new terminology adopted, yet inappropriate 
content and routine methods tend to persist in many classrooms. 
Perhaps if teachers understood more fully when and why particular 
aspects of traditional programs came into the elementary-school 
curriculum, they would be more free to discard elements that have 
ceased to be vital or even appropriate in the light of society's needs 
today and of modern knowledge about how children grow and 
learn. 50 

The teacher's role in curriculum-making comes into new im- 
portance as more dynamic conceptions of curriculum development 
are accepted. Participation in the planning by those who are to 
implement the plans is increasingly recognized as essential. Bennett 
and Emlaw, after working for several years in a continuing program 
of curriculum development, have summarized the problem: 51 

Many attempts at curriculum revision in the past have failed because 
of failure to get adequate faculty involvement. Some communities have 
employed experts to do the job for them. Excellent curriculum materials 
have come from such attempts, but seldom have such efforts resulted in 
any marked changes in the schools for which the new curriculum was 
devised. Failure to involve the instructional staff in such efforts invari- 
ably results in nonacceptance by the staff. Not having gone through 

49. Quoted in Hodgson, op. cit., p. 294. 

50. For an excellent brief account focused on the intermediate grades but 
with much that is applicable to all elementary-school grades, see Mary E. 
Kelty, "Curriculum Development in Social Studies for the Middle Grades 
Diffeiing Factors during the Past Twenty-five Years Which Have Led to the 
Present Confusion," Social Studies for Older Children^ op. cit., pp. 2-15 (Cur- 
riculum Series No. 5, National Council for the Social Studies). Also, Rolla M. 
Tryon, The Social Sciences as School Subjects. New York: Harper & Bros., 

51. Herschel K, Bennett and Rita Emlaw, "School Systems Improve the 
Social Studies Curriculum," Improving the Social Studies CwrricvhtW) p. 179. 
Twenty-sixth Yearbook of the National Council for the Social Studies. Wash- 
ington: National Council for the Social Studies, 1955, 


the experience of developing the material, they are overwhelmed by its 
magnitude and their lack of understanding of its content 

The preparation of curriculum bulletins by teacher committees 
has been going on in some school systems for a generation and is 
more and more the accepted procedure. 52 It can be a valuable way 
of working. Those who have studied the application of group 
process techniques to curriculum development, however, point out 
that involvement does not automatically come with committee mem- 
bership, that arbitrary use of a committee system may actually pre- 
clude true involvement of teacher personnel. They suggest, too, that 
a variety of ways of involving the total school staff must be found 
and that effective participation in curriculum-planning is closely 
related to involvement in other aspects of the school program. 53 


Parents and other lay citizens as well as teachers are affected by 
curriculum change and properly have a role to play in planning 
for it. They are likely to be particularly sensitive to the area of 
social studies because of its responsibility for citizenship education 
and because the social studies must deal with socioeconomic issues 
of the day. The participation of lay citizens can be a source of 
valuable ideas and stimulation. In addition, their involvement may 
mean the difference between the public's acceptance or rejection of 
promising plans for improving the elementary social-studies cur- 
riculum. Denver's recent experience with citizen participation in 
the planning of the social-studies program, for example, indicates 
both procedures for citizen co-operation in curriculum development 
and benefits to be derived from it. 8 * Citizen involvement in planning 

52. Most of the curriculum materials cited in this chapter were so developed. 

53. For discussion of these points, see: Ruth E. Ellsworth, "Processes Used 
in Improving the Social-Studies Curriculum," Improving the Social Studies 
Curriculum, op. cit., pp. 255-64; Ronald C. Doll and Others, Organizing for 
Curriculum Development (New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers Col- 
lege, Columbia University, 1953); Hilda Taba and Others, Elementary Cur- 
riculum in Intergroup Relations^ chap, viii (Washington: American Council 
on Education, 1950). 

54. For an account of this work, see chapter xi of this Yearbook; also 
E. Goldman and H. Wilcox, "Parents and Teachers Design a Curriculum," 
National Elementary Principal, XXXTV" (April, 1955), 8-10. 


also leads to increased participation of parents in developing the 
social-studies program through such activities as serving as resource 
personnel, assisting in field trips, and providing related experiences 
for children during out-of-school hours, 

Summary and Conclusions 

In spite of the slowness with which our schools change, the typi- 
cal elementary-school social-studies program today is more func- 
tionally organized, more learnable for the children who study it, 
and more realistic in terms of society's demands than was the typical 
program of a generation ago. Much has been achieved in many 
schools. Much remains to be achieved to create an effective social- 
studies program in most schools, and always will, since a dynamic, 
evolving curriculum is necessary to meet the changing needs of our 
society and of the children who live in it. The experiments and 
progress of recent years hold clues for future efforts at improving 
the social-studies curriculum. 

The organizational patterns which show greatest promise for 
social-studies programs are those which draw from more than one 
subject area the materials needed for study of the topics or problems 
at hand, and provide children with opportunities for learning that 
are not segmented by subject boundaries. They are patterns that 
are flexible enough to be adapted to the immediate situation, yet 
provide enough of a framework to give teachers and children a 
sense of direction and security. They are patterns based on the 
threefold foundations of characteristics of children, needs of society, 
and recent findings in the social sciences. They make possible the 
development of sequence in terms of the learner's growth rather than 
in terms of logical arrangement of subject matter. They are patterns 
that provide for more thorough study of selected topics and prob- 
lems, as compared with superficial coverage of many insufficiently 
related facts. Judged by these criteria, the social-studies fusion and 
integrative curriculum patterns are definitely superior to the subject 
pattern. They have the added advantage of facilitating other desir- 
able steps toward more functional social-studies instruction in the 
elementary school. 

Relatively few school systems have attempted over-all planning 
for the social-studies program from the kindergarterx through the 


senior high school. Much more needs to be done to insure a de- 
velopmental program in social studies as the child moves from grade 
to grade. 55 Whatever the organizational pattern in use, it is pos- 
sible to plan for the child's growth in understanding basic concepts, 
in acquiring the social-studies skills, and in developing socially ac- 
ceptable values. The social-studies fusion and integrative patterns of 
organization, as compared with the subject curriculum, offer a more 
functional setting for planning such a developmental program 
through the elementary grades. 

The use of social functions, social processes, persistent life situa- 
tions, or some combination of such approaches to establish scope 
and sequence for the social-studies curriculum has been fruitful in 
many schools. These approaches offer a substitute for the curricular 
framework of subjects and help schools move toward a fusion or 
integrative type of program. We need continued experimentation 
in ways of implementing these newer and promising approaches, 
and especially in ways of helping a local school staff apply them to 
its particular situation. Effective use of the social-functions or a 
persistent life-situations approach, for example, depends on under- 
standing and acceptance of a new curricular framework by the 
teacher. Cutting and pasting, never effective techniques for curricu- 
lum development, have even less value in implementing the newer 
approaches to scope and sequence than when used to revise a subject 

In the last analysis, it is the classroom teacher who determines 
how effective any effort to improve the social-studies program will 
be. There is no situation so hopeless that an interested and com- 
petent teacher cannot improve with respect to instruction in the 
social studies. There is no situation so perfect that continued striv- 
ing for improvement is not needed. Rigid curriculum patterns un- 
doubtedly are a handicap, yet there are few situations so completely 
inflexible that the teacher cannot move across subject lines to estab- 
lish relationships between, for example, the historical, geographic, 
cultural, and scientific aspects of a topic. The mandatory textbook 

55. For discussion of this point, see Ole Sand, "Continuity and Sequence 
in Social-Studies Curriculums," Journal of Educational Research, XLIV (April, 
1951), 561-73; Ole Sand, "Tasks To Be Done in Improving die Social-Studies 
Curriculum," Improving the Social-Studies Curriculum, op. cit., pp. 237-54. 


can restrict the program or, in the hands of an energetic teacher, it 
can become one tool among many and so be used appropriately. 
Lack of school-wide attention to sequence in the social-studies pro- 
gram need not prevent a capable teacher from planning with his 
pupils for activities that will build on their previous experiences. 
Most important, by striving for more functional teaching and learn- 
ing of the social studies in his own classroom, the alert teacher lays 
the groundwork for improvement of the school-wide social-studies 


Individual Differences in Classroom Learning 


The Learning Needs of School Children 

Our schools are maintained for the purpose of meeting the learn- 
ing needs of children and youth in attaining certain educational 
objectives which have been set up as most desirable in our demo- 
cratic culture. In the "good old days," when children who could 
not meet grade standards were held back and often finally elim- 
inated from school, the educational program seemed much less com- 
plicated. A fifth-grade child was given a set of fifth-grade text- 
books. It was understood that he had reached an achievement level 
where he could handle them and be ready for the sixth grade by 
the end of the year, or not be promoted. 

The writer is reminded of the first term of school he ever taught 
a one-room rural school with fourteen children in eight different 
grades. Today, an ordinary fifth grade might well have in it as 
wide educational achievements as existed among those fourteen 
children. Normal variation in the personal characteristics of any 
group of children can be expected to be wide in the kinds of 
ability which will affect the quality of learning in the social studies. 

Characteristics which make a difference in designing a social- 
studies learning program for a fourth grade, for example, include 
individual differences in reading achievement and reading interests, 
hobbies, extent of travel, conversation at home, specific talents, 
quality of observation, intellectual curiosity, readiness for social 
adjustment, interest in television programs, written and oral ex- 
pression, study skills, breadth of cultural interests, motor skills, 
ability to work with others, diversity of reading, interpretations 
based on experiences, capacity to learn, and habits of work. 

* The writer acknowledges the assistance of Donald D. Durrell, Boston 
University School of Education, in contributing material and for critical read- 
ing of this chapter* 



In the education section of a recent news magazine, a scientist 
was reported as having said that schools train the exceptional stu- 
dent how not to be exceptional and that he has to overcome the 
resulting tendency toward repression of initiative and spontaneity 
if he is to remain exceptional This is a strong indictment. Yet, 
if one were to visit at random the intermediate-grade classrooms in 
any sizable city, he would likely be appalled at the lack of atten- 
tion to individual differences in many of those rooms. In the pri- 
mary grades the situation is better. Small-group work is regarded 
as necessary to meet the learning needs of the children. But, when 
these same children, still with wide variations in achievement and 
needs, go into the intermediate grades, they must adjust their learn- 
ing habits to mass teaching which is the common procedure. 

It seems to be generally accepted that one of the basic tenets of 
a democracy is respect for the personality of the individual. Accord- 
ingly, the school lends encouragement to individual differences 
which fit a democratic society. This implies a concern for indi- 
vidual growth and requires careful guidance of the learning process. 
In fact, the primary significance of individual differences is that 
children learn differently. This calls for unremitting attention by 
the teacher and a specific design to meet the individual needs of the 

In designing a program to fit an individual child, the teacher is 
faced with certain propositions. Modifications in instruction are 
probably more a matter of emphasis than a matter of kind. The 
literature on the gifted and on the slow learner discusses activities 
and instructional procedures for both groups very similar in nature 
but varying in depth and breadth. Individual assignments are made 
in line with individual needs, but always with the knowledge that 
growth toward certain educational goals also comes through group 
work. Individual differences make for problems, but they should 
also be regarded as assets and resources. How uninteresting it would 
be for both teacher and children if all children were nearly alike 
in their achievements and interests, to say nothing of their person- 
alities. Under good instruction, individual differences will widen. 
There will never be any closing of the gap; to have the gap widen 
under instruction is to provide evidence that the teacher has cared 
for individual differences. 

CHASE 165 

Role of the Teacher in Providing for Individual Differences 

Until a teacher decides that planning for individual children is 
imperative, nothing is going to happen in the classroom in making 
provision for individual differences. What really counts is what 
happens each hour of each day with each classroom teacher. 

The teacher makes choices. Even without action, he makes a 
choice the choice not to act. If there is little provision for indi- 
vidual differences in a classroom, one can assume that the teacher 
has decided to do nothing about that problem. Teachers may use 
the excuse of curriculum demands or administrative and supervisory 
requirements as controlling their methods of instruction. However, 
honest analysis of practically any situation will reveal more areas 
of freedom for the teacher than areas of restriction. Usually tradi- 
tion, inertia, and ignorance constitute the blocks to change. 

For thirty-five years and more, teacher-training institutions have 
stressed the idea that quite possibly the chief problem in teaching 
is providing for individual differences. What many teachers know 
about providing for these differences and what they practice may 
be very far apart. Even though mass teaching does not achieve the 
results we should get in school, it is much less demanding on a 
teacher's time and energy than planning for individuals or small 
groups. Does this mean that some teachers want to work at the 
mass-instruction level because it is easier? 

As in children, there are wide differences in the abilities and 
interests of teachers. So, choice by the teacher works something 
like this. Depending on his skill in planning suitable activities for 
the whole class, small groups, and individuals in his classroom and 
on his personal interest in the welfare of those pupils, the teacher's 
choices may, in the case of each child, have such effect as: 

a) to make social studies liked or disliked; 

b) to have subject matter remembered or forgotten; 

c) to widen or restrict horizons; 

d ) to make study easy or hard; 

) to encourage or discourage initiative; 

f ) to make a task dull or interesting; 

g) to stimulate or deaden intellectual curiosity; 

h) to provide Utde or much appropriate practice in study skills; 
;*) to have wide voluntary reading or reading largely by assignment; 


j) to develop increasing independence of or dependence on teacher- 
made assignments; 

k) to require identical standards for all or adapt to individual needs 
and differences; 

/) to like others or be indifferent toward others; 

7w)to develop pride in craftsmanship with high standards or tolerate 
slipshod standards, 

The number of techniques, practices, and procedures for dis- 
covering the status of each child and helping teachers become sensi- 
tive to children as individuals is large. 1 To assist the teacher in 
developing an understanding of children, the following procedures 
are commonly suggested: interviewing children and their parents, 
consulting former teachers and school records, making anecdotal 
records, listening in or observing during free-work or play period, 
having a time for telling about week-end and other experiences, 
having autobiographies written, having children keep diaries, giving 
and interpreting teacher-made and standardized tests, developing 
case studies, making class logs of activities, interpreting pictures and 
photographs, using community groups and agencies as sources of 
information, conducting role-playing, asking leading questions, and 
using value judgments. 

To facilitate a very practical consideration of individual differ- 
ences in classroom learning, in the social studies specifically, the 
remaining sections of this chapter will discuss evidence of learning 
needs, ways to discover individual variations, and ways to improve 
the situation in three different aspects of a social-studies program. 
These three features of the program pertain to methods of making 
social studies seem important to pupils in the elementary grades, 
stimulating and utilizing new ideas, and developing social-civic 

Making Social Studies Important to Children 

Fifth-grade children have given social studies a low rating when 
they have compared them with other subjects in the school cur- 

i. Gertrude Driscoll, H&w to Study Behavior of Children (New York- 
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1941); T. L. Torgerson, Studying 
Children: Diagnostic and Remedial Procedures in Teaching (New York: 
Dryden Press, 1947) ; "Report of a Committee on Attention to Individuals," 
Teachers College Record, LH (January, 1951), 239-45. 

CHASE 167 

riculum. 2 All of the fifth-grade children in sixty-five New England 
towns and cities, 13,482 of them, were asked to mark on a check 
list their first, second, and third choices of favorite subjects. Social 
studies and spelling tied for fourth place, with 9.40 per cent of first 
choices, while arithmetic rated 22.24 P er cent of the first choices. 
A year later in a southwestern city, the first choices of all of the 
2,350 children in the fifth grades ranked social studies in sixth place. 
There was a very definite rejection of social studies by many chil- 
dren. Nine hundred of the children in the New England fifth-grade 
study were checked two years later in the seventh grade by the 
same type of check list. Social studies were no more popular then 
than they had been earlier. The pattern of dislike or indifference 
had been set, and it had persisted. 

We still have not found definitive answers to the question of 
why social studies are not more popular. We can hazard some 

1. Assignment, study, and evaluation cannot be wrapped up by the 
pupil in a neat little package like arithmetic. 

2. The child does not see or feel that he is gaining in significant 
achievement which is an essential factor in effective learning. 

3. Either too many activities are not meaningful or the child is not 
aware of the purpose behind each activity. 

4. The child fails to get the feeling of power or command over con- 
tinuing valuable processes which should be developed in a social- 
studies skills program. 

5. Social studies are not the favorite subjects of the majority of ele- 
mentary teachers. 

6. There is lack of careful design in methods by which the child can 
see his progress in small units of growth and have the lift given by 
continued success. 

7. Too much content is overburdened with unskilfully presented facts. 

8. Too much whole-class teaching is done with little or no attention to 
individual differences. 

It is this matter of individual differences which is probably the 
crux of the whole situation. If one is to judge by classroom prac- 
tices, there still seems to be a singular lack of concern in the inter- 

2. W. Unwood Chase, "Subject Preferences of Fifth-Grade Children," 
Elementary School Journal, L (December, 1549), 204-"* 


mediate grades regarding differences in interests, needs, abilities, 
and capacities of the pupils. 

In spite of what has been said about the relative unpopularity 
of the social studies, children, in calling for the kinds of ideas and 
information provided by the social studies, seem to be constantly 
seeking more accurate concepts of the world and how it came to 
be. Then what must we be doing to them in schooP 

Baker 3 collected questions from 1,531 children in Grades III 
through VI by having them write the questions in answer to the 
query, "If someone had the time and knew enough to answer all 
your questions, what questions would you ask>" She received and 
classified 9,280 questions, of which 4,582 (49.37 per cent of all the 
questions) were put into eleven categories under the heading of 
social studies. These categories were: 

1. Man as a social being 

2. American history and government 

3. Communication 

4. Travel and transportation 

5. Inventions 

6. Geography of United States and its territories 

7. Distant lands and people 

8. Industries and commercial products 

9. Local community 

10. Recreation 

11. War 

Ten years later, in 1951, Clark and others collected questions in 
answer to the same query used by Baker. 4 They received 54,389 
questions from 4,740 children in Grades IV through VI. There 
were 26,780 questions placed in the eleven social-studies categories 
which was 49.24 per cent of the total Boys asked 51.87 per cent 
of these questions as compared with 48.13 per cent asked by girls, a 
statistically significant difference at the i per cent level in favor of 
the boys. 

3. Emily V. Baker, Children's Questions and Their Implications for Plan- 
ning the Curriculum. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, 
Columbia University, 1945. 

4. Edythe T. Clark et al., "What Children Want To Know about Their 
World." Unpublished EdJVL thesis, Boston University, 1952. 

CHASE 169 

Perhaps distaste for the social studies has arisen because of the 
activities employed with the content or the failure to use certain 
types of activities, A program that is designed to treat learning 
difficulties must be based on the assumption that children learn 
differently and need programs which meet their individual require- 
ments. Proper use of appropriate activities is what gives vitality to 
the social-studies program. 

Foley, in determining what activities were preferred by sixth- 
graders, had the child indicate on an activities check list how he felt 
about "each way of working in social studies." The pupils reported 
by putting a circle around a symbol showing "I like it very much," 
or "I neither like it nor dislike it," or "I dislike it very much." 5 
The twelve best-liked activities were: 

1. See films, filmstrips, and slides about unit 

2. Take a trip to the museum in connection with unit 

3. Find a play and act it out 

4. Listen to reports 

5. Learn new words 

6. Draw pictures to illustrate the unit 

7. Work with a group on a mural or picture 

8. Work in committees on a project or assignment 

9. Study maps of the country being talked about 
10. Make up plays about interesting happenings 
u. Discuss films, filmstrips, and slides about unit 
12. Make exhibits to go with the study 

A study involving 536 children from all of the fifth-grade class- 
rooms in the same schools used by Foley the year before, and using 
the same activities list, found little variance in preferred activities. 
The twelve most popular activities in the fifth grade were among 
the first fifteen in the sixth grade. 6 

Does this mean that activities not among the winners in a popu- 
larity contest among children should not be used? Surely not. It 
does mean, however, that unpopular activities having high educa- 
tional value present a challenge to the teacher. They must be highly 
motivated if they are to serve their purpose effectively. 

5. Harriet M. Foley, Preferences of Sixth-Grade Children for Certain 
Social-Studies Activities." Unpublished Ed.M. thesis, Boston University, 1951. 

6. David P. Duval, "Preferences of Fifth-Grade Children for Certain Social- 
Studies Activities." Unpublished Ed.M. thesis, Boston University, 1952. 



Gay's study of activities at the third-grade level 7 was based on 
a list of twenty direct statements applicable to situations the children 
would likely experience in their study of the community. The 
activities involved in the situations chosen are here listed, the most 
popular activities appearing at the head of the list. 




Seeing a movie 

Building a model 

Taking part in a real radio 


4. Visiting 

5. Acting out a play 

6. Watching workmen 

7. Drawing 

8. Reading 

9. Staging songs 

10. Making an exhibit 

11. Keeping records 

1 2 . Collecting pictures for a scrap- 

13. Interviewing 

14. Writing original songs 

15. Writing original stories 

1 6* Planning a list of questions 

17. Reporting to the class 

1 8. Studying pictures 

19. Listening to speakers 

20. Discussing 

Very little is known about what children would choose to study 
in the field of the social studies if given the opportunity to make 
choices. Out of all the topics which the field of social studies en- 
compasses, what would children indicate as their preference to 
study? What would they want most to learn about> A study by 
Bresnahan sought an answer. 8 It was necessary to construct an 
instrument which would reveal children's preferences. A master 
list of topics that could be a part of a social-studies program was 
compiled. The topics were grouped into nine categories. 

Category i: People. Includes all people: famous people, every-day 

people, professional people, any person who has an 

individual occupation, and children. 
Category 2: Group occupations. Includes any occupation in which 

a group of people contribute to an industry* 
Category 3: ?r ogress through inventions. Includes anything that 

has been invented which has helped us to progress in 

7. Ella M. Gay, "Preferences of Third-Grade Pupils in Activities of the 
Social Studies." Unpublished EdLM. thesis, Boston University, 1951. 

8. Virginia W. Bresnahan et al, "Preferences of Children in Grades Two 
through Eight in Social-Studies Areas," Unpublished Ed.M. thesis, Boston 
University, 1952. 

CHASE 171 

science, medicine, engineering, home life, and the 

Category 4: Periods of time. Includes whole periods of time such 
as pioneer days, colonial days, or Middle Ages. 

Category 5: Cultural aspects. Includes situations of freedom, hu- 
man rights, cultural contributions by other peoples. 

Category 6: Aesthetic aspects. Includes the development within a 
country of art, literature, and music. 

Category 7: Social aspects. Includes reform by religion and politi- 
cal change and its effect on the human being. 

Category 8: Natural resources. Includes the wealth or lack of 
wealth that nature has given that country. 

Category 9: Geographic aspects. Includes size, climate, location, 
and topography and the effect they have had on par- 
ticular peoples. 

Statements were written at each grade level for each of the 
categories and then set up in pairs so the pupil could indicate his 
preference or interests. Thirty-six pairs compared each category 
with every other category, but, in order to eliminate the possibility 
of children checking the first statement too frequently, the thirty- 
six pairs were reversed in the second half of the check list, making 
seventy-two paired comparisons in all. 


If you had to choose, which would you rather study about? 
( ) The work of fishermen on fishing boats? 


( ) How machines have helped in traveling? 
( ) Ways in which Americans are like people in other countries and 

ways in which they are different^ 

( ) What it was like in America when the first people came here to 


Bresnahan secured preferences from 4,129 pupils in Grades II 
through VI. The areas are ranked below in order of their popu- 
larity. The per cent of choices is given for each. (The approxi- 
mate per cent of difference for statistical significance between per- 
centages is 3.) 

1. Periods of time (58.98) 

2. People (55-64) 


3. Cultural aspects (53.89) 

4. Natural resources (49.88) 

5. Group occupations (48.41) 

6. Aesthetic aspects (48.28) 

7. Geographic aspects (48.27) 

8. Progress through inventions (44.84) 

9. Social aspects (41.32) 

Such studies of children's interests emphasize wide individual 
preferences. Every teacher is faced every day with a group of 
children who differ widely in their experiences, desires, drives, and 
degrees of alertness in relation to the materials and content of the 
social studies. Unless the teacher is sensitive to these factors, our 
schools will go right on developing many children who are indiffer- 
ent to or have a distaste for social studies. 

There is no simple formula or easily structured pattern of mak- 
ing social studies important to children. There is no measuring 
instrument which will analyze all of the facets of the child's be- 
havior, thus telling the teacher just what to do in developing satis- 
factory social-studies experiences for each individual child. But the 
teacher may gain insight into the nature of child's problems by 
asking himself such questions as the following: 

1. How much doing is there compared with how much listening? 

2. What evidence is there that the child is following one of his interests? 

3. Is his experience with an activity successful and satisfying? 

4. Is he making use of some special ability in contributing to a group 

5. In what ways has he been allowed to express his own special interests? 

6. Is the learning situation purposeful enough so that the importance 
of learning is apparent to the child himself? 

Guidance and direction in dealing with gifted children and the 
slow-learning pupils is not easy for the teacher to manage. An 
enrichment program to be carried on in the regular classroom for 
gifted children could be designed for social-studies content with 
the application of a variety of procedures such as: 9 

9. Adapted from Robert J. Havighurst, Eugene Stivers, and Robert F. 
DeHaan, A Survey of Education of Gifted Children (Chicago: Committee on 
Human Development, University of Chicago Press, 1955), p. 20; and Curricu- 
lum Bulletin [Arlington County (Virginia) Public Schools], III (February 4, 

CHASE 173 

1. Emphasizing the creative or the experimental 

2. Encouraging extensive reading 

3. Emphasizing the skills of investigation and learning 

4. Providing opportunities for leadership in class and school activities 

5. Stressing initiative and originality in independent work 

6. Developing opportunities for community responsibility 

Teaching the slow learner, like teaching the bright one, calls 
for special planning. The following suggestions of methods suitable 
for instruction in classes of slow-learning pupils are applicable to 
the social studies. 10 

1. Presenting new materials by associating them and explaining them in 
terms of simple familiar materials 

2. Keeping the slow learner conscious of progress at all times 

3. Discovering special interests on the part of individual learners and 
applying learning activities to these interests 

4. Making daily assignments involving specific, meaningful tasks 

5. Attempting only what it is possible for the child to learn and allow- 
ing time for him to learn it well 

6. Teaching the children to read better by taking more time for oral 
reading in order to develop comprehension and vocabulary 

Pupil specialties offer good opportunities in social studies. 11 A 
specialty is a special assignment which deals with some person, place, 
event, product, or period of time. Specialties enrich the classroom 
program, giving the child a feeling of importance. Too often he is 
merely one of a number of competitors having the same information 
which nobody especially cares about. 

Specialties are highly useful for rapid learners, but they are 
needed equally by slow learners who often are submerged in class- 
room competition. Specialties may be temporary, part of a single 
unit, or covering a short period of time separate from a unit. They 
may be more permanent in that they extend over a long period of 
time, when the child takes on the assignment in advance of its use 
in class and is considered the class "expert" on that particular sub- 
ject. According to the subject dealt with, a specialty may continue 

10. Marie A. Mehl, Hubert H. Mills, and Harl R. Douglass, Teaching in 
Elementary School, pp. 385-86. New York, Ronald Press Co., 1950. 

11. Donald D. Durrell and Leonard J. Savignano, "Classroom Enrichment 
through Pupil Specialties," Journal of Education, CXXXVUI (February, 1956), 


beyond the time used in class, with reference to it from time to 
time, or, as sometimes happens, it may become a long-term interest 
of the child. 

Nothing has been said about making remote and distant lands, 
and people and happenings of the past, real to the children. The 
writer believes that the techniques and methods used to make social 
studies seem important to children will contribute toward making 
them real. The teachers' attention to individual differences, so di- 
rected that the pupil population may be successful and feel im- 
portant in their own accomplishments, will do much toward making 
social studies more useful in their lives. 

Handling Intake and Output of Ideas 

Reading, listening, speaking, and writing are essential abilities in 
the social studies, Since pupils differ widely in these abilities, pro- 
vision for differences in social-studies instruction must take them 
into account. The elementary-school teacher faces a dual task in 
the relationship between language abilities and the social studies; 
he must attain social-studies objectives through the current language 
abilities of the pupils; and he must serve language-growth objectives 
through the teaching of social studies. Low language abilities must 
not be permitted to play the part of an "iron curtain" which pre- 
vents the child from achieving social-studies objectives. If the child 
cannot acquire essential ideas and information through reading, 
then oral and visual presentation must be used to reach the desired 
end. But improvement in reading, speaking, and writing are im- 
portant to the child's growth, and social-studies instruction must 
serve objectives of the language studies also. 

The two most serious language barriers in social studies are 
reading and writing. These are recent acquisitions learned after 
school entrance and, for elementary-school children, are very lim- 
ited abilities as compared to the longer established and far wider 
abilities of listening and speaking. At the end of the third grade, 
for example, the average child has met about 1,500 words in his 
basal reader and he will have about 5,500 words in his speaking 
vocabulary, according to the minimum estimates. The two vocabu- 
laries apparently do not equalize until about the ninth grade. Obvi- 
ously, the open channel for learning social studies is through oral 
activities rather than through the bottleneck of reading and writing. 

CHASE 175 

Social-studies objectives are of such high importance that their 
attainment should not become a minor incident in learning to read 
and write. It would be quite possible to reach a high level of com- 
petence in social studies through a non-reading, non-writing cur- 
riculum. Motion pictures, recordings, oral presentations, pictures, 
field trips, discussions, and countless other activities could provide 
a rich and varied social-studies education. Reading and writing 
could be relatively incidental, utilized by those pupils who have a 
high mastery of them. Such a curriculum is not advocated here; 
it is presented as a contrast to sole dependence upon textbook 
presentation of social studies. 

Since the reading of a social-studies textbook is a common re- 
quirement, it is important that both poor readers and superior 
readers be aided in textbook use. For the poor reader, this usually 
means aid in vocabulary, in comprehension, and in recall of the 
content. For the superior reader, it often means encouragement 
to depart from the textbook for the richer resources of reference 

Let us first consider the problem of the superior reader, since 
textbook instruction presents a greater hazard for him. The rela- 
tively meager diet presented by the textbook leaves him intellectually 
undernourished; witness the many studies showing the low ac- 
complishment quotients of superior pupils. The textbook is written 
for the "average" pupil, carefully culled for difficult words by the 
publisher who is constantly admonished to write more simply. 
Dependence upon the textbook leaves the superior reader with a 
false concept of high accomplishment, a minimum knowledge of 
social studies, and a large amount of "practice in sitting" while 
slower learners stumble over inaccurate recitations. Possibly the 
most useful contribution of the teacher to the superior reader would 
be the preparation of a schedule for initiating specialties in social 
studies, timed for later use in connection with textbook content. 
Such a schedule, properly documented with suggestions for obtain- 
ing references and for illustrating the report to the class, insures 
a richer social-studies diet for brighter pupils. It provides the dis- 
ciplines of scholarship for the bright pupil, allows him to make a 
unique contribution to the class, and opens the door to the vast, 
interesting resources in the social studies. 

The reading problems in textbook instruction are often solved 


in theory by the general advice "find easier books for slower learn- 
ers" or "teach through a variety of reading materials on different 
levels." While a great many such teaching units are developed in 
methods courses, their appearance in classrooms is somewhat less 
than universal. The collection and integration of materials seems 
too complex a problem for constant use in a social-studies cur- 
riculum. The use of a single textbook is a much more common 
practice, and, while it presents serious difficulties, there are many 
ways in which it may be adapted to the reading levels of children. 

The most obvious problem in textbook instruction is that of 
vocabulary, both in word meaning and word recognition. Even 
if it were possible, it would be undesirable to eliminate all new 
words from social-studies textbooks. Growth in any subject is 
accompanied by growth in vocabulary, the relationship is so close 
that most standard tests measure achievement largely through vocab- 
ulary knowledge. The enrichment of word meanings is an essential 
part of social-studies instruction, a responsibility which must be 
accepted and met in everyday teaching. Word-recognition diffi- 
culties, in which the child cannot recognize words familiar in 
meaning, appear among poor readers in any class. The pupil must 
be helped over word-recognition obstacles which appear in the 
textbook, but word-analysis practice is essentially a reading or 
spelling skill, not an objective of social studies. 

Determining a child's vocabulary needs in relation to a textbook 
is relatively simple. It may be done by asking a child to read orally 
in the textbook while the teacher notes words which give difficulty 
in recognition. If meaning difficulties are suspected, the teacher 
will inquire about the particular words. Familiarity with the reading 
abilities of a class will enable the teacher to identify in advance 
most words which will be difficult for various groups of pupils. 
This inspection will enable her to prepare preliminary instruction 
to meet vocabulary difficulties. 

Differences in vocabulary need may be met in various ways. 
When the vocabulary burden is so severe for some pupils that silent 
reading is not fruitful, the material should be read aloud to them. 
This eliminates the word-recognition burden but leaves that of 
word meaning. The elimination of word-recognition difficulties, 
however, makes it easier for the child to acquire meanings through 

CHASE 177 

context; this is often aided by the expression of the reader. When 
meanings are new, it is well to define them in oral reading through 
accompanying synonyms or parenthetical phrases. It must be re- 
membered that speaking and listening vocabularies far outreach 
reading vocabularies, and words not understood in reading will often 
be clear in listening. 

The pupils who meet relatively few difficult words in a social- 
studies lesson may be aided in silent reading by chapter glossaries. 
This will call attention to new words and will anticipate the word 
difficulties in the chapter. If these glossaries are first discussed 
briefly with the pupils, then are available for ready reference, the 
burden of study will be lightened. Some children may not need 
the oral presentation and may use the glossaries independently. The 
exhortation to "use the dictionary" on difficult words will meet 
with little success for several reasons. It is common for the child 
to fail to perceive that he does not know a word. If all pupils are 
asked to skim a chapter and make a list of unknown words, the 
brighter pupils will have the longest lists; the poor readers cannot 
find the words they do not know. Even if the child could identify 
his unknown words, the use of the dictionary is cumbersome; by 
the time the child has located the word, he has forgotten the pre- 
vious context in which the word appears* The dictionary is highly 
useful for the superior reader, but it cannot solve the meaning or 
pronunciation burden for the poorer reader. Chapter glossaries are 
much more helpful. They should include the difficult words in 
alphabetical order, the same words divided into syllables with accent 
and diacritical marks, and definitions which fit the context of the 

Good comprehension and recall are not automatically achieved 
through vocabulary instruction alone. Even though the child knows 
every word in the selection, he may still have difficulty in the intake 
and output of ideas. Commonly found handicaps are the following: 
(a) the child may have attention difficulties in reading, (b) he may 
not see the relationships between ideas, and (c) he may lack the 
ability to express ideas, even though he has good comprehension. 
All three handicaps may be overcome through the use of study 

Every adult reader knows the attention difficulties which appear 


in his own reading. He may find his eyes perceiving words at the 
bottom of the page and discover that his mind has left off several 
paragraphs back. Children have the same difficulty, especially in 
reading abstract or remote material; their minds may "leave off" at 
the beginning of the first sentence. They may continue looking 
at words throughout the lesson without discovering that they are 
not attending to ideas. 

The second difficulty seeing the relationships between ideas is 
essential to understanding and recall. This involves the observation 
of structure of the presentation, particularly of paragraph patterns. 
This enables the child to see the facts as part of a whole, not as a 
series of unrelated items. It is difficult to remember unrelated 
fragments; it is much easier to recall closely related ideas which 
are part of a pattern. Outlining is a device for calling attention 
to structure, but it is often cumbersome and is generally disliked 
by children. Paragraph patterns may be taught by effective methods 
which are more acceptable to children: selecting the best title from 
three, with the rejected titles being too broad or too narrow to fit 
the material; providing general questions which the paragraph 
answers, with study teams of two or three pupils listing the facts 
which answer the general question. Usually a two-step outline is 
sufficient for comprehension and recall; the more complex outline 
may be presented, but it is usually more helpful in composition 
planning than in reading. 

Difficulties in recall may still remain when attention and com- 
prehension are assured. Even when the ideas are in the child's 
mind, they still may not be readily available in all types of recall. 
He may be able to identify correct responses in a multiple-choice 
situation but quite unable to answer short-answer questions and still 
less able to give an oral or written summary. Abilities in recall may 
be easily studied by asking the child to write or tell what he can 
remember of a day's lesson, then providing him with a set of 
multiple-choice or short-answer questions. He will often know 
many answers in the latter types of recall but his unaided recall 
may be inaccurate, disordered, and fragmentary. The task of 
organization, subordination, and selection of ideas is eliminated by 
the multiple-choice or short-answer questions. Correlations be- 
tween written or oral recall with multiple-choice recall seldom rise 

CHASE 179 

above .40; this is consistent with the often noted discrepancy be- 
tween standardized test scores and classroom performance. Is the 
ability to identify answers adequate for independent use of social- 
studies material in discussion and thinking? Probably not. Clear 
expression and development of ideas are required in both speaking 
and writing. 

The use of study guides with teams of two or three pupils may 
prove to be effective in overcoming all three difficulties of compre- 
hension and recall: inattention, organization of ideas, and fluency 
in expression. Two levels of study guides are usually adequate. The 
first consists of a series of short-answer questions for each paragraph 
of the lesson, with answers provided at the right-hand side of the 
guide so that they may be folded back when they are not to be 
seen immediately by the child. The second study guide is made up of 
general questions for each paragraph, followed by a listing of the 
facts which are related to the question. These two study guides 
may be used by pupil teams to provide for several levels of need in 
comprehension and recall. 

Pupils very low in attention and reading ability may use the 
study guide which provides detailed questions. It may be used in 
various ways, depending upon the level of need of the pupils. It 
provides the greatest aid when it is used with teams of two or three 
poor readers, by a pupil-teacher who is a good reader. Each ques- 
tion is asked orally; the pupils find the answers and give them 
orally, with each checking the other for correctness. Since the 
questions may contain many of the difficult words of the paragraph, 
the vocabulary burden is greatly eased for the readers. Pupils some- 
what more advanced in reading may work in pairs, first reading the 
paragraph, then uncovering the questions to see if they know the 
answers, and finally checking them with the answer sheet. Pupils 
still more competent may read several paragraphs before uncovering 
the questions, may write answers upon which they agree, then check 
the answers. Since the detailed-question study guide carries the 
burden of organization, its usefulness is primarily for maintaining 
attention and assuring comprehension. It requires every pupil to 
"recite" every essential fact of the lesson and provides much more 
practice than the one-at-a-time recitation following class reading of 
a lesson. 


Well-organized oral recall may be attained through the use of 
the study guide which contains general questions with listed an- 
swers. This, too, is used with pupil teams and may be presented 
in varying levels of difficulty. It aids the pupils most when the team 
first uncovers the general question for a paragraph, then reads 
silently, makes a list of the answers co-operatively, then checks the 
answers with the list of ideas in the study guide. It requires more 
effort when the pupils read one or more paragraphs, then attempt 
to list the essential ideas before uncovering either the general ques- 
tions or the answers. Complete unaided recall may be required by 
superior readers who read the entire selection, then attempt to recall 
the content orally while another pupil checks against the study 
guide. Faults in sequence, omissions, and inaccuracies are then 

Study guides used with pupil teams take advantage of many of 
the preferences of pupils, yet provide constantly developing dis- 
ciplines. They allow pupils to work together, which is preferred 
to working alone. Teachers who use pupil teams find that the only 
"disciplining" necessary is the suggestion that "tomorrow you will 
work by yourself." The study guides assure success and security; 
the child checks the accuracy of his knowledge immediately. They 
utilize oral work more than writing, and oral work is preferred by 
pupils. However, research in paired practice in oral recall demon- 
strates that written recall is also improved by the practice. 12 Most 
important, every child responds to every question, and the ground- 
work is laid for the discussion which follows the retention of facts. 
When used in proper sequence, study guides provide constant 
growth in the intake and output of ideas. 

The language skills of the social studies are obviously not fully 
served by the time the child can read and recall the facts presented 
in the textbook. Skill in the use of knowledge is more important 
than its mere possession. Meaning and significance must be lent to 
the facts through activities which require elaborative thinking. Rela- 
tionships must be established between the newly acquired facts and 
other knowledge possessed by the child. This requires specific plan- 

12. Helen Scott, "An Evaluation of Exercise for the Improvement of 
Recall." Unpublished EdD. dissertation, Boston University, 1949. 

CHASE l8l 

ning on the part of the teacher. It is not assured by high intelligence 
as demonstrated by low correlations between intelligence and tests 
of higher mental processes. 

Elaborative thinking is especially suitable for co-operative work 
in teams of five. Group discussion appears to stimulate elaborative 
thinking, and five pupils working together will usually provide a 
much richer list of associations than five pupils working separately. 
Larger groups diminish individual responsibility; smaller ones fail 
to yield the rich harvest of ideas. 

Some of the suggestions for stimulating elaborative thinking are 
the following: finding ways to illustrate or dramatize the facts of 
the story; planning an exhibit or an assembly program; planning 
an interview with people who have more information about the 
subject; preparing a letter of inquiry; comparing the information 
with similar or different situations; listing questions not answered 
by the selection; drawing lists of generalizations from the selection; 
listing special topics for further inquiry; finding personal relation- 
ships with the materials; planning a field trip. 

Critical thinking is a complex of abilities; it is usually concerned 
with evaluation of material against various types of standards or for 
particular purposes. While it is usually identified with more ad- 
vanced abilities in the social studies, especially in controversial areas, 
some experience in critical thinking may be given in the elementary 
school. Practice in critical thinking may be provided by activities 
such as the following: selecting material which is pertinent to a 
topic as contrasted with material not pertinent; evaluating material 
for its suitability for a particular audience or occasion; making 
suggestions for improving a plan or presentation; distinguishing 
fact from opinion; finding differences in points of view; noting 
overstatements and unfounded claims; evaluating the dependability 
of a statement. Suggestions for the development and evaluation of 
critical thinking may be found in the Thirteenth Yearbook of the 
National Council for the Social Studies. 13 

The development of language and thinking abilities may best be 
undertaken through small-group instruction. However, the size of 

13. Teaching Critical Thinking in the Social Studies. Thirteenth Yearbook 
of the National Council for the Social Studies Edited by Howard R. Ander- 
son. Washington: National Education Association, 1942. 


the group depends upon the objective sought. The acquiring of 
skills in intake and output of ideas is essentially an individual matter; 
but individual work is usually limited to silent reading and writing. 
In these activities, the child often finds learning lonesome and in- 
secure. Oral work requires a listener, but if only one child may 
speak while all others listen, the amount of individual language prac- 
tice is very limited. Working in pairs, threes, or fives makes learning 
more secure, more sociable, and provides far more individual prac- 
tice. However, pupil-team study and independent small-group work 
require specific planning by the teacher; ill-defined, unimportant, 
or unsuitable tasks invite trouble. When the teacher is unable to 
find time to prepare study guides or to set suitable tasks, he may 
provide extra language practice through three-pupil recitation teams. 
Children are divided into groups of three, with the middle child 
being secretary for the group. Questions are presented by the 
teacher; each secretary writes the answers agreed upon by the 
groups. If social studies are to be "social" they must include practice 
in co-operative effort; the social-development objectives are hard 
to attain in unsocial, competitive classrooms. 

Many of the tasks in the intake of ideas may be done with the 
entire group sharing the experience. When oral, visual, or multi- 
sensory presentations are used, how much an individual pupil learns 
is not dependent upon the size of the audience. Types of activities 
which may be used effectively in whole-class activities are those 
which involve demonstrations, field trips, exhibits, displays, motion 
pictures, listening to poetry, plays and dramatizations, choral read- 
ing, appreciation lessons, recordings, radio or television programs, 
group reports on units, class planning, and listening to explanations 
and directions. The sharing of common experiences in a noncom- 
petitive situation adds important values to the social integration of 
the class. 

Developing Social-Civic Behavior 

If the children of a selected group are checked at any specific 
time third grade, fifth grade, or even more than once during a 
school year there will be as wide individual differences among 
them in social-civic behavior as in any other aspect of social educa- 
tion, including subject-matter achievement Whether we concern 

CHASE 183 

ourselves with the relationships of a child to his peer group in his 
classroom in all the various aspects of school living and working or 
to his social-civic behavior in other community institutions and in 
community life, we know that growth must start at the point where 
he is. This calls for understanding the status of each child. 

What a child thinks of himself in relationship to others in the 
group and to standards set up by the group is very important. 
Teachers committed to a program of democratic teaching through 
democratic living and learning understand the necessity for instruc- 
tion in many kinds of skills and techniques required for democratic 

By the end of the sixth grade, a child should have a certain degree 
of ability in skills and techniques required as a member of a group, 
such as sharing intelligently in discussion, participating in group 
thinking, co-operating with others in work and play, cultivating 
attitudes of good will and service, abiding by the decisions of the 
majority, contributing to group enterprises, choosing leaders wisely, 
participating in the government of the school, serving as a leader, 
following a leader, adjusting differences with others in a democratic 
and peaceful fashion, living in friendly relationship with his fellows, 
serving efficiently on committees, working with others in solving 
school and community problems, maintaining an open-minded atti- 
tude in discussion, recognizing rights and property of others, work- 
ing for the common good, developing social sensitivity, appreciating 
the contribution of others to personal and group living, co-operating 
with those who are older and those who are younger, and using 
simple parliamentary procedures. 

There are also such skills and techniques required in self-control 
and self-direction as discovering certain tasks to be done, having 
respect for one's self and others, assuming personal responsibility, 
exercising initiative, respecting the opinions of others, making plans 
alone and with a group, carrying plans through to realization, learn- 
ing how to insist on rights, surrendering privileges as occasion de- 
mands, having respect for authority, accepting suggestions, putting 
one's self in the other person's place, and accepting civic duties. 

Also by the end of the sixth grade, a child should have some 
degree of ability in certain intellectual skills and techniques related 
to democratic action, such as acting on the basis of carefully 


weighed judgments; analyzing rumor and identifying propaganda; 
making decisions and evaluating them; understanding democratic 
obligations as well as privileges; analyzing democratic techniques 
used in community, state, nation, and student government; estab- 
lishing criteria for standards of achievement; evaluating what has 
been done in terms of standards set up; understanding one's responsi- 
bility to school, home, community, and country; thinking critically; 
and recognizing increasing interdependency of individuals, commu- 
nities, and nations. 

To illustrate further the significance of individual differences for 
social-civic behavior, the writer has chosen three studies completed 
at Boston University in recent years. 

Claff ey 14 conducted a study of the attitudes of fifth-grade chil- 
dren regarding respect for rights and property by setting up twenty 
situations to which the children were asked to respond, using multi- 
ple-choice answers. Here is an illustration: 

Robert borrowed a book from school. His baby sister, Kathleen, 
marked the book with crayons. 

What should Robert do? 

(a) Try to repair the damage. 

(b) Tell the teacher. 

(c) Say it was that way when he borrowed it. 

What do you think Robert did^ 

(a) Tried to repair the damage. 

(b) Told the teacher. 

(c) Said it was that way when he borrowed it. 

Many of the children did not know the correct response (the 
socially acceptable response). There was no significant difference 
between boys and girls. Intelligence or economic status of the 
family were not important factors in the decisions made by the 
children. What was important, however, was the difference between 
what the children thought should be done in a situation and what 
they thought was done. The mean of the 268 pupils on the twenty 
situations as to what they thought should be done was 14.15 com- 

14. Rose Claffey, "A Study in the Attitudes of Fifth-Grade Children Re- 
garding Respect for Rights and Property." Unpublished EdJM. thesis, Boston 
University, 1947. 

CHASE 185 

pared with 9.45 as to what they thought 'was done. The difference 
between the two means is statistically significant. 

Herlihy 15 used the same research pattern with 253 sixth-grade 
children in setting up twenty-four situations to reveal initiative or 
leadership in personal contacts, emerging situations, organization of 
groups, and associations within groups. Again, there were no sig- 
nificant differences between boys and girls, and intelligence and 
occupation of father did not seem important. But, there was a 
statistically significant difference between the mean of 15.77 f r * e 
socially acceptable responses in the "should" category and the mean 
of 1 1. 1 1 for the responses in the "did" category. Both the Claffey 
and the Herlihy studies were seeking to find out if a child knew the 
right response to a situation and if he would expect another child 
to act according to that knowledge. That he does not always know 
the right response and does not always expect others to make what 
he thinks is the right response should be of serious concern to all 
those who work with children. These findings are particularly dis- 
turbing because preliminary investigation indicated that children 
responded to what they thought 'was done in the way they them- 
selves would have acted. 

In a study by Cotter, 16 concerned with the qualities nine-year- 
olds wanted to find in their leaders, 512 of them were given a 
paired-preference check list. The terms used to describe the quali- 
ties were evolved in a school which cultivated pupil leadership and 
democratic planning. In order of preference, the qualities were 
rated: ( i ) good sport; (2) helpful; (3) fair and square; (4) kind; 
(5) polite; (6) generous; (7) good ideas; (8) neat; (9) full of pep; 
and (10) strict. There was a significant difference between the 
frequency of mention of the first three and the frequency of men- 
tion of 5, 6, and 7; and the frequency of mention of 5, 6, and 7 was 
significantly different from the frequency of mention of 8, 9, and 10. 

The following questions, although not all-inclusive in consider- 
ing the characteristics of social-civic behavior, may be helpful to the 
teacher. As he asks himself these questions about the entire group 

15. Jane M. Herlihy, "A Study of Some Phases of Initiative and Leadership 
of Sixth-Grade Children." Unpublished Ed.M, thesis, Boston University, 1947 

16*. Margaret E. Cotter, "The Quality of Leadership Preferred by the 
Nine-Year-Old." Unpublished Ed.M thesis, Boston University, 1950. 


of children, he will immediately become aware of the individual 
needs to be met. 

1. Are pupils developing abilities for the conduct of calm and intelli- 
gent discussion? 

2. Do citizenship qualities function as habits of action in pupils? 

3. Do pupils develop concern for the common welfare and then do 
something about it? 

4. Do the pupils initiate and analyze their own activities to find out 
what qualities are needed for effective co-operation? 

5. Are pupils developing their own criteria for standards of achievement 
as citizens? 

6. Have pupils observed, analyzed, and evaluated the benefits of demo- 
cratic action in a specific experience of school or community life* 

A child's chief concern is getting along with other children and 
with adults. His consciousness of person-to-person relationships is 
constantly increasing as he becomes successively a member of larger 
social groups. Studies in educational method show increased learn- 
ing when instruction is adjusted to the individual. This means that 
every classroom teacher must have specific objectives for each indi- 
vidual child. 


Reading, Research, and Reporting in the 
Social Studies 


The Learning Process 


Reading words, pictures, and numbers is an essential skill for 
learning in the social studies. Very early the world of symbols 
becomes part and parcel of the here-and-now physical world of 
little children. Seeing and hearing adults read, turning pages and 
looking at pictures, or identifying labels on home appliances, on 
cookies and candies, on packages and grocery-store shelves these 
mark the initiation of the beginning reader. 

Research is practically an instinctive pursuit of children living 
in reasonably resourceful environments. The yearling patting his 
cereal, the kindergartner dramatizing the jet plane's take-off, and 
the ten-year-old making a cky tablet are exploring facts of texture, 
velocity, consistency, pressure, and resistance. Perhaps in the last 
instance the investigation reaches also into ideas of personal-historical 

Checking picture facts with life facts begets many questions long 
before kindergarten. "Why doesn't the lady take her pocketbook 
to the store?" was asked about a picture of a mother and children 
leaving home to go shopping. "Where is the light switch?" was 
asked about a picture of a brightly lighted room. Answering how- 
to-do-it questions also takes children into books at an early age, 
as when a kindergartner finds how to make a pinwheel from illus- 
trated directions in a science book and an eight-year-old follows 
instructions for dipping candles. Besides this tangibly productive 



reading, children range into an ever growing universe, transported 
there in part by symbols, either graphic or written. New questions 
loom up, fragments of new information mesh into earlier organiza- 
tions of knowledge and feeling, fresh insights light up old beliefs. 
Thus does the "seeking behavior" of children galvanize learnings 
from reading as surely as it gives structure to physically overt learn- 
ing. 1 

Reporting in the social studies is the natural outcome of the 
child's compelling urge to communicate both with other children 
and with adults. Reporting to one another is an almost constant 
process when children live in a stimulating, informal atmosphere. 
Such reporting does not wait until the child has exhausted the data 
of his problem. It provides an almost immediate balance to the 
stimulus of making discoveries. 

All three of these normal behaviors of children reading, re- 
search, reporting are essential to learning in the social studies. 


"Let me do it," is heard wherever children work freely. The 
satisfaction of overcoming difficulties is jealously defended, and 
doing almost always involves finding out. A first-grader drawing a 
locomotive wants to know whether the sand dome or the steam 
dome is closer to the smokestack. He has played trains; he has seen 
trains; he has built a train out of blocks. From his trip to the 
trainyard and from the "story" he has heard, he remembers dis- 
cussion of the mounds on top of the boiler. He knows that a 
familiar storybook contains a well-labeled picture of the parts of 
the locomotive. He takes the book to his teacher to re-read the 
names on the diagram. Thus do research and reading open new doors 
for exploration. Thus they build new curiosity and new satisfactions. 
Now, making the locomotive picture becomes a reporting activity, 
involving precise knowledge unifying firsthand research and read- 
ing. Thus do reading, research, and reporting weave a fabric of 
enlarged and dynamic experience. 

i. Willard C. Olson, "Seeking, Self-selection, and Pacing in the Use of 
Books by Children," Packet, VII (Spring, 1052), i-io (Boston: D. C. Heath 
& Co.). 


An older boy who makes a clay tablet as part of a class study of 
the development of writing lives through learning activities of 
similar sequence but of greater complexity. He must read more 
of both text and diagram; he must carefully measure to make a 
proper mold for the clay; he must copy the Egyptian characters 
carefully. His project takes several days. Interest is strengthened 
by the questions and comments of his friends. He does not wait 
until the tablet is complete to show it and tell about his findings. 
Others in his group learn something from daily contacts with the 
clay tablet as it nears completion. Contributions of primitive writing 
to the evolution of literacy become a concern of the rest of the 
class. When the report on this subject is finally presented in or- 
ganized form, it finds a receptive audience, with many concepts 
ready for the two-way interaction of speaker and listener. 


In this presentation, reading refers to the selection of meanings 
from printed or written symbols. Reference reading is used to 
designate teacher-assigned reading of texts, encyclopedias, biog- 
raphies, travel stories, or some types of factually true but imagina- 
tively treated materials related to a topic being studied. Much 
exploratory reading is of this sort. 

Research refers to investigations carried on in a spirit of honest 
inquiry. Sometimes the quest with which the learner is actively 
identified may involve use of texts and references. At times it em- 
ploys primary data such as persons with pertinent experience or 
training; at other times the search leads to statistical records or "on 
the spot" records such as tapes, photographs, written records, or 
diaries. Primary sources for children may be any authentic, pertinent 
realia observed at firsthand. The unique quality of juvenile research 
is twofold: The learner seeks authentic data on a problem which 
has truly become his own, and he organizes his findings in a way 
peculiar to his own purposes. 

Reporting includes all methods of communication and interpreta- 
tion of data which may inform the learner, clarify meaning, or 
influence action. Representative methods of communication in such 
situations might include telling, making and showing illustrations; 
displaying ready-made illustrations; explaining diagrams, maps, 


models, charts, artifacts, and other objects; dramatizing, giving 
planned quiz programs, interviewing, and conducting panel dis- 
cussions. Reporting involves preparation of the audience and aware- 
ness of listeners' responsiveness. Planning methods of baiting audi- 
ence interest may involve activities such as giving tentative solutions 
to questions to be considered in the report; checking these solutions 
with information as it is presented; adding specific items to a diagram 
or illustrated map; giving a new title to the topic, or even singing 
the refrain of a song incorporated in the report. In short, reporting, 
as interpreted here, is purposeful and reciprocal. 


From these instances it is premised that motivation for reporting 
in the social studies is deeply rooted in children's social behavior. 
Frequently this drive is channelled into committee activity. Not 
only do individuals explore and communicate; they also work as 
group members with clear-cut responsibilities. Interaction within a 
committee provides further social stimulus for an activity which 
reaches out to the whole class or to the school, to the local hospital, 
or to the world-wide Red Cross. 

Social motivation for the intellectual performance of reading and 
research is observed also in the infectious curiosity communicated 
from child to child. One boy's enthusiasm about great astronomers 
starts others in the same direction, branching over perhaps to a study 
of several constellations, to solar energy, or to making telescopes. 
Intellectual curiosity engenders intellectual curiosity among eager 
children who have some of the means of discovery at their disposal. 

Social motivation for co-ordinating research and reporting is ob- 
served in plans resulting from a committee's presentation of the data 
they have found. A third grade studied changes in air transportation. 
They found the world closely brought together as they reported on 
latest jet speed-records. Each child chose one inventor or one kind 
of plane to study. Inevitably many found information for other 
searchers. Three children announced that their pilot fathers could 
arrange a trip to the International Airport, somewhat more distant 
than the local airport which handles continental transportation. 
Travel to and from the airport necessitated a change in school-bus 


schedules, letters of permission to and from parents, and numerous 
other adjustments in social living. Nearness to foreign countries 
became even more vivid after seeing and talking one day to pilots on 
Long Island who would be in Europe or Africa the next day. In 
this enterprise the social motivation was inextricably related to the 
intellectual gains and to the emotional milieu. 


The individual, too, is enhanced as he projects himself through 
activities which affect his companions. A child feels power as he 
holds a group's attention to each detail of how his Roman trireme 
works or to the illustrated map of how Indian trails crisscrossed the 
hills around his school. Finding one's way in an ever enlarging, ever 
contracting world; relating bits of known experience and previous 
satisfactions with new findings in biography, travel stories, or text- 
books fortifies the growing child. Acculturation is one of the strong- 
est drives of childhood, particularly rapid in the period before 
adolescence. Self-development through reading, studying maps, ex- 
hibits, museum collections, and objects of many kinds; through trips 
to factories, piers, farms, fisheries; through the interviewing of peo- 
ple who know and do the special things under study these are 
some of the ways the individual senses his strength and feels adequate. 
Coming into equable relations with the culture helps the young per- 
son to maintain selfhood. Individual entity is re-enforced by group 

In social-studies learnings as thus sketched, communication is the 
key process. Everyone knows how hard it is for children to learn 
to keep a secret. This homely observation is one clue to the motiva- 
tion of social-studies reporting and the series of learnings sparked by 
the communication process. Social-studies content concerns man 
as a social being. Ways of learning in this discipline must challenge 
children's social potential as well as their individual resources. Social- 
individual reciprocity is as essential for optimum academic growth 
as it is natural to children's behavior. In this chapter an effort will 
be made to present techniques of stimulus and guidance which seem 
productive of a high quality of reading, reporting, and research in 
social-studies programs. 


Relation of Learning Skills to Communication hi Society 

The learning processes of reading, research, and reporting, as 
carried on in dynamic classrooms parallel the use of these processes 
in society generally. Frontier research, whether in the science labo- 
ratory or in social services, is constantly served by reading many 
kinds of related material, both primary and secondary, and by re- 
cording current phenomena. Reporting to society at large goes on 
in varied ways through the newspaper, magazines, books, movies, 
and other mass media. True, the careful investigator prefers to 
delay reporting to any large section of the public until his results 
are verified. Children, however, need to report to a small audience 
at almost every step of the way. It might also be observed that the 
adult investigator reports informally to family and close co-workers 
upon hunches and hopes, long before completion of his study. 
Archimedes' announcement of the law of displacement did not wait 
for a formally assembled audience, it may be remembered! 

Satisfactions stemming from the approval of one's peers give 
powerful impetus to children's driving further into the unknown. 
Coupled with intuitive curiosity this group motivation can be used 
to fire considerable attainment. Some children particularly need the 
assurance which comes from holding a group attentive to every 
word and sketch of a well-illustrated "lecture." Others need the 
fortification or teamwork such as is found in a play or carefully 
prepared panel The shy child who is able to bring a neighbor to 
school to show his slides on the Swiss Alps projects himself through 
this experience. He feels good as a contributor to class affairs. Both 
intellectual and personal growth can be enhanced through vigorous 
and productive communication in social-studies programs. 

One of the significant developments of the twentieth century 
is the application of scientific method to social phenomena. This 
process poses particular difficulties for children. With their eagerness 
to find out for themselves and to tell their discoveries, children often 
do violence to scientific objectivity. An impression is given as fact, 
a single observation is reported as a general truth. This immature 
responsiveness needs tactful guidance. A reservoir of help lies in 
the wisdom of the group. Almost any single experience reported 
by a child has been experienced by another. Differences of inter- 
pretation should be prized rather than discarded as inconvenient 


In addition to evaluating similar experiences, teachers draw upon 
other techniques in relating children's immature communications 
to scientific procedure. Teams of children work together to collect 
paper for a Red Cross drive, to get opinions as to the best place for a 
bicycle rack, to give a really accurate account from reading and 
from questioning adults as to how UNESCO operates in providing 
needed help for certain new schools in Asia. Team members chal- 
lenge one another's opinions and observations often with such vigor 
that adult moderation must intrude. But diff ering talents on a team 
illustrate one of the techniques of arriving at clarity, sometimes at 

In studying the ice age and the results of glaciation, a fifth-grade 
group raised many questions which could not be conclusively an- 
swered with present knowledge. Will there ever be another glacier 
covering this town? If a glacier like the one in Greenland could be 
dynamited and dissolved would it form again? Did the animals 
who were trapped in ice know what was happening to them? 
Precise answers to these conjectural questions were seen to be im- 
possible. "Maybe we'll know someday, but we don't now." "This 
is the best idea people have about it, but no one can prove he's 
right." These were statements which summed up a healthy state of 
suspended judgment. Waiting for further data in the case of these 
dramatic curiosities could be vividly sensed. Application of this 
scientific attitude to other problems will have at least some founda- 
tion in experience. Experiments in science, in plant growth, evapora- 
tion, conductors and nonconductors also help to strengthen respect 
for the steps of gathering all available data and of testing a conclu- 
sion before making pronouncements. Thus do related disciplines 
contribute to understanding and to effective use of scientific method. 
Thus do adult and juvenile worlds come into mutual understanding, 

Problems of Special Importance to Reading 


Reading in the social studies shares with other reading the prob- 
lem of drawing upon a reservoir of concepts which illuminate the 
mere words. One of the reasons the modern elementary school 
finds science-reading, both factual and pseudo-science material, so 
highly popular with children is that reality behind the words is so 


often discerned by the children. The data are tangible, in many 
cases, or close enough to sight, touch, and sound as presented by 
pictures, radio, and television, that only a little extension of the 
vicarious experience is necessary to bring the words to life. In social 
studies many abstractions and generalizations are likely to be found 
in the reading material, particularly in textbooks and in general 
references. Eskridge found children quite unable to form accurate 
concepts for geographic terms from reading alone, even from the 
reading of several texts. 2 He found that meanings were adaptations 
which must emerge from firsthand experience and its clarification. 
The experience of sensitive teachers has long substantiated this 
conclusion. Except as meanings are developed through multiple 
sensory experiences and shaped into ideas through expression and 
use, they are not available when the individual faces visual symbols. 
Even though words may often be rendered orally, the appropriate 
meaning may be absent. Hence, the intellectual importance of a 
wealth of learning media for both the primary-school pupil and 
for the intermediate-grade pupil whose important reading task is 
the extension and refinement of meanings in reading. 


A second task of importance to reading in the social-studies pro- 
gram is that of learning to read selectively and critically. Too often 
this goal is disposed of through the assignment of certain pages to 
find the answers to given questions. Gans discovered that children 
do not hold assigned questions in mind beyond the fifth paragraph 
of assigned reading. 3 

The most fruitful procedures used at present to avoid this di- 
lemma are exemplified in the realistic preparation for reading which 
some teachers provide their pupils. One class, embarking upon a 
study of machines and their service to people, brought to school 
many toys which were machines in miniature. Steam engines, a 

2. Thomas J. Eskridge, Jr., "Growth in Understanding of Geographic Terms 
in Grades IV-VII,*' Research Studies in Education. Durham, North Carolina: 
Duke University Press, 1939. 

3. Roma Gans, A Study of Critical Reading Comprehension in the Inter- 
mediate Grades. Teachers College Contributions to Education, No. 811. New 
York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1940. 


machine gun, model tractors, jeeps, trucks, model cars, and planes 
threatened to overcrowd the shelves set aside for them. Books 
about machines and inventors were collected. Their teacher read 
to them from a number of books and pamphlets of the work these 
machines could do and also of their displacement of workers and the 
safety problems they brought in their wake. A science teacher came 
to talk about the basic machines found in many of the complex 
mechanical toys in the collection. This exploration of the subject 
was not merely an intellectual preparation; attitudes and feelings 
were stirred, and ethical notions of human welfare were shown to 
have some relationship to physics. The tremendous scope of the 
study began to become apparent. Individual choices of activity and 
committee responsibilities could be intelligently planned. 

From such background of information and concern for people 
and change, many different leads emerged. Some children became 
excited over the importance of the wheel. Who first made a wheel? 
Is a big wheel stronger than a little one made of the same material? 
Who thought of cogwheels and of getting cogwheels of different 
sizes to work together as gears? Is there any special number of 
spokes in a wheel, or can you put in any number? Are inventors 
still figuring out new jobs for wheels? In this study, as is so often 
true, the teacher knew when the class was really gripped by inter- 
est in machines. Questions became specific, pointed, insistent. The 
child's natural quest for details showed through. 

When these children began to comb their bookshelves and li- 
brary for pertinent data, they were ready to read selectively. They 
really cared about what they were looking for. Each searcher was 
part of a big enterprise of which his contribution was a discrete 
part. Continuing to use pictures and objects, they built further 
meanings from non-book sources and checked their readings against 
them. Finding vague statements led to questioning as to whether the 
author knew what he was writing about, and from this stemmed 
an important lesson in questioning whether the authors of a par- 
ticular book were authorities. 

Settling the matter of authoritative sources is difficult for ele- 
mentary-school children. Perhaps only a beginning can be made, 
but even that beginning is important. Pointing out obvious dis- 
crepancies between two textbook accounts can be merely confusing, 


or it can be done in such a way as to build appreciation for the 
difficulty of getting and giving data accurately. Children who have 
themselves tried to find and tell what really happened in some 
skirmish on the playground or in adults' selection of a near-by 
factory site may understand both the difficulty and the obligation 
to report as honestly as one can with the facts one can get, Opening 
up the problem and seeing how carefully certain authors work to 
get their material may be as far as the elementary-school teacher 
need go. Certainly debunking and devaluating everything in print 
is to be avoided. So, too, is reverence for everything in print, even 
in school textbooks. 

Beyond the child's intellectual difficulty in reconciling differing 
accounts of the same facts or conditions lies the emotional challenge 
to his assurance about reality. Concern for a child's security is war- 
ranted, of course, in the social studies as in other learnings, but over- 
protection lies woefully close to such concern. For many children, 
zest for discovery finds its own reward in considering conflicting 
data. For some, there is evident glee in learning that adults do not 
know everything, and this extends to the adults who wrote books 
which reveal opposing evidence. Others soberly accept uncertainty 
when a mature, man-to-man approach characterizes the teacher's 
relationships with them. To live in a realm of on-going discovery 
and reappraisal may offer no particular hardships to many children 
who begin to sense that adults live always with uncertainty in many 
areas of their lives. For those children unable to make this step of 
growth, it is of first importance that they experience respectful 
patience and reliability in their elders. 


Procedures leading to selective critical reading in social studies 
are premised upon children's having a number of books at their 
disposal. Extensive reading from many sources is one of the key 
characteristics of the emerging program. Intensive reading and re- 
reading of a single textbook continues in wide use, but there are few 
who defend it as good pratice. Neither from the standpoint of get- 
ting various views of the same topic nor from the standpoint of 
individual differences of the learners can the use of a single text be 


The dangers of memoriter learning, when teaching and testing 
are based upon a single text, are too obvious to need exposition. The 
limited horizons of even the best of a single series are even more 
dangerous in a world society in which fluidity of population be- 
comes ever more dramatic. Moreover, the practical problem of 
readability imposes itself with aggravating stubbornness in a one- 
textbook situation. Most social-studies books measure higher in 
readability than the average reading ability of the grades for which 
they are intended. There are overwhelming frustrations in using a 
textbook of fifth-grade readability in a fourth grade, whose range 
of reading capacity inevitably stretches from about second grade to 
eighth grade. Classes, even when supposedly homogeneous in read- 
ing ability, contain a wide range of reading power needing widely 
varied materials. A single social-studies textbook is usually too 
difficult for many and too easy for others in any classroom, thus 
limiting the number who can use it independently with real success. 

Several uses of textbooks are illustrated in good current practice. 
Some teachers, in building readiness for a unit of study, try to 
select those experiences which will equip the children with concepts 
needed for the reading. The period of preparation already described 
as regards the history of machines and their effect upon man necessi- 
tated films, oral reading by the teacher, good stories, anecdotes, pic- 
tures, trips, maps, exhibits, and a suitable collection of books. Class 
use of portions of the textbook may involve scanning, listening to, 
or following the print while others read, examination of pictures, 
and raising questions. At this exploratory stage, the textbook should 
be only one source of information, aided by the teacher, by illus- 
trative materials, and by related experiences. 

A later use of the same textbook may be in the nature of a sum- 
mary. Re-reading for a general round-up of ideas to see if the 
class had slighted any essentials may occupy the able readers. Some 
paragraphs of dubious meaning to the children may be read aloud, 
sentence by sentence, and analyzed in the light of pictures, stories, 
and other materials in the classroom. A hand-made movie on colonial 
settlement (sequential pictures on a roller curtain) may be edited 
as to sequence by reading or re-reading the textbook. A further 
re-reading may be necessary to cement certain ideas to be narrated 
with the viewing of the movie. 


Organizing a study of the industrial revolution by making a time- 
line may well use textual scanning and careful re-reading. Reading 
to check the points the class understands and to list those on which 
they need further detail is still another use the wise teacher makes 
of required textbooks. The slavish reciting of texts which once 
was the trademark of the "good" pupil has no place in a program 
of social studies devoted to goals of social sensitivity, responsibility, 
and the use of scientific methods of inquiry. 


