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Full text of "Soil survey, Queen Anne's County, Maryland"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/soilsurveyqueenaOOmatt 



Mary land 

k - O I L SURVEY 




Queen Annes 
County, Maryland 




OUR SOIL * OUR STRENGTH 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
Soil Conservation Service 
In cooperation with 
MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

Issued September 1966 



rr> . 3 a 

Major fieldwork for this survey was done in the period 1942-1961. Soil names and descriptions 
were approved in 1964. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in the publication refer to con- 
ditions in the county in 1964. This survey of Queen Annes County was made as part of the tech- 
nical assistance furnished by the Soil Conservation Service to the Queen Annes Soil Conservation 
District. 



HOW TO USE THIS SOIL SURVEY REPORT 



rjlHIS SOIL SURVEY of Queen Annes 
A County, Md., contains information that 
can be applied in managing farms and 
woodlands; in selecting sites for roads, 
ponds, buildings, and other structures ; and 
in appraising the value of tracts of land 
for agriculture, industry, or recreation. 

Locating Soils 

All the soils of Queen Annes County are 
shown on the detailed map at the back of 
this report. This map consists of many 
sheets that are made from aerial photo- 
graphs. Each sheet is numbered to cor- 
respond with numbers shown on the Index 
to Map Sheets. 

On each sheet of the detailed map, soil 
areas are outlined and are identified by 
symbol. All areas marked with the same 
symbol are the same kind of soil. The soil 
symbol is inside the area if there is enough 
room ; otherwise, it is outside and a pointer 
shows where the symbol belongs. 

Finding and Using Information 

The "Guide to Mapping Units" can be 
used to find information in the report. 
This guide lists all of the soils of the county 
in alphabetic order by map symbol. It 
shows the page where each kind of soil is 
described, and also the page for the 
capability unit, drainage group, irrigation 
group, and woodland group in which the 
soil has been placed. 

Individual colored maps showing the 
relative suitability or limitations or soils 
for many specific purposes can be devel- 
oped by using the soil map and informa- 
tion in the text. Interpretations not 
included in the text can be developed by 
grouping the soils according to their suit- 
ability or limitations for a particular use. 
Translucent material can be used as an 
overlay over the soil map and colored to 
show soils that have the same limitation or 



suitability. For example, soils that have 
a slight limitation for a given use can be 
colored green, those with a moderate limi- 
tation can be colored yellow, and those with 
a severe limitation can be colored red. 

F armers and those who work with farm- 
ers can learn about use and management of 
the soils in the soil descriptions and in the 
discussions of the section describing the 
soils and the section that discusses man- 
agement of soils for cultivated crops and 
pasture. 

Foresters and others can refer to the sub- 
section "Woodland," where the soils of the 
county are grouped according to their suit- 
ability for trees. 

Game managers, sportsmen, and others 
concerned with wildlife will find informa- 
tion about soils and wildlife in the sub- 
section "Wildlife." 

Community planners and others con- 
cerned with suburban development can 
read about the soil properties that affect 
the choice of homesites, industrial sites, 
schools, and parks in the subsection "Non- 
farm Uses of Soils." 

Engineers and builders will find under 
"Engineering Uses of Soils" tables that 
give engineering descriptions of the soils 
in the county and that name soil features 
that affect engineering practices and 
structures. 

Scientists and others can read about how 
the soils were formed and how they are 
classified in the section "Formation and 
Classification of Soils." 

Students, teachers, and others will find 
information about soils and their manage- 
ment in various parts of the text, depend- 
ing on their particular interest. 

Newcomers in Queen Annes County may 
be especially interested in the section "Gen- 
eral Soil Map," where broad patterns of 
soils are described. They may also be 
interested in the section "General Nature 
of the County," which gives additional 
information. 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE:1966 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C; 20402 



Contents 



General nature of the county 1 

Physiography, relief, and drainage 1 

Climate 2 

Vegetation 4 

Industry 4 

Transportation and markets 4 

Agriculture 4 

Farms and farm labor 4 

Crops and pasture 5 

Livestock and poultry 5 

How soils are mapped and classified 5 

General soil map ___ 6 

1. Galestown-Lakeland-Downer association 6 

2. Sassafras-Woodstown association 7 

3. Matapeake-Butlertown association 7 

4. Mattapex-Keyport association 8 

5. Elkton-Ot hello association 8 

6. Fallsington-Pocomoke association 9 

Descriptions of the soils 9 

Bayboro series 11 

Bertie series 11 

Bibb series._ 12 

Bladen series 12 

Butlertown series 12 

Coastal beaches 13 

Downer series 13 

Elkton series 14 

Fallsington series 15 

Galestown series 16 

Gravel and borrow pits 17 

Johnston series 17 

Keyport series 17 

Klej series 18 

Lakeland series 19 

Made land.-. 19 

Matapeake series 19 

Mattapex series 21 

Mixed alluvial land— 23 

Othello series 23 

Plummer series 24 

Pocomoke series 24 

Portsmouth series 25 



Descriptions of the soils ( lontinued 

Sassafras series 25 

Swam j) 27 

Tidal marsh 27 

Woodstown series 28 

Use and management of the soils 29 

Capability groups of soils 29 

Management by capability units 31 

General management practices 37 

Drainage 37 

Soil amendments 37 

Rotations 38 

Tillage 39 

Residue management 39 

Estimated yields 40 

Woodland ' 43 

Woodland suitability groups 43 

Wildlife.. 49 

Engineering uses of soils . 55 

Engineering descriptions and physical prop- 
erties 55 

Soil interpretations for engineering 62 

Soil test data 67 

Drainage groups of soils 70 

Irrigation groups of soils 77 

Nonfarm uses of soils 90 

Recreational uses of soils . . 90 

Use of the soil survey in community planning 90 

Formation and classification of soils 91 

Factors of soil formation 91 

Climate 91 

Plant and animal life 96 

Parent material 96 

Topography 97 

Time - 97 

Interrelationships of soil series 97 

Morphology of soils 98 

Classification of the soils 98 

Detailed descriptions of soil profiles 101 

Literature cited 116 

Glossary 116 

Guide to mapping units Following 117 



NOTICE TO LIBRARIANS 

Series year and series number are no longer shown 
on soil surveys. See explanation on the next page. 



Issued September 1966 



EXPLANATION 

Sew ks Year and Series Number 

Series year and number were dropped from all soil surveys senl to the printer after December 31, 
L965. Many surveys, however, were then at such advanced stage of printing thai it was not feasible 
to remove series year and number. Consequently, the last issues bearing series year and number will 
I <v as follows : 

Scries 1957, No. 23, Las Vegas-Eldorado Area, Series 19G0, No. 31 Elbert County, Colo. 

Nev. (Eastern part) 

Series 1958, No. 34, Grand Traverse County, Series 1961, No. 42, Camden County, N.J. 

.Mich. Series 1962, No. 13, Chicot County" Ark. 

Series 1959, No. 42, Judith Basin Area, Mont. Series 1963, No. 1, Tippah County, Miss. 

Series numbers will be consecutive in each series year, up to and including the numbers shown in the 
foregoing list. The soil survey for Tippah County. .Mi^-.. will be the last to have a series year and 
series number. 



ii 



SOIL SURVEY OF QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 



BY EARLE D. MATTHEWS AND WILLIAM U. REYBOLD, III, 
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 

SURVEY BY JOHN R. ARNO, F. G. GLADWIN, RICHARD I. HALL, F. Z. HUTTON, SR., L. W. ILGEN, L. E. LINDLEY, 
J. E. McCUEN, WILLIAM U. REYBOLD, III, AND JOHN J. STILWELL, JR., SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE, UNITED 

STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN COOPERATION WITH MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL EXPERI- 
MENT STATION 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY is in eastern Maryland, 
in the north-central part of the peninsula called the 
Eastern Shore (fig. 1). The county occupies 238,720 
acres, or 373 square miles. Centreville, the largest town 
and the county seat, is in the approximate center of the 
county and is at the head of navigation of the tidal Cor- 
sica River, an arm of the Chester River. Smaller towns 
are Stevensville, Church Hill, Grasonville, Queen Anne, 
and Queenstown. 

Settlement of the county began before the middle of 
the 17th century. Most of the colonists came from Eng- 
land, but some were religious refugees from New England 
and Virginia who came to the State because of the Mary- 
land Toleration Act of 1649. Settlement was mainly on 
or near navigable rivers or Chesapeake Bay, for travel and 
transportation were mainly by water. The county was 
organized in 1706. In 1960 it had a popidation of 16,569 
that was fairly evenly distributed except in the extreme 
eastern part, which is more sparsely populated. 

About 94 percent of the land area in the county has 
soils that are suitable for cultivation. An additional 5 
percent consists of soils that are not well suited to culti- 




Figure 1. — Location of Queen Annes County in Maryland. 



vated crops but that can be used as woodland or, to some 
extent, for growing forage for livestock. The small re- 
maining acreage is made up of marshes and beaches that 
are not suitable for farming. 

About 60 percent of the acreage suitable for cultiva- 
tion consists of soils that need artificial drainage before 
they can be used extensively for agriculture. Some of 
these soils need intensive drainage before they can be 
cropped. About 44 percent of the acreage suitable for 
cultivation is subject to erosion, but the hazard is severe 
only in rather small areas. Some areas subject to erosion 
also need draining. Only about 4 percent of the acreage 
suited to cultivated crops consists of soils that need no 
special management practices. 

The climate is favorable for general farming, for rais- 
ing poultry, and for growing truck crops, small fruits, 
and orchard fruits. It is suited to forest trees and is 
favorable for lumbering. 

Areas of marsh are not extensive, but they attract large 
numbers of migratory waterfowl. Opportunities for 
hunting and fishing attract many sportsmen to the county. 
Urban areas are not extensive, out some large residential 
areas are being developed, particularly on Kent Island 
and other areas along the waterfront. 

General Nature of the County 

This section gives information about the physiography, 
relief, and drainage of the county. It also describes the 
climate and the vegetation and discusses industry, trans- 
portation and markets, and agriculture. 

Physiography, Relief, and Drainage 

Queen Annes County lies on the Atlantic Coastal 
Plain. Its acreage is partly on the mainland and partly 
on islands, mainly Kent and Wye Islands. Kent Island 
is in the Chesapeake Bay and is separated from the main- 
land by Kent Narrows. Wye Island is separated from 
the mainland by the Wye River, the Wye East River, 
and Wye Narrows. 

l 



2 



SOIL SURVEY 



Table 1. — Temperature and 



[Elevation 



Month 


Temperature 


Average 
heat ing 
degree-days 


Average 

daily 
maximum 


Average; 

daily 
minimum 


Average monthly extremes 


Extremes 


Highest 


Lowest 


1 1 ighc^t 


Lowest 


January. _ 


°F. 


°F. 


°F. 


°F. 


-F. 


/••. 




44 


27 


64 


8 


77 


-13 


920 


February-- . ________ 


1 i' 
40 


Hi! 

26 


64 


9 


76 


-12 


810 


March 


54 


33 


74 


17 


90 


3 


670 


April _ _ 


66 


42 


84 


28 


9] 


22 


330 


May 


75 


52 


89 


37 


96 


28 


90 


June.. _ . _ 


83 


61 


95 


47 


Kil 


38 


10 


July . 


87 


66 


97 


54 


105 


47 





August- _ _ 


85 


64 


95 


51 


103 


44 





September-. 


80 


57 


93 


411 


100 


31 


40 


October. . . 


69 


46 


85 


29 


93 


22 


240 


November 


58 


36 


74 


L6 


88 


5 


530 


December 


46 


27 


64 


10 


73 


- 1 


870 


Year.. _ 


66 


45 


98 


3 


105 


-13 


4, 510 



1 Less than one-half clay. 2 Less than one-half inch. 



The western part of the county is a low, almost level 
plain that is less than 20 feet above sea level in most 
places and is barely above high tide near Kent Narrows. 
This part of the county runs west of a line between 
Queens! own and the eastern tip of Wye I -land and 
includes both Wye Island and Kent Island. Few streams 
dissect the surface of this plain, but small bays branching 
off from Chesapeake Bay indent the shores and create 
many narrow peninsulas, locally known as necks. Waves 
and tides are cutting away parts of the shoreline and are 
causing the shore to erode. 

Except for narrow areas along the Chester River and 
the Wye East River and major tributaries, the rest of 
the county is more than 20 feet above sea level. Along 
the Chester River from Queenstown to Wilmers Point 
are many necks, or peninsulas, that have an elevation of 
more than 20 feet. In many places these necks have 
distinct bluffs that drop off rather sharply to the water. 

That part of the county having an elevation of more 
than 20 feet consists of an upland plain that is mostly 
very gently sloping but in places is moderately rolling. 
The plain is well dissected and, in most places, has good 
surface drainage. Most of its soils are well or moderately 
well drained, though many small areas are more poorly 
drained. To the east and south of Peters Corners is a 
small area adjoining Kent County, Del., that is nearly 
level, is marked by a number of depressions, and has an 
average elevation of about 70 feet. This area is wet, in 
some places is swampy, and is very poorly drained. It 
heads many small streams that flow into Maryland and 
Delaware. 

The highest point in the county is about 1 mile north- 
west of Starr and is 87 feet above sea level. From this 
point, the county is drained in three directions. Most of 
it is drained west and south to the Wye East River. 
North and west of a triangle formed by connecting Starr, 
Barclay, and Cleaves Forks, drainage is northeast toward 



the Delaware line and eventually into the Chester River. 
The eastern part of the county is drained by small 
streams that flow into Tuckahoe Creek, a main tributary 
of the Choptank River. Surface drainage is entirely 
within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. 

Climate 1 

Queen Amies County has a humid, temperate, semi- 
continental climate. Winter is usually mild, and summer 
is very warm and moist. Spring and fall are the most 
pleasant seasons. 

Because most weather systems in this temperate region 
move in an easterly direction, the influence of the Atlantic 
Ocean is slight. Alternating high and low pressure 
systems usually dominate or control the climate of the 
county. High pressure systems sweep in generally from 
the west or northwest and are preceded by a front that 
brings rain or snow according to the season and the 
temperature. After the front passes, drying winds blow 
from the northwest. As the high passes over Queen 
Annes County, the wind normally shifts to the south or 
southwest and brings in warmer, moist air that remains 
until the next front passes. 

Low-pressure systems generally arrive from the south- 
west or west, along frontal lines. If a low passes to the 
north of Queen Annes County, precipitation is likely to 
be scanty. If it passes to the south, however, winds move 
counterclockwise and bring in much moist air from the 
South Atlantic or the Gulf of Mexico. As a result, pre- 
cipitation occurs as warm rain in summer and as cold 
rain or wet snow in winter. The most severe winter 
storms generally are of this type. 



1 This section was prepared chiefly by A. Delbekt Peterson, 
State climatologist for Maryland and Delaware, Weather Bureau, 
U.S. Department of Commerce. 



QUEEN ANNUS COUNTY, MARYLAND 



3 



precipitation at Mill in (/ton , Mil. 



30 feet] 



Precipitation 




Average 


[lumber of days with 














Snow, 


sleet, or hail 


Precipil ation of 






Tempera! lire 


Average 


Daily 




























maximum 






]V 


[onthly 


J lauj 


t ) lit it. .A-. *.<-< 

(i. lu in cues 


u. ou incnes 


Snowfall 


I 


Maximum 


Minimum of 






Averag 


e 


maximum 


maximum 


or more 


or more 


inch or more 


90° and 


32° and 
























higher 




lower 




1 lu ht s 


Inches 


I nchen 






Inches 


Inches 










°F. 




°F. 




3. 7 


2. 51 




6 




25 


16 


7 


2 




2 









22 


2. 9 


1. 70 




6 




25 


15 


6 


2 




2 









21 


3. 9 


3. 50 




3 




21 


9 


8 


3 




1 









17 


3. 3 


2. 33 




1 




15 


15 


7 


2 


0) 




0) 






4 


3. 9 


2. 36 















7 


3 









1 


0) 




3. 2 


4. 84 















6 


2 









6 







4. 2 


3. 14 















7 


3 









10 







4. 9 


5. 84 















7 


3 









7 







3. 6 


4. 95 















5 


2 









3 


(«) 




3. 


2. 24 


( 2 ) 






3 


3 


5 


2 


(') 




(') 






3 


3. 5 


5. 82 


( 2 ) 






10 


6 


6 


2 


(') 











12 


3. 1 


2. 66 


4 




26 


18 


6 


2 




1 









22 


43. 2 


5. 84 




21 




46 


18 


77 


28 




6 




27 




101 



The Appalachian Mountains and the waters of Chesa- 
peake Bay moderate the cold air from the northwest, but 
they have much less effect on air from the south or 
southwest. 

Table 1 shows, by monthly averages, climatic data 
recorded at Milling-ton, just across the county line in Kent 
County, Md., during the 30-year period of 1931-60. 
These data are representative of Queen Amies County. 
The temperature in the county is similar to that at 
Millington, but near the shore of Chesapeake Bay, the 
temperature early in the morning is slightly warmer and 
on a summer afternoon is slightly cooler. The hottest 
period is late in July, when the maximum afternoon 
temperature averages 88° F. The coldest period, on the 
average, is early in February, when the minimum tem- 
perature is about 25°. The highest temperature normally 
expected in summer is 96°, though 105° was recorded in 
July 1936. The lowest temperature recorded at Milling- 
ton was —13° on January 28, 1935, but the lowest in 
Queen Amies County normally is 3° to 5° above zero. 
Table 2 shows the probability of freezing temperatures at 
Millington on or after given dates in spring and on or 
before given dates in fall. 

Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout 
the year. Only in July and August does rainfall average 
more than 4 inches. Rainfall is more variable and less 
dependable in summer than in winter, and evaporation 
and water usage are much higher. Local thundershowers 
are common and may bring as much as 2 or 3 inches of 
rain in one area, much of the rainwater running off, 
though areas a few miles away may have only a sprinkle. 
In winter, precipitation occurs from general storms that 
cover large areas. 

Serious droughts are most likely in summer, though 
water that falls as rain and that stored in the soil 
generally are adequate for good crop yields. In some 
years, however, supplemental irrigation is needed for 



maximum yields because summer showers are unequally 
distributed, occasional dry periods occur at a critical 
stage of plant growth, and the evaporation rate is high 
in summer. 

The annual snowfall ranges from 20 to 25 inches, but 
it varies from year to year. Only a trace fell in the 
winter of 1949-50, but 48 inches was measured in 1933- 
1934. Thunderstorms occur on the average of 30 to 45 
days a year, and three-fourths of them are in summer. 
Hail falls once or twice a year. 

Tornadoes are infrequent and ordinarily cause little 
damage. Hurricanes occur about once a year, usualty in 
August or September. Generally, they cause only minor 
damage, but once in a while a severe hurricane passes 

Table 2. — Probabilities of freezing temperatures in spring 

and in fall 

[Data from Millington, Kent County, Md.] 



Probability 



Spring: 

1 year in 10 later than 

1 year in 5 later than 

1 year in 2 later than 

4 years in 5 later than 

9 years in 10 later than. . 

Fall: 

1 year in 10 earlier than. 
1 year in 5 earlier than _ . 
1 year in 2 earlier than. _ 
4 years in 5 earlier than_. 
9 years in 10 earlier than 



Dates for given probability 
and temperature 



16° F. 


24° F. 


32° F. 


or lower 


or lower 


or lower 


Mar. 


12 


Apr. 8 


May 


3 


Mar. 


6 


Apr. 2 


Apr. 


28 


Feb. 


23 


Mar. 22 


Apr. 


19 


Feb. 


11 


Mar. 11 


Apr. 


10 


Feb. 


6 


Alar. 5 


Apr. 


5 


Nov. 


26 


Nov. 1 


Oct. 


8 


Dec. 


1 


Nov. 5 


Oct. 


12 


Dec. 


10 


Nov. 15 


Oct. 


21 


Dec. 


19 


Nov. 24 


Oct. 


29 


Dec. 


24 


Nov. 29 


Nov. 


3 



1 



SOIL SURVEY 



nearby and causes great damage because it is accom- 
panied by strong winds, heavy rains and the resultant 
floods, and exceptionally high (ides. 

The prevailing wind is from the northwest in winter, 
and fr I he south or southwest in May through Septem- 
ber. The average wind velocity is about 8 to 10 miles 
per hour, but winds of 50 to GO miles per hour sometimes 
accompany severe thunderstorms, hurricanes, or general 
storms. 

The relative humidity is lowest in winter and spring 
and is highest in summer when tropical air overlies the 
area much of the time. In the afternoon, humidity 
generally ranges from f>0 to 55 percent, in winter and 
spring and is about GO percent in summer. Normally, 
the humidity is highest near sunrise; at this hour it is 
about 90 percent in summer and 70 to 75 percent in winter 
and spring. 

Vegetation 

Queen Amies County was once occupied almost entirely 
by hardwood trees. Because most of the soils are at 
least moderately well drained, oak-, dominate, in the 
forests, and, in wet areas, they are still extensive. Other 
important trees in wet areas were red maple, sweetgum, 
blackgum, holly, bay, dogwood, beech, and birch. 

White oak has been especially important in the county, 
but most of the original stands have been harvested, and 
the only old trees remaining are some outstanding 
specimens. 

A few loblolly and Virginia pines probably grew in 
some areas, but they were not numerous until after many 
areas had been cleared. Virginia pine encroaches in 
many areas thai have been abandoned or heavily cut over, 
particularly if the soils are coarse textured and tend to 
be somewhat droughty. Loblolly pine, sometimes known 
as oldfield pine, encroaches on some soils, particularly 
those that have impeded drainage. Queen Amies County, 
however, is at about the northern limit of the natural 
range of loblolly pine, and extensive or fairly pure stands 
of this tree are rare. Tidal marsh supports coarse grasses 
and rushes, and there are a few shrubs and small trees 
that tolerate salt or brackish water. 

Industry 

The industries of Queen Amies County are closety 
related to agriculture and to the natural resources of the 
area. There are canneries, packinghouses for agricul- 
tural products and seafood, and facilities for marketing 
and dist ributing fresh fish, oysters, clams, and crabs. The 
county also has fertilizer plants and outlets for farm 
machinery and equipment. Lumbering is not so 
important now as in the past, but income from this 
source has increased in the last several years. 

Transportation and Markets 

In colonial days transportation was mainly bv T water, 
for all the settlements were on or near Chesapeake Bay or 
navigable rivers. The waterways are still an important 
means of transportation, though the economy of the 
county is no longer entirely dependent on them. Small 



tankers, grain ships, and other cargo carriers still call at, 
many of the small ports of the Eastern Shore, including 
those in Queen Amies County. 

Modern highways now cross the county in nearly all 
directions, and there are many paved or hard-surfaced 
secondary roads. This county is the eastern terminus of 
t lie Chesapeake Hay Bridge, which connect- Kent Island 
with the western shore of the bay, near Annapolis. 
Crossing this bridge are U.S. Highway No. 50, a main 
route to Ocean City and other points on the Eastern 
Shore, and U.S. 301, one of the main routes between 
Florida and the Wilmington-Philadelphia area. Thus, 
Queen Amies County is easily accessible to markets in 
Annapolis, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., and all other 
point- west of the bay. Because the bridge is a shortcut 
to the Atlantic beaches and other resort areas on the 
Eastern Shore of Maryland and Delaware, traffic is 
especially heavy on weekends throughout the warmer 
months. 

The county is served by the ( 'ent reville Branch (Balti- 
more and Eastern Railroad) of the Pennsylvania Kail- 
road, and by the Oxford Branch of this railroad, which 
touches the county at Queen Anne. 

Agriculture 

This county is particularly favorable for agriculture 
because the soils respond well to management, the temper- 
ate climate provides a fairly long growing season, and 
rainfall is well distributed. In 1960, there were 812 
farms in the county. They occupied a total of 182,772 
acres, a decrease of nearly 9 percent since 1950. 

Agriculture, in the county is fairly well diversified. 
Most areas are well suited to general farming or to the 
growing of truck and fruit crops, but some need artificial 
drainage before they are farmed. 

In the following pages is information about farms and 
farm labor in the county, crops and pasture grown, and 
livestock and poultry raised. The statistics used are 
from "Comparative Census of Maryland Agriculture by 
Counties" (5) 2 and from the 1959 Census of Agriculture. 

Farms and farm labor 

In 1959, the dairy farm was the most common type in 
Queen Annes County. Other but less numerous types of 
farms were cash-grain farms, poultry farms, livestock 
farms, general farms, and vegetable farms. Of the 812 
farms, 608 were commercial farms, 110 were part-time 
farms, and 91 were unclassified. 

The average size of farms in 1959 was 225.1 acres. 
There were 35 farms less than 10 acres in size, 112 farms 
of 10 to 19 acres, 78 farms of 50 to 99 acres, 511 farms 
of 100 to 199 acres, and 76 farms of 500 acres or larger. 
The number of farms having less than 50 acres and those 
having 500 acres or more increased between 1950 and 
1959. However, the majority of farms — those of 50 to 
500 acres — decreased sharply in number during the same 
period, and the average size of farms increased by a 
little more than 5 percent. 



2 Italicized numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, 
p. 116. 



QFKKN AX.NKS COUNT V, M Ali V I.A.N 1) 



r, 



Most, farms in (he county were, operated by (tuners or 
part-owners in 1959, though 2S.."> percent were operated 
by tenants. Most of the tenants operated on a share 
basis, but many of them rented the farms they operated. 

In this county mechanized equipment is a much more 
important source of power than horses and mules. Trac- 
tors were reported on 7oS farms in 1!>60, hut there were 
only 512 horses and mules in the entire county, and 
many of the horses were used as mounts instead of work 
animals. Trucks were reported on 593 farms, grain 
combines on 305 farms, corn pickers on 335 farms, hay 
balers on 262 farms, and milking machines on 377 farms. 

Crops and pasture 

In Queen Annes County crops were harvested on 96,842 
acres in 1959. In only two other counties in Maryland, 
Frederick and Carroll, was a greater acreage harvested. 
Table 3 gives the acreage of the most important field 
crops and vegetable crops grown in the county in 1960 
and also the number of fruit trees. The most extensively 
grown crop was corn harvested for grain. This county 
led the State in 1959 in acres planted to corn and in total 
bushels of corn harvested, 2,198,436. Other crops, in 
order of their acreage, were hay, wheat, soybeans, barley, 
vegetables for sale, oats, and corn for silage or forage. 

Fewer acres of vegetable crops were harvested for sale 
in this county in 1960 than in any other county on the 
Eastern Shore of Maryland, except for Cecil County, only 
part of which is on the Shore. The most important 
vegetable crop in Queen Annes County was sweet corn. 

A total of 30,224 acres was pastured in Queen Annes 
County in 1959, a decrease of 26 percent since 1949. Of 
this acreage, more than 24,000 acres was cropland used 
temporarily for pasture. Considering the size of the 
county, this acreage is small. Except for swine, how- 
ever, livestock is of minor importance, and little pasture 
is needed. 



Table 3. — Acreage of principal crops and number of fruit 
trees of all ages in 1.960 



Crop 



Corn harvested for grain 

Corn, sweet 

Corn cut for silage 

Wheat 

Barlev 

Oats.l 

Rye 

Soybeans harvested for beans_ 

Hay 

Vegetables harvested for sale 1 

Green peas 

Tomatoes 

Lima beans 

Cucumbers 

Snap beans 

Strawberries 

Peach trees 

Apples trees 



Unit 



Acres 
39, 354 

2, 949 

3, 127 
15, 141 

5, 729 
3, 439 
1, 035 
9, 698 
19, 097 
3, 572 
244 
125 
77 
25 
3 
10 

Number 
1, 536 
425 



gram and soybeans, 
and calves on farms, oi 



1 Includes sweet corn, melons, cabbage, sweet peppers, asparagus, 
and spinach. 



Livestock and poultry 

In general, livestock raising is less important in Queen 

Annes County than the growing of field crops, especially 
In 1960, there were 24,153 cattle 
which 1 I , I Is were milk cow s. 
Between 1950 and 1960. the number of milk cows 
decreased sharply, but this decrease was offset by an 
increase in beef cat I le. 

In 1960, Queen Anne- was second in Maryland in pro 
duction of hogs and pigs. There were 16,952 on farms, a 
number that is practically the same as that in L950. 
More than 22,000 hogs ana pigs were sold alive in I960. 
( )ther livestock in 1960 included 512 horses and mule- and 
2,343 sheep and lambs. 

Poultry is important in Queen Anne- County but not 
so important as in some other counties on the Eastern 
Shore. Income from the sale of eggs is considerably less 
than that from the sale of chickens for meat. In 1960 
there were only 59,508 mature chickens on farms, yel 
more than 403,000 chickens were sold because eggs pro- 
duced locally were hatched mainly for broilers. Only 
246,650 dozens of eggs were sold, or only about 4 dozen 
eggs per mature chicken. 



How Soils Are Mapped and Classified 

Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of 
soils are in Queen Annes County, where they are located, 
and how they can be used. They went into the county 
knowing they likely would find many soils they had 
already seen, and perhaps some they had not. As they 
traveled over the county, they observed steepness, length, 
and shape of slopes; size and speed of streams; kinds 
of native plants or crops; and many facts about the 
soils. They dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A 
profile is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a 
soil; it extends from the surface down into the parent 
material that has not been changed much by leaching or 
by roots of plants. 

The soil scientists made comparisons among the profiles 
they studied, and they compared these profiles with those 
in counties nearby and in places more distant. They 
classified and named the soils according to nationwide, 
uniform procedures. To use this report efficiently, it is 
necessary to know the kinds of groupings most used in a 
local soil classification. 

Soils that have profiles almost alike make up a soil 
series. Except for different texture in the surface layer, 
all the soils of one series have major horizons that are 
similar in thickness, arrangement, and other important 
characteristics. Each soil series is named for a town or 
other geographic feature near the place where a soil of 
that series was first observed and mapped. Butlertown 
and Matapeake, for example, are the names of two soil 
series. All the soils in the United States having the same 
series name are essentially alike in those characteristics 
that go with their behavior in the natural, untouched 
landscape. Soils of one series can differ somewhat in 
texture of the surface soil and in slope, stoniness, or some 
other characteristic that affects use of the soils by man. 

Many soil series contain soils that differ in texture of 
their surface layer (10). According to such differences 



6 



SOIL SUKVKY 



in texture, separations called soil types arc made. Within 
a series, all the soils having a surface layer of the same 
texture belong to one soil type. Matapeake loam and 
Matapeake fine sandy loam are two soil types in the 
Matapeake scries. The difference in texture of their 
surface layers is apparent from I heir names. 

Some soil types vary so much in slope, degree of ero- 
sion, number and size of stones, or some other feature 
affecting their use. that practical suggestions about their 
management could not be made if they were shown on 
the soil map as one unit. Such soil types are div ided into 
phases. The name of a soil phase indicates a feature 
that affects management. For example, Matapeake loam. 
to 2 percent slopes, is one of several phase- of .Mata- 
peake loam, a soil type that ranges from nearly level to 
moderately sloping. 

After a guide for classifying and naming the soils 
had been worked out, the soil scientists drew the bound- 
aries of the individual soils on aerial photographs. These 
photographs show woodbinds, buildings. Held border-, 
trees, and other details that greatly help in drawing 
boundaries accurately. The soil map at the back of this 
report was prepared from the aerial photographs. 

The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping 
units. On most maps detailed enough to be useful in 
planning management of farms and fields, a mapping 
unit is nearly equivalent to a soil type or a phase of a 
soil type. It is not exactly equivalent, because it is not 
practical to show on such a map all the small, scattered 
bits of soil of some other kind that have been seen within 
an area that is dominantly of a recognized soil type or 
soil phase. 

In preparing some detailed maps, the soil scientists 
have a problem of delineating areas where two or more 
kinds of soils, generally from two or more series, occur 
together without regularity in pattern and relative pro- 
portions. As a rule, the soils are similar enough in 
behavior that their separation i- not important for the 
objectives of the survey. Therefore, this group of soils 
is shown as one mapping unit and is called a group of 
undifferentiated soils. Ordinarily, such a group is named 
for the major kinds of soil in it, for example, Bertie 
and Othello silt loams, to 2 percent slopes. Also, on 
most soil maps, areas are shown that are so wet, so 
shallow, or so frequently worked by wind and water 
that they scarcely can be called soils. These areas are 
shown on a soil map like other mapping units, but they 
are given descriptive names, such as Coastal beaches or 
Tidal marsh, and are called land types rather than soils. 

While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are 
taken, as needed, for laboratory measurements and for 
engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same kinds 
of soils in other places are assembled. Data on yields of 
crops under defined practices are assembled from farm 
records and from field or plot experiments on the same 
kinds of soils. Yields under defined management are 
estimated for all the soils. 

But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils 
have been named, described, and delineated on the map. 
and the laboraton^ data and yield data have been 
assembled. The mass of detailed information then needs 
to be organized in a way that it is readily useful to 
different groups of readers, among them farmers, man- 
agers of woodland, engineers, and homeowners. Group- 



ing soils that are similar in suitability for each specified 
use is the method of organization commonly used in the 
soil survey reports. On the basis of yield and practice 
tables and other data, the soil scientists set up trial groups, 
and test them by further study and by consultation with 
farmers, agronomists, engineers, and others. Then, the 
scientists adjust the groups according to the results of 
their studies and consultation. Thus, the groups that 
are finally evolved reflect up-to-date knowledge of the 
soils and their behavior under present methods of use 
and management. 

General Soil Map 

The general soil map at the back of this report shows, 
in color, the soil associations in Queen Amies County. A 
soil association is a landscape that has a distinctive pro- 
portional pattern of soils. It normally consists of one or 
more major soils and at least one minor soil, and it is 
named for the major soils. The soils in one associat ion 
may occur in another, but in a different pattern. 

A map showing soil associations is useful to people 
who want a general idea of the soils in a county, who 
want to compare different parts of a county, or who want 
to know the location of large tracts that are suitable for 
a certain kind of farming or other land use. Such a map 
is not suitable for planning the management of a farm or 
field, because the soils in any one association ordinarily 
differ in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, and other 
characteristics thai affect management. 

Queen Amies ( lounty lies on t he At hint ic ( 'oastal Plain. 
Soil association 1 consists chiefly of excessively or some- 
what excessively drained sands and loamy sands. Soil 
associations 2, 3, and 4 consist mainly of soils that are 
well drained or moderately well drained, but the soils in 
association 2 are sand)' or loamy and have a sandy clay 
loam subsoil, whereas those in associations ."> and 4 are 
silty and have a silty clay loam to plastic clay subsoil. 
Most of the soils in soil associations 5 and 6 are poorly 
or very poorly drained. 

1. Galestown-Lakeland-Downer association: Somewhat exces- 
sively or excessively drained sands and loamy sands 

In this soil association are broad areas of nearly level 
and sloping soils that generally are the most sandy in the 
county. About equal acreages of these soils are on slopes 
of less than 2 percent and of 2 to 5 percent. Small areas 
are steeper. Most of the association has been cleared and 
is used for crops or homesites, but small areas remain 
wooded. Scrub hardwoods and Virginia pine make up 
most of the native plant cover. Virginia pine is espe- 
cially abundant in heavily cutover areas and in second- 
growth stands. 

This association occurs as a narrow band along the 
Chester River in the northern part of the county. It 
extends northeastward from Primrose Point, just south 
of Kings Town, to a point opposite Millington in Kent 
County. It occupies only about 4,800 acres, or 2 percent 
of the county. 

The association consists mainly of the Galestown. Lake- 
land, and Downer soils in about equal acreages. The 
Galestown and Lakeland soils are somewhat excessively 
or excessively drained sands and loamy sands that, in 



QUKKN A.VXKS COUNTY , MAKVI.AM) 



most places, arc underlain by a clayey, water bearing 
substratum at a depth of 4 to 6 feet. Galestown soils 
are brown, and Lakeland sods are yellow to brownish 
yellow. The Downer soils have a loamy sand surface 
layer I hat is similar to I he one, in the Galestown soils. It 
is commonly 18 to 24 inches (hick and is underlain by a 
subsoil of dark-brown sandy loam. Below I he subsoil is 
sand or loamy sand. 

Also, in the association are small areas of the moder- 
ately well drained Klej soils and the poorly drained 
Plummer and Fallsington soils. Drainage is needed on 
these sandy soils, part icularly the Plummer and Fallsing- 
ton soils, before they can be used for some crops. 

The major soils of this association are fairly low in 
productivity and in capacity to hold moisture available 
to plants. Nevertheless, a large part of the association 
is used for corn, soybeans, and other field crops. The 
soils generally are well suited to practically all crops 
grown in the county, but full production can be obtained 
only by applying liberal amounts of fertilizer and 
manure, by protecting the soils from wind and water 
erosion, and by using other practices of intensive 
management. 

Except in steeper areas, the Galestown and Lakeland 
soils have few characteristics that limit their use for resi- 
dential developments or for disposing of sewage effluent 
from septic tanks. These soils make desirable homesites; 
most areas are on or near a beautiful tidal river. 

2. Sassafras- Woodstown association: Well drained and moder- 
ately well drained soils that have a friable sandy clay loam 
subsoil 

This soil association consists mainly of nearly level 
to rolling fields, pastures, and some wooded areas. Most 
of the association is on slopes of 2 to 5 percent, though 
some of it has slopes of less than 2 percent, and many 
small areas are on slopes of 5 to more than 30 percent. 
The natural vegetation is made up chiefly of upland 
oaks, but other hardwoods are fairly common, and there 
are some stands of loblolly and Virginia pines. 

The association occupies areas that are scattered 
throughout nearly all of the county. It occurs on Kent 
Island, along the shores of Eastern Bay, and in many 
small to medium-sized areas in the southern and eastern 
parts of the county from Wye Island to Wye Mills, 
eastward to Queen Anne, then northeastward to the 
Delaware line. The major part of the association occurs 
in a large, fairly continuous area that extends from the 
vicinity of Centreville to Church Hill, McGinnes, and the 
northeastern corner of the county. It is the largest 
association in Queen Amies County and occupies more 
than 110,000 acres, or 46 percent of the total area. 

Of the major soils in the association, Sassafras soils 
account for about three-fourths of the acreage, and 
Woodstown soils make up the rest. The Sassafras soils 
are deep and well drained. They have a surface layer 
of friable loam or sandy loam and a thick subsoil of 
strong-brown to yellowish-red or reddish-brown, friable 
sandy clay loam. 

The Woodstown soils generally are less sloping than the 
Sassafras soils and are not so well drained. They haA r e 
slopes of less than 2 percent in about three-fifths of their 
acreage and are on slopes exceeding 5 percent in only a 
few small spots. Woodstown soils developed on the same 

795-646—66 2 



kind of materia] as Sassafras soils and have a surface 
layer of sandy loam or loam. Their subsoil consist of 
sandy clay loam thai IS yellowish blown in I he upper 
part and is molt led grayish brown and tight yellowish 
I irown m the lower ] >a ri . 

Also, in the association are areas of the poorly drained 

Fallsington soils and spots of the very sandy Galestown 

or Lakeland soils. In addition, there is a small acreage 
of ot her soi Is. 

The Sassafras and Woodstown soils are only moderate 
in natural fertility, but they re-pond well to good 
management, especially to fertilizer and manure. If 
they are carefully managed, they can produce high 
yields of nearly all crops common in the county, though 
frost action may damage alfalfa on the Woodstown soils. 
In managing these soils, the most important problem 
generally is controlling erosion in sloping areas. Luring 
prolonged dry periods, the response to supplemental irri- 
gation is good, particularly on the Sassafras soils. 

Except for slope and susceptibility to erosion in small 
areas, the Sassafras soils have practically no limitations 
that affect their use. The Woodstown soils, however, are 
only moderately well drained. They are wet and slow 
to warm up in spring, and in places they are unsuitable 
for early planting. Drains are needed in most nearly 
level areas of Woodstown soils for disposing of excess 
surface water at planting time and during the early 
period of crop growth. 

In most places there are few limitations affecting the 
use of Sassafras soils for disposing of sewage effluent 
from septic tanks, but seepage and downslope pollution 
are dangers on some of the stronger slopes. L T sing the 
Woodstown soils for disposing of sewage effluent from 
septic tanks is severely restricted because the water table 
is high in wet periods. 

3. Matapeake-Butlertown association: Well drained and moder- 
ately well drained silty soils that have a friable to firm silty clay 
loam subsoil 

This soil association is made up chiefly of level to 
strongly sloping areas of deep, silty soils. About half 
the association is well drained, and the rest is moderately 
well drained. Most of the acreage has slopes of less than 
5 percent, but some of it is more strongly sloping, and 
many small areas are on slopes of nearly 30 percent. 
Although a few areas remain wooded, almost all the 
association has been cleared and is used for crops. The 
native trees are mainly upland oaks and other hardwoods, 
and there are pines scattered through the stands in some 
areas. 

Areas of this association extend from Kent Island to 
the northeast corner of the county. The most extensive 
areas occur from near Carmichael School northward to 
the vicinity of Centreville and westward to near Queens- 
town; around Hayden, Price, and Clark Corners; west 
of Ewingville; southwest of Dudley Corners; and from 
the vicinity of Sudlersville northward to near Hackett 
Corners. The association has a total area of nearly 44,000 
acres, or about 19 percent of the county. 

Dominant in the association are the Matapeake and the 
Butlertown soils. Of these, the Matapeake soils occupy 
52 percent of the total acreage, and the Butlertown soils 
occupy the rest. 



s 



SOIL SURVEY 



The Butlertown soils formed in thick beds of silt. 
They have a silt loam surface layer and a yellowish- 
brown light silty clay loam subsoil lhat is somewhat 

compact, firm, and tiled in the lower pari. It is light 

grayish brown below a depth of about 3 feet. Because the 
subsoil restricts drainage, especially in level and nearly 
level areas, the -oils tend to remain wet and to warm up 
late in spring. 

The Matapeake soils are loams, silt loams, and fine 
sandy loams. They are similar to the Butlertown soils, 
but they formed in a somewhat thinner layer of silt, 
have unrestricted drainage in the subsoil, and are under- 
lain by sandy material at a depth of about 3 feet. In 
addition, the Matapeake soils commonly contain more fine 
sand, particularly in the surface layer, than the Butler- 
town soils. 

A small percentage of the association is made up of the 
well drained Sassafras soils, the moderately well drained 
Woodstowil and Mattapex soils, the somewhat poorly 
drained Bertie soils, and the poorly drained Othello and 
Elkton soils. The association also includes small areas 
of other soils. 

Under good management the Matapeake and Butler- 
town soils probably are the most productive in the county. 
They are fairly high in natural fertility and very high 
in available moisture capacity. Consequently, in dry 
periods crops maintain better growth on these soils than 
on most others, though they would benefit from supple- 
mental irrigation during periods of drought. The Mata- 
peake and Butlertown soils are well suited to all crops 
and are susceptible to erosion only on steeper slopes, but 
in some places the Butlertown soils are slightly limited 
in use for crops because of impeded drainage. Tiling or 
ditching is needed on level and mildly sloping Butler- 
town soils so that excess surface water can be removed 
in wet periods. 

Except in steeper areas, the Matapeake soils have only 
slight limitations that affect their use for residential 
developments or for disposing of sewage effluent from 
septic tanks. The Butlertown soils have slight limita- 
tions affecting their use for residential developments, 
but their use for septic tanks is severely limited because 
the soils are slowly permeable and are saturated when 
the water table is high. 

4. Mattapex-Keyport association: Moderately well drained silty 
soils that have a firm silty clay loam to plastic clay subsoil 

This soil association is mainly nearly level to moder- 
ately sloping. A few areas are steep. Slopes are less than 
5 percent in most places, but they range from to nearly 
30 percent. Although a large part of the association 
has been cleared and is farmed, many areas are still 
wooded. Oaks are dominant in the stands, and hickory, 
maple, holly, and other water-tolerant trees are common. 
In some cutover areas, loblolly pine occurs as scattered 
trees or in nearly pure stands. 

Most of the association is on Kent Island, Wye Island, 
and in areas north and south of Queenstown in the west- 
ern part of the county. Other areas are northwest of 
Starr, northwest of Queen Anne, north of Willoughby, 
and west of Barclay. The association covers about 38,000 
acres, or 16 percent of the county. 

Dominant in the association are the Mattapex and the 
Keyport soils. Of these, the Mattapex soils account 



for about three-fifths of the total acreage, and the Key- 
port soils make up the rest. All these soils have a 
yellowish-brown upper subsoil and a mottled olive to 
olive-brown lower subsoil. 

The, Mattapex soils have a surface layer of fine sandy 
loam, silt loam, or loam and a subsoil of silty clay loam 
that is compact and somewhat platy in the lower part. 
The Keyport soils have a surface layer of loam, silt loam, 
or silty clay loam. Their subsoil is clay or fine silty 
clay that is very firm, very sticky, and very slowly per- 
meable in the lower part. The Mattapex soils are under- 
lain by sandy material at a depth of about 3 feet, whereas 
the Keyport soils commonly are underlain by heavy clay. 
In places, however, the material underlying the Keyport 
soils is somewhat sanely. 

Also, in the association are small areas of the well- 
drained Matapeake soils, the somewhat poorly drained 
Bertie soils, and the poorly drained Othello and Elkton 
soils. The association also includes a few acres of other 
soils, and there are areas of Tidal marsh on and near 
Kent Narrows between Kent Island and the rest of the 
county. Tidal marsh provides habitat for wildlife and 
is important for recreation. 

Because the major soils in this association are only 
moderately well drained, surface drainage must be im- 
proved before they can be used for many kinds of crops. 
If the soils are drained, they are suited to most crops 
but generally are used for corn, soybeans, pasture, and 
-Minn hay crops. Alfalfa and other perennial plants may 
be damaged by frost heaving in winter. 

It is fairly easy to drain, work, and manage the Matta- 
pex soils, but it is more difficult to drain and manage 
the Keyport soils because they are more slowly permeable. 
Eroded areas of Keyport soils are difficult to plow and 
cultivate, for most of their crumbly surface layer has 
been lost through erosion, and plowing brings up part 
of the heavy clay subsoil. Owing to impeded drainage 
and slow permeability, the Keyport soils are likely to 
have excessive runoff and are particularly susceptible to 
erosion. 

The Mattapex and Keyport soils have characteristics 
that severely limit their use for septic tank disposal 
fields, and their use for residential developments is mod- 
erately restricted. Trees, shrubs, and other plants that 
require good drainage may not grow normally on these 
soils. All building sites should be drained by tiling or 
ditching. Tile lines are satisfactory in the Mattapex 
soils, but ditches may be necessary in the more slowly 
permeable Keyport soils. Footings and excavations 
should be well drained, and basements carefully sealed 
against penetration of water. 

5. Elkton-Othello association: Poorly drained silty soils that have 
a firm silty clay loam to plastic clay subsoil 

Almost all of this soil association is level or nearly 
level. At least 95 percent of the acreage has slopes of 
less than 2 percent, and most of the rest is on slopes of 
2 to 5 percent. Many parts of the association have been 
cleared, but woodland is extensive. The natural vegeta- 
tion is chiefly maple, holly, birch, and water-tolerant 
oaks, though loblolly pine has invaded some areas of 
cutover and second-growth woodland, and there are a 
few pond pines. 



Ql'KK.N A.WKS COUNTY, M Alt YUAN I) 



(J 



The. association occurs in areas that arc fairly well 
disl ributed in all of the county except the extreme north- 
ern and northwestern parts. The largest areas are around 
Hope, near Grasonville, around Roseville, roughly be- 
tween Barclay and Clark Corners, and aboul midway 
between Queenstown and Centreville. Smaller areas are 
scattered from the southern part of Kent Island to near 
the Delaware line. The association covers about 31,500 
acres, or about 13 percent of the county. 

The major soils in the association are Elkton loam, 
Elkton silt loams, and Othello silt loams. Of these, the 
Elkton soils occupy about two-thirds of the total acreage, 
and the Othello soils occupy most of the rest. 

All of these soils have a subsoil that is strongly mottled 
gray, which indicates poor drainage. In the Othello 
soils the subsoil is light silty clay loam and is underlain 
by sandy material, whereas in the Elkton soils it is silty 
clay to clay and is underlain by clay or, in some places, 
by sandy clay. The subsoil of Elkton soils is more slowly 
permeable than that of the Othello soils. 

The Othello soils are the poorly drained counterparts 
of the moderately well drained Mattapex soils, and the 
Elkton soils are the poorly drained counterparts of the 
moderately well drained Keyport soils. Small areas of 
the Mattapex and Keyport soils occur in this association. 

Also, in the association are small areas of the well- 
drained Matapeake soils and the very poorly drained 
Pocomoke, Portsmouth, and Bayboro soils. 

The major soils in this association must be drained 
before they can be cropped extensively. Where the soils 
are drained, they are suited to many crops but are used 
mainly for corn and soybeans. Crops that require good 
drainage do fairly well if the drains are carefully in- 
stalled and maintained. Tile lines generally function 
well in the Othello soils, and managing the soils is fairly 
easy. Ditching is commonly needed in the Elkton soils, 
however, and management is more difficult because the 
soils have a finer textured, slowly permeable subsoil. 
Except in a few spots, erosion is not a serious hazard 
on the soils of this association. 

For disposing of sewage effluent from septic tanks, 
limitations on the use of these soils are severe. Because 
the water table is high during much of the year, there 
would be little or no movement of effluent, particularly 
in the Elkton soils. Even if drainage and sewage dis- 
posal were provided, use of the soils for homesites is 
limited by subsurface water that would flood basements 
in wet periods and would injure or kill many kinds of 
trees, shrubs, and other plants used in landscaping. 

6. Fallsington-Pocomoke association: Poorly and very poorly 
drained soils that have a friable to firm sandy clay loam subsoil 

This soil association occupies upland flats and slightly 
depressional areas. The soils are mainly level or nearly 
level; in only a few places are slopes as much as 2 per- 
cent. Part of the association has been cleared and is used 
for farming, but some areas remain wet woodland. Red 
maple, sweetbay, holly, birch, and water-tolerant oaks 
make up most of the native vegetation, and there are some 
loblolly and pond pines, particularly in heavily cutover 
areas. 

The largest area of this inextensive association is 
approximately between Barclay and the Delaware line. 
Smaller areas are scattered elsewhere in the county, mostly 



along the Caroline County line. The a ociafion covers 
4 percent of Queen Amies County, or about 1.0,500 acres. 

Of the major soils in the association, the Fallsington 
soils occupy slightly more than 80 percent of the, total 
acreage, and the Pocomoke soils make up most of the 
rest. The poorly drained Fallsington soils have a gray 
surface layer, and the very poorly drained Pocomoke 
soils have a black or nearly black surface layer. In all 
the soils the surface layer is loam or sandy loam, and the 
subsoil is strongly mottled, friable to firm sandy clay 
loam that is underlain by much sandier material at a 
depth of 2 to 3 feet. 

Also, in the association are small areas of other soils. 
Among these are spots of the well drained Sassafras 
soils and the moderately w r ell drained Woodsfown soils, 
all of which developed in the same kind of sandy and 
clayey materials. In addition, there is a small acreage 
of the moderately well drained Klej soils and the poorly 
drained Plummer soils. The Klej and Plummer soils 
developed in sandy material. About 2 miles north of 
Templeville is a fairly large area of Bayboro silt loam, 
a soil that is very poorly drained like the Pocomoke soils 
but has a heavy clay subsoil that is very slowly per- 
meable. In places that have not been drained, the Bay- 
boro soil remains swampy much of the year. 

Before the soils in this association can be farmed, 
all but the Sassafras soils must be drained. The Fallsing- 
ton and Pocomoke soils can be drained fairly easily by 
either tile or ditches if outlets are adequate. After drain- 
age is improved, the soils are well suited to corn, soybeans, 
and other crops, and they are easily managed. By 
keeping the soils fertile, productivity can be maintained 
at a fairly high level. Erosion normally is not a problem. 

Even if they are drained, the soils in this association 
generally have severe limitations that restrict their use 
for residential developments and for disposing of sewage 
effluent from septic tanks. Most buildings constructed 
in areas of the association are located on knolls, which 
consist of minor soils that have good drainage but make 
up only a small part of the total acreage. 

Descriptions of the Soils 

This section describes the soil series (groups of soils) 
and single soils (mapping units) of Queen Annes County. 
The acreage and proportionate extent of each mapping 
unit are given in table 4. 

The procedure in this section is to describe first the 
soil series, and then the mapping units in that series. 
Thus, to get full information on any one mapping unit, it 
is necessary to read the description of that unit and also 
the description of the soil series to which it belongs. As 
mentioned in the section "How Soils Are Mapped and 
Classified," not all mapping units are members of a soil 
series. Mixed alluvial land, for example, does not belong 
to a soil series but, nevertheless, is listed in alphabetical 
order along with the soil series. 

Following the name of each mapping unit, there is 
a symbol in parentheses. This symbol identities the 
mapping unit on the detailed soil map. Listed at the 
end of the description of most mapping units are the 
capability unit and the drainage, irrigation, and wood- 
land suitability groups in which the mapping unit has 



10 



SOIL SURVEY 

Table 4. — Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of the soils 



Soil 



Bayboro silt loam 

Bertie and Othello .sill loams, to 2 percent 

slopes 

Bertie and Othello sill loams, 2 to ."> percenl 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Bibb sill loam 

Bladen silty clay loam 

Butlertown silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Butlertown silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Butlertown silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Butlertown silt, loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

severely eroded 

Coastal beaches 

Downer loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes 

Downer loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

Downer loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes 

Downer loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

severely eroded 

Downer loamj sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes 
Downer loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 

severely eroded 

Downer loamy sand, 15 to 30 percent slopes 

Elkton loam 

Elkton silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Elkton silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded 

Fallsington loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Fallsington loam, 2 to ."> percenl slopes . 

Fallsington sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes.. 
Fallsington sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. . 
Galestown loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 

5 percent slopes 

Galestown loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 

10 percent slopes 

Galestown sand, clayey substratum, to 5 

percent slopes 

Galestown and Lakeland loamy sands, II) to 1") 

percent slopes 

Galestown and Lakeland loamy sands, 15 to 

30 percent slopes 

Galestown and Lakeland sands, 5 to 10 percenl 

slopes 

Gravel and borrow pits 

Johnston loam 

Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Keyport loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded 

Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded 

Keyport silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

severely eroded 

Keyport silty clay loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 

severely eroded 

Klej loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes 

Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 

5 percent slopes 

Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 

10 percent slopes 

Made land 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 percent 

slopes 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent 

slopes, severely eroded 

Matapeake loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Matapeake loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded 

See footnote at end of table. 



Acres 

1, 274 

706 

75 
337 
381 

4, 2G3 

6, 868 
103 

lilt) 

242 
388 
3, 666 
363 

334 
I Hi 

84 
83 
1, 228 
17, 108 

276 
16, I 15 

242 
15, 876 

344 

1. '.)37 

204 

289 

201 

106 

85 
14 I 

3, 421 
669 

307 

7, 087 

1, 585 

192 

81 
92 
118 

097 

143 

80 

86 
717 
76 

112 

493 

2, 588 



Percent 

0. 5 
. 3 



. 1 

_ 2 

1. 8 

2. 9 



(') 
(') 



l 

. 2 
L. 5 
_ 2 

. 1 



(') 
(') 



. o 
7. 3 

. 1 
6. 8 

. 1 
6. 7 

. 1 



. 1 
. 1 
. 1 



(') 



1 

1. 4 

. 3 

. 1 

3. 

. 7 

. 1 



0) 

(') 
(') 



(') 
(') 

(') 
(') 



4 
1 

. 3 

. 2 
1. 1 



Soil 



Matapeake loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded 

.Matapeake loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, se- 
verely eroded 

Matapeake silt loam, to 2 percent slopes.. . 

Matapeake sill loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Matapeake sill loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
severely eroded 

Mat apeake soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes 

Matapeake soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes, se- 
verely eroded 

Matapeake soils, 15 to 30 percent slopes 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, to 
2 percent slopes 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 2 to 
5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 5 to 
II) percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 5 to 
10 percent slopes, .severely eroded 

Mattapex fine sandy loam, to 2 percent 
slopes 

Mattapex fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Mattapex loam, to 2 percent slopes . 

Mattapex loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded 

Mattapex loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded 

Mattapex loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, se- 
verely eroded 

Mattapex silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
severely eroded 

Mattapex soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes 

Mattapex soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes, se- 
verely eroded 

Mattapex soils, 15 to 30 percent slopes 

Mixed alluvial land 

Othello silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Othello silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded 

Othello and Elkton soils, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Plummer loamy sand 

Pocomoke loam ■ 

Pocomoke sandy loam 

Portsmouth silt loam 

Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded 

Sassafras loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded 

Sassafras loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded 

Sassafras loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded 

Sassafras loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded 

Sassafras loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes 

Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes — 

Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
severely eroded 



Acres 


Percent 


1 L9 


0. 1 


239 
1, 199 


1 

. 5 


2 1 98 


9 


1 1 1 


I 


1 17 

205 


1 

. 1 


117 
144 


0) 

. 1 


568 


, 2 


2, 972 


I. 2 


279 


. 1 


87 


(') 


224 


. 1 


1 73 
1, 395 


1 

. 6 


2, 596 


1. 1 


201 


. 1 


247 

4, 785 


1 

2. 


3, 479 


1. 5 


422 


. 2 


135 

355 


. 1 
. 1 


102 
114 

6, 857 
9, 009 


(') 
(') 

2. 9 

3. 4 


697 


. 3 


122 
90 
5, 406 
1 220 

434 
3 842 


. 1 

2. 3 
o 
' 2 
1 6 


9, 864 


3. 7 


2 904 


1. 2 




_ 2 


578 


. 2 


161 
973 
2, 830 


. 1 
.4 
1. 2 


37, 736 


15. 8 


4, 769 


2. 


2, 527 


1. 1 



QUEEN ANNUS COUNTY, MARYLAND 



Table 4. -Approximate acrcat/c and /»<>jiortioriate cjhnt t>( tin si, Us Continued 



Soil 



Sassafras sandy Loam, li) to 1"> percenl slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to lf> percenl slopes, 
severely eroded 

Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percenl slopes, 
severely eroded 

Sassafras sandy loam, 'M\ to (ill percenl slopes 

Swamp 

Tidal marsh 

Woodstown loam, to 2 percent slopes 



Acres Percent 





780 


0. 


3 




465 




2 


1, 


917 




8 




145 




1 




Hi) 




1 




'-'7r» 




1 


5, 


797 


2. 


4 


7, 


886 


3. 


3 



Soil 



Woodstown loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded 

Woodstown sandy loam, (I to 2 percenl slope.* 
Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percenl Blopes, 
moderately eroded 

Woodstown sandy loam, 5 to 10 percenl slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Woodstow n sandy loam, 1(1 to I 5 percent slopes 
Woodstow n sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes 

Total 



Acre* 


Percenl 


4, 458 


I. «.i 


5, 743 


2. 4 


4, 684 


2 


183 


. 1 


134 


. 1 


1 19 


. 1 


238, 720 


1 00. 



1 Less than 0.05 percent. 

been placed. The pages on which these groupings are 
described can be readily found by referring to the "Guide 
to Mapping Units" at the back of the report. 

Soil scientists, engineers, students, and others who want 
further information about the soils should turn to the 
section "Formation and Classification of Soils." In the 
subsection "Detailed Descriptions of Soil Profiles," a 
profile of a typical soil in each soil series is described in 
detail. 

Many terms used in the soil descriptions and in other 
sections of the report are defined in the Glossary. 

Bayboro Series 

The Bayboro series consists of very poorly drained 
soils that have a thick, black surface layer and a heavy 
clay subsoil. These soils occupy upland flats and slight 
depressions, generally at the head of drainageways. 

Bayboro soils have a surface layer of black silt loam, 
about 12 inches thick, that has a high content of organic 
matter. The upper subsoil is mottled, very dark gray, 
sticky silty clay. The lower subsoil is plastic, very sticky 
clay that is a streaky gray mottled with reddish yellow. 
Water moves through the lower subsoil very slowly. 
Below a depth of 33 inches is mottled, bluish-gray, firm 
clay that extends to a depth of 50 inches or more. 

The Bayboro soils are very strongly acid or extremely 
acid unless they have been limed. In some places where 
they have been cleared, drained, and plowed, the surface 
layer is dark gray instead of black, especially when dry, 
and it is somewhat thinner than typical because it tends 
to shrink or subside if drained and worked. 

In many ways the Bayboro soils resemble the Pocomoke 
and Portsmouth soils, but they are not so sandy as the 
Pocomoke soils and are not so silty as the Portsmouth 
soils. In addition, the Bayboro soils have a heavy clay 
subsoil that is lacking in those soils. 

The Bayboro soils are fairly extensive in Queen Annes 
County. Most of their acreage is in the northeastern 
part near the Delaware line. The soils are not commonly 
used for crops, because they are so difficult to drain. 
Where drainage can be improved, they produce good 
crops of corn and hay and are suited to soybeans, but 
most areas are used for grazing or remain as wetland 
forest. 

Bayboro silt loam (Ba). — -This is the only Bayboro soil 
in Queen Annes County. Included with it in mapping- 



are a few areas where the lower subsoil and the substral uiu 
contain appreciable amounts of fine and very line -and. 

This soil is difficult to drain and, even if drained, may 
be difficult to manage. Under good management, bow- 
ever, it can be used for crops, particularly corn and baj 
or pasture. Because the surface layer lias a high content 
of organic matter, it commonly shrinks or subsides after 
drainage is improved. (Capability unit IIIw-9; drainage 
group 9-6B; irrigation group 12; woodland suitability 
group 1) 

Bertie Series 

The Bertie series consists of somewhat poorly drained 
soils. Although they are fairly well drained to a depth 
of 15 inches, below that depth the subsoil is wet, mottled, 
and poorly drained. 

Both the plow layer and the subsurface layer of these 
soils are crumbly silt loam, but the plow layer is dark 
grayish brown and the subsurface layer is light yellow- 
ish brown. To a depth of 15 inches the upper subsoil is 
finer, less crumbly, yellowish-brown silt loam. The lower 
subsoil is light olive-brown, firm, light silty clay loam 
that is mottled with brown and light gray, an indication 
that drainage is poor. Below the subsoil is a wet, sandy 
substratum between the depths of 34 inches and more 
than 5 feet. 

The Bertie soils are very strongly acid unless they have 
been limed. In undisturbed wooded areas they have a 
thin, dark-colored surface layer and a somewhat thicker, 
lighter colored subsurface layer. 

Like the Othello, Portsmouth, Mattapex, and Mata- 
peake soils, the Bertie soils developed in silty material 
over sand. Bertie soils, however, are better drained than 
the Othello and Portsmouth soils and are not so well 
drained as the Mattapex and Matapeake soils. 

In this county the Bertie soils are not extensive, and 
generally they are not clearly defined on the landscape. 
Because they occur closely with the Othello soils and, 
in some places, blend into them, they are mapped only in 
undifferentiated groups of Bertie and Othello silt loams. 

Bertie and Othello silt loams, to 2 percent slopes 
(Bo A). — Areas mapped as these soils consist mostly of 
Bertie silt loam and partly of Othello silt loam. The 
Othello soil is grayer and wetter than the Bertie soil and 
is mottled nearer the surface. 



12 



SOIL SURVEY 



Although the Othello soil is more poorly drained than 
the Bertie soil, the two are commonly used and managed 
in much the same w a \ . Planting dates arc often delayed 
in wet areas, but where the soils arc artificially drained, 
they are suited to corn, soybeans, and hay and pasture. 
Erosion is not a hazard. (Capability unit HIw-1 ; drain- 
age group 8 1 A; irrigation group 13; woodland suitability 
group 3) 

Bertie and Othello silt loams, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (BoB2). — These moderately sloping 
soils are largely Bertie silt loam, but Othello sill loam 
makes up some of the acreage. The hazard of further 
erosion is moderate on these soils, and it influences the 
kind and spacing of drainage systems on cropland. In- 
cluded in areas mapped are a few acres thai have slopes 
of slightly more than 5 percent. (Capability unit lllw-l; 
drainage group S 1 A ; irrigation group l.'l; woodland suit- 
ability group 3) 

Bibb Series 

The Bibb series consists of poorly drained, gray silty 
soils on tlood plains, or first bottoms, of streams. These 
soils formed in material that washed from the Matapeake, 
Butlertown, and other silty soils on uplands. 

Undisturbed Bibb soils have a surface layer of very 
dark gray, crumbly silt loam about 5 inches thick. Their 
subsurface layer is dark gray mottled with dark' yellow- 
ish brown and is underlain by about !» inches of gray -ill 
loam that is mottled with yellowish brown. At a depth 
of about 37 inches, the substratum generally is heavy, 
almost black clay that is mottled with brown and light 

In cultivated areas the plow layer is dark gray to olive 
brown. In some places the substratum is gray instead 
of black, and in places it is sandy or gravelly. The Bibb 
soils are subject to flooding, and they have a water table 
near the surface much of the year, especially in undrained 
areas. Unless they have been limed, the soils are very 
strongly acid or extremely acid. 

The Bibb soils are neither so dark colored nor so poorly 
drained as the Johnston soils, which also occur on flood 
plains. In color and drainage the Bibb soils somewhat 
resemble the Fallsington, Othello, and Elkton soils of 
the uplands, but they are more uniformly silty above the 
substratum than those soils, and they show little if any 
profile development. 

In this county Bibb soils occur mainly between Queens- 
town and Starr. They are inextensive and are not im- 
portant to the agriculture of the county. If they are 
drained and protected from flooding, they are suited to 
crops, particularly corn, hay, and pasture, but most areas 
are still forested with wetland hardwoods. 

Bibb silt loam (Bp). — This is the only Bibb soil in the 
county. It is level or nearly level and is poorly drained 
throughout. 

If the sod is adequately drained, it is suited to the 
crops commonly grown in the county, especially corn and 
soybeans, and to pasture. Many areas support good 
stands of hardwoods, and there are a few stands of lob- 
lolly pine or pond pine. (Capability unit IIIw-7: 
drainage group 11-A; irrigation group 10; woodland 
suitability group 2) 



Bladen Series 

In the Bladen series are poorly drained, fine-textured 
soils that developed in thick beds of acid clay. In areas 
of grass meadow, these soils have a dark-gray surface 
layer and a grayish-brown subsurface layer. Both layers 
are sticky silty clay loam. The upper subsoil of olive- 
gray clay and the lower subsoil of gray very firm clay are 
mottled with light gray, yellow, and brown and are plas- 
tic and very sticky. Below a depth of about 44 inches is 
a substratum of dark-gray, yellow, and olive fine sandy 
clay that is very plastic and sticky. 

In wooded areas the surface layer tends to be thinner 
and somewhat darker colored than it is in areas of grass 
meadow. Except in areas that, have been limed, the soils 
are very strongly acid or extremely acid. 

The Bladen soils are not so poorly drained as the very 
dark colored and very wet Bayboro soils. They are 
similar in some respects to the Elkton soils, but they have 
a thicker and more prominent, dark-gray surface layer 
and a finer textured subsoil. Bladen soils are less per- 
meable than the Elkton soils and lack the leached and 
somewhat bleached subsurface layer of those soils. 

In this county the Bladen soils are of limited extent 
and are not agriculturally important. For the most part, 
they are not used for crops, but if drained, they would 
produce some hay or pasture plants. Most areas are idle 
or remain in wetland hardwoods. 

Bladen silty clay loam (Bt). — This is the only Bladen 
sod in Queen Amies County", and most of it occurs near 
Grasonville. The soil is level or nearly level, and in some 
places, is slightly depressions! 

Draining this sod is difficult and expensive. Even if 
drainage is improved, the soil is difficult to work and to 
manage. The surface layer is most workable when it is 
moderately moist, though it is firm and tough at that 
moisture content. But if it is too wet or too dry, it 
cannot be cultivated at all. For these reasons, the son 
generally is not suitable for cultivation. (Capability unit 
VIw-2; drainage group 8-2A; woodland suitability group 
10) 

Butlertown Series 

The Butlertown series consists of very deep, very silty, 
moderately well drained soils on uplands. Drainage is 
not impeded in the upper part of these soils, but a some- 
what poorly aerated, compact layer hinders or prevents 
good drainage below a depth of 30 to 36 inches. 

The plow layer of Butlertown soils is dark grayish- 
brown, crumbly silt loam. It is underlain by an upper 
subsoil of somewhat sticky, yellowish-brown heavy silt 
loam or light silty clay loam that extends to a depth 
of 34 inches. Between the depths of 34 and 49 inches, 
the lower subsoil consists of compact, brittle, slightly 
platy heavy silt loam that has abundant mottles of gray- 
ish brown or brownish gray. Below the subsoil, to a 
depth of 5 feet or more, are deposits of yellowish-brown 
silt. This material is mottled but otherwise is almost 
unchanged. It generally is underlain by sand. 

Although the Butlertown soils are strongly acid unless 
they have been limed, they are less acid than many other 
soils in the county. In undisturbed wooded areas the 
thin, dark-colored surface layer and the yellowish-brown 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 



L3 



subsurface layer are crumbly silt loam. In places below 
a depth of 50 inches, thin streaks of very line sand occur 
wit hin I he massive silt deposits. 

The Butlertown soils are not so well drained as the 
Mat a. peake soils, which have developed in the same kind 
of material but lack the compact layer in the lower sub- 
soil that hinders natural drainage. In some respects the 
Butlertown soils are, similar to the Matlapex soils, but 
they developed in thicker deposits of silly material and 
ha ve a more compact lower subsoil. 

The Butlertown soils are extensive in Queen Annes 
County and are important to its agriculture. They occur 
in scattered but generally fairly large areas, mostly from 
Wye Neck northeastward to Carville. The Butlertown 
soils are used intensively for corn, soybeans, small grain, 
and most hay crops except alfalfa. In places they are 
used for high-quality pasture. 

Butlertown silt loam, to 2 percent slopes (BuA). — This 
level or nearly level soil is subject to little or no erosion. 
Below a depth of 30 inches, however, most areas have a 
firm, brittle, mottled layer that slows internal drainage, 
and the soil usually is so wet in spring that planting of 
crops is somewhat delayed. Tile drains or open ditches 
are needed to remove excess surface waiter. (Capability 
unit IIw-1; drainage group 2-A; irrigation group 13; 
woodland suitability group 11) 

Butlertown silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (BuB2). — -Because it is more sloping than Butler- 
town silt loam, to 2 percent slopes, this soil is more likely 
to erode if used for cultivated crops. Large areas have 
already lost an appreciable amount of the surface layer. 
Included with this soil in mapping are a few severely eroded 
areas. Needed to control erosion are stripcropping, 
diversion terraces, and measures for disposing of excess 
water. (Capability unit IIe-16; drainage group 2-A; 
irrigation group 13; woodland suitability group 11) 

Butlertown silt loam, 5 to 10 percent siopes, moderately 
eroded (BuC2).— Runoff causes a severe hazard of erosion 
on this soil, but losses have been only moderate. If the 
soil is cropped regularly, however, careful management is 
needed to control further washing. Erosion can be con- 
trolled if crops are grown in narrower strips and in longer 
rotations than those on the less sloping Butlertown soils. 
Also needed are practices for the diversion and disposal of 
excess water. (Capability unit IIIe-16; irrigation group 
13; woodland suitability group 9) 

Butlertown silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (BuC3). — This soil has lost much of its original 
surface layer through erosion, and the subsoil is exposed 
in places. Deep plowing turns up considerable subsoil 
material and mixes it with the remaining surface layer. 

Clean-tilled crops are not well suited to this sou and 
should be grown only occasionally in a long rotation and 
under very careful management. Generally, safer and 
more suitable uses are hay and pasture. Erosion control 
practices needed consist of planting crops in contoured 
strips and providing diversions and waterways adequate 
to dispose of excess water. (Capability unit IVe-9; 
irrigation group 13; woodland suitability group 17) 

Coastal Beaches 

Coastal beaches (Cb) occur along the shores of Chesa- 
peake Bay and along the Chester and other major rivers. 



These beaches consist of loose -and that is worked and 
reworked by waves, tides, and winds. Because of this 
movement, no soil prolilc ha- developed and there is 
little if any vegetation. Beach goldemod, American 
beachgrass, and clumps of switchgrass occur in some 
places, and loblolly and Virginia pines grow in -ouie 
older areas that are] partly stabilized. 

Some of the beaches are smooth; others are hummock} 
and have short, complex -lopes. They have no real 
value for farming and are important mainly for recreation 
and wildlife. Some beaches are too small or too narrow 
to be mapped (fig. 2). (Capability unit VlIIs-2; wood- 
land suitability group 20) 

Downer Series 

The soils of the Downer series are deep and well drain- 
ed. They developed on uplands in deposits of sand that 
contained an appreciable amount of silt and clay. These 
soils have a thick, sandy surface layer and a rather thin 
subsoil that also is sand}' but contains more fine material. 

In cultivated areas these soils have a plow layer of dark 
grayish-brown, very crumb!} - or almost loose loam}' sand. 
The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 18 inches, is 
much the same but is yellowish brown. The subsoil of 
dark-brown sandy loam is finer textured and stickier than 
the upper layers but is almost as crumbly. Below a depth 
of about 32 inches is brown, generally loose loamy sand 
that extends to a depth of 40 inches and is underlain 
by yellow loose sand. 

Undisturbed Downer soils are strongly acid to ex- 
tremely acid unless they have been limed. In places the 
subsoil is a little more reddish than typical and is some- 
what stickier because it contains a little more clay. 

The Downer soils are similar to the Sassafras soils in 
this county, but they are more sandy throughout and have 
a thicker surface layer and a thinner subsoil. They hold 
a little less moisture than the Sassafras soils and are 
a little lower in plant nutrients. The Downer soils 




Figure 2. — Typical area of Coastal beaches, too small to be shown 
on map, along Chesapeake Bay. 



14 



SOIL SURVEY 



resemble the Oalestown soils in sonic respects, but they 
arc less sandy throughout and have a liner textured sub- 
soil. 

The Downer soils arc fairly extensive and have a total 
area of about 5,000 acres in Queen Amies County. These 
soils are important agriculturally and are excellent for 
truck crops, especially sweetpotatoes. They also are used 
intensively for soybeans and other crops. The soils do 
not require drainage, but if rainfall is scanty or irregular, 
they benefit from irrigation. 

