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i 




Physici Lib. 



SOLUBILITIES 

OF 

INORGANIC AND ORGANIC 
COMPOUNDS 



A COMPILATION OF QUANTITATIVE S0LUBILIT9 

DATA FROM THE PERIODICAL 

LITERATURE 



ATHERTON SEIDELL, Ph.D. 

Hysimic Laboratory, U. S. Public Heaitk 
Service, Washington, D. C. 



SECOND EDITION 

ENLAROED AND THOROUQHLY REVISED 



NEW YORK 

VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY 

as Park Placb 
1919 



Copyright, 1907, 1911, 1919, 

BY 

D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY 



Stanbope pctM 

F. H. GILSON COMPANY 
BOSTON. U.S.A 



r 



PREFACE 

The principal object in preparing a compilation of solubility 
data, from the point of view of the advancement of chemistry, is 
to furnish material for the origination and verification of theories 
of solution. The majority of investigators who have been en- 
gaged on such problems, have been compelled to determine ex- 
perimentally the values required for developing the generalizations 
they hoped to establish. In fact, a large part of the most accurate 
data which are here brought together, are the outgrowth of such 
studies. It is hoped, therefore, that the present effort to make 
these and all other quantitative results more accessible for theo- 
retical studies of solubility, will lead to noteworthy advances in 
this field of chemistry. 

Of the various properties which determine the uses of com- 
pounds in a chemical way, solubility is of first importance. There- 
fore, solubility data are perhaps of even greater interest from a 
practical than from a theoretical point of view. For this reason it 
has been necessary to consider the needs of those who require such 
information only incidentally and may, therefore, be less familiar 
with some of the forms used for its expression. With this in 
mind, and at the suggestion of users of the preceding edition, 
chapters have been prepared in which are described, among other 
things, the sources of solubility data, the methods of calculating 
them to desired terms, the interpretation of their tabular arrange- 
ment, as well as some of the methods used for the accurate deter- 
mination of solubilities. 

Soon after the previous edition was issued, the collection of the 
new data, to be used in keeping the subject matter up to date, 
was systematically begun. In doing this, the experiment was 
made of examining each journal page by page, instead of scan- 
ning the titles of original papers contained in it. This resulted in 
the discovery of many data that would otherwise have been over- 
looked, and it soon became apparent that a more careful search of 
the literature than that previously made was necessary. It was, 
therefore, decided not only to examine the current periodicals 
minutely, but to go through the back volumes in a manner equally 
as thorough. The data collected in this way soon amounted to more 
than could be advantageously added as a supplement to the tables 
in the first edition, and it was decided to wait until the whole 

book could be completely rearranged, before making any additions 

... 
m 

353420 



PREFACE 

to the subject matter. It also appeared advisable to extend the 
scope to include freezing-point and certain other data, which had 
been omitted entirely from the first edition. The undertaking, 
therefore, developed far beyond the original expectation of regu- 
larly adding, from year to year, the new data which would keep 
the compilation up to date. Since the amount of time at my dis- 
posal for this work was limited, progress necessarily has been 
slow. Finally, the advent of the war extended the period far be- 
yond the limit caused by other conditions. 

Although the compilation has now been completed, I realize 
that in a work of this kind, more satisfactory results would have 
been achieved if several individuals had cooperated in its prepara- 
tion. The recent decision of the American Chemical Society to 
extend its activities to the publication of reference books, wUl, I 
hope, insure that hereafter, compilations of the present character 
will be made in the exceptionally thorough manner which only an 
organization with elaborate facilities can provide. 

In this connection I wish to express the opinion that the new 
venture of publishing compendia of chemical literature, which the 
chemical societies of England and America are just now about to 
undertake, will prove of service to the progress of chemistry in 
English speaking countries, second only to that rendered by the 
journals of original and of abstract literature, which these societies 
have so successfully developed. 

I realize, more than ever, that opportunities for the occurrence 
of errors are innumerable and although I have endeavored to 
maintain unremitting vigilance to avoid them, my efforts toward 
this end have not always been successful. I desire to express my 
appreciation to all who have called attention to errors in the 
former edition and I will be equally grateful to those who point 
out to me needed corrections in the present book. In this con- 
nection, I am greatly indebted to Professor B. N. Menschutkin of the 
Polytechnic Institute (Sosnovka), Petrograd, Russia, who, in calling 
my attention to an error in the tabulation of some of his work 
given in the first edition, sent me a complete set of reprints of his 
many papers on solubility and personally corrected the tables 
which I prepared from them, for use in the present volume. 

In conclusion I wish gratefully to acknowledge the assistance 
rendered me by Dr. W. S. Putnam of the Cooper Union of New 
York during the compilation of the first 150 pages of the tables. 

A. S. 
Washington, D. C,, 

Feb. 22, 1919. 

iv 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

The following detailed account of the collection and arrangement 
of the solubility data contained in the present volume, has been 
prepared particularly for those who need quantitative solubilities 
rarely, and are more or less unfamiliar with the usual tabular 
methods of expressing such data. To those who are better ac- 
quainted with the subject, the descriptions in some cases at least, 
will probably be considered more elementary than necessary. It is 
hoped, however, that with the aid of the explanations here given, 
no one need remain uncertain as to the true meaning of any result 
or form of expression found in the book. 

Sources of the Data. — In addition to those determinations made 
for the specific purpose of ascertaining particular solubilities, many 
results are reported in connection with the study of theories of 
solution and are, therefore, easily located. On the other hand, since 
solubilities often form only an incidental part of an investigation, 
many valuable data can be found only by a very careful search of 
the literature. Consequently, in collecting material for the present 
compilation, the procedure was adopted of perusing, page by page, 
every volume of a selected number of chemical journals, for the 
years 1900 to 1918. In doing this, attention was paid particularly, 
to collecting all tabulated data, but a vigilant watch for solubility 
statements in the text was also maintained. The twenty-three 
journals which were examined in this manner are designated with 
asterisks (*) in the volume-year table of journals given at the end 
of the book. There is also listed in this table a somewhat larger 
number of other journals, containing relatively few papers in which 
solubility data may be expected. In these cases, a page by page 
examination would have required more effort than the results to be 
gained appeared to justify. Consequently, only the tables of con- 
tents of these journals were searched for references to solubility 
data. The last volume number given for each journal in this table 
shows the final volume examined as above mentioned. 

Of the abstract journals, only "Chemical Abstracts" was syste- 
matically searched for references to data published in other than 
the twenty-three journals which were minutely examined. The 
original of practically all references obtained in this way was 
consulted. 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

The larger handbooks of inorganic and organic chemistry, such 
a& those of Dan^mer, Moissan, Gmelin-Kraut, Abegg, Beilstein and 
others, were not examined, since it was believed that the major part 
of the data so obtained would undoubtedly have been already col- 
lected from the journals. 

Of the available compendia of physical constants, only the fourth 
edition of Landolt and Bornstein's "Tabellen" and the three issues 
of the international "Tables annuelles de Constantes et Donn6es 
Num^rique" were systematically examined, and in these cases the 
volumes were used principally to check the completeness of the 
compilation made directly from the journals. 

Of the various pharmacopoeias and pharmaceutical reference 
books, only the eighth edition of the U. S. Pharmacopceia (1905) 
was used to any extent as a source of solubility data. Most of the 
results contained in the subsequent ninth edition (1916), are taken 
from the previous edition and calculated to the basis of volume, in- 
stead of weight, of solvent required to dissolve unit weight of solid. 
It is believed that, for the present compilation, the weight basis for 
expressing the results is to be preferred, and moreover, by taking 
the data directly from the eighth edition, the errors incidental to 
the recalculation and rounding off to whole numbers, are elimi- 
nated. 

In this connection, it should be mentioned that the results ob- 
tained from pharmaceutical reference books for the more complex 
compounds such as the alkaloids, are for the most part of only 
qualitative interest, and although probably of sufficient exactness 
for use in pharmaceutical compounding, do not come within the 
scope of quantitative accuracy adopted for the present volume. 

Collection and Compilation of the Data. — In all cases where solu- 
bility results were found recorded in an original communication, 
the data and accompanying descriptions of the experiments were 
copied and the record thus made filed for future ufee. In preparing 
these abstracts the actual experimental results were always recorded 
when available, rather than the values as recalculated by the author 
to terms which best suited the solution of the problem in hand. In 
many cases the original analytical data were not given and uncer- 
tainties arose as to the factors used and as to just how the calcula- 
tions had been made. This was particularly true in the many cases 
where the results were expressed in gram molecular quantities per 
given volume of solution or on the basis of molecular percentage. 

The supplementary information sought in each paper included 
such points as the method which had been employed for securing 

vi 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

equilibrium, the care exercised in purifying the material, the exact 
composition of the solid phase, the procedure followed in separating 
the saturated solution and analyzing it, as well as any other details 
which might be of value in forming a correct estimate of the ac- 
curacy of the work. The time consumed in this part of the exami- 
nation of the original papers was usually found to have been well 
spent when the compilation of the solubility tables from these data 
sheets was undertaken. This was especially the case when it be- 
came necessary to compare the results for the same compounds 
obtained by two or more investigators. When practically all 
abstracting of the solubility data in the journals already referred to 
had been completed, the data sheets, which were at first grouped 
according to the journals examined, were arranged alphabetically 
in accordance with the names of the compounds for which data had 
been determined. In this way all results for a particular compound 
were brought together and the actual preparation of the systemati- 
c^y arranged tables could be begun. 

It will be noted that by this plan the original papers were practi- 
cally all consulted before the actual compilation of any of the data 
was started. In only a small percentage of cases was the author's 
paper again consulted, at the time the manuscript of the compiled 
tables was prepared or later. Although this plan introduces 
numerous opportunities for errors resulting from the recopying of 
the original data, it appeared to be the only practical procedure. 
A more direct transference of the original results to the finished page 
would have required that the work be done in the library or that a 
much larger number of books be withdrawn than is ordinarily 
permitted. 

Although It was originally intended to have the manuscript 
pages typewritten before transmitting them to the printer, this 
plan had to be abandoned on account of the difficulty in obtaining 
the services of a competent person and also on account of the 
considerable added expense. This necessity may possibly have 
resulted advantageously, since one of the several opportunities for 
the introduction of mistakes through copying the figures, was 
eliminated. 

The copy as forwarded to the printer was, for the most part, 
clear and legible but it was far from the orderly character of type- 
written pages, consequently, it would be surprising if none of the 
many errors made by the compositors as a result of imperfect 
copy, were overlooked during the proof-reading, which from be- 
ginning to end was done without assistance. In order to reduce 

vn 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

typographical and all other errors to the least possible number, it 
would be necessary to compare every original paper with the final 
printer's proof and to repeat every calculation of a result one or 
more times. That this was not possible in the present case will 
be easily realized when the very large amount of the data is 
considered. 

These details are mentioned at this time because it is believed 
that the user of the book is entitled to exact information in regard 
to, the conditions under which the compilation was made. It is 
only with a clear understanding of its limitations that the book 
can be used to greatest advantage. 

In this connection it should be pointed out that although oppor- 
tunities for errors in recording the purely numerical data here 
brought together are abundant, in the majority of cases the mis- 
takes are not necessarily misleading if proper regard is paid to the 
general import of the results as a whole. Thus on the basis of the 
well-established principle that changes in solubility, such as are 
due to temperature or concentration of solvent, always proceed 
regularly, errors in the case of one or more figures in a table will 
become apparent on careful comparison with the remaining results, 
or by plotting them on cross section paper and drawing the curve. 
Consequently, the table as a whole provides a check on the indi- 
vidual results of which it is composed. 

Scope. — In brief, it may be stated that it has been the inten- 
tion to include in this compilation, the actual results, or a reference 
to all quantitative solubility data, recorded in the journals referred 
to in a preceding section and listed in the table at the end of the 
book. 

Freezing- or melting-points of binary or more complex systems, 
as explained in the footnote on page i, are considered to be quanti- 
tative solubility data. The experimental results are quoted for 
only those systems in which one component is water or alcohol, 
or which are mixtures of fairly well-known compounds, and ref- 
erences are given to all others for which data were found 

Owing to the uncertainty of the boundary between solubility 
and other equilibria, it has been necessary arbitrarily to draw the 
line in regard to certain data which it has appeared wise to exclude. 
In accordance with this, no attempt has been made to gather 
either figures or references, for the following: 

(a) Melting-point data for mixtures of metals (alloys), 
(ft) Melting-point data for mixtures of minerals, except a few 
of relatively simple composition. 

• • « 

Vlll 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

(c) Freezing-points of very dilute solutions made for the de- 
termination of molecular weights or electrolytic disso- 
ciation. 

{d) Data for the solubility of gases in molten metals. 

(e) The so-called solubility of metals in various solvents, due 
to a chemical reaction which occurs. 

(/) Data for solid solutions. 

(g) Data for compounds of unknown or variable composition. 
Order of Arrangement. — The alphabetical arrangement is be- 
lieved to have the advantage that data for particular compounds 
can be more easily located than would be the case if various com- 
pounds or systems had been grouped according to selected rela- 
tionships. There is one difficulty which applies equally to any ar- 
rangement designed to avoid duplications, and that is the placing 
of those systems for which solubility results are given for two or 
more of the constituents involved. This applies especially to 
freezing-point lowering data for binary mixtures. In these cases 
the results show in turn the solubility of each component in the 
other and it is necessary to choose one, or to record the results under 
the name of each member in two separate places. There are many 
similar cases, in aqueous systems of two or more salts and of mix- 
tures of liquids, where results are given in succession for the solu- 
bility of each component in solutions of varying concentrations 
of the other. In order to prevent duplication in these cases it was 
necessary arbitrarily to select that component under which the 
results for the entire system are to be recorded. In harmony with 
the general alphabetical plan of the book, it appeared most logical 
to make the selection on the basis of the alphabetical order of the 
names of the compounds involved. In the majority of cases, 
therefore, every system in which solubility data for two or. more 
compounds are given, is placed under the name of that component, 
the initial of which comes earliest in the alphabet. 

The advantage of this plan is that every system is assigned to a 
single position by rule and opportunities for unknowingly record- 
ing independent investigations of the same system, under different 
headings at widely separated portions of the book, are avoided. 

An exception to this rule, which it was considered wise to observe, 
is in connection with mixed systems containing a compound of one 
of the rarer elements. In these cases, on account of the greater 
interest in the rare earth compound, the data have been located 
under its name. 

In the case of those mixtures of salts and liquids which yield 

ix 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

liquid layers over certain concentrations and, therefore, to all in- 
tents and purposes become reciprocally soluble liquid mixtures, they 
are placed under the name of the salt or of that component which 
exists as a solid under ordinary conditions. It has only rarely been 
possible to give cross references in the body of the book, but in 
all cases those components of the mixtures, other than the one 
under which the data are alphabetically recorded, are included 
in the subject index of the book and the reader, therefore, should 
not fail to consult the index when results or a cross reference to 
the desired compound are not found in the proper place in the 
body of the book. 

Nomenclature. — In regard to questions of the proper naming of 
compounds for the purpose of their correct alphabetical arrange- 
ment, particularly in respect to organic compounds, the usage 
followed in the index of "Chemical Abstracts** has been adopted. 
Thus the name under which a given compound is indexed in 
''Chemical Abstracts*' is, in practically all cases, the one used for 
deciding its position in the present compilation. 

The most notable deviation from this rule is in the case of com- 
pounds of those metals to which specific names, differing from the 
name of the metal itself, have been given; thus, for example in 
the present compilation, iron salts are not classed under ferrous 
and ferric and tin salts under stannous and stannic but under iron 
and tin, respectively. Another exception is the grouping of di 
and tri substituted amines under the mono substituted compound, 
instead of placing them under the widely separated headings Di 
and Tri. Thus results for diethylamine and triethylamine are 
given in connection with ethyl amine instead of being grouped, 
on the one hand with dimethyl, dipropyl, diphenyl, etc., amines, 
and on the other with trimethyl, tripropyl, triphenyl, etc., amines. 

In harmony with the adoption of "Chemical Abstracts" as 
authority for the correct naming of cbmpounds, the rules adopted 
for that publication (see, in connection with index to Vol. ii, 
1917) have been followed as closely as possible in all other matters 
connected with systematic nomenclature. The exceptions which 
may be found are either mistakes, or occur in those tables reused 
from the first edition, in which corrections of the original plates 
would have cost more than the advantage to be gained appeared 
to justify. (For example, see first table, page 144, and many 
others in which the old forms of spelling names such as aniline, 
sulfate, glycerol, etc., have not been corrected.) 

Abbreviations. — Although, in practically every case the abbre- 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

viations which have been used are identical with those adopted 
for "Chemical Abstracts" and will, in general, be readily under- 
stood, for the sake of accuracy and as a matter of convenience a 
list of those made use of in the present volume is given at the 
close of this chapter. (Page xxi.) 

Literature References. — In order to save space, when several 
references must be given in connection with one result or table, 
and to avoid the repetition of the complete journal reference 
when data for different compounds are given in the same paper, 
an abbreviated form of reference, consisting of the name of the 
author and year of the work, has been adopted. These are to be 
used in connection with the author's index, in which the complete 
references are arranged chronologically under each name. ^ 

Deviations from this system occur in connection with the tables 
reused from the first edition. In these cases it was decided not 
to incur the expense of altering the plates simply for the sake of 
uniformity. The complete references given with the old tables 
are sometimes, but not always, repeated in the author's index. 

Farms of Stating and Methods of Calculating Solubilities to Desired 
Terms, — When a solid compound is brought in contact with a 
liquid, more or less of it dissolves with the production of a homoge- 
neous liquid mixture. The disappearance of the solid in the 
liquid continues, however, only up to a certain point, beyond 
which at a given temperature, no more of the solid can be made 
to dissolve. This quantity is designated as the solubility of the 
compound in the particular liquid. Solubility, therefore, always 
refers to a saturated solution and is expressed numerically in 
terms of the composition of the homogeneous liquid in equilib- 
rium with an excess of undissolved solid. It is obvious that the 
composition of a saturated solution may be expressed in a great 
variety of terms and it is, therefore, to be expected that investi- 
gators will choose those terms which best suit the elucidation of 
the particular problems in hand. 

As might be expected, the terms in most general use and those 
which permit of the widest applicability of the results, are based 
on the weights of the ingredients of the saturated solution. These 
may be either the weight of the dissolved compound contained in a 
unit weight (usually loo grams) of the homogeneous liquid mixture, 
which corresponds to percentage of the dissolved compound in 
the saturated solution, or else the weight of the dissolved sub- 
stance in a unit weight of the solvent. In either case the one 
form may be easily calculated to the other. Thus, for instancei 

xi 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

if It is found that loo grams of the saturated solution contain 
CO grams of the dissolved compound, there can be present only 
lOO — 20 = 80 grams of solvent, and since this 80 grams of solvent 
holds 20 grams of the dissolved compound, 20 -5- 80 X 100 = 25 
grams of it are present per 100 grams of solvent. The calculation 
in the opposite direction is, of course, just as simple. If 100 grams 
of solvent contain 25 grams of dissolved compound, then 100 + 25 
grams of solution must contain 25 grams or 100 grams of saturated 
solution contain ^^ X 100 = 20 grams of the dissolved compound. 

In the case of most solubility statements contained in the phar- 
maceutical literature, the results are given in terms of weight or 
volume of solvent required to dissolve unit weight of solid. Since 
all such results are simply the reciprocal of the terms, grams solid 
contained in unit number of grams of solvent, the procedure for 
transforming them to the more usual form simply involves dividing 
I gram by the stated number of grams of solvent. In » those 
cases, however, where the amount of solvent is expressed in vol- 
ume instead of weight, it is first necessary to multiply by the 
specific gravity of the solvent in order to find the weight corre- 
sponding to the given volume. 

A more serious complication is, however, introduced in those 
cases where the results have been reported only in terms of vol- 
ume of the saturated solution (100 cc. or i liter). On account of 
the change in volume which always results when a solid dissolves 
in a liquid, a calculation of the weight of the solvent present, 
when only the weight of the dissolved compound and total volume 
of the solution is given, cannot be made. In these cases it is 
also necessary to know the weight of a unit volume of the satu- 
rated solution, that is, its specific gravity, in order to convert 
the results from the volume to the weight basis. Consequently, 
for solubility results to be most generally useful, the specific gravity 
of the saturated solution should always be determined. 

The calculation of a given result from the volume to the weight 
basis or vice versa, with the aid of the specific gravity (density), 
is readily understood when it is remembered that this factor is 
simply the weight in grams of i cc. of the solution. If, for example, 
it is stated that 100 cc. of saturated solution contain 25 grams of 
salt and the specific gravity is 1. 15, it is apparent that 115 grams 
of the solution contain 25 grams of the salt, or 100 grams contain 

-^^ =21.7 grams. Conversely, when the calculation of the 

amount of salt in 100 cc. from that in 100 grams of solution, is to 

. . 
xu 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

be made, the weight of dissolved compound must be multiplied 
by the specific gravity. 

One of the forms of presenting solubility data for which especial 
care is needed in converting the values to a different basis is in 
the case of results for salts with water of crystallization. In some 
instances these results are expressed in weight of the hydrated 
compound in a given volume or weight of the saturated solution. 
If it is desired to ascertain the weight of anhydrous salt present, 
it will be necessary first to calculate the grams of anhydrous salt 
equivalent to the stated number of grams of the hydrated com- 
pound and, if the results have been expressed in terms of volume 
of saturated solution, this will be all that is necessary, but if, for 
instance, the grams of hydrated salt per lOO grams of saturated 
solution or of water have been given, then it will be necessary to 
add the weight of water present as water of crystallization in the 
salt, to the weight of water present as solvent. The total weight 
of solvent is, therefore, made up of the weight of water used for 
preparing the solution and that carried by the salt as H2O of 
crystallization. 

In the case of solvents composed of mixtures of water and alcohol, 
or other liquids, authors sometimes fail to specify whether the 
figures for such mixtures refer to the weight or volume basis, 
consequently, without a specific gravity determination, the exact 
composition of the mixture is uncertain. The above remarks con- 
cerning the calculation of solubility results from one form to another 
apply equally to determinations made in mixed solvents, provided 
all supplementary data for accurately establishing the composition 
of the mixed solvent are given. 

Although in most cases the actual experimental results of solu- 
bility determinations are obtained in terms of weight, many investi- 
gators find that certain advantages are to be gained, in particular 
problems, by converting their analytical results to the basis of 
normality or gram molecules, and in practically all such cases it is 
not thought necessary to present also the gram quantities from 
which the molecular values were calculated. Although this may 
be justified from the narrow point of view of the particular problem 
in hand, it is greatly to be deplored when the broader aspects of the 
value of solubility data as a whole are considered. As already 
mentioned, solubility results which have been determined for some 
one purpose may frequently be applied to the solution of other 
problems, or serve in the development or testing of generalizations 

or of laws of solution. It is, therefore, important that in the case of 

... 

XiU 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

all solubility data the results should either be expressed in the 
gravimetric terms derived most directly from the experimental de- 
terminations, together with the specific gravities of, and solid phases 
in contact with the solutions, or else, when presented in terms more 
or less remote from those of the directly determined values, the 
method of making the calculations should be plainly indicated and 
all factors or supplementary data which have been used, presented 
in detail. 

In preparing the present compilation occasion was several times 
taken to write to authors for data supplementary to those published, 
which although not essential to the solution of the particular prob- 
lem in hand, and therefore omitted from the paper, were, neverthe- 
less, needed for calculating the results to a form which would permit 
comparison with similar data by others or their use in the solution 
of other problems. 

The calculation of results from the molecular basis to the gram 
basis or vice versa, introduces, in addition to the errors incidental 
to the calculation itself, those resulting from the selection of the 
atomic or molecular weights which are used as the factors. It is 
indeed rare for an author to state the actual molecular weights used 
for a calculation, and although the revisions of atomic weights 
which are occasionally made are usually not of great magnitude, 
opportunities for slight differences in recalculating results to a 
desired basis, due to differences in molecular weights, are worthy of 
consideration. A source of greater inaccuracies, however, is that 
resulting from' the failure of authors to differentiate clearly between 
the significance of normality (gram equivalents) and gram molecules 
(formula weights) in calculating or in expressing their results. 

It also occasionally happens that the compounds involved are de- 
scribed only by names which are not specific and a doubt may arise 
as to the exact formula expressing the composition of the compound 
in question. This applies particularly to work described in lan- 
guages other than English. In cases of complex mixtures of several 
salts the results are sometimes given in terms of the ions present 
and the calculation of such results to the gram basis calls for especial 
care. 

The general procedure for calculating gram quantities to the 
molecular basis consists simply in dividing by the molecular weight, 
or molecular equivalent weight in the case of results to be expressed 
in normality, and pointing off according to the unit quantity of 
solution selected. The reverse calculation is, of course, made by 
multiplying the molecular or normality values as given, by the 

xiv 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

molecular, or molecular equivalent weights. An example which 
will illustrate the principal points involved, is the case of the calcu- 
lation of the grams of dissolved compound per loo grams of solvent, 
from a result expressed in terms of molecular per cent, that is, in 
terms of molecules of dissolved compound present in a total of lOO 
molecules of dissolved compound plus solvent. Thus, in the case 
of the solubility of mercuric iodide in pyridine, it has been found 
that the saturated solution at ioo° contains 25 mol. per cent Hgl2, 
which designates a mixture of 25 gram mols. of Hgl2 and 100 — 25 
= 75 gram mols. of pyridine. To convert to gram quantities, each 
figure is multiplied by the respective molecular weight and the 
product for the Hgl2 divided by the product for the QH^N. Thus, 
(25 X 45445) ^ (75 X 79.08) ^ 1. 915, which, X 100, = 191. 5 
grams Hgl2 per 100 grams of CcH^N. 

Although, in the present compilation an attempt has been made 
to calculate as many as possible of the data to terms of weight of 
the compounds involved, especially for the commoner substances, 
this has not appeared advisable in some cases, either on account of 
uncertainties as to the factors to be used, or on account of the rela- 
tive unimportance of the data and the considerable labor which 
would have been involved in making the calculations. 

The principal terms used in expressing the solubility of gases in 
liquids are defined in connection with the tables of data in the body 
of the book. See, for instance, p. 227. 

Explanation of Tables. — Although the tables of results contained 
in the present volume will, it is hoped, be easily understood by all 
who are familiar with the subject, for the benefit of those who need 
solubility data only rarely, it has appeared desirable to mention 
some of the principles followed in constructing the tables and ex- 
plain in detail the exact meaning of the results contained in a num- 
ber of typical tables. 

The main consideration in connection with a compilation such 
as the present one, is to arrange the very large amount of material 
in the most concise manner compatible with perfect clearness. It 
has, therefore, been necessary to adopt forms and abbreviations 
which eliminate the repetition of readily understandable details. 

In general, it may be stated that the record of a solubility de- 
termination consists of the analytical results showing the composi- 
tion of a homogeneous liquid mixture in equilibrium at a given 
temperature, with one or more solid compounds or with another 
homogeneous liquid mixture. In the case of aqueous solutions of 
salts, for instance, the analysis will show the weight of salt and of 

XV 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

water contained in a given amount of the saturated solution. In 
recording this analysis, however, as solubility data, it is not cus- 
tomary to state the weight of water directly, since its quantity is 
derivable from the given weight of salt and of solution (salt plus 
water). Thus, in all cases the amount of the dissolved compound 
is numerically reported in terms of unit quantity (loo grams, one 
liter, etc.) of the saturated solution or of the solvent. The tables, 
therefore, all show in the heading above the columns of figures, the 
terms in which the results are expressed (grams, cubic centimeters, 
gram molecules, etc.) and the unit quantity of solution or solvent 
in which the numerically recorded amounts of dissolved comp)ound 
are contained. When more than one column of figures are inclosed 
under a bracket below the heading, the arrangement is an abbrevia- 
tion designed to eliminate the repetition of the heading over each 
column separately, and, therefore, indicates that the heading applies 
Independently to each separate column of figures. Thus, in the 
case of the table showing the solubility of sodium nitrate in water 
(see p. 656) the heading which is as follows: 

Cms. NaNOi per 100 Cms. Mob 

SoluUon. Water. per Liter. 

o 42.2 72.9-73* 6.71* 

10 44.7 80.8-80.5 7.16 

when translated into its detailed meaning shows, (i) that at o°, lOO 
grams of the saturated solution of sodium nitrate in water contain 
42.2 grams NaNOs, (2) that at 0°, 100 grams of water dissolve from 
72.9 to 73 grams NaNOs according to the authorities quoted 
(Mulder or Berkeley), and (3) that one liter of a saturated solution 
of sodium nitrate in water at 0° contains 6.71 gram molecules of 
NaNOj. 

This general form of heading is typical and will be found in prac- 
tically all cases where results for the solubility of a single salt in a 
single solvent at various temperatures are given. As will be noted, 
tables of this form show the results for a single series of determina- 
tions at increasing temperatures expressed in more than one set of 
terms. As a general rule, and especially when determinations of 
the specific gravities of the solutions are also given, any one of the 
figures for a given temperature may be calculated, as described in 
the previous section, from either of the others at the same tempera- 
ture. The advantages of tables giving the results in several sets of 
terms are that the reader is relieved of making the calculations 
individually. 

xvi 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

In a number of cases where, either the importance of the com- 
pound does not warrant very detailed results, or where similar data 
for several near related compounds have been determined, com- 
posite tables sho¥ang the reslilts for two or more compounds in one 
or more solvents have been constructed. Although by this pro- 
cedure considerable space has been saved and frequent repetitions 
avoided, it is possible that clearness has sometimes been sacrificed. 

An example of such a composite table is that for the three com- 
pounds, CdIt.KI.HtO, CdIt.2KI.2H,0 and CdIt.2NaL6H,0 given 
in the first table on p. 178. The three solvents in which the 
solubilities were separately determined are placed in the first 
column of the table. Next follow the results for Cdlt.KI.HsO, 
given in terms both of grams of anhydrous salt, Cdlt.KI, per 100 
grams of solution and per 100 grams of solvent. The next group of 
figures shows successively the solubility of CdIt.2KI.2HsO in water, 
in absolute alcohol and in absolute ether, reported in each case, in 
terms of grams of anhydrous salt per 100 grams of saturated solution 
and also in grams per 100 grams of each solvent. The last group of 
figures, columns 6 and 7, gives similar results for CdIt.2NaI.6HtO. 

Other examples of this type of table are given on p. 188. In 
these cases results for three compounds, each in the same solvent 
but at difiFerent temperatures, are given. The abbreviation here 
adopted consists in providing only one column of temperatures to 
serve for each of the three sets of results given in the succeeding 
columns. This general plan is followed in a very large number of 
cases throughout the book. 

One other example is that of the results for platinic double 
chlorides, given in the first table on p. 498. In this case, although 
each column of results represents an independent series of solubili- 
ties in water, they have all been grouped under the same bracketi 
instead of each being given under a separate, complete heading. 
By this plan a very compact arrangement has been provided but the 
results are apt to be misunderstood unless the reader bears in mind 
that here as elsewhere it has been necessary to condense the data 
as much as possible. 

Before leaving the general subject of composite tables, attention 
should be called to one point which will be found illustrated in a 
large number of them. This is in reference to results at other tem- 
peratures than those which apply to the table as a whole, as recorded 
in the first column under the designation t^. In these cases the 
figure for the temperature is given in a parenthesis immediately 
following the result for grams of compound dissolved and, of course, 

xvii 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

means that the particular determination was made at the tem- 
perature stated in the parenthesis, instead of at the temperature 
shown in the column t°, which applies to all. the results not so 
modified. 

This principle of indicating in parentheses any variations from 
the general order of the table, and also in respect to the introduction 
of additional matter, such as results for densities, points on the 
character of the solutions, etc., is one which has been followed in 
many instances. 

As already stated, a solubility is an expression of the con- 
centration of a solution in equilibrium with a particular solid com- 
pound. Therefore, if a compound can exist in more than one form 
at a given temperature, such as in different states of hydration, its 
solubility will show variations in accordance with which one of its 
forms is- in contact with the ^turated solution at the particular 
temperature. Information in regard to the solid phase is, conse- 
quently, essential to the accurate expression of a solubility. When- 
ever such facts are available they are shown in the tables by means 
of formulas recorded under the heading "Solid Phase." These 
formulas are usually placed on a line with the numerical results for 
the solution in contact with the solid represented by the formula 
given. 

A case which illustrates strikingly the multiplicity of variations 
in solubility with change in degree of hydration is that of the solu- 
bility of the hydrates of ferric chloride in water (see p. 337). In 
this case, to economize space, the formula for the hydrate has been 
placed immediately above that group of data to which each refers, 
instead of on the same line with the results for each solution in 
contact with that particular hydrate. An examination of this table 
will show the apparent anomaly that the same hydrate possesses 
two different solubilities at certain temperatures. Thus, in the 
section of the table giving results for solutions in contact with the 
solid phase Fe2Cl6.i2H20, it will be noted that 100 grams of HjO 
dissolve 106.8 grams FeCU at 30** and two lines below, the same 
amount of water is stated to dissolve 201.7 grams FeCU at 30**. 
This is due to the fact that each of the hydrates gives a more or less 
well developed reverse solubility curve. The character of these 
curves is plainly indicated by plotting them on cross-section paper 
from the results given in the table. If this is done it will be seen 
that in case of the results for Fe2Cl6.i2H20, the grams of FeCU con- 
tained in 100 grams of water increase regularly with rise of tem- 
perature up to 37°, which is the melting-point of this hydrate. If 

xviii 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

more crystals are added and the temperature raised above 37®, they 
melt and form a homogeneous solution of increased concentration. 
If, however, this more concentrated solution is cooled again below 
37**, and crystals then added, they remain as solid phase and, when 
equilibrium is established, the composition of the solution corre- 
sponds to a point on the upper, reverse arm, of the solubility curve. 
With this salt, therefore, it is seen that for certain ranges of tem- 
perature the concentration of the saturated solution depends upon 
the procedure by which the point of equilibrium has been ap- 
proached. 

In cases where results are given for the solubility of a particular 
compound in aqueous solutions of another, the heading above the 
columns of figures shows, as usual, the terms in which the results 
are expressed (gms., cc, mols., etc.) and the unit amount of solution 
or solvent in which the recorded amounts of each compound is con- 
tained; while below the bracket are given, at the heads of the 
columns, the formulas of the respective compounds simultaneously 
present in the solution. Thus, there will usually be found in one 
column, the increasing concentrations of the salt present in the 
aqueous solution constituting the solvent, and in the other the 
amounts of the other compound of which the solubility is being de- 
termined and which is present as solid phase in contact with the 
solution. Examples of this form of table are those for the solubility 
of calcium sulfate in aqueous salt solutions (pp. 215 to 219) and 
numerous others throughout the book. In all cases where the solid 
phase exists in more than one form, this information, when available, 
is recorded in the usual manner in the column under the heading 
"Solid Phase." (See pp. 174, 185, 203, 404, and many others.) 
The results for the specific gravities of the saturated solutions are 
also given, when available. It is needless to say that, according to 
the arrangement of these tables, the figures in the horizontal lines 
refer to the same solution and those in the vertical columns to dif- 
ferent solutions of the series 

In the case of tables showing the distribution of a compound 
betw^een two inuniscible solvents (see for example, results for mer- 
curic chloride, pp. 420 and 421), the amounts of the dissolved conx- 
pound in the conjugate layers are given under the same bracket 
with column headings designating the respective layers. In the 
case of equilibria in ternary systems, which form two liquid layers 
(see for example, last table, p. 511), the compositions of the upper 
and lower layers are given under separate brackets, the results on 
each horizontal line being for layers in contact with each other. 

xix 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

Data of this character are described more fully in the chapter on 
Methods for the Determination of Solubility. 

The types of cases which have just been described were pointed 
out by users of the first edition of the book who did not understand 
the arrangement in these cases and suggested that an explicit de- 
scription of them would make the book more generally useful. It 
is realized that the explanations which have been given here apply 
only to a certain proportion of the tables in the book. There are, 
no doubt, many tables and forms of expression, especially for the 
more complex systems, which will not be understood by the casual 
reader. In some of these cases brief remarks in connection with 
the tables have been given, but to just what extent these explanatory 
remarks are warranted, it has been diiEcult to decide. In conclu- 
sion, it should be mentioned that the title of the table is intended 
to describe the nature of the results and should always be used as a 
guide in the interpretation of the tabular arrangement. 



XX 



ABBREVIATIONS 

Most of the following abbreviations will be found wiittea both wkh capitals 
and without. 



(all). — Specific Rotation, 
abs. — Absolute. 

abs. coef . — Absorption Coefficient, 
aloohol. — Ethyl Alcohol. 
anit(s). — AmountCs). 
anhy. — Anhydrous, 
aq. — Aqueous. * 
atm(s). — AtmosphereCs). 
at. wt. — Atomic Weight. 
b.-pt. — Boiling-point. 
C. — Centigrade, 
calc. — Calculate(ed). 
cc. — Cubic CentimeterCs). 
cm. — Centimeter(s). 
coef. — Coefficient, 
com. — Commercial, 
compd. — Compound, 
cone. — Concentration, Concentrated, 
cond. — Conductivity, 
const. — Constant. 
cor. — Corrected. 
crit. — Critical, 
cryo." — Cryohydric, 
cryst. — Crystalline. 
d. — Dextro (in connection with the 
name of an optically active com- 
pound). 
d. — Density (dig — Specific Gravity 
at i8**, referred to water at 4**; d^ 
at 20* referred to water at 20**)i 
decomp. — Decomposition. 
dif. — Different. 
dH- — Dilute. 

dist. coef. — Distribution Coefficient. 
ed. — Edition. 
elec — Electric(al). 
eqfuil. — Equilibrium. . 
ec|uiv. — Equivalent(8). 
eutec. — Eutcctic. 
F. — Fahrenheit. 
L'pt. — Freezing-point 



g., gm., gms. — Gram(s). 

gm. mol. — Gram Molecule(8). 

G. M. — Gram Molecule(8). 

hr(s). — Hour(s). 

t. — {d -\- f) Inactive (in connection 

with the name of an optically active 

compound.) 
tnorg. — Inorganic, 
insol. — Insoluble. 
/. — Lsevo (in connection with the 

name of an optically active com* 

pounid)* 
kg. kgm. — Kilogram(s). 
1. — Liter(8). 
mm. — Millimeter (s) 
m. — Meta. 
max. — Maximum, 
mg.y mgm. — Milligram(s). 
mol(s). — Molecule(s), Molecular, 
mol. wt. — Molecular Weight, 
millimol. — Milligram Molecule, 
m.-pt. — Melting-point. 
n. — Normal (gm. equiv. per 1.). 
N. — Normal (used rarely). 
0. — Ortho. 
ord. — Ordinary, 
org. — Organic, 
p. ■— Page. 
p, — Para, 
pet. — Petroleum, 
ppt. — Precipitate, 
pt. — Point. 

quad. pt. — Quadruple Point, 
qual. — Qualitative, 
sapon. — Saponification, 
sat. — Saturated. 
8ol(s). — Solution (s). 
sp. gr. — Specific Gravity (Density), 
sq. cm. — Square Centimeter. 
s. — Symmetrical, 
sym. — Symmetrical. 



ABBREVIATIONS 

fc*. — Temperature, Centigrade' Scale. wt. — Weight. 

teinp(s). — Temperature (s). oo — Infinity. 

tr.pt. — Transition Point. .10"*, .io~*, etc, follomig a result 

vol(s). — Volume(s). means that the decimal point is to be 

undissoc. — Undissociated. moved as many places to the left as 

U. S. P. — U. S. Pharmacopoeia. indicated by the minus exponent. 



x»i 



▲CIMAPHTHEn 



C»H 



isnio* 



Solubility in Several Organic Solvents. 

(Spcyen — Am. J. Sd. [4] X4» 294, 1902.) 

NoTB. — In the original paper the results are given in terms of gram mole- 
cules of acenaphthene, acetamide, acetanilide, etc., per 100 gram molecules of 
solvent, at temperatures which varied with each solvent and with each weigh- 
ing of the solutions. The tabulated results here given were obtained by re- 





In Methyl Alcohol. 


^ — — — ^ 

In Ethyl Alcohol. 


— ^ ^_, — 

In Propyl Alcohol. 


t*. 


' <a) 


(*) (c) ' 


' (a) 


(W 


(0' 


'(0) 


(6) 


(0 ' 





^^ zz 


1.80 0.39 


81. 1 


1.9 


0.57 


82.3 


2.26 


0.88 


10 


80. 40 


1.70 0.38 


80.3 


2.8 


0.84 


81.8 


2.40 


1. 00 


20 


79.60 


2.25 0.48 


79.6 


4.0 


1.20 


81.4 


340 


I -35 


30 


79.00 


350 072 


79.1 


5-6 


1.70 


80.9 


4. 75 


1.90 


40 


78 45 


6.00 Z.20 


78.7 


8.4 


2.60 


80.6 


7.10 


2.90 


50 


78 IS 


9.00 1.77 


78.8 


13.2 


390 


80.7 


II. 10 


4.40 


60 


78.30 


11.70 2.35 


79-4 


23.2 


7.00 


81.5 


19.60 


8.20 


70 


78.60 


1430 2-90 


80.75 


40.5 


12.50 


83 -9 


37.00 


16.20 




t •. 


In Chloraform. 




In Toluene. 








(a) (*) 


(0' 


'(a) 


W 


kcS 









143.8 16 


.4 12.7 




90.7 


13 18 


19 






10 


140 . I 20 


.6 16.0 




90.8 


18.0 


10.7 






20 


136.3 27 


.0 19.5 




91.0 


245 


145 






30 


132-4 34 


25.0 




91.8 


US 


20.5 






40 


128.0 42.5 32.0 




92.7 


47 


28.0 






SO 


123-4 V- 


5 400 




94 


60.5 


35-7 






60 


119. 3 62 


s 500 




95 S 


74 


43 S 






70 


• 
• . • • 4 


. ■ • • 




97.2 


89.0 


52.5 





ijA Wciglit of 100 cc. solution in gtBias. (ft) Grams dissolved sabstance per xoo grams solvent. 

(c> Gfam molfnilw of dissolved substance per xoo gram molecules of solvent. 

ipoo gms. Aq. 25% NHs dissolve 0.07 gm, acenaphthene at 25^. (Hilpert, 1916) . 



RBdFKOCAL SOLUBILITIBS DbTERMINED BY THB METHOD OF LOWERING OF THE 

Frkezing-point * Are Given by Giua (191 5), for the Following Pairs 
OF Compounds: 

Acenaphthene + m Dinitrobenzene. 

+ 2.4 Dinitrotoluene* 
+ a Trinitrotoluene. 



II 



<i 



* Pfweaimg or Mdting-point Curves as SoMfiliiy Data. ~ When a mixture of two oompoonds, rendered 
by elevation of temperature, is gradually cooled, a point will be reached at which one or the other 
of the ooDstituents wfll separate as a solid. This point represents the solubility of the one compound in 
the other. The method involved, differs principality from that ordinarily employed for solubility de- 
tenninatioos, in that the composition of the mixture remains constant while the saturation tezbpera- 
tuve B being approached, instead of the reverse procedure. 

A considerable amount of data of this character is available, but, after careful consideration, it has 
been drrMV^ that references only will be given to it in the present volume, except in cases of mixtures 
cl veO-known oompoonds or of those in which water is one ol the constituents. 



ACINAPHTHENE 



Reciprocal Solubilities (Freezing-point Lowering Data, see footnote, page i) 
Are Given for the Following Pairs of Compounds: 



Aoenaphthene + Chloroacenaphthc 
" 4" Bromoacenaphth< 



lene 
lene 
+ lodoacenaphthene 
4- Benzil 

4- p Nitrobenzoic Aldehyde 
4- Piperonilic Aldehyde 
4- Vanillic Aldehyde 
Chloroacenaphthene + Bromoacenaphthene 

" " + lodoacenaphthene 

Bromoacenaphthene + 



(CrampCon ud Walker, zgza.) 



•< 
•< 



M 



M 



« 



(PawkwBki, 1893.) 
(Faa, 19x6.) 



tt 



u 



(Crompton ud Walker, 19x9.) 



11 



It 



u 



(I 



II 



ACETALDEHTDE CH<COH. 

Solubility in Ethyl Alcohol Determined by the Method of Lowering 
OF Freezing-point (de Leeuw, 191 1). Liquid air was used as the cooling 
medium and temperatures were measured with the aid of a specially con- 
structed resistance thermometer. 





wt. 


Mol. 






Wt. 


Mol. 




Per Cent 


Per Cent 






Per Cent 


Per Cent 


f. 


CHjCOH CHjCOH 


Solid Phase. 


r. 


CH,COH CH,COH Solid Phase. 




in 


in 






in 


in 




Mixtuxe. 


Mixture. 






Mixture. 


Mixture. 


123.3 


100 


100 


CHiCOH 


— 122.3 


51.8 


50.7 CHjCOH-CHdOH 


125.4 


90.7 


90.3 


« 


-125.3 


45.6 


44 


5 


127.6 


84.5 


83.9 


fi 


-128 


40.6* 


39 


.5 CH,C0H.2CrfV)H 


132 


80.9 


80.2 


(Eutectic) 


—123.2. 


35.3 


34 


3 


126 


78.1 


77.3 C^|COH.C,H^H 


-126.8 


30.2 


29 


3 


126 


75.2 


74.4 


<i 


—130.6 


17.9 


17 


.3 CAQH 


124.3 


67.0 


66.0 


II 


— 120.6 


10.2 


9 


.8 


123. 5 


60.8 


59-7 


II 


-114. 9 


0.0 





.0 



Freezing-point data for mixtures of acetaldehyde and paraldehyde as well 
as the complete x — T diagrams are given by Holleman (1903). Results for 
mixtures of paraldehyde and p xylene are given by Patemo and Ampola (1897). 

Results for mixtures of the a and fi forms of Acetaldehyde phenyl hydrazone 
are given by Laws and Sidgwick (191 1). 

AOETAMIDE CH,CO.NH,. 

Solubility in Water and in Alcohol. 

(Speyers.) 





In Water. 




In Ethyl Alco 
' (a) (4) 


hoi. 


%•. 


' (a) 


(« 


(0 ' 


(0' 





105 S 


70.8 


29.6 


85.62 


17-3 


18.5 


10 


104.9 


81.0 


34 


86.2 


24.0 


26.0 


20 


104.3 


97-5 


40.8 


87 -3 


315 


33-8 


30 


103.7 


1140 


47-7 


88.8 


40.5 


43 


40 


103.0 


133 


55 S 


90 7 


50. 


53 S 


so 


102.3 


154.0 


64.0 


93 


61.0 


64 5 


60 


IOI.6 


177s 


740 


95 S 


72.0 


76.5 



' (a) Wt. of xoo cc. sat. solution in gms. (6) Gms. Acetamide per xoo gms. solvent, (c) Gm. mob. 
Acetamide per xoo gm. mols. solvent. 

100 gms^ pyridine dissolve 17.75 S^s. acetamide at 20-^5^; 100 gms. aq. 50 per 
cent pjnidine dissolve 84.7 gms. acetamide at 20-25°. (Dehn, 1917.) 

Freezing-point curves are eiven for: Acetamide + Benzene (Moles and 
Jimeno, 1913); Acetamide + Phthalide (Lautz, 19 13); Acetamide 4- Triphenyl 
guanidine (Lautz, 19 13); Tribromoacetamide -h Trichloroacetamide (Kttster, 
1891). 



ACITANILZDB 



ACBTANIUDE 



C«H»NH.COCH,. 

S(M.UBiLiTY IN Several Solvents. 



Solvent. 




r. 


Sp. Gr. 

of Sat. 

Solution. 


Gms. 

QH,NH.C0CH| 

per 100 Gms. 

Sat. Solution. 


Authority. 


Water 




16 


• « • 


. 47 (Greenish and Smith, 1903.) 


<( 




25 


0.997 


. 54 (HoUemanand Antush, 1894.) 


(( 




30 


1. 000 


0.69 


(SeideU, 1907.) 


Ether 




25 


... 


2.8 CHaiden and Dover. 1916.) 


Formic Add (95%) 


16. 8" 1. 121 


56.74 




Acetic Acid (99.5%} 


21. 


s 


33-21 


(Seidell. 1907.) 


Acetone 




30-31 0.902 


31 15 




M 


Amyl Acetate 




« 


0.882 


10.46 




M 


Amyl Alcohol 




25 


• • • 


14.00 




M 


Aniline 




30-31 1 .034 


19.38 




M 


Benzene 




u 


0.875 


2.46 




M 


Benzaldehyde 




It 


1.068 


18.83 




M 


Toluene 




25 


0.862 


0.50 




M 


Xylene 




32. 


5 0-847 


1.65 




l( 


Pyridine 




20-25 


32.7 


(Dehn, 19x7.) 


56% Aq. Pyridine 


u 


... 


35.7 




II 


Petroleum Ether about 


20 


0.03 


(Salkower. 19x6.) 


SoLUBn-mr in 


r Methyl Alcohol, Ethyl Alcohol and 


IN CmxmoFORM. 






(Speyexs, 1902.) See Note, page i. 






In CHdOH. 




In CH^H. 


In CHCV 


sp. Gr. of 
f . Sat. Sdu- 
tkm. 


Gms. 

C,H|NH.COCH. 

per 100 Gms. 

Sat. Solution. 


*^*^ St. Solution. ^"°^ 


CANHOOCH. 
per 100 Gnm. 
Sio. Sedation. 


C.860 


18. s 




0.842 


12.8 I 


.503 


3-53 


10, 0.864 


23.1 




0.844 


16.7 I 


•475 


7.34 


20 •' 0.87s 


29.1 




0.850 


21.3 I 


.440 


10.7 


30 0.892 


35.1 




0.860 


26.5 I 


.398 


14.5 


40 O.9II 


42.9 




0.874 


32.9 I 


.354 


18.7 


50 0.932 


Si-7 




0.895 


39.4 I 


•314 


237 


60 0.957 


59-2 




0.920 


46.4 I 


.272 


29.x 


SoLUBiLrrr of ^ 


^CETANILmE IN MIXTURES < 


DF Ethyl Alcohol 


AND Water. 


^^ Results at 25*. (HoUeman and Antuah, 1894.) 


Results at 


30*. (Scidcn. 1907 ) 


rerOeot ^ 
ClUfOH in Sp. Gr. of Sat. 
Sohrent. Solution. 


Gms. C«HtNH.COcd» 
per 100 Gms. Sat. 
Solution. 


Sp. Gr. of Sat. 
Solution. 


Gms. CANHXX)ai« 
per 100 Gms. Sat. 
Solution. 





•997 




0.54 


1. 000 




0.69 


10 


.985 




0-93 


0.984 




I.QO 


20 


•973 




1.28 


0.970 




2.20 


30 


.02 




2.30 


0.956 




4.80 


40 


•950 




4.85 


0-945 




'9.40 


SO 


•939 




8.87 


0.934 




1540 


60 


.928 




14.17 


0.926 




22.00 


70 


.918 




19.84 


0.917 




27.60 


80 


.907 




25.17 


0.907 




31.20 


8s 


.899 




26.93 


0.900 




3170 


90 


.890 




27.65 


0.893 




31-60 


95 


.874 




26.82 


0.885 




30.80 


100 


.851 




24.77 


0.870 




99.00 



(See remarks under a Acetnaphthafide, page 13.) 



ACETAMILIDE 4 

Solubility of Acetanilidb in Mixtures op Ethbr and Chloroform and of 
Acetone and Benzene at 25"*. (Marden and Dover, 1916.) 

Results for Ether-Chloroform Mixtures. Results' for Acetone-Benzene Mixture. 

'f*-£?S'Si^^?'' ^.S^Mtod" vtjyc«tcA ^^.S^Stod* 

in Mixed Solvent. *^ SohJwttl. ^^ "* Mixed Solvent. '^ SohrenL ^^ 

100 17.7 100 1.36 

90 II. 7 90 6.78 

80 8.2 80 13.0 

70 6.2 70 20.0 

60 4.95 60 29.2 

SO 4-25 SO 30 o 

40 3S 40 30.5 

30 35 30 330 

20 3.25 20 36.0 

10 3 OS 10 45.7 

o 2.9 o 39.4 

Distribution of Acetanilide between Immiscible Solvents at 25^. 
Cone CeHsNH.COCHi in Benzene layer -j- Cone, in HiO layer — 1.65. 

(Farmer and Warth, 1904.) 

" " " Chloroform " •*- Cone, in HiO layer = 7.75. 

(Marden, 1914.) 

" Ether " 4- Cone, in H,0 layer = 2.98. 

(Mardoi, 19x4.) 

Solubility of Halogen Substituted Acetanilides in Ethyl Alcohol at 
Different Temperatures. (Chatuway and Lambert, 19x5) 

Gm^. of Each Anilide per xoo Gms. of Each Sat. Solution. 



f. 


r 

^Chloro- 


2.4Dichk>fo- 


^Bromo- 


9.4 Dibromo- 


4Chloro- 


2 Chloro- 

4 Bromo- 

acetanilide. 


aoetsnilide. 


aoetanilide. 


acetanilide. 


aoetanilide. 


2 J3iuiu<^ 

acetanilide. 


5 






4.244 


2.480 


• • • 


... 


10 


3 278 


3.o<i8 


4.847 


2.876 


4.334 


2.S7S 


IS 


3-777 


3 564 


SS6i 


3 382 


5.088 


2.961 


20 


4.366 


4.192 


6.390 


4.002 


5.986 


3-466 


25 


5.040 


4.962 


7 300 


4.714 


7-043 


4.09s 


30 


5.828 


5,864 


8.440 


5.615 


8.328 


4.891 


35 


6.700 


6-937 


9-715 


6.686 


9.844 


5.820 


40 


7.728 


8.276 


II. 156 


7-914 


11.586 


6.887 


45 


8.918 


9.750 


12.767 


9-357 


13.718 


8.186 



(Results for unstable needle forms of p bromoaeetanilide and 2.4 dibromo- 
aeetanilide are also given.) 

Solubility of p Nitroacetanilide and of 2.4 Dichloroacetanilide in 

Acetic Acid at I6^ (Orton and King, 191 x) 

CO""-""- Solvit. °^,S??2:E»* 

p Nitroacetanilide Glacial Acetic Acid 0.83 

So%Aq. '\ '\ 0.38 

2.4 Dichloroacetanilide Glacial Acetic Acid 6.37 

50% Aq. " " 0.83 

Freezing-point curves (see footnote, page i) are given for mixtures of: 

Acetanilide and Antipyrine (Coroanduccl. 19x2.) 

" " tn Nltraniline (Crompton and Whitdey, 1895.) 

m Dinitrobenzene " " 

« Dinitrophenol " ** 

p Nitroacetanilide (KOster, x89x.) 

P Nitroacetanilide and Dinitroacetanilide (Holleman and Sluiter, 1906.) 
p Bromoaeetanilide and 24 Dibromoaeetanilide (Sidgwick, X9X5.) 



it 


u 


« 


II 


u 


II 



ACETIC ACID 



ACETIC ACID CHiCOOH. 

Reciprocal Solubility of Acetic Acid and Water Determined by the 

Method of Lowering of the Freezing-point. 





GiiM.CHtCOOH 






Gm. CHjCOOH 




f. 


per 100 Gms. 
SoL Sohition. 


Solid Phase. 


V. 


per xoo Gms. 
Sot. Solution. 


SoUd Phase. 










o 





Ice 


— 20 


67.0 


CHgCOOH 


- S 


15.2 




-IS 


72.3 




— ID 


28. s 




— 10 


77-5 




-IS 


40.0 




- s 


82.2 




— 20 


49.2 







87.0 




-2S 


57. 




+ 5 


91.8 




-26. 


7 60.0 


(Eutectic) 


10 


95-8 




-25 


62.5 


CHjCOOH 


16.6 


100. 





The data in the above table were obtained by plotting the results of Pickering 
(1893), Roloff (1895), Dahms (1896) (1809), deCoppet (1899), Kremann (1907), 
Faucon (1910), Ball6 (1910), Groschuff (191 1), Patemo and Salimei (1913), and 
Tsakalotos (1914), on cross-section paper and drawing a curve through the points 
in best agreement. In addition to making determinations of the freezing-points 
of the mixtures, BaI16 also analyzed the sofid phases which separated, and snowed 
that these contained, in all cases, increasing percentages of acid and, therefore, 
must have consisted of mixed crystals. This formation of mixed crystals is 
offered as an explanation of the abnormality of the freezing-point lowering of 
the system. 

Solubility of Acetic Acid in Ethyl Alcohol (98.9%) Determined by 
the Method of Lowering of Freezing-point. (Pickering. 1893.) 



-75 


Cms. CH,C00H 
per zoo Gms. 
Sat. Solution. 

26.0 


Solid Phase. 

CHaCOOH 


f. 

— 10 


Gms. CHiCOOH 
per zoo Gms. 
SeX. Solution. 

67.7 


Solid Phase. 

CHaCOOH 


-70 
-60 
-SO 


27.7 

33 

38.2 




- 5 


+ 5 


73-2 
79.1 
85.2 


m 


-40 

-30 
— 20 


43.7 

50.2 

58.0 




10 

IS 
16.6 


915 
98.0 

100. 





(The original results were plotted on cross-section paper and the above figures 
read from the curve.) 

Solubility Data Determined by the Method of Lowering of the Freez- 
ing-point (see footnote, page i) Are Given for Mixtures of Acetic Add 
and Each of the Following Compounds: 

Chloroacetic Acid (Mamell and Mannessier. Dimethylpyrone (Kendall, X9Z4 (a).) 

1913; Kendall. z9Z4.) Dimethyl Oxalate (Kendall and Booge, 1916.) 

Dichloroacetic Acid (Kendall, i9r4.) Dimethyl Succinate (Kendall and Booge, Z916.) 

Tnchloroacetic Acid (KendaU. 1914.) Ethyl Ether (Pickering. Z893.) 

Acetic Anhydride (Pickering, 1893.) Ethylene Bromide (Dahms.i89s; Baud. i9»(a).) 

Benzene (Dahim. if9S, 1896; »<*>«, z89s; Gm^ Ethylene Dibromide (Baud. 1912 (6).) 

chuff, i9zz; Baud, 1912, I9Z2 (a); Kendall and _, -^ .• , ... , «, 



Booge. i9z6.) 

Benzene + Vaseline (Rok>ff. 1895.) 
Benzene + Naphthalene (Robff, 1895.) 
Benzene + Water (Roloff. 1895.) 
Benzene Acid (Kendall. 19x4.) 
Chlorobenzene (Band. 1913 (c).) 
Nitrobenzene (Dahms. 1895; Baud, 19x3 (c).) 
Carbon Disulfide (Pickering, z893.) 
Cydohexane (Baud. 1913 («) ih).) 



Formamide (English and Turner, Z9Z5.) 
Formic Acid (Baud, 1913 (0) 
Methyl Alcohol (Pickering, 1893.) 

Picric Acid (Kendall, i9z6.) 
Propyl Alcohol (Pickering, Z893.) 
Sulfuric Acid (Pickering, Z893.) 
Thymol (Patemo and AmpoUt, Z897.) 
p Xylene (Patemo and Ampola. 1897.) 



ACETIC ACm 



Distribution of Acetic Acm between: 



Water and Amyl Alcohol 


at 20^ 




Water and Benzene a1 


:25^ 


(Hers and Fischer, 1904.) 






(Hen and Fischer. 1905.) 


Gms. CHsCOOH 


G. M. CHjCOOH 


Gms. CHsCOOH 


G.M.< 


CHtCOOH 


per 100 cc. 


per 


xoo cc. 


per 


100 cc. 


per 


100 cc. 


H9O Almholic 


HjO 


Alo^olic 


biO 


CeH. 


'HsO 


COIe 


Layer. Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


I 0923 


001 


00095 


5 


0.130 


0.05 


0.0014 


2 Z .847 


003 


0.0280 


10 


0.417 


010 


0.0005 


3 2.741 


0.05 


0.0460 


20 


1-55 


0.20 


00030 


4 3 694 


0.07 


0.0645 


30 


3 03 


0.30 


00290 


5 4.587 


0.09 


0.0830 


40 


4-95 


0.50 


0.051 


6 5-475 


CII 


OIOIO 


• • 


• • • 


0.70 


0.090 


7 6.434 


0.13 


01190 










8 7.328 


• • • 


• • • 











Note. — The distribution results of Herz and co-workers are reported in 
millimolecules per 10 cc. portions of each layer in the several cases. To obtain 
the figures given in the tables here shown, the original results, before and after 
calculating to gram quantities, were plotted on cross-section paper, and from 
the curves' thus obtained, readings for regular intervals of concentration of 
acetic acid in the aqueous layer were selected. 

Distribution of Acetic Acid between Water and Benzene. 

CWaddell, 1898; see also Lincohi, 1904.) 

The measurements were made by adding varying amounts of benzene or water 
to 5 cc. of acetic acid and then running in water or benzene till saturation was 
reached. The observed readings were calculated to grams per 100 grams of the 
liquid mixture. 





Upper Layer. 




Lower Layer 


• 


*•. 


CtigCOOH. 


QH.. 


H26. 


dlsCOO£ 


[. CeHe. 


H2O. 


25 


0.46 


99 52 


0.02 


9.4 


0.18 


90.42 


25 


3.10 


96.75 


0.15 


28.2 


053 


71.27 


25 


5.20 


94-55 


0.25 


37.7 


0.84 


61.46 


25 


8.7 


90.88 


0.42 


48 -3 


1.82 


49.88 


25 


16.3 


82.91 


0.79 


61.4 


6.1 


32.5 


25 


305 


67 -37 


2.13 


66.0 


13.8 


20. 2 


25 


52.5 


39.60 


7.60 


52.8 


39-6 


7.6 


35 


1.2 


98.68 


0.08 


16.4 


0.62 


82.98 


35 


5-7 


93-97 


033 


36.8 


1.42 


62.78 


35 


9.0 


90.42 


0.58 


49 


2.10 


48.90 


35 


45 


49.00 


6.0 


61.3 


255 


^3'^ 


35 


52.2 


39-4 


8.4 


52.2 


39-4 


8.4 



Additional data in connection with the distribution of acetic acid between 
water and benzene are given by King and Narracutt (1909), Kuriloff (1898), 
Farmer (1903), Bubanovic (1913), and Lincoln (1904). This latter investigator 
points out that the same degree of clouding does not represent the end point in 
all cases as was assumed by Waddell (1900). 

Data for the distribution of acetic acid between benzene and aqueous solu- 
tions of sodium acetate at 25^ are given by Farmer (1903). 



ACETIC ACm 



DlSTSIBDTION OF ACBTIC ACID BETWEBN WATER AND CHLOROFORM: 

At Room Temperature. At 25**. 

(W!rigfat, ThomKm and Leon — Pnc. R^y. (Hexx and Lewy; Rothmnnd and Wilamoire.) 

Soc.49bx85«z89i0 
Resahs in ports per zoo ports of solution. 
Upper Layer. Lower Layer. 



Gma. CHiCOOH 
per 100 cc. 



Ca^OOH. CHOa. HjO. CHtCOOH. CHQa. H3O. 



G. M. CBsCOOB 
per 100 cc. 



O 

6.46 
17.69 
25.10 

33 71 
44.12 

50.18 



0.84 
0.92 
0,79 
1. 21 
2.97 

7-30 
15. II 



99.16 
92.62 
81.52 
73 69 
63 32 
48.58 

34.71 



o 

1.04 

383 
6.77 

11. 05 

17.72 

2S-7S 



99.01 0.99 

98.24 0.72 

94.98 I. 19 

91.85 1.38 

87.82 I. 13 

80.00 2.28 

70.13 4.12 



HsO 
Layer. 

2 

4 
6 

8 

10 

12 

20 

30 
40 

SO 
52-3 



CHCl, 
Layer. 

0.089 

0.313 

0-595 
0.974 

1.430 

1.982 

5.10 

10.2 

^5-3 
21.9 

39-54 



HsO CHCU 

Layer. Layer. 

0.05 0.0032 

0.075 0.0062 

O.IOO O.OIOO 

0.150 0.0198 

0.175 0.0260 

0.200 0.0325 



0.30 
0.50 
0.70 
0.80 
0.87 



0.070 
0.170 
0.275 

0-335 
0.659 



See Note, page 6. 

In addition to the above results, data for somewhat lower concentrations of 
acetic acid determined at 20** are given by Dawson and Grant (1901). 

Results showing the influence of electrolytes upon the distribution of acetic 
add between water and chloroform are given by Rothmund and Wilsmore and 
by Dawson and Grants 

Distribution op Acbtic Acid at 25** between: 



Water and Carbon Bisulphide. 

(Hen and Lewy.) 



Water and Carbon Tetrachloride 

(Hers and Lewy.) 



Gms. CH^OOH 


G. M. CHtCOOH 


Gms. CH^OOH 


G.M. 


CHsCOOH 


per 


SCO cc. 


per xoo cc. 


per 


zoo cc. 


per 100 cc. 


'HiO 


cs. 


HiO CSi' 


H,0 


ecu 


HiO 


ecu 


Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


6s 


2.64 


I.I 0.45 


30 


1.8 


o-S 


003 


70 


30 


1-2 0.55 


40 


30 


0.7 


o-oss 


75 


3-3 


1.2 0.80 


so 


4.8 


0.9 


0095 


80 


S-4 


1-35 0-97 


60 


S-8 


I.I 


OIS5 


8S 


6.4 


1.4 1.3 


70 


12.0 


1.2 


0'^35 








76.3 


25.2 


1.27 


0.420 



Results for the distribution of acetic acid between water and mixtures of 
equal volumes of carbon disulfide and carbon tetrachloride at 25° are given 
fay Herz and Kurzer (i9io)» 

Distribution op Acetic Acid at 25° between: 



Water and Bromoform. 

(H. and L. ~ Z. electro. Ch. 11, 8z^ '05.) 



Water and Toluene. 

(H. and F. — Ber. 38, 1x40, '05.) 



Sms. CHaCOOH 


Q. M. C:HsCOOH 


Gms. CHsCOOH 


G.M. 


CHsCOOH 


per 100 cc. 


per 100 cc. 


per 100 cc. 


per 100 cc. 


HK> CHBrs 
Layer. Layer. 


HaO 
Layer. 


CHR^ 
Layer. 


H2O C*H«CH, 
Layer. Layer. 


'H2O 
Layer. 


C^aCHs 
Layer. 


ao 1.5 


0.4 


0035 


5 0.119 


O.I 


0.0025 


30 30 


0.6 


0.070 


10 0.328 


0.2 


0.0075 


40 4.8 


0.8 


0.120 


20 1 . 132 


0.4 


0.0260 


SO 7-8 


I.O 


0.20 


30 2 . 265 


0.6 


0.0530 


60 12.0 


I.I 


0.28 


40 3- 72s 


0.8 


0.090 


65 15.6 


IIS 


0.39s 


50 5.841 


1.0 


0.140 


70 27.0 


• . • 


... 


60 8.344 


• • • 


• • • 



See Note, page 6b 



ACETIC ACID 



8 



Distribution of Acetic Acm between Water and Ethtl Ether. 

(de Kolooaovsky, 19x1.) 



Results at Several Temperatures. 



Results at i8^ 





Cms. CBiCXX>H 


per 100 cc. of: 


P 


Gnu. CHsCOGH 


per 100 cc. of: 
Ether 




f. 


w> 


Ether 


P 


LiyerC^). 


Layer (pO- 


?' 


Layer (^). 


Layer (^0- 


r 


13 


0.365 


0.207 


1.76 


i.o 


0.5 


2.0 


18 


0.367 


0.201 


1.82 


2.0 


1.0 


2.0 


27 


0.375 


0.19s 


1.94 


4.0 


2.1 


1.9 


75 


0.799 


0.551 


1-45 


6.0 


3.5 


1-7 


12 


0.803 


0.529 


1.52 


8.0 


4.9 


1.6 


18 


0.802 


0.501 


1.60 


10. 


6.6 


1-5 


25 


0.789 


0.474 


1.66 


150 
20.0 


11.4 
17.0 


1-3 
1.2 






• 




25.0 


23 -3 


1.07 



According to results obtained at 25^ by Morgan and Benson (1907), the ratio 
of distribution for concentrations of acetic acid up to 12 grams per 100 cc. of 
the HsO layer is more nearly constant (1.92) than shown above for 18^. A 
similar constancy of distribution (approx. 2.08 at 15^) was also found by Pinnow 

(1915). 
Results showing the influence of varying concentrations of a large number of 

electrolytes upon the distribution of acetic acid between water and ether are 

given by de Kolossovsky, Dubrisay (1912), and by Hantzsch and Vagt (1901). 

Data for the distribution of acetic acid between ether and molten CaCl2.6HsO 
and ether and molten LiN0s3H|0 are given by Morgan and Benson (1907). 

One determination of the distribution of acetic acid between sat. aq. CaCU 
solution (20 gms. per 1.) and kerosene gave 97.7 gms. acid per 100 gms. aq. layer 
and 27 gms. per 100 gms. kerosene layer at ordinary temperature. (Crowell, 
1918.) 



Distribution op Acetic 
Water and o or p Xylene. 

(Herz and Fischer.) 

G. M. CHaCOOH 

per 100 cc. 



Acid at 25° between: 

Water and m Xylene. 

(Herz and Fischer.) 



Gma. CHsCOOH 
per 100 cc. 



HsO 
Layer. 

5 
10 

20 

30 

40 

SO 
60 
70 



o or p 
Xylene 
Layer. 

024 

048 



I 

2 

3 
5 
7 



13 

IS 
40 

10 
27 



HsO 
Layer. 

01 
0.2 
0.4 
•0.6 
0.8 
1.0 
1.2 



O OT P 

Xylene 
Layer. 

0.004 

0010 

0.025 

047 
079 

122 

230 



O 
O 

o 
o 



12.52 

See Note, page 6. 



Gms. CHsCOOH 
per 100 cc. 



HsO 



AM 



5 
10 

20 

30 
40 

50 
60 



006 
0.30 

095 
1. 91 

3 -04 
4-65 
6.65 



G. M. CHsCOOH 
per 100 cc. 



HsO 
Layer. 

9.1 
0.2 
0.4 
0.6 
08 
1.0 
1.3 



m 
Xylene 
Layer. 

0.0015 

0.007 

0.022 

0.042 

0.07a 

O.III 

• • • 



Data showing effect of camphor on the reciprocal solubility of acetic acid and 
olive oil are given by Wingard, 191 7. 



ChloroAGBTIC AGID8 



ChloraAGBTIC ACID8 CHiQCOOH, CHOsCOOH, and CCUCOOH. 

SOLUBIUTT OP THE or, /3, AND y MODIFICATION OF MONOCHLOROACBTIC ACID 

IN Water at Different Temperatures. 

CMiera and Isaac, 1908; Pickeriog, 1895.) 



The determinations were made by the sealed tube method. The following 



gure 


s were obi 


tamed Dy 


piotung tn 


e ongmai results 


Q cross-a 


action paper: 




GflB.per 


xoo Gms. of Eacb Sat. 




Gms. per xoo Gms. of Each Sat 






Solutioa. 




t» 




Solution. 




r. 


« Mpdifi- 


^Modifi- 


YModifi. 


ttModift. 


^Modift. 


rModifi. 




cation. 


cation. 


w • 


cation. 


cation. 


cation. 


20 


• • • 


a • • 


88.0 


S^, 


9SO 


97.0 


99.6 


25 


• • • 


85.8 


90.0 


SI (m. pt.) 


• • • 


. ../ 


zoo.o 


30 


86.0 


88.2 


92.2 


ss , 


97.8 


99-3 


• • • 


35 


88.4 


90.6 


94.1 


56 . s (m. pt) 


• ■ • 


too.o 


• • • 


40 


90.8 


93 


95.8 


60 


99.0 


• • • 


• • • 


45 


93 


95 0. 


97.8 


62.4 (m. pt.) 


TOO.O 


• • • 


• • • 



Reciprocal solubilities of mono-, di-, and trichloroacetic acids and water de- 
termined by the freezing-point method are given by Pickering (1895). 

SOLUBILITT OF TrICHLQBOACBTIC ACID IN WaTBR AT 25^ 

(SddeU, 1910.) 

100 gms. saturated solution of ia *- 1.615 contain 92.32 gms. CClt.COOH. 



SoLUBiLXTT Data Determined by the Method of Lowering of the Freez- 
ing-point (see footnote, page i) Are Given for Mixtures of Chloro- 
acetic Add and Each of the Following Compounds: 



Dichloroacetic Add (Kendall, 19x4.) 
Trichloroacetic Acid (Kendall, 19x4-) 

Aoetophen<Mie (Kendall and Gibbons, x9xs.) 
Dibenzyl Acetone (Kendall and Gibbons, X9XS.) 
Benzil (Kendall and Gibbons, x9x5.) 
Benzene (Kendall and BooBc, x9x6.) 
Benzoic Acid (Kendall, X9X4.) 
Camphor (Pawlewaki, 1893-) 
Cinnamic Add (Kendall, X9X4.) 
Crotonic Add 

Cetyl Alcohol (Mamdi and Mannrsiiier, X913.) 
Cresol (Kendall, X914.) 

Methyl Cinnamate (Kendall and Booge, 19x6). 



Dimethyl Oxalate (Kendall and Booge, X9x6.) 
Dimethyl Succinate (Kendalland Booge, 19x6.) 
Dimethylpyrone (Kendall, x9X4 (a).) 
Naphthalene (Mien & Isaac, 1908; M. ft M.,X9i3.) 
Phenol (Kendall, 1916.) 
Piperonal (Kendall ^Gibbons, 19x5; M.&M.,X9X3.) 
Salol (Mameli and Manneasier, X9X3.) 
Sulfuric Acid (Kendall and Caipenter, X9X4.) 
Toluic Add (Kendall, X9X4.) 



m 

P 
a 



II 
II 



II 
II 
II 



u 
u 

M 



Vanillin (Kendall and Gibbons, X9X5.) 



SoLUBiLiTT Data Determined bt the Method of Lowering of the Freez- 
ing-point (see footnote, page i) Are Given by Kendall (1914) for Mix- 
tures of Dichloroacetic Acid and Each of the Following Compounds: 



Trichloroacetic Acid 


Toluic Acid 


Benzoic Add 




Cinnamic Add 


p " " 


Crotonic Add 




Dimethylpyrone 





(Phenylacetic Acid) 



ChloroAOITIC ACID 



10 



Solubility Data Dbtbrionbd bt thb Metbod of Lowbbing op thb FsBsa^ 
iNG-PoiNT (see footnote, page i) Are Given for Mixtures of Trichloro- 
aeotlo Acid and Each of the Following Compoundf: 



Acetophenone (KeiuUU and Gibbom, 19x5.) 

Anisaldehyde 

Benzene (Kendall and Booge, 19x6.) 

Benzaldehyde (Kendall and Gibbons, x9Z5-) 

m Hydroxy Benzaldehyde 

p " " « 

Nitro Benzaldehyde 

^^ II II 

fn 

J. II « 



(Elendall and 
Gibbons, 

Z9XS) 



Benzophenone 

Benzil 

Benzoquinone 

Benzoic Acid (KendaU, 1914) 

Camphene (Timoleiew & KzavtBOV, 1915, 1917.) 

Cinnamic Acid (Kendall, 1914.) 

Crotonic Add 

Cresol (Kendall, 19x4.) 

fn 

Diethyl Oxalate (Kendall and Boo^e, 19x6.) 

Diethyl Succinate 

Dimethyl Oxalate 

Dimethyl Malonate " 

Dimethyl Succinate 

Dimethyl Terephthalate (Kendall and 
BoQge. 19x6.) 

Dimethylpyrone (Plotnikov, x9xx; Kendall, 
X9X4 la).) 



•• 



•c 



*• 



«« 



•I 



•• 



Ethyl Ether CTsakalotos and Gajre, x9xa) 
Ethyl Acetate (Kendall and Booge, X916.) 
Ethyl Benzoate 
Methyl Benzoate 

" Anisate 

" Cinnamate 

" pToluate 

a Naphthol (Kendall, X9z6.) 

a Naphthyl Acetate(Kcndall and Booge, 1916.) 

O (t « II u 

Phenol (Kendall, X9x6.) 

o Nitro Phenol (Kendall, 19x6.) 

«aa II II (I 

p " " 

Piperonal (Kendall and Gibbons, Z9zs^ 

Nitro Piperonal 
Phenyl Anisylketone " 

" Benzoate (Kendall and Booge, I9z60 

" Salicylate 
Salicylic Aldehyde(Kendall and Gibbon8,z9i5>) 
Sulfuric Add (Kendall and Carpenter, I9Z4-) 
Toluic Add (Kendall, 19x4.) 
tn " " " 

p 

a 

Thymol (KendaU, 19x6.) 

Vanillin (Kendall and Gibbons, 1915^ 



II 



4< 

tt 



Distribution of Chloracetic Acid between: 

(Hen and Fischer.) 



Water and Benzene at 25°. 

G. M. CHsClCOOH 



Water and Toluene at 25®. 



Gms. CHaQCOOH 
per xoo cc. 

£0 



Layer. 

0.35* 

0.5 

I.O 

2.0 
30 
40 



Layer. 

8.69 

IS 59 
37.87 

41-10 

Sa-90 

68.01 

76.53 



per zoo cc. 



HsO 
Layer. 

0.0025 
0.005 
O.OIO 
0.015 

o.oa 
0.03 
0.04 



C.H. 
Layer. 



Gms. CHiaCOOH 
pe r 100 cc. 



Layer. 



0.090 O.I 

0.155 0.5 

0.28 1.0 

0.415 i-S 
054 2.0 

0.70 3.0 

0.79 4.0 

5.0 

* See Note, page 6. 



CoHftCfia 
Layer. 

5.22 
20.31 

34 87 

4914 
60.46 

72.28 

81.72 

86.94 



G. M. CHsaCOOH 

per 100 cc. 

CjIUCH, 



5o~ 

Layer. 

O.OOI 

0.005 

O.OIO 

0.015 

0.02 

0.03 

0.04 

0.05 



Layer. 

0.055 

0.20 

0.36 

0.50 

0.62 

0.77 

0.85 

0.90 



Additional data for the distribution of monochloroacetic acid between water 
and benzene as well as similar results for dichloroacetic add are given by 
Georgievics, 1915. 



OiloroACETIC ACIDS 



DisnaBunoN of Chloracetic Acid between: 

(Hen and Lewy.) 

c. 

"Water and Chloroform at 25**. Water and Bromoform at 25**. 



ma. rnHaClCOOB 
per 100 cc« 


G. M. CHtaCOOH 
per 100 cc 


Gou. CHiaCOOH 
per xoo oc. 


G. M. CH^COOH 
per 100 cc 


Layer. 


CHOi 


Layer. 


CHOi ■ 
Layer. 


Layer. 


CHBu 
Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


s* 

XO 

ao 


0.283 
0.614 
1.088 


0.05 
O.IO 
0.20 


0.0025 
0.0060 
0.0135 


40* 

SO 
60 


0.850 
Z.889 
2.994 


0.45 
0.50 

0.60 


O.OII 

0.0165 

0.028 


40 

SO 
60 
70 


2.948 

3.684 
4.440 
7.086 


0.40 
0.60 
0.70 

0.7s 


0.029 
0.045 

o.o6z 
0.077 


70 

80 

90 
. 91 .6 


4.241 

5.620 

7.560 

11.340 


0.70 
0.80 
0.90 
0.97 


0.040 
0.053 
0.067 
0.120 



DisTUBimoN OF Chlosacetic Acid between: 

(Hen and Lewy.) 



Water and Carbon Disulphide 
at 25^ 


Wat^ and Carbon Tetra- 
chloride at 25^. 


Oma. CHdClCOOH 
per xoo oc. 


G. M. CHiQCOOH 
per xoo cc. 


(Sms. CHtClCOOH 
per 190 cc. 


G. M. CHiaC(X>H 

per xoo oc. 


^H*0 CS. 
Layer. Layer. 


Layer. 


csi 

Layer. 


HjO ecu 
Layer. Layer. 


HsO 
Layer. 


ecu 

Layer. 


(So* 0.426 


0.6 


0.0042 


90* 1. 417 


0.9s 


0.015c 


80 0.691 


0.8 


0.007 


95 2.031 


1. 00 


00195 


90 0.803 


I.O 


0.009 


100 2.645 


X.05 


0.0270 


100 1.040 


1. 05 


0.0105 


105 4.26 


I.IO 


0-0415 


105 I .464 
X06.7 X.890 


I.IO 

1. 13 


0.015 
0.020 

* See Note 


106,7 5.19 

.page 6. 


1. 13 


0.0550 



Results showing the influence of sulfuric acid upon the distribution of mono- 
chlcMDacetic add between water and ethyl ether at 26"* are given by Hantzsch 
and Vagt (i90i). 



CyanoACXTIC ACID CH,(CN)C(X)H. 

Distribution of Cyanoacbtic Acid bbtwbbn: 

(Haotach and Sebalt, 1899.) 



Water and Ethyl Ether. 

Gms. CB^CN)C00H per 



Water and Benzene. 

Gma. CH|(CN)C(X)H per 
Liter. 



•r. 


H^ 
Layer. 


' Layer. 


» . 


Layer. 


CJEU ' 
Layer. 



10 

ax 
30 


0.070 
0.076 
0.083 
0.089 


0.042 
0.044 
0.030 
0.027 


6 
as 


0.067 
0.130 


0.020 
0.019 



PhenylACBTIC ACID 



13 



PhenylACETIC ACID (a Toluic Add) CHs(C«Hi)COOH. 

Solubility in Water and in Alcohols. (Tunofdew, 1894.) 



Solvent. 



r. 



Gms.CHt(C«H|)COOH 



Water 20 

Methyl Alcohol —17 

-13 



(( 



u 



Ethyl Alcohol 
« 



o 

+ 194 
20 

-17 
-13 



per 100 Gnu. 
Sat. Sol. 

1.64 

50.6 

53-2 
59-2 
70.8 
71.8 

39-7 

41. S 



SdvenL 



Ethyl Alcohol 



Gnu. CHtCCH^COOH 
t*. per 100 Gms. 

Sat. SoL 



0.0 50.7 

+ 19.4 64.4 

20.0 65.1 

Propyl Alcohol —17.0 29.4 

-130 32.3 

0.0 40.9 

+19.4 56.8 

20.0 57.2 



« 



(( 



(( 



it 



tt 



(t 



Solubility of Phbnylacetic Acid in Several Solvents at 25*. 

(Hers and Rathmann, 1913.) 

Gms. Gms. 

Solvent. CHt(CA)C00H Solvent. CHs(CA)CXX>H 

per 100 cc. Sat. SoL per xoo oc Sat. SoL 

Chloroform 60.17 Tetrachlorethylene 21.19 

Carbon Tetrachloride 25.07 Tetrachlorethane 61.45 

Trichlorethylene 44 89 Pentachlorethane 44.26 

The freezing-point cur^e (Solubility, see footnote, page i) is given by Sal- 
kowski (1885) for mixtures of phenylacetic add and hyarodnnamic add. 

ACETIC ACm ESTERS. 

Solubilities of Several Acetic Acid Esters in Aqueous Alcohol at Room 

Temperature. (Pfeiffer, xSga.) 



oc H^ added to cause separation of a second phase in miztuies of the given 

amounts of Alcohol and 3 oc. of: 

r- * » 

CHiCOOCH^ CH,C00CiH«. CHiCOOCtHi. CHiCOOQH^ CHiCOOQHu' 

00 



cc. Ethyl 
Alcohol in 
Mixtures. 

3 
6 

9 
12 

IS 

18 

21 

24 
27 

30 
33 
ChloroACETIC ACID ESTEBS. 

Solubility of Monochlor, Dichlor, and of Trichloracetic Ester 
in Aqueous Alcohol at Room Temperature. . 

{Bancroft — Phys. Rev. 3, 193. 1895-96. from results of Pfeiffer. Z. physik. chem. 9p 469» ^^ 



6.0 


4.50 


2.08 


1.76 


00 


10.48 


6.08 


4.24 




17.80 


10.46 


9-03 




26.00 


1537 


13.24 




35-63 


20.42 


17.52 




47 so 


26.60 


22.22 




58.71 


31.49 


26.99 




00 


37.48 


32.14 




• • • 


43.75 


37.23 




• • • 


50 -74 


42.06 




• • • 


59.99 


48.41 



cc. Ethyl 

Alcuholin 

Mixtures. 

3 
6 

9 

12 
IS 

x8 

flX 



oc. HsO added to cause separation of a second phase 
in miziures of the given amts. of Alcohol and 3 cc. of 1 

CHvCICOOCiHa. CHQ]COOCta« CCliCOGCiH^ 
1.32 
4.01 

7.30 
10. 78 

x6.i6 
22.16 

28.74 



0.90 
2.45 


0.65 
X.80 


4.33 
6.60 

9.20 


3.02 

4.50 
6.50 



• • • 



• • • 



• • .• 



• • • 



13 



AOBTm 



Mono-, Di-, and Tri ACETIN CaH,(OH),(OCH,0), C,H,(0H)(0C,H,0)2. and 
C,H*(0C,H,O),. 
Tae partition coefficients of these three compounds between olive oil and 
water are given by Baum (1899) and Meyer (1901, 1909), as 0.06, 0.23, and 0.3 
respectively. 

MethACSTlN {p Acetanisidine, or p oxymethylacetanilide) CeH4.0CHi. 
NHCHjCO. 
100 gms. HjO dissolve 0.19 gms. of the compound at 15° and 8.3 gms. at loo^ 

(German Phammoopoda.) 

a ACBTNAPHTHAUDE CsHsONHCQoHt). 

Solubility in Mixtures op Alcohol and Water at 25^ 

(HoOeman and Antusch — Rec. trav. chim. 13, 9891 1894.) 



AIcoIkI 
100 

95 
90 

80 

75 
70 



Gms. per 

100 Gms. 

Solvent. 

4.02 

4-31 
4. II 

318 

2-73 

2.31 



Sp. Gr. of 
Solutioos. 

0.7916 
0.8x50 
0.8344 
0.8485 
0.8624 
0.8761 
0.8798 



Alcohol. 

65 
60 

55 

50 

35 
20 

10 



Gms. per 

100 Gms. 

Solvent. 

1.78 
1.44 
1.02 
0.71 
025 
0.09 
0.04 



Sp. Gr. of 
Solutions. 

0.8977 
0.9091 
0-9201 
0.9290 

0-9537 
0.9717 

0.9841 



Constant agitation was not employed. The mixtures were allowed to stand 
in bath and the solutions analyz^ after different lengths of time. Formulas 
are not given. This applies to all determinations by Holleman and Antush. 

ACBTONS (CH,),CO. 

Solubility of Acetone at 25® in Aqueous Solutions of: 
Electrolytes. Non-Electrolyti 

CBeU — J. Phys. Ch. Qb 544* 1905; Linebarger — Am. Ch. J. 24, 380, x8g2.) 



Gms. ElectRH 

Irtepec 
no GtBB* A(|« 



1.25 
2.50 

5 CO 

7-5 
10 .0 

12.5 

15 o 

20.0 

25 o 
30. o 



Gms. (CHa)aCO per 100 Gms. 
Solvent in Somtions of: 

/ * > 

KiCOs NasCOs (NH4)2COs MgCOt 

83 -5 
no 

73 



65.0 

46.5 

34-5 

255 
18.0 

8.0 

3-7 
X.6 



51.0 
38 o 

275 

195 
14.0 

9.0 

2.7 



57 
44 

35 
28 



o 

5 
o 

5 
o 

o 



65.0 

47 o 
38 o 
29.0 



Gms. Non- 
Electrolyte 

per 100 Gms. 

Aq. Solution. 

5 
10 



Gms. (CHs^sCO per zoo Gms. 
Solvent m Solutions of: 

. * 

CioH^t Anethd.* (CeHft)sCO. 



20 

30 
40 

50 
60 

70 

80 

90 



92 
117 

137 
148 

155 

159 
160 

155 



5 

o 

o 

5 
5 

5 

2 

o 



103.0 
123.0 

1445 

15s o 
162.0 

166.0 

165.0 
158.0 



90.0 

108.5 

126.0 
133 o 

136.0 

135 -5 

131-5 
123 

108.5 
82.0 



* Anethof - P Propenylanisol, CHs.CH:CH.C|H^CH«. f Naphthalene lesuhs at 35". 

Note. — In the case of the results for the aqueous solutions of electrolytes, 
the determinations were made by adding successive small quantities of acetone 
to the mixtures of given amounts of water and electrolyte, and noting the point 
at which a clouding, due to the separation of a second phase, occurrra. In the 
case of the aqueous non-electrolyte solutions, successive small amounts of water 
were added to mixtures of known amounts of acetone and the non-electrolyte. 
In all cases the results, as given in the original papers, have been recalculated 
and plotted on cross-section paper. From the curves so obtained, the above 
table was constructed. 

Additional data for systems containing acetone are given under the salt involved, 
as, for instance. Potassium Carbonate, p. 51 1, Potassium Fluoride, p. 534, etc. 



AOBTONl 



U 



MlSOBILITY OF ACBTONB AT O^ WITH MIXTURES OP: 



CMorafonn and Water (Bonner, 19x0). 


Bzomobennne and Water (BoniM 

/ * 

Gms. Gms. Cms. 


». x9»)- 


Gma. 


Gna. 




Sp. Gr. of 


Sp. Gr. of 


CUO.. 


HdO. (CH«)sCX>. 


Miztiue. 


CABr. 


w>. 


(CHi).C0. 


Mixture. 


0.988 


0.012 0.501 


1. 18 


0.977 


0.023 


0.685. 


1. 12 


0.900 


O.IOO ] 


C.3OO 


1. 01 


0.90 


O.IO 


113 


1. 01 


0.792 


0.208 1 


t-633 


0.98 


0.80 


0.20 


1. 41 


0.98 


0.696 


0.304 ] 


t.7So 


0.96 


0.70 


0.30 


152 


0.97 


0.600 


0.400 ] 


C.770 


0.95 


0.60 


0.40 


I 57 


0.96 


0.500 


0.500 ] 


[.720 


0.94 


0.50 


0.50 


1.60 


0.9s 


'0.420 


0.580 ] 


C.650 


• ft • 


♦0.49 


0.51 


1.60 


• • • 


0.400 


0.600 ] 


C.630 


0.93 


0.40 


0.60 


1-59 


0.94 


0.300 


0.700 ] 


C.S30 


0.94 


0.30 


0.70 


1. 55 


0-93 


0.200 


0.800 ] 


C.321 


0.9s 


0.20 


0.80 


1.46 


0-93 


O.IOO 


0.900 ] 


C.144 


0.97 


O.IO 


0.90 


1.30 


0-93 


0.018 


0.982 C 


>.464 


0.98 


. 0.02 


0.98 


0.849 


0-9S 



Note. — The determinations were made by gradually adding acetone to the 
mixtures of the given amounts of water and the other constituent until a homo- 
geneous solution was obtained. The results give the binodal curve for the sys- 
tem. The author also determined "tie lines showing the compositions of the 
various i>airs of liquids which may exist in eciuilibrium. When the two layers 
are practicallv of tne same composition the tie line is reduced to a point desig- 
nated as the plait point" of the binodal curve. This point is indicated by a * 
in the above tables. 

Solubility op Acetone in Aqueous Solutions of Carbohydrates. 

(Knag and licEboy — J. Anal. Ch. 6^ 1841 '9»', Bdl — J. Phya. Ch. 9, 547f 'osO 



Pcf cent 



In Aqueous Solutions of Cane Sugar. 

Cms. (CHa)iCO per 100 Gms. Sugar Soltttioo at: 



10 
20 
30 

35 
40 

45 
50 

55 
60 

65 
70 



if 

597 
272 

172 






5 

4 



• • • 

• • • 
96.4 
71.9 
50.8 

35-8 
25.2 

18.3 

13-9 



581.8 
250.0 
150.0 

• • • 

92.8 

68.8 
48.1 

33-8 
24.2 

17.7 

12. 8 



30" 



574.8 
251.8 
150.6 



4oS 



« • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 



1 10 

85 
62 

42 
29 



In Aqueous Dextrose Solutions. 

Gmi. (CHt)«CO per 100 Gma. 
Solvent 



Ptt 
cent 



Ivent at: 



10 
20 

30 
40 

50 



tf. 

736.7 

255-3 

157-5 
86.9 

36.2 



as". 

747-9 

247-7 
149.8 

79.6 
33 o 



35*. 

761.5 

240.8 

142.5 

74 o 
31-3 



Per 

cent 

Maltoae. 

10 
20 

30 
40 

50 



89.8 

65 -7 
45-9 
325 
23.4 
17. o ••• ••• 

I2*s ••• ••• 

In Aqueous Maltose Solutions. 

Gma. (CI 



;Ha)iCO per 100 Gma. 
Solvent at: 



IS**. 

353-6 
185.4 
119.9 

78.4 
46.2 



as**. 
348.1 
181. 2 

116. 

74.7 
42.9 



35*. 
342.0 
176.9 
112. 4 

70.5 

39-8 



The determinations were made as in the case of the solubility of acetone in 
aqueous solutions of electrol3rte8. See preceding page. 



15 



ACETONl 



Distribution op Acbtonb bbtwbbn: 



Benzene and 
Results at 20^ 

Hp and Bnmby, 1915*) 
Gm. (CHa>sCO per zooo oc 



HdO 
Layer. 

O.IO 
0.20 
0.30 
0.40 



Layer. 
0.08 

0.12 

0.25 

0.34 



Water. 

Results at 25"*. 
(Hers and Fischer, 1905.) 

Cms. (CHt)tC0 per looo cc 

Layer. Layer. 

ID* 12.0 

SO 41.7 

100 IOI.5 

ISO iSS-9 
200 225.0 

* See Note, page 6. 



r. 

o 
10 
20 

30 



Toluene and Water. 

At Different Temps. 
(Hant2sch and Vagi, 190X.) 

Cms. (CH|)iC0 per looo cc 

' hJo ' CjHiCHi 
Layer. Layer. 

2.105 



2.000 
1.960 
1.867 



0.993 
0.957 
0.957 
0.957 



Philip and Bramby also rive data for the effect of NaCl, KCl and LiCl upon 
the distribution of acetone between benzene and water. 

In the determinations by Hantzsch and Vagt the equilibrium was approached 
from above. The amount of acetone in the lower layer was determined by 
analysis, and that in the upper layer calculated by difference. 

Distribution of Acbtonb bbtwbbn: 

(Hers and Rathmann, 19x3.) 



Water and 


Water and 


Water and 


Carbon Tetrachloride. 


Chloroform. 


Pentachlorethane. 


Mob. (CH|)sCO per Uter. 


Mob. (CHOflCX) per Liter. 


Mob. (CH,)tC0 per Liter. 


W) 


ca« : 


W 


CHCU 


IW) 


coicu 


Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


0.186 


0.0833 


0.032 


0.168 


0.144 


0.251 


0.322 


0.146 


0.0781 


0.399 


0.271 


0.469 


1. 01 


0.514 


0.145 


0.676 


0.541 


0.859 


1.66 


0.997 


0.263 


1. 17 


0.806 


1.275 


2.87 


2.10 


0.493 


1.98 


1. 149 


1763 


... 


... 


1. 01 


306 


• • . 


... 


Water and 


Water and 


Water and 


Tetrachlorethane. 


Tetrachlorethylene. 


Trichlorethylene. 


Mob. (CH,),0 


per liter. 
CACI4 


Mob. (CHa)^CO per Liter. 
' HjO CCJ,:CCi, 


Mob. (CH,)tCO per Liter. 


IV> 


\H,0 


CHChCdi 


Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


0.0812 


0.341 


0.274 


0.081 


0.160 


0.193 


0.249 


0.994 


0.562 


0.174 


0.350 


0.359 


0.317 


1. 210 


1.020 


0.343 


0.654 


0.719 


0.363 


1.323 


1.545 


0.629 


0.946 


1.029 


0.569 ^ 


1.936 


2.007 


0.891 


1.389 


1.562 



The distribution coefficient of acetone between olive oil and water is given by 
Meyer (1901), as 0.146 at 3"* and 0.235 at 30^ 

Sglubility Data Determinbd by thb Method of Lowering of thb 
Freezing-point (see footnote, p. i) Are Given for Mixtures of Acetone 
AND Each of the Following Compounds: 

Bromine (Maanand Mcintosh, 19x2.) Phenol (Srhmidlin and Lang, xgxo.) 

Chlorine " " Resorcinol 

H vdrobromic Add " - Pyrogallol 

Cnloroform (Takalotos and Goye, x9xo.) Pyrocatechol " " 

o Chlorophenol (Bnunby, X916.) 

Depression of the freezing-point of mixtures of acetone and water and each of 
the following compounds are given by Waddell (1899): Ether, hydroquinone, 
phenol, p nitrophenol, salicylic acid. 



AGETOPHENOinB i6 

ACETOPHENONE CH,COC«H«. 

The freezing-poiiit curve for mixtures of acetophenone and sulfuric add is 
given by Kendall and Carpenter (1914). 

Freezing-point curves (solubility, see footnote, page i) for mixtures of Cinna- 
mylidene Acttophonone and each of the following compounds are given by 
Giua (19 16): Acenaphthene, azobenzene, ethyl ether and a trinitrotoluene. 

AOBTTLAOETOHS CH,COCHaCOCH» 

Solubility in 'Water. 

CRodunund — Z. phys. Ch. 26^ 475, '98.) 





Cms. CB,COUl,COCH, 


per 100 Gms. 


h9 


HsO 




Acetyl Acetone 


9 • 


Layer. 




Layer. 


30 


15.46 




95.02 


40 


17 58 




93-68 


50 


20.23 




91.90 


60 


23 23 




89.41 


70 


27. ZO 




85-77 


80 


33 93 




78.8a 



87.7 (crit. temp.) 56.8 

Note. — Weighed amounts of water and acetyl acetone were placed in small 
glass tubes, which were then sealed and slowly heated until the contained mix- 
tures became homogeneous. The temperature was then allowed to fall very 
gradually and the point noted at which cloudiness appeared. This point was 
accurately established for each tube by repeated trials. The curve plotted from 
these determinations shows two percentage amounts of acetyl acetone which 
cause cloudiness at each temperature below the critical point. Of these two 
points, for each temperature, one represents the aqueous layer, «.6., the solu- 
bility of acetyl acetone in water; and the other represents the acetyl acetone 
layer, «.6., the solubility of water in acetyl acetone. This method is known as the 
'Synthetic Method," and yields results in harmony with those obtained by the 
analytical method, «.e., by analyzing each layer after complete separation occurs. 
See also, chapter on Methods of Solubility Determinations. 

ACETYLENE QH,. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Winkler; see Landolt and BOrsstein's Tabellen, 3d ed. p. 604, 'os.) 
t*. «. q. 

o 1.73 0.20 

5 1.49 0.17 

10 1. 31 0.15 

IS I IS 0.13 

20 1.03 0.12 

2S 0.93 O.II 

30 0.84 0.09 

o, "Absorption Coefficient," = the volume of gas (reduced to o* and 760 
mm. pressure) taken up by one volume of the liquid at the given temperature 
when the partial pressure of the gas equals 760 mm. mercury. 

q, ** Solubility," = the amount of gas in grams which is taken up by 100 grama 
of the pure solvent at the given temperature if the total pressure, «.«., the partial 
pressure of the gas plus the vapor pressure of the liquid at the absorption tem- 
perature, b 760 mm. 



17 



ACSTTLENE 



SOLUBIUTT OP ACBTYLBNB IN WaTBR, AqUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF ALKALIES AND 

Sulfuric Acid at 15®. 

(Billitaer, 190a.) 
tn of Acetylene in Aq. Solutknifl of Nonnallty: 



Aq.Sohitkn 






•b U 


1 nacvjuea 


e in Aq. 


oC: 


o^x 


0.035 


. 0.0S 


0.10 


O.IS 


Ba(OH)s 


• « • 


I.218 


■ • • 


1.230 


1.240 


Ca{OH), 


1.230 




• • • 


• • • 




NH4OH 


1. 216 




• • • 


Z.218 




NaOH 


1. 210 




1.200 


I.180 




KOH 


I.2I2 




• • • 


1.185 




Na,S04 


• • • 




• • • 


1.170 




H,S04 


• « • 




• • • 


I.ZQO 





0.25 



aso 



X.00 



a.00 



^•oo 



1.220 1.225 1.230 1.235 1.240 

1. 128 1.040 0.885 0.600 0.370 

1. 130 1.056 0.912 0.660 0.460 

1.068 0.940 0.720 0.340 . . . 

1. 120 1.040 0.900 0.780 



Solubility in Water, /u » 1.251. 



.The above results were determined by the method of Ostwald (Handbuch 
physiko-chemischen Messungen 207 if.). A thermostat was used and great 
care taken to reduce experimental errors and purify the acetylene. The results 
are in terms of the Ostwald SolubilUy Expression, for which see page 227, following. 

SOLUBILITT OF ACETTLBNB IN AqUEOUS AcETONE SOLUTIONS. 

(Kxemum and HSnel, 19x3.) 



Vol. Per Cent H/> 

in ^Tklv^fifr 


Cms. CA dissolved per Liter Sat. Solution at: 


lu sol vcm 
(H/> + Acetone). 


0* 


i8* 


-. _ ^ 

as* 





37 


21 


iS-2 


5 


31 


18.2 


13. s 


10 


26 


ISO 


10. s 


20 


IS 


9S 


8.0 


3S 


8.4 


S'S 


. 4.4s 


SO 


5-7 


1.23 


2.22 


75 


... 


... 


1.23 


100 


... 


• . . 


0.98 



Tlie freezing-point curve for mixture of acetylene and methyl ether are 
given by Baume and German (191 1, 1914}. 



Biiodide, da and trazis. 

Data for the lowering of the freezing-points of mixtures of these two isomers 
are given by Chavanne and Vos (1914J. 

ACONinC ACID C,H,(CCX)H),. 

too grams of formic acid (95% HCCK)H) dissolve 2.01 grams CsHt(COOH)i 
at 20.6 C. (Aschan, 19x3.) 

AOOHZTZVl (Amorphous) CmH4,NO„. 

Solubility in Several Solvents. 

(At 95* tJ3P.; at I8•-aa^ Mailer — Apoth.-Ztg. 18; a, '03.) 



Gma. CnHcNOx per 
xoo Gms. SolTent at: 



Water . 
Alcohol 
Ether . 



xS^-aa*. 
0.054 

... 
X.44 



0.031 

4S4 
2.27 



Gma. GMH47NO11 pef 
Solvent 100 Gms. SoiveDt at ; 

iV-aa*. 7f? 

Benzene 17 -^S 

Carbon Tetrachloride i .99 
Petroleum Ether . . 0.023 0.028 



100 gms. HtO dissolve 0.0226 gm. aconitine at 22^ (Dimstan and Umney, 189a.) 

abs. alcohol " 2.7 " " " " auigens, 1885.) 

" ether •*- 1.56 " ** " " 



«< 

M 



<« 



TVichloro4CBYLIG ACID 



i8 



TrichloroACBYLIC ACID CasK:aCOOH. 

SCM^UBIUTT OF TUCHLOROACRYLIC AciD IN WATBR 
(Boenkcn and Cazriere, igisO 



O.O 
—0.36 

— o.6Eutec. 

+13.7 " 
150 

17.0 

19.2 m. pt. 

ly.oEutec. 



20.3 
25.0 
30.0 
40.0 
50.0 
60.0 
70.0 
72.9 



tt 



cacooS 

per 100 Gmk 
Sat. Solution. 

0.0 
2.0 

4.5 
64.1 

68.5 

74.5 
80.0 

81. 1 

82.8 

84.5 
86.0 

89. s 
92.5 
94.5 

98.S 

100. o 



Solid Phue. 



ke 



loe+COi: CaCOOH.a}H/> 

ca»cacx)0H.2i h^o 



CCl|:CaCOOH+ 

Cai:CaC00H.2}H/> 
CCl|:CaCXX)H 



(I 



M 



Between the concentration 4.5 
and 64.1 two liquid layeiB are 
formed. The percentage of 
CClt:CCiCOOH in each is as 
follows: 

Gms. CCl|:CaCOOH per 
t«. 100 Gms. Sat. Solution. 

Lower Layer. Upper Layer^ 

SO 



10 
20 

30 
40 

SO 

S5 
60 

62 crit. t. 



S.2 
6.0 

7.S 
13 o 

18.0 

27.0 



38.0 



64.1 
63.8 
62.2 

S9.S 
S6.o 

49.0 



The original results were plot- 
ted on cross-section paper and 
the above figures read from the 
curves. 



ACTINIUM EBCANATIOKS. 

SOLUBILITT IN SEVERAL SOLVENTS. 
(Hevea/, 191 3-) 

A method was elaborated for determining the partition coefficient between a 
gas and a liquid phase. The solubility of actinium emanations was then de- 
termined in KCl, HA HjSOi, CxH*OH, CHuOH, (CHi),CO, C«H»CHO, OH*, 
CtHs, petroleum ether and CS|. The solubility increases in the order named. 
Close relations are indicated between actinium, thorium and radium. 



ADIPIC ACID (Normal) (CHOiCCOOH),. 

100 grams HsO dissolve 1.44 grams adipic acid at 15^ 

(Henzy — Compt. rend., 99f izS7i '84; Lamouiouz — Ihid., laS, 998, '99.) 



ADIPINIC ACID (CH04(COOH)i. 

ioo grams of formic acid (95% HCOOH) dissolve 4.04 grams of (CHs)4 
(COOH}s at 18.5®; 100 cc. of the saturated solution contain 4.684 grams of 
the acid. (Aschan, 1913.) 



AGARIC ACID CioH»O..HiO. 

100 grams trichloroethylene dissolve 0.014 gram agaric acid at 15^ 

(Water And Bnilnt« K914.) 



19 



Am 



Solubility in Watbr. 

CWiaUcr -» Bcr. 34. 1409, '01; ne also Pelcnan and Sondem — Bcr. aa» 1459* '89^ 



O 

5 

10 

ao 

25 
30 
40 

SO 

60 

80 

100 

B ' 



B. 

0.02881 

.02543 
.02264 

.02045 

.01869 

.01724 

.01606 

.01418 

.01297 

.01216 

.01126 

.01105 



0.02864 
.02521 
.02237 
.02011 
.01826 
.01671 

•01539 
.01315 

.01140 

.00978 

.00600 

.00000 



cc.* of atmoqphcric O and N per liter of: 
DIat. HiO (at 760 mm.). Sea Water (at 760 mm.). 



Oxygen. 
10 

8 

7 

7 
6 

5 
5 
4 

3 

3 
I 

o 



.91 


16. 


.87 


14. 


.04 


13- 


•35 


II. 


•75 


10. 

• 


.24 


10. 


.48 


8. 


•8S 


?• 


■ a8 


6. 


•97 


4- 


■00 


0. 



Nitrogen. 

" 45 
30 

50 
07 

91 
96 

IS 

67 

55 

50 

03 
00 



OzTgen. 

7-77 

6 93 
6.39 

5 70 



Nitrogen. 
14.85 

13-32 
12.06 

11.05 

10.25 

9.62 



» '* Coefficient of Absorption," i,e,, the amount of gas dissolved 
by the liqtiid when the presstire of the gas itself without the tension 
of the liquid amounts to 760 mm. 

J?' — •* Solubility," i,e., the amount of gas, reduced to o® and 760 
mm., which is absorbed by one volume of the liquid when the barometer 
indicates 760 mm. pressure. 

* Reduced to o* and 760 mm. 



Solubility op Air in Aqueous Sulphuric Acid at 18^ and 760 mm 

(Tower — Z. anorg. Ch. 50* 389, '06.) 

Wt. % H1SO4 98 90 80 70 

SolubiUty Coef. 0.0173 o.(X369 0.0069 0.0055 



60 50 

0.0059 0.0076 



Scx^ubility op Air in Alcohcx., btc 

(Robinet, 1864.) 



Sulvent. 



Vols. Air per 
Vols. Solvent. 



xoo 



Alcohol (95 . 1%) . . 14. 1 

Petroleum 6.8 

Benzene 14.0 



SolTent. 

Oil of Lavender. . 
Oil of Turpentine . 



Vols. Air per 100 
Vob. Solvent. 

• . 6.9 

. . 24.2 



(a Anunopropionic Acid) CH,CH(NH,)COOH. 
Solubility in Mixtures op Alcohol and Water at 25®. 



Vol.% 
Alcohol. 



O 

5 
zo 

IS 
90 

«S 
31 



(HoOenMii and Antuch, 1894.) 



Gms. per 
100 Gms. 
Solvent. 

16.47 

1437 

"•43 
10. 49 

8.48 

7. II 

SS3 



Sp. Gr. of 

Sotutioos. 



Vol.% 
Alcohol. 



Gms. per 
xoo Gms. 
Solvent. 



I .0421 35 4 

1.0311 40 3 

1 .0280 50 2 

1 .0101 60 I 

o 9984 70 o 

0.9886 80 o 
o 9761 

See remarks under a Acetnaphthalide, page 13. 

100 gms. pyridine dissolve 0.16 gm. a alanine at 20-25^, 



91 
89 

38 
57 
85 
37 



Sp. Gr. of 

Soltttkos. 

0.9670 

0.9577 

0.935s 
0.9102 

0.8836 

o 8556 



(Dehn, 1917.) 



ALANINE 



30 



Solubility of d Alanine and of dl Alanine in Water at Different 

Temperatures. 

(Pdlini and Coppola, i9i3-) 



Results for: 








d Alanine. 


d — l Alanine. 


Mixtures i + / Alanine. 


"' Gms. d Alanine per 


Gms. d — l Alanine per 


Gms. per 


xoo Gms. I^. 


zoo Gms. BbO. 


xoo Gms. BbO. 


J Alanine. 




O 12-99 


12.89 


13-27 


4.01 


17 15.17 


14.95 


145 


4.1 


30 17.39 


17.72 


17 05 


4.99 


45 20.55' 


21.58 


• . • 


• • • 



ALBUMIN (Egg). 

160 gms. HsO dissolve 100 gms. egg albumin at 20-25^ ku 

100 gms. pyridine dissolve o.i gm. egg albumin at 20**-25°. * 

100 gms. aq. 50% pyridine dissolve 6.29 gms. egg albumin at 20°-25**. 

(Dehn, 19x7.) 



(Dehn, Z917.) 



ALLANTOm C4H6N4QS. 



Solubility in Water. 

(Titherly, 1912.) 



The author obtained results varying from 0.7 to 0.77 gms. allantoin per 100 
gms. HsO at 25^. The variations were considered to be due to alow decompo* 
sition of the compound. 

ALIZARIN Ci«HflO,(OH),. 

Solubility in Water at Varying Temperatures. 

(Hattig, X9X4; Beilstein.) 
t". 25*^ «oo*. aso*. 

Grams Alizarin per liter o .000595 o .340 3 .017 

According to Dehn (1917), 100 gms. HsO dissolve 0.04 gm. alizarin at 20^-25^ 



Solubility of Alizarin in Aqueous Solutions of: 

Sodium Hydroxide at 25° (Httttig, 1914.) 



Ammonia at 25**. 

-*- 



Gms. NHiper 
Liter. 

0.160 
4.025 



Gms. Alizarin 
p>er Liter. 

0.132 

0.228 



Gms. NaOH 
per Liter. 

0.427 
1.050 



Gms. Alizarin 
per Liter. 

1. 159 
3.820 



SoUd Phase. 



C14HA 

C14H8O4 + Ci4H704Na 



too gms. 95% formic acid dissolve o.io gm. alizarin at 20.8^. (Aschan, X9X3.) 

Alizarin is soluble in all proportions in pyridine and in aq. 50% pyridine at 



2o'*-25' 



(Dehn, 19x7.) 



ALOm. 

Squires and Caines (1905) found the solubility of aloin in water at room tem- 
perature to be 0.83 gm. per 100 cc. and in 90% alcohol, 5.55 gms. per 100 cc. 

According to Wester and Bruins (1914) 100 gms. trichloroethylene dissolve 
0.013 gm. aloin at 15^ 



31 



ALUMDHUM BBOBODE 



ALUMINIUH BBOMIDX AlBri. 



SOLUBTLTTY IN SEVERAL ORGANIC SOLVENTS. 
(Menachutkin, 1909-10.) 

(Determiiiatioiis by Synthetic Method.) 





In Benzene. 






In Para Xylene. 




• GiiLs. AlBn per 






Gma. AIBn 


per 


i 


li*. xoo Gms. Sat. 


Solid Phue. 


r 


\ xoo Gms. Sat. SoUd Phaie. 




SoL 








SoL 




S-ym. pt 


CA 


14 m 


. pt. 





^C.B«(CH^« 


4S 


ID 


M 


12. s 




II.4 


f 


3 


20 


M 


10.2 


Eutec. 


2S 


AlBn+# QH<(CHi)t 


i.SEutec. 27.4 


(CA+AIBi^ 


20 




3S-7 


AlBi^ 


10 


35-3 


AIBn 


30 




47.2 


M 


20 


46.5 


M 


40 




61.2 


M 


30 


S9 


M 


so 




72.2 


« 


40 


70 


U 


60 




79.6 


« 


60 


83 


U 


80 




90.9 


M 


80 


91.2 


U 


90 




95. 4 


« 


90 


95-3 


U 


96 




100 


« 


96 


100 


M 












In Toluene. 






In Benzoyl Chloride. 

J* 




Gms. AlBa 


^ r 




Gms. AIBn 






f. 


per 100 Gna. SoKd Phue. t*. 


per xoo Gnu 


>. 


Solid Phase. 




Sit. SoL 






Sat. SoL 






-IS 


16. 1 AIBn 


- o-S 


m. pt. 







Ci&coa 





23.7 


- 2.5 




II. 7 




« 


10 


32.1 


- S 


Eutec. 


22.2 


C|HiOOa+AlBn.C|HiCOa 


20 


42s 


20 




33-7 




AlBn.C|&COa 


30 


56 


40 




42.6 




M 


40 


68.8 


60 




51.6 




M 


5° 


76. s 


80 




60.5 




M 


70 


87.2 


90 


m. pt. 


^S'S 




M 


90 


95-7 


80 




68.9 




« 


96 


100 " 


60 
30 




71.8 
7S-8 




« 
M 






7 


Eutec. 


78.8 


AIBn-CHiCOa+AIBri 






30 




80.6 




AIBn 






SO 




85.6 




M 






80 




93-2 




M 






96 




100 




a 



Reciprocal solubilities determined by the method of lowering of the freezing- 
point (see footnote, page i) are given by Kahlukow and Sachanow (1909) for 
mixtures of AlumlTiliim Bromida and each of the following compounds: ani- 
line, benzene, benzonitrile, methylbenzoate, p bromaniline, bromobenzene, 
methylene bromide, p dibromobenzene, dimethylaniline, diphenylamine, methyl- 
aniline, naphthaline, nitrobenzene,p yridine, toluene and p xylene. Similar data 
for mixtures of Aluminium Bromida and dimethylpyrone are given by Plot- 
nikow (1911)- 



ALUMINZUM BBOMIDE 

SoLUBiLiry OP Aluminium Bromidb in Sbvbeal Organic Solvents (Con.') 

(Determinatioiis by Synthetic Method.) 



In Benzopli 


lenone. 




In Ethylene BromideJ 


Cms. AlBnpa 


K 


Gms. AlBife 


... _ , , 
per 


t*. zoo Gm. Sat. 


Solid Phue. 




f. zooGm.Sat. SolidPhaaeJ 1 


■ 


SoL 






Sol. 


, 


48 m. pt 





(cja^^co 




10 m. pt. 


CABife 


4S 


12 


*• 




6 II. s 


It 


42 


19 


M 




2 21.3 


ff 


38 Eutec. 


24.7 


** +AlBn.(C>Hi)«C0 


— 2 Eutec. 29.7 


CABti+AlBn 


60 


30.9 


AlBn.(CiHi)tC0 




10 36.1 


AlRn 


80 


36.4 


w 




20 42 . I 


<f 


100 


42.2 


M 




30 48.7 


« 


120 


49 


M 




40 S6 


a 


130 


S3 


M 




SO 63.7 


« 


142 m. pt. 


S9-5 


M 




60 71.5 


M 


130 


64 


M 




70 79.1 


M 


100 


69 


« 




80 86.8 


M 


70 


72.2 


M 




90 94. S 


m 


SO 


74 


« 




96 100 


m 


38 Eutec. 


7S 


** +AIBII 






50 


78 


AlBo 








80 


88 


. M 








90 


93S 


m 








96 


100 


m 








In Nitrobenzene. 




In Chloronitrobenzene. 


Gms. AlBn pa 


« 




Gms. AIBciper 


. . . . ^ 


t*. zoo Gm. Sat. 


Solid Phase. 




t". zoo Gm. Sat. 


SoUd Phase. 




Sol. 






Sol. 




S.Sm.pt. 


QHiNOi 


32- 


5 m. pt. CiHiClNQi 





18 


If 


25 


21.8 " 




-s 


28.8 


M 


13- 


8 Eutec. 37.5 " +AlBi»u» C,HiClN0i 


-IS Eutec. 


42 


" +AlBn.C|Ha^0i 


30 


43 . 1 MBn^ C|H«ClN0i 





44-3 


AIBQ.C«IbN0i 


SO 


so. 3 


t0 


30 


49-4 


u 


70 


57.6 


« 


60 


S6.7 


M 


83- 


5m.pt. 62.9 


tt 


80 


63.6 


U 


70 


67 


M 


87 m. pt. 


68.4 


« 


40 


73-7 


« 

• 


80 


71.3 


« 


21 


Eutec. 77.5 


" +AlBia 


60 


73-9 


M 


40 


80.6 


AlBn 


40 


;6.4 


M 


60 


84 


« 


20 Eutec. 


78.9 


'* +AlBn 


80 


8S.6 


u 


40 


82.4 


AIBn 


90 


93-4 


u- 


60 


85.8 


u 


96 


100 


M 


80 


89.8 


M 








93 


96.6 


M 








96 


100 


M 









23 ALUMDHUM BBOMIDE 

SOLUBILITT OF AlUIONIUM BrOMIDB IN SEVERAL ORGANIC SOLVENTS (Con.). 

(Determinations by Synthetic Method.) 



In m Chloronitrobenzene. 

Cms. AlBnper 
t*. iooGms.Sat. Solid Phase. 
SoL 

44.5m.pt. O wCtHtONOi 

40 18.9 " 

35.5 EuteC. 27 . 8 "+AlBiw» CJEUONCh 

50 34.8 AIBn.111 Ci&CINOi 

70 44. S 

90 545 

103.5 m. pt. 62.9 

90 68.6 

70 73-4 

SO 77.3 

40 EuteC 79 . 1 " +AlBri 

60 82.2 AIBq 

80 87.1 

90 92.2 " 

95 9SI 

96 100 * 



H 



<f 



If 



M 



In p Chloronitrobenzene. 

Gma. AIBq per 
t*^ 100 Gma. Sat. Solid Phase. 
•SoL 

83 m. pt. O P C^ONOi 
80 9 " 

70 24.8 " 

60 EuteC. 36.6 " +AlBn.^ caciNOi 
80 45 . 6 AlBn.^ CAClNOi 

100 54.9 

115 m. pt. 62.9 •• 

100 66.8 

60 72.4 "* 

20 Eutec. 78 - +AiBft 

60 85.3 AlBn 

80 89.3 

93 95-4 

96 100 * 



In o Bromonitrobenzene. 



( 


Bm. AlBn l 


per 


r. 


loo GnH. Sat. SoUd Pfaiae. 




SoL 




38 m. pt. 


a 


.CiHiBtNOi 


30 


19.7 


U 


21 Eutec. 


30 


" +AlBnj> C«H4BrN0i 


40 


37-6 


A1Be»» CgHiBrNOi 


60 


45-3 


<€ 


80 


53 


II 


88.5 m. pt. 56.9 


II 


80 


59-7 


14 


60 


64.1 


M 


40 


68.6 


W 


24 Eutec. 


72 


"+AlBtt 


40 


7SS 


AlBn 


60 


79.8 


If 


80 


86.3 


(f 


93 


945 


«f 


96 


100 


a 



In m Bromonitrobenzene. 

, _-« , 

Gms. AlBn per 
t*. xoo Gms. Sat. Solid Phase. 

SoL 

54 m. pt. O MQHiBrNOh 

50 II. 6 " 

45 . 5 Eutec. 19 . 5 "+AlBft.» CaBrNOi 

60 25.5 AlBrs.« CiHiBrNOi 

80 34.5 

iio 49.5 

I22m.pt. 56.9 " 

IIO 61.6 ** 

80 69.2 " 

60 74.1 *• 

42 Eutec. 78 . 7 " +AIBn 

60 80.3 AlBn 

80 84.9 

93 93-6 

96 100 



M 



ff 



ALUmNIXIM BBOMIDE 24 

SCX^UBILITY OP AlUMINIITM BrOMIDB IN SEVERAL ORGANIC SOLVENTS (Can.). 

(Determinations by Synthetic Method.) 



In p Bromonitrobenzene. 



In p Nitrotoluene. 



Gnu. AlBr< L 


Der 


( 


Qms. AIBn 


Der 


■% 


t°. 100 Cms. Silt. Solid Phase. 


f. 


xooGins. Sat. 


Solid Phase. 




Sol. 






Sd. 






124.5 ni.pt 


. >.C«EtBrNOi 


S3.sm.pt. pcjEucHtsot 


119 


10 


« 


so 


10 


(( 




no 


25.2 


IC 


40 


313 


u 




98 Eutec. 


55-3 


"+AlBn.^C«H4BrN0i 


29 Eutec. 


46.1 


"+AlBi».^CJH4CffiN0» 


no 


39-7 


AlBife.^ CiHiBrNOi 


SO 


52.9 


AlBQ.^C»HiCH«NOh 


130 


48.7 


M 


80 


63 




M 


144 m. pt. 


56.9 


« 


88 m. pt. 


