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Full text of "Soil survey, Dorchester County, Maryland"

Digitized by tine Internet Arcliive 

in 2013 



littp://archive.org/details/soilsurveydorclieOOnnatt 




Doichester County 

Maryland 




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
Soil Conservation Service 
In cooperation with 
MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 



MARYLAND & RARE BOOK ROOM 
UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND LIBRARY 
COLLEGE PARK, MD. 



HOW TO USE THE SOIL SURVEY REPORT 



THIS SOIL SURVEY of Dorchester 
County, Md., will serve several groups 
of readers. It will help farmers m plan- 
ning the kind of management that will 
protect their soils and provide good yields ; 
assist engineers in selecting sites for roads, 
builduigs, ponds, and other structures ; aid 
foresters in managing woodlands; and add 
to our knowledge of soil science. 

Locating Soils 

Use the index to map sheets at the back 
of this report to locate areas on the large 
map. The index is a small map of the 
county that shows the location of each 
sheet on the large map. When the correct 
sheet of the large map has been found, it 
will be seen that boundaries of the soils are 
outlined, and that there is a symbol for 
each kind of soil. All areas marked with 
the same symbol are the same kind of soil, 
wherever they occur on the map. The 
symbol is inside the area if there is enough 
room ; otherwise it is outside the area and 
a pointer shows where the symbol belongs. 

Finding Information 

This report contains sections that will 
interest different groups of readers, as well 
as some sections that mav be of interest to 
all. 

Farmers and those who work with 
farmers can learn about the soils in the 
section "Descriptions of the Soils" and 
then turn to the section "Use and Manage- 
ment of the Soils." In this way, they &st 
identify the soils on their farm and then 
learn how these soils can be managed and 
what yields can be expected. The "Guide 
to Mapping Units" at the back of the re- 
port will simplify use of the map and re- 
port. This guide lists each soil and land 
type mapped in the county, and the page 



where each is described. It also lists, for 
each soil and land type, the capability 
unit, the drainage, irrigation, and sewage 
disposal groups, and the woodland suit- 
ability group. The pages where each of 
these is described is mdicated. 

Foresters and others interested in icood- 
lands can refer to the section "Woodland 
Management." In that section the soils in 
the county are grouped according to their 
suitability for trees, and factors affecting 
the management of woodland are ex- 
plained. 

Sportsmen and other users will find in- 
formation about wildlife in the county in 
the section "Wildlife." 

Enoineers will want to refer to the sec- 
tion "Engineering Uses of Soils." Tables 
in that section show characteristics of the 
soils that affect engineering. 

Scientists and others who are interested 
will find information about how the soils 
were formed and how they were classified 
in the section "Formation, Morphology, 
and Classification of Soils." 

Students, teachers, and other users will 
find information about soils and their man- 
agement in various parts of the report, 
depending on their particular interest. 

Nexocomers in Dorchester County will 
be especially interested in the section "Gen- 
eral Soil Map," where broad patterns of 
soils are described. They may also be in- 
terested in the section "General Nature of 
the Area," which gives additional infor- 
mation about the county. 

Fieldwork for this survey was com- 
pleted in 1959. Unless otherwise indi- 
cated, all statements in the report refer to 
conditions in the county at that time. The 
soil survey of Dorchester County was made 
as part of the technical assistance fur- 
nished by the Soil Conservation Service to 
the Dorchester Soil Conservation District. 



U S- GOVERNMENT PRINTING QFFICE:I963 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. 

1.,.'' 



_ , :1 

\-f \ -'r 



m NOT CIRCULAIF 



Contents 



General nature of the area 

Physio^rapliy, roliol', and drainage 

(liniato 

Vegetal ion 

Transportation and markets 

Tntlnstries 

Agriculture 

Types and sizes of farms 

Crops 

Pastures 

Livestock and livestock products 

Farm tenure 

Farm ]Knver and mechanical equipment 

General soil map 

1 . Sassafras-Galestown-Woodstown association. 

2. Fallsington-Woodstown-Sassafras-Pocomoke 

association 

3. Elkton-Othello association 

4. Tidal marsli association 

How soil surveys are made 

Descriptions of the soils 

Bayboro series 

Bibb series 

Coastal beaches 

Elkton series 

Fallsington series 

Galestown series 

Johnston series 

Keyport series 

Klej series 

Lakeland series 

Made land 

Matapeake series 

Mattapex series 

Mixed alluvial land 

Othello series 

Plummer series 

Pocomoke series 

Portsmouth series 

Rutlege series 

Sassafras series 



Page Faga 

1 Description of the soils ( 'oiilinued 

1 Swamp 23 

2 Tidal marsh 23 

3 Woodslow ii series 24 

4 Use and mangement of the soils 24 

4 Capability groups of soils 24 

4 Management by capability units 26 

4 General mangement reciuirements 26 

4 Drainage 26 

5 Soil amendments 31 

5 Rotations 31 

5 Tillage 31 

5 Estimated yields 32 

5 Woodland management 34 

5 Woodland suitability groups 34 

Wildlife.. 38 

6 Engineering uses of soils 43 

6 Engineering descriptions and physical proper- 

7 ties . 44 

7 Soil interpretations for engineering 48 

8 Soil groups for irrigation 49 

8 Soil groups for drainage 56 

10 Soil groups for sewage disposal 57 

10 Use of the soil survey in community planning. _ 60 

10 Formation, morphology, and classification of soils. _ 61 

11 Factors of soil formation 61 

12 Climate 61 

13 Plant and animal life 61 

13 Parent material 61 

14 Topography 62 

15 Time , 62 

15 Literrelationsh'ips of soil series 62 

16 Morphology of soils 63 

17 Classification of soils by great soil groups 64 

18 Sols Bruns Acides 64 

18 Gray-Brown Podzolic soils 64 

19 Humic Gley soils 64 

19 Low-Humic Gley soils 64 

20 Regosols 64 

20 Glossary 65 

21 Guide to mapping units Facing 66 



Series 1959, No. 26 



Issued August 1963 
I 



SOIL SURVEY OF DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND 



SURVEY BY F. Z. HUTTON. SR., A. P. FAUST, R. FKUKR, H. R. FRANTZ. F. J. GLADWIN, A. H. KODKSS, AM) J. E. McCUEN, 
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVK E, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

REPORT IJY EARLE D. MATTHEWS, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN COOPERATION WITH MARYLAND 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 



DORCHESTER (OTNTY is in the wrst-ccniral |)ai-t 
of tlu- jXMiinsula known as (lie Eastern Shore (fi<i'. 1). 
The connty occu])i('s about 371,200 aci'cs, or 580 scjuarc 
miles. It is bounded on the west and south by ( 'hesaj)eako 
Bay, and on the east, by ^Vi(•onli<■o County and l)y Sussex 
County, Del. The Choptank River and Caroline County 
form tlie northern boundary. Cambridge, the largest 
city and tlie county seat, is on the navigable part of the 
Choptank River and is about 12 miles from the Bay. 
Hurlock, Vienna, Secretary, and East New Market are 
other towns in the county. 

The early settlers in tliis area were of Englisli descent 
and came mainly from the western shore of the Chesa- 
peake Bay. The county was formed in 1669. Its early 
economy was based largely on seafood industries, but 
farming and lumbering soon became important. The 
population of the countv was 23,110 in 1880. It had 
increased to 27,815 bv *1950, and to 29,666 bv 1960. 
Cambridge had a population of 12,239 in 1960. The 
population in the rest of the county, except in the marshy 
and swampy areas, is fairly evenly distributed. 

In only about 56 percent of tlie land area in tlie county 
are the soils suited to cultivation. An additional 22 
percent of the acreage consists of soils that are not well 
suited to cultivated crops, but that can be used for forests 
or, to some extent, for growing forage for livestock. The 
remaining acreage consists of marshes and of areas of 
beaches that are not suited to agriculture. 




Figure 1. — Location of Dorchester County in Maryland. 



Drainage is the most coinmon pr()l)h']ii in managing tin- 
soils. ()nly about 14 jKMcent of tiie acicage suited to 
cultivation consists of soils that need no drainage or other 
s|)ecial management practices. In about two-thirds of 
the acreage that can be cultivatefl, the soils are wet 
enough to need some artificial (hainage before they can 
be used extensively for agri(;ulture. Some of the soils 
need intensive drainage before they can be used for crops. 

The climate is favorable both for general farming and 
for speciahzed types of farming, including the growing of 
strawberries, truck crops, and small fruits, and the raising 
of poultry. It is also suital)le for trees, and lumbering 
is important. 

The extensive areas of marsh and the areas along tidal 
streams and the slioi'cs of tlie Chesapeake Bay attract 
large numbers of migratory waterfowl. The opport unities 
for lumting and fishing also attract many sportsmen to 
the county. Urban development has not been extensive 
in this county, but some housing developments have been 
built in areas that were once important for agriculture. 



General Nature of the Area 

This section gives information about the physiography, 
relief, and drainage of the county. It also describes the 
climate and vegetation, gives facts about transportation, 
markets, and industries in the county, and describes the 
agriculture. 

Physiography, Relief, and Drainage 

Dorchester County occupies a part of the Atlantic 
Coastal Plain. In this area changes in elevation are gen- 
erally gradual. Much of the county is nearly level, but 
there are some low, rounded ridges, particularly in the 
northeastern part of the county. The highest point in the 
county — about 57 feet above sea level — is in the north- 
eastern part, but the elevation is less than 40 feet in most 
of the county. Large areas in the southern and southwest- 
ern parts of the county are barely above sea level. 

In this county the drainage is entirely into the Chesa- 
peake Bay. The Clioptank and Nanticoke Rivers and 
their tributaries provide most of the drainage. Secondary 
streams are Fisliing Creek, the Blackwater River, and 
Marsliyhope Creek, which is a tributary of the Nanticoke. 
The Transquaking River and its chief tributary, the 
Chicamacomico River, are also secondary streams. 



1 



2 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 26 



Bocauso all of tho main rivers are tidal streams, arid 
because most of t he count}' is neai-ly level or gently slopin*;, 
the overall di'ainage is rather slow. In adilition, most of 
the soils ill the county have some degree of impeded drain- 
age. Abouti 27 percent of the acreage consists of areas of 
Tidal marsh and of fresh-water swamps. 

Climate 

Dorchester County has a humid, semicontinental cli- 
mate. The wint(>rs are mild and the summers are ratiier 
hot. S|)ring and fall are the most pleasant seasons. 

In this area the prevailing winds are from tlie west 
during most of the .year, and, therefore, the wai-ming 
influence of the Atlantic Ocean does not have full ellect. 
Nevertheless, the winds that blow freciuentlv from the 
east, normally associated with winter storms to the south, 
bring warjner, moist air off the ocean and tend to make 
the temperature higher in winter than is normal for this 
general area. Tiie Appalachian Mountains and the waters 
of the ( Miesapeake Bay also have a njoderating effect on 
the cold air irom the northwest. In smunuu-, the tempei'- 
ature is lowered by cool air from the water. In the 
afternoon, breezes from the water cool the areas close to 
shore. 

The comity is low and iu>ai-ly level. The elevation is 
less than 20 feet in tlu-ee-fourt hs of the area; oidy in 
the northeastern part is the altitu<h> as liigh as 50 feet. 
Hence, tiiere is little variation in climate tlu'oughout tlie 
county and the data given foi- ('and)ri(lge in table 1 
should be i'ej)resentative of most areas. 

Average and extreme temperatures are given in tai)le 1. 
The hottest month is July. During tfuit montli, tlie 
average temperature in the shade is in the upper eighties 
in the afternoon. It can be expected that temperatures 
will reach about 100° F. sometmie during the sunnner. 
A record higli of 10(3° was reported in July of 1930. The 



coldest moTiths are Januai-y and Februaiy, when the 
temperature in the early morning avei-ages about 28°. 
During an avei-age winter, however, the temi)erature 
falls to about 7° on at least ojie morning. The lowest 
temperature reported at Cambridge was 6° below zero 
in February 1934 and in January 19(51. 

The temperature at night varies somewhat, depending 
on the cloud cover, wind, and topography. For example, 
the (Hfl"ereiic{> in elevation may be only 10 to 25 feet 
from the bottom of a basin to the top of its I'im, but, 
on a clear night, the temperature may be slightly lowei- 
in the basin. Also, frost may occiu' hiter in spring and 
earlier hi fall in low areas. 

Cold air from the northwest and tropical air from the 
south or southwest account for marked changes in tem- 
pei-atui'e within even a few days. For example, the 
iiigh(>st tempei-ature on March 1, 1961, was 41°; on 
.\laich 5, <S0°; and on March 10, 40°. Sudden changes 
are much less extreme in sunnner than during other 
seasons of the year because unmodified polar air seldom 
reaches the ai'ea. 

Probability of freezing temperatures on or after given 
dates in spring and on or before given dates in fall have 
not been computed for Dorchester County. In table 2, 
however, the dates given for Solomons should be rep- 
resentative of the southwestern part of the county, and 
those for Easton should be representative of the north- 
eastern part. 

In this county pi-ecipitation is fairly evenly distributed 
thioughout the year. Records of precipitation have 
l)eeii kept for a period of about 05 years at Cand)ridge. 
Figures showing the average temperatures and precipi- 
tation (hiring that period are given in table 1. Only 
July and August have an average of more than 4 inches 
of rainfall. To some extent, this additional rainfall 
compensates for the greater amount of evaporation during 

Table 1. — Temperature and 





Temperature 




















Average number of days 


Month 


Average 


Average 




Year of 




Year of 


Average 


Average 










daily 


daily 


Higliest 


occur- 


Lowest 


occur- 


monthly 


monthly 


Maximum 


Minimum 


Minimum 




maximum 


minimum 




rence 




rence 


maximum 


minimum 


of 90 


of 32 


of 14 




















degrees 


degrees 


degrees 




















or higher 


or lower 


or lower 




"F 


op 


op 




op 




op 


cp 


°F 


op 


op 


January ^ 


45. 


28. 1 


78 


1950 


-6. 


1961 


64 


11 





21 


3 


February 


45. 8 


27. 8 


83 


1930 


-6 


1934 


65 


12 





20 


2 


March 


55. 


35. 2 


91 


1907 


8 


1934 


75 


20 


0) 


13 


(>) 


April 


65. 5 


43. 8 


93 


1915 


17 


1923 


84 


30 


(0 


2 





May - _ 


76. 3 


54. 


too 


1914 


31 


1920 


91 


40 


2 


(') 





June 


83. 7 


62. 7 


102 


1921 


36 


1938 


93 


50 


7 








July 


87. 7 


67. 6 


106 


1930 


48 


19.52 


97 


55 


12 








August 


85. 7 


65. 9 


104 


1918 


43 


1934 


96 


55 


8 








September 


80 2 


59. 8 


99 


1953 


36 


1942 


92 


44 


3 








October 


69. 5 


48. 9 


94 


1941 


24 


1930 


83 


34 


(■) 


1 





November 


57. 5 


38. 6 


86 


1950 


8 


1930 


73 


23 





8 


(') 


December, 


46. 8 


30. 2 


73 


1951 


-2 


1917 


64 


15 





20 


1 


Annual 


66. 6 


46. 9 


106 




-6 




99 


7 


32 


85 


6 











' Less than one-half day. 



DORCHESTER COUNTY, MAUVLA.NI) 



those iiioiidis and for the {^I'cat aiiiouni of water tlial is 
used diii iiiix tliat period. 

liainl'all in summer, liowever, is more variable and less 
(lepeiulnljle tluui in winter; as little as 0.25 inch and as 
much as 17. inches have fallen in Auj^ust. In summer, 
local thunderstorms arc conuuon. Within 2 hours, as 
much as 2 inches of rain may fall in one area, hut a few 
miles away, only a few drops of rain may fall, (ireneral 
storms cover lar<;e areas in wint(>i'. 

Droughts are frecpient in sununei' in Dorchestei- ( 'ounty. 
Although rainfall is genei'ally adecpiate for good yields of 
crops, the une((ual distribution of the showers in summer 
and the occasional dry jx'riods iiudve iri'igation necessary 
for nuiximum yields. 

The average aiuiual snowfall is only about 15 inches 
in this county. The amount of snowfall varies greatly 
from year to vear; the range is from onlv a trace during 
the winter of 1918 19 to 43 inches in 1904-5. The heav- 
iest snowfall I'ecorded at Cambridge was in January 
1922, when 24 inches of snow fell within a 24-hour period 
and 21)2 inches fell witliin about 36 hours. Snowfall 
is likely to be heavier in the northeastern part of the 
county, which is farther from the bay than the rest of 
the count}' . 

In this county thunderstonns occur on an average of 
30 to 35 daj's a year. They are frequent in summer; 
three-fourths of the storms occur in June, July, and 
August. Once or twice a year, hail accompanies these 
storms. 

Tornadoes generally cause little damage and they 
occur infrequently. Hurricanes appear about once a 
year, generally in August or September. Most of them 
cause only minor damage, but, occasionally, the high 
winds, heavy rains, and high tides from a storm moving 
up the coast cause widespread damage. 

Records of the average velocity of the wind have 
not been kept in this county, but the average velocity 



is eslimaled lo be between 8 and 10 miles per lionr. 
The velocity is somewhat greater in spring and h-ss in 
summer. VVinds of hmricane force or those that accom- 
pany severe thunderstorms, however, nuiy reach a veloc- 
ity of 50 to (it) or mon^ miles per hoiw. 

The relative humidity is geiu'i'ally highest in August 
and Sep(end)ei' in this county and lowest in winter anri 
early in spring, \ormally, the relative humidity is 
highest at suiu'ise; it is nearly 90 j)erc('nt in August 
and Seplembei' and ranges from 70 pei'cent to 75 percent 
in wintei- and in spring. 'I'he hmnidity in tlu; afternoon 
is about GO percent in August and September, and it 
ranges from 50 percent to 55 percent in winter and spring. 

Vegetation 

Except foi' tlie marsliy areas, this county was once 
occupied almost entirely by hardwood trees. Because 
of the impeded drainage in numy areas, most species 
are the kinds that tolerate watei'. Oaks dominated in 
most areas, the particular species depending upon the 
wetness of the land. Other important trees were swamp 
maple, sweetgum, blackgum, holly, bay, dogwood, beech, 
and birch. 

A few loblolly pines and Virginia piiu's jirobably grew 
in some areas, but they were not numerous and did not 
make up a pure stand until after many areas had been 
cleared. Loblolly pine, sometimes known as oldfield 
pine, encroaches on many abandoned or heavily cutover 
areas, particularly on soils that have impeded draiiuige. 
Virginia pine encroaches on sandier and droughtier soils. 

The areas of Tidal marsh support coarse grasses and 
rushes. In some places there are also shrubs and small 
trees that tolerate salt, or at least that tolerate brackish 
water. 



precipitation at Cambn'd«ie, Md. 



Precipitation 























Snowfall 
















Maxi- 




Average 














Average 


Wettest 


Year of 


Driest 


Year of 


mum 


Year of 


numtjer of 














monttily 


vear 


occur- 


vear 


occur- 


during a 


occur- 


davs with 




Maxi- 




Maxi- 




Average 


total 


(1948) 


rence 


(1930) 


rence 


24-hour 


rence 


0.01 inch 


Average 


mum 


Year of 


mum 


Year of 


numljer of 












period 




or more 


monthly 


during 


occur- 


during a 


occur- 


days with 
















total ■ 


a month 


rence 


24-hour 


rence 


0.1 inch 
























period 




or more 


Inches 


Inches 




Inches 




Inches 






Inches 


Inches 




Inches 






3. 6 


8. 43 


1937 


0. 94 


1955 


2. 76 


1936 


9 


5 


31. 


1940 


24. 


1922 


2 


3. 3 


7. 19 


1896 


. 40 


1901 


4. 00 


1896 


9 


4 


15. 


1936 


13. 


1936 


2 


3. 9 


9. 08 


1912 


. 90 


1915 


3. 38 


1912 


10 


2 


11. 3 


1947 


11. 


1942 


1 


3. 6 


8. 39 


1918 


. 65 


1942 


3. 20 


1918 


9 


{') 


6. 


1915 


6. 


1915 


(') 


3. 7 


8. 48 


1960 


. 36 


1911 


3. 07 


1906 


9 
8 


















3. 7 


8. 09 


1935 


. 64 


1954 


3. 56 


1929 


















4. 5 


11. 78 


1922 


. 85 


1929 


5. 12 


1893 


9 


















4. 9 


17. 34 


1955 


. 25 


1943 


5. 50 


1931 


9 


















3. 5 


16. 26 


1935 


. 47 


1914 


10. 30 


1935 


6 


















3. 3 


9. 55 


1917 


. 66 


1918 


4. 35 


1949 


6 


{') 


2. 


1925 


2. 


1925 


(') 


3. 1 


9. 38 


1948 


. 66 


1905 


3. 35 


1952 


9 


(') 


6. 


1938 


3. 5 


1952 


(') 


3. 2 


6. 30 


1957 


.61 


19.55 


2. 90 


1941 


9 


3 


21. 5 


1904 


16. 


1908 


1 


44. 2 


66. 54 


1948 


23. 63 


1930 


10. 30 


1935 


102 


15 


38. 5 


1922 


24. 


1922 


6 



^ Trace. 



4 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 26 

Table 2. ~ -Probabilities of last free zin(j temperatures in .sjirinij and firsl In fall 
[Data from I'laslon, Talbot County, Md., and Solomons, Calvert County, Md.] 





1 


)alt'S for given probability and teint)erature 






I'lobaljility 
























32' or 


lower 




24° or 


lower 




16 


° or lower 






Kuston 


Solomoni 


Easton 


Solomons 


Kaston 


Solomons 


O \*f»»tT'tf 111 1(1 I'lf^H' lll'lll 




Mar. 


13 


ret). / i 


Feb. 


13 


Jan. 


26 


Jan. 


22 


^ ^movc 111 ii. I'li^^i* tlioil 


Apr. 3 


Mar. 


21 


1*1 til , JLt 


Feb. 


22 


Feb. 


4 


Jan. 


31 


2 y(?ars in 3 later than 


Apr. 6 


Mar. 


24 


Mar. () 


Feb. 


25 


Feb. 


8 


Feb. 


3 


1 year in 2 later than. . 


Apr! 13 


Mar. 


30 


Miir. 13 


Mar. 


3 


Feb. 


15 


Feb. 


9 


1 vear in 3 later than . 


Apr. 20 


Apr. 


5 


Mar. 20 


Mar. 


9 


Feb. 


22 


Feb. 


15 


1 vear in -1 later than.. . .. . . _ . 


Apr. 23 


Apr. 


8 


Mar. 24 


Mar. 


12 


Feb. 


26 


Feb. 


18 


1 y(>ar in 10 later than ... 


May 2 


Apr. 


16 


Apr. 2 


Mar. 


21 


Mar. 


7 


Feb. 


27 


Fall: 
















1 vear in 10 (>arlier than. 


Oct. 14 


Nov. 


7 


Nov. 1 1 


Nov. 


24 


Nov. 


27 


Dec. 


2 


1 year in 4 earlier tlian .. _ . .. . _ 


Oct. 21 


Nov. 


13 


Nov. 19 


Dec. 


1 


J3ec. 


3 


Dec. 


9 


1 vear in 3 earlier than ... _ . . 


Oct. 23 


Nov. 


16 


Nov. 22 


Dec. 


3 


Dec. 


6 


Dec. 


11 


1 year in 2 (>arlier than . ... ... 


Oct. 28 


Nov. 


20 


Nov. 28 


Dec. 


8 


Dec. 


10 


Dec. 


16 


2 vears in 3 earlier than. . . 


Nov. 2 


Nov. 


24 


Dec. 4 


Dec. 


13 


Dec. 


14 


Dec. 


21 


3 vears in 4 earlier than . .. . 


Nov. 4 


Nov. 


27 


Dec. 7 


Dec. 


15 


Dec. 


17 


Dec. 


23 


9 vears ill 1 earlier than _ . . 


Nov. 11 


Dee. 


3 


Dee. lo 


Dee. 


22 


Dee. 


23 


Dee. 


30 



Transportation and Markets 

In colonial clays triiiisportiitioii was Jiiainly l)V water 
and all of the sottlcniciits were on or near iia vi<i;al)lo 
bodies of water. The waterways are still an important 
means ol' transportation, i)tit the economy oi' the county 
is no longer dependent upon them. Modern highways 
now cross the county, and tliere are many paved or 
hard-surfaced sccoTidary roads. 

Since the opening of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge, 
Dorchester County has heen {>asily accessil)le by higii- 
way from the State capital at Annapolis and from other 
points west of the Bay. The Baltimore aiul Eastern 
Railroad and the Cambridge Branch of the Pemisylvania 
Railroad also serve tlie county. Thus, Dorchester 
County has ready access to agricultural markets by 
highway, rail, and water. Wilmington, Baltunore, and 
Philadelphia have been the traditional markets for the 
products of the county. They are probably still the 
most im])ortant, but ^Vashington, D.C., and other cities 
west of Chesapeake Bay are now easily accessible. 

Industries 

The industries of Dorchester County are closely re- 
lated to agriculture and to the natural resources of the 
area. There are canneries, packinghouses for truck 
crops and seafood, and facilities for the marketing of 
fresh fish, oysters, clams, and crabs. The county also 
has fertilizer plants and outlets for farm machinery. 
Lumbering is still an important industry, but it is less 
important now- than it was in the past. 

Agriculture 

Responsive soils and a temperate climate with well- 
distributed rainfall and a fairly long growing season make 
this county favorable for agriculture. There were 729 
farms in the county in 1960. The farms occupy a total 
of 157,050 acres, a decrease of about 12 percent since 1950. 



Some of the soils are well suited to general farming or 
to the growing of truck crops. Most of them, however, 
will need artificial drainage before they will be well 
suited to most agricultural enterprises. "^I'lie agriculture 
of the county is somewhat diversified. 

In the following j)ages some facts about llu; types 
and sizes of fai'ins, crops grown in the county, pastures, 
livestock, farm tenure, and farm power and mechanical 
equipment are discussed. The statistics used are from 
"Comparative (Census of Marvland Agricidtiu-e bv 
Counties." ' 

Types and sizes of farms 

In 1960, cash-grain farms were more nmneroTis than 
other types of farms in Dorchester Countw There were 
comparatively few geiu^-al farms, vegetable farms, poultry 
farms, and livestock or dairy farms. Of the total farms, 
500 were conunercial farms, 155 were pait-time farms, 
and 74 were unclassified. 

The average-sized farm in 1960 consisted of 215.4 acres. 
There were 43 farms less than 10 acres in size, 124 farms 
of 10 to 49 acres, 131 farms of 50 to 99 acres, 355 farms 
of 100 to 499 acres, aiul 76 farms of 500 acres or larger. 
The luimber of farms of all sizes, except those of 500 acres 
or larger, decreased sharply between 1950 and 1960. 
The average size of individual farms increased by 45 
percent dining the same period. 

Crops 

In Dorchester County crops were harvested on 87,004 
acres in 1960. Table 3 gives the acreage of the most 
important field crops and vegetable crops gi-owai in the 
county in 1960 and also the number of fruit trees. The 
field crop grown the most extensively w^as soybeans, 
harvested mostly for beans. Other crops, in order of 
then* importance, were corn, vegetables grown for sale, 
wheat, and barley. 



' Hamilton', A. B. compaeative Census of Maryland agri- 
CULTURE, BY COUNTIES. ]Marvland Univ., Ext. Serv., College Park, 
Md., Misc. Ext. Pub. Xo. 55, 52 pp. 1961. [Mimeographed.] 



DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND 



5 



'I'lic incoiiic from vc^olahlcs sold was probably j^rcnt cr 
in !!)()() (luui that nM-civcd IVoin the sale of field (•roi)s if 
nieasui'cd l)_v "jross i-('('('i])ts. Only the most impoi'taiil 
vo^vtablos air listed in (able Olher ve<j;e(ables or 
truck' ci'ops of some importance were cabbage, melons, 
peppers, ;iiid pimentos. 

Tamle 'A. —. {vrcdijc of jirincipal croj)S and nuiithir of fruit 
tires of all ar/es in 1960 



'r.\){LK 4.- I'ovll/ 1/ (111(1 poultry products lit 1000 



Crop 




Corn for ^vdiu 

Corn, sweet 

Corn, silage or forage 

Wheat 

Oats 

Barley 

Rye 

Soybeans for beans 

Hay 

Vegetables harvested for sale 

Tomatoes 

Snap beans 

(Uu'uinbers 

Green peas 

Lima beans 

Strawberries 

Peach trees 

Apple trees 



Acres 
26, 563 

2, 380 
510 

9, 892 
805 

6, 261 

1, 987 
36, 8B0 

3, 382 
10, 815 

2, 061 
1, 991 
1, 462 

693 
116 
19 

N amber 

7, 254 
276 



Rank in 
State 



(') 



3 
1 

20 
1 
2 
2 
1 
3 
6 



10 
21 



' Not determined. 



Pastures 



A total of (),013 acres was pastured in Dorchester 
County in 19G0, a decrease of nearly 64 percent since 1950. 
Of this acreage, 3,770 acres was cropland used temporarily 
for pasture. 

The acreage in pasttn-es is small, considering the size of 
the coiuity. In tliis county, however, livestock is of only 
mmor unportance and little pasture is needed. 

Livestock and livestock products 

Livestock raising is much less hnportant in this county 
than the growing of field crops and truck crops. In 1960, 
there were only 4,352 cattle and caK'es on farms, iiicluduig 
1,741 milk cows. In addition, there were 274 horses and 
mules, 2,S24 hogs and pigs, and 793 sheep and lambs. 
The horses and mules are used mainl\- as work stock, but 
some are kept for riding purposes. 

In 1960, poultry and poidtry products accounted for 
most of the income derived from the sale of livestock and 
livestock products. Table 4 gives information about the 
nmiiber of chickens and ttirkeys sold in that year and the 
number of eggs sold. A greater nimtber of chickens was 
sold in 1960 than in 1950, but the economic importance of 
the poultry indtistry in this coimty has declined since 1960. 
This decline was probably the result of a decrease in tlie 
prices received by farmers for their poultry and poultry 
products. 

Farm tenure 

Owners operated 57 percent of the farms in the county 
ui 1960. Part owiers operated 28 percent, tenants oper- 



I'oullrs' and jjoiillry |»i()diicl- 


Number 


Ilaiik ill 
State 


Mature chickens on farms 


61, 748 
1, 511, 000 
42, 000 
529, 000 


12 
6 

12 

!2 


Broilers sold . 


Otlier chickens sold 


I'^KKs sokl _ - _ dozens . 

'i'urkrys raised, ^ . 



' Not determined. 

ated 14 percent, and managers operated 1 percent. 
Most of the tenants operated on a share basis, but many 
of them rented the farms they operated. 

For many years, the ntindx-r of operatoi's not I'csiding 
on the farm has increased steadily. It had increased to 
moi'e than 10 percent by 1960. 

Farm power and mechanical equipment 

In this county inechanized (!(|uipment is much more 
important as a source of power than horses and mules. 
Tractors were reported on a total of 63S farms in 1960, 
and there were two tractors on the average fai-m. The 
tractors were inauily of the wheeled type iUid were used 
for nearly all farm operations. Trucks were reported on 
5S4 farms, grain combines on 321 farms, conipickers on 
233 farms, and hay balers on 72 farms. There were 
milking machines on 55 farms. 

General Soil Map 

After study of tlie soils in a locality and the way they 
are arranged, it is possible to make a general map that 
shows several main patterns of soils, called soil associ- 
ations. Such a map is the colored general soil map in the 
back of this report. Eacli association, as a ride, contains 
a few major soils and several jninor soils, in a pattern 
that is characteristic although not strictly uniform. 

The soils within any one association are likely to differ 
from each other in some or in many properties; for ex- 
ample, slope, depth, stoniness, or natural drainage. Thus, 
the general soil map shows, not the kind of soil at any 
particular place, but patterns of soils, in each of which 
there are several different kinds of soils. 

Each soil association is named for the major soil series 
in it, but, as already noted, soils of other series mav* also 
be present. The major soils of one soil association may 
also be present in another association, but in a different 
pattern. 

The general map showing patterns of soils is usefid to 
people who w^ant a general idea of the soils, who want to 
compare different parts of a coimty, or wlio want to know 
the possible location of good-sized areas suitable for a 
certain kuid of fanning or other land use. 

1. Sassafras- Galestown-Woodstown association 

Moderately coame textured and coarse textured soils that are 
dominantly well drained 

This association is made up inainly of broad, nearly 
level fields and pastures and of more sloping, wooded 
areas. It also includes a few steeper areas, where the 
slope is as much as 40 percent. The sloping and steep 



6 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 26 



areas occupy a largor proportion of tlio acroago tliaii in 
other associations; the slope is greater than 2 percent in 
about one-third of the association. 

The association occupies most of the nortlieastcrn part 
of the county. E.xcept for a fairly extensive bi-eak near 
Finchville, it extends in a northeasterly direction from 
Caml)i'idge along the Choptank River to Caroline County 
and thence east to the State of Delaware and the Nan- 
ticoke Kiver. The association occupies nearly IcS percent 
of the county. Moderately coarse textured and coarse 
textured Sassafras and Galestown soils make up juore 
than liair of the association. Moderately coarse textured 
Woodstown soils make up about 9 percent. 

The Sassafras soils are more extensive than the other 
soils. They are mainly deep, well-drained sandy loams 
and loamy sands, and they are nearly level to hilly or 
steep. The more nearly level areas are important foi- 
agriculture. 

The Galestown soils are soinewhat excessively drained 
loamy sands and sands, and they are nearly level to roll- 
ing or liilly. The Galestown soils are more sandy than 
the Sassafras, and they are underlain by water-bearing 
sandy loam to light sandy clay loam at a depth of 4 to (3 
feet. This deep substratum is important because it forms 
a reservoir where plants can obtain moisture during dry 
periods. 

The Woodstown soils are somewhat sandy throughout 
and have a mottled subsoil. These soils are nuxkMately 
well drained. Their drainage jnust l)e improved l)efore 
they can be used for some crops. 

About 5 percent of the association is nuide up of poorly 
drained Fallsington soils. Tlie association also includes 
a small acreage of other soils, about 800 acres of Tidal 
marsh, and slightly more than 1,000 acres of Swamp. 
The Fallsington and some of the other minor soils need 
to be drained before they can })e used to the fullest ex- 
tent for crops. 

The soils in much of this association are low in produc- 
tivity. Their capacity to store moisture and to supply 
it to plants is low to moderate. Nevertheless, more 
than half of the association is used to grow general crops 
and truck crops. About one- third is wooded, and the 
rest is in pasture, is in miscellaneous nonagricultural uses, 
or is idle. In the areas where the soils are rather drough- 
ty, the pastures and field crops need supplemental irri- 
gation during dry periods. The soils in some areas need 
to be protected from erosion by water and wind. 

2. Fallsington- Woodstown-Sassafras-Pocomoke 
association 

Medium-textured to moderately coarse textured soils that 
are very poorly drained to well drained 

Most of this association lies south of the Sassafras- 
Galestown-Woodstown association, but an arm extends 
northward to the boundaries of Caroline County and the 
State of Delaw^are. The soils are mainly nearh' level, 
although the slope is greater than 2 percent in about 11 
percent of the acreage. In only a few places is it greater 
than 5 percent. The association occupies approximately 
17 percent of the county, or about 64,000 acres. 

]VIedium-textured to moderately coarse textured Falls- 
ington, Woodstown, Sassafras, and Pocomoke soils make 
up nearly 75 percent of the association, and Matapeake, 
Rutlege, Galestown, and Elkton soils occupy slightly less 



than 5,000 acres. Tidal marsh occupies about 700 acres, 
and Swamp, more than 5,000 acres. Other soils also oc- 
cupy a small acreage. The Fallsington soil is poorly 
drained, tlie Woodstown soils are moderately well chained, 
the Sassafras soils are well drained, and the Pocomoke 
soils are very poorly drained. 

The Fallsington and Pocomoke soils jnust be drained 
before they can be used extensively for agriculture, and 
the Rutlege, Elkton, and some areas of tlie Woodstown 
soils also require drainage. "^I'he sloping areas, especially 
the sloping ai'cas of Sassafras soils, are subject to erosion 
l)y water. Some of tlie sandy soils are likely to be eroded 
by wind if the surface is not well protected. All of the 
soils are naturally low in productivity, but they respond 
well to fertilizer. Under very careful management, their 
productivitV' can be increased until it is moderate or fair- 
ly liigh. 

About 51 percent of this association is wooded, but 
approximately 42 percent is used to grow truck crops and 
general crops, such as corn and soybeans. The rest is 
])astured, idle, or in miscellaneous nonagricultural uses. 
In tlie areas tliat have been drained, crops may be dam- 
aged during dry weather. They are less likely to be 
damaged, however, tlian crops grown on the soils of the 
Sassafras-Galestown-Woodstown association. Supplemen- 
tal irrigation, if available, would be valuable during 
periods of drought. 

3. Elkton- Othello association 

Moderately fine textured to medium-textured soils that are 
dominantly poorly drained 

Tliis association occupies most of the western and sout h- 
western parts of the county. It extends from the Cliop- 
taidv River on the north, and from the Chesapeake Bay on 
the west, southward to Wingate, and Lower Hooper Island. 
A broad band, 6 to 8 miles wide, extends from a point just 
below Cambridge to a point below Vienna on the Xanti- 
coke River. The association is tiie most extensive in the 
county. It occupies approximateh' 180,000 acres, or 
nearly half of the county. 

Most of the association is nearly level. In only a small 
part of the acreage is the slope greater than 2 percent. It 
is less than 1 percent in most areas. 

Poorly drained Elkton and Othello soils occupy more 
than 60 percent of the association. About 7 percent 
consists of moderately well drained Mattapex soils, and 
about 5 percent, of well drained Matapeake soils. The 
rest consists of small areas of Keyport, Bayboro, and 
Pocomoke soils, and of rather large areas of Tidal marsh 
and Swamp. 

Although tlie Mattapex and Matapeake soils make up 
only a minor part of the association, they are better 
suited to agriculture than the other soils, and a larger 
proportion of their acreage is used for crops. The Othello 
soils are less desirable for agriculture, because they are 
natm-all}' poorly drained. The}' can be drained fairly 
easily, how^ever, because they are underlain by sandy 
material, and, as a result, about 38 percent of their 
acreage is used for crops. In contrast, the Elkton soils 
have a very heavy, tough subsoil, are difficult to drain, 
and, therefore, are not cropped extensively. Elkton 
silty clay loam, which occupies approximately 28,000 
acres in the association, is even less well suited to crops 



DOHCHESTElt COUNTY, MAHVLAXI) 



7 



tliaii (lie other KIkton soils. Il is iiol oniv (lilllcnil to 
(Iriiiii is iilso voiy dilliciilt to vvoi'k nl'tci' il is drained. 

Pilklon silty clay loam and the otiier soils not well 
suited to cullivaled crops are used to only a limited 
e.xtent for pastiii'e. They could l)e used more e.\iensivel_\' 
for crops if tliov wore drained and well nianaf^ed. 

Most of the soils in this association ai-e low in fertility. 
The Matap(>ake and Mai (apex soils, however, are more 
productive than [he othei's. Only ahoul 2() percent of the 
association is used for ci-ops, and ahout percent is pas- 
lui'cd. More than 52 percent is wooiU'd, and 17 perccMit is 
idle. The rest is in miscellaneous nona^ricull ural uses. 
The cultivated areas are used maiidy to yi'ow corn and 
soybeans, but strawberries and other truck ci'ops are 
grown in some areas. The Matapeake soils ai'c used 
more extensively to grow strawbei-i-ies than the othei' 
soils. 

4. Tidal marsh association 

Areas subject to flixnliiKj hi/ saif wafer 

Most of this association consists of areas of Tidal nuii'sh 
(hat are subject to floodiiiii' by salt water. The association 
occupies approximately ()l,5bo acres. Nearly 9o percent 
of the acreage is affected by tides. 

About 5 i)ercent of the association consists of small areas 
of Matapeake, Mattapex, Othello, Plummer, and Woods- 
town soils. These soils are in small areas, chiefly in tiie 
vicinity of Toddville, C'rocheron, Bishops Head, and El- 
liott. About 800 acres of Swamp is also included. 

Except for some of the sniall areas of included soils, 
this association is not used for agriculture. The asso- 
ciation is useful for other ])urposes, however, notably as 
refuges foi- wildlife. The Blackwater Migratory Bird 
Refuge is located entirely within the association. 



How Soil Surveys Are Made 

In niaking a soil survey, soil scientists examine soils in 
every field and parcel of land. To examine the subsoil 
and deeper layers, they bore holes with an auger or dig 
with a spade. They also study soils in banks, roadcuts, 
and in pits and other excavations. 

Each boring, or hole, reveals a soil profile. Each profile 
consists of one or more distinct layers, called horizons, 
over a substratuni of hard or soft rock, gravel, river 
sediments, or other material. 

The soil scientists designate different kinds of liorizons 
by capital letters. The A horizon is the upper layer, 
just beneath the leaf litter or vegetation. It consists 
of the surface soil and, in some places, of a subsurface 
soil. The B horizon is a subsoil that developed as the 
result of the processes of soil formation. The C horizon 
is the parent material from which the soil formed. The 
D horizon is beneath the C horizon, or beneath the A 
or the B horizon if some of the other layers are missing. 
The D liorizon may not be tlie same kind of material as 
that from which the soil itself formed. 

Each major horizon, A, B, C, or D, consists of one or 
more layers, or subliorizons, each different from the 
other. Thus, one soil may have A,, Ao, Bi, Bo, and C 
horizons; another soil may have Ai, Bo, B3, i\ and D 
horizons; and still another, An, A12, C'l, C2, and D horizons. 

The properties and thicknesses of the various horizons 
G4ir,i;n — 63 2 



and llicir arriingeincnt helj) in cinirar'l eiizing and clas- 
silying t he soil. 

'i'cxture, color, and olhci' pro|)crties genciidly vary in 
I he did'crent horizons of a .soil. In Dorchester ('ounty 
the surface layer in most soils is darker colored than the 
lower layers; the subsoil layers are brighter and arc 
colored nvore intensely; and mottling may be present in 
the lowei' horizons. Tlie chai-act erisl ics described in the 
following |)aragraphs are among the more inipoilant 
ones considei'ed b\ soil scientists. 

Texture refers to the content of sand, silt, and cla\ in 
th(> soil. Texture of the soil is judged by the feel and, to 
some extent, by the aj)[)earanc(; of the soil, and i( can also 
be checked by meclianical analysis in the laboratory. The 
finest particles are clay. Iiulividual particl(!s of clay are 
so fine that they can scarcely be seeri through a microscope. 
Soils that consist principally of clay are generally [}|astic 
and sticky when wet and I'athei- hard when dry. Water 
moves slow'ly through clay soils. These soils retain mois- 
ture and i)lant nuti'ients well. 

Medium-sized |)articles, large enough to be seen with 
a microscope, are called silt. Silty soils are smooth and 
velvety; some are silky to the touch. They are generally 
not so hard when dry nor so stick}^ and plastic when wet 
as clay soils. 

The larger particles, smaller tlian gravel, are called 
sand. Individual particles of sand can be seen with the 
naked eye. Water moves rapidly through sandy soils, 
and those soils retain relatively little water foi- plants. 
Some soils in Dorchester County also contain fine gravel, 
but this does not directly affect the texture of the soil. 

Most soils contain variable amounts of cla}-, silt, and 
sand. Few soils anywhere are pure silt or pure sand, 
and none are known that are pure clay. Within any one 
soil, the different horizons may have different proportions 
of sand, silt, and clay. 

Structure is the arrangement of individual soil particles 
in clumps or aggregates. Some soils are loose and ci'um- 
bly; others can be broken down into small clods that 
resemble blocks; and still others have small, flatteiied 
aggregates that resemble plates. The structure of a soil 
horizon helps determine w4iether air, water, and plant 
roots wall penetrate easily or with difficulty. The struc- 
ture varies among soils, and sometimes it is different in 
the different horizons of the same soil. 

Color indicates other soil properties. The dark-colored 
soils are generally higher in organic nuitter than the 
light-colored soils. Other things being ecjual, soils 
containing more organic nuitter are more productive and 
are more easily tilled. Color also indicates the degree of 
natural drainage in a soil. In Dorchester County most 
of the w^ell-drained soils are reddish brown, vellowish 
brown, brownish yellow, yellowish red, or reddish yellow. 
Poorly drained soils have a subsoil that is dominantly 
gray and generally mottled with yellow, red, or brown. 
In areas that are the most poorly drained, the subsoil is 
slightly bluish or greenish in places. 

The wetness of an area, the color of the soil, and the 
position of the soil in the landscape are factors that 
indicate the degree of drainage. In Dorchester County 
drainage varies widely, and this is a major cause of the 
differences in the suitability of the soils for crops. The 
terms used to denote the successive grades, or degrees, 
of soil drainage are excessively drained, somewhat exces- 
sively drained, well drained, moderately well drained. 



8 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 26 



.wmcwhaf poorly drdiiicd, poorlji drained, and very ])oorly 
drained . 

Acidity and oilier clicinical projx'i't ics help to indicate 
tlic way ill wiiicii soils were I'onncd, the niaiia<i'eiiieiit 
they may ihhmI, and liow product iv(> lli(\v may l)c. 

Topograpiiy , or the lay of the land, is fVecpieiitly 
associated with fairly definite coml)iiiat ions of soil cliar- 
actei'istics. Some soils occur only on flood ])lains, others 
occur only in depressions, and si ill others occur only 
on rolliiio- u])lan(ls. 

Difl'erent combinations of soil characteristics, such 
as tliose we have discussed, are tiu; l)asis for separatin<:' 
one soil froui another. lu detci'minin<j the kinds of 
soils uiajipcd in the county, combiiiat ions of soil pro])ei'ties 
are ein])hasized that are ini])ortant in a|i'riculture and in 
other soil uses and manageuient. The kinds of soils 
arc then grouped into soil sei-ies, types, and phases. 

A soil series is a group of soils that, except for tlie 
texture of the surface layer, have the same profile char- 
act ei'istics and the same general range in color, struct ui-e, 
consistence, and secpience of horizons. All soils of the 
same series formed in the same kind of pai-ent material. 
Soils of a given series may vary in slo])e and in othei' 
external characteristics but are reasonably uniform in 
internal characteiistics. Each soil series is given a 
name that is genei-ally taken from the locality where the 
series was first recognized and described. For example, 
the Elktou series in Dorchester County was first recog- 
nized and desciibed near the town of Elkton, Md. 

A soil type is a subdivision of a soil sei-ies. 'J'he texture 
of the sui'face hiyvv det(M-mines the type within a series. 
A series may consist of only one or of many types. Thus, 
Elkton loam, Elkton silt loam, and Elkton silty clay 
loam are soil types within the Elkton series. 

Variations within the soil type — chiefly in such external 
characteristics as surface slope, stoniness, or accelerated 
erosion — are designated as soil phases. Thus, in Dor- 
chester (^ouiity, Woodstown sandy loajn, to 2 percent 
slopes, and Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 pei'cent slopes, 
moderately ei-oded, aic two of the phases within the soil 
type, Woodstown sandy loam. If erosion has been 
slight or negligible, it is not mentioned in the name of 
the soil phase, but, if it has been moderate, severe, or 
very severe, the erosion is nientioned in the phase name. 
Also, if a soil phase is nearly level, slope is not given 
in its name. 

Some areas shown on a soil map are not true soils 
and are called land types. Exainples are Swamp, Tidal 
marsh. Coastal beaches, Mixed alluvial land, and Made 
land. The names of most of these land types are self 
explanatory. Mixed alluvial land, however, consists of 
two or more kinds of soil materials on flood plains. The 
soil materials are so intricately mixed that they cannot 
be sho\\ai separately on a map of the scale used. 