Alt hough the surface layer oft hese soils is quite sandy, 
areas that are not too steep are suitable for homesites, 
septic tank disposal fields, and many other nonagricul- 
tural uses. 

Downer loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes (Do A). 

Although this nearly level soil is subject to little or no 
erosion; it is rather low in plant nutrients and can hold 
a rather small amount of moisture available for plants. 
Special practices are needed to maintain fertility. Irri- 
gation is beneficial in dry periods. (Capability unit 
Us— 4; irrigation group 3; woodland suitability group 7) 

Downer loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (DoB).— 
This is the most extensive and most important Downer 
soil in the county. Some of its surface layer has been 
lost through washing in local areas, but the surface and 
subsurface layers still have a total thickness of about If) 
inches. In managing this soil, sandiness is a greater 
problem than the erosion hazard, though unprotected 
areas wash when wet and blow when dry. Further 
losso of soil can be checked if fairly simple practices arc 
used. (Capability unit Qs-4; irrigation group 3; wood- 
land suitability group 7) 

Downer loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes (DoC).— 
The surface layer of this soil ranges from 12 to I") inches 
or more in thickness. In some places, however, part of 
this hirer has been lost through washing or blowing. 
Erosion i> a serious hazard and must be controlled if the 
soil is cultivated regularly. Additional measures are 
needed to improve and maintain fertility. Unless it is 
irrigated, the soil is droughty in dry periods. (Capabil- 
ity unit IIIe-33; irrigation group ■'!: woodland suitability 
group 8) 

Downer loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (DoC3). — Most of the original surface layer has 
been lost from this soil, and plowing to a normal depth 
turns up some of the brow tier or slightly redder subsoil. 
Consequently, freshly worked field- are -potty in color. 
To control further erosion, tilled crops should be grown 
on this soil only occasionally and only under the best 
management. Areas that have good air drainage are 
well suited to sodded orchards. (Capability unit IVe-5; 
irrigation group 3; woodland suitability group 13) 

Downer loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes (DoD).— 
This soil is used for crops in some areas, but much of it 
is still wooded. It has a surface layer 12 inches or more 
thick. Because erosion is a severe hazard in cultivated 
areas, the soil should be farmed in long rotations and 
kept in sod or other close-growing plants most of the 
time. (Capability unit IVe-o; irrigation group 3; wood- 
land suitability group 8) 

Downer loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (DoD3). — This severely eroded soil has lost most 
of its original loamy sand surface layer. In places a thin 
layer of loamy sand remains, but in others the subsoil is 



exposed, and in some spots a large part of the subsoil has 
been washed away. The soil is too erodible for safe 
cultivation and should be kept covered with trees, grass, 
or both. Woodland is the best use, but pasture and 
orchards also are suitable. Crazing of pasture should be 
carefully controlled, and orchards protected by sod. 
(Capability unit YIe-2; woodland suitability group 13) 

Downer loamy sand, 15 to 30 percent slopes (DoE).- 
This steep soil occurs on the sides of small ravine- and, 
in places, along river bluffs. Most of it remains wooded 
and has not been exposed to the erosive force of wind 
and water. Because it is steep, however, this soil has a 
thinner surface layer than the less sloping Downer -oils. 
The surface layer is 10 to 14 inches thick. 

Tin- soil generally is unsuitable for cultivation because 
it is highly susceptible to erosion. It can be safely used 
as woodland or for sodded orchards or, if carefully grazed, 
for pasture. (Capability unit VIe-2; woodland suit- 
ability group 9) 

Elkton Series 

In the Elkton series are poorly drained, loamy or silty 
soils of the uplands. These soils have a fine-textured 
subsoil that i- -lowly permeable to water, air, and roots. 

In wooded areas the very dark brown surface layer 
and gray subsurface layer are silt loam or loam that is 
crumbly but somewhat sticky. The subsoil of gray, firm, 
line silty clay is mottled with brown and yellowish 
brown and is sticky and plastic. Below a depth of about 
12 inches is firm, light -gray silty clay that is mottled 
with brown. This layer is sandy in some places, but it 
ranges from nearly pure clay to almost pure sand. 

In cultivated areas the plow layer generally is dark 
gray or dark grayish brown. In most places the Elkton 
soils are very strongly acid or extremely acid unless they 
have. been limed. In many places the substratum is less 
strongly acid than the layers above it. 

In color and drainage, the Elkton soils resemble the 
Fallsington and Othello soils, but they are not so sandy 
as the Fallsington soils and are not so silty in the subsoil 
as the Othello soils. Elkton soils developed in material 
similar to that of the moderately well drained Keyport 
soils, the poorly drained Bladen soils, and the very poorly 
drained Bayboro soils. The Elkton soils have a thinner, 
lighter colored, less prominent surface layer than the 
Bladen soils. In addition, their subsurface layer is lighter 
colored than that of Bladen soils, and their subsoil is less 
slowly permeable. 

The Elkton soils are extensive, particularly in the 
south-central part of the county. About half their total 
acreage has been cleared, and the rest remains as wood- 
land. "Where drainage has been improved, the soil- are 
commonly used for corn and soybeans and fairly large 
areas are in pasture. Good stands of loblolly pine occur 
in some wooded areas, but little timber is produced on 
much of the acreage. Wooded areas could be used for 
crops if they were drained and cleared, or they could be 
made more productive of wood products if management 
were improved. Locally, the Elkton soils are sometimes 
called white oak soils. 

Elkton loam (Ek). — This level or nearly level soil has 
a fine-textured, slowly permeable subsoil. Some of the 
acreage is used for crops, some areas are grazed, and 



QUKK.N ANNKS COUNTY, M A I! V LA NT) 



woodland is common, [f drained, the soil is suitable for 
cropping and is particularly suited to corn and soybeans. 
In wooded areas the stands generally consist of water- 
toleranl hardwoods, but in places loblolly pine occurs as 
scattered trees or in almost pure stands. (Capability 
unit [IIw-9; drainage group 8 2B; irrigation group L2; 
woodland suitability group 1) 

Elkton silt loam, to 2 percent slopes (En A). This 
soil has a surface layer that is more silty and somewhat 
less sandy than Elkton loam. It also is slightly more 
difficult to work and is somewhat more diHicult to drain. 
In other respects, the soil is used and managed in about 
the same way as Elkton loam. 

In addition to excellent pasture (fig. 3), corn and soy- 
beans are extensively grown on this soil. Also, the soil 
is one of the best in the county for woodland. (Capa- 
bility unit IIIw-9; drainage group 8-2B; irrigation group 
12; woodland suitability group 1) 

Elkton silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (EnB2). — This gently sloping soil lias more rapid 
runoff and is more susceptible to erosion than Elkton silt 
loam, to 2 percent slopes. Although surface drainage 
is fairly good, internal drainage is poor, and drainage is 
the most important management problem. Open ditches, 
properly spaced, are adequate for removing excess water. 
If drainage is improved and further erosion is controlled, 
the soil is suited to the same kinds of crops as other Elkton 
soils. (Capability unit IIIw-9; drainage group 8-2B; 
irrigation group 12; woodland suitability group 1) 

Fallsington Series 

The Fallsington series consists of poorly drained soils 
on uplands. These soils developed in sandy material that 
contained some silt and clay. They have grayish surface 
and subsurface layers and a mottled subsoil of heavy 
sandy loam or sandy clay loam that is underlain by a 
sandier substratum. 




Figure 3. — Holstein cattle grazing an excellent stand of orchard- 
grass and Ladino clover on Elkton silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 



In wooded areas the surface and subsurface layer- 
are loam or sandy loam, but the surface layer i- jrery dark 
grayish brown, and the subsurface layer is gray. The 
subsoil consists of sandy clay loam thai i- gray or light 
brownish gray mottled with yellowish brown and 
brownish yellow. Below a depth of about 35 inches is a 
substratum that is sandy and, in some place.-, gravelly. 
It is light brownish gray molt led with grayish brown 
and yellowish brown. 

The Fallsington soils are strongly acid to extremely 
acid unless they have been limed. The dept h to t he sandy 
or gravelly substratum ranges from -3) to 10 inches. 
Cultivated areas generally have a dark grayish-brown 
plow layer. 

The Fallsington soils developed in the same or some- 
what the same kind of material as the belter drained 
Sassafras and Wpodstown soils and the more poorly 
drained Pocomoke soils. Fallsington soils are similar to 
the Othello, Elkton, and Bladen soils in color and drain- 
age, but they are much more sandy and less silty or 
clayey throughout and generally are more easily drained. 

The Fallsington soils are extensive in Queen Alines 
County. They are poorly drained and seasonally wet, 
however, and have a water table near the surface during 
wet months. Extensive drainage is needed if the soils 
are cultivated. 

These soils produce good yields of trees used for tim- 
ber, particularly loblolly pine, but they have severe 
limitations for many nonfarm uses because of the high 
water table. For example, basements are difficult to con- 
struct and to keep dry, and septic tanks fail to function 
properly when the soils are wet . 

Fallsington loam, to 2 percent slopes (FaA). — This 
extensive soil is important for crops and as woodland in 
the county. Because the soil is level or nearly level, there 
is little or no erosion. Poor drainage is a problem, but if 
drains are properly installed and maintained, the soil is 
well suited to most crops commonly grown, especially corn 
and soybeans. (Capability unit IIIw-7; drainage group 
7-A; irrigation group 13; woodland suitability group 1) 

Fallsington loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes (FaB). — This soil 
has better surface drainage but is more susceptible to 
erosion than Fallsington loam. to 2 percent slopes. 
Although surface drainage is fairly good, the soil must be 
drained by tiling or ditching before it can be used tor 
cultivated' crops." The erosion hazard is only slight in 
most places, but erosion has occurred in a few scattered 
areas. (Capability unit IIIw-7; drainage group 7-A: 
irrigation group 13; woodland suitability group 1) 

Fallsington sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes (FdA). 
This soil is somewhat more sandy than Fallsington loam, 
to 2 percent slopes, particularly in the surface layer. It 
is easier to work than that soil and is somewhat easier to 
drain (fig. 4). Erosion generally is not a hazard. In a 
few places the soil is somewhat more sandy than normal, 
and in some small areas the sand in the surface layer is 
finer. 

Drained areas of this soil are commonly used for corn, 
soybeans, hav, and pasture. Most undrained areas re- 
main wooded. Good stands of loblolly pine make up 
much of the woodland. (Capability unit IIIw-6; drain- 
age group 7-B; irrigation group 9; woodland suitability 
group 1) 



hi 



SOIL SURVEY 




Figure 4. — Constructing a drainage ditch by use of a dragline 
through Fallsington sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes, near Hayden. 



Fallsington sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes (FdB). — 
This soil has more rapid runoff and bet i er surface drainage 
t han Fallsington sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. About 
half the acreage has lost an appreciable part of the surface 
layer through erosion. Although the surface layer is 
fairly well drained, improved drainage is needed if the 
soil is to be used for crops. Erosion can be controlled by 
fairly simple practices, included the use of suitable crop 
rotations and the careful disposal of runoff. (Capability 
unit IIIw-6; drainage group 7-B; irrigation group 9; 
woodland suitability group 1) 

Galestown Series 

The Galestown series consists of deep, sandy, somewhat 
excessively or excessively drained soils that have a 
distinctly brown, sandy subsoil. These soils are on level 
to somewhat rolling uplands and on old terraces, or they 
are on natural levees above major streams. Some areas 
arc dunelike. 

The Galestown soils developed in deep beds of sand 
and a little fine material, all deposited over much older 
beds of generally finer textured material. In level or 
gently sloping areas, the soils have a finer textured, 
moisture-retaining substratum within 5 or 6 feet of the 
surface. In steeper areas this layer generally is missing 
or occurs at a greater depth. 



In wooded areas these soils have a dark-gray surface 
layer and a grayish-brown subsurface layer, both of 
which are crumbly to almost loose loamy sand. Between 
the depths of 8 and 39 inches is a subsoil of loamy sand 
that is brown because the sand grains are coated with 
brown clay. Below the subsoil is Loose, yellowish-brown 
sand that commonly extends to a depth of about 55 
inches, where it is abruptly underlain by a substratum 
of sandy loam that is pale brown streaked with light 
gray. The substratum holds considerable moisture. In 
steeper areas it is lacking or occurs only at great depth. 

In most plowed areas the surface layer is dark grayish 
brown. In some places the subsoil is reddish brown or 
yellowish red instead of brown, but everywhere it is more 
reddish than the layers above and below it. Because 
the lower substratum of sandy loam is usually wet, it 
furnishes moisture to deep-rooted crops in dry seasons. 

The (ialestown soils generally occur with the Lakeland 
and Downer soils. They are browner or redder and less 
yellow than the Lakeland soils, and their subsoil and 
generally their other layers contain much less silt and 
day than those in the Downer soils. The (ialestown .-oil- 
developed in about the same kind, or nearly the same 
kind, of material as the Klej soils, which are moderately 
well drained, and the Plummer soils, which are poorly 
drained. 

Galestown soils are inextensive in this county. They 
occur mainly along the blufflike banks on the south side 
of the Chester River between Kings Town and Fnicorn. 
Except where they have been limed, these soils are very 
strongly acid or extremely acid. If lime or limestone is 
added, it should be applied only in moderate amounts, 
according to needs indicated by soil tests. 

(ialestown loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 5 per- 
cent slopes (GaB). — This inextensive soil occurs mostly 
in broad, nearly flat areas above the banks of the Chester 
River in the northern part of the county. It is used 
mainly for corn and soybeans, but it can be used for truck 
crops and would be well suited to them if irrigation water 
were available in dry periods. Although the soil is easy 
to work and warms up quickly in spring, it does not retain 
plant nutrients for long, and it has low available moisture 
capacity above the clayej" substratum. 

If this soil is heavily fertilized and is limed where 
needed, it produces good yields of crops. Generally, it is 
not subject to washing, but the surface layer blows readily 
when dry unless it is protected by vegetation. In some 
places windbreaks would be an effective way of controlling 
wind erosion. (Capability unit Ills— 1 ; irrigation group 1 ; 
woodland suitability group 5) 

Galestown loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 10 per- 
cent slopes (GaC). — This soil is more susceptible to 
water erosion and is a little more droughty than Gales- 
town loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 5 percent 
slopes. Because slopes are strong, the choice of crops is 
somewhat limited. The soil is readily permeable, and 
water intake is rapid if runoff is slowed by a cover of 
plants. (Capability unit IVs-1; irrigation group 1; 
woodland suitability group 5) 

Galestown sand, clayey substratum, to 5 percent 
slopes (GcB). — This soil is more sandy above the cLryey 
substratum than Galestown loamy sand, clayey substra- 
tum, to 5 percent slopes. It is easily worked and in 
some places is used for crops, but it is so sandy that the 



qUKKX ANNKS COUNTY, MAUYLAND 



17 



choice of crops is limited. Yields generally are low unless 
large amounts of fertilizer are applied. (Capability unil 
IVs-1 ; irrigation group I; woodland suitability group 5) 

Galestown and Lakeland loamy sands, 10 to 15 percent 
slopes (GkD). These soils occur in small areas scattered 
throughout the county, mostly in the northern part, 
Individual areas consist of (ialestown loamy sand, or 
Lakeland loamy sand, or holh soils in an intricate pattern. 

These strongly sloping soils do not have a clayey sub- 
stratum within ti feet of the surface. For this reason, 
they are more droughty than the (ialestown and Lakeland 
soils that have a clayey substratum, and in most places 
they are not suitable for crops or pasture. They are 
fairly well suited as woodland, (mod existing stands of 
loblolly, Virginia, and shortleaf pines should be managed 
for the production of Umber or pulpwood. Planting seed- 
lings of loblolly pine or other pities is practical in many 
places. (Capability unit VIIs-1; woodland suitability 
group 5) 

Galestown and Lakeland loamy sands, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes (GkE). — In places where these soils have a cover 
of desirable trees, they can be used to produce timber or 
pulpwood. Some areas are suitable for planting to pines. 
(Capability unit VIIs-1 ; woodland suitability group 6) 

Galestown and Lakeland sands, 5 to 10 percent slopes 
(GIC). — -These soils are more sandy than Galestown and 
Lakeland loamy sands. In most places they do not have 
a moisture-retaining substratum within reasonable depth, 
and they probably are the most droughty soils in the 
county. They are not suited to crops or pasture, but 
they can produce some timber and, in some places, sup- 
port fairly good stands of Virginia pine or loblolly pine. 
If they are covered by plants, these soils make good areas 
for sheltering some kinds of wildlife. (Capability unit 
VIIs-1 ; woodland suitability group 5) 

Gravel and Borrow Pits 

Gravel and borrow pits (Gr) are areas from which soil 
material has been taken for use in highway construction 
and for other purposes. These pits are not suitable for 
farming, but some could be improved and used as shelter 
areas for wildlife by filling and grading them, providing 
an outlet for drainage water, and planting grasses, shrubs, 
or trees. (Capability unit VIIIs-4; woodland suitability 
group 21) 

Johnston Series 

In the Johnston series are very poorly drained soils on 
flood plains, or first bottoms, along streams. These soils 
formed in material that washed from silty and sandy 
soils on uplands. The surface layer of Johnston soils is 
very dark colored because it contains an accumulation of 
organic matter. 

Cultivated areas have a plow layer of black, crumbly 
loam. This is underlain by black, crumbly loam or fine 
sandy loam that extends to a depth of about 30 inches. 
Generally, below the black layers are several inches of 
light-gray sand that is loose and tends to flow when wet. 
In many places there is a substratum of light-gray or 
white fine sandy clay that is blotched with light olive 
brown. The water table is in the substratum most of the 
year. 



The, black layers in these soils range from 10 to more 
than 30 inches in total thickness. In small areas the 
black layers are, fairly sandy and generally an- thinner 
than in other areas. Whore the soils are iinplowed, the 
surface layer is rather mucky. The, layer of loose, light - 
gray sand is missing in some places. 

Those soils normally are very strongly arid or 
extremely acid. Liming is required for the best growth 
of most crops. 

Thi> Johnston soils are less silty but are darker colored 
and more poorly drained than the Bibb soils, which also 
occur on flood plains. In some respects the Johnston 
soils resemble the Pocomoke and Portsmouth soils of the 
uplands, but they have a thicker surface layer and lack 
a I rue subsoil. 

The Johnston soils are fairly extensive in the county. 
They are subject to flooding, and in some places they are 
difficult to clear and to drain. Once drainage is estab- 
lished and maintained, however, these soils are 3uited to 
many kinds of crops grown in the county. Corn is the 
most common crop, but soybeans, hay. and pasture also 
are grown. 

Johnston loam (Jo). — -This is the only Johnston soil in 
Queen Annes County. Included with it in mapping are 
spots where the surface layer is more sandy than typical. 
Also included are a few areas where the topmost few 
inches are mucky. 

Along Long Marsh Ditch and other stream channels 
that have been cleaned, straightened, and deepened, this 
soil commonly is drained well enough for crops. How- 
ever, lateral ditches are needed to drain some of the wider 
flood plains. Corn is the chief crop, though wetness de- 
lays planting in some years. Several areas are in good 
pasture, and undrained areas that are wet or swampy 
commonly support w r ater-tolerant hardwoods. (Capabil- 
ity unit IIIw-7; drainage group 11-A; irrigation group 
10; woodland suitability group 2) 

Keyport Series 

In the Keyport series are moderately well drained soils 
that have a fine-textured, slowly permeable subsoil. 
These soils developed in beds of acid clay or silty clay 
that, in some places, are underlain by sandier material. 

Undisturbed Keyport soils have a thin, dark-gray sur- 
face layer and a fairly thin, light yellowish-brown 
subsurface layer. These layers both are crumbly but 
slightly sticky loam or silt loam. The upper subsoil is 
brownish-yellow, firm silty clay that is plastic and sticky. 
The middle part of the subsoil is light olive-brown silty 
clay or clay that is mottled with brown and light gray 
and is plastic and very sticky. The lower subsoil, to a 
depth of about 44 inches, is dark-gray, very firm, plastic 
and sticky clay with brown and light-gray mottles. 
Below the subsoil is massive clay that is gra}^ streaked 
with grayish brown. 

The Keyport soils are strongly acid to extremely acid, 
except where they have been limed. In cultivated areas 
the plow layer generally is grayish brown or dark grayish 
brown. The depth to mottling ranges from 20 to 27 
inches, and the depth to the gray substratum ranges from 
30 to 45 inches. The substratum is variable, especially in 
texture and consistence. It ranges from crumbly sandy 



18 



SOIL SURVEY 



loam in fine, tough clay. The most distinctive character- 
istic of the Keyport soils is their subsoil of mottled, firm 
and lough, plastic and sticky clay or silty clay, through 
which water passes very slowly. 

The Keyporl soils are better drained than the Elkton, 
Bladen, and Bayboro soils, though they developed in 
about the same kind of material. In general appearance 
l hey resemble the Woodstown soils, but their subsoil is 
tough silty clay or clay instead of crumbly sandy clay 
loam. The Keyport soils somewhat resemble the Mai 
tapex soils, but their clayey subsoil is less readily 
penetrated by air, water, and roots than the silly subsoil 
of i be Mattapex soils. 

The Keyporl soils are fairly extensive in Queen Annes 
County and are important in agriculture. They produce 
moderate to rather high yields of most crops if they are 
well managed, artificially drained, and protected from 
erosion. Alfalfa and other deep-rooted perennial crops 
are not well suited, because these soils are wet in winter 
and spring and tend to heave through frost action. 

Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes (Ke A). — Artificial 
drainage is needed on t his soil for disposing of excess water, 
mainly early in spring. Open ditches generally are best 
because tile lines do not function well in the clayey subsoil. 
If the soil is drained and well managed, it produces good 
yields of most common crops except alfalfa. (Capability 
unit [Iw— 8; drainage group (i 2A; irrigation group 12; 
woodland suitability group 1 1 ) 

Keyport loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
(KeB2). — This soil has better surface drainage but is more 
erodible than Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes. Some 
areas have lost part of the surface layer through erosion, 
and many areas are likely to erode unless they are pro- 
tected by measures that retard runoff and carefully 
dispose of excess water. (Capability unit IIe-13 ; drainage 
group 6-2A; irrigation group 12; woodland suitability 
group 11) 

Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes (KpA). — This is 
the most extensive Keyport soil in the county. It is used 
and managed in about the same way as Keyport loam, 
to 2 percent slopes, but it is slightly less easy to work and 
to drain. The soil is not suited to alfalfa or other peren- 
nial crops, because it is wet in winter and spring and frost 
causes heaving, which damages such crops. (Capability 
unit IIw-8; drainage group 6-2A; irrigation group 12; 
woodland suitability group 11) 

Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (KpB2). — This soil is more susceptible to erosion 
than Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. Because 
the subsoil is very slowly permeable, much of the water 
from rain and melting snow runs off. Consequently, a 
heavy rain or a quick thaw can cause serious washing. 
Measures are needed to protect the soil from further 
erosion. (Capability unit Ile-L'-i; drainage group 0-2 A: 
irrigation group 12; woodland suitability group 11) 

Keyport silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (KrC3). — The original surface layer of this soil 
was loam or silt loam, but most of it has been lost through 
erosion, and in places the subsoil is exposed. Because 
plowing has mixed the small remaining part of the surface 
layer with considerable material from the subsoil, the 
plow layer now is siltv^ clay loam. Included in mapped 
areas are a few scattered acres that are not severely eroded. 



This severely eroded soil generally is not suited to 
cultivated crops. It is best used for pasture or long-term 
hay, but diversion terraces are needed for safely disposing 
of runoff. (Capability unit VTe-2; woodland suitability 
group 17) 

Keyport silty clay loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (KrD3). This soil is too steep and too severely 
eroded for use as cropland. It has lost all or nearly all of 
its original surface layer, and the present surface layer 
consists mostly of subsoil material. The soil is likely to 
erode further unless it is kept in vegetation or is otherwise 
protected. 

Hay crops and past lire generally are not safe uses for t his 
soil, though a good sod can provide some forage if grazing 
is carefully controlled. Forested areas should be pro- 
tected and well managed. Most cleared areas should be 
reforested by planting loblolly pine and protecting the 
seedlings from grazing and fire. (Capability unit YHe-2; 
woodland suitability group 17) 

Klej Series 

The Klej series consists of moderately well drained 
soils that developed in beds of sandy material on uplands. 
The lower part of the sandy material is mottled because 
aeration is somewhat poor and drainage is impeded by a 
fluctuating high water table. In most places there is a 
finer textured, moisture-retaining substratum 4 to 5 feet 
below the surface. 

In wooded areas the surface layer is grayish-brown, 
very crumbly loamy sand about 9 inches thick. Below 
this, to a depth of about 39 inches, is olive-yellow, loose 
loamy sand that is mottled and streaked with light 
brownish gray below a depth of about 19 inches. Under- 
lying the loamy sand is loose sand that is light brownish 
gray mottled with light gray and brownish yellow. At a 
depth of about 47 inches is a finer textured substratum of 
light-gray sandy loam that is coarsely mottled with light 
yellowish brown. This layer is sticky and slightly plastic, 
and it appears to support the water table. 

Although the Klej soils are strongly acid to extremely 
acid, great care must be taken to avoid overliming. In 
cultivated areas the plow layer normally is grayish 
brown to dark gray. 

The Klej soils developed in about the same kind of 
material as the Galestown, Lakeland, and Plummer 
soils, but they are not so well drained as the Galestown 
and Lakeland soils and are better drained than the 
Plummer soils. The Klej soils are sandier throughout 
than the Woodstown soils, and they lack the finer tex- 
tured subsoil that characterizes the Woodstown soils. 

The Klej soils are not extensive in this county. They 
occur mostly in the northern part and generally are 
fairly close to the Chester River. Although they can be 
used for most common crops, their impeded drainage is 
an important management problem. In addition, the 
soils are so sandy that they do not retain plant nutrients 
well, and they are droughty in dry periods. Erosion 
generally is not a hazard. 

Klej loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes (KsA). — This 
soil is moderately well drained and generally is not wet 
for long periods. In some places, however, the water 
table is near the surface until late in spring and delays the 
planting of crops. Tiling is effective in removing excess 



QUKKX ANNUS COUNTY, MAKVI.ANI) 



I!) 



water and in rapidly lowering (lie water table. Erosion 
generally is not a problem. 

If this soil is drained, it is suited to most crops, es- 
pecially late-maturing truck crops. It is likely to be 
droughty in dry periods that are long and hot, and 
supplemental irrigation may he needed for vegetables and 
some other crops. Because the soil does not retain nu- 
trients well, heavy additions of fertilizer are needed For 
most crops. (Capability unit IIIw— 10; drainage group 4; 
irrigation "roup 1 ; woodland suitability group '■*>) 

Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent siopes (KsB). — This 
gently sloping soil is slightly more susceptible to erosion 
than Klej loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. Included 
with it in mapping are a few acres that have lost some 
of the surface layer. 

Impeded drainage is the main problem in using- and 
managing this soil, but droughtiness, the erosion hazard, 
and the fertility level must also be considered. (Capa- 
bility unit IIIw-10; drainage group 4; irrigation group 1; 
woodland suitability group 3) 

Lakeland Series 

The Lakeland series consists of somewhat excessively 
drained or excessively drained, sandy soils that formed 
in beds of sandy material on uplands. At a depth of 5 to 
6 feet, there generally are layers of finer-textured mate- 
rial that help to retain moisture in dry periods. 

These soils have a thin surface layer of grayish-brown, 
very crumbly loamy sand. Below this and extending to 
a depth of about 33 inches is pale-yellow to yellowish- 
brown, loose loamy sand. Between the depths of 33 and 
58 inches is very pale brown, loose sand that is slightly 
streaked with light gray in the lower part. At about 58 
inches is a layer of light-gray, compact sandy loam that 
is streaked with grayish brown. This layer is sticky 
and slightly plastic. 

The Lakeland soils are strongly acid to extremely acid 
unless they have been limed. In cultivated areas the plow 
layer generally is grayish brown or dark grayish brown. 
Even in dry periods, the underlying layer of sticky 
sandy loam retains some moisture for deep-rooted plants. 
In most places this layer occurs within 5 to 6 feet of the 
surface, but in some places it is lacking. 

Below the surface layer, the Lakeland soils are dis- 
tinctly more yellowish and less strongly brown than the 
Galestown soils. In addition, they generally occupy 
nearly level and slightly dunelike areas, though in some 
places they occur on steep slopes. The Lakeland soils 
developed in the same kind or about the same kind of 
material as the Klej and Plummer soils, but they are 
much better drained than those soils. 

The Lakeland soils are not extensive in this county. 
They are suited to most crops grown locally and, in many 
places, are used for truck crops and sweetpotatoes. 

Some of the more strongly sloping Lakeland soils are 
mapped with Galestown soils in undifferentiated groups 
of Galestown and Lakeland sands or loamy sands. These 
mapping units are described under the heading "Gales- 
town Series." 

Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 5 per- 
cent slopes (LaB). — This soil is fairly extensive in the 
northern and northeastern parts of the count} 7 . Although 
it warms quickly in spring and can be worked when it is 



fairly wet, it tends to be droughty in hot, dry went her, 
and all but the most deep-rooted crops niftj be damaged 
by lack of moisture. Because the soil is very low in phmt 
nutrients and does not retain them well, heavy and fre- 
quent applications of fertilizer are needed for maximum 
production of most crops. 

Much of this soil remains in scrub hardwoods, Virginia 
pine, and a few loblolly pines. Cleared areas are used 
for many crops and are especially well suited to early 
truck crops. Erosion normally is slight, but if the -oil i- 
left bare, it blows readily when dry. Supplemental irri- 
gation is needed in dry periods. (Capability unit [lis— 1; 
irrigation group 1 ; woodland suitability group 5) 

Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 10 per- 
cent slopes (LaC). —This soil is mitre susceptible to erosion 
than Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 5 
percent slopes, and in some places its surface is slightly 
dunelike. In addition, it is suited to fewer kinds of crops 
and must be more carefully managed. The soil is well 
suited to orchards if it is protected most of the time 
by a close-growing cover crop. (Capability unit IVs-1 ; 
irrigation group 1; woodland suitability group 5) 

Made Land 

Made land (Ma) consists of areas where the soil material 
has been disturbed or modified by man and can no longer 
be identified by soil series or soil type. These are areas 
on which fill material has been deposited, or from w hich 
soil material has been removed as a result of leveling or 
other activities. 

This land has almost no agricultural use. Most areas 
are used for residential or commercial purposes. (No 
capability unit; woodland suitability group 21) 

Matapeake Series 

The Matapeake series consists of well-drained soils on 
uplands. These soils developed in silty material, prob- 
ably loess, that overlies sandy material. 

Cultivated areas have a thick surface layer of fine 
sandy loam, loam, or silt loam that is dark grayish brown 
and very crumbly. The somewhat firm and sticky subsoil 
of yellowish-brown heavy silt loam or light silty clay 
loam extends to a depth of about 3 - 2 inches. Below the 
subsoil is a transitional layer, a few inches thick, of 
brown, firm, fine sandy clay loam. This layer is under- 
lain by sandy material that is fine sandy loam in the 
upper part and rapidly becomes more sandy with depth. 
It is grayish brown in color and crumbles easily. 

Except in areas that have been limed, the Matapeake 
soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid. In unplowed 
areas the surface layer is rather thin ami is dark brown 
to very dark grayish brown. The yellowish-brown sub- 
surface layer is very crumbly. These la} T ers normally 
contain some fine sand and very fine sand, whereas the 
sand in the substratum is distinctly coarser. 

The Matapeake soils have a siltier surface layer and 
subsoil than the Sassafras soils, which developed in much 
sandier material that had no distinct mantle of silty 
material. Matapeake soils developed in the same kind of 
material as the moderately well drained Matt apex soils, 
the somewhat poorly drained Bertie soi ] s, the poorly 



20 



SOIL SURVEY 



drained Othello soils, and the very poorly drained 
Portsmouth soils. 

The Matapeake soils are extensive in this county. 
They occur in the western part, chiefly on Kent Island, 
Wye Esland, Wye Neck, Piney Neck, Tilghman Neck, and 
in the area between Queenstown and Grasonville. 
Smaller areas are north and west of Centreville. These 
soils are among the best soils for farming and are used 
for all crops. 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 

(Mb A). —This nearly level soil is one of the best for crops 
in the county, though its total acreage is small. It has 
been little affected by erosion and has a crumbly plow 
layer thai is easy to work. If common methods of good 
farming are used, almost all kinds of crops can be grown. 
(Capability unit 1-5; irrigation group 9; woodland 
suitability group 7) 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (MbB2). — -Erosion is a greater hazard 
on this gently sloping soil than on Matapeake fine sandy 
loam, to 2 percent slopes. In some places erosion has 
removed an appreciable part of the surface layer, and 
deej) plowing turns up a little of the finer textured, 
yellow ish-brown subsoil. 

Nevertheless, if this >oil is well managed, it can be 
cultivated regularly and is suitable for almost any use. 
Among the practices needed to check further erosion are 
stripcropping, cultivating on the contour, rotating crops, 
and maintaining close-growing crops at least pari of the 
time. (Capability unit Ile-5; irrigation group 9; 
\\ oodland suitability group 7) 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (MbC2). — This soil is more susceptible 
to erosion than Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 per- 
cent slopes, and it has lost more of its original surface 
layer. Consequently, it is suitable for fewer uses and is 
less productive. 

If this soil is well protected, it can be used safely for 
most crops. Close-growing crops are required more of 
the time than on less sloping Matapeake soils, and meas- 
ures are needed to control further soil losses. (Capabil- 
ity unit IIIe-5; irrigation group 9; woodland suitability 
group 8) 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
severely eroded (MbC3). — This severly eroded soil has 
strong limitations that restrict its use for cultivated crops. 
Ordinarily, it should not be used for these crops more 
often than once in 5 years, and it is best kept in hay or 
other close-growing plants the rest of the time. Further 
erosion can be controlled by safely removing excess runoff 
and by growing crops in fairly narrow strips along the 
contour. The soil is well suited to sodded orchards. 
(Capability unit IVe-5; irrigation group 9; woodland 
suitability group 13) 

Matapeake loam, to 2 percent slopes (McA). — This 
soil is used and managed in much the same way as Mata- 
peake fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. If ordinary 
good farming methods are used, the soil is easy to manage 
and is one of the best in the county for all the common 
crops. (Capability unit 1-4; irrigation group 13; wood- 
land suitabiltiy group 7) 

Matapeake loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (McB2). — This fairly extensive soil is more diffi- 
cult to conserve than Matapeake loam, to 2 percent 



slopes. Some areas have had a few inches of the surface 
layer washed away. If the soil is protected from further 
erosion, however, it is suitable for regular cultivation. 
(Capability unit IIe-4; irrigation group 13; woodland 
suitability group 7 ) 

Matapeake loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (McC2). — Erosion has been more uniform on this 
soil than on less sloping Matapeake soils, and the need 
for protective measures is greater, If the soil is deep 
plowed, subsoil material is turned up in places. Among 
the practices needed in cultivated areas are contour till- 
age and contour stripcropping. (Capability unit [He 4; 
irrigation group 13; woodland suitability group 8) 

Matapeake loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (McC3). — This soil has lost most of its surface 
layer through erosion, and in places the subsoil is exposed. 
Ordinary plowing turns up part of the subsoil in most 
places, and deep plowing turns up a larger amount. As 
a result, the soil has a plow layer that is more diflicult to 
manage, is lower in organic-matter content, and is much 
more easily eroded by water than the surface layer of less 
eroded Matapeake soils. 

Close-growing crops, such as plants used for hay or 
pasture, should be kept on this soil most of the time, 
("lean-tilled crops can be safely grown only about I year 
in 5. The soil is excellent for orchards if it is protected 
by close-growing cover. (Capability unit IVe-3; irriga- 
tion group 13; woodland suitability group 13) 

Matapeake silt loam, to 2 percent slopes (MkA).— 
This is one of the best agricultural soils in the county. 
It is nearly level, is subject to little or no erosion, and has 
practically no limitations for cropping or other uses. It 
has high available moisture capacity and is highly produc- 
tive under good management. (Capability unit 1-4; irri- 
gation group 13; woodland suitability group 7) 

Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (MkB2). — This fairly extensive soil is more sus- 
ceptible to erosion than Matapeake silt loam, to 2 
percent slopes, and it has lost a significant part of its 
original surface layer in many places. If the soil is cul- 
tivated, measures are needed to control further erosion. 
Crops grown in contour strips in a 3- or 4-year rotation 
generally provide sufficient protection if other practice- of 
good farming are used and if care is taken to dispose of 
excess runoff. (Capability unit IIe-4; irrigation group 
13; woodland suitability group 7) 

Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (MkC2). — The loss of soil material has been more 
uniform on this moderately sloping soil than on Matapeake 
silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. If the 
soil is carefully managed, however, it can be cultivated 
regularly. A 4-year cropping sequence including at least 
2 years of hay or close-growing crops is needed, and the 
crops shoidd be grown in fairly narrow strips on the 
contour. Excess surface water must be disposed of care- 
fully to prevent further washing. (Capability unit IIIe-4 ; 
irrigation group 13; woodland suitability group 8) 

Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (MkC3). — This moderately sloping soil has lost 
most of its crumbly silt loam surface layer through water 
erosion. Shallow gullies have formed, and a few deep ones 
have been cut into the sandy substratum. These gullies 
should be smoothed and seeded, and the soil protected by 
close-growing plants most of the time. 



Ql'KK.N ANXKS COUNTY, MARYLAND 



21 



This soil can be used lor clean-tilled crops 1 year in 
about 5, but il is better used for continuous bay or 
pasture or for sodded orchards. (Capability unit [Ve 3; 
irrigation group 13; woodland suitability group 13) 

Matapeake soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes (MmD). 
These strongly sloping Matapeake soils have a surface 
layer of fine sandy loam, loam, or silt loam, and arc 
mapped as one unit. Tbey have severe limitations thai 
restrict their use as cropland, but only a few acres have 
been affected by erosion because most areas remain 
wooded. 

If these soils are cleared, tbey probably cannot be 
safely used for cultivated crops. Tbey are excellent for 
hay or pasture, however, and are suited to sodded or- 
chards. (Capability unit IVe-3; irrigation group 13; 
woodland suitability group 8) 

Matapeake soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (MmD3). — These soils have been cleared and used 
for crops, but they have not been well managed and 
protected. Consequently, most of their original surface 
layer has been lost in some places, and all of it has been 
lost in others. 

These soils cannot be cultivated regularly, but under 
good management they can produce good hay crops and 
excellent pasture. Overgrazing should be avoided, how- 
ever, because it would destroy the sod and subject the 
soils to severe damage. These soils can also be protected 
by planting loblolly pine seedlings for the production of 
timber or pulpwood. (Capability unit VIe-2; woodland 
suitability group 13) 

Matapeake soils, 15 to 30 percent slopes (MmE). — 
These steep soils occupy many blufflike areas along 
streams and rivers in the county. Some areas of the 
soils are somewdiat eroded, but most areas have never 
been cleared. Generally, the soils should remain wooded, 
but if cleared, they can be used safely for hay, pasture, 
or sodded orchards. Good management is needed in 
wooded areas of hardwoods. Loblolly pine is suitable for 
planting wherever this tree is preferred. (Capability unit 
VIe-2; woodland suitability group 9) 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, to 2 percent 
slopes (Mo A). — This well-drained soil has a thicker sub- 
soil than Matapeake silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
The subsoil is not sandy in the lower part, and it is 
underlain by silt that extends to a depth of 6 feet or more. 

This soil is possibly the best in the county for farming, 
at least for most crops, and it has few or no limitations 
that restrict its use. It is especially well suited to aspar- 
agus and similar crops because practically no sand clings 
to the harvested shoots. (Capability unit 1-4; irrigation 
group 13; woodland suitability group 7) 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (MoB2). — This soil is smooth 
or gently undulating, and in places slopes are long. Run- 
off is fairly rapid on long slopes after heavy rains, and it 
may remove a significant amount of the surface layer. 
For this reason, controlling erosion is the main manage- 
ment problem. Nevertheless, if the soil is protected and 
otherwise well managed, it produces excellent crops under 
regular cultivation. Especially effective in checking fur- 
ther erosion are good rotations, contour tillage, and 
stripcropping. (Capability unit IIe-4; irrigation group 
13; woodland suitability group 7) 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 5 to 10 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (MoC2). — This soil is more 



strongly sloping than Matapeake -oil loam, -illy substra- 
tum, 2 to ."> percent slopes, moderately eroded. It ha- 
lost a fairly uniform and significant part <>\ it- silty surface 
layer, and more intensive measures are needed to control 
further erosion. By using longer rotations and l>\ 
planting crops in narrower strips on the contour, 1 1 1 i -> 
soil can continue to be safely used for cultivated crops. 
Needed to prevent gullying caused by water concentra- 
tion is the careful disposal of runoff, generally through 
sodded waterways. (Capability unit I lie 4; irrigation 
group 13; woodland suitability group Hj 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 5 to 10 percent 
slopes, severely eroded (MoC3). — Because I his soil has no1 
been protected, it has been badly damaged through ero- 
sion. Most of its original surface layer has been lo-t. and 
part of the subsoil is turned up in regular plowing. In 
places the subsoil is at the surface. 

This soil is difficult to work and to manage and. on the 
average, is much less productive than Matapeake -ill 
loam, silty substratum, to 2 percent slopes. Clean- 
tilled crops should be grown not more than once in 5 
years, and then only in rotation with clover, grass, al- 
falfa, or other close-growing crops. If the surface between 
the trees is kept covered by close-growing plants, this is 
an excellent soil for orchards. (Capability unit IVe-3; 
irrigation group 13; woodland suitability group 13) 

Mattapex Series 

In the Mattapex series are moderately well drained 
soils that developed in silty material underlain by a sandy 
substratum. 

In cultivated areas the plow layer is dark grayish- 
brown, crumbly fine sandy loam, loam, or silt loam. The 
upper part of the subsoil is thin and consists of brown, 
slightly sticky heavy loam. The middle part is yellowish- 
brown, light silty clay loam that is fairly firm and 
plastic and sticky. Between the depths of 26 and 36 
inches, the lower part of the subsoil is light silty clay 
loam that is light olive brown mottled with brownish 
gray and strong brown. This layer is slightly platy. 
rather firm, and sticky and plastic. Below the subsoil 
is a very sandy substratum that is yellowish brown but is 
distinctly mottled with gray. 

The. Mattapex soils are strongly acid or very strongly 
acid except where they have been limed. Forested areas 
have a thin, dark-gray surface layer and a somewhat 
thicker, yellowish-brown or light olive-brown subsurface 
layer. In local areas the mottled lower subsoil is firm, 
dense, and tough. 

The Mattapex soils formed in the same kind of silty 
mantle as the better drained Matapeake soils and the 
more poorly drained Bertie, Othello, and Portsmouth 
soils. The Mattapex soils formed in a shallower silty 
mantle than the Butlertown soils. Soils of both series 
are moderately well drained, but Mattapex soils generally 
are mottled 8 to 12 inches nearer the surface and lack the 
distinctly brittle lower subsoil that is characteristic of 
the Butlertown soils. In many respects the Mattapex 
soils are like the Woodstown soils, but the subsoil in the 
Mattapex is light silty clay loam instead of sandy clay 
loam, and the surface layer contains much less sand and 
more silt. The Mattapex soils resemble the Keyport 



22 



SOIL SURVEY 



soils iii color and drainage, but they do not have the 
tight, heavy clay subsoil that is characteristic of Keyport 
soils. 

The Mattapex soils arc fairly extensive in Queen Amies 
County. They are mostly in the western part and occur 
closely will) the Malapeake and the Othello soils. The 
Malt apex soils are agriculturally important and are 
used for nearly all crops. However, they are not well 
suited to deep-rooted perennials, such as alfalfa, because 
they generally are wet most of the winter and early in 
spring and are subject to frost heaving. Wetness and 
heaving also limit their use for some nonfarm purposes. 

Mattapex fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 
(MpA). — This nearly level soil is not affected by erosion, 
but it has impeded drainage that causes the surface layer 
to be wet and cold and delays the planting of crops. 
Excess water can be removed by tile or open ditches. If 
the soil is adequately drained, it is well suited to mosl 
crops except alfalfa. (Capability unit IIw-5; drainage 
group 2-A ; irrigation group 0; woodland suitability group 
11) 

Mattapex fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (MpB2). — This soil ha- more rapid runoff 
than Mattapex tine sandy loam, to 2 percent slope-, 
and it is more likely to erode in unprotected fields. Much 
of it has lost a large part of the original surface layer. 
Included in mapping are a few acres that are severely 
eroded. 

If this soil is protected by erosion control measures and 
excess water is carefully removed, most crops can he 
grown and, under good management, will produce good 
yields. (Capability unit IIe-36; drainage group 2-A; 
irrigation group 9; woodland suitability group 11 > 

Mattapex loam, to 2 percent slopes (MsA). — This 
soil is not so easy to drain as Mattapex fine sandy loam, 
to 2 percent slopes, and it is not so easy to work and to 
cultivate. Nevertheless, if it is adequately drained, it is 
among the best agricultural soils in the county. (Ca- 
pability unit IIw-1 ; drainage group 2-A; irrigation group 
13; woodland suitability group 11) 

Mattapex loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (MsB2). — The surface layer of this sod is not so 
sandy as that of Mattapex fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. In other major character- 
istics, however, the two soils are much the same, and they 
are used and managed in about the same way. Plowing, 
cultivating, and draining this soil are somewhat more 
difficult, and the soil tends to warm up more slowly in 
spring. (Capability unit IIe-16, drainage group 2-A, 
irrigation group 13; woodland suitability group 11) 

Mattapex loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (MsC2). — This moderately sloping soil has a 
thinner surface layer of less uniform thickness than 
Mattapex loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Runoff is more rapid, and the erosion hazard is greater. 
Practically all areas have had a significant amount of the 
original surface layer washed away. Surface drainage 
normally is adequate, but internal drainage is slow. 

In managing this soil for crops, drainage is needed in 
some places, but erosion control is the chief need. Fur- 
ther losses of soil can be checked by carefully collecting 
and disposing of excess surface water. (Capability unit 
IIIe-16; irrigation group 13; woodland suitability group 
9) 



Mattapex loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded 

(MsC3). — This soil has had most of its original surface 
layer washed away, and it is cut by few to many shallow 
gullies. Because the hazard of further erosion is so severe, 
the protection of hay plants or other close-growing cover is 
needed most of the time. Clean-tilled crops can he safely 
grown only I year in f> and then only in narrow strips along 
the contour. 

If this soil is kept well sodded, it is fairly good for 
orchards. To avoid or minimize damage from early or 
late frosts, each orchard site must have adequate air 
drainage. Also needed is' soil drainage that is carefully 
maintained. (Capability unit IVe-9; irrigation group 13; 
woodland suitability group 17) 

Mattapex silt loam, to 2 percent slopes (MtA). — This 
soil is used and managed in much the same way as Matta- 
pex loam, to 2 percent slopes. In spring and other wet 
periods, excess surface water must be removed before the 
soil can be put to full agricultural use. 

Where excess water is carried off safely, this soil is not 
likely to erode and generally is highlj productive of most 
crops. Among the good farming practices needed are 
fertilizing, liming, and rotating of crops. (Capability 
unit llw-l; drainage group 2-A; irrigation group 13; 
woodland suitability group 1 I I 

Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (MtB2).— This fairly extensive soil is productive 
and is agriculturally important, but much of it has lost a 
significant part of its original surface layer. If the soil is 
drained and is protected against further erosion, it can be 
used for most crops commonly grown. (Capability unit 
IIe-16; drainage group 2 A; irrigation group 13; woodland 
suitability group 11) 

Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded ( MtC2). — The loss of soil material from this moder- 
ately eroded soil has been fairly uniform. Measures are 
needed to control further erosion and to keep the soil 
useful and productive. Excess water can be collected and 
safely removed in diversion terraces, and soil losses can 
be controlled if the areas between diversions are laid out 
in strips that are cropped in a 3-year or, preferably, a 
4-year rotation that includes only 1 year of clean-tilled 
crops. (Capability unit IIIe-l(i; irrigation group 13; 
woodland suitability group 9) 

Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (MtC3). — This soil has been badly damaged by 
erosion. Most of the original surface layer is gone, and 
deep plowing turns up a considerable amount of subsoil 
material. If large amounts of crop residue and other 
organic material are added, structure and workability can 
be improved and productivity increased. 

This soil can be safelv row cropped, but not more than 
once in 4 or 5 years. Hay or improved pasture is a more 
suitable use. Like many other soils in the county that 
are severely eroded, this soil can be used economically for 
loblolly pine and selected hardwoods. (Capability unit 
IVe-9; irrigation group 13; woodland suitability group 
17) 

Mattapex soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes (MxD). — The 
surface layer of these soils is silt loam, loam, or fine sandy 
loam. Erosion is only slight, mainly because most areas 
remain wooded. 

Unless these soils are needed for other uses, they prob- 
ably are best kept as woodland. Even if cleared areas 



Ql'K K.N A.N.NKS COUNTY, MAIS YI. ANT) 



are carefully managed, the Boils can be cropped only in 
long rotations, or t hoy can ho used for hay crops or for 
improved pasture thai is carefully grazed. Some areas 
may be suitable for sodded orchards. (Capability unit 
[Ve 9; irrigation group 13; woodland suitability group 9) 
Mattapex soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 
( MxD3). Those soils have been cleared and cropped, and 
they are much more eroded than Mattapex soils, 10 to L5 
percent slopes. Gullies are few to common (fig. 5). 




Figure 5. Gully formed in a cleared area of Mattapex soils, 10 to 
15 percent slopes, severely eroded. 



Using theso soils for clean-tilled crops is likely to result 
in further erosion. Safer and more suitable uses are hay, 
carefully grazed pasture, and trees. (Capability unit 
VTe-2; woodland suitability group 17) 

Mattapex soils, 15 to 30 percent slopes ( MxE). — These 
steep soils have a surface layer of variable texture. In- 
cluded with them are a few areas that are actively eroding 
but are too small to be mapped separately. 

These soils should not be used for crops, though some 
areas can be used for hay or limited grazing. Areas that 
have not been cleared should be kept as woodland. Where 
the soils occur in blufflike areas along or near major 
streams, they have been cleared and are used for home- 
sites and similar purposes. (Capability unit VTe-2; 
woodland suitability group 9) 

Mixed Alluvial Land 

Mixed alluvial land (My) occupies the flood plain, or 
bottom land, along many streams and rivers in this 
county. The material lacks distinct or uniform soil char- 
acteristics and cannot be identified by soil series or soil 



type. Within short distances the Burface layer ranges 

from sand to loam or silt loam in texture and mainly 
from light gray to dark gray in color. In places where 
much organic matter has accumulated, however, the sur- 
face layer is black. In mos1 areas drainage is poor, but 
there are some areas that are better drained. Included 
in mapping are some sandbars that are gravelly and above 
water most of the time. 

Because this land type is so variable and commonly is 
so wet, not much of it is used for farming. Most area- 
are subject to yearly flooding and are therefore not suit- 
able for crops or for improved pasture. Many areas 
make good sites for ponds (fig. 6). (Capability unit 
VIw-1, drainage group 12; woodland suitability group 2) 




Figure 6. — Clearing an area of Mixed alluvial land for a 4V 2 -acTe 
pond. When completed, the pond will hold 17.2 acre-feet of water. 



Othello Series 

The Othello series consists of poorly drained soils on 
uplands that developed in silty deposits underlain by 
beds of sandy material. 

In cultivated areas these soils have a plow layer of 
dark grayish-brown, crumbly loam or silt loam. To a 
depth of about 29 inches, the subsoil is light-gray or light 
olive-gray, light silty clay loam that is prominently 
mottled with shades of brown. The subsoil is weakly 
platy in the lower part and is sticky and plastic. Below 
it is a thin transitional layer of compact sandy loam that 
is gray mottled with strong brown. This layer is under- 
lain by a substratum of loose loamy sand that is light 
gray but has streaks of yellowish brown. 

Except in areas that have been limed, the Othello soils 
are very strongly acid or extremely acid. Areas that 
remain wooded have a thin, dark-gray surface layer and 
a fairly thin, gray to light-gray subsurface layer. In 
some places the substratum contains thin layers of silt, 
clay, or sandy clay and, in these places, is less sandy than 
is typical in Othello soils. 

The Othello soils are not so well drained as the Mata- 
peake, Mattapex, and Bertie soils, but they are better 



24 



SOU, Sl'KVI.Y 



drained than the Portsmouth soils. However, all of (hose 
soils developed in the same kind of sdty mantle. The 
Othello soils have a profile similar to thai of the Elkton 
and Fallsington soils, but the subsoil is dominantly sill 
in the Othello soils, is fine silty clay or clay in the Elkton 
soils, and is sandy clay loam in the Fallsington soils. 

The ( )thello soils are extensive in Queen Annes ( lountj 
and are agriculturally important. Most of their acreage 
is in the western third of the county, where they occur 
closely with the Matapeake and (he Mattapex soils. The 
Othello soils generally are not hard to drain, and if 
drained I hey can be used tor most of the common crops. 
Because they are wet, however, their use for non farming 
purposes is severely limited. 

Othello silt loam, to 2 percent slopes (Ob A). — This 
soil is extensive in Queen Amies County, especially in the 
southern and western parts and on Kent Island. Erosion 
normally is only a slight hazard, hut artificial drainage is 
needed for nearly all crops. Drained areas are well 
suited to corn, soybeans, hay, and pasture. In addition, 
the soil is well suited to loblolly pine and some hardwoods. 
(Capability unit EIIw-7; drainage group 8 LA; irrigation 
group 13; woodland suitability "roup 10) 

Othello silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (ObB2). — Tins soil has more rapid runoff and is 
more susceptible to erosion than Othello silt loam, to 2 
percent slopes. In some areas a significant part of the 
original surface layer has been washed away. The soil is 
poorly drained and slowly permeable, however, and in- 
ternal drainage is the most important management 
problem. Further erosion is not a serious hazard if clean- 
tilled crops are rotated with hay or other close-growing 
crops. (Capability unit IIIw-7; drainage group 8-lA; 
irrigation group 13, woodland suitability group 10) 

Othello and Elkton soils, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (OeC2). — This mapping unit consists either 
of Othello soils or of Elkton soils. Some areas mapped 
are only Othello soils, and others are only Elkton soils, 
but both kinds are too inextensive to he mapped separ- 
ately. The surface' layer is loam or silt loam. Included 
in mapping are a few small areas where the surface layer 
is somewhat more sandy than normal. 

Because runoff is rapid, erosion is the main hazard on 
these moderately sloping soils, but drainage also is needed 
if the soils are to be used fully for agriculture. Ditches 
are especially suitable, for they drain the subsoil and also 
collect and divert runoff. Although these soils are best 
kept in close-growing crops much of the time, corn or 
soybeans can be used in a long rotation. (Capability 
unit IIIe-13: irrigation group 13; woodland suitability 
group 10) 

Plummer Series 

In the Plummer series are poorly drained soils on up- 
lands that formed in beds of sandy material. They are 
primarily gray in color and are mottled nearly to the 
surface with shades of brown, an indication that drainage 
and aeration are poor. At a depth of 4 to 5 feet they are 
commonly underlain by material that is finer textured 
than that in the layers above. 

In undisturbed Plummer soils the surface layer of 
grayish-brown or brownish-gray loose loamy sand extends 
to a depth of about 10 inches. Between 10 and about 28 



inches is light olive-gray, loose loamy sand that is dis- 
tinctly mottled with yellowish brown. Below this layer 
is light-gray loose sand that is coarser textured than the 
material above and is mottled with grayish brown. Ab- 
ruptly below a depth of about 40 inches is light -gray 
sandy loam that is streaked with grayish brown. This 
layer is sticky and permanently wet. 

I nless the I'lummer soils have been limed, they are 
extremely acid. Lime must be used with care, however, 
on these sandy soils. Cultivated areas have a plow layer 
that is light gray and, at the surface, is almost white 
when dry. 

The Plummer soils developed in the same kind of 
sandy material as the better drained (ialestown, Lake- 
land, and Klej soils. Because they have a high water 
lahle. except in extremely dry periods, they are saturated 
to the surface much of the time and. in places, are ponded 
for considerable periods. 

The Plummer soils have a small total acreage in Queen 
Annes County and are mostly in scattered areas in the 
extreme northern part. They are not productive and 
generally are of little importance to agriculture. 

Plummer loamy sand (Pd). — This is the only Plummer 
soil mapped in the county. It is level or nearly level and 
commonly occupies slighl depressions. The soil is sandy, 
very strongly acid, and low in productivity. Drainage is 
the most important management problem because ttii- 
drained areas are of little use, except as woodland or for 
wildlife. 

This soil is easy to work, even when dry or fairly wet, 
and it is generally not difficult to drain. Areas that are 
drained can be used for corn, truck crops, or home gardens. 
These gardens are fairly productive if they are carefully 
and heavily fertilized and otherwise are well managed. 
(Capability unit IVw-6; drainage group 9—1; irrigation 
group 1; woodland suitability group 10) 

Pocomoke Series 

The Pocomoke series consists of very poorly drained 
soils that developed on uplands in beds of sand, silt, and 
clay. These soils have a surface layer of black or nearly 
black sandy loam or loam and a subsoil of sandy clay 
loam or heavy sandy loam that is underlain by much 
sandier material. 

In wooded areas the surface layer is black, crumbly 
loam or sandy loam about 10 inches thick. Beneath this 
is about 4 inches of material that is similar to the surface 
layer but is gray or dark gray. The upper subsoil is 
olive-gray heavy sandy loam that is prominently mottled 
with yellowish brown. The lower subsoil, to a depth of 
about 20 inches, is light-gray, firm, light sandy clay loam 
that is mottled with yellowish brown and gray and is 
sticky. Below the subsoil is light brownish-gray, loose 
loamy sand that is permanently wet and is more grayish 
as the depth increases. 

The Pocomoke soils are very strongly acid or extremely 
acid unless they have been limed. In some places, 
particularly those in cultivation, the surface layer is 
dark gray or very dark gray instead of black and con- 
tains somewhat less organic matter. In places there are 
strong-brown to reddish-brown mottles at any depth 
below the surface. Some areas of Pocomoke soils are 
more sandy throughout than others. 



QUE K X ANXKS COUNTY, MAKYLAM) 



25 



Tlu' Pocomoke soils di'Vi'lopi'd in I lit- same kind, or 
about the same kind, of material us the Sassafras, 
Wbodstown, and Fallsington soils, l>m they are more 
poorly drained than those soils. In many respects the 
Pocomoke soils closely resemble the Portsmouth soils, bul 
they are sandier throughout and formed in much less 
siltv material. Superficially, the Pocomoke soils resemble 
the Johnston soils, but they are on uplands instead of 
Hood plains and have a more strongly developed Subsoil. 

The Pocomoke soils are fairly extensive in the eastern 
and northeastern parts of the comity. Although they 
are agriculturally important, they are much too wet for 
some nonfarm uses, and fairly large areas are still 
wooded. Areas that have been cleared and drained can 
be used for most of I he common crops. 

Pocomoke loam (Pk). — This is the most extensive 
Pocomoke soil in Queen Amies County. Most of il is 
nearly level, but a few acres have slopes of as much as 
2 percent. Drainage is very poor and must be improved 
before the soil can be farmed. If the soil is adequately 
drained, it is suited to corn, soybeans, some kinds of hay 
crops, and pasture. In wooded areas there are some good 
stands of loblolly pine, but wetland hardwoods are more 
common. Loblolly pine on this soil is satisfactory for 
timber or pulpwood. (Capability unit Illw-7; drainage 
group 9-3A; irrigation group 13; woodland suitability 
group 1) 

Pocomoke sandy loam (Pin). — This nearly level soil is 
used for the same kinds of crops as Pocomoke loam. 
Because it is somewhat sandier throughout, it is easier to 
work, is somewhat less difficult to drain, and can be 
drained by ditches or tile lines that are a little more 
widely spaced. (Capability unit IIIw-6; drainage group 
9-3B; irrigation group 9; woodland suitability group 1) 

Portsmouth Series 

The Portsmouth series consists of very poorly drained 
soils on uplands that developed in silty material under- 
lain by sandy deposits. These soils have a black, silty 
surface layer and a mottled gray silty clay loam subsoil. 

In areas of wet woodland, the Portsmouth soils have a 
surface layer of black, crumbly silt loam, about 11 
inches thick, that has a high content of organic matter. 
This layer is underlain by a thin, slightly finer textured 
subsurface layer that is very dark gray. The upper sub- 
soil of dark olive-gray, firm silty clay loam is distinctly 
mottled with light gray and brown. The lower subsoil 
is plastic and sticky, firm, heavy silty clay loam that is 
light olive gray mottled with white and strong brown. 
Below a depth of about 37 inches is a light-gray, very 
sandy layer with streaks of grayish brown. 

These soils are extremely acid and are almost mucky in 
undisturbed areas. In cultivated areas the plow layer is 
black or very dark gray. In places a thin transitional 
layer of sandy clay loam occurs between the lower sub- 
soil and the substratum. 

The Portsmouth soils developed in the same kind of 
material as the Matapeake, Mattapex, Bertie, and Othello 
soils, but they are more poorly drained than those soils. 
Portsmouth soils are similar to Pocomoke soils, but they 
are distinctly finer textured in the surface layer and 
subsoil and generally are more difficult to drain. The 
Portsmouth soils are not so fine textured in the subsoil 



and arc not so wet ami rich in organic mallei- a- the 
Bayboro soil.-. 

The Portsmouth soils are not e\lcn-ive in Queen Amies 
County and are mostly in the ea -I rent ra I pari, near 

Barclay and [ngleside. Only scattered small area- occur 

elsewhere. They are good agricultural soils if they are 

drained and properly limed ami fertilized. 

Portsmouth silt loam (Po). This is the onlj Ports- 
mouth soil iii the county. It is locally important, but 
most of the small acreage is still in wetland forest. Be- 
cause the soil is difficult to drain, closely spaced ditches 
are commonly required. (Capability unit 1 1 1 \\ 7; drain- 
age group 9 4A; irrigation group 12; woodland suitability 
group 1) 

Sassafras Series 

In the Sassafras series are deep, well-drained -oils 
that developed on uplands in deposits of sand, sill, and 
clay. These soils are characterized by a sandy or loamy 
surface layer and a brown to yellowish-brown sandy cl iv 
loam subsoil. 

Undisturbed Sassafras soils have a very thin, dark 
grayish-brown surface layer and a fairly thick, grayish- 
brown subsurface layer. Both of these layers are very 
crumbly loam or sandy loam. The upper subsoil is some- 
what sticky, yellowish-brown, crumbly loam or light sandy 
clay loam. The lower subsoil, to a depth of about 43 
inches, is strong-brown, firm sandy clay loam that is 
sticky and plastic. Below the subsoil is yellowish-brown, 
very crumbly to loose loamy sand. 

The Sassafras soils normally are very strongly acid or 
extremely acid, but most cultivated areas have been limed. 
The plow layer ordinarily is dark grayish brown. In 
areas at lower elevations near streams, the subsoil gen- 
erally is sandier and less sticky than it is elsewhere. On 
some of the older uplands, there is a layer of transition 
between the subsoil and the substratum. This layer is 
firm, brittle sandy loam that is somewhat variegated in 
color. The depth to the substratum is less in some areas 
than in others. 

The Sassafras soils have coarser sand grains and are 
more sandy in both the surface layer and subsoil than the 
otherwise similar Matapeake soils, which developed in 
much siltier material. The Sassafras soils are better 
drained than the Woodstown, Fallsington, and Pocomoke 
soils, though all developed in similar material. 

In this county the Sassafras soils occupy 70,137 acres, 
which is almost one-third of the total land area. They 
occur in all parts of the county and are especially domi- 
nant east and north of Wye Neck, Queenstown, and Til- 
ghman Neck. These soils are used for all types of farm- 
ing and also are highly suitable as woodland. Drainage 
is not needed, and crops benefit from irrigation in dry 
periods. 

Except on steep slopes, the Sassafras soils have only 
slight limitations affecting their use as homesites or as 
drainage fields for septic tanks. They are a good source 
of construction material for roads, embankments, and 
other engineering uses. 

Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes (SaA). — This 
nearly level soil is excellent for all purposes and is one of 
the more important agricultural soils of the county. It 
is well drained, generally supplies adequate moisture to 



26 



SOU, SURVEY 



plants, and retains plant nutrients well. Because limita- 
tions are few, only ordinary good practices are needed in 
management. (Capability unit 1-4; irrigation group 13; 
woodland suitability group 7) 

Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (SaB2). — This soil has more rapid runoff than 
Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes, and it is more likely 
in erode if left unprotected. In places it has lost a good 
part of its original surface layer through erosion. To 
control further loss of soil, crops should be grown in good 
rotations, preferably in contour strips. If the soil is well 
managed, it is excellent for all uses and can be highly 
productive. (Capability unit IleHt; irrigation group 13; 
woodland suitability group 7) 

Sassafras loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (SaC2). — Erosion is a much greater hazard on this 
soil than on Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes, and 
more careful management is needed to control further soil 
losses. Needed are longer rotations of crops grown in 
narrow strips along the contour. Under good manage- 
ment, the soil can be regularly cultivated to any of the 
common crops. (Capability unit I lie— 1; irrigation group 
13; woodland suitability group 8) 

Sassafras loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded 
(SaC3). — Most of the original surface layer of this soil has 
been removed through erosion. In many places the sub- 
soil is exposed, or some of it is mixed with the remaining 
surface layer through plowing to a normal depth. Con- 
sequently, the productivity has been lowered, and the 
hazard of further erosion is severe. This soil should be 
carefully managed by farming it in long rotations or by 
keeping it in hay, pasture, or similar vegetation most of 
the time. In areas that have favorable air drainage, the 
soil is well suited to orchards if it is protected by close- 
growing cover. (Capability unit IVe-3 ; irrigation group 
13; woodland suitability group 13) 

Sassafras loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (SaD2). — Although this strongly sloping soil is 
only moderately eroded, it is highly susceptible to further 
erosion if it is regularly cultivated. For this reason, a 




Figure 7.--A stand of crimson clover on Sassafras sandy loam, 
to 2 percent slopes, on a farm near Sudlersville. Pointer shows 
nodules of nitrogen-fixing bacteria on the roots. 



good use for the soil is woodland. Cleared areas can be 
safely used for tilled crops only occasionally and snould 
be kepi in hay, pasture, or sodded orchards most of the 
time. (Capability unit IVe-3; irrigation group 13; 
woodland suitability group 8) 

Sassafras loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (SaD3). — Erosion has severely damaged this soil, 
and the hazard of further erosion is so great thai clean- 
tilled crops should not be grown. The soil is suited to 
permanent hay or to permanent pasture that is carefully 
grazed, and some areas can be safely used for sodded 
orchards. (Capability unit VIe-2; woodland suitability 
group 13) 

Sassafras loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes (SaE) — This 
steej) soil is little affected by erosion because most of it 
remains in forest or other permanent cover. Some areas 
on bluffs above rivers and bays have been cleared for 
homesites and are kept in lawns or are otherw ise protected. 
Crops cannot be safely grown on this soil, but pasture is 
suitable if it is carefully grazed. Sodded orchards also 
are suitable if they are well managed. (Capability unit 
\Te-2; woodland suitability group 9) 

Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes (SfA).— 
This soil has almost no limitations thai restrict its use in 
agriculture. It has good drainage but retains moisture 
well, and it is so nearly level that erosion is not a hazard. 
The soil is among the best in the county and can be used 
for all crops, including high-quality hay and pasture. 
Figure 7 shows an excellent stand of crimson clover in an 
area of this soil about 2 miles north of Sudlersville. (< 'a- 
pability unit 1—5; irrigation group 9; woodland suitability 
group 7) 

Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (SfB2). — This is the most extensive soil in the 
county and, in many ways, the most important for agri- 
culture. It is well drained and holds moisture and plant 
nutrients well. It is more susceptible to erosion than 
Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes, and in most 
areas it has had a large part of its surface layer washed 
away. Included in mapped areas are a few severely 
eroded spots. 

This soil generally has long, smooth slopes that are 
well suited to contour tillage and stripcropping, but some 
areas have a complex sinkhole relief. Controlling erosion 
is the main problem in management. (Capability unit 
IIe-5; irrigation group 9; woodland suitability group 7) 

Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (SfC2). — This soil generally has smooth, 
fairly long, regular slopes, though in some places there 
are small sinks known locally as whale wallows. The 
soil is readdy penetrated by air, water, and roots (fig. 8). 

Wooded areas of this soil have been little affected by 
erosion. In cultivated areas, where erosion has been 
moderate, further losses can be controlled by using fairly 
long rotations that keep the surface covered with sod or 
other close-growing crops much of the time and, where 
possible, by cultivating and stripcropping on the contour. 
(Capability unit IIIe-5; irrigation group 9; woodland 
suitability group 8) 

Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (SfC3). — More of the original surface layer has 
been lost from this sod than from Sassafras sandy loam, 
5 to 10 percent slopes, moderatley eroded. The subsoil 
is exposed in some places, and only a small part of the 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 



27 



original surface layer remains in others (fig. 9). Plowing, 
even to a normal depth, is mainly in the subsoil. 

( 'lean-tilled crops should ho grown on tliis soil only in 
strips along the contour and only in a long rotation l hat 
includes sod or other close-growing crops most of the 
time. (Capability unit I Ye 5; irrigation group 9j 
woodland suitability group L3) 

Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (SfD2). — This strongly sloping soil has lost 
a considerable part of its original surface layer in places, 
and it is likely to erode further unless it is carefully 
protected and managed. Some of the less eroded areas 
are still wooded and, if possible, should he kepi in trees. 
(Capability unit IYe-5; irrigation group !); woodland 
suitability group 8) 

Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (SfD3). — Because this soil is highly susceptible to 
further erosion, it should not be used lor clean-tilled 
crops. If it is well managed, it is suited to plants grown 
for hay or pasture, and it can be safely used for orchards 
if the surface is protected by a close-growing cover crop 
or a sod crop. Some areas are suitable for planting to 
trees, particularly pine. (Capability unit VIe-2; 
woodland suitability group 13) 

Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes (SfE).— 
This steep soil has a somewhat thinner surface layer and 
subsoil than the less strongly sloping Sassafras soils. It has 
not been subjected to accelerated erosion, chiefly because 
nearly all of it remains wooded. In only a few scattered 
areas has soil been recently lost. Most areas that are 
wooded should remain so, but this soil can be used for sod 
crops or for sodded orchards if it is exceptionally well 
managed. (Capability unit VIe-2; woodland suitability 
group 9) 

Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (SfE3). — Because this soil has not been so well 
protected as Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes, 
it has lost practically all of its original surface layer and, 
in places, much of its subsoil through erosion. Conse- 
quently, the soil is of little use for most types of farming. 
If it is reforested or is planted to permanent sod or other 
protective vegetation, it can be used for wildlife or 
recreation, can provide limited grazing, or perhaps can 
furnish some w r oodland products. (Capability unit Vlle- 
2; woodland suitability group 13) 

Sassafras sandy loam, 30 to 60 percent slopes (SfF).— - 
This soil is the steepest in the county and occupies short, 
very steep slopes that are almost like bluffs. It occurs 
along streams, rivers, and some of the bayfront and, in 
most places, has not been cleared. The areas that have 
been cleared generally are adjacent to or are parts of 
homesites and are kept in sod or other protective cover. 
Only a few T small areas have been damaged through 
erosion. 

This soil is not suitable for cropping It could be used 
for carefully controlled grazing, but that use probably 
would not be economical. (Capability unit VIIe-2; 
woodland suitability group 9) 

Swamp 

Swamp (Sw) consists of fresh- water areas that are 
under water a large part of the year. The soil material 
has not been classified and is made up of sand, silt, clay, 



muck, peat, or a mixture of any of these. Because the 
material is wet, it is not farmed. 

Most areas of Swamp are wooded, hul they commonly 
produce little usable timber and are too wei for normal 

management. Generally, they are suitable only ;is 

wildlife habitat. (Capability unit VIIw I; woodland 
suitability group 21 ) 

Tidal Marsh 

Tidal marsh (Tm) has not been examined in detail, but 
its soil material ranges from sand to clay and. in some 
places, is mucky or peaty. Besides being more or Less 
salty, some areas apparently contain a fairly large amount 
of sulfur compounds. If these areas were reclaimed and 
drained, the sulfur compounds would be oxidized to other 
compounds that normally are highly toxic to crops and to 
most other plants. All areas of Tidal marsh are subjeel 
to inundation when storms occur or when tides are un- 
usually high. Areas that extend inland along the ( 'hester 
River and other major rivers in the county are less af- 
fected by salt than areas that are close to the open waters 
of Chesapeake Bay. 

Tidal marsh is of little use in agriculture at the presenl 
time because it is not suitable for pasture, crops, or tim- 
ber. Some areas were formerly mowed for wild salt hay, 
but this practice is no longer common. About the only 
practical uses are for wildlife and recreation. (Capability 
unit VIIIw-1; woodland suitability group 21) 




Figure 8. — Corn roots have grown to a depth of 17 inches in this 
area of Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded, near Sudlersville. 



2<S 



SOIL SUR\ El 





Figure 9. — In (he foreground is a compact, barren area of Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded, that has lost 
most of its original surface layer through erosion. In the background is a farm pond bordered by a hedge of multiflora rose. 



Woodstown Series 

In the "Woodstown series are moderately well drained 
soils that developed on uplands in deposits of sand, silt, 
and clay. These soils are more or less sandy throughout 
and have a sandy clay loam subsoil. Because drainage 
is impeded, the lower subsoil is mottled. 

Undisturbed Woodstown .-oils have a thin, dark gray- 
ish-brown surface layer and a fairly thick, light yellow- 
ish-brown subsurface layer, both of which are crumbly 
loam or sandy loam. At a depth of about 13 to 24 inches, 
the upper subsoil is yellowish-brown, st icky fine sandy clay 
loam. Between the depths of 21 and about 34 inches, the 
lower subsoil is light yellowish-brown fine sandy clay 
loam that is mottled with grayish brown and strong 
brown. Although this layer is fairly firm, it is also sticky 
and slightly plastic. Below the subsoil is a very sandy 
layer that is variegated pale brown, strong brown, yellow, 
and gray and is commonly stratified. 

