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Full text of "Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in juices and fruits"

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The University of Connecticut 
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CoNN 

5 



Connecticut 



Sodium Benzoate and 
Potassium Sorbate 
Preservatives 
in Juices and Fruits 



BY HARRY M. PYLYPIW JR., TERRI MISENTI, 
AND MARY JANE INCORVIA MATTINA 



A cooperative study by The Connecticut 
Agricultural Experiment Station and 
the Food Division of the Connecticut 
Department of Consumer Protection 




1,3: 



Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate 
Preservatives in Juices and Fruits 

BY HARRY M. PYLYPIW JR., TERRI MISENTI, AND MARY JANE INCORVIA MATTINA 



Processed foods, such as apple cider, fruit juices, and 
othei beverages often are sold with food additives to prevent 
spoilage. Typically, sodium benzoate and/or potassium 
sorbate are the preservatives that are used in juices. Under 
the provisions set forth by the U.S. Food and Drug Admini- 
stration (FDA) in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 
food additives can be used if they are generally recognized 
as safe (GRAS) and declared on the label. For instance, 
sodiimi benzoate may be used as a preservative in juices. 
However, its usage should not result in levels exceeding 
0.1% in the beverage (Code of Federal Regulations, 1992). 
Similar guidelines are suggested for potassium sorbate, 
although no usage level is indicated (Code of Federal 
Regulations, 1992). 

Consumers are concerned about food additives, since in 
some cases allergic reactions to GRAS additives have been 
observed (Lecos, 1988, and Foulke, 1993). As part of an 
overall food safety program, this Station, along with the 
Connecticut Department of Consumer Protection, has initi- 
ated a testing program to determine the presence of declared 
and/or undeclared preservatives in food products. This 
report presents information on preservative testing 
performed on processed fioiit products that are sold in 
Connecticut. 

METHOD 

All samples were provided by inspectors from the 
Department of Consumer Protection. Samples of 
Connecticut manufactured apple cider and apple cider 
vinegar were collected from local farm markets. Samples of 
beverages from Connecticut and other states and countries 
were obtained at local grocery stores and supermarkets. All 
samples were tested for two preservatives, sodium benzoate, 
the sodiimi salt of benzoic acid, and potassium sorbate, the 



potassium salt of sorbic acid. The procedure we used was 
adapted from a method in the Association of Official 
Analytical Chemists (Official Methods of Analysis, 1990). 
Our procedure utilizes a high performance liquid 
chromatograph (HPLC) followed by UV diode array 
detection for quantitation of the preservatives, if they are 
present. Juice, cider, and beverage samples were prepared by 
diluting one milliliter of sample with ten milliliters of an 
acetonitrile/ammonium acetate buffer solution. Samples of 
processed and raw fiiiits were prepared by blendmg the 
sample with the same buffer solution in a 1:5 ratio. All 
samples were filtered to remove particulate matter prior to 
analysis. The HPLC determination of the preservatives was 
performed using a reverse phase C-18 column, and UV 
detection at 225 nm for sodium benzoate and 255 nm 
potassium sorbate. The percentage of preservative in the 
sample was calculated by external standard using authentic 
sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate. Juices spiked at 0. 1 
% for both sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate yielded 
recoveries of 98% and 96%, respectively. The method can 
detect 0.0002% (2 parts-per-million) of either preservative 
in a juice matrix. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Results of all samples tested are listed in Tables 1 and 2. 
Table 1 lists all beverages that are consumed as sold. These 
include apple cider, orange juice, lemonade, and various 
other juices and nectars. Table 2 lists items that are not 
generally consumed as sold. These include beverage concen- 
trates, vinegars, fruits, and sauces. Most of the products that 
we tested were in compliance with their label claims. For a 
product to be in compliance of a "no-preservatives" claim, 
the product, upon testmg, must not have detectable amounts 
of preservatives. For a product to be in compliance of a 



Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station 



Bulletin 921 



"contains less than one tenth of one percent sodium benzo- 
ate" label claim, the product, upon testing, must contain only 
sodium benzoate. The same compliance restriction applies to 
potassium sorbate. Deviations from these two claims are 
indicated in the tables. In all such cases, attempts were made 
to resample the products. 