Soils do not change abruptly at political or other nian- 
made boundaries. Many of the soils that occur in Dor- 
chester County also occur in other States from New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania southward to Florida and the 
gulf coast. Valuable information about the use and 
management of these soils may be developed in counties 
or States other than in Dorchester County. For ex- 
ample, practices used to grow truck crops in New Jersey 
or Delaware can be used in Dorchester County if the 
same kind of soil is in both places. By assigning the 
same name to the same soil, wherever that soil is mapped. 



such comparisons of management practices and of I he 
soils themselves are juade easier. 

The proc(>ss of assigning uniform names to soils of 
various ai'cas is called koH correlation. This is a part 
of the nationwide system of inappiiig and classifying 
soils. Its ])urp()se is to show similarities and dili'ereiices 
among soils of each surveyed area and the rest of the 
United States. To do this, a soil that has the sanu! com- 
bination of soil characteristics is given the same name, 
wherev(>r it occurs. 



Descriptions of the Soils 

In this section the soils of the county are ari-aiiged 
alphabetically by soil series, and the cliaracteristics of 
each series are described. A detailed description is given 
of the profile of a typical soil in each series. Otliei' soils 
in the sam(> seiies are descril)e(l i)artly by telling how their 
l)rolile did'ei's from the typical one. The approximate 
acreage and proi)()rt ionate extent of each soil mapping unit 
are shown in table 5. Most of the mapping units ai'e 
doiiiinantly one kind of soil, a type or a phase; a few contain 
more than one kind and are so named; a few others are 
land types, such as Mixed alluvial land, Swamp, or Tidal 
jiiarsh. 

The location and distribution of the individual iiiap|)iiig 
units are shown on the soil map at the back of this rejjort. 
The "Guide to Mapping Units," also at the back of the 
report, lists the map symbol of each mapping unit and 
land type and the page where that mapping unit or land 
type is described. In addition, it lists, for each ma|)ping 
unit and land type, the capability unit and the drainage, 
irrigation, sewage disposal, and woodland suitability 
groups and the pages where each of these is described. 
Some terms that nniy be unfamiliar to the reader are 
defined in the Glossary at tlH> back of the report. 

Bayboro Series 

The Bayboro series consists of very poorly drained 
soils that have a very dark gray to black surface layer. 
Tiie soils developed in acid clay and are on flats and in 
depressions. In many places they are adjacent to areas 
of Tidal marsh or salt water. 

The Bayboro soils developed in the same kind of 
material as the Elkton and Keyport soils, but they are 
more poorly drained than those soils and have a much 
darker surface layer. They are not so silty as the Ports- 
mouth soils, and' their substratum is less sandy. Their 
subsoil and substratum are much less sandy than those 
of the Pocomoke or Rutlege soils. 

Many areas of Bav^boro soils are so difficult to drain 
that they are not used for crops. Where the soils have 
been drained, crops are grown occasionally, but most 
areas are used for grazing or remain in forest. 

Profile of Bayboro silt loam in a plowed area at a bend 
in State road 356, about 1 mile north of Lakesville: 

Alp to 10 inches, blacli (lOYR 2/1) silt loam; weak, very 
fine, crumlD structure; friable when moist; roots 
abundant ; medium acid (probably limed) ; clear, 
smooth boundary; horizon is 8 to 12 inches thick. 

A,2 10 to 18 inches, dark-gray (lOYR 4/1) silt loam; weak, 
very fine, crumb structure; friable when moist; 
roots few; medium acid; gradual, smooth tjoundary; 
horizon is 6 to 10 inches thick. 



DOHCIIKSTKR COUNTY, MAKYLAM) 
TauM'; l\.— Ai)pr<)fhi\(it< (icrtiujc <iii<l jinipo/l ioikiIc cftciit of 1}ie so'iIh 



9 



.Soil 



]?;ivl)(iri) sill loam 

Has horo sill \' cIiin- loam 

l^il')!) sill loain 

( 'oaslal beaches 

I'llkloii loam 

l*]lkl()ii silt loam 

JOlklou silt loam, low 

I'llkloii silly day loam 

I'llkloii silty clay loam, low 

I''allsingl()ii sandy loam 

CJaleslow ii loamy saiul, to 2 percent slopes 

(ialcstown loamy sand, 2 to o percent slopes 

(laleslown loamy s;ind, 5 lo 10 jiercent slopes., 
Galeslown loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent sloj)es__ 
Cialestown sand and loamy sand, 15 to 40 pei- 

cent sloj)es 

Galestown sand, to 2 percent slopes 

CJalestown sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

(ialcstown sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes 

(laleslown sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes 

Johnston loam 

Kevport loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Keyport silt loam, to 2 [percent slopes 

Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 ixMcent slopes 

Klej loamy sand, to 2 [lercent slopes 

Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 2 

jjercent slopes 

Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 2 to 5 

percent slopes 

Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 

15 percent slopes 

Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, to 5 per- 
cent slopes 

Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 15 per- 
cent slopes 

Made land 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 percent 

slojjcs 

]Mata])eake fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent 

slo{)es, moderately eroded 

Matapeake silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes 

Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Matapeake silt loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes 

Mattapex fine sandj- loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

Mattajjex silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

l\Littapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

jNIattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 



Area 



Acres 

3, (508 
1, 85!) 

KM) 
212 
1, 278 
25, 452 
18, 074 
13, 144 
15, 931 
22, ()()() 

4, 340 

4, 547 
437 
215 

402 
523 
1, 944 
7()9 
371 
962 
383 

5, 661 
830 

5, 282 
298 

755 

673 

92 
285 

87 

85 

301 

499 
5, 936 
985 

1, 377 
181 

103 
71 

299 
11, 333 
656 

850 



lOxtent 

Perce ut 
1. 
. 5 
. 1 
. 1 
. 3 
6. 9 
I. 9 

3. 5 

4. 3 
6. 1 
1. 2 
1. 2 

. 1 
. 1 

. 1 

. 1 

. 5 

. 2 

. 1 

. 3 

. 1 

1. 5 

. 2 

1. 4 

. 1 

. 2 

. 2 



(') 



(') 
(') 



(0 
(0 

(') 



. 1 
. 1 

1. 6 
. 3 

. 4 



1 

3. 1 
. 2 



.Soil 



Mixed -aWxw \:\\ l.ind 

Olhello sill loairi 

( )l hello silt l(jam, low 

I'lunimer loamy sand 

Pocomoke loam 

I'ocomok(' sandy loam 

Portsmouth silt loam 

Hut lege loamy sand 

Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 ))ercent shapes, moder- 
ately eroded 

Sassafras loam, heavy substratum, to 2 per- 
cent slo])es 

Sassafras loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes 

Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded . 

Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes^ . 
Sassafras loamy santi, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Sassafi-,is loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

sevei'ely eroded 

Sassafras loamy sand, 10 to 15 {)ercent slopes _ 
Sassafras loamy sand, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 

Sassafras sandy loam, to- 2 percent slopes 

Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes. . 
Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, to 2 

percent slopes 

Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, 2 to 5 

percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, to 2 per- 
cent slopes 

Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes 

Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded 

Swamp 

Tidal marsli 

\\ OiHistdw n loam, to 2 percent slopes 

W'oodstown sandy loam, () to 2 percent slopes.. 
Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Gravel pits, borrow, etc 

Total 



Ar(!u 



Acta 
2,019 
2(), 168 
12, 433 
665 

3, 898 
2, Oil 

1, 641 
J, 778 

2, 392 

336 

116 
8, 928 
5, 212 

4, 140 
517 

138 

170 
242 
130 
19, 041 
1, 474 

3, 931 
251 

181 
148 
169 

569 

178 

1, 296 

359 

632 
17, 413 
81, 692 
1, 240 
14, 247 

502 
462 



371, 200 



' Less than 0.1 percent. 



Big 18 to 22 inches, dark-gray (lOYR 4/1) silty clay; a few, 
fine, distinct mottles of vellow and vellowish brown 
(5Y 7/6 and lOYR 5/4); weak, fine, suhangular 
blocky structure; very firm when moist, plastic 
and sticky when wet; no visible roots; strongly acid; 
gradual, smooth boundarv; horizon is 3 to 5 inches 
thick. 

Bog 22 to 42 inches, dark-gray (lOYR 4/1) clay; many, coarse, 
distinct mottles of yellow and yellowish brown 
(5Y 7/6 and lOYR 5/6); moderate, fine, subangular 
blocky structure; extremely firm when moist; very 
plastic and very sticky when wet; no roots; very 
strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary; horizon is 
8 to 12 inches thick. 

Cg 42 to 60 inches +, gray (lOYR 5/1) clay; common, 
coarse, distinct mottles of yellowish brown (lOYR 
5/6); massive to weak, fine, blocky structure; ex- 



tremely firm when moist, very plastic and very 
sticky when wet; no roots; strongly to very strongly 
acid. 



ranges from 8 to 15 or more inches 
somewhat mucky, particnh^rly 



in 



The surface hxyer 
in thickness. It is 

areas under forest. In some areas the Big and Bog 
liorizons are nearly bhick and have Httle or no motthng. 
In such areas they can be distinguished from tlie A 
horizons by tlieir finer texture and moderateh' well 
developed, blocky or subangular blocky structiu'e. In 
many places the B2g and Cg horizons are thinner than 
those in the profile described and are underlahi by a 
nonconforming D horizon, consisting of sand, loamy 
sand, or sandy loam. The lowest lying areas of Bai boro 



10 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 195 9, NO. 2 6 



soils lire soiiiotiuios Hooded by salt watoi'. The lower 
part of the profile in areas that ai'e flooded is slightly- 
saline and is less acid than in areas that are not flooded. 
In places the areas that are flooded merge gradually with 
areas of salty Tidal marsh. 

Bayboro silt loam (Ba). — This soil is nearly level and is 
in small to I'airly large areas in sliglit depressions. Its 
prolile is the one desci'ibed lor the series. 

Because this soil is diHicult to drain, much of the acreage 
is still forested. If the soil is adequately drained, however, 
it is suitable for many of the crops commoidy grown and 
can be used for wetland pasture. This soil occupies 8,008 
acres. It is in capability unit IIIw-5; di-ainage group 
9-6B; sewage disposal group 7; and woodland suitability 
group 7. 

Bayboro silty clay loam (Bb). — The profile of this soil 
is like that of Bayboro silt loam, except that the surface 
layer is finer textured. Even in areas where it has been 
drained, this soil is so firm and tough when moist, so sticky 
and plastic when wet, and so hard when dry that regular 
cultivation is impractical. The soil is suitable for pasture 
if it is not grazed when too wet, and it will support wetland 
forest. It occupies f,sr)9 acres and is in capability unit 
VIw-2; drainage grou]) 9-6A; sewage disposal grouj) 7; 
antl woodland suitability group 7. 

Bibb Series 

The Bibb series consists of poorly drained soils on flood 
plains, or first bottoms along some of the major streams 
throughout the countv. The soils are composed of moder- 
ately fine textured or medium-textured alluvium that 
originally washed from areas of Matapeake, Mattapex, 
Othello, Klkton, and other silty soils. 

The Bibb soils are associated with soils of the Johnston 
series and with areas of mixed, iniclassified alluvium. In 
some places they merge with areas of Swamp or Tidal 
marsh. The Bibb soils have slightly better drainage and 
are finer textured than the Johnston soils. Their surface 
layer is also lighter colored. 

Profile of Bibb silt loam in a forested area on the flood 
plain of Little Blackwater River, about 1 mile southwest 
of Thompson: 

All to 2 inches, dark grayish-brown (2.o\ 4/2) silt loam; 

niunerous very dark brown specks of organic matter; 
very weak, medium, crumb structure; friable when 
moist, slightly plastic and slightly sticky when wet; 
numerous fibrous and common woody roots; strongly 
acid; abrupt, wavy boundary; horizon is 1 to 4 
inches thick. 

Ai2 2 to 7 inches, light olive-gray (.5Y 6/2) silt loam; common, 
fine, distinct mottles of light gray and yellowish 
brown (N 6/0 and lOYR .5/4) ; very weak, fine, crumb 
structure: friable to firm when moist, slightly plastic 
and slightly sticky when wet; common fibrous and 
woody roots; very strongly acid; gradual, smooth to 
wavy boundary; horizon is 4 to 8 inches thick. 

Cg 7 to 26 inches, light-gray {5Y 6/1) heavy silt loam with 
many, medium and coarse, prominent mottles of 
light yellowish brown and strong brown (lOYR 
6/4 and 7.5 YR 5/6) ; coarse, very weak, iDlocky 
structure; firm when moist, plastic and sticky when 
wet; a few woody and very few fibrous roots; light 
olive-gray (5Y 6/2) coatings of silt on the faces of 
some aggregates; very strongly acid; abrupt, smooth 
boundary; horizon is 15 to 20 inches thick. 

Dg 26 to 48 inches +, gray (5Y 5/1), stratified sandy clay 
loam ; common, coarse, distinct to prominent, irregu- 
lar blotches of yellowish brown and strong brown (lO- 
YR 5/6 and 7.5YR 5/6); firm when moist, plastic 



and slick.\ when \\c(; praclically no roots; contains 
thin l(M>ses and irregular inclusions of sand, loamy 
sand, and sandy loam; very strongly acid. 

In cultivated areas the jjlow layer is generally grayish 
brown {2.r>Y 5/2). In some places the stdistratum has a 
slightly bluish cast. The 1)„ horizon may be any one of 
imuiy different textures excei)t silt loam. In phices it 
consists of soil mat erial of mixed text tires. In some places 
the I)^. horizon is at a depth greater than 48 inches. 

Bibb silt loam (Bm).— The profile of this soil is the one 
described for the series. The soil is generally rather 
diflictdt to drain, and some areas are likely to be damaged 
by flooding. If the soil is adequately drained, it is suitable 
for many crops commonly grown in the county. The 
soil occupi(>s 196 acres. It is in capability unit IIIw-7; 
drainage grotip If-A; sewage disposal grotip 8; and wood- 
land siulabilily group 4. 

Coastal Beaches 

This miscellaneous land type consists of areas of sandy 
beaches. The noncoherent, loose sand in these areas has 
been worked and reworked by the wind and waves. The 
sand shows no soil developmeid and supports little, if 
any, vegetation. 

Coastal beaches (Co). — -This land tyi)e consists of beaches 
along the shores of the Chesapeake Bay and tilong the 
major rivers in the county. Some of the areas are smooth; 
others are somewhat hummocky and have short slopes. 

Little vegetation grows on this land type, but there is 
a sparse cover of American bciichgrass, beach goldem-od, 
or occasional clumps of switchgrass. Loblolly and Virginia 
pines grow on a few of the older, partly staljilized areas, 
i)ut the land has no real value for agriculture. This huul 
type occupi(>s 212 acres. It is in capability unit Vnis-2 
aiid woodland suitability group 9. 

Elkton Series 

The Elkton series consists of poorly drained soils that 
have a fine-textured, very slowly permeal)le subsoil. The 
soils developed mainly in thick beds of clay, silty clay, or 
silty clay loam, i)tit in ])laces their sul)stratum is somewhat 
sandy. Their std)soil is heavy textured, intractable, and 
very slowdy permeable to water, air, and roots. The soils 
are in broad, nearly level areas, mainly at an elevation of 
less than 20 feet. In places they are only slightly above 
sea level. 

The Elkton soils are closely associated with the Othello 
soils. They are a little less sandy than those soils, their 
subsoil has much more clay and is less wet, and they are 
more diffictdt to drain. They are also less easily managed 
after they are drained. The Elkton soils developed in the 
same kind of material as the moderately well drained 
Keyport and very poorly drained, dark-colored Bayboro 
soils. 

The Elkton soils occupy nearly 74,000 acres, or about 
20 percent of the county. They occupy much of the 
western and central parts. The areas lie between areas of 
better drained, more sandy soils to the northeast and areas 
of Tidal marsh to the south. Because the Elkton soils are 
poorly drained and are difficult to manage after they are 
drained, most of the acreage is still w^ooded. A small 
acreage is used for crops, and a small acreage, for pasture. 



DOIU'llKSIKH COUNTY, MARYLAND 



Profile of KIkloii sill loam in a loMolly I'oicsl a( a poiiil 
just oil' Hills Point Koad, about oiic-liall' mile west of 
Jjloyds: 

Ai to 1 iiicli, (lark oiixc-nray (")Y 3/2), smooth sill luaiu di' 
silt; weak, line, cruiiil) slructiirc; friable when iiioisi , 
slightly i)lasti(' and slinhlly sticky when wcl ; fihi'oiis 
aiul woody roots faiily i)l('iit iful : xcry slroiinly acid: 
clear, smooth houiuiarv; liori/on is 'i- inch to 2 inches 
thick. 

A2 1 to 6 inches, light-gray or gray (.'SY silt loam; weak, 
coarse, cniinb to fine, siil)angular blocky structure; 
friable when moist , slightly plastic and slightly sticky 
when wet; roots rather few; extremely acid; dear, 
wavy boundary; horizon is 4 to 7 inches thick 

Big () to JO inch(>s, gray 5/1 silt y cla>' loam ; common, 

coarse, prominent mottles of yellowish brown (lOYR 
5/4); coiDpouiid, very weak, medium, platy and 
strong, coarse, blocky structure; firm when moist, 
plastic and sticky when wet; roots few; dark-gray 
(N 4/0), thin coatings in root channels and on aggre- 
gates; extremely acid; gradual, wavy boundary; 
horizon is up to 6 inches thick, but in places it 
is absent or nearly so. 

B21K 10 to 24 inclus, light-gray or gray (5Y 6/1) silty clay; 

common, coarse, prominent mottles of strong brown 
(7..")YR 5/8); compound, weak, thick, platy and 
strong, coarse, blocky structure; firm when moist, 
very plastic and very sticky when wet; very few 
roots; a few fine pores; dark-gray (N 4/0) coatings 
of silt and clay in pores, in root channels, and on 
aggregates; extremely acid; diffuse boundary; 
horizon is 12 to 20 inches thick. 

B22B 24 to 40 inches, gray (N 5/0) hea\y silty clay; common 
to many, coarse, prominent mottles of strong brown 
(7. SYR 5/6); compound, weak, thick, i)lat\- and 
very strong, coarse, blocky structure; wvy tii ni when 
moist, \ ('ry sticky and extremely plastic when wet; 
very few roots; a few fine pores; very dark gray (N 
3/0) coatings of silt or clay in pores, in root channels, 
and on aggregates; very strongly acid; clear, smooth 
boundary; horizon is 12 to 18 inclies thick. 

CD 40 to 54 inches +, gray (5Y5/1) fine sandy clay loam or 
very fine sandy clay loam; common, medium, dis- 
tinct mottles of yellowish brown (lOYR 5/4) ; massive 
to very weak, coarse, blocky structure; friable to 
firm when moist, plastic and sticky when wet; no 
roots; very strongly acid. 

In cultivated areas the plow layer is generally gray to 
dark gray (5Y 5/1 to 4/1). In some places the subsoil is 
even thicker than that in the profile described. It extends 
to a depth of more tlian .50 inches in some areas. In many 
places tlie su])stratum contains more sand than that in 
the profile described. In most places the texture of the 
substratum is sandy loam to ahnost pure sand, but there 
is practically no sand in some areas. 

Elkton loam (Ek). — The surface layer of this soil con- 
tains much more sand or fine sand and nmch less silt than 
the surface layer in the profile described for the series. If 
the soil has been drained, it is fairlj^ easy to work and to 
manage. Like the other Elkton soils, it is difficult to 
drain because of the very slow permeability of its sub- 
soil. This soil occupies 1,273 acres. It is in capal)ility 
unit IIIw-9; drainage group 8-2B; sewage disposal 
group 7; and woodland suitability group 7. 

Elkton silt loam (Em). — -The profile of this soil is the 
one described for the series. The soil is one of the most 
extensive ones in the county. It is not used widely for 
crops, but it has a strong influence on the agricultural 
development of the county. Most of the areas are prac- 
tically level, but in places the slope is as much as 2 per- 
cent or slightly greater. This soil occupies 25,452 acres. 
It is in capability unit IIIw-9; drainage group 8-2B; 



sewage disposal group 7; and woodland suital)ilily 
gi'oup 7. 

Elkton silt loam, low ('En).-- This .soil is like iOlkton 
silt loam, hut it is only slightly al)OV(! the level of llu^ 
areas of Tidal marsh. Px'cause of its low |)Osition, it is 
almost impossible to drain. At times this soil is flooded 
when tides are extremely high. In |)lac('s its substratum 
has been affected by salt and is less acid than that in 
the noi'mal KIkton silt loam. 

This soil is not suitahle foi' crops, Iml it will furnish 
some grazing. In many places loblolly pine afjpcars to 
be the climax vegetation, although loblolly pine gi'ows 
slowly on this soil because of the salt. The trees arc 
stunted in some areas or have been killed by excess 
salt. This soil occupies 18,074 acres. It is in capa- 
bility unit Vw-1 ; drainage group 10; sewage disposal 
group 7; and woodland suitability group 8. 

Elkton silty clay loam (Eo). — The smfa<-e layer of this 
soil is finer lextmcd than that of Elkton loam or of the 
Elkton silt loams. The soil material is so intractable 
under nearly all ranges of moisture that normal culti- 
vation is almost impossible. This soil is more difficult 
to drain than Elkton loam or the Elkton silt loams, l)ut 
it is suitable for pasture or woodland. It occupies 13,144 
acres and is in capability unit VIw-2; drainage group 
8-2A; sewage disposal group 7; and woodland suitability 
group 7. 

Elkton silty clay loam, low (Et). — This soil is like 
Elkton silty clay loam, except that it is very close to sea 
level. It is only slightly above the level of the areas of 
Tidal marsh. This soil is suitable oidy for trees or for 
limited grazing. It occupies 15,931 acres and is in capa- 
bility unit VIw-2; drainage group 10; sew^age disposal 
group 7; and woodland suitability group 8. 

Fallsington Series 

The Fallsington series consists of poorly drained soils 
that developed in beds of mixed sand, silt, and clay over 
very sandy deposits. The soils are on uplands. Their 
surface layer is grayish and is moderately coarse textured. 
The subsoil is a heavy sandy loam to sandy clay loam and 
overlies a sandy substratum. 

The Fallsington soils developed in tlie same kind of 
material as the well drained Sassafras, the moderatel}' 
well drained Woodstown, and the very poorly drained 
Pocomoke soils. Their profile is similar to that of the 
Othello soils, but it contains much more sand and less 
silt. 

Profile of Fallsington sandy loam in a forested area, 
about one-half mile southeast of Mt. Holly Cemetery^: 

Ai to 3 inches, very dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 3/2) sandy 
loam; weak, medium, granular structure; very friable 
when moist; numerous woody, and abundant fitjrous 
roots; very strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary; 
horizon is 2 to 5 inches thick. 

A2 3 to (• inches, gray (lO'i H ."> Ii sandy loam; verj' weak, 
mediinn, granular struct lu'e; very friatjle when moist; 
common woodsy and fibrous roots; very strongly acid; 
gradtial, wavv boundary; horizon is 5 to 10 inches 
thick. 

B2ig 9 to 16 inches, gray (lOYR 5/1) light sandy clay loam; 

common, medium, distinct mottles of light yellowish 
brown (lOYR 6/4); weak, medium to coarse, sub- 
angular blocky structure; friable when moist, slighth' 
plastic and slightly sticky when wet; few roots: very 
strongly acid; difluse boundary; horizon is 5 to 10 
inches thick. 



12 



SOIL suh\i:y skhies 1959, no. 26 



B22g 16 to 25 inches, liKlit-gi'ay (5Y 7/1) sandy clay loam; 

common, coarse, prominent mottles of yellowish 
brown (lOYR 5/8); niedinm, weak to moderate, 
hlocky and suhangiilar blocky struct nre: friable to 
somewhat firm when moist, plastic and sticky when 
wet; few woody and very few fibrous roots; very 
stronglv acid to extrenu'ly acid; clear, wavy bound- 
ary; horizon is (i to 12 inches thick. 

Cg 25 to 32 inches, gray (5Y 5/1) sandy loam; common, very 
coars<>, prominent mottles of yellowish brown (lOYR 
5/6) ; stratified; friable when moist, slightly sticky but 
nonphistic when wet; very few scattered roots; 
yellowish-brown (lOVR 5/6 or 5/8) stains in a few 
old root channels; very strongly acid; abrupt, smooth 
to slightlv wavv boundarv; tiorizon is 4 to 12 inches 
thick. 

Dg 32 to 18 inches +, light-gray (2.5V 7/2), stratified sand 
to loamy sand; few, coarse, distinct mottles of 
yellowish brown (lOYR 5/4); loose to very friable; 
very few single roots; contains some thin lenses of 
sandy loam or light sandy clay loam; very strongly 
acid to extremely acid. 

ill ciiltiviilcd areas tlie plow layer is generally a uiiilorni 
gray or grayish brown. The surface layer ranges i'roin 
about 7 to 12 or more inelies in thickness. Tn areas where 
the surface layer is thin, it generally contains less sand than 
in areas where it is thick. The soil niatcM'ial al)<)ve the 
substratum ranges from about 18 to 30 inches in thickness, 
but in most places it is 24 to 27 inches tliick. In |)!accs 
the Cg horizon is absent and the subsoil rests directly on 
the very sandy horizon. Mottling in tlie subsoil and 
substratum is much weaker than tliat in the profile de- 
scribed. In some places the D^, horizon is light gray and 
hits lit tic or no mot tling. 

Failsington sandy loam (Fa). — The |)i-ofilc of this soil 
is the one described for the series, btit in some large areas 
the surface layer is almost as fine textured as a loam. 
Most areas of this soil are nearly l(>vel, but in some places 
the slope is about 2 percent or slightly greater. 

This soil is important for agriculture. If adc((iiately 
drained, it is suited to nearly all of the crops commoidy 
grown in the area. The soil occupies 22,(500 acres. It is 
in capability luiit Illw-fi; drainage group 7-B; sewage 
disposal group 7; and woodland suitability group 3. 

Galestown Series 

The Galestown series consists of somewhat excessively 
drained, very sandy soils that have a distinctly brown, 
very sandy subsoil. The soils are level to rolling or hilly. 
They are on uplands and on old terraces, or natural levees, 
above the major streams. These soils have developed in 
sand or loamy sand. Their substratum is at a depth of 
4 to 6 feet and consists of water-bearing sandy loam to 
light sandy clay loam. This deep substratum is of great 
importance to crops because it forms a reservoir of mois- 
ttu'e for plants to use dtu'ing dry seasons. 

In many places the Galestown soils are closely associ- 
ated with soils of the Lakeland and Sassafras series. 
Their profile is similar to that of the Lakeland soils, but 
their subsoil is browner and less yellowish. Their siu'face 
layer and subsoil are coarser textured than those of the 
Sassafras soils. 

Except for the areas that are steep or very sandy, the 
Galestown soils are important for agrictdture. Tliey are 
especially well suited to truck crops. 

Profile of Galestown loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes, 
in a cultivated area, about midway between Hiu'lock and 
Harrison Ferry Bridge: 



Ap to 10 inches, dark-brown (lO^'K -i/'.i) loamy sand; weak, 
very fine, crumb structure to single grain; very friable 
to loose; many roots; strongly to very strongly acid; 
abrupt, smooth ))0undarv; horizon is 8 to 10 inches 
thick. 

l<i 10 to 18 inches, brownish-yellow (lOYH 5/4) loamy sand; 

single grain and very weak, fine, granular structure; 
most of the grains of sand have a thin coating; 
strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary; lioiizori is (i t(j 10 
inches thick. 

B2 18 to 40 inches, strong-brow^n (7.5YR 5/6) loamy sand; 

single grain and weak, fine, granular or w(iak, medium, 
subangular blocky structure; loose when moist, 
slightly sticky when wet; most; of the grains of sand 
are coated with a film that is yellowish brown or strong 
brown, and bridg(!s between the grains ar(! common; 
contains a f(>w lenses, ]■> inch to 2 inches thick, and 
lumi)s, 1 to 2 inches in diameter, that are slightly 
firmer, darker colored, and slightly more clayey than 
the mat(!rial in the matrix; this horizon contains 
slightly more clay than the Ap and Bi horizons, but 
the content of clay is not great enough to make the 
layer a textural B horizon; very strongly acid; diffuse 
boundarv; horizon is 15 to 30 inches thick. 

C 40 to 60 inches, i)ale-brown (lOYH 6/3) sand grading 
t'jward light gray (lO^'Ii 7/2) with increasing depth; 
loose; structureless; contains a few, small peljbles; 
very strongly acid; al)rupt, smooth boundary; hori- 
zon is 10 to 30 inches thick. 

Dg 60 to 70 inches -f-, light-gray (2.5 Y 7/2) light sandy clay 
loam; massive; firm when moist, shghtly sticky but 
nonplastic when wet; contains a few, coarse, distinct 
blotches of brownish yellow (lOYli 6/8); extremely 
acid. 

The Ai horizon in wooded areas is generally 4 to (5 inches 
thick and is grayish brown to very dark grayish l)rown. 
In some areas that are undistiu'bed, there is a thin, 
bleached A2 horizon of light yellowish brown, loose loamy 
sand. In all areas the grains of sand in tlie Bi and B2 
horizons are partly or completely coated with a hne-tex- 
tured material. However, the slightly firmer, darker, 
sligidly more clayey lumps described in the B^ horizon are 
not prcseid in all areas. 

Galestown loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes (GaA).^ — 
The j)roiile of lliis soil is ttu' one described for the series. 
The soil is low in fertility and is rather low in moistiu-e- 
storing capacity. It is not highly productive unless 
fertilizer and organic matter are added. The crops on this 
soil would benefit greatly from supplemental irrigation 
during the driest parts of tlie growing season. This soil 
occupies 4,340 acres. It is in capability unit IIIs-1 ; 
irrigation group 1 ; sewage disposal group 1 ; and woodland 
suitability group 2. 

Galestown loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (GaB). — 
In some places this soil has slopes that are fairly long and 
smooth. In other places the slopes are broken and are 
complex or hummocky, which suggests that some of the 
soil material may have been reworked by wind. In some 
areas wind or water has removed part of the soil material, 
but these areas are generally of minor extent. If this 
soil is properly managed, it can be used regularly for 
cultivated crops. It occtipies 4,547 acres and is in capa- 
bility unit IIIs-1 ; irrigation group 1 ; sewage disposal 
group 1 ; and woodland suitability group 2. 

Galestown loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes (GaC). — 
This soil is suitable for cultivated crops, but it requires 
different and more intensive management than the soils 
that are less steep. This soil must be protected from 
erosion. It occupies 437 acres, and is in capability unit 
IVs-1; irrigation group 1; sewage disposal group 2; and 
woodland suitability group 2. 



DOKCI IKSTKU COUNTV, MARYLAND 



Galestown loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes (GaD). — 
Risk of (M'osioii, (li'()U<ilit iiicss, mid low fertility iniii«' this 
soil ^'(MK'niily unsuited to i-{'<iular cull ivat ion. Tlic soil 
is suited (o carerully nuina>i'e(l jirazinj^', however, and it- 
can !)(> used foi' oi'cliards. it is also suited to woodland 
use. The soil occupies 2\ri acres. It is in ca|)al)iiily unit- 
VIs-1 ; sewa<!;e disjjosal •■■roui) '2; and woodland suitability 
>^rou|) 2. 

Galestown sand, to 2 percent slopes (GsA). — The 
prolile of this soil is hkc that of (ialestown loamy sand, 
to 2 percent slopes, e.xcejjt that the surface layer and 
subsoil contain little line-te.xt ured material and are loose 
and extremely sandy. As a I'esult, this soil is even more 
droughty and is lower in fertility than (Ialestown loamy 
sand, to 2 percent slopes. Nevertheless, with s])ecial 
management, this soil can he used more or less regularly 
to grow watermelons and other high-value ci'ops. This 
soil occupies 523 acres. It is in capability unit IVs-1 ; 
irrigation group 1 ; sewage disposal group 1 ; and woodlancl 
suitability grou]) 5. 

Galestown sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (GsB). — This 
soil is hunmiocky in those places where part of tlie surface 
layer has been removed by wind. It can be used about 
the same as Galestown sand, to 2 percent slopes, how- 
ever, and its management is about the same. This soil 
occupies 1,944 acres. It is in capability imit IVs-1 ; 
irrigation group 1 ; sewage disposal group 1 ; and woodland 
suitability group 5. 

Galestown sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes (GsC). — This 
soil is not suitable for cultivated crops, but it is suited to 
regulated grazing or to woodland use. It can also be used 
for orchards or for special crops. The soil occupies 769 
acres. It is in capability unit VIs-1 ; sewage disposal 
group 2; and w^oodland suitability group 5. 

Galestown sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes (GsD). — Sandy 
texture and strong slope make this soil generally unsuit- 
able for regular cultivation, but it can be used as woodland 
or for wildlife or recreational areas. The soil occupies 
371 acres. It is in capability unit VIIs-1 ; sewage disposal 
group 2; and woodland suitability group 5. 

Galestown sand and loamy sand, 15 to 40 percent 
slopes (GeF). — This unit consists of scattered, small areas 
of Galestown loamy sand and Galestown sand. The soils 
are so steep that they are suitable only for woodland use, 
for extremely limited grazing, or for wildlife or recrea- 
tional areas. This imit occupies 402 acres. It is in 
capability unit VIIs-1 ; sewage disposal group 3; and 
woodland suitability group 5. 

Johnston Series 

The Johnston series consists of very poorly drained, 
very dark colored soils of first bottoms, or flood plains. 
The soils consist of alluvium washed from soils of the up- 
lands. They have a large amount of organic matter 
in the surface layer, but no B horizon has developed. 

The Johnston soils are more poorly drained than the 
other soils of flood plains. They are even more poorly 
drained and darker colored than the Bibb soils. The 
Johnston soils are much like the Rutlege soils, which 
are also very poorly drained but are in depressions in the 
uplands. They are finer textiu'cd than the Rutlege soils. 

The Johnston soils are wet and support only wetland 
forest vegetation on most of the acreage. The areas 



thai ha\(' been clcaicd, M(h'(|Uat('ly (haincd, .nid piolcclcd 
from Hooding, how(!ver, ai'c suited to many of the ciop.s 
connnoiily gi'own in the county. 

Prolile of Johnston loam in a forested aica on .Middle- 
town Road, I';, miles southwest of Salem: 

;\i In I I iiiclii s, liliick (')\ 2/1), liiKlily orxiiiiic iouiii; very 
wcuk, Jiicdiuiii, K'"!iiiuliir slnK-tiirc; friajjlr- whfii 
moist , ii()ii{)lasl ic jiiid noiisticJcy; roots pl<-iit ifiil t(j 
ahuiidiuif ill ti[)|)(T 2 iiu^lics; many, luicoaU^d, white 
grains of (juarlz sand; extremely ■dcUl; al)rM[jt, wavy 
to irregular boniidary; horizon is S to 1.5 inches thick. 

C, II to 2'.i inches, light-gray (.'3V' (i/l) heavy sandy loam; 

few, very coarse, distinct mottles or large, irregular 
blotch(!s or smears of light yellowish hrown and 
light olive brown (lOVH (1/4 and 2.5Y 5/4); massive 
to very weak, coarse, l)locky structure; very friable 
wiien moist, nonplastic and nonsticky; few roots; 
extremely acid; gradual, irregular to diffuse bound- 
ary; iiorizon is 10 to 20 inches thick. 

Dg '2'A to 48 inches +, variable; light-gray to white ('lY 7/1 
to 8/1), loose, structureless loamy sand; irregular 
streaks and large blotches of grayish brown 
(2.5Y 5/2); low density; tends to flow when satu- 
rated; no roots; extremely acid. 

In areas under forest the texture of the surface layer 
is somewhat mucky in places. The texture and thickness 
of the Ai horizon vary, even within small areas. In 
most places the texture of the Ai horizon is loam, but 
in some places it is sandy loam or mucky sandy loam. 
The thickness of the Ai horizon ranges from 10 to 30 
inches. In places, where its texture is sandy loam 
or mucky sandy loam, the Aj horizon is generally thiimer 
than in areas where it is finer textured. The Cg horizon is 
absent in some places, and in such areas the Dg horizon 
is generally very sandy. In other places, where the 
profile contains a Cg horizon, the Dg horizon may be an}' 
one of niany different textures. Also, hi small areas 
where there is a C^g horizon, a sandy Dig horizon and a 
finer textured and more slowdy permeable D^g horizon are 
within 4 or 5 feet of the surface. 

Johnston loam (Jo). — The profile of this soil is the 
one described for the series. This soil is generally difficult 
to drain and to protect from flooding. Because it has 
a dense cover of wetland forest vegetation, it is difficult 
and expensive to clear. If the soil is adequately ch'ained 
and protected, however, it can be used regularly to 
grow suitable cultivated crops. The soil occupies 962 
acres. It is in capability imit IIIw-7; drainage group 
11-A; sewage disposal group 8; and woodland suitability 
group 4. 

Keyport Series 

The Keyport series consists of moderately well drained 
soils that luive a slowh' to very slowly permeable subsoil. 
The soils developed in clay and silty clay that is underlain 
in many places by sandier material. 

The Keyport soils are better drained than the Elkton 
and Bayboro soils, alt hough they developed in thesanu^kind 
of material or in similar material. Their profile resembles 
that of the Woodstown soils, but they have a subsoil of 
tough silty clay loam to clay rather than one that contains 
sand and is friable. 

The Keyport soils are important for agriculture. They 
need sonte drainage, but, imder the best management, 
moderate to fairly liigh yields are obtained. 



14 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959. NO. 2 6 



Prolilc ol' Keyport silt loam, to 2 poi-ccnt slopes, in a. 
ciiltivatod ui'oa west of tlio Naiiticoke River, about 3 miles 
south of Heni-ys Crossroads: 

A„ to 7 inches, grayish-brown (lO^'R 5/'2) sill Niam; inodcr- 
at(% fine, crumb structure; friable when inoisl, 
slifjhtly plastic and slightly sticky when wet; roots 
])lentiful to abundant ; slightly acid (i)rol)ably limed) ; 
cleai', wavy boundary; horizon is (i to '.I inches thick. 

B21 " to 19 inches, dark yellowish-brown (lO^'H 11) silly cla,\' 
loam; moderate, very fine, subangular blocky struc- 
ture; hard when dry, firm when moist, and plastic 
and sticky when wet; roots fairly i)lentiful in upper 
part of horizon, fewer below; medium to strongly 
acid; gradual, irregulai- boundary; horizon is G to 1,'5 
inches thick. 

B22E li> to 42 iiu'hes, yellowish-brown (lO^ H ft/ti) silty clay; 

conunon. fine, faint to distinct mottles of grjiyish 
blown (lO'^'H 5/2); strong, very fine, subangular 
blocky struct luo; very hard when dry, very firm and 
tough when moist, and plastic and very sticky when 
wet; very few roots; some discontinuous yellowish- 
brown coatings of clay on the aggregates and in 
old root chamiels; very strongly acid; gradual, ir- 
regular bounciarv; horizon is 15 to 25 inches thick. 

T)k 42 to IS inches +,"gray (lOYR 5/1) sandy clay loam 
l)(H'oming more sandy witii increasing de{)th; com- 
mon, nu'dium, distinct mottl(>s of yellow and yellow- 
ish brown (2.5V 7/6 and lOVH 5/6); nuissive to 
very weak, coarse, blocky structiu'e; fiiin when moist, 
sticky and slightly plastic when wet; no loots; 
strongly to very strongly acid. 

Ill forested areas there is a thin, dark-gray Aj horizon 
and an A) horizon. The A.o h.orizon is somewhat (hickcM' 
than the Aj, and in most ph^vces it is hght yellowish hiown 
(lOYR 6/4). Deptli to the mottled 11,;^ horizon ranges 
from about 15 to 24 inehes, and deptJi to the substratum, 
from ahout 30 to 45 inclies. In some places a i \ horizon 
of silty clay oi- clay lies between tlie Bo^g and Dg horizons. 
The texture of the I^g horizon ranges from sandy loam to 
sandy clay. The D^, iiorizon generally contains more sand 
than either the surh'ce layei' or the subsoil. 

Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes ( Ke A). — The sui face 
layer of this soil contains less silt and more sand than the 
surface layer in the profile desci-ibed. The soil material 
is somewhat more friable and easier to work than that in 
the Keyport silt loams. In places the soil needs surface 
drainage, but it is not difficult to drain. 

If this soil is properly drained, it is suited to all the crops 
commonly grown in the county. Under good manage- 
ment, yields are high. The soil occupies 383 acres. It is 
in capability unit IIw-8; drainage group 6-2A; irrigation 
group 5; sewage disposal group 7; and woodland suita- 
bility group 6. 

Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes (KpA). — The 
profile of this soil is the one described for the series. 
The soil is used about the same as Keyport loam, to 
2 percent slopes. It has about the same management 
problems, and crops grown on it make about the same 
yields, but in some places it is slightly harder to work 
and to drain. 

This soil occupies 5,661 acres. It is in capability 
unit IIw-8; drainage group 6-2 A; irrigation group 5; 
sewage disposal group 7; and woodland suitability 
group 6. 

Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes (KpB). — This 
soil has a subsoil of silty clay that is very slowly perme- 
able. As a result, most of the water from rainfall and 
snowmelt runs off and does not soak in. The soil erodes 
easily; heavy rains or quick thaws have already caused 
serious erosion in some places. A few scattered areas 



wliere the slo])e is slightly greater than 5 percent are 
ma|)ped with this soil. 

Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, occupies 
830 acres. It is in capability unit IIe-13; drainage 
group ()-2A; irrigation group 5; sewage disposal group 
7; and woodland suitability group 6. 

Klej Series 

The Klej series consists of moderately well drained 
to somewhat poorly drained soils that developed in 
sandy material. The soils are underlain, at a consider- 
able depth, by nonconfoi-ming strata of silt, clay, and 
sand. These soils have a distinct A horizon, but they 
lack a B horizon. Their substratum is mottled at a 
depth between about 15 and 25 inches. The mottling 
was catised by impeded drainage. These soils are level 
to gently sloping. In places they are in slight depressions 
in the uplands, generally at an elevation of less than 
40 feet. 

The Klej, Cialestown, Lakeland, Phmimer, and Rullege 
soils all formed in similar nuiterial, but the Klej soils 
are not so well drained as the Galestown and Lakeland 
soils, and they are better di'ained than the Bliimnier 
and Rullege soils. The Klej soils lack tlie fine-textured 
B hoi'izon that is typical of the Woodstown soils. 

Impeded diainage is the most important problem in 
maiuiging the Klej soils. The soils are also low in 
moist lu-e-storing capacity and in natural fertility. There 
is little if any hazard of erosion. 

Profile of Klej loamy sand, to 2 ])ercent slopes, in 
a cultivated area about 1 mile north of Finch ville 
Crossroads: 

A„ to y inches, verj' dark gray (lOYR 3/1) loamy sand; 

very weak, fine, granular structure to single grain; 
soft when dry, loose to very friable when moist, 
nonplastic and nonsticky; roots abundant; strongly 
acid; clear, smooth boundary; horizon is 8 to 10 
inches thick. 

Ci 9 to 16 inches, grayish-brown (lOY'R 5/2), structureless 
loamy sand; loose to very friable; roots fairly common 
in up])er portion; strongly acid; gradual, smooth 
boundary; horizon is 6 to 9 inches thick. 

C2E 16 to 34 inches, grayish-brown (lOYR 5/2), structureless 
sand to light loamy sand; common, medium, distinct 
mottles of pale brown and j-ellowish brown (lOYll 
6/3 and lOYR 5/6); loose; a very few roots in upper 
part; strongly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary; horizon 
is 12 to 20 inches tliick. 

Dg 34 to 42 inches +, mottled vellowish-brown and light 
brownish-gray (lOYR 5/4 and 2.5Y' 6/2), stratified 
material that consists of alternating, thin bands, 
or layers, of sandy clay loam, sandy loam, and 
sand; loose or fii;iliii to somewhat firm when moist, 
but the clayey mairiial is stick,v and slightly plastic 
when wet; no roots; strongly acid. 

In places the plow layer is grayish brown or dark 
grayish brown (lOYR 5/2 or 4/2). In forested areas 
there is a dark-colored Ai horizon that is commonly 
thin; there is also a thin, dark-gray A12 horizon in some 
places. 

Klej loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes (KsA). — In most 
places the profile of this soil is like the one described for 
the series. In some places, however, there are areas where 
the profile contains slightly more silt and clay than typical. 
These areas are too small to be mapped separately. 

Hej loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes, can be used 
regularly for cultivated crops if it is drained adequately 
and a good supply of plant nutrients is maintained. In 



DOIv'CIlKS'l'Kli COUNTY, MAItVLAND 



15 



soino mens ci'ops would IxMiclil IVoiu ii i iiiiit ion (liirin<i diy 
seasons. In niosl nicas llic soil is cnsy to drain cnon^li 
for oi'dinai y crops lo uiow. This soil occupies 5,282 jici-cs. 
It is in capability unit 1 11 w S ; drainaji'c jiiouj) 4 ; irri^al ion 
>ri'ou]) i ; s('\vaii(> disposal fzroup 7 ; and woodland suitability 
jiroup 'A. 

Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (KsB). — In most 
places this soil has slopes ol' 2 to ") percent, hut in a few 
])laces the sloj)e is slitjhtly more than 5 percent . Impeded 
drainuije is the most important management jjrohlem, but 
there is a slight hazard of erosion. This soil occupies 29S 
acres. It is in capability unit IIIw <S; di'ainage group 4; 
in itiation grou]) 1 ; sewage disposal gi-oup 7; and woodland 
suitability group 3. 

Lakeland Series 

The Lakeland series consists of somewhat excessively 
drained, very sandy soils developed in old deposits of sand 
and loamy sand. The sandy material was probably depos- 
ited by watei-. In some places it has been reworked by 
wind. 

In Dorchester County the Lakeland soils, like the 
Galestown, are commonly mulerlain by fine-textured 
material at a moderate depth . This fine-textured material 
remains wet during most of the year and fm-nishes a 
I'eservoir of moist lU'e for trees and other deep-rooted plants 
to use. 

The Lakeland soils are much more yellowisli tlian the 
Galestown soils, and tliey are much less strongly colored. 
The lower part of their profile lacks the strong-brown 
coloring that is typical in the Galestown soils. The 
Lakeland soils also lack a B horizon. 

Tlie Lakeland soils are not extensive in Dorcliester 
County and are important only locally. In this county 
they are in the northern part of their range of distribution. 

These soils are used mainly to grow truck crops, but 
they ai'e also used for general crops and pasture. Because 
they are sandy, their moistm-e-storing capacity is low and 
they tend to be droughty in dry seasons. The soils are 
fairly productive under good management, especially if 
they are irrigated during dry periods. 

Profile of Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 
to 2 percent slopes, in a cultivated area about one-half 
mile southwest of Galestown: 

Alp to 9 inches, grayish-brown (lOYR 5/2) loamy sand; weak, 
fine, crumb structure to single grain; loose; roots 
plentiful; strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary; 
horizon is 8 to IG inches thick. 

Ai2 9 to 16 inches, light yellowish-brown (2.5Y 6/4), loose, 
structureless loamy sand; roots fairly plentiful; 
strongly acid to very strongly ac'd; clear, smooth to 
wavy boundary; horizon is 6 to 10 inches thick. 

C] 16 to 35 inches, brownish-yellow (lOYR (76*, loose, 
structureless loamy sand; a few widely separated 
roots; contains occasioiuil lumps or bands of slightly 
finer textured material, ijarticidarly in lower part; 
very strongly acid; gradual, wavy to irregular bound- 
ary; horizon is 12 to 2.'i inches thick. 

C2 35 to 53 inches, pale-yellow (2.5Y 7/4), loose, structureless 
sand to very light loamy sand, that is paler with 
increasing depth (2.5Y 8/4) and is slightly streaked 
with light gray in lower part ; no roots; contains a few 
lumps or bands of slightly finer material; very 
strongly acid; abrupt, smooth to wavy boundary; 
horizon is 15 to 30 inclies thick. 