Like most of the other soils of the county, the Woods- 
town soils are very strongly acid or extremely acid unless 
they have been limed. In cultivated areas the plow layer 
normally is grayish brown. 

The "Woodstown soils developed in the same kind of 
material as the better drained Sassafras soils and the 
more poorly drained Fallsington and Pocomoke soils. 



The "Woodstown soils are similar to the Mattapex soils 
in appearance, but they are much less silty and more 
sandy both in the surface layer and the subsoil. Although 
the "Woodstown soils are much less sandy than the Klej 
soils, particularly in the subsoil, they generally resemble 
those soils in color and drainage. 

The "Woodstown soils are extensive in nearly all parts 
of the county and occur closely with the Sassafras and 
Fallsington soils. They are used for most crops but are 
not well suited to alfalfa, which is subject to damage 
from frost heaving in winter. Seasonal wetness also lim- 
its the use of these soils for many nonfarm purposes. 

Woodstown loam, to 2 percent slopes (WdA). — This 
nearly level soil is subject to only slight erosion, but it 
has impeded drainage that is the most important problem 
in management. Because the soil is wet in winter and 
much of the time in spring, the planting of crops may be 
delayed for several days beyond the normal dates. 

Excess water can be removed from this soil by use of 
tile lines or open ditches. If drainage is improved and if 
lime and fertilizer are applied in proper amounts, the soil 
can be used for most of the common crops. (Capability 
unit IIw-1 ; drainage group 2-A; irrigation group 13; 
woodland suitability group 3) 

Woodstown loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (WdB2). — This gently sloping soil is more easily 



Ql'KKN AN'NKS COl'N'I'V, MAK V LAND 



2!) 



drained than Woodstown loam, i<> 2 percent slopes, hut 
i( is more susceptible to erosion. Most areas have bad a 
significant amount of the original surface layer washed 
away, and a few scattered areas are severely eroded. 
Slopes generally arc regular and smooth, though they arc 
uneven or hummocky in some places. (Capability unit 
lie L6; drainage group 2 A ; irrigation group 13; woodland 
suit ability group ■ ) 

Woodstown sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes (Wo A). 
Because this nearly level soil dries out slowly, planting is 
frequently delayed, especially when spring is unusually 
wet. Removing excess water is the most important 
management problem. The erosion hazard is only slight, 

If this soil is drained, limed and fertilized, and other- 
wise well managed, it is well suited to most crops com- 
monly grown in the county. (Capability unit Ilw-5; 
drainage group 2-B; irrigation group 9; woodland suit- 
ability group 3) 

Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (WoB2). — This soil has belter surface 
drainage than Woodstown sandy loam, to 2 percent 
slopes, but it has more rapid runoff and is subject to more 
erosion. Some areas have lost an appreciable amount of 
the original surface layer, and erosion has been severe in 
a few small, widely scattered areas. In addition, there 
are a few sinks or depressions in areas of this soil. Al- 
though excess surface water commonly is not a problem, 
tiling or a similar drainage practice is needed to drain the 
subsoil in many places. (Capability unit IIe-36; drain- 
age group 2-B; irrigation group 9; woodland suitability 
group 3) 

Woodstown sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (WoC2). — Because of the serious erosion 
hazard, most areas of this soil have lost a significant 
amount of their surface layer. Included in areas mapped 
are small spots that have a surface layer of loam instead 
of sandy loam and a few acres that are severely eroded. 

This soil is somewhat limited in use for agriculture, 
unless erosion is controlled by planting the crops in strips 
on the contour and by disposing of excess water. (Capa- 
bility unit IIIe-36 ; irrigation group 9 ; woodland suitability 
group 9) 

Woodstown sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes 

(WoD). — Most areas of this soil are used as urban or 
rural homesites and, consequently, are mainly in trees or 
grass. Only a few areas are used for farming. Because 
slopes are strong, excess water generally is not a problem 
in cultivated areas. In residential areas, however, it 
disrupts septic-tank systems in wet periods, makes 
basements wet, and causes frost heaving in roads and 
driveways. 

If this soil is used for crops, protective measures are 
needed to control erosion. Long rotations should be 
used, and crops should be grown in strips on the contour. 
(Capability unit IVe-5; irrigation group 9; woodland 
suitability group 9) 

Woodstown sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes 
(WoE), — Practically all of this steep soil is in nonfarm 
uses and probably should remain so. Included are areas 
that have lost part of their original surface layer because 
they have not been well protected. Generally, about the 
only safe use for this soil in farming is carefully controlled 
grazing. (Capability unit VIe-2; woodland suitability 
group 9) 



Use and Management of the Soils 

This part of the report has several main subsections. 
The first explains the system of capability classification 
used by the Soil Conservation Service. It defines the 

capability units of Queen Anne- County, suggests man 
agement practices for each capability unit, describes basic 
practices that are suitable for all the soils in the county, 
and given estimates of average yield- of the common 
crops. Other subsections tell about the use of soils as 
woodland, discuss wildlife, describe engineering uses of 
soils, and discuss urban, .suburban, and recreational u>es. 
including the use of the soil survey in community plan- 
ning. 

Capability Groups of Soils 

The capability classification is a grouping that .-hows, 
in a general way, how suitable soils are for most kinds 
of farming. It is a practical grouping based on limita- 
tions of the soils, the risks of damage when they are used, 
and the way they respond to treatment. 

In this system all the kinds of soil are grouped at 
three levels, the capability class, subclass, and unit. The 
eight capability classes in the broadest grouping are des- 
ignated by the Roman numerals I through VIII. In class 
I are the soils that have few limitations, the w idest range 
of use, and the least risk of damage when they are used. 
The soils in the other classes have progressively greater 
natural limitations. In class VIII are soil- and land- 
forms so rough, shallow, salty, or otherwise limited that 
they do not produce worthwhile yields of crops, forage, 
or wood product s. 

The subclasses indicate major kinds of limitations 
within the classes. Within most of the classes there can 
be as many as four subclasses. The subclass is indicated 
by adding a small letter, e, w. s, or <?, to the class num- 
eral, as for example, lie. The letter e shows that the 
main limitation is risk of erosion unless close-growing 
plant cover is maintained; w means that water in or on 
the soil will interfere, with plant growth or cultivation 
(in some soils the wetness can be partly corrected by 
artificial drainage) : s shows that the soil is limited 
mainly because it is shallow, very sandy, droughty, or 
stony; and c, used in only some parts of the country, 
indicates that the chief limitation is climate that i- too 
cold or too dry. 

In class I there are no subclasses, because the soils of 
this class have few or no limitations. Class V can con- 
tain, at the most, only subclasses w, s. and c. because the 
soils in it are subject to little or no erosion but have 
other limitations that restrict their use largely to pas- 
ture, range, woodland, or wildlife. 

Within the subclasses are the capability units, groups 
of soils enough alike to be suited to the same crops and 
pasture plants, to require similar management, and to 
have similar productivity and other responses to man- 
agement. Thus, the. capability unit is a convenient 
grouping for making many statements about manage- 
ment of soils. Capability units are generally identified 
by numbers assigned locally; for example, IIe-4, IIIw-7, 
or IVs-1. 

Soils are classified in capability classes, subclasses, and 
units in accordance with the degree and kind of their 



30 



SOIL SURVEY 



permanent limitations; but withoul consideration of 
ma jor and generally expensive land forming thai would 
change the slope, depth, or other characteristics of the 
soil; and without consideration of possible but unlikely 
major reclamation projects. Queen Annes County has 
approximately 9,018 acres of soils in class I; 116,331 
acres in class II; 87,014 acres in class III; 7,322 acres 
in class IV; 11,73!) acres in class VI; 1,033 acres in class 
VII; and 6,183 acres in class VIII. There are no class 
V soils in the county. 

The soil- of Queen Amies County have been grouped 
into the following classes, subclasses, and capability 
units. The numbers of I he capability units in the fol 
lowing list are not consecutive, because a statewide sys- 
tem for numbering capability units is used, and only 
some of these units are represented in this county. 
Class I.— Soils that have lew limitations thai restrict their 

use. 

(No subclasses) 

Unit 1-4. — Deep, well-drained, nearly level soils 

that are medium textured. 
Unit 1-5. — Dee]>, well-drained, nearly level soils 
that are moderately coarse textured. 
Class II. — Soils that have some limitations that reduce 
the choice of plants or that require moderate conser- 
vation practices. 

Subclass He. — Soils subject to moderate erosion if 
they are not protected. 

Unil He -1. — Deep, well-drained, gently sloping 

soils thai are medium textured. 
Unit IIe—5. — Deep, well-drained, gently sloping 

soils thai arc i lerately coarse textured. 

Unit IIe-13. — Moderately well drained, gently 
sloping, medium-textured soils that have a 
slowly permeable, clayey subsoil and are 
moderately limited by wetne— . 
Unit IIe-16. — Moderately well drained, gently 
sloping, medium-textured soils that have slow 
to moderate permeability in the subsoil and 
are moderately limited by wetness. 
Unit IIe-36. — Moderately well drained, gently 
sloping, moderately coarse textured soils that 
have a moderately slowly or moderately per- 
meable subsoil and are moderately limited by 
wetness. 

Subclass IIw. — Soils that have moderate limitations 
because of excess water. 

Unit IIw— 1. — Moderately well drained, nearly 
level, medium-textured soils that have a 
slowly permeable to moderately permeable 
subsoil. 

Unit IIw-5. — Moderately well drained, nearly 
level, moderately coarse textured soils that 
have a moderately slowly or moderately per- 
meable subsoil. 

Unit IIw-S. — Moderately well drained, nearly 
level, medium-textured soils that have a 
slowly permeable subsoil. 
Subclass lis.— Soils that have moderate limitations 
of moisture capacity or tilth. 

Unit IIs-4. — Deep, well-drained, nearly level or 
gently sloping soils that have a thick, coarse- 
textured surface layer and a finer textured 
subsoil. 



(Mass III. Soils that bave severe limitations that reduce 
the choice of plants, or require special conservation 
practices, or bot h. 

Subclass Hie. — Soils subject to severe erosion if they 
are cultivated and not protected. 

(nit [IIe-4. — Deep, well-drained, moderately 
sloping or somewhat rolling, medium-textured 
soils. 

( 'nil 1 1 le — 5. — Deep, well-drained, moderately 
sloping or somewhat rolling, moderately coarse 
textured soils. 

Unit IIIe-13. — Poorly drained, moderately slop- 
ing or somewhat rolling, medium-textured soils 
that have a moderately slowly or slowly per- 
meable subsoil and are severely limited by 
wetness. 

I nit IIIe-10. — Moderately well drained, moder- 
ately sloping or somewhat rolling, medium- 
textured sods that have a moderately slowly 
or slowly permeable subsoil and are moderately 
limit ed by wet ness. 

Unit IIIe-33. — Deep, well-drained, moderately 
sloping or somewhat rolling soils that have a 
coarse-text uved surface layer and a finer tex- 
tured subsoil. 

Unit I He 36. - Moderately well drained, sloping 
to somewhat rolling, moderately coarse tex- 
tured soils that have a moderately permeable 
subsoil and are moderately limited by wetness. 
Subclass 11 lw. Soils that have severe limitations 
because of excass water. 

Unit IIIw— 1.- Somewhat poorly and poorly 
drained, medium-textured soils that have a 
moderately slowly permeable subsoil. 

('nit [IIw 6. — Poorly drained and very poorly 
drained, moderately coarse textured soils that 
have a moderately permeable subsoil. 

Unit IIIw-7. — Poorly drained and very poorly 
drained, medium-textured soils that have a 
moderately or moderately slowly permeable 
subsoil. 

Unit IIIw*-9. — Poorly drained and very poorly 
drained, medium-textured soils that have a 
slowly or very slowly permeable subsoil. 

Unit IIIw-10. — Somewhat poorly drained and 
moderately well drained, coarse-textured soils 
that have a subsoil in which permeability is 
moderately rapid. 
Subclass Ills. — Soils that have severe limitations of 
moisture capacity or tilth. 

Unit IIIs-1. — Deep, somewhat excessively 
drained, nearly level or gently sloping soils 
that are coarse textured and rapidly 
permeable. 

Class IV. — Soils that have very severe limitations that 
restrict the choice of plants, require very careful man- 
agement, or both. 

Subclass IVe. — Soils subject to very severe erosion if 
they are cultivated and not protected. 

Unit IVe-3. — Deep, well-drained, medium-tex- 
tured soils that are moderately sloping and 
severely eroded or are strongly sloping. 



QUKKX ANNUS ('()!' NTY , MAH V LAX I) 



3 J 



l 'nil IVe-5. — Modern I civ well drained and we 
drained, moderately coarse text tired mid coarse 
textured soils thai arc moderately sloping and 
severely eroded or arc strongly sloping. 
l T nit [Ve— 9. — Moderately well drained, medium- 
textured soils (hat. either arc strongly sloping 
or are moderately sloping and severely eroded, 
thai have a moderately permeable or slowly 
permeable subsoil, and that arc moderately 
limited by wet ihss. 
Subclass IVw. Soils that have very severe limita- 
tions for cultivation because of excess water. 
Unit IVw-6. — Poorly drained, coarse-textured, 
moderately rapidly permeable soils. 
Subclass IVs. — Soils that have very severe limitations 
of low moisture capacity or other soil features. 
Unit IVs-1. — Deep, coarse-textured, nearly level 
to moderately sloping or somewhat rolling soils 
that are very rapidly permeahle and somewhat 
excessively drained. 
Class VI. — Soils that have severe limitations that make 
them generally unsuited to cultivation and that limit 
their use largely to pasture or range, woodland, or 
wildlife food and cover. 

Subclass Vie. — Soils severely limited, chiefly by risk 
of erosion if protective cover is not maintained. 
I nit VIe-2. — Well drained and moderately well 
drained soils that are steep or are strongly 
sloping and severely eroded. 
Subclass VTw.- — Soils severely limited by excess water 
and generally unsuitable for cultivation. 

Unit VIw-1. — Nearly level, wet, mixed soil 

material that is subject to flooding. 
Unit VIw-2. — Poorly drained, very w T et, very 
slowly permeable soils. 
Class VII. — Soils that have very severe limitations that 
make them unsuitable for cultivation without major 
reclamation and that restrict their use largely to grazing, 
woodland, or wildlife. 

Subclass Vile. — Soils very severely limited, chiefly by 
risk of erosion if protective cover is not maintained. 
Unit VIIe-2. — Well drained and moderately well 
drained soils t hat are very st eep or are strongly 
sloping to steep and severely eroded. 
Subclass VII w. — Soils very severely limited by excess 
water. 

Unit VIIw-1. — Very wet, unclassified soil 
material. 

Subclass VIIs. — Soils very severely limited by low 
moisture capacity or other soil features. 

Unit VIIs-1. — Moderately sloping to steep, 
coarse-textured soils that are rapidly perme- 
able and excessively drained. 
Class VIII. — Soils and landforms having limitations that 
preclude their use for commercial production of plants 
and restrict their use to recreation, water supply, 
wildlife, or esthetic purposes. 

Subclass VIIIw. — Extremely wet or marshy land. 
Unit VIIIw-1. — Land regularly subject to flood- 
ing during high tides. 
Subclass VIIIs. — Soil material that has little poten- 
tial for the production of vegetation. 
Unit VIIIs-2. — Almost bare, loose sand. 
Unit VIIIs-4. — Land where soil has been 
removed. 

795-G46— G6 3 



11 Management by capability units 



In this subsection each capability unit is briefly de- 
scribed and i lie soils in it arc listed. Suggestions we 

given on how to use and manage the Soils III each unit. 

As stated in the explanation of capability grouping, a 
capability unit consists of soils that are suitable for the 
same uses and produce about i he same yield-. There- 
fore, the soils need about the same management , t hough 
they may have formed in different ways and from dif- 
ferent kinds of parent material. 

CAPABILITY UNIT I I 

The soils in this unit are deep, nearly level, medium 
textured, and well drained. They arc 

Matapeake loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

Matapeake silt loam, t<> - percenl slopes. 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, to 2 percent slopes. 

Sassafras loam, U to '1 percenl slopes. 

These soils occupy (1,102 acres and are the best for 
agriculture of any soils in the county. They retain mois- 
ture and plant nutrients well, and they are easy to work. 
Under good management they arc suitable for intensive 
cultivation and are highly productive. 

Corn, soybeans, and small grain are grown extensively. 
Vegetables, fruits, hay crops, and pasture crops are 
grown to a lesser extent. For high yields, the supply 
of plant nutrients must be kept high, lime should be 
applied as needed, and legumes and green-manure crop- 
should be grown. 

CAPABILITY UNIT 1-5 

In this unit are nearly level, moderately coarse tex- 
tured soils that are deep and well drained. They are— 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

The soils of this unit cover 2,916 acres in the county. 
These soils are crumbly and easily worked, and they can 
be cultivated intensively over a long period of time. 
They are suited to the same crops as the soils of capabil- 
ity unit 1-4, and they are perhaps better suited to truck 
crops and strawberries. They are somewhat more sandy 
than the soils in unit 1-4, and they do not hold moisture 
and plant nutrients so well. Nevertheless, if a good 
supply of plant nutrients is maintained, yields should 
be just as high. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIe-4 

In this unit are gently sloping, medium-textured soils 
that are deep and well drained. They are— 

Matapeake loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

These soils have a total area of 17,622 acres in the 
county. They are similar to the soils of capability unit 
I_4 but they have stronger slopes, are moderately eroded, 
and' are moderately susceptible to further erosion 

The soils of this unit require contour tillage and longer 
rotations for control of erosion, but otherwise they can 
be used and managed about the same way as the soils 
of unit I-I The cropping system should include hay 
or other close-growing crops. These soils are excellent 
for orchards in areas where air drainage is adequate. 



SOIL SUKVKY 



CAPABILITY UNIT He 5 

Deep, gently sloping, well-drained, moderately coarse 
textured soils make up this unit. They are 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 1! to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

These soils occupy a total area of 38,453 acres in the 
county. They have moderate limitations to use because 
of the risk of erosion. Except for practices to control 
erosion, the soils have the same uses and require the 
same management as the soils of capability unit 1-5. 
They need to he tilled on the contour and require longer 
rotations than the soils of unit 1-5. Jn addition, close- 
growing crops should he included in the rotation. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIe-13 

This unit consists of gently sloping, medium-textured, 
moderately well drained soils that have a slowly perme- 
able, clayey suhsoil and are moderately limited by wet- 
ness. The soils are — 

Keyport Loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

These soils occupy 1,892 acres in the county. Although 
drainage is impeded and the suhsoil is slowly permeable, 
runoff is rapid enough that protecting the surface from 
erosion is more important than improving drainage. The 
soils are too wet during some periods, however, and are 
too dry in others, (iood management consists not only 
of practices that control erosion but also of practices 
that remove excess surface water. A good supply of 
plant nutrients must he maintained, and lime is required 
in many places. The soils are not well suited to alfalfa 
and similar crops that may be damaged by frost heaving 
in winter. They are well suited to corn, soybeans, hay 
crops, other than alfalfa, and pasture. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIe-16 

The soils in this unit are gently sloping, medium tex- 
tured, and moderately well drained. They have slow to 
moderately permeability in the subsoil and are moder- 
ately limited by wetness. They are — 

Butlertown silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Mattapex loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Woodstown loam. 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

The soils of this unit have a total area of 17.401 acres 
in the comity. In drainage and in texture of the surface 
layer they are like the Keyport soils in capability unit 
IIe-13, but the soils in this unit are not so fine textured 
in the subsoil as those soils, and they can be drained by 
tiling. Use and management requirements are about the 
same for both units. 

CAPABILITY UNIT He- 36 

In this unit are gently sloping, moderately coarse tex- 
tured, moderately well drained soils that have a mod- 
erately slowly or moderately permeable subsoil and are 
moderately limited by wetness. They are — 

Mattapex fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 



These soils cover 1,857 acres in the county. They are 
similar to the soils in capability unit Qe-16, but they 
are somewhat more sandy, particularly in the plow 

layer. The soils in this unit are suited to the same uses 

as the soils in units IIe-13 and [Ie-16, and they require 
much the same management, including measures for con 
t rolling erosion. However, they are easier to drain, to 
work, and to manage, though they do not retain plant 
nutrients quite so well. Fertility must be maintained 
for high yields. 

CAPABILITY UNIT Hw-1 

This unit consists of nearly level, medium-textured, 
moderately well drained soils that have a slowly perme- 
able to moderately permeable subsoil. The soils are — 

Butlertown silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Mattapex loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

.Mattapex silt Loam, o to 2 percent slopes. 
Woodstown loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

These moderately wet soils occupy 18,329 acres in the 
county. They are similar to the soils in capability unit 
IIe-16, but they are nearly level and are subject to little 
or no erosion. If drainage is adequate, the soils are 
suited to most crops commonly grown, but they are not 
well suited to alfalfa and similar crops that are dam- 
aged by frost heaving in winter. Tile or open ditches, 
properly spaced and installed, are needed to remove ex- 
cess water in wet periods. The ditches should be shallow 
enough that they do not extend into the sandy sub- 
stratum, because the sandy material tends to How and 
to cave into the channels. A good supply of plant nu- 
trients should be maintained, and lime is generally 
needed. 

CAPABILITY UNIT Hw-5 

In this unit are nearly level, moderately coarse tex- 
tured soils that are moderately well drained and have a 
moderately slowly or moderately permeable subsoil. 
They are— 

.Mattapex fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Woodstown sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

These soils have a total area of 5,967 acres in this 
county. They are sandier, particularly in the plow 
layer, and tire more easily drained and worked than the 
soils in capability unit IIw-1. Yields tend to be some- 
what lower on these soils, however, unless fertility is 
maintained at a high level. 

Drainage is the most important management problem, 
but if the soils are drained, they tend to warm up more 
quickly in spring than most soils that have impeded 
drainage. Ditches used for carrying off excess water 
should not extend into the sandy substratum. Tile 
drainage is well suited. 

CAPABILITY UNIT Hw-8 

The soils in this unit are nearly level, medium textured, 
and moderately well drained. They have a slowly per- 
meable subsoil. In the unit are — 

Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

These soils occupy 7,756 acres in Queen Annes County. 
Water infiltrates slowly and drains through the profile 
very slowly. The soils should be cultivated within only 
a very narrow 7 range of moisture content, for the plow 
layer tends to pack after heavy rains. Drainage is the 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 



most important management problem, bu1 V-type ditches 
that are properly spaced are generally adequate for re- 
moving excess water. In most places tile is not suitable, 
because the subsoil is fine textured. 

If these soils are drained, or are cultivated only when 
t hey are neither too wet nor too dry, and ot berwise arc well 
managed, they produce moderate to high yields of the 
crops commonly grown. Because the soils heave in 
winter, they are not well suited to alfalfa. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIs-4 

This unit consists of deep, nearly level or gently slop- 
ing, well-drained soils that have a coarse-textured sur- 
face layer and a finer textured subsoil. The soils are — - 

Downer loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
Downer loamy sand. 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

These soils have a total area of 4,05-4 acres in the 
county. Their loamy sand surface layer is thick and 
friable, and their subsoil is thin, friable sandy clay loam 
that is underlain by sand at a depth of 24 to 30 inches. 
The soils are low in plant nutrients and content of 
organic matter and are moderately low in available mois- 
ture capacity. 

These soils are well suited to most, crops, and some 
areas can be used for sweet potatoes and other truck 
crops (fig. 10). Where moisture is adequate, yields are 
fair to very good. Supplemental irrigation is desirable 
and is needed in dry periods, particularly for shallow- 
rooted annual crops. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-4 

In this unit are moderately sloping or somewhat roll- 
ing, medium-textured soils' that are deep and well 
drained. They are — 

Matapeake loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Sassafras loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

These soils occupy 3,443 acres in the county. Because 
they are moderately sloping, they are susceptible to ero- 
sion. The soils are suited to about the same crops as the 
soils in capability units 1-4 and IIe-4, and they produce 
about the same yields if good management is used. 
Longer rotations are needed, however, and hay or other 
close-growing crops should be grown much of the time. 

These soils can be protected from further erosion by 
tilling them as little as possible, by tilling on the con- 
tour, and by planting sod crops in buffer strips. Sodded 
waterways that have suitable outlets are needed for safely 
disposing of excess water. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-5 

This unit consists of deep, moderately sloping or some- 
what rolling soils that are moderately coarse textured 
and well drained. The soils are — 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

These soils cover 4,845 acres in the county. They are 
similar to the soils in capability units 1-5 and IIe-5, 
though they have stronger slopes and are more suscep- 



tible to erosion. The soils in t hi.- unit are more ca-ily 
worked than those in capability nidi Hie I. bin they 
are suited to the -anio crops and require about I he Same 
management. Yields are somewhat lower, however, un- 
less a good supply of plant nutrients is maintained. 

CAPABILITY UNIT III. I I 

Only Othello and Elktoll soils. 5 to ID percent -lope-, 
moderately eroded, are in this unit. These moderately 
sloping or somewhat rolling soils are medium textured, 
poorly drained, and severely limited by wetness. They 
are in small areas that total Yl-1 acres. 

Because erosion is the main problem, these soil- should 
be kept in close-growing crops much of the time, though 
corn and soybeans can be safely grown in a suitably long 
rotation. Improved drainage and protection from rapid 
runoff are needed. Tillage should be kept to the mini- 
mum, and ditches should be installed to drain the sub 
soil and to collect and divert runoff. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-IG 

The soils in this unit are moderately sloping or some- 
what rolling, medium textured, and moderately well 
drained. They have a moderately slowly or slowly 
permeable subsoil and are moderately limited by wet- 
ness. They are — 

Butlertown silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Mattapex loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

These soils occupy only 726 acres in the county. In 
some respects they are similar to the soils in capability 
unit IIe-16, but they have stronger slopes and more 
rapid runoff, and they are more susceptible to erosion. 
Erosion can be controlled if runoff is collected in closely 
spaced diversions or tile interceptors and is removed 
through sodded waterways. Tilled crops can be safely 
grown in a 4-year rotation. 




Figure 10. — Harvesting snap beans on Downer loamy sand, to 2 
percent slopes, near the Chester River in the northern part of the 

county. 



:*-4 



SOIL SURVEY 



CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-33 

The only soil in this unit is Downer loamy sand, to 
lo percent slopes. This moderately sloping or somewhat 
[•oiling soil is well drained and has a subsoil that is liner 
textured than the surface layer. The soil occupies only 
363 acres in t he county. 

In most respects this soil is similar to the soils in capa- 
bility units Ils-d, but it is more strongly sloping and 
should he kept in longer rotations. Erosion, the main 
problem in management, can be reduced by stripcrop- 
ping and tilling on the contour. For good yields, how- 
ever, a good supply of moisture and of plant nutrients 
must be maintained. Supplemental irrigation is desir- 
able, especially in dry periods. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-36 

The only soil in this unit is Woods! own sandy loam. 
5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. It is a mod- 
erately sloping or somewhat rolling soil that is mod- 
erately well drained, has a moderately permeable sub- 
soil, and is moderately limited by wetness. It occupies 
183 acres in the county. 

Because this soil is more strongly sloping than the sods 
in capability unit Qe-36, it is more likely to erode if 
left unprotected. It is sandier, especially in the plow 
layer, than the soils in unit LTIe-16. It is more easily 
tilled than those soils, and excess water is more easily 
collected and removed, though the soil is slightly less 
productive unless fertility is kept high. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-1 

In this unit are medium-text ured. somewhat poorly 
drained or poorly drained soils that have a moderately 
slowly permeable subsoil. They are — 

Bertie and Othello silt loams, u to 2 pereenl slopes. 
Bertie and 01 hello silr loams, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

These soils occupy 781 acres in the county. The Bertie 
soils, which are dominant, are somewhat poorly drained, 
and the Othello soils are poorly drained. All of These 
soils are moderately wet or wet. but they can be drained 
easily by tile or open ditches. If drainage is provided, 
good yields can be obtained from many kinds of crops, 
though wetness generally delays planting. Erosion is a 
hazard in sloping areas. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-6 

This unit consists of moderately coarse textured, poorly 
drained and Aery poorly drained soils that have a mod- 
erately permeable subsoil. The soils are — 

Fallsington sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Pallsington sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Pocomoke sandy loam. 

These soils occupy a total area of 17,440 acres in the 
county. The Fallsington soils are poorly drained and 
have a gray surface layer. The Pocomoke soil is very 
poorly drained and has a very dark gray to black sur- 
face layer that is high in organic-matter content. 

Unless these soils are artificially drained, their use for 
crops is limited. Tile drainage is well suited, but open 
ditches are difficult to maintain because these sandy soils 
tend to cave and flow into the channels. Yields of many 
erops are good if drainage is established and if fertilizer 



and lime are added. The soils are not well suited lo 

alfalfa and lespedeza, and they are tiol used extensively 
for small grain. 

CAPABILITY UNIT Illw 7 

Poorly drained and very poorly drained, medium- 
t ext ured soils arc in t his unit . Their subsoil is modern t ely 
or moderately slowly permeable. The soils are 

Bibb silt, loam. 

Fallsington loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Fallsington loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Johnston loam. 

Othello silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

Othello silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Pocomoke loam. 
Portsmouth silt. loam. 

These soils have a total area of ;>. r ),G9] acres. The 
Bibb and the Johnston soils are on flood plains and must 
he prot ect ed from overflow. 

The soils in this unit have a less sandy surface layer 
and a somewhal liner textured subsoil than the soils in 
capability unit Illw (i. They are slightly more difficult 
to drain than the soils in capability unit Illw fi, but 
where they are drained, they can be expected to produce 
higher yields. Tile and V-type ditches are suitable for 
improving drainage, but these should he more closely 
spaced than on the soils in unit [IIw-6. The ditches 
should tiol he dee]) enough to penetrate the sandy sub- 
Stratum. Fertilizer IS needed, and the soils ought to he 
tested frequently to determine the need for lime. 

CAPABILITY UNIT Illw 9 

In this unit are medium-textured soils that are poorly 
drained and very poorly drained and have a slowly or 
very -lowly permeable subsoil. They are — 

Bayboro silt loam. 
Elkton loam. 

Elkton silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

Elkton silt loam. 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

These soils occupy 2!0,27(> acres in the county. The 
poorly drained Elkton soils have a gray surface layer. 
The very poorly drained Bayboro soil has a very dark 
gray or black surface layer that is high in organic- 
matter content. 

The soils in this unit are hard when dry and sticky 
when wet. and they can be cultivated within only a nar- 
row range of moisture content. In addition, their fine- 
textured, slowly permeable subsoil makes them difficult 
to drain. Field ditches generally are needed to remove 
excess water. If the soils are drained, they are suited 
to corn, soybeans, grasses, and other crops, but they re- 
quire fertilizer and moderate to large amounts of lime. 
They are not suited to alfalfa or small grain, but they 
could be used more extensively for pasture. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-10 

The soils in this unit are coarse textured and some- 
what poorly drained or moderately well drained. Perme- 
ability is moderately rapid in the subsoil. The soils are — 

Klej loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

These soils occupy only 210 acres in the county. They 
have impeded drainage, and they are strongly acid and 
low in plant nutrients. In wet periods the soils are 
wet, but in dry periods they store little moisture that is 



(jUKKN ANNUS COUNTY, MAW YUAN I) 



35 



available to plants. Surface drainage is needed if culti- 
vated crops are grown, but ditches arc difficull to main 
tain because these sandy soils How w hen I hey are satu- 
rated. Tile drains are more satisfactory. Good yields 
can be obtained by maintaining a good supply of planl 
nutrients and by irrigating during dry periods. 

IT (hey are well managed, the soils in I his unil are 
well suited to the crops commonly grown in the county. 
They are used mainly for corn, soybeans, and vegetables 
grown commercially' or for home gardens. Yields are 
somewhat lower, however, than on some of the better 
agricultural soils in the county. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIs-1 

In this unit are deep, nearly level or gently sloping, 
coarse-textured soils that are rapidly permeable and 
somewhat excessively drained. They are— 

Galestown loamy sand, clayey substratum. to 5 percent 
slopes. 

Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 5 percent 
slopes. 

These soils cover 2,934 acres in this county. They are 
acid, low in plant nutrients, and low in organic-matter 
content. Because they are sandy and rapidly permeable, 
they hold little moisture available to plants. The soils 
are' susceptible to wind erosion and need the protection 
of a plant cover. Good management consists of using a 
close-growing crop in the rotation, planting crops in 
strips crosswise to the prevailing wind, and establishing 
windbreaks. Organic matter can be maintained by leav- 
ing crop residues on the surface or by plowing them 
into the surface layer. 

These soils are used for corn and soybeans and are 
especially well suited to truck crops, but lime and large 
amounts' of fertilizer should be added as indicated by soil 
tests. Although annual crops are likely to need irrigation 
to onset droughtiness, trees and other deep-rooted plants 
generally can obtain moisture in the clayey substratum at 
a depth of 4 to 6 feet. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IVe-3 

In this unit are dee]), medium-textured, well-drained 
soils that either are strongly sloping or are moderately 
sloping and severely eroded. The soils are— 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
severely eroded. 

Matapeake loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded. 

Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded. 

Matapeake soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 

Sassafras loam, 5 to in percent slopes, severely eroded. 

Sassafras loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

The soils in this unit occupy 1,753 acres in the county. 
They have stronger slopes than the soils in capability 
units 1-4, IIe-4, and IlIe-4, and they are more suscep- 
tible to erosion. Among the practices that control ero- 
sion are stripcropping, minimum tillage, tilling on the 
contour, establishing buffer strips, and leaving crop resi- 
dues on the surface or plowing them partly under. Ter- 
races are needed in some places. Surface runoff, espe- 
cially from the terrace channels, can be safely removed 
through diversions and sodded waterways, but suitable 
outlets must be carefully maintained. 

If these soils are well managed, they produce good 
yields of crops commonly grown in the county, but they 



ought to be farmed in long rotations and be kept cov- 
ered by growing plants most of the time. Where air 
drainage is good, the soils are especially well suited to 
fruit trees grown in well-sodded orchards. Soybean- are 
not a good crop, because they oiler little or no protection 
against erosion. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IVe-5 

This unit consists of well drained and moderately well 
drained, moderately coarse textured and coarse textured 
soils that either are strongly sloping or are moderately 
sloping and severely eroded. The soils are- 
Downer loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Downer loamy sand. H> to lo percent slopes. 
Matapeake fine sandy loam. ."> to Hi percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

YVoodstown sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 

The soils in this unit occupy 4,006 acres in the county. 
In some respects these soils are similar to the -oils in 
capability units 1-5, IIe-5, and IIIe-5, and in other re- 
spects they are like the soils in units lIIe-33 and II Ie- 
36. They have stronger slopes than the soils in any of 
those units and are therefore more susceptible to erosion. 

Because they are sandier, particularly in the surface 
layer, the soils of this unit are more easily worked than 
the soils of unit IVe-3. Crops are managed about the 
same way, though yields generally are lower on the soils 
in this unit, unless a good supply of plant nutrient- is 
maintained. In areas where air drainage is adequate, 
orchards are especially well suited if the soils are pro- 
tected by sod. Soybeans are a poor crop, even in long 
rotations, for they offer little or no protection against 
erosion. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IVe-9 

This unit consists of moderately well drained, medium- 
textured soils that have a moderately permeable or slowly 
permeable subsoil and are moderately limited in use be- 
cause of wetness. Most of the soils are moderately slop- 
ing and severely eroded. In the unit are — 

Butlertown silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded. 

Mattapex loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded. 

Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded. 

Mattapex soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 

These soils occupy 837 acres in the county. In some 
respects they are similar to the soils in capability units 
IIe-16 and IIIe-16, but they have stronger slopes or are 
more severely eroded. In addition, these soils have more 
rapid runoff, which is accelerated by impeded drainage. 
Runoff should be intercepted and removed carefully. 

Clean-tilled crops are only marginally suited to these 
soils and should be grown only in long rotations. Gen- 
erally, hay and pastures are more suitable uses. Some 
areas can 'be reforested by seeding hardwoods or plant- 
ing pine seedlings. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IVw-6 

Plummer loamy sand — the only soil in this unit— is 
poorly drained, coarse textured, and moderately rapidly 
permeable. It occupies only 90 acres in the county. This 
wet soil is very strongly acid, very sandy, low in organic 
matter content, and very low in plant nutrients. It can 
be drained by tiling or ditching, but tile is expensive 
and ditches tend to cave and flow. 



30 



SOIL SURVEY 



Even if the soil is carefully drained, only moderate 
yields are obtained from crops commonly grown. 
Drained areas are suited to corn, soybeans, and some 
truck crops, though lime and large amounts of fertilizer 
are needed. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IVs-1 

In this unit are deep, coarse-textured, nearly level to 
moderately sloping or somewhat rolling soils that are 
rapidly permeable and somewhat excessively drained. 
They are — 

Galestown loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 10 percent 
slopes. 

(ialestown sand, clayey substratum, to 5 percent slopes. 
Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 10 percent 
slopes. 

These soils occupy 636 acres in the county. They are 
sandy and droughty, are low in available moisture capa- 
city, contain only a small amount of plant nutrients, and 
arc susceptible to wind and water erosion. Although 
these soils have some characteristics similar to those of 
the soils in capability unit IIIs-1, they are either more 
sandy or more strongly sloping, and their use is more 
limited. 

The management needed is about the same for these 
soils as for the soils in unit Ills-l. but additional needs 
are for terraces, contour tillage, and other practices I hat 
help to control erosion. Fair to good yields of suitable 
crops can be obtained if the soils are well managed, are 
adequately fertilized, and are irrigated in dry periods. 
Even during extensive periods of drought, however, 
deep-rooted perennials can ordinarily obtain moisture 
from the clayey substratum underlying these soils. 

CAPABILITY I'NIT VIe-2 

The soils in this unit are well drained and moderately 
well drained. Some are steep; others are .strongly slop- 
ing and severely eroded. The soils are 

Downer loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Downer loamy sand, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 
Keyport silly clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Matapeake soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded. 

Matapeake soils. 15 to 30 percent slopes. 

Mattapex soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded. 

Mattapex soils, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 

Sassafras loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded. 

Sassafras loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 
Woodstown sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 

These soils have a total area of 4,r>01 acres in the 
comity. They are too steep or too severely eroded for 
cultivated crops, but they can be used to a limited extent 
for hay. They can also be used for forest trees or for 
sodded orchards, but the most suitable common use is 
I >as1 ure. 

Areas to be used for pasture should be prepared and 
then seeded or sprigged. Fertilizer is required, and lime 
should be applied as needed. Care must be taken to 
protect the areas from overgrazing, which leaves the soils 
nearly bare and subjects them to severe erosion (fig. 11). 
Di ■ought is more likely to damage pasture on the Downer 
soils than on other soils in the unit. 



CAPABILITY UNIT VIw 1 

Only .Mixed alluvial land is in this unit. It consists 
of variable soil material that is nearly level and mostly 
poorly or very poorly drained. It occupies 6,857 acre's 
on Hood plains in the county. Because this land is wet 
and subject to Hooding, it is not suited to cultivated 
crops. If it is drained and well managed, however, it 
can be used for hay or pasture. The most common uses 
are as woodland and as a wildlife habitat. 

CAPABILITY UNIT VIw-2 

Bladen silty clay loam — the only soil in this unit — is 
poorly drained and slowly permeable. The surface layer 
is hard when dry, tough when moist, and sticky when 
wet, and the SUDSoil is so line textured and mi slowly 
permeable that drainage is impractical. Some areas are 
llooded when tides are very high. The soil has a total 
area of 381 acres in the county. 

This soil cannot be used for cultivated crops, because 
it is too wet and is dillicult to drain and to work. Some 
areas are in forest, some are idle, and some are used for 
grazing. Areas thai are grazed can be improved by 
seeding, liming, fertilizing, and controlling weeds. 

CAPABILITY UNIT VIIe-2 

This unit consists of well drained and moderately well 
drained soils that either are very steep or are strongly 
sloping to steep and severely eroded. They are — 

Keyport silty clay loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely- 
eroded. 




Figure 11. — An area of Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent 
slopes, severely eroded. The upper part of this field is nearly bare. 
The sandy surface layer has washed down and filled the gully in 
the foreground. 



QUKKN ANN ICS COUNTY, MARYLAND 



37 



.'imlv I i 



Sassa Eras 
eroded. 
Sassafras sandy Loi 



ii, l.'i In ;{() percent slopes, severely 

30 to GO percent Slopes. 

These soils cover a lot;)] area of 366 acres in I lie 
county. They are too steep or loo severely eroded for 
cultivation, lull some areas can lie used for special crops 
that are specially managed. The soils are most com 
tnonly used for grazing, but they are better used as wood- 
land. Areas thai are grazed can lie improved by seed- 
ing, fertilizing and liming, and controlling weeds. Over- 
grazing should lie prevented. In wooded areas where 
existing stands are not satisfactory, pine seedlings or 
hardwood seeds can be planted. Generally, these soils 
make good habitat for wildlife. 

CAPABILITY UNIT VIIw 1 

Only Swamp is in this unit. It consists of very wet, 
unclassified soil material that is not used for crops, be- 
cause drainage is impractical. It occupies 275 acres in 
the county. Most areas of Swamp are suitable only as 
wetland forest or as wildlife habitat, hut some areas 
furnish a small amount of grazing or browsing when 
the water is low. 

CAPABILITY UNIT VIIs-I 

In this unit are deep, moderately sloping to steep, 
coarse-textured soils that are rapidly permeable and ex- 
cessively drained. Use of these soils is severely limited 
by dronghtiness. The} r are — 

Galestown and Lakeland loamy sands, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
Galestown and Lakeland loamy sands, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 
Galestown and Lakeland sands, 5 to 10 pei-cent slopes. 

The soils in this unit have a total area of 392 acres. 
Because they are droughty, they are generally not suit- 
able for crops or pasture, but some areas provide limited 
grazing or shelter for livestock. They also provide shel- 
ter for wildlife, particularly deer, quail, rabbits, and 
squirrels. 

The soils generally are not well suited to trees, but 
Virginia pine can be grown for pulpwood if it is prop- 
erly managed. Planted loblolly pine grows fairly well. 

CAPABILITY UNIT VIIIw-1 

This unit is made up of only one land type, Tidal 
marsh. It occupies 5,797 acres in the comity. These 
soil materials are flooded regularly by high tides and 
are too wet and too salty for use in farming. Together 
with their tidal waterways, they provide excellent habi- 
tat for some kinds of wildlife, particularly ducks, geese, 
swans, rails, and other native and migratory waterfowl. 

CAPABILITY UNIT VIIIs-2 

Only Coastal beaches make up this unit. They consist 
of almost bare, incoherent loose sand. These areas occupy 
242 acres along Chesapeake Bay and some of the larger 
rivers and smaller bays. They have no agricultural value 
but are suitable for recreation. 

CAPABILITY UNIT VIIIs-4 

Only Gravel and borrow pits are in this unit. They 
occupy III acres in the county and are made up of areas 
from which soil material has been removed. Unless 
these areas are completely reclaimed, they have no use 
in agriculture. 



General Management Practices 

Some management practices are applicable to all the 
soils used for crops in Queer Anne- County. Among the 

practices are draining the soils that are wet all or pail 
of the year, applying the proper soil amendments, choos 
ing a. suitable rotation, tilling; the soils properly, and 
managing crop residues. These basic management prac- 
tices are discussed in this subsection. Management for 
irrigated crops is explained under the heading "Irriga 
t ion Groups of Soils." 

Drainage 

Improved drainage is one of the principal manage- 
ment needs in Queen Amies County. Only a few farms 
are located entirely on well-drained soils. These farms 
are chiefly in the central and northern parts of the 
county and occur in areas that are higher in elevation 
than adjacent areas near Chesapeake Bay or the larger 
st reams and rivers. 

Artificial drainage is needed in some degree on about 
55 percent of the total acreage in the county, or about 
(>() percent of the acreage suitable for crops. Yields are 
often poor or crops fail completely unless a drainage sys- 
tem is well established, maintained, and controlled. This 
is especially true in the western part of the county, in 
areas adjacent to the Delaware line, and in -mall areas 
elsewhere. 

Of the total acreage needing drainage, more than half 
is occupied by moderately well drained soils. Draining 
these soils may consist only of removing excess surface 
water. The kind and degree of artificial drainage needed 
depend on the kinds of crops grown. Somewhat poorly 
drained to very poorly drained soils make up the re- 
maining acreage that needs drainage. Before these soils 
can be successfully used for most crops, the improvement 
in drainage must be intensive. 

More complete information about drainage needed for 
the soils in this county can be found under the heading 
"Drainage Groups of Soils. ' ; 

The general drainage requirements of the sods are— 

1. Soils that require no artificial drainage: 

Downer, Galestown, Lakeland, Matapeake, and 
Sassafras. . 

2 Soils that require moderate artificial drainage: 
Butlertown, Keyport, Klej, Mattapex, and 
Woodstown. . . _ 1 . 

3 Soils that require intensive artificial drainage: 
Bertie, Bibb, Bladen, Elkton, Fallsmgton, Othello 
andPlummer. . . 

4. Soils that require very intensive artificial drain- 
age: Bayboro, Johnston, Pocomoke (fig. 12), 
and Portsmouth. 

Soil amendments 

The soils in this county are naturally low or very low 
in plant nutrients. All the soils are acid, and some are 
extremely acid. For these reasons, fertilizer and lime 
are needed to obtain high yields of most crops. The 
amount of lime to use and the kinds and amounts of 
fertilizer needed can be judged by learning how well 
crops have responded in the past, by determining the 
vield level at which the farmer is operating, and by 
studying the record of previous management, especially 



soil snnKi 




Figure 12. — Ponding after heavy rain on a small area of Pocomoke 
sanely loam in the northeastern part of the county. This area has 
not been drained, and there is no outlet for excess water. 



Ilit' results of chemical tests. Assistance in determining 
the specific requirement of each soil can be obtained 
from the county agricultural agent, who will arrange to 
have soils tested at the Soil Testing Laboratory of the 
University of Maryland. 

Lime generally is needed about once every 3 years. 
On very sandy soils and on well drained or moderately 
well drained soils, the amount of lime needed is 1 to 
l!/2 tons per acre. On most other soils the amount 
needed is 2 to ; '> tons per acre, hut on the Bayboro, John- 
ston, Pocomoke, Portsmouth, and other wet soils that 
have a high content of organic matter, the requirement 
per acre may he •"> to 5 tons or more. 

I ('liferent soils in the same field may require different 
amounts of lime. For example. 1 ton per acre may he 
sufficient in areas where the soils are sandy and well 
drained, but in areas of dark-colored soils that are less 
sandy and less well drained, as much as 5 tons per acre 
may be needed, ("sing too much lime, particularly on a 
sandy soil, should he avoided ju-t a- carefully a- using 
loo little. 

Soils that are cultivated year after year become defi- 
cient in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium unless these 
elements are replenished regularly. Unlike phosphorus 
and potassium, nitrogen does not come from the mineral 
part of the soil. 

Rotations 

Using a good crop rotation is an efficient way of re- 
turning organic material to the soil and of helping to 
control erosion. One good practice consists of growing 
a legume or other green-manure crop before a corn crop 
( (ig. L3). When the green manure is plowed under, it 
adds nitrogen and organic matter to the soil. As a re- 
sult, the corn crop that follows generally produces a 
higher yield and is better able to withstand dry weather. 

Level or nearly level soils — those having slopes of less 
than 2 percent — are only slightly susceptible to water 



erosion and do not require rotations for erosion control. 
It these soils are otherwise suited to cultivated crops, 
they can he used continuously for either corn or soy- 
beans. However, a cover crop grown between corn crops 
keeps I he soil in better tilth anil generally more pro- 
ductive. 

For -oils in capability class I and for most soils in 
capability subclasses 1 1 w. 1 1 1 w, 1 Yw, I Is. and Ills, some 
suitable 2-year rota! ions are — 

L A year of coin, soybeans, or other row crop and 
a year of wheat, barley, or oats in which com- 
mon lespedeza is seeded for hay or for seed. 

2. Corn and soybeans in alternate years, with or 
without a cover crop or a green-manure crop 
after the corn, or the soybeans, or both. 

Most common in the county is a 3-year rotation. Such 
a rotation is suitable for all the soils on which a 2-year 
rotation is suitable, and it can be used on soils in sub- 
class lie. Examples of a 3-year rotation are — 

1. A row crop, a small grain, and red clover or 
ot her hay crop. 

Row crops for 2 years, followed by a small grain 
in which common lespedeza is seeded. This rota- 
tion gives less protection against erosion than the 
first 3-year rotation listed. 

For -oils in suhclass I He. a rotation lasting at least 4 
years is needed. The rotation should include at least 2 




Figure 13. Ryegrass grown as a cover crop and for green manure 
after corn. The grass protects the soil from rains in winter and can 
be turned under befcre the next crop is planted in spring. 



QUKKN ANNKS COUNTY, MAIt YI.A.M) 




Figure 14. — In a single operation, this implement is preparing the 
soil, applying fertilizer, and planting corn. 



years of hay or other close-growing crops. The most 
common 4-year rotations are — 

1. A row crop, a small grain, and a hay crop for 

2 years. Red clover, alfalfa, or timothy or other 
tall grasses are suitable plants for hay. 

2. Row crops for 2 years, a small grain, and red 
clover or other hay crop. This rotation provides 
less protection than the first 4-year rotation given. 

Most soils in subclass I Ye and IVs need at least a 
5-year rotation, if feasible, or a 4-year rotation in which 
the small grain is omitted. A 4-year rotation without 
small grain is better suited to the soils in subclass IVs 
than to those in subclass IVe, and a 6-year rotation is 
suitable for some soils in subclass IVe. Soybeans tend 
to make the soil more erodible and generally should not 
be grown on soils in subclass IVe. Some rotations com- 
monly used on soils in subclasses IVe and IVs are — 

1. A row crop, a small grain, and a hay crop for 

3 years. 

2. Row crops for 2 years, followed by a small grain, 
and then a hay crop for 2 or 3 years. 

3. A row crop and 3 years of hay. 

In addition to checking erosion, a good rotation helps 
to control weeds, insects, and some soil-borne diseases. 
It slows the rate at which some plant nutrients are de- 
pleted. In some places, where insecticides or fungicides 
have been used heavily on vegetables or other crops, 
growing a different kind of crop for a year or more 
helps to rid the soils of the residual effects of the chem- 
icals. 

Tillage 

Soils must be kept in good condition if they are to 
produce optimum yields of crops. Tillage breaks down 
the structure of soils, causes loss of organic matter, and 
increases the hazard of erosion. The breakdown is grad- 
ual and not easily noticed until the damage is serious. 

On all the soils in the county, tillage should be kept 
to the least amount needed for the quick germination of 



39 

seeds, i he adequate growth of seedlings, and the matur- 
ing of a normal crop. On the average, keeping tillage 
to a minimum reduces by about tO percent the amount 
of soil lost through erosion during the growing season. 
In figure II a field Covered with barley Stubble is being 
prepared, fertilized, and -ceded to corn, all in a single 

operat ion. 

Over a period of time, many soils are compacted and 
made difficult to work by the heavy machinery com- 
monly used in cultivating corn and soybeans. Such 
damage is most severe if the soils are too wet. and it 18 
particularly serious on the Klkton, Othello, and other 
medium- to fine-textured soils that are poorly drained. 

All sloping soils that are susceptible to erosion but that 
are suitable for cultivation (capability subcla— c- lie. 
Ille, and IVe) should be tilled on the contour, [n addi- 
tion, contour stripcropping (growing clean-cultivated 
crops or row crops in strips alternated with -trip- of 
close-growing, unfilled crops) is needed on the soils in 
subclasses Ille and IVe. A suitable rotation can be used 
if the crops making tip the rotation are staggered on the 
various strips. The strips should be narrower in Meeper 
areas than in less sloping ones. Assistance in planning 
and laying out crop strips can be obtained from the local 
office of the Soil Conservation Service. 

Residue management 

Leaving crop residue on the surface protect- the -oil 
from water and wind erosion (fig. 15). For example, in 
a field used continuously for corn, protecting the surface 
with residue reduces the loss of soil through washing by 
10 to nearly 25 percent. Later, if the residue is turned 
under in such a way that it is kept on or near the surface, 
it increases the organic-matter content, improves soil 
structure, promotes aeration, reduces runoff, and increases 
the intake of water. 




Figure 15. — Corn residue left standing to protect the soil from 
erosion during winter. This material will be chopped before it is 
turned under in spring. 



795-646- -00 4 



40 



SOIL SURVEY 



Estimated Yields 

The soils of Queen Amies County vary considerably in 
productivity. Some soils are well suited to many kinds 
of crops and consistently produce fairly high yields of 
cultivated crops. Other soils, though suitable for crop- 
ping, produce lower yields, and still others are more 
suitable for pasture, woodland, or other less intensive use. 

Table 5 shows the estimated average acre yields of 
principal crops under two levels of managememnt. In 
columns A are estimated average acre yields obtained 
under the management commonly used in the county. 
In columns B are estimated average acre yields under 
improved management. 

According to reports of the U.S. Bureau of the Census 
for Queen Amies County, the average acre yield of corn 
was 5G bushels in 1959. Other average yields reported 
were 24 bushels of soybeans, 25 bushels of wheat, 36 
bushels of barley, 10.7 tons of corn for silage, and 1.8 tons 
of hay. 

To obtain the estimated yields shown in columns B, 
most of the following practices are used : 

1. Contour tillage, st ripcropping. terracing, mini- 
mum tillage, or similar measures are used on soils 
that are susceptible to erosion; the soils that need 
drainage are drained; excess water is disposed of 
safely; and irrigation is supplied to the soils 
that need it. 



2. Rotations are of adequate length and generally 
consist of the following: A tilled crop to help 
control weeds; a deep-rooted crop to improve the 
permeability of the soils : legumes for one or more 
years to help maintain or improve fertility; and 
a close-growing crop or a green-manure crop. A 
close-growing crop or a green-manure crop helps 
to improve the structure and tilth of the soils, 
supplies organic matter, and helps to control 
erosion. 

3. Manure and crop residues are turned under to 
supply nitrogen, other nutrients, and organic 
matter; to improve the physical characteristics of 
the soils; and to reduce erosion. 

1. Fertilizer and lime are applied according to the 
needs indicated by soil tests; the county agent is 
consulted for information about making the tests. 

5. The soils are cultivated as little as possible, but 
suitable methods of plowing, preparing the seed- 
bed, and cultivating are used. 

6. Planting, cultivating, and harvesting are done at 
the proper time and in the proper way. 

7. Weeds, diseases, and insects are controlled. 

More information about management practices needed 
to obtain good yields can be found in the subsections 
"Capability Groups of Soils*' and "General Management 
Practices." Practices applied in irrigation and drainage 



Table 5. — Estimated average acre yields of principal crops tinder two levels oj management 

[Yields in columns A are those obtained under management common in the county; those in columns B, under improved management. 
Absence of yield indicate- that crop is not suited to the soil specified or is not commonly grown on it] 



Map 
symbol 



Soil 



Corn 



Soybeans 



Barle\ 



Rye 



B 



Tall-grass 
pasture 



Bayboro silt loam 

Bertie and Othello silt loams, to 2 percent slopes-. 
Bertie and Othello silt loams, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Bibb silt loam 

Bladen silt y clay loam 

Butlertown silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Butlertown silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded 

Butlertown silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded 

Butlertown silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 

eroded 

Downer loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes 

Downer loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

Downer loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes 

Downer loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 

eroded 

Downer loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes 

Downer loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely 

eroded 

Downer loamy sand, 15 to 30 percent slopes 

Elk ton loam 

Elkton silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Elkton silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded 

Fallsington loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Fallsington loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

See footnote at end of table. 



8a 
BoA 
BoB2 

Bp 
Bt 
BuA 
BuB2 

BuC2 

BuC3 

DoA 
DoB 
DoC 
DoC3 

DoD 
DoD3 

DoE 
Ek 
EnA 
EnB2 

Fa A 
FaB 



Bu. 

~~55 

55 
50 



Bu. 

90 
105 

115 

95 



Bu. 



19 

20 
18 



Bu. 

25 
36 

38 
34 



Bu. 



25 

25 
24 



Bu. 

"\7 

47 
45 



60 

60 

55 

50 
45 
45 
45 

40 
40 



120 

125 

115 

111) 
115 
115 
110 

100 
105 



23 

23 

22 

20 
17 
17 
16 

15 
15 



40 

40 

40 

40 
40 
40 
40 

38 

39 



29 

28 

27 

23 
22 
22 
21 

19 

20 



56 

55 

53 

48 
57 
57 
54 

48 
50 



50 
50 

50 
50 
55 



95 
95 

105 
95 
105 



16 
16 

17 
18 

20 



25 
25 

27 

34 
38 



23 
23 

23 
24 
26 



40 
40 

40 
45 
49 



Bu. 

~~17 

18 
16 



21 
21 
20 

17 

15 
15 
14 

13 
13 



15 
15 

16 
16 
18 



Bu. 

"32 

34 
31 



36 

36 

36 

35 
36 
36 
36 

34 
35 



27 
27 

29 
31 
34 



Cow- 
acre- 
d«</.« ' 

65 
80 

80 
70 
80 
85 

85 

80 

75 
60 
60 
60 

50 
55 

45 
50 
70 
70 

70 
70 
75 



Cow- 

acre- 

dnys 1 
145 
145 

150 
135 
145 
160 

170 

165 

155 
150 
150 
145 

135 
140 

130 
135 
125 
125 

130 
135 
145 



QUEEN AN'NES COUNTY, MARYLAND 41 



Table 5. — Estimated average acre yields of principal crops under two levels oj management — Continued 



Map 
symbol 


Soil 


( !om 


Soybeans 


Hai 


•ley 


Rye 


Tall-glass 

pasture 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 






















Cow- 


Cow~ 






















ficte- 


ticrt- 






Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


daui 1 


dll'JK ' 


FdA 


Fallsington sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. _ 


50 


95 


18 


34 


24 


45 


16 


31 


70 


1 :r, 


FdB 


Fallsington sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 


55 


105 


20 


38 


26 


49 


18 


34 


75 


145 


GaB 


Galestown loamy sand, clavev substratum (1 to 5 
























percent slopes, _ _ _ 


40 


105 


16 


40 


21 


54 


14 


36 


55 


140 


GaC 


Galestown loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 10 
























percent slopes . 


35 


100 


15 


38 


18 


50 


13 


34 


45 


135 


GcB 


Galestown sand, clayey substratum, to 5 percent 
























slopes - -. - — - -- 


35 


100 


15 


38 


18 


50 


13 


34 


45 


135 


GkD 


Galestown and Lakeland loamy sands, 10 to 15 










































35 


100 


GkE 


Galestown and Lakeland loamy sands, 15 to 30 


































































GIC 


Galestown and Lakeland sands, 5 to 10 percent 










































35 


100 


Jo 


Johnston loam _ _ - _ 


50 


95 


18 


34 


24 


45 


16 


31 


70 


135 


KeA 


Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes 


55 


110 


20 


38 


26 


49 


18 


34 


75 


145 


KeB2 


Keyport loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 


















75 






eroded _ _ _ - _____ 


55 


115 


20 


38 


25 


48 


18 


34 


155 


KpA 


Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 


55 


110 


20 


38 


26 


49 


18 


34 


75 


145 


KpB2 


Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 


















75 


155 


eroded _ 


55 


115 


20 


38 


25 


48 


18 


34 


KrC3 


Keyport silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 




















135 






















65 


KrD3 


Keyport silty clay loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 


















115 






















50 


KsA 


Klej loainv sand, to 2 percent slopes 


35 


90 


14 


37 


19 


48 


13 


33 


55 


135 


KsB 


Klej loamv sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 


35 


95 


15 


39 


20 


51 


14 


35 


55 


140 


LaB 


Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 5 
























percent slopes. _ 


40 


105 


16 


40 


21 


54 


14 


36 


55 


140 


LaC 


Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 10 
























percent slopes _ _ _ _ _ 


35 


100 


15 


38 


18 


50 


13 


34 


45 


135 


MbA 


Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 


70 


135 


25 


40 


33 


62 


22 


36 


90 


170 


MbB2 


Matapeake fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
























moderately eroded. 


65 


130 


24 


40 


31 


60 


22 


36 


85 


165 


MbC2 


Matapeake fine sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 














21 


36 


80 


160 




moderately eroded 


60 


120 


23 


40 


30 


58 


MbC3 


Matapeake fine sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
















36 


75 


150 




severely eroded _ _ _ _ _ 


55 


115 


20 


40 


26 


53 


18 


McA 


Matapeake loam, to 2 percent slopes _ 


70 


135 


25 


40 


33 


62 


22 


36 


90 


170 


McB2 


Matapeake loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
















36 


85 


165 




eroded _ _ 


65 


130 


24 


40 


31 


60 


22 


McC2 


Matapeake loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
















36 


80 


160 




eroded _ _ 


60 


120 


23 


40 


30 


58 


21 


McC3 


Matapeake loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
















36 


75 


150 




eroded 


55 


115 


20 


40 


26 


53 


18 


MkA 


Matapeake silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 


70 


135 


25 


40 


33 


62 


22 


36 


90 


170 


MkB2 


Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moder- 
















36 


85 


165 




ately eroded_ __ _ . __ _ 


65 


130 


24 


40 


31 


60 


22 


MkC2 


Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moder- 
















36 


80 


160 




ately eroded _ 


60 


120 


23 


40 


30 


58 


21 


MkC3 


Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
















36 


75 


150 




eroded 


55 


115 


20 


40 


26 


53 


18 


MmD 


Matapeake soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes 


60 


120 


23 


40 


30 


58 


21 


36 


80 


160 


MmD3 


Matapeake soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely 


















/ y t 


1 Tt_t 






















MmE 




















75 


150 
























MoA 


Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, to 2 percent 
















38 


90 


175 




slopes _ _ _ 


75 


140 


26 


40 


35 


65 


24 


U„ no 

Motiz 


Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 2 to 5 percent 














22 


36 


90 


170 




slopes, moderately eroded. _ 


70 


135 


25 


40 


33 


62 


MoC2 


Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 5 to 10 per- 
















36 


85 


165 




cent slopes, moderatelv eroded 


65 


130 


24 


40 


31 


60 


22 


MoC3 


Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 5 to 10 per- 
















36 


80 


160 




cent slopes, severely eroded__. 


60 


120 


23 


40 


30 


58 


21 


MpA 


Mattapex fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 


60 


120 


23 


40 


29 


56 


21 


36 


85 


160 


MpB2 


Mattapex fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 














21 


36 


85 


170 




moderately eroded _ 


60 


1 125 


23 


40 


28 


55 



See foot 



note at end of table. 



42 SOIL SURVEY 



Table 5. — Estimated average acre yields of principal crops under two levels of management — Continued 



Map 
symbol 


Soil 


Corn 


Soybeans 


Barley 


Rye 


Tall-tfrass 
pasture 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 






















Cow- 


Cow- 






















acre- 


tlCTC- 






Bu. 


Bu. 


/;» 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


tlnyx 1 


dayt 1 


MsA 


Mattapex loam, to 2 percent slopes 


60 


120 


23 


40 


29 


56 


21 


36 


85 


160 


MsB2 


Mattapex loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
























eroded 


60 


125 


23 


40 


28 


55 


21 


36 


85 


170 


MsC2 


Mattapex loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
























eroded 


55 


115 


22 


40 


27 


53 


20 


36 


80 


1 65 


MsC3 


Mattapex loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
























en ii lei 1 


50 


1 111 


20 


40 


23 


48 


17 


35 


75 


1 55 


MtA 


Mattapex silt loam, t<> 2 percent slopes 


60 


120 


23 


10 


29 


56 


21 


36 


85 


160 


MtB2 


Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
























eroded 


60 


125 


23 


40 


28 


55 


21 


36 


85 


170 


MtC2 


Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 1(1 percent slopes, moder- 
























ately eroded. _ -- __ ... 


55 


115 


22 


40 


27 


53 


20 


36 


80 


165 


MtC3 


Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
























eroded 


50 


1 10 


20 


40 


23 


48 


17 


35 


75 


155 


MxD 


Mattapex soils, It) to 15 percent slopes _ 


55 


1 15 


21 


40 


25 


50 


18 


36 


75 


Kill 


MxD3 


Mattapex soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
























eroi lei 1 . 


















65 


145 


MxE 


Mattapex soils, 15 to 30 percent slopes 


















70 


150 


ObA 


Othello silt loam, to 2 percent slopes . 


55 


105 


19 


36 


25 


47 


17 


32 


80 


145 


ObB2 


Othello silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
























eroded 


55 


115 


20 


38 


25 


47 


18 


34 


80 


150 


OeC2 


Othello and Id k t on soils, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
























moderately eroded ... . 


55 


i ib 


19 


37 


25 


47 


17 


33 


80 


145 


Pd 


Plummer loamy sand - - ___ 




50 




22 












85 


Pk 


Pocomoke loam . -. ... 


50 


95 


18 


34 


24 


45 


16 


31 


70 


135 


Pm 


Pocomoke sandy loam _____ 


50 


95 


IS 


34 


24 


45 


it; 


31 


7(1 


135 


Po 


Portsmouth silt loam _____ _ _ 


55 


105 


l'.l 


36 


25 


47 


17 


32 


80 


145 


SaA 


Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes. _ __ 


(55 


130 


25 


40 


33 


62 


22 


36 


85 


165 


SaB2 


Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
























eroded _ 


60 


125 


24 


40 


31 


60 


21 


36 


80 


160 


SaC2 


Sassafras loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
























eluded __ _ _ 


GO 


120 


23 


40 


29 


57 


20 


36 


80 


155 


SaC3 


Sassafras loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
























eroded _ _ 


55 


J 15 


21 


38 


27 


51 


18 


34 


75 


145 


SaD2 


Sassafras loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
























eroded. __.__._ 


60 


1 15 


22 


39 


29 


55 


20 


36 


80 


150 


SaD3 


Sassafras loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely 










































70 


135 


SaE 




















75 


140 


Sf A 


Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes _ 


65 


125 


24 


40 


32 


60 


22 


36 


85 


160 


SfB2 


Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moder- 
























ately eroded _ 


60 


120 


23 


40 


30 


58 


21 


36 


80 


155 


SfC2 


Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moder- 
























ately eroded 


60 


115 


22 


40 


28 


55 


20 


36 


80 


150 


SfC3 


Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
























eroded 


55 


111) 


20 


38 


26 


49 


18 


34 


75 


140 


SfD2 


Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, mod- 
























erately eroded _ 


60 


1 10 


21 


39 


27 


51 


19 


35 


80 


145 


Sf D3 


Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, se- 
























verely eroded _ _ _ _ _ 


















70 


130 


SfE 




















75 


135 


Sf E3 


Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes, se- 




















verely eroded _ _ _ _ 


















65 


120 


Sf F 


Sassafras sandy loam, 30 to 60 percent slopes 


















65 


125 


WdA 


Woodstown loam, to 2 percent slopes 


55 


110 


22 


40 


29 


54 


20 


36 


80 


150 


WdB2 


Woodstown loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
























eroded 


60 


115 


23 


40 


30 


57 


21 


36 


85 


160 


VV A 


\\ oodstown sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 


55 


111) 


22 


40 


29 


54 


20 


36 


80 


150 


WoB2 


Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, mod- 
























erately eroded 


60 


115 


23 


40 


30 


57 


21 


36 


85 


160 


WoC2 


Woodstown sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, mod- 
























erately eroded 


55 


105 


21 


40 


29 


54 


20 


36 


80 


155 


WoD 


Woodstown sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes 


55 


105 


20 


40 


27 


51 


18 


36 


75 


150 


WoE 


Woodstown sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes 


















70 


140 























1 The number of days 1 acre will support one cow, horse, or steer without injury to the pasture. 



QUEEN ANNE® COUNTY, MARYLAND 



of soils are described in the subsection "Engineering 
I rses o I Soils." 

The yields shown in columns B are not presumed to be 
the highest obtainable, bul they set a goal thai is practical 
for mos1 farmers to reach if I hey use good management. 
Yields on the same soil can be expected to vary from 
year to year because of differences in the weather, m kind 
of management, in the varieties of crops grown, and in 
numbers and kinds of diseases and insects. 

Woodland 3 

"Woodland occupies about •>•> percent of Queen Annes 
County, or 53,360 acres. The stands consist mainly of 
hardwoods and pines, including four of the most valuable 
species in the State— white oak, yellow-poplar, sweetguni, 
and loblolly pine. Trees harvested from wooded areas 
are used for lumber and timber, poles and piling, barrel 
staves, veneer for furniture and baskets, and pulpwood. 
Some owners cut fenceposts and fuelwood for domestic 
use. 

Oaks, sweet gum, yellow-poplar, and other hardwoods 
cover three-fourths of the wooded acreage and occur on 
uplands and bottom lands throughout Queen Annes 
County. Loblolly pine grows in the lower areas in the 
southern and western parts of the county. Virginia pine 
and shortleaf pine occur in heavily cutover stands and in 
areas of better drained sandy soils that have been farmed 
and then abandoned. 

Most woodland in the. county has been cut over. 
Generally, the stands are not fully stocked, and they do 
not contain the best species. Because of overcutting and 
little or no management, wooded areas are covered mainly 
with less desirable trees. Woodland should be managed 
so that valuable oaks, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and lob- 
lolly pine grow in stands that are well stocked and are 
best suited to each soil. 

Because of its value for both timber and pulpwood, 
loblolly pine is the most economically valuable tree in the 
county. Here, the species is about at the northern limit 
of its natural range, but it grows rapidly on most soils, 
reS eeds naturally where conditions permit, and can be 
readily established in pure stands by planting seedlings. 
At least 95 percent of the county is suitable for the 
commercial production of loblolly pine, and about 40 
percent of the total acreage is excellent for this use. 

Woodland suitability groups 

Just as soils are placed in capability units according 
to their suitability for crops and pasture, they can be 
grouped according to their suitability for trees. Each 
woodland suitability group is made up of soils that are 
suitable for the same kinds of trees, require similar man- 
agement, and have about the same potential productivity. 

The potential productivity of a soil for trees is 
expressed as the site index, which is the height, in feet, 
that a specified kind of tree, growing on that soil, will 
reach in 50 years. For the soils of Queen Annes County, 
site indexes have been determined only for loblolly pine— 
the most important species grown commercially in the 
area. The site indexes given in this report are based 

3 A. R. Bond, assistant State forester. Maryland Department of 
Forests and Parks, helped to prepare this subsection. 



partly on studies made in Queen Anne- (oiinty and 
partly on studies in other counties on the Eastern Shore, 
in Southern Maryland, and in Delaware. In addition, 
they were correlated with site indexes based on similar 
si udies in Virginia. 

All the soils in one woodland suitability group have 
about the same site index and are suit aide for the -aim 
kinds of trees. Also, they are similar with respect to th( 
hazards and limitations t hat a tied management: seedling 
mortality, plant competition, equipment limitation, ero- 
sion hazard, and windt hrow hazard. 

Listed in table (i, and later described in the text, are 
the woodland suitability groups in Queen Anne- County. 
In this table the woodland group numbers are not con 
secutive, because they are part of a system of grouping 
all the soils of Maryland and Delaware, and only a 
comparatively few of all the woodland groups in the two 
States are represented in this county. 

For the soils in each woodland group, table 6 gives 
the range in site index for loblolly pine: it lists species 
suitable for planting, in order of relative suitability; and 
it rates as slight, moderate, or severe the hazard- and 
limit at ions affecting management. 

Seedling mortality refers to the mortality of natu- 
rally occurring or planted tree seedlings as influenced by 
the kind of soil. Competition from other plants is the 
invasion or growth of undesirable species when openings 
are made in the canopy. 

Limitations on the use of equipment vary according 
to slope and characteristics of the soils that restrict or 
prohibit the use of equipment commonly used in tending 
and harvesting trees. 

The hazard of erosion is rated according to susceptibil- 
ity of the soils to washing or blowing unless measures 
are used to control unnecessary soil erosion or to minimize 
soil deterioration. The rating for hazard of windt hrow 
is based on soil characterisitcs that control the develop- 
ment of tree roots. 

Table 7 gives growth and yield information for fully 
stocked, unmanaged stands of second-growth loblolly 
pine. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 1 

This group (see table 6) consists of poorly drained 
and very poorly drained soils on uplands. They have a 
surface layer of loam, silt loam, or sandy loam and a 
subsoil ranging from friable sandy clay loam to plastic 
clay. Some of the soils occur in upland depressions and 
may be ponded in wet periods unless surface drainage is 
improved. The soils in the group are — 

Ba Bavboro silt loam. 

Ek Elk'ton loam. 

En A Elkton silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

EnB2 Elkton silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Fa A Fallsington loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

FaB Fallsington loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

FdA Fallsington sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

FdB Fallsington sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

Pk Pocomoke loam. 

Pm Pocomoke sandy loam. 

Po Portsmouth silt loam. 

The soils in this group occupy 59,943 acres, or 25.1 
percent of the county. 



! \ 



SOIL SURVEY 



Table (i. Woodland suitability yioups and ratiiK/s 
[Dashed lines indicate that soils in group are not suited to kind of 



Woodland group and map symbols 



Site index 
range for 
loblolly 
pine 



Suitable species in order of priority 



For timber 



For Christmas trees 



Group 1 

Ba, Ek, E'nA, EnB2, Fa A, FaB, FdA, FdB, 
Pk, Pm, Po. 



Ciroup 2 

Bp, Jo, My. 

Ciroup 3 

BoA, BoB2, KsA, KsB, WdA, WdB2, WoA, 
WoB2. 



Group 5 

GaB, GaC, GcB, GkD, GIC, LaB, LaC. 



( Iroup 6 
GkE. 



Group 7 

DoA, DoB, MbA, MbB2, McA, McB2, 
MkA, MkB2, MoA, MoB2, SaA, SaB2, 
SfA, SfB2. 