Certain reference skills are an integral part of the social-studies 
curriculum. How to locate topics in an index, in reference books, 
or in picture or pamphlet files can be learned with considerable 
efficiency by elementary-school pupils. First- and second-graders 
are shown the tables of contents and indexes of some books. They 
play with and read picture dictionaries and are led to deduce how 
they are arranged. They make a spelling dictionary in which to 
locate some words they need. They are shown how books are ar- 
ranged on a library shelf. Quite a few second-graders can go along 
a library shelf to find the "S" authors to locate their beloved Dr. 
Seuss. Third-graders see how an encyclopedia is arranged and 
shelved and can follow the teacher's explanation of how he finds the 
right volume for electricity and Indians. As able readers catch on, 
they, too, can explain how they find topics and often guide the find- 
ing process for those who have difficulty in deciding upon clue 

The kinds of reference-reading already sketched in this chapter 
embrace two purposes: the exploration of general components of a 
new topic and the selection of specifics for some clearly focused 
purpose. Involved as these goals are with reporting to a group and 
with solving practical local problems, the skill of note-taking be- 
comes immediately important. Note-taking, along with study-type 
reading, presents an integration of skills which needs careful diag- 
nostic teaching* To proceed too rapidly or too slowly risks learning 

The sequence of skills which some good elementary-school teach- 
ers seek to develop in note-taking may be outlined as follows: 


Kindergarten. Picture-drawing to show the facts or ideas to be pre- 
sented. Block building, sand, clay, or other representation. Teacher is 
asked to label salient parts. 

Grades I and II. Picture drawing; child dictates title or descriptive 
labels; teacher writes; child shows and reads Child finds sentence or 
passage pertinent to class or individual question or interest; puts marker 
in book, reads at appropriate time to class; leads discussion. Child formu- 
lates appropriate labels for drawing or exhibit. 

Individual dictates a sentence based upon observation and reading; 
teacher writes. As writing-skill warrants, the child copies in his own 

Grades III and IV. More complex representations: replica, model, 
picture, diagram, illustrated map. More complex labeling of parts, ask- 
ing teacher for help with spelling. Individuals or group dictate phrase 
memoranda or sentences based upon observation or reading; pupil copies 
appropriate dictated memoranda for his report. 

Child tells about reading or observation in conference with teacher 
who makes brief memoranda of sequence, child and teacher interpret 
memoranda; child uses them in report to class. 

Child locates pertinent reading material, reads with no notation, re- 
reads until he is sure of ideas (two or more times); puts page marker 
in book for reference if needed; talks informally to small group. 

Child copies phrase or sentence from reference, giving exact number, 
size, comparison, or other precise data; records book title and page. 

Grades V and VI. All of the above techniques of note-taking with 
more complex materials and more elaborate labeling. 

Children are urged to take no notes during the first reading, to read 
as many times as needed to get the ideas so as to minimize note-taking 

Copy exact sentences or phrases, giving author, title, pages. 

Group or class exercises in note-taking. Locate pages using index. 
Cite goal what to find out. Scan pages to see if passage is pertinent. 
Read pertinent passage for general sequence. Re-read two or more times 
to choose "remembering clues." Discuss different ways of phrasing clues; 
point out individual differences in choice of clues. Value individuality; 
use "broken" phrases. Recheck findings with goal. Emphasize crediting 
source: author, title, publisher, page. For children who write laboriously, 
accept abbreviations for bibliographical citations. Note that handwriting 
quality differs with purpose; notes must be readable by the writer, not 
necessarily by another. 

Individual application of general techniques taught to class. Neces- 
sary to provide opportunity for child to tell clues often before writing 
them. Oral step needed to clarify and to select. Illustrate dangers of 
superficial reading and too lengthy note-writing. Emphasize economy of 


effort. Able sixth-graders learn to use Readers' Guide, card index, to 
take brief notes to recall whole passage. 


The reading aspect of the social-studies program can be carried 
on with richness herein assumed only if the school library is well 
stocked and readily available to children many hours a day. The 
growth of elementary-school libraries in the past two decades is most 
heartening. Both fact and fiction, in a great range of readability and 
covering a wide scope of classifications, are needed to reward the 
out-reach of even a moderate-sized pupil population. Just how large 
a library is needed by a school of five hundred or a thousand children 
is, of course, undetermined. Conservatively viewed, such a library 
should be at least as large as for an equal number of highly literate 

Reference skills are a part of library teaching in many schools. 
Both the librarian and the classroom teacher share responsibility for 
teaching the techniques of using card indexes, encyclopedias, and 
for finding books according to the shelving plan used. Periodicals 
and their storage and use are, likewise, the subject of library teach- 
ing though only a few children are found to be able to use the 
Readers' Guide, even in late sixth grade. Alphabetized picture files 
and film slides are housed in the library in many schools, and their 
use, too, is a reference skill of considerable import. 

Special services are rendered by the library to classes embarking 
on a topic of study. Often a committee of children confer with the 
librarian about a forthcoming study of medieval castle-life, request- 
ing that a shelf or table be set aside for their class to use in the 
library and that a selection of books for heavy-duty use in the class- 
room be charged to the class. 

The community library is likewise used as a resource for class 
and individual visits and for special loans. Schools and communities 
having no local libraries can often borrow them from their state 
traveling libraries. 4 

So important is this matter of adequate resources for wide and 
selective reading that it might fairly be said that where there is no 

4. See Lucy Tomkins, "Where To Get Books for Fairs and Exhibits," 
Junior Libraries, I (September 15, 1954), 40-45. 


good library for children's use the social-studies program cannot 
reach its full potential. 


The conflict over values of the historical novel or fictionalized 
biography in adult education applies in some measure to children's 
reading. Accurate presentation is essential in the selection of fiction 
for children, but more than accuracy of facts is involved. The task 
of helping children to personalize the data of social studies is per- 
haps best assumed by good fiction either in books or on the screen. 
Identification is essential to the building of sympathy with a people, 
whether of another area or another era. In fiction reading this iden- 
tification with a hero or heroine not only assists the reader's vicari- 
ously entering into the life and struggle and feeling of the character 
but this kinship with book dramatis personae also quickens the sense 
of social drama in which the identification takes place. Questions 
about point of view, about how people live, about their values, and 
about their economic standards and problems are inevitable. 

One of the functions which textbooks can assume only in part 
is to supply sufficient concrete detail for children to generalize ade- 
quately. It is here that trade books fill an important niche. Details 
of dress, of speech, of customs, details of family life and community 
interaction these and other mores woven into narrative structure 
give the young imagination some of the sustenance needed for pro- 
jective imagination and the eventual residue of general, organized 

Never before and this is no idle superlative has there been 
such a wealth of literature for children and teachers to choose from 
in books related to social studies. Each year since the mid-century, 
publishers and authors have produced approximately a thousand 
new titles and a respectable list of reprintings. In almost every social- 
studies area children's literature offers some of its riches. In some 
communities little of this wealth is available; in others much is at 
hand from which to choose. The more limited the budget the more 
selective must the buyer become. 

Probably the first criterion for selection of any book in social 
studies is the author's qualifications. Ann Petry studied minutely the 
background from which she wrote the story of the triumphant slave, 


Harriet Tubman, and ends each chapter with some of the support- 
ing evidence. Marguerite De Angeli went to Scotland to reaffirm 
certain details before completing The Door in the Wall A brief 
biographical statement about modern juvenile authors may serve as a 
beginning point in the search for authors' qualifications. 5 

A second criterion for selecting books is the clarity with which 
the book tells its story. Librarians' opinion can be sampled from 
Junior Libraries and from many magazines and newspapers. Juven- 
ile opinion can be had from Junior Reviewers* Even more desir- 
able is the practice of seeking direct reactions from children locally. 
Committees can help make selections in several ways: by reading 
borrowed books from town libraries, by scanning books at book fairs 
and exhibits, by examining reviews and advertising material. Clearly, 
adult guidance is needed in any such co-operative scheme. 

The extent to which illustration adds to the story in an aesthetic 
manner appropriate to the text is a third criterion. It is not to be 
assumed that the most copiously illustrated book is necessarily the 
best, nor that the most colorful one will add most to the children's 
understanding. Color undoubtedly appeals to children but so, too, 
does black and white illustration. When the appeal of vitality is also 
considered, the question of color falls into reasonable proportion. 

Other criteria exist, of course. Both staff and pupils may share 
in the statement of standards for book purchase and selection for 
given purposes. This gradual development of book standards should 
become itself a goal of teaching social studies, 

Kinds of Research in Elementary Schools 


A good modern classroom contains much more than textbooks 
and writing equipment. It also contains many other books, both 
of fact and fiction, and at least a few juvenile or adult periodicals, 
some of them copiously illustrated. Further, a schoolroom today 
contains still other materials not seen in classrooms in times past: 

5. Junior Book of Authors. Edited by S. J. Kunitz and H. Haycraft. New 
York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1951. 

6. Junior Reviewers. Edited by William E. Dennen, 11 Eastoa Court, 
Wellesley Hills 82, Massachusetts. 


clay, wood, paint, and crayons; a costume box; a science center, 
a puppet stage; bulletin boards listing plans for study, for trips, and 
for holidays as well as charts, maps, graphs, and other visual records 
of children's interests and of their work. Evidence abounds in some 
modern classes that the pupils are learning from the world beyond 
the school walls. Evidence abounds that children are relating their 
in-school learnings with community-wide learnings and that they 
use a host of learning sources both in and out of school Many of 
these learning activities are truly research activities as previously de- 
fined. They are carried on in a true spirit of inquiry using firsthand 
sources or those deemed most authentic; evidence is weighed and 
checked in several ways. In best modern practice, both in primary 
and later grades, children are encouraged to check one book with 
another and to compare book accounts with known facts or with 
firsthand experience whenever possible. 


Beginning reading is presently taught in a fashion conducive to 
testing the truth of written symbols against the facts they sym- 
bolize. The experience chart, stemming as it does from firsthand 
and usually objective experience, provides every child some measure 
of participation in the reading process, broadly conceived. Even 
the child who cannot remember printed words can report that the 
bunny, subject of an interesting observation and written record, 
has five toes on each forepaw or that the young bunnies do not 
open their eyes until they are twelve days old. Rewarding curiosity 
tends to nurture interests for further pursuit. Physical proximity 
of the material or the experience to its printed representation may 
be said to characterize good beginning instruction. The nature of 
such reading instruction carries many implications for elementary 

Further than this matter of reading method, research poten- 
tialities abound for primary children. A study of the school, its 
workers, and its operation, offers dozens of opportunities for first- 
hand research. How many rooms are in our hall? How many chil- 
dren come to school by bus? What does our principal do? What 
does our school nurse do? Who keeps our building clean and warm? 
How do they do it? Who cooks for our cafeteria? Where do they 


get the food they cook? Answering these juvenile queries necessi- 
tates interviewing the persons who know and do, counting real 
things, questioning, and many kinds of observation. 

A study of travel, frequently a part of primary curriculum, calls 
upon the firsthand experiences of children as well as those of friends 
and family. Trips to local bus terminals, railroad yards, and airports 
offer research opportunities to beginners of varying levels of ma- 
turity. Questions are planned for such excursions; other questions 
arise spontaneously at the scene of study. What does the Diesel 
engine use to make it go? Is it hard to keep it on the track? How 
much does a Diesel cost> Where was this one built* This range of 
curiosity is typical of the questions asked by first- and second- 
graders. The engineer or other persons assigned to conduct a group 
on an inspection tour is usually the authority whose word is ac- 
cepted. Sketches made of the unique shape of the wheel rim, of 
the smokestack, or of the front of the new locomotive suffice as 
records of particular observations. Later research might necessi- 
tate the careful study of photographs or diagrams of Diesels. 

Watching the local policeman direct traffic may be a research 
activity of true significance to a committee helping with a class 
study of safety. How does the officer signal cars to stop? How 
does he signal them to go ahead? Who should be listed on the school 
"Safety Honors" list? What does the policeman do if the driver 
doesn't stop when he is told to? How many children did the officer 
help from the time he went out to watch until we came in? How 
long a time was this? Second- or third-graders, whether able to 
read or not, carry on research of genuine vitality in social-studies 
projects focused upon problem-solving activities. 

Of special interest in home-school relations is the kind of re- 
search children are asked to carry on at home. How many things 
did we buy at the supermarket this week that were made in our 
town? How many people work in the supermarket or in the bakery? 
What kinds of work do our own fathers and mothers do? Who is 
the oldest person in our house or in our neighborhood who can re- 
member the first electric lights or the first buses in our town? Such 
questions, which are only a sample of those growing from the curi- 
osity of an average group of pupils, use the home and community 
as laboratory resources for young children. However, they have 


another merit here. They open to children three kinds of research: 
firsthand observation in a real laboratory, inquiry of authorities 
in their field of special knowledge, and classification of data in 
order to arrive at tentative answers These activities have intrinsic 
validity as research procedures. They also mesh with purposeful 
reading and give support to meanings imprisoned by the written 


Able readers in later primary grades and in the middle grades 
continue all three of these research activities as, indeed, does the 
adult research student. In addition, the reader extends his research 
into the realm of symbols. "It says here . . ." is often the introduc- 
tion to printed proof of some disputed point. The gleam of dis- 
covery shines in the eye of the investigator who tracks down a 
good account of how patiently the burro serves the prospector who 
owns him. Research reading for the elementary-school pupil is 
likely to begin with the location of pertinent material about the 
question in which he is genuinely interested. Specific purposes may 
vary widely, but the factor of curiosity is of prime and common 
importance. Without this zeal to find out, no true research is likely 
to occur. With this zest for discovery, which can be fanned by en- 
thusiastic teaching, by vigorous and frequent class-sharing, and by 
the use of firsthand materials, the intermediate-grade pupil uses 
reading as a productive research tool. The element of search vitalizes 
the reading process as it vitalizes much of human endeavor. 

Materials abound for the research reader. Texts and references 
may serve as general guides into a new territory for the able child. 
They may more often yield help as a summary of varied learnings 
by average readers and sometimes by a whole class. In addition, 
children also need diaries, records, and statistical data; they need 
almanacs, dictionaries, biographies, and historical fiction. But the 
motivation which carries the worker through his sometimes-ardu- 
ous pursuits must be constantly re-fired through face-to-face con- 
tacts. The enthusiastic teacher and curious and appreciative peers 
seem, in most classes, to stir this renewal of energy. 

Some primary sources offer considerable difficulty to all but the 
most gifted readers in intermediate grades. The journals of Sergeant 


Ordway fascinated many children in one sixth grade which was 
studying the Lewis and Clark expedition. Excerpts were read aloud; 
only a few were able to read independently from this important 
source. Here is a challenge for gifted readers whose skill can take 
them far and wide. Studying rainfall data from the appendix of a 
good atlas in order to compare certain jungle conditions with rain- 
fall "at home" necessitated careful guidance for another class in 
order to avoid shallow verbalism. Recalling earlier trips to the 
weather bureau, visiting another class to study the rain gauge they 
had made, and making accurate recordings of local rainfall for a 
month were activities which gave substance to the facts of rainfall 
in the jungles of the Amazon. 

Elementary-school children can make only a beginning in learn- 
ing to draw conclusions from firsthand data, whether those data be 
statistics, photographs, tape recordings, on-the-spot annotations, 
sketches, movies, or diaries. This beginning, however, is not only 
an important research skill but it also adds immeasurably to chil- 
dren's appreciation and intellectual curiosity requisite ingredients 
of sound social participation. 


Research processes such as those already sketched offer challenge 
and opportunity to the intermediate-grade youngster who has diffi- 
culty in reading. Of these activities, the more concrete examples 
hold the greater potential. Seeing, asking, making some pieces of 
apparatus for gathering data, and compiling simple records are pos- 
sible even to the limited reader. One group studying rubber and its 
place in present-day life found that many research activities were 
needed for their work. Some of these activities required complex 
reading skills. Others were of the simplest order: In how many 
ways does this school use rubber? How much do different sizes of 
rubber tires cost? Do the rubber trees that people grow in their 
houses have real latex in them? Coupled with the activities illustrat- 
ing various stages of the gathering of latex and the refining of rubber 
making diagrams, setting up an exhibit of local uses of rubber, 
coloring maps to show rubber-producing regions these research 
activities not only employed the poor readers happily but these very 
children made contributions to the work of the entire class. They 


gained in status because they, too, worked on some activities shared 
by all the class and on some which were their special responsibility. 

Techniques of Reporting in Social Studies 


Organizing class instruction for individual or committee report- 
ing in the social studies has to a large extent supplanted the question- 
and-answer recitation. Values usually cited for the newer focus are 
those of richer social interaction, increased responsibility and satis- 
faction for the reporter, accommodation of individual differences, 
and a closer parallel to out-of-school procedures. When well planned 
and skillfully guided, many of these values undoubtedly emerge. 
However, hearing a mechanical reproduction of shallow informa- 
tion from a fellow classmate results in no richer learnings than from 
traditional lecturing or catechetical quizzing. Thorough preparation 
of both reporter and audience are essential if pupil reporting is to 
rise to any greater heights than did the memorized recitation or any 
of the methods now rather generally derided. Another caution, be- 
sides that of detailed preparation and varied illustrative materials, is 
that of length of time allotted for reporting. Reporting beyond the 
listening durability of the class is obviously wasteful Length of 
time alone is not the decisive factor, however. Occasionally a single 
reporter can hold a group profitably for twenty minutes or even 
longer, but this is rare. If reports are brief and similar in substance 
and supporting illustration, only a few should be scheduled for one 
day. Both teacher and pupils need to be on guard against long- 
winded, dull reporting. 

There are many styles from which to choose when a class is 
planning social-studies reports. The kind of material to be shared 
as well as the special talents of the reporter and interests of the 
audience determine the choices. Some of these forms of juvenile 
communication have been referred to in the selection on notetaking. 

Oral narration or description using a picture or series of pictures 
as a guide appears as a frequent kind of reporting in the social studies. 
Pictures made by the reporter for the purpose must be large enough 
for the audience to see at normal distances. Labels and tides are 
usually needed. Pictures may be shown from texts, references, or 


other books; from magazines and other ephemeral sources. They 
should be arranged in sequence if they can be seen while the narra- 
tor points out items of interest or asks questions. A small desk or 
table for the speaker is helpful. Often a partner is needed to hold 
and manipulate large illustrations. Slides, either professionally made 
or child-made, or pictures shown on an opaque projector, need the 
same safeguards as to timing, sequence, and visibility for all. The 
handmade box-and-roller "movie" offers the same necessities of oral 
preparation and manipulation by an assistant. 

Dramatization, from the simple acting out of signals of the traffic 
officer to the carefully prepared play depicting the Olympic games, 
offers varied and purposeful forms of reporting. For informal plays 
in the classroom few properties are needed. An announcer, a listing 
of scenes on the blackboard, and only ordinary classroom appur- 
tenances are needed. A play is sometimes prepared by a committee 
and shared with the class the same day. Others are carefully de- 
veloped from original documents and worked out with considerable 
accuracy as to language forms, costumes, and scenery. An example 
of the latter type is the enactment of a portion of the Constitutional 
Convention by a sixth grade. Examples of the former sort are mani- 
fold: a "lesson" in a colonial school, loading bananas on a boat at 
a pier as the inspector watches, or Columbus' landing and taking 
possession of San Salvador. 

Often a brief bit of dramatization may be part of a lengthier oral 
report. Sometimes a dramatized incident may introduce a report, 
either having an announcer take the lead in interpreting it or having 
the audience interpret and ask questions which are answered by the 
dramatizing committee. Considering children's natural propensities 
for dramatization and its efficacy in learning, there should be much 
more opportunity for reporting through many kinds of classroom 

Question-cmd-answer panels are a form of reporting now familiar 
to children through radio and television programs. They may be 
arranged in many ways. Usually the children should sit around a 
table with the moderator in a central position. For children in the 
primary grades it is often helpful for the chairman to have the ques- 
tions printed on paper large enough for the audience to see. Panelists 
may answer the questions orally. In preparing for a presentation to 


another class or to parents, the teacher may write children's answers 
from their dictation, help them with corrections, and \\ rite the re- 
sponses large enough for all to see. This kind of panel obviously 
shares newly gained reading skills which, for primary-grade pupils, 
are a source of genuine pride. Spontaneous discussion supplements 
the reading framework. For older children, oral discussion is, of 
course, preferable. In either case, panels need to prepare and re- 
hearse their questions, the sequence of events, and thek cues. Unless 
well prepared, though not memorized, a panel discussion or question- 
answer presentation is usually a total waste of audience time. 

Demonstration procedures with models, exhibits, costumes, and 
the like offer interesting ways of reporting. Audience attention is 
usually easier to focus when material objects are present. A bor- 
rowed candle-mold, a Viking ship model, and a set of dolls and flags 
representing members of the United Nations are only three of thou- 
sands of possibilities. Preparation by the reporter involves the best 
ways of displaying the material as well as his sequence of explana- 
tory details. Telling and showing a committee first is a good prac- 

Narration -from notes is one of the more mature kinds of report- 
ing which some fourth-grade pupils and older children learn to 
handle effectively. After research and study, assembling the data 
in some kind of order usually requires "talking it out" with some- 
one. In the beginning the teacher makes notes as the child tells, then 
helps him see the outline as a guide to what he has said. He then 
uses this guide in presenting his information to the class. 

As children develop more power in writing they may make notes 
in simplified outline form. Usually a great deal of teacher assistance 
is needed in this step of generalizing. Telling the teacher what one 
wants to say and co-operatively deciding upon a "remembering 
word" or a topic to use in one's outline remains a necessary process 
for most elementary-school children. Group exercises in making 
simple outline guides are sometimes helpful, but many children will 
need additional help when they attempt to apply these techniques 
to materials they have collected individually. 

Written reports can be shared with a group by display or by 
reading aloud, or both. In either case, illustrative material is needed 
both for clarity and for stimulating varied interests. Practice in 


reading a written report is sharpened in efficiency by working with 
a partner. Paitners read their reports to each other, correct senten- 
ces \vhich may not be clear, alternate in holding illustrations or dem- 
onstrating with models or other objects. Smooth, effective oral 
reading to the class is a requisite for holding class interest. Practice 
for this occasion should be as definitely planned as any other teaching 

Bulletin-board displays of written reports can follow oral read- 
ing or can, at times, substitute for reading a report. Along with 
illustrations, maps, charts, or three-dimensional exhibits, a bulletin 
board display in hall or classroom serves to unify fragmentary learn- 
ings and to bring personal satisfaction to individuals or group. Occa- 
sionally it is helpful for older children to mount a series of reports 
so as to show original "rough" notes, the writer's outline-plan made 
with his teacher, his first draft of the written report, and the final, 
carefully copied product This serves to show the many steps neces- 
sary in gathering data, organizing them, writing, correcting, and pre- 
senting the final form. Learning these techniques is essential in other 
disciplines as well as in social studies. Seeing the steps in graphic 
form, after their completion, is not only personally gratifying to 
the reporter at the moment but also solidifies these learnings for fu- 
ture reporting in new areas. 

Written reports themselves take many forms. They may be ex- 
position, outline, question-and-answer, or narrative-cartoon style. 
They may be bound in booklets or collected in a large book for class 
display or in more conventional size for the library. Portfolios are 
excellent for the preservation of notes, clippings, pictures, and brief 
written statements. A written report can capture the inventiveness 
of many children in its format as well as in its challenging message. 


Preparing the audience for effective listening is an obligation of 
the reporter and of the teacher. Building a common background 
of interests should go on throughout any major study. When a class 
has reached the stage of a study in which everyone, or almost every- 
one, is preparing to report on his own special interest, the group 
needs some unifying experience which may also lead to eager listen- 
ing later on. Almost everyday there should be a brief time for shar- 


ing highlights. Asking if others have found "anything good" on the 
earliest kind of oil lamps or latest uses of solar heat often brings 
direct help as well as increased interest in the report to which one 
has made a small contribution. Posting pictures with captions or 
questions before one's report is finished is another helpful technique. 
So, too, is a request for certain materials on a "Help Wanted" bulle- 
tin board, such as a recipe for making soap or an appointment with 
someone who has worked as a forest ranger. A sense of mutuality 
and the cultivation of informed interest both result from this day- 
to-day sharing of progress and difficulty. It is doubtful whether 
any genuine interest in a report, no matter who gives it, is likely 
unless the audience possesses considerable pertinent information and 
lively concern. 

Before a particular report of any length, the audience should 
have earlier related experiences brought briefly into focus and 
should have time to get physically comfortable and within hearing 
and seeing distance. The reporter himself must learn to use some 
techniques to capture audience interest in the beginning. These may 
be a pungent quotation, an anecdote, a good picture, or a placard 
hinting at some surprise bit to look for in the report to come. The 
initial stimulus may consist of asking the audience to answer some 
question or to perform some activity involving the subject upon 
which the reporter is to expound, such as jotting down guesses for 
the number of people who work in the local power plant or naming 
three things in the classroom made of steel. 

In addition to preparing and goading the audience to react, re- 
porters need to learn to sense audience interest. This seems very 
difficult for children who want the ego-satisfaction of enjoying the 
limelight, even if they have lost their audience. Sometimes the 
teacher must step in, ask a question or point out some graphic de- 
tail, and suggest that the reporter skip over to the part of his report 
where action holds interest. However, getting and using varied ma- 
terials and careful preparation for reporting should preclude many 
such failures, else real damage is done. In group teaching, analysis 
should be made of those factors which hold interest. In individual 
or committee planning, each report should be checked in advance 
for interesting components as well as variety and length. Indeed, at 
every step of the way in developing reports, the teacher needs to 


remember that the dual purpose of reporting embraces both reporter 
and the entire audience. 

The number of forms of reporting available for children allow 
ample latitude for the shy child who needs to fortify himself with 
a planned progression of pictures, demonstrations, or specific con- 
tributions in a panel or "movie" serial. The verbose individual can 
be held in check by trying out his report with a partner, timing it, 
and cutting it as needed. The use of pictures or written notes can 
help further to hold the marathon talker to his subject. Occasionally 
the teacher will have to give a warning that only a few minutes 
more can be used and save face for the youngster by asking him to 
arrange his report and materials for visual display. 

Of equal importance with building active audience interest is 
the follow-up discussion. In some classes the child immediately asks 
for comments and questions after his report. Where children have 
been schooled to look for constructive leads and to be positive in 
their reactions, this is most desirable. Sometimes questions open up 
new areas for study or give the reporter another chance to clarify 
a foggy point. Comments may bring in related ideas or experiences 
which help to tie up the new learnings to other centers of interest. 
In any case, both relatedness and clarity should be the goals of such 
follow-up discussion. Never should it degenerate to fault-finding. 
It takes no skill to say, "Johnny used too many 'ands.' " Careful 
assimilation and preparation often prevent repetitive "ands." In any 
case, public denunciation does not cure the ill Because time pres- 
sures are always insistent, some teachers limit comments to two or 
three for each report. More can be accomplished at times by re- 
serving discussion until several related reports have been completed. 


One does not know for sure whether a boat will float until it is 
put into water* A report has not achieved its destiny until it is com- 
municated. Testing the clarity of a report can only be done by the 
audience. In this sense, reporting to an audience is an evaluating 
procedure. The quality of questions, the degree of interest, the com- 
prehension of the listening group tell how the worker has succeeded. 
After a series of reports, outstanding techniques may be noted, clear 
illustrations pointed up, forceful statements of ideas recalled. In this 


way both individual satisfaction can be assured and a more imper- 
sonal evaluation of technique achieved. 

Another learning 'which stems from organizing written or oral 
reports is the intellectual one of unifying the fragmentary learnings 
which are inevitable in the unevenness of normal growth. To be 
available for future use, learnings must be related, organized, 
evaluated. Academic as this seems, it is a natural part of children's 
constant urge to do and to tell. Teaching reporting with reference 
to both individual and social growth becomes part of an unbroken 
chain, using old learnings to plan new ventures. The cycle is con- 
tinuous and dynamic. 


Education for Citizenship 


Citizenship Education Defined 

A student of our professional literature concerning the school's 
responsibility for teaching citizenship may well be troubled by the 
different ways in which the word "citizenship" is defined. Current 
writers seem to have gone beyond the earlier acceptance of citizen- 
ship as merely synonymous with personal virtues such as honesty, 
friendliness, and responsibleness. Many of these educators think of 
citizenship as being concerned with all human relationships, while 
others urge us to limit our definition lest we fail to educate for better 
citizenship simply because our goals are too broad. Mahoney has de- 
fined civic education as follows: 

Qvic education includes and involves those teachings; that type of 
teaching method; those student activities; those administrative and super- 
visory procedures which the school may utilize purposively to make for 
better living together in the democratic way; or [synonymously] to de- 
velop better civic behaviors. 1 

The Thirty-second Yearbook of the American Association of 
School Administrators also takes the comprehensive view. 

It [the yearbook] conceives of citizenship in broad terms the citi- 
zen who gives true faith and allegiance to the United States of America 
has civic responsibilities that begin in his own home and extend in ever 
widening circles to the human and international problems beyond his 
own country's borders. To equip the citizen to meet these responsibili- 
ties^ the school begins with respect for the individual personality and 

i. John J, Mahoney, For Us the Living: An Approach to Civic Education, 
39. New York: Harper & Bros., 1945. 



on this foundation must build a foursquare program of knowledge and 
understanding, attitudes of loyalty, ability to act nobly for the common 
welfare. 2 

A recent brochure explaining the program of the Tufts Civic 
Education Center is more restrictive. 

Yet civic education has clear limits. It deals with problems of public 
action, problems of common interest to all individuals in their capacity 
as citizens. To confuse these problems with problems of personal adjust- 
ment in the whole range of individual relationships is to invite failure 
in education for citizenship. 3 

Penrose urges the acceptance of even stricter boundaries 

. . . civic educators will do well to focus their attention on the po- 
litical behavior definition of citizenship. In the United States this area 
centers around those liberties, privileges, and obligations of the citizen 
which are expressed in various constitutions and statutes, and interpreted 
in court decisions. 4 

While there are important values, as we shall see later, in the 
more specific definitions, it is the thesis of this chapter that those 
of us who are primarily concerned with the elementary school must 
think of citizenship education in broad terms. The importance of 
the elementary school's helping to produce effective citizens for 
our democracy-focused society, and the fact that citizenship de- 
mands many specific competencies and attitudes these cannot be 
denied. However, our interest in a definition is that it helps us to 
determine the kind of program for civic education required of the 
elementary school. Let us, therefore, turn to one of the guiding 
principles (not objectively measurable but our most productive 
hypothesis) upon which we develop our programs for younger chil- 
dren, namely, that children will become what they are, that they 
will learn what they live. It follows, then, that if we want these 
children to be creatively participating members of their democratic 

2. Educating -for American Citizenship, p. 6. Washington: American As- 
sociation of School Administrators, National Education Association, 1954. 

3. Making "Better Citizens, p. 12. New York: Civic Education Project (n 
West Forty-second St.), circa 1952. 

4. William O. Penrose, Freedom Is Ourselves: Legal Rights and Duties of 
the Citizen as a Basis for Civic Education, p. 25. Newark, Delaware; University 
of Delaware Press, 1952. 


communities when they are adults, we must help them live as crea- 
tively participating members of their communities today. This 
means, in so far as the elementary school is concerned, that our task 
in citizenship education is to help children be socially sensitive, 
socially responsible, and socially intelligent members of their total 
school community and of their school subcommunities, with exten- 
sions whenever possible into the community beyond the school, 

What do we mean by the three terms "sensitive," "responsible," 
and "intelligent"^ The first two may be thought of as attitudes. 
An effective citizen is someone who has awareness, is sensitive to 
societal needs, problems, opportunities. But someone may be sensi- 
tive to, let us say, a traffic hazard existing in his community and 
never do more than complain, "Why don't they do something about 
this?" Beyond sensitivity there is need for a sense of personal re- 
sponsibility, so that this hypothetical person will ask, not "Why 
don't they 1 ?" but "What can /?" and ask the question in an emo- 
tional context of courageous personal commitment. These two req- 
uisites for eff ective citizenship are apparently functions of the indi- 
vidual's emotions, his feelings about both his society and himself. 
But beyond these basic attitudes, something else is still needed: 
"know-how," skills and knowledge, the capacity for intelligent 
action. What to do? "An irate letter to the press? See a politician^ 
Is there someone in the local government concerned about traffic 
problems? Are there civic organizations through which one can 
work? How find out if other people are concerned? Do I have 
any legal rights?" 

In a small community a men's service club grew very much ex- 
cited by a speaker's forceful presentation of the idea that, since the 
town did many things for boys, the club ought to start a basketball 
league for girls. The hat for contributions was about ready to start 
the rounds when a member stood up and said, "I'm all in favor of 
doing something for the girls in our town. But I don't see how we 
know so quickly that our money would be best spent upon basket- 
ball. Why don't we at this moment determine that we are going to 
do something and then get in touch with the superintendent of 
schools, maybe some people from social agencies, the police, and so 
on, and find out from them if they have any ideas about what girls 
in our community need most?" To sensitivity and the feeling of 


responsibility this person was adding social intelligence which 
stemmed from knowledge of how his community functioned and 
from experience in reasoned group action to solve problems. 

The Foundation: Emotional Health 

Effective citizenship, then, depends upon a combination in the 
individual person of certain attitudes and certain skills, understand- 
ings, and knowledge. Quite naturally educators who are primarily 
concerned with the education of young children have become in- 
creasingly aware of the fact that at least the attitudes in this neces- 
sary combination are integrally related to the general emotional de- 
velopment of children. The attitude of sensitivity or awareness, the 
attitude of personal commitment in social action those emotional 
forces in the individual are not simple entities but intricate com- 
plexes. For this reason, any professional staff which sets out to try 
to find answers to the question, "How can we help our children 
develop social sensitivity and social responsibility?" inevitably ends 
up studying ways of fostering general emotional health in the school. 
Pflieger and Weston, in their report on certain aspects of the five- 
year citizenship education study carried out in four elementary, two 
junior high, and two senior high schools in Detroit by the Detroit 
Public Schools and Wayne University bear testimony to this point. 

As data about children were gathered, as ideas from others were ex- 
amined, and as other educational and sociological theories were studied, 
the idea [that citizenship depends upon emotoinal adjustment] became 
a conviction. 5 

Regardless of the approach, they [the teachers] sooner or later fo- 
cused attention on the emotional needs of children. 6 

Every sensitive teacher who has tried to guide younger children 
in any learning will say "amen" to the conclusion of these Detroit 
teachers that the pupil "cannot be loyal to the democratic way of 
living if he is incapable of living beyond himself. He cannot use 
skills of democratic living if he cannot satisfactorily relate himself 
to others." The following list of guideposts for improving citizen- 

5. Elmer F. Pflieger and Grace L. Weston, Emotional Adjustment: A Key 
to Good Citizenship, p. 10. Detroit: Wayne University Press, 1953. 

6. Ibid^ p. 131. 


ship is also significant in showing that this group of teachers, as a 
result of an intensive search for ways to improve citizenship educa- 
tion, felt that emotional adpstment is the all-important base upon 
which citizenship can develop: 

j. Teachers need to know as much about developing emotional adjust- 
ment as they do about teaching subject matter. 

2. Teachers need to accept the idea that all behavior is caused. 

3. Good citizenship depends on the quality of the relationships among 

4. Teachers must help to give children the love and affection which 
they need. 

5. Teachers must help make children feel that they are important. 

6. Teachers and schools must find ways in which all children can ex- 
perience success 

7. Mentally healthy children learn better. 

8. Administrators need to be more concerned about the mental health 
of teachers. 

9. Teachers and administrators need to give attention to their own 
mental health. 

10. Both preservice and in-service training of teachers must emphasize 
the relationship of good mental health to citizenship. 

u. Schools need to permit more opportunities for children to satisfy 
their fundamental needs and to work out their normal emotional 

12. A changed school organization does not assure a better citizenship 
program nor a better school. 

13. Individuals should not be permitted to get lost. 

14 Teachers need a clearer picture of their teaching obligations. 
15. Continuous evaluation of school and classroom practices is neces- 
sary to determine the values of citizenship-education programs. 7 

But emotional health is not enough. It is important that we rec- 
ognize that better education for citizenship will not result from 
some trick in school organization or some easy formula of new 
techniques but that it depends upon something happening deep in 
the emotional experience of children. Yet there is a danger here, 
too, if we are not accurate in judging "emotional adjustment" or if 
we forget that the basically important foundation for a structure is 
not the structure itself. 

7. Ibid., pp. 132-41. 


It has long been recognized that many teachers mistake mere con- 
formity to adult wishes as evidence that a child is "well adjusted." 
It is easy to make the mistake of thinking that the "good" boy or 
girl in school will automatically be the good citizen in later years. 
Penrose writes: 

Elementary-school teachers in particular have professed to educate 
for citizenship when they dealt with good manners, truthfulness, and 
honesty. Their justification for identifying this content with civic train- 
ing comes from the expectation that behavior patterns so established will 
later "transfer" to large group or civic relationships. But too often their 
expectations have been unwarranted. For such activities as keeping 
paper picked up around one's desk and keeping potted plants faithfully 
watered tend to become ends in themselves instead of means to the end of 
effective citizenship. 8 

Much of the great danger, however, comes from the possibility 
that in accepting the truth of the emotional-adjustment-base concept 
we may forget that effective civic participation requires particular- 
ized attitudes, skills, understandings, and knowledge. We do not 
have enough evidence to support the assumption that a truly well- 
adjusted child will automatically develop effective citizenship be- 
havior. There is some opposite evidence. Trager and Yarrow, in re- 
porting the findings of the Philadelphia Early Childhood Project 
which studied the prejudices of children in kindergarten and Grades 
I and II and which experimented with techniques for changing atti- 
tudes, state, "The Project findings do not support the belief that 
prejudice develops only in the insecure child." 9 They also point 
out that while a school which wishes to teach democratic human 
relations must be a school which sets up conditions to foster friend- 
liness and successful learning, these conditions alone are not suffi- 

. . . friendliness in school and conditions to promote learning do not 
alone result in children's learning democratic attitudes or behavior. 
While a school should provide a social environment to promote good 
living together, this of itself will not give the children the necessary 

8. Penrose, op cit., p. 21. 

9. Helen G. Trager and Marian Radke Yarrow, They Learn What They 
Live: Prejudice in Young Children, p. 362. New York: Harper & Bros., 1952 


knowledge or experiences which will help to develop feelings and values 
necessary for improved human relations in and out of school. 10 

It may be argued that the out-of-school community pressures are 
more heavily weighted against the development of democratic inter- 
fersonal and intergroup attitudes than they are against the develop- 
ment of democratic civic attitudes. If this is true, then we can per- 
haps expect more automatic or "transfer" civic attitudes to grow 
out of a school environment which is emotionally healthful. But 
the attitudes of American youth and the observations of any in- 
telligent person about the civic behavior and the attitudes toward 
politics of many "educated" Americans are certainly sufficient rea- 
son for our not assuming that our task can be accomplished with 
any halfway measures. 

A Planned Program 

If the elementary school is to become more successful in educat- 
ing for democratic citizenship, the school will be concerned about 
what we might term the "emotional base" but will, in addition, have 
a deliberately planned program for guiding children in growing up 
as socially sensitive, responsible, and intelligent members of a demo- 
cratic society. Let us turn now to the consideration of such a pro- 
gram, realizing, of course, that the elements which compose a total 
program can be treated adequately only in a book and not in a por- 
tion of one chapter. Fortunately, there exist many resources upon 
which interested teachers and professional groups may call for as- 
sistance. Among the most valuable books are two reports of the 
Detroit Citizenship Education Study. 11 Many schools, school sys- 
tems, and colleges are receiving valuable assistance from the Citizen- 
ship Education Project of Teachers College, Columbia University, 
and from the Civic Education Project of the Tufts Civic Education 
Center at Medford, Massachusetts. While the services and materials 
of these projects are directed chiefly toward school levels above the 

10, Ibid., pp. 357-58. 

11. Stanley E. Dimond, Schools and the Development of Good Citizens: 
Final Report of the Detroit Citizenship Education Study (Detroit Wayne Uni- 
versity Press, 1953), and Arnold R. Meier, Florence Damon Cleary, and Alice M. 
Davis, A Curriculum for Citizenship: A Total School Approach to Citizenship 
Education (Detroit. Wayne University Press, 1952). 


elementary, useful adaptations can be made to programs for younger 
children. Of special value as a resource is the 1954 yearbook of the 
American Association of School Administrators. This publication 
not only defines the philosophical justification for intensive effort 
in citizenship education but oifers a wealth of practical program 
suggestions. Helpful suggestions for planning a program will also 
be found in Education for Democratic Citizenship, the 1951 year- 
book of the National Council for the Social Studies, and in Learn- 
ing the Ways of Democracy, the 1940 report on outstanding citizen- 
ship-education practices in selected schools, issued jointly by the 
Educational Policies Commission, the National Education Associa- 
tion, and the American Association of School Administrators. 


The citizenship-education program in any school requires that 
the attitudes of the teachers and the climate of the entire school 
support the program. Are the teachers, supervisors, and administra- 
tors people, who, themselves, are interested in civic affairs? Do they 
feel: "7 am important in social action," or do they ask, "Why don't 
they do something about things' 1 " Is the school for them a commu- 
nity in which they act as sensitive, responsible, intelligent citizens? 
If it is not, their having formulated what they mean by "democ- 
racy" or "good citizenship" will have lost much of its value for the 

An effective citizenship-education program requires that the 
school plan experiences for children to give them a sense of personal 
involvement in the life of their community. A good citizen has the 
feeling that he belongs, that it is his town, his state, his nation, and 
his world. And so the school must strive to give each child this 
sense of being involved in the community of the classroom, the com- 
munity of the club or other special group, the community of the 
entire school. To the extent possible, of course, the school will ex- 
tend the child's participation-unit out into the community beyond 
the school. The laboratory experiences for schools proposed by the 
Teachers College Citizenship Education Project will prove sugges- 
tive to many elementary-school educators. But essentially, the par- 
ticipation or involvement units for which the school can make con- 
sistent plans are the units of the school itself* 


One unit in which children can be involved in the life of the 
school community is the whole category of service jobs so often 
performed by children: caring for plants and animals in the class- 
room, taking responsibilities for keeping attendance and other rec- 
ords, running errands, serving as guides or hosts and hostesses, and 
many others, including, of course, the very important service on 
the Safety Patrol. That these jobs are often significant to the chil- 
dren is evident. Talks with parents will frequently elicit such re- 
marks as, "Oh, my boy just lives for that Safety job." The chief 
responsibility of the teaching staff is to see that the children assigned 
to these jobs perform real and necessary services in the school and 
to help them see the relationship of their activities to the general 

Unfortunately, we have progressed very little toward making 
our schools places in which children can assume some significant 
responsibility for the physical work involved in operating the school 
community. This was a goal much discussed by educators in the 
1930'$, Apparently, we must wait for a new context of social forces 
before it is realized. In some nonpublic schools, pupils help with 
painting and repairs, cut the grass, do the wiring for the stage, and 
help run the cafeteria, but we have done almost nothing to reduce 
the very important barriers to this type of child-community involve- 
ment in the majority of the public schools. 


Student councils and other forms of student government offer 
many opportunities for the types of pupil involvement we are ad- 
vocating. Councils are often justified chiefly on the ground that 
they give children practical experience in the workings of repre- 
sentative government. More important than this, however (as Dewey 
liked to point out), is the consideration, "Is the experience good or 
bad?" One wonders what the impact is upon the child who goes 
through years of school vaguely aware that some other child every 
once in a while goes to something called a "council." This "some- 
thing" never has any real effect upon his own life. No problems by 
which he is truly troubled are ever solved by it. Oh, he sees that 
the teachers seem to like the idea, and there are moments when he 
experiences wishful pangs about being the lucky person who gets to 


do this thing that is different . . . but For such a child (and there 

are many of them in our classrooms today), these first contacts with 
"representative government" are certainly far from beneficial. If 
the -form of government is to have positive significance to the child, 
he must feel that the functioning of that government is important 
in his life. We must continue to experiment with "student govern- 
ment" in our schools, but our emphasis must be upon this problem 
of meaning for the child again, the question of involvement. 
Many student councils might be improved if the following points 
were given consideration: 

1. The limitations of responsibility should be clearly and consistently 
outlined. Children can be given the right to make decisions in only 
a relatively few areas of responsibility. Let the teachers decide which 
powers can be delegated to the children, and then let the children 
exercise these powers even to the extent of making mistakes. 

2. Every effort should be made to encourage the council to consider 
problems which are truly important to the children. When the teach- 
ers are seeking help from the children in solving a problem which 
does not seem a problem to the children, let the teachers present the 
situation honestly. The noise in the cafeteria, for example, may not 
be a problem to the children, and yet it can well be a school problem 
which the teachers want to ask the co-operation of pupils in solving. 
Such distinctions may seem at first to be extremely fine, and yet they 
are essential if our emphasis is to be placed upon meaning. 

3. It should be remembered that the work of the representatives is only 
an extension of democratic actions centered in the classroom groups. 
If there is need for a council, or some other co-ordinating body, it 
is because the actions of the "grass roots" groups in the school need 
co-ordinating leadership. Seen in this light, a weekly short discus- 
sion in the classroom of the report "brought back from council" is 
woefully inadequate. 

4. Nearly all elementary schools experience difficulty with die in- 
ability of the representatives of the youngest grades to report ac- 
curately. Many schools have found value in a bulletin written by 
older children and the teacher adviser after the council meeting. 
Some schools have older pupils act also as helpers to the youngest 
children in reporting both to the classroom and to the council. 

5. Ingenuity is required to keep the council from being a remote mys- 
tery to the large majority of the children. Some schools find it help- 
ful to have the council conduct several meetings each year on the 
stage of the auditorium. Others find it helpful to invite each grade 
to sit in as a visiting audience at one of the meetings. 



In extending a point made above, we need to remember that al- 
though our adult governments are nearly all representative, a great 
deal of the vitality of our democracy flows from what we think of 
as our grass roots. In the school community, likewise, the demo- 
cratic vitality is more likely to result from the hour-by-hour, day- 
by-day activities in the classroom than from any over-all govern- 
mental organization. It is to these activities that we must look for 
the majority of experiences which will bring about that sense of 
personal involvement which we are considering. These necessary 
activities or experiences depend upon a co-operative method and 
spirit of developing the classroom program, such as that exemplified 
in teacher-pupil planning. 

Teacher-pupil planning will perhaps remain a vital force and not 
degenerate into a sterile form if the teacher realizes that its purpose 
is to give children a sense that the life they are leading in the school 
is important and meaningful to them, that it is their life, and that 
they are involved in all its aspects. With this criterion in mind, the 
teacher will not allow teacher-pupil planning to be limited to a 
meeting once a day in which "plans" are discussed and written on 
the board. Such discussions are important, of course, but they are 
not sufficient. The kind of planning that engenders a sense of in- 
volvement is a much more continuous process, a kind of flowing 
interaction between teacher and pupils. In deciding upon large 
topics or projects to be studied, small subsections of the larger units, 
more specific activities, goals, methods of evaluation, etc., the chil- 
dren need to participate in the thinking which is required. A teacher 
who is expected to follow a general course of study in the social 
studies may start off with more prescribed boundaries than one who 
is not, but if there is room for flexibility within the boundaries, there 
is still room for much co-operative thinking. Furthermore, the op- 
portunities for throwing the responsibility for doing good think- 
ing back on the shoulders of the children are not limited to what 
is usually thought of as the social-studies program. 

At the risk of oversimplification, it might be said that the key 
to effective teacher-pupil planning is for the teacher not to give all 
the answers. This can happen when the teacher has faith in the 
thinking ability and the good judgment of children. As soon as he 


develops such a faith, he finds himself asking the child: "What do 
you think?" "How do you think it might be done 5 " "I wonder 
how we should word this topic." "Would you say that doing this 
is really important for everyone^ 3 " He does not do this as a meaning- 
less ritual, asking questions unnecessarily or without really expect- 
ing an answer. On a bitter cold day he does not ask the silly ques- 
tion, "Do we need to wear our hats and coats for recess 15 " Astute 
questioning is not the only way, of course, to keep the responsibility 
for learning and growing up where the responsibility belongs on 
the child. Helping the child evaluate his own progress, eliminating 
(or trying to minimize the effects of) devices such as marks and 
awards which permit the child to put the responsibility for the 
evaluation of himself off on someone else, developing units of study 
out of children's interests and prior experience and knowledge, hav- 
ing children participate in planning home assignments on the basis 
of need the list can be very long, if the teacher has pupil involve- 
ment as his purpose. 

Will this kind of hour-by-hour, day-by-day experience help the 
children become good citizens? Since the human personality is so 
complex, we shall not have any definitive answers to questions like 
this until we, nationally, set up a Manhattan Project on Human En- 
ergy which will mobilize all our best resources to search for cause- 
and-effect relationships in large samplings of people over several 
generations. But for reassurance, all we need to do is to step into 
classrooms and watch the social behavior of children who do feel 
deeply involved in their small school community. 

We hear five-year-olds saying: "Come on, I'll help you put these 
blocks away so they can get the tables set," or, "Teacher, I don't 
know what to do when he pushes me because I'm always hurtin* 
him," or, "We've all got to be careful how we walk or we'll knock 
down all these things we've set up for the circus." We see a large 
group of six-year-olds remaining quiet when they are off-stage dur- 
ing the play which they, themselves, have created, with every child 
determined that neither he, nor anyone else, is going to "spoil 
things." We see eight-year-olds, without need of reminders from 
the teacher, following directions carefully on the trip to the quarry 
for which they have excitedly done thorough planning. We watch 
a roomful of nine-year-olds working silently, helping one another 


freely but quietly with the teacher in another room during a 
"catch-up~on-the-tHngs-we-need-most-to-do' * period which they 
have conceived and planned. We hear eleven-year-olds saying, "We 
think that Rosalie ought to represent us on the assembly-planning 
committee because she never gets a chance to do this sort of thing." 
Yes, the voices and actions of the children are convincing. Would 
that a whole generation of men and women might enter adult citi- 
zenship after having lived for years in classrooms in which they 
felt involved in and personally responsible for the welfare of their 
small communities. 


Allied to the above point concerning involvement, but deserving 
of special mention, is the fact that specific education for citizen- 
ship requires giving children abundant practice in problem-solving. 
Again, we do not possess evidence that such experiences during the 
early years will inevitably result in the child's growing into an adult 
with desirable problem-solving skills. But everything we know 
about environmental forces in personality development points to 
the assumption that the individual who is emotionally capable of 
utilizing critical-mindedness and reasonable judgment in attacking 
problems will have these powers developed and made more effective 
by years of practice in situations which require them. 

Teachers may sometimes be frightened away from giving serious 
consideration to the place of problem-solving in their classroom pro- 
grams by intricate definitions and complex schemes for establishing 
problem-solving procedures. Essentially all that is required is that 
teachers sit down with children to talk through problems in an effort 
to arrive at reasonable solutions. Some problems will be brought up 
by the teachers, others by the children themselves. The problems 
may involve situations related to the academic program or situations 
involved in people's living together in a classroom or school com- 
munity. But, whatever its source, each will be one that troubles the 
participants so that they feel a need for finding ways of effecting a 
change or finding a solution. 

Three boys in fourth grade are accused by the school safety 
patrol of causing disturbances on their school bus. The charges are 
brought to the teacher, who talks to the three boys and tries to 


ascertain exactly what has happened. The children start blaming 
other children and give the teacher the impression that conditions 
on the bus are far from ideal She says to the boys, "I can see that 
this is really a problem involving everybody on your bus. Let's go 
down to the principal and perhaps she will get the entire group, 
driver and children, together to talk out this problem." 

The meeting of the bus group is held. The teacher poses the 
problem as she understands it and then asks how the others see it. 
There is a burst of accusations and recriminations. The teacher says, 
"Wait a minute. Maybe some of these things are true. But is what 
Arthur did the the real problem we are discussing? Let us think, 
what is the problem we are trying to solve?" There are serious at- 
tempts to define the problem. Finally, there emerges a clearer pic- 
ture of what the important elements of the problem are. There is 
the somewhat resented attitude of the safety patrol, there is the 
fact that no one has been quite sure what the driver required about 
seating arrangements, there is confusion about some of the "rules." 

And as the discussion goes on, facts are checked constantly. 
"Arthur, is that the way it really happened?" "Mrs. S., it just isn't 
right, Jonathan's telling that we hog the back seat. Ask Edith and 
Bill here." "Betty, would you agree that maybe you haven't made 
it clear to Bill that he may not save the seat for his pals?" As the 
discussion continues, suggestions for solutions begin to emerge, and 
finally there is agreement that certain changes will be tried for the 
next week. At the end of the trial period, there will be another 
meeting to check results. 

The entire procedure is businesslike, with the focus not upon 
finding someone to blame but upon getting at the problem and try- 
ing to set up some workable solutions. And in the process, some- 
thing has happened to the entire group. The day after the original 
discussion, one of the "bad" boys whispers to his teacher as he comes 
into the room, "Things were a lot better this morning, Mrs. S." No 
wings have sprouted on this boy, but one wonders if he along with 
many of the other children on the bus hasn't taken one small step 
further along the road to good chzenship. 

An important point to remember is that real problems are always 
disturbing. The emotional load engendered by different problems 
will vary, of course, but every problemr if it is to have value in 


giving children practice in what we term "problem-solving" will 
in some way demand a solution. Let us remember, also, that the 
problems in adult life which require problem-solving skill on the 
part of the citizen are fraught with emotion: problems of zoning, 
employee-employer relations, farm policy, etc. 

The type of problem which is being discussed here differs sig- 
nificantly from those "problems" which are so often posed in text- 
books or by teachers in outlines for, let us say, social-studies units. 
The "problems": "To find out how the New England colonial 
people dyed their cloth" or "To determine the reasons that so many 
of our ancestors left their homelands to colonize the New World" 
are different essentially because in them the pupils do not have any 
real emotional stake. Does this type of nonpersonal, nonemotional 
problem offer any value in the developing of critical-mindedness or 
the ability to solve problems? The weight of professional opinion 
indicates that it does have such value. Certainly, practice in defin- 
ing the questions we seek to answer, searching for various sources 
of information, evaluating the degrees of validity of the evidence 
found, and arriving at conclusions which are in harmony with the 
relative certainty of our proof such practice would seem to nour- 
ish the ability to use the scientific method. It is possible, also, that 
these techniques may be learned best in solving problems which are 
not charged with emotion. 12 Yet, it is the purpose of this chapter 
to emphasize the need for providing experiences for children to 
attack problems in which they are emotionally involved. Obviously, 
being emotionally involved only by the desire to obtain a "good 
mark" or avoid a bad one is not an acceptable substitution! 

What of the proposals that we can teach children definite pro- 
cedures which they can use in solving problems? Meier, deary, 
and Davis discuss the experience of the Detroit Citizenship Educa- 
tion Study in attempting to improve pupils' problem-solving skill 
through the teaching of a sequence of steps to be followed in at- 
tacking a problem. The sequence used, with important subheadings 
omitted here to save space, may be helpful to teachers attempting 
to sharpen their pupils' awareness of the process of scientific think- 

12. For an excellent treatment of problem-solving, see Educating for Amer- 
ican Citizenship, op. ctt. 9 chap. x. 


A. Defining the problem 

1. Encountering the pioblem 

2. Selecting the problem 

3. Wording the problem 

4. Setting up tentative solutions 

B. Working on the problem 

1. Recalling known information 

2. Determining need for more information 

3. Locating sources of information 

4. Selecting and organizing information 

5. Analyzing and interpreting information 

C. Drawing a conclusion 

1. Stating possible conclusions 

2. Determining the most reasonable and logical conclusions 

3. Reaching a conclusion 

D. Carrying out the conclusion 

i Acting on the conclusion 

2. Reconsidering the conclusion 13 

The report given by these authors, however, impresses one 
with the fact that, while children need much help in knowing how 
to deal with problems reasonably and logically, the teaching of a 
formula of sequential problem-solving steps may not be very pro- 
ductive in meeting this need. That this is true should not be sur- 
prising. When we consider the example of the school-bus problem 
given above, we realize that it is probably too much to expect ele- 
mentary-school children to handle problem situations which are 
fraught with strong emotion simply by having the support of 
knowledge about the process of scientific thinking. We should cer- 
tainly strive to make children aware of this process, but we must 
place our chief reliance upon other emphases in the school program 
for reaching our goal. 

First, we must try to organize our classrooms and schools so 
that a good deal of social living takes place. We must try to develop 
programs in which children have many opportunities for doing. 
It is only if children are living and working together in true social 
situations that they will have need for facing and solving problems. 

13. Meier, Cleary, and Davis, op. cit., pp. 338-43. 


It is no derogation of the importance of the limit-establishing role of 
the teacher to admit that the "perfectly regulated" classroom (and 
this always means "regulated by the teacher") is one in which very 
little problem-solving education can take place. 

Second, \ve must try to create in the community which is the 
classroom and the school a climate of trust in which children will 
feel free to raise the problems which truly trouble them. In one such 
school, the principal was talking with several classes of eight-year- 
olds about the whole question of "being fair." At the moment that 
he thought the issue clearly settled, a quiet little girl raised her hand 
and in deep seriousness asked, "Would you explain why it is fair 
for the school to have the rule about not chewing gum in the build- 
ings? It doesn't somehow seem fair to me." 

Third, we, the teachers, must do everything possible to develop 
in ourselves greater skill in problem-solving and in leading discus- 
sions. We must face the fact that young children in trying to solve 
many of their problems will depend upon the wise guidance of the 

Fourth, we must become emotionally committed to the belief 
that giving young children experiences in solving problems is an 
essential part of our educational program. If we do, then we shall 
allow a reasonable portion of our program time for this type of 


Thus far we have been considering the development of some 
of the skills, understandings, and attitudes required in the practice 
of good citizenship. Let us turn now to the question of the knowl- 
edge which the school should attempt to have children acquire in 
their education for citizenship. We may be helped by thinking back 
to the example given earlier in this chapter of the men's service-club 
member who exhibited what we termed social intelligence. In order 
to make the proposal that the club obtain the advice of experts 
before deciding upon a program to enrich the community life of 
the town's teen-age girls, he needed not only an understanding of 
good problem-solving procedures and an ability to relate positively 
to his group in a discussion but he also needed to know a good many 
facts about the functioning of his society. He apparently knew 


that the superintendent of schools might be expected to be con- 
cerned with general youth problems as well as with the schools. 
He apparently knew that there were other agencies with social 
workers who were in touch with the problems of the community. 
In fact, the list of inferences about his knowledge could be a long 
one. Or let us think of a very simple hypothetical example. A 
piece of metal stripping has started to come loose on the stairs. We 
would like a boy in the home to be aware of the potential danger 
to the members of the household and to feel personally responsible 
for seeing that something is done to repair the strip. But if his deci- 
sion is to fix it himself, we hope that he knows how to use a screw- 
driver and hammer, how to measure accurately, where to purchase 
any new material needed, etc. If not, his "social action" will not be 
very intelligent. 

The point need not be labored further. It is obvious that if we 
in the elementary school are to help develop effective citizens, we 
are responsible for guiding children in the acquisition of an expand- 
ing amount of the factual knowledge which the individual needs in 
order to be an intelligent citizen. But what knowledge is needed 
for effective citizenship* 

The first answer is that, other factors being equal, the more a 
person knows the more capable he is of intelligent civic action. At 
first glance, such an answer seems to take us nowhere, and yet it 
really is suggestive of a truth which we must keep in mind. The 
problems about which conscientious citizens today are forced to 
make decisions involve nearly all areas of human knowledge. The 
future will only accentuate this fact. We are not referring here to 
any indirect connection between knowledge and problems facing 
the citizen, such as that between a man's knowledge of the philos- 
ophy of Lao Tze, let us say, and his capacity for taking a long his- 
torical view of a modern social problem. The connections are ex- 
tremely direct. When we think of the issues upon which a citizen 
must form an opinion in deciding his vote in a national election, we 
see that he needs to be reasonably informed about international trade; 
the history of federal aid to the states in such matters as education; 
the economics of tidelands ownership; intricate international rela- 
tions in Europe, Africa, the Near East, Asia, Latin America; the 
working of various farm-support programs; the need for low-cost 


housing, and so on to an almost alarming extent. We must conclude, 
therefore not only because of steadily changing conditions but be- 
cause of the complexity of the problems requiring intelligent solu- 
tion that it is no longer possible for us in education to point to a 
relatively small number of topics or areas of knowledge and say, 
"This is what every educated person must know to be a good 
citizen." Our goal must be to give to pupils, at all levels, as much 
knowledge in all areas as possible but, above all else, to create the 
urge to go on learning and the attitude that decision-making should 
be preceded, if at all possible, by a reasonable search for the perti- 
nent facts. 

The second answer is a repetition of the plea for choosing what 
children study on the basis of what is meaningful to them. Not only 
is such selection important in terms of the personal-involvement 
principle previously mentioned but it is the only method which 
insures the optimum rate of learning and retaining information and 
which will build in the young child an emotional commitment to the 
belief that the search for truth has practical meaning in terms of 
carrying out purposes which are important to him. 

What, then, of the practice in many forward-looking schools of 
building a course of study in the social studies in which scope and 
sequence are based upon the logical principle of moving from the 
known to the unknown, from the simple to the complex, from the 
here-and-now to the distant in time and space? As a guideline, such 
program construction makes sense but only when it is used as a 
guideline. There are other factors and decisive ones determining 
the value of a program of studies other than the "logic" of its or- 
ganization. The psychological factor of meaningfulness is one of 
these. It is important, therefore, in choosing what children shall 
learn, that we concern ourselves most of all with psychological or- 
ganization even though this leads to a sequence of studies which 
seems fragmented. The second grade in one school moved in its 
studies from a unit on farms to a unit on rocks and ways to recog- 
nize various kinds of rock, and then to a unit on dinosaurs and early 
man and this sequence was logical in terms of the children's learn- 
ing, no matter how illogical it might appear on a scope and sequence 
chart. In another classroom, a fourth grade, all the children during 
one part of the year were studying the functions of the human body 


except five boys, who were carrying out an ambitious project 
about the early explorers in the western hemisphere. This type of 
organization presents practical problems which some teachers (those 
with large classes, for example) may not be able to overcome but 
it should not be rejected on the grounds that it is not logical. 

Another argument against the psychological-organization ap- 
proach is the claim that, without a logical scope and sequence, some 
important areas are skipped and others repeated unnecessarily. To 
this there seem to be three answers: (a) No matter what scheme of 
organization is used, many very important areas of knowledge must 
remain untouched, (b) Unless the areas studied have meaning for 
children, then for all important purposes all the areas are being 
"skipped." (c) If children are studying what has meaning for them, 
and if they are involved in the planning, unnecessary repetition is 


Even though it is not the purpose of this chapter to propose 
specifics for the program of studies, there are general yardsticks 
other than those already suggested which can be used by the teacher 
in selecting topics or areas of study important in citizenship educa- 

Heffernan (in chap, v) states that teachers can be helped if they 
will choose on the basis of those learnings which support a faith 
in the democratic process, with special concern for the human re- 
lationships involved in whatever is studied. To this yardstick, we 
should perhaps add several others. Whenever possible we should 
foster learning experiences (or "studies," if the reader prefers) 
which help children see the functional relationships which compose 
their environment. The entire process of preparing a modern loaf of 
bread is only an extension of the process of man's plucking grains 
from a field and chewing them for sustenance. Secondly, the in- 
creasingly important impact of the truth that we today must think 
within a one-world context supports the trend of including study 
of some other cultures in the elementary school. In addition, we 
need to think more critically of the problem of teaching meaningful 
geography. It would seem likely that to gain meaningfulness, we 
shall have to place a new emphasis upon the "why" in geography, 


for we still tend to stress the "where" with a minor accent on the 
"how." Thirdly, since so many of the civic problems facing the 
mature citizen are economic as much as political and social, there is 
need for thoughtful teachers to explore new ways of helping chil- 
dren even at the elementary levels to gain more understanding of the 
economic base of our life. This statement should not be interpreted 
as a lack of appreciation for the ways in which good modern ele- 
mentary-school programs help children gain appreciations and un- 
derstandings of the food-shelter-clothing underpinning of much of 
man's activity. But, since we frequently underestimate the capacity 
for thinking of younger children, we need to experiment with 
ways of helping them understand some of the current applications 
in a complex culture of some of these basic activities and relation- 
ships. Finally, it seems wise for more teachers to explore the possi- 
bilities of including in the elementary school some study of what 
Penrose terms the "legal rights and duties of citizens." That very 
little beyond the level of the Peter Zenger case is attempted in the 
elementary school is in part a result of teachers' laudable efforts to 
avoid the meaningless. Partly, however, it may be the result of a 
rather deep ignorance on the part of teachers of many aspects of 
the legal rights and duties other than those which were used in their 
own two or three courses in American and western-civilization 

For some of these elements to be of value in the elementary 
curriculum, new materials as resources for teachers and children 
will have to be prepared. Perhaps the Living Democracy Series 
pamphlets now being made available to secondary schools by the 
Tufts Civic Education Project will be suggestive of materials for 
younger children. Of more basic importance, of course, is the 
need for us, the teachers, to become much better informed about all 
aspects of the environment which we, as citizens, must help regulate. 

In Conclusion: The Long View 

In conclusion, let us consider further the statement ". . . other 
factors being equal, the more a person knows, the more capable he 
is of intelligent civic action." The italicized words are meant as a 
reminder that all the knowledge in the world will not make a good 
citizen of a person who does not have attitudes which give him an 


active concern for the general welfare. Perhaps it will be helpful 
to list here these attitudes, which have already been treated generally 
or inferentially presented: 

1. A sensitivity to social need 

2. A sense of personal responsibility for doing whatever possible to solve 
social problems 

3. Courage to act upon principle 

4. The belief that in a democracy one person's actions, no matter how 
seemingly insignificant, are truly important 

5. The belief that reasonable solutions to problems are possible if enough 
people desire these solutions and think critically from facts rather 
than from prejudice or untested opinions of others 

Underlying these attitudes are the basic emotions which make 
it possible for the child to have faith in himself, to have trust in 
others, and to relate to others sympathetically. Therefore, we must 
return to the concept that if the school is to have a successful pro- 
gram of citizenship education it must concern itself with the general 
emotional health of children at the same time that it plans the 
curriculum specifically to develop in children the skills, understand- 
ings, attitudes, and knowledge necessary for effective citizenship. 

Actually, the requirements which we have set up here for a good 
curriculum in citizenship education are also the requirements for a 
program to promote emotional health. To this program the school 
will need to add special services for children whose lives outside 
school have been affected by destructive forces too powerful to be 
counteracted by the healthful general program of the school. Also, 
the school must more and more reach out to the homes from which 
the children come, so that education for emotional well-being and 
for effective citizenship can be more of a co-operative project than 
it is today. The difficulty of doing this is matched only by its im- 
portance. Smaller classes, teachers trained in working with parents 
and in understanding the general community forces operating upon 
children, school schedules which allow time for work with parents, 
school plants which are planned as educational centers for the entire 
community these are some of the conditions which must become 
more prevalent than they are today. 

Yet, even now, many schools and teachers are making efforts to 
bring about this co-operative action. In some schools teachers are 
able to hold personal conferences with parents instead of simply 


sending home report cards; at these conferences the teacher can 
increase parent understanding of the goals for which the school is 
striving and parent appreciation of the worthwhileness of the child, 
while at the same time the teacher gains a better understanding of 
some of the important forces in the child's life. Programs at P.T.A. 
meetings may deal with purposes and processes to good effect. 
Parents are sometimes invited to witness the culminating activities 
at the completion of a social-studies unit. Many schools are working 
co-operatively with the citizens groups which have arisen to express 
an interest in better schools. Some school systems have released 
teachers to help the home and school associations carry out study 
programs. Some principals work closely with parent groups to help 
them plan educational meetings as well as activities which give 
parents experience in citizenship. 

To those educators with special concern for citizenship educa- 
tion, there is still another challenge which is not likely to be met 
in the near future, and yet which must eventually be faced. If the 
emotional structure of children acts as a controlling force in their 
entire education, and if, as seems true, this structure undergoes its 
most important development in the earliest years of life, we must 
realize that we must give much more serious thought not only to 
the kindergarten-primary programs now in our schools but to the 
need for desirable, public-supported educational programs for the 
prekindergarten and nursery-school years. These early childhood 
programs will not necessarily be solely downward extensions in 
the existing school organization. In recent years diverse patterns for 
such programs have been evolving in day-care centers, private 
nursery schools, units connected with high schools, experimental 
schools for the youngest years run by teachers' colleges. The time 
has come when more educators not directly involved in these pro- 
grams must begin to evaluate their existing and potential worth in 
the total educational scheme. 

Of course, the best way of insuring emotionally healthy infancy 
and childhood periods for more children is to increase the number 
of good parents. Again, educators need to take a long view and 
to realize the importance of relationships. Not only do the kinds of 
elementary-school programs described in this chapter help to build 
effective citizens; they also help develop men and women who will 


be better parents. We all know that there are many factors in- 
volved in the evolution of the attitudes and skills of parenthood, 
and yet the individual who has had years of school experience in 
which he has felt himself a valued, contributing member of his 
society has experienced one of the necessary influences for being the 
kind of person who can, eventually, give his children the positive 
attitudes which support good citizenship. 

Ours must surely be the long view. There are important things 
we can do today, but the development of men and women who are 
eager and able to be creative, democratic citizens is a responsibility 
and privilege requiring that we have faith that where there is the 
purpose and the search for truth a reasonable solution to the prob- 
lem can be achieved. 


Education for International Understanding 




Education for international understanding cannot be separated 
from the general program of education which contributes to the 
making of good citizens and good persons. The basic qualities of 
good citizenship operate alike in the national and international 
spheres. International understanding is not a separate segment of 
personality growth and cannot be achieved in a single segment of a 
school program. Education for international understanding cannot 
be isolated from the general flow of education. Particularly is this 
true of the foundation for education in international understanding 
for which the elementary-school level is properly responsible. 

The very term "international understanding" is difficult to de- 
fine with precision. It refers to a compound of emotional attitudes 
and intellectual insights; for some it seems to be identical with 
friendliness, and for others with coldly objective intellectual analysis. 
What is here meant by international understanding lies somewhere 
between these extremes of emotion and intellectuality. International 
understanding involves sensitivity to human relations, adherence to 
ethical goals, perception of national characteristics, knowledge of 
cultural contacts and interstate relations, a realization of the differ- 
ence between the ideal and the actual, a sense of continuity in time 
and of contiguity in space, a deep loyalty to one's own nation and 
the expectation of comparable loyalties in the citizens of other na- 
tions. These are qualities characteristic of maturity; they are based 
on "well-rounded development" and psychological security for the 
individual. They are qualities applicable to understanding of one's 



own community and nation as well as of international affairs. They 
are qualities of character produced by the total educative experience 
of the individual and not under any circumstances by any one part 
of the program of formal education which could be labeled educa- 
tion for international understanding. 