For example, one product. Autumn Apple brand apple 
cider, contained two preservatives. However, only sodium 
benzoate was declared on the label. As a result of testing, the 
product was embargoed by the Department of Consumer 
Protection imtil the bottles were relabeled. Another product, 
Switchel, an apple cider vinegar beverage, claimed no pre- 
servatives, but upon testing both potassium sorbate and 
sodium benzoate were found. The Department of Consumer 
Protection removed this product from sale. Several other 
products contained trace amounts of either sodium benzoate 
or potassium sorbate at levels below any anti-microbial 
benefits (Brause, 1993). In these cases the Department of 
Consumer Protection alerted the manufacturer to our results. 

Of particular interest were juice beverages and products 
that contained cranberries or cranberry extract. Cranberries 
contain a natural amount of benzoic acid at approximately 
0.0150 %, when calculated as sodium benzoate (Coppola 
and Starr, 1988). Thus, all products that contain cranberries 
or cranberry exfracts will have detectable amounts of 
benzoic acid. The levels of sodium benzoate vary depending 
on the amount of cranberry or extract in the product. 
Amounts of sodium benzoate in various cranberry products 
are listed in Tables 1 and 2. Due to the natural occurrence of 
benzoic acid in cranberries, these juices and other cranberry 
products that we tested were not in violation of any labeling 
regulations. 

In conclusion, of the 156 samples tested, 12.2% repre- 
senting 19 samples, were found to be in variance with label 
claims or 5.8% when adjusted for resamples. Continued 



testing of beverages as well as processed food products is 
planned as part of an expanded effort by this Station and the 
Department of Consumer Protection to address the issue of 
food safety. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Samples were collected primarily by Ellen Sloan and by 
other inspectors from the Food Division of the Department 
of Consumer Protection. 

REFERENCES 

Brause, A.R. (1993) Detection of Juice Adulteration. 
Association of Food & Drug Officials, Journal, 57(4):6-25. 

Code of Federal Regulations (1992) Title 21, U.S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington, DC, Section: 
184.1733, sodium benzoate. Section: 182.3640, potassium 
sorbate. 

Coppola, E.D., and Starr, M.S. (1988) Determination of 
Authenticity and Percent Juice of Cranberry Products. In: 
Adulteration of Fruit Juice Beverages. Attaway, J. A., and 
Rhodes, M. E., Eds. Marcel Decker, Inc., New York, Chap- 
ter 8, pages 139-174. 

Foulke, J.E. (1993) A Fresh Look at Food Preservatives. 
FDA Consumer, Vol. 27(8), pages 23-27. 

Lecos, C.W. (1988) Test Your Food Label Knowledge. 
FDA Consumer, Vol. 22(2), pages 16-21. 

Official Methods of Analysis (1990) 15 Ed.,. A.O.A.C, 
Arlington, VA, Method: 979.08. 



Preservatives in Juices and Fruits 



Table 1. Preservatives in juices sold in Connecticut. 