66 




« 


120 


65.5 


u 


80 


68. s 




M 


90 


70. S 


M 


5° 


74.3 




U 


60 


74.1 


a 


27 Eutec 


78.9 




" +AlBn 


45 Eutec 


76 


"+AlBn 


SO 


83.3 




AIBn 


60 


79.6 


AIBn 


70 


87.7 




M 


80 


86.6 


M 


8S 


92.2 




M 


93 


95-4 


a 


93 


96.7 




M 


96 


100 


« 


96 


100 




« 



In m Nitrotoluene. 



Gms. AIBn 
t*. per zoo Gms. 
Sat. SoL 



Solid Phase. 



16 m. pt. o 
12 14. s 
8 21.8 
I Eutec. 32 
20 38. s 
40 46.6 
80 S9-7 
90 63.3 
96 m. pt. ^6 
90 68.8 
60 73.8 
27 Eutec. 78.9 
40 82 
70 89 

90 95 -3 
96 100 



CcHiCHiNOi 



ft 



M 



■> r 



In Nitrotoluene. 



f. 



Gms. AlBrs 

per xoo Gms. 

Sat. Sol. 



SoUd Phase. 



"+AIBQ.111 CHiCHiNOi 
AlBn.« CACHiNOi 



— 8.S m. pt. 

— II Eutec. 
10 

30 
40 



u 



" +A1BQ 
AIBn 



M 



tt 



42. s Eutea 47.7 



O « C«HiCHiNOi 

8 . 7 <*+AIBn.2aC»HiCH«N0i 
12.8 AIBn.3aC«HcCHiN0i 
24.8 " 

38. 



60 

7S 

90 m. pt. 

70 

40 

19 Eutec. 

40 

70 

90 

96 



543 

595 
66 

72 

76.1 

79.1 

82. s 

87. S 
93.8 
100 



'+AIBnMC«HiCH^Oi 
AlBnuv CHiCHsNOh 



M 



"+AIBQ 
AIBn 



u 



25 



ALUMINIUM CHLORIDE 



ALUMDHUM CHLOBIDE A1C1<.6H,0. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Gerlach — Z. anal. Ch. 8, 350, '69.) 

100 gms. saturated solution contain 41.13 gms. AlCU at i5^Sp. Gr. of solu- 
tion » 1.354- 

SOLUBfLITT OF AlUMINIITM ChLORIDB IN SEVERAL ORGANIC SOLVENTS. 

(Maiachutkln, 1909.) 

(Determinations by Synthetic Method.) 



In Nitrobenzene. 


In 


Chloronitrobenzene. 

a 


Gn». AlCb 






Gms. AlCb 


% 


t*. per xoo Gms. 


Solid Phase. 


r. 


per xoo Gms. 


Solid Phase. 


Sat.SoL 






SaLSoL 




5.Sm. pt. C«HiNOi 


32 . 5 m. pt. » c^ONOi 


2Eutec. 10.3 • 


• +Aiaa.2CHiN0i 


27 


10.2 " 




15 18 AlOs-aC^HsNOi 


21 


16. 1 " 




25.5 Eutec 30.5 ' 


• +Aiai.C,H,N0, 


15 Eutec 


20.3 " 


+AlCb.0C«H4ClNOi 


45 34.2 


AlCb-CHiNOi 


35 


25.5 AlCb.a CeHcONOi 


65 395 


(f 


SS 


3IS 


u 


85 48 


If 


75 


38.7 


u 


90 m. pt. 52 


it 


89 m. pt. 


459 


u 


82 55. 6 


M 


80 


SI 


u 


72 58 


M 


69 Eutec. 


544 


"+AlCb 


52£utec 61.6 


"+A1C1, 


no 


S7S 


AlCb 


90 64 


AlCb 


ISO 


65.4 


<i 


130 67 . 7 


a 


175 


74.6 


M 


160 72.4 


w 


194 


100 


M 


180 80.1 


u 








194 100 


M 








Iniff Chloronitrobenzene. 


• 

In p Chloronitrobenzene. 


Gms. AlCb 


\ 




Gms. AlCb 


■ -■ > 


t*. per xoo Qua. 


SoFid Phase. 


f. 


per xoo GiQs. 


Solid Phase. 


Sat,SoL 






Sat. Sol. . 




44.5111. pt.O mCcHcCINOi 


83 .5 m. pt. ^CeHiONOi 


44 10.7 « 




78 


7.1 " 




36£utec. 16.6 "+Aici..iiiC»ciNOi 


73 


li2.8 " 




50 21 AlCb jn CiHidNOi 


68 Eutec. 


17. 1 " 


+AlCb.^CJH4ClN0i 


70 28.3 


u 


80 


22.2 AlCb.^C4H<aN0i 


90 36.8 


M 


100 


314 


M 


IQ4m.pt 45.9 


M 


120 


41.8 


« 


90 52.4 


fl 


126 m. pt. 


45-9 


(€ 


81 Eutec. 55.6 


"+AlCb 


no 


53-2 


U 


120 60 


AlCb 


94 Eutec 


58.1 


"+AlCb 


140 64.1 


.11 


125 


60.5 


AlCb 


160 70.2 


« 


^SS 


66.9 


(f 






180 


77.7 


« 






190 


88.2 


M 






194 


100 


<l 



The solubility of aluminium chloride in anhydrous hydrazine is stated by 
Weldi and Broderson (19 15) to be i.o gm. in 100 cc. at room temperature. 



ALUMINIUM CBLOBIDI 



26 



Solubility in Several Organic S(x.vbnts (Can.), 
(Determinatioiis by Synthetic Method.) 



In Bromonitrobenzene. 



In m Bromonitrobenzene. 





Gnu. AlCk 




Gma-AlOs 


» 


f . per ue Cm. Solid Phi«. 


t*. per xoo Gms. 


Solid Phue. 




S«t.SoL 




SatSoL 




38.S 





CHiBrNOi 


54.7 - 


CHarNOi 


32 


7-S 


If 


SI 6.S 


u 


a6 


13 I 


M 


47 Eutec. II. 9 


"+AlCbjiiCiHiBrNOi 


2o£utec 


I7S 


''+AlCb^CiH4BrN0i 


60 16 


AlCb4»QHiBrN0ft 


40 


21.7 


AlCW CiHiBrNOft 


80 22.9 


«f 


60 


26.4 


€« 


100 30.7 


M 


80 


31-7 


M 


"o 35-9 


M • 


97 m. pt 


38 


fl 


116 m. pt. 39.8 


U 


100 


39-8 


M 


113 42.3 


M 


90 


44.6 


U 


107 44. S 


m 


SoEutec. 


46. s 


" +Aiai 


97 Eutec 47.4 


«+AlCb 


no 


SOI 


Aid, 


120 51.5 


AlCb 


130 


541 


a 


140 56.5 


M 


150 


60. a 


M 


160 64.5 


« 


170 


70 


M 


180 77.4 


<t 


180 


77-4 


« 


190 88.8 
197 100 


« 
• 



In p Bromonitrobenzene. 



In Nitrotoluene. 



Gnu. Aids 
f*. per xoo Gms. 
SaLSoL 



Solid Phue. 



124.5 m. pt.O #CiHiBrNQi 
117 7.4 " 

III 12.8 " 

loS 177 " 

99 Eutec. 22 . 2 

120 28.4 

140 36 .4 

14Sm.pt. 39.8 

140 44.5 

120 51.2 

113 Eutec. 52.8 

130 SS-9 

150 61 .3 

180 77.4 

190 88.8 



Gms. AlCb 
t^. per xoo Gms. 
Set.SoL 



Solid Phase. 



— 8.5 m. pt. O «C«HiCHsNOfe 

— 9.3 Eutec I "+AlCU.acC,HiCHiNO* 
O I.5AlCb.atfC»HiCHsN0i 

20 4 " 



"+Aia..# Cill«BrNOi 


40 II 


M 


AlOs-^C^HiBrNOft 


SS Eutec 31 


" +AlCUu» QHiCHiNO* 


M 


Ss 41.8 


AlCW CcHiCHsNOft 


M 


95.Sm. pt.49.3 


M 


U 

1 


70 S6.8 


M 


<( 


45 Eutec. 61. s 


••+Aiat 


•*+Aiat 


9S 64.5 


AlCb 


AlOi 


I4S 73-7 


M 


u 


180 86.2 


M 


M 


185 89. s 


M 


«f 


194 100 


« 



u 



194 100. o 

One liter sat. solution of Aid in CCI4 contains 0.74 gm. at 4^, 0.22 gm. at 14% 
0.15 gm. at 20^ and 0.06 gm. at 34^. 

One liter sat. solution of AlGa in CHGs contains 0.65 gm. at —15^1 i.o gm at 



o"* and 0.72 gm. at 25^ 



(Lloyd, X9x80 



27 



ALUMINZUM C#HLOBIDE 



SOLtTBILITT IN SEVERAL ORGANIC SOLVENTS (CoH.). 

(Determinations by Synthetic Method.) 



In m Nitrotoluene. 



In ^ Nitrotoluene. 





GmB. AlCh 






Gms. AlCls 




t*. per loo Gma 


. Solid Phase. 




t^. perzoo Gms. 


Solid Phase. 




SatSoL 






Sat. Sol. 




i6 m. pt« 


m 


CiHiCHtNOi 


53.5m.pt. ^(VEtCHiNOk 


13 Eutec 


7.8 - 


+AICI1.3111 CiHiCHiNOi 


47 


9.2 " 




27 


13 .4 Aiaa.2m c^casot 


42 


15 " 




35 Eutec. 


24. 5 " 


' +A]Cb.iiiC»HiCEbNOi 


37 


Eutec. 19 "+A1CU.^CACH,N0, 


6S 


34 


AIOmkCHiCHiNOi 


55 


29.1 AlCli.^ C«HiCH,NOi 


90 


44.2 


a 


80 


34.8 


M 


95 


46.7 


u 


95 


41.3 


M 


Q9.Sm.pt. 49.3 


M 


109 


m. pt. 49.3 


« 


70 


56.8 


t€ 


100 


53.4 


« 


45 Eutec 


61. s 


"+Aiat 


60 


61.7 


M 


9S 


64. S 


AlCb 


45 


Eutec. 64 


^+Aiai 


120 


68.2 


M 


los 


69.5 


AlCb 


130 


70.2 


« 


165 


80 


M 








190 


94.3 


M 








194 


100. 


« 


In Benzophenone. 




In Benzoyl Chloride. 




Gnu. AlCls 




Gms. AlCb 


^ 


r. 


per xoo Gma. Solid Phaie. 




t*. per 100 Gms. Solid Phase. 




Sat. SoL 






Sat.Sol. 


• 


48 m. pt. 


{ 


:cw)«co 


— 0. 


; m. pt. CiHiCoa 


44 


8.5 


ft 


-4 


7.9 


M 


39.5 Eutec- 15.4 


" +Aiai(CH«)«co 


—7.5 Eutec. 12.7 


" +Aicu.cH.coa 


60 


19.3 


AlClt.(C«Hi)tCO 





14. 1 


Aiai.CiHiCoa 


90 


26. s 


M 


20 


18.8 


M 


120 


37 


a 


40 


25 


M 


130 m. pt. 


42.3 


u 


60 


33 


« 


no 


48.8 


M 


80 


42.2 


« 


80 


53-5 


M 


93m.pt. 48.7 


M 


60 Eutec. 


56.1 


**+Aiai 


80 


52.9 


a 


100 


58 


AlCb 


60 


57.2 


« 


140 


63 


u 


40 


61 


m 


160 


68.6 


« 








180 


78:5 


« 








190 


89.1 


M 








192 


93 


u 








194 


100 


« 









ALmmVIUM FLUOBTOE AlF.. 

Fusion-point data (Solubility, see footnote, page l) are given by Pushin and 
Baskov (1913) for the following mixtures: 

AlF, + NaF, AlF, + KF, AlF, + LiF, AlF, + CsF, AlF, + RbF. 

Similar data for mixtures of AlF, + NaF are given by Fedotieff and lUjinsky 
(1913). 



ALUMIIIIUM HYDROXIDE 



28 



4L17MI1IIUM HTDBOXIDE Al(OH)t. 

SCX^UBILITY OF MoiST FrSSHLY PREaPITATBD ALUMINnTM HTDROXIDB IN 

Aqueous S(H«utions of Aluminium Sulphate. 

(Krenunn and HQttinger, 1908.) 



Results at 20' 



Results at 40^ 



Cms. per 100 Gms. H«0. 



Solid Phase. 



u 



AkCSOO*. Al(0H)i. 

2 .37 0.15 AIsOs-SOs-qHsO 

S 030 

7 0.6s 

9.1 1 .30 Transition Point 

10 1.23 AIA2SQ8.12H9O 

IS I 04 

20 I .40 

25 2.40 

30 3.70 

31.6 4 . 20 Transition Point 

33 2.7s Al«Oi.3SQ».i6HaO 

34.73 0.92 " 



Gma. per icx> Gms. HgQ . 
A1,(S04)^ 
5.22 



Solid Phase. 



(I 
tt 

tt 
It 



Al(0H)s. 
1.33 Al2O8.SOa.9H2O 

. . .* Transition Point 

8.85 1.82 Al202.2S08l2H«0 

10 1.65 

IS I .40 

20 2.15 

25 3 80 

28 . s 5 . 80 Transition Point 

30 4. 35 Al,Os.3SO«.i6H20 

35 1.60 

49 0.60 '' 

Results at 60".! 



U 



Gms. per 100 Gms. I^. 



Solid Phase. 



* The figuies given are not niffident to deters 
mine this transition point accurately. 

t The author's figures for 60* are reproduced 
without change as th^ are not sufficient to deter- 
mine transition points. 



it 



AliCSOO*. Al(0H)i. 
3 . 24 0.75 AlsOs.SOs.9H2O 

8.83 2.53 AISO3.2SO8.I2H2O 

12.67 1.85 

24.07 3.14 

31.55 4.89 

42.38 6.02 Al20a.3S08.i6H20 
.49.85 1.42 " 

Solubility of Aluminium Hydroxidb in Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide 

Solutions. (Haber and van Oordt, r904.) 

The mixtures were agitated for 24 hours. So-called acetic acid soluble Umerde 
(E. Merdc) was used for the experiments. Temp. 20^-23^. 

Normality of Aq. NaOH. Gms. AkOi per Liter. 

0.49 9.27 

0.99 13.90 

2.00 14.40 

Solubility op Aluminium Hydroxide in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium 

Hydroxide. (Herz, 1911; Slade, 191Z and I9XS-) 

The experiments show that the ratio of Na to Al in the solution varies con- 
siderably depending upon whether the used Al hydroxide was precipitated hot 
or cold, also upon the length of time it was dried and upon the nature of the 
drying agent. Herz found a nearly constant ratio of 3 Na to i Al in solution. 
Slade gives ratios of approximately 2.5 : i in normal NaOH at 25^ for cold pre- 
cipitated hydroxide dned over HtSOi and 9.0 : i for hot precipitated Al hydroxide 
dried over PsOs. Drying in thin layers also increased this ratio but to a some- 
what less extent. Slade reports the solubility of Al(OH)t in a 0.6414 normal 
NaOH solution to be 1.34 gm. per 100 cc. at room temperature. 

ALUmNIXIM OXmE AltOt. 

Fusion-point lowering data for mixtures of aluminium oxide and cryolite are 
given by Lorenz, Jabs and Eitel (1913). The results show one eutectic at ap- 
proximately 940^. The eutectic mixture contains 19.8% AlsOs. 

Results for aluminium oxide and magnesium oxide are given by Rankin and 
Merwin (1916). 



29 ALUMimUM SULFATE 

ALUMINIUM SULFATE Als(SO«)t.i8HtO. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Posgiok, XS43; Kremum aad HQttinger, 1908.) 

*•• f^cSi^'Sf SoMPhu.. V. '^clJlf^'irLSoUdPbue. 

- 1.02 8.09 Ice 20 26.7 Ali<SO0a.x8aO 

- 1.43 10.7 " 30 28.8 

-2.04 14 -3 " 40 31 -4 

- 2.6s 17 S " so 34-3 

— 2.85 19.2 " 60 37.2 

- 4 EuteC. 23.1 Ice + Al«(SO.)«.x8HiO 70 39.8 

o . 23.8 Aii(soo«.x8ao 80 42.2 
+ 7-73 24.8 " 90 44.7 
10 25.1 " 100 47.1 " 

SCH^UBILITY OF AlUMINIITM SULFATB IN AQUBOUS SOLUTIONS OF FBRRIC 

Sulfate at 25^ and Vice Versa. (Wiith and Bakke, 19x4) 

Cms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. «,.«*.. • Gvaa,. per xoo Cms. Sat. Sol. ^ ,. , _ 

, * » Solid Phase. < . * ■» Solid Phase. 

AlKSOOa. • Fei(SO0«. AU(SOi)i. Fe«(SO0». 

27.82 O A]i<SO0a.i8HsO IO.O3 32.42 FeiCSOJi-gH^O 

26.01 6.064 " 8.819 34<^2 



24.21 9.819 " 6.626 3582 
21.64 13 02 " 5.200 38.83 

15.22 23.28 *' 2.342 42.44 
10.46 31-90 " +FeKS0«)i.9Hi0 ... 44-97 



€1 
<l 
(I 



Equiubrium between Aluminium Sulfate, Lithium Sulfate, and Water 

AT 30^. (Schreineiiiaker and De Waal, X906.) 

Gmpositian in Weight pa cent: 

/— — ■* \ Solid 

Of Solution. Of Residue. ^^ 



%Li,S04. %Al,(S04)i. %Ii«SO«. %Al,(S04)t. 

25 . 1 O • . . ' - . U^4.H^ 



u 
It 



21-93 S-34 

16.10 14.89 63.70 4. 02 

13.63 20.76 14.72 3II7 {^^^-g^.I^H^ 

13.24 21.71 61.24 7.22 U^SO».4HtO 

11.73 22.08 6.92 33 54 Al,(S04)i.x8HjO 

6.7s 24.34 3.77 37.06 

3 .44 26.12 • • • • . • '* 

Q.O 28 .0 - • • • • • " 

Solubility of Aluminium Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of Sulfuric 

Acm AT 25*. (Wirth, xgxa.) 

Gma. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. ^ ,..«,. Oma. per xoo Cms. Sat Sol. „ ...*.. 

4 '^ * > Solid Phase. < * > Solid Phase.' 

rSCsOoI HiSOi. ^'^w^™*- AWSOOt. HiSOi. ooua rMsc. 

27.82 O A]|(SOi)s.x8HiO 4.8 40 A]|<SO0a.x8IbO 

29.21 5.13 " 1.5 50 

26.2 10 " I 60 " 

19.5 20 " 2.3 70 

II. 6 30 " 4 75 

A curve was plotted from the published results and the above figures read 
from the curve. 
100 gms. glycol dissolve 16.82 gms. AltCSO^i. (de Coninck, 1905.) 

ALUMINIUM SULFIDE A1,S|. 
Fusion-point data for mixtures of AltSi + AgsS are given by Gimbi (1912). 



ALU1I8 
ALUMS. 



do 



SoLUBiLiTT OP Ammonium Alum and op Potassium Alum 

IN Water. 

(Mnkkr; Poggiale — Ann. diim. phys. [3] St 467. '43I Locke — Am.Ch. J.a6, 174. 'oi; Madno— 
GasB. chim. ital. 35, II. 35X1 '05; Berkeley — Thus. Roy. Soc. 303 A. 9x4, '04.) 



O 

S 
zo 

15 

20 

2S 

30 
40 

SO 
60 

70 

80 

90 

92 S 

9S 



Ammoninm Alum. 



Gms. 
Al.(l 



(NHJs Gms. (NH|)s G.M.Qmi)s 
:SO«)« Als(SO«)«a4H>0 A1s(SQ«)a 



per xoog. 



3.10 



3 
4 
6 

7 

9 
10 

14 

ao 

a6 



SO 
99 
2S 
74 
19 
94 
88 

10 
70 



109 



per 100 g. 
HsO. 



3 
6 

9 
12 

IS 

19 
32 

30 

44 
66 



90 

91 
S2 
66 

13 

19 
01 

92 

10 

65 



per xoog. 
HaO. 

0.0044 
OK>074 
0.0105 
0.0132 
0.0163 
0.0194 
0.0231 

0.0314 
0.0424 
0.0569 



Potasaittm Alum. 

■ A 



Gms.Ka 

A]«(Sq3« 

per xoo g. 

HaO. 

30 

35 
4.0 

S-o 

5-9 
7 23 

8.39 
11.70 

17.00 

24 -75 
40.0 

71.0 

109.0 

119. o 



Gms. Kf G. M. K| 

M^S0^4»aB^ AIsCSOJa 
per xoo g. per xoo g. 
HsO. « H«0. 

0.0058 
0.0068 
0.0077 
0.0097 
O.OII4 
0.0140 
0.0162 
0.0227 
0.0329 
0.0479 
0.0774 

0.1374 
0.2II0 
0.2313 



5-65 
6.62 

7.60 

9S9 
11.40 

14.14- 

16.58 

23 83 
36 40 

S7-3S 
110.5 

321.3 
2275.0 
00* 



00 



0.3313 



Note. — The potassitun alum figures in the preceding table were 
taken from a curve plotted from the closely agreeing determinations of 
Mttlder, Locke, Berkeley, and Marino. For the higher temperatures 
(above 60°), however, the results of Marino are lower than those of 
the other investigators, and are omitted from the average curve. 

Locke called attention in his paper to the fact that Poggiale's results 
upon ammonitim and potassitun altun had evidently become inter- 
changed through some mistake. This explanation is entirely sub- 
stantiated, not only by Locke's determinations, but also by those of 
Mulder and Berkeley. The ammonium altim figures given above were 
therefore read from Poggiale's potassium alum curve, with which 
Locke's determination of the solubility of ammonium alum at 35^ is in 
entire harmony. 



Solubility op Ammonium Alum in Presence op Abimonium Sulpate and m 

Pkesbncb op Aluminium Sulpate in Watbr^ 



CRfldorff — Ber. i8» izte, '85.) 



Mixture Used. 



zoo Gms. Saturated Solutioii Contain: 



Saturated Ammonium Alum at 18.5^ . . . . 
30 CO. above sol. -h 6 gms. cryst. Ala(S04), . 
3o cc. above sol. + 4 gms. cryst. (NH«)2S04. 



Gnias (NH0^SO4 + Grams Ala(SOi)». 
. . 1.43 3.69 



0.4s 
30.81 



16.09 
0.39 



31 



ALUMS 



Solubility of Mixtures op Potassium Alum and Aluminium Sulfate 
AND OF Potassium Alum and Potassium Sulfate in Water. 



(Marino — Gam. cfaim. itaL 35. H. 351. '05.) 



*•. 


Cms. per looe 


Oms. HsO. 


Gm. Mob. per 1000 Mob. Eb 


V 


Ala(Sa0s.i8HaO. 


KaSd«. 


A]a(S04)s.i8HsO 


. KtSO«. 





243-73 


23-45 


6.1 


^'3 


30 


824.25 


30.85 


iS-i 


3-1 


35 


911.02 


35-29 


24.1 


3-6 


SO 


1243-21 


S9-SS 


33 S 


6.1 


65 


159^ 00 


"9-43 


43-1 


12.6 


77 


1872 . II 


183.80 


So-5 


18.9 





5.06 


75-83 


0.1 • 


7.8 


o-S 


8.66 


75-18 


0.2 


7-7 


S- 


16.07 


85.78 


0.4 


8.8 


10 


18.52 


96.50 


0.5 


9-9 


IS 


20. 56 


109.30 


0-55 


II. 2 


30 


39 60 


147.8 


I.O 


15-2 


40 


73.88 


163. 1 


1.9 


16.8 


so 


126.0 


195-4 


3-4 


20.1 


60 


249-7 


238.8 


6.7 


24.6 


70 


529. 


323-7 


14.2 


32.6 


3o 


1044 


517-27 


28.1 


S3 -4 



Solid 
Phase. 



K^(S0,),.a4H,O 
+ AI,(SO0. 



it 



ii 



ii 



€i 



K^(SO0,.34H,O 



it 
it 
U 

u 
ii 
ti 
it 
u 
u 



Solubility of Mixtures of Potassium Alum and of Thallium 

Alum in Water at 25**. 

(Fock — Z. Kryst. Min. aS, 397, '97.) 

K^(S0J,.24H,0; T1^(S0J,.24H,0. 



ComporidaQ of Solution. 



KAKS0«)9 per Liter. 



Grams. 
69.90 

74 56 
67.90 

65 30 

64 95 
53-23 
45 32 
38.0a 

34-54 

28.3s 

10.94 

o 



Big. Mols. 

270.5 
288.2 
262.8 
252.7 

251-4 
205.9 

175-4 
147-2 

^33^ 
109.7 

42.4 

0-0 



'nAl(S04>i per Uter . 
Grains. Mg. Mols'. 



0.00 
0.48 
1.72 

452 

9.60 

18.44 

24.60 

32.48 

35-59 

42.99 
66.12 

75 46 



0.00 

1-13 
4.07 

10.67 

22.67 

43 56 
58.10 

76.75 
84.10 

101.60 

156.2 

178.3 



Mol.% 
KAl(S04)a. 

100 
99.61 
98.48 

95-95 
91-73 
82.54 
75-" 

65-73 
61.36 

51-93 

21.34 

0.00 



Sp. Gr. of 
SolutioDs. 



0591 
0601 

0598 

0603 

0605 

0609 

0609 

0611 

0611 

0623 

0654 

0674 



Sdid Phase 

Mol.% of 

PoCaaaium 

Alum. 

100. 

9932 
96.84 

90.84 

82.94 

68.24 

58.23 
46.72 

4423 

32 07 

7-94 
0.00 



Data for the influence of pressure on the solubility of potassium alum in 
water at o** are given by Stackelberg, 1896. 
Data for the solubility of Rubidium Aliuns are given on p. 582. 



ALU1I8 



32 



SoLUBiLiTT OP Sodium Alum in Water. 

(Smith, 1909.) 
Cms. NaaAli(S04)« per xoo Cms. 



* . 


Sat. Sol. 


Water. 


10 


26.9 


36.7 


15 


27.9 


38.7 


20 


29 


40.9 


25 


301 


431 


30 


31 -4 


45-8 



f. 


Gms.NaiAl>(SO0 


1.34H1O per 100 Cms 


Sat. Sol. 


Water. 


10 


S0.8 


103. 1 


IS 


52-7 


III. 3 


20 


54-8 


121 .4 


25 


56 -9 


131. 8 


30 


59-4 


146.3 



Above 30^, sodium alum is decomposed in contact with its saturated solution. 
The exact temperature of transition has not been determined. 

Single determinations differing from the above are given by Tilden (1884) 
and by Auge (1890). 

Solubility op Caesium Alum, Rubidium Alum, and op Thallium 

Alum in Water. 







Roy. 


Soc. ao3 A, 915, '04.) 


'» •w^I 'V 








Caesium Alum. 


Rubidium Alum. 


Thallium Alum. 


t* 


Gms. per 100 


Gms. H2O. 


Gms. per 100 Gms. H2O. 


Gms. per 100 


Gms. H3O. 


• . 


AlsCsa(S04)4. 


Al2Cs2(SO;)4 
.34HsO. 


AlaRbs(S04)4. 


Al,Rbs(SO;)« 
.34HsO. 


AlsTlaCSGJ^. 


AlaTI,<S04)* 

.34H20. 





0.21 


0.34 


0.72 


1. 21 


315 


4.84 


s 


0.25 


0.40 


0.86 


1.48 


3- 


80 


5-86 


10 


0.30 


0.49 


1.05 


1. 81 


4- 


60 


7.12 


20 


0.40 


0.65 


1.50 


2-59 


6. 


40 


10.00 


25 


0.50 


0.81 


1.80 


3" 


7- 


60 


"•95 


30 


0.60 


0.97 


2.20 


3 82 


9- 


38 


14.89 


40 


0.85 


1.38 


3-25 


5-69 


14. 


40 


23 -57 


50 


1.30 


2. II 


4.80 


8.50 


22. 


so 


38 41 


60 


2.00 


3 27 


7.40 


13 36 


35- 


36 


65.19 


70 


3.20 


527 


12.40 


23 25 


• I 


• 


• • • 


80 


5 40 


9 01 


21.60 


43 25 


• fl 


« 


• • • 


90 


10.50 


18. II 


... 


• . • 


• ■ 


■ 


• • • 


100 

Tk.T 


22.70 
/-* 


42.54 

4 M 


• . * 

J •• # A 


... 
« * < 


■ 1 


1 • 

4 


• « • 



Note. — Curves were plotted from the closely agreeing determina- 
tions recorded by the above named investigators and the table con- 
structed from the curves. 

Recent determinations of the solubility of caesium alum in water, by Hart 
and Huselton (1914), agree well with the data in the above table. For addi- 
tional caesium sdums see page 180. 

SoLUBiLrTY OF Ammonium Chromium Altmi in Water. 

(Koppel, 1906.) 

It was shown that, due to the transition between the violet and ^preen forms 
of the compound, the saturation point is reached very slowly, especially at the 
higher temperatures. From the determinations at o it was found that equi- 
librium is reached in 2} hours. If this saturation time is taken for the other 
temperatures, the results are considered to show the solubility of the violet 
form alone. The final saturation represents the attainment of an equilibrium 
between the violet and green forms. 



Results for the Violet Form. 



Results for Final Equilibrium. 



o 

30 
40 



Time of Gms. 

Saturation, (NH«) Cr (S0«)s 

Hra. Iter zoo Gms. Sol. 

2-5 3-8 

2.5 10.6 

2-5 ^5S 



f. 


Time of 

Saturation, 

Hra. 





2.5 


30 


300 


40 


250 



Gms. 

(NH^)Cr(S0dt 

pa zoo Gms. SoL 

3-8 
15-7-16 
24.5-24.8 



53 



AMMONIA 



AMMOHIA NH,. 



Solubility op Ammonia in Water. 

— Liebig's AniuJen, xia, 334, '59; Raoolt — Ann. chim. [5] x, s6a, '74; 
Am. Ch. J. xgb 807, '97^ 





At j6o nm. 


Pressure* 


t\ 


per xoog. 


• Pressure* 


♦•. 


C. NH« 
per xoog. 
HsO. 


Vol.Nfit 
per X g. 


Vol.NI^ 
HsO. 


-^40 
-30 

—20 


294.6 
278.1 
176.8 


• • • 

• • • 

• • • 


20 
30 


52.6 
46.0 

40. 3 


710 
635 

595 (a*? 


— 10 


iii-S 


• • • 


35 


35 5 







87s 


"99 


40 


307 




5 


775 


1019 


45 


27.0 




10 
15 


67.9 
60.0 


910 
802 


SO 
S6 


22.9 
18.5 





SoLUBiLrnr of Ammonia in Water Determined by Method op Lowering of 

Freezing-Point. 

(Rupert, 19x0.) 



r 


°«G^S: Solid Phu.. 


M Gms. NHaper 
* xoo Gms. SoL 


Solid Phase. 





lee 


-80.6 52 


NHiH^ 


- 2 


2 


-82.8 54 


If 


- 4.6 


4 


-85.8- 56 


f« 


- 7.6 


6 


—87 Eutec. 56.5 N 


H».Hi0+3NH^Hi 


- 10.6 


8 


-84.8 58 


aNHiH^ 


- 13-9 


10 


—82.2 60 


(1 


- 17.6 


12 


—80,4 62 


M 


- 21.4 


14 


-79.2 64 


M 


- 25.8 


16 


— 79.8 m. pt. 66 


U 


- 31.3 


18 


— 79.2 68 


U 


- 37 


20 


-80.3 70 


M 


- 43-6 


22 


—82.1 72 


M 


- SO-7 


24 


-84.5 74 


M 


- 60.3 


26 


-87.4 76 


a 


— 72.2 


28 


-90.4 78 


M 


- 87.2 


30 


—93.6 80 


II 


-102.3 


32 


—94 Eutec. 80.3 


sNH^H^+NHi 


— 116. 7 


34 


—91.7 82 


NHi 


— 120 


EuteC. 34.5 Ice+NHiIM 


> -89.4 84 


M 


-103.8 


36 NHiHaO 


-87.4 86 


M 


- 92.9 


38 


-85.6 88 


M 


- 86.7 


40 


—84.1 90 


M 


- 83.5 


42 


—82.7 92 


M 


- 81.4 


44 


-81. s 94 


a 


- 80 


46 


-80.3 96 


M 


- 79-3 


48.7 


-79.1 98 


M 


- 79-4 


50 


— 78 100 


(• 


More recent data on the above 


system, by Smits and Postma (1914) an 
in the region of the eutectic Ice + NHtHi< 


quite doeely with the above except 
These authors report a temperatun 


e of —100.3 instead of —120 for this poir 



Additional determinations are also given by Baum6 and Tykociner (1914). Older 
data for the ice curve axe given by Guthne (1884) and Pickering (1893). 



AMMONIA 34 

Vapor Pressure of Aqueous Ammonia Solutions. 

(Pennan, 1903.) 



i.NHapet 
Gns. SoL 






Vapor Prssur in mm 


. of Meicaiy at: 




'o-. 


lO*. 


»•. 


30*. 


*>•. 


so*. 


6o*. 





4-5 


9 


175 


31 5 


55 


125 


149-5 


2-5 


13 


18 


325 


56-5 


91 


146 


234 


5 


20 


27 


47-5 


83 


1345 


210 


327 


75 


275 


40 


70 


"S 


183-5 


281 


425 


10 


35 


54 


93 


153 -5 


241 -5 


363-5 


539-5 


"•5 


45 


69 


118 


193 S 


303-5 


455 


666 


IS 


57-5 


89 


151 


245 


377-5 


564 


816. s 


17s 


75 


"5 


191 


305-5 


465.5 


688. s 


985 


20 


93 


144 


237 


393 


569-5 


834-5 


II9I 


22.5 


117 


180. s 


291 


455 S 


690 


1005 


1432 


25 


1445 


226.5 


360 


561 5 


830.5 


"95 


• • • 


27-S 


181 


280 


440 


680 


1007 


■ « • 


• • ■ 


30 


222 


346 


537 


817 


1189.5 


• • • 


• ■ • 



The apparatus (Perman, 1901) used for the above determinations, consisted 
of a pipet provided with a stop-cock at its upper end and connected with a 
Hg leveling tube at its lower end. For maintaining constant temperatures the 
vessel was surrounded by a glass jacket into which water or vapors of liquids 
boiling at various temperatures could be introduced. The aqueous ammonia 
solution was drawn in above the Hg and boiled to expel air. A portion of it 
was withdrawn for analysis through the stop-cock at the top, by elevating the 
level of Hg. The vapor pressures of the analyzed mixture at various constant 
temperatures were then read with the aid of an adjacent millimeter scale. Curves 
were plotted from the results and readings for r^;ular intervals of conceatratioa 
and temperature made. 

By means of a modification of the above apparatus the author was also able 
to estimate the partial pressure of the ammonia and of the water of each mix- 
ture. Tables for these values are given. Data have also been calculated for 
the latent heat of evaporation of aqueous ammonia solutions. 

Influence of Salts and Other Compounds on the Vapor Pressure of 

Aqueous Ammonia Solutions. 

(E. G. PenoAH, J. Cbem. Soc. (Load.)* 81, 480, 1903.) 

Vapor pressure determinations were made as above described on aqueous 
solutions of the following compositions — (a) io.J.3% Urea -|- 16.36% NH|, 
(W 5.29% Urea + 17.22% NH,, (c) 4.56% Mannitol -f 12.27% NH,, (d) 3.05% 
Kj^4 + 7.49% NH,, (e) 5.27% NH4CI + 16.85% NH,, (/) 10.26% NrflCl 
+ 12.9% NH,, {g) 2.68% CUSO4 -f 14.65% NH,, (h) 3.94% CUSO4 -f 6.54% 
NH,. 

The author's data were plotted on cross section paper and the following values 
read from the curves. 

t*. Vapor Presare of Eadi Solution in mm. of Mefcmy. 





(a) 


(») 


ic) 


W 


(•) 


(f> 


(0 


W 


20 


204 


200 


120 


• • • 


193 


130 


iSS 


• ■ • 


30 


325 


3^S 


198 


• • « 


302 


320 


235 


87 


40 


48s 


500 


3" 


200 


471 


34S 


36s 


145 


so 


71S 


727 


46s 


304 


695 


522 


545 


223 


60 


1050 


1060 


70s 


453 


97S 


770 


• • • 


344 



In an earlier paper Perman (1901) gives data similar to the above for the 
vapor pressure of ammonia in aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate. 



35 



AlfMONIA 



Mutual Solubilitt of Aqubous Ammonia and Potassium Carbon- 

ATB Solutions. 

(Newth — J. Chem. Soc. 77f 776f zgoo.) 

The solutions used were: Potassitim Carbonate satrirated at 25® 
(contained 57.2 grams KsCO, per 100 cc). Aqueous Ammonia of 
0.885 ^P- ^i*- (contained about 33 per cent ammonia). The determina- 
tions were made by adding successive small quantities of one of the 
solutions to a measured volume of the other, and observing the point 
at which opalescence appeared. 



SKtanted K«CX)!i in Aq. Ammonia. 



cc KiCOftper 
100 oc 



DCH per %K^Cb Sohitiaii 
Ammonia* m Auxtnre. 



Aq. Ammonia in Sataiated KKX)!i. 

cc. Ammonia %K«COs Soludon 
in 100 cc. KfCOa. in Mixture. 



I 

6 
zz 

16 

dz 
26 

31 
38 
39 
42 
43 



a.o 
30 
S-o 

6.S 
10. s 

20.0 

31 .0 

25 o 
35 o 



a.o 
30 

4-7 
6.1 

8.0 

95 
II. I 

16.6 

17.0 

20.0 

26.0 



37 S 

47 S 

S^S 
60.0 

77 S 
105.0 

152.5 
195.0 

220.0 

250.0 

285.0 



72.7 
67.6 
65.0 
63 

56-3 
49.0 

39 o 

33 o 

31 o 

38.5 

26.5 



Above 43® the solutions are completely miscible. If 10 per cent of 
water is added to each solution the temperature of complete miscibility 
is lowered to 25^. The mutual solubilities are: 



Per cent K>CO» Sohition in: 

••. Ammonia KfCOs Sol. 

Layer. Layer. 

O 8 62 . 

10 II 52 

20 15 38 

25 (crit. pt.) 25 

With the addition of 12.9 percent of water to each solution the 
temperature of complete miscibility (crit. pt.) is lowered to 10**. With 
the addition of 18.1 per cent water this temperature becomes o^. 



Solubility of Ammonia in Aqueous Salt Solutions. 

(RaonltO 



o 

8 

z6 

a4 



In Catdom Nitrate Solutiont 

Gms.NHsper loo 

Cms. Solvent in: 



••• cMi. ^^^ 



96.25 
78.50 
65.00 



104.5 
84.7s 
70.5 



In Potaainm H 
Gma. 
Gma. 



'iS 



g? 



72.0 

57 o 
46.0 

37 3 




The ffeezing-point curve for mixtures of ammAnia and ammonium thiocyanate 
given by Bradley and Alexander (1912). 



AlfMONIA 



36 



Solubility op Ammonia in Aqueous Salt Solutions at 25^ 

(Abegg and Riesenfeld, 190a.) 

The determinations were made by the dynamic method of vapor pressure 
measurement previously used by Doyer (1890), Konowalow (1898), Gahl (1900), 
and Gaus (1900). It consists in passing an indifferent gas through an aqueous 
ammonia solution of known concentration and calculating the vapor pressure 
from the volume of indifferent gas required to remove a definite amount of 
ammonia from solution. The indiflFerent gas (H + O) was generated by an 
electric current and its volume measured by means of a voltmeter. The accom- 
panying ammonia was removed by passing through o.oi n. HCl and estimated 
by means of electrolytic conductivity. The molecular vapor pressure was 
obtained by dividing the absolute vapor pressure, calculated from above meas- 
urements, by the concentration (normality) of the ammonia. For i n. am- 
monia in water at 25® the molecular vapor pressure was 13.45 mm. Hg; for 
0.5 n. solution it was 13.27 mm. Hg. 

Since it has been shown by much experimental evidence, that Henry's Law of 
the proportionality of the concentration in the liquid and vapor phase applies 
very closely in the present case, see also Gaus (1900), it follows that the am- 
monia pressure relation of two solutions of equal ammonia content is recipro- 
cally proportional to the solubility relation of the ammonia in them. Hence, 
to odculate the solubility from the vapor pressures, it is only necessary to divide 
the value for the molecular vapor pressure in HsO by that for the salt solution. 
Thus the solubility of NH« in HsO becomes unity. All determinations were 
made with i n. aqueous ammonia in salt solution of 0.5, i and 1.5 normality. 
The figures therefore show mols. NH« per liter of the particular salt solution at 
25^. In a later paper by Riesenfeld (1903), additional determinations are given 
for 35^ 



Salt 


M0IS.NH1 


per Liter Salt Sol. of: 


Salt 


Mols. NH] 


1 per Liter Salt Sol. of: 


Solution. 


0.5 n. 


X n. 


Z.5 n. 


Solution. 


0.5 n. 


X n. 


X.5 n. 


KCl 


0.930 


0.866 


0.809 


KCN 


0.926 


0.858 


0.802 


KBr 


0.950 


0.904 


0.857 


KCNS 


0.932 


0.868 


0.814 


KI 


0.970 


0.942 


0.900 


KjSO* 


0.87s 


0.772 


0.678 


KOH 


0.852 


0.716 


0.607 


K2SQ, 


0.865 


0.768 


0.675 


NaCI 


0.938 


0.889 


0.843 


K2CO8 


0.788 


0.650 


O.SS4 


NaBr 


0.965 


0.916 


0.890 


K,C04 


0.866 


0.771 


0.675 


Nal 


0-99S 


0.992 


0.985 


KaCrO* 


0.866 


0.771 


0.67s 


NaOH 


0.876 


0.789 


0.716 


CHgCOOK 


0.866 


0.765 


0.685 


LiCI 


0.980 


1.008 


1.045 


HCOOK 


0.868 


0.760 


0.678 


LiBr 


1. 001 


1.040 


1.090 


KBO2 


0.814 


0.677 


0.560 


Lil 


1.030 


1.094 


1. 190 


K2HPO4 


0.860 


0.749 


0.664 


LiOH 


0.863 


0.808 


0.768 


Na^S 


0.887 


0.79s 


0.726 


KF 


0.839 


0.722 


0.626 


*KCIQa 


0.927 


... 


• . . 


KNOs 


0.923 


0.862 


0.804 


*KBiOs 


0.940 


... 


• . • 


KNO2 


0.920 


0.85s 


0.798 


♦KlOs 


0.951 


• • « 


• • • 



* These salt solutions are 0.25 normal. 

Konowalow (1898) expressed the results of determinations of the solubility 
of ammonia in aqueous silver nitrate by the equation H = 56.58 (m — 2 n) in 
which H = partial pressure of NH| in mm. of Hg., m = molecular concentra- 
tions of NH| and n » molecular concentration of AgNOs. Similar results are 
given in later papers (Konowalow, 1899, a, b) for a large number of other salt 
solutions. 

Gaus (1900) gives data for the vapor pressure of ammonia in aqueous 0.4 n 
solutions of about 20 salts, only a few of which occur in the above table. 



37 AlfMONIA 

Solubility op Ammonia in Absolute Ethyl Alcohol. 

(Delepioe — J. pharm. chim. [5] 35* 40^ ^tSga; de Bruyn — Rec. trav. chim. zit zxa, '9a.) 





Density. 


Gros. NHs 

per xoocc. 

Solution. 


Cms. NH3 per zoo 


Gms. Sohition. 


Cms. NHs pel 
tDelepine.) 


r 100 Cms. Alcok 


t*. 


(Ddepine.) 


(de Bniyn.) 


(de Biuyn.) 





0-783 


^3 OS 


20.95 


19.7 


26.5 


245 


s 


0.784 


12.00 


19. 00 


17s 


23.0 


21.2 


10 


0.787 


10.85 


16.43 


15.0 


19.6 


17.8 


IS 


0789 


9.20 


13 00 


13.2 


15.0 


iS-3 


ao 


0791 


7 SO 


10.66 


"•5 


II. 9 


13-2 


as 


0.794 


6. CO 


10. 


10. 


II .0 


II. 2 


30 


0.798 


S'^5 


9-7 


8.8 


10.7 


95 



According to Mflller (1891), one volume of alcohol absorbs 340 volumes of 
ammonia at 20*^ and 760 mm. pressure. 

Solubility op Ammonia in Aqubous Ethyl Alcohol. 

(Delepiiie.) 

In 06%^ Alcohol. In 90% Alcohol. In 80% ^Alcohol. 

^** Sp. Gr. G. NHs per Sp. Gr. G. NHs per Sp. Gr. G. NHs per 

Solution, zoo Gms. Sol. Solutian. zoo Gms. Sol. Sdution. too Gms. Sol. 

o 0.783 24.5 0.800 30.25 0.808 39.0 

10 0.803 18.6 0.794 28.8 0.800 28.8 

ao 0.788 14.8 0.795 ^5-^ 0.821 19. 1 

30 0.791 10.7 0.796 II. 4 0.826 12.2 

In 60% Alcohol. In 50%^ Alcohol. 

••• Sp. Gr. G. NHs per Sp. Gr. G. NHs per 

Solution, zoo Gms. Sol. Solution, zoo Gms. Sol. 

o 0.830 50.45 0.835 69.77 
10 0.831 37.3 0.850 43-86 
20 0.842 26.1 0.869 33.8 

30 0.846 21.2 0.883 25.2 

Solubility op Ammonia in Absolute Methyl Alcohol. 

(de Bruyn — Rec. trav. chim. zz. xxa, '92.) 

^. G. NHs pw^ioo Grams. ^ G . NHs pcr^ xoo Gram s. 

^lution. Alcohol. 

20 19.2 23.8 

25 16.5 20.0 

30 14.0 16.0 

Solubility of Ammonia in Ethyl Ether. 

(Chiistoff, z9za.) 

Results in terms of the Ostwald Solubility Expression (see page 227), at 
o** = 17.13, at 10" = 12.35, at 15" = 10.27. 

Freezing-point lowering curves (Solubility, see footnote, pagje i) are given 
by Bauml and Perrot (1910), (1914) for mixtures of ammonia and methyl 
alcohol and for mixtures of ammonia and methyl ether; results for ammo- 
nium and potassium, ammonium and sodium, and ammonium and lithium are 
given by Kuff and Geiaei (1906); results for ammonium and hydrogen sulfide 
are given by Scheffer (1912). 

Solubility of Ammonia in Hydroxylamine. 

(de Bruyn, z89a.) 

160 gms. of the sat. solution contain 26 gms. NHs at d=o^ and 19-20 gms. at 
l5'*-i6^ 



» • 


Solution. 


Alcohol. 





29 -3 


41 5 


5 


26.5 


36.4 


10 


24.2 


31 B 


IS 


21.6 


27.8 



AlfMONIA 



38 



Distribution of Ammonia between: 



Water and Amyl Alcohol at ao^ 

(Hen and Hadier — Her. 37i 
4747. '04 ) 

Gnu.NHai>erzoocc. G.M.NHaPerioocc. 



Water and Chloroform at 20®. 

(Dawson and McCrae — J Ch. Soc. 70^ 496, 'ox; aee 
also Hantsch and Sebaldt — Z. phys. Ch. 30, 358, '9^\ 



Aq. 
Layer 



Alcdiolic 
Layer. 



O 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 



S 
o 

o 

o 

o 

.0 



072 

147 

272 

438 

595 
0.756 



o 
o 
o 
o 



Aq. 
Layer. 

0.25 
050 
1. 00 
2. 00 

3 00 



Alcoholic 
Layer. 

0.003s 
00073 
0-0148 

o 0295 

0.0460 



>■ 


CHCla' 


Aq. 


CHOi 


Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


Layer. 


0.2 


0.007 


O.OI 


0. 00038 


0.4 


0015 


0.02 


0.00073 


0.6 


0023 


0.03 


000114 


0.8 


0031 


0.04 


0. 00152 


I.O 


0039 


005 


0.00193 


1.2 


0.046 


0.06 


0.00232 


1-4 


0.055 


0.08 


O.OO3II 


1.6 


0063 


O.IO 


0.00396 



For calculations of above distribution results see Note, page 6. 

Additional data for the distribution of ammonia between water and chloroform 
are given by Dawson and McCrae (1900), (1901a), (19016); Dawson (1906), 
(1909); Abbott and Bray (1907); Sherrill and Russ (1907); Bell (1911), and 
by Moore and Winmill (1912). The results show that with increase of concen- 
tration of ammonia, the relative amount in the aqueous layer diminishes. Thus 
Bell found that at 25° the distribution ratio is 22.7 when the aqueous layer con- 
tains 1.02 gm. mols. NHi per liter and only 10 when 12.23 gm. mols. NH| are 
present in the aqueous layer. The influence of increase of temperature was 
also found to be in the direction of diminution of the relative amount in the 
aqueous layer. 

The influence of the presence of a large number of salts in the aqueous layer 
has been studied by several of the above-mentioned investigators. In the case 
of copper, zinc and cadmium salts (Dawson and McCrae, 1900), (Daw^n, 1909), 
the distribution ratio varied with salt concentration in a manner indicating that 
metal ammonia compounds were formed. 

Results for the effect of KOH, NaOH and Ba(OH)i on the distribution at i8* 
are given by Dawson (1909). 

Results for the effect of ammonium rhromate upon the distribution at 25^ 
are given by Sherrill and Russ (1907). 

Results for the distribution of ammonia between water and mixtures of chloro- 
form and amyl alcohol at 25"" are given by Herz and Kurzer (1910). 



Distribution of Ammonia between Toluene and Air. 

(Hantach and Vagt, 190X.) 



Cms. NHa per xoco cc 



Mob. NHi per 1000 cc. 



« . 


CiHftCHi Layer. 


Air. 


C»H|CHa Layer. 


Air. 





0.366 


0.0396 


0.0215 


0.00233 


10 


0.3S7 


0.043s 


0.0210 


0.00256 


20 


0.326 


0.0451 


0.0192 


0.00265 


30 


0.286 


0.0462 


0.0168 


0.00272 



39 



AHMONIUM ACITATK 



AMMONIUM ACETATE CH|C(X)NH4. 
100 cc. of sat. solution in acetone contain 0.27 gm. CHsCOONHi at 19^ 

(Roshdestweoaky and Lewis, 19x2.) 

AMMONIUM ARSENATES. 

Thb System AMMomA^* -Arsbnic Trioxidb and Water at 30**. 

(Schreinemaken and de Baat, 19x5.) 



Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. SoL 



Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sd. 



NHi. 


AsA. 


ooua jrnaae. 


NH,. 


As,0,. 





2.26 


As^» 


313 


12.30 


1. 41 


10.98 


ti 


^•91 


7.63 


2.78 


20.49 


it 


6.9s 


4.72 


2.86 


21.17 


tt 


9-93 


3.20 


2.88 


18.43 


NH4ASQ, 


4.28 


2.16 



SoUdPbaK. 
NH4ASO1 



u 
ti 
il 



Data are also given for the system NH4CI -|- AssOa -|- HjO at 30®. 
100 gms. HiO dissolve 0.02 gm. NH4CaAs04.iHsO. 
" " " " 0.014 " NH4MgAs04.iHiO. 



(Fidd, X873.) 



SOLUBILrTY OF AMMONItm MAGNESIUM ARSENATE IN WaTER KSD IN 

Aqueous Solutions op Ammonium Salts. 

(Wenger, x9xx.) 



Gins. NHiMgAsOi per xoo Gms. of Each Solvent. 



r. 

o 
20 

30 
40 

so 
60 

70 

80 



Water. 

0.0339 
0.0207 

• . a 
0.0275 
0.0226 
0.0210 
0.0156 
O-O236 



nh^& ^ci! 



0.092 
0.114 
0.118 

0.139 
0.189 

0.211 

0.189 

0.189 



0.084 
0.113 
0.113 
0.190 
0.189 
0.219 
0.221 
0.231 



Aq.* 
NHiOH. 

0.0087 
0.0096 

• • . 
O.OII7 
O.OIOO 

0.0090 

0.0095 

0.0091 



Aq. 
NHiOHt 

N&6. 



Aq. 

NHiOHf 

+10% 

NHiCI. 



0.013 0.032 



0.047 0.054 



Solid Phase. 



NHftBigAs0i.6Hy0 



« 



II 



II 



II 



M 



M 



* Composed of x part NHi(<{ - o^) + 4 parts HiO. 

t Contained 4 parts NHs(J '» 0.90) per xoo parts NHiCl solutioo. 



AMMONIUM BENZOATE CsHsCOONH^. 

Solubility in Water and in Aqueous Alcohol at 25**. 

(Seidell, x9xo.) 



Gma.CiEbOH 

per 100 Gms. 

Solvent. 

O 
10 
20 

30 
40 

SO 



^ ol Sat. Sol. 

1.043 
1.027 
1. 012 
0.997 
0.979 
0.956 



Gms. 

CtHiC00NH4 

per 100 Gms. 

Sat. Sol. 

18.6 
18 
18 
18. 1 
18 

17 



Gms. CtHsOH 

per xoo Gms. 

Solvent 

60 

70 
80 
90 

95 
100 



dm of Sat. SoL 

0.930 
0.901 
0.864 
0.828 
0.810 
0.796 



Gms. 

CeH|COONH4 

per xoo Gms. 

Sat. Sol. 

IS 
12.2 

8.3 
2.7 

1.6 



100 gms. water dissolve 19.6 gms. CeHsCOONHi at 14'' 5, du of sat. sol. » 

1X^2. (Greenish and Smith, x9ox.) 

100 gms. water dissolve 83.33 pns. C«HjC(X)NH4 at b.-pt. (U. S. P.) 

100 gms. glycerol dissolve 10 gms. C6HfCOONH4 at room temp. (Eager.) 



AMMONIUM BORATES 



40 



The System Ammonia, Boric Acid 


AND WaTI 


CR AT 30® 


AND AT 60®. 






(Sborgi, 1913-15; Sboigi and Meccacd, 


1916.) 




Results at 30*. 




Results at 60*. 




Gms. per xoo 


Gms. Sat. So 


'' Solid Phase. 


Gms. per 100 ( 


Sms. Sat. Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


(NH4)«0. 


BsOi. 




(NH4)«0. 


BsOs. 




0.23 


4.81 


HjBQa 





7-39 


HjBQ, 


0.70 


7.20 


« 


0.78 


12.12 


(( 


0.78 


7.62 


H8B08+ 1.5.8 


1.42 


15.60 


HJBQ,+ 1.5.8 


0.99 


7-53 


1.5.8 


1.70 


15-29 


i.S-8 


1.08 


7.66 


a 


323 


18.60 


<( 


1. 71 


913 


a 


4.02 


26.38 


1.5.8-4-1.4.6 


2.25 


10.71 


u 


4.88 


21.76 


1.4.6 


2.89 


12.32 


u 


6.41 


24.32 


li 


3-13 


12.59 


a 


7.90 


2731 


1.4.6-4-1.2.4 


3-43 


6.35 


2.4-5 


7-83 


26.76 


1.2.4 


6.51 


448 


« 


7.91 


17-57 


(( 


10.4s 


3-37 


a 


9-57 


13.56 


U 


18.05 


2.02 


ti 


15-45 


8.33 


a 


24.80 


151 


a 


19.47 


5-92 


a 


30 56 


1.22 


u 


22.57 


4-47 


ii 


45-34 


0.84 


it 









1.5.8 = (NH,),0.5B,Qs.8H«0 
2.4.5 = 2(NH4)t0.4B,Qs.5HOi 



1.4.6 » (NH4)i0.4B,0,.6HiO 
1.2.4 = (NHi),0.2BiQs.4HiO 



AMMONIUM BROMIDE NH4Br. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Smith and Eastlack, 1916.) 

(Determinations by sealed tube method.) 





Gms NfiUBr 




Gms. NH4Br 




Gms. NHiBr 


r. 


per zoo Gms. 


f. 


per 100 Gms. 


f. 


per xoo Gms. 




HsO. 




HiO. 




HsO. 


17 Eutec. 


47-3 


60 


107.8 


130 


180 





60.6 


70 


116. 8 


137.3 


Transition pt. 


10 


68 


80 


126 


140 


192.3 


20 


75-5 


90 


135-6 


150 


202.5 


30 


83.2 


coo 


145-6 


160 


213-4 


40 


91. 1 


no 


156.5 


170 


225.5 


50 


99.2 


120 


167.8 







Solubility op Ammonium Bromide in Absolute Ethyl Alcohol, 

Methyl Alcohol, and in Ether. 

(Eder; de Bruyn— Z. phys. Ch. zo, 783. '93.) 



In Ethyl Alcohol. 
Gms. NH4Br 
per 100 Grams. 



••. 


Solution. 


AlcohoT. 


IS 


2.97 


3.06 


19 


3.12 


3.22 


78 


9-50 


10.50 


100 cc. 


ethyl alcohol of dn 


sat. sol. B 


•• 0.8848. 





In Methyl Alcohol. 
Gms NH4Br 
per 100 Grams. 

Solution 



Alcohol. 



• • • 



II. I 



• • • • 



• • • 



"S 



• • • . 



In Ether (o 799 Sp. Gr.X 
Gms. NH4Br 
per xoo Grams. 

Ether. 
0.123 



' 0.8352 dissolve 7.8 grams NH4Br at 15', dig of 

(Greenish, 1900.) 

100 CC. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve no gms. NH4Br at room temp, with 
evolution of ammonia. (Welsh and Bioderson. 19x50 



41 



AHMONIUM BBOISIDE 



SoLUBiLiry OF Ammonium Bromidb at 25"* in Mixtures of: 

(Hen and Kohn, 1908.) 



Methyl and Ethyl 


Propyl and Methyl 


Propyl and Ethyl 


- 


Alcohols. 




Alcohols. 




Alcohols. 




t Gms. 
CibOHpei 
zoo Gms. 
Solvent. 




Gin.s. 


Gtm. 
riH,OHper iVof 
xoo Cms. Sat. SoL 
Solvent. 


Cms. 


Gms. 




Gms. 


iVof 

Sat. SoL 


NHiBr 

per xoo 

cc. Sat. 

Sol. 


NH«Br 

per zoo 

cc. Sat. 

Sol. 


CiHtOH 
per zoo 
Gms. Sol- 
vent. 


Sat. Sol. 


NHiBr 

perioo 

ccSat. 

Sol. 





0.8065 


2.5s 


0.8605 


9-83 





0.8065 


2.55 


4.37 


0.8083 


2.99 


II. II 0.8524 


8.51 


8.51 


0.8062 


2.51 


10.40 


O.8117 


3.21 


23.8 0.8426 


6.90 


17.85 


0.8052 


2.37 


41.02 


0.8252 


5.06 


65.2 0.8184 


3.08 


56.6 


0.8048 


1.63 


80.69 


0.8501 


8.13 


91.8 0.8097 


1.28 


88.6 


0.8042 


I. II 


84.77 


0.8508 


8.47 


93-75 0.8089 


I 25 


91.2 


0.8049 


I. OS 


91.25 


0.8551 


9.34 


100 0.8059 


0.95 


95-2 


0.8059 


1.04 


100 


0.8605 


9.83 






100 


0.8059 


0.9s 



AMMONIUM Cadmium BROMIDE (NH4)CdBr,.iHsO. 

100 parts water dissolve 137 parts of the salt; 100 parts of alcohol dissolve 
18.8 parts and 100 parts of ether dissolve 0.36 part. (Eder, X876.) 

AMMONIUM Platinum BROMIDE (NH4)2PtBre. 
100 gms. sat. aqueous solution contain 0.59 gm. salt at 20^. (Halberstadt, Z884.) 

Solubility of Tbtra Ethyl AMMONIUM BROMIDE N(CtHs)4Br, and of 
Tbtra Methyl Ammonium Bromidb N(CH«)4Br in Acetonitrilb. 

(Walden — Z. phys. Ch., 55, 7", '06.) 

100 CC. sat. solution in CH«CN contain 9.59 gms. N(CiHs)4Br at 2<j^ 
100 cc. sat. solution in CHiCN contain 0.17 gm. N(CHi)4Br at 25 . 

Solubility of Tbtra Ethyl Ammonium Bromidb in Water and 

IN Chloroform at 25**. 

(Peddle and Turner, X9X3.) 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 279.5 S^is. N(CsH()4Br. 
100 gms. CHCU dissolve 25.01 gms. N(C2H»)4Br. 

Dat a fo r the distribution of propyl benzyl methyl phenyl AMMONIUM 
BROMIDE between water and chloroform at 25** are given by Wedekind and 
Paschke (1910). 

AMMONIUM CARBONATE (NH4)2CQt. 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 25.4 gms. ammonium carbonate, calculated as 
QHuNiOs at 16.7° d of sat. sol. = 1.095. (Greenish and Smith, xgox.) 

100 gms. of carefully purified glycerol dissolve 20 gms. (NH4)iC0i at 15®. 

(OsMndowski, 1907.) 

AMMONIUM BIOARBONATE NH«HCO,. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Dibbits^ J. pr. Ch. [s] lo^ 417, '74.) 



••• ' 


dtoM.'NHJRCO, 


( per 100 Grams. 


*•. 


Grams NHiNCOy 
Solution. 


per xoo C 


Solution. 


Water: 


Water: 





10.6 


II .9 


20 


17.4 


21.0 


5 


12. 1 


13-7 


«S 


19 3 


«3-9 


20 


13-7 


IS -8 


30 


ai-3 


2J.O 


«S 


JSS 


18.3 









AHMONIUM BICABBONATI 



42 



Solubility op ammonium Bicarbonate in Aqueous Solutions op 
Ammonium Chloride Saturated with CO,. 

CFedodflff — Z. phjrt. Ch. 49^ t68, '04.) 



O 

o 

IS 
IS 
IS 
IS 
IS 
IS 
IS 
IS 
IS 
30 
30 



iccSoL 



077 
064 
063 
063 
062 

o^S 
069 

076 

08s 
08s 



G.M. 



Per xooo cc. Solotioa. 

JV.I 



Per tooo Gnmi B^. 



G.M. Gms. Got. G.M. G.M. Gnw. Gmi. 

NBA NHiHCO^ NH^. NH«HCO». NH«a. NH«HC0^ NH«a. NH«BOQ^ 



• • • 



4.41 
0.0 

OS 

I.O 

1. 41 

Z.89 
2.87 

3-84 

4.82 

4-9S 

• ■ • 

• • • 



0.37 
2.12 

1.84 

IS9 
1.42 

4.28 

0.99 

0.79 

0.65 

0.62 

• • • 

i • • •. 



23s -9 
0.0 

26.8 

S3S 

7S-4 

ICO. 8 

IS3-3 
205.2 

2S7-9 
264.8 



29.3 
167.2 

I4S-2 
112,2 

lOI.I 

78.2 
62.5 

SI -4 
48.9 



0.0 

S-42 

0.0 

0.56 

I 13 

IS9 
2.18 

3-42 

503 
6.21 

6.40 

0.0 

7-4 



1.22 

0.46 

2 36 
2.06 
1.80 
1.60 
1.48 
1. 18 
0.98 
0.84 
0.81 

3 42 
I IS 



0.0 

290.8 

0.0 

29.9 

60.6 

85.1 

116. 8 

183.0 

269.3 

343 S 
0.0 

397 o 



X19.0 
36-0 
186.4 
162.9 
142.2 
126.9 
116.8 

93-3 

77-3 
66.4 

64.2 

270.0 

91.0 



Solubility op Ammonixtm Bicarbonate in Aqueous Solutions ov 
Sodium Bicarbonatb Saturated with CO,. 

(Fedodeff.) 





TH'^ 'g.M. G.M. Gms. 


Gms. 




Ptt zooo Grams H^. 




••. 


G.M. 


G.M. 


Gms. 


Gms. 




z oc Sol. NaHCO^ NH«HC0^ NaHCO^ NH«HC0|. NaHCO^ NH«HC0^ NaHCO^ 


NH«HCO^ 





.*• .*• ••• 


• ■ • 


• . • 


0.0 


I SI 


0.0 


119. 





1.072 0.53 1.28 


44.6 


IOI.4 


0.58 


1-39 


48.2 


109.4 


'S 


1.064 0.0 2.12 


0.0 


167.2 


0.0 


2.36 


0.0 


186.4 


IS 


1.090 0.63 1.92 


52.5 


151-3 


0.71 


2.16 


S9-2 


170.6 


30 


••• ••• ••• 


• • • 


• • • 


0.0 


3-42 


0.0 


270.0 


30 


••• ••• ••• 


• • • 


• • • 


0.83 


2.91 


70.0 


230.0 



SOLUBIUTT OF AMMONIUM BICARBONATE IN AqUBOUS SOLUTIONS OF 









Ammonium Nitrate 


* 










(Fedotieff and Kottimoff, 19x4.) 






r. 


iofSat 


Gms. per zoo Gms. IbO. 


r. 


dofSat 


Gms. per zoo Gma. H^. 


SoL 


KH«NOb. 


NH4HC0b. 


SoL 


NH«NOb. 


NHiHCOk. 










ZI.90 


IS 


Z.242 


103.4 


8.25 





1.265 


118 


4.S2 • 


IS 


Z.269 


Z28.9 


7-79 


IS 


1.064 





18.64 


IS 


1.302 


Z66.9 


7.46 


IS 


I.II3 


23.26 


12.91 


30 


• . • 





26.96 


IS 


Z.Z64 


49.82 


10.33 


30 


• • • 


231-9 


12.57 



43 



AMMOKIUM BICARBONATE 



Solubility of Mixtures op Ammonium Bicarbonate, Sodium 
Bicarbonate, and Ammonium Chloride in Water 

Saturated with CO,. 

(Fedotieff.) 



f. , 


m.of 

ccSoL 


Gram Mokjper 
Gms-HsO. 


1000 


Cms. per xooo Gma. HsO. 


Solid 




NaHCOs. Naa. 


NH4d. 


^aHC09. 


NaCl. 


NH4a. 


STuaaCm 


O I 


.114 


0.59 


0.96 


4.93 


49.61 


56.16 


263.4 


a+b + C 


O I 


.187 


O.I2 


483 


a 


•74 


10 


.09 


282.6 


146.7 


« 




.116 


093 


0.51 


6 


.38 


78 


.18 


29.84 


336 a 


(( 




.178 


0.18 


4.44 


3 


•73 


15 


13 


259.8 


199.6 


u 




151 


030 


3 09 


4 


56 


25 


.23 


180.8 


244.1 


a + C 




.128 


051 


1.68 


S 


45 


42 


.87 


98.28 


291.7 


u 




.112 


0.99 


0-35 


S- 


65 


83 


.22 


20.47 


302.4 


a + b 




.108 


1. 07 


0.20 


5 


21 


89 


95 


11.70 


278.9 


(C 




.106 


1. 12 


O.II 


4 


92 


94 


14 


6.44 


263.4 


« 




.101 


1. 16 


014 


4' 


00 


97 


52 


8.19 


214. 1 


u 




.090 


093 


0.95 


3. 


03 


78 


.18 


55-58 


108.6 


tl 




a-" 


NaHCQ 


i>. 




b- 


. NH,HCO„ 


c — 


NH,CL 



AMMONIUM Uranyl CARBONATE 2(NH4)sCOiUOiCC^ 

(Ebelmen.) 

100 grams HsO dissolve 5 grams of the salt at 15°.^ 
AMMONIUM Lead COBALTICYANIDE NH4PbCo(CN)..3HiO. 

(Schukr — SiU. Ber. K. Akad. W. (Berlin) 79. 3oa.) 

100 grams HsO dissolve 12 grams of the salt at i8^. 



AMMONIUM PerCHLORATE NH4CIO4. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Carlton, 19x0.) 



r. 

o 
20 
40 
60 



Sp. Gr. 
Sat. S(d. 

1.059 
1.098 
1. 128 

1.158 



(Sms. NH4a04 

per xoooc. 

Sat. Sol. 

11.56 
20.85 

30-58 

39 OS 



r. 


Sp. Gr. 
Sat. Sol. 


Gms. NH4Cia 

per zoocc. 

Sat. Sol. 


80 


II93 


48.19 


100 


I. 216 


57 01 


107 b. pt. 


1. 221 


5912 



In a paper by Thin and Cumming (1915), it is stated that ammonium per- 
cUorate is "sparingly soluble" in water and according to one determination 
at 14.2°, 100 gms. of the sat. solution was found to contain 1.735 E^s- NH4CIO4. 
It 18 probable that these authors have misplaced the decimal point. This ap- 
pears more probable since a determination of the solubility in 98.8 per cent 
ethyl alcohol at 25.2^ gave j.96 gms. NH4CIO4 per 100 gms. sat. solution, and 
in 98.8 per cent alcohol containing 0.2 per cent HCIO4 gave 1.97 gms. per 100 
gms. sat. solution. 



AKHONinM PecCHLORATE 



44 



NH4CIO4 

cm«i,cio« 

(CH,)tNH,C104 

CJtNHsClO* 

(CJEl5),NH,C104 

(CH,)»NHC104 

(CH,)«NC104 

(CtH»)4NC104 

Cai»(CH,),NC10« 

ICH,(CH,),NC10« 

C»Hs(CH,),NC104 

C,H7(CH,)>NC104 

C4H,(CH,)^C104 

C6Hu(CH,),Na04 



Gms. Salt per 
xoo Gms. HiO. 



Solubility of Ammonium Perchloratb and Several of Its Derivativbs in 

Water at 15°. (HofmuiQ» Httbald and Quoob (i9ix-za).) 

Gms. Salt per 
100 Gms. H|0. 

CH,(CA),NC10« 43.6 

CJH,(CiH6)sNC104 7.9 

(CH,),(C,H6),NC104 134.3 

CJI,(CH,),NC104 s 

BrCA(CH,),Na04 3.5 

BrC»H,(CHs),Na04 2.5 

(0H)QH«(CH,),NC104 290.7 
(0H)CH»CH(0H)CH,(CH,),NC104 155 . 7 

NO,C8H4(CH,)JSrC104 0.6 

CJI,(CH,),NC104 199. S 

CH«(NH,C104)» 144. S 



18. s 
109.6 
208.7 
208.7 

150.9 
19.9 

o-S 

3-7 
17.9 

3-1 
10.9 

iS-4 

3-7 
2.2. 



CH4[(CH,),NC104 
C,H.[(CH,),NC104 
Br,C»H,(CH,)JSrC104 



1.2 
i-S 

3.2 
2.6 



BrCJEI,(CE,)J^C104 
Mtlbauer (1913-13) found that 100 ems. of cold H|0 dissolve 1. 136 gm. tetra- 
methyl ammonium perchlorate (CH|)«NCI04 and 100 gms. alcohol dissolve 
0.04 gm. of the salt. 

AHHOmUM CHLOBIDK NH«CL. 

Solubility in Water. 

(MuMer; bdow o°, Meerbiug — Z. uurg. Cb 31, ao}. 1903.) 



f. 


Gms. NH4CIJX 
§olutioQ. 


;r TOO Gms. 
Water, 


t«. 


Gms. NH4C 


1 per xoo 


Gi 


^udoa. 


Water. 


-IS 


19.7 


245 


40 


31 -4 


45-8 


— 10 9 


20.3 


25-5 


SO 


33 5 


SO 


4 


-5-7 


21.7 


27.7 


60 


35-6 


SS 


3 





22.7 


29.4 


70 


37.6 


60 


2 


+ S 


23 8 


31.2 


80 


39-6 


65 


.6 


10 


24.9 


33-3 


90 


41.6 


71 


3 


IS 


26.0 


35-2 


100 


43-6 


77 


3 


ao 


27.1 


37-2 


no 


45-6 


83 


.8 


25 


28.2 


39 3 


115.6 


46.6 


87 


3 


30 


29 -3 


41.4 











Density of saturated solution at o® = 1.088, at 15® = 1.077, at 19** = 1.075. 

Eutectic, Ice -f NH4CI =* — 16® and 19.5 gms. NH4CI per 100 gms. sat. sol 

100 gms. HfO dissolve 31.25 gms. NH4CI at 3.5^ 38.5 gms. at 25^* and 49.6 
gms. at 50**. (Biltz and Marcus, X91X.) 

Data for the solubility of ammonium chloride in water at o** under pressures 
up to 500 atmospheres are given by Stackelberg, 1896. 

Solubility of Ammonium Chloride in Aqueous Ammonium Bicarbonate So- 
lutions Saturated with COi. (FedoUeff — z. pi^yi. ch. 49, 169. 1904.) 





Wt. of 
I cc. SoL 


Per 1000 cc. Solution. 


Per xooo ( 


Qms. HjO. 


t; 


G. M. G. M. Gms. Gms. ' 
NH«HCOa. NH4CL NH«HCOs. NH«a. 


G. M. G. M. 
NH«HCO^ NH«a. 


Gms. Gms. 
NH«Ha. NH«a. 





1.069 


0.0 4.60 0.0 246.1 


0.0 5.57 


0.0 298.0 




IS 
IS 
30 


1.077 
1.077 
1.085 

• • • 


0.37 441 29.2 235.9 
00 5.29 00 283.1 
0.62 4.95 48.9 264.8 

• •• ••« «■• ■•• 


0.46 5.42 
00 6.64 
0.81 6.40 
00 7.78 


36.0 290.8 

00 3SSO 

642 343 S 

00 416.4 


30 


• • • 


• •• ••• ••• ••• 


1. 15 7.40 


91.0 397. <> 



45 



ABfMONIUM CHLOBIDS 



Solubility in Aqubous Ammonia Solxttions at o^. 

(Engel — BuIL soc. Ghim. I3] 6» 17, zSgi .) 



Sp. Gr. of 
Solotiont. 

1.067 

I 054 
1. 031 
1. 025 
1. 017 

0-993 
0.992 

0.983 

0-9S3 
0.931 



MilUsnm Molecula 
per 10 cc. SolutioQ. 



Gmns'pear zoo cc. 
Solution. 



NHs. 

S-37 

12 .03 
38.0 

47 o 

S4S 
80.0 

90.0 

95-5 
130.0 

169.7s 



NH«CI. 

45-8 



45 
44 
44 
43 
43 
44 
44 

49 
60 



5 

S 

o 

63 

12 
o 

37 

75 
o 



Kh«oh. 

0.92 

2.05 

6.48 
8.02 
9.30 

13 -66 

15-36 
16.29 

22.18 

28.97 



NH«a. 
24-52 

2435 
23.82 

23-56 

23 -35 
23.09 

23 56 

23-75 
26.63 

32 14 



Solubility of NH4CI in Aqueous Ammonia Solutions at 17.5^ 

(Stittmholm, 1908.) 
Normality Eqmv. per lAcr . Gms. per looo cc. Solutk». 

TraT NHiO. NH*. ' FnEcT 

o 5.435 o 290.8 

0.15 5.420 2.55 290 

4.76 5.082 81 27Z.9 

Solubilities op Mixtures op Ammonium Chloride and Other Salts 

IN Water. 

(RadorfF, Kaiaten, Mulder.) 

Both salts present in solid phaaCi 



19 5 

21-5 

20.0 
18.5 
150 
22.0 



Grams per 100 Gruns HtO. 



Grams per 100 Grams BiiO. 



29.2 NH^CIH- 174.0 NH4NO, R 
26.8 " + 46.5(NHJ2S04R 

33.8 " + ii.6BaCU R 
39.2 " + i7.oBa(NOa), K 

28.9 " + 16.9 KCl R 
" + i9.iKa R 



b.pt. 67.7 NH^ClH- 21.9 KCl M 



14.8 
18.5 
14.0 
18.7 
18.7 



38.8 

39-8 
36.8 

37-9 
22.9 



+ 34.2E:N0,K 
+ 38.6KNO,K 
+ i4.iKjS04R 
+ i3.3K,S04K 
+ 23.9Naa R 



30- 4 " 

SOLOBom OP Ammonium Chloride in Aqueous S(h.utions op Ammonium 

Sulfate at 30'. 

(Wibaut, 1909; SchreinemaketB, 1910.) 

Gms« per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 



Gms. per 100 Cms. Sat. Sol. 



(NH«),SO« 
O 

5 
10 

IS 
20 



NH«a. 

295 
28.5 

257 
23.2 

20.2 



Solid Phase. 
NH4CI 

tt 
(t 



(NH|),S04. 
25 
30 

35 

40 
42 



NH«a. 

18.3 

13-2 

8.5 
2.8 

o 



Solid Phase. 



NH4Cl+(NH4)tS04 

(NH4)2S04 



€€ 
it 



SoLUBiLiTT OP Mixtures op Ammonium Chloiude and Cobalt Chloridb 

IN Water at 25'. * 

(Foote. X9xa.) 
Gms. per xoo Gms. Solid Residue. 



Gns. per too Gms. Sat. ScL 



NH«a. 
17.90 

13.59 

8-75 

7.45 
7.62 



CoCl^ 

15-63 
25.19 

34.28 

35.24 
34.61 



NH«a. 



83.01 

3512 

34.02 

7.07 



CoClf. 

3-2 

13.52 

50.66 

49.64 

55-27 



BW. 



SoUd Phase. 



Mixed ciystals of 
3.47 [ NH4CI+C0CU. 
14.22 1 2H2O 
16.31 1 Mixed crystals + 
37.66 I C0CI1.6H1O 



JkMMONIUM CHLORIDE 



46 



SCH^UBILITY OF AllMONIUM CHLOKIDB IN AqUEOUS HYDROCHLORIC ACID. 



Results at o^ (Engd. 1888.) 

Sp. Gr. ol Sat. Gms. per 100 cc. sat. sol. 



SoL 


HCL 


NHia. 


1.076 





24.61 


Z.069 


i.os 


23.16 


1.070 


1.99 


21.78 


I 073 


3-93 


19.36 


1.078 


7.74 


14. 54 


1. 106 


19.18 


S.78 


1. 114 


22.07 


4.67 



Results at 25'' 

Gms-HOper 
xoo Gms. H^. 

O 

0.91 

1.82 

3.6s 
18.2s 



(Annstrong mod Eyre, x9io-zx.) 

dU Gms-NHfaper 
Lt. SoL zoo Gms. Sat. SoL 



Sat 

1.080 

1.079 

1.082 

1.083 

1.099 



28.3 
27.4 
26.4 
24.6 

"•3 



Solubility of Mixture of Ammonium Chloride and Lead Chloride in 

Water at Several Temperatures. 

(At Z7*, 50* and loo* Deoiassieux (1913) at 35* Fooie and Levy, 1907.) 

At I7'. At 25**. At 50*. At ICO*. Solid Phase 

Gi08.'perzooGiiis.Sol. Gins.periooGins.Sd. Gms. per xoo Gms. Sol. Gmsj)erxooGms.Sol. in Each 

Case. 



fePbCU. 
0.30 

0.52 

0.64 



NH«C1. 
27.03 

26.68 

26.49 



PbCli. NH«a 



1.20 28.15 



Pba^ 
0.32 

2.65 

3-9^ 



NH«CL 
34.14 

33 62 
33 56 



0.34 

0.098 

0.078 

0.078 

0.076 

0.16 

0.21 

0.89 



22.32 

12.36 

4-93 
4.23 

3-48 

1-43 
0.96 

o 



0.93 

0.3s 
0.29 

O.II 

0.03 



27.4s 

21. S9 
17.97 

10. 25 

2.77 



3-31 
1.76 

0.71 

0.49 

0.48 

0.67 

1.08 

1.69 



31.90 
27.16 
19.42 

12. 45 
4.86 

1.45 
0.51 

o 



PbOt. 

1. 61 
4.21 

• • • 

9.26 

9.88 

11.60 
12.67 
11.40 

8.32 

4.54 
1.98 

1.76 

1. 8s 
2.02 

3.10 



NH4a 

43.42 NHiQ 

42.91 " 



41.90 

40.22 

38.32 

37.62 
36.29 
32.64 
26.08 
13.12 

8.59 

5.33 
1.32 

o 



u 



u 



2.1 



II 



+a.x 



" +x.a 

t.a 
11 

M 
II 

"+pba, 

PbCli 

II 
II 



1.2 - NH4C1.2(PbCW, 2.1 - 2NH4CLPbCl,. 
The following additional data for the above system at 22^ are given by BrOn« 
sted (1909). 



Gm. Equiv. Gm. Eqiiiv. PbOt 
NHiQ per pei xoo Gms. 
zoo Gms. H^. Sat. Sol. 

O 
O.Z 



0.2 
0.4 

0.5 

0.55 
[0.6 

0.7 



7.49 Xio" 
3.10 Xio" 
1. 916X10' 
1. 348 Xio" 
1. 263 Xio" 
1. 189X10" 
1. 092X10" 
0.956X10" 



Solid Phase. 
PbOi 



II 



M 



II 



II 



aPbOt-NHia 



11 



Gm. Equiv. 

NHiClper 

zoo Gms. HfO. 

0.8 

I 
2 

3 

4 

5 
6 



Gm. Equiv. PbOt 

per zoo Gms. 

Sat. Sol. 

O.837X1O-* 

0.758XIO"* 
0.695X10"^ 
0.968X10"^ 
1.502X10"* 
2.338X10-^ 
3.580X10-* 



SoUd Phase. 
9PbaiJ<fHia 



7. 29 sat. 6.46 Xio" 



II 



<i 



II 



II 



M 



W 



<l 



+NH«a 



NThe two curves intersect at 0.52 normal NH4CI. 
Solubility of Mixtures of Ammonium Chloride and Magnesium Chloride 

IN Water. (BUtz and Marcus, 19x1.) 



. . Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat . Sol. 



SoUd Phase. 



MgCl,. NH^a. 

3.5 21.41 5.93 NH.a+Mga,.6H^ 

25 20.95 8.78 

50 20.84 12.46 *" 



f. 



Gm.n. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 



Solid Phase.' 



MgCI,. NH^a. 

3.5 34.43 0.09 ^^^^^ 

25 35.41 0.09 " 

50 36.92 CIS " 



47 



AMMONIUM CHLORIDS 



Solubuxet op Mixhtsbs op Ammonium and Manganese Chloride^ ux 

Water at 25^ 

(FooCe and Soxtoo, 19x4.) 



ptf too Gms* Sttt. Sd. 



NHdCL 

23 -97 
22.94 

21.44 

21.18 

20.10 

19.70 

19 -75 
19.67 



Mud,. 

7-97 

9.6s 

12.31 

13.38 
15.19 

15.92 
16.02 

15.47 



Solid Phaae. 



Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. 



ayrtab 



or and mixed 
oystals 



NH«CL 
17.09 

15.05 

13.17 

9.15 

5.90 

3.77 

2.98 
2.94 



MnClt. 
18.76 
22.44 

24 52 
29.24 

34.78 
39. 48 J 



Solid Phue. 



mixed crystals or 
double salt aNHiO. 
MnCltsH/) 



43.71 1 aNILaMnCU.aIV) 
43. 44 J +Mna,.a^ , 



a mixed crystals consist of NH4CI with varying amounts of MnCls.2HiO; 
mixed crystals consist of the double salt 2NH4Cl.MnCl2.2HsO with excess of 
NH4CI. 

This case represents a very rare type of solid solution "in which a single salt 
and a double salt are each capable of taking up very considerable quantities of 
the other to form homogeneous mixed crystals. 

Equilibrium in the System Ammonium Chloride, Mercuric Chloride, 

Water at 30*. 

(Meerbuig, 1908.) 



Gms. per too Gi 


OS. Sat. Sol. 


Solid 


H«CV 


NH«a 


Phase. 





29.50 


NH«a 


32.80 


26.91 


« 


42-45 


25 05 


M 


5005 


24.79 


« i.a-1 


5308 


22.77 


X.3.1 


58.90 


20.02 


" +X.X.I 


56.38 


18.50 


Z.I.X 


55-58 


16.82 


f< 


57 -oi 


14.12 


" +3.a.i 


56.26 


13.04 


3.3.x 



Sms. pec 100 Gn 


IS. Sat. Sol. 


Solid 


HgCt 


NHiCl.' 


Phase. 


57-05 


9.92 


3.3.x 


58-65 


9.20 


" +9.3 


*Si-83 


8.76 


9.3 


V 


7.52 


If 


*35-6o 


5.26 


« 


♦32.90 


5.06 


.1 


29.65 


362 


" +Hga, 


40.12 


SI3 


HgCl. 


21 


2.29 


I( 


7.67 





M 



1.2.1 = HgCl,.2NH4Cl.H,0: i.i.i - HgCl,.NH4Cl.H,0; 
3.2.1 - 3HgCl,.2NH4Cl.H20; 92 - 9HgCl2.2NH4Cl. 

* In these solutions 3 to 3 wedu were required for attainment of equilibrium. 



SoLUBiLirT OP McrruRBs op Ammonium and Nickel Chlorides in Water 

AT 25^ 
(Foote, X9Z3.) 



Gns> per xoo Gms. Sat. SoL 



NH«a 


NiO,. 


26.07 


3.101 


22.27 


8.04 


20.68 


10.32 


17.43 


15.01 


11.22 


26.93 


10.21 


30.56 


9.16 


35.70 J 



Sofid Phase. 



Mixed crystals of 
NILCland 
NiOt-sHiQ 



Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat SoL 



NH«a. 

7.98 
8.07 

8.23 

8.17 

.7.51 
3.06 

O 



NiCli. 



37 


.41] 


37 


•73 


37 


•45 


37 


.64 


37 


.19 


37 


.98 


37 


■53] 



Solid Phase. 



Mixed crystals and 
NiCl|.6HdO 



NiClt.6H^ 



ammonium chloride 48 

Solubility op Mixtures of Potassium Chloride and Ammonium 

Chloride in Water at 25°. 

(Fock — Z. Kryst Min. 38» 353, '97-) 



Grams per liter 
SolutioD. 


Mol. percent 
in SoiutioD. 


Sp. Gr. of 

CrJiiflrBia 


Mol. 
Soli 


per cent to 
d Phaae. 


'Niua. 


KCi. 


NHiO. 


KQ. 




Uh^, 


KcL 


0.00 


3" -3 


0.00 


100. 


I. 1807 


0.0 


100 


32.81 


293 -3 


9.41 


90.59 


I. 1716 


1. 21 


98.79 


35-39 


278.7 


15.04 


84.96 


1.1678 


2. II 


97.89 


89.17 


273.2 


34.26 


65 -74 


11591 


6.18 


93.82 


127.8 


234.6 


46.59 


53-44 


1.1493 


8.90 


91.10 


147-2 


204.2 


51-63 


48.37 


1.1461 


10.53 


89.47 


197 -3 


157.7 


63.56 


36.44 


1-1391 


17.86 


82.14 


232.5 


116.8 


73-49 


26.51 


I. 1326 


60.20 


39.80 


2445 


123.0 


73-48 


26.52 


1-1329 


76.88 


23.12 


261.9 


III.O 


79.10 


20.90 


1.1245 


97-51 


2-49 


259.0 


102.2 


82.14 


17.86 


Z.I212 


97-79 


2. 21 


278.6 


53-16 


87.96 


12.04 


I.ZOO9 


98.85 


I. IS 


320.7 


31 24 


93-45 


6.55 


1. 0912 


99-33 


0.67 


273 5 


coo 


xoo.oo 


coo 


Z.O768 


100 .0 


O»00 



The following additional data for the above system are given by Biltz and 
Marcus (191 1). The results show that NH4CI + KCl form a series of mix- 
crystals broken by a gap which eictends between about 20 and 98 mol. per cent 
NH4CI in the crystals. 



Composition 


of Sat. Solution. 


Composil 


ion of Solid Phase. 


Cms. per 


xooGms. 
Sol. 


Mols. per xooo Mola. 


Gnu. per loo Gma. 
Crystals. 


Mol. % 
NHiQin 


NH«a. 


KCL 


NHiCl. 


KCl.^ 


NH«C1. 


Ka. ' 


Ci^rtala. 


5.13 


22.29 


23.8 


74.2 


1. 21 


98.79 


1.7 


7 


20.40 


32.5 


67.9 


2.22 


97.78 


3.1 


II 


18.04 


52.2 


61.4 


4 


96 


5-5 


13-73 


16. II 


65.9 


55.5 


5.89 


94.11 


8 


15.46 


14. S3 


74.4 


50.2 


7.24 


92.76 


9.8 


19-54 


12.16 


96.3 


43 


11.20 


88.80 


14.9 


22.04 


10.49 


109 


37.4 


16.90 


83.10 


22.1 


21.68 


10.40 


109 


37.4 


26.04 


73.96 


32.9 


21.95 


10.48 


109 


37-4 


97.60 


2.40 


98.3 


24.30 


6.48 


118. 2 


22.6 


98.28 


1.72 


98.8 



These authors also give data for the ammonium chloride camellite and 
potassium chloride camellite diagram at 25^. 

Solubility of Mixtures of Ammonium and Potassium Chlorides in Water 

AT 25**, 65* AND 90*. 

(Uyeda, 191 a.) 

The results as presented by Uyeda show the percentage composition of the 
dissolved mixture and of the undissolved residue in the several cases, but not 
the quantity of salts dissolved. Mixed crystals were formed over certain ranges 
of concentration at each temperature. 

Data for the cryohydric temperatures and composition of the saturated solu- 
tions of mixtures of the chlorides, nitrates and sulfates of ammonium, potas- 
sium and sodium are given by Mazatto (1891). 



49 AMMONIUM CHLORIDS 

Solubility op Ammonium Chloride in Aqueous Solutions or 

Sodium Chloride Saturated with CO,. 

(Fedodeff.) 





Wt.cl 




Per 1000 cc. Sohitiao 


• 




Per 1000 


Gma. HaO 
Gms. 


» 


••. 


G. M. 


G. M. 


Gms. 


Cms. 


g.m. 


G.M. 


Gnu. 




locSoL 


Naa. 


NH4CI. 


Naa. 


NH«a. 


Naa. 


NH«a. 


Naa. 


NH«a. 





1.069 


0.0 


4.60 


0.0 


246.1 


0.0 


5-57 


0.0 


298.0 







^8S 


4.04 


2.26 


236.5 


121 .0 


4.89 


2.73 


286.4 


146. 1 


IS 




077 


0.0 


5 29 


0.0 


283.1 


0.0 


6.64 


0.0 


355 


IS 




097 


0.81 


4.71 


47 S 


252.1 


1.02 


5-91 


59-8 


316.4 


IS 




I30 


1.68 


413 


98.0 


221.7 


2.09 


518 


122.4 


277.0 


15 




153 


2.87 


3 38 


168.0 


180.7 


357 


4.20 


208.9 


224.7 


15 




175 


3-65 


2.98 


"3 5 


159-4 


4-55 


3 72 


266.8 


198.8 


30 




* • • 


• • . 


. ■ • 


• • • 


• • • 


0.0 


7.78 


0.0 


416.4 


30 


I 


.166 


3.30 


3 70 


193.0 


198.0 


4.26 


4-77 


249.0 




4S 




» • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


M m • 


0.0 


9 03 


0.0 


483 -7 


4S 




» • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


4.0 


6.02 


233 -9 


332.1 



SoLUBiLiTT OP Ammonium Chloride in Aqueous Ethyl Alcoh(»< at 15^ and 

AT 30®. 



Gms.CApHper 
100 Gnu. Sdvent. 


ums. i^ii4Ui per j 


00 vrnB. ooivrai ai; 


' 


, 




IS . 


30 . 





35.2 


40.4 


20 


25 


29.7 


40 


16.8 


19 


60 


95 


II. I 


80 


4 


S-3 


92.3 


1-3 


• • • 


100 


0.6 


• • • 



Results at 15** by interpolation from Gerardin (1865), Greenish (1900) and 
deBniyn (1892). Those at 30'' from Bathrick (1896). 

100 gms. absolute methyl alcohol dissolve 3.35 gms. NH4CI at 19^. 

(deBruyn, xSga.) 
100 gms. 98% methyl alcohol dissolve 3.52 gms. NH4CI at I9.5^ 

(deBruyn, 1892.) 

Solubility op Ammonium Chloride in Mixtures op Several Alcohols 

WITH Water. 

CArmstxong, Eyre, Hiiaaey and Paddington (1907); and Armstrong and Eyre Cz9x<h-zz.) 



*• 


Gm. Mols. Al- 


Gma-NUiO 


per xoo Gma. Sat. Solutioi 


lin: 


K . 


Gms. H«0. 


Aq. CHaOH. 


Aq.C«Hf0H. 


Aq. C,H|OH. 








23 


23 


23 





0.2s 


22.8 


22.6 


22.7 





0.50 


22.6 


22.2 


22.3 





X 


22.1 


21.5 


21. 1 





3 


20.5 


^9 


• . • 


25 





28.3 


28.13 (1.0805) 


28.3 


25 


0.25 


28.1 


28 (1.0780) 


28.1 


25 


0.50 


27.9 


27.6 (1.0753) 


27s 


25 


I 


27.6 


27 (1.0704) 


36.6 


25 


3 


26.1 


26.5 (1.0528) 


• • • 


25 


5 


• • • 


22.6 (1.0376) 


• • • 



(Figures in parentheses show Sp. Or. of sat. sols.) 



AMMONIUM CHLORIDE 



SO 



SOLUBILITT OF AMMONIUM ChLORIDB IN SEVERAL ALCOHOL MiXTUBBS AT 2^* 

(Hen and Kuhn, 1908.) 

In Methyl and Ethyl In Methyl and Propyl In Propyl and Ethyl 
Alcohol. .^cohol. AIcohoL 



Gm^. CH/)H 

per 100 Gms. 

Solvent. 


Gms. NH,a per 

100 Gbis. Sat. 

Solution. 


Gms. CaHfOH 

per 100 Gms. 

Solvent. 


GmA. NH^Cl per 

100 Gms. Sat. 

Solution. 


Gms. CsHiOH 

per xoo Gms. 

Solvent. 


Gffis.NH4Cf 
per 100 Gms. 
Sat. Sdadan. 





0.53 





2.76 





O.S3 


ID 


0.67 


10 


2.33 


10 


0.50 


30 


0.80 


20 


1.90 


20 


0.47 


30 
40 


0.98 
I. 18 


30 
40 


1.58 
1.26 


30 
40 


0.42 
0.39 


so 
60 


1.40 

1.6s 


SO 
60 


I 03 
0.82 


SO 
60 


0.36 
0.32 


70 
80 


1.92 
2.18 


70 
80 


0.60 
0.41 


70 
80 


0.30 
0.26 


90 
100 


2.48 
2.76 


90 
ICO 


0.30 
0.18 


90 
100 


0.22 
0.18 



Solubility of Ammonium Chloridb in Aqueous Glycerol Solutions and 

IN Aqueous Acetone Solutions at 25**. 

(Hen and Knoch — Z. anoig. Chem. 45* 363, 367, '05.) 



In Aqueous GlyceroL 

(Sp. Gr.*of Glycerine 1.355, Imparity about x.5%*) 



Wt.% 
Glyoerme. 



NH4CI per xoo cc. 
Solution. 



O 

13 
25 
45 

54 

83 

100 



38 

98 
36 

23 

84 

00 



Millimols. 

585 I 

544-6 
502.9 

434-4 

403 -5 
291.4 
228.4 



Grams. 

31-32 
29.16 

26.93 

23.26 

21.60 

15.60 

12.23 



Sp. Gr. 

at i^. 
at ^o 



Vol.% 



in Aqueous Acetone. 

S Ition. 



NH«a per 100 oc. 



Sp. Gr. 



I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 



0793 
0947 
II27 

1452 
1606 

2225 

2617 



O 

10 
20 

30 
40 
♦46.5 

*8s-7 
90 



L 
U 



MiIttmoh» 
585 I 

534 -I 
464.6 

396.7 

328.5 
283.7 

18.9 

9.4 



Grams. 

31 
28 

24 
21 

15 

I 

O 



59 

87 

23 

59 

19 
01 

SO 



I .0793 

r.o6i8 

I 0451 
1 .0263 
0.9998 
0.9800 
0.8390 
0.8274 

L indicates 



* Between these two concentrations of acetone, the soltttioo separates into two layers, 
lower layer, U indicates upper layer. 

100 CC. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve 75 gms. NH4CI at room temp, with 

evolution of ammonia. (Welsh and Brodeison, 19x5.) 

Solubility of Tetra Ethyl AMMONIUM CHLORIDE N(CiH6)4Q, and 
ALSO of Tetra Methyl Ammonium Chloride N(CHj)4Cl in Acetonitrile. 

100 cc. sat. solution in CHgCN contain 29.31 gms. N(C2H6)4Cl at 25". 
100 cc. sat. solution in CH3CN contain 0.265 gms. N(CH3)4C1 at 25 . 

(Walden — Z. physik. Chem. 55, 713, '06.) 

Solubility of Tetra Ethyl Ammonium (Chloride in Water and in 

Chloroform. 

(Peddle and Tamer, 19 13.) 

100 gms. H2O dissolve 141. o gms. N(C2H5)4C1 at 25**. 
100 gms. CHCU dissolve 8.24 gms. N(C2H8)4C1 at 25". 

Solubility of Dimethyl AMMONIUM CHLORIDE in Water and in 

Chloroform. 

(Hantzsch, 1902.) 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 208 gms. of the salt. 

100 gms. CHCU dissolve 26.9 gms. of the salt (temp, not stated in abstract). 



51 



AMMONIUM CHBOBCATE 



AMMONIUM OHBOMATEB. 



Solubility in Water at 30**. 

(Schreinemaker — 2L physic. Cfaem. 55, 89, '06O 



Compoeidoa in Wt. per cent of: 



The Snlmtion. 


The Ra!4tie. 


SaHd Phase. 


%CKV 


%NH,. 


%CrO,. 


%NH,. 




6-933 


22-35 


• . • 


• . • 


(im,)jCtOt 


9 


966 


16-53 


47 


•59 


20.44 


If 


16. 


973 


8.20 


• 


» • 


• • • 


11 


22. 


S3 


6-37 


38 


•03 


12.15 


it 


27. 


09 


6.87 


48 


02 


12.01 


(NH«)^0«+ (NH«).Cr,0, 


26. 


19 


5 -70 


47 


•38 


8.81 


(NH,)/:r,0, 


25 


99 


S-io 


41 


•56 


758 


(t 


30 


.16 


3 50 


• 


• • 


• ■ • 


tc 


38 


.89 


3-IO 


61 


.08 


8.80 


' it 


42 


44 


3-15 


59 


•72 


6.7s 


(NH4),Cr,0,-^(NH4),CrAu 


44 


.08 


2.27 


54 


.90 


4.14 


(NH4).Cr/).. 


52 


.91 


I. II 


60 


.88 


3-09 


« 


54 


56 


1.03 


63 


.07 


3 09 


(NH4),Cr.O„-f (NH,).Cr40» 


56 


•57 


0.97 


65 


.70 


2.95 


(NHO^^O, 


58 


87 


0.65 


69 


74 


3 24 


it 


62 


.48 


0.46 


71 


93 


3.10 


tt 


63 


.60 


0.40 


73 


.68 


1. 18 


(NIC),Cr40i,+ CrO, 


63 


.66 


0.41 


71' 


47 


2.07 


tt 


62 


94 


0.2I 


• f 


• 


• • • 


CrO, 


62 


.28 


O-O 


• « 


• 


• • • 


CrO. 



100 gms. of the sat. aq, solution contain 28.80 gms.(NH4)aCr04 at 30®. 
zoo gms. of the sat. aq. solution contain 32.05 gms. (NHJaCraOy at ^o\ 

AMMONIUM CITBATES. 

Solubility in Aqueous Solutions of Citric Acid at 30*. 

(van Itallie, 1908.) 

(Data read from curve plotted from original results.) 

Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. 



CVHO,. 


NH|. 


-. Solid Phase. - 


CAO>- 


NH,. 


-> SoUdPbase. 


65 





CAOi.HiO 


..S3 


7-5 


CAOiJ^ 


68 


o-S 


« 


56 


8.2 


w 


72 


1-3 


<f 


59-1 


8.5 


CHANU4+CA0r(NH|), 


75 


2.3 < 


r^HA-HsO+CsHA-NHi 


54 


8.5 


C.iV)»(Nli4)s 


70 


2.4 


C«H70r.NH4 


50 


7-9 


u 


6S 


2-5 


i( 


45-8 


8.4 


M 


60 


2.7 


u 


47 


II. I 


M 


55 
52 


2.8 
2.8 


M 

a 


50 
54-5 


12.9 
145 


<=*W^4&«^ 


50 


3-6 


tt 


52 


15 


CtH.0)(Nli4)t.?H^ 


49.2 


S-i 


w 


50 


16 


If 


50 


6.2 


If 


48.4 


17.9 


M 



Composition of the solid phases determined by "Rest Method." 

(Schreinemakers, Z. anoi^g. Ch. i7, 907*) 

AMMONIUM CALCIUM FEBBOCYANIDE. 

100 gms. sat. aqueous solution contain 0.258 gm. (NH4)2CaFe(CN)e at i6'. 

(Bnmn.) 

AMMONIUM FLUOBOBIDE NH43BF<. 
100 parts of water dissolve 25 parts salt at 16®, and about 97 parts at b. pt*' 

(Stelba — Chem. Techn. Cent. Anz. 7. 459 ) 



AMMONIUM FOBMATE 



52 



AMMONIUM FOBMATE HCOONH4, and also Ammonium Acid Formate. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Groschu£f — Ber. 36, 4351, '03.) 



Gm 


a.HCOONH 


4perxooGi 


ns- SoUd 
■" Phase. 


Gms. per loo Gms. Solut 


»on. SoUd 


• ■ <"■ 


Solution. 


Water. 


• HCOONH,. 


HCOOH. 


■" Phase. 


— 20 


41.9 


72 


HCOONHi 


- 6.S 46.7 


34.1 


HCOONH«.HCOOH 





50.5 


102 


« 


+ 1.5 49-6 


36.2 


(C 


20 


58.9 


143 


u 


6 SI -3 


37-4 


M 


40 


67.1 


204 


u 


8.5 52. I 


38 


1* 


60 


75-7 


3" 


t€ 


- 7 49.6 


36.2 


HCOONU4 labil. 


80 


84.2 


S3I 


M 


+13 S3 


38.6 


stabfl. 


116 m. 


.pt. 






29 55-8 
39 S7-8 


40.7 
42.2 


U it 

H^ free solutina 



Solubility op Ammonium Formate in Formic Acid Solutions. 

(Groschuff.) 

^o grams of HCC)0NH4 dissolved in weighed amounts of anhydrous formic 
acid and CQoled to the point at which a solid phase separated. 



f. 

- 3 
+ 8.5 

21.5 



Gms. G. M. 

HC00NH« HCOONHj Solid 
per 100 Gms. per 100 G. M. Phase. 
HCOOH. 



Sdution. 

35-3 
40.6 

SO 



39-9 
49-9 
73 • 



HCOONH*. 

HCOOH 

« 



a 



II 

39 
78 



Gms. G. M. 

HCOONH«. HCOONIL Solid 

per xoo Gms.periooG.M. Phase. 
Solution. 



SO 
57. 8 

731 



HCOOH. 

73 HCOONH4 hJtuL 



100 
199 

00 



stabiL 



116 m. pL 100 

100 gms. 95% Formic Acid dissolve 6.2 gms. HCC)0NH4 at 21" 

AMMONIUM lODATE NH4lO<. 

Solubility in Aqueous Iodic Acid at 30®. 

(Meerburg, 1905.) 



u 



t< 



M 



M 



(Aschan, 1913.) 



Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. 



mo,. 

O 

2.S4 
4.52 
6.S7 



NH4IO1. 
4.20 

3.89 
3 83 
1.94 



Solid Phase. 
NH«IOk 



Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. 



(( 



K 



+NH«IQ,.aHIQ, 
NH|I0,.2HI0. 



HIOi. 

24 

44.43 

76.3s 
76.70 



NHiIO,. 

0.62 

039 

0.31 

o 



Solid Phase. 

NHiIOs-aHIQ, 
if 

" +H10i 

mok 



(Baxker, 1908.) 



AMMONIUM PerlODATE NH4IO4. 

100 gms. HjO dissolve 2.7 gms. salt at 16*, du = 1.078. 

AMMONIUM IODIDE NH4I. 

Solubility in Water. Solubility in Aqueous Alcohol at 25*. 





(Smith and Eastlack, 19 16.) 






(Seidell, unpublished.) 


^r 


f 


Gms. NHtl 
per xoo Gms. 


r. 


Gms.NH4l 
per 100 Gms. 


Gms.CtHiOH . ^ 
per xoo Gms. «*?•«. 


Gms. NHiIper 100 Gms 




H,0. 




HjO. 


Solvent. 


dai. doi. 


Sat. Sol. 


Solvent. 


-27.5 


Eutec. 125.2 


40 


190. s 





1.646 


64. s 


181. 9 


— 20 


136 


SO 


199.6 


10 


I.S90 


61.7 


161. 1 


— 10 


I4S 


60 


208.9 


20 


I.S2S 


S8.7 


142. 1 





IS4.2 


70 


218.7 


30 


1.462 


ss-s 


124.8 


10 


163.2 


80 


228.8 


40 


1.39s 


52 


108.3 


IS 


167.8 


100 


2SO.3 


SO 


1.320 


48 


92.3 


20 


172.3 


120 


273.6 


60 


1.250 


43.8 


77.9 


2S 


176.8 


140 


299.2 


70 


1. 168 


39 


64 


30 


181 .4 






80 


1.094 


33-3 


49.9 










90 


1. 013 


27. S 


37.9 










ICO 


0.929 


20.8 


.26.3 



53 
Tecra Ethyl AlOfONIUM IODIDE N(CsH.)4l. 



AMMONIUM IODIDE 



Solubility in Sbvbral Solvents. 

(Walden — Z. physik. Chem. 55. 698, '06.) 



Solvent. 



Water 

Water 

Methyl Alcohol 

Methyl Alcohol 

Ethyl Alcohol 

Ethyl Alcohol 

Glycol 

Glycol 

Acetonitrile 

Acetonitrile 

Piopionitrile 

PrapioDitrile 

Benzonitrile 

Methyl Sulphocyanide 

Ethyl Sulphocyanide 

Nitro Methane 

Nitro Methane 

Nitroso Dimethyline 

Acetyl Acetone 

Fuifuiol 

Furfurol 

Benzaldehyde 

Salicylaldehyde 

Anisaldehyde 
Acetone 
Acetone 
Ethyl Acetate 
Ethyl Nitrate 
Benzoyl Ethyl Acetate 
Dimethyl Malonate 
Methyl Cyan Acetate 
Methyl Cyan Acetate 
Ethyl Cyan Acetate 
Ethyl Cyan Acetate 
Nitrobenzene 
Acetophenone 
Amyl Alcohol 
Paraldehyde 
Methyl Formate 
Biomobenzene 



o 

25 
o 

25 

o 

25 

o 

25 

o 

25 

o 

25 

25 
25 
25 

o 

25, 

25 

25 

o 

25 
25 
25 

25 

o 

25 

25 

25 
C6H6COCH2COOC2H5 25 

CHs(C00CH,)2 25 

CHjCNCOOCHs o 

CHjCNGOOCH, .25 

CHiCNCOOCsHfi o 

CHsCNCOOCJIi 25 

GHsNO, 25 

CeEUCOCH, 

CbHuOH 

(C2H4O), 

HCOOCH, 

CsHftBr 

(Walden 



FonnuUt. 

H,0 

CHK)H 

CH3OH 

CaHfiOH 

CaHjOH 

(CH1OH), 

(CH1OH), 

CH3CN 

CHjCN 

CUCHjCN 

CUCHjCN 

CeHfiCN 

CH3SCN 

CjHiSCN 

CH3NO, 

CHaNOa 

(CH3)2N.NO 

CHaCOCHjCOCH, 

CJty^.COH 

CJIsO.COH 

CeHfiCOH 

CrfI4.OH.COH 

C(a.OCH,.COH 
(CH,)2C0 
(CH,)2C0 
CH,C00C,H8 

C2H60N02 



Sp. Gr. Gms. mCJSfjJ. 

of « . . 

Soltttion. cc- Solut](»x. 

1.0470 16.31 

I.I02I 36.33 (355) 

0.8326 3-7-4-3 
0.8463 10.5 (10.7) 
0.7928 0.348 
0.7844 0.98(0.88) 
I. 1039 3.27 

1.0904 7.63(7.55) 
0.8163 2.24 
0.7929 2.97(3.54) 
0.8059 0.618 
0.7830 0.81-1.01 

0.467 
1.0828 4.40 
I. 0012 0.475 
I. 1658 #3.59 
I. 1476 5.38-6.27 

2.67 

0.268 

3.91 

5-33 

0.43 
change- 
able-! 7. 7 

0.59 
0.174 

0.249 

0.00039 

1.0984 0.062 

I. 1303 0.321 
0.040 
1.82 
2.83 

1.057 
1. 71 

0.504 

0.13 

0.071 

0.036 

0.031 

0.009 

— Z. physik. Chem. 61, 635, 



per 100. 



^.0059 

• » • 

I . 1738 
I. 1692 



Gms. 
Solution. 

15.58 

32.9 

4.44 
12.29 

0.439 
1. 113 
2.97 

7 

2.74 
3-74 
0.767 

0.99 

0.451 
4.06 

0.47 

3.004 

4.72 
2.66 

• • • 

3.33 
4.55 



0.7991 



I . 1335 
I . 1341 

• • • 

1.0760 
1.0607 



0.218 
0.316 

• • • 

0.056 

0.284 

0.035 

1.605 

• • • 

0.981 

1. 41 

0.422 

0.127 

0.089 

0.037 

0.032 

0.006 

i9or-'o8.) 



AMMONIUM lODIDB 



54 



Tetra Methyl AMMONIUM IODIDE N(CH,)J. 

Solubility in Several Solvents. 

(Walden — Z. physak. Chem. 55* 708. '06.) 





FonnuU. 


»•. 


Sp. Gr. o( 
Solutiaa. 


Gms. N(CH9)« 1 


[ per xoo. 


SoltVMt. 


cc. Solutioa. 


Gms. 
Sdutiaa. 


Water 


H,0 





1. 0188 


2.01 


1.97 


Water 


H,0 


25 


I .0155 


5 -31-5 -89 


5.22 


Methyl Alcohol 


CH,OH 





0.8025 


0. 18-0.22 


0.22 


Methyl Alcohol 


CH,OH 


25 


■ 7930 


0.38-0.42 


0.48 


Ethyl Alcohol 


CJH.OH 


25 


0.7894 


009 


■ • • 


Glycol 


(CH.OH). 





• • • 


1. 014 


• • • 


Glycol 


(CHK)H). 


25 


1.0678 


0.240 


0.224 


Acetonitril 


CH.CN 


25 


• ■ • 


0.650 


• • • 


Nitro Methane 


CHJJO, 





1.1387 


o.?s-o.32 


0.22 


Nitro Methane 


CHJJO, 


25 


I. 1285 


0.34-0-38 


0.21 


Acetone 


(CH,).CO • 





• • • 


O.I 18 


• • ■ 


Acetone 


(CH.).CO 


25 


• ■ • 


0.187 


• • • 


Salicyl Aldehyde 


CJI4.OH.COH 





I . 1493 


0.302 


0.263 


Salicyl Aldehyde 


C34.OH.COH 


25 


I 1379 


0.510 


0.484 



Very exact determinations of the solubility of tetra methyl ammonium iodide 
in aqueous solutions of KOH and of NHiOH at 25® are given by Hill (19 17). 

Tetra Propyl AMMONIUM IODIDE N(C,H7)4l. 

Solubility in Several Solvents, 

(Wftlden — Z. pbysik. Chem. 55. 709, '06.) 

„ „ , Gms. N(CaH7)4l per 100. 

Solvent. 

Methyl Alcohol 

Methyl Alcohol 

Ethyl Alcohol 

Ethyl Alcohol 

Acetonitrile 

Acetonitrile 

Propionitrile 

Propionitrile 

Benzonitrile 

Nitro Methane 

Nitro Methane 

Nitro Benzene 

Benzaldehyde 

Benzaldehyde 

Anisaldehyde 

Anisaldehyde 

Salicylaldehyde 

Ethylnitrite 

Ethylnitrite 

Dimethyl Malonate 

Dimethyl Malonate 

Acetone 

Acetone 

Ethyl Acetate 

Ethyl Bromide 



Fonnubu 


r. 


op. ur. Qi 
Solution. 


cc. Solution 


Gms. 
Solution. 


CHiOH 





0.9756 


40.92 


41.94 


CHiOH 


25 


I. 0187 


56.42 


55-37 


QHsOH 





0.8349 


6.5-6.8 


8.14 


CJthOH. 


25 


0.8716 


19.88-20. 


29 23.28 


CH^N 





0.8553 


13 03 


15 24 


CH,CN 


25 


0.8584 


18.69 


21.77 


COIsCN 





0.8280 


6.37 


7.66 


CiHsCN 


25 


O.8I9I 


965 


10.29 


Cai«CN 


25 


I. 0199 


8.44 


8-35 


CH*NOj 





I. 181 


14.79 


12.52 


CHJJO. 


25 


I. 158 


22.24 


19.21 


QHsNOj 


25 


I 193 


5-71 


4 79 


CHsCOH 





I. 0581 


7.06 


6.67 


QflsCOH 


25 


I .0549 


9.87 


9-35 


C«H6.0CH,.C0H 





I.III4 


5.60 


504 


C«H6.0CH,.C0H 


25 


I. 1004 


6.7s 


6.14 


C«Hs.0H.C0H 


25 


• • • 


39.28 


• • • 


CjHsNO. 


c 


I. 1207 


0.522 


0.466 


cjEWsro. 


25 


I . 1025 


0.653 


0.592 


CH2(C00CH,)j 





I 1532 


0.298 


0.259 


CHj(C00CH,)j 


25 


I 1345 


0.320 


0.282 


(CH,),CO 





0.8259 


2.692 


4.65 


(CH,),CO 


25 


0.8049 


3-944 


4.90 


CHjCOGOHs 


25 


0S975 


0.0063 


0.007 


QHjBr 


25 


• • • 


• • • 


0.187 




(Walden — Z. physOc Chem. 6i, 639, igoT-'oS ) 



55 



AMMONIUM IODIDE 



Solubility of Tbtra Amyl, Tetra Ethyl and Tetra a Propyl Ammonium 
Iodides in Water and in Chloroform at 25^. (Peddle and rumer. 19x3.) 



Solvent. 



Gzns. Each Salt (Determined Separately), per zoo Gms. Solvent. 



N(CH,04l. N(C,Hi)4l. aN(C,H7)J. 

Water 0.74 45 18.64 

CHCI3 210.8 i.ss 5456 

FriKzing'point data for mixtures of tetra methyl ammonium iodide and iodine, 
and tor phenyltrimethyl ammonium iodide and iodine are given by Olivari (1908). 

AMMOKIUM Iridium CHLORIDES. 

Solubility in Water at 19^. (Deiepme, 190S.) 

Name of Salt. Fonnula. ,00 toi.^. 

Ammonium iridium chloride (NH4)»IrCl6 0.77 

Diammonium aquo penta chloro iridite IrCl6(H20)(NHi)s 15 .4 
Triammoniiun hexa chloro iridite IrCl«(NH4)8+H20 10.5 

AMMONIUM lodo MEBCURATE 2NH4l.Hgl2.H,0. 

100 gms. of the saturated aqueous solution contain 4.5 gms. NH4, 22.6 gms. 
Hg and 62.3 gms. I at 26°, sp. gr. = 2.98. (Duboin, 1905.) 

AMMONIUM Tetra MOLYBDATE (NH4)20.4MoQi.2H20. 

salt at 15" {d = 1.03), 3.67 gms. at 18** (d - 

(Weibpe, 19x2.) 



ICO gms. H«0 dissolve j.52 gms. sail 
1x14) 2^d 4.60 gms. at 32^ {d = 1.05). 



AMMONIUM Phospho MOLYBDATE (NH4)iP04.i4MoO<4H20. 

Solubility in Water and Aqueous Solutions at 15**. (de LuccW, x9xo.) 

Solvent. Gms. Salt per looo Gms. Sohrent. 

Water 0.238 

5 per cent aqueous NH4NQ8 solution o. 137 

I per cent aqueous HNQs solution o. 203 

AMMONIUM NITRATE NH4NO,. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Sdniuz — Oitwald's Lefarbuch, ad ed. p. 4a<; MoUcr and Kawfmann — Z. ph^ik. Cheni: 

43, 497» oi-'oa.) 

Gms. NHfN(Da per 
j,jDer 100 (5ms. 



Sp. Gr. 



G.Mob. 
NH«NOs 
100 Mob. 



O 
12.2 
20.2 

aS-o 
30.0 

32.1 

35 o 
40.0 

50. o 

60.0 

70.0 

80.0 

90.0 

100 .0 



1-2945 
1.3116 

1-3197 
1 .3299 

1-3344 
I -3394 
1.3464 



26 
34 

43 
48 

54 

57 

59 
66 

77 

94 

112 

130 
166 

196 



63 


54- 


■so 


60. 


•30 


65- 


.19 


68. 


.40 


70. 


.60 


71- 


.80 


72. 


.80 


74- 


.41 


77- 


•73 


80. 


•30 


83- 


•50 


85- 


•50 


88. 


■00 


89. 



utxm. 
19 

53 
80 

17 
73 
97 
64 
82 

49 
81 

32 

25 
08 

71 



Solid 
Phase. 



u 
a 
u 
It 



Water. 

1x8 .3 NH4NO, rhomb, fi 

1534 
192.4 

214.2 

241.8 

256.9 NH4NOS rhomb, fi + rhomb, a 

265 .8 NH^NO, rhomb. « 

297.0 

344 o • 

421.0 

499.0 

580.0 

740.0 NHiNOsrhombohedral? 

871.0 



It 
ti 
it 

u 
ti 



« 



SOLUDILmES OF MIXTURES OF AMMONIUM NiTRATB AND OTHER SALTS. 

(ROdorf— Mulder.) 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 162.9 gms- NH4NO1 + 77.1 gms. NaNOs at 16° R. 
100 gms. HjO dissolve 88.8 gms. NH4N0j + 40.6 gms. KNO» at 9** M. 
100 gms. HiO dissolve 101.3 gms. NH^NOi -j- 6.2 gms. Ba(N08)2 at 9° M. 



AMMONIUM NITRATE 



56 



80 
60 

44 
30 
10. S 
o 



-445 



Solubility of Ammonium Nitratb in Ammonia. 

(Knrikff — Z. phyiic. Cbem. as. 109, '98.) 



NH«NO|. 

O 

I -3918 
0.9526 

0.8308 

0.967s 

0.7600 



Gms. 
NHt. 

100 
4-4327 

1-2457 

0.3700 

03515 

0.3607 



Mol8.NH«NOa 
per 100 Mola. 

0.0 
6.25 

13 9 

36 -9 
383 



33-3 

35-9 
68.8 

94 o 

190.8 

168.0 



Gnu. 
MHcNO^ 

0-9358 

o . 7746 

4.2615 
0.6439 

0.7578 



Mob 
Gms. per 100 



o 2352 
o . 1857 

0.7747 
0.0665 
0.0588 



NH4N0a 
+ NH^ 

4^9 

4f o 
53-8 

67 -3 
74.2 

100. o 



t° — temperattire of equilibrium between solution and solid phase 



Solubility of Ammonium Nitratb in Aqueous Solutions of Ammonium 

Sulfate and Vice Versa. 

(Masamik, 19x6, xgx?.) 



Results at o^ 


Results at 30**. 


Results at 70®. 


(de Waal. 1910.) 


(Schrrfnemskers and Haenen, 19x0.) 


(de Waal. 19x0.) 


Gms. per 
100 Gms. &t. Sol. SoKdPhMe. . 
NH«NQ, ^^* 


Gms. per 
100 Gms. Sat. Sol. _ „ . _. 

.____ . wwuu « ■■■■■' • 

NH«N0i. ^^« 


Gms. 
xooGms. 


^^ SoBdPhoe. 


nh«nq,. 


(NHJ, Solid Phase. 
SO4. 


54.19 NH^Oi 


70.1 NHiNOb 


84.03 


NH4NQ, 


49.12 6 


67.63 2.38 


81.38 


2.41 


45-99 9 -53 NH4N0i+i.3 


66.93 346 NH|N0i+ij 


81.01 


2.45 NU4NQ,+i.3 


31.61 19.5 1.3 


63.84 4.96 1.3 


80.25 


2.68 1.3 


30.87 20.43 x.3+i.a 


58.06 8.22 X.3+X.2 


76.01 


3.96 


31.04 20.4 x.a 


52.75 11.42 i.a 


73.48 


5.14 x.3+i.a 


29.81 21.33 " 


49.80 13.27 "+(NH|),S04 


71 58 


5.82 1.3 


29.58 41.64 x.a+(NH|)iS04 


37.20 19.48 (NU4)tS04 


70.15 


6.71 x.a+(NIL),S04 


5.61 37.89 (NH|),S0» 


19.91 28.83 


IX. 10 


40.81 (NH«)«S04 


41.4 


".05 34.7 
44.1 





47.81 



1.3 - (NH4)iS04.3NH,NO,. 1.2 - (NH4)2S04.2NH4NO,. 

Freezing-point lowering data for mixtures of anunonium nitrate and lead 
nitrate are given by Bogitch (1915). 



Solubility of Ammonium Nitrate in Nitric Acid. 

(GroBchu£F — Ber.37* X488t '04.) 

Detenninations by the " Synthetic Method," see Note, page 16. 



8 

29.5m.pt. 38.8 

27.5 44-6 

23s 49.4 

17.5 54.0 

16. 5 54.3 

4«o 45-8 



Gms. Mds. 

NH4NO1 NH4NOS Solid 

per zoo per xoo Phase. 
Gms. Sol. Mols.HNOa. 

21. 1 21. 1 NH4N0s.aHN0s 

28.7 31.6 " • 

50.0 •• 

63.4 - » 

76.8 

92.4 II 

66:7 NH4N(^.HNOj, 



Gms. Mols. 

NH«NOt NH«NOa Solid 

cr xoo Dcr too Phase. 