At the same time that education for international understanding 
is rooted in good general education, it does not automatically result 
from general education. An individual may acquire the qualities 
of character and insight which make him a good citizen of his 
locality without being adequately sensitive to the wider society. In 
an age such as ours, it is essential that formal education aid the 
growing individual in applying his concepts of wise behavior to the 
international scene and in acquiring the means by which his compre- 
hension of international relations may be increased and deepened 
throughout life. The elementary-school program can no more ignore 
international relations as an important interest for the whole cur- 
riculum and as a substantive area from which curriculum materials 
should be drawn than it can ignore the locality or the family or 
other major social influences. The generations now to be educated 
in American schools cannot escape acting in the international field. 
Whatever qualities of sensitivity, insight, and skill may be acquired 
by pupils will be called into use by the continuing problems of 
international affairs. From that, there is no escape in a country situ- 
ated as is the United States. 

The first point to be emphasized, then, is that the foundation of 
education for international understanding is laid by the elementary 
school in its total program for developing intellectual and emotional 
maturity in pupils and that the school should suggest to pupils the 
relation and application of these qualities to the international scene. 
The ways and means by which these relations and applications are 
suggested constitute the first essential program in education for 
international understanding at the elementary-school level. 

It must be emphasized that there should not be anything maudlin 
or sentimental or unrealistic about education for international rela- 
tions. Many of the traditional elementary-school approaches to 
international understanding have been of this unfortunate character. 
To teach young Americans a sort of touristic approach to foreign 
lands through the wooden shoes of Holland, the colorful peons of 


Mexico, and the cherry blossoms of Japan probably creates more 
misunderstanding than it does understanding of the world we live 
in. To teach a sort of blanket friendliness, and an assumption that 
everybody likes us, approaches naivete. To imply that the world 
can and should be made over in our own image is not much of a 
contribution to realistic understanding or to intelligent attitude to- 
ward foreign policy. Many of the children's books in the inter- 
national field are based upon concepts now outmoded and on a tour- 
istic or sentimental motif that is thoroughly unrealistic. Many ele- 
mentary-school courses of study which deal with other lands are 
inherited from an earlier and more sentimental day. Development 
of international understanding must be conceived in terms of the 
field of scholarship in international relations, not in terms of wishful 
thinking or naivet6. The elementary-school program should be a 
step toward mature understanding and not a roadblock to be over- 
come by the adult individual. 

Sense of Space 

With these background factors in mind, certain suggestions can 
be made as to qualities and emphasis which ought to characterize 
the elementary-school program if it is to make full contribution to 
the development of sound international understanding. The first of 
these relates to instruction in geography. The internationally-alert 
individual needs a general sense of space and location as affecting 
human actions; he needs as his permanent possession a vivid concept 
of the globe and its major characteristics. From the point of view of 
those interested in education and international relations, it is im- 
portant to begin the study of geography with the globe and to see 
all its parts in terms of the whole and to enter upon this study as 
early as possible in terms of the ages and previous experiences of 
the learners. Much of the material and the approach embodied in 
"air-age geography 1 ' seems important to the development of an over- 
all as contrasted with a localistic approach to the planet While the 
major part of the geographical content of the elementary-school 
program may well deal with interactions between man and environ- 
ment in specific regions, a clear picture of the planet itself, as the 
scene for the drama of human life, is the first requisite for education 


in international understanding. Development of this basic concept 
is a clear responsibility of the elementary school. 

A sense of space and location a disposition to think of human 
behavior in terms of these factors should be acquired in the ele- 
mentary school. This sense is in part a product of lessons in geog- 
raphy but even more a product of the total classroom environment. 
The globe as well as large, permanent maps of the world and of the 
nation should be a part of the decor (as well as of the equipment) 
in every elementary-school classroom. And, in all discussions and 
conversations in the classroom which in any way involve geographic 
factors there should be repeated and consistent reference to the 
maps. Pupils should be habituated to the use of maps and, through 
that habituation, to the continual consideration of geographic ele- 
ments and factors in the story of human affairs. 

There are, of course, many approaches to the organization of 
the geographical content of the curriculum for the elementary 
grades. Questions of organization and specific content of the course 
of study are in many ways quite secondary to the importance of 
creating an environment and classroom life which are continually 
concerned with the influence of geographic factors. To develop in 
pupils the habit of using geographic tools and thinking in geographic 
terms, as much in the study of history and literature and science and 
current events as in the geography lesson itself, is an essential step 
in developing international understanding in citizens. To this end 
the elementary-school classroom should take a lead from the map- 
rooms and briefing-rooms developed in connection with military 
education. To use large maps covering an entire wall of the class- 
room, protected with shellac covering so that pupils may mark 
over them with chalk, and to make the maps regular "conversation 
pieces" is a mark of good teaching. To have a globe continually and 
conveniently available to the class, to arrange regular map exhibits, 
to develop games and activities using the maps all are important. 
The purpose is not to emphasize pupils' memorization of places but 
to accustom them to sources of geographical information and to 
develop a life-long habit of considering geographic factors in human 
affairs. What is done with matters of location can become a basis 
for later learning in relation to other geographic characteristics. 


The program of instruction in geography is obviously of great 
importance. Its general characteristics of emphasizing human geog- 
raphy and of organizing study in terms of regions are appropriate 
to development of international understanding. To a considerable 
extent, however, there is at present an unfortunate tendency to 
crowd too much into the curriculum. Under the assumption that 
few students would encounter geographic instruction after Grade 
VII or VIII, the elementary program has tended to try to "cover 
the waterfront." With a gradual increase in the study of geography 
at the secondary-school and college levels (as well as the tendency 
for more students to move higher on the educational ladder), and 
with vastly increased reference to geographic data in the media of 
mass communications at the adult level, it may be possible to rethink 
the elementary-school curriculum more adequately in terms of a 
foundation or introduction to a field with which there will be con- 
tact throughout life. Such a revised program would (a) approach 
geography first in global and secondarily in regional or national 
terms, (b) emphasize skill in the reading and interpretation of all 
forms of maps, (c) deal with a few representative regional studies of 
geographic influences on human behavior rather than with the 
entire sequence of regions now ordinarily covered in the elementary- 
school program, (d) emphasize channels of travel and trade rather 
than geographic formations as the barriers they once were, and (e) 
stress the development of interest in geography realistically rather 
than esoterically. 

Various patterns and programs, so far as the curriculum is con- 
cerned, may seek these ends. But, as has been emphasized, the formal 
curriculum alone is not so likely to be successful as is a total school 
approach in which space and location, climate and topography are 
continually related to all the aspects of human society which pupils 

Sense of Time 

One sign of maturity in respect to international understanding 
is a deep sense of the historical process, of the endlessly unrolling 
tapestry of human affairs, of the steady movement and continual 
adjustments in human circumstance. A certain impatience with the 
ordinary slowness of change and, at the same time, a resistance to 


change are dual aspects of human nature well cultivated by our cul- 
ture and tradition. Recognition of the nature and inevitability of 
social evolution is a mark of the sophisticated person in international 

This sensitivity to the flow of history can, within limits, be 
developed in the elementary-school program. As in the case of a 
sense of space, a sense of time may be best cultivated in the total 
environment of the school rather than alone in formal historical in- 
struction. In a classroom environment fully conducive to develop- 
ing a sense of time, visual time-lines will be as much in evidence as 
are maps. If there are time-lines or time-charts on the classroom 
walls or bulletin boards, and if there is continual location on them 
of the time setting or events mentioned in class discussions, the pupils 
may become habituated to thinking in time terms. The time-line 
and the map and globe must be omnipresent in a classroom which is 
intelligently concerned with education toward international under- 

Obviously the cultivation of a historical sense rests upon more 
than the habit of placing events on a time-line, helpful as that is. 
Class instruction in history as a humane study is important. It seems 
probable, however, that the formal curricula on which rests most 
historical instruction in elementary schools deals with historical 
change and development in such sweeping strokes as to be beyond 
the realistic comprehension of very many pupils. The Greeks and 
Goths and Colonial Americans all become about equally remote. 
A general chronology of the history of civilization may not actually 
contribute much to the pupil's sense of intimate continuity and 
continual adjustment as a part of the historical process. 

Smaller threads of historical movement scanned over shorter 
periods of historical time might well develop in pupils a more in- 
sightful historicity. This does not require abandonment of the 
chronology of history but emphasizes, within the broader frame- 
work, the necessity of vignettes of the historical process selected in 
terms of the maturity and interests of pupils themselves. Pupils may 
perhaps more readily acquire a sense of "change within continuity," 
for example, from study of the transformation of a horseless carriage 
into an automobile than from consideration of the sequence of 
presidential administrations. Study of the sequence of major groups 


contributing to the rise of Western civilization may not mean as 
much for children in understanding social evolution as the story 
of a New England hillside, cleared for farming in one century and 
gradually abandoned to the encroaching forests within the space 
of two or three generations. Too frequently, in elementary schools, 
the intimacy of historical movement is lost. Some sense of that inti- 
macy is, for the mature individual, a foundation stone of interna- 
tional understanding. 

In a sense, the history program of the elementary school could 
well be formulated as a series of case studies set within a broad 
chronological framework. Illustrative selections from Roman his- 
tory, for example, may give pupils a better sense of the social process 
than a summarized view of the Roman era. The selected case studies, 
however, should not or at least should not all be cross-sectional 
analyses of life at a given moment; they should illustrate movement, 
should reveal a process by which change and adaptation occur. They 
should clarify for pupils how one incident merges into another. 
They should contribute to the pupils' intelligent expectation of 
change in his own world and in international affairs. They should 
embody both history and geography, for one cannot fully be taught 
without the other. 

It is important, in studying both literature and history that the 
social process be humanized, that it be made real and not remote, con- 
crete and not abstract. Elementary-school pupils need continually 
to be reminded that "history is people." To this end, emphasis on 
biography is important, not for the sake of a "great-man theory" 
but for the sake of seeing personal participation in the historical 
process. The story of a lifetime can be told in terms which make 
the continual movement of social forces and the inexorable adjust- 
ment of events clearer for young children. 

The selected materials of the elementary-school history program 
should, of course, illustrate for children the historical process as ap- 
plied to the relations of nations. To suggest a case-study approach, 
to emphasize the intimacy of history, to humanize the past for 
pupils is not to call for localism or parochialism in history instruc- 
tion. A good many of the case studies appropriate for elementary- 
school instruction deal with international situations. How a bound- 
ary line between two nations was determined, how an international 


postal service was evolved, how a bit of land in New York City 
was made international territory, how the Spartans and Athenians 
struggled, how Switzerland became a nation, how a particular treaty 
of peace was written are all topics for study by which elementary- 
school pupils could gain insight into the workings of continuity and 
change in international affairs. The emphasis is on how rather 
than on what. The scope is based upon a span of time and space 
sufficiently limited and concrete to be envisaged by elementary- 
school pupils. 

Sense of Cultural Variation and Contact 

One of the essential elements in international understanding is a 
recognition of cultural variation and sensitivity toward intercul- 
tural contacts. The mature individual will become thoroughly so- 
phisticated as to culture patterns, variations in mores and in value 
systems, and the delicate processes of cultural exchange and inter- 
penetration. Recent decades have brought specialized insight into 
these areas through anthropology, sociology, and social psychology. 
Certain of their findings are appropriate material for elementary- 
school use. They are an important part of a good teacher's back- 
ground. They throw light on the human relations of the school it- 
self; they may contribute to and enrich the curriculum in the social 
studies; and they are an important element in the educational founda- 
tion of international understanding. 

The customary curriculum in the elementary school contributes 
substantially to pupils' understanding of the fact of cultural varia- 
tion. A sequence of units on ways of living of other peoples is 
very frequently taught, and pupils' experiences are organized around 
these units in such fashion as to emphasize variations in matters like 
clothing, home, food, and recreation. This emphasis is found in 
much of the geography taught in the elementary school and to a 
certain degree in the history and literature programs. Too fre- 
quently, however, the materials and the pupil activities in all these 
courses are concerned only with material phenomena and artifacts^ 
the courses fail to push further into the varying mores of human 
behavior and thought in cultures which vary widely under geo- 
graphic and historical influences. 

Direct experience with resource people who have themselves 


experienced the influence of other cultures will help children become 
aware of the existence of widely divergent values. The importance 
in some cultures of not "losing face" is of relatively little concern 
to us, whereas the value with which we regard every human life 
is incomprehensible to people in large areas of the world where, for 
generations, economic necessity has dictated that cultural survival 
rests upon high mortality. Pupils recognize that houses differ and 
meals differ and clothes differ, but they do not adequately recog- 
nize that people differ. Cultural variation remains for them a de- 
scriptive rather than a functional, operative concept. Too frequently 
the assumption continues in a child or an adult that other people 
are like himself in mores and senses of values and that only environ- 
ments differ. 

Instruction in history or geography or literature, or in any com- 
bination of materials organized as a social-studies program, should 
emphasize variation in persons as well as in things within different 
cultural contexts. To the extent possible, pupils studying another 
culture should penetrate to its value system. The mental habits and 
assumptions of a culture where exchange of goods is based on barter 
rather than on a fixed price, for example, are more important to 
international understanding than are the facts of the exchange; to 
study the bazaar only as a tourist might see it, without reference 
to the mental habits on which it is based, is to omit the essence of 
cultural variation as an element in international understanding. 

Even when cultural variation is perceived in behavioral and value 
terms, it is only the beginning. Cultural contact is the crucial point 
for international understanding. Our knowledge of the processes 
of cultural contact is only in its infancy; the factors which lead to 
conflict and the factors which lead toward co-operation are only 
dimly perceived. Yet, it is possible even with very small children to 
indicate the problems and difficulties of cultural contact. Certainly, 
the ordinary assumption that contact is a simple and easy matter 
should be destroyed. 

The crises which arise in their own classroom or on the play- 
ground, caused by aggressiveness, stubbornness, or simple misunder- 
standing, can be used by the teacher to illustrate the complexity of 
group interaction. Disputes arising over ownership of personal be- 
longings, pushing while standing in line and pushing back name 


calling, and similar disruptions to peaceful coexistence should be 
examined by the teacher and the class, \\ ith the hope that knowledge 
gained thereby will decrease repetition. As is true at the interna- 
tional level, this expectation is not always realized. 

One common difficulty in the school curriculum is a tendency 
to deal with too many cultures, whether in history or in geography 
courses. It would be better to deal with fewer peoples and to deal 
with the selected groups more penetratingly. And it would be wise 
to indicate the contacts of the selected group with cultures different 
from themselves. There should be illustrations both of conflict and 
co-operation. A groundwork of this sort laid in the elementary 
school would seem to be a good basis for further growth at more 
mature levels. 

A good deal of the material on cultural variation and contact 
can be presented in connection with the reading program in so far 
as it stresses the relationship of "literature and life." The observance 
of various national holidays can be made occasions for understanding 
cultural traits. The use of films on life in other lands can be an 
excellent introduction to the topic, as are also the discussions on 
current events in the intermediate grades. Games and recreation, 
singing and recordings, school plays and television viewings may 
all contribute to the pupils' consciousness of cultural contrasts. 

Farsighted Loyalty to One's Own Nation 

The international system is built upon the concepts and prac- 
tices of national systems; an intelligent, farsighted loyalty toward 
one's own country is another of the essential elements in interna- 
tional understanding. The elementary school has responsibility for 
introducing the pupil to the history of his own country, to the 
geography of the nation, and to the literature which records its 
character and ideals. The school has responsibility for cultivating 
the pupil's sense of identity with the nation and his acceptance 
of its symbols. It should help him to realize that citizens of other 
countries probably have the same loyalty to their own nations. 

There is no necessary conflict between developing a strong sense 
of national identification and developing international understand- 
ing. Indeed, the fullest possible insight into his own nation is the 
beginning of wisdom in world affairs for the citizen. It is important, 


however, that patriotism be farsighted, that it see the nation in its 
inescapable world setting and recognize realistically the responsi- 
bilities, problems, and advantages inherent in that setting. A major 
element in international understanding is an honest conceptualization 
of the role of one's own country in the farflung network of inter- 
national affairs. 

Instruction in United States history, therefore, is essential to an 
American school program concerned with the development of inter- 
national understanding. But that instruction should not be isolation- 
ist in spirit. Major movements in American history are deeply 
related to currents of world history and should be so presented to 
pupils. The industrialization of the United States should be presented 
as a phase of a larger industrial revolution; the abolition of slavery 
is not an exclusively American phenomenon; even such developments 
as the harnessing of atomic energy are based upon researches from 
many countries. It is the part of wisdom that the pupil see his 
country's story in its relationship to the story of other nations. 

Conflicts with other nations should not be minimized, since con- 
flicts of interest are a part of life, both international and local. But 
the conflicts should be presented in terms of the interests of each 
side. The accounts of the Revolutionary War now to be found in 
the textbooks of both the United States and Great Britain illustrate 
a constructive approach to the study of a conflict of interest. For 
the most part, accounts of the War between the States, now pre- 
sented in textbooks used throughout the nation, are balanced, report- 
ing fairly the conflicts of interest on which the War was based. 
The ways and means by which a nation acts to protect its interests 
abroad diplomacy, conference, treaty, intergovernmental co-opera- 
tion, war are part of the national story. They could well be spot- 
lighted in an instructional program dealing realistically with inter- 
national understanding. 

The important thing is that the pupil see his country as a part 
of the globe, see infinite interrelationships between his country 
and others, see the inevitability of international contact, conflict, 
and co-operation in modern society. It is shortsighted and dangerous 
to present the history of his country to a pupil in isolationist terms 
which have been outmoded by events. 



What has been said about historical change and cultural contacts 
indicates the nature and continuance of problems and issues in hu- 
man relations, including international relations. Too frequently 
social-studies programs, however organized, tend to give elementary- 
school pupils the impression that all the problems have been solved 
or that they will solve themselves. Actually every effort should be 
made to alert and sensitize pupils to the certainty of problems and 
to the necessity of facing them, the hope of solving them, the 
necessity often of "living with them." 

Elementary-school pupils can hardly be expected to solve prob- 
lems of society which perplex their parents. It is argued, however, 
that pupils be made aware of the existence of problems and of the 
extraordinary complexities inherent in problems at the international 
level. For example, the problem of overpopulation as it affects inter- 
national relations can be seen in the culture patterns of some societies 
pupils are likely to study. The continuing problems centered around 
the use of essential natural resources can be grasped in fairly objec- 
tive terms by pupils. The complexities of Asian-American relations 
as revealed either in current events or in the studies of cultural 
contacts can be perceived by pupils, even though they cannot solve 
the problems embodied in these contacts. 

While the pupil cannot be expected to solve society's problems, 
he must gain experience in school in the solution of problems which 
are within his grasp. He ought to be made conscious of the process 
by which he reaches a conclusion; much more about reflective think- 
ing and the problem-solving method could be taught at the ele- 
mentary-school level than is now commonly taught. To relate this 
analysis of the individual's thinking procedures with the social 
scene as dealt with in the social-studies program is a contribution to 
the pupil's behavior and to his acquisition of international under- 

Teacher Understanding of International Relations 

It has been suggested thus far that a sense of space and location, a 
sense of time and change, a sense of the legitimacy of cultural varia- 
tions and the complexities of cultural contacts, intelligent loyalty 


to one's own country, and a tendency toward reflective thinking 
lie at the base of an individual's international understanding. These 
concepts and outlooks may be developed at least to a degree in the 
curricular program and in the activities and experiences of the 
school. But there are no mechanical formulas or program patterns 
guaranteed to ensure such developments. The essential factor is the 
degree to which the teacher is himself possessed of international un- 
derstanding. It is the teacher's presentation and interpretation of 
materials and in his focusing of pupil experience and explanation of 
that experience that the determination of quality in education for 
international understanding inevitably lies. 

One of the first needs is in-service education of teachers in respect 
to international relations and to the basic concepts of anthropology 
and cultural contacts. The formal discipline of international rela- 
tions is of relatively recent development; only a small percentage of 
elementary-school teachers have had a systematic introduction to a 
study of the field. The ordinary assumptions and outlooks of teach- 
ers about the nature of international relations may not synchronize 
at all with the assumptions and outlooks of specialists in the field; 
the gap between teachers' knowledge and specialists' knowledge 
cannot be adequately bridged by attention to current events as re- 
ported through media of mass communication. It is of particular 
importance that teachers gain a systematic introduction to the study 
of international relations and an acquaintance with the basic assump- 
tions and methods embodied in the present-day discipline of inter- 
national relations. The newness of this discipline as well as the im- 
portance and the interest in the subject give this area unusual pri- 
ority for the reading which teachers do, for the in-service courses 
they take, and for the programs and forums they attend. Only on 
the foundation of an understanding on their part of the nature of 
other cultures and of international relations can a program of ele- 
mentary-school education in this field become vital. 

International Organization 

Thus far in this discussion attention has been focused on the 
development in elementary-school pupils of certain attitudes and 
concepts which are essential elements in international understanding. 
Relatively little has been said about direct instruction or experience 
in the specific subject field commonly referred to as international 


relations. A necessary background for that field may be built uf 
through basic historical and geographic concepts, through an insight 
into the state system, and into the process of social change. A be- 
ginning in these background concepts should be made in the ele- 
mentary school. In addition, the elementary program should pro- 
vide pupils with direct instruction in various phases of internationa 
relations themselves. 

A pupil growing into the modern world needs to have some orien- 
tation in respect to international organization; he needs to conceive 
of international organizations as agencies through which national 
states carry on their business at the international level. He should 
recognize that such organizations are not antagonistic to but are 
agencies of the state system in which f arsighted loyalties are rooted. 

A number of international organizations lend themselves, in con- 
creteness and dramatic appeal, to the elementary-school curriculum, 
The North Atlantic ice patrol, the International Postal Union, the 
Organization of American States, the United Nations and its spe- 
cialized agencies all illustrate intergovernmental organizations which 
can be made real to pupils. Other international organizations not 
necessarily governmental in character are equally appropriate the 
International Red Cross, the International Olympics Committee, 
the International Boy Scouts, and international organizations of a 
religious or scholarly or business character. Each of these may illus- 
trate the process by which international relations are carried on. 
Materials about these nongovernmental organizations and pupil ac- 
tivities related to their functions and programs are by no means 
adequately used in the elementary-school social-studies curriculum. 

One of the problems in using them is that of devising pupil ac- 
tivities which have reality and challenge to the pupils. Study of 
other cultures can be made relatively real by activities in which 
pupils take the part of members of the other culture; this is in part 
what gives units on the Japanese or the Indians or the Netherlanders 
their appeal. Properly done, the experience of playing a role is 
one way by which individuals may learn the viewpoints and mores of 
outsiders. The equivalent of this role-playing is hard to develop at 
the elementary-school level in interpreting for pupils the functioning 
of international organizations. There is a psychological identification 
in engaging in a relief program such as may be developed by the 
Red Cross or by UNESCO or, at the college level, by World Uni- 


versity Service. Such education-by-participation in a program with 
international ramifications should be cultivated wherever possible. 
Model international meetings may be developed at the elementary- 
school level to deal with problems within the comprehension of 

Specific mention should be made of some of the possibilities and 
the limitations in elementary education about the United Nations 
system. The United Nations, as the major international organization 
of our era, deserves study in the schools. The United Nations is not 
exclusively an organization to handle political issues, its organs and 
specialized agencies and committees deal with the widest variety of 
materials, controversial and otherwise. Its far-flung programs im- 
pinge in divers ways on the lives of all persons. There are materials 
in the story of the United Nations which are appropriate for classes 
in social studies, in science, in arithmetic, in literature and music, in 
health, and in all other aspects of the curriculum. It is to be empha- 
sized that the United Nations can be understood by individuals only 
as its operations are consciously encountered in all these aspects of 
the school program. 

This is but another way of saying that the best introduction to 
international organization is through function rather than structure. 
Understanding of the United Nations comes for the general citizen, 
young or old, not through a diagram showing structure and admin- 
istration but through perception of actual operations. Understand- 
ing comes by encountering aspects of the work of the World 
Health Organization, or of UNESCO, or of the Economic and 
Social Council, or of the International Labor Organization, or of the 
Commission on Human Rights, or of the General Assembly in their 
functional setting. The stories of Ralph Bunche or of Dag Ham- 
niarskjold in the Near East may do more to make the United Na- 
tions real than any number of formal charts and diagrams and 
structural analyses. Too little of the literature for children on the 
United Nations adequately emphasizes this functional approach. A 
major service to international understanding could be rendered by 
the production of vignettes of action, case incidents and anecdotes, 
illustrative of the way the United Nations system works. 

The resourceful teacher will devise many methods for intro- 
ducing into the classroom examples of United Nations activities 


suitable for instructional purposes. Younger children, for example, 
using their creative abilities, can tell with drawings or brief stories, 
about the healthy people in a village where the water source has 
recently been purified, or where better seeds and farming methods 
have resulted in increased food production. Older children can 
organize as a mock United Nations committee to examine a current 
world problem, thereby gaining greater insights regarding the im- 
portance and complexity of the work of an international body. 

Instruction should bring out the benefits which accrue to all 
through other activities typical of the United Nations such as in- 
creasing educational opportunity, exchanging scientific information, 
gaining greater appreciation of the creative artistry of others, in- 
creasing purchasing power, and developing belief in the dignity and 
value of every individual, irrespective of race, creed, or sex. It 
should emphasize that illiteracy and exploitation, inefficiency and 
poverty, malnutrition and disease, superstition and suspicion, bigotry 
and persecution are common problems with concomitant evils 
which must be faced by every country, our own included. 

There are symbols connected with international organization 
with which pupils should become familiar, just as there are symbols 
embodying national ideals. The Red Cross Flag is one of these 
symbols, which can be studied by pupils and for which loyalty 
can be developed. Pupils should be familiarized with the blue and 
white flag of the United Nations. The headquarters building of the 
United Nations is itself a significant symbol, impressive in picture 
as well as for those who visit it. These symbols are valuable as em- 
bodying ideals toward which society may move. 

It must be emphasized, however, that instruction about the 
United Nations and other international organizations, and instruc- 
tion about countries other than our own, does not constitute the 
whole program of education for international understanding. That 
program is deep-rooted in the whole substance of elementary edu- 
cation. It lies also in the very process and method of living in 
the school. 

The Group Process 

The process of living in the elementary school contributes to the 
ideas and attitudes about human relations with which the pupil 


approaches international issues. Even in their earliest school years, 
boys and girls in normal competition or co-operation with members 
of the school community who are unlike themselves in background, 
in color, in religion, in habits are acquiring attitudes which will 
condition their outlook on the world at large through life. The 
traditional operation of the school as a harmonizing agent for the 
cultures brought to American shores from all the world is itself a 
psychological experience in education for international behavior. 
The programs of intergroup education now being developed in 
many American schools, while focused on improving the relations 
among groups within the national population may also contribute 
to behavior in international matters. Intergroup relations at home 
have many similarities with intergroup relations on the international 
scale; education for one is also education for the other. 

The healthiness of group life in an elementary school, particu- 
larly in a school which is cosmopolitan in character, influences the 
international understanding of pupils and of men and women 
when those pupils have grown to adulthood. Children who are not 
pitted psychologically against their classmates to gain recognition 
and approval, children who are encouraged to work with rather 
than against others, children who are not dominated by an authori- 
tarian personality, children who have a sense of secure-belonging 
in a constructive school environment are more likely to develop 
the quality characteristics needed among citizens if a democracy 
is to conduct its foreign relations well. This healthy group life is not 
free from conflict or competition, or even from occasional frustra- 
tion, but it sees these phenomena as secondary aspects of the whole. 

In a sense, it is the pupils who have experienced a democratic 
way of living in the school upon whom democracy may best rely 
for able behavior as adult citizens. Those who have experienced 
healthy group living, and have been made conscious of the process 
as they live it, have an invaluable asset with which to approach 
international understanding. 


Approaches to an Understanding of World Affairs. Twenty-fifth Yearbook 
of the National Council for the Social Studies. Edited by Howard R. Ander- 
son. Washington: National Education Association, 1954. 

BENEDICT, RUTH, and WELTFISH, GENE. "The Races of Mankind" in Race: 
Science and Politics. New York: Viking Press, 1947 (revised edition). 


BROWN, INA CORINNE. Race Relations m a Democracy New York Harper 
& Bros., 1949. 

COOK, LLOYD, and COOK, ELAINE. Intergroup Education. New York McGraw- 
Hill Book Co., 1954. 

Education -for International Understanding in American Schools: Suggestions 
and Recommendations, Committee on International Relations of the Na- 
tional Education Association, the Association for Supervision and Curricu- 
lum Development, and the National Council for the Social Studies. Wash- 
ington: National Education Association, 1948. 

Elementary Curriculum in Intergroup Relations Intergroup Education in 
Co-operating Schools. Hilda Taba, Director. Washington: American 
Council on Education, 1950. 

The Expanding Role of Education. Twenty-sixth Yearbook of the American 
Association of School Administrators. Washington: American Association 
of School Administrators, 1948. 

HEATON, MARGAJRET M., and LEWIS, HELEN B. Reading Ladders for Human 
Relations. Washington. American Council on Education, 1954 (revised 
edition) . 

Improving Human Relations: Through Classroom, School, and Community 
Activities. Edited by Howard H. Cummings. Bulletin No. 25. Washing- 
ton: National Council for the Social Studies, 1949. 

Intercultural Attitudes in the Making. Edited by William H. Kilpatrick and 
William Van Til. New York: Harper & Bros., 1947. 

Literature for Human Understanding Intergroup Education in Co-operating 
Schools. Hilda Taba, Director. Washington* American Council on Educa- 
tion, 1948. 

OLSEN, EDWARD G. Social Travel: A Technique in Intercultural Education. 
New York: Hinds, Hay den & Eldredge, 1947. 

Education in Public Schools. Washington- American Council on Education, 

Teaching World Understanding. Edited by Ralph C. Preston. New York. 
Prentice-Hall, 1955. 

These Your Children. Edited by Harold U. Ribalow. New York: Beech- 
hurst Press, 1952. 

WASHBUBNE, CARLETON. The World's Good: Education -for World-mindedness. 
New York: John Day Co , 1954. 

WELKER, EDITH F. Friends 'with All the World. New York- Friendship Press. 


Evaluating the Social-Studies Program 




A Case Study in Evaluation 

The purpose of this chapter is to present a description and a criti- 
que of one city school system's approach to evaluating the social 
studies in its elementary schools. The experience of the public schools 
in Denver will be presented as a case study. This experience is not 
offered as a model, because we believe that no two school systems 
would require exactly the same patterns of evaluation. It is pre- 
sented, rather, with the thought that a school system may be stim- 
ulated to reassess its own plan of evaluation, developed in view of 
local conditions and needs, by reviewing the plan of another school 

Evaluation, as used in this chapter, relates to the process of as- 
certaining the degree to which the social-studies program fulfils its 
objectives. Considerable progress has been made in evaluating the 
social studies during the past half-century, but the measurement of 
educational growth of children in the social studies, as well as in 
other aspects of the social experience outside the school, leaves great 
areas in which evaluation must still lean very heavily upon judg- 
ments and reflective analysis. Standardized tests in the social studies 
have been improved considerably, although they have not shared 
fully the improvements in the development of tests for the measure- 
ment of achievement in other subjects of the curriculum. 

The teacher is now supplied with much better evaluation in- 
struments than were available even a few years ago. As these instru- 



ments now stand, they are not only useful to teachers but they may 
be interpreted without too much difficulty or apology to parents, 
to pupils, and to the general public. There are reasonably good tests 
available, for example, for the measuring of knowledge in geog- 
raphy, history, and government and for the measuring of ability to 
analyze social issues. There are satisfactory tests of some of the skills 
needed to keep informed in the content of social studies, such as the 
ability to locate information, to read maps and charts, and to read 
graphs and tables. There are excellent tests available to measure 
ability to read and ability to think quantitatively. Results of each 
of these tests have a bearing on the aspects of pupil growth that 
contribute to the pupil's progress in the social studies. 

Furthermore, there are also available to elementary-school teach- 
ers sociometric techniques, scales of attitudes, rating scales, forms for 
recording data, and the like. Although these instruments are not as 
well established as the traditional ones, they are good ones for use 
by the teacher. 

This chapter might have concentrated upon a description and 
an analysis of the various tests of knowledge, skills, and techniques 
presently available. Discussion could have dealt largely with con- 
cepts of reliability, validity, and objectivity. It could have pre- 
sented at length the need for better measures of the intangibles. 
All these aspects of evaluation we believe to be of importance. How- 
ever, we defer such treatment of the subject to the many excellent 
books and pamphlets on measurement What is generally lacking is 
material on the details of organizing and carrying out a compre- 
hensive program of evaluation which recognizes that the subtleties 
of social studies require a variety of evaluative procedures in ad- 
dition to measures of pupil achievement. Material of this kind will 
be presented in this chapter. 

Denver, Its People, and Its Schools 

Denver is one of the rapidly growing cities of the West. It will 
celebrate its centennial in 1958. In the twenty years after 1858, 
there was a very rapid growth of the city as the result of mining 
developments in the mountains and of agricultural developments 
in the river valleys near by. Following this, there were many years 
of rather slow, steady increase in the population; then World War 


II and the following decade brought with them a very highly ac- 
celerated growth of population both within the city and within the 
general metropolitan area. The Denver boundaries include a city- 
county political unit and a school district, their boundaries being 

Like other large urban communities, Denver is based upon a 
complex economic structure. Mining and agriculture are still im- 
portant; there are large military establishments near Denver and large 
Federal civilian installations located both within and without the 
city. Many visitors and tourists come to the city. However, Den- 
ver is largely a jobbing and distributing center for a very large but 
comparatively sparsely populated Western area of the United States. 
Here there is relatively little manufacturing and industrial develop- 
ment such as that seen in many of the large midwestern and eastern 

All races and cultural groups generally found in the United 
States are to be found in Denver, but the city has never faced the 
problem of assimilating large groups of people of widely divergent 
languages or culture. It was originally settled largely by persons 
born in the United States, because of its great distance from the 
borders. Small ethnic islands have appeared at times and have tended 
to become assimilated within a generation. Here, as elsewhere, a 
gain in economic status results in a change of residence, with re- 
placement by an ethnic group of later arrival. 

The Denver schools have been reasonably successful in bringing 
newcomers into the fold of American culture while preserving a 
pride in and remembrance of the ancestral culture. From the begin- 
ning, the citizens have taken an interest in the welfare of the 
schools. They have rather consistently provided funds for build- 
ings and personnel to such a degree that the city ranks in the upper 
quarter of comparable cities in expenditures and program. The 
schools extend from kindergarten through Grade XII and are or- 
ganized on the kindergarten-6-3-3 plan. Consequently, elementary 
schools referred to in this chapter include kindergarten through 
Grade VI. 

The Elementary -School Social-Studies Program 

The social-studies program in the Denver schools is based upon 
the fundamental premise that the public schools have a very special 


function to perform in helping children and young people to grow 
into active and creative citizenship. Planned for a specific part of 
the school day, the social studies draw their life and inspiration from 
personal, social, civic, and economic interests and from the needs 
of boys and girls and the demands that society makes upon its citi- 
zens. For their content, the social studies draw from such subjects 
as history, geography, civics, sociology, cultural anthropology, psy- 
chology, and economics. In general, the social-studies program 
provides experiences in democratic living and in functional learn- 
ing, which are designed to help boys and girls understand both their 
heritage as Americans and the world in which they live, to help 
them learn some of the basic techniques of problem-solving in the 
field of the social studies, and to help them participate in the rights 
and responsibilities of citizenship. More specifically, the social 
studies are organized in terms of four principal approaches to con- 
tent: (a) the functions of living in which approach the content 
develops moral and spiritual values and promotes living in accord- 
ance with them; (b) problems wherein the content provides for 
the identification and analysis of human problems; (c) subjects 
the content in this approach providing learning experiences in the 
subjects of history, civics, geography, and the like; (d) culture 
where the content is enriched by a study of the ways in which 
people live and of their inventions, their discoveries, their institu- 
tions, and the like. 

The social-studies program is developed, with some modifica- 
tions, in accordance with the generally used concentric-circle type 
of organization which is based on the idea that a pupil's experiences 
should start with his more immediate environment and then pro- 
ceed to more remote environments. In the intermediate grades, the 
dimension of time is introduced to help boys and girls understand 
people of other times. 

Each grade level has at least one science unit which has impor- 
tant social implications. Because of close relationship to the social 
studies, natural and physical sciences are considered to be a part of 
the elementary-school social-studies program. 

Generally, the content for the elementary schools is organized 
into units. The following chart shows the relationships of the several 
subjects to units in the several grades of the elementary-school social- 
studies program (see Chart 1). 



1 5" C 




N It; 




! Son 

i H fe O 

4 I? 
* If 


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fe 55 

SI ll 
|i II 



CQ c5 <3 So pd 

I 1 

S "St 

o ^ g 

1 jl 

02 S : 





ci) 02 



^ o 




?9 1* 

si 3 H 
g" gfr 






i i g 



OK fl 5 

w n SH 

o w 




u o 3 




( I II 

g I P 

8^ ^ 



K~ " M W " 

^ ^ 5 S s 
o to a > c 

M O^ wS 

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8 g 






An Over-all View of Evaluation in Denver 

The general program of evaluation used in the Denver Public 
Schools is based upon two rather fundamental ideas: 

First, that the schools are essentially a part of the community. 
This implies that evaluation of the social studies should be done by 
both the school staff and the lay citizens of the community. 

Second, that provision for evaluation is an acceptance of 'what 
is catted the auditing junction. In other words, schools are account- 
able for their program of instruction and the results of that pro- 
gram. Almost every activity of life is subject to some kind of 
accounting. Bankers of unimpeachable integrity and of the highest 
responsibility accept without question the visits of certain exam- 
iners. Other occupations are appraised much less formally but effec- 
tively by customers or clientele. 

With this in mind, there have been set up in the public schools 
two types of auditing one, an internal audit, in which the teachers 
themselves evaluate the program; and the second, an external audit, 
in which others are involved in the evaluation. The internal audit, 
i.e., the evaluating done by teachers in the social-studies program, 
includes both the informal and standardized tests in common use 
today, together with less commonly used types of evaluating instru- 
ments. The external auditing or evaluating is done by other people, 
such as principals, parents, or professional consultants. This also in- 
volves the use of tests and other evaluating instruments, which are 
scored by other people and reported back to the teacher. 

Both the internal and the external types of auditing or evaluat- 
ing are going on continually, year after year, in the Denver Public 
Schools. However, every third year a special program goes into 
effect in the way of external auditing or evaluating. This program is 
composed of two major parts: one, a testing survey, in which stand- 
ardized tests are used; and a second, an opinion survey, in which the 
opinions of citizens are surveyed by a professional organization. 

We may look at the over-all program of evaluation in Denver 
in still another way, that is, in terms of four principal kinds of 
programs of evaluation: (a) through the use of generally accepted 
tests and the use of some controversial evaluating instruments, both 


informal and standardized; (b) through the use of team judgments 
by professional people, (c) through the use of opinion surveys and 
the participation of citizens in curriculum development; (d) through 
community study of business and industry by teacher visitation. 

The Use of Generally Accepted Tests in Evaluating 
Social Studies 

The Denver Public Schools subscribe to the idea that many 
learnings in the social studies are potentially measurable and that 
those aspects that can now be measured should be measured. We 
believe that measurement has advanced to the point where it is 
highly useful in the social studies. We do not refrain from using 
tests merely because they may not be completely satisfactory. 

In Denver there are two general testing programs in which 
standardized tests are used. One is described locally by three terms: 
"status-testing program," the "survey-testing program," or the 
"triennial-testing program." This type of testing was begun in 
1950 and was repeated in 1953 and in 1956 (see Chart 2). The tests 
are administered to all pupils in Grades III, VI, IX, and XII. This 
program is developed primarily as a means of comparing the achieve- 
ment of pupils in Denver with pupils across the nation. The city- 
wide results of this testing, showing strengths and weaknesses, are 
published in a brochure and are also transmitted to the public 
through meetings and the press. Each school is given a confidential 
report of its own data that will be useful in improving instruction, 
Every effort is made to avoid comparing schools, comparing teach- 
ers, or using data for rating of any sort. 

Every year, too, other standardized tests and batteries are em- 
ployed in our "minimum" or "instructional" testing program. The 
results are used to provide data for the improvement of instruction 
for individual pupils, classes, and schools (see Chart 3). In many 
cases, even at the third grade, pupils participate in the scoring and 
analyzing of tests. This helps them discover their strengths and plan 
their next steps in the learning process. These results are not com- 
piled on a city-wide basis. Since all schools give all these particular 
tests, this program is called the "minimum" program, but any othei 
tests may be added if desired by the principal and faculty. 





The Testing Program 


HI Academic Aptitude (I.Q.) By March 2, 1956 

Otis or Davis-Eells 

III Stanford Elementary Battery, Form K April 16-20, 1956 

VI Academic Aptitude (I Q.) By March 2, 1956 

Otis or Davis-Eells 

VI Stanford Intermediate Battery, Form K April 16-20, 1956 

VI Mental Health Analysis April 16-20, 1956 


IX Academic Aptitude (I.Q.) By March 2, 1956 


IX Iowa Tests of Educational Development April 16-20, 1956 

IX Mental Health Analysis April 16-20, 1956 


XH Academic Aptitude (IQ.) By November 18, 1955 


XII Iowa Tests of Educational Development April 16-20, 1956 

XII Mental Health Analysis April 16-20, 1956 

The Opinion Survey 

Research Services, Incorporated, a Denver research agency, conducted an 
opinion survey among the adult population of Denver during the same period 
the testing survey was presented in the schools. The primary purpose of the 
opinion survey was to measure the degree of satisfaction with the current 
program of the Denver Public Schools. At the same time it was expected 
that some of the data would afford direct comparisons with similar questions 
sampled in the previous surveys of 1950 and 1953. 

The Use of Locally Made Tests 

Still another type of internal auditing or evaluating in Denver 
is done by means of "quality-control projects*" These projects in- 
clude locally made tests that measure the same general objectives 
as standardized tests but that are much more diagnostic. Quality 
control means much the same in the Denver schools as it does in 
industry; in other words, if a product is to be consistently satisfac- 
tory in quality, there must be periodic inspection and evaluation 
of the product to assure such quality. The process of quality con- 
trol in education is to select some of the major or critical aspects 
of instruction for testing at intervals to see if growth is coming up 
to expectation. The projects are usually of short duration, the 






Kdg. or 

I Academic Aptitude (I.Q.) 

II Academic Aptitude (I Q ) 

II Reading Test (Calif, or Gates) 

IE Calif. Primary Battery, Form AA 

III Otis, Alpha, AS or Davis-Eells, 

III City-wide Survey 

IV Calif. Elementary Battery, 

Form AA 

IV Academic Aptitude (I.Q.) 
V Calif. Soc. & Rel. Sc., Pt. i AA 

VI Calif. Elementary Battery, 

Form AA 

*VI Otis, Beta, or Davis-Eells, Elem. 
VT City-wide Survey 


VII Calif. Intermediate Battery, By October 14, 1955 

Form AA 
VH Calif. Soc. & Rel. Sc., Pt. I, T.z, 8th or 9th month of the grade 

BB, and Pt. H, T-3, BB 
VIII Calif . Intermediate Battery, 5th or 6th month of the grade 

Form CC 
VIH Calif. Soc. & Rel. Sc., Pt. I, T.r, 8th or 9th month of the grade 

BB and Pt. II, T^., BB 
VIH ~ ~ ' ' ~ ' 


In kindergarten or by the en 
of November in first grade 
During January, 1956 
During February, 1956 
By October 14, 1955 
By March 2, 1956 

April, 1956 

By October 14, 1955 

By November 4, 1955 
During Second Semester 

By October 14, 1955 

By March 2, 1956 
April, 1956 

Coop. Science for Grades 7-9, 

Form Y 

**IX-A Otis, QSMA, Gamma (LQ.) 
DC City-wide Survey 

8th or 9th month of Science 


By Oct. 7, 1955, or Mar. 2, 195 
April, 1956 

During First Semester 
During xoth grade 
During last 3 weeks of 2nd Ser 
During last 3 weeks, Am. His 


During last 3 weeks of 2nd Ser 


X Calif Advanced Battery, 

Form AA 
X Kuder Preference Record, 

Vocational, C 
X-A Biology II (for North Central 

XI Crary American History, 

Form AM 
XI-A Physics II (for North Central 

XII-A Chemistry II (for North Central During last 3 weeks of 2nd Ser 

**XH Henmon-Nelson (Use for By November 18, 1955 

Expectancy for) 
XII City-wide Survey April, 1956 

* All elementary pupils were given an I.Q. test within the year prior to beii 
promoted to junior high, school 

** These tests were scored and tabulated at Administration Building, 
*** All June graduating Seniors were tested, and the scoring, tabulating, and typi: 
of alphabetical lists of the names and I.Q 's were done at the Administration Building. 


achievement desired is very sharply defined, and the teaching pro- 
cedures are carefully outlined. Usually the sequence is to test, 
teach, and test. The broad purpose and content of these projects 
are worked out at meetings of kindergarten-Grade XII instruction 
committees. Following this, subcommittees of from two to five 
teachers develop the projects in detail. 

The tests are used to measure achievement, both before and 
after very specific teaching. Questions the teachers have been 
using are pooled, and others are originated. The resulting prelim- 
inary tests are given in several pilot schools. After item analysis 
and a resulting elimination or change of some items, the city-wide 
tests are prepared. The process is informal, and elaborate statistical 
procedures are not used, although there is much screening and 
analysis of items for curriculum validity and internal consistency 
in the tests. In effect, tests on subject-matter units that are thus 
made available tend to be better than those prepared by teachers 

Thus far, the results of the use of quality-control projects have 
been very stimulating to both teachers and pupils. Some teachers 
who were lukewarm toward the projects were converted when 
they discovered that instruction was simplified. A small number 
of specifics can be discovered and appropriate amounts of time 
devoted to them. Also, pupil participation in scoring tests and in 
item analysis is encouraged as soon as the pupil is mature enough 
to do it. This procedure helps the individual pupil discover his 
strengths and weaknesses. If a continued analysis of a particular 
aspect of instruction indicates the need of some curriculum changes, 
such changes are made, usually by a curriculum committee. 

An example of quality control in the social studies may be found 
in a sixth-grade geography project. Some teaching of geography 
begins in Denver at the first grade as pupils learn their addresses, 
the street names in the school neighborhood, dangerous traffic loca- 
tions, and the like. Each succeeding grade builds on this founda- 

The sixth-grade quality-control project is based upon the im- 
portant place locations, their products, and the matter of processing 
products. The first test, given when the sixth-grade geography 
work begins, helps the teacher measure what has been learned pre- 


viously. The plan of instruction can then be made more specific 
in terms of what the class needs and what the individual pupils 
need. The second test, given toward the end of the time assigned 
to geography, measures the growth the pupils have made. 

Helps are also furnished to the teacher in the form of lists of 
places and terms for use in vocabulary-building and spelling. 

Samples of these projects are given to junior high school teachers 
and are helpful to them in understanding the elementary program 
and its expected achievements. 

An aspect of auditing is related to the use of test results. It is 
the use of intelligence-test scores and the development of an expect- 
ancy formula for achievement. The ability of children to learn or to 
perform school work is considered in all evaluations made from test 
data, whether the tests are of the internal or external auditing type. 
Particular emphasis, in interpreting data from both the survey test- 
ing and from the instruction testing, is given to proper expectancy. 

In Grade VT, for example, the expectancy formula is 

= XA, that is, expectancy in achievement. Such expectancy, of 
course, relates primarily to interpretation of standardized tests, but 
also has its place in the more informal types of tests. 

In Denver the expectancy formula is used in order to approach 
the ideal of individualizing instruction. If the same achievement is 
expected from all pupils at a given grade level, both teacher and 
pupils are frustrated. Perhaps a midpoint or average is sought to 
the neglect of the pupils of either high or low academic ability. In 
terms of testing, the teacher gains a feeling of security when each 
pupil in his class is assigned a potential score which he may make 
with reasonable effort. If he fails to meet this expectancy, further 
study of the pupil is motivated to find possible causes in his health, 
his home, his interests all the factors that influence school success 
and failure. 

At the present time there is no single standardized test in city- 
wide use in Denver at the elementary-school level that tests the 
social studies. Batteries of standardized tests in use include tests in 
geography, history, civics, and economics. Some of the other parts 
of the battery are related to the social studies; specifically, tests in 
paragraph meaning, vocabulary, arithmetic reasoning, quantitative 


thinking, and study skills. Weakness in any one of these may be 
interpreted as affecting ability in the social studies. Strength in any 
of them gives assurance that the pupils possess abilities that help 
them extend their knowledge of the social studies. 

Each spring, the evaluation committees recommend the tests for 
use in the ensuing school year. Evaluation committees are organized 
into elementary, junior high, and senior high school groups. Each 
is composed of teachers, administrators, psychologists, and a central- 
office representative. Each committee studies and selects tests ap- 
propriate to its level. There is a Kindergarten-Grade XII evaluation 
committee, made up of representatives from the committees from 
the three levels, to co-ordinate and articulate the program and to 
recommend the testing for the year to the superintendent. The rec- 
ommendations from this evaluation committee are discussed by other 
committees and by the principals and faculties before they go to 
the superintendent for adoption. Anyone may propose a test for 
consideration at any time. Consequently, the standardized testing 
program is flexible, and it changes to meet local needs and con- 

At the elementary-school level there has been no action in Den- 
ver to set up a separate category of persons known as evaluators. 
These do exist in the secondary schools. Where all test scoring and 
compilation of data is done by evaluators, there is a tendency for 
teachers to be less sensitive to the points of strength and weakness. 
On the other hand, when the classroom teachers and pupils analyze 
test results and we believe that is feasible beginning at the third 
or fourth grade all become aware of strengths and weaknesses. 
Under these conditions, when the teacher discovers that a signifi- 
cant number of pupils have missed a question, he will ask, "Why 
did some of us miss this question? Had we forgotten the answer ? 
Did it deal with something that we had not worked with in class? 
Were we careless in reading the question or in indicating the an- 

We believe that evaluation and instruction are interlocked and 
that problems arise when each becomes compartmentalized. It is 
when the latter situation exists that one hears the clich6, "Are we 
teaching for tests?" If the tests used have their foundation in the 
stated objectives of instruction, this implied criticism has no va- 


The Denver testing program is based upon participation of the 
classroom teacher. What proficiency in testing does this imply? 
As tests are selected, an effort is made to obtain those that are rela- 
tively simple to administer, that have usable manuals of direction. 
Then we endeavor, by using supervisory personnel, to raise teacher 
efficiency in testing. We do this by work in group meetings and by 
other work with teachers, including demonstrations with classes. 
We believe that integrity in the giving of tests results from proper 
administrative attitude the attitude that pupils' test scores will not 
be used for ratings or reprisal in any form. Therefore, in testing, 
results handed in by teachers are accepted as reflecting correct giv- 
ing and scoring of the tests. The tests used in our survey testing are 
sent to scoring agents. This involves no reflection upon our teachers 
but is an application of the principle of external accounting an 
inventory of our achievements made by an outside, impartial agency. 
In general, however, we will accept whatever error that may arise 
in test administration by teachers in order to retain the teacher as 
an evaluator in the program. When testing becomes the province 
of the specialist exclusively, complete understanding of the use of 
test data in instruction is lost. In schools, as in business concerns, 
our books are examined by our own employees and by the dis- 
interested experts the internal and external auditors. 

Special Types of Evaluating Instruments 


Denver teachers at all levels make extensive use of records of 
class discussion, collections of children's work, diaries, anecdotal 
records, scores on teacher-made tests, and the like. Periodically, 
the data are brought together in the report card, which includes 
both achievement grades and check lists of personal and social- 
behavior traits. 

Passing from standardized tests and the supplementary, locally 
made tests, we enter the area of various evaluating instruments that 
may be called controversial because the instruments are more sub- 
jective and because opinion differs widely as to interpretation. There 
are other evaluating instruments which we shall refer to as con- 
troversial because their newness and other factors lead to wide varia- 
tion in their interpretation. We shall broadly classify them into 


(a) sociometnc techniques, those that are used with groups, and (Z?) 
projective techniques, those that are used with individuals. Ob- 
viously, they overlap to a considerable extent. 

Many Denver teachers have had training in sociometnc tech- 
niques and use them in evaluating groups of pupils. Some teachers 
of intermediate grades construct sociograms which show patterns 
of relationships of leaders, followers, and isolates and which also 
reveal feelings of attraction and repulsion within the group. They 
follow up with work designed to stimulate courtesy, respect for 
others, self-control, and more mature behavior. 

Some success has been gained in relieving intergroup tensions 
through these means. For the general information of the teachers, 
a booklet (Human Relations in Action) has been prepared which 
summarizes the techniques found best as a result of experience. 

As individuals are observed in the class situation, the use of 
projective techniques is often indicated as a means for better under- 
standing of personality. For the most part they are administered by 
the trained persons in the Department of Psychological Services, 
inasmuch as instruments such as the Rorschach and the Thematic 
Apperception tests are highly technical. Also, some of these in- 
struments probe into emotions and feelings which need expert inter- 
pretation. Then, too, there may be an admixture of diagnosis and 
therapy not readily perceived by an untrained person. The "Three 
Wishes" device, which is not too complex, involves diagnosis, as it 
provides clues to some deep-rooted desires of the child. It may be 
therapeutic in that expressing a wish may give the child an outlet 
for an emotion. Even the traditional essay-type test has projective 
implications which trained persons can detect. 


It has been mentioned that data of various sorts are synthesized 
in the report card. The cumulative record, in an even broader sense, 
becomes the focal point for all evaluation in that it includes data 
from standardized, sociometric, and projective testing; from in- 
formal procedures; from direct observation of pupil behavior by 
the teacher. The importance of prompt and accurate recording can- 
not be overstressed. As the pupil passes from grade to grade, each 
new teacher derives some benefit from what preceding teachers have 


learned and recorded. It is invaluable, too, as a pupil passes frorr 
a building through transfer or by promotion to higher levels. Em- 
ployers and civic agencies increasingly ask for summary descrip- 
tions of our former pupils. For efficient administration, these rec- 
ords are now microfilmed upon completion. Some recording by 
automatic machines is coming into use. 

The cumulative-record form now in use in Denver was evolvec 
over a period of more than twenty years and has been revised as $ 
result of local experience and of study of forms used in other cities, 
Spaces are provided for the data previously described, and case 
studies by specialists may be enclosed in the folder. 

Currently, some study is in progress to improve the evaluation 
of personal-social characteristics. It is not enough merely to check 
certain listed behavior traits. So far as undesirable traits go, it is 
more important to trace them to a cause and then, if possibile, to 
do something about the cause* Such problems remain to be solved 
before we can consider our local record as effective as it may be po- 


Looking somewhat further into the informal and controversial 
types of evaluation, we might think of the evaluation of listening 
ability. In Denver, this is decidedly unfinished business. Experiments 
have been made with records and tape recordings of speeches, stories, 
poems, and the like. After these were played to pupils, some pencil- 
and-paper tests on comprehension were given. We are not satisfied 
with the results, but continued study is being made. We rely much 
upon the pupil's learning through hearing, but we cannot say quan- 
titatively how this compares with learning through other means. 

The degree of effectiveness of learning through pictures is also 
waiting for future measurement. Visual education in all its forms 
continues to gain popularity. Texts are ever more lavishly illus- 
trated, sometimes to the point where the context is almost elim- 
inated. It would seem that, in our culture, pictures are gaining 
equality with the alphabet and numbers as symbols for communi- 
cation. Advertisers and propagandists have discovered the value 
of pictures in the building of attitudes and emotions. 

A basis for a study of visual learning, when it begins in earnest, 


may be found in the "picture-situation" tests already developed and 
used by psychologists. The conventional pictures charts, graphs, 
maps, globes have received attention from test-makers. 

It might be profitable to make a parallel study of pictures drawn 
by pupils. Again, the starting point might be the protective tests 
of this nature now in use, adapting the device to phases of the social 


Another major method of evaluation which is used in Denver 
is the use of the judgment of teams of professional people. The 
method may not have the objectivity of the standardized test, but 
it does avoid the purely subjective appraisal of a single person. 

The Kindergarten^Grade XII social-studies committee has both 
formal and informal appraisal responsibilities. Formally, it may rec- 
ommend standardized tests; it studies test data to see if curriculum 
changes are warranted. Informally, group discussion often centers 
around evaluation matters. For instance, a question may be raised 
in the committee about the effectiveness of a suggested learning 
activity, such as a question about the adequacy of the period of time 
suggested for a unit of instruction. 

Another team frequently used is the principal-supervisor-teacher 
(or teachers) team. They might confer after standardized testing. 
The question might be raised as to how a given group of pupils could 
be developed to their expected achievement. All present would 
suggest procedures and activities. They would discuss further means 
of evaluation that might be used to check progress as it is made. 

There is in the Denver schools a group of persons called ele- 
mentary co-ordinators of instruction. They are good teachers who 
have been appointed to assist groups of approximately thirty first- 
or second-year probationary teachers. The function of these co- 
ordinators relates entirely to the general improvement of instruc- 
tion, including, of course, the social studies. As they participate 
in conferences with teachers, they bring their observations to bear 
upon evaluation judgments being made. 

The team idea logically extends itself to include two groups 
greatly affected by the work of the schools; namely, the parents 
and the pupils. The approach in conferences with parents and pupils 


varies, depending upon the skills, experiences, and maturity of those 
participating. The teacher-principal-pupil-parent team can, in some 
cases, look at test-result profiles. Parents may present their evalua- 
tion of pupil behavior in the home. When home study is concerned, 
they may have judgments about their teaching work in the home 
and its results. 

Perhaps the most complex of the team situations is the making 
of case studies concerned with behavior problems. Here psychia- 
trists, psychologists, social workers, and similar specialists partici- 
pate. The case study and the follow-up work, both in the home 
and in the school, become technical. 

In-service assistance is needed to develop the skills of teachers 
and parents in working as a team. We have found in Denver that 
it is easy to work with parents who began with preschool meetings 
and have continued with study groups sponsored by the parent- 
teacher association. Such parents have learned something about the 
vocabulary of testing; they can read test charts and profiles; they 
have met with school personnel who work with evaluation in all its 
phases. They know how to reinforce the school program. There con- 
tinues to be, of course, a contingent of parents who are indifferent 
and apathetic. 


One of the most unique types of evaluation used in Denver is 
the opinion survey, conducted every third year at the time of the 
status, or survey, testing. The principal purposes of the opinion 
survey are (a) to ascertin the general trend of approval or dis- 
approval of the public schools by the citizens of Denver and (b) to 
ascertain their principal ideas with respect to the instructional pro- 
gram, including, of course, the social studies. Such a survey is 
conducted by professional opinion-polling personnel and not by 
parents or by school people. 

With respect to the program of the social studies particularly, 
it is felt that the general effectiveness of the schools is conditioned 
in large part by the attitudes and opinions of citizens regarding 
this program. More specifically, the teaching of the social studies 
is influenced by the general attitude of citizens regarding its im- 


portance in the schools and the general opinion of citizens as to 
whether or not it is being neglected. For example, this question 
from the opinion survey illustrates one aspect of the survey: "You 
are familiar with the term 'a well-educated person.' What does a 
well-educated person mean to you?" In responding to this ques- 
tion in the last two opinion surveys, the citizens have generally 
indicated that they believe the most important sign of a good edu- 
cation to be the correct use of English, that is, effective speaking 
and writing skills. The matter of citizenship figures less prominently 
in responses to survey questions. However, another survey question 
asked citizens to rate the subject fields according to their impor- 
tance. In this inquiry English has been ranked first consistently, 
mathematics usually second, and social studies usually third. A very 
large proportion of the citizens also mentioned, as being important, 
certain personality traits and certain social and psychological skills 
that are characteristic of good citizens. In general, citizens con- 
sidered the social studies to be of less importance than did the 

Questions used in the 1956 Opinion Survey were as follows- 

1. Most of us think some of our friends are well educated and some 
not so well educated. How do you tell whether or not a person 
has a good education* 

2. What are some of the important things you think they should teach 
children in the Denver Public Schools today? 

3. (Show a card.) Are there any of these subjects you think the Den- 
ver Public Schools are neglecting or not spending enough time on> 

Agriculture Industrial Arts 

Business Education Sciences 

Arts Foreign Languages 

English Social Studies 

Health Mathematics 

Homemaking Physical Education 

4. (Show a card.) Are there any of them you think the Denver Pub- 
lic Schools are spending too much tune on or wasting time on these 

5. (Show a card.) Would you pick out several of these subjects you 
think are most important? 

6. Do you think that the Denver Public Schools are now putting about 
the right emphasis, too much emphasis, or too little emphasis on 
athletics? on physical fitness^ 


7. How about our public schools today what things do you dishke 
about the Denver Public Schools? 

8. What things do you especially like about the Denver Public Schools 
as they are today? 

9. Well, in general, would you say the Denver Public Schools are 
doing a good job, a fair job, or a poor job of educating children 
these days 5 

10. How about discipline of children in the Denver Public Schools to- 
day do you think the schools are much too easy on children, a 
little too easy on them, about right, or too hard on them? 

11. Do you think teachers and administrators in the Denver Public 
Schools give enough personal attention and thoughtfulness to (your 
child) (each child)? 

12. What do you think about the present guidance and counseling pro- 
gram in the Denver Public Schools 5 

Beginning about 1950 there was a major revision of the curricu- 
lum of the schools, including the elementary schools. This revision 
was based largely on the results of the status-testing survey and the 
opinion survey, both of which showed a need for change and 
strengthening in the social-studies program. As a further means 
of recognizing the importance of community evaluation and the 
importance of citizen participation, the Denver Public Schools in- 
vited a number of outstanding citizens to help in curriculum plan- 
ning, especially in the social studies. Furthermore, during the course 
of the preparation of units and materials for the social studies, a 
great many community discussions were held in schools all over the 
city, at which time reactions of citizens to the major elements in 
the social-studies curriculum were learned. As tentative materials 
appeared, they were discussed in faculty meetings and hi meetings 
to which both parents and the general public were invited. Over 
twenty thousand persons participated in this discussion and evalua- 
tion of the social studies. Recorders took notes, which were con- 
sidered at later meetings; controversial subjects were freely dis- 
cussed, and recommendations were made from the results of the 
meetings for the consideration of the social-studies curriculum com- 
mittee. In contrast with the results from the opinion survey, where 
there was not a very strong opinion stated with respect to the im- 
portance of the social studies, there was revealed in these meetings 
strong public interest in the specifics of citizenship and of social 
studies. These meetings revealed, too, that many persons are not as 


clear about the meaning of the broad term "social studies" as they 
are about the broad term "mathematics." They are, however, 
strongly of the opinion that history, geography, civics, and econom- 
ics should be an essential part of the education of all pupils. 


The Denver Public Schools for the past several years thave been 
conducting a program of visitation of teachers to business and in- 
dustry. This is not the usual program where teachers are trying to 
learn the nature of the products and the organization of various 
industries but, rather, a program in which they are trying to get 
some fundamental answers concerning the economy, the basis of it, 
and the relationship of schools to such economy. Evaluation of 
the schools, and particularly of the social studies, comes out of these 
visits and interviews. Teachers of the elementary schools are ex- 
pected to deal with aspects of the immediate neighborhood and of 
the city as a whole. Such visits assist the teachers in preparing for 
an appropriate emphasis in teaching. They also hear from labor and 
management an evaluation of pupils who have become employees. 
They hear of specific behavior patterns that the business community 
feels the schools can help to improve. 

A Critical View of the Denver Program 

As a school system weighs the merits of its procedures of evalua- 
tion, certain questions arise. The ways in which they are resolved 
often bear directly upon the future program of the social studies. 
Some of the questions that have arisen in Denver are as follows: 

1. Shall evaluation be organized so as to have a -uniform, city- 
wide procedure? This was resolved by installing the city- wide pro- 
gram described above, which still leaves areas within the control 
of the building unit to be supplemented at will. 

2. Is the evaluation program adequately controlled? This was 
resolved by assigning central-office personnel to evaluation and by 
forming evaluation committees, including teacher members, who 
recommend certain tests and conduct in-service training in various 
aspects of test usage. 

3. To whom should evaluation data be available? This was re- 


solved by making data generally available to the public and to the 
schools so that the data would contribute to instructional improve- 
ment and to better practices of counseling and guidance. 

4. Is the evaluation program fair to all pupils^ This is partly 
unresolved. The expectancy concept has helped in the analyzing 
of each pupil's scores in the light of his capability. But the expec- 
tancy formula is found least satisfactory with pupils of very high 
or very low academic rating. Some modifications of expectancy 
formulas as well as the development of tests standardized on these 
special populations are much needed. Meanwhile, some advantages 
have been found in using, with advanced intermediate pupils, tests 
that are designed for junior high school classes. 

General Questions Relating to Evaluation of the 
Social Studies* 

As was stated in the introductory paragraph, this evaluation 
program of one school system is not necessarily a model to be fol- 
lowed. Since this program developed in Denver, it was influenced 
by the professional backgrounds of the staff, by the desires of the 
citizens, and by various other characteristics of that particular com- 
munity. Whether or not other schools can use a similar program of 
evaluation depends upon many factors. Certain questions regarding 
evaluation of the social studies persist nationally. The manner in 
which the questions are resolved will affect a community's program. 
Some of the questions and comments upon them follow. 

i. Should standardized tests be used in the evaluation of the 
social studies? 

Some educators believe that standardized tests tend to continue 
the status quo. A school system which has a testing program may 
hesitate to change its curriculum because it fears that test scores 
will be adversely affected. 

* The Denver Public Schools are committed to a major idea in evaluation 
which has been termed the auditing function. In one sense, the preceding 
material in this chapter represents an internal audit of the Denver evaluation 
program written by Kenneth E. Oberholtzer, with assistance from Richard 
Madden. And in the same sense the following material in this chapter repre- 
sents an external audit written by Richard Madden, with assistance from 
Kenneth E. Oberholtzer. From this point on, Richard Madden, who is a 
consultant to the Denver schools, lists criteria or general questions which can 
be related to the social-studies program of Denver or to any other school 


Other educators maintain that there are many fundamental skills 
and a considerable body of knowledge basic to good social-studies 
education, which change but little over a period of years. There is 
much worth-while knowledge of geography, of the American tra- 
dition, of community terminology, of economics, and of government 
that remains quite stable throughout the useful period of a test. A 
background of such knowledge, out of which interests grow and 
generalizations may be developed, is not, they believe, prejudicial 
to good citizenship. 

Should there be greater use made of all knowledge of individual 
differences as we evaluate growth in the social studies' 3 Much is 
known about children's mental ability and about their level of read- 
ing achievement. Do teachers make good use of the information 
they have for the purpose of differentiating instruction in the social 
studies? It is true that they try to find reading material at the level 
of a pupil's ability to understand it. But we seldom see the extensive 
use made of intelligence tests in connection with social studies that 
we see in connection with reading and arithmetic. It appears that 
differentiated instruction in the social studies has not advanced very 
far as a result of tested knowledge of individual differences because 
some oppose differentiation on the grounds that it would lead to a 
classification of citizens with an elite governing class at the apex. 

2. Are the concepts of objectivity, reliability, and validity, as 
the measurements specialist accepts them, important in the evalua- 
tion of the social studies? 

Classroom teachers and supervisors of instruction recognize in 
the social studies many worthy objectives that the standardized 
tests do not measure. They are seeking ways of evaluating pupil 
development in the areas indicated by the objectives. The instru- 
ments or procedures used often lack reliability. The specialist in 
measurements is restive when the reliability of evaluation does not 
meet standards to which he has become accustomed. For example, 
a teacher is concerned about a pupil who withdraws from co-opera- 
tive work in planning and constructing a mural. He makes ob- 
servations and does what he can to get the pupil to participate. The 
specialist could suggest a simple day-to-day recording of incidents 
concerning the working of the group. This would lend a degree 
of objectivity and reliability that the more casual observation lacks. 


Again, the specialist might suggest different groupings within 
the class or, possibly, the transfer of the pupil to other commit- 
tee assignments. Following the observations in this activity and 
in similar activities during the school day, he could assist the teacher 
in arriving at valid judgments about the pupil's acceptance and re- 
jection within the class. By means of the more objective data, a 
planned program for developing the pupil's group contacts would 

Teachers and measurements specialists should work together in 
improving the manner of observing pupils, the recording of anec- 
dotes, and the related remedial measures. When teachers and meas- 
urements consultants, or supervisors, work together in making evalu- 
ative judgments of children, the general evaluation program of the 
school is improved. 

3. Should a school use instruments of evaluation designed to 
measure objectives which are accepted but do not have prove?! 

If there were no searching for new measures, there would be 
but little progress. On the other hand, uncritical use of unproven 
tests may lead to trouble. Doubtless some readers of this chapter 
would not approve all of the tests that have been used in the 
Denver schools. Neither have the Denver educators. Each year 
they try out new tests and procedures of evaluation and sometimes 
discard them. Once a new test has been given, a careful analysis 
is made of it. Success on individual items is tabulated. Items low 
in percentage of success are studied for curriculum validity, that is, 
to see if the curriculum includes what the item ostensibly meas- 
ures. After the analysis is completed, a decision is made as to pos- 
sible action where deficiencies are indicated. 

Some instruments may measure changing situations and thereby 
have temporary validity. The sociogram is an example. Its descrip- 
tion of a situation may be quite invalid a month after it has been 
made. Anecdotes may be very misleading a year hence. But such 
instruments have value for specific, short-term purposes. Profes- 
sional staffs will vary in their competence to utilize the data gathered 
by an instrument that has temporary validity. The use of such in- 
struments of evaluation may be sound in one school and unwise in 


4. Are the objectives of the social studies so numerous and 
diverse that a teacher may not be able to co-ordinate all of the 
good measures of them? 

Inasmuch as the elementary-school teacher has to keep in mind 
so many aspects of children's achievement, it would seem wise for 
a school to concentrate upon important, broad objectives. A teacher 
is unable to keep more than a few major ideas in mind at one time. 
Although a large number of objectives may be listed in a course of 
study, they usually support a few major core ideas. Any one of 
the supporting ideas may not be essential. If the analysis of test 
content is too minute, or if the interpreter of a test attaches great 
significance to low percentages on individual items, the result may 
be the teaching for specific content without much thought for larger 
concepts, generalizations, and relationships. 