Product Description 

Brand Name 



Apple c 


ider 


Apple c 


ider 


Apple c 


ider 


Apple c 


ider* 


Apple c 


der* 


Apple c 


der* 


Apple c 


der* 


Apple c 


der 


Apple c 


der 


Apple c 


der 


Apple c 


der 


Apple c 


der 


Apple c 


der 


Apple c 


der 


Apple c 


der 


Apple c 


der 


Apple ci 


der 


Apple ci 


der 


Apple ci 


der 


Apple ci 


der 


Apple ci 


der 


Apple ci 


der 


Apple ci 


der 


Apple ci 


der 


Apple ci 


der 


Apple ci 


der 


Apple ci 


der 


Apple CI 


der 


Apple ci 


der 


Apple ci 


der 


Apple ci 


der 


Apple ci 


der 


Apple CI 


der 


Apple CI 


der 


Apple CI 


der 


Apple CI 


der 


Apple CI 


der 


Apple c 


der 


Apple c 


der 


Apple ci 


der 


Apple ci 


der 


Apple c 


der 


Apple c 


der 


Apple c 


der 


Apple c 


der 


Apple c 


der 


Apple c 


der 


Apple c 


der 



Allen's Cider Mill 

Allyn's Red Bam 

Autumn Apple 

Autumn Apple 

Autumn Apple 

Autumn Apple 

Autumn Apple 

Avon Cider Mill 

Bordeaux Farm 

Botti's Fruit Farm/Red Bam 

Buell's Orchards 

Bushy Hill Orchard 

Crooke Orchards 

Crow Hill 

Davis Farms 

E. Draghi & Sons 

Ellsworth Hill Farm 

FFA-EO Smith Vo-Ag 

Ferrando Orchard 

Finast 

Flavor Crisp 

Gotta's Farm & Cider Mill 

Gotta's Farm & Cider Mill 

Green Tree 

Guida's Dairy 

Guida's Dairy 

Hallock Orchard/Starberry Farm 

High Hill Orchard 

Hogan's Cider Mill 

Hogan's Cider Mill 

Holmberg Orchards 

Kaeser's Cider Mill 

Lapsley Orchard 

Lost Acres Orchard 

Miro Farms & Garden Center 

Momin' Dew 

Old Cider Mill 

Old Orchard Farm 

Old Orchard Farm 

Outhouse Orchards 

Park Lane Cider Mill 

Rolling Acres Orchard 

Rose Orchard 

Rose's Berry Farm 

Rudy's Blend 

Scott's Fruit Farm & Villa Orchard 

Scott's Orchard 

Sensational 



'otassium 


Sodium 


Sorbate 


Benzoate 


(%) 


(%) 














0.057** 


0.057 


0.063** 


0.061 


0.058** 


0.058 


0.062** 


0.060 


0.060** 


0.059 




















0.036 

















0.048 








0.036 


























0.043 





0.064 





0.028 











0.042 
































0.061 














0.007** 























0.041 





0.012 















































0.036 

















0.052 






Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station 



Bulletin 921 



Table 1 . Preservatives in juices sold in Connecticut (continued). 

Product Description 

Brand Name 



Apple cider 

Apple cider 

Apple cider 

Apple cider 

Apple cider 

Apple cider 

Apple cider 

Apple cider 

Apple cider* 

Apple cider* 

Apple cider 

Apple cider 

Apple cider 

Apple cranberry cider 

Cranberry apple cider 

Apple juice 

Apple juice 

Apple juice 

Apple juice 

Apple juice 

Apple juice 

Apple juice 

Apple juice 

Apple juice 

Apple juice 

Apple cranberry juice 

Apple cranberry juice 

Cranberry juice 

Cranberry juice 

Cranberry blend juice 

Cranberry blend juice 

Cranberry raspberry juice 

Cranberry raspberry juice 

Grape juice 

Grape juice 

Grape juice 

Grape juice 

Grape juice* 

Grape juice 

Grape juice 

Grape juice 

Grape juice 

Grape juice 

Grape juice 

Grapefruit juice 

Grapefruit juice 

Grapefruit juice 

Lemonade 



Silverman's Farm 

Sweet-Life 

The Notch Store 

The Yankee Farmer 

Tree Top 

Vermont Apple Orchard 

We-Li-Kit Farm 

West Lynn Creamery 

West Lynn Creamery 

West Lynn Creamery 

Woodland Orchard 

Woodstock Farm 

Woodstock Orchards 

M.H. Zeigler & Sons, Inc. 

Zeigler's 

BigY 

Food Club 

IGA 

Lucky Leaf 

Natural Country Farms 

Nature's Own 

No Frills 

Richelieu 

Sam's Choice 

Veriflne 

Apple & Eve 

Tropicana Twisters 

Ocean Spray 

Stop & Shop 

Apple & Eve Blend 

Ocean Spray 

Ocean Spray 

Stop & Shop 

Carmel 

Cascadian Farm, Organic 

IGA 

Kedem (Mitz de Moscato) 

Kedem (Mitz de Moscato) 

Kedem natural 

Kedem natural concord 

Kedem premium (Mitzbarrie) 

No Frills 

Welch's 

Welch's red 

Florida's Natural Ruby Red 

Stop & Shop from concentrate 

Tropicana Pure Premium 

Minute Maid 



Potassium 


Sodium 


Sorbate 


Benzoate 


(%) 


(%) 














0.025 

















0.028 














0.002** 




















0.044 











0.070 





0.049 




































































0.0028*** 





0.0007*** 





0.0056*** 





0.0035*** 





0.0037*** 





0.0053*** 





0.0008*** 





0.0012*** 




















0.013** 





0.013** 











0.003** 





0.0009** 
















































Preservatives in Juices and Fruits 



Table 1. Preservatives in juices sold in Connecticut (continued). 