I. Mob. HNOa. 



(^.Sol. 



a« solution in HNOa, 



II. o 51.7 84.3 

12.0 54.7 95-1 

II. 5 57.6 108.0 

II. 5 54.0 92.4 

17.0 54-7 95.1 

27.0 56.2 lOI.O 

49.0 60.4 120.0 

79.0 68.1 168.0 

b - solution in NH,NO 



NE^KOsilNOb 
*' lafafl. 
h 
NHiNOs Ubil. 



57 



AMMONIUM NITRATE 



Sqlubilitt of Ammonium Tri-Nitratb in Water. 

(Gxcscfanff.) 



r. 



Gms. NH|NOk Cms. HNOk Mols. NHtNOk* Mols. NH«NOk 

Br xoo total 



8 

2.S 

■ 3 

8-5 

195 

«S 

39.5 m. pt. 



Solution. 

34-2 
34-8 



per xoo Cms. per xoo Gms. per 100 Mols. 
Solution. H|0. 

53-9 64.3 

54.8 

55.8 

56.9 

58.9 
60 

61.2 



35 4 
36.6 

37.4 
38.1 
38 8 



75.1 
90 

"3 
225 

450 

00 



Mols. Solution. 
22 
23.1 

24.3 

25.7 
29 

31 

33 



Solid Phase. 



NH4NO8.2HNO1 



or NHiNCVaHNOt. 



Solubility ov Mixtures of Ammonium Nitrate and Silver Nitrate in 

Water at Various Temperatures. 

(Schxeinemakexs and deBaat, xgio.) 



Gmi.per 


xoo Gms. 






Gms. per 


100 Gms. 


Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


f. 


Sol. Solid Phase. 


AgNOb. NH«N0^ 


AgNQ,. 


NH«NQ,: 


7.3 47.1 





Ice+xb. AgNOk 


109 6 


67.9 


32.1 D+rb.AgNQi 


10.7 44.52 


8.43 


(( 





22.13 


44.87 D+rbJra^NOi 


14.9 42 


16.8 1 


[ce+D+xb. AgNOk 


18 


27.07 


49.22 


14.8 39.51 


18.79 


" +D 


30 


29.76 


52.50 


18.7 15.99 

17.4 
50.36 

18 55 36 
30 58.89 


37-3 
41.2 

19-59 
22.06 

23.42 


« +D-Wxb.NH4NQi 

" +xb.NH|NOi' 

D+xb.AgNOi 
II 


±32 
40 
55 
85.4 


• ■ • 

32.68 
36.6 

• « • 


( D+cb. N^70k+ 

••• \ «+xii.NH4NOb 

52.22 D-hiib.NH«NOi 

52.38 

iD+rb.NH4N0k+ 
• • • \ rbd.NH,NOi 


55 63.32 


26.12 


If 


101.5. 


47.5 


52.5 D+rbd.NH,NOi 


D = N 


H4Na. 


AgNOi. rb. = 


rhombic. 


rbd 


. a rhombohedric. 



Solubilitt of Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions of Silver 

Nitrate and Vice Versa at 30". 

(Schrdnemakexs and deBaat, xgio.) 



GoLper 100 Gms. 




Gms. per 


xoo Gms. 




Sat.SoL 


Solid Phase. 


Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


AsNQ^ 


nh«no^ 


AgNO.. 


NH4NQ; 







70.1 


NH«NOs 


45 85 


34.47 


D 


12.51 


6359 


u 


52.45 


28.86 


ii 


21.31 


58.64 


tt 


57-93 


24-33 


11 


27 -75 


54.12 


tl 


58.88 


23.42 


D+AgNO, 


29.76 


52.5 


NH4N0,+D 


63.27 


15.62 


AgNQ, 


35.62 


45.44 


D 


69.08 


6.59 


it 


41.09 


39.60 


ii 


73 





it 



D « NH4NO,.AgN08. 

Results are also given by Schreinemakers (1908-09) for the reciprocal solubility 
of ammonium nitrate and silver nitrate in aqueous alcohol solutions at 30°. 
100 cc anhydrous hydrazine dissolve 78 gms. NHiNOs at room temp, with 

decomp. (Welsh and BroderBon, 19x5.) 

Freezing-point data for mixtures of ammonium nitrate and silver nitrate are 
given by Flavitzkii (1909) and by Zawidzki (1904). The eutectic is at 102.4** 
and 30.9 MoL % AgNO«. Results for NH^NOs + TlNOs are given by Boks (1902). 



AMMONIUM NITRATE 58 

Reciprocal Solubility of AimoNiuif Nitrate and Sodium Nitrate in 

Water at o**, 15** and 30". 

(Fedotieff and Koltunoff, 19x4.) 

Sp. Gr. Sat. Gms. per lop Gma. E^. 



v^. 


Sol. 


' NH«N0,. 


NaNCV 


• . 


Sol. 


NH«NQm 


NaNOk. 





I -354 





73-33 


IS 


1.429 


I5S-3 


75-38 





1.407 


loss 


66 


IS 


1. 40s 


156.1 


60.76 





1.264 


118. 4 





IS 


1.364 


159 


36.50 


IS 


I -375 





83.9 


IS 


I -350 


160 


27.79 


IS 


1.386 


24.03 


81.21 


IS 


I 330 


162.3 


17 63 


IS 


1.392 


42.81 


79-34 


IS 


1.298 


167.4 





IS 


1. 401 


64.6 


78.06 


30 


1. 401 





96.12 


15 


1. 417 


IIO.9 


7S.8I 


30 


1.450 


220.8 


88.31 


IS 


1.428 


IS2 


7S-3S 


30 


1.329 


232.6 






Solubility of Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Ethyl Alcohol. 

(Fleckensteb — Physik. Z., 6, 4x9, '05.) 
Grams of NH«NQ| Dissolved per xoo Grams Aq. Alcohol of (Wt. %): 



. . 


100%. 


86.77%. 


76.x 3%. 


51.65%. 


a5.8x%. 


0%, 


20 


2-5 


II 


''S 


70 


140 


195 


30 


4 


14 


32 


90 


165 


230 


40 


S 


18 


43 


•"5 


196 


277 


50 


6 


24 


55 


144 


244 


36s 


60 


7-5 


30 


70 


183 


320 


• • • 


70 


9 


41 


93 


230 


• . • 


• • • 


80 


10.5 


56 


• • • 


• • • 


• . • 


• • • 



Note. — The figures in the preceding table were read from curves shown in 
the abridged report of the work, and are, therefore, only approximately correct. 
Determinations of the solubility in methyl alcohol solutions were also made but 
not quoted in the abstract. The "Synthetic Method" (see Note, page 16} was 
used. 

100 grams absolute ethyl alcohol dissolve 4.6 grams NHiNOa at 14^ and 3.8 
grams at 20.5*. 

100 grams absolute methyl alcohol dissolve 14.6 grams NH4NOS at 14^, 16.3 
grams at 18.5^ and 17.1 grams at 20.5^ 

(Schiff and Monsacchi — Z. physik. Chem., az, 377, '96; at 20.5* de Bniyn — Ibid., zo, 783, '92.) 

Solubility op Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Ethyl and Methyl 
Alcohols and in a Mixture of the Two at 30^. 

(Srhrrinfmakerg, 1908-09.) 
Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. 



H«0. 


CtH^H. 


NHiNOk. 


HiQ. 





96.4 


3.6 





5 


89.6 


6.5 


S 


10 


80.4 


10.7 


10 


IS 


68.6 


17 


IS 


20 


535 


26.8 


20 


25 


32.5 


44.8 


25 


29.9 





70.1 


29.9 



CH^H. NH4NO1. H^. +c,B$6h. NH4NO. 

833 16.7 3.4 84.9 II. 7 

74.8 21.3 5 82.9 12,3 

63.8 27.1 10 74.6 16.4 

50.7 35 15 63.5 24 
35.2 46.3 20 48.2 35.1 

19.8 59 25 22.4 54 
o 70.1 29.9 o 70.1 

• Weight per cent CHaOH - 517. CjHftOH - 48.3. 

Additional determinations of the solubility of ammonium nitrate in aqueous 

ethyl alcohol solutions at o**, 30** and 70° are given by deWaal (19 10). At cer- 
tain concentrations at 67.5** the solutions separate into two layers. 



59 



AMMONIUM NITRATE 



AMMONIUM Magnesium NITaATE 2NH4NO|.Mg(NOi}2. 

100 parts water dissolve lo parts salt at 12.5^. (Foucroy.) 

AMMONIUM Manganic MOLYBDATE 5(NH4)2Mo04.Mn2(Mo207)i.i2H,0. 
100 parts water dissolve 0.98 part salt at 17^. (Struve— j. pr. Chem., 61; 460, '54) 

AMMONIUM OLEATE CnHnCOONHi. 

SOLUBILrTY IN SEVERAL SOLVENTS. 
(Fslciola, 19x0.) 



SolvenL unU' Min«v.vAjnxi4 aiaaoivca 


per zoo cc. soiveni: 


Absolute Alcohol 31 at 0** 59 at 10** 
75 per cent Alcohol ... 8.2 at 20** 
I part Alcohol + 2 parts Ether ... 9 .45 at 15** 
Acetone ... 4.7 at 15** 


100 at 50*' 
10.86 at 30** 
16.9 at 20** 

• • • 



AMMONIUM OXALATE (COONH4)t.HsO. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Av. curve from results ot Engd, z888; Foote and Andrew, 1905; Woudstra, 191 3; Colani, 19x6.) 





* • xoo 


is. (COONHJi per 
Gms. Sat. Solution. 


V. 


Gms. (COONHJi per 
too Gms. Sat. Solution. 







2.1 


25 


4.8 






10 


3 


30 


S.6 






IS 


3S . 


40 


7-4 






20 


4.2 


50 


9-3 






Solxjbiliti 


' IN Aqueous Solutions of 


' Oxalic Acid 


• 






(Woudstra, 


191 2.) 






Results at 30**. (Interpolated 
from Original.) 




Results at 45* 


• 


Qms. per 100 


Cms. Sat. Sd. 


SaKd PfMJv 


Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 


Solid Phue. 


(COONH4),. 


(C00H),1 


^UUU X UbSC. 


(COONH4),. 


(COOH),. 


0.14 


12.36 


A 


0.22 


21.22 


A 


0.28 


12.78 


A+T 


0.31 


21.31 


ti 


0.30 


12 


T 


0.53 


20.54' 


A+T 


0.39 


10 


« 


0.56 


21.23 


T 


0.47 


8 


(( 


0.61 


20.55 




0.52 


7 


ti 


0.54 


20.92 




0.6S 


6 


ti 


0.79 


16.44 




I 


S 


U 


1.23 


12.88 




2 


396 


u 


7.16 


7.98 




3 


3-6i 


ii 


3-54 


5 83 




4 


360 


a 


5 65 


567 




5 


3.81 


u 


6.72 


5-95 




S.9« 


4.21 


T+A. 0. 


8.74 


6.53 


T+A. 0. 


7 


3 63 


A.O. 


8.93 


6.27 


A.O. 


8.19 


3 36 


A. O.+N. 0. 


9.04 


6.14 


tt 


7 


2.32 


N.O. 


12.38 


5 A. O.+N. 0. 


6 


1.02 


It 


8.31 


3 04 


N.O. 


S-53 


0.22 


it 


959 


1-45 


« 



A. = Oxalic Add (COOH),.H,0. 
A. O. = Acid Ammonium Oxalate (COO)2HNH4.H20. 
T = Ammonium tetroxalate (COOH),(COO)aHNH4.2H20. 
N. O. = Neutral Ammonium Oxalate (COONH4)2.H«0. 
Additional data for this system at 25^ are given by Walden (1905), and at o^ 
by Engel (1888). 



AMMONIUM OXALATE 60 

Solubility in Water op Mixtures of Ammonium Oxalate and: 
Other Oxalates at 25^. Other Ammonium Salts. 

(Foote and Andrew, 1905.) (Colani, 19x6.) 

Cms. per xoo Cms. Sat. Solution. m Gms. per xoo Gnu. Sat. SolatioD. 

/ * X ^' i -* ^ 

2.79 (C00NH4)^Hi0 +25.96 (COOK) AO 15 0.I4 (C00NH4)t + 26.35 NH4a 

4.8 " +S-7S (coou). so 0.67 - +32.55 " 

5^45 " +o.59(cxx))tMg2HdO i8 o.ii - +42.43 (NH4),S04 

6.19 " +1.45 (COO), Zn.aH,0 50 O.65 - +45. 92 

5.06 " +0 . 28 (CXX)), Cd.3H,0 19 0.085 " +62.26 NH4NOi 

50 o.zS " +72.11 " 
Both salts in excess in every case. No double salts formed. 

Solubility of Ammonium Oxalate and of Ammonium Thorium Oxalate' 

IN Water at 25®. 

(Jfunes, Whittemore and Holden, 19x4.) ' 

The mixtures were constantly agitated for periods varying from many weeks 
to several months. 



Gms. per xoo 
(NH4),C,04. 


Gms. H,0. 
Th(C04)|. 


SoUd Phase. 


Gms. per xoo 
(NH.),C,04. 


Gms. H,0. 
Th(C,Oi)i. 


Solid Phase. 


5-25 





(NH4),Q04 


29.47 


39 10 


2*1.7+2.1.2 


6.04 


1-54 




23 04 


29.87 


2.1.2 


7.78 


4. SI 




16.84 


21.18 




10.37 


8.87 




13 27 


15.96 




15-46 


16.89 




8.13 


913 




21.47 


26.37 




5-36 


5-63 




28.18 


36.54 


"+2.1.7 


1.70 


1.42 





2.1.7 = 2Th(C,04)2.(NH4)tC,04.7H,0; 2.1.2 = 2Th(a04),.(NH4),Crf)4.2H20. 
100 gms. 95% formic acid dissolve 6.2 gms. (NH4)tCs04 at 21°. (Aschan. 19x3.) 
100 cc. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve 44 gms. (NH4)tC204 at room temp, 
with evolution of ammonia. (Welsh and BrodervMi, 1915.) 

AMMONIUM PALMTTATE CieHsiOsNH4. 

Solubility in Several Solvents. 

(Faldola, x9xo.) 







Gms. 


CuHaiO,NH« 1 


per xoo CO. of: 




r. 


Absolute 
AlcohoL 


75% Alcohol. 


50% Alcohol. 


Mixture of x Pt. 

Alcohol + 3 Paits 

Ether. 







o-S 


• • ■ 


... 


• • • 


... 


10 


0.7 


1.78 


... 


0.37 (13°) 


0.2 (13») 


20 


1-4 


4.33 


5-33 


0.29 


a • • 


30 


... 


tl.02 


... 


• a • 


• • • 


40 


4.5 


14.84 


6.69 


• • • 


• • • 


so 


II 


... 


... 


... 


• • • 



AMMONIUM PHOSPHATES (NH4)jP04, (NH4),HP04, and NH4H,P04. 
100 gms. H2O dissolve 131 gms. (NH4)tHP04 at 15®, iu sat. sol. =» 1.343. 

(Greenish and Smith, X901.) 

Data for the solubility of mono ammonium phosphate in anhydrous and in 
aqueous ortho phosphoric acid, determined by the ^nthetic method, are given 
by Parravano and Mieli, 1908. 



61 AMMONIUM PHOSPHATES 

SoLUBiuTT OP Ammonium Phospbatbs in Aqueous Solutions of Ortho 

Phosphoric Acm at 25^. 

(Parker, 1914.) 

Cms. per loo Gnu. 
Solid Phase. Sat. Solution. Solid Phaae. 



Gncper 


looGms. 


SaL Solution. 


BJPO^ 


NH.. 


4.1 


22.6 


4-4 


18.4 


10 


131 


20 


7 


30 


7-7 


34.4 


10 


40 


10.2 


48.2 


II. 6 





H,P04. 


NH,. 


(NH,)J>04.3H^ 


40 


9 *NH4H2P04 


(( 


30 


5-4 


it 


20.6 


4 " . 


cc 


30 


3.8 


iC 


40 


4 " 


CNH4)aP04.3H20+ (NH4)2HP04 


SO 


4.2 " 


(NH4)2HP04 


60.6 


4-4 " 


(NH0»HPO4+NH4H2PO4 







The original figures have been calculated to grams, plotted on cross-section 
paper and the above table read from the curve. 

Data for this system are also given by D'Ans and Schreiner (19 10). The 
agreement is satisfactory except for the (NHOsPOi-sH^O end of the curve, for which 
much lower values for the NHs component are given by D'Ans and Schreiner. 

AMMONIUM Magnesium PHOSPHATE NH4MgP04.6HsO and iHsO. 

Solubility in Water and Salt Solutions, 

(Bube, 1910.) 

The solutions were saturated in jr- 16 liter flasks. The stirrer was introduced 
through a mercury sealed, connection, in order to prevent loss of moisture or 
anunonia during the long periods required for saturation. Great care was ex- 
eidaed to eliminate errors of manipulation. Large volumes of the saturated 
aolutbns were used for analysis. In the cases where equilibrium was approached 
from above (designated by *, in table below) the mixtures were heated to about 
90° for ) hour, and then cooled while being continually stirred for 4-5 hours at 
50^ and then in a thermostat at 25^ for the remaining period shown. 

Solvent. f. ^^!P' Cms, per too Gma. Sat. Sol Solid Phaae. 

**"''™*- •• Saturation. Mg. PA- NH,. ^« *-"*«• 

Witer 25^ 69hrs. 0.0808 0.0965 ... Mixed Hydrates 

" 25 9 days 0.0867 0.0992 ... " 

" 25 14 " 0.1352 0.1333 0.1301 " 

" 22.7 17 hrs.* 0.1076 0.1084 0.1040 Mooohydrate 

taNHiCI 25 20 days 0.3129 0.3057 ... Mixed hydrates 

-:«NH4Cl+i«NH< 25.2 16 hrs.* 0.0249 0.02025 ... Mooohydrate 

3-* 

0.3 MoL MgClt per liter H/> 25 27 days ... 0.0206 ... Mixed Hydrates 

oj " " " " 25.2 16 hrs.* ... 0.0512 ... MoDohydrate 

^MoL (NH«)tHP04 per liter H^ 24.25 ... * O.1229 " 

Solubility of Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate in Several Solvents. 

(Wenger, 1911.) 
Gma. NHiMgPOi per 100 Gms. Solvent in: 



f. 


Water. 


]^^ 


x^ 


Mixture of i Pt. 


Nl^dl?4 
NHsper 100. 


Aq. 10% 

Nfl4Cl+4 
NHa per zoo. 





0.023 


O.IIO 


0.060 


0.0087 


• . • 


• • • 


20 


0.052 


0.046 


0.105 


0.0098 





.0165 





.0541 


30 


• ■ • 


0.054 


0.II3 


• • • 


■ 


1 • • 




1 . . 


40 


0.036 


0.064 


0.071 


0.0136 




B • • 




t . . 


SO 


0.030 


0.072 


0.093 


0.0153 




B • • 




• . . 


60 


0.040 


0.085 


0.173 


0.0174 


0. 


0274 


0. 


0731 


70 


0.016 


0.083 


0.124 


0.0178 




1 • • 




1 • • 


8a 


0.019 


O.IOI 


0.I9I 


0.014s 




> • • 




) • • 



AlOf ONIUH PHOSPHATES 63 

AlOfONIUM Manganese PHOSPHATE NH4MnPO«.7HA 

Solubility in Several Solvents. 

(Wenger, 19x1.) 
Gms. NHiMnPOi per xoo Gms. Solvent in: 



r 



w.».* Ag. s% Aq. s% Mixture of x Pt. NIL 

^^^' NH^NC^ NHfcl. (d-o.d6)+4 parte lio. 

o ... 0.021 0.002 0.0116 
20 o 0.020 0.025 0.0122 

30 ... 0.023 0.034 

40 O 0.021 0.039 O.OI18 

SO ... 0.023 0-035 0.0132 
60 o 0.027 0.038 0.0194 

70 0.005 0.028 0.041 O.OI9I 
80 0.007 0.033 0.045 0.0197 

AMMONIUM Sodium PHOSPHATES 

Data for the distribution of each of 5 ammonium sodium ortho- and pyro- 
phosphates between water and chloroform at 18^, are given by Abbott and Bray 

(1909). 

AMMONIUM Hydrogen PHOSPHITE (NH4H)HPQ|. 

xoo grams water dissolve 171 grams (NH4H)HP0| at o% 190 grams at 14.5** 
and 260 grams at 31^. (Amat.. 1887.) 

AMMONIUM Hypo PHOSPHITE NH4HtPOs. 

100 CC. HsO dissolve 83 gms. NH4H2PO1 at room temp. (Squire and Caines, 1905.) 

AMMONIUM PERMANGANATE NH4MnO«. 

100 parts water dissolve approximately 8 parts of NH4Mn04 at 15^. (Aschoff.) 

AMMONIUM PICRATE CeH3(NO,),ONH4. 

100 CC. HtO dissolve i.i gm. Am. picrate at room temp. (Squire and C^unes, 1905.) 

100 cc. 90% alcohol dissolve. 1.2 gm. Am. picrate at room temp. 

(Squire and (Raines, xgos.) 

AMMONIUM Fluo SIUCATE (NH4)sSiF«. 

100 parts water dissolve 18.5 parts (NH4)tSiF6 at 17.5,° Sp. Gr. 1.096. 

(Stolba. X877.) 

AMMONIUM SALICYLATE CeH4.0H.COONH4. 

SOLUBILITT IN AqUEOUS AlCOHOL SOLUTIONS AT 2^, 

(Seidell, 1909* x9zo.) 

per 100 Gms. ^£:,L?' OHCOONH« per per 100 Gms. ^Ev^i (XX)NIL perioo 

Solvent. Sat,bol. xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. Sat. Sol. J>at. bol. Gms. Sat. SoL 

o 1. 148 50.8 70 1. 015 42 
20 1. 122 50.3 80 0-979 38 

40 1.088 48.3 90 0.936 31.6 
50 1.067 46.7 95 0.907 27.8 
60 1.042 44.7 100 0.875 22.3 

AMMONIUM SELBNATE (NH4}t Se04 
100 gms. H«0 dissolve 1.22 gms. (NH4)s Se04 at I2^ (Tuttoa, 1907) 



63 



AMMONIUM STEA&ATE 



AMMOHIUM STBASATE CuHjtOsNH4. 

Solubility in Several Solvents. 

(Faldola, 19x0.) 
Gms. CigHtfOjNHi per zoo cc. of: 



r. 

o 

10 

20 

30 
40 

SO 



Absolute Alo^L 75% AlooboL 50% AlcohoL 

w» X * a • • • • 

0.3 0.56 

0.9 1.83 

1.8 s 



0.25 

1. 16 
3-21 



Ether. 



O.I 



Acetone. 

0.08 (i3«) 



5 5 



AMMOHIUM 



SULFATE (NHOsSO^. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Mulder.) 



Gnun» (NH«)iSO^ per 100 GramaL 



Grams (NH«)sS04 per xoo Gnmi. 



O 

5 
10 

IS 

20 

as 



Water. 
70.6 
71.8 

73 o 

74.2 

75-4 
76.7 



Solutioa. 

41.4 

41.8 

42.2 

42.6 

43 o 
43-4 



30 
40 

60 

80 
100 
108.9 



Water. 
78.0 
81.0 
88.0 

95-3 
107 S 



Solutioa. 

43-8 
44.8 

46.8 

48.8 

SO 8 

51 -8 



Sp. Gr. of saturated solution at 15^ — i 248; at 19^ — 1.241 

Eutectic point, Ice + (NH4)iS04 — — 19.05"* and 38.4 gms. (NH^jSOi per 100 
gms. sat. solution. 

Solubility in Aqueous Ammonia Solutions at 25^. 

(D'Ans and Scfareiner, 1910.) 



Mob. per 1000 Gms. Sat. SoL 



Gms. p>er 1000 Gms. Sat. Sol. 



(NH,). 


(NHJ,sa4. 





3.28 


1.02 


2.60 


I -95 


2.13 


3-44 


1-59 


S'Z5 


1. 16 


713 


0.78 


9-47 






(NHj). 


(NH0»SO;. 





433-4 


17-4 


343-6 


33-2 


281.5 


58.6 


210. 1 


91. 1 


153 -3 


121. 4 


103 


161. 2 






Solubility of Ammonium Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of Coffer 

Sulfate at 30*' and Vice Versa. • 

' (Schreineniakers, 19x0.) 



Gma. per loo Gms. Sat. 
Scrfutioa. 



44 

38.32 
29.27 

17.53 
9-33 



CUSO4. 

o 

0.77 

1.57 

4.05 

11.03 



Solid Phase. 
(NH4)2S04 

(NH4)jS04+i.i.6 
1. 1.6 

a 



Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. 

Solution. Solid Phase. 

(NHOsSOf. CUSO4. 
8.19 13.65 

6.98 16.77 

5.79 20.53 I.I.6+CUSO4.5H2O 

2 . 45 20 . 19 CUSO4.5HSO 

20.32 



1. 1.6 



« 



o 

* * Solubility of x.x.6 in water. 

I.I.6 =» CuS04(NH4)iS04.6H,0. 

Several additional determinations for the above system at 19^ are given by 
RfidoifF (1873), and by SchifiF (1859}. 



AMMONIUM SULFATE 



64 



Solubility of Ammonium Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of Ferrous 

Sulfate at 30° and Vice Versa. 

(Schreinemakers, 1910 &.) 



Cms. per 100 Cms. Sat. 
Solution. 


Solid Phase. 
(NH4)2S04 

(NH)S0+i.i.6 
1. 1.6 

it 


Gms. per xoo Cms. Sat. 
Solution. 


Solid Phase. 


(NHJjSO^. FeSO^: 
44.27 

43.88 0.79 

34.24 1.72 

19.64 5.70 

16.29 7. 95 


(NH4),S04. FeSO*. 

8.90 17.64 

6.44 23.59 

5.91 25.24 I 
5.24 25.24 

24.90 


1. 1.6 
(( 

.i.6+FeS04.7HtO 
FeS04.7H20 

(C 


11.45 13 13 


II 







I.I.6 = (NH4)jS04.FeS04.6HaO. 

Data for the quaternary system (NH4)2SO|^ + FeS04 + LiiS04 + HjO at 30* 
are^ also given. 

Solubility of Ammonium Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of Lithium 

Sulfate and Vice Versa. 

(Schreinemakers, Cocheret, Filippo and deWaal, 1905, 1907.) 



• 


Results at 30®. 






Results at so*". 


Gms. per 100 


Gms. Sat. 




Cms. per loo 


Gms. Sat. 




Solution. 


Solid Phase. 


Solution. 


Solid Phase. 


{NHJjSO*. 


Li^SOr 


(NHOiSO,. 


Li^4. 




44.1 





(NHOjSO^ 


45-7 





(NH4)«S04 


40.8 


3 




43 


05 


5.86 


(Nti4)sS04+NH«LiS04 


39-5 


6.6 


(NHi),S04+NH.LiS04 


19. 


65 


16.3s 


NH4LiS04 


30 


10 


NH.LiS04 


13 


90 


21.20 


« 


21.6 


IS 


« 


13- 


97 


21.23 


NH4TJS04+Li,S04.H,0 


^15 


20 


it 


II. 


45 


21.75 


Li^4.H|0 


12. s 


21.9 


NH«LiS04+Li|S04.H^ 


9 


63 


22.79 


H 


8.9 


23 


LitS04.H^ 


8 


58 


23.09 


fl 

• 





251 


<i 


7 


56 


22.86 


M 






• 







243 


If 



Additional data for the triple points of the above system at 20®, 57® and 97* 
are given by Spielrein (1913), but the terms in which the results are presented 
are not clearly shown. 

Data for the quaternary system, ammonium sulfate, lithium sulfate, alcohol 
and water at 6.5®, 30® and 50** are given by Schreinemakers and van Dorp (1907). 

A mixture of an excess of ammonium and of potassium sulfates in water at 
19® was found by RfldorflF (1873) to contain 37.97 gms. (NH4)tS04 + 39.3 gms. 
K2SO4 per 100 gms. sat. solution. 

Solubility of Ammonium Sulfate in Aqueous Scm^utions of Sulfuric 

Acid at 30". 

(Van Dorp, 19x0 and 19x1.) 

Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. 
Solid Phase. 



Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. 
Solution. 



(frao^soT 

44.3 

43-6 

44.1 
42.9 

41 

40.8 

43 

4S-5 

42.3 



HtS04. 
O 

10 

13.2 

IS 
20 

25 

30 

33.8 

35 



(NH4)2S04 

(NH4)2S04+3.i 



Solution. 

(NH4),S04. hJsqT 



3-1 



32.8 
26.1 
20.9 
17.6 
17.8 
20 

30 
37 



3.i+(NH4)HS04 
(NH4)HS04 
3.1 =3[(NH4),S04].H,SO. 



40 

45 

50 

55 
60 

61.7 

62.9 

62.2 



SoUd Phase. 

(NH4)HSO 

(t 
(( 
tc 
u 

CI 

(C 

ct 



65 



AMMONIXTM SULFATE 



Data for the solubility of ammonium sulfate in aqueous solutions of sulfuric 
add of concentration extending to lo gm. mols. per liter, are given by D'Ans 
(1909 and 1913)- 

Data for the solubility of ammonium and lithium sulfates in concentrated 
suuuric acid containing traces of water, at 30^ are given by Van Dorp (19 13-14). 



SoLUBiLiry OF Ammonium Sulfate in Aqueous Solution of Ethyl 

Alcohol at 30® and at 50'. 

(Results at 30*, Wibaut, 1909; at 50% Schreinemaken and de Baat, 1907.) 

Results at 30^. Two liquid layers are formed at concentrations of alcohol 
between 5.8 and 62%. These have the compositions: 





Upper Layer. 






Lower Layer. 




Gms. 


per 100 Gms. Sat Solutioii. 


Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Solution. 


(NHJjSO,. 


CADH. 


Bfi. 


(NHJ,SO«. 


C|H,OH. 


H^. 


2.2 


56.6 


41.2 


371 


5-8 


57-1 


2.6 


S4S 


42.9 


35-7 


6.3 


S8 


3-4 


52 -3 


44.3 


33-8 


7-4 


58.8 


13-2 


318 


ss- 


21.7 


18.4 


59-9 


17 


25 


58 


17 


25 


58 



At a concentration of 62% alcohol the liquid is homogeneous and contains 
1.3 gms. (NH4)sS04 per 100 gms. sat. solution, At 90.4% alcohol no (NH4)sS04 
is dissolved. 

Results at 50^ 

Gms. per zoo Gms. Saturated Solution. 



(NHJtSO*. 


CiHiOH. 


H,0. 


43.02 


2.32 


54.66 


41. 1 


4.1 


S4.8 


1.2 


64. s 


34.3 


0.2 


7SS 


24.3 



Between the concentrations 4.1 and 64.5% CsHtOH the mixtures separate 
into two layers. The percentage composition of each member of several such 
conjoined layers, is as follows: 



» 


Upper Layer. 






Lower Layer. 






Gms. per zoo Gms. Sat Solution. 


Gms. ] 


per zoo Gms. Sat. Solution. 




(NHJtSO.. 


QH^H. 


HiO.^ 


(NHJtSO*. 


C|H,OH. 


HjO.' 


1.2 


64s 


34.3 


41. 1 


41 


54. 


.8 


1.6 


60 


38.4 


36.8 


6 


57. 


.2 


3-8 


SO 


46.2 


30.8 


9 


60. 


.3 


7.4 


40 


S2.6 


26.6 


12 


61. 


■4 


10 


34.4 


SS'^ 


23,6 


15 


61 


•4 



Two determinations at o^ by deWaal (1910) gave 30 gms. (NH4)2S04 per 100 
gms. sat. solution in 9.41% alcohol and 0.14 gm. (NH4)sS04 in 73.03% alcohol. 
Between these concentrations of alcohol two liquid layers are formed. 

100 gms. 95% formic add dissolve 25.4 gms. (NH4)tS04 at 16.5°. 

(Aschao, 19x3.) 



AMMONIXTM SULFATE 66 

Solubility of Ammonium Sulfate in Aqueous Ethyl Alcohol Solutions. 

(CarUinued,) 

CTnnbt and Neuberg — Z bbysik. Chcin. i> 510, '87; BodUmJer — Ihid, 7t3xS» '91; Sdudnemaker — 
Ibid. 23, 657. '97 ; de Brujn— Ibid.S^, 68, '00; linebarger — Am. Cn. J. Z4f 580^ '9>«) 



Upper Layer Remits. 


Lower Layer Results. 




Grams per xoo Gms. Solu- 
tion at io'-4o**. 


Gms. CiILOH 

per 100 Gms. 

Solution. 


Gms. (NH4)sS04 per 
SolutioQ at: 


100 g. 


C^QiOH. 


(NH«)aS04. 


'6.f. 


IS**. 


33^ 


100 


00 





42.0 


42.6 


44 


80 


01 


2-5 


39 


40.2 


? 


70 


03 


50 


36.2 


37-2 


? 


60 


14 


7-5 


33-2 


34-5 


42 


SO 


3-2 


10. 


30 


31.0 


35 


4S 


4.8 


"5 


27.2 


28.0 


? 


40 


6.6 


15.0 


24.6 


25.2 


? 


35 


9.2 


175 


22.0 


22.4 


? 


30 


12.2 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


? 


25 


14.6 











Note. — When ammonium sulfate is added to aqueous solutions of alcohol, 
it is found that for certain concentrations and temperatures the solutions sep- 
arate into two liquid layers, the upper of which contains the larger percentage 
of alcohol. 

Most of the determinations which have been made upon this system, as con- 
tained in the papers referred to above, are given in terms of grams of ammo- 
nium sulfate, of alcohol and of water per 100 grams of these three components 
taken together. Those results which are given in other terms can be readily 
calculated to this basis, and it is, therefore, possible to make a comparison of the 
several sets of determinations by plotting on cross-section paper and drawing 
curves through the points. In the present case the grams of alcohol per 100 
grams of solution were takien as ordinates, and the grams of ammonium sulfate 
in the same quantity of each solution taken as abscissae. It was found that a 
single curve could be drawn through practically all the points representing the 
upper layer solutions at the several temperatures, but the points for the solutions 
containing the larger amounts of water gave curves which diverged with increase 
of temperature. The results given for 33*^ in the above table are not to 
be accepted as correct until further work has been done. 



Solubility of Ammonium Sulfate in Aqueous Propyl Alcohol Solutions 

AT 20®. 
(Uoebarser— Am. Ch. J. 14, 380, '93.) 

Gms per xoo Gms. Gms. per xoo Gms. 

Solutian. Soli 



lution. 



C^tOH. (NH4)sS04. QHtOH. (NH«)sSQ«. 

70 0.4 40 3.2 

60 i.o 30 4.8 

50 2.0 20 6.7 



67 AMMONIUM Cadmium SULFATE 

AMMONIUM Cadmium SULFATE (NH4)tCd(SO«)s6HsO. 
100 cc. HiO dissolve 72.3 gms. (NHOtCdCSOOi at 25^ (Locke. 1901.) 

AMMONIUM Chromium SULFATE (Alum) (NH4)tCrs(S04)4.24HsO. 
100 cc. H^ dissolve 10.78 gms. anhydrous or 21.21 gms. hydrated salt at 25**. 

(Locke, X90Z.) 

AMMONIUM Cobalt SULFATE (NH4)tCo(SO«),.6H^. 

Solubility in Water. 



»«M<^ ^ 




Ck J. 27. 459i 


'ox.) 




ji j«*t •■• "J f 




Gnu. (NH«)sCo(S04>s 




Gms. (NH4)sCo(S04>s 


*•. 


per xoo 


Gms. 


t*. 


per 


100 Gms. 




Water. 


Solutioii. 


Water. 


Solutioo.' 





6.0 


5-7 


40 


22.0 


18.0 


10 


95 


8.7 


so 


27.0 


21.3 


20 


13 


"5 


60 


33 S 


251 


25 


14.72 


12.8 


70 


40.0 


28.6 


30 


17.0 


US 


80 


49 


32 -9 



Note. — The determinations reported by the above named inves- 
tigators were plotted on cross-section paper and although considerable 
variations were noted, an average curve which probably represents 
very nearly the true conditions was drawn through them, and the above 
table made from this cvirve. 

AMMONIUM Indium SULFATE (NH«)sInt(SO«)4.24HsO. 

100 gms. HjO dissolve 200 gms. salt at 16° and 400 gms. at 30^. (ROasler, z873*) 



AMMONIUM Iron SULFATE (Alum) (NH4)iF^(SO«)4.24HsO 

100 cc. HsO dissolve ^ 
25^ Sp. gr. of saturated £ 



100 cc. HsO dissolve 44.15 ^ms. anhydrous or 124.40 gms. hydrated salt at 

solution at 15 = 1.203. (Locke, igoi.) 



AMMONIUM Iron SULFATE (ferrous) (NH4)sFe(SO«)s.6HsO. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Tobler; at 35^ Locke — Am. Cb. J. 2KK, 459, 'ox.) 



t<». 


G. (KH«)3Fe(S04)s 
per xoo g. HsO. 


f. 


G. (NH4)3Fe(S04)a 
per xoo g. H2O. 


*•. 


G. (NHt)iFe(SO,)i 
per 100 g. BiO. 





12. 5 


25 


250 (T) 


SO 


40 


IS 


20.0 


2S 
40 


3Si(L) 
33 


70 


s« 



AMMONIUM Lead SULFATE (NH«),S04.PbS04. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Barre, 1909.) 

f . Gms. (NH4).SO. per xoo Gms. ^^ pj^ 

Sat. SolutioQ. Water. 



20 12.17 13.86 (NH4)2S04.PbS04 

50 16. IS 19-25 

75 1952 24.31 

xoo 22.74 29.42 



u 
it 
it 



AMMONIUM Lithium SULFATE 68 

AMMONIUM Lithium SULFATE NH«LiS04. 

SoLUBiuTY IN Water. 

(SchidDemaken, Cocheret, Filippo and deWaal, 1905, 1907.; 





G11W.NILUSO4 

per 100 Gins. 






Gnu.NHJiSOt 
per 100 Gnu. 




r. 


SoUd Phase. 


f. 


SdBiPhtM. 




Sat. Sol. 


m 




Sat. Sol. 










Ice 


— 10 


35-25 


NHJ,iS04 


- S 


14 


(( 


fio 


35-58 


tt 


— 10 


23s 


it 


30 


^K.Sj 


tt 


-IS 


29.7 


it 


SO 


36 


tt 


— 20.6Eutec. 


3S.IS 


Ice+NHtLiS04 


70 


36.18 


tt 



u 



M 



AMMONIUM Magnesium SULFATE (NH«),Mg(SO«)t. 

Solubility of Ammonium Magnesium Sulfate in Water. 

(Porleua, 1914.) 

^ Gnu. per xoo Gms. _ ... _. ^ Gms. per xoo Gms. „ ,.^ ^, 

r. c > cIi ' ur > — Solid PhaK. r. c , cT, " u; , > SoUdPhaie. 

Sat. Sol. Water. Sat. Sol. Water. 

—0.34 1. 01 1.02 Ice 20 15.23 17.96 (NHJtMgCSOJt 

—0.80 2.98 3.07 " 2$ 16.45 19.69 

-1.23 4.92 5.17 " 30 17.84 21.71 

— 1.60 6.56 7.02 " 40 20.51 25.86 

— 2.02 8.34 9.10 " 50 23.18 30.17 
-2 .34 EuteC Ice+(NH«),Mg(SO0t 60 26. 02 35 . 17 " 

O 10.58 11.83 (NHi)MgS04 80 32.58 48.32 

10 12.75 14.61 " 100 39.66 65.72 * 

AMMONIUM Manganese SULFATE (NH4)sMn(S04)i.6HsO. 

100 cc. water dissolve 37.2 gms. (NHOsMnCSOi)! at 25^. (Locke, 1901.) 

AMMONIUM Nickel SULFATE (NH«),Ni(S04)i.6H,0. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Awra«e curve from Tobler, Locke, at 95^.) 

G. (NH4)sNi(S04)a G. (NH«)tNi(SQ«)i 

per loo Gms. . ^•, per 100 Gms. 





Water. 


Solution. 




Water. 


Solutiaa: 





I.O 


0.99 


40 


12.0 


10.72 


10 


40 


3-85 


50 


14.5 


12.96 


20 


6-5 


6.10 


60 


17.0 


14.53 


25 


7-57 


7.04 


70 


20. 


16.66 


30 


9.0 


8-45 









AMMONIUM Sodium SULFATE NH4NaSO«.2HsO. 

100 gms. water dissolve 46.6 gms. NH4.NaSO4.2HaO at 15* Sp. Gr., of Sol. 
1.1749. 

AMMONIUM Strontium SULFATE (NH4}tS04.SrS04. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Barre, 1909.) 
*• Gms. (NH4)>Sp4 per 100 Gms . 

&t. Solution. Water. 

SO S43-99 78.54 (NH4)2S04.SrS04+SrS04 

75 45.40 83.15 

100 46.27 66.2 



69 AMMONIXTM Vanadium SULFATE 



AMMONIUM Vanadium SULTATB (Alum) (NH4)iV,(S04)424HsO. 

100 oc HsO dissolve 31.69 gms. anhydrous or 78.50 gms. hydrated salt at 25**. 

CLocke.) 
AMMONIUM Zinc SULFATE (NH4)iZn(S04)s.6H,0. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Avenge curve, see Notb» p. 67, Tobler, Locke, at 35*.) 



••. 


G. (NH«)A<S04)t 
per 100 Gms. 




Sdutioa. 


Water. 



10 

90 


6.54 
8.67 

II. II 


7.0 

9S 
12.5 


as 
30 


12.36 

13 -79 


14. 1 
16.0 



t». 


G. (NH4)>Zd(S04)i 
per TOO Gms. 


40 


Soltttioa. WatarT 
16.66 20 


SO 
60 
70 
80 


20.0 25 
23 I 30 

as -9 3S 
29.6 42 


ato*. 


(MarshaU, z89z.| 



AMMONIUM PEBSULFATE (NH4)iS,Q8. 
100 parts H«0 dissolve 58.2 parts (NH4)iS2C^ at o**. 

AMMONIUM Sodium Hydr(%en SULFITE (NH4)NasH(SO,)s4HsO. 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 42.3 gms. salt at 12.4° and 48.5^ gms. at 15**. 

(Schwincker, 1889.) 

AMMONIUM Antimony SULFIDE (Sulfoantimonate) (NH4)iSbS4.4HsO. 

Solubility in Water and in Aqueous Alcohol. 

(Donk, 1908.) 
In Water. 



Gms. (NH«)iSbS| 
per ICO Gms. Sat. Sd 

9.9 

20 

30.2 

41.6 

41.6 

47-7 
54. S 



Solid Phase. 

Ice 

u 
It 



In Aqueous Alcohol at io*« 

Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Solution. 



Ice+(NH«),SbS4.4lW) 
(NH«)iSbS4.4HiO 



U 
It 



CAOH. 


(NH4),SbS«. 





43.2 


S-i 


3S.9 


19. 1 


23.1 


43.1 


8.7 


S3'^ 


4.1 


93-3 






r. 

- 1.9 

" S 

- 8 

-13. S 

o 
+20 

30 

AMMONIUM /7-Naphthalene Mono SULFONATE CioHi7SO,NH«. 

100 cc. of the saturated aqueous solution contain 13.05 gms. of the salt at 
25**, and d» = 1.034. OVitt, 1915.) 

AMMONIUM Phenanthrene Mono SULFONATES C14H9SO1NH4 (2), (3) and 
^'^^' Solubility in Water at 20". 

(Sandquist, 1913.) 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 0.37 gms. Ci4H»SOiNH4 (2). 
100 gms. HsO dissolve 0.26 gms. Ci4H»SOsNH4 (3). 
100 gms. HsO dissolve 4.41 gms. C14H9SO1NH4 (10). 

AMMONIUM 2.5 di-iodobenzene SX7LF0NATE CeH,IsSO,(NH«). 



100 gms. HsO dissolve 4.35 gms. salt at 20*^. 



(Boyle, 1909.) 



(Fenton, 1898.) 



AMMONIUM TARTRATES (NH4)sC«H40«. 

100 cc. HsO dissolve 2.83 gms. (NH4)sC4H40«.2HsO at o*. 
100 cc. HsO dissolve 5.9 gms. (NH4)8C4H40« at 15° (d - 1.04). 

(Greexush and Smith, 1903.) 

AMMONIUM Lithium TARTRATES dextro and racemic. 

100 gms. sat. sol. in HsO contain 13. 104 ^ms. racemate (NH4)Li(C4H40«).HsO at 20^ 
100 gms. sat. solution in HsO contain 14.186 gms. dextro (NH4)Li(C4H40i). 

i HsO at 20**. (Schlossberg, 1900.) 

Freezing-point data for mixtures of water and ammonium tartrate and of 

water and ammonium racemate are given by Bruni and Finzi (1905). 



u 
tt 



AMMONIUM TmOCYANATB 70 

AMMONIUM THIOCYANATB NH4SCN 

Solubility in Water. . 

(Average curve frcnn results of RQdorff, 1868 and 1873; Wassilijew, 1910: Smits and Kettner, I9xa.) 

A. Gms. NH4SCN Q^,;j pu.^ A4I Gms. NH^SCN Solid 

•• per 100 Gms. Sat. SoL aoua rnasc. r. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. Phase. 

— 10 20 Ice o 54.5 NH4SCN 
-IS 28. s " +10 59 

—20 35-5 " 20 63 " 

— 25.2 42 Eutec. Ice+NH4SCN 25 65.5 
-10 so NH4SCN 30 67.5 

Data for the system ammonium thiocyanate, thiourea and water at 25** are 
given by Smits and Kettner (19 12) In the form of a triangular diagram, but the 
numerical results are omitted. The diagram confirms the freezing-point lowering 
results in showing that the molecular compound NH4SCN.4(NH4)iCS is formed. 

100 gms. acetonitrile dissolve 7.52 gms. NH«SCN at i8^ (Naumann and Schier. 19x40 

Freezing-point curves have been determined for the following mixtures: 

Ammonium Thiocyanate + Ammonia. (Bradley and Alexander. 29x3.) 

" 4- Potassium Thiocyanate. (Wnesnewaky, 191a.) 

" " -h Thiocarbamide (Thiourea). (Renolds and Werner, 1903; 

Findlay, 2904; Atkins and Werner, 2912; Smits ajid Kettner, 2922; Wrzesoewaky, 29x3.) 

AMMONIUM URATE (Primary) CiH,N«0sNH4. 

Solubility of the Lactam Ain> Lactim Forms in Water. 

(Gudzeit, 2908-09.) 

Gms. of Each per xooo cc. Sat. Solution. 

f. / * V 

Lactam. Lactim. Mixture of the Two. 

18 0.456 0.304 0.414 

37 0.817 0.540 0.741 

AMMONIUM Meta VANADATE NH4VO1. 

Solubility in Water and in Aqueous Ammonium Salt and Ammonium 

Hydroxide Solutions. 

(Meyer, 2909.) 









Gms. 


per 2000 cc. in 


I Each Solvent. 






V. 

m 


Water. 


0.05 n. 
NH4CI. 


o.i n. 
NH^Cl. 


0.05 n. 
NH4NO,. 


0.2 n. 0.0668 n. 
NH4NO,. NH,. 


0.945 D. 


0.588 n. 
NHi. 


18 


4. 35 


1.66 


0.41 


1.67 


0.58 5.58 


7-97 


12.06 


25 


6.08 


2.63 


1. 17 


2.77 


1.23 7.06 


8.58 


12.66 


35 


10.77 


5-21 


2.69 


• • . 


• ft ■ • • • 


• • • 


... 


45 


15-71 


8.88 


5 40 


• . . 


• • • « • • 


• •• 


• • • 


55 


19.97 


II. 18 


7.40 


• • . 


• • • • a • 


• • t 


• • • 


70 


30.47 


... 
f 1 « 


... 


... 


• • • • • • 


• • • 


• . • 

1 . 



100 cc. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve 2 gms. ammonium metavanadate at 
room temp. (Welsh and Broderson, 2925.) 

ABIYaDALIN CsoHsTNO.aH.O. 

100 gms. trichlorethylene dissolve 0.029 S™* amygdalin at 15^. 

(Wester and Bruins, 2914.) 

AMYL AOETATE BUTYBATE, FORMATE, etc. 

Solubility in Water and in Aqueous Alcohol at 20**. 

[(Bancroft— Phys. Rev. 3. 231, 296, ao5, *9S-*96; Traubc.— Ber. 17, 2304. '84^ 

200 cc. axJ» 01 i!iSter. 200 oc. tisHJ* ot luaet. 

Amyl acetate 0.2 0.88 Amyl propionate o.i 0.88 

Iso amyl acetate 0.2(1.2?) ... Iso amyl formate 0.3 (gms. at 22*) 
Amyl butyrate o . 06 0.85 



71 



AMn ACSTATE 



SoLUBiLiiT IN Aqueous Alcohol at Room Tbmpbraturb. 

(Pfeiffer, 1892.) 

Solubility of Iso Amyl Acetate Solubility of Amyl Acetate and Amyl 
in Aq. Alcohol Mbctiu^s. Formate in Aq. Alcohol Mixttires. 



Fte 5 cc. CaEbOH. 



ccHjlO. 

7 
6 

5 
3 -61 

3<ii 
2.60 



ocJboAm^ 
acetate. 

0.41 
0.7 

I 31 
30 
4.0 
50 



4 

tt. C^H^H 
in Mixture. 


cc. HaO added to cause aeparatioo 
of second phane in mixtures of the 
. given amounts of alcohd and 3 oc. 
portiona c^: 




Amyl 

Formate. 


Amyl' 
Acetate. 


3 


1.80 


1.76 


9 


8.77 


9 


03 


15 


17.01 


17 


•52 • 


31 


27 06 


26 


99 


27 


38-31 


37 


23 


33 


50-71 


48 


41 


39 


65.21 


• 4 


1 • 


45 


85.10 


• • • 


48 


94 20 


• « 


1 • 



AMTL ALCOHOL COlnOH. 

Solubility op Amyl Alcohol in Water at 22**. 

(Herz — Bcr. 31, 2671, '08.) 

100 cc. water dissolve 3.284 cc. amyl alcohol. Sp, Gr. of solu- 
tion « 0.9949, Volume — 102.99 cc. 

100 cc. amyl alcohol dissolve 2.214 cc. water. Sp. Gr. of solu- 
tion = 0.8248, Volume = 101.28 cc. 

Sp. Gr. of HaO at 22° « 0.9980; Sp. Gr. of amyl alcohol at 22°= 0.8133. 

SoLUBiLmr IN Aqueous Solutions of Ethyl Alcohol. 

(Pfeiffer, 1892; Bancroft, 1895-96.) 



Mixture of 


cx.H/> 
Wax 


added to* 


Mixture of 


ccHdO 
MJxt 


Added to* 


C^aOH+CAOH 


ureat 


CftHuOH+C|H.OH 


.ure at 


ex. ex. 


9.1*. 


19.2". 


ex. cc. 


13.3*. 


17. 4*. 


3 3 


3.21 


3-5 


3 3 


3.36 


3.47 


3 6 


10.3s 


10.80 


6 3 


2.20 


2.2s 


3 9 


18.34 


19.10 


9 3 


2.10 


2.15 


3 13 


27.47 


29.15 


12 3 


3.10 


2.10 


3 IS 


41.25 


43.15 


IS 3 


3.10 


3.10 



t* JoBt enough ?ntter was added to piodooe fkwidinfM. 

Note. — The effect of various amounts of a large number of salts 
upon the temperature (39.8°) at which a mixture of 20 cc. of amyl 
alcohol + 20 cc. of eth)rl alcohol + 32.9 cc. of water becomes homo- 
geneous has been investigated by Pfeiffer (Z. phys. Ch. 9, 444, '92). 
The results are no doubt of interest from a solubility standpoint, but 
their recalculation to terms suitable for presentation in the present 
compilation has not been attempted. 

DfSTBIBUnON OF ISQAMYL AlCOHOL BETWEEN WaTER AND COTTON SEED 

Oil at 25°. 

(Wroth and Reid, 19x6.) 
Cms. C^uOH per 100 cc. . ^ . 



)aUyer. 


H^ Layer. 




1.947 


0.9153 


0.470 


2.195 


I.II56 


0.508 


2.273 


I . 1050 


0.486 


3.372 


0.9995 


0.421 



AMTL ALCOHOL 72 

S(H.UBILITY OF AllYL ALCOHOL IN WaTBR AND IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF 

Ethyl and Methyl Alcohols. ' 

m 

(F(Niteiii, 19x0.) 

In Water. In Aq. Ethyl Alcohol.* In Aq. Methyl AlcohoLt 

Gms. CiHuOH per Cms. C|HuOH per Cms. CiHnOH per 
100 Gna. ., 100 Gms. ^ loo Gms. 

TJO C«HuOH QH^H+HiO C,H„0H " CH,OH+H|0 OHaOH 

Layer. Layer. Layer. Layer. Layer. Layet. 

0.5 4 ... 4.5 16.2 ... 3.6 II 

15.5 2.6 90.7 20 20.8 ... 20 19.3 

20 2.6 90.6 40 26.7 ... 38.4 ... 78.4 

40 2.1 89.5 60 33 ... 40 31.2 78 

60 a 88 67.8 ... 24.4 so 37.1 74.8 

80 2.S 86 70 36. s 73-7 60 43.3 71.6 

100 3 83.8 80 40.8 70.1 70 52.7 6s 

120 3.8 80.8 90 47 64 72 (crit. temp.) 

140 5 76 . 4 94 . 2 (crit. temp.) 

160 7.3 70 

170 9-3 65.1 

180 13. s 57-3 

187.5 (crit. temp.) 

* Of 33.5s per cent C|H|OH. t Of 33 per cent CH^OH. 

The ''synthetic method" was used for the preceding determinations. Fer- 
mentation amyl alcohol of b. pt. I3I*'-I3I.a* and du.^ =0.814 ^^^^ employed. 
It contained 16% of optically active amyl alcohol. Many other series of deter- 
minations were made with solvents containing other percentages of ethyl and 
methyl alcohol. Also, other series were made for the above-named temarv 
systems at constant temperatures from which binodal curves were obtained. 
The author uses a very ingenious indirect method for determining the composi- 
tion of the conjugated solutions. Data are also given for the distribution of 
ethyl alcohol between water and amyl alcohol. 

The results of Alexejew (1886) for the solubility of amyl alcohol in water 
agree fairly well with the above data. 

ABRL ABmnB CiHu.NHt. 

# 

The freezing-point curve for mixtures of amyl amine and water is given by 
Pickering (1893;. 

Iso AMTLAMINE HTDBOCHLORIDE CiHu.NH,.HCl (iso). 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 192.2 gms. of the salt at 25^. (Peddle and Tuner. 1913.) 

100 gms. CHCU dissolve 5.1 gms. of the salt at 25**. 

Data for the distribution of €-chloramyl amine between water and tetra- 
chlorethane at o**, water and nitrobenzene at 25° and water and benzene at 25^ 
are given by Freundlich and Richards (1912). 

■ 

AMTLENE (Trimethylethylene) (CH,)tC:CHCH,. 

RsapROCAL [SoLUBiLiTy IN Aniline; Detbrminations bt Stnthbtic Method. 

(Konowalow, 1903.) 

t*. Gms. Aniline per zoo Gms. «• Gms. Aniline per zoo Gms. 

Amylene Layer. AnUine Layer. ' Amylene Layer. Aniline Layer. 






19s 


81. s 


10 28 


73 


2 


19.7 


80.5 


la 34 


68 


4 


20.5 


79-5 


13 . 38-5 


64.7 


6 


21.7 


78 


14 45 ^ 


59 


8 


24.2 


7S-8 


14 . 5 (crit. temp.) 51.6 





.'73 AHTUENE 

Soi.UBiLmr OF Aicylbnb in LiQum Carbon Dioxidb. 

(Bilchner, 1905-^.) 

(Determinations made by the synthetic method.) 

t*. (crit.) 31 103 201 

Gms. C5H10 per loo gms. sat. sol. o 38 100 

AMTLENE HTDRATB (CH,},C(OH)CHi.CH,. 

"The distribution coefficient of amylene hydrate between olive oil and water 
at ocd. temp, is i. (Baum, 1899-) 

ANDROMEDOTOXINE CaHuOu. 

Sqlubilitt IK Sbveral Solvents at 12^ and at thb Boiling-Points of 

THB Solvents. 

(Zaayer, 1886.) 



* 


Gms. CnHuOu per zoo Gms. Sat. Sol. at : 


Water 

Ethyl alcohol {dn = 

Amyl alcohol 

Chloroform 

Commercial ether 

Benzine 

^U5 (p Propylanisole) < 


0.821) 

CHiCHCI 


xa*. B. Pt. 
2.81 0.87 
11.70 
1 . 14 

0.26 0.26 
0.07 0.07 
0.004 

lUlCeHiOCHi. 



Solubility in Aqueous Alcohol at 20" 

(Scbimmel and Co., Reports, Oct. 1895, p. 6.) 

Vol. per cent alcohol = 20 25 30 40 50 

Gm. anethole p>er liter aq. alcohol » 0.12 0.20 0.32 0.86 2.30 

333.3 gms. anethole dissolve in one liter of 90% alcohol at room temperature. 

(Squize aad Gaines, 1905.) 

Freezing-point data for mixtures of anethole and menthol are given by Scheuer 
(1910). 

ANIUNB CeHsCNHs). 

Solubility in Water at 22**. 

(Hers, 1898; see also Vaubel, 1895; Aignan and Dugas, 1899.) 

Toocc- HsO dissolve 3.481 cc. CeHtCNHi) — Vol. of Sol. = 103.48, Sp. Gr. = 
a9986. 

100 cc. C«Hi(NHt) dissolve 5.22 cc. HtO — Vol. of Sol. = 104.96, Sp. Gr. = 
1.0175. 

100 cc sat. aq. sol. contain 3.607 gms. CsHsNHs at 25^. (Reidel. 1906.) 

SoLUBiUTy OF Aniline in Water. (Determination by synthetic method.) 

(Sidgwidc, Pickford and Wilsden, 29x1.) 

Gms. C<H«NHgj)ei<'ioo Gms. 
Aq. Layer. Aniline Layer. 
120 9.1 14.6 

130 II. 2 16.9 

140 13. s 19s 

ISO 17. 1 24 

160 22 32 

165 26 . I 

The critical solution temperature for aniline and water is 168^. 

Alexejew (1886) and Rothmund (1898) obtained results for the preceding 
system which differ in part quite widely from the above table. 

More recent determinations, in terms of cc. aniline per lOO cc. of mixture, are 
Kiven by Koltho£F (1917). 



r. 


Aq. Layer. 


Aniline Layer. 


13.8 


3 -611 


S-isCao") 


30 


3-7 


5-4 


so 


4.2 


6.4 


70 


5 


7-7 


90 


6.4 


9.9 


no 


8 


13 



ANIUNB 



74 



Solubility of Aniline in Aqubous Solutions of Aniline Hydrochloride. 

(Sidgwkk, Picklord and Wilsden, 19x1.) 

The temperatures at which a second liauid phase separated from homogeneous 
mixtures ot known amounts of aniline + HCl + HsO were determined for a very 
extensive series of mixtures. The procedure consisted in first heating a given 
mixture until it became homogeneous and then cooling it slowly, with constant 
shaking. A critical turbidity preceding the actual separation by a few de- 
grees was always noticed. The point olseparation was taken as that at which 
a small gas name seen through the lic^uid disappeared. At higher temper- 
atures, the observations were made on mixtures contained in sealed bulbs. In 
the actual experiments, binodal curves for mixtures of Aq. HCl (of different 
strengths) and aniline were determined. By interpolation from these, the fol- 
lowing isothermal curves were obtained. 





Isotherm 


for 15'. 






Isotherm 


for 25". 




nfi Rich Mixtures. 


Amline Rich Mixtures. 


ELO Rich 
uma. per 


Mixtures. 


Aniline Rich Mixtures. 


Cms. per zoo Cms. 


Cms. per 


zoo Gms. 


zoo Gms. 


Gms. per zoo Gms. 


Sat.1 


Solution. 


Sat. Solution. ' 


Sat. Solution. 


Sat Solution. 


QH.NH,. 


C^HftNH^HCL 


HdO. CANH,.HCr. 


CHaNHf. < 


::;anh,.hci 


. Hfi. CANHflJia 


3.61S 





7.276 


3 025 


3.681 





14 


8.884 


3791 


I 529 


7-231 


1.989 


4.020 


3.02 


10.84 


6.062 


4.144 


5.829 


S.816 


I -195 


5.380 


11.40 


6.949 


1. 912 


4.940 


11.44 


5 230 


0.340 


7.023 


15.83 


6 .043 


0.828 


S-99S 


16.03 


5.006 


0.163 


11.86 


19.02 


5.568 


0.363 


10.44 


1935 


4.960 


0.080 


31.35 


20.15 


53" 


0.089 


26.80 


21.49 


4.942 





59.95 


15.55 


5.299 







Isotherm for 40**. 






Isotherm for 60^. 




3 941 





15.65 


8.752 


4.58 





14.27 


5.93 


4.187 


1.523 


10.21 


4.243 


4.87 


1. 512 


9.569 


2.632 


4.371 


3.009 


7.874 


2.166 


5.13 


2.984 


8.109 


1. 112 


4.823 


S.81S 


7.069 


1.452 


567 


5.762 


7.492 


0.4876 


6.210 


11.30 


7.058 


0.9669 


7.69 


II. 14 


7-051 


0.2284 


8.779 


^S'55 


6.225 


0.4052 


"53 


15.25 


7.047 


0.1 138 


38.69 


18 


5.940 


0.0960 


22.80 


16.66 


7-030 





64.20 


12.84 


5.930 





51.10 


14.36 






• 


Isotherm for 80^. 






Isotherm for 100**. 




5-66 





12.31 


3.387 


7.10 





41.57 


"45 


S-9S 


1-495 


9.848 


1.350 


7.68 


1.467 


18.16 


4.^5 


6.26 


2.950 


8.998 


0.5857 


8.10 


2.891 


12.76 


1.784 


7. II 


5.678 


8.524 


0.2769 


9.60 


5.522 


"37 


. 1836 


9-95 


10.85 


8.512 


0.1387 


13.60 


10.41 


11.90 





31 18 


14.85 


8.500 















Isotherm for 120^. 






Isotherm for 140"*. 




9 30 





17.94 


2.459 


13.75 





29.52 


4.043 


31.21 


9-497 


14.45 





38.75 


7.384 


21.09 






The authors also calculated the position of tie lines for the binodal curves 
with the aid of distribution coefficients, which they determined at 25® and which 
are quoted in a subsequent table (page 78 following). 

Additional data for the system aniline + HCl + H,0 at o*. 25* and at 35** 
are given by Thonus (1913), and for aniline -h HCl by Leopold (1910). 



75 AMIUIIS 

Solubility or Aniune in Aqueous Salt Solutions at iS\ 

(Euler — Z. phystk. Chem. 4gb J07, '04.) 

Aq.8diitiaa. Gm..S*lt Gm*. C:.H.(NH^ Aq. Gms.Salt Gii».C.HrfNH,) 

gM^. wtawMJu. pg^ iijgy^ p^ jQ^ ^^ aolwnt. Solttdon. per liter. perzoog.aolTeBt. 

H2O alone o 3.61 i nNaOH 40.06 1.90 

o.5f}KCl 37.3 3.15 I nLiCl 42.48 2.80 

I nKCI 74.6 2.68 I nCaCls 67.25 3.00 

I nNaCl 58.5 2.55 

Solubility of Aniline in Aqueous Aniline Hydrochloridk 

Solutions at 18°. 

(lidow — J. russ. phys. chem. Ges. Z5* 4«>, '83; Ber. i6» M97, "Ea.) 

Per cent CaHflNHsHQ Gms. CsN<NHs Ptt cent CsHsNHa.Ha Gdis.CbHsNI^ 

inSol^rent. per 100 g. Solvent in Solvent. perxoog.SdvcnL 

5 3-S 30 39-2 

" 5-3 35 so -4 

Solubility of Aniline in Aqueous Solutions of Glycerol and 

Vice Versa. 

(Kolthoff, 19x7.) 

(The liquids were measured from burets. The determinations at 100** were 
made in sealed tubes. The others were made in open tubes.) 

Results for the Solubility of Aniline in Aqueous Glycerol. 

Per cent Gbceiol in ^^ Aniline dissolved by xoo oc of Aq. Glycerol of Cone, shown at: 

Aq. Mixtuie used. ^-^JT ^^7 ^^T "^^ ^ 

o(= water) 3.25 3.4 5.6 9.9 

39 S-^S S'S 

$6 7.5 7.6 ... 28 (58% Glycerol) 

6s 10 ... ... 38(66% " ) 

74.3 II-7S i^-^ 

78 20 20 16 

07 7 ... ..■ ..• 

Results for the Solubility of Aqueous Glycerol in Aniline. 

Per .j^t^t Gl yce rol in cc. of Aq. Glycerol Mixture dissolved by loo cc. Aniline it: 

Aq. Mixtuic nmd. '^ -^ ^ ^T ^ 

o(= water) 4.6 5 4 5.3 

39 ••• 6.4 

47 S-2 

56 7-9 7.7 

74.3* 131 "7 

78 17. 1 14.8 



IS (S8% Glycerol) 
17(66% " ) 



Distribution of Aniline between Water and Benzene at 25^ 

(Fanner and Waxth, 1904.) 

Gms. CANHs per zoo cc. 
/ * N Ratia 

Water Layer. C«H^ Layer. 

0.013s O.I312 9.7 

0.0122 0.1282 10.5 

0.0065 0.0656 10. I 

.Data for the distribution between water and benzene at 25^ of each of the fol- 
lowing substituted anilines; 0, m and p nitraniline, chloraniline, bromaniline. 
P nitrosmethylaniline, and p nitrosodimethylaniline are given by Farmer and 
Warth (1904;. 



ANILniE 76 

SoLUBiLrry of Aniline, Phenol Mdctures in Water. 

(Schrdnemaker — Z. physik. Chem. 39. 584; 30» 460, 'qq.) 

MiTture used ■■ a«^ Mols. Aniline Mixture tifled«-<o Mols. Aniline 

4- 74 6 Mob. Phenol « +50 Mob. Phenol 

Gms. of Mixture per xoo Gms. * * Gnu. 01 Mixture per xoo Cms. 





"^Aq. Layer. 


A. + P- Layer. 




Aq. Layer. 


A.+P. Ltrc- 


40 


S-O 




86.0 


40 


4.0 


91 5 


60 


SS 




82. 


80 


5-5 


8SS 


80 


80 




77 


100 


80 


83 


100 


"S 




67 


120 


13 S 


73 5 


no 


19.0 




56 s 


130 


19.0 


660 


104 


(crit temp.) 


33 


• * • 


^3S 


23 S 


S8o 



140 (crit temp.) 35 

Determinations in above table by "Synthetic Method," see Note, p. 16. 
Schreinemakers gives results for several other mixtures of aniline and phenol 
which yield curves entirely similar to those for the two mixtures here shown. 

Distribution of Aniline between: 

(Vaubel — J. pr. Chem. [2] 67i 477t '03.) 

Water and Ether. Water and Carbon Tetrachloride. 

Comporitioii of Solutions. Gms. CANHain: Composition of Solutions. G ms.CeHiNHtin; 

1.2478 so CO. HjO 50 CO. HjO 

+ 20CC. Ether 0.1671 1.0807 0.3478 +20CC.CCI4 0.33580.0x3 

1.9478 50 cc. Hjp 50 CO. H.O 

+SOCC. Ether 0.0835 ^'^^43 1.2478 +5000. CCI4 0.2767 1.971 

1.2478 50 cc. HjO 50 cc. HjO 

+Z00CC. Ether 0.0594 z.1884 1.2478 + 100 CC.CCI4 0.1845 1.063 

Solubility of Aniline in Sulphur. 

(Alexejew — Ann. Phyak. Chem. 28, 305, '86) 
«• Gbm.CsHsNHs per 100 g . , Gms. CsHBJNHt per 100 f . 

S. Layer. Anilin Layer. S. Layer. Anilin Layer. 

100 4 75 130 IS S^ 

no 6 70 13s 17.5 47 

X20 to 64 138 (crit temp.) 23 . . 



Distribution of Aniline between Water and Toluene at 25*. 

(Riedd« 1906.) 

« 

Note. — Mixtures of aniline and toluene were shaken with water and after 
separation of the two layers the Sp. Gr. of the A : T mixture (layer) was de- 
termined and also the amount of aniline in each layer. 

Solution Shaken with * ^m' P^*?** % ?* **^ ^* "^ Gms. CeHgNgi in 100 cc. c l; 

ArT» ?irj3*™L Anflfaie : Toluene Mixture after « . _ _ ' . - >. 

A. T Mixture. In Mixtures Used. Separation. A :T Layer. Aq. Layer. 



1^0 50:50 0.9257 41-5 2U 

25:75 0.8928 20.7 1.5 

12.5:87.5 0.8737 8.62 0.86 

SS'-94-5 08661 3.87 0.45 

2*5'*97*5 0.8627 1.68 0.21 



14 
U 



The author also gives data for the distribution of aniline between toluene 
and aqueous solutions of K|S04, KBOi, Ba(OH)s, Sr(OH)i and Ca(OH)i. 



77 



AHnJNE 



Solubility Data Dbtekmined bt the Freezing-Point Method (see foot- 
note, page i) ARE Given for Mixtures of Aniline (m. pt. —5.5° to —6,8*) 
AND Othek Compounds. 



Name and M. Pt. of the Other Com- 
pound d Each Mixture.. 

Nitrosodimethyl aniline (85.5^) 
Benzene (5.42 ) 
Nitrosobenzene (^s.s'O 
Nitrobenzene (2.8^ 
Dinitrobenzene (116.5**) 

« " (91") 

P 

s Trinitrobenzene (122.2*^ 

Chloronitrobenzene (32 ) 

« " U3")^ 

p " (82.5**^ 

Benzoic add (121.25°) 
Chloroform (—63°) 
Ciescd (30.4°) 
m " (4.2°) 

P " (33.0 
Ethylacctatc (-83.8*) 
Hydroquinone 

Allyl mustard oil 

o Chlorophenol 
o Nitiopnenol (46^ 



Data for Firat Eutectic 
w iH Wt. Per Cent. 



- 9.2 



94.2 



-12. 5 


77.2 


—30 -6 


53.4 


—10 


92.2 


- 8 


92. 7« 


no eutectic 


not determined ' 


-19. S 


66.1 


—12.6 


79.7 


-16.3 


72.7 


• • • 

-71 


• « • 

21.7 


-17 


78.8^ 


-30 


74.3 • 


-15. 5 


8S.S' 



Authority. 

(Kiemann, 1904.) 

(Kremann and Bocjaoovics, 1916.) 

(Kremann. 1904.) 
•I 

(Eiemaon and Rodinis, 1906.) 
(Kremann. 1904-) 
(Kremann and Rodinis, 1906.) 
(Kremann« 1904.) 
(Kremann, 1907.) 
(Kremann and Rodinis, 1906.) 



•I 



M 



(Baskov. 19x3-) 
(Tsakalatos and (Svye, z9xa) 
(Kremann. 1906.) 



u 



89 



62 



(Kremann. 2906: Philip. i9o3>) 

(Wroczynski and Guye, 19x0.) 

(Kremann and Rodinis. 1906.) 

(Kumakov and Kriat. X913.) 
(Kumakov and Solover. 19x6.) 



« 



(96I 



P " ("3^) 

m Dinitiophend (110.5^ 

Pyrocateoiol (105°) 

Resordnol (110°) 

Nitiotoluene (si'3*) 

Dinitrotduene (71 ), 1.34; 1.3.5 

and 1.2.6 

Trinitrotoluene (82^ 

Isopentane Qess than —24^ 



• • • 


T 

• • • 


(Bramley. 19x6.) 


-13s 


80.2 


rKremaxm and Rodinis, 1906.) 


-18.7 


74. 2 » 


u « 


-17. s 


86.8* 


(1 


- 7.3 


94.5"^ 


(Kremann, X906.) 


-13 , 


86.5" 


t« 


not determined 


((Kiemann and Rodinis. X906.) 


-17 


89 


(Kremann, 1904.) 


-13- 


80.8 


(Kremaim. X906.) 


- 8 


96.4" 





(Campetti and dd (jrosBO. X9Z3*) 



> A second eutectic nlelts at 76* and contains 7 per cent (^H|NH|. a molecular compound of m. pt 93* 
and containing 34 per cent C«H|NH| exists between these eutectics. The author also gives data for the 
effect of nitrobenzene. nitrophenol and of m xylene upon the lowering of the m. pt. of the above oom- 
poond. * A break in the curve at 4X.5* and 39.3 per cent C^Ht!^ indicates that a molecular compound 
exBts between the first eutectic and this point. * The first eutectic apparently lies too near pure aniline 
to be determined. An equi-molecular compound of aniline and 5 trinitrobenzene (m. pt. 30*) exists over 
the range pure aniline to the second eutectic which melts at xox** and contains 8.7 per cent C^HiN^. 
* A second eutectic melts at o and contains 38.7 per cent CtHiNHa, the molecular compound between 
these points mehs at 8.3* and contains 46.3 per cent (]«H|NHt. ■ A second eutectic melts at — 3x* and 
contains 17 per cent C|H|NHb the molecular compound between these points melts at — X4.6* and con- 
tains 49 per cent C^BcNHs. * The second eutectic melts at 6* and contains 33 per cent QHiNHf, the 
molecular compound melts at X9.3* and contains 47.5 per cent CtHsNHt. ' There are two eutectics 
between' which an equi-molecular combination exists. * There is a break in the curve at 36* and 43 x. 
per cent C«B«NHf indicating the existence of a molenilar compound from the eutectic up to this point. 
» There is a break in the curve at 43* and 39.8 per cent C^H«NHs indicating formation of a molecular 
compound. >* There is a break in the curve at 74* and 33.9 per cent CJEUS^t indicating the existence of 
a molecalar compound from the eutectic up to this point. ^ There is a break in the curve at 39* and 
48.9 per cent C«H»NI^. ^ A second eutectic melts at 60* and contains 7 per cent C(H6NH|« the moleo- 
ohr oompounds melts at 85* and ccwitains 30 per cent (VH«NH^ 



ANILINE 78 

REaPROCAL SOLUBILITT OF AnILINB AND HSXANB. 

(Keyes and Hildebrand, 19x7.) 



t" cli Complete 


Gms. Hez&ne per 100 


V of Complete 


Gms. Hezaoe per zoo 


Misdbility. 


Gms. Mizture. 


MJadbUiV. 


Gms. Miztuxe. 


26.1 


9.6 


59. 2 


35-9 


43-9 


14.8 


59-4 


41.6 


45. 9 


16.3 


59.6 


48 


49-9 


20 


57-9 


62.9 


S1.4 


21 


53.9 


731 


S6 


27.2 


47.2 


80.6 


58.2 


31 


35-6 


88.1 


58.2 


34.6 


16. s 


93-8 



RsaPROCAL S(M.UBILITY OF AnILINB AND PhBNOL, DBTBRMINBD BT THB 

Freezing-Point Method. 

(SchreiiiemakerB, 1899.) 
Mols. CHiNH, Mob. C«ILNH, 



rofMeltiAg. 


per zoo Mols. Solid Phase. 
Mizture. 


r> of Melting. 




per zoo Mols. 
Mizture. 


Solid Phase. 


- 6.1 


100 CiHiNH, 


30.4 m. 


Pt 


50 


I.x 


— 8.9 


96 


28.6 




40 


« 


— ii.7Eutec. 


92.3 C,H.NH,+x.i 


22.3 




30 


M 


" 6.5 


90 i.x 


14.8 Eutec. 


21.2 


z.z+C|H^H 


+10.1 


80 


18.4 




20 


CiHdOH 


22 


70 


31.4 




10 


M 


28.5 


60 


37.3 




4 


U 




I.I - C«H,NH,.CJiiOH. 









Data for* the solubilitv of aniline in cyclohexane at pressures up to 300 at- 
mospheres are given by Kohnstamm and Timmermans C1913). 

ANILINE HTDBOCHLOBIDE C«H»NH,.Ha. 

100 CC. H2O dissolve 17.8 gms. of the salt at 1 5°. (Niementowski and Rosskowski, 1897.) 
100 gms. HsO dissolve 107. 1 gms. of the salt at 25°. (peddle and Turner, Z9Z3.) 

100 gms. sat. solution in water contain 52.1 gms. C«HfNHi.HCl at 25**. 
100 gms. sat. solution in aniline contain 8.89 gms. CeHtNHs.HCl at 25^ 

(Sidgwick, Pickford and Wilsden, Z9zz.) 

Distribution of Aniline Hydrochloride between Water and Aniline at 25^ 

(Sidgwick, Pickford and Wilsden. z9zz.) 



O.II 


0.006 


19.30 0.6 0.219 2.74 I 0.804 1.24 


0.2 

0.3 
0.4 

0.5 


0.020 
0.043 
0.086' 
0.146 


10 0.7 0.327 2.14 I.I 1.005 I 

6.98 0.8 0.471 1.70 1.2 1.228 0.98 

4.65 0.9 0.631 1.43 1.3 1. 412 0.92 

3 42 


line layer 


gms. salt 


per 100 gms. aq. layer. C. — gms. salt per 100 gms. ani- 


Nitr ANILINES 


C.H4NHaN0,. 0, m, and p. 
Solubility in Water. 

— J. Chem. Soc. 53* 76S. '88; Vaubel — J. pr. Chem. [a] 5a, 73. '9S1 Abovv M^» 
LOwenherz — 2. physik. Chem. a& 407, '98.) 




f. 

30 
24.2 


" Grams Nitraniline per Liter of Solution. 




Ortho Nitraniline. Meta Nitraniline. Para Nitraniline. 

I.I4-I.67 0.77-0.80 

1.25 (25*^) 1.205 




27 .1 


... I •422 ... 



100 CC. HsO dissolve 2.2 gms. P nitraniline at lOO^ (Jaeger and Kxegten, I9xa.) 



79 



NitrAHILniU 



SOLUBIUTY OF OrTHO AND 07 MeTA NiTRANILINE IN HYDROCHLOSIC 

Acid. 

(LowmheR.) 



Ortho Nitraniline at 35^. 

G. Mds. per Liter. Grams per liter. 



^ QUcNtf.. HCT 



O-O 
0.63 

0.9s 
1.26 



0.0091 

0.0143 
0.0174 

0.021); 



CaUiNHs. 

NQ,(o) 



0.0 1.25 

22.97 1.97 

34.63 2.40 

4';-94 a -97 



(250) 0.0 
(26.5®) 0.0125 

(23-3*') o- 0247 



Meta Nitraniline. 

G. Mob, jper Liter. Grams pgr Liter. 
HCl GiHsNH.. rfa CbUsNH^ 



CsHsNHs. 
NOs(m) 

0.0091 
0.0183 
0.0274 



0.0 

0.46 

0.90 



1.20 

2.53 
3-85 



SoLUBniTT Data Determined bt the Freezing-Point Method Are Given 

FOR the Following Mixtures. 



Nitraniline + m Nitraniline 






« 


+ P 


m 


u 


+ # 





ii 


+ Nitracentanilide 


P 


« 


+ p Nitrosoaniline 





« 


+ Benzene 


M 


« 


+ " 


P 


41 


+ " 





it 


+ Nitrobenzene 


m 


l< 


+ 


P 


fi 


+ 





<l 


+ Ethylenebromide 


m 


tt 


+ 


P 


U 


+ 


Iff 


tt 


+ Iff Dinitrobenzene 


Iff 


<c 


+ s Trinitrobenzene 


P 


<l 


+ s 


Iff 


<4 


+ Naphthalene 





« 


+ Phenol 


m 


14 


+ " 



(Kxcm«m, 19x0; Valeton, 19x0; HoQeman, JTi^Ttngt 
and van der Unden, X9xx, Nicbds, X918.) 

(Jaeger, 1906.) 

(Jaeger and van Kiegten, 19x2.) 

(Bofojawlensky, ^nnogxadoir and Bogalubow, 1906.) 



« 
« 

M 
M 
M 
« 
M 



« 
M 

M 
U 

M 
« 
M 



M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 

M 



(Crompton and Whitely, 1895.) 

(Smith and Walts, 19x0; Sudboxoogh and Beaid, X9xa) 



<i 



II 



i< 



u 



(Pushin and Grebensdukov, X913.) 
(Kitmann and Rodinis, X906.) 



II 



M 



II 



P " + 

s Tribromaniline + a Chlor, 4.6 Dibromaniline (Sudborough and T^kham a l a ni , 1917.) 
P Nitroethylaniline + p Nitro8oethylaniline (Jaeger and van Kiegten, xgxa.) 

P " propylaniline + p Nitrosopropylaniline " 

Nitrodiethylaniline + Nitroeodiethlyaniline aa««er. x9os, X907.) 

Methylaniline + Benzylchloride (Wioc^ynski and Guye, x9xo.) 

Dimethylaniline + Benzene (Schmidlin and Lang, x9xa.) 

+ Tetramethyldiaminobenzophenone 
+ Phenol 
+ Chlorophenol 
Tetranitromethylaniline + a Trinitrotoluene 

" -j- P Nitrotoluene 

Nttnosodimethylaniline + fi Naphthylamine 

+ Phenol 
+ Toluidine 

+ /> " 
+ Iff Xylidine 



II 



II 



ti 



tt 



It 



M 



(Bnunley, 19x6; Kremann, 1906^ 

(Bramlcy, X9x6.) 

(Giua, X9X5.) 
II 

(Kxuoann, 1904.) 



NitrANnJNX 



80 



Solubility of Meta and of Para Nitraniline in Organic 

Solvents at 20°. 

(Canelly and Thonuan.) 
Cms. per liter. 



Sdvoit. 

Methyl Alcohol 
Ethyl Alcohol 
Propyl Alcohol 
Iso Butyl Alcohol 
Iso Amyl Alcohol 
Ethyl Ether 



MeU. 

II0.6 
70 



S6 
26 

78 



5 
5 
4 
I 

9 



Para. 

95-9 
S8-4 

43S 
19. 1 

62.9 

61.0 



SoiTeot* • 

Benzene 

Toluene 

Cumene 

Chloroform 

Carbon Tetra Chloride 

Carbon Disulfide 



Gns. |xr liter. 


MeU. 


Para.' 


24. s 


19 


.8 


17. 1 


13 


.1 


" s 


9 





301 


23 


.1 


2.1 


I 


■7 


3-3 


2 


.6 



ANILIME SULFATB CJItNHs.HtSOf, 

100 cc. H«0 dissolve 6.6 gms. C«HfNHs.HiS04 at 15"*. 

(Niementowski and Roedtofwaki, 1897.) 

ANISIC ACID (^Methoxybenzoic Add) CHiO.CtHiCOOH. 
1000 cc. sat. aqueous solution contain 0.2263 S™. acid at 25**. 



(Paul. X894.) 



Solubility op Anisic Acm in Several Alcohols. 

(Timofeiew, 1894.) 

In Methyl Alcohol. In Ethyl Alcohol. 

Gms. per 100 Gms. Gms. per 100 Gms. 

Sat. Sol. Solvent. Sat. Sol. Solvent. 

o 51.1 104.5 4^-7 ^7-^ 

16. s 64.9 183.5 53-6 115. 5 



r. 



In Propyl Alcohol. 

Gms. per 100 Gms. 
Sat. Sol. Solvent^ 

35 53.8 

43 7SS 

Data for the distribution of anisic acid between water and olive oil at 25* 
are given by Bo^seken and Waterman (191 1, 1912). 

^ANISIDINE C6H4(OCH,).NHs. 

Distribution between Benzene and Water at 25^ 

(Farmer and Warth, 1904.) 
Gms. QH4<0CHa).NHa per loo cc 



(}cH« Layer. 

0.4356 
0.6662 



H«0 Layer. 

0.0747 

O.III2 



0.9010 0.1472 

AMISOLE C.Hg(X:H|. 

Reciprocal Solubility of Anisole and Benzyl Chloride Determined 

by^ the Freezing-point Method. 

(Wroczynski and Guye, 1910.) 



f ol 
Melting. 

-37-2 
-40 

-50 
-60 



Gms. CiILpCH« CqIjj 
per xoo Gms. pu«!^ 


fof ^ 
Melting. 


ICX) 04^X3, 


— 72.8Eutec. 


93-3 


-60 


75.3 


-50 


62.1 


-41. 1 



Solid 
Phase. 



Gms. CJIipCHi 

per 100 Gms. 

Mixture. 

46 . 1 C»H|0CH,+(VH«(3^ 
28 C|H»CHta 

13 

o 



M 



^ NitrANISOLE C«H4N0s.0CH,. 

Freezing-point Curves (Solubilities, see footnote, page i) Are Given for 

THE Following Mixtures. 

P Nitranisole + Mercuric Chloride (MascareUi, 1908, 1909; MascareUi and AscoU, 1907.) 

-j- Urethan (Mascarelli, 1908, 1909; Pushin and Gxebeoachukov. Z913O 

+ " + HgCli (Mascarelli, 1908, 1909.) 

4- Diphenylamine (Pushin and Grebenschukov, 1913.) 

Dinitranisole + Dinitrophenetol (Blanksma, z9X4-) 



II 
11 



8l 



ANTHRACENK 



MMTBBACBXE C14H10 








SCX^UBILITT OF 


Anthracene in Several Solvents. 


SolveDt. 


f. 


.ScnSl^lSJSt. Authority. 


Etfiyl Alcohol (abs.) 


16 


0.076 


(v. Becchi.) 


« ti li 


19. S 


^.9 


(de Brayn, xSga.) 


tt it tc 


25 


0.328 


(Hildebnuid, ElleCaon and Beebe, 19x7.) 


it l€ (C 


b. pt. 


0.83 


(v. Becriii.) 


Methyl Alcohol (abs.) 


195 


1.8 


(deBrusm x99a ) 


Benzene 


25 


.1.86 


(Hildebrand, EUefson and Beebe. 19x7.) 


Carbon Disulphide 


25 


2.58 


M «• M 


Carbon Tetrachloride 


25 


0.732 


fi M M 


Ether 


25 


1.42 


M M M 


Hexane 


25 


0.37 


M M a 


95% Formic Add 


18.3 


0.03 




Toluene 


16.5 


0.92 


(v. Beochi.) 


(t 


100 


12.94 


M 


Trichlorethylene 


15 


1. 01 


(Wester and BniinA, 1914.) 



Solubility of Anthracene in Benzene and in Mixtures of Benzene 
and Pentane and of Benzene and Heptane. 

Ciyrer, x9xo, and private oommiinication. See Note, p. 447.) 



In Benzene. 



In Benzene + Pen- 



tane at 15' 



In Benzene + Heptane 
at 14** and 70*. 



Gns. CuHm 
Gms. 



O 
10 

40 

SO 

60 
70 

75 



d. of Sat. SoL per 100 

SotvciU. 

0.605 

0.975 

1-43 
2.03 

2.78 

3-75 
514 
7 
8.35 



in Sot 
vent. 



Gms. CuHio 

per xoo Gms. 

Solvent. 



%CAin 



Sol 



vent. 



Gms. QHm per 100 Gms. 
~ Went ■ 



^\ 



atx4*. at7o^' 

o 0.184 o 0.210 1.67 

10 0.225 12.^ 0.284 2.10 

20 0.279 25 0.372 2.64 

30 0.357 37.5 0.474 3.23 

40 0.447 50 0.592 3.87 

50 0.549 62.5 0.718 4.59 

60 0.600 75 0.850 5.37 

70 0.780 87.5 0.976 6.15 

80 0.915 100 1. 180 6.93 
90 1.059 
100 1.225 

Results for the solubility in benzene, differing from the above in some cases by 
15%, arc given by Findlay (1902). 

Solubility op Anthracene in Alcoholic Picric Acid Solutions 

AT 25^ 
(Behxend — Z. phyiik. Chem. Z5» x87* '94O 



0.9008 
0.8909 
0.8812 
0.8717 
0.8627 
0.8541 
0.8460 
0.8374 
0.8347 



Gnms pcf too Gfams 



*Sdti 



ution. 



Kcric 
Acid. 

O 

1. 017 

2.071 

2.673 

3 233 



Anthracme. 

0.176 
0190 
0.206 
0.215 
0.228 



SoHd 



Grams per xoo Gms. 
Solution. 



3 .469 o . 236 



Anthracene 

u 
it 
tt 



Anthracene and 
Anthracene Picrate 



Picric 
Add. 

3-999 

S087 

5-843 
6.727 

75" 



Anthracene. 

0.202 
0.180 
0.162 
0151 
0.149 



7-452 o 



Solid Phase. 

Anthracene Picrate 
it 

it 

tt 

Anthracene Picrate 

+ Picric Acid 
Picric Acid 



ANTHRACENE 



82 



Solubility in Liquid Sulfur Dioxidb or IHB Critical Region. 

(Centneraiver and Tdetow, 1903.) 

Weighed amounts of anthracene and liquid SOt were placed in glass tubes 
which were sealed and rotated at a gradually increasing temperature, and the 
point observed at which the solid disappeared. 



r. 


Gms CmHm per 
100 Gms. SOb. 


r. 


100 Gms. SCV 


r. 


Gms. CmHio 
xoo^.Gms. S 


40.1 


2. II 


6s 


4 


98 


9 36 


45-8 


2.48 


78. a 


S.66 


99.1 


995 


47-9 


2.6s 


88 


7.14 


106.5 


12.78 



Freezing-point curves are given for mixtures of anthracene and each of the f<A* 
lowing compounds: Diphenyl, diphenylamine, a and fi naphthylamines, a and fi 
naphUiols, resordnol, p toluidine and triphenyl methane (Vignon, 1891)^ Naph- 
th;uene (Vignon and Miolati, 1892); Phenanthene (Vignon, 1891, Garelii, 1894); 
Picric acid (Kremann, 1905). 



V. 

30 

Si-5 
67.9 

82.4 



per 



ANTHRAQUINONE (CJIOtCCO).. 

Solubility in Liquid Sulfur Diozidb in thb Critical Rbgion. 

(Centnenwer and Teletow, 1908.) (See Anthracene, above.) 

Gms. CuHA pa *• Gms. Ci4H^ 

zoo Gms. SCV. * * 100 Gms. S 

0.64 92.1 2.81 

0.88 IOI.4 3.67 

1.73 106.3 4.23 

2.24 108.7 4*40 



118. s 
141. 6 
160 
179 

183.7 



G1118.C11HA1M 

100 Gms. SOp. 



5.60 

7.53 
9.60 

12.70 

18.30 



100 parts of absolute ethyl alcohol dissolve 0.05 part anthraquinone at 18* 
and 2.249 p£Lrts at b. pt. (v. BeochL) 

.100 gms. alcohol dissolve 0437 gm. anthraquinone at 25**. 

(Hildebtand, EUeCBon and Beebe, 1917.) 

Solubility of Anthraquinonb in Benzene and in Chloroform. 

(!>!», xgio.) 

In Benzene. In Chloroform. 

^ A ^ 



«•. 


Sp. Gr. Solution. 


Gms. CuHAper 





0.8900 


O.IIO 


30 


0.8794 


0.256 


30 


0.8692 


0.350 


40 


0.8591 


' 0.49s 


so 


0.8439 


0.700 


60 


0.8389 


0.974 


70 


0.8288 


1. 355 


80 


0.8190 


1.775 



r. 


Sp. Gr. Solution. 


Gms. CmH«Pi per 
xoo Gms. CHC1|. 





1.5244 


0.340 


10 


1.5046 


0.457 


20 


1.4850 


0.605 


30 


1.4656 


0.780 


40 


1. 4461 


0.994 


50 


I. 4261 


1.256 


55 


I. 4164 


1. 415 


60 


1.4070 


1.577 



Solubility jOF Anthraquinone in a Mdcturb of Chloroform and 

HSXANB AT 12.6^ AND 49^. 

(TVrer, 1910, also private crnnmuniration. See Note, p. 447.) 



%CHCl|in 
' Solvent. 

O 

10 

20 

30 

so 



Gms. Ci^A per 100 Gms. 
solvent at: 

12. 6*. 49-0. 

0.006 0.056 

0.016 0.074 

0.024 0.096 

0.034 0.124 

0.068 0.212 



%CHa|in 
Solvent. 

60 



90 
100 



Gffls. C|JIA per xoo Gms. 
Solvent at: 



xa 6«. 
O.IOI 
0.148 
0.222 

0.334 
0.482 



490*. 
0.292 
0.417 
0.608 
0.852 
1.209 



83 anthbaquinomb 

Solubility op Anthraquinonb in Ethbr. 

(Smits— Z. Electiocfaem. 9$ 663, '03.) 

Weighed amounts of ether and anthraquinone were placed in glass 
tubes which were then sealed. The temperature noted at which the 
anthraquinone disappeared and also at which the liquid phase disap- 
peared (critical temp.). The two curves cross at 195*^ and again at 
241**. Between these two temperatures the critical curve lies below 
the solubility curve, hence for this range of temperature no solubility 
curve is diown. The following figures were read from the curves, and 
are therefore only approximately correct. 





Gm9.CiA0!i 




Cms. CuHM 


. ^ 


GniB. CuHigOi 


t*. 


per xoog. 


t». 


per xoog. 
Salnticn. 


t*. 


ner xoog. 
Sohitkn. 


130 


3 


241 


30 


260 


80 


ISO 


4 


245 


40 


270 


90 


170 


45 


247 


SO 


27s 


100 


19s 


S-o 


250 


60 







100 parts of toluene dissolve 0.19 part anthraquinone at 15° and 5.56 parts at 
100* (v. Beochi). 
100 gms. ether dissolve o 104 gm. anthraquinone at 25^. 

(Hildebcand, EUefwn and Beet)e, 19x7.} 

Data for the solubility of anthraquinone in mixtures of phenol and water 
are given by Timmermanns (1907}. 

Hydroxy ANTHBAQUIN0NE8 C«H« < (CO)t > CeH,OH. 

1000 cc. H/y dissolve 0.0035 gm. a oxyanthraquinone at 25^ (Hfittig, Z9X4«) 

1000 cc H^ dissolve o.ooi i gm. fi oxyanthraquinone at 2^^ " 

1000 cc. H«0 dissolve 0.000012-0.000062 gm. 1.4 dioxyanthraquinone (« chin- 

izarin) at 25^ 
1000 cc HiO dissolve 0.00158 gm. 1.6 dioxyanthraquinone ( » chrysazin) at 25^ 
(HQttig, 1914.) 

ARTHRAFLAVINE (2.6 Dioxyanthraquinone) CuH«(CO)s(OH)s. 

1000 cc H^ dissolve 0.0003 gm. anthraflavine at 25^. (HQttig, 19x4.) 

AHTH&ABUFnVE (1.5 Dioxyanthraquinone) CuH8(C0)s(0H)s. 
1000 cc H«0 dissolve 0.000285 gm. anthrarufine at 25^ (Hattig, 19x4.) 

ANTIMONY Sb. 

Fusion-point data for mixtures of antimony and iodine are given by Jaeger 
and DcnmDosch (1912); for mixtures of antimony and sulphur by Jaeger and 
Van Klooster (1912), and for mixtures of antimony, iodine and arsenic by 
Querc^h (1912). 

ANTnCOinr XriBBOMIDE SbBr,. 

SoLUBiuTy IN Benzbnb Dbtbrhinbd bt " Synthetic Method.'* 

(Menschutkin, 19x0.) 



Gms. SbBri 






Gim. SbBri 


t". per 100 Gnu. 


Solid Phase. 


r. 


per zoo Gms. Solid Phase. 


Sat.SoL 






SatSoL 


5.6 m. pt. 


CA 


90 


83 aSbBri.CA 


4 . S EuteC 8 . 3 CA+aSbBr,.CA 


92 . 5 m. pt. 


90.2 


IS ".5 


aSbBra.r«Il« 


91. S 


92.8 


35 23 


w 


90 


93.8 


SS 39 


« 


85 Eutec. 


96.3 aSbBri.CA+SbBri 


75 60.5 


II 


90 


98 ShBra 


85 74.3 


m 


94 


100 



ANTIMOinr TriBBOMIDE 



84 



Reciprocal Solubilities of Antimony Tribromidb and Various 
Organic Compounds, Determined by the "Synthetic Method." 

(Menschutkin, 1911.) 



SbBri + Aoetk SbBri + Benzoic 
Acid. Acid. 



SbBr« + Benzoyl SbBri + Benzene 
Chloride. Sulphonic Acid. 

I Cms. SbBra 
t*. per xoo Gm. 

I Sat.SaL 

52. S* o 

SO 15.8 

475 26.2 

44 1 36.9 

50 39.1 

60 45-7 

70 55.2 

80 68.1 

85 77.6 

90 90.3 

94 100 

Molecular compounds are not formed in the above systems. The diagram in 
each case consists of two arms meeting at the eutectic. 





Cms. SbBri 




Gms. SbBri 


Gms. SbBra 


r. 


perzooGma. 


r. 


per 100 Gma. 


t*. perxooGma. 




Sat. Sol. 




Sat.SoL 


SaLSoL 


16. s* 





120* 





— O.S* 


IS 


12.3 


"5 


30. z 


- 3^ 195 


xo 


41. 8 


no 


36.8 


- 6t 32 


4t 


58.3 


105 


SO 


+10 41.3 


30 


64.3 


100 


61. s 


20 47. 5 


40 


72. s 


95 


71 


30 54 


60 


8Z.9 


*5. 


83.1 


40 60.8 


70 


97.1 


79 1 


87.6 


SO 67.8 


80 


93.4 


85 


92 


60 74.9 


90 


97.8 


90 


96.4 


80 89.4 


94 


100 


94 


100 


94 100 



SbBri + Acetophenone. SbBri + Amylbenzene. SbBri + Anisole. 



CiHtCOCEta 



4f 



M 



19. S* o 

15 22.7 

1. 5* 48.6 

20 s6-8 

30 63.3 

37.5* 75 

3it 83.2 

40 84.6 

60 88.4 

(80 94.1 

194 100 



+I.X 



Z.X 

If 

M 



z.i+SbBrg 
SbBrs 



i< 



M 



If 



If 



Gms. SbBfi Solid 
t*. per xoo Gms. i>i»-^ 
Sat. Sol. ^*"**- 

—70 4-5 SbBr|.CeH*.C»Hu 

-50 8.3 

—30 16.6 

— 25 21 

^17 t 32. S "+SbBri 

— 10 33. S SbBr, 

o 35-6 
20 41 . 6 

40 51.3 
60 6s 
80 84 



II 



II 



If 



Gms. SbBri C/jwi- 

*•• "^sit^sS""' p^ 

o CAOCH^ 

2.S "+I.I 

II. 7 I.I 
26.5 

371 
50.5 
59 



-34* 

-35 
— 20 

o 

10 

20 

25 



M 



«l 



II 
M 



II 



30.5* 77 

30 1 77-9 "+SbBr| 

40 80.6 SbBra 

60 86.4 

80 93.6 



If 



u 



SbBri + Benzaldehyde. SbBri + Benzonitrile. SbBri + Benzophenone. 



^' P^fJ^^S""- Phase. 



-20 

o 

20 

35 
40 

41.5 



Sat. Sol. 

38.4 

455 

54.3 
64. z 

70.3 
77.3 



1.1 
II 

fi 

M 
M 
II 



fl 
11 



37.8 1 84.4 z.i+SbBrg 

55 88 SbBra 

75 93.1 

8s 96. z 

90 98.3 ** 

94 100 • " 

* m. pt. 



f. 

•13.2 
-16 

■18 1 
o 
30 
30 
38; 
35 t 
55 
75 

85 
90 

94 



Gma. SbBrg Cfjtjfi 

^sit^sS™- ^^^ 

♦ 0.0 CHaCN 
19.2 



If 



28.7 "+1.1 

43 
59 
67 

.77.8 
82. S i.i+SbBra 
87. S SbBra 
93.3 
96.5 

98.3 
100 

t Eutec. 



I.X 

II 



II 



If 



If 



II 



Gms. SbBra c-i;<i 

48 * O CaHaCO.CaHi 
40 24 

29 1 41-2 "+1.1 

40 SO x*x 

45 ^56.3 

48.s*66.4 

45 ' 76 

40 80 i.i+SbBik 

SO 82.6 SbBra 

70 88.7 " 

80 92.4 ** 

90 97.3 " 

94 100 ** 

t tr.pt. 



I.I » compound of equimolecular amounts of the two constituents in each case. 



85 



ANTIMONY TriBBOMIDE 



^BCiF&ocAL. SoLUBiLjnBs OP Antimont Tribromidb and Various Organic 
Compounds, Dbtbrmined by thb "Synthetic Method." 

(Menachutkin, 1910.) 



SbBrj 


le- 


SbBr, -f 


SbBr, + 


SbBr, + 


Brombenzeiie. 


Chlorb^zene. 


lodobenzene. 


Fluorbenzene. 


{ 


ctins. SbBra 




Gms. SbBrg 


Gms. SbBra 


Gms. SbBr, 


IT. per 100 Gms. 


r. 


per 100 Gms. 


t*. per 100 Gma. 


t*. per 100 Gma. 




Sat.SoL 




SaLSoL 


Sat.SoL 


Sat.SaL 


-31 • 





-45.2* 





-28.6* 


-39.2* 


-32^ 


S-7 


-47 1 


S-2 


-30.3 7.0 
-32? 14.3 


-39. st 1.3 


-25 1 


95 


-40 


6.8 


-25 4.3 


-15 


IS 


-30 


9.6 


— 20 21.6 


-15 6.7 


- S 


20.8 


— 20 


Z2.6 


— 10 27.5 


+ S 12.6 


+ S 


26.8 


—10 


16 


. 33.4 


25 21.8 


IS 


33 





20 


+10 39.3 


45 35-3 


25 


39-6 


20 


30 


20 45 . 2 


SS 4SS 


45 


S4-6 


40 


45-4 


40 57-6 


6s 60.8 


6S 


71.9 


60 


65.8 


60 71. I 


75 81.8 


8S 


90.7 


80 


86.3 


80 86.3 


85 93S 


94 


xoo 


94 


100 


94 100 


94 xoo 


SbBr,+ 


SbBr, + 


SbBr, + 


SbBr, + 


p Dibrombenzene. 


p Dichlorbenzene. 


Nitrobenzene. 


tn Dinitrobenzene. 




Gms. SbBra 




Gms. SbBri 


Gms. SbBra 


Gma. SbBra 


r. 


per zoo Gms. 


f. 


per 100 Gms. 


t*. per zoo Gms. 


t*. per 100 Gma. 




Sftt.SdL 




SatSoL 


Sat. Sol. 


Sat. Sol. 


88* 





S4S* 





6* 


90* 


8S 


10 


Si-S^ 


14 


Z 22 


80 29. z 


80 


25.2 


48.st 


26. s 


- 4 37.4 


70 SO 


7S 


39-2 


S5 


35 9 


- 9 48.4 


60 63 


70 


52 


60 


431 


-i4St 553 


SO 70.8 


6st 


62.2 


6S 


SO. 7 


- s 58.3 


. 47. st 72 


70 


68.7 


70 


S8.8 


+ S 61. s 


SO 73-4 


7S 


753 


7S 


67.2 


25 68.6 


60 78.2 


80 


81.8 


80 


75-8 


45 76.6 


70 84 


8S 


88.3 


8S 


84. S 


65 85.3 


80 90.4 


90 


94.3 


90 


93.4 


85 94.7 


90 96.8 


94 


100 


94 


100 


94 zoo 


94 zoo 



Molecular compounds are not formed in the above systems. The diagram 
in each case consists of two arms meeting at the eutectic. 



SbBr, 


+ Ethylbenzene. 


SbBr, 


+ Propylb 


enzene. 


SbBr, + p Cymene. 


r. 


JS^Jf^ Solid 


f. 


Gma. SbBra 

per xoo Gma. 

Sat. Sol. 


Solid 

Phase. 


Gma. SbBra 
t*. per xoo Gma. 
Sat. Sol. 


Solid 
Phase. 


-93* 





C|Ht.CiHa 


-80 


1-3 


X.I 


-7S* 




-93.2' 


\ 0.4 


"+Z.X 


-60 


3-7 


ti 


-77 1 2 




-70 


z 


Z.Z 


-40 


9.4 


II 


—50 6.Z 


1.1 


-SO 


2.2 


t« 


—20 


22.5 


M 


—30 12.3 


w 


-30 


4.8 


cr 


— 10 


38.4 


M 


— zo 27 


a 


— 10 


Z2 


n 


- st 


49 x.z+SbBra 


42.3 


M 


+10 


29.2 


M 


+10 


S3. 3 


SbBr, 


+st S^S 


x.z+SbBi| 


20 


46.3 


II 


20 


S7.I 


M 


20 56 


SbBfk 


29t 


69.7 


i.z+SbBr, 


40 


66.2 


U 


40 64. z 


M 


50 


78.2 


SbBra 


60 


77.2 


M 


60 75 


a 


70 


87.3 


« 


80 


89.8 


a 


80 88.5 


■ 


90 


97.7 


II 


94 


zoo 


M 


94 zoo 


« 



m. pt. 



t Eutec. 



t tr.pt 



I.I » compound of equimolecular amounts of the two constituents in each case* 



ANTIMONY TriBBOMIDE 



86 



Reciprocal Solubelities op Antimont Tribromidb and Various Organic 
Compounds, Deterionbd by the "Synthetic Method." 

(Menacbutkin, 191 x.) 

SbBfi + Cyclohexane. SbBri + Pseudo Cymene. SbBrt + Mesityleoe. 



Gms. SbBra CqIm 
t". per 100 Gnu. pi,.^ 
Sat. Sd. *^°*"- 

6.4* o CiHb 

6t 0.3 C|Ha+SbBr, 
20 1.4 SbBrg 

40 3-7 

60 7.1 

80 12.5 
liquid layers formed 
92.5 17.4 97.6 
no 25.8 96.5 

130 36 -4 95 
150 47.8 92.7 

170 62.3 86.3 
175 1 74.0 



i< 



If 



u 



Gms. SbBra c^ka 
V. per 100 Gms. ,5?"° 

-57.2* o CaHi(CH,)i,a,4 

-58. 8t 9.7 " +" 

— 50 II i.x 
—30 16.2 

— 10 31 

o 47.6 

7 5 63.5 x.z+a.i 

15 67.4 a.i 

25 73 

338 791 a.x+SbBr, 

50 82.8 SbBr, 

70 88.4 

90 97.4 



Gms. SbBri 
t*. per zoo Gms. 
Sat. Sol. 



Solid 
Phase. 



M 



M 



If 



ff 



ff 



-54.4* O CA(CH|)sX.3.5 
— 5S.2t 2.1 " +IX 
—30 3.6 x.x 

— 10 9 

+10 25.4 

20 35-5 

29; 46.5 i.x+a.x 

40 54-2 a.x 

50 61.7 

60 70.2 

69.5*85.8 

69 1 87.7 a.x+SbBrs 

80 92 . 7 SbBtg 



tf 



ff 



ft 



tf 



ft 



it 



SbBfi + Diphenylmethane. SbBfi + Naphthalene. SbBfi +a Nitronaphthalene. 



Gms. SbBri 
V. perxooGms. 
Sat. SoL 



SoUd 
Phase. 



26* 

22. 5t 
40 

50 
60 

70 

80 

90* 

82 t 
90 

94 



o 

12.8 
22.8 

295 

37.5 
47.8 

60.2 

81. 1 

89.6 

92.2 

96.2 

100 



CH,(CA)t 
"+a.x 
a.x 



a.r+SbBri 
SbBra 



ti 



Gms. SbBrg CnH/i 
f. per 100 Gms. ^^ 
Sat. Sol. '^*«»»- 

79.4 * 

75 
70 

65 

57 
60 

66* 

65 t 
75 
85 
90 



Gms. SbBr* c^uj 
r. per 100 Gms. ^^^ 
Sat. Sol. ^^^^' 






CuHg 


57* 


0.0 


«C,.H,NOi 


237 


(f 


50 


23.2 


(f 


37.4 


(f 


40 


42.6 


ft 


48.6 


ft 


33-5t 


50. 5 


"+1.1 


61.2 


" +a.x 


37.5 


62.6 


x.it 


68 


a.x 


38.2 • 


67.6 


If 


81.3 


if 


38 t 


68 


x.x+SbBrg 


84.9 


ft 


50 


73.4 


SbBrg 


86.7 


a.z+SbBra 


70 


83.8 


ft 


90.1 


SbBri 


90 


96.4 


M 


94.9 


u 








97.7 


ft 









SbBri + Diphenyl. 



Gms. SbBrg 
t*.' per 100 Gms. 
Sat. SoL 



f70.5* 
60 

47 t 

55 ^ 
60.5* 

70 

80 

90 
94 



o 

35 

54 

57 
68 

82 

86 

91 

97 
xoo 



7 
3 
4 
5 
7 
5 
5 
3 



Solid 
Phase. 

CgHgCgHg 

ff 



If 



If 



+a.x 



a.x 
If 

SbBr, 
ff 

If 

tf 



SbBri -h Phenol, 
f ^r"?l;«^r^ SoUd 



41 • o 

35 22.5 

30 40 

28.5 t 44.6 

40 53 

50 62.5 

60 75.8 

65 84.7 

66.5* 88.5 

75 91-7 

^85 95.8 

90 98.1 



CgHgOH 



If 



If 



"+a.i 



a.x 
fi 

ft 



ft 

SbBr, 
ft 

ft 



SbBri + Phenetol. 

Gms. SbBrg ^tAid 
t*. per 100 Gms. pj^ 
Sat. Sol. ^°*"- 

-28.6* o CgHiOCiH. 

-29 1 1.6 " +I.X 

— 10 4.8 x.x 

+10 12.9 " 

20 19 . 2 ** 

30 29.7 ** 

40 46.2 " 

48.8* 74.7 

47 1 77.8 z.x+SbBx| 

60 83 SbBrg 

70 87.3 

90 97.4 



ft 



* m. pt. t Eutec t crit. t. ( tr. pL 

t Not obtaixied regularly, in such cases, single eutectic at aj* and 6x.s per cent SbBrg. 

I.I =3 compound of equimolecular amounts of the two constituents in each case. 
2.1 =» compound of 2 molecules of SbBri with one molecule of the other ooQ- 
stituent. 



87 



ANTIMONY TriBBOMIDE 



Recifsocal SoLUBiLmEs OF Antimont Tribromidb in Various Organic 
Compounds, Determined by the "Synthetic Method.*' 

' (Menscfatttkin, 19x0-12.) 



SbBrj -{- ct Brom- 
jsapfatlialene. 

Gnus. SbBrs 
t*. per zoo 

Sftt. SoL 



3" 
o 

— 3 si 

35 

45 

S5 

65 

75 
&> 

85 
90 



o 

3^ 7 
49.9 
56.9 

64.7 

8x.8 
86.3 
90.8 

95-4 



SbBr, + a Chlor- 
naphthalene. 

Gms. SbBra 
t*. per xoo Gma. 

Sat. SoL 



-17* 

— 21 

— 24.St 
— 10 

+10 
30 
SO 
60 
70 
80 
90 
94 



o 
13.8 

32.6 
27.3 

35. S 

46.7 
61.6 
69.9 
78.6 

87. S 
96.6 

100 



SbBr, + /? Chlor- 

naphthalene. 

Cms. SbBra 
V. per 100 Gms. 

Sat. Sol. 



S6* 

SO 

45 
40 

37. st 

45 

55 

65 

75 
80 

85 
90 



o 
26.1 

38.S 

49 

53-6 

58.8 

66.8 

75.2 
83.8 

88.1 

92.4 

96.7 



SbBr, -f Tetra- 
hydrobenzene. 

Gms. SbBra 
t*. per zoo Gms. 
Sat. SoL 



-5 
15 
35 
55 
65 
70 

75 
80 

85 
90 
94 



II. 7 

15.1 
24.1 

41 

55-1 

64.5 
76.2 

84.4 
90.7 

95.8 

100 



SbBr, -h 
Chlortoluene. 



-38.st 
—20 
o 
+20 

30 
40 

SO 
60 
70 
80 

90 



SbBr, + 
m Chlortoluene. 



10 -7 
iS-4 

32 -5 
32.5 

38-» 
4.6. 8 

66.5 
77-8 

88.3 
97 



r. 
-47.8 ♦ 

— sot 

—30 

— 10 
+10 

30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 



Gms. SbBra 

per xoo Gms. 

dac doi. 

o 

8.1 
II. 7 

17.5 
25.8 

37.5 

45- 1 

54.4 

65 

77 

88.2 

97 



SbBr, + 
p Chlortoluene. 

Gms. SbBr, 
t*. per xoo Gms. 

Sat. SoL 



6.2* 

2. St 
20 

30 
40 

50 
60 

70 
80 

90 

94 



o 

23-3 

33 

39-3 
47.2 

56.3 
66.7 

77.8 

88.2 

97 
100 



SbBr, 4- 
m Nitroluene. 

Gms. SbBra 
t*. per 100 Gms. 
I Sat. SoL 

16 ♦ o 



10 

5 
o 

- 9t 
+10 

30 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 



24.2 

39 
46.6 

56.8 

62.7 

69.7 

77.5 
81. 5 

86.3 

91.4 

97.2 



Moleculair compounds are not formed in the above systems, 
each case con^sts of two arms meeting at the eutectic. 



The diagram in 



SbBrs + Toluene. 

S555? Solid 
Phase. 



SbBr, -h Nitrotoluene. 



f. 



-93' _ 

-93-5t 

-80 

—60 

—40 

— 20 

- it 

+20 

30 t 

40 

60 



94 

I.I 
2.1 



Gms. SbBra 
t^. per xoo Gms. 
Sat. SoL 



Solid 
Phase.^ 



o 

T .0 

2.4 
6.2 

X2.4 

25-7 
53-1 
69.4 

80.6 
86.6 

93.8 



PftH6.CHa 

I.I 
<f 

M 
M 

X.I +2.1 

2.1 

2.1+SbBra 

SbBra 
.« 

(I 



- 8.5* 

-13-5 
o 

10 

20 

25 

31 1 

40 

50 

60 

80 

90 



* m. pt. 



o 

19. 5 
27.6 

35.6 
47.5 
55. 7 
70 

73.5 

77.5 
81.7 

91.4 
97.2 



o N0|.C|H».CH, 

" +1.1 

x.i 
(f 

u 
tt 

" +SbBra 
SbBra 

u 
u 

M 
CI 



SbBr, -f p Nitrotoluene. 

Gms. SbBri 
V, per 100 Gms. 
Sat. Sol. 



SoUd 
Phase. 



t Eutec 



52.5 

45 

40 

35 

16 1 
30 
50 
60 

70 
80 
90 

X tr. pt. 



O 
29.8 
42.2 

50 
61 

67 

71.6 

78.9 

82.9 

87.2 

92 

97. s 



p N0a.CaH(.CHa 



+SbBr, 
SbBr, 



M 



compound of equimolecular amounts of the two constituents in each case, 
compound of 2 molecules of SbBr, with i molecule of the other con- 



iirriMONY TriBBOMIDE 



88 



Reciprocal Solubilitibs op Antimony Tribromidb and Various Organic 
Compounds, Determined by the "Synthetic Method." 

(MeoBchtttkiii. 19x0-11.) 



SbBr, + Tri- 
phenylmethane. 


SbBrt + Xylene. 


SbBri + m Xylene. 


SbBr, + p Xylene. 


r ^ 


Gms. SbBri 


Gms. SbBri 




Gnu. SbBri 




Gnu. SbBra 


r. 


per 100 Gnu. 


t*. per xoo Gnu. 


f. 


per zoo Gnu. 


f. 


per 100 Gnu. 




Sat. Sol. 


Sat.SoL 




Sat. SoL 




Sat. SoL 


92* 





— 29* 


-57* 





14* 





8s 


18 


-33 t 10. S 


-59. 2 t 


55 


12 


16.6 


80 


30.1 


— 20 17 


-45 


10 


lot 


28 


70 


47 


— 10 24.6 


-35 


14.2 


20 


36 


60 


58.2 


34. S 


-25 


20 


30 


44-6 


48t 


67.1 


20 65.8 


- S 


38.8 


40 


53.8 


60 


73-3 


24* 77.2 


+ 5 ♦ 


56.6 


50 


63.S 


70 


79. S 


22.5 t 78.6 


12. St 


75.4 


60 


74 


80 


86.4 


30 80 


25 


77.6 


67.5* 


87.3 


90 


95-2 


so 84.7 


45 


82.3 


66.5 t 


88.3 


94 


100 


70 90.1 


65 


87.9 


75 


91.4 






90 97.7 


87 . 


95.3 


85 


95-7 



* m. pt. 



t Eutec. 



X tr.pt. 



In the case of each of the above scylenes the compound existing between the 
first and second eutectic consists of equimolecular amounts of SbBri and xylene. 

Solubility data determined by the freezing-point method (see footnote, page i) 
are given for mixtures of antimony tribromide and each of the following compounds : 
azobenzene, benzil, s diphenylethane and stilbene (Van Stone, 1914), aniline, ben- 
zophenone, triphenylmethane and toluene. (Kuzakov, Krotkov and Okaman, 19x5.) 



iirriMONT TriCHLORIDE SbCh. 

Solubility in Water. Solid Phase SbCIa> 

(Meerburg — Z. aaorg. Cbem. 53* 99Q> 1903.) 



♦•. 


Mols. Sbda 

per 100 
&iols.HsO. 


Gnu. Sbda 
per 100 
g.HsO. 



IS 


47-9 

64.9 


601.6 
815.8 


30 

25 
30 


572.4 

(74.1 
78.6 

84.9 


910. 1 

931 s 

988.1 

1068.0 



♦•. 


Mok.Sbat 

per 100 
Mols.H|0. 


Gnu. SbOa 
per 100 
g.HsO. 


35 
40 


91.6 
108.8 


II52.O 
1368.0 


SO 
60 


3^-4 


I917.O 
4531 


72 


00 


00 



Solubility op Antimony Trichloride in Aqueous Hydrochloric 

Acid. Solid Phase SbCl,. Temp. 20^ 

(liieerbais.) 



Mols. per 
100 Mob. HsO. 



HQ. 

O 

2.4 

6.1 

8.3 



SbCli. 
72.4 
71.2 
69.9 

68.2 



Gnu. per 
100 g. HjO. 

BQ. 



Mols. per 
xoo Mob. HiO. 



Gnu. 
100 



tu. per 
g.HsO. 



0.0 
4.86 

"34 
16.80 



SbOs. 
910. 1 

^95 -4 
879.0 
857.6 



9.1 
II. 7 
28.7 



SbOa. 
68.9 

68.1 
62.8 



fiS" 
18.41 
23.68 
58.08 



SbCla. 
866.4 

856.3 
789.8 



100 gms. absolute acetone dissolve 537.6 gms. Sbd at I8^ <2y sat. sol. = 2.2 16. 

(Naumann, 1904.) 

100 gms. ethyl acetate dissolve 5.9 gms. SbCh at 18"* d sat. sol. » 1.7968. 

(Naumann, X910.) 



89 



iirriMONY TriCHLORIDB 



Reciprcx:al Solubilities of Antimony Trichloridb and Various Organic 
Compounds, Dbtermined by the ''Synthetic Method." 

(Menschutkio, 1911.) 



SbCU + Acetic Acid. SbCU + Acetophenone. 



SbCh + Anisol. 



Gma. SbQs Cnlvl 
r. pcriooGms. ^£^ 



Sat-SoL 
16.5* O 



ZO 
O 

:|t 

o 

ID 

25 
45 
65 
73 



22.7 

42.5 

48.S 

52.7 

59 

67.3 
•79.1 

81.5 
87.4 

95.3 
xoo 



CHtCOOH 
• tt 

u 
fi 

" +I.X 

X.X 
u 

it 

SbCli 
f( 

u 
If 



r. 
19s* 

IS 

ft 

IS 

35 

55 ^ 
60.5* 

32 t 

SO 

70 



Gini.SbC]| 

perxooGms. 

SatSoL 



Solid 
Phue. 



f. 



Gms. SbOi Solid 
per 100 Cms. p^^ 



O 

14.3 
28.5 

31.8 

35. 4 
41.6 

55-2 
65.4 
79-3 
84 

893 
98.2 



CACOCH. 
II 



M 



+I.X 



X.X 
•I 



II 



M 



x.x+SbCU 
SbO. 



-34* 
-36.5 t 
-30 

— ID 

+ 10 

20 

25 t 

35 ^ 

41.5* 

4ot 
60 

70 



SatSd. 

o 

IZ.8 
x6 
28.3 

43 
52.8 

63.6 

70 
80.9 

845 

92 

98 



CiHtOCH^ 

+X.I 



II 



X.X 



M 

a.x 

w 



+a.x 



"+Sba, 
SbOi 



M 



SbCla + Aniline. 



Gms. SbOt 
t". per 100 Gno. 
Sat.SoL 



- 7.2t 
+20 
60 

77 t 
88* 

87 t 

94. 5* 

89-5t 
too. 5* 

70 

31 1 
60 



X 

7 - 
18.7 

29.6 

44.8 

46.3 

54.9 
61.7 

71 
82.2 

88 
94.9 



SoUd 
Phase. 

CiH4NH,+x4 
II 

1-3 

X^+X.3 
X.3 

x.a+x.x 

X.X 
II 

x.i+SbCli 
SbCU 



SbCU + Benzaldehyde. SbCU + Benzophenone. 



f. 

xo 
20 

30 
40 

43. 5 
40 

25 1 

35 

45 

65 

73 



Gms. SbCli CrtiM 
perxooGms. w?^ 
"sat SoL ^*««- 



43-5 
47. 5 
52.4 
60.2 

68.1 
74.2 
80.6 

83 
85 

87.5 
95-2 
100 



II 



II 



M 



II 
II 



II 



x.x+SbCl| 
SbCU 



II 



II 



Gms. SbCU 

per 100 Gms. 

SatSoL 



SoUd 
Phase. 