Group 8 

DoC, DoD, MbC2, McC2, MkC2, MmD, 
MoC2, SaC2, SaD2, SfC2, SfD2. 



(Jroup 9 

BuC2, DoE, MmE, MsC2, MtC2, MxD, 
MxE, SaE, SfE, SfF, WoC2, WoD, WoE. 

Group 10 

Bt, ObA, ObB2, OeC2, Pd. 

Group 11 

BuA, BuB2, KeA, KeB2, KpA, KpB2, 
MpA, MpB2, MsA, MsB2, MtA, MtB2. 

Group 13 

DoC3, DoD3, MbC3, McC3,MkC3, MmD3, 
MoC3, SaC3, SaD3, SfC3, SfD3, SfE3. 

Group 17 

BuC3, KrC3, KrD3, MsC3, MtC3, MxD3. 



Group 20. 
Cb. 



Group 21 

Gr, Ma, Sw, Tm. 



85-94 + 

85-94+ 
85-94+ 

75-84 
75-84 
75-84 

75-84 

75-84 

75-84 
75-84 

65-74 

55-64 
<50 



Loblolly pine, sweetgum, mixed 
oaks, yellow-poplar. 



Mixed oaks, sweetgum, yellow- 
poplar, loblolly pine. 

Loblolly pine, yellow-poplar, sweet- 
gum, mixed oaks, Virginia pine. 



Loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, Vir- 
ginia pine. 

Loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, Vir- 
ginia pine. 

Loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, Vir- 
ginia pine, mixed oaks. 



Loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, Vir- 
ginia pine, mixed oaks. 



Loblolly pine, mixed oaks, shortleaf 
pine, Virginia pine. 



Mixed oaks, sweetgum, loblolly 
pine. 

Loblolly pine, mixed oaks, sweet- 
gum. 



Loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, Vir- 
ginia pine. 



Loblolly pine, Virginia pine. 
Virginia pine, loblolly pine.. 



Scotch pine, white pine, Austrian 
pine. 



Scotch pine, white: pine. 



Scotch pine, Norway spruce, Aus- 
trian pine, white pine. 



Scotch pine, white pine, Virginia 
pine. 

Scotch pine, white pine, Virginia 
pine. 

Scotch pine, Norway spruce, 
Austrian pine, white pine. 



Scotch pine, Norway spruce, 
Austrian pine, white pine. 



Scotch pine, Norway spruce, 
Austrian pine. 



Scotch pine, white pine, Austrian 
pine. 

Scotch pine, Norway spruce, 
Austrian pine. 



Scotch pine, Norway spruce, 
Austrian pine, white pine. 



Scotch pine, Virginia pine_ 



QUKKN A.N.NKS COI N TV. MAIM 



15 



for major limitations ami hazards affrctiiuj maiuKjement 
tree specified or that hazards and limitations have nol been rated] 



Seedling mortality 



( lompetition from o1 her 
plants for — 



Conifers 



Hardwoods 



I, imitations on use of equipment Hazard of 

erosion 



Hazard of 
wind! lirow 



Bliehl 



Moderate because of flooding 



Slight . 



Moderate because of droughtiness 



Moderate because of drouehtiness . 



Slight. 



Slight. 

Slight. 

Slight. 
Slight. 



Moderate because of droughtiness and 
poor seedbeds. 



Severe because of poor seedbeds. 



Severe because of droughtiness, salt 
water, and windblown sand. 



Se\ ere 



Seven' 



Severe 



Slight... 

Moderate... 

Moderate... 

Moderate... 

Moderate. 

Moderate... 
Severe 



Slight. 

Slight. 
Slight. 



Moderate 

Moderate 
Moderate. 

Slight 

Slight 

Slight 



Severe because of wetness.. 



Slight. 



Severe because of wetness and flood- | Slight, 
ing. 



Slight... 

.Slight 

Severe 

Moderate 

Slight 



Slight.. 
Slight.. 



Moderate because of wetness. 



Moderate because of looseness. 



Severe because of slope and looseness. 
Slight 



Slight. 



Moderate or severe because of slope. 

Severe because of wetness 

Moderate because of wetness 



Moderate or severe because of slopes. 



Moderate because of slope and sea- 
sonal wetness. 

Severe because of looseness 



Slight. ._ 

Slight 

Moderate 
Slight 



Moderate 



Moderate 
or severe. 



Slight. 
Slight. 

Severe. 

Severe. 

Severe _ 



Slight. 

Slight. 
Slight. 

Slight. 
Slight, 
Slight. 

Slight. 

Moderate. 

Slight. 
Moderate. 

Moderate. 

Severe. 
Slight. 



46 



SOIL St'KYKY 



Taisle 7. — Growth and yield hi for/nation, per acre, for 
fully stocked, unmanaged stands of second-growth lob- 
lolly pine 







Tot :il merchantable 








volume 


A vera ffC 


1 1 ' 1 1 1 f 1 i ' V 

k_> 1 I \ 111 1 . 1 A 








diamet cr 










at breast 






Cords 


Board feel 


height 








/11m. 1.. ..ill i.\ 

(LJoylc rule; 




Ycnrs 







Indus 


70 


20 


17 




5. 4 




30 


31 


L, 


7. 8 




4(1 




3, 500 


0. (i 




50 


50 


6, 500 


10. 




en 


55 


10, 000 


12. 1 




70 


59 


12, 500 






80 


62 


15, ooo 


1 3. 8 


80 


20 


22 




6. 2 




30 


38 


2, 000 


8. 7 




40 


R 1 


& unii 
0, 1 II II 1 


111. 7 




.->() 


60 


1 L, 500 


12. 2 




60 


66 


L6, ooo 


13. ti 




70 


70 


19, 500 






80 


73 


22, 000 


15. 5 


90 


20 


27 




(i. !l 




30 


46 


4, 000 


9. 6 




40 


til 


10, 000 


1 1. 7 




50 


71 


lti, 500 


13. 




60 


78 


22, 000 


1.-). 




70 


82 


26, 000 


16. 2 




80 


85 


29, ooo 


17. 2 


100 


20 


32 


500 


7. 4 




30 


53 


6, 000 


10. 4 




40 


71 


14. 500 


12. 8 




50 


84 


23, ooo 


14. 7 




60 


92 


29, 500 


16. 2 




70 


96 


33, ooo 


17. ti 




80 


100 


35, 500 


18. 6 



Although loblolly pint' is the best tree for producing 
timber on these soils, stands of sweetgum and of com- 
mercially valuable oaks should be well managed until 
they are ready for harvesting (fig. 10). Then, the 




Figure 16. — Clear cutting a stand of oak and gum on Elkton silt 
loam, to 2 percent slopes. After this area is cleared, it will be 
planted to loblolly pine. 



hardwoods can be replaced by loblolly pine yellow- 
poplar should be encouraged in areas where surface 
drainage is adequate. 

Ai site index 85, the expected yield per acre from 
well-stocked, iiiimanaged stands of 50-year-old loblolly 
pine i.-> about 14,0(10 hoard I'eet of merchantable timber 
or about 65 cords of pulpwood. For the next 10 to 20 
years, the expected yearly increase in yield, per acre, is 
aboul .Mill hoard feel of timber or about one hall' cord id' 
pulpwood. 

WOODLAND SI ITABILITY GROUP 2 

This group (see table (i) consists of poorly drained and 
very poorly drained soils on Hood plains. These soils 
nitty be Hooded one or more l imes a year, and I hey are 
subjeel to SCOUring or deposition, hill floodwater seldom 
-lands for long period- and does not stagnate. The -oil- 
are — 

Bp Bibb silt loam. 
Jo Johnston loam. 
My Mixed alluvial land. 

The soils in I his group have it total area of 10,(515 acres, 
or 4.5 percent of the county. 

These soils are well suited to hardwoods, which lend 
to eliminate pine. Sweetgum and commercially valuable 
oaks are preferred over loblolly pine. Yellow-poplar 
should be encouraged on hummocks, on natural levees 
along streams, and in other areas where surface drainage 
is good. 

At site index 85, the expected yield per acre from well- 
stocked, unmanaged -land- of loblolly pine 50 years old is 
aboul 11,000 hoard feel of merchantable timber or about 
65 cords of pulpwood. For the next 10 to 20 year-, the 
expected animal increase in yield, per acre, is about 500 
hoard feet of timber or about one-half cord of pulpwood. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 3 

This group (see table 6) is made up of moderately well 
drained or somewhat poorly drained soils that have a 
subsoil ranging from loose sand or loamy sand to firm 
sandy clay loam or clay loam. Permeability in the sub- 
soil is moderately slow to rapid. The soils are — 

Bo A Bertie and Othello silt loams, to 2 percent slopes. 
BoB2 Bertie and Othello silt loams, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
KsA Klej loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
KsB Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
WdA Woodstown loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
WdB2 Woodstown loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Wo A Woodstown sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
WoB2 Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

The soils in this group occupy 23,7(52 acres, or about 
10 percent of the county. 

Loblolly pine is of first priority on these soils. Yellow- 
poplar, sweetgum, and valuable oaks growing on the 
areas should be well managed and then placed by loblolly 
pine after the mature trees are harvested. 

Limitations on the use of equipment are moderate 
because the surface layer is wet and the water table is 
high in winter and early in spring. 

At site index 85, the expected yield per acre from well- 
stocked, unmanaged stands of loblolly pine 50 years old 



QUEKN A.NNIvS ('(UNTY, MARYLAND 



17 



is al)oul 1I,0()() l)(t;ird feel of merchantable timber or 
about <>•"> cords of pulpwood. For the next LO t<> 20 
years, the expected yearly increase in yield, per acre, is 
about 500 hoard feet of timber or about <>ne half cord 
of pulpwood. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP ■"> 

This group (see table 6) consists of deep, nearly level 
to strongly sloping sands and loamy sands that are some 
what excessively or excessively drained. These soils are 
rapidly permeable throughout, but some of them have a 
moisture-retaining clayey layer at a depth of I to 6 feel. 
The soils in t he group are — 

GaB Galestown loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 5 per- 
cent slopes. 

GaC Galestown loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 10 per- 
cent slopes. 

GcB Galestown sand, clayey substratum, to 5 percent 
slopes. 

GkD Galestown and Lakeland loamy sands, 10 to 15 percent 
slopes. 

GIC Galestown and Lakeland sands, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 
LaB Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 5 percent 
slopes. 

LaC Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 10 per- 
cent slopes. 

These soils occupy 3,856 acres, or 1.6 percent of the 
county. 

The soils in this group are not well suited to most 
hardwoods. Although loblolly pine is the favored species, 
stands of shortleaf or Virginia pine should he managed 
until they are ready for harvesting. Then, they can be 
replaced by loblolly pine. 

The use of heavy equipment is moderately limited by 
the loose, sandy surface layer and. in some places, by 
slope. The hazard of erosion generally is only slight, but 
unprotected areas planted to pine seedlings are subject 
to wind erosion until the pines are established and 
volunteer plants cover the soil. 

At site index 80, the expected yield per acre from well- 
stocked, unmanaged stands of 50-year-old loblolly pine 
is about 11,500 board feet of merchantable timber or 
about 60 cords of pulpwood. For the next 10 to 20 years, 
the expected annual increase in yield, per acre, is about 
400 board feet of timber or about one-half cord of 
pulpwood. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 6 

The only soils in this group (see table 6) are Galestown 
and Lakeland loamy sands, 15 to 30 percent slopes (GkE). 
Except for their steeper slopes, these soils are similar to 
those in woodland suitability group 5. They have a 
total area of only 106 acres, or less than 0.1 percent of 
the county. 

Loblolly pine is the favored species on these soils, but 
areas of shortleaf and Virginia pines should be well man- 
aged until the trees reach marketable age. Then, they 
can be replaced by loblolly pine. 

At site index 80, a well-stocked, unmanaged stand of 
50-year-old loblolly pine can be expected to yield, per acre, 
about 11,500 board feet of merchantable timber or about 
60 cords of pulpwood. For the next 10 to 20 years, the 
expected yearly increase, per acre, is about 400 board feet 
of timber or about one-half cord of pulpwood. 



WOODLAND SUITABILITY GBOUP 7 

This group (see table 6) consists of deep, well-drained, 
nearly level or gently sloping soils that have ;i subsoil of 

friable or firm sand\ claj loam or silty clay loam. Some 
areas are moderately eroded. The soils are 

DoA Downer loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
DoB Downer loamy sand, 2 Id 5 percent -lopes. 
MbA Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

MbB2 Matapeake fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
McA Matapeake loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
McB2 Matapeake loam, 2 to 5 percent slope-, moderately 

eroded. 

MkA Matapeake silt loam, to 2 percent -lopes. 
MkB2 Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

MoA Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

MoB2 Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 2 to 5 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
SaA Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Sa B2 Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, inoderat ely eroded. 
Sf A Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Sf B2 Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

This is the most extensive woodland suitability group 
in the county. The soils occupy (>'.), 1 17 acres, or 29.0 
percent of the total area. 

Loblolly pine is the favored species, though upland 
hardwoods grow well on these soils, especially the more 
silty ones. Good stands of yellow-poplar, desirable oak-, 
and other hardwoods suitable for timber should be 
managed and then replaced by loblolly pine after the 
mature trees are harvested. 

At site index 80, the expected yield per acre from well- 
stocked, unmanaged stands of loblolly pine 50 years old 
is about 11,500 board feet of merchant aide t imber or 
about 60 cords of pulpwood. For the next 10 to 20 
years, the expected annual increase in yield, per acre, is 
about 400 board feet of timber or about one-half cord 
of pulpwood. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 8 

The soils in this group (see table 6) are steeper than 
those in woodland suitability group 7. for slopes range 
from 5 to 15 percent. The soils are— 

DoC Downer loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 

DoD Downer loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 

MbC2 Matapeake fine sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
McC2 Matapeake loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

M kC2 Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

MmD Matapeake soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 

MoC2 Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 5 to 10 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
SaC2 Sassafras loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

SaD2 Sassafras loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

SfC2 Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

SfD2 Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

These soils have a total area of 10,833 acres, or 4.2 
percent of the county. About half of the total acreage is 
now wooded. 

Species suitable for this group are the same as those 
for group 7. 



48 soil 

These soils are most likely to erode in areas that are 
heavily cut over, are being prepared for planting, or are 
newly planted to seedlings. 

The expected yield, per acre, of timber or pulpwood is 
about t lie same as for the soils in group 7. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 9 

Some -oils in this group are moderately sloping to steep 
and moderately well drained, and others are steep or very 
Steep and well drained (see table 0). Some areas are 
moderately eroded. The -oils in the group are 

BuC2 Butlertown silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

DoE Downer loamy sand, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 

MmE Matapeake soils, 1 ."> to 30 percent slopes. 

MsC2 Mattapex loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

MtC2 Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

MxD Mattapex soils, 10 to 1.5 percent slopes. 

MxE Mattapex soils, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 

SaE Sassafras loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 

SfE Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 

SfF Sassafras sandy loam, 30 to 00 percent slopes. 

WoC2 Woodstown sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

WoD Woodstown sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 

WoE Woodstown sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 

These soils occupy 4,918 acres, or 2.1 percent of the 
comity. Because they have severe limitations that restrict 
their use for crops, they are important soil- for woodland. 
Most of the acreage is wooded. 

Loblolly pine should have first priority, hut any good 
stand of hardwoods should be managed for timber. 

Limitations on the use of equipment are moderate on 
slopes of 15 percent or less and are severe on slopes of 
more than 15 percent. The erosion hazard is moderate 
on the Wood-town soils and severe on the other -oil- in 
the group. The hazard of windthrow is greatest on the 
Butlertown, Mattapex. and "Woodstown soils. 

At site index 80, the expected yield per acre from well- 
stocked, unmanaged stands of loblolly pine 5<) year- old 
is about 11,500 board feet of merchantable timber or 
about 60 cords of pulpwood. For the next 10 to 20 year-, 
the expected annual increase in yield, per acre, is about 
400 board feet of timber or about one-half cord of 
pulpwood. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 10 

This group (see table 6) consists of poorly drained 
soils that have a sandy to clayey surface layer and sub- 
soil. Where these soils occur in depressions that have 
no outlet, they may be temporarily ponded in wet periods. 
The soils are — 

Bt Bladen silty clay loam. 
Ob A Othello silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
ObB2 Othello silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

OeC2 Othello and Elk ton soils, 5 to 10 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 
Pd Plummer loamy sand. 

These soils have a total area of 10,290 acres, or 4.3 
percent of the county. 

Loblolly pine is the favored species, but sweetgum and 
some water-tolerant oaks produce merchantable products 
on these soils, and yellow-poplar should be encouraged 
in areas where surface drainage is adecpiate. 



At site index 80, the expected yield per acre from well- 
stocked, unmanaged stands of 50-year-old loblolly pine is 
about 11,500 board feet of merchantable timber or about 
60 cords of pulpwood. For the next 10 to 20 years, the 
expected yearly increase in yield, per acre, is about 100 
board feet of timber or about one-half cord of pulpwood. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP II 

This group (see table 6) consists of level or gently 
sloping, moderately well drained soils that have a subsoil 
of heavy clay or of platy heavy silt loam or silty clay 
loam. These soils are seasonally wet, commonly in winter 
and early in spring. They are 

BuA Butlertown silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

BuB2 Butlertown silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

KeA Key port loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

KeB2 Keyport loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

KpA Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
KpB2 Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

MpA Mattapex fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

MpB2 Mattapex fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

MsA Mattapex loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

MsB2 Mattapex loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

MtA Mattapex silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
MtB2 Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

These soils occupy 33,431 acres, or 14.0 percent of the 
county. 

Hardwoods should have first priority on the soils of 
this group, for yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and many kinds 
of oaks grow well. However, loblolly pine commonly 
invades abandoned or idle areas, and it is suitable for 
planting if undesirable hardwoods, shrubs, and vines 
are controlled until the pine seedlings are well established. 

The hazard of windthrow is moderate because trees on 
these soils generally have shallow roots. 

Yields from loblolly pine are about the same as for 
woodland suitability group 10. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 13 

This group (see table 6) consists of well-drained, 
severely eroded soils that have a friable or firm sandy 
clay loam or silty clay loam subsoil. They are — 

DoC3 Downer loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

DoD3 Downer loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

MbC3 Matapeake fine sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
McC3 Matapeakeloam,5to lOpercent slopes, severely eroded. 
MkC3 Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

MmD3 Matapeake soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

MoC3 Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 5 to 10 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
SaC3 Sassafras loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
SaD3 Sassafras loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
SfC3 Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Sf D3 Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Sf E3 Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 



Q I ' K K X AXXKS COIWTY, M AH V LAX I) 



10 



The soils in this group should be important For wood- 
land in Queen Amies County, though their total acreage 
is fairly small. They occupy 4,915 acres, or 2.1 percent 
of i he county. 

Loblolly pine is of first priority on these soils because 
of its economic value, and it can he established by plant- 
ing seedlings. It* hardwoods are desired, they should be 
established by direct seeding. 

The use of equipment is moderately limited on slopes 
of not more than L5 percent, but equipment limitations 
are severe on slopes exceeding 15 percent. Windthrow is 
a moderate hazard because the soils have a shallow root 
zone as a result of severe erosion. 

At site index To, a well-stocked, unmanaged stand of 
50-year-old loblolly pine can be expected to yield, per 
acre, about 6,500 board feet of merchantable timber or 
about 50 cords of pulpwood. For the next 10 to 20 years, 
the expected annual increase in yield, per acre, is about 
300 board feet of timber or about four-tenths cord of 
pulpwood. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP IT 

This group (see table 6) consists of severely eroded, 
moderately or strongly sloping, moderately well drained 
soils. They are — 

BuC3 Butlertown silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Ki C3 Keyport silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

KrD3 Keyport silty clay loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
M sC3 Mattapex loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
MtC3 Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 

eroded. 

MxD3 Mattapex soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

The soils of this group occupy only 857 acres, or 0.4 
percent of the county. 

Loblolly pine is the preferred species because its eco- 
nomic value is higher than that of other trees. 

Windthrow is a severe hazard on these eroded soils 
because little soil remains for rooting above the lower 
subsoil, which impedes root penetration. 

Trees grow more slowly and yields are considerably 
lower on these soils than on most other soils in the county. 
At site index 60, the expected yield per acre from well- 
stocked, unmanaged stands of loblolly pine 50 years old 
is only about 1,500 to 2,000 board feet of merchantable 
timber, but the yield of pulpwood should be about 40 
cords. For the next 10 to 20 years, the expected yearly 
increase in yield, per aci'e, is about 250 board feet of 
timber or about four-tenths of a cord of pulpwood. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 20 

Only one land type — Coastal beaches (Cb) — is in this 
group (see table 6). The areas consist of loose, extremely 
droughtly sand that is not suitable for agriculture. In 
most places there are no trees, but pines have invaded 
some areas. 

Coastal beaches occupy only 242 acres, or about 0.1 
percent of the county. On these beaches the growth of 
trees is so poor that woodland products cannot be pro- 
duced economically, though fairly good stands of loblolly 
or Virginia pine occur in some places. Even though 
trees grow slowly, bare areas are best planted to loblolly 
pine. 



Seedling mortality is severe because at times the young 
trees are cut by windblown sand, are fully exposed to the 
hot sun and beating rain, and are washed or Covered by 
salt water. Limitations to the use of equipment are 
severe, for traction is poor and sand damages moving 
parts of machinery. Wind erosion is a severe hazard. 
Tree seedlings may be blown out if their roots are exposed 
by shifting sand. The hazard of windthrow is only slight 
except during storms of hurricane intensity. 

WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP 21 

This group (see table 0) consists of miscellaneous land 
types that are not suited to trees or are too wet for wood- 
land management. They are 

Gr Gravel and borrow pits. 

Ma Made land. 

Sw Swamp. 

Tm Tidal marsh. 

These land types have a total area of 6,296 acre-, or 
2.6 percent of the county. They have not been rated for 
loblolly pine or other species of trees. 

Gravel and borrow pits are areas from which the soil 
and generally much of the underlying material have been 
removed. In most places they are not suited to trees 
unless they are completely reclaimed. Made land con- 
sists of areas that have been filled artificially with earth 
or reworked by man; these areas generally are used for 
building sites. Swamp consists of extremely wet areas 
having many plants, including trees, that tolerate water. 
Some natural timber may be produced on areas of 
Swamp, but the land is too wet for woodland manage- 
ment to be worthwhile. The areas of Tidal marsh are 
unsuitable for trees. The most important uses of Swamp 
and Tidal marsh are as shelters for wildlife and feeding 
areas for waterfowl. 

Wildlife 

Wildlife is abundant in Queen Amies County and is of 
three major kinds: birds and mammals that frequent open 
land; those that frequent woodland; and those that fre- 
quent wetland. 

As habitats for these major kinds of wildlife, the soils 
of the county generally are highly suitable. More than 
90 percent of the land area is potentially well suited to 
open-land wildlife and to woodland wildlife. Open-land 
wildlife includes rabbit, quail, other upland game birds, 
and to some extent deer. Examples of woodland wildlife 
are deer, squirrel, turkey, and woodcock. More than :'><> 
percent of the land area is potentially well suited to rac- 
coon, muskrat, rail, duck, geese, and other forms of wet- 
land wildlife. Canada geese (fig. 17) and other migratory 
waterfowl make up an important part of the wetland wild- 
life in this county. 

In addition to its land area, the county has about 274 
miles of shoreline along rivers and bays that are important 
to wildlife (6). These shores consist of areas between 
normal high tide and normal low tide. Although they 
can neither be indicated clearly on a map nor measured 
accurately, they are important as feeding grounds for 
some kinds of waterfowl and other birds and for some 
mammals, especially raccoons. Dead fish, crabs, and 
shellfish are scavenged in these areas, and live ones are 
hunted. Any kind of pollution by insecticides and herbi- 



50 



SOIL SURVEY 



ir and also provides recreation for many sports fisher- 
>n. 

Elements op Wildlife Habitats. Table 8 show- the 
itability of the soils for elements of wildlife habitats, 
that table the soils are given a rating of good, or above 
erage; fair, or average; poor, or below average; or not 
ited. Ratings arc given for the following elements: 

Grain and seed crops. The soils are rated according to 
their suitability for corn, soybeans, sorghum, mil- 
let, buckwheat, wheat, cowpeas, oats, barley, rye, 
and other grains or grainlike seeds used bv wild- 
life. 

Grasses and legumes. The soils are rated according to 
their suitability for planted grasses and legumes 
commonly used for forage. Valuable plants for 
wildlife food and cover are alfalfa, the lespedezas, 
alsike clover - , Ladino clover, red clover, tall fescue, 
bromegrass, bluegrass, and timothy. 

Wild herbaceous upland plants. The soils are rated 
according to their suitability for nat ive annuals or 
other herbaceous plants that commonly grow in 
upland areas. Among these are some of the panics 
and other native grasses, partridge peas, beggar- 
ticks, various native lespedezas, and other native 
herbs that may be used for food and cover by vari- 
ous kinds of wildlife. 

Hardwood trees and shrubs. The soils are rated ac- 
cording to their suitability for hardwood trees and 
shrubs, either native or planted, that grow vigor- 
ously and produce heavy crops of fruit or seed. 

Table 8. — Suitability of soils for elements of 



[Gravel and borrow pits (Gr) and .Made land (Ma) 



Soil series and map symbols 


Elements of wildlife habitats 


Grain and 
seed crops 


Grasses and 
legumes 


Wild herbaceous 
upland plants 


Hardwood trees 
and shrubs 


Ba vboro : 

Ba 


Not suited . 


Poor 


Poor_ 


Good 


Bertie: 

BoA 


Fair. 


Fair - 


Good 


Good 


BoB2 


Good 


Good 


Good 


Good 


bibb: 

Bp 


Poor 


Fair 


Fair- i. . 


Good - 


Bladen: 

Bt 


Not suited 


Poor 


Poor-_ 


Good 


Butlertown : 

BuA 


Fair 


Good 


Good 


Good 


BuB2, BuC2 


Fair 


Good 


Good 


Good 


BuC3 


Poor 


Fair 


Good 


Good 


Coastal beaches : 
Cb 


Not suited,. 


Not suited . 


Not suited 


Not suited . 


Downer: 

DoA, DoB, DoC DoC3, DoD _. 


Fair 


Good 


Good 


Good 


DoD3, DoE 


Not suited 


Poor 


Good 


Good 


Elkton: 

Ek, EnA 


Poor 


Fair 


Fair 


Good 


EnB2 


Poor 


Fair 


Fair 


Good 




av 



Figure 17. — Canada geese resting on shallow water that has been 
impounded for waterfowl in an area of Tidal marsh. 



cides, damages these feeding grounds. Damage is also 
caused by shore erosion and by deposition of soil materia] 
washed from the uplands. However, material washed 
from uplands and marshes supplies food for fish. 

Fish, oysters, clams, and crabs are plentiful in Chesa- 
peake Bay and in the larger rivers and their estuaries. 
This marine life supplies large commercial yields each 



Ql'KK.N ANN ICS COUNTY, MAKVI.A.NI) 



Among i hese plants are dogwood, sumac, sassa Eras, 
persimmon, hazelnut, multiflora rose, shrub lespe- 
dezas, wild cherry, autumn olive, various oaks and 
hickories, blueberry, bayberry, huckleberry, black- 
haw, sweetgum, highbush cranberry, mid various 
hollies. 

Coniferous lives and shrubs. The soils are rated ac- 
cording to their suitability Tor coniferous trees 
and shrubs that are native or are planted. Ex- 
amples are Virginia pine, loblolly pine, short leal 
pine, Scotch pine, red pine, pond pine, Norway 
spruce, redcedar, and Atlantic white-cedar. The 
rating is based on whether young plants grow 
rapidly and develop dense foliage, not on the size 
of mature plants. A soil that is good for growing 
( 'hrisl mas t rees rates high. 

Wetland plants for food and cover. The soils are rated 
according to their suitability for wetland plants 
that provide food and cover for waterfowl and fur- 
bearing animals. Examples are wildrice, millet 
(fig. 18), smartweed, bulrush, barnyard grass, 
duckweed, pomhveed. arrow-arum, pickerel weed, 
cattail, waterwillow, and various sedges. 

Shallow water developments. The soils are rated ac- 
cording to their suitability for the construction of 
impoundments in which shallow water can be 
maintained at a desired level. On soils suitable 
for these impoundments, the water can be con- 
trolled at a level ranging from the natural water 
table to within 2 feet above it. 



Ixcavated ponds. The Boils are rated according to I heir 
suitability for the construction of dug out areae "i 

combinations of dug-out ponds and low dikes. 
These excavated ponds must hold enough water of 
suitable quality and at a suitable depth to support 

fish or wildlife. The level of water In the pond- 

normally fluctuates with the level of ground water. 




Figure 18. — Millet sown lor waterfowl in a shallow impoundment 
of fresh water. Island in background is used by wild birds for 

nesting. 



wildlife habitats and for kinds of wildlife 
are not rated, because they are too variable] 



Elements of wildlife habitats — Continued 



Kinds of wildlife 



Coniferous trees 
and shrubs 


W etland plants for 
food and cover 


Shallow water 
developments 


Excavated 
ponds 


Open-land 
wildlife 


Woodland 
wildlife 


Wetland 
wildlife 


Good 


Good 


Good 


Good 


Poor 


Good 


Good. 


Poor 


Fair 


Fair 


Fair 


Good 


Good 


Fair. 


Poor 


Not suited... . 


Not suited 


Not suited . 


Good 


Good 


Not suited. 


Fair 


Fair ... 


Poor 


Not suited 


Fair 


Good 


Poor. 


Good 


Good 


Good . 


Good 


Poor 


Good 


Good. 


Poor . _ _ 


Poor 


Poor _ 


Poor. 


Good 


Good 


Poor. 


Poor . . . _ 


Not suited 


Not suited 


Not suited 


Good 


Good 


Not suited. 


Poor 


Not suited . 


Not suited . 


Not suited 


Fair _._ 


Fair 


Not suited. 


Not suited 


Not suited .. 


Not suited . . 


Not suited 


Not suited . _ 


Not suited 


Not suited. 


Poor 


Not suited 


Not suited .. 


Not suited. 


Good 


Good 


Not suited. 


Poor 


Not suited 

Good 


Not suited 


Not suited 


Poor . 


Fair 


Not suited. 


Fair 


Good 


Good 


Fair 


Good 


Good. 


Fair 


Poor 


Not suited. 


Not suited. 


Faii- 


Good 


Not suited. 



52 



SOIL SURVEY 

Table 8. — Suitability of soils for elements of wildlife 



Soil scries and map symbols 



Fallsington : 

Fa A. FdA_. 
FaB, FdB_. 



Galestown : 

GaB, GaC, GcB. 
GkD, GkE, GIC. 

Johnston : 

Jo 



Kevport: 
KeA, KpA._ 
KeB2, KpB2. 
KrC3, KrD3. 



Klc 



KsA. 
KsB. 



Lakeland: 
LaB, LaC. 



Matapeake: 

MbA, McA, MkA, MoA 

MbB2, MbC2, McB2, McC2, MkB2, MkC2, MoB2, 
MoC2. 

MbC3, McC3, Mm D, MkC3, MoC3 

Mm D3, MmE 



Mattapex : 

MpA, MsA, MtA 

MpB2, MsB2, MsC2, MtB2, MtC2 

MsC3, MtC3, MxD 

MxD3, MxE 



Mixed alluvial land: 

My 



Othello: 

ObA, BoA 

ObB2, BoB2, OeC2. 

Plummer: 

Pd 



Pocomoke: 
Pk, Pm.. 



Ports mouth : 

Po 



Sassafras : 

SfA 

SaA, SaB2, SaC2, SfB2, SfC2.._ 

SaC3, SaD2, SfC3. SfD2 

SaD3, SaE, SfD3, SfE, SfE3, SfF. 

Swamp: 

Sw 



Tidal marsh: 
Tm 



WoodstowD : 

WdA, WoA 

WdB2, WoB2, WoC2_ 

WoD 

WoE 



Elements of wildlife habitats 



Grain and 
seed crops 



Poor 

Poor, 

Poor_ _ 
Not suited. 

Not suited. 

Faii- 
Fair. . 
Not suited. 

Poor 

Poor. _ 

Poor. _ 

Good 

Fair 

Poor 

Not suited. 

Fair 

Fair. _ 
Poor. 

Not suited. 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Not suited 

Good 

Fair 

Poor 

Not suited 

Not suited 

Not suited 

Fair 

Fair 

Poor 

Not suited 



Grasses and 
legumes 



Fair.. 
Fair. _ 

Poor. . 
Not suited 

Poor. 

Good 

Good 

Poor. _ 

Fair 

Fair. . 

Poor. . 

Good... 
Good.. 

Fair 

Poor 

Good 

Good-. 
Fair. _ 
Poor. _ 

Poor 

Fair 

Fair 

Poor. _ 

Fair 

Poor 

Good 

Good.. 

Fair 

Poor 

Not suited 

Not suited 

Good 

Good 

Fair 

Poor 



Wild herbaceous 
upland plants 



Fair. _ 
Fair.. 

Poor. _ 
Poor. . 

Poor. . 

Good.. 

Good 

Good.. 

Fair 

Fair 

Poor 

Good.. 
Good 

Good 

Good.. 

Good 

Good.. 
Good. 
Good 

Poor. _ 

Fair 

Fair.. 

Fair 

Fair 

Poor 

Good 

Good 

Good . . 
Good 

Not suited 

Not suited 

Good 

Good.. 

Good 

Good 



Hardwood trees 
and shrubs 



Good 

Good.. 

Poor 

Poor.. 

Good. . 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Fair 

Fair 

Poor 

Good 

Good.. 

Good 

Good.. 

Good 

Good... 

Good 

Good. 

Good 

Good 

Good.. 

Fair 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good . . 
Good. . 

Not suited 

Not suited 

Good 

Good 

Good.. 
Good 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND ')'■', 



habitats and for kinds of wildlife — Continued 



Klenients of wildlife habitats —Continued 


Binds of wildlife 


Coniferous trees 
and shrubs 


Wetland plants for 

f i\t \r\ Mild i \'i i|* 
1 OOt 1 1 1 I M 1 I I J \ t I 


Shallow miter 

( 1 1 • v ( 'ml ) 1 1 1 < '1 1 1 s 


Excavated 
ponds 


( tpen-land 
wildlife 


Woodland 
wildlife 


Wetland 
wildlife 


T? * 


( JqocJ 


Good 


Good 


Fair 


Good 


Good. 








Not suit e< 1 


Not suited 


Fair 


Good 


Not suited. 






XT/ii <i i i i t t! 


Not suited 


Not suited 


Poor . 


Poor 


Xot suited. 








Not suit ed 


Not suited 


Not suited.. 


Poor 


Not suited. 






VlOOO 


Poor 


Not suited 


Poor.. . .. 


Good 


Fair. 




UOOU - 

Poor 




Poor 


Poor 


Good 


Good 


Poor. 








Not suited 


Not suited 


Cood 


Goorl 


Not suited. 




Poor _ _ 


Not suited 


Not suited. 


Not suited 


Poor . .. 


Good 


Not suited. 




Poor. - 


Poor, . 


Poor. 


Poor. . 


Fair 


Poor 


Poor. 




Poor. . 


Not suited, . 


Not suited.. 


Not suited. 


Fair 


Poor. ... 


Not suited. 




j? ■ 




Not suited 


Not suited 


Poor 


Poor. . 


Not suited. 




r air 

Poor 


Not suited. 


Not suited 


Not suited 


Good 


Good 


Not suited. 




Poor 




Not suited 


Not suited 


Good 


Good 


Not suited. 




Poor _ _ 


Not suited ._. 


Not suited 


Not suited 


Fair 


Fair... 


Not suited. 




Poor _ _ 




Not suited 


Not suited 


Poor. 


Fair 


Not suited. 




Poor 


Poor. 


Poor. 


Poor. . 


Good 


Good 


Poor. 








Not suited 


Not suited 


Good 


Good 


Not suited. 




Poor. 


Not suited 


Not suited 


Not suited 


Fair 


Fair 


Not suited. 




Poor _ . 


Not suited . 


Not suited 


Not suited 


Poor . . 


Fair 


Not suited. 




Good 


Good 


Poor 


Not suited .. 


Poor 


Good 


Fair. 




Fair 


Good 


Good 


Good 


Fair 


Good 


Good. 








Not suited 


Not suited 


Fair. _ .. 


Good 


Not suited. 




Pair 


0000 


Good 


Good 


Fair 


Fair 


Good. 




Fair 


OnnH 


Good 


Good 


Fair. 


Good 


Good. 




floor! 


Clnorl 


Good 


Good 


Poor- 


Good 


Good. 








Not suited 


Not suited 


Good 


Good 


Not suited. 




Poor 


1> \) l' ftLlll'CU _ _ 

ftj /-\ i Cl 1 1 1 Of! 


Not suited 


Not suited 


Good 


Good 


Not suited. 






nllltcU 
IVj/a^" ci ii tori 


Not suited 


Not suited 


Fair 


Fair . . ... 


Not suited. 








Not suited 


Not suited 


Poor 


Fair 


Not suited. 




Not suited. 


Good 


Good 


Good. . 


Not suited 


Not suited. . 


Good. 




Not suited 


Good 


Poor 


Not suited 


Not suited 


Not suited . 


Fair. 




Poor . 


Poor __ 


Poor. 


Poor .. . 


Good 


Good 


Poor. 




Poor 


Not suited 


Not suited 


Not suited 


Good 


Good 


Not suited. 




Poor 


Not suited _ . 


Not suited 


Not suited . . 


Fair 


Fair . . . 


Not suited. 




Poor 


Not suited 


Not suited 


Not suited 


Poor 


Fair 


Not suited. 





















54 



soil sum i .v 



Farm ponds of the impounded type arc not included in 
table 8, but they can be important in producing fresh- 
water fish, [f fish arc to be produced, pari of (he pond 
should be ai leas! 6 feci deep. Table 12 in the subsection 
"Engineering Uses of Soils" gives properties of each soil 
in the county that affect the construction and maintenance 
of farm ponds. 

SriTAiwi iTv or the Soils fob Different Kinds of 
Wildlife. — Table 8 rates the soils according to their 
suitability for three kinds of wildlife in the county. The 
ratings are based on a weighted average of the ratings 
given to elements of habitats in that table. 

Suitability of Tidal Marsh for Wildlife. — Areas of 
Tidal marsh in Queen Amies County produce a good 
growth of wetland plants that furnish food and cover 
for waterfowl, muskrat, and certain other kinds of wild- 
life. Tidal marsh also is fairly suitable for shallow- 
water developments. 

Differenf marsh types are recognized in the State on 
the basis of dominant vegetation (6, 13). Four of these 
types- [, II, IV, and V — occur in Queen Amies County. 
These types are described in the following paragraphs 
and, in table !•, are rated according to their suitability 
for muskrat, raccoon, rail, nesting duck-, Wilson's snipe, 
migratory ducks, and geese. 

Type 1 is called the cattail type, though the vegetation 
also includes pickerelweed, wildrice, arrow-arum, spaf 




Figure 19. — Needlerush is one of the most abundant plants in type 

V marsh. 



lerdock, rice cutgrass, American three square, spikerush, 
sedge, wildmillet, and smart weed. This type occupies 
about 27 percent of the marshland in the county and is 
along the upper reaches of tidal streams. In these places 
there is little tidal action, and the water is nearly fresh 
or only slightly saline. Muskrats are numerous, and 
various kinds of rail are abundant. Food of high quality 
makes I lie areas excellent for migratory w aterfowl and for 
waterfowl thai spend the winter here. Excepl along 
the fringes, where wood ducks sometimes nest, there is 
little nesting. 

Type II is a transitional type that occupies abouf 1*-! 
percent of the marshland in the county. In addition 
to mosf of the vegetation that occurs in type I. type II 
marsh has many plants that are more tolerant of salt 
than those in type [. These salt-tolerant plants are 
Olney's three-square, saltmarsh bulrush, big cordgrass, 
smooth cordgrass, and marshhay cordgrass. In most 
places there are many muskrats, and Wilson's snipe, 
locally called jacksnipe, commonly is abundant during 
migrations in spring and fall. In addition, there are 
several kinds of rail. Many kinds of waterfowl spend 
the w inter where this marsh type is dominant, and black- 
duck and blue-winged teal nesi here. 

Type IV is called the three-square-cordgrass-needle- 
rush type. In the areas where it is dominant, Olney's 
three-square, needlerush, marshhay cordgrass, and smooth 
cordgrass make up about equal parts of the plant cover, 
and saltmarsh bulrush grows in some places. This type 
occupies aboul 3 percent of the marshland in the county 
and is of little importance. The areas are relatively dry 
and are only occasionally Hooded by high tides. Musk- 
rats are usually not numerous, but rails, black ducks, blue- 
winged teal, and small songbirds may build their nests 
here. Migratory ducks may be common. 

Type Y marsh is the needlerush-saltmeadow cordgrass 
type (tig. 1!)). It is the most extensive and most impor- 
tant type in the county and makes up about 58 percent of 
the marshland. It occurs in fairly high areas that are not 
frequently flooded. High-tide bush, groundsel bush, and 
switchgrass are common plants in some of the higher 
areas. The type is particularly important on Kent Island 
and in areas jusf east and south of Kent Narrows. Large 
numbers of black ducks and small songbirds may build 
their nests in areas of type Y marsh. Both migrating 
and w intering waterfowl are usually less numerous than 
in areas along tidal waterways and ponds; muskrats are 
not abundant; and there are few other animals. 

In the management of marshland, it is important that 
the areas be kept free of pollution by salt water. The 
more salty areas can be freshened by digging small holes, 
or ponds, a few feet in diameter that are connected by 
ditches containing small water-control structures. Rain- 
fall collected in the ponds is spread through the ditches 
to other parts of the marshes. Spreading fresh water in 
this way helps to maintain the desirable plants and en- 
courages use of the marshland by waterfowl and muskrat. 

Larger ponds that have special structures for control- 
ling water can be built in many places. Ponds of this 
kind are most suitable in type V marsh that is dominated 
by needlegrass or cordgrass, either of which is of little 
value to ducks (4). The areas selected can be enclosed 
by dikes that keep the water about 2 feet deep. 



Ql'KKN ANNUS COI N TV, MARYLAND 



Species of wildlife 



Musknil 
Raccoon 
Rail 

Nesting ducks . 

Wilson's snipe 
Migratory ducks 
Geese 



Tahlk 9. Snitabilih/ o f marsh for s/iccics of irild/ifr 

Type IV 



Type I 



Excellent food .'11111 cover 
Excellent food and cover 
Excellent 

Excellent for wood ducks 

B - 

Excellent 

Good 



Tj i>'' 



Excellent food and cover 
Excellent food and cover 
Excellent 

Good 

Excellent 
Excellent 
Good - . 



Pair foorl and cover 
Pair food and co\ er 

Excellent for nesting 
Excellent for teal and 
black ducks. 

(') 

Good . . 
Poor 



Type V 



Poor food and co\ < i . 
Poor food and cover. 

Poot. 

Good for black duck- 

(')• 

Good, 
l'oor. 



1 Not rated. 

Some areas of marshland should not he drained, because 
they are made up of soil material called cat clay. This 
material, which must be identified on the site, contains 
large amounts of sulfur compounds. If the excess water 
is removed, oxidation of these compounds results in the 
formation of sulfuric acid that kills vegetation and makes 
the affected areas practically worthless. 

Engineering Uses of Soils 

This subsection has five main parts. In the first part, 
the soils of the county are described from an engineering 
viewpoint and properties important in engineering are 
described. The second part interprets properties as they 
relate to engineering work. The third part consists of 
data obtained by testing samples of soils taken at a num- 
ber of locations. Soils are grouped, in the fourth part, 
according to the similarity of their drainage require- 
ments. In the fifth part, soils are grouped according to 
their suitability for irrigation. 

This subsection of the report is a guide to the proper- 
ties of the soils and to the influence of those properties 
on problems related to engineering. In part, the informa- 
tion was obtained by examining the soils in the field and 
by evaluating their characteristics with reference to engi- 
neering needs. Chiefly, however, the subsection is based 
on facts obtained by testing soil samples taken at fourteen 
locations in the county. Use was also made of reports 
and analyses made in Somerset County, Md., Norfolk 
County, Va., and elsewhere. 

With the use of the soil map for identification, the 
engineering interpretations in this subsection can be use- 
ful for many purposes. ,It should be emphasized that 
they may not eliminate the need for sampling and testing 
at the site of specific engineering works involving heavy 
loads and where the excavations are deeper than the 
depths of layers here reported. Even in these situations, 
the soil map is useful for planning more detailed field 
investigations and for suggesting the kinds of problems 
that may be expected. For example, the information in 
this section shows that Bayboro silt loam is not suitable 
for road fill or as a source of sand or gravel. It also 
shows that the Sassafras soils are suitable for use in con- 
structing dikes, levees, and embankments. It does not 
show, however, just how good the Sassafras soils are for 
dikes, levees, or embankments in any particular area of 
these soils. Tests at the site will be required to obtain 
that information. 



This report contains information that can be used bj 
engineers to — 

1. Make soil and land use studies that will aid in 
selecting and developing indust rial, business, resi- 
dential, and recreational sites. 

2. Assist in designing drainage and irrigation sys- 
tems and in planning farm ponds, diversion 
terraces, and structures for soil and water con- 
servation or for other purposes. 

3. Make preliminary evaluations of soil and ground 
conditions that will aid in selecting locations for 
highways, airports, pipelines, and cable- and in 
planning detailed investigations of the selected 
locations. 

4. Locate probable sources of sand, gravel, and ot her 
construction material. 

5. Correlate performance of engineering structures 
with kinds of soil and thus develop information 
that will be useful in designing and maintaining 
the structures. 

6. Determine the suitability of soil mapping units 
for cross-country movement of vehicles and con- 
struction equipment. 

7. Supplement the information obtained from other 
published maps and reports and from aerial 
photographs that can be readily used by 
engineers. 

8. Develop other preliminary estimates for construc- 
tion purposes pertinent to the particular area. 

Engineering descriptions and physical properties 

A brief description of each soil in Queen Amies County 
is given in table 10. The table lists the symbol for each 
soil that is shown on the detailed soil map and the name 
of the soil. For each significant horizon the table show- 
also the textural classification generally used by the U.S. 
Department of Agriculture and the two most widely 
used engineering classifications — those of the American 
Association of State Highway Officials (1) and of the 
United States Army, Corps of Engineers (I4). Color 
and other characteristics that are not important in 
engineering have been omitted from most descriptions, 
but other general characteristics of the profile are 
described. Among these are the kind of parent material 
or other substratum, drainage characteristics, depth to 
the water table if this factor is known and is significant, 
and the presence of gravel or sand. 

Unless otherwise indicated, the descriptions of the 
physical properties in table 10 apply to the soils that are 



;><•> 



SOIL SURVEY 



Table 10. — Descriptions of the soils 

[Dashed lines indicate informal ion 



Mapping unit 



Bayboro silt loam. 



Bertie and Othello silt loams, to 2 percent 

slopes (Bertie part). 
Bertie and Othello silt loams, 2 to 5 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded (Bertie part). 



UiM> Mil loam. 



Bladen silty clay loam. 



Butlertown silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Butlertown silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Butlertown silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Butlertown silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 

< loastal beaches. 



Downer loamy sand, 
Downer loamy sand, 
Downer loamy sand, 
Downer loamy sand, 

severely eroded. 
Downer loamy sand, 
Downer loamy sand, 

severely eroded. 
Downer loamy sand. 



to 2 percent slopes. 
2 to 5 percent slopes. 
5 to 10 percent slopes. 
5 to 10 percent slopes, 

10 to 15 percent slopes. 
10 t o 15 percent slopes, 

15 to 30 percent slopes. 



Elkton loam. 

Elkton silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Elkton silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, mod- 
eratelv eroded. 



Fallsington loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Fallsington loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Fallsington sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Fallsingt on sandy loam, 2 t o 5 percent slopes. 



Galestown loamy sand, clayey substratum, 

to 5 percent slopes. 
Galestown loamy sand, clayey substratum, 

5 to 10 percent slopes. 
Galestown sand, clayey substratum, to 5 
percent slopes. 
See footnote at end of table. 



Description of soil and site 



About 1 foot of black, highly organic silt 
loam, over 3 to 5 feet of mottle clay or 
silty clay, over fine sandy clay sub- 
stratum; very poorly drained; seasonally 
high water table at surface. 

About L5 inches of silt loam, over 18 inches 
of light silty clay loam, over light sandy 
loam grading to sand with depth; some- 
what poorly drained; seasonally high 
water table at depth of 18 inches or less. 
For description of Othello soils in undif- 
ferentiated groups BoA and BoB2, see 
Ot hello silt loams. 

About 3 feet of silt loam over unconforming 
clay; on poorly drained Mood plains; sea- 
sonally high water table at depth of 1 foot 
or less. 

About 1 foot of silty clay loam, over 4 feet 
of clay, over fine sandy clay; poorly 
drained; seasonally high water table at 
depth of 1 foot or less. 

About 10 inches of silt loam, over 36 to 40 
inches of heavy silt loam or light silty 
clay loam, over silt or silt loam to depth 
of 5 feet or more; may overlie very fine 
sand; moderately well drained; seasonal- 
ly high water table at depth of 2}$ to 3 
feet. 

Loose sand; slightly to strongly saline; 
water table below depth of 4 feet, except 
where influenced by tides. 

About 18 inches of loamy sand, over 14 
inches of sandy loam, over deep loamy 
sand or sand; well drained; water table 
below depth of 4 feet at all times. 



About 7 inches of silt loam or loam over 54 
inches of silty clay; may overlie sandy 
material; poorly drained; seasonal water 
table at depth of 1 foot or less. Elkton 
soil in undifferentiated group OeC2 is 
as decribed here; see Othello silt loam for 
description of Othello soil. 

About 16 inches of loam or sandy loam, over 
16 inches of sandy clay loam, over strat- 
ified loamy sand with some gravel; poorly 
drained; seasonally high water table at 
depth of 1 foot or less. 

About 5 feet of sand or loamy sand, grading 
to sand, over sandy loam or sandy clay 
loam substratum; somewhat excessively 
or excessively drained, water table within 
finer textured substratum. 



Depth 
from 

surface 



0-12 
12 .VI 



II I.", 

15-34 
:;i c,(i 



0-37 
37-50 



0-11 
11-44 
41 (in 



0-10 
10-49 

49-60 



0-60 



0-18 
18-32 
32-42 
42-60 



0-7 
7 lid 



( 'lassification 



I S 1 J A texture 



0-16 
16-35 
35-50 + 



0-39 
39-55 
5.5-60 



Silt loam , 

Silty clay or clay 

Silt loam 

Light silty clay loam 
Sand to light sandy 
loam. 



Silt loam 

Clay 

Silty clay loam_ 

Clay 

Fine sandy clay 



Silt loam 

Heavy silt loam or 
light silty clay loam. 
Silt loam 

Sand 

Loamy sand 

Sandy loam 

Loamv sand 

Sand 



Silt loam or loam. 
Silty clay 



Sandj loam or loam. 

Sandy clay loam 

Gravelly loamv sand. 



Loamy sand or sand. 

Sand 

Sandy loam 



Ql'KKN AKNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 



and estimates of their properties 
mil applicable or not available] 



Percentage passing sieve- 


I ' ■ i i ■ ■ > ( ill 

I I • I II i^i 1 1 1 

permeability 


A\ ailable 

nil >k| i i i'i > 
MUMM ill' 

capacity 


1 : i • ■ i * • t ifiii 
l\* ill l|l)IJ 


Maximum 
dry 
density 


' 1 ) II I 1 i 1 1 ! 1 i 

moist m e 


1 i r i i i L ii'i il 1 
» III lllrw >\\i 11 

pOti lit i;i| 


No. 4 


No. 10 


No. 200 










Inches per 
















Inches per hour 


inch of soil 


pi l 


Lb. per cu. ft. 


Percent 




101) 


100 


95-100 


0. 20-0. 63 


1). I'll 


4. 0-4. 5 




High. 


100 


100 


95-100 


<0. 20 


. 18 


3. 5-5. 


100-110 


20 


High. 


100 


1 00 


oo yo 


0. 20-0. 63 


. 16 


4. 0-5. 






Low. 


100 


100 


85-95 


(). 20 0. 63 


. 18 


4. 0-5. 


101- 1 10 


14 


Moderate. 


100 


100 


10-25 


0. 63-2. 


.08 


4. 0-4. 5 


1 1 1 120 


12 


Very low. 


100 


100 


85-95 


0. 20-0. 63 


. 16 


4. 0-5. 


101-1 in 


18 


Low to mod 


















erate. 


100 


100 


95-100 


<C0. 20 


l k 

. io 




91-100 


20 


\ 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■ i 1 1 

-,IUI II 1 ,1 u, 
















to high. 


100 


100 


90-100 


0. 20-0. 63 


. 17 


4. 5-5. 






.Moderate. 


100 


100 


95-100 


<0. 20 


. 18 


4. 0-5. 


91-100 


20 


High. 


100 


100 


75-90 


<0. 20 


. 17 


5. 0-5. 5 


101-1 1(1 


18 


Moderate. 


100 


100 


90-100 


0. 20-2. 


. 16 


5. 0-6. 






Low. 


100 


100 


85-100 


<0. 20 


. 17 


5. 0-6. 


101-110 


18 


Moderate. 


100 


100 


70-100 


0. 20-0. 63 


. 16 


5. 0-5. 5 


101-110 


18 


Low. 


100 


100 


0-5 


6. 3 + 






101-110 


8 


Low. 


100 


100 


15-30 


2. 0-6. 3 


. 10 


4. 5-5. 5 


loi-no 


12 


Low. 


100 


100 


25-40 


0. 63-2. 


. 14 


4. 5-5. 


111-120 


14 


Low. 


100 


100 


15-25 


2. 0-6. 3 


. 10 


5. 0-6. 


101-110 


10 


Low. 


100 


100 


0-10 


6. 3 + 


. 06 


5. 0-6. 


91-100 


10 


Low. 


100 


100 


75-90 


0. 20-2. 


. 16 


4. 0-5. 






Moderate. 


100 


100 


80-95 


<0. 20 


. 18 


4. 0-5. 


91-100 


20 


Moderate. 


100 


100 


30-50 


0. 20-2. 


. 15 


4. 0-5. 






Low. 


100 


100 


30-55 


0. 63-2. 


. 17 


4. 0-5. 


111-120 + 


14 


Low. 


95-100 


75-100 


5-15 


2. 0-6. 3 


. 10 


4. 0-5. 


101-120 


12 


Low. 


100 


100 


5-15 


2. 0-6. 3 + 


. 08 


4. 5-5. 


101-110 


10 


Low. 


100 


100 


0-10 


6. 3 + 


. 06 


4. 0-5. 


91-100 


10 


Low. 


100 


100 


15-30 


0. 20-2. 


. 15 


4. 0-5. 


111-120 + 


15 


Low. 



( !lassifica1 ion ( lontinued 



Unified 



Mil or OH. 
(Ml or CL 



ML 

ML or CL. 
SM 



ML or CL___ 
CL or CH___ 



CL 

CL or CH... 
CL 

ML or CL. . 
ML or CL_. 

ML 

SP 

SM 

SM 

SM 

SP or SP- 
SM. 

ML 

CL 



SM or ML. . 
SC or CL.._ 
SM or SP._. 



SP-SM or 

SM. 
SP or SP- 

SM. 

SC or SM. 



AASHO 



A-7 

A-7 

A-4 

A-4 or A-6 
A-2 



A-4 or A-6. 
A-6 or A-7. 



A-6 

A-7 

A-6 

A-4 

A-4 or A-6 

A-4 

A-3 

A-2 

A-2, A-4.. 
A-2 

A-3 

A-4 

A-6 



A-2 or A-4. 
A-2 or A-6. 
A-2 or A-3. 



A-2 or A-3. 

A-3 

A-2 



SOIL SURVEY 



Table IQ.—lJrscri/itions of flu soils and 



Mapping unit 



Description of soil and site 



Depth 
from 
surface 



( Jlassification 



USD A texture 



Galestown and Lakeland loamy sands, 10 to 
15 percent slopes. 

(laics! own and Lakeland Loamy sands, 15 to 
30 percent slopes. 

Galestown and Lakeland sands, 5 to LO per- 
cent slopes. 

Johnsl on loam. 



Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

Keyport loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 

Keyport silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent 
slopes, severely eroded. 

Keyport silty clay loam, 10 to 15 percent 
slopes, severely eroded. 

Klej loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 



Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 

to 5 percent slopes. 
Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 

5 to 10 percent slopes. 



Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Matapeake fine sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Matapeake fine sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Matapeake loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Matapeake loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Matapeake loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Matapeake loam, 5 to L0 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Matapeake silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Matapeake soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
Matapeake soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes, se- 
verely eroded. 
Matapeake soils, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, to 2 

percent slopes. 
Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 2 to 5 

percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 5 to 
10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

See footnote at end of table. 



Six feet or more of sand, or loamy sand 
grading to sand; excessively drained; 
water table below depth of 6 feet at all 
times. 



About 30 inches of organic loam, over 10 
inches of loamy fine sand, over fine Bandy 
clay substratum; on very poorlj drained 
flood plains; seasonally high water table 
at depth of 1 foot or less; subject to Hood- 
ing and ponding. 

About 9 inches of loam, silt loam, or silty 
clay loam, over 4 feet or more of silty clay 
loam to clay; moderately well drained; 
seasonally high water table at depth of 
about 2 feet. 



About 40 inches of loamy sand, over several 
inches of sand, over heavy sandy loam; 
moderately well drained; seasonally high 
water table at depth of about 2 feet. 

About 5 feet of loamy sand grading to sand, 
over sandy loam or sandy clay loam sub- 
stratum; somewhat excessively or exces- 
sively drained; water table seasonally 
within finer textured substratum. 

About 1 1 inches of fine sandy loam, loam, or 
silt loam, over about 20 inches of silty clay 
loam, over fine sandy clay loam grading to 
fine sandy loam and loamy sand; well 
drained; water table below depth of 4 feet 
at all times. 



About 16 inches of silt loam, over 40 inches 
of light silty clay loam or heavy silt loam, 
over silt or silt loam to depth of 6 feet or 
more; well drained; water table below 
depth of 6 feet at all times. 



Iitrlti > 

0-39 
39-72 



0-30 
30-41 
41-50 



0-9 
9-35 
35 55 



0-39 
39-47 

47-55 

0-33 

33-58 

58-66 

0-11 

1 1-32 
32-37 
37-50 



0-16 
16-55 

55-72 



Loamy sand or sand 
Sand 

Loam 

Loamy fine sand 

Fine sandy clay 

Silt loam or loam 
Silt j cla j Loa m to claj 
Clay or silty clay 



Loamy sand 

Sand 

Sandy loam 

Loamy sand 

Sand 

Sandy loam 

Fine sandy loam, loam, 
or silt loam. 

Silty clay loam 

Fine sandy clay loam_ 
Fine sandy loam 



Silt loam 

Light silty clay loam. . 

Silt loam or silt 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 59 



estimates of their properties Continued 



Classifical ion 


( out limed 

\ 


Percentage passing 


sieve 




Range m 
permeability 


Avaiiaoie 

moist lire 
eapaeit y 


React ion 


M aximum 
dry 
< tensity 


' * [) 1 1 III II III 

moist lire 


Shrink-.- well 

| >0 1 e 1 1 1 j ; d 


Unified 


AASIIO 


No. 4 


No. 10 


No. 200 














Inehet per 




















inclifn per hour 


inch of .suit 




Lb. ptr cu. ft. 


Percent 


Low. 


SP-SM or 


A— 2 or A— 3- 


1 00 


1 00 


5-15 


2. 0-6. 3 + 


0. OS 


4. 5-5. 


101 III) 


10 


SM. 




















Low. 


SP or SP- 


A-3 


100 


100 


0-10 


6. 3 + 


. 06 


4. 0-5. 


91-100 


10 


SM. 






















SM or ()L 


A— 4 or A~5_ 


100 


100 


35-50 


0. 20-0. 63 


. 20 


4. 0-5. 5 






I ow to 




















m oderate 


SP-SM or 


A-2 or A-3. 


1 00 
1 uu 


OA-1 00 

iJO I'M! 


5-15 


0. 63-2. 


. 08 


3. 5-40. 


101 110 


10 


Low. 


SM. 




















Moderate. 


CL 


A-6 


100 


100 


50-80 


<0. 20 


. 18 


3. 5-4. 5 


mi no 


18 


ML 


A-4 


i an 
LUU 


i no 
1 uu 


00-80 


0. 20-2. 


. 16 


5. 0-5. 5 






Ldw. 


CL 


A-6 


i no 


1 00 


60-90 


<0. 20 


. 18 


4. 5-5. 


91-100 


20 


Moderate. 


CH or CL... 


A-7 or A-6. 


1(H) 


1 00 


80-100 


<0. 20 


. 18 


4. 0-4. 5 


91-100 


20 


Moderate. 


SM-. 


A-2 


100 


1 00 


10-20 


0. 63-2. 


. 08 


4. 0-5. 


101 1 10 


10 


Low. 


SP or SP- 


A-3 


100 


100 


0-10 


2. 0-6. 3 


. 06 


4. 0-4. 5 


91-100 


10 


Low. 


SM. 




















Low. 


.u o i 


A -9 


i nn 
1 uu 


1 Ml 1 


1 5-30 


20—2 


15 


3. 5-4. 


1 1 1 -120 


15 


SM-SP or 


A-2 


100 


100 


10-15 


2. 0-6. 3 + 


. 06 


4. 5-5. 


105-1 10 


10 


Low. 


SM. 




















Low. 


SP or SM- 


A-3 


100 


100 


0-10 


6. 3 + 


. 06 


4. 0-4. 5 


105-1 10 


10 


SP. 




















Moderate. 


SC or SM__. 


A-2 


100 


100 


15-30 


0. 20-2. 


. 15 


4. 0-5. 


111-120 


14 


ML 


A-4 


100 


100 


60-80 


0. 63-2. 


. 16 


5. 0-6. 






Low. 


CL 


A-6 


100 


100 


60-85 


0. 63-2. 


. 18 


5. 0-6. 


101-110 


18 


Moderate. 


SC or CL__. 


A-6 


100 


100 


40-60 


0. 63-2. 


. 15 


5. 0-5. 5 


111-120 


16 


Moderate. 


SM 


A-2 


100 


100 


15-30 


2. 0-6. 3 


. 14 


5. 0-5. 5 


111-120 


15 


Low. 


ML 


A-4 


100 


100 


90-95 


0. 63-2. 


. 16 


5. 5-6. 5 




--- 


Low. 


ML or CL-. 


A-4 or A-6_ 


100 


100 


95-100 


0. 63-2. 


. 18 


5. 5-6. 5 


~i6i-iio 




Low to 






















moderate 


ML 


A-4 


100 


100 


95-100 


0. 63-2. 


. 16 


5. 5-6. 


101-110 


18 


Low. 















GO 



SOIL SURVEY 



Table 10. — Descriptions of the soils and 



Mappin 



Description of soil ;ui<l site 



Depth 
from 

surface 



( 'lassification 



USDA texture 



Matapeake sill loam, silty substratum, 5 to 
10 percent slopes, severely eroded. 

Matt apex One sandy loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

Mattapex line sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Mattapex loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Mattapex loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Mattapex loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Mattapex loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Mattapex silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Mattapex soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
Mattapex soils, 10 to lf> percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Mattapex soils, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 

Mixed alluvial land. 



Othello silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Othello silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Othello and Elkton soils, 5 to 10 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded (Othello part). 



Plummer loamy sand. 



Pocomoke loam. 
Pocomoke sandy loam. 



Portsmouth silt loam. 



Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 
Sassafras loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 
Sassafras loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, se- 
verely eroded. 
Sassafras loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

See footnote at end of table. 



About 15 inches of fine sandy loam, loam, 
or silt loam, over about 20 inches of light 
silty clay loam, over deep sandy loam that 
is coarse]- textured with dept li ; moderately 
well drained; seasonally high water table 
at dept h of about 2 feel . 



Mixed soil materials on flood plains; subject 
to flooding. 

About 9 inches of silt loam, over 20 inches of 
light silty clay loam, over compact sandy 
loam grading to loose loamy sand ; poorly 
drained; seasonally high water table at 
depth of 1 foot or less. Othello silt loam 
in undifferentiated groups BoA and BoB2 
is as described here; see Bertie and 
Othello silt loams for description of 
Bertie soil. 

About 28 inches of loamy sand, over sand 
to depth of about 46 inches, over sandy 
loam substratum; poorly drained; sea- 
sonally high water table at depth of 1 
foot or less; ponded in some areas. 

About 14 inches of loam or sandy loam, 
over about 12 inches of sandy clay loam 
or heavy sandy loam, over loose loamy 
sand; surface layer high in organic- 
matter content; very poorly drained; 
seasonally high water table at or near 
surface; ponded in some areas. 

About 1 1 inches of highly organic silt loam, 
over 2 feet of silty clay loam, over loamy 
sand or very light sandy loam; very 
poorly drained; seasonally high water 
table at or near surface; ponded in some 
areas. 

About 1 4 inches of loam or sandy loam, over 
about 30 inches of sandy clay loam, over 
deep loamy sand; well drained; water 
table below depth of 4 feet at all times. 



Inches 



0-15 

15-36 
36-50 



0-9 
9-29 
2<l 34 
34 is 



0-28 

28-46 

46-60 

0-14 
14-26 

26-53 



0-11 

11-37 
37-48 



0-14 
14-43 
43-50 



Fine sandy loam, loam, 

or silt loam, 
bight silty clay loam... 
Light fine sandy loam_. 



Variable 

Silt loam 

Light silty clay loam 

Sandy loam 

Loamy sand 



Loamy sand 

Sand.... 

Sandy loam 

Sandy loam or loam 
Sandy clay loam or 
heavy sandy loam 
Loamy sand 

Silt loam 

Silty clay loam 

Loamy sand or light 
sandy loam. 



Sandy loam or loam_ 

Sandy clay loam 

Loamy sand 



QUEEN AMINES 
estimates of their ■properties — Continued 



COUNTY. MARYLAND 



01 



Classification — Cont inuei I 



Unified 



AASHO 



Percentage passing sieve 
No. 4 No. 10 No. 200 



Available 
Range in moist ure 
permeability capacity 



React ion 



Maximum 

dry Optimum Shrink-swell 
density moisture potential 



ML. 



A I 



ML or CL. 
SM or SC. 



A-4 or A-6. 
A-2 



ML 

ML or CL__ 

SM 

SM-SP or 
SM. 



SP-SM or 
SM. 

SP or SP- 
SM. 

SC or SM.. 

SM or ML. 
SC, SM or 

ML. 
SM-SP or 

SM. 



ML or OL_ 

CL 

SM-SP or 
SM. 



A-4 

A-4 or A-€ 
A-2, A-4._ 
A-2 



SM or ML. 
SC or CL.. 
SM-SP or 
SM. 



A-3 or A-2. 

A-3 

A-2 

A-2 or A-4. 
A-2 or A-4. 

A-2 

A-4 or A-5. 

A-6 

A-2 

A-2 or A-4. 
A-4 or A-6. 
A-2 



100 

100 
100 



95-100 

100 
95-100 



50-70 

60-90 
15-35 



Inchtt per hour 



0. 63-2. 

0. 20-0. 63 
0. 63-2. 



Inches per 
inch of Hail 



0. 16 



18 

15 



/<// 



5. 0-6. 

4. 5-5. 5 
4. 0-5. 



IJ>. per cu. ft. 



101 110 
111 I2d 



100 
100 
100 
100 



100 
100 

95-100 
95-100 



85-95 
85-95 
20-40 
10-20 



0. 20-0. 63 
0. 20-0. 63 
0. 20-0. 63 
0. 63-6. 3 



16 


4. 


5- 


-5. 


5 


18 


4. 


5- 


-5. 


5 


15 


4. 


0- 


-4. 


5 


07 


4. 


0- 


-5. 






100 

100 

100 

100 
100 

90-100 



100 

100 
100 



95-100 
100 
100 



100 

100 

100 

100 
100 

90-100 



100 

100 
95-100 



90-100 
95-100 
100 



5-20 

0-10 

15-30 

25-50 
30-60 

10-20 



75-95 

85-100 
10-25 



0. 63-2. 

2. 0-6. 3 + 

0. 20-2. 

0. 63-2. 
0. 63-2. 

2. 0-6.3 + 



08 

05 

15 

15 
17 

08 



4. 0-5. 
4. 0-4. 5 
3. 5-4. 



4. 0-4. 5 
4. 0-4. 5 

4. 0-4. 5 



0. 20- 


-0. 


63 


0. 20- 


-0. 


63 


0. 63- 


_2. 






16 


4. 


5- 


-5. 





18 


4. 


0- 


-4. 


5 


08 


3. 


5- 


-4. 






30- 


-55 


0. 63- 


-2. 





35- 


-60 


0. 63- 


-2. 





10- 


-20 


0. 63- 


-6. 


3 



15 


4. 


5-5. 


17 


4. 


5-5.0 


08 


4. 


0-4.5 



101-110 
111-120 
101-110 



101-110 
91-100 
111-120 



111-120 + 
101-110 



101-110 
101-110 



111-120 + 
101-110 



Percent 



18 
I.'. 



Low. 

Moderate. 
Low. 



18 
15 
10 



10 
10 
15 



14 
10 



20 
12 



14 
12 



Low. 

Moderate. 

Low. 

Low. 



Low. 

Low. 

Low. 

Low. 
Low. 

Low. 



Low to 

moderate. 
Moderate. 
Low. 



Low. 
Low. 
Low. 



62 



SOIL SURVEY 



Table Descriptions oj the soils and 



Mapping unit 



Sassafras loam, 11) to 15 percent slopes, se- 
verely eroded. 
Sassafras loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent 

slopes. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 30 to 60 percent 

slopes. 

Swamp. 
Tidal marsh. 



Woodstown loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Woodstown loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Woodstown sandy loam, to 2 percent 

slopes. 

Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Woodstown sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Woodstown sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent 

slopes. 

Woodstown sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 



I >eseripl ion of soil and site 



Very wet soil material; generally ponded_ 



Saline soil materials; subject to tidal fluctu- 
ations. 

About 13 inches of loam or sandy loam, over 
20 inches of line sandy clay loam, over 
light sandy loam that is coarser textured 
with depth; moderately well drained; 
seasonally high water table at depth of 
about 2 feet. 



Depth 
from 
surface 



/lit Ik \' 



0-13 
13-34 

34-48 



( llassificat ion 



USDA textun 



Variable 

Variable 

Sandy loam or loam. 
Fine sandy clay loam 

Light sandy loam 



1 The properties are not shown in this table for Gravel and borrow pits (Gr) and Made land (Ma). 



only slightly eroded, but for some soils tlie decree of 
erosion, the content of gravel, and other items are 
indicated. 

The thickness of the soil horizons varies somewhat 
from place to place. The thickness and other properties 
described in table 10 are those that actually exist in a 
specific profile of the soil described ; they are not an 
average obtained from a number of profiles. If a soil 
is severely eroded, little if any of the original surface 
layer remains, and the underlying horizons are closer to 
the surface than is indicated in the table. 

The rate indicated for permeability is the rate that 
water moves through undisturbed soil material. It 
depends largely on the texture and the structure of the 
soil. Compaction sharply reduces permeability. 

Maximum dry density is the greatest amount of soil 
that can be compacted into any unit of volume. It is 
expressed as pounds of soil per cubic foot. Optimum 
moisture is the moisture content at which the maximum 
dry density of a soil can be obtained by compaction. 
For any one soil material for a stated compactive effort. 



there is a specific optimum moisture, below and above 
which maximum density cannot be obtained. 

The shrink-swell potential indicates the volume change 
that can be expected when the content of soil moisture 
changes. It is estimated primarily on the basis of the 
amount and type of clay in a horizon. A soil with a high 
shrink-swell potential decreases sharply and significantly 
in volume when it is dried, or conversely, increases 
sharply and significantly in volume when it is thoroughly 
wet. Generally, soils classified as CH and A-7 have a 
high shrink-swell potential. Very sandy soils that con- 
tain little clay have low shrink-swell potential, and they 
shrink and swell very little, if at all. 

Soil interpretations for engineering 

Table 11 lists estimated suitability ratings of soils for 
various uses or operations in engineering. Each soil in 
the county is rated as to its suitability for earthwork, 
both when the soil is wet and when it is frozen in winter. 
Also estimated for each series are ratings for the suscepti- 
bility to frost action; and the potential corrosion on 



QUEEN ANNUS COUNTY, MARYLAND V)'.i 



estimates of their properties — Continued 



Classification - ■( !ontinued 


Percentage passing sieve — 


Range in 
permeability 


Available 
moisture 
capacity 


React ion 


Maximum 
dry 
density 


Opt mi ii m 

moist lire 


8 brink-swell 

potent ial 


Unified 


AASHO 


No. 4 


No. 10 


No. 200 












Inches per hour 


Inches per 
inch of soil 


pi i 


Lb, per cu. ft. 


Percent 


Low. 
Low. 

Low. 






















SM or ML.. 
SC or CL.._ 

SM, SC, or 
ML. 


A-4 


100 
100 

100 


100 
100 

100 


40-75 
40-75 

35-50 


0. 63-2. 
0. 63-2. 

0. 63-2. 


0. 15 
. 17 

. 10 


4. 5-5. 
4. 0-4. 5 

4. 0-4. 5 






A-2, A-4, 
or A-6. 
A-2 or A-4. 


111-120 + 
101-110 


14 
12 



pipes of steel and concrete. The last part of table 11 
rates each major horizon as a source of topsoil, sand, 
gravel, and road fill. 

Table 12 gives specific characteristics that affect the 
suitability of each soil for different kinds of engineering 
work. The interpretations are based on the information 
given in tables 10 and 11, on test data given in table 13, 
and on the experiences of engineers in the field. The 
features listed are those that affect suitability of the soils 
for pipelines, roads, or highways ; ponds or reservoirs ; 
dikes, levees, dams, and other embankments; drainage 
systems; irrigation practices; terraces or diversions; and 
waterways. Shown in the last column of table 12 is the 
type of pond that is suited to the soils of each series. 