Product Description 

Brand Name 



Lemonade 

Lemonade 

Orange juice 

Orange juice 

Orange juice 

Orange juice 

Orange juice 

Orange juice 

Orange juice 

Orange juice 

Orange juice 

Orange juice 

Orange juice 

Orange juice 

Orange juice 

Orange juice 

Orange juice 

Orange juice 

Orange juice 

Orange juice 

Orange pineapple juice 

Pineapple juice 

Pineapple juice 

Pineapple juice 

Pineapple juice 

Pineapple juice* 

Pineapple juice 

Pineapple juice 

Pineapple juice 

Prune juice 

Prune juice 

Raspberry cranberry juice 

Tomato juice 

Tomato juice 

Tomato juice 

Tomato juice 

Vegetable juice cocktail 

Vegetable juice cocktail 

Vegetable juice cocktail 

Apricot nectar 

Peach nectar 

Pear nectar 



Newman's Own 

Stew Leonard's 

Big Y, not from concentrate 

Big Y, from concentrate 

Finast 

Florida's Natural 

Garelick Farms, from concentrate 

Guida's Dairy, from concentrate 

Honestly Fresh Squeezed 

Minute Maid, from concentrate 

Natural Country Farms 

Natural Country Farms 

Sensational, not from concentrate 

Stew Leonard's 

Stop & Shop, from concentrate 

Stop & Shop, not from concenfrate 

Sweet Life Premium 

Tropicana Pure Premium Homestyle 

Waldbaums, from concentrate 

Waldbaums, not from concenfrate 

Dean Foods 

Dole 

Dole 

No Frills 

No Frills 

No Frills 

Pathmark 

Stop & Shop 

Sun Glory 

Shop Rite 

Sunsweet 

Apple & Eve 

Finast, from concentrate 

Food Club 

Knudsen organic 

Sacramento 

Food Club 

Stop & Shop 

V8 

Stop & Shop 

Libby's from concentrate 

Libby's from concentrate 



Potassium 


Sodium 


Sorbate 


Benzoate 


(%) 


(%) 











0.0015** 



































































































































0.027** 











0.025** 



































0.0011*** 































































* - Resampled product. 

**- In variance with label claim. 

***- Cranberry products contain naturally-occurring benzoic acid. 



Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station 



Bulletin 921 



Table 2. Preservatives in processed juice and fruit products sold in Connecticut. 



Product 


Description 


Potassium 


Sodium 




Brand Name 


Sorbate 


Benzoate 






(%) 


(%) 


Apple cider vinegar 


Ellsworth Hill Farm 








Apple vinegar beverage 


Switchel 


0.0026** 


0.0005** 


Apple vinegar beverage* 


Switchel 


0.0067** 


0.0013** 


Apple vinegar beverage* 


Switchel 


0.0072** 


0.0013** 


Apple vinegar beverage* 


Switchel 


0.0074** 0.0013** 




Apple vinegar beverage* 


Switchel 


0.0061** 


0.0005** 


Apples, vacuum packed 


Lyman Farm Store 








Cranberry sauce 


IGA 





0.0096*** 


Cranberries, fresh 


Ocean Spray 





0.0148*** 


Grapefruit concentrate 


Minute Maid 








Grapefruit concenfrate 


Shop Rite 








Grapefruit concentrate 


Sweet Life 








Lemonade concenfrate 


Finast 








Lemonade concenfrate 


Fine Fare 








Lemonade concenfrate 


IGA 








Lemonade concenfrate 


Minute Maid 








Lemonade concenfrate 


River Valley 








Orange concenfrate 


Sweet Life frozen 









* - Resampled product. 

** - ti variance with label claim. 

***- Cranberry products contain naturally occurring benzoic acid. 






CD' 
CD 




The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station , 

founded in 1875, is the first experiment station in America. It is chartered 
by the General Assembly to make scientific inquiries and experiments 
regarding plants and their pests, insects, soil and water, and to perform analyses for State 
agencies. The laboratories of the Station are in New Haven and Windsor; its Lockwood 
Farm is in Hamden. Single copies of bulletins are available free upon request to Pub- 
lications; Box 1 106; New Haven, Connecticut 06504. ISSN 0097-0905