48* 
40 

35 t 

45 

55 

76* 
65 

391 

50 

70 



o 

16.3 
21.6 
26.2 

314 

37.5 

55.4 
71.6 

80.6 

82.7 

87 
97.7 



CACOCA 



11 



+X.X 



X.X 

M 



M 



"+SbCU 
SbOt 



II 



compound of equimolecular amounts of the two constituents in each case, 
compound of 2 molecules of SbCU with i molecule of the other constit- 



i.l 

2.1 
uent. 

.1.2, 1.3 and 14 » compounds of i molecule of SbCU with 2, 3 and 4 molecules 
of aniline. 



Sbat + Benzoic 


SbCU + Benzoyl 


SbCU + Benzene 


SbCU + Tetra- 


Acid. 


Chloride. 


Sulphonic Acid. 


hydrobenzene. 


Gms. SbCU 


'Gms. SbCU 


Gms. SbCU 




Gms. SbCU 


t*. per 100 Gms. 


t* per xoo Gms. 


t*. per 100 Gms. 


f. 


perxooGms. 


Sat.SoL 


Sat.SoL 


Sat.SoL 




Sat. Sol 


120 


- 5 17.8 


52.5* 


-25 


19. X 


no 23 


-15^ 36.8 


45 18 


-15 


24 


100 38.8 


-23 1 45 


25 43.7 


- 5 


30 


90 so 


- 5 50.7 


5^ 56.1 


+ 5 


37.1 


80 59 


+15 58.2 


-St 60.8 


IS 


45.1 


70 66 


25 62.9 


+5 49.8 


25 


54. 3 


60 71.6 


35 68.4 


25 56.7- 


35 


64.5 


46t 78 


45 74-9 


45 69.2 


45 


74 


60 89.2 


55 82.4 


65 90.2 


55 


83.6 


70 97. 5 • 


70 96.5 


73 100 


65 


92.8 



Molecular compounds are not formed in the above systems. The diagram in 
each case consbts of two arms meeting at the eutectic. 



m. pt. 



t Eutec 



ttr.pt 



iirriMONT TriCHLORIDE 



90 



SbCh + Brombenzene. SbCh + Chlorbenzene. 

Gnu. SbCIt jn^;^ 
per 100 Gms. nu.-^ 



r. 



RsaFROCAL SOLUBILITIBS OP AnTDIONY TrICHLOUDB AND VARIOUS ORGANIC 

Compounds, DsTBRiaNED by thb "Synthbtic Mbtbod." 

(MenschtttUn, igio-'ii.) 

SbCh + Benzene. 

Gms. SbOt s^y 

I 

10 
20 
40 
60 

79 1 
70 

62* 

67. S 



7.3 CA 

19.4 " +«•« 
24.6 9.Z 

30- 5 
44.1 

60.6 

76.8 

85.3 

93. 5 

96 a.i+SbOi 

97.9 SbO, 



If 



M 



M 



II 



M 



Gms* SbCU Sfllid 

r. p^xoo (g^ p^. 

-31 1 o CiHiBr 

-32. 5* 4.8 "+I-I 

—30 6.8 1.1 

-20 14.8 

—10 23.9 *• 

o 34-3 " 

+ 3 1 40.3 i.x+SbOi 

20 52 SbCa« 

40 68 

60 85.8 

73 100 



-45. 2 t 

-47* 
-40 

-30 
-IS 

-it 

20 

40 
60 

73 



o 

4.3 
7 

XZ.I 

20.5 

32. S 

44.2 
S6 
72.1 
88.2 

TOO 



CAa 



z.z 

M 
M 
II 



II 



SbCk + Fluorbenzene. SbCU + lodobenzene. SbCU + Nitrobenzene. 

Giiis.^ai g^jj 



Gms. SbCIa CqIm 



Sat. SoL ^»««- 

— 39.2t o CtHtf" 

—40.5* 2.4 "+ 1.1 

— 25 II 

-IS 173 

— 10 21.4 

— S 26.4 
o ^ 341 

+ SSt 45-8 i.x+SbO, 

IS S3-6 SbCU 

25 61.6 

45 77.7 

;6s 93.8 



z.z 

M 
II 
H 
II 



II 



II 



Gms. SbCli g^uj 
f*. per zoo Gma. m!^ 

-28.6 1 O CAI 

-3S 12.8 " 

-45* 29.8 "+Z.Z 

—34.5 II. 7 z.z, unsUUe 

— IS 26.4 

— 3 .49.1 
— 3S 32. S z-z+Sbd, 

— IS 38.9 SbCI, 
+ 5 46.4 

25 56 

45 69.6 

65 88.8 



II 



i< 



i< 



II 



II 



r. 

6t o CANOb 

— 2 20.4 « 

— 10 32 •* 

-16.5* 38 "+Z.1 

— lo.s 44 z.t 

— 75 50 

— 6t 64.8 

— 6.5* 67.5 z-z+SbOi 
+ 5 69.6 SbCU 

35 78.7 

55 87.4 

70 96.6 •* 



SbCh + Ethylbenzene. SbCU + Benzonitrile« SbCh + laoamylbenzene. 



-93 

-93 
-70 

-50 

-30 
—10 

+10 
30 
39 
35 
37 
36 
50 
70 

33 



Gms. SbOi Solid 
, per 100 Gms. pKS 
^st. SoL ^'*^- 

"^ o C|H*.CA 

.5* 0.3 "+" 

0.6 IX 

I.I 

2.5 

7 
18.8 

44.4 
t 68.1 

77.4 i.z+a.z 
t 81. 1 az 

.8* 81.8 a.z+Sba, 

87.2 SbO, 

98 



M 



II 



II 



II 



II 



li 



f. 



,Sr°Sl?rSj. Solid 
per 100 ums. pu.-^ 

Sat Sol. ^'**- 



13.2 t 
16 

19* 
10 
o 
10 

IS 
20 



o 

10.2 
17.2 
21.9 

28.5 

38.7 

47.4 
62.6 



80.4 z.z+SbCl| 
^ (unstable) 

* Eutec. 



21. 5t 68.7 

20 72.4 

15* 78.9 

25 81.6 

45 87.6 

65 95.6 

73 100 



tm.pt. 



CACN 



II 



+Z.Z 



z.z 

II 

M 

II 



II 



•I 



M 



II 



Gms. SbCU c^KJ 

-80 4 

—60 II. 7 

-40 25.4 

—33+ 32.7 z.z+aj 

-25 38.7 a.z 

-IS 47.2 

— St 56.8 s.z+SbOs 
o 57.4 SbOi 

20 63.3 

40 -72.6 

60 .87.1 " 

70 97.3 

— 25 44.4 unstable Z.Z 

— 21 t 54.9 "z.z+SbCU 

— 10 56 "SbCU 

ttr.pt. 



Z.Z 

II 
II 



14 



M 



I.I « compound of equimolecular amounts of the two constituents in each case. 
2.1 s compound of 2 molecules of SbCh with i molecule of the other con- 
stituent. 



91 



ANTIMONY TriCHLORZDE 



Rbofrocal Solubilities of Antimony Trichloride and Various Organic 
Compounds, Determined by the "Synthetic Method." 

(Menschutkin, zqio-xi.) 



SbCU + tn Dinitrobenzene. 



r. 

90* 
80 
70 
60 

SO 
40 

30 

20 

10 

It 

—II 

+27. 5 
28.5 

27. 5 
25 



Gms. SbCli 

per xooGms. 

SatSoL 



Soiid 
Phaae. 



O 
18.6 

40.7 

48 

S3. 6 

S8 

61 . 6 unstable 

64. S 
66.8 

68.8 

52.5 
58.2 

63 
67. S 



tt 



M 



tt 



U 



U 



r. Peyoo a-., n^ 

72 . 8 unstable 
76.2 



M 



U 



C«H«(NQ|), 20 

IS 

10 78.6 

S 80.8 

o 82.7 

— 10 64.9 

+10 69 

20 71.6 

30 74.8 

"+SbCl,40 78.7 

SO 83. s 

x.z 60 89 

" 70 96.4 

** 73 100 



ti 



x.z 

«l 

M 



M 



M 



H 



U 

SbCli 

It 

CI 

<l 

M 

CI 

u 

IC 



SbCU + Propylbenzene. 



Gnu. SbCIa 
t*. per 100 Gms. 
SatJ Sol. 



Solid 
Phase. 



-70 

-30 

— 10 

o 

8.st 
20 

40 
6S 

• ■ • 

-70 
-30 

- S ^ 
+ i.S* 

it 

10 



0.6 

10. 1 

26.6 
40.4 

575 
68.2 

71.4 

78. S 
92. S 

• • • 

1. 5 »•« 
16 " 

48.2 

65.3 
66.3 

68.6 



9.x 

M 



M 



••+sba, 

SbOt 



^iimtw M ft 



CC 



c< 



CI 



M 



fC 



" +sbca, " 

SbO. " 



SbCU + p Dibrom- 
benzene. 

Gms.SbCli 

per 100 Gms. 
SatSoL 



f. 

88* 

8S 
80 

70 
60 

ss 

49St 

6S 
60 

70 



o 

S.7 

154 

35 
52.8 

59 
64 
71.8 

79-3 
95 



SbCU + p Dichlor- 
benzene. 

Gms.SbC]« 

per zoo Gms. 

Sat. SoL 



f. 

545*. 
50 

45 

39St 

45 

SO . 

55 
60 

70 



14 
30 
48 

50.S 

59. S 
67.8 

75.7 

83 
96.2 



SbCh + Cydohexane. 



f. 



Gms. SbCl« per xoo Gmt. 
Sat. Sol 



6.4* 0.0 

6t o.a 

20 1.2 

40 4.2 

60 9.7 

Two liquid layers formed 



70 

80 
100 
120 
124 

125.58 



13-7 
19.5 
32.3 
57.1 
58.9 



68 



97 

96.1 

92.7 

83.2 

76.7 



SbCU + p Cyraene, 



r. 



Gnis.SbClt 

per xoo Gms. 

Sat. SoL 



SoUd 
Phase. 



-75* 

-76.st 

-SO 

-30 

—10 

- 3-5t 

ID 
30 

4ot 

SO 

60 

70 



o 

2 

7 
IS 
30 

41 
46.1 

60 

76.4 
81.2 

87 
95.6 



P CACHiCH, 

+X.X 



<l 



x.x 

II 
II 



x.x+a.x 



a.x 

II 



2.x+SbCU 



11 



If 



•c 



* nLpt 



SbCh + Pseudocymene. SbCU + Diphenyl. 

Gms. SdCI| GniSyi 
P**«J~cS«*- Phase, 



r. 



Gms. SbCU 

per TOO Gms. 

Sat. Sol. 



Solid 
Phase. 



-57. 4* 
-60 1 

-45 
-25 

— 10 

- St 
+15 

35 

50 

56* 

Sit 

65 

f Eutec 



o 

18.6 
23.6 

33.3 

45 

50.7 

55.8 
62.2 
69.7 
79.2 

87.5 
93.9 



QHt(CH|),x,s,4 

" +I.X 

i.x 



cc 



H 



"+a.x 



+a.i 



S.X 

•I 



S.X 
il 

II 
11 



s.x+SbOi 
SbOi 

t tr. pt 



f. 

Sat Sol 

70.5* O CA.CA 
65 14 

55 33.4 

40 

45.2 

SI.4 
70.7 •* 

74.6 
85. 5 

88.9 a.x+SbCli 
93.1 SbCU 
97 

S exit. t. 



sot 

55 
60 

70 

71* 

57 t 

65 

70 



II 



I.I 
3.1 



compound of equimolecular amounts of the two constituents in each case, 
compound of 2 molecules of SbCh with i molecule of the other constituent. 



ANTIMONT TriCHLORIDE 



92 



Rbcip&ocal S(x.ubilities of Anthiony Trichloridb and Various Organic 
Compounds, Determined bt the "Synthetic Method." 

(Menachutkin, 19x0-1 z.) 



SbCb + Mesitylene. 



) Gms. SbCIa 
per zoo Gms. 
Sat. Sol. 



Solid 
Phase. 



SbCU + Diphenyl 
Methane. 

Gms. SbCli 
t*. per zoo Gms. 
Sat. Sol. 



SoUd 
Phase. 



-S4.4* 
-55-6 
-40 
— 20 
o 
10 

38 1 

755* 
70 

58.5 

63 
70 



o 

IS 

3 

7 

14.2 
20.3 

39-3 

514 

65.4 
79.2 

87 

92.4 
94 
98 



C|H|(CH.),z,3.5 
+1.1 



f< 



X.I 

(i 



26* 

22. St 
40 



60 

70 
80 

90 
+a.x 95 

100* 

95 

90 
+Sbai 80 

SbOi 67 t 

70 



II 
11 
ft 
tf 

a.i 
<i 

If 

«t 



ft 



o 

7.9 

15.1 
26 

33 
41.6 

52.7 
59.8 
72.9 
8a. 2 
86.7 

91.5 
95.7 
97 



CHe(CiHi)t 
" +a.x 
s.x 

41 
M 
M 
(I 
U 
11 



11 



M 



<l 



a.x+SbOt 
SbOf 



SbClj + Triphenyl 
Methane. 



Gms. SbClt 
t*. per 100 Gms. 
Sat. SoL 



Solid 
Phase. 



92* 

85 
80 

70 

60 

49T 

45 
40 

35 t 

45 

55 

65 
70 



o 
II. 8 

193 
32 

42.4 
49.6 

50 
62.8 

68.3 

72 

76.6 

82.4 

90.6 

96.1 



CH(CiH^i 



ii 



M 



M 



II 



•I 



" +I.I 



x.z 



x.x+SbCli 
SbCl. 



<i 



ft 



SbCk + Naphthalene. 



Gms. SbCU 
per zoo Gms. 

siata 901. 



SoUd 
Phase. 



;79.4* 
75 . 

59 t 

65 

75 
80 

86* 

80 

70 

65 t 
70 



o 

15. a 

35 
42.8 

48.4 
58.8 

65 

78 

88.7 

93 

94 

97.2 



*< 



(I 



" +a.i 

fi.X 



If 



If 



fi 



If 



3.i+sba» 

SbCIi 



SbCU + a Chlor- 
naphthalene. 



Gms.SbCli 
t°. per 100 Gms. 
Sat. Sol. 



QoHs — 



SoUd 
Phase. 



21 t 

O 
10 
20 
30 
40 

46* 
45-5 t 

55 
70 



o 
8.1 

14.4 
18.7 
24.6 

33-5 

47.7 
61. s 

73-6 

75 
82.2 

96.S 



aCioHTQ 
" +a.i 

3.x 



ft 



fi 



II 



a.z+SbCli 
Sbdi 



fi 



r. 

56 
50 

45 
40 

30 

25 1 

29-5 
28 1 
35 

45 
60 

73 



SbCU + /8 Chlor- 
naphthalene. 

Gms. SbCU 

per zoo Gms. 

Sat.S<d. 



Solid 
Phase. 



O 

16.6 
27.2. 

35-4 

47-3 

52.3 
58.2 

64 

68.3 

75-3 

87.5 
100 



^CiAQ 



• +I.X 



I.Z 



x.z+SbCli 
SbOa 



•I 



ft 



ft 



SbCh + a Bromnaphthalene. 
f. 



SbCh + a Nitronaphthalene. 



10 

25 

33 ^ 

34.5* 

33 

31st 
40 

50 
60 
70 



Gms. SbCIa per zoo 
Gms. Sat. Sol. 

O 

8.3 
12. 8 

24 

38.5 

52.4 

62.1 

64.7 
69.7 

76.2 

84.5 
94.8 

* m pt. 



SoUd 
Phase. 

aCioHfBr 

" +1.1 

X.X 

M 
tl 



x.x+SbCU 

SbClt 
I* 

ft 



t tr.pt. 



Gms. SbCls per zoo SoUd 
Gms. Sat. Sol. Phase. 



57* 
SO 

^t 
30 + 

35 

37.5 

39* 

37. 5^ 

34-5 t 

45 
60 

70 



o 
136. 

27.3' 
35.8 

43.2 

49.3 

56.7 
64.9 

72.8 

78 

87.4 
96.6 



X Entec. 



a CjoHrNOk 
«i 



It 



" +I.X 



x.z 

tl 
u 



s.x+SbCU 
SbO. 



I.I » compound of equimolecular amounts of the two constituents in each 
case. 

2.1 « compound of 2 molecules of SbCh with i molecule of the other con* 
stituent* 



93r 



ANTDSONY TriCHLORIDB 



Rbofrocal Solubilitibs op Antimony Trichloride and Various Organic 
Compounds, Determined by the "Synthetic Method." 

(Menachtttkiii, 19x0-13.) 



SbCb + Phenol. 
,£°^^r^ Solid 



Sat.SoL 



41' 

35 

30 
20 

xo 

St 
IS 
30 

37* 
36.St 
55 
70 



CAOH 



M 
U 
M 



" +a.i 



o 

16.2 
25.6 

38- 7 
48 

S2 

58.6 

70.6 

83 

83.7 a.i+SbCU 
90.6 SbO. 
98.2 



M 



M 



SbCh + Phenetol. 

f . per 100 Gms. ^J*2 



-28.6* 

-29 t 

— 20 

— 10 
+10 

20 

30 
40 
42.2* 

3St 

SO 
70 



Sat. SoL 
o QH^OCiHs 



1-4 

45 

8.1 

18.2 

27.4 

39-4 
S8 

65 
77.8 

86.8 

97.1 



•+I.X - 



i.x 

M 



SbCh + Toluene, 

f BS-"^^rSl Solid 

93 • o CA.CH, 

94 t I.I "+«•« 
70 3.1 I.I 

30 15.8 

o 41. S 

"t 57.8 "+a.i 

20 62.8 S.Z 

40 78 

42. S* 83.1 

40 1 8s. 8 a.i+SbOi 

50 89 SbCU 

70 97.8 



f( 



fi 



M 



U 



«f 



U 



M 



M 



M 



IC 



«l 



SbCli + Chlortoluene. SbCU +|m Chlortoluene. SbCli + p Chlortoluene. 

Gms. SbCif StJid 

**• ""sTsS."- "—• 

— 36.2* o oaC.H«CHi 

-375 1 6.9 "+1.1 

—20 18.3 I.I 

— 10 29 . 2 

- 5 ^ 37.1 

- 0.5 1 47.9 i.i+SbCU 
+10 53.1 SbCI, 

20 $8.2 

30 64.6 

40 71.8 

60 88.4 

73 100 



—47.8* O waCJIiCHa 

— 49t 6.9 " +1.1 

—40 12.3 1.1 

—30 20. 1 " 

— 20 31 " 

— I4t 40 z.i+SbOi 

o 46.1 SbOa 

zo 51.6 

20 57-4 

40 72.8 

60 89. z 

73 100 



Gms. SbCI| CqIii] 

6.2^ o ^aCACH^ 

3 12.7 

o 23.5 

• 3 32.2 

• 7St 43.8 "+sba. 

o 47 . 2 SbCU 

zo 52.2 " 

30 64.8 

40 72.3 " 

so 80.2 " 

60 88.8 

70 97.4 



SbGs + Nitrotoluene. SbGa + m Nitrotoluene. 



f .S^^r^^ Solid 

r. per xoo urns. pKa-p 
Sat. Sol. ,^°^^ 



« (Gms. SbGa 
t*. per xoc Gms. 
Sat. SoL 



SoUd 
Phase. 



- 8.S* O 

-13. S "-3 

-i8.st 18. s 

—10 2Z.3 

+10 3Z.X 

20 39 

30 SO 

34.5*62.3 

33 68 

27. st 74.6 

40 79-1 
50 84. 5 
70 975 



tfNOiCACHt 



*( 

I.I 
ti 

«< 

M 



•( 



+1.1 



z6* 

zo 

o 

— xo 

— 20 



o 

IS 

30.7 
39-2 
42.8 



crystallization not 
obtained here 



"+Sba 
SbCW 



o 

20 

30 
40 

SO 
60 

73 



67.2 

72. S 

76.3 
80.8 
86 
9X.6 
100 



SbCU + P Nitrotolaene. 

Gns. SbCla c^itj 
f . per xoo Gms. ^ 
Sat. SoL "^• 

«iNQK:ACHi 52. S* o ^NOkCACHi 

4S 18. 5 

35 33.6 

30 38.8 

«• ao 46 - 

75 t 52 - +1.1 

7.5 62.3 i.i 

SbOi s 66.x •• 

3t 68. s 1.1+SbCa, 

•• 10 70 SbO. 

30 ^75. 5 
SO 8s 

70 97. S 



l.I = 
case. 

2.1 = 
Btituent. 



* m. pt. t Eutec. T tr. pL 

compound of equimolecular amounts of the two constituents in each 

compound of 2 molecules of SbCk with i molecule ot the other con- 



ANTIMONY TriCHLORZDE 



94 



REaPROCAL SOLUBILITIBS OP ANTIMONY TrICHLORIDB AND VARIOUS OrGANTC 

Compounds, Dbtermined by thb "Synthbtic Method." 

(MenKhutkin, iQio.) 



SbCU + Xylene. 



SbCU + m Xylene. 



SbCU + p Xylene. 



Cms. SbCU 
t*. per loo Cms. 
Sat. Sol. 


Solid 
Phase. 


Gnu. SbCU 
t*. per 100 Cms. 
Sat.SoL 


Solid 
Phase. 


Gm^. SbCU 
t*. per 100 Gms. 
Sat.SoL 


Solid 
Phase. ^ 


— 29. 


Ca(CH,)f 


"57* 


m C«H4(CHa)fl 


14* 





^CA(CHOt 


-35 1 14 


" +1. 


x-60.5 


t 7.S 


" +I.X 


II. 7 


tii.7 


" +X.I 


-30 17. 5 


X.I 


-45 


15.8 


x.x 


20 


17. S 


x.x 


— 20 24.8 


If 


-25 


29 


ft 


40 


37.3 


t« 


-10 33.4 


ft 


- S^ 


46.2 


ft 


5®x 


S2.3 


M 


43-4 


f( 


- 2t 


49.8 


" +a.i 


sst 


62.7 


•• +a.x 


10 55 


M 


5 


53-1 


9.1 


60 


66.1 


a.x 


19.5*68.1 


l« 


IS 


S8-7 


ff 


7o* 


81 


«• 


25 71 -3 


a.i 


25 


657 


ff 


^5, 


88.1 


•< 


30 75.7 


i« 


33^ 


73.8 


N 


S8t 


92 


" +sbcu 


33.S'*8r 


-. ** 


38* 


81 


(f 


69 


97.2 


SbCU 


3i.5t82.5 


a.i+SbCl. 


36.5 


183.7 a.x+SbCU 


a ■ • 


• ■ • 


• ■ • • 


50 88 


SbCU 


SO 


87.7 


SbCU 


10 


20 . 7 ^ CACCHi)! unstable 


60 92.4 


f« 


60 


91. S 


ff 


7t 


32.8 


"^+a.x •• 


71 98. S 




70 


97.2 


ft 


3S 

55 


SO. 3 
62.7 


a.x - 

W M 




• m.pL 


t Eutec. 


ttr.pt. 




1. 1 = compoi 


Lind of eqi 


iiimoleci 


liar amounts of the two constituents in each case. 



2.1 » compound of 2 molecules of SbCU with i molecule of the other con- 
stituent. 



Distribution of Antimony Tri and Pbntachlorides between Aqueous 

HCl AND Ether at Room Temperature 

(Mylius, 19ZX ; 

When I gm. of antimony as SbCU or as SbCU is dissolved in 100 oc. of aq. 
HCl of the following strengths and the solution shaken with 100 cc. of ether, 
an amount of metal, dependmg upon the concentration of the aq. add solution, 
enters the ethereal layer. 



With 1% SbCU Solution. 



With 1% SbCU Solution. 



Per cent Cone. 
oiHa 


Per cent of Total 
Sb in Ether Layer. 


Per cent Cone 
of HCl. 


Per cent of Total 
Sb in Ether Layer. 


20 




6 


20 


81 


IS 
ID 




13 
22 


IS 

lb 


32 

6 


S 

I 




8 
0.3 


S 

I 


2.5 
trace 



Solubility data determined by the freezing-^oint method (see footnote, p. i) 
are given for mixtures of antimony trichloride and each of the following com- 
pounds: azobenzene, benzil, s diphenylethane, and stilbene (Van Stone, 1914); 
benzene, naphthalene, diphenylmetnane and triphenylmethane (Kurnakov, 
Krotkov and Oksman, 1915); SbBri, Sbli, and SbUri + Sbli (Bemadis, 1912); 
SbCU (Aten, 1909). 



ANTIMONY PentaCHLORZDE SbCU. 

Data for the freezing-ix>ints of mixtures of antimony pentachloride and anti- 
mony pentafluoride are given by Ruff (1909). 



Gmft. 


SbFa per 


100 Gms. 


Water. 




Sat. Solution. 


384.7 
444.7 
452.8 




79.4 
81.6 

81.9 


492.4 
563.6 




83.1 
84.9 



95 ANTIMONY TriTLUORIDB 

ANTIMONT TrinUOaiDE SbF,. 

Solubility in Water. 

(RoKnheim and Grftnbaum, 1909.) 

r. 

o 
20 
22.5 

25 
30 

Solubility ik Aqueous Solutions of Salts and of Hydrofluoric Acid at o^ 

Nonnality Gms. SbFs per xoo Gms. H^ present in Aq. Solutions of: 

of Aq, Sah f ^ \ 

Solutioo. KG. KBr. KNQ,. KaS0«. EtC|04. (NH4)iQ04. KtC«H«0b. HF. 

'l 461.8 448.7 458.2 419.9 465.7 ••• 461.4 432.5 
0.5 448.3 450 451.9 408.5 481.2 431.9 430.5 404 

025 431.9 455-6 418.3 406.6 451.3 442.3 430.8 

o 125 407 -3 417-2 401.4 ... 405.2 433.3 435.2 *479.4 

• (a » HF.) 

Celluloid flasks were used and all measuring apparatus provided with HF re- 
sistant coating. The SbFt was prepared in the form of rhombic transparent 
crystals from SbA and HF. 

ANTIMONT TrilODIDE Sbls. 

S(x«uBiLiTY IN Methylene Iodide at i2^ 

(Retgers, 1893.) 

100 parts CHsIt dissolve 11.3 parts Sblt. Sp. Gr. of solution » 3.453. 

Solubility Data Determined by the Freezing-point Method Are Given 

FOR Mixtures op: 

Antimony triiodide and arsenic triiodide. 

(Querdgb, 1912; Jaeger and Domboscfa, 1913; Vasilev, 19x3.) 
" " " phosphorus triiodide. (Jaeger and Doraboech, 19x2.) 

" " " iodine. (Querdgh, 19x2.) 



AITTIMONY TriOXIDE Sb>Q|. 
Freezing-point data are given for mixtures of antimony trioxide and antimony 

trisulfide. (Querdgh, X9X3.) 

ANTIMONY TriPHENYL Sb(C«Hi),. 

Freezing-point data are given for mixtures of antimony triphenyl and mercury 
dif^enyl and for antimony triphenyl and tin tetraphenyl. (Cambi. 191a.) 

ANTIMONY SELENIDES SbSe, SbtSe. 

Freezing-point data for SbSe + AgsSe and SbiSe -|- AgSe. (FOabon, X908.) 

ANTIMONY TriSULPHIDE SbiS,. 
1000 cc. water dissolve 0.00175 gm. SbiSt at i8^ (Weigd, X907.) 

Solubility Data Determined by the Freezing-foint Method Are Given 

for Mixtures of: 

Antimony trisulphide and cuprous sulfide. (Panavano and Cesaris, 19x3.) 

" ** " stannous sulfide. 

^ " " lead sulfide. (Jaeger and Van Klooster, X9X3; P^bon, 19x3.) 

M " '' silver sulfide. (Jaeger and Van Klooster.x9X3,) 



ANTIMONY TARTRATE 



96 



ANTIMONT Potassium TARTRATE C2Hs(OH)s(COOK)(CXX)SbO).iHA 



100 ems. water dissolve 5.9 gms. salt at room temp. 
.? " " 6.9 " " " 25^ 

95% HCOOH dissolve 82.7 gms. salt at 20.8^ 
glycerol dissolve 5.5 gms. salt at 15.5*^. 



II 



(Squire and Caines. 1905.) 
(S and S, 1903.) 
(Aschaa. i9X3«) 
(Aschan, 19x3.) 



Solubility of Antimony Potassium Tartrate in Aq. Alcohol 

Solutions at 25**. 

(Seidell, 19x0.) 



Wt. Per cent 

CiILOHin 

Sofvent. 

O 

5 
ID 

20 
30 



Sat. Sol. 

1.052 
1.025 
1.007 
0.980 
0.958 



Gms. C^IIA- 

KSbO.mO per 

xoo Gms. Sat. Sol 

SSO 

392 
1.92 

0.84 



Wt. Per cent 

C^mOHin 

Solvent. 

40 

50 

60 

70 

100 



Sat. Sol. 

0-93S 
0.913 

0.890 

0.866 

0.788 



Gms-CiHA- 

KSbO.iHiOper 

100 Gms. SiO. SoL 

0.38 

0.23 

0.12 

0.06 

trace 



ANTIPYRINE CuHisN,0. 

100 gms. water dissolve 80 gms.CuHuN20at 15^ (Greenish and Smith. '03.) 



«4 

II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
«l 



alcohol 

90% alcohol 

chloroform 

ether 

pyridine 

50% aq. pyridine " 



100 

ICO 

75.2 
100 

1-3 
38.0 
79.61 



41 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 



il 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 



II 
II 
II 

at 20-25' 
II 



(U.S. P.) 



(EneQ. 1899.) 
(Dehn; 19x7.) 



The Solidification Points of Mixtures of Antipyrinb and Chloral 

Hydrate. 

(Tsakalatos, X9X3.) 

|. ^j Gms. CuHnN^ 



rof Gms. CiiHttNiO g^j-j 

Solidification. ^^Si^' P»««^- 



108.9 100 

90 86.1 

70 73 

5o.5Eutec. 64.2 

60 56.8 

62.3m.pt. 53.2 

60 50.3 

56 Eutec. 47 . 2 



CuHmNiO 



il 



II 



"+X.I 



x.x 



i< 



II 



<f 



+i.a 



Solidification. 
60 

61.8 m. pt. 

57 

SO 

40 

33.8 Eutec. 

40 

51.6 



per xoo Gms. 
Mixture. 

40.9 

36.7 

30- 1 
26.1 

20.2 

16.5 

6 
o 



SoUd 
Phase. 

x.a 



a 



II 



x.a+C(n,.C0H.Hi0 
CCU.C0H.H/> 



i< 



i.i =» CiiHiiNiO.CCUCOH.HiO (Hypnal). 
1.2 - CuHiiN,0.2(CCU.COH.H20) (Bihypnal). 



The Solidification Points (Solubility, see footnote, p. i), of Mixtures of 

' Antipyrinb and Salol. 

(Bellucd, 19x2, X9X3.) 



Initial r of 
Solidification. 

112. 6 
104.5 
98 

91 
83 

7S 



Gms. CuHitN^ 

per xoo Gms. 

Mixture. 

100 

90 

80 

70 

60 

SO 



Initial t*of 
Solidification. 

65 

S3 

30 Eutec. 

34 

3S 
42 



Gms. CuHisN^ 
per xoo Gms. < 
Mixture. 

40 

30 

17 
20 

10 

O 



97 APOMORPHZNB HTDBOCHLORIDS 

APOMOBPHZNS HTDBOCHLORIDE CnHnNOk.HCl. 

100 gms. water dissolve 1.7 gms. salt at 15^ and 2 gins, at 25^ 

100' gms. 90% alcohol dissolve 2 gms. salt at 25^ 

(Dott, Z906; Squires and Gaines, 1905.) 

ABACHIDIC ACID C^HtoOi. 

Sqlubilitt Data Determinbd by thb Frebzing-foint Method are 
Given bt Meybr« Brod and Soyka (1913), for Mixtures of: 

Arachidic and Stearic Acids. 
" Palmitic Adds. 
" " Lignoceric Adds. 

ABBUTIN CuHisOr.iHsO. 

100 gms. trichlorethylene dissolve o.oii gm. arbutin at 15^ 

(Wester and Bruins, 1914.) 



ABGON.A. 


Solubility in 


Water. 








(Estrdcher— Z. phjmk. Cfaem. azv xa4f W) % 




^« Cor. Bar. 


Vol. Vol. Absorbed 


Absorption Coefficients.* 


Soliibilitjr. 




«. 


/. * 


V 


• • • 


... ... 


... 


00578 


0.0102 


I 764.9 


77.40 4.34 


0.0561 


0.0561 


0.0099 


5 7650 


77-39 3-93 


0.0507 


0.0508 


0.0090 


10 765-3 


77-41 3.49 


0.0450 


0.04S3 


0.0079 


15 762.4 


77 46 3-13 


0.0404 


0.0410 


0.0072 


20 7S7-6 


77-53 2-86 


0.0369 


0.0379 


0.0066 


25 766.7 


77.62 2.64 


0-0339 


0.0347 


0.0060 


30 760.6 


77-73 2-43 


0.0312 


0.0326 


0.0056 


35 757 I 


77.86 2.24 


0.0288 


0.0305 


0.0052 


40 7583 


77.99 2.07 


-0265 


0.0286 


0.0048 


45 756.4 


78.15 1.92 


0.0246 


0.0273 


0.0045 


50 747.6 


7831 1-73 


0.0221 


0.0257 


0.0041 


a ^tinder barometric pressure minus tension of H,0 vapor. 




/ —under 760 mm. pressure. 








q —grams argon per zoo g.H,0 when total pressure is equal to 


> 760 mm* 




* See Acetylene, 


pagez6. 







SoLUBiLrrY OF Argon and Water. 

(von Antiopoff, 1909-10.) 
t". Coef. of Abs(»ption. 

o 0.0561 

10 0.0438 

20 0.0379 

30 0.0348 

40 0.0338 

50 0.0343 



The ooef . of absorption adopted for these results is that of Bunsen as modified 
by Kuenen. The modification consists in substituting unit of mass in place of 
unit of volume of water in the formula. 

Data for the solubility of argon in water and in sea water, together with a 
critical discussion of the literature, are given by Coste (191 7). 

Data for the solubility and diffusion of aigon in solid and liquid metals aie 
given by Sieverts and Bergner (1912). 



ABSINIC 98 

AB8ENIC As. 

Data for the fusion-points of mixtures of arsenic and iodine are given by 
Jaeger and Doomboech (1912). 

MetaASSINIC ACID AsOiH. 

Distribution at 25^ between: 

(AueriMch, 1903.) 

HsO and Amyl Alcohol. Sat. Aq. H|BOi Solution and Amyl AlcohoL 
Gms. AaOkH per 1000 oc Gms. AaO|H pet 1000 oc 



\q. Layer. 


Alcoholic Layer. 


Aq. Layer. 


Akoholic Layer. 


4.82 


0.90 


9.28 


1-75 


963 


I -75 


18.74 


3-47 


18.44 


350 







AB8INIC TriBBOBODE and TrilODZDE AsBr, and Asl<. 

100 gms. H|0 dissolve about 6 gms. Asit at 25**. (U. S. P.) 

100 gms. carbon disulfide dissolved about 5.2 gms. Aslt. (SquixesO 

ICO gms. methylene iodide, CHtItt dissolve 17.4 gms. Asl| at I2% d of sat 

solution » 3.449. (Retgers. 1893.) 

Solubility Data EfETERMiNED bt the Freezing-point Method Are Givbn 

FOR Mixtures of: 

Arsenic tribromide and naphthalene. (Pushin and Kriger, 19x4.) 

" " " phosphorus triiodide. (J^ser and Doombosch, Z9Z3.) 

" triiodide and iodine. ■ (Qucrdgh, x9za.) 

AB8ENIC TriCHLOaiDE AsCU. 

When i.o gxn, of arsenic as the trichloride is dissolved in 100 cc. of aq. HCl 
and the solution shaken with 100 cc. of ether the following percentages of the 
metal enter the ethereal layer; with 20% HCl, 68%; 15% HCl, 37%; 10% 
HCl, 7%; 5% HCl, 0.7% and with 1% HCl, 0.2% of the arsenic (MyUus. xgix.) 

ABBSHIO TBIOXIDK As,0.. 

Solubility op the: 
Crystallized Modification. Amorphous Modification. 

In Water. In Water. 

Ao Gms. AasOfe per 

• • xooccHiO. 

ord. temp. 3.7 

b. pt. 11.86 

In Alcohol, Ether and CS,. 

G. AaiOs per zoo g. Solvent. 

Alcohol 0.446 

(Bniner and St. ToUoczko — Z. anarg. Chem. 37, 456, Ether o . 454 

'o3;Chodouiiaky — Lucy. Chezn. 13, ZX4, '88.) pc ^ ,^, 

(Widder — J. pr. Chem. [a] 31, 347, *85.) 

SoLUBiLmr OF Arsenic Trioxtoe in Aqueous Solutions of Ammonia at 

30*^ (Interpolated from Original Results). 

(Schiememakers and deBaat, X9X5.) 
Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat Sd. _ ... _. Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 



*•. 


Gms. AssOfe 

per xoo cc. 

Sat. Solutiaii. 


2 


1. 201 


IS 

as 


1-657 
2.038 


39-8 
b. pt 


2.930 

6.+ 



NH.. 


AsA. 


■k ooua irnaae. 


NH.. 


AsA- 


-^ doiia roase. 





2.3 


AsA 


4 


7.6 


NH*AsO, 


I 


8.3 


u 


5 


6.2 




2 


14.9 


« 


7 


4.6 




2.8 


20.5 


AsA+NH4AsOi 


10 


31 




3 


13 


NHtAsO* 


13 


2.4 




3.5 


9.1 


« 


14.3 


2.2 





99 



ARSENIC OXIDBS 



Sqlubilitt op Arsbnic Trioxtob in Watbr and inT. Aqueous Solution 
GP Hydrochloric Acid at 15"* (Interpolated from the original). 

(Wood, 1908.) 



Mob. Helper 
Liter. 

O 

0.46 

2 

4 



Cms. Afl^jxr 
zoo cc. SmuUoii. 

1-495 

1-5 
1.2. 

»-3 



Hob. Ha pet 
Liter. 

6 

7 
8 



Cms. As^per 
100 cc Solutioii. 

3-8 

7.5 

12. S 
17.7 



SoLUBiUTT OP Arsenic Trioxidb in Aqueous Salt Solutions. 

(SdudBemaken and deBaat, 1917.) 



In Aq. Ammonium Bromide at 30^ 

Gnu. per loo Gms. Sat. Sol. 



AsA. 
2.26 

2.25 

0.679 

0.518 

0.386 

0-303 
0.237 

O.IS4 
0.190 

o 



NH«Br. 
O 

0.339 

4.37 
7.18 

13-31 
20.14 

31.69 

41 -34 
45.66 

44.8 



Solid Pbaae. 

AaA 
"+A9AJ^H«Br 
AsA.NH«Br 



In Aq. Sodium Bromide at 30^ 

Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. 



M 



M 



U 



"+NH«Br 
im«Br 



AsA. 
2.19 

2.09 

1.88 

1.63 
1.50 

1.20 

0.953 

0.852 

0.719 

o 



NH«Br. 

SS7 
10.89 

20.79 
30.39 

3S-7S 
39 24 
43 64 
45-99 
50.25 
±49-5 



Solid Phase. 
AaA 



u 



w 



(AflA)iNaBr 



<f 



M 



" +NaBr.dH«0 
NaBr.aH/) 



In Aq. Barimn Bromide at 30^ 

Gms. per loo Gms. Sat. Sol. 



AiA. 
2.09 

2.03 

1.97 

1.87 

1.58 

0.7S7 
0.678 

0.464 

0.322 

0.277 

o 



BaBr^ 

9.41 

16.88 

24.03 
24.41 

23 -49 

29.09 

33 08 
38.19 
43.02 
50.03 
50.62 



SoUd Pbaae. 
AaA 



In Aq. Barium Chloride at 30^ 
Gma. per zoo Gms. Sat. SoL 



u 



«( 



ff 



(As^OtBaBi^ 



«< 



u 



*l 



il 



" +BaBrt.3H,0 
BaBrt.2H|0 



AaA. 
2.24 

2.20 

2.19 

2.15 
1.69 

1. 12 

0.905 

0.737 
0.608 

0.506 

O 



BaClt. 

3.84 
8.72 

8.86 

10.34 

9-55 
13.62 

16.93 

20.06 

23 87 
26.54 
27.6 



Solid Phase. 
AsA 



II 



M 



l< 



(AaA)i'BaCli 



II 



II 



II 



i( 



" +BaCl,.2Hi0 
BaCl|.2Hs0/ 



In Aq. Caldum Bromide at 20^ In Aq. Calcium Chloride at 19.5^-20^. 



Gms. per loo Gms. Sat. SoL 



AsfO^ 
1.58 
1.28 
0.912 
0.789 
0.698 

0.513 
0.687 

O 



CaBrs. 

9-65 
20.13 

34.90 

41 

47.67 

52.06 

58.22 

58.20 



Sdid Phase. 
AsA 



Gms. per zoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 



II 



+CABri.6B,0 
CaBr9.6H^ 



AsA. 
1.78 

1-39 
1. 01 

0.865 

0.757 
0.697 

0.675 

o 



Cadi. 
O 

12.66 

23 09 
27.68 

31.85 

36.01 
41.92 

42.7 



Solid Phase. 
AaA 



II 



i< 



M 



II 



M 



" +CaCU.6H,0 
CaClt.6H|0 



SCO gms. 95% formic add dissolve 0.02 gm. AssQi at 19.8^ (Aschan, X9Z3.) 



AB8INIC OXIDBS 



100 



S(H.UBiLrrY OF AxsBNic Trioxidb in Aqueous Salt Solutions. {Continued,) 



In Aq. Lithium Bromide at so**. 

Gms. per xoo Gnu. Sat. SoL 



AaA. 
2.26 

1.69 

1.20 

0-734 
0.534 
0332 
0.281 
0.198 
o 



LiBr. 
O 

11.68 

23-23 

35 54 

37 
42.62 

43 87 

46.75 
59.62 



Solid Phaae. 



In Aq. Lithium Chloride at 30^ 

Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. SoL 

[Sdid 



AsA 



" +(AflA)sXiBr 
(AsA)sXiBr 



(I 



M 



LiBr.HdO 



AaA. 
1.69 

115 
0.77 

0.54 

0.43 

0.39 

0.38s 
0.41 

O 



Lia. 

7-57 
15-30 
22.67 
29.04 

35-37 

41.13 
43-01 

45-12 

46.1 



AaA 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



UCLH^ 



In Aq. Potassium Bromide at 30°. 

G ms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. Solid 

Phase. 



In Aq. Potassium Iodide at 30''. 



Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. SoL 



AsA+0 
D 



AsA Kfir. 

2.25 0.336 

0.818 2.51 

0.460 12.78 

0.327 22.59 

0.290 27.40 

0275 36.98 

0.207 39 04 

0.166 42.07 "+KBr 

o ±41.3 ^B' 

2? variesfrom (AsA)fKBrto (AssOOrCKBr)*. O 
In Aq. Strontium Bromide at 30^ 

Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 



Solid 
Phase. 

AsA 



(AaA),ja. 



u 



u 



M 



M 



M 



AsA. 
1.69 

1-74 
1.48 

1-25 

1.07 

0.991 

o 



SrBrt. 
11.69 
22.09 
31.98 
41.91 
46.87 
48.91 
49.11 



SoUd Phase. 
AsA 



AsA. KL 

2.26 O 

0.772 I. 19 
0.296 9.56 
0.183 22.89 

0.150 34-31 

O.II9 40.79 

0.081 47.07 

o.iiS 53-51 

0.134 60.54 

61.5 
In Aq. Strontium Chloride at 30^ 

Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 



M 

"+KI 
KI 



If 



K 



U 



U 



"+SrBr,.6Hi0 
SrBrs.6Hs0 



AsA- 
2.14 

1.92 

1.67 

1.46 

1.28 

1.23 

O 



SrCl,. 
6.27 

13.67 
21.29 

27-46 

34 03 
36.16 

37-5 



Solid Phase. 
AsA 



t( 



M 



U 



M 



" +SrC3|.6HdO 
Sra,.6HiO 



ARSENIC PENTOXIDE AssOi. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Menzies and Potter, 19x2.) 

f. 

— 10 

O 

+ 10 

20 

29.5 

40 

60 

80 

100 

120 

140 



f. 


Gms. AsA per 
xoo Gms. Sat. SoL 


SoUd Phase. 


- 5 


10.6 




Ice 


— 10 


15-6 




u 


— 20 


21.3 




M 


-30 


25-1 




M 


-40 


27.8 




M 


-50 


29.9 




«( 



S'Si^t.^L Solid Ph.«. 
36 . 2 AsA4HiO 



xoo 



Ioe+AsA4H^ 
AsA4HiO 



— 59Eutec. 31.7 

-50 32.6 

-40 33-5 

-30 34-4 

-20 35.4 

100 gms. 95% HCOOH dissolve 7.6 gms. AsiOs at I9^ 



<« 



ti 



CI 



37-3 

38.3 

39-7 
41.4 

41.6 

42.2 

42.9 

43-4 
43-7 
44-5 



u 



M 



"+3AsA.SH^ 
3AsA.5H^ 



«f 



M 



(Aschan, 1913.) 



lOI 



AB8INIOUS SULFIDB 



JUUXHIOUB SULFIDE AsiSi. 

looo cc water dissolve 0.000517 gm. AaA at 18^. (Wdgd, 1907.) 

Data for the fusion-points of mixtures of arsenious sulfide and silver sulfide 
are given by Jaeger and Van Klooster (1912). 

ASPABAaniE C4H8NA.H10. 

SOLUBILITT /S-Z-ASPARAGINB, C4H8NiOl.HfO» AND OP i84-AsPARAGimC AciD, 

C4H7NO4, m Watbr. 

(Bmder — Z. physik. Chem. 47t 6x3, '04.) 



^4-Aspangiiie. 






/94-Aapinngfnic Add. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


'^ 


Gms. 


Gms. 


t\ CAN«0»HsO t'. 


CJIaNsOs-HbO 


f. 


C4H7NO4 t». 


CHtNO* 


perxoog. 


ptf xoog. 




per xoog. 


per xoog. 


HiO. 


HsO. 




HsO. 


HaO. 


0.7 0.9546 SS'S 


10.650 


0.2 


0.2674 51.0 


1.2746 


7.9 1.4260 71.7 


19 838 


9-5 


0.4042 63.5 


I .8147 


17.5 2.1400 87.0 


36.564 


16.4 


0.5176 70.0 


2.3500 


28.0 3.I7IO 98.0 


5»-475 


315 


0.7514 80.5 


3.2106 


41 -4 5-6500 




40.0 


0.9258 97.4 


5-3746 


> cms. H^ dissolve 24 


gms. asparag 


Ine at 20*-25*. 


(Dehn, 19x7.) 



100 gms. pyridine dissolve 0.03 gm. asparag^ine at 20^-25^. ** 

.100 gms. ^% aq. pyridine dissdve 0.15 gm. asparagine at 20^-25^ " 
100 gms. tnchlorethylene dissolve o.oi 8 gm. asparagine at 1 5^. (Wester ft Bruins, 19x4) 

Data for the solubility of asparaginic acid in aqueous salt solutions are given 
by WuTgler (1914). 

ASPIRIN (Acetyl salicylic add) C<H4(0CH|C0)C00H. 

100 gms. water dissolve 0.25 gm. aspirin at room temperature. (Squire and Gaines, 1905.) 
100 cc. 90% alcohol dissolve 20 gm. aspirin at room temperature. '* " 

ATBOPDIE CnHsNQ,. 

Solubility of Atropine, CnHnNOt, and of Atropine Sulfate, 
4 (CnH»NOi)s.SOi(OH)st in Water and Other Solvents. 

(U. S. p.; MiUkr, 1903.) 

Grams Atropi ne per ,00 Gmns . ^^^^^ 

Gmms Solvent. 



Solvent. 



f. 



Solutioa. 



Water 25 

Water 80 

Alcohol 25 

Alcohol 60 

Ether 25 

Chloroform 25 

Benzene 20 
Carbon Tetrachloride 20 

Ethyl Acetate 20 

Petroleum Ether 20 

Glycerol 15 

AmUne 20 

Diethylamine 20 

P)rridme 20 

Piperidine 20 
50% Aq. Glycerol ) 

+ 3%H,BQ, ) 

Oil of Sesame 20 



2 
68 

3 
o 

3 
o 



782 (20^) 



21 (20^) 
03 (20^) 

99 
661 

88 
83 



Solvent. (U. S. P.) 

0.222 (0.13*) 

IIS 
68.44 

III. II 

6.02 

64.10 

• • • 

1. 1361(1.76 J) 



3 

34§ 

67f 

73i 

ii4§ 



(U. s. p.) 
263.1 

454.5 
27 

52.6 

0.047 
0.161 



33 



loir 



0.25* 



*Zalai»i9io. tAti7*,Sdiiiidel]DeiMr,i9oi. t(jad,z9X3. S SchoUs, 19x3. YBaxoniandBorli]ietto,x9zz. 



▲TBOPINK 



102 



Distribution of Atropine between Water and Chloroform at 35* 

(Seidell, 19x00.) 



Gmft. Atrc^ne Added 

per IS cc. HjO+is cc 

CHCU. 


Aqueous 


Chlorofomi 


b 


Layer (a). 


Layer (6). 


a 


o.oos 


O.OOIO 


0.0057 


5-7 


0.025 


0.0021 


0.0256 


13.3 


0.125 


0.0049 


0.1246 


25 -4 


0.625 


0.0160 


0.6267 


39- 1 



▲TBOPINK METHTLBBOBODE Ci7HiiN0k.CH,Br. 

100 gms. water dissolve 100 gms. of the salt at room temp. (Squires and Calnes, 1905.) 
1 00 cc. 90% alcohol dissolve i o gms. of the salt at room temp. " ** 



AZELAIC ACm CtHmCCOOH),. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Lamouxxmx, 1899.) 

t®. = o 15 20 

Gms. CtHmCCOOH), 
per 100 cc. solution = o.io 0.15 0.24 



35 



SO 



6S 



0.45 0.82 2 20 



ICO gms. 95% HCOOH dissolve 3.79 gms. azelaic acid at I9.4^ (Aschaii, 19x3.) 
Distribution of Azelaic Acid between Water and Ether at 25^ 

(Chandler, 1908.) 



Gms. C7Hu(C(X)H)t per 1000 cc. 



Gms. C7HM(CCX)H)t per zooo cc. 



Aq. Layer. 
0.06 



Ether Layen 
0.47 

1. 10 
2.71 
4.26 



Aq. Layer. 

0.40 

0.50 

0.58 



Ether Layer. 

s 83 
7.40 

8.6s 



0.10 
0.20 
0.30 

AZOBENZENE CeHt.N8.CeHt. 

Solubility of Azobenzene in Several Binary Mixtures. 

(Timmermans, 1907.) 
Solvent, Binary Mixture of: 



34.9% Butyric Acid + 65.1% HjO (= sat. sol. 
at 2.3**) 



36% Triethylamine + 64% HaO (= sat. sol. at 
19.0 



36.5% Phenol + 63.5% H3O (= sat. sol. at 
65.30 



71.4% Phenol + 28. 
20.6**) 



H2O (= sat. sol. at 



46% Succinic Nitrile+ 54% H^O ( = sat. sol. at 54'') 56 . 9 



t* 


Gms. (OHiN)i per 


w . 


iooGniA.Sat.:SoL 


6.4 


0.46 


10 


0.55 


20 


I 13 


30 


1.92 


40.6 


2.9s 


8.8 


3.22 


II 


2.57 


14 


1.66 


17.4 


0.54 


69.3 


0.43 


72.7 


0.47 


80 


1.47 


90 


2.43 


100 


3. 45 


23 -9 


0.52 


25.2 


0.87 


40 


4. 45 


60 


10.3s 


72.6 


133 40 


56.9 


0.54 



103 



AZOBBNZENE 



Solubility of Azobenzenb in Several Alcohols. 







(Timofeiew, 1894.) 










Gms. (Cai,N)s 




Gms. (CiHtN)s 


Sohent. 


f. 


per zoo Gms. , Solvent. 
Sat.SoL ' 


f. 


per 100 Gms. 
Sat. Sol. 


Methyl Alcohol 


95 


3.8 Ethyl Alcohol 


10.5 


5-88 


a « 


10.5 


3 . 95 Propyl Alcohol 


95 


S-42 


Ethyl Alcohol 


95 


5. 29 


10.5 


6.02 



SoLUBiLmr OF Azobbnzexbs in Water and in Pyridine. 

_ (Dehn, 1917.) 



Solvent. 



f. 



Gms. Each Compound (Determined Separately) per 
100 Gms. Solvent: 



Asobenzene. 


Diaxoanuno- 


Dunethylamino- 




bcniene. 


axobenzene. 


0.03 


0.05 


0.016 


76.44 


136.7 


27.90 


16.78 


67.7 


4. SI 



Water 20-25 

Pyridine 20-25 

Aq. 50% Pjrridine 20-25 

HydroxyAZOBENZENE C6H».N:N.C«H40H. 

1000 CO. sat. solution in HtO contain 0.0225 em. CsHsN: N.CsH40H at 25^ 

1000 cc sat. solution in HiO sat. with CeHe contain 0.0284 gm. C6HiN:N. 
C«H40H at 25^ 

1000 cc. sat. solution in CcHe sat. with HsO contain 15.20 gms. CcHfNiN. 
CsH40H at 25®. (Farmer, igoi.) 

Distribution results for hydroxyazobenzene between benzene and water gave: 
cone, in C«H6 -s- cone, in HjO — 539 at 25®. (Farmer, 1901.) 

AminoAZOBENZXNX C6HtN:N.CeH4.NHs. 

Distribution results for amino azobenzene between benzene and water gave: 

cone, in C^He -r cone, in HjO = 3,173 at 25**. (Farmer and Warth, 1904.) 

AZOANISOL, AZOBENZENE, AZOPHENETOL, etc. 

Solubility .Data, Determined by the Freezing-point Method (see footnote, 
p. i), ARE Given for the Following Mixtures: 



^ Azoanisol 

+ p Azoxyanisol (i) 

+ p Azoanisolphenetol (i) 

+ Methylpropylazophenol (i) 

4- P Azopnenetol (i) 
P Azoxyanisol 

+ P Azoanisolphenetol (i) 

+ ^Azoxyphenetol (3), (4) 

+ Benzene (2) 

+ Ethylene bromide (2) 

+ Hydroquinone (5) 

+ Benzophenone (5) ^ 

+ P Metnoxycinnamic Acid (5) 

-|- Nitrobenzene (2) 
p Azoanisolphenetol 
^ +Azophenetol (i) 
" -i-p Dipropylazophenetol (i) 
Azobenzene 

+ Azoxybenzene (6) 

-f p Azotoluene (7) 

+ p Azonaphthalene (7) 

+ nenzalaniline (7) 
P Azobenzoic Acid Ethyl Ester 

' -{-p Azoxybenzoic Acid Ethyl 
Ester (5) 



(I 



It 



ti 
II 
II 
II 
II 
If 
II 



II 

II 



If 



11 
II 



II 



II 
11 
II 
II 

II 

If 



Azobenzene 

+ Benzeneazonapthalene (9) 

+ Benzil (8) 

+ Benzoin (8) 

+ Benzylaniline (7), (9), (10), 

(11), (12) 

+ Dibenzyl (7), (13), (14), (12) 

+ Diphenyl (9) 

-j- p Dimethoxystilbene (7) 

+ Hydrobenzene (7) 

+ Stilbene (7). (9) 

+ Tolane (7) 
Hydrazobenzene 

+ Benzoin (8) 
p Azophenetol 

+ P Azoxyphenetol (i) 
** +p Dipropylazophenetol (i) 
p Azoxyphenetol 

+ Cholesterylisobutyrate U) 

+ Cholesterylpropionate (4) 

-j- Cholesterylbenzoate (4) 

+ p Methoxycinnamate (4) 
P Azotoluene 

+ Stilbene (7) 



II 
II 



II 




(7) rascal and Normand, 1913; {.H) vanstone. 10x3; (9) iseck, 1904; (10) Isaac (1910-1 z); 
1907; (13) Hasaelblatt, 1913; (13) Garelli and C^alzolan, 1899; (14) Bruni and (jomi, 1899. 



Azounmns 



104 



(Dehn, 1917.) 



AZOLITMINE CTH7NO4. 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 39.5 gms. azolitmine at 20^-25**. 

100 gms. pyridine dissolve 0.05 gm. azolitmine at 20-25^. 

100 gms. aq. 50% pyridine dissolve 0.12 gm. azolitmine at 20*'-25^. ^ 

AZOPHENETOL {p) CJl5N,.C,H«.0C,H, 

Solubility in 100 per cent Acetic Acid. 

(Dxeyer and RotaxBki — Chem. Centr. y6, U, xoi6, '05.) 
t®« 89.2 91 93 95.6 97.2 99.6 

Mols. per liter. 0.153 0.176 0.185 0.209 0.232 0.252 

A break in the curve at 94.7*^ corresponds to the transition temperature of the 
a modification into the /9 modification. 

BARIUM ACETATE Ba(CH,COO)s. . 

Solubility in Water. 

(Walker and Fyffe, 1903; Krasnicki, 1887, gives inoi n ec fl Te su lts.) 

Gms. Ba(CHsCOO)i Cms. Ba(CHsCOO)i 

t». perxoeGms. Solid Phase. t*. per 100 Gma. SoKd Phase. 

Water. Solution. 

40.5 79.0 44 I Ba(C,H,0,), 

41.5 787 440 

44S 77-9 43-8 
51.8 76.5 43.4 

63.0 74.6 42.7 

730 73 S 42.4 
84.0 74.0 42.5 

99.2 74.8 42.8 





Water. 


Solution. 


0.3 


58.8 


37 


7-9 


6i.6 


38.1 


17s 


69.2 


40.9 


21 .6 


72.8 


42.1 


24.1 


78.1 


43-9 


26.2 


76.4 


43-3 


30.6 


75-1 


42.9 


35 


75-8 


431 


39-6 


77-9 


43-8 



Ba(C^O,),.3H,0 



ti 



t( 



It 



« 



Ba(C^O,),.I^O 



« 
It 



Transition temperatures 24.7° and 41°. 
.100 cc. 97% ethyl alcohol dissolve 0.0723 gm. barium acetate at room temp. 

(Crowell, 19x8.) 

S(x.uBiLiTY OF Barium Acetate in Aqueous Solutions of Acetic Acid 

AT 25*. 

(Iwaki, X9I4-) 
Mols. per 100 Mols. Sat. Sol. 



CHiCOOH. 


(CHtCOO)fBa. 


Solid Phase. 


CHiCOOH. 


7'J'.j:,^" SolidPhase. 
(CHsCOO)tBa. 


lO 


S.18 


(CHiCOO)2Ba.3H20 


28.72 


4.52 3-3-" 


0.41 


5-21 


u 


36.54 


5.60 " 


1.40 


5-34 


" +3.3." 


42.08 


7.85 ;; 


1.46 


5-32 


3-3-" 


46.51 


8.87 " +1.3 


3 30 


348 


a 


51.98 


8.62 1.3 


10.23 


314 


tt 


65.77 


8.40 


20.60 


3.62 


tt 


85.27 


7.36 



3.3.1 1 =3(CH,COO),Ba.3CH,COOH.iiHA i.3 = (CH,COO),Ba.3CH«COOH. 

BARIUM ARSENATE Ba.(As04)s. 

100 gms. H,0 dissolve 0.055 gfm. Ba,(As04),; 100 gms. 5% NH4CI 
dissolve 0.195 gm., and 100 gms. 10% NH4OH dissolve 0.003 S^- 
Ba.CAsOJ, 

(Field — J. Ch. Soc. zi 6. 1859.) 

BARIUM BENZOATE (CeHtCOO),Ba.6HsO. 

100 gms. sat. aqueous solution contain* 4.3 gms. salt (anhydrous ?)* at 15^ 
and 10. 1 gms. at lOO**. CTuugi and Ch e cchi , igozO 



I05 



BARIUM BORATE 



BARIUM BORATES. 



Solubility in Aqueous Boric Acid Solutions at 30**. 

(Sboigi, 1913.) 



Cms, per loo Gins.Sat. Sol . 

B^Ob. ' BaO. 

3.6 0.04 

3.4 0.04 

• 2.5 0.04 

2.0 0.04 

i.o 0.05 

0.5 0.09 

0.4 0.12 

1.3.7 = BaO.3BjO1.7HfO (Triborate); 1.1.4 = BaO.BsO»4HfO (Metaborate). 
The original results were plotted and above figures read from curve. 



Solid Phaae. 


BatOi. 


BaO. 


-: Solid Phase. 


H,BO,+ 1.3.7 


0.3 


0.23 


1.3-7 


1.3-7 


0.3 


0.31 


I.37+I.I.4 




0.2 


0.8 


1. 1.4 




0.2 


1.2 


(( 




0.24 


4.8 


cc 




0.26 


5.8 


i.i4+Ba(0H), 




0.08 


53 


Ba(OH), 



BARIUM BROICATE Ba(BrOk)iHiO. 



Solubility in Water. 

(Trant^and Aoachtttz, 1906; Rammelsberg, 1841.) 



Cms. Ba<BrO|)a Gms. Ba(BrOa)s Cms. Ba(BrO])] 
t*. per zoo Cms. t*. per zoo Gixis. t^. per zoo Cms. 
Solntioa. Soludoa. Soiudaii. 

— 0.034 0.28 30 0.9s 70 2.922 

0.286 40 1. 31 80 S-S^i 
■f-io 0.439 SO I 72 90 4.26 
20 0.652 60 2.271 98.7 S'^S^ 
25 0.788 99.65 5.39 

SoLUBiLiTy OF Barium Broicatb in Aqueous Solutions of Salts at 25^ 

(Harkins, igzz.) 
Cooc of Salt Cms. Ba(BiOi)a Dissolved per Liter in Aqueous Sol. of: 


IB onis. i^iuv' 
alents per Liter. 



0.025 

0.050 

O.IOO 

0.200 


' KNOi. 
7.93 (1.0038) 
8.62 ^1.0059) 
9.91 (i.cx>8o) 

10.25 (X.0I20> 

* • • 


Ba(NO»)i. KBiOi. 

7.93 ^ ^ 7.93 ^ 

7.22 (1.0059) 5.216(1.0046) 

6.83 (1.0083) 3.415(1-0062^ 

6.415^1.0132) 1.72 (1.OIO9) 

6.230(1.0233) 


Mg(NOi)t. 
7 93 

• • • 

• • > 

8.196(1.0114) 

• • • 



FiguFes in parentheses show densities of the sat. sols, at ^r* 

4 

BARIUM BROMIDE BaBr,.2H,0. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Kiemcrs— Pogg. Ann. 99, 47, '56; Etard — Ann. chim. phy8.[7]at 5401 '94.) 





Gms. BaBri per too 


Grams. 




Gms. BaBrs jper zoo 


Grams. 


%•. 


Water. 


Solution. 


t\ 


Water. 


Solution. 




(Kxemen.) 


(Kremers.) 


(Etard.) 




(Kremers.) 


(Kremers.) 


(Etaid.) 


—20 


• • • 


• « • 


45-6 


40 


114 


S3 -2 


51 S 





98 


495 


47 S 


SO 


118 


54-1 


525 


10 


lOI 


50.2 


48.5 


60 


123 


SS-i 


S3-5 


20 


104 


51.0 


49S 


70 


128 


56.1 


545 


25 


106 


Si-4 


50. 


80 


^35 


57-4 


5S-5 


30 


109 


S^i 


50.6 


100 


149 


60.0 


57-8 










140 


• • • 


... 


S9-4 



Sp- Gr. of saturated solution at 19.5° — 1.7 10. 



BARIUM BBOBODI io6 



Data for the system Barium Bromide + Barium Oxide + HfO at 25^ are 
given by Milikau (1916). 

Solubility of Mixtures of Barium Bromide and Barium Iodide in Water 

AT Different Temperatures. 

(EUid.) 
Gfam s per 100 Gms. So moon. ^ Grama per ico Gna. So antkai. 

BaBrs. Bats. BaBrj. Bal». 

—16 4.8 58.4 170 II. o 67.4 

h6o 5.5 66.0 aio 14.9 67.7 

135 9.3 67 . 3 Both salts present in solid phase. 

Solubility op Barium Bromide in Methyl and Ethyl Alcohols. 

(de Bruyn — Z. pbynk. Chem. xo, 785, ,9a ; RicfaaidB — Z. anocg. C3iem. 3» 455, '93 ; RoUand — Ibid. 

15 4X9, '97.) 

Parti BaBrj per 100 Parts BaBr».jHsO_per xoo 

A o parta Aq. CAOH of: parta of Aq. CH«OH'of : 

» • / » s . -^ . 

xoo%. 97%. 87%. xoo%. 93-5%. So%. 

15.0 0.48 (BaBn-aHsO) 45.9 37.3 4.0 

32.5 3 .. . 6 5^'^ * * * * * * 

100 gms. sat. solution in methyl alcohol at the crit. temp, contain 0.4 gm. 

BaBrt. , (Ceatnersswer, 19x0.) 

Data for the lowering of the melting point of BaBrs by BaFs and by BaCU 
are given by Ruff and Plato (1903). 

BARIUM PerBBOMIDE BaBri. 

^ Data for the formation of barium perbromide in aqueous solutions at 35^ are 
given by Herz and Bulla (191 1). See reference calcium perbromide, p. 189. 

BARIUM BUTTRATE Ba(C4H7Qi)t2HtO. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Deszathy — Monatih. Chem. X4* »40t *9S') 
Gma. Ba(CJlTOs)9 per 100 Gms. . . Gma. Ba(C«Hr09)» per xoo Gma 

Water. Solution. ' Water. SolutiQik. 

o 37-42 37.34 so 36.44 36.77 

10 36-65 36.83 60 37-68 37.36 

30 36.13 36.55 70 39.58 38.36 

30 3585 2638 80 42.13 29.64 

40 35.83 36.37 

100 gms. 97% ethyl alcohol dissolve 0.17 gm. barium butyrate at ord. temp. 

(Crowell, X9x8.) 

BARIUM CAMPHORATE BaCioHi404.4HiO. 

Solubility of Barium Camphorate in Aqueous Solutions of Camphoric 

Acid at i6**-i7*. 

Qungfliach and Landrieu, X9X4.) 

Gma. per xoo Gma. Sat. Sol. Gms. per xoo Gma. Sat. Sol. 

^ Solid Pbaae. 

M 
U 

X.3 + Ba Camphonte 
BaCamphonte 

l^ a Barium tetracamphorate; CioHu04Ba.3CioHic04. 



Camphoric 
Acid. 


Barium 
Camphonte. 


Solid Phaae. 


Camphoric 
Acid. 


Barium 
Camphorate: 


0.68 


0.134 


d Camphoric ac. + z.3 


0.48 


22.71 


0.84 


0.150 


u 


0.4s 


32.19 


0.693 


0.20 


x.3 


0.50 


37.22 


0.38 


2.59 


u 


0.51 


40.99 


0.44 


II. 10 


(1 





42.59 



107 



BARIUM CAPBOATE 



BABIUM CAPBOATE and BABIUM ISO CAPBOATE. 

Solubility in Water. 







(Kn&cli, 


1893.) 






(Kdnig, 


1893.) 






Barium Caproate (Methyls Pentan.) 
B«(CHt.<%bCH(CHa)C^OO)s. 


Barium lao Caproate (Methyl a Pmtan.) 
Ba(CHaCHrCHa)CHsCH|COO)s. 




Giiis.Ba(CcHnOi)s 




■* 


' GmB.Ba(C6H|iOs>a 






!•. 


per TOO 


> Gms. 


.Solid Phase. 


per xoo 


Gms. 


.Soh'd Phase. 




Water, i 


Soludon. 






Water. 


Sdutidn. 






O 


II. 71 


10.49 


Ba(CH„Oa),^JH,0 


14.34 


12.54 


BaCCH 


[uOi)a.4H«0 


lO 


8.38 


7-73 




M 


^3-33 


11.77 




M 


20 


6.89 


6.45 




M 


12.67 


II .26 




M 


30 


5.87 


5-55 




M 


12.37 


II .01 




M 


40 


5-79 


5.47 




M 


12.42 


11.05 




M 


50 


6.63 


6.21 




M 


12.83 


11.38 




M 


60 


8-39 


7.74 




M 


13.63 


11.99 




M 


70 


11.09 


9.98 




M 


14.68 


12.80 




« 


80 


14.71 


12.82 




M 


16.24 


13.97 




« 


90 


19.28 


16.16 




M 


17 -95 


15 23 




M 



BARIUM CABBONATE BaCOs. 

Solubility in Water. 

(HoUeman, KoUrausch and Rose, 1893.) 

Electrolytic conductivity method used. 

1 liter HsO dissolves 0.016 gm. BaCQi at 8.8°, 0.022 gm. at 18**, and 0.024 ff^' ^^ 
24^*. 

Solubility of Barium Carbonate in Water Containing CO^. 

The average of several determinations at about 10°, by Bineau, Lassaigne, 
Foucroyand Ber^^mann is i.io gms. BaCOa per liter water. Wagner (Z. ansd. 
Zh. 6, 167, '67) gives 7.25 gms. BaCOi per liter of water saturated with CO2 at 
4~6 atmospheres pressure. 

Eleven determinations by McCoy and Smith (191 i)p of the solubility of 
barium carbonate at 25° in water in contact with pressures of COs varying from 
0.2 to 30 atmospheres, showed that a maximum solubility is reached at 22 atmos- 
pheres (see also calcium carbonate, p. 192), at which point the saturated solution 
contains 0.727 mols. = 4S.i i^s. HiCOt per liter and 0.028 mols. » 7.3 gms. 
Ca(HCC)t)s per liter. The equilibrium constant is i^ » 2.24 X io~* and the 
solubility product Ba X COi = fei = 8.1 X io-«. 

Solubility of Barium Carbonate in Aqueous Solutions of Ammonium 

Chloride at 30*. 

(Kemot, d'A^ostino and Pellegrino, 1908.) 



Gms.p( 


T xooo cc. lUJ. 

M. 


Solid 


BaCOi. 


NHiQ. 


Phase. 


0.035 





BaCOs 


0.521 


8.099 




1.333 


64.536 




1.596 


92.593 




2 


160.265 




2.093 


186.77s 




2.256 


268.920 





Gms. per xooo cc. HjO. 


Solid 


BaCOi. 

2.245 
2.706 

2.630 


NH«a. 

335.70 
358.66 

418.33 


Phase. 

BaCOs 

NH4C1 


2. 151 
1.558 


414.71 
413.77 




0.730 



410.16 

397.58 


It 

u 



Data are also given for 25^. Some uncertainty exists as to the terms in which 
the results are expressed. In some cases the column headings read *'Gms. per 
liter of HtO" and in others ''Gms. per liter of solution." The saturation was 
effected by adding just the necessaiy amount of one constituent to cause the 
disappearance of the last particle of the other. The amounts so add^ were 
determined by we^hing the flasks. At high concentrations of the two salts, the 
sudden increase in solubility appears to indicate a molecular combination. 



BABIUM CABBONATS 



io8 



Solubility of Barium Carbonate in Aqueous Solutions op Potassium 

Chloride and of Sodium Chloride. 

(Cantoni and Goguelia, 1905.) 

In KClatB.pt. of Sol. In NaCl at B.pt. of Sol. Inio%KClSoI. Inio%NaClSol. 



Gms. KCl 


Gms. BaCOi 


Gms. NaCl Gms. BaCOi 




Gms. BaCOi 




Gms.BaCX3i 


per 100 
Gms. Sol. 


per xooocc 


pa 100 
Gms. Sol. 


per xooooc 


f. 


per xooooc. 


f. 


per xooocc. 


Sat. Sol. 


Sat. Sol. 




Sat. Sol. 




Sat. Sol. 


o.iS 


0.0847 


0.15 


0.0587 


10 


0.2175 


10 


0.1085 


1. 00 


O.1781 


I 


0.0787 


20 


0.2408 


20 


O.II26 


3 


0.3667 


3 


0.1056 


40 


0.2972 


40 


O.I23X 


10 


0.4274 


10 


0.1575 


60 


0.3491 


40 


0.1303 


30 


0.5550 


30 


0.2784 


80 


0.4049 


40 


O.I4I8 



Barium carbonate boiled with aqueous NH4CI is slowly but completely decom- 
posed. The time required varies inversely as the concentration of the NH4CI 
solution. 

Data are also eiven for solubility in 10% aqueous KCl and NaCl at the boiling 
point p the time factor being varied from i to 198 hours. 

Data for lowering of the melting point of BaCOt by NatCOt are given by Sackur 
(1911-12). 

BABIUM CHLOBATB Ba(C10i),.lI,0. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Carbon, 19x0; Trautx and AnachUtz, 1906.) 



AO 


Sp.Gr. of 
£t.SoL 

I 195 


Gms. Ba(C10a)i per xoo 




XA 




Sp. Gr. of 
X.355 


Gms. BaCClOOi per 100 


It. 


Gms. 


Sat. Sol. 


40 


i*. 




Gms. Sat. Sol. 





20.3* 


l6.9ot 


35.8* 


33i6t 


XO 


■ a • 


24.3 


21.23 


60 






1-433 


42.6 


40.05 


30 


X.274 


28.2 


25.26 


80 






1.508 


48 


45-90 


25 


• • • 


30 


27 -53 


100 






1.580 


531 


51-2 


30 


• • • 


32 


29 -43 


105. 


6 b. 


pt. 


Z.600 


54.6 


52.63 








•C. 




t (randil.) 







The determinations of Trautz and AnschQtz appear to have been made with 
very great care. The original paper of Carlson was not available and it has 
been impossible to explain the discrepancy between the two sets of results. 

BABIUM PerCHLOBATE Ba(C104)s.3H,0. 

Solubility in Water. 



(Carlson, xgxo.) 



f. 

o 
20 
40 
60 



Sp. Gr. 
Sat SoL 

Z.782 
Z.912 
3.009 
3.070 



Gms. BaCaOOt 

per xoo Gms. 

Sat Sol. 

673 

74.3 
78.3 

81 



f. 

80 
100 
120 
140 



Sp. Gr. 
Sat. Sol. 

2. 114 

2.155 

2.195 
3.230 



Gms. BaCCIOOs 

per xoo Gms. 

Sat. Sol. 

83.3 

84.9 
86.6 

88.3 



BABIUM CHLOBIDE BaQs.aHsO. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Mulder. Engd, 1888; Etard, 1894.) 
Gms. Badt per xoo Gms. 



• . 


Water. 


Solution. 





31.6 


24 


zo 


33-3 


25 


30 


35.7 


26.3 


25 


37 


27 


30 


38.2 


27.7 


40 


40.7 


28.9 


50 


43.6 


304 



f. 


Water. 


Solution. 


60 


46.4 


313 


70 


49.4 


33- 1 


80 


52.4 


34.4 


XOO 


58.8 


37 


130 


59.5 


37.3 


160 


63.6 


389 


215 


75.9 


43X 



Sp. Gr. of solution saturated at 0° = 1.25; at 20® = 1.27. 



109 



BARIUM CHLoami 



SOLUBILITT OF MIXTURES OP BARIUM ChLORIDB AND AMMONIUM ChLOKIDB 

IN Water. 



At 30^. (Schreinemaken, 1908.) 
Gum. per'ioo Gms. Sat. Sol. 



At Varying Temps. (Schreinemakets, xgiob.) 
Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 



BaClt. 


NH«C1. 


Solid Phase. 


f. - 


BaCls. 


NH4CI. 


:- Solid Phase. 


22. Z6 


571 


BaCIi.2EbO 


16.2 


8.07 


16.10 


BaCb.2ByO+NHta 


18.36 


ZO.06 


(1 





8.22 


19.26 


u 


15-42 


13.84 


« 


30 


8.19 


24.89 


u 


XO.89 


20. ox 


« 


40 


8.40 


26.93 


u 


8.33 


24.69 


u 


SO 


8.55 


29 -53 


M 


7.97 


25.92 


BaCli.2EbO+NHia 










356 


27.47 


NHia 











Solubility of Barium Chloridb in Aqubous Solutions of Barium 

Hydroxide and Vice Versa at 30**. 

(Schidnemakera, 1909-19x0, xgxob.) 
Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. SoL -. «j «t. Gms. per loo'Gms. Sat. Sol, «!..,». 



BaCh. 


BaO. 


— * ooua rnase. <- 


BaCb. 


BaO. 


-« ooua jrnase. 


27.6 





BaCIs.2HjO 


Z8.67 


4.61 


Baa(OH).2EbO+Ba0.9H^ 


27.42 


1.78 


H 


18.04 


4.62 


Ba0.9H^ 


J87.36 


1.77 


" +Baa(0H).2By0 


17.08 


4.60 


u 


'24.98 


2.33 


BaCl(OH).2EbO 


12.81 


4.58 


M 


21.46 


327 


t( 


10.77 


4.45 


M 


19.18 


4.67 


u 





4.99 


II 



Solubility of Mixturbs of Barium Chloride and Barium Nitrate 

IN Water: 



At 30^. (Coppadoro» x9xa, x9X3-) 
Gnis. perxoo Gms. Sat. SoL 



BaCli. 
6.06 

13.75 
16.14 

22.70 

26.11 

26.64 

26.91 

27.38 



Ba(NOk)t. 

9.55 
20 



8 

7 

7 
7 
5 

4 

z 



92 

94 
88 

37 
13 
S8 



Solid Phase. 
Ba(N0«)s 

M 
M 
II 

Ba(N0i>t+BaCb.2Hi0 

BaCb.2H^ 
II 

II 



At Varying Temps. (Etard, X894.) 



Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 



Solid Phase. 



BaCb. Ba(N0i)t. 

O 22.5 4.3 BaCb.2H«0+Ba(N0i)s 

20 24.5 6 

40 26.5 7.5 

60 28.5 9.5 

100 31 14 

Z40 32 20 

180 33 26 *• 

210 32 32 " 



II 



u 



u 



u 
a 



Solubility of Barixtm Chloride in Aqueous Solutions op Copper 

Chloride at 30** and Vice Versa. 

(SchxciiiemakerB and de Baat, 1908-09.) 



Ona. per xoo Gms. Sat SoL 



Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol 



BaCb. 


CuCb." 


ooua rnasB. 


BaCb. 


CuCb. 


. OQua rnase. 





43.95 


CuCb.2H/) 


5.49 


30 76 


BaCb.2H«0 


1. 25 


42.45 


II 


10.13 


21.76 


II 


3.08 


42.07 


(misuble) 


17.08 


11.49 


M 


2.72 


42.36 


CaCb.2HiO +BaCb.2H«0 


22.78 


.5.13 


II 


2.84 


41.18 


BaCb.2HiO 


27.6 





M 


398 


37.42 


II 









Solubility data have been determined for the following systems: 



BaCls.2H^ + Cuai.2HiO + NH4CI + HiO at 30®. (Schreinemaken, X909.) 

+ " + KCl + HiO at 40** and 60*. ( " and de Baat. x9x4.) 

+ " + NaCl + H|0 at 30**. ( " anddeBaat.x9o8-o9.) 

+ BaO + NaiO -j- HtO at 30**. (Schreinemakers, x9xob.) 

+ Ba(NOi)i + NaNOi + NaCl + HiO at 30'. (Coppadoro. X9X3.) 
+ HCl + NaCl + H2O at 30''. CSchxeinemaken. Z909-XO. Z9xob0 



« 

it 

ft 

M 
M 



BABIUM CHLOBIDS no 

Solubility of Barium Chloride in Aqueous Solutions of Hydro- 
chloric Acid: 





Ato*. 






At 30". 






(Engd, z888.) 




(Masaon, igxz, 19x1-13; Schreinemaken. 1909-10.) 


Sp. Gr. 


Gms.perioo 
HCl. 


Gms. Sat. Sol. 
BaCb. 


Sp. Gr. 
Sat. Sol. 


Gms. per 100 


Gms. Sat. Sol. 


Sat. Sol. 


HCl. 


BaClt. 


1.250 





24.07 


1.3056 





27.84 


1.242 


0.32 


23.31 


I . 2651 


1.36 


24.02 


1.228 


0.83 


22.11 


I. 2147 


3.32 


19.20 


1. 210 


I-SX 


20.14 


1.1789 


5. OX 


15.2 


1. 143 


4.58 


12.76 


I . 1419 


7.13 


II. I 


1. 118 


6.13 


9.37 


I. 1068 


10 


5.8 


1.099 


755 


6.33 


1.0880 


1343 


2.4 


1.079 


10. 8z 


2.64 


1.0895 


16.92 


0.38 


1.088 


16.92 


0.28 


1 . 1024 


20.62 











I. 1609 


32.18 






The results of Schrememakers show that at 37.34% HCl the barium chloride 
dihydrate is converted into monohydrate. 

Less than i part of BaCls is soluble in 20,000 parts of concentrated HCl and in 
120,000 parts of cone. HCl containing i volume of ether. (Mar, 1892.) 

Solubility of Barium Chloride in Aqueous Solutions of Mercuric 

Chloride: 



Ato^ 


(Schrrinrmakers, 


1910.) 


At 30^ 


(Schieinemakers, 1910.) 


Sms. per 100 


Gms. Sat. Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


Gms. per zoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


HgCh. 


BaCb. 




HgCh. 


BaClt. 







23.70 


BaOt-sHtO 





27.77 


BaClt.2H^ 


14.25 


24 


II 


2.90 


27.56 


i( 


36.20 


24.89 


II 


12.98 


26.99 


M 


46.08 


24.05 Baat.3HgCli.6H«0+BaClt.2H<0 


34.57 


26.69 


M 


46.59 


23.28 


Baat.3HgClt.6HtO 


46.50 


25.22 


<f 


47.78 


21.05 


II 


55." 


23.17 


" +Hgai 


48.46 


20.67 


••+Hgat 


48.97 


17.87 


HgOi 


44.33 


18.50 


HgOt 


41.30 


14.26 


If 


29 


"■59 


If 


27.62 


8.41 


w 


16.36 


6. II 


II 


14.19 


2.65 


«l 


3. 95 





<f 


7.67 





u 



Solubility op Mixtures op Barium Chloride and Mercuric 

Chloride in Water. 

(Foote and Bristol — Am. Ch. J. 33, 348. '04.) 



Gms. per xoo Gms. _ ... 
*• Solution. Sohd 

• ^r-z: * . ^. * Phase. 

fiaCla. HgQs. 

10.4 23.58 50.54 {^gjS:'^ 

XO.4 23.44 50.74 (Double Salt 
10.4 22.58 51.23 jBaCi.3HgCI,. 
10.4 22.48 51.41 ^ ^^"' 


Gms. oer 100 Gms. . ^ „, 
to Solution. ^SolM 

6aa,. * HgCis. ^****- 

10.4 22.10 51.66 {g^};!*3l5j*3^.,jH^, 

10.4 21.64 Sl.74rB^ci...H.(H-H«CL. 

35 23.02 54.83 1 ^^'"''^"•^ 


Solubility of Mixtures of Barium Chloride and 

IN Water: 
At 30^ 

(Schretnemakers and de Baat, 1908-09.) 


Sodium Chi.oridb 
At Varying Temps. 

(Precht and Wittgen, i88z; 
Radorff, 1885.) 


Gms. Der 100 Gms. Gms. per 
^..Sol. SoUd Phase. Sat. 


too Gms. 

.Sol. Solid Phase. 


Gms. per xoo Gnu* 
1*. Sat. Sol. 


BaCb. Naa. BaClt. 
26.47 NaO 12.25 
2.28 25.28 " 15.83 
3.80 23.77 " +Baat.2aO 20.93 
5.76 20.25 Baai.2H<0 24.24 
8.19 17.89 •• 27.60 


NaCl. 

13.39 Baai.2H^ 
10.06 

5.39 

2.76 " 

" 


BaClt. NaCL 
20 2.9 25 

40 4.5 23 
60 6.8 23.4 
80 9.4 22.8 
XOO II. 8 22.2 



Ill 



BABIX7M CHLORIDE 



SOLUBILITT OF MIXTURES OF BaRIUM ChLORIDB AND POTASSIUM ChlORIDB 

IN Water. (Foote, 1904.) 

100 gms. saturated solution contain 13.83 gms. BaCls + 18.97 gms. KCl at 25^ 

Fusion-point curves (solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given for the following 
mixtures: 



BaCl,-|- 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 



u 
tt 
«l 
•< 
«l 
« 
« 

14 
l< 
It 
€1 
«l 
II 
II 
II 
• I 
fl 



BaCO» 

BaCi04 

BaO 

BaS04 

BaFt 

Bait 

CdCli 

CaCli 

CuCU 

PbClf 

LiCl 

MgCl, 

MnCls 

KCl 

NaCl 

NaCl+KCl 

SrCl, 

ZnCl, 

TlCl 



(Sackur, igzx-ia.) 



« 



(Sackur, X9xx-X2, Amdt, xQo?-) 

(Sackur, 1911-13, Ruff and PUto, X903.) 

(Botta. 191 x; Ruff and Plato, 1903; Plato, 1907.) 

(Ruff and Plato, X903.) 

(Sandonini, X9xx, 1914; Ruff and Plato, X903.) 

(Sandonini, x9xx, 1914; Ruff and Plato, 1903; Schaefer, 19x4.) 

(Sandonini, X9X4.) 

(Sandonini, x9xz, X914; Ruff and Plato, X903.) 

(Sandonini, x9X3, X9Z4.) 

(Sandonini, x9za, X9X4.) 

(Sandonini, 19x3, X9X4; Ruff and Plato, X903.) 

(Sandonini, x9xi; Ruff and Plato, 1903; Vortiach, X9X4.) 

(Sackur,x9xx-X2; Ruff and Plato, X903; Le(niatelier,x894; Vortitch, 19x4.) 

(Vortisch, X9x4(a); (Semsky.) 

(Sandonini, z9xx, 19x4; Ruff and Plato, X9Q3; Vortisch, X9X4.) 

(Sandonini, X9X3 a, X9X4.) 

(Korreng, X9X4.) 



Solubility of Barium Chloride in Aqueous Ethyl Alcohol Solutions. 



At I5^ 



At 30**. At 60**. 



(Schiff. x86x; 
Rohland, x897-) 






(Schxeinemakers 


and Mcasink, 19x0.) 




ir^ or Gms-BaCb 
3^§ per 100 Gms. 


Gms. per 
CsIbOH. 


xooGms. 
Sol. 

BaCk. 


SoUd Phase. 


Gma.Der 


xoo Gms. 
Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


'"*^"- Solvmt. 


CtHiOH. 


Ba(ns. 




10 31. I 





27 95 


BaCb.2H^ 





31.57 


BaCh.2H^ 


20 21.9 


32.67 


10.63 




16.68 


20.16 




30 14.7 


50.16 


5.68 




34.10 


13-21 




40 10.3 


60.72 


2.23 




66.02 


2.82 




60 3 5 


92.53 


0.05 




88.55 


0.25 




80 0.5 


94 73 


0.06 


" -f Ba(ni.HiO 


90.25 


0.09 


" +Ba(n«.IW) 


97 0.014 


97.14 
98.17 


■ • • 

0.08 


Ba(1i.HiO 
" +Bafnt 


93.95 


• ■ ■ 


BaCkHiO 


» 


99.41 


■ ■ • 


BaCli 









100 gms. methyl alcohol dissolve 2.18 gms. BaCIs at 15.5° and 7.3 gms. BaClt. 

2 HiO at 6**. (dc Bruyn, x89a.) 

100 gms. glycerol dissolve 9.73 gms. BaCls at I5^-I6^ (Osaendowaki, X907.) 

100 cc. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve 31 gms. BaCls at room temp. 

(Welsh and Broderson, X9X5.) 

100 gms. 95% formic acid dissolve 7.3 ^s. BaClj at 19 . (Aschan. x9X3.) 

One Titer sat. sol. in nitrobenzene contains 0.167 S^' BaCls at 20^, 0.33 gm« at 

50® and 0.40 gm. at 100**. (Lloyd, 19x8.) 

Data for the system BaClt + Triethylamine + HjO are given by Timmermans 
(1907). 



Solubility of Mixtures of Barium Chloride and Glyqne in Water 

AT 20*^. (Pfeiffer and Moddski, 191 3.) 



Gms. per xoo cc. Sat. SoL 
NBsCHs(X)OH. Bada. 



5.5 
26 



37 
16 



Solid Phase. 

BaC]i.2H^+BaCls.2NHiCHsC(X)H.H<0 
NH4CHsC(X)H+Ba(ni.2NHsCHs(XX)H.H^ 



BARIUM CHBOHATE xi3 

BARIUM CHROMATE BaCr04. 

Solubility of Barium Chromatb in Water. 

One liter of sat. solution contains 0.002 em. of the salt at o^; 0.0028 gm. at 
10^; 0.0037 ^. at 20^ and 0.0046 gm. at 30 . (Kohlrauach. 1908.) 

Results higher than the above are given by Schweitzer, 1890, as follows: 
One liter of aqueous solution saturated at room temp, contains o.oi gm. BaCi04; 
if ignited barium chromate is used, only 0.0062 gm. dissolves. 

One liter sat. sol. containso.043 gm. of thesaltat boiling point. (Meachenaki, i88a.) 

Fresenius (1890) gives the following: i liter of sat. sol. at room temp, con- 
tains 0.02 gm. of the salt, the solvent being 1.5% sol. of CHtC0tNH4 ana 0.022 
gms. when the solvent is 0.5% sol. of NH4N0t. 

One liter of 45% aq. ethyl alcohol solution dissolves 0.000022 gm. at room temp. 

(Guerini, t9ia.) 

BARIUM CnmAMATBS. 

Solubility of Barium Cinnauates in Water, Methyl' Alcohol and Acetone. 

Gmt. Anhy- 
Compound. Fonnuk. t*. Solvent. p^^^Gm. Authority. 

Sat. Sol. 
Barium Cinnamate Ba(CiHiOi)i.3H<0 15 HtO 0.726 (Taragi and Cheochi,i9oz.) 



« 


« K 


100 


i« 


2.27 


M M 


« 


Allodnnamate Ba(CiH1(^^E«0 


19 


CE^H 


15.8 


(LieberiBaim,x903.) 


u 


a u 


12 


ti 


IS. 4 


(Michael and Garner, 1903.) 


u 


" Ba(aHiO«)^H<0 


20 


u 


2.56 


(Michael, 1901.) 


u 


« « 


20 


(CH^iCO 


0.80 


M 


(( 


« 11 


20 


H^ 


6 


M 


M 


Hydzodnnamate Ba(aHiOi)t.2HjO 


27 


i« 


2.9 


H 


« 


« «< 


25 


CHiOH 


0.1 


«( 


M 


« M 


16 


<i 


9-7 


(Michael and (jamer, 1SO13.) 


M 


Isocinnamate " 


20 


u 


70 


(Michael, 1901.) 


M 


<( w 


20 


(CHi)]CO 


20 


<i 


M 


« M 


20 


H^ 


17 


M 



BARIUM OITRATB Ba,(CeH«0,),.7H,0. 

Solubility in Water and in Alcohol. 

xoo grams water dissolve 0.0406 gram Ba,(C,H407)f.7HjO at 18®, 
and 0.057a gm. at 25^. 

zoo grams 95% alcohol dissolve 0.0044 gram Ba,(C«HsOT),.7HsO at 
i8^ and 0.0058 gm. at 25^. 

(Partheil and Hiiboer — ArduT. Pharm. 241, 4x3, 'qs«) 

BARIUM OTANIDl Ba(CN),. 

Solubility in Water and in Alcohol at i4*. 

(Joannis — Ann. chim. phys. [5] a6^ 489^ *Sa^ 

100 parts water dissolve 80 parts Ba(CN)2. 

100 parts 70% alcohol dissolve 18 parts Ba(CN)a. 

BARIUM nRROOTAiriDB and BARIUM POTASSIUM FBRRO- 

OYAHIDB. 

(Wyrouboff — Ann. chim. phys. [4] z6^ 99a, '69.) 

xoo parts water dissolve o.z part BaaFe(CN)«.6H,0 at Z5^ and z.o 
part at 75**. 

100 parts water dissolve 0.33 part BaK,Pe(CN)«.5H,0 at ord. temp. 

BARIUM FLUORIDB BaFs. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Kohliausch, 1908.) 

One liter sat. sol. contains 1.586 ems. of the salt at 10^; 1.597 gms. at 15^; 
1.607 gms. at 20®; 1.614 gms. at 25 and 1.620 gms. at 30". 

Freezing-point curves are given for mixtures of BaFs+KF by Puachin and 
Baskow (1913), and for BaFt+Balt by Ruff and Plato (1903). 



113 



BABIUM FORMATS 



BABIUM FORMATE Ba(HCOO)t. ~ 

S<X.UBILITY IN Water. (Staaky, Z904. See also Ensnicki. 1887.) 



r. Gms. Ba(HCOO)i 

per zoo Gms. Sat. SoL 



r. 



Gms. 6a(HC00)s 
per zoo Gms. Sat. SoL 






23 24 


10 


23.22 


20 


23 -^s 


25 


23 -9 


30 


24.2 



40 


25 


so 


25-9 


60 


26.9 


80 


29-3 


100 


32.8 



Ba(OH)s.8HtO. 
Solubility in Water. Solid Phase Ba(0H),.8H,0. 

(Rooenthiel and Rfihlmanb— Jahztsber. Chem. 3x4* '70.) 
o Gms. Ba(OH)i per zoo Gms. 





"Water. 


Sdutiaa.' 





1.67 


i.6s 


5 


I -95 


i I 92 


10 


2.48 


2.42 


15 


3 23 


313 


20 


3 89 


3-74 


25 


4.68 


4-47 



*•. 


Gms. Ba(OH^ 


per zoo Gms. 




Water. 


Sdutka. 


30 


5 59 


S-29 


40 


8.22 


7.60 


SO 


13 12 


II. 61 


60 


20.94 


17 32 


7S 


63 SI 


38.8s 


3o 


101.40 


SO. 35 



Data are given by Sill (1916), for the influence of pressures up to 490 kgs. per 
sq.'cm. on the solubility of Ba(OH)s.8HsO in HtO at 25''. 



SoUd 
Phase. 



Sp. Gr. 
Sat. SoL 



Solubility of Barium Hydroxide in Aqueous Solutions of Barium 

Nitrate at 25^ and Vice Versa. (Parsons and Carson, Z9ZO.) 
Sp. Gr. Gms. per zoo Gms. HiO. 
Sat' SoL Ba(OH)s. Ba(N0d«. 

4.29 O Ba(0H)s.8H^ I-I37I 

1. 1448 
I.I2IO 
I. 1002 
1.0797 



1.0512 
I. 0651 
1.0790 

I -097s 
I. 1220 



4. 35 
4.48 
4.40 
4.72 



1.88 

3-47 
5.66 

755 



Gms. per zoo Gms. H«0 . 
Ba(0H)t.Ba(N0i)t. 
4.93 I0.2I 



u 



u 



u 



tt 



5 02 

3-22 

o 



11.48 
11.04 
10.66 

10.30 



Solid 
Phase. 

BaCOHMHsO 

" +Ba(NON)t 

Ba(NO«)t 
tt 

M 



Solubility of Barium Hydroxide in Aqueous Sc».utions of Alkali 

Chlorides at 25^. (Hers, zgzo.) 

In Lithium In Potassium In Rubtdium In Sodium 

Chloride. Chloride. Chloride. Chloride. 

Gnas. per zoo cc Sat. SoL Gms. per zoo cc. Sat. SoL Gms. per zoo oc. Sat. SoL Gms.perzooGc.Sat.SoL 



■ IJCL 


Ba(0H)«. 


Ka. Ba(0H)a. 


Rba. 


Ba(0H)s: NaCL Ba(0H)s. 


9-75 


II 


.45 


25 -95 5-93 


1511 


5.55 16. 


SI 6.91 


6.02 


8 


•03 


13 OS 5'^ 





4.76 8. 


37 S-99 


318 


6 


■39 


8.60 S'53 


... 


4.27 S-40 





4 


.76 


4.76 


... 


... 


4.76 


Solubility of Barium Hydroxide 


IN Aqueous Solutions 


of Sodium 






• Hydroxide at 30**. 


(Schreinema) 


zeOt Z909-Z0.) 




Gms. per zoo Gms. Sat. SoL 


Solid Phase. 


Gms. per 


zoo Gms. Sat. SoL 


Solid Phase. 


BaO. 




NasO. 


BaO. 


NsiO. 


4.99 







BaO.gOO 


1.84 


26.14 


Ba0.4HiO 


1.29 




4.78 


<i 


1-75 


27.72 


If 


0.89 




6.43 


M 


1.58 


^8.43 


<i 


0.57 




9.63 


II 


1-34 


29.24 


" +Ba0.2HiO 


0.53 




11.62 


M 


0.82 


32.12 


Ba0.2Hi0 


0.47 




17.87 


II 


0.59 


34.72 


<i 


1.06 




23.28 


M 


0.57 


41.09 


" +NaOH.HiO 


1.87 




24.63 


Ba0.9H^+Ba04HK) O 


+42 


NaOH.H40 



BABIUM HTDBOZIDE 



114 



Solubility op Barium Hydroxidb in Aqueous Acetonb at 45®. 



Sp. Gr.of 
Solntiant. 


yoi.% 


Ba(0H)s per loo cc. Sat. 
ScMUtion. 


Gnu. Ba(0H)a 
per 


AcctaDC. 






100 Gms. 






Millimols. 


Grams. 


Solution. 


1.0479 





55 08 


4.722 


4.506 


I .0168 


10 


31.84 


2.730 


2.686 


09927 


20 


17 -79 


I 525 


1-536 


0.9763 


30 


9.10 


0.779 


0.798 


0.9561 


40 


4. 75 


0.407 


0.426 


o.939« 


SO 


I 54 


0.132 


O.I4I 


0.9179 


60 


048 


0.041 


0.04S 


0.8956 


70 


0.08 


0.007 


0.018 



t*. 


Gms. Ba(IOa) pnr 
zoo Gms. Soluaoa. 


*•. 


Cm. Ba(IQ{)t pa 
too Gms. SoiudoflL 


30 


0031 


70 




0.093 


40 


0.041 


80 




o.iis 


50 


0.056 


90 




0.I4I 


60 


0.074 


100 




0.197 



Data for the systems Ba(OH)i + Phenol + HiO at 25* and Ba(OH)i + 
Resorcinol -f- H|0 at 30® are given by van Meurs (19 16). 

BABIUM XODATE Ba(IO,),.HtO. 

Solubility in Water. 

CTrautz and Anschnte, 1906.) 

«o Gms. Ba(IOB)2 per 

xoo Gms. Solution. 

— 0.046 0.008 

+ 10 0.014 

20 0.022 

25 0.028 

One liter sat. aqueous solution contains 0.3845 gm. Ba(IOt)t at 23^ 

(Harkins and Wmninghoff, 191 x.) 

At room temperature Hill and Zink (1909), found 0.284 Z^* Ba(IO<)s per liter 
sat. aqueous solution. 

Solubility of Barium Iodate in Aqueous Salt Solutions at 25®. 

(Harkins and Winninghoff, 191 1.) 

Mob. Salt rSlwL\. 
P" Liter. Bj^OO. 

o.ioo 0.148 
0.200 0.136 

0.C02 0.396 

o.oio 0.445 

0.050 0.643 

100 cc. cone, ammonia (Sp. Gr. 0.90) dissolve 0.0199 gm. Ba(IOs)t at room 

temp. (Hill and Zink, 1909.) 

100 cc. 95% ethyl alcohol dissolve o.ooii gm. Ba(IO0t at room temp. 

(Hill andZink, 1909.) 

BARIUM IODIDE Bal,. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Krenusrs — Pogg. Ann. Z03, 66. 1858; Etard — Ann. chim. phya. [7] a, 544, '94.) 



Added 
Salt. 

Ba(N0>)i 



Mols.Salt bSVSv 
per Liter. Ba(IQO. 



*t 



o.oox 
0.002 
0.005 
0.020 
0.050 



per Liter. 

0.331 
0.294 

0.237 

0.164 

0.149 



Added 
Salt. 

Ba(NOs)s 
«i 

KNOi 



Added 
Salt. 

KNOi 

KIOi 
<t 

«< 



Mols. Salt 
per Liter. 

0.200 
0.000106 
0.000530 
0.001061 



Gms. 
Ba(IOi)« 
per Liter. 

0.777 

0.368 

0.303 

0.229 



Gms. Bal2 ^r 100 Gms. 
Water. ^ 



-20 

O 

+ 10 

20 

25 
30 



143 -9 
170.2 

185.7 
203.1 

2x2.5 

219.6 



Solution. 

59 o 
63.0 

65.0 

67.0 

68.0 

68.7 



Solid Phase. 



G ms. Bala 'pct 100 Gms. 



Bal3.6 H3O 



« 



<( 



(( 



40 
60 
80 

100 
120 
160 



231.9 

247 -3 
261.0 

271.7 

281.7 

294.8 



Solution. 
69.8 

71.2 
72.3 

73 I 

73-8 
74.6 



Sdid Phase. 

Bal,.2 H3O 



<( 



K 



(I 



l( 



U 



(Aschan, 1913.) 



Sp. Gr. of sat. solution at 19^5 » 2.24. 

100 gms. 95% HCOOH dissolve 75 gms. Balj at 20.2®. 

100 gms. 97% ethyl alcohol dissolve 1.07 gms. Bal2.2HsO at 15". (Rohland, 1897.) 

Data for the system Balt+BaO+HsO at 25° are given by Milikau (1916). 



115 



BABnJM PerXODIDE 



BABIUM PerXODIDE Bal4. 

Data for the formation of barium periodide in aqueous solutions at 25^ are 
given by Herz and Bulla (191 1). (See reference calcium perbromide, p. 186.) 

BABIUM rODOMEBCUBATE. 

A saturated solution of Bait and Hgit in water at 23.5^ was found by Duboin 
(1906J to have the composition BaIt.i.33HgIs.7.76HsO, a » 2.76. 

BABIUM MALATE BaCH^O.. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Cftntoni and Baaadonna — BuU.8oc.chiin.[3]35, 731, '06O 



20 

30 



Gms.BaCiBLOs 
per xoo cc. Sol. 


*^ 


0.883 


35 


0.901 


40 


0.903 


50 



Gm8.BaC«ILOk 
per xoo cc. Sol. 

0.895 
0.896 
0.942 



60 
70 
80 



Gins.BaC«H|Ok 
per xoo cc. SoL 

I. Oil 
1. 041 

1.044 



Solubility in Water and in Alcohol. 

(fiarthcil and Hfibner — Archiv. Pharm. 241, 413* '03.) 

ZOO grams water dissolve 1.24 gms. BaC^H^Os at 18^, and z.3631 
gms. at 25^. 

100 grams 95% alcohol dissolve 0.0038 gms. BaC4H405 at x8^, and 
0.0039 gm. at 25**. 

BABIUM MALONATE BaC,HsO4.2Hs0. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Micrynaki — Mooatah. Chem. 7$ 263, '86.) 



*•. 


Gms.BaCaHsO^ 


1 per xoo Gms. 


f. 


Gma.BaCsHaO^ 


perxooGi 


Water. 


Solutioa 


Water. 


Solution. 





0.143 


0.143 


50 


0.287 


0.285 


10 


0.179 


0.179 


60 


0.304 


0303 


20 


0.212 


0211 


70 


0.317 


0316 


30 


0.241 


0.240 


80 


0.326 


0.325 


40 


0.266 


0.265 









Results slightly higher than the above, from 0^-50^ are given by Cantoni and 
Diotalevi (1905). 

BABIX7M MOLYBDATE BaMo04. 

100 parts water dissolve 0.0058 part BaMo04 at 23^. (Smith and Biadbuxy, 1891.) 

BABIUM HITBATE Ba(NO,),. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Mukfer; Gay Lusmc; Etaid — Ann. chim. phyB.[7] a, 528, 94; ^uler — Z. phytik. Chem. 40b 3X5t'o40 





Gma. 


Ba(N0k)a 




Gma. Ba(NOB)s 


f. 


per 


100 Gms. 


t«. 


per 100 


Gms. 




Water. 


Solution. 


Water. 


Solution. 





50 


4.8 


80 


27.0 


21.3 


10 


7.0 


6.5 


100 


34-2 


25 -5 


20 


9.2 


8.4 


120 


42.0 


29.6 


25 


10.4 


9-4 


140 


50. 


33-3 


30 


II. 6 


10.6 


160 


58.0 


36.7 


40 


14.2 


12.4 


180 


67.0 


40.1 


50 


17. 1 


14.6 


200 


76.0 


43-2 


60 


20.3 


16.9 


"5 


84.5 


45-8 



Results from o*-35* differing from the above are given by Vogel (1903). 

100 gms. sat. aqueous solution contains 4.74 gms. Ba(NOa)s at o^. (Coppadoio, 1911.) 



BABIUM NITRATE 



Ii6 



Solubility of Mixtures of Barium Nitrate and Lead Nitrate in Water 

AT 25^ (Fock, Z897; £uler, 1904.) 
In Soltttiaii. 



Sp. Gr. of 
tian. 



sp. i. 



Gms. per Liter. 



079 
088 
108 
119 
140 
163 
198 
252 
294 

4^9 



Ba(NOk)a. 
102.2 

549 

86.5 

79-7 
77 o 

69.8 

66.0 

575 

25-9 
28.8 



Pb(NO|)s. 
O 
17-63 
49.80 
68.10 
97.20 

130.7 



Mg. Mols ^ per Liter. 
Ba(NOt)a. 



177 
247 

334 
429 



3 

7 
3 
7 



553 •« 



391.0 
210. 1 

330.7 

3049 
294.4 

266.8 

252.5 
222.6 

99.2 

no. 3 

0.0 



PlKNO, 
o 

53 
150 
205 

293 

395 

535 
748 

loio 

1298 

1673 



3 

7 

7 
6 

o 

6 

5 

3 
o 

o 



Mol.% 
Ba(NCSs- 

100 
79.78 
68.70 

59-^ 
50.09 
40.31 
32.03 
22.91 
8. II 

7-77 
0.0 



In Solid 
Mol.% 
B*(N(»i 



100 

98 
96 

94 

93 
92 
90 
83 
75 

35 

o 



30 

74 
80 
62 

49 
07 
47 
44 
II 

o 



Tables of results are also given for 15^, 30^ and 47' 



S9LUBILITY0P Mixtures of Barium Nitrate and Potassium Nitrate in Water. 

(Flndlay, Mocgan and Morris, 1914; Foote, 1904.) 



r. 

9.1 
9.1 

9.x 

9.1 
9.1 



Gn». per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 



21 
21 
21 
21 
2L 
21 
21 
21 
21 



I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 



Ba(NOs)t. 
6.2s 

4.20 

1.98 

0.98 

O 

8.46 

7-47 

6.35 
6.06 

5. 98 

3-35 
2.30 

1.76 

o 

a 



KNO». 

o 

8. IS 
12.02 

16.80 

16.76 
o 

2.12 

5.98 

8.47 

13.24 
18.24 

21.47 

24.86 

24.77 



SoUd 
Phase. 

a 

96.4 

b+2b^ 

b 

a 

u 
tt 
II 

a-\-abM 

ibui 
II 

6+36.4 
b 



V. 


Gms. per 100 ui 


ns. Sat. Sol. 


Solid 


Ba(NOi)i. 


KNO». 


Phase. 


25* 


6.62 


14.89 


a+a6^ 


25 


5-49 


16.30 


ab^ 


25 


3.04 


21.99 


u 


25 


2.04 


27.76 


b-^ab^ 


35 


"39 





a 


35 


8.18 


12.99 


u 


35 


8.08 


17,48 


a 


35 


8.42 


19.75 


a+a6.a 


35 


5-85 


24 


abut 


35 


5.02 


26.05 


«« 


35 


3.02 


34.87 


b-^abM 


35 


1.77 


34 98 


b 


35 





35.01 


w 


• 


Results by FooU. 





Ba(NO.),, 2b.a = 2KN0i.Ba(N0i)i, b = KNO,. 
Solubility of Mixtures of Barium Nitrate and Sodium Nitrate in Water. 

^ , (Coppadoro, at o", 191a; at 30', 19x3) 

Results at o^. Results at 30''. 



Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. 
&a(N0i)t. 



SoUd Phase. 
Ba(N0|)s 



II 



M 



I. NaNOi. 

4-33 0.41 
3-34 1.68 

2.50 3-54 
.60 8.02 « 

.56 12.71 - 

.53 20.24 

.56 27.74 

.55 30.81 

•49 35.83 

.55 40.85 9« %Ba(N0,)«+ a %NaN0i 

.55 41.30 26 % " +73.8% 

.54 42.06 a.6% " +974% 

0.51. 41.68 o % " +100 % 



Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. 



Solid Phase. 
Ba(N0^ 



II 



u 



t< 



II 



Ba(N0i)s. NaNOi. 

10.33 o 

8.58 2.33 

5.28 7.09 

3.89 12.07 " 

3.54 14.41 

3.20 17.87 " 

3.07 19.06 •• 

2.81 23.55 

2.27 41.22 " 

2. II 48.22 Ba(N0i)t+NaN0fe 

I 48 . SO NaNOi 

o 49 . 16 



117 BABIUM NITRATE 

SoLUBiLrrY OF Barium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions op Nitric Acid at 30^. 

(Masaon, 191 1.) 
Gm3.perxoo0cSat.Sol. - _ Gzns.DerxooocSat. Sol. 



^Gr. 


'HMOt. 


BaCNCW^ 


Sp. Gr. 


HNO.. 


Ba(N0,)'». 


1. 0891 





54-31 


I 0633 


73.54 


16.66 


I.081I 


8.303 


30-50 


1.0668 


98.40 


15.33 


• • • 


15-72 


27-73 


1.0783 


125.9 


14.99 


1.0663 


31 -49 


22.76 


X . 1050 


188.6 


14. 11 


I. 0619 


47.18 


19.71 


I . I34I 


251 -6 


13 -75 


1.0609 


63 


17.84 


I . 164s 


315-7 


13.52 



Fusion-point curves (solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given by Harkins and 
Clarke, 191 5i for the following mixtures: 

Ba(NO,), + NaNO, + KNO,. Ba(NO,), + NaNOi, Ba(NO,),'+ KNOi, 
Ba(NOi)j + LiNO», Ba(NO,)i + UNO, + KN0|. 

Solubility OF Barium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions of Ethyl Alcohol at 25^ 

(D'Aqs and Siller, 19x3.) 

Gms. GiHiOH Qms. per too Gma. Sat. Sol. Cms. CiHiOH Oms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. 

pet xoo Gms. < _ -._ ^-- ^ _ .--.— ^ » per xoo Gms. ± 1 •' ^, ' ^ ^ ^.^ > 

advent. OHaOH. Ba(N0|)i. Solvent. C»HiOH. Ba(N0i)i. 

o o 9.55 58 57 1.8s 

10.25 9.5 7.63 78.7 78.2 0.62 

18.6 17.5 6.02 90.1 89.9 0.18 

2505 23.7 5.25 99.4 99.39 0.005 

40.2 38.3 3.53 

Data are also given by Vogel (1903), but'as the results are given in gms. per 100 
oc. and densities are omitted, no exact comparison can be made with the above. 

Solubility op Barium Nitrate in Aqueous Phenol Solutions 

AT 25^ 

(Rothmond and Wibmon — Z. phyiak. Chem. 40, 630. 'oa.) 

G. Mob, per liter. Gms. per liter. G. Mols.^ per liter. Gma. per liter. 

C^H^H Ba(NO«>t. CAOH. Ba(NO»),.' Q»H|OH. Ba(NOi)i. c5So1lb55^» 

0.000 0.3835 0.0 100.2 0.310 0.3492 29.12 91.31 

0.04S 0.3785 4.23 98.97 0.401 0.3400 37.73 88.90 

0.082 0.3746 7.71 97.95 0.501 0.3299 47.11 86.26 

0.146 0.3664 13.73 95.81 0.728 (sat.) 0.3098 68.45 3i.oo 

Data for the above system are also given by Timmermans (1907). 

100 gms. hydroxylamine dissolve 1 1 .4 gms. Ba(N03)s at 1 7**-i8**. (de Bruyn. x89a.) 

100 cc. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve 3 gms. Ba(NQi)t at room temp. 

(Welsh and Brodetsen, X91S.) 
100 gms. methyl alcohol dissolve 0.5 gm. Ba (NOa)* at 25®. (D'Ans andLSiegler. X913.) 
100 gms. acetone dissolve 0.005 gm- Ba(N03)t at 25**. 

BABIUM NITBITB Ba(N0i)t.H20. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Oswald, X914; see also, Vogd, X903-) 
«•. Gms.Ba(NOi)i -,.. Gnu. Ba(NO0i c„im 

— 1.7 9.2 Ice 20 40.3 Ba(NO^t.H^ 

5 " 43 50.3 

I " 6i 58.6 

5 " +Ba(NO0i.H«O 80 67.3 

9 Ba(N0^)s.Hi0 92 7 1. 7 

+ 17 40* ** 1 10 82 

* i of the sat. solution « x.4897. 



3.2 19 

5-8 33 

6-5 34 

4-3 • 34 



u 
u 



BABIUM NITftlTB 



xi8 



Solubility of Mixtures of Barium Nitrttb and Silvbr Nitritb in 

Water at I3.5^ (Oswaid, 19x4.) 

Gms. per loo Gms. HiO. 
WnO,).. ' AiNS Solid PhMC. 

64 10.2 AgN02+BaAg2(NOj)4.H,0 

75-6 9 5 Ba(NOj),+BaAg2(N02)4.H,0 

Solubility of Barium Nitrite in Aqueous Alcohol Solutions at 

i9.5'*-20.5*' 

% alcohol in solvent: 10 20 

Gms. Ba(NO,)a.H^ j 

per 100 cc. sat sol. J ^^''^ ^''^ 

BABIUM OXALATE BaC^O^. 

Solubility op the Three Hydrates in Water. 

(Groflchuff— Ber. 34, 3318, 'ox.) 



(Vogel, 1903.) 










30 40 SO 


60 


70 


80 


90 


184 13-3 9-1 


4.8 


2.7 


0.98 






B&Ca04^H>0. 



t«. Gms.BaCs04 G.M.BaCzOi 



xooo g. Sol. 
0.058 
0.082 
O.II3 
0.170 



per 100 Mol. 
HsO. 

0.00046 

0.00066 

0.00090 

O.OCI36 



BaC»0«.aHaO. 

Cms. BaCsOA G. M. BaCjO; 
per 100 G. M. 
HsO. 



BaCa04.|HsO. 



per 
xooo g. SoL 



Gros.BaCsOA G.M.BaC|04 
per xoo Mol. 



0.053 0.00042 



per 
xooo g. Sol. 

0.089 



0.089 
O.I2I 
0.152 
0.169 



0.00071 
0.00097 
0.00122 
0.00135 



0.212 0.00170 



9! 
18 

30 
40 

45 
SO 

S5 
60 

6S 
73 
75 
90 
xoo 

The following additional data for the solubility of the above three hydrates in 
water are given by (Kohlrausch, 1908). 



• • • 



• • • 



o 250 
0.285 



0.00200 
0.00228 



« • I* 



0.124 
0.140 
0.151 

■ • • 

0.164 

• • • 

O.I7S 

• . • 

a • • 
0.188 
0.200 

0.2II 



H3O. 
0.00070 

• • • 

0.00099 

O.0OII2 
O.OOI2I 

• • • 

O.OOI3I 

... 
0.00140 



O.OOI5I 
0.00160 

o 00169 



BaCiOi.3iHsO. 



BaCsOi-aHsO. 



BaCaOi-iHsO. 



f. 
2.07 

16. 1 
17.8 



Gms. per Liter. 

0.0553 
0.059 

0.0962 

0.1047 



f. 

3 

S-47 
11.28 

17.9 

23 -3 
28.4 



Gms. per Liter. 
0.0519 

0.057s 

0.0693 

0.085 

0.0987 

O.II24 



V. 
0.08 

2.46 
9.62 

IS 04 

17 54 
27.02 

33-73 



Gms. per Liter. 
0.0499 
0.053 
0.0619 
0.0699 
0.0751 
0.091 
O.IO18 



Cantoni and Diotalevi (1905) obtained higher results than either of the above. 
Solubilities of Barium Oxalate (BaCjOi-iHtO) in Aqueous Acetic Acid at 

26**-27**. (Herz and Muhs, 1903.) 
Normality G. Rcddtie* Gms. perioocc. Solution. NormaHty G. Residue* 



"^ ^^r- CH.C00H. oH.^ "j^ ^^.^ 

o 0.0077 0.00 0.0154 3.85 0.0564 

0.565 0.0423 3.39 0.0845 5.79 0.0511 

1.425 00520 8.55 0.1039 17 30 0.0048 
a. 85 0.0556 17. II o.iiii 

• Dried at 7o^ 



Gms. per xoo cc. Solntkn 
» * > 

CHiCOOH. Ba Oxalate 



23.12 

34 76 

103.90 



O.II27 

O I02X 

00096 



119 BARIUM OXALATE 

BA&IXTM AOID OXALATS BaCaO«.H,C,04.2H,0. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Gro8chu£F.) 



f. ^ 


rim. per 100 


umfl. Mittoon. 


Mou. per zoo 


Mob. H2O. 


Mo]s.HsC, 


w 


HiC«0«. 


BaCsOil 


H/:,04. 


BaCa04. ' 


per I Mol3a< 


o 


0.27 


0030 


0.054 


0.0024 


22 


i8 


0.66 


0.070 


0.130 


0.0056 


24 


20.5 


0.76 


0.076 


0.15 


0.0061 


25 


38 


1. 61 


0.16 


033 


0.013 


25 


41 


1.82 


0.18 


0-37 


0.015 


25 


S3 


2.92 


0.31 


0.60 


0.026 


24 


60 


360 


0.40 


0.7s 


0033 


22.5 


80 


6.21 


0.81 


1-34 


0.070 


19 


90 


7.96 


I. II 


I -75 


0.098 


18 


99 


10.50 


I 55 


2-39 


O.I4I 


17 



BARIUM OXIDSS. 

Data for the lowerine of the fusion points (solubility, see footnote, p. i), of 
mixtures of BaO and BsOs are given by Guertler (1904). Results for mixtures of 
BaO and CaClt and for BaO and SrCls are given by Sackur (1911-12). 

BARIUM Glycerol PHOSPHATES. 

Solubility in Water. 

Gms. Anhy- 
t*. Compound. Formula. drous Salt per Authority. 

100 Gms. Sat. Sol. 

21 Barium Glycerolphosphate BaCaiiOtP.H<0 4.5 (Rogier and Fiote, igr^.) 
13 " a Glycerolphosphate BadHiOtP 1.4 (King and Pyman, 1914.) 
12 " fi " BaCsHiOdP.iH^ S.S 

2X " Glycerolphosphate BaOHiOtP.iH^ 8.4 (Langbeld and Oppmann, igxs.) 

22 " di Glycerolphosphate 3.76 " " 

BARIUM PIGRATE. Solubility in HiO + CsHcOH at 25^ (Fischer, 19x4.) 

BABIUM PROPIONATE Ba(C,H«0,),.H,0, also 6HA 

Solubility in Water. 

(Kxasnicki — Mcoatsh. Chem. 8» 597, '87.) 

Gms. Ba(C^HsOs)a Gms. BaCCsHiO^s 

%\ per loq Gms. f«, per lop Gms. 

Water. Soludon. Water. Solution. 

o 47-9^ 32-41 SO 62.74 38.57 

10 51 56 3402 60 64.76 39.31 

20 54.82 35.42 70 66.46 39.93 

30 57-77 36.65 80 67.85 40.42 

40 60.41 37*^ *• *** *** 

100 cc 95% ethyl alcohol dissolve 0.1631 gm. barium propionate at room temp. 

_ (CtowcU, 19x8 ) 

BABIUM SALICYLATE Ba(C«H40HCOO)2.HtO. 

100 gms. sat. aqueous solution contain 28.65 S^s. anhydrous salt at 15° and 
54.08 gms. at 100®. (Tarugi and Chccchi, X90X.) 

BABIUM DinitroSALICTLATE. Solubility in HtO + CtH<OH at 25^ 

_ _ (Fischer, X9X4.) 

BABIUM SnJGATE BaSiOs. 
Fusion-point curves (solubility, see footnote, p. i) for mixtures of: 
BaSiOi+CaSiOs and BaSiC+MnSiOj are given by (Lebedeu, 191 1). 
BaSiOi+LiiSiOi and BaSiOj+NajSiO* are given by Wallace, 1909. 
BaSiOi+BaTiC^ are given by Smolensky (1911-12). 



BARIUM 8TIARATE 



ido 



BARIUM STEARATE and Salts of Other Fatty Acids. 
Solubility of Barium Stearate, Palmitatb, Myristatb and Lauratb 

IN SbVSRAL Solvents. (JacolMon and Holmes, 1916.) 
Solvent. t*. Gms. Each Salt (Determiaed Separately) per 100 Cms. Solvent 







BaStearate. 


Ba PalmiUte. Ba Myristate. 


BaLaurate. 


Water 


IS -3 


0.004 


0.004 


0.007 


0.008 


ii 


SO 


0.006 


0.007 


O.OIO 


O.OII 


Abs. Ethyl Alcohol 


16.5 


0.006 


0.009 


0.009 


O.OIO 


a ii 


SO 


0.003 


0.004 


0.004 


0.007 


Methyl Alcohol 


IS 


0.042 


0.04S 


O.OS7 


0.084 


(( i( 


50.S 


0.077 


0.088 


0.108 


0.163 


Ether 


25 


O.OOI 


.0.001 


0.003 


0.007 


Amyl Alcohol 


35 


0.007 


0.008 


0.009 


0.009 



BARIUM 8U00IKATB and BARIUM ISO 8U00INATB 

Ba.CH,CH,(COO),. Ba.CH,CH,(COO),. 