There are common factors that run through achievement in 
many of the subject-matter areas. A teacher may develop in his 
pupils greater power to organize content and to think through prob- 
lems in science or geography that will transfer readily to the study 
of history. The study skills learned in history may also apply to 
geography and science. The teacher who is concerned for chil- 
dren's growth in major areas will likely be more effective than the 
teacher who loses track of his children as growing individuals be- 
cause of his attention to details. 

Social-studies evaluation in a given school should be considered 
in relationship to the total program of evaluation in which the 
teacher participates. A general reading test, a study-skills test, and 
even a test of quantitative relationships add much to a teacher's 
knowledge of a pupil's probable ability in the social studies. 

5. Can objective tests measure enough of the behavior of a 
pupil to provide security in the use one makes of the measurement? 

This question recapitulates the gist of the four preceding ques- 
tions. It brings to focus one of the sharp issues in the measurement 
of the social studies. All agree that some of the objectives of the 
social studies are so intangible that satisfactory measures have not 
yet been produced. On the other hand, many educators maintain 
that good measures exist for some of the objectives. Shall we use 
those that exist, or shall we maintain that partial testing distorts 
one's judgments of total achievement to a degree that the resulting 


harm outweighs the resulting good' It is argued that a teacher who 
administers a test of the social studies that is heavily loaded with items 
of history and geography, for example, will tend to load his teach- 
ing with history and geography, so it is better for the proper weight- 
ing of all of the objectives of social studies not to measure any of 

This is a point of view that runs counter to the times. Precise 
measurement has pushed out the frontiers of the natural sciences to 
an extent that respect for the social studies contemporarily must be 
built upon more objective data. Social-studies students may well 
note the attitude of the physical scientists who have operated with 
the best measures currently available while seeking more precise 
measures. Even though formal measures of an attribute may not be 
available, judgments of its growth in children still must be made. 
Accumulated judgments become evaluation. The observations upon 
which such judgments are based can be ordered and quantified to 
some extent A school system which organizes regular and orderly 
observations of the "intangibles" need not fear that imbalance in cur- 
riculum will result from testing as much of its curriculum as it can 
by reliable pencil-and-paper tests. 

6. Is there merit in the evaluation of enabling conditions? 

One often hears a supervisor say that he can tell a good social- 
studies teacher merely by looking at his classroom or by noting the 
activity of the pupils. Supervisors no doubt vary in ability to dif- 
ferentiate between the hum of purpose and the sound of busyness, 
or between evidences of insight as contrasted with verbalisms. A 
keen, experienced observer can likely detect a good social-studies 
classroom environment, but he must avoid being ensnared by the 
mere presence of activity and things. The observer must keep his 
objectives clearly in mind, for there is no guarantee that classroom 
activity produces better thinking than does an inductive discussion. 
It is very likely true, however, that small committees of children 
are learning valuable ways of working in groups that will not be 
developed in a total class discussion. An experienced observer can 
probably discern something of the quality of instruction by ob- 
serving the process of teaching. The presence of good organization, 
instructive materials, and thought-provoking discussions is worthy 
of being noted. 


Another enabling condition for good instruction is a community 
opinion that the social studies are of value and that free discussion 
of current and past social issues leads to growth in judgment. A 
survey of lay opinion which reveals that this attitude is widely held 
in a community is a measure of the effectiveness of the social-studies 
program, past and present. 

It appears that there is some value in observing the enabling 
environment of the social-studies climate, material, and activities, 
but such personal observations should be carefully compared with 
objective measures. The true value of social-studies instruction must 
rest upon the extent of growth in children's knowledge, thinking, 
and behavior. 

7. Should the same type of evaluation be applied at all grade 

Evaluation of the elementary social studies is affected by a rather 
widely accepted gradation of content, separating to some extent 
the experience of the kindergarten through Grade III from the ex- 
perience in Grade IV through Grade VL There is relatively little 
standardized test material available to measure content achievement 
in the primary grades, whereas there is a growing body of test ma- 
terial available for the intermediate grades. This condition affects 
the kinds of evaluation that may be employed but should not affect 
the attempts to evaluate. At the earlier grade levels more observa- 
tions of the enabling environment and of children's activities will 
be used. Writing anecdotal records, plotting pupil-to-pupil con- 
tacts, recording conflicts, observing patterns of pupils' thinking, 
and the like will be more prevalent. As social adjustment grows, 
attention to its physical aspects usually recedes, being replaced at 
higher grade levels by increasing intellectual concern about the 
affairs of people. 


Evaluation of the social studies is difficult because the objectives 
lack singular definition and cover a broad area. There has been a 
tendency to place within the social-studies framework all the worth- 
while goals of good social relationships among men, as well as a 
body of content from the areas of geography, economics, history, 
political science, psychology, and sociology. At the collegiate level, 


evaluation of these disciplines as separate fields is difficult enough. 
To separate and evaluate their contributions to the elementary-school 
social-studies content is considerably more difficult. Add to this 
the task of assessing growth in children's treatment of and regard 
for others, present and far away, and the complexity of the task 
becomes formidable. 

The purpose of this chapter has been to describe how one school 
system approaches its task of evaluation. The chapter is designed to 
stimulate thinking about evaluation rather than to establish patterns 
to be followed. 

Evaluation of growth in the social studies is difficult, but de- 
featism is not in order. As objectives become clearly defined, meas- 
urements specialists and other educators soon bring forth evaluation 
procedures that become increasingly reliable and valid. 


Business and Industry in Denver's West District. Denver Denver Pub- 
lic Schools, 1955. 34 pp. 

A survey of a section of Denver prepared by teachers, following a visita- 
tion. It is prepared for use in the classroom 

Curriculum Development through Committees on Instruction. Denver- 
Denver Public Schools, 1954. 16 pp. 

A summary of the current Denver instructional committees and their 

'Denver Looks at Its Schools. Denver: Denver Public Schools, 1950. 
17 pp. 
A summary of the 1950 public opinion study of the Denver Public Schools. 

Denver Looks at Its Schools. Denver: Denver Public Schools, 1953. 
28 pp. 
A summary of the 1953 public opinion study of the Denver Public Schools 

The Denver Public Schools Look at Themselves. Denver: Denver Pub- 
lic Schools, 1953. 17 pp. 
A summary of the 1950 evaluation study. 

The Denver Public Schools Look at Themselves. Denver: Denver Pub- 
lic Schools, 1953. 27 pp. 
A summary of the 1953 evaluation study. 

Evaluation in the Denver Public Schools. Denver: Denver Public 
Schools, 1955. 8 pp. 
A brief analysis of the Denver evaluation program. 

Expected-Achievement Grade-Placement Tables for Use in Grades I- 
XIL Denver: Denver Public Schools, 1951. 29 pp. 
A brochure designed to assist teachers in relating achievement to the mental 
abilities of pupils. 


Human Relations In Action. Denver: Denver Public Schools, 1952. 
63 pp. 

A pamphlet prepared to help pupils, parents, and teachers work together 
in matters of interpersonal and intergroup relations. 

The Social Studies Program of the Denver Public Schools. Kindergarten 
through Grade Twelve. Denver: Denver Public Schools, 1954. 
643 pp. 

The official guide for use by Denver social studies teachers at all grade 

WILCOX, HELEN (Mrs. Eugene). "Denver P.T.A.'s Help Design a Cur- 
riculum," National Parent-Teacher, XLVIII (April, 1954), 35. 
An account of the way parents participated in the preparation of the Den- 
ver social-studies guide. 


Improvement of Teaching in the Social Studies 


Educational Leadership in the Social Studies 

Since there are many treatments of the general problems of edu- 
cational leadership, it would appear that this section should deal 
with the problems of leadership peculiar to the social studies if such 
problems can be said to present themselves. An effort to locate 
leadership problems especially characteristic of the social-studies 
area forces us to consider briefly the objectives of teaching in gen- 
eral and those peculiar to the social studies. 

Traditional concepts of education usually held that the teacher 
had succeeded when the pupil knew the skills and facts in which he 
had been instructed. Thus, if a pupil knew the structure and func- 
tioning of local government and could answer questions about these 
in an examination, the teacher felt he had succeeded. He did not 
concern himself very much with the degree to which his pupils 
used this knowledge in effective citizenship performance, in social 
behavior. More modern thinking concerning the role of the teacher 
and the outcomes of education will not accept such views of the 
teacher's role. These more modern views hold that the inculcation 
of knowledges and skills is mere instruction and not teaching; that 
fact acquisition is mere learning and not real education. True edu- 
cation must change behavior, change the individual so that he is 
different and behaves differently. 

What, then, is the special application of this distinction between 
learning and education, between instruction and teaching to the 
problems in the social-studies area 5 Since the social studies, first of 
all, seek desirable social behavior, good teaching is that kind of 
teaching which produces the desired social behavior. And leader- 
ship in the social studies is the kind of leadership that produces the 



better teaching. We are, therefore, brought face to face with the 
problems of influencing human behavior. In other words, our basic 
problem is not how we can instruct pupils in the facts about 
government, for example, but rather how we can teach them so 
their attitude toward government will be right and their actions 
as citizens will be honest and public-spirited. How then can we 
influence pupil behavior, and how can we influence teacher be- 

Note that we shall now judge the teacher by the way his pupils 
behave and not by the way they pass examinations. We shall judge 
the supervisor, not by how much he knows himself but by the way 
the teachers under his supervision teach; in other words, by the 
way the teachers behave. This forces us to examine not only what 
supervisors know and what teachers know but also the behavior 
patterns that will produce similar behavior patterns on the part 
of others. 

What do we know about influencing behavior? In such limited 
space one is likely to oversimplify and is certain to be accused of 
oversimplification, but we must, it seems to me, take the risks. 

Importance of Individual Attitudes 

Statement of Principle: In promoting desirable social behavior, 
the individual's attitudes toward others and toward his own respon- 
sibilities are probably more important than his knowledge. 

This principle is especially important in the area of educational 
leadership and supervision, since it simultaneously affects the ac- 
tivities of pupils, teachers, and supervisors. It is especially important 
that it be remembered now in the fuller development of professional 
knowledges and skills. Sometimes it seems that the more professional 
tchniques we have at our disposal and the more complete our special- 
ized knowledge the less likely we are to realize the importance of 
our attitudes and personal responsibilities in relation to our pro- 
fessional knowledge. There are, perhaps, some areas in which we 
can utilize specialized competence more or less irrespective of the 
concomitant personal attitudes and qualities. Thus, it may be possi- 
ble for us to utilize the skills of the engineer or the atomic scientist 
even though we might feel that his personal attitudes leave some- 
thing to be desired. But in teaching and educational leadership, the 

MELBY 287 

attitudes of the teacher and supervisor are so inextricably related 
to his effectiveness that it is not feasible for us to consider one 
without having in mind the other. 

Important as teacher and supervisor attitudes are, they are not 
always recognized within the profession, either theoretically or in 
our day-to-day practice. The individual who has acquired certain 
knowledges is likely to be impressed with their importance. He is 
very likely to be impatient with the necessity for special considera- 
tion to other human beings and annoyed at the mere thought of 
having to adjust his behavior to others. He may also feel that his 
own personal life is his own business and that the presence or ab- 
sence of dedication to social progress and the welfare of others 
should have no bearing on the effectiveness of his work or the 
degree to which it is recognized as long as he presents himself day 
by day with his demonstrated professional knowledges and skills. 
If, however, we look beneath the surface of our day-to-day teach- 
ing and leadership activities, we shall find that such an attitude is 
indefensible. As supervisors we cannot inspire dedicated attitudes 
on the part of other people unless we possess them ourselves. We 
shall not promote a high level of social responsibility on the part 
of pupils unless we exemplify a similar sense of responsibility in 
our professional circles. It may sound repetitious to say it, but 
whatever we want pupils to be and do, that we must ourselves be 
and do. 

It is not only our broad social attitudes that are vitally important 
but also our outlook with regard to our own profession, its im- 
portance in society, and our own feeling about it. All of these 
determine the effectiveness of our work. This is especially important 
for us to remember at a time when the teaching profession is sub- 
jected to widespread criticism from without and widspread sense 
of frustration and discouragement from within. We may rest as- 
sured that a teacher will not be effective with his pupils if he feels 
put upon or feels that he is in a profession that is neglected and has 
lost its importance in society. Similarly the supervisory officer who 
has such an attitude toward his profession will not be inspiring in 
his relationships with teachers and pupils. 

Nothing can take the energizing and inspiring qualities away 
from the profession of teaching if only we sense our roles properly 


and have the appropriate sense of values. Regardless of how much 
we are paid, regardless of public attitudes toward us, and regardless 
of the temper of our times, teaching is the loftiest of professions. 
Its power is dependent upon its dedication. Its influence rests upon 
the teacher's own sense of responsibility. The teacher's own state 
of mind is influenced by his own conception of the role of the 
teacher and the power of the teacher's role in society. 

Teacher education has no more important responsibility than 
to imbue prospective teachers and teachers in service with the 
greatness and promise of our profession. Supervisory officers have 
no more important responsibility than to daily exemplify such atti- 
tudes with regard to the teaching profession in their dealings with 
teachers. And if our teachers could communicate their own respect 
for their profession to our pupils I am confident we would have no 
great difficulty recruiting the number and quality of teachers we 

More than anything else it is our attitude toward our profession 
that determines our mental hygiene in our daily activities. The super- 
visory officer who is enthusiastic about his work, who sees great 
promise in the field of educational leadership, who finds satisfaction 
in inspiring others to achieve, and who loves his work and his asso- 
ciates is almost certain to communicate similar attitudes to teachers 
and, in turn, to pupils. Such a supervisor is rarely complaining 
about being tired. He is ready to assume additional responsibilities 
even when it may appear to others that he is overburdened. He ap- 
pears energetic and refreshed even at the end of a hard day. Often 
his associates feel that his energy appears inexhaustible. In all prob- 
ability he has no more physical energy than the average of his 
associates. It is his own vision of his responsibilities, his respect for 
and realization of the magnitude of his task, his love of his fellow 
men, and his dedication to the profession of teaching that carry him 
through and give him the strength and tenacity of purpose that 
convince others of his exceptional abilities. 

It should, of course, be readily admitted that these are not special 
problems related to the social studies. But since in the social studies 
we are primarily concerned with social behavior, it behooves us to 
place knowledge and attitudes in their proper perspective here more 
than in other subjects. Since in the past we have often developed 

MELBY 289 

the attitude that behavior was dependent upon possession of certain 
knowledges, it is of the utmost importance for us to remember that 
attitude as well as knowledge conditions behavior. 

Preparation of Teacheis and Supervisors 

Statement of Principle: In the preparation of teachers and su- 
pervisors, breadth and perspective in 'human relations, knowledge, 
and understanding are increasingly important. 

We are living in the world of the specialist. Specialization in 
education and professional functioning are the order of the day. 
Increasingly, American education has sought to make the individual 
competent in some vocational- or specialized-area pursuit. Within 
the broad professions, such as teaching, specialization has also come 
to reign supreme. The professor of elementary education would 
not think it fitting for him to express his opinion of those who are 
preparing to function in the secondary school or, least of all, to 
teach them. We have specialists in the teaching of the social studies, 
in the teaching of science, in the teaching of mathematics, and the 
like. Different kinds of psychologists and sociologists can hardly 
communicate with one another because of the high specialization of 
their vocabularies. In the broad enterprise of discovering new 
knowledge, no doubt, we need this high level of specialization. But 
in teaching, it becomes a definite liability unless it is coupled with 
broad understanding and adequate perspective with regard to the 
interrelationship of the various aspects of knowledge. I participated 
recently in a discussion of the problem of preserving the blessings of 
liberty. A young man I thought to be of exceptional ability argued 
that patriotism in our country has lagged because of the growing 
emphasis upon the problems of world government and world citi- 
zenship. He failed to see, of course, that our own country will be 
in great danger and perhaps unable to preserve its freedom unless it 
can manage itself in relation to other nations and world affairs. 
This is an example of the importance of perspective and of the 
breadth and depth of understanding. Others could be mentioned. 

If we are to be effective as supervisors and leaders in the im- 
provement of teaching in the social studies, we shall have to realize 
much more than we have in the past the broad limits of our pro- 
fessional knowledges and understandings. The mere facts with re- 


gard to the structure of government and our society are inadequate. 
Knowledge of America is inadequate without knowledge of the 
world. Sociological understanding is inadequate without comparable 
economic insights. Political power is insufficient without moral 
and spiritual qualities. Historical understanding is vital both in 
interpretation and in maintaining perspective and one's own good 
mental health. 

One example can be mentioned as a characteristic development 
of the current scene. From 1933 to perhaps 1944, social progress in 
America took place largely as a result of governmental action. A 
great part of this governmental action either came from or was 
stimulated by the federal government. But from 1944 to 1955, 
social, economic, and political progress has taken place much more 
as a result of the work of voluntary associations and local govern- 
ment. In fact, the growth of voluntarism is perhaps the distin- 
guishing characteristic of domestic American life in the last decade. 
Citizens are discovering that many of the things they have sought to 
secure through governmental action can better be secured through 
voluntary association of one kind or another. As an example, or- 
ganized labor appears to be shifting its emphasis from concentration 
upon legislation in Washington to the bargaining table in achieving 
its aims. 

Should voluntarism grow in this country in the next decades as 
it has in the last one, a great deal of the emphasis of our social-studies 
instruction will need to be placed upon the citizen's relationship to 
voluntary agencies and his leadership in them. For example, many 
community services are cared for through the Community Chest. 
Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, the League of Women Voters, and the 
Committee on Economic Development are others. This is only one 
example of the importance of perspective and breadth of insight 
and understanding in relation to good citizenship and especially to 
effective leadership in improving education. All of this means that 
we must read more widely, think more deeply, experience more 
fully and vitally, and touch life in more places if our leadership is 
to have the required perspective and dynamism, 

Factors Influencing Teacher and Pupil Behaviors 
Statement of Principle: Teacher and pttpil behaviors are in- 

MELBY 291 

fluenced by the total setting in which teachers and pupils 'work and 

Next to an overemphasis upon knowledge in teaching, perhaps 
our greatest error as teachers and supervisors has been a failure to 
sense the proper role of schools in our society in relation to the 
total educational task. By and large, as teachers and supervisors we 
exaggerate the role of the school and minimize the role of the com- 
munity, the home, the church, and the total environment as they 
play upon the individual pupil or citizen. Here we have a peculiarly 
destructive error. Overemphasis on the power of the school mis- 
leads us in our daily activities. It causes us to overlook allies at the 
community level that could greatly enhance our power It blinds 
us to the negative influences that are often undermining our best 
efforts. In the large it keeps us from mobilizing the total resources 
available to us in influencing teacher and pupil behavior. 

A concrete instance comes to mind. A supervisor found that a 
teacher in the seventh grade was carrying on her social-studies 
teaching in what seemed to be a rather mechanical and ineffective 
manner. Inspiration seemed to be lacking in her teaching. Enthu- 
siasm was not present either in the teacher's manner or in the pupil's 
responses. The supervisor blamed the instructional approach, criti- 
cized the paucity of materials, helped the teacher to change her 
approach and to enrich her materials. Subsequent visits by the 
supervisor found the teacher equally lacking in inspirational quali- 
ties and the pupils but little improved in their responses. Only 
accidentally the supervisor discovered that the teacher was facing a 
distressing home situation that was sapping her vitality and interfer- 
ing with her best morale. Together the supervisor and the teacher 
faced this personal problem. Ways were found of improving the 
teacher's home situation and especially of improving the teacher's 
attitude toward it. Gradually more vitality and enthusiasm came 
into the teacher's work. Her own mental hygiene improved. Her 
teaching became more enthusiastic and inspirational. Pupil responses 
improved. In all probability, no end of changes in curriculum, 
teaching method, and instructional materials could have been made 
in this particular classroom with little or no improvement in the 
effectiveness of the education provided. The fundamental problem 
was the teacher's own personal life in her out-of -school hours. Until 


this constant problem had been faced, little else that was done would 
have been effective. 

To many supervisory officers a recognition of the influence of 
the total environment of teachers and pupils is an exasperating situa- 
tion. Some supervisors feel that the teacher's personal life is none 
of their business. They have a brisk and businesslike attitude toward 
those with whom they work. Sometimes they are unsympathetic in 
attitude and lack the patience to listen when others are reciting their 
troubles. Some very bright and alert supervisors are the worst 
offenders in these directions. Because they have had few difficulties 
themselves, they cannot understand why others should have trouble. 
Here, too, we have an explanation of the fact that some supervisors 
of only average intellectual stature and subject-matter grasp seem 
at times more effective than others of outstanding subject-matter 
knowledge and scholastic attainment. 

Maintaining Teacher Morale 

Statement of Principle: Sense of belonging is more important 
than salary scale, 'working conditions, and teaching load in determin- 
ing teacher morale. 

Recent studies in industrial management have caused us to re- 
evaluate many factors that in the past have been associated with 
the morale of workers in general. The studies of Mayo, Roethlis- 
berger, and others indicate that the relationship of the worker to 
his associates and the degree to which he is respected as a person 
are more important than salary or working conditions in stimu- 
lating high output. These studies, while carried on under circum- 
stances quite different from those which prevail in teaching, are 
nevertheless stimulating to us. My own feeling is that a sense of 
belonging and team-membership are, if anything, more important 
in teaching than in other fields of activity. The very nature of our 
work in education would lead us to this conclusion. Yet, conversa- 
tions with literally thousands of teachers who have been in my 
summer-session and other classes in the last thirty years have con- 
vinced me that sense of belonging is not a general feeling on the 
part of American teachers. Especially in the larger cities, teachers 
often feel that they are far removed from those who determine poli- 
cies and from those who must evaluate their competence. Often, 

MELBY 293 

too, teachers do not feel that they have close relationships even to 
those who work in the next room, and their sense of separation 
from parents and communities is often overwhelming. 

Probably there are few groups of people who work harder 
than our supervisory officers our principals, supervisors, and di- 
rectors of instruction. Yet, all of these people at times have a feel- 
ing of frustration and ineffectiveness. In considerable part, this 
feeling is due to the fact that we place our efforts in areas that 
have little to do with the effectiveness of teaching. If the results of 
studies in industry can be applied in education, they suggest that 
often we in educational leadership are pulling the small levers 
rather than the big ones. We, for example, keep modifying the 
curriculum, changing the methods of teaching, altering the materials 
of instruction, changing the buildings and equipment; but little 
seems to happen to the effectiveness of education in general. 

Some of the big levers that would give us far more growth on 
the part of teachers would be more warmth in human relations, 
more faith in teachers and children, and greater use of community 

If, as supervisors in the social-studies area, we would prevail 
upon our teachers to participate more in community life, they 
would have not only a greater sense of belonging but a greater sense 
of vitality with regard to their instructional materials. If we could 
relate these same teachers more warmly to their associates, they 
would not feel so alone; and if we in the field of leadership could 
develop a closer relationship to these same teachers, we ourselves 
would take on a greater personal warmth, possess greater inspira- 
tional quality, and in turn communicate more of this to the people 
with whom we work. 

How does one develop a sense of belonging? One has a sense 
of belonging when one feels that he is respected and considered in 
the determination of educational policies, when the supervisors 
ask one's opinion with regard to educational changes, with reference 
to new materials and equipment. One does not get a sense of be- 
longing merely by receiving orders from superiors. One achieves a 
far greater sense of belonging when one is asked questions with 
regard to matters of major policy. Many supervisory officers hold 
meetings and conferences with teachers only to make announce- 


ments. Time after time teachers go to such gatherings to hear an- 
nouncements from on high, so to speak. They go away with no 
inspiration and no sense of being anything more than underlings 
who do the bidding of their superiors. 

A similar situation prevails with regard to the teacher's rela- 
tionship to the community. In many instances the teacher's only 
contact with the community is negative. It comes when a parent or 
citizen feels dissatisfied with the school and comes to complain. In 
such cases the teacher is rarely asked to serve on a committee. A 
striking example prevailed during World War II when in many 
communities the only task that seemed appropriate for teachers in 
the community was the making out of ration cards. Little wonder 
the teachers developed the feeling that the only use the community 
had for them was the performing of a relatively menial task. Teach- 
ers who are rarely invited to the homes of parents, who are not 
asked to serve the community in important ways, or who are not 
consulted with regard to community planning or community ac- 
tivities cannot be blamed for developing the feeling that the com- 
munity sees them as menial servants and has little or no interest in 
them. Such teachers feel they are working for the community but 
are not a part of it. This lack of a sense of belonging militates 
greatly against their effectiveness in teaching. 

As supervisors we can do a great deal to help our teachers ac- 
quire a sense of belonging both in and out of school. In most cases 
our own community contacts are greater than those of the teachers. 
We can use our own contacts to stimulate others for teachers. We 
can do something to bring about social contacts between teachers 
and citizens of the community. We can meet teachers with warmth 
and understanding and give them a very definite feeling that they 
are part of us and part of the school team. 

It may be objected by some supervisors that they do not have 
time for this kind of undertaking. If they will think about it a 
little, they will not make statements of this kind. To say that one 
has no time to stimulate social activity for teachers in and out of 
school is to say that one does not have time to do one's most im- 
portant duties. It is not time we lack. It is rather the required out- 
going personality, the realization of the importance of the under- 
taking, and the skills in social directions that are requked. We shall 

MELBY 295 

not acquire these skills and attitudes unless we ourselves do every- 
thing possible to develop the outgoing personality and the broad 
human interest that we need. Any teacher or any supervisor can 
greatly enrich his own life if he will merely devote himself to the 
people who are now neglected, seek out the people who seem always 
to be alone, ask them questions, learn something of their interests, 
profit from their strength, and enrich his own life by contributing to 
theirs in the areas of greatest need. 

The individual who does not like people, who does not enjoy 
conversation with others, lacks one of the very important qualities 
in educational leadership. This does not mean that such a quality 
cannot be acquired. People are not born with outgoing person- 
alities and social graces. These are acquired in the course of a life 
in which one has an opportunity to practice them. Many indi- 
viduals who were retiring and ill at ease in the company of others 
have developed outstanding outgoing personalities and social graces 
that made them acceptable in almost any company. 

One striking example is Eleanor Roosevelt who tells how she 
expanded from an ill-at-ease girl preoccupied with herself to a warm, 
forceful personality. Think what influence she has had in bringing 
people together in greater understanding on a world- wide basis! 

The supervisor or teacher who undertakes the task of improving 
his own personality and his own human relationships will, in the 
process, help others to improve theirs. 

Democracy and Freedom 

Statement of Principle: In the educational enterprise, -freedom is 
more important than collective process. 

Few words have been used more frequently in the last two 
decades than the word "democracy." We talk about democracy in 
supervision, democracy in administration, democracy in teaching, 
democracy in human relationships. When, however, one examines 
what has been done in the name of democracy in all of these areas, 
he realizes that there is much confusion as to the meaning of terms. 
In many school systems, democratization of administration has been 
a process of wresting control from superintendents, principals, and 
supervisory officers and lodging it in the hands of teachers. In these 
situations, teachers vote upon almost everything. They vote on the 


choice of textbooks, the selection of equipment, changes in the 
curriculum, and even, in some cases, on teaching method. In certain 
instances, once the teachers have taken a vote, all of them must 
follow the dictates of the vote regardless of their individual attitudes. 
There seemingly is no bill of rights to enable the individual teacher 
to follow his own conscience and his own educational outlook. As a 
result of all this voting the teachers have escaped the domination of 
supervisory officers only to be caught in the domination of a collec- 
tive process. They won their freedom from administrators only to 
lose it to a collectivism. In some cases they are so delighted to 
escape the administrators that they do not sense the degree to which 
they have been subjected to control by their own colleagues, 

As time goes on, the chains they have themselves forged become 
heavy around their necks. They become dissatisfied with the con- 
trols, and they begin to find ways of releasing themselves from the 
domination of the group as a whole. As they undertake this second 
process of release from restrictions, they will give more attention to 
freedom and less to collective process. Writing about this problem 
as it occurs broadly in our society in his stimulating volume The 
Public Philosophy, Walter Lippman says, "My hope is that both 
liberty and democracy can be preserved before the one destroys 
the other." Freedom is not only the most precious possession of our 
society as a whole; it is the most precious condition of the teacher 
and of the supervisor himself. No matter what may be the trappings 
of political democracy we introduce into the educational scene, we 
shall not develop a dynamic education unless the primary condition 
of freedom prevails. 

The fact that we fear an oppressive collectivism must not lead 
us to undemocratic procedures and attitudes. We must remember 
that a school is different from a legislative assembly. It is a grouping 
of people for creative, scientific, and artistic purposes and activities. 
Legislation may well move forward by compromise and voting. 
But in the artistic and scientific realm compromise has no reality 
and we cannot make a scientific untruth true by a majority vote. 
This does not mean that we cannot have both democracy and free- 
dom. It means rather that in the educational enterprise we should 
have the maximum of communication and knowledge of each other's 
viewpoints and a minimum of voting and legislation. When we vote 

MELBY 297 

it should be on broad policy and not on details. Even on broad 
policy, we the teachers cannot have the only voice. The public must 
be heard, the board of education must be involved, and pupils 
should also take part. 

It is sometimes hard to explain the tendency of some teacher 
groups to overlegislate. One reason is their lack of confidence in 
each other. And this, in part, proceeds from intolerance and lack 
of humility. And lack of acquaintance feeds intolerance. Hence, 
the remedy is constant and full communication. 

The modern emphasis upon group dynamics and group process 
has in some cases blinded us to the fact that all progress must come 
from the creative power of individual human minds. Group process 
may bring together the contributions of many individuals, but un- 
less the contributions of individuals are there, group process can 
do little. It is to the unique creative power of the individual human 
spirit that we must look for all progress in art, science, literature, 
statecraft, and commerce. Since this is the case, the greatest stra- 
tegic problem of human society is the conservation and development 
of the creative talents of individual human beings. Such knowledge 
as we have of the conditions under which individual human beings 
develop their creative powers indicates that there are three condi- 
tions for such development. They are security, affection, and free- 
dom. Moreover, the three conditions are interdependent. Desirable 
as security and affection are, they will not be effective without 
freedom. And freedom without security and affection may gain 
us little. 

The vitality of freedom to the creative process should cause us 
to put up a stop sign or at least a slow sign with regard to any 
proposal which, however democratic or otherwise desirable it may 
sound, limits the freedom of individual pupils, teachers, or super- 
visors. While freedom is a vital ingredient of a creative society gen- 
erally speaking, it is especially so in the realm of education, for the 
primary goal of education is the fullest development of individual 
human beings, and this cannot be accomplished unless the individual 
is free to be himself. Our supervisory problem is, therefore, in large 
part the problem of how we can secure for teachers and for pupils 
the greatest freedom for individual growth and development con- 
sistent with a total society which is stable and creative* 


Unfortunately our theory of administration has not come to 
grips in effective fashion with this problem. We need to examine the 
various activities involved in administration and supervision and 
classify them in the manner in which they can best be performed 
if security, affection, and freedom are the conditions for creative 
achievement and, therefore, the criteria for the choice of adminis- 
trative processes and assignments. My own experience convinces 
me that groups cannot function effectively in liberating the indi- 
vidual for creative effort, that group action tends more often to 
restrict than to liberate the individual. It would seem, therefore, that 
the liberation of the individual for creative effort is an appropriate 
administrative function to be discharged by an administrative officer 
selected because of his capacity to free people for creative effort. 
At the same time, it is probably true that policy determination is an 
appropriate group responsibility that should be participated in by 
parents, lay citizens, board members, teachers, and even pupils. 

How do we free people for creative effort? How do we manage 
policy-making so the process becomes broadly educational? We 
learn when we are secure, when we relax, and when we overcome 
our fears of each other. Here many factors come into play. The 
supervisor's personality, faith in teachers, affection for them, and 
visible respect for their opinions are all powerful elements. We must 
listen "hear people out/' We must organize the school so that 
creative activity is both stimulated and rewarded. We must express 
approval frequently, and stand by in sympathy when things go 
wrong. The supervisor must be the kind of person who can be 
trusted no matter what happens. Some total professional environ- 
ments are creative, some are stultifying. Some stimulate destructive, 
competitive attitudes while others promote co-operative endeavor. 
It is the leadership's task to promote a total environment that is crea- 
tive and co-operative. 

It is not undemocratic to delegate responsibilities to supervisors 
or administrators. Certainly it is not undemocratic to give individual 
teachers a large measure of choice in instructional methods, cur- 
riculum materials, and day-by-day treatment of individual children. 
If the freedom of the teacher is restricted by group action, his free- 
dom is lost just as truly as if lost through an administrative officer 
who behaves in arbitrary fashion. 

MELBY 299 

It should, of course, be remembered that if the liberation of 
teachers for creative effort is the function of administration, admin- 
istrators must be selected with this criterion in mind. The fact that 
they have not been so selected in the past does not suggest that the 
principle is wrong but, rather, that we should have a different set 
of criteria in selection. 

The question may be asked: In the presence of so great an em- 
phasis on freedom, what portection have we against bungling and 
serious mistakes? We have, I believe, the same protection that we 
have in the field of medicine, where the individual practitioner is 
largely free to utilize his professional knowledge and skill. True, 
mistakes are made in medicine as in every other human endeavor, 
but few who have studied the problem would argue that we would 
have fewer mistakes if medical men were subjected to routine super- 
vision and if their daily acts were subject to votes taken by medical 
associations with regard to the treatment of diseases and other 
matters that must be handled on an individual basis. 

Supervisors should, I believe, have large powers of choice, de- 
cision, and negative veto. But their attitudes should be such that 
these powers are used only in extreme instances. Such supervisory 
arrangements make for the maximum of freedom on the part of 
individual teachers, free teachers from time-consuming administra- 
tive activities, and make the best use of creative talents on every 

Freedom is not merely the absence of restraint. One has to 
work for freedom. Its achievement calls for analysis of one's situa- 
tion, knowledge of weaknesses and strengths, sense of direction, and 
motivation. The teacher who does not know what to do has a limita- 
tion on his freedom just as real as a restrictive order from his 
supervisors. If the teacher has so little confidence in his own judg- 
ment that he is afraid to experiment, he is not free even if the 
supervisor says he is free to experiment The teacher who has not 
overcome his prejudices, fears, and feelings of inferiority is not 
free. It is the supervisor's challenge to help him overcome these 

Participation and Learning 
Statement of Principle: Participation teaches both teachers and 


pupils more about desirable behavior than book-learning and class 

We have been told repeatedly that we learn what we live. Some 
may argue that part of what we learn comes from living and part 
from books. But here we overlook the process by which we in- 
fluence behavior. One may read John Donne's poem, "No Man Is 
an Island," but unless one accepts the idea, no action is likely to 
result. But if the idea is accepted and the individual acts as if all 
men were part of him and he part of them, learning takes place. It 
is, therefore, the acceptance and the doing that produce the learn- 
ing. Thus, learning by reading from books is, in the last analysis, 
learning by participation. 

Some may argue that participation reveals one's fellows at their 
worst. But even this is part of the learning process. Many a young 
teacher has received great stimulus from student-teaching done un- 
der adverse conditions. But we do not stress participation in order 
to eliminate book-learning. Rather, we introduce it to amplify, 
clarify, and verbalize experience. It is not so much that books ex- 
plain and give meaning to experience as that experience gives mean- 
ing to books. We have no assurance that book-learning will produce 
action, but rich and meaningful participation will encourage reading 
of books. Verbally we accept learning by doing, but we go on be- 
having in schools and universities much as if it were not true. In 
other words, we do not act as if it were true that we learn what 
we live. 

Anyone who has tried to so change education that people will 
learn by doing, by actual participation, knows how difficult it is 
to overcome the inertia that is present in school and academic 
routines. The academician seems afraid that action inhibits thought, 
that somehow there is a conflict between the world of action (of 
doing) and the world of ideas. Lancelot Hogben has commented 
on our usual practice by saying that if we teach pupils to think 
without acting while they are in school we must not be surprised if 
in later life they act without thinking. That is, one learns to act 
on the basis of sound thinking by acting on such thinking. Thinking 
without acting will not suffice. 

Here we have the key to the unreality as well as the ineffective- 
ness of much academic learning. We learn no end of facts and can 

MELBY 301 

successfully recall them in the course of an examination, but we do 
little about the significance of the facts in our daily lives. We learn 
what the important elements of a good diet are, but we go on 
eating a diet that does not include these elements. We learn the 
duties of citizenship, but as citizens we often ignore these duties 
or responsibilities as we have been taught to repeat them in an ex- 
amination. If we learn how to teach people to be good citizens by 
letting them be good citizens now, we shall probably be unbeliev- 
ably successful in citizenship education. Participation is thus the 
magic key to greater power for education. We would ourselves be 
astounded by the improvement that would take place in education 
were we to teach by participation to a larger extent. 

If learning by doing is good for pupils, it is good for teachers 
too. From a supervisory standpoint, this tells us a great deal about 
what we ought to do. It would suggest that much of the time we 
now spend in talking to teachers about new methods and curricula 
might well be spent in encouraging these same teachers to have 
more vital experiences in the way of travel, community participa- 
tion, and other experiences which would give them a greater op- 
portunity to learn by direct experience. Such attitude and action 
on our part might result in a radically changed role for the super- 
visor and for supervision in relation to education in general and the 
social studies in particular. There is probably no educational area 
in which the teacher's richness of experience plays a larger part 
than in the social studies, nor is there any subject in which learning 
by doing is as vital to our ultimate goals as in this field. 

The Community as a Learning Laboratory 

Statement of Principle: The education-centered community 
gains greater educational power by adhering to the guiding princi- 
ples presented in this chapter. 

The social-studies supervisor has tremendous resources. He is 
literally surrounded by a laboratory. Every school is located in 
some kind of a community. Often within a stone's throw of the 
school building there are industries and social organizations of 
almost every description, voluntary associations, government agen- 
cies, religious groups, radio stations, newspapers, and the like. In 
physical science we spend hundreds of millions of dollars building 


huge machines and providing expensive laboratory facilities. In 
the social sciences these laboratory facilities are created for us by 
other social agencies. We have only to devise ways of using them. 
They are ready for our use. 

In many cases developmental and preparation work needs to 
be done. One cannot suddenly appear in a factory with 30 or 40 
pupils. The resources of the community must be inventoried. Con- 
tacts must be made with high-level leadership. Sometimes labor- 
union and Chamber of Commerce officials must be consulted. It is 
also desirable to tell community-resource people what we want 
out of a visit or out of participation by pupils. Careful exploration 
of this kind is essential if good relations are to be maintained and if 
the work is to be most productive. 

Not only are these laboratory facilities available to us but in 
many instances they have as great a need of our leadership talent 
as we have of the laboratory facilities. There is probably no com- 
munity surrounding any school or college that is not in dire need 
of the leadership talents of the teachers in that school. And cer- 
tainly no such school can be as effective as it should be without 
the fullest use of this community. I am constantly baffled by the 
enigma of the fact that, while most of us must recognize the inter- 
dependence of educational institutions and communities, few of 
us have given any emphasis to the use of the community, and still 
fewer have developed any organized plans for bringing school and 
community into a helpful, co-operative relationship. My own con- 
viction is that the changes we make in curriculum, methods of 
teaching, and instructional materials will gain us little in the way of 
really vital changes in education. They are, in a general way, mere 
tinkering with the educational process. A larger use of the com- 
munity by the school and a greater contribution by the school to the 
community would, I believe, be the educational atomic bomb. Such 
co-operative action on the part of schools and communities could 
radically alter the power of education. 

The problem of practical operational policy and procedure in 
many cases seems baffling even if one is guided by sound principle 
and reasonably well-tested theory. In many situations there are 
teachers of long experience, competent in their way, who have 
spent their professional lives in subject-matter teaching without 

ME LEY 303 

much attention to broader objectives in character development and 
behavioral improvement on the part of pupils. Young teachers who 
know they are learning will respond readily to guidance, but ex- 
perienced staff members with considerable self-confidence rein- 
forced by tenure status may present the supervisor with quite another 
problem. Often a direct attack on the matter may not only fail but 
result in a defensive attitude that resists all change. Here we must 
remember that it is experience that changes people. Hence, service 
on a youth project where one has a chance to observe the gap be- 
tween knowledge and behavior, travel to another country during 
which one may be stimulated to think fundamentally about social 
and educational problems, workshops, and visitation of especially 
competent teachers are examples of indirect attacks on the problem. 
But the supervisor must win the confidence of the teacher he hopes 
to change. It is the people we trust, admire, and enjoy who move 
us to accept what they stand for. Dislike of a supervisor may lead 
to emotional and intellectual opposition to his ideas. 

Impatience will only retard progress. Pressures political, pro- 
fessional, social may all have the opposite effect to the one we 
seek. The teacher is the largest single factor in education, and order- 
ing him to do what we believe is best when he neither accepts our 
ideas nor knows how to carry them out can have no good out- 

We must begin with people where they are, have and express 
faith in them, give them our understanding and affection, and help 
them to the constructive and satisfying experiences which lead them 
to see the power of the kind of education that seeks not only 
knowledge but modified behavior. 

We shall not make fullest use of communities in education until 
we develop what we might call the education-centered community 
namely, a community which, in all of its functioning, seeks edu- 
cational outcomes. The education-centered community would give 
us greater educational power not only by increasing the amount 
of education through participation but also by adhering to the 
other principles with which we have dealt in this chapter. If we seek 
education through participation, we shall be encouraged to judge 
the progress of our pupils more in terms of their behavior, their 
sense of responsibility, and their attitude toward their fellow men 


than if we conduct that education largely as book-learning. More- 
over, if we seek the use of the total community we shall be en- 
couraged to raise our sights and broaden our perspective, increasing 
our knowledge and understanding of our community as it extends 
itself to become the world of all men. When we use the community 
as a laboratory we shall be more mindful of the way in which the 
total community influences the development of the child. In this 
way we shall be prepared to influence that total community as we 
are not now shaping it because of the remoteness of our contacts. 
Similarly, if we work in the community we shall develop a sense of 
being on the team, not only with each other but with community 
people as well. It is in the community that we can see freedom at 
work, that we can also see the devastating results of the denial of 
freedom. We shall, therefore, through our community work, be 
more mindful of both the power and the preciousness of freedom. 


I am aware that the foregoing places a heavy set of responsi- 
bilities at the door of those who are concerned with the improve- 
ment of teaching, whether they are superintendents, principals, spe- 
cial supervisors of elementary education, or teachers of social 
studies. But I am fully convinced that the older patterns of super- 
visory procedure with their didactic methods, their narrow subject- 
matter absorption, and their schoolroom blinders will come nowhere 
near giving us the kind of social-studies instruction that we need if 
America is to remain free and become more dynamic in freedom. 

The crying need of schools in our day is for a more vigorous, 
creative, and life-giving leadership. The fear of leadership which 
exists in some quarters is to be deplored. Some have distorted the 
teachings of group dynamics to indicate that all influence by one 
individual human being on other human beings is bad. One gets 
the impression in listening to some of these people that the adminis- 
trator or supervisor is, at best, a mere errand boy for a group of 
teachers. To advocate a leadership of this kind is to misread the 
meaning of democracy and to give the teachers a stone at a time 
when they need life-giving bread. We should not be afraid of strong 
leadership. Supervisors should have ideas and should not be afraid 
to express them. We want them to have power because it is through 

MELBY 305 

power that they can liberate others. Weaken the supervisor, and 
you go far to destroy his capacity to liberate teachers and pupils for 
creative action. Effective leadership and supervision (improvement 
of teaching, if you please) in the social studies means living with 
teachers, pupils, and people of the community in such a way that 
with every passing year we have a community that is more educa- 
tion-centered, a community in which we can all learn by living. 


The Yearbook's Proposals in Relation to Certain 
Realities Facing the Elementary School 


The elementary school directs the learning of its pupils for a 
comparatively few, yet extremely important, years. In view of the 
school's limited opportunity and the immaturity of its subjects, how 
can teachers and school administrators be enabled to fulfil the many 
complex responsibilities proposed by the yearbook committees, com- 
missions, and other educational investigative bodies, each of which 
approaches the child from the point of view of one specialized aspect 
of the curriculum? We know from past experience that too often 
such proposals have little impact on school practice. This gap be- 
tween what is and what could and should be calls for more study 
than has yet been devoted to it. 

To what extent will this yearbook's proposals regarding social 
studies find their way into elementary-school practice? Most of 
these proposals are regarded as valid by the student of child develop- 
ment, the student of the learning process, and the specialist in the 
social studies. Yet it is not enough to know they are good. How 
can they become operative^ 

Citing a few samples from the proposals in this yearbook will 
throw this question into sharper focus. Dimond suggests the de- 
sirability of checking the adequacy of the current body of cur- 
riculum content through an analysis of social trends. Ojemann ad- 
vises the teacher to help the child not only to know the elements 
of good citizenship but to help him also find ways of working out 
his feelings so that he will wish to act in a socially responsible man- 
ner. Chase proposes a procedure for individualizing the develop- 
ment of thinking abilities by having children work in pairs, threes, 
or fives. Burrows suggests six different ways in which children can 
report the findings of their social-studies research. Wilson and Col- 



lings explain how traditional content in geography and history may 
open avenues to international understanding. Oberholtzer and Mad- 
den describe the effectiveness of half a dozen different kinds of 
teams various combinations of teacher-pupil-parent groups in 
evaluating social-studies instruction, each from a different angle and 
for a different purpose. 

These are but a few examples from the many fertile suggestions 
for improving social-studies programs contained in this yearbook. 
Viewed as a whole, the various suggestions of the yearbook call for 
broader objectives, more imaginative methodology, and improved 
organization of social studies. 

What are the realities facing today's elementary school that may 
cause many of these suggestions, though read by teachers and ad- 
ministrators, to go unheeded? What, if anything, can be done to 
facilitate their utilization^ 1 

Why Instruction Lags Behind the Hopes of 
Subject Specialists 

Teachers and supervisors are often unresponsive to the pleadings 
of subject specialists because, in the total school day and in the 
school's larger objectives, any one subject necessarily plays but a 
limited role. The teacher and supervisor tend to recognize, as the 
subject specialist often does not, that the purposes of the elementary 
school transcend those of the subject specialist. The classroom 
teacher is trained, not as a subject specialist, but as a specialist in 
child development. These facts are not to be deplored except the 
fact that the subject specialist lacks understanding. The phrase 
"all-around human growth," hackneyed and hollow as generally 
used by secondary-school and college teachers, actually operates at 
the elementary-school level not universally, but commonly. The 
school subjects are commonly viewed as means to effective living. 
Thus, many of the suggestions of the subject specialist, in the total 
context of elementary education, appear to many teachers and super- 
visors as irrelevant technicalities. For example, the suggestion some- 
times heard, that a globe should be used for comparison whenever 
a map is used, strikes many a teacher as pedantic and, at best, 

Moreover, the elementary-school teacher and supervisor are 


understandably annoyed by the subject speciahst's apparent un- 
awareness of the many competing demands upon the teacher's time 
and attention. For the teacher, aside from instructing in the tradi- 
tional subjects reading, writing, arithmetic, social studies, science, 
art, or music attends to the emotional climate of the classroom and 
the mental health of his pupils. He regulates the appearance and 
atmosphere of the classroom, as for example, pupil responsibility in 
classroom housekeeping; the needs of individuals or groups; stand- 
ards of school citizenship as co-operatively developed; discussions 
for the informal exchange of ideas and experiences. He also super- 
vises recess and physical-education periods and handles a myriad 
other administrative and instructional matters. Hence, the teacher 
may reject not only the specialist's advice but the specialist himself, 
because of his ignorance or lack of understanding of the teacher's 
total job. 

Finally, a sizable portion of today's elementary-school teachers 
consist of young women who are comparatively new to the pro- 
fession and who view teaching as a fleeting activity between college 
and marriage; and of older women who, with their children grown, 
have returned to teaching. The first group contributes a desirable 
vitality and freshness but includes many who are satisfied with the 
status of their professional knowledge. The second group often 
contributes a needed warmth, maturity, and wisdom but includes 
many women who, because of household responsibilities at home, 
find in difficult to give adequate time to class preparation or pro- 
fessional reading and fall back on the patterns of teaching which 
they practiced in their youth. Because of the unstable membership 
in the profession of elementary-school teaching, proposals of sub- 
ject specialists may receive scant attention. 

Ways in Which the Work of the Elementary-School Teacher 
Can Be Made More Compatible 'with Reality 

Thus we see that the range of work of the elementary-school 
teacher is so vast, the teacher's tenure often so brief, and the time 
for class preparation and professional reading often so limited that 
many of the aims which the various specialists feel should be 
achieved are not achieved. The consequence is that the interests of 
the child may be betrayed. This appears on the surface to be an 


insoluble dilemma. Perhaps nothing can or should be done to 
stabilize the profession; but a little reflection on the subject calls 
to mind a number of ways which have been successfully tried to 
make the elementary-school teacher's job a feasible and reasonable 
occupation. Specialists of all subjects should renew the attack on 
this problem. The remainder of this chapter will deal chiefly with 
its solution in the social-studies area. 

First, the possibilities of economizing time through having units 
in social studies and science serve as integrating centers in the cur- 
riculum have not been realized by enough teachers. Heffernan ef- 
fectively describes these possibilities in chapter v. Her treatment 
deserves careful study by every teacher and supervisor. Some teach- 
ers mistakenly look upon any kind of "integrating center" as overly 
complicated and even more time-consuming than their present 
methods; some of them still think, erroneously, that if you have an 
"integrating center/' subjects go out the window. Heffernan's dis- 
cussion should sound the death-knell of this misconception. "Em- 
phasis on integration of the school program," she writes, "does not 
imply disregard for the school subjects. There is need for systematic 
practice in each useful skill." Burrows, in chapter vii, shows how a 
social-studies unit opens up opportunities for reading and writing. 
The reading that a pupil does in connection with a live social-studies 
unit often results in his lifting himself by his bootstraps; that is, 
he is motivated to putting his reading skill to use and, hence, may 
be able to read material which is graded above his reading "level." 
As Gates and Pritchard have shown, by reducing the time allotment 
for reading instruction, reducing the pressure on reading, and in- 
creasing the time allotment for social-studies projects, children can 
learn to read more widely and to enjoy their reading more. 1 Thus 
units in social studies and science can be vehicles for the practice, 
application, and refinement of reading, writing, and other skills that 
will facilitate learning and that do not require the teacher's borrow- 
ing time from Peter to pay Paul. 

Another saving in teacher time and energy occurs when the 
teacher develops the same content year after year. For example, a 

i. Arthur I. Gates and Miriam C. Pritchard, Teaching Reading to Slow- 
learning Children, p. 6*2. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers Col- 
lege, Columbia University, 1942. 


unit on transportation calls for less planning and daily preparation 
each time it is taught. Some supervisors propose just the opposite 
that the teacher vary his content from year to year lest he "get in a 
rut." Actually, one of the satisfactions in teaching comes from deal- 
ing with subject matter that one has become steeped in and has de- 
veloped scholarship in. Scholarship has so often been associated with 
the search by cloistered professors for obscure minutiae that we 
have forgotten that scholarship can just as properly describe the 
search of a primary-grade teacher for data on fire protection or milk 
distribution* Some supervisors, perhaps unaware of the security and 
satisfaction that scholarship brings to the teacher, fear that a teacher 
who deals with content in which he has developed scholarship will 
"hand out" too much information and not encourage the children 
to do enough digging on their own. A poor teacher might do this 
whether he had developed scholarship in the topic or not. A teacher 
who understands the needs of children will not "unload" what he 
knows, whether or not he has developed scholarship in a field; but 
if his knowledge is extensive he is in an especially strong position to 
use the field to develop in his charges a questioning spirit and a thirst 
for facts. 

Relief from pressure comes to teachers whenever they are not 
expected to engage in full-fledged unit teaching at all times through- 
out the school year. This practice is based on the belief that one 
unit well taught, making use of such suggestions as those in the 
chapters by Heffernan, Chase, and Burrows, for example, for a 
beginning teacher at least, should be regarded as sufficient for an 
entire school year. The social studies for the remainder of the year 
might consist of simple textbook reading and recitation. Those who 
object to thus reducing the demands on a teacher may be unaware 
of how exhausting the first teaching years can be, of how little back- 
ground some beginning teachers have for unit teaching, and of the 
possibilities, definitely present though admittedly limited, of straight- 
forward textbook-recitation teaching. 

A number of school systems have succeeded in lightening the 
teacher's load and increasing faculty morale by providing super- 
vision in the major subject areas. In the social-studies area, at least, 
there is evidence that many teachers would like more help in teach- 
ing than they receive. Foster has found that many of their requests 


for help relate to detailed procedures, he also found that many 
teachers want just plain reassurance that they are on the right track. 2 
Acting in a supervisory capacity in the Philadelphia public schools 
(which, incidentally, has a lucid and explicit course of study in 
elementary-school social studies), Foster visited teachers solely on 
an "on call" basis. He analyzed the nature of 467 consecutive 
voluntary calls upon his services from a district comprising 32 
schools. Heading the requests were those dealing with methods 
(mostly details of unit procedure). Next in frequency were requests 
for him merely to observe some aspect of teaching exhibits, classes 
at work, and the like. In many of these instances it was clear that 
the teacher was seeking recognition of his work. Many teachers 
the strong ones as well as the weak appear to be hungry for a pat 
on the back. 

Teachers have been eloquent in acknowledging the difference 
it makes to work in a school in which the school or classroom 
libraries are supplied with an abundance and variety of supple- 
mentary social-studies teaching aids: reference books, biography, 
fiction with authentic historical or regional setting, films, and film- 
strips. In schools not so equipped, a conscientious teacher must de- 
vote a disproportionate share of his spare time looking for supple- 
mentary materials to accommodate several levels of reading diffi- 
culty. Not only should these materials be readily available to the 
teacher but they should be marked and catalogued topically in 
standard library form for easy access. Furthermore, indexes to 
children materials, such as the Children's Catalogue and Educational 
Film Catalogue, should be kept in a central place and every teacher 
instructed in their use. 

People of the community, outside the school, who have special 
interests and knowledge which they are willing to present before 
a class, can often provide worth-while data in social-studies classes. 
But how is the teacher to find them if he is a stranger in the com- 
munity? A number of supervisors and principals have made it easy 
for him to locate and invite these people to share their specialities 

2. Marcus A. Foster, "Teachers' Questions about Social Studies and Their 
Implications for Supervision." Ed.D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania, in 
preparation. The findings reported above are based on a tabulation of data 
according to preliminary and tentative categories 


with a class. These schools keep a file of people in the community 
who have volunteered their services. One school sends to every 
adult resident of its community a card on which to indicate whether 
he is willing to make a presentation to a class and if so, in what area 
(e.g., showing slides depicting life in a specified region, telling 
about an industrial process, or showing native dress of a foreign 
country). The card also asks the age levels of children the adult 
feels comfortable with and when he is most likely to be available. 

A teacher, harried by the varied demands upon his energy and 
imagination, is often relieved when he discovers an effective way 
to use a textbook in a class characterized by a wide range of reading 
abilities. But his original frustration may return, increased, when a 
supervisor advises him to abandon the textbook in favor of a variety 
of other materials. For this robs certain teachers of the security a 
textbook affords, and proposes an alternative which creates for these 
teachers a still more difficult teaching problem than the original 
one. Chase, in chapter vi (see his treatment of "Handling Intake and 
Output of Ideas"), offers a solution (the use of study guides with 
teams of two or three pupils) that has proved feasible for many 
textbook-dependent teachers. Demonstration of this procedure by 
supervisor or principal reveals its comparatively simple and effective 
nature. It partly solves the perennially baffling problem, when the 
same textbook is used by each pupil, of providing meaningful ex- 
periences for individuals of different reading abilities and problems. 

The suggestions in this section thus far have been confined to 
what the supervisor or principal might do to lighten the teachers' 
load and thereby bring improved social-studies instruction within 
every teacher's grasp. Teacher-training institutions, too, have ob- 
ligations to their students in this area. Not the least of these is to 
provide the prospective teacher with a richer background in the 
social sciences. It is futile to expect a teacher to undertake success- 
ful programs of unified social studies when his preparation has con- 
sisted primarily of specialized courses in history and geography. 
If he is to introduce the child to the community and to the world as 
they exist in their many interrelationships, then he should have the 
opportunity during his period of preparation of studying society as 
a web of closely interwoven threads. In specific terms, this probably 


means less specialized history and geography in his college work and 
a richer offering of anthropology and sociology. 

Toward More Realizable Goals 

Nothing can induce greater frustration in a conscientious worker 
in any field than the belief that his performance falls far short of 
the mark. Subject specialists have been seriously at fault in propos- 
ing, through their textbooks, teacher manuals to basic textbooks, and 
other media, many more tasks and responsibilities th$n can be re- 
alistically budgeted; many more activities than the teacher can 
realistically make class preparation for; and complex, intricate 
methodology which confuses rather than enlightens. The time has 
come for subject specialists to recognize the true nature of the ele- 
mentary-school teacher's function. Instead of increasing the harried 
feeling many teachers have today, the specialist should contribute 
to their release by acknowledging their integrating function. The 
contributors to this yearbook have clearly shown the relationship 
between social studies and other important areas of learning." Their 
suggestions should be reassuring because they demonstrate that, with 
the overlapping of the various areas, former beliefs about how much 
time should be spent in teaching each distinct subject may be dis- 

Unfortunately, some teacher-education institutions and some ad- 
ministrators and supervisors have drawn dubious conclusions from 
the discovery that interrelationships and overlapping are present in 
the curriculum. Certain colleges have permitted broad, integrated 
curriculum courses to swallow up such courses as the teaching of 
reading, the teaching of arithmetic, and other methods courses. 
Often the integrated course is taught by a "generalist" who is not 
abreast of the research in any of the special areas of his subject and 
who glorifies the "integrating function" of the elementary-school 
teacher to absurdity. Certain supervisors and principals have made 
the situation still worse by speaking lightly of the technical aspects 
of instruction. In the teaching of reading, such practices and atti- 
tudes unwittingly paved the way for the Garden, Hay-Wingo, 
Flesch, and other lopsided phonic systems. 

It is the child who loses out when his teachers lose contact with 


subject specialists. It is a responsibility of the subject specialist, 
however, to recognize the competing demands upon the elementary- 
school teacher and to think through the operation of any proposal 
he makes so that it will be of a practicable character and capable of 

Needless to say, the social-studies specialist also has research 
responsibilities. He shares with other educators the responsibility 
for investigating problems which frustrate the teacher's best efforts 
to build constructive values and interests. How, for example, can 
we build integrity and objectivity in the face of today's promotional 
material which contains exaggeration bordering on deception^ In- 
doctrination is often presented in the guise of free inquiry. Society 
is incomprehensibly tolerant of, or perhaps resigned to, such at- 
tempted manipulation of the minds of others. How can schools 
build in children the habit of honest searching for facts when the 
children realize that men and organizations who deal dishonestly 
with men's thoughts and feelings have attained a measure of re- 
spectability? "The moral problem of our time," writes Cadbury, 
"Is almost precisely that of extending outside the field of science 
these qualities. Honesty, disinterestedness, patience, objectivity are 
certainly needed for the social life of mankind." 8 Another problem 
is how to sustain the curiosity evinced in abundance by young 
children and which declines over the succeeding years. "The tragedy 
of American education," writes Gould, "appears to be that the 
initial sense of wonder and the urge to explore, so characteristic in 
the young child, are lost in his secondary schooling, and are never 
rediscovered during his years in higher education." 4 As intermedi- 
ate-grade teachers can testify, they begin to be lost, indeed, before 
the period of secondary education begins. Here we have two major 
obstacles to the realization of social studies objectives which deserve 
immediate and assiduous study. 

3. Henry J. Cadbury, "Science and Conscience " Pendle Hill Bulletin, 
CXXXI (August 1956), 3. 

4. Samuel B. Gould, "Breaking the Thought Barrier," Antioch Notes, 
XXXIII, No. 2, October 1955. 


Adams, Mary A., 142 

Aggressive behavior, causes and mani- 
festations of, among elementary- 
school children, 106-9 

American Association of School Ad- 
ministrators, 40, 221 

American economy, changes in con- 
trolling factors of, 60-68 

Analysis of social trends as a factor 
in the organization of social-studies 
programs, 49-54 

Asheim, Lester E., 71 

Atomic energy, relation of, to eco- 
nomic resources and controls of the 
nation, 62-64 

Attitudes of children in different 
school situations toward the social 
studies as subjects of instruction, 

Audience reaction to reporting ac- 
tivities of pupils, importance of 
careful preparation for, 210-12 

Automation, influence of, on eco- 
nomic change, 65 

Baker, Emily V., 168 

Baker, H. V., 85, 86, 93 

Basic human activities as factors in an 
appropriate design for the social- 
studies program, 46-47 

Basic skills for learning in the social- 
studies field, 187-88 

Behavior, factors involved in the de- 
velopment of desirable types of, 

Bennett, Herschel K., 158 

Bode, Boyd H., 49 

Bresnahan, Virginia W M 170 

Bronner, A. F^ 78, 109 

Brown, Lewis, 41 

California State Central Committee 
on the Social Studies, objectives and 
procedures of, 32-33 

Characteristics of children which are 
important in relation to the plan- 

ning of social-studies program for 
specified grade groups in the ele- 
mentary school, 163-64 

Chase, W. Linwood, 167 

Child behavior relation of, to inter- 
action of motivating forces and con- 
cepts, 77-81, variability in patterns 
of, 76-77 

Citizen participation in curriculum 
study in Denver public schools, 275 

Citizenship education, definitions of, 

Citizenship Education Project of 
Teachers College, Columbia Uni- 
versity, 220 

Classroom citizenship, values of teach- 
er-pupil planning for development 
of, 224-26 

Claffey, Rose, 184 

dark, Edythe T, 168 

Clift, David H,, 71 

Communication, implications of, for 
social-studies instruction in the 
schools, 65-68 

Concepts of social behavior, selection 
of, on basis of situations with which 
children are confronted, 81-84 

Conference of educators and anthro- 
pologists in 1954 on contributions of 
anthropology to instruction in the 
social studies, 32 

Content of social-studies curriculum, 
inquiries regarding selection, and 
organization of, 44-45 

Content of social-studies programs at 
different grade levels of elementary 
school, 142-47 

Contributions of social-trend analysis 
to the teaching of social studies in 
the elementary school, 52-54 

Co-operative behavior, methods of 
stimulating development of social 
concepts conducive to, 112-14 

Co-operative investigation of generali- 
zations for social-studies content, 

316 INDEX 

Cotter, Margaret E,, 185 

Couch, G. B., 102 

Counts, George, 59 

Criteria for selection of content of 

programs involved in education for 

citizenship, 233-34 
Critical reading in the social studies, 

development of, 194-96 
Criticisms of emphasis on social trends 

in relation to social-studies curricu- 

lum in the elementary school, 50-52 
Cultural exchange as an important 

element in the educational founda- 

tion of international understand- 

ing, 245-47 
Cultural products of other national- 

ities, relation of, to program of 

social studies in the elementary 

school, 125 
Current events as source of topics for 

social-studies classrooms, 151-52 
Current trends in organization of 

social-studies curriculum, 133-36 
Curriculum-making in the social- 

studies area parents' participation 

in, 159-60; role of the teacher in, 


Democracy vs. totalitarianism, rela- 
tion of, to social-studies curriculum, 

Design for social-studies program, 46- 

Detroit Citizenship Education Study, 


Dewey, John, n, 15 
Dewhurst, J. Frederick, 61, 68 
Dorr, M,, 102 

Douglass, Malcolm P., 34, 36 
Drucker, Peter F., 61, 69 
Duffey, Robert V., 131, 133, 135, 153 

Eaton, M. T., 92 

Economic and technological trends, 

implications of, for the teaching of 

social studies, 60-68 
Education-centered community, ad- 

vantages of, for improvement of 

social-studies instruction through 

use of community resources, 301-4 
Educational Policies Commission, 40, 

56, 221 
Elementary education, specific pur- 

poses of, 120-21 
Ellsworth, Ruth E., 154 

Emlaw, Rita, 158 

Emotional health as foundation of 
effective citizenship, 217 

Eskridge, Thomas J., 194 

Ethics, availability of various con- 
cepts in different systems of, for use 
as objectives of instruction in the 
social studies, 38-44 

Evaluation data, use of, in administra- 
tion of social-studies program in 
Denver public schools, 269-70 

Evaluation of social studies curricu- 
lum, 149-53 

Evaluation procedures applied to so- 
cial-studies program in Denver city 
school system, 262-69 

Exceptional children in the social- 
studies program, suggestions for 
dealing with different types of, 172- 

Expanding communities, relation of, 
to the design of appropriate social- 
studies curriculums, 46-47 

Fair, Jean, 148 
Farrell, Murriel, 92 

Fiction as reading materials in social- 
studies programs, 201-2 
Foley, Harriet M., 169 

Gay, Ella M, 170 

Generalization, different uses of the 
term, 28-29 

Generalizations derived from social- 
science disciplines, co-operative in- 
vestigation of, 44-46 

Geography, importance of concepts 
of, for instruction in elementary- 
school social studies, 34-38 

Geography instruction m the ele- 
mentary school, unique contribu- 
tion of, to international under- 
standing, 240-42 

Goodenough, F. L,, 108 

Group life m the elementary school, 
relation of, to promotion of inter- 
national understanding, 253-54 

Growth processes of children in re- 
lation to the teaching of social 
studies, 48-49 

Guideposts for improving citizenship 
education, 217-18 

Harap, Henry, 133 
Harrison, M. Lucile, 90, 92 



Hartshorne, H., 113 

Havighurst, R. J., 102 

Health education, contributions of the 
social studies to, 124-25 

Healy, W., 78, 109 

Herlihy, Jane M., 185 

Hilgard, E. R., 95, 96 

Hill, D S., 101 

Hill, Wilhelmina, 154 

Historical background of social evo- 
lution, importance of, in promo- 
tion of international understanding 
through American education, 243 

Hodgson, Frank Milton, 131, 132, 134, 
140, 146 

Holman, Eugene, 61 

Horn, Ernest, 91 

Hoveland, C. L, 108 

Ideological controversy, influence of, 
on the teaching of social studies, 


Importance of social studies in learn- 
ing experiences, factors inhibiting 
pupils' recognition of, 167-69 

Individual differences in pupil needs 
with respect to social-studies con- 
cepts, importance of teacher atti- 
tudes toward, 165-66 

Individual freedom, importance of, in 
relation to the educational enter- 
prise, 295-99 

Instruction in social studies, relation 
of teacher training to improvement 
of, 9 

Integrating centers involving units in 
social studies, use of, for economy 
of time, 309 

Interest of children in school activ- 
ities, importance of, m relation to 
selection of concepts for emphasis 
in social studies, 84-86 

Internal organization of social-studies 
programs, different types of, 155-56 

International Labor Organization, 252 

International organizations, variety of 
programs supported by, 251-53 

International Postal Union, 251 

International Red Cross, 251 

International understanding: relation 
of, to general education, 239; rela- 
tion of American elementary-school 
program to improvement of, 239-40 

Jensen, K., 86 

Kern, Stella, 148 

Knowledge, role of, in education for 
citizenship, 230-33 

Lacey, J M., 86, 90 

Language skills, overcoming barriers 
to the use of, in social-studies ac- 
tivities, 174-82 

Learning experiences, organization of, 
for social-studies classrooms, 153-56 

Learning process- nature of, in acqui- 
sition of motor skills as compared 
with problem-solving in the area of 
the social studies, 95-96, problem of 
differentiation of related concepts 
in the, 98; relation of the learner's 
motivation to progress in, 97 

Leary, Bernice E., 133 

Legislative requirements of programs 
in the social-studies area, 156-57 

Level of child development as related 
to understanding of social concepts, 

Levitt, E E., 103, 114 

Lewin, Kurt, 107 

Library resources, advantages to 

teachers of liberal allowances for 

maintenance of, 311 
Library use in relation to social-studies 

program, 200-201 
Lippitt, R., 107 
Lyle, W. H., 103 

Mahoney, John J., 214 

Materials Policies Commission, 63 

May, M. A., 113 

McAulay, John D., 149 

McChisky, Howard Y., 73 

Miller, N E., 108 

Morgan, Arthur E., 18 

Morgan, Mildred L, 113 

Morrison, J,, 102 

Mowrer, O. H., 95 

Munn, N. L , 95, 98 

National Council for the Social Stud- 

ies, 221 

National Education Association, 221 
National identification as foundation 

for development of international 

understanding, 247-48 

Jack, Lois M., in 

Oakden, E. C., 89 

318 INDEX 

Objectives of social studies in the 

school program, 2-3 
Objectives of social-trend analysis in 
connection with selection of con- 
tent of social-studies program in 
elementary school, 52 
Ojemann, R H., 87, 103, 113 
Opinion surveys of citizen attitude 
toward social-studies program in 
Denver school system, 273-76 
Organization of American States, 251 
Organization of elementary-school 
social studies, recognized types of, 

Participation as an important factor in 
learning experiences of both teach- 
ers and pupils, 299-301 

Patterns of organization of social 
studies at different grade levels, 


Penrose, William , 215, 219 
Personal motivation of learning skills 

involved in social-studies activities, 


Pflieger, Elmer F., 217 
Plischke, John Ruff, 157 
Population changes, importance of, 

for teaching the social studies, 68- 

6 * 

Popularity of social studies in com- 
parison with other school subjects, 

Power resources of the nation as a 
factor in determination of curricu- 
lum content in the social studies, 

Preparation of teachers and super- 
visors, important factors involved 
in, 289-90 

Preston, Ralph C., 91, 93, 134, 136 

Problem-solving, as an essential ex- 
perience in relation to education for 
citizenship, 226-30; need for em- 
phasis on, as means of promoting 
international understanding, 249 

Purposes of elementary education, 
learning experiences contributing 
to the achievement of, 121 

Ragan, William B., 54 

Reading materials in the social stud- 
ies, nature of, 193-94 

Reference skills, values of, in social- 
studies reading, 198-200 

Repetition of topical units in social- 
studies program, opportunities for 
lightening teacher load by means of, 

Reporting procedures suitable for so- 
cial-studies experiences, need for 
careful planning of, 207-10 

Research activities of capable readers 
in the intermediate grade social- 
studies program, 205-6 

Research potentialities in primary 
grades, 203-5 

Retarded readers in intermediate 
grades of social-studies program, 
availability of research activities for, 

Richardson, Clarence O., 152 

Riesman, David, 7 

Robinson, M. Z., 102 

Rugg, Harold, 8 

Sand, Ole, 48 

School experiences, importance of, 
in relation to social concepts of 
children in elementary grades, 91-92 

School policies and procedures, im- 
plications of, for social change in 
American education, 73-75 

Schorling, Raleigh, 73 

Science, use of, in the development of 
the social-studies curriculum, 123 

Scott, Lucy, 89 

Sears, R. R., 108 

Selective procedures in reading, im- 
portance of, 194-96 

Sense of belonging, an important fac- 
tor in teacher morale, 292-95 

Sequence in social-studies curriculum 
organization, bases of determina- 
tion of, 139-42 

Shimberg, M. E., 87 

Shores, J. Harlan, 63 

Skill subjects, contribution of the so- 
cial studies to learning experiences 
in, 125-27 

Smith, B. Othanel, 63 

Social behavior, promoting desirable 
types of, 286-89 

Social change in relation to social 
studies in the elementary school, 

Social-civic behavior, promoting de- 
velopment of skills and techniques 
essential to satisfactory achievement 
of, 183-86 


Social concepts, development of, 86-95 

Social education of children, respon- 
sibility of the school for, 4-7 

Social engineering, importance of, in 
citizenship education, i 

Social heritage, influence of, on de- 
velopment of social behavior, 14-19, 
objections to revival of emphasis 
upon, 10-12; relation of social stud- 
ies instruction to, 12-14 

Social motivation of learning skills 
employed in social-studies programs, 

Social sciences: identification of gen- 
eralizations and values from, 31-45; 
relation of, to social studies in ele- 
mentary school, 29-31 

Social studies, defirnng goals of, in 
elementary school, 121-22, dual 
focus of, in elementary grades, 48- 
49; impact of culture on, 5-7; as 
integrating center of elementary- 
school curriculum, 127-28; popular 
doubts about, 20-25 

Social-studies program in Denver 
public schools, 258-61 

Society as a conditioning factor in 
the teaching of social studies, 48- 


Stanley, William O., 63 
State-adopted textbooks, effects of, on 

selection of learning materials for 

social-studies classes, 157 
Stiles, Francis F., 87 
Sturt, M., 89 
Student government, suggestions for 

improvement of, 223 
Subject matter of the social studies at 

the elementary-school level, nature 

of, 122-23 
Supervision in major subject areas as 

means of reducing teacher load in 

the area of the social studies, 310-11 

Tasks involved in improving the social 
studies curriculum, 48-49 

Teacher-pupil planned units as a 
source of content organization of 
social studies, 153 

Teacher-training institutions, respon- 
sibility of, for enriching social- 
studies content of preservice-educa- 
tion curnculums, 312-13 

Teacher understanding of interna- 

tional relations, need for greater 
emphasis on, 250 

Textbooks in the social studies, ob- 
jections to use of required selec- 
tions, 196-98 

Three-dimensional design for social- 
studies program in the elementary 
school, 46-47 

Topics for study in social-studies pro- 
gram, children's preferences for, 

Toynbee, Arnold J., 19 

Trager, Helen G., 219 

Transportation in relation to eco- 
nomic developments, 65-68 

Tufts Civic Education Center at Med- 
ford, Massachusetts, 215 

Turck, Fenton, 62, 69, 70 

Turner, Charles S, 134, 147 

Tyler, Ralph W, 52 

UNESCO, 251 

Unique function of the social studies 
in the total program of the ele- 
mentary school, 122-23 

United Nations, 251, 253; balance of 
power in, 58 

Unit-organization of learning experi- 
ences within the classroom, 153 

Value concepts in the social-studies 
area, knowledge of, among elemen- 
tary-school children, 100-105 

Values of organizing and presenting 
reports of social-studies activities, 

Variable rate of development of con- 
cepts in social studies, 88-90 

Variety in selection of materials and 
activities, advantages of, for class- 
room work in the social studies, 

War as a factor in planning the social- 
studies program for the elementary 
school, 57-<5o 

Wesley, Edgar B., 142 

Weston, Grace L., 217 

White, R. K., 107 

Whitehead, Alfred North, 12 

Wisconsin Co-operative Educational 
Planning Program, statement of 
major goals of a democratic society 
by, 54-56 

320 INDEX 

Withdrawal behavior, investigations on the teaching of social studies, 

relating to the causes of, 110-12 56-60 

Wolfle, Dael, 113 World University Service, 252 
Wolfle, Helen, 113 

World leadership, position of the Yarrow, Marian Radke, 219 

United States in relation to, 58 

World political trends, influence of, Zelen, Seymour, 99 




(As adopted May, 1944, and amended June, 1945, and February, 1949) 



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pointed by the Board of Directors. Each director shall hold office for the term 
for which he is elected or appointed and until his successor shall have been 
selected and qualified. Directors need not be residents of Illinois. 