Dg 53 to 60 inches +, light-gray (2.5Y 7/2) sandy clay loam; 

faint, horizontal streaks of pale yellow (2.5Y 8/4) ; 



massive; firm when nioi^l, plastic and sticky when 
wcl ; no roots; very strongly acid to (!xtrcinely acid. 

In areas under forest th(^ surface layer above the Ai^ 
hoi i/.on is nuiinly grayish brown (2.r>Y 5/2) to a depth of 
4 to (i inches. In places, the (\ horizon is either more 
yellowish (lOYK 7/(1) or is browiu-r flOYK 5/(i) than that 
in the ty|)ical |)ro[ile. In some places the soil inaterial in 
bare, cleared areas has been blown about by (he wind and 
has been deposited in low hills that resemble dunes. 
De|)th to the i\ horizon in such areas ranges from a few 
inclies to as much as 24 or more inches within a short 
distttnce. Although these soils are mainly gently sloping, 
in som(> places the slope is 15 percent or greater. 

Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 2 percent 
slopes (LaA). This soil has been but little ali'ected by 
erosion. Its j)roHle is the one described for the series. 
The soil is low in moist ure-supj)lying caj)acMty and is 
rather low in ])roductivity unless large amounts of ferti- 
lizer have been addetl. L'uring uiuisually dry seasons, 
crops grown on this soil need supplemental irrigation for 
good yields. Tlie soil occupies 755 acres. It is in capa- 
bility unit IIIs-1 ; irrigation group 1 ; sew^age disposal group 
1 ; and woodlaiul suitability group 2. 

Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes (LaB). — In some areas this soil is slightly Inun- 
mocky and has irregular slopes. Some areas that have 
been cleared have a windblown appearance. In a few 
snudl areas, tliere has been a moderate amount of erosion. 
This soil occupies 673 acres. It is in capability unit II Is 1 ; 
irrigation group 1 ; sewage disposal group 1 ; and woodlancl 
suitability group 2. 

Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 15 percent 
slopes (LaD). — Because of its strong slope, tliis soil is 
much more difficult to manage than Lakeland loamy 
sand, clayey substratum, to 2 percent slopes, particularly 
because of the threat of erosion by water and wind. 
Lender especially careful management, however, it can 
be used for crops. This soil occupies 92 acres. It is 
in capability unit IVs-1 ; irrigation group 1 ; sewage 
disposal group 2; and woodland suitability group 2. 

Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, to 5 percent slopes 
(LcB). — Tliis soil contains little loam or other fine material 
and is mainly pure sand. It is somewhat less productive 
than Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 2 per- 
cent slopes, and it is more droughty in dry seasons. This 
soil is suitable, however, for watermelons, sweetpotatoes, 
and other special crops. It occupies 285 acres and is in 
capability unit IVs-1 ; irrigation group 1 ; sewage disposal 
group 1; and woodland suitability group 5. 

Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 15 percent 
slopes ( LcD). — This sandy soil is somewhat more drouglity 
than Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, to 5 percent 
slopes. It is also more susceptible to erosion. This soil 
is not suited to cultivated crops, but it is suited to regu- 
lated grazing or to trees. This soil occupies 87 acres. 
It is in capability unit VIs-1 ; sewage disposal group 2 ; 
and w"oodland suitability group 5. 

Made Land 

This miscellaneotis land type consists of small areas 
where the soil material has been disturbed or modified and 
can no longer be identified by soil type or soil series. It 
consists of fill material or of areas from which the soil 
material has been removed as the result of leveling oper- 



16 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 2 



ntioiis. It also consists ol ot lici' land I lial lias been sliil tcMl 
ahoul ()!• icwoi kod by man. 

Made land (Ma). — This land type has no ajiiiculi nral 
use. It occupies 85 acres and is in woodland suilahility 
<i-ronp 10. 

Matapeake Series 

The Mata|)cake series consists of deep, well-di'ained 
soils of uplands. The soils developed in silty material, 
l)rol)al)ly loess, that- is underlain by sand. In many 
places the silty material contained some fine sand and 
very fine sand. 

The nuvterial in which the Matapeake soils developed 
contaiued much less sand than that in which the Sassa- 
fras soils developed. The Matapeake soils have more 
silt in the surface layer and subsoil than the Sassafras 
soils. The sul)soil of the Matajx^ake soils is heavy silt 
loam to silty clay loam instead of sandy clay loam like 
that of th(> Sassafras soils. Th(> Mata])eake soils devel- 
oped in the same kind of nuiterial as the moderately 
well drained Mattapex soils, the poorly drained Othello 
soils, and the very poorly drained Portsmouth soils. 

The Mataja'ake soils are among the most productive and 
important agiicult ural soils in the county. 

J'rohle of Matapeake silt loam, to 2 percent slopes, 
in a cultivated area at the crossroads at Indianbone: 

Ap to S iiiclies, brown (lOVR 5/3) light silt loam; iiiocicrate, 
fine, CTUinl) st i iicture; friable when moist , sliKhtly 
plastic and .slifihtly sticky when wet; root.s abundant; 
reaction neutral (the soil from which this profile was 
taken had been limed; the unlimed soil is medium 
acid to strongly acid); clear, smooth boundary; 
horizon is 6 to 9 inches tliick. 

Ai 8 to 14 inches, yellowish-l)rown (lOYR 5/4) light silt 
loam; moderate, medium, crumb structure; friable 
when moist, slightly sticky and slightly plastic when 
wet; roots rather plentiful: reaction about neutral; 
clear, smooth boundary; horizon is (5 to 8 inches 
thick. 

Boi 14 to 24 inches, yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/6) heavy silt 
loam; moderate, medium, subangular blocky struc- 
ture; friable when moist, sticky and slightly i)lastic 
when wet; roots rather few; slightly acid; gradual, 
smooth boundary; horizon is 8 to 12 inches thick. 

B22 24 to 37 inches, yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/8) silty clay 
loam; moderate, medium, subangular blocky struc- 
ture; friable to somewhat firm when moist, sticky 
and slightly plastic when wet; very few" roots; some 
faint coatings of yellowish-brown clay (lOYR 5/4 and 
5/G) on aggregates; slightly acid; gradual, irregular 
Iwundary; horizon is 12 to 20 inches thick. 

B3 37 to 40 inches, dark yellowisli-brown (lOYR 4/4) loam; 

weak, medium, subangular blocky structure; friable 
when moist, slightly plastic and slightly sticky when 
wet; no roots; medium acid, clear, wavy boundarj-; 
horizon is 3 to 6 inches thick. 

D 40 to 48 inches +, pale-brown (lOYR 6/3), structureless, 
very light sandy loam; very friable when moist, 
nonplastic and nonsticky; no roots; medium acid to 
strongly acid. 

In w^ooded areas there is a thin, dark Ai horizon over 
a thicker A2 horizon. The texture of the surface layer 
ranges from silt loam to fine sandj" loam. In some places 
the soil lacks a B3 horizon; the B22 horizon rests directly 
on the D horizon, which in places is even more sandy than 
the one in the profile described. In other places the soil 
contains a B3 horizon that is a transitional zone between 
the very silty soil material in the B,, horizon and the 
sandy substratunt. 




Figure 2. — Harvesting yellow waxbeans on Matapeake .silt loam, 
to 2 percent slopes. 



Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 

(MfA). — The surface layer of this soil coidains more fine 
sand and less silt than that in the profile described. This 
soil is deep and well drained and is rather high in mois- 
ture-supplying capacity and productivity. It is one of 
the better agrictilt ural soils of the county. TIk* soil oc- 
cupies 301 acres. It is in capability unit 1-4; irrigation 
grou]) 4; sewage disposal group 1; and woodland suit- 
ability group 1 . 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (MfB2). — This soil is more suscep- 
tible to erosion than Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 
percent slopes. In most places running water has re- 
moved part of the original surface layer. In areas that 
have been plowed, the present surface layer consists 
partly of material that was formerly subsoil. Never- 
theless, imder proper management, the soil is still well 
suited to regular cultivation. It occupies 499 acres and 
is in capability unit IIe-4; irrigation group 4; sewage 
disposal group 1; and woodland suitability group 1. 

Matapeake silt loam, to 2 percent slopes (MkA). — 
The profile of this soil is the one described for the series. 
In a few small areas, however, the surface layer is slightly 
less silty than that in the profile described. The soil is 
probably the most productive of any of the soils in the 
county, and practically all of it is used for tigriculture 
(fig. 2). It is well drained and fertile, and there is no 
serious hazard of erosion. This soil occupies 5,936 acres. 
It is in capability unit 1-4; irrigation group 4; sewage 
disposal group 1 ; woodland suitaV)ility group 1. 

Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes (MkB). — 
This soil has stronger slopes than Matapeake silt loam, 
to 2 percent slopes. It has not been appreciably eroded, 
but there is a serious hazard of erosion if it is not adequate- 
ly protected. The soil occupies 985 acres. It is in capa- 
bility unit IIe-4; irrigation group 4; sewage disposal group 
1; and woodland suitability group 1. 

Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (MkB2). — This soil is like Matapeake silt loam, 
2 to 5 percent slopes, but it is moderately eroded. In a 
few small areas, erosion has been severe. This soil recjuires 
special practices to protect it from further erosion. It 
occupies 1,377 acres and is in capability unit IIe-4; 



DORCHESTKR COUNTY, MARYLAND 



17 



irriji'iil ion >j,i'()ii|) l ; scw aiic disposal ^loup 1 ; and woodland 
suitability irrouj) 1 . 

Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes (MkC). — 
This soil is not eroded, hul i(s sti'on<^ slope makes it more 
susee])! il)le to erosion than Mata|)eake silt loam, 2 to 5 
])ei'eenl slo{)es. Under good management, however, it 
can he used regularly I'or cultivated crops. Tliis soil 
occupies ISl aci-es. It is in ca|)al)ilily unit llIe-4; ii'riga- 
tiou group 4; sewage disjjosal gioup 2; and woodland 
suital)ility group 1 . 

Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded ( M kC2). - AH of tliis soil is at least moderatel}^ 
eroded, and erosion has been severe in a lew small areas. 
The soil needs a cropping system similar to that used for 
Mata])eake silt loam, f) to 10 |)erceiit slojjes, and it recpiircs 
about the sanu> kind of management practices. The man- 
agement should include pi'actices to protect it from I'urther 
erosion. This soil occupies 103 acres. It is in capability 
unit IlIe-4; irrigation group 4; sewage disposal group 2; 
and woodland suitability group 1. 

Matapeake silt loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes (MkD). — 
The surface layer in a few areas of this soil is somewhat 
less silty than that in the ])rotile described. The strong- 
slopes cause the hazard of erosion to be severe. Row crops 
should be grown infrequently, and a cover of close-growing 
plants ought to be kept on the soil most of the time. This 
soil occupies 71 acres. It is in capability unit IVe-3; 
sewage disposal group 2; and woodland suitability group 1. 

Mattapex Series 

The Mattapex series consists of deep, moderately well 
drained soils developed in silty material over a sand_v 
substratum. The silty material is like that in which the 
well-drained Matapeake, the poorly drained Othello, and 
the very poorly drained Portsmouth soils developed. The 
Mattapex soils are less brown and are more yellowish 
throughout than the Matapeake soils. In addition, the 
lower part of their subsoil is mottled and rather compact 
in most places, and in most areas it is somewhat platy. 
The Mattapex soils are much like the Woodstown soils 
in many respects, but their subsoil is silty clay loam 
instead of sandy clay loam, and they are more silty 
throughout. 

The Mattapex soils are fairly extensive in this county. 
They are highly important for agriculture. 

Profile of Mattapex silt loam, to 2 percent slopes, 
in a cultivated area about 1 mile north of Bucktown: 

A„ to 8 inches, dark Ki'ayish-browu (2.5Y 4/2) silt loam; 

moderate, iiu'diuiii, crumb structure; friaijle when 
moist, slightly sticky but noiiplastic when wet; 
roots plentiful; reaction about neutral (limed); 
clear, smooth boundary; horizon is 6 to 8 inches 
thick. 

A2 8 to 12 inches, light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/4) silt loam; 

weak, fine, subangular blocky structiu-e; friatjle 
when moist, slightly plastic and sliglitly sticky 
when wet; roots fairly common; slightly acid; 
gradual, smooth boundary; horizon is 4 to 6 inches 
thick. 

B21 12 to 23 inches, light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/4) light 
silty clay loam; moderate, medium, subangular 
blocky structure; friable to slightly firm when 
moist, plastic and sticky when wet; few roots; 
slightly acid; clear, smooth boundary; horizon 
is 8 to 12 inches thick. 

Bojg 23 to 32 inches, light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/6) light 
silty clay loam; common, coarse, distinct mottles 



of p.ili' olive ('lY Vij'.i) and a few, iiiediuiii, disliii(;t. 
mollies of yellowish brown (lOVIt 5/8^; coii)|jound 
weak, mediiiin, platy and weak, fine, siib.-ingiilar 
blocky structure; firm wlien inoi.st, [)|astic and 
slick V wheti wel ; very few roots; a few (•(j-.itiiixs 
of ligiit olive-brown (2..")V 5/4) clay on the a«gre- 
gates; sl(jwly permeable; strongly acid; gradual, 
irregular boundary; iiorizori is 8 to I.') iii(4ies thick. 

Du 32 to 42 inches, finely and evenly vari(?gated light- olive- 
gray and yellowish-brown (5Y 0/2 and lOYR 5/0) 
very light .sandy clay loam; a few, fine;, distinct 
to prominent mottles of strong brown (7.5 YR 5/8); 
weakly stralifiefi; moderat(4y firm when moist, 
slightly |)laslic and slightly sticky when wet; no 
roots; strongly acid; gradual, irregular boundary; 
horizon is 8 to 20 inches thick. 

D>g 42 to 48 inches +, evenly variegated light olive-gray 
and yellowish-brown (5Y 0/2 and lOYR 5/0) sandy 
loam; massivf? or single grain; friable when moist, 
very slightly sticky but nonplastic when wet; 
no roots; very strongly acid. 

In forested areas or areas that have not been plowed, 
there is a dark-colored Ai horizon, generally 2 to 4 inches 
thick, over the A2 horizon. In places the B21 horizon 
is yellowish brown (lOYR 5/4 or 5/6). The B22g horizon 
in some places has a stronger structure and is firmer 
than that in the profile describefl, or even somewhat 
brittle. The soil is moderately fine textured from the 
surface downward through the B22g horizon. It is coarser 
textured at a greater de])th. 

Mattapex fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 
(MpA). — The surface layer of this soil contains more 
sand and less silt than that in the profile described. 
Because the B22g horizon restricts drainage, the soil 
tends to remain wet for fairly long periods, especially 
during the planting season and early in the growing season. 
Removing the excess surface water during those seasons 
is the most important management problem. If the 
soil is adec[uately drained, it can be used for most of 
the crops commoidy grown in the county. It occupies 
299 acres and is in capability unit IIw-1 ; drainage group 
2-A; irrigation group 4; sewage disposal group 7; and 
woodland suitability group 1. 

Mattapex silt loam, to 2 percent slopes (MsA). — In 
most places the profile of this soil is like the one described 
for the series. In a few small included areas the surface 
layer is somewhat less silty. Excessive wetness is the 
most important problem. This soil requires the same 
general management as Mattapex fine sandy loam, 
to 2 percent slopes. It occupies 11,333 acres and is 
in capability unit IIw-1; drainage group 2-A; irrigation 
group 4; sewage disposal group 7; and woodland suit- 
ability group 1. 

Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes (MsB). — In 
most places the surface layer of this soil is silt loam, 
but in a few places it is slightly sandy. The soil has 
better surface drainage tlian Mattapex silt loam, to 
2 percent slopes. Runoft" is more rapid titan on soils that 
are bet ter drained, but internal drainage is slow. Erosion 
is a significant hazard and is the most important man- 
agement problem. This soil occupies 656 acres. It 
is in capability unit IIe-13; drainage group 2-A; irri- 
gation group 4; sewage disposal group 7; and woodland 
suitability group 1 . 

Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (MsB2). — All of this sod is at least moderately 
eroded, but in a few places erosion has been more severe. 
In some areas the soil is somewhat sandy. Its manage- 
ment is the same as that of Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 



18 



SOIL SURVEY SEKIES 19.50, NO. 26 



Figure 3. F;irm poiul in an urea of Mixed iilliiviul land not suited 
to crops. The pond replaces an unsightly area and provides fire 
protection and recreation. 

porcont slopes. ManagcnuMit should incliido practicos 
to coiitfol orosioii. This soil occupies 850 acres. It is 
ill capability unit IIe-13; drainage grouj) 2-A; irrigation 
group 4; sewage disposal group 7; and woodlaiul suit- 
ability grouj) 1. 

Mixed Alluvial Land 

This miscellaneous land type consists of unconsolidated 
alluvium on bottom lands or (lood jilains along streams. 
The material was deposited recently by floodwaters and 
is subject to I'recpient change as the result of overflow. 
It is generally stratified and varies widely in texture. 
In most areas the drainage is poor, but some areas arc 
better drainetl. 

The soil niat(>rial in areas of Mixed alluvial land ranges 
from sand or loamy sand to loam oj- silt loam within short 
distances. The color ranges from light gray to dark gray or 
black, depending on the amount of organic matter that 
has accumulated. 

Mixed alluvial land (Mx). — This miscellaneous land 
type is along some of tlie streams in Dorchester County. 
Because the soil material is mixed and is commonly wet, 
the land is seldom, if ever, used for agriculture (ng. 3). In 
addition, most of the areas are subject to yearly or more 
frequent flooding. This land occupies 2,019 acres. It is 
in capability unit VIw-1 ; sewage disposal group 8; and 
woodland suitability group 4. 

Othello Series 

The Othello series consists of poorly drained soils devel- 
oped in a mantle of silty deposits over somewhat sandy 
to very sandy material. The soils are not so well drained 
as the Matapeake or Mattapex soils, but they are better 
drained thun the Portsmoutli soils. All of these soils 
developed in the same or in similar material. The profile 
of the Othello soils is similar to those of the Elkton and 
Fallsington soils, but the Elkton soils developed in silty 
clay to clay, and the Fallsington soils, in sandy material. 

In spite of their poor drainage, the Othello soils are 
important to agriculture. If they are adequately drained. 



the soils may be used for most of the croj)s comnionly 
grown in the county. Many areas, now in forest, were 
probably once used for cultivated crops. This is indicated 
i)y the old drainage ditches that still remain in many 
phices now covered by j)iiie and hardwood forests. 

Profile of Othello silt loam in a loblolly pine forest, at 
a point about 4 miles west of Cambridge and about 1 
mile south of Horn ]\)int: 

A, to 1 inches, dark-gray (5Y 4/1) silt loam; weak, iiicdiuiii, 
granular to crumb structure; friable wiicii moist, 
sliu;htly plastic and slifrJitly sticky when wet; roots 
abundant; strongly acid; clear, smooth bouiifiry, but 
in a few places very narrow tongues of material from 
this hori/on extend downward into the lower hori- 
zons along old root channels; horizon is '.i to 5 inches 
thick. 

Ai -I to S inches, light-gray (5V (J/l) silt loam; weak, fine, 
granular structure; friable when moist, sticky and 
slightly j)lastic when wet; roots plentiful; strongly to 
very strongly acid; clear, irregular boundary; hori- 
zon is 2 to inches thick. 

H2k S to 25 inches, gray (5Y 5/1) silty clay loam; common, 
medium, i)rominent mottles of yellowish brown 
(lOYR 5/8), weak, fine to medium, blocky and sub- 
angular blocky structure; firm when moist, plastic 
and sticky when wot; few roots; extremely acid; 
gradual, wavy boundarv; horizon is 15 to 20 inches 
thick. 

Bill 25 to 32 inches, gray (5Y 5/1) heavy sandy loam; few, 
medium to coarse, prominent mottles of yellowish 
brown (lOYR 5/4); com|)ound very weak, medium, 
platy and moderate, very fine, blociiy structure; firm 
when moist, slightly plastic and slightly sticky when 
wet; practically no roots; extremely acid; abrupt, 
smooth boundary; horizon is 6 to 9 inch(;s thick. 

l)g 32 to 40 inches +, light-gray (N 6/0), stratified loamy 
sand; a few, medium to coarse, prominent mottles 
of yellowish brown (lOYR 5/4); friable when moist, 
nonplastic and nonsticky when wet; no roots; ex- 
tremely acid. 

In cultivated areas the plow laver is mainlv dark grav 
(lOYR 4/1 or 5Y 4/1) to grayish' brown (2.5Y 5/2). In 
many places the soil lacks a B.^g hoiizon. The Bag horizon 
in such areas is generally somewhat thicker tlian the one 
in the profile described. In places it is divided into two 
subliorizons tliat differ in texture or structure, or both, 
l)ut differ little if any in color. In some small areas the 
surface layer is somewhat more sand.v than the one 
described in the profile. 

Othello silt loam (Oh). — -The profile of this soil is the 
one described for the series. This is one of the most 
extensive soils in Dorchester County, and it is import r.nt 
for agricultiu-e. If the soil is properly drained, it is 
suited to all the crops commonly grown in the county. 
It occupies 26,168 acres and is in cajnibility unit IIIw-7 ; 
drainage groun 8-1 A; sewage disposal group 7; and 
woodland suitability group 3. 

Othello silt loam, low (Ot).^ — ^This soil is close to sea 
level. Occasionally it is flooded temporarily w'hen the 
tide is unusually high, but tide gates have been provided in 
some places to control the level of the water (fig. 4). 
The soil tends to remain wet for longer periods than the 
normal Othello silt loam, and it is dilflcult or almost 
impossible to drain. This soil is generally not suitable 
for cultivated crops. Under good management, it can 
be used for pasture or woodland. The soil occupies 
12,433 acres. It is in capability group Yw-1 ; drainage 
group 10; sewage disposal group 7; and woodland suita- 
bility group 8. 



DOIiCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND 



10 




Figure 4. — Tide gale through a dike. The gate prevents water 
from high tides entering the pipe and flooding areas of Othello 
silt loam, low. At low tide, the gate opens and excess water is 

released. 



Plumiwer Series 

The l-*luinnu'r scries roiisists of poorly drained soils 
developed in sandy material. The soils are in (U'pressions 
and in other low-lying- areas. They are generally level, 
or nearly level, but in places, near the borders of low-lying 
areas, they are gently sloping. The surface layer of these 
soils is dark gray because it contains organic matter. 
No B horizon has developed, and the surface layer rests 
directly on the sandy, light-colored substratuiu. In many 
places the substratum is streaked or splotciied with gray 
or brown. 

The Phnnmer soils have developed in about the same 
kind of nuiterial as the somewhat excessively drained 
Galestown and Lakeland soils and the moderately well 
drained Klej soils. In areas that have not been drained, 
the water table is high, and the soils are saturated during 
most of the year. In some places water stands on the 
surface for long periods. 

These soils are very strongly acid to extremely acitl and 
are not very productive. They are generally of little 
importance for agriculture. 

Profile of Phunmer loamy sand in a forested area just 
soutii of River Road, about \)i miles southwest of Aliens 
Corner and about )i mile north of Marshyhope Creek: 

A] to 4 inches, dark-gray (5Y4/1), nearly lodsc, st rucl iiii-li'^s 
loamy eand; roots fairly plentiful; very strcinulx ncid; 
clear, slightly wavy iDoundary; horizon is 4 to G 
inches thick. 

Cig 4 to 16 inches, light olive-gray (.5Y 6/2), loose, structure- 
less loamy sand, grading to light brownish gray 
(2.5Y 6/2); streaks or variegations of gray in places; 
very few roots; extremely acid; gradual, irregular 
boundary; horizon is 6 to 15 inches thick. 

C.g 16 to 48 inches, light-gray (.5Y 7/2), loo.se sand or very 
light loamy sand, grading to white (5Y 8/1); streaks 
and splotches of grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) that are 
more abundant with increasing depth; no roots; 



wiicM sat iiralcd the .soil malfii.il i- liki- (|iiick':ihd atid 
tends to fl(jw; e.vlrcmcly acid. 

in areas that luive l)een cultivated, the jiiou lavci is 
generally light gray. After rains, liovvevei', the siirfa«'o 
layer in some areas is almost white after it has dried. Lo- 
cally, the sul)strattim is gray (J'^X o/l or ), but in srnrie 
places it is mottled or blotched with l)rown or yellowisli 
l)rown. In sotne |)l!ices a Dj. hoii/.on that is finer textured 
than the horizons in the proliic desciilx-d is within 4S 
inches of tlie surface, (icnertdly, I he dc|)t h to this horizon 
is less I hail (1 oi S feel . 

Plummer loamy sand (Pm).^ 'i'his soil is mainly in 
small, scattered areas in the more sandy parts of the 
county. Its profile is the one described for the series. 

Although this soil is sandy, extremely acid, and low in 
productivity, its most important mangement [)roblem is 
drainage. Some of the areas are diflicult and expensive; 
to drain, and, even if they ai-e drained, the soil is low in 
nutrients and difficult to manage. Nevertheless, it is 
easy to work and does not form clods, even if worked when 
wet. The areas that have been drained are used to some 
CA'tent for truck crops, corn, and home gardens. This 
soil occupies 665 acres. It is in capability unit IVw-8 ; 
drainage group 9-1; sewage disposal group 7; and wood- 
land suitability group. 3. 

Pocomoke Series 

The Pocomoke series consists of very poorly drained, 
dark-colored soils developed in sandy and silty material 
of the Coastal Plain. The surface layer of these soils is 
black or nearly black and is moderately coarse textured to 
medium textured. The subsoil is heavy sandy loam to 
sandy clay loam and overlies a sandier substratum. 

The Pocomoke soils developed in about the same kind of 
material as the well drained Sassafras soils, the moderately 
well drained Woodstown soils, aiul the poorly drained 
Fallsington soils. They are much like the Portsmouth 
soils, but they developed in material that was much less 
silty, and they are much coarser textured throughout. The 
Pocomoke soils are also somewhat like the Johnston and 
Rutlege soils, but they have a distinct B horizon, which is 
lacking in the Johnston and Rutlege soils. 

If the Pocomoke soils are drained, tliey are important 
for agriculture. They are used for most of the crops 
(ommoidy grown in the county. Blueberries are also 
grown in some areas. 

Profile of Pocomoke sandy loam in a forested area about 
1)4 miles west of Reids Grove: 

Ai to 6 inches, black (5Y 2/1) sandy loam; weak, medium, 
crumb structure; very friable when moist, slightly 
sticky but nonplastic when wet; roots plentiful to 
abundant; strongly acid; high in organic matter; dif- 
fvi.se, wavy boundary; horizon is 5 to 8 inches thick. 
Big 6 to 11 inches, very dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 3/2) heavy 
fine sandy loam; weak, fine, subangular blocky 
structure; slightly hard when dry, friable when 
moist, slightly sticky and very slightly plastic when 
wet: few roots; stronglv to very strongly acid; 
gradual, wavv boundary; horizon is 4 to 7 inches 
thick. 

B..ig 11 to 19 inches, very dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 3/2) fine 
sandy clay loam; few, medium, faint mottles of gray 
(lOVR •") 1); weak, fine, subanglar blocky structure; 
moderately hard when dry, friable to somewhat firm 
when moist, slightly plastic and slightly sticky when 
wet; very few roots; very strongly acid; gradual to 
diffuse, wavy boundary; horizon is 8 to 12 inches 
thick. 



20 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 195 9, NO. 2 6 



B,2k 1(1 to 28 inclu's, gray (r)V 5/1) hciivy sandy loam; laiiil 
streaks and mottles of light gray (lOYR (5/1); weak, 
fine, blocky structure; slightly to moderately liard 
when dry, friable to somewhat firm when moist, 
slightly plastic and slightly sticky when wet; no 
roots; stronglv aeid; clear, wavy boundary; horizon 
is 8 to 12 inches thick. 

Dii; 28 to K) inches, hghl-grav (5Y 7/2) sand; a few, coarse, 
distinct mottles of Hght yellowish l)rown (lOYR (i/4); 
loose and si met ui'cless ; no roots; very strongly acid; 
clear, wa\'v boundary; hoii/on is 10 to 20 inches 
thick. 

Djg 4() to 54 inches I , liglit oli\'e-gray (5Y 0/2), thinly strati- 
fied sand and sandy loam; a few, coarse, prominent 
mottles of brown (lOYR 5/3); loose to very friable; 
no roots; strongly acid to very strongly acid. 

Tlio stirfiico layor in areas that havo Ixhmi cultivakHl is 
slightly lighter colored tlian that in areas under forest 
because it contains less organic matter. 'Che texture of 
the surface layer ranges from sandy loam to loain. Where 
the surface layer is loam, the te.xture of the B horizons is 
slightly finer than that in tiie B horizons of the profile 
described. In some areas there is no B,g liorizon. The 
Ai horizon in such areas is generally several inches thicker 
than that in the profile described. In ])laces the Bou- imd 
B22g horizons have mottles ttiat are yellowisti l)r()\vn or 
strong brown. 

Pocomoke loam (Po). — Tlie profile of this soil is similar 
(o the one descril)ed for the series, but there is much less 
sand in the soil material above tlie substratuiu, the surface 
layer contains much more silt, and the subsoil contains 
somewhat more clay. If the soil is properly drained, it is 
suited to most of the crops commonly grown in the county. 
This soil occupies 3,898 acres. It is in capability unit 
IIIw-7; draiiutge group 9-3A; sewage disposal group 7" 
and woodland suitability group 3. 

Pocomoke sandy loam (Ps). — The profil(> of this soil is 
tlie one described for the series. It is sancher tlu'oughoiit 
than Pocomoke loam. Therefore, it is somewhat easier to 
drain and is easier to work after it is drained. This soil 
occupies 2,611 acres. It is in capability tmil Illw-6; 
drainage group 9-3B; sewage disposal group 7; and wood- 
land suitability group 3. 

Portsmouth Series 

The Portsmouth series consists of very poorly drained 
soils developed in a mantle of silt over sandy deposits of 
the Coastal Plain. The surface layer of these soils is ver}^ 
dark gray to black. 

These soils developed in about the same kind of material 
as the well drauied Matapeake soils, the moderately well 
drained Mattapex soils, and the poorly drained Otliello 
soils. They are similar to the Pocomoke soils, but their 
surface layer and subsoil are finer textured. Their sub- 
stratum tends to be sandy, but in most places it is slightly 
finer textured than the substratum of the Pocomoke soils. 
In some places the Portsmouth soils grade to areas of 
Bayboro soils. The subsoil of the Portsmouth soils is less 
fine textured than that of the Bayboro soils, and the 
Portsmoutli soils are not so wet. 

Many areas of Portsmouth soils are rather difficult to 
drain, and they remain in wetland forest. Where the soils 
have been drained, they are important for growing truck 
crops and general crops. 

Profile of Portsmouth silt loam in a wooded area just 
south of Griffith Neck Road along the north edge of Bare 
Swamp, about Zji miles east of Bestpitch: 



A| to 8 inches, black (5\' 2/1) silt loam, high in organic 
matter; weak, medium, crumb structure ; friable; when 
moist, slightly 5)lastic and slightly sticky when wet; 
common woody and plentiful fibrous roots; very 
strongly acid; abrupt, smooth to sliglitly wavy t:)ound- 
ary; horizon is 7 to 10 inches thick. 

B-jg 8 to 22 inches, olive-gray {5Y 5/2) silty clay loam; a 

few, medium, jjrominent mottles of brown (lOYR 
5/3); weak to moderate, medium, lilocky structure; 
firm when moist, i)lastic and sticky when wet; roots 
few to common; verj' strongly acid; clear, smooth 
boundary; horizon is 14 to 20 inches thick. 

Bjg 22 to 27 inches, olive-gray (5Y 5/2) lu^avy sandy loam; a 
few, medium, prominent mottles of brown or dark 
brown (lOYR 4/3); very weak, medium to coarse, 
blocky structiu'e; friable when moist, nonplastic but 
slightly sticky wlien wet; few roots; very strongly 
acid to extremely acid; gradual, smooth boundary; 
horizon is 4 to inches thick. 

Dg 27 to 40 inches -|-, pale-yellow (5Y 7/3), structureless 
sandy loam or heavy loamy sand; a few, medium, 
distinct mottles of olive yellow (5Y 6/6) and a few, 
medium, prominent mottles of brown (lOYR 5/3) ; 
very friable when moist, nonplastic and nonsticky 
when wet; a very few roots; contains a few small 
lumps and thin lenses of sandy clay loam or sandy 
clay; very strongly acid. 

In areas that have been drained and ctilt i vated, tlie 
surface layer is very dark gray or very dark grayish brown 
instead of black. In some ])lac(>s the B.,^, horizon is almost 
a silty clay and the B,i; horizon is finer textured than the 
one in t lie piolilc described. 

Portsmouth silt loam (Pt). Because this soil is dillicult 
to drain, abotit three-fourths of the acreage is still in 
forest. The rest is used mainly for cultivated crops, but 
some small, scattered areas are used for pasture or are 
idle. If this soil is adequately drained and properly 
managed, however, it can be used reguhirly for ctiltivated 
crops. It occu|nes 1,641 acres and is in cai)ability unit 
lIIw-7; drainage group 9-4A; sewage disiiosal group 7; 
and woodland suitability group 3. 

Rutlege Series 

The Rutlege series consists of very poorly drained soils 
that are very wet and very sandy. The surface layer of 
these soils is fairly high in organic matter, and it is thick 
and dark colored. The soils are in depressions and in 
other low-lying areas. They are nearly level; their slope 
is no greater than 1 percent in most places. In areas 
that have not been drained, the water table is high and 
the soils are typical of very sandy areas of Swamp. 

The Rutlege soils developed in the same kind of sandy 
material as the poorly drained Plummer soils and the 
somewhat excessively drained Galestown and Lakeland 
soils. They are not well suited to agriculture. 

Profile of Rutlege loamy sand in a forest of loblolly 
and pond pine, on Vieima Road about 4 miles northeast 
of Vienna and about 2 miles w^est of the junction of 
Marshyhope Creek and the Nanticoke River: 

An to 8 inches, black (lOYR 2/1 to N 2/0) loamy sand; 

very weak, medium, crumb structure; loose to very 
friable; roots fairly plentiful; high content of organic 
matter; somewhat mucky in places; very strongly 
acid to extremely acid; gradual, smooth boundary; 
horizon is 6 to 10 inches thick. 

Ai2g 8 to 18 inches, variable very dark gray (oY' 3/1 to X 3/0), 
loose, structureless light loamy sand; a few roots; 
extremely acid; gradual, wavy to irregular bound- 
ary; horizon is 8 to 20 inches thick. 

Cg 18 to 42 inches -|-, grayish-brown (2.5Y' 5/2), loose, 
structureless sand, streaked, splotched, and mottled 



DOK'CllKS'lKli Cor.N'IV, .M AK VLAM) 



21 



Willi li;;hl nv.w. pale ncIIow, mid linlil \cllo\visli 
l)m\vii {r)Y 7/1," 2. ")^' aiui •J.oV (i/ l); |)im'tic'!illy 
IK) roots; wlicii s:il uralcd, t lie soil rn:itcri:il is like 
(|uicksaii(l lends to llow ; rxl rciiicl\- acid. 

Ill ai'cils that luiv(> Ixhmi dniiiicd and ciillivatcd, llic 
plow layci- in many ])lac('s is gray to dark {Jjray instead of 
l)lack, and while gfains of sand sliow distinctly apiinsi 
the (htrker haek^roinuk In places the Aio horizon is 
sli<i'htly lighter colored than that in the |)rolile described 
and c.\'l(Mids to a depth of about 'M) inches. Some of th(> 
streaks in the snbslratnm are browit (lO'^'ll 5/3) or 
yellowish brown (lOYK r)/4). .\. 1)^ horizon of sandy 
clay underlies the sid)stratimi in some |)lnc(>s, generally at 
a (lepth of 40 to (>() inches. 

Rutlege loamy sand (Ru). — This soil is mostly in the 
eastern part of the comity in areas bordered by the Naii- 
ticoke River and by Marshyhope Cr(>ek. Its profile is the 
one described for the series. 

This soil has little use unless it is drained. If it is 
adequately drained, however, it is suited to many of the 
crops commonly grown in the county, especially to truck 
crops and corn. This soil occupies 1,778 acres. It is in 
capability unit IVw-8; drainage group 9-5B; sewage dis- 
l)()sal group 7; and woodland suitability group 3. 

Sassafras Series 

The Sassafras series consists of deep, well-drained, 
medium-textured soils of uplands. The soils formed 
in mixed deposits of sand, silt, and clay. They are 
characterized by a well-drained sid)soiI of brown sandy 
clay loam that is finer textured than the surface layer. 
In some areas the surface layer is loamy sand, the 
combined A horizons are about 16 to 24 inches thick, 
and there is a single, strongly developed B horizon of 
brown sandy clay loam that is 6 to 12 inches thick. In 
other areas the surface layer is sandy loam, the combined 
A horizons are about 7 to 16 inches thick, and the B 
horizon is much thicker. 

The Sassafras soils are similar to the Matapeake soils, 
but they developed in sand, silt, and clay rather than 
in deposits high in silt. They developed in essentially 
the same kind of material as the moderately well drained 
Woodstown soils, the poorly drained Fallsington soils, 
and the very poorly drained Pocomokc soils. 

In this county the Sassafras soils are among the most 
productive of the well-tlrained soils of uplands. They 
are used for idl of the crops commonly grown in the county. 

Profile of Sassafras sandj'^ loam, to 2 percent slopes, 
in a wooded area about Iji miles southeast of Hurlock: 

Ai to 5 inches, very dark grayish-brown (lOYR 3/2) sandy 
loam; weak, medium, crumb structure; friable to 
very friable when moist, nonplastic and nonsticky 
when wet; abundant, fine, fibrous and common, 
woody roots; medium acid; clear, wavy boundary; 
horizon is 2 to 6 inches thick. 

A2 5 to 11 inches, hght olive-thrown (2 .5Y 5/4) sandy loam; 

weak, fine, crumlj structure; friable when moist, 
nonplastic and nonsticky when wet; roots common 
to plentiful; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary; 
horizon is 5 to 10 inches thick. 

B, 11 to 14 inches, light yellowish-brown (lOYR 6/4) light 
sandy clay loam; weak, medium, subangular blocky 
structure; friable when moist, slightly plastic and 
slightly sticky when wet; roots fairly common; 
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary; horizon is 
2 to 6 inches thick. 



to 22 inches, brown (7.'>\\i .")/t) 
moderate, medium, subangular 
friablir to rather firm when moist, 
plastic when wet; roots rather 



^andy clay loam; 
blocky Hlnictiirc; 
st icky and Klightly 
few; a few, thin, 



patchy day films on aggregates; strongly acid; 
diffuse Ixjundary; horizon is fi to 10 inches thick. 
1^12 22 to H2 inctu's, strong-brown '7..">V'R .")/()) sandy clay 
loam; moderate, medium, blocky and subangular 
blocky struct iwe; friable to somewhat firm when 
moist, plastic and sticky when wet; roots few; some 
(hill, patchy clay films on the aggn-gates; strongly 
aiid; clear, smooth to wavv boundarv; hori/oii i.s 
8 to 12 inches thick. 
C .32 to 48 inches +, yelldwi^ii-hrown (lO^ R 5/8) loamy 
sand, slightly variegated with strong brown and 
yellowish red (?..") VR -"j/S and ■')YR .")/()) ; structiir(4ess; 
loose to somewhat compact; nonplastic anfl non- 
sticky w lic M wet ; no roots; strongly acid. 

In places the texture of the A horizons is loam. In 
other places it is sandy loam, and in still other places 
it is loamy sand. In iireas where the texture of these 
horizons is loamy sand, depth to the B, horizon ranges 
from 12 inches to as much as 24 inches. In aretis tliat 
have been cultivated, the plow layer is generally dark 
grayish brown (lOYR 4/2). In some areas the entire 
profile, but especially the subsoil, is somewhat more 
reddish than the profile described, and the surface layer 
is browner and less grayish or yellowish. The soil ma- 
terial in some places is much thicker over the sidjstratum 
than that in the profile described. In places, at a depth 
between 30 and 60 inches, the texture of the substratum 
is sandy clay loam or sandy clay instead of loamy sand. 

Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes (SaA). — The 
surface layer of this soil contains somewhat less sand, 
more silt, and probably a little more clay than that in 
the profile described for the series. The subsoil is also 
somewliat finer textured and more firm. Because of 
the finer texture of the subsoil, this soil retains moisture 
better and is likely to be slightly more productive than 
the Sassafras soils that have a surface layer of sandy 
loam, but it is slightly harder to work and to manage. 
This soil occupies 2,392 acres. It is in capability unit 
1-4; irrigation group 4; sewage disposal group 1; and 
woodland suitability grotip 1. 

Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
(SaB2). — This soil is like Sassafras loam, to 2 percent 
slopes, but it has stronger slopes and is moderately eroded. 
The soil requires practices to protect it from further erosion. 
It occupies 336 acres and is in capability unit IIe-4; u-riga- 
tion group 4; sewage disposal group 1; and woodland 
suitability group 1. 

Sassafras loam, heavy substratum, to 2 percent slopes 
(ShA). — This soil is like Sassafras loam, to 2 percent 
slopes, but, at a depth between 30 and 60 inches, it has a 
substratum of sandy clay or sandy clay loam instead of 
loamy sand. The finer texture of the substratum increases 
its moisture-storing capacity and makes the soil somewhat 
more productive during seasons that are uimsually dry. 
This soil occupies 116 acres. It is in capability unit 1-4; 
irrigation group 4 ; sewage disposal group 1 ; and woodland 
suitability group 1. 

Sassafras loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes (SmA). — In 
this soil the A horizons are coarser textured and thicker 
than those in the profile described for the series. The B 
horizon is at a depth of 12 to 24 inches and is about 6 to 
12 inches thick. 

This soil is especially extensive near Hurlock, and it is 
important for agriculture. It is used largely to grow truck 



22 



SOIL SUIU'EY SERIES 1959, NO. 2G 



crops, l)ul, I'oi' high yichls, a hirj;'i' ainouiil of I'ci tih/ci- is 
icHjuiird. 'I'iie moist ure-sujjplyitig capacity is rathof h)\\ , 
and iirigatiou is iuhhUhI to get good yields. This soil 
occupies 8,928 acres. It is in capability unit IIs-4; irriga- 
tion group 2; sewage disposal gi'ouj) 1; and woodland 
suitability group 2. 

Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (SinB). — 
This soil has slo|)es that are generally smooth, but in sonu> 
places it is luunniocky or there are low hills that reserid)le 
dunes. The soil is usihI and managed about the sam(> as 
Sassafras loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. It occu|)ies 
5,212 acres and is in capability unit lls-4 ; irrigation group 
2; sewage disposal group 1; and woodland suitability 
group 2. 

Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (SmB2). — ^This soil has been eroded both by wind 
and water. In other respects it is similar to Sassai'ias 
loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and about the same 
management practices are required to protect it from 
furtlier erosion. The soil occupies 4,140 acres. It is in 
capability unit IIs-4; irrigation group 2; sewage disposal 
grou]) 1 ; and woodland suitability grou|) 2. 

Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes (SmC). — 
Tiiis soil is nuicli moic susc(>plible to erosion than Sassafras 
loamy sand, 2 to 5 p(>rcent slopes. Protection from ero- 
sion is the most impoi'tant management problem. The 
soil is low in moisture-supplying capacity. If it is used 
regularly for cultivated crops, it will need large amounts 
of fertilizer for good yields. This soil occupies 517 acres. 
It is in capability unit IIIe-33; irrigation group 2; sewage 
disposal group 2; and woodland suitability group 2. 

Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (SmC2). — This soil lias lost j^art of the original 
surface layer through erosion, but it can still l)e used 
regularly for cultivated crops. 'J'he practices required 
to protect it from further erosion are the same as those used 
for Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes. This 
soil occupies 138 acres. It is in capability unit IIIe-33; 
irrigation group 2; sewage disposal group 2; and woodlaml 
suitability group 2. 

Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (SmC3). — Erosion has removed most of the orig- 
iiuil surface layer of this soil, and the present plow layer 
consists of material that was formerly part of the subsoil. 
If good maiuigement is used, the soil can be used occasion- 
ally for cultivated crops, but it requires practices to pro- 
tect it from further erosion. It is low in moisture- 
supplying capacity, but u-rigation may not be practical. 
This soil occupies 170 acres. It is in capability unit 
IVe-5; sewage disposal group 2; and woodland suitability 
group 2. 

Sassafras loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes (SmD). — 

This soil is not significantly ero(h'd, but in most places 
its strong slope causes the hazard of erosion to be severe. 
The same kind of practices as those used for Sassafras 
loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded, will 
eflfectively protect this soil from erosion. This soil oc- 
cupies 242 acres. It is in capability unit IVe-5; sewage 
disposal group 2; and woodland suitability group 2. 

Sassafras loamy sand, 15 to 40 percent slopes (SmF).— 
This soil is highly susceptible to erosion, and most of it 
has never been cleared. The strong slope makes the soil 
unsuitable for cultivated crops. Under especially care- 
ful management, however, it might be used for very 
limited grazing. This soil occupies 130 acres. It is in 




Figure 5. — Harvesting peppers on Sassafras sandy loam, 2 
percent slopes. 



capa])ility unit Vle-2; sewage disposal group 3 ; and wood- 
land suitability group 2. 

Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes (SnA). — 
This is the most extensive Sassafras soil in tlie county, 
and its i)rolile is the one described for the sei'ies. This 
soil has no particular limitations. If ordinary good farm- 
ing methods are used, it can be used regularly for culti- 
vated crops (fig. 5), but much fertilizer will be needed for 
high yields. During the drier seasons, crops grown on 
this soil will benefit greatly from ii'rigation. This soil 
occupies 19,041 acres. It is in capability unit 1-5; irri- 
gation gi'oup 3; sewage disposal group 1; and woodland 
suitability group 2. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes (SnB). — 
This soil has not been appreciably erodetl, but its slope 
makes it susceptible to erosion. It requires management 
that will protect it from damage by w^ater and wind. 
The soil occupies 1,474 acres. It is in capability unit 
IIe-5; irrigation group 3; sewage disposal group 1; and 
woodland suitability gi-oup 2. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (SnB2). — All of this soil is at least moder- 
ately eroded, and in about 24 acres erosion has been 
severe. The soil requires practices that will protect it 
from further erosion. It occupies 3,931 acres and is in 
capability unit IIe-5; irrigation group 3; sewage disposal 
group 1; and woodland suitability group 2. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes (SnC). — 
This soil reciuires intensive practices that will help to 
control erosion. It needs to be stripci'opped and tilled on 
the contour. Close-growing crops should be grown in 
long rotations. This soil occupies 251 acres. It is in 
capability unit IIIe-5; irrigation group 3; sewage disposal 
group 2; and woodland suitability group 2. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (SnC2). — .ill of this soil is at least moder- 
ately eroded, and erosion has been severe in a few areas. 
Mapped with it are small areas in which drainage is 
slightly poorer than that in the typical Sassafras soils. 
The included areas occupy about 15 acres and are scattered 
throughout the county. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded, needs management that will protect it from further 



DOKCIIKSTKH COUNTY, MAHVLAM) 



23 



erosion. 'V\ic |)ni(iic('s used lor SnssnlVns sandy loiini, .") 
to 10 porccMit slopes, arc suitable. This soil ()ccui)i('s 
181 acres and is in capability unit I lie 5; irii^^ation f^roup 
3; sewafje disposal <irou|) 2; and woodland suitability 
group 2. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes 

(SnD). The strong slojx' juakcs this soil highly suscepti- 
ble to erosion, and some areas are already eroded. 'Fhe 
soil can be used only to a limited extent for crop|)ing; 
very cai'eful management is recpiiied to |)rotect it from 
erosion. 

Mapped with this soil are small areas in which drainage 
is sliglitly impeded. These areas occupy approximately 
30 acres and are scattered throughout the county. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, occupies 
14S acres. It is in capability unit IVe-5; sewage dis])osal 
group 2; and woodland suitability group 2. 