Solubility op Each in Water. 

(Miczynskl — Mooatdi. Chem. % 163. x886.) 



O 
ZO 
20 

30 
40 

50 

60 

70 
.80 



GmB. Ba. Succinate 
per lop Gma. 

Water. 
0.421 



Gms.Ba. 


laoSaodnale 


per 


100 Gms. 


Water. 


Solatkni 


1.884 


1.849 


2.852 


2.774 


3 618 


3-493 


4. 181 


4. 014 


4542 


4 346 


4.700 
4.656 


4-594 


4-450 


4.410 


4.224 


3.962 


3.810 


Accinat 


e at 18^ and 0.410 



Solution. 
0420 

0.432 0430 

0.418 0.417 

0-393 0-392 
0.366 0.365 

0-337 0.336 

0306 0.305 

0.273 0.272 

0.237 0.237 

100 gms. H3O dissolve 0.396 gms. Ba Succinate at 18^ 
gms. at 25°. 

100 gms. 95% alcohol dissolve 0.0015 gms. Ba Succinate at 18® and 

0.00 1 6 gms. at 2 5^. (Partheil and HQbner — Arcfaiv. Pharm. 241* 4i3« '03.) 

Canton! and Diotalevi (1905), iaind Tanigi and Checchi (1901), obtained data 
in close agreement with the above. 

BARIUM SULFATE BaSOi. 

Solubility in Water. (Kohixausch, 1908.) 

One liter of sat. solution contains 0.00115 gm. BaS04 at 0°; 0.0020 gm. at 10^; 
0.002A em. at 2&* and 0.00285 gm. at 30^. 

Melcher (1910) obtained results a little lower than the above. His data for 
higher temperatures are 0.00336 gm. at 50^ and 0.0039 gm- at loo^ 

Kohlrausch obtained the following results for the solubility of heavy spar 
(BaSOi); 0.0019 gm. at o^, 0.0023 K^n* at 10^; 0.0027 P^* at 20^; 0.00315 gm 
at 30° and 0.0033 gm. at 33.5**. 

100 gms. sat. solution of BaS04 in 21.37% aqueous ammonium acetate solu- 
tion contain 0.016 gm. at 25^. (Marden, X916.) 



Solubility of Barium Sulfate' in Aqueous Solutions of Iron, Aluminium 
AND Magnesium Chlorides at 2o''-25®. (Frapa, 1901.) 

Gms. 
Chloride 
per Liter. 

25 



Gms. 
Chloride 



Milligrams BaSOt per liter in: 



per Liter. Aq. FeCb. Aq. AlCU. Aq. MgQa. 

I 58 33 30 

2i 72 43 30 50 

5 IIS ^ 33 100 

10 123 94 33 



Mgs. BaS04 per liter in: 
Aq. FeCla. Aq. A1C1«. Aq.Mgda. 



150 
160 

170 

• • • 



116 
170 



• • 



so 
SO 
SO 



121 BARIUM SULFATE 

S0E.TJBILITT OF Barium Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of Hydrochloric 

AND of Nitric Acids. 

(Banthisch, 1884.) 

In Hydrochloric Add. In Nitric Add. 

,-— -^ -\ / * > 

cc. containing Mgs. B4SO4 Gms. per 100 cc. cc. cootaining Mgs. BaSO« Gms. per xoo cc 

1 Mg. EquiT. per 1 Mg. Equir. Solution. i Mg. Equiv. per i Mg. EquiT. Soltttion. 

cTHa. of Ha. Ha. BaSO*: o«HNb». ofHNO*. fiNO». B4S0;. 

2. 0133 1-82 0.0067 2. 0.140 3.15 0.0070 
I. 0.089 3.65 0-0089 I. 0.107 6.31 0.0107 

0.5 0.056 7.29 o.oioi o-S 0.085 12. 6i 0.0170 

0.2 0.017 18.23 0.0086 0.2 0.048 31*52 0.0241 

100 CC. HBr dissolve 0.04 gm. BaS04; 100 cc. HI dissolve 0.0016 gm. BaS04 
at the boiling point. (Haslam, x886.) 

Soi^UBiLiTY of Barium Sulfate in Concentrated Aqueous Solutions of 

Sulfuric Acid at 20®. 

(Von WdnuLrn, 19x1.) 



Gms. EbSOi per 


Gms-BaSOiper 
zoo cc Sat. Sol. 


Gms. HiSOiper 


Gms. BaSOt jw 
zoo cc Sat. Sol. 


zoo Gms. Solvent. 


xoo Gms. Solvent. 


73.83 


0.0030 


85.78 


0.3215 


78.04 


0.0135 


88.08 


I.2200 


80.54 


0.0285 


93 


« 

• • ■ 


83.10 


0.0800 


96.17 


4. 9^5 


84. IS 


...t 


96.46 


18.6900 



• Sofid Phase -BaSO«(EaSO0a.HiO + BaSOi.HsSO«. f Solid Phase - BaS0« + BaSOiJB^SOi£«0. 

Data for the above system are also given by Volkhouskii (1910). 

100 cc. sat. solution of BaS04 in abs. HsS04 contain 28.51 gms. BaSOi, solid 
phase s BaS04.3oHsS04. (Bergius, 19x0.) 

100 cc. of sat. solution of BaS04 in 95% formic add contain o.oi gm. BaS04 
at 18.5^ (Aschan, xgxj.) 

Fusion-point curves (solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given the following 
mixtures of barium sulfate and other salts: 

BaS04 + NaCl (Sackur. X9zz-za.) 

" + KCl 
" + CaClj 

" + KtS04 (Gxahmann, 1913; Cakagni, Z9Z3.) 

" + LisS04 (Cakagni and Karotta, Z9zs.) 

•f NatS04 (Calcagni. i9za.) 



II 



BABIUM Amyl SULFATE Ba(C»HiiS04)2.2H«0. 

Solubility of Mixed Crystals of the Active and Inactive Salt in 

Water at 20.5'*. 

(Marckwald, 1904.) 

Gms. Saltper Per cent Active Salt Gms. Sak per Per cent Active Salt 

100 Gms. HsO. in Dissolved Salt. zoo Gms. HsO. in Dissolved Salt. 

28.2 100 18.3 49.6 

26.3 91.6 16.6 36.3 
24.8 84.5 15 25.8 
21.7 71.2 13.6 10.6 

19.5 59.5 12.8 o 

Mixed crystals of the active and inactive barium amyl sulfate were dissolved 
in water by warming, then cooled to the beginning of crystallization and shaken 
two hours at 20.5**. The percentage of the active salt was determined by the 
polariscope. Its specific rotation was [a]i>= +2.52**. 



BARIUM SULFATE 12a 

BABIX7M Isoamyl SULFATE Ba(C»HuSO4)t.2Hs0. 

100 gms. H2O dissolve 9.71 gms. of the anhydrous salt at 10^, 11.85 S^s* ^t 
19.3^ and 12.15 RTOS- at 20.5^ (Maickwald, 1902.) 

BABIUM PerSULFATB BaSi084H^. 

100 parts water dissolve 39.1 parts BaSaO, or 52.2 parts BaSaOg. 
4H,0 at o^. 

(Manhall — J. Ch. Soc. S9$ 77Zt 'OU 

BABIUM SULFITE BaSOt. 

Solubility in Water and in Aqueous Sugar Solutions. 

(RofowioE — Z. Ver Znckerind. 938, 1905.) 



Cone, of 


Gm. BaS04 


per 100 cc. Sol. 


CODC. of 

Sugar Sol. 


Gm. BaSOi 
at ao"*. 


ESL 


100 cc. Sol. 


Sugar Sol. 


at aof*. 


atSo*. 


at8o\ 


o^Bx 


0.0197 


0.00177 


40** Bx 


0.0048 




0.00158 


ID*' " 


0.0104 


0.0033s 


So^ " 


0.0030 




0.00149 


20^ " 


0.0097 


0.00289 


60^ " (sat.) 


0.0022 




O.OOII2 


3o« " 


0.0078 


0.00223 


• • • 


... 




. • • 



r. 


perxoooSa. Authority. 
HiO. 


21. 5 


0.27 (B<v]e, 1909.) 


20 
20 


0.522 

0.016 (Sandquist, Z91S.) 


20 


0.03 


20 

17.5 


0.13 

3.31 (Meyer, Z875.) 



BABIUM SULFONATES. 

Solubility of Several Barixtii Sulfonates in Water. 

Gms. Anhy- 
Salt. Formula. 

Barium: 

3.4 Diiodobenzene Sulfonate CiiH«oa«SiBa.IbO. 

2.5 " " CnEb0iI«StBa.4|H^ 

2 Phenanthrene Sulfonate (CMHiSOk)tBa.iHflO 

3 " " (CMHtS0i)iBa.3Hj0 
10 " " (Ci4H,SOi).Ba.3H*0 

Bromobenzene Sulfonate (CABrSOOtBa 

BABIUM TABTBATE Ba(C,H,0,),. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Cantoni and Zachodgf — Bull. soc. chim. [3] 33* 75if '05; see also Partheil and Hflboer.) 

Gms. Ba(CsHiOfe)s Gms. BaCCtHiOfeh Gms. Ba(CsH^>^ 

t*. per xoo cc. t*. per 100 cc. t*. per 100 cc. 

Solution. Solution. Solution. 

o 00205 30 0.0315 70 0.0480 

10 0.0242 40 0.0352 80 00527 
20 0.0279 50 00389 85 00541 
25 0.0297 60 0.0440 

Solubility of Barium Tartrate in Aqueous Solutions of Potassium 
Chloride, Sodium Chloride and Ammonium Chloride. 

(Cantoni and Jolkowski, 1907.) 

At Different Temperatures. Varying Concentrations at i6^ 

Gms. Ba(CiH«O0i per 100 cc Sat. Sol. in: Gms. Chlo- Gms. Ba(CtH«0«)iper 100 cc. Sat. Sol in: 



f. 


7%KCL 


7% NaQ. 


7 % NHiQ. Cvms. Solvent. 


KQ. 


NaQ. 


NHiQ. 


16 


0.0823 


0.0887 


0.1050 


o.S 


0.0398 


0.0410 


0.0441 


30 


O.IOI7 


O.II5I 


0.1370 


I 


0.0466 


0.0514 


0.0589 


55 


0.1230 


0.1348 


0.1590 


3 


0.0723 


0.0826 


0.0892 


70 


0.1500 


O.1781 


0.2030 


lO 


O.II99 


0.1260. 


0.1342 


85 


0.1828 


0.2168 


0.2360 


15 


0.1435 


0.1440 


0.1585 










20 


0.1466 


O.IS73 


0.1663 








(See Note p. asa.) 









123 BARIUM TABTR/LTB 

SOLUBIUTY OF BASIUM TaRTKATE IN AQUEOUS ACETIC AciD SOLUTIONS AT 

26*^-27°. 
(Hen and Muhs, 1903.) 

Normality Cms. residue* Cms. per xoocc.Solutioii» Normality. Cms. residue* Gms.per loocc. Solution. 

of Acetic per 50 cc. ^,t ^^v^tt * t^ ' o» Acetic per 50 cc. * -„ r^r^r^„ * ^ . -J ^T"* 

Add. Sol. CH«COOH. Ba tartrate. Add. Sol. CH»COOH. Ba tartrate. 

0.0328 o. 0.0655 3.77 0.1866 22.62 0.3728 

0565 O.II51 3.39 0.2300 5.65 0.1865 33.90 0.3726 

1 425 0,1559 8.55 0.3115 16.85 0.0218 loi.io 0.0436 

2.85 01739 17. II 0.3475 

• Dried at 7'^'» 

100 grams 95% alcohol dissolve 0.032 gm. Ba tartrate at 18° and 0.0356 gm. 

at 25^. (PartheU and Hubner.) 

BABIX7M P TBUXILATE. BaCisHi404.2H20. 

100 cc. sat. solution in water contain 0.028 gm. of the salt at 26°. (dejong, 1912.) 

BEHENIC ACm CsiH4sC00H. 

Freezing-point data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given for the following 

mixtures of behenic icid and otner compounds. 

Behenic Acid + Erusic Acid (Maacarelli and Sanna, 1915.) 

H- Isoerusic Acid " " 

+ Brassidinic Acid " " 

+ Isobehenic Acid (Meyer, Brod and Soyka, 19x3.) 
Methylester+Isobehenic Acid Methyl Ester. " 



i< <i 



BENZALANILINE QHsCH :N.C«Hfi. 

Solubility data determined by the freezing-point method are given by Pascal 
and Normand (1913), for mixtures of benzafaniline and each of the following 
compounds: Azobenzene, benzylaniline, dibenzyl, hydrazobenzene, stilbene and 
tolane. 

BENZALAZINE C«HfCH:N.N:CHCeHf. 

Solubility data determined bjr the freezing-point method are given by Pascal 
(1914), for mixtures of benzalazine and each of the following compounds: Di- 
phenylhydrazine, diphenyldiacetylene, naphthalene, furfuralazine, diphenylbuta- 
diene and cinnamylidene. Data are also given for mixtures of thiophenylalazine 
and cinnamylidene. 

BENZALDEH7DS CeHsCHO. 

100 gms. HjO dissolve 0.3 pn. CaHj.CHO at room temp. (Fluckinger, 187s; U. S. P.) 
Freezing-point data for mixtures of C«H5.CH0 and HNOj are given by Zukow 
and Kasatkm (1909). 

Para HydroxyBENZALDEHYDS /> CHtOH.CHO. 

Freezing-point data are given for mixtures of p hydroxybenzaldehyde -|- di- 
methylanuine and p hydroxybenzaldehyde + phenol. (Schmidlin and Lang, 191 a.) 

Ortho NitroBENZALDEHTDE C«H4N02.CHO. 

Solubility in Water and in Aqueous Solutions at 25®. 

(Goldscbmidt and Sunde, 1906.) 

Gms. CANOi. Gms. OHiNOi. Gms. OHiNOt 

Solvent. CHO per zoo cc. Solvent. CHO per zoo cc Solvent. CHO per zoo 

Sat. Sol. Sat. Sol. cc. Sat. Sol. 

HjO 0.2316 I nNaCl 0.1899 i nKNOs 0.3199 

o.snHCl 0.2391 2 » " 0.1390 2 » " 0.3419 

in" 0.2466 o.5»HN08 0.3207 o.5nNaN03 0.3013 

2 n " 0.2658 I » " 0.3758 in" 0.3132 

1 nKCl 0.2046 0.5 nKNOs 0.3123 2 n " 0.3201 

2 n " 0.1912 



BSNZALDEHTDE 



124 






41 
<l 
U 



(I 
If 
If 



41 

a 



Meta NitroBENZALDEHTDS m C«H4N0t.CH0. 

100 cc. HtOdi8Solveo.i625gm.m C«H4N0i.CH0at 25^ (Goldichiiiklt and Simde. 1906.) 
I »HC1 " 0.1813 
I n KCl " 0.1542 
2nKCl " 0.1417 

Para NitroBSNZALDEHTDS p aH4N0i.CH0. 

Data for the system p nitrobenzaldehyde + nitrobenzene + hexane are given 
by Timmermans (1907). 
Solubility data determined by the freezing-point method are given for: 

p Nitrobenzaldehyde + Sulfuric Acid (Kendall. 1914-) 

m " + Benzene (Sdmudlin and Lang, x9X9*) 

ffi " + Phenol 



BKNZALDOXIME C«H»CH:NOH. 

Solubility data determined by the freezing-point method are given for mix- 
tures of: 

a Benzaldoxime + fi Benzaldoxime (Cameron, 1898.) 

a Nitrobenzaldoxime + fi Nitrobenzaldoxime. (Beck, 1904.) 



BSNZAMIDX 



CeH,CONH.. 
Solubility in Ethyl Alcohol. 

(Speyen — Am. J. Sd.U] Z4* 995. '09.) 



Sp. Gr. of 
IvHons. 



5p.C 
Soli 



O 
10 
20 

25 
30 



0.833 
0.832 
0.833 
0.83s 
0.838 



G. M., Gms. 
CACONHs CACONHs 
per TOO GJhi.. per 100 Gms. 
CAOH. 

8. IS 



CaH^H. 
4.2 

5-9 
6.8 

8.2 



II 
21 



04 
52 

87 
56 



40 

SO 
60 

70 



Sp. Gr. of 
Solutions. 

0.848 
0.862 
0.881 
0.913 



G.M. 
C«H«CO 
per 100 G. 
CflH^H. 

II. O 

14.2 

17.2 

20.4 



Gxns. 
CsHcCONHi 
per 100 Gms. 
CsEl^H. 

28.92 

37 •34- 

45-22 
53-63 



Solubility op Bbnzamidb in Mixtures op Alcohol and Watbp 

AT 2 5^ 
CHoUeman and Antiutch — Rec. trav. chim. X3» 394, '94.) 



Alcohd. 



Gma. 

CeH^ONHs 

per 100 Gms. 

Solvent. 



Sp. Gr. of 
Solutions. 



Vol.% 
Alcohol. 



Gms. 

CsHsCONHs 

per 100 Gms. 

Solvent. 

23 87 

18.98 

13 -74 
8.62 



Sp. Gr. of 
Solutions. 



5-33 
2.28 

1-35 



100 17 03 0830 70 

9S 21.12 o.8s6 60 

90 34. so 0.878 so 

8s 26. IS 0.89s 40 

83 26.63 0.900 31 

80 26.43 0.907 IS 

75 25 41 0.917 o 

See radttks imder a AcetoaphtfatHde, |i. xs« 

100 gms. pyridine dissolve ^1.23 gms. benzamide at 20^-25^ 

100 gms. ac^. 50% pyridine dissolve 39.15 grns. benzamide at 20*-25*. 

The coefficient of distribution of benzamide between oil and water is 0.66 at 

3® and 0.43 at 36**. (Meyer, xgoo, 1909.) 

BENZANILIDE. 

Solubilities determined by the freezing-point method are given by Vanstone 
(19 1 3) for mixtures of benzanilide and each of the following compounds: ben- 
zil, benzylideneaniline, and benzoin. 

Results for mixtures of chlorobenzanilide and p chlorobenzanilide are given 
by King and Orton (1911). 



0.92s 

0.939 
0.949 

0.958 

0.967 

0.982 

0.999 

CDehn, 1917.) 



125 BINZEMB 

BKHZXVX C.H.. 

Solubility in Water at aa^. 

(Hen — Ber. 31, 3671, '98.) 

100 cc. water dissolve 0.082 cc. C,He, Vol. of Sol. — 100.082, 
Sp. Gr. — 0.9979. 

100 cc. CeHe dissolve 0.2 11 cc. HjO, Vol. of sol. — 100.135, 
Sp. Gr. - 0.8768. 

Solubility op Water in Benzene. 

(Groachuff, zgzz.) 

±m Gm. BaO per zoo «• Cms. HiO per zoo 

*^' Gins.Sat.SoL *' Gnu. Sat. Sol. 

3 0.030 55 0.184 

23 0.061 66 , 0.255 

40 0.114 77 0.337 

Benzene, Aq. Alcohol Mixtures; Benzene, Aq. Acetone Mix- 
tures AT 20®. 

H2O added to mixtures of known amotints of the other two and 
appearance of clouding noted. 

(Bancnrft — Phya. Rer. 3, 31, 1895.96.) 

C JI.,C,H.OH and HaO C,H„CH,OHandH,0 C,H„(CH,),COandH,0 

Per 5 cc. CtHsOH. Per 5 cc..CH«0H. Pter 5 cc. XCH^)iCO . 

cc. HiO. cc. CcH«. cc. HiO. cc. C«H«. 

5.0 0-15 8.0 O.IO 

3.0 0.215 3.0 0.39s 

2.0 0.59 2.0 0.69 

1.4 I.O Z.3 I.O 

i.o 1.9 0.51 a.o 

0.8 3.0 0.295 3.0 

0.69 4.0 0.2 4.0 

0.49 8.0 0.15 5.0 

CtHiOH added to mixtures of known amounts of QHe and HtO until the 
solutions became homogeneous at 20**. (LiBcoln, 1900.) 

Per s cc. CtH<. Per s cc. CtH». Per 5 cc. C>H«. 

ocBbO. ccCtHiOH. ccHsO. cc. CaHiOH. cc. H^. oc. QHiOH.' 

I 4-6 20 31.6 50 58 

5 12.8 30 41.4 60 65.6 

10 19.8 40 39.5 70 73.1 

Lincoln also gives results at 10®. Data of a similar character for mixtures of 
benzene, ethyl alcohol and water at 20, 25 and 35° are given by Taylor (1897). 

For results at 15", see page 287. 

Data for mixtures of benzene, ethvl alcohol and glycerol and for mixtures of 
benzene, ethyl alcohol and lactic acici are given by Rozsa (191 1). 

Mutual Solubility of Benzene and Carbon Tetrachloride. 

(Determined by the synthetic method.) 
(Baud, 1913.) 

A» Cms. CiHi per zoo m Gms. CVHi per zoo a. Gins.CiHiperioo 

* ' Gms. Mixture. * * Cms. Mixture. ^ ' Gms. Mixture. 

—24.2 o —40 19.3 —20 48 

—30 2.8 —34 24.2 —10 64.1 

—40 8.5 -35tr.pt. 31 o 85.3 

— 46.3Eutec. 12.9 —30 36 + 5.5 100 



cc. HiO. 


cc. CfH^. 


20 


0.03 


8 


013 


4 


0-39 


2 


1. 17 


i-S 


1.87 


1.0 


3S7 


0.605 


8.0 


0.34 


20.0 



14 



126 

Mutual Solubility of Benzene and Chloroform. Freezing-point 

Method. (Wroaynski and Guye, 19x0.) 
Cms. CtHi CrtiM Gms. CeH* q^ijj Gms. CiHi c,ma 

f. pcrxooGms. p^ f. per 100 Gms. pifj^ **• Pw i«> Gms. p^*^ 

Solution. ^*»***^- ^lution. *^***«^- Solution. ^^'^' 

— 63.5 O CHCU —60 26.8 aa —20 58.3 CsBt 

—70 II. 8 " —50 32 " —10 70.8 

-75 14.7 " -40 39 " o 88 

— 81.7 18.4 CHCU+OH. —30 47.8 " S 100 

— 70 22.6 CiH« 

The eutectic point was found by extending the curves to their intersection. 
The temperature of the eutectic could not be reached by use of liquid COs. 

Mutual Solubility of Benzene and Formic Acid. Synthetic Method. 

(Ennis, i9X4-) 
rof Gms. HCOOH V oi Gms. HCOOHper t^of Gms. HCOOH 

Mitdbility per xoo Gms. Sol. Misdbility. xoo Gms. Sol. Miscibility. per xoo Gms. SoL 

21 9.2 70 31.5 60 74 

30 10.3 72 35 40 82 

40 12.2 73.2 43-51 20 87 

SO 16.5 72 60 5 89.6 

60 22 70 65 

Solubility of Benzene in Aqueous Solutions of Formic Acid. Synthetic 

Method. (Ennis. 19x4.) 

InosWt. % InSsWt. % In 75 Wt. % In 6o'Wt. % 

.HCOOH. HCOOH. HCOOH. HCOOH. 

I« ^£ Gms. CiHi |« ^ Gms. OHs ^ ^ Gms. CiHt ^ ^ Gms. CiH« 

MisdbUity. ^/Sl. MiscibiUty. ^^^ Wsdmty. cS."^ Misdbility. ^^^ 

57 S 0-3 71 97 S 122 12 105 6 

77 94.4 87 96.6 97.5 8.5 82 3.8 

95 89.8 loi 96 74 6 76 3 

112 85.2 100.5 14.3 

94.5 24.7 81 10 

80.5 20 46 7 

51 12-5 _ 

Mutual Solubility of Benzene and Ethyl Alcohol. Freezing-point. 

Method. (Viala, 19x4; see also Rozsa, xgxx and Pickering, X893.) 

^ Gms. C«H« per ^e Gms. CaHc per m Gms. CcH« per 

* ' xoo Gms. Sol. "* * xoo Gms. Sol. ^ ' xoo Gms. SoL 

— 113. 9 o —60 19.3 —10 57.6 

— 100 8 —50 24.1 o 85 

— 90 10 —40 29.8 I 93 

— 80 12 -30 37 5.5 100 

— 70 15 -20 45.7 

Mutual Solubility of Benzene and fi Naphthalene Picrate, 

C«H,(NOj),OH.C,oH70H. (Kuriloflf. X897.) 

Synthetic method used — see Note, p. 16 

^0 Gms. Gms. „ ^.o Gms. Gms. _ 

* * PicnUe Benzene "" ' Picrate. Bcnxene. ^ 

157 ICO. ... loo.o III. 6 1-173 1-^37 192 

148.4 2.128 0.115 79.3 102.0 1.087 1.780 II. 2 

137-4 1-274 0.170 61. I 29.5 0.390 8.430 0.95 

134-2 I 384 0.297 49.3 4.6 I 329 21.80 0.48 

126.8 I .019 0.343 38.3 5.02 ... 100. o 

a — Mols. P Naphthalene Picrate per 100 Mols. of P Napthalene 
Picrate plus Benzene. 
Determinations for a large number of isothermes are also given. 



I2f 

Tbb Ststbm Bbnzbnb, Phbnol and Water at 2$\ 

(Horibo, 1914.) 

In the case of phenol, the bromine method was used for its determination. In 
the case of the other two compounds, the amounts required to produce constant 
turbidity were measured directly from burettes. 

Solubility of Benzene in Aqueous Solu- Solubility of Phenol in Benzene Solu- 
tions Containing Phenol and Vice Versa, tions Containing Water and Vice Versa. 



'» 


Gms. per 100 Gms. 
OHiOH+aib+HiO. 


Satunttmg 
Phue. 




% 


Gms. per zoo Gms. 
CAOH+OHi+BbO. 


Phase. 


■• 


OHiOH. 


OH^ 






9v 


OHiOH. GOIc 




1.0002 





0.198 


OEU 




• • • 


29 . 29 


CAOH 


1.0008 


I 059 


0.204 


II 




■ • • 


71.63 1.62 


u 


1 .0021 


2.602 


0.205 


II 




• • • 


74.5 3 


CAOH+aHi 


I. 00305 


3 526 


0.199 


•1 


I 


.0256 


69.18 16.33 


CA 


■ • • 


5-65 


0.17 aa+OHiOH 





.9891 


55-80 36.13 


II 


• ■ • 


5-953 


0.132 


OHiOH 





.9629 


44.39 50.56 


II 


1. 0059 


6.516 


0.075 


M 





.9142 


21.15 * 77-22 


M 


1.0069 


7.683 


0.025 


II 





.8818 


4.78 94.98 


U 


1.0073 


8.19s 





II 





.8764 


99-95 


II 



Data are also ^ven for the solubility of phenol as solid phase, in CsHs and in 
water and in their mixtures. A complete table for the conjugate points, showing 
the distribution of phenol between the aqueous and the benzene layers, is given. 
The results agree with those of Rothmund and Wilsmore. See page 482. 

Reciprocal Solubility, Determined by Freezing-point Method, op 

Mixtures of* 



+ 



Benzene and Phenol. 
("■*'■'"" and Skirrow, i9>7.) 

Gnu. OHtper Solid 
100 Gnu. Mixture. Phaae. 

O CVHiOH 

II. 8 

38-2 
58-4 

67 5 

78.3 
89 

100 



rofMdting. 

39-4 

30 
20 

10 

O 

S.4£utec. 

2.5 
o 

2-5 

51 



II 



II 



II 



II 



II 



"+CJ1« 
OHt 



Benzene and Pyridine. 
(Hatcher and Skinow, 19x7.) 

f of Melting. ^^-^C^IJS^ 

-39-4 o 

-45 10 

-SO 17 

-55 23.3 

— 58 Eutec. 26 

-50 31 

-40 37.7 

-30 46 

-20 57 

-10 71. s 

o 90.5 



Solid 
Phase. 

OHiN 

II 



II 



II 



GHs 



II 



41 



II 



II 



II 



Additional data on the system Benzene + Phenol are given by Dahms, 189^; 
Patemo and Ampola, 1897; Tsakalotos and Guye, 1910, and Rosza, 191 1. Add*- 
tional data on the system Benzene + Pyridine are given by Pickering, 1893. 

Solubility op Benzene in Sulphur. 



t*. 


By "Syntheti 
Gms. CeHa per xoo Gnu. 


ic Method " see Note, p. 16. 

(Alexejew, 1886.) 

^0 Gms. Csli$ 
^ Layer. 
140 16 

ISO 19 

160 2S 

164 (crit temp.) ^$ 


per 100 Gms. 


100 
no 
120 

130 


S Layer. CA Layer: 

6 75 
8 72.5 

10 70 

12 66 


CA Layer; 
61 

55 

45 



BENZENE 128 

Solubility Data, Determined by the Freezing-point Method (see 
footnote, p. i), Are Given for the Following Mixtures: 

Benzene + Benzoic acid (Roloff, 1895. See Benxoic Add, p. 155.) 

** -{-o Nitrobenzylchloride (Schmidlm and Lang, 19x2.) 

" +Bromoform 
" 4- Tctramethyldiamino benz- . I „ , 

hydrol J 

" -fBenzhydrol 

" -f Nitrobenzene (Dahms, 1895.) 

" -jrOftn and p Chloronitrobenzene ) (Bogojawlensky, Winogiadow and Bogolubow, 
" -f w Bromonitrobenzene J (1906.) 

" +o,m and p Dinitrobenzene (Kremann, 1908.) 

" + Carbon disulfide (Pickering 1893.) 

" 4" Camphene (Kumakoff and Efremoff, 19x2.) 

" 'i'tn Cresol (Kxemann and Borjanovici, 19x6.) 

" + Cydohexane (Maicardli and Pestalosca, 1907, 1908.) 

" -j" Diphenyl (Waahbixm and Read, X9X5.) 

" + Diethylafnine (Pickering, 1893.) 

" + Diphenylamine (Bmni, 1898; Dahms, 1895.) 

" 4- Ethyl ether (Pickering. 1893.) 

" + Ethylene bromide (Dahms, 1895.) 

" + Ethylene dibromide (Baud and (^ay, 19x1.) 

" + Ethylene chloride (Baud and Gay, 19x0.) 

** + Ethylene dichloride (Baud and (kiy, x9xx.) 

" -f Menthol ^ (Dahms, x89s.) 

" 4- Methyl alcohol (Pickering, X893) 

_|_ Naphthalene |(Bnini. 1898; Pickering, 1893; Waahbam and 

• " + " +i5Naphthol (Bnmi, 1898.) 

" + " + Diphenylamine 

" . + Phenanthrene 

" + " +Carbazol 

" + Paraldehyde (Patemo and Ampola, 1891, 1^7-) 

" +o,mandp Nitrophenol j^i^^^' ^^~«~**^ "^ Bogoliibow. 

" + Propyl alcohol (Pickering. 1893.) 

" + Quinine (Van Itenon-Rotgans, X9X3.) 

** + Thiophene (Tsakalotos and (kiye, x9xo.) 

" + Bromotoluene (Patemo and Ampola. 1897.) 

" 4- 1.2.4, 1.2.6 and 1.3.4 I^"*»t«>-lnr««««n ,n««\ 
toluene ^(Kiwnann, X908.) 

4" Urethan (Pushin and Glagoleva and Maaxovich, 19x4.) 

" +p Xylene (Patemo and Ampola, 1897.) 

Bromobenzene + Chlorobenzene (Paxal, X9X3.) 

" T lodobenzene " 

" + Fluorobenzene " 

P Dibromobenzene + o Dibromobenzene (HoUeman and van der Linden, 191 x.) 

+ P Dichlorobenxene i (Bnmi «d Gonri. 1899, KIbtec «>d Wflrfd. X904- 

'^ ( os; Kniyt, x9xa.) 

+ p Diiodobenzene (Nagomow, 19x1.) 
+ p Bromoiodoben- ) „ 



<« 






zene 



a 



«« 



■^^bS^zSS™'"" \0>r^^<^^y 



+ p Chloronitroben- [(p^^ew*!. .898.) 

«« I l« fl 



<« 



4-m 

+ P Bromotoluene (Bondowski and Bocojawleniki, 1904.) 



129 



BromoBENZEKES 



Solvent. 



SoLUBiLmr OF p Dibromobbnzenb INT Several Solvents at 25"*. 

(Hildebiaiid« EUe&on and Beebe, X9i7-) 

Cms. CsHiBn ip) 

per 100 Cms. 

Solvent. 

36.6 

Ethyl Ether 71.3 

Hexane 



Methyl Alcohol 
Benzene 
Carbon Disulfide 



Gnu. CABn {p) 

per 100 Gms. 

Solvent. 



DiBromoBENZEME (/>) 



10.3s 
83.8 

90 
CeHfBr,. 



Solvent. 

Carbon Tetrachloride 



25-9 



%\ 



10 
20 

30 
40 

SO 
60 

70 

7S 
80 



Solubility in Ethyl, Propyl, Iso Butyl Alcohols, btc. 

(Scfarfider— Z. phynk. Chem. xz, 456, '93) 

Determinations by ** Synthetic Method " see Note, p. 16. 

Grams CcH«Brs (P) per 100 Grama Sat. Solutioo in: 



CiiUOH. CsHiOH. (CH|)CHX:HaOH. (CaHi)^. CSt. 

• • • 2T 



CgHf. CtHiBr. 



14 

19 
26 

38 

S7 6 
80.5 
94.4 



27 

40 
67 

8S 
9S 



20 
30 
44 

6s 

77 
94.6 



30 

38 

47 

S7 
67 

77 
87 



34 

43 

53 
62 

72 

81 

90 



34 
43 

62 

71 
80 

88 



22 

29 

36 

4S 
S4 
67 

79 
84 
90 



SoLUBiLrrv op Mixtures op p Dibromobenzbkb and p Dichlorobenzbnb 

IN Aqueous Solutions op Ethyl Alcohol 



Solvent, 50 Vol. % CjHiOH, /=49.I^ 

(KQster and Dahmer, 2905.) 

Gms. per 100 cc Sat. Sol. MoI. % CABn 
in Solute. 



OHiBn. 
0.484 

0.505 
0.496 

0.477 
0.470 

0.196 

O 



OHtCh. 
O 

0.044 

0.084 

0503 
0.721 

1.3" 
1. 614 



100 
89.8 
80.7 

59-3 
S4'4 
II. 6 

o 



Solvent, 90.9 Vol. % CjH«OH, / - 25" 

(KOster and Wttrfel, 1904-^5-) 
Gma. per 100 cc. Sat. Sol. Mol. % CABn 
CiHiBn. C.H4CI1. in Solute. 

2.909 o 100 

2.674 0.696 94 
2.220 2.808 70 

1 . 769 4 . 249 49 

I. 271 6.237 24 
0.67s 6.877 9 

o 8.271 O 



3 

7 

I 

S 
9 



Additional data for the above system are given by Thiel (1903). 
Tribromo BENZENE, CJIsBrs. Solubility, ^s. per 100 gms. at 20-25®: 
In HtO, 0.004; in pyridine, 24.3; in Aq. 50% pyndine , 2.01. (Dehn. 19x7.) 

SoLUBiLmr Data, Determined by the Freezing-point Method (see foot- 
note, p. i), Are Given por the Following Mixtures. 

P Bromochlorobenzene + p Dichlorobenzene (Bruni and Gami. 1899.) 

" +0 Bromodllorobenzene (HoUeman and Van der Linden, Z9zz.) 

P Bromoiodobenzene + p Diiodobenzene (Nagomow. 191 z.) 
o Bromonitrobenzene + o Chloronitrobenzene (Krenuum: Kremann and Ehrlkh. Z908.) 

•\-P Bromonitrobenzene (Holteman & de Bmyn, Z900: Narbutt, '05.) 
+ " (Narbutt. zgos-) 

+ P 

+ m Chloronitrobenzene (Hasselblatt. r9Z3: Kiister. z89z.) 
+ m lodonitrobenzene (Haaaelblatt. Z9Z3.) 
4- fn Fluoronitrobenzene " 

+ m Chloronitrobenzene (Kremann, Z908.) 
P " +^ " (Kremann. 1908; Isaac, Z9Z3; Kremann &Ehrlic]i,Z9o8.) 



41 
•f 
41 
44 
44 
«4 
«4 
44 



ChloroBUIZINBS 



130 



ChloroBENZENE aHtCl. 

Solubility of Chlorobbnzenb in Sulphuk. 



" Synthetic Method, ' ' 
(Akxejew.) 

Grama CeE 


see 


page 16. 
per 100 Gruns. 


Sulphur 
Layer. 

13 
18.5 

27 




ChlorBeD- 
Koe Layer. 

70 
63 
53 



90 

100 
no 
116 crit. temp. 



38 



^DichloroBENZENE, C6H4CI2. and m ChloronitroBENZENB, C6H4CINOS. 
Solubility of Each in Liquid Carbon Dioxide. 

(BQchner. 1905-06.) 



^'•Dichlorobenzene. 




Chloronitrobenzene. 


m Chloronitrobenzene. 


f. 


Cms. p CcHiCls 
per 100 Cms. 
Sat. Solution. 


f. 


Gms. OHiClNOi per 100 
Gms. Sat. Solution. 


Gms. M C6H4CINO1 
t*. per zoo Gms. Sat. 
Solution. 


-33 


1.2 


-32 


I 


— I 1.8 


— 10 


4.2 


+ s 


7.8 


+ 16.5 II. 2 


+10 


II.4 


7 


16.5-36 quad. pt. 


7.5 38.2quad.pt. 


20 


22.7 


8 


.58.8 


20 53.2 


22 


34.4 


II 


65.8 





Solubility of 0, m and p Chloronitrobbnzbnes in Aniline. Deter- 
mined BY THE Freezing-point Method (see also p. 77}. 

(Kremann, 1907.) 



r. 

—10 

4-10 



Gms. Each Compound (Determined Separately) per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. 



aH«ClNOi. 



m aHiClNOi. 



4319 (=31 Mol. %) 21.60 f= 14 Mol. %) 

31.67 (=»2i.s 



51-30^=39 
69.15 (=57 



« 



II 



« 



49.29 ('=36.5 



« 



P aHiClNOi. 
27.75 (-18.5 Mol.%) 

31.67 ( = 21.5 

38.50 (-27 



(I 
II 



Solubility Data, Determined by the Freezing-point Method (see 
footnote, p. i), Are Given for the Following Mixtures: 

Chlorobenzene + lodobenzene 

** -|- Cyanbenzene 

" -j- Fluorobcnzene 

o Dichlorobenzene + p Dichlorobenzene 
P \ + P Diiodobcnzene 

-\' p Chloroiodobenzene 
1.2.4 Trichlorobenzene + 1.2.3 Trichlorobenzene 

** + 1-3.5 " 

" + *^' " + 1. 2.3 Trichlorobenzene 

a Hexachlorobenzene + & Hexachlorobenzene 

p Chloroiodobenzene + P Diiodobenzene (Nagomow. zgti.) 

Chloronitrobenzene + p Chloronitrobenzene (Holleman and de Bmyn. 1900.) 

-|- " (Bogajawlewsky. Winogzadow and Bogolubow, 1906.) 

+ Formic acid (Bruni and Berti^ 1900.) 

m " + m lodonitrobenzene (Hasselblatt. 1913.) 

+ m Fluoronitrobenzene " 

+ Naphthalene (Kremann and Rodenis, 1906.) 

p " -j- Diphenylamine (Tinkler, 1913.) 

4- Naphthalene (Kremann and Rodenb. 1906.) 

o lodonitrobenzene + p lodonitrobenzene (Holleman. 1913.) 

m Benzene disulf one chloride -\rp Benzene disulf one chloride. (Holleman and Pollak« z9za) 



(Pascal. Z9Z3.) 



(Holleman and Van der Linden, z9zi.) 
(Nagomow. Z9zz.) 



(Van der Linden. Z9za.) 



tt 



•I 



li 
11 
«« 
II 

II 
II 
fi 



I3X 



NitroBINZINXS 



Mutual Solubilitt of Nitrobbnzbnb and Watbr 

(Campctti and Del Grono, 1913; Davis, 1916.) 



f. 


B«0 Layer. 


CANO, Uyer. 


f. 


20 


0.19 


99.76 


180 


40 


0.3 


99.6 


200 


60 


0.4 


99.3 


220 


80 


0.8 


99 


230 


100 


I 


98.7 


240 


120 


1.3 


98.2 


241 


140 


1.9 


97.2 


242 


160 


2.8 


95.8 


244 



Cms. CJIiNQi per too Cms. 


UiO Uy«r. 


CHiNO, Ufa. 


4-3 


93-7 


7.2 


91 


II. 8 


87 


iS-8 


83 


23 


7a 


26 


67 


32 


S8 



244.5 cnt. t. 50,1 

Data for the solubility of nitrobenzene in hexane, diiaoamyldeouiQ and Ameri- 
can petroleum at preuur«t up to 3000 atmospheres, are given by Kohnstamm and 
Timmermans (19 13)- 

SOLUBILITY OF O, ffl AND p NiTROBBNZBNB IN WaTBR AND QT PVRIDINB. 

(Deho, 191 7.) 

Gma. Each Conpound Sepaxately per lop Gnu. Solvent. 

f *^ N 

» Nitxobcnaene. m Nitrobcnaene. p Nitrobenxene. 

0.21+ 2.14+ 1.32+ 

173 two layers formed 85.3 

260 394 S3 . 2 



Solvent. 



f. 



Water 20-25 

50% Aq. Pyridine 20-25 
Pyridine 20-25 

SoLVBiLiTY Data, Dbtbrminbd by thb Frbbzing-point Method (see foot- 
note, p. i), Are Given for Ml^xTures of Nitrobenzene and Each of the 
Following Compounds: 
Ethyl Ether (Tiakalotoa and Guye, 1910.) Mercuric Bromide (MaKarell and AKoIi. 2907.) 

Hexane (Tunmennans, 1907. 19x1.) Mercuric Chloride ** ' " 

Hezane + Resordne (Timmennans. 1907.) Nitrosobenzene (Jaeger and van Kxtgten, x9ia-) 

Isopentane (Timmennans, 1910. 19x1.) Phenol (Dahma, 1895.) 

Diethyldiacetyltartrate (Scheuer. 19x0.) Ethylene Bromide " 

Menthol '* Naphthalene (Kremann, '04; Kumakov.«<al, '15.) 



(m) CeH4(NO0,. 

Solubility in Benzene, Brom Benzene and in Chloroform. 

** Synthetic Method." 

(SdirOder.) 





Cms &Ht(NO|)t 


per xoo 


Gms. CeH4(NOi)s per 


»•. 


C ' ' ' 
fc.H, 


rms. Sol. m: 
QHtDr CHCli 


%•, xoo Gms. Sol. in: 




C.H, 


. C,H«Br 


CHCI^. 


15 


I7S 


• • • 


22. 2 


40 52. C 


• 380 


42.0 


20 


26.0 


18.5 


25 


50 62.5 


47 5 


52 S 


25 


33 


23.7 


29.0 


60 71 


' 57 


65 


30 


40 


28.7 


33 


• • • • • 


• • • 


. • « 


SOLUBUm OP : 


m DnnTKOBBNZBMB IN Sbvbsal Aloobou ADO AOM 






« 


(Timofeiew. 1894) 










Gms. m 


aHi(N0|)t 


Sohrent. 




Gms.«uai(NOlOi 

per too Gms.l 


Solvent. 


r. 


per 100 Ume. 




f. 




Sat. Sol. 


Solvent. 


Sat. Sol. Solvent. 


CH/)H 


13 -8 


5-38 


S.65 


CHiCOOH 


^SS 


15.7 18.6 


CtH»OH 


13-8 


2.83 


2.92 


<( 


23 


17.8 21.6 


CHtOH 


13 -8 


2 


2 


CtHiCOOH 


13s 


12 13.6 


CHjOH 


73 


43-6 


77.3 


(( 


15s 


12.9 14 8 


HCOOH 


^3-5 


9 


9.9 


<( 


23 


13-45 ISS 


HCOOH 


iSS 


9.6 


10.5 


CHtCOOH 


135 


7.3 8.3 


CH,CXX)H 


13s 


IS-2 


17.9 


« 


^S-5 


8.2 8.9 



1 00 gms. 95 % formic acid dissolve 1 1 .89 gms. m dinitrobenzene at 20.8^. (Ascban.'xi) . 
100 gms. pyridine dissolve 106.3 sms. m dinitrobenzene at 20°-25^ (Dehn, x9x7.) 
100 gms. 50% aq. pyridine dissolve 45.5 gms. m dinitrobenzene at 20°-25^ " 



NitroBENZENES 132 

SolubiHties of Di-Nitro BXVZXVX8 and of Tri-Nitro BXVZXVX8 in 
Several Solvents. 

(de Bruyn — Rec. txvr. chim. Z3» 1161 150, '94.) 

Gnuna per xoo Gnuns Solvenc. 



(NO,),. (NO,),. (NO,),. (NO,),. C«)C.Ht(NO^ 

Methvl Alcohol ao.5 3.30 6.75 0.69 4.9 (16®) 16. a (15.5®) 

Ethyl Alcohol ao.5 1.9 3.5 0.4 1.9(16®) 5-45 (15.5 v 

Propyl Alcohol ao.5 1.09 a. 4 0.298 ... 

(Maroon Bi-Sulphide 17.6 0.236 1.35 0.148 0.25 

Chloroform 17.6 27.1 32.4 1.82 6.1 

Benzene 18.2 5.66 39<45 2.56 6.2 (16®) 

Ether '7*5 *** *** *** '*5 **• 

Ethyl Acetate za.2 12.96 36.27 3.56 

Toluene 16.2 3.62 30.66 2.36 

CarbonTetraChloride i6.a 0.143 '-'^ c>.i2 ... 

Water (ord.) 0.014 0.0525 0.008 ••• 

S3rmmetrical Tri-Nitro BUTZSNE. 

Solubility in Aqueous Alcohol at 25®. 

(HoUeman and Antusch — Rec. tniT. chim. Z3» 396, '94O 

Vol.% ^-^S^^*^'^ Sp.Gr.of Vd.% ^SSr^^?^'^ Sp. Gr. of 

AlcolS. ^%i^t Solutions. Alcohol. "^^^f/ Sciurioiif. 

100 2.34 0.7957 80 0.57 0.8582 

95 1-57 0.8131 75 0.47 0.8708 
90 1. 12 0.8288 70 0.37 0.8808 
85 0.79 0.8436 60 0.23 0.9064 

See remarks under a Acetnaphthalide, p. 13. 

100 gms. 93 vol. % ethyl alcohol dissolve 2.1 gms. of C«H4(N0s)s, 3.1 gms. 
m C6H4(NOs)s and 0.33 gm. p CcH4(N0s)s at 25°. (HoUeman and de Brayn, 1900.) 

100 gms. of each^of the following solvents dissolve the indicated gms. of 1.2.4 
trinitrobenzene at 15.5°: CeHe, 140.8 gms.; CHClt» 12.87 gms.; CHtOH, 12.08 
gms.; (CsHOiOy 7.13 gms.; CsHeOH, 5.42 gms; CSt, 0.4 gm. (de Bmyn. 1890.) 

Data for the solubility of m dinitrobenzene in a solution of nitrobenzene in 
hexane are given by Timmermans (1907). 

Solubility data, determined by the freezing-point method, are given for mix- 
tures of 0, m and p dinitrobenzene with fluorene, Kremann (19 11); with phen- 
anthrene, Kremann, ei al (1908). Results for mixtures of and p dinitrobenzene 
with naphthalene, by Kremann and Rodinis (1906). Data for m dinitrobenzene 
with nitrotoluenes are given by Giua (19 15) and for m dinitrobenzene and di phenyl- 
amine by Giua (1915a). Similar data for mixtures of x trinitrobenzene with 
xanthone, quinol, dimethylpyrone, s tribromophenol, fluorenone, coumarine, 
and phenyl ether are given by Sudborough and Beard (1911). Results for s 
trinitrobenzene and 77 dipyridyl are given by Smith and Watts (19 10) and for 5 
trinitrobenzene and fluorene by Kremann (1911). Results for mixtures of m 
dinitrobenzene and naphthalene and for 1.3.5 trinitrobenzene and naphthalene 
are given by Kremann, (1904) and Kurnakov, Krotkov and Oksman (1915). 

BENZYHYDROL (CeH«)tCHOH. 

Solubility data, determined by the freezing-point method (see footnote, p. 1)9 
are given for mixtures of benzhydrol and phenol and for benzhydrol and di* 
methylaniline by Schmidiin and Lang (1912). 



(I 
I< 

«4 



133 BENZIL 

CeHiCO.COCeH^ 

Data for the solubility of benzil in aqueous ethyl alcohol are given by Tim- 
mermans (1907) and by Kendall and Gibbons (1915). Data for aqueous solu- 
tions of benzil and phenol, for benzil and succinic acid nitrile and for benzil and 
triethyl amine are given by Timmermans (1907). 

Solubility Data, Determined by the Freezing-point Method (see 
footnote, p. i), ARE Given for the Following Mixtures: 

Benzil -|- Dibenzyl (Vanstone, 19x5.) 

" -|- Azobenzene 
" +Stilbene 
" -|- Hydrobenzoin 

" 4- Benzoin (Beunth, 1919-23; Vanatooe, 1909.) 

" -h Benzoic acid (Kendall and Gibbons, 1915.) 

fiSHZIVX (Petroleum) CsH,,C,Hu. 

100 parts of alcohol dissolve about z6 parts benzine of 0.638—* 
0.660 Sp. Gr., at 25®. 

BXVZOIO AOID C,H,COOH. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Boorgoui — Ann. chim. phys. [5] zs» i7it '78-) 

Gzams. CeHsCOGH Grams. CACOOH 

^•, per 100 Gms. t*. per i<x> Gms. 

Water. Solutka. 

o 0.170 0.170 40 0.55s 0551 

10 0.3I0 0.209 50 0.775 0.768 



Water. 


Solution. 


0.170 


0.170 


0.3I0 


0.209 


0.290 


0.289 


0.34s 


0.343 


0.410 


0408 



20 0.290 0.289 60 I -155 1*143 

25 0.34s 0.343 80 a. 715 2.643 

30 0.410 0408 100 5.875 5.549 

100 grams saturated aqueous solution contain 0.25 gm. CcHfCOOH at 15^; 

0.3^^6 gram at 25**; 0.353 gram at 26.4**; 0.667 gram at 45**; 5.875 gms. at 

100". 

(Paul, 1894; Noyes and Cbapin, 1808; Greenish and Smith, 190^; HoCFman and Langbeck, 1905: Lums- 
den, 1905; Phiup, 1905; see auo Aiexejew, x886; Ost, 1878; Vaubel, 2895; Freunduch and ScaI, i9za.) 

Solubility op Mixtures of Liquid Benzoic Acid and Water. 

(Alexejew.) 

Determinations by "Synthetic Method," see .Note, p. 16. Figures read from 
curve. 

Gms. CsHbCOOH per zoo Gms. Gms. CeQsCOOH per 100 Gms. 

t*. . * s t». . * ^ 

Aq. Layer. Benzoic Ac. Layer. Aq. Layer. Benzoic Ac. Layer. 

70 6 83 100 12.0 69.0 

80 7.5 79.5 no 18.0 59.0 

90 8.5 76 116 (crit. temp.) 35 

Solubility of Benzoic Acid in Aqueous Solutions of: 

(Hoflfman and Langbeck.) 

Potassium Chloride at 25°. Potassitmi Nitrate at 25®. 

^ ia: Dissolved C,HbCOOH. ^ ^; Dissohed C^HaCOOH. 

Kol' iS. M0I.C011C. Wt. per cent. ^^ £J^ Mol.Ccnc. Wt.percent 

0.02 1.49 5.0254-IO-* , 0.339 002 2.02 5.0326-IO-* 0.340 

005 3-73 49801 " 0-333 005 S-06 50421 " 0.341 
0.20 14.92 4-7639 " 0.322 0.20 20.24 5.0297 " 0.340 

0-50 3730 4.3632 " 0.295 0-50 50-59 4-9400 " 0.334 

x.oo 101.19 4.7646 " 0.322 



BENZOIC ACm 



134 



Solubility op Benzoic Acid in Aqueous Solutions op: 

(Hoffmann and Langbeck.) 



Sodium Chloride. 



Sodium Nitrate. 



Nor. 


Gmg. 


Gms. CsHaCOOH 


malitf 


NaQ 


per 100 Gms. Sol. 


of Ag. 
NaQ. 


lite^. 


at 25". at 45*- 


0.00 


0.00 


0340 0667 


o.oa 


1. 17 


0.339 0.663 


0.05 


2-93 


0-33S 0.6S4 


0.20 


11.70 


0.336 0.617 


0.50 


29.25 


. 282 . 546 


1. 00 


58.30 


... . 449 



Nor- 
mality 


GmB. 
NaNO, 


Gm5.CeH^COOH 
per 100 Gms. Sol. 


of Aa. 
NaN&t. 


per 
Liter. 


at 2f» at 45**. 


002 


1.70 


0340 0.666 


005 


8.51 


0.339 0.66s 


0.20 


17. 02 


0-333 0647 


0.50 


42.54 


0319 0.613 


x.oo 


85.09 


. 294 



Solubility op Benzoic Acid in Aqueous Solutions op Sodium 
Acetate, Formate, Butyratb, and Salicylate. 

(Noyes and Chapin — Z. phyaik. Chem. 37. 443t '98; Philip — J. Ch. Soc. 87. 9pa. '05.) 



Grams 

Sodium 

Salt per 

liter. 

O 

I 
2 

3 

4 
6 

8 



Grams CeH«COOH per liter of Solutioa in: 

— ^ 



CIIsCGGNa. 



HCOONa. 



At 25^ 

3 41 

4 65 

S-70 
6.70 
7.60 



At 26.4*. 

3 53 

4. 75 

5-85 
6.90 

7-85 



Atl?7 

3 41 

425 

4-7S 
5.20 

5 60 



At 264*. 

3 53 

4-35 
4.85 

S-30 
S-70 



COIrCOONa. CAOH.COONa. 
At 264*. 



3 
4 

5 
6 



At 264*. 

3 53 
3.62 

3 70 
3 -So 

387 
400 

4.10 

Solubility of Benzoic Acid in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Mono- 
chloracetatb. Sodium Succinate and Potassium Formate at 25*". 

(Philip and Gamer, 1909.) 

In Aq. (CH,COONa)j. 

Gms. per Liter Solution. 



53 
50 
40 

15 
6.90 

8.40 



In Aq. CHiClCOONa. 

Gms. per Li ter Solution. 
CHiClCOONa^ 



O 

1-375 

3.426 

6.839 

13.710 



C«H*COOH. 
3.38 
3.684 
4.026 

4.417 
4.929 



(CHiCOONa)i. 
O 

1. 182 

2.932 

5.848 

11.730 



C«H»COOH. 
3.38 
4.087 
5-112 
6.564 

9OO5 



In Aq. HCOOK. 

Gms. per Liter Solution. 
HCOOK. 



O 
1.025 

2.563 

5 124 



CtHtCOOH. 

3.38 
4.087 

4.734 

5 503 



The authors also obtained data for the solubility of benzoic acid in aqueous 
solutions of sodium acetate and sodium formate which agree closely with those 
quoted in the second table above. 

1 00 cc. 90% ethyl alcohol dissolve 36. 1 gms. C«HiCOOHat i5.5*'.(Greenish&Smlth,*o3.) 

100 cc. of a i.o n aqueous solution of aniline hydrochloride dissolve 0.537 fi^< 

C«H6COOH at 25°. (Sidgwick, 1910.) 

Solubility of Benzoic Acid in Aqueous Solutions of Ethyl Alcohol 

AT 25**. 
(Seidell, 1908, 19x0.) 



CiH«0& 


Sp. Gr. of 
Sat. Sol. 


Gms. per 100 Gms Sat. 
Sol. 


CiH»6b 

in Solvent. 


Sp. Gr. of 
Sat. Sol. 


Gms. per 


xoo Gms. Sat. 
Sol. 


m Solvent. 


CiHsOH. CiH»COOH: 


CtH^OH. 


CrfliCOOH: 





I 


0.367 


60 


0.943 


45 72 


23.80 


10 


0.985 


9.94 0.60 


r • 


0.940 


49.21 


29.70 


20 


0.970 


19.66 1.70 


80 


0.934 


52.8 


34 


30 


0.959 


28.83 3.90 


90 


0.922 


57.6 


36 


40 


0.951 


36.36 9.10 


100 


0.908 


63.1 


36.9 


SO 


0.946 


41.50 17 











135 



BKNZOIG ACID 



Solubility op Benzoic Aao in 90% Alcohol, in Ethbr and in Chloroform. 

.(Bouigoin.) 





Solvent. t^ 


' Solvent. 




SdudoQ. 


p 




90% Akohol 15 


41. 


.62 




29 -39 






Ether 15 


31 ' 


35 




23.86 






Chloroform 25 


14 30 




12.50 




SCMLUBILITY OF BENZOIC AciD IN 


Several Alcohols. 


(Thnofdew 


• 1894.) 


Akr>ho1. 


^ Gins.C«HiCOOHperzooGins. 


Alcohol. 




.. Gms-CeH^COOHperxooGins. 




Sat. SoL Solvent. 








Sat. SoL 


Solvent. 


Methyl 


— 18 23.1 30 


Propyl 




-18 


14. S 


16.9 


« 


— 13 24.3 32.1 


it 




-13 


iS-7 


18. s 


« 


+ 3 335 504 


<i 




+ 3 


23.1 


30 


« 


19.2 40.1 67.1 


i< 




19.2 


28.2 


39.3 


It 


23 41.7 71. 5 


(f 




23 


29.8 


42.3 


Ethyl 


— 18 20.3 25.4 


Isoprupyl 




21.2 


32.7 


48. s 


« 


— 13 21.2 26.9 


AUyl 




21.2 


25.1 


33-4 


« 


+ 3 28.8 40.4 


Isobutyl 







15. 3 


18 


(1 


19. a 34.4 52.4 


Isoamyl 
Capryllic 




18 


20.2 


25-4 


M 


23 35-9 SS-9 




21.2 


22.7 


28.7 






Ethyleneglyool 


i 18 


8 


8.69 



Additioni«1 dat». agreeing closely with the above, $re given by Timofeiew 
(1891) and Bourgoin (1878), ; . . 

Solubility of Benzoic Acid in Aqueous Solutions of Dextrose. 

(Hoffman and Langbeck.) 
Dissolved CeHsCOGH at sj". 



Ncnnality of 
m]. Dextruw. 

0.02 
0.05 
0.204 

0.533 
1. 068 



Gma. CaHiiOs 
per Uter. 

3 67 
9.00 

36.73 
96.15 

192 .30 



Mol. Cone. 
5.0322.10 

5 0403 " 

(( 
u 



-4 



SO303 

5 0321 
50443 



Weiffht 
Per Cent. 

0.34 

034 

034 

0.34 

0.341 



Md. Cone. 

9.9088.10"* 
9.9328 

9-9323 
lO.OIOI 

10.0369 " 



Dfasolved QiHgCOOH at 4i*. 

Wdfffat 
•ter Ctnt. 

0674 
0.669 
0669 
0674 
0.676 



(( 



« 



(( 



SOLUBIUTY OF BENZOIC AaD IN AOUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF UREA AND OF ThIO UrBA. 

(Homnan and Langbeck.) 

Ncnnality Gms. CaHaCOOH Dissolved at af, 

of Solution. per Liter. Mol. Cone. Wt. percent 

In Aqueous Urea o . 10 6 .01 CO(NH2)2 5 . 1876 . lo"* o .350 

In Aqueous Thio Urea 0.20 15.23 CS(NI^)3 5*4994 " 0372 

Data for the S3^ein benzoic acid, succinic acid nitrile and water are given by 
Schreinemakers, 1898, and for the system benzoic add, phenol and water by 
Timmemianns, 1907. 

SoLUBiLmr OF Benzoic Acid in Benzene and Vice Versa. (Roioff, 1895) 



f. 

S-37 


Cms. CrfbCOOH per 
100 Gms. Sat S<M. 




Solid Phue. 

CJEI, 


•f-^rSS'.^S^iT' Solid Phase. 

20 8.8 GeHBCOOH 


5 


I-7S 




« 


30 13 




4SO 
4.30 

S 


3-95 

5 
S-os 


• 1 

CJli+CHjCOOH 
QHsCOOH 


SO 25 

70 43. S 

90 64 




7 


5 SO 




(( 


no 91.5 




9 
II 


S-70 
6 




It 
It 


121 100 





Von Euler and Lowenhamn (1916) found 7.76 gms. CeHsCOOH per 100 cc. of sat. 
.solution in benzene at 25**, and 7.76 gms. CeHsCOOH + 2.50 gms. C«H40HCOOH 
o per 100 cc. of benzene solution saturated with both acids. 



BENZOIC ACm 



Solubility of Benzoic Acid in Organic Solvssts. 



Aq. 75% Acetic Add 


14-16 


B^QC 


14-16 


Carbon Disuiede 


14-16 


Carbon Tetrachloride 14-16 




'S 




i6 


Chlorobrm 


»S 


Ethyl Ether 


14-16 


Glycerd 


1S-16 


Ligroin 


14-16 


Petrtrieum Ether t 


a6 


Pentachlor Ethane 


*S 


Tetrachlor Ethane 


15 


Tetrachlor Ethylene 


as 


Trichlor Ethjdeoe 


as 


Dichlor Ethylene 



• . GiM. OHiCOOH per 

Bd EIaUeiiiu(i9ii): {1) H 

ki(i9o7); (s) WcXciudBmliutiau); (6) Sadell 

One liter sat. aol. of benzoic acid in ethyl 
37.7 pns. at 21.5** and 95.7 gma. at 75°. 

SOLUBIUTY 







Solution. 


Sit. Sol. 


Amy! Alcohol 


as 


0.87s 


33.37 {6) 


Amyl Acetate 


as 


0.9 11 


M (6) 


AloAol (Aba.) 


*S 


0.^ 


s8-*o {6) 


Benzene 


*s 


0-8Q7 


13.23 (6) 


Chloroform 




I.4S6 


IS-14 (6) 


Carbon TetracUoride»s 


t.s64 


4-18 (6) 


Carbon Disulfide 


^s 


i.iSi 


4.82 (6) 


Cumene 


as 




8-59 (6) 


Ethyl Ether (Abs.) 


as 




46.74 6 


Ligroin 


as 


0.710 


»-7S (6) 


Naphtha 


aj 


0.730 


3.6s (6) 


Nitrobenzoie 


as 


i.aas 


M-os (6) 


Toluene 


as 


0.8S4 


io.6g (6) 


Spts. Turpentine 


as 


0.8S9 




Water 


as 






Xylene 


'5 


0.877 


g.71 (6) 


gm.. HI. «I. t CB 


pt-JO-TO.) 




ii^R.Uim«iii (I91J): (i) d. J 


ng(.9o9) 


t4)0»». 



Mixtures of Ether 


Mixtures of Acetone 


Mixtures c 


( Ethyl A«- 


+ Chloroform. 


+ Beniene. 


tate + Benzene. 


'^ssa'-'^SS^ IS' 


Gnu. CJltCOOH 
per 100 Gnu. 


la!" 


Cni.aHJC0OH 


100 38.4 


100 


II.6 


100 


II.6 


90 34 


90 


18.3 


90 


14 


80 30.1 


80 


34.1 


80 


16. s 


70 a6 


6 


70 


31 


70 


20 


60 33 


9 


60 


33 S 


60 


J0.4 


50 20 


8 


50 


37 


so 


32 


40 18 


6 


40 


43.3 


40 


23.9 


30 16 


8 


30 


47 


30 


26.S 


30 15 


6 


SO 


49 


so 


29 


10 IS 


3 


10 


Si-3 


Id 


28.2 


IS 







SS.6 




41.2 


•Tl>i.>.proUI>ly. 


akukt Id the orisiiu) and •hnOd be %(aH>)iO in Solvent. 


5oi.i;BtLiTY Data, Dbteruinsd bt the 


Fhkkzing-point Method (see footnote. 


p. i), ARB Givbn fos 


MiXTUKBS OF 


Benzoic Acm 


ANOEiCB 


or TBB Fm.- 


lowing Compou 


NDS: 











t CUoTobenaMcAdd 



(Bommter tod H 



m Nitrobenzoie Add (Bikuoia aiid AngriMsi, I 
Benzil (KendiU wd Gibboo*, 19 

Camphor (louniiuu, 1911.) 

Cinnamic Add (KuUer, iSto; Kndall. 1 

DimethylpyroDC (Keadill, 1914.) 
Fluorobenzoic Add (Koopd, igiij 



Salicylic Add y»er*. ■»«■) 
ij.) Sucanic Add Nitnle {Schnk 



Sulfuric Add ( 
o Toluic Acid (KhkUU, igu.) 
J a Toluidine (Bukov, igij.) 
P- " (Bukov, igii; Vitnoa, iSgiJ 



137 BENZOIC AGID 

Distribution op Benzoic Acm B&twebn Watbr and Bbnzbnb: 
At lo**. At 20**. At 25*. At 40^ 

(HendrixoD, 1897.) (Nernst, 1891.) (Fanner, 1903.) (Hendrizon, 1897.) 

Cms. CACOOH Gma. CtHtCOOH q-^ rjtroOH ner too oc ^ms. CsHiCOOH per 

per 100 cc. per xoo cc. \-•Il•^-w« pu iw ^^ ^^ ^^ 



HsO. OH* HiO. OHt. HsOLayer. CJIc HiO OHc 

Layer. . Layer. Layer. Layer. * Layer. Layer. Layer. 

0.0215 0.0725 0.0163 0-0535 0.2002 (0.1885*) 3-335 0.0238 0.0714 

0.0412 0.2363 0.0244 0.099 0.2012 ro.1891*) 3.349 0.0404 0.1637 

0.0563 0.4422 0.0452 0.273 0.2020 (0.1902*) 3.319 0.0837 0.5740 

0.0890 1.0889 0.0788 0.737 0.1155 1.0269 

0.1215 2.0272 0.1500 2.42 0.1715 2.1420 

0.1409 2.7426 0.2890 9.70 0.2313 3.9167 

• M unionized. 

Distribution of Benzoic Acid Between Benzene and Aqueous 
Potassium Benzoate Solutions at 25®. 

(Fanner, 1903.) 

/. S%Jfe^' Gm- Mob. OHiCOOH per Liter. G«». OaCOOK Cms. GHiCOOH per Kter. 

CtHs(X)OKper , , per Liter Aq. 

Liter Aq. Sol. Aq. Layer. CsH« Layer. S(d. Aq. Layer. CiH« Layer. 

0.0093 0.01587 0.2776 I. 341 1.937 33.88 

0.028 O.OIS97 0.2768 4.03s 1.950 33.79 

0.047 0.01603 0.2762 6.774 1.956 33-71 

Distribution of Benzoic Acm Between: 

Water and Chloroform. (Hendiizon, 1897) Water and CCI4. (Seidell, z9zoa.> 
At I0^ At 40*. At 25*. 

Cms. C<H*C0pH per 100 cc. Cms. CtHiCOOH per loo cc. Gms. CtHtCOOH per 100 cc 

H^ Layer. OH* Layer^ HsO Uyer. OH* Layer.' HaO Layer. CCU Layer.' 

0.0208 0.0915 0.0258 0.0880 0.134 0.830 

0.0269 O.1518 0.0432 0.2059 0.291 4.41 

0.0327 0.2170 0.0885 0.6961 

0.1057 2.0930 0.1553 2.0435 

The coefficient of distribution of benzoic acid between olive oil and water at 
25^ is given by Boeseken and Waterman (191 1) as 12.6. 

AminoBENZOIG ACID (0) aH4.NHs.COOH. 

Solubility of Aminobenzoic Acid in Water. (Lunden, 1905-06.) 

♦. Sp. Gr. Gms. C6N4NHsCOOH(0) *« Sp. Gr. rinjSSwkTT/>.% 

*•• Sat-SoL per 100 cc Sat. Sol. *' Sat. Sol. ^S?^^^ 

25 0.999 0.519 34.9 0.998 0.731 

26.1 ... 0.540 35 0.997 0.744 

28.1 ... 0.570 39.8 0.997 0.889 

Solubility of Aminobenzoic Acid in Aqueous Salt Solutions at 25**. 

(Lunden, 1905-06.) 

'"'^SoS!'^* ^^-' ""^^^^^^'^ NonnaUtyof Sp^Gr. cA. 

SolutKm. Solution. c^^StS; Solution. Solution. per 100 cc. 

bat. boluuon. g^ g^j 

0.768 JBa(NQs)2 1.080 0.634 2.633 KNQs iiSS 0.501 

0.507 " 1.052 0.603 1.372 " 1.083 0.544 

0.3427 " 1.037 0.585 0.598 " 1.033 0.549 

0.1780 " 1. 018 0.555 1.853 KI 1. 221 0.541 
0.154s " 1.015 0.549 0.946 " I. 114 0.559 

0.560 " 1.068 0.556 

The author also nves additional data for aqueous salt solutions at 28.1**. 
Additional data for the solubility of aniinobenzoic acid in aqueous salt solu- 
tions are given by Euler (19 16). 



AminoBINZOIG ACIDS 



138 



AminoBENZOIC ACID aH«.NHi.COOH (m). 

Solubility in Water and in other Solvents. 



In Water. 


■ 

In Organic Solvents. 




Cms. 


' 


Gms. 


t*. CaH«Jm9.COOH(M) 


Solvent. 


t*. CA-NHs.COOH(m) 


per 100 cc. HsO. 




per zoo cc. Solvent. 





043 


Ethyl Alcohol (95^) 


12.5 3.92 


10 


0.52 


Methyl Alcohol (pure) 


10. s 405 


20 


067 


Acetone 


II. 3 6.22 


30 


0.87 


Methyl Iodide 


10 .0 0.04 


40 


IIS 


Ethyl Iodide 


0.0 0.02 


SO 


I so 


Chloroform 


12.0 0.07 


60 


2. IS 


Bromoform 


8.0 trace 


70 


31S 


• 




Mutual Solubility op a 


\minobenzoic Acids and Water at High Tempera- 




tures, Determined by the Synthetic Method. 






(Flaschner and Ranlcin, 19x0.) 




Mixtures of AaD 


Mixtures of m Acid 


Mixtures of p acid and 
HjO. 


and HfO. 


and HsO. 


fof 


Gms. Acid per 


t" of Gms. m Acid per 


t* of Gms. p Add per 


Melting. 


zoo Gms. Mixture. 


Melting. xoo Gms. Mixture. 


Melting, zoo Gms. Mixture 


83.6 


4.8 


66 crit. sol. temp. 


47 crit. sol. temp. 


9S.8 


9.9 


77.8 4.6 


82.2 s 


101.4 


18. 5 


90 S.8 


90 7.1 


103.4 


30.6 


100 9.7 


100 15.8 


104.4 


38 


no 20.2 


105 22 


los 


49-4 


120 51.2 


no 32.3 


105.6 


59 -4 


130 73-7 


1x6 51.8 


107.8 


69.7 


140 83.7 


120 62 


112 


80 


ISO 90.7 


130 77 


116. 2 


87.2 


160 95.8 


150 91. I 


128.4 


95 


170 99.2 


170 98 


144.6 


ICX> 


174.4 100 


186 100 



f reading, for critical saturation and for separating, also given in the case of the 
o acid. 

Data for the distribution of o aminobenzoic acid between water and benzene 
at 25° are given by Farmer and Warth (1904). 



AminonitroBKNZOIC ACIDS CeH,.NOs.NHs.COOH 0, m and p. 

Solubility op the Three Isomeric Aminonitrobenzoic Acids: 
In Ether. 



r. 

2.7 
S.8 



Gms. CeI&.N0,.NHt.C00H per 
100 cc. Ether. 



Para. 



Oftho. Meta. 

10.84 1.70 6.41 

16.05 (6.8**) i.8i 8.21 



f. 

3 
9.6 



In Ethyl Alcohol (90%). 

Gms. aHtNO|.NHs.COOH per 
100 cc. Alcohol. 



Ortho. 

8.13 
10.70 



Meta. 

1.79 

2.20 



Paia. 
8.4 

"•3 



Solubility in Water op the Three Isomeric: 

(Vaubd, Z895) 

Aminobenzo Sulphonic Acids. Amino Phenols. 



r. 
7 



G. CJI4.NHt.SO1H per zoo G. Aq. Sol. 
Ortho. Meta. Para. 

1.06 1.276 0.592 (6**) 



r. 

O 



G. aH«(OH).NHs per zoo G. Aq.SoL 



Ortho. 
1.7 



MeU. 
3.6(20**) 



Para. 
I.I 



139 



BENZOIC ACIDS 



Grams. 


Gram Mol. 


1.856 


0.00924 


0.402 


0.00200 


0.056 


0.00028 


2.087 


0.01333 


0.952 


0.00384 


O.I16 


0.00047 


0.027 


(Koopal, 19x3.) 



Brom, Chlor and lodoBENZOIC ACIDS. 

SOLUBOLITT IN WaTER AT 25®. (Paul, 1894; Ldwenherz. 1898; Vaubel, x89s3 

_ , Per xooo cc. Aqueous Solution. 

Formula, * 

CfftBr.COOH (ortho) 
C«H4Br.C00H (meta) 
CfftBr.COOH (para) 
C6H4CLCOOH (ortho) 
CJEW-COOH (ortho) 
CJEW-COOH (meta) 
CeHJ-COOH (para) 

The following results at 28^. (Skger, 19x2.) 

Chlorobenzoic add CjHiClCOOH (ortho) 2 . 25 

(meta) 0.45 

(para) 0.093 

Mutual SoLUBiLnY of Bromo and Chlorobenzoic Acids and Water at High 
Temperatures, Detebmined by Synthetic METHOD.J^CFiasdmer and Rankin, 19x0.) 

p Bromobenzoic o Chlorobenzoic m Chlorobenzoic p Chlorobenzoic 

Add + Water. Add + Water. Add + Water. J Acid + Water. 

Gms. Acid 

per xooGms. 

Mixture. 

10 



Compound. 

Brombenzoic Add 
Brombenzoic Acid 
Brombenzoic Acid 
Chlorbenzoic Add 
lodobenzoic Acid 
lodobenzoic Add 
lodobenzoic Acid 



it 



(( 



(( 



t* of Gms. Acid M £ 

Mdting. I«^JS^«- Melting. 

170 (Grit. sol. temp.) I00.8 



40 ^ Gms. Add m .£ Gms. Add 

Melting. »*L^~ S^- Melting. ^J2lS^ 



169 
180 
190 
196 
200 
210 
22Q 
240 

2S4 



3 
6.2 

27 
61 
80 
88.3 
96.9 
100 



102.7 

104 20 

I26.2(crit.t.)34.9 

104 76 
no 85.3 
120 92 
130 96 . 5 

139 . 5 100 



Mixture. 
123 4.2 

123.8 18.9 

I42.8(crit.t.)34.3 



Mixture. 
167 (crit. L) 



123.8 

125 
130 

140 
ISO 



75-8 
81.5 

87. S 

93-2 

97-S 
100 



162 
170 
180 

183 
184 

187 

200 

220 

240 



. 3 
5.4 
10 

14.5 
"5 

47 

79. S 

92 
100 



SoLUBiLTTY OF Orthochlorobenzoic Acm IN Aq. Solutions of Sodium Ace- 
tate, Sodium Formate and Potassium Formate at 25**. (Philip and Gamer, 1909.) 



In Aq. CHiCOONa. 
Grams per Liter. 

CHsCOONa. 



In Aq. HCOONa. 

Grams per Liter. 



1.009 
2.484 
5.027 
10.07 



CtHiGCOOH. 

3 599 
6. 181 

15.60 

18.27 



HCOONa. 
0.843 

2.102 

4.196 
8.410 



OHtOCOOH. 

3.381 
S.258 

7-637 
11.02 



In Aq. HCOOK. 
Gram s per Liter. 

fiCOOK. 



O 
1.025 

2.563 
5-124 



aH«acooa. 
2.128 

3 396 
5.226 . 

7-S43 



SoLUBiLmr OP Chlorobenzoic Acms in Several Solvents at 14-16^ 

(Bomwater and HoUeman, 19x2.) 



Solvent. 

ligroin 

Carbon Tetrachloride 

Benzene 

Carbon Disulfide 

75% Aq. Acetic Add 

Ethyl Ether 

Acetone 

Ethyl Acetate 



Gms. per xoo cc. Sat. Solution. 



OHiaCOOH. 
0.07 

0.58 
0.92 
0.52 
6.22 
16.96 
28.42 



m OHiaCOOH. 
0.084 

0.48 

0.66 

0.62 

• • • 

14 



p CtHiaCOOH. 

trace 

0.04 

0.017 

0.016 

0.32 

1.72 

2.58 
1.64 



13 . 20 

Freezing-point data are given by Bomwater and HoUeman (19 12) for mix- 
tures of 0, m and p chloroboizoic adds. 



BENZOIC ACIDS 140 

FluoroBENZOIC ACIDS QH4FCOOH. 

100 cc. aqueous solution saturated at 32^ contain 0.882 gm. CeH4F.C00H. 

« « 14 4< 14 II Q jQ^ 44 p 14 

(Sbtboawer, 1914.) 

lodoBENZOIC ACm p QH4ICOOH. 

Mutual Solubility of Para Iodobenzoic Acm and Water at High Tem- 
peratures Determined by the Synthetic Method, 



t* of Cms. Add per 


Vol 


Cms. Add per 


fof 


Gms. Add per 


Melting. loo Cms. Mixture. 


Melting. 


100 Gms. Mixture. 


Melting. 


100 Gms. Mixture 


17s crit. sol. t. 


207 


22 


230 


87.4 


178 3 


210 


41 


240 


92.7 


190 S-8 


2IS 


63 S 


269 


98.1 


200 10 


220 


77 


270 


100 



P lodo Bromo and ChloroBENZOIC ACID Methyl Esters. 

Freezing-point Data (Solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given for the 

Following Mixtures. 

Qaeger, 1906.) 

p Chlorobenzoic methyl ester + p Bromobenzoic methyl ester. 

" +/> Iodobenzoic 
p Iodobenzoic " " + P Bromobenzoic " " 

HexahydroBENZOIC ACID CH,(CHs.CH,),.CH.COOH. 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 0.201 gm. of the acid at 15^, d, saturated solution » 1.048. 

(Lumsden, 1905.) 

HydroxyBENZOIC ACIDS m and p (0 » Salicylic Acid, see p. 588). 

Solubility of Meta and Para Hydroxybenzoic Acids in Water. 

Benzene, Etc. 

(Walker and Wood, 1898.) 

In Water. In Benzene. 

Gms. C«H«.OH.COOH Gms. C|II«.OH.COOH 

♦•. per 100 Gms. HsO. per loo Gms.C6H>. 





MeU. 


Para. 


Meta. 


Paia.^ 


10 


OSS 


0.25 


• • • 


0.0018 


20 


0.90 


0.50 


0.008 


0.0027 


as 


1.08 


0.65 


o.oio 


0.003s 


30 


1-34 


0.81 


0.012 


0.0045 


35 


1.64 


1. 01 


0.015 


0.0060 


40 


2.10 


1.24 


0.017 


0.0082 


SO 


3-IO 


2. 12 


0.028 


0.0162 


60 


• • • 


... 


0.047 


0.028 


80 


• • • 

In Acetone. 


• • . 


... 

In Ether. 


0.066 




G. C|H«.0HXXX>H 


G. C|H«.0H.C00H 


%\ 


per 100 cc. 


Sol. 


t*. per xoo^cc. Sol. 



MeU. Fanu Heta. Para. 

23 26.0 22.7 17 9.73 9.43 

100 gms. sat. sol. in HtO contain 0.7 gm. m acid at 15^ and 4 gms. at 50*. 

« 44 44 44 44 44 QAA " h " " '* " 2 Q8 " " " 

" " "CHsOH" 53.58 " m " " " 

" " " " " 236.22 " p " " " (Savorro, 1914^ 

" 95% formic acid dissolve 2.37 gms. m acid at 20.8^. (Aachan, 1913-) 



141 



BENZOIC ACIDS 



Mutual Solubility op Mbta and Para Oxtbbnzoic Acids and Water and 
OF Parambthoxybbnzoic Acid and Water at High Temperatures, De- 
termined BY THE Synthetic Method. 



Meta Oxybenzoic Acid 
+H,0. 



fof 
Melting. 


xoo Gma 
Mixture 


78.2 


9.9 


90.8 


20 


98 


30 


103.2 


39-8 


108.8 


49 


119. 2 


60 


131-4 


70 


143 -4 


77-9 


17s -6 


90.8 


199.8 


100 



(Fbtschner and Rankin, 1910.) 

Para Oxybenzoic Add 

+H,0. 

Cms. Acid per 
xoo Cms. 
Mixture. 



t*of 
Melting. 



77 
90 

97.4 
104.4 

III. 8 

120 

134 

154. 4 
180.6 

213 



10 
19.8 

29s 
40.1 

SO 
59-6 
69.2 
80 

90 4 
100 



Para Methoxybenzoic 
Acid + H,0. 

Cms. Add per' 
100 Cms. 
Mixture. 

crit. sol. t. 



fof 
Melting. 



138.2 
140 
142 
144 

145 
146 

ISO 
160 
170 
184 



9 
12 

18 

30 

594 

73-3 
89.8 

95.6 
100 



Readings for t^ of critical saturation obtained by cooling from t^ of melting, 
are also ^ven by the authors. 

Coefficients of distribution of oxybenzoic adds between water and olive oil 
are given by Boeseken and Waterman (191 1) as follows:] p oxybenzoic acid, 
0.6; m oxybenzoic add, 0.4; 2.4 dioxybenzoic acid, i.o; 2.5 dioxybenzoic acid, 
0.3; 3.4 dioxybenzoic acid, 0.05; 3.4.5 trioxybenzoic acid 0.025. 

MethylBINZOIC ACIDS C6H4COOH.CH.. 0, m, and p. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Vaubel, 1895) 



f. 
25 



Cms. CJIiC00H.CHa per xooo Cms. Sat. Solution. 



Ortho 
1. 18 



Meta. 
0.98 



Para. 
0.35 



NitroBENZOIC ACIDS QH4.NO1.COOH. o,'m,andp. 

Solubility in Several Solvents. 

(de Connick. 1894; for solubility in UK), see also Paul; Vaubel; LOwenherz; Goldsclimidt, 1898; HoUe- 

man, 1898; Noyes and Sammet, 1903: Sidgwick, x9xo.) 



Solvent. 



f. 



Cms. CJI1.NQ1.COOH per xoo cc. Solvent. 



Water 



IS 
20 

25 

30 

35 
Methyl Alcohol lo 

Ethyl Alcohol lo 

" (abs.) 15 

" (33VoL%) 15 



It 
It 
tt 



tt 



ts 



Acetone 
Benzene 

Carbon Disulfide 
Chloroform 



(( 



tt 



tt 



Ether 
ligrdin 



10 
10 
10 
10 

15 

25 

35 
10 

10 



Ortho. 
0.625 

0.682 (0.645G.) 
0.738(0.7790.) 
0.922 (0.922G.) 
1. 141 (1.054) 

42.72 

28.2 

37.58* 
0.64(11.8^) 

41.5 
0.294 

0.012 

0.455 (11^) 
1.06' 

1. 13 

1.59* 
21.58 

trace 



MeU. 


Para. 


0.238 


0.0213 


0.315 


0.039 


0.341 


0.028(0.045) 


• ■ • 

0.477 


• • • 

0.0419 


^^H ox 


9.6 


33.1 (11. 7 ) 


0.9 


47 . 26* 


19.71* 


0.52 


0.055 


41.5 


4.54 


^•795, ^^ 


0.017(12.5**) 


0.10(8.5^) 


0.007 


5.678 


0.066 


3.4St 
4.7f 


0.088 


' 


0.II4 


• 


6.3it 


0.156 


' 


25.175 


2.26 


0.013 








Gms. add per xoo cc. saturated aoltttion. t ~ Gms. add per xoo gms. solvent. 



NitroBENZOIC ACIDS 



142 



Solubility of Ortho Nitrobbnzoic Acid in Water. (Noya and Sammet, 1903.) 



f. 



aH4N0iC00H o per Uter Sol. 



V. 



OHiNOaCOGH per Liter SoL 



MilUmols. Grams. ' ' Millimoh. Grams. 

10 26.62 4-645 25 43.3 7.231 

IS 31.06 5.187 30 51.6 8.616 

20 36.57 6.106 

Additional determinations by other investigators, in millimols CeH4N0sCOOH 
o per liter at 25®, are: ±6.$ (van Maarseveen, 1898); 44.19 (Paul, 1894); 42.3 
(Holleman, 1898); 43.6 (Kendall, 1911)* 

Solubility op Ortho, Mbta and Para Nitrobbnzoic Acids in Water 
AT High Temperatures, Determined by the Synthetic Method. 

(Flaachner and RAnkin, 1910.) 

CeH4N0iC00H+H,0. m C:aH4N0iC00H+H,0. p C«H4N0tC00H+H,0. 



fof 

Melting. 



Gms.Add 
per zooGma. 
Sat. Sol. 



5 

9 

US 

30 

S3. 5 

65.5 
76.7 

83.2 

88 
J 95.2 
100 



Data for the solubility of mixtures of 0, m and ^nitrobenzoic acids in water at 
24.4^ are given by Holleman (1898}. 

S(x.ubility op Ortho Nitrobbnzoic Acid in Aqueous Solutions of Hydro- 
chloric, Formic, Malonic and Salicylic Acids at 25^. (Kendall, 19x1 J 

Gms. o 
Solvent. 



i* nf 


Gms. Acid 






t* oL' G°>^ Add 




* fn 


per 100 Gms. 
Sat. Sol. 








Melting. 


Melting. 


Solution- ' Sat. Sol. 


M 


52 crit. t. 


• • • 


63.2 


2 


118 


69 


5 




4 


... 6 


143 


75 


9.9 




4 


90 7 


ISO 


78. 


13.5 




A 


100 10.5 


iSS 


79 


49-5 




4 


105 17 


160 


80 


62 




4 


107 . 5 crit. t. 30 


i6S 


85 


73-5 




4 


106 50 


170 


90 


78.6 




4 


100 58.6 


180 


100 


83.5 




4 


90 65.4 


190 


120 


94 


80 


74 


200 


148 


100 


100 


• . • 00 . 5 


220 






120 


... 96.8 


237 






140. 


4 


100 





Solveat. 

HCl 

« 
tt 
tt 
tt 

HCOOH 

tt 



Normality 
oi Solvei^ 

0.0179 

0.0357 

O.I2S 

0.250 

0.500 

0.0517 

0.0998 



Gms. o 

OHiNOiCOOH 

per Liter Sat. 

Solution. 

6.146 
5.661 
4.976 

4-997 
4.752 
7.188 
7.124 



NormaUty aHiN0i.C00H 
of Solvent, per Liter Sat. 



CH,(COOH), 



tt 



tt 



tt 



C,H4(0H)C00H 



tt 
tt 



O 

0.0313 

O.IOOI 

0.2004 
0.0094 
0.0136 
0.0162 



Solution . 
7.281 

7.144 

6.934 
6.656 

7.276 

7.352 

7.369 



Sc^uBiLiTY OP Ortho Nitrobbnzoic Acid in Aqueous Solutions op 

Dextrose, Sodium Chloride, and op Sodium Nitrate. 

Original results in molecular quantities. (Hoffman and Langbeck, 1905). 



In Dextrose. 



In NaCI. 



*ln NaNOs. 



O.CH«OsO.(a)CeH«NOj.COOHG.Naa. G.(*)C|H4NOj.COOH G2TaN0» G.(o)CeH«NOj.COOH 
|Kr 100 cc. per loo g. Solven t, per loo cc. per loo g. Solveii t. p^ loo cc. per loq g. Solve nt. 
At af. Atl?. Solution. At as". At 35*. Solution. ' At a^. At 3S*. 



Solution. 



O.O 

0.36 

1.80 

950 
20.00 



0.736 
0.736 
0.732 
0.722 
0.703 



1.063 
1.064 
1. 061 
1. 051 
I 030 



0117 

0.195 

0.585 
2-425 
5.80 



0.743 
0.746 

0.749 
0.688 

0.597 



1.072 
I 075 
1.070 
0.967 
0.831 



0.170 
0.284 
0.851 
4-255 
8.510 



0.746 

0-754 
0.767 

0-774 
0.748 



1.074 
1.080 
1.096 
1.097 

1. 047 



143 



NttroBINSOIO A€JM 



SoLumLiTT or Omho Nitrobbnioic Acid in Aqueous Solutions or 
Sodium Buttsatb, Acetatb, Formats, and Salicylatb at 264*. 

(PlttBlMSoS^ 



Orisinal 



Mols. 



gUUU I^SUiti 


a au Mauisi \tL 


100 '^ 


' 




GoM-NaSftk 


GttB. Oitko CACOOHHOi per liter of SoHitko b : 


per liter. 


C^rC0ON«. 


(%CXX>N«. 


BCOONa. 


C«il« OH-COOtlk. 





7.8s 


78s 


785 


7-85 


OS 


8.3s 


8.50 


8.60 


8.3s 


z.o 


890 


9IS 


9 50 


8.70 


2 


zo.o 


ZO.80 


II. s 


9 4 


3 


iz.a 


^^'S5 


»3-5 


II .0 


4 


12.4 


MS 


15.6 


"5 


6 


IS a 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 



Solubility of Ortho Nitrobbnzoic Acid in Sbvbral Alcohols. 

(Timofeiew, 1894.) 
Cms. Acid per 100 Cms. 



Soivcii^ 


f. 


CHtOH 


• 




it 


22 


CJBtOU 





li 


22 



Solvcoft. 



r. 



SaLSoL Solvent. 

36.2 56.6 CaHTOH o 

52.2 109. I " 22 

23.3 30.4 (CHs),CH.CH/)H o 
42.7 745 



Omt. AcM p er too dm 
i SaLSd. 



17.7 
31-2 
9.6s 



Solvent, 
21.5 

4SS 
Z0.7 



Freenne-point data for mixtures of nitrobenzoic acid and dimethylpyrone are 
given by Kendall (1914a). 

Solubility of Mbta Nftrobenzoic Acid in Sbvbral Alcohols. 









(nmoidew, 1894.) 








SoivenL 


f. 


Gms. Acid 


ta 100 Gms. 


»•. 


Gmt-Add 
Sat. Sol. 


per 100 Gmi 


S«t.Sol. 


Solvent. -^"^ 


Solvent. 


CHiOH 



19 


41.9 

53-7 


73.3 C,H»OH 
116 CtHTOH 


ai-S 



43-9 
34.1 


89.8 
31.8 


C>HtOH 


31. S 



57. 1 
33-6 


133 • I 
S0.6 


19 

31.5 


31 

3«.5 


4S 

48 


« 


19 


43.3 


73-2 









Solubility of Mbta Nitrobbnzoic Acid in Aqubous Solutions of Sodium 
Acbtatb, Sodium Formatb, Sodium Monochloracbtatb and Potassium 
" formatb at 25^. 

(Philip and Gamer, 1909.) 

In CHiCOONa. In HCOONa. In CHiClCOONa. In HCOOK. 



Gms. per liter. 



Gms. per Liter. 



CHr 
COONa. 

O 

Z.009 

2.484 

S-027 

10.07 



iiCiH«NO»- 
COOH. 

3 424 
S-I44 
7 932 

Z2.6l 

20.77 



HCOONa. **cOOhP^ 



Gms. per Liter. 

« - 



Gms. per Liter. 



O 

0.843 

2.102 

4.196 

8.410 



3 424 

4.77<^ 
6.380 

8.616 

11.90 



CHiCl- 
COONa. 

O 

I.37S 

3.426 
6.839 

13.710 



m CiHiNOr urr^it 
COOH. n^^Ai*" 



3.424 
4.07s 

4.876 

5.861 

7.264 



O 
1.025 

^.563 

5 -"4 



mC«H4N0|. 
iCOOH. 

3 424 

4.742 
6.446 

8-SSi 



NitroBENZOIC ACIDS 144 

Solubility op Para Nitro Benzoic Acid in Aqubous Solutions 
OF Anilin and op Para Toluidin at 25^. 

(LOweohen — Z. phjak. Chem. 3& joSt 'gS*) 

In Anilin. In />-Toluidin. 

G. Mob. per Liter. Gnu. per liter. G. Mols.j)er liter. Gmt. per liter. 

CO 0.00164 0.0 0.274 0.0 0.09164 0.0 0.274 

o.oi 0.00841 0.91 1.406 o.oi o.oioo 1. 071 1. 671 

0.02 001379 1.82 2.304 0.02 0.0174 2.142 2.902 

004 002172 3.64 3.629 0.03 0.0245 3.213 4097 

008 0.0347 7.29 5.798 

1000 cc. of sat. solution of pira nitrobenzoic acid in aqueous i normal sodium 
para nitrobenzoate contain 0.0046 gm. mols. » 0.768 gm. ^CftH4N0sC00H at 

25*. (Sidgwkk, 1910.) 

Solubility of Para Nitrobbnzoic Acid in Several Alcohols. 



Sohroit. 

CH*OH 

it 



CiHtOH 



« 







CTSmofeieii 


r. x«94) 








f. 


Gms.Acid] 


;>eriooGBis. 


^SaIvmi* 


a* 






Sat. Sol. 


Solvent. ' 


.MfftVCIIb. 


V . 


SAt.SoL 


Solvent. ' 


18.5 


3-45 


3. 57 


CtHiOH 


31 


3.22 


332 


21 


3.7s 


3-90 


CiHjOH 


i8S 


2.12 


2.17 


18. s 


3-25 


3-36 


(( 


19s 


1.85 


1.90 


19s 


316 


3.26 


€t 


31 


2.29 


2.34 



DinitroBENZOIC ACIDS CcH,(NOi),COOH. 1.3.5 and 1.2.4. 

S(H<UBILITY of 3.5 AND OF 2.4 DlNTTROBENZOIC ACIDS IN AqUBOUS 

Solutions of Sodium Acetate at 25^. 

(Philip and Gamer, 1909.) 
Gms. per xoe oc. Sat. SoL Gnu. per zoo cc. Sat. Sol. 

CHiCOONa. j.5aHa(N0i),C00H. CHtCOONa. 2.4C«Ha(N0i),C00H. 

o 0.1314 o 0.0572 

0.0976 0.3392 0.0976 0.2056 

0.2428 0.6720 0.2428 0.3434 

0.4846 I. 201 0.4846 0.5023 

e.9718 2. 115 0.9718 0.7440 

Data for the solubility of 1.3.5 dinitrobenzoic acid in water and aqueous 
solutions of KCl, NaCl, KNOi and NaNOi, and for its distribution between 
water and benzene at 25% are given by B. de Szyszkowski (1915). 

Solubility of 1.3.5 Dinitrobenzoic Acid in Water at High Temperatures, 

Determined by the Synthetic Method. 

(Flaichaer and Rankin, 19x0.) 

r M Gms. Add pa* 
* * zoo Gmt. Sd. 

160 90.9 
180 95 
200 99 

206 xoo 



M Gmt. Add per 
^* zoo Gmi. Sol 


f. 


Gme.Acid 


zoo Gms. 1 


123.8 critt. ... 


123 


66.5 


113 4.4 


125 


72.7 


120 9.3 


130 


79-3 


121 14-5 


140 


«S-7 


122 40 


150 


89 



145 NitroBENZOIC ACIDS 

Solubility of Nitrobromobbnzoic Acids and op Nitrochlorobbnzoic 

Acids in Water at 25**. 

(HoUemui, 19x0.) 

C6H,C00H.NQi.Br 1.2.3 0.033 CsHaCOOH-NOiCl 1.2.3 0.047 
CJEI,COOH.NQj.Br 1.2.S 0.741 CfH,COOH.NQi.Cl 1.2.5 0.967 

Holletnan also gives data for the solubility of various mi3ctures of the above 
two bromo compounds and of the two chloro compounds aiid* uses the results for 
estimating the quantity of each in an unknown mixture. 

Dinitro p oxyBENZOIC ACID CaitOH(NOi)tCOOH. 

S(h<ubility of Mixturbs of Dinitro Para Oxybbnzoic Acid and Othbr 
Compounds in Absolute Ethyl Alcohch. at 29.6^ 

(Morgensteni. 19x1 ) 

Dinitro P Oxybeozoic Dinitro p Oxybenzoic Dinitro P Oxybenzoic 

Add + Phenanthrene. Acid 4* Fluorene. Add + Retene. 

Solid 
Phase. 

Add 

M 



Cms. per 100 gms. 


Solid Phaae. 


Sat. 


100 Cms. 
Sol. 


SoUd 




100 Gma. 
.SoL 


Add. 


Pheoaa- 
thnne. 




And. 


Fluorene. 


Phase. 


Add. 


Retene. 


2.0483 


0.1333 


Add 


2.0440 


0.1232 


Add 


2.0232 





2.0776 


0.2796 


u 


2.0823 


0.3484 


u 


2.0484 


0.1236 


2.X249 


0.5267 


i( 


2.1045 


0.4824 


u 


2.0933 


0.3446 


2 . 3195 


1.0311 


11 


2.1744 


0.8960 


it 


2.1276 


0.5162 


2.2883 


I. 4310 


i< 


2.2618 


X.4308 


n 


2.2346 


X.0489 


X.2171 


6.0092 


Phenanthiene 


1.0490 


3.8618 


Flttoiene 


2.3034 


1.3634 


0.8681 


S.8300 


i< 


0.8004 


3-7566 


« 


1.9664 


3.3698 


0.6017 


5.6890 


<( 


0.5620 


3-6532 


II 


0.7830 


3-0032 


0.3487 


5-5619 


If 


0.3900 


3.581I 


(1 


0.5597 


2.9331 


0.2157 


5.4890 


(1 


O.2113 


3.5024 


(1 


0.2740 


2.8466 





5.3781 


n 





3.4115 


II 





2 . 2795 


BENZOIC A19HTDBIDE 


(C«H,CO),0. 









<l 
11 
II 
II 

Retene 
II 

II 

II 

II 



Freezing-point data are given for mixtures of benzoic anhydride and sulfuric 
add by Ivendall and Carpenter (1914). 



BENZOIN (Benzoyl phenyl carbinol) CcHtCH(OH)COC«Hi. 

'S(x«uBiLiTY OB Benzoin in Watbr, Pyridinb and Aqueous 50% Pyridine 

AT 20-25'*. 

(Ddin. 1917.) 

Solvent.' ^™** BenMin pa zoo 

*~'^^"** gma. Solvent. 

Water o 03 

Aq. 50 % Pyridine 6.63 

Pyridine 20.20 

100 gras. 95% formic add dissolve 3.06 gms. benzoin at I8.5^ (Ascfaan, xgzs-) 
Freezing-point data (solubilities, see footnote, p. i) are given by Vanstone 
(i9i3)ff for mixture of benzoin and each of the follo¥ring compounds: 
Dibenzyl, beozylaniline, benzylideneaniline and hydrazobenzene. 



BENZOPHENONE 



146 



BXHZOPHXHOHX (CeH.),CO. 

Solubility in Aqueous Alcohol and in other Solvents. 

(Deniea — ComiA. rend. lacH 7»9» '00; Bdl — J. Phspsic. Chem. 9, 550, '05.) 

In Aqueotis Alcohol at 40^. 

(BeU.) 



Wt.% Cms. (CeH«)aCO 
Alcohol per 100 Cms. 
bSolTeat. Solvent. Sdution. 



40 

45 

SO 

55 
60 

65 



5 
8 

II 

16 

28 



1.9 
4.8 

9.9 
13 -8 
22.6 



Wt.% 

Alcobol 

inSohtot. 

67 -5 

70 

71 
72 

72-5 
73 



Gins. (CA)sC0 
per 100 Gms. 



Solvent. 

39 
56 
67 

90 

los 
156 



SolutioiL. 
28.1 

35-9 

39 a 

47-4 

Sia 
61.0 



In Aqueous Alcohol and other Solvents. 

(Deirien.) 



SoIvenL 



f. 



Gms. 

(aH«)tCO 

per xoooc. 

Solvent. 



Solvent. 



Gms. 

(CiHOtCO 

per xoooc. 

Solvent. 



97% Ethyl Alcohol 17 
8s cc. gy% Alcohol + 15 cc. HjO 17 

80 " " + 20 " 17 

75 " " + 26 " 17 

Methyl Alcohol (pure) 9 . 8 

It tt it -g 

Acetic Ether (pure) 9.6 

Carbon Disulfide 16. i 



13.5 Ethyl Ether (rectified) 12.7 



3.8 Benzene 

2 . 2 Xylene 

1.3 Nitro Benzene 

II Chloroform (com.) 

14.3 Bromoform 

19 . 2 Toluene 

66.6 Ligr5ine 



17 
17.6 

iS-8 
16.5 

173 

17.2 

14.6 



17 
76 

38 

ss 

55 

33 

55 
6 



4 
8 

5 
3 
5 
7 



Determinations made by means of the Pulfrich refractometer (Osaka, IQ03-8), 
gave 39 gms. benzophenone per 100 gms. absolute ethyl alcohol at 20 , and 
78.6 gms. benzophenone per 100 gms. benzene at 25^. 



Solubility of Benzophenone in Aqueous Solutions of Phenol and of 
n Butyric Acid, Determined by the Synthetic Method, Are Given 

BY TiMMERMANS (1907). 

In Aq. 7i.i 
(Sat. t 



In Aa. 36.51% CHiOH 
(Sat. t = 65.3). 



fof 
Sat 

75-4 
81. 1 

85.3 
88.1 



Gms. (aHt)sCO 

per xoo Gms. Sat. 

Sol. 

0.685 

1.06 

1. 41 

1.67 



fof 

Sat. 

26.1 
293 

39-5 

S5-5 
82.6 



^% CeHjOH 
= 20.6). 


In Aq. 39. 
(Sat. 


4% CHtCOOH 
t » -2.3). 


Gms. (aH>)tCO 

per xoo Gms. 

Sat. Sol. 


f.of 
Sat 


Gms. (CeHc)tCO 
per xoo Gms. 
Sat Sol. 


0.96 


6.1 


0-439 


1.77 


18.5 


1. 13 


4.06 


28.9 


1. 71 


7.82 


44 


2.66 


16.82 


61.6 


3 92 




75-2 


5.09 



Solubility data for mixtures of benzophenone and resorcinol and for benzo- 
phenone and pjnrocatechinol, determined by the freezing-point method, are given 
by Freundlich and Posniak (1912). Similar data for mixtures of benzophenone 
and thymol are given b^ Pawlewsla (1893). Results for mixtures of benzophenone 
and sulfuric acid are given by Kendall and Carpenter (i9i4)« 



BENZOYL GHLORIDS, BENZOYL tetia hydro quinaldine, d and /. 

Fusion-point data are given for mixtures of benzoyl chloride and phenol by 
Tsakalotos and Guye (1910), and for mixtures of the d and I forms of benzoyl 
tetrahydroquinaldine, by Adrian! (1900). 



U7 



CaiiCH,.NH,.Ha, 
100 gms. HiO dissolve 50.6 gms. of the compound at 25**. (P«ddk aad Tonwr, 19130 

DiBBHZTLAMDIB HTDBOGHLOBIDB (CACHOtNH.HCl. 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 2.17 gms. of the compound at 2^**. (Poddk aad l>uner, x^i^O 
100 gms. chlorofonn dissolve 0.37 gm. of the compound at 2$\ 

TriBBNZTLAMIHB HTDBOGHLOBIDB (CJitCHOiN.HCt. 

100 gms. H/) dissolve 0.61 gm. of the compound at 25^ (Feddk and Tomer, 1913^ 
100 gms. chloroform dissolve 1 1 41 gms. of the compound at 25^ ** 

EHBBNZYL aHtCHs.CJi»CH>, BBNZTLAIOLINB CaisCHt.NHC«H«. 

Solubility Data, Dbtbrminbd by thb Frsbzing-point Mbthod (see 
footnote, p. i), Arb Givsu for the Following Mixtures: 



Dibenzyl+ Stflbene 

+ Benzylphenol 
+ Hydrobenzene 
4-ToIane 

Beazylaniline + Dibenzyl 



ff 



« 



<i 



(Bnui, 1898: Pasal and Nomand, I9os0 
(Pascal and Nomand, X9i3*) 



u 



l< 


+ Stilbene 


M « 






« 


+ Benzylphend 


M « 






u 


4- Hvdrazobenzene ** " 






u 


1 * ^J ^»B» ^•^•^^•^^^••iMF^""-" 

+ ToIane 

• 


M « 






NitroBENZTL CHLOBIDE p C«HtCHNOs.Cl. 






Solubility in Sbvbral Solvents at 25^ (v. Halbaa. 19x30 




< 


^ms. p CiHiCHJfOia 




Gna. # OHiCRNQ^a 


Solvent. 


per zoo 


Gms. 


Solvent. 


per 100 


Cms. 




Solvent. 


Sat.Sol. 


Solvent 


Sat. Sol. 


Methyl Alcohol 


8.87 


8. IS 


Nitrobenzene 


57-8 


36 -4 


Ethyl Alcohol 


7.10 


6.63 


Ethylacetate 


57. 8 


36.4 


Propyl Alcohol 


S-70 


539 


Ethylbenzoate 


43.3 


30.2 


Amyl Alcohol 


4.88 


4.6s 


Ethyhiitrite 


SI. a 


53-9 


Butyl Alcohol 


ai-S 


17.7 


Isoamylbromide 


"•S 


10.4 


Acetic Add 


18. 1 


iS-3 


Brombenzene 


3a 


24.2 


Acetone 


107 


SI. 7 


Chlorofonn 


47.6 


32.3 


Acetq>henone 


63.1 


38.7 


Carbon Tetrachloride 6 . 05 


5 69 


Paraldehyde 


24.9 


19.9 


Benzylchloride 


453 


31.2 


Ether 


23.1 


18.8 


a Bromnaphthaline 


3«.7 


23.4 


Acetonitrile 


96.6 


49.1 


liHexane 


X.30 


X.28 


Nitromethane 


68.8 


40.8 


Isopentane 


0.49 


0.49 


Nitrotoluene 


SI. I 


33.8 


Benzene 


69.7 


37.4 



Data for the lowering of freezing-point are given by HoUeman (1914) for mixtures 
of and p nitro benzylchloride. 



HTDBAZnn CeH«CH,.NH.C<HtCHsNH. 

Reciprocal solubilities of dibenzylhydrazine and cinnamylidene, determined by 
the method of lowering of the fr.-pt. (see footnote, p. i), are given by Pascal ('14;. 

ChloronitroBSNZTLIDINISC«H<C:NOt.Cl. BINZTLXDINI NAPHTHAIr- 
AMINX8 OHtCHiNCiaHr. 

Data for thb Lowering op thb Frbbzing-points (solubilities, see foot- 
note, p. i) Arb Givbn for thb Following Mixtures. 

Chloronitrobenzylidene + m Chloronitrobenzylidene (HoUeman, 19x4-) 

P " +m 

p " +0 " « 

a Benzylidene naphthalamine+^ Benzylidene naphthalamine (Pascal and Nonnand, 'xsO 

BEBTLLIUM ACETATB (basic) Be«0(CH,C00)6. 

100 gms. chloroform dissolve 33.3 gms. Be40(CH|CC)0)f at I8^ (Wiith, 19x4^ 



BEB7LLIUM FLUOBIDS 148 

« 

BEBTLLIUM Potassium FLUORIDE, etc 

Solubility in Water and in Acetic Acm Solutions. 

(Marignac; Sestini, 1890.) 

Cms. Anhydrous Salt 
Salt Fonnula. Sotvent. per 100 Cms. Solveat . 

At ao". At xoo*. 

Beryllium potassium fluoride BeFs.KF Water 2.0 5.2 

sodium " BeF,.NaF " 1.4 2.8 

" hydroxide Bc(OH)f Water + CQi sat 0.0185 (BeO)... 

phosphate Bei(P04)i.6HiO 2% CHiCOOH 0.055 

10% " 0.1725 



i( II II 



BERYLLIUM HYDROZIDK Be(OH)s. 

Solubility in Aqueous Solutions op Sodium Hydroxide. 

(Rubenbauer — Z. aiuxg. Chem. 30 534, ^a.) 

Moist Be(OH), used, solutions shaken 5 hours, temperature pro1> 
abiy about 20**. 

Molecular 
Per ao cc. Solution. Dilutioa Cms, per loo cc. Solution . 

Cms. Na. Gnii. Be: ^^^ NaOH. Be(OH)|. 

03358 0.0358 1.37 a. 917 0.850 

0.6716 0.0882 0.68 5.840 2.094 

0.8725 0.1175 0.53 7.585 2.789 

1.7346 0.2847 0.27 18.310 6.760 

Solubility in Aqueous Sodium Hybroxidb at Different Temperatures. 

(Habar and Oordt, 1904.) 
Nomial^of Gm. BeO per Ijter Sat. Sol, at: 

Aq.NaOH. ^^^^o ^^^o ^^o 

0.5 0.060 0.080 0.080 

1 0.170 0.230 0.290 

2 0.570 0.900 X.020 

BERYLLIUM OXALATE BeCOisHsO. 

100 gms. water dissolve 63.2 gms, BeCi04.3H|0 at 25^ (Wirth, 19x4.) 

•^ cm oxalic acid " 75.92 " " '^ 

o.in sulfuric " " 72.65 " 
1.0 n " " •• 52.8 " 

BERYLLIUM PAUOTATE and Salts of Other Fatty Acids. 
Solubilities in Ethyl and Methyl Alcohols at 25^ Cjaoobaon and Holmes, 1916.) 

Cms. of Each Salt (Determined Sepantebr) per too Gms. Solvent. 
Solvent. / ^ % 

Be Palmitate. Be Steamte. Be Lauxate. Be Myristate. 

Ethyl Alcohol 0.004 ... 0.004 0.004 

Methyl Alcohol 0.042 0.040 0.050 0.047 

BERYLLIUM SULFATE BeSOi.eHsO. 

Solubility in Water. (Levi, Maivano, 1906.) 

^:^ °°1c?g£;.'*' s.«d ^-m '"^JfStr Solid 

31 11.18 52.23 34.32 BeS04.6HtO 95.4 6.44 90.63 47.55 BcSO«4RO 

50 9.6a 60.67 37-77 *' 107-2 5-o6 1x5.3 53-58 

72.2 7.79 74.94 42.85 " III 4.55 12^.3 56.19 

77-4 7-13 81.87 45-OI " 80 6.80 84.76 45.87 BoSOa^B^ 



72.2 7.79 74.94 42.85 " III 4.55 12^.3 56.19 

6.80 

30 13-33 4378 30-45 BeS044H|0 91.4 5.9^ 97.77 49.42 

40 12.49 46.74 31.85 '* 105 4.93 118.4 54.21 

68 9.42 61.95 38.27 *' xxp 3.91 X49.3 59.88 

8S 7'6S 76.30 43.28 •' 



If 
«« 



149 



BERYLLIUM SULFATE 



Solubility of Beryllium Sulfate in Aqueous Sulfuric Acid at 25* 

(Wirth, I9ia-i3.) 



Cms. HsSOc 


Gnw.BeSO« 




Cms. HsSOi 


Gms. BeSOi 




pa* zoo Cms. 


per 100 Cms. 


Solid Phase. 


per zoo Gms. 


per xoo Gms. 


Solid Phase. 


Solvent. 


Sat. Sol. 




Solvent. 


Sat. Sol. 







8.212 


BeS04.6H20 


45. SI 


6.628 


BeS04.6H20 


S-23 


8.429 




50.63 


S.438 


BeS04.4H20 


. 9-6i 


7-944 




56.59 


3.640 


« 


18.70 


6.603 




63.24 


2.244 


tt 


34 


5-631 




65.24 


2.128 


€t 


40.3s 


5-773 




73-64 


2.18s 


ii 



Freezing-point data for mixtures of beryllium sulfate and potassium sulfate are 
given by urahmann (1913). 



j^ERTLLIUM MetaVANADATE Be(VQi),.4H,0. 
100 gms. HsO dissolve o.i gm. of the salt at 25^ 

BETAINE (Trimethyl glycocoU) C»HuOiN.HsO. 



(Brinton, i9z6.) 



Solubility of Anhydrous Betainb in Water and Alcohols. 

(Stoltzenbeig, 1914) 
(Figures read from the author's curves.) 



f. 


' Cms. CiHuOiK per 


100 Gms. 


f. 


Gnu. CiHuOiK per 


100 Gms. 


:HiO. 


CH/>H. 


CAOri. 


MA 


CHK>H. 


C»H»0H. 


— 10 


134 


38 


S 


50 


197 


70 


16 





140 


43 


6 


60 


215 


75 


18. s 


+10 


147 


49 . 


7 


70 


236 


80 


22 


20 


157 


54 


8.5 


80 


259 


. . 


25 


30 


168 


60 


II 


90 


286 


. . 


. • • 


40 


182 


65 


13 


100 


328 


• • 


• • • 



BETAINE SALTS. 



SoLUBn.iTY OF Each, Separately, in Water. 

(Stoltzenbeig, 1914-) 









Grams per xoo Grains HsO. 


. 




f. 


OHuOiN. 


OHuOiN. 


CsHuOiN. 


aHuOiN. 


CsHuOiN. 


CtHuOiN. 


CiHuOiN. 




hq. 


HBr. 


HT. 


HsS0«.Hs0. 


H.P04. 


HMnOk 


HAuCU. 


— 10 


38 


28 


35 


67 


35 


1-5 


1-3 





44 


39 


66 


86 


45 


1-75 


I-S 


+10 


52 


52 


98 


107 


58 


2.5 


2 


20 


60 


65 


130 


132 


73 


5 


3 


30 


70 


79 


162 


164 


91 


9 


4-5 


40 


81 


94 


198 


203 


112 


16 


6 


50 


93 


no 


231 


250 


135 


, .^° 


8 


60 


106 


127 


269 


306 


160 


(55°) 48 


"5 


70 


120 


144 


304 


■ • • 


190 


... 


15 


80 


135 


162 


(75^) 321 


• • • 


223 


... 


18 


90 


151 


183 


• • • 


• • • 


... 


... 


23 


100 


169 


206 


• • • 


• • • 


... 


... 


• • • 



Data are also given by Stoltzenberg for the following basic salts of betaine 
(C.HiiO,N),HCl.H,0, (C,HuOiN)2.HBr. (C,HuOiN),HI. (C,HiiOiN),H,S04 and 
{CfHiiO,N)2HAuCl4.H,0. 

BETOL OS-Naphthylsalicylate) /9C7H«0,.CioH7. 

Freezing-point data*including super solubility curves, are given for mixtures of 
betol and salol by Miers and Isaac, 1907. 



BISMUTH 150 

BISMUTH Bi. 

Reciprocal Solubilities, Determined bt the Method op Lowering of 
TusioN-poiNT (see footnote, p. i), Are Given for the Following Mixtures: 

Bismuth + Bromine CBgpak, 1908.) 
+ Chlorine 

** + Iodine (Amadori and Becarelli, 1913.) 

" + Sulfur (Aten, 1905; Palabon, 1904.) 

Mutual Solubility of Bismuth and Zinc. (Spring and RonMtnofi. 1906.) 

t* Upper Layrr. Loirer lairer. ^ Upper Layci. Lower lajFer. 

%Bi. %Zn. %Bi. %Za. %Bi. %Zn. %Bi. %Zn.' 

266 86 14 584 80 20 10 90 

419 3 97 650 77 23 IS 8s 

475 84 16 5 9S 750 70 30 27 73 

810-820 (crit temp.) 

BISMUTH CHLOBIDB. BiGt. BSMUTH OxyCRLOBIDE BiOCl.HtO. 

SCH^UBILITY IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID. 
Results at 25®. (N<ve> and Hall, 1917.) Results at 30®. Gacobs. X9I7-) 



<U» Sol 


Gms. Atoms per xooo Gna. H^. 


Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. 
Solution. 

A. 


SnlM Phase. 


oac. ooi. 


CI. 


Bi. H(-Cl-3Bi). 


BiiQi. 


HCI. 




1.002 


0.3477 


0.00130 


0.3438 


0.60 


2.40 


BXX3.aO 


1.007 


0.4350 


0.00376 


0.4237 


5.35 


5-69 


M 


1. 010 


0.5221 


0.00869 


0.4960 


8.17 


8.47 


M 


1. 013 


0.6244 


0.01767 


0.5714 


8.70 


8-93 


« 


1. 018 


0.737s 


0.03138 


0.6434 


14.52 


13.02 


M 


I.02S 


0.8824 


0.05338 


0.7223 


18.60 


iS-8o 


M 


1.036 


1.0760 


0.08937 


0.8079 


30.10 


21.7 


M 


1.044 


1.2277 


O.II77 


0.8746 


36.95 


25-4 


a 


1. 061 


I 5321 


O.181O 


0.9891 


54.70 


31S 


« 


1.083 


I. 9021 


0.2657 


1.105 


56 


328 


Bioa 


IIS7 


3.186s 


0.5685 


1. 481 


58.5 


33 


BiCk.2lU) 


1.237 


4.5056 


0.9022 


1.799 


56.6 


33-8 


•• +BiCb 


1.288 


5325 


1. 100 


2.025 


56.25 


34-9 


BiCla 


1.329 


6.066 


1. 317 


2.115 


55.9 


35-9 


BiCli.Ha 




S0LUBILIT1 


r OF Bismuth Chloride 


IN Several Scv^vents. 


CmIm... 


^& 


f. 


Gms. BiCb per xoo. 






boiveiu. 


cc. Solvent. 


Gms. Solvent. 


Authority. 


Acetone 




18^ 


... 17.9 (rfi8=0. 


>9I94)(NMimiim, 1904, '05.) 


Ethyl Acetate 


18^ 


• • • X • 


66((2u=o, 


.9Io6)(Nsuiiiaiiii, 1910). 



Anhydrous Hydrazine ord. temp. 32 ... (Wdsh and Broderaoo. 1915.) 

100 gms. 95% formic acid dissolve 0.05 gm. bismuth oxychloride (BiOCI) at 
19.8^. (Aschan, 1913.) 

Freezing-point data are given for BiCU+CuCl, BiCU+FeCli, BiCU-f PbCU, 
BiCU+PbBrj and BiCU+2nCli by Herrmann (191 1) and for BiCU+TlCl by 
Scarpa (1912). 

BUMUTH CrnUkTE (CHi),C(OH)(COO)iBi. BISinTTH Ammonium 
CITRATE. 

Solubility of Each in Water and in Aqueous Ethyl Alcohol at 25^. (Seidell, 'xa) 

Gnu» GHgHpcr ^."^gS^^S Gms COIgH per Sil^^^^oo rf. Sat. Sol. 
xoo Gms SdveDt. "^ ^ ^*^ ^~** xoo Gms. Solvent. GnaTSoL sST 

o o.oii o 22.25 1.25 

51 0.041 51. 1.34 0.92 

91.4 0.065 91.4 None 0.81 



151 bisbhtth htdbozids 

bismuth htdbozide bi(oh),. 

SCX.UBILITY OF BiSMUTH HyDROXTOB IN AqUBOUS SOLUTIONS OF SODIUlf 

AND Potassium Hydroxides at 20** and at 100**. 

(Moser, 1909.) 
Gmt. KOH G"«. Disaolved Bi(QH)» per Liter at t q^^ NaOH ^°"' J^^*»olv«* Bi(0H)» per Liter at: 
P«^^- ' ^, ' '^, ' per' Liter. '—^ ' ^^^ 

28 o 0.188 20 o 0.188 

50 trace 0.249 40 trace (0.0014)* 0.249 

112 0.037 0.373 80 0.050(0.0029)* 0.436 

168 0.074 ... 120 0.087(0.0054)* 0.622 

224 o.ioo 0.622 160 o.ioo 

280 0.124 0.622 200 0.124 0.622 

336 0.137 ... 240 0.137 

448 0.137 1.494 320 0.137 1-494 

560 0.174 2.054 400 0.199 2.120 

* Results at 25" by Knox (1909). 
At 100** some Bi(0H)8 was converted into BiO(OH). 

Solubility of Bismuth Hydroxide in Aqueous Solutions of Potassium 

Chloride and op Potassium Bromide at yf, 

(Herz and Bulla. 1909.) 

(An excess of bismuth hydroxide, prepared according to Moses and having the 
composition corresponding to BiO.Orl, was shaken 2-3 weeks at 30^ with aqueous 
KCI and KBr. The analyses of the sat. solutions are expressed m terms 01 milli- 
mols KOH and KCI or KBr. They have been calculated for the following 
table to gms. BiO.OH and KCI or KBr.) 

- . ^ Gms. per 100 cc. Sat. Sol. „ , Gms. per 100 oc. Sat. Sol. 
^^'' ' BiCOH. • KCT ^^'- ' Bi0.0H. ' KbT 

2nKCl 3. 759 i3-7S in KBr 8.555 7-67 

3»KC1 S-74S 20.71 2nKBr 17. 785 15.02 

BISMUTH IODIDE Bil,. 

100 gms. absolute alcohol dissolve 3.5 gms. Bils at 20^. (Gott and Muir, 1888.) 

100 gms. methylene iodide, CH2l2, dissolve 0.15 gm. Bilt at 12''. (Retgers, 1895.) 

BISMUTH NITRATE Bi(N0,),.5H,0. 

100 gms. acetone dissolve 48.66 gms. Bi(NC)»)|.5H|0 at o**, and 41.7 gms. at 

19 • (von Laszcqmski, 1894.) 

Solubility of Bismuth Nitrate in Aqueous Nitric Acid and in Aqueous 
Nitric Acid Containing Acetone, at Ordinary Temperature. 

(Dabrisaay, 19x1.) 
**~»- ^i^iS'Sf^ Solid Ph«e. 



0.932 »HNOi 


86.86 


Bi(NO,),.sH,0 


0.922" " + 6.66% Acetone 


85 SI 


U 


0.922 " " +13.33% " 


81.96 


tt 


2.3 " " 


80.37 


It 


2.3 " " +16.66% " 


74-47 


u 



Solubility op Double Nitrates op Bismuth and Magnesium, Nickel, 
Cobalt, Zinc and Manganese in Conc. HNOi at 16**. 