A soil that is suitable for one engineering purpose may 
be poor or even unsuitable for some other use. For 
example, Bayboro silt loam is well suited as a site for a 
reservoir but is unsuitable as a source of sand. On the 
other hand, the Galestown soils are a good source of sand, 
but they generally are not suitable for a reservoir site, 
because they are subject to excessive seepage. 

795-646—66 5 



Table 12 indicates both the good and the undesirable 
features of a soil that may require special consideration 
before a structure is planned, designed, and constructed. 
A subsoil of fine silty clay or clay, such as that in the 
Bayboro soils, has characteristics that make it poor for 
an embankment or dam. Such a subsoil is unstable and 
highly erodible and cannot be contacted to a A-ery high 
density. Because the subsoil material is very slowly 
permeable, however, it may be suitable as a core of a dam, 
used to reduce seepage. Fine texture and slow perme- 
ability in a subsoil increase the difficulty of providing 
adequate drainage for such soils, and they limit the 
suitability of the soils for irrigation. 

The choice of a soil suitable for laying a pipeline is 
determined primarily by the natural stability of the soil 
and by the height and seasonal fluctuation of the water 
table. If the water table is high, laying a line for sewer, 
water, or gas in wet soils is difficult and frustrating 
because ditchbanks are likely to collapse. In some soils 
the banks are unstable even where the water table is not 
high. 



64 



SOIL SURVEY 



Table LI.- — Interpretation* of 



Soil scries and map symbols 1 



Suitability for earth work when soil is — 



Wet 



Frozen 



Susceptibility to 
frost action 



Bayboro (Ba) 

Bertie (BoA, BoB2). 

Bibb (Bp) 

Bladen (Bt) 



Butlertown (BuA, BuB2, BuC2, BuC3). 



Coastal beaches (Cb) 

Downer (DoA, DoB, DoC, DoC3, DoD, DoD3, DoE). 

Elkton (Ek, EnA, En B2, OeC2)_. 

Fallsington (Fa A, FaB, Fd A, FdB) 



Galestown: 

(GaB, GaC, GcB). 



(GkD, GkE, GIC). 
Johnston (Jo) 



Keyport (KeA, KeB2, KpA, KpB2, KrC3, KrD3). 



Klej (KsA, KsB). 



Lakeland: 
(LaB, LaC). 



(GkD, GkE, GIC). 



Poor. 
Poor. 

Poor. 
Poor. 

Poor. 



Good. 
Good. 

Poor. 
Fair. . 



Good. 

Good. 
Poor. 



Poor. 



Fair to good. 



Matapeake: 

(MbA, MbB2, MbC2, MbC3, McA, McB2, McC2, McC3, MkA, 
MkB2, MkC2, MkC3, MmD, MmD3, MmE). 



(MoA, MoB2, MoC2, MoC3). 



Good. 
Poor. 



Poor. 



Not suitable . 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable . 

Not suitable. 



Good. 
Fair.. 



Not suitable. 
Poor 



Good. 



Good 

Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 



Fair. 



Good Good 



Good. 
Poor- 



Poor. 



Severe. 
Severe. 

Severe- 
Severe. 

Severe. 

None. . 
Slight.. 



Severe. 
Severe. 

Slight.. 



Slight.. 
Severe. 

Severe. 



Moderate. 



Slight. 



Slight-- 
Moderate. 

Moderate. 



See footnotes at end of table. 



Q UK ION ANNIOS COUNTY, MAIi VI. AND 



or, 



engineering properties oj the soils 



( Corrosion potential on pipes 
Steel Concrete 



High.. 
High 



High. 

High. 



Moderate. 



High. 
Low. 



High. 
High. 

Low.. 



Low. . 
High. 

High. 

Low.. 



Low. 

Low. 
Low- 

Low. 



High. 



High. 



High. 



High. 



Moderat < 



High. 
High. 



High. 
High. 

High. 

High. 
High. 

High. 

High. 

High. 



High.. 
Moderate. 

Moderate. 



I lepth 

from 
surface 



Inches 

0-12 
12 50 

0-15 

15- 34 
j34-60 

0-37 
37-50 

0-11 
11-44 

44-60 

0-10 

10- 49 
49-60 

0-60 

0-18 
18-32 

32- 42 
42-60 

0-7 
7-60 

0-16 

16- 35 
35-50 + 

0-39 
39-55 
55-60 ? 

0-39 
39-72 

0-30 
30-41 
41-50 

0-9 
9-35 
35-55 

0-39 
39-47 
47-55 

0-33 

33- 58 
58-66 

0-33 
33-72 

0-11 

11- 32 
32-37 
37-50 

0-16 
16-55 
55-72 



Topsoil 1 



Good 3 

Not suitable . 
Good 

Not suitable 
Not suitable . 



Pair to good. 

Not suitable. 



Poor 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Good 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 



Not suitable. 

Fair 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 



Poor to fair.. 
Not suitable. 

Pair to good. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Fair 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable _ 



Fair 

Not suitable. 

Good 3 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable . 



Fair 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Fair 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 



Fair 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Fair 

Not suitable. 



Good 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Good 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 



Suitability as source of 



Sand 



Not suitable 
Not suitable 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Fair 



Not suitable 
Not suitable 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 



Good. 



Poor 

Not suitable. 
Fair 



Not suitable Good 



Not suitable. 
Not suitable _ 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Good 



Good 

Good 

Not suitable. 



Good. 
Good. 



Not suitable. 

Fair 

Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Fair 

Good 

Not suitable. 



Good 

Good 

Not suitable. 



Good. 
Good. 



Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Fair 



Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 



Gravel 



\mi suitable 
Not suitable 

Not suital »le 
Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable 



Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable . 

Not suitable . 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 



Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Fair 



Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Not Suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 



Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 



Pond fill 



Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 

Poor. 

Fair. 

Poor. 

Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Poor. 

Not suitable. 

Fair. 

Fair. 

Poor. 

Poor. 
Good. 
Fair. 
Poor. 

Not suitable. 
Poor. 

Not suitable. 

Good. 

Fair. 

Poor. 
Poor. 
Good. 

Poor. 
Poor. 

Not suitable. 

Poor. 

Fair. 

Not suitable. 

Poor. 

Poor. 

Poor. 
Poor. 
Good. 

Poor. 
Poor. 
Good. 

Poor. 
Poor. 

Not suitable. 
Fair. 
Good. 
Good. 

Not suitable. 

Fair. 

Fair. 



6G 



SOIL SURVEY 



Table 11. — Interpretations <>j engineering 



Soil series ami map symbols 



Mattapex (MpA, MpB2, MsA, MsB2, MsC2, MsC3, MtA, MtB2, MtC2, 
MtC3, MxD, MxD3, MxE). 



Othello (BoA, BoB2, ObA, ObB2, OeC2) 



Fluinmer (Pel) . 



Pocomoke (Pk, Pm). 



Portsmouth (Po) . 



Sassafras (SaA, SaB2, SaC2, SaC3, SaD2, SaD3, SaE, SfA, SfB2, SfC2, 
SfC3, SfD2, SfD3, SfE, SfE3, SfF). 



Woodstown (WdA, WdB2, WoA, WoB2, WoC2, WoD, WoE). 



Suitability for earthwork when soil is- 



Wct 



Poor. 



Poor. 



c;,,o,i 



Poor. 



Poor_ 



Fair. 



Fair. 



Frozen 



Poor. 



Poor. 



Fair. 



Not suitable. 



Not suitable. 



Susceptibility to 
frost action 



Severe. 



Severe. 



Severe . 



Severe . 



Severe. 



Fail'. 



I'' >i ir 



Moderate. 



Severe. 



1 Mapping units not listed in this table are Gravel and borrow 
pits (Gr), Made land (Ma), Mixed alluvial land (My), Swamp (Sw), 
and Tidal marsh (Tm). 

The choice of a soil for building roads or highways 
is affected primarily by soil texture; b}' the height of the 
water table and its fluctuations; by the hazard of flood- 
ing; by the stability of the soil materials, particularly 
under heavy load or pressure; and by the expected 
severity of frost action. 

The choice of a soil for a pond or a reservoir depends 
largely on the amount or rate of seepage that can be 
expected, particularly at the bottom of the reservoir. The 
amount of seepage depends on whether the reservoir 
floor consists of subsoil material or substratum material, 
for these layers may differ greatly in seepage character- 
istics. The most nearly ideal soil material for a reservoir 
floor is one that has slow seepage and has a high water 
table. Also desirable is a constant and reliable source of 
water from the ground water, from impounded runoff, 
or from a stream. Such a source is especially necessary 
if seepage or other losses are rapid. 

Stability, erodibility, and the probable maximum den- 
sity of soil material strongly affect the choice of a soil 
for building dikes, levees, dams, or other embankments. 
The maximum density to which soil material can be 
compacted in a dam or fill particularly affects the 
strength of the dam and the permeability, or the rate, at 
which water passes through it. All earth dams allow 
some seepage, but in most places it is desirable to keep 
such seepage to a minimum. Generally, soils that can be 
compacted to the highest maximum dry density, in 
pounds per cubic foot, have not only the least seepage 



2 Rating for topsoil is given for the surface layer only, or to an 
average depth of 10 inches, whichever is less. All severely eroded 
areas are unsuitable as a source of topsoil. 

losses but also the greatest stability. Soils in which the 
greatest maximum density can be obtained when com- 
pacted by ordinary methods are those that contain well- 
graded sands of various sizes and sufficient fine material 
to fill all voids between sand grains. A well-graded soil 
is one that has particles well distributed over a wide 
range in size or diameter. Such a soil can be easily 
increased in density and bearing properties by com- 
paction. 

The ease or difficulty with which a soil can be drained 
artificially is determined mainly by the permeability of 
the least permeable layer, which normally is the subsoil ; 
by the height and fluctuation of the water table; and by 
the erodibility of the bottom and banks of ditches and 
canals. 

Features that affect the kind and design of an irriga- 
tion system are the rate that applied water infiltrates the 
soil, the capacity of the soil to retain moisture, and the 
degree of natural drainage. Soils that have impeded 
drainage should be thoroughly drained before the irriga- 
tion system is installed. 

The stability and erodibility of the surface layer of a 
soil are of special concern in planning and designing 
terraces and diversions. These features, as well as the 
water-holding capacity and the natural fertility of the 
surface soil, strongly influence the design of waterways 
through fields and the kinds of grasses or other vegeta- 
tion needed for sodding the waterways. 

Two types of small ponds are common in this county — 



QUKKX ANiN'KS COUNTY, MAI! VI. AN IJ 



07 



properties of the soils — Contimu 



( !orrosion potential on pipes 



Steel 



( loncrete 



Depth 

from 

surface 



Suitability as sourer of 



Topsoil 2 



Sand 



( travel 



Road fill 



High 



High. 



High. 



High. 



High. 



Lo\v_ 



Moderate- 



High 



High. 



High. 



High. 



High. 



High. 



High. 



0-15 
15-36 
:;<; no 

0-9 
9-2!) 
•29- :; i 
:il is 

0-28 
2S If, 
46-60 

0-14 
14-26 
26-53 

0-11 
11-37 
37-48 

0-14 
14-43 
43-50 

0-13 
13-34 
34-48 



Good 

Not suitable 
Not suitable 

Fair. 

Not Suit able 

Not suitable 

Not suit able 

Poor 

Not suitable 
Not suitable 

Good 3 

Not suitable 
Not suitable 

Good 3 

Not suitable 
Not suitable 

Good 

Not suitable 
Not suitable 

Good 

Not suitable 
Not suitable 



Not suitable 
Not suitable 
Fair.. 

Not suitable 
Not suitable 

Fair 

Fair 

Fair 

Good 

Not suit able 

Not suit able 
Not suitable 
Good 

Not suitable 
Not suitable 
Fair 

Not suitable 
Not suitable 
Fair 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Fair 



Not suitable 
Not suitable 
Not suitable 

Not suitable 
Not suitable 
Not suitable 
Not suitable 

Not suitable 
No1 suitable 
Not suitable 

Not suitable 
Not suitable 
Not suitable 

Not suitable 
Not suitable 
Not suitable 

Not suitable 
Not suitable 
Not suitable 

Not suitable 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 



Not suitable. 

lair. 

Good. 

Not suitable. 
Poor. 
Fair. 
Poor. 

Poor. 
Poor. 

Fair to good. 

Not suitable. 

Good. 

Poor. 

Not suit able. 

Poor. 
Poor. 

Not suitable. 

Good. 

Fair. 

Not suitable. 

Good. 

Fair. 



3 Surface layer contains a large or very large amount of organic 
matter. Rating applies only where such topsoil is desirable. 



the excavated and the impounded. An excavated pond 
is one that is dug out of the natural terrain. The Bay- 
boro soils are suitable for excavated small ponds under 
almost all conditions, for they have a high water table 
and are subject to only small loss through seepage 
because their subsoil and substratum are fine textured and 
clayey. The Portsmouth and other soils also have a 
naturally high water table and a subsoil that has slow 
seepage. But if all or most of the subsoil is removed 
from these soils for a pond and the sandy substratum is 
penetrated, severe seepage can be expected in periods 
when the water table falls. 

On soils that do not have a high water table, water 
for ponds normally is impounded by constructing a small 
dam across a drainageway. Some soils in the county are 
suited to either excavated or impounded ponds, and 
others are suited to a combination of the two types. 
Figure 20 shows a small impounded pond. 

The interpretations in tables 10, 11, and 12 are general, 
but they point out what the engineer can expect to find 
in any area of a soil that is shown on the detailed soil 
map. However, the interpretations do not give exact 
soil properties and evaluations at the precise point where 
an engineering project may be planned. 

Soil test data 

Table 13 shows test data for soil samples taken from 
fourteen profiles representing soils of five different series. 
The tests were performed by the Bureau of Public Roads. 



The table shows the depth to which each profile was 
sampled and, for each sample, the standard horizon 
designation, the mechanical analysis, the liquid limit, and 
the plasticity index. In the last two columns of the table 
are the classifications of the samples both for the AASHO 
and the Unified systems. 




HI 



1 



Figure 20. — Small impounded pond. 




(iS 



SOIL SURVEY 



Table 12. — Soil characteristics 



Soil series and map symbols 1 



Bayboro (Ba) . 



Bertie (BoA, BoB2). 



Bibb (Bp) 



Bladen (Bt). 



Butlertown (BuA, BuB2, 
BuC2, BuC3). 

Coastal beaches (Cb) 



Downer (DoA, DoB, DoC, 
DoC3, DoD, DoD3, DoE). 

Elkton (Ek, EnA, En B2, 
OeC2). 

Fallsington (Fa A, FaB, Fd A, 
FdB). 



Galestown (GaB, GaC, GcB, 
GkD, GkE, GIC). 



Johnston (Jo) . 



Keyport (KeA, KeB2, KpA, 
KpB2, KrC3, KrD3). 

Klej (KsA, KsB) 



Features thai affect suitability of the soils for — - 



Lakeland (LaB, LaC, GkD, 
GkE, GIC). 

Matapeake: 

(MbA, MbB2, MbC2, 
MbC3, McA, McB2, 
McC2, McC3, M k A, 
MkB2, MkC2, MkC3, 
MmD, MmD3, MmE). 
(MoA, MoB2, MoC2, 
MoC3). 

Mattapex (MpA, MpB2, 

MsA; MsB2, MsC2, MsC3, 
MtA, MtB2, MtC2, MtC3, 
MxD, MxD3, MxE). 

Othello (BoA, BoB2, ObA, 
ObB2, OeC2). 



See footnotes at end of table. 



Pipelines 



0- 2 feet to water 
table; very poor 
stability ; subject to 
ponding. 

1- 4 feet to water 
table; poor stability. 



3 feet to water 
table, pooi- si abilil y. 



0-3 feet to water 
table; very poor 
stability. 

2-5+ feet to water 
table; fair stability. 

Fluctuating, saline 
water table; loose; 
poor stability. 

8+ feet to water table; 
fair stability. 

3 feet to water 

table; poor stability. 

0-3 feet to water 
table; fair to good 
stability. 



-(-feet to water table; 
fair stability. 



0-2 feet to water table; 
poor stability. 

2-4+ feet to water 
table; fair stability. 

2-4+ feet to water 
table; fair stability. 

8+ feet to water table; 
fair stability. 



5+ feet to water table; 
fair stability. 



8+ feet to water table; 
fair stability. 

2-4+ feet to water 
table; fair stability. 



0-3 feet to water table; 
poor stability. 



Roads or highways 



High water table; very 
poor stability; severe 
frost action. 

Water table; poor 
stability; severe frost 
action. 

Water table; flood 

hazard; poor stability; 
severe frost action. 



Water table; very poor 
stability; severe frost 
action. 

Water table; fair sta- 
bility; severe frost 
action. 

\\ a I er table ; tidal 
hazard; loose; poor 
stability. 

Fair stability; slight 
frost action. 

Water table; poor 

stability; severe frost 

action. 
Water table; fair to 

good stability; severe 

frost action. 



Fair stability; no or 
slight frost action. 



Water table; flood haz 7 
ard; poor stability; 
severe frost action. 

Water table; fair stabil- 
ity; severe frost action. 

Water table; fair st abil- 
ity; moderate frost 
action. 

Fair stability; no or 
slight frost action. 



Fair stability; moderate 
frost action. 



Fair stability; moderate 
frost action. 

Water table; fair stabil- 
ity; severe frost action. 



Water table; poor stabil- 
ity; severe frost action. 



Ponds or reservoirs 



Very slow seepage. 



Slow seepage in sub- 
soil; moderate seep- 
age in substratum. 

Moderate seepage in 
subsoil; very slow 
seepage in substra- 
t urn; constant 
water source. 

Very slow seepage 



Slow seepage in sub- 
soil; moderate seep- 
age in substratum. 

Excessive seepage 



Moderate subsoil seep- 
age; excessive sub- 
stratum seepage. 

Low to very low seep- 
age. 

Moderate subsoil 
seepage; high sub- 
stratum seepage. 

High to excessive 
seepage. 

Moderate seepage; 
constant water 
source. 

Low to very low- 
seepage. 

High seepage 



Rapid to excessive 
seepage. 

Moderate seepage - 



Moderate seepage. 



Moderate seepage in 
subsoil; rapid seepage 
in substratum. 



Slow seepage in sub- 
soil; rapid seepage in 
substratum. 



Dikes, levees, and 
embankments a 



Very poor stability; 
highly erodible; low 
maximum density. 

Poor stability; highly 
erodible; medium to 
high maximum densil y. 

Poor stability; moder- 
ately erodible; medium 
to low maximum 
density. 

Very poor stability; 

moderately erodible; 

low maximum density. 
Fair stability; highly 

erodible; medium 

maximum density. 
Poor stability; easily 

wind eroded; medium 

maximum density; 

highly porous. 
Fair stability; high to 

low maximum density. 

Poor stability; highly 
erodible; low maxi- 
mum density. 

Fair to good stability; 
moderat ely erodible; 
high to medium 
maximum density. 

Fair stability; easily wind 
eroded; medium to low 
maximum density; 
loose. 

Poor stability; moder- 
ately erodible; medium 
maximum density. 

Fair stability; highly 
erodible; low maximum 
density. 

Fair stability; medium 
to low maximum 
density. 

Fair stability; easily wind 
eroded; medium to low 
maximum density. 

Fair stability; moder- 
ately erodible; medium 
to high maximum 
density. 

Fair stability; highly 
erodible; medium 
maximum density. 

Fair stability; highly 
erodible; medium to 
high maximum density. 



Poor stability; moder- 
ately erodible; medium 
to high maximum 
density. 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 



that affect engine* rinij practices 



Features Hint allcct suilabilit v of the soils for Continued 



I >minnge systems 



Slowly permeable; 
highly erodible. 



Moderately slowly per- 
meable; highly erodible. 



Slowly permeable; mod- 
erately erodible. 



Slowly permeable; mod- 
erately erodible. 

Slowly permeable; 
highly erodible. 

Not needed 



Not needed 



Slowly permeable; highly 
erodible. 

Moderately permeable; 
moderately erodible. 



Not needed 



Moderately permeable; 
moderately erodible. 

Slowly permeable; highly 
erodible. 

Moderately rapidly 
permeable 

Not needed 



Not needed 



Not needed 



Moderately slowly 
permeable; highly 
erodible. 



Moderately slowly 

permeable; moderately 
erodible. 



Irrigation 



High moisture capacity; 
very slow infiltration; 
very poor drainage. 

High moisture capacity; 
slow infiltration; 
somewhat poor drain- 
age. 

High moisture capacity; 
moderate infiltration; 
poor drainage. 



High moisture capacity; 
very slow infiltration; 
poor drainage. 

High moisture capacity; 
slow infiltration; im- 
peded drainage. 

Extremely low moisture 
capacity; extremely 
rapid infiltration. 

Low moisture capacity; 
rapid infiltration. 

High moisture capacity; 

slow infiltration; poor 

drainage. 
Moderate moisture 

capacity ; moderate 

infiltration; poor 

drainage. 

Very low moisture capac- 
ity; rapid infiltration. 



High moisture capacity; 

moderate infiltration; 

vei'3 r poor drainage. 
High moisture capacity ; 

slow infiltration ; 

impeded drainage. 
Low moisture capacity; 

rapid infiltration; 

impeded drainage. 
Very low moisture capac- 
ity; rapid infiltration. 



High moisture capacity; 
moderate infiltration. 



Very high moisture ca- 
pacity; moderate 
infiltration. 

High moisture capacity ; 
moderate infiltration; 
mpeded drainage. 



High moisture capacity; 
moderate infiltration ; 
poor drainage. 



Terraces or diversions 



Highly erodible; very poor 
stability. 



Highly erodible; poor 
stability. 



Moderately erodible ; 
poor stability. 



Moderately erodible; 
very poor stability. 

Highly erodible; fair 
stability. 

Easily wind eroded; 
poor stability. 



Fair stability 



Highly erodible; poor 
stability. 

Moderately erodible; 
fair to good stability. 



Easily wind eroded; fair 
stability. 



Moderately erodible; 
poor stability. 

Highly erodible; fair 
stability. 

Fair stability 



Easily wind eroded; fair 
stability. 



Moderately erodible; fail- 
stability . 



Highly erodible; fair 
stability. 

Highly erodible; fair 
stability. 



Moderately erodible; 
poor stability. 



Waterways 1 



High moisture capacity; 

moderate fertility. 



High moisture capacity; 

modem le fel l i li I y . 



High moisture capacity; 
low fertility. 



High moisture capacity; 
low fertility. 

High moisture capacity; 
moderate fertility. 

Extremely low moisture 
capacity and fertility. 



Low moisture capacity; 
low fertility. 

Higli moisture capacity; 
low fertility. 

Moderate moisture 
capacity; low fertility. 



Very low moisture capac- 
ity; low fertility. 



High moisture capacity; 
moderate fertility. 

High moisture capacity; 
low- fertility. 

Low moisture capacity; 
low fertility. 

Very low moisture capac- 
ity; low fertility. 



High moisture capacity ; 
moderate fertility. 



Very high moisture capac- 
ity; moderate fertility. 

High moisture capacity; 
moderate fertility. 



High moisture capacity : 
moderate fertility. 



Suitable I ype of pond 



Excavated or im- 
pounded. 



Excavated or im 
pounded.* 



Impounded and ex- 
cavated. 



Excavated and im- 
pounded. 

Impounded. 

Tidal water develop- 
ments only. 



Impounded/ 



Excavated or im- 
pounded. 

Excavated and im- 
pounded. 4 



Impounded. 



Impounded and 
excavated. 

Impounded and 
excavated. 

Excavated and 
impounded. 4 

Impounded. 5 



Impounded. 



Impounded. 



Impounded and 
excavated. 4 



Excavated and 
impounded. 



70 SOIL SURVEY 



Table 12. — Soil characteristics that affect 



Soil series and map symbols 1 


Features that affect suitability of the soils for — 


Pipelines 


Roads or highways 


Ponds or reservoirs 


Dikes, level's, and 
embankments 2 


Plummcr (Pd) - - 

Pocomoke (Pk, Pm) 

Portsmouth (Po) 

Sassafras (SaA, SaB2, SaC2, 
SaC3, SaD2, SaD3, SaE, 
SfA, SfB2, SfC2, SfC3, 
SfD2, SfD3, SfE, SfE3, 
SfF). 

Woodstown (WdA, WdB2, 
WoA, WoB2, WoC2, WoD, 
WoE). 


0-3 feet to water table; 
poor stability. 

0-3 feet to water table; 
poor stability; sub- 
ject to ponding. 

0-3 feet to water table; 
poor stability; sub- 
ject to ponding. 

8+ feet to water table; 
good stability. 

2-4 + feet to water 
table; good stability. 


Water table; poor stabil- 
ity; severe frost action. 

\\ :ii er i able; fair -I .-il 'il- 
ity; severe frost action. 

Water table; poor sta- 
bility; severe frost 
action. 

Good stability; moderate 
frost action. 

Water table; good sta- 
bility; severe frost 
action. 


Rapid to very rapid 
seepage. 

Moderate seepage in 
subsoil; rapid seep- 
age in substratum. 

Slow seepage in sub- 
soil; rapid seepage 
in substratum. 

Moderate seepage in 
subsoil; rapid seep- 
age in substratum. 

Moderate seepage. . 


Poor stability; medium 
to low maximum 
density. 

Fair stability; moder- 
ately erodible; high to 
medium maximum 
density. 

Poor stability; moder- 
ately erodible; high to 
medium maximum 
density. 

Good stability; moder- 
ately erodible; high to 
medium maximum 
density. 

Good stability; moder- 
ately erodible; high to 
medium maximum 
density. 



1 Not listed in this table are Gravel and borrow pits, Made land, the rating applies to both. It is assumed that if the surface layer 
Mixed alluvial land, Swamp, and Tidal marsh. contains appreciable organic matter, the soil will not be used for 

2 Where two ratings are given for maximum density, the first dikes, levees, and embankments. 

applies to the subsoil and the second to the substratum; otherwise 3 Features listed are for surface layer only. 



The test to determine liquid limit and plastic limit 
measures the effect of water on the consistence of the soil 
material. As the moisture content of a clayey soil 
increases from a very dry state, the material changes 
from a semisolid to a plastic state. As the moisture 
content is further increased, the material changes from 
a plastic to a liquid state. The plastic limit is the mois- 
ture content at which the material passes from a semi- 
solid to a plastic state. The liquid limit is the moisture 
content at which the material passes from a plastic to a 
liquid state. The plasticity index is the numerical differ- 
ence between the liquid limit and the plastic limit. It 
indicates the range of moisture content within which 
soil material is in a plastic condition. 

Drainage groups of soils 

In this subsection the soils of the county that require 
artificial drainage are grouped according to similarity in 
drainage requirements. As a rule, all the soils in a 
particular group have similar characteristics and about 
the same kind of drainage problems. Each group differs 
from the others mainly in the kind and intensity of the 
drainage practices required. Table 14 lists the soils in 
16 drainage groups; describes the major drainage prob- 
lems for each group; and, according to slope, indicates 
the best kind of drainage system to use. The information 
in this table was taken from "Drainage Guide for Mary- 
land, Coastal Plain" (11). 

Table 14 is not intended as a technical guide to solving 
all the drainage problems in the county. It does, however, 
show the farmer and the drainage engineer the kinds of 
problems to be expected and the kinds of practices needed 
on soils that require drainage. For a particular field, 



farm, or other area, the details of a proposed drainage 
system should be worked out on the site. 

Some areas that are nearly level and sloping can be 
drained by using open ditches in the nearly level places 
and diversions on the stronger slopes. For other areas, 
open field drains or V-type ditches may be suitable and 
bedding may be desirable, especially between V-type 
ditches. Bedding consists of plowing or otherwise ele- 




Figure 21. — Laying tile by machine in a field near Church Hill. 
Target pole on the left is one of several in a row used as a guide in 
setting the tile line. 



QUKEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 



71 



engineerin g practices — C< mtinued 



Features thiit affect suitability of the soils for — Continued 



I )rainage systems 



I rriga I ion 



Terraces or di versions 



Water ways 1 



Suitable type of pond 



Moderately rapidly or 
rapidly permeable. 

Moderately permeable; 
moderately erodible. 



Moderately slowly per- 
meable; moderately 
erodible. 

Not needed 



Moderately permeable ; 
moderately erodible. 



Very low moist ure capac- 
ity; rapid infill rat ion ; 
poor drainage. 

Moderate moist lire ca- 
pacity; moderate infil- 
i rat ion ; poor drainage. 



Moderate moist ure 
capacity; slow infiltra- 
tion; poor drainage. 

Moderate moist ure 
capacity; moderate 
infiltration. 



Moderate moisture 
capacity; moderate 
infiltration. 



Poor stability 



Moderately erodible; fair 
st abilil v. 



Moderately erodible; 
poor stability. 



Moderately erodible; 
good stability. 



Moderately erodible; 
good stability. 



Very low moisture capac- 
ity; very low fertility. 

Moderate moisture ca- 
pacity; moderate 
fertility. 



Moderate moist ure 
capacity; moderate 
fertility. 

Moderate moist ure 
capacity; moderate 
fertility. 



Moderat e moisture 
capacity; moderate 
fertility. 



Excavated. 



Excavated and 
impounded. 4 



Excavated and im- 
pounded. 4 

Impounded. 5 



Excavated and 
impounded. 



4 Excavated ponds on these soils generally hold water only to the 
level of the natural water table, which fluctuates and is low during 
long dry periods. The water can be kept at a higher level by using 
impoundments wherever feasible, but such impounded ponds may 



need sealing to maintain the desired level, particularly if the pond 
is dug into porous substratum materials. 

5 Ponds on these soils almost invariably need artificial treatment 
that seals them against excessive water losses. Sealing may also 
be needed on other soils in the county if local conditions require it. 



vating the soil into beds between the drains or ditches. 
Some areas can be drained by using a random system of 
tiling, that is, one in which the tile is laid in natural 
watercourses and extra branch lines are laid in other wet 
areas as needed. In other areas, where the soils are too 
w r et for random tiling, a complete system of tile drainage 
is needed, and the tile is laid in a definite pattern through- 
out the wet area (fig. 21). Choosing the kind of drainage 
system to use depends partly on cost. Draining some 
soils is too costly to be justified. 

In areas to be drained by ditching, the kind and depth 
of soil and the characteristics of the underlying material 
must be considered. The Plummer, Fallsington (fig. 22), 
Pocomoke, and other fairly shallow soils underlain by 
loose sand are not well suited to ditches. Water loosens 
the sand and causes it to scour the ditches in some places 
and to clog them in others. In the Elkton (fig. 23), 
Bayboro, and other deep, coherent soils, ditching is more 
suitable because the ditches are less readily clogged and 
are more easily maintained. 

In cultivated areas a network of small lateral ditches 
can be used to remove excess water. From the lateral 
ditches, water flows into larger ditches and then into a 
natural drainageway or a canal. The number of lateral 
ditches needed depends partly on soil texture, the degree 
of wetness, and the kind of crop to be grown, but mainly 
on permeability of the plow layer and the subsoil. For 
example, draining the Woodstown soils generally takes 
only a few widely spaced lateral ditches, but draining 
the Elkton soils requires laterals that are much more 
closely spaced. 

Many farmers "land" the soils by using a plow or other 
tool to build a low ridge midway between lateral ditches. 

795-046—60 6 



The sides of the ridge slope gradually toward the adja- 
cent ditch. This practice is especially effective in areas of 
very wet soils, such as the Bayboro, Bibb, Elkton, Fall- 
sington, Johnston, Othello, Plummer, Pocomoke, and 
Portsmouth soils. 

In areas where tile drainage is used, the characteristics 
of the soil and the gradient of the slope largely determine 




Figure 22. — A main field ditch that is used as an outlet for lateral 
tile lines draining an area of Fallsington sandy loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. Sand is sloughing from the banks and starting to choke up 

the ditch. 



72 



SOIL SURVEY 



Table 13. — Engineering test data for soil 

[Tests performed by Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) in accordance with standard 



Soil name and location 



BPE 
report 
number 



Depth 



Horizon 



Mechanical analyses 1 



Percentage passing sieve 



No. 4 
(4.7 mm.) 



Bayboro silt loam, modal: 

iy 2 miles north of Templeville and east of Bear Pond Road. 



Bayboro silt loam, sandy (' variant: 

\Yi miles north of Templeville on Bear Pond Road. 



Butlertown silt loam, modal: 

1% miles north-northeast of Wye Mills. 



Butlertown silt loam, sandy C variant: 

One-eighth mile southwest of U.S. Highway No. 50 on 
Carmichael Road. 



Butlertown silt loam, light variant : 
2}/2 miles east of Centreville. 



Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, modal: 

150 yards south of Bloomingdale Road, miles east of U.S. 
Highway No. 50. 



Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, thin solum variant : 
On U.S. Highway No. 213, one-fourth mile south of U.S. 
Highway No. 301. 



Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, sandy C variant: 

On U.S. Highway No. 213, one-eighth mile north of U.S. High- 
way No. 301 . ' 



Sassafras sandy loam, modal: 

75 feet south of DeCoursey Road, one-fourth mile southwest 
of Wye Island Road. 



Sassafras sandy loam, brittle C variant: 
1 mile southwest of Church Hill. 



Sassafras sandy loam, porous subsoil variant (Greenwich) : 
2 miles east of Kingstown, on Roundtop Road. 



Woodstown sandy loam, modal: 

One-half mile west of McGinnes on McGinnes Road. 



S-38880 
s ;:sssi 

S-38882 



S-38883 
S-38885 
S-38884 



s :;ssst; 
s :;nnn7 
S-38888 



S-:;\svi 
S-38890 
S-38891 



S-39194 
S-39195 
S-39196 



S-39197 
S-39198 
S-39199 



S-39203 
S-39204 
S-39205 



S-39200 
S-39201 
S-39202 



S-38892 
S-38893 
S-38894 
S-38895 



S-39206 
S-39207 
S-39208 



S-39209 
S-39210 
S-39211 



S-39212 
S-39213 
S-39214 



Inches 

0-12 
17-33 
33-50 



0-13 
20-32 
32 t:> 



0-10 
16-34 
34-49 



0-10 
1(5-32 
32 is 



18-32 
32-47 
47-60 



0-11 
26-43 
43-55 



0-10 
22-35 
35-50 



0-9 
26-43 
43-50 



2-14 
20-31 
31-43 
43-50 



8-16 
20-35 
35-42 



0-10 
20-32 
32-48 



13-21 
21-34 
34-48 



Al 

B2tg 
Cg 



Al 

B2tg 
Cg 



Ap 

B2t 

Bx 



Ap 

B2t 

Bx 



B2t 

Bx 

C 



Ap 

B22t 

B23 



Ap 
I {221 
C 



Ap 
R221 

C 



A2 
B21t 
B22t 
C 



A2 

B2t 

Cx 



Ap 

B22t 

C 



B21t 
B22t 
Cg 



* 98 
100 



96 
99 



100 



98 



See footnotes at end of table. 



O. UK K.N ANNKS COUNTY, M A It Y LAN I) 



73 



samples taken from fourteen soil profiles 

procedures of the American Association of Slate Highway Officials (AASIIO) 



Mechanical analyses 1 — Continued 


Liquid 
limit 


Plasticity 
index 


< 'las-ifical ion 


Percentage passing 
sieve — Continued 


1 


ercentage smaller than 




AASIIO 


Unified* 


No. it) 
(0.42 mm.) 


No. 200 
(0.074 mm.) 


0.05 mm. 


0.02 nun. 


0.005 mm. 


0.002 mm. 


99 


97 


96 


74 


41 


27 


59 


13 


A-7-5(13) 


Mil or OH. 




100 


98 


77 


44 


34 


43 


18 


A-7-6(12)_. ... . 


M L-CL. 


99 


97 


95 


70 


37 


29 


41 


16 


A-7-6(ll). 


ML-CL. 


97 


90 


88 


62 


32 


20 


76 


12 


A-7-5(13) 


Mil or OH. 


98 


95 


93 


68 


32 


25 


34 


12 


A-6(9) 


ML-CL. 


91 


68 


65 


45 


21 


16 


24 


6 


A-4(7) 


MI^CL. 


98 


92 


90 


61 


24 


14 


30 


7 


A-4(8) 


ML-CL. 


99 


96 


94 


66 


33 


25 


33 


1 1 


A-6(8) . . ... 


ML-CL. 


99 


95 


93 


60 


27 


19 


32 


9 


A-4(8) 


ML-CL. 


96 


88 


85 


55 


22 


14 


30 


6 


A-4 (8) 


MI^CL. 


99 


96 


93 


66 


34 


25 


38 


14 


A-6 (10) 


M L-CL. 


96 


85 


83 


62 


32 


22 


31 


10 


A^ (8) 


ML-CL. 


99 


93 


90 


63 


33 


27 


39 


16 


A-6 (10) 


CL. 


97 


85 


83 


62 


32 


23 


32 


10 


A-4 (8). . . . 


ML-CL. 


95 


71 


69 


52 


27 


20 


27 


9 


A-4 (7) 


CL. 


99 


93 


90 


61 


27 


17 


29 


6 


A-4 (8) 


ML-CL. 


99 


96 


94 


67 


33 


26 


do 


13 


A-6 (9) 


ML-CL. 


99 


96 


94 


62 


29 


23 


33 


1 1 


A-6 (8) 


ML-CL. 


99 


94 


91 


62 


25 


16 


31 


6 


A-4 (8) 


ML. 


100 


98 


95 


68 


33 


28 


37 


14 


A-6 (10) 


ML-CL. 


100 


97 


94 


63 


28 


22 


30 


8 


A-4 (8) 


ML-CL. 


97 


80 


78 


55 


24 


17 


25 


6 


A-4 (8) 


ML-CL. 


97 


77 


75 


57 


28 


20 


28 


9 


A-4 (8) 


CL. 


93 


49 


46 


37 


20 


14 


19 





A-4(3) . . 


SM-SC. 


81 


55 


53 


37 


16 


9 


20 


4 


A-4 (4) 


ML-CL. 


84 


63 


61 


48 


29 


24 


36 


17 


A-6 (8) 


CL. 


82 


59 


56 


44 


25 


20 


a 


12 


A-6 (6) 


CL. 


o4 


la 


13 


1 Z 


1 u 


6 


3 Np 


3 np 


A-2-i(0) 


SM. 


78 


53 


51 


37 


19 


13 


21 


5 


A-4 (4) 


ML-CL. 


82 


63 


1 


48 


26 


91 


31 


13 


A-6C7) 


CL 


80 


49 


47 


34 


16 


12 


22 


7 


A-4 (3) 


SM-SC. 


75 


30 


29 


23 


14 


10 


18 


4 


A-2-4(0) 


SM-SC. 


64 


30 


30 


29 


27 


26 


47 


23 


A-2-7(2) 


SC. 


70 


14 


14 


12 


7 


6 


3 NP 


3 NP 


A-2-4(0) 


SM. 


94 


73 


71 


53 


29 


23 


30 


10 


A-4(8) 


CL. 


98 


75 


69 


46 


26 


22 


30 


9 


A-4 (8) 


ML-CL. 


75 


38 


35 


27 


18 


15 


24 


7 


A-4(l) 


SM-SC. 



74 SOIL SURVEY 



Table 13. — Engineering test data for soil samples 











Mechanical analyses 1 


Soil name and location 


BPR 
report 
number 


Depth 


Horizon 


Percentage passing sieve — 










3 A-in. 


No. 4 
(4.7 mm.) 


No. 10 
(2.0 mm.) 


Woodstown sandy loam, heavy variant: 

One-eighth mile southwest of Wye Island Road on north side of 
DeCoursey lload. 


S-38898 


Inches 
2-12 


A2 






100 




J Z—Zo 


r>Z I X> 






100 


S-38900 


23-35 


B22t 






100 


Woodstown sandy loam, sandy variant: 

One-fourth mile south of Perrey Church on Piney Neck Road. 


S-38896 


3-12 


A2 






100 


S-38897 


19-28 


B22I 






100 









'Mechanical analyses according to the AASIIO Designation fractions are calculated on the basis of all the material, including 

T 88-57. Results by this procedure frequently differ from results that coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. In the SCS soil sur- 

obtained by the soil survo\ |>nin dure of the Soil Conservation vey procedure, the fine material is analyzed by the pipette method 

Service (SC'S). In the A AS HO procedure, the fine material is and the material coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter is excluded 

analyzed by the hydrometer method and the various grain-size from calculations of grain-size fractions. The mechanical analysis 



Table 14. — Drainage soil groups and suggested kinds oj drainage systems 



Soil group and included soils 


Major problems 


Slope 
range 


Kind of drain 


Remarks 


llt'.'.iii'.ii'o O'v.iitt", i\ ■ [VI « 1 1 i . 1 \ ■ ii i.ll 
±JL itllltigt glUUJJ ivi uuei .1 1 ei \ Weil 

drained, medium-textured soils that have 
a moderately fine textured subsoil and a 
sandy or siltv substratum. 
(BuA) Butlertown silt loam, to 2 

percent slopes. 
(BuB2) Butlertown silt loam, 2 to 5 

percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

( M p A) Mattapex fine sandy loam, to 

2 percent slopes. 
( M pB2) Mattapex fine sandy loam, 2 to 

5 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

(MsA) Mattapex loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

(MsB2) Mattapex loam, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes, moderatelv eroded. 

(MtA) Mattapex silt loam, to 2 per- 
cent slopes. 

(MtB2) Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 
percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

(WdA) Woodstown loam, to 2 per- 
cent slopes. 

(WdB2) Woodstown loam, 2 to 5 
percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 


Se; i > 1 1 ; 1 11 \ 1 1 1 <^ 1 1 w ;il IT 

table for brief periods 
and impeded drainage 
in the lower subsoil. 


Percent 
u to & 

2 to 5 


Pile in a random or a 

patterned system; 

open ditches. 
Tile in a random or a 

patterned system; 

diversions. 


Land smoothing may be 
necessary. 

Reduce spacing between 
diversions and add 
waterways where neces- 
sary for control of 
erosion; use diversions 
for interceptors where 
needed. 


Drainage group 2B: Moderately well 
drained, moderately coarse textured soils 
that have a moderately fine textured sub- 
soil and a sandy substratum. 
(Wo A) Woodstown sandy loam, to 2 

percent slopes. 
(WoB2) Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 

percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 


Seasonally high water 
table for brief periods 
and impeded drainage 
in the lower subsoil. 


to 2 
2 to 5 


Tile in a random or a 

patterned system ; 

open ditches. 
Tile in a random or a 

patterned system; 

diversions. 


Land smoothing may be 
necessary. 

Boundary drainage may 
be practical; spacing 
of diversions and 
width of strips may 
be reduced if necessary 
to control erosion. 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 7o 



taken from fourteen soil profiles — Continued 



Mechanical analyses 1 — Continued 


Liquid 
limit 


Plasticity 
index 


Classification 


Percentage passing 
sieve — Continued 


Percentage smaller than- 




AASI 1 ( ) 


I 'nified 3 


No. 40 
(0.42 nun.) 


No. 200 
(0.074 mm.) 


0.05 mm. 


0.02 mm. 


0.005 mm. 


0.002 mm. 


80 


66 


64 


43 


20 


12 


20 


2 


A-4(6)._- 


ML. 


90 


71 


69 


52 


27 


21 


32 


12 


A-6(8) 


CL. 


88 


64 


62 


44 


20 


15 


26 


8 


A-4(6) 


CL. 


98 


50 


45 


31 


14 


9 


3 NP 


3 NP 


A-4(3) 


SM. 


97 


41 


35 


26 


15 


11 


3 NP 


3 NP 


A-4(l) 


SM. 



data used in this table are not suitable for naming textural classes tained by this use are ML-CL and SM-SC. 
for soils. 3 NP = Nonplastic. 

2 SCS and BPR have agreed to consider that all soils having 4 100 percent of the material of this horizon passed a l}^-inch 

plasticity indexes within two points of the A-line are to be given a sieve, 
borderline classification. Examples of borderline classifications ob- 



Table 14. — Drainage soil groups and suggested kinds of drainage systems — Continued 



Soil group and included soils 


Major problems 


Slop 
rang 


e 
e 


Kind of drain 


Remarks 


Drainage group 4: Moderately well drained, 
coarse-textured soils that have a subsoil 
of sand or loamy sand. 
(KsA) Klej loamy sand, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

(KsB) Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes. 


Level, depressional, or 
sloping soils that have 
a seasonally high 
water table for long 
periods. 


Percent 
to 2 

2 to 5 


Tile in a random system; 

interceptor ditches or 

interceptor tile. 
Tile in a random system; 

diversions. 


Land smoothing may 
be necessary. 

Interceptor tile may be 
used with diversions; 
reduce spacing of 
diversions and width 
of strips if necessary 
to control erosion. 


Drainage group 6-2 A: Moderately well 
drained, medium-textured soils that have 
a subsoil and a substratum of clay. 
(KeA) Keyport loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

(KeB2) Keyport loam, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 

(KpA) Keyport silt loam, to 2 per- 
cent slopes. 

(KpB2) Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes, moderately erod- 
ed. 


Impeded subsoil 
drainage and a 
perched water table 
that is high for long 
periods. 



2 


to 
to 


2 
5 


Random ditches; field- 
ditch system. 
Diversions 


Land smoothing may 

be necessary. 
Use graded rows and 

sodded waterways; 

these may be 

supplemented by a 

system of terraces 

where erosion is a 

problem. 








Drainage group 7-A: Poorly drained, 
medium-textured soils that have a sub- 
soil and a substratum of sandy clay loam. 
(FaA) Fallsington loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

(FaB) Fallsington loam, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes. 


Brief to long periods of 
high water table. 




2 


to 
to 


2 
5 


Field ditches 

Diversions and inter- 
ceptor tile. 


Used graded rows for 
crops. 

Tile may be used to inter- 
cept seepage from 
adjacent higher areas. 


Drainage group 7-B: Poorly drained, 
moderately coarse textured soils that 
have a sandy clay loam subsoil and a 
sandy substratum. 

(FdA) Fallsington sandy loam, to 2 

percent slopes. 
(FdB) Fallsington sandy loam, 2 to 5 

percent slopes. 


Brief to long periods of 
high water table. 



2 


to 
to 


2 
5 


Field ditches; tile in a 
patterned system. 

Diversions and inter- 
ceptor tile. 


Used graded rows for 

crops. 
Tile may be used to 
intercept seepage from 
adjacent higher areas. 



76 SOIL SURVEY 



Table 14. — Drainage soil groups and suggested kinds of drainage systems — Continued 



Soil group and included soils 


Major problems 


Slope 
range 


Kind of drain 


Remarks 


Drainage group S-1A: Poorly drained, 
medium-textured soils that have a silly 
clay loam subsoil and a sandy substratum. 1 
(BoA) Bertie and Othello silt loams, 
to 2 percent slopes. 

/'RnRO'l Iterlie •inrl CHlielln alH Inline - 
^DODZ^ 1*1 1 111 a 1 11 1 ' I 1 11 HO Mil' loal 1 IS, 

2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

(ObA) Othello silt loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

(ObB2) Othello silt loam, 2 to 5 percent 

.Ml >] M .s , 1 1 1 Ut U 1 tl It 1 V II Ulll 11. 


1 MllO hi'l'llilU III tllD'll 

j j v j 1 1 |vv. i i wi i r> ui 1 1 1 1-, 1 1 

water table. 


Percent 
to •> 


f ield < 1 i 1 el i is 


I !f5P crr*iflf»f] rnwfi f nr 

crops; land smoothing 
may be neccessary. 
Use graded rows for 
crops; tile may be used 

+ f l 1 1 1 i ("'!'(*( »T"> t RPO 1 1* 1 (T{ > f I*/ ITTI 

Ml llltl.il ' j M 1 jlilfi,' 1 1 "111 

adjacent higher areas. 


2 to 5 


Field ditches and di- 
versions. 










Drainage group 8-2A: Poorly drained, 
moderately fine textured soil that has a 
fine textured, very slowly permeable sub- 
soil. 

(Bt) Bladen silty clay loam. 


Long periods of high 
water table. 


to 2 


Field ditches-- — 


Not generally used for 
crops; land smoothing 
may be necessary. 


Drainage group 8-2B: Poorly drained, 

i > i . , i 1 i i 1 1 > l f i' * V f 1 1 t** w 1 1 1 1 < tll'il 1 1 • 1 \ ' 1 1 't M i i \ V 1 \ ' 

permeable subsoil of fine silty clay loam. 
(Ek) Elkton loam. 
(EnA) Elkton silt loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

(En B2) Elkton silt loam, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 


Lout; periods of hiy,h 

wa t pr t,:i \ \] p 


to 2 


Field ditches. - 


Use graded rows for 
crops; land smoothing 
may be necessary. 

Use graded rows for 
crops; tile is not suit- 
able for interceptors. 


2 to 5 


Field ditches and 
diversions. 


Drainage group 9-1: Poorly drained, 
coarse-textured soil that has a subsoil of 
sand or loamy sand. 
(Pel) Plummer loamy sand. 


Areas in depressions that 
have long periods of 
high to very high 
water table. 


to 2 


Tile in a patterned 
system; field ditches. 


Some areas subject to 
overflow; possible over- 
drainage in dry seasons; 
dit ches difficult to 

1 1 1 '1 1 T 1 1 M 1 M 
ill . ] i i i i . i i i i . 


Drainage group 9-3A: Very poorly 
drained, medium-textured soil that has a 
sandy clay loam subsoil and a sandy sub- 
stratum. 

(rKj r/ocoinoke loam. 


Long to very long 

periods of high to very 
high water table. 


to 2 


Tile in a random system; 
field drains. 


Bedding may be needed 
between open drains. 


Drainage group 9-3B: Very poorly 
drained, moderately coarse textured soil 
that has a sandy clay loam subsoil and a 
sandy substratum. 
(Pm) Pocomoke sandy loam. 


Long to very long 

periods of high to very 
high water table. 


to 2 


Tile in a random system; 
field drains. 


Use wider spacing than 
in group 9-3 A; bedding 
may be needed be- 
tween open drains. 


Drainage group 9-4A: Very poorly 
drained, medium-textured soil that has a 
silty clay loam subsoil and a sandy sub- 
stratum. 

(Po) Portsmouth silt loam. 


Long to very long 

periods of high to very 
high water table. 


to 2 


V-type ditches; field 
drains; bedding. 


Bedding advisable for 
row crops. 


Drainage group 9-6B: Very poorly 
drained, medium-textured soil that has a 
clay subsoil. 

ijax ooi o Mill loam. 


Long to very long 

periods of high to very 
high water table. 


to 2 


V-type ditches; field 
drains. 


Bedding advisable on 
high-row plantings 
between open drains. 


Drainage group 11-A: Poorly drained and 
very poorly drained, medium-textured 
soils on flood plains. 
(Bp) Bibb silt loam. 
(Jo) Johnston loam. 


Flooding; seepage from 
uplands, and long to 
very long periods of 
high to very high 
water table. 


to 2 


V-type ditches; field 
drains; tile inter- 
ceptors. 


Use tile interceptors to 
collect upland seepage; 
dikes and floodgates 
may be needed in 
some places. 


Drainage group 12: Unclassified soil ma- 
terial on flood plains. 
(My) Mixed alluvial land. 


Flooding and various 
other problems. 


to 2 


Any appropriate kind of 
drain. 


Land not generally used 
for crops; dikes and 
floodgates may be 
desirable in some 
places. 



1 The Bertie soils in this group are only somewhat poorly drained, but they occur so closely with the Othello soils that the practices 
needed to provide adequate drainage for the Othello soils also drain the Bertie soils. 



Ql'KKN ANNKS COUNTY, MARYLAND 



77 



1 




■ 




Figure 23. — An area of Elkton silt loam, to 2 percent slopes, 
ponded after a heavy rain. This area will be drained by installing 
a field ditch. 



the spacing of the tile. In moderately fine textured, 
slowly permeahle soils, such as the Elkton, the tile lines 
must he laid closer together than in porous, sandy soils, 
such as the Klej and Plummer. 

Irrigation groups of soils 

In this subsection general practices of irrigation are 
discussed ; the soils suitable for conservation irrigation 
are grouped ; and the groups are described. Conservation 
irrigation is the application of water in amounts that 
maintain high yields but neither waste water nor damage 
crops or soils. 

Rainfall in Queen Amies County is generally adequate 
for agriculture, but it is not always well distributed dur- 
ing the growing season. Extended dry periods frequently 
occur between June and September. As a result, many 
crops and pastures are damaged. If enough water is 
available, an irrigation system can maintain favorable 
yields during dry periods. 

Conservation irrigation should be a part of a complete 
farm program of soil and water conservation (3). Be- 
cause irrigation is expensive, it can be economically used 
only on soils that produce a large increase in yields if 
water is always adequate. These soils should be liberally 
fertilized and adequately limed. The cropping system 
should include crops that help control erosion, minimize 
leaching, maintain good tilth, and furnish organic matter. 

To be suitable for irrigation, soils must have good 
drainage. Soils that are only moderately well drained 
to very poorly drained are suitable for irrigation only if 
an adequate drainage system is installed and maintained. 
Severely eroded soils are included in the drainage group 
if they are suitable for regular cultivation. 

Irrigating a large area requires a large amount of 
water. Trying to irrigate with too little water is a com- 
mon mistake. An ordinary farm pond, for example, 
supplies enough water to irrigate only a small home 
garden, not an extensive area. 



Water lor irrigation run be obtained from wells, 
streams, or reservoirs. A permit to drill an irrigation 
well or lo cons! ruct a pond or a reservoir inusl be obi a ined 
from (be, Slate Department of (ioology, Mines, and Water 
Resources, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
This department, also gives information aboili the supply 
of ground water in a specific urea. Drilling a test well 
is a good way to determine whether the supply of water 
is adequate. 

The only streams suitable as sources of irrigat ion water 
are those that have a continuous flow during extended 
droughts and that have not been contaminated by salt- 
water or other pollutants. During a drought streamflow 
should be measured and the water tested to determine if 
enough water of suitable quality will be available for 
irrigation during dry periods. The storage capacity of a 
surface reservoir must be large enough to supply water 
needed by crops and to replace losses caused by seepage 
and evaporation. Generally, y z to 1 acre-foot of stored 
water is needed during the irrigation season for each 
acre irrigated. A smaller reservoir — large enough to 
store water for only one application — can be used if it 
can be refilled between irrigations. 

If the quality of water is questioned, samples should 
be sent to the State Soil Testing Laboratory, Agronomy 
Department, University of Maryland, College Park, Md. 
There, the water can be analyzed for acidity, salt content, 
or other characteristics that may harm a crop. Runoff 
water impounded in reservoirs may carry plant diseases 
that infect susceptible crops if it is used for irrigation. 
The red stele disease of strawberries, for example, can be 
transmitted in this way. Runoff water from areas in 
which strawberries have been grown should not be used 
to irrigate other fields of strawberries. 

Laws and regulations govern the use of water taken 
from streams and wells. The landowner who plans to 
use water for irrigation from a channelized stream should 
obtain information regarding his rights and obligations 
before investing in irrigation equipment. 

To be successful, irrigation must meet the needs of 
both crops and soils. Different crops need different 
amounts of water applied at different intervals. Some 
soils hold much water, and others hold little; some soils 
absorb water readily, and others absorb it more slowly. 

In table 15 the soils of the county suitable for irrigation 
are placed in groups according to characteristics that 
affect irrigation. The numbers of the groups are not con- 
secutive, because a statewide system is used, and only a 
few of the irrigation groups in Maryland are represented 
in Queen Annes County. 

A few truck crops are listed separately in the table, 
but most truck crops are shown simply in truck-crop 
group 1, 2, or 3. Truck groups referred to in the table 



consist of the following : 



Truck group 1 
Very shallow rooted 
crops 
Lettuce. 
Onions. 
Spinach. 
Strawberries. 



Truck group 2 
Shallow rooted 
crops 

Beets. 

Broccoli. 

Cabbage. 

Cauliflower. 

Celery. 

Cucumbers. 

Peas. 

Snap beans. 



Truck group 3 
Moderately deep 
rooted crops 
Asparagus. 
Eggplant. 
Lima beans. 
Melons. 
Peppers. 
Pumpkins. 
Squash. 



78 SOIL SURVEY 



Table 15. — Irrigation groups of soils, suitable crops, and certain water relationships 







Estimated 




Estimated 




Irrigation groups and soils 




maximum 


Estimated 


average 




Suitable crops 


rate of 




average 


availa 


Me 








application 


depth 1<> be 


moisture to 






on nearly 


irrigated 


depth 


of 








level land 1 




irrigation 1 








In. per hr. 




In, 


In. 






( 2 i »i 1 ■ i* \ r\\~ (\v*\\i\tii\ \ i \ w/tfiwiwli'it OV/^OfflClVDlV ri t* a ) 1 1 1 < • r 1 
V.uUU(J J- I UUI Ij vllttlllLll I VI SUIIllWIltlL tAtCflBl V "ij 1 1 1 ttl 1 1 ' l 1 


1 r i \ f l>' cr rn 1 1 ii 1 


1. 





1 ft 




1. 


5 


C,, iw Is 'Mill ! 1 V '1 1 1 1 \ W •! ! W 1 < 1 1 1 M t '1 Vi » i ( 1 Ml' llUll'li i 11 P ll PV* 1 1 i , ■ t 1 

s til H is aim lUtt 1 1 1 \ s it i n is iiitii ii i v t > v i v > i 1 1 m > i < 1 1 1 v 1 1 v s ui ' } J • 


TriiiiL' ormiM 


I - 


n 
U 


94 




2. 





' i a 1 < *<; t n wn lnti m v ci t w 1 /• 1 •) vp v ^lilwtrvitiini (I f 1 1 ^ nei'f •( ■ 1 1 1 
VlilllSLLJWll llJtt 11 1 \ ndllU, L 1 tt v V \ nllUnU ill U1M, VI LV_I <J Jit IV t ill 


T 1 r i w * L- crnnii 'i 


1 . 


U 


**o 




2. 


5 


s ILI jJL-o . 




1 . 


/ 1 
ti 


97 




2. 


3 


( 1 o 1 rii t rMTir ii lnQini" w «i t~w 1 flovov dilwti''itlim ^ t A 1 (I Ttr>rf*itfi1 
V i li H's I Lf \\ J I lUd 1 1 1 \ s t l 1 1 1 I , l Kl \ ( \ S U I IS L I *t L U 1 1 1 ; O 1 U lUJJVJLVIll 


siv'Apt porn 


1 

1 . 


( i 
V) 






2. 





SlUpi S . 


Knv 1 ir»Q n*i 


1 . 


1 1 


94. 




2. 





1 ■ i 1 , ■ ■ 1 . i v i i , c ii n el (iloi'oA^ CHI 1 II in II i i~\ "» ?"w>i"Mf'iit v: i il w 'V 
v iilUMUW 11 S it 1 1 ( I , V lit \ t _\ S 1 1 1 IS I I il I 1 1 1 1 1 , U IV) ij J I L V 1 1 L S IV I J It S . 


A If il If n 


1 

1 ■ 


n 
U 


OU 




3. 


Klej loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 3 


Irish potatoes . 


1 

1 - 


t\ 

u 


24 




2. 





Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 3 


Sweetpotatoee __ 


1 

1 . 


n 
U 


24 




2. 


3 


1 ii L - i'l'i ni 1 liwirnv p 1 ti v e v ciili^tr'itiiin ( 1 1 1 1 '"i tii » reen f 

IjiIM let 1 1 ( 1 llltllll\ HiUlUj V. let V V \ S VI US I- 1 el L VI 1 1 1 f V_l LU «J JJL,1L;L,11L 


I nm q t r\ps 


1 

1 . 


n 
U 


97 
*. i 




2. 





slopes. 


(t T*f ■ 1 V il V( \< Wltll Pn\7PT" 


1. 


ti 


ou 




3. 


T ■ i 1 . . i ■ i i i , 1 1 / \o m \ ' w vi 1 1 rl el'iv^v <iiri<tr'itiiMi ^i t n 1(1 rw»i*p*»nt 
IjitKtlclIUl lUtl 11 1 \ Set 1 1 LI f L Itl \ l \ s U 1 IS v 1 tl L U 1 1 1 , »_l LU 1 V 1 | H I t ' 1 1 1 


()rf'liiii*rl< w 1 1 li ni 1 1 or\\7f*r 

V'lLllitlLlS >»1L11ULIL LUVcI_._. 


1 • 


it 


OD 




3. 


II 


s 1 L J |J t, & ■ 


( 1 T'*i s;*s m i v 1 1 1 re 


1. 





94 




2. 


o 


lllIYVT»1»if In VI 1111* < 't I W 1 ^ 
1 111111111V I IVlttlllN >itllll, 
















/"lrriiir\ *i • "Wr»ll -rli*Q i iw»f 1 lnnmv Qtliwlw tn *i rleil( li nf 1 im 1 1 90 
\_i lUviiJ o • iivii-Liittnivti iutt n i > sttiiLis iv i n lil. lj in vi i <i i jlj ii l £ vi 


r \ 'riifl' irriiiiri 1 




n 

y 


1 8 

1 o 




1. 


5 


i'nphi'« Tlie siihcnil i ^ ti n er 1 1 1 v 1 1 in *t 1 t h n n tin* s h rf m t*t > 1 a v< t 

111V11VS. .11 IV. oUI.DVIll lij 1 1 1 V V I IC .V V/ HI VL Vl Vllull vl IV_. otll lutt It* > v 1 ■ 


1 V 1 1 ( ■ U' trrm l r» '? 




VI 


18 




1. 


5 


ic 1(1 i i\ \ K i 1 1 flu j c tliiclv s» ii rl i< liTidcrl'im 1 1 v ^'liicl 


1 r ii e U' wrn 1 1 ti 'A 




Q 


1 8 




]. 


5 


lowlier loiiiuy sitml, to — percent slojjcs 


Pnrn 




A 

y 


97 




2. 


8 


Downer loHiiiy s&nd< 1- to 5 percent slopes. 


SJnTAftT rim*Ti 




Q 

y 


94. 




2. 


5 


Downer losniy snnrl, »5 to 10 percent slopi'S. 


^/\v*l k^q no 




y 


94 




2. 


5 


Downer loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded. 


Alfalfa 


1 

1 . 


u 


27 




2. 


8 


Downer loamy sand. 10 to 15 percent slopes. 


Irish potatoes 




Q 

y 


18 




1. 


5 




.^woptTintti t nee 




Q 


1 8 




1. 


5 




W 1 1 1 1 *i 1 1 ii 




Q 

y 


97 




2. 


8 




( 1tpTiot*Hq witli pnvpr 


1 

1 . 


u 


97 




2. 


8 




Cli'pli'ii'ile will) iiiit envPT* 

L II L llitl t IS \\ 1 l I1ULI L L U V L 1 




y 


97 
z I 




2. 


8 




v « tvii v 1 1 1 re 


1 

1 . 


U 


94 




2. 


5 


Hrni in Q ■ \T rw lern tpl v wi '11 rlriiiii'd nnH well fl ra in r >rl t;fi n ( \ v 

VJI 1 VJ VI I J >..' . iVJ. \J V_IV„ 1 tllClV W V 11 VllCtlllV.Vl <J.11V_1 \» V 11 VlltllllVVl Sell 1 V 1 ^> 


^ , rllpl^' fi'niiri 1 




D 


12 




1. 


7 


IriQ tik tn 'i rlcTitli of ttli<"Mit 1() iti o ni^s r l lie ^iilwml it; ^fiiiclv 7 elfiv 

IVJct 1 1 IS IV.I tl VIV IJV11 LI 1 £ll!V_ILlL lvl 1I1V 11' S. 1 11 V. SVlI.'SV^ll lo St:lllV_ly l_- lil ^ 


r Vv i l p li orn i in *?. 




O 


15 




2. 


2 


ln*i r» i rir 1 i o li t 1 1 v f*1fl v 1 nti m n n f 1 ( k v t,* 1 n rl ^ + n n rl i • n t.li t if !»( 1 i ti p1ip<5 

lVJcllll"'! lltlllV'SllVV L 1)1 V IVItlllltlll l-l vAVV 111 lo LV/ (X I ll U til \ > I 'J VI 11 U 11' o 


Truck ptoiit"> A 




a 
O 


18 




2 


7 


\> 1 1 1 1VJ1 c * 


( 1 ( >r 1 1 




O 


24 




3. 


7 


TTo ll^iTivr'i'nTi cciTirl\r l (\ o »yi i (\ iiovfon t cImtioc 4 
J? niisll-i g tun sitintv lUttin, \j i v > ti |jv i v_ v 11 1 siij|jto. 


Swpct pnrn 




a 
D 






2. 


7 


T^fl ll^iii crton c*i n el v* Iaq ni tn r ~\ Tiorppn t, QlriT~ie«? ^ 

J. il llo 1 11 g VjVJ 11 BtlllV.IV IVJtllll, j-i UVJ ty IJC1 V/Cll VJ D1VIJJV O . 


Snvl ipfliK ■ 




O 


18 




2. 


7 


"\I-il>iIi.^-ll it 1 ■ ■ Jii iwl T Ii. -ilii fl til '* lii'l'i'i'lil £IIAT1AC 

lvl tt I it [iv_ tt K( 1 1 1 1 v S(iIHl\ lUtllll, M LU — [Jv 1 L v 11 L blU|Jt & . 


Alfalfa 


1 

1 . 


U 


97 

Z 1 




4. 


2 


\Tn t ji t"*#*rt li*( » fine c'Hidv lojim tn nereen t, t;loT"ie^; ni( k \ e r- 

IV L t* UAUl tllvV l 1 ■ l ■ ■ ■ 1 1 . I 111, *J vW kJ 1 VV 11 I iJlvlJV O, lllvVlL 1 


Trisli r>ot,j^ t.oes 




ft 


18 




2. 


7 


fitelv erodcrl 

il vGXj CI UHV V I . 


Sweetnotfi toes 




ft 

o 


18 




2. 


7 


AT(1 f iiTlflU L'P flTlfl c<) till 17 Iao TY1 '"^ i 1~\ 1(1 TlOrPOIl t QUlTlOC t"VT C\f 1 1 1 1* — 

i\itt L'tipt tt kl line sttiiLiy iLitt 1 1 1 , o lu 1 u |jv_ 1 l v_ 11 l & iu|jl s, iiiuul i 


i nmfitnpG 




ft 


94 




3. 


7 


el lv. ly v: i ULiLH. 


( it*p1i fi rrl q with pnvei* 


1 

1. 


n 
U 


27 




4. 


2 


AI*it*iT^i"iL'i> fiiii' < u 1 1 1 1 \ ■ 1 1 i ■ i 1 1 1 * t<i 1(1 i iei*pi 1 1 1 1 q1 nnpQ qp vei'el v 

iVlel Letpt. et lllie SitllllV lUtl 111 j *J t-U lu ^JLILV 11L BIU^J* s, St \ ( It 1 \ 


( m*p!i q vr 1 d wi t li ni 1 1 pnvpr 

V ' lLIIellVIS \ilLIlUHL V VJ > V " 1 _ _ _ _ 




ft 
D 


97 




4. 


2 


t 1 ViUtU . 


f IrtiQii in i v 1 1 i re 


1 

1 . 


u 


1 8 
1 o 




2. 


7 


A/T o ■(■ I - q t - ^ (iv fn n ri c q n rl v 1 / iq iti (1 tn iioi'poti t clnnpc 3 
IVlet I Ltl].JV A 1111L SitlUly lUtllLl, VJ LU w JJV.1LL11L MUJICD. 
















TVTatl"{inpY fine Gt»rifl\7' Ipiqiii tn *i T~verppnt <lnniPQ tiifirleri tel \* 
l\let L I tl y)v\ \ 1111L oclUUJ lUtllll, >j LU O \J\ 1 V. V_ 1 1 L MVIlJt S, 111VJV_1C1 tt LV_ l^y 
















t_ 1 UUt V_l . 
















Pm/i pi hiaL'Ii CHllfl V lp»(4 111 5 

X ULUlllUlvL, StlllLl\ lUttlll. 
















S4q ceo f v(\ a cfinrli' ldim (1 tn ^ i^crpent dmipe 

i^tlSSilllilS ott 1 1 1 1 > lUttlll, V» LU *- JJL.1LV.11L S1VJ J.JV S . 
















^occQfrQc cQTirl"\^ Iciq tii V tn ^ TiPTPPiit clnTieQ m nrl ei*'l t < 1 1 v T 
l~etSStll Itto SttllLlV lUtt III, t-i LU O |JL. I L-Lvll t BlUJJt S j 111LILIV_ 1 el LL 1 \ 
















prnrl p rl 
L I ULlc U. . 
















SoccofrQc cQiirl^' Iniin ^\ tn 10 norppiit Qlni~iP<5 mnrlei'fl tel v 

OilSSitlltlS S , 1 1 1 t 1 \ 1 1 I , l 1 1 1 . ■ ) III It' J 1 1 1 t 1 1 1 1 S IVJ JJ V S j 1 l 1 1 1 1 l ' 1 1 1 I ' 1 \ 
















eroded. 
















Sqccq fi*q q «n ti rl v Inn m ^ t n 10 r»eree ti t ^loneM sp verel v erorlerl 

i ilS Still ilS Stllltl > 1 ' ' . 1 1 1 1 tj \j\J \ J\T 1 IV 11 I 01V_/ Ut Oj O V lliuy vAUV.1V Hi 
















Gqccq fvo c cq tiflv 1 / \ »i »yi lO tn 1 ^\ T^fii*/^c»nt clnTiec m nrl pi*q tpl \t 

k>ii>stUias sano\ lOtiiii, iv to xo peiceiit oiupts, inuneietLeiy 
















eroded. 
















W^nnrlctmizTi GQiirl\^ InQ m (1 tn *^ T~ierppiit QlniieQ 3 

\ > UULlo LU V\ 11 StlllUV lUttlll, VI LU £i |JV.ILV^11L SlUjJV O. 
















Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
















eroded. 3 
















Woodstown sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
















eroded. 3 
















Woodstown sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 3 

















See footnotes at end of table. 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 

Table 15. — Irrigation groups of soils, suitable crops, and certain water relationships Continued 



71) 



Irrigation groups and soils 



Suitable crops 



Ksl imalcd 

maximum 

rate of 
ii pplical [on 

on nearly 
level land 1 



Estimated 

average 
depth to be 
irrigated 



Estimated 

average 
a vailaMi 

nioi-i tire to 
depth of 

irrigation 2 



Group 10: Poorly and very poorly drained loams and silt, loams 
that, are uniform in texture to a depth of 30 inches or more. 
Bibb silt loam. 4 ' » 
Johnston loam. 4 - 8 



Group 12: Moderately well drained to very poorly drained 
loams and silt loams that have a slowly or very slowly perme- 
able, clayey subsoil at a depth of about 10 inches. 
Bayboro silt loam. 5 
Klkton loam. 4 

Elkton silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 4 

Klkton silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 4 
Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes. 3 

Keyport loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 3 
Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 3 
Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 3 
Portsmouth silt loam. 5 

Group 13: Well-drained to poorly drained loams and silt loams 
to a depth of about 10 inches. The subsoil is sandy clay loam 
or silty clay loam and extends to a depth of 30 inches or more. 
Bertie and Othello silt loams, to 2 percent slopes. 7 
Berties and Othello silt loams, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 7 
Butlertown silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 3 
Butlertown silt loam, 2 to 5 percent elopes, moderately 
eroded. 3 

Butlertown silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 3 

Butlertown silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 3 

Fallsington loam, to 2 percent slopes. 4 
Fallsington loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 4 
Matapeake loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

Matapeake loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately' eroded. 
Matapeake loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Matapeake loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Matapeake silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Matapeake soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, to 2 percent slopes. 
Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Mattapex loam, to 2 percent slopes. 3 

Mattapex loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 3 
Mattapex loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 3 
Mattapex loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded. 3 
Mattapex silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 3 
Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 3 

Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 3 

Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded. 3 
Mattapex soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 3 
See footnotes at end of table. 



5 to 10 percent 
5 to 10 percent 



Truck group 1 
Truck group 2 
Truck group 3 

Corn 

Sweet corn 

Soybeans 

Tomatoes 

Grass mixture 

Truck group 1 
Truck group 2 
Truck group 3 

Corn 

Sweet corn 

Soybeans 

Tomatoes 

Grass mixture 



Truck group 1 

Truck group 2 

Truck group 3 

Corn 

Sweet corn 

Sovbeans 

Alfalfa 

Irish potatoes 

Sweetpotatoes 

Tomatoes 

Orchards with cover 

Orchards without cover 
Grass mixture 



In. per hr. 

0. 5 
. 5 
. 5 
. 5 
.5 
. 5 
.5 



. 3 
.3 
. 3 
. 3 
.3 
.3 
. 3 
. 5 



In. 



12 
15 
18 
24 
18 
18 
24 
18 

12 
15 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 



12 
15 
18 
24 
18 
18 
27 
18 
18 
24 
27 
27 
18 



80 SOIL SURVEY 



Table 15. — Irrigation groups oj soils, suitable crops, and certain water relationships — Continued 



Irrigation groups and soils 


Suitable crops 


Estimated 
maximum 
rate of 

applical ion 
on nearly 

level land 1 


Estimated 

average 
depth to be 
irrigated 


Estimated 
average 
available 

moisture to 
depth of 

irrigation - 


Group 13 — Continued 

Othello silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 4 

Ot hello silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 4 
Othello and Elkton soils, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 4 
Pocomoke loam. 5 

Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

oassairas lOiini, & to o peictni slopes, iiioui i\ tiuiu u. 
Sassafras loam, 5 i<> in percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Sassafras loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Sassafras loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Woodstown loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

Woodstown loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 




In. per ftr. 


in. 


In. 



1 Water can be applied at the maximum rate only to level or 
nearly level land that is irrigated under ideal conditions. 

2 The figures for available moisture are estimates and are averages 
for all soils in the group. 

3 Soil is only moderately well drained and needs artificial drain- 
age before it is suitable for irrigation. Alfalfa and other deep- 
rooted perennials may not be well suited. 