Sassafras sandy loam 15 to 30 percent slopes 
(SnE). — On this steep soil the hazard of erosion is ex- 
tremely severe. The soil is not suited to cultivated 
crops. It can be grazed to a limited extent, however, 
if it is carefully managed and protected from erosion, 
and some of the areas are suitable for sodded orchards. 
This soil occupies 169 acres. It is in capability unit 
VIe-2; sewage disposal group 3; and woodland suit- 
ability group 2. 

Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, to 2 percent 
slopes (SsA). — The profile of this soil is like the one 
described for the series, except that its substratum is 
sandy clay loam or sandy clay instead of loamy sand. 
Because it has a finer textured substratum, this soil 
retains more moisture and is somew^hat more productive 
than the soils that have a substratum of loamy sand. 
Mapped with it are small areas where the surface layer 
is somewhat more sandy than that in the typical soil. 

Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, to 2 percent 
slopes, occupies 569 acres. It is in capability unit 
1-5; irrigation group 3; sewage disposal group 1; and 
woodland suitability group 2. 

Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (SsB2). — This soil has stronger 
slopes than Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, 
to 2 percent slopes, and it is moderately eroded. 
Mapped with it are a few small areas wliere the slope is 
slightly greater than 5 percent, and about 43 acres where 
the surface layer is somewhat more sandy than that in the 
typical soil. 

Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded, occupies 178 acres. It is 
in capability unit IIe-5; irrigation group 3; sewage dis- 
posal group 1 ; and woodland suitability group 2. 

Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, to 2 percent 
slopes (St A), — The prohh> of this soil is similar to the 
one described for the series, except that the solum is 
thicker. Because of its thicker solum, this soil retains 
more moisture for plants to use than the typical Sas- 
safras soils, and it is, therefore, somewhat more pro- 
ductive for most crops. This soil occupies 1, 296 acres. 
It is in capability unit 1-5; irrigation group 3; sewage dis- 
posal group 1; and woodland suitability group 2. 

Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes (StB). — This soil lias lost little soil material as 
the result of erosion, but it is susceptible to erosion 
because of its slope. If the soil is used for cultivated 
crops, it needs to be protected from erosion. The soil 



occupies 35i( aci'cs. It is in capability unit lie 5; irri- 
gation group 3; sewage disposal gioup 1; and woodland 
suitability group 2. 

Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (Stb2j. This soil is similar 
to Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes, except that it is moderately eroded. It needs 
management practices that will protect it from further 
erosion. This soil occupies 632 acres. It is in capa- 
bility unit IIe-5; iri-igation group 3; sewage disposal 
group 1 ; and woodland suitability group 2. 

Swamp 

This miscellaneous land type consists of areas that are 
naturally wooded and are covered by water during most 
of the year. The soil material in these areas consists of 
sand, silt, clay, and muck, or of a ini.xtiire of material of 
these textures. 

Swamp (Sw). — This miscellaneous land ty|)e is made up 
of areas of fresh water swamp. It is unsuitable for agri- 
culture and has a cover consisting of a few pond j)ines and 
of hardwoods that tolerate water. Some timber is pro- 
duced on the areas, but, otherwise, the land is suited only 
to wildlife. It occupies 17,413 acres and is in capability 
imit VIIw-1 ; sewage disposal group 8; and woodland suita- 
bility group 10. 

Tidal Marsh 

This miscellaneous land type consists of areas that are 
flooded periodically by tidal waters and are covered with 
rushes, grasses, cattails, and similar plants. The soil ma- 
terial in tliese areas is of many difl'ereiit textures. 

Tidal marsh (Tm). — This miscellaneous land type is 
more extensive in Dorchester County than in other 
counties in Maryland. It consists of areas flooded peri- 
odically by tidal waters (fig. 6). This land type occupies 
much of the southern part of the county, particularly the 
southeastern part. Smaller areas occur in practically 
all parts of the county adjacent to the salt waters of Chesa- 
peake Bay and its tidal tributaries. In addition, many of 




Figure 6. — Concrete structure and tide gate used to control tidal 
waters on an area of wetland so that adjoining areas will not be 
flooded by salt water. 



24 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 26 



tlic islands that arc pari of this county consist ahnost 
entirely ol' Ti(hil marsh. 

Tlie areas ol' this huul type are salty, and in many areas 
there are large concentrations of sulfur compounds, parti- 
cularly where tiie soil material is clayey. Although salt- 
grass hay was once obtained from the areas. Tidal nuirsli 
has no agricultural use at the ])i'esent time. It occupies 
81,692 acres and is in capahilily unit \'III\v-l; 
sewage disposal group S; and woodhind suilahilitx <.;i()up 
10. 

Woodstown Series 

Tiic Woodstown series consists of moderately well 
drained soils of uplands. The soils developed in deposits 
of unconsolidated sand, silt, and clay of the Coastal 
Plain. They ai-e somewhat sandy throughout and have 
a subsoil of sandy clay loam. Tlieir somewhat impeded 
drainage causes the lower part, of the subsoil to be mottled 
and poorly aerated. 

The Woodstown soils developed in about the same kind 
of material as the well-drained Sassafras soils, the poorly 
drained Fallsington soils, and the very pooi-ly drained Po- 
comoke soils. Tiiey are similar to the Xiattapex soils, but 
they (leveloi)ed in mi.xed sands, silt, and clay rather 
than in silty material, and they are sandy throughout 
instead of silty. The Woodstown soils also resonbic 
the Keypoi-t soils, but they (h'velop(>d in coarser t e.\t ui-cd 
material. As a result, they ai-c coars(>i- tc.xtui-ed through- 
out than those soils. 

The W^oodstown soils can be used for many of the ciops 
conunonly grown in the county. They need to have drain- 
age im])roved, howtner, before they will be suitable for 
some of the conunonly grown crops. 

Profile of Woodstown sandy loam, to 12 pci-ceiit slopes, 
in a forest of l()l)lolly piiu' about I '4 miles soutliwest of 
Secretary: 

Ai to 1 inch, very dark grayi.sh-bro\vn (lOYR 3/2) sandy 
loam; weak, medium, cruml) structure; very friable 
when moist, nonplastic and iionsticky when wet; 
roots abundant; medium acid; clear, wa\y boundary; 
horizon is inch to 2 inches thick. 

A2 1 to 9 inches, lif^ht yellowish-brown (2.5Y 6/4) light 
sandy loam; very weak, medium, crumb structure; 
very friaijle when moist, nonplastic and nonsticky 
when wet; roots plentiful; medium acid; clear, wavy 
boundarv; horizon is 6 to 12 inches thick. 

B21 9 to 16 inches, light yellowish-brown (lOYR 6/4) light 
sandy clay loam; weak, medium, subangular blocky 
structure; friable when moist, slightly plastic and 
slightly sticky when wet; roots fairly common; a few, 
faint coatings of silt or clay on the aggregates; 
strongly acid; diffuse boundary; horizon is 5 to 8 
inches thick. 

B22 16 to 23 inches, yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/6) light sandy 
clay loam; weak to moderate, medium, blocky and 
subangular blocky structure; friable to somewhat 
firm when moist, sticky and slightly plastic when 
wet; a few fibrous and common woody roots; thin, 
discontinuous coatings of silt and clay on some 
aggregates; strongly acid; clear, slightly wavy bound- 
ary; horizon is 6 to 12 inches thick. 

B23g 23 to 30 inches, light brownish-gray (2.5Y 6/2) sandy 
clay loam; many, medium, distinct mottles of pale 
yellow and light yellowish brown (5 Y 7/4 and 10 YR 
6/4); moderate, medium, blocky and subangular blocky 
structure; moderately firm when moist, sticky and 
moderately plastic when wet; a very few roots; a 
few, thick, discontinuous clay flows and coatings of 
yellowish brown (10 YR 5/6); strongly acid; clear, 
smooth boundary; horizon is 6 to 10 inches thick. 



Cg 30 to 38 inches, olive-gray (5Y 5/2) sandy loam; common, 
medium, prominent mottles of strong brown (7.5YR 
5/()); massive; very friable; practically no roots; 
strongly to very strongly acid; gradual, smooth 
boundary; horizon is 8 to 10 inches thick. 

l)g 38 to 48 inches -f, light brownish-gray (2.5Y 6/2), 
somewhat gravelly loamy sand; sticaks or splotches 
of light yellowish brown (lOYR 6/4) ; loose and struc- 
tureless; no roots; very strongly acid. 

In most areas that have been cultivated, the plow 
layer is grayish brown (10 YR 5/2). Depth to the mottled 
B23K liorizon ranges from 15 to 30 inches, but in most 
places that horizon is at a depth betw^'cn 18 and 24 inches. 
In some areas the substratum is dominantly gray, has 
little or no mottling, and contains a fairly large amovmt 
of line or very fine gravel. 

Woodstown loam, to 2 percent slopes (WdA). — ^The 
pi'olilc of tliis soil is like the one dcsci'ibed for the series, 
except that the surbice layer is loam instead of sandy loam. 
Also, the subsoil has a slightly finer texture. For this 
soil, drainage is the most important managenuMit jjroblem. 
This soil occupies 1,240 acres. It is in capability unit 
IIw-1; drainage group 2-A; irrigation group 4; sewage 
disposal grou]) 7; and woodland suitability group 1. 

Woodstown sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes (WoA). — 
This is one of the most extensive soils in the county, and 
it is important for agriculture. Its profile is the one 
desci'ibed for the series. B(>cause it is somewhat sandy, 
the soil is easier to work and to manage than Woodstown 
loam, to 2 ])ercent slopes, but it needs to have its 
drainage impi'oved. This soil occupies 14,247 aci-es. It 
is in capability unit IIw-5; drainage group 2B; irrigation 
group 3; sewage disposal group 7; and woodland suita- 
bility group 2. 

Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (WoB2). — This soil, like the other Woods- 
town soils, needs improvement in drainage. Even more 
necessary, however, are practices that help to control 
further erosion. This soil occupies .502 acres. It is in 
ca])abilit3' unit IIe-13; drainage group 2B; irrigation group 
3; sewage disposal group 7; and woodland suitability 
group 2. 



Use and Management of the Soils 

This section has six ntain parts. In the first, the system 
of capability classificatiou used by the Soil Conservation 
Service is explained, the capability units of Dorchester 
County are briefly defined, and management practices are 
suggested for the soils of each capability unit. In the 
second, basic management practices stiitaf>le for all the 
soils are described. In the third, estimated average acre 
yields are shown for specified crops under two levels of 
management. After that, facts are given about woodland 
management, maiuigement of wildlife, and engineering 
uses of the soils. 

Capability Groups of Soils 

The capability classification is a grouping of soils that 
shows, in a g(nieral way, how suitable they are for most 
kinds of farming. It is a practical grouping based on 
limitations of the soils, the risk of damage when they are 
used, and the way they respond to treatment. 

In this system all the kinds of soil are grouped at three 



DORCHESTER COIINTY, MARYLAND 



lov(>ls, the (■a])al)ilily class, sulx'lass, aiui iiiiii. 'I'lic ciiilit 
(■ai)nl)ility classes in llic hroadcsl <i-r()U|)iii<^ arc dcsifi'iialcd 
l)v Jioinan luiinci'als I (hroufi'h Vlll. in class J arc the 
soils that have few limitations, Ihc widest range of use, 
and the least risk of dania<;'(> when they are used. The 
soils in the other classes have progressively grealci- nat- 
ural liniitalions. In class Vlll are soils and landl'ornis so 
rough, shallow, or otherwise limited that they do not 
])roduc(> worthwhile yields of ci-()])s, I'oi'age, or wood 
products. 

The subclasses indicate major kinds of limitations with- 
in the classes. Within most of the classes there can be as 
many as I'our subclasses. The subclass is indicated by 
addmg a small letter, e, w, s, or c, to the class numeral, 
for example, lie. The letter e shows that the main Ihni- 
tation is risk of erosion mdess close-growing plant cover 
is maintained; v) means that water in or on tlu' soil will 
interfere with plant growth or cultivation (in somi' soils 
the wetness can be pai'tly corrected by artificial drainage); 
s shows that the soil is limited mainly bi'cause it is sludlow, 
very sandy, droughty, or stony; and c, used in only some 
parts of the country, indicates that the chief limitation is 
a climate that is too cold or too dry. 

In class I there are no subclasses, because the soils of 
this class have few or no limitations. Class V can con- 
tain, at the most, only subclasses w, s, and c, because the 
soils in it have little or no susceptibility to erosion hut 
have other limitations that limit their use largely to pas- 
ture, range, woodland, or wildlife. 

Within the subclasses are the capability units, groups 
of soils enough alike to be suited to the same crops and 
pasture plants, to require siniilar management, and to 
have similar productivity and other responses to manage- 
ment. Thus, the capability unit is a convenient grouping 
for making many statements about management of soils. 
Capability units are generally identified by numbers as- 
signed locally, for example, rie-4 or IIIe-5. 

Soils are classified in capability classes, subclasses, and 
units in accordance with the degree and kind of their 
permanent limitations; but without consideration of ma- 
jor and generally expensive landforming that would 
change the slope, depth, or other characteristics of the 
soil; and without consideration of possible, but unlikely, 
major reclamation projects. The county has approxi- 
niately 29,500 acres of soils in class I, 64,000 acres in 
class il, 105,700 acres in class III, 7,200 acres in class IV, 
30,500 acres in class V, 31,800 acres in class VI, 20,000 
acres in class VII, and 82,000 acres in class VIII. 

The soils have been grouped into the following classes, 
subclasses, and capability units. The numbers of the 
capability units in the following outline are not consecu- 
tive because a statewide svstem for numbering capability 
units is used, and only some of these capability units are 
represented in Dorchester County. 

Class I. — Soils that have few Imiitations that restrict 
their use. 

(No subclasses) 

Unit 1-4. — Deep, well-drained, nearly level soils 

that are medium textured. 
Unit 1-5. — Deep, well-drained, nearly level soils 
that are moderately coarse textured. 
Class II. — Soils that have some Ihnitations that reduce 
the choice of plants or that I'equire moderate consei'- 
vation pi'actices. 



Subclass lie. — Soils subject, to modciate erosion if 
they are not protected. 

Unit He 4. Deej), w cll-diaiiied, neaily level to 
gently sloping soils that art? medium textured. 
T^nif 11(^-5. — Dee|), well-drained, nearly level to 
gently sloping soils that ai c mixh i n i cly coars(! 
text ured. 

Unit rre-13.-M<)(h'ralely well (hamed , gen I ly 
sloping to sloping, medium and moderately 
coarse textui'cd soils that are moderately 
limited by wetness. 
Subclass IIw. — Soils that have modeiale hnnlalions 
because of excess water. 

Unit IIw-1. — Moderately well diained, nearly 
level, medium-textured soils that liave a 
moderately pei'ineable subsoil. 

Unit IIw-5. -Moderately well diained, nearly 
level, modei'ately coarse textured soil that 
has a niodeiatel.\' permeable subsoil. 

Unit IIw-8. — Modei-ately well drained, neaily 
level, medium-textured soils that have a sub- 
soil that is slowly to very slowly permeable. 
Subclass lis. — Soils that have moderate limitations 
of moisture capacity or tilth. 

Unit IIs-4.— Deep, w^ell-d rained, nearly level to 
moderately sloping soils that have a coarse- 
textured surface layer and a finer textured 
subsoil. 

Class III. — Soils that have severe limitations that reduce 
the choice of plants, or require special conservation 
practices, or both. 

Subclass Ille. — Soils subject to severe erosion if they 
are cultivated and not protected. 

Unit IIIe-4. — Deep, well-drained, sloping to 

somewhat rolling, medium-textured soils. 
Unit IIIe-5. — Deep, well-drained, slopuig to 
somewdiat rolling, moderately coarse textured 
soils. 

Unit IIIe-33. — Deep, well-drained, sloping to 
somewhat rolling, coarse-textured soils that 
have a subsoil that is finer textured than the 
rest of the profile. 
Subclass IIIw. — Soils that have severe limitations 
because of excess water. 

Unit IIIw^-5. — Very poorly drained, medium- 
textured soil that has a very slowly permeable, 
fine-textured subsoil. 

Unit IIIw-6. — Poorly drained and very poorh^ 
drained, moderately coarse textured soils that 
have a moderately permeable subsoil. 

Unit IIIw-7. — Poorly drained and very poorly 
drained, medium-textured soils that have a 
subsoil in which permeability is moderate to 
moderately slow. 

Unit IIIw^-8. — Somewhat poorly drained to 
moderately well drained, coarse-textured soils 
that have a subsoil in which permeability is 
moderately rapid. 

Unit IIIw-9. — Poorly drained, medium-textured 
soils that have a subsoil in which permeability 
is slow to very slow. 
Subclass Ills. — Soils that have severe limitations of 
moisture capacity or tilth. 

Unit IIIs-1. — Deep, somewdiat excessively 
drained, nearly level to moderatel}'' slopmg 



26 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 2 6 



soils tliat aro coai'se loxtiircd and rapidly 
pcrincablc. 

Class IV. — Soils that have very sovorc limitations tliat 
restrict the choice of plants, re(|uire very careful man- 
agement, or both. 

Subclass IVe. — Soils subject to very severe erosion 
if they ai-e cultivated and not protected. 

Unit IVe-3.- -Deep, well-drained, stron<ily slop- 
ing, iiiediu]n-te.\'tured soil. 
Unit IVe-5. — Deep, Well-di'ained, niodeiately 
sloping and strongly sloping, moderately 
coai'se textured and coarse textured soils that 
are severely eioded. 
Subclass IVw. — Soils that have very severe limilii- 
tions for cultivation because of excess water. 
Unit IVw-8. — Poorly drained and very poorly 
drained, coarse-text m'(Hl, lapidly permeable 
soils. 

Subclass IVs. — Soils that have very severe limitations 
of low moisture ca])acity or other soil features. 
Unit IVs-l-Deep, somewliat excessively (h'ained 
and excessively drained , nearly level to si rough' 
sloping, coarse-textured, very lapidlx perme- 
able soils. 

Class V. — Soils that have little or no hazard of erosion 
but with other limitations, imjiractical to remove, 
that limit their use largely to pasture, range, woodland, 
or wildlife food and cover. 

Subclass Vw. — Soils too wet for cultivation: (haiii- 
age or protection not feasible. 

Unit Vw-1 . — Poorly drained, medium-lextuicd 
soils of bottom lands that have a subsoil 
that is slowly to very slowly permeable. 
Class VI.^ — Soils that have severe limitations that make 
them generally nnsuited to cultiviition and limit their 
use largely to pasture or range, woodland, or wildlife 
food and cover. 

Subclass Vie. — Soils severely limited, cliiefly by 
risk of erosion if protective cover is not maintained. 
Unit VIe-2. — Deep, well-drained, steep soils. 
Subclass VIw. — ^Soils severely limited by excess 
water and generally nnsuited to cultivation. 
Unit VIw'-l.- — Nearly level, wet, variable soil 

that is subject to flooding. 
Unit VIw-2. — Poorly drained and very poorly 
drained, very slowly permeable soils. 
Subclass Vis. — Soils generally nnsuited to culti- 
vation and limited for other uses hy tlieir moisture 
capacity or other soil features. 

Unit VIs-1.— Deep, somewhat excessively drained 
and excessively drained, strongly sloping 
to rolling, coarse-textured, very rapidly per- 
meable soils. 

Class VII. — Soils that have very severe limitations 
that make them unsuited to cultivation and that 
restrict their use largely to grazing, woodland, or 
wildlife. 

Subclass VIIw. — Soils very severely limited by 
excess water. 

Unit VIIw-1. — Very wet, unclassified soil 
material. 

Subclass VIIs. — Soils very severely limited by 
moisture capacity or other soil features. 

Unit VIIs-1. — Deep, somewhat excessively 
drained and excessively drained, steep soils 



that are coarse textured and rapidly per- 
meable. 

(^lass VIII. Soils and landforms having limitations 
that pi'eclude their us(^ for commercial production 
of i)lants and restrict their use to recreation, wildlife, 
water supply, or estlietic purposes. 

Subclass VIIIw. — Extremely wet or marshy land. 
Unit Vlllw-f. — Land i-cgularly subject to 
Hooding by high tides. 
Subclass VII Is. — Rock or soil matei'ial that has 
little potential for production of vegetation. 
Unit VIlIs-1. Land whei'c soil hasbeen removed. 
Unit VIIls-2. -Almost bare, noncoherent, 
loose sand. 

Management by capability units 

Soils in one ca])ability unit have about the same limita- 
tions to use and similar risks of damage. The soils in 
one unit, therefore, need about the same kind of niaiiage- 
mont, though they may have foi'iued from different kinds 
of parent material and in different ways. The capa- 
bility units are described bi'iefly in table (3. For each 
unit, the soils are listed and management suitable for 
all the soils of the unit is suggested. 

General Management Requirements 

Some management piactices needed to obtain the 
nuixinuim practical yields are similar on all the soils of 
the county. These include draining the soils tliat are wet 
all or paii of the year, using the proper soil amendments, 
choosing a suitable rotation, and tilling the soils properly. 
In this section these basic management practices are 
discussed. Management for irrigated crops, such as fruits 
and vegetables, is discussed in the section "Soil Groups 
for Irrigation." Irrigation is expensive, and it is not 
profitable unless a large amount of fertilizer is added to 
the soils used to grow truck crops, and the soils are 
managed according to the practices described in this 
section. 

Drainage 

Improving drainage is one of the principal management 
needs in Dorchester County. More than half of the 
acreage of soils suitable for crops needs to be drained. 
Yields are often poor or the crop may fail completely 
unless drainage is well established and is well maintained 
and controlled. This is especially true in the southern 
and western parts of the county. 

Only a few farms, chiefly in the northeastern part of 
the county, are located entireh" on well-drained soils. In 
that area the elevation is higher than it is in the southern 
and western parts. 

About one-third of the total acreage of the soils that 
require drainage is made up of moderately well drained 
soils. In areas where the soils are only moderately well 
drained, some kind of drainage is needed, if merely to 
remove excess surface water during wet periods. The 
kind and amount of artificial drainage depend on the 
crop to be grown. 

Other soils that require drainage are the poorly drained 
and very poorly drained soils. These soils must have 
marked improvement in drainage if most crops are to be 
grown successfully. Examples of the poorly drained or 
very poorh* drained soils are the Bayboro soils, the Elkton 



DORCHESTKH COUNTY, MAHYLA.N'D 
T ahlI'; (') ( '(I pahil il 1/ rldssi ficdl kui , us( s, (ind iiiii iiinji mmt rrijii i/ r /units of the soils 



27 



(jOIutuI (l(>si'ri|)( ion of capahilil 
soil 



il iiaiiic of 



•iiii-nl.- fol' il^c and rjiaiial^criiciit. 



Unit 1-4 (8,800 acres) : Deep, well-dniined, 
nearly level soils that are medium textured. 
Matapeake fin(> sandy loam, to 2 i)ercent 
sloi)cs. 

Mata,peak(> silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slo|)es. 
Sassafras loam, heavy substratum, to 2 
percent slopes. 

Unit 1-5 (21,U0() acres): Deep, well-drained, 
nearly le\(M soils tliat are moderately coarse 
text ured. 

Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, 

to 2 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, to 2 

percent slopes. 

Unit lIe-4 (3,200 acres): Deep, well-drained, 
nearly level to gently sloping soils that are 
medium textured. 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

Unit IIe-5 (6,600 acres): Deep, well-drained, 
nearly level to gently sloping soils that are mod- 
erately coarse textured. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, 2 
to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes. 

Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded. 

Unit IIe-13 (2,800 acres): Moderately well 
drained, gently sloping to sloping, medium and 
moderately coarse textured soils that are mod- 
erately limited by wetness. 

Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 

Unit IIw-1 (13,000 acres): Moderately well 
drained, nearly level, medium-textured soils 
that have a moderately permeable subsoil. 
Mattapex fine sandy loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

Mattapex silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Woodstown loam, to 2 percent slopes. 



Unit IIw-5 (14,000 acres): Moderately well 
drained, nearly level, moderately coarse tex- 
tured soil that has a moderately permeable sub- 
soil. 

Woodstown sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 



The soils of this unit are th(^ best for agriculture of any in tlu; county. They retain 
moisture and ])lant nutrients well and are easy to work. Under good rrianag(!ifit!nt 
they are suited to intensive cultivation. The .soils are highly [productive and arc 
suited to many different uses. They are excellent for growing [jeaches and straw- 
berries. Corn, soybeans, and small grains are also grown extensively, and vegetabl(!s, 
hay cro[)s, and pa>i nie cnjps are grown to a lesser extent . Kor high yields, tlu; supply 
of plant nutrients must l)e kv]A high, lime should be applied as needed, and legumes 
and green-manure crops grown. The soils do not need artificial drainage, nor do 
they need special practices to help control erosion. 

The soils of this unit are friable. Under good management they can l^e eulli\aled 
intensively over a long period of time. Th(!y are somewhat more sandy than the 
soils of capability unit 1-4; therefore, they do not hold m(jisture and plant riutrif!nts 
so W(41. Ne\ ci t heless, if a good supply of plant nutrients is maintaint^d, yields 
should be as hijiii a^ those obtained on the .soils of capability unit 1-4. Th(!se 
soils are suited to tlie same kinds of crops as are grown on the soils of capability 
unit 1-4, but they are perhaps better suited to truck crops and strawberries and 
are even easier to work. They do not need artificial drainage, nor do they need 
special practices to protect them from erosion. 

The soils of this unit are similar to the soils of capability unit 1-4, but they have 
stronger slopes and there is a moderate hazard of erosion. Erosion has already 
been active in most areas, but it has not been severe. The soils need to be tilled 
on the contour, and they require a loHger rotation than the soils of capability 
unit 1-4. Otherwise, they are used and managed about the same. Hay or some 
other close-growing crop needs to be included in the cropping system. 



The soils of unit IIe-5 have moderate limitations to use because of the risk of erosion. 
They need to be tilled on the contour and require a longer rotation than the soils of 
capability unit 1-5. In addition, close-growing crops need to be included in the 
rotation. Except for practices to help control erosion, these soils have the same 
uses and require the same management as the soils of capability unit 1-5. 



The soils of unit IIe-13 have somewhat impeded drainage. Because of their slope and 
slowly permeable subsoil, runoff is rapid enough that protecting them from erosion 
is more important than improving drainage. The soils are too wet during some 
periods, however, and too dry during others. Good management not only includes 
practices to help control erosion, but it also includes practices to remove excess 
surface water. A good supply of plant nutrients must be maintained, and lime 
may be required. The soils are not well suited to alfalfa and similar crops that are 
damaged by frost heaving in winter. They are well suited to corn, soybeans, haj' 
crops other than alfalfa, and pasture. 

The soils of this unit are moderately wet. They are somewhat similar to the soils of 
capability unit lle-13, except that they are nearly level and there is little or no 
hazard of erosion. The soils are suited to most crops that are commonly grown if 
adequate drainage is provided, but thej- are not well suited to alf:ilfa and similar 
crops that are damaged by frost heaving in winter. Tile or open ditches, properly 
spaced and installed, are needed to carry off and dispose of excess water. The 
ditches should be shallow enough that they do not extend into the sandy sub- 
stratum, because the sandy material tends to flow and to cave into the channels. 
A good supply of plant nutrients needs to be maintained, and the soils may also 
require lime. 

This soil is sandier throughout and is more easih' worked than the soils of capability 
unit IIw-1, but it is used and managed about the same. Yields tend to be some- 
what lower on this soil, however, unless a high level of fertility is maintained 
Drainage is the most important management problem. If adequate drainage is 
provided, the soil tends to warm up more quickly in spring than other soils that 
have impeded drainage. Ditches used to carry off excess water should not extend 
into the sandv substratum. 



28 SOIL SURVEY SEHIES 1959, NO. 26 

Table 6. — Capability classification, uses, and management requirements of the soils — Continued 



General description of capability unit and name of 
soil 



Requirements for use and management 



Unit II\v-8 (6,000 acres) : Moderately well drained, 
nearly le\el, medium-textured soils that have 
a slowly to very slowly [)ermeable subsoil. 

Keypoit loam, to 2 jxu-cent slopes. 

Keyport silt loam, to 2 jx'reent slopes. 



Unit IIs-4 (18,000 acres): Deep, well-drained, 
nearly le\el to moderately sloi)ing soils that 
have a coarse-textured surface laxer and a finer 
textured subsoil. 

Sassafras loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 



Unit IIIe-4 (280 acres): Deep, well-drained, 
sloping to somewhat rolling, medium-textured 
soils. 

Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 piMctMit slopes. 
Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
modcratelv eroded. 



Unit lIIe-5 (430 acres): Deep, well-drained, 
sloi)ing to .somewhat rolling, moderately coarse 
textured soils. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 i)ercent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 

Unit IIle-33 (GGO acres): Deep, well-drained, 
sloping to somewhat rolling, coarse-textured 
soils that have a subsoil that is finer textured 
than the rest of the profile. 

Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 

Unit IIIw-5 (3,600 acres): Very poorly drained, 
medium-textured soil that has a very slowly 
permeable, fine-textured subsoil. 
Bayboro silt loam. 



Unit IIIw-6 (25,000 acres): Poorly drained and 
very poorly drained, moderately coarse textured 
soils that have a moderately permeable subsoil. 
Fallsington sandy loam. 
Pocomoke sandy loam. 



Unit III\v-7 (33,000 acres): Poorly drained and 
very poorly drained, medium-textured soils 
that have a subsoil in which permeability is 
moderate to naoderately slow. 

Bibb silt loam. 

Johnston loam. 

Othello silt loam. 

Pocomoke loam. 

Portsmouth silt loam. 



The soils of this unit are only moderately well drained. Water infiltrates slowly and 
drains through the profile vcn-y slowly. The soils should be cultivated only 
within a narrow range of moisture content. In areas that have been cultivated, the 
surface layer tends to pack after heavy rains. Drainage is the most important 
management problem, but V-type ditches that are jjroperly spaced are generally 
ade(|uate for removing excess water. Tile is not suitable for draining the soils, 
because of the fine texture of the subsoil. If the .soils are properly firained, culti- 
\aled only when they are neither too wet nor too dry, and otherwise well managed, 
moderate to high yields arc^ obtained of most of the crops commoidy grown in the 
area. The soils are not well suited to alfalfa, however, because of heaving in winter. 

The surface layer of the soils of this uiut is thick and consists of friable loamy sand. 
Tile subsoil is thin and consists of frial)le sandy clay loam, luiderlain by sand at a 
dei)th l)elo\\- 24 to 30 inches. The soils ar(\ low in i)lant nutrients and organic 
matter, and they are rather low in moisture-storing and in moisture-supplying 
cai)acity. Supplemental irrigation is desirable in all areas, and it is necessary in 
some areas to keej) suHici(Mit moisture in the soil. The soils are well suited to most 
crops, and they are used rather extensively for sweetpotatoes and other truck crops. 
If adefjuate moisture is supplied and a high le\el of fertility is inaintainefl, fair 
to goocl yields are obtained. 

The soils of this unit have strong slopes and are susceptible to erosion. They are 
suited to about the same crops as ihe soils of capability units 1-4 and IIe-4, and about 
the same yields are obtained if good management is used. The soils need a longer 
rotation than the soils of capability units 1-4 and IIe-4; hay or other close-growing 
crops need to be grown for a greater part of the time, l^lanting buffer strips and 
tilling on the contour will helj) to protect the soils from further erosion. Sodded 
waterways are needed to carry off excess surface water. 

These soils are similar to the .soils of capability units 1-5 and lIc-5, but they have 
stronger slopes and are more susceptible to erosion. They are somewhat more 
sandy than the soils of capability unit IIIe-4, and are more easil}' worked and 
managed than those soils. Yields are slightly lower than on the soils of capability 
unit IIIe-4 unless a good supply of plant nutrients is itudntained. 

The soils of this unit have stronger slo])es than the soils of capability unit IIs-4, but 
they are similar in other respects. Protection from erosion is the principal man- 
agement need. For good yields, however, a good supply of moisture must be 
maintained; supplemental irrigation is desirable in all areas, and it is necessary in 
some areas. Stripcropping and tilling on the contour are good management prac- 
tices to use to help reduce erosion. The rotation should be longer on these soils 
than on less sloping soils. 

This soil is very poorly drained. It is very slowly permeable and is in low positions; 
thus, it is difficidt to drain. Adequate drainage with V-type or other kinds of field 
ditches must be provided, however, if the soil is to be used for cultivated crops. 
The ditches need to be jjroperly spaced, graded, and maintained. Tile is not 
suitable for draining the soil, because of the fine texture and very slow permeability 
of the subsoil. After the soil is drained, it is well suited to corn, soybeans, and 
grasses, but fertilizer and lime will be needed. 

The Fallsington soil in this capability unit is poorly drained and has a gray surface 
layer. The Pocomoke soil is very poorly drained and has a very dark gray to black 
surface layer that is high in organic matter. Use of these soils for some crops is 
limited unless adequate artificial drainage is provided. The soils are well suited 
to tiling, but open ditches are diffic\ilt to maintain because the sand tends to cave 
and flow. If proper drainage is established and fertilizer and lime are added, good 
yields can be obtained. The soils are not well suited to alfalfa and lespedeza, and 
they are not used extensively to grow small grains. 

This capability unit has the largest acreage of soils that are cultivated of any capa- 
bility unit in the county, and, therefore, proper management is highly important. 
The soils are similar to those of capability unit IIIw-6, but their surface layer is 
less sandy and they have a somewhat finer textured subsoil. Drainage is slightly 
more difficult than on the soils of cajiability unit IIIw-6, but after drainage has 
been established, yields are generally higher than they are on those soils. V-type 
ditches can be used, but they will require different spacing than those used to 
drain the soils of capability unit IIIw-6, and they should not be deep enough to 
penetrate the sandy substratum. The soils need fertilizer. Because they are 
strongly acid, they also ought to be tested frequently to determine the need foi 
lime. 



DORCllKSTKH COUNTY, MARYLAND 
'J'ahlio G. — ( '((jxibllil;/ classijication , w.sr.s, and. iiiautKjc incut icqaiic incuts of the soils ( 'oiitiiiuod 



29 



Cciioral (l('sci ii)l ion of capnhilil y 
soil 



aii'l naiiic of 



Unit III\v-8 (5,000 acres): Somewhat jjoorly 
drained to moderately well drained, coarse- 
lextvired soils that have a subsoil in which 
])ermeal)ilil y is moderately rajjid. 

Klej loamy sand, to '2 pcM'cent sloi)es. 
Kiej loamy sand, 2 to 5 jX'rcent slopes. 



Unit IIIw-9 (27,000 acres): Poorly drained, 
medium-textured soils that have a subsoil in 
which i)ernu'ability is slow to very slow. 
Elk ton loam. 
Elkton silt loam. 



Unit IIIs-1, (10,000 acres): Deep, somewhat 
excessively drained, nearly level to moderately 
sloping soils that are coarse textured and rapidly 
permeable. 

Galestown loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
Galestown loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 

to 2 percent slopes. 
Lakeland loauiy sand, clayey substratum, 2 

to 5 percent slopes. 



Unit IVe-3 (70 acres) : Deep, well-drained, 
strongly sloping, medium-textured soil. 

Matapeake silt loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 



Unit IVe-5 (560 acres) : Deep, well-drained, 
moderately sloping and strongly sloping, mod- 
erately coarse textured and coarse textured 
soils that are severely eroded. 

Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 

Unit IVw-8 (2,400 acres): Poorly drained and 
very poorly drained, coarse-textured, rapidly 
permeable soils. 

Plummer loamy sand. 

Rutlege loam\' sand. 



Unit IVs-1 (4,100 acres): Deep, somewhat ex- 
cessively drained and excessively drained, 
nearly level to strongly sloping, coarse-textured, 
very rapidly permeable soils. 

Galestown loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 
Galestown sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
Galestown sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 

5 to 15 percent slopes. 
Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, to 5 
percent slopes. 



rcnicnts for use and ni.-inatrcnicnt 



The .soils of this unit have impeded drainage, and they are also very permeable, 
strongly acid, and low in plant nutrients. The soils arc wet in wet sea.sons, but 
they store and supjily little moisture to plants during dry seas(jns. Surface; drain- 
age is reciuired if the soils are used for cultivated crops. A drainage system i.s 
difficult to maintain, however, because the sanrl tends to flow. Nevertheless, 
good yields can be obtained if supi)l('inental irrigation is available during dry 
seasons and if a good sujjjjly of i)lant nutrients is maintained. The soils art- wrJl 
suit(>d to the crops conunonly grown in the area if they are properly managed, but 
yields are somewhat lower than on some of the better agricultural soils. 

The soils of this capability unit are very difficult to drain because their subsoil i.s 
fine textured and slowly perm(\'ible. Field ditches are generally used to remove 
excess water. If drainage is i)rovided, corn, soyb(!aris, grasses, and other crops 
can b(! grown, but the soils will need fertilizer and lime. They are not suited to 
small grains and alfalfa, but they could be used more extensively for pasture. The 
soils are hard when dry and sticky when w'et; they can be cultivat(!d only within a 
narrow range of moisture content. 

The soils of this capability unit are acid, raj^idly permeable, and low in plant nutrients. 
They also contain little organic matter. Because they are sandy and have rapid 
permeability, their capacity to retain moisture is low. The soils are susceptible 
to erosion by wind and need to be protected i)y a cover of j)lants. Pro|)er managf!- 
ment consists of including a close-growing crop in the rotation, |)lanting crops in 
strips crosswise to the direction of prevailing winds, and establishing windbreaks. 
The supply of organic matter can be increased by keeping crop residues on the surface 
or plowing them into the surface layer. These areas are used to grow vegetables 
and other crops that have a high value per acre. They require some lime and large 
amounts of fertilizer, which should be applied according to the needs indicated by 
soil tests. Because the soils tend to be drought}', crops are likely to need supple- 
mental irrigation. 

Except for stronger slopes, this soil is similar to the soils of capability units 1-4, IIe-4, 
and IIIe-4, and there is a severe hazard of erosion. Practices to help control erosion 
include contour strip cropping, tilling on the contour, establishing a buffer strip, and 
retaining crop residues on the surface or plowing them into the surface layer. In 
some places terracing will be needed. Surface runoff, especially from the terrace 
channels, can be disposed of through diversions and .sodded waterways, but the out- 
lets need to be planned and maintained carefully. If these management practices 
are used, good yields can be obtained of the crops commonly grown in the area. It 
is especially necessary, however, to use a long rotation in which the surface is 
protected by a cover of plants most of the time. Soybeans are not a good crop to 
grow, because they make the soil more erodible. 

The soils of this capability unit have characteristics that are similar to those of the 
soils of capability units 1-5, IIe-5, and IIIe-5, and they have some characteristics 
like those of the soils of capability unit IIIe-33. They have stronger slopes than 
the soils in any of those capability units, and they are, therefore, more susceptible to 
erosion. If crops are to be grown safely, the management should be similar to that 
used for the soils of capability unit IVe-3. The surface layer of these .soils is more 
sandy than that of the soils of capability unit IVe-3, and these soils are easier to 
work. Yields are generally lower, however, than tho.se obtained on the soils of 
capability unit IVe-3, unless a good supply of plant nutrients is maintained. 

This capability unit is made up of poorly drained and very poorly drained, very sandy 
soils. The Plummer soil has a gray surface layer, and the Rutlege soil has a very 
dark gray to black surface layer that is high in organic matter. The poor drainage 
strongly limits the use of these soils for crops. Drainage that is carefully controlled 
is necessary to obtain even moderate yields of the crops commonly grown. These 
soils can be drained either by tile or ditches, but tile is expensive and the soils have 
rather low productivity. Ditches are difficult to maintain because the sand tends 
to cave and flow. After the soils are drained, they are suited to corn, soybeans, and 
some vegetable crops, but care must be taken to maintain a good supply of plant 
nutrients. 

The soils of this capability unit are sandy and droughty. They are low in moisture- 
holding capacity, contain only a small supply of plant nutrients, and are susceptible 
to erosion l)y w'ind and water. The soils are similar to the soils of capability unit 
IIIs-1, but some are more sandy. In some places they have stronger slopes, and all 
of them are more limited in use. The soils need the same management practices as 
are used for the soils of capability unit IIIs-1. They also need terraces, and they 
need contour tillage and other practices that help to control erosion. If these 
practices are used, fair to good yields of suitable crops can be obtained. Because 
the soils tend to be droughty, crops are likely to need irrigation. 



30 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 26 

Table 6. — Capability classification, uses, and management requirements oj the soils — Continued 



General dcscrijjtioii of ('ai)abilit y luiil and iiain(>of 
.soil 


I{e(|uireinents for use and manaKeincuit 


Unit Vw-1 (30,000 acres): Poorly drained, 
medium-textured soils of bottom lands that 
have a subsoil that is slowly to very slowly 
p(>rmeable. 

Elkton silt loam, low. 

Othello silt loam, low. 


The soils of this capability unit are only slightly above sea level. They are not subject to 
erosion, but they are wet during most of the year. Because of their low position, 
they are lloodefl occasionally when titles are high, and they are difficult to flrain. The 
slow i)ermeal)ility of the subsoil adds t-o the difliculty in draining them. These soils 
are ordinarily not suiteti to cultivated crops. They are fairly well suited to pasture 
and can even be overgrazed without damage. Th(? pastures can be improved by 
clearing the areas, destroying the brush, and then seeding or sprigging and adding 
fertilizer and lime. The areas should be mowed as needetl. Some tame or wild hay 
may be cut when the soils are used for grazing. 



Unit Vie 
steep soil 

Sassafras loamy sand, 15 to 40 jiercent slo])es. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to W percent slopes. 



2 (300 acies) : Deep, well-drained. The soils of this capability unit are too steep for cultivated crops, but they can be 

u.sed to a limited extent for hay. They can also be used to some extent for forest 
trees or orchards, but the most common suitable use is for imjjroved pasture. The 
areas to be pastured need to be i)rei)ared for striding. Then, planting can be done 
by seeding or sprigging. The areas will require; fertilizer, and lime should be 
added as needed. Care must be taken to protect the areas from overgrazing, 
because overgrazing would cause tlu; soils to be left bare and serious erosion would 
result. Plants growing on the Sassafras loamy sand are more likely to be damaged 
by short periods of drought than plants growing on the Sassafras sandy loam. 



Unit VIw-l (2,000 acres): Nearly level 
\ ariable soil tliat is subject to flooding. 
Mixed alluvial land. 



W(-t , 



Unit \'Iw-2 (31,000 acres): Poorly drained and 
very poorly drained, very slowly permeable soils. 
Hayboro silty clay loam. 
I'Uklon silty clay loam. 
I'Mkton silty clay loam, low. 



Unit VIs-1 (5!)0 acres): Deep, somewhat exces- 
sively drained and excessively drained, strongly 
sloping to rolling, coarse-textured, very rapidly 
permeable soils. 

Galestown loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent 
slopes. 

Galestown sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 
Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 15 
percent slopes. 



Unit VIIw-1 (17,400 acres): 
fied soil material. 
Swamp. 



Very wet, unclassi- 



Unit VIIs-1 (400 acres): Deep, somewhat 
excessively drained and excessively drained, 
steep soils that are coarse textured and 
rapidly permeable. 

Galestown sand and loamy sand, 15 to 40 

percent slopes. 
Galestown sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 

Unit VIIIw-1 (81,000 acres): Land regularly 
subject to flooding by high tides. 
Tidal marsh. 



Unit VIIIs-1 (150 acres): 
has been removed. 

Borrow and gravel pits. 

Unit VIIIs-2 (200 acres): 
coherent, loose sand. 
Coastal beaches. 



Land where soil 



Almost bare, non- 



This capability unit consists of variable soil material on flood plains. The areas 
are not suited to cultivated crops, because they are mostly poorly drained or very 
poorly drained and are subject to flooding. The areas can be used for hay or 
pasture if they are drained and well managed. They can also be used for woofiland 
and for wildlife habitats. 

These .soils are too wet, too difficult to drain, and too difficult to work to be used 
for cultivated crops. They are flooded occasionally when tides are extremely high. 
Their surface layer is hard when dry, tough when moist, and sticky when wet, and 
their subsoil is so fine textured and so slowly perm(;able that drainage is impractical. 
The soils are mostly in forest, but some areas are used for grazing. The areas that 
are grazed can be improved by .seeding, adding fertilizer and lime, and controlling 
the weeds. 

The soils of this capability unit are strongly sloping to somewhat steep, and they are 
very sandy, droughty, and low in fertility. The soils are not suited to cultivated 
crops, but they can be used for limited grazing or forests. The soils can also be 
used for orchards if they arc well managed. If pastures are established, they should 
be managed carefully because the soils will be damaged severely even if only slightly 
overgrazed. 



This capability unit consists of very wet soil material in swampy areas and on the flood 
plains of rivers. The areas are not used for cultivated crops, because drainage is 
impractical. They are generally suitable only for wetland forests. The areas 
pro\ide shelter for wildlife, however, and they support limited grazing during 
periods of low water. 

This unit consists of steep areas of deep sands that are severely limited for crops 
by droughtiness. The soils are coarse textured, excessively drained, and rapidly 
permeable. They are not suited to cultivated crops, nor are they suitable for 
pasture, although they provide very limited grazing and shelter for livestock. 
They also ])rovide shelter for wildlife, particularly deer, quail, rabbits, and 
squirrels. The soils are generally poorly suited to trees. If properlv managed, 
however, Virginia pine can be grown for pulpwood, and planted loblolly pine 
grows well. 

This capability unit consists of areas of Tidal marsh that are flooded regularly by- 
high tides. The soil materials are too wet and salty to be used for agriculture. 
These areas and their tidal waterways are excellent for wildlife, and they provide 
habitats for ducks, geese, swans, rails, and other native and migratory waterfowl. 

This capability unit consists only of borrow pits and gravel pits. Unless the areas 
are completely reclaimed, they serve no useful purpose for agriculture. 

This capability' unit consists entirely of sandy beaches that border the Chesapeake 
Bay and some of the larger rivers. The areas have no agricultural use, but thev 
are suitable for recreation 



DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND 



31 



silty chiy loams, aiul (lie low piiases ol' the Klktoii and 
OthoUo soils. All ol' those soils have a heavy, intractable 
sui'i'ace layer, 'i'hey are too wet to be suitable for cuUi- 
vated (•r()])s unless very intensive artifieial (li-aina<;'e is 
applied. 

The I'ollowini;' sliows the ii'enei'a.l (h'ainag'e i'e(|uirenu'nts 
of the soils in JJorcliester County. More complete hil'or- 
mation about the draina<?o needed can be found in the 
section "Soil Groups for Drainage." 

1 . Soils that require no artifieial drainage: Galestown, 
Lakeland, Alatapeake, Sassafras. 

2. Soils that require moderate artificial drainage: 
Keyport, Klej, Mattapex, Woodstown. 

3. Soils that require intensive arlilicial drainage: 
Bibb, Fallsington, Othello, Plumnicr, Elkton. 

4. Soils that require very intensive artificial drainage: 
Bayboro, Portsmouth, Johnston, Pocomoke, 
Rutlege. 

Soil amendments 

All of tlie soils of Dorchester County arc acid, and they 
are naturally fairly low in plant nutrients. Therefore, 
most crops grown in the county require lime and fertilizer. 
The amount of lime to use and the kinds and amounts of 
fertilizer needed can be judged by learning how well crops 
have responded in the past, by determining the yield level 
at which the farmer is operating, and by studying the 
record of previous management practices, especially the 
results obtained from chemical tests. For assistance in 
determining the specific needs of the soils for lime and 
fertilizer, contact the county agricultural agent. He can 
arrange to have soils tested at the Soil Testing Laboratory 
of the University of Maryland. 

Lime generally needs to be applied about once every 3 
years. Very sandy soils and well drained or moderately 
well drained soils need applications of about 1 to VA tons 
per acre. Most of the other soils need 2 to 3 tons per acre, 
but wet soils that are high in organic matter, for example, 
those of the Bayboro, Pocomoke, and Portsmouth series, 
require 3 to 5 tons per acre, or possibly more. 