Gantsch, 1912.) 

(di6 of HNOi = 1.325, 100 cc. of this acid contained 51.59 gms. HNOi.) 

Gms. Hydratcd Gms. Hydrated 

Doable Salt. Salt per 100 cc. Double Salt. Salt per zoo cc 

Sat. Solution. Sat. Solution. 

Bi2Mg,(NQ8)i2.24H20 41 69 Bi2Zn3(NO,)i2. 241^0 57 . 51 
BiJNi,(NQ,)i2.24H,0 46.20 - Bi2Mn3(NO,)u.24H20 65.77 
Bi«Co,(N08)i2.24HjO 54. 67 



BISMUTH OZIDl 



152 



BISMXTTH OXIDE Bi,0,. 

Solubility of Bismuth Oxide in Aqueous Nitric Acid at 20^, 

(Rutten and van Bemmelen, 1902.) 



Pment in Shaker 

Flask. 

Ptf I port BisQi. 

jNjOs.ioHsO. 



Gms. per too Cms. 
Solution. 



Mols. per 100 Mob. H3O. 



BifOj 



0.321 

6.37 
18.74 

31.48 
32.93 



24.4 parts HjjO 

3.2 parts H,0 

Dilute HNO, 

Dilute HNO, 

Dilute HNO, - 

6.13% NA 

6.816% N,0, 32.67 

24.0% N,0, 24.16 

51.0% N,0, 11.66 

70.0% N,0, 20.76 

27.85 
Anyhdrous HNO, 8.56 
Bi,0,+ " 4.05 



0.963 
7.17 

15.9 
23-7 

24.83 

24.70 
28.25 
46.62 

53.75 
51.02 

68.28 
74.90 



BiaOa 

o 126 
2.844 

10.50 

27.2 

30.15 
29.70 

19.65 
10.81 

33.51 
51.0 

1435 
7.45 



1. 61 

13.82 

38.65 
83.8 



Solid 
Phase. 



97.97 

96.57 
98.76 

186.23 

355.87 
403.0 

492.0 

592.9 



J : "is } Bi,0, JJ,0, jH,0 

r . 4 <> / BiflO|.N|(X JlgO and 
'• 3.2 t Bi,Oi.3NsO,.ioHiO 

x: 3.2' 

x':i7!2 BitOi3N.O,.ioH,0 
x:io.6. 

. ,,orBi,0,.3N,0,.ioH.O 
'• /-^ 1 BigO,.3Ng08.3H,0 

J;79:sl^»^-^^-A^ 



and 



Results are also given for 9®, 30®, and 65®. 

BISMUTH TriPHBNYL Bi(CeHt)i. 

Fusion-point data (see footnote, p. i) are given for mixtures of bismuth 
triphenyl and mercury diphenyl by C!ambi (1912). 

BISMUTH SALICYLATE (basic, 64% BisOi). 

Solubility in Aqueous Solutions of Ethyl Alcohol at 25**. 

(Seidell, 1910.) 



Gms.GHiOHper 
100 Gms. Solvent. 

O 

20 

40 

60 



Cms. Salt per 
xoo Gms. Sat. SoL 

O.OIO 

0.015 

0.022 

0.036 



Gms CiHtOHper 
100 Gms. Solvent. 

80 
90 

92.3 
100 



Gms. Salt per 
xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 

0.065 

0.095 

0.105 

0.160 



BISMUTH SELENIDE BisSe,. 

Fusion-point data (see footnote, p. i) are given for mixtures of bismuth sele- 
nide and silver selenide by Pelabon (1908). 

BISMUTH SULFIDE Bi,S,. 

I liter HtO dissolves 0.00018 gm. BisSi at 18^. 

(Weigcl, 1906; see also Bruner and Zawadski, 191 2.) 

SCX.UBILITY OF BiSMUTH SULFIDE IN AqUEOUS AlKALI SULFIDE SOLUTIONS AT 25**. 

(Knox, 1909 ) 



Solvent. 



0.5 n NaaS 
i.on 
1.5 n 
0.5 n K2S 
I n 
i.S» 



it 



ii 



Gms. BbSt per 

100 cc. Sat. 

Solution. 

0.0040 
0.0238 
0.1023 
0.0043 
0.0337 
0.0639 



Solvent. 

0.5 nNaaS+inNaOH 
I nNajS+itjNaOH 
0.5 «K2S +inKOH 
I wKaS+inKOH 
1.25 «KaS +1.25 «KOH 



Gms. BisSs per 

100 cc. Sat. 

Solution. 

0.0185 
0.0838 
0.0240 

o . 1 230 

0.2354 



Freezing-point data (see footnote, p. i) are given for mixtures of bismuth 
sulfide and bismuth telluride by Amadori (1915). 



BORAX, see sodium tetraborate, p. 629. 



153 BOBIC ACm 

BORIC AC ID HtBO,. 

Solubility of Boric Acm in Water. 

(Nasini and Ageno, 1909.) 



^ Gms. HsBOki 
*^' loo Gms. Sat. 


per 
SoL 


r. 


Gms. HiBOk per 
100 Gma. Sat. Sol. 


f . 


Gms.HiBQi] 
100 Gms. Sat 


— o.76Eutec 2.27 




30 


6.30 


80 


19. II 


2.59 




40 


8.02 


90 


23 30 


+10 3-45 




50 


10.3s 


100 


28.7 


20 4.8 




60 


12.90 


IIO 


38.7 


25 S'S 




70 


15-70 


120 


52.4 



The results of Herz and Knoch (1904), and one determination by Auerbach 
(1903), given in terms of gms. per 100 cc. sat. solution, appear to be in good 
agreement with the above. The earlier data of Ditte (1877) are low. 



Solubility op Boric Acid in Aqueous Solutions op Hydrochloric. 

Sulphuric, and Nitric Acids at 26®. 

(Herz — Z. anorg. Cbem. 33* 355, 34, 205, '03.) 



Normality of 

tlieHaS04,Ha 

or HNOt. 


Normality of 
Dissolved 
B(OH),. 


Gms. Stroos Add 
per 100 cc. 
Solutioa. 


Gms. B(OH)s per xoo cc. 
, * 

la HQ. In H^O«. 


Sohitkn. 
InHNOt. 





0.91 





5-64 


5 64 


S-64 


0.5 


0.78 


S 


4.0 


4-2S 


4SO 


I.O 


0.71 


10 


3-2 


3-6 


3-9 


2.0 


0.58 


IS 


2. 45 


30 


3-3S 


30 


049 


20 


1.8 


2-5 


a.9 


4.0 


041 


25 


■ • • 


20 


a 55 


SO 


035 


30 


• • • 


i-SS 


3.1 


6.0 


0.26 


35 


■ • • 


• ■ • 


1-75 



The determinations given in the original tables in terms of normal 
solutions when plotted together lay close to an average curve drawn 
through them. The figures in the tables here shown were read (and 
calculated) from the average curve. 



Solubility of Boric Acid in Aqueous Solutions op Electrolytes 

AT 25°. 

(Bogdan — Ann. Sdent. Univ. Jaasy, a, 47, 'oa-*o3.) 

Gms. Electro- Grams H«BOb per xoo Gms. HsO in Aq. Sdutioos of: 
lyte per 100 / -^— — ■ — .^ 

Gms.H,0. NaQ. KQ. NaNOi. KNOj. NajSO.. KjSOi. 

* o 5-75 S-7S S-7S S-7S 5-75 S-7S 

lo 5-75 S-8o 5.78 5.81 5.88 5.92 

20 5-74 S-S6 S-8i 5-88 6.00 6.10 

40 S-72 5-98 5-87 6.04 6.33 6.50 

60 5.72 6.12 5.9s 6.20 6.70 6.92 

80 5.71 6.29 6.02 6.37 7.10 7.40 

Interpolated from the original. 



BOBIC ACID 



154 



Solubility of Boric Acid in Aqueous Solutions of Hydrochloric Acid 
AND OF Alkali Chlorides at 25"*. (Hen. 1910.) 

(The original results are given in millimols per 10 cc. They have been calcu- 
lated to gram quantities, plotted on cross-section paper and the following values 
read from the curves.) 



Gms. HsBOi Diaaolved per loo cc. Sat Sol. in Aq.: 



HO. 



KCl. 



Gms. HQ or Alkali 
Chloride per zoo cc. 
Sat. Sol. 

O 
2 

4 . 
6 

8 
10 

IS 
20 

30 
The System Boric Acid, Acetic Acid and Water at 30®. (Dukeiaki. xgog.) 

(The sat. solutions^and residues were analyzed by titrating total acidity with 
o.i » NaOH and the acetic acid alone by an lodometric method.) 



5 
4 
4 
3 
3 
3 



59 
92 

36 

88 

50 
IS 



uo. 

559 
5.20 

4.8s 

4. 45 
4.07 

3-75 
3 



Naa. 

59 
40 

30 
20 

IS 
10 

07 



5 
S 
5 
S 
5 
S 
5 



RbCl. 

559 
5.60 

5.62 

567 

5-72 

5-77 

5-90 
6.10 

6.55 



5 

5 

S 

5 

S 
6 

6 

6 



59 
67 

75 

85 
90 

25 
50 



Gms. per loo Gms. 



£S 



Sol. 



BiOs. 

3. 55 

3.18 
2.98 

2.34 
1.98 

1.47 

1. 12 



(CH«CO)*0. 

• • • 

7.78 
16.44 
28.96 
41.06 
52.63 
67.76 



SoUd 
Phaae. 

B(OH)a 

«4 



Gms. 



xoo Gms. 
t. Sol. 



4< 



<< 



<l 



Solid 

- Phase. <• 
BiO». (CHjC0)«0. 

1. 01 73.96 B(OH)« 
0.54 80.67 

0.45 84.55 "+<^) 

0.39 84.65 

0.41 84.48 

0.46 84.44 

0.50 84.51 



Gms. per loo Gms. 



.per 
Sat. 



Sol. 



SoUd Phase. 



II 



« 



<f 



(i 



Solubility of Boric Acid in Aqueous Solutions of: 
Acetic Acid at 26^. (Herz, 1903a.) Acetone at 20 

G ms. per loo cc. Solutioa. 
CHjCOOH 



BiOi. (CHiCO)i0. 

4.98 82.13 B*Oi.2(CHiCO)iO 

5.13 84.60 

5.41 85.68 

4.82 88.74 B«Qi.3(CHiC0)^ 

4.71 89.98 

4.06 92.68 

3 10 95 76 



II 



l( 



II 



u 



II 



Normality of Solution s. 
CUsCOOH. B(OH^ 



O 

I 
2 

4 
6 



091 
0.82 
0.65 
042 
Q-2S 



o 

S 
ic 

20 
30 



B(OH)s. 

5 64 

4-7 
4.2 

30 
2.0 



cc. Acetone 

per 100 cc. 

Solvent. 



(Herz and Knoch, 1904.) 

B( OH)» per 100 cc. Soiution . 
Millimols. Grams^ 



O 
20 

30 
40 

SO 
60 

70 

80 

100 



79 15 
81.71 

83-35 
82.72 

81.62 

76.40 

67.62 

55-05 
8.06 



4 

5 

5 

5 

5 

4 

4 

3 
o 



91 

07 

17 

13 
06 

74 
19 
41 
50 



SCO^UBILITY OF BORIC AciD IN AqUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF UrSA, AcBTONB, 

AND OF Propyl Alcobol at 25° (Bogdan.) 

Grams of 



CX>(NHi)a,(CHa)jCO 



Gms. HsBQji per 100 g. HsO in Aq. 
Soltttioos of: 



orof CiHTOHner 
xoo Gms. HgO. 


CO(NH2)s 


A 

(CH^)lCO. 


CAOH. 





5-75 


S-7S 


S-75 


10 


5-84 


5 84 


r-So 


20 


5-93 


5-93 


S-»S 


40 


6.13 


6.13 


5-94 


60 


6.31 


6.39 


6 03 



155 



BORIC Acm 



Solubility of Boric Acm in Aqueous Solutions of Several Alcohols at 25^. 

(Mueller and Abegg, 1906.) 

In Aq. Methyl Alcohol. In Aq. Ethyl Alcohol. In Aq. Propyl Alcohol. 

Solvent. Gm8.H^B0k Solvent. Gms-HtBOb Solvent. ^ _ ^ Gms.HiBOi 

pet xoooc 
Sat-SoL 



0.9691 
0.9340 
0.9185 
0.9019 
0.8842 
0.7960 zoo 



Wt. % perioocc. 



CHtO: 

SO 

S8 
66 



Gms.HtB0b 

per 100 cc. 

Sat. Sol. 



^V OHiofi. 

5.55 0.9714 20.2 S.14 

6.27 0.9350 42.3 4.96 

6.81 0.8789 67.3 4.52 

7.20 0.8576 76.2 4.34 

8.10 0.8198 91. Z 5.54 

Z7.99* 0.8089 95 6.85 

0.7947 100 9.47t 
^-o.8904. 



Wt. % 



"Y" OHiOH. 
0.9043 50.83 
0.8231 79.41 
0.8133 95.5 
0.8010 100 



'•ff of 

_ T_ , perioocc. 
Sat. Sol. Sat. Sol. 



0.9193 
0.8570 

0.8466 

0.8297 



3 99 
2.83 

3.58 
5.96 



t d« - 0.8553. 



In Aq. i Butyl Alcohol. 



In Aq. i Amyl Alcohol. 



Solvent. 



0.9923 
0.9853 
0.985s 

0.8173 
0.8133 
0.8081 
0.7984 



Mol. % 
CAOH. 

0.70 

2. IS 
2.18 

714 
77.1 

85.6 

zoo 



^•.of 
Sat. SoL 

Z.0124 
Z.0038 
Z.0046 
0.835Z 
0.8220 
0^8195 
0.8172 



Cms. HsBOi 

per 100 oc 

Sat. Sol. 

S.48 
S'32 

2 

2. IS 

2.6z 

430 



HjO sat. with amyl alcohoL 



Solvent. 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



•9943 
.9936 

•9931 
.8232 

.8183 

.8142 

.8068 



Mol. % 
OHuOH. 

0.448 
0.520 

0.52s* 
67 . 26t 

75 54 
83.40 
zoo 



tf^of Gms.H^B0)i 
• per xoo cc. 
Sat. SoL Sat. SoL 



Z.OZ32 
Z.OZ25 
Z.OZ23 
0.8290 
0.8253 
0.8223 
0.8220 



t "■ Amyl akohd sat. with fUO. 



S.48 
S-46 
546 
Z.60 
Z.69 
Z.98 

3S4 



One liter HiO saturated with amyl alcohol dissolves 55.5 gms. HtBOi at 15^. 

(Auerbach, 1903.) 

Solubility of Boric Acm in Aqueous S(x.utions of Ethyl 

Alcohol at 15° and at 25®. 

(SddeU, 1908.) 
Results at 15*". Results at 25*". 



^of 

Sat. SoL 

Z.0Z4 

0.9986 

0.9658 

0.9268 

0.8820 

0.8389 

0.8370 

0.8356 



Gms.CdH«0H Gms. HsBOi 

per 100 G^. per xoo Gms. 

Solvent. Sat. SoL 



O 
' 8.9 

32 

SI 
70.2 

91 
93 



3 
6 



99.8 



4.11 
390 
3.58 
3.48 

3-22 
S.06 

570 
9.Z8 



dmoi 
Sat. SoL 

z.oz8 
0.987 
0.952 
0.908 
0.862 

0.853 
0.842 
0.838 
0.838 



Gms-CtEUOH Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. SoL 

per 100 Gms. * „ ^ _ • — ^ ., ^>^ * 

Solvent. HiBO^ CiHiOH. 



O 

20 

40 

60 

80 

8S 
90 

9S 
zoo 



S-42 
5.20 
5.10 

S 

S05 
5.30 
6.20 
8 
ZZ.20 



o 

Z8.96 
37.96 
57 

75.96 
80.50 

84.4 
87.4 
88.8 



Solubility of Boric Acn> in Aqueous Solutions of Lactic Acid, 
Oxalic Acid, d and i Tartaric Acids at 25*". 



In Aq. Lactic Acid. 
(Mueller and Abegg, X906.) 



In Aq. Oxalic Acid. In Aq. d and i Tartaric Acid. 

(Hen, 19x0.) (Herz, x9xx.) 



1.0252 
1.0722 

I.I40S 

1.2033 



Solvent. 
MoL% 
CiHdOl. 



2.32Z 
6.8z9 

18.77 
36.33 



Sat. Sol. 

1.0444 
Z.0986 
z . Z635 
1.2254 



Gms. HaBOb Gms. per xoooc 
per xoo cc. Sat. Sol. 
Sat. SoL 



Solid Phase. 



6.64 
9.98 

II. S3 
Z2.90 



HsCaOi. HsBOk. 

2.26 6.Z7 HtBOt 

6.70 

7.44 

3.45 
0.97 



5.36 

12.39 
ZZ.27 

ZO.84 



+H,QO« 
H,QO« 



«i 



10.77 o.ss 
ZO.63 o 



M 



Gms. per xoo cc. Sat. SoL 



CiBbOk. 



HiBQi. 



o 5. 59 

zz.25iAad 6.20 

22.5 " 6.63 

45 " 7.48 

9.45 « Add 6.ZZ 

Z8.90 " 6.48 

37 " 7.23 



BORIC ACID 



156 



Solubility of Boric Acid in: 

Pure Glycerol (Sp.Gr. -1.260 Aq. Solutions of Glycerol 

at 15.5**)- ■ at 25^ 

iHooper — Pharm. J. Thms. [3] xj* 958. 'Sa) (Hen and Knoch — Z. anorg. Chan. 45, 968, '05.) 



< 


Sms. Ba0».- 
3HK)pcr 

100 cc 
Glycerine 


Gms. B(OH)a per 100 
Cms. 

Glycerine. Solution. 


Wt.% 
Glycenne ! 
in Solvent. 


MOUmob 
B(OH), per 
xoo cc. Sol. 


Sp. Gr. 


Gms. B(OH)t 
per 100 




cc. Solution. 


Gms.So^ 
luticn. 





20 


IS 87 


13 17 





90.1 


1. 017 


SS9 


SSo 


10 


24 


19.04 


16.00 


7IS 


90.1 


1.038 


SS9 


5-3^ 


90 


28 


22.22 


18.21 


20 


•44 


90.6 


1.063 


5.62 


5-28 


30 


33 


26.19 


20.75 


31 


55 


92.9 


1. 090 


S-76 


S-29 


40 


38 


30.16 


23 17 


40 


9S 


. 97 


1. 113 


6.02 


S-4I 


so 


44 


3492 


2S-9S 


48 


7 


103.0 


^•^33 


6.39 


S-64 


60 


SO 


39-68 


28.41 


69 


2 


140. 2 


1.187 


8.69 


7 32 


70 


S6 


44.65 


30.72 


ZOO. 





3903 


Z.272 


24.20 


19. 02 


80 


61 


48.41 


32 61 












90 


67 


S3 18 


34 70 












100 


72 


S7I4 


36.36 















In Aqueous Solutions of Glycerol 

AT 25**. 

(Mueller and Abegg, 1906.) 



Aqueous Solutions of Dulcitb 
AT 25**. 

(Mueller and Abegg, 1906.) 



Solvent. 



I.IS74 



I . 2370 
1-2531 



Mol. % 
OHA. 
24.64 

46.7s 
67.71 

9058 



aHA. 
60 



dmm of 

Sat. Sol. 



Gms. HsBOk 

per 100 cc. 

Sat. Sol. 



Solvent. 



"V aH.(OH)«. 

0.9995 0.065 

I. 0018 0.130 

1.0060 0.260 



Sat. Sol. 

1.0686 
I. 0212 
1.0260 



Gms. HsBQi 

per 100 cc. 

Sat. Sol. 



S-50 
S.63 
S.81 



I. 1707 7.49 

1.2260 13.22 

90 1.2526 18.3s 

96.6 I. 2710 23.44 

100 gms. glycerol {du = 1.256) dissolve 11 gms. HtBOt at i5®-i6*'. 

(Ossendowski, 1907.) 
100 gms. dichloret hylene dissolve 0.006 gm. H3BO1 at 1 5**. (Wester and Bnmis, 1914.) 
100 gms. trichlorethyiene dissolve 0.016 gm. HjBOj at 15**. " " 

100 cc. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve 55 gms. HiBOi at room temp. 

(Welsh and BroderMU, 19x5.) 

Solubility of Boric Acid in Aqueous Solutions op Mannite at 25* 

AND Vice Versa. 

(Ageno and Valla, 191 3, 1913.) 
,. , -.. Gms. per xoo cc. Sat. Sol 



Grams per 100 cc. Sat. Sol. 



H«BOi. 


aHuGi. 


oouu rnasc 


SSO 





HiBOi 


S-90 


1.82 




6.29 


S-46 




6.44 


7.28 




6.64 


9. II 




6.83 


10.93 




7.08 


12.7s 




7.27 


14. S7 




7.71 


18.99 





h«bo». 


OHmOi. 


8.70 


2S.6S 


9-43 


32.43 


7.71 


27.97 


S.7S 


2S.6S 


4.92 


24.65 


3 46 


23 03 


2.87 


22.98 


1.64 


20.80 





19.58 



Solid Phaw. 

HsBOs 

+QHmO, 
CJImO, 



<( 



« 

tc 
it 
(t 
u 
ti 



Additional determinations at 30'' also given. 

Determinations at 25^, differing somewhat from the above, are given by Mueller 
and Ab^g (1906). i * 

Data for the system boric acid, phenol and water are given by Timmermans 

(1907). 



157 



BORIC ACm 



Distribution op Boric Acid between Water and Amyl Alcohol 

AT 25**. 

(FoK — Z. anorg. Chem. d& 130, '03.) 



Millimols B(OH)a in Cms. B(OH)s in xoo cc. MiUimols B(OH)s in Cms. B(OH)i in xoo cc 



Aq. 
Layer. 

265.8 

196.5 

159.6 

126.0 



Alcoholic 
Layer. 

76.6 

59 5 
47 5 
371 



Aq. 
Layer. 

1.648 

1. 219 

0990 

0.781 



Alcoholic 
Layer. 

0.47s 
0369 

0.294 

0.230 



Aq. 
Layer. 

87.9 

75-2 
64.6 



Alcoholic 
Layer. 

33 a 
22.7 
19.76 



Aq. 
Layer. 

0545 
0.466 

0.400 



Alcoholic 
Layer. 

0.206 

O.I4I 

0.123 



Results at I5^ (Maeller and Abegg, 1906.) 



MiUimols B(0H). per Liter. Gms. B(OH). per 100 cc. Millimob B(0H). per Gma. B(0H). per 100 



Aq. Layer. 

894 
607.2 

589-3 



Alcohol 
Layer. 

264 
176.4 

177-4 



Aq. Layer. 

S-44 
376 
3.65 



Alcohol 
Layer 

1.64 
1.09 
1. 10 



Liter. 



Aq. Layer. 

427.4 

372 
289.1 



Alcohol 
Layer. 

127.6 
1 10 
84.9 



cc. 



Aq. Layer. 

2.65 
2.31 
1.79 



■ ■ ^ 

Alcohol 
Layer. 

0.79 
0.68 

0.53 



Data agreeing with those of Fox at 25** are atto given by Muefler and Abegg, 
1906. One determination at 35^ gave 0.907 gm. B(OH)i per 100 cc. aq. layer and 
0.274 S^i* PCi* i^x) cc. alcohol layer. 

Distribution of Boric Acid between Aqueous Sodium Chloride 

Solutions and Amyl Alcohol at .25**. 

(Mueller aad Abegg, 1906 ) 



Gms. per 


100 cc.: 






Gms. per 


100 cc: 






Aq. Layer. 


Alcohol Layer. 
HiO. H«BQi. 


dm^ of 

Alcohol 
Layer. 


Aq. Layer. 


Alcohol^ Layer. 
HiO. HsBOb. 


d^ci 


NaCI. HaBOi. 


Naa. 


HiBOi. 


Alcohol 
Layer. 


5.46 


7 3Q 


1-65 


0.8296 


16.64 


S13 


4. 71 


1.79 


0.8247 


553 5-37 


6.40 


i.6s 


0.8277 


17.90 


5.02 


4.31 


1.79 


0.8241 


8.72 5.27 


S-90 


1.67 


0.8268 


20.36 


502 


4.19 


1.87 


0.8240 


10.91 5.23 


5.46 


1.69 


0.8259 


23 52 


4.97 


3-59 


1.96 


0.8233 


13.84 5.16 


5.15 


1.77 


0.8254 


25 03 


4. 95 


3- 20 


1.99 


0.8229 



Distribution of Boric Acid between Water and Mixtures of Amyl 

Alcohol and Carbon Disulfide at 25**. 

(Herz and Kurzer, 1910.) 

50V0I. %C6HuOH+50 
Vol. % CS,. 

Gms. HaBOi per 100 cc. 



75V0I. %C^HnOH+25 
Vol. % CS,. 

Gms. HtBOi per 100 cc. 



25V0I. %C,HhOH+95 
Vol. % CS,. 

Gms. HsBOi per 100 cc. 



Aqueous 
Layer. 

0-387 

0-743 

1. 143 
1.590 



OHiiOH+CSi. 
Layer. 

0.09s 
O.I7I 
0.266 

0.365 



Aqueous 
Layer. 

0.469 
0.839 
1.207 
1. 791 



aHuOH+CSf. 
Layer. 

0.095 
O.161 
0.226 

0.344 



Aqueous 
Layer. 

0.433 
0.910 

1-343 
1.940 



OHuOH+CSt.' 
Layer. 

0.053 
0.108 
0.164 
0.238 



BORIC ANHYDRIDE B,0,. 

Fusion-point data (solubilities, see footnote, p. i) are given for mixtures of 
BA+CaO and B,0,-hSrO by Guertler (1904). 

BORIC ACID (Tetra) H,B4a. 
100 grams water dissolve 2.69 grams HsBiO; at 15*, Sp. Gr. — 1.015. 

(Gerlach, 1889.) 

BORON TRI-FLUORIDE BF,. 

I cc. H,0 absorbs 1.057 cc. BF, at o® and 762 mm.; i cc. cone. H,S04 (Sp. Gr. 
1.85) atxBorbs 50 cc. BF,. 



B&AS8IDIC ACm 158 

B&ASSmiC ACm aHnCHiCHCuHnCOOH. 

Solubility data determined by the freezing-point method are given by Mas- 
carelli and Sanna (191 5), for mixtures of brassidic and erudc acids and brassidic 
and isoerudc acids. 

BBOBftAL HYDRATE CBr,.CH(OH)i 

The distribution coefficient of bromai hydrate between olive oil and water is 
0.665 at ord. temp. (Baum, 1899); 0.7 at ord. temp. (Meyer, 1909). 



BROMINE Br. 



Solubility in Water. 



(WinUer— Chem. Ztg. a3» 687, '99; Roonboom — Rec. trav. diim. 3, 99, 59, 73, 84t '84; 
J. Ch«m. Soc. IS 477t '63; at i^, Diet» — • Pharm. Ztg. 43, ago. *o8J 







unms i»omv 


De per xoi 


3 ^laniB. 


**Ab8orptioa 
Coeffident." ♦ 


"Solttbaity." 


%•. 


'' 


Water. 


Solution. 




(W.) 


(R. D. a: D.) 


(W.) 


(R. D. 8c DO 


a. 


ff- 





4.17 


4.23 


3-98 


4 05 


60.5 


431 


5 


3 92 


3-7 


3-77 


3 57 


45-8 


324 


10 


3 74 


3-4 


3.61 


3 29 


35-1 


24.8 


IS 


3 65 


3-25 


3 52 


315 


27.0 


19.0 


30 


3 58 


3 20 


3 46 


310 


21.3 


14.8 


25 


348 


317 


3 36 


3 07 


17 


II. 7 


30 


3-44 


313 


3-32 


3 03 


13-8 


9.4 


40 . 


3-45 


■ • • 


3 33 


• • • 


9.4 


6.3 


so 


3-52 


• • ■ 


3 40 


• . • 


6.5 


4.0 


60 


... 


• • • 


• • • 


• * • 


4.9 


2.8 


80 


... 


• • • 


• • • 


... 


30 


I.I 



* For definition of "Absorption Coefficient " a and "Solubility ' «, see Acetylene, p. z6. 

One liter sat. solution of bromine in water contains 0.21 mol. Bri » 33.56 
gms. Br at 25**. (Bny and Connolly, 19x0.) 

The coefficient of solubility of bromine in water at 15®, determined by an 
aspiration method, is given as 33 by Jones (191 1). This investigator also gives 
the figure 56 for the solubility coefficient in 25 vol. % acetic acid and 551 for 
90 vol. % acetic acid at 15^ 

Data for the distribution of bromine between water and air at 25**, are given 
by Hantzsch and Vagt (1901). 

Solubility of B&oiaNE in Aqueous Solutions of Mercuric Bromide 



AT 25** AND Vice Versa. 

(Herz and Paul, 1914.)- 



Gms. per xoo oc. Sat. Sol. 



HgBr^ 
O 

0.202 
0.285 
0.462 



Br. 

3 40 
353 
3-55 
356 



Sdid 
Phase. 

Br2 

it 



Gms. per xoo cc. Sat. Sol. 



SoUd 



i( 



u 



HgBn. 


Br. 


Phase. 


0.763 


3-57 


Bra+HgBrj 


0.701 


2.88 


HgBr, 


0.664 


1.20 


(( 



159 



Solubility op Bromine in Aqueous' Solutions of Potassium Bromide. 

(Results at o^ and 25^, Boericke» 1905; at o**, Jones and Hartmann, 1916; 

at iS.s** and 26.5**, Worley» 1905.) 



GnuMols 
KBr per Liter. 


Gin8.KBrp«t 
Liter. 


o'. 


i8.s'. 


»s*. 


afi.S*. 








41.6 (24.2) 


35-56 


34 


34 23 


0.005 


0.59 


41.7 (25-5) 


36.1 


34-3 


35-1 


O.OIO 


1. 19 


42.6 (26.2) 


37 


35 


36 


0.020 


2.38 


44.4 (27.5) 


38-56 


36s 


37-35 


0.050 


5.95 


so. 2 (31.5) 


43-8 


41 


42 -5 


O.IOO 


11.90 


59. 7 (40) 


52 23 


49-3 


SI. 87 


0.20 


23.80 


79-1 (57.1) 


69.69 


67 -3 


68.69 


0.50 


59 51 


138.6 (hi. 9) 


123 


119 


116 


0.80 


92.22 


200 (174) 


178.70 


176 


168.10 


I 


119.02 


243.1 (217.5) 


216 


216.5 


204 


1-725 


205 . 2 


402.3 (395 9) 


• ■ • 


• • • 


• • • 


1.82 


216.6 


423.8 (423) 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


2.17 


258.2 


511. 7 (511. 7) 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


3 033 


360.8 


736.7 ... 


« ■ ■ 


632.4 


• • • 



Very accurate determinations at o^, at concentrations of KBr below o.oi 
normal, are given by Jones and Hartmann. Liquid bromine in contact with 
aqueous solutions at o** is slowly converted to the hydrate, Brt.ioHsO, with a 
reduction in amount of dissolved bromine. At this temperature there are, con- 
sequently, two saturation concentrations. The unstable one being for solutions 
in contact with liquid bromine and the stable one being for solutions in contact 
with Brs.ioHsO. The results for the latter are shown in parentheses in the 
above table. 

Solubility of Bromine in Aqueous Solutions op Potassium Svir 
phatb, Sodium Sulphate, and op Sodium Nitrate at 25^. 

(Jakoirkin — Z. physik. Chem. 30^ 38, '96.) 



NomafitTof 
Salt Solotun. 



InK^SOt 
Cms. per liter. 



IiiNaaS04 
Cms. per liter. 



K^504. 
91.18 



45 
22 

II 



59 
79 
39 



569 



Br. 

25 14 

29.44 
31.46 

32.70 

33 '^o 



Na^SO«. 

63 -55 

31-77 
15.88 

7-94 
3-97 



Br. 
25.07 
29.20 

31 -33 
32.94 
33 26 



InNaNOk 
Gma. per l iter. 

NaNO^ 



85.09 

42.54 
21.27 

10.63 

5 31 



Br. 
28.80 

31-35 
32.62 

33-33 
33-74 



Solubility 



OF Bromine in Aqueous Salt Solutions at 25* 

CMcLauchlan, 1903.) 



Salt. 



Water 

Na^O* 

K.S04 

lNH,),SO, 

KTaNO, 

KNO, 



Gma. 

Salt per 

liter. 

0.0 

63- 55 

91.18 
70.04 
85.09 

loi . 19 



Normality 

of Dis- 

solTedBr. 

0.424 
0.286 
0.310 
0.971 

0-3495 
0.362 



Cms. 

Br. per 

liter. 

33-95 

239 
24.8 

77.7 
28.0 

28.95 



Salt. 
NH4NO, 

IJaCl 

KG 

NH^Cl 



Gma. 

Salt per 
liter. 

80.11 

58.50 
74.60 

53.52 



CH,C00NH4 77.09 
H,S04* 49-03 



NamaHty 
of Dis- 
solved Br. 

0.688 

0.701 

0.718 

1.028 

4.26 

0.366 



Gmt. 
Br. per 
Uter. 

55-15 
55-90 
57.40 
82.2 

340.5 
29.26 



* Wildeman. 



i6o 



Solubility of Brominb in Aqueous S(h.utions of Sodium Bromide at 25^ 

(Bell and Buckley, 1912.) 
Gnuns per Liter Sat. Sol. ^ of Cms, per Liter Sat. Sot 

NaBr. " Br. Sot. Sd. J^I^b^^ ' 57 ' 

92.6 99.2 1. 213 319.7 546 

160.5 176.7 1.372 359 641.6 

205.8 247.8 1.515 ... 769.2 

255-8 343 1-678 408.3 834 



duof 
Sat. Sol. 

1.997 

2.137 
2.327 

2.420 



REaPROCAL Solubility of Bromine and Chlorine, Bromine and Hydro- 
BROMic Acid and Bromine and Sulfur Dioxide, Determined by Method 
OF Lx)WERiNG OF THE Freezing-point (see footnote, p. i). 



Results fo 


r Bromine 


Bromine + Hyd 


ro- 


Bromine + Sulfur 


+ Chlorine. 




bromic Acid. 




Dioxide. 


(Lebeau, i 
Kar^tfn 


906; see also 
I, 1907) 


(BQchner and Karsten, igoft-og.) 


(van der Goot, 1913.) 


f of 


Cms. Br per 


t* nf 


Cms. Br per 


Mol. % 


fof 
Melting. 


Gms. Br per 


Melting. 


100 Gma. 
Mixture. 


• in 

Melting. 


xoo Gms. 
Mixture 


' Br. in 
Mixture. 


100 Gms. 
Mixture. 


-102.5 





-87.3 








-751 





— 100 


6.5 


-90 


6 


2.5 


-75-3* 


1.73 


- 90 


31 


-95* 


II. 2 


4.8 


-60 


4 


- 80 


48.6 


-90 


II. 8 


S 


-40 


12.5 


- 70 


60.4 


-80 


lS-2 


6.8 


-30 


21 


- 60 


70 


-70 


22 


^i-S 


— 20 


35-5 


- SO 


79 


-60 


317 


19 


~i8 


40.5 


- 40 


86-. 3 


-50 


43 


30 


-16 


48 


- 30 


91. 1 


-40 


54. s 


435 


-14 


72 


— 20 


95-2 


-30 


66.2 


60 


-13 


90 


— 10 


89 


— 20 


79. S 


76.5 


— 10 


96.5 


- 7-3 


100 


-12.5 


90 

• Eatec. 


90 


- 7.1 


100 



<l 



« 



« 



M 



Solubility Data, Determined 
p. i), Are Given 

Bromine + Methyl alcohol (Maass and Mdntosh, 19x3.) 
+ Ethyl alcohol 
4- Ethyl acetate 
+ Ethyl bromide 
4- Iodine 
+ Sulfur 

100 grams saturated solution 
grams Br at —95**, 39 grams at — 



BY THE Freezing-point Method (see footnote, 
for the Following Mixtures: 



II 



i< 



« 



<i 



II 



rWroczynski and Guye, i9xa ) 

(Meerum-Terwogt, 1905; Kruyt and Hddcrmann. 1916.) 

(Ru£F and Winterfdd, 1903.) 



of bromine in carbon disulfide contain 45.4 
1 10.5**, and 36.9 grams at — 1 16*. 

(Arctowski, 1895 — 1896.) 



Distribution of Bromine between Water and Carbon Tetrachloride 



Gm. Bn per 
Gm. ecu 
Solution. 

0.01640 
0.01847 

0.05433 
0.06126 



Density 
CCli-Bn. 

1.6454 
1.6470 
1.6755 
1.6809 



AT O". 
(Jones and Haitmann, 19x6.) 

Gms. Bromine per Liter. Gm. Bnpcr 

Gm. ecu. 



HiO 
Layer. 

1.28 

1.44 
4.12 

4. 59 



ecu 

Layer. 
26.99 

30.45 
91.12 

103.07 



Solution. 
0.07261 
0.08162 
0.08661 

o . 1646 



Density 
CCU-Bn. 

1.6896 
1.6972 
I. 7012 
I . 7667 



Gms. Bromine per Liter. 



HfO 
Layer. 

5.35 
6.03 

6.30 

11.22 


ecu 

Layer. 
122.82 

138.66 

184.41 

291.10 



I6l 

DiSTSIBUnON OF BrOMINB at 25** BBTWBBN WaTBR AND: 
(Calculated from results of Jakowkin, 1895 « Those in paxentheses from Herz and Kurzer, xgzo.) 



Carbon Disulfide. 


Bromoform. 


Carbon Tetrachloride. 


Gms. Br 


. per Liter of: 


Gms. Br. 


per liter of: 


Gms. Br 


. per Liter of: 


Aq. Layer. 


CS| Layer. ' 


Aq. Layer. 


CHfirs Layw. 


Aq. Layer. 


CCI4 Layer.' 


OS 

I 

2 
3 


36 (35) 

80 (75) 

163 (155) 

240 (230) 


o-S 
I 

3 
3 


33 
66 

136 
206 


O.S 

I 

2 
3 


IS (13) 

28 (23) 

60 (45) 
90 (70) 


4 

5 
6 

7 


330 (310) 

420 (39S) 
SIS (480) 
620 (565) 


4 

5 
6 

• . • 


276 
346 

41S 

. . • 


4 

S 
6 

8 

10 

12 

14 


123 (9S) 
156 (122) 

190 (150) 

260 (220) 

340 (300) 

430 (400) 

S20 (550?) 



Lewis and Storch (1917) point jout that Jakowkin (1896) failed to take into 
consideration, the hydrolysis of the bromine in the aqueous phase in the veiy 
dilute solutions. Tney used o.ooi n HCl which prevents the hydrolysis but is 
presumably too dilute to affect the true solubility. The distribution coefficient 
found in this way, given in terms of mols. Br per 1000 gms. HsO, divided by the 
mol. fraction of Br in the CCI4, is 0.370^ at 25 . These authors also give a series 
of determinations of the distribution of bromine between o.i n HBr and CCI4 
at 25^ 

Distribution of Brominb between Water and Mixtures of Carbon 
Disulfide and Carbon Tetrachloride at 25^. 

(Hers and Kurzer, 19x0.) 



25 Vol. - 


%CS, + 75Vol. 


. 50 Vol. ' 


% CS,+5o Vol. 


75 Vol. 


% CS,+25 Vol. 

%ccu. 




% ecu. 


t 


^ CCI4. 




Gms. Bromine per Liter. 


Gms. Bromine per Liter. 


Gms. Bromine per Liter. 


Aq. Layer 


. CSi+CCU Layer. 


Aq. Layer. 


CSs+CCU Layer. 


Aq. Layer 


. CSs+CCU Uyer. 


0.79 


28.4 


0.63 


28.7 


0.71 


46 


I. S3 


S8.4 


1. 19 


S4.S 


1.34 


87.2 


2.32 


86.6 


1.76 


81. 1 


3.98 


213.8 


2.98 


III. 3 


2.4S 


no. 9 


5.06 


330.5 


3.66 


137.8 


2.95 


132.9 


6.82 


444.2 


5.26 


205.1 


6.47 


343.8 






7.9s 


324.9 


7-97 


447.7 






9.66 


432.2 











Distribution of Bromine at 25^ (Herz and Rathmann, 191 3) between; 



^ater and Tetn 

Grams Bromine 


ichlorethane. 

( per Liter. 

CtHiCli Layer. 

6.47 

18.20 

29.46 

41.65 

74.57 


Water and Pentachlorethane 

Gms. Bromine per Liter. 


Aq. Layer. 
0.216 
0.592 
0.944 
1.348 
2.444 


Aq. Layer. 
0.402 
0.670 
0.864 

1.300 
2.408 


CaH.Cli Layer. 
10.70 
18.29 

23.49 
3S.46 
67.44 



X62 



Data for the Distribution of Bromine between Aqueous Salt Solutions 
AND Organic Solvents are Given by the Following Investigators: 



Immttdble S<dvents. 

Aqueous CdBrs+CCU 
Aqueous CdBrs.2KBr+CCU 
Aqueous HBr+CCU 
Aqueous HgBrs+CCU 
Aqueous HgBik.2KBr+CCU 
Aqueous KBr+CCU 
Aqueous KBr+CSt 



f. 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 
o 



Attthority. 
(Van Name and Brown, 1917.) 



« 



M 



(Lewis and Stoich, 1917.) 

(Hen and Paul, 19x4; Van Name and Brown, 19x7.) 

(Van Name and Brown, 191 7.) 

(Jones and Hartmann, 19x6.) 



32.6 (Roloff. 1894.) 



BBOMOrOBM CHBr,. 

100 cc. H|0 dissolve 0.125 gm. CHBri at i5**-20®.. 



(Squire and OJnes, 1905.) 



Solubility (Freezing-point lowering data, see footnote, p. i) for 

Mixtures of: 



Bromoform and Liquid Carbon Dioxide. 
(BOchner, 1905-06.) 



Bromoform and Toluene. 

(Baud, 19x2.) 







Gms. CUBa per 




; GmA.CHBnper 


« 


f. 




100 Gnu. 
CHiBr+COi. 


tf o( Fnedng. 


^ - 100 Gms. 
CHBn+C6Hft.CHs. 


Solid Phue. 


-31 







+ 7.7 


100 


CUBr« 


-32 




3-7 


-II.4 


86.6 


u 


-30 




4 9 


— 22.2 


75.6 


€t 


-16 




13s 


-30-9 


69.8 


tt 


- 8 




24 


-48.5 


60,3 


l€ 


- 5 


35' 


.2-67.7 quad.pt. 








- 3-S 




92.1 









BBUCINE CuH»(OCH,),NtOs.4H|0. 

Solubility of Brucine in Several Solvssts. 

Solvent. f. ,^^™SJ!i3: Authority. 

18-22 0.056-0.125 (MQl]er,'x903;Squ!RandCaines,i9os;Za]ai,x9Xo^ 

20 12 (ScfaoltE, 1912.) 

18-2 2 I . z i-i . 86 (MQller, X903 ; Schaefier, X9X3.) 
0.08 
1.96 
II. 6 

2 5 



Water 

Aniline 

Benzene 

Carbon Tetrachloride 18-22 
« tt 



M 



f< 



20 

Chloroform 25 

Trichlor Ethylene 15 

Ether 18-22 

Ethyl Acetate 18-22 

Ethyl Alcohol 25 

DieUiylamine 20 

Methvl Alcohol 25 
Petroleum Ether 
Glycerol 
Pyridine 



0.75 
4.26 

4S-2 

1.6 

55.6 



(Scfainddmeiaer, 1901; God, 19x3.) 
(Schaefer, 19x3 .) 
(Wester and Bruins, 19x40 
(MOUer, X903.) 



M 



(Schaefer, 19x3.) 
(Scholtx, 19x2.) 
(Scliaefer, 19x3.) 
18-22 0.055-0.088 (Mailer, 1903; Zalai, x9xo.) 
18-22 2 . 2 (Mailer, X903-) 

20 28 (ScholtE, 19x2.) 

20-25 21.9 (Dehn, X9X7.) 

20-25 31.6 " 

20 I (Scholta, 19x2.) 



Ac|. 50% Pyridine 
Piperidene 

Results for the solubility of brucine and brucine sulfate in mixtures of alcohol^ 
:hloroform and benzene are given by Schaefer (1913). 

BBUCINE Per CHLOBATE CtiHio(OCH,)iNsOt.HC104. 

100 gms. H]0(+ 2%HC104) dissolve 0.15 gm. of the salt at I8^ 

(Ho&nann, Roth, Heboid and Metsler, i9xa) 



i63 



BBUGINI 



BBUCINE SULFATE. 

lOO cc. methyl alcohol dissolve 0.28 gm. bnidne sulfate at 25^. (Sduefer, 19x3.) 
" ethyl " " 1.66 " " *• " (Schaefcr. 1913.) 

" chloroform " 0.6 " " " " (Schaefer. 1913.) 

BBUCINE i2, /, and « TARTRATE. 

Solubility of Each Optical Isomer in Water (Dotiih, 19x2.) 



BUTANE 



r. 

20 

25 
35 
44 
50 

C4H10. 



Gms. per xoo Cms. Water. 



tf Tartrate. 

• • • 

1.008 
1.272 
1.590 
1.854 



/Taitiate. 

• • • 
1.84 

324 
4.64 

6.56 



Raoemic Tartrate. 

1.38 



• • 



Vol. C4H10 per 
100 vols. H2O 



Solubility in Water at f and 760 mm. 



10" 



IS*. 



9d*. 



2.77 2.355 



2.147 2.065 



3 147 

DiphenylBUTADIENE. 

Freezing-point curves (solubility, see footnote, p. i), are given by Pascal 
(191 4) for mixtures of diphenvlbutadiene and each of the following compounds: 
diphenyldiacetylene, diphenylhydrazine and cinnamylidene. 

BUTYL ACETATE CHt.CQ1.C4Ht. 

Solubility op Butyl Acetate and op Butyl Formate in Mixtxtrbs 

op Alcohol and Water. 

(Daiicioft — Cak. from Pfeiffer — Fhys. Rer. 3« 105, '95-'960 



ec A lcohol 
io Mixture. 



3 
6 

9 
12 

IS 
18 

21 

24 

27 
30 
33 



cc. H^ added to cause aeparatioB of a 

aecond phase in miztures of the given 

quantity of alcohol and 3 cc. portions of: 



Butyl Formate. 


Butyl Acetata. 


3-45 


2.08 


8.83 


6.08 


14 -75 


10.46 


21-45 


15 -37 


29.65 


20.42 


39 


25.60 


51.8 


31 -49 


00 


37 48 




43-75 




50.74 




59-97 



too oc H^ dissolve 0.7 cc. isobutyl acetate at 2 j^. 

IsoBUTTL ACETATE, etc. 

Solubility in Water. CTtaube, 1884; at 90*, Vaubd, X899O 



(BBncRift4 



Compound* 



22 
22 
20 
20 



Iso Butyl Acetate 
Iso Butyl Formate 
Normal Butyric Aldehyde 
Iso Butyric Aldehyde 



Grams Com- 
pound per 100 
Grams HiO* 

0.5 

I-O 

10 -o 



BUTTL ALCOHOLS 164 

Secondary BUTYL ALCOHOL CHt.CHOH.CHsCH|. 
Iso BUTYL ALCOHOL (CHt)tCH.CUsOH. 



Solubility of Butyl Alcohols in Water, "Synthetic Method/' 

(see Note, p. 16). 

M8860 



SeoonHary Butyl Alcohol Iso Butyl Alcohol 

and Water. and Water. 

Gma. Seco ndtfy Butyl AkxAol per 1 00 Gmi. Gmi. lao Bptyl Alcohol per 100 Cms. 

^o Aqueous Alcoholic Aqueous Alcohdic 

Layer. Layer. Layer. Layer. 

—20 27 66 ... ... 

— 10 28 60 ... ... 

o 27.5 56 13 85 

10 26.0 57 

20 22.5 60 9 84 

30 18 63.5 

40 16 65.5 7.5 83 

60 13 67 7 82 

80 IS 63 7 77.5 

100 20 5a 8 72 

107 crit. temp. 33 

Xdo z6 62 

130 28 so 

133 crit temp. 49 

Additional determinations of) the reciprocal solubility of secondary butyl 
alcohol and water are given by Dolgolenko (1908). This investigator prepared 
three fractions of 98®-98.6®, 98.6*^-99** and 99*^-99.5® boiling jioint respectively, 
and determined the curve for each fraction and water by the "synthetic method.'* 
The first fraction gave a closed curve having both a lower and an upper critical 
solution temperature, while the other fractions gave curves with only an upper 
critical solution temperature, and in other respects in fair agreement with the 
results of Alexejew as shown in the above table. The explanation of this differ- 
ence in the case of the first fraction, is supposed to be that this fraction contained 
a larger proportion of tertiary butyl alcohol than the others, due to the lower 
boiling point of this isomer. Since the tertiary alcohol is entirely miscible 
with secondary alcohol and water its presence would restrict the boundaries of 
inhomogeneity and, therefore, tend to favor a closed curve for the system. 

Solubilities, Determined by the Freezing-point Method (see footnote, p. i), 
Are Given for the Following Mixtures Containing Butyl Alcohols. 



Isobutyl alcohol + Water (Dreyer, 1913.) 

" " + Liquid COj (BQchner, 19QS-06.) 

Normal butyl alcohol + Water (Dreyer, 1913.) 

" " " + Liquid COj (BOchner, 1905-06.) 

Secondary butyl alcohol + Water (Dreyer, 1913; Timmermaiis, 1907, 1910, 1911.) 
" ^" " + " + Hydroquinine (Tinunermaiis, X907.) 

Tertiary butyl alcohol + Water. (Dreyer, 1913O 



i65 IsoBUTTI ALCOHOL 

Distribution op Isobutyl Alcohol bbtwbbn Water and Cotton Sbbd 

Oil at 25^ (Wroth and Reid, 19x6.) 
Gma. C4H1OH per too cc Ghm. CiHiOH per 100 cc. 

Oa Layer. HiO Layer. Ratio. PU Layer. H^ Layer. Ratio 

1. 168 2.043 1-74 I -375 2.301 1.67 

1.276 2.250 1.76 1*405 2.429 1.72 

1.288 2.135 i-^S I-49S 2.450 1.64 

The partition coefficient of tertiary butyl alcohol (CHi)iC(OH)CHi, between 
olive oil and water is given as 0.176 at ord. temp. (Baum, 1899.) 

IsoBUTTLAMINX HTDBOCHLORIDE (CH,),CHCH,NH,.HC1. 

100 g:ms. HsO dissolve 238.9 gms. of the salt at 25^ (Peddle and Tomer. 19x3.) 

100 gms. CHCli dissolve 11.56 gms. of the salt at 25^ (Peddk and Turner, 1913.) 

BUTTLCHLORAL CH,CHC1.CCUCH0. 
The distribution coefficient of butylchloral betweem oil and water b given as 1.6. 

(Meyer, 1907.) 

BUT7LCHL0RALHTDRATE CH,CHCl.CClt.CH(OH)s. 



,0 



100 gms. H^ dissolve 2.7 gms. butylchloralhydrate at 1^.5* 

(Greenish and Smith, 1903.) 

2.3 " " at I5*^-2o^ 

(Squire and Caines, 1903.) 

" glycerol " 100 " " at 15^-20*. 

(Greoiiah and South, 1903 •) 

The partition coefficient of butylchloralhydrate between olive oil and water is 
given as 1.589 at ord. temp. (Baum, x899-) 

BUTTBIC ACIDS (normal) CH,(CHi),COOH; (iso) (CH,),CH.C(DOH. 

SOLUBfLITY OF NORMAL BUTYRIC ACID IN WaTBR, DbTERMINBD BY THB 

Freezing-point Method. (Fauom, 1909, X910.) 



f of 


Gms. Acid per 
100 Gms. 

Mixture. 


f of 


Gms. Acid per 
xoo Gms. 
Mixture. 


fof 


Gms. Add per xoo 


^mgeating. 


Congealing. 


Congealing. 


Gms. Mixture 








- 3-57 


67.38 


-13-40 


87.62 Eutec. 


-1. 08 


5" 


- 5.20 


75 


— 12.40 


90.08 


— 2.70 


12.7s 


- 6.80 


80 


— 10 


95-92 


— 2.96 


25-32 


- 8.61 


84 


- 8 


98.60 


-3 07 


50.60 


-10.25 


85.41 


- S-40 


99-15 


-3 14 


59-72 


-12.54 


86.54 


— 3-12 


100 



Higher values for the temperature of congealing of the above mixtures are 
given by Ballo (1910). For additional data see also Timmermans (1907) and 
Tsalcdotos (1914). Data for the miscibility of normal butyric acid and water 
are also given by Faucon. The curve is entirely in the metastable region. The 
mixtures are either opalescent or comfiletely homogeneous and never form two 
distinct layers, even with the application of centrifugal force. The results are 
as follows: 

t** of opalescence —5.2 —4.2 —4 — 3.8crit. t, —45 —7 

Gms. acid per 100 

i gms. mixture 25 30 35 40 50 58.2 

Solubility op Isobutyric Acm in Water, Determined by the Freezing- 
point Method. (Faucon, 19 Eo.) 

The congealing temperatures for mixtures containing up to 60 grams iso- 
butyric add ^ 100 gms. coincide with the results given in the above table for 
normal butync acid and water. For higher concentrations the following results 
were obtained. 

t® of congealing —309 —3-35 — 3-6i —12.5 —80 

Gms. add per 100 
gms. mixture 70.10 82.08 86.44 97 -21 100 



BUTYRIC ACID l66 

MiSCIBILITT OF ISOBUTYRIC AciD AND WaTBR, DBTBRMINBD BT THB 

"Synthetic Method." 

(Smixnoff, 1907.) 





Gms.'Add per i 


[oo Gms.: 


f. 


Upper Layer. 


Lower Layer. 


10.05 


69.08 


17.82 


12 


67.1 


18.3 


14 


64.9 


19. 1 


16 


62.3 


20 


18 


59-2 


21. 1 


20 


554 


22.8 


22 


49 


25.8 


22.5 


46 


27 


23 


41 


29 


23.3crit.t. 


34.7 





Detenninations varying more or less from the above are given by Rothmund 
(18^8), Friedlander (1901; and Faucon (1910). The discrepancies s^re shown by 
Smirnoff to be due to the effect of variations in purity of the isobutyric acid upon 
the position of the curve. Smirnoff fractionate the purest obtainable acid and 
determined the miscibility curve for each fraction. The above results were 
obtained with fraction 4 of boiling point 154^-155*1 twice refractionated. 

An extensive series of determinations are given by Smirnoff of the effect of 
various percentag:es of different salts upon the temperature of immiscibility of 
aqueous 16.46% isobutyric acid solution. 

Distribution of Butyric Acid bbtwsbn Watsr and Benzene at 13^-15* 

(Geozfievics, 19x3.) 



Gms. Butyric Acid 
Uicd. 


Gms. Add Found per* 

tM. 


X50CC. 
Benzene Layer. 


25 CC 
HiO Layer. 


2.0044 
2.9968 

3 . 5028 

4.0088 


I 7643 
2.6965 

3 1740 
3 6544 


0.2401 
0.3003 
0.3288 

0.3544 


4 . 5342 


4.1521 


0.3821 



The distribution ratio of normal butyric acid between water and benzene at 
room temperature was found by King and Narracott (1909), to be i to 0.7585, 
and for isobutyric acid, the ratio was i to 0.810. 

One determination of the distribution of butyric acid between sat. aqueous 
CaClt solution and kerosene gave 7.2 gms. acid per 100 gms. aqueous layer and 
92.8 gms. per 100 gms. kerosene layer at ord. temp. (Crowdl, 19x80 

Data for the Following Ternary Systems Containing Normal 
Butyric Acid are Given by Timmermans, 1907. 

Normal Butyric acid + Water + Azobenzene. 

*^ " " + Barium nitrate- 

-[- Benzophenone. 
4- Camphor. 
+ Cane sugar. 
4- Mannite. 
4- Naphthalene. 
4- Potassium sulfate. 
4- Sodium chloride. 

Freezing-point data are given for mixtures of n butyric acid and formamide by 
English and Turner (191 5), and for mixtures of trichlorobutyric acid and dimethyl 
pyrone by Kendall (19 14). 





<l 


II 




l< 


II 




u 


II 




II 


II 




(1 


If 




II 


II 




II 


II 



167 CADMIUM BBOMIDS 

OADMIUM BROMIDE CdBr,. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Diets— Ber. 39, oS* '99; Z. anon;. Chem. ao^ 960, '99; Wiss. Abb. p.t. Reicbanstalt 3» 433i '00; tee afao 
Eder — iMngier polyt. J. aai« 189. '76; Etard — Ann. chim. phys. [7] a, 536, ^4*) 

Gmt. CdBra Mob.CdBr) 
Solid Pbaae. t". per 100 Gms. per xoo Solid Pluae. 

Solution. Mols. HjO. 

CdBr2.4H,0 40 60. 65 10.20 CdBr2.H20 

" 4S 60.75 10.24 " 

" 60 61. lo 10.39 " 

" 80 62.29 1048 " 



t«. 


Onw-CdBra Mols.CdBrs 
per zoo Cms. per 100 
Solution. Mols. HsO. 




18 


37 -Q* 

48.90 


4.04. 
6.21 


30 

38 


56.90 
61.84 


8-73 
10.73 


35 


60.29 


10.05 < 



u 



CdBr,.HaO 100 61.63 10.63 
Density of saturated solution at i8^» 1.683. 

Solubility of Cadmium Bromide in Alcohol, Ether, Etc. 
100 gms. sat. solution of CdBri.4HiO in abs. alcohol contain 20.93 gms. CdBri 

at 15**. (Eder.) 

100 gms. sat. solution of CdBrs4Hi0 in abs. ether contain 0.4 gm. CdBr^ at 1$°. 

(Eder.) 

100 gms. absolute acetone dissolve 1.559 gms. CdBrs at 18^. d^ sat. sol. » 

0.8073. (Naumann, 1904.) 

100 gms. benzonitrile dissolve 0.857 gm. CdBrs at 18^. (Naumann, 19x4.) 

100 gms. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve 4O gm. CdBri at room temp. 

(Welab and Broderson, 19x5.) 

Reciprocal Solubilities, Determined by the Method of Lowering of the 
Freezing-point (see footnote, p. i), Are Given for the Following Mixtures: 



Cadmium Bromide + Cadmium Chloride (Nacken, X907; Ruff and PUto, X903.) 

4- Cadmium Iodide (Nacken, X907.) 

-j- Calcium Fluoride (Ruff and Plato, X903.) 

+ Cuprous Bromide (Herrmann, x9xx.) 
+ Potassium Bromide (Brand, 19x3.) 

+ Sodium Bromide " 

+ " " + Potassium Bromide " 



14 
14 
44 
II 
41 
14 



CADMIUM (Mono)AMMONn7M BROMIDE CdBrs.NHtBr 

Solubility in Water. 

(Rimbach, 1905; Eder.) 

1 00 Grams Solution contain Gm s. Atomic Relation. G.CdBrfJIHiBr 

*• 'Cd! bT, nS.. Cd : Br : NH«: "m'So?."*' 

1.0 16.33 34.87 2.63 I 3 1 53.82 

14.8 17.40 37.15 2. 80 131 58.01 

52.2 19.79 42-38 3-21 1 3 I 65.31 

110. 1 22.99 49.17 3.72 131 75.98 

100 gms. sat. solution of CdBra.NH4Br in abs. alcohol contain 15.8 
gms. double salt at i;^ (Eder). 

xoo gms. sat. solution of CdBra.NH4Br in abs. ether contain 0.36 
g^. double salt at 15^ (Eder). 

GAOODmO ACm (CHOtAsO.OH. 

100 cc. HsO dissolve about 200 gms. cacodylic acid at 15^. (Squire and (Raines, igosO 
XOO cc. 90% alcohol dissolve about 28.5 gms. cacodylic acid at 15^ " " 



CADMIUM BEOMIDS 



168 



OADMIVM (Tetra) AMMONIUM BROMIDE CdBr,.4NH4Br. 

Solubility in Watbr, 

(Rimbach.) 

The double salt is decomposed by water at temperatures below i6^**c 



.ON 



xoo Gnu. Solution contain Gnu. Atomic Relation in Sol. Atomic Rdation in Solid. 



• • 


Cd. 


Br. 


NH4. Cd : Br : 


NH«. ' Cd : Br : 


NH4. 


0.8 


14.72 


50.46 


6.67 ] 


[ 4.82 


2.82. ] 


[ 10.02 


8.02 


13 o 


14. 95 


51 48 


6.85 ] 


c 4-85 


2.85 ] 


c "57 


9-57 


440 


15.01 


53-85 


7-35 3 


c 5.04 


3.04 J 


[ 6.84 


4-84 


76.4 


14.6 


55-28 


7.80 ] 


t 532 


3 32 3 


c 6.63 


4 63 


"3 5 


^S'S 


5950 


8.45 1 


^ 5-38 


3-3^ 3 


[ 7.40 


540 


160.0 


14.7 


62.67 


9-43 3 


t 5-99 


3-99 J 


[ 6.03 


4 03 



CADMIUM (Mono) POTASSIUM BROMIDE CdBr,.KBr.H,0. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Rimbacfa; see alao Eder.) 



0.4 
X5.8 

50-0 
112. 5 



XOO Gms. Solution contain Gms. 



£dr 



Br. 



5-42 



15-41 33 -o 

16.85 35 96 5.86 

19.58 41.86 6.85 

22.24 48.28 8.14 



Atomic Relation in Sol. 



'Cd 
X 

I 
I 
098 



Br 

3 
3 
3 
3 



I 

X 
X 

I 



03 



Gm9.CdBr|JCBr 
per xoo Gi 
Solution. 



53 63 
58.61 
67.87 
78.11 



CADMIUM TetraPOTASSIXTM BROMIDE is decxnnposed by water at 
ordinary temperatures. 

CADMIUM (Mono)RUBIDIUM BROMIDE CdBri.RbBr. 



0.4 

14-5 
49.2 

107.5 


100 Gms. 


SoLUBiLrrY IN Water. 

(Rimhacb.) 
Solution contain Gms. Atomic I 


Ulation in Sol. 
Br : Rb.^ 

3 1^01 
3 I 01 

3 I 
3 0.96 


Gms. CdBn.RbBr 


Cd. 

8.37 
10.72 

15.01 
19.65 


Br. 

17-93 
23.02 

32.13 
41.12 


Rb. Cd : 

6.43 I 
8.30 0.99 

II. 51 I 

14.06 1.02 


Solution. 

32-65 
41.87 

58.54 

75-77 



CADMIUM (Tetra)RUBIDIUM BROMIDE CdBrs.4RbBr. 











Solubility 


IN 


Water. 
















(Rimbach.) 








f. 




xoo Gms. Solution contain Gms. 




Atomic kelation 


in Sol. 


Gms.CdBri.4ltbBr 




Cd 


Br 


Rb. ' 




'Cd : ' 


Br : 


Rb. 


Solution. 





■5 


5 70 


24.94 


17.97 




0.98 


6 


4.05 


47-95 


13 


•S 


6.55 


28.74 


20.74 




0.97 


6 


4.05 


55-17 


SI 


•5 


8.25 


35.51 


25 -39 




0.99 


6 


4.02 


68.82 


"4-5 


9-50 


40.67 


29.00 


t 


1. 00 


6 


4.0 


79.04 



169 



CADMIUM BBOMXDX 



CADMIUM (Mono) 80DIX7M BB6MIDX C(lBr,.NaBr2iH,0. 

Solubility in Water, etc., at 15®. 

(Eder — Ding, polyt. J. aaz, iS9,'J'j6^ 



Cms. CdBn JTftBr per xoo Gmi. 



oonvm* 

Water 

Absolute Alcohol 
Absolute Ether 


Solution. 
49.0 

31. a 
0.53 


Solvent.' 
96.1 
37.0 

0.53 



SolU 
Phaae. 



CdBr,.NaBr.3iHaO 



It 



CADMIUM CHLORATE Cd(C10,)i.2HiO. 

S(H.UBiLiTY IN Water. 

(MeusBer, 1903 ) 



Cms. ' Mols. 

* * per zoo Gms. per 100 Mols. 
Solution. HiO. ^ 

— 6.5 26.18 3.07 Ice 

-130 52.36 9 52 

— 20.0 72.10 22.47 Cd(aOi)i.aHiO 
72.53 22.87 



Gntt. Mob. 

^ Cd(C10i)i Cd(C10>)i 
* per xoo Gma. per xoo 
Solution. Mols. H«0. 



Solid Phase. 



-15.0 

Density of the sat. solution at 18^ » 2.284 



± o 
18 

49 
6S 



74.95 25.92 Cd(C10^t.2Hi0 

76.36 27.98 

80.08 34.82 

82.95 42.14 



CADMIUM CHLORIDE CdCli.2iHi0. 



Solubility in Water. 

(Dfeti — W. Abh. p. t. Rdchanstalt 3, 433* '00; above xoo^ Etard — Ann. cUm.pliys.[7] a, 536, '944 

Mols-CdO. 
per 100 
Mob.HtO. 



G. CdCls perMol8.CdCl3 
100 Gms. per xoo 
Solntioa. Mols.HaO. 



SoUd 
Phase. 



G.CdCkper 

100 Gms. 

Solution. 



SoUd 
Phase. 



- 9 

o 

+10 

IS 
— 10 

o 

fi8 

30 
36 



43 58 
49 39 

S9" 

44-35 

47-37 

52.53 
56.91 

57 91 



7.5 
9.6 

12.3 

14.2 

7.8 

9.0 
10.9 

13.8 

13 -5 J 



CdCl,.4H,0 



+ 10 57.47 

20 57-35 

40 57-51 

60 57.71 

80 58.41 

100 59 52 

CdCla.3iH,0 150 64.8 

200 73.0 

270 77.7 



13 -3 
13.3 

13 -4 
13-8 
14.4J 



CdCl,.I^O 



(moDodinic) 



Density of saturated solution at i8* « 1.741. 

100 gms. abs. ethyl alcohol dissolve 1.52 gms. CdCli at I5*.5. 

100 gms. abs. methyl alcohol dissolve 1.71 gms. CdClt at I5*.5. (de Bniyn, x89s.) 

100 gms. abs. methyl alcohol dissolve 1.5 gms. CdClt at the crit. temp. 

(Centnerszwer, 19 10.) 

100 gms. benzonitrile dissolve 0.063 gni. CdCli at I8^ (Naumaan, 19x4.) 



GADMIUM GHLOBIDI 170 

Reciprocal Solubilities, Dbtbrminsd by the Method op Lowbsing op 
THE Freezing-point (see footnotet p. i)» Are Given por the Following 
Mixtures: 

Cadmium Chloride + Cadmium Iodide (Nacken, 1907 (c); RufF and Plato, 190130 
" " -j- Cadmium Fluoride (Ruff and Plato, 1903) 

" " + Cadmium Sulfate 

" " + Calcium Chloride (Sandonninl, 191 z, X914; McoffB, Z911O 

" " -}- Cuprous Chloride (Hemnann, 191 z.) 

** ** 4* Lead Chloride (Sandcnmini, 191a, Z9Z4; Hemnann, z9xz.) 

+ Magnesium Chloride (Menge, zgzz.) 

+ Manganese Chloride (Sandonnmi, Z914; Sandnnnfni and Scarpa, 1911O 

+ Mercuric Iodide ^ (Sandonnini, Z9ia.) 

+ Potassium Chloride (Brand, z9zi.) 

+ Sodium Chloride 

-j- " " + Potassium Chloride (Brand, 1911.) 

+ Strontium Chloride (Sandonnini, 191 z; Z9Z4.) 

+ Thallium Chloride (Korreng, Z9Z4', Sandonnii^ 19Z3.) 

+ Tin (ous) Chloride (Herrmann, X9iz; Sandnnnini, X9Z4O 

+ Zinc Chloride CBemnann, Z9zz.) 



i< II 

II II 

II II 

II II 

II II 

II II 

II II 

II II 

II II 

41 tt 



OADMIUlf AMMOHIUlf OHLOBIDI CdCU.NH4a 

Solubility in Water. 

(Rimbach — Ber. 30^ 9075, Z897.) 



%•. 


100 Gma. 


Sdntion contain Gma. 


Gma. (M(3sllH4Cl per zoo GaA 


'Cd. 


CI. 


NH . 


Soltttian. Water. ' 


2.4 


14.26 


13-44 


2.24 


29.94 42.74 


16.0 


iS-Sa 


IS 07 


2.56 


33-45 50.26 


41.2 


18.61 


17.46 


2.89 


38.96 63.83 


63.8 


20. 92 


19-73 


3-34 


43 99 7854 


105.9 


24.70 


23-52 


401 


52.23 109.33 



OADMIUM (Tetia) AMMOHIUM OHLOBIDI CdCl,.4NH4a. 

In Contact with Water. 
The salt is decomposed in aqueous solution. 

(Rimbach.) 
^ • zoo Gms. Solution contain Gma. Atomic Relation In Solutloo. 



• . 


Cd. 


a. 


N114. 


Cd 


: a : 


NH«: 


3-9 


5-75 


18.17 


7-37 




9.96 


7.96 


16. 1 


6.96 


20.26 


7-97 




9.20 


7-13 


40.2 


9.91 


23-84 


8.92 




7.61 


5.61 


58-5 


12.50 


26-53 


9-35 




6.71 


4.66 


Z12.9 


16.66 


31-79 


10.78 




6.02 


4 02 


"3-9 


16.51 


32.71 


11.30 




6.26 


4.26 



Solubility of Mixtures of Cadmium Tbtra Ammonium Chloridb 
AND Cadmium Ammonium Chloride in Water. 

(Rimbach — Ber. 3S» 1300, 'oa.) 



t». 


zoo Gma. 


Solution contain Gms. 




Atomic Relation. 


Solid] 
Mol.per 

CdOiL 
NH«a. 


E^haae. 
oent of: 


Cd. 


a. 


NH«. 


Cd 


: Q : 


NH«. 


CdOa. 
4NH^ 


I.Z 


5-34 


17.62 


7.27 


I 


10.47 


8.50 


49-6 


50.4 


14 


7.12 


19.86 


7.84 


I 


8.84 


6.87 


47 


53 


40.7 


10.24 


23.82 


8.85 


I 


7-37 


5-37 


77.0 


23 


58.5 


12.50 


26.53 


9-35 


I 


6. 71 


4.66 


• • • 


• • • 



171' 



CADMIUM GHLOBIDX 



SOLUBIUTT OF MiXTURBS OP CaDMIUM TbTRA AmMONIUM CHLORIDI 

AND Ammonium Chloridb in Watbr. 

(RimbftchO 





100 Gms. Solntko 




Atomic 




SoHd Phase. 


»•. 


contain Gnu. 




Relation. 




Mol. 


per cent of: 




Cd. a. NH. 


(T 


: a : 


NH«. 


'NH«a. 


CdOa-HNHA 


I.O 


2. 83 17. II 7.8a 


I 


19.21 


17.28 


59 


41 


13 a 


2.76 18.84 8.71 


I 


21.62 


19.62 


74 


26.0 


40.1 


3.16 23.56 10.49 


I 


22.65 


20.74 


71.0 


29.0 


58.2 


3.51 25.21 11.72 


I 


22.79 


20.89 


69.0 


31.0 



OADMIUM BABIUM OHLOBIDS a(Cda,)BaCl,.5H,0. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Rimbach — Ber. 30, 3083, '97.) 







zoo Cms. Solution 




Gms. a(CdC3a)£aCb 


f. 




contain Gim. 




per zoo 


Gms. 




Cd. 


a. 


" Bk. 


Solution. 


Water. 


22.6 


17.71 


16.89 


II. 


45.60 


83.82 


41.3 


19.22 


18.15 


11.77 


49.14 


96.62 


53-9 


19.85 


18.7s 


12.41 


51.04 


104.25 


62.2 


20.59 


19.66 


12.83 


S3 08 


"3 13 


69 S 


21.20 


20.18 


13 09 


5447 


119.64 


107.2 


24.25 


23-23 


14.90 


62.38 


165.85 



OADMIUM BARIUM OHLOBIDS CdCl,.BaCl,.4H.O. 

Solubility in Watbr. 

(Rimbach.) 





zoo Gms. Solution 




Gms. CdOsRaCIs 


%•. 




contain Gms. 




per 100 


Gms. 




Cd. 


a. 


Ba. 


Solution. 


Wattf. 


22.5 


11.98 


IS 19 


14.71 


41.88 


72.06 


32 -9 


12.40 


16.18 


16.09 


44.67 


80.73 


41.4 


^3 OS 


16.95 


16.81 


46.81 


88.01 


53-4 


13.96 


18.21 


18.13 


SO. 30 


IOI.2I 


62.0 


14-73 


18.81 


18.74 


52.28 


109.56 


97.8 


I7S7 


22.48 


22.00 


62.05 


163 .50 


108.3 


18.53 


^3S^ 


22.79 


64.83 


184-33 


109.2 


18.67 


23.69 


29 -95 


6S-3I 


188.27 



OADMIUM MAOBBtlUM OHLOBIDS 2(CdCl,)MgCl,.i2HA 

Solubility in Water. 

(Rimbach.) 







xoo Gms. Sohitiao 




Gms. a(Cd< 


:is).MgCii 


%•. 




contain Gms. 




per 100 


Gms. 




Cd. 


a. 


Mg. 


Solutian. 


Water. 


2.4 


22.14 


21.06 


2.41 


4S-6i 


83.86 


ao.8 


24-30 


22.80 


^'5S 


49.69 


98.77 


4SS 


26.24 


24 ss 


2.72 


S3 SI 


115.10 


67.2 


28.45 


26.71 


2.98 


S8-I4 


138.90 


21.8 


31.84 


30.20 


3-44 


65.48 


189.69 



CADMIUM CBLOBIDX 



172 



CADMIUM (Mono)BUBIDIUM CHLOBIDI CdCli.Rba. 

Solubility of Cadmium Monorubidium Chloride in Watbr. 

(Rimbach, 190a.) 



100 Gms. Solution contain Gms. 



Cms. CdGt.RbCl per 100 Gmi. 



• • 


' Cd. 


a. 


Rb. ' 


Solution. 


Water. 


X.2 


4.80 


4-53 


3 63 


12.97 


14.90 


I4S 


6.20 


5-88 


4. 75 


16.80 


30.19 


41-4 


9-34 


8.86 


714 


25 31 


33 89 


57-6 


11.40 


10.78 


8.63 


3083 


4458 


103.9 


17.14 


16.37 


13 -39 


46.62 


87.36 



CADMIUM (Tetra)BUBIDIUM CHLOBIDI CdC]t4Rba 

In Contact with Watbr. 

The double salt decomposes to CdClj.RbCl and RbQ. 



%•. 


100 Gms. Solutioo contain Gnu. 


Atomic Relatioa. 


Moi. per cent of: 


Cd. 


a. 


Rb. 


Cd : Q : Rb. 


CdQi. CdCls. 
RbQ. 4RbCf. 


0.7 

8.8 
13.8 


0.65 
1.07 

1-32 


6.52 

7-37 
7.86 


14-73 
16.13 

16.93 


I 31.88 29.88 
I 21.89 19.89 
I 18.88 16.83 


30 70 ^ 

24 76 
16 84 


42.4 


3-21 


"•35 


22. 45 


I II. 21 9.21 


14 86 


59 
108.4 


4.61 
8.94 


13-41 
18-57 


25-31 
31-15 


I 9.23 7.23 

I 6.57 4-59 


33 67 

• • • • 



Solubility op Mixtures op CdCl,.4RbCl and RbCl in Water. 

(Rimbach.) 

Solid Phaie, 



t*. 



0.4 
14.8 
17.9 



100 Gms. Solution contain Gms. 



Cd. 



a. 
12.86 

13.62 

14.0 



Rb. 

30 -97 

32.81 

33-71 



Mol. per cent of: 



Atomic Relatioa. 

r5. cdaa.4Rba rScl 
I 55 45 



Cd 



a 

I 
I 
I 



I 
I 



67 

80 



33 
20 



The Effect of the Presence op HCl, Cad and of LiCl upon 
amoN OF Cadmium Tbtrarubidium Chloride by Water at 



Decomfo- 
16*. 



100 Gms. Solutioo contain Gms. 



Total a. 

3^-44 

28.45 

12.09 

14.98 

12.70 
10.85 

9.08 

26.49 

ao.37 



CL 
0.84 
0.80 

3-«4 
Ck. 

7 56 

S-77 
3 78 
1.84 
li. 
4.87 

3-33 



HQ. 
36.61 
28.44 
9. II 
CaQa. 
20.91 
15.96 

14 -47 
5.10 

liO. 
29.40 

20 'II 



Cd. 

0.4Z 

0.3s 

0.69 

073 

0.77 

1. 00 
1 .24 

0.56 
052 



Rb. 

1-39 
1.38 
6.74 

2.80 

4.87 

8.51 

12.14 

3-871 
7.84 



Mds. per ico Mois. HgO. Molecular Ratio. 

CdCls. RbOl BCT CdQi : RbO: 

0109 0.483 29.76 I 4.43 

0.082 0.422 20.3s ' 5-'5 

0.139 1.772 5.60 X 12.75 

CaQs. 

0.159 0.799 4-59 » S-04 

0-163 1.353 3-41 I 8.31 

0.2II 2.365 2.24 Z 11.22 

0.262 3.385 1.09 z za.92 

ua. 

0139 1. 271 19.40 I 9.13 

0.122 2.433 12.54 I 19.88 



See Note on next page. 



ITS CASUQIK OBbOBIDB 

OAOMIUM (Mooo) VOTASSIUM OHI.OmiDS CdCU.Ka.H,0. 

SOLUBIUTT IN WaTSIU 





Cd. 


a. 


iL 


a. 6 


9 53 


9 03 


3 31 


15 9 


11.63 


10.98 


3 99 


41 5 


15-47 


14-73 


5-45 


6o.6 


17.68 


16.80 


6.20 


105.1 


aa.46 


ai-34 


7.87 



p«r ICO l«m». 



"87 •7 99 

16.60 36.14 

3566 SS34 

40. 67 68.55 

51 67 Z06.9X 



OADMIUK (Tetra) FOTASSIITK OHLOBIDS CdCU.4Ka. 

In Contact with Water, 

(RimbttchO 

The double salt is decomposed when dissolved in water at ordinary 

too GniBs Sohitioa contalB Gmi. 
t\ . . 

Cd. a. K, 

4 3 64 9-^ 8.31 

93.6 5.66 14.03 11.51 % 

50.1 9.10 18.09 13.60 

108.9 11-94 13.11 17.16 



Note. — The effect of the presence of certain chlorides upon the 
decomposition of cadmium tetra potassium chloride by water at 16** 
was investigated by Rimbach in a manner similar to that used in the 
case of cadmium tetra rhubidium chloride (see preceding page). The 
results, which show the extent to which increasing amounts of the 
several chlorides force back the decomposition of the double 8alt» were 
plotted on cross-section paper, and the points at which the decom- 
position was prevented, were determined by interpolation. These 
values which snow the minimum amount of the added chlorides which 
must be present to insure the crystallization of the pure double salt are 
^own in the following table. 



Added 
Oilnride. 

HCl 
LiCl 
CaCl, 
KCl 


Mob. 
CdOi. 

0.074 
0.344 
0.544 
X.034 


per xoo Mblfl. HsO.~ 

X^P, Addwil 
*•"• Chloride. 

0-196 19.80 

1376 930 
1.176 3.80 

6.514* 3-37^ 


Denilty of 
Sdutiooa. 

X.I403 
X.I380 

1-2333 
Z.II4 


Moll. 


per Liter of Solution. 


CdOi. 

0033 
0.166 
0.370 
0.507 


Ypi Added ^ 
'^^»- Chloride. 

0x31 8.818 

0.663 4.483 

1.080 Z.887 

3 . 195* z . 167 



•ToUL 



CADBOUM CHLOBIDI 



174 



S(x.uBiLiTY OP Cadmium Chloride in Aqueous Solutions of Potassium 
Chloride at Several Temperatures and Vice Versa. (Sudhaus, 1914) 



Gmt. per loo gms. H«0 . 
CdCls. KCT 

Results at 19.3^ 



III. 3 

59 59 
♦26.98 

II .61 

1.44 

0.0 



0.0 

6.7 

11.09 
30.04 
34.76 
33-94 



Results at 29.7* 



129.65 
97.62 
68.23 
47.12 

*32.67 
24.^6 

iS-99 

15-47 
2.42 

0.0 
Di.i.i 



0.0 
0.70 
7.08 
9.89 

13.06 
16.10 
25.97 

33.58 
37.66 

37.21 



Solid PhMe. 



CdCl,.2iH,0 

Di-i.i 

Diu+KCl 
KCl 

CdCli.2}HiO 

"+D1.M 

tt 
it 
u 

" +Dm 
Dm+KC1 
KCl 



Gmt. per lop gms. H^ . 

ddcC ' KCiT 
Results at 40.1 ^ 



133-85 
92.15 

SI -90 

*37-9i 

24-45 
18.97 

19.92 

2.98 

0.0 



0.0 
2.70 
11.50 
15.21 

21.73 

35-51 

37-63 

40.45 
40.36 



Results at 54.5. 



133-9 
102.15 

♦44.01 

26.13 

4.20 

0.0 



0.0 
2.32 
18.39 

43-78 
45 52 
43-00 



Solid Phaae. 

CdCl,.H,0 

" + Di.M 

Di.i-i 

tt 

tt 

tt 

D1.4+KC1 

KCl 

CdCl,.IW) 

" +Dm.i 
Di-i-i 
" +D1.4 
D1.4+KCI 
KCl 



CdCl,.KCl.HiO, D1.4 - CdCIt^KCl. 

* Show* the solubility of the double salt in water. 

Solubility of the Double Salt. CdCli.4KCl in Water. (Sudhaua, 19x4^ 



f. 

19-3 
23.6 

29.7 

40.1 

50.2 

54.5 



Cms. CdGs.4KG per 
100 gms. xUO. 

41.65 

45-35 

49-05 

57.55 
68.89 



Mol. Ratio in Solution. 

iCdCl»: 6.37 KCl 

:5-85 

= 5-34 
:4.6o 

:4-30 
: 4.12 



tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 



tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 



69.91 

Solubility op Cadmium Chloride in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Chloride 
AT Several Temperatures and Vice Versa. (Sudhaus, 19x4.) 



Gms. per loo gma. H«0 . 
CdClt. NaCl. ' 

Results at I9.3^ 



Solid Phase. 



Gms. per loo Rms. HiO. 



Solid Phaae. 



III. 30 
116.64 

85-15 
♦40.01 

5.96 
0.0 



0.0 

7.52 
12.19 

25.67 

36.76 

35.84 



CdCl,.2§H,0 



(( 



" +Naa 
NaCl 



Results at 29.7^ 



CdCb. Naa. 

Results at 29.7* (con.). 
♦43.74 27.46 D1.2.S 

9.43 37-54 " +Naa 
Results at 40.1^. 

137.03 15-14 CdCli.HiO+DM.! 
♦48.17 29.50 Dm.s 
13.31 38.16 " +NaCl 

Results at 54.5*. 

19.10 CdCl,.H20+Di.i.« 



32.97 

39.07 
36.82 



132.67 9.63 CdCls.2|HsO+Di.2.8 140.42 

123.54 10.10 D1.1.S *52.76 

106.16 12.92 " 22.53 

91.10 15.41 " 0.0 

Di.t.i - CdClt.2NaC1.3H,0. 

* Shows the solubility of the double salt in water. 

CADBOUM GINNABIATE8 (C<HtCH :CH.COO)sCd. 

100 gms. water dissolve 0.070 gm. cadmium cinnamate at 26^. 
100 " " " 0,56 " cadmium isocinnamate at 20". 

100 " " ." 0.10 " cadmium allocinnaiDate at 20* 



D1.S.8 

" +NaCl 
NaCl 



(de Jong, 1909.) 
(Michael, 1903.) 



ITS 



GADMnni CTllllDB 



GABMIUII CTllllDB Cd(CN)>. 

loo gms. HdO dissolve 1.7 gms. Cd(CN)t at 15*. 

GABMIUII FLUOSIIII CdF«. 



tttt^ 



100 oc of sat. solutioii in water oontsin 4^ gms^ CsFt at 25*. 

100 oc of sat. solodoa in 1.08 n. HF contain 5*62 gms^ CaFt at 25*. (jMiEcr, 19014 

iFreezing-pobit lowering data (solubility, see footnote, jk i) are given for nux« 

tmes of camnium fluoride and cadmium iodide by Ruff and Plato (1903), and 

for miztoies of cadmium fluoride and sodium fluoride by Puscbin and Baakov» 

(1913). 



Cd(OH)i. 

SOLUBIUTT IN WaTBK. 

I liter of axnieoos solutkn contains aoo26 gm. Cd(OH)t at 25*. 

(BodBste.tSM 

SOLUBIUTT IN AqUBOUS AMMONIUM HtDROXIDB SOLUTIONS. 



« 





Results at 25^ 




Results at 16-21*. 






(BoBKkdl, 19040 




(Eufer, i9oaO 






Noniafily ol 


I Gm.Cd(OH)i 


*• 


Nonufityof Gi 


B».Cd(0H)t 




NHs. 


per liter. 


w . 


NHi. 


per liter. 




OS 


0.274 


16-17 


0.47 


0.44 




I.O 


0.707 


<C 


0.87 


X.I7 




1.8 


1.516 


21 


0.26 


0.09 




4.6 


S.609 


cc 


o^sx 


0.32 


AD] 


linJM lODnXB Cdls. 












SOLUBIUTT IN WaTBR. 






(DietB, 1900: see abo Kremen, 1858; Eder, t8;6; Etud, 1894.) 




4» 


Gmft-Oflaper 


xoo Gms. Mob. Cdli 


*• 


Gm. Cdb per 100 Gms. 


Mob-Cdb 


W m 


' Solution. 


Water.' mS. BM). 


m • 


Soltttioa. Water. 


per 100 
Mob-HiO. 





44-4 


79.8 3.9 


30 


47-3 89.7 


4-43 


ID 


454 


83.2 4.1 


40 


48.4 93-8 


4.6 


15 


45. 8 


84.5 4.17 


SO 


49-35 97.4 


4.8 


18 


46.02 


85.2 4.2 


75 


52.65 III. a 


S-4 


20 


46.3 


86.2 4.26 


100 


56.08 127.6 


6.3 


25 


46.8 


87.9 4.34 









Density of saturated solution at 18* ~ i*590. 

Solubility of Cadmium Iodidb in Organic Solvbnts. 

Gms. Cdh per xoo Gms. 



"Solvent t*. 

Absolute Alcohol 1 5 

Ethyl Alcohol 20 

Methyl Alcohol 20 

Propyl Alcohol 20 

Absolute Acetone 18 

Benzonitrile 18 

Ethyl Acetate 18 

Ethyl Ether 12** 

Anhy. Hydra2dne 15-20 

Benzene 16.0 

35 -o 

?*i-.994. 



Solution. Solvent. 

50.5 102 

42.6 74.27 

59.0 143 -7 
28.9 40.67 

20 25* 

Z.63 

i.84t 
0.143 
84 1 
0.047 
0.094 
t *•- .9143. 



Observer. 

(Eder.) 

(Timofeiew, 1891.) 
(Tlmoteiew, 1891.) 
(Timofeiew, x89c0 
(Naumann, 1904^ 
(Naumann, x9X4<) 
(Naumann, 1910.) 
(Tyrer. 19x1.) 

(Welsh and Brodenoo, t9t5^ 
(Linebaifer, 1895.) 

X ptt xoooc* 



CADMIUM lODIDI 



176 



Solubility op Cadmium Iodide in Methyl Alcohol, Ethyl Alcohol, Propyl 
Alcohol and in Isopropyl Alcohol at Difperent Temperatures. 

(Muchin, 1913, see also Timofeiew, 1894.) 

Grains Cdli per xoo Girnms Sat. Solution in: ' 



• • 


CEuaa. 


CiHiOH. 


OH1OH. 


OHiOHCiio). 





67 


33 S 


16 


36 -9 


5 


• • « 


41 


22 


36.9 


10 


68 


54 (MttlJS'mtt.tmp.) 


28.5 


37-2 


30 


69 


S3 


41.5 (tctemp.) 


37-3 


25 


69s 


52.2 


37-8 


37-3 


30 


70 


s^-s 


3SS 


37-3 


40 


71 


50.8 


345 


37-3 


SO 


725 


so 


34 


37-3 



Solubility op Cadmium Iodide in Ethyl Ether. (Linebaiger, 1895) 

M Mds Cdls per Cms. Cdls per 

* ' zoo Mols. CdIs+(CtEb)^. zoo gms. (.OB^^, 

o 0.03 0.148 

15.5 0.04 0.198 

20.3 0.05 0.247 

Solubility op Cadmium Iodide in Methyl Formate, Ethyl Formate, Propyl 
Formate and in^Ethyl Acetate at Different Temperatures. (Mudun, 1913.) 



f. 



13.0 
26.0 



Gms. Cdls per xoo Gms. Sat. Solution in: 



kcOOCHs. 
0.84 

0.7s 
0.66 



HCOOCtHs. 
I ..,16 
1.05 
0.77 



HCOOC1H7. 

2.37 
2.07 

I. S3 



CHsCOOCiHi. 

4.73(?) 
1.67 

2.02 



Solubility of Cadmium Iodide in Aniline, Pyridine and in Quinolinb at 

Different Temperatures. (Mudun, Z9Z3.) 



r. 

40 

SO 
60 

70 
80 

90 

100 



Gms. Cdls per xoo Gms. Sat. Solution in: 



CeHiNHs. 
1.7 
2.3 
31 
4 

S-i 

6.4 
8.4 



OHiN. 

... 

0.1 

o-S 

1-7 
4.8 

13 -4 
30 



CBiIJ. 



2 

3S 

S 

6.7 

8.3 



Solubility of Cadmium Iodide in Mixtures of Solvents at Different 

Temperatures. (Muchin, X9X5.) 



Comporition of Solvent 
in Mols. 

iCH,0H+2CHCl, 

iCHiOH+iCHCU 

iC^0H+2CHCI, 

iCiH»OH+iCHCl» 

2C,H»0H+iCHCl, 

xCAOH+yCHCU 



<t 



(t 



iCAOH+iCeH« 
2CA0H+iCeH« 
aCaOH+^rCiHe 



Wt. per cent 

Alcohol in 

Solvent. 

II. 8 
21. 1 
16.2 
27.8 

435 
60.3 

91S 
22.8 

371 

S4I 
9.8 



Gms. Cdit per xoo Gms. Sat. Solution at: 



o*. 
II. O 
22.4 

7.S 

139 
25.2 

34-4 

4S-4 
17.6 

26.1 

33 -S 
6.S 



x6.8'. 
10.4 
22.3 

71 

14.3 
24.1 



9-3 
20.6 

6.6 
13 -6 



16.3 (16.3") 
26.0(15.7°) 

3S.3(iS^) 



lS-2 (31.2^) 

26.0 



(( 



• • • 



177 G4ikiiniii maam 

SoLUBiLirr OP GAufniii Iodidb m MixmBS op Solvbhts^ 



OwMoL 


P^rniMHO 


teM«LCUi 




> 

Qw Mat. I>jndia»40M MdL 


t-Tini 


Gb 

r. 


IS. Cdlipcr 
xoo Obs. 


r. 


no Gas. 




GM-OUilNt 


«*. 


too CtCttk 




Sftt.SoL 




Sftt-SoL 




Sa.SoL 




S»I.Sok. 


so. I 


1.27 


63 


6.3 


57.9 


1.77 


7a.S 


32.6 


54 


1,72 


64 


8.3 


60 


a. a 


74.0 


3S 9 


56 


2.3 


64s 


".3S 


65 


4. a 


76 


363 


58 


30 


64 


Z4.8 


70 


8.1 


80 


40.8 


60 


4.0 


6a 


22.0 


71 


"•5 


85 


41.6 


62 


5-6 


61.15 


24.67 


71.5 


15.0 


90-4 


4« 67 



SOLUBIUTT OP CADmUM lODIDB IN EtHYL EtHBR CoNTAININQ WaTBB AT I2\ 

Gms. HjOper 
100 gms. ether +^>~» 0.0 o.io 0.30 0.50 0.70 0.90 x. 00 x«io x.X4aat 
Gms. Cdlsper 
100 gms. solvent-^ 0.1430.78 2.07 3.36 4.77 6.467.30 8«a7 8.68 

DisTRiBunoN OP Cadmium Iodidb at 30* Bbtwbbn: 

OMtt and Datter, 19x30 

Water and Amyl Alcohol. Water and Ethyl Ether. 

Gms. per xoo oc. ^ Gms. per xoo cc. ^ 

H^ Uyer (c). Akobol Layer (c*). ^' 

47-75 43 I" 
29.08 25.86 I. 13 

14.46 12.55 I. 15 

10.69 ^*94 1-20 
6.23 4.94 1.33 

2.42 1.S4 1.55 
1.93 I. 10 1.76 
1.76 0.94 1.87 

Freezing-point data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given for the following 
mixtures: 

Cadmium Iodide + Cuprous Iodide (Rernnaan, 1911.) 

" '' + Mercuric Iodide (Saadonnini, 1914.) 

" " + Potassium Iodide (Bxand, 191 aO 

" " + Sodium Iodide 



CADMIUM AMMONIUM I0DIDI8 (Mono and Di). 

Solubility of Each Sbparatbly in Water, etc. 

(Rimbach, 1905; Eder, 1876.) 

Cd. Mono Ammonium Iodide. Cd. Diammonium Iodide. 

Gms. CdIfl.NHJ per Omi. CdIi.iNH4l par 

Solvent t*. 100 pms. t». too Omi. 



fa^ Layer (c). 


Ether Layer (c*). 


?• 


37 18 


8.38 


4-43 


30.03 


6.61 


4. 54 


15.38 


309 


4-97 


12.60 


a. 38 


Sa9 


9.89 


1.83 


5 40 


7.68 


1.06 


S5» 


4 03 


0.73 


5.60 


3.10 


0.51 


6.03 







Solution. 


Solvent. 




Solution. 


Solvent 


Water 


IS 


52.6 


Ill 


US 


85-97 


6x1. 6 


Abs. Alcohol 


IS 


53 


"3 


IS 


59 


143 


Abs. Ether 


IS 


29.4 


41-7 


IS 


10 


IZ 



CADMIUM I0DIDI8 



178 



CADMIUM POTASSIUM I0DIDI8, Mono - CdIs.KI.iW>, 
Di = CdI,.2KI.2H,0, 

CADMIUM DiSODIUM IODIDE CdIi.2NaI.6H^. 

^ SoLUBiUTT or Each Separately in Water, srCt at is\ 

CBda.) 

Cms. CdIt.KI Gms. Cdlf.aKI Gma. CdIt.aNai 

per 100 Gms. per 100 Cms. per 100 .Gma. 

» ^ / * » 

Solvent. Solution. Solirent. 



Sohent« 



Soltttka. 

Water 51.5 

Abs. Alcohol . . . 
Abs. Ether 



Solvent* 

106 



Sobdaa. 

57 -8 

41-7 
3-9 



137 
71 



41 



Solution. 
61.3 

53-7 
9.0 



158-8 
116. 2 

9.9 



CADMIUM HITBATS Cd(NO,),. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Funk — WisB. Abh. p. t. Rdduuistalt 3 440, W^ 



»•. 


Gms. Cd(NQa)t 
pa 100 Gms. 


Mols. CdCNCMt 
per 100 Mols. H^. 


SflKd 

PhMe. 




SdutioD. 


Water. 


-13 

— 1 

+ I 



+18 


37-37 
47-33 
52 -73 
52.37 
55-9 


59-67 
89.86 

III. 5 
109.7 
126.8 


4-55 
6.8s 

8.50 

8.37 
9.61 


Cd(N0,),.9H,0 
Cd(N0A.4H,0 


30 


58-4 


140.4 


10.7 


it 


40 

59-5 


61.42 
76.54 


159-2 
326 -3 


12. 1 
25.0 


U 



Density of saturated solution at i8° = 1.776. 

The eutectic of the system Cd(NOi)i.4HiO + Cd(NOi)i is at!44.8* and has the 
composition Cd(NOt)i.2.65HsO. (Vuilev, 19x0) 

CADMIUM OXALATE CdC,0«.3H^. 

I liter of sat. aqueous solution contains 0.033 S™. CdCiOi at I8^ (Ko hham ch , Z908O 



<vui Doortcr; X910-ZX.) 



CADMIUM SILICATE CdSiO.. 

Fusion-point data are given for CdSiOt + ZnSiOt. 

OADMIUM SULPHATE CdSO^. 

Solubility in Water. 

^ylios and Funk — W. Abh. p. t. Rdchanstalt 3> 444t 'oo; see also Kohnstamm and Cohn ~^ Wied 
Ann. 65* 344i '98; Steinwehr — Ann. der Phys. (Drude) [4] 9, 1050. 'oa; Etard-— Ann. diim. phyi 
[7J a 536, '94) 



t\ 


Gms. CdS04 
per 100 Gms. 


Solid 
Phase. 


f. 


Gms. CdS04 
per xoo Gms. 

Solution. Water. 


Solid 

Phase. 




Sdudon. Water. 


-17 


44.5 80.2 


CdS04.7H,0 


40 


43.99 


78.54 


CdS04.iH,0 


— 10 


46.1 85.5 


a 


60 


44.99 


83.68 


tt 


- 5 


48.5 94.2 


u 


73.5 


46.6 


87.28 


tt 


-18 


43.35 76.52 


CdS04.fH,0 


74.5 


46.7 


87.62 


CdS04.H,0 


— 10 


43.27 76.28 


tt 


77 


42.2 


73.02 


tt 





43.01 76.48 


u 


85 


39.6 


65.57 


tt 


.fio 


43. x8 76.00 


u 


90 


38.7 


^3-^3 


u 


20 


43.37 76.60 


tt 


100 


37.8 


60.77 


M 



For results at high pressures, see Cohen (1909). 



179 



CADMIUM SULFATl 



Solubility of Cadmium Sulphate in Aqueous Solutions of Sul- 
phuric Acid at o*. 

(Encd^Compt. rend. 104* 507, 'S?.) 



EquTuents pv 


10 Gms. HsO. 
CdSO«. 


Density 
ofSdtttiaos. 




^ranuH/). 


H|SO«. 


' HaSO«. 


CdSO*. 


0. 


71.6 


1.609 


COO 


74.61 


387 


70.9 


I 591 


1.90 


73 87 


12.6 


6a ^4 


I 545 


6.l8 


65 03 


38.1 


50. 6 


1.476 


13-78 


52-73 


43-3 


40.8 


I -435 


ai.23 


42 52 


47.6 


37 


1. 421 


23-34 


38-56 


53-8 


32-7 


1.407 


26.38 


3407 


71-5 


23 


1-379 


35 06 


23.96 



100 gnu. 95% formic acid dissolve 0.06 gm. CdSOi at 18.5^ ' (Aachtn, 1913.) 
Freezing-point data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given for mixtures of 

CdS04 + LiaSOi, CdSOi + K1SO4 and CdSOi + NatSOi by Calcagni and Marotta 

(1913). 



Solubility of Mixed Crystals of Cadmium Sulphate and Ferrous 

Sulphate in Water at 25**. 

(Stortenbecker — Z. phyiik. Chem. 34. 109, '00.) 



CompositioD of Solution. 



Mol. percentCdin 



Gms. per xoo Gms. HaO. Mob. per xoo Mob. HaO. 



CdS04. FeSO«. 

CrraUb with sf Mob. H3O. 
76.02 0.0 

57.61 10.63 

Crratsb with 7 Mob. HsO. 
57.61 10.63 



26.69 



Cd. 

6.57 
4.98 



Fe. 

0.0 
1.26 



4.98 1.26 



0.0 



3-165 



Mol. % Cd. A??^ <^ 



in Sol. 

100 
79.8 

79.8 

78.5 
44.6 

24.4 

0.0 



Solid Phase. 

100 
99-0 

36.6 

34-6 
II. I 

4.8 

0.0 



CADMIUM POTASSIUM SULFATE CdKs(SO«)i. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Wyrouboff, 1901.) 



*•• ^2*S2^^ SoBdPW. 


V. 


"i^^^"" 3oIidPh«. 


16 42.89 CdK«(S04)i.2l^O 


26 


42.50 CdKi(S04ViiIW3 


31 46-82 


31 


42.80 " 


40 47 .40 " 


40 


43-45 ;; 




64 


44.90 



GADBOUM SODIUM SULFATE i8o 
CADMIUM SODIUM SULFATE CdNai(S04}t.2H^. 

mm 

Solubility in Water, also with the Addition op Caduivu Sul- 
phate AND OP Sodium Sulphate. 

(Koppd, Giimpery — Z. physik. Chem. 52* 413, '05.) 



24 
30 
40 

O 
10 
20 
40 
14.8 40 

o 37 



CdSO« 

22 

22 

22 

40 

39 
40 

39 



10 
20 

as 

30 
35 
40 



32 
22 

16 

9 
8 



. ner loo Gms. 
Soluttoo. 

Na^SOt' 

07 

29 

65 
8S 
34 
16 
18 
60 

S3 
69 

71 
83 

80 

35 
a? 



•as 


^5- 


■SS 


^S- 


.89 


IS 


•32 


4- 


.91 


5- 


.36 


5- 


.89 


7- 


.18 


4- 


•30 


6. 


•S3 


8. 


.69 


14. 


•33 


19. 


.31 


37. 


.36 


29. 


.98 


38. 



Cms. 



per I 
gjO. 

CdSO*. nSoT 



100 Cms. Mob. per xoo Mob. 
H|0. 

CdSO«. NaaSO«. 



Solid PhMB. 



35-49 

36.28 

37 24 

73-54 
72.77 

73 81 

7538 
72.68 

66.32 
55-34 

36 .25 
25.60 

14.62 

13 26 

16.24 



24 
24 

25 
8 

9 

9 

13 
8 

II 
14 
23 
31 
44 

47 
46 



04 
60 

45 

85 

55 

45 

56 

3^ 
62 

78 
52 
06 

14 
06 

27 



3-07 
3-14 

3-22 

6.36 
6.30 

6-39 
6.52 

6.29 

5-74 
4-79 
3-14 
2.21 

1.26 

I-I5 
1. 41 



3 
3 

■ 

3 
I 

I 

I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
2 

3 
4 
5 
5 




CdNa,(S04),.2H,0 



CdNa,(S0J,.2H,0 
+ C(iSO/.fH,0 



CdNa,(S0Ja.2H,0 
-fNa3SO^.iol4o 



CdNaa(S0J,.2H,0 



CADMIUM SULFIDE CdS. 

1000 cc. HiO dissolves 9 X io~* gms. CdS at i8^ 



(Weigel, 1906.) 



OAESIUM ALUMS 

Solubility op Caesium Chromium Alum, Caesium Iron Alum, 
Caesium Indium Alum, and op Caesium Vanadium Alum in 
Water. 

(Locke — Am. Ch. J. a?* 1741 '01.) 



Fomrab of Alum. 



CsjCr3(SOJ^.24H,0 



tt 



ii 

Cs,Fe3(SOj4.24HaO 

u 
ii 

i\ 

CSjIn,(SOJ^.24HaO 
CsjV,(SOJ,.24H,0 





Cms. per xoo cc. H^O. 


»•. 


Anhydrous 


Hydrated' 




Salt. 


Salt. 


as 


0.57 


0.94 


30 


0.96 


I 52 


3S 


1.206 


1. 91 


40 


1-53 


2.43 


25 


1. 71 


2.72 


30 


2.52 


4 01 


3S 


3-75 


6.01 


40 


6.04 


9.80 


25 


7-57 


"•73 


25 


0.771 


I 31 



GnmMbb. Salt 
xoo cc. HjP. 

O.OOI5I 
0-0025 
0.0032 
0.00405 

0.004S 
0.0066 

0.0099 

0.0156 

00172 

0-00204 



See also Alums, p. 53. 



I8l 



GAXSIUM CBLOBAUBATl 



GAS8IUM OHLORAUBATB CsAuCU. 



GmBbCsAnCk 
V, per xoo Gms. 
Solutkn. 

lO o.s 

30 1.7 



Solubility in Watbr. 

(Rosenbladt, i88d.) 

Gms.CsAaCI« 

f. per xoo Gm. f. 

SohitioiL 

40 3.2 80 

SO 5-4 90 

60 8.2 100 

70 12.0 



Giiis.CiAaO< 

per zooGmu 

Sniiirinn 

i<5.3 
21.7 

27s 



QAESIDM FLUOBOBIDI CsBFU. 

icx) grains water cUssolve 0.92 gram CsBFU at 20% and 0.04 gram at loo^ 



(Godeffzpy, Z876O 



:i:*9 



CsBr. 



Solubility of Caesium and Lead Bromides and their Double Salts 

IN Water at 25**. 

• (Foote, 1907.) 



GmSb per loo Gms. Sat. SoL 



Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 



CsBr. 


PbBn. 


« outun x-uBsc 


; CsBr. 


PbBn. 


■% ouua raamem 


0.24 


0-33 


PbBr,+CsPb,Br6 


33-65 


trace 


CsPbBrs 


033 


0.36 


« (( 


36.7 


« 


" +rs«PbBn 


12.83 


trace 


CsPbjBrs 


46.4 


ct 


Cs^PbBr. 


17.24 


u 


It 


51.15 


it 

m 


U 


17.68 


« 


" +CsPbBrs 


54.4 


ta 


" +CsBr 


18.58 


(1 


CsPbBrs 


55 23 





CsBr 



GAXSIUM Mercuric BBOMIDX C8Br.2HgBrt. 

100 grams saturated aqueous solution contain 0.807 gram CsBr.2HgBri at i6^ 

(Wells, zSga.) 

CAESIUM GABBONATB CssCO.. 

100 grams absolute alcohol dissolve 11. i grams CsiCOt at 19% and 20.1 grams 
at b. pt. (Bumen.) 

GAXSIUM BiGABBONATX CsHCO,. 
100 grams sat. solution in HiiO contain 67.8 grams CsHCQi at about 20'. 

(de Forcxaud, 1909^ 

GAXSIUM GHLORATX CsClO, GAXSIUM PerGHLORATX CsClOi. 

Solubility of Each in Water. 

(CabolarU x9ia; see also Carlson, xgio.) 



Results for CsClOs. 



Results for CSCIO4. 



r. 


Gais.CBaOi 

per xoo Gms. 

HsO. 


V. 


Gms. CsClOi 

per xoo Gms. 

HiO. 


f. 


Gms. CsaO« 

per xoo Gms. 

HiO. 

— • 


Gms. CsCIO« 
f. per xoo Gms. 



10 


2.46 
3.8 


50 
60 


19.4 
26.2 



10 


0.8 
I.O 


50 5.4 
60 7.3 


20 
25 


6.2 

7.6 


70 
80 


34-7 
45.0 


20 
25 


1.6 
2.6 (rf= 


70 9.8 

i.oi) 80 14. 4((2= 1.084) 


30 


95 


90 


58.0 


30 


2.6 


90 20.5 


40 


13-8 


ICO 


79.0 


40 


4.0 


zoo 30.0 



CAESIUM GHLORIDS 



182 



OASSIUM OHLOBIDE CsCl. 

Solubility in Watbr. 

OBeifcdey — Ttana. Roy. Soc. (Loud.) 203 A, ao8, '04; see also Hinrichsen and Saduel — Z. phyak. 



Chem. 50, 99. 'o4-'o5: at af, Foote.) 



G. CsCl per xoo Gms. 



O 
10 
20 

40 
50 



Solutiaa. 
61.7 
63.6 
65.1 

66. 4 

67 S 
68.6 



Water. 
161 .4 

174.7 
186.5 

197 -3 

308.0 
218.5 



G.Mol.CBa 
per Liter. 

6.74 
7. II 

7 38 
7 63 
7.86 

8.07 



G.CsaperiooGms. G. Mol. CsQ 



60 
70 
80 

90 
100 
II9.4 



S^ution 

69.7 

70.6 

71.4 

72.3 

73 o 
74-4 



Water. 
239.7 

239 S 

350.0 
360.1 
370.5 
290.0 



per Liter. 

8.38 
8.46 
8.64 
8.80 
8.96 
9.33 



Gms. per xoo Gms. 
Solution. 



SoUd Phase. 



ScLUBiLiTir pp Mixtures op Caesium Chloride and' MerciTric 'Chloride 

IN Water at 25''. (Foote, Z9Q3.) 

Gms. per xoo Gms. 
Soludon. 

dscE 

38.63 

17.03 

1.53 
0.61 



CsCL 
65.61 
65.78 
62.36 

57.01 

52.35 
51-08 

49-30 

45-95 

4523 



HgOs. 

0.0 

0.215 

0.32 

0.64 

1.23 

1.44 
1.49 

Z.69 
1.73 



csa 

CsQ + CiiHsClc 

Double Salt 
CasUgOf 

= 65.1% CsQ 

CaAClc + CflsHgClA 

Double Salt 

CatHgCU = ss-A%CaCL 

C8|H«CU + CsHgOt 



0.49 
0.40 

0.44 

0.41 

0.25 

0.18 

0.0 



HgCli. 

1.32 

0.51 

0.42 

2.64 

2 

3 

4.63 

4.68 

5.65 
7.09 

6.90 



SoUd 



Double Salt 

csQaa«=38^«aa 



r.91 ) 

1.78 J 

} 



CsHs +CsHgsCl. 

Double Salt 

CsHgaae = 93.7%CBa 

CsHgtOe + CsHgsQu 

Double Salt 

c&Hbau= xx.i%Csa 

CsHgBQu + HsOt 
HgO, 



SOLUBILITT OF MIXTURES OF CaESIUM ChLORIDE AND MERCURIC CHLORIDE IN 

Acetone at 25**. (Foote, 19x1.) 

Gms. per xoo Gms. Solution. 



Gms. per zoo Gms. Solution. 



Solid Phase. 

CsCl 
Mixed salts 



CsCl. HgCUt. 

0.032 o 

o.ii 0.02 

0.19 0.16 

0.25 0.17 

0.45 13.08 CsCLHgCli 

0.46 21.50 

0.56 27.2 



it 
it 



CsQ. 

0.48 

0.48 

0.47 

0.32 

0.20 

0.13 

+CsC1.2HgCli 0.0 






28.48 CsC1.2HgCl2 

39.65 " 

44.40 " +CsC1.5HgCli 
49.83 CsC1.5HgCI, 

57.74 " 

57.76 « +HgCl, 

57.74 HgCli 



CAESIUM Iridium CHLORIDES CsiIrCU, etc. 

100 gms. H|0 dissolve o.oi i gm. caesium chloroiridate, Cs2lrCUat 19^ (Delepine, 1908.) 
100 " " " 0.05 gm. caesium hexachIoroiridite,C^IrCl6.^HiO at 19^ 
100 ." " " 0.83 " caesium aquopentachloroiridite,|Cs2H|0IrClf at 19'. 

CAESIUM Platinic CHLORIDE CsPtCU. 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 0. 1 35 gm. CsPtCU at 20^. (Rosenheim and Weinheber, 1910-zz.) 

CAESIUM Tellurium CHLORIDE CsTeCU. 

Solubility in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid. (Wheeler. 1893.) 

100 parts HCl (Sp. Gr. 1.2) dissolve 0.05 part CsTeCU at 22*. 
100 parts HCl (Sp. Gr. 1.05) dissolve 0.78 part CsTeCU at 22*. 

CAESIUM Thallium CHLORIDE 3CsCl.TlCk.2H2O. 

100 parts HaO dissolve 2.76 parts 3CsCl.TlCl3.2HtO at 17% and 33.3 parts at 
I00^ iGoddboy, 18864 



183 



CAESIUM CHLORIDE 



Freezing-point lowering data (solubilities, see footnote, p. i) are given for the 
following mixtures of caesium chloride and other salts. 

Mixture. Authority. 

Caesium Chloride + Cuprous Chloride (SandoDnini and Scaipa, 19x3; Sandonnini, 19x4.) 

+ Silver Chloride 

+ Thallium Chloride « « « 

+ Lithium Chloride (Koneng, 19x5; Richards and Meldium, X917O 
+ " " +NaCl (Richards and Mddnim, X917.) 

+. Potassium Chloride (Zemcznaiy and Rambach. 19x0.) 
+ Rubidium 
+ Sodium 



II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 



II 
II 



II 

M 



CAESIUM CHROMATES, CsiCr04, CstCr^, etc 

S(H.UBiLiTY IN Water at 30'. 

(SchreinemakoB and Mdjeringh, 1908.) 



Cms. per xoo Gms. 




Gms. per ] 


[oo Gms. Sat. 




Sat. Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


1 


Sol. 


SoHdFlaie. 


Carf). 


CrO^ ' 


Cs«0. 


CtOi. 




70.63 


0.0 


CsOH.nH,0 


0.169 


21.21 


CstCrAo 


69.22 


O.II9 


" +CstCr04 


; 0.096 


25 -59 


it 


36.06 


1.883 


Cs8Cr04 


1.89 


36.19 


ti 


31.00 


7-523 


s< 


2.79 


41.68 


it 


31-68 


9.652 


u 


3.29 


44.23 


it 


35.80 


13.08 


ii 


±3-13 


±44. 45 


"+Ca,CiAt 


31 OS 


10.79 


CsfCrjOr 


2.96 


44.66 


CsiCrtOu 


24.05 


8.98 


C( 


3.40 


46.03 


a 


3.04 


2.16 


ii 


3-94 


56-77 


it 


1. 61 


4.57 


"+CsiCrAo4.3S 


62.70 


" +C1Q1 


1. 18 


7.95 


CsjCrAo 


2.33 


62.50 


CiO» 


0.586 


15-05 


ti 





62.28 


n 



CAESIUM FLUORIDE CsF.i}HiO. 
100 gms. H2O dissolve 366.5 gms. CsF at 18°, solid phase CsF.i}HiO. 

(de Fonaand, X911O 

CAESIUM H7DB0XIDE CsOH. 

100 gms. sat. solution in HiO contain 79.41 gms. CsOH at 15^ (de Forcrandt 
1909a); for 30", see above. 

CAESIUM lODATE CsIOi. 

100 parts HsO dissolve 2.6 parts CsIOs at 24^ and 2.5 parts 2CsI0t.Ii0f at 
21^ (Wheeler, 189a; Barker, 1908O 

CAESIUM Per lODATE CSIO4. 
loogms.H20di8Solve2.i5gms.CsI04at I5^dJ^8at. solution -1. 0166. (Baiker,i9o8.) 

CAESIUM IODIDES Csl, Csit, etc. 

Solubility in Water at 25". 

(Foote and Chalker, 1908.) 



im. per loo Un 


3s. bat. Solution. 


Empirical Comp. 
of Residue. 


Present in Residue. 


OL 


L 


7.72 


1. 18 


Csl8 29 


Csis and Csis 


7.69 


1. 19 


Cslsw 


ti it 


3.40 


1.23 


Csl5:75 


Csl6 and I 


2-3S 


1.23 


Csl7.« 


« it 


2-39 


1-25 


Csli9.s 


ft C( 



CAESIUM lODIDI 



184 



OAEtlUK IODIDE Csl. 

Solubility op Mixtures op Caesium Iodide and Iodine in Water. 

(Foote — Am. Ch. J. ag» azo, '03.) 



-4 

-4 

-4 
—0.2 



Cms. per 100 Gms. 
Solution. 

^ 1 



Csl. 
27.68 

27.52 
0.85 



52.2 

52.2 
52.2 
52.2 

73 
73 
73 



0.0 
0.09 
0.31 
0.34 

Gnu. per zoo Gms. 
Solution. 

T. 
452 
3 36 
3-3^ 
3-45 
15 07 
10.50 

4.08 



Csl. 

16.7s 
6.69 

6.72 

6.65 

26.98 

16.66 

6.27 



Gms. Der zoo Gms. 
solution. 



35-6 
35 -6 

35-6 

35-6 



Csl. 
51.48 

51,66 

10.72 

3-74 



I. 
0.0 
0.71 
1.78 
1.60 



In Separated Heavy Solution 
Gms. per 100 Gms. Solution. 

'"m: — ' 



22.94 
22.80 

• « • 

27.56 
17.68 



73 
74 

68 
80 



72 
63 

40 

02 



Solid Phase at 
both Temps. 

Csl 

Csl and Csl, 
Csl, and Csl, 
Csl, and I 

Solid 
Phase. 

Csl, and Csl, 

Csl, and I 

Csl, 

I 

Csl, and Csl, 

Csl, 

I 



OAESIUK (Tri) IODIDE Csl,. 

100 cc. saturated aqueous caesium iodide (about 17 per cent Csl) 
solution contain 0.97 gram Csl, at 20°, density of solution « 1.154. 

(Wells— Am. J. Sd. [3] 44, aai, ^pa^ 

OABSIUM NITRATE CsNO,. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Berkeley — Ttans. Roy. Soc. (Lond.) 203 A, 9x3, '04.) 





Gms. CsNOs per 


G. Mob. 




Gms. CsNOi per 




t». 


zoo 


Gms. 


CsNOa 
per liter. 


t». 


zoo Gms. 


G. Mols CsNOt 
per Liter. 




Solution. 


Water. 


Solution. Walrrl 





8 54 


9 33 


0.476 


60 


45.6 83.8 


3 41 


10 


12.97 


14.9 


0.725 


70 


51.7 107.0 


4.10 


20 


18.7 


23 


I. II 


80 


57-3 134.0 


4.81 


30 


25-3 


33-9 


1.58 


90 


62.0 163.0 


5 50 


40 


32.1 


47.2 


2.12 


100 


66.3 197 


6.19 


so 


39a 


64.4 


2-73 


106.2 


68.8 220.3 


6.58 



The Ice Curves for Mixtures of Caesium Nitrate and Water, 
Determined by the Synthetic Method. 

(Jones, 1908.) 

Supersolubility curve. 



Solubility curve. 

r of Ciystslli. Gms. CsN(>|,i)er 

zation. '^ 



-0.3 
—0.4 
— 1.2 

-"1-3 

— 1.4 (Eutec.) 



100 Gms. HJO. 
0.21 

1.28 

6.01 

8.0 



Solid 
Phase. 

Ice 

a 
u 
it 



t* of CiTstalli- Gms. CsNQi oer 
100 Gms. HiO. 



(sation. 
— 1.2 

-2.5 

-3.0 

-3-2 
-3-2 



0.21 

1.28 

3-99 
6.01 

8 



SoUd 
Phase. 

Ice 

(I 



€1 
€$ 



The eutectic is given as -1.254* and 8.51 gms. CsNOs per 100 gms. H|0, by 
Washburn and Maclnnes (191 1). 



185 



CAE8IUM~^OXAL2lTE 



CAESIUM OXALATE C8iCiO«.HiO. 

Solubility of Mixtukes of Caesium Oxalate and Oxalic Acid in Water 

AT 25**. 

CFoote and Andrew, 1905.) 

Varying amounts of the two substances were dissolved in hot water and the 
solutions allowed to cool in a thermostat held at 25**. 

Gms. per 100 
Gms. Solntiop. 

BflCsO«. OsCiOi. 
10 



G. Mob. per 100 
G. Mo b. HjO. 

HiCsO«. 



^ao*. 



Solid 
Phue. 



10 

7 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 

3 
I 

o 

o 

o 

o 

o 



.29 


• • 

0. 


.90 


9^ 


.11 


25 • 


•33 
.27 


27. 
28. 


.40 

.8a 


35- 
40. 


•45 

•OS 
.04 


42. 
48. 
68. 


.91 


71- 


•77 


73- 


•75 


74- 


•74 


75- 


.0 


75- 



61 
92 

12 

55 
30 
90 
10 

32 
80 
69 

24 

45 
04 
20 

82 



2.274 

2.314 
1.924 

1. 162 

1.279 

1.267 

1.476 

1-752 
1.672 

1.268 

0.688 

0.648 

0.598 

0.596 

0.625 

0.0 



o 
o 
I 
2 
2 

3 
3 
4 

5 
II 

13 
14 
14 
15 
IS 



1 



035 
614 1 
81 ) 

06 

14 
07 

71 

OS 
16 

56 
06 

51 

93 
97 



1 



HaC,0^.2HaO 

H^Q04.2HaO+I^Cs(C,OJ,.2H,0 

Double Salt. 

H3Cs(Ca04),.2H20 

H3Cs(QO,)32H,0+H.Cs,(QOJ, 

Double Salt. 

H,Cs,(QOJ, 

H,Cs3(QOJ,+HCsC30, 

Double Salt. 
HCsQO^ 

HCsC,04+H,Cs.(C30J, 
Double Salt. 
HeCSeCQOJy 

HeCs8(C,04)7+ Cs,C,0,.H,0 
CsjCjO^-HaO 



CAESIUM Telluradd OXALATE Csi[H6Te08.C>04l. 

100 gms. HiO dissolve 6.42 gms. Cs2[H«TeO«.C|04] at o**, 12.39 gms. at 20% 
15.08 gms. at 30"", 19.78 gms. at 40"" and 27.66 gms. at 50"". 

(Roacaoheim and Weinbieber, X9Z0-ZZ.) 

OAESIUM PEBMANQANATE CsMnO,. 

100 CO. sat. aqueous solution contain 0.097 gm. CsMnO^ at i®, 0.23 
gm. at 19^ and 1.25 gms. at 59^ (Pwtonoo— J.Am.Chem.Soca8i I73S. '•^^ 



OAESIUM SELENATE CsaSeO^. 
100 grams H,0 dissolve 245 grams CssSeO^ at 12®. 

(Tuttoa — J. Chem. Sec. 7ii 850i '97^ 

OAESIUM SULPHATE Cs^SO^. 