4 Soil is poorly drained and needs intensive improvement of 
drainage before it is suitable for irrigation. Alfalfa, Irish potatoes, 
sweetpotatoes, and orchards are not well suited, even after soil is 
drained. 

5 Soil is very poorly drained and needs very intensive improve- 



ment of drainage before it is suitable for irrigation. Alfalfa, Irish 
potatoes, sweetpotatoes, and orchards are not well suited, even 
after soil is drained. 

6 Soil is subject to flooding and is not suitable for irrigation 
unless it is thoroughly drained and is completely protected from 
floods during the crop year. 

7 The Bertie soil is somewhat poorly drained and needs moderate 
drainage improvement before it is suitable for irrigation More 
intensive drainage improvement is needed on the Othello soil. 
Alfalfa, potatoes, and orchards may not be well suited to the 
Bertie soils. 



Table 16. — Limitations on 

[Gravel and borrow pits (Gr) and Made land 



Map 
symbols 


Soils 


Ba 


Bayboro silt loam. 


BoA 


Bertie silt loam (in Bertie and Othello 
silt loams, to 2 percent slopes) . 


BoB2 
Bp 


Bertie silt loam (in Bertie and Othello silt 
loams, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded) . 

Bibb silt loam. 


Bt 


Bladen silt y clay loam. 


BuA 


Butlertown silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 


BuB2 


Butlertown silt loam, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 



Degree and kind of limitation for- 



Disposal of sewage 
effluent from septic tanks 



Severe: high water 
table; very poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; somewhat poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; somewhat poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; flooding hazard; 
poor drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 



Severe: seasonally high 
water table; slow 
permeability. 

Severe: seasonally high 
water table; slow 
permeability. 



Sewage lagoons 



Severe: too highly 
organic. 

Slight 



Moderate: 2 to 5 
percent slopes. 

Severe: flooding hazard. 



Slight. 



Slight. 



Moderate: 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes. 



Ilomesites for homes of 
two stories or less 



Severe: high water 
table; very poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; somewhat poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; somewhat poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table: flooding hazard; 
poor drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 



Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 



Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 



Ql'KKN ANNKS COUNTY, M AH Y LA \ I) 



M 



Grass mixtures may consist of several kinds of grasses 
(hat. are commonly used for past tire or hay and are grown 
with or without legumes. Orchards include apple, peach, 
pear, cherry, plum, prune, and pecan. "Orchards with 
cover*' indicates thai a close-growing crop, generally sod, 
covers the soil between (he trees. "Orchards without 
cover" indicates that the soil between the trees is bare 
or nearly so at the t ime of irrigal ion. 

Table 15 shows, for the different crops, the estimated 
maximum rate at which water can be applied if condi- 
tions are ideal and if the soils are level or nearly level. 
Jt. also shows the depth to which the soil should be ir- 
rigated and the average amount of moisture available to 
t he depth of irrigal ion. 

In the following paragraphs the irrigation groups in 
Queen Amies County are discussed. 

Irrigation group 1. — In this group ai'e the sandiest 
agricultural soils in the county. These soils can be ir- 
rigated fairly rapidly because they take in water rapidly, 
but they retain less moisture than soils in the other- 
groups. Irrigation water should be applied fairly fre- 
quently and m relatively small amounts. The soils of 
this group generally are less productive then those of 
other groups, but they can be used intensively for truck 
crops and other crops of high value per acre. 

Irrigation group 3. — The soils in this group are less 
productive than the soils in groups 9, 10, 12, and 13. But 
they are generally more productive than the soils in 
group 1 and, below a depth of about 20 inches, have a 
slightly higher moisture-holding capacity. These soils 



can lie used intensiv ely for truck crops and other crop 
of high acre value. For most crops, irrigation water 
should be, applied more slowly than on the soils in 

group I . 

Irrigation group '■>. — The soils in group '.) have a higher 
moist tire-holding capacity than the .-oil.- in groups 1 and 
3. Generally, their subsoil is moderately permeable and. 
nearly everywhere, is underlain by sandy material below 
a depth of 30 to 36 inches. The level or nearly level 
soils can he irrigated at a moderate rate, ranging from 
().(! inch per hour in level, clean-cult ival ed area- to 1 inch 
per hour in lields protected by a cov er of plants. These 
soils are among the better agricultural soil- of the county. 

Irrigation group H>. - \\\ Queen Anne- County the -oils 
in this group are on Hood plains. Their chief characteris- 
tic that affects irrigat ion is the uniformly medium texture 
from the surface to a depth of 30 inches or more. Irriga- 
tion water can thus be applied at a moderate rate, for 
the water readily infiltrates the soil and moistens the, root, 
zone of most crops. 

Irrigation group 12.— The soils in this group are fairly 
shallow over heavy silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay that 
is slowly or very slowly permeable. Unless irrigation 
water is applied slowly to these soils, it tends to pond in 
level or depressional areas and to run off in sloping areas. 
Attempts to irrigate to a depth greater than about 18 
inches generally are not successful. Except in areas used 
for special crops that bring a high economic return, ir- 
rigating these soils may not be justified. 

Irrigation group 13. — The soils in this group have a 



soils for specified nonjarm uses 

(Ma) are not rated, because they are too variable] 



Degree and kind of limitation for — Continued 



Landscaping and earth 
movement 



Streets and parking lots 



Borrow material for 
sanitary land fill 



Cemeteries 



Home gardens 



Severe: high water 
table; very poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; somewhat poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; somewhat poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; flooding haz- 
ard; poor drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 



Moderate: seasonally 
wet. 



Moderate: seasonally 
wet. 



Severe: high water 
table; very poor 
drainage. 

Moderate: high water 
table; somewhat poor 
drainage. 

Moderate: high water 
table; somewhat poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; flooding hazard; 
poor drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 



Moderate: seasonally 
wet. 



Moderate: seasonally 
wet. 



Severe: too sticky ; too 
highly organic. 



Moderate: sticky. 



Moderate: stiekv. 



Slight. 



Severe: very stickv. 



Slight. 



Slight _ 



Severe: high water 
table; very poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; somewhat poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; somewhat poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; flooding hazard; 
poor drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 



Severe: seasonally 
high water table. 

Severe: seasonally 
high water table. 



Severe: high water 
table; very poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; somewhat poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; somewhat poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; flooding hazard; 
poor drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table: poor drainage; 
very sticky. 

Severe: seasonally 

wet; slow permeability. 



Severe: seasonally wet; 
slow permeability. 



SOIL SURVEY 



Table 16. — Limitations on soils for 



Map 




Degree and kind of limitation for — 


symbols 


Soils 


Disposal of sewage 
effluent from septic tanks 


Sewage lagoons 


Ilomesites for homes of 
two stories or less 


BuC2 
BuC3 


Butlertown silt loam, 5 to 10 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Butlertown silt loam, 5 to 10 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 


Severe: seasonally high 
water table; slow 

lviri) i ( "i \ ii 1 1 1 \" 
| j ( i 1 1 n_ 1 i 1 ji n i \ . 


Severe: 5 to 10 per- 
cent slopes. 


Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 


Cb 


Coastal beaches. 


Severe: tidal flooding 


Severe: tidal flooding; 
rapid permeability. 


Severe: loose material; 
little stability. 


DoA 


Downer loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 




~ i \ t i < . i iidi l ( m .i i eiy 
rapid permeability. 


Kliu-M 

nil^Ill _ 






DoB 


Downer loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 


Slight 


Severe: moderately 
rapid permeability. 


Slight 






DoC 
DoC3 


Downer loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 
Downer loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
severely eroded. 


Moderate: 5 to 10 per- 
cent slopes. 


Severe: 5 to 10 per- 
cent slopes; moderately 
rapid permeability. 


Slight 


DoD 
DoD3 


Downer loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent 
slopes. 

Downer loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent 
slopes, severely eroded. 


Moderate: 10 to 15 per- 
i (hi Mujjeo . 


Severe: 10 to 15 per- 
cent slopes: moderately 
rapid permeability. 


Moderate: 10 to 15 per- 
Lent slopes. 


DoE 


Downer loamy sand, 15 to 30 percent 

olLJ LJC-O ■ 


Severe: 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 


Severe: 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 


Severe: 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 


Ek 
EnA 


Elkton loam. 

Elkton silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 


Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 


Slight (severe if flooded)-- 


Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 


EnB2 


Elkton silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 


Ot; V cl tr . 111^ 11 W2* l ei 

table ; poor drainage. 


A 1 ami>i''1 t o * *7 i ^\ r\r>r 
^KXK 1 dlL . — L*J O pt 1 - 

cent slopes. 


DC V t*I c . Ill 11 W tvl'trl 

table; poor drainage. 


OeC2 


Elkton soil (in Othello and Elkton soils, 
5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded) . 


Severe: high water 

liUJU , pUUJ Ulillllilgt. 


Severe: 5 to 10 percent 


Severe: high water 

ua/Ulc . [juui uiiiuitige. 


Fa A 


Fallsington loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Fallsington sandy loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. 


Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 


Slight 


Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 


Fd A 




FaB 
FdB 


Fallsington loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Fallsington sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent 
slopes. 


Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 


Moderate: 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes. 


Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 


GaB 
GcB 


Galestown loamy sand, clayey substratum, 

to 5 percent slopes. 
Galestown. sand, clavey substratum, to 

5 percent slopes. 


Slight : risk of polluting 
wells nearby. 


Severe: rapid permea- 
bility. 


Moderate: loose and 
difficult to compact 


GaC 
GIC 


Galestown loamy sand, clayey substra- 
tum, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 

Galestown sand (in Galestown and Lake- 
land sands, 5 to 10 percent slopes). 


Slight : risk of pollut- 
ing wells nearby. 


Severe: rapid perme- 
ability. 


Moderate: loose and 
difficult to compact. 


GkD 


Galestown loamy sand (in Galestown and 
Lakeland loamy sands, 10 to 15 per- 
cent slopes). 


Moderate: 10 to 15 
percent slopes; risk of 
polluting wells nearby. 


Severe: rapid perme- 
ability. 


Severe: 10 to 15 per- 
cent slopes; loose and 
difficult to compact. 


GkE 


Galestown loamy sand (in Galestown and 
Lakeland loamy sands, 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes). 


Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 


Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 


Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 



specified nonfarm uses — Continued 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 



83 



Degree and kind of limitation for Continued 



Landscaping and earth 
movement 



Moderate: seasonally 
wet. 



Slight 



Slight 



Slight 



Slight 



Moderate: 10 to 15 
cent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 

Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 



Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 



Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 



Slight 



Slight 



Moderate: 10 to 15 
percent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 30 
percent slopes. 



Street s and parking lots 



Moderate or severe: 5 
to 10 percent slopes ; 
seasonally wet. 



Moderate: loose and 
difficult to compact. 



Slight 



Slight 



Slight for streets; moder- 
ate for parking lots: 5 
to 10 percent slopes. 



Moderate for streets; 
severe for parking lots: 
10 to 15 percent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: high wat ci- 
table; poor drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; 5 to 10 percent 
slopes; poor drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 



Severe: high wat ci- 
table; poor drainage. 

Moderate: loose and 
difficult to compact. 



Moderate: 5 to 10 per- 
cent slopes; loose. 



Severe: 10 to 15 per- 
cent slopes; loose. 



Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 



Borrow material for 
sanitary land till 



Slight... 

Moderate: loose and 
difficult to compact. 

Slight 

Slight 

Slight 

Slight 

Slight 

Severe: too sticky 

Severe: too sticky 

Severe: too sticky 

Slight 

Slight 

Moderate: loose and 
difficult to compact. 

Moderate: loose and 
difficult to compact . 

Moderate for streets; 
severe for parking 
lots: loose and diffi- 
cult to compact. 

Moderate: loose and 
difficult to compact. 



( Vmct erics 



Severe: seasonally 
high water table. 



Severe: risk of tidal 
flooding. 



Slight 



Slight 



Slight 



Moderate: 10 to 15 
percent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: high wat ci- 
table; poor drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 



Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 



Severe: high wat ci- 
table; poor drainage. 



Slight 



Slight 



Slight 



Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 



Home garden.-. 



Severe: seasonally wet ; 
5 to I percent slopes. 



Severe: droughty; in- 
fertile; risk of tidal 
flooding. 

Moderate?: somewhat 
droughty. 

Mofl crate: 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes. 

Severe: 5 to 10 percent 
slopes. 



Severe: 10 to 15 
percent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: high water table; 
poor drainage. 

Severe: high water table; 
poor drainage. 

Severe: high water table; 
5 to 10 percent slopes; 
poor drainage. 

Severe: high water table; 
poor drainage. 



Severe: high water table; 
poor drainage. 



Severe: droughty; low 
fertility. 



Severe: droughty; low 
fertility; 5 to 10 per- 
cent slopes. 



Severe: drought v: low 
fertility; 10 to 15 
percent slopes. 



Very severe: 15 to 30 
percent slopes. 



84 



SOIL SURVEY 



Table 16. — Limitations on soils jor 



Map 




Degree and kind of limitation for — 


symbols 


Soils 


Disposal of sewage 
effluent from septic tanks 


Sewage lagoons 


Homesites for homes of 
two stories or less 


Jo 


Johnston loam. 


Severe: high water 
table; flooding; very 
poor drainage. 


Severe: too highly 
organic; flooding. 


Severe: high water 
table; flooding; very 
poor drainage. 


KeA 


Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 


Severe: seasonally high 
water table; slow 
permeability. 


Slight . 


Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. ■ 


KpA 




KeB2 
KpB2 


Keyport loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 


Severe: seasonally high 
water table; slow 
] »i ■ rmeability . 


Moderate: 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes. 


Moderate : seasonally 
high water table. 


KrC3 
KrD3 


Keyport silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percenl 

slopes, severely eroded. 

Keyport silty clay loam, 10 to 15 percent 
slopes, severely eroded. 


Severe: seasonally high 
water table; slow 
permeability. 


Severe: 5 to 15 per- 
cent slopes. 


Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 


KsA 

KsB 


Klej loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes. 
Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 


Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 


Severe: rapid permea- 
bility. 


Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 


LaB 


T11J1 J1 i i 

1 ,:i kelaru 1 loani\ sand, clayey -mbst rati mi, 
to 5 percent slopes. 


Slight: risk of polluting 
wells nearby. 


Severe: rapid permea- 
bility. 


Slight ... 


GIC 
LaC 


Lakeland sand (in Galestown and Lake- 
land sands, 5 to 10 percent slopes). 

T-.11-.ll 11 i_ i 

Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 
5 to 10 percent slopes. 


Slight: risk of polluting 
wells nearby. 


Severe: rapid permea- 
bility. 


Slight 


GkD 


Lakeland loamy sand (in Galestown and 

Til 11 1 -t 1 A " 

Lakeland loamy sands, 10 to 15 percent 
slopes) . 


Moderate: 10 to 15 
percent slopes; risk 
of polluting wells 
nearby. 


Severe: rapid permea- 
bility. 


Severe: 10 to 15 per- 
cent slopes; loose and 
difficult to compact. 


GkE 


Lakeland loamy sand (in Galestown and 
Lakeland loamy sands, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes) . 


Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 


Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 


Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 


MbA 

McA 
MkA 
MoA 


Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 per- 
cent slopes. 

Matapeake loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

Matapeake silt loam, to 2 percent slope-. 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 
to 2 percent slopes. 


Slight or moderate: 
moderate permea- 
bility. 


Moderate: moderately 
rapid permeability at 
depth of about 48 
inches. 


Slight 


MbB2 
McB2 
MkB2 
MoB2 


Matapeake fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Matapeake loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 2 

to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 


Slight or moderate: mod- 
erate permeability. 


Moderate: 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes. 


Slight 


MbC2 
MbC3 
McC2 
McC3 
MkC2 
MkC3 
MoC2 
MoC3 


Matapeake fine sandy loam, 5 to 10 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded. 

Matapeake fine sandy loam, 5 to 10 per- 
cent slopes, severely eroded. 

Matapeake loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 

Matapeake loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 
severely eroded. 

Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 

Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent 
slopes, severely eroded. 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 5 
to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 5 
to l0 percent slopes, severely eroded. 


Moderate: 5 to 10 per- 
cent slopes. 


Severe: 5 to 10 percent 
slopes. 


Slight _- 



Q UK K.N AN'NKS COir.NTY, MAIfYLANI) 

specified nonfarm uses — Continued 



Degree and kind of limitation for — Continued 



Landscaping and earth 
movement 



Severe: high wat ci- 
table; very poor 
drainage. 

Moderate: seasonally 
wet; sticky. 



Moderate: seasonally 
wet ; sticky. 



Severe: seasonally 
wet; sticky; 5 to 15 
percent slopes. 



Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 



Slight 



Slight 



Moderate: 10 to 15 
percent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 30 
percent slopes. 



Slight 



Streets and parking lots 



Severe: high w at ci- 
table; flooding; very 
poor drainage. 

Moderate: seasonally 
wet. 



Moderate: seasonally- 
wet. 



Severe: seasonally wet; 
5 to 15 percent slopes. 



Moderate: loose; 
seasonally high water 
table. 

Slight: (loose and diffi- 
cult to compact). 

Slight for streets; mod- 
erate for parking lots: 
5 to 10 percent slopes; 
loose. 

Moderate for streets ; 
severe for parking lots: 
10 to 15 percent 
slopes; loose. 

Severe: 15 to 30 
percent slopes. 



Slight for .streets; moder- 
ate for parking lots: 
5 to 10 percent slopes. 



Borrow material for 
sanitary land fill 



Severe: too highly 
organic. 



Severe: too sticky 



Severe: too sticky 



Moderate for streets; 
severe for parking 
lots: very sticky. 



Moderate: loose and 
difficult to compact. 



Moderate: loose and 
difficult to compact. 

Moderate: loose and 
difficult to compact. 



Moderate: loose and 
difficult to compact. 



Severe: 15 to 30 
percent slopes. 



Slight... 



( Cemeteries 



Severe: high wat ci- 
table; flooding; very 
poor drainage. 

Severe: seasonally high 
water table; slow- 
permeability. 

Severe: seasonally high 
water table; slow- 
permeability. 

Severe: seasonally high 
water table; slow- 
permeability. 

Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 

Severe: droughty 

Severe: droughty 



Severe: droughty 



Severe: 15 to 30 
percent slopes. 

Slight 



Slight, 



Slight 



Home gardens 



Severe: high water 
table; flooding; very 
poor drainage. 

Moderate: seasonally 
wet. 

Moderate: seasonally 
wet; 2 to 5 percent 
slopes. 

Very severe: seasonally 
wet; very sticky; 5 to 
15 percent slopes. 

Severe: seasonally high 
water table; low 
fertility. 

Severe: droughty ; low 
fertility. 

Severe: droughty; low- 
fertility; 5 to 10 per- 
cent slopes. 

Severe: droughtv;low 
fertility; 10 to 15 
percent slopes. 

Severe: 15 to 30 
percent slopes. 

Slight. 



Moderate: 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes. 



Severe: 5 to 10 percent 
slopes. 



Slight. 



Slight. 



Slight. 



Slight. 



Slight- 



Slight. 



NO 



ROIL SURVEY 



Table 16.— Limitations on soil for 



Soils 



Degree and kind of limitation for — 



Disposal of sewage 
effluent from septic tanks 



Sewage lagoons 



Homesites for homes of 
t wo stories or less 



Matapeake soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
Matapeake soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 
severely eroded. 



Matapeake soils, 15 to percent slopes. 



Mattapex fine sandy loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. 

Mattapex loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Mattapex silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 

Mattapex fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Mattapex loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 

Mattapex loam, 5 to Ml percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Mattapex loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 

Mattapex soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes. 
Mattapex soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 
severely eroded. 

Mattapex soils, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 



Mixed alluvial land. 



Othello silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Othello silt loam (in Bertie and Othello 
silt loams, to 2 percent slopes) . 

Othello silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Othello silt loam (in Bertie and Othello silt 

loams, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded) . 



Othello soil (in Othello and Elkton soils, 
5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded) . 



Plummer loamy sand. 

Pocomoke loam. 
Pocomoke sandy loam. 

Portsmouth silt loam. 



Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent 
slopes. 



Moderate: 10 to 15 
percent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 

Severe: seasonally high 
water table; moder- 
ately slow perme- 
ability. 

Severe: seasonally high 
water table; moder- 
ately slow perme- 
ability. 



Severe: seasonally high 
water table; moder- 
ately slow perme- 
ability. 



Severe: seasonally high 
water table; 10 to 15 
percent slopes. 

Severe: 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: high water 
table; flooding. 

Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 



Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 



Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 



Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; very poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; very poor 
drainage. 

Slight 



Severe: 10 to 15 per- 
cent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 



Slight. 



Moderate: 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes. 



Moderate or severe: 5 
to 10 percent slopes. 



Severe: 10 to 15 per- 
cent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 



Severe: flooding _ 
Slight 



Moderate: 2 to 5 per- 
cent slopes. 



Severe: 5 to 10 percent 
slopes. 



Severe: rapid perme- 
ability. 

Severe: too highly 
organic. 

Severe: too highly 
organic. 

Severe : moderately 
rapid permeability. 



Moderate: 10 to 15 
percent slopes. 



Moderate or severe: 15 
to 30 percent slopes. 

Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 



Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 



Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 



Moderate: seasonally 
high water table; 10 
to 15 percent slopes. 

Moderate or severe : 1 5 
to 30 percent slopes. 

Severe: high water table; 
flooding. 

Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 



Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 



Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 



Severe: high water 
table; poor drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; very poor 
drainage. 

Severe: high water 
table; very poor 
drainage. 

Slight 



Ql'KK.N A.N'N'KS COI NT1 . M UH LAND 



87 



specified nonjarm uses — Continued 



Degree and kind of limitation for — Continued 


Landscaping and cal l h 


St reets and parking lots 


Borrow material for 


Cemeteries 


1 [ontUi garden- 


movement 




sanitary land till 






Moderate: 10 to 15 


Moderate for streets; 


Slight 


Moderate: 10 to 15 


Seven?: 10 to 15 per- 


percent slopes. 


severe for parking lots: 




percent slopes. 


cent slopes. 




10 to 15 percent slopes. 








Severe: 15 to 30 per- 


Severe: 15 to 30 per- 


Slight . 


Severe: 15 to 30 per- 


Severe: 15 to 30 per- 


cent slopes. 


cent slopes. 


cent slopes. 


cent slopes. 


Moderate: seasonally 


Moderate: seasonally 


Slight 


Moderate: seasonally 


Moderate: seasonally 


wet. 


wet. 




high water table. 


wet. 


Moderate: seasonally 


Moderate: seasonally 


Slight 


Moderate: seasonally 


Moderate: seasonally 


wet. 


wet. 


high water table. 


wet; 2 to 5 percent 








slopes. 


Moderate: seasonally 


Moderate: 5 to 10 per- 


Slight . 


Moderate : seasonally 


Severe: seasonally wet; 


wet. 


cent slopes; seasonally 




high water table. 


5 to 10 percent slopes. 




wet. 








Moderate: seasonally 


Moderate for streets; 


Slight 


Moderate: seasonally 


Severe: 10 to 15 percent 


wet. 


severe for parking lots: 




high water table. 


slopes. 




10 to 15 percent slopes. 








Severe: 15 to 30 per- 


Severe: 15 to 30 percent 


Slight 


Severe: 15 to 30 percent 


Severe: 15 to 30 percent 


cent slopes. 


slopes. 


slopes. 


slopes. 


Severe: high water 


Severe: high water 


Slight 


Severe: high water 


Severe: high wat ci- 


table; flooding. 


table; flooding. 


table; flooding. 


table; flooding. 


Severe: high water 


Severe: high water 


Moderate: too sticky 


Severe: high water 


Severe: high water 


table; poor drainage. 


table; poor drainage. 


table; poor drainage. 


table; poor drainage. 


Severe: high water 


Severe: high water 


Moderate: too sticky 


Severe: high water 


Severe: high water 


table; poor drainage. 


table; poor drainage. 


table; poor drainage. 


table; poor drainage. 


Severe: high water 


Severe: high water 


Moderate: too sticky 


Severe: high water 


Severe: high water 


table; poor drainage. 


table; poor drainage. 


table; poor drainage. 


table; 5 to 10 percent 




slopes; poor drainage. 


Severe: high water 


Severe: high water 


Moderate: loose and 


Severe: high water 


Severe: high water 


table; poor drainage. 


table; poor drainage. 


difficult to compact. 


table; poor drainage. 


table; poor drainage; 








very low fertility. 


Severe: high water 


Severe: high water 


Severe: too highly 


Severe: high water 


Severe: high water 


table; very poor 


table; very poor 


organic. 


table; very poor 


table; very poor 


drainage. 


drainage. 




drainage. 


drainage. 


Severe: high water 


Severe: high water 


Severe: too highly 


Severe: high water 


Severe: high water 


table; very poor 


table; very poor 


organic. 


table; very poor 


table; very poor 


drainage. 


drainage. 




drainage. 


drainage. 


Slight 


Slight 


Slight 


Slight 


Slight. 











ss 



SOIL SURVEY 



Table 16. — Limitations or soils for 



Map 




Degree and kind of limitation for — 


symbols 


Soils 


Disposal of sewage 
effluent from septic tanks 


Sewage lagoons 


Homesites for homes of 
two stories or less 


SaB2 


Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderatelj eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 


Slight 


Severe: moderately 
rapid permeability. 


Slight 


SfB2 






SaC2 
SaC3 
SfC2 
SfC3 


Sassafras loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

T"."! /■ 1 i iT" ■ I 1 .ill" 1H'. . i l.i. 1 

1IRMH Kill l\ t 1 UUI (1. 

Sassafras loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, . r > to 10 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 


Moderate: 5 to 10 
percent slopes. 


Severe: 5 to 10 percent 
slopes. 


Slight 


SaD2 
SaD3 
SfD2 
SfD3 


Sassafras loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded . 
Sassafras loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 


Moderate: 10 to 15 
percent slopes. 


Severe: 10 to 15 per- 
cent slopes. 


Moderate: 10 to 15 
percent slopes. 


SaE 
SfE 

SfE3 

SfF 


kJcloSctili. iXa K'liiiij 1') i>w uci uciaij diul" o. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 

Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Sassafras sandy loam, 30 to 60 percent 

slopes. 


Severe: 15 to 60 per- 
cent slopes. 


Severe: 15 to 60 per- 
cent slopes. 


Moderate (15 to 25 per- 
cent slopes) or severe 
(25 to 60 percent 
slopes) . 


Sw 


Swamp. 


Severe: very high water 
table. 


Severe: very high water 
table; variable 
material. 


Severe: very high water 
taoie. 


Tm 


1 i.l.il m-iivn 


Severe : tidal flooding _ _ 


Severe: tidal flooding 


Severe: tidal flooding 


WdA 


Woodstown loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
\\ ( m K Isl t iw 1 1 s.indy I * >m in, 'I in J percent 
slopes. 


Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 


Severe : moderately 
rapid permeability. 


Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 


WdB2 
WoB2 


Woodstown loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded . 
Woodstown sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 


Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 


Severe: moderately 
rapid permeability. 


Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 


WoC2 


Woodstown sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 


Severe: seasonally high 
water table. 


Severe: 5 to 10 percent 
slopes. 


Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 


WoD 


Woodstown sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent 
slopes. 


Severe: seasonally high 
water table; 10 to 15 
percent slopes. 


Severe: 10 to 15 per- 
cent slopes. 


Severe: seasonally high 
water table; 10 to 15 
percent slopes. 


WoE 


Woodstow r n sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 


Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 


Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 


Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 



Ql'KKN AXNKS (OIWTY, MAUI LAND 

specified nonfarm uses — Continued 



89 



Degree and kind of Limitation for — Continued 



Landscaping and cart h 
movement 



St reels and parking hit; 



Borrow material for 
sanitary land fill 



Cemetariea 



1 1 nine- pardons 



Slight. 



Slight. 



Slight. . 



Moderate: 10 to 15 
percent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 60 per- 
cent slopes. 



Severe: very high 
water table. 



Severe: tidal flooding.. 



Moderate: seasonally 
wet. 



Moderate: seasonally 
wet. 



Moderate: seasonally 
wet. 



Moderate: seasonally 
wet. 



Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 



Slight for streets; mod- 
crate for parking lots: 
5 to 10 percent slopes. 



Moderate for streets; 
severe for parking lots: 
10 to 15 percent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 60 per- 
cent slopes. 



Severe: very high water 
table. 



Severe: tidal flooding. 



Moderate: seasonally 
wet. 



Moderate: seasonally 
wet. 



Moderate: 5 to 10 per- 
cent slopes; seasonally 
wet. 

Moderate for streets ; 
severe for parking lots: 
10 to 15 percent slopes. 

Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 



Slight. 



Slight. 



Slight, 



Slight. 



Severe: highly variable 
material. 



Severe: tidal flooding; 
highly variable 
material. 



Slight. 



Slight. 



Slight. 



Slight. 



Slight. 



Slight. 



Slight 



Moderate: 10 to 15 
percent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 60 per- 
cent slopes. 



Severe: verv high water 
table. 



Severe: tidal flooding. 



Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 



Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 



Moderate: seasonally 
high water table. 



Severe: seasonally high 
water table. 



Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 



Moderate: 2 to 5 
percent slopes. 



Severe: 5 to 10 percent 
slopes. 



Severe: 10 to 15 per- 
cent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 60 per- 
cent slopes. 



Very severe: very high 
water table. 



Very severe: tidal 
flooding. 



Moderate: seasonally 
wet. 



Moderate: seasonally 
wet; 2 to 5 percent 
slopes. 



Severe: seasonally wet; 
5 to 10 percent slopes. 



Severe: 10 to 15 per- 
cent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 30 per- 
cent slopes. 



90 



SOIL SURVEY 



much higher moisture-holding capacity than those in 
groups 1 and 3. In most places they can be irrigated at. 
a moderate rate, or a rate of about 0.4 inch per hour in 
level, clean-cultivated areas. These soils are among the 
best for agriculture in the county. They store a fairly 
large to large amount of water and, during dry periods, 
require irrigation less frequently than most other soils. 

Nonfarm Uses of Soils 

Although Queen Annes County is still a rural area, its 
population is growing and its suburbs are spreading 
fairly rapidly. In recent years there has been a large 
and rapid increase in residential and commercial uses of 
the land — especially for homes and resorts on rivers and 
bays and for commercial development along some of the 
highways. The rate of growth and spread is expected 
to increase in the near future. 

Accompanying these changes is a growing demand for 
information about soil conditions that affect nonfarm 
uses. The most urgent need is for information about the 
limitations on soils for use in the disposal of sewage 
effluent from septic tanks. Less urgent are requests for 
information about the use of soils for building founda- 
tions, in earth moving and landscaping, for streets and 
parking lots, and for other uses. 

Table 16 rates the limitations of each soil in the county 
as slight, moderate, or severe, according to the degree that 
the soil is limited in its specified nonfarm uses. A rating 
of slight may indicate that a soil has no limitations at 
all, though most soils in the county are at least slightly 
limited in use. 

The ratings are based on the degree of the greatest 
single limitation. For example, if flooding severely limits 
use of a soil in the disposal of sewage effluent from septic 
tanks, the limitations are rated severe, though the soil 
may be well suited to that use in all other respects. 

A rating of severe for a particular use does not mean 
that a soil so rated cannot be put to that use. For ex- 
ample, a soil with a high water table may be severely 
limited in its use for cemeteries and still be used for them, 
if measures are taken to improve drainage or to lower 
the water table. Likewise, a soil having a wet, plastic 
and unstable substratum can be used as foundations for 
homes if it can be drained and stabilized without too 
much expense. 

Following are the properties that limit the soils of the 
county in their suitability for each use specified in table 16. 

Dispiosal of sewage effluent from septic tanks: Permeability 
of the soil, depth to a seasonally high water table, 
natural drainage, hazard of flooding, depth to an 
impervious layer, and steepness of slope. 

Sewage lagoons: Permeability of the sod, depth to an 
impervious layer, steepness of slope, hazard of 
flooding, and organic-matter content. 

Foundations for homes of two stories or less: Depth to 
water table, natural drainage, steepness of slope, 
depth to bedrock (assuming a 6-foot basement), 
hazard of flooding, and texture of the surface soil. 
For industrial or commercial buildings and for homes 
of more than two stories, investigation should be 
made on the site. 



Landscaping and earth movement: Texture of the surface 
soil and subsoil, plasticity and stability of the subsoil 
and substratum, wetness, height of water table, 
susceptibility to frost action, and limitations to 
working the soil when it is wet or frozen. 

Streets and parking lots: Wetness and depth to water 
table, steepness of slope, and hazard of flooding. 

Material for sanitary land fill: Texture of the soil, 
plasticity, organic-matter content, and thickness of 
available soil material. 

( 'aiiftirirs: Depth to water table, natural drainage, 
depth to cemented layers, plasticity and stability of 
the subsoil and substratum, degree of stoniness, 
hazard of flooding, and steepness of slope. 

Home gardens: Texture of the surface soil, permeability 
of the subsoil, steepness of slope, moisture-holding 
capacity, depth to water table, natural drainage, and 
degree of erosion. 

Recreational Uses of Soils 

This subsection gives ratings for the limitations on soils 
that are used for recreational activities. Table 17 lists 
the soils in the county and show s the kinds and estimated 
degree of limitations that affect their use for various 
purposes. Ratings for the degree of limitations are 
expressed in relative terms — slight, moderate, or severe. 

The aspects of outdoor recreation that are rated in 
table 17 are buildings in recreational areas, such as sea- 
sonal and year-round cottages, washrooms, bathhouses, 
picnic shelters, and service buildings; paths and trails for 
hiking, studying nature, or enjoying the scenery; athletic, 
fields and other intensive play areas that are subject to 
heavy foot traffic, such as baseball diamonds, football 
fields, and badminton areas; parks and extensive play 
areas where pedestrian traffic is usually not heavy or 
concentrated; intensively used picnic areas; and campsites, 
including tent and trailer sites and then accompanying 
activities. Not rated in the table is the suitability of the 
soils as drainage fields for septic tanks. For this rating, 
see table 16, p. 80. 

The major properties that limit the use of soils for 
these recreational activities are wetness, natural drainage, 
depth to the water table, and the hazard of flooding; 
soil permeability, which affects the ease or difficulty of 
improving drainage; texture and stability of the surface 
soil; and slope. 

The properties named are not necessarily limiting for 
all of the specified uses, but most of them are limiting 
for most uses, and some of them for all. In addition, 
any one property may not restrict all types of recreation 
equally. For example, a significant slope limits the use 
of a soil for a football field, and slopes of more than 5 
percent severely limit such use, for on these slopes much 
leveling is required to create a football field. On the 
other hand, the. only slopes that limit the use of soils 
for campsites and picnic areas are those exceeding about 
15 percent, if there are no other limitations. 

Use of the Soil Survey in Community Planning 

In planning the use of soils for different activities 
in a community, reliable information about the soils helps 
in determining the best use for each area. As a rule, the 



QUKKN ANNIvS COUNTY, MAKVLAM) 



01 



soils that are best for agriculture are also suitable for 
building siles and oilier nonagricultural uses. There- 
fore, an orderly plan for land use is desirable. 

In Queen Amies County the soils most- suitable for 
agriculture without artificial drainage are the Downer, 
Matapeake, and Sassafras soils, particularly in nearly 
level or gently sloping areas where slopes do not exceed 
5 percent. Many other soils in the county also are good 
for agriculture if they are adequately drained. The 
agricultural uses of soils are discussed in the section 
u Use and Management of the Soils." 

Table 16 shows that limitations on the disposal of 
effluent from septic tanks are slight only on Downer, 
Galestown, Lakeland, Matapeake, and Sassafras soils 
having slopes of to 5 percent. That rat ing applies only 
lo areas of those soils where the density of housing is 
low. Consequently, those are the only soils suitable for 
use as residential areas if the disposal of sewage is to 
be through septic tanks. The soils that have slight 
limitations to use for septic tanks make up about 30 
percent of the county. If homesites are planned in areas 
of all other soils in the county, a community system for 
disposing of sewage is needed, or special means of dis- 
posal must be used. 

In any community, land is needed for recreational 
areas. The only soils in the county that have slight 
limitations to use for athletic fields and and other nearly 
level play areas are Matapeake loam, Matapeake fine 
sandy loam, Sassafras loam, and Sassafras sandy loam, all 
having slopes of to 2 percent, These soils occupy only 
3 percent of the county. Many other soils have only mod- 
erate limitations that restrict their use for intensive play. 
These soils are seasonally wet, or have slopes of 2 to 5 per- 
cent, or are too coarse or too fine in texture to provide a 
good surface for play (see table 17, p. 92) . 

All soils in the Downer, Matapeake, and Sassafras 
series on slopes of no more than 15 percent have only 
slight limitations to use for parks and other recreational 
areas in which nearly level land is not needed. Steep 
hillsides and the adjoining narrow bottom lands are not 
well suited to use as farms or as building lots, but to- 
gether they are highly useful for some kinds of recreation. 
These areas could well be reserved for parks. 

Also important in the development of recreational areas 
are artificial ponds. Table 12, in the subsection "Engi- 
neering Uses of Soils," lists the suitability of the soils in 
the county as sites for ponds, and it names the type of 
pond that is suitable. 

Formation and Classification of Soils 

This section consists of five main parts. The first 
part explains the factors of soil formation as they relate 
to the formation of soils in Queen Annes County. In 
the second part is discussed the interrelationships of soil 
series in the county. The third part discusses the mor- 
phology of soils. In the fourth part each soil series 
represented in the county is placed in its respective 
family, subgroup, and order of the new system for clas- 
sifying soils and also is placed in its respective great soil 
group and order of the old classification system. The 
new soil orders and subgroups represented in the county 



are briefly defined. In the fifth pail is a. description 
of each soil series in Queen Amies County, including a 
profile of a, soil thai is representative of (lie series. 

For furl her in formal ion about I he new system for classi 
fying soils, refer to "Soil Classification, a Comprehensive 
System" (12). 

Factors of Soil Formation 

Soils are products of soil-forming processes acting upon 
materials altered or deposited by geologic forces. They 
are natural, three-dimensional bodies on the surface of 
the earth, capable of supporting plants. Kadi soil has 
distinct morphology or measurable set. of properties. 
Each set of properties depends on a particular combina- 
tion of the. processes and factors that determine the 
environment of the soil. The factors that contribute to 
the differences among soils are climate, plant and animal 
life, parent material, topography, and time. 

Climate 

Queen Annes County has the rather humid, temperate 
climate that is typical of most coastal or near coastal areas 
of the Middle Atlantic States. Facts about the tem- 
perature and precipitation are given in tables 1 and 2 
in the section "General Nature of the County." 

The climate is fairly uniform throughout the county. 
There are no significant differences in elevation and no 
obstructions to the movements of winds, clouds, and rain- 
storms. Masses of air generally move through the county 
from a northwesterly direction, but they are warmed by 
air that moves in periodically from the south and south- 
west, 

Because precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration, this 
humid, rather uniform climate has caused the soils to be 
strongly leached. Most of the soluble materials that 
either were originally present or were released through 
weathering have been removed. Largely for this reason, 
the soils of the county are strongly acid and generally 
are low in plant nutrients. 

Precipitation is mainly responsible for the subsoil that 
characterizes most soils in the county. In addition to 
leaching soluble materials, water that percolates through 
the soil moves clay from the surface layer to a subsoil 
layer. Except for soils formed in recent alluvium or 
sand, soils of the county have a subsoil that contains 
more clay than the surface layer. 

Also influenced by climate is the formation of blocky 
structure in the subsoil of well-developed soils. The 
development of peels (aggregates) in the subsoil is caused 
by changes in volume of the soil mass that are primarily 
the result of alternate wetting and drying and of alter- 
nate freezing and thawing. 

Weathering of minerals occurs at a rate that is related 
to temperature and moisture supply. Soils in tropical 
regions weather more rapidly than those in temperate 
regions. Soils in humid regions weather more rapidly 
than those in arid regions. In Queen Annes County the 
soils are relatively low in weatherable minerals. No free 
carbonates are in them, and most of the bases have been 
leached out. However, because the soils formed in trans- 
ported parent materials that previously had undergone 



92 



SOIL SURVEY 



Table 17. — Limitations of soils 
[Gravel and borrow pits (Gr) and Made land (Ma) 



Soil series and map symbols 



Degree and kinds of limitations for 



Service buildings in recreational areas 
(2 stories or less) 



Paths and trails 



Bayboro (Ba) 

Bertie (Bo A, BoB2). 

Bibb (Bp) 



Bladen (Bt). 



Butlertown: 
(BuA, BuB2) 



(BuC2, BuC3). 



Coastal beaches (Cb). 



Downer: 

(DoA, DoB) 

(DoC, DoC3, DoD, DoD3). 



(DoE) 

Elkton (Ek, EnA, EnB2). 



Fallsington (Fa A, FaB, FdA, FdB) 

Galestown: 

(GaB) 



(GaC, GkD). 



(GcB) 

(GkE) 

(GIC) 

Johnston (Jo). 



Key port: 

(KeA, KeB2).. 
(KpA, KpB2)_. 
(KrC3, KrD3) . 



Klej ( KsA, KsB). 

Lakeland: 

(LaB) 



(LaC). 



Severe: high water table; very poorly 
drained. 

Severe: somewhat poorh - drained 



Severe: poorly drained; subject to flooding 

Severe: high water table; poorly drained 

Moderate: moderately well drained 

Moderate: 5 to 10 percent slopes 



Severe: tidal Hooding; loose sand. 



Slight 

Moderate: 5 to 15 percent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 30 percent slopes 

Severe: high water table; poorly drained. 

Severe: high water table; poorly drained.. 

Slight ' 

Moderate: 5 to 15 percent slopes 



Slight 

Severe: 15 to 30 percent slopes. 
Moderate: 5 to 10 percent slopes . 



Severe: very poorly drained; subject to 
Hooding. 

Moderate: seasonally high water table 

Moderate: seasonally high water table 

Moderate: 5 to 15 percent slopes 



Moderate: seasonally high water table 

Moderate: to 5 percent slopes 

Moderate: 5 to 10 percent slopes . 



Severe: very poorly drained 

Moderate: somewhat poorly drained; silty _. 

Severe: poorly drained; subject to flooding 
Severe: poorly drained 



Moderate: silty. 
Moderate: silty. 



Sr\ i re: tidal flooding; loose sand. 



Moderate: loamy sand. 
Moderate: loamy sand. 



Severe: 15 to 30 percent slopes. 

Severe: poorly drained 

Severe: poorly drained 



Moderate: loamy sand- 
Moderate: loamy sand. 



Severe: loose sand 

Severe: 15 to 30 percent slopes. 
Severe: loose sand 



Severe: very poorly drained; subject to 
Hooding. 



Slight 

Moderate: silty. 
Moderate: silty. 



Moderate: loamy sand 

Moderate: loamy sand. 
Moderate: loamy sand. 



(JUKKN AXNKS COUNTY, MAKYLWI) 



93 



for specified recreational uses 

are not included, because they are too variable] 



I >egree and kit 



>l" limilat ions for ( 'out inued 



Athletic fields and other intensive 
play areas 

Severe: very poorly drained; 
very slow permeability. 

Severe: somewhal poorly 
drained; silty; slow per- 
meability. 

Severe: poorly drained; sub- 
ject to flooding. 

Severe: poorly drained; very 
slow permeabilit y . 

Moderate: silty; moderately 

slow permeabilit y. 
Moderate: 5 to 10 percent 

slopes. 

Severe: tidal flooding; loose 
sand; very difficult to sod. 

Moderate: loamy sand 

Severe: 5 to 15 percent slopes__ 

Severe: 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: poorly drained; very 
slow permeability. 

Severe: poorly drained 

Moderate: loamy sand; 

difficult to sod. 
Severe: 5 to 15 percent 

slopes. 

Severe: loose sand 

Severe: 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: loose sand 

Severe: very poorly drained; 
subject to flooding. 

Severe: slow permeability 

Severe: slow permeability 

Severe: 5 to 15 percent 
slopes. 

Moderate: loamy sand 

Moderate: loamy sand; difficult 
to sod. 

Severe: 5 to 10 percent slopes 



Parks and extensive play areas 



Severe: high water table; 

very poorly drained. 
Moderate: somewhat poorly 

drained. 



Severe: poorly drained: sub- 
ject to hooding. 

Severe: high water table; 
poorly drained. 

Slight: seasonal wetness 

Moderate: 5 to 10 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: tidal flooding; loose 
sand; very difficult to sod. 

Slight 

Moderate: 5 to 15 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: high water table; 
poorly drained. 

Severe: high water table; 
poorly drained. 

Moderate: loose and difficult 
to sod. 

Moderate: loose and difficult 
to sod. 

Moderate: loose and difficult 
to sod. 

Severe: loose and difficult 
to sod. 

Severe: loose and difficult 
to sod. 

Severe: very poorly drained; 
subject to flooding. 

Slight 

Slight 

Moderate: seasonal wetness; 
5 to 15 percent slopes. 

Slight 



Moderate: loose and difficult 
to sod. 

Moderate: loose and difficult 
to sod. 



Intensively used picnic areas 



Severe: very poorly drained— 

Moderate: somewhat poorly 
drained ; silt v. 



Severe: poorly drained; sub- 
ject to flooding. 

Severe: poorly drained 

Slight: silty 

Moderate: silty 

Severe: tidal flooding; loose 
sand. 

Slight 

Moderate: 5 to 15 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. i 

Severe: poorly drained 

Severe: poorly drained 

Moderate: loamy sand; 

difficult to sod. 
Moderate: loamy sand; 

difficult to sod. 

Severe: loose sand 

Severe: 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: loose sand 

Severe: very poorly drained; 
subject to flooding. 

Slight 

Slight 

Moderate: 5 to 15 percent 
slopes. 

Slight 

Moderate: loamy sand; diffi- 
cult to sod. 

Moderate: loamy sand; diffi- 
cult to sod. 



( lampsites for tents and 

trailers 



Severe: very poorly 
drained. 

Severe: somewhat poorly 
drained ; silty ; slow per- 
meability. 

Severe: poorly drained; sub- 
ject to flooding. 

Severe: poorly drained; 
very slow permeability. 

Severe: silty; moderately 
slow permeability. 

Severe: silty; 5 to 10 per- 
cent slopes; slow perme- 
ability. 

Severe: tidal flooding; loose 
sand. 



Slight. 

Moderate for tents; moderate 
or severe for trailers: 5 
to 15 percent slopes. 

Severe: 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: poorly drained; 
very slow permeability. 

Severe: poorly drained. 



Moderate: loamy sand. 

Moderate for tents; moderate 
or severe for trailers: 
loamy sand; slopes. 

Severe: loose sand. 

Severe: 15 to 30 percent 

slopes. 
Severe: loose sand. 

Severe: very poorly drained;? 
subject to flooding. 

Severe: slow permeability. 
Severe: slow permeability. 
Severe: slow permeability. 



Moderate: loamy sand; sea- 
sonally high water table. 

Moderate: loamy sand. 

Moderate for tents; moderate 
or severe for trailers: loamy 
sand; slopes. 



94 



SOIL SURVEY 



Table 17. — -Limitation s of soils for 



Soil series and map symbols 



Matapcake : 

(MbA, McA) 

(MbB2, McB2) 

(MbC2, MbC3, McC2, McC3) 

(MkA, MoA) 

(MkB2, MoB2) 

(MkC2, MkC3, MoC2, MoC3, MmD 
MmD3). 

(MmE) 

Mattapex : 

(MpA, MpB2, MsA, MsB2) 

(MsC2, MsC3) 

(MtA, MtB2) 

(MtC2, MtC3, MxD, MxD3) 

(MxE) 

Mixed alluvial land (My) 

Othello (ObA, ObB2, 0eC2) 

Plummer (Pd) . 

Pocomokc (Pk, Pm) 

Portsmouth (Po) 

Sassafras: 

(SaA, SfA) 

(SaB2, SfB2) 

(SaC2, SaC3, SfC2, SfC3, SaD2, SaD3 
SfD2, SfD3) 

(SaE, SfE, SfE3, SfF) 

Swamp (Sw) 

Tidal marsh (Tm) 

Woodstown: 

(WdA, WoA, WdB2, WoB2) 

(WoC2, WoD) 

(WoE) 



Degree and kinds of limitations for — 



Service buildings in recreational areas 
(2 stories or less) 



Slight 

Slight 

Moderate: 5 to 10 percent slopes . 

Slight 

Slight 

Moderate: 5 to 15 percent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 30 percent slopes. 



Moderate: seasonally high water table. -. 
Moderate: seasonally high water table 

Moderate: seasonally high water table 

Moderate: seasonally high water table 

Severe: 15 to 30 percent slopes 



Severe: high water table; subject to 
flooding. 

Severe: high water table; poorly drained 



Severe: high water table; poorly 
drained. 

Severe: high water table; very poorly 
drained. 

Severe: high water table; very poorly 
drained. 



Slight 

Slight 

Moderate: 5 to 15 percent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 60 percent slopes. 

Severe: ponded 

Severe: marshv 



Moderate: seasonally high water table 

Moderate: seasonallv high water table 



Severe: 15 to 30 percent slopes. 



Paths and trails 



Slight 
Slighl 
Slight. 



Moderate: silty . 
Moderate: silty . 
Moderate: silty . 



Severe: 15 to 30 percent slopes. 

Slight 

Slight 



Moderate: silty. 
Moderate: silty. 



Severe: silty; 15 to 30 percent slopes- 
Severe: high water table; subject to 
flooding. 

Severe: poorly drained 

Severe: poorly drained; loose 

Severe: very poorly drained 

Severe: very poorly drained 



Slight. 
Slight. 
Slight. 



Severe: 15 to 60 percent slopes. 

Severe: ponded 

Severe: marshy 



Slight. 
Slight. 



Severe: 15 to 30 percent slopes. 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 

specified recreational uses — Continued 



95 



Pernio and kinds of limitations for Cont inued 



Athletic fields and other intensive 
play areas 



Slight --- 

Slight 

.Moderate: 5 to 10 percent slopes. 

Slight 

Slight 

Moderate or severe: 5 to 15 
percent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 30 percent slopes- 



Moderate: moderately slow 

permeability. 
Moderate: 5 to 10 percent slopes. 



Moderate: silty; moderately 

slow permeability. 
Moderate or severe: 5 to 15 

percent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 30 percent slopes. . 



Severe: high water table; sub- 
ject to flooding. 

Severe: poorly drained 



Severe: poorly drained; loose 



Severe: very poorly drained 



Severe: very poorly drained 



Slight 

Slight: 2 to 5 percent slopes 

Moderate or severe: 5 to 15 
percent slopes. 

Severe: 15 to 60 percent slopes.. 



Severe: ponded 
Severe: marshy 



Moderate: seasonal wetness 

Severe: 5 to 15 percent slopes 



Severe: 15 to 30 percent slopes- 



Parks and extensive play areas 



Slight 

Slight 

Slight 

Slight 

Slight 

Slight or moderate: slopes 



Severe: 15 to 30 percent slopes _ 



Slight 
Slight 



Slight 

Moderate: seasonal wetness 



Severe: seasonal wetness; 15 to 
30 percent slopes. 

Severe: high water table; sub- 
ject to flooding. 

Severe : high water table ; 
poorly drained. 

Severe: high water table; 
poorly drained. 

Severe: high water table; very 
poorly drained. 

Severe: high water table; very 
poorly drained. 



Slight.... 

Slight 

Moderate 



Severe: 15 to 60 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: ponded 

Severe: marshy 



Slight: seasonal wetness 

Moderate: seasonal wetness 



Severe: 15 to 30 percent slopes; 
seasonal wetness. 



Intensively used picnic areas 



Slight.. 

Slight 

Slight 

Slight 

Slight 

Slight or moderate: silty; 5 to 
15 percent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 30 percent slopes_ 



Slight 
Slight 



Slight 

Moderate: silty; 5 to 15 per- 
cent slopes. 



Severe: 15 to 30 percent slopes. 



Severe: high water table; sub- 
ject to flooding. 

Severe: poorly drained 



Severe: poorly drained; loose 



Severe: very poorly drained 



Severe: very poorly drained 



Slight 

Slight 

Moderate: 5 to 15 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: 15 to 60 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: ponded 

Severe: marshy 



Slight 

Moderate: 5 to 15 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 



Campsites for tents and 
trailers 



Slight. 
Slight. 

Moderate: 5 to 10 percent 

slopes. 
Slight. 
Slight. 

Slight or moderate for tents; 
moderate or severe for trail- 
ers: silty; 5 to 15 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 

Moderate: moderately slow 
permeability. 

Moderate: 5 to 10 percent 
slopes; moderately slow per- 
meability. 

Moderate: silty; moderately 
slow permeability. 

Moderate for tents; moderate 
or severe for trailers: silty; 
moderately slow permea- 
bility; slopes. 

Severe: 15 to 30 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: high water table; 
subject to flooding. 

Severe: poorly drained. 



Severe: poorly drained; loose. 



Severe: very poorly drained. 



Severe: very poorly drained. 



Slight. 
Slight. 

Moderate for tents; moderate 
or severe for trailers: 5 to 
15 percent slopes. 

Severe: 15 to 60 percent 
slopes. 

Severe: ponded. 

Severe: marshy. 



Moderate: seasonal wetness. 
Moderate for tents; moderate 

or severe for trailers: 5 to 

15 percent slopes. 
Severe: 15 to 30 percent 

slopes. 



96 



SOIL SURVEY 



one or more cycles of erosion, these materials may have 
been highly weathered and leached at the time they 
were deposited. 

Plant and animal life 

Before the county was settled, the native vegetation 
had a major influence on the developmeni of the sods. 
Although little is known about the effects of micro- 
organisms, earthworms, larvae, and ot her forms of animal 
life, the activities of these animals were important in the 
cycle of decay and regeneration of plants. 

The settlers found a dense forest that consisted mainly 
of hardwoods. Oaks were dominant inmost parts of the 
county. Yellow-poplar, sweetgum, blackgum, holly, 
hickory, maple, dogwood, loblolly pine, pond pine, and 
Virginia pine also were important, but there were prob 
ably few pure stands of pine before the county was 
settled. The fairly pure stands of pine that exist today, 
particularly of loblolly pine, are generally in areas that 
were once cleared and cult ivated. 

Most hardwoods use large amounts of calcium ami 
other bases if they are av ailable. Soils that are normally 
high in bases remain so under a cover of deciduous trees 
because, in large part, the bases are returned to the soil 
each year. When the leaves fall and then decompose, the 
bases reenter the soil and are again used by plants. 

The soils in Queen Amies County, however, have never 
been very high in bases; consequently, they are acid even 
under a cover of hardwoods. Soils that are strongly acid 
and low in fert ility are better suited to pines t ban to most 
hardwoods. Pines do not require large amount- of 
calcium and other bases, and their needles do little to 
restore fertility to the soil. 

As agriculture developed in the county, man became 
an important factor in the development of the soils. The 
clearing of the forests, cultivation in some areas, intro- 
duction of new kinds of crops and other plants, and 
improvements in drainage have affected development of 
the soils and will affect their development in the future. 

The most important changes brought about by man 
are (1) mixing the upper horizons of the soil to form a 
plow layer; (2) tilling sloping soils, which has resulted 
in accelerated erosion; and (:'>) liming and fertilizing to 
change the content of plant nutrients, especially in the 
upper horizons. Generally, the most obvious change in 
the vegetation has been the loss of native plants, for only 
a small part of the county remains wooded today. In 
addition, there has been a notable increase in the number 
of pines as compared to the number of hardwoods. 

Parent material 

The parent material of the soils of this county consisted 
of sediments transported mainly by water, though part 
of it probably was transported by wind, and part by ice 
floes carried by glacial melt water. Some of the sediments 
were the size of clay particles, but others were as huge 
as pebbles. In places there were cobbles and small to 
fairly large stones. 

The stones and larger pebbles must have been trans- 
ported by ice during the retreats of some of the last 
glaciers. The Eastern Shore of Maryland was not 
glaciated, but glaciers once extended into northern Penn- 
sylvania. Fragments of ice containing clay, gravel, and 



a few stones must have floated down the rivers. As the 
ice floes drifted southward, they melted and dropped 
sediments in the shallow sea. The areas in which sedi- 
ments were dropped later emerged from the sea to form 
the Delmarva Peninsula, of which Queen Amies County 
is a pa rl . 

It is likely that the soil material in marshes and other 
low-lying areas consists of sediments that were recently 
deposited in shallow salt water. These sediments were 
elevated to sea level, either by slow uplift of the land or 
by fluctuations in the level of the sea and of Chesapeake 
Bay. or perhaps by both. 

The texture of t he soils is direct |y related to I he texture 
of their parent material. Soils of the Galestown, Klej, 
Lakeland, and Plummer series, for example, developed 
in coarse-textured materials consisting chiefly of silica 
-and and partly of clay and. in some places, silt. There 
is some evidence, however, that their parent material, 
particularly that of the (Jalestown and Lakeland soils, 
was reworked by wind or by water, or both, between the 
time it was deposited and the time required for the soils 
to develop. The (Jalestown soils occur, in part, on old 
alluvial terraces along major streams of the county, 
notably adjacenl to the southern or eastern bank of the 
Chester River. The Lakeland soils more commonly occur 
on formations that appear to be old wind-worked dunes. 

Over the largest part of the county, the sediments that 
make up the parent material of the soils consist mainly 
of sand, but there is a significant amount of silt or clay, 
or both. In places these materials were stratified and 
were of differing texture in alternate layers. Soils of 
the Fallsington, Pocomoke, Sassafras, and Woodstown 
-eric- developed in this kind of material. 

The Butlertown, Matapeake, Mattapex, Bertie, Othello, 
and Portsmouth soils developed in a mantle of silt. This 
material appears to be loess that probably was blown 
from glaciated areas to the north. In places where the 
mantle was 36 to 40 inches thick and occurred uncon- 
formably on sandy materials, the soils that developed 
are of the .Matapeake, Mattapex. Bertie. Othello, and 
Portsmouth series. In places where the mantle was 
thicker and, below the soil profile, consisted of unchanged 
silt, the resulting soils are of the Butlertown series and, 
in part, of the Matapeake series. 

The finest textured sediments consisted chiefly of clay 
and silty clay but partly of fine and very fine sand. Soils 
of the 'Bayboro, Bladen, Elkton, and Keyport series 
developed in this kind of sediment. 

In this county there are also several kinds of sediments 
that have been deposited recently. Soils of the Bibb and 
Johnston series are forming in recent deposits of alluvium 
on flood plains: Mixed alluvial land, a miscellaneous land 
type, consists of variable alluvium that has been recently 
deposited; Tidal marsh consists of recently deposited 
sediments, mostly clays, that have been influenced by salt 
water and the action of tides; Coastal beaches are water- 
deposited and wave-worked sand>: and Swamp consists 
of unclassified sediments that are permanently water- 
logged. 

More than one kind of soil commonly develops in the 
same general kind of parent material. Thus, it is evi- 
dent that factors other than parent material have influ- 
enced the kinds of soils that have developed in the county. 



QUEEN AWES COUNTY, MARYLAND 



07 



Topography 

Queen Amies County is entirely within the Atlantic 
Coastal Plain. Most of the county is undulating or 
gently sloping, though sonic rather large ;nv;is arc nearly 
level, a considerable acreage is fairly strongly sloping, 
and small areas are steep or very sleep. Mosl slopes are 
smooth, but some are complex and hummock v and have 
small sinks or depressions. Slopes generally range 
between 2 and 5 percent, though in many places they are 
as much as L5 percent and in a few areas are .">() percent 
or more. The steeper slopes generally are breaks above 
drainageways. They occupy only a little more than 
1 percent of the county. 

Local differences in elevation normally are only a few 
feet. In several areas, however, there are differences of 
as much as 60 feet to the mile. The highest elevations are 
in the central part of the county; the highest point, about 
1 mile northwest of Starr, is ST feet above sea level. 

The county slopes mainly toward Chesapeake Hay to 
the west, hut an important part slopes toward Tuckahoe 
Creek to the east. Marshes in the county are approxi- 
mately at sea level. 

The undulating relief contributes to the moderately 
good or good drainage in most of the county. In the 
more nearly level areas, however, water moves slowly 
through many of the soils and increases the problem of 
drainage. 

Time 

Geologically, the deposits of soil materials in the county 
range from very young, or immature, to fairly old. The 
most recent, or Holocene, deposits are those on alluvial 
flood plains and in marshy areas affected by tides. In 
such areas soil material is still being added from year to 
year when the areas are Hooded. Somewhat older, 
geologically, are the sands and the silty deposits of loess, 
which are probably of Pleistocene age. Most of the 
deposits in the county are probably of Miocene age, but 
some may be of Pliocene age (7.9) . 



Time accounts for many of I lie differences among soils. 
In steep areas, for example, no well-defined horizon- have 
had lime to develop in the soils, because the soil material 
has been removed by geologic erosion almost a- rapidly as 
il was deposited. On the other hand, some soils that 
formed in material deposited fairly recently show definite 
and, presumably, mature development. These soils are 
in nearly level areas, where there has been little or no 
geologic erosion, and the product-- of the soil-forming 
processes have remained in place as components of 
genet ic soils. 

Interrelationships of Soil Series 

In table 18 the soil series of the county are grouped to 
show relationships in position, parent material, and 
drainage. Most of the soils are on uplands or terraces, 
but some are on flood plains or bottom lands. The 
texture of the parent material varies widely. Many of 
the soils are poorly or very poorly drained. 

Soils of the uplands and terraces. — Although the soils 
on uplands and on terraces are in two different topo- 
graphic positions, this difference does not affect the use 
and suitability of the soils and, in itself, does not all'ect 
the classification and naming of soils. Soils of some 
series, such as the Galestown and Sassafras, are on both 
uplands and terraces. 

The soils on uplands have developed in place from 
the underlying parent material. Those on terraces have 
developed in very old material that was deposited by 
streams and generally is sandy. The soils on uplands and 
terraces occupy about 93 percent of the county. 

Soils of the food plains or bottom lands. — The flood 
plains or bottom lands consist of areas where soil material 
has been deposited only recently when streams overflowed 
their banks. The areas are still subject to flooding. 
Some of them are flooded only occasionally, but others 
are flooded every year or several times a 3^ear. 

The floodwaters have left deposits of silt and sand, and 
in places there are deposits of clay or gravel. In most 



Table 18. — Soil series arranged to show relationships in position, parent material, and drainage 

Soils of Uplands and Terraces 



Parent material 



Sand and loamy sand. 
Sand, silt, and clay 



Thick deposit of silt 1 

Thick mantle of silt 2 over sand. 

Clay or silty clay 



Somewhat 
excessively or 
excessively 
drained 



Galestown 
Lakeland- _ 



Well drained 



f Sassafras 

\ Downer 

Matapeake. 

Matapeake. 



Moderately 
well drained 



Klej 

Woodstown. 



Butlertown. 
Mattapex_. 

Keyport 



Somewhat 
poorly drained 



Klej. 



Bertie- 



Poorly drained 



Plummer. -. 
Fallsington. 



Othello. 
[Elkton. 
I Bladen. 



Very poorly 
drained 



Pocomoke. 



Portsmouth. 
Bayboro. 



Soils of Flood Plains or Bottom Lands 



Sand, silt, and clav. 










Bibb 


Johnston. 















1 Mantle that is thick enough for soil to develop entirely within 2 Mantle of silty material that generally is no thicker than 36 to 
it and that is more or less unchanged silt below the profile. 40 inches. 



98 



SOIL SURVEY 



places the material in the deposits is of many different 
textures, but in some areas the texture is uniform. The 
material does not show much soil development, in places 
there has been some development of a surface layer, but 
there is no horizon of clay accumulation. 

The soils of the flood plains are not extensive in this 
county. They make up about 4.4 percent of the total 
acreage. The remaining 2.6 percent of the comity, other 
than the acreage occupied by uplands and terraces, con- 
sists of areas of Tidal marsh, Swamp, and Coastal 
beaches. These areas are not included in this section, 
because they do not have a developed soil profile. 

Morphology of Soils 

In most of the soils of the county, morphology is 
expressed by evident horizons. Little horizonation is 
shown, however, in young alluvial soils and in soils that 
consist chiefly of sand or loamy sand. 

The differentiation of horizons in the soils is the result 
of one or more of the following processes: (1) Aecumu- 
lation of organic matter, (2) leaching of carbonates and 
of salts more soluble than calcium carbonate, (3) chemi- 
cal weathering, chiefly by hydrolysis, of the primary 
minerals of the parent material into silicate clay minerals, 
(4) translocation of the silicate clay minerals, and prob- 
ably of some silt-sized particles, from one horizon to 
another, and (5) chemical changes (oxidation, reduction, 
and hydration) and transfer of iron. 

In "almost all soils of the county, several of these 
processes have been active in the development of horizons. 
For example, the interaction of the first, second, third, 
and fourth processes is reflected in the strongly expressed 
horizons of the Sassafras soils, and all five processes have 
been active in the development of the moderately well 
drained Keyport and Woodstown soils. Only the first 
and fifth processes have had any marked effect on the 
Bibb, Johnston, and Plummer soils. In most soils, how- 
ever, the second process, the leaching of carbonates and 
salts, must have taken place in the soil materials before 
they were deposited, and some of the other processes may 
have been active. 

Some organic matter has accumulated in all the soils to 
form an Al horizon. Through tillage, the material in 
this horizon, however, has been mixed with materials 
from some of the underlying horizons. The Al horizon 
has thus lost its identity and become a part of an Ap 
horizon, or plow layer. The amount of organic matter 
varies in the different soils and ranges from very low to 
very high. The Galestown and Lakeland soils all have a 
weak Al horizon that contains little organic matter. 
Bayboro, Johnston, Pocomoke, and Portsmouth soils have 
a prominent Al horizon in which there is more than 15 
percent organic matter in places. 

There have been few detailed studies of the clay min- 
eralogy of the soils on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. 
The soil material in this area, however, consists of sedi- 
ments that have been deposited by the Susquehanna and 
other rivers. These sediments originated in many parts 
of the Atlantic watershed. Thus, the composition and 
the origin of the clay minerals in the present soils is 
extremely variable. In such soils as the Sassafras and 
some of the other better oxidized, older soils, kaolinite is 
probably one of the chief clay minerals. 



The translocation of silicate clay minerals has contrib- 
uted strongly to development of horizons in many of 
the soils. Silicate clay minerals have been partly removed 
from the Al and A2 horizons and partly immobilized in 
a Bt horizon. This is characteristic of the Bayboro, 
Bladen, Downer, Elkton, Butlertown, Fallsington, Gales- 
town, Keyport, Bertie, Matapeake, Mattapex, Othello, 
Portsmouth, Sassafras, and Woodstown soils. To a slight 
degree, it also is characteristic of the Klej and some other 
soils that do not have a distinct textural B horizon. 

The reduction and transfer of iron has occurred to 
some degree in all the soils that have impeded drainage. 
In the areas of naturally wet soils in Queen Annes 
County, this process, known as gleying, has been of great 
importance. The Bayboro, Bibb, Bladen, Elkton, Fall- 
sington, Johnston, Othello, Plummer, Pocomoke, and 
Portsmouth soils have been affected by gleying. 

Iron that has been reduced in areas where the soil is 
poorly aerated generally becomes mobile and may be 
removed from the soil entirely. In the soils of this 
county, however, iron has moved either within the horizon 
where it originated or to another nearby horizon. Part 
of this iron may become reoxidized and segregated to 
form the yellowish-brown, strong-brown, or yellowish-red 
mottles that indicate impeded drainage and are common 
in a gleyed horizon. 

When silicate clay forms from primary minerals, some 
iron generally is freed as hydrated oxide. Depending 
upon the degree of hydration, these oxides are more or 
less red. Even a small amount of the oxide will cause 
the subsoil to have a reddish color. Iron oxide colors 
the subsoil, even where there has not been enough ac- 
cumulation of clay minerals to form a textural, or Bt, 
horizon. 

A profile that is representative for each soil series in 
the county is described in detail in the subsection "Detail- 
ed Descriptions of Soil Profiles." 

Classification of the Soils 

Soils are classified so that we may more easily remem- 
ber their significant characteristics. Classification enables 
us to assemble knowledge about soils, to see their relation- 
ship to one another and to the whole environment, and to 
develop principles that help us to understand their be- 
havior and their response to management and manipu- 
lation. First through classification, and then by the use 
of soil maps, we can apply our knowledge of soils to 
specific tracts or parcels of land. 

Soils are placed in narrow categories that are used in 
detailed soil surveys so that knowledge about the soils 
can be organized and applied in managing farms, fields, 
and woodlands; in developing suburbs; in engineering 
work; and in many other ways. Soils are placed in broad 
classes to facilitate study and comparison in large areas, 
such as countries and continents. 

Two systems of classifying soils are now in general use 
in the United States. One of these is the 1938 system 
(2) with later revisions. The other is a completely new 
system (8, 12) that was placed in general use by the Soil 
Conservation Service in 1965. In this report the newer 
system is emphasized, but the placement of soils in the 
older system is also given (see table 19). 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 



<)<) 



Under (he new system, all soils arc placed in six cate- 
gories. Beginning with (he most, inclusive the six cale- 
gories are the order, the suborder, the great group, the 
subgroup, the family, and the series. In this system the 
criteria used as bases for classification are observable or 
measurable properties. The properties are so chosen, 
however, that soils of similar origin are grouped to- 
gct her. 

In the 19,'58 system of classification, with later revisions, 
soils are placed in six categories. In the broadest cate- 
gory, soils are classified in three orders. The next two 
categories — the suborder and the family- — have never been 
fully developed and, as a consequence, have not been much 
used in the past. More attention has been given to lower 
categories: the great soil group, the soil series, and the 
soil type. The soil type is not a category in the new 
system. 

In table 19, each soil series in Queen Annes County is 
placed in its family, subgroup, suborder, and order of tin 1 
new classification system, and in its great soil group and 
order of the older system. 

In the broadest category there are 10 orders recognized, 
but only three of these are represented in Queen Annes 
County. These are the Entisols, the Inceptisols, and the 
Ultisols. 

Entisols are mineral soils that have been only slightly 
modified from the geologic material in which they have 
formed. In Queen x\nnes County the principal modifica- 
tion is a weakly developed Al horizon. 

Inceptisols (from the Latin inceptwn, or beginning) 
are mineral soils in which horizons have started to de- 
velop. At the current stage of their development, these 
soils are not yet in equilibrium with their environment. 
In this county the Johnston soils are Inceptisols that have 
a well-developed, very dark colored A horizon. 

Ultisols (from the Latin ulthvii3, or last) are strongly 
weathered or strongly developed soils. In Queen Annes 
County, these are the most common soils. They range 
from well drained to very poorly drained. Ultisols com- 
monly represent advanced stages in soil development in 
which the processes have not been halted by lack of 
weatherable minerals in the geologic materials or by aber- 
rations in the environment. 

All the Entisols in this county are in the suborder 
Psamments (from the Greek psammos. or sand) and are 
dominantly very sandy throughout. In the Psamments 
are the two great groups, Aquipsamments and Quarzi- 
psamments. The Aquipsamments are very sandy soils 
that are wet much of the time and are dominantly gray 
in color. The Quarzipsamments are very sandy soils that 
consist of 95 percent or more quartz or other normally 
insoluble minerals; they range from moderately wet to 
dry. 

Typic Aquipsamments are wet, gray, very sandy soils 
that are saturated with water for part of the year. They 
have a weakly developed Al horizon that is somewhat 
darker gray than the soil material beneath the A horizon. 
The Plummer soils are in this subgroup. 

Typic Quarzipsamments consist primarily of quartz 
sand and may be saturated with water, but only for brief 
periods. They are not dominantly gray but are not par- 
ticularly bright colored. They have a weakly developed 
Al horizon. Their natural drainage is excessive. The 
Lakeland soils are in this subgroup. 



A(|iiic QuarzipsMiumenls are like Typic, Quarzipsam- 
ments but have mottles with gray colors within 40 inches 
of I he Mil-face. They arc. naturally saturated with water 
for at least a brief part of the year, and they have a 
seasonally fluctuating water table. The Klej soils are in 
this subgroup. 

In Queen Amies County, all the Inceptisols are in the 
suborder Aquepts, which are dominantly gray in color 
and are wet much of the time. There are two great 
groups under the Aquepts, the Normaquepts and the 
irumaquepts. The Normaquepts are the normal great 
group of the suborder, and the Ilumaquepts are aberrant 
in having an A horizon dominated by humus or organic 
matter. 

Cumulic Normaquepts have a light-colored A horizon 
and a weakly developed B horizon that shows no evi- 
dence of clay accumulation. In a typical profile the or- 
ganic-matter content decreases irregularly with depth. 
The Bibb soils are in this subgroup. 

Typic Ilumaquepts have a thick, very dark gray or 
black Al horizon over gray soil material. They are very 
poorly drained and are wet most of the time. The John- 
ston soils are in this subgroup. 

In Queen Annes County the Ultisols are in the sub- 
orders Aquults and Udults. The Aquults have a horizon 
of clay accumulation that is dominantly gray, and they 
are wet and poorly drained. The Udults also have a hori- 
zon of clay accumulation, but they are not very wet or 
poorly drained. In the Udults at least a part of the Bt 
horizon (the horizon of clay accumulation) is brighter 
colored than the Bt horizon in the Aquults; it is domi- 
nantly not gray but has some higher chroma of yellow, 
brown, or red. 

In this county the suborder Aquults is divided into the 
great groups Ochraquults and Umbraquults. The former 
have a relatively light colored A horizon, and the latter 
have a very dark gray or black Al horizon. 

Typic Ochraquults are naturally saturated with water 
for part of the year. They have a light-colored A hori- 
zon and a horizon of clay accumulation that is domi- 
nantly gray. The Bladen, Elkton, Fallsington, and 
Othello soils are in this subgroup. 

Typic Umbraquults differ from Typic Ochraquults in 
having a very dark gray or black Al horizon, or Ap hori- 
zon if plowed to a depth of 10 inches. The Bayboro, 
Pocomoke, and Portsmouth soils are in this subgroup. 