Different soils in the same field may require different 
amounts of lime. For example, in areas where the soils 
are well drained and sandy, 1 ton of lime per acre may be 
required. On the other hand, areas where the soils are 
ver}^ dark colored and are less well drained and less sandy, 
may need as much as 5 tons per acre. Using too much 
lime, particularly on a sandy soil, should be avoided just 
as carefully as using too little. 

Soils that are cultivated year after year become defi- 
cient in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium unless these 
elements are replenished regidarly. Unlike phosphorus 
and potassium, nitrogen does not come from the mineral 
part of the soil. Nitrogen compounds are produced by 
some plants, especially by soybeans and other legumes, 
but more commonly the nitrogen is supplied in fertilizer. 

Nitrogen fertilizer is needed for all crops, except leg- 
umes, and so'ine legumes benefit from additional nitrogen. 
Part of the nitrogen in plants is returned to the soil in 
plant residues that decompose to form organic matter, 
but most of it is removed in the crops that are harvested. 
The organic matter not only returns some nitrogen and 
other plant nutrients to the soil, but it also improves the 
water-holding capacity and the tilth. This, in turn, helps 
to reduce the susceptibility of the soils to erosion. 



Manure finnishes large amounts of nili'ogeii aiul or- 
ganic matter and smaller amounts of other plant nutrients. 
The amount of manure and the kinds and amounts of 
commercial fertilizer and crop residues depend on the 
kind of crop to be; grown. Small grains need a complete 
fertilizer in addition to a tojxiressing of nitrogen. Cen- 
erally, nitrogen for corn is supplied as a sidedressing. 
Legumes need phosphorus and potassium when lliev an; 
seeded and, later, as a topdressing. 

Rotations 

Using a good cro]) rotation is an efficient way of main- 
taining organic matter in the soil. A good rotation also 
helps to prevent or to check the loss of soil material 
through erosion. One good system consists of growing a 
Icgiune or green-manure crop before a corn crop. ^Vhen 
the legume or green-manure crop is plowed under, it adds 
organic matter and nitrogen to the soil. As a result, the 
corn crop that follows generally produces a higher yield 
and is better able to withstand dry weather. The green- 
manure crop also makes the soil less susceptible to erosion. 

A 3-year rotation ought to in chide corn or soybeans 
for 1 year. The corn or soybeans should be followed by 
a small grain, and the small grain, by a legume or hay 
crop that includes a legume. Such a rotation helps con- 
serve the soil. It is well suited to the soils of capability 
classes I and II. 

For soils in capability subclasses Ille and Ills, a rota- 
tion lasting at least 4 years needs to be used. The 
rotation should include at least 2 years of hay or other 
close-growing crops. Such a rotation may not be suit- 
able for the soils of subclass IIIw, because there is little 
or no hazard of erosion on those soils. Most of the soils 
of subclasses IVe and IVs need at least a 5-year rotation, 
if feasible, or a 4-year rotation in which the small grain 
is omitted. Soybeans tend to make the soil more suscep- 
tible to erosion and should not be planted on the soils 
of subclass IVe. Because there is little or no hazard of 
erosion, a 5-year rotation may not be necessary for the 
soils of subclass IVw. 

A good rotation helps to control weeds, and it also 
helps to control insects and soil-borne diseases. It slows 
down the rate at which some plant nutrients are depleted. 
In some places, where insecticides or fungicides have been 
applied heavily to vegetables or other crops, growing a 
different kind of crop for at least 1 or 2 years \^dll help rid 
the soils of the residual effects of the chemicals. 

Tillage 

If maximum yields of crops are to be obtained, the 
soils must be kept in good condition. Tillage of any kind 
breaks down the structure of the soils, causes organic 
matter to be lost, and increases the hazard of erosion. 
Breakdown of the soil structure generalh* takes place 
gradually and is not easily noticed until the damage has 
become serious. 

The continued use of the heavy machmery commonly 
used to cultivate corn and soybeans causes many of the 
poorly drained, fine-textured soils, such as the Elkton 
and Othello silt loams, to become compacted and hard to 
work. If the soils are too moist when the machinery is 
used, the result is more serious. Compaction decreases 
the rate at which water infiltrates, and it decreases the 
aeration of the soils. It also slows do^wn internal drainage. 



641669—63 3 



32 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 26 



which is imporliuit in these soils. If a sloping soil be- 
comes compacted, the amount and rate of runoll' are 
accelerated and the hazard ol' erosion is increased. Re- 
plenishing organic matter and growing a sod crop \\ill 
help to restore good structure in such a soil. 

On all of the soils in the county, tillage needs to be 
ke])t to a minimum. It is particularly important to 
cultivate only within a narrow range of moisture content 
so as to prevent puddling and compaction on many of 
the wet, fine-te.\t ured soils. 

All of the sloping soils that are susceptible to erosion 
but that are suitable for cidtivation (subclasses lie, Ille, 
and IVe) need to be tilled on the contour. In addition, 
contour stripcropping (growing alternate strips of cl(>an- 
cultivated crops with strips of dose-growing, untilled 
crops) is needed on the soils of subclasses Ille and IVe. 
A good rotation can be used and the crops staggered on 
the various strips. The strips will be narrower in steep 
areas than in less sloping ones. A technician of the Soil 
Conservation Service may be consulted for help in plan- 
ning and laying out the cropping strips. 



Estimated Yields 

The soils of Dorchester Comity vary considerahly in 
productivity. vSome are well suited to crops and will 
consistently produce fairly high yields of cultivated 
crops. Others are better suited to less intensive use. 

Table 7 shows the estimated average acre yields of 
specified crops under two levels of management. In 
columns A are estimated average acre yields of specified 
crops obtained under the management commonly used 
in the county. In colunms B are estimated average acre 
yields obtained imder improved management. Estimated 
yields for lespedeza, gi'own either for hay or seed, are 
given only mider colunms B, because lespedeza is com- 
mordy grown only under very good management. No 
great improvement over the present yields is anticipated. 

According to reports of the U.S. Biu'eau of the Census 
for Dorchester County, the average acre yield of corn 
was 54 bushels in 1959. Other average yields reported 
were 26 bushels of soybeans, 27.1 bushels of wheat, 1.6 
tons of lespedeza grown for hay, and .'500 pounds of les- 
pedeza grown for seed. 



Table 7. — ■Estimated aveimje acre yields of specified crops under two levels of management 

[In coluniiis A arc estimated yields obtained under tlie present average management; in eoluinns B are estimated yields obtained under 
improved management. Where yields are not given, the soil is considered unsuitable for the crop or no information is a\ailab!e on 
which to base an estimatel 



Soil 



Corn 



Soybeans 



Wheat 



Lespedeza 



Hav 



Seed 



B 



Bayboro sill loam 

Bayboro silty clay loam 

Bibb silt loam 

Elkton loam 

Elkton silt loam 

Elkton silt loam, low 

Elkton silty clay loam 

Elkton silty clay loam, low 

Fallsington sandy loam 

Galestown loamj' sand, to 2 percent slopes 

Galestown loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

Galestown loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes 

Galestown loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes 

Galestown sand, to 2 percent slopes 

Galestown sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

Galestown sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes 

Galestown sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes 

Johnston loam 

Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

Klej loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes 

Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 2 percent slopes_ 
Lakeland loamy sand, claj'ey substratum, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 15 percent slopes. 

Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, to 5 percent slopes 

Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 15 percent slopes 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded 

Matapeake silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 



Bu. 
45 



Bu. 

80 



Bu. 



Bu. 



Bu. 



Bu. 



Tons 



Lbs. 



45 
40 
40 



80 
75 
75 



25 
25 
25 



30 
30 
30 



25 



35 



45 
25 
25 
25 



80 
50 
50 
50 



25 
15 
15 
15 



30 
20 
20 
20 



25 



40 



20 
20 



50 
50 



15 
15 



20 
20 



40 
45 
45 
45 
35 
35 
25 
25 
25 
20 
20 
65 

60 
65 
65 



80 
80 
80 
90 
65 
65 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
100 

100 
100 
100 



25 
25 
20 
20 
20 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
30 

25 
30 
30 



25 
35 
35 
30 
25 
25 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
40 

40 
40 
40 



25 
25 
20 



40 
40 
35 



30 

25 
30 
30 



45 

40 
45 
45 



1. 
1. 
1. 



1. 3 
. 6 
. 6 
. 6 
. 6 
. 5 
. 5 



. 5 
. 9 
1. 5 
1. 5 

1. 5 
. 9 
. 9 
. 6 
. 6 
. 6 
. 5 
. 5 

2. 

2. 
2. 
2. 



240 
240 
240 



270 
160 
160 
160 
160 
150 
150 



150 
220 
290 
290 
290 
220 
220 
160 
160 
160 
150 
150 
340 

340 
340 
340 



Seo footnote at end of table. 



DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND 33 

l\\uij': 7. — /Csliindlid (tri raiji acre i/'n /ds oj specified crops under fiiui lerels of laanatjerneid — Contiiiiicd 



[III coluiiiiis A arc cstiiiiaU'd yields obtained under tlu; present average inanagcrnenl ; in coiiiinns B are e.stimated yields obtained under 
improved management. Where yields are not given, the soil is considered unsuitable for the crop or no information is available on 
which to base an estimate] 



Soil 


Corn 


Soybeans 


Wheat 


Lesixjdeza 


Pasture 


Hay 


Seed 


A 


I ) 


A 

j\ 


iJ 


A 
A. 


n 


A 


X5 


A 


TJ 
1 J 




















Cow- 


Cow- 




















acre- 


acre- 




Bu. 


liu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Tons 


Lbs. 




duys ' 




60 


100 


25 


40 


25 


40 


2. 


340 


no 


200 




65 


100 


30 


40 


30 


45 


2. 


340 


95 


210 


Matapeakc silt loam, 5 to 10 iiercent slopes, moderately eroded- 


60 


100 


25 


40 


25 


40 


2. 


340 


90 


200 


iMatapeake silt loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes _ 


60 


100 


25 


40 


25 


40 


2. 


340 


90 


200 




50 


90 


25 


35 


25 


40 


1. 8 


300 


95 


210 


Mattapex silt loam, to 2 percent slopes- - - _ _ 


50 


90 


25 


35 


25 


40 


1. 8 


300 


95 


210 


IMattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes . _ 


i^n 
ou 


cut 
yo 


zo 


oO 




An 


1. 8 


300 


• It 


9 1 fl 
^ iO 


Mattajjex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 


45 


85 


20 


30 


20 


35 


1. 8 


300 


90 


200 


Othello silt loam _ . _ - - 


45 


80 


25 


30 


25 


35 


1. 4 


280 


90 


190 




















85 


180 


Plumtner loa'iiy sand __ _ _ 


30 


55 


15 


20 










40 


110 




45 


80 


25 


30 


25 


35 






70 


150 




45 


80 


25 


30 


25 


35 






70 


150 


Portsmouth silt loam 


oo 


on 

yo 




OO 


■ 9^ 
zo 


oo 






/ o 


160 


Rutle^e loamy sand - _ 


30 


60 


15 


25 






50 


120 


Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes 


65 


100 


30 


40 


30 


45 


2. 


340 


90 


200 


Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 


60 


100 


25 


35 


25 


40 


9 n 


o^w 


85 


190 


Sassafras loam, heavy substratum, to 2 percent slopes 


65 


100 


30 


40 


30 


45 


2. 


340 


90 


200 


Sassafias loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes 


40 


75 


20 


25 


20 


30 


1. 


240 


75 


170 


si -1 ( I" W l(k*irtl\' f l~\ >!•(•( >n t, <I("iT'*e^ 


40 


75 


20 


25 


20 


30 


1. 


240 


75 


170 


Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 i)ereeiit slopes, moderately eroded- 


35 


70 


20 


25 


20 


30 


1. 


240 


65 


160 


Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 jjereent slopes 


35 


70 


20 


25 


20 


30 


1. 


240 


70 


165 


Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded- 


35 


70 


20 


25 


20 


30 


1. 


240 


65 


160 


Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded 


25 


60 


15 


25 


15 


25 


. 8 


200 


50 


150 


Sassafras loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes 


30 


65 


15 


25 


15 


30 


1. 


240 


60 


160 


Sassafras loamv sand, 15 to 40 percent slopes - 


















40 


100 


Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 


65 


100 


30 


40 


30 


45 


2. 


340 


90 


200 


Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes . 


65 


100 


30 


40 


30 


45 


2. 


340 


90 


200 


Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded- 


60 


100 


25 


40 


25 


40 


2. 


340 


85 


190 


Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes 


60 


100 


30 


40 


30 


45 


2. 


340 


90 


200 


Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded- 


60 


100 


25 


40 


25 


40 


2. 


340 


85 


190 


Sassafras sandv loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes 


60 


100 


25 


40 


25 


40 


2. 


340 


85 


190 


Sassafras sandv loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes 














1. 6 


290 


70 


150 


Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, to 2 percent slopes- 


65 


100 


30 


40 


30 


45 


2. 


340 


95 


210 


Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 






















moderately eroded 


60 


100 


25 


40 


25 


40 


2. 


340 


90 


200 


Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, to 2 percent slopes 


65 


100 


30 


40 


30 


45 


2. 


340 


95 


210 


Sassafras sandv loam, thick solum, 2 to 5 percent slopes 


65 


100 


30 


40 


30 


45 


2. 


340 


95 


210 


Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 






















moderately eroded 


60 


100 


25 


40 


25 


40 


2. 


340 


90 


200 


Woodstown loam, to 2 percent slopes 


45 


85 


20 


30 


20 


35 


1. 8 


300 


90 


200 


Woodstown sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 


40 


85 


20 


30 


20 


35 


1. 8 


300 


85 


200 


Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 






















eroded . . - 


35 


75 


20 


30 


20 


30 


1. 8 


300 


75 


190 



The number of days 1 acre will support one cow, horse, or steer without injury to the pasture. 



To obtain the estimated yields shown in columns B, 
several or many of the following management practices 
are used: 

1. Contour tillage, stripcropping, terracing, contour 
furrowing, or sunilar measures are used to help 
control erosion; the soils that need drainage are 
drained; excess water is disposed of safely; and 
irrigation is supplied to the soils that need it. 

2. Rotations of adequate length are selected that 
generally consist of the followmg: A tilled crop to 
help control weeds; a deep-rooted crop to improve 
the permeability of the sods; legumes for 1 or 



more years to help maintam or improve the fer- 
tility of the soils; and a close-growing crop or a 
green -manure crop. A close-growing crop or a 
green-manure crop helps unprove the structure 
and tilth of the soils, supplies organic matter, 
and helps control erosion. 

3. Manure and crop residues are tui'ned under to 
supply nitrogen and other nutrients and to unprove 
the physical characteristics of the soils. 

4. Fertilizer and lime are applied according to the 
needs indicated by soil tests; the county agent 
is consulted for information about making the tests. 



34 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 2 6 



5. Suitable methods ol' plowing, preparing the seedbed, 
and cultivating are used. 

6. Planting, cultivating, and harvesting are done at 
the proper time and in tne proper way. 

7. Weeds, diseases, and insects are controlled. 

More information about management practices needed 
to obtain good yields can be found in table 6 in the section 
"Capability Groups of Soils" and in the section "General 
Management Requirements." Practices applied in irri- 
gation and drainage of soils are described in the section 
"Engineering Uses of Soils." 

The yields sliown in columns B are not presiuned to 
be the highest yields obtainable, but they set a goal 
that is practical for most farmers to reach if they use 
good management. Yields on the same soils will vary, 
of com-se, because of differences in the Icind of manage- 
ment, in the weather, in the varieties of crops that are 
grown, and in the numbers and kinds of diseases and 
insects. 

Woodland Management^ 

Practically no truly virgin forests remain in Dorchester 
County. A few tracts, however, show no evidence of 
having been altered by the activities of man or domestic 
animals. About 40 percent of the county, or about 
149, 390 acres, consisted of wooded areas at the trme the 
soil survey was made. In 1959, according to the U.S. 
Census of Agriculture, 50, 218 acres of woodland was on 
farms. At that time, the remaining acreage in woodland 
consisted of land that was publicly o\\a:ied or was in other 
areas not classified as farm holdings. Interest in manag- 
ing woodland has increased during the past few years. 

The value of standuig commercial timber sold from 
land that was privatelv owned was $83, 875 in 1949, 
$89,497 in 1954, and $138,584 in 1959.^ No figures are 
available to show the actual amount of timber cut in those 
years. It can be assmned, however, that much of the 
increase in the value of timber cut was the result of a 
sharp increase in the unit price of timber products, 
particularly during 1959. 

Woodland suitability groups 

Just as soils are placed in capability classes, subclasses, 
and units, according to their need for management for 
field crops and pasture, they can also be grouped according 
to their suitability for woodland use. Each woodland 
suitability group is made up of soils on which similar kinds 
of wood crops are produced, that require similar conserva- 
tion practices, and that have similar potential produc- 
tivity. 

The potential productivity of the soils for forest trees 
is measured by the site mdex. The site index is the 
average height, in feet, of the dominant trees in the stand 
at 50 years of age. The site indexes of trees on the Eastern 
Shore of Maryland have been determined only for loblolly 



2 Craig D. Whitesell, former research forester of the Maryland 
Department of Research and Education; A. R. Bond, assistant 
State forester, Maryland Department of Forests and Parks; and 
Silas Little, forester, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, 
U.S. Forest Service, helped prepare this section. 

3 Hamilton, A. B. comparative census of Maryland agri- 
culture, BY counties, Maryland Univ. Ext. Serv., College Park, 
Md., Misc. Ext. Pub. No. 55, 52 pp. 1961. [Mimeographed.] 



pine because loblolly pine is the most iiiipoiinnt species 
grown commercially in the area. 

A number of studies of site indexes wei'e made to lielp 
determine the value of the soils for growing trees. The 
areas studied were all on the Coastal Plain of Maryland. 
They were located, not only in Dorchester (bounty, but 
also in all of tlie counties on the Eastern Shore; in Calvert, 
Charles, and St. Marys Counties in southern Maryland; 
and in Sussex County, Del. The site indexes used in this 
report were taken from the results of the studies. 

On some soils trees were measured on a fairly large num- 
ber of sites. On others, only a few suitable sites were 
available where there was a good stand of loblolly pine. 
No measm'ements were taken on some soils, but the site 
index was assumed to be approximately tlie same as that 
for soils that had similar characteristics. 

All of the soils in one woodland suitability group have 
approximately the same site index, and they are similar in 
certain other respects. For all the soils of a group, species 
priority is about tlie same, and the ratings for competition 
from other plants, limitations to tlie use of equipment, 
seedling mortality, and the hazard of wind throw are the 
same. 

Table 8 shows the woodland suitability groups in Dor- 
chester County. In that table the column showing the 
site index for loblolly pine has a single figure that shows 
the average site index. The figures in parentheses show 
the range in the site index. In the column that shows 
species priority, the various species are listed in order of 
priority; the species listed after the figure 1 have the 
highest priority for that particular group, and those 
listed after the figure 3, the lowest. 

In table 8 competition from other plants, limitations 
to the use of equipment, seedling mortality, and the 
hazard of windthrow are all rated as slight, moderate, 
or severe. Competition from other plants refers to the 
degree of competition from other plants and the rate that 
undesii'able species invade different soils when openings 
are made in the canopy. The rating given to show 
limitations to the use of equipment is based on those 
characteristics of the soils or of topographic featm'es that 
restrict or prohibit the use of equipment commonly used 
in tending a crop of trees or in harvesting the trees. 

Seedling mortality refers to the expected degree of 
mortality of naturally occurring or planted tree seedlings 
as influenced by the kind of soil. The rating for hazard 
of windthrow is determined on the basis of characteristics 
of the soils that control the development of tree roots. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 1 

This group (see table 8) consists of deep, moderately 
well drained and well drained soils that have a sm"face 
layer of fine sand}^ loam, loam, or silt loam. The subsoil 
of these soils is finer textured than the surface layer and is 
moderately permeable. The following soils are in this 
group: 

(MfA) Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
(MfB2) Matapeake fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
(MkA) r^Iatapeake silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
(MkB) Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
( M kB2) Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

(MkC) Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 
(MkC2) Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 



DOUCllKSTEU COUNTY, MARYLAND 

TamM': S. /Cslliiiafrd inood/aiK/ sii ildhil il ;/ (/ronjnfin <ij soils 



35 



Di'sc'ripliou of woodland suiliUjilily 
groui) iiiid iiiiip synibolfi for the Hoils 



Sit(^ index for 
loblolly pine 



Species piiorily 



(Joiiipelilion 
from o( iier 
plants 



LiiniliUioiis to 
tll(! wso of 
equipment 



.Seedling 
mortality 



Hiiziird of 
wiiidtlirovv 



Group 1: Dee]), moderately well 
drained and well drained soils that 
have a surface layer of fine sandy 
loam, loam, or silt loam and a mocl- 
erately permeable subsoil that is 
finer textured than the surface lavor. 
MfA, MfB2, MkA, MkB, MkB2, 
MkC, MkC2, MkD, MpA, MsA, 
MsB,MsB2,SaA,SaB2,ShA,WdA. 

Group 2: Deep, moderately well 
drained and well drained to some- 
what droughty soils that have a sur- 
face layer of sandy loam or loamy 
sand and a moderately permeable 
to rapidly i)erineable subsoil. 

GaA, GaB, GaC, GaD, LaA, LaB, 
LaD, SmA, SmB, SmB2, SmC, 
SmC2, SmC3, SmD, SmF, SnA, 
SnB, SnB2, SnC, SnC2, SnD, SnE, 
SsA, SsB2, StA, StB, StB2, WoA, 
WoB2. 

Group 3: Very poorly drained to 
moderately well drained soils that 
have a surface layer of loamy sand 
to silt loam and a subsoil that has 
moderately slow to rapid perme- 
ability. 

Fa.'KsA, KsB, Oh, Pm, Po, Ps, Pt, 
Ru. 

Group 4: Poorly drained and very 
poorly drained, silty to sandy soils 
of flood plains that are subject to 
occasional flooding. 
Bm, Jo, Mx. 

Group 5: Deep, droughty, and very 
sandy soils. 

GsA, GsB, GsC, GsD, GeF, LcB, 
LcD. 

Group 6: Moderately well drained 
medium-textured soils that have a 
fine-textured, slowly permeable sub- 
soil. 

KeA, KpA, KpB. 

Group 7: Poorly and very poorly 
drained, silty soils that have a fine- 
textured, slowly permeable subsoil. 
Ba, Bb, Ek, Em, Eo. 

Group 8: Poorly drained soils that 
have a silty surface layer and a 
slowly permeable subsoil; subject 
to occasional flooding by salt water. 
En, Et, Ot. 

Group 9: Loose, extremely droughty 
sands. 
Co. 

Group 10: Miscellaneous land types 
not suited to trees and too wet for 
woodland management. 
Ma, Sw, Tm. 



83 (77 to 88). 



83 (78 to 90).. 



86 (80 to 95).. 



85 (80 to 90).. 



74 (67 to 84). 



76 (69 to 80).. 



82 (75 to 89)-- 



66 (59 to 70)-. 



49 (41 to 56). 



2. 



I. 

2. 



3. 



1. 
2 

3! 



Yellow-poplar, 
oak, sweet- 
gum. 

Loblolly pine. 



Loblolly pine-. 
Shortk'af pine. 
Virginia pine. 



Loblolly pine.. 
Oak and 

sweetgum. 
Yellow-poplar. 



Oak and 

sweetgum. 
Yellow-poplar. 
Loblolly pine. 



Loblolly pine-. 
Shortleaf pine. 
Virginia pine. 



Loblolly pine-- 

Sweetgum, 
oak, and yel- 
low-poplar. 



1. Loblolly pine- 

2. Oak and 

sweetgum. 

L Loblolly pine. 



Virginia pine. 
LobloUy pine. 



Moderate to 
severe. 



Slight. 



Slight. 



Slight. 



Moderate. 



Slight. 



Slight. 



Slight. 



Moderate to 
severe. 



Moderate to 
severe. 



Slight. 



Slight to 
moderate. 



Severe . 



Severe . 



Slight. 



SUght to 
moderate. 



Moderate. 



Slight. 



Moderate- 



Moderate 



Slight- 



Severe . 



Severe . 



Slight- 



Slight- 



Severe . 



Slight- 



Slight - 



Moderate. 



Severe . 



Slight. 



Shght. 



^loderate. 



Moderate. 



Moderate. 



Slight. 



641669—6.3 4 



36 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 2 6 



(MkD) Matapeake silt loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
(MpA) Matta])ex fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
(MsA) Muttapcx silt loam, to 2 i)crcent slopes. 
(MsB) Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent sloi)es. 
(MsB2) Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

(SaA) Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
(SaB2) Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

(ShA) Sassafras loam, heavj' substratum, to 2 percent 
slojx's. 

(WdA) Woods town loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

About 26,675 acres, or 7.2 percent of the county, is in 
this woodland suitability group. For the soils of this 
group, the average site index is 83 tor loblolly pine, but 
it ranges front about 77 to 88. 

The soils are well suited to loblolly pine and to hard- 
woods. They are especially well suited to yellow-poplar, 
to oaks that arc good for timber, and to sweetguni. 
Wherever these species of hardwoods grow, they should 
be favored and well managed. The hardwoods will 
replace pines reacUly in areas that have been cleared if no 
pines are left as seed trees and if the pines arc not re- 
planted. Ordinarily, special preparation of the site is 
essential if the pines are to regenerate because the hard- 
woods, shrubs, and other ground cover are aggressive. 

Competition from other i)lants is moderate or severe on 
these soils, ])art icularly in thick stands of hardwoods. In 
most areas limitations to the use of ecjuipment are only 
slight. On the steeper slopes, however, limitations to 
the use of heavy equipment are somewhat more severe 
during wet seasons than they are in other areas. Seed- 
ling mortality is not a problem, nor is the hazard of 
windthrow. There is also no great hazard of erosion. 
Nevertheless, logging roads on soils of this group need 
to be run on the contour where feasible. Practices to 
control erosion are requu'ed on cuts or fills where the soils 
are sloping. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 2 

This group (see table 8) consists of deep, moderately 
well drained or well drained to somewhat droughty 
soils. The soils have a stu'face layer of sandy loam or 
loamy sand and a moderately permeable to rapidl}' 
permeable subsoil. The following soils are in this group. 

(GaA) Galestown loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
(GaB) Galestown loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
(GaC) Galestown loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 
(GaD) Galestown loani}^ sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
(La A) Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 2 per- 
cent slopes. 

(LaB) Lakeland loamy sand, claj'ey substratum, 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes. 

(LaD) Lakeland loamj- sand, clayej' substratum, 5 to 15 per- 
cent slopes. 

(SmA) Sassafras loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 

(SmB) Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

(SmB2) Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

(SmC) Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 

(SmC2) Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

(SmC3) Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

(Sm D) Sassafras loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
(SmF) Sassafras loamy sand, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 
(SnA) Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
(Sn B) Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
(SnB2) Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 
(SnC) Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 



(SnC2) Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

(Sn D) Sassafras sanfly loam, 1 to 1 5 percent slopes. 

(SnE) Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 j)ercent sloix'S. 

(SsA) Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, to 2 p(>r- 
cent slopes. 

(SsB2) Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, 2 to 5 jx-r- 

cent slopes, moderately <!roded. 
(StA) Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, to 2 percent 

slopes. 

(StB) Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 2 to 5 percent 
slop(!S. 

(StB2) Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 

(WoA) Woodstown sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

(WoB2) Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

i TJiis is one of the most extensive of the woodland 
suitability groups. Tlie soils occupy about 58, 765 
acres, or 15.7 percent of the county. 

The average site index for loblolh' pine gi'own on 
these soils is 8.3, but the site index I'anges from about 
78 to 90. The soils are not well suited to hardwoods. 
Lo])l()lly pine is the favored species, although sliortleaf 
and Virginia pines also grow well. If shortleaf and 
Virginia pines are growing on the areas, they should be 
allowed to grow to a usable size, and then they ought 
to be harvested. 

Competition from undesirable plants is moderate 
on tliese soils, but in most places seedling mortality is 
onl\" sliglit. 'J'here are practically no limitations to the 
use of eciuipment and practically no hazard from wind- 
throw or erosion. Clean areas that are newly planted, 
however, are susceptible to some erosion, particularly 
by wind, until the plants have become establislied. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 3 

This group (see table 8) consists of very poorly drained 
to moderately well drained soils that have a surface layer 
of loamy sand to silt loam. The permeability of the sub- 
soil in these soils is moderately slow to rapid. The 
following soils are in this group: 

(Fa) Fallsington sandy loam. 

(KsA) Klej loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 

(KsB) Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

(Oh) Othello silt loam. 

(Pm) Plummer loamy sand. 

(Po) Pocomoke loam. 

(Ps) Pocomoke sandy loam. 

(Pt) Portsmouth silt loam. 

(Ru) Rutlege loamy sand. 

This woodland suitability group is the most extensive 
of any in the county. It occupies about 64,941 acres, 
or 17.5 percent of the count3^ 

For the soils of this group, the average site index is 86 
for loblolly pine, but the site index ranges from about 80 
to 95. Loblolly pine is of first priorit}" on the soils of this 
group. Valuable oaks and sweetgums that are growing 
on the areas should be well managed and then replaced 
by loblolly pine after the matm'e trees have been har- 
vested (fig. 7). Yellow-poplar ought to be encoiu-aged 
only on the better drained sites that have enough slope 
for adequate surface drainage. 

Competition from other plants is moderate on some 
areas of these soils, but it is severe on the wetter areas. 
Limitations to the use of equipment are moderate to 
severe ; they are the most severe on the Othello, Pocomoke, 
Portsmouth, and Rutlege soils during wet periods. Seed- 



DOliCllKSTKH COUNTY, MARYLAND 




Figure 7. Loadinji logs of oak and gum Iroiii a I .OOO-at-ro tract 
on Othello silt loam. This land will now be used for loblolly pine. 



ling mortality is slight on these soils. The hazard of 
windthrow is slight to moderate, and there is a slight 
hazard of erosion on tlie more sloi)ing areas. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 4 

This grouj) (see table 8) consists of silty to sandy soils 
on tlie Hood plains of the county. The soils are poorly 
drained and very poorly drained. Although they ai'e 
flooded one or more times each year, the floodwaters 
seldom remain for long periods; therefore, the standing 
water does not beconae stagnant. The following soils are 
in this group: 

(Bm) Bibb silt loam. 
(Jo) Johnston loam. 
(Mx) Mixed alluvial land. 

The soils of this group occupy only about 3,177 acres, 
or less than 1 percent of the county. Little information 
is available concerning the suitability of the soils for 
woodlands. The average site index for loblolly pine, 
however, is estimated to be about 85, and the range is 
from 80 to 90. 

The soils of this group are well suited to hardwoods. 
Therefore, oaks that are valuable for timber should have 
priority over loblolly pine, and sweetgum should also 
have priority. Yellow-poplar ought to be encouraged on 
hummocks, on natural levees along streams, and in otlier 
areas wliere there is good surface drainage. 

Competition from other plants is severe on these soils. 
Hardwoods tend to eliminate loblolly and other species 
of pine. Limitations to the use of eciuipment are severe 
because of wetness. Seedling mortality is slight on these 
soils. The liazard of windthrow is slight, and there is no 
hazard of erosion, except for some scouring during periods 
when the areas are flootled. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 5 

This group (see table 8) consists of soils that are deep, 
droughty, and very sandy. The following soils are in 
this group : 

(GsA) Galestown sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
(GsB) Galestown sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
(GsC) Galestown sand, .5 to 10 percent slopes. 
(GsD) Galestown sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
(GeF) Galestown sand and loamy sand, 1.5 to 40 percent 
slopes. 

(LcB) Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, to 5 percent 
slopes. 

(LcD) Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 15 percent 
slopes. 



Only about 4,381 acres, or 1.2 peicent of (he county, 
is in this group. Information about IIk; suitability of 
the soils foi- trees is limited. Th(! averag(( sit(' inde.v 
for l()l)lolly pine, however, is estimated to b(! about 74, 
hut tiie site index ranges from about 07 to 84. A more 
accurate estimate of (he in(l(!X needs to b(! obtained for 
soils that are very sandy and that ai'c; underlain at some 
depth by a layer that retains moisture. Examples of 
such soils are the clayey substratum phases of the Lake- 
land sands. 

Lobolly pine should have first priority on these soils. 
Nevertheless, if Virginia or shortleaf pines are growing 
on the soils, they niay be carried to mark(!tal)le size, 
then cut, and the areas converted to loblolly pine. Lob- 
lolly and shortleaf ])iiies are cleaner boled trees than 
\'irginia pine. 

Competition from other plants is less severe on the 
soils of this group than on the other major soils of the 
county. It is rated as slight to moderate. Ijimitations 
to the use of equipment are only slight. Because of 
drought in some seasons, seedling mortality is Jnoderate. 
The hazard of windthrow is slight on t hese soils, and there 
is only a slight hazard of erosion. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP G 

This group (see table 8) consists of moderately well 
drained, medium-textured soils that have a fine-textured 
subsoil. The subsoil is slowly pei'iiieable. The following 
soils are in this group: 

(KeA) Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
(KpA) Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
(KpB) Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

About 6,884 acres of these soils, or L9 percent of the 
county, is in this group. The average site index for 
loblolly pine growing on the soils is about 76, but the 
site index ranges from about 69 to 80. 

Loblolly pine is the favored species on these soils, 
but hardwoods that are valuable for timber, particularly 
yellow-poplar, oak, and sweetgum, ought to be well 
managed until they reach maturity or at least until 
they reach marketable age. Only then should they 
be replaced b}' loblolly pine. 

Competition from other plants is moderate on these 
soils. There are moderate limitations to the use of 
equipment, but seedling mortality is slight. The hazard 
of windthrow is moderate. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 7 

This group (see table 8) consists of poorh* drained 
and very poorly drained, silty soils that have a slowl}- 
permeable, fine-textured subsoil. The Elkton soils of 
the group have a grayish color throughout, but the 
Bayboro soils have a surface layer that is almost black 
and contains a large amount of organic matter. The 
following soils are in this group: 

(Ba) Bayboro silt loam. 

(Bb) Bavboro siltv clay loam. 

(Ek) Elkton loam". 

(Em) Elkton silt loam. 

(Eo) Elkton silty clay loam. 

This woodland suitability group occupies about 45,336 
acres, or 12.2 percent of the count}'. For the soils of the 
group, the average site index for loblolly pine is 82, but 
the site index ranges from about 75 to 89. 



38 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 26 



Loblolly pine is the best species to grow on these 
soils, but any good stand of sweetgum and of oaks tliat 
are valuable for timber ought to be managed projierly 
until the trees are ready to harvest. Then, the hard- 
woods shoidd be replaced by loblolly ])ine. The soils 
of this group are generally not suited to yellow-poplar. 

Competition from other plants is severe on these 
soils, and, because of wetness, there are severe limitations 
to the use of equipment. The soils are often wet througli- 
out much of the year. Seedling mortality is slight. 
The hazard of windthrow is moderate because trees on 
these soils generally have shallow roots. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 8 

This group (see table 8) consists of poorly drained 
soils that have a silty surface layer and a slowly penneable 
subsoil. The soils are in low positions, and nearh' all 
of the areas are adjacent to salt water. They are [loo(krd 
occasionally by salt water. During periods of high 
winds, the vegetation may be affected by salt from 
the spray. The following soils are in this group: 

(En) Elkton silt loam, low. 

(Et) Elkton siltv clav loam, low. 

(Ot) Othello silt loam, low. 

The soils of this group occupy about 46,438 acres, or 
12.5 percent of the county. Probabh% because of the 
efl'ects of the salt, practically no forest vegetation, except 
loblolly pine, grows on the areas. Loblolly pine appears 
to be the only kind of forest tree native to this area that 
will tolerate any amount of salt. Its tolerance is not 
great, however, and loblolly pines in many of the coastal 
areas have been damaged extensively by salt. In scat- 
tered, small areas and in some large areas, the trees appar- 
ently were killed by salt; there remain oidy forests of dead 
tree trunks that arc still standing or have fallen. 

Where a good stand of lobloll}^ ])ine has survived on 
these soils, the growtli of the trees is slow. The avei'age 
site index for loblolly pine is only about 66 on these 
soils, but the site index ranges from about 59 to 70. 
This index is the lowest for any of the soils studied in 
Maryland, except for some areas of Coastal beaches. 

Competition from other plants is sUght on the soils 
of this group. Limitations to the use of equipment 
are severe, especially during wet seasons or after the 
areas are flooded. Seedling mortality is moderate on 
these soils. There is a moderate hazard of wmdthrow 
but no hazard of erosion. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 9 

Only one land type — Coastal beaches (Co) — is in this 
woodland sxutability group (see table 8). The areas con- 
sist of loose, extremely droughty sands that are not suited 
to agricrdture. In most areas there are no forest trees, but 
pines have invaded in some areas. 

This land t^'pe occupies only about 212 acres, or less 
than 0.1 percent of the county. The site index for 
loblolly pine that grows on this land is only about 49, but 
the site index ranges from about 41 to 56. Presmnably, if 
loblolly pine wiU not grow at least this well, it probably 
wiU not invade such areas and survive for as long as 30 
years. 

Planting on this land type should be limited to Virginia 
pine. However, some areas have already been invaded by 
loblolly pine, and there are fauly good stands of that spe- 



cies. Where this has occurj'cd, the loblolly pine ougiit to 
be managed the same as stands of loblolly pine in oilier 
areas. 

( Competition frojii other plants is slight on this land type, 
fiJid limitations to the use of equipment are slight. Seed- 
ling mortality is severe durhig some periods because of the 
cutting ell'ect of windblown sand, full exposure to the hot 
sun and beating rain, and temporary flooding or overwash 
by salt water. In areas that are not protected by a cover 
of plants, there mav l)e some erosion hv wind. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 10 

This group (see table 8) consists of miscellaneous land 
types that are not suited to trees and that are too wet for 
woodland management. The following land types are in 
this group : 

(Ma) Made land. 
(Sw) Swamp. 
(Tm) Tidal marsh. 

These land types have not been i-ated for loblolly pine 
or other specnes of trees. Made hind consists of areas tliat 
have l)een filled artihcially with earth or reworked by man ; 
these areas generally are used for building sites. Swamp 
consists of extremely wet areas that have much vegetation 
that tolerates water, including trees. Some natural tim- 
ber may be produced on areas of Swamp, but the land is 
too wet for woodland jnanagement to be worth while. The 
areas of Tidal marsh are unsuitable for trees. The jnost 
important uses of Swamp and Tidal marsh are as shelters 
for wildlife and as feeding grounds for watei'fowl. 

Wildlife ' 

Dorchester County has abundant wildlife, which is of 
three major kinds: animals and birds that frequent open 
land; those that frequent woodland, and those that fre- 
(juent wetland. The species that fre(|uent marshland, 
especially waterfowl, are the most abundant and are prob- 
ably the most valuable. The open w^aters of the ba3-s, 
rivers, and ponds throughout the county hai'bor thou- 
sands of migrator}' waterfowl, and other waterfowl feed 
in the nearb}^ areas of marshland and swamps (fig. 8). 
There are many shooting blinds, both in the open water 
and in areas of marshland. Some of these are rented or 
leased and are an important source of income to the owner. 

In addition to the waterfowl, fish, oysters, clams, and 
crabs are plentiful in this area. Large commercial yields 
are taken each year, and the waters also provide recreation 
for many sports fishermen. 

The soils of the county need to be managed so that an 
even greater utilization for wildlife will be possible and so 
that the use of the sods for wildlife will fit into other uses, 
such as forestry and agriculture. Developing marsh- 
land for wildlife requires careful water control and careful 
management of plant lil'e. If the soils of a marshland 
are drained, the number of waterfowl may be reduced and 
the aquatic life in nearb}^ estuarine waters may be de- 
stroyed. Therefore, special consideration of wildlife must 
be given in connection with any plans for drainage. In 
addition, clayey areas should not be drained, because a 
certain kind of clay in marshy areas, sometimes called 



Philip F. Allan, biologist, Lloyd E. Garland, soil correlator, 
Soil Conservation Service, and Chester M. Kerns, chief of game 
management, Maryland Game and Inland Fish Committee, helped 
prepare this section. 



DOItCIIIOSTKH COUNTY, MAHVLAND 



39 





Figure 8. — Area of marshland in the Blackwater National Wildlife 
Kefuge. This provides protection for ducks and wild geese. 

cat clay, becomes highly acid when it is exposed. In 
areas where this clay is exposed, the vegetation dies and 
tlie areas become practically worthless for wildlife or for 
any other use. 

Although the marshland of the county is very impor- 
tant, about 275 miles of shoreline along rivers and bays is 
also important to wildlife. These can neither be indicated 
clearly on a map ^ nor measured accurately. The land 
consists of the areas between the highest and the lowest 
level reached by normal tides. The areas of this land are 
generally narrow, but continuous. They are generally 
devoid of vegetation or nearly so, but a few small areas 
have an abundant growth of sago pondweed, claspingleaf 
pondweed, widgeongrass, and pygmy spikerush. 

At low tide these areas of shoreline are important feeding 
grounds for some kinds of waterfowl and other birds, and 
for a number of animals, especially raccoons. Dciid crabs, 
fish, and shellfish are scavenged in the areas, and live ones 
are hunted. Any kind of pollution, including insecticides, 
will damage these feeding grounds. 

One important source of damage to these feeding 
grounds is shore erosion, and a second is the deposition of 
soil material from the uplands on the areas. However, 
material suitable as food for wildlife, washed from areas 
of uplands and marshes, is used extensively as food for 
many kinds of fish. 

In the following pages the soils of the county are rated 
according to their suitability for various elements of wild- 
life habitats and according to tlieir suitability for different 
kinds of wildlife. In addition, the types of marsh plants 
growing in marshy areas are rated accorduig to their suit- 
ability for food and cover for muskrats, raccoons, rails, 
nesting ducks, Wilson's snipes, migratory ducks in general, 
and geese. 

Elements of wildlife habitats. — ^Table 9 shows the suit- 
ability of the soils for elements of wildlife habitats. In 
that table the soils are given a rating of 1, 2, 3, or 4, accord- 
ing to their suitability for the various elements. A rating 
of 1 denotes well suited or above average; 2 denotes suit- 
able or average; 3 denotes poorly suited; and 4 denotes 
not suitable. Ratings are given for the following elements: 

^ Nicholson, W. R., and Van Deusen, R. D. mar.shes of 
MARYLAND. Joint publication of Md. Game and Inland Fish Comm.. 
and Md. Dept. of Res. and Ed., 12 pp., illus. 1952. 



(iniin. The soils arc rated luconling l(j (heir siiil- 
iil)ility for corn, sorghum, miUet, soybeuiis, burk- 
wlieat, cowpeas, wlieiil, l>arlev, onis, iind other 
grains used as food for wihilife. 

Legumes and grasses. The soils are ruled acfoidiiig 
to their suitability for native grasses, legumes, 
except woody legumes, and oilier forage cro])s 
comnionly grown in the area, ("ull ivated legumcis 
and grasses valuable foi- wildlife food and cover 
are sericea lesp(!(le/.a, alfalfa, alsike clovei', larliiio 
clover, red clovei', tall fescue, bromegrass, nud blue- 
grass. Native plants (hat are also valuable in- 
clude switchgrass and other panicgrasses, partridge- 
pea, desmodium (beggarticks), and various native 
lespedezas. 

U])land hai-dwoods. The soils are rated according 
to their suitability for upland hardwoods and 
shrubs that produce vigorous growth and heavy 
crops of fruit or seed and that grow naturally or 
are planted. Trees and shrubs that are valuable 
for waldlifo include sumac, dogwood, persimmon, 
sassafras, hazelnut, shrub lespedezas, multiflora 
rose, autumn-olive, oak, hicdvory, and wild cherry. 

Lowland hardwoods. The soils are rated according 
to their suitability for lowdand hardwoods and 
shrubs that produce vigorous growth and heavy 
crops of fruit or seed and that grow naturally or 
are planted. Lowland trees and shrubs that are 
valuable for wildlife include bayberry, blueberry, 
huckleberry, highbush cranberry, red-osier dog- 
wood, silky dogwood, blackhaw, sweetgum, per- 
simmon, holly, willow oak, pin oak, and swamp 
white oak. 

Upland conifers. The soils are rated according to 
their suitability for coniferous shrubs and trees 
that are native or are planted on upland sites. 
Examples of upland conifers are Virginia pine, 
loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, red pine, and Norway 
spruce. The rating is based on whether young 
trees will make rapid growth and whether they 
will develop dense foliage, not necessarily large 
timber. A soil considered good for growing Christ- 
mas trees rates liigli in these respects. 

Lowland conifers. The soils are rated according to 
their suitability for coniferous shrubs and trees 
that are native or are planted on lowdand sites. 
Examples are Atlantic white-cedar, loblolly pine, 
and pond pine. The rating is based on whether 
young trees will make rapid growth and whether 
they will develop dense foliage, not necessarily 
large timber. 

Wetland plants grown for food and cover. The soils 
are rated according to their suitability for wetland 
plants that provide food and cover for waterfowl 
and furbearing animals. Many of these plants 
are annual or biennial species, rather than per- 
ennials. Examples of wetland plants that are suit- 
able as food for wildlife are smartweed, wDdrice, 
barnyard grass, three-square, bulrush, spUcerush, 
widgeongrass, rice cutgrass, pondweed, duckweed, 
and sedge. Wetland plants used primarily for 
cover are cordgrass, needlerush, arrow-arum, pick- 
erelweed, buttonbush, waterwillow, spatterdock, 
and cattail. 



40 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 26 

Table 9. — Suitability of soils for elements of wildlife habitats 



[A rating of 1 denotes well suited or above average; 2 denotes suitablt? or average; 3 denotes poorly suit(!d or below average; and 4 denotes 

not suitable] 



Soil series and map symbols 



Bayboro: 
Bb_-. 



Bibb: 



Elkton: 

Ek, Em. 
En, Et- 
Eg 



Fallsington: 
Fa 



Galestown; 

GaA, GaB, GaC, GsA, GsB. 
GaD, GsC, GsD, GeF 



Johnston: 
Jo.-. 



Kevport: 

" KeA, KpA, KpB. 

Klej: 

KsA, KsB 



Lakeland: 

LaA, LaB, LaD, LcB. 
LcD 



Matapeake: 

MfA, MfB2, MkA. MkB, MkB2, MkC, 

MkC2 

MkD 



Mattapex: 

MpA, MsA, MsB, MsB2. 

Mixed alluvial land: 

Mx 



Othello: 

Oh 

Ot _ 



Pliunmer: 
Pm 



Pocomoke: 
Po, Ps - 

Portsmouth: 
Pt 



Rutk'ge: 
Ru 



Sassafras: 

SaA, SaB2, ShA, SmA, SmB, SmB2, 
SmC, SmC2, SnA, SnB, SnB2, SnC, 
SnC2, SsA, SsB2, StA, StB, StB2. 

SmC3, SmD, SnD 

SmF, SnE 



Suitabilitv for- 



Grain 


Legumes 
and 
grasses 


TTnl'i 11 H 

u pianu 
hard- 
woods 


ijO wiancj 
liard- 
woods 


conifers 


Lowland 
conifers 


Wetland 
plants 

grown as 
food for 
wildlife 


oiiano w 
impound- 
ments 


Fishponds 


2 


1 


4 


1 


4 


2 


1 


1 


1 


4 


3 


4 


1 


4 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


4 


1 


4 


1 


1 


2 


3 


2 


1 


4 


1 


4 


2 


1 


1 


1 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


1 


1 


4 


4 


3 


4 


1 


4 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


4 


1 


4 


1 


1 


3 


2 


3 


3 


2 


4 


1 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


3 


4 


2 


4 


4 


4 


4 


2 


1 


4 


1 


4 


1 


1 


2 


3 


2 


1 


2 


3 


2 


4 


3 


1 


1 


2 


2 


3 


1 


4 


1 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


2 


4 


1 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


3 


4 


2 


4 


4 


4 


4 


1 


1 


1 


4 


1 


4 


4 


3 


3 


3 


1 


1 


4 


I 


4 


4 


4 


4 


2 


1 


2 


3 


2 


4 


3 


1 


1 


4 


4 


4 


2 


4 


2 


2 


1 


4 


2 


1 


4 


1 

J. 