Solubility in Watbr. 

CBerkeley — 'naiu. Roy. Soc. (Loud.) 303 A, axo, '04.) 



O 
10 
20 

30 
40 

SO 



Gms. Cfl9S04 per 
100 Gms. 

SolutioQ. Wattf. 
62.6 167. I 



63 -4 
64.1 

64.8 

65 -5 
66.1 



173 I 
178.7 

184. 1 

189.9 

194.9 



G.Mob. 

CsiSO* 

per liter. 

3 42 

3-49 
3 56 
3 62 
3-68 

3-73 



60 

70 

80 

90 
100 
108.6 



Gms. C8aSO« per 
TOO Gms. 

Water. 
199.9 
205.0 
210.3 
214.9 
220.3 
324.5 



Solution. 
66.7 
67.2 
67.8 
68.3 

68.8 
69.2 



G.Moli, 

CssSp. 

per Liter. 

3 78 

3-88 

3 93 

3-97 
4-00 



Gnu. Azihydroos Sdt 
per zoo Gms. 


Gm. Mob. 
Salt per 100 


Solution. 


Watrr. ' 


Gma.HsO. 


S8-i6 


139 -9 


0.24SS 


29.52 

31 -49 


41.9 
46.0 


0.081 
0.0882 


50.29 


lOI.I 


0.1967 


34-77 
4458 


53-3 
80.4 


O.II06 

O.IS7 


20.37 
27.87 


25.6 
38.6 


0.0495 
0.0738 



CAESIUM DOUBLE SULTATEi 186 

Solubility op Caesium Doublb Sulphates in Water at 25®. 

(Locke — Am. Ch. J. 37t 459i '01.) 
Name. Fonaula. 

Caesium Cadmium Sulphate CHCd(so«)s^H^ 
Caesium Cobalt Sulphate Cs^CoCSOJaJSH^ 
Caesium Copper Sulphate c^Cu(SO«)s^HaO 
Caesium Iron Sulphate CatFeCSOJa^HaO 

Caesium Magnesium Sulphate CaaMcCsoja^HaO 
Caesium Manganese Sulphate CsaBinCSOJa^HaO 
Caesium Nickel Sulphate CsaNi(so<)aj6H30 
Caesium Zinc Sulphate CiACSOja^HaO. 

SoLUBiLnT OF Caesium Sodium Sulfates in Water at aj*. 

(Footet 19x1.) 
Gma. per 100 Gms. Sat. Solution . Per cent CaSOi Empirical Compoaition oC 

CteSOi. NaaSOi. inReaidue. « pRoidue. 

54.65 11.44 89.98 iNa«S04.3.53Cs2S04 

54.58 11.63 78.22 iNa«S04.i.4iCsfS04 

54.81 11.25 34 67 4.8Na«S04.iCstS04 

The author's solubility method for determination of the formation and com- 
position of double salts b described in the paper containing.the above results. 

CAESIUM DihydroxyTABTEATE CsiC«H408.2HsO. 

100 gms. HtO dissolve 22.5 gms. CsiC4H40s.2HsO at 0^ (Fentoo, 189&) 

CAFFEINE CiH(CH,),N40,.H,0. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Avenge cwve from reaulta of Zalai, 19x0; Pellini, 19x0, and U.S.P., Sth Ed.) 

«• Gma. CiH(CHi)j^40» ^ Gma. CiH(CH|)«N40| 

^' per xoo Gma. HiO. *' per xoo Gma. HiO. 

o 0.6 40 4.64 

IS 10 50 6.7s 

20 1.46 60 9.7 

25 2.13 70 13.5 

30 2.8 80 19*23 

Solubility of Caffeine in Organic Solvents. 

**-'• *•• S^oi^^S^SiJ^ Solvit. 

Ethyl Alcohol 35 1.33(2) Carbon Tetia- 



« ti 



35 1.33(3) Carbon Tetia- C 18 

35 1.88(1) chloride < 30 

60 5.85(1) 'b.pt. 



Methyl " 35 1.14(2) Chloroform 17 

Amyl " 35 0.50 (3) (d. -0,810) " 35 13.3 

Amyl Acetate 30.5 0.73 (3) (dbi -0.86a) " 35 11.92 

Acetic Add (995%) 31.5 2.6 (3) " b.pt. 15.63 

Acetone 30.5 3.33 (3) (<bi -0.83a) Ether 18 o.z3 

Aniline 30.5 29.4(3)(At-xx)8o) " 35 0.37 

Benzaldehyde 30.5 i3.x(3)((bi-xx)87) " b.pt 0.30 

Benzene 18.0 0.91(4) Trichlorethylene 15 0.76 

^2) Dichlorethylene 15 1.82(7) 

3)((fci-o.87s) Pyridkie 30-35 34-39(8) 

b.pt. 5 . 39 (4) 50% Aq. Pyridine " 11 . 12 (8) 

Carbon Disulfide 17 0.06(5) Toluene 35 o.58(3)(iH-o.86x) 

Xylene 32.5 i . 13 (3)(*i-o.847) 

(i) - U. S. P.; (2) - Schaefer, 1913; (3) - Seidell. 1907; (4) - GiSckel, 1898; (5) <- Commaille, 1875; 
(6) — Gori, 1913; (7) — Wester and Bruins (1914); (8) — Dehn, 19x7. 

Data for the solubility of caffeine in mixtures of alcohol and chlcM'oform and 
alcohol and benzene are given by Schaefer (1913). 



« 




187 



CAFFEINE 



Solubility op Caffeine in Aqueous 

Vice Versa. 

Results at 25^. 

Gms. per xoo Gms. HsO. 



CsHmNiOi. 
2.13 
8.32 
38.10 

51-74 
46.27 

24.79 

9-47 
o 



CrHcOiNa. 
O 
6.67 

4S 

76.7s 
76.68 

69 56 
62.97 

61.17 



Solid Phase. 
C«H»N40i.HsO 



Solutions of Sodium Benzoate and 

(Pellini, 19x0.) 

Results at 40°. 

Gms. per 10 Gms. HiO. 
CSH10K4O1. 



(» 



(( 



"+C7Hi0iNa.Hs0 
C7H«0feNa.Hs0 



<( 



K 



M 



4.64 

31 -43 
56.82 

57-99 
55-98 
18.31 
o 



CTHcOiNa. 
O 

2531 
69.68 

74.64 

74.02 

67.97 

59.82 



Solid Phase. 



CaHioN40i.HsO 



(f 



"+C7Hi0«Na.Hj0 
CrHtOiNa-HiO 



(f 



<f 



Solubility of Caffeine in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Salicylate and 

Vice Versa. (P^lUni and Amadori, 19x2.) 



Results at 25* 

Gms. per lop Gms. H^. 
C«HioN40i. 



2.13 
38.36 
55-23 
74.32 
16.78 
13.22 

9-03 

o 



CrHiOsNa. 
O 
30.76 

47.31 
68.81 

124.96 

121.27 

120.54 

"5-43 



Solid Phase. 
C«Hk»N40i.H^ 



Results at 40®. 

Gms. per 10 Gms. HiO. 
CgHioN^Oi. 



It 



u 



It 



OrHiOfeNa 



«4 



(( 



tt 



4.64 

59-49 
86.49 

95-94 
26.93 

10-75 
o 



C7HfO>Na. 
O 

37-47 
62.47 

69.15 
131-52 

124.35 
119.66 



Solid Phase. 



C<H]oN40i.HiO 



tt 



If 



(( 



CrHiOiNa 



tt 



u 



Data, for the depression of the freezing-point of sodium salicylate solutions by 
caffeine and theobromine are also given. 

Distribution of Caffeine between Water and Chloroform. (Marden, X914.) 



Grams Caffeine in: 

- * 



xos cc. HiO Layer. 50 cc. CHCIa Layer. 
0.0090 0.0563 

0.0180 0.1048 

0.0291 0.1770 



Ratio of Caffeine in 
Equal Vols. HiO and CHCIs. 

0.0456 
0.0492 
0.0470 



CALCIUM ACETATE Ca(CH,C00),.2H,0. 

Solubility in Water. (Lumsden. 1903; Krasnicki, 1887.) 



Gmg. WlCB^COGh 


Gms. Ca(CH^OO)s 


*•. 


per 100 Gms. Solid Phase. 


t». 


per xoo 
Solution. 


Oms. 
Wate^. 


SoUdPfaaae. 




^lutioxi. Water. 







27-2 37.4 CaCCHsCOOsjHgO 


60 


24.6 


327 


Ca(CH8COO)j.aHaO 


10 


26.5 36.0 Ca(CH,COO)ijHjO 


80 


25.1 


33-5 


Ca(CH3C00)a.aH,0 


20 


25 -8 34.7 Ca(CHaCOO)ajHaO 


84 


25 -3 


33'^ 


Ca(CH8COO)a.2H80 


25 


255 34 • 2 . Ca(CH8COO)j.aHaO 


85 


24.7 


32.9 


Ca(CHsCOO),.H,0 


30 


25 -3 33-8 Ca(CH«C00)2.aH,0 


90 


23 -7 


311 


Ca(CH3COO)aJIaO 


40 


24 -9 33 2 Ca(CH,COO)8.aH20 


100 


22.9 


29.7 


Ca(CHsCOO)8.HaO 



Solubilitt of Calcium Acetate in an Aqueous Saturated Solution of 

Sugar at 31.25**. (Kshier, 1897.) 

100 gms. solution contain 8.29 gms. CaCCHgCOO)! + 60.12 gms. sugar. 
100 gms. water dissolve 26.3 gms. CaCCHsCOO)^ + 190.3 gms. sugar. 

100 oc anhydrous hydrazine dissolve i gm. calcium acetate at room temp. 

(Welsh and Broderson, 19x5.) 



GALGIUM ACETATIS 



i88 



OALOIUM (Tn) Methyl AOETATE Ca[(CH,},CCOO],. 

OALOIUM (Di) Ethyl AOETATE Ca[(C,Ha)aCHCOO],. 

OALOIUM Methyl Ethyl AOETATE Ca[CH,(C,H,).CHCOO],. 

Solubility op Each in Water. 

(Lanikn — Momtfah. Chem. 14, 7x7, '93; Keppish — /Mi. 9, 600, '88; Sedlitzki ~ iluf. S, 573, '87.) 

Ca, Tri Methyl Acetate. Ca. Di Ethyl Acetate. Ca. Methyl EthyL 

Acetate. 





Gnu. Ca(CcHM)s 


Gms. Ca(C6HuOt)s 


GmB. Ca(CBH^02)t 


!•. 


per TOO 


Gms. 


per xoo Gms. 


per xoo Gms. 




Water. Solution'. 


^ater. 


Solution. 


Water. 


Solutiab. 





7 30 


6.81 


30 -3 


23.22 


28.78 


22.35 


10 


6.84 


6.40 


27.8 


21-75 


31-71 


24.07 


20 


6.54 


6.14 


25.6 


20.38 


33-7^ 


25 23 


30 


6.40 


6.01 


23 -7 


19.16 


34 92 


25.89 


40 


6.44 


6.05 


22.1 


18.10 


35 20 


26.04 


SO 


6.64 


6.22 


20.8 


17.22 


34.60 


25-71 


60 


6.86 


6.42 


19.9 


16.60 


33" 


24.89 


70 


7. II 


6.64 


19.2 


16. II 


30. 74 


23.41 


80 


733 


6.87 


• ■ ■ 


• • ■ 


27.49 


21.56 



OALOIUM Methyl Propyl AOETATE Ca[CH,(C,H,).CHCOO],. 

OALOIUM (Di) Propyl AOETATE Ca[(C,H,),CHCOO],. 

OALOIUM (ISO) Butyl AOETATE Ca[(CH3),CH(CH,),C00],. 

Solubility op Each in Water. 

(Stiassny — Monatsh. Chem. xa* 596* Vt Furth — Ihid. 9, 3x3, '88; K6nig — Ihid. z& sa, '94O 

Ca. Methyl Propyl Acetate. Ca. Di Propyl Acetate. Ca. Iso Butyl 

Acetate. 



Gms. Ca(C6HiiOa)s 
per xoo Gms. 



Gms. CaCCsHttfO^ 
per xoo Gms. 



Gms. Ca(C6HiiOs)fl 
per 100 Gms. 





Water. 


Solution. 


Water. 


Solution. 


'Water. 


Solutkn^ 





16.58 


14.22 


9-57 


8.73 


7.48 


6.96 


10 


15-80 


13-65 


8-35 


7.71 


6.38 


S-99 


20 


ISU 


J315 


7.19 


6.71 


5-66 


s-36 


30 


14.61 


12.7s 


6. II 


s-77 


S-3I 


5 04 


40 


14.31 


12 45 


509 


4.84 


S-3I 


5 -04 


SO 


13-94 


12.24 


4.14 


3-98 


5-68 


S-37 


60 


13-79 


12.13 


325 


3-^5 


6.41 


6.03 


70 


13-78 


12.12 


2.44 


2.38 


7-Si 


6.n8 


80 


13.89 


12.20 


1.65 


1.63 


8-97 


8.23 


90 


• • • 


... 


■ • • 


• • ■ 


10.79 


9-74 



CALCIUM BENZOATE Ca(C«H.COO),. 

1 00 cc. sat. solution in water contain 3 .02 gms. Ca [CeHf COO]i at 26^. (de Jong, 191 a.) 

100 gms. sat. solution in water contain 8.6 gms. CaLCsHeCOOls at 15*^ and 10.2 

gms. at 100**. (Tarugi and Checchi, 1901.) 

CALCIUM BOBATES CaB/)«4HsO, CaB«04.6HsO. 

SoLUBiLmr OF Each Separately in Water. 

(Mandelbaum, 1909.) 
' Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. S<d. 



f. 

70 
90 



BsOs. CaB40«. 

0.0365 0.310 

0.036 0.307 

0.048 0.392 

0.0315 0.310 



Solid Phase. 

CaBiO«.4H^ 
(amorphous) 



Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 



ff 



(4 



M 



30 

50 
70 

90 



BfOt. 
0.0205 
0.032 
0.068 
0.067s 



CaBflOi. 
0.254 
0.353 
0.457 

0-359 



Solid Phase. 

CaBi0«.6Hii0 
" (cryit.) 



i89 CALCIUM BOBATE 

SOLUBILITT OF CAI/HUM BORATES IN AqUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF BORIQ ACID 

AT 30**. 
(Sboigi, 1913.) 



Omft. per xoo Gi 


OS. Sat. Sol. 


SoUd 
Phase. 


Gms.perxooijii 


ns. Sat. SOL 


Solid 


B^ 


CaO. 


Bid. 


CaO. 


Phaae. 


0.014 


0.126 


Ca(0H)t 


0.869 


0.067 


3.3.9 


0.032 


0.140 


If 


1. 116 


0.076 


M 


0.098 


0.194 


<f 


1-339 


0.093 


" +Z.3.U 


0.127 


0.217 


« +1.1.6 


2.058 


0.093 


Z.3.I2 


0.134 


0.220 


Z.1.6 


2.509 


0.099 


tt 


0.138 


O.II^i 


ft 


2.730 


O.III 


M 


0.162 


0.106 


CI 


3.732 


0.325 


M 


0.166 


0.107 


" +a.3.9 


2.798 


0.109 


« 


0.171 


0.109 


tt It 


3-313 


0.143 


M 


0.290 


0.052 


2.3.9 


3.841 


0.-I52 


M 


0.610 


0.054 


ii 


4.250 


0.15s 


«* +HiBOfc 


0.767 


0.059 


u 


4.179 


0.137 


HaBOk 


I.I 


.6 = CaO.B,Oi.6HiO, 


2.3.9 = 2CaO.3B1Qs.9HtO, 





1.3.12 = Ca0.3BjOi.i2H,0. 
Many determinations, in addition to the above, are given in the original paper. 

CALCIUM BBOIODB CaBr,.6H,0. 

Solubility in Watek. 

CKremeis, 1858; ' Etaid,''i894, gives results whkh yield an irregular curve and are evidently kss Mrnialu 

than those of Kremecs.) 





Gms. CaBn per 








Gms. CaBn per 




f . . 


100 Gms. 


Solid Phase. 


V. 




xoo 


Gms. 


Solid Phase. 




Water. 


Solution.^ 


Water. 


Solution^ 




-22* 


lOI 


50.5 


CaBn.6HaO+Ioe 


34- 


2t 


i8S 


65.1 


CaBn.6Hk0+CaBiMH^ 





"S 


555 


CaBn.6Ha0 


40 




213 


68.1 


CaBxMHiO 


10 


132 


57 


It 


60 




278 


73-5 


M 


20 


143 


58.8 


fC 


80 




29s 


74.7 


M 


25 


153 


60.5 


u 


105 




312 


7S-7 


« 



• Eutec t tr. pt. 

Density of saturated solution at 20^ « 1.82. 

Data for the system calcium bromide, calcium oxide and water at 25^ are given 
by Milikau (1916). 

Freezing-point data are given for mixtures of calcium bromide and calcium 
chloride, calcium bromide and calcium fluoride by Ruif^and Plato, 1903. 

CALCIUM PerBBOlODE CaBr«. 

Data for the formation of calcium perbromide in aqueous solutions at 25^ 
are given by Herz and Bulla (191 1). The experiments were made by adding 
bromine to aqueous solutions of CaBrs and agitating with carbon tetrachloride. 
From the bromine content of the CCI4 layer, the amount of free bromine in the 
aqueous layer can be calculated on the basis of the distribution ratio of bromine 
between water and CCI4. This furnishes the necessary data for calculating the 
amount of ^calcium perbromide existing in the aqueous layer. 



CALCIUM BUTY&ATS 190 

OALOIUM (Normal) BUTTBATE Ca[CH,(CH,),COO],.H,0. 



OALOIUM 



(ISO) BUTTBATB Ca[(CH,),CH.COO],.sH,0. 
Solubility op Each in Watbr. 



(Lnmaclen — J. Chem. Soc. 8x, 355, 'oa; see also Chancel and Parmender — Compt. rend. Z04* 494, 
'87; Deszathy — Monatsh. Chem. 14, 351, '93, and also Hecht — liebig's Annalen 3x3, 7a, '8a, gi^e 
results for the Dormal salt which are somewhat below those of Lumaden for the lower temperatures. 
Sedlitzki — Mooatah. Chem. 8» 566, '87, gives slightly different results f or the iso salt.) 



Calcitixn Normal But3rrate. 

Cms. Ca(C«H70i)9 
•, per iqo Gms. 

l^ater. Soluticn! 



Calcitmi Iso Butyrate. 



Gms. Ca(C«H7Qi)s 
per 100 Gms. 

Water. 



Solid 
Phase. 



O 
10 
20 

25 

30 
40 

60 
80 

zoo 



30 

19 
18 

16 
IS 

IS 



•31 

•IS 


16. 
16. 


■ 20 


IS- 


.72 


IS- 


•25 


14. 


.40 


14. 


•IS 


13- 


•9S 
•8S 


13- 
13- 



89 

08 

39 
OS 
71 

09 

16 

01 

69 



o 
20 

30 
40 

60 
62 

6s 
80 

100 



20.10 
22.40 
23.80 
25.28 
28.40 
28.70 
28.25 
27.00 
26.10 



Solution. 

16.78 Ca(C^IL0j),.sH|O 

18.30 *' 

19 23 
20.65 

22.12 



a 
it 

St 



ti 



22.30 

22.03 Ca(C^HyO,),.H,0 

21.26 

20.69 " 



CALCIUM d CAMPHORATE CuHM04Ca.7HsO. 

Solubility of Calcium Camphorate in Aqueous Solutions of Camphoric 

Acid at 15** and Vice Versa. 

(Jungfleisch and Landrieu, 1914.) 

Gms. per zoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 



Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. 

C«Hu(C0OH;t. LKiHMO«Ca. 

1.3s I 23 

1-57 1-97 

I. 71 2.5s 

2.18 4.34 

2.33 4-73 



Solid Phase. 
CsHii(C00H)t 



M 



f( 



U 



«• 



CbHuCCOOH)!. CioHuOiCa. 
2.90 7.7s 

3 8.66 

307 8.57 
1.50 7.94 



Solid Phase. 

CtHu(C00H)a 
" +Ci|HiiOft.Ca.7EbO 

C|ftHiiOiCa.7H^ 
If 

If 



o 7-37 

Calcium camphorate tetrahydrate exists at higher temperatures. Its solu- 
bility at 100^ was found to be 8.68 ems. CioHmO^Qi per 100 ems. sat. solution. 
By careful work, the result at 15° for CioHi^4Ca.4HsO was found to be 12.21 
gms. CioHi404Ca per 100 gms. sat. solution. 

CALCIUM CAPBOATE (Hexoate) Ca[CH,(CH,)4C001,.H,0. 

CALCIUM 3 Methyl PBNTANATE Ca[CH,.CH,.CH(CH,)CH,.COO]i.3HsO. 

CALCIUM CAPBYLATE Ca[CH,(CHs)«COO],.HsO. 

Solubility of Each in Water. 

(Lumsden; the Pentanate, Kuhsh, 1893; see also Keppish, x888, and Altschul, 1896, 

for results on the Caproate.) 



Ca. Caproate. 

M Gms. CaCCJIuO^t per 

*^' 100 Gms. Rfi. 

o 2.23 

20 2.18 

40 2.15 

50 2 . 10 

60 2.15 

80 2.30 

100 2.57 



Ca. 3 Methyl Pentanate. Ca. Caprylate. 

Gms. Ca(C<Hii0»)t per 100 Gms. Qms. CaCCgHuO^t per 



Water. 

".33 
17.18 

18.99 

18.73 
17.71 

13-37 
9.94 



Solution. 
10.98 
14.66 

IS -97 

15.78 

1S.04 
11.80 

9.04 



xoo Gms. HiO. 

0.33 
0.31 

0.28 

0.26 

0.24 

0.32 

0.50 



I9X 



CALCIUM CARBONATC 



GALdUM CARBONATE CaCQi. 

EgUILIBKIUlf IN THE SYSTEM CaO-H20-COj AT l6*. 

The following data for the solubility of calcite (CaCOi) in water at i6^ in con- 
tact with air containing the partial pressure P of COi were calculated from the 
results of Schloesing (1872). Engel (1888), and others by Johnston (191^) and 
Johnston and Williamson (1916I. These authors describe the changes in the 
system resulting from a gradual increase in partial pressure of CQi, as follows: 

"We begin by considering the equilibrium between the hydroxide M(OH)s and the aqueous 
solution saturated with it as affected by a progressive increase from zero of the partial pressure 
P of COi in the atmosphere in contact with the solution. Addition of COi is foUowed by a dis- 
tribution between the vapor and liquid phases until there is equilibrium between the residual 
partial pressiuv of COi and the HsCCH in solution, and in turn between the latter and the 
several ions; the net effect of this is a definite decrease in [OH"], the concentration of hydroxide 
km, which necessitates that more of the hy(hoxide dissolve in order to keep the solubility- 
product [M++][Oir~]* constant. Consequently the total concentration of M-H- increases, 
part of it being now associated with carbonate and bicarbonate; in other words, the apparent 
solubility of the base increases if the method of analysis of the solution b a determination of 
M, whereas it would decrease if one should determine [OH~p. This process continues until 
the product niif*H-][COi"] reaches the value requisite for the precipitation of MCOi (on the 
assumption- that superaaturation does not occur) which, for a given base, takes place at a 
definite value of P which depends only upon the temperature; this transition pressure Pi is, 
at a given temperature, the highest under which solid hydroxide is stable and the lowest at 
which solid carbonate is stable. 

At Pi the solubilitv (as measured by the total [M]) begins to diminish, because increase of 
P increases [CCH^] while the product [M'H-KCOi"] must remain constant so long lu MCXDi is 
the stable solid phase; this increase of [CQiT] continues until a definite pressure Po is reached, 
when the formation of bicarbonate in the solution becomes the predominant reaction and 
[CQir] begins to decrease again. Po is thus a minimum in the solubility curve. With 
further increase beyond Po the concentration of both M-H- and HCOs increases steadily 
untfl the precipitation value of the product [M++)[HCOi'~)' is reached at Pi, which is a transi- 
tion pressure at which both carbonate and bicarbonate are present as stable solid phases. 
Beyond P% bicarbonate alone is stable, and its total solubility falb off very slowly with 
further increaae of partial pressure of COb." 



The Calcxtlated Ion-Concentrations and Solubh^ity op Calcite in 
Water at 16*^ in Contact with Air Containing the Partial Pressure 
P OF COi. 

1^^ Grams 



Partial PreKuxe P 
of COi Measured 
in Atmospheres. 




Ion-concentrations per Liter X lo"^. 


Ca++. 


0H-. 


COI-. 


HCOr. 


3.16X1O-" 


138.5 


277 


0.0071 


0.0000235 


2.80X10-1® 


6.81 


13.3 


0.144 


O.OI 


9.78XIO-* 


2.377 


3.82 


0.414 


O.IO 


6.14X10-* 


1.654 


1.82 


O.S93 


0.30. 


2.19X10-^ 


1.476 


1.02 


0.665 


0.60 


3.73X10-^ 


1-459 


0.787 


0.672 


0.787 


3.85X10-^ 


1-459 


0.774 


0.672 


0.80 


6.07X10""^ 


1-473 


0.614 


0.666 


I 


7.62X10"* 


2.051 


0.147 


0.478 


3 


7.63Xio-» 


3.777 


0.034 


0.260 


7 


2.15X10"^ 


S-I97 


0.0174 


0.188 


10 


2 Xio"^ 


5-09 


0.0182 


0.19 


9.96 


2.5 Xio"^ 


5-46 


0.0157 


0.18 


10.54 


3 Xio-^ 


579 


0.0140 


0.17 


11.22 


35 Xio-^ 


6.08 


0.0126 


0.16 


11.82 


4 Xio"^ 


6.35 


o.oiis 


0.16 


12.36 


4.5 X10-* 


6.59 


0.0107 


0.15 


12.86 


5 X10-* 


6.82 


O.OIOO 


0.14 


13-32 



Liter 
Xio-*. 


Liter. 


• • • 


2 






0.074 






0.026 






0.018 






0.016 






0.0159 






0.0159 






0.016 






0.022 






0.040 






0.056 


5S2 


0.055 


S-93 


0.059 


6.31 


0.063 


6.64 


0.066 


6.94 


0.069 


7.21 


0.072 


7-^ 


^6 


0.07s 



CALCIUM CARBONATE 



192 



The Solubility of Calcium Carbonate (Calcite) in Water at i6* in 
Contact with Air Containing Partial Pressure P of COi. 

(Gale, from Schloesing, 1872, and Engel, x888, by Johnston, 19x5.) 
Total Ca, Mob. Total Ca(HC0i)s ^*S^J rJ?1S^ Total Ca.MoU.ToUl Ca(HC0^, 

Atmospheres. 
0.4167 



Partial Pressure 

Pof COiin 

Atmospheres. 

0.000504 
0.000808 
0.00333 

o.. 01387 

0.02820 
0.05008 
0.1422 
02538 



per Liter. 

0.000746 
0.000850 
0.001372 
0.002231 
0.002965 
0.003600 
0.005330 
0.006634 



Mols. per Liter. 
0.000731 



0.000837 
0.001364 
0.002226 
0.002961 
0.003597 
0.005328 
0.006632 



0.5533 
0.7297 

0.9841 

I 
2 

4 

6 



per Liter. 

0.007825 

0.008855 

0.00972 

0.01086 

0.01085 

O.OI4II 

0.01834 

0.02139 



Mols. per Liter 

0.007874 

0.008854 

0.00972 

0.01086 

0.01085 

O.OI4II 

0.01834 

0.02139 



The Solubility of Calcium CarbonatbI (Calcite) in Water at 25° in 
Contact with COi Under Increasing Pressures. (McCoy and Smith, 19x1.) 



Approz. Pres- 
sure of COi in 
Atmospheres.* 

O.I 
I.I 
9.9 

13-2 
16.3 



25 



cm 



Mols. per Liter Sat. Solution. 
HsCOi. 
0.003522 
0.03728 

0.3329 
0.444 

0.550 
0.858 



Cms. per Liter Sat. Sol. 



CaCHCO.),. 

0.0041 16 

0.009734 

0.02236 

0.02495 

0.02600 

0.02603 



HiCOi. 
0.22 

2.3 
20.6 

27s 

34-1 

alson 



CaCHCOi)!. 
0.67 
1.58 
3.62 
4.04 
4.21 
4.22 



SoUd Phase. 

CaCQs 

ti 

u 
u 

Ca(HCQ,)i 

tt 



* Calc by Henry's Law from COi concentrations. See also remarks under Ferrous Bicarbonate, p. 336. 

These results show that the solution becomes saturated with Ca(HCOs)s at 
about 15 atmospheres pressure of COi, and it would be theoretically possible to 
convert all the CaCOi to Ca(HCC)i)i bv introducing sufficient COa at pressures 
l^eater than 15 atmospheres. Under the conditions of the present experiment, 
It was calculated that more than 3 months time would have been required for 
the complete conversion. 

The solubility of calcium carbonate in water saturated with COs at one at- 
mosphere pressure was found by Cavazzi (1016) to be 1.56 gms. CaCOa at 0° 
and 1. 1 752 gms. at 15°. A supersaturated solution prepared by passing a rapid 
stream of COi through sat. C^(OH)i solution at 15*^ contained 2.29 gms. CaCOi. 

Solubility of Calcium Carbonate in Water at 15*. (TreadwcU and Renter, 1896.) 

(Among the investigators who have reported results upon the solubility of calcium carbonate may 
be mentioned, Cossa, 1869; Schloesing, 1872; Caro, 1874; Reid, 1887--88; Irving and Young, z888; Ander- 
son, 1888-89; Engel, x888; Lubavin, 1892; PoUacci, 1896.) 



cc COs per 100 cc. 

Gaseous Phase 
(o*and76onmi.). 

8.94 


Partial Pressure 

of COi in mm. 

Hg. 

67.9 


6.04 


45-9 


5-45 
2.18 


41.4 
16.6 


1.89 


14.4 


1.72 


131 


0.79 


6 


0.41 


31 


0.25 
0.08 


1.9 
0.6 



Gms. per 


xoo cc. Saturated Solution. 

4, 


FrceCOi. 


Ca(HCOi)». 


Ca. 


0.1574 


0.1872 


0.0462 


0.0863 


0.175s 


0.0433 


0.0528 


0.1597 


0.0394 


0.0485 


0.1540 


0.0380 


0.0347 


0.1492 


0.0368 


0.0243 


O.I33I 


0.0329 


O.OI4S 


0.1249 


0.0308 


0.0047 


0.0821 


0.0203 


0.0029 


0.0595 


0.0147 


• • ■ 


0.0402 


0.0099 


■ • • 


0.0385 


C.OO95 



Therefore i liter sat. solution at 15* and o partial pressure of COj contains 
0.385 gram Ca(HCO|)i. Determinations similar to tne above, made in o.i » 
NaCl solutions at 15", are also given. It is pointed out by Johnston (1915)1 that 
although Treadwell and Renter made very painstaking analyses; their mode of 
working did not secure equilibrium conditions, a fact which is borne out by the 
lack of constancy of the calculated solubility-product constant. 



193 



CALCIUM CABBONATE 



Solubility of Calcium Carbonate (Calcitb) in Water in Contact 

WITH Air at Different Temperatures. * 

(Wells. 191S.) 

(Jopiin, Mo., caldte was used. The solutions were kept in a thermostat and 
agitated by a current of out-door air filtered through cotton and washed by 
water. The COi content of the air varied from ^.02 to 3.27 parts per 10,000. 
The calcium content of the solutions was detemuned by titrating with 0.02 n 
NaHSO^, using methyl orange as indicator. The solutions were slightly acid 
to phenolphthaleine, showingithat the calcium was present chiefly as bicarbonate.) 






Cms. CaCOi per liter. 
0.081 


10 
20 

25 


0.070 
0.06s 
0.056 (0.046) 


30 


0.052 


40 

SO 


0.044 

0.038 (0.029) 



Results in parentheses by Kendall (19 12). In connection with these it is 
stat^ by Johnston (191 5), that assurance is wanting that the partial pressure of 
COi was the same at both temperatures and the results are, therefore, not neces- 
sarily comparable. 



SOLUBILITT OF CAIXIUlk CARBONATE IN WaTER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES 

AND IN Contact with Air Containing Different Partial Pressures or 
CO,. 

(Leather and Sen, 1909.) 



Results at i< 


> • 


Results at 25*. 


Results at 40"*. 


Partial 
Pressure 


Gms. per 


Liter Sol. 


Partial 

Pressure 

COiinGas 

Phase. 


Gms. per 
CaCOi. 


Liter Sol. 
COi. 


Partial 
Pressure 
COiinGas 
Phase. 


Gms. per 
> CaCOi. 


Liter Sol. 


COiinGas 
Phase. 


CaCOi. 


COi. 


COS. ^ 


0.8 


0.193 


O.II7 


0.7 


0.159 


0.091 


0.6 


0.136 


0.078 


i-S 


0.193 


0.152 


1.6 


0.177 


O.III 


1.7 


0.143 


0.085 


1-7 


0.238 


0.13s 


4.6 


0.341 


0.208 


2.9 


0.17s 


0.106 


6.8 


0.44s 


0.327 


7.8 


0.446 


0.301 


35 


0.232 


0.169 


9.9 


0.627 


0.456 


16.5 


0.539 


0.522 


7 


0.284 


0.234 


13.6 


0.723 


0.560 


30.1 


0.743 


O.7IS 


14.9 


0.384 


0.293 


14.6 


0.686 


0.623 


3SS 


0.7SS 


0.803 


22.2 


0.427 


333 


316 


1.050 


1. 117 








317 


0.480 


0.476 



Similar results also given for 20®, 50* and 35®. 

The mixtures were constantly agitated at constant temperature. The solid 
phase in each case was found to be CaCOs and it is concluded that Ca(HCOi)s 
cannot exist in this solid state above 15^. 

In discussing the experiments of Leather and Sen, Johnston (1Q15) points 
out that their method of analysis gives low results for CO*. A calculation of 
the data yields verv irr^^lar results and the most that can be deduced from 
them is that the solubility-product constant of calcite probably decreases some- 
what with temperature, becoming apparently about 0.5X10"* at 40^ 

Data for the solubility of CaCOs m boiling water are given by Cavazzi (1917). 

Data for the solubility of calcium carbonate in water containing excess of 
carbon dioxide are also given by Seyler and Lloyd (1909). The experiments 
were made at room temperature. Additional experiments showed' tnat small 
amounts of CaCU, CbSOa or NaHCOs did not affect the solubility-product con- 
stant. Small amounts of NaCl, NasSOi and MgS04, containing no ion in common 
with CaCOk, resulted in an increase of the total calcium in the solution. 

Data for tlie solubility of calcium carbonate in water, determined by the con- 
ductivity method, are given by Holleman and by Kohlrausch and Rose (1893). 



CALCIUM CABBONATB 194 

Solubility of Calcium Carbonate in Aqueous Solutions of Ammonium 

Chloride. 

Results at 1 2"-! 8*^. Results at 2^**. Results at 60° for Calcite and Aragonite. 

(Cantoniaad Goguclia, 1905.) (Rinddl. i9xo5 (Waiynaki and Kouropatwinaka. 

(Flasks allowed to stand (Constant agitation 1916.) 

98 days.) . ^24brs.),.. 

Gms. per Liter Sat. SoL ■ Gms. per Liter SaL Sol.' dms. lyr Liter. Gms. per Liter. 

NH4CI. CaCOi. ' NH4CI. CaCO.. NH4CL Calcite. NHiCl. Aragonite. 

53.5 0.423 6.7 0.285 O 0.028 O 0.041 

100 0.609 '3-4 0-373 i-oy 0.164 i-o? 0.184 

200 0.645 26.8 0.502 5.35 0.333 5.35 0.371 

"" 53-5 0.678 10.70 0.453 1070 0-505 

26.76 0.664 26.76 0.728 

5352 0.934 5352 i.ois 

160.56 X.2I X60.56 1.36 

Solubility of Calcium Carbonate in Aqueous Solutions of Ammonium 

Nitrate and of Triammonium Citrate. 

InAq. NH4N0sat 18°. InAq.NH4NO»at25^ In Aq. Triammonium Citrate at 25^ 

(BerjuandlKoeminiko, 1904.) (RIndell, 1910.) 

Gms. per Liter Sat. Sol. Gms. per Liter Sat. Sol. 

l>fH*NO». ' CaCO». ■ NH4NO.. CaCOa. ' 

o 0.131 5 0.200 

5 0.2II 10 0.278 

10 0.258 20 0.383 

20 0.340 40 0.526 

40 0.462 

80 0.584 

Solubility of Calcium Carbonate in Aqueous Solutions of Magnesium 
Chloride, Magnesium Sulfate, Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate 
Under CO2 Pressure of Two Atmospheres. (EUert and Hempei, 191a.) 

Aq.Salt *o drSld^'t ^'SFS' Aq. Salt 4. <SSd^t 2.?*;^^ 

Solution. * • per x^Gms. I-,^^,- SoUon. * ' ^^ x^ P-^,^-^ 

MgCls.6HsO 5 o 2.337 NaCl 5 50 3 -740 

5 6.1 2.352 " 5 86 3.783 

" 5 50 3404 " 5 106.9 3690 

" 5 86.9 4083 " 5 175.6 3.350 

" 5 350 3-301 " 5 263.4 2. 811 

" 5 700 2.736 " 8 351-2 2.163 

" 5 "50 2.205 MgS04.7HjO 14 105.3 2.177 

" 5 1725 1.706 " 14 (sat.) 0.914 

*' 5 2300 sat. 1.406 NaiSO^.ioHsO 14 137 -7 1.406 

NaCl 5 28 3.280 " 14 (sat.) 1.920 

Solubility of Calcium Carbonate in Aqueous Solutions of Potassium 
Chloride and of Potassium Sulfate at 25°. .(Cameron and Robinson, 1907.) 

Results for Aqueous KCi : Results for Aqueous K2SO4: 

T« ^^««^o^ «,;*u ,:^ In contact with i »„ ^^„^^^ -^t, ^' In contact with i 
In contact with air. atmosphere of CO,. ^" ^^"^^ ^'^** ^"^- atmosphere of CO,. 



(Rindell. 19x0.) 


Mols. Citrate 
per Liter. 


C;ms. Ca(X)i 
per Liter. 


0.0625 
0.125 
0.250 
0.500 


1.492 
2.264 
3.980 
6.687 



Gms. per loo Gms. 


Gms. pe 


r 100 Gms. 


Gms. per 100 Gms. 


Gms. per 


100 Gms. 


Sat. 


Sol. 


Sl 


t. Sol. 


^t. 


Sol. 


Sat. 
K«SO« 


Sol. 


KCI. 


CaCOi. 


KCI. 


CaCOa. 


KtSO*. 


CaCOi. 


CaO. 





0.0013 





0.062 


1.60 


0.0104 


0.69 


0.69 


3-9 


0.0078 


3-9 


O.I4S 


315 


O.OI16 


1-37 


0.69 


7.23 


0.0078 


723 


0.150 


4.73 


0.0132 


1.67 


0.47* 


13.82 


0.0072 


13.82 


0.165 


6.06 


0.0148 


2.18 


0.30* 


18.21 


0.0070 


18.21 


0.154 


8.88 


0.0192 


2.99 


0.24* 


26 


0.0060 


26 


0.126 


10.48 


0.0188 







* Solid phase syngenite. 

One liter aqueous solution containing 223.8 gms. KCI dissolves 0.075 gm. 
calcite at 60**. 

One liter aqueous solution containing 223.8 KCI dissolves 0.093 8^- aragonite 
at 60*^. (Warynaki and Kouropatwinaka, 19x6^ 



195 



CALCIUM CABBONATB 



SOLUBILITT OF CaLCIUM CaRBONATB IN AqUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF SODIUII 

Chloridb at 25°. 



Solutions in contact with. 
COi Free Air. 

(Cameron, Bell and Robinson, 1907.) 
Cms. per 100 Gma. HsO. 



Ordinary Air. COi at One Atmos. Pressure. 

(Cameron and Seidell, 1902.) (Cameron, Bell and Robinson, 1907.) 



Gma. per xoo cc. Sat. Sol. 



Gma. per 100 Gma. HiO. 



NaQ. 


CaCO^ 


NaCL 


CaCOi. 


' NaO. 


CaCOi. 


1.60 


0.0079 


I 


O.OII2 


1.49 


0.150 


S.18 


0.0086 


4 


0.0140 


569 


0.160 


9.2s 


0.0094 


8 


0.0137 


11.06 


0.174 


11.48 


0.0104 


10 


0.0134 


15.83 


0.172 


16.66 


0.0106 


IS 


O.OII9 


19.62 


0.159 


22.04 


o.oiis 


20 


0.0106 


29.89 


0.123 


30.50 


0.0II9 


25 


0.0085 


35.85 


0.103 



Data for the solubility of calcium carbonate in aqueous solutions of mixtures 
of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate in contact with air and with CQi are 
given by Cameron, Bell and Robinson (1907). 

Data for solubility of CaCOi in aqueous NaCl and other salt solutions, de- 
termined by boiling and cooling the solution, are given by Gothe (1915). 

Data for the solubility of mixtures of calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate in 
aqueous solutions of sodium chloride at 2$\sLTe ^ven by Cameron and Seidell (1901 ). 

Data for the solubility of mixtures of calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate 
in aqueous solutions of mixtures of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate at 25% 
in contact with air and with COs, are given by Cameron, Bell and Robinson (1907). 

One liter aqueous solution containing 175.5 gms. NaCl dissolves 0.062 gm. 
calcite at 60**. 
One liter aqueous solution containing 175.5 S™^. NaCl dissolves 0.071 gm. 



aragonite at 60 . 



(Warynaki and Kouropatwinaka, 1916.) 



Solubility of Calcium Carbonate in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium 
Hydkoxidb in Contact with COx Free Ais. 

(LeBlanc and Novotny, 1906.) 



Solvent. 


At i8\ 


At 9S*-xod*. 


Water 


0.0128 


0.0207 


About o.oooi n NaOH 


0.0087 


0.0096 


" o.ooion " 


0.0042 


0.0069 


" o.oioon " 


0.0042 


0.0057 



Data on the equilibrium in aqueous solutions of CaCOi, NatCOi and NaOH 
are given by Wegscheider and Walter (1907). 

Solubility of Calcium Carbonate in^Aqueous.Solutions of Sodium Sulfate. 
Solutions in contact with: 



COi Free Air at 25*. 

((Cameron, Bell and Robinaon, 1907.) 
Gms. per 100 Gms. HsO. 



Ordinary Air at 24^ 

(Cameron and Seidell, 1903.) 
Gma. Total Ca 



NaaSOt. 
0.97 

I 

4 
12 

14 
19 
23 



65 
90 

69 

55 
3S 
90 



CaCOa. 
O.OI51 
0.0180 
0.0262 
0.0313 
0.0322 
0.0346 
0.0360 



Gms. NaaSOi 
per Liter. 

5 
10 

20 

40 

80 

150 
250 



per Liter Calc 
a8Ca(HC0^i. 

0.175 
0.232 

0.277 

0.332 
0.400 

0.510 

0.725 



Freezing-point data for mixtures of calcium carbonate and calcium chloride 
are given by Sackur (1911-12). 



CALCIUM CHLOBATl 



196 



CALCIUM CHLORATE Ca(C10,)i.2H,0. 
100 grams saturated aqueous solution oootain 64 grains Ca(C108)t at 18^. 

Density of solution is 1.729. (MyUus and Funk, X897.) 

CALOIVM OHLOBIDB Cad,. 

Solubility in Water 

(RooKboom — Z. phvrik. Chem. j« 43, tSo; lee alio Mulder; Ditte — Compt. rend. 9a» 94a, '81; Engd 
— Aim. cfaim. pbjrac. C6JX3. 381, '88; Euid — Ibid, [7] a, 53a> 'm-) 



Density of saturated solution at o" - 1.367, at 15^ " i*399f at 18^ ■■ 1417; 
at 25' - 147. 

Solubility of Calcium Chloride in Aqueous Solutions of Hydrochloric 

Acid at o". 

(Engd, 1887.) 



CaCU. 


HCl. 


d^ of Sat. Sol. 


CaOt. 


HCl. 


d^ of Sat. Sol. 


51.45 





1.367 


29.84 


15.84 


1.283 


46.45 


3.32 


1-344 


20.12 


23.15 


1.250 


42.80 


5-83 


1.326 


11.29 


34.62 


1.238 


36.77 


10.66 


1. 310 




. 





Solubility of Mixtures of Calcium Chloride, Magnesium Chloride and 
Calcium Magnesium Double Chloride (Tachhydrite). 

(Van't Hoff and Kenrick, 191 2.) 



f. 


CaOt. 


Mgcb: 


Solid Phase. 


16.7 


41.2 


31.6 


Mgai.6H^-|>CaC]a.6Hi0 


21.9s 


57.1 


26 


+Tadihydrite 


28.2 


54.5 


28.4 


Tachhydiite+MgCli.6Hi0 


116.7 





85.63 


+ " +MgCli4HiO 


25 


32.3 


17.9 


+CaCls.6HsO+Caai.4HiO 


28.2 


80.1 


16. 1 


+CaCl».4HiO 


28.2 


88.7 


7.24 


CaC]a.6HgO+Caas.4HiO 



Tachhydrate - 2MgClt.CaClt.i2HiO. 

100 grams H|0 dissolve 63.5 grams CaClj + 4.9 grams KCl at 7° (M). 
100 grams HiO dissolve 57.6 grams CaClj -j- 2.4 grams NaCl at 4® (M). 
100 grams HjO dissolve 59.5 grams CaClt -j- 4.6 grams NaCl at 7** (M). 
too grams H|0 dissolve 72.6 grams CaCls + 16 grams NaCl at 15*^ (R). 

(M) - Mulder. (R) - Rftdorff. 





Gma. CaOt per 




Gma. Cadi per 


t«. 


100 ( 


Gras. goM 


♦•. 


xoo i 






Water. Solutian. *"""* 




Water. 


-55 


42.5 


2^.8 Ice + COi-fiHgO 


60 


136.8 


jy.g CaClt.aHsO 


-2S 


50.0 


33' 


^ CaasJdHaO 


70 


141. 7 


58.6 Caaa.aHjO 


. 


59-5 


37' 


^ CaQt^HsO 


80 


147 


-Q - CaCla.aHsO 


10 


65.0 


39' 


4 CaQt^dHiO 


90 


152-7 


5o.5 CaCl,.aH,0 


20 


74. 5 


42, 


J Cadt^HsO 


100 


159.0 


61 .4 CaCla.aH,0 


30. 2 


102.7 


SO. 


7 CaCl|j6HsO 


120 


173.0 


63.4 Caa,.aH,0 


20 


91.0 


47 


6 CaOa^iOc 


140 


191 


65.6 Caa,jHgO 


29.8 


100.6 


SO 


I -»H,0«+iiH^ 


z6o 


222.5 


5p.O CaCl,.aH^ 


40 


"5 3 


S3 


.4 .4H|0«. 


170 


255.0 


71 .8 CaClj.aH«0 


20 


104.5 


SI 


.1 Caaj.4Hi0^ 


175.5 297.0 


M. QfCaat-aHflO 
74.O(+CaClt.ili0 


29.2 


IZ2.8 


53 


.0 w|H|0^+j6H|0 


180 


300.0 


75.0 CaClaHiO 


3S 


122.5 


SS 


.0 w|Hso^ 


200 


3II.O 


75.7 CaCI«.HgO 


38.4 127. s 


56 


.0 4HsO^+Caat.9Hg0 


235 


332 


76.8 CaCIa.HaO 


45-3 


130-2 


S6 


.6 4HsOa + CaCla.aHiO 


260 


347 


77.6 CaOiJIjO 



197 CALCIUM CHLOBmS 

Solubility op Calcium Chlokidb in Aqueous Solutions op Sodium 

Chloride at 25* and Vice Versa. 

(Cameron, Bell and Robinson, 1907.) 

rf|- Gaa. per 100 Gms. HiO. Solid 

Sat."l. CaOi. Naa. ?»"««. 

84 O CaCls.6Hi0 

1. 4441 78.49 1.846 " +Naa 

1.3651 58-48 1.637 NaCl 

1.3463 53.47 1.799 

1.2831 36.80 7.77 



(f 



Sat.^L 


Gms. per xoo 


Gms. H«0. 


Solid 


CaCU. 


NaCl. 


Phase. 


1.2653 


30.08 


10.70 


Naa 


1.2367 


19-53 


18.85 


(4 


1.2080 


3.92 


32.48 


fl 


z . 2030 





35.80 


It 



Solubility of Calcium Chloride in Aqueous Alcohol at Room Temperature. 

(BOdtker, 1897.) 

Vol. Gms. Vol. Gms. 

Solution Used. Per Cent CaCIsper Solution Used. Per Cent CaCbpex 

Alcohol. 5 cc. SoL AlcohoL . 5 cc. SoL 

15 Gms. CaClt.6HiO 15 Gms. CaClt.6HjO+20 cc.: 

+ 20 cc. alcohol 92.3 1.430 alcohol -h 2 Gms, CaCls 99.3 1.561 
15 Gms. CaCli.6H,0 " + 3 " " 993 1590 

-h 20 cc. alcohol 97.3 1.409 " 4-4 " " .99-3 1-641 

15 Gms. CaCl,.6HaO " +5 " " 993 i-709 

+ 20 cc. alcohol 99 . 3 z . 429 
Z5 Gms. CaCl».6HjO 

-h 20 cc. alcohol 

4- 1 Gm. CaCU 99.3 z.529 

Solubility of Calcium Chloride in Aqueous Solutions of Acetone 

AT 20**. 

(Frankforter and Cohen, 19x4.) 

Measured amounts of acetone were added to known solutions of CaCh in water, 
until opalescence, indicative of the separation of a second liquid layer, was ob- 
served. The composition of a large number of such mixtures gives the limiting 
values for the binodal curve of the system. Tie lines were also determined in 
several instances by using such quantities of the three components that an ade- 
quate amount of each layer would be formed to permit the determination of the 
CaCls in it. The points thus located on the curve fix the tie lines, and from them 
the approximate position of the plait point can be estimated. 

Points on the Binodal Curve Composition of Points Representing 

at 20®. Tie Lines at 20°. 

G ms. per icp Gms. Sat. Sol . Gms. per 100 Gms. Upper Layer. Gms. per 100 Gms. Lower Layer. 

Acetone. CaCIs. 

9 40.5* ) (solid phase 

22.7 38.i6tJ CaCW 

20.8 31.2 
20.2 28 
21 24.4 
23 2Z . z 
25 19 . 2 
30 15-6 
35 12.8 
40 Z0.5 
45 8.8 
50 7.4 
55 6.1 
60 5 

65 3.9 

70 2.8 

75 1.8 

80 z 

85 0.5 

90 0.2 

95 o.z 

* Pomt on solubility curve, f Qvuulniple point. 40 



Acetone. 


CaClt. 


Acetone. 


Carii. 


90.2 





.186 


28.5 


16. 6z 


83.3 





.628 


34.6 


"97 


8z 





.948 


40 


10.6 


78.5 


I 


.321 


43-5 


936 


60 


5 


(plait point) 


60 


5 


Points on 


the Binodal Curve at Different 






Temperatures. 




f. 




Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 




Acetone. 




CaCl,. 


5 




31.09 




15 52 
23.64 


zo 




22.77 




Z5 




31 09 




15.52 


18 




30.58 




15.27 


25 




2Z.44 




22.25 


25 




29 83 




14.89 


30 




20.99 




21.79 


30 




29.27 




Z4.62 


35 




2Z.14 




20. 9z 


35 




28.59 




14.29 


40 




19-83 




20.58 


point. 40 




27.90 




13.93 



CALCtDM CHLOBIDK 19S 

SOLUBILtTY OF CaLCIUU CSLORIDB IN A SATURATED SotmOIt OV SUGAR AT 

100 grama saturated solution contain 43.84 grams sugar + 2<i.3^ grams CaCli, 
or 100 grams water dissolve 135.1 grams sugar + 79.9 grams CaCIf 

100 gms. 95% formic acid dissolve 43.1 gms. CaCli at 19°. (A«eh»o, 1911O 

100 cc. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve 16 gms. CaCli at room temp. 

(WeUh ud^iodenoD. ,9,5.) 

100 gms. propyl alcohol dissolve 10.75 E">b. CaCli (temp.?). (SchUmp, 1894.) 



CaCl,+CaF, (1) (2) 
CaCli+Cal, (I) 

CaCl,+CaO(3) 
CaCl,+CaSia {4) 
CaCl,+CaSO.(3) 
CaCl,+CuCl (5) 

(i) - RuS aod Plito, 1U13: < 
-Uuw, laii; (6)- SiDdonni 
nog, 1914; (10) — Schmefer, ign 



CALCIDH CSLORIDK AOITAHIDATB Caa,.3CH,C0NH,. 



- Pl»to. 1901; (j) - SMtiii, isu-is; (4) - KiiMdedf, 1910: (j) 
r I9'i; (?) ~ Sudonnim, 1913; <S) — Suidooiuiu. 191J; (9)— Eo^ 



SOLUBH.ITY IN ACETAUIDB . 



T Varioits Tem^raturbs, Detbruined b 
Synthetic Method. 

(MestdiiitUD. 1908.) 

Gnu. per loo Gum. 
SoUd « S^. Sol. So 



•■ '^■S&">) 


-CCl,. 


Pbue. 


•• '•&&«= 


(-CO. 


PhMB. 


82 m. pt. 





CHKX)NH. 


100 65.6 


25.3 


J 


78 8 


31 


" 


ISO 70s 


17.1 




74 IS -4 


5 9 


" 


i6s 74.8 


s8.8 




66 27 


10.4 


'■ 


175 80.6 


31 




54 39-2 


151 


" 


.80 8s, s 


32.9 




46 Eutec. 45 


17 3 


" +1.6 


184 90,5 


34.8 




58 48.5 


18.7 


1.6 


186 ti.pt 94. s 


36-4 


'+c»cw?) 


62 54- S 


21 




!oo 97. s 


37-5 


CCM?) 


64 tr. pt. 62 . 1 


23-9 


..6+.,3 




38. S 




1.6 - CaCl,.6CH.CONHt 


1.3 - CaCi,.3CH,CONH,. 





CALCIUM CHLORIDE ACETIC ACIDATE CaClt.4CHiCOOH. 

Solubility in Acetic Acid at Various Temferaturbs, Detbruined by the 
Synthetic Mbthod, 

(MEUctiutkin, 1906.) 
Gnu. per too Gnu. Gnu. per tea Gnu. 

„ S«t. Sol. Solid „ Sat. Sol. Solid 



■ "^MF 


-CO. "-■ 




■^ajOT 


-CCh. 


6.3 m. pt. 





CH.COOH 


40 


54. 7 


■7.3 


S 


18 


5-7 " 


4S 


63 


19 


9 


4 


27 


8.5 ■ 


SO 


69. s 




9 


3 


34 


10.7 ■ 


60 


79S 


«S 


I 


I.I Eutec 


4« 


133 ■•+'-• 


65 


84-S 


16 


7 





47.6 


IS '^ 


70 


91.2 


28 


8 


S 


SO 


1S.8 - 


73 HI. pt. 


100 


31 


6 






14 - CaCWCHiCOOH. 









199 CALCIUM CHLORIDE 

CALCIUM CHLOBIDS ALCOHOLATES CaCaCHsOH, CaC^.3CH»0H. 

(The compounds were prepared by mixing anhydrous CaCis with the alcohbf. 
In the case of the methyl alcohol compound, the tri CHtOH salt crystallizes 
above 55**, the tetra salt below this temperature.) 

Solubility of Each in the Rbspbctive Alcohol at Various Tbm peraturbs. 

Determined by the Synthetic Method. 

(Menschutkin, 1906.) 

Results for CaClt-sCHtOH. Results for CaCls.aCiHfOH. 



Gms.per 


xooGms. 






Gms. per 100 Cms. 
Sat. Sol. 






Gms. per xoo 


Gms. 


Sol. 


Solid 
Phase. 


f. 


SoUd 
Phaae. 


f. 


Sat. Sol. 




CaCIi.3CHsOH-CaC1,. 


CaCkaCHiOH-Caai. 


CaCh^CiHiOH 


-CaClft 


33.3 


17.85 


1*4 


95 


66.3 


35-5 


1.3 





34.8 


15. 5 


10 37.6 


20.15 




"5 


70.3 


37 


6 




20 


46 


20.5 


20 42.2 


22.6 




135 


75.2 


40 


3 




40 


58.7 


26.1 


30 47 


25.2 




155 


81.8 


43 


8 




60 


73 


32.5 


40 52 


27.8 




165 


86.2 


46 


2 




70 


80.8 


36 


50 57. 3 


30.7 




170 


89.5 


47 


9 




80 


86.8 


38.7 


55 60 


32.1 




174 


93-5 


50 


I 




85 


89.2 


39.7 


56 61.3 


32.8 




177* 


100 


53 


6 




90 


91.9 


40.8 


55 60.S 


32.4 


" +1-3 


190 


■ • • 


55 


7 


x.i(?) 


^K 


96.2 


42.8 


75 63.1 


33.8 


1.3 


215 


■ • • 


57 


7 


«f 


97* 


100 


44. 5 



• M. pt. 

14 e CaCla4CHtOH. 1.3 = CaCli-aCHiOH, i.i - CaCls.CH«OH. 

OALOXUM OHBOMATE CaCiO«. 

Solubility op the Several Hydrates in Water. 

(Mylius and Wrochem — Wias. Abh. p. t. Reichanstalt 3, 46a, '00.) 

^» Gms. CaCr04 per 100 Gms. Mols. CaCrO* Oms. CaCrO* per 100 Gms. Mds.CaCrp* 

Water. SoluUcn. HtO. Water. Solutkn. H^)* 

Solid Phase. « CaCrO«.3HsO. (Mooodinic.) SoUd Phase, CaCrO«.iH«0. 

o 17.3 14.75 20 o 7.3 6.S 0.84 

18 16.68 14.3 1.93 z8 4.8 4.4 0.51 

20 16.6 14.22 1.93 31 3.84 3.7 0.44 

30 16.5 13.89 1.85 38.5 2.67 2.6 0.31 

45 14.3 12.53 1.65 SO 1.63 1.6 0.19 

Solid Phase, fi CaCrO«.sHsO (Rhombic.) 60 I . I3 I.I O . I3 

o 10.9 9.8 1.25 ICO o.Ci 0.8 0.09 

l3 II. 5 10.3 1.33 Solid Phase, CaCrOc. 

40 II. 6 10. 4 1.34 o 4.5 4.3 0.52 

Solid Phase, CaCr04^30. 18 2.32 2.27 O.27 ■ 

o 13.0 II. 5 1.50 31 2.92 1.89 0.22 

18 10.6 9.6 1.22 50 1. 12 I. II 0.13 

25 100 9.1 1. 15 60 0.83 0.82 O.II 

40 8.5 7.8 0.98 70 0.80 0.79 0.09 

60 6.1 5.7 0.70 100 0.42 0.42 0.05 

75 4.8 4.6 0.56 

100 3.2 3.1 037 

Densities of the saturated solutions of the above several hydrates 
at 18^ are: a CaCr04.2H,0, 1.149; i3 CaCr04.2HaO, 1.105; CaCr04.HA 
1.096; CaCr04.iH,0, 1.044; CaCr04, 1*023. 

100 cc. 29% alcohol dissolve 1.206 grams CaCr04. 
100 cc. 53% alcohol dissolve 0.88 gram CaCr04. 

(F^esenius — Z. anal. Chem. 10^ 67s, 'pi^ 



CALCIUM CINNAMATI8 



300 



CALCIUl^ CnVNAMATE Ca(C«H,.CH:CHC00)i.3HA 

S(H<UBILITY OF CALCIUK CINNAMATB AND ItS ISOICBRS IN SbVBRAL 

Solvents. 













Gma. Anhy- 




Name of Salt. 


FormtJa. 


Solvent. 


f. 


drous Salt per 

xooGma. 

Solvent. 


ciu 


m Cinnainate 


Ca(CACH:CHCOO)t.3HriO 


Water 


2 


0.19(1) 


u 


tt 


If 


tt 


IS 


0.21^2) 


a 


tt 


M 


it 


36 


0.24m 


a 


tt 


M 


tt 


ICO 


*• 15(2)1 


u 


Isodnnamate 


Ca(CtHfOfe)«.9H|0 


tt 


ao 


238 (3) 


tt 


tt 


If 


Acetone 


20 


19.6 (3) 


u 


Allodnnamate 


Ca(CtTiiO|)»3H,0 


tt 


20 


2 G) 


a 


tt 


Ca(C»HiO|)s.aH^ 


Water 


20 


10.2 (4) 


tt 


tt 


u 


Acetone 


i8 


2.7 (5) 


u 


Hydrodnnamate 


Ca(C«HiO|)>?H|0 


tt 


14 


0.19(5) 


« 


(( 


u 


tt 


19 


0.2I(S) 


tt 


i< 


M 


Water 


27 


4.25(3) 


tt 


tt 


M 


Acetone 


25 


3-3 (3) 



(x) -i De Tons, 1909; (a) - Tanigi and Cheoc&C x9oz; 
1903; (5) ■■ Micnaerand Gamer, 1903. 



Cs) " MirhaH, 1901; (4)." liebennann. 



CALCIUM CIT&ATI Ca«(C«H«07)s.4HiO. 

Solubility in Water and in Alcohol at i8^ and at 25^ 

(Parthefl and Httbner, 1903.) 

Grams Caj(C4Hi(»MHiO per 
too Gras. Solvent at: 



Sdveat. 



Water 

Alcohol (Sp. Gr. 0.8092 = 95%) 



i8*. 
0.08496 
0.0065 



as'. 
00959 
D.O089 



Equilibrium in thb Systeic Calcium OxiDB-CrTRic Acid-Water at 30^ 

(van Itallie, 1908.) 

The compositions of the solid phases were determined by the "Rest Method ** 
of Schreinemakers (1903). The results are presented in the trianeular diagram 
and it was necessary to select the fictitious comi)Ound CcHsOr.liHiO instead of 
CeHsOr in order to keep the citrate component within the limits of the diagram. 
This is in harmony with the choice of anhydrides as components in the inorganic 
oxy acid systems. 



Gms. per 


xoo Gms. 
Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


Gms. per 


xoo Gms. Sat. 
Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


OHsOr. 
xilbO. 


CaO. 


OHgOr. 
ziHtfO. 


CaO. 


55.86 





rtH:«07.H,0 


20.3 


0.3s 


CiH^0K:a.4By0 


54.8 


0.24 


ft 


16.3 


0.33 


II 


55.4 


0.35 


« +(aH,OT),Ca.3H,0 


12. 5 


039 


f* 


53-7 


0.40 


(CiH7Or)tCa.3H.0 


8.3 


0.28 


It 


48.3 


0.52 


M 


5.2 


0.25 


M 


42.6 


0.60 


tt 


4.1 


0.20 


Quadruple pL 


38.5 


0.77 


M 


3-2 


0.20 


• • • 


36.5 


0.70 


" +CiBM)TCa.4H/) 


a. 4-0 


0.21-0. 13 


Hydrate of (CcH^)tCa*(7) 


34.8. 


0.77 


aiU0rC:a.4H^ 


0.18 


0.24 




27.5 


0.45 


11 





0.II3 


Ca(OT), 



CALCIUM Potaj^ium nRBOCTANIDE CaKsFe(CN)e.3HiO. 

100 parts HfO dissolve 0.125 part salt at 15**, and 0.69 part at boiling-point. 

(Ituiuieim and Zimmerman, 188. 



100 gms. HjO dissolve 0.41 gm. CaKsFe(CN)e at 15-17^ 



884.) 
(Brown, 1907.) 



30I CALGZUM FLUORIDE 

CALCIUM FLUORIDE CaFi. 

One liter sat. aqueous solution contains 0.016 gm. CaFs at 18^ and 0.017 
gm. at 26*. 

One liter sat. aqueous solution contains 0.0131 gm. fluorspar at o*, 0.0149 
gm. at 15^, 0.0159 S^- ^t 25^ and 0.0167 Kin* at ao^. (Kohlimuach, 1904-05, 1908.) 

Freezine-point data for mixtures of calcium fluoride and calcium iodide are 
gjiven by Kuff and Plato (1903) and for mixtures of calcium fluoride and calcium 
silicate by Karandeeff (1910). 

CiJLCIUM FORMATE Ca(HCOO)i. 

Solubility in Watbr. 

(Lomaden, 1902; we also Kxasnidd, 1887.) 



f. 


Water. 


Solution. 


f. 


Water. 


Solution. ' 





16.15 


13-90 


60 


17.50 


14.89 


20 


16.60 


14.22 


80 


17.9s 


15.22 


40 


17 OS 


14.56 


100 


18.40 


15. S3 



Gmt. CaOHiOtP 


f. 


Gnu. 


CaCAOiP 


per too GsH. Sat. SoLI 


perioo 


rSni*. S.t. SoL 


5 


40 




35 


4.6 


60 




2.7 


S-2 


80 




1.8 


s 


100 




0.9 



Results in good agreement with the above are given by Stanley (1904). 

CiJLCIUM QLTCEROPH08PHATE8 a » OH.CHi.CH(OH)CHi.OPQiCa, 
^ - OH.CH,.CH.OPO,Ca.CH,OH. 

Solubility of Calcium a Glycerophosfhatb in Watbk. 

(Power and Tutin/ 1905; Couch, Z9X7-) 
f. 

O 
10 
20 

25 

Results varying from 1.7 to ^.4 gms. per 100 gms. sat. solution at or near 
18^ are riven by Rogier and Fiore (1913), Willstaetter (1904) and Kins[ and 
IVman (1914). It is pointed out by Couch, however, that since the solubilities 
of the a and fi isomer differ, and also that the commercial product contains 
both isomers, variable results will be obtained, depending on the composition of 
the product and the method used for determining the solubility. These authors 
also show that increasing amounts of alcohol in the solvent decrease the solu- 
bility of calcium glycerophosphate. 

lOOgramsHsOdissolve i.66gramscalcium/9glyceropho6phateat20^ (Couch. 1917.) 
The results of King and Pyman (1914) are: 1.4 gms. at 13° and i gm. at 15^. 

CALCIUM HEPTOATI (Oenanthate) Ca[CHi(CHs)tC001t.HaO. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Lumaden, 1903; aee also Landau, 1893; Altsdiul, 1896.) 
t . o*. so*. 40*. 6o*. So*. 'ioo*» 

Gm. Ca(C7Hij08)« per 
100 gms. solution 0.94 0.85 0.81 0.81 0.97 z.24 

CALCIUM HYDROXIDE Ca(0H)s. 

Recent determinations of the solubility of calcium hydroxide in water, ag[ree- 
ing fairly well with the average results given in the table on next page, are given 
by Bassett, Jr. (1908), Moody and Leyson (1908), Chugaev and Kmopin (1914) 
and Seliwanow (1914). 

One liter sat. aqueous solution contains 0.305 gm. CaO at I20^ 0.169 tP^* ^^ 
150® and 0.084 gm. at 190''. (Herold, 1905.) 

One liter of aqueous 5.2% NHs solution dissolves 0.81 gm. Ca(OH)s at about 
20^ (Konowilow, 18996-; 



CALCIUII HTDBOXmS 



302 



OALOIUM HTDROZmS Ca(OH)s. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Avenge curve from the results o£ Lamy, 1878; Maben, 1883-84; Herzleld, 1897* and Guthrie, j9oz.) 



Grains per 100 Grams HK). 



Grams per 100 Grams HiO. 



» . 


Ca(OH),. 


CaO. 





0.185 


0.140 


10 


0.176 


O.I33 


20 


0.165 


O.I2S 


2S 


0.159 


0.120 


30 


0.153 


O.II6 


40 


O.I4I 


0.107 



fe . 


' Ca(OH,). 


CaO. 


SO 


0.128 


0.097 


60 


O.I16 


0.088 


70 


0.106 


0.080 


80 


0.094 


0.071 


90 


0.085 


0.064 


100 


0.077 


0.058 



Solubility qf Calcium Hydroxide in Aqueous Solutions 

Ammonium Chloride at 25°. 

(Noyes and Chapin — Z. physik. Chem. a8» 500, '99.) 
Mfllimols per Liter. Gnuns per Liter of Saturated Solution. 

ShJoT" 



OP 



0.00 
21.76 

43 52 
83.07 

Solubility op 



KH«a. 


Ca(OH), - 


CaO. 


0.00 
1.165 

a 330 
4-447 


1.50 
2.16 
2.91 

4.42 


113 

1.63 

2.20 
3-45 



Ca(OH)s. 

20.22 

29.08 

39 23 
59-68 

Calcium Hydroxide in Aqueous Solutions 
Calcium Chloride. 



of 



(Zafaorsky — Z. ancrg. Chem. 3, 41, '93; Lunge — J. See. Chem. Ind. ii» 88a, 'pa.) 

Grams CaO Dissolved per 100 cc. Solvent at: 



Concentration 
cf CaClsSolutians,Wt.%. 



so" 



40 . 

9.I162 

O.I160 

O.I419 

O.1781 

0.2249 

0.3020* 

0.3680* 

* Indicates cases in which a precipitate of calcium ozychloride separated and thus removed some of 
the CaCh from solution. 

The results in 0% CaCh solutions, «.«., in pure water, are high when compared with the average 
lesuhs given above. 

Solubility of Calcium Hydroxide in Aqueous Solutions of Calqum 

Chloride at 25*. 

(Schieinemakers and Figee, 19x1.) 
Oms.perxooGms.Sat.SoL ^ ..,«. Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. 



O 

S 
10 

IS 

90 

as 

30 



0.1374 
0.1370 
o . 1661 

0.1993 
0.1857* 

O.I66I* 
0.1630* 



6o*. 

o . 1026 
o . 1020 

0.1706 

o . 2204 
o . 2989 
0.3664 



8o*. 
0.0845 

o.o93i 
0.1328 

0.1736 
o . 2295 
0.3261 
0.4122 



loo". 

0.0664 
0.0906 

0.1389 

o . 1842 

0.2325 
0.3710 
0.4922 



iCaCls. 
5.02 

10 

15 14 
18.15 

18.01 

21.02 

28.37 
32.67 



CaO. 
O.IOX 

O.II5 
0.140 
0.148 
0.152 
0.147 
0.170 
0.225 



Solid Phase. 
Ca(0H), 



i< 



II 



" +CaClt.4Ca0.X4H,0 
Caa2.4Ca0.i4H«0 



11 



ff 



CaCla. 
33-21 

33 72 

34.36 
3861 

41.32 

44.30 
44.61 

44.77 



. Solid Phase. 

CaO. 

. 245 CaCli.4CaO.X4HjO 

0.254 " +CaCIi.Ca0.aHiO 

0.173 CaCIi.CaO.aHt0 

0.060 

0.048 

0.030 

0.029 



<i 



« 



If 



" +CaClt.6HB0 
CaCIi.6Hs0 
48®, and 50® are given by 



Ca(OH),? 

Data for the above system at 10", 25®, 40', 45 
Milikau (1916). 

Data for the solubility of calcium hydronde in aqueous calcium iodide solu- 
tions at 25^ are also given by Milikau. 



203 



CALCIUM HTDROZmS 



Solubility of Calcium Hydroxidb in Aqueous Solutions of Calcium 

Nitrate at 25® and at 100**. 

(BasBctt and Taylor, 1914; see also CameroD and Robinson, 1907a.) 



Results at 25"". 


Results at 100®. 


Results at 100'' (Con.)* 


Gma. per 100 Gms. 


Gms. per : 


100 Gms. 




Gms. per 


TOO Gms. 


£t. 


Sol. Solid Phase. 


Sol. 


Solid Phase. 

1 < 


. Sol. Solid Phase. 


'CaO. 


CaCNOD^ 


CaO. 


Ca(NOi),. 


CaO. 


Ca(NO,),. 


0.1x50 


Ca(0H)s 


0.0561 


Ca(0H)s 


1.576 


58.67 CaiNi0r.9Hi0 


0.0978 


4.836 


0.0550 


2.42 


t( 


1.348 


60.44 " 


0.1074 


9.36 


0.0624 


4.91 


(« 


1. 167 


62.82 « 


O.II93 


13.77 


O.IIIO 


15. 39 


M 


1.077 


66.44 " 


0.1444 


22.46 


0.1200 


16.10 


M 


1.X4X 


69.12 " 


0.1650 


27.83 


0.155 


21.86 


U 




" +avery 


O.1931 


32.94 


0.269 


33 03 


U 


1.252 


70.60 little Car 


0.2579 


40.66 


0.480 


42.26 


it 


• 


NsOr.iH^ 


0.3060 


44.44 


0.973 


50.94 


U 


1.203 


70.40 OuNsOi.iHflO 


0.2802 


45.28 CaaNs0r.3H«0 


1. 261 


53.75 


a 


1. 103 


71.44 


0.23x4 


47.79 


1-477 


5540 


w 


0.937 


73.85 


0.1894 


51.07 


1.476 


55-43 


M 


0.849 


75-74 


0.1659 


53 • 20 


1. 491 


55-65 


(t 


0.815 


76.94 


0.1486 


55 • 25 


1.635 


56.89! 


1" +CaiN«0r. 
\ aH«0 


-0.804 


77.62 Ca(NO^t 


0.0836 


57 . 72 Ca(N0k)MH«0 1 .686 


57-03! 


0.412 


77.74 





57.98 


1.596 


57.91 


CaaN^.aH/) 





78.43 



Cerasine wax bottles were used and more than 6 months constant agitation 
allowed for attainment .of equilibrium at 25® and 4-14 days at 100®. 

Solubility of Calcium Hydroxide in Aqueous Solutions of Calcium 

Sulfate at 25**. 

(Cameron and Bell, 2906.) 



Gma. per zoo cc. :>at. boL 




Solid 
Phase. 


ums. per too cc. ^t. bol. 


Solid 


CaSOt. 


CaO. ' 


CaSOt. 


CaO. 


Phase. 





O.II66 


Ca(OH)s 


0.1634 


0.0939 


CaS0i.aB^ 


0.0391 


O.II4I 


ft 




0.1722 


O.061I 


M .» 


0.0666 


0.1150 


ti 




0.1853 


0.0349 


« 


0.09SS 


O.I215 


It 


• 


O.I918 


0.0176 


M 


O.I2I4 


0.1242 


u 




0.2030 


0.0062 


« 


0.1588 


0.1222 


ft 


+CaS0i.2Hi0 


0.2126 





« 



The mixtures were constantly agitated at 25^ for two weeks. 



Solubility of Calcium Hydroxide in Aqueous Solutions of Potassium 

Chloride and of Sodium Chloride. 

(Cabot, 1897.) 



In KCl Solutions. 



In NaCl Solutions. 



Gms. of the 
Chloride 
per Liter. . 


Gnis.< 


CaO per Liter at: 


Gms. 


, CaO per Liter at: 


' 0-. 


IS*. 


99*. 


o*. 


IS*. 


99*. 




30 

60 

120 


1.36 
1. 701 

^•725' 
1. 718 


I-3I 
1.658 

1.674 

1.606 


0.63s 
0.788 
0.876 
0.894 


,1.36 
1. 813 

• ■ • 

1.86 


I-3I 

1.703 

1.824 

1.722 


0.63s 
0.969 

1.004 

1.015 


240 


1.248 


1. 199 


0.617 


1-37 


1.274 


0.771 


320 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


1.054 


0.929 


0.583 



Results in harmony with the above for the solubility of calcium hydroxide 
in aoueous solutions of potassium chloride at 50^, are given by Kemot, d'Agostino 
and Pellegrino (1908). . 



CALCIUM H7DB0XIDS 



304 



Solubility of Limb in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Chloridb alonb and 

CONTAINING SODIUM HtDSOZIDB. 
CliaiCRt. 1905.) 



_ ^ Q G«i. CaO per Lker of SofatioH . 



O 

5 

10 

as 

so 

7S 
100 



NaOH. 

1-3 
1.4 

1.6 

1-7 
1.3 

1.9 
1.85 



08 
0.9 
i.o 
I.I 

1-4 
1.4 



per Liter. 
0.33 



o-SS 



G. NaQ. 
per Liter. 

ISO 

^75 
183 

335 

350 

300 

• • • 



Gms. C aO per liter of SolutJo n. 
o^J^aOH 4^09-NaOH 



Without 
NaOH. 



I 

I 
I 

I 
I 
I 



6S 

6 

6 

4 

3 

I 



per Liter. 

I -as 

1.3 
1.3 
1.0 
0.9 
0.7 



per Liter. 
0.44 



0.33 



Solubility of Calcium Hydroxidb in Aqubous Solutions ob 

Sodium Hydroxide. 

(d'Anielme — Boll. see. diim. [3] a(W 9381 '03.) 
ConoentratioD of NaOH: 



N«raudatr. 


Gms. per Liter 








N/ioo 


0.4 


N/2S 


1.6 


N/15 


3.66 


N/8 


S-oo 


N/S 


8.00 


N/2 


30. CO 







Liter Sat. Soluticn at: 




30 . 


SO*. 




7o». 


lOO*. 


1. 170 


0.880 




0.7s 


O.S4 


0.94 


0.65 




O.S3 


0.3s 


O.S7 


0-3S 




0.325 


0.14 


0.39 


0.30 




O.II 


0.0s 


0.18 


0.06 




0.04 


O.OI 


O.II 


0.02 




001 


trace 


0.03 


trace 




0.00 


0.00 



For results upon mixtures of calcium hydroxide and alkali carbonates 
and hydroxides, see Bodlander — Z. angew. Chem. 18, 1x38, '05. 



Solubility of .Calcium Hydroxide in Aqueous Solutions or 

Glycerol at 35^ 

(Hen andKnoch— Z. anors. Chem. 46, 1931 '05; for older determinationa, see Berthdot— >AiiB.cftim 

P^y** [3] 4^ Z76; and CarlM — Arch. Pharm. [3] 4, 558, '74.) 

Gms. per xoo oc. Solutioa. 



Density of 
Solutions 


Glycerine 
In Solution. 


MOHmob 
iC»(qH),wr 


1.0003 


0.0 


4.3 


1.0244 


7IS 


8.13 


I -0537 


20.44 


14.9 


1.0842 


31 ss 


22.5 


I "37 


40.9s 


40.1 


I 1356 


48.7 


44.0 


1.2073 


69.2 


9S-8 



Ca(OH), 


- CaO. 


O.IS93 


0.1206 


0.3013 


0.2281 


0.5522 


0.4180 


0.8339 


0.6313 


1.486 


I 135 


1. 631 


1.234 


3SSO 


3.687 



Dat& tor the solubility of calcium hydroxide in aqueous solutioiis of phenol 
at 35** are given by van Meurs (1916). 



305 CALCIUM HTDBOXIDX 

SoLUBiLiTT or Calouii Hydbozidb IK Aqubous Solutions op Glycbiol 

AND OT.CaNB SvGAR AT 25^ 
(CunenMi and Fatten. 191 1.) 

In order to obviate the uncertainties due to the presence of a large excess of 
the solid phase in contact with the solutions, the clear liquids, saturated at o^ 
were decanted from the solid and slowly brought to 25® and constantly agitated 
at this temperature, until equilibrium with the finely divided solid phase, which 
separates at the higher temperature, was reached. 

Results for Glycerol Solutions. Results for Sugar Solutions. 

^of Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. So L Solid ^of Gms. per too Gms. Sat. Sol . SoUd 

Sat. SoL Ca(OH)i. OBWOEDr !*>»«. Sat.So|. Ca(OH)t. OsH^Ou ?»>"•• 

0.983 O.I17 O CaiOBk I 0.188 0.62 Ci(QH>i + Si«M 

1.008 0.178 3.50 * 1.021 0.730 4.82 •• 

... 0.413 15.59 - 1.037 I. 355 7.50 

1.042 0.48 17.84 ** 1.067 3.21 XI. 90 " 

1.088 0.88 34.32 " 1. 109 5.38 17.42 • 

1. 149 1.34 55.04 " 1. 123 6.07 19.86 

Sglubilitt of Calcium Htdrozidb in AguBoys Solutions of Canb Suoar 

AT 80*. 
(von Ginneken, 191 1.) 

Gms. per too Gms. Sat. Sol. Solid Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. Solid 

' CaO * S^. ' !*»>"«• ' So * Su9[r! ' ^^»^ 

O.II7 4.90 Ca(OH)i 0.358 19.50 Ca(OH)t 

0.189 9.90 " 0.548 24.60 " 

0.230 14-75 " 1.017 29.70 •• 

Solubility op Limb in Aqubous Solutions of Sugar. 

(Weisbeii— Bull. soc. cUm. [3] ai» 775t '99O 

The original results were plotted on cross-section paper and the 
following table constructed from the curves. 



i8t series, t^ «> 


i6'-i7^ 


2dp series t° > 


-iS^ 


§^ 


100 Gms. 
idoo. 


G. CaO per 100 


Gms. per xoo Gms. 
SoIuHmi. 


0. CtO per lee 


Sugar. 


CaO. 


Gms. Sugar in Sol. 


Sugar. 


CaO! 


Gmi. Sour in Soi« 


I 


0.30 


3SO 


I 


0.50 


62.5 


a 


0.56 


28.7 


a 


0.7s 


3<5o 


3 


0.85 


28.0 


3 


1.02 


3' 5 


4 


1. 12 


27.7 


4 


1.22 


30.9 


S 


1.40 


27 S 


5 


1-45 


28.5 


6 


1.65 


275 


6 


1.67 


27.7 


8 


2.22 


27-5 


8 


2.22 


37 s 


10 


2.77 


27 S 


10 


2.77 


27 S 


12 


3-27 


27-5 


12 


3 27 


27 S 


14 


3.85 


«7S 


14 


385 


27 S 



In the second series a verv much larger excess of lime was used than 
in the first series. The autnor gives results in a subsequent paper, — 
Bull. soc. chim. [3] 23, 740, '00, — which show that the solubility is also 
affected by the condition of the calcium compoimd used, i.e., whether 
the oxide, hydrate, or milk o£ lime is added to the sugar solutions. 

A very exhaustive investieation of the factoni which influence the solubility 
of lime in sugar solutions is aescribed by Claasen (1911). 



OALGXDM lODATB 206 

OAUnrM lODATS Ca(IO0t.6H.O. 

Solubility in Watbr. 

Qiilbm lad FaolcBcr. 90^ iJUt '97; W. Abh. p. t. BddniHtak a, 448. '00.) 





GlDS. 


Mdt. 






Cms. 


Mob. 


* « 


oao^ 


Ca(IOi)> 


Solid 




^. CaaOk)* 


CaaOfe)t Solid 


• • 


per loe 
Gma. Sol. 


per 100 


Phaie. 




* per 100 
Gins.Sol. 


per 100 Phue. 





o.io 


0.0044 


Ca(IO,) .6H,0 


21 0.37 


0016 Ca(IO,),.H,0 


10 


017 


0.007s 


(( 




35 048 


0.021 " 


18 


025 


O.OII 


u 




40 0.52 


023 " 


30 


04^ 


0019 


*t 




45 0.54 


0.024 " 


40 


0.61 


0.027 


u 




50 0.59 


0.026 " 


so 


0.89 


0.040 


*t 




60 065 


0.029 " 


54 


1.04 


0046 


It 




80 0.79 


0034 " 


60 


I 36 


0.063 


11 




100 0.94 


0.042 ** 


r 


)ensitv ( 


Df solutioi 


a saturated 


at ] 


[8^« i.oo. 





OALOIUM lODIDB Cal,. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Avente cum from the Rsoltfl of Kremen — PoKK. Ann. 103, 65, '58; Etaxd — Ann.diim. pliyft.(7] 

a* 53>* '94) 



t; 


Cms. Call per xoo 
Gma. Solution. 


f. 


Gms. Calf per xoo 
Gnu. SoiutiaD. 


« e Gms. Cala p 
* * Gms-Sdol 





64.6 


30 


69 


80 78 


10 


66.0 


40 


70.8 


ZOO 81 


20 


67.6 


60 


74 





Density of solution saturated at 20^ « 2.125. 

The fusion-point curve (solubility, see footnote, p. i) is given for mixtures of 
calcium iodide and iodine by Olivari (1908). 



CILCIUM lODO MEBCUaATI. 

A saturated solution of Cali and Hgis in water at I5*9^ was found by Duboin 
(1906) to have the composition CaIs.i.3HgIs.i2.3HsO; d » 2.89 and the solid 
phase in contact with the solution was CaIs.HgIi.8HsO. 

CALCIUM PerlODIDE CaU 

Data for the formation of calcium periodide in aqueous solution at 25^ are 
given by Herz and Bulla (191 1). (See reference note under calciimi perbromide, 
p. 189.) 

CiJLCIUM LACTATI Ca(C«HioO«).5HsO. 

100 gms. HiO dissolve 3.1 gms. of the salt at o^ 5.4 gms. at 15^ and 7.9 gms. 

at 30^. (Hill and Coddns, i9xa.) 



CALCIUM MALATI CaC4H40«.HsO. 

S(h.ubility OF Calcium Malatb in Water and in Alcohol. 

(PartbeQ and Httbner, 1903.) 

100 gms. HiO dissolve 0.9214 gm. CaC4H40i.HsO at i8% and 0.8552 gm. at 

25". 

100 gms. 95% alcohol dissolve 0.0049 gm. CaC4H40i.HiO at 18"*, and 0.00586 
gm. at 25*. 



207 



CALCIUM HALATB 



CALCIUM (Neutral) BCALATE Ca(C4H40t).3HsO. 
CALCIUM (Acid) MALATE Ca(C4H«0«),.6HsO. 
CALCIUM MAI.ONATq:Ca(CaisO«).4HsO. 

Solubility of Each in Water. 

(Iwig aa^Hecht, x886; Cantoni and Basadonna, 1906; the malooate, WcKynaki^ 1886.) 



( 


Ca. Neuti 


ral Malate. 


Ca. Acid Malate. 


Ca. Malonate. 




Gms. Ca(C«HfOi) 


per 100 


Gina.'Ca(C4HiOk)tper 




r. 


Gnu. 


Gmn. 


cc. SoL 


100 


Gms. 


Gms. Ca(CiHA)i) 
per 100 Gms. HiO. 




HiO. 


SoL 


(C and B). 


^ater. 


Solution. 





• • « 


• • ■ 


• • a 


• • • 


• ■ • 


0.290^0.374) 
0.330 (0.419) 


10 


0.85 


0.84 


• • • 


1.8 


1.77 


20 


0.82 


o.8x 


0.907 


1-5 • 


1.48 


0.365 (0.460) 


30 


0.78 


0.77 


0.83s 


2 


Z.96 


0.396 (0.49SJ 


40 


0.74 


0.73 


0.816 


5-2 


4.94 


0.422 (0.524) 


so 


0.66 


0.6s 


0.809 


IS- ' 


13 09 


0.443 (0.544) 


57 


O.S7 


0.56 


• « • 


32.24 


24.29 


■ • • 


60 


0.58 


0.58 


0.804 


26 


20.64 


0.460 


70 


0.63 


0.63 


0-79S 


ZI 


9.91 


0.472 


80 


0.71 


0.70 


0.7S4 


6.8 


6.37 


0.479 


90 


• • • 


• • • 


0.740 









The results for calcium malonate eiven above in parentheses are by Cantoni 
and Diotalevi (1905), but these authors fail to state the terms in which their 
data are reported. By comparison with other papers of the series, it is prob- 
able that in this case the figures refer to grams per 100 cc. saturated solution. 

CALCIUM NITRATE Ca(N0t)s.4H,0. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Baaaett and Taylor. 1912.) 

(Silica vessels used. Constant agitation at constant temperature for two to three 
days. Calcium determined by precipitation as oxalate and weighing as oxide.) 

Gms. 
Ca(NOi)f SoUd 4. 

per 100 Gms. Phase. 
Sat. SoL 

53 • 55 CaCNOdMHsO 45 



f. 



Gms. 

Ca(NO«)fl 

per xoo Gms. 

Sat. SoL 



Solid 
Phase. 



f. 



Solid 
Phase. 



- 0.4 


1.4 


Ice 


10 


- X.4 


4.78 


M 


15 


- 1.9 


6.53 


M 


20 


- 305 


10 


«f 


25 


- 4.15 


12.98 


M 


30 


-15.7 


3313 


it 


35 


— 21.7 


38. J 

• • • 


U 


40 


— 28.7 




42.4 


— 26.7 


43-37 CaCNOdMHW) 42.4 


— 10 


47.31 


it 


42.7 





50.50 


tf 


42.45 


5 


51.97 


U 


40 
tm.pt. 



54.94 
56.39 

57 98 
60.41 

62.88 
66.21 
68.68 
68.74 
...t 
71.7 



«( 



M 



M 



CI 



If 



« 



l( 



«f 



« 



50 
51 
51. I 

49 

51 

55 
80 

100 
125 

147-5 



Gms. 

Ca(NO0t 

per xoo Gms. 

Sat. Sol. 

71.45 Ca(NO0i.3BiriO 

73 . 79 

74.73 

77.49 CaCNOk)s.aH«0 
78.05 



ft 



(f 



it 



70.37 Ca(NQ0t.3HiiO 151 
* Eutectic 



78.16 
78.2 

78.43 

78.57 
78.8 

79 



Ca(NOi)s 



u 



M 



M 



l< 



Solubility of thb Unstablb Calcium Nitratb Tbtrahydratb fi in Watbr. 

(Results supplementary to the above.) 

CTaylor and Henderson, 19x5.) 
Gms. Ca(N0k)i 



f. 


per 100 Gms. 
Sat. Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


f. 





50.17 


aCa(N0a)t.4H«0 


38 


32.2 


56.88 


f( 


39 , 


25 


57.90 


If 


39.6 (m. pt.) 


30 


60.16 


f« 


39 (reflex pt.) 


30 


61.57 


^Ca(N0di^B«0 


40 


34 


63.66 


(( 


42 . 7 rm. pt.) 
42.4 (reflex pt.) 


35 


62.88 


aCa(N0a)i.4HK) 


38 


64.34 


M 


25 



Gnu. C 


aCNOJ 


i 


per 100 Gms. 


Solid Phase. 


Sat. 


SoL 




66. 


65 


^CaCNC^MHsO 


67. 


93 


i< 


69 


SO 


u 


7534 


u 


66 


22 


aCaCNOi)MH«0 


69 


SO 


u 


71 


.70 


M 


77.30 


Ca(NOds 



CALCIUM NTTRATI 



308 



S(M.uBiLiTY OP Calcium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions of CALouif 
Thiosulfate at 9* and at 25" AND Vice Versa. 

(Kremann and Rodemond, 19x4.) 





Results at 9^ 




Results at 


25*. 


Gms. per too 


Gms. Sat. SoL 


Solid Phase. 


Gms. per xoo 


»Gms.Sat.Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


Ca(NOk)i. 


CaSiOs. 


Ca(N0i)i. 


CaSiQi. 


46.02 


5-46 


Ca(N0|)MH:0 


54.03 


4.27 


Ca(N0i)MHi0 


45.68 


6.81 


" +CaSi0^6H^ 


SO. 25 


9.10 


M 


27.92 


10.46 


<W^^H/^ 


45.92 


13 


'* +CaS^61b0 


10.49 


22.81 


« 


42.93 


13.83 


CaSiQi.6HiO 


• • • 


2933 


If 


32.01 


17.09 


M 








19.51 


23.78 


M 








8.15 


29.85 


M 


Solubility of Caluum Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions 


OF Sodium 




Nitrate at 9** and at 


25* AND Vice Versa. 








(Kiemann and Rodemund, X9X4-) 






Results at 


9°. 




Results at 25 




• 


Gms. per loc 


> Gms. Sat. Sol. 


CnlM PhAWk 


Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. SoL 


Solid Phase. 


daCNQOi. 


NaNOi." 


ouiia A nase* 


•Ca(N0i)i. 


NaNOi. 


47 SI 


951 


CaCN0^i.4lb0 


54.58 


7.25 


Ca(N0«>MHi0 


46.08 


12.56 


" +NaN0* 


53-22 


10.70 


M 


26.67 


23.32 


NaNOi 


52.73 


i2-.o8 


•'+NaNOi 


11.76 


34.26 


u 


52.40 


11.88 


NaNOi 








37 31 


19.48 


ft 








26.91 


24.98 


f« 








14.61 


36.12 


•f 



These authors also give the complete solubility relations of the reciprocal 
salt pairs, Ca(NOi)i + NasSsOi t? 2hfaN0» + CaSsOs at 9** and 25**. 

Solubility of Calcium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions of Nitric Acid at 25*. 

(Bassett and Taylor, X9X2.) 

(The mixtures were shaken intermittently, by hand, during quite long periods; 
one week was allowed between duplicate determinations.) 

Gms. per loo Gms. Gms. per loo Gms. Gms. per xoo Gms. 



Sat. 


Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


Ca(NOI)«. 


HNQi. 




57.98 


< 


ZaQfOth-ABd 


54.82 


3.33 


u 


52.96 


587 




51.58 


7.21 




47.82 


XI. 27 




45. 59 


13.71 




40.70 


19.65 




38.17 


22.80 




34.46 


28.81 


•" 



a 



Sol. 



Solid Phase. 



t. Sol. 



Solid Phase. 



Ca(N0dt 



Ca(NOi)t. HNOi. Ca(NOi)t. HNOi. 

CaCNQ0s.4HiO 32.84 32.63 Ca(NQ0t.4H^ 934 65.69 Ca(Nai)i.2£bO 

32-50 33.52 " 8.52 67.20 

33.44 35.63 Ca(N0i)i.3Hi0 5.06 71. 12 

29.05 41.66 " 2.53 74.77 

2779 45.70 " 1.05 78.56 

31.09 40.56 Ca(NO0t.aH«O 0.54 80.83 

26.07 45.70 " 0.36 85.83 

17.41 55.48 " o.ox 90.90 

12.25 62.05 " o 96.86 

Freezing-point data for the Ternary System Ca(NOi)i-|-KNOi + NaNOt are 
given by Menzies and Dutt, 191 1. 

Solubility of Calcium Nitrate in Several Organic Solvents. 



« 



w 



<f 



l( 



u 



Solvent. 


f. 


^ Gms. Ca(N0i)9 per xoo Gms 
^ Sat. Solution. 


Authority. 


Methyl Alcohol 


25 


65.5 




(D'Ans and Siesler, 1913.) 


Propyl 


25 


S^'S 




it u 


i Butyl " 


25 


25 




M M 


Amyl 


25 


13.3 




M M 


Acetone 


25 


58.5 




li M 


Methyl Acetate 


18 


41 (i8at.i6L-] 


[.313) 


(Nwimaim, 1909.) J 



209 



CALCIUM NITRATE 



SqLUBIUTT of CALaUK NiTRATB IN AqUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF EtHYL AlCOHOL 

AT 25*. (D'Aas uid Siegler, 1913) 



Gms. prr too Cms. Sat. Sol. _ ... ... Gms. per xoc 


> Gna. Sat. Sol. 


SoUdPhaK. 


CtHrf)H 


Ca(NCW<. 




CtHiOH. 


Ca(NO>)i. ' 





S7-5 


Ct(NQ0«.4H/) 


IS-2 


69.52 


Ct(NO0< oiHtabk 


8.1 


SS-2 


It 


20.4 


66.08 


M If 


14.1 


52-9 


« 


35-9 


57-7 


If fl 


22.3 


50.2 


w 


41.8 


51 -4 


ff ft 


29.4 


49 


<( 


27 -39 


61.96 Ct(N04tiUUe 


31.2 


52 


II 


28.5 


61.15 


V 


29s 


56.2 


11 


29.6 


60.3 • 


" +Ca(N0^s.ar*HiOH 


27.8 


60 


M 


60.2 


38.6 


Ca(N0^s.aCiHiOH 


26.5 


62.3 


" +Ca(N0d« 


54.6 


41.9 


*i 





82.5 


Ca(NOi)s ttuUble 


42.5 


50-97 


■• 


5-8 


77 


<i (1 


35-8 


55-3 


M 


GALCIDM NITBm Ca(N0i),.4H,0 


• 










Solubility in Water. (Osw»w. 19x4.) 




f. 


^cSf^dSr soHd nu. 


*•. 


^G^IS'^ solid Ph.«. 


- 4 


16.7 


loe 


18. 


5 43 


CaCNOOMH«0 


- 9-3 


2SS 


i« 


42 


51.8 


If 


-12.5 


295 


II 


44 


53-5 


" +C«(NO0i.aHiO 


-145 


32 


II 


54 


55-2 


Ca(NO0i.3HflO 


-17s 


35 


" +Ca(NO0MlW) 64 


58.4 


II 


- 9-S 


36.2 


Ca(NOOMH«0 


70 


60.3 


II 





38.3 


II 


73 


61.5 


11 


16 


42.3 (* 


• -1.4«>S) " 


91 


71.2 


«j 



An aqueous solution simultaneously saturated with calcium nitrite and silver 
nitrite, contains 92.4 gms. Ca(NOt)s + ii-2 gms. AgNOs per 100 gms. HtO at 14^ 

(Oswald. 1914.) 

100 cc. sat. solution of calcium nitrite in 90 % alcoholcontain 39 gms. Ca(NOs)s. 
HjOat20^ 

100 cc. sat. solution of calcium nitrite in absolute alcohol contain i.i gms. 
Ca(NOt)j.H,0 at 20**. (Vogd, 1903.) 

CALCIUM OLIATI (Ci»H»0,)Ca. 

One liter water dissolves about o. i gm. calcium oleate at t^not stated. (Fahrion, 19x6.) 
100 gms. glycerol (old^i.i 14) dissolve 1.18 gms. calciumoleate at t° not stated. 

(Amflin, 1873.) 

CALCIUM OXALATE Ca(COO)s.HA ^.■ 

Solubility in Water, by Electrolytic Conductivity Method. 

(HoUeman, Kohliauach, and Row, 1893; Richazds, McCafErey, and Bisbee, 1901.) 



*o 


Gms. CaCi04 per 
Liter of Solution. 


t^ 


Gms. CaCsOi per 


» . 


• 


Liter of Sdudon. 


13 


0.0067 (H) 


^s 


0.0068 (R, McCandB) 


ta 


0.0056 (K and R) 


50 


0.009s " 


24 


0.0080 (H) 


95 


0.0140 " 


ilubd 


LITY OP CALaUM OXALATE IN AqUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF ACETIC Ac 




26°-^7''. (Herz and Muhs. 1903.) 




Normality of 


G.CHiCOOH 


Residue from 50^051 




.Aoetic Add. 


per xoo cc. S6L. 


cc. Solution. 







0.00 


0.0017 




0.58 


3'^ 


0.0048 




2.89 


17 -34 


0.0058 




S-79 


34-74 


0.0064 



The residues were dried at 70^ C. 



CALCIUM OXALATE 2x0 

SOLUBQ^ITY OF CaLCIUK OXALATE IN AqUBOUS S(X.UTI0NS OF. HYDROCHLORIC 





Acm 


AT 


25*. 






(Hendenon and Taylor, 1916.) 


• 


NomuHty of HCL 


Cms. CaCA per 
liter Sat. Sol. 




Nonnality of HQ. 


Cms. CaOOi per 
Liter Sat. Sol. 





0.009 




0.500 


2.638 


0.125 


0.717 




0.625 


3 319 


0.250 


1-359 




0.750 


3922 


0.37s 


2.019 




I 


5 -210 



These authors also give data showing the effect of increasing amounts of KCl 
and KNOi upon the solubility of calcium oxalate in o.^ normsu HCl at 25^, and 
also of the effect of increasing amounts of potassium tnchloracetic acid upon the 
solubility in 0.5 normal trichloracetic acid, and of increasing amounts ot potas- 
sium monochloracetic acid upon the solubility of calcium oxalate in 0.5 normal 
monochloracetic acid. 

Solubility of Calciuk Oxalate in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Chloride 

.AND OF Sodium Phosphate. 

(Gerard, 1901.) 

Salt in Aq. Gnu. Salt ^ Gms. CaC«Oi Salt in Aq. 

Sdution. per Liter^ * per Liter. Solution. 

NaCl I 25 0.0075 NaCl 

" 5 25 0.0188 NaaHCPGOi 

" 10 25 0.0255 " 



<c 



Gms. Salt 
per Liter. 


f. 


Gms. CaOOi 
per Liter. 


25 
4.8 


37 
IS 


0.0414 
0.016 


4.8 


37 


0.033 



25 25 0.0291 



One liter 45% ethyl alcohol dissolves 0.000^25 gm. calcium oxalate, temp, not 
stated. (Gueiin, 1913.) 



CALCIUM OXIDE CaO. 

100 gms. molten CaCls dissolve 16.2 gm. CaO at about 910^ 

(Amdt and Loewenstetn, 1909.) 

Data for the systems, CaO + MgO and for CaO + AltOi -f MgO are given by 
Rankin and Merwin (1916); for CaO -f AliOi -f SiOi by Rankin and Wright 
(191 5); for CaO + Fe»0» by Sosman and Merwin (1916); and for CaO + MgO 
-f SiOj by Bowen (1914). 

Data for the system CaO + C + Cad + CO are given by Thompson (1910). 



CALCIUM PHOSPHATE (Tribasic) Ca«(P04)s. 

Solubility in Water. 

The determinations of the solubility of this salt in water, as stated in the 
literature, are found to vary within rather wide limits, due, no doubt, to the 
fact that so-called tribasic calcium phosphate is apparently a solid solution of 
the dibasic salt and calcium oxide, and therefore analyses of individual samples 
mav show an excess of either lime or phosphoric acid. When placed in contact 
with water, more PO4 ions enter solution than Ca ions, the resulting solution 
being acid in reaction and the solid phase richer in lime than it was, previous to 
being added to the water. For material having a composition approximating 
closely that represented by the formula CasCPOt)! the amount whicn is dissolved 
by COs free water at the ordinary temperature, as calculated from the calcium 
determination, is 0.0 1 to o.io gram per liter, depending upon the conditions of 
the experiment. Water saturated with COs dissolves 0.15 to 0.30 gram per 
liter. 

A list of references to papers on this subject is given by Cameron and Hurst — 
J. Am. Chem. Soc., 26, 903, 1904; see also Cameron and Bell, Ibid,, 27f 1512, 1905. 



axx 



CALCIUM PH08PHATB 



OALOIUM PH08PHATK (Dibasic) CaHPO^.aHA 

Solubility in Water. 

(Cameroo aod SddeO — J. Am. Chtm. Soc. 26, 1460* 'o^^; see also Rindell — Compt. rend. 1349 iia» '00; 

Magnanini — Guz. chim. ital. 3X« II, 544, '01.) 

I liter of CO, free water dissolves 0.136 gram CaHP04 at 25®. 

I liter of water sat. with CO, dissolves 0.561 gram CaHP04 at 25**. 

Solubility op Di Calcium Phosphatb and op Mono Calcium Phos- 
phate IN Aqueous Solutions op Phosphoric Acid at 25**. 

(Cunercn axid Seidell — J. Am. Chem. Soc. a7» x5o8» '05; Causae — Compt. remi. 1x4, 414, 'pa.) 

PsOfl per liter 

in Excess of 

that oomfained 

withCa. 



Grains per liter of 
Sohitiaa. 


Gms. i>er liter 
Calc fmm r*aO V/wnwI. 


'CaO. 


PaO«. 


\.AH*. MA\^M 




1.71 


4.69 


4.15 


CaHPO, 


"57 


3^H 


28.05 


It 


23-31 


75 -95 


56 -53 


it 


39.81 


139.6 


97.01 


€t 


49.76 


191 .0 


120.7 


ts 


59 40 


334.6 


144. 1 


Si 


70.31 


279.7 


170.6 


it 


77.00 


317.0 


174.2 
(321-3 


CaHPO. or 
CaH,(P6,), 


72.30 


351-9 


301.6 


CaH,(PO^, 


^33 


361. 1 


289.3 


(( 


5998 


419-7 


250.2 


a 


53 59 


451-7 


223.7 


a 


44.52 


505-8 


185.8 


a 


39 89 


5383 


166.4 


it 



Solid Phase. 



2.53 
21.5 

46.45 
89.0 

128.0 

159-4 
190.7 

226.0 

122.2 

169.0 

186. 1 

267.9 

316. 1 

393-1 
437-4 



CaHP0^.2H,0 



tt 



it 



a 



a 



a 



a 



CaHP0..2lL0+ 
CaH,(PO ),.ILO 
CaH,(PO,),.H,0 



it 

a 
ii 
a 



a 



Density of the solution in contact with both salts at 25^ « 1.29. 



Solubility 



Results at 25 



OF Calcium Phosphates in Aqueous Solutions of Phosphoric 
Acid at Different Temperatures. 

(Bassett, Jr., 1908, X9X7.) 

Results at 40^ Results at 50.7^. 



Gms. Der xoo 
Gms. Sat. Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


Gms. per xoo 
Gms. Sat. Sol. 


SoUd Phase. 


Gms. per xoo 
Gms. Sat. Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


CaO. 


P^Oi. 


CaO. 


P«Oi. 




' CaO. 


PiO^ 




3.088 


36. IX CaHiP«0t.Hi0 


1.768 


42.42 


CaH«PhOs.H|0 


0.336 


62.01 ( 


CmEaP^+ 


4.908 


28.34 " 


3.584 


36.79 


« 






CaHiPsOt-HiO 


S.809 


24.20 « +CaHP0i 


S.755 


27.25 


" +CaHPOi 


0.635 


58.08 ( 


CaHJ>K)s.HiO 


5.523 


22.90 CaHPOi 


4.813 


21.67 


CaHPOi 


1.428 


50.25 


<< 


4.499 


17.55 " 


3.810 


16.3s 


(f 


2.974 


41.92 


If 


2.638 


9.100 " 


2.536 


9.905 


(1 


4.880 


33.18 


»i 


1.878 


6.049 " 


1.847 


6.979 


u 


5.725 


29.61 


" +CaHPOi 


0.826 


2.387 " 


1.267 


4.397 


M 


3.507 


15.48 


CaUPOi 


0.165 


0.417 ( " CaHPOi. 
0.166 ( aHtO 


0.576 


X.819 


« 


2.328 


9.465 


f( 


0.07 


0.156 


0.426 


<f 


1.563 


6.157 


tt 


0.06 


0.140 


0.0592 


0.158 


11 


0.692 


2.281 


tt 

■ 


0.05 


0.1 18 


0.0508 


0.128 


CasP<Ot.HiO 


0.0596 


0.1527 


CaHPOi.aB^ 


0.04 


0.093 


0.0098 


0.0262 


<• 


0.0514 


0.1331 


CasPsOs.HiO 


0.03 


0.070 


Morebaiirth»iP°-^?°^ 


trace 


CaiPflOi^HflO 


0-0351 


0.0942 


fi 


0.02 


0.047 


CaHPOcaHiO 


0.0814 


« 


14 


0.0106 


0.0309 


M 


0.01 


0.023 


0.0840 


tt 


C4 


O.OCO7 


0.0007 


tt 



In the case of most of the solutions 7-15 weeks constant agitation was allowed 
for attainment of equilibrium. For the last seven results at 25^, 18 months 
were required. Cerasine bottles were used in these cases. The solid phases 
were determined by analysis. The quintuple points were found by dilatometer 
experiments at 36^ 21^ and 152^ (See ne3ct page.) 



OALGZUM PH08PHATI8 



212 



S(M.uBn.iTY OF Calcium Phosphates in Aqueous Solutions of Phosphosic 

Acid at Temperatures above ioo^. 

(Baaaett, Jr., 1908.) 
Gms. per xoo Cms Sat. Sol. 



r. 



100 

11$ b. pt. 



132 

169 



CaO. 

2.503 
5-623 

4327 
4.489 



PiO. 

53.71 
43.60 

53.43 
63.95 



Solid Phase. 

CaH<P,0i+CaHiP^Hd0 

CaHiP|Ot.Ha0+CaHPOi 

CaH<P«0t+CaHiP|0i.Hfl0 

CaHiPA 



The quintuple points for the system determined by dilatometer experiments 
are as follows: 



152 
21 

36 



5.60 
5.81 
0.05x4 



53 CaHiPtOi+CaH<PAH|0+CaHFOc 

23 . 5 CaHiP«0i.Hy0+CaHP0i+CaHP0i.2H,0 

. 14 CaHF0i+CaHP0i.2H<0+CasP,0i.H]0 



For additional data on the solubility of calcium phosphates in water, see 
Cameron and Bell, 1905 and 1910. 

Data for the four component system, lime, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid and 
water, the essential constituents of "superphosphates," are given by Camefion 
and Bell (1906). 

One liter of ac^ueous 0.005 ^ potassium bitartrate solution sat. with calcium 
phosphate, contams 0.08 gm. Ca and 0.181 gm. H«P04 at 25**. (Magnanini, 1901.) 

Solubility of Calcium Phosphate in Aqueous Salt Solutions Under 2 

Atmospheres Pressure of COi at 14®. 

(Ehlert and Hempd, 1912.) 

Gms. 

Caa(PO«)t 
per Liter 
Solveat. 
0.238 



Sak in Aq. Solvoit. 



Gms. Salt 

per 100 

Gms.Hi0. 



Water 



u 



(NH«)sS04 
(( 

Mga«.6H«0 

MgS04.7HiO 

(( 

MgCls.KCl.6HsO 



It 



45-74 


1. 371 


cone. 


X.293 


565 


2.413 


cone. 


5.885 


86.9 


1.387 


cone 


a. 892 


105.3 


1.9738 


cone. 


3.6001 


79.2 


1.577 


cone. 


1 .154 



Salt in 


Aq. Solution. 

• 


Gms. Salt 

per 100 

Gms. HsO. 


Gms. 

Ca«(PO0« 

per Liter 

Solvent. 


MgSO4.KsSO4.MgCls.6HtO 


70.95 


1.777 




fi 


cone. 


2.49X 


KsS04 




74.5 


4.904 


(( 




cone. 


4.765 


NaQ 




50 


1. 321 


(( 




cone. 


0.64X 


NaNOk 




72.7 
Cone. 


1.583 


u 




0.864 


NasS04.ioH*0 


137.7 


2.491 


u 




cone. 


3.227 



Data for the solubility of calcium phosphate in aqueous saturated solutions of 
carbon dioxide containing ammonia are given by Foster and Neville, 19 10. 

CiJLCroM PILABOONATI (Nonate) Ca[CH,(CH,)7 C00]i.H,0. 

CALCIUM PROPIONATE Ca(CH,.CHiCOO)i.HsO. 

Solubility of Each in Water. 

(Lumsden, 190a; Knsnicki, 1887.) 



Calcium Pelaigonate. 


Calcium Propionate. 




Gms. 


Gms. CaCCHi.CHfCOOt per xoo Gms. 


t» 


Ca(CHi(CHs)7C00]i 
per zoo Gms. HiO. 






V • 


Water. 


Solution. 





0.16 


42.80 


29.97 


20 


0.14 


39 -85 


28.48 


40 


013 


38.4s 


27.76 


60 


0.12 


38-25 


27.67 


80 


o.iS 


39 85 


28.48 


90 


0.18 


42.15 


29.66 


100 


0.26 


48.44 


32.63 



213 CALCIUM 8ALICYLATB 

CILCIUM 8AUCTLATI Ca(C«H4.0HCOO)t.3HsO. 

100 grams of the saturated aqueous solution contain 2.29 grams of the an- 
hydrous salt at 15^ find 35.75 grams at I00^ (Tarugi and Checdu. Z901.) 

OALOIUM SKLBNATE CaSeO^. 

Solubility in Water 

(Eurd — Ann. chim. phyt. [7] 2, S3»t 'mO 
t*. -X*. +5'. »©•. si*. 67*. 

6ms. per ICO gms. soL 7.4 7.3 7.6 6.8 5.1 

The accucacy of these results appears questionable. 

OALOIUM 8ILI0ATE CaSiO,. 
Solubility in Water and in Aqueous Sugar Solutions at 17*. 

(Wdsberg — Bull. soc. chim. [3] 15, X097, '96O 

The sample of calcium silicate was air dried. 

Grama per xoo cc. Saturated Solution. 



Solvent. At X7*. Aft er Boiling and Ffltering Eto t. 

CaO(det.) CaSiO|(calc.) CaO(det.) CaSiOt(calc.) 

Water 0.0046 0.0095 

10% sugar soL 0.0065 0.0135 00094 0.0195 

20% sugar sol. 0.0076 0.0157 0.0120 0.0249 

Freezing-point Data (Solubility, see footnote, p. i) Are Given for the 
Following Mixtures of Calcium Silicate and Other Compounds. 

CaSiO|-fCaS (Lebedew, xgxx.) 

" + CaTiOi (SmolenslEy, xgxx-xa.) 

" -f LiiSiOi (Wallace, 1909.) 

** + MgSiOs (Allen and White, xQxx; Ginsbeig, 1906.) 

" -|- MnSiOi (Ginsberg, 1908, 1909.) 

" + NasSiOs (Wallace, 1909; KultaachefiF, 1903.) 

CALCIUM 8UCCINATI Ca(CsHiO,)s. 

CALCIUM (Iso) SUCCINATE CaCHi.CHCs04.H,0. 

Solubility of Each in Water. 

(Miosynski, 1886.) 

Calcium Succinate. Calcium Iso Succinate.' 



f. 


Gma. 

Ca(CHi0^t 

per xoo Gms. 

HiO. 


f. 


Gms. 
Ca(C«HfO0« 
per xoo Gms. 

HiO. 


V. 


Gms. 

CaCCsHiOOs 

per xoo Gms. 

HaO. 


f. 


Gms. 

Ca(CsHA)t 

per xoo Gms. 

HiO. 





1. 127 


SO 


1.029 





0.522 


SO 


0.440 


10 


1.220 


60 


0.894 


10 


0.524 


60 


0.396 


20 


1.276 


70 


0.770 


20 


0.517 


70 


0.342 


40 


1. 177 


80 


0.657 


40 


0.47s 


80 


0.279 



100 cc. HsO dissolve 1.424 gms. CaC4H404.HsO at 18"* and 1.436 gms. at 25"* 

(Partheil and Httbner, X903.) 

100 gms. HtO dissolve 1.28 gms. CaC4H404 at 15^ and 0.66 gms. at 100**. 

(Tarugi and Cbecchi, x9ox.) 

Results for calcium succinate in water, varying considerably from the above and 
indicating an increase of solubility with temperature, are given by Cantoni and 
Diotalevi (1905) but the terms used for expressing the results are not stated. 

100 cc. 95% alcohol dissolve 0.00136 gm. CaC4H404.HiO at 18"* and 0.00136 gm. 
at 25^. (PUheil and Habner, X903.) 



CALCIUM SUIiTATE 



214 



CALCIUM SULFATE CaS04.2H,0. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Hulett and Allen, XQ02; for references to other detemninatiom aee Hulett 
For data by the electrolytic conductivity method^ tee WwiUw**!*, Kohlnuuch 



and AUen, also Enkr. 1904* 
and Roae, 1893, 1908.) 



f. 

O 
10 
18 

30 

35 



Gms. CaSOi 

per xoocc 

Solution. 

O.I7S9 
0.1928 

0.2016 

0.2080 

0.2090 

0.2096 



Millimols 
per liter. 

12.926 
14.177 
14.817 

15-361 
15-405 



Density of 
Solutions. 

I. 00197 
I. 00173 
1.00059 
O.999II 
0.99789 
0.99612 



40 

55 

653 

75 
100 

107 



Gms.CaS04 

per xoocc 

Solution. 

0.2097 
0.2009 
0.1932 
0.1847 
O.1619 



Millimnli 
per liter. 

15-413 

14-765 
14.200 

13.575 
11.900 

11.390 



Density of 
Solutions 

0.99439 
0.98796 

0.98256 

0.97772 



Solubility of Calcium Sulfate Anhydrite and of Soluble Anhydrite 

IN Water. (Mdcher, 19x0.) 



f. 

100 
100 
100 

156 

156 
218 



Millimols i)er 
Liter. 

11.65 

II. 4 
4.6 
3-2 
1-35 
0.35 



Gms. CaSOiper 
Liter. 

1.586 

1-552 
0.626 

0.436 

0.184 

. 0.048 



SoUd Phase. 

CaS04.2H20 

Soluble anhydrite 
Anhydnte 

Soluble anhydrite 
Anhydrite 



Data for the solubility'of calcium sulfate in sea water are given by Manuelli, 1916. 
Solubility of Calcium Sulfate in Aqueous'Solutions of Akiconium 

Acetate at 25**. (Mardenri9i6.) 



Gms. CHsCOONHi per 
100 Gms. Solution. 


dn. 


Gms. CaSOi oer 
zoo' Gm5. Sat. Solution. 





I 


0.2085 


2.13 


1.005 


0.454 


5-34 


1. 012 


0.752 


10.68 


1.024 


1. 146 


21.37 


I.04S 


1-755 



Solubility of Calcium Sulphate in Aqueous Solutions of Hydro- 
chloric, Nitric, Chlor Acetic, and Formic Acids. 

(Bantbisch — J. pr. Chem. ag* 53. '84; Lunge — J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 4, 3a, '85.) 



In Hydrochloric. 



Grams Add 

per xoo cc. 

Solution. 



O 
I 
2 

3 
4 
6 

8 
10 
12 



Grama CaSO« per 
100 cc. Sol. 



at as°' 
0.208 
0.72 
1.02 

1-25 
1.42 

1.65 

1.74 



In Nitric. In Chlor Acetic. In Formic. 

Gms. CaSO« per Gms. CaSOa per Gms. CaSO« per 

xoo cc- Sol. 



atioa*. 

0.160 

1.38 

2.38 

3.20 

sM 
4-65 



100 cc. Solution 
at as"*. 



atai*. 
0.208 



xoo cc. Soi. 
at as°. 

208 



0.208 

0.56 

0.82 

1.02 

1.20 0.22 0.24 

1.48 

1.70 

1.84 0.25 

1.98 

Data for the solubility of mixtures of CaS04(NH4)» SOi.HjO + (NH4)»S04 and of 
CaS04(NH4)aS04.4HiO + CaS04.2HiO at various temperatures between 3** and lOO* 
are given by Barre, 1909 and 191 1. Additional data for this system, including re- 
sults for the pentacalcium salt, (NH4)sCai(S04)6.HsO, are given by D'Ans, 1909. 



215 



CALCIUM SULFATE 



SoLUBiLrrY OF Calcium Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of Ammonium 

Salts. 

(In tJH^ and NH«NO», Cameron and Brown — J. Physic. Chem. 0, axo. '05 ; In (NH«)9S04 at 95*, 
SdUyan — J. Am. Chem. Soc. a7f 599t '05; In (NH4)9S04 at 5o^ Bell and Tabor — J. Physic. Chem. 10, 

"'^ "^'^ In NH,C1 In NH,NO, In NH,C1 In NH4NO, 





at 25^. 


at 


25^ 




at 25^ 


at 25**. 


niumSak 


G.CaSO* 
Dissolved 


G. CaSO* 
Dissolved 


Gms. Ammo- 
nium Salt 


G.CaSO^ 
Dissolved 


G.CaSO* 
Dissolved 


per Liter. 


per liter. 


per 


Uter 


per Liter. 


per Liter. 


per Liter. 





2.08 


2 


.08 


300 


10. 10 


10.80 


20 


500 


3 70 


375 


7.40 


* • • 


40 


7. 00 


5 


.10 


400 




11.40 


60 


8.00 


6 


•05 


600 




12.15 


80 


8.50 


7 


.00 


800 




12.10 


ICO 


9.10 


7 65 


1000 




II. 81 


150 


10.30 


8.88 


1400 




10.02 


200 


10.85 


9 


8s 


sat 




7-55 


In (NHJsSO, at 25^. 




In (NHJ^SO, i 


at 50**. 


Grams per 


Uter Sol. wt. of loo CC 


• 


Grams per 


Liter Sol. 


Sp. Gr. 


(NH4}sSO«. 


CaS04. 


Sat. Sol. 




(NH4),S04. 


CaSO*. 


of Solutions. 





2.08 


99.91 







2.168 


• • • 


0.129 


2.04 


99.91 




15-65 


1.609 


1.0026 


0.258 


1.99 


99.92 




30.67 


1-750 


I.OII3 


0.821 


1. 81 


99-95 




91.6 


2.542 


1.0440 


I 643 


1.66 


99-99 




160.4 


3.402 


I. 0819 


3.287 


1-54 


100.10 




221.6 


4.068 


I.II08 


6. 575 


1.44. 


100.34 




340.6 


5.084 


I -1653 


13 15 


1.46 


100.82 




416.5 


5-354 


I. 1964 


26.30 


1.62 


101.76 




428.4 


4.632 


1 . 2043 


84.9 


2.33 


105.34 




530.8 


2.152 


I - 2437 


169.8 


3-33 


110.32 




566 


1.08 


1.2508 


.339-6 


4.50 


119. IS 




566.7 





1.25x0 



In Calcium 
Nitrate. 

Gms. per Liter Sol. 



SoLUBiLiTT OP Calcium Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of Calcium Salts 

AT 25* 

(Csmeroa tnd Seidell — J. Physic. Chem. S» 643, '01; Seideil and Smith — Ibid. 8» 493, '04; Cameron 

and Bell — J. Am. Chem. Soc. aS» laio, '06.) 

In Calcium 
Chloride. 

Grama per Liter Sol. ums. per .uter Soi. wt. of 
CaOi. CaSOP Ca(NOj)a. CaSO*. i cc.'Sd. 

0.00 2.06 0.0 2.08 0.998 0.0 

7.49 1.24 25 1.24 1. 014 0.062 

11.96 I. 18 50 1.20 I. 032 0.176 

25.77 I. 10 100 I. 13 1.067 0.349 

32.05 1.08 200 093 1. 137 0.61 

51.53 1.02 300 0.76 1.204 0.939 



In Calcium Hydroxide and 
vice versa, 

Gms. pe r Liter Sol. 
daOT ^ 



97 

192 
280 
367 



02 0.84 400 0.57 I 



71 
30 

85 



047 
0.20 

0.03 



500 
544 



0.40 
0-35 



I 

I 



CaS04. 
2.126 
2.030 
1. 918 

1-853 
1.722 

1.634 



Solid 
Phase. 