Section 3. Ekction. 

(a) The directors named in the Articles of Incorporation shall hold office 
until their successors shall have been duly selected and shall have qualified. 


Thereafter, two directors shall be elected annually to serve three years, b( 
ginning March first after their election. If, at the time of any annual electioi 
a vacancy exists in the Board of Directors, a director shall be elected at sue 
election to fill such vacancy. 

(6) Elections of directors shall be held by ballots sent by United State 
mail as follows: A nominating ballot together with a list of members eligib] 
to be directors shall be mailed by the Secretary-Treasuier to all active men 
bers of the corporation in October. From such list, the active members sha 
nominate on such ballot one eligible member for each of the two regular terac 
and for any vacancy to be filled and return such ballots to the office of tt 
Secretary-Treasurer within twenty-one days after said date of mailing b 
the Secretary-Treasurer. The Secretary-Treasurer shall prepare an electio 
ballot and place thereon in alphabetical order the names of persons equal t 
three times the number of offices to be filled, these persons to be those wh 
received the highest number of votes on the nominating ballot, provided, ho\t 
ever, that not more than one person connected with a given institution c 
agency shall be named on such final ballot, the person so named to be the OB 
receiving the highest vote on the nominating ballot. Such election ballot sha 
be mailed by the Secretary-Treasurer to all active members in November nes 
succeeding. The active members shall vote thereon for one member for eac 
such office. Election ballots must be in the office of the Secretary-Treasure 
within twenty-one days after the said date of mailing by the Secretary-Treat 
urer. The ballots shall be counted by the Secretary-Treasurer, or by an ele< 
tion committee, if any, appointed by the Board. The two members receivin 
the highest number of votes shall be declared elected for the regular term an 
the member or members receiving the next highest number of votes shall b 
declared elected for any vacancy or vacancies to be filled. 

Section 4 Regular Meetings. A regular annual meeting of the Board of D 
rectors shall be held, without other notice than this by-law, at the same plac 
and as nearly as possible on the same date as the annual meeting of the coi 
poration. The Board of Directors may provide the time and place, eithe 
within or without the State of Illinois, for the holding of additional regula 
meetings of the Board. 

Section 5 Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board of Directoi 
may be called by or at the request of the Chairman or a majority of the direc 
tors. Such special meetings shall be held at the office of the corporation unle* 
a majority of the directors agree upon a different place for such meetings. 

Section 6. Notice. Notice of any special meeting of the Board of Directoi 
shall be given at least fifteen days previously thereto by written notice delh 
ered personally or mailed to each director at his business address, or by td< 
gram. If mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be delivered when deposite 
hi the United States mail in a sealed envelope so addressed, with postag 
thereon prepaid. If notice be given by telegram, such notice shall be deeme 


to be delivered when the telegram is delivered to the telegraph company. Any 
director may waive notice of any meeting The attendance of a director at any 
meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except where a 
director attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting to the trans- 
action of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened 
Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or 
special meeting of the Board need be specified hi the notice or waiver of notice 
of such meeting. 

Section 7. Quorum. A majority of the Board of Directors shall constitute a 
quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting of the Board, provided, 
that if less than a majority of the directors are present at said meeting, a ma- 
jority of the directors present may adjourn the meeting from time to tune 
without further notice. 

Section 8. Manner of Acting. The act of the majority of the directors 
present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the 
Board of Directors, except where otherwise provided by law or by these 



Section 1. Appointment. The Council shall consist of the Board of Direc- 
tors, the Chairmen of the corporation's Yearbook and Research Committees, 
and such other active members of the corporation as the Board of Directors 
may appoint 

Section 2. Duties. The duties of the Council shall be to further the objects 
of the corporation by assisting the Board of Directors hi planning and carry- 
ing forward the educational undertakings of the corporation. 



Section 1. Officers. The officers of the corporation shall be a Chairman of 
the Board of Directors, a Vice-Chainnan of the Board of Directors, and a 
Secretary-Treasurer. The Board of Directors, by resolution, may create ad- 
ditional offices. Any two or more offices may be held by the same person, ex- 
cept the offices of Chairman and Secretary-Treasurer. 

Section 2. Election and Term of Office. The officers of the corporation shall 
be elected annually by the Board of Directors at the annual regular meeting of 
the Board of Directors, provided, however, that the Secretary-Treasurer may 
be elected for a term longer than one year. If the election of officers shall not 
be held at such meeting, such election shall be held as soon thereafter as con- 
veniently may be. Vacancies may be filled or new offices created and filled 
at any meeting of the Board of Directors. Each officer shall hold office until 


his successor shall have been duly elected and shall have qualified or until his 
death or until he shall resign or shall have been removed in the manner herein- 
after provided 

Section 3. Removal. Any officer or agent elected or appointed by the Board 
of Directors may be removed by the Board of Directors whenever in its judg- 
ment the best interests of the corporation would be served thereby, but such 
removal shall be without prejudice to the contract rights, if any, of the person 
so removed. 

Section 4. Chairman of the Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board 
of Directors shall be the principal officer of the corporation. He shall preside 
at all meetings of the members of the Board of Directors, shall perform all 
duties incident to the office of Chairman of the Board of Directors and such 
other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors from time to time. 

Section 5. Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors. In the absence of the 
Chairman of the Board of Directors or in the event of his inability or refusal 
to act, the Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors shall perform the duties 
of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, and when so acting, shall have all 
the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the Chairman of the 
Board of Directors, Any Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors shall per- 
form such other duties as from time to time may be assigned to him by the 
Board of Directors. 

Section 6. Secretary-Treasurer. The Secretary-Treasurer shall be the man- 
aging executive officer of the corporation. He shall: (a) keep the minutes of 
the meetings of the members and of the Board of Directors in one or more 
books provided for that purpose; (6) see that all notices are duly given in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of these by-laws or as required by law; (c) be 
custodian of the corporate records and of the seal of the corporation and see 
that the seal of the corporation is affixed to all documents, the execution of 
which on behalf of the corporation under its seal is duly authorized in accord- 
ance with the provisions of these by-laws; (d) keep a register of the postoffice 
address of each member as furnished to the secretary-treasurer by such mem- 
ber; (e) in general perform all duties incident to the office of secretary and 
such other duties as from time to time may be assigned to him by the Chair- 
man of the Board of Directors or by the Board of Directors. He shall also: 
(1) have charge and custody of and be responsible for all funds and securities 
of the corporation; receive and give receipts for moneys due and payable to 
the corporation from any source whatsoever, and deposit all such moneys 
in the name of the corporation in such banks, trust companies or other de- 
positories as shall be selected in accordance with the provisions of Article XI 
of these by-laws; (2) in general perform all the duties incident to the office 
of Treasurer and such other duties as from time to time may be assigned to 
him by the Chairman of the Board of Directors or by the Board of Directors. 
The Secretary-Treasurer shall give a bond for the faithful discharge of his 


duties in such sum and with such surety or sureties as the Board of Director 
shall determine, said bond to be placed in the custody of the Chairman of the 
Board of Directors. 



The Board of Directors, by appropriate resolution duly passed, may create 
and appoint such committees for such purposes and periods of time as it may 
deem advisable. 



Section 1. The corporation shall publish The Yearbook of the National So- 
ciety for the Study of Education, such supplements thereto, and such other 
materials as the Board of Directors may provide for. 

Section 2. Names of Members. The names of the active and honorary 
members shall be printed in the Yearbook 



The corporation shall hold its annual meetings at the time and place of the 
Annual Meeting of the American Association of School Administrators of the 
National Education Association. Other meetings may be held when author- 
ized by the corporation or by the Board of Directors. 



Section 1. Contracts. The Board of Directors may authorize any officer or 
officers, agent or agents of the corporation, in addition to the officers so author- 
ized by these by-laws to enter into any contract or execute and deliver any 
instrument in the name of and on behalf of the corporation and such authority 
may be general or confined to specific instances. 

Section 2. Check*, drafts, etc. All checks, drafts, or other orders for the 
payment of money, notes, or other evidences of indebtedness issued in the 
name of the corporation, shall be signed by such officer or officers, agent or 
agents of the corporation and in such manner as shall from time to time be 
determined by resolution of the Board of Directors. In the absence of such 
determination of the Board of Directors, such instruments shall be signed by 
the Secretary-Treasurer. 

Section 3. Deposits. All funds of the corporation shall be deposited from 
time to time to the credit of the corporation in such banks, trust companies, 
or other depositories as the Board of Directors may select. 


Section 4 Gifts. The Board of Directors may accept on behalf of the cor- 
poration any contribution, gift, bequest, or device for the general purposes or 
for any special purpose of the corporation. 



The corporation shall keep correct and complete books and records of ac- 
count and shall also keep minutes of the proceedings of its members, Board 
of Directors, and committees having any of the authority of the Board of 
Directors, and shall keep at the registered or principal office a record giving 
the names and addresses of the members entitled to vote. All books and 
records of the corporation may be inspected by any member or his agent or 
attorney for any proper purpose at any reasonable time, 



The fiscal year of the corporation shall begin on the first day of July in 
each year and end on the last day of June of the following year. 


Section 1 Annual Dues. The annual dues for active members of the Society 
shall be determined by vote of the Board of Directors at a regular meeting 
duly called and held. 

Section 2. Election Fee. An election fee of $1.00 shall be paid in advance by 
each applicant for active membership. 

Section 3. Payment of Dues. Dues for each calendar year shall be payable 
in advance on or before the first day of January of that year. Notice of dues 
for the ensuing year shall be mailed to members at the time set for mailing the 
primary ballots 

Section 4. Default and Termination of Membership. Annual membership 
shall terminate automatically for those members whose dues remain unpaid 
after the first day of January of each year. Members so in default will be 
reinstated on payment of the annual dues plus a reinstatement fee of fifty 



The Board of Directors shall provide a corporate seal which shall be in 
the form of a circle and shall have inscribed thereon the name of the cor- 
poration and the words "Corporate Seal, Illinois." 




Whenever any notice whatever is required to be given under the provision 
of the General Not For Profit Corporation Act of Illinois or tinder the pro- 
visions of the Articles of Incorporation or the by-laws of the corporation, a 
waiver thereof in writing signed by the person or persons entitled to such 
notice, whether before or after the tune stated therein, shall be deemed 
equivalent to the giving of such notice. 



Section 1. Amendments by Directors. The constitution and by-laws may be 
altered or amended at any meeting of the Beard of Directors duly called and 
tield, provided that an affirmative vote of at least five directors shall be re- 
quired for such action. 

Section 2. Amendments by Members. By petition of twenty-five or more 
active members duly filed with the Secretary-Treasurer, a proposal to amend 
the constitution and by-laws shall be submitted to all active members by 
United States mail together with ballots on which the members shall vote for 
;>r against the proposal. Such ballots shall be returned by United States mail 
bo the office of the Secretary-Treasurer within twenty-one days after date of 
mailing of the proposal and ballots by the Secretary-Treasurer. The Secretary- 
rreasurer or a committee appointed by the Board of Directors for that pur- 
pose shall count the ballots and advise the members of the result. A vote in 
favor of such proposal by two-thirds of the members voting thereon shall be 
required for adoption of such amendment. 


FEBRUARY 18 AND 21, 1956 

The first session of the Society's meeting was held in the American 
Room of the Traymore Hotel at 8:00 P.M., Saturday, February 18. 
This session was devoted to the discussion of the Fifty-fifth Yearbook, 
Part I, The Pubhc Junior College, which was prepared by a committee 
of the Society under the chairmanship of Professor B. Lamar Johnson 
of the University of California. 

The meeting was called to order by the presiding officer, Dean 
Ernest O. Melby, Chairman of the Society's Board of Directors. The 
following program was presented. 


B. Lamar Johnson, Professor of Higher Education, Univer- 
sity of California; Chairman of the Yearbook Committee 


Mrs. Pearl A. Wanamaker, State Superintendent of Pubhc In- 
struction, Olympia, Washington 

Benjamin C. Willis, General Superintendent of Schools, Chi- 
cago, Illinois 

Horace T. Morse, Dean, General College, University of Minne- 
sota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 


Led by the Chairman of the Yearbook Committee 

The second session of the 1956 meeting was held in Room 5 of the 
Atlantic City Auditorium at 2:30 P.M., Tuesday, February 21. This 
session was devoted to the discussion of Part II of the Fifty-fifth Year- 
book, Adult Reading. The volume was prepared by a committee of 
which David H. Clift was the chairman. Edgar Dale, member of the 
Board of Directors, presided over the meeting. The following program 
was presented. 


David H. Clift, Executive Secretary, American Library Associ- 
ation; Chairman of the Yearbook Committee 


i. From the Point of View of the Aims of American Education 
Ruth Strang, Professor of Education, Teachers College, 
Columbia University, New York, New York 


2. From the Point of View of the Functions of the Public 

Emerson Greenaway, Director, Free Library of Phila- 
adelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

3. From the Point of View of the Adult Education Movement 

Robert J. Blakely, Central Regional Representative, The 

Fund for Adult Education, Chicago, Illinois 

Led by the Chairman of the Yearbook Committee 



The Board of Directors met at the Traymore Hotel, the following 
nembers being present: Corey, Dale, Melby (Chairman), Olson, Witty, 
ind Henry (Secretary). 

1. The Secretary reported that the November election of members 
>f the Board of Directors resulted in the re-election of Ernest O. Melby 
ind Willard C. Olson, each for a second term of three years beginning 
March i, 1956. 

2. Officers of the Board of Directors for the year ending February 
18, 1957, were chosen as follows: Mr. Olson, Chairman; Mr. Corey, 
^ice-chairman; Mr. Henry, Secretary. 

3. Mr. Corey reported that, with one exception, all chapters for the 
yearbook on in-service education had been reviewed by the yearbook 
:ommittee and that final copy for all chapters would be ready to send 
o the editor by April i. 

4. Professor Preston, chairman of the committee on social studies in 
he elementary school, reported that most of the chapters had been re- 
reived in acceptable form and that he had submitted suggestions to the 
tuthors of some chapters relative to possible revisions or other types of 
mprovement. It was understood that the contributions of all the authors 
vould be available in time to meet the requirements of the editor in the 
>reparation of the manuscript for printing. 

5. Professor Dressel reported at this meeting that the group confer- 
jnce suggested by the Board of Directors at its meeting in October had 
>een held and that the participants in the conference were positively 
avorable to the idea of a yearbook on the subject of integration. Follow- 
ng the discussion of plans formulated by the conference group, the 
Board voted its approval of the outline of the volume and requested 
D rofessor Dressel to serve as chairman of the yearbook committee. The 
isual allowance for expenses of committee meetings was authorized. 

6. In response to the request of the Board of Directors, Professor 
-Javighurst submitted a written proposal for a yearbook on the educa- 
ion of gifted children. This outline was approved and instructions were 
:ent to Mr* Havighurst regarding procedures in relation to the work of 
he yearbook committee. 

7. Professor Madison of Indiana University attended this meeting 
it the request of the Board for a discussion of his proposal of a yearbook 
n the field of music education. The Board approved the proposed plan 
>f the yearbook and endorsed the personnel of the committee suggested 


by Professor Madison. Mr. McConnell was requested to serve as a mem- 
ber of this committee representing the Board of Directors. 


The Board of Directors met at the Congress Hotel, the following 
members being present: Corey, Dale, McConnell, Melby, Olson (Chair- 
man), Witty, and Henry (Secretary). 

1. The Secretary reported that the complete text of the manuscript 
for the yearbook on in-service education had been received at the office 
of the Society early in April and that the printing schedule for this 
volume would provide for the distribution of the yearbook by the mid- 
dle of January, 1957. The Secretary also reported satisfactory progress 
by the committee on social studies, it being understood that the com- 
pleted manuscript would be available in time to meet the January pub- 
lication date. 

2. As a result of the Board's request in January that members of the 
Society offer suggestions regarding subjects to be treated in yearbooks 
that may be published in the near future, about forty different topics 
were proposed for the Board's consideration. These topics, together 
with any comments submitted by the person offering the proposal, were 
presented to the Board. It was agreed that selected proposals should be 
drawn from this list from time to time for consideration as new proposals 
may be needed to complete our publication program. 

3. Mr. Olson commented on his consultations with several persons 
relative to the growing literature in the field of group dynamics, indicat- 
ing that it might be advisable to explore the possible development of 
plans for a yearbook on the subject of the class as a group. The Board 
then requested Mr. Olson to invite a few people who are interested in 
this problem to meet with him for the purpose of drawing up a formal 
proposal for the Board to consider at its next meeting. The Secretary 
was instructed to provide for the expenses of persons participating in 
this conference. 

4. Mr. Dale reported his impressions regarding the meeting of the 
committee on integration and explained the plans of this committee for 
a second meeting in the autumn. 

5. Mr. McConnell described the program of the committee on music 
education and commented on the outline prepared by Professor Madison 
as a guide for the deliberations of the committee at its meeting to be held 
about the middle of June. It was noted that this committee expected to 
complete the writing of this yearbook early enough for publication in 

6. Mr. Corey summarized the findings of several inquiries regarding 
the possible interest of professional people in the UNESCO programs of 
fundamental education in underdeveloped countries of the world, men- 
tioning the interest of Professor C. O. Arndt of New York University 
in the work being done along these lines. On motion by Mr. Dale, the 


Board requested Mr. Corey to confer with Professor Arndt with the 
view of persuading him to prepare an outline for a yearbook in this 
area so that the Board may have the opportunity of considering the 
outline at its next meeting. 


The Board of Directors met at the Conrad Hilton Hotel, the follow- 
ing members being present. Corey, Dale, McConnell, Melby, Olson 
(Chairman), Witty, and Henry (Secretary). 

1. Mr. Olson presented an outline of a proposed yearbook on the 
subject of the class as a group. This outline was prepared by Professor 
Gale Jensen of the University of Michigan. Following the discussion of 
the outline as presented, the Board asked Mr. Olson to request Professor 
Jensen to revise certain features of the proposal and to invite him to at- 
tend the meeting of the Board in Atlantic City, February 17, 1957, for 
the purpose of giving further consideration to plans looking toward the 
publication of an appropriate yearbook on this subject. 

2. Mr. Corey offered suggestions regarding the program for the 
presentation of the yearbook on In-service Education for Teachers, 
Supervisors, and Administrators. The Secretary was instructed to ex- 
tend invitations to the persons suggested as participants in this program. 
The Secretary proposed a morning program as an experiment instead 
of the customary afternoon hour for the program for Part II of the 
1957 yearbook in order to avoid the heavily congested afternoon sched- 
ule of the school administrators' convention. This proposal was ap- 
proved, and the Secretary was instructed to plan the program in con- 
sultation with Professor Preston, chairman of the committee for the 
yearbook, Social Studies in the Elementary SchooL 

3. The Secretary informed the Board of additional topics for year- 
books which had been received since the last meeting. These include 
the following suggestions, which will be held for later consideration: 
(a) Elementary Education; (b) Guidance and Student Personnel; and 
(c) Boards of Control of Higher Education. 

4. Professor Arndt was present at this meeting and presented his 
outline of a yearbook on the subject of fundamental education. The 
ensuing discussion led to an agreement on plans for this yearbook. The 
Board approved Professor Arndt's recommendations on the organization 
of the yearbook committee and authorized an appropriation to cover 
expenses incident to the work of the committee. It is expected that this 
yearbook will be ready for publication in 1959. 

5. Further reports on the progress of the following yearbook com- 
mittees were received and approved by the Board: Mr. Dale reported 
for the committee on integration. Mr. McConnell gave a report on the 
meeting of the committee on music education, which he attended last 
June. Mr. Witty explained the status of the work of the committee on 
education of gifted children. 




Membership dues 116,092.01 

Sale of yearbooks 32,546.50 

Interest and dividends on securities . . 481.86 

Miscellaneous 1,550.66 




Manufacturing $20,054.59 

Reprinting 10,444 oo 

Preparation 4,560.65 

Meetings of the Society and Board of Directors . .... 2,148.64 

Secretary's Office: 

Editorial, secretarial, and clerical service 1 1,004.94 

Supplies 2,43 J> 95 

Telephone and telegraph 86.1 1 

Miscellaneous 987.63 


Cash in bank at beginning of year. $ 2,430.44 

Excess of disbursements over receipts 1,047.48 

Cash in bank at end of year $ 1,382.96 



As of June 30, 1956 

University National Bank, Chicago, Illinois 

Checking account $ 1,382.96 


Bonds. Cost 

$16,700 U.S. of America Savings Bonds, Series "G", 2%%, 

due 12 years from issue date . . . . . ...$16,700.00 

$1,500 dated February i, 1944 
$2,700 dated May i, 1944 
$2,000 dated February i, 1945 
$1,000 dated April i, 1945 
$4,500 dated December i, 1945 
$5,000 dated February i, 1949 


27 shares First National Bank of Boston, Capital Stock. .$ 1,035.75 

Total securities $17*735-75 

Total assets $19,118.71 


(This list includes all persons enrolled November 30, 1956, whether for 
1956 or 1957. Asterisk (*) indicates Life Members of the Society.) 


Aarestad, Amanda B., Elem. Educ., State Teachers College, Winona, Minn. 

Aaron, Ira E., College of Education, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 

Abate, Harry, Principal, Niagara Street School, Niagara Falls, N.Y. 

Abbott, Samuel Lee, Jr., Plymouth Tchrs. College, Plymouth, N.H. 

Abel, Frederick P , University of Minnesota High School, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Abelson, Harold H., College of the City of New York, New York, N.Y. 

Abraham, Willard, Arizona State College, Tempe, Ariz. 

Abrahamson, Stephen, Sch of Educ , Univ. of Buffalo, Buffalo, N Y 

Acharlu, K S , Sevagram P , War da Dr., Madhya Pradosn, India 

Adams, Mrs Daisy Trice, Principal, Charles Sumner School, Kansas City, Mo. 

Adams, Robert G., Principal, Lincoln School, Oakland, Calif 

Adamson, Oral Victor, Principal, Highland Elem School, Evansville, Ind 

Adelaide Mane, Sister, Our Lady of the Lake College, San Antonio, Tex. 

Adell, James C., Bureau of Educ. Research, Bd. of Educ., Cleveland, Ohio 

Aden, Robert C., Dept of Educ., Bethel College, McKenzie, Term. 

Adler, Alfred, Dept of Educ , Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, N Y. 

Adolphsen, Louis John, Albert Lea Senior High School, Albert Lea, Minn. 

Agnes Cecilia, Sister, Prin , Nazareth Academy, Rochester, N.Y. 

Agnes, Mother, Marymount College, New York, N.Y. 

Ahmann, J. Stanley, Sch of Educ,, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 

Akridge, J. L , Prin., McAllen High School, McAllen, Tex. 

Alawi, A. H., Dept. of Educ , Univ. of Peshawar, Peshawar, West Pakistan 

Albin, Flovd B , Oregon College of Education, Monmouth, Ore. 

Albohm, John C , Superintendent of Schools, York, Pa. 

Albright, Frank S., Supv., Secondary Education, Public Schools, Gary, Ind. 

Alcorn, Marvin D., San Diego State College, San Diego, Calif. 

Aldnch, F. D , Head, Educ. Dept., Alderson-Broaddus Col , Philippi, W. Va. 

Alexander, Aaron C , Prairie View A & M College, Prairie View, Tex. 

Alexander, Jean H , Col. of Educ., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Alexander, William M., School of Educ , Univ of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla 

Allan, Marion I., Augustana College, Rock Island, 111. 

Allen, Beatrice Ona, Principal, Waters Elementary School, Chicago, 111. 

Allen, D. W., Assoc. Supt , Ohio State Reformatory, Mansfield, Ohio 

Allen, Edward E , Supv. Principal of Schools, Akron, N Y 

Allen, James R , Superintendent, Harmony School, Belleville, 111. 

Allen, James Rooert, Curriculum Consultant, Public Schools, Louisville, Ky. 

Allen, Ross L., State University Teachers College, Cortland, N.Y. 

Allman, Reva White, Dept of Educ., Alabama State College, Montgomery, Ala 

Almcrantz, Mrs Georgia, Box 87, Marseilles, 111. 

Alpren, Morton, Tchrs College, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Alston, Melvin O., Florida Agric. and Mech. University, Tallahassee, Fla. 

Alsup, Robert F., 1712 Farmers Ave., Murray, Ky. 

Alt, Pauline M., Teachers Col. of Connecticut, New Britain, Conn 

Amar, Wesley F., 8036 S. Green St , Chicago, 111. 

Amberson, Jean D , Home Econ. Bid* , Pa State Col, State College, Pa. 

Ambrose, Luther M., USOM, c/o U S. Embassy, Bangkok, Thailand 

Amos, Robert T., Rhode Island College of Education, Providence, R I. 

Anderson, Clarence K., Prin , Amundsen High School, Chicago, 111. 

Anderson, C R., Superintendent of Schools, Helena, Mont. 

Anderson, Ernest M., Kansas State Teachers College, Pitteburg, Kan. 



Anderson, Evelyn, Box 464, Ashland, Ore 

Anderson, G. Lester, Dean, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, N Y. 

Anderson, Harold A., Dept. of Educ., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111 

Anderson, Harold H , 340 Wildwood Ave , East Lansing, Mich 

Anderson, Harry D., Supt , Maine Township High School, De& Flames, 111 

Anderson, Howard R., 2140 East Ave , Rochester, N.Y. 

Anderson, John E , Inst. of Child Welfare, Umv of Minn , Minneapolis, Minn 

Anderson, Kenneth E., Dean, Sch. of Educ., Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan 

Anderson, Marion, Gmn & Company, Boston, Mass 

Anderson, Philip S , State Teachers College, River Falls, Wis 

Anderson, Robert H., Lawrence Hall, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Anderson, Rodney, Northern Illinois State Tchrs Col , DeKalb, HI 

Anderson, Stuart A., Eastern Illinois State Tchrs Col , Charleston, 111 

Anderson, Vernon E, Dean, Col of Educ., Umv. of Maryland, College Park, 


Anderson, Walter A., Sch of Educ., New York University, New York, N.Y 
Anderson, William F , Jr , Psych Res Center, Syracuse Umv , Syiacuse, N Y. 
Anderson, William P., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N Y 
Andes, John D , Asst. Supt in Chg. of Instruction, Richmond, Calif. 
Andiegg, Neal B , Provost Maishal General's School, Camp Got don, Ga 
Andrews, Annie, County Supt of Education, Amite County, Liberty, Miss 
Andrews, Mrs Elizabeth, Sam Houston State Tchis College, Huntsville, TQ\ 
Angelim, Arrigo Leonardo, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Biazil 
Angell, George W., Pres , State Univ. Teachers College, Plattsburg, N Y. 
Angelo, Rev. Mark V., 135 West 31st St , New York, N.Y. 
Anna Clare, Sister, College of St. Rose, Albany, NY. 
Ansel, James , Western Michigan College of Education, Kalamazoo, Mich 
Antell, Henry, 120 Keniiworth PL, Brooklyn, N Y. 
Antonacci, Robert J , Wayne University, Detroit, Mich 
Apple, Joe A , San Diego State College, San Diego, Calif 

Applegate, Stanley A , Cumc Serv. Center, Plandome Rd Sch., Manhasset, N Y 
Appleton, David, Superintendent of Schools, Conway, N H, 
Aramvalarthanathan, M, Tchrs. Col., S.RJK.M., Vidyalaya, Coimbatore Dist,, 

Madras State, South India 

Arbuckle, Dugald S , Sch of Educ , Boston University, Boston, Mass 
Archer, Clifford P , Col. of Educ., Umv. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Armstrong, Grace, State Teachers College, Mankato, Mmn 
Armstrong, Hubert C., Glaremont Graduate School, Claremont, Calif. 
Armstrong, V. L., 2679 S Jackson, Denver, Colo. 
Arnaud, E E , Dept of Educ , St. Mary's Univ., San Antonio, Tex. 
Arndt, C. 0.. New York University, New York, N.Y. 
Arnesen, Arthur E., Supv,, Curriculum and Research, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Arnold, Earl A., North Texas State College, Denton, Tex. 
Arnold, J. E , Dean, Umv. Ext , Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn. 
Arnold, Mabel, Dept. of Educ., Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 
Arnstein, George E , NBA Journal, 1201 Sixteenth St , N.W., Washington, D.C 
Amy, Clara Brown, University Farm, Umv. of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minn. 
Arseman, Seth, Springfield College, Springfield, Mass 
Artley, A. Sterl, School of Educ , Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 
Arveson, R G , Superintendent of Schools, Leeds, N JD 
Ashe, Robert W., Arizona State College, Tempe, Ariz 
Ashland, Homer B., Superintendent of Schools, Rutland, Vt. 
Atkinson, William N., Pres., Jackson Junior College, Jackson, Mich. 
Auble, Donavon, Western College for Women, Oxford, Ohio 
Aukerman, Robert C., University of Rhode Island, Kingston, R I. 
Austin, David B,, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y, 
Austin, Garnet L., Nebraska State Teachers College, Kearney, Neb. 
Austin, Martha Lou, P 382, Sarasota, Fla. 

Austin, Mary C., Grad Sch. of Educ., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 
Ausubel, D. P . Bur. of Research & Serv , Umv of Illinois, Champaign, TIL 
Avegno, T Sylvia, Sch. of Educ., Fordham University, New York, N.Y. 


Aveiy, George E,, Sch of Educ., State Col of Washington, Pullman, Wash 

Ayer, Jean, 2 Little Point St , Essex, Conn. 

Ayer, Joseph C , Cincinnati Public Schools, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Baar, Lincoln F , Asst Prin , Junior High School 117, Bronx, New York, N Y. 

Babcock, Dorothy B., Chm , Dept of Educ , Mills College, Oakland, Calif 

Babei, Enc ft , Supt , Rich Twp High School, Park Forest, 111. 

Bach, Jacob , Southern Illinois Umveisity, Carbondale, 111 

Bachman, Mrs. Nina S , Teacheis College, Temple Univ , Philadelphia, Pa 

Bachman, Ralph V , Principal, South High School, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Bacon, Fiancis L , Sch of Educ , TJmv of California, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Bacon, Mrs Ruth N , Supt , St Clan County Schools, Port Huron, Mich 

Bacon, William P , Air Command and Staff Col , Maxwell An Foice Base, Ala 

Bahn, Lorene A , 32 South Elm Ave , Webstei Gtoves, Mo 

Bailer, Joseph R , Dept of Educ , Western Maryland College, Westminster, Md 

Bailey, Donald W., Sacramento State College, Sacramento, Calif 

Bailey, D wight L , Western Illinois State Teacheis College, Macomb, 111 

Bailey, Edna W , School of Educ , Univ of Cahiorma, Berkeley, Calif. 

Bailev, Francis L , President, State Teachers College, Gorham, Me 

Bair, Mcdill, Supv Principal, Pennsbuiy Schools, Fallsmgton, Pa. 

Baker, Hairy J , Dir , Psych Clinic, Detroit Public Schools, Detioit, Mich 

Baker, Harry L., Head, Dept of Educ. <fe Psy , State College, Manhattan, Kan 

Baker, James F., Sch of Educ , Boston Umveisity, Boston, Mass 

Bakst, Henry J , Sch of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Mass 

Baldwin, Robert D., West Virginia University, Morguntown, W Va 

Baldwin, Rollm, 125 Riverside Dr , New Yoik, N\Y 

Bahan, Arthur, Southern Colony and Training School, Union Grove, Wis 

Ttollantmp, Francis A , Dept of Educ Ran Diogo Rtatp Col . San Diego, Calif. 

Ballei, Warren R , University of California, Los Angeles 24, Calif 

Ballou, Stephen V., Div of Educ , Fresno State College, Fresno, Calif 

Balyeat, F. A , University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla 

Bancroft, Roger W , State University Tchrs College, Cortland, N.Y. 

Banner, Carolyn, Critic Tonchrr, Langston Universitv. Langston, Okla, 

Bantel, Edward A., 420 West 118th St., New York, N.Y 

Barber, Anson B , 125 Alexander Ave , Nutley, N. J 

Barber, Joseph E., Bureau of Naval Personnel, Wahlunaton, D C. 

Barbour, Helen F , New Mexico Col. of Agnc and Mech Arts, State College, 


Harden, John G . Appalnchian State College, Boone, N C. 
Baiker, Miriam Lois, Elementary School Principal, Willoughby, Ohio 
Barlow, MHvm L , State Dopt, of Kduc., Univ ot Calif., Los Angeles, Calif 
Barnard, Ethel M., Conpultant, In-forviro Tchr, Educ , Bowling Green, Ky 
Barnard, J. Darrell, Sch of Kduc., New York University, New York, N.Y. 
Barnard, William H , Dept of Educ., Miss, State Col., State College, Miss 
Barnes, Cyrus W , Bcaohlake, Pa 

Barnes, Fred P,, Col oi l&iuc., University of Illinois, Urbana, III 
Barnett, Glenn K, Col. of Educ., University of Texas, Austin, Tex. 
BarnhiBer, Mrs. Armand 0., Patterson School, Dayton, Ohio 
Barr, Charlotte A M 4950 South Archer Avenue, Chicago, 111 
Barne, Margaret J. ; Principal, Lincoln School, Hawthorne, N J. 
Barros, Rev. Raymond, SJ,, Catholic Univ of Valparaiso, Valparaiso, Chile 
Barry, Florence G M Adjustment Teacher, Lawson Elem. School, Chicago, 111. 
Barry, Robert F., Board of Education, Rochester, N.Y, 
Barfpla, Isabella, 3024 Fairway Drive, Dayton, Ohio 
Barlh, Pius J., Office of Franciscan Provincial, St. Louis, Mo, 
Bartlett, Roland 0., Principal, Westmonut Sr. High School, Westmount, Que. 
Barton, Grwgfl R, t Jr., Tulane University, Now Orleans, La 
Bash, Abraham, 702 E. Carl Ave M Baldwin, LI, NX 
Basa, Floyd L., Div of Educ., LoMoyne College, Memphis, Tenn, 
Batcholder, Howard T*, Dept. of Educ., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 
Bate, Elsa B,, Central Michigan College, Mt Pleasant, Mich. 


Bateman, E Allen, Supt of Public Instruction, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Bates, Harold S., Superintendent of Schools, Norwood, Ohio 

Batha, Robert, Principal, Junior-Senior High School, Chester, Calif. 

Battle, J A , Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Fla. 

Battle, John A , 77 Polo Road, Gieat Neck, N.Y 

Bauer, Joseph, Dept. of Philosophy, Mission House College, Plymouth, Wis 

Baugher, James K , Prin , Wilday and Washington Schls , Roselle, NJ 

Baum, Paul B , La Verne College, LaVerne, Calif . 

Bauman, Frank 0., Minot State Teachers College, Mmot, N D. 

Baumgartner, Reuben A., Senior High School, Freeport, 111 

Baxter, Marlm B , Moline Public Schools, Moline, 111. 

Bay, James C., West Virginia Wesleyan College, Buckhannon, W Va 

Beach, Lowell W , University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Beadles, William T , Dean, Illinois Wesleyan Umv , Bloommgton, III. 

Beahm, W. I , Supv Prin , Donegal Area Joint Sch Sys , Mount Joy, Pa 

Beall, Ross H , Dept of Educ., University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Okla. 

Beamer, George C., North Texas State College, Denton, Tex. 

Bear, David E,, 3226 Brown St , Alton, 111. 

Beard, Richard L , Sch. of Educ., Umv. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N C. 

Beare, Robert S., General Motors Institute, Flrnt, Mich. 

Beattie, Alfred W , Supt., Allegheny County Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Beatty, Dorothy M., Broadview Apts , Baltimore, Md. 

Beatty, Walcott H., 30 Tapia Dr., San Francisco, Calif 

Beauchamp, George A., School of Educ,, Northwestern Umv , Evanston, 111 

Beauchamp, Mary, New York University, New York, N.Y 

Beaubier, Edward W., 2431 Rockinghorse Rd., San Pedro, Calif 

Beaumont, Urville J , Pnn., Tenney High School, Methuen, Mass 

Beaver, Eugene H , Prin , James R. Doolittle School, Chicago, 111. 

Bebb, Aldon M., Kansas State Teachers College, Pittsburg, Kan. 

Bebb, Randall R , Iowa State Tchrs College, Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Bebell, Clifford, School of Educ., University of Denver, Denver, Colo 

Bechtel, Blair B., Moorestown High School, Moorestown, N,J. 

Beck, Alfred D., NYC. Board of Educ., New York City, N Y. 

Beck, Hubert Park, Sch of Educ , City College, New York, N.Y. 

Beck, John M , Chicago Teachers College, Chicago, 111. 

Beck, Norman W , Superintendent, Monroe County Schools, Waterloo, 111. 

Beck, Ralph Lea, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 

Becker, Harry A., Superintendent of Schools, Norwalk, Conn. 

Becker, Millie, 8012 Ellis Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Becker, Philip, Prin , Wm E Grady Vocational High School, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Bedell, Ralph, South Pacific Com , Pentagon Anse Vata, Noumea, New Caledonia 

Beery, Althea, Supv., Elem. Educ., Public Schools, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Beery, John R., Dean, Sch. of Educ., University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. 

Behrens, Herman D., Dept. of Educ., State Teachers College, Oneonta, NT. 

Behrens, Minnie S , Elem. Educ. Dept., East Texas Tchrs. Col., Commerce, Tex. 

Beilin, Harry, 2744 Bedford Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Belcher, Eddie W , Div. of Curric,, Louisville Public Schls., Louisville, Ky. 

Bell, Dorothy M., President, Bradford Junior College, Bradford, Mass. 

Bell, George H., President, Mt. San Antonio College, Walnut, Calif. 

Bell, Keith A , Psych, and Educ. Dept., Cascade College, Portland, Ore 

Bell, Lawrence M , Teachers Col , Drumcondra, Geelong, Victoria, Australia 

Bell, Millard D , Superintendent, School Dist. 39, Wilmette, I1L 

Bell, R. W., Principal, Jenkintown High School, Jenkintown, Pa. 

Bell, Robert M , Prin , Pulaski Elementary School, Chicago, 111. 

Bell, Wilmer V., Acting Dean, Baltimore Junior College, Baltimore, Md. 

Bellack, Arno A , Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Bellenger, Joseph C., West Contra Costa Junior College, Richmond, Calif 

Belhs, Bertha, McMurry Lab. School, State Tchrs. College, DeKalb, HI. 

Beltramo, Louise, Col. of Educ , State Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Bemis, Maynard, Exec Secy , Phi Delta Kappa, Bloomington, lad. 

Bender, Lauretta, Children's Unit, Creedmoor State Hosp., Queens Village, N Y 


Benben, John S , Northern 111. State Tchrs. College, DeKalb, 111. 

Bennett, Robert, Supv Prm , Greene Central School, Greene, N.Y. 

Bentley, Harold, Director, Worcester Junior College, Worcester, Mass. 

Benjamin, Harold R W , George Peabody Col for Tchrs , Nashville, Tenn 

Benz, H. E , Col oJt Educ , Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 

Beran, D L , Col of Educ , Drake Univeisity, Des Monies, Iowa 

Beig, Selmer H , Supeiintendent of Schools, Oakland, Calif. 

Beige, Maivin L , Asst. Superintendent of Schools, Elgin, 111 

Beigesen, B E , 180 Nassau St , Princeton, N J. 

Bergum, Goidon B , 120 Second Avenue S E , Little Falls, Minn, 

Berkson, I B , 39 Claiemont Avenue, New York, N Y. 

Berlin, Pearl W , Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa 

iieimau, bdinuel, l j iin , -b'lizfcjiinonb Junior High School, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Bernard, Alpha E, State Teachers College, Claiion, Pa 

Bernard, Harold W , Poitland State Extension Centei, Portland, Ore. 

Beinaid, James A , Superintendent of Schools, Easthampton, Mass 

Bcmmg, Euunuel if , 972 McLean Ave , St Paul, Minn 

Bembtem, Abbot A , 14-24 Chandler Di , Fair Lawn, N J 

Bernstein, Louis, Pirn , Junior High School 29, Biooklyn, N.Y 

Berson, Mis Philomena M , Asst Pnn , Public School 125, New York, N.Y 

Bertermann, Helen A , Pirn , L M Schiel School, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Berthold, Charles A , Pnn , Clifton High School, Clifton, N J. 

Beitness, Hemy J , 2419-29th Ave South, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Bertrand, John R , Dean, Col. of Agnc , Umv of Nevada, Reno, Nev. 

Best, H R , Supt of Schools, Cranford, N J. 

Bethel, Holhe, Dept, of Educ , Univeisity of Omaha, Omaha, Neb. 

Betts, Emmett A , 830 Chauncey Road, Penn Valley, Narberth, Pa. 

Beuschlem, Muriel, Chicago Teachers College, Chicago, 111. 

Beverly, Mis. Austin C , Pun , Spicei Demonstration School, Akron, Ohio 

Beyer, Fred C , County Supeiintendent of Schools, Modesto, Calif 

Bickel, L G , Dean, Concordia Teachers College, Seward, Neb. 

Bieber, Ida P., 7357 Cornell Ave , University City, Mo 

Bickers, Lynotte S , Atlanta University, Atlanta, Ga 

Bieaiei, Lillian L , Arizona State College, Flagstaff, Ariz 

Bigelow, Karl W., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N Y. 

Bigelow, M A., Prin , JbrankJm and Brookside Schools, Bloomheld, N J. 

Bigelow, Roy G,, Div of Educ. & Psych , Miss Southern Col , Hattiesburg, Miss. 

Biggy, M. Virginia, 227 Independence Drive, Chestnut Hill, Mass 

Bigsbce, Eailo M., Dean, Junior College of Connecticut, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Bilhorn, J. Chester, 3846 North Kedvale Avenue, Chicago, 111 

Billett, Roy , School of Educ , Boston University, Boston, Mass. 

Bilhg, Florence Grace, Col. of Educ., Wayne University, Detroit, Mich. 

Billow, Gerald 0., Kcnton High School, Kenton, Ohio 

Bills, Murk W., Superintendent of Schools, Pcona, 111 

Bilterman, Kathryn S., San Diego State College, San Diego, Calif. 

Binford, (Joorgo II., Principal, Central High School, Charlotte Courthouse, Va. 

Bird, Charles A , 23 Frasor PI , Hastings on Hudson, N Y. 

Birkhimcr, R. 0., Dean, Centraha Twp. Junior College, Centralia, 111 

Birkmaier, Emma, Univ. High School, Umv. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Birmingham, Sister Digna, College of St Scholastica, Duluth, Minn. 

Bishop, C. L , Chm M Dept. of Educ,, State Tchrs College, Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Bishop, Frank E., Dept. of Educ., University of Redlands, Redlands, Calif, 

Bwhop, S. D., Principal* Community High School, West Chicago, 111. 

Bixler, Lorm.Dopt. of Educ., Muskmgum College, New Concord, Ohio 

Bixler, Ray H,, Dept. of Psych., Univ. of Louisville, Louisville, Ky. 

Bjork, A. J,, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, N.D. 

Black, E. H., Superintendent, LaMarque Independent School, LaMarque, Tex. 

Black, H. B,, Pnn., Sfenai Hill School, East St. Louis, III 

Black, Leo P., Asst, Commissioner of Education, Denver, Colo 

Black, Millard H,, Box 294, San Diego, Calif. 

Blackburn, Cleo W., Exec Dir., Flanner House, Indianapolis, Ind. 


Blackburn, Clifford S , Superintendent of Schools, North Little Rock, Aik 

Blaha, M Jay, Curnc Co-ord , Los Angeles County Schools , Los Angeles, Calif 

Blake, Paul C , Superintendent of Schools, Eddyville, Iowa 

Blanks, Augustus C , Jackson College, Jackson, Miss 

Blanton, Roy R , Jr., Appalachian State Tchrs Col , Boone, N C 

Bliesmer, Emery P , Col. of Educ., Umveisity ol Texas, Austin, Tex. 

Bligh, Harold F , Dept of Educ., Hobart College, Geneva, N Y 

Blisard, Thomas J , Newark Col of Engineering, Newark, N J. 

Blodgett, Darrell R., Superintendent of Schools, Wheaton, 111 

Blommers, Paul, Col of Educ , State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Blood, Don F , West. Washington Col. of Education, Bellingham, Wash 

Bloore, J Stephen, Sch. of Educ , New York University, New York, N.Y 

Blyth, Donald J., Principal, Bramard Elementary School, Chicago, 111 

Boardman, Charles W , Col, of Educ., Umv of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn 

Boeck, Clarence H , Col of Educ., Umv. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn 

Boehm, Charles H,, County Supenntendent of Schools, Doylestown. Pa 

Boger, D. L., Asst. Dir. of Personnel, Morehouse College, Atlanta, Ga 

Bogle, Frank P., Supenntendent ol Schools, Momstown, N J. 

Boland, Michael P., St Joseph's College, Philadelphia, Pa 

Bole, Lyman W., Superintendent of Schools, Springfield, Vt 

* Bolton, Frederick E., University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 

Bond, G. W., Louisiana Polytechnic Institute, Ruston, La 

Bond, George W., State Teachers College, New Paltz, N Y 

Bond, Guy L , Col of Educ., Umv of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Bond, Jesse A., Dir., Tchr. Trg., Umv, of California, Los Angeles, Calif 

Bond, Roy B., 821 E Jefferson St , Brownsville, Tenn. 

Bonsall, Marcella Ryser, 137 Warwick PL, South Pasadena, Calif. 

Booker, Ivan A., Div. of Press and Radio Rela , N.E A., Washington, D C 

Bookwalter, Karl W., Sch of Educ , Indiana University, Bloommgton, Ind 

Boos, John R., 4 Grant Ave , Dundas, Ontario, Canada 

Boothroyd, Joseph E , South Junior High School, Waltham, Mass 

Borea, James H, Arlington State College, Ailing Ion, Tex. 

Boros, Arnold L., 396 East 170th St., New York, N Y 

Bossier, Antonia M., 1661 North Roman St , New Oilcans, La. 

Bossing, Nelson L , Col. of Educ., Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Bottrell, Harold R., Col. of Educ., University of Houston, Houston, Tex, 

Bouchard, John B , State Teachers College, Fredonia, N Y. 

Bowen, Hilhard A., Sch. of Educ., Tenn. A. & I. State Univ., Nashville, Tenn 

Bower, Robert K, 2024 E. Washington St,, Pasadena, Calif. 

Bowers, Norman D., Div of Tchr. Educ., San Jose State College, San Jose, Calif. 

Bowersox, Catherine, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 

Bowman, George A , President, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 

Bowyer, Vernon 0., 225 Millbndge Rd , Riverside, 111. 

Boyd, Dick, Superintendent of Schools, Mapleton, Ore. 

Boyd, Elizabeth Marie, 4146 West 63rd St., Los Angeles, Calif 

Boyd, G, R,, Dean, State Teachers College, Troy, Ala. 

Boyd, Laurence E , Sch of Educ., Atlanta University, Atlanta, Ga. 

Boydston, Robert S , West Contra Costa Junior College, Richmond, Calif. 

Bracken, John L., 7530 Maryland Ave , Clayton 5, Mo 

Brackett, Lee, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 

Bradfield, James M., Sacramento State College, Sacramento, Calif 

Bradley, Raymond J , Ohm., Div. of Educ., Macalester College, St Paul, Minn. 

Brady, Elizabeth H., Los Angeles State College, Los Angeles, Calif 

Bragdon, Clifford Richardson, Dept. of Educ., Smith College, Northampton, 


Bragdon, Helen D,, Genl Dir., American Assn. of Univ. Women, Washington, D.C. 
Brandenburg, K C., 110 Pine Avenue, Long Beach, Calif. 
Brandon, Mrs Bertha M., Waco Public Schools, Waco, Tex, 
Brandt, Willard J , University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wis, 
Branom, Frederick K., 10325 Leavitt St , Chicago, 111 
Branom, Wayne T , Superintendent of Schools, Hillside, N.J. 


Brasted, F. Kenneth, Pres , University of Dallas, Dallas, Tex. 

Bratton, J. Wesley, Dean, Long Beach State College, Long Beach, Cahi 

Brechbill, Henry, Dept of Educ , University of Maryland, College Park, Md 

Breen, Lelwyn C., Umv. of California, Santa Barbara College, Goleta, Calif 

Brenholtz, Harold, North Texas State College, Denton, Tex 

Brennan, A. F., Pnn., Regma Regional High School, Corner Brook, Newfoundland 

Brennan, Thomas G , Superintendent, Catholic Schools, Saginaw, Mich. 

Brenner, Anton, Merrill-Palmer School, Detroit, Mich 

Bretz, Frank H., Dir. of Research, U R C A., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Brewer, Karl M , Superintendent of Schools, DuBois, Pa. 

Brewer, Wenonah G , Indiana State Teachers College, Terre Haute, Ind 

Brian, D. Garron, Asst. Dean, Community Col., Drake Univ., Des Moines, Iowa 

Brickman, Benjamin, Dept. of Educ , Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Bnckman, William W , Dept. of Educ., New York University, New York, N.Y. 

Bneland, Donald, Dir, Eliz. McCormick Mem. Fund, 155 E. Ohio St., Chicago, 

Briggs, Charles C., USOM/Libena, State Dept Mailroom, Washington, D,C 

Bright, John H , Chra , Dept of Educ., Whittier College. Whittier, Calif 

Bright, T , Jr t Superintendent of Schools, Lake Bluff, 111 

Bnmley, Ralph F. W , Montreat College, Montreat, N C. 

Brink, William G , School of Educ , Northwestern Umveisity, Evanston, 111 

Briiioi, Robert D , Prm , Anacostia Evening HS., Washington, DC. 

Brinkley, Sterling G M 1197 Emory Dr., N E , Atlanta, Ga. 

Brinkman, A. John, 9929 S Maplewood Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Bnsh, William M,, Superintendent, Washington County Schls., Hagerstown, Md. 

Bnslawn, Maurice J , Prm., Monticello Junior High School, Longview, Wash. 

Bristol, Benton JL, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa. 

Bristow, W. H , Dir t Bur. Cur. Res., NYC Bd of Educ., 130 W. 55 St., New 

York, N.Y. 

Britt, S. S., Jr., Wofford College, Spartanburg, S.C. 
Britton, Edward C., 1429 El Tejon Way, Sacramento, Calif. 
Britton, Ernest R., Superintendent of Schools, Midland, Mich. 
BroeninR, Angela M., Dir. of Publications, Public Schls , Baltimore, Md. 
Brokenshire, John R , San Jose Junior College, San Jose, Calif 
Fronson, Mosos L.. 104 West 70th St., New York, N Y 
Brooker, Jeanne E., Dept of Educ , Mount Mercy College, Pittsburgh, Pa 
Brooks, John J., Dir., Now Lincoln School, New York, N.Y 
Brooks, Mary B , Georgia. State Collrge for Women, Milledgeville, Ga. 
BrostofF, Theodore M. t ITuninirton Park High School, Hunington Park, Calif. 
Brothers, E. Q., Dean, Little Rock Junior College, Little Rock, Ark. 
Brougher, John F,, Prmcipnl, \Voodrow Wilson High School, Washington, D.C 
Brower, George, Eastern Michigan College, Ypsilanti, Mich. 
Brown, Alma J., 0301 West 78th St., Overland Park, Kan, 
Brown, Cynthiana E,, Univ Elem, Schl, Univ. of Calif., Los Angeles, Calif 
Brown, Donald R., Dept of Psych,, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 
Brown, Francis J M 2500 Due St., N.W., Washington, D C 
Brown, G. W. C,, Dir. Evening Col, Virginia State Col, Norfolk, Va, 
Brown, George W M Supt., Rivcrside-Brookfield High School, Riverside, III 
Brown, Gerald W,, Los Angeles State^ College, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Brown, Sister Gertrude Ann. Briar Cliff College, Sioux City. Iowa 
Brown, Grant, Editor-in-Chief, American Book Co., New York. N.Y. 
Brown, Harold N , Sch* nf Educ., University of Nevada, Reno, JSfev. 
Brown, Hugh 8., Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa. 
Brown, I. C M Prm,, Perrm-Th etnas School Columbia, S.C. 
Brown, James N*,, Supt., Archdiocesan Schls , San Francisco, Calif. 
Brown, Josephine H M State Teachers College, Bowie, Md. 
Brown, Kenneth R., Dir. of Research, Calif, Tchra Assn., San Francisco, Calif. 
Brown, Mrs. Marjorie Dowling, Manual Arts High School, Los Angeles, Calif* 
Brown, Milton W,, Superintendent of Schools, West Orange, N J. 
Brown, William H., Dir,, Bur. of Educ. Research, North Carolina Col, Durham, 



Browne, Kenneth A., Dean of Instruction, State Teachers College, Towson, Md 

Browne, Rose Butler, North Carolina College, Durham, N.C. 

Brownell, S M , Superintendent of Schools, Detroit, Mich. 

Brownell, W. A , Dean, cJchl. ol Educ , Univ. of California, Berkeley, Calif. 

Browning, Roy W., Dir., Placement & Stud. Activ., Phillips Univ., Enid, Okla 

Browning, Mrs. Virginia W , Excelsior Springs, Mo 

Biuce, Aldon J., Supt. Ehza Community School, Illinois City, 111 

Bruce, Thor W., Auditor, Bd of Education, St. Louis, Mo 

Bruce, William C., Editor, Bruce Publishing Co., Milwaukee, Wis 

* Bruck, John P , 218 Potteis Corners Road, Buftalo, N Y, 

Brueckner, Leo J., 42 Lorraine Rd., Madison, N J 

Brugger, Jeanne, Guidance Dir, Harcum Junior College, Bryn Mawr, Pa 

Brumbaugh, A J., Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, Ga. 

Brunner, Henry S., Head, Dept. of Agr. Educ., Penn State Univ., University 

Park, Pa. 

Brunner, Howard B., Supv, Principal of Schools, Scotch Plains, N J. 
Brunner, Kenneth, St Petersburg Junior College, St. Petersburg, Fla 
Brunson, Mrs. DeWitt, Ellis Avenue School, Orangeburg, S C. 
Bryan, Ray, Head, Dept of Voc Educ , Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa 
Bryant, Hayden C., Dir., Teacher Educ , Mercer University, Macon, Ga. 
Bryant, Ira B., Prin., Booker T. Washington High School, Houston, Tex 
Bryant, Spurgeon Q., Alabama State College, Montgomery, Ala 
Bryner, James R., Superintendent of Schools, North College Hill, Ohio 
Buchanan, Alfred K., Mulberry St., Pkntsville, Conn. 
Buchanan, James H., Kansas State Teachers College, Empona, Kan 
Buchanan, Paul G., 195 Neponset Ave., Dorchester, Mass 
Buckingham, Guy E. ; Division of Educ , Allegheny College, Meadville, Pa 
Buckley, J L., Superintendent of Schools, Lockhart, Tex. 
Buckner, W. N , Armstrong Tech. High School, Washington, D.C. 
Buda, Mrs. Mary C., Prin , Lafayette High School, Brooklyn, N Y 
Buelke, John A., Western Michigan College, Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Bull, Stanley, 134 W. Whitman Dr., College Place, Wash 
Bullock, Harrison, 354 Quintora St., San Francisco, Calif, 
Bullock, W. J., Superintendent of Schools, Kannapohs, N C, 
Bunch, Marion E., Washington University, St. Louis, Mo 
Bunker, James G., Superintendent, Secondary Schools, Coalmga, Calif, 
Burch, Robert L., Ginn and Company, Boston, Mass. 
Burdick, Richard L., Carroll College, Waukesha, Wis. 
Buidine, D I., Prairie View A. & M College, Prairie View, Tex. 
Burg, Ruth M., 502 Walnut St., Allentown, Pa. 
Burgdorf, Otto P., 40-20 77th St, Elmhurst, N.Y. 
Burgess, James R , Jr., President, Reinhardt College, Waleska, Ga. 
Burgess, Thomas C., Dept. of Psych , Montana State Univ., Missoula, Mont, 
Burk, R. Burdett, Long Beach State College, Long Beach, Calif. 
Burke, Arvid J., New York State Teachers Assn , Albany, N.Y. 
Burke, Gladys, 244 Outlook Ave., Younsstown, Ohio 
Burke, Henry R., 1605 Lemoine Ave. ; Fort Lee, N J. 
Burke, Louis, 6391A Prince of Wales Ave., Montreal, Quebec, Canada 
Burke, Mother Margaret, Pres., Barat Col. of the Sacred Heart, Lake Forest 111 
Burke, Thomas S., 6926 S Wolcott Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Burkhardt, Allen P , President, Norfolk Junior College, Norfolk, Neb* 
Burlmgame, Anna Louise 7148 Jeffrey Ave., Chicago, 111 
Burnett, Lewie W., Col of Educ., University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 
Burnham, Archer L., Nebraska State Teachers Assn., Lincoln, Neb. 
Burnham, Reba, Col. of Educ , University of Georgia, Athens, Ga, 
Burns, Robert L., 1063 Palisade Ave., Palisade, N J, 
Buros, Francis C., Asst. Superintendent of Schools, White Plains, N.Y. 
Burr, Elbert W., Monsanto Chemical Co., 1700 So. Second St., St. Louis Mo 
Burrell, Anna P., State College for Teachers, Buffalo, N.Y 
Burrows, Alvina Treut, 117 Nassau Ave., Manhasset, N.Y 
Burt, Lucile, Principal, Lincoln School, Fond du Lac, Wis. 


Burton, Floyd H , Superintendent of Schools, Humble, Tex, 

Burton, William H , 3512 Willamette Ave., Corvallis, Ore. 

Bush, Clifford L , Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 

Bussey, C. C , Dir., Sinclair College, Dayton, Ohio 

Bussell, Lyell, Prin , Stevenson Elementary School, Muncie, Ind. 

Buswell, G. T , School of Educ , University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 

Buswell, Margaret M., Iowa State Teachers College, Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Butler, Judson R., Dean, Boston Univ. Col. of Gen Education, Boston, Mass. 

Butler, Warren N., Superintendent of Schools, Metuchen, N.J. 

Butorac, Frank G., 700 So. State St., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Butterweck, Joseph S., Dir., Div. of Sec. Educ , Temple Umv , Philadelphia, Pa. 

Butts, Franklin A , Principal, Clinton School, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. 

Butts, R Freeman, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Buyse, R., School of Educ , University of Louvain, Tournai, Belgium 

Byerly, Carl L , Act Superintendent of Schools, Clayton, Mo. 

Byham, S H., Highland Junior College, Highland, Kan. 

Byiam, Haiold M , Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich 

Byrne, James A , Div of Adult Educ , Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Byrne, Richard Hill, Col. of Educ., University of Maryland, College Park, Md. 

Caccavo, Emil, 8 Edwards St , Roslyn Heights, N Y 

Caird, Mrs. Florence B , Principal, Joyce Kilmer School, Chicago, 111. 

Caldwell, Jessie E , 113 N. 22nd St., La Crosse, Wis 

Caldwell, 0. K., Pnn., Fostona High School, Fostona, Ohio 

Calhoon, A. Ray, Pnncipal, Utica Free Academy, Utica, N.Y, 

Callan, John H , Ferris Institute, Big Rapids, Mich. 

Callaway, Byron, Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Ala. 

Calvin, James S., Head, Dept of Psych., Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky 

Cambron, Emmett F , North Texas State College, Denton, Tex. 

Cameron, Walter C., Principal, Lincoln Junior High School, Framingham, Mass 

Campbell, R. F., College of Educ., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

Cannon, W. E., School of Educ., Umv. of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Canuteson, Richard, State Teachers College, Brockport, N.Y. 

Capehart, Bertis E , Educ. Dept., Hill <fe Knowlton, Inc., New York, N.Y. 

Capobianco, R J., Dir. Research in Spec Educ , Syracuse Umv. Syracuse, N.Y. 

Cappa, Dan, Los Angeles State College, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Capps, Mrs. Marian P., State A. <fe M. College, Orangeburg, S.C. 

Carbaugh, Gaile A , Dir., Holcomb Campus Sch., Teachers Colelge, Geneseo, N.Y. 

Cardwell, Robert H., Pnn., Park Junior High School, Knoxville, Tenn. 

Carey, Justin P,, 110 Echo Ave , New Rochelle, N.Y. 

Carlson, C. E., Superintendent of Schools, Ramsay, Mich. 

Carlson, Mrs. Evelyn F,, Superintendent, Dist. 13, Pub Schls , Chicago, I1L 

Carlson, Ruth Kearney, 1718 LoRoy Ave., Berkeley, Calif 

Carlson, Stanley C., 821 N. Hagadorn Road, East Lansing, Mich. 

Carlson, Thorsten R., Prin., Lab. Sch., San Diego State Col, San Diego, Cahf . 

Carmichael, Omer, Superintendent of Schools, Louisville, Ky. 

Carnes, Earl F , University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Carpenter, Aaron C M Alcorn A. <fe M, College, Lorman, Miss* 

Carpenter, Robert H., Dean of Faculty, New Trier Twp. H S., Wmnetka, 111 

Carpenter, W. W., Dept. of Educ., University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

Carper, M L , Superintendent of Schools, Martinsville, Va. 

Carr, Edwin R., Col. of Educ., University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo 

Carr, John W., Jr., Sch. of Educ., Duke University; Durham, N,C. 

Carrithers, Lura M., University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Carroll, John B., Grad. Sch. of Educ., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Carroll, John S., Educ. Dir,, Great Commonwealth Fdn , Lubbock, Tex. 

Carson, Arthur L, United Bd. for Christian Educ., 150 Fifth Ave., New York, 


Carson, Robert S., New York Hospital, Wostchester Div., White Plains, N.Y. 
Carstater, Eugene D., Rte. 1, Falls Church, Va. 
Carter, Harold D., Son. of Educ,, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 


Carter, Richard C,, Elem. Prin., Public Schools, Fairbanks, Alaska 

Carter, R. L., Head, Dept of Educ., Stetson University, De Land, Fla. 

Carter, Ruby, Dir. of Child Study, Harlan, Ky 

Carter, William L,, Tchrs. Col , University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Carter, W R., Dept. of Educ., University oi Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

Casale, Mary R., 1555 Mohawk St.,Utica, N.Y. 

Casenas, Lourdes Maria, Box 267, Rogers Center, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, 


Caskey, Helen C., Tchrs. Col., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 
Cassidy, Rosalind, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif 
Caswell, Eollis L., President, Teachers College, Columbia Univ., New York, N.Y 
Caton, W. Barnie, Superintendent of Schools, Alamogordo, N M. 
Caughran, Alex M., University of Maine, Oiono, Me 

Caulfield, Patrick J., Chm., Dept. of Educ., St. Peter's Col, Jersey City, NJ. 
Cavan, Jordan, Dept of Education, Rockford College, Rockioid, 111 
Cave, L. M. E., 28 Fairfield Rd , Eawera, New Zealand 
Cawthon, John A., Louisiana Polytechnic Inst , Ruston, La. 
Cayco, Florentine, President, Arellano University, Manila, Philippines 
Cayne, Bernard S., 11 Wildwood St., Winchester, Mass. 
Center, Aaron M , 922 Queen Ave , North, Minneapolis, Mum. 
Centi, Paul J., 68 Tehama St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Centuori, Carmine, 2116 Central Ave., Yonkers, N.Y. 
Chadderdon, Hester, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa 
ChaB, Jeanne, 218 East 12th St., New York, N Y. 
Chalmers, James F , Principal, High School, Perth Amboy, N J. 
Chaltas, John George, 106 Mormngside Dr., New York, N.Y. 
Chamberlin, R. G., Principal, Rufus King High School, Milwaukee, Wis 
Chambers, W. Max, President, Central State College, Edmond, Okla. 
Champlm, George R , Supt., Windham Schools, Wilhmantic, Conn. 
Chandler, H. E., Dept. of Educ , University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan 
Chandler, J. R., East Central State College, Ada, Okla. 
Chang, Jen-chi, Claflin College, Orangeburg, S C 
Chao, Sankey C., Claflin College, Orangeburg, S C 
Chapman, Catherine, Weatherford College, Weatherford, Tex. 
Chappell, S. G., Superintendent of Schools, Wilson, N.C 
Charles, Victor, President, Lamar Junior College, Lamar, Colo. 
Charles, William L., Principal, Southside School, Jacksonville, Fla, 
Charnock, Leonard W H , Eureka College, Eureka, 111. 
Charry, Lawrence, 5746 N. Camac St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Charters, Alexander N., University College, Syracuse Univ., Syracuse, N.Y. 
Chase, Francis S., Dept. of Educ., University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 
Chase, W. Linwood, Sch. of Educ., Boston University, Boston, Mass. 
Chauncey, Marlin R , Oklahoma Agnc. and Mech. College, Stillwater, Okla. 
Cheek, N. A , Principal, W. G Pearson Elementary School, Durham, N.C. 
Cheeks, L. E., 213 McFarland St., Kerrville, Tex. 
Chenault, R. N,, Principal, Warner School, Nashville, Tenn. 
Cherry, J. H., Asst. Supt, Johet Township H. S. & Jr. Col., Joliet, 111. 
Cherry, Ralph W., Sch. of Educ., Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesvillc, Va. 
Chidester, Albert J., Head, Education Dept., Berea College, Berea, Ky. 
Chievitz, Gene L., Box 127, University P.O. Sta., Albuquerque, N.M. 
Childress, Jack R., Dir , Umv Col , Northwestern University, Chicago, III. 
Ching, J. Frederic, Superintendent of Schools, Salinas, Calif. 
Cbipman, R. S., Superintendent of Schools, Coalville, Utah 
Choate, Ernest A., Principal, Roosevelt Jr. High School, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Christensen, Arnold M., Long Beach State Col., Long Beach, Calif. 
Christman, Paul S., Superintendent of Schools, Schuylkill Haven, Pa. 
Chudler, Albert A,, 11422 Washington PI , Los Angolcs, Calif. 
Chun, Dai Ho, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 
Churchill, Ray L., PnncipaL Harrison Elementary School, Cedar Rapids, Iowa 
Chute, Oscar M., 1606 Cotfax Ave., Evanston, 111. 
CMc, Peter, Loyola Univ. of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, Calif . 