The suborder Udults is divided in Queen Annes County 
into the great groups Normudults and Fragiudults. The 
Normudults are the normal soils of the suborder. They 
have a horizon of clay accumulation that is dominantly 
bright-colored reddish brown, strong brown, or yellowish 
brown. They have textures that are loamy fine sand or 
coarser in some part of the Bt horizon. The Fragiudults 
typically have a fragipan (a dense, brittle horizon) just 
beneath the horizon of clay accumulation. 

Typic Fragiudults have a fragipan under a bright yel- 
lowish or reddish horizon of clay accumulation. There 
are no gray mottles (chroma of 2 or less) within the 
upper 10 inches of the horizon of clay accumulation. 
These soils also have a light-colored A horizon. The 
Butlertown soils are in this subgroup. 

Alfic Normudults show no evidence of wetness. They 
have a horizon of clay accumulation with fairly bright 



1()() SOIL SURVEY 

Table 19. — Soil series classified according to the new and the old systems of classification 



Series 



New classifies I ion 



Family 



Subgroup 



Suborder 



< h (In 



( )1<1 classifies I ion 



Great soil group 



( >rder 



Bayboro 

Bertie 

Bibl)_- 
Bladen.. 
Butlertown - 

Downer 

Elkton 

Fallsingtoii- 
Galestown.. 
Johnston - - 
Key port 

Klej_.„. 

Lakeland 

Matapeake. 

Mattapex . _ 

Othello 

Plummer 

Pocomoke. _ 
Portsmouth- 
Sassafras 

Woodstown. 



Clayey, mixed, thermic. 

Fine loamy, mixed, 
thermic. 



Coarse loamy, mixed, 

acid, thermic. 
Clayey, mixed, thermic 

Fine silty, mixed, 
mesic. 



( 'oarse loamy, sili- 
ceous, mesic. 

Clayey, mixed, mesic. . 

Fine loamy, siliceous, 
mesic. 

Sandy, siliceous, mesic 

Fine loamy, mixed, 

acid, thermic. 
Clayey, mixed, mesic 



Sandy silu eouc a< id 

mesic. 
Sandy, siliceous, acid, 

thermic. 
Fine silty, mixed, 

mesic. 



Fine silty, mixed, 
mesic. 



Fine silty, mixed, 

mesic. 
Sandy, siliceous, acid, 

thermic. 
Fine loamy, siliceous, 

thermic. 
Fine loamy, siliceous, 

thermic. 
Fine loamy, siliceous, 

mesic. 



Fine loamy, siliceous, 
mesic. 



Typic Umbra- 

quults. 
Aqualfie Normu- 

dults. 



Cumulic Norm: 

quepts. 
Typic Ochra- 

quults. 
Typic Fragiu- 

dults. 



Alfic Normudults. 



Typic Ochra- 

quults. 
Typic ( )chra- 

q units. 
Psammentic Nor- 

mudults. 
Typic Huma- 

quepts. 
Paraquic Normu- 

dults. 



Acpue Quarzip- 

samments. 
Typic Quarzip- 

samments. 
Alfic Normudults. 



Aqualfie Normu- 
dults. 



Typic Ochra- 

quults. 
Typic Aquipsam- 

ments. 
Typic Unbra- 

quults. 
Typic Umbra- 

quults. 
Alfic Normu- 

dults. 



Paraquic Normu- 
dults. 



Aquults. 
Udults- 



Aquepts 
Aquults . 
Udults. 



(Jdults 



Aquults. 
Aquults - 
Udults.. 
Aquepts. 
Udults. . 



Psamments. 
Psamments. 
Udults 



Udults 



Aquults 

Psamments. 

Aquults 

Aquults 

Udults 



Udults. 



Ultisols 
Ultisols. 



1 1 umic ( Hey . 



Inceptisols. 
Ultisols... 
Ultisols. _. 

Ultisols 

Ultisols _ _ _ 
Ultisols. __ 
Ultisols.. . 
Inceptisols. 
Ultisols 

Entisols 

Entisols 

Ultisols 

Ultisols 

Ultisols 

Entisols 

Ultisols 

Ultisols 

Ultisols. .. 

Ultisols 



Low-IIumic ( Iley (in- 
tergrading toward 
Bed- Yellow Pod- 
zolic) . 

Low-Humic ( Hey 

Low-IIumic (iley 



( Ira \ -Brown Podzolic 
(intergrading to- 
ward Red- Yellow 
Podzolic) . 

( tray-Brown Podzolic 
(intergrading to- 
ward Regosol). 

Low-IIumic ( Iley 



Low-IIumic (iley. 
Sol Brun Acide. . . 



1 [umic ( Hey 



Red- Yellow Podzolic 
(intergrading to- 
ward ( irsy-Rrown 
Podzolic) . 

Regosol 



Regosol. 



Gray-Brown Podzolic 
(intergrading to- 
ward Red- Yellow 
Podzolic) . 

Gray-Brown Podzolic 
(intergrading to- 
ward Red- Yellow 
Podzolic) . 

Low-Humic Gley 



Regosol 

ffumic Gley. 
II umic Gley. 



Gray-Brown Podzolic 
(intergrading to- 
ward Red- Yellow 
Podzolic) . 

Gray-Brown Podzolic 
(intergrading to- 
ward Red- Yellow 
Podzolic) . 



Intrazonal. 
Intrazonal. 

Intrazonal. 
Intrazonal. 
Zonal. 

Zouai. 

Intrazonal. 
I nt razonal. 
I ill razonal. 
Intrazonal. 
Zonal. 

Azonal. 
Azonal. 
Zonal. 

Zonal. 

Intrazonal. 

Azonal. 

Intrazonal. 

Intrazonal. 

Zonal. 

Zonal. 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 



I'll 



Colors; that is, with a chroma <>f less than 6 in at leasl 
some part, whereas Typic Normudults, which are nol rep 
resented in Queen Amies County, have a horizon of clay 
accumulation with a chroma of 6 or more in all parts, 
and they are definitely brighter in color than A.lfic Nor 
mudults. The A.lfic Normudults arc well drained. The 
Downer, Matapeake, and Sassafras soils arc in I lie A Hie 
subgroup. 

Aqnallic Normudults are like Allie Normudults, ImiI 
they have some gray mottling with a chroma of 2 or 
less within the upper 20 inches of their horizon of clay 
accumulation. They are moderately well drained to some- 
what poorly drained. The Bertie and Mattapex soils are 
in this subgroup. 

Paraquic Normudults are like Typic Normudults, w hich 
have brighter colors than A 1 fie Normudults. Paraquic 
Normudults, however, have some gray mottles with a 
chroma of 2 or less between 10 and 20 inches below the 
upper boundary of the horizon of clay accumulation, but 
not within the upper 10 inches. They are moderately 
well drained. The Key port and Woodstown soils are in 
t his subgroup. 

Psammentic Normudults are like Typic Normudults 
except that they have a texture of loamy fine sand or 
coarser in some part of the horizon of clay accumulation. 
They have a higher chroma than the Aquults — domi- 
nantly yellow, brown, or red. The Galestown soils are in 
this subgroup. 

Families of soils within subgroups are differentiated 
on the basis of texture, coarse fragments, mineralogy, and 
mean annual soil temperature, and sometimes some addi- 
tional factors, such as acidity. Queen Annes County is 
approximately on the indefinite boundary between the 
thermic (warm or hot) and the mesic (temperate) soil- 
temperature zones. For this reason, some of the soils of 
the county have been placed in thermic families and some 
in mesic families. Table 19 shows the family classifica- 
tion of the soil series in Queen Annes County. 

Placement of soil series in the new classification sys- 
tem is still somewhat tentative. Placement of some series, 
particularly into families, may change as more is" learned 
about the soils. 

Detailed Descriptions of Soil Profiles 

This subsection describes in detail a profile of each soil 
series mapped in Queen Annes County. The individual 
profile described is as nearly representative of the series, 
as it occurs in Queen Annes County, as it has been pos- 
sible to find. In most cases this profile also represents 
the modal, or central, concept of the series as defined by 
the National Cooperative Soil Survey. 

In addition to a detailed profile description, there are 
notes or statements on each of the following- items or 
accessory characteristics for the soils in each series: The 
range in characteristics of the series as it occurs in Queen 
Annes County; differences from similar or competing 
series in the county ; differences from other soils developed 
in the same kind of material in the county, if any; the 
natural vegetation; the principal uses of the soils; and the 
extent and importance of the soils in the county. 



Hay bar o series 

The soils of t he Bayboro series are very poorly drained. 

They typically have a thick. Mack A horizon thai ifi high 
in organic-matter content and thai, is underlain by a 
gray, prominently mottled, highly clayey B2tg horizon 
that is very slowly permeable. 

Following is a profile of Bayboro silt loam in a -lightly 
depressional, heavily wooded area, about 1',-. mile- north 
of Templeville and just east of Bear Pen Poad : 

Ol — V-i inch to 0, matted, slightly decomposed leaves from 
ha rdwoods. 

Al— to 12 inches black i lovu 2/1 » silt loam ; weak, medium. 

granular structure; friable when moist. Sticky and 
slightly plastic when wet ; roots abundant : extremely 
acid; clear to abrupt, smooth boundary. 10 to 14 
inches thick. 

Big— 12 to 17 inches, very dark gray (10YB 3/1 ) silty clay; 

moderate, coarse, blocky structure; firm when moist, 
sticky and plastic when wet ; roots abundant in the 
larger old root channels, few elsewhere: channels 
lined with dark yellowish-brown (10YB 1/4) silt or 
clay; extremely acid; abrupt, irregular boundary. 
4 to 8 inches thick. 

K2tg — 17 to 33 inches, matrix of gray (5Y 5/1 i to bluish- 
gray clay or fine silty clay with common, medium, 
prominent mottles of reddish yellow (7.5YU 0/0) ; 
moderate, coarse, blocky structure; firm when moist, 
very sticky and plastic when wet; few roots: many 
pores; abundant old root channels that are very fine 
to coarse (as large as 2 inches in diameter | : pores 
and channels filled with very dark gray f.~>Y 3/11 
clay or silty clay; almost continuous, very thin to 
thick, very dark gray (5Y 3/1) : (lows and coatings 
of clay that are on and around aggregates and give 
block surfaces a variegated or almost striped ap- 
pearance of gray and very dark gray; extremely 
acid; gradual, smooth boundary. 15 to 28 inches 
thick. 

Cg— 33 to 50 inches +, gray or light-gray (5Y 0/1) to light 
bluish-gray clay or fine silty clay with abundant, 
fine, prominent mottles of strong brown (7.. r )YK 5/8) ; 
massive (structureless) to very weak, irregular, 
blocky structure; firm when moist, very sticky and 
plastic when wet; no visible roots, but some old 
large root channels that are filled with very dark- 
gray (5Y 3/1) clay or fine silty clay; extremely acid. 

In this county the texture of the A horizon is silt loam. 
The Big horizon ranges from heavy silt loam to silty 
clay. The B2tg horizon and the Cg horizon are clay or 
silty clay. In places there is a coarser textured IlCg 
horizon within 4 to G feet of the surface. The Al horizon 
has very low bulk density and very high liquid limit be- 
cause of the organic nature of the silt in this horizon. 
The solum ranges from slightly less than 30 inches to 
nearly 60 inches in thickness. 

Hue ranges from 10YK to 5Y and neutral. The A 
horizon generally has a value of 2 and a chroma of or 1 
or, in some places, 2. In the matrix of the B horizon, 
the value ranges from 3 to 6 but is most commonly 5, 
and the chroma is or 1 or, in places, 2. In some places 
these matrix colors have a faint bluish or greenish cast. 
Mottles in the B and C horizons have a hue mostly of 
7.5YR or 10YR, a value of I to 6, and a chroma of I 
to 8, but in places where the matrix chroma is 2, there 
may be faint mottles that have a chroma of or 1. In 
some areas of Bayboro soils, mottles are lacking in the 
B or C horizon or, in some places, in the entire profile. 

Structure ranges from very weak to moderate ami gen- 
erally is strongest in the B2tg horizon, which normally 



102 



SOIL SURVEY 



has coarse blocky structure. This horizon, when wet, is 
plastic and nearly everywhere is very sticky. Unless the 
Bayboro soils have been limed, they are very strongly 
acid or extremely acid. Tn a dry soil the value of the B 
horizon generally is one unit higher than that given, 
which is for a moist B horizon. However, the A horizon 
lias the same value, moist or dry. 

The Bayboro soils are similar to the Portsmouth and 
Pocomoke soils in color and degree of wetness, Iml they 
have a finer textured B2tg horizon, which is silty clay 
loam in the Portsmouth soils in this eoiinty and is sandy 
clay loam in the Pocomoke soils. The Bayboro soils 
formed in the same kind of clayey sediments as the Key- 
port and Elkton soils, but they are much more poorly 
drained than the Keyport soils and have a black instead 
of a gray Al horizon. In addition, Bayboro soils are 
more poorly drained than Elkton soils, which are wetter 
than Keyport soils. 

The Bayboro soils have a total area of less than 1,300 
acres in Queen Annes County. Only a few acres are 
cultivated, principally to corn and soybeans. Most areas 
remain wooded and are in stands consisting mainly of 
water-tolerant oaks, blackgum, red maple, and sweetbay. 
In some places there are pond and loblolly pines. These 
soils are difficult and expensive to clear aiid to drain for 
most agricultural uses and other purposes. 

Bertie series 

The soils of the Bertie series are very silty and some- 
what poorly drained. These soils typically have a light- 
colored A horizon and weakly to moderately expressed 
B21t and B22t horizons that are mottled with gray colors 
in the upper 10 inches and that are rather slowly' perme- 
able. 

Following is a profile of Bertie silt loam in a nearly 
level cultivated area just west of U.S. Highway No. 213, 
about 2 miles north of its intersection with U.S. High- 
way No. 50 : 

Ap— to 8 inches, dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4/2) silt loam: 
weak, medium, granular .structure; friable when 
moist, and slightly plastic when wet; roots plentiful: 
medium acid (limed) ; clear, smooth boundary. 7 m 
12 inches thick. 

A2 — 8 to 11 inches, light yellowish-brown (2.5Y 6/4) silt 
loam; weak, fine, granular structure; friable when 
moist, slightly sticky and slightly plastic when wet ; 
roots common : strongly acid ; clear, smooth bound- 
ary. 3 to 5 inches thick. 

Bl — 11 to 15 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) heavy silt 
loam; very weak, medium, subangular blocky struc- 
ture ; firm in place, friable when removed ; sticky and 
slightly plastic ; roots fairly common ; very strongly 
acid; clear, smooth boundary. 3 to 6 inches thick. 

B21t— -15 to 25 inches, light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/6) heavy 
silt loam, common, medium, distinct mottles of light 
gray (2.5Y 7/2) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) ; 
weak, medium and coarse, subangular blocky struc- 
ture; firm when moist, sticky and plastic when wet; 
few roots ; thin, irregular coatings of yellowish-brown 
clay (10YR 5/4); very strongly acid; gradual, 
smooth boundary. 8 to 20 inches thick. 

B22t— 25 to 34 inches, light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/4) light silty 
clay loam with common, medium, distinct mottles of 
light gray (10YR 7/1) and common, fine, prominent 
mottles of strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) ; weak, me- 
dium, blocky and subangular blocky structure; firm 
when moist, sticky and plastic when wet ; very few 
roots ; distinct to prominent, irregular coatings of 
yellowish-brown clay (10YR 5/4) ; abrupt, smooth 
boundary. 8 to 15 inches thick. 



IlClg— 34 to 49 inches, light brownish-gray (2.5Y 6/2) light 
sandy loam with common, coarse, distinct mottles of 
light yellowish brown (10YR 6/1) and common, me- 
dium, prominent mottles of strong brown (7.5VR 
5/8) ; si rati tied with very thin lenses of light brown- 
ish-gray (10YE 6/2) sand; very friable when moist, 
slightly sticky and nonplastic when wet ; very few 
roots ; extremely acid ; gradual, smooth boundary. 
12 to IS inches thick. 

IIC2g— 49 to 60 inches +, light-gray (N 7/0) sand with hori- 
zontal streaks of lighl brownish gray (10YR 6/2) ; 
single grain (structureless); loose; no roots; ex- 
tremely acid. 

In Queen Annes County the texture of the A horizon 
is only silt loam. The B21t and B22t horizons, which 
are distinctly but not prominently finer textured than the 
A horizon, are heavy silt loam or very light silty clay 
loam. They have some distinct to prominent coatings of 
clay and have a clay content of 18 to 35 percent. In 
places there is a C horizon of silt loam that is thin and 
is abruptly underlain by a IIC horizon of coarser tex- 
ture. The solum ranges from about 30 to nearly 50 
inches in thickness, and the depth to unconformable 
coarser material generally occurs within the same range 
but in some places is slightly greater. 

In undisturbed areas there is an Al horizon, as much 
as 3 inches thick, and an A2 horizon that is somewhat 
thicker than the one in the profile described. The hue 
of the solum is 10 YR or 2.5 Y, or both, in the same profile. 
The Al horizon generally has a value of 3 and a chroma of 
1 or 2. In value and chroma, the Ap horizon generally 
is one unit higher than the Al horizon. The value of 
the A2 horizon is 5 or 6, and the chroma is 3 or 4. The 
matrix in the B21t and B22t horizons has a value of 5 
or and a chroma that is normally 4 but may be 6 in 
some part. Mottling is the same as in the matrix or 
redder in hue, is 5 to 7 in value, and is 1 to 8 in chroma. 
In most mottled horizons the mottles have a chroma both 
lower and higher than that of the matrix. In the upper 
10 inches of the profile, mottling has chroma of 2 or 
less. The C horizon generally is grayer than the solum 
and may be variously mottled. The values of a dry soil 
generally are one unit higher than those given, which 
are for a moist soil. 

Structure is weak in most places but may be moderate 
in the B21t and B22t horizons. These horizons are firm 
in place, generally are sticky and plastic but not highly 
so, and have moderately slow permeability when satur- 
ated. The Bertie soils are strongly acid to extremely 
acid, unless they have been limed. 

In Queen Annes County, no other soils are similar to 
the Bertie soils in color or degree of wetness. The some- 
what poorly drained Bertie soils occur on level to gently 
sloping uplands and formed in silty material over older, 
coarser textured sediments. Formed in the same kind of 
material were the well drained Matapeake soils, the mod- 
erately Avell drained Mattapex soils, the poorly drained 
Othello soils, and the very poorly drained Portsmouth 
soils. 

A further distinction between the Bertie and Mattapex 
soils and between the Bertie and Othello soils is the depth 
to mottling. The Bertie soils are not mottled in the 
upper part of the B horizon, but they have mottles with 
chroma of 2 or less in the lower B horizon, and the mot- 
tling generally extends upward to within 10 to 15 inches 



QUEEN ANXIvS COUNTY, MARYLAND 



of ihi 1 surface. The Mattapex soils arc not mottled in 
the upper 1<> indies of their Hi horizon. The Othello 
soils are si rongly gleyed, have a matrix color with chroma 
of 2 or less throughout, and generally are distinctly or 
prominently mottled in all horizons below the Al or the 
A|> horizon. 

In Queen Amies County the Bertie soils are of minor 
extent. Most of their acreage is used for crops, chiefly 
corn and soybeans. The natural vegetation consists 
mainly of wuter-tOleranl hardwoods and, in sonic places, 
loblolly pine. 

Ill this county the Bertie soils occur closely with the 
Othello soils and are mapped only in groups of undiffer- 
eni iated Bertie and ( )t hello silt loams. 

Bibb series 

In the Bibb series are poorly drained soils that occur 
on Hood plains of streams. They have a dark-gray A 
horizon and a lighter gray B horizon thai is prominently 
mottled but shows no evidence of clay accumulation. The 
soils developed in recent deposits of silty alluvium that 
have an uneven distribution of organic matter with depth. 

Following is a profile of Bibb silt loam in a level 
wooded area on a flood plain, about 50 feet west of Bloom- 
ingdale Road and about IV2 miles southwest of its inter- 
section with U.S. Highway No. 301: 

Ol — 2 inches to 0, litter of leaves from mixed hardwoods. 

All — to 5 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1 I heavy silt 
loam: very weak, fine, granular structure; friable 
when moist, sticky and slightly plastic when wet : 
roots fairly plentiful: very strongly acid; gradual 
smooth boundary. 3 to 5 inches thick. 

A12 — 5 to 9 inches, dark-gray (5Y 4/1) heavy sill loam with 
a few fine, prominent mottles of dark yellowish 
brown (10YR 4/4) ; very weak, very thin, platy 
structure : friable or slightly firm when moist , sticky 
and slightly plastic when wet : roots fairly plentiful ; 
very strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary. 5 to 
S inches thick. 

Bg — 9 to 37 inches, gray (5Y 5/1 ) silt loam with common, 
fine, prominent mottles of yellowish brown (10YR 
5/4); massive (structureless) to very weak, coarse, 
blocky structure; friable when moist, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic when wet; very few roots; ex- 
tremely acid; abrupt, smooth boundary. 20 to 30 
inches thick. 

HCg— 37 to 50 inches -f, black (5Y 2/2) fine clay with com- 
mon, coarse, prominent mottles of gray or light gray 
(5Y 6/1) and a few. fine, prominent mottles of 
brown (10YR 5/3); massive (structureless): firm 
when moist, sticky and very plastic when wet ; no 
roots; appears to be organic clay deposited much 
earlier than the horizons above, and it may be the 
A horizon of a paleosol; extremely acid. 

The Bibb soils in Queen Annes County have a silt loam 
surface layer. The Bg horizon is silt loam and typically 
is less than 18 percent clay and somewhat more than 15 
percent fine to coarse sand. Normally, there is no C 
horizon. The HCg horizon may be almost any texture 
but most commonly is somewhat finer textured than the 
A and B horizons. The solum ranges from about 20 to 
nearly 50 inches in thickness, but it is 30 to 40 inches 
thick in most places. This range generally is the same 
as the depth to unconforming material. 

Kites throughout the solum range from 10YR to 5Y 
or, in some places, neutral. The thin All horizon has a 
value of 3 or 4, and the A12 horizon a value of 4 or 5 
or, in some places, 6. In cultivated areas the Ap hori- 

795-646—66 S 



/.on has a value of I or .">. In the P. horizon the matrix 
litis a value of 5 or 6. The chroma of I he matrix gen- 
erally is '1 or less throughout the solum, but in some 
places the chroma is 3 or I in the plow layer. Mottles 
have a hue mostly of lOVH or redder, a value of 3 to 0, 
and a chroma of I to H. The I Kg horizon is variable 

in color but generally is dominated by some value of 
gray. For a dry soil, the values of all horizon- generally 
are one unit higher than those given, which are for a 
moist soil. 

The solum has weak or very weak structures and gen- 
erally is only slightly sticky or plastic when wet. Unless 
they have been limed, the Bibb soils are >t rongly acid to 

e.xt remely acid. 

The Bibb soils formed in alluvium that recently ac- 
cumlated on level or nearly level flood plains. In this 
county the only other soils on flood plains are the Johns- 
ton soils. .Johnston soils are wetter than Bibb soils and 
have ti thick, black A horizon. In wetness, color, and silt 
content, the Bibb soils are similar to the Othello soils, 
which occur on upland flats. However, the Othello soils 
have a Bt horizon in which clay has accumulated, whereas 
the Bibb soils do not. 

The Bibb soils occupy only a few hundred acres in this 
county and are of little importance. Just a few acre- 
are used for corn and other cultivated crops or for im- 
proved pasture, and there is a little grazing on unim- 
proved pasture. The native trees are mainly red maple, 
holly, gums, and water-tolerant oaks. 

Bladen series 

Soils of the Bladen series are poorly drained and very 
slowly permeable. These soils typically have a grayish A 
horizon and a gray Bt horizon that is very high in con- 
tent of clay and is prominently mottled. 

Following is a profile of Bladen silty clay loam in a 
savannalike area about one-half mile south-southwest of 
Grasonville : 

Al — to 6 inches, dark-gray (5Y 4/1) silty clay loam; very 
weak, fine, granular structure; firm when moist, 
sticky and plastic when wet; roots abundant; very 
strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary. 3 to 7 inches 
thick. 

A2g — 6 to 11 inches, grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty clay 
loam with common, medium, faint mottles of light 
gray (2.5Y 7/2) and a few, fine, distinct mottles of 
brown (7.5YR 4/4) ; weak, fine, granular structure; 
firm when moist, sticky and plastic when wet : routs 
plentiful; very strongly acid or extremely acid f 
clear, wavy boundary. 4 to 8 inches thick. 

Big — 11 to 17 inches, olive-gray (5Y 5/2) fine clay loam with 
common, medium, prominent mettles of strong brown 
(7.5YR 5/8) and common, medium, faint mottles of 
light gray (5Y 7/1 1 : weak, medium, blocky and sub- 
angular blocky structure: firm when moist, very 
Sticky and plastic when wet; roots fairly common; 
some faint coatings of dark-gray (5Y 4/1) material, 
apparently silty; extremely acid; gradual, wavy 
boundary. 4 to 8 inches thick. 

B21tg — 17 to 29 inches, gray (5Y 5/1) clay with common, 
medium, prominent mottles of strong brown (7.5YR 
5/8) and abundant, coarse, prominent mottles of 
yellow (2.5Y 7/6); weak, coarse, blocky structure; 
very firm when moist, extremely sticky and very 
plastic when wet; a very few roots: a few thick 
flows of dark-gray (5Y 4/1) clay: extremely acid; 
gradual, wavy boundary. 10 to 20 inches thick. 



104 



SOIL SURVEY 



B22tg— 29 to 44 inches, gray (5Y 5/1) clay with abundant, 
medium, prominent mottles of strong brown (7.5YR 
5/8) and abundant, coarse, prominent mottles of 
yellow (2.5Y 7/8) ; weak, coarse, blocky structure; 
very firm when moist, extremely sticky and ex- 
tremely plastic when wet; no roots; a few thick, 
prominent flows of olive (5Y 5/3) clay; extremely 
arid ; abrupt, wavy boundary. 10 to 20 inches thick. 

HCg — 44 to GO inches -f, dark-gray (N 4/0) fine sandy clay 
with common, medium, distinct mottles of olive and 
olive yellow (5Y 5/3 and 0/8) ; massive (structure- 
less) ; very firm when moist, very sticky and very 
plastic when wet ; no roots ; strongly acid. 

In Queen Amies County the texture of the A horizon 
is silty clay loam. The B21tg and B22tg horizons are 
cla}' or silty clay; their clay content is more than :'>."> per- 
cent and averages about 50 percent. Typically, the solum 
ranges from It) lo more than 50 inches in thickness. The 
C horizon is almost invariably unconformable. It ma} 7 
or may not have a high content of clay, but it generally 
is 50 percent or more sand. 

1 1 ue in all horizons is mainly 5Y but ranges from 10YR 
to neutral. The Al horizon may have a value of 3 or 4 
but is thin. The Ap horizon has a value of 4 or 5. Below 
the Al or Ap horizon, the matrix has a value generally 
of no more than 5 and a chroma ranging from to 2. 
Although there may be some low-contrast mottling with 
grayish colors, it is typical of the Bladen soils that most 
mottling has a hue of 10YR or redder, a chroma of 6, or 
more commonly of 8, and a value mostly of 5 to 7. For 
all horizons, the values of a dry soil generally are one 
unit higher than those given, which are for a moist soil. 

Structure is weak or very weak in all horizons and, in 
some places, appears massive, even in genetic horizons. 
The, Bladen soils have the most sticky and most plastic 
Bt horizons of any of the soils in Queen Amies County. 
Bladen soils are very strongly acid or extremely acid in 
the solum unless they have been limed. In many places, 
however, the unconformable HCg horizon is less strongly 
acid than the solum. 

In Queen Amies County the Bladen soils occur in level 
to depressional areas that generally are adjacent to salt 
water and are only slightly above sea level. These soils 
formed in highly clayey material underlain by generally 
coarser sediments. In some respects the Bladen soils are 
similar to the Elkton soils, but they characteristically 
contain more clay throughout the solum than the Elkton 
soils, they commonly have mottling of higher contrast, 
and on the average they have higher chroma and value 
than the Elkton soils. 

The Bladen soils are inextensive and of little impor- 
tance in Queen Amies County, and they are not used for 
crops. The natural vegetation consists mainly of wetland 
hardwoods, and there are some open areas of shrubs and 
coarse grasses. 

Butlertown series 

The soils of the Butlertown series are deep and silty, 
but they have a firm, brittle lower B horizon (fragipan) 
that restricts movement of moisture and penetration of 
roots. These soils are only moderately well drained. 

Following is a profile of a Butlertown silt loam in a 
nearly level cultivated area about 1% miles north-north- 
east of Wye Mills : 



Ap -0 to 10 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam 
or silt ; moderate, fine to medium, granular struc- 
ture; very friable when moist, slightly sticky and 
very slightly plastic when wet ; roots abundant ; 
slightly acid (limed) ; abrupt, smooth boundary. 
10 to 12 inches thick. 

IU— 10 to 16 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) heavy 
silt Loam; very weak, medium, subangular blocky 
structure; friable when moist, slightly plastic and 
slightly sticky when wet ; roots plentiful ; a few 
faint coatings of dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) 
silt ; medium acid ; gradual, wavy boundary. 4 to 7 
inches thick. 

R2t— 16 to 34 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) light silty 
clay loam; weak to moderate, medium and coarse, 
subangular blocky structure; friable or slightly firm 
when moist, sticky and slightly plastic when wet; 
roots fairly common ; some prominent coatings and 
flows of dark yellowish-brown (10YR 4/4 or 3/4) clay ; 
strongly acid; clear to abrupt, slightly wavy bound- 
ary. 12 to 20 inches thick. 

Bx — 34 to 49 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) heavy silt 
loam with common 1<> abundant, fine, distinct mottles 
of grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) and light brownish gray 
(10YR 0/2) ; weak to moderate, thin, platy struc- 
ture; moderately firm and distinctly brittle when 
moist, slightly sticky and slightly plastic when wet ; 
a very few roots in upper part; distinct flows and 
coatings of brown to dark-brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay; 
Strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary. 10 to 20 
inches thick. 

C— 49 to 60 inches -4-, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) silt loam 
or silt with abundant, fine to medium, distinct mot- 
ties of light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) ; single grain 
(structureless) t<> very weakly stratified ; somewhat 
firm and brittle when moist, slightly sticky and very 
slightly plastic when wet; no roots; a few faint 
coatings or weak flows of yellowish brown (10YR 
5/4) but only in upper few inches; strongly acid. 

In this county the A horizon is mapped only as silt 
loam, but this includes 80 to 90 percent silt in some areas. 
The B2t and Bx horizons are heavy silt loam or light silty 
clay loam, and they have a clay content of more than 
18 percent but generally less than 30 percent. The B2t 
horizon averages about 5 percent more clay than the Bx 
horizon and about 10 percent more clay than the A hori- 
zon. The C horizon is commonly as highly silty as the 
A horizon, but in places below a depth of about 50 
inches, it contains some very thin strata of fine or very 
fine sand. In uneroded areas the solum normally ranges 
between 45 and 55 inches in thickness. 

In undisturbed areas there is an Al horizon 3 to 5 
inches thick and an A2 horizon 4 to 6 inches thick. The 
hue generally is 10YR throughout the soil, but it may 
be 7.5YR in the matrix of the B2t horizon or in clay 
coatings. The Al horizon has a value af 3 or 4 and a 
chroma generally of 2. In the Ap horizon, value is 4 or 
5 and chroma is 2 or 3. The A2 and Bl horizons have 
a value of 4 to 6 and a chroma normally of 4. Color in 
the matrix of the B2t and Bx horizons has a value of 5 
or rarely 6 and a chroma of 6 or rarely 8. In some 
places there is faint mottling in the lower part of the 
B2t horizon, but none in the upper 10 inches of that 
horizon. In the grayish mottling in the Bx and C hori- 
zons, chroma is 2 nearly everywhere but is 1 in a few 
places. Coatings and flows of clay have a value and a 
chroma of 3 or 4. For all horizons, values of a dry soil 
are commonly one unit higher than those given, which 
are for a moist soil. 



Qt'KKX ANNUS COUNTY, MARYLAND 



Structure is mostly moderate and grades toward weak, 
but it. may be somewha! stronger locally, particularly in 
the Bx horizon. In the tragi pan the structure is dis- 
tinctly plaly, and there is only a faint indication of pris- 
matic struct lire. The fragipan is not strongly expressed. 
Only (he B2t horizon is fairly sticky when wet, and no 
horizon is significantly plastic. Unless these soils have 
been limed, they normally are strongly acid. 

The Butlertown soils are (he only soils in the county 
thai have a distinctly expressed fragipan. They occur 
on level to moderately sloping - uplands and formed in a 
mantle of acid silts and very line sands over uncoml'orm- 
able coarser sediments. These coarser sediments occur at 
a depth sullicient ly great thai they apparently did not 
affect the development or morphology of the soil. 

Formed in the same general kind of material as the 
Butlertown soils were the well drained Matapeake soils; 
(lie moderately well drained Mattapex soils, which are 
like the Butlertown soils in degree of wetness but do not 
have a fragipan; the somewhat poorly drained Bertie 
soils; the poorly drained Othello soils; and the very 
poorly drained Portsmouth soils. In Queen Amies 
County, however, only those Matapeake soils that are 
mapped as having a silty substratum formed in a silty 
mantle of such thickness as the Butlertown soils. 

In this county the Butlertown soils are fairly extensive 
and are agriculturally imjDortant. They are suited to all 
the common crops and are widely used for crops and pas- 
ture. Only a relatively small acreage remains wooded. 
The natural vegetation consists almost, entirely of mixed 
hardwoods, dominantly oaks. Loblolly pine' occurs in 
some areas that have been cut. over or previously cleared. 

Downer series 

The Downer series consists of deep, well-drained, very 
sandy soils. These soils have a thin B2t horizon that i's 
only slightly finer in texture than the A horizon. The 
B horizon is much browner than the A horizon, and the 
C horizon is sandy and loose or very friable. The soils 
are readily permeable. 

Following is a profile of Downer loamy sand in a nearly 
level cultivated area, about iy 2 miles east of Roundtop 
Wha rf : 

Ap— to 10 inches, dark grayish-brown ( 10YR 4/2) loamy 
sand ; very weak ; fine and medium, granular struc- 
ture; very friable when moist, nonsticky and non- 
plastic when wet; roots plentiful; strongly acid; 
abrupt, smooth boundary. 10 to 12 inches thick. 

A2 — 10 to 18 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 4/4) loamy sand; 

very weak, medium, granular structure; very' friable 
when moist, nonplastic and nonsticky when wet; 
roots common ; some Ap material in old root chan- 
nels; strongly or very strongly acid; clear, smooth 
boundary. 6 to 8 inches thick. 

Bl— 18 to 21 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) sandy 
loam ; very weak, medium, subangular blocky struc- 
ture ; very friable when moist, nonplastic and non- 
sticky when wet ; a few roots ; some Ap material in 
old root channels : very strongly acid ; gradual, 
smooth boundary. to 4 inches thick. 

B2t — 21 to 27 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 4/4) heavy sandy 
loam ; weak, medium and coarse, blocky and sub- 
angular blocky structure : friable or slightly firm 
when moist, sticky and slightly plastic when wet; 
very few roots ; some thin, discontinuous clay coat- 
ings ; strongly acid ; gradual, smooth boundary. 5 to 
8 inches thick. 



-27 to 32 inches, dark-brown (7.0YU 4/4) sandy loam; 
very weak, medium and coarse, blocky structure; 
very friable when moist, slightly Micky and non 
plaslic when wet; very few roots; some traces of 
clay coatings in pores; strongly acid; gradual, 
Smooth boundary. O to (J inches thick. 

CI — 32 to 42 inches, strong-brown (7.0YK 0/0) loamy sand; 

single; grain t structureless ) ; loose or very friable 
when moist; a very tew single roots; strongly to 
medium acid; diffuse boundary. 

C2 — 42 to 00 inches +, yellow (10YR or 2.5Y 7/6) sand; 

single grain (structureless i ; loose; no roots; strongly 
acid. 

In this county the texture of the A horizon is only 
loamy sand. The B2t horizon everywhere contains more 
clay than the other horizons of the profile, but typically 
the clay content in the B2t horizon is less than 18 per- 
cent. The Bl and B3 horizons, which are lacking in 
places, have less clay than the Biit horizon but have defi- 
nitely more clay than either the A or the C horizon. 
The solum ranges from about 24 to nearly 40 inches in 
thickness. 

In wooded and other undisturbed areas, the Al hori- 
zon is as much as 3 inches thick. The hue of the A 
horizon is 10YR or 2.5Y. The Al or Ap horizon gener- 
ally has a value of 4 or 5 and a chroma of 2. The A2 
horizon has a value of 4 to G and a chroma of 2 to 4. Hue 
in the B horizon is mainly 7.5 YR but ranges from 10YR 
to 5YR. The B2t part of the B horizon is as red in hue 
as any other part and, in many places, is redder than the 
other horizons. Value in the Bt horizon is 4 or 5, and 
chroma is 4, 6, or rarely 8, but chroma is no greater than 
4 in at least some part. Colors in the C horizon are much 
like those in the B horizon, though the value may be 
higher. For all horizons, the values of a dry soil may be 
one or two units higher than those given, which are for a 
moist soil. 

The Downer soils occur on nearly level to moderately 
sloping or rolling interfluvial uplands and formed in 
sandy sediments containing only a rather small amount 
of silt and clay. These soils grade into the Galestown 
soils on the one hand and into the Sassafras soils on the 
other. Their range in color is much the same as that of 
the Galestown and the Sassafras soils. They have a Bt 
horizon that is more prominent than that in the Gales- 
town soils, but their Bt horizon is not so thick, so fine in 
texture, or so sticky as that of the Sassafras soils. The 
Downer soils also have a thicker coarser textured A hori- 
son than the Sassafras soils. 

The Downer soils are not extensive but are important in 
the county, and most of their acreage is cultivated. The 
principal crops are corn, soybeans, and various truck 
crops, especially sweetpotatoes. The natural vegetation is 
upland hardwoods, dominantly oaks. Cutover and sec- 
ond-growth areas may have some loblolly pine or, more 
commonly, some Virginia pine. 

Elkton series 

The soils of the Elkton series are poorly drained. 
These soils typically have a grayish to brownish A hori- 
zon. Their B21tg and B22tg horizons are high in clay 
content, are dominantly gray but distinctly or promi- 
nently mottled, and are slowly or very slowly permeable. 



I (Hi 



SOIL SURVEY 



Following is a profile of Elkton sill loam in a nearly 
level wooded area aboul 1 mile south of Gouldtown 
(Munch : 



01- 



tex - of needle 



id ether Leave: 



Bl! 



B21ts 



-4 inches t(» 1 inch 

2 in 3 Inches thick. 
-1 inch to n. mat of decomposed organic material, '-j inch 
to 2 inches thick. 
Al — to 3 indies, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) silt loam; 
weak, coarse, granular structure; friable when moist, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic when wet: roots 
abundant; extremelj acid; clear, smooth boundary. 
2 to 3 inches thick. 
A2g— 3 to 7 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) silt loam with common, 
medium, distinct mottles of brown or dark brown 
( 10 YR 4/3) and a tew, tine, distinct mottles of 
strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) ; moderate, medium, gran- 
ular structure; friable when moist, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic when wet; roots plentiful; ex- 
tremely acid ; gradual, wavy boundary. 3 to 5 
inches thick. 

to 12 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) heavy silty clay loam 
with common, medium, distinct mottles of yellowish 
brown (10YR 5/6) and a few, fine, distinct mottles 
of strong brown (7.5YR 5/8); moderate, medium, 
subangular blocky structure; linn when moist, sticky 
and slightly plastic when wet: roots common to 
plentiful; extremely acid: gradual, wavy boundary. 
4 to inches thick. 
-12 to 21 inches, variegated gray (10YR 5/1) and 
grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty clay with many, me- 
dium, prominent mottles of strong brown (7.5YR 
5/8): moderate, medium, blocky structure; firm 
when moist, very sticky and plastic when wet; roots 
few to common: discontinuous coatings of grayish- 
brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay; extremely acid; gradual, 
wavy boundary. 8 to 10 inches thick. 
B22tg— 21 t'o 42 inches, gray ( 10 YR 5/1) silty clay with 
many, coarse, distinct mottles of brown or dark 
brown (10YR 4/3); weak, coarse, blocky structure; 
very linn when moist, very sticky and plastic when 
wet - very few roots; some coats ami Hows of dark- 
gray (5Y 4/1) clay: very strongly or extremely acid; 
clear smooth boundary. 20 to 24 inches thick. 
Cg— 12 to 00 inches +, gray or light-gray ( X 6/0) dense 
Silty clay with a few. tine, prominent mottles ot 
strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) ; massive (structureless) ; 
extremelv firm when moist, sticky and plastic when 
wet ; no roots ; very strongly or extremely acid. 

In Queen Amies Countv the texture of the A horizon 
is loam or silt loam. The Bt horizons are typically clay 
or silty clay and have a clay content that averages a little 
more than 40 percent. The solum typically ranges from 
35 to 45 inches in thickness. In some places the Cg hori- 
zon is missing, and in places it is underlain , within 60 
inches of the surface, by an unconformable IK horizon 
that is definitely sandy. 

The hue of all horizons is mainly about 2.5* but ranges 
from 10YR to neutral. The Al horizon has a value of 
2, 3, or 4, and the Ap horizon has a value of 4 or 5. 
Belo'w the Al or the Ap horizon, the value of the matrix 
is most commonly 5 but ranges as high as 7, and the 
chroma of the matrix is generally 1 but may be to 2. 
Most mottling has a hue of 10 YR or 7.5 YR, a value of 4 
or 5, and a chroma of 3 to 8, but most commonly the 
chroma of mottles is no higher than 6. For a dry soil, 
the yalue of all horizons generally is one unit higher than 
that giyen, which is for a moist soil. 

Structure ranges from weak to moderate and every- 
where is distinct in genetic horizons. The finest textured 
horizons are very sticky when wet, but none is highly 
ic. The Elkton soils generally are very strongly or 



extremely acid unless they have been limed. However, 
the unconformable IK' horizon, where present, may he 
los strongly acid than the solum. 

The Elkton soils occur on upland Hals and in gently 
sloping areas, where they formed in silty clays underlain 
by various kinds of older sediments. In the same kind 
of material were formed the Keyport soils, w hich are on ly 
slightly wet, and the, Bayboro soils, which tire even more 
wet than the Elkton soils. 

The Elkton soils are similar to the Bladen soils in some 
respects, but they formed in less clayey sediments, are not 
so line textured throughout, and have mottles that tend 
to be lower in chroma. The Elkton soils tire similar to 
the Fallsington and Othello soils in general morphology, 
bul they are less sandy and siliceous throughout than the 
Fallsington soils, and their Bt horizons are lower in silt 
content and higher in clay content than those of the 
Othello soils. 

In Queen Amies County the Elkton soils are extensive 
and are important to agriculture. Where drainage is im- 
proved, they are used for corn, soybeans, and pasture. 
The native vegetation consists mostly of wetland hard- 
woods in mixed stands, and there are many white oaks, 
but loblolly pine is common in cutover or previously 
cleared areas. 

Fallsington series 

The Fallsington series consists of poorly drained soils 
that are moderately sandy and dominantly gray through- 
out. In these soils the B21tg and B22tg horizons always 
contain more clay than the A horizon, but they are mod- 
erately permeable. 

Following is a profile of Fallsington sandy loam in a 
nearly level wooded area, about 4 miles northeast of 
Church Hill: 

01 — 2 inches to V> inch, litter of leaves and twigs. 

< >2 — VL> inch to 0. mat of decomposed organic material. 

Al — to 5 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) 
sandy loam: moderate, medium, granular structure; 
friable when moist, slightly sticky and nonplastic 
when wet: roots plentiful; very strongly acid: grad- 
ual, wavy boundary. 3 to 5 inches thick. 

A2g — 5 to in inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam: moder- 
ate, medium, granular structure; very friable when 
moist, slightly sticky and nonplastic when wet: 
roots common: extremely acid; gradual, smooth 
boundary. 4 to 6 inches thick. 

Big — 10 to 16 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) heavy sandy loam 
with common, medium, faint mottles of pale brown 
(10YR 6/3); weak, medium, blocky structure; fri- 
able when moist, sticky and slightly plastic when 
wet ; few roots : very strongly or extremely acid ; 
gradual, smooth boundary. 4 to < - , inches thick. 

R21tg — 16 to 24 inches, light-gray (5Y 7/1) sandy clay loam 
with common, coarse, prominent mottles of yellowish 
brown (10YR 5/8) ; moderate, medium, subangular 
blocky structure: friable to firm when moist, sticky 
and plastic when wet ; very few roots ; very strongly 
or extremely acid ; gradual, wavy boundary. 6 to 10 
inches thick. 

B22tg— 24 to 35 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) 
sandy clay loam with common, medium, distinct 
motties of brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) ; moderate 
to strong, fine, blocky and weak, coarse, platy struc- 
ture ; firm when moist, sticky and plastic when wet : 
no roots: some dark-gray (5Y 4/1) clay coatings; 
extremely acid : abrupt, smooth boundary. 8 to 12 
inches thick. 



QUEEN A.WKS COUNTY, MAKYLAND 



107 



[ICg .'•'> to 50 Inches |, llghl brownish-gray (10YR 6/2), 
stratified sand and some fine gravel with common, 
coarse, prominent mottles of yellowish brown (10YR 
5/6); nip roots; very strongly or extremely acid. 

In this county the texture of the A horizon is Loam or 
sandy Loam. The Bt horizons arc chiefly sandy clay loam 
but raiiiiv from heavy sandy loam to heavy sandy clay 
loam. These horizons typically have a clay content of 
more than is percent, and they generally are 50 to 70 per- 
cent sand and line sand. In places there are Hi and B3 
horizons, which are transitional in texture and in most 
other characterisl ics. 

The solum ranges from 20 to 40 inches in thickness but 
most commonly is somewhat less than 30 inches thick'. In 
some places there is a thin Cg horizon just below the 
solum. This horizon is typically nongravelly, and it con- 
tains some silt and clay but significantly less than the Bt 
horizons of the solum. 

In cultivated areas the plow layer is generally 10 to 12 
inches thick and has had part or all of the A2 horizon 
mixed into it. Except in mottles, the hue in all horizons 
is mainly 2.5Y but generally ranges from 10YR to 5Y, 
though in places it is neutral in the finest textured hori- 
zons. The At horizon has a value of 3 or 4 and a chroma 
of 1 or 2, and the Ap horizon has a value of 4 or 5 and 
a chroma of 1 or 2. In the A2 horizon the value is 5 or, 
in some places, 6 and the chroma is 1 or 2. In the B 
horizon the value of the matrix is generally 5 or 6 and the 
chroma is generally 1 but ranges from to 2. Mottles in 
the B horizon are normally 10YE in hue, 5 or 6 in value, 
and 3 to 8 in chroma. The higher chroma generally is in 
the finer textured horizons. In some places where the 
matrix chroma is 2, there are mottles with a chroma of 
or 1. In the C horizon, the value is 6 or 7 and the chroma 
is 0, 1, or 2. Mottles may occur in the C horizon and, if 
present, are similar to those in the lower part of the solum. 
When dry, all horizons commonly have values one unit 
higher than those given, which are for a moist soil. 

The A horizon generally has weak to moderate, gran- 
ular structure, but the A2 horizon has weak, subangular 
blocky structure in some places. Structure in the B hori- 
zon is mostly subangular blocky but is angular blocky in 
some places, and it is weak or moderate or, in places, 
strong. The Bt horizons may have weak platy structure. 
Stickiness and plasticity are greatest in the Bt horizons, 
where the content of clay is highest. The Fallsington 
soils are very strongly or extremely acid unless they have 
been limed. 

The Fallsington soils occur on level or gently sloping 
interfiuvial uplands. They formed in moderately clayey 
and silty sands over coarser sediments. These soils are 
similar to the Elkton and Othello soils in general mor- 
phology and in degree of wetness, but they contain more 
sand and less silt throughout the solum than the Othello 
soils, and they contain more sand and less silt and clay 
than the Elkton soils. 

The Fallsington soils occur closely with the Sassafras, 
Woodstown, and Pocomoke soils, all of which developed 
in the same kind of material. They are not so well 
drained as the well drained Sassafras soils or the moder- 
ately well drained Woodstown soils, but they are less 
poorly drained than the very poorly drained Pocomoke 
soils, which show evidence of extreme wetness. 



The Fallsington soils are among the more extensive in 
Queen Amies County. They are important to farming 

and as woodland, and a considerable acreage is cultivated. 

Artificial drainage is needed for com. soybeans, and mosi 

other Crops. Improved pasture is grown in 30me areas. 
The principal nat h e t rees a re red ma pie, aweel gum, holly, 
water-tolerant oaks, and pond pine. Some second-growth 
and CUtover areas are covered by mixed to almosl pure 
stands of loblolly pine. 

Galestown series 

The soils of the Galestown series are very deep, very 
sandy, and somewhat excessively or excessively drained. 
These soils are coarse textured throughout and are char- 
acterized by a strong-brown B horizon. 

Following is a profile of Galestown loamy sand on a 
slope of about 2 percent, in a forest of Virginia pine 
about I mile southwest of Crumpton : 

Ol — 1 to % inch, litter of noodles of Virginia pine. 

<>2 — 14 inch to 0, mat of decomposed organic material. 

All — to 3 inches, dark-gray (lOYR 4/1) Loamy sand; very 
weak, medium, granular structure: loose or very fri- 
able ; roots plentiful; very strongly acid: clear, wavy 
boundary. 2 to 4 inches thick. 

A12 — 3 to 8 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) Loamy sand: 
very weak. fine, granular structure; loose: roots 
fairly plentiful; very strongly acid; abrupt, wavy 
boundary. 3 to (! indies t hick. 

K2t — 8 to 3!» inches, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/6) loamy sand: 
very weak, coarse, blocky structure and medium, 
granular structure: very friable when moist, very 
slightly sticky and nonplastie when wet : roots com- 
mon in upper part; sand grains distinctly coated 
and bridged; very strongly acid; clear, wavy bound- 
ary. 24 to 35 inches thick. 

01—39 to 55 inches, light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) sand; 

single grain (structureless) : loose; a very few roots 
in upper part; sand grains are uncoated; very 
strongly or extremely acid; abrupt, wavy boundary. 
12 to 20 inches thick. 

IIC2 — 55 to 60 inches +. pale-brown (10YR 6/3) sandy loam 
with many horizontal streaks of lifjht gray (10YR 
7/1); massive (structureless): friable when moist, 
sticky and slightly plastic when wet; no roots; very 
strongly or extremely acid. 

The Galestown soils are coarse textured throughout the 
A and B horizons. In some places they are loamy sand 
that grades to sand with depth, and in others they are 
sand in all horizons. However, the IIC horizon, which 
typically occurs within a depth of 6 feet in areas of gentle 
relief, is everywhere finer in texture than the overlying 
horizons and generally is sandy loam or sandy clay loam. 
The solum ranges from about 30 to nearly 50 inches in 
thickness. 

In cultivated areas the Ap horizon is about 10 inches 
thick. The Al horizon is 10 YE or 2.5Y in hue, but the 
Ap horizon ranges from 10YR to 7.5YR because the 
upper part of the B2t horizon has been mixed into it. 
The value in the Ap and the Al horizons ranges from 
4 to 6, and the chroma ranges from 1 to 4. The B2 hori- 
zon is as red as 7.5YE in hue and, in some places, is 
5YR. In the B2t horizon the value generally is 5 and 
the chroma is 6 to 8. The C horizon ranges from 10YR 
to 5Y in hue, from 5 to 7 in value, and from 2 to 6 in 
chroma. Both value and chroma normally decrease with 
depth. Generally, there is no evidence of wetness above 
the IIC horizon, which may be almost any color. 



108 



SOIL SURVEY 



Typically, the Galestown soils have very weak struc- 
ture. They are tionst icky or only slightly sticky and non- 
plastic above the IIC horizon. Unless the soils have been 
limed, they are strongly to extremely acid. 

The Galestown soils grade into the Lakeland soils in 
such a way that, in some places, soils of the two series 
cannot he accurately separated on a map. The Galestown 
soils and the Lakeland soils are much the same excepl thai 
the Lakeland soils do not have a B horizon. The Gales- 
town soils also grade into the Downer soils, but Gales- 
town soils do not have as strongly expressed Bt horizons 
as the Downer soils. 

The Galestown soils are mostly cultivated, except in 
some steep and dunelike areas that are covered mainly by 
trees. The principal crop- are corn, soybeans, and vari- 
ous truck crops, especially sweet pot at oes. The native 
vegetation consists of scrub hardwoods, mostly oaks, and 
Virginia pine. Some reforested areas are in stands of 
loblolly pine, but there is little or no undergrowth. These 
soils have a fairly limited acreage and occur chiefly in 
areas bordering the Chester River, but they are locally 
import ant for farming. 

Johnston series 

In the Johnston series are very poorly drained soils 
that occur on the flood plains of streams. These soils 
have a thick, black A horizon that is directly underlain 
by an unconforming sandy C horizon. The B horizon is 
lacking. 

Following is a profile of Johnston loam in a level culti- 
vated area on the flood plain of Long Marsh Ditch, about 
one-fourth mile north of its intersection with Edenburg 
Ditch : 

Alp — to 9 inches, black (SYR 2/1) loam that is high in 
organic-matter content; moderate, medium, granular 
structure: friable when moist, sticky and slightly 
plastic when wet ; roots abundant : strongly acid ; 
clear, smooth boundary. 9 to 10 inches thick. 

A12— 9 to 23 inches, black (10YR 2/1) loam; weak, medium, 
granular structure; friable when moist, slightly 
sticky and slightly plastic when wet ; roots plentiful 
in upper part, fewer below ; many wormholes and 
old root channels filled with material that apparently 
is identical with the Alp horizon ; very strongly acid ; 
clear, smooth boundary. 12 to 15 inches thick. 

A13— 23 to 30 inches, black (5Y 2/1) loam to fine sandy 
loam; massive (structureless) to very weak, granu- 
lar structure; compact; firm, and slightly brittle 
when moist, slightly sticky and slightly plastic when 
wet; few roots; dark-gray to black organic silt in 
old wormholes and rout channels; extremely acid; 
abrupt, smooth boundary. 12 to 18 inches thick. 

IlClg — 30 to 41 inches, light-gray (5Y 7/2) loamy fine sand 
with irregular streaks and blotches of brown (10YR 
5/3) and very dark gray (5Y 3/1) ; single grain 
(structureless); loose: tends to flow when satu- 
rated ; no roots ; extremely acid ; abrupt, smooth 
boundary. 4 to G inches thick. 

IIIC2g— 41 to 50 inches +, white (5Y 8/2) fine sandy clay 
with common, very coarse, prominent blotches of 
light olive brown (2.5Y 5/6) ; massive (structure- 
less) ; very firm when moist, very sticky and very 
plastic when wet ; no roots ; extremely acid. 

The Johnston soils in Queen Amies County have only 
a loam A horizon. Except for some differential effects of 
worm activity in the A horizon, there is little variation 
in texture or other characteristics above the IlClg hori- 
zon. Some areas have a thin C horizon between the A13 



and the IlClg horizons. The IlClg horizon is sand or 
loamy sand. In some places the liner textured IIIC2g 
horizon occurs at a depth of more than 5 feet. The 
solum consists entirely of the A horizon and ranges from 
•_'<> to -"id inches in thickness. 

In wooded or other undisturbed areas, the A horizon is 
black' and may have a mucky surface. In some areas that 
have been cultivated for a long time, the plow layer is 
very dark gray and has a value, of 3 and a chroma of 
or 1. Hue ranges from neutral or f>Y to SYR. The C 
horizon is almost any color but everywhere is gleyed. 

Structure in the A horizon is granular and decreases in 
grade with depth. Stickiness and plasticity range from 
slight to medium in the solum. These soils are very 
strongly or extremely acid unless they have been limed. 

The Johnston soils occur only on flood plains, where 
they formed in fairly recent alluvium and a large amount 
of organic matter. The only other named >oil< on flood 
plains in the county are the Bibb soils, which do not have 
a black A horizon and are not so wet as the Johnston 
soils. The Johnston soils superficially resemble the Poco- 
moke and the Portsmouth soils, but they lack the Bt hori- 
zons that are present in those soils. In the Pocomoke 
soils the Bt horizons are sandy 7 clav loam, and in the 
Portsmouth soils these horizons are silty clay loam. 

Most areas of Johnston soils are still in woodland that 
consists of red maple, gum, holly, pond pine, and some 
water-tolerant oaks. Cleared areas are used chiefly for 
corn, but there are some improved pastures in the county. 
Although these soils are fairly extensive, they are impor- 
tant to farming only along some of the major streams. 

Keyport series 

The soils of the Keyport series are moderately well 
drained. They have slowly permeable B21t, B22t, and 
B23tg horizons that are high in content of clay and are 
mottled with gray colors in the lower part. 

Following is a profile of Keyport silt loam in a level 
wooded area on Kent Island, about iy 2 miles southwest 
of Romancoke: 

01 — 1 to % inch, litter of hardwood leaves and twigs. 

02 — % inch to 0, mat of decomposed organic material. 

Al— to 3 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) light silt loam; 

moderate, fine, granular structure; friable when 
moist, slightly sticky and slightly plastic when wet; 
roots abundant ; strongly acid ; clear, smooth bound- 
ary. 3 to 4 inches thick. 

A2— 3 to 9 inches, light yellowish-brown (2.5Y 6/4) silt loam; 

weak, fine, granular structure; friable when moist, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic when wet ; roots 
plentiful : very strongly acid ; clear, smooth bound- 
ary. 6 to 8 inches thick. 

B21t— 9 to 20 inches, brownish-yellow ( 10 YR 6/6) light silty 
clay; moderate, fine and medium, blocky structure; 
firm when moist, sticky and plastic when wet ; roots 
fairly plentiful : discontinuous coatings of light yel- 
lowish brown (10YR 6/4) ; very strongly acid; clear, 
wavy boundary. 10 to 15 inches thick. 

B22t — 20 to 35 inches, light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/6) clay or 
fine silty clay with common, medium, distinct mot- 
tles of light gray (5Y 7/1) and common, medium, 
prominent mottles of strong brown (T.5YR 5/6) ; 
strong, medium, blocky structure ; very firm when 
moist, very sticky and plastic when wet: a very few 
roots in upper part ; distinct coatings and flows of 
dark yellowish-brown (10YR 4/4) clay; very strongly 
or extremely acid ; gradual, wavy boundary. 12 to 
20 inches thick. 



(Jl'KKN A.WKS COUNTY, MARYLAND 



109 



Il23ts — 35 to 44 inches, dark-gray (5Y 4/1) clay with a few. 

fine, distinct mottles of light gray (51 7/1) and 
common, coarse, prominent mottles of strong brown 
(7.5TR 5/6) ; strong, coarse, blocky structure; very 
firm when moist, very sticky and very plastic when 
wet; no roots; thin patchy coats and a few distinct 
flows of dark yellowish -brown (10YK 4/4) clay, most 
prominent in upper part; very strongly or extremely 
acid; gradual, wavy boundary. (I to 12 inches thick. 

Cg — 44 to 55 inches -f, dark-gray (5Y 4/1) silty clay that is 
Irregularly streaked with dark grayish brown (10YB 
4/2) ; massive (structureless) ; extremely firm when 
moist, very sticky and very plastic when wet; no 
roots ; extremely acid. 

The A horizon of Keyport soils is loam or silt loam in 
norma] profiles, l)tit in* severely eroded areas (he. plow- 
layer is silty clay loam where part of the B horizon has 
been mixed' into' it. The Bt horizons are line textured, 
at least in the major part, and have an average clay con- 
tent of a little more than 40 percent. The C horizon is 
clay, silty clay, heavy silty clay loam, or heavy clay loam. 
In places there is an unconforming sandy IIC horizon 
within a 5-foot depth. This horizon lies beneath the Cg 
horizon or replaces it. 

The A and Bt horizons generally are 10YR or 2.5Y in 
hue, but in some places the Bt horizons are 5Y in the 
lower part, or they may approach 7.5YR. Normally, the 
Al or the Ap horizon has a value of 3 or 4 and a chroma 
of 1 or 2. The A2 horizon generally has a value of 4 to 
6 and a chroma of 2 to 4. The Bt horizons have a value 
of 4, 5, or 6, and a chroma generally of 6 but ranging from 
1 to 8. A chroma of less than 6 is confined mostly to the 
lower part of the Bt horizons, where they are transitional 
to the C horizon. Such a transitional B23tg horizon is 
lacking in many places. Mottling in the B22t horizon 
and below it may be highly divergent, but everywhere 
there are some mottles with a chroma of 2 or less. The 
C horizon is dominated by gray colors and may be 
strongly mottled. For all horizons, the values of a dry 
soil may be one or two units higher than those given, 
which are for a moist soil. 

Structure is generally weak or moderate granular in the 
A horizon, but in some places the A2 horizon has thin, 
weak, platy structure. The Bt horizons have moderate 
to strong blocky structure. They are sticky and com- 
monly are more plastic than the B horizons of other soils 
on uplands in the county. The Keyport soils are strongly 
acid to extremely acid unless they have been limed. 

In this county the Keyport soils are similar to the Mat- 
tapex and the Woodstown soils in color and degree of 
wetness, but they have finer textured Bt horizons. The 
Bt horizons in the Mattapex soils are light silty clay loam, 
and those in the Woodstown soils are sandy clay loam or 
heavy sandy loam. 

The Keyport soils occur on level to moderately sloping 
uplands and formed in highly clayey sediments. Formed 
in the same general kind of material were the wet Bladen 
and Elkton soils, which have a light -colored surface layer, 
and the very wet Bayboro soils, which have a thick very- 
dark surface layer. 

The Keyport soils are fairly extensive in Queen Amies 
County and occupy a total of nearly 10,000 acres. Some 
areas of these soils are used for corn, soybeans, hay, and 
pasture, but many areas are still wooded. The principal 
native trees are mixed oaks, and there is some sweetgum 



and red maple. Loblolly pine, or Virginia pine occurs 
locally, and some cutover and second-growth areas have 
fairly pure stands. 

Klej series 

The. soils of (he Klej series are very deep and very 
sandy. Because these soils have a fluctuating water table, 
however, they have molded colors below a depth of about 
20 inches. They are only moderately well drained, but 
water readily moves through them. 

Following is a profile of Klej loamy sand in a level 
wooded area about one-fourth mile north of Unicorn, not 
far from the Chester River: 

01 — 2 inches to % inch, litter of pine and hardwood leaves 

and twigs. 

02 — y 2 inch to 0, mat of decomposed organic material. 

All — to 2 inches, grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) loamy sand; 

very weak, medium, granular structure; very friable 
when moist, very slightly sticky and nonplastic when 
wet; roots plentiful; very strongly acid; clear, wavy 
boundary. 2 to 3 inches thick. 

A12— 2 to 9 inches, light brownish-gray (2.5Y 6/2) loamy 
sand; very weak, medium, granular structure; very 
friable; roots fairly plentiful; very strongly acid; 
clear, wavy boundary. 5 to 8 inches thick. 

CI — 9 to 19 inches, olive-yellow (2.5Y 6/6) loamy sand; sin- 
gle grain (structureless) ; loose; roots fairly com- 
mon ; extremely acid ; gradual, irregular boundary. 
8 to 15 inches thick. 

C2— 19 to 39 inches, olive-yellow (2.5Y 6/6) very light loamy 
sand with common, medium, faint mottles of light 
brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) ; single grain (structure- 
less) ; loose; a few fine roots; extremely acid; grad- 
ual, irregular boundary. 12 to 20 inches thick. 

C3g— 39 to 47 inches, light brownish-gray (2.5Y 6/2) sand 
with common, medium, prominent mottles of brown- 
ish yellow (10YR 6/6) and common, coarse, distinct 
mottles of gray or light gray (5Y 6/1) ; single grain 
(structureless), loose; a very few roots; extremely- 
acid ; abrupt, smooth boundary. 8 to 15 inches thick. 

IIC4g — 47 to 55 inches -f, light-gray (2.5Y 7/2) heavy sandy 
loam with common, coarse, prominent mottles of 
light yellowish brown ( 10 YR 6/4) ; massive (struc- 
tureless) ; friable when moist, sticky and slightly 
plastic when wet; no roots; extremely acid. 

The Klej soils are coarse textured throughout the A 
and C horizons, but they commonly have a noncon form- 
able IIC horizon of moderately coarse to medium texture 
within a depth of 6 feet. In Queen Annes County the A 
horizon and the upper part of the C horizon are loamy 
sand, the lower part of the C horizon is sand, and the 
IIC horizon is sandy loam. 

Cultivated areas have an Ap horizon that replaces the 
Al horizon and is as much as 12 inches thick. Hue 
throughout the profile is mainly 2.5Y but ranges from 
LOYR to 5Y. The Ap or the All horizon has a value of 
4 or 5 or rarely 6 and a chroma of 1 or 2. The A12 hori- 
zon has a value of 4 to 6 and a chroma of 2 to 4. 

The upper part of the C horizon (Cl and C2) has a 
value of 5 or 6 and a chroma of 4 or 6 or rarely as low 
as 2. Generally, the C3g and IIC4g horizons have a value 
of 6 or 7 and a chroma of 1 to 3. The depth to mottling 
ranges from 15 to 24 inches. The contrast of the mottles 
to the matrix is lower in the upper part of the profile 
than it is in the deeper horizons. 

Typically, the Klej soils are structureless except for 
weak, granular structure in the A horizon, and locally 
there is very weak, irregular blocky structure in the upper 



] 10 



SOIL SURVEY 



(' horizon. These soils are not sticky or plastic, in the 
C horizon. Unless they have been limed, they normally 
are very strongly or extremely acid. 

The moderately well drained Klej soils somewhat re- 
semble the Woodstown soils in color and in degree of 
wetness, but they lack the Bt horizons of the Woodstown 
soils. The Klej soils formed on uplands in very sandy 
material. Also formed in sandy material were the some- 
what excessively or excessively drained Galestown and 
Lakeland soils and the poorly drained Plummer soils, 
w bich arc grayer I han the Klej soils. 

The Klej soils are i next ensi ve and of little importance 
in Queen Amies County. Farmed areas are used prin- 
cipally for corn and soybeans. Most areas are still in 
-lands id' mixed oaks, SWeetgum, red maple, and a few 
loblolly pines. 

Lakeland series 

The soils of the Lakeland series are very deep, very 
sandy, and somewhat excessively or excessively drained. 
These soils are coarse text ured throughout. They have no 
B horizon but have yellow to yellowish-brown colors in 
parts of their (' horizon. Water moves very rapidly 
t hrough t hese soils. 

Following is a prolile of Lakeland loamy sand, clayey 
substratum, in a gently sloping wooded area, about one- 
half mile north of I Ihicorn, near t he ( !hester River : 

01 — 2 inches to % inch, ground litter, mostly needles (if Vir- 

ginia pine. 

02 — \<2 inch to 0, mat of decoin posed organic material. 

All — to 4 inches, grayish-brown (10R 5/2) loamy sand: 
very weak, medium, granular structure; loose; roots 
plentiful; very strongly acid; clear. Irregular bound- 
ary. 2 to 5 inches thick. 

A12 — i to 14 inches, pale-yellow (2.5Y 7/4) loamy sand; sin- 
gle grain (structureless); loose; roots fairly plenti- 
ful; very strongly acid; gradual, Irregular boundary. 
6 to 12 inches thick. 

CI— 14 to 33 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 0/4) loamy 
sand: single grain (structureless) ; loose; roots com- 
mon in upper part, very few below; very strongly 
acid; gradual, irregular boundary. Hi to 24 inches 
thick. 

C2— 33 to 58 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand; sin- 
gle grain (structureless): loose; very few roots; 
slightly streaked with light gray in lower part; very 
strongly acid; abrupt, smooth boundary. 10 to 24 
inches thick. 

IIC3g— 58 to 00 inches +, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sandy loam 
with irregular streaks and blotches of grayish brown 
(2.5Y 5/2) ; massive (structureless) ; friable to firm 
when moist, sticky and slightly plastic when wet; 
a few roots on upper surface; very strongly acid. 

The Lakeland soils are coarse textured throughout the 
A and C horizons, but they have a finer textured IIC 
horizon that commonly occurs within a depth of 6 feet. 
The A horizon and the upper part of the C horizon 
are sand or loamy sand, but the C2 horizon is almost 
invariably sand. The IIC horizon may be almost any 
texture finer than the A horizon and generally is within 
a 0-fool depth only on gentle slopes. 

In cultivated areas the Ap horizon is about 10 inches 
thick. Hue above the IIC horizon is 2.5Y or 10YR 
but nowhere is redder than 10YR. The A horizon has 
a value of 5 to 7. Chroma in the All or the Ap horizon 
generally is 2 and in the A12 horizon is 3 or 4. The C 
horizon has a value of G or 7 and a chroma generally of 
4 but ranging from 3 to 6 in the various subhorizons. 



The IIC horizon may be almost any color. Except in 
the, IIC horizon or, in places, immediately above it, there 
is no gray i less, mottling, or other evidence of wetness. 

The Lakeland soils typically are Structureless, though 
in some places they have, very weak, granular structure 
in the A horizon. There is no stickiness or plasticity 
above the IIC horizon. Unless they have been limed, 
t hese soils arc si rongly acid to ext remely acid. 

The Lakeland soil- grade into the Galestown soils and 
are much the same as them, but the Lakeland soils lack 
the B horizon of the Galestown soils. Formed in the 
same kind of very sandy material as the Lakeland soils 
are, also the Klej and the Hummer soils. The Klej 
soils are slightly wet and have mottling in the lower 
part of the C horizon, and the Plummer soils are even 
wetter than the Klej soils, as shown by gray and gleyed 
colors. 

The Lakeland soils occupy a rather small acreage in 
Queen Amies County. They occur on broad Hats and 
in dunelike areas of uplands that are level to rather 
strongly sloping. The more gentle slopes are commonly 
used for truck crops, including sweet potatoes, and for 
corn and soybeans. Most of the stronger slopes are still 
in trees, chiefly scrub hardwoods. Virginia pine and 
some loblolly pine grow in cutover and second-growth 
areas. 

Matapeake series 

The soils of the Matapeake series are deep and well 
drained. They have a grayish-brown A horizon and 
somewhat finer textured B21t and B22I horizons that 
are dominant ly brown in color. The soils are generally 
highly silty and are moderately permeable. 

Following is a profile of Matapeake silt loam in a 
nearly level cultivated area on Wilmer Neck Road, near 
Pocometh : 

Ap— to 11 indies, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam; 

moderate, medium, granular structure; friable when 
moist, slightly sticky and slightly plastic when wet : 
roots plentiful; slightly acid (limed) ; abrupt, smooth 
boundary. !> to 1 1 inches thick. 

B21t— 11 to 21 inches, dark yellowish-brown (10YR 4/4) light 
silty clay loam; moderate, fine, blocky and subangu- 
lar blocky structure; friable to firm when moist, 
sticky and slightly plastic when wet; roots common; 
irregular coatings of dark grayish-brown (10VK 4/2) 
clay or silt; medium acid; gradual, wavy boundary. 
!> to 12 inches thick. 

B22t— 2] to 32 inches, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/0) silty clay 
loam : moderate, medium, blocky structure; firm when 
moist, sticky and plastic when wet; few roots; al- 
most continuous coatings of dark yellowish-brown 
(10YR 4/4) clay; strongly acid; gradual, wavy 
boundary. 10 to 30 inches thick. 

1115231—32 to 37 inches, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/0) fine sandy 
clay loam: weak, medium, blocky structure; firm 
when moist, sticky and slightly plastic when wet; 
very few roots; distinct but discontinuous coatings 
of dark yellowish-brown (10YR 4/4) clay, and a 
few prominent flows ; strongly acid ; clear to abrupt, 
wavy boundary. to inches thick. 

IIC— 37 to 50 inches +, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine 
sandy loam: massive (structureless); very friable 
when moist, slightly sticky and nonplastic when wet; 
a very few roots ; strongly or very strongly acid. 

In this county the A horizon is fine sandy loam, loam, 
or silt loam. The Bt horizons are silty clay loam or 
heavy silt loam and have a clay content of more than 
18 percent. In some places the IIB23t horizon is lack- 



(JUKKN ANNKS COUNTY, MAI! VI. AND 



ing, and the B22I horizon is directly underlain by the 
sandy IK' horizon. In other places both the QB23I 
and the [IC horizons arc lacking. In these places the 
B22t horizon occurs directly on a. C horizon of highly 
silty material, and the solum generally is much thicker 
than I lie one described. The solum ranges from aboul l's 
to more than 55 inches in thickness. 

I'ndist rubed areas have a Ihin A I horizon and a some- 
what thicker A.2 horizon. These horizons are LOYB or 
2.5Y in line. The Al horizon normally has a value of 
3 or I and a chroma of 2; I he A|> horizon has a value 
of I or ."> and a chroma of 2 to 1; and the A2 horizon 
lias a value of 5 or 6 and a chroma generally of 4. Part 
or all of the III horizons is 7.5YE in hue, but in some 
profiles a pail of the Bt horizons is LOYR in hue. Value 
is 4 or .">, and chroma ranges from 4 to 6 but everywhere 
is 4 in at least some part. The C and IK' horizons 
generally have a hue of loVK or 2.5Y and a value and 
a chroma of 2 to 6. For a dry soil, the values of all 
horizons may he one unit higher than those given, which 
are for a moist soil. 

Structure is normally moderate but is weak in parts 
of some horizons. The A horizon has granular structure 
or, in some places, weak, subangular blocky structure. In 
the Bt horizons, structure commonly is blocky and sub- 
angular blocky. The Bt horizons are st icky and vary in 
plasticity from slight to moderate. Unless they have 
been limed, the Matapeake soils generally are strongly 
or very strongly acid, but the C horizons are extremely 
acid in some places. 