4 






3 


2 


4 


3 


4 




4 




1 


1 


1 


3 


3 


4 




4 






3 


2 


2 


1 


4 




4 






1 


1 


2 


1 


4 




4 






1 


1 


3 


3 


4 




4 






3 


2 


1 


1 


1 


4 


1 


4 


4 


3 


3 


3 


1 


1 


4 


1 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


1 3 


I 


4 


1 


4 


4 


4 


4 



DORCHESTKU COUNTY, MAUYLANU 

Tahijo D. - ISuitub'dlty of soils Jor elements oj wildlife Aafiitofe— Coiitiini.'d 



11 



Suitability for — 



noil ^^(^IlLh iiiti[> .syiiiuuin 


Grjiin 


Legumes 
and 
grasses 


Upland 
iiai ti- 
woods 


Lowland 
hard- 
woods 


Upland 
conifers 


Lowland 
conifers 


* > 1 1 M 1 

plants 
grown us 
food for 
wildlife 


Shallow 
impound- 
ments 


PLshpoiids 


Swamp: 






















4 


4 


4 


2 


4 


2 


2 


1 


4 


Tidal marsh: 




















Tm 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


1 


1 


4 


Woodstown: 




















WdA, WoA, WoB2 


2 


1 


2 


3 


2 


4 


3 


1 


1 



Shallow impouiulineiits. The soils are rated accord- 
nig to their suitability for the construction of im- 
poundments in whicii the water level can be con- 
trolled. In these impoundments the level of the 
water can be manipulated within the range of the 
normal water table to an average height of 2 feet 
above ground level. 

Fishponds. The soils are rated according to their 
suitability for the construction of ponds of either 
the dug-out or impoundment type; a part of the 
water area of these ponds is at least 6 feet deep. 

Suitability of the soils for dififerent kinds of wildlife. — 

In table 10 the soils are rated according to their suita- 
bility for the different kinds of wildlife in the county. 
The ratings are based on an average of the ratings given 
to elements of habitats in table 9. In table 10, for 
example, the suitability of a given soil for waterfowl in- 
volves consideration of its suitability for such elements of 
the habitat as grain crops or wetland food plants and the 
possibility of providing shallow impoundments. 

Suitability of marsh types of vegetation. — The areas of 
marshland in this county are not suitable for pasture and 
field crops, nor are tliey suitable for trees. They are 
commonly used only for wildlife or for recreation. Differ- 
ences in the range in tidal fluctuations, in the height of the 
water table, and in the degree of salinity or freshness of 
the tidal waters cause wide variations in the areas of 
marshland, particularly in the kind of plant cover. Nev- 
ertheless, five types, or kinds, of plants are dominant. 
These are the cattail type; the transitional marsh type; 
the three-square type; the three-square-cordgrass-needle- 
rush type; and the needlerush-saltmeadow type. In table 
11 these five different types are rated according to their 
suitability for muskrats, raccoons, rails, nesting ducks, 
Wilson's snipe, migratory ducks in general, and geese. 
A list of the plants that are common in marshland is 
given at the end of this section. 

Type I may be called the cattail type, although picker- 
elweed, wildrice, arrow-arum, spatterdock, rice cutgrass, 
American three-square, spikerush, sedge, wildniillet, and 
smartweed also grow in the areas. The plants of this 
type occupy about 4 percent of the acreage of marshland 
and are in areas along the upper reaches of streams. In 
areas where they grow, there is little tidal action and the 
water is nearly fresh or only slightly saline. 



Where plants of type I are dominant, nmskrats are 
numerous and various kinds of rails arc abundant. Food 
of high ciuality makes the areas excellent for migratory 
waterfowl and for waterfowl that spend the winter in 
the area. There is little nesting in these areas, however, 
except along the fringes, where wood ducks sometimes 
build their nests. 

Type II consists of transitional marsh plants that 
occupy approximately 4 percent of the areas of marshland. 
It includes most of the plants that are in ty^e I, but it 
also includes many other species that have a gi-eater 
tolerance for salt than the plants of type I. The prin- 
cipal plants, in addition to those also listed in type I, are 
Olneys three-square, saltmarsh bulrush, big cordgrass, 
smooth cordgrass, and marshhay cordgrass. Muslo'ats 
are generally numerous where plants of type II are domi- 
nant, and Wilson's snipe, locally called jacksnipe, is com- 
monly abundant during migrations in spring and fall. 
There are also several kinds of rails in the areas. Many 
kinds of waterfowl spend the winter where this type is 
dominant, and many black ducks and blue-whiged teals 
nest in the marshes. 

Type III is called the three-square typ':^. In the areas 
where it is extensive, Olneys three-square is dominant, 
but there is some cordgrass, needlerush, saltgrass, and 
saltmarsh bulrush. The plants of this type occupy about 
30 percent of the marshland in the countj^, but they 
grow mainly in marshes along the Blackwater River and 
its tributaries. In these areas differences in tidal fluc- 
tuations are not great, but the areas are low and are 
practically always wet. 

Migratory waterfowl and waterfowl that spend the 
winter are less numerous in areas where type III plants 
are dominant than in areas of marshland where type II 
is dominant. Nestmg black ducks are fau'ly common- 
however, as well as some of the smaller songbirds. Musk, 
rats are generally numerous in the ai-eas. 

Type IV marshland is called the three-square-cordgrass- 
needlerush type. In the areas where it is dominant, 
Olneys three-square, needlerush, marshhay cordgrass, and 
smooth cordgrass grow in about equal proportions, and 
saltmarsh bulrush grows in some places. The plants of 
this type occupy about 29 percent of the marshlands of 
the county. They grow in large, more or less continuous 
areas of marshland, mainly around the head of Fishing 



42 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 2G 



Table 10. — Suitahility oj soils for wildlijc 

[A rating of 1 doiiotes succestsful i)ro(liu'(i()ii with inininuim inanagctiient; 2 rlonotos sviccessful proflucl ion witli aver 
mont; 'A donotos successful iiioduction difTicult or doubtful; and 4 denote^s successful production ini|)raclic; 



age amount of inanage- 
d or not feasible] 



Soil series and map symbols 



Deer 



Rabbit 



Sfjuirrel 



Quail 



Raccoon 



Muskrat 



Waterfowl 



Bayboro : 
' Ba... 
Bb-.- 



Bibb: 

Bm. 



Coastal Beach: 
Co 



Elkton : 

Ek, Em_ 
En, Et.. 
Eo 



Fallsingtoii: 

Fa: 



Galestown : 

GaA, GaB, GaC, GsA, GsB. 
GaD, GsC, GsD, GeF 



Johnston : 

Jo__.. 



Key port: 

KeA, KpA, KpB. 

Klej : 

KsA. KsB 



Lakeland : 

LaA, LaB, LaD, LcB_ 
LcD 



Matapeake : 

MfA, MfB2 

MkA, MkB. MkB2, MkC, MkC2, MkD. 

Mattapex: 

MpA, MsA, MsB, MsB2 

Mixed alluvial land: 

Mx 



Othello: 

Oh_- 
Ot-- 



Plummer : 
Pm... 



Pocomoke : 
Po, Ps. 



Portsmouth: 
Pt 



Rut lege: 
Ru_. 



Sassafras: 

SaA, SaB2, ShA, SmA, SmB, SmB2, SmC, SmC2, 
SnA, SnB, SnB2, SnC, SnC2, SsA, SsB2, StA, 

StB, StB2 

SmC3, SmD, SnD 

SnE, SmF 



Swamp: 
Sw. , 



Tidal marsh: 
Tm 



Woodstown : 

WdA, WoA, WoB2. 



DOUCIIKSTIOR COUNTY, MARYLAND 
T AHT.K 1 1 . SiiifdhiJihj of inarsli iype.s Jor speciefi of vrUdl 'ife 



43 



Species 

Muskrat 

Raccoon 

Rail 

Nesting ducks 

Wilson's snipe 

Migratory ducks in 

general. 
Geese 



Type I 



Excellent food and 

cover. 
Excellent food and 

cover. 
Excellent 

Excellent for wood 
ducks. 

0) 

Excellent 

Good 



Type II 



Excellent food and 

cover. 
Excellent food and 

cover. 
Excellent 

Good 

Excellent 

Excellent 

Good 



Type III 



Excellent food and 

cover. 
Excellent food and 

cover. 
Fair 

Good 

Fair 

Good 

Good 



Type; IV 

Fair food and cover. 
Fair food and cover. 

Excellent for 

nesting. 
Excellent (teal and 

black ducks). 

(') 

Good 

Poor 



Typo V 

Poor food and cover. 
Poor food and cover. 
Poor. 

(J(jod fijlack duck). 
('). 

Good. 
Poor. 



' Not rated. 

Bay and extending eastward to the Nanticoke River. 
The areas where the phmts of this type grow are relatively 
dry and are only occasionally flooded by high tides. 

Muskrats are generally not numerous in areas where 
plants of type IV are dominant; they are more numerous 
in the areas where Olneys three-square is abundant than 
in the other areas. Many rails, black ducks, blue-winged 
teals, and small songbirds build their nests in the areas 
where plants of type IV are dominant, and migratory 
ducks and wintering ducks are common. 

Type V is the needlerush-saltmeadow cordgrass type. 
The areas are fairly high, and are seldom flooded. High- 
tide bush, groundsel bush, and switchgrass are common on 
some of the higher areas. The plants of type V occupy 
about 33 percent of the marshland of the county. The 
areas are widely scattered and are along or near Chesa- 
peake Bay. The largest areas are along the Honga River 
and along the lower reaches of Fishing Bay, but this type 
is also dominant on Bloodsworth Island and on many 
smaller bay islets. 

Wliere plants of type V are dominant, large numbers of 
black clucks and small songbirds build their nests. Mi- 
grating waterfowl and waterfowl that spend the winter 
are less numerous than they are in areas along tidal 
waterways and ponds, muskiats are not abundant, and 
there are few other animals. 

Plants of the Marshlands 

Common name Scientific name 

American three-square Scirpus americanus. 

Arrow-arum Pellranda virginica. 

Big cordgrass Sparlina cynosuroides. 

Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis. 

Cattail Typha latifolia and T. angustifolia. 

Claspingleaf pondweed Potamogcton perfoliatus. 

Duckweed Lemna spp. and Spirodela spp. 

Groundsel bush Baccharis halimifolia. 

High-tide bush Iva frutescens. 

Marshhay cordgrass Sparlina patens. 

Marshrose Rosa paluslris. 

Needlerush J uncus roemerianus. 

Olneys three-square Scirpus olneyi. 

Plckerelweed Pontederia cordata. 

Pygmy spikerush Eleocharis nanus. 

Pondweed Potamogeton spp. 

Sago pondweed Potamogeton peclinatus. 

Saltgrass Distichlis spicata. 

Saltmarsh bulrush Scirpus robust us. 

Sedge Carex spp. 

Smart weed Polygonum spp. 

Smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora, 

Spatterdock Nymphaea. 

641669—63 5 



Common name Scientific name 

Spikerush Eleocharis spp. 

Switchgrass Panicum virgatum. 

Rice cutgrass Loersia oryzoides. 

Waterwillow Justicea americana. 

Wildmillet Echinochloa spp. 

Wildrice Zizania aquatica. 

Engineering Uses of Soils ^ 

This part of the soil survey report is intended to be a 
guide to the properties of the soils and to the influence of 
those properties on problems related to engineering. The 
information was obtained by examining the soils closely 
in the field and by evaluating their characteristics with 
reference to engineering needs. Although extensive test- 
ing was not done in Dorchester County, many interpreta- 
tions could be made by studying analyses of the same 
Idnds of soils elsewhere, particularly in Norfolk Countv, 
Va. 

It is not intended that the mformation in this section 
be used directly for engineering design. The facts and 
estunates given here are at best a guide; engineering design 
should be based on surveys made in the field and on the 
analyses of samples taken at the site of construction. The 
information in this section shows, for example, that the 
subsoil of Bayboro silt loam is not suitable to use for fill 
material that must support a heavy load. It also shows 
that the subsoil of the Sassafras loams is generally suitable 
for earthen dams for small ponds. It does not show, 
however, just how good the subsoil is for earthen dams or 
small ponds in any particular area of Sassafras soils. Tests 
at the site will be required to obtain that mformation. 

This report contains information that can be used by 
engineers to — 

1. Make soil and land use studies that will aid in 
selecting and developing industrial, business, resi- 
dential, and recreational sites. 

2. Assist in designing drainage and irrigation 
structm'es and in planning farm ponds, diver- 
sion terraces, and structures for water and soil 
conservation. 

3. Make preliminary evaluations of soil and ground 
conditions that wiU aid in selecting locations 
for highways, airports, pipelines, and cables and 



^ This section was prepared with the assistance of Kendall P. 
Jaevis, State conservation engineer for the State of Maryland, Soil 
Conservation Service. 



44 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 2 6 



in planniiiji' detailed soil surveys of tli(> selected 
locations. 

4. Locate sand and gravel lor use in structures. 

5. Correlate perloi'mance of en(iineeriii<i' structures 
with types of soil and thus develop inl'orination 
that will be useful in designin<^ and inaiiilaiiiing 
structures. 

6. Determine the suitability of soil units I'or cross- 
country movement of vehicles and construction 
equipment. 

7. Supjilement the information obtained from other 
])ublished maps and reports that can be used 
readily by enoineers. 

8. Develop other i^reliminary estimates for con- 
structioti purposes pertinent to tlie part icular area. 



Engineering descriptions and 
physical properties 

A brief description of tlie soils of this county is given 
in table 12. The table lists the symbol for each soil tiiat 
is shown on the detailed soil map and the name of the 
soil. It also gives the engineering classification of each 
significant horizon in eacli soiF ^. (Jolor and other 
characteristics not important to engineering have been 
onutted, but other general characteristics of the profile, 

' American A.ssociation of Statk Highway Officials, 
standard specifications for highway materials and methods 
OF SAMPLING AND TESTING. Designation: M 145-49, AASIIO, 7th 
ed., 2 pts., illus. Washington, D.C. 19,')5. 

* United States Army, Corps of Engineers, the unified 
SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM. Tc'ch. Meiiio. 3-357, 2 v. 1953. 



Table 12.— Brief 



[Dashes indicate information 



Map 
symbol 


Soil 


Depth to 
season- 
ally 
high 
water 
table 


Brief dcscri[)lion of site and soil 


Ba 


Bayboro silt loam. 


Feet 



Very poorlj- drained soil, high in organic matter, developed in fine 

QAM i men t Q * \'or\' ^vc^^" • miv I^a t ft^T T^rir'i ri I at T'lotinon 
ot- vjiiiit 11 J \ K, I y >> i_ L J iiirtv viKjiiijJKji til ixy |j(jiii.n..u. 


Bb 


Bayboro silty clay loam. 





Same as for Bayboro silt loam, except that the surface layer is finer 
textured. 


Bm 


Bibb silt loam. 


to 1 


Poorly drained soil of the flood plains, developing in general alluvium 
from Coastal Plain sediments; wet; subject to flooding. 


Co 


Coastal beaches. 


(') 


Undifferentiated soils worked by wave action and bv the wind . . _ 


Ek 
Em 
En 


Elkton loam. 
Elkton silt loam. 
Elkton silt loam, low. 


to 1 


Poorly drained soils developed in moderately fine textured to fine 
textured sediments; wet; may be temporarily ponded; sandy below 
a depth of 60 inches; at times Elkton silt loam, low, is flooded by 
high tides; neutral below a depth of 40 inches. 


Eo 
Et 


Elkton silty clay loam. 
Elkton silty clay loam, low. 


to 1 


Same as for the Elkton loam and Elkton silt loams, except that the 
surface layer is finer textured. 


Fa 


Fallsington sandy loam. 


to 1 


Poorly drained soil that has a moderately fine textured subsoil; 
developed in coarse-textured sediments; wet; may be temporarily 
ponded. 


GaA 
GaB 
GaC 
GaD 


Galestown loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
Galestown loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Galestown loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 
Galestown loamj^ sand, 10 to 15 percent 
slopes. 


5 + 


Somewhat excessively drained to excessively drained, deep, very 
sandj- soils developed in coarse-textured .sediments; windworked 
in places. 


GsA 
GsB 
GsC 
GsD 
GeF 


Galestown sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
Galestown sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Galestown sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 
Galestown sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
Galestown sand and loamy sand, 15 to 40 
percent slopes. 


5 + 


Excessively drained, extremely sandy soils developed in coarse- 
textured sediments; windworked in places. 


Jo 


Johnston loam. 





Very poorly drained soils of flood plains, developing in general allu- 
vium from Coastal Plain sediments; very wet; subject to flooding. 


KeA 
KpA 
KpB 


Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 


2 


Moderately well drained, medium-textured soils developed in moder- 
ately fine textured to fine textured sediments; moderately wet. 


KsA 
KsB 


Klej loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 




Moderately well drained, very sandy soils developed in coarse-textured 
sediments; moderatelj' wet. 


LaA 


Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 
to 2 percent slopes. 


5 + 


Somewhat excessively drained, deep, very sandy soils developed in 
coarse-textured sediments; windworked in places. 



See footnotes at end of table. 



DOHCII ESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND 



45 



the kind of paroiit ina(orial or other suhstradiiii, (lraiiiafj;(^ 
cliaraclcrisi ICS, dcpdi to the wntor table, where this is 
known and siiiiiilicant , and liie presence of <ira\el or 
santl have all l)een described. 

Unless otherwise indicated, the descrijitions ol' physical 
properties apply to the soils that ai'C only slightly eroded, 
but in some places the degree of erosion, the content of 
gravel, and other items are indicated. 

The thickness of the soil horizons varies si)mewhat 
from place to place. The thickness and other properties 
described in the table arc properties that actually exist 
in a specific profile of the soil descril)ed. In a soil that 
is severely eroded, little, if any, of the original surface 
soil remains, and in such sevei'ely eroded soils, the under- 



lying liori/.ons are clos(!r to tin; surface than is indicalod 
in the table. 

The rate indicated for j)ernieability of the soil is based 
on the rate that water moves through the soil matei'ial in 
areas that have not been disturbed. ]t depends largely 
uj)on the texture and structure; of the soil. 

The shriidc-swell potential is an indication of the vol- 
ume change to be expected with a change in the content 
of moisture. It is estimated primarily on the basis of 
the amount and type of clay present. In general, soils 
classified as ( 'II and A-7 liavea high slu iidi-swell potential. 

Clean sands and gravels (single grain) and those that 
have a small amount of nonplastic to slightly plastic fines, 
as well as most other nonplastic to slightly plastic soil 
material, have a low shrink-swell potential. 



description of soils 

not applicable or not available] 



Depth 
from 
surface 



l^agineering classification 



Percentage passing- 



Selected characteristics significant in engineering 



Unified 



AASHO 



No. 4 sieve 



No. 10 sieve 



No. 200 

sieve 



Range in 
permeabiUty 



Reaction 



Shrink-swell 
potential 



Inches 
to IS 
18 to 60 

to IS 
18 to 60 

to 26 
26 to 48 

to 60 

to 6 
6 to 40 
40 to 54 



to 6 
6 to 40 
40 to 54 

to 9 
9 to 25 
25 to 48 

to 40 
40 to 60 
60 to 70-1- 



to 60 
60 to 70 -f 



to 1 1 
11 to 23 
23 to 48 

Oto 7 
7 to 42 
42 to 48 

to 16 
16 to 42 

Oto 35 
35 to 53 



ML or OL 

CL or CH 

CL or OL 

CL or CH 

ML 

SC or CL 

SP, SP-SM... 

ML 

CL or CH 

SC or CL 

CL 

CL or CH 

SC or CL 

SM 

SC 

SM or SP 

SM 

SP, SP-SM. 
SM or SC 

SP, SP-SM 
SM or SC 



ML or OL. 

SM 

SM or SP. 



ML 

CL or CH. 

SC 



SM A-2 

SM or SP A-2 or A-3. 



A-4 or A-5 
A-6 or A-7 

A-6 or A-7 
A-6 or A-7 

A-4 

A-4 or A-6 

A-3 

A-4 

A-6 or A-7 
A-6 

A-6 

A-6 or A-7 
A-6 

A-2 or A-4 
A-2, A-4.. 
A-2 or A-3. 

A-2 .- 

A-3 

A-2 or A-4. 

A-3 

A-2 or A-4. 



A-4, A-5.-. 
A-2 or A-4. 
A-2 or A-3. 



A-4 

A-6 or .\-7. 
A-6 



SIM 

SP, SP-SM. 



A-2. 
A-3_ 



Percent 
100 
100 

100 
100 

100 

90 to 100 
90 to 100 
100 

95 to 100 
95 to 100 



100 

95 to 100 
95 to 100 

100 

95 to 100 
95 to 100 

100 

95 to 100 
95 to 100 



95 to 100 
95 to 100 



100 

95 to 100 
95 to 100 

100 
95 to 100 
95 to 100 

100 

95 to 100 

100 
95 to 100 



Percent 

100 
100 

100 
100 

100 

80 to 100 

60 to 90 

95 to 100 
90 to 100 
90 to 100 



95 to 100 
90 to 100 
90 to 100 

95 to 100 
90 to 100 
90 to 100 

95 to 100 
95 to 100 
95 to 100 



95 to 100 
95 to 100 



95 to 100 
90 to 100 
90 to 100 

95 to 100 
95 to 100 
90 to 100 

95 to 100 
90 to 100 

95 to 100 
95 to 100 



Percent 
75 to 95 
80 to 100 

80 to 100 
80 to 100 

50 to 70 
40 to 80 

to 10 

50 to 80 
60 to 90 
40 to 60 



60 to 80 
60 to 90 
40 to 60 

15 to 40 
25 to 50 
5 to 15 

10 to 20 
to 10 
25 to 40 



to 10 
25 to 40 



50 to 60 
25 to 40 
5 to 15 

50 to SO 
70 to 90 
25 to 50 

10 to 20 
5 to 15 

10 to 20 
to 10 



Inches per hour 
<0. 20 
<0. 20 

<0. 20 
<0. 20 

<0. 20 
<0. 20 

>6. 3 

<0. 20 
<0. 20 
<0. 20 



<0. 20 
<0. 20 
<0. 20 

0. 63 to 2. 
0. 20 to 0. 63 
2. to 6. 3 

>6. 3 
>6. 3 
0. 63 to 2. 



>6. 3 
0. 63 to 2. 



<0. 20 
20 to 0. 63 
63 to 2. 



0. 20 to 0. 63 
<0. 20 
<0. 20 

>6. 3 
>6. 3 

>6. 3 
>6. 3 



pli 
4. 5 to 6. 
4. to 5. 5 

4. 5 to 6. 
4. to 5. 5 

4. 5 to 5. 5 
4. 5 to 5. 



4. to 5. 
4. to 5. 
4. 5 to 5. 5 



4. to 5. 
4. to 5. 
4. 5 to 5. 5 

4. 5 to 5. 
4. to 5. 
4. to 5. 

4. 5 to 5. 5 
4. 5 to 5. 
4. to 4. 5 



5 to 5. 5 
to 4. 5 



4. to 4. 5 
4. to 4. 5 

4. to 4. 5 

5. 6 to 6. 5 

4. 5 to 5. 5 

5. 1 to 5. 5 

5. 1 to 5. 5 
5. 1 to 5. 5 

4. 5 to 5. 5 
4. 5 to 5. 



Moderate. 
High. 

Moderate to high. 
High. 

Low. 

Moderate. 

Low. 

Low. 

Moderate to high. 
Moderate. 



Moderate. 
Moderate_to high. 
Moderate. 

Low. 

Moderate to low. 
Low. 

Low. 
Low. 

Low to moderate. 



Low. 

Low to moderate. 



Low to moderate. 

Low. 

Low. 



Low. 

^Moderate 
^Moderate. 

Low. 
Low. 

Low. 
Low. 



to high. 



46 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 19 59, NO. 2 6 



Table 12. — BrieJ description 



Map 
symbol 


Soil 


Depth to 
season- 
ally 
high 
water 
table 


Brief description of site and soil 


LaB 
LaD 


Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 

2 to 5 i)ercent slopes. 
Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 

5 to 15 percent slopes. 


Feet 




LcB 
LcD 


Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, to 5 

percent slopes. 
Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 15 

percent slopes. 


5 + 


Excessively drained, extremely sandy soils developed in coarse- 
textured sediments; windworked in places. 


MfA 

MfB2 

MkA 
MkB 
MkB2 

MkC 
MkC2 

IVI K L/ 


Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

Matapeake fine .sandy loam, 2 to 5 jx'rcent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Matapeake silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 
Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately erod(>d. 


5 + 


Well-drained, deep soils developed in a mantle of silt over sandy Coast- 
al Plain sediments. 


MpA 
MsA 

N/l c R 
IVI S D 

MsB2 


]\Littai)ex fine sandy loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

Mattapex silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

1\ Tn f 'i t"»fi V will" Ir^'lTH fr» ^ t^t^rfori'l" Qlr'^T^o>«; 

Matta[)ex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 


1 to 2 


Moderately well drained soils developed in a mantle of silt over sandy 
Coastal Plain .sediments; moderately wet. 


Mx 


Mixed alluvial land. 


to 1 


Extremely variable soils of flood plains; mostly poorly drained, wet, 
and subject to flooding. 


Oh 
Ot 


Othello silt loam. 
Othello silt loam, low. 


to 1 


Poorly drained soils developed in a mantk? of silt over sandv Coastal 
Plain sediments; wet; may be temporarily ponded; in places 
Othello silt loam, low, is flooded l)y tides; neutral below a depth 
of about 40 inches. 


Pm 


Plummer loamy sand. 


to 1 


Poorly drained, very sandy soil developed in coarse-textured sedi- 
ments; wet; may be temporarily' ponded. 


Po 
Ps 


Pocomoke loam. 
Pocomoke sandy loam. 





Very poorly drained soils that have a moderately fine textured sub- 
soil; developed in coarse-textured sediments; very wet; may be 
temporarily ponded. 


Pt 


Portsmouth silt loam. 





Very poorly drained soil developed in a mantle of silt over sandy 
Coastal Plain sediments; very wet; may be temporarily ponded. 


Ru 


Rutlege loamy sand. 





Very poorly drained, very sandy soil developed in coarse-textured 
sediments; very wet; may be temporarily ponded. 


SaA 


Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes 


6+ 


Well-drained soils that have a moderately fine textured subsoil; 
developed in sandy Coastal Plain .sediments. 


SaB2 

SnA 
SnB 
SnB2 

SnC 
SnC2 

SnD 
SnE 


Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, mod- 

erateh' eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. _ 
Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes . 
Sassafras sandy loam, .5 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 


ShA 
SsA 
SsB2 


Sassafras loam, heavy substratum, to 2 per- 
cent slopes. 

Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, 
to 2 percent slopes. 

Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, 2 to 
5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 


6 + 


Well-drained soils that have a moderately fine textured subsoil; 
developed in sandy Coastal Plain sediments; the substratum is at 
a depth of 60 inches and consists of massive, clayey sands and 
sand-clay mixtures; in places there are thin lenses of sand in the 
substratum. 



See footnotes at end of table. 



oj soils — Coiitiiuicd 



DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND 



47 



Dopth 
from 
surfiicc 



Engineering classification 



Percentage passing — 



Selected characteristics significant in engineering 



Inches 
53 to 60 



to 53 
53 to 60 



to 24 
24 to 37 
37 to 48 



to 12 
12 to 42 
42 to 48 



to 8 
8 to 25 
25 to 32 
32 to 40 

to 16 
16 to 48 

Oto 11 
11 to 28 
28 to 54 

to 8 

8 to 22 
22 to 36 

to 18 
18 to 42 

to 11 
1 1 to 32 
32 to 48 



Uiiifird 



to 11 
1 1 to 32 
32 to 60 



SC. 



SP, SP-SM. 

sc 



SM or ML. 

CL 

SM 



SM or ML... 

CL 

SM 



SM, ML, CL_ 



ML 

CL 

SC 

SP-SM 

SM 

SP-SM 

SM to 0L.._ 

SC 

SP-SM 

ML or 0L_. 

CL 

SM 

SM 

SP, SP-SM_. 

SM or ML.. 

SC 

SM 



SM or ML... 

SC 

SC 



AASHO 



No. 4 sieve 



A-2, A-4 or 
A-6. 



A-3 

A-2, A-4 or 
A-6. 



A-4 

A-6 

A-2 or A-4- 



A-4 

A-6 

A-2 or A-4- 



A-2, A-4, 
A-6 

A-4 

A-6 

A-2 or A-4 
A-2 

A-2 

A-2 or A-3 

A-2 or A-4 
A-2, A-4.. 
A-3 to A-2 

A-4 or A-5 

A-6 

A-2 or A-4 

A-2 

A-3 

A-2 or A-4 
A-2 or A-4 
A-2 



A-2 or A-4. 
A-2 or A-4. 
A-2 or A-4. 



I'ercrnt 

'J5 to 100 



95 to 100 
U5 to 100 



100 
100 
100 



100 
100 
100 



100 

95 to 100 
95 to 100 
95 to 100 

100 
95 to 100 

100 

95 to 100 

95 to 100 

100 

95 to 100 
95 to 100 

100 

95 to 100 

95 to 100 
95 to 100 
95 to 100 



95 to 100 
95 to 100 
95 to 100 



No. 10 sieve 



Percent 

95 to 100 



95 to 100 
95 to 100 



95 to 100 
90 to 100 
90 to 100 



95 to 100 
90 to 100 
90 to 100 



(^) 



95 to 100 
95 to 100 
90 to 100 
90 to 100 

95 to 100 
90 to 100 

95 to 100 
90 to 100 
90 to 100 

95 to 100 
95 to 100 
90 to 100 

95 to 100 
90 to 100 

95 to 100 
90 to 100 
90 to 100 



95 to 100 
90 to 100 
90 to 100 



No. 200 

sieve 



Percent 
25 to 50 



to 10 
25 to 50 



45 to 70 
60 to 80 
20 to 40 



45 to 70 
60 to 80 
20 to 40 



50 to 80 
60 to 80 
20 to 40 
5 to 15 

10 to 20 
5 to 15 

15 to 40 
25 to 50 
5 to 15 

50 to 80 
60 to 80 
15 to 40 

10 to 20 
to 10 

20 to 50 
30 to 50 
10 to 20 



20 to 50 
30 to 50 
30 to 50 



R fin go in 
permeability 



Inches per hour 
0. 63 to 2. 



>6. 3 
0. 63 to 2. 



0. 63 to 2. 
0. 20 to 0. 63 
0. 63 to 2. 



Reaction 



0. 63 to 2. 

<0. 20 
0. 63 to 2. 



0. 20 to 0. 63 
<0. 20 
<0. 20 

0. 63 to 2. 

>6. 3 
>6. 3 

2. to 6. 3 
0. 20 to 0. 63 
>6. 3 



0. 



20 to 0. 63 
<0. 20 
63 to 2. 

>6. 3 

>6. 3 



2. to 6. 3 
0. 20 to 0. 63 
2. to 6. 3 



2. to 6. 3 
0. 20 to 0. 63 
0. 20 to 0. 63 



pll 
4. to 5. 



4. 5 to 5. 
1. to 5. 



5. 1 to 6. 

6. 1 to 6. 5 
5. 5 to 6. 5 



6. 1 to 6. 5 
5. 1 to 6. 
4. 5 to 5. 



Sh rink-swell 
potential 



Lrjw 1o moderate. 



Low. 

T>ow to moderate. 



Low. 

Moderate. 
Low. 



I>ow. 

Moderate. 
Low. 



4. 


5 to 


5. 


5 


Low. 


4. 


to 


4. 


5 


Moderate. 


4. 


to 


4. 


5 


Low to moderate. 


4. 


to 


4. 


5 


Low. 


4. 


to 


5. 





Low. 


4. 


to 


4. 


5 


Low. 


4. 


5 to 


5. 


5 


Low. 


4. 


5 to 


5. 


5 


Low to moderate. 


5. 


1 to 


5. 


5 


Low. 


4. 


5 to 


5. 





Low to moderate. 


4. 


5 to 


5. 





Moderate. 


4. 


5 to 


5. 





Low. 


4. 


to 


5. 





Low. 


4. 


to 


4. 


5 


Low. 


5. 


1 to 


6. 





Low. 


5. 


1 to 


6. 





Low to Moderate. 


5. 


1 to 


5. 


5 


Low. 



5. 


1 to 


6. 





Low. 


5. 


1 to 


6. 





Low to moderate. 


4. 


5 to 


5. 


5 


.Low- to moderate. 



48 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 195 9, NO. 2 6 



Table 12. — Brief description 



M:ip 
symbol 


Soil 


Depth to 
season- 
ally 
high 
water 
ftihle 


Brief description of site and soil 


StA 
StB 
StB2 


Sassafras sandy loam, thick soluni, to 2 
percent slopes. 

Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes. 

Sassafras sandy loam, t hick solum, 2 to 5 per- 
cent sloj)es, moderately eroded. 


Feet 
6 + 


Same as for heavy substratum phases of the Sassafras soils, except 
that the substratum is at a depth of 42 inches and consists of silty 
sands and sand-silt mixtures. 


SmA 
SmB 
SmB2 

SmC 
SmC2 

SmC3 

om L) 
SmF 


Sassafras loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Sassafras loamy sand, .') to 10 percent slopes. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

Sassafras loamy sand, .'") to 10 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 


6 + 


Well-drained to somewhat excessi\ely drained, deep, sandy soils that 
have a thin, modc^rately fine textured subsoil; developed in coarse- 
textured sediments; windworked in places. 


Sw 


Swamp. 





Variable, extremely wet, unclassified soil material; ponded for most, 
or sometimes all, of the year; wooded. 


Tm 


Tidal marsh. 





Variable, unclassified soil material; brackish to saline; flooded by 
high tides. 


WdA 
WoA 
WoB2 


Woodstown loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Woodstown sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 


1 to 2 


Moderately well drained soils that have a moderately fine textured 
subsoil; developed in sandy Coastal Plain sediments; moderately 
wet. 



' The water table in Coastal beaches fluctuates with the tides and is brackish to saline. 



Soil interpretations for engineering 

Table 13 gives specific clmract eristics of eacli soil 
that will affect its suitability for different kinds of engi- 
neering work. These interpretations are based on 
information given in table 12, on various test data, 
and on the experience of engineers in the field. A soil 
may be suitable for one engineering purpose, but it may 
be poor or even unsuitable for some other use. For 
example, the soils of the Woodstown series are considered 
fau* as a soiU"ce of material for road fill and good as a 
source of topsoil. They are not suitable, however, for 
use as fields for septic tanks. The soils of the Galestown 
series, on the other hand, though poor as a source of 
material for road fill and only fair as a soiu'ce of topsoil, 
are good fields for septic taidvs. 

Too, a subsoil of fine silty clay, such as that in the 
soils of the Portsmouth series, generally indicates that 
the soil is suitable as a site for a pond or reservoir, but 
poor for an end)ankment or dam. The fine texture of 
the subsoil greatly increases the difficulty of providing 
adecjuate drainage for such soils, and it limits the 
suitability of the soils for u'rigation. The piu'pose of 
table 13 is to indicate either good or undeshable features 
that niay require special consideration when a structure 
is planned and is designed and constructed. 

The suitability of the soil material for wet-weather 
or wmter gradmg depends largely on the texture of the 



soil material, its natiu'al content of water, and the height 
of the water table. Very plastic, clayey soils that have 
a high water table, and highly organic soils are given 
a rating of "Not suitable." Some silty soils and moder- 
ately plastic clays that have a high water table are given a 
rating of "Poor" because they are difficult to work and 
to handle, dry, and compact. These soils, if frozen, 
should not be used in the compacted road section. 

The rating of a soil as to its susceptibility to frost 
action depends on the texture of the soil material and 
on the depth to the water table during a freezing period. 
Silts and fine sands that have a high water table are 
given a rating of "High." 

The suitability of the soil material for road fill depends 
largely on the texture of the soil material and on its 
natural content of water. Wet, plastic soils and organic 
soils are given a rating of "Not suitable." Wet, mod- 
erately plastic soils are given a rating of"Poor" because 
they are difficidt to handle, dry, and compact. The 
higlily erodible soils, such as those composed primarily 
of fine sands or silts, are given a rating of "Poor to fair" 
because they require a flatter slope, close moisture control 
dm"ing compaction, and fast-growing vegetation on the 
side slopes to protect them from erosion. 

The interpretations in table 13 are general, but they 
will point out what the engineer can expect to find in any 
area of a soil that is shown on the detailed soil map. How- 



DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND 49 



oj ,soiLs — Continued 





Engineering classification 


Percentage passing — 


Selected characteristics significant in engineering 


I )cpth 


















from 


















surfiicc 










No. 200 


Range in 




Sliriiii{-s\v(;ll 




I Tiiifiiul 
U IIHU (I 




O. T &1C V C 


^Jr* 1 cif»\ro 


sieve 


I^Cl llly tXiJlllLy 




pot(;ntiiil 


Indies 






Percent 


Percod 


Percent 


Inches per hour 


JlII 




to 1 1 


SM or ML 


A-2 or A-4... 


95 to 100 


95 to too 


20 to 50 


2. to 6. 3 


5. 1 to (). 


Low. 


1 1 to 42 


SC 


A-2 or A-4 


95 to 100 


90 to 100 


30 to 50 


0. 20 to 0. 63 


5. 1 to 6. 


I^w t(; modf!ratc. 


42 to 60 


SM 


A-2 


95 to 100 


90 to 100 


10 to 20 


2. to 6. 3 


5. 1 to 5. 5 


Low. 


to 17 


SM 


A-2 


95 to 100 


95 to too 


10 to 20 


>6.3 


4. 5 to 5. 5 


Low. 


17 to 28 




A-2 or A-4-.- 


95 to 100 


90 to too 


20 to 40 


0. 20 to 0. 63 


4. 5 to 5. 


Low to moderate. 


28 to 36 


SM or SP 


A-2 or A-3--- 


95 to 100 


90 to too 


5 to 20 


>6. 3 


4. 5 to 5. 


Low. 








{') 




{') 
























SM to CL 


A-2 to A-6.._ 


{') 




(') 






Low to high. 


to 9 


SM 


A-2 or A-4.__ 


95 to 100 


95 to 100 


20 to 50 


2. to 6. 3 


5. 6 to 6. 


Low. 


<) to 30 


SC 


A-2 or A-4.-- 


95 to 100 


90 to 100 


30 to 50 


0. 20 to 0. 63 


5. 1 to 5. 5 


Low to moderate. 


30 to 48 


SM 


A-2 


90 to too 


85 to 100 


10 to 25 


2. to 6. 3 


4. 5 to 5. 5 


Low. 



- Variable. 



facts in the section are based on the best information 
available concerning the soils, supplies of water, climate, 
crops, and farming conditions in the county. This section 
can be used as a general reference, but it will not be a 
substitute for an investigation at the site. 

If conservation irrigation is practiced, it should be a 
part of a complete farm program of soil and water conser- 
vation. Irrigation is expensive and should be used only 
on soils that are highly productive and that can be made 
more productive if the crops have adequate water. Such 
soils need to be fertilized liberally and to have adequate 
lime added. They also need to have a good rotation or 
other cropping system used that includes crops to help con- 
trol erosion, minimize leaching, maintain good soil tilth, 
and furnish a supply of organic matter. Only the soils 
considered suitable for regular cultivation are included in 
the irrigation groups. 

To be suitable for irrigation, tlie soils must have good 
drainage. Although some moderately well drained soUs 
are included in the irrigation groups, the}' ought to be 
artificially drained if they are irrigated. Soils that are 
poorlv drained or somewhat poorh* drained are not 
included. 

Irrigating a large area requires a large amount of water. 
The supply of water needs to be adequate to maintain the 
optimum moisture in the soil diu'ing a prolonged diy 
period. A common mistake is to attempt to u-rigate when 



ever, the interpretations do not give exact soil properties 
and evaluations of the soil at the precise point where the 
engineering project is planned. 

Soil groups for irrigation 

Rainfall in Dorchester County is generally adequate for 
agricidture, but it is not always well distributed during the 
growing season. There are frequently extended dr}' 
periods between June and September. As a result, many 
crops and pastures are damaged. If an adequate irriga- 
tion system and a good supply of water were readily 
available during such periods, yields would not be drastic- 
ally reduced during periods of drought. 

In this section the better agricultural soils of the county 
are grouped according to their suitability for conservation 
irrigation. By conservation irrigation is meant that the 
right amount of irrigation water is applied to maintain high 
yields, without wasting water and without damaging the 
soils. The type of irrigation referred to is sprinkler irriga- 
tion. 

This section is not intended as a guide for the design of 
a sprinkler irrigation sj'stem, for engmeers have alread}^ 
compiled sucli a guide for the State of Mar^iand.^ The 



' United States Department of Agriculture. Maryland 
GUIDE FOR SPRINKLER IRRIGATION DESIGN. (Ill Cooperation with 
the Md. Agr. Ext. Serv. and Md. Agr. Expt. Sta.) 17 pp. 1955. 
lUnpublished.] 



50 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 195 9, NO. 2 6 



Table 13. — Soil characteristics 
[Dashes indicate information not 



Soil series and map symbols 



Suitability for 
grading during 
the winter or 
when the soil 
is wet 



Susceptibility 
to frost action 



Suitability as 
sites for septic 
tanks ' 



Suitability as source of- 



Road fill 



Topsoil ■ 



Sand 3 



Bayboro (Ba, Bb). 



Bibb (Bm). 



Not suitable - 



Not suitable. 



High. 



High_ 



Not suitable - 



Not suitable. 



Not suitable. 



Poor. 



Fair. 



Fair. 



Not suitable. 



Not suitable. _ , 



Coastal beaches (Co) 

Elkton (Ek, Em, En, Eo, Et) . 



Fallsington (Fa). 



Not suitable. . 



Poor. 



High. 



High. 



Galestown (GaA, GaB, GaC, GaD, 
GeF, GsA, GsB, GsC, GsD), 



Johnston (Jo) . 



Keyport (KeA, KpA, KpB). 



Klej (KsA, KsB). 



Lakeland (LaA, LaB, LaD, LcB, 
LcD). 



Matapeake (MfA, MfB2, MkA, 
MkB, MkB2, MkC,tMkC2, 
MkD). 



Mattapex (MpA,MsA,MsB,MsB2) 



See footnotes at end of table. 



Fair to good. 



Not suitable . . 



Not suitable. 



Fair to good. 



Fair to good 
above a 
depth of 
4H to 5 
feet; poor 
below. 

Poor above a 
depth of 3 
feet; fair 
below. 



Poor 



Low 



High. 



High. 



Moderate. 



Low. 



Moderate. 



High. 



Not suitable. . 



Not suitable - 



Not suitable. 



Fair. 



Poor 



Good. 



Good. 



Not suitable. 



Not suitable. . 



Not suitable. 



Good. 



Poor to fair 

above a depth 
of 5 feet; 
erodii)le; fair 
below. 

Poor to fair 



Poor. 



Fair. 



Not suitable. _- 



Poor; over- 
burden and 
high v\ ater 
table; sandy 
substratum. 

Good 



Fair. 



Fair. 



Good. 



Poor to fair 
erodible. 



Poor to fair 
above a depth 
of 5 feet; 
erodible; poor 
below. 



Fair. 



Fair. 



Poor; over- 
burden; high 
w ater table; 
sandy sub- 
stratum. 

Not suitable 



Fair. 



Fair above a 
depth of 
4^2 to 5 
feet; unsuit- 
able below. 



Good. 



Good. 



Not suitable. 



Poor. 



Fair 



Poor; over- 
burden ; 
sandy sub- 
stratum ; 
excess fines. 

Poor; high 
water table; 
overburden; 
sandy sub- 
stratum ; 
excess fines. 



DOHCIIESTEU COUNTY, MARYLAND 



51 



that (ijhvt ( iKjincerliuj 
available or not applicable] 



Desired location of 


Suitability for 


Factors that affect engineering practic<;s for- 




Suitable tvjje 
of farm jjonrl 


road gradeline 


sprinkler 
irrigation 


Reservoir areas 


Isnibankrneiits 


1 )rainage 
systems 


Water ways * 


A niiniimirn of 5 foot 
th(! ground. 


Not suitable _ _ 


Very slowly 
pcirmeable. 


Very poor 
stability. 


Very slowly 
permeable. 


Highly erodible.. 


Excavated. 


A niininunn of 3 feet 


i'oor _ 


Rlowlv 


Poor stability 


Slowly perme- 
able. 


Highly (;ro(liblc.. 


Excavated and 
impounded. 


abovt; tlu; level 
reached by high water. 




l)ermeable. 


A miiiirnuni of -4 feet 
above the level 
r(^a('h(^d b\' the water 
table. 


Verv poor 


Very slowly 
permeable. 


Poor stability 


Very slow ly 
permeable. 


Highly erodible. . 


Excavated or 
impounded. 


A niininiuni of 4 feet 
above the level 
reached bv the water 
table. 


r an 


Permeable sub- 
stratum. 


Sandy sub- 
stratum. 


Pormeabli! sub- 
stratum. 


Erodible 


Excavated or 
impounded.* 


Anywhere, if surface 
drainage is provided. 


Good. _ - _ 


Rapidly 
permeable. 


Loose and 


Not needed 


Erodible _ . 






permeable. 








A minimum of 3 feet 


Poor 


Permeable 


Sandy sub- 
stratum. 


Permeable 


Erodible. 


Impounded. 


above the level 
reached by high water. 




substratum. 


substratum. 




A minimum of 4 feet 


Fair 


Very slow ly 
permeable. 


Poor stability 


Very slowly 
permeable. 


Highly erodible. 


Excavated or 
impounded. 


above the level 
reached by the water 
table. 




A minimum of 4 feet 


Fair 


Permeable sub- 


Sandy sub- 
stratum. 


Permeable sub- 


Erodible 


Impounded.' 


above the level 
reached by the water 
table. 




stratum. 


stratum. 




Anywhere, if surface 


Good 


Rapidly perme- 
able. 


Loose and 


Not needed 


Erodible. 




drainage is provided. 




permeable. 








Anywhere, if surface 
drainage is provided. 


Good 


Permeable sub- 


Sandy sub- 
stratum. 


Not needed 


Erodible 


Impounded. 




stratum. 




A minimum of 4 feet 


Fair 


Permeable sub- 


Sandy sub- 
stratum. 


Permeable sub- 


Erodible. . 


Impounded. 


above the level 
reached by the water 
table. 




stratum. 


stratum. 





52 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 195 9, NO. 26 



'I'aule 13. — Soil c/taracleristics 
[Dashes indicate iiiforinut ion not 



Soil series and map symbols 



Suitability for 
grading during 
the winter or 
when the soil 
is wet 



Suscei)tibility 
to frost action 



Suitability as 
sites for septic 
tanks 1 



Suitability as source of — 



Road fill 



Topsoil ^ 



Sand 



Mixed alluvial land'(Mx). 



Othello (Oh, Ot). 



I'luininer (Pm) . 



Pocomoke (Po.Ps)-. 



Portsmouth (Pt). 



Rutlege (Ru). 



Sassafras (SaA, SaB2, ShA, SmA, 
SmB, SmB2, SmC, SmC2, 
SmC3, SmD, SmF, SnA. SnB, 
SnB2, SnC, SnC2, SnD, SnE, 
SsA. SsB2, StA, StB, StB2). 

Swamp(Sw) 



Tidal marsh (Tm). 



Woodstown (WdA,WoA,WoB2). 



\'ariable. 



Not suitable. 



Poor to fair 



Not suitable 
to poor. 



Not suitable - 



Poor. 



Fair to good - - 



Not suitable - 



Not suitable. 



Poor to fair__. 



High. 



High. 



Moderate. 



Not suitable 
to j)oor. 



High. 



High. 



Moderate. 



High, 



High- 



Not suitable. 



Not suitable 



Not suitable 



Not suitable. 



Not suitable. 



Not suitable. 



Oood. 



Not suitable. . 