Cinotto, Fred, Dean, Independence Community College. Independence, Kan. 

Cioffii, Joseph M., 123 Palisade Ave , Garfield, N J 

Clara Francis, Sister, Nazaieth College, Louisville, Ky. 

Clark, Catherine, Middle Tennessee State College, Murfreesboro, Tenn 

Clark, Elmer J , Indiana State Teachers College, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Clark, Mrs Esmer Knudson, 2274 Cedar St., Berkeley, Calif. 

Clark, F. B., Dist Superintendent oi Schools, Athens, N Y 

Clark, Francis E , St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minn 

Clark, John F , Superintendent of Schools, Dist 45, Villa Park, 111. 

Clark, Max R , Superintendent of Schools, Dubuque, Iowa 

Clark, Stephen C., Dept. oi Psych., Los Angeles State College, Los Angeles, 


Clark, Woodiow Wilson, Box 1, University, Miss. 
Clarke, L. Katherme, Prm., Merarnec School, Clayton, Mo. 
Clarke, Stanley C. T., University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alba. 
Claxton, Clarence C , Prm , Stemmetz High School, Chicago, 111. 
Clayton, Thomas E , 7 Kelly Dr., Manilus, N.Y. 

Cleland, Donald L , School of Educ , University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Cleveland, E D , Superintendent of Schools, Palestine, Tex 
Clewell, Geraldine, Dept. of H.E., State Umv, of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 
Clifford, Paul I , Sch. oi Educ., Atlanta University, Atlanta, Ga. 
Clifton, L L , Dean, Oklahoma City University, Oklahoma City, Okla 
Clodfelter, C. E,, 1715 Belmead Lane, Irving, Tex. 
Cloues, Paul, Submaster, Harvard School, Charlestown, Mass. 
Clouthier, Raymond P., Dept of Educ., Lewis College, Lockport, 111. 
Clugston, Herbert A., Dean, State Teachers College, St. Cloud, Minn. 
Clymer, T. W , Col. of Educ , University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Cobb, J. E., Indiana State Tchrs, College, Terre Haute, Ind. 
Cochran, J. Chester, Dept. of Educ., Univ. of Houston, Houston, Tex 
Codwell, John E , Principal, Philhs Wheatley High School, Houston, Tex 
Cody, Martha Ballard, Col. of Educ , University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 
Coetzee, J Christian, University College, Pot chef stroom, South Africa 
Cofell, William L , St John's University, Collegeville, Minn 
Coffey, Hubeit S , Psych. Dept , University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 
Coffey, Samuel J., Principal, Fairfax High School, Fairfax, Va. 
Cofield, Mrs. Elizabeth Bias, Shaw University, Raleigh, N.C. 
Cohen, George, 1450 Jcsup Ave., New York, N.Y. 
Cohen, Saris, 825 West End Ave., New York, N.Y, 
Cohen, Victor, 256 Federal St., Greenfield, Mass. 
Cohler, Milton J,, Pnn M Sullivan High School, Chicago, 111. 
Colbath, Edwin H., 101-40 117th Si, Richmond Hill, N.Y. 
Colburn, A. B., Vice-Prin , Everett Senior High School, Everett, Wash. 
Cole, Glenn A., Dept. of Educ., University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark. 
Cole, Mary I., Western Kentucky State College, Bowling Green, Ky. 
Coleman, F. Basil, 435 W. 119th St., New York, N.Y. 
Coleman, Mary Elizabeth, Dept. of Educ., Univ. of Penn., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Collings, Miller R., Wayne University, Detroit, Mich. 
Collins, Carrie Lee, Radford College, Radford, Va. 
Collins, Ralph C,, 177 Harvey St, Eugene, Ore. 

Conaway, Mrs. Freda Y., Dir M Elera. Educ., State CoL, West Liberty, W.Va. 
Conaway, Mrs. Winifred V., Bowling Green State Univ., Bowling Green, Ohio 
Conchessa, Sister, College of St. Benedict, St Joseph, Minn. 
Condit, Harold L., Dean, Student Personnel, Graceland CoL, Lamoni, Iowa 
Condon, Jean F., 23 Roosevelt Rd , Weymouth, Mass. 
Conley, William H , Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Connelly, George W., 6201 S. Richmond St., Chicago, 111. 
Connor, Frances P., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 
Conway, Marie M., 4925 Saul St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Cook, Frances R., 2212 Eye St., N.W., Washington, B.C. 
Cook, Raymond M., Dean, Chicago Teachers College, Chicago, 111. 
Cook, Ruth Cathlyn, Supv. Lab* Sch., State Teachers College, Mankato, Minn. 


Cook, Walter W.. Col. of IJduc., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Coon, Beulah I., U. 8. Office of Education, Washington, B.C. 

Coon, W. Edwin, Prin., Academy High School, Erie, Pa. 

Cooper, Bermce, Peabody Hall, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 

Cooper, George H., 2913 Washington Blvd., Chicago, I1L 

Cooper, James W., Principal, High School, Pleasantville, Iowa 

Cooper, J, Louis, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn. 

Cooper, Lewis B., Texas Technological College, Lubbock, Tex. 

Cooper, Shirley, American Assn. oi School Administrators, Washington, D.C. 

Cooper, William H , Col. of Educ., Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 

Corbally, John E , Dept. of Educ., University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 

Corbally, John E,, Jr , Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

Corcoran, Mary, 211 Burton Hall, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn 

Corey, Stephen M., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Cornell, Francis G., 551 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 

Cornish, Dale, 5770 Dudley St., Arvada, Colo. 

Corngan, A. B., Sch of Educ., Gonzaga University, Spokane, Wash. 

Cory, N. Durward, Superintendent of Schools, Muncie, Ind. 

Cossa, John A., Dean, Dept. of Educ., Manhattan College, New York, N Y 

Coster, J. K , Div. of Educ., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind 

Cotter, Katharine C , Dept. of Educ , Boston College, Osterville, Mass 

Coulson, John R., Principal, Parkside School, Chicago, 111. 

Courter, Claude V M Superintendent of Schools, Cincinnati, Ohio 

* Courtis, S. A., 9110 Dwight Ave , Detroit, Mich. 

Cousins, E. H., 8 Upper Sandrmgham Ave., Jamaica, British West Indies 

Cowan, William A., San Francisco State College, San Francisco, Calif 

Cowley, W. H., Cubberley Hall, Stanford University, Stanford, Calii. 

Cox, David R., Dean of Men, Carbon College, Price, Utah 

Cox, Edith Clare, 117 Central Ave., Shelby, Mont. 

Cox, Edwin A., Superintendent of Schools, Stratford, Conn. 

Cox, Johnnye V , University of Georgia, Athens, Ga 

Cox, Muriel M., Dir , Chamberlain Sch of Retailing, Boston, Mass 

Cozine, June, Head, H. E. Educ., Oklahoma A. & M Col., Stillwater, Okla. 

Crackel, Verne E , Superintendent, Will County Schools, Johet, III 

*Craig, Gerald S., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Craig, James C., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Craig, Robert C., Amer. Inst. for Research, 410 Amberson Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa 

Cramer, Beatrice E., Post Road Junior High School, White Plains, N.Y. 

Crawford, J R. } Sch. of Educ., University of Maine, Orono, Me. 

Crawford, Robert T., 713 Maple Ave., Rockville, Md. 

Crawford, T. James, Sch of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

Crawshaw, Clyde, Superintendent of Schools, Marseilles, HI 

Crescimbeni, Joseph, State Teachers College, New Paltz, N.Y. 

Creswell, Mrs Rowena C , Prm., A & M Cons. Elem. Sch., College Station, Tex. 

Crews, Roy L., Aurora College, Aurora, 111 

Crocker, Richard F., Jr., Superintendent of Schools, Caribou, Me. 

Crockett, R. D., Alabama State College, Montgomery, Ala. 

Crook, Robert B., Dept. of Educ,, Queens College, Flushing, N.Y. 

Cross, C. Willard, Superintendent of Schools, Faribault, Minn. 

Cross, Charles H., Dir., Umv Trg Sch., Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark. 

Crossley, John B., Dist. Supt. Ventura Union HJ3., Ventura, Calif. 

Crosson, Robert Henry, 226 East Sixth St , Pittsburp;, Calif. 

Crow, A. L., Superintendent of Schools, Kirkwood, Mo. 

Crow, Lester D , Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Crowe, James W., Dir., Chicago Vocational High School, Chicago, 111. 

Crowlie, Mrs Leone B., 215 W. Minnehaha Parkway, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Crull, Howard D., Superintendent of Schools, Port Huron, Mich. 

Crum, Clyde E., Div. of Educ., San Diego State College, San Diego, Calif, 

Crumb, Frederick W., President, Potsdam State Teachers Col, Potsdam, N.Y. 

Crunden, Mrs. Marjorie Morse, 30 Porter Place, Montclair, N J. 

Crutchley, Susan Delano, P.O. Box 1014, Southampton, LI., N.Y. 


Crutsinger, George M , Howard Payne College, Brownwood, Tex. 

Cruz, Emilio Ramos, Diieccion de Educacion Federal, Mexicah, Bajo California, 


Culmer, Mabel, Reading Clinic, Indiana University, Bloomington. Ind. 
Culver, Wallace W , 4816 69th PI , Hyattsville, Md. 
Cumbee, Carroll F , Col of Educ , Umversty of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 
Cummings, Matthew G., 131 Kensington Ave., Jersey City, N J. 
Cunhffe, R. B , Sch of Educ , Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N J. 
Cunningham, Daniel F , Superintendent of Catholic Schools, Chicago, 111. 
Cunningham, Harry A., Dept of Biol , Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 
Cunningham, J., Cossitt Library, Memphis, Tenn. 

Cunningham, Myron, Col of Educ , University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla 
Cunningham, W F , University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind 
Curry, Guy A., Assoc, Dir , Aik Experiment in Tchr Educ , Little Rock, Ark 
Curtm, James R , Col. of Educ , University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn 
Curtin, James T., Supt., Diocesan High Schools, 4371 Lmdell Blvd, St. Louis, 


Curtin, Wylma R , 1908 Erie St., Hyattsville, Md. 
Curtis, E Louise, Macalester College, St Paul, Minn 
Cuitis, H A., Florida State University, Tallahassee, Fla 
Curtis, James E , San Jose State College, San Jose, Calif 
Cutts, Warren G,, Jr , Dept of Educ , Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 

Dabney, Lillian G, Dir., Stud. Tchg,, Coppin State Tchrs Col,, Washington, 


Dahnke, Harold L,, Box 257, Okemos, Mich 

Dale, Aibie Myron, Sch of Commerce, New York Univ., New York, N Y. 
Dale, Edgar, Col of Edur , Ohm State University, Columbus, Ohio 
Dalton, J. E , Nebraska State Tchrs College, Chadron, Neb. 
Dallmann, Martha, Dept of Educ , Ohio Weslevan University, Delaware, Ohio 
Dameron, Vernon, Dir. of Educ., Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn, Mich 
Daniel, George T., 123 N. Wilbur St , Walla Walla, Wash. 
Daniel, J McT., University of South Carolina, Columbia, S C. 
Daniel, Theodora H , 127 Circular St,, Saratoga Springs, NY. 
Daniels, Paul R., 100 Maple Ave,, North Hills, Pa. 
Darcy, Natalie T., Dept. of Educ., Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Darnall, James D M Superintendent of Schools, Geneseo, 111, 
Darnell, Myra C,, 207 West 37th St , Vancouver, Wash. 
Darnell, Robert E., Frank Phillips College, Borger, Tex. 
Darroch, Frank W , 27 Pnnceion Rd., Toronto, Ontario, Canada 
Davenport, William R , Col of Educ., Butler University, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Davidson, Mrs. Evelyn K., Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 
Davidson, Lewis, Prm., Knox College, Spaldings, Jamaica, B.WI 
Davies, Daniel R , Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 
DaviVs, J Leonard, East Hall, State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 
Davies, Mrs, Lillian S., Curric. Consult., Rich Twp. High Sch., Park Forest, 111 
Davis, Alice M , Sch. of Educ., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, Mich. 
Davis, Alon&o J , Dean, Sch. of Educ , Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Ala. 
Davis, Charles H., Superintendent of Schools, Pueblo, Colo. 
Davis, Courtland V., R. D. No. 1, Box 380, Metuchen, N J. 
Davis, David 0., 556 Sanborn, Wmona, Minn. 
Davis, Dwight M,, Dean, MoJine Community College, Moline, HI. 
Davis, Floyd A., Supt. of Schools, Knoxville, Iowa 
Davis, Guy C., Dean, Dodgo City College, Dodge City, Kan. 
Davis, H. Curtis, Asst. Bupt M Unified School District, San Jose, Calif. 
Davis, Ira C., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis 
Davis, James M., Dir, International Center, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 


Davis, J. Pinckney, Prin., Haut Gap High Sch., John's Island, Charleston, S.C. 
Davis, Joseph H., Normandy Junior High School, University City, Mo. 
Davis, Mack P., Dir., Sch. of Educ,, East. Tenn, State Col., Johnson City, Tenn 


Davis, Milton J , Principal, Gurnee Grade School, Gurnee, 111 
Davis, Paul F., Prin., Manatee County High School, Bradenton, Fla. 
Davis, Warren C .Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, N.Y. 
Dawson, Dan T , Dept. of Educ., Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 
Dawson, W, Read, Sch. of Educ., Baylor University, Waco, Texas 
Day, James F., Dept. of Educ,, Texas Western College, El Paso, Tex 
Deardorff, Ray E., Exec. Head, Ottawa Hills High School, Toledo, Ohio 
DeBernardis, Amo, Supv., Audio-visual Educ., Public Schools, Portland, Ore. 
Debin, Louis, Junior High School, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
DeBoer, John J , Col of Educ , University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 
DeBros, Alice Mane, St John's University, Brooklyn, N Y. 
Debus, Raymond L., 666 Malabar Rd , Maroubia, N S.W., Australia 
DeCamp, Mrs. Hazel N , Essex County Voc. & Tech High School, Bloomfield, 


Decker, Fred J,, Admin Asst , N Y. State Tchrs Retirement Sys., Albany, N.Y 
Deer, George H , Col. of Educ , Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, La. 
DeHaven, Sula M , Junior High School, Martmsburg, W.Va. 
DeJung, John E., 121 College PL, Syracuse, N.Y 
DeKock, Henry C., Col. of Educ,, State Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 
DeKoker, Mary, Bur of Child Studv, Board of Educ , Chicago, III. 
DeLong, Arthur R., University of Delaware, Newark, Del. 
DeMand, J W., Dept of Educ., Kansas State College, Manhattan, Kan. 
Denecke, Marie G , University of Maryland, College Park, Md, 
Denmston, A Bruce, Superintendent of Schools, Altoona, Pa 
DePoister, W Marshon, Dean, William Woods College, Fulton, Mo 
Derby, Orlo L , State University Teachers College, Brockport, N Y 
DeShazo, Willard, 6117 Brookside Dr, Alexandria, Va 
Deutschman, Mis. Marilyn L , 41-06 Denman St , Elmhuist, Queens, N.Y. 
Devine, Thomas F , College of Our Lady of the Elms, Chicopee, Mass. 
Devor, J, W , 6309 E Halbert Rd , Bethcsda, Md. 
DeVoss, James C. Deceased. 

Dewine, Henry A., United Theological Semmaiy, Dayton, Ohio 
Deyell, J. Douglas, Master, Provincial Tchrs. Col., North Bay, Ontario 
DeYoung, Chris A , Illinois State Normal University, Normal, 111. 
D'Heurle, Adma, 5727 Dorchester Ave , Chicago, 111. 

Dickerson, James L,, Prm , University Demonstration School, Athens, Ga, 
*Diedench, A F., 922 South Detroit St , Los Angeles, Calif. 
Diekhoff, John S , 13670 Cedar Rd., University Heights, Ohio 
Dierkes, Helen M , Box 40, River Forest, 111. 
Dieterle, Louise E , 10700 S Avenue F, Chicago, 111. 
Diffley, Jerome, 133 Howard Hall, Notre Dame, Ind. 
DiGiacinto, Rose D,, 68 Pilgrim Ave., Yonkers, N.Y. 
DiLeonarde, Joseph H., Principal, Hendricks School, Chicago, 111. 
Dilley, Norman E , Col of Educ Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 
Dillmger, Claude, Illinois State Normal University, Normal, 111. 
Dillon, Frances H., State Teachers College, Moorhead, Minn. 
Dimberg, David J., Dir., Audio-visual Educ., Public Schools, Shorewood, Wis. 
Dimond, Stanley E , University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich 
Di Napoli, Peter J., Principal, Public School 90, New York, N.Y. 
Dingus, Lona G., H.O.W. Staff Quarters 20, Kingsport, Tenn. 
Dittmer, Daniel G., Research Psychol.. United States Air Force, Alexandria, Va. 
Dixon, James T , 5329 North Wayne Ave,, Chicago, 111 
Dixon, W. Robert, School of Educ., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Doane, Kenneth R , Head, Educ. Dept. Hamlino University, St. Paul, Minn. 
Dobbs, Louis H , Dir., Evening Col., Midwestern Univ., Wichita Falls, Tex. 
Dobriansky, Lev E , Georgetown University, Washington, D C. 
Dodds, J. H., 1630 Alabama Dr., Urbana, 111 

Doele, Helen R., New Jersey State Tchrs College, Jersey City, NX 
Dolan, Francis, Superintendent, LaSalle-Peru Twp, High School. LaSalle. Ill, 
Dolch, E. W., Col of Educ., University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 
Domian, 0. E., 125 S.B Warwick, Minneapolis, Minn, 


Dominick, Leo H., Superintendent of Schools, International Falls, Minn, 
Dommy, Mrs. Mildred, Educ. Div., State Univ. Tchrs. College, Plattsburgh, 

Donchian, Peter, 260 Moross Ed., Grosse Pomte Farms 36, Michigan 

Donley, Donald T , New York State College for Teachers, Albany, N.Y. 

Donner, Arvm N , Dir., Col of Educ , Umv of Houston, Houston, Tex. 

Donohue, Francis J., Pres , St. Mary of the Plains College, Dodge City, Kan. 

Donovan, Charles F , Dean, Sch of Educ., Boston Col., Chestnut Hill, Mass. 

Doolittle, Nettie-Alice, University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

Dorsmville, Fritz, 1184 River Road Dorm , Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio 

Doster, Osie, Dorsey High School, Miami, Fla. 

Doten, George W. } 305 Faculty Court, Canton, N.Y. 

Dotson, John A., Dean, Col of Educ., University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 

Douglas, Lillian N , 919 Hillary St., New Orleans, La 

Douglass, H R , Dir., Col of Educ , University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 

Douglass, Malcolm P., Claremont Graduate School, Claremont, Calif. 

Dowlmg, Thomas I , Supt , Greenwood City Schools, Greenwood, S C. 

Doxtator, Robert J , University of New Hampshire, Durhan, N.H. 

Doyle, Andrew McCormick, Chm., Dept. of Educ , St Vincent Coll., Latrobe, Pa 

Drag, Francis L , Asst. Supt. of Schls , San Diego, Calif. 

Dragositz, Anna, 39-80 52nd St , Woodside, L I., N.Y. 

Drake, Richard M., University of Kansas City, Kansas City, Mo. 

Dramer, Daniel S., 101 Rockland Gardens, Nyack, N.Y. 

Dransfield, J. Edgar, Deerhaven Road, Oakland, N J. 

Draper, Edgar M., Dept. of Educ , Umv, of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 

Drees, Frank J., Department of Public Instr., Honolulu, Hawaii 

Dreier, William H , Dept. of Educ , Iowa State Teachers Col , Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Dreikurs, Rudolf, 6 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Dressel, Paul L., Bd of Examiners, Mich State Univ., East Lansing, MicL 

Dnggs, Don F., Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Ala. 

Drobka, Frank J , Dept, of Educ , Catholic Umv. of America, Washington, D.C, 

Drummond, Harold D., George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. 

Duce, Hugh M., 2460 Lyon St., San Francisco, Calif. 

Duffey, Robert V., 611 Sheffield Dr., Springfield, Pa. 

DuFour, Stuart, President, Harnell College, Salinas, Calif. 

Dumler, Marvin J., Head, Dept of Educ , Bethany College, Lindsborg, Kan. 

Dunathan, Homer, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 

Duncan, Ncal, Principal, Hyde Park High School, Chicago, 111. 

Dunham, Ralph E., 7700 Colesville Rd, West Hyattsville, Md. 

Dumgan, David R,, College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Mass 

Dunkel, Harold B., Dept. of Education, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111 

Dunkle, Maurice Albert, Supt., Calvert County Schools, Prince Frederick, Md. 

Dunlap, E. T., Pres , Eastern Okla. A. & M. College, Wilburton, Okla. 

Dunlop, G. M., Chm., Div, of Educ. Psych., Umv. of Alberta, Edmonton, 


Dunsmore, Philo C., 121 Southard, Toledo, Ohio 
Dupee, C, W., State Teachers College, East Stroudsburg, Pa. 
Durant, Adrian J., Jr., State Department of Education, Jefferson. City, Mo. 
Durante, Spencer E., Principal, Carver High School, Mount Olive, N.C. 
Durflmger, Glenn W,, Santa Barbara College, Santa Barbara, Calif. 
Durost, Walter, Dir., Test Service and Advisement Center, Dunbarton, N H. 
Durr, William K., Col of Educ., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, Mich. 
Durrell, Donald D., Srh, of Educ,, Boston University, Boston, Mass. 
Duvall, W. C., Norfolk County Public Schools, Portsmouth, Va, 
Dwyer, Roy E , 120 N.W. 9th St,, Gainesville, Fla, 

Dyde, W. F., Vice-Pres. and Dean of Fac., Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 
Dyer, Frank E., Delano Jt. Union High School, Delano, Calif. 
Dykes, Mrs. Alma, 1418 East St., Eeading, Ohio 

Bads, Laura K., 141 Joralemoa St,, Brooklyn. NT. 

Bady, William Veraon, North Texas State College, Denton, Tex. 


Early, Margaret J., Sch. of Educ., Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y. 

Early, William A., 208 Bull St , Savannah, Ga 

Eash, Maurice J,, 3527 Washington St., Gary, Ind. 

Eason, Leo A , Dept. of Educ., Washington University, St Louis, Mo, 

Eastburn, L A , President, Arizona State College, Flagstaff, Ariz. 

Easterly, Rev. Frederick J., Dean, Tchrs. Col., St John's Univ., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Ebel, Robert L,, Dir., Umv Exam. Serv., State Umv of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Eberle, August William, Sch of Educ , Indiana University, Bloommgton, Ind 

Eberman, Paul W , Sch. of Educ , Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Echols, J. W., Dept. of Educ , Prairie View A. <fe M. Col, Prairie View, Tex 

Eckert, Ruth E , Col of Educ , Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn 

Eckhardt, John W., 2914 Sunset Avc., Bakcrsfield, Calif. 

EcklesJEL R., Principal, Robert E. Lee School, Richmond, Va. 

Eddy, Theo. V., Superintendent of Schools, St. Clair, Mich. 

Edgar, Brother Julius, F.S C , Dean of Studies, St, Mary's Col , Wmona, Minn. 

Edgar, Robert W., Queens College, Flushing, N.Y. 

Edgerton, D. R., Superintendent, Sch. Dist. 110, Overland Park, Iian. 

Edick, Helen M., Hartford Seminary Foundation, Hartford, Conn. 

Edie, John W., Principal, Gundlach School, St Louis, Mo 

Edmiston, R. W , Dir. of Extension, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 

Edson, William EL Col. of Educ,, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn, 

Edualmo, Emilio, Philippine Normal College, Manila, Philippines 

Edwards, Arthur U., Eastern Illinois State College, Charleston, 111. 

Edwards, G. N, Inspector of Schools, Stratford, Ont, 

Edwards, Marcia, Col of Educ , University of MmncHila, MinnwipoIK Minn. 

Edwards, Nathan A., Educ., Div , State Teachers College, Munkato, Minn. 

Edwards, T Bentley, Sch of Educ M Fnuersily of California, Mt'rkHcv, Calif 

Edwards, William B , Superintendent of School}*, Lakewoexi, Ohio 

Egan, Rev. Bro John M , lonn College, New Kochelle, X.Y, 

Egdorf, M. F., Supenntendcnt of Schools, Garden City, N.Y. 

Ehlers, Henry J, Duluth Branch, Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, Minn. 

Ehrenfeld, A., 50 West Ninety-sixth Street, New York, N Y. 

Ehrlich, Emanuel, 622 East Twentieth St., New York, N.Y. 

Emolf, W. L , Birchrunville, Pa. 

Eisen, Agnes, Dept. of Educ,, Ohio Uuiverhity, Athenn, Ohio 

Eisenbise, Merlin E., Dir, Citrus Junior College, Assum, Calif. 

Eiserer, Paul E,, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Ekstrom, Lena, Elem. Supv,, Public Schools, Buchanan", Mieh 

Elder, Ruth E,, Dept of Elem. Educ , TTniv. of Oklahoma* Norman, Okla. 

Ellenberg, Joseph, Yeshiva University, New York, N.Y, 

Ellerbrook, Louis William, Stephen P. Auatin State OoL, NfafOgtlorliw, Tex. 

Elhngson, Mark, Rochester Institute of Technology > Km'hwfar, N\Y, 

Elliott, Arthur B, President, Lyndon Teachers C'olleg<\ Lyndon Center, Vt, 

Elliott, Lloyd H , Stone Hall, Cornell Univ., Ithawi, N.Y, 

Ellis, Ceha Diamond, 6362 W. 6th St., LOH Angclon, Oiilif. 

Ellis, Frederick E,, University of Minnesota Ool. of Ktlw\ Mirm*ri|>oli, Mmn, 

Ellis, G Gordon, Sch, of Educ., TFniv. of North Carolina, fhajifl Hill, XXX 

BUis, Robert Lawrence, 6362 W. 6th 8t,, LOH Angles, Calif, 

Elmer, Mrs Marion Short, 20 Belmont Street, HufFalo, N.Y, 

Elsbree, Harold M., Prof, of Education, State Teachera Col,, Now Palt*. N,Y. 

Ely, Donald P., Audio-Visual Center, 121 Collrgo PL, Rynuiwn, N ? T, 

Engelhardt, Jack E., 617 Bmmott fit, Battle Owk> Mich. 

Engelhardt, N. L., 221 West 57th St., New York, N.Y, 

English, John W., 26720 North River Park Dr., Inkt*r, Mich, 

Epstein, Bertram, City College of New York, New York, N.Y, 

Erdman, Robert L., University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukfc, W. 

Enckflon, Carlton W. H,, Audio-visual Center, Univ. of Conwctimit, Htww, Conn, 

^ckson, C. E., Dean of Educ., Mich. State Univ. East Lanmng, Mich, 

Enckson, Clifford G., Wright Junior College, Chicago, III. 

Ericksoa, Harley E , Dept. of Educ,, Wisconsin State College, Superior, Wii . 


Erskme, Mildred R , 2096 Watson Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 

Ersoff, Samuel, Sch. of Educ , University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. 

Ervm, John B , Chan man, Educ. Div , Stowe Teachers College, St. Louis, Mo. 

Ervin, William B , 1 Midland Place, Newark, N J. 

Erzmger, John F., 6600 North Campbell Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Eskew, C. T., Dean of Admin., Midwestern University, Wichita Falls, Tex. 

Eskridge, T. J., Jr., Dept. of Educ. & Psych , Newberry College, Newberry, S.C. 

Eson, Morris E , New York State College for Teachers, Albany, N.Y. 

Eugenia Mane, Sister, B, S M., Mercy College, Detroit, Mich, 

Eunch, Alvin C., 655 Madison Ave , New York, N.Y. 

Evans, Edgar Ernest, Alabama State College, Montgomery, Ala. 

Evans, Ellsworth J., Principal, Cupples School, St. Louis, Mo. 

Evans, Howard R , Dean, Col. of Educ., University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 

Evans, J. H., Principal, Ofihkosh High School, Oshkosh, Wis. 

Evans, John C., Asst. Superintendent of Schools, Ogden, Utah 

Evans, Ralph F , Head, Dept. of Educ., Fresno State College, Fresno, Calif. 

Evenden, E S. t Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Evenson, Warren L., Prm., Central High School, Fargo, ND. 

Everett, Millard S., Oklahoma A. & M., College, Stillwater, Okla. 

Ewmg, Farmer L., Superintendent of Schools, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Ezer, Melvin, 35 Mora St., Dorchester, Mass. 

Fahey, George L., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Falk, Conrad, Conception Seminary, Conception, Mo. 

Falk, Philip H , Superintendent of Schools, Madison, Wis. 

Farber, Evan Ira, Mam Libiary, Emory University, Ga. 

Farber, Nathan, Rehabilitation Center, 936 Delaware Ave , Buffalo, N.Y. 

Fargen, Jerome, Dept of Educ , Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 

Farley, Gilbert J., University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. 

Farley, H. Kent, Oregon College of Education, Monmouth, Ore. 

Farley, John A., University of Detroit, Detroit, Mich 

Farley, Rosalie W., University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 

Farnsworth, R. Earl, Principal, Senior High School, Fort Smith, Ark. 

Farnsworth, Robert B , Superintendent of Schools, Great Falls, Mont. 

Fasan, Walter R,, 7736 Sangamon St., Chicago, 111. 

Fattu, Nicholas, 921 Sheridan Drive, Bloomington, Ind. 

Fawcett, Harold P., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

Fawley, Paul C., USAOM/ICA, APO 928, San Francisco, Calif. 

Fay, Leo C., School of Education, Indiana University, Bloommgton, Ind. 

Fea, Henry Robert, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 

Fee, Mary, McPherson College, McPhereon, Kan. 

Feelhaver, Carl T., Supt. of Schools, Ft. Dodge, Iowa 

Femgold, S. Norman, Exec. Dir , Jewish Voc. Service, Boston, Mass. 

Fehcidad, Sister, Immaculate Heart of Mary College, Manila, Philippines 

Fell, E, K., Principal, East HiRh School, Youngstown, Ohio 

Feller, Dan, 9951-B Robbias Dr., Beverly Hills, Calif. 

Feltman, Irene, New Haven State Tchrs. College, New Haven, Conn. 

Fergen, Goraldme K,, Sch. of Educ,, University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

Ferguson, W. Stewart, Santa Monica Schools, Santa Monica, Calif. 

Feroze, Hyat, Kabal Road, Sialkot Cantt, Pakistan 

Ferran, Rose M., Dir*, Eiem. Grades. Public Schools, New Orleans, La. 

Ferrier, William Kenneth, 6517 S.W. 35th Ave., Portland, Ore. 

Ficken, Clarence E., Vice Pres. <fe Dean, Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, Ohio 

Fickcs, James A., State Teachers College, Towson, Md. 

Fiedler, E. L., Superintendent of Schools, Abilene, Kan, 

Field, Robert L., Vice-Prin,, North High School, Sheboygen, Wis. 

Fielder, Gordon W,, Michigan State Normal College, Ypsilanti, Mich. 

Fields, Clarence J., Coppin State Teachers College, Baltimore, Md. 

Fields, Ralph R., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y 

Fielstra, Clarence, Sch. of Educ., University of California, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Fielstra, Mrs. Helen, 1125 Eavoli Dr., Pacific Palisades, Calif. 


Fierman, Morton C., 600 Howard St , Burlmgame, Calif. 

Figuerel, J. Allen, The Sunwood, Buekboard Trail, Allison Park, Pa 

Finch, F. H., Col. of Educ , University of Illinois, Uibana, 111. 

Finck, Edgar M., Dickinson College, Carlisle Pa 

Findley, Warren G., Board of Education, Atlanta, Ga. 

Fink, Martin B., 1808 Aloha Way, Modesto, Calif. 

Fink, Paul S , 31 South Perm St, Allentown, Pa 

Fink, Stuart D , Pnn , Trg Sch , No Illinois State Teachers Col , DeKalb, 111 

Fmlay, Mrs. Helen K, Supv., Sec. Educ., County Schls., Arlington, Va 

Fischoff, Ephraim, Dir., B'nai B'nth Hillel Foundation, Berkeley, Calif. 

Fish, Allan, Supv. Pnn., Oakwood Public Schools, Oakville, Ontario 

Fishback, Woodson W , Southern Illinois Univeisity, Carbondale, 111 

Fisher, Helen H , San Diego County Schools, San Diego, Calif 

Fisher, James A , Boston Univeisity Junior College, 688 Boylston, Boston, Maaa 

Fisher, Joseph T., University of South Dakota, Vermillion, S.D 

Fisher, Lawrence A , 319 Spaulding Ave , Ripon, Wis 

Fisher, Mane R , Supv Tests and Meas , Dept of Educ , St Paul, Minn 

Fisher, Mrs. Welthy H,, Dir., Literacy Village, Lucknow, U.P , India 

Fisk, Robert S , Dean, Sch. of Educ., University of Buffalo, Buffalo, N Y. 

Fitz, John Allen, 301 S Gill St , University Park, Pa 

Fitzgerald, Edward J., Superintendent of Schools, Bristol, R I. 

Fitzgerald, James A , Sch. of Educ , Fordham University, New York, N.Y. 

Fitzgerald, J. C., Dir., Audio-visual Center, Okla A. & M. Col., Stillwater, Okla. 

Fitzgerald, N E , Dean, Col. of Educ,, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, Term 

Flaherty, Rev J, L , Superintendent, Diocesan Schools, Richmond, Va 

Flamand, Ruth K , 72 Goldenndge Dr , Levittown, Pa. 

Flamme, Wayne H , Principal, Junior High School, Antigo, Wis. 

Flanagan, John C , Dir , Amer. Inst. for Research, 410 Amberson, Pittsburgh, Pa 

Flanagan, William F., Dir., Aldrich Junior High School, Warwick, R I. 

Flanders, Ned A , Col of Educ., Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Fleck, Henrietta, Chm., Home Econ. Dept,, New York Univ., New York, N.Y. 

Fleming, C, M , Inst of Educ , University of London, London, England 

Fleming, Harold D , Chm., Div. of Educ., State Tchrs. College, Benudji, Minn 

Fleming, Ola, Atlantic Christian College, Wilson, N C 

Fleming, Robert S., Sch of Educ , New York University, New York, N.Y. 

Flesher, Marie A., 6 Old Armory, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

Flesher, William R , Sch. of Educ., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

Fletcher, C., Principal, Furzedown College, London, England 

Fliegler, Louis A., Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y 

Fligor, R J, Southern Illinois University, Ctiibondale, 111 

Fhppen, John T , Bluefield State College, Bluefield, W. Va. 

Flores, Vetal, Box 160, Bronte, Tex. 

Flores, Mrs. Zella K , Western Montana College of Education, Dillon, Mont. 

Flournoy, Frances, Dept. of Cumc. and Instr,, Umv. of Texas, Austin, TGX 

Flower, G E.. Canadian Educ. Assn,, 206 Huron St., Toronto, Ont. 

Fly, Muny H., President, Odessa College, Odessa, Tex. 

Focht, James R., Education Dept., State Teachers College, Salisbury, Md 

Folger, D F , Chm., Div. of Tchr. Educ., State Col for Women, Milledgeville, Ga. 

Fonacier, Andres Medina, Ilocos Norte Normal School, Laoag, Ilocos Norte, 


Foote, Lawrence E., Superintendent, Allen County Schls., Fort Wayne, Ind 
Foran, Thomas G , Seigniory Club, Province of Quebec, Canada 
Ford, Edmund A., 1326 South Center, Terre Haute, Ind 
Ford, Henry W , Div. of Educ., Hofstra College, Hempstead, N.Y. 
Ford, Paul L., Illinois Children's Hospital, Chicago, 111. 
Ford, Roxana R., Sch of Home Econ., Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minn. 
Fornaciari, Earl F., 6616 South Normal Blvd., Chicago, 111. 
Forner, James A., Walled Lake Consolidated Schls., Walled Lake, Mich. 
Forney, E B , Ginn & Company, 1932 Princeton Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 
Forrester, Gertrude, 71 Overpeck Ave., Ridgefield Park, N.J. 
Forsdale, Louis, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 


Fortess, Lillian, Wilkes College, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

Foshay, Arthur \V., Bur of Educ Research, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio 

Fossieck, Theodore H., Principal, Milne School ot Practice, Albany, N.Y, 

Foster, E. M., 237 N. Cheyenne St., Powell, Wyo. 

Foster, Harry K., {State Teachers College, Fredoma, N.Y 

Foster, Inez, Asst. Supt , Elem. Div., Public Schools, San Antonio, Tex. 

Fougner, Herbeit M., Whittier College, Whittier, Calii. 

Fowlkes, John Guy, Dean, Sch. of Educ., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis 

Fox, Robert S , Univ Elem Sch , Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Fox, William H , Sch. oi Educ , Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

Frank, William P , 1234 S Garfield Ave., Alhambra, Calif. 

Fianklm, J. E , 1602 Cooper St , Commerce, Tex 

Franson, Arthur H , 337 N. Bramard Ave., La Giange Park, 111. 

Fianz, Evelyn B , State Teachers College, Trenton, N.J. 

Franzblau, Abiaham N., Dean, Hebrew Union Sch of Educ. & Sacred Music, 

New York, N.Y. 

Franzen, Carl G. F., Indiana University, Bioommgton, Ind. 
Fraser, Dorothy McClure, City College, New Yoik, N Y. 

Fraser, Margaiet A., Read Clinic, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Frasier, George Willard, Sch. of Educ , Stanfoid Umveisity, Stanford, Calif. 
Frazier, James R , Superintendent of Schools, Okmulgee, Okla. 
Frederick, One L, Western Mich Col of Educ , Kalamazoo, Mich 
Frederick, Robert W , Jr., Bakersfiold College, Bakersfield, Calif. 
Freeman, Frank N., Dean Emeritus, Univ. of Calif ., Berkeley, Calif. 
Freeman, Frank S , Mornll Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, N Y. 
Freeman, Kenneth, State Univ. Teachers College, Geneseo, N.Y. 
Fieeman, M Heibort, New Jeiscy State Teachers College, Paterson, N J. 
Freeman, Ruges Richmond, Jr , 4582 Aldine St , St. Louis, Mo. 
French, Lois M,, 98 Alexander Ave., Nutley, N J 
French, William M , Muhlenberg College, Allentown, Pa, 
Frotwell, Elbert K., Jr., Asst. Commissioner for Higher Educ , Albany, N.Y. 
Fretz, Floyd C., Superintendent of Schools, Biadiord, Pa. 
Freund, Evelyn, 5954 Guilford, Detroit, Mich. 

Fridian, Sister Mary, Chm,, Dept. of Educ., St. Francis Col , Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Friedman, Bertha B. Deceased. 

Fristoc, Dewey, Superintendent of Schools, Flossmoor, 111. 
Fnstoe, Wallace H., Prin , Kelvyn Park High School, Chicago, 111. 
Fritzsche, Bertha M., Mississippi Southern College, Hattiesburg, Miss. 
Froehch, Giistav J , Bur, of Inst, Res., Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IB. 
Frost, George E . Dir , Holyoke Junior College, Holyoke, Mass 
Frost, S E., Jr., Dept of Educ , Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Frutchey, Fred P , Kxt. Serv., U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 
Fry, Clements C. Deceased. 

Frye, C. L,, Superintendent of Schools, Huntington, Utah 
Fuglaar, Olhe B., Head, Dept. of Educ., Louisiana College, Pmeville, La, 
Fullagar, William A., Chm., Div. of Educ , Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y. 
Fuller, Harvey, Superintendent of Schools, Wethersfield, Conn. 
Fuller, John J,, State Teachers College, Wmona, Minn. 
Fullerton, Craig K., Asst. Superintendent of Schools, Greeley, Colo. 
Fullmer, C. E., Principal, Wadsworth Elem. School, Chicago, 111. 
Fullmer JDavid C. , ASH! 8upt M Catholic Schools, Chicago, 111. 
Fulton, W. R., Educ. Materials Serv., Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 
Fults, Dan A., 307 W, University Apts., Bloomington, Ind. 
Futch, Olivia, Dept. of Educ., Furmaa, University, Greenville, S.C. 

Gabbard, Hazel F M U, S, Office of Education, Washington, D.C. 

Gabel, 0. J., Northern Illinois State College, DeKalb, III. 

Gabler, Earl R , Sch. of Educ., New York University, New York, N.Y. 

Gabriel, A., Jr., 197 Avon Ave,, San Lorenzo, Calif. 

Gaffney, Matthew P., Spaulding House, 20 Oxford St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Gaiser, P. F., President, Clark College, Vancouver, Wash. 


Gale, Ann, Principal, Edison School, Chicago, Hi. 

Gallagher, Sister M. Muriel, Mount Mercy College, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Gallen, Albert A,, Reading Consult , West Chester Public Schls , West Chestsr, Pa 

Galloway, 0. F., Head, Dept. of Educ., MacMurray Col., Jacksonville, 111. 

Gambrill, Bessie Lee, Dept of Educ., Yale University, New Haven, Conn 

Gamelin, F. C., 610 Giove St., Austin, Minn. 

Gammon, Delore, Asst. Supt. M chg. Elem. Educ., Public Schools, Wichita, Kan. 

Garcia, Walter M., 20 Oxford St , Cambridge, Mass 

Gardiner, Marian Juamta, Bishop College, Mai shall, Tex. 

Gardner, E. Claude, Registrar, Freed-Hardeman College, Henderson, Tenn. 

Gardner, Leonard, Dept. of Educ , University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Okla. 

Garinger, Elmer H , Superintendent of Schools, Charlotte, N C. 

Garlin, R. E , Dept of Educ., Texas Technological College, Lubbock, Tex. 

Garnett, Ray L , Wisconsin State College, River Falls, Wis. 

Garrett, Charles G., 2 Ruth Street, Hammond, Ind. 

Garrett, Cyril D., Chm , Dept. of Educ , Wheaton College, Wheaton, 111 

*Gates, Arthur I , Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y 

Gates, Charles D , Vice-Prrn., Charlotte High School, Rochester, N.Y. 

Gates, Mrs Grace W., Supv., Elementary Education, Claience, N Y. 

Gauerke, Warren E., Dept of Teacher Educ , Emory University, Ga. 

Gauger, Paul W., Sch. of Educ., University of Wisconsin, Madison, W T is. 

Gebbart, James W , Montana State University, Missoula, Mont. 

Gememhardt, William C., Northern State Tchrs. College, Aberdeen, S.D. 

Gentleman, Florence L , Prin., Barton Elem School, Chicago, 111. 

Gentry, George H., Supt of Schls , Pres., Lee Jr Col , Baytown, Tex. 

Gentry, Ira A., Jr., Tennessee A, & I. State University, Nashville, Tenn. 

Geoghegan, Sister Barbara, Col. of Mt St. Joseph-on-the-Ohio, Mt. St. Joseph, 0. 

Georgiades, William, Whittier Union High School Dist , Whittier, Calif. 

Geraty, T S., President, Middle East College, Beirut, Lebanon 

Gerberich, J. R , Dir , Bur. of Educ Research, Univ. oi Conn., Storrs, Conn. 

Gerletti, John D., University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Gernert, H. F., Jr., 522 North 24th St , Allentown, Pa. 

Gesling, Martha M , Bowling Green State Univ , Bowling Green, Ohio 

Getzels, J. W., Dept. of Educ , University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Ghalib, Hanna. American Mission, Beirut, Lebanon 

Gibbons, Joseph H., Superintendent of Schools, Stoughton, Mass. 

Gibbs, E. Delmar, College of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Wash. 

Gibson, Mrs. Kathryn S., Prairie View A. & M. College, Prairie View, Tex. 

Gibson, Mrs Norma. 902 South Manhattan Place, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Gibson, Walter E., Prin., Lafayette School, Lincoln Park, Mich. 

Gibson, Walter V. B., Principal, Elementary School, East Tallahassee, Ala. 

Gigmlliat, Arthur M., Dir., Armstrong Evening College, Savannah, Ga. 

Gilbert, Floyd 0., State Teachers College, St. Cloud, Minn. 

Gilbert, Harry B., Bur. of Child Guidance, New York City Schls., New York, N.Y. 

Gilbert, Luther C , Sch, of Educ., University of California. Berkeley, Calif. 

Giles, LeRoy H., Dean of Students, Carthage College, Carthage, 111. 

Gill, Bernard L, Librarian, State Teachers College, Moorhead, Minn. 

Gill, Gertrude, General Beadle State Tchrs. College, Madison, S D. 

Gilland, Thomas M , Dir of Trg , State Teachers College, California, Pa. 

Gillaspie, Howard H., Audio-Visual Center, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 

Gillet, Harry 0., 7401 Luella Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Gillham, Vera M., Principal, Horace Mann School, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Gilhgan, Michael B., State Teachers College, Jersey City, N.J. 

Gilmore, John V., 236 Bay State Rd , Boston, Mass. 

Gjerde, Clayton M., San Diego State College, San Diego, Calif. 

Glasow, Ogden L., Western Illinois State College, Macomb, 111. 

Gleason, Gerald T., Sch. of Educ., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis, 

Glenn, J. Curtis, Chicago Teachers College, Chicago, 111. 

Glock, Marvin D> Bur. of Educ. Research, Cornell University. Ithaca, N Y. 

Glogau, Arthur H., Dean of Men, Oregon College of Education, Monmouth, Ore. 

Gobcte, Wallace, 540 East 22nd St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 


Godfrey, Mary E , State Board of Education, Richmond, Va. 

Godfrey, Rollin E , 504 East Lake Dr , Greensboro, N C 

Godwin, Wendell, Superintendent of Schools, Topeka, Kan 

Goebel, Edmund J., Supt., Archdiocesan Schools, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Goedert, William , 730 N Wabash Ave , Chicago, IU. 

Goff, Mis Arnold E , Forest Grove, Ore 

Goldberg, Joseph W , Principal, Public School 20, Paterson, N J 

Goldberg, Nathan, 75-47 196th Street, Flushing, N Y. 

Golder, Grace M., 52 Hillhouse Ave , Yale Sta , New Haven, Conn. 

Goldhammer, Keith, 803 S Van Buren, Little Rock, Ark. 

Goltry, Keith, Dean, Dept of Educ., Paisons College, Fairfield, Iowa 

Gomon, Neal S , Nebraska State Teachers College, Peru, Neb. 

Good, Carter V , Umveisity of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Good, WairenR,Prm, Alfred I DuPonfc Elem School, Wilmington Del 

Goodlad, John I , Dcpt of Educ , University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Goodside, Samuel, Supv , Ramaz Lower School, New York, N.Y 

Goodwill, Glen T , Superintendent, City School District, Monterey, Calif. 

Goossen, Carl V., Pnn , Umv Elem. Sch., Umv of Minn , Minneapolis, Minn 

Gordon, Mrs. Beryl, College of San Mateo, San Mateo, Calif 

Gordon, Ira J , Inst. for Child Study, Umv of Maryland, College Park, Md 

Gordon, Jerome, Remedial Educ. Serv 21431 Sherman Way, Canoga Park, Calif. 

Gordon, Ted, 317 North Lucerne, Los Angelep, Calif 

Goie, George W , Jr , President, Florida A. & M Umv , Tallahassee, Fla 

Goiman, Frank H , University of Omaha, Omaha, Neb 

Gorman, William J , Registrar, St John's Prep School, Brooklyn, N Y 

Goslin, Willard E., George Peabody College, Nashville, Tenn. 

Gossard, Paul, Superintendent of Schools, Qumcy, Mass 

Gould, George, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa, 

Gourley, David, Superintendent of Schools, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Graber, Eldoo W , Head Dept of Educ., Bethel College, North Newton, Kan 

Grabowski, A. A., 2512 Southport Ave , Chicago, 111 

Grace, H T , Florida Southern Collegr, Lakeland, Fla 

Gradv, Joseph E , Rf . Bernard*? Seminary, Rochester, N,Y 

Graobner, Oliver E , Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 

Graetz, Ralph C., Long Beach State College, Long Beach, Calif. 

Graff, George E , Supt.., Rural Educ., State Dept. of Educ,, Rockville, Conn. 

Graff, Orin B., Dept. of Sch. Adm. & Supv., Umv. of Tenn., Knoxville, Term. 

Graff, Willard J , Superintendent of Schools, Springfield, Mo. 

Graffam, Donald T., Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa 

Graham, Caroan F , 127 North Mayfield Ave , Chicago, 111. 

Graham, James B., Superintendent, Nelson County Schools, Bardstown, Ky. 

Graham, Mattie, Hupv., KInm. Educ*,, Troy, N Y 

Graham, Willis Gayer, Instructional Materials Coord,, Mukflteo, Wash. 

Grant, Edward H., El Rito Community School, El Rito, N.M. 

Grant, Eugene B , Northern Illinois State College, DeKalb, III, 

Grant, Lester J., Superintendent of Schools, Docatur, 111. 

Granzow, Kent R., 1117 South York St., Denver, Colo, 

Grau, Mary L. t Supv., Elementary Educ., Montgomery County, Towgon, Md. 

Grau, R. T M Director of Curriculum, Public Schools, Clinton, Iowa 

Graves, Elizabeth K., Haviland Court, Stamford, Conn. 

Graves, Linwood D., Morris Brown College, Atlanta, Ga. 

Gray, Archie L . University Station, Grand Forks, N,D. 

Gray, Robert T*, Central Missouri State College, Warrensburg, Mo. 

* Gray, William 8,, Dopt of Educ,, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Graybcal, Lyman B., Colorado State College of Education, Greeley, Colo. 

Green, Harold W,, Utah School for the Blind, 0*den, Utah 

Green, John A., Educ. Field Service, Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 

GreonberK, Josoph, Principal, Public School 238, Brooklyn, N.Y, 

Greene, Cnarles E M 1S44 Venus Dr.. Sacramento, Calif. 

Groene, Ellen F,, Dept. of Educ,, Fiak University, Nashville, Tenn. 

Greene, Harry A., 10575 Wyton Dr., Los Angeles, Calif, 


Greene, John G., 6 Chestnut St , Boston, Mass. 

Greene, Maxine, Sch. of Educ , New York University, New York, N.Y. 

Greene, Mrs. Minnie S., Southwest Texas Junior College, Uvalde, Tex. 

Greenfield, Curtis , Principal, Percy L. Julian School, Phoenix, Ariz 

Greenwood, Edward D , Menninger Clinic, Topeka, Kan 

Greenwood, Roy, Broome County Technical Institute, Bmghampton, N.Y. 

Gregerson, Grace, State Teachers College, Moorhead, Minn. 

Gregg, Russell T , Dept. of Educ , XJniv of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Gnbble S C , Washington University, St Louis, Mo 

Griffin, Lee E., Ginn and Company, Chicago, 111. 

Griffin, Margaret T., Principal, Warner Elementary School, Springfield, Mass. 

* Griffin, Margery M , 5778 DeGiverville, St Louis, Mo 
Griffith, Coleman R , University of Illinois, Urbana, 111 
Griffiths, Daniel E , 54 Clarendon Rd , Scarsdale, N Y 
Griffiths, Ruth, Plymouth Teachers College, Plymouth, N H. 
Grim, Paul R Deceased. 

Grimes, Leslie K , Superintendent of Schools, Greeley, Colo. 
Grispino, J. A , Manst Col and Seminary, Frammgham Centre, Mass. 
Gntzner, Leland J., Elem Pnn,, Public Schools, Osage, Iowa 
Gnzzard, Mabel Youree, 711 West Mam, Waxahachie, Tex. 

* Grizzell, E. D., Dean, Sch. of Educ , Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Groenke, Paul H , Box 287, Howard Lake, Minn, 

Groesbeck, Lue, State Dept. of Instruction, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Groff, Frank E , Reg. Supt., New Hope-Solebury Jt Sch Dist , New Hope, Pa 

Grogan, M Lucille, 7638 South Wood St , Chicago, 111 

Gronlund, Norman E., Col. of Educ , University of Illinois, Urbana, 111 

Grose, Robert F , Psych Dept., Amherst College, Amherst, Mass. 

Gross, Neal, Harvard University, 20 Oxford St., Cambridge, Mass 

Gross, Richard Edmund, Sch of Educ , Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 

Gross, Robert Dean, Sacramento State College, Sacramento, Calif. 

Grossnickle, Foster E , State Teachers College, Jersey City, N J 

Grotberg, Mrs Edith H., Northern Illinois State College, De Kaib, 111. 

Grout, W Stuart, Illinois State Normal University, Normal, 111. 

Grubbs, Hazel A., 1230 Amsterdam Ave., New York, N.Y. 

Gruber, Frederick C , University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gruenberg, Benjamin C., 100 Central Park South, New York, N.Y. 

Grundemann, Norma M. t 3617 North 13th St , Milwaukee, Wis. 

Guess, George T., Principal, Picadome Elementarv School, Lexington, Ky. 

Guhck, Frank, Asst. Supt , Ventura Union H. S. Dist., Ventura, Cahf. 

Gullickson, Agnes, Iowa State Teachers College, Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Gumm, Boyce L., Box 103, Athens, W Va 

Gunn, Henry M , Supt of Schools, Palo Alto, Calif. 

Guss, Carolyn, Audio-visual Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

Gussner, William S , Superintendent of Schools, Jamestown, ND. 

Gustin, Margaret, Elem Supv , State Dept. of Educ., Unionville, Conn. 

Guy, George Vance, Portland State College, Portland, Ore. 

Gwynn, J. Minor, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. 

Haaby, Lawrence 0., Dept, of Educ., Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, Term. 

Haas, Raoul R , Dir., No Side Branch, Chicago Tchrs. Col, Chicago, 111. 

Haas, Richard J., Jr., 1951 Riverside Dr , Dayton, Ohio 

Haberland, John A , Colorado State College of Education, Greeley, Colo. 

Hackenberg, J. L., Superintendent of Schools, Shamokin, Pa. 

Hadley, J. H., Superintendent of Schools, Tuscaloosa, Ala. 

Hadley, S. Trevor, State Teachers College, Indiana, Pa. 

Haefner, Alfred E., Dean, Wartburg College, Waverly, Iowa 

Hager, Walter E., Pres,, Dist. of Columbia Tchrs. College, Washington, D C. 

Hagerman, Helen L , 1610 Miller Rd., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Haggerty, Helen Ruth, Adj. Gen'ls Office, Dept. of the Army, Washington, D.C, 

Haggerty, William J., Pres., State University Tchrs. College, New Paltz, N.Y. 

Hagman, Harlan L , Dean, Col of Educ , Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 


Eahn, Albert R., Clinical Psychologist, V. A. Hospital, Tucson, Ariz. 

Halm, Harry T., Dir., Reading Clinic, Oakland County, Pontiac, Mich. 

Haight, Wilbur T , Guidance Counselor, Milford High School, Milford, Del. 

Halberg, Anna D , District of Columbia Tchrs College, Washington, D.C, 

Halbert, Bermce, Eastern Texas Baptist College, Marshall, Tex 

Haley, Gerald J , Principal, Medill Elem School, Chicago, 111. 

Hall, Barbara C., 10 Agassiz St , Cambridge, Mass 

Hall, Hal , Supt , Belleville Twp Junior College, Belleville, El. 

Hall, James A , Superintendent of Schools, Port Washington, N.Y. 

Hall, Katherme H , San Jose State College, San Jose, Calif 

Hall, M E , Sch of Music, Northern Texas State College, Denton, Tex. 

Hall, Ralph H , Audio-visual Center, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 

Hall, Robert King, Trng Dept , Arabian Am Oil Co , Dhahran, Saudi Arabia 

Hall, Roy M , University of Texas, Austin, Tex 

Hall, Ruel, Countv Superintendent of Schools, Kankakee, 111. 

Hall, William F., Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa. 

Hall, William Frank, Dir., Child Study Serv., Elem Dist. 1, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Halhday, Robert L , Prm , Lake Shore Central Sch , Angola, N.Y. 

Halhwell, Joseph, St. John's University, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Halverson, Paul M., Sch. of Educ , Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y. 

Ham, John E., Jr , Submaster, Deermg High School, Portland, Me. 

Hamilton, Mrs Charles W., Jr 7 Dept of Educ., Creighton Umv , Omaha, Neb. 

Hamilton, Homer H., Consultant, Dallas County Schls , Dallas, Tex. 

Hammer, Eugene L , Chm , Dept of Educ , Wilkes College, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

Hammer, Irwin A , Western Washington College of Education, Bellingham, Wash 

Hammock, Robert C., University of Alabama, University, Ala. 

Hand, Harold C., Col of Educ , University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Hanitchak, John Joseph, Sch of Educ , Univ. of Kansas City, Kansas City, Me 

Hanna, Ben M., Dept. of Educ , Baylor University, Waco, Tex 

Hanna, Lavone A., San Francisco State College, San Francisco, Calif. 

Hanna, Paul R , Dept, of Educ., Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 

Hanscom, James H M 90-20 52nd Ave , Elmhurst, N.Y. 

Hansen, Abner L , Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Fla. 

Hansen, Carl W , Teachers College, University; of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Hansen, Einar A , Col. of Educ , Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 

Hansen, G G., Supt , Huntley Project Schools, Worden, Mont 

Hansen, Helge E,, Dir., Audio-Visual Center, Public Schls , Dearborn, Mich. 

Hansen, R G , Asst. Supt., Elem Educ., Public Schools, St. Paul, Minn. 

Hansen, W C , President, Wisconsin State College, Stevens Point. Wis. 

Hanson, Arnold Edw., Dean, Academic Adm , TJniv, of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 

Hanson, E TT M Superintendent of Schools, Rock Island, 111. 

Hanson, Gordon C., Umyersitv of Wichita, Wichita, Kan. 

Hanson, John W., Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. 

Hanson. Robert J., Guidance Counselor, High School, Grosse Pointe, Mich. 

Hao, Peter T. Y M 165 East 88th St, New York, N.Y. 

Harap, Henry, George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tennu 

Harbaugh, John W., Sch. of Educ , Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Harding, Vilas E,, Dallas City, HI. 

Harbo, L S., Superintendent of Schools, Austin, Minn. 

Hardesty, Cecil IX, Supt. of County Schools, San Diego, Calif, 

Hardgrove, Mrs Clarence R, Northern 111. State Teachers Col, DeKalb, HI 

Hare, H, Frank, Dist Superintendent of Schools, Phoenixville, Pa. 

Haring, Norris G., Dept. of Spec, Educ,, Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y. 

Harraan, Matilda E M Principal, Lincoln School, Spring Valley, HI. 

Haraack, Robert 8 M Sch. of Educ., University of Buffalo, Buffalo, N.Y. 

* Haraey , Juha C., 302 Pavonia Ave., Jersey City, N J. 

Harney, Paul J., University of San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif. 

Harney, Thomas E. t Superintendent of Schools, Dunkirk, N.Y. 

Harniy, Paul W,, Asst. Supt, in chg* Sec. Educ,, Public Schools, Wichita, Kan. 

Harper, George Leslie, Supv. Prin., Person County High School, Roxbard, N.C, 

Harper, James R, W,, Box 128, Baylor University Sta., Waco, Tex. 


Harper, Robert S , College Examiner, Knox College, Galesburg, 111 

Hanmgton, E Ross, Dir. of Educ , Richland Sch Dist , Shatter, Calif 

Harrington, Johns H , Los Angeles City College, Los Angeles, Calit 

Hams, Albert J , Dir , Educ. Clinic, Queens College, Flushms:, N Y 

Harris, Albert T., Dir , Sch of Educ.. Virginia State Col , Petersburg, Va 

Hams, Ben M., Lafayette School, Lafayette, Calif. 

Hams, Chester W , Sch of Educ , University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis 

Han is, Dale B , Inst of Child Welfare, Umv of Minn , Minneapolis Minn 

Hams, Lewis E , Assoc. Dir., School-Community Develop Study, Delaware, Ohio 

Hams, Raymond P., Dir., Sec Educ., Public Schools, Mt. Vernon, N Y 

Harris, Ruby Dean, Agric. Extension Serv., Univ. of California, Berkeley, Calif 

Earns, Theodore L , Sch of Educ , Umv of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis 

Harris, Wyhe V , Supt , Westwood View School, Kansas Citv. Kan 

HamsoUj F. W,, Bus Manager, Bd of Education, Joplin, Mo 

Harrison, George R., Head, Dept, of Elem, Educ , Bradley Univ., Peoria, 111 

Harry, David P , Jr , Grad. Sch Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 

Hartman, A L,, Principal, Edgemont and Watchung Schls., Upper Montclair, N J. 

Hartsell, Horace C., Texas Technological College, Lubbock, Tex. 

Hartsfield, Loy, Dept of Educ , University of Houston, Houston, Tex 

Hartshorn, Herbert E., Dir., Elem. Educ , Edina-Morningside Sch , Minneapolis, 


Hartstem, Jacob I., Dean, Grad. Sch., Long Island University, Brooklyn, N.Y 
Hartung, Helene, 2549 Decatur Ave., New York, N.Y. 
Hartung, Maurice L , Dept. of Educ , University of Chicago, Chicago, 111 
Harvey, A. D., Asst Supt. of Schools, Kingsville, Tex. 
Haskew, Laurence D , Col of Educ , University of Texas, Austin, Tex. 
Hasman, Richard H., 27 High Rock Ave., Saratoga Springs, N.Y. 
Hass, C. Glen, Assoc. Supt , Arlington County Public Schls., Arlington, Va 
Hassel, Carl W., Coordinator of Curric, Central Schools, Liverpool, N.Y. 
Hatch, John S , Bus. Manager, Northwestern University, Evanston, 111 
Hatch, Robert C., Supv., State Dept* of Education, Montgomery, Ala. 
Hatchett, Ethel L., Dept of Educ., Hardm-Simmona University, Abilene, Tex. 
Hatfill, H A , Supt of Schools, Pans, III 

Hauser, L J , Superintendent of Schools, Dist No 96, Riverside, 111. 
Haven, Julia M., Sch. of Educ., University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. 
Havighurst, Robert J., Dept of Educ , University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 
Hawes, Homer H , Head, Dept. of Educ., Park College, Parkville, Mo. 
Hawley, Ray C., Superintendent of County Schools, Ottawa, 111 
Haws, Nina, Principal, Riverside Elementary School, Wichita, Kan, 
Hay, Louis, 140 Clarkson Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Hayden, Alice H , Dir., Educ. Research, Univ, of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 
Hayden, Velma D , New York University, New York, N Y. 
Hayes, Charles L., A & T College, Greensboro, N C. 
Hayes, Dale K, Teachers Col, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb 
Hayes, Denis A , Supt , Paterson Diocesan Schools, Paterson, N.J. 
Hayes, Paul C., 122 Chestnut St , Leetonia, Ohio 

Haynes, Hubert C., Dept. of Psych., East Carolina College, Greenville, N C. 
Hayward, Orville B., Principal, George Roger* Clark School, Whiting, Ind. 
Hayward, W. George, Prin , Stockton and Eastern Schls., East Orange, N J. 
Hazen, Oliver M., Superintendent, District No. 403, Renton, Wash. 
Heald, James E., 1534 Brookside, Waukegan, El. 
Eealy, Mary, 8459 Dante Ave , Chicago, HI. 

ITAAM.* O..^.lt T3 TVJT.-T-.: OL^J.^ TT . j.__ 

**xic, jmuaiLu A ., jtiiu., \jztge jrarjK. jougn ocnooi. unicac 

Eecht, Irvin Sulo, Prin., Girls Eigh School, Brooklyn, N,Y. 

Heck, Theodore, Head, Dept. of Educ., St Meinrad Seminary, St. Meinrad, Ind. 

Heoker, laora, I486 Woodrow. Wichita, Kan. 

Hedges, John T., Oklahoma City University, Oklahoma City. Okla, 

Eeding, Howard W., Oklahoma A. & M College, Stillwator, Okla. 

Beer, A. L,, Dir. of Student Teaching, Kent, Ohio 


Heffernan, Helen, State Department of Education, Sacramento, Calif, 

Hefzallah, Ivrahim, 218 E llth St., Columbus, Ohio 

Hegman, M Marian, 322 South Ave , Medina, N Y. 

Heilman, Arthur, Dept of Educ., University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla 

Heisner, H. Fred, Superintendent of Schools, Redlands, Calif 

Helding, Dorothy W , Principal, Washington School, Evanston, 111 

Helen Jean, Sister, S L., Head, Educ. Dept,, Webster College, Webster Groves, Mo 

Heilman, Walter, Asst Supt of Schools, Fairfield, Conn 

* Helms, W. T., 1109 Roosevelt Ave., Richmond, Calif. 
Hemmgton, Mrs Mabel G , Chicago Teachers College, Chicago, 111. 
Hemingway, William C., New Concord, Ohio 

Henderer, M Donaldson, 4304 Whittier Rd , Wilmington 2, Del 

Henderson, Algo W., Sch of Educ , University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich 

Henderson, John J., Public School Inspector, Toioixto, Ontario, Canada 

Henderson, Kenneth B , Col of Echic , LJmveisity ot Illinois, Urbana, 111 

Henderson, Margaret G , 705 W. New St., Champaign, 111 

Henderson, Richard Lee, Agnes Scott College, Decatur, Ga 

Hendnckson, Gordon, University ot Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Hengesbach, Alice R , Supv., Willoughby-Eastlake Schools, Willoughby, Ohio 

Henion, Ethel S., 435 N. Central Ave , Ramsey, N,J. 

Henle, R J., Dean, Grad Sch , St. Louis University, St. Louis, Mo 

Henry, Mrs. Helga B , Pasadena College, Pasadena, Calif. 

* Henry, Nelson B , Dept of Educ , University of Chicago, Chicago, 111 
Hensley, Iven Howe, Stephen F. Austin State College, Nacogdoches, Tex. 
Henzhk, Frank E , Dean, Teachers College, Univ. .of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb 
Herge, Henry C,, Dean, Sch of Educ , Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N J 
Herr, Ross, District Supt , Chicago Public Schools, Chicago, 111. 

Herr, Selma E., Univeisity of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif 

Heir, William A., 536 W. Maple St., Hazleton, Pa 

Hemck, C. James, Rhode Island College of Education, Providence, R I. 

Hemck, Theral T., Dir. of Cuiric , Public Schools, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Hernck, Virgil E , Sch of Kduc , University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis 

Herrmgton, Mrs Evelyn F., Texas Col. of Arts & Industries, Kingsville, Tex. 

Hernott, M, E , Prm., Airport Junior High School, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Herrmann, D. J., College of William and Mary, Wilhamsburg, Va. 

Hcrtzbeifc, Oscar E , State Twichors College, Buffalo, N.Y 

Hertzler Hilas, Goshort Colle^o, Goshen, Ind 

Hester, Kathleen B , Michigan State Normal College, Ypsilanti, Mich. 

Hoss, Clarke F M Marshall College, Huntmgton, W.Va. 

Iloas, Glrnn C , Supv, Prm., Richland Township Public Schools, Johnstown, Pa 

Hetzel, Walter L., Superintendent of Schools, Ames, Iowa 

Heyen, Robert D., Dean, Boone Junior College, Boone, Iowa 

Hibbs, M. Gregg, Jr., Supt., Red Bank Senior High School, Red Bank, N J. 

Hickerson, J, Allen, New Haven State Teachers College, New Haven, Conn. 

Hickey, Philip J., Superintendent of Inst., Public Schools, St. Louis, Mo. 

Eickox, Edward J., 600 Alden Street, Springfield, Mass. 

Hicka, Mrs. Aline B., Booker T. Washington High School, Norfolk, Va. 

Hicks, Samuel I., Superintendent of Schools, Pearl River, N.Y. 

Hicks, Victor H., Din, Stud. Tchg,, East Central State College, Ada, Okla. 

Hidy, Mrs. Elisabeth Willson, Box 287, Gila Bend, Arit. 

Hieronymus, A. N., CoL of Educ., State Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Hieronyinus, W. P., Wagner College, Staten Island, N.Y. 

Hjlgard, Ernest E., Graduate DiviHion, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 

Hill, Alberta D., University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn. 

Hill, Charles B., Dean, Rochester Junior College, Rochester, Minn. 

Hill, Edwin H., 2628 Cathedral of Learning, Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Hill, Elizabeth F*, Bur. of Child Study, Chicago Public Schools, Chicago, 111. 

Hill, Georgft E,, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 

Hill, Guy H,, Dir., HJ9. Co-op., Mich. State Univ., East Lansing, Mich. 

Hill, Joseph 3EL, State Univ. of N.Y. College of Medicine, Syracuse, N.Y, 

Hill, Mrs. Margaret Ford, 32 South Patterson Ave., Santa Barbara, Calif. 


Hill, Walker E., Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. 

Hill, Walter R , Teachers College, Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Hill, William F., Box 41, Baylor University Station, Waco, Tex. 

Hillier, Elizabeth C., Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa 

Himes, Ellvert H , Dean of Students, Utah State Agnc. College, Logan, Utah 

Himler, Leonard E , 1225 Fair Oaks Pkwy,, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Himmele, Irvin H , Asst Superintendent of Schools, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Hinds, Mrs. Lillian R, , 3885 Tyndall Rd., University Heights, Ohio 

Hines, Clarence, Superintendent of Schools, Eugene, Ore 

Hinnchs, Gerard, Sch of Educ, St Bonaventure Univ, St Bonaventure, N.Y 

Hinze, Richard H., Curric Coord , Elem Schls , Dist. 1, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Hitchcock, William L., Col. of Educ , University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 

Hites, Christopher, 2201 Roseland Ave , Royal Oak, Mich. 

Hixon, Lawrence, Dir., Stud Tchg, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y 

Hobbie, Katherme E , State Teachers College, Oneonta, N Y 

Hodge, Mrs. Rose M , Mississippi Vocational College, Itta Bena, Miss. 

Hodges, James H , Principal, Kendall School, Tulsa, Okla 

Hodgkms, George W , 1832 Biltmore St , N W , Washington, D C. 

Hodson, George, Dean, Skagit Valley Junior College, Mt. Vernon, Wash. 

Hoech, Arthur A , Supt , Ritenour Consolidated School Dist., Overland, Mo 

Hoeft, Norman R , Adm Asst , Board of Education, Springfield, Mo 

Hoffman, Charles L , Principal, East High School, Waterloo, Iowa 

Hofstetter, Geoige, 821 South Fifth St , West, Missoula, Mont. 