The Matapeake soils occur on nearly level to strongly 
uplands, where they formed in very silty material, pos- 
sibly eolian, over older sandy sediments at shallow to 
moderate depths. Also formed in the same silty mate- 
rials were the slightly wet Mattapex soils, the moderately 
wet Bertie soils, the gray, wet Othello soils, and the very 
wet Portsmouth soils. The Matapeake soils are similar 
to the Sassafras soils in color and in other characteristics 
but are more silty throughout the solum. In the Mata- 
peake soils, the silty clay loam or heavy silt loam B21t 
and B22t horizons are characteristic, whereas the Sas- 
safras soils have Bt horizons of heavy loam, heavy sandy 
loam, or sandy clay loam. 

The Matapeake soils are extensive in Queen Amies 
County and are important to farming and other uses. 
The principal crops are corn, soybeans, hay, and some 
truck crops. Wooded areas are in stands of mixed hard- 
woods, dominantly oaks, and there is some loblolly pine 
in cutover and second-growth areas. 

Mattapex series 

In the Mattapex series are soils on uplands that are 
dominantly silty and moderately well drained. These 
soils have B21t and B22t horizons that are mottled with 
grayish colors in the lower part and are moderately slow 
in permeability. 

Following is a profile of Mattapex loam in a gently 
sloping cultivated area on Mattapex plantation on Kent 
Island, about one-fourth mile west of State Route 33: 

Ap — to 11 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) loam; 

weak, medium, granular structure; friable when 
moist, slightly sticky and nonplastic when wet ; 
abundant roots and old root channels ; medium acid 
(limed) ; abrupt, smooth boundary. 10 to 12 inches 
thick. 



r.t ii in L5 Inches, brown (10YB 5/8) heavy loam; weak to 
moderate, medium, aubangular blocky structure; fri- 
able when moist, Slightly BtlCky and Slightly plastic 
when wet; root channels plentiful; strongly acid; 
gradual, smooth boundary. to 6 Inches thick, 

r.2li- ir> io 2<; inches, yellowish-brown (10TB 5/6) llghl 
silty Hay loam; moderate, medium, subangular 
blocky structure; rather Arm when moist, sticky and 
plastic when wet; tew root, channels; distinct bul 

not prominent day runts on some aggregates; 
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary. 10 to 15 
inches thick. 

B22t— 26 to 36 inches, lisdit olive-brown (2.5T 5/4) light 
silty clay loam with common, medium, distinct mot- 
tles' of iight brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) and Strong 
brown (7.5YR 5/6) ; very weak, medium, platy struc- 
ture and weak, fine to medium, subangular blocky 
structure; firm and somewhat brittle when moist, 
sticky and plastic when wet: no roots: yellowish- 
brown (10YR 5/6) clay coats on some aggregates; 
very strongly acid: clear, wavy boundary. 6 to 12 
inches thick. 

IIC— 36 to 50 inches +, yellowish-brown ( 10YR 5/4) light 
fine sandy loam or heavy loamy fine sand with com- 
mon, medium, distinct mottles of light gray (2.5Y 
7/2) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) ; massive 
(structureless) ; very friable when moist, nonsticky 
and nonplastic when* wet; no roots; very strongly or 
extremely acid. 

In Queen Amies County the A horizon is fine sandy 
loam, loam, or silt loam. The B21t and B22t horizons 
are silt loam or silty clay loam and have a clay content 
of more than 18 percent, Generally, these horizons con- 
tain less fine sand in areas where the A horizon is loam or 
silt loam than where it is fine sandy loam. In places 
there is a very silty C horizon between the B22t and the 
IIC horizons. All horizons may have some fine or very 
fine sand that grades toward medium sand in the IIC 
horizon. The solum ranges from 28 to 42 inches in thick- 
ness. 

Wooded or other undisturbed areas have an Al horizon 
1 to 3 inches thick and an A2 horizon that is somewhat 
thicker. The hue throughout the solum is 2.5Y or 10YR, 
or both, in the same profile. The Al or the Ap horizon 
has a value of 3 or 4 and a chroma generally of 2 but 
ranging from 1 to 3; and the A2 horizon normally has 
a value of about 5 and a chroma of about 4. In the Bt 
horizons the value is 5 or 6, and the chroma is 4, 6, or 
rarely 8, but is 4 in some part. Depth to mottling ranges 
from' 18 to 24 inches. Some mottles in the B22t horizon 
have a chroma of 2 or less. Except in the grayish colors, 
chroma of the mottles is commonly higher with depth 
and thus, in many places, provides greater contrast. The 
C horizon generally differs little from the lower part of 
the Bt horizon in color. However, the IIC horizon may 
be almost any color and commonly is dominated by gray. 

Structure is normally moderate in the Bt horizons and 
weak in the other parts of the solum, though in some 
places the B22t horizon has weak, platy structure. In 
the A horizon, structure is granular to weak, subangular 
blocky. The Bt horizons generally are blocky or sub- 
angular blocky in structure. Generally, they are sticky 
and plastic but not highly so, and they tend to be firm, 
particularly the B22t part. The Mattapex soils are 
strongly or very strongly acid unless they have been 
limed. 

These soils are similar to the Keyport and the Woods- 
town soils in color, degree of wetness, and other char- 
acteristics. In the Keyport soils, however, at least some 



I 12 



SOIL SURVEY 



part of the Bt horizons is clay or silty clay, and in the 
Woodstown soils the Bt horizons are much more sandy 
than the ones in the Mattapex soils. 

The Mattapex soils occur on nearly level to moderately 
sloping uplands, where they formed in silty material, 
possibly eolian, over older sandy sediments. Formed in 
the same kind of material were the well-drained Mata- 
peake soils; the somewhat poorly drained Bertie soils, 
which are wetter than the Mattapex soils; the gray, 
poorly drained Othello soils; and the very poorly drained 
Port sniont h soils. 

The Mattapex soils occupy nearly 14,000 acres in this 
county and are agriculturally important. Most areas are 
used for crops or pasture, and many of them have been 
in these uses for more than three centuries. The princi- 
pal crops are corn, soybean, and hay. In wooded areas 
the vegetation consists of hardwoods that tolerate some 
wetness and include sweetgum, many kinds of oaks, and 
some red maple. Sparse to good stands of loblolly pine 
occur in cutover and second-growth area-. 

Othello series 

The Othello series consists of very silty, poorly drained 
soils on uplands. These soils have gray, mottled B21tg 
and B22tg horizons that are rather slowly permeable. 

Following is a profile of Othello silt loam in a level 
cultivated area, about 1 mile north of Bryantown and 
about one-half mile east of Bobinson Church: 

Ap — to 9 inches, dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4/2) silt loam; 

very weak, fine and medium, granular structure; fri- 
able when moist, slightly sticky and slightly plastic 
when wet; roots abundant; medium acid (limed); 
abrupt, smooth boundary. 8 to 10 inches thick. 

B21tg— 9 to 18 inches, light olive-gray (5Y 6/2) light silty 
clay loam with a few, medium, faint mottles of light 
gray (5Y 7/1) and common, medium, prominent mot- 
tles of yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) ; weak, fine and 
medium, blocky and subangular blocky structure ; 
friable to firm when moist, sticky and slightly plastic 
when wet; roots plentiful in upper part, fewer be- 
low; some coatings of dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) ; 
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary. 8 to 12 
inches thick. 

B22tg— 18 to 29 inches, gray or light-gray (5Y 6/1) light silty 
clay loam with common, coarse, prominent mottles 
lit" yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) and a few, medium, 
prominent mottles of strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) ; very 
weak, medium, platy structure and somewhat flat- 
tened, moderate, medium, subangular blocky struc- 
ture: firm when moist, stickly and plastic when wet; 
very few roots; some light olive-gray (5Y 6/2) clay 
flows between some aggregates, in pores, and in old 
root channels ; very strongly acid ; clear to abrupt, 
smooth boundary. 8 to 12 inches thick. 

liClg — 29 to 34 inches, gray (N 5/0) sandy loam with com- 
mon, medium, prominent mottles of strong brown 
(7.5YR 5/6) ; massive (structureless) ; to very weak, 
very coarse, blocky structure: compact and firm when 
moist, slightly sticky and very slightly plastic when 
wet ; no roots ; extremely acid ; clear, smooth bound- 
ary. 3 to 6 inches thick. 

IIC2g — 34 to 48 inches -f, light-gi'ay (N 7/0) loamy sand: 
single grain (structureless) ; loose to very friable; 
no roots ; some very coarse blotches and streaks of 
yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) ; extremely acid. 

In Queen Annes County the texture of the A horizon 
is only silt loam. The B21tg and B22tg horizons are 
heavy silt loam or silty clay loam and have a clay content 
of 18 to 35 percent. Locally, there is a thin C horizon 
of very silty material between the B22tg and the IIC 



horizons. The solum ranges from 24 to :'><> inches in 
thickness. 

In wooded areas these soils have a thin Al horizon 
and a somewhat l bicker A2g horizon. Hue in the profile 
ranges from 10YK to 5Y and to neutral. A hue of KYR 
generally is confined to the upper part of the profile, and 
the hue becomes more nearly neutral with depth. Value 
in the Al or the Ap horizon is normally 4 or and 
chroma is 0, 1, or 2. The A2 horizon has a value one 
or two units higher than the Al or Ap horizon. Value 
of the matrix in the B and the C horizons ranges from 
5 to 7, and the chroma is 0, 1, or 2. The IIC horizon may 
be almost any color. Mottling generally begins at the 
top of the Bt horizon but, in some places, occurs in the 
A2 horizon. Mottling is mostly 10YR or 7.5YII in hue, 
is 5 to 6 in value, and ranges from 1 to 8 but most com- 
monly is G in chroma. For a dry soil, the values for all 
horizons generally are one unit higher than those given, 
which are for a moist soil. 

Structure ranges from very weak to moderate and is 
strongest in the Bt horizons. In those horizons the struc- 
ture is most commonly blocky but tends to be platy or 
subangular blocky in some places. The Bt horizons gen- 
erally are sticky and plastic but not highly so. Unless 
they have been limed, these soils are very strongly or 
extremely acid. 

The Othello soils occur on level to gently sloping 
uplands, where they formed in very silly material, pos- 
sibly eolian in part, over older sandy sediments. Also 
formed in the same kind of material are the well drained 
Matapeake soils, the moderately well drained Mattapex 
soils, the somewhat poorly drained Bertie soils, and the 
very poorly drained Portsmouth soils. The Othello soils 
are similar to the Fallsington and the Elkton soils in 
color, degree of wetness, and other characteristics. 
However, the Bt horizons in the Othello are dominantly 
silt, whereas those in the Fallsington soils are sandy clay 
loam or heavy sandy loam, and in the Elkton soils are 
silty clay or clay. 

The Othello soils occupy nearly 10,000 acres in Queen 
Annes County. A considerable part of this acreage is 
used for crops, chiefly corn and soybeans. There is some 
hay and pasture, but large areas are covered by forest, 
much of which has been cut over. The principal trees 
are water-tolerant hardwoods, including red maple, 
sweetgum, and many kinds of oaks. Cutover and second- 
growth areas have some mixed to almost pure stands of 
loblolly pine. 

Plummer series 

Soils of the Plummer series are very deep, very sandy, 
and poorly drained. These soils are coarse textured 
throughout. Water moves rapidly through them, but 
they have a high water table for long periods each year. 

Following is a profile of Plummer loamy sand in a 
level wooded area, about three-fourths mile southeast of 
Millington : 

01- — 2 inches to % inch, a litter of hardwood leaves and twigs. 

02 — % inch to 0, a mat of decomposed organic materials. 
All — 6 to 4 inches, grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) loamy sand; 

single grain (structureless); loose; roots plentiful; 
very strongly acid ; gradual, wavy boundary. 3 to 5 
inches thick. 



QIKKX A.WKS COUNTY, MAI! V'L.W I) 



A12— 4 to 10 inches, light brownish-gray (2.5Y 0/2) loamy 
sand: single grain (structureless) ; loose; roots fairly 
plentiful; very strongly acid; clear, irregular bound- 
ary. I to 8 inches thick. 

CI— 10 to 28 Inches, light olive-gray (5T 6/2) loamy sand with 
common, medium, distinct mottles of yellowish brown 
(10YR 5/4) ; singh' grain (structureless! ; loose; roots 
fairly common in upper part; extremely acid; grad- 
ual, irregular boundary. 10 to 20 inches thick. 

C2g— 2S to 4f. inches, gray or light-gray (5Y 0/1) sand with 
common, coarse, prominent mottles of grayish brown 
(2.5Y 5/2); singlegrain (structureless); loose; no 
roots; extremely acid; abrupt, smooth boundary. 10 
to 20 inches thick. 

IIC3g — 40 to 00 inches -f, light-gray (5Y 7/1 ) sandy loam that 
is streaked with grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2), mostly 
horizontally; massive (structureless); friable when 
moist, sticky and slightly plastic when wet ; no roots ; 
extremely acid. 

The Plummet- soils are coarse textured in all horizons 
above the IIC3g horizon. The A horizon is only loamy 
sand in Queen Annes County, but the C horizon is loamy 
sand, sand, or fine sand. The unconformable IIC horizon 
may be any abruptly different texture but nearly every- 
where is finer textured than the horizon above it. Where 
present, the IIC horizon generally occurs within a 4- to 
6-foot depth. 

In cultivated areas the plow layer, when moist, is about 
the same color as the All horizon but, when dry, is light 
gray to almost white, particularly after long exposure 
to the weather. The hue of the entire profile is mainly 
2.5Y but ranges from 10YE to 5Y and neutral. In most 
places the A horizon has a value of 4 to 6 and a chroma 
of 0, 1, or 2. Where the All horizon is thin, however, 
it may have a value of only 2 or 3. The value of the C 
horizon generally is 6 or 7 but ranges from 5 to 8, and 
the chroma is 0, 1, or 2. Mottling is not everywhere 
present in the C horizon. Where mottles occur, they 
are 5Y to 10 YR in hue, 5 or 6 in value, and 2 to 8 in 
chroma. In many places the C horizon is uniformly 
gray, light gray, or white, and in other places it is vari- 
egated with these colors and may be streaked or strati- 
fied. 

The Plummet- soils are structureless, and they have no 
stickiness or plasticity in the C horizon. They are very 
strongly or extremely acid unless they have been limed. 

These soils occur on level to depressional uplands and 
formed in sands containing very little silt or clay. Also 
formed in this kind of material are the Klej, Galestown, 
and Lakeland soils. The Plummer soils occur closely 
wit It and grade into the Klej soils, which are not so wet 
as the Plummer soils. The Klej soils have a higher 
chroma in the C horizon and no mottling above a depth 
of 15 to 24 inches. Plummer soils are not nearly so well 
drained as Galestown and Lakeland soils. 

The Plummer soils are of minor extent and importance 
in Queen Annes County. Although they can be used for 
corn or soybeans, most of their acreage supports stands 
of red maple, svreetgum, and various water-tolerant hard- 
woods. Huckleberry forms the undergrowth in some 
places. In addition, there are some pond pines and a 
few loblolly pines. 

Pocomoke series 

Soils of the Pocomoke series are very poorly drained. 
They have a rather thick, black A horizon over a finer 
textured B2tg horizon that is dominantly gray, promi- 
nently mottled, and moderately permeable. 



Following is a profile of Pocomoke sandy loam in a 
level wooded area, ().(> mile west of Grange Hall Road 
and about 1 mile south of Si air: 

02 — 2 inches to (t, decomposed organic material and some mo - 
All— to 10 inches, black (10YU 2/1 i sandy loam; moderate, 
coarse, granular structure; friable when moist, sticky 
and slightly plastic when wet; roots abundant: ex 
tremely acid; gradual, smooth boundary. 10 to 12 
inches thick. 

A12 — 10 to 14 inches, gray (5Y 5/1 ) sandy loam; moderate, 
fine, granular structure; friable when moist, slightly 
sticky and slightly plastic when wet; roots plentiful; 
very strongly or extremely acid; clear, wavy bound- 
ary. 4 to inches I hick. 

Big — 14 to 21 inches, olive-gray (5Y 5/2) heavy sandy loam 
with a few, coarse, prominent mottles of yellowish 
brown (10YH 5/0) ; weak, medium and course, sub- 
angular blocky structure; friable when moist, slightly 
sticky and slightly plastic when wet; a few roots; 
very strongly or extremely acid; clear, wavy bound- 
ary. 4 to 8 inches thick. 

K2tg— 21 to 26 inches, gray or light-gray (5Y 0/1) light sandy 
clay loam with abundant, coarse, faint mottles of 
gray (N 5/0) and common, medium, prominent mot- 
tles of yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) ; strong, fine, sub- 
angular blocky structure; firm when moist, sticky and 
plastic when wet; a few roots; olive-gray (5Y 5/2) 
coatings ; very strongly or extremely acid ; abrupt, 
wavy boundary. 4 to 12 inches thick. 

IlClg— 26 to 38 inches, light brownish-gray (2.5Y 6/2) loamy 
sand; single grain (structureless) ; loose; a very few 
roots ; very strongly or extremely acid ; gradual, wavy 
boundary. 10 to 16 inches thick. 

IIC2g— 38 to 53 inches -f, gray (N 5/0) loamy sand : single 
grain (structureless) ; loose; no roots; extremely acid. 

In Queen Annes County the texture of the A horizon 
is loam or sandy loam. The B2tg horizon is heavy sandy 
loam or sandy clay loam and has a clay content typically 
of more than 18 percent. The IIC horizon is coarser 
in texture than any other part of the solum and. in 
places, contains fine gravel. The thickness of the solum 
ranges from 20 to 30 inches. 

In undisturbed areas the surface of the A horizon may 
be somewhat mucky. The Ap horizon has a value of 3 
and a chroma of to 2. Normally, the All horizon is 
black, ranges in hue from 5YR to neutral, and has a 
value of 2 and a chroma of to 1. The Al2 horizon 
has a value one or two units higher than that in the All 
horizon. 

Below the A horizon, the matrix has a hue of 10YE 
to neutral, a value that generally is 5 or 6 but ranges 
from 4 to 7, and a chroma that generally is or 1 but 
is 2 in a few places. Mottling in the B horizon is nor- 
mally of high contrast and generally has a value of 5 
and a chroma of 6 to 8. In some places, however, there 
is mottling with grayish colors of low chroma, and some 
profiles are gray or variegated gray with very little or 
no mottling. The values given are for moist soil and 
generally are one unit lower than those of a dry soil. 

Structure is mostly weak or moderate but may be 
strong in the Bt horizons. The A horizon has granular 
structure, and the B horizon is blocky, subangular 
blocky, or both. The finer textured horizons are slightly 
to moderately sticky and plastic. Unless these soils have 
been limed, they are very strongly or extremely acid, 
and they commonly have a pH of 4 or less. 

The Pocomoke soils occur on level or nearly level 
uplands and formed in moderately clayey and silty sands 
over very sandy sediments. Also formed in this kind of 



114 



SOIL SURVEY 



material are the well drained Sassafras soils, the moder- 
ately well drained Woodstown soils, and the poorly 
drained Fallsington soils. Fallsington soils are not so 
wei as Pi ic< imoke s< >ils. 

The Pocomoke soils are similar in many respects to the 
Bayboro and the Portsmouth soils, which are members 
of the same great group and subgroup. However, the 
Pocomoke soils have a Bt horizon of heavy sandy loam 
or sandy clay loam that is moderately permeable, whereas 
the Portsmouth soils have a Bt horizon of silt v clay loam 
that is more slowly permeable. In the Bayboro soils the 
B2tg horizon is highly clayey and very slowly permeable. 

The Pocomoke soils occupy more than 0,500 acres in 
Queen Amies County. They are important to farming 
and for woodland products and wildlife habitat. Where 
the soils have been artificially drained, they are used for 
crops, especially corn and soybeans, and for pasture. 
Large areas, however, are still stands of red maple, gum, 
holly, various oaks, and other wetland hardwoods. Pond 
pines grow in some places, and second-growth and cut- 
over areas have scattered trees to almost pure stands of 
loblolly pine. 

Portsmouth series 

The soils of the Portsmouth series are very poorly 
drained. They have a rather thick, black A horizon 
over sticky, silty B21tg and B22tg horizons that are 
dominantly gray, prominently mottled, and rather slowly 
I lermeable. 

Following is a profile of Portsmouth silt loam, in a 
slightly depressional wooded area, about 25 yards west 
of State Route 405 and one-fourth mile south of Clark 
Corners: 

01 — 3 inches to 1 inch, litter of hardwood leaves. 

02 — 1 inch to 0. mucky mat of decomposed organic material. 
Al— to 11 inches, black ( 10 YR 2/1) silt loam that is very 

high in organic matter; weak, medium, granular 
structure: friable when moist, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic when wet ; roots abundant in top 3 
inches, fewer below : very strongly acid: clear, smooth 
boundary. 10 to 12 inches thick. 

Big— 11 to 16 inches, very dark gray (5Y 3/1) light silty clay 
loam with a few. medium, prominent mottles of brown 
or dark brown ( 7.5YR 4/4); weak, medium, suban- 
gular blocky structure: firm when moist, sticky and 
plastic when wet: roots fairly common; extremely 
acid; clear, smooth boundary. 4 to 6 inches thick. 

R21tg— 16 to 25 inches, dark olive-gray (5Y 3/2) silty clay 
loam with a few, medium, distinct mottles of light 
gray (5Y 7/2) and a few, fine, prominent mottles of 
In-own (7.5YR 5/4) : weak, medium, blocky structure: 
firm when moist, sticky and plastic when wet: few 
roots : some faint coatings of very dark gray (5Y 3/1) : 
extremely acid ; gradual, smooth boundary. 8 to 12 
inches thick. 

B22tg— 25 to 37 inches, light olive-gray (5Y 6/2) heavy silty 
clay loam with common, medium, faint mottles of 
white (5Y 8/2) and common, fine, prominent mottles 
of strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) : weak, medium and 
coarse, blocky structure : firm when moist, sticky and 
plastic when wet ; a very few roots in upper part only ; 
prominent coats and flows of dark olive-gray (5Y 3/2) 
clay; extremely acid; abrupt, smooth boundary. 10 
to 15 inches thick. 

IlCg— 37 to 48 inches +, light-gray (5Y 7/1 1 loamy sand or 
very light sandy loam with some horizontal streaks 
of grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) ; massive (structure- 
less) : very friable when moist, slightly sticky and 
nonplastic when wet ; no roots ; extremely acid. 



In t his county the text are of t he A horizon is sill loam. 
The B21tg and B22tg horizons are everywhere silty clay 
loam in at least some part, and no pari of those horizons 
is finer textured. In some places the lower part of the 
lit horizons is sandy clay loam as it grades into the IlCg 
horizon. The clay content of the Bt horizons is between 
18 and 35 percent. The IIC horizon is coarser in texture 
than any pari of the solum, which ranges from 2 f to 40 
inches in thickness. In some places there is line gravel 
in the 1 1( Jg horizon. 

In undisturbed areas the Al horizon is black, is typi- 
cally at least 10 inches thick, and locally has a somewhat 
mucky surface. The Ap horizon is gray only in areas 
that have been cultivated for a considerable period. 
Generally, the A horizon is iOYR in hue. The Al 
horizon has a value of 2 and a chroma of 1 or, in a few 
places, of where the hue is neutral. The Ap horizon 
lias a value of 2, 3, or rarely 4 and a chroma of 0, 1, or 
•1. Below the A horizon, the hue generally is 5Y but 
in places is 2.5Y or neutral. The matrix of the Bt 
horizons has a value of 3 to 6 and a chroma of no more 
than 2. The IlCg horizon varies in color but everywhere 
is gleved. In some places the profile is not mottled. 
Where mottles occur, they have a hue of 5Y to 7. SYR, 
a value of 4 to 7, and a chroma of 2 to 6. The values 
of a dry soil generally are one unit higher than those 
given, which are for a moist soil. 

Structure ordinarily is weak but, in some places, is 
moderate in the Bt horizons. In structure the A horizon 
is granular, and the Bt horizons are mostly blocky but 
are partly subangular blocky in some places. The Bt 
horizons are sticky and plastic but generally not highly 
so. Unless they have been limed, the Portsmouth soils 
are very strongly or extremely acid and commonly have 
a pH as low as 4 or less in some horizons. 

The Portsmouth soils occur on level or slightly de- 
pressional uplands and formed in silty material, possibly 
in part eolian, over older sandy sediments. Formed in 
the same kind of material are the well drained Mata- 
peake soils, the moderately well drained Matt apex soils, 
the somewhat poorly drained Bertie soils, and the poorly 
drained Othello soils. The Othello soils have a gray 
surface layer instead of the black surface layer that 
characterizes the Portsmouth soils. 

The Portsmouth soils are similar to the Pocomoke and 
Bayboro soils, but their Bt horizons differ in texture. 
In the Portsmouth soils, at least part of the Bt horizons 
is rather slowly permeable silty clay loam, but in the 
Pocomoke soils these horizons are moderately permeable 
sandy clay loam or heavy sandy loam, and in the Bay- 
boro soils they are highly clayey and very slowly 
permeable. 

Portsmouth soils are inextensive in Queen Amies 
County. Where artificially drained, they are used for 
some crops, chiefly corn and soybeans. In this county, 
however, most areas are covered by stands of red maple, 
gums, water-tolerant oaks, and other wetland hardwoods. 
The undergrowth consists of holly, briers, and huckle- 
berry. In most places there are some pond pines, and 
cutover areas may have loblolly pine. 

Sassafras series 

The Sassafras series consists of deep, well-drained 
soils on uplands. These soils have a moderately coarse 



QUEEN AN.NKS COUNTY, MARYLAND 



I IT; 



textured A horizon over sandy day loam or heavy sandy 
loam H'JII and IIl'-JI horizons thai arc moderately per 
meable. 

Following is a profile of Sassafras sandy loam in a 
gently sloping wooded area, just south of DeCoursey 
Road and about one-fourth mile southwest of its inter 
section with Wye Island Road: 

01 — .'5 inches t<> 1 inch, litter (if hardwood leaves and pine 

needles, 

02 — 1 inch to 0, mat of decomposed organic material. 

Al — to 2 inches, dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4/2 1 sands loam ; 
moderate, medium, granular structure; friable when 
moist, slightly sticky and slightly plastic when wet; 
roots abundant ; strongly acid; abrupt, irregular 
boundary. i/> inch to 4 inches thick. 

A2 — 2 to 14 inches, grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy loam; 

moderate, line, granular st met lire : friable w hen moist, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic when wet; roots 
plentiful; very strongly acid: clear, wavy boundary. 
8 to 12 inches thick. 

I!l— 14 to 20 inches, yellowish-brown ( 10YR . r >/4) loam or light 
sandy clay loam; weak, medium, blocky structure; 
friable when moist, sticky and slightly plastic when 
wet: roots common; discontinuous coatings of dark 
yellowish-brown (10YR 4/4) clay; very strongly acid ; 
gradual, wavy boundary. 4 to 8 inches thick. 

B21t — 20 to 31 inches, brown (7.5YR 5/4) sandy clay loam; 
moderate, medium and coarse, blocky and subangular 
blocky structure; firm when moist, sticky and plastic 
when wet; a very few roots; prominent, almost con- 
tinuous, dark-brown and yellowish-red (7.5Y*R 4/4 
and SYR 5/6) clay coats and flows; very strongly 
acid; gradual, wavy boundary. 9 to 15 inches thick. 

B22t — 31 to 43 inches, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/6) heavy sandy 
clay loam ; moderate to strong, medium, blocky and 
subangular blocky structure; firm when moist, sticky 
and plastic when wet ; continuous, prominent, red- 
dish-brown (5YR 4/4) clay coats; flows, and kroto- 
vinas; very strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary. 12 
to 20 inches thick. 

C— 43 to 50 inches +, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) heavy 
loamy sand; single grain (structureless!: very fri- 
able when moist, nonsticky and nonplastic when wet ; 
no roots ; extremely acid. 

In Queen Amies County the texture of the A horizon 
is loam or sandy loam. The B21t and B22t horizons are 
heavy sandy loam, sandy clay loam, or in some places 
loam, and they have a clay content of 18 to 35 percent. 
In some places there are transitional Bl and Bo horizons. 
The C horizon is sandy loam or loamy sand. The solum 
ranges from 30 to nearly 50 inches in thickness and has 
a modal thickness of 36 to 40 inches. 

The hue of the A horizon is 10YE or 2.5Y. The Al 
horizon has a value of 3 or 4 and a chroma of 2; the Ap 
horizon generally has a value of 4 or 5 and a chroma 
of 2; and the A2 horizon generally has a value of 5 or 6 
and a chroma of 2 to 4. In the Bt horizons, hue is 10 YR 
or 7.5YR, value is 4 or 5, and chroma is either 4 or 6 
but typically is 4 in at least some part. The C horizon 
generally is 10YR in hue, 5 or 6 in value, 3 to 6 in 
chroma. 

Structure is mostly moderate in the Bt horizons and 
is weak to moderate in the A horizon. In structure the 
A horizon is granular, and the Bt horizons are blocky, 
suhangular hlocky, or both. The finest textured parts 
of the Bt horizons are sticky and plastic but not highly 
so. Unless they have been limed, the Sassafras soils 
normally are strongly or very strongly acid, but some 
horizons are extremely acid in some places. 

The Sassafras soils occur on level to steep uplands 
and formed in moderately silty and clayey sands. Formed 



in the same kind of material are the slightly wet Wood- 

town soils, (he wet Fallsington soils, which have a gray 
surface layer, and the very wet IVomoke soils, which 
normally have a hlack surface Layer. 

The Sassafras soils are somewhat similar to the Mata- 
peake and Downer soils in color- and in drainage. The 
Downer soils have a coarser textured A horizon and 
thinner lit horizons thai typically are less than L8 per 
cent clay. Throughout the solum the Matapeake soils 
are much more silty than the Sassafras soils. 

In Queen Amies County the Sassafras .-oils occupy 
more than 70,000 acres an(f account for nearly .'50 percent 
of the total land area. These soils are highlv valued for 
most crops, and most of their acreage is cultivated. The 
principal crops are soybeans, corn, sweet potatoes, mis- 
cellaneous truck crops, hay, and pasture. The native 
vo.ovtat ioii consists of upland hardwoods, dominantly 
oaks, but some cutover and second-growth area- are in 
mixed to almost pure stands of Virginia pine or loblolly 
pine. 

Woodstown series 

In the Woodstown series are deep, moderately well 
drained soils on uplands. These soils have a moderately 
coarse textured or medium-textured A horizon over 
sandy clay loam or heavy sandy loam B2H and B22t hori- 
zons that are moderately slowly permeable and are mottled 
in the lower pa rt . 

Following is a profile of Woodstown sandy loam in 
a nearly level wooded area, about 200 yards" north of 
McGmnes Road and one-fourth mile west of McGinnes: 

01— 3 inches to 1 inch, loose litter of leaves, mostly of hard- 

woods. 

02 — 1 inch to 0, mat of decomposed organic material. 

Al— to 3 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) sandy loam ; 

weak, medium, granular structure ; friable when moist, 
nonsticky and nonplastic when wet; roots plentiful; 
strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary. 2 to 4 inches 
thick. 

A2— 3 to 13 inches, light yellowish-brown (2.5Y 6/4) sandy 
loam; weak, medium, granular structure; friable 
when moist, slightly sticky and nonplastic when wet : 
roots common ; very strongly acid ; clear, wavy bound- 
ary. 8 to 12 inches thick. 

B21t— 13 to 24 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/0) light fine 
sandy clay loam ; moderate, medium, blocky and sub- 
angular blocky structure: friable or somewhat firm 
when moist, sticky and slightly plastic when wet; 
roots fairly common ; a few thin coatings of dark 
yellowish-brown ( 10YR 4/4) clay; very strongly acid; 
gradual, wavy boundary. 9 to 14 inches thick. 

B22t— 24 to 34 inches, light yellowish-brown (10Y*R 6/4) fine 
sandy clay loam with a few, medium, distinct mottles 
of grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) and a few, fine, distinct 
mottles of strong brown (7.5Y"R 5/6) ; weak, coarse, 
hlocky structure; friable or firm when moist, sticky 
and slightly plastic when wet ; a very few, fine roots ; 
prominent coatings and some flows of yellowish-brown 
i (10YR 5/4) clay; abrupt, wavy boundary. 10 to 15 
inches thick. 

C— 34 to 48 inches, variegated pale-brown (10YR 6/3), brown- 
ish-yellow (10YR 6/6), and strong-brown (7.5YR 5/6) 
light sandy loam with common, medium, distinct mot- 
tles of grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) ; stratified, more or 
less by basic colors, in strata % inch to 3 inches thick ; 
very friable when moist, slightly sticky and nonplas- 
tic when wet ; no roots ; extremely acid. 

In Queen Amies County the texture of the A horizon 
is loam or sandy loam. The B21t and B22t horizons 
are heavy sandy loam or sandy clay loam and typically 
have a clay content of 18 to 35 percent. In places the 



116 



SOIL SUHVKY 



C horizon is replaced by a IIC horizon, and in other 
places it is underlain by a IIC horizon within a 5-foot 
depth. The IIC horizon is any unconformable texture 
but most commonly is coarser textured than the solum. 
The thickness of the solum ranges from 24 to 40 inches 
or more. 

In cultivated areas all of the natural A2 horizon may 
be mixed into the Ap horizon, or plow layer. The solum 
has a hue of 2.5Y, 10YR, or both. The Al horizon 
generally has a value of 3 or 4 and a chroma of 1 or 2. 
Normally, the Ap horizon is one or two units higher 
than the Al horizon in value and is as much as 3 in 
chrome. The A2 horizon has a value of 5 or G, and, in 
most places, a chroma of 4. In the B21t and B22t 
horizons the value is 5 or 6, and the chroma of the mat- 
rix is 4 or 6 but everywhere is 4 in at least some part. 
Mottling is of low to moderate contrast. In most places 
the depth to mottling is 18 to 26 inches, but there are 
no mottles with a chroma as low as 2 wilhin the upper 
10 inches of the Bt horizons. The C horizon is almost 
any color or mixture of color and, in many places, is 
gleyed. The values of a dry soil are one or two units 
higher than those given, which are for a moist soil. 

Structure ordinarily is weak, but it is moderate in the 
Bt horizons in some places. Generally, some part of the 
Bt horizons is sticky or plastic, or both. Unless they 
have been limed, these soils are strongly acid to ex- 
tremely acid. 

The Woodstown soils occur on level to strongly slop- 
ing uplands, where they formed in moderately silty and 
clayey sands. Also formed in this kind of material are 
the well-drained Sassafras soils; the poorly drained 
Fallsington soils, which have a gray surface layer; and 
the very poorly drained Pocomoke soils, which normally 
have a black surface layer. The Woodstown soils are 
similar to the Keyport and the Mattapex soils in general 
characteristics. In the Woodstown soils, however, the 
Bt horizons are sandy loam to sandy clay loam, whereas 
in the Keyport soils they are clay or silty clay, at least 
in some part, and in the Mattapex soils they are silty 
clay loam. 

The Woodstown soils occupy more than 23,000 acres 
in Queen Annes County and are important to farming 
and for woodland products. Fairly large areas are used 
for crops, principally corn and soybeans, but many areas 
remain wooded and are in stands of mixed hardwoods 
that are dominated by oaks but include red maple, holly, 
and other water-tolerant trees. Loblolly pine is fairly 
common, especially in cutover and second-growth areas. 

Literature Cited 

(1) American Association of State Highway Officials. 

1961. standard specifications for highway materials 
and methods of sampling and testing. ed. 
8, 2 v., 401 and 617 pp., illus. 

(2) Baldwin, M., Kellogg, C. E., and Thorp, J. 

1938. soil classification. U.S. Dept. Agr. Ybk., pp. 
979-1001, illus. 

(3) Bentz, Frank L., et al. 

1955. MARYLAND GUIDE FOR SPRINKLER IRRIGATION 

design. (U.S. Dept. Agr., SCS, in coop, with 
Md. Agr. Ext. Serv. and Md. Agr. Expt. Sta.) 
17 pp. illus. [Unpublished] 



(4) Davison, Verne E., and Neely, William W. 

1959. MANAGING FARM FIELDS, WETLANDS, AND WATERS 

FOR WILD DUCKS IN THE SOUTH. U.S. Dept. Agr. 

Farmers' Bui. 2144, 14 pp., illus. 

(5) Hamilton, A. B. 

1961. COMPARATIVE CENSUS OF MARYLAND AGRICULTURE 

by counties. Univ. of Md. Ext. Serv., College 
Park, Md., Misc. Ext. Pub, 55, 52 pp., illus. 
[Mimeographed] 

(6) Nicholson, W. R., and Van Deusen, R. D. 

1952. marshes of Maryland. Joint pub., Md. Game and 

Inland Fish Comm., and Md. Dept. of U<'s. and 
Ed., 12 pp., illus. [Mimeographed] 

(7) Ryan, J. Donald. 

1953. THE SEDIMENTS OF CHESAPEAKE BAY. State Of Md., 

Dept. of Geol., Mines and Water Resources, Bui. 
12, 120 pp., illus. 

(8) Simonson, R. W. 

1962. soil classification in THE united STATES. 

Science: 137: 1027-1034. 

(9) Singewald, Joseph T., .In. 

1949. shore erosion in tidewater Maryland. State of 
Md., Dept. of Geol., Mines and Water Resources, 
Bui. 6, 141 pp., illus. 

(10) United States Department of Agriculture. 

1951. soil survey manual. U.S. Dept. Agr. Ilandb. 
18, 503 pp., illus. 

(11) 

1960. drainage guide for Maryland, coastal plain. 

(In cooperation with Agr. Col., Univ. of Md.) 
[ Mimeographed] 

(12) 

1960. SOIL classification, a comprehensive system. 
U.S. Dept. of Agr. 265 pp., illus. 

(13) United States Department of Interior. 

1954. wetlands of makyland. Fish and Wildlife Serv., 

15 pp., appendix and maps. 

(14) Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers. 

1953. the unified soil classification system. Tech. 
Memo. 3-357, 2 v. and appendix, 44 pp., illus. 



Glossary 

Acidity, soil. (See Reaction, soil.) 

Alluvium. Fine material, such as sand, silt, or clay, that has been 

deposited on land by streams. 
Available moisture capacity. The difference between the amount 

of water in a soil at field capacity and the amount in the same 

soil at the permanent wilting point. Commonly expressed as 

inches of water per inch depth of soil. 
Chroma. (See Color, Munsell notation.) 

Clay. As a soil separate, the mineral soil particles less than 0.002 
millimeter in diameter. As a soil textural class, soil material 
that is 40 percent or more clay, less than 45 percent sand, and 
less than 40 percent silt. 
Color, Munsell notation. A system for designating color by 
degrees of three simple variables - hue, value, and chroma. 
For example, the notation 10YR 6/4 stands for a color with 
a hue of 10YR, a value of 6, and a chroma of 4. Hue is the 
dominant spectral color; value relates to the relative lightness 
of color; chroma is the relative purity or strength of color and 
increases as grayness decreases. 
Consistence, soil. The feel of the soil and the ease with which 
a lump can be crushed by the fingers. Terms commonly used 
to describe consistence are — 
Loose. Noncoherent ; will not hold together in a mass. 
Friable. When moist, soil crushes easily under gentle to moderate 
pressure between thumb and forefinger, but resistance is 
distinctly noticeable. 
Firm. When moist, soil crushes under moderate pressure be- 
tween thumb and forefinger, but resistance is distinctly 
noticeable. 

Plastic. When wet, soil is readily deformed by moderate pressure 

but can be pressed into a lump; will form a "wire" when 

rolled between thumb and forefinger. 
Sticky. When wet, soil adheres to other material; tends to 

stretch somewhat and pull apart, rather than pull free from 

other material. 



Q UK ION A.W'IOS COUNTY, MARYLAND 



Hard. When dry, soil moderately resists pressure; can be broken 

with difficulty between thumb and forefinger. 
Soft. When dry, soil breaks into powder or individual grains 

under very slight pressure. 
Cemented. Hard and brittle; little affected by moistening. 
Diversion. A ridge of earth, generally a terrace, that is built to 
divert runolf from its natural course, and thus to protect areas 
downslope from the effects of such runolf. 
Drainage, soil. The rapidity and extent of i lie removal of water 
from the soil, in relation to additions. Most water is removed 
by runoff, by flow through the soil to underground spaces, or 
. by a combination of both processes. 
Flood plain. Nearly level land, consisting of stream sediments, that 
borders a stream and is subject to flooding unless protected 
artificially. 

Fragipan. A loamy, brittle, subsurface horizon that is very low in 
organic matter and clay but is rich in silt or very fine; sand. 
The layer is seemingly cemented when dry, has a hard or very 
hard consistence, and has a high bulk density in comparison 
with the horizon or horizons above it. When moist, the 
fragipan tends to rupture suddenly if pressure is applied, rather 
than to deform slowly. The layer is generally mottled, is 
slowly or very slowly permeable to water, and has few or many 
bleached fracture planes that form polygons. Fragipans are a 
few inches to several feet thick; they generally occur 15 to 40 
inches below the surface. 
Gleization, or gleying. The reduction, translocation, and segrega- 
tion of soil compounds, notably of iron, normally in the subsoil 
or substratum; a result of poor aeration and drainage, expressed 
in the soil by mottled colors dominated by gray. 
Gravel. A mass of rounded or angular rock fragments }i inch to 3 

inches in diameter. 
Horizon, soil. A layer of soil, approximately parallel to the surface, 
that has distinct characteristics produced by soil-forming 
processes and that differs in one or more ways from adjacent 
horizons in the same profile. Soil horizons designated by 
capital letters are defined as follows: 
A horizon. — The mineral horizon at the surface. It contains an 
accumulation of organic matter, has been leached of soluble 
minerals and clay, or shows the effects of both. 
B horizon. — The horizon in which clay minerals have accumulated, 
that has developed a characteristic blocky or prismatic 
structure, or that shows the effects of both processes. 
C horizon. — The unconsolidated material immediately under the 
true soil. In chemical, physical, and mineral composition 
it is presumed to be similar to the material from which at 
least part of the overlying solum has developed, unless the C 
designation is preceded by a Roman numeral. 
Roman numerals are prefixed to the master horizon or layer 
designation (A, B, C, R) to indicate lithologic discontinuities 
either within or below the solum. The first, or uppermost, 
material is not numbered, for the Roman numeral I is under- 
stood; the second, or contrasting, material is numbered II, 
and others are numbered III, IV, and so on, consecutively 
downward. Thus for example, a sequence from the surface 
downward might be Al, Bl, B2, C, IIC2. 

Following are the small-letter symbols that may be a part of a 
horizon designation (B21tg) and the meaning of these symbols, 
g — strong gleying. 
h — illuvial humus, 
p — plow layer, 
t — illuvial clay, 
x — fragipan character. 

Hue. (See Color, Munsell notation.) 

Interceptor. A drainage flitch or tile line, generally at or near the 
base of a slope, that protects areas downslope from the effects 
of seepage water. 

Internal soil drainage. The downward movement of water through 
the soil profile. The rate of movement is determined by the 
texture, structure, and other characteristics of the soil profile 
and underlying layers, and by the height of water table, either 
permanent or perched. Relative terms for expressing internal 
drainage are none, very slow, slow, medium, rapid, and very 
rapid. 

Loam. Soil having approximately equal amounts of sand, silt, and 
clay. 

Morphology, soil. The physical constitution of the soil, including 
the texture, structure, consistence, color, and other physical 
and chemical properties of the various soil horizons that make 
up the soil profile. 



Mollies. Patches of contrasting color that vary in number and 
size; generally associated with poor drainage, Descriptive 
terms are as follows: Abundance — few, common, and many} 
size — fine, medium, and coarse; and contrast — faint, distinct, 
and prominent. 

Natural drainage. Refers to those conditions that existed during 
the development of the soil, as opposed to altered drainage, 
which is commonly t he result of art ificial drainage or irrigat ion 
but may result from other causes, such as natural deepening 
of channels or filling of depressions. The following terms are 
used to express natural drainage; Excessively drained, some- 
what excessively drained, well drained, moderately well drained, 
somewhat poorly drained, poorly (trained, and very poorly drained. 

Parent material. The weathered rock or partly weathered soil 
material from which a soil has formed; the C horizon. 

Permeability. The quality of a soil horizon that enables water or 
air to move through it. Terms used to describe permeability 
are as follows: very slow, slow, moderately slow, moderate, 
moderately rapid, rapid, and very rapid. 

Profile, soil. A vertical section of the soil through all its horizons 
and extending into the parent material. (See Horizon, soilj 

Reaction, soil. The degree of acidity of alkalinity of a soil, expressed 
in pll values or in words as follows: 

pi I 

Extremely acid Below 4.5 

Very strongly acid 4. 5-5. 

Strongly acid 5. 1-5. 5 

Medium acid .5. 6-6. 

Slightly acid 6. 1-6. 5 

Neutral 6. 6-7. 3 

Mildly akaline 7. 4-7. 8 

Moderately alkaline 7. 9-8. 4 

Strongly alkaline 1 8. 5-9. 

Very strongly akaline 9. 1 and higher 

Relief. (See Topography.) 

Sand. As a soil separate, individual rock or mineral fragments 
0.05 to 2.0 millimeters in diameter As a textural class, soil 
that is 85 percent or more sand and not more than 10 percent 
clay 

Silt. As a soil separate, individual mineral particles 0.002 to 0.05 
millimeter in diameter. As a textural class, soil that is 80 
percent or more silt and less than 12 percent clay. 

Soil. The natural medium for the growth of land plants on the 
surface of the earth; composed of mineral and organic materials. 

Solum. The genetic soil developed by soil-forming processes; the 
A and B horizons; does not include the parent material (C 
horizon) . 

Structure, soil. The arrangement of primary soil particles into 
compound particles or clusters that are separated from adjoin- 
ing aggregates and have properties unlike those of an equal 
mass of unaggregated primary soil particles. The principal 
forms of soil structure are — platy (laminated), prismatic (ver- 
tical axis of aggregates longer than horizontal), columnar 
(prisms with rounded tops), blocky (angular or subangular), 
and granular. Structureless soils are (1) single grain (each grain 
by itself, as in dune sand) or (2) massive (the particles adhering 
together without any regular cleavage, as in many claypans and 
hardpans) . 

Subsoil. Technically, the B horizon; roughly, the part of the profile 

below plow depth. 
Substratum. Any layer lying beneath the solum, or true soil; the 

C or D horizon. 

Surface soil. The soil ordinarily moved in tillage, or its equivalent 

in uncultivated soil, about 5 to 8 inches in thickness. 
Texture, soil. The relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay 

particles in the soil. A coarse-textured soil is one high in sand; 

a fine-textured soil contains a large proportion of clay. (See 

Sand, Silt, and Clay.) 
Tilth, soil. The physical properties of the soil that affect the ease 

with which it can be cultivated or that affect its suitability for 

crops; implies the presence or absence of favorable soil structure. 
Topography, or Relief. Elevations or inequalities of the land 

surface, considered collectively. 
Upland (geologic). Land consisting of material unworked by water 

in recent geologic time and ordinarily lying at a higher elevation 

than flood plains and stream terraces. 
Value. (See Color, Munsell notation.) 

V-type ditches. Drainage ditches that are V-shaped and have 
smooth side slopes. 



GUIDE TO MAPPING UNITS 



[See table 4, p. 10, for approximate acreage and proportionate extent of each soil; see table 5, P- ^0, for estimated yields of principal crops. See the section "Engineering Uses of Soils" 
information on engineering properties. See table 14, p. 7*+, for drainage groups of soils and table 15, p. 78, for irrigation groups of soils] 



Capability 



Woodland 
suitability 



Map 

symbol Mapping unit 

Ba Bayboro silt loam 

BoA Bertie and Othello silt loams, to 2 percent slopes 

BoB2 Bertie and Othello silt loams, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded 

Bp Bibb silt loam 

Bt Bladen silty clay loam 

BuA Butlertown silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

BuB2 Butlertown silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

BuC2 Butlertown silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

BuC3 Butlertown silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Cb Coastal beaches 

DoA Downer loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes 

DoB Downer loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

DoC Downer loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes 

DoC3 Downer loamy sand, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded 

DoD Downer loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes 

D0D3 Downer loamy sand, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 

DoE Downer loamy sand, 15 to 30 percent slopes 

Ek Elkton loam 

EnA Elkton silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

EnB2 Elkton silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

FaA Fallsington loam, to 2 percent slopes 

FaB Fallsington loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

FdA Fallsington sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 

FdB Fallsington sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

GaB Galestown loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 5 percent slopes 

GaC Galestown loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 10 percent slopes 

GcB Galestown sand, clayey substratum, to 5 percent slopes 

GkD Galestown and Lakeland loamy sands, 10 to 15 percent slopes 

GkE Galestown and Lakeland loamy sands, 15 to 30 percent slopes 

G1C Galestown and Lakeland sands, 5 to 10 percent slopes 

Gr Gravel and borrow pits 

Jo Johnston loam i 

KeA Keyport loam, to 2 percent slopes 

KeB2 Keyport loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

KpA Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

KpB2 Keyport silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

KrC3 Keyport silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded 

KrD3 Keyport silty clay loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded-- 

KsA Klej loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes 

KsB Klej loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

LaB Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, to 5 percent slopes 

LaC Lakeland loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 10 percent slopes 

Ma Made land 

MbA Matapeake fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 

MbB2 Matapeake fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded 

MbC2 Matapeake fine sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded 

MbC3 Matapeake fine sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded- 

McA Matapeake loam, to 2' percent slopes 

McB2 Matapeake loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

McC2 Matapeake loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

McC3 Matapeake loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded 

MkA Matapeake silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

MkB2 Matapeake silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

MkC2 Matapeake silt lcam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

MkC3 Matapeake silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded 

MmD Matapeake soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes 



Described unit 




group 


UIl 










page 


Symbol 


Page 


roup 


P 

ag 




IIIw-9 


3k 


X 






IIIw-1 


3lt 


3 


lt6 






3k 




lt6 


12 


IIIw~7 


3k 


2 


lt6 


12 


VIw-2 


36 


10 


lt8 


13 


IIw-1 


32 


XX 


lt8 


13 


lie -l6 


32 


XX 


48 


Jo 


Hie -l6 


33 


g 


lt8 


+j 


XVe-9 


35 


17 


k9 


13 


VIIIs-2 


37 


20 


k9 


lit 


lis -It 


33 


7 


k7 


ll+ 


Ils-lt 


33 


7 


kj 


14 


IIIe-33 


3k 


8 


kj 


lit 


IVe -5 


35 


13 


48 


lit 


IVe -5 


35 


8 


1+7 


lit 


Vie -2 


36 


13 


1+8 


lit 


Vie -2 


36 


g 


lt8 


lit 


IIIw-9 


3»t 


1 


1,3 


15 


IIIw-9 


3^ 


1 


1+3 


15 


IIIw-9 


3k 


1 


k3 


15 


IIIw-7 


3k 


1 


k3 


15 


IIIw-7 


3k 


1 


1*3 


15 


IIIw-6 


3k 


1 


>t3 


16 


IIIw-6 


3k 


1 


lt3 


16 


IIIs-1 


35 


5 


lt7 


16 


IVs-1 


36 


5 


kj 


16 


IVs-1 


36 


5 


kj 


IT 


VIIs-1 


37 


5 


kj 


17 


VIIs-1 


37 


6 


1+7 


17 


VIIs-1 


37 


5 


kj 


17 


VIIIs-lt 


37 


21 


k9 


17 


IIIw-7 


3k 


2 


1+6 


18 


IIw-8 


32 


11 


1+8 


18 


He -13 


32 


11 


1+8 


18 


IIw-8 


32 


11 


lt8 


18 


He -13 


32 


11 


lt8 


18 


Vie -2 


36 


17 


lt 9 


18 


Vile -2 


36 


17 


It9 


18 


IHw-10 


3*t 


3 


46 


19 


IIIw-10 


3lt 


3 


lt6 


19 


IIIs-1 


35 


5 


1+7 


19 


IVs-1 


36 


5 


k7 


19 




-- 


21 


k9 


20 


1-5 


31 


7 


kj 


20 


He -5 


32 


7 


kj 


20 


IIIe-5 


33 


8 


kl 


20 


IVe -5 


35 


13 


1+8 


20 


I -It 


31 


7 


lt7 


20 


He -It 


31 


7 


"t7 


20 


Hie -It 


33 


8 


lt7 


20 


IVe -3 


35 


13 


lt8 


20 


I -It 


31 


7 


47 


20 


He -It 


31 


7 


V7 


20 


IIIe-lt 


33 


8 


kl 


20 


IVe -3 


35 


13 


1+8 


21 


IVe -3 


35 


8 


U7 



Capability- 



Woodland 
suitability 



Map 
symbol 

MmD3 
MmE 
MoA 
MoB2 

MoC2 

MoC3 

MpA 
MpB2 
MsA 
MsB2 
MsC2 
MsC3 
MtA 
MtB2 
MtC2 
MtC3 
MxD 
MxD3 
MxE 
My 
ObA 
0bB2 
0eC2 

Pd 
Pk 
Pm 
Po 
SaA 
SaB2 
SaC2 
SaC3 
SaD2 
SaD3 
SaE 
SfA 
SfB2 
SfC2 
SfC3 
SfD2 
SfD3 
SfE 
SfE3 
SfF 
Sw 
Tm 
WdA 
WdB2 
WoA 
WoB2 
WoC2 
WoD 
WoE 



Mapping unit 

Matapeake soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Matapeake soils, 15 to 30 percent slopes 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, to 2 percent slopes — 
Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Matapeake silt loam, silty substratum, 5 to 10 percent slopes, 

severely eroded 

Mattapex fine sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Mattapex fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded- 

Mattapex loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Mattapex loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Mattapex loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Mattapex loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Mattapex silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Mattapex silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded-- 
Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded- 

Mattapex silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Mattapex soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes 

Mattapex soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Mattapex soils, 15 to 30 percent slopes 

Mixed alluvial land 

Othello silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Othello silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded — 
Othello and Elkton soils, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded 

Plummer loamy sand 

Pocomoke loam 

Pocomoke sandy loam 

Portsmouth silt loam 

Sassafras loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Sassafras loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Sassafras loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Sassafras loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Sassafras loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Sassafras loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Sassafras loam, 15 to 3° percent slopes 

Sassafras sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Sassafras sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded- 
Sassafras sandy loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded — 
Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded — 

Sassafras sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes 

Sassafras sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Sassafras sandy loam, 30 to 60 percent slopes 

Swamp 

Tidal marsh 

Woodstown loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Woodstown loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Woodstown sandy loam, to 2 percent slopes 

2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded — 

Woodstown sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes 

Woodstown sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes 



Woodstown sandy loam, 
Woodstown sandy loam, 



Described 


unit 




group 


on 










page 


Symbol 


'age 


Group Page 


21 


VTe-2 


36 


13 


48 


21 


Vie -2 


36 


9 


U8 


21 


I -It 


31 


7 




21 


He -It 


31 


7 


. 

47 


21 


Hie -It 


33 





47 


21 


IVe -3 


35 


13 


LA 
4o 


22 


IIw-5 


32 


11 


)iA 


22 


He -36 


32 


11 


JrA 

4o 


22 


IIw-1 


32 


11 


J. A 
40 


22 


He -16 


32 


11 


J. Q 

4o 


22 


Hie -16 


33 


9 


1+8 


22 


IVe -9 


35 


17 


lt9 


22 


IIw-1 


32 


~r 


48 


22 


He -16 


32 




48 






33 


~r 

9 


48 


22 


IVe -9 


35 


17 


4-y 


22 


IVe -9 


35 


9 


48 


23 


Vie -2 


36 


17 


4y 


23 


Vie -2 


36 


9 


48 


23 


VIw-1 


36 




46 


2lt 


IIIw-7 


31* 


in 


48 


2k 


IIIw-7 


3k 


10 


48 


2k 


Hie -13 


33 


10 


)iA 
40 


2k 


IVw-6 


35 


10 


48 


25 


IIIw-7 


3k 


1 




25 


IIIw-6 


3k 


1 




25 


IIIw-7 


3k 


■ 


4j 


25 


I-lt 


31 


7 


Ij.T 
4 ( 


26 


He -It 


31 


7 


4 f 


26 


IIIe-lt 


33 


g 


h.7 


26 


IVe -3 


35 


13 


48 


26 


IVe -3 


35 


3 


hi 


26 


Vie -2 


36 


jo 


48 


26 


Vie -2 


36 


Q 


48 


26 


1-5 


31 


"7 


47 


26 


He -5 


32 


7 


47 


26 


Hie -5 


33 


8 


hi 


26 


IVe -5 


35 




48 


27 


IVe -5 


35 


8 


kj 


27 


Vie -2 


36 


13 


48 


27 


Vie -2 


36 


9 


48 


27 


VIIe-2 


36 


13 


48 


27 


Vile -2 


36 


9 


48 


27 


VIIw-1 


37 


21 


llO 

ty 


27 


VHIw-1 


37 


21 


1+9 


28 


IIw-1 


32 


3 


1+6 


28 


He -16 


32 


3 


1+6 


- 29 


Hw-5 


32 


3 


1+6 


29 


He -36 


32 


3 


1+6 


29 


IIIe-36 


3* 


9 


1+8 


29 


IVe -5 


35 


9 


1+8 


29 


Vie -2 


36 


9 


1+8 



o 

a 

o 



WORKS AND STRUCTURES 
Highways and roads 

Dual . = 

Good motor 

Poor motor ========= = 

Trail 

Highway markers 

National Interstate 

U.S. 

State 
Railroads 

Single track 

Multiple track 

Abandoned 
Bridges and crossings 

Road 

Trail, foot 

Railroad 

Ferries _ 

Ford 

Grade 

R. R. over 

R. R. under 
Tunnel 
Buildings 

School 

Church 

Station 

Mines and Quarries 
Mine dump 

Pits, gravel or other 

Power lines 

Pipe lines 
Cemeteries 

Levees 

Oil or gas wells 




QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 
CONVENTIONAL SIGNS 

BOUNDARIES 
Nat.onal or state . _ _ 

County 

Reservation . . 

Land grant . . „ 



Streams 
Perennial 

Intermittent, unclass 
Canals and ditches 
Lakes and ponds 

Perenmal 

Wells 

Springs 
Marsh 
Wet SDOt 

Alluvial fan 

Drainage end 



CD 




Escarpments 

Bedrock 

Other 
Prominent peaks 
Depressions 



SOIL SURVEY DATA 



Soil boundary 
and symbol 
Gravel 
Stones 

Rock outcrops 
Chert fragments 
Clay spot 
Sand spot 

Gumbo or scabby spot 
M )de and 

Severely eroded spot 
Blowout, wind erosion 
Gullies 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 
MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

GENERAL SOIL MAP 
QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 

Scale 1:190,080 




SOIL ASSOCIATIONS 

Galestown-Lakeland-Downer association: Somewhat 
excessively or excessively drained sands and loamy sands 
Sassafras-Woodstown association: Well drained and 
moderately well drained soils that have a friable sandy 
clay loam subsoil 

Matapeake-Butlertown association: Well drained and 
moderately well drained silty soils that have a friable 
to firm silty clay loam subsoil 

Mattapex-Keyport association: Moderately well drained 
silty soils that have a firm silty clay loam to plastic 
clay subsoil 

Elkton-Othello association: Poorly drained silty soils 
that have a firm silty clay loam to plastic clay subsoil 
Fallsington-Pocomoke association: Poorly and very poorly 
drained soils that have a friable to firm sandy clay loam 
subsoil 

September 1965 



J. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
50IL CONSERVATION SERVICE 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 



MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 



SOIL LEGEND 



The first copltol letter Is the iniriol one of the soil nome. A 
second capital letter, A, B, C, DJE, of F, shows the slope. Most 
symbols without o slope letter art for nearly level soils or land 
types, but some are for soils or lend Types ihot hove considerable 
range in slope, A final number, 3'or 3, In o symbol means that the 
soil is moderately or severely eroded. 



ByB? 

BoC2 
B U C3 

Cb 

DoA 
DoB 
DoC 
DoC3 
DoO 
0o03 
DoE 

Ek 



GoB 
GoC 
GcB 
GkD 
GkE 
GIC 



KeA 
KeB2 
KpA 



Bayboro silt loom 
Bertie and Othello silt loams, 
Bertie and Othello silt loams, 2 
Bibb silt loom 
Bladen silly clay loom 
Butlertown silt loam, t 
Butlertown silt loom, 2 t 
Butlertown silt loam, 5 t 
Butlertown silt loam, 5 t 

Coostal beaches 

Downer loamy sand, to 
Downer loomy sond, 2 to 
Downer loomy sand, 5 to 

Downer loamy sand, 10 ti 
Downer loomy sond, 10 t< 
Downer loomy sond, 15 ti 

Elkton loom 
Elkton silt loom, ti 



2 percent slopes 

5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
)0 percent slopes, severely eroded 



Fallsington loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Follsington loom, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

Follsington sandy loom, to 2 percent slof 

Fallsington sandy loom, 2 to 5 percent slo| 

Galestown loamy sand, clayey substrotum, 
Galestown loomy sand, clayey substrotum, 
Golestown sond, cloyey substrotum, to 5 
Galestown and Lakeland loamy sands, 10 ti 
Galestown and Lakeland loamy sands, 15 to 30 percent s 
Galestown and Lakeland sands, 5 to 10 percent slopes 
Gravel and borrow pits 

Johnston loam 

Keyport loom, to 2 percent slopes 

Keyport loom, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Keyport silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 



> 5 percent slopes 
• 10 percent slopes 



KpB2 
KrC3 
KrD3 
KsA 
K S B 



Ma 

MbA 

MbB2 

MbC2 

MbC3 

McA 

McB2 

McC2 

McC3 

MkA 

MkB2 

MkC2 

MkC3 

MmD 

MmD3 

MmE 

MoA 

MoB2 

MoC2 

MoC3 

MpA 

MpB2 

MsA 

MsB2 

MsC2 

MsC3 

MtA 

MtB2 

MtC2 

MtC3 



Keyport silt loom, 2 lo 5 percent dopes, moderotely eroded 



Keyport silty clay lo 
Keyport silfy clay lo 
Klej loamy sand, 1 
Klej loomy sand, 2 t. 



Mode 1 and 
Mofopeake fine s 
Motopeake Ime s 
Motapeake fine s 
Motopeake fine s 
Motopeake loom, 
Matapeoke loom, 
Motopeake loom, 
Motapeake loam, 
Matapeoke silt It 

Motapeake silt It 



Motopeake silt I 
Ma'apeoke silt I 

MaMapex loam, 
Mat tap ex loom, 



ro ISperce 
ent s ope, 
ent slopes 



f loam, to ! 2 percent slopes 
/ loam, 2 to|S percent slopes, moderately eroded 
/ loam, 5 to lO percent slopes, moderately eroded 
f loom, 5 rojjo percent slopes, severely eroded 
i 2 percent slopes 

i 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
. 10 percent iloes, moderately eroded 
■ 10 percent tlopes, severely eroded 
lo 2percJht slopes 

2 to 5 perciflt slopes, moderately eroded 
5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
5 to 10 perient slopes, severely eroded 



severely eroded 
> 2 percent slopes 



10 p 



moderotely eroded 
. moderately eroded 
, severely eroded 



y loom, 2 to S percent slopes, moderately 

> 5 percent slypes, moderately eroded 

> 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

> 10 percent slopes, severely eroded 
to 2 percent slopes 

2 to 5 percent slopes, 



i 10 perceit slo 
i 10 percent slo 
5 percent slope' 



oderately eroded 
moderately 
severely eroded 



ded 



MxD3 
MxE 
My 

ObA 
ObB2 
OeC2 



Po 

SaA 

SoB2 

SoC2 

SoC3 

SaD2 

SaD3 

SoE 

SfA 

SfB2 

SfC2 

SfC3 

SfD2 

SID3 



WdA 
WdB2 
WoA 
WoB2 
WaC2 
WoD 
WoE 



Matlapex soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 
Mottopex soils, 15 to 30 percent slopes 
Mixed alluvial land 

Othello silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Othello silt loom, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Othello and Elkton soils, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderotely eroded 

Plummer loomy sond 
Pocomoke loom 
Pocomoke sandy loom 
Portsmouth silt loom 



5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
10 percent slopes, moderotely eroded 
10 percent slopes severely eroded 
. 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 



30 perce 
, to 2 p 



Sossofras loam, to 
Sassafras loom, 2 to 
Sossofras loom, 5 to 
Sossofras loom, 5 to 
Sossofros loam, 10 ti 
Sossofros loom, 10 t< 
Sossofras loom, 15 K 
Sossofros sandy loor 
Sossofros sandy looi 

Sossofras sandy loon 
Sassafras sandy looi 

Sassafras sandy loor 
Sassafras sandy loam, 30 to 60 percent slopes 

Tidol morsh 

Woodstown loom, to 2 percent slopes 

Woodstown loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderotely eroded 
Woodstown sondy loom, to 2 percent slopes 

Woodstown sondy loom, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderotely eroded 
Woodstown sandy loom, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Woodstown sandy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes 
Woodstown sondy loom, 15 to 30 percent slopes 



slopes, moderotely eroded 
1 slopes, moderotely eroded 
t slopes, severely eroded 
it slopes, moderately eroded 
nt slopes, severely eroded 

nt slopes, severely eroded 



Soil mop constructed 1965 by Cartographic Division, 
Soil Conservation Service, USD A, from 1957 
aerial photographs. Controlled mosaic based on 
Maryland plane coordinate system, Lambert 
conformol conic projection, 192? North American 
datum. 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 1 




5000 Feet f Joins sheet 6) " fB '' 

Scale 1:15 840 i l l i I I 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 2 




(Joins sheet 7) o 'A 1 Mile 1 5000 Feel 
i i i i i Scale 1:15 840 i i i i i i 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 




QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 4 




J " Scale 1:15 840 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 5 




QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMB 




(Joins sheet 1 1 ) o i/ 2 ! Mj l e 

i 1 i I i Scale 1:15 840 i i i l L 



(Joins sheet 3) 



yilttlN AININLo L-UUINIY, IVIMK Y LAIN U — SMttl INUIVIBtK o 




(Joint sheef 13) 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 9 




Scale 1:15 840 



SHEET NUMBER 10 




J i " Scale 1:15 840 



yUtLIN A IN IN to UUUINIY, IVIAKYLAINU — bHhtl INUIVIbtK 1Z 




Scale 1:15 840 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 14 




1 Mile 

Scale 1:15 840 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 15 




QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 17 




QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — bHttl NUIVIbtK 18 




(Joins sheet 24) '/, 1 Mile 5000 Feel 
i i i i i Scale 1:15 840 i l 1 1 1 1 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 19 




yutLIN rtlNINto L,UUINIY, MAKYLAINL) — SHEET NUMBER 





j Mj j e q (Joins sheet 27) \ (Joins sheet 28) 
J Scale 1:15 840 i i i 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 23 




(Joins sheet 28) I (Joins sheet 29) 
Scale 1:15 840 I I I 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 24 

F t dA Fa a (Joins sheet 1 8 




-I 1 Scale 1:15 840 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 30 

(Joins inset) ^ Tm 




QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 31 

sib? f Joins sheet 25) 




1 i " Scale 1:15 840 i I I L 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 32 

(Joins sheet 26) saB? KpA 




QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 33 

_ KeA saB? FdA (Joins sheet 27) 




QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 37 




Scale 1:15 840 I L 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 38 

(Joins sheet 3 1 ) 




QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 42 




QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 43 




QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 44 




(Joins sheet 51 ) ^ j Mi , c 5000 Feet 
i 1 1 1 i Scale 1:15 840 i i I i i I 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 46 




QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 48 




QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 50 

(Joins sheet 43) , 




QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 51 




QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 54 




Scale 1:15 840 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND — SHEET NUMBER 56 




j ! ' ' Scale 1:15 840 



. S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
DIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 



QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND 



MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 



SOIL LEGEND 



The first copltol letter is the initial one of the soil name. A 
second eapitol letter. A, B, C, D, E, or F, shows the slope. Most 
symbols without o slope letter ofe for nearly level soils or lond 
types, but some ore for soils or lond types thot hove considerable 
ronge In slope, A finol number, 2 or 3, in a symbol meons thot the 
soil is moderately or severely eroded. 



NAME 



DoA 
Do 6 
DoC 
DoC3 
DoD 
DoD3 
DoE 

Ek 



FoA 
FaB 
FdA 
FdB 

GoB 
GoC 
GcB 
GkD 
GkE 



BoybofO silt loam 
Bertie and Othello silt looms, 
Bertie ond Othello silt looms, 2 
Bibb silt loom 
Bloden sllty cloy loom 
Butlertown silt loam, t< 
Butlertown sill loom, 2 t' 
Butlertown silt loom, 5 t< 
Butlertown silt loom, 5 t 

Coostal beaches 

Downer loamy sand, to 
Downer loamy sand, 2 to 
Downer loamy sand, 5 to 
Downar loamy sand, S to 
Downer loamy sand, 10 t 
Downer loamy sand, 10 t 
Downer loomy sand, 15 t 

Elk ion loam 
Elkian silt loom, I 
Elkton silt loam, 2 t 



i 2 percent slopes 

i 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 



2 percent slopes 

5 percent slopes, moderotely eroded 
10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
lOlpercenf slopes, severely eroded 



2 percent slopes 

5 percent slopes, moderotely eroded 



5 percent slopes 
10 percent slope 



Follsington loam, to 2 percent slopes 
Follsington loom, 2 to 5 percent slopes 
Follsington sandy loam, to 2 percent slope: 
Follsington sondy loom, 2 to 5 percent slope 
Golestown loomy sond, clayey substratum, 
Golestown loomy sand, cloyey substratum, 5 
Golestown sond, cloyey substrolum, to 5 percent slopes 
Golestown ond Lokelond loomy sonds, 10 to 15 percent slopes 
Golesiown and Lokelond loomy sonds, 15 to X percent slopes 
Golestown ond Lokelond sonds, 5 to 10 percent slopes 
Grovel ond borrow pits 

Johnston loom 

Keyport loam, i< 
Keyport loom, 2 ti 
Keyport silt loam, 



KpB2 
KrC3 
KrD3 
KsA 



Mo 

MbA 

MbB2 

MbC2 

MbC3 

McA 

McB2 

McC2 

McC3 

MkA 

MkB2 

MkC2 

MkC3 

MmD 

MmD3 

MmE 

Mo A 

MoB2 

MoC2 

MoC3 

MpA 

MpB2 

MsA 



Keyport silt loom, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderotely eroded 
Keyport silty clay loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded 
Keyport silly cloy loam, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 
Kle| loamy sand, to 2 percent slopes 
Klei l° om V sond . 2 to 5 percent slopes 

Lokelond loamy sand, cloyey substratum, to 5 percent slopes 
Lokelond loomy sond, cloyey substrotum, 5 to 10 percent slopes 

Made land 

Motopeoke fine sondy loom, t 
Motopeoke fine sandy loom, 2 t 
Motopeoke fine sandy loam, 5 t 
Motopeoke fine sandy loam, 5 t 
Motopeoke loom, to 2 percent 
Motopeoke loom, 2 to 5 percent 
Motopeoke loom, 5 t 
Matapeoke loom, 5 t 
Motopeoke silt loam 
Motopeoke silt loom 
Motopeoke silt loom 
Motopeoke silt I 



isB2 



MtB2 
MtC2 
MtC3 
MxD 



10 percer 



> 10 perc. 



slopes, moderotely eroded 
slopes, moderately eroded 
slopes, severely eroded 

moderotely eroded 
moderotely eroded 
. severely eroded 



. 10 t 



Motopeoke soils, 15 to 30 percent s 
Motopeoke silt loom, silty subslroK 
Motopeoke silt loom, silty substrotu 
Motopeoke silt loom, sllty substrate 
Motopeoke silt loom, sllty substroh. 
Mattapex fine sandy loom, to 2 pe 
Mottopex fine sondy loom, 2 to 5 pe 



■s, moderotely eroded 



Mottopex 

Mottopex 
Mottopex 
Mottope* 
Moitopex silt loom 
Mottope* silt loom 
Mottopex soils, 10 



, to 2 f 



10 c 



roded 



,om, to 2 
.om, 2 to 5 



slopes, moderately eroded 
to 10 percent slopes, moderotely eroded 
to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded 
15 percent slopes 



ObA 
ObB2 
0eC2 



Mottope* soils, 10 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 
Mattapex soils, 15 to 30 percent slopes 
Mixed alluvial land 

Othello slit loom, to 2 percent slopes 

Othello sill loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderotely eroded 

Othello and Elkton soils, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately « 





Pocomoke 












Pm 


Pocomoke 


sand, loam 










Pa 


Portsmout 












SoA 


Sassafras 


aara, la 2 










SaB2 


Sassafras 


oom, 2 ta 5 






moderotely eroded 


SoC2 


Sassafras 


oom, 5 to 10 pe 




, moderotely eroded 


SoC3 


Sassafras 










y eroded 


So02 










s, moderotely eroded 


So03 


Sassafras 










rely eroded 


SaE 


Sassafras 












SfA 




sandy laam, 










SfB2 




sand, laam, 








noderotely eroded 


SIC2 






5-t. 


10 percent 




moderotely eroded 


SfC3 




sand, loom] 


5 K 


10 percent 




severely eroded 


SID2 


Sassafras 




10 


o 15 percen 




, moderotely eroded 


Sf03 


Sassafras 


sandy loom, 


10 


o 15 percer 




1( severely eroded 


SfE 






15 


o 30 percer 






SIE3 




sandy loom, 


IS 


o 30 perce 




s, severely eroded 


SfF 


Sassafras 


sondy loam. 


30 


o 60 perce 







WdA 
WdB2 
WoA 
WoB2 
WoC2 
WoD 
WoE 



Woodstown loom, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderotely eroded 
Woodstown sondy loom, to 2 percent slopes 

Woodstown sondy loom, 2 to 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Woodstown sondy loom, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderotely eroded 
Woodstown sondy loom, 10 to 15 percent slopes 
Woodstown sondy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes 



Soil mop constructed 1965 by Cartographic Dlvisii 
Soil Conservation Service, USDA, from 1957 
oerlol photogrophs. Controlled mosaic based on 
Maryland plane coordinate system, Lambert