Not suitable. - 



Not suitable. _ 



Variable 



Poor. 



Poor. 



Poor to not 
suitable 
above a 
depth of 2 
feet; fair below 
that depth. 

Poor to not 
suitable 
above a 
depth of 2 
feet; fair 
below that 
depth. 

Poor to fair; 
erodible. 



Very good. 



Not suitable - 



Not suitable 



Fair. 



Poor. 



Poor. 



Poor. 



Fair 



Fair. 



Fair. 



Good . 



Not suitable. 



Good. 



Variabh 



Poor; over- 
burden ; 
sandy sub- 
stratum ; liigh 
water table. 

Poor to fair; 
erodible. 



Poor; over- 
burden ; 
sandy sub- 
stratum; high 
water table. 



Poor; over- 
burden; 
sandy sub- 
stratum; high 
water table. 



Fair. 



Poor; over- 
burden; 
sandy sub- 
stratum.'' 



Not suitable. 



Not suitable. 



Poor; over- 
burden; 
sandy sub- 
stratum; high 
water table. 



' Rating given only for field disposal of effluent from septic tanks on slopes of less than 5 percent. 
- Rating for suitability of soil material as a source of topsoil is for surface layer, Ai or Ap horizons only. 
^ Some soils, suitable as a source of sand, also have suitable gravel in the substratum. 
* Rating is for the surface layer only. 

' Suitable for farm ponds, provided the level of the water in the pond does not have to be kept higher than the natural water table of 
the soil. 



DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND 



53 



that (ijlcd cnijviceruuj — Coiitiiiuod 
available or not applicable] 



Desired location of 
road gradeline 



Suitability for 
si)rinkl(!r 
irrigation 



Factors that aflfect engineering practices for- 



Kcscrvoir areas 



l']nil)aiikinrnl.s 



Drainage 
systems 



Water ways ' 



Suitable tyjx^ 
of farm pnud 



A minimum of 3 foot 
above the level 
rt^ached by high 
water. 

A minimum of 4 feet 
above the level 
reached bv the water 
table. 



A minimum of 4 feet 
above the level 
reached bv the water 
table. 

A minimum of 4 feet 
above the level 
reached by the water 
table. 



A minimum of 4 feet 
above the level 
reached by the water 
table. 



A minimum of 4 feet 
above the level 
reached by the water 
table. 

Anywhere, if surface 
drainage is provided. 



A minimum of 3 feet 
above the level 
reached by high 
water. 

A minimum of 2 feet 
above the level 
reached by high 
tides.'* 

A minimum of 4 feet 
above the level of the 
water table. 



Not suitable 



Poor. 



Poor. 



Fair . 



Fair_ 



Poor to fair. 



Good. 



Not suitable. 



Not suitable. 



Fair to good. . 



Variable. 



Variable. 



Permeable sub- 
stratum. 



Rapidly 
permeable. 



Permeable sub- 
stratum. 



Permeable sub- 
stratum. 



Rapidly 
permeable. 



Permeable sub- 
stratum.' 



Sandy sub- 
stratum. 



Loose and 
permeai^le. 



Sandy sub- 
stratum. 



Sand}' sub- 
stratum. 



Loose and 
permeable. 



Sandy sub- 
stratum.' 



Permeable sub- 
stratum. 



Very poor 
stability. 



Sandy sub- 
stratum. 



Vari;: 



Permeable sub- 
stratum. 



Permeable sul)- 
stratum. 



Permeable sub- 
stratum. 



Permeable sub- 
stratum. 



Permeable sub- 
stratum. 



Not needed. 



Impractical. 



Impractical. 



Permeable sub- 
stratiun. 



Eroflil)le 



Highly erodible. 



Erodible. 



Erodible. 



Erodible. 



Erodible. 



Erodible. 



Erodible. 



Impounded.' 



Impounded.' 



Excavated.' 



Excavated or 
impounded.* 



Excavated or 
impounded. 



Excavated.* 



Impounded. 



Impounded. 



^ Mixed alluvial land is suitable for farm ponds if investigation of the site indicates that the substratum is not higlily permeable. 
' Does not apply to the heavy substratum phases of the Sassafras soils; these soils are unsuitable as a source of sand, but they have 
a substratum that is more suitable for reservoir areas and for embankment materials than that of the other Sassafras soils. 

* Road embankments in areas of Tidal marsh may need protection from the erosion caused by wave action or extremeh* high tides. 



54 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 2 6 



an adcqviiite supply of wiilcr is iiol availahlo. An ordinary 
I'aiiii pond, for exani])l(\ will sup[)ly enough water lor a 
veiy small lionie g-ardeti, but it will not supply enough 
water to irrigate a larger area. 

Water Tor irrigation can be obtained from a well, a 
stream, or a reservoir. A permit to drill an irrigation well 
or to construct a pond or reservoir must be obtained from 
the State Department of Geology, Mines, and Water Re- 
sources, Johns Hopkins l^niversity, Baltimore, Md. 
This depai'tment also supplies information about whether 
there is a good sup])ly of ground water in a specific area. 
A good practice is to have a test well di'illed to determine 
if an adequate supply of water is available. 

Only streams that have a continuous flow during 
extended periods of drought and that have not been con- 
taminated ])y salt water are suitable as a source of water 
suj^ply for iri'igat ion. The stream (low should be measured 
and tlie water tested during a period of di'ought to deter- 
mine if enough water of suitable (piality will be available 
for irrigating during dry periods. The storage capacity 
of a surface reservoir must h? large enough to meet 
the needs of a crop during the irrigation season and to 
make up for losses caused by seepage and evaporation. 
Generally, space to store to 1 acre-foot of water is needed 
during the irrigation season for each acre to be irrigated. A 
smaller reservoir, large enough to store water for one appli- 
cation, can be used if it can ])e refilled between irrigations. 

The quality of the water nmst be determined. If 
the suitability of the water is (piestionable, samjiles can 
be sent to the State SoU Testing Laboratory, Agronomy 
Department, Universit}^ of Alaryland, College Park, 
Md. There it can be analyzed for acidity, salt content, 
and other characteristics that may harm a crop. Rmioff 
water may carry certain plant diseases that can infect 
plants of susceptible crops if the water is impounded 
in reservoirs and used for irrigation. The red stele 
disease of strawberries, for example, can be transmitted 
in this way. llunofl' water from areas where strawberri(>s 
have been grown should not be used to irrigate other 
fields of strawberries. 

Laws and regulations govern the use of water from 
streams and wells. The landowner who plans to use 
water for irrigation from a channelized stream should ob- 
tain information regarding his rights and obligations from 
a qualified source before investing in irrigation equipment. 

To be successful, u-rigation must meet the needs of 
both crops and soils. Dift'erent crops need dift'erent 
amounts of water applied at dift'erent intervals. Some 
soils hold much water and others hold little; some soils 
absorb water readily, and others absorb it more slowly. 

In table 14 a description of each irrigation group is 
given, and the names of the soils in the group are listed. 
Tomatoes, Irish potatoes, and a few other truck crops 
are listed separately in the table, but other truck crops 
are shown simply in truck-crop groups 1, 2, or 3. The 
following crops are included in each truck crop group: 

Truck group 1 Truck group 2 Truck group 3 

1 'ery shallow rooted crops Shallow rooted crops Moderatehj deep rooted crops 

Lettuce. Beets. Asparagus. 

Onions. Broccoli. Eggplant. 

Spinach. Cabbage. Lima beans. 

Strawberries. Cauliflo\Yer. Melons. 

Celery. Peppers. 

Cucumbers. Pumpkins. 

Peas. Squash. 

Snap beans. 



The grass mixtures listed in table 14 may consist of 
several kinds of grasses commoidy us(>d for ])asture or 
hay grown with or without legumes. The word 
"Orchards" refers to those orchards in which ap])les, 
peaches, pears, cherries, plums, prunes, oj- pecans are 
grown. "Orchards with cover" indicates that a dose- 
growing crop covers the soils between the fruit trees. 
"Orcliards without cover" indicates that the soils between 
the trees is bai-e or lu^arly bare. 

Group 1. — In this group are the sandiest agricultujal 
soils hi the county. The soils can be irrigated at a fairly 
rapid rate because water infiltrates rapidly. They will 
retain less moisture, however, than the other soils used 
for agriculture. Irrigation water should be appUed fairly 
frequently and in relatively small amounts. Tlu^ soils of 
this group are less suitable for agriculture than those in 
iriigation groups 'A and 4, but they are used extensively 
to grow truck croj)s and other annual (•i()j)s of high value 
per acre. 

Group 2. — The soils of irrigation group 2 are also less 
suitable for agriculture than the soils of groups 3 and 4. 
They are used extensively, however, to grow truck crops 
and other crops of high value per acre. These soils have 
a thick, sandy surface layer similar to that of the soils of 
group 1. Their subsoil is thhi to moderately thick, but 
it is finer textured than the surface layer. As a result, 
these soils have a slightly greater moist ui-e-liolding capac- 
ity below a depth of about IS niches than the soils of group 
1 ; for most crops, irrigation water should be applied more 
slowly than on the soils of group 1. 

Group 3. — The soils of irrigation group 3 are much less 
sandy than the soils of groups 1 and 2, and they have a 
liigher moisture-holding capacity. Tlu; surface layer of 
these soils is sandy loam. The subsoil, in most places, 
is a light sandy clay loam. The subsoil is moderately 
])ermeable and has a rather high available moisture- 
holding capacity. In most places these soils are under- 
lain by somewhat sandy material below a depth of about 
30 inches, but in a few places they are underlain b}' a 
heavier, clayey material. The lev^el or nearly level soils 
can be irrigated at a moderate rate, ranging from six- 
tenths of an inch per horn- in clean-cultivated areas to 
about 1 inch per hour where the surface is protected by a 
cover of plants. These soils are among the best of the 
agricultural soils that are suitable for irrigation. 

Group 4- — Like the soils of group 3, the soils of group 4 
are much less sand_\" than the soils of groups 1 and 2, and 
the}' have a higher inoisture-holdmg capacity. The soils 
have a somewhat finer textured surface layer and subsoil 
than the soils of group 3. In most places the surface 
layer or plow layer is loam or sUt loam, but in a few places 
it is fhie sandy loam. In some places the subsoil is 
slightly finer textured than typical and has a higher 
moisture-holding capacit}". In such areas water needs to 
be applied at a slower rate than in other areas, but in 
most places it can be applied at a moderate rate (fig. 9). 
The soils of this group are among the best sods for agri- 
culture of any in the count}'. Because of their high 
moisture-holdmg capacity, they store fairly large amounts 
of irrigation water; they need irrigation less frequently 
during dry periods than most soils of the countv. 

Group 5. — Iri'igation group 5 consists of soils that are 
shallow over heavy clay, silty clay, or sandy clay. The 
subsoil is very slowly permeable, even though the soils are 
moderately well drained. Water needs to be applied 



DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND 



'rAi!i,io 14. Irrigation hoU groups, .suitable crops, and certain VMter relatiomhips 

[(l('n('r:ill\ , iiiily iiii idcr.i ( cly well (Irainod (o somcwliat excessively (Irained soils that are siiitefl to ret?iilar eull iN aHon are suilaljlf; for 

irrifialion, hiil I here are soiik? exce()tioii>| 



Irrigation groups and soils 



i';s(i- 

inatcid 
tnaxinumi 
rate of 
applica- 
tion on 
level and 
nearly 
level 
soils ' 



Suitable crops 



Esti- 
mated 
average 
depth to 
which soil 
is to be 
irrigated 



Group 1. Moderately well drained to excessively drained sands 
and loamy sands that extend to a depth of 'M\ or more inclies: 
Galestown loamy sand, to 2 percent slojies. 
Galcstown loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Galestown loamy sand, 5 to 10 jiercent slopes. 
Galestown sand, to '2 percent slopes. 
Galestown sand, 2 to 5 percent slojjcs. 
Klej loamy sand, to 2 jjerctnit slopes.^ 
Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.' 

Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

Lakeland loamj- sand, clayey substratum, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes. 

Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 15 percent 
slopes. 

Lakeland sand, clayey substratvun, to 5 percent slopes. 

Group 2. Well-drained to somewhat excessively drained loamy 
sands; the subsoil is at a depth of about 18 inches and is finer 
textured than the surface layer; it is 8 to 12 inches thick and 
overlies sand: 



Sassafras loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 
Sassafras loaray sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 



Group 3. Moderately well drained and well drained sandy loams; 
the subsoil is sandy clay loam; it extends from a depth of about 
10 inches to 30 inches or more: 

Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, to 2 percent slopes. 

Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 

Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, to 2 percent slopes. 

Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 2 to 5 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

Woodstown sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes.^ 

Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 



///. i>er hr. 

1. 

L 

1. 

1. 

1. 

1. 

1. 

1. 

1. 

1. 

1. 

1. 



. 9 
. 9 
. 9 
. 9 
. 9 

1. 
. 9 
. 9 
. 9 

1. 
. 9 

1. 



. 6 
. 6 
. 6 
. 6 
. 6 

1. 
. G 
. 6 
. 6 

1. 
. 6 

1. 



Truck group 1 

Truck group 2 

Truck group 3 

Corn 

Sweet corn 

Alfalfa 

Irish potatoes 

Sweetpotatoes 

Tomatoes 

Orchard with cover 

Orchard without cover 
Grass mixture 



Truck group 1 _ 

Truck group 2 

Truck group 3 

Corn 

Sweet corn 

Alfalfa 

Irish potatoes 

Sweetpotatoes 

Tomatoes 

Orchard with cover 

Orchard without cover 
Grass mixture 



Truck group 1 

Truck group 2 

Truck group 3 

Corn 

Sweet corn 

Alfalfa 

Irish potatoes 

Sweetpotatoes 

Tomatoes 

Orchard with cover 

Orchard without cover 

Grass mixture 



In. 



18 
24 
30 
27 
24 
36 
24 
24 
27 
36 
36 
24 



18 
18 
18 
27 
24 
27 
18 
18 
27 
27 
27 
24 



12 
15 
18 
24 
18 
27 
18 
18 
24 
27 
27 
18 



See footnotes at end of table. 



56 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 195 9, NO. 26 



Table 14. — Irrigation soil groujjs, suitable crops, and certain water relationships — Continued 





Esti- 










mated 




Esti- 


Esti- 




maximum 




mated 


mated 


Irrigation groups and soils 


rate of 


Suitable crops 


average 


average 


applica- 


depth to 


available 




tion on 




which soil 


moisture- 




level and 




is to be 


holding 




nearly 




irrigated 


capacity ^ 




level 






soils ' 








Group 4. Moderately well drained and well drained fine sandy 










loams, loams, and silt loams; the subsoil is sand.v clay loam or 










silty clay loam; it extends from a depth of about 10 inches to 30 










inches or more: 










Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 










Matapeake fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 










eroded. 










Matapeake silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 


In. per hr. 




la. 


In. 


Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 


0. 4 


Truck group 1. _ 


12 


2. 


Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 i)ercent slopes, moderately 


. 4 


Truck group 2_ _ _ _ 


15 


2. 5 


eroded. 


. 4 


Truck group 3 


18 


3. 


Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 y)ercent slopes. 


. 4 


Corn..- 


24 


4. 


Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderateh' 


. 4 


Sweet corn . 


18 


3. 


eroded. 


. 7 


Alfalfa 


27 


4. 5 


AIattape.\ fine saudy loam, to 2 percent slopes. ' 


. 4 


Irish potatoes 


18 


3. 


Mattapex silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. ' 


. 4 


Sweet po tatoes 


18 


3. 


Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 jjercent slopes. ' 


. 4 


Tomatoes 


24 


A. 


Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. ' 


. 7 


Orchard with cover 


27 


4. 5 


Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes. 


. 4 


Orchard without cover 


27 


4. 5 


Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 


. 7 


Grass mixture 


18 


3. 


Sassafras loam, heavy substratum, to 2 percent slopes. 










Woodstown loam, to 2 percent slopes.' 










Group 5. Moderately well drained loams and silt loams; a slowly 










permeable subsoil of clay, silty clay, or sandy clay is at a depth 










of about 10 inches: 












( ■ 3 


Truck group 1 _ 


12 


2. 




. 3 


Truck group 2 . . . . 


15 


2. 5 


Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes.' 


. 3 


Truck group 3. 


18 


3. 


Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes.' 


. 3 


Corn . 


18 


3. 


Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes.' 


. 3 


Sweet corn 


18 


3. 




. 3 


Irish potatoes.. . 


18 


3. 




. 3 


Tomatoes 


18 


3. 




I . 5 


Grass mixture.- 


18 


3. 



' The rates given in this column apply only to applications on 
level or nearly level soils. They must be adjusted to fit different 
conditions at the site, such as differences in slope, in degree of 
erosion, and in the structure of the soil. They nuist also be 
adjusted for different crops and as the result of differences in the 
history of the soils to be irrigated. 

2 The figures for available moisture-holding capacity are esti- 
mated and are intended to be averages for all the soils of the group. 

rather slowly. Attempts to irrigate the soils below a 
depth of about 18 inches, or possibh' less, are generally 
not successful. These soils are not well suited to fruit 
trees, alfalfa, and other deep-rooted crops, and those crops 
are not included in the list of crops suggested as suitable 
for irrigation. Irrigating these soils may not be justified, 
e.xcept for special crops that will yield a high economic 
return for the amount invested. 

Soil groups for drainage 

In this section the soils of the county have been grouped 
according to similarity in their drainage recjuirements. 
All of the soils of a particidar group have similar character- 
istics and about the same kind of drainage problems. 
Each group differs from the others in one or more wa3's, 
but mainly in the kind and intensity of the drainage 
practices required. Table 15 lists the soils in each of the 



However, two soils of the same group will vary in moisture-holding 
capacity to some extent, because of differences in structure, in 
degree of slope, and in the amount of erosion. 

^ The soils of the Keyport, Klej, Mattapex, and Woodstown 
series are only moderately well drained. Before the soils will be 
suitable for irrigation, they will need artificial drainage for most 
crops, except possibly grass mixtures, to remove the excess surface 
water during wet seasons. 

17 drainage groups, describes the major factors that affect 
drainage, and indicates the best kind of drainage system 
to use, according to the range of slope. Information for 
this table was taken from the "Drainage Guide for Mary- 
land.'"" 

Table 15 is not intended as a technical guide for 
solving all the drainage problems of the county. It shows 
the farmer and the drainage engineer the kind of drainage 
problems that can be expected for any specific soil showm 
on the map. It also shows the kind of practices that are 
needed to improve drainage and the mtensity wath which 
the practices must be apphed. The details of a specific 
drauaage SA'stem, especially the spacing and depth of the 



1" United States Department of Agriculture, drainage 
GUIDE FOR MARYLAND. (In cooperation with the Md. Agr. Expt. 
Sta.) 1960. [Mimeographed.] 



DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND 



57 




Figure 9. — Sprinkler irrigation on a field of Matapeake silt loam, 
to 2 percent slopes, that is planted to spinach. 



drains, will liave to be worked out on the site for a par- 
ticular field, farm, or area. 

Some areas can be drained by open ditches, with diver- 
sions for sloping areas. For other areas, open field drains 
or V-type ditches may be suitable and bedding ma}' be 
desirable, especially between V-type ditches. Still other 
areas can be drained by using a random system of tiling, 
that is, the tile are laid in the natural water courses and 
e.xtra branch lines are laid in wet areas as needed. In 
other areas, where the soils are uniformly too wet for 
cultivation, a complete system of tile drainage is needed 
and tlie tile are laid m a definite pattern throughout the 
wet area. Involved, of course, in choosing the kind of 
drainage system to use is the cost. For some soils, the 
cost of installing a drainage system is too great to be 
justified. For a drainage system to be worth while, the 
retin-ns per acre must be high enough to pay all of the cost 
of producing the crop, including the cost of the drainage 
system. 

In areas where ditches are to be used for drainage, the 
kind of soil, its depth, and the characteristics of the imder- 
lying soil material must all be considered. Fairly shallow 
soils tliat arc underlain by loose sand, such as those of the 
Fallsuigton and Pocomoke series, are not well suited to 
ditches, because a stable ditchbank is difficult to maintain. 
Water soon loosens the sand and causes it to clog the 
ditches. In the Elkton and in other deep, coherent soils, 
on the other hand, the ditches clog less readily and are 
generally less expensive and easier to maintain. 

In cultivated areas a network of small lateral ditches 
can be used to remove the excess water. From the lateral 
ditches, the water flows into a larger ditch and, finally, 
into a natural drainageway. The nundjer of lateral 
ditches needed depends on the cliaracteristics of the soils. 
It is determined by the degree of wetness, by the texture 
of the soils, by the kind of crop to be grown, and, espe- 
cially, by the permeabilit}- of the surface layer and subsoil. 
The Woodstown soils, for example, require only a few 
widely spaced lateral ditches. The Elkton soils, which 
have characteristics different from those of the Woodstown 
soils, require laterals that are spaced much more closely. 



.Many faiiiiei's "land" tlie soils by using a pUnv or other 
tool to build a low ridge midway between lb(t lateral 
dilclies. The sides of tlie ridge sloi)e, gradually toward 
(he adjacent ditcii. This is especially effeclive in areas 
of \ cry wet soils, such as those of I he Pocomoke, Kullcgc, 
Bayhoio, Bibb, Kallsinglon, Johnston, Othello, J'orfs- 
m'uith, and Elkton series. 

In areas wliere tile drainage is used, the chiiiacteristifs 
of the soil and the gradient of the slo])e lai'gely detenu ino 
I he spacing of the tile. In the fine tc^xtured or moderately 
fine textured, slowly permeable soils, such as those of the 
IClkton series, the tile lines must be laid closr-r logr'tlier 
than in yiorous, sandy soils, such as the Klej and Kutlege. 

Soil groups for sewage disposal 

Dorchester County is essentially rural. Adequate 
systems for disposing of sewage have been installed in 
the towns. In the stricth^ rural areas, however, or in 
small communities that are beyond the existing lines 
used for the disposal of sewage, it is necessar}^ to use 
septic tanks. 

A septic tank installed in dry wcalhei- may function 
properly until rainfall is lieav}". Most failures occur 
where systems have been installed in poorly drained 
soils — soils liaving a dense, compact, or fine-textured 
subsoil. In wet weather and for long periods afterward, 
such soils are saturated so that the water table is near 
the surface; therefore, there is no space for outflow from 
the septic tank, and the movement of sewage effluent is 
very slow. 

Other faiku'es occur where the slopes are too steep 
to be suitable for fields for septic tanks, wliere soils 
are subject to seasonal flooding, or where soils are shallow 
over a dense substratum. These characteristics are 
readily apparent, and for this reason, failures resulting 
from such characteristics are fewer than those resulting 
from a high water table or from a slowly permeable 
subsoil. 

The general suitability of the soils as fields for septic 
tanks is indicated in column 4 of table 13 in the section 
"Soil Interpretations for Engineering." The ratings 
are given only for soils that have slopes of less than 5 
percent. The soils for which ratings are given are ar- 
ranged alphabeticalh^; hence, the ratings are not grouped 
or classified according to the suitability of the soils as 
fi 'Ids for septic tanks. 

Various agencies in Maryland have cooperated to 
determine the characteristics of the soils that should 
be considered before a septic tank is installed. They 
have arranged the soils in eight groups on a statewide 
basis according to the suitability of the soils as fields 
for septic tanks. The factors that limit and those that 
favor the functioning of a septic tank have been indicated 
in the description of each group. No soils of gi-oups 4, 
5, and 6 are mapped in the county. 

By using this grouping, along with the detailed soU 
map, it is possible to locate areas where septic tanks 
can be expected to function satisfactorily. An intensive 
examination of the site, however, should be made before 
a septic tank is installed. 

Group 1. — The soils in this group are suitable to use 
as fields for septic taidvs. They are deep and well drained. 
The slope is no greater than 5 percent, and all of the 
soils are underlain by pervious, unconsolidated deposits. 



58 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 19 59, NO. 26 

Table 15. — Drainage soil groups and suggested kinds and spacings of drainage systems for different land uses 



Soil group and included soils 



Major problems 



Sloj)e 
range 




Kcinarks 



Drainage group 2-A: Moderately well 
drained soils that have a moderately 
fine textured subsoil and a sandy sub- 
stratum. 

(MpA) Mattape.x fine sandy loam, 
to 2 percent slopes. 

(MsA) Mattapex silt loam, to 2 
percent slopes. 

(MsB) Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 
percent slopes. 

(MsB2) Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 
percent sloj)es, moder- 
ately eroded. 

(WdA) Woodstown loam, to 2 
percent sIojm's. 

Drainage grouj) 2-B: Moderately well 
drained soils that have a moderately 
fine textured subsoil and a sandy sub- 
stratum. 

(WoA) Woodstown sandy loam, 
to 2 percent slopes. 

(WoB2) Woodstown sandy loam, 2 
to 5 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

Drainage group 4: Moderately well 
drained soils that have a subsoil of 
loamy sand or sand. 

(KsA) Klej loamy sand, to 2 per- 
cent slopes. 
(KsB) Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes. 

Drainage group 6-2 A: Moderately well 
drained soils that have a subsoil and 
substratum of clay. 

( KeA) Keyport loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

( KpA) Keyport silt loam, to 2 per- 
cent slopes. 

( Kp B) Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes. 



Drainage group 7-B: Poorly drained 
soil that has a subsoil of sandy c\ay 
loam and a sandy substratum. 
(Fa) Fallsington sandy loam. 

Drainage group 8-2 A: Poorh' drained, 
moderately fine textured soil that has a 
heavy-textured, very slowly permeable 
subsoil. 

(Eo) Elkton silty clay loam. 

Drainage group 8-1 A: Poorly drained, 
medium-textured soil that has a sub.soil 
of silty clay loam over sand. 
(Oh) Othello silt loam. 

Drainage group 8-2B: Poorly drained, 
medium-textured soils that have a 
heavy-textured, verj^ slowly permeable 
subsoil. 

(Ek) Elkton loam. 

(Em) Elkton silt loam. 

Drainage group 9-1 : Poorly drained 
soil that has a subsoil of loamy sand or 
sand. 

(Pm) Plummer loamy sand. 



Brief seasonal higli 
water table and im- 
peded drainage in the 
lower part of t he 
subsoil. 



Brief seasonal high wa- 
ter table and imped(>d 
drainage in the lower 
[KU t of the sui)Soil. 



Areas in depressions that 
have a seasonal high 
water table for long 
periods. 



Impeded subsoil drain- 
age and a high water 
table for long periods. 



Brief to long periods of 
high water table. 



Long periods of high 
water table. 



Long periods of high 
water table. 



Long periods of high 
water table. 



Areas in depressions that 
have long periods of 
high to very high 
water table. 



Percent 
to 2 



2 to .5 



to 2 
2 to 5 

to 2 
2 to 5 

to 2 
2 to 5 



to 2 



to 2 



to 2 



to 2 



to 2 



Tile in a random sys- 
tem; tile in a pat- 
terned system; open 
ditches. 

Tile in a random sys- 
tem; tile in a pat- 
terned system; diver- 
sions. 



Tile in a random sys- 
tem; tile in a pat- 
terned system; open 
ditches. 

Tile in a random sys- 
tem; tile in a pat- 
terned system; diver- 
sions. 



Tile in a random sys- 
tem; interceptor 
ditches. 

Tile in a random sys- 
tem; diversions. 



Field ditch system; ran- 
dom ditches. 



Diversions. 



Tile in a patterned sys- 
tem; field ditches. 



Field ditches. 



Field ditches- 



Field ditches 



Tile in a patterned sys- 
tem; field ditches. 



Land smoothing may be 
necessary. 



Reduce spacing between di- 
versions and add water- 
ways where necessary for 
control of erosion on slop- 
ing areas; use diversions 
for interceptors where 
needed. 



Land smoothing 
necessary. 



may be 



Boundary drainage may be 
practical on soils of this 
group. 



Interceptor tile may be used 
with diversions; spacing 
varies with strip width 
and may be reduced where 
necessary for control of 
erosion. 



Land smoothing may be 
necessary. 

For truck crops and general 
rotations, stripcropping, 
using graded rows and 
sodded waterways, may 
be supplemented bj' a 
system of terraces on 
sloping areas where ero- 
sion is a problem. 

Tile may be used to intercept 
seepage from adjacent 
higher areas. 

Use graded rows for crops. 

Land smoothing may be 
necessary. 



Use graded rows for crops; 
land smoothing may be 
necessary. 

Use graded rows for crops; 
land smoothing may be 
necessary. 



Some areas subject to over- 
flow; possible overdrainage 
during dry seasons. 



DOHCIIKSTIOH COUNTY, MARYLAND 59 



Tahle -D/d iiKKje xoil (jroup.s and ,su<j(j< sf( d kind.s and upaciny.s uj drainafjc, .systems Jor dijfe/ fml land uses Coiiliiiucd 



Soil K''oui) and included soils 


Major i)rol)lems 


Slope 
range 


K'ind of drain 


Remarks 


Drainage group O-IJA: Very jioorly 
drained, niediimi-textured soil that has 
a subsoil of sandy clay loam and a 
sandy substratum. 

(Po) Pocomoko loam. 


Jjong to very long 

jieriods of high to very 
high water (able. 


Percent 
to 2 


Tile in a random sys- 
t(!m; field drains. 


Bedding may bo needed be- 
tween open drains. 


Drainage group n-;5B: Very poorly 
drained soil that has a subsoil of sandy 
clay loam and a sandy substratum. 
(Ps) Pocomoke sandy loam. 


Long to very long 

p(!riods of high to very 
high water table. 


to 2 


Field drains 


liedding may be needed be- 
tween open drains. 


Drainage group 9-4 A: Very poorly 
drained, medium-textured soil that has 
a subsoil of silty clay loam and a sandy 
substratum. 

(Pt) Portsmouth silt loam. 


Long to very long 

])eriods of high to very 
high water talkie. 


to 2 


V-type ditches; field 
drains; bedding. 


Bedding advisable for row 
crops. 


Drainage grovip 9-5B: Very })oorly 
drained soil that has a subsoil of loanu- 
sand or sand. 

(Ru) Rutlege loamy sand. 


Long to very long 

periods of high to very 
high water table. 


to 2 


V-type ditches; field 
drains; bedding. 


Bedding advisable on high- 
row plantings between 
open drains. 


Drainage group 9-6A: Very poorly 
drained, moderately fine textured soil 
that has a clay subsoil. 

(Bb) Bayboro silty clay loam. 


Long to very long 

periods of high to very- 
high water table. 


to 2 


V-type ditches; field 
drains. 




Drainage group 9-6B: Very poorly 
drained, medium-textured soil that has 
a clay subsoil. 

(Ba) Bayboro silt loam. 


Long to very long 

periods of high to very 
high water table. 


to 2 


V-type ditches; field 
drains 


Bedding advisable on high- 
row rilaniinp's between 
drains. 


Drainage group 10: Poorly drained, 
niedi\un-t e\t ured to moderately fine tex- 
tured soils that have a heavy, very 

Diu w i y |jt I iiie*-i uie ouuooii. 

(En) Elkton silt loam, low. 

(Et) Elkton silty clay loam, low. 

(Ot) Othello silt loam, low. 


Long to very long 

periods of high to very 
high water table, and 
occasional tidal over- 
flow. 


to 2 


V-type ditches; field 
drains. 


Dikes against high tides are 
indicated where techni- 
cally and economically 
feasible . 


Drainage group 11-A: Poorly drained 
and very poorly drained, medium- 
textured soils of flood ])lains. 

(Bm) Bibb silt loam. 

(Jo) Johnston loam. 


Flooding, seepage from 
uplands, and long 
to very long periods of 
high to very high 
water table. 


to 2 


V-type ditches; field 
drains; tile interceptor. 


Use tile interceptors to col- 
lect upland seepage; dikes 
and flood gates may be 
needed in some places. 



These soils are not subject to flooding. The following 
soils are in this group : 

(GaA) Galestown loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
(GaB) Galestown loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
(GsA) Galestown sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
(GsB) Galestown sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
(La A) Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 2 per- 
cent slopes. 

(LaB) Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes. 

(LcB) Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, to 5 percent 
slopes. 

( M f A) Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

(MfB2) Matapeake fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 

( M k A) Matapeake silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

( M kB) Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

(MkB2) Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

(SaA) Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

(SaB2) Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

(ShA) Sassafras loam, heavy substratum, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

(SmA) Sassafras loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 



(SmB) Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

(SmB2) Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

(SnA) Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

(SnB) Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

(SnB2) Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

(SsA) Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, to 2 per- 
cent slopes. 

(SsB2) Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded. 

(StA) Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

(StB) Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes. 

(StB2) Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 

There are few, if any, failui-es of septic tanks on these 
soils if the tanks are given proper care, especially if 
individual tanks are widely separated from others. Dif- 
ficulty might develop, however, if a nmnber of tanks were 
concentrated in a small area. This happens occasionlly 
where lots are small, as in a residential development where 
the houses are closelv spaced. 



60 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 19 59, NO. 26 



Group 2. — The soils in this group arc fairly suital)lo 
for use as fields for septic tanks. They have many of 
the same characteristics as the soils of gi'oup 1, hut their 
slope rang-(>s from 5 to 15 percent, 'i'lie danger of surface 
seepage and of downslope pollution is, therefore, greater 
than on the soils of gi-oup 1, and the cost of excavating 
and grading is liiglicr. The following soils are in this 
group : 

Galestown loamy saiul, 5 to 10 ])orcont slopes. 
Galcstowii loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
Galestown sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 
Galestown sand, 10 to 15 i)ercent slopes. 
Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 15 i)er- 
cent slopes. 

Lakeland sand, clayey siibstratimi, 5 to 15 percent 
slopes. 

]\Iatapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 
Matajieakc silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 
Matapeake silt loani, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, seyerely 
eroded. 

Sassafras loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 i)ercent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 i)ercent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 



(GaC) 
(GaD) 
(GsC) 
(GsD) 
(LaD) 

(LcD) 

(MkC) 
(MkC2) 

(MkD) 
(SmC) 
(SmC2) 

(SmC3) 

(SmD) 

(SnC) 

(SnC2) 



(SnD) 

Group S. — The soils in this group are poorly suited to 
very poorl}^ suited to use as fields for septic tanks. They 
have many of the same characteristics as the soils of 
groups 1 and 2, but they have slopes that are gi-eater 
than 15 percent. K the areas are large enough and if 
there are adequate safeguards against pollution, some of 
the less sloping areas can be used as fields for septic tanks. 
Most areas, however, are too steep for that ])urj)Ose. 
The following soils are in this group : 

(GeF) Galestown sand and loamy sand, 15 to 40 percent 
slopes. 

(SmF) Sassafras loamy sand, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 
(SnE) Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 

Group 7. — ^The soils in this group are either poorly 
suited to use as fields for septic tanks, or they are not 
suitable. They are poorly drained to moderately well 
drained and have a water table that is seasonally high. 
In some areas the permeabilitv of the subsoil is very slow. 
In general, the soils are not subject to flooding. The 
impeded drainage, however, generally causes septic tanks 
located on these soils to fail if there is no special means of 
disposhig of the eft"luent. Even if waiter moves through 
the soils, there is no place for it to go if the water table is 
The following soils are in this group : 



high 



(Ba) Baj'boro silt loam. 

(Bb) Bayboro silty clay loam. 

(Ek) Elkton loam. 

(Em) Elkton silt loam. 

(En) Elkton silt loam, low. 

(Eo) Elkton silty clay loam. 

(Et) Elkton silty clay loam, low. 

(Fa) Fallsington sand}' loam. 

(KeA) Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

( KpA) Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

( KpB) KeyiJort silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

(KsA) Klej loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 

(KsB) Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

(MpA) Mattapex fine sandy loam, to 2 per- 
cent slopes. 

(MsA) Mattapex silt loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. 



(MsB) 

(MsB2) 

(Oh) 

(Ot) 

(Pm) 

(Po) 

(Ps) 

(Pt) 

(Ru) 

(WdA) 

(WoA) 

(WoB2) 



Mattai)ex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes. 

Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 pi^rcent 

slop(!s, moderately eroded. 
Othello silt loam. 
Oth(?llo silt loam, low. 
I'lummer loamy sand. 
P()(H)nioke loam. 
I'ocomoke sandy loam. 
l'orlsnK)uth silt loam. 
Rutle^e loamy sand. 
Woodstown loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Woodstown sandy loam, to 2 percent 

sloi)es. 

Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent 
sloj)es, moderately eroded. 



Group 8. — The soils of this group are unsuitable for use 
as fields for septic tanks. They are subject to flooding 
from streams or by normal high tides. The following 
soils are in this group: 

(Bm) Bibb silt loam. 

(Jo) Johnston loam. 

(Mx) Mixed alluvial land. 

(Sw) Swamp. 

(Tm) Tidal marsh. 

Use of the soil survey in community planning 

In making plans for construction or zoning, a knowledge 
of the soils lielps in determining the best use of an area. 
As a rule, the soils that are the best for agriculture arc 
the ones that are also suitable for building sites. There- 
fore, some plan for land use is nee(h>d so that the most 
fertile soils will be res(>rved for agricultm-e. 

In the section "Soil Groups for Sewage Disposal," the 
soils are grouped according to their suitability as fields 
for septic tanks, and this same grouping can also be used 
in planning the use of the areas for other purposes. 
Groups 1 and 2 include most of the soils that are the best 
for agriculture. Some of the soils in groups 7 and 8, 
however, can be improved for agricultural use if they 
are adequately drained. The soils of group 8, are flooded 
occasionally to very frequently. 

The soils of group 7 can also be used as sites for resi- 
dences if a complete system for disposing of sewage is 
mstalled. They are not suitable as fields for septic tanks, 
because they are likel}^ to be wet durhig most of the 3"ear. 
A drainage system is needed that will drain the soils and 
that will also dispose of the excess surface water. 

Suburban communities and some rural communities 
need land for public recreational areas. The soils that 
are difficult to manage for crops and that are not suitable 
for building sites should be reserved for that purpose. 
The sloping to steep soils of group 3 are best suited to 
recreational areas and parks. Because they are suscep- 
tible to erosion, the soils of group 3 need to be protected 
by a cover of plants, and many of the areas are now in 
forests. Some soils in groups 7 and 8, particularly in the 
scattered, small areas, should also be used for community 
parks. 

If feasible, parks should be kept in forests. Few^ areas 
need to be cleared, and the areas that must be cleared 
can be reforested. Forests not onh' increase the esthetic 
value of an area, but they retard excessive runoff' and 
help to reduce the hazards of erosion and flooding. 

Topsoil of good quality is important in establishing a 
protective cover of plants on areas that have been dis- 
turbed. The cost is usually high for revegetatmg or 
otherwise stabilizing cuts, fills, roadbanks, shoulders. 



DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND 



01 



luid otlici- iircus wIk'i-c ihc soil iiiiilciial lias been (list urix'd. 
In tiihlo I'S in tho section "Soil liit(>ri)n'liilions for Engi- 
neoring," the soils of the county arc rated according lo 
their suitability as a source of topsoil. 

Formation, Morphology, and 
Classification of Soils 

Soils are the products of soil-forming processes acting 
upon material deposited or accnniulat(Hl by geologic forces. 
The five factors that- affect the formation of soils are 
climate, plant and animal life, parent material, topog- 
raphy, and time. 

Factors of Soil Formation 

Climate and plant and animal life, particularly vege- 
tation, are th.e active forces of soil formation. Their effect 
on the parent material is modified by topography and 
by the length of time the parent material has been in 
phxce. The relative importance of each factor differs 
from place to place. In some places one factor dominates 
and fixes most of the properties of the soil, but normally 
the interaction of all five factors determines the kind of 
soil that develops in any given place. 

Climate 

Dorchester Countv has the rather humid, temperate 
chmate, typical of most of the coastal areas of the Middle 
Atlantic States. Facts about the temperature and pre- 
cipitation in the county are given in tables 1 and 2 and 
in the section "General Nature of the Area." The climate 
is fairly imiform throughout the county. There are no 
significant differences in the elevation and no obstructions 
to the movement of winds, clouds, and rainstorms. 
Masses of air generally move through the county from 
a northerly or westerly direction, but the,y are warmed 
by the air that inoves in periodically from "the south and 
southwest. 

This humid, temperate climate has caused most of the 
soils to be strongly weathered, leached, and acid and to be 
compjiratively low in fertility. In many places the soil 
material is weathered to a great depth because it has been 
exposed to climatic forces for a fairly long period of geo- 
logic time. The only materials not deeply weathered are 
those that are highly resistant to weathering. 

The soils of the county have no free carbonates, and in 
large part the bases have been leached out of them. All 
of the soils are naturally acid, and most of them are 
strongly acid to extremely acid. Most of the soils are 
low in plant nutrients, although some have a moderate 
supply. Many of the soils that are low in plant nutrients 
can be made much more productive if thev are properly 
managed. 

Plant and animal life 

Before the county was settled, the native vegetation had 
been a major influence in the development of the soils. Al- 
though little is known about the eft'ects of micro-organisms, 
earthworms, larvae, and other forms of anmial life, the 
activities of these animals were unportant m the c^^cle of 
decay and regeneration of plants. 



TIk! first scltlcis found a dcns<' forest lluit consisted 
mainly of hardwoods. Oak was the dominant species in 
most parts of the county. l.obloll\- pine, ponri piiu;, 
\'iiginia |)ine, yellow-poplai-, liolly, gum, hickory, maple, 
ami dogwood wei-e also im[)ortant, but there were probiibly 
few pur(> stands of |)ine before the county was settled. 
Th(^ fairly pui'e stands of pine tliat exist today, particu- 
larly thos(i made up of lobloli\ pine, are generally in areas 
that were once cleared and cultivated. 

Most hardwood trees use large amounts of calcium 
and other bases if they are available in the soils. Soils 
that are normally high in bases remain so under a cover 
of d(>ciduous trees because, in large; part, the bases are 
returned to the soil each year when the h'aves fall. The 
bases reenter the soil when the leaves decompose, and 
they are again utilized by ])lants. Thus, in areas where 
the soils are naturally well supphed with bases, there is a 
never-ending cycle. The soils in Dorchester County, 
however, have never been very high in bases; consequently, 
they are acid even under a cover of hardwoods. Soils that 
are strongly acid and low in fertility are better suited 
to pines than to most hardwoods. Pines do not recpiire 
large aniounts of calcium and other bases, and their needles 
return little fertility to the soil. 

As agriculture developed in the county, man became an 
important factor in the development of the sods. The 
clearing of the forests, cultivation of the areas, introduc- 
tion of new kinds of crops and other plants, and improve- 
ments made in natiu'al drainage have affected development 
of the soils and will affect their development in the future. 

The ]nost important changes brought about by man 
are (f) mixing the upper horizons of the soil to form a 
plow la3'er, (2) tilhng sloping soils, which has caused ero- 
sion, and (3) hmhig and fertilizing to change the content 
of plant nutrients, especially hi the upper horizons. The I 
most obvious change in the vegetation has been the loss of 
the natural vegetation, for only about 149,390 acres of 
woodland remained in the county m 1959. There has 
also been a notable increase in the nmnber of pines as 
compared to the nmnber of hardwoods. 

Parent material 

The parent material of the soils in this county consisted 
of sedhnents transported mainly by water, altliough part 
of it may have been transported by wind, and part by 
ice floes carried by glacial meltwater. Some of the sedi- 
ments were the size of particles of cla^y, but others were as 
large as pebbles. In places there were cobbles or small 
stones. 

The stones and larger pebbles must have been trans- 
ported b}' ice during the retreat of the last glaciers. The 
Eastern Shore of Maryland was not glaciated, but glaciers 
once extended into northern Pennsylvania. Fragments 
of ice of many dift'erent sizes and containing clay, gravel, 
and occasional stones may have descended into the area 
that is now the Eastern Shore through the valleys of 
rivers, such as the Susquehanna. As the ice floes drifted 
southward, they melted and dropped sediments in the 
shallow seas. The areas in which sediments were dropped 
later emerged to form the Delmarva Peninsula, of which 
Dorchester County is a part. 

It is likely that the soil material m marshes and other 
low-lying areas consists of sediments that were recently 
deposited in shallow salt water. These sediments were 
elevated to sea level, either by slow uplift of the land or by 



62 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 26 



lluctualious in llio level of the sea and of ( 'liesapeake Bay, 
or perhaps by both. 

The texture of the soils is directly related to tlu; texture 
of their parent material. Soils of the Galestown, Klej, 
Lakeland, Phunnier, and Rutleg-e series, for example, 
developed in eoarse-textured materials. There is some 
evidence, however, that tbeir i)ai'ent material, particu- 
larly that of the Galestown and Lakeland soils, was 
reworked by wind or by water, or both, l)etween the time 
it was deposited and ihe time that it took the soils to 
develop. The Lakeland and finlestown soils occui-, in 
part, on what ap])ears to be old alluvial terraces along the 
major streams of the county. 

Over large areas, the sediments that make up the parent 
material of many of the soils consist mainly of mixtures of 
sand and silt, but it generally includes a small, but vari- 
able, admixture of clay. In phices these materials arc 
stratified and the texture varies hi altermiting layers. 
Soils of the Fallsington, Pocomoke, Sassafr as, and Woods- 
towii series developed in this kind of material. 

The Matapeake, Alattapex, Otliello, and Portsmouth 
soils developed hi a mantle of silt that overlies sand. The 
mantle of silt, or loess, probably was blown fr om glaciated 
areas to the north. 

The finest textured sediments consist chielly of clay and 
silty clay but partly of fine sand and very fine sand. 
Soils of the Bayboro, Elkton, and Keyport soils developed 
in this kind of sediments. 

In this county there are also several kinds of sediments 
that have been deposited recently. Soils of the Bibb and 
Johnston series are forming in recent deposits of alluvium 
on flood plains; and Mixed alluvial land, a miscellaneous 
land type, consists of areas of unconsolidated alluvium. 
Tidal marsh consists of sediments from recent deposits, 
mostly clays, that were influenced by salt water and b\' 
the action of tides. 

More than one kind of soil may develop in the same 
kind of parent material or in shnilar parent material. 
Thus, it is evident that factors other than parent material 
have also influenced the kinds of soils that have developed. 

Topography 

Dorchester County is entirely within the Atlantic Coast- 
al Plain. Most of it is nearly level. Although the slope 
is generally less tlian 2 percent, in some small but impor- 
tant areas, it is between 2 and 10 percent. Most of the 
sloping areas are smooth, but some have complex slopes 
or are hummocky. In a few places the slope is between 
10 and 30 percent or even greater. These steeper slopes 
are mainly on the breaks above drainageways, and they 
occup}' less than 1 percent of the county. 

Local differences in elevation are seldom more than a 
few feet. In only a few places are there differences m 
elevation of as much as 20 feet in 1 mile. The highest 
elevations are in the northern and northeastern parts of 
the county, and the highest point is 57 feet above sea 
level. This point is about 1 % miles south of Aliens Corner 
and about K niile east of Marshvhope Creek. 

The county slopes mainly toward the south, but it also 
slopes toward the west. The salt marshes along the shores 
of Chesapeake Bay are at sea level. 

The nearly level relief in most of the county contributes 
to the slow drainage of man}- of the soils. Water flows 
very slowly into the main channels, especially from nearly 
level areas of fine-textured soils. It also moves slowty 



through many of the soils, which increases tlu^ jirotilem 
of dramage. 

Time 

Geologically, the deposits of soil materials of the county 
range from very young, or immature, to faiil}' old. The 
most recent, or Holocene, deposits are those on alluvial 
flood plains and in marshy areas affected by tides. In 
those areas soil material is still being added fi-oni year to 
year when the areas are flooded. Somewhat older, geo- 
logically, arc the sands, somewhat gravelly sands, and 
silts over sands, which are probably of Pleistocene age. 
Most of the older Coastal Plain deposits are probably of 
Miocene age, but some may be of Pliocene age.'' 

Time accounts for many of the differences among soils. 
In steep areas, for ('xanijile, no well-defined horizons have 
had time to develop in the soils, because the soil material 
has been removed by geologic erosion almost as rapidly 
as it was deposited. On the other hand, some soils formed 
in material deposited fairly recently show definite and, 
presumably, mature development. These soils are in 
nearly level areas, where there has been little or no geologic 
erosion, and the products of the soil-forming processes 
have remained in place as components of genetic soils. 