Hogan, May C., General Beadle College, Madison, SJ) 

Holdsworth, Willie, Div of Ext , University of Texas, Austin, Tex. 

Hollaway, Otto, Alabama Polvtechnic Institute, Auburn, Ala 

Holhday, Jay N., P 0. Box 568, Canoga Park, Calif. 

Hollmgsworth, Henry T , Superintendent of Schools, Bloomfield, N J. 

Holloway, D. H , Principal, Westport High School, Kansas City, Mo. 

Holloway, George L , 19462 Hatton St , Reseda, Calif. 

Holman, W. Earl, Jackson High School, Jackson, Mich. 

Holmblade, Amy Jean, Home Econ Educ., Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minn. 

Holmes, A D., E. M. College, Bernen Springs, Mich. 

Holmes, Chester W , Superintendent of Schools, Maiden, Mass. 

Holmes, Daniel L , Supervising Principal, North District, Braintree, Mass 

Holmes, Jack A., Sch of Educ , University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 

Holmes, Jay William, 350 Castlewood, Dayton, Ohio 

Holmgren, Marvin E., State Teachers College, St. Cloud, Minn 

Holmquist, Emily, 245 Melwood St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Holmstedt, Raleigh W , President, Indiana State Tchrs. CoL, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Eolroyd, Flora E., Kansas State Teachers College, Pittsburg, Kan. 

Holstem, Louise V., 7130 South Union Ave , Chicago, III 

Eolstein, Marion F., 7130 South Union Ave,, Chicago, 111. 

Holston, M. J., 1128 Valley Dr., Borger, Tex. 

Holt, Helen J , University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 

Holterman, Mrs Helen E., 124 Breese Terrace, Madison, Wis. 

Holta, H. Arnold, Macalester College, St. Paul, Minn. 

Holwerda, Raymond, Prin , Holland Christian High School, Holland, Mich, 

Homer, Francis R , 4800 Conahohocken Ave , Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hood, Edwin Morris, 101 Old Mamaroneck Rd , White Plains, N.Y. 

Hood, George W , Dean of Men, Stetson University, Deland, Fla. 

Hooper, George J , Sidney Lanier and Eisenhower Schools, Tulsa, Okla. 

Hooton, C. E , Principal, High School, Bessemer, Ala. 

Hoover, Elmer B , Oept. of Edun , Elizabethtown College, EKzabothtown, Pa. 

Hoover, Kenneth H , Col. of Educ., Arizona State College, Tempe, Ariz. 

Hopkins, Samuel L., Chm , Div. of Nat ScL, Livingstone Col, Salisbury, N.C. 

Hoppe, Arthur, Sch of Educ., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

Hoppes, William C , Northern Mich College of Education, Marquette, Mich. 

Horn, Ernest, Prof. Emeritus of Educ., State Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Horn, Thomas D., Dept. of Curric., University of Texas, Austin, Tex. 

Horsman, Kalph D., Superintendent, Mt. Lebanon Public Schools, Pittsburgh, PA. 


Horwich, Frances B , 50 Sutton PL So., New York, N Y. 

Hosmski, Leona, 1221 North Brookfield, South Bend, Ind. 

Hoskms, G C , Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Tex 

Hostetter, Mane M , Library School, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111 

Hottenstein, Gerald G., Supt., Montgomery County Schls , Norristown, Pa 

Houlahan, F. J , Catholic University of America, Washington, D C 

Houle, Cyril 0., Dept. of Educ , University of Chicago, Chicago, 111 

House, Ralph W., State Teachers College, Kirksville, Mo 

Houston, James, Jr , Paterson State Teachers College, Paterson, N J. 

Hovell, Frank, Southern Texas Junior College, Houston, Tex 

Hovet, Kenneth , University of Maryland, College Park, Md 

Howard, Alexander H., Jr., Cen Wash College of Educ , Ellensburg, Wash 

Howard, Daniel D , Dean, Pestalozzi-Froebel Teachers College, Chicago, 111 

Howard, George, Chm., Dept of Sch Adm , Univ of Alabama, University, Ala 

Howard, Glenn W , Queens College, Flushing, N Y 

Howard, Homer, Philos and Educ. Depts , Radford College, Radford, Va 

Howard, J E , Principal, DeMun Elementary School, Clayton, Mo 

Howd, M Curtis, Principal, Bums Lab, School, Muncie, Ind 

Howe, Henry W , Dept of History and Pol Sci , Alma College, Alma, Mich. 

Howe, Joseph W , Superintendent of Schools Burlington, N J 

Howe, Walter A , Secy., Dept of Educ., Cen. Union Conf . of S D A., Lincoln, 


Howell, Miriam, Emory University, Emory University, Ga 
Hoyle, Dorothy, Dept of Educ t Temple University, Philadelphia, Pa 
Hoyt, Carlyle G., Superintendent of Schools, Fairfield, Conn. 
Hoyt, Cvnl J , Bur. of Educ. Res , Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Minn 
Hrudka, L M., Crane Br., Chicago City Junior College, Chicago, 111. 
Hubbard, Frank W , Dir of Research, National Educ. Assn , Washington, D C. 
Hubbaul, Mary K, 2 Longfellow Dr , New Hartford, NY. 
Hubbard, S , County Superintendent of Schools, San Jose, Calif. 
Huber, Frederick, Dir , Palo Verde College, Blythe, Calif. 
Huckaby, Arthur L , A&st Prin , Booker T Washington SchL, Houston, Tex 
Hucksoll, William J , 3510 Woodlea Ave , Baltimore, Md 

Huddleston, Lonnie D., Dept. of Educ., University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 
Hudelson, Earl, Ool of Educ., Wost Virginia Univ , Morgantown, W,Va. 
Huebner, Mildred H , Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 
Huelsmnn Chntles B Jr , 120 East Chestnut St., Oxford, Ohio 
Huestis, Mrs. Ruth T , Wostbrook Junior College, Portland, Me. 
HufTord, O N,, Si i perm (en <lfnt. or Schools, Joliet, Til 

Hughos, Charles R M Head, Cor. Study Dept., Univ of Florida, Gainesville, Fla 
Hughes, McDonald Principal, Industrial High School, Tuaealoosa, Ala 
HugheR, Vend H,, Div. of Tchr. Educ,, Ran Jose State College, San Jose, Calif 
Hurfison, Arthur, 470 Ocean Ave., Brooklvn, N Y. 
Hull, Virginia, Health Educator, Public Schools, Fond du Lac, Wis 
Hullfish, H. Gordon, Seh, of Educ, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 
Hult, Esther, Towa State Teachers College, Cledar Falls, Iowa 
Hunscher, Helen A., Home Econ Dept,., Western Reserve Univ , Cleveland, Ohio 
Hunt, Herold C., Under Secy., Dopt, of Health, Educ and Welfare, Washington, 


Hunt, Jacob T., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N C. 
Hunt, Lyraan C. t Jr M Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa 
Hunt, William A., Dept, of Psych , Northwestern TJniversity, Evanston, 111. 
Hunter, C. E., Superintendent, Marlboro County Schools, Bennettsville, S C 
Hunter, James J., Jr., San Dieo fltato, College, Sam Diego, Calif. 
Hunter, Lavinia, Western Kentucky State College, Bowling Green, Ky. 
Hunter, Eobcrt W M Gramblmg College, Gramblinpj, La* 
* Himtington, Albert H., 736 Fairviow Avc., Webster Graves, Mo. 
Huntington, Elizabeth A., 45 Morris Avc., Springfield, NJ, 
Hurlburt, Allan 8 M Dent, of Educ. r Duke University, Durham, N.C 
Hurley, John E,, Headmaster, St. John's Prep. School, Brooklyn, NT. 
HUBS, Francis G., Dir., Lansdale Vocational School, Lansdale, Pa. 


Husted, Ine M., Dir., Special Educ., Luzerne County, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
Hutaff, Lucile W , Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, N C. 
Hutchms, Clayton D , United States Office of Education, Wabhington, D C 
Hutchms, Margaret, Head, Dept of H.E , Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 
Hutchison, James M , 4231 West Fifty-ninth St , Los Angeles, Calif 
Hutson, P W., University of Pittsburgh; Pittsbuigh, Pa 
Hutzler, Damon, Supv Prm , Junior-Senior High School, Fort Myors, Fla 
Hyde, Edith I , Phys Educ Dept , Univ of California, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Hyde, Eva Louise, Pimcipal, Collegio Bennett, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 

Imes, Orley B , 3985 La Cresenta Rd , El Sobranteil, Calif. 

Imhoff, Myrtle M , U.S Office of Education, Washington, D C. 

Inabmt, Darrell James, 32 Sherman Terrace, Madison, Wis 

Ingebntson, Kasper I , Humboldt State College, Arcata, Calif 

Ingersoll, George S , Math Dept , Mira Costa High Sch , Manhattan Beach, Cain 

Ingerson, Gordon H , Dir , Henry Abbott Tech School, Danbury, Conn 

Ingles, Edwin T, 1018 Hackberry St, Modesto, Calif 

Inlow, Gail M., Sch of Educ , Northwestern University, Evanston, 111 

Ireland, Dwight B , Superintendent of Schools, Birmingham, Mich. 

Ireland, Everett W., Superintendent of Schools, Somerville, Mass 

Irene, Elizabeth, Sister, Dean, Sacred Heart Tchr Trg School, Groton, Mass 

Irish, Elizabeth, Univ. of Calif , Santa Barbara College, Goleta, Calif 

Irving, J. Lee. Bluefield State College, Bluefield, W Va 

Isaacs, Ann F., 409 Clinton Spring Ave,, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Isenberg, Robert M., Asst Dir., Div. of Rural Service, N E A., Washington, D C. 

Isley, Thurston, William Jewell College, Libertv, Mo, 

Ivins, George H., Dept. of Educ., Roosevelt University, Chicago, 111 

Jackson, Frank M , Supt., Tom Green County Schools, San Angelo, Tex 

Jackson, Lowell M., Dir., Inf and Educ. Sec., APO 74, c/o P M , San Francisco, 


Jacob, Philip E., Dir., Summer School, Univ of Penn , Philadelphia, Pa. 
Jacobs, Ralph L , Dept of Educ., Univ. of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 
Jacobs, Robert, USOM/Bangkok, c/o State Dept Mail, Washington, D C. 
Jacobson, Willard J., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 
Jaeger, Alan Warren, 1425 Mar Vista Ave , Pasadena, Calif 
Jaeger, Herman F., Superintendent of Schools, Pasco, Wash. 
James, Bro. Adelbert, F S C., Head, Educ. Dept,, Manhattan CoL, New York, N,Y. 
James, Mrs. Bermce 0., Central High School, Galveston, Tex. 
James, Carl A., Superintendent of Schools, Conoordia, Kan, 
James, Newton Elder, Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Tex. 
James, Preston E., Chm,, Dept of Geog., Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y. 
James, Virginia White, University of Alabama, University, Ala. 
James, W Raymond, State Teachers College, Pittsburgh, N.Y, 
Jamrich, John X., Dean, Doane College, Crete, Neb. 
Jansen, William, Superintendent, New York City Schools, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Jarman, B H., George Washington University, Washington, D C. 
Jelinek, James J., Sch of Educ., Arizona State College, Tempe, Ariz. 
Jenkins, John F., Portland State College, Portland, Ore. 
Jenkins, Martin D , President, Morgan State College, Baltimore, Md, 
Jenkins, T. C., Sch. of Educ., Baylor University, Waco, Tex. 
Jensen, G. E , Grinnell College, Grmnell, Iowa 
Jensen, Grant W. 3 2000-24th St., Bakersfield, Calif. 
Jensen, Harry T., San Jose State College, San Jose, Calif. 
Jensen, Louis B., 12 Hamilton Place, Garden City, N.Y, 
Jensen, T. J., Superintendent of Schools, Shorewood,, Wis 
Jessee, Mrs. Mabel C., Beattyville, Ky, 

Jex, Frank B , Dept of Educ. Psych,, Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, TJtah 
Johns, 0, D , Superintendent of Schools, Seminole, Okla, 
Johnsnoy, Howard G., 720 Shellbark Ed., Muncie, Ind. 
Johnson, B. Lamar, Sch. of Educ., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, Calif. 


Johnson, Blame H , Dept. of Music, College of So. Dakota, Cedar City, SD 

Johnson, Carl E 1130 N Rilmhur-t A\? Mt Piosn^t, TU 

Johnson, Charles E , Col of Educ , University of Illinois, Urbana, 111 

Johnson, Chailes E , Sch of Educ , LJniv of Kansas, Lumence, Kan 

Johnson, Charles "W , Teacheis College, (Jmv of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Johnson, De Wayne B . 740 Walker Ave., Ashland, Ore 

Johnson, Doiothy C , 2862 Gonzaga Dr , Bichmond, Calif. 

Johnson, Douglas Andrew, 145C8 Ashton Rd., Detroit, Mich 

Johnson, Eleanor M , American Education Publications, Middletown, Conn. 

Johnson, Eric H , Illinois Curnc Program, Univ of Illinois, Urbana, 111 

Johnson, Evelyn Lawlah, Soc Sci Dept., North Carolina College, Durham, N C 

Johnson, Gladys Viola, 3229 Fouith Ave , South, Great Falls, Mont 

Johnson, G Orville, Sch of Educ , Syracuse Univeisity, Syracuse, N Y. 

Johnson, Hairy C , Duluth Branch, Univ of Minnesota, Duluth, Minn 

Johnson, Harry O , Supt., Livonia Twp Sch Dist , 11411 Ingram, Livonia, Mich. 

Johnson, J. B , Superintendent of Schools, Alton, 111 

Johnson, Leighton H , San Francisco State College, San Francisco, Calif 

Johnson, Loaz W , Dir of Educ., Rutte County Schools, Oroville, Calif. 

Johnson, Lois V Los Angelas Stnto College, Los Angeles, Calif 

Johnson, Louis H., Principal, Elementary School, Seymour, Tex. 

Johnson, Mrs Marjoiie S , Supv., Read Clime, Lab Sch , Philadelphia, Pa 

Johnson, Palmer , Col of Educ , Univ of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Johnson, Paul L,, Pies , Jacksonville Jr Col , Jacksonville, Fla. 

Johnson, Ray W , Supt , Riverside County Schools, Riverside, Calif. 

Johnson, Robert K, 913 Nelbar St , Middletown, Ohio 

Johnson, Robert L., Curric Coord., Public Schools, New Richmond, Wie. 

Johnson, Roberla A. R, Dept of Educ , Univ of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y. 

* Johnson, Roy Ivan, 1725 N.W. Sixth Ave., Gainesville, Fla 
Johnson, Theodore D , 8914 Lamon, Skokie, 111 

Johnson, Walter F., Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. 

Johnston, Aaron Montgomery, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Term. 

Johnston, Edgar O M Wayno University, Detroit, Mich. 

Johnston, Lillian B , 184 Coloma St , Placerville, Calif 

Johnston, Mildred R., State Teachers College, Jacksonville, Ala. 

Johnston, Euth V., 125 Owre Hall, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Joll, Leonard W., State Department of Education, Hartford, Conn 

Jonas, Richard 0., University of Houston, Houston, Tex 

Jonas, Russell E , President, Black Hills Teachers College, Spearfish, S.D 

Jones, A Quinn, 1013 N.W Seventh Ave., Gainesville, Fla, 

Jones, Aaron E., President, Carbon College, Price, Utah 

* Jones, Arthur J., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Jones, C. E., Sxipfrintondont Public Schools, Beloit, Wis. 
Jones, H., Jr., Superintendent of Schools, Nevada, Mo. 
Jones, Dilys M., 30 Waller 8k, Wilke-Barre, Pa. 

Jones, Dixie M M Union University, Jackson, Tenn. 

Jones, Elvot Glyn, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

* Jones, Mr*. E. P M Bethuno-fJookman College, Daytona Beach, Fla. 
Jones, Glenn, State College of Washington, Pullman, Wash 

Jones, Harold E,, Dir M Iiwk of Child Wei., Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, Calif. 

Jones, Hownrd R., School of Educ , Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Jones, J. Charles* Buckncll University, Lewisburg, Pa. 

Jones, James Joseph, Sch. of Educ*, Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. 

Jones, Kenneth G., Oswego fllatfl Teachers College, Oswego, N.Y, 

Jones, Lloyd M., PonnBylvania State University, University Park, Pa. 

Jones, Lvman L., Southeastern Collngp, Hammond, La. 

Jones, Olwcn M,, Hudson House, ArdsIey-pn-Hudson, N.Y. 

Jones, Richard N. t Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa. 

Jones, Ve,rnon, Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 

Jones, Vvron Llovd, Principal, Fontanet High School, Fontanet, Ind. 

Jones, Wendell P., Maryland State Teachers College, Bowie, Md. 

Jone*, W, Mitchell, Dean of Men, West Texas State College, Canyon, Tex. 


Jordan, A. B., Central High School, St. Louis, Mo. 

Jordan, Edward Thomas, Spec. Educ. Clinic, State Tchrs Col , Terre Haute, Ind. 

Jordan, Floyd, Co-ord of Atlanta Area Tchr Educ Serv , Emory Univ., Ga. 

Jordan, Howard, Jr., Dean, Sen. of Educ., So. Car. State Col , Oiangeburg, S.C. 

Jordan, Lawrence V., West Virginia State College, Institute, W Va 

Judenfnend, Harold, 23 Pleasant St., Colchester, Conn. 

Judge, Virgil H., Superintendent of Schools, Matoon, 111. 

Julstrom, Eva, 7647 Colfax Ave , Chicago, 111 

Jung, Christian, Sch. of Educ., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

Junge, Charlotte W , College of Educ , Wayne University, Detroit, Mich 

Junge, Ruby M., Michigan State College, East Lansing, Mich 

Juola, Arvo E., Sch. of Educ., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Mis. 

Jurgens, Ernst F., Wisconsin State College, River Falls, Wis 

Justin, John R , 415 Townsend Rd , Newark, Del. 

Justman, Joseph, Bur. of Research, Board of Educ , Brooklyn, N Y. 

Juvancic, William A., 1800 Hull Ave., Westchester, 111. 

Kaar, Mrs Galeta M., Puncipal, Peabody Elementary School, Chicago, 111 

Kaback, Goldie Ruth, Sch. of Educ, City College, New York, N.Y. 

Kaemineilen, John T , Superintendent of Schools, Hudson, N Y. 

Kahlert, Charles G., Engineering Div., Compton College, Compton, Calif 

Kaiser, L I., 1616 Queen Ave. No , Minneapolis, Minn. 

Kalm, E S , Dir., Isidore Newman School, New Orleans, La 

Kallen, H. M., 66 West Twelfth St , New York, N.Y. 

Kalupa, Mrs. Mane, 2527 South Thirteenth St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Kandyba, Bernaid S., 2536 East 83rd St., Chicago, 111 

Kaplan, Louis, Umv Col , University of Southern Calif , Los Angeles, Calif 

Karason, Halldor C, Western Washington College of Education, Belhngham, 


Karlin, Robert, Sch of Educ , New York University, New York, N.Y. 
Karrei, Oscar, Boys' Dept., Loid and Taylor, New York, N Y. 
Kasdon, Lawrence, Department of Public Instruction, Honolulu, Hawaii 
Kata, Joseph J , Principal, Red Bank Valley High School, New Bethlehem, Pa 
Katz, Joseph, Faculty of Educ., Umv. of British Columbia, Vancouver, B C. 
Katzenelbogen, Solomon, Sch. of Med,, George Washington Umv , Washington, 


Kauffman, Merle M., Dir. of Curric., Public Schools, Peoria, 111 
Kauth, William M., Dept of Math , Fordson High School, Dearborn, Mich. 
Kavanaugh, J. Keith, 29 Grust St., Battle Creek, Mich. 
Kawm, Ethel, Plaisance Hotel, Chicago, III 
Kearney, George G., Route 2, Box 221A, Morgan Hill, Calif. 
Kearney, Leo I , Fordham University, New York, N.Y. 
Kearney, Nolan C , Asst Supt, Res <fe Curric , Dept. of Educa,, St. Paul, Minn. 
Keefauver, Lloyd C., Dist Supt , Gettysburg Jt. Sch. System, Gettysburg, Pa. 
Keenan, Robert C,, Supt, District 11, Chicago Public Schls., Chicago, 111. 
* Keller, Franklin J , Principal, Metropolitan Voc. High Sch., New York, N.Y. 
Keller, Fred L., Tarkio College, Tarkio, Mo 
Keller, Raymond E,, 1421 Plum St., Iowa City, Iowa 
Keller, Robert J., Educ Research Office, Univ. of Minn., Minneapolis, Minn. 
Kelley, Beaman, Dir. of Inst , Harnett County Schools, Lillington, N,C. 
Kelley, Claude, Col. of Educ., University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 
Kelley, Victor H , University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. 

Kelley, William F., Dean, Col of Arts and Sci., Creighton Univ., Omaha, Neb. 
Kellogg, B. G., Supt. of Schools, West Alhs, Wis. 
Kelly, Edward J., Colorado State College of Education, Greeley, Colo. 
Kellv, Mrs. Erma P., Principal, Capital Hill School, Little Rock, Ark. 
Kelly, Dean, 149 Parkwood Dr., Avon Lake, Ohio 
Kelsey, Roger R., Registrar, Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kan 
Kemp, Edward L., Sch. of Educ., New York University, New York, N.Y, 
Kemp, Ruth L , District of Columbia Teachers College, Washington, D.C. 
Kennaugh, William F., State Umv. Agr. & Tech. Institute, Delhi, N.Y. 


Kephart, John E , Wheaton College, Wheaton, 111. 

Kepler, Charles J., Dept. of Educ., Beloit College, Beloit, Wis. 

Keppel, Francis, Dean, Grad Sch of Educ , Harvaid Univeisity, Cambridge, Mass 

Kerbow, A L., University of Houston, Houston, Tex 

Kerr, Everett P., Superintendent of Elem Schools, Blue Island, 111 

Kescharmrus, Boonyun, Mack Hall, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

Keshian, Jerry G, 228 Beverly Rd., Hempstead, N.Y. 

Kesselring, Ralph, Pnncipal, Anglo-Chinese School, Ipoh, Malaya 

Ketchum, Frederic J., Sterling College, Sterling, Kan. 

Kettelkamp, Gilbert C , College ot Educ , Umv. of Illinois, Urbana, 111 

Kiah, Calvin L., Chm., Dept. of Educ., Savannah State College, Savannah, Ga. 

Kiely, Margaret, Dean, Queens College, Flushing, N Y 

Kies, Michael S , Supt of County Schools, Milwaukee, Wis 

Kilbourn, Robert W., Central Michigan College of Education, Mt. Pleasant, 


* Kilpatnck, William H , Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N Y. 
Kim, Ok Soon, Sorbonne University, Pans, France 
Kincer, Charles L , Supv., Rural Sch Improv. Proj., Berea Col , Pine Mountain, 


Kincheloe, James B., Superintendent of Schools, Tucumcari, N.M. 
Kindred, Leslie W., Temple University, Philadelphia, Pa 
King, John R M East Bakersfield High School, Bakersfield, Calif 
King, Kent H., Nebraska State Teachers College, Peru, Neb. 
King, Lloyd W., Exec. Secy., Amer. Textbook Publ. List., New York, N.Y 
King, Thomas C , Dean, Col. of Educ Nurs., Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, Vt 
Kingham, Harry W., Prm , Senior High School and Jr College, Burlington, Iowa 
Kinsella, John J., Sch. of Educ , New York University, New York, N.Y. 
Kmsellar, Frances M., Rye St , Broad Brook, Conn 
Kinsman, Kophas Albert, Long Beach State Col , Long Beach, Calif 
Kmzer, John R., Dept of Psych., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 
Kirk, Samuel A., Col. of Educ , University of Illinois, Urbana, 111 
Kirkland, J, Bryant, Sch. of Educ , North Carolina State College, Raleigh, N.C 
Kirkpatrick, J. E , University of Tulsa Tulsa, Okla. 
Kirkpatrick, Lawrence A., Atherton Hall, Union Grove, Wis 
Kirlm, S. Warner, Superintendent of Schools, Fairfield, Iowa 
Kitcher, Everett John, Dept of Educ., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 
Klausmeier, Herbert J., School ol Educ , Univ. of Wis., Madison, Wis. 
Kleinpell, E. H., President, Wisconsin State College, River Falls, Wis. 
Klopfer, Leopold E., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass, 
Klotz, V. A , Superintendent of Schools, Coffeyville, Kan 
Knapp, M. L., Superintendent, of Schools, Michigan City, Ind. 
Knelier, George F., Sch. of Educ., University of California, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Knight, George S., Superintendent of Schools, Valley Park, Mo. 
Knight, Reginald H., Prm., Roosevelt Junior High School, Bellfiower, Calif. 
Knoblauch, A. L., Moorhead State Teachers College, Moorhead, Minn. 
Knower, Franklin H,, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 
Knox, William F., Central Missouri State Teachers College, Warrensburg, Mo, 
Knudson, Marvin C., President, Pueblo College, Pueblo, Colo. 
Knuto, Leo L., Montana State College, Bozeman, Mont. 
Koch, EL C., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Koch, Helen L,, 1374 Bast Fifty-seventh Street, Chicago, 111. 
Koch, Wavne S., University of New Hampshire, Durham, NJBE. 
Koehler, Earl L., Pnncipal, Walsh School, Chicago, 111. 
Koehler, Susanne M., Dept. of Educ., Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 
Koehrrag, Dorothy, Iowa State Teachers College, Cedar Falls, Iowa 
Koerber, Walter F., Jarvis School for Boys, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 
Kohs, Samuel C., 620 Plymouth Way, Burlingame, Calif. 
Konen, Robert C., 8000 S, Justine St., Chicago, 111. 
Kontos, George, Jr., Principal. Eastgate Elem. School, Bellevue, Wash. 
Koos, Leonard V,, Eoute 2, Newago, Mich* 
Kopel, David, Chicago Teachers College, Chicago, EL 


Korb, 0. J , Superintendent of Schools, East Cleveland, Ohio 

Korntheuer, G A , Concordia High School, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Kough, Blanchford, Principal, Hayes School, Chicago, 111 

Koy, Arnold C., Principal, Jackson School, Waukegan, 111 

Kozak, Andrew V , Concord College, Athens, W Va. 

Kozlowski, Leokadya J , 7911 North McNulty Ave., Canoga Park, Calif 

Kraeft, Walter , Concordia Teachers College, River Forest, 111. 

Kraft, Milton Edward, Earlham College, Richmond, Ind 

Krautle, Hilda E., 3599 Weik Road, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Kravetz, Nathan, Pnn., Sheridan Street School, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Kravetz, Sol., 1357^ South Cloverdale Ave , Los Angeles, Calif. 

Kreitlow, Burton W,, Dept ot Educ , Umv oi Wisconsin, Madison, Wis 

Kress, Roy A., Jr., Shady Brook Schls , Richardson, Tex. 

Kroenke, Richard G., Dir., Elem. Educ , Valpaiaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 

Krueger, Lawrence, Supt , Pittsfield Sch Dist. No 9, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Krug, Edward, Sch. of Educ., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis 

Krug. Helen Esther, Defiance College, Defiance, Ohio 

Kubik, Edmund J., Principal, Owen School, Chicago, 111. 

Kuehner, Kenneth G., Coker College, Hartsville, S C. 

Kuhnen, Mrs. Mildred, 2106 Park Ave , Chico, Calif. 

Kullman, N. E., Jr , 153 Murray Ave., Delmar, N.Y. 

Kulp, Claude L , Rand Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 

Kurtz, Alton R., Head, Dept of Educ , Defiance College, Defiance, Ohio 

Kurtz, John J., Inst. for Child Study, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, Md. 

Kutz, Frederick B., Principal, Newark High School, Newark, Del. 

Kutz, R M., Hanover College, Hanover, Ind. 

Kvaraceus, W. C , Sch. of Educ , Boston University, Boston, Mass. 

Kyle, C J M , Div. Supt. of Schools, Orange Countv, Orange, Va 

Kyle, Helen F, ; Col. of Educ , Umv of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 

Kyte, George C., Sch of Educ > Umveisity of California, Berkeley, Calif 

LaBrant, Lou, University of Kansas City, Kansas City, Mo 

Lackey, Guy A., Sch of Educ., Oklahoma A. & M. College, Stillwater, Okla. 

Lafferty, Charles W., Superintendent of Schools, Atchison, Kan. 

Lafferty, H M , East Texas State Teachers College, Commerce, Tex. 

LaForce, Charles L., Principal, Pope Elem School, Chicago, 111 

Laidlaw, John, President, Laidlaw Brothers, River Forest, 111. 

Laird, Byron F., Indiana University, Jeffersonville, Ind. 

Laird, Dorothy S., Col. of Educ., University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 

Lake, Barbara, Sch. of Educ., Fordham University, New York, N, Y. 

Lambert, Pierre D., Sch. of Educ,, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Mass. 

Lambert, Sam M., Dir,, Research Division, N.E.A., Washington, D.C. 

Lampard, Dorothy M., Faculty of Educ., Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta 

Lampkin, Richard H., State University Col. for Teachers, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Lancaster, Christine, Keene Teachers College, Keene, N JEL 

Landskov, N L., Mississippi Southern College, Hattiesburg, Miss. 

Lane, Elizabeth Miller, 4390 Hyland Ave., Dayton, Ohio 

Lane, Frank T., State Teachers College, Brockport, N.Y. 

Lane, John J , Principal, Coolidge Junior High School, Natick, Mass. 

Lane, Olive, Sydney Tchra College, Newtown, New South Wales. Australia 

Lange, Phil C., Teachers College, Columbia Univ., New York, N.Y. 

Langenbach, Louise, Government Center, o/o Co* Supt. of Schls., Placervillc, Calif. 

Langeveld, M. J., Dir , Educ. Inst., State's University, Utrecht, Holland 

Langford, James A., California State Polytechnic Col, San Luis Obispo, Calif. 

Langston, R. G., Los Angeles State College, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Langwith, J. E,, Superintendent of Schools, Terrell, Tex. 

Lanham, Frank W., Sch. of Educ.. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Lanmon, J. M., Box 41, Clinton, Miss. 

Lant, Kenneth A., Principal, Jericho School, Jericho, N.Y, 

Lantz, Donald L., 8299 Millergrove Dr., Whittier, Calif. 

LaPoe, James L., Sch. of Educ., Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N. J. 


Laramy, William J. } Principal, Haverford Jr High School, Haverto\m, Pa 

Larkin, Joseph B., San Jose State College, San Jose, Calif 

Larkm, Lewis B, 5 Col. of Educ., Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich. 

Larsen, Arthur Hoif , Illinois State Normal University, JMoimal 111. 

Larson, Clint, Delta, Utah 

Larson, Bleanore E., Dept. of Educ , Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Larson, Ira E , Principal, Osage High School, Osage, Iowa 

Larson, Irene M , Board of Education Office, Green Bay, Wis 

Larson, L. C , Dir., Audio-visual Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

Larson, R. H., Dir. of Indian Educ , State Dept. of Educ , St Paul. Minn 

Larson, Rolf W., Sch of Educ , University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn 

Lass, Abraham H , Pnn , Abraham Lincoln High School, Brooklyn, N Y 

Lassanske, Paul A., 35 Passaic Ave., West Paterson, N J. 

Laub, Norman A , Pnn., Junior and Senior High School, Northampton, Pa 

Lauderbach, J C., Superintendent of Schools, Chula Vista, Calif. 

Laughlm, Butler, Asst. Supt., Cook County Schools, Chicago, 111. 

Lauria, Joseph L , 13601 Sherman Way, Van Nuys, Calif. 

Launer, Blaise V., 1145 ouest, rue Samt-Viateur, Montreal, Quebec 

Lavell, Robert J , Prm , Washington Junior High School, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Law, Reuben D., Church College of Hawaii, Laie, Oahu, Hawaii 

Lawhead Victor B. t Ball State Teachers College, Muncie, Ind 

Lawler, Marcella R., Tchrs College, Columbia University, New York, NY 

Lawrence, Beitiam I., Dept. ot Educ , Central College, Fayette, Mo. 

Lawrence, Clavton G., Dir , Tchr Educ , Marion College, Marion, Ind 

Lawrence, R. J., Supt., Bullock County Bd. of Educ , Union Springs, Ala, 

Lawrence, Richard E , Assoc. Secy., A.A.C.T.E., 11 Elm St, Oneonta, N.Y. 

Lazar, May, Bur. of Reseat eh, Bo.iid of Educ , Brooklyn, N Y. 

Leach, Kent W , Sch. of Educ., Umveisity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Leach, Manan Edith, 744 Albemarle St., El Cemto, Calif. 

Leaf, Curtis T., University of Dubuque, Dubuque, Iowa 

Leahy, Dorothy M , Dept of H E , Univ of California, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Lean, Arthur E , Sch. of Educ., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich 

Lear, Milton John, Pnn., Children's Corner, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif. 

Leave!!, Ullin W., Dept. of Educ., University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. 

Leavitt, Jerome, Portland State College, Portland, Ore. 

Lee, Charles A,, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. 

Lee, Ernest C., Toorak Teachers College, Toorak, S.B. 2, Australia 

Lee, Floyd, Principal, Wheeler Elementary School, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Lee, Harold Fletcher, Dept. of Educ., Lincoln Univ., Jefferson City, Mo. 

Lee, Howard D M Principal, Atwatcr School, Shorewood, Wis 

Lee, John J., Dean, Col. of Educ., Wayne University, Detroit, Mich, 

Leeds, Don 8., 612 Argyle Rd., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Leeds, Willard L,, San Francisco State College, San Francisco, Calif. 

Leese, Joseph, State College for Teachers, Albany, N.Y. 

Lefever, D. W,, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Leggett, Stanton, 221 West 57th St., New York, N.Y, 

Lehman, Harvcv CM Ohio Univormty, Athens, Ohio 

Lehmann, Charles F., Sch. of Educ., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Lchraann, Irvin J, T Scb. of Educ., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Leib, Joseph A , 2386 Knapp Dr., Rahway, N. J, 

Leibik, Loon J., Principal, Nobel School, Chicago, HI. 

Loichtweifl, Charles F. t University of Detroit, Detroit, Mich. 

Leiman, Harold I,, Prin., Hebrew In*t. of Lons Island, Far Rockaway , N.Y 

Leister, Leroy L M Willimantic State Teachers College, Willimantic, Conn. 

Lennon, Lawrenco 3., Head, D^pt. of Educ,, Univ. of Scranton, Scranton, Pa. 

Lensmirc, Warren J., Pres Wood County Tchrs. Col., Wisconsin Bapids, Wis. 

Lepera, Alfred Q,, Staley College, Brookline, Mass. 

Lerner, Joseph 8,, Dir* of Trn& M Arizona Children's Colony, Coolidge, Ariz. 

Lesaenberry, D, D., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa, 

Letson, J. W., Superintendent of Schools, Bessemer, Ala. 

Letton, Mildred C., Dept* of Educ,, University of Chicago, Chicago, HI. 


Levin, J. Joseph, Syracuse University, Syracuse, N Y. 

Levin, Robert, Principal, John H. Hamhne School, Chicago, 111. 

Levine, Stanley L. } 950 Embury St., Pacific Palisades, Calif. 

Levit, Martin, University oi Kansas City, Kansas City, Mo. 

Levy, Sidney, 1205 Avenue R, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Lewis, Carleton Kenneth, Box 443, Route 1, Annandale, Va. 

Lewis, Dwight Paul, General Elem. Consultant, County Schools, Riverside, Calif. 

Lewis, Elizabeth V., Dept. of Educ., Huntingdon College, Montgomery, Ala 

Lewis, Gertrude M , U S. Office of Education, Washington, D. C. 

Lewis, Mrs. Mary E , Paul Quinn College, Waco, Tex. 

Lewis, Maurice S , 325 East 15th St., Ternpe, Ariz 

Lewis, Philip, Chm , Dept of Educ , Chicago Tchrs. College, Chicago, 111. 

Lichty, E A., Illinois State Normal University, Normal, 111. 

Lieuallen, R E., President, Oregon College of Education, Monmouth, Ore. 

Lifton, Eh, Principal Public School 2, Brooklyn, N Y 

Light, Alfred B., 6 University Place, Pittsburgh, N.Y. 

Ligon, D. L. Dean, Grad. School, Midwestern University, Wichita Falls, Tex. 

* Lincoln, Edward A., Thompson Street, Halifax, Mass. 

Lindberg, Lucile, Sch. of Educ., Queens College, Flushing, N. Y. 

Lindemann, Erich, Psychiatrist-in-Chief, Mass. General Hospital, Boston, Mass, 

Lmdgren, Henry Clay, San Francisco State College, San Francisco, Calif. 

Lindvall, C Mauritz, Sch, of Educ , University of Pittsburgh, Pittsbuigh, Pa, 

Linneman, Jessica, Dean of Col , Finch College, New York, N.Y. 

Lino, Frank D , Principal, Volta School, Chicago, 111 

Lmthicum, J B , Dir. of Instr , Albuquerque Public Schls , Albuquerque, N M. 

Lipsky, Celia, Asst. Pnn , John Ericsson Junior High School, Brooklyn, N.Y, 

Lisle, Mrs. H G , 1559 JQnney Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio 

Listen, Hardy, Pres , Johnson C Smith University, Charlotte, N C. 

Little, Evert T , c/o American Embassy, Addis Aboba, Ethopia, Africa 

Little, J. R , Dean, Summer Session, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 

Little, Lawrence C , Sch. of Educ., Umv of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Littlefield, Lucille J , State Teachers College, Indiana, Pa, 

Litzky, Leo, West Side High School, Newark, N.Y. 

Livmgood, F. G., Dept of Educ , Washington College, Chestertown, Md 

Livingston, Thomas B., Box 4060, Texas Tech. College, Lubbock, Tex. 

Lloyd - Jones, Esther, 525 West 120th St., New York, N.Y. 

Lobaugh, Dean, Asst. Superintendent of Schools, Eugene, Ore. 

Lodesfi, Frank J., Principal, Mulligan Elem. School, Chicago, 111. 

Loeffler, Roland, Modesto High School, Modesto, Calif. 

Loew, C. C , Superintendent of Schools, Urbana, 111. 

Logan, Jack M , Superintendent of Schools, "Waterloo, Iowa 

Logsdon, J. D., Principal, Shorewood High School, Shorewood, Wis. 

Lohmann, Victor Louis, Dir., Psycho-Educ Clinic, State Tchrs. Col, St. Cloud, 


Lola, Justita, Labay Normal School, Legaspi, Albay, Philippines 
Lomax, J. L., Principal, Lomax Junior High School, Valdosta, Ga. 
Lomax, Paul S., State Department of Education, Sacramento, Calif, 
London, Jack, Sch of Educ., University of California, Berkelev, Calif. 
Long, A. L , Dept. of Educ., Stephen F. Austin State Col., Nacogdoches, Tex. 
Long, Charles M., Pennsylvania State University, University Par, Pa. 
Long, Isabelle, 4343 Harriet Ave South, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Longbotham, G Thomas, 120 South Mill St., Merrill, Wis. 
Lonsdale, Mrs Maxme deLappe, 1405 Campbell Lane, Sacramento Calif 
Lonsdale, Richard C., Sch, of Educ., Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y 
Loomis, Arthur K , Educ. Adv., Hq. FEC, APO 500, San Francisco, Calif. 
Looney William F., Pres , Boston Teachers College, Boston, Mase, 
Loop, Alfred B , 2619 Franklin St., Bellingham. Wash. 
Loree, M. Ray, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, La, 
Lorenz, Donald, Concordia College, Portland, Ore. 
Lorge, Irving, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 
Lorusso, Rocco B , 4307 Rowalt Dr., College Park, Md. 


Loughrea, Mildred, Asst Dir , Elem. Educ., City Schools, St Paul, Minn. 
Louttit, C. M Deceased 

Low, Camilla M., Dept. of Educ , University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 
Lowe, Alberta, College of Educ , University ol Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn. 
Lowe, Mis Herman, Western Kentucky State College, Bowling Green, Ky. 
Lowe, R. N., Sch. of Educ., University of Oregon, Eugene. Ore. 
Lowes, Ruth, Prof of Educ , West Texas State Col , Canyon, Tex 
Lowry, Carmen, Huston-Tillotson College, Austin, Tex 
Lowry, V A , President, Geneial Beadle State Tchis College, Madison, S.D 
Lowther, William L , Pnn., Livingston High School, Livingston, N J. 
Lubell, Richard M , Principal, Public School 92, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Lucas, Rev. Ernest A. J , St Joseph's College, Collegeville, Ind. 
Lucas, John J , 300 East 159th Street, New York, N Y 
Lucash, Benjamin, 1219 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, Pa 
Lucio, William H , Sch. of Educ., Umv of California, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Luckey, Bertha M , Psychologist, Board of Education, Cleveland, Ohio 
Ludes, Fr. Titus H., F.M., Qumcy College, Qumcy, 111. 
Ludington, John R , U S. Office of Education, Washington, D C. 
Luecke, Mrs. Carl L , 411 Sergeant Ave., Joplm, Mo 
Luke, Brother, Institute Pedagogique St. Georges, Laval-Rapids, Que. 
Luker, Arno H , Colorado State College of Education, Greeley, Colo 
Lund, S. E. Torsten, Haviland Hall, Umv. of Calif , Berkeley, Calif. 
Lunt, Robert, Supt , School Union Ten, Scarborough, Me. 
Lurton, Salhe E., Headmistress, Holton-Arms Schools, Washington, D C 
Luvaas, Clarence B , Principal, Hayes Elementary School, Cedar Rapids, Iowa 
Lyman, Howard B , Dept of Psvch , Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 
Lynch, James M , Superintendent of Schools, New Biunswick, N. J 
Lynch, Katharine D , Bur. for Child, with Ret. Ment Develop , New York, N.Y. 
Lynch, Mary Elizabeth, State Tchrs Col. of Boston, Boston, Mass. 
Lyons, John H , Dir , Quid and Audio-Vis. Aids, Pub Schls , Thompsonville, 

Macbeth, Ruby, 69 Cannon St , Charleston, S.C. 

MacDonald, Nellie V., 2770 Yon&e St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada 

MacFee, Mrs Winifred C., Western Mich. College, Kalaraazoo, Mich. 

Mack, Esther, State College of Washington, Pullman, Wash. 

MacKay, James L., 2205 West Mistletoe St., San Antonio, Tex. 

MacKay, Vcra, Sch. of Educ , Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

MacKay, William R , 4007 Wrslov Way, El Sobranle, Calif. 

Mackenzie, Donald M , Higher Educ, Commission, State of 111., Chicago, 111. 

MacKenzie, Elbndge 0., Anderson College, Anderson, Ind. 

Mackenzie, Gordon N , Teachers College, Columbia Univ., New York, N.Y. 

Mackintosh, Holon K.. U.S. Office of Education, AVashington, D C, 

Mackliu, A. O., Dir., Div, of Basic Educ./Virgmia State Col., Petersburg, Va 

MacLatchy, Josephine H., Bur. of Educ. Res,, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio 

MacLean, Malcolm 8., Sch. of Educ., Univ. of Calif., Los Angeles, Calif. 

Madden, Richard, Chm., Grad. Study, San Diego State Col , San Diego, Calif 

Maddox, Clifford R., 15810 Marnhfield Ave., Harvey, 111 

Madison, Thurbor H., Sch. of Music, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

Madore, Normand William, West Texas State College, Canyon, Tex. 

Magdalen Marie, Sister, De,pt. of Educ,, Siena Heights College, Adrian, Mich. 

Magoon, Thomas MM 2337 Doswott Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 

Mahaffav, Clarence TL, J535 Bonita, San Marino, Calif. 

Mahor, TrafTord P., Dir., Dept. of Educ., St, Louis Univ,, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mahlor, Clarence A , Dept. of Psych., Oregon State College, CorvalUs, Ore. 

Mahoney, Eva, Supv., Read. Clinic, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. 

Mahoney, John J., Dir,, Civic Educ, Center, Tufts College, Medford, Mass. 

Mailey, Jamas H,, Sch. of TCduc., Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Tex. 

Major, Charles Leslie, 444 N. Pearl St, GranviUe, Ohio 

Malan, Russell, Superintendent of Schools, Harrisburg, 111. 

Malaney, Jon Francis, 412% Third Si South, Virginia, Minn. 


Malatack, James J , Prin., H, F. Grebey Jr. High School, Hazelton, Pa 

Malme, Julian L , West Baden College, West Baden Springs, Ind 

Mallory, Berenice, U S Office of Education, Washington, D C 

Malmquist, Eve, Headmaster, Teachers College, Linkdping, Sweden 

Malone, James W., Superintendent, Diocesan Schools, Youngstown, Ohio 

Maloney, Marguerite L , Asst Dir of Elem Educ , City Schls , St. Paul, Minn 

Maloof, Mitchell, P 0. Box 22, Roslindale, Mass 

Maney, Mrs Ethel S , 121 Montgomery Ave , Bala-Cynwyd, Pa 

Mang, Brother William, Via Aurelia Antica 19, Rome, Italy 

Mann, J. P , Supt. of Schools, Appleton, Wis. 

Mann, V S , Box 266, State College. Miss. 

Mansour, Roshdy Fam, Fayoum, Egypt 

Mantell, Herman P , 154 Nassau Street, New York, N.Y 

Manuel, Herschel T., University of Texas, Austin, Tex. 

Manwiller, Lloyd V , South Dakota State College, Brookings, S D 

Marc-Aurele, Paul, 162 Marois Blvd, Laval-des-Rapides, Montreal, Quebec, 


Marchetti, Jerome J , Dean, Col of Arts & Sci , St Louis Univ , St Louis, Mo 
Margolis, Herman R , Principal, Goodrich Elem. School, Chicago, 111. 
Marmaccio, Anthony, Superintendent of Schools, Kankakee, III. 
Mark, Mrs. Retha D , Edmunds High School, Sumter, S.C. 
Markanan, Robert E , Springfield College, Springfield, Mass. 
Markey, Ruth, 6038 Canal Blvd , New Orleans, La 

Markle, David H., Dir., Evening Div , Ohio Northern University, Ada, Ohio 
Marks, Sallie B., 3133 Connecticut Ave , Washington, D.C 
Marksbeny, Mary Lee, Blairstown, Mo. 

Marquis, Norwood, School of Educ , Miami Umversitv, Oxford, Ohio 
Mamnan, Edward L., Jr., 2067 Fernchff Ave., Dayton, Ohio 
Marsden, W. Ware, 2217 West 5th St., Stiliwater, Okla. 
Marsh, Kathleen H , Asst. Prin , Chaney School, Detioit, Mich 
Marshall, Daniel W, Dept. of Educ., Tufts University, Medford, Mass. 
Marshall, Thomas 0., 2 Davis Court, Durham, N H. 
Martens, Mrs Freda R. H., "Woodlands," Ruby, N.Y. 
Martin, Clyde V., Div. of Educ , Long Beach State College, Long Beach, Calif. 
Martin, Edwin D , Dir of Research, Public Schools, Houston, Tex. 
Martin, George B., Salem Public Schools, Salem, Ore 
Martin, Howell C., Principal, Valdosta His;h School, Valdosta, On. 
Martin, Ignatius A., Supt, of Diocesan Schls., Lafayette, La. 
Martin, John Henry, Superintendent, Wayne Twp Schools, Patorson, N.J. 
Martin, John Z , President, Upland College, Upland, Calif. 
Martin, Millicent V., Inst of Home Econ , Umv, of Illinois^ Urbima, III. 
Martin, R. Lee, State Univ. Teachers College, Qswogo, N Y, 
Martin, W Burton, Presby. Bd. of For. Missions, 156 Fifth Avo , New York, NY. 
Martin, W. Howard, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn 
Martina, Sister Anne, 314 Houston Ave., Crookston, Minn- 
Martini, Angiolma A , 2629 Dwight Way, Bo:keloy, Calif 
Martinson, Ruth A , Long Beach State Coll<w, Lonn Boach, Calif. 
Martorana, S. V., Div. of High Educ,, U S, Office of Education, Washington, D 0. 
Mary Adelbert, Sister, S.NJX, Diocesan Supv of Schools, Toledo, Ohio 
Mary Afra, Sister, St Mary College, Xavier, Kan 

Mary Aimee Rossi, Mother, San Diego Col for Women, San Dtego, Calif. 
Mary Alma, Sister, Dean, St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, Ind. 
Mary Angela Betke, Sister, Felician Psychological Clinic, Buffalo, N.Y, 
Mary Basil, Sister, Good Counsel College, White Plains, New York 
Mary Benedetta, Mother, Prin,, Villa Cabrini Academy, Burhatik, Calif 
Mary Benedict, Mother, Ohm , Educ. Dept., Marymount College, TarrytOTO, 

Mary Benedict, Sister, B.V.M., Ohm., Dept of Educ , Mundelein Col, Chicago, III 
Mary Berenice O'Neill, Sister, C.S J., Pres., Col, of St, Teresa, Kansas City, Mo, 
Mary Bernice, Sister, Dept of Educ., St. John College, Cleveland, Ohio 
Mary Brideen Long, Sister, Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, D.C. 


Mary Caroline, Sister, Educ. Dept , Notre Dame College, Staten Island, N.Y. 

Mary Christine Beck, Sister, Dir,, Sacied Heart Jr Col , Belmont, N C. 

Mary Clarissa, Mother, President, ImmacuJata College, Chicago, 111 

Mary Clotile, Sister, Chm., Dept of Educ., Dunbarton Col , Washington, D. C. 

Mary Consuela, Sister, Immaculata College, Imraaculata, Pa. 

Mary Coralita, Sister, OP., St. Mary of the Springs, Columbus, Ohio 

Mary Dolores, Sister, College of St. Francis, Johet, 111 

Mary Dorothy, Sister, Education Dept , Barry College, Miami, Fla. 

Mary Elizabeth Clare, Sister, President, Marylhurst College, Marylhurst, Ore. 

Maiy Etheldreda, Sistei, Chm , Dept. of Educ , Sacred Heart Col , Wichita, Kan. 

Mary Felicitas, Sister, Immaculata College, Dayton, Ohio 

Mary Fidelma, Mother, Educ. Dept., Maiymount College, New York, N.Y. 

Mary Flonta, Sister, Community Supv , Nazareth Motherhouse, Rochester, N.Y. 

Mary Francesca, Sister, Georgian Court College, Lakewood, N.J. 

Mary Gabnelle, Sister, Nazareth College, Nazareth, Mich 

Mary Gregory, Mother, Dean, Maiymount School, Los Angeles, Calif 

Mary Hugh, Sister, Head, Educ. Dept , Fontbonne College, St. Louis, Mo 

Mary Hyacinth, Sister, Our Lady of Sorrows Convent, Ladysmith, Wis. 

Mary Imeldme, Sister, Marylhurst College, Marylhurst, Ore. 

Mary Imeldis, Sister, Cardinal Stritch College, Milwaukee, Wus 

Mary Inez, Mother, Holy Family College, Manitowoc, Wis. 

Mary Iimma, Sister, Villa Madonna College, Covmgton, Ky. 

Mary James, Sister, Mt St Vincent Col , Rockingham, Nova Scotia, Canada 

Mary Josephina, Sister, President, Xavier University, New Orleans, La. 

Mary Josephine, Sister, Mount Mary College, Milwaukee, Wis 

Mary Josephine, Sister, Rosary College, River Forest, 111 

Mary Judith, Sister, Head, Dept. of Educ., Briar Cliff Col., Sioux City, Iowa 

Mary Justima, Sister, Notre Dame Convent, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mary Kathleen, Sister, Mt Sb Agnes College, Baltimore, Md. 

Mary Lauriana Gruszczyski, Sister, Madonna College, Livonia, Mich. 

Mary, Lamina, Sister, Vice-Pros., Mount Mary College, Yankton, S.D. 

Mary Lawicnco, Sister, Maiy Manse College, Toledo, Ohio 

Mary Leonella, Sister, Col of St. Mary-of-the-Wasatch, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Mary Lucille, Sister, President, Mercy College, Detroit, Mich. 

Mary Marguerite, Sister, B V.M., Principal, Gesu Convent, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mary Michael, Suster, Immaculate Heart College, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Mary Muriel Hpgan, Sister, Ottumwa Heights College, Ottumwa, Iowa 

Mary Muriel, Sister, Marian College, Fond du Lac, Wis. 

Mary Norita, Sister, St. Xavier College, Chicago, 111. 

Mary Olivia, Sister, Dean, Marian College, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Mary Priscilla, Sister, Head, Dopt. of Educ , Notre Dame Col., Cleveland, Ohio 

Mary Regis, Sister, Principal, St. Peter's High School, Pittsburgh, Pa 

Mary Rose Agnes, Sister, Our Lady of Cincinnati College, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Mary Rose Alice, Sister, St Paul's Priory, St. Paul, Minn. 

Mary Rosita, Sister, President, Dominican College, Racine, Wis. 

Mary of St. Michael, Sister, College of the Holy Name, Oakland, Calif. 

Mary Teresa Francis McDndo, Sister, Mount Carmel, Dubuque, Iowa 

Mary Theodine, Sistor, Dean, Viterho College, La Crosse, Wis. 

Mary Vera, Sister, Principal, St. Luke School, Two Rivers, Wis 

Mary Vernice, Sister, Catholic University of America, Washington, D,C. 

Mary Vincent Thereae, Bister, St. Joseph's College for Women, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Marzolf, Stanley 8., Illinois State Normal University, Normal, 111. 

Mason, Charles C., Superintendent of Schools, Tulsa, Okla. 

Masaey, William L, Louisiana Polytechnic Institute, Ruston, La. 

Masters, Harry V., President, Albright Collego, Reading, Pa. 

Masters, Hugh B,, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. t 

Mathcws, C. M Dept, of Edue,, Ohio Wesioyan University, Delaware, Ohio 

Mathias, C. Wilber, State Toachers College, Kutztown, Pa, 

Mathiasen, 0. F., Dept, of Educ*, Aatioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio 

Matricaria, IX Anthony, 73 Howard Ave,, Ansonda, Conn. 

Matthew, Eunice Sophia, State Dept. of Education, Nashville, Term, 


Matthews, J. W., Principal, Central High School, Little Rock, Aik 
Matthews, E. D., Dept. ot Educ., Univ oi Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Matthews. Stephen J., 34 Holmes Court, Albany, N Y. 
Mattila, Ruth Hughes, 3625 North Sheffield Ave , Chicago, III 
Matulis, Anthony S , Principal, High School, Taylor Center, Mich. 
Maucker, James William, President, Iowa State Tchrs. College, Cedar Falls, Iowa 
Maurer, Robert L., California State Polytechnic Col., San Luis Obispo, Calif 
Mauth, Leslie J , Ball State Teachers College, Muncie, Ind. 
Mayfield, L. B., Superintendent, School District 549C, Medford, Ore 
Mayhew, Lewis B., Box 391, East Lansing, Mich. 
Mayo, Jane A , 2606 Wolfe Street, Little Rock, Ark. 

Mayor, John R, Dir., Science Tchg Improvement Program, Washington, D.C. 
Maziarz, Rev Edward A, Dean, tSt Joseph's College, Collegeville, Ind. 
Mazyck, Harold E , Jr , Prairie View A. & M. College, Prairie View, Tex, 
McAllister, David, Arkansas Polytechnic College, Russellville, Ark. 
McAtee, Veva, Dir. of Guidance, 1921 David Ave., Whiting, Ind. 
McBirney, Ruth, Boise Junior College, Boise, Idaho 

McBrair, Marian, Assoc. Dean of Stud., Iowa State Tchrs. Col., Cedar Falls, Iowa 
McBnde, James JEL, Superintendent of Schools, Norwalk, Ohio 
McCalhster, J. M , 8100 South Blackstone Ave , Chicago, 111. 
McCandless, Frederick D., Albany Medical College, Albany, N.Y. 
McCann, Thomas W., 43 Ashley St., Bridgeport, Conn. 
McCarthy, Raymond G., 52 Hillhouse Ave., New Haven, Conn. 
McClean, Donald E., 171 Luceio Way, Menlo Park, Calif. 
McClellan, James, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y 
McClendon, LeRoy, 313 East Austin, Nacogdoches, Tex. 
McChntock, James A , Drew University, Madison, N J. 
McCluer, V. C , Supt. of Schools, Ferguson, Mo. 
McClure, L Morris, Western Michigan College, Kalamazoo, Mich. 
McClurkin, W. D , George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. 
McClusky, F. D , Sch. of Educ , University of Calif., Los Angeles, Calif. 
McClusky, Howard Y., Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
McConnell, Gaither, 254 Pine Street, New Orleans, La. 
McConnell, T. R,, Sch. of Educ., University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 
McCorkle, David B.^University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Miss. 
McCormick, Chester A,, Col of Educ , Wayne University, Detroit, Mich. 
McCracken, Robert A., Ball State Teachers College, Muncie, Ind. 
McCrary, James W., Jr., East Texas State Tchrs. College, Commerce, Tex 
McCreight, Russell W , Teachers College, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb 
McCuen, Theoron L., Supt, Kern County Union High School, Bakersfield, Calif . 
McCullough, Constance M., San Francisco State College, San Francisco, Calif. 
McDaniel, J. W., 323 17th St., San Bernardino, Calif. 
McDermott, John C., Chm , Dept. of Educ,, St. John's Univ., Brooklyn, N.Y. 
McDermott, Leon A., Central Mich. Col. of Educ., Mount Pleasant, Mich. 
McDougle, Ethel, 3776 West Thirty-third St., Cleveland, Ohio 
McFadden, Mrs. LE'toile K, Asst. Dir., Nursing Educ., Emanuel Hospital, Port- 
land, Ore. 

McFaddin. Genora, Memphis State College, Memphis, Tenn. 
McFarland, John W., Superintendent, Public Schools, Vernon, Tex. 
McGarry, Charles P., Supt., Diocese of Camden, Camden. N.J. 
McGarry, Francis B , State Teachers College, East Strouclsburg, Pa. 
McGaughy, Jean B., Prin., Countryside School, Bamngton, III 
McGehee, Ehse, 2343 Prytania St., New Orleans, La. 
McGhehey, Marion A., Sch. of Educ,, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 
McGill, Ida Belle, Arizona State College, Flagstaff, Ariz. 
McGmnis, Frederick A., Chm., Div. of Educ., Wilberforce UnL, Wilberforce, Ohio 
McGlasson, Maurice A., Central Washington College of Educ., Ellensburg, Wash. 
McGuire, J. Carson, Col. of Educ., Univ. of Texas, Austin, Tex. 
McHale, Kathryn, 3601 Connecticut Ave., Washington, D.C. 
Mcllrath, William J., State Teachers College, Florence, Ala. 
McHvaine, Franklin, State Teachers College, Lock Haven, Pa, 


Mclntosh, Charles W,, Div. of International Educ., Dept. of Health, Educ. & 

Welfare, Washington, D.C. 

Mclntosh, D C , Dean, Grad, Sch., A, & M. College, Stillwater, Okla 
Mclntosh, William Ray, Superintendent of Schools, Rockford, 111. 
Mclntyre, Richmond E., Principal, J. F. Gunn Elem. Sch , Burlington, N.C. 
Mclsaac, John S , Geneva College, Beaver Falls, Pa 

McKane, William A., Westchester Community College, White Plains, N Y. 
McKee, Frances M., Bemidji State Teachers College, Bemidji, Minn. 
McKee, W. J , University of Noith Carolina, Chapel Hill, N C. 
McKelvey, Frederick H , Dir., Cen, for Educ. Serv., Ohio Univ., Athens, Ohio 
McKenna, F. Raymond, Eastern Illinois State College, Charleston, 111. 
McKeough, Rev M J., Dean, St. Norbert College, WestDePere, Wis. 
McKernon, James G., 419 S. Ottawa St , Dixon, 111. 

McKillop, Anne S., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 
McKim, George L., Sch. of Educ , Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Mass. 
McKim, Margaret G , Teachers College, Umv ot Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 
McKmney, F. J. D., Tennessee State University, Nashville, Term 
*McKmney, James, Chm , Bd of Trustees, American iSchool, Chicago, 111 
McKune, Esther J., State University Teachers College, Oneonta, N.Y. 
McLaughlin, J. , 606 East 6th St., Claremont, Calif. 
McLaughlin, Kenneth F , Test Serv. Bur., Florida St. Univ., Tallahassee, Fla. 
McLaughlin, Vincent J , School of Educ., Fordham Umv , New York, N Y. 
McLaughlin, William J., Prm., D. A. Harmon Jr. H.S , Hazelton, Pa. 
McLeary, Ralph D , Superintendent of Schools, Jackson, Mich. 
McLendon, C. H., St. Augustine's College, Raleigh, N.C. 
McLendon, Jonathon C , Dept of Educ., Duke University, Durham, N C 
McLure, John R., Dean, Col of Educ., Umv of Alabama, University, Ala 
McMahan, F. J., St Ambrose College, Davenport, Iowa 
McMahan, John Julia, New Mexico Col. of A & M , State College, N.M. 
McMahon, Mrs. G F , Prm , Bennett Elementary School, Chicago, 111 
McManamon, Fr. James, St. Joseph Friary, Cleveland, Ohio 
McMaster, T A , Genl. Secy , Manitoba Teachers Society, Winnipeg, Manitoba 
McMillan, William A., Div. of Educ., Wiley College, Marshall, Tex. 
McMullen, Charles B., Dean, State Tchrs. College, Bndgewater, Mass. 
McMurray, Foster, Col, of Educ., University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 
McMurtrey, Violet, 3365 Southwest 103rd St,, Beaverton, Ore. 
McNair, J Stuart, Box 672, Balboa, Canal Zone 
McNaily, Crystal, 428 South Broadway, Wichita, Kan. 
McNally, Harold J., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N Y 
McNamara, Sister Justa, Chm , Dept. of Educ., St Joseph Col., Emmitsburg, 


McNealy, James L., Huston-Tillotson College, Austin, Tex 
McNutt, C. R., 6511 Frontier Dr., Springfield, Va 

McNutt, Franklm H., Woman's Col, Umv. of North Carolina, Greensboro, N.C. 
McPhatt, Harry R,, Superintendent of Schools, Ames, Iowa 
McPherson, Virgil L., 904 East Mayfair Ave., Orange, Calif. 
McPherson, Mrs. W. M., Box 513, Brook Street, Newark Valley, N Y. 
McQueeny, Mother Mary, Duchesne College, Omaha, Neb, 
McRae, Louie James, Principal, East Highland School, Dothan, Ala 
McSwain, E. T., Sch, of Educ., Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. 
McTigue, Mary R., Principal, Lincoln School, Chicago, HI 
*Mead, Arthur R., 1719 Northwest 6tL Ave., Gainesville, Fla. 
Mease, Clyde D., Superintendent of Schools, Humboldt, Iowa 
Meckel, Henry C., San Jose State Col., San Jose, Calif. 
Meder, Blsa M., Houghton Mimin Co M Boston, Mass. 
Meehan, Rev. John T,, Prin , Norfolk Catholic Hirfi School, Norfolk, Va. 
Meenes, Max, Head, Dept, of Psych.,Howard University, Washington, D.C. 
Meier, Frederick A., President, State Teachers College, Salem, Mass. 
Meland, R I., Dean, Austin Junior College, Austin, Minn. 
Melby, Ernest 0., Sch. of Educ., Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. 
Mellott, Malcolm E., Editor-in-Chief, John C. Winston, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Melvin, Keith L., Teachers College, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 

Mencke, Eugene 0., Mill Neck Manor School for the Deaf, Mill Neck, N.Y 

Mendenhall, C. B., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

Mendoza, Romulo Y , Bureau of Public Schools, Manila, Philippines 

Menge, Carleton P., University of New Eampshne, Duiham, N.H. 

Menge, J. W., College of Educ , Wayne Umv , Detroit, Mich 

Meredith, Cameron W., Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. 

Merenda, Peter F., Res. and Eval Branch, Naval Exam. Cen., Great Lakes, 111 

Merkhofer, Beatrice E., Dept. of Math , University of Detroit, Detroit, Mich. 

Memtt, C. B , Col. of Educ., Umveisity of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. 

Merry, Mrs. R V., Moms Harvey College, Charleston, W.Va. 

Mersand, Joseph, Eng. Dept., Jamaica High School, Jamaica, N.Y. 

Merwm, Jack C., Sch of Educ., Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y. 

Metcalf, Harold H , Supt., Bloom Twp High School, Chicago Heights, 111. 

Metzner, Jerome, 103-25 68th Ave , Forest Hills, N.Y. 

Metzner, William, Prin , John B. Stetson Junior High School, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Meyer, Charlotte, Elementary Supervisor, Public Schools, Decatur.111. 

Meyer, George A., Tchrs. Col , University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 

Meyer, Mrs. Mane, Douglass College, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J. 

Meyer, Warren G , 5829 Portland Ave So., Minneapolis, Minn 

Meyer, William T., Dean, Div. of Grad. Stud., Adams State Col., Alamosa, Colo. 

Meyers, C. E., Sch. of Educ., University of So, Calif,, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Meyers, Max B., 324 East 59th St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Michael, Lloyd S., Superintendent, Evanston Township High School, Evanston, 111. 

Michaelis, Dorothy L, 40 Evelyn PI., Staten Island, N.Y. 

Michaelis, John U., Sch of Educ., Univ of California, Berkeley, Calif. 

Micheels, William J , Col of Educ., Univ. of Minn., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Michelson, John M., Sch. of Educ, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Michie, James K., Superintendent of Schools, Hibbing, Minn. 

Mikesell, Doyle, Head, Div. of Basic Stud., Drake Univ., Des Moines, Iowa 

Miles, Arnold A., 11500 Hamilton Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Miles, Matthew B., Horace Mann-Lincoln Inst., Columbia Univ., New York, N.Y. 

Miles, Vaden W., Physics Dept., Wayne University, Detroit, Mich. 

Milheim, Robert P., 17 East Spring St., Oxford, Ohio 

Millard, C. V., Div. of Educ., Michigan State College, East Lansing, Mich. 

Miller, Benjamin, Supv., Day Elementary School, Bronx, N.Y. 

Miller, Carroll H., Colorado A. & M. College, Ft. Collins, Colo. 

Miller, Carroll L , College of L A., Howard Umv , Washington, D C 

Miller, Charles, Vice-Pnn., McKmley Elem. School, Newark, N J. 

Miller, Charles S , Allegheny College, Meadville, Pa. 

Miller, Chester F., Superintendent of Schools, Sagmaw, Mich, 

Miller, Henry, Sch of Educ , City College, New York, N.Y. 

Miller, Ira E , Eastern Mennomte College, Harrisonburg, Va. 

Miller, John L., Superintendent of Schools, Great Neck, N.Y. 

Miller, Kenneth M., University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia 

Miller, Lawrence William, University of Denver, Denver, Colo. 

Miller, Paul A., 200 Wendell Terrace, Syracuse, N.Y. 

Miller, Paul A., Superintendent of City Schools, Mmot, N,D. 

Miller, Ralph, Superintendent of Schools, Georgetown, 111. 

Miller, Ruth M., Hartwick College, Oneonta, N.Y. 

Miller, William P., President, Weber College, Ogden, Utah 

Milliamson, Florence J., Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OHo 

Milligan, Glenn E., Psychologist, Bd. of Educ., Columbus, Ohio 

Milligan, Phyllis E., 712 Fairlawn Dr., Columbus, Ohio 

Milligan, Scott, Superintendent, Longview School Diet. No, 122, Longview, Wash. 

Milling, Euleas, 29 South Georgia Ave., Concord, N.C. 

Mills, Forrest L., Racine Public Library, Racine, Wk 

Mills, Henry C., University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y. 

Mills, William H v Univ. Elem. Sch., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Milner, Bessie, Principal, East Ward School, Gulfport, Miss. 

Milner, Ernest J., Sch. of Educ., Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y, 


Minor, Geoige D , Superintendent of Schools, Ricamond, Calif. 

Mmicher, G K , Puncipal, \\ nnhmston High School, fcto Paul, Minn 

Mmkler, F W , Director of Education, Lansing, Ontario, Canada 

Minnis, Roy B , Dir. of Adult Educ , State Dept of Educ , Denver, Colo 

Minock, Daniel F., John A Suiter Junior High School, Los Angeles, Calif 

Mmogue, Mildred M , Prm , Annstiong Elcm School, Chicago, 111 

Misnei, Paul J , Superintendent of Schools, Glencoe, 111 

Mitchell, B F , Louisiana State Univ , Baton Rouge, La 

Mitchell, Donald P., Sch of Educ , Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N J, 

Mitchell, Edwaid C, Vice-Pi csulcnt, Morns Biown College, Atlanta, Ga 

Mitchell, 10 va (J , Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va 

Mitchell, Frank W , University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand 

Mitchell, Guy Cliffoid, Dept oi Educ , Mississippi College, Clinton, Miss. 

Mitchell, T W., Pi meipal, East Junioi-Sen High School, Duluth, Minn 

Mitchell William H Olivet Collw Olivft, Mich 

Mitzel, Haiold B , Div of Tehr Educ , 535 E 80th St , New Yoik, N.Y 

Moe, Richard D , Dir , Tchr Educ , Waldoif College, Forest City, Iowa 

Molfatt, Maurice P., Montclair State Tchis. College, Montclair, N J 

Moflitt;, J. C , Superintendent of Schools, Provo, Utah 

Moll, Boniface K M St. Benedicts College, Atchison, Kan 

Monell, Ira H , Principal, Lafayette School, Chicago, 111 

Monell, llaiph P , Superintendent, Public Schools, Canon City, Colo. 

*Monroe, Walter S., 420 Van Buren Ave , Los Altos, Calif. 

Montgomery, Georpjp, Prm , West Philadelphia High School, Philadelphia, Pa 

Montgomery, John, President, Mitchell College, Statesville, N C 

Montgomery, John F , President, CJieeiibner College, Lewisbuig, W Va 

Montgomery, Thomas jS , Sam Houston Stuto Tchrs College, Huntsville, Tex 

Moody, Edith, Elementary Supci \H-or, Richmond, Cahf. 

Moon, James V , Supoimtcndout ot Schoolb, Western Spnngs, 111 

Moozc, Cecil L,, Principal, L. L Campbell School, Austin, Tex 

Mooie, Clvdr B , Stono Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, N Y 

Moore, Edward C., Dept. of Philos , University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 

Moore , Harold K , Sch ot IMue , University of Denver, Denver, Colo. 

Mooro, Jumps II , 215 East Washington Ave., Riverton, Wyo, 

Moore, Orville F , Nebraska Htuto Teachers College, Wayne, Neb 

Moore, Parlett L , Coppin State Teachers College, Baltimoie, Md 

Mooihwui, iSylvoHtri A , Mi. ol Educ., Univ of Mississippi, University, Miss. 

MOOBC, Mrs 'Nation M., 2920 W. Oxford St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Moreau, Rev. Julos L , Seal wry-Western Theological Seminary, Evanston, 111, 

Morgan, Httiton, Dept. of Educ,, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa 

Morgan, Roland K, Swpt. of Schools, Moorrsville, N C 

Morgan, William E. t President, Pnncipia College, Elsah, 111 

Morgart, John H , Principal, Horron Hill Junior High School, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Monarty, Joneph F., 25.5 Van Houten Ave , Passaic, N J. 

Moriarty, Mary J M State Teachers College, Bndgewater, Mass 

Moik, Gordon M A, (/ol. of I^luc , Univ of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn 

Morlan, G, C., Head, Dept of Educ., Abilene Christian Col , Abilene, Tex 

Merrill A, Hood, 8Df> N 2nd St., Provo, Utah 

Morns, Frank K., Emeritus Prof, of Philos , Connecticut Col., New London, Conn. 

Morris, Van Cleve, Col. of Educ., University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 

Morrison, Fanny, 169 Mt. Vemon Street, Dover, N H. 

Morrison, Gaylord D M Colorado State College of Educ., Greeley, Colo. 

^Morrison, J. Caycc, 530 East 23rd St, New York, N.Y. 

Morrison, Lcgcr Roland, 16 Brown St,, Warren, R.L 

Morse, Horace T,, Dean, <jen. Col., Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Mort, Paul, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y 

Morton, R. L., Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 

Mosbo, Alvin 0., Administrative Asst., Public Schools, Danvenport, Iowa. 

Moaeley, 8* Meredith, Principal, Dillard High School, Fort Lauderdale, Fla, 

Moaher, Frank K., Disk Prin., Liverpool Central Schls,, Liverpool, N.Y. 

Mo*ier, Earl E M Dean, Michigan State Normal Col., Ypsilanti, Mich, 


Moskowitz, Sue, Bur, of Educ. Res., Bd oi Ed , 110 Livingston fcit , Btooklyn, N Y 

Moss, Roy B , Dir , Audio- Visual Center, Uiamblmg, La 

Moss, Theodore C , 30 Colhdge Dr , Snyder, N Y. 

Mouner, Regis Paul, 1921 Lee Rd , Cleveland Heights, Ohio 

Moyer, James Herbert, Dept. oi Educ., Penn. State Univ., University Paik, Pa 

Mudge, Evelyn L , Head, Dept, oi Educ , Hood College, Frederick, Md 

Mudge, John, Asst. Dist. Supt , Public Schools, Santa Maria, Cahl 

Mueller, Karl J., 1007 White Oaks Rd., Campbell, Calif. 

Muirhead, Joseph V , Pi in., Pittsburg Evening High School, Pittaburg, Calif. 

Mulhern, Joseph C., S M , Chm , Educ. Dept., Spring Hill College, Mobile, Ala 

Mullet, Philippe, 1'Univ et 1'Ecoie Normale cantonale, Neuchatel, Switzeiland 

Mullmer, John H., 612 North Bismark Are., Webster Groves, Mo. 

Mulrooney, Thomas W , Dir., Child Devel & Quid , Pub. Schls , Wilmington, Del 

Mulry, Verna, Dir of Reading, VVaukesha H S , Waukesha, Wis. 

Munch, T. W., Sutton Hall, University of Texas, Austin, Tex. 

Munro, C Donald, Prin., King Geoige School, Petei borough, Ont 

Munro, Paul M , Superintendent oi Schools, Lynchburg, Va. 

Munson, Alfred W , Stroud Union School Dist., Stroudsburg, Pa. 

Muntyan, Bozidar, Col oi Educ , University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla 

Muntyan, Milosh, Sch. of Educ., Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich 

Murnane, Patrick J , Principal, Newburyport High School, Newbuiyport, Mass. 

Murphy, A C., Asst Dir , Ext. Bureau, University of Texas, Austin, Tex. 

Murphy, Donald J , Central Washington Col of Education, EUensburg, Wash 

Murphy, Edna. Deceased. 

Muiphy, Forrest W., Dean, Sch of Educ , Univ. of Mississippi, University, Miss 

Murphy, George E., Dir , Read Clinic, Penn. State Univ., University Park, Pa 

Murphy, Helen A., Sch. oi Educ , Boston University, Boston, Mass, 

Murphy, Mrs. Jeanme Dean, 1960 West Seventy-ninth St., Los Angeles, Calif. 

Murphy, John A., 21-10 33rd Road, Long Island City, N.Y. 

Murray, Robert E., 1916 South Sig Hill Drive, Ku-kwood, Mo 

Murray, Thomas, Dept of Educ., Sam Houston State Tchrs. Col , Hunteville, Tex 

Myers, Mrs. Emma G,, Orangeville, Columbia County, Pa. 

Myklebust, Per, Volda, Norway 

Nafziger, Mary K., Dept. of Educ., Goshen College, Goshen, Ind. 

Nagle, Oms 0., 21177 Parkcrest, Harper Woods, Mich. 

Nagy, Richard, Principal, Carteret School, Bloomfield, N.J. 

Nahm, Helen, 2 Park Avenue, New York, N.Y. 

Nahshon, Samuel, 1730 Penn Ave , North, Minneapolis, Minn, 

Nakosteen, Mehdi, Indian Hills, Colo. 

Nance, Mrs. Afton Dill, State Dept. of Education, Sacramento, Calif. 

Nance, Ellwood C., President, University of Tampa, Tampa, Fla. 

Naslund, Robert A., Sch. of Educ., Univ. of Southern Calif., Los Angeles, Calif, 

Nason, Dons E,, Dept of Educ , Umv of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn. 

Nassau, Dorothy P t Pedagogical Library, Bd. of Educ , Philadelphia, Pa 

Nasution, Sonmuda, Bur. of Educ. Res., Ohio State Umv,, Columbus, Ohio 

Nault, William H., Educ. Div., Field Enterprises, Inc., Chicago, 111. 

Naumann, M J., Concordia Seminary, Springfield, 111. 

Neal, Nelhe N., 2524 Benvenue Ave , Berkeley, Calif, 

Neale, Gladys E,, Macmillan Company of Canada, Toronto, Ont. 

Neff, Frederick Clifton, Sch. of Educ., Rutgers University. New Brunswick, N J. 

Neiderhiser, F J., Superintendent of Schools, McClure, Ohio 

Nelson, Arthur T., Asst. Superintendent of Schools, Westport, Coma. 

Nelson, Carl B., 2300 Colfax Aye. So., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Nelson, Constance B., University of Kansas City, Kansas City, Mo. 

Nelson, Earl E., Lake County High School, Two Harbors, Minn. 

Nelson, Florence A., Sch. of Educ,, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, S,C. 

Nelson, Kenneth G., UJ3. Navy Pers. Res. Field Activity, Washington, D.C. 

Nelson, Milton G., 16&-19tii Ave., Lake Worth, Fla. 

Nelson, M, J., Iowa State Teachers College, Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Nelaon, N. P., State Teachers College, Oshkosh, Wis. 


Nelson, Willard H., Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Ala. 

Nemzek, Claude L , Ohm , Jbduc Dept , Umv oi Detioil, Detroit, Mich 

Nerbovig, Marcella, Long Beach State College, Long Beach, Calif. 

Nesbit, Daun Wilbur, Pianklm and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pa 

Nesi, Caimella, Pimcipai, Jumoi High School 7, Bronx, NY. 

Netsky, Martin G, Sch. ol Medicine, Wake Foiest Col, Wmston-Salem, N.C. 

Neuber, Margaut A , Pennsylvania State Uurveisily, University Park, Pa 

Neumaiei, John J,, Dean, Hibbmg Junior College, Hibbmg, Minn. 

Neuner, Elsie Flint, Dn of instruction, Dept. ol &duc , JNew Kochelle, N.Y. 

Nevison, Myrne B , Burton Hall, Univeisity of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Newenham, R L , Superintendent of Schools, Zion, 111, 

Newland, Ivenneth E., Stephens College, Columbia, Mo. 

Newman, Herbeit M., Education Dept , Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, N Y. 

Newman, Louis, Pimcipal, Akiba Hebiew Academy, Philadelphia, Pa 

Newsome, George L., University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Newton, W L,, 2640 24th Ave , Meridian, Miss 

Nicholas, William T., 609 Nevada St., Susanville, Calit. 

iSicholb, AugUbla M , A&st Supt oi Schools, Manchester, N H. 

Nichols, James Herbert, Elementary Principal, Christiana, Del. 

Niehaus, Philip C., Sch of Educ., Dusquesne University, Pittsbuigh, Pa 

Nicholson, Alice, 891 10th Ave, .North, Pensacola, Fla. 

Nielsen, William A , Bakersfield High School, Bakerafield, Calif. 

Nietz, Juhn A , Sch oi Educ , University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Nigg, William J., Superintendent of Schools, Litchfield, Minn. 

Nikoloff, Nicholas, 604 Keir St., Springfield, Mo. 

Nishimoto, Mitoji, International Chiistian Univ., Mitaka-Shi, Tokoyo, Japan 

Nixon, John E , Sch of Educ., Stauiurd University, Stanford, Calif. 

Noah, Dennis P., Dept of Educ , Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, La 

Noar, Gertrude, 225 Adams Si , Brooklyn, N Y 

Noll, Victor H., Sch. of Educ., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, Mich. 

Nordberg, H. Orville, Dept. oi Educ , Sacramento State Col , Sacramento, Calif. 

Norem, Grant M., Stale Teachers College, Mmot, N D 

Norford, Charles A , Audio-Visual Cen , Mich. State Univ., East Lansing, Mich 

Norman, Ralph Paul, 518 N. Daniel Way, San Jose, Calif. 

Norman, Wade C., 5619 Maxwell Ave., Attton, Mo 

Norns, Forbes H., Superintendent of Schools, Rockville, Md. 

Norns, K. E,, Prm., Sir George Williams College of Y M.C.A., Montreal, Que. 

Norris, Paul B., Exec. Secy,, Iowa Div. Izaak Walton League, Indianola, Iowa 

Noms, Robert B., Central Bucks Joint Schools, Doylestown, Pa. 

Norm, Loy, Superintendent of Schools, Kalamazoo, Mich 

Norton, Rev. Edward, S.V.D., 4940 South Greenwood Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Norton, John K., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Nosal, Waiter S., Dir., Dept of Educ , John Carroll Umv , Cleveland, Ohio 

Novotny, Marcella, Queens Vocational High School, Long Island City, N Y. 

Nunnally, Nancy, 5916 Monticello Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio 

Nutter, H. E,, Head, Materials of Instrue., Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, Fla 

Nystrom, J* W., Jr., Pembroke Rd., Danbury, Conn. 

Oberhoitzer, Kenneth E., Supt. of Schools, Denver, Colo. 

O'Brien, Cyril C., Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wis. 

O'Brien, Francis J., Superintendent of Schools, North Andover, Mass. 

O'Brien, John W., 24 Dartmouth Circle, Swartnmore, Pa. 

O'Brien, Mae, State Univ, College for Teachers, Buffalo, N.Y 

O'Connell, Sister Margaret Mary, Pres., Col of Notre Dame t Baltimore, Md. 

O'Connor, Clarence D., Lexington Sch. for the Deaf, New York, N.Y. 

O'Connor, John D., Teaching Principal, Hampshire, 111. 

O'Connor, Mrs. Marguerite 0., Northern Illinois State Tchrs Col., DeKalb, 111 

Odell C. W., Col. of Educ., University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

ODonnell, Beatrice, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. 

O'DonnelL Roy C., Box 534, Auburn, Ala, 

Offineer, Kenneth N., 412 Brookwood Dr., Champaign, 111. 


Ogden, J. Gordon, Jr , Dept. of Educ., Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Fla. 

Ogilvie, William K., Northern Illinois State College, DeKaib, ill. 

Ogle, Kachei, Jbidiiklin College, .bianklm, Ind. 

O'Hara, Rev. Charles M,, Maiquette Univeisity, Milwaukee, Wis. 

O'Hearn, Mary, 1060 High Street, Dedham, Mass, 

Ohlsen, Meile M., Col. oi Educ., Umv ol Illinois, Urbana, 111 

Ojemann, K,. H , Child Weliare Kes. Sta , State Umv. oi Iowa, Iowa City, Io\\a 

O'Keeiej Timothy, College oi St Thomas, St Paul, Minn. 

Olander, Herbert T., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsbuigh, Pa. 

Oldfather, R. B., Superintendent of Schools, Painesville, Ohio 

*01dham, Mrs. Birdie V., Piincipal, Eocheile Elem. School, Lakeland, Fla 

Olea, Mrs. Maria, Prm , Dita iSchooi, Dita, Cuenca, Butangas, Philippines 

Olmsted, M D, Cooid oi Sec Educ, Public Schools, Noith Tonawanda, N.Y 

O'Leaiy, Timothy Jb ., Asst. toupt oi Catholic Schools, Boston, Mass 

Oliver, Albert Irving, Jr , Sen of Educ , Umv. oi Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa 

Oliver. George J , Dept oi Educ , Col of William and Mary, Williamsbuig, Va-, 

Oliver, James Willard, Dept. of Philos., Umv. of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 

Oliver, Stanley C., Southwest Missouri State College, Spnngiield, Mo. 

Olphert, Warwick Bruce, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 

Olsen, Hans C , Eastern Illinois State College, Charleston, 111 

Olsen, Hans C., Jr , 1341 Euclid St , Champaign, 111. 

Olfiien, Marion G , Piincipal, Public School 84, Butfalo, N.Y 

Olson, Gilma, Pennsylvania State Umveisity, University Park, Pa. 

Olson, liene, Vocational Guidance Seivice, Minneapolis, Minn 

Olson, Ove S., Head, Dept. of Tchr. Educ , Gustavus Adolphus Col., St, Peter, 


Olson, R. A,, Ball State Teachers College, Muncie, Ind 
Olson, Willard C., Dean, Sch of Educ , Umv. of Mich , Ann Arbor, Mich. 
O'Malley, Sarah, 1039 South Austin Blvd., Chicago, 111. 
O'Mara, Arthur P., Principal, Lane Tech High School, Chicago, 111 
O'Mara, J Francis, Coord m Cur. Develop., Pub Schls., West Springfield, Mass 
Omwake, Eveline B., Child Study Center, Yale University, New Haven, Conn 
O'Nedl, John J., State Teachers College, Boston, Mass. 
Ooley, Everett B., Principal, H. A. Gray School, Edmonton, Alberta 
Oppenheimer, J J , University of Louisville, Louisville, Ky. 
Oppleman, Dan L., Central Washington College of Education, Ellensbuig, Wash. 
Orear, Margaret Louise, Aast Supt., City Schools, Bellflower, Calif. 
Ormsby, Lelia T., Dept of Educ , Sacramento State Col , Sacramento, Calif. 
O'Rourke, J. Mel, Principal, Englewood High School, Chicago, 111. 
On, Louise, 925 Crockett St., Amanllo, Tex 

Orton, Don A , Col. of Educ., University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Osborn, Jesse, 3436 Longfellow Blvd , St. Louis, Mo. 
Osboin, John &,, Central State College oi Education, Mt. Pleasant, Mich. 
Osborn, Wayland W , Board of Education Examiners, Des Moines, Iowa 
Osburn, W. J. Deceased. 

Ostrander, ftavmond H., Supt of Schools, Mineola, N Y. 
Ostwalt, Jay H., Sch of Educ., Univer. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. 
O'Sullivan, Nona R , 340 West St , Randolph, Mass 
Osuna, Pedro, Dist. Supt., Yuba College, Marysville, Calif. 
Oswalt, Edna R,, Head, Dept. of Spec. Educ., Kent State Univ., Kent, Ohio 
Oswalt, William W , Jr., Read. Supv., Lehigh Countv Schools, Allentown. Pa 
Otterman, Lois M , New Haven State Teachers College, New Haven, Conn, 
Otto, Henry J , University of Texas, Austin, Tex 
Otts, John, Asst Superintendent, City Schools, Charlotte, N,C. 
Overstreet, George T., Retned Pirn., Buinett Hip.ii School, Terrell, Tex 
Owen, Mary E , Editor, The Instructor, Dansville, N.Y. 
Owens, Henry G., 13 Clarendon Ave , Sans Souci, Greenville, S 0. 
Owens, Norma !\, Nursing Educ., New York University, New York, NT. 
Owings, Ralph S , Mississippi Southern College, Hattiewburg, Miss, 

Pace, C. Robert, Chm,, Dept, of Psych., Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y. 


Page, Ellis B., Sch. of Educ , University of California, Los Angeles, Calif 

Fame, H W , Inst oi Inter-Amer Aft , Amer Emb , Balboa, Canal Zone 

Painter, Fied B , Supeimtendent, Brighton School Dist 1, Rochester, NY 

Palhser, G. C , Post Office Box 1525, Wellington, New Zealand 

Palmer, Albeit, Dept of Educ , Macalester College, St Paul, Minn 

Palmer, Anne M H , Los Angeles State College, Los Angeles, Calif 

Paimei, Frank J , 208 Church Stieet, North Syiacuse, N Y 

Palmer, James B , Gmn and Company, Boston, Mass 

Palmer, John C., Dir of Guidance, Public Schools, Concord, Mass 

Palmer, Josephine B., State Teachers College, New Paltz, N.Y. 

Palmer, Lulu, State Department of Education, Montgomery, Ala 

Palmquist, Marjone Jane, 2610 Etna St , Berkeley, Calif, 

Pando, Jose C , St John's Univeisity, Brooklyn, N Y. 

Pankove, Mrs. Ethel, 41 Harriet Dr , Princeton, N J. 

Panlasigui, Isidore, Dean, Col of Educ , Univ. of Philippines, Quezon City, 


Papsidero, Joseph, 205 Adclare Rd , Rockville, Md 
Paqum, Lauience G , Board of Education, Glastonbuiy, Conn 
Park, James D , Dir , Tchr Educ , Georgia Teachers College, Collegeboro, Ga 
Parke, Maipaiet B, 430 West HXth St NewYoik NY 
Paiker, Clyde, Superintendent of Schools, Cedar Rapids, Iowa 
Parker, Edna, Florida State University Tallahassee, Fin, 
Parker, Marjone H , Dept of Educ , Miner Teachers College, Washington, D C 
Parker, Milton M , 9 Buttles Aye , Columbus, Ohio 
Paiks, Ethel, Route 2, Calhoun, Mo 
Parkyn, George W., Dir , N. Z. Council for Educ. Research, Wilhngton, New 


Parr, Kenneth E, Hudson Valley Technical Institute, Tioy, NY 
Pairish, William, 215 W Downing Tahlequah, Okla 
Parsons, Robert G , Supt., Wilson Sch. Dist 24, Arlington Heights, 111 
Parsons, Seth H , Dept. oi Educ , New Mexico Highlands Univ , Las Vegas, N M. 
Parton Daisy. Dept of Educ , Univ of Alabama, University, Ala 
Pattudge, Deborah C , Queens College, Flushing, NY 
Pasncha, Bal Rama, National Defence Academy, Clement Town, Dehra Dun, U P 


Passow, A Harry, Teachers Col , Columbia Univ , New York, N Y. 
Pastei, G. Nicholas, Dir., Stud Activ, Roosevelt Univ., Chicago, 111. 
Pate, Mildred, East Carolina College, Greenville, N C 
Patrick, Robert B , Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa 
Pattee, Howard Hunt, P.O. Box 1211, Los Altos, Calif. 
Patten, Ruth II , General Supv , Public Schools, Richmond, Calif 
Patterson, Allen D., State Teachers College, Lock Haven, Pa 
Patterson, Gordon 10 , JRea Dir , Santa Fe City Schools, Santa Fe, N M 
* Patterson, Herbert Oklaltoma A fr M Collect Rtillwatei, Okla 
Patteson, Marilyn, 3001 Montana St , El Paso, Tex 
Pattison, Mattie, Dept of Home Econ., Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa 
Paul, Marvin 8 , 1354 Estes Ave., Chicago, III 
Paulson, Alice T., Principal, High School, Blue Earth, Minn. 
Pauly, Frank R , Dir of Ros., Board of Educ , Tulsa, Okla. 
Pavel, Harriet, Greolov Vocational School. Chicftejo 111 
Pax, Rev. Walter, Chm , Dept of Educ , DePaul University, Chicago, 111 
Payne, Donald T, Methodist Mission, International P.O. Box 1182, Seoul, Korea 
Payne, Walter L , Lyons Township .Tumor College, La Grange, 111. 
Paynovich, Nicholas, Amphil heater High School, Tucson, Ariz. 
Pen cock, A E., flupt of Schools, Moose Jaw, Sask 
Pearson, Jim, 738 Champagneur Ave , Outremont, Quebec, Canada 
Pearson, John C., Principal, Deer Path School, Lake Forest, III 
Pearson, Millie V., Oklahoma A. & M. College, Still-water, Okla. 
Peaslee, Donald E., Col. of Educ., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Peel, J. C,, Dean, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Fla. 
Peirce, Lottie M,, Educ, and Vocational Counselor, Boulder, Colo. 


Pella, Milton O , Univ High School, Umv of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Pelton, Frank M , Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, R I 

Pelton, Warren J , Bowling Green University, Bowling Green, Ohio 

Perm, Floy L , Mt Lebanon Public Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa 

Perdew, Philip W University of Denver, Denvei , Colo. 

Peregrine, Donald, Superintendent, Starke County Schools, Knox, Ind 

Perkins, Mrs Pearl P , Tougaloo Southern Christian Col , Tougaloo, Miss 

Perlmutter, Oscar W , St. Xavier College, Chicago, 111. 

Perrm, Porter G , Dept of English, Univ of Wash , Seattle, Wash 

Perry, Elizabeth W , 1588 Beacon Stieet, Brooklme, Mass 

Perry, James Olden, Dept of Educ , Texas Southern University, Houston, Tex 

Perry, W, D , University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. 

Perry, Wmona M , Univ of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb 

Peters, Frank R., 369 Chatham Rcl , Columbus, Ohio 

Peters, Jon S , Sch of Educ , Stanford University, Stanford, Calif 

Petersen, Fred J., University of South Dakota, Vcrmilhon, S D. 

Peterson, Aaron Dean, R.R. No 2, Villa Ridge, Godfrey, 111 

Peterson, A. I , Supv. of Indian Education, Bemidji, Mmn. 

Peterson, Arthur E,, Supt of Schools, Sandy City, Utah 

Peterson, Elmer T , Col of Educ , State Univ of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Peterson, Evelyn F , Dir of Elem Educ , Waterloo, Iowa 

Peterson, Laurine, Luther College, Wahoo, Neb, 

Peterson, LeRoy, Sch of Educ., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WIP 

Peterson, M A., Orleans, Mmn. 

Peterson, Miriam E , Dir., Div. of Libraries, Public Schools, Chicago, 111 

Peterson, Wilev K , Dist Supt , Public Schools, Hermo^a Beach, Calit 

Pettiss, J. , Dept. of Educ , Louisiana State Umv , Baton Rouge, La. 

Petty, Walter T., Sacramento State College, Sacramento, Calif. 

Pezzullo, Thomas J , Asst Supt , Johnston School Dept , Johnston, R I, 

Pfau, Ed, Sch. of Educ , Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. 

Pfau, John M,, Chicago Teachers College, Chicago, 111 

Phay, John E , Bur of Educ Res , Univ of Mississippi, University, Mi^s 

Phearman, Leo T., Long; Beach State College, Long Beach Onlif 

Phenix, Philip H., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Phillips, A J , Exec Secy., Mich Educ Assn , Lansmg, Mich. 

Phillips, Claude Anderson, Switaer Hall, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, "\fo 

Phillips, Gene David Bethany College, Bethany, W Va. 

Phillips, Murray G., 5 Target Lane, Lewittown, N.Y. 

Phillips, Thomas A., 203 East Park St., Marquette, Mich. 

Philp, William A , P 0. Box 965, Mt Union Station, Alliance, Ohio 

Phipps, George C., Principal, J. N. Thorp Elem. School, Chicago, 111. 

Piazza, Frank, Asst. Superintendent, Board of Education, Bridgeport, Conn 

Picchiotti, Natalie, Prm., Schley School, Chicago, III 

Pickering Iva Viola, Friends TJmyemtv, Wichita, Kan. 

Piekarz, Josephine A , Read Clinic, Univ of South Carolina, Columbia S C, 

Pierson, Mrs Doris A,, 1227 N E, Amsworth St., Portland, Ore. 

Pierson, Leroy R., Portland State Extension Center, Milwaukie, Oro 

Pietz, Emil T , 4444 Irving St., Denver, Colo 

Pike, Carroll Milton, Jr Northern 111 State Tchre Col, D>Knlh, Til 

Pikunas, Justin, Psych Dept., University of Detroit, Detroit, Mich. 

Pinckney, Paul W., Principal, Oakland Hidi School, Oakland Palif. 

Pinkston, J. S., State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Fla. 

Pitkin, Royce S., President, Goddard College, Plainfield, Vt, 

Pitt, Rt, Rev. Magr , Sec,, Catholic School Board. Louisville, Ky, 

Pittard, James R., Principal, High School, Tuscaloosa, Ala. 

Pittman, DeWitt Kenmeth, Prin,, E. Mecklenburg Sr. High SchL, Matthews, N.C. 

Pitts, Clara L., 1705 Kenyon St., N W.. Washington, D.C. 

Plana, Juan F , Province Inspector of Prim. Inert , Camapruev, Cuba 

Platz, Marvin H., San Diego State College, San Diego, Calif. 

Pledger, Maud Myrtice, East Texas State Tchrs Col, Commerce, Tex 

Plemmons, William H., Appalachian State Teachers College, Boone, N. C- 


Plimpton, Blair, Superintendent of Schools, Park Ridge, 111 

Pliska, Stanley Robert, Norfolk Div , Col of William and Mary, Noifolk, Va 

Plog, Edward L , 6 Park PI , Poughkeepsie, N.Y. 

Plog, Lawrence T., Kingston High School, Kingston, N Y 

Plumb, Valwoith R., Div of Educ , Duluth Br., Univ. of Minn , Duluth, Minn 

Plummer, Violin Gustavius, Oakwood College, Huntsville, Ala 

Podlich, William F., Jr , Arizona State College, Tempe, Ariz 

Pogue, Graham, Dn of Stud Tcnng , Ball State TVhrs Col , Muncie, Ind 

Polglase, Robert J , Vice-Prm., Bloomfield Junior High Sch , Bloomfield, N. J. 

Pollak, William A , 538 W. Belmont, Chicago, 111 

Polley, Mrs. Victoria Z., Principal, Evershed School, Niagara Falls, N.Y. 

Pond, Millard Z , Superintendent of Schools, Burlington, Iowa 

Poole, Albert E , 214 N. Washmgfiton Circle, Lake Forest, 111. 

Porter, F W., Supt. of Schools, Greenfield, Mass 

Porter, R. E., Steck Company, Austin, Tex 

Porter, Willis P , Dir., Elem Educ., State Teachers College, Oneonta, N Y 

Potter, Muriel, Michigan State Normal College, Ypsilanti, Mich. 

Potter, Willis N., College of the Pacific, Stockton, Calif. 

Potthoff , Edward F., Col. of Educ,, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, III. 

Poulos, Thomas H , Michigan School for the Deaf, Flint, Mich 

Poulter, Maxwell W., University of Queensland, St Lucia Brisbane, Australia 

Pound, Clarence A., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind, 

Pounds, Ralph L., Teachers Col., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Powell, Mrs, Virginia L., Prin , Garfield-Buchanan Schls., Steubenville, Ohio 

Power, Edward J., 20235 Prevost, Detroit, Mich. 

Powers, Fred R., Superintendent, Amherst Schools, Amherst, Ohio 

Pratt, L. Edward, Sch. of Educ , Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Tex 

Prentis, Roy C., 224 Burton Hall, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Preston, Eleonora Mane, Los Angeles State College, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Preaton, Ralph C , Sch of Edue , Univ of Penn , Philadelphia, Pa 

Prestwood, Elwood L . 426 Righters Mill Rd., Gladwyne, Pa. 

Prewett, Clinton R., East Carolina College, Greenville, N. C. 

Price, R. Holleman, University of Mississippi, University, Miss 

Price, Robert Diddams, Teachers College, T T mv. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Price, Robert R., Dept, of Agric. Educ., Okla. A. <fe M. Col, Stillwater, Okla. 

Pnce, Ruth Evert, Language Arts Collaborator, Public Schools, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Price, Uberto, Appalachian State Teachers College, Boone, N C. 

Pri chard, Clarence, Superintendent, Township High School, Waukegan, 111 

Prior, Fern C., Lewis-Clark Normal School, Lewiston, Idaho 

Probst, Joseph S , 60 Florence Ave M Buffalo, NT. 

Proctor, Bernard S , Florida A. & M University, Tallahassee, Fla 

Prudham. W. M , Prin., Collegiate and Vocational Inst , Owen Sound, Ont, 

Prushaneky, Leonard, Henry Abbott Technical Institute, Danbury, Conn. 

Prutzman, Stuart E , Superintendent of County Schools, Jim Thorpe, Pa 

Pugh, Sterling B., Prin,, Washington School, New Rochelle, N.Y. 

Pulsifer, Walter T., Sup. Massachusetts School Union 62, West Boylston, Mass 

Purdy, Norman E., Principal, Blue Ash School, Blue Ash, Ohio 

Purdy, Ralph D., Dept. of Educ., Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 

Puryear, R. W., Pres , Florida Normal and Indust Mem, Col, St. Augustine, Fla 

Quanbeck, Martin, Dean, Augsburg College, Minneapolis, Minn 
Quanbeck, Thor H., Dept. of Educ., Waldorf College, Forest City, Iowa 
Quick, Otho J., Northern Illinois State College, DeKalb, 111. 
Quish, Bernard A , Prin., Phoebe Apperson Hearst School, Chicago, 111 

Rabban, Meyer, Dir., The Windword School, White Plains, N.Y. 
Radhakrishna, K, S , Hindustani Talimi Sangh,, Sevapram, Wardha, M.P M India 
Ragan, William B. T Dept. of Educ., University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla 
Rann, Lloyd N M Siepert Hall, Bradley University, Peoria, 111. 
Raraj M. Jaya, Page Hall, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 
Razmre*, Emiliano C., 278 Querino Ave., Parangue, Rizal, Philippines 


Ramsey, Grover C., 4136 Washington Blvd , Chicago 24, IU. 

Ramsey, J. W , Principal, Superioi-Maitland School, Noithiork, W Va 

Ramseyer, John A , Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

Ramseyer, Lloyd L , President, Blufften College, Blutf ten, Ohio 

Rand, E W., (Southern Univeisity, Baton Rouge, La 

Randall, Edwin H , Western State College, Gunmson, Colo 

Randall, William M , Dean, Wilmington College, Wilmington, N C. 

Randolph, Victor, Southern Illinois Univeisity, Caibondale, 111. 

Rankm, George K , South Division Hi,<>h School, Milwaukee, \\ is 

Rankin, Paul T , Asst. Supt of Schools, Detroit, Mich 

Ranney, Harriet, Upper Iowa Univeisity, Fuyette, Iowa 

Rappaport, Mary B , State Education Depaitment, Albany, N Y. 

Ranck, Rada, Panhandle A & M College, Goodwell, Okla 

Rasche, William F , Dn , Milwaukee Vocational School, Milwaukee, \\ it- 

Rasmussen, Elmer M., Dean, Dana College, Blair, Neb 

Rasmussen, Glen R, Univ. of Michigan Ext. Service, Flint, Mich 

Rattigan, Bernard T , Catholic Univeisity oi Ameiica, Washington, D C 

Raubmger, F M , Commissioriei of Educ , State Dept of Edin- Ticnlou N J 

Rauch, Walter E , Westchester Community College, White Plains, N.Y. 

Rawson, K. O , Superintendent of Schools, Clinton ville, Wis. 

Ray, Ethel, Dept of Educ , Western Illinois State College, Macomb, III. 

Ray, Rolland, Col of Educ , State Univ of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Ready, Mrs Mathew J , 9 Passaic Ave , Summit, N.Y. 

Reals, Willis H , Dean, Univ Col , Washington University, St. Louis, Mo 

Reas, Herbert D , Act. Dean, Sch of Education, Seattle Univ,, Seattle, Wash 

Red, S. B , University of Houston, Houston, Tex 

Reed, Helen M , Col of Educ , Univeisity of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky 

Reed, Lula B , County Supt of Schools, Red Oak Iowa 

Reed, Richard Y , University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla 

Reeves, Floyd W , Sch of Educ , Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, Mich 

Reeves, Mrs Miriam G , State Department of Education, Baton Rouge, La. 

Reeves, Wilfred, Prin., Roosevelt School, Olyrapia, Wash 

Rehage, Kenneth J , Dept. of Educ , University of Chicago, Chicago, 111 

Reichert, Stephen B Jr , John Muir College, Pasadona, Calif. 

Reiffel, Mrs Sophie M , Principal, Von Steubcn High School, Chicago, 111 

Reifsnyder, Rev. John A , 9 East 12th St , Covmgton, Ky. 

Reilley, Albert G , Asst Supt of Schools, Fraranigham, Mas*. 

Reilly, James J , Chm,, Dept of Educ , St AnseluVs College, Manchester, N 11 

Remhardt, Emma, Eastern Illinois State College, Charleston, 111 

Reism, Seymour, 332 West 83rd St , New York, N.Y. 

Reiter, M. R , Superintendent of Schools, Mornsville, Pa 

Reitze, Arnold W , 3 Lienau Place, Jersey City, N J. 

Reller, Theodore L., Sch of Educ , University of California, Berkeley, Calif 

Remmers, Herman, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind 

Remon, Marion E., Dir, Elem Educ , Public Schools, Molroso, Mass. 

Renard, John N , Oxnnrd Union High School, Oxwml. Calif, 

Renner, G. I , Dean, Elgin Community College, Elgin, III 

Renouf, Edna M., Prm., Scenic Hills School, Springfield, Pa 

Resek, E. Frederick, Principal, Bridge Elem. School, Chicago, III, 

Reuter, George S., Jr , Head, Dopt. of Edut\, Arkansas A. & M. CoL, College 

Heights, Ark. 

Reynolds, James W., Col. of Educ , Univormty of Texan, Austin, Tox. 
Reynolds, Maynard C,, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Rhode, Jerome E , Pirn , Hicft School, Milara, Minn 
Rhodes, L. H , Principal, Central Elem School, Alamogordo, N. M. 
Rice, Arthur H , Mang Edilor, Nation's Schools, Chicago, III. 
Rice, Charles, Springfield College, Springfield, Mass, 
Rice, Ralph Samuel, Siipv. Prm,, Noith Hills Joint Schla , Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Rice, Roy C. T Dept of Educ , Arizona State College, Tempe. Am. 
Rice, Theodore D., Sch. of Educ , New York University, New York, N, Y. 
Richards, Henry M. M., Dean of Faculty, Muhlenberg Col, Allentown, Pa 


Richardson, John S , Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

Richardson, L 8 , Sup , A & M Consolidated Schls., College Station, Tex 

Richaidson, Orvm T , Prof of Educ , Washington Univ., St. Louis, Mo. 

Richardson, Thomas H , Principal, High School, Attleboro, Mass. 

Kichey, Heiinan U , Dept oi Educ , Umveisity of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Richey, Robert W., Sch. of Educ , Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

Richman, Seymour, 14 East Cheshire PI , Staten Island, N. Y 

Riday, George E , Aldeison-Broaddus College, Philippi, W Va. 

Rider, Chester G , fcJupenntendent ol Schools, Concoid, Aik 

Ridgway, Helen A , State Dept. of Educ , Hartford, Conn 

Riedel, Maik T , Superintendent, Sehool Dist 41, Glen Ellyn, 111. 

Riethmiller, Gorton, 12541 Second Ave , Highland Park, Mich 

Riggle, Earl L , Muskmgum College, New Concord, Ohio 

Riggb, Edwon L , 2fcJ02 L McDowell St., Phoenix, Ariz 

Rikkola, V John, Dept. of Educ , State Teachers College, Salem, Mass 

Rinsland, Henry D., Dept of Educ , University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla 

Riordan, Sister Doiothv Mane. College of St Elizabeth, Convent Station, N J 

Risinger, Robeit G , Col of Educ , Umveisity of Maryland, College Park, Me 

liibk, rhomdb M , Dept of Educ , Umv oi South Dakota, Verrnillion, S.D. 

Ritchie, Harold L , Prin., Memonal School, North Haledon, N.J. 

Ritchie, Harold 8., Asst Superintendent of Schools, Paterson, N J 

Rivhn, Harry N , Chm , Dept of Educ , Queens College, Flushing, N Y. 

Roach, Stephen F., Man. Editor, Eastern School Law Review, Jersey City, N J. 

Robbms, Edward T , Supt , Alamo Heights School Dist , San Antonio, Tex. 

Robbms, Irving, Queens College, Flushing, N Y. 

Roberson, James A , Prm , Larnar and Valley View Schools, Abilene, Tes. 

Roberts, J B , Head, Dept of Educ., West Texas State College, Canyon, Tex. 

Robertson, Minns S , Col of Educ , Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, La 

Robertson, Walter J , Supeuntendent of City Schools, Las Vegas, N M. 

Robinette, Walter R,., LaGrange College, LaGrange, Ga 

Robinson, Alice, Board of Education, Rockville, Md 

Robinson, Cliff, 561 Rose St., Salem, Ore. 

Robinson, H. E , Dir., Spec. Educ., Texas Education Agency, Austin, Tex, 

ftohmaon, Mrs Helen M , Dept ot Educ , Umv of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Robinson, Richard R., Superintendent of Schools, Trenton, N J, 

Robinson, Roy E , Superintendent oi Schools, Ferndale, Mich 

Robinson, Thomas L., Alabama State College, Montgomery, Ala. 

Rohmson, William McK., Western State College, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Roblee, Dana B , 5510 24th Avenue, Washington, D C 

Rocchio, Patrick D., Long Beach City College, Long Beach, Calif. 

Rochte, Newton C , University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 

Rock, Eleanor H , 4303 Bedford Ave , Brooklyn, N Y. 

Rodgers, John , Head, Dept. of Educ,, Southwestern Univ., Georgetown, Tex 

Rodriguez-Diaz, M., Allied University, Alfred, N Y 

Roeder, Jesse N , Supt of Schools, Palmerton, Pa 

Roenigk, Elsie Mac, RD No 1, Box 43, Cabot, Pa 

Roesch, Winston L. ? 143 Bostwick Ave. N E , Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Rogers, John D , Prin , Mt. Lebanon Elem Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa 

Rogers, Virgil M., Dean, Sch, of Educ , Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y. 

Rohan, William, Asst. Prm., Columbus School, Chicago, 111 

Rohrbach, Q A W., Pies, State Teachers College, Kutztown, Pa. 

Rolfe, Howard C,, 9195 Barnett Valley Rd,, Sebastopol, Calif, 

Rollins, William B , Jr , 7772 Otto Street, Downey, Calif. 

Rollins, Willis R,, 15 Rose Brook Rd , West Hartford, Conn. 

Romano, Louis, 1701 East Capitol Dr., Shorewood, Wis. 

Romney, Miles C., University of Oregon, Eugene, Ore. 

Rooney, Edward B., Exec. Dir., Jesuit Educ, Assn., New York, N.Y. 

Rose Miriam, Sister, Holy Name College, Spokane, Wash 

Rosebrock, AJlan F., State Department of Education, Trenton, N J, 

Rosemarie Julie, Sister, Educ. Dept., Col. of Notre Dame, Belmont, Calif. 

Rosenbluh, Benjamin J, Principal, Central High School, Bridgeport, Conn. 


Rosenlah, George W., Dean of Admissions, Umv. of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb 

Rosenthal, Alan G., 26 Leslie PI , New Rochelle, N Y. 

Roswell, Florence G. : City College Education Clinic, New York, N Y. 

Roth, Bernard, 180 East Ib3rd St , Bronx, N Y. 

Roth, Bermce, Dir., Test Serv., No 111 State Tchrs. Col , DeKalb, 111 

Roth, Julian B , Los Angeles State College, Los Angeles, Calif 

Rothstein, Jerome H , San Francisco State College, San Francisco, Calif. 

Rothwell, Angus B , Superintendent of Schools, Mamtowoc, W is 

Rousseve, Charles B , Principal, Johnson Locett School, New Oileanb, La 

Rowland, Albert L., 10 Surrey Rd., Melrose Park, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rowland, Loyd W., Dir., Louisiana Assoc. for Mental Health, New Orleans, La 

Rowland, Sydney V., Temple Univeisity, Philadelphia, Pa 

Rowley, Judge K , Dept. of Educ., Morns Biown College, Atlanta, Ga. 

Rowntree, Urwm, Dir. of Educ , Blown and Sharpe Mig. Co , Providence, R I 

Roye, Leon Stansbury, Prm., Havre de Grace Consolidated Sch , Havre de 

Grace, Md. 

Rubinstein, Samuel R , 6 Stuyvesant Oval, Stuyvesant Town, New Yoik, N Y 
Ruckman, Stanley V., Oregon College of Education, Monmouth, Ore 
Ruddell, Arden K., Col of Educ., Umv of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Rudisill, Mabel, Dept. of Educ., Duke University, Durham, N. C. 
Rudman, Herbert C., Sch. of Educ., University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C 
Rudolf, Kathleen Brady, Monroe High School, Rochester, N Y 
Ruffner, Ralph W., 7213 Delfield St , Chevy Chase, Md. 
Rugen, Mabel E., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Rugg, Earl U., Head, Div, of Educ , Colorado State Col. of Educ., Greeley, Colo 
Rugg, Harold, Woodstock, N.Y. 

Rugh, Dwight, USOM-Israel, c/o American Embassy, Tel Aviv, Israel 
Rulon, Phillip J , Peabody House, 13 Kirkland St., Cambridge, Mass 
Ruman, Edward L., Dept. of Tchg , Iowa State Tchrs. College, Cedar Falls, Iowa 
Rumsey, Mary H., Hanmbal-LaGiange College, College Heights, Hannibal, Mo 
Rung, Wilbur K., Senior High School, Altoona, Pa. 
Runyan, Charles S., Marshall College, Huntmgton, W. Va. 
Ruppert, Ethel C., Hawthorne Elem. School, Baltimore, Md. 
Rusch, Reuben R , State University Teachers College, Oneonta, N.Y. 
Russel, John H,, University of Denver, Denver, Colo. 
Russell, David H., Sch. of Educ , University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 
Russell, Earle S , Superintendent of Schools, Windsor, Conn. 
Russell, Edward J , Superintendent of Schools, Pittsfield, Mass. 
Russell, James L , Dean, Grad. Div., West Texas State College, Canvon, Tex. 
*Russell, John Dale, Chancellor and Exec. Sec , Bd of Educ. Fin., Santa Fe, N M 
Russell, Robert D., Punahou School, Honolulu, Hawaii 
Rutledge, James A , University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 
Rux, David Alan, Wisconsin State College, Oshkosh, Wis. 
Ryan, Carl J , Dean, Tchrs Col., Athenaeum of Ohio, Cincinnati, Ohio 
Ryan, Chester M., 2306 Indian Trail, Durham, N.C. 
Ryan, Eunice G,, 442 Cherokee Blvd., St. Paul, Minn 
Ryan, Francis A M Sch. of Eciuc., Fordham University, New York, N Y 
Ryan, W. Carson, Dept. of Educ., Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. N.C, 
Ryan, Rev. William D., Assoc. Dean, St. Stanislaus Bern., Florissant, Mo. 
Ryden, Einar, Biology Annex, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind, 

Sabik, Adolph J., Principal, Franklin School, East Chicago, Ind. 

Sachs, Moses B , Rabbi, Am Echod Synagogue, Waukegan, 111. 

Sahai, Prem Nath, Headmaster, SJD. Tchrs. Trng. Inst., Baijnath, Punjab. India 

St. Lawrence, Francis, 7102 Vanport Ave., Whittier, Calif, 

St. Lawrence, Mother, Rosemont College, Rosemont, Pa. 

Salinger, Herbert E., 2933 Sunrise Dr., Napa, Calif 

Salmons, George B., Plymouth Teachers College, Plymouth, N.H. 

Salsbury, Jerome C., Dir. of Curric., Board of Educ,, Bloomfield, N,J. 

Salser, G, Alden, Principal, Mayberry School, Wichita, Kan. 

Salten, David G., Supt, of Schools, Long Beach, N.Y. 


Samonte, Soledad E , Philippine Noimal College, Manila, Philippines 

Samson, Gordon E , Educational Policies Commission, Washington, D.C. 

Samson, Ruth D , 432 S Curson Ave , Los Angeles, Calif 

Sand, Ole, Dept. of Educ , Wayne University, Detroit, Mich. 

Sanders, Richaid H., 10689 Drew St , Chicago, 111. 

Sanders, William J , Supt of Schools, iSprmgneld, Mass 

Sanderson, Arnold T , Principal, High School, Worthmgton, Minn 

Sanford, Charles W., Col of Educ., University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Sansone, A R , Principal, Kelly High School, Chicago, 111. 

Sartam, Hairy W , Dir ot Curnc. <fc Research, Roseviile Schls , St Paul, Minn 

Sattler, Wilhelmina F , 1260 E. 84th St , Cleveland, Ohio 

Sauer, Dorothy V., Dept of Educ., Chicago Tchrs. Col., Chicago, 111 

Saunders, Raymond J. Deceased, 

Sausjord, Gunnar, Div. of Educ., San Francisco State Col., San Francisco, Calif. 

Sauvam, Walter H , Dept. ol Educ., Bucknell Umveisity, Lewisburg, Pa 

Savage, Tom K , Austin Peay State College, Clarksville, Tenn 

ttawm, Philip Q , Univeisitv oi \\ isconsm, Madison, \Vit> 

Sax, Gilbert, 17S9 Alvira St , Los Angeles, Calif. 

Saylor, Ciuileb F , Superintendent oi Schools, Jeanette, Pa 

Saylor, Galen, Dept. of Educ , Umveisity ot Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb 

Scales, Eldridge E , Fort Valley State College, Fort Valley, Ga. 

Scanlun, U ilium J , Principal Cential Hmh school, St Paul, Minn 

Scanlon, Kathryn I , Sch. of Educ., Fordham University, New York, N Y. 

Scates, Douglas E , Col of Educ , University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla 

Schaadt, Lucy G., Cedar Ciest College, Allentown, Pa. 

Schaefer, Fiances M., 7937 Paxton Ave , Chicago, 111 

Schaefer, Robeit J., Chm , Dept. of Educ , Washington Univ., St. Louis, Mo 

Schari, Louis, 570 Letterts Ave , Brooklyn, N.Y 

Schenke, Lahron H., Dept of Educ , Drury College, Springfield, Mo 

Schettler, John D , Isaac School, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Schlegel, Miriam A , Dept of Educ., Juaniata College, Huntmgton, Pa. 

Schlichtmg, Harry F., University oi Tulsa, Tulsa, Okla. 

Schmidt, Austin G , Chm., Dept of Educ , Loyola Umv , Chicago, 111. 

Schmidt, Carl J., 205 South Wyoming St., Hazleton, Pa 

Schmidt, L. G. H., Headmaster, Tech. Sch., Roseberg, New South Wales 

Schmidt, Milton W., Concordia Teachers College, River Forest, 111. 

Schmidt, Ralph L W., Box 7703, University Station, Baton Rouge, La. 

Schmidt, William S., County Superintendent of Schools, Upper Marlboro, Md 

Schmitt, Irvin H , 4808 South Thirtieth St., Arlington, Va 

Schnabel, Robert V., Asst Supt. of Educ., Lutheran Chuich, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Schneider, Renata, Gethsemane Lutheran School, St. Paul, Minn, 

Schneyer, J. Wesley, Read. Clmic, Umv, of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Schmtzen, Joseph P., 1334 Monroe St., N.E., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Schoeller, Arthur W , Wisconsin State College, Milwaukee, Wis, 

Schoen, Lloyd R., Bob Jones University, Greenville, S. C* 

Schoolcraft, Arthur A,, West Virginia Wesleyan College, Buckhannon, W Va. 

Schooler, Virgil E., Indiana University, Bloqmington, Ind 

Schooling, Herbert W., Dept. of Educ., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Schott, M S., Central Missouri State College, Warrensburg, Mo. 

Schreiber, Herman, 80 Clarkson Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Schroedcr. Elroy H., Superintendent of Schools, Grand Forks, N.D. 

Schrupp, M H,, San Diego State College, San Diego, Calif. 

Schueler, Herbert, l>pt. of Educ., Queens College, Flushing, N.Y 

Schultz, Frank G., South Dakota State College, Brookmgs, SD. 

Schunert, Jim R,, San Diego State College, San Diego, Calif 

Schutz, Richard E., 512 West 122nd St., New York, N.Y. 

Schutz, Seymour, 246 West End Ave , New York, N.Y. 

Schuyler, Helen K., Kansas State Tohrs. College, Pittsburg, Kan. 

Schwanholt, Dana B., Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 

Schwartz, Alfred, Sch. of Educ,, University of Delaware, Newark, Del. 

Schwartz, William P., Principal, Caton School, Brooklyn, N.Y, 


Schwarz, A. R , Chm., Dept of Educ., North Central Col, Naperville, III 

bchwaizenberger, Allied J , Jetieison iSchooi, Medtoid, \Vis. 

Scobey, Mary-Margaiet, ISch oi Educ , tiyiacuse University, Syiacuse, N Y. 

Scott, Cecil Winfield, New Haven State Teachers College, New Haven, Conn 

Scott, Frances Aliene, State Dept of Education, Charleston, W, Va. 

Scott, Guy, 919 Oxford Dr , Empona, Kan 

Scott, Helen Elizabeth, Rhode Island College of Education, Pi evidence, R.I 

Scott, Jeanne E., Central Missouri State College, Warrensburg, Mo 

Scott, Owen, College of Educ , Univeisity oi Georgia, Athens, (la 

Scott, Walter E , Supt , Tantasqua Regional School Dist , Sturbndge, Mass 

Scott, Walter VV , JSupt ol tichoolb, Holland, Mich 

Scritchfield, Floyd C , University of Denver, Denver, Colo. 

Scnvner, Perry D., Dept of Educ , Southwestern University, Memphis, Tenn. 

Seagoe, May V , tich ot tlduc , Univeisity oi (Jaliioinia, Lot. Angeles, (Jalit. 

Searles, Warren B., 467 Central Park West, New York, N.Y. 

Seais, J. B , Professoi Emeritus ot Educ., Stantord Univeisity, Stanfoid, Calif 

Seaton, Donald F., Supt. of Schools, Boono, Iowa 

Seay, Maurice F., Kellogg Foundation, Battle Creek, Mich. 

Sechler, Hazel, 800 West Eighth Ht , Silver City, N M 

Segel, David, U S Office of Education, Washington, D. C. 

Segner, Esther F., Women's Col , Umv, of North Carolina, Greensboio, N C. 

Seidel, Vaughn D , Supt , Alameda County Schools, Oakland, Catil 

Seidlm, Joseph, Dean, Grad School Allied Uimeisity, Alfred, N Y. 

Self, David, Supt., Butler County Board of Education, Greenville, Ala. 

Selke, Erich, Dept ol Educ , Umv oi Noith Dakota, Grand Forks, N.D 

Selleck, E R , Supt of Schools, Dist 98, Berw\n, 111 

Sensibar, Judith Jay, 4900 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, 111 

Serge, Henrietta E., New Haven State Teachers College, New Haven, Conn. 

Serviss, Trevor 1C,, L. W. Singer Co , Syiacuse, N.Y. 

Setzepiandt, A H., Asst Supt. m chg. oi Elem. Educ , Tulsa, Okla. 

Seubert, Eugene E., Dept of Educ , Washington Umv , St. Louis, Mo. 

Seville, George C , 134 Newcomb Road, Tenafly, N J. 

Sexton, Wray E , 23 Hoffman St., Maplewood, N J. 

Seyfert, Warren C., Milwaukee Country Day School, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Shack, Jacob H , Asst. Supt , Curr. Div , Board of Educ., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Shaffer, R. D., Superintendent of Schools, Muncie, Ind. 

Shales, J. M , Ball State Teachers College, Muncie, Ind 

Shane, Harold G., Sch of Educ , Northwestern University , Evanston, 111 

Shannon, Ernest B , Dean of Students, Bethanv-Peniel College, Bethany, Okla 

Shannon, Gail, Col, of Educ , University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 

Shannon, MacRae, Principal, Ottawa Twp High School, Ottawa, 111. 

Shaplin, Judson T., 182 Upland Rd , Cambridge, Mass. 

Shappelle, Rev. James, 5440 Moeller Ave., Noiwood, Ohio 

Sharhp, Lou N , Principal, Ludlow School, Philadelphia, Pa 

Shattuck, George E , Prm., Norwich Fiee Academy, Norwich, Conn. 

Shaw, Archibald B , Supt of Schools, Scarsdale, N'Y 

Shaw, William Henry, Supt., Muscogee County School Dist., Columbus, Ga. 

Shay, Caileton B., 12567 Everglade tit , Los Angeles, Calif. 

Shea, James T., Dir of Research, School Dist , fcJan Antonio, Tex 

Sheehan, Rosemary, Prm,, Woodrow Wilson Jr. High School, Tulsa, Okla 

Sheldon, Muriel, Supv of Counseling, Div of Sec. Kchic., Los Angeles, Calif. 

Sheller, H. Lynn, Dir , Fullerton Junior College, Fullerton, Calif. 

Shelly, Colsm R , Principal, Lafayette School Lancaster, Pa 

Shelton, Nolhe W., Supt., Camden County Schools, Camden, N. C. 

Shepard, Lorame V., Col. of Educ.. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, Mich. 

Shepard, Robert H., Spicer Memonal College, Kirkee, Poona, India 

Shepard, Samuel, Jr., Dir,, Elem Educ., Board of Education, St. Louis, Mo. 

Shepherd, Gerald Q., Dept. of Educ., Los Angeles State CoL, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Sherer, Lorraine, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Sheridan, Marion C , Head. Ens:. Dept , High School New Haven, Conn. 

Sherman, Neil, Supv,, Upper Elem. Grades, Dist No. 1, Phoenix, Ariz. 


Shigley, E Harold, Marion College, Marion, Ind 

Shine, Joseph B , 9238 youth Bishop St ("hie-ago. 111 

Shipka, Eiml, 361 University Village, Minneapolis, Mmn 

Shires, H , Director, Porterville College, Porteiville, Calif. 

Shoemaker, Francis, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N Y 

Shoemaker, F L , 15 Woodside Dr , Athens, Ohio 

Shoies, J Harlan, Col. of Educ., University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Short, James E Dept of Educ . Montana Mate Univ Missoula Mont 

Shreve, Robeit H, Principal, Airowhead High School, Haitland, Wis 

Shrewsbury, Thomas B., San Francisco State College, San Francisco, Calif. 

* Sias, A B , Protessor Ementus, Ohio Umveisity, Athens, Ohio 

Sirkles F J , 296 Livingston Ave , New Brunswick, N J 

Siderman, S M Board of Education, 12541 Second Ave , Highland Park, Mich 

Siebert, Mrs Edna M , Principal, Kelvyn Paik High School, Chicago, 111 

Siebiecht Elmer B , 3019 Queen Anne Ave , Seattle, Wash 

Sieg, Martha D , Madison College, Hainsonbmg, Va 

Siegel, Mrs Beatrice, 5761 Hillview Park Ave,, Van Nuys, Cahi 

Siewers, Grace L Deceased 

Siewers, Karl, 5383 N. Bowmanville Ave,, Chicago, 111. 

Silas, Gordon, Duector Teacher Educ , Roanoke College, Salem, Va 

Silvern, Leonard C., 13 Cleveland PI , Yonkers, N. Y 

Silvey, Herbert M , Bur. of Reseaich, Iowa State Tchrs Col , Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Simmons Patricia C , Whittier College, Whittiei, Calif 

Simms, Naomi, Dept of Educ., Kent University, Kent, Ohio 

Simon, Arthur M., 123 Lott Ave , Brooklyn, N Y 

Simon, Donald L , Principal, High School, Bloomington, Ind. 

Simpson, Rav H , Col of Educ . University of Illinois, Urbana, 111 

Sims, Harold W , 305 West 94th PI , Chicago, 111. 

Sims, Verner M , Col of Educ , University of Alabama, University, Ala 

Sinclair J H , Occidental Collie, Los Angeles Onlif 

Smgletary, James D , Dean, Maryland State College, Princess Anne, Md. 

Singleton, Carlton M., Col of Educ., State Umv of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Singleton, Gordon G., 2104 Gorman Ave,, Waco, Tex. 

Singleton, Stanton J , Col of Educ , University of Georgia, Athens, Ga 

Smrnger, Harlan New Mexico Highlands Univ , Las Vagas, N.M 

Sires, Ely, Loyola University, Chicago, 111. 

Sitz, Herbert A , Martin Luther College, New Ulm, Minn 

Skaggs, Albert E , Jr., Oregon Education Assn., Portland, Ore. 

Skaggs, Darcy A., 3699 N Holly Ave , Baldwin Park, Calif. 

Skalski, John M., 1233 Sycamore St., Buffalo, N.Y. 

Skard, Aaae Gruda, Fiellvn 2, Lvsaker, Norway 

Skatzes D H., Old Washington Hfeh School, Old Washington, Ohio 

Skelly, F. Clark, Dean of Instr,, State Tchrs College, Lock Haven, Pa. 

Skelton, Clflude N Assl Prm Roldnn-Rlewett High School, St Louis, Mo, 

Skibbens, Charles P , 5435 N. Magnet Ave , Chicago, 111. 

Skogsberg, Alfred H , Principal, Bloomfield Junior High School, Bloomfield, N J 

Slebodnick, Edward B., 3511 Main St, Union Gap, Wash 

Sletten, R Signe, Supv , Lab firh , State Tchers Col Mankato, Minn 

Sletten, Vernon, Sch of Educ , Montana State University, Missoula, Mont 

Sligo, Joseph R,, Steelcraft Apts., East State St., Athens, Ohio 

Sloan, Paul W , State Univ College for Teachers, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Slobetz, Frank, State Teachers College, St Cloud, Mmn 

Small. Mrs. Tune E. Thornton, 554 South Campbell St , Daytona Beach, Fla. 

Small enburg, Harry W., Dir. of Research & Guid., County Schls,, Los Angeles, 


Smith, A. Edson, Supt, East Alton-Wood River High School, Wood River, III 
Smith, Agnes Marie, Sister, Brescia College, Owensboro, Ky. 
Smith, Ara K. T Prin., Elston Jr. Hirfi School, Michigan City, Ind. 
Smith, B Othanel, Dept. of Educ., Univ. of 111 , Urbana, 111. 
Smith, C A., 7220 Lindell Ave,, St. Louis, Mo, 
Smith, Calvin 8., 5705 South 1700 West, Murray, Utah 


Smith, Basil A , Dept of Educ , Univ of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Smith, Dora V,, 201 Burton Hall, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn 

Smith, Emmitt D , \V esfc Texas irftate Coi , Canyon, Tex 

Smith, Gerald R , 7 Keeler St., Huntmgton, L I , N Y. 

Smith, Mrs Geitiucie S , 17786 Beaveiiand, JJetioit, Mich 

Smith, Hannis S., Minnesota Department of Education, St Paul, Minn 

Smith, Henry P , Fraser Hall, University oi Kansas, Lawience, Kan 

Smith, Ida T , Sch. oi Educ., Oklahoma A & M, College, SUllwater, Okla 

Smith, J Edwaul Regional Supt , Central Bucks Joint tfchls , JDovle^town, Pa 

Smith, Kathryn H , Dir , Tchr, Placement, Oregon State Col , Corvalhs, Ore 

Smith, Leslie F., 705 N. Killmgsworth, Portland, Ore. 

Smith, Linda C , 237 W. Montgomery Ave., Haverford, Pa. 

iSmith, Lloyd IN , Dept ot Educ , Indiana State Tencheis Col , Teire Haute, Ind 

Smith, Mrs Mary G , Vice-Pnn , Madison Jumoi High School, Newark, N J 

Smith, Menrie M , Route 4, Hamilton, Ala. 

Smith, Nila B , Sch oi Educ , N Y Univ , Washington Square, New York, N Y 

Smith, Paul E., Asst. Supt. of Schools, Rochester, N.Y. 

* Smith, Raymond A , Sch of Educ , Texas Chustian Univ,, Fort Worth, Tex. 

Smith, Russell B , Dept of Educ , Marshall College, Huntmgton, W.Va, 

Smith, Russell W , Principal, Campbell School, East Mohne, 111 

Smith, Ruth L., Dir., Student Tchg , State Teachers College, Towson, Md 

Smith, Sara E , Dept of Educ., Western Maryland College, \Vestrnmfeter, Md 

*Smith, Stephen E., East Texas Baptist College, Marshall, Tex 

Smith, T. 0., Superintendent, City Schools, Ogden, Utah 

Smith, Vernon G , Winchester Rd , New London, Conn. 

Smith, Walter D,, Dept of Psych , Flouda State Univ,, Tallahassee, Fla, 

Smith, W Holmes, El Cammo College, Calif 

Smith, William N., Bethune-Cookman College, Daytona Beach, Fla 

Smither, Ethel L., Binford Junior High School, Richmond, Va 

Smothcrman, T. Edwin, Col of Educ., W. Virginia Univ., Morgantown, W. Va 

Snader, Daniel W , Col of Educ T Univ of Illinois, Uihana, 111. 

Snarr, Otto W., Jr , Supv., Extension Classes, Univ of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyo 

Snarr, Mrs. Ruth G , Countv Supt of Schls , Montgomery City, Mo 

Snider, Glenn R , Col. of Educ , Umverhity of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla 

Rmder, Hervon L , Sch of Educ , University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 

Snyder, Agnes, Adelphi College, Garden City, N Y. 

ftnyder, Harvey B , Dept ot Kduc , Pasadena College, Pasadena, Calif 

Snyder, Jerome R , 2103 W. Louisiana, Midland, Tex, 

Snyder, Ruth C., 1217 Walnut St , Utica, N.Y, 

Snyder, Walter E. } Superintendent of Schools, Salem, Ore. 

Snyder, Wayne T., 4247 Bellefontame Ave , Kansas City, Mo. 

Socher, E. Elona, 1415 Clearview St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Soderquist, H A., 25340 Orchard Lake Rd., Farmington, Mich. 

Solberg, Kristen, 407 113th St., Tacoma, Wash. 

Solomon, Ruth H , Albany Study Center for Learn, Disabilities, Albany, N.Y. 

Soloway, Jack, 2436 North Albany Ave , Chicago, 111. 

Sommers, Mildred, Dept. of Instr., Bd. of Educ., Jackson, Mich. 

Sorenson, Garth, 17741 Lull St., Reseda, Calif. 

Sorenson, Helmer E., Oklahoma A & M. College, Stillwater, Okla. 

Southall, Maycie, George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. 

Southerlin, W B., State Educational Finance Comrcu Columbia, S.C. 

Sowards, G. Wesley, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Spalding, Willard B , Genl Ext. Div., Oregon Syst. of Higher Educ., Portland, Ore, 

Spalke, E Pauline, Lawrence Road, Salem Depot, N H. 

Sparling, Edward J , President, Roosevelt University, Chicago, 111. 

Spaulding, Beth, The Ford Foundation, P.O. Box 1397, Rangoon, Burma 

Spaulding, William E., Vice-Pres., HouRhton-Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 

Speace, Ralph B , Teachers College, Columbia Univ., New York, N,Y. 

Spencer, E M., Dept. of Educ,, Fresno State College, Fresno, Calif. 

Spencer, Peter L., Harper Hall, Claremont Colleges, Claremont, Calif, 

Spita, Thomas A,, Sch. of Educ,, City College, New York, N.Y. 


Spitzer, Herbert, Univ Elem Sch , State Umv of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Spragens, Thomas A., President, Stephens College, Columbia, Mo 

Springer, Robert L, 139 Bromleigh Rd., Stewart Manor, Garden City, N.Y 

hprmgman, John H , Superintendent of Schools. Glenview. Ill 

Sproud, Dorothy G., Chief Psych,, State Mental Hyg. Clinic, Berkeley, Cal 

Sprowles, Lee, Umveiaity of Georgia, Athens, Ga 

Squire, James R , 60 Paradise Lane, Walnut Creek, Calif 

Staake, Paul C , President, Webber College, Babson Park, Fla 

Stack, Mrs Thelma D , Umveisity of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wi 

Stahiecker, Lotai, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 

Staiger, Ralph C , Dir , Read Clinic, Mississippi Southern Col., Hattiesburg, & 

Staiger, Roger P , Alumm Association, Ursums Col , Collegeville, Pa. 

Stalnaker, John M , 1075 Elm St., Wmnetka, 111 

Stanford, Madge, Dept of Educ , Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, Tex. 

Stanton, Jeannette E., Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio 

Stapay, Peter P , Dean, Panzer College of Phys Educ and Hyg., East Orange, 

Staple, Flora M., University of Minnesota, Duluth Branch, Duluth, Minn, 

Stapleton, Edward G., Superintendent of County Schools, Towson, Md. 

Starner, Norman Dean, Wyalusmg, Pa 

Stauffer, Russell G., Dir., Read Clinic, Univ. oi Delaware, Newark, Del. 

Stecklem, John Ellsworth, 211 Burton Hall, XJmv. of Minn , Minneapolis, Minn 

Steel, Wade A , Superintendent, Leyden High School, Franklin Park, 111 

Steele, H L., Head, Dept of Educ., Idaho State College, Pocatello, Idaho 

Steeves, Frank L., Col. of Educ., University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, 1 

Steffek, Ralph L., Superintendent of Schools, East Detroit, Mich 

Stegall, Alma L,, Dept of Educ , Virginia State College, Petersburg, Va. 

Stpgeman, William H., Dir of Res., Educ. Center, City Schls., San Diego, Calif 

Stem, Michael W., New Lebanon School, Byram, Conn 

Steinberg, Warren L., 4418 Corinth Avc , Culver City, Calif. 

Stememann, Kathiyn P., Minster Public Schools, Minster, Ohio 

Stemhauer, Milton H , Sch of Educ , Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, N J. 

Stemmger, Earl W., 515 6th Ave , N E , Independence, Iowa 

Stellhorn, A C , Lutheran Schools, St Louis. Mo 

Steltenpohl, Elizabeth H , Manhuttanville Col of Sacred Heart, Purchase, N 

Stensland, Per G., Texas Technological College, Lubbock, Tex 

Stephan, Paul M., 100 Lincoln Ave , Riverside. Ill 

Stephens, J M , Dept of Educ , Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md 

Stephens, John F., Prin., Lab. Sch , Black Hills Tchrs Col., Spearfish, S D 

Stern, Mrs. Rose R M 451 Bergen Ave., Jersey City, N J. 

Sternborg, William N., Pnn., Public School 611, Bronx, New York, N.Y. 

Sternlieb, Ida B. t 234 East 15th St , New York, N.Y 

Stetson, G \ . Superintendent of Schools West Chester Pa 

Steuber, Alfred C., Principal, Raymond Elem School, Chicago, 111. 

Steudler, Mary M , Teachers College of Connecticut, New Britain, Conn 

Stevens, Glenn Z., Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa 

Stevens, J. H , Principal, Hollo way High School, Murfreesboro, Tenn 

Stevens, Phyllis W., Psych. Dept., Queens College, Charlotte, N.C. 

Stewart, A. W., 37 Wmthrop Rd., Columbus, Ohio 

Stewart, Charles T M Col of Kduc., Umv, of Maryland, College Park, Md 

Stewart, Frederick H , Prin , I A Sheppard School, Philadelphia, Pa, 

Stickler, W. Hugh, Dir,, Educ Res , Florida Sta. Univ., Tallahassee, Ma. 

Stielstra, William, History Dept , Alma College, Alma, Mich 

Stienstra, Clifford O , Principal High School Fertile Minn 

Stier, Lealand D., Dept. of Educ., Santa Barbara Coll., Goleta, Calif 

Stinson, Almeda, Bethel College, McKenzie, Term. 

Stoddard, George D., RJD. No. 3, Mercer Rd., Princeton, N J. 

Stoke, Stuart M., Head, Educ, Dept, Mount Holyoke Col,, South Hadley, Mas 

Stokes, Maurice S., Savannah State College, Savannah, Ga, 

Stollberct, Robert, San Francisco State College, San Francisco, Calif, 

Stone, Chester D., Superintendent of Schools, Metlakatla, Alaska 

Stone, Gladys, Supt., Monterey County Schools, Salinas, Calif, 


Stone, Wilson M , 1815 Ridgewood Dr., Bakersneld, Calit 

Stonebraker, W Chester, Principal, Green School, Dist 5, Roseburg, Ore 

Stonehocker, D Doyle, Dean, Junior College, Burlington Iowa 

Stoneman, Mrs Nora C , Pnncrpal, Lincoln School, Wickliffe, Ohio 

Stordahl, Kalmer E , 717 Foui-Mile Rd , Alexandria, Va. 

Stottlei, Richard Husted, Univeisity of Maiyland, College Park, Md 

Stoughton, Robeit W , Consultant, State Dept. of Ediic , Hartioid, Conn. 

Strain, Mrs Sibyl M , 6 Southgate Rd , Murray Hill, N J 

Strand, Helen A., Luther College, Decorah, Iowa 

Strand, William H , Sch of Educ , Stanford University, Stanioid, Calif 

*Strang, Ruth, Teachers College, Columbia University, New Yoik, NT 

Strateraeyer. Florence, Teachers College, Columbia University, Now VorK N Y 

Strattner, Mary Jane, Skinner Hall, Univ of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass. 

Stratton, L. T , Dept of Educ , Fmdlay College, Pindlay, Ohio 

Strawe, Walter V , Principal, Lowell School, Chicago 111 

*Strayer, George D., Teachers College, Columbia Univeisity, New Yoik, NY 

Strayer, George D , Jr , Col of Educ , Univ of Washington, Scat! IP, \\ ash 

Strebel, Jane D., Board of Educ Library, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Strem, Bruce E , 222 West Gardner Street, Long Beach, Calif 

Streng, Alice, University of Wisconsin-Milwauk