Interrelationships of Soil Series 

In table 10 the soil series of the count}' are grouped to 
show relationshi|)s in yiosition, parent material, and drain- 
age. IVIost of tile soils are on uplands or terraces, but 
some are on flood plains or bottom lands. 'J'he texture 
of their parent material varies widely. Man}' of the soils 
are poorly drained or very poorly di-ained. 

Soils of the ujdands and terraces. — Although the soils 
on uplands and on terraces are in two difl'erent topographic 
positions, this difference does not affect the use and 
suitability of the soils. Soils of some series, such as 
the Galestown, are on both uplands and terraces. 

The soils of uplands have developed in place from 
the underlying parent material. Those on terraces 
have developed in very old material, mostly sand, that 
was deposited by streams. The soils of uplands and 
terraces occupy about 72 percent of the county. 

Soils of flood plains or bottom lands. — The flood plams 
or bottom lands consist of areas where soil material has 
been deposited only recently when streams overflowed 
their banks. The areas are still subject to floodhig. 
Some of them are flooded only occasionally, but others 
are flooded every year or several times a year. 

The floodwaters have left deposits of silt and sand, 
and in places there are deposits of clay or gravel. In 
most places the material in the deposits is of many different 
textures, but in some areas it has a fairly uniform texture. 
The soil material does not show much soil development. 
In places there has been some development of a surface 
layer, but generaUy none of a B horizon. 

The soils of flood plains are not extensive in this county. 
They make up less than 1 percent of the total acreage. 



" Ryax, J. Donald, the sediments of Chesapeake b.a.y. State 
of Maryland, Dept. Geologv, Mines, and Water Resources Bui. 
No. 12," 120 pp. 195.3. 

'2 SiNGEW ALD, Joseph T., jr. shore erosion in tidewater 
AiARTLAND. State of Maryland, Dept. Geology, Mines, and Water 
Resources Bui. No. 6, 141" pp. 1949. 



l)()l!('lIi:STKI{ {'OUNTY, MAUYLA.ND 



63 



Tamlk 1 (i. Sail series arnitujid to -show rclutioiiship.s in 'posilion, jtdirni //Kiterial, and thai ikujc 

Soils of TIpi.ands and TEnnArr:s 



I'arciil inad'i'ial 



Sand and loamy sand 

Sand, silt, and clay 

Mantle of silt over sand. 
Clay or silty clay 



Soinew hat (;xce,s 
sivcly drained 



fGalestown. 
(.Lakeland- - 



W ell (liaincd 



Sassafras.. . 
Matapeake. 



Modcral cIn wc 
drained 



I'ooris' (iiairird 



Klej 



Woodstown. 
Mattapex. . 
Keyport 



Plummer. 



Fallsington. 

OtheUo 

Elkton 



\ ('I N' jjoorly 
drained 



Rutlege. 



Pocomoke. 

Portsmoutii. 

Bayboro. 



Soils of Flood Plains or Bottom Lands 



Sand, silt, and clav - 








l?il)h_ 


Johnston. 









' The Klej soils are moderately well drained to somewhat poorly drained. 



The remaining 27 percent, other than the acreage occupied 
by nphiiuls and terraces, consists of areas of Tidal marsli 
and Swamp. These areas are not inckided in this section, 
because they do not have a developed soil profile. 

Morphology of Soils 

In most of the soils of this county, morphology is 
expressed by evident horizonation. The young alluvial 
soils, however, show very little horizonation, nor do 
the soils on formations that resemble dimes and consist 
of fairly pure quartz sand. 

The differentiation of horizons in the soils is the result 
of one or more of the following processes: (1) Accumu- 
lation of organic matter, (2) leaching of carbonates 
and of salts more soluble tlian calcium carbonate, (3) 
chemical weathering, chiefly by hydrolysis, of the primary 
minerals of the parent material into silicate clay minerals, 
(4) translocation of the silicate clay mmerals, and prob- 
ably of some silt-sized particles, from one horizon to 
another, and (5) chemical changes (oxidation, reduction, 
and hydration) and transfer of iron. 

In almost all of the soils of the county, several of these 
processes have been active in the development of liorizons. 
For example, the interaction of the first, second, third, 
and fourth processes is reflected in the strong horizons 
in soils of the Sassafras series, and all five processes 
have been active in the development of soils of the Key- 
port, Mattapex, and Woodstown series. QwXy the 
first and fifth processes have had any marked effect on 
the soils of the Bibb, Johnston, Phunmer, and Rutlege 
series. In most soils, however, the second process, 
leaching of carbonates and salts, must have taken place 
in the soil materials before they were deposited, and 
possibly some of the other processes may have been active. 

Some organic matter has accumulated in all of the soils 
to form an Ai horizon. Through tillage, the material in 
this liorizon, however, has been mixed with material from 
the underlying horizons. The Ai horizon thus lost its 
identity and became a part of an Ap horizon. The 
amoiuit of humus or the amoimt of organic matter varies 
in the different soils and ranges from very low to very 
high. Soils of the Galestown and Lakeland series all 
have a weak Ai horizon that contains little organic mat- 
ter. Those of the Bayboro, Johnston, Pocomoke, Ports- 
mouth, and Rutlege series have a prominent Ai horizon 



in which tlieie is as much as 15 percent organic matter 
in places. 

There have been no detailed studies of the clay min- 
eralogy of the soils of the Eastern Sliore of Maryland. 
The soil material in this area, however, consists of sedi- 
ments that have })een deposted by the waters of the Sus- 
quehanna and Potomac Rivers, and possibl}' h\ the waters 
of the Delaware River. These sediments originated in 
many parts of the Atlantic watershed; thus, the com- 
position, as well as the origin, of the clay minerals in 
the present soils is extremely variable. In such soils as 
the Sassafras and some of the better oxidized, older soils, 
kaolinite is probably one of the chief clay minerals. 

The translocation of silicate clay minerals has contrib- 
uted strongly to the development of horizons in many 
soils of the county. Silicate clay minerals have been 
partly removed from the Ai and A2 horizons and partly 
immobilized in the B horizon. This is characteristic of 
the Bayboro, Elkton, Fallsington, Keyport, Matapeake, 
Mattapex, Othello, Pocomoke, Portsmouth, Sassafras, 
and Woodstown soils, and of all soils that have a genetic 
textural B liorizon. To a slight degree, it may also be 
characteristic of soils of the Galestown and Klej series 
and of some other soils that do not have a distinct tex- 
tiu'al B horizon. 

The reduction and transfer of iron has occiu-red to 
some degree in all the soils that have mapeded drainage. 
In the large areas of naturally wet soils in Dorchester 
County, this process, known as gleying, has been of great 
importance. The soils of the Bayboro, Bibb, Elkton, 
Fallsington, Johnston, Othello, Plummer, Pocomoke, 
Portsmouth, and Rutlege series have all been affected 
by gle^dng. 

Iron that has been reduced in areas where the soil is 
poorly aerated generally becomes mobile and may be 
removed from the soil entirely. In the soils of this 
county, however, iron has moved either within the hori- 
zon where it originated or to another nearby horizon. 
Part of this iron may become reoxidized and segregated 
to form the yellowisli-brown, strong-browi, or yelloAX-ish- 
red mottles tliat indicate impeded drainage and are 
common in a gleyed horizon. 

When silicate clay forms from prinuir\" materials, some 
iron generally is freed as a hydrated oxide. Depending 
on the degree of hydration, these oxides are more or less 
red. Even a small amoimt of the oxide wiU cause the 



64 



SOIL SUHVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 2G 



subsoil to have a reddish color. Iron oxide colors liic sub- 
soil, even where there has not been enough accumulation 
of clay minerals to I'orm a textural horizon. 'J'his is 
characteristic of soils of the Galcstown series. 

A profile that is representative for each soil series in 
the county is given in tlie section "Descriptions of the 
Soils." In that sectioii the nior])liology of the rejire- 
sentative soils is described in detail. 

Classification of Soils by Great Soil Groups 

Soils are placed in nai'row classes for the organization 
and application of knowledge about their use and juanage- 
ment on individual farms or in counties. They are i)lac(>d in 
broad classes for tlie study and comparison of large areas, 
sucli as continents. Jn the comprehensive system of soil 
classification that has been followed in the United States,'^ 
the soils are placed in six categories. Beginiiing with the 
most hiclusivc categor}', these are the order, suborder, 
great soil group, family, scries, and type. 

In the highest category the soils of the wliole countrj' 
arc grou])ed into tln-ee orders, but thousands of soil types 
are recognized in the lowest category. The ty])e and 
series are the categories most commoidy used in discussing 
the soils of a county or otlier snndl area. Soils that arc 
alike in fundamental characteristics are classified as one 
great soil group. 

The great soil groups recognized in this county are the 
Sols Bruns Acides, Gray-Brown Podzolic soils, Humic 
Glev soils, Low-Humic Gle}' soils, and Regosols. Many 
of tlie soils of tlie county do not fit the modal, or central, 
concept of any one great soil group. They have many of 
the charactei-istics of soils in a given great soil group, but 
tliey have one or more characteristics like those of another 
group. These soils are called intergrades. 

Sols Bruns Acides 

In Dorchester County, Sols Bruns Acides have an evi- 
dent Ai horizon that is about 4 to 6 inches thick. In 
most places the\' have a faint Ao horizon, but in some 
places the A2 horizon is lacking. The B horizon contains 
little or no more clay than the horizons that lie above and 
below. It is distinguished chiefly by color and is redder 
in hue or of higher chroma than either the A or C horizons. 
The structure of the B horizon is similar to that of the A 
and C horizons. Sols Brmis Acides have a very low de- 
gree of base satm'ation and are generall}" ver}' strongly 
acid. The Galesto^\^l soils are the only soils of this great 
soil group in the coiint}'. 

Gray-Brown Podzolic soils 

In areas that have not been distiu-bed, Gray-Browr 
Podzolic soils have a fahly thin litter of leaves and a 
fau'ly thin layer of humus on the surface. The mineral 
surface layev is dark colored and overlies a grayish-bromi, 
leached horizon. Just below the leached horizon is the B 
horizon, which contains more clay than the A horizon and 
has blocky or subangular blocky structure. The B hori- 
zon is bro\Mi, yellowish bro^\^l, bro^^^lish 3'eUow, or reddish 
brown. The solum of Gray-Brown Podzolic soils is mod- 
erately thick. In most places these soils are slighth" acid, 
but the reaction ranges from medium acid to neutral. 



1' United States Department of Agricultube. soils and 
MEN. U.S. Dept. Agr. Ybk., pp. 979-1001. 1938. 



Jn this county the Keyport, Matapeake, Mattapex, 
Sassafras, and Woodstown soils luive be(!n classified as 
Gray-Brown Podzolic soils. These soils ai-e more leached 
than the true Gray-Brown Podzolic soils, however, and 
they are strongly acid throughout. Their sui)surfac(i 
layer, or Ao hoi'izon, is lighter colored, and their B hoj-izon 
is dominantly i-ed and yellow, instead of brown as in the 
typical (iray-Brown Podzohc soils. Therefore, these soils 
are not considered to be true Gray-Brown Podzolic soils 
but arc intergrades toward the Ited-Yellow Podzolic great 
soil group. 

Humic Gley soils 

Soils of the Humic Gley great soil group are poorly 
drained to very poorly drained and are hydromorphic. 
They Jiaye a thick, i)]'oniinent A horizon that is high 
in organic matter. In some areas their B horizon is 
strongly reduced or mottled, but in other areas they 
lack a B horizon and have only a substratum. Jn some 
areas the mottling or gleying extends upward into the 
lower part of the A horizon. 

Humic Gley soils have formed iindci' a wet-forest 
or marsh type of vegetation in a liumid or subhumid 
climate. Jn reaction they range from strongly acid to 
mildly alkaline. The Ilumic Gley soils in this county 
are strongly acid. 

TJie Bayboi-o, Johnston, Pocomoke, Portsmouth, and 
Rutlege soils are in the Humic Gley great soil group. 
All of these soils are very poorly drained. Tliey have a 
high water table, and all but tlie Johnston and Rutlege 
soils have a slowly permcaljle sul)soil. 

Low-Humic Gley Soils 

Soils of the Low-Humic Gley great soil group are 
poorly drained. They geiierally have a thin surface 
layer- that is moderateh' high in organic matter. The 
surface layer overlies a mottled, or partly gleyed, mineral 
subsoil or substratum. lUuviation has been moderate 
in these soils; thus, in most places there is some difference 
in texture between the various horizons. The A liorizon 
of a Low-Humic Gley soil is thinner and less proininent 
than that of a true Humic Gle\' soil, and it contains less 
organic matter. The B liorizon is also less strongly 
gleyed. 

The Bibb, Elkton, Fallsington, Othello, and Plummer 
soils are representative of the Low-Humic Gley great 
soil group in this county. These soils are strongly acid 
and are generally wet. 

Regosols 

Soils of the Regosol great soil group consist of deposits 
of relatively unweathered I'ock or mineral material. The 
soils range from somewhat poorly drained to excessively 
drained and show practically no evidence of genetic soU 
development, except for a weakly developed Ai horizon. 
The parent material of these soils is either too young to 
have time for soil horizons to develop, or is too resistant to 
weathering to show appreciable effects of the processes 
of soil development, regardless of time. Dune deposits 
consisting of quartz sand are an example of parent 
material that is too resistant to weathei'ing to show 
appreciable effects of the processes of soil development. 

In Dorchester Countj^ soils of the Klej and Lakeland 
series are classified as Regosols. These soUs consist 
largely of quartz sand. In these soils, liowever, a smaJl 



DOIU'I IKSTKK COUNTY, MAKVLAM) 



65 



accuimilat ion of or^iiiiic iiuillcr lias darkciu'd llic surlacc^ 
layer slisihtly. ^V('atlu'|•ill<^ has had hdic od'ccl on (hcse 
soils. From ihc A hori/on downw ai'd, th(>ro is only ])ar('nt, 
inatorial and no signilicant foi-niation ol' a li hoi'izoii. 
The Klcj soils are very weakly ^leyed in the lower suh- 
slratuni, but (hey are not considered to be intergrades 
toward any other great soil group. 

Glossary 

AASHO classification (engineering). The system of soil classifica- 
tion of tlio American Association of State Highway Officials. 

Acidity, soil. Tiic degree of acidity or alkalinity of a soil expressed 
in 1)11 values, or in words, as follows: 



2>II 

Extremely acid Below 4. 5 

Very strongly acid,- 4. 5-5. 

Strongly acid 5. 1-5. 5 

IMediinii acid 5. 6-6. 

Slightly acid 6. 1-6. 5 

Neutral 6. 6-7. 3 



pH 

jXIildly alkaline 7. 4-7. 8 

j\rod(!ratcly alkaline. 7. 9 8. 4 
Strongly alk aline _ . . 8. 5-9. 
Very strongly alka- 
line 9.1 and higher. 



Base exchange capacity. A measure of the absorptive capacity of a 
soil for bases, or the amount of bases that can be absorbed by 
a given amount of soil, expressed in milliequivalents of the non- 
valent cation absorbed from a neutral solution by 100 grams of 
soil. Generally speaking, a soil that has a fairly high exchange 
capacity is preferred to one that has a low exchange capacity, 
because it will retain more plant nutrients and will be less sub- 
ject to leaching. 

Bases. The positive, generally metallic elements or combination of 
elements that make up the nonacidic plant nutrients. The 
most important of these in plant nutrition are calcium (Ca), 
potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and ammonium (NHj 

California bearing ratio (engineering). The ratio of the ability of a 
soil to suj^port weight to that of a standard crushed limestone, 
first standardized in California; abbreviated CBR. Thus, a 
soil with a CBR of 16 would support 16 percent of the load that 
would be sujjported by the crushed limestone per unic area and 
with the same degree of distortion. 

Clay. (1) As a soil separate, the mineral soil particles less than 0.002 
millimeter (0.000079 inch) in diameter. (2) As a soil textural 
class, soil material that is 40 jiercent or more clay, less than 45 
percent sand, and less than 40 percent silt. 

Consistence, soil. The characteristics of soil material that are 
expressed by the degree and kind of cohesion and adhesion, or 
by the resistance of the soil material to deformation or rupture. 
These characteristics vary with the coulcnt of moisture. When 
dry, soil is said to be loose, soft, sligltlly hard, hard, very hard, 
or extremely hard. When moist, a soil is said to be loose, 
very friable, friable, firm, very firm, or extremely firm. W'hen 
wet., a soil is said to be nonplastir, Kliijhtly plastic, plastic, or 
very plastic, and also nonsticky, sli<ilillii sticky, sticky, or very 
sticky.i* 

Diversion. Any structure, generally a terrace or ditch, used to 
divert runoff water from its natural course and thus to protect 
areas downslope from the effects of runoff. 
Gleization, or gleying. The reduction, translocation, and segrega- 
tion of soil compounds, notably of iron, normally in the subsoil 
or substratum; a result of poor aeration and drainage, exjoressed 
in the soil by mottled colors dominated by gray. 
Great soil group. A broad group of soils having internal soil charac- 
teristics in conimon. 
Horizon, soil. A layer of soil, approximately parallel to the surface, 
with characteristics produced by soil-forming processes. The 
relative positions of the several soil horizons in the soil profile 
and their nomenclature follow: 
A horizon. The master horizon, consisting of (1) one or more 
mineral horizons of maximum organic accumulation; or (2) 
surface or subsurface horizons that are lighter in color than 
the underlying horizons and that have lost clay minerals, 
iron, and aluminum, with resultant concentration of the 
more resistant minerals; or (3) horizons belonging to both of 
these categories. 



United States Department of AciRicuLTURE. soil survey 
MANUAL. U.S. Dept. Agr. Handb. No. 18, 503 pp., illus. 1951. 



H horizon. 'I'he masti'r horizon of altered niatcrial cliaractrT- 
ized by (1) an accunnilatirjii of (^lay, iron, or aluniinum, with 
accessory organic mati'rial; or (2) biocky or prismatic struc- 
ture tog(^tlier with other characteristics, such iin stronger 
colors, unlike thos(! of the .\ horizon or tlir; undr^rlying hori- 
zons of n(^arly uncliang(;fl inat(!rial; or (3j characteristics 
of both these categori(;s. Commonly, the low<;r limit of the 
B horizon corresponris to tlie lower limit of the solum. 

C horizon. A layer of unconsolidated material, relatively little 
affecl(>(l by th(! influence of organisms and jjresumf^d to be 
similar in chemical, f)hysical, and niineralogical composition 
to the material from which at least a part of the overlying 
solum has forin(;d. 

D horizon. Any stratum underlying the C horizon, or the B if 
no C is present, which is unlike the C or unlike the material 
from which the solum has form(;d. Ttu; D, horizon, however, 
is a (consolidated stratum, underlying the C, from which the 
C horizon has formed. 
Interceptor. A drainage ditch or tile line, generally at or near the 
base of a slope, to protect areas downslope from the effects of 
seeiiage water. 

Internal drainage. That quality of a soil that permits the down- 
ward lU)\v of excess water through it. 
Liquid limit. The moisture content at which a soil material passes 

from a plastic to a liquid (free-flowing) state. 

Marine deposits. Materials deposited in the waters of oceans 
and seas and exposed by elevation of the land or by the lower- 
ing of the water level. 

Maximum density. The greatest amount of soil that can be com- 
pacted into any unit .of volume; expressed as pounds of dry 
soil per cubic foot. 

Mechanical analy.sis of soil. The determination of the percentage 
of the soil particles of all sizes — gravel, sand, silt, clay, and 
all their standard subdivisions; based on the mineral soil only, 
free of water and organic matter. Grain size refers to the size 
limits of any particular fraction of the soil, and grain-size dis- 
tribution refers to the proportions of the various-sized fractions 
in the whole mineral soil. 

Morphology, soil. The physical constitution of the soil, including 
the texture, structure, consistence, color, and other physical 
and chemical properties of the various soil horizons that make 
up the soil i^rofile. 

Mottles. Patches of contrasting color that vary in number and 
size; generally associated with poor drainage. Descriptive 
terms are as follows: Abundance — few, common, and many; 
size — fine, medium, and coarse; and contrast — faint, distinct, and 
prominent. 

Natural drainage. Refers to those conditions that existed during 
the development of the soil as opposed to altered drainage, 
which is commonly the result of artificial drainage or irrigation 
but may result from other causes, as natural deepening of 
channels or filling of depressions. The following terms are used 
to express natural drainage: Excessively drained, somewhat 
excessively drained, well drained, moderately well drained, some- 
what poorly drained, poorly drained, and very poorly drained. 

Percolation. The downward movement of water through the soil, 
especially the downward flow of water in saturated or nearly 
saturated soil. 

Permeability, soil. That quality of a soil that enables it to trans- 
mit water or air. 

Plastic limit. The moisture content at which a soil material passes 
from a solid to a plastic state. 

Plasticity index. The difference, in percent moisture, between the 
plastic limit and the liquid limit of the soil; therefore, the range 
of moisture content over which a soil material remains plastic. 

Poorly graded soil (engineering). A term used to indicate that a 
soil consists of particles chiefiy of the same or very nearly the 
same size or diameter; having a narrow range of particle size 
and, thus, poor grain-size distribution. Such a soil can be 
increased in density only slightly by compaction. 

Reaction. The degree of acidity or alkalinity of the soil. See also 
Acidity, soil. 

Relief. The elevations or inequalities of the land surface, considered 
collectivel}-. 

Sand. Rock or mineral fragments, visible to the naked eye, 
between 0.05 millimeter (0.002 inch) and 2.0 millimeters 
(0.079 inch) in diameter. As a textural class, a soil that is 90 
percent or more sand. 



66 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 26 



Series, soil. A group of soils that have the same i)rofile character- 
istics and the same general range in color, structure, consistence 
and sequence of horizons; the same general conditions of relief 
and drainage; and generally a common or similar origin and 
mode of formation. 

Silt. Small mineral soil grains ranging from 0.002 millimeter 
(0.000079 inch) to 0.05 millimeter (0.002 inch) in diameter; not 
visible to the naked eye but readih' visible under a microscope. 
As a textural class, silt consists of soil material that contains 80 
percent or more silt and less than 12 i)ercent clay. 

Soil. The natural medium for the growth of land plants on the 
surface of the earth; comjjo.sed of mineral and organic materials. 

Solum. The genetic soil developed by soil-forming processes; the 
.\ and B horizons; do(>s not include* the i)arent material (C 
horizon). 

Subgrade (engineering). The soil mateiial in a cut or fill, which 
directly rc^coives the load from the pavement section. 

Structure, soil. The arrangement of the individual soil particles 
into aggregates that have tlefinitc shape and pattern. Com- 
mon kinds of sti'ucture in Dorchester C'ountj' are single (/rain, 
cni.mb, (jraiiiilar, blocktj, siibangular blocky, and platy. 

Subgrade modulus (engineering). The resistance of the soil per 
unit area, displacement under load, expressed in pounds per 
square inch. Hence, if a load of 1,000 pounds on 100 square 
inches of surface penetrates 1 inch, the modulus is 10. 



Subsoil. Technically, the li horizon of soils that have distinct 
layers; in more general terms, that i)art of the soil jjrotile below 
plow depth. 

Substratum. Any layer beneath the B lioiizon; it may be a 
conforming C horizon or a nonconforming D horizon. See also 
Horizon, soil. 

Surface soil. That part of tlie upper profile ordinarily moved in 
tillage, or its equivalent in uncultivated soil; about 5 to 8 inches 
in thickness. 

Texture, soil. The relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay 
particles in the soil. A coarse-textured soil is one high in sand; 
a fine-textured soil contains a laige i)roi)ortion of clay. See 
also Sand; Silt; Clay. 

Topsoil. Presumably fertile soil material used io topdress road- 
banks, gardens, and lawns. 

Unified soil classification system (engineering). The system of 
mechanical soil classification of the Corps of Engineers, Depart- 
ment of the Army. Used by the; Soil (!ons(;rvation Service, 
the liureau of Reclamation, and other agencies anfi organiza- 
tions in works dealing with soils engineering. 

Upland (geologic). Land consisting of material unworked by 
water in recent geologic tinu; and lying, in general, at a higher 
elevation than tlu; alluvial plains or stream terraces. 

Well graded (engineering). A term used to indicate that a soil 
consists of ]>articl(!S well distributed over a wide range in size or 
diameter. Such a soil normally can be easily increased in 
density and bearing properties by comi)action. 



GUIDE TO MAPPING UNITS 



l^i.r- lable 5 D 9 for approximate acreage and proportionate extent of soils; table 7, p. 32, for estimated average acre yields. To learn about use of the soils for woodland, see the section beginning on p. 34; for information about engineering uses of the 
' 11' >-'- irrigation, and sewage disposal, see the section beginning on p. 43. Dashes indicate soil is not suitable for drainage, irrigation, or sewage disposal) 



soils, including use for drainage. 



Map 

symbol Mapping unit 

Ba Bayboro silt loam 

Bb Bayboro silty clay loam 

Bm Bibb silt loam _ 

Co Coastal beaches 

Ek Elkton loam -- 

Em Elkton silt loam 

En Elkton silt loam, low 

Eo Elkton silty clay loam 

Et Elkton silty clay loam, low 

Fa Fallsington sandy loam 

GaA Galestown loamy sand, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

GaB Galestown loamy sand, 2 to 5 jjercent 
slopes. 

GaC Galestown loamy sand, 5 to 10 per- 
cent slopes. 

GaD Galestown loamy sand, 10 to 15 per- 
cent slopes. 

GeF Galestown sand and loamy sand, 15 

to 40 percent slopes. 
GsA Galestown sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
GsB Galestown sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
GsC Galestown sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 
GsD Galestown sand, 10 to 15 percent 

slopes. 

Jo Johnston loam 

KeA Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
KpA Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

KpB Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes. 

KsA Klej loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 

KsB Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

LaA Lakeland loamy sand, clayey sub- 

stratum, to 2 percent slopes. 

LaB Lakeland loamy sand, clayey sub- 

stratum, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

LaD Lakeland loamy sand, clayey sub- 
stratum, 5 to 15 percent slopes. 

LcB Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, 

to 5 percent slopes. 

LcD Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, 
5 to 15 percent slopes. 

Ma Made land.. 

MfA Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 
percent slopes. 

MfB2 Matapeake fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 
percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

MkA Matapeake silt loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

MkB Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes. 

MkB2 Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 

MkC Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent 
slopes. 

M kC2 Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 

M kD Matapeake silt loam, 10 to 15 percent 
slopes. 

MpA Mattapex fine sandy loam, to 2 

percent slopes. 
MsA Mattapex silt loam, to 2 percent 

slopes. 

MsB Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes. 

' Not placed in a capability unit. 









Drciinagc 


Irrigation 


Sewage 


Woodland 


Map 




Capabilittf unit 


group 


group 


disposal group 


suitahilitfi group 


Fage 


Symbol 


Page 


Number Page 


Number Page 


Number 


Page 


Number 


Page 


symbol 


10 


IIIw-5 


28 


9-6B 59 





7 


60 


7 


37 


MsB2 


10 


VIw-2 


30 


9-6A 59 





7 


60 


7 


37 




10 


niw-7 


28 


U-A 59 





8 


60 


4 


37 


Mx 


10 


VIIIs-2 


30 












9 


38 


Oh 


11 


IIIw-9 


29 


8-2B 58 





7 


60 


7 


37 


Ot 


11 


IIIw-9 


29 


8-2B 58 







00 


7 


37 


Pm 


11 


Vw-1 


30 


10 59 







60 


8 


38 


Po 


11 


VIw-2 


30 


8-2A 58 





7 


60 




37 


Ps 


11 


VIw-2 


30 


10 59 





7 


60 


8 


38 


Pt 


12 


IIIw-G 


28 


7-B 58 







60 


3 


36 


Ru 


12 


IIIs-1 


29 





1 54 


I 


57 


2 


36 


SaA 




















SaB2 


12 


IIIs-1 


29 





1 54 


I 


57 


2 


36 






















ShA 


12 


IVs-1 


29 





1 54 


2 


60 


2 


36 






















SmA 


13 


VIs-1 


30 




.. 


2 


60 


2 


36 






















SmB 


13 


VIIs-1 


30 








3 


60 


5 


37 






















SmB2 


13 


IVs-1 


29 


- 


1 54 


1 


57 


5 


37 




13 


IVs-1 


29 




1 54 


1 


57 


5 


37 


SmC 


13 


VIs-1 


30 






2 


60 


5 


37 




13 


VIIs-1 


30 






2 


60 


5 


37 


SmC2 


13 


IIIw-7 


28 


11-A 59 





8 


60 


4 


37 


SmC3 


14 


IIw-8 


28 


6-2A 58 


5 54 


7 


60 


6 


37 




14 


IIw-8 


28 


6-2A 58 


5 54 


' 


60 


6 


37 


SmD 


14 


IIe-13 


27 


6-2A 58 


5 54 


7 


60 


6 


37 


SmF 


14 


IIIw-8 


29 


4 58 


1 54 


7 


60 


3 


36 


SnA 


15 


IIIw-8 


29 


4 58 


1 54 


7 


60 


3 


36 


15 


IIIs-1 


29 




1 54 


1 


57 




36 


SnB 


15 


IIIs-1 


29 




1 54 


1 


57 


2 


36 


SnB2 


15 


IVs-1 


29 





1 54 


2 


60 


2 


36 


SnC 


15 


IVs-1 


29 





1 54 


1 


57 


5 


37 


SnC2 


15 


VIs-1 


30 





-- 


2 


60 


5 


37 


SnD 


16 


(') 


.. 


.. 









10 


38 


SnE 


16 


1-4 


27 




V 54 


1 


57 




34 




16 


IIe-4 


27 




4 54 


1 


57 




34 


SsA 




















SsB2 


16 


1-4 


27 




4 54 


1 


57 




34 




16 


IIe-1 


27 





4 54 


1 


57 


\ 


34 


StA 


16 


IIe-4 


27 





4 54 


1 


57 




34 


StB 


17 


IIIe-4 


28 





4 54 


2 


60 


1 


34 


StB2 


17 


IIIe-4 


28 





4 54 


2 


60 




34 




17 




29 














Sw 


IVe-3 







2 


60 




34 


Tm 


17 


















WdA 


IIw-1 




2-A 58 


4 54 


7 


60 




34 


17 


















WoA 


IIw-1 


27 


2-A 58 


4 54 


7 


60 




34 


17 


IIe-13 
















WoB2 


27 


2-A 58 


4 54 


7 


60 




34 





Mapping unit 



Page 



Capability unit 



Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent 17 

slopes, moderately eroded. 

Mixed alluvial land 18 

Othello silt loam 18 

Othello silt loam, low 18 

Plummer loamy sand 19 

Pocomoke loam 20 

Pocomoke sandy loam 20 

Portsmouth silt loam 20 

Rutlege loamy sand 21 

Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes. _ 21 
Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 21 

moderately eroded. 
Sassafras loam, heavy substratum, 21 

to 2 percent slopes. 
Sassafras loamy sand, to 2 percent 21 

slopes. 

Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent 22 
elopes. 

Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent 22 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent 22 

slopes. 

Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent 22 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent 22 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 10 to 15 per- 22 

cent slopes. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 15 to 40 per- 22 

cent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent 22 

slopes. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent 22 
slopes. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent 22 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent 22 

slopes. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent 22 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent 23 



Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 per- 23 

cent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, heavy sub- 23 

stratum, to 2 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, heavy sub- 23 

stratum, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 23 

to 2 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 23 

2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 23 

2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Swamp 23 

Tidal marsh 23 

Woodstown loam, to 2 percent 24 
slopes. 

Woodstown sandy loam, to 2 per- 24 

cent slopes. 
Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 per- 24 

cent slopes, moderately eroded. 



Symbol 
IIe-13 

VIw-1 

IIIw-7 

Vw-1 

IVw-8 

IIIw-7 

IIIw-6 

IIIw-7 

IVw-8 

1-4 

IIe-4 

1-4 

IIs-4 

IIs-4 

lis- 4 

IIIe-33 

IIIe-33 

IVe-5 

IVe-5 

VIe-2 

1-5 

IIe-5 

IIe-5 

IIIe-5 

IIIe-5 

IVe-5 

VIe-2 

1-5 

Ile-o 

I-o 

IIe-5 

IIe-5 

VIIw-1 

VIIIw-1 

IIw-1 

IIw-5 

IIe-13 



Page 
27 

30 
28 
30 
29 
28 
28 
28 
29 
27 
27 

27 

28 

28 



Drainage 
group 



Number Page 
2-A 58 



Irrigation 
group 



Sewage 
disposal group 



8- lA 
10 

9- 1 
9-3A 
9-3B 
9-4A 
9-5B 



2-A 
2-B 
2-B 



Woodland 
suitability group 





— age 


N U7II bcr 


Page_ 


Number 


Page 


4 


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-- 


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1 


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2 


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-- 


- 


2 


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-- 


3 


60 


2 


36 


3 


54 


1 


57 


2 


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3 


54 


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57 


2 


36 


3 


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57 


2 


36 


3 


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2 


60 


2 


36 


3 


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2 


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2 


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2 


GO 


2 


36 






3 


60 


2 


36 


3 


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57 


2 


36 


3 


54 


1 


57 


2 


36 


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57 


2 


36 


3 


54 




57 


2 


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3 


54 


1 


57 


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8 


60 


10 


38 






8 


60 


10 


38 


4 


54 


7 


60 


1 


34 


3 


54 


7 


60 


2 


36 


3 


54 


7 


00 


2 


36 



641669—63 (Face p, 66) 



GENERAL SOIL MAP 
DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND caroune 




SOIL ASSOCIATIONS 

Sassafras-Galestown-Woodstown association: 
Moderately coarse textured and coarse textured 
soils that are dominaillly well drained. 
Fallsington-Woodstown Sassafras-Pocomoke 
association: Mediunrlextured to moderately 
coarse textured soils tFat are very poorly 
drained to well drainec. 
Elkton-Othello association: Moderately fine 
textured to medium-teitured soils that are 
dominantly poorly drained. 
Tidal nnarsh associati?i: Areas subject 
to flooding by salt watw. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 



SOIL LEGEND 



The firil etpltll letter is the initial one ot the sorl name. A second 
capital letter, A. B. C. D, E, or F, shows the slope Symbols wilhoul a 
slope lttt«r are those ot nearly level soils, such as Eikton loam, or ot 
the mi5ctltin«ou5 land types. Coastal beaches, and Made land, that have 
considersOle range m slope, A tmal number 2. or 3, shows that the soil 
is eroded, or leverely eroded. 



SYMBOL NAME SYMBOL NAME 



GaA 
GaB 
GaC 
GaD 
GeF 
GsA 
G5B 
GsC 
GsD 



KeA 
KpA 
KdB 



LcB 

LcD 



M(A 

MtB2 

MkA 
MkB 
Mk8? 

MkC 

MkC2 

MkD 
MdA 
MsA 
MsB 
MsB2 



Bayboro sill loam 
BaybofO siity clay loam 
Bibb sill loam 
Coastal beaches 

Elhton loam 
Eikton silt loam 
Eikton Silt loam, low 
Eikton silly clay loam 
Eikton silty day loam, low 

Fallsmston sandy loam 

Galestown loamy sand. to 2 percent slopes 
Galestown loamy sand. 2 to 5 percent slopes 
Galestown loamy sand. 5 lo 10 percent slopes 
Galestown loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes 
Galestown sand and loamy sard. 15 to 40 percent slopes 
Galestown sand, to 2 percent slopes 
Galestown sand. 2 to 5 percent slopes 
Galestown sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes 
Galestown sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes 

Johnston loam 

Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes 
Keyport sill loam. to 2 percent slopes 
Keyport silt loam. 2 to 5 percent slopes 
Klei loamy sand. to 2 percent slopes 
Klei loamy sand, 2 to S percent slopes 

Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 

to 2 percent slopes 

Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 

2 to 5 percent slopei 

Lakeland loamy santj, clayey substratum, 

5 to 15 ppfrent slopBS 

Lakeland sand, clayay substratum, 

lo 5 percent slooes 

Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, 

5 to 1 5 percent slopes 

Made land 

Matapeake fine sandy loam. to 2 percent slopes 
Maiapeake fine sandy loam. 
2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Mataoeake silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 
Matapeake sUt loam. 2 to 5 percent slopes 
Matapeake sUt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Matapeakf silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes 
Matapeako silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Matapeake silt loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes 
Matlaoex fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 
Mallapflx silt loam, lo 2 percent slopes 
Mattaoax silt foam. 2 to 5 percent slopes 
Mallapex tilt loam. 2 lo 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 
Mixed alluwiel land 



SaA 
SaB2 



SmC 
SmC2 

SmC3 

SmO 
SmF 
SnA 
SnB 
Sn82 

SnC 
SnC2 

SnD 
SnE 
SsA 

Ss82 

StA 

StB 

St92 



Sw 



WdA 
WoA 
WoB2 



Othello silt loam 
Othello silt loam, low 

Plummer loamy s#nd 
Pocomoke loam 
Pocomoke sandy loam 
Portsmouth sill Ipam 

Rutlege loamy sjnd 
Sassafras loam, to 2 
Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 
moderately eroded 
Sassafras loam, heavy s 
to 2 percent slopes 
Sassafras lo^^^y sand 
Sassafras logrny sand. 
Sassafras loamy sand, 
moderately eroded 
Sassafras loamy sand, 
Sassafras loamy sand, 
moderately eroded 
Sassafras loamy sand, 
severely eroded 
Sassafras loamy sand. 
Sassafras loamy sand. 
Sassafras sandy loam. 
Sassafras sandy loam. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 
moderately eroded 
Sassafras sandy loam, 
Sassafras sandy loam, 
moderately eroded 
Sassafras sandy loam, 
Sassafras sandy loam. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 
to 2 percent slopes 
Sassafras sandy loam, 
2 lo 6 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam. 
lo 2 percent slopes 
Sassafras sandy loam. 
2 to 5 percent slopes 
Sassafras sandy loam. 
2 to 5 percent slopes, 
Swamp 
Tidal marsh 

Woodstown loam, to 2 percent slopes 
Woodstown sandy loam. to 2 percent slopes 
Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 



percent slopes 
percent slopes. 



to 2 percent slopes 
2 to 5 percent slopes 
2 to 5 percent slopes, 

5 to 10 percent slopes 
5 to 10 percent slopes, 

5 to 10 percent slopes. 

10 to 15 percent slopes 
15 to 40 percent slopes 
to 2 percent slopes 
2 to 5 percent slopes 
2 to 5 percent slopes, 

5 to 10 percent slopes 
5 to 10 percent slopes, 

10 to 15 percent slopes 
15 to 30 percent slopes 
heavy substratum. 

heavy substratum, 
moderately eroded 
, thick solum. 



thick solum, 
moderately eroded 



Soil map constructed 1961 by Cartographrc Division, 
Soil Conservation Service. USOA. from 1957 aenal 
photographs Controlled mosaic based on Maryland 
plane coordinate system, Lambert conlormal come 
^ proiection, 1927 North American datum 



DORCHESTER COUNTY. MARYLAND 

WORKS AND STRUCTURES 

Highways and roads 

Dual — 

Good motor =^==^= 

Poor motor ; ==== = = = = = = = ===- 

Trail I 

Highway markers 



MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 



National Interstate 

\ 

U.S \ . 

State 
Railroads 

Single track 

Multiple track 

Abandoned 
Bridges and crossings 

Road 

Trail, foot 
Railroad 

Ferries . . - 

Ford 
Grade 
R, R. over 
R. R. under 
Tunnel 
Buildings 
School 

Church 

Station 



Mines and Quarries ,..(^ 

Mine dump 



o 

D 

o 



Pits, gravel or other . ^ 

Borrow pit Il 

Pipe lines 
Cemeteries 

Dams 

Levees 

Tanks 
Oil wells 

Forest fire or lookout Nation 




CONVENTIONAL SIGNS 

BOUNDARIES 



National or stale 
County 

Township. U. S. 
Section line, corner 

Reservation 

Land grant 







Streams 




fH 


Perennial 


> 




< 

Intermittent, unclass. 




-1- 


Canals and ditches 




\ Lakes and ponds 




Perennial 
1 ntermittent 

Wells 

Springs 

Marsh 

Wet spot 



cr3 



RELIEF 



Escarpments 
Bedrock 

Other 

Prominent peaks 

Depressions 

Crossable with tillage 
implements 

Not crossable with tillage 
implements 

Contains water most of 
the time 



SOIL SURVEY DATA 



Soil boundary 
and Symbol 
Gravel 
Stones 

Rock outcrops 
Chert fragments 
Clay spot 
Sand spot 

Gumbo or scabby spot 
Made land 

Severely eroded spot 
Blowout, wind erosion 
Gullies 



r 



DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND- SHEET NUMBER 1 




DORCHESTER COUNTY. MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 4 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND SHEET NUMBER 5 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 6 
\ 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND- SHEET NUMBER 7 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 8 




I 



DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 9 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND -SHEET NUMBER 10 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 11 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 12 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 13 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 15 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 19 




DOF HE;"iR COUNTY, MARYLAND- SHEET NUMBER 20 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MAR - -l 




R COUNTY, marylak: 




Sv, 5 000 reel '''"e' 31J 

Sea le 1 ; 20 000 I I I I 1 1 



DORCHESTER COUNTS, MARYLAND -SHEET NUMBER 24 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 25 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 27 




V2 . 5000 Feel (Joins sheel 33) 

I 1 1 Scale 1:20 000 i i i i i 



DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 29 




Scale 1:20 000 



DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND -SHEET NUMBER 30 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND -SHEET NUMBER 36 

'o»ns sheet 30) 




DORCHES - : -NTY. MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 39 




DORCHEST— JUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 40 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 41 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND- SHEET NUMBER 43 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 44 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND -SHEET NUMBER 46 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND- SHEET NUMBER 47 




DORCHEv^-_t ■;a--lAM:; : -EET number 48 

(Joins sheet 44) 




DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 53 




DORCHESTER COUNTS, MARYUND - SHEET NUMBER 54 




DORCHESTER COUNTY. MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 55 




iMiie 5000 Pcet (Joins sheet 56) 

-• 1 Scale 1:20 000 i i i i i < 



DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND-SHEET NUMBER 5t 




p'''^ICc^D -SHEET NUMBER 57 





U S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 



DORCHESTER COUNTY, MARYLAND 



MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIOI 



WORKS AND STRUCTURES 

HiBhwsys and road'. 
Dua 

Good motor 
Poor motor 



CONVENTIONAL SIGNS 

BOUNDARIES 



SOIL SURVEY DATA 



Tfail 

Highway markers 

National Inlcrstate 

U. S 

Slate 
Railroads 

Single track 
Multiple track 
Abandoned 
Bridges and crossings 
Road 

Trail, loot 

Railroad 

Femes 

Ford 

Grade 

R R, over 

R. R. under 

Tunnel 
Buildings 

School 

Church 

Station 
Mines and Quarries 
Mine dump 
Pits, (iravel or other 
Borrow pit 
Pipeline 
Cemeteries 
Dams 
Levees 
Tanks 
Oil wells 

Forest tir*- Of lookout st.itiu 



o 

a 

o 




National or state 
County 

Township, U. S 
Section line, corner 
Reservation 
Land grant 



Soil boundary 
and symbol 
Gravel 
Stones 

Rock outcrops 
Chert Iragments 
Clay spot 
Sand spot 

Gumbo or scabby spot 
Made land 

Severely eroded spot 
Blowout, wind erosion 
Guihes 



SOIL LEGEND 



SYMBOL 



The first capital letter is the initial one of the soil name. A second 
caoital letter. A, 8, C, D. E, or F, shows the slope, Symbols without a 
slope letter are those of nearly level soils, such as Elkton loam, or of 
the miscellaneous land types. Coastal beaches, and Made land, that have 
considerable range m slope A final number 2, or 3, shows that ttie soil 
is eroded, or severely eroded. 



NAME 



Streams 
Perennial 

Intermittent, unclass. 
Canals and ditches 
Lakes and ponds 

Perennial 

Intermittent 
Wells 
Springs 
Ma-sh 
Wet spot 




Escarpments 

Bedrock 

Other 
Prominent peaks 

Depressions 

Crossable with tillage 
implements 

Not crossable with tillage 
implements 

Contains water most of 
the ttme 



Qa Bayboro silt loam 

Bb Baybo'O silty day loam 

Bm Bibb silt loam 

Co Coastal beaches 

Ek Elkton loam 

Em Elkton Silt loam 

En Elktcn silt loam, low 

Eo Elkton silty clay loam 

Et Elkton silty clay loam, low 

Fa Fallsmgton sandy loam 

GaA Galestown loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes 

GaB Galestown loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

GaC Galestown loamy sand. 5 to 10 percent slopes 

GaD Galestown loamy sand. 10 lo 15 percent slopes 

GeF Galestown sand and loamy sand. 16 to 40 percent slopes 

GsA Galestown sand, to 2 percent slopes 

GsB Galestown sand. 2 to 5 percent slopes 

GsC Galestown sand. 5 to 10 percent slopes 

GsD Galestown sand, 10 to 16 percent slopes 

Jo Johnston loam 

KeA Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes 

KpA Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

KpB Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slooes 

KsA Klei loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes 

Ks8 Klei loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

LaA Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 

to 2 percent slooes 
LaB Lakeland loamy sand, dayey substratum, 

2 to 5 percent slopes 
LaD Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 

5 to 15 percent slopes 
LcB Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, 

lo 5 percent slopes 
LcD Lakeland sand, clayey substratum, 

5 to 15 percent slopes 

Ma Made land 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 percent stooes 
Malapeake fme sandy loam, 
2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Matapeake silt loam. to 2 percent slopes 
Mataoeake Silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 
Matapeake sitt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Matapeake sill loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes 
Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Matapeake silt loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes 
Mattapex fine sandy loam. to 2 percent slopes 
Mattapex silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 
Mattapex silt loam. 2 to 5 percent slopes 
Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 
Mixed alluvial land 



MfA 
MIB2 

MkA 
MkB 
MkB2 

MkC 
MkC2 

MkO 
MpA 
MsA 
MsB 
MsB2 

Mx 



Oh Othello silt loam 

Ot Othello silt loam, low 

Pm Plummer loamy sand 

Po Pocomoke loam 

Ps Pocomoke sandy loam 

Pt Portsmouth silt loam 

Ru Rutlege loamy sand 

SaA Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes 

SaB2 Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

moderately eroded 
ShA Sassafras loam, heavy substratum. 

to 2 percent slopes 
SmA Sassafras loamy sand. to 2 percent slopes 
SmS Sassafras loamy sand. 2 to 5 percent slopes 
SmB2 Sassafras loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

moderately eroded 
SmC Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes 
SmC2 Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 

moderately eroded 
SmC3 Sassafras loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 

severely eroded 
SmO Sassafras loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes 
SmF Sassafras loamy sand, 15 to 40 percent slopes 
SnA Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 
SnB Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes 
SnB2 Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 
SnC Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes 
SnC2 Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 

moderately eroded 
SnD Sassalras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes 
SnE Sassafras sandy loam. 15 to 30 percent slopes 
SsA Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum, 

to 2 percent slopes 
Ss82 Sassafras sandy loam, heavy substratum. 

2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
StA Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 

to 2 percent slopes 
StB Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 

2 to 5 percent slopes 
StB2 Sassafras sandy loam, thick solum, 

2 to 6 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Sw Swamp 
Tm Tidal marsh 

WdA Woodstown loam, to 2 percent slopes 
WoA Woodstown sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 
Wo82 Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 



Soil map constructed 1961 by Cartographic Divisioi 
Soil Conservation Service, USDA, from 1957 aerial 
photographs, Controlled mosaic based on Marylanc 
plane coordinate system. Lambert conformal conic 
projection, 1927 North American datum 



INDEX TO MAP SHEETS 




t 

I 



t 



GENERAL BOOKBINDING ( 

q 

QUALITY CONTROL MARK 



4 



I