CaS0..2H,0 



It 
It 
tt 

u 



265 

328 
352 



1.222 

1.242 
1.150 
1. 166 



^r^ [ CaS0,.2H,0+ 
•5^ ( Ca(OHj, 



1. 2 14 Ca(OH), 

0.666 

0.00 



CALCIUM 81JLFATI 



3l6 



Solubility op Calcixtii Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of Copper Sulfate 



AT 25'. 

(Bell and Taber, 1907.) 



Cms, per Liter Sat. SoL 



CuSOi. 
1. 144 

3 564 

6.048 

7.279 

14.814 

19.729 

29 543 



CaSOi. 
2.068 
1.986 
1.944 
1.858 
1.760 
I 736 

1.688 



daSatSoI. 

1.002 
1.005 
1.007 
1.009 
1. 016 
1. 021 
1.030 



Gnus, per Lit*r Sat. Sol. 



CuSOt. 

39 407 
49 382 

58.880 

97 950 

146.725 

196.021 
224.916 



CaSOi. 
1. 718 

1.744 
1.782 

I 931 
2.048 

2.076 

2.088 



d« Sat. Sol. 

1. 041 
1. 051 
1. 061 
1.098 
1. 146 
1. 192 
1. 218 



Solubility of Mixtures of Calcium Sulfate and Caesium Sulfate in 



f. 

25 
60 



Mo]8.CaiSOi.CaSOi 
per xooo Gms. 
Sat. SoL 



0.667 
0.607 



Water. 

(D'Aas, 1908.) 

Gms. CasSOi.CaSOi 
per Tooo Gms. 
Sat. Sol 

352 
320 



Solid Phase. 



Dicaldum Sulfate + Gypsum 

U It 



Solubility of Calcium Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of Magnesixtm 

Chloride and of Magnesium Nitrate at 25^ 



In Magnesium Chloride. 


In Magnesium Nitrate. 


Grams 


per Liter of Sat. 

• 1 


Solution. 


Grams per 


Liter Solution. 


Wt. of z cc. 


MgOs. 


CaSOi. 


IW).* 


MgCNOOs. 


CaSOi. 


Solution. 


. 


2.08 


997-9 





2.08 


0.9981 


8.50 


4.26 


996.5 


25 


5-77 


1.0205. 


19.18 


5 69 


994.5 


50 


7.88 


1.0398 


46.64 


7.59 


989.1 


100 


9.92 


1.0786 


121.38 


8.62 


972.2 


200 


13.34 


I . 1498 


206.98 


6.57 


949.9 


300 


14 


I. 2190 


337 


2.77 


908.7 


400 


14.68 


I. 2821 


441. 1 


1-39 


878.6 


514 


15.04 


1.3553 


LUBILITY 


OF Calcium Sulfate in 


Aqueous Solutions of 


Magnesium 






Sulfate 


AT 25*. 










(Cameron and Bell, x9o6a.) 






Grams per Liter Solution. 


Sp. Gr. of 


Gramnper 


Liter Solution. 


Sp. Gr.'of 


MgSOi. 


Casa. 


Solutions at If*. 


MgSOi. 


CaSOi. 


Solutions at H*- 





2.046 


1.0032 


149.67 


1.597 


I. 1377 


3-20 


1.620 


I .0055 


165.7 


1.549 


I . 1479 


6-39 


1.507 


1.0090 


171. 2 


1-474 


1. 1537 


10.64 


1. 471 


I.OI18 


198.8 


1.422 


I.1813 


21.36 


1.478 


7.0226 


232.1 


1.254 


1.2095 


42.68 


1.558 


I. 0419 


265.6 


1.070 


I . 2382 


64.14 


1.608 


1.0626 


298 


0.860 


I . 2624 


85.67 


1. 617 


1.0833 


330.6 


0.647 


1.2877 


128.28 


1.627 


I.II90 


355 


0.501 


1.3023 



217 



CALCIUM 8ULFATI 



Solubility of Calcixtii Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of Phosphoric 

Acid at 25®. 

(Taber, 1906.) 



Cms. perl 


Liter. 


Sp. Or. of 
SdutioDs at H 


• 


Cms. per Liter. 


Sp. Gr. of 


P^ 


CaSOi.' 


P«0». CaSa. 


Solutions at H. 





2.126 


0.9991 




145. I 7.920 


1. 106 


5 


3-143 


1.002 




205 8.383 


1. 145 


10. 5 


3-734 


1.007 




311. 5 7.965 


1. 221 


21.4 


4.456 


1. 016 




395.8 6.848 


1.280 


46.3 


5-760 


1-035 




494.6 5.572 


1.344 


105.3 


7.318 


1.075 






■ 


Solubility of 


Calcium Sulfate in j 


\queous Solutions of Sulfuric Acid. 






(Cameron and Bieaseale, 1903.) 




Grams HtS04 


Results at af. 




Results at 3^. Results at 43^. 
Gms. CaS04 Gms. CaSQA 


per Liter of 


Gms. CaSO^ Wt. of ] 


[ cc. 


Sdutioa. 


per Liter. 


Sol. 




per Liter. 


per Liter. 


000 


2.126 


0.9991 grams ... 


2-145 


0.48 


2.128 


1.0025 




2. 


209 


2.236 


4.87 


2.144 


1.0026 




2 


451 


2.456 


8. II 


2.203 


1.0051 






» • • 


2.760 


16.22 


2.382 


1.0098 






» ■ • 


3-I16 


48.67 


2.727 


1 .0302 




3 


397 


3 843 


75 00 


2.841 


I 0435 






t m • 


4.146 


97-35 


2.779 


I .0756 




3 


606 


• * • 


146.01 


2.571 


• • • 




3 


ISO 


4 139 


194 70 


^'3^3 


1.1134 






t 1 • 


3 SSI 


243-35 


1. 901 


1.1418 




• • « 


a -959 


292 .02 


I -541 


1.1681 




t 


1 • • 


a. 481 



Solubility of Calcium Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of Potassixtm 

Chloride, Brobode, and Iodide at 21°. 

(Ditte, 1898.) 



In KCl Solutions. In KBr Solutions. In KI Solutions 



Giamsof the 
PotasdumSalt 
per Liter. 

O 
10 
20 
40 
60 
80 
100 

"5 
ISO 
200 
250 

300 



Cms. CSO^ 
per liter. 


Gnu. CaSOk 
per liter. 


Gms. CSO^ 
per liter. 


2.05 
36 


2 OS 
31 


2.0s 
2.8 


4S 


3-6 


33 


S-8 
6.6 


4S 
S-2 


3 9 

45 


7.2 


S-9 


4-85 


7S 
double salt 


6-3 
6.7 


S-i 
S-4S 


• • • 


7.0 


S-8 


• • • 

« • • 


7-3 
double salt 


5 -95 
6.0O 


• • • 


• . 1 


double salt 



CALCIUM 8ULFATI 



218 



Solubility of Calcium Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions op Potassium 
Nitrate and of Potassium Sulfate at 25**. 

(Seidell and Smith, 1904; Cameion and Breaseale, 1904.) 



In Potassium Nitrate. 



In Potassium Sulphate. 



Gma. per liter 
SohxtioD. 


Wt.of IOC. 
Sdatioii. 


KNOi. 


CaSO«. 


0.0 


2.08 


0.9981 


"S 


3 28 


I. 0081 


25.0 


4.08 


I .0154 


50.0 


5-26 


I. 0321 


.100.0 


6.86 


1.0625 


ISO 


7.91 


1.0924 


200 


8.69 


1. 1224 


260 


syngenite 


1 1539 



Gms. per Liter 
Solution. 



0.0 
4.88 

S09 

9-85 

I9S7 

28.35 
30.66 

32.47 



CaSOi. 
2.08 
60 

S6 
45 
49 
SS 
57 
58* 



Wt. of I oc. 
SolutioQ. 

0.9981 
1.0036 
1.0038 
1.007s 
I 0151 
I .0229 
1.0236 



* Solid phase sjmgenite. Results for the solubility of syngenite in aolatioos of potassiom sulphate aie 
also given in the anginal paper. 

Data for the solubility of syngenite, KtCaCSOOs.H^O, and of potassium pentacal- 
cium sulfate, K2Ca((S04)6.HsO, in water at various temperatures, are ^ven by 
D'Ans (1909). This author also gives results for the effect of the following salts 
upon the concentration of the boundary solution for gypsum-potassium syn- 
genite at 25**: KCl, KBr, KI, KCK),. KCIO4. KNO,, CH,C06k, KOH, K4Fe(CN). 
K,Fe(CN)6, NaCl, Nal, NaNOs, CH,CCX)Na, HCl, HNO,. HjPO*. CH,COOH, 
HsSOi, AgiSOi and cane sugar. 

Data for the solubility <5 mixtures of CaSO^^KoSOt.HiO + CaSO«.2HaO and 
CaSO4.KsSO4.H1O + K2§04 in_water at temperatures between o® and 99", are 
given by Barre (1909, 191 1). 

Data for mixtures of gypsum-rubidium syngenite and of dicalcium salt-syn- 
genite, at temperatures between o^ and 40^, are given by D'Ans (1909). 



S(H.UBILITY OF CaLCK 

(Cameron, 1901 
Grams per zoo cc. Solution. 


ni Sulfate » 
CH1.0RIDE 

; also Orloff, 1903; 

Wt. of X cc 
Solution. 

0.9998 
1.0644 
I. 0981 
I.IOI2 


r Aqueous Solutions of 

AT 26^ 

Cloez, 1903; d'Anaebne, 1903.) 

Grams per xoo cc. Solution. 


SODIUH 
Wt. of I oc. 


NaCl. 


9. IIS 
14-399 

14.834 


CaSOi. 
0.2I2I 
0.666 
0.718 
0.716 


NaCl. 
17.650 
22.876 
26.417 
32.049 


CaSO«. 

0.712 

0.679 

0.650 

0.572 


Solution. 

I.II96 
I. 1488 
1. 1707 
1.2034 



Solubility of Mixtures of Calcium Sulfate and Calcium Carbonate in 
Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Chloride at 23^ 

(Cameron and Seidell, z9oza.) 



Gm 


ms per Liter Solul 


Lion. 


(Srams 


per Liter SolutlOB 


t. 


Naa. 


3-^3 
11.49 

39.62 


Ca(HCOi)t. 
0.060 
0.072 
0.089 
O.IOI 


CaSOi.' 
1.930 
2.720 
3.446 
5.156 


NaCl. 

79. 52 

121.90 
193.80 
267.60 


Ca(HC0i)i. 
0.060 
0.056 
0.048 
0.040 


CaSO^ 
6.424 
5.272 
4.786 
4.462 



Data for the solubilitv of mixtures of calcium sulfate and sodium chloride at 
0^-09® are given by Artn and Cretien (1906). 

Data for the equilibrium CaS04 + NaiCOi <Fi CaCO» + NasSOi at 25* are 
given by Herz (1911a). 



219 



CALCIUM SIJLFATK 



Solubility of Mixtures of Calcium Sulfate and Silver Sulfate in 

Water. 

CEuler, 1904.) 



^ . ( CaS04 
'7 {Ag,S04 



Gnis.Salt. 
2-31 

7 -235 



Per Liter of Solution. 

Gms. Equiv. 
Salt. 



^^o(CaS04 2.61 
^5 {A&SO4 8. II 



0.034 ) 
0.0464) 

00383) 
0.0520 ) 



Total Sah 

per xoo Gms. 

SolatMm 

0-9473 



1.062 



Sp. Or. of 
SdtttioDs. 



1.0083 



1. 010 



'Solubility of Calcium Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium 
Nitrate and of Sodium Sulfate at 25®. 

(Seidell, Smith, Cameron, Brea/eale.) 



In Sodium Nitrate. 


In Sodium Sulfate. 


Gms. per Liter Solution. wt. of z oc 


Gms. per Liter Solution. wt. of r cc 


NaNOi. CaSOi. ^ Solution. 


'NaaSa. 


CaSOi: Solution. 


2.08 0.9981 


2.39 


I. 65 I. 0013 


25 4.25 I. 0163 


9S4 


I. 45 1.0076 


SO 5 SO I 0340 


14.13 


1.39 i.oiis 


100 7.10 1.0684 


24.37 


1.47 I.020S 


200 8.79 1. 1336 


46.15 


1.65 I. 0391 


300 9 . 28 1 . 1916 


11508 • 


2.10 1.0965 


600 7.89 1.3639 


146.61 


2.23 I. 1427 


65s 7 24 1-3904 


257.10 


2.65 I. 2120 



Data for the solubility of calcium sulfate, sodium sulfate glauberite, sodium 
sulfate synffenite. separately and mixed, in water at various temperatures, are 
given by D Ans (1909) anc^Barre (191 1). 



Scmlubility of Calcium Sulfate in Aqueous and Alcoholic Mono- 
potassium Tartrate Solutions at 20^. 

(Magnanini, 1901.) 



Solvent. 

Water 

Aq. N/200 KHC4HA 

10% alcohol 



Gms. CaS04 

per 100 Gms. 

Solution. 

0.2238 

0.2323 

0.0970 



Solvent. 

10% alcoholic N/200 KHCAOi 
Aq. N/200 KHC^0»+5% tar- 
taric acid 
10% ale. N/400 KHCJIiO.+s% 
tartaric add 



Gms.CaS04 

per xoo Gms. 

Solution. 

0.0866 
0.2566 
0.1086 



Solubility of Calcium Sulfate in Aqueous Sugar Solutions. 

(StoUe, z9oa) 



Per cent Concen- 
tration of Sugar 
Solutions. 


Gms. CaS0« Dissolved by zoog 


Gms. of the Sugar Solutions at: 


r- 

30-. 


40*. 


so*. 


6o*. 


70*. 


8o*. 





• • • 


2.157 


I 730 


1.730 


1.652 


1. 710 


10 


2.041 


1.730 


I 730 


1. 574 


1.574 


1. 613 


20 


1.808 


1.652 


1. 419 


1.380 


1.419 


1.263 


27 


^•SSo 


1.438 


1. 361 


1.283 


1.283 


0.972 


35 


1.263 


1.050 


1.088 


1. 108 


0.914 


• • • 


42 


1.030 


• • • 


0.777 


0.816 


0.85s 


0.729 


49 


... 


0.564 


0-739 


0.564 


0.603 


0.486 


ss 


• . • 


0.486 


0.50s 


0.486 


0.369 


0.330 


1 00 gms. glycerol of du ^ 


[.256dissolv 


e 5. 1 7 gms 


.CaS04ati5° 


-16**. (088endow!iki,igo7.) 


100 gms. glycerol oidi 


.1 14 dissolve 0.95 gm. 


CaSOi at ord 


. temp. 


(Asselin, 1873.) 



CALCIUM SULFATI 220 

Freezing-point Data (Solubilities, see footnote, p. i) Are Given for the 
Following Mixtures of Caluum Sulfate and Other Salts: 



Calcium Sulfate + Lithium Sulfate (Muller, 19x0.) 

+ Potassium Sulfate (Mailer, 19x0; Gnhnuum, 19x5.) 

+ Rubidium Sulfate (Muller, 19x0.) 

4- Sodium Sulfate (MOlkr, 19x0; Calca^ni and Mandni, Z9ia) 



41 41 

11 II 

II II 



OALOIUM SULPHIDE CaS. 

Solubility in Aqueous Sugar Solutions. 

(StoUe.) 



tnJdaaci Sugar 
SoltttioDs. 


Grams CaS DiaaolTed per Liter of the Sugar Solutions at: 


» 
» 


Soo. 


40». 


50«. 


6o<». 


ro^ 


&>•. 


90 . 





1.982 


2.123 


1-235 


I 390 


1.696 


2.032 


2.496 


10 


1.866 


1. 316 


1. 441 


1-673 


1.560 


1-634 


1-544 


20 


2.187 


1.696 


1.802 


1-905 


1.879 


1.892 


1.930 


27 


2.522 


2.097 


2.059 


2.226 


2.342 


2.304 


2-357 


35 


2.689 


2.265 


2.304 


2.406 


2.342 


2.857 


2.947 


42 


2.342 


2.136 


2.226 


2.522 


2-574 


2.509 


2.689 


49 


2-445 


2.290 


2.458 


2.638 


2.728 


2.818 


3 063 


55 


2.509 


2.226 


2.340 


2.882 


2.766 


2.972 


3 -616 



CALCIUM SULTITE GaSOs2HsO. 

Solubility in Water and in Aqueous Sugar Solutions at i8^ 

(Weisbexg. X896.) 

Grains CaSOi per 100 cc. Solution . 

Solvent. AtTft* 'After Boiling 

At " . Solution a HouxB. 

Water 0.0043 

10 Per cent Sugar o . 0083 o . 0066 

30 Per cent Sugar 0.0080 0.0069 

Results at Higher Temperatures. 

(Van der Linden, 19x6.) 

Gms. CaSOi.aHsO per xooo gms. Sat. Solution at. 
Solvent. r- "^ \ 

30*. 40*. so*. 6o*. 70*. 8o*. 90*. b. pt. 

Water 0.064 0.063 0.057 0.061 0.045 0.031 0.027 0.01 1 

Aq^Sucroseofi5gms.pcrioo 1^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

'^G£^F;e;^rcc1"''''^^ -^^ ^-^5 0.071 0.060 0.047 0.040 0.029 

Water+Excess CaSOi 0.031 0.029 0.025 0.019 0.012 0.009 0.008 0.006 

%^Ex'i^'(^^*^'''^^"}^-°3S 0.032 0.022 o/>i9 0.021 0.017 0.020 0.021 

Aq. Sucrose, 15 gms.+i.5 gms. 1 
Glucose per 100 cc+Ezcess ( 0.032 0.027 0.022 0.020 0.019 0.0x9 0.019 0.033 
CaSO* ' 

CALCIUM Phenanthrene SULFONATES. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Sandquist, x9xa.) 

Caldiun- 2-Phenantlirene Monosulfonate 0.034 

" - 3- " " .2IWJ 0.083 

" -10- " " .2HiO 0.30 



Gms. CliC4HiO|.4EI^ 
per loo cc. SoL 


f. 


Gms. CaCiHiO^i^bO 
per xoo cc Sol. 


f. 


Gms. CaGH<(>|.iHiO 
per 100 cc. SoL 


•0.0365 


30 


0.0631 


70 


0.1430 


0.0401 


40 


0.087s 


80 


0.1798 


0.047s 


SO 


O.IIOO 


«s 


0.2190 


0.0525 


60 


0.1262 







221 CALCIUM TABTRATI 

CALCIUM TABTRATI CaCdi^fkAHfi. 

SoLUBiuTY IN Water. 

(Ctntoni and Zschoder, 1905-) 

o 
10 

20 

100 ems. aq. Ca. tartrate solution contain 0.0185 gm. CaC4H40c4HiOat 18^, and 
0X)294d9 gm. at 25^. 

100 gms. 95% alcohol solution contain 0.0187 gm. CaC4H40«.4HsO at 18^, and 
0.02352 gm. at 25®. ^ (PartheQ and HObner, 1903.) 

100 gms. aq. Ca. tartrate solution contain 0.0364 gm. CaC4H40« at 20**. 

100 gms. 10% alcohol solution contain 0.0160 gm. CaC4H40« at 20^. 

100 gms. aqueous 5% tartaric acid solution contain 0.1632 gm. CaCiHiOs 
at 20°. (Magnanini, 1901.) 

Scx^ubhity of CALaxTii Tartrate, CaC4H40c4H«0, in Aqueous Acetic 

Acid Solutions at 26*-27". 

(Hers and Muhs, 1903; see also Enell, 1899.) 

NonnalityoC Gms. CHiCOOH Residue from Normality of Gms. CHaCOOH Residue from 

Acetic Acid. per xoo cc. SoL 50.05a cc. Sol. Acetic Add. per xoo cc Sol. 50.052 oc. SoL 

o o 0.0217 3.80 22.80 0.2042 

0.57* 3.42 0.1082 S.70 34.20 0.1844 

1-425 8.55 0.1635 10.09 60.54 O.II60 

2.85 17.10 0.1970 16.505 93.03 0.0337 

The residue was dried at 70^ C. 

S(x«UBiLiTY OF Calcium Tartrate in Aqueous Solutions of CALauii 
_, Chloride, Tartaric Acid, etc., at 18". 

(Paul, X9XS.) 

(The determinations were made by weighing the tartrate remaining undissolved 
and calculating the amount dissolved by difference. It was found that even a 
small amount of COt in the water had a distinct influence on the solubility. One 
liter of pure COt free water was found to dissolve 0.380 rtn. CaC4H40c.4HtO at 
18° and one liter of ordinary distilled water, 0.410 gm. at the same temperature.) 

Results for Aque- Results for Aqueous Results for Ague- Results for Alcoholic 

ous Calcium Dipotassium Tar- ous Tartaric Tartaric Acid 

Chloride Solution. trate Sols. Acid Sols. Sols. 



' Gms. per Liter. Gms. pex 


Liter. 

CadHiO;. 
4IUO. 


Gms. 


per Liter. 




Gms. per Liter. 


CaOt. 


CaC«HiOi. KfiaH«Oi. 
4HSO. iHsO. 


CiHiOk 


CaC4H40^ 
4HiO. 


CtTWH. 


CdWt. 


CaC«H4d^ 
4H1O 


0.503 


0.202 0.392 


0.166 


I 


0.910 


SO 





0.263 


1.005 


0.179 2.139 


0.160 


2 


1. 162 


it 


4 


1. 107 


3518 


0.166 2.352 


0.157 


4 


1.5" 


u 


16 


1.85 


4 523 


0.154 2.614 


0.150 


6 


1.776 


80 





0.205 


5.025 


0.154 4.705 


0.223 


8 


1.972 


(( 


4 


0.867 


7.538 


O.171 23.524 


0.263 


10 


2.205 


tt 


16 


1.506 


10.05 


0.177 47.048 


0.305 


12 


2.380 


100 





0.190 


25x25 


0.182 




14 


2.514 


« 


4 


0.766 


50.25 


0.224 




16 


2.643 


tt 


16 


1.297 



Data for the effect of potassium chloride and of potassium acetate upon the 
solubility of calcium tartrate in aqueous 0.5 normal acetic acid solutions at 25^, 
and also for the effect of potassium monochloracetate upon the solubility of the 
salt in 0.5 normal chloracetic acid solutions at 25^, are given by Henderson and 
Taylor (1916). 



CALCIUM TABTRATI 



333 



Solubility of Calcium Tartrate in Aqueous Solutions of Aioionium, 
Potassium and Sodium Chlorides at Several Temperatures. 

(Ctntoni and Jolkowiky, 1907.) 

Note. — (The authors refer in all cases to their determination of the amount of 
decomposition of the tartrate by the aqueous chloride solutions. Constant agita- 
tion and temperature were maintained.) 



Gms. Chloride per 
Liter Solvent. 

S 
10 

30 
100 

200 



Gms. Ca Taztnte Dissolved at 
16* per Liter of Aq.: 



NH4a. 
0.701 
0.861 
1. 281 
1.897 

2-305 



Ka. 
0.643 
0.822 
1. 180 

I -753 
2. no 



NaQ 
0.680 
0.840 

1-305 
1.860 

2.163 



f. 

16 
30 

55 
70 

85 



Gms. Ca Taztimte per liter of 
7% Aqueous: 



NH4a. 

1.676 

2.417 

3-712 

5.080 

6.699 



KCl. 

1.504 
2.031 

2.154 
2.546 
4.264 



NaQ. 
1.637 

2.275 

3-579 
4.148 

6.305 



OALOIUM BITABTBATE CaH.CC^H^Oe),. 

Solubility in Water and in Aqueous Solutions op Acids and 

OP Salts. 

(Warington — J. Chem. See. aS, 946, '75.) 

In Hydrochloric Acid. In other Acids and in Salt Solutions at 14**. 



Cone, of HCl 

Gms. per 
zoo Gms. Sol. 

O 

0.68 

2-15 
4.26 

8.36 
16.13 



Gms. CaH|(CiILOa)a 
per zoo Gms. Solvent. 



At aa**. 
0.600 
3.01 

6.88 
1 1. 19 
22.7s 
48.31 



At8o«. 
4.027 

5-35 

20.23 

40.93 
80.12 



xoo 



sms. HfO dissolve o^ps gms« 
bitartrate at 14" 



Add or Salt. 



Gms Add or Salt Gms. CaHfl(CJB[«Ob)s 

per xoo cc. Sol. 



Acetic Acid 
Tartaric Acid 
Citric Acid 
Sulphuric Acid 
Hydrochloric Acid 
Nitric Acid 
Potassium Acetate 
Potassium Citrate 



per zoo cc. Sol. 

0.81 

1.03 

0.84 

0.685 

0.504 

0.845 

1.387 

1-397 



0.422 
0.322 
0.546 
1. 701 
1.947 
1.969 

0.744 
0.843 



CALCIUM THI08ULFATE CaSAeHsO. 
Solubility of Calcium TmosuLFATE in Aqueous Solutions op Sodium 

ThIOSULFATB at 9** AND 25" AND ViCE VERSA. 
(Kremann and Rodemund, 19x4.) 

Results at 25^ 



Gms. 



Results at 9^ 

xoo Gms. 



KaaSiOi. 

O 
11.04 
25.21 
31 01 



t. Sol. 



Gms. per xoo Gms. 



Solid Phase. 



CaSiOi. 
29.4 

22.64 
15-84 



CaSsQs.6H^ 



. per 
Sat.S ol. 



« 



o 
"+Na«S,Os.sEM) 15.67 



7.70 Na«SiOj.5H20 



CaSi0% 

34.7 
29.69 

21.41 

25.18 

21.14 

20.33 



Solid Phase. 

CaS|Q8.6HaO 

« 

(C 



tt 



18.34 

28.24 

30.19 
31-24 

35 04 

Data are also given for the quaternary systems, CaS|0|-HNa»SjOs-hNaNQi 
+H,0 and CaS,0,+Ca(NO,),+NaNO,+H,0 at 9** and 25^ A triple salt of the 
composition CaNa«(S«Oi)sNOi.iiHiO was obtained. 



"+NaAQ..sHiO 

18.43 NatSsOa-sHaO 
II. 61 



(( 



223 



CALCIUM VALEKATE 



OALOIXTM VALERATE Ca[CH,(CH,),COO],.H,0. 
CAI.OnrM (Iso) VALERATE Ca[(CH,),.CH.CH,.C00],.3HA 

Solubility op Each in Water. 

— J. Chem. S0C.81, 355, '02; see also Furth — Monatsh. Chem. 9, 313. *88; Sedlitaky— 

Ibid, 8, 566, '87.) 



%\ 



Calcitam Valerate. 

Cms. Ca(G^l0Qt)a 
per zoo Gms. 



Calcium Iso Valerate. 



Cms. CaCCftHoOa)! 
per 100 Gms. 



O 

10 
20 

30 
40 

SO 

57 
60 

70 

80 

90 

100 



Water. 
9.82 

9-25 
8.80 

8.40 

8.05 

•85 



SdotioD. 
8.94 



•75 
.78 

.80 

•95 
8.20 

8.78 



8 
8 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 
8 



o 
10 
20 

30 
40 

45 

50 
60 

70 

80 

90 

100 



Water. 
26.05 
22.70 
21.80 

21.68 
22.00 

22.35 

19 95 
18.38 

17.40 

16.88 

16.65 

16.55 



t( 



tt 



IC 



tt 



Ca(C,H.O,),.H,0 



47 
09 

75 

45 
28 

19 
22 

24 
36 

58 

.07 

CAMPHEME CioHtt. 

Freezing-point data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given by Kumakov and 
Efrenov (1912) for mixtures of camphene + methylmustard oil, caniphene+ 
naphthalene and camphene + phenantnene. 

CAMPHOB CuiHieO ^ and /. 

^PROXIMATE Solubility of d Camphor in Several Solvents at Ordi- 
nary Temperature. (U. S. p., Squires; Greenish and Smith, 1903.) 

Parts Camphor per 



Solution. 
20.66 

18.50 
17.90 
17.82 
18.18 
18.42 
16.63 

1552 
14.82 
14.44 
14.28 
14.20 



Solid 
Phase. 



Ca(C.HyO,)r3H,0 



tl 



tt 



(t 



it 



Solvent. 



Water 

90% Alcohol 
95% Alcohol 
Ether 



Parts Camphor 

per zoo Parts 

Solvent. 

0.08-0.14 
100 

125 
173 



Solvent. 



Chlorofonn 
OUve Oil 
Turpentine 
Glacial Acetic Acid 



kono 
xoo Parts solvent 

300-400 

25-33 
66 

200 

12.5 (Kl08e,x9O7)« 



CaxboQ Disulfide Readily Soluble Lanolin 

Saturated solutions of d camphor and of / camphor in turpentine of an 74.38 
(in a 10 cm. tube at 18**) were found to have (/it— 0.9028 and 0.9030 respectively; 
the 02) in a 10 cm. tube were +23.07 and — 16.52 respectively. (Jones, 1907-08.) 

Solubility of Camphor in Concentrated Aqueous Hydrochloric 

Acid. (Zaharia, 1899.) 

(The dissolved camphor could not be determined by evaporating and weighing the 
readue on account of volatilit}^; polarimetric methods could not be used on account 
of the interference of the H(Jl. The author, therefore, determined the densities 
(HsO at 4° in each case) of the pure solvent and saturated solution in each case, 
and assumed that the difference represented the weight of camphor dissolved. 
The saturated solutions were prepar^ by stirring the several mixtures with a glass 
stirring rod, at intervals, during 6 hours.) 



Solvent. " 


Densities at 0". 


Densities at 10*. 


Densities at 20*. 


Densities at 40*. 


Solvent. 


Sat. Sol. 


Solvent. Sot. Sol. 


Solvent. Sat. Sol.' 


' Solvent. Sat. Sol. ' 


27.2 %HC1 


1. 145 


1. 143 


I . 140 I . 138 


I. 135 1.133 
I. 153 1.148 


I. 125 1.12^ 
I . 142 I . 131 


30.6 " 


1. 164 


I 159 


I. 158 I. 153 


339 " 


1. 181 


1. 167 


I. 175 I. 163 


I. 169 1.159 
I. 175 1 158 


1.157 1.149 
1.163 I. 153 


34.98 " 


1. 187 


1. 158 


I. 181 I. 160 


35.74 " 


1. 191 


1. 140 


I . 185 I . 148 


I 179 1 153 


1.167 1.153 


3^'3S ' 


1.195 


1. 126 


I. 189 1.134 


I. 182 1.140 


1. 170 1. 153 


36.68 " 


1. 197 


1. 1x6 


I. 190 I. 124 


1 . 184 1 . 134 


... ... 



CAMPHOR 



224 



Reciprocal Solubilitt of Camphor and Phenol, Dbtbrminbd by the 

Freezing-point Method. 

(Wood and Scott, 1910.) 

(The freezing-point was determined in most cases by measuring the rate of 
cooling of the mixtures and ascertaining the point at which the rate changed. The 
experiments were made with very great care.) 





Cms. 








Cms. 


, 




Gms. 


fof 

«? 


Camphor 


SoUd 


fof 


Camphor 


Solid 


fof 


Camphor c^ijj 


Frew- 

ing. ( 


per ICO 
Sms. Mix- 
ture. 


Phase. 


Freezing. 


per 100 
Gms. Mix- 
ture. 


Phase. 


Freezing. 


ture. 


174. S 


lOO.O 


C»Htf0 


-13.8 


71.48 C»Hi^ 


— 22.6 


52.52 X.l 


158 


95.98 




It 


-26.4,- 


32 70.12 


" 4-1. X 


— 23.6 


44.90 " 


140 


92. ss 




M 


-15. 9 


69.32 


x.z 


- 28-30. s 


40.3s "+C.a0H 


112 


88.86 




t( 


— 20.1 


67.76 


M 


-157 


38.57 CJI.0H 


80 


82.88 




l( 


-19.3 


66.64 


<• 


-3 


34.50 " 


SO. 7 


79.73 




If 


— 18.7 


62.21 


If 


+S 


30.31 " 


29.5 


76.58 




l< 


—18. 6 m. 


pt. . . . 


M 


16. 1 


25.40 


— o.i 


73-37 




II 


—20.1 


61.51 


M 


25 


20.31 " 


-135 


72.24 


M 


— 20 


SS.80 


M 


36.1 


6.87 « 




I.I = 


Ci 


cHwO.CeHsOH. 











Data for the above system obtained by the method of determination of the 
temperature of disappearance of the last crystal, are given by Kremann, Wischo 
and Paul (19 15). The results are not in good agreement with the above. These 
authors also give similar determinations for the systems camphor -f-resordnol and 
camphor +^ naphthol. 

Data for the systems camphor + phenol -f- water, camphor -|- n butyric add -H 
water, camphor -f- succinic acid nitrile + water and camphor -|- triethylamine + 
water are given by Timmermans, 1907. 

Freezing-point data (solubilities, see footnote, p. i) are given for the following 
mixtures of camphor and other compounds. 



Camphor + Bomeol 

-j- Hydroquinone 

4- Menthol 

+ a Naphthol 

-f- fi Naphthol 

+ a Mononitronaphthalene 

-j- Naphthalene 

-f- /S Naphthylamine 



it 
(I 



« 



(Vanstone, X909.) 
(Efremov, X9X3, X9X3.) 
(Pawlewski, 19x3.) 
(Caille. 1909.) 
(Caille, X909.) 
Qoumiauz, X9xa.) 



II 



11 
i< 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
it 
II 



(I 



+ Nitric Acid 

-j- Phosphoric Acid 

4- Pyrocatechol 

4- Pyrogallol 

+ Resorcinol 

+ Said 

+ Sulfur Dioxide 

-j- a Trinitrotoluene 

-f- p Toluidine 

+ 17 other compounds 



(Zukowand 
II 



i« 



1909.) 



(Efxemov, 191 a, 19x3.) 

Qoumiauz, x9xa.) 

(CaiUe, 1909; Efremov, X913, I9I3-) 

(CaOfc, X909.) 

(Bellucd and Gnasi, X913, X914.) 

(Giua, 19x6.) 

(Efremov, X9X5« 19x6.) 



BenzolGAMPHOR Enol and keto forms. 

Solubility data have been used by Dimroth and Mason (191 3) for determining 
the transition of the tautomeric forms into each other. Results are given for the 
solubility of each form in ether, acetone, ethylacetate, ethyl alcohol and methyl 
alcohol. 

One liter benzene dissolves 256 gms. enol benzoylcamphor at 5^ by freeang- 
point metfiod. (Sidgwkk, 191$^ 



235 BromoCAMPEOR 

BromoCAMPHOR aCioHuOBr. 

Approximate Solubility in Several Organic Solvents at Ordinary Temp. 

(U. S. p.; Squires; Betlstein; results in alcohol by Mttller, 1893.) 

« , » Parts Bromo Camphor c^i„*«* Parts Bromo Camphor per 

Solvent. per 100 Parts Solvent. Solvent. 100 Parts Solvent, 

Alcohol i2.iati5** Ether S^ 

" 19.7 " 25® Chloroform 143 

" 130.0 " so** OUveOil 12.S 

" 705.0 " 61** 95% Formic Acid 13.6 (Asdam, 1913.) 

Freezing-point data (solubility, see footnote, p. i ) are given for mixtures of I bromo- 
camphor ■+• d chlorocamphor by Padoa (IQ04) ; for mixtures of d bromocamphor-h 
/ bromocamphor by Padoa and Rotondi (1912); for mixtures of bromocamphor -|- 
Btearine by Batelli and Martinetti (1885); /3 bromocamphor + salol by Caille, 1909. 

CABfPHOROXIME CuHieiNOH Jand /. 

100 gms. turpentine dissolve 8.68 gms. d oxime at 18^, du == 0.8784, oed « 2.30 
in 10 cm. tube. 

100 gms. turpentine dissolve 8.69 gms. I oxime at l8^ du^ 0.8782, od ^ 18.24 
in 10 cm. tube. 

aD of the turpentine = 4.38 in a 10 cm. tube at 18^. 

In the case of results in I amyl bromide the dn « i'i99 in both cases and the 
ap was —3.55 (10 cm. tube) for the d oxime and + 1 1.48 for the / oxime. The ao 
of the amyl bromide was +4.6 in 10 cm. tube at 18°. The results show that the 
solubility and rotatory power of the d and I isomerides are identical in an optically 
active as well as in an mactive solvent. 

Freezing-point data are given for mixtures of d and / camphoroxime by Beck 
(1904) and Adriani (1900). "^ 

CABfPHORIC ACm C8Hu(C00H)s. 
100 gms. of water dissolve 0.8 gm. CsHuCCOOH)] at 25**, and 10 gms. at the b. pt. 

SdusBTLvn OF Camphoric Acid in Aqueous Solutions op Alcohol at 25*. 

(Seidell, 1908, xgio.) 

Wt. % CtHiOH dm of Gms. C JIi«(COOH)s Wt. % CsHiOH d» of Gms. CaHu (COOH)i 
in Solvent. Sat. SoL per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. in Solvent. Sat. Sol. per xoo Gms. Sat. SoL 

o I 0.754 60 I 4S 

10 I 1.60 70 I . 49 

20 I 6.30 80 0.995 51-20 

30 I 14 90 0.980 51.40 

40 I 26 96.3 0.970 50.37 

50 I 31 100 0.960 50.10 

Solubility of Camphoric Acid in Several Solvents. 

imcA Gms. im^ Gms. 

Solvent. r. Sat. CsHi«(COOH)s per Solvent. t*. Sat. CsHu(C00H)tper 

Sol. xoo Gms. Solvent. Sol. xoo Gms. Sdvent. 

Amyl Alcohol(iso) 25 0.907 50(3) Carbon Disulfide 25 1.258 0.020(3) 

Butyl Alcohol(iso) 22.5 ... 54.1(1) Chloroform 25 ... 0.153(3) 

Ethyl Alcohol o ... 84.7(1) Cumene 25 0.890 0.197(3) 

15. 1 ... 112(2^ Ether (abs.) 25 0.922 91.40(3) 

62.5 ... 147(2) 95% Formic Acid 18.5 ... 8.68(4) 

Methyl Alcohol o ... 116.3^1) Ligroin 25 0.714 0.007(3) 

" " 22.5 ... 131.1(1) Nitrobenzene 25 1.2 0.5(3) 

Propyl Alcohol o ... 42.2(1) Spts. Turpentine 25 0.852 1.74(3) 

^* " 22.5 ... 61 (i) Toluene 25 0.862 0.15(3) 

Benzene 25 0.873 0.008(3) Xylene 25 0.859 0.23(3). 

(x) Timofeiew (X914); (3) Beilstein; (3) Seidell (19x0); (4) Ascban, (X9X3). 

Data for the distribution of camphoric acid between water and ether at 25° are 
given by Chandler (1908). Data for the freezing points of mbctures of d and / 
camphonc>cid and d and / isocamphoric acid are given by Centnerszwer (1899). 

CAMPHORIC ANHYDRIDK CioHuOt i and /. 

One liter of benzene dissolves 37.5 pns. d camphoric anhydride at 5*, deter- 
mined by depression of the freezing-pomt. (Sidgwick, x9x5.) 



« « 



CANTHABIDINS 226 

Appkoxiuate Solubilitt in Several Solvents at Room Temp. 

(Sdf ftnd Greenish, 1907.) 

Gms. Cantharidine Gma. Cantharidine 

Sdvent. per zoo Gms. Solvent. per zoo Gms. 

Solvent. Solvent. 

Aq. 25% Acetone 0.02 Aq. 10% Acetic Acid 0.14 
" 50% " 0.16 " 45% Formic " 0.12 

" 75% " 0-4S Carbon Tetrachloride 0.04 

Lanolin 4.4 (Kiose, 1907.) 

CAOUTCHOUC. 

Solubility in Organic S(h.vbnts. (Hanausek, xSSt.) 

Gms. Caoutchouc Dissolved per xoo Gms. Solvent. 
Solvent. / * \ 

Gears. Tete Noire. Sierra Leone. 

Ether 2.5 3.6 4.5 

Turpentine 4.5 5 4.6 

Chloroform 3 3.7 3 

Petroleum 1.5 4.5 4 

Benzene 4.4 5 4.7 

Carbon Disulfide 0.4 o o 

SoLUBiLrrr of Caoutchouc in Mixtures of Benzene and Alcohol. (Caspan. zgis) 

(Freshly prepared solutions of deresinified caoutchouc in benzene were titrated 
with alcohol to appearance of two phases. The end point is sharp to within one 
drop of precipitant, especially at low cones, of caoutchouc. For purposes of 
converting the weights of caoutchouc to volume, the factor 0.91 may be taken.) 

Results at 20®. 

Caoutchouc. *** ^^*^ &U0JL CaoutSouc ^' ^^ SbSoH. CaouSouc. "' ^^^- ^Olf. 
0.032 40 17 0.206 40 II 0.80 40 9.6 

0.080 40 15.8 0.81 40 10.8 2.01 40 8.8 
0.405 40 14.8 2.01 40 10.2 3.20 40 8.1 

2.404 40 14.5 3.22 40 9.8 

4.061 40 13.8 

Results at 40**. Results at 60**. 

Gms. Caoutchouc, cc. CiHs. cc Abs. CtHiOH. Gms. Caoutchouc, cc. C«H«. cc. Abs. CiHiOHi 

0.2 40 18.8 0.2 40 ^21.6 

i.o 40 18. 1 I 40 23.3 

2 40 17.4 2 ' 40 24.4 

SoLUBiLrrv of Caoutchouc in Mixtures of Benzene and Acetone. (Caspari, 19x5.) 
Results at 20^. ! Results at 40®. Results at 60^. 

Gms. ^^ nju' cc. Gms. __ n.tx^ cc. Gms. -«. r« u cc 

Caoutchouc. «• ^-•^^^ (CHi)sC0. Caoutchouc. **• ^^™- (CH,)tCO. Caoutchouc. ^- ^-""^ (CH,)«CO. 



O.II 


20 


iS-7 


O.IO 


20 


19.6 


O.IO 


20 


23 


0.80 


20 


ISO 


0.98 


20 


17.6 


1. 01 


20 


26.4 


1.86 


20 


14.7 















CABBAMIDKS. 

Solubility in Several Solvents. (Walker and Wood. 1898.) 

as Methyl phenvl carbamide (m. pt. 82°), benzyl carbamide (m. pt. 149^). 
o tolyl carbamide (m. pt. 185°) and p tolyl carbamide (m. pt. 173®). 

Gms. Eadi Carbamide Separately per xoo cc. Sat. Solution. 
Solvent. t*. / * ^ 

05 Methyl Phenyl. Benzyl. ^ Tolyl. Tolyl 

Water 45 74 1.71 0.307 0.251 

Acetone 23 29.4 3.10 2.66 0.462 

Ether 22.5 2.28 0.053 0.062 0.0162 

Benzene 44.2 12.4 0.0597 0.043 0.0155 

100 gms. chloroform dissolve 0.6-0.7 gm. diiododithio carbamide (CSNsHOiIi 
at temp, not stated. (Wener, 191a.) 



227 CABBAZOLK 

CABBAZOLE (Diphenylene imide) (C«H4)iNH. 

loo grams abs. alcohol dissolve 0.92 gm. (CeHOsNH at 14^ and 3.88 gms. at 
b. pt. 

100 gms. toluene dissolve 0.55 em. (CeHOsNH at 16.5^, and 5.46 gms. at b. pt. 

Freezing-point data are given lor mixtures of carbazole and phenanthene by 
Garelli (1894). 

CABBINOL CHtOH, see Methyl alcohol, p. 435. 

Trimethyl CABBINOL (CH,),COH, Triphenyl CABBINOL (C«H8),C0H. 

Freezing-point data (solubilities, see footnote, p. i) are given for mixtures of 
trimethyl carbinol and water by Paterno and Mieli (1907). Results for tri- 
methyl carbinol + phenol, trimethyl carbinol + thymol and trimethyl carbinol 4- 
bromotoluene are given^by Paterno and Ampola (1897). Results for triphenyl 
carbinol + phenol are given by Yamamoto (1908). 

CABBON DIOXIDE CO.. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Bohr, 1899; Geffcken, 1904; Just, 190Z.) 
Solubffity in Water. ^It^A^^ InijAM 

ff. P' I- P. A 

o O'SSS 1-713 ••• 1-234 0.678 

S 0.277 1.424 ... 1.024 0.577 

10 0.231 1. 194 ••• 0.87s 0.503 

15 0.197 I. 019 1.070 0.75s 0.443 

20 0.169 0.878 ... 0.664 0.393 

25 0.145 0.759 0.826 0.583 0.352 

30 0.126 0.665 ... 0.517 0.319 

40 0.097 0.530 ... 0.414 0.263 

50 0.076 0.436 ... 0.370 0.23s 

60 0.058 0.359 ... 0.305 0.183 

q — wt. of gas dissolved by 1 00 grams of solvent at a total pressure of 760 mm. 

p — the Bunsen Absorption Ooefficient which signifies the volume (v) of 
the gas (reduced to o** and 760 mm.) taken up by unit volume (V) of the liquid 
when the pressure of the gas itself minus the vapor tension of the solvent is 
760 mm* V 

^ " V{i + 0.00367 t) ' 

I « the Ofltwald Solnbility Expression which represents the ratio of the 
volume (v) of gas absorbed at any pressure and temperature, to the volume 

(V) of the absorbing liquid, i.e. ^ — y* This expression differs from the 

Bunsen Absorption Coefficient, fi, in that the volume (v) of the dissolved gas 
is not reduced to o** and 760 mm. The solubility / is therefore the volume 
of gas dissolved by unit volume of the solvent at the temperature of the 
experiment. The two expressions are related thus: 

/ - ^ (r + 0.00367 0, /5 « , ■ ^ .,. • 

(i + 0.00367 t) . 

Solubility in Water at Pressures Above One Atmosphere. 

(Wroblewaki — Compt. reod. 94, 1335, '8a.) 
jP^^J^. Coefficient of Sftturadon » a t: ^^^Mmg Coeffic ient of Sftturation* at; 



o- "-4. pheres. o**- 'a^*- 

I 1-797 1.086 20 26.65 17." 

S 8.6s S'^S 25 30.55 20.31 

10 16.03 9-65 30 33-74 23.25 

* Coefficient of absorption is no doubt intended. 



CABBON DIOXIDK 



228 



Solubility op Carbon Dioxide in Water at High Pressures. (Sander, 1911-12.) 

Note. — The pressures varied from 25 to 170 kilograms per square centimeter. 
The results are expressed in terms of the volume of C0|, reduced to i kg. per sq. 
centimeter, dissolved by unit volume of liquid at the temperature and pressure 
of the experiment. A Caillet apparatus, provided with the well-known Caillet 
tube, was used. The experiments were made with very great care. In general, 
the procedure consisted m compressing COi above mercury in the closed milli- 
meter graduated end of the Caillet tube and taking many readings on the scale 
at various pressures and temperatures. The volumes thus found were compared 
with similar readings made after a known amount of solvent had been introduced 
above the layer of mercury, by means of a graduated pipet with turned-up end. 
The differences show the volume of COi dissolved at given temperatures and 
pressures. 

Two series of determinations were made. In the case of the results marked (a) 
the used volume of water was 0.210 cc. and for those marked (jb) the volume was 
0.102 cc. The volumes of COi used, varied from 60 to 76 cc. 



f. 


Pianue in 
Kg. per 
Sq. Cm. 


cc. 01 CUi (Keduoed to 

I Kg. per Sq. Cm.) Di>- 

•olved by I cc. HaO. 


f. 


Pressure in^ 
Sq. (^. 


Oc. COi (Reduced to z K 

per Sq. Cm.) Dissolved 

by I cc- HjO. 






(«) 


(ft) 






' (a) " 


(A) ' 


20 


25 


• • • 


1777 


60 


90 


22.74 


21.16 


{( 


30 


• • • 


1977 


u 


100 


26.22 


27.85 


ti 


40 


• • • 


21.52 


<( 


IIO 


28.92 


28.79 


it 


50 


• ■ • 


28.09 


« 


120 


30.20 


33.90 


n 


ss 


• • • 


29-75 


100 


60 


8.97 


• • • 


?.5 


30 


11.77 


13 57 


tt 


70 


10. II 


6.40 


40 


14.82 


20 


tt 


80 


11.05 


9S9 


U 


so 


18.96 


24.64 


tt 


90 


12.62 


10.85 


u 


60 


22.90 


22.50 


tt 


100 


13.63 


12.40 


tt 


70 


27.18 


27.62 


It 


IIO 


14.88 


16.31 


u 


80 


• . • 


32.85 


tt 


120 


16.40 


15-78 


60 


40 


10.88 


9.80 


tt 


130 


17.93 


16.89 


u 


SO 


12.24 


13 72 


tt 


140 


19.56 


17.71 


« 


60 


14.46 


15.28 


tt 


ISO 


20.58 


17 -49 


<( 


ro 


16.80 


17.46 


tt 


160 


22.07 


• . • 


It 


80 


19 -74 


22.67 


tt 


170 


22.78 


• * • 



S(x.UBiLiTY OF Carbon Dioxide in Water Expressed in Terms of the Fahr- 
enheit Scale of Temperature and Pounds per Square Inch Pressure. 

(Heftth, tgis; Anthony, 19x6, see also Riley » 191 1>) 



(The 


existing data were calculated to 


this form, 


particularly for 


' use 


in th 


bottling industry.) 




















Pounds 
perSq. 






Volumes of CQi Gas Dissolved by One Volume of Water at: 

_ A 






Inch 
pRssure 


3t*. 


36-. 


40'. 


44*. 48*. 


$5-. 


6o*. 


6s'. 


70-. 7S'. 


8o*. 


8s*. 


90-. 


15 


346 


3.19 


2.93 


2.70 2(50 


2.20 


2j02 


1.86 


I.7I 1.58 


1.84 


4.35 


1.27 


20 


4.04 


3.73 


3.42 


3.15 2Jp2 


2.57 


2.36 


2.17 


2 1.84 


1.69 


1.58 


1.48 


25 


4.58 


4.27 


3.92 


3.61 3.35 


2.04 


2.69 


2.48 


2.29 2.10 


1.93 


1.80 


1.70 


30 


5.21 


4.81 


4.41 


4.06 3.77 


3.31 


3.03 


2.80 


2.58 2.37 


2.18 


2.03 


1.91 


35 


5.80 


5-35 


4.91 


4.52 4.19 


3.69 


3-37 


3." 


2.86 2.63 


342 


2.26 


2.13 


40 


6.37 


5.89 


5.39 


4.97 4.61 


4.05 


3.71 


3.42 


3.IS 2.89 


2.67 


2.49 


2.34 


45 


6.9s 


6.43 


5.88 


5-43 5.03 


4.43 


4.06 


3.74 


3-44 3.16 


2.91 


2.72 


2.56 


50 


7.53 


6.9s 


6.36 


5.89 5-45 


4.80 


4.40 


4.0s 


3-73 3.42 


a. 16 


2.94 


2.77 


55 


8.11 


7.48 


6.86 


6.34 5.87 


5.17 


4.74 


4.37 


4.02 3.69 


3.40 


3.17 


2.99 


60 


8.71 


8.02 


7.35 


6.79 6.29 


^.53 


5.08 


4.68 


4.31 3-95 


3.64 


3-39 


3.20 


70 


9.86 


9.09 


8.33 


7.70 7.13 


6.27 


5-76 


5.30 


4,89 4.49 


4.14 


3.86 


3.63 


80 


11.02 


10.17 


9.31 


8.61 7.98 


7 


6.43 


5.92 


5.46 5.02 


4.62 


4.31 


4.06 


90 


12.18 


II. 25 


10.30 


9.52 8.82 


7.74 


7.II 


6.54 


6.04 5.55 


5-12 


4.77 


4.49 


zoo 


13.34 


12.33 


11.29 


10.43 9.66 


8.4 


7.79 


7.18 


6.62 6.08 


^.60 


5.22 


4.91 






tt 
ti 



229 CABBON DIOXIDK 

Solubility of Cd in Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Salts. 

(Ge£fcken.) 

Aq. Cms. Acid CO, Dissolved, / at; Aq. Cms. Salt C0> Dissolved. I at; 

Solvent. per Liter. x5«. j^*. Solvent per Liter. 15*. 25*. 

HQ 18.23 1.043 0.806 CsCl 84.17 1.006 0.781 

36.46 1.028 0.799 KCl 37 30 0.976 0.759 

72.92 1. 000 0.79s !^C1 7460 0.897 0700 

HNOs 31.52 1.078 0.840 KI 83.06 0.992 0.775 

63.05 1.086 0.853 ^ 166.12 0.923 0.727 

126.10 I. 100 0.877 ^-Br 5955 0.986 0.768 
H2SO4 24.52 I. 018 0.794 KBr 119. II 0.914 0.713 

49.04 0.978 0.770 KNOg 50.59 1.005 0.784 

98.08 0.917 0.730 KNOs 101.19 0.946 0.749 

147. 11 0.870 0.698 RbCl 60.47 0.989 0.769 
196.15 0.828 0.667 RbCl 120.95 0.921 0.788 

Solubility in Aqueous Solutions of Salts. (Mackenzie, 1877.) 

Saltm Cms. Salt per Density of Absorption Coefficient a at; 

Solution. 100 Cms. Solution. Solution 15*. ' I^ 

KCl 6.05 1. 021 0.988 

8.646 1.053 0.918 

11.974 1.080 0.864 

22.506 • 1.549 0.688 

NaCl 7.062 1.038 0.899(6.4**) 

12.995 1.080 0.633 (6. 4**) 

17.42 1. 123 0.518(6.4**) 

26.00 1.19s 0.347(6.4**) 

NH4CI 6.465 1. 021 1.023 



« 

K 

ti 



it 
tl 
ti 



tt 
tt 
it 



tt 
it 
tt 



8.723 1.047 I. 000 

12.727 1.053 0.922 

24.233 1.072 0.813(10**) 



ts*. 


22-. 


0.777 


0.670 


0.777 


0.649 


0.720 


0.597 


0.571 


0.480 


0.735 


• • • 


0.557 


0.482 


0.431 


0.389 


0.297 


0.263 


0.825 


0.718 


0.791 


0.702 


0.798 


0.684 


0.738 


0.600 



.0 



8". i6.s'. 22*. 30' 

BaCls 7.316 1.068 0.969 0.744 0.680 0.566 

9.753 1.092 I. 021 0.645 0.607 0.543 

14.030 I. 137 ... 0.618 0.524 0.467 

25.215 1.273 0.495 0.618 0.383 0.315 

SrCb 9. 51 I 1.087 0.779 0.663 0.581 0.508 

12.325 1.1159 0.737 0.586 0.507 0.539 

17.713 I. 173 0.606 0.473 0.444 0.367 

31.194 1.343 0.285 0.245 0.247 0.223 

CaCIa 4.365 1-036 0.942 0.759 0.673 0.596 

5.739 1.049 0.855 0.726 0.616 0.527 

8.045 1.068 0.838 0.674 0.581 0.500 

15-793 1-139 0.632 0.520 0.471 0.400 
Data for the solubility of COi in sea water are given by Hamberg (1885). 

Aooording to Fox (z9a9a)> analyses of sea water all show an excess of base over add, that is, when OOl 
b left out of account. This COi (about 50 cc. per liter) is^f course, in equilibrium with the excess of base, 
which is actually equal to about 40 ings. OH per Uter. The partiaJ i^ressure of COi very seldom, if ever, 
excecxls 6 in xo.ooo. For the determination of the absorption coefficient of COt there are, consequenthr, 
four independent variables to be considered; influence of alkalinity, a chemical influence in addition to the 

Enrdy physical influences of temperature, pressure and salinity. For convenience, the dissolved COi may 
e considered as made up of two ^rts, about z % dependent upon physical influences alone and a far lar|;er 
part dependent upon tJhe alkalinity, pressure and temperature, but independent of salinity. Extensive 
experimental determinations are described. 

A critical review of the literature on the solubility of carbon dioxide in water 
and in sea water is given by Coste (191 7). 



tt 
tt 
tt 



it 
tt 
it 



it 
It 



CARBON DIOXIDE 



330 



Solubility 


OF Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Solutions of 


Salts at 15.2®. 








(Setachenow. 1892.) 








(Results expressed in terms of cc. 


CO, (at 


0^ and 760 mm.) dissolved 


per I cc 


sat. solution.) 


















Cms. 


Db- 




Gnn. 


Dia- 




Cms. 


Dia- 


Salt. 


Salt per 


solved 


Salt 


Salt per 


Bolved 


Salt 


Salt per 


aolved 




Liter. 


C0^ 




Liter. 


C0^ 




Liter. 


.C(V 


NHiO 


I 


1.005 


UCl 


16.72 


1.035 


NaCl 


12.9 


0.978 


t< 


10 


0.985 


it 


50.15 


0.808 


II 


64 


0.760 


« 


SI. 6 


0.941 


11 


125.4 


0.596 


tt 


128 


0.580 


(1 


172 


0.819 


II 


250.8 


0.497 


tt 


192 


0.466 


II 


258 


0.770 


u 


501 5 


0.120 


NaBr 


115. 1 


0.77s 


NHiNO* 


2.8 


1. 013 


MgS04 


26.5 


0.901 


II 


460.3 


0.364 


« 


II. 2 


1.002 


11 


79. 5 


0.669 


tt 


690.4 


0.221 


<i 


55 


0.989 


II 


159 


0.441 


NaNO* 


89.3 


0.835 


« 


lOI 


0.962 


u 


318 


0.188 


tt 


125 


0.762 


II 


202.1 


O.911 


KBr 


83.9 


0.908 


tt 


208.4 


0.621 


II 


404.3 


0.807 


tt 


167.7 


0.819 


tt 


416.8 


0.385 


II 


810.4 


0.612 


t€ 


251-5 


0.748 


tt 


625.2 


0.244 


(NH4)tS04 


72.2 


0.712 


tt 


503.1 


0-579 


NaClO* 


233 -3 


0.625 


II 


144.4 


0.575 


KI 


319-1 


0.777 


II 


349-9 


0.506 


Ba(NOi) 


62.7 


0.922 


II 


478.6 


0.688 


II 


699.8 


0.257 


Ca(NO»), 


41 


0.923 


II 


957.3 


0.506 


NatS04 


14.2 


0.950 


Citric Add 


12 


1.007 


KSCN 


326 


0.691 


(1 


94.8 


0.620 


II 


49 


0.975 


tt 


489 


0.590 


tt 


284.4 


0. 234 


II 


99 


0.950 


II 


978 


0.387 


ZnS04 


38.3 


0.903 


II 


198 


0.893 


KNO* 


58.8 


0.959 


II 


76.7 


0.783 


II 


298 


0.841 


11 


"7.S 


0.890 


II 


230 


0.474 


it 


595 


0.719 


11 


235.1 


0.781 


II 


460 


0.209 



Several determinations at other temperatures are also given. 



Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Salt Solutions at 25*. 

(Findlay and Sben, xgxaO 

Solubility Gma. 

of CO,, Ost. cj. Salt per 

wald Ex- ^ xoo cc. 

prcssion !». Solution. 

0.825 Fe(S04)(NH4)»S04.6HiO 9.51 



Salt 



Cms. 

Salt per 

100 cc. 

Solution. 



dot 
Sat. 
Sol. 



Water alone 
NH4CI 



j^ Solubility 

^'- wald Ex- 
pression^. 



Sol. 



II 
« 
(I 



BaCU 
tt 



tt 
It 



Chloral Hy- 
drate 



2.3s 

5.0s 
10.02 

17.09 

2.80 

S.81 

8.15 

9.97 
5.08 

10.12 



1.005 0.791 

1. 013 0.754 

1.022 0.732 

1.045 0.665 

I. 018 0.789 



1.040 

1.054 
1.070 

1. 019 

1. 041 



0.741 
0.710 
0.676 
0.815 

0.79s 



11 
II 

KCl 

II 

II 
II 

Sucrose 
II 

tt 

tt 



10.26 

22.47 
1.84 

305 
4.58 
7.46 
2.63 
5.16 
9.68 

12.33 



.052 

•057 
.124 

.008 

.017 

.026 

.044 

.009 

.018 

.038 

.051 



0.641 

0.629 

0.460 

0.792 

0.764 

0.749 
0.701 

0.813 

0.798 

0.767 

0.744 



Data for KCl solutions at higher pressures are given by Findlay and Creighton, 
1910. 

Data for the influence of colloids and fine suspensions upon the solubility of 
carbon dioxide in water at 25° and at various pressures are given by Findlav, 1908: 
Findlay and Creighton, 1910, iQii; Findlay and Shen, 191 1, 1912; Findlay and 
Williams, 1913; Findlay and Howell, 1915. 

The solubility of C0| increases slightly with increasing concentrations of 
Fe(OH)s, gelatine, silicic acid, aniline (chem. combination occurs), methyl oranee, 
blood, serum, peptone, protopeptone, and commercial hemoglobin. The solu- 
bility diminishes slightly with increasing concentrations of arsenious sulfide, 
dextrine, soluble starch, glycogen (?), ep:g albumen and serum albumen. No 
appreciable effect is produced by suspensions of charcoal or silica. 

When the solubility is increased by a given substance, the solubility curve falls 
with increase of pressure; when it is lessened, the curve rises with increasing pres- 
sure. In the case of starch and other neutral colloids, the solubility passes through 
a minimum with increase of pressure. 

Data for the influence of colloids and suspensions on the evolution of COi from 
supersaturated solutions, are given by Findlay and King, 1913-14. 



231 



CARBON DIOXIDE 



Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Salt Solutions at 15.5® and 

760 MM. Pressure. 

(Christoflf, 1905.) 

A gravimetric method was used. A stream of CO2 was passed through the 
weighed salt solution and, after saturation, the solution again weighed and the dif- 
ference taken to represent absorbed CO}. The loss of water from the solution 
was prevented by first passing the COt through a series of U-tubes containing some 
of the same solution. Constant temp, was not employ^ed, but corrections of the 
results were made for the slight variations in temp, which occurred. Absorption 
flasks of special shape, graduated to hold 75 cc., were used. 



Salt in Aq. Solution. 

Water Alone 

(NH4),S04 I 

(NH4)iFc4(S04)4.24H,0 i 

KsA]t(S04)4.24H30 I 

NH4HBSO4 

CUSO4 

Lia 

MgS04. 



COBC of 

Aq. Sd. 



normal 



if 

KBr 

KQ 

KI 

KNO» 

KsHAs04 

KHsAsi04 

KH1PO4 

KtHPOt 



0.25 

2 
I 

o.S 

z 

2 

4 

z 

z 
z 
z 

O.S 

z 

z 
O.S 



« 
it 

u 
« 

(( 
it 
<i 
a 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
it 
tt 
tt 



Cms. COi 
Absorbed 
per 75 cc. 
Solvent. 
0.1382 
O.Z093 
O.099Z 
O.ZOS4 
0.7672 
0.07SZ 
0.Z087 
0.Z209 
o . Z020 
0.0662 
0.0527 
0.1280 

O.Z2Z3 

O.Z204 
0.Z23Z 
o.zzzo 
0.0813 
0.0860 
o.49oo(?) 



Salt in Aq. 
Solution. 

K4P4Q11 
KHSO4 

KjS04 

tt 

tt 
tt 
tt 
It 

NaBQs 

NaCl 

Na,P04.z2H,0 

Na4PiOr.zoHiO 

Na4P40i, 

ZnS04 

Sugar 
tt 

tt 



Cone, of 
Aq. Sol. 

z normal 



it 
tt 
tt 



0.66 

2. 

0.66 

z 

0.025 

0.Z25 

0.25 

sat. sol. 

" 4-crysts. 
0.25 normal 
z 



tt 
tt 



tt 



I 
I 
1 
2 
o.z 

O.S 

z 



(I 
tt 
tl 
« 
tt 
tt 



Cms. CX)i 

Absorbed 

per 75 oc 

Solvent. 

O.Z237 
0.Z020 

o.zooo 
o.zr40 
0.Z002 
0.2205 

0.5317 
0.85ZZ 

Z.8285 

3.2240 

0.8Z22 
O.ZO5O 
0.5828 
0.8463 
0.0700 
0.0720 
O.Z225 
O.ZO89 
O.O93Z 



Solubility op Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Solutions of Sulfuric Acid. 



Results at 15.5^. (Christoff, 1905.) 



Percent 
, H«S04 
in Solvent. 

2-5 

5 
10 

20 
30 



Cms. COi 

Absoriwd per 

75 cc. Solvent. 

0.1282 

o . 1079 

0.0833 

07SS 
0.0751 



Percent 

H,S0, 

in Solvent. 

40 

45 
70 

90 



Cms. C0| 
Absorbed per 
75 cc. Solvent 

0.0713 
0.0725 
0.0918 

0.1433 



Results at 20®. (ChriatofF, 1906.) 

Per cent Solubility of C0|, 
HtSOf Ostwald Expres- 

in Solvent. sion ^. 

o 0.9674 

35.82 0.6521 
61.62 O.719I 
95.6 0.9924 
96 P = 0.926 (Bohr.igio.) 



Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Solutions of Chloral Hydrate 

AND OF Glycerol at 15®. 

Results in terms of the Bunsen absorption coefficient fi, and also the Ostwald 

(von Hanunel, 19x5.) 



solubility expression / (see p. 227). 
In Aq. Chloral Hydrate. 

CCU.CH(OH)j per ^\ ^^^^ 
100 Cms. Aq. Sot 



17.7 

31 -6 

38.3 
49.8 

S7I 
68.8 

79-4 



0u- 

0.885 

0.803 

0.781 

0.760 

0.765 
0.797 

0.903 



SolubiUty, 

0.93s 
0.848 

0.825 

0.802 

0.808 

0.842 

0.9S3 



Cms. 



In Aq. Gljrcerol. 



(CHt0H)sCH0H per 
100 Gms. Aq. Sol. 

O 
26.11 

43-72 
62.14 

77.7s 
90.74 

99.26 



Abs. Coef., 

1.008 

0.78s 
0.639 

O.51I 

0.430 

0.404 

0.410 



SolubOity, 
hi' 

1.064 
0.829 
0.675 
0.540 

0.4S4 
0.427 

0.438 



CARBON DlOZmS 



333 



— 20 

— 10 

o 

+ 10 

20 

as 
30 
40 

45 



Density of 
AloohoL 

0.998 
0.969 

0.960(22.4**) 
0.956 

0.93s (17**) 



Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Alcohol. 

(Bohr — Wied. Ann. Physik.U] x. 247. '00) 

In 99 per cent Alcohol. In 98.7 per cent Alcohol. 

oc COi (at o^ and 760 mm.) per i cc. cc. COi (at o^ and 760 mm.) per i oc 



Alcohol. Sat. Solution. 



Alcohol. Sat. Solution.' 



38.41 

7SI 

S-7S 

4-44 

3S7 
2.98 

2.76 

aS7 
2.20 

2.01 



35-93 
7.41 

5-69 
4.40 

3SS 
2.96 

2.74 
2.56 
2.19 
2.00 



39 89 
7-25 
S-43 
435 



37.22 
7.16 

S-38 

4-31 

. . • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 



Solubilitt in Aqueous Alcohol at 2o^ 

(Mttller, 1889; Lubarsch, 1889.) 

Percent Abs. C^f. 
Alcohol by Wt. ofCOt.a. 

1.07 



Density of 
Alcoh(ri. 



22.76 
28.46 

31.17 

42. IS 



0.861 
0.841 
0.792 
0.801 
0.877 



0.922 

0.870(18.8**) 
0.83s (16") 
0.795(19'') 



Percent 
Alcohol by Wt. 

49 o 

71. 1 

85.3 

99-7 



Abs. Coef. 
of COiya. 

0.982 
1.293 

1-974 

2.719 



Solubility in Aqueous Alcohol at 25*. 

(Findlay and Shen, 191 1.) 



Results for alcohol, 

of J|| = 0.9931 

(2.95 gms. per 100 cc.). 

Solubility of COk. 
Ostwald Expres- 
sion^. 



Results for alcohol, 

of d^ » 0.9929 

(3.01 gms. per 100 cc.). 



Results for alcohol, 

of J}| = 0.9834 

(8.83 gms. per 100 oc.). 



Pressure 
m . pi . Hig. 



737 
836 

1073 
1338 



0.812 
0.813 
0.811 
0.811 



Pressure 
in.ni. Hg. 

745 

937 
1083 

1357 



Solubility of (X)i, 
Ostwald Expres- 
sion^. 

0.814 
0.815 
0.813 
0.812 



Pressure 
ni.ni. Hg. 

747 
942 

i(^ 

1360 



SolubUity of COi. 
Ostwald Expres- 
sion In. 

0.786 

0.784 

0.785 
0.788 



These authors also showed that the solubility of COi in wort containing 13 gms. 
solids per 100 cc. is less than in water; also that the solubility of CO} in beer is less 
than in aqueous alcohol solutions of alcohol content equal to that of the beer. 

Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Solutions of Non- 
Electrolytes AT 20**. 

Results in terms of the Bunsen Absorption Coefficient fi, see p. 227. (Usher, 19x0.) 



Aqueous Solu- 
tion of: 


Gm. 

Mols. per 

later. 


Sol. 


Absorp* 

tion 
Coef. fi. 


Aqueous Solu- 
tion of : 


Gm. 

Mols. per 

Liter. 


dn of Aq. 
Sol. 


Absorp- 

tion 
Coef.^. 


Water Alone 


• • • 


• • • 


0.877 


Resordnol 


O.S 


1.0096 


0.901 


Sucrose 


O.I2S 


1.0152 


0.846 


Catechol 


OS 


1. 0107 


0.868 


tt 


0.25 


I. 0313 


0.815 


Urethan 


o.S 


1.0037 


0.869 


it 


0.50 


1.0637 


0.756 


Carbamide 


0.5 


1.0072 


0.864 


it 


I 


I.1281 


0.649 


Thiocarbamide 


o.S 


1.0092 


0.859 


Dextrose 


0.5 


1.0328 


0.792 


Antipyrine 


o.S 


I. 0134 


0.859 


Mannitol 


O.S 


1.0303 


0.782 


Acetamide 


OS 


1.0005 


0.879 


Glycine 


o-S 


I.OI41 


0.843 


Acetic Acid 


o.S 


1.0026 


0.868 


Pyrogallol 


o.S 


I. 0172 


0.853 


n Propyl Alcohol 


o.S 


0.9939 


0.869 


Quinol 


o.S 


1009s 


0.887 











233 CARBON DIOZXDI 

Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Organic Solvents at Low Tbm- 

PERATURBS AND PRESSURES. (Stem, 191 1-13.) 

Very accurate determinations with an elaborate apparatus. The results are 
expreraed in terms of K* » the number of cc. of COi, reduced to o**, absorbed at the 
indicated pressure by i gram of liquid. This number differs from the Bunsen 
absorption coefficient only by a constant factor which is the density d of the liauid. 
Therefore Bunsen coef . fi » K'd. The results are also expressed in terms ot the 
Ostwald solubility expression / (see p. 227). 





Solvent, CiHtOH. Solvent, 


CH«0H. 


Solvent. 
(CH,)iCO. 


Solvent. 
CH«CUk.CtH». 


Solvent, 
CHiCOiCHt. 


Preasitre 
° t*. in nun. 


d-mu — 0.87a. 


^. 


0.884. 


d-m^ * 0.900 


^^-1.0x7. 


rf-t«*»'0-s6. 


Hg. 


dL«^ * 0.856. 


^. 


0.866. 


rf-|ji- 0.879. 


dL|j|- 0.994 


d-mm^ 1.032. 




K\ I. 


' K\ 


/. 


K\ /. 


K', I. 


' K\ L ' 


-78 SO 


107 


194 


120.5 


311 196.6 


250.2 177.5 


304.9 224.1 


" 100 


III.8 68.4 


19s 


1 19.6 


322 198.I 


255.6 177.I 


315 224.3 


" 200 


iiS-7 69.5 


202.9 


1 20. 1 


344.5 201.5 


271.8 179.2 


337.4 223.1 


" 400 


123.8 71.4 


221.5 


Z22.2 


400 208.8 


310.9 183.2 


389.3 225.6 


" 700 


138.6 74.7 


260 


126.8 


545.5 . . • 


• • • ■ • • 


• • • ■ • • 


-59 100 


40.85 27.27 


63 


42.S 


97.8 67.2 


85.3 65.6 


94.3 75.8 


" 200 


41 27.16 


64-2 


42.7 


IOI.2 68 


86.3 65.3 


98.45 77.1 


" 400 


42.35 27.65 


66.3 


43-1 


106.6 72.8 


9Z.6 66.7 


103.6 77.6 


" 700 


44.15 28.10 


69 


43.35 


Z18.8 72.8 


IOI.5 69.7 


II 2.9 79 



S(x.uBiLrrT OF Carbon Dioxide in Organic Solvents at High Pressures. 

(See Note. p. 228.) ^Sander, 1911-ia.) 

Pies- Cc. of COi (Reduced to i Kg per Sq. Cm.) Dissolved at the Temp, and Pressure of Experi- 

soxe in ment by x cc. of Sat. Solution in: 



perSq.CSHiOH 


OHtOH 


(CtH«)tO CHiCOOCtHi OHt 


CtHsCl 


CtHtRr 


CANOi 


CACHi 


Cm. 


(0.093 cc, 


1 (0.103 cc.) (0.13X cc.) 


(0.Z55 cc.) (0.08 cc.) (0.106 cc 


) (0.X13 cc] 


1 (0.X64 cc) 


(0.1Z4CC.) 










Results at 20®. 










20 


• • • 


56.16 


■ • « 


71.16 


62.61 


50.83 


57-12 


57.91 


30 


ZO4.8 


86.62 


• • • 


188.2 125.3 


95.22 


82.29 


92.50 


XO3.3 


40 


149.7 


I22.I 


• • • 


227.9 192.4 


137.3 


I2I.I 


"5-9 


155.9 


50 


188.8 


174.6 


• • • 


264.3 
Results at 35*". 


187.5 


160 


155-9 


235.8 


20 


• • • 


40 


• • • 


48.65 


46.66 


43.38 


44.48 


49.6 


40 


I13.I 


98.16 


• • • 


188.4 138.3 


XOI.5 


90.43 


94-39 


118.8 


60 


173 


159-9 


241.3 


219.8 243.1 


168.3 


146 


145.1 


192.1 


80 


■ • • 


269.6 


• • • 


■ • • • • • 

Results at eo"". 


• • • 


233.9 


227 


• « ■ 


20 


« ■ • 


24.73 


« • • 


34.57 


35.86 


30.58 


31.38 


• • • 


40 


72.82 


64.65 


* ft • 


140.5 88.71 


7369 


62.64 


52.26 


78.67 


60 


122.5 


111.5 


195.4 


186.7 156.6 


I18.I 


98.73 


72.15 


1 28. 1 


80 


167.9 


159.2 


221.4 


223.4 215 


149.3 


13 1. 4 


85.03 


171.9 


100 


195.7 


213-9 


248.7 


284.4 
Results at 100**. 


• • • 


169.7 


• • • 


210 


30 


• • • 


• • • 


• ■ • 


• • • • • • 


3365 


30.56 


41.09 


28.68 


40 


• • • 


26.5 


• • • 


80.70 46.52 


48.16 


41.49 


50.36 


49.25 


60 


66.05 


74.51 


lOZ 


132 91.27 


77.24 


72.64 


70.85 


85.98 


80 


III.2 


107.7 


142.8 


162.3 155.8 


103 


92.86 


86.86 


II 7.6 


100 


145.7 


144.7 


175.4 


191.5 212.9 


121.5 


118 


• • • 


149 


120 


174.6 


175.4 


• ■ ■ 


258.2 


140.7 


140.7 


• • • 


X71.8 


130 


182.6 


* ... 


• ■ • 


• • m • • • 


146.8 


V • • 


• • • 


178.2 



The figures in parentheses immediately below the formulas of the solvents in the 
above table, show the volumes of solvent used for the series of determinations in 
each case. The volumes of COj varied from about 55 to 77 cc. in the several 
cases. The increasing content of COt in the solvents at increasing pressures 
caused a considerable increase in volume of the solvent. This was determined 
and the proper calculation of the readings to the saturated solution were made. 
All necessary figures to show the extent ol the applicability of Henry's Law in the 
present case, are given. 



CARBON DIOXIDE 



234 



Solubility of Carbon Dioxidb in Organic Scx^vents. 

(Just. 1901.) 

The determinations are described in ^eat detail. Results are given in terms 
of the Ostwald solubility expression / (see p. 227). 



Solvent. 
Water 
Glycerol 

Carbon Disulfide 
lodobenzene 
Aniline 

Toluidine 

i( 

Eugenol 

Benzene- Trichloride 

Cumol 

Carven 

Dichlorhydrine 

Amyl Alcohol 

Bromobenzene 

Isobutyl Alcohol 

Benzyfchloride 

Metoxylol 

Ethylenebromide 

Chlorobenzene 

Carbontetrachloride 

Propylenebromide 

Toluene 



Im. 


^ 


Ai. 


0.8256 


• • ■ 


• • « 


0.0302 


• ■ • 


• • • 


0.8699 


0.8888 


0.9446 


1. 301 


1.371 


1.440 


1.324 


1.434 


1.531 


I.381 


1.473 


1-539 


1.436 


1.581 


1.730 


1.539 


1.653 


Z.762 


1.643 


■ ■ • 


• ■ • 


1.782 


1.879 


1.978 


1.802 


1.92 1 


2.030 


1. 8 10 


1.917 


2.034 


1.831 


1. 941 


2.058 


1.842 


1.964 


2.092 


1.849 


1.964 


2.088 


1.938 


2.072 


2.180 


2.090 


2.216 


2.346 


2.IS7 


2.294 


2.424 


2.265 


2.420 


2.581 


2.294 


2.502 


2.603 


2.301 


2.453 


2.586 


2.305 


2.426 


2.557 



Solvent. 

Benzene 

Amylbromide 

Nitrobenzene 

Propyl Alcohol 

Carvol 

Ethyl Alcohol (97%) 

Benzaldehyde 

Amylchloride 

Isobutylchloride 

Chloroform 

Butyric Add 

Ethylene Chloride 

Pyridine 

Methyl Alcohol 

Amylformate 

Propionic Acid 

Amyl Acetate 

Acetic Add (glacial) 

Isobutyl Acetate 

Acetic Anhydride 

Acetone < 

Methyl Acetate 



1m. 


w 


lu. 


2.42s 


2.540 


2.710 


2.455 


2.638 


2.803 


2.456 


2.655 


2.845 


2.498 


• ■ • 


• ■ • 


2.498 


2.690 


2.914 


2.706 


2.923 


3.130 


2.84Z 


3.057 


3.304 


2.910 


3.127 


3.363 


3.105 


3.388 


3.659 


3.430 


3.681 


3.956 


3.478 


3.767 


4.084 


3.525 


3-795 


4.061 


3.656 


3.862 


4.291 


3.837 


4.205 


4.606 


4.026 


4.329 


4.646 


4.078 


4.407 


4.787 


4. 1 19 


4.4" 


4.850 


4.679 


5.129 


5.614 


4.691 


4.968 


■ • • 


5.206 


5.720 


6.218 


6.295 


6.921 


• • • 


6.494 


. . • 


• • • 



Solubility op Carbon Dioxide in Ethyl Ether. V Results in Terms of the 
^^ Ostwald Solubility Expression /. 



^ = 7-330. 



(Christoflf, 19x2.) 
do = 6.044. 



5.465. 



Data for the solubility of carbon dioxide in mixtures of acetic acid and carbon 
tetrachloride and of ethylene chloride and carbon disulfide are given by Christoff, 

1905. 

Data for the adsorption of CO} by p azoxyphenetol at temperatures below and 
above its melting point, show that no adsorption or solution occurs while the 
material is in the solid (unmelted) condition, but after the first melting, absorp- 
tion takes place and as soon as the isotropic liquid phase is reached, a second very 
well-marked increase in absorption is observed. After this, expansion and de- 
crease of solubility proceed regularly with rise of temp. (Homfray, 1910.) 

The absorption coefficient /9 of COs in Russian petroleum was found by 
Gniewosz and Walfisz (1887) to be 1.17 at 20® and 1.31 at 10®. 

Data for the absorption of COt by rubber and carbon are given by Reychler 
(1910). 

Data for the absorption of CO} by hemoglobin are given by Jolin (1889). 

Data for the distribution of CO2 between air and HsO, air and aq. HsSOi and 
air and toluene at various temperatures, are given by Hantzsch and Vagt (1901). 

Data for the freezing-points of mixtures of CO} and methyl-ether and for COt 
and methyl alcohol are given by Baume and Perrot (191 1» 1914). 



235 



CARBON DISUUrXDI 



CARBON DISULTIDB CS|. 

SoLUBiLrrT IN Water. 

(Chaood and Paimentkr, 1885; Rex, 1906.) 



f. 

O 

5 
10 

IS 

20 

2S 



Gnms CSipec xoo 



cc 
[Solution. 

0.204 
0.199 
0.194 
0.187 
0.179 
0.169 



Gms.HiO 

0.258 

. . • 
0.239 

... 

0.317 



30 

35 
40 

45 
49 



Gtains CStpflsrioo 



cc 
SduUon. 

o.iSS 
0.137 

O.III 

0.070 
0.014 



Gma. HiO 
(Rex). 

0-I9S 



^100 cc. H]0 dissolve 0.174 cc CSi at 22^; Vol. of solutioa » ioo.2o8» Sp. Gr. » 
0.9981. 

100 cc. CSi dissolve 0.961 cc. HiO at 22®; Vol. of solutioa - 
1.253. 

Solubility of Carbon Disulfidb in: 

Aq. Solutions of Ethyl Alcohol at 17"". 
(Tucfaschmidt and FoUeuins, 1871.) 



100.961 » Sp. Gr. «» 
(Hen. 1898^ 



Methyl Alcohol. 
(Rothxnimd. 1898.) 



Wt percent 
Alcohol. 

100 

98-5 
98.15 

96.95 . 

93 54 



c&CSt 

per loooc 

Solvent. 

00 
182 
132 
100 

70 



Wt. per cent ^,^, 
Alcohol. 

91 -37 
84.12 

76.02 

48.40 

47 90 



per xoocc. 
Solvent. 

SO 

30 
20 

2 

o 



f. 

10 
20 

2S 
30 

35 



wt per CSi in: 



CH«OH 
Layer. 

451 

SO. 8 
54.2 

58.4 
64 



40.5 (crit. temp.) 80.5 

SOLUBILITT OF CaRBON DiSULFIDB IN EtHYL AlCOHOL. (Gtltfalie, 1884^ 



CSi 
Layer. 

983 
97.2 

96.4 

9SS 
93 S 



Cms. CSi per xoo 
Cms. CSt+CsHriOH. 

94-94 

89.54 
84.89 
79.96 
65.11 

59.58 
29.92 



An)earance on Cooling in Ice and 
Salt Mixture. 

Remains dear down to —18.4 
Becomes turbid at —14.4 

-15.9 
— 16. 1 






tt 
tl 



II 



u 



t( 



tl 



tt 



-17.7 

Remains clear down to —20 



(( 



tt 



tt 



tt 



tt 



CARBON MONOXIDE CO. 

SCH.UBILITY IN Watbr. 

/^."Solu.. „ 4. 

biUty." *• ^' 

0.03516 0.0044 40 

0.03122 0.0039 50 

0.02782 0.0035 60 

0.02501 0.0031 70 

0.02266 0.0028 80 

0.02076 0.0026 90 

O.OI915 0.0024 100 



O 

5 
10 

15 

20 

25 

30 



0, "Absorp. 
. Cod." 

0.03537 
0.03149 
0.02816 
0.02543 
0.02319 
0.02142 
0.01998 



(WinUer.'igox.) 

0» "Ahaorp, 
Coef." 

0.0177s 
O.O1615 
0.01488 
0.01440 
0.01430 
0.01420 
O.OI410 



0' "Solu- 
biUty." 

0.01647 
0.01420 
O.OII97 
0.00998 
0.00762 
0.00438 
0.00000 



f- 

0.0021 
0.0018 
0.0015 
0.0013 
O.OOIO 

0.0006 
0.0000 



$ » vol. of CO absorbed by i volume of the liquid at a partial pressure of 760 
mm. See p. 227. 

fi^ = vol. of CO (reduced to o® and 760 mm.) absorbed by I volume of the liquid 
under a total pressure of 760 mm. 

q a grams of CO dissolved by 100 grams H2O at a total pressure of 760 mm. 



CARBON MONOXIDE 236 

Solubility of Carbon Monoxide in Water and Aqueous Solutions. 

' The solubility in water, in terms of the Ostwald solubility expression (see p. 
327), was found by Findiay and Creighton (191 1) to be /u » 0.0154. 

Data for the solubility of CO in water at high pressures are given by Cassuto, 

1913. 
Data for the solubility of CO in aq. NaOH solutions are given by Fonda, 19 10. 

Results for the solubility of CO in aq. HsS04 at 20^ are given in terms of the 
Ostwald solubility expression / by Christoff (1906) as follows: 
lu for HjO « 0.02482, la for 35.82% HjSOi = 0.0114, In for 61.62% HtSOi = 
0.00958, In for 95.6% HjSOi «= 0.02327 and 0.02164. 

Data for the solubility of CO in ox blood and ox serum at 25^ are given by 
Findiay and Creighton, 1910-11. 

Data for the influence of time on the absorption of CO by blood are given by 
Grehaut (1894). The author passed air containing from one part CO per 1000 
to one part CO per 60,000, through 100 cc. portions of blood and found that the 
maximum absorption, 18.3 cc. CO per 100 cc. of blood (for the i : 1000 mixtiune) 
occurred in three hours. 

Data for the solubility of CO in aqueous hemoglobin solutions are given by 
Hafner (1895) and HUfner and Kulz (1895). 



Solubility of Carbon Monoxide in Aqueous Alcohol S(X.utions 

at 20^ and 760 mm. pressure. 





(Labaiscfa, 


1889.) 




AkohoL 


Vol. % 
Absorbed CO. 


AloohoL 


AbaorbiBdCO. 





2.41 


28.57 


I SO 


9.09 
16.67 
23.08 


1.87 
1.7s 

1.68 


33-33 
SO 


1.94 
3-20 



Solubility of Carbon Monoxide in Organic Solvents. 

(Just, 1901.) 

Results in terms of the Ostwald Solubility Expression, see p. 227. 

Solvent. /«. in. Solvent. 

Water 0.02404 0.02586 Toluene 

Aniline o 05358 0.0S055 Ethyl Alcohol 

Carbon Disulfide 0.08314 0.081 12 Chloroform 

Nitrobenzene 0.09366 0.09105 Methyl Alcohol 

Benzene 0.1707 0.1645 Amyl Acetate 

Acetic Add 0.17 14 0.1689 Acetone 

Amyl Alcohol o . 1 7 14 o . 1 706 Isobutyl Acetate 

Xylene 0.1781 0.1744 Ethyl Acetate 

100 volumes of petroleum absorb 12.3 vols. CO at 20^ and 13.4 vols, at I0^ 

(Gniewott and Walfiai, 1887^ 



Solubility of Carbon Monoxide in Ethyl Ether. 

(Christoff, 191a.) 

Results in terms of the Ostwald solubility expression, see p. 227. 

A) «= 0.3618. /lo = 0.3842. 



Is. 


l» 


0.1808 


0.Z742 


O.I92I 


0.I90I 


0.1954 


0.1897 


0.195s 


0.1830 


0.2140 


0.2108 


0.2225 


0.2128 


0.2365 


0.2314 


0.2516 


0.2419 



237 



CARBON MONOXIDE 



Solubility of Carbon Monoxide in Mixtures of Acetic Acid 

Other Solvents at 25^. 

(Skirrow, 1902.) 

Results in terms of the Ostwald solubility expression, see p. 227. 



AND 



Mixture of 
Acetic Ac 


CHKX)OH 


CO. 

Im. 


Mixture of 
Acetic Ac 


cacbdn 


^- 


and: 


in Mixture. 


and: 


in Mixture. 


Aniline 


100 


0.173 


Chloroform 


56-4 


0.196 


it 


86. s 


O.IIO 


u 





0.206 


it 


58.3 


0.070 


Nitrobenzene 


78.4 


0.156 


tt 


17.8 


0.058 


« 


49 


0.130 


tt 





0-053 


u 





0.093 


Benzene 


67.5 


0.199 


Toluene 


74.7 


O.I9I 


u 


335 


0.198 


K 


56.9 


0.19s 


tt 


19.2 


0.190 


tt 


20.5 


0.190 


ti 





0.174 


tt 





0.182 



SOLTTBlLnY OF CaRBON MoNOXIDB IN MIXTURES OF ACETONB AND 

Other Solvents at 25^. 

(Skixiow.) 



Mixtore of Acetone 
and: 


%«:to«co 

In Mixture. 
ByWt. 


CO. 


Mixture of Acetone 
and: 


inMurture. 
ByWt. 


CO. 

Im. 


Aniline 


100 


0.238 


Chloroform 


66.6 


0.226 


tt 


79.2 


0.179 


tt 


26.5 


0.212 


tt 


44.9 


O.IIO 


tt 





0.207 


tt 





0.053 


P Naphthol 


86 


0.190 


Carbon Disulfide 82 


0.236 


731 


0.169 


tt 


50.5 


0.227 


Nitrobenzene 


78.4 


0.207 


it 


26 


0.187 


tt 


46.8 


0.157 


tt 


14.5 


0.144 


it 





0.093 


tt 





0.096 


Phenanthrene 


87.2 


0.205 


Naphthalene 


86.7 


0.199 


(( 


75 


0.183 


tt 


72.6 


0.187 









Solubility 



OF Carbon Monoxide in Mixtures of Benzene 
Other Solvents at 25®. 

(Skinow, igoa.V 



AND 



The solubility of the CO given in terms of the Ostwald expression, see p. 227. 



Mixture of Bcmene 
and: 

Naphthalene 
it 

tt 

Phenanthrene 
it 

a Naphthol 
it 

fi Naphthol 
tt 



%C«H.in 

Mixture. 

ByWt. 

100 

88.5 

66.2 

89.5 
72.6 

96.5 
87.9 

97-9 
95-6 



CO. 

Im, 

0.174 
0.164 
O.I4I 
0.144 
0.127 
0.149 

0.139 
0.158 

0.149 



Mixture of Benaene 
and: 

Aniline 
tt 

tt 

tt 

it 

Nitrobenzene 

a 
it 

Ethyl Alconol 



%CtHiin 
Mixture. 
ByWt. 

87.3 
71.7 

42.6 

21.2 

O 

71.8 

45. 1 
o 

47.7 
o 



CO. 

^. 

0.156 

0.I3I 

0.09s 

0.068 
O.OS3 
0.152 
0.127 
0.093 
0.181 
0.192 



CARBON MONOXIDE 



238 



Solubility of Carbon Monoxide in Mixtukbs of Tolubnb amd 

Othbr Solvbnts at 25^ 

(Skinow, 1903.) 



Aniline 
« 



Mixture <A Tot CtHtCH» in Mixture. cO. 

ueneuid: Wt. %. Mol. %. hh 

ZOO xoo 0.183 

93-4 935 0.169 

80.1 80.3 0.148 

55.4 55-6 o.iis 

25.4 25.6 0.077 

o o 0.053 

Naphthalene 92.9 94.8 0.169 

84.9 88.7 0.161 

77.3 82.5 O.IS3 



Mixture of To&- CiH>CHt in Mixture, qq. 



it 
« 

tt 






ueneand: 
a Naphthol 

Nitzobenzene 

Phenanthrene 
II 



wt.%. 

955 
91.2 

81.7 

50.8 

33. 7 
o 

94.4 
88.8 

78.4 



Mol.%. 

97.1 

94.2 

85.7 
58.1 
29.3 
o 

97 
93-9 

87. S 



O.171 
0.162 
0.160 
0.131 
O.Z08 
0.093 
0.170 
O.161 
0.147 



Solubility of Carbon Monoxide in' Mixtures of Organic Solvents at 25^ 

(Skinow.) 



Chloroform and Methyl Alcohol 
ti tt 



% of Latter in Mixture. 



C( 



it 



Carbon Bisulphide and Ethyl Di Chloride 



ByWt. 

00 
13 o 
100 



ByMoL 



u 
it 



ti 



tt 



tt 
ti 
it 
u 



Methyl Alcohol and Glycerine 



it 
tt 



M 



tt 



tt 



ti 

ii 



tt 



0.0 

39-6 

60.5 
77.1 

100. o 



100 

75 

SI 
18.4 

0.0 

0.0 

301 
50.1 

68.9 

100. o 



CO 

0.307 

0.302 
0.196 

0.147 

O.IS7 
0.160 

0.140 

0.083 

0.196 
0.096 

0.052 
0.025 

very small 



Note. — Prom the results shown in the preceding five tables, it is 
concluded that the solubility of carbon monoxide in various mixttires 
of organic solvents is, in general, an additive fimction. 



OABBON OZTSUUIDE COS. 

Solubility of Carbon Oxtsulftob in Water. 

(Winkler, 1906.) 
t*. fi, q. t*. fi. q. 

o 1-333 o-3S^ 20 0.561 0.147 

5 1.056 0.281 25 0.468 0.122 

10 0.836 0.221 30 0.403 0.104 

15 0.677 0.179 

For and q see Carbon Dioxide, p. 227. 

S(x.UBiLiTY OF Carbon OxYsuLFmE in Several Solvents. 



Water 



Solvent. t*. 

13s 
20 

Alcohol 22 

Toluene 22 

HCl solution of CuCl 13 . 5 

I gm. KOH+ 2CC.HiO+ 2CC.CjH60H 13 . 5 
Pyridine 
Nitrobenzene 



cc cos per 
100 oc. Solvent. 


Authocity. 


80 


(Hempd, 1901.) 


54 


(Stock and Kint zgtrO 


800 


M « 


1500 


M « 


20 


(Hempd, 190ZO 


7200 


M 


44' 


« 


12.0 


11 



239 CARBON TITRACHLOBIDI 
GABBON TBTBAGHLOBIDB CCU. 

SCX^UBIUTT IN WaTSS. (Rex, 1906.) 

r. or. !©• «©• 30* 

Gms. CCI4 per icx> gms. HsO 0.097 0.083 0.080 0.085 

Rbcifrgcal S(X.ubility of Carbon Tbtkachloridb, Alcohol and Water. 

(Curtis and Titus. 19x5.) 

Alcohol was added from a weight buret to mixtures of weighed amounts of 
ecu and H^, stirred vigorously at I9.75^ untU the mixture became homogeneous. 



Per oeot 


Percent 


Percent 


CCk. 


CiHiOH. 


EW). 


41.94 


4319 


14.89 


33 07 


47.68 


19.25 


25.46 


SO SO 


24.04 


17.00 


SI-9S 


31.05 


14.02 


S^S^ 


34.42 


10 53 


S0.97 


38.50 



In Older to determine the effect of temperature upon the mutual solubility, one 
component was added to a known mixture of the other two, and the critical 
solubility temperature determined by raising and lowering the temp, through the 
critical point several times. A further amount of the third component was then 
added and the critical solubility temperature again determined. 



»^r,H.oH-»-*^ 


... . ecu - «. . " CCU 


B *• ecu 


B z.o9ia. 


Percent 


CritSoL 


Percent 


Ciit Sol. Per cent 


Crit. Sol. 


Percent 


Crit-SoL 


EW). 


f. 


£M). 


f. BM). 


f. 


CtHiOH. 


f. 


24.25 


-1.8 


12.47 


2.03 6.84 


12.7 


47.43 


44. 5 


24.61 


+3.6 


13.9s 


23.9 7.16 


21.5s 


47.83 


395 


25.13 


10.6 


14.45 


29.8 7.3s 


27.2 


48.6 


30.6' 


25.64 


17 


14.85 


35.4 7.54 


31-3 


49.61 


19.9 


26.14 


24. S 


15.3 


3955 7.84 


36.8 


50.07 


14.6 


27.15 


31.45^ 
35. 5(?) 


15.67 


42.75 8.02 


39.75 


50.50 


9. IS 


28.52 


16.02 


455 8.28 


44.1 


SI. 06 


1.6 



The results show that temperature has very little effect on the mutual solubility 
of the three components. Extensive series of determinations of refractive indices 
and densities of the mixtures are also given. 

Freezing-point data for CCU+Cl are given by Waentig and Mcintosh (19 16). 

CABMIME. 

100 gms. HiO dissolve 0.13 gm. carmine at 20-25^ (Dehn» 1917.) 

*^ pyridine " 3.34 gms. " " " 

50% aq. pyridine " 2.03 " " " " 

CABVACBOL (CH,),CH.CH,(CH,)OH. 

MisciBiLiTY OF Aq. Alkaline Solutions op Carvacrol with Several 
Organic Compounds Insoluble in Water. (Sbeubie, 1907.) 

To 5 cc. portions of aq. KOH solution (250 gms. per liter) were added the given 
amounts of^ the aq. insoluble compound from a buret and then the carvacrol* drop- 
wise until solution occiured. Temperature not stated. 

(Composition of Homogeneous Solutions. 

Aq. KOH. Aq. Inaol. (Compd. Csrvacrol. 

5 CC. 2 CC. r= 1.64 gms.) Octyl(i) Alcohol i .8 gms. 

5" 5CC. (~4.i gms.) " 2.6 " 

5 " 2 CC. (=^ 1.74 gms.) Toluene 4 " 

5 " 3 CC. (= 2.61 gms.) " 4.8 " 

5 " 2 CC. (= 1.36 gms.) Heptane 4.6 " 

(s).» tlw BQCinal Moaodaiy octyl alcohol, U., the so<aIled capcyl alcohol, CHi((34)i.CH(0q)CHa. 



CABVOZIMB 



240 



CABVOZIMB C]oH4:NOH djandi. 

SoLVBiLnY IN Aqueous Alcohol of dn^ - 0.9125 (51.6 Pbk Cent 

CiHiOH).. (Goldschmidt and Cooper. 1898.) 

The determinations were made by the synthetic method. On account of the 
slow rate at which melted carvoxime solidified on cooling below the melting point, 
in the tubes containing the synthetic mixtures, it was possible to obtain results 
which show the solubility curve for liquid carvoximei in addition to the curves for 
dextro and inactive carvoxime. The curves for these latter intersect the curve 
for liquid carvoxime respectively at 5 1. 7", the m. pt. of dextro, and 70.5" the m.pt. 
of inactive carvoxime. 



GlIM. 




Solvent, pel 


Mols. Carvoxime 
' 100 Cms. Solvent. 


t* of Solution. 


Solid Phase. 


Carvoziiiie. 


SdM. 


liquid. 


0.0668 




1.0868 


0.0373 


384 


13 -9 


d Carvoxime 


0.1232 




1.0830 


0.0689 


45-8 


319 




u 


0.2026 




I. 0218 


0.1202 


50-3 


49-8 




It 


0.4040 




I. 0218 


0.2396 


• • • 


79.6 




it 


0.4128 




0.8130 


0.3077 


• • • 


945 




u 


0.0657 




1.0980 


0.0363 


54.2 


• • • 


i Carvoxime 


O.I2I2 




I.O161 


0.0723 


62. s 


33-7 




c< 


0.2715 




I. 0129 


0.1625 


69.25 


61.3 




u 


0.37SS 




1.0384 


0.2192 


• • • 


76.6 




it 


0.4496 




0.7768 


0.3409 


• • • 


102.9 




tt 




Solubility in 


d LnCONBNB. 


(Goldachmidt and Cooper, i 


898.) 




Gntt. CiJIt:N0H 






Cms. CioHi:NOH 






t*. per 100 


Gins. 


Solid Phase. 


f. 


per 100 Cms. 




Solid PhaM. 


dLiznonene. 






d Lixnonene. 






24.6 


44 


.6 I Carvoxiine 


48 


198.7 


/ Carvoxime 


30 


59 


.2 I 




49-4 


199.7 


d 




30.3 


63 


•3 d 




ss-^ 


325- 1 


I 




384 


104.3 / 




SS-9 


346.6 


d 




39-3 


103 


.1 d 




S8.8 


560 


d 




431 


130 


.8 / 




63.2 


1269.3 


d 





Freezinff-point data are given for mixtures of d and / carvoxime by Adriani, 
1900 and by Beck, 1904. 

CASKm. 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 2.01 gms. casein at 20-25^. (Defan. 19x7.) 

100 gms. pyridine dissolve 0.09 gm. casein at 20-25**. " 

100 gms. aq. 50% pyridine dissolve 0.56 gm. casein at 20-25*. ^ " 

Data for the solubility of casein in aqueous NaCl solutions are given by Ryd 
(1917). An abstract of experiments on the solubility of casein in dilute acids is 
given by Van Slyke and Winter (1913). Results for the solubility of casein in 
aqueous solutions of KOH, LiOH and Ca(OH)t at various temperatures, are given 
by Robertson, 1908. 

CATECHOL oC6H4(OH),. 

Freezing-point data (solubilities, see footnote, p. i) are given for mixtures of 
catechol and picric add, catechol and a naphthylamine and catechol and p tolui- 
dine by Philip and Smith, 1905. 

CEPHABLINE Salts. 

Solubility in Water. (Caxr and Pyman, 1914.) 

Cephadine Hydrochloride C28lW)4N2.2HC1.7H|0 17-18 26.5 

acid " C»Hjrt04N,.sHCl 18 about 50 

Hydrobromide CttHs^4N>.2HBr.7H^ 17-18 5.4(driedatioo-) 



« 



it 



241 



CEBTOM ACETATB 



OERIUM AOETATE, BUTTBATE, FORMATE, etc. 



Sdt. 

Acetate 
Butyrate 
Iso Butyrate 
Fonnate 
Propionate 



Solubility in Water. 

(Wolff — Z. anorg. Chem. 45. xos. '05.) 

Grams Anhydrooa Salt per xoo Gms. Solution al3 



Fonnuhu 

Ce(CA0,),.ilH20 

Ce(C*HrOJ„and3H,0 

Ce(QIIrOJ,.3H,0 

Ce(CHOa), 

CeCQiHjO JrHjO, and 3H,0 



ir 



3-544 



• • • 



15 • 
19.61 
3406 
6.603(20.4**) 

0.398(13^) 
18.99 



76'. 
12.97 
1.984 
3.39 

o-374(75-3T 
15-93 



OEBIUM AMMONIUM NITRATE (Ceri) Ce(NO«)4.2NH4NOa. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Wolff.) 



25 
35-2 

45-3 
64 S 

85.6 



Gms. per 100 Gms. 
Solution. 



NH«. 
4-065 

4-273 
4.489 

4.625 

4-778 
6. 117 



Co, 



15-1^ 
16. IC 

16. 6g 



(17.40 Ce 
(IS-' 



[5 .03 Ce IV 
(18.16 Ce 
(15.79 Ce IV 
22.82 Ce 
22CeIV 



\*j - 

i22. 
l6. 



Atomic 
Relation. 



Gms. (XN08)4.9NH4NOt 
per 100 Gms. 



NH« 
2.08 
2.06 
2.08 
2.06 

2-39 
2.04 

2. 34 
a. 08 

2.95 



Ce. 



Ce 

CelV 

Ce 

Ce IV 

Ce 

CelV 



Solution. 

58-49 
61.79 

64.51 
66.84 
69.40 
88.03 



Water. 
140.9 
161. 7 

174.9 
201.6 

226.8 

735-4 



CERIUM AMMONIUM NITRATE (Cero) Ce(N0,),.2Na4l^0,.4HA 

Solubility in Water. 

(Wolff.) 



Gms. 



^ 



xoo Gms. 
iution. 



Atomic Relaticui. 



8.75 
£•5.0 

45 -o 
6o-o 
65.06 



NH4. 
4.787 

509 

5 53 
6.01 

6. II 



Ce. 
18.56 
19.80 
21 .06 
22.77 
23.42 



NH4 
1.999 

1-995 
2.037 

2-054 
2.022 



Gms. Ce(N0ih|.2NH«N0» 

per zoo Gms. 



^' Solution. Water. 



70.2 

74-8 

80.4 
87.2 
89.1 



23s S 

296.8 
410.2 
681. a 
817.4 



OERIUM AMMONIUM SULPHATE Cea(S04),.(NHJ,S04.8H,0. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Wolff.) 



Gms. 

Cea(S04)».(NH«),S0« 

per loq Gms. 

Solution! Water'. 



22 

35 



'3 

.1 



45-2 



5.06 

4-93 
4.76 



S-33 
5.18 

4.99 



SoUd 
Phase. 



.8H,0 



Gms. 

Ces(S04)».(NH*),S0« 

per 100 Gms. 

Solution. Water. 



SoUd 
Phase. 



45 o 

55-25 

75-4 
85.2 



2.91 
2.16 
1.46 
1. 17 



2-99 
2.21 

1.48 

1. 18 



Anhydride 



(( 



(( 



ti 



GEB0U8 CHLORIDE 242 

CEB0X7S CHLORIDE CeCb. 

100 oc. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve 3 gms. CeCU, with evolution of ga8» at 
room temp. (Welsh and Biodenon, 1915.) 

CERIUM CITRATE 2(CeC«Hf07).7HsO. 

100 gms. of aq. citric acid solution containing 10 gms. citric add per 100 cc., 
dissolve 0.3 gm. CeCCeHjO) at 20**. (Holmbos, 1907.) 

CTRIUM COBALTICYANIDE Cet(CoC«N6)2.9HA 

100 gms. aq. 10% HCl (dvt - 1.05) dissolve 1.075 gms. of the salt at 25^. 

CJames and WiUand, 1916.) 

CERIUM FLUORIDE CeF,. 

Freezing-point lowering data are given for mixtures of CeFt + KF by Puschin 
and Baskow, 1913. 

CERIUM GLYCOLATE Ce(CsHA),. 

i One liter H2O dissolves 3.563 gms. of thesalt at 20^ Qantsch and Gnmkniut, Z9i»-Z5.) 

CERIUM lODATE Ce(IOs),. 

One liter sat. aqueous solution contains i .456 gms.Ce (IOi)s, determined by a chem- 
ical method, and 1.636 gms. determined electrolytically. (Rimbacfa and Schubert, 1909.) 

CERIUM MALONATE CeiCC.HsOOs + 6HsO. 

Solvent f ^"*- Cei(C«HiO0i per 

^'^*^** *• 100 Gnuns. Solvent. 

Aq. Ammonium Malonate, containing 10 gms. per 100 cc. 20 0.2 

Aq. Malonic Add, containing 20 gms. per 100 cc. 20 0.6 

(Hdmbeig, 1907.) 

CERIUM Magnesium, etc., NITRATES. 

Solubility in Cong. Aq. HNOi (iy = i .325 = 51 .59'Gms. HNOi per 100 cc.) at i6*. 

G&ntBch, 19x2.) 

Cerimn magnesiimi nitrate, i liter sat. solution contains 58.5 gms. [Ce(N0ft)«]Mgt. 24H«0. 
" nickel " " " " 75.3 " " Ni, " 

" cobalt '* " " " 103.3 " " Co, " 

" 2dnc " " " " 111.7 " " Zn, " 

" manganese " " " " 178.8 " " Mn, " 

CERIUM OXALATE Cei(C204),.9HA 
One liter HsO dissolves 0.00041 gm. CeiCCsOOs at 35^, determined by the elec* 

trolytic method. (Rimbach and Schubert, 1909.) 

SCX^UBILITY OF CeRIUM OXALATE IN AqUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF SULFUKIC 

Acid and of Oxalic Acid at 25®. 

(Hauaer and Wirth, 1908; Wirth, 19x2.) 

Cone of Gms. per 100 Gms. _ ... Gms. per 100 Gms. _ ,. . 

Aoueous Sat..Sol. ^ Cone of Aq. Acid. ^.Soi. ^ 

Acid. CcOi« Ce,(CiOi)j. CeO,- Ce«(CiO«)«: 

o. Ill HsS04 0.0136 0.0215 Ce(C^4)s-9H|0o.in(C00H)s 0.0020 o.oo32Cei(C^«)s.9B^ 

0.5 " 0.0524 0.0828 " 0.5 " 0.0083 0.0131 

X.O " 0.1 14 0.1802 " 1.0 " 0.0040 0.0063 

1445 " 0.1764 0.2788 •* 3-2 " (sat.) 0.0019 0.0030 

2.39 " 0.3083 0.4871 " 0.05 " +.osnHjS040.oo30 0.0047 " 

2.9 " 0.4724 0.7467 •* 0.05 " -h-S " 0.0025 0.0039 " 

3.9 " 0.6300 0.9957 " 0.25 •• +.25 " 0.0046 0.0073 " 

4.32 •* 0.7502 1.1860 " 0.50 " +.05 " 0.0105 0.0166 " 

5.3 '• 0.9019 1.4250 " 0.50 " +.50 " o.ooio 0.0016 " 

CERIUM Dunethyl PHOSPHATE Ce,[(CH,),P04]8.H,0. 

100 gms. H^ dissolve 79.6 gms. Ces[(CHt)sP04]« at 25® and about 65 gms. at 
95^* (Morgan and James, 19x4^ 



u 
u 
f< 



MS 



GBBIUM SlUBNATB 



OBUUM 8SUNATI Cei(Se04)a.iiHA 






Sqlubiuty in Water. (Gngohni* 1908.)] 


Gfltt. 

r. a»(Seooa« 

zoo Gins. HjO. 


Solid Phase. 1*. 


Gma. 

Cet(SeOi)f 

perxooGma. 

EW). 


39SS 


Cei(Se04)s.i2HsO 60 


13.68 


II. 6 37.0 


60.8 


13.12 


12.6 36.9 


CdCSeOOs-iiHiO 78.2 


5-53 


26 33.84 


80.S 


4.56 


28.8 33.22 


91 


2.02 


34.2 331S 


Cei(Se04)s.ioHiO 95.4 


1.536 


45 32.16 


98 


1.785 


45-9 31 89 


" 100 


2.513 



Solid 



Cei(Se04)t.8I^ 



ti 



It 



Cc^(Se04)8.7HiO 

it 

Ce^(Se04)t.4H^ 



tt 
tt 



CESIUM SULFATE Cei(S04}t. 

Solubility of thb Sbvbral Hydrates in Water. 

(Koppd, 1904; the preyious detennioatioDS by Muthman and Rolig» zSgS* and by Wyioubofl, 1901, 
axe ahown by Koppd to be ioaocuiate.) 



Gms. 
. Cei(S04)j 
t*. per 100 
Gms. 
Solution. 

o 14.20 

18.8 14.91 
19.2 15.04 



Mols. 

^^M*Jli!" SoBdPh.se. 
HaO. 



Gms. Mols 

Gms. * 
Solution. 



HaO. 



Solid 



O 

IS 
21 

31.6 

45-6 

50 
60 

65 
o 

IS 



17 -35 
10.61 

8.863 
6.686 
4.910 
4.465 
3-73 
3-47 
15-95 
9-95 



0.525 

0.555 
0.561 

0.665 

0.376 

0.308 

0.227 

0.164 

0.148 

0123 

0.114 

0.605 

0.350 



Ces(SOi)s.iaH^ 



Ces(SO«)i.9HiO 



Ce^SQ^JSB^ 



20.5 

40 

60 

45 
60 

80 

100.5 

35 
40 

50 

65 
82 

100.5 



8.69 

5-613 

3-83 
8. 116 

3-145 
1. 19 

0.46 

7.8 

5-71 

3-31 
1.85 

0.98 

0.42 



0.302 

0.188 

0.129 

0.280 

0.103 

0.0382 

0.0149 

0.27 

0.19 

o.ii 

0.06 

0032 

0.014 



O^SO^SB^ 



•• 



Gei(SQJ..5H^ 



Cei(SQi)t^EbO 



In aq. boIs. of 
K1SO4 at i6'. 

Gms. per 10 Gms. IW). 
S5Z 



In aq. sols, of 

(NHOiSO* at i6*. 

Gms. per xoo Gms. HiO. 



SOLUBIUTY OF CerIUM SULFATE IN AqUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF AlKALI 

Sulfates. (Bane, xgxo.) 

In aq. sols, of 

NasS04 at 19*. 
Gms. per 100 Gms. H»0. 
NatSOi. Ce»(SOi)». 

o 9.648 

0.328 0.637 

0.684 

1. 091 

1.392 

1.699 

2.640 

3.589 
5.660 

7.710 

The following double salts were found. 
3K,S04.8H,0. Ce,(S04)..5K,S04, Cei(S04)^NaiS04.2H,6, 'Cei(Sd4)»(NH0iS5i 
8HsO and Cei(S04)t.5(NH4)iS04. 



o 

0.178 

0.510 

0.726 

1.290 

o 



Cei(S0i)«. 
10.747 

0.956 

0.432 

0.250 

0.042 

6.949 (at 33*) 



(NHOsSa. 

o 
3 464 

9 323 
19 . 240 

29.552 
45.616 

55 083 
63.920 
72.838 



0.259 
0.0937 

0.0570 

0.0303 

0.0120 

0.0065 

0.0046 

0.0037 

Cei(S04)i.KiS04.2H,0. 2Cea(S04)i, 



Cc^SOOi. 

10.747 

1.026 
0.782 

0.748 

0.701 

0.497 

0.194 
0.090 

0.035 



OKBIUM SULFATE 



244 



Solubility of Cerium Sulfate in Aq. Solutions of Sulfuric Acid at 25*. 

(Wirth. Z9xa.) 



Normality 
of Aq. 
HsSOi. 

0.0 

O.I 

I.I 

2.16 



Gms. 



ICO Gms. 
t. Sol. 



Solid 
Phase. 



CeOi - Ce»(Sa)». 
4 . 604 7 . 60 Cei(S04)|.8HdO 

4.615 7.618 

3.64 6 

3.04 5.018 

CERIUM SULFONATES. 

Solubility in Water. 



II 



« 



Normali^ 
of Aq. 
HiSOi. 

4.32 
6.685 

9.68 
IS IS 



Gms. per xoo Gms. 



. Der 

Sat. 



Sol. 



Solid 
Phase. 



CeOi - Ces(S04)s. 
2 3-301 Cei(S0J,.8H^ 

O.9II5 1.505 

0.4439 0-733 
0.145 0239 



II 



M 



M 



(Holmbeig, 1907; Katz and James, 19x3.) 



Name. 



Cerium m Nitrobenzene Sulfonate 



Fonnula. 



15 



Gms.Anhv- 
drouaSalt 

per zoo 
Gms. HsO. 

25. 5 
S.89 



f. 


nyazuus osui 

per zoo Gms. 

Sat. Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


2S 


0.005 


Co,(QHA).4iH^ 


20 


0.7 


Cei(C«H«0J|.6Hd0 


20 


2 


II 


20 


0.4 


M 


20 


0.2 


M 



CerCJl4(NCWSO»lt.6H,0 
Cerium Bromonitrobenzene Sulfonate Ce[C6H|Br(NQi)SC)»i.4.2]t.8HsO 25 

CEBIUM TARTRATE Cet(C4H40«)«.4iHsO, also 6H2O. 

Solubility in Water (Rimbach and Shubert, 1909, by electrolytic method) 

AND in Aq. Solutions. (Hohnbeig, 1907.) 

Gms. Ao- 
Solvent. 

Water 

Aq. Am. Tartrate, 10 Gms. per 100 cc. 
Aq. Am. Tartrate, 20 Gms. per 100 cc. 
Aq. Tartaric Acid, 20 Gms. per 100 cc. 
Aq. Tartaric Acid, 40 Gms. per 100 cc. 

CERIXTM TUNGSTATE Ce2(W0«)«. 

Freezing-point lowering data for mixtures of Cei(WOs)s and PbWOi are given 
by Zambonmi, 1913. 

CETTL ALCOHOL Ci.HnOH. 

100 gms. methyl alcohol dissolve 96.9 gms. CuHtOH at 23.9®. CTimofeiew, 1894-) 
'^ ethyl " " 102.2 " " " " 

I* «« U *t ^jQ ** " ** ^m U 

propyl " " 405 " " " 39 

CHLORAL H7DRATE CCU.CHO.HsO. 
Solubility in Water, Ethyl Alcohol, Chloroform, and in Toluene. 

(Speyers, 1902.) 

Calculated from the original results, which are given in terms of gram molecules 
of chloral hydrate per 100 gram mols. of solvent. 



• • 


In Water. 


In Alcohol. 

'w. ' S. ' 


In Chloroform. 

'w. S. ' 


In Tol 


Inene. 


w . r 


W. 


s*. 


s: 


] 


1-433 


189.7 


I. II 


"33 


I -53° 


3-7 


0.898 


3-2 


s ^ 


[.460 


233 


1. 16 


130.0 




•515 


4.0 


0.900 


4.0 


10 ] 


[.435 


275.0 


I 23 


140.0 




Sio 


S-o 


0.910 


7.0 


IS 3 


C.510 


330 


I 30 


160.0 




•SOS 


9.0 


0-915 


II. 


30 ] 


t-53S 


383 


1.36 


185.0 




.510 


19. 


0.94 


21.0 


25 J 


fS55 


433 


1.42 


215.0 




.520 


340 


0.97 


36.0 


30 3 


[.580 


480.0 


1-49 


245.0 




S40 


56.0 


1.02 


56.0 


35 3 


t-59 


516.0 


1-55 


280.0 




570 


80.0 


I 13 


80.0 


40 ] 


[.60s 


• . ■ 


1.60 


320.0 




S90 


IIO.O 


1.40 


IIO.O 


45 3 


[.620 


• • • 


... 


■ • • 




1 . a 


... 


a a • 


• . • 



W = wt. of I cc. saturated solution, S 
grams solvent. 



Gms. CaHQ,.HaO per loo 



245 CHLORAL HYDRATK 

Solubility in Several Solvents. 

p I _. *• Gms. CC1»C0H.H*0 c«i^„f ♦• Gms. CCliCOH.IbO 

Solvent. r. per loo Gms. Solvent. =>oiveni. «. loo Gms. Solvent. 

50% Aq. Pyridine 20-25 374 (Ddm, 1917.) Ether ord. t. 200 (Squires.) 

P3rridme 20-25 80.9 " Oil tur- { cold 10 " 

Carbon Disulfide ord. t. 1.47 (Squires.) pentine ( hot 20 " 

Glycerol ord. t. 200 " Olive Oil ord. t. 100 " 

Freezing-point data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given for mixtures of 
chloral and water by van Rossem (1Q08) ; for mixtures of chloral and ethyl alcohol 
by Leopold (1909); for mixtures of chloral hydrate and menthol by Pawlewski 
(1893) and for mixtures of chloral hydrate and salol by Bellucci (1912, 1913). 

Distribution of Chloral Hydrate Between Water and Organic 

Solvents. 

Immiscible Solvent*. t. Dist. (M. Con^''^, golvent. Authority. 



Water and Ether 0-30** u 

Water and Benzene 

Water and Olive Oil ord. 4 

" " " 30* 4 

" " " 3 16 

" " Toliiene 0-20** 58-74 



235 (Hantzach and Vagt, xgox.) 

(Bubanovic, 19x3.) 
9 (Baum, X899.) 

3 (Mqrer, xgox; X909.) 

7 (Meyer, X90X.) 

5 (HantzBch and Vagt, xgox.) 



CHLORAL FOBMAMIDE CCU.CH(OH).NH.CHO. 

100 gms. H,0 dissolve 5.3 gms. CCUCH(OH).NHCHO at 25*. (U. S. P.) 

100 gms. 95% alcohol dissolve 77 gmsJCCl,CH(OH).NHCHO at 25*. 

CHLORINE Cli. Solubility in Water. 

(Winkler, 19x2; Roozeboom, 1884, 1885. x888.) 

Solid Phase. 

Ice + C1.8 aq. 

C1.8 aq. 
ti 

u 
(( 
u 
ct 
it 

" + 2 layers 



r. 


^'. 


«• 


r. 


Gms. U per 
xoo Gms. ftO. 





4.610 


1.46 


—0.24 


0.492 


3 


3-947 


I -25 





0.507-0.560 


6 


3-4II 


1.08 


2 


D.644 


9 


3 031 


0.96 


4 


0.732 


9.6 


2.980 


0.94 


6 


0.823 


12 


2.778 


0.88 


8 


0.917 


10 


3 095 


0.980 


9 


0.965-0.908 


IS 


2.63s 


0.83s 


20 


1.85 


20 


2.260 


0.716 


28.7 


369 


25 


I -985 


0.630 






30 


1.769 


0.562 






40 


1. 414 


0.451 






SO 


1.204 


0.386 






60 


1.006 


0.324 






70 


0.848 


0.274 






80 


0.672 


0.219 






90 


0.380 


0.125 






100 


c 










ff « vol. of CI .(reduced to o® and 760 mm.) absorbed by i vol. HjO at total pres- 
Bure of 760 mm. 

a » Gms. CI per 100 gms. HsO at a total pressure of 760 mm. 

The coefficient of solubility of chlorine at 15®, determined by an aspiration 
method, is given as ^1.7 for carbon tetrachloride, 39.6 for acetic anhydride, 36.7 
for 09.84.% acetic acid, 25.3 for 90 vol. % acetic acid, 16.43 for 75 vol. % acetic 
acta ana 13.45 for 65 vol. % acetic acid. (Jones, x9xx.) 



OHLOBINI 246 

Solubility in Water.- 

(Goodwin, 1883.) 

The saturated aqueous solution of the chlorine was cooled until chlorine hydrate 
separated; the temperature was then gradually raised and portions withdrawn for 
analysis at intervals. The chlorine was determined by iodometric titration and 
the results calculated to volume of chlorine dissolved by unit volume of solvent 
at the given temperature and 760 mm. pressure. Slightly different results were 
obtain^ for solutions in contact with much, little, or no chlorine hydrate. The' 
following results are taken from an average curve: 



r. 


SolubiUty 


Coeflkient. 


2-5 


1.76 


5 


2 


75 


2.25 


10 . 


2.7 



r. 


Solubility 
Coefficient. 


f. 


stability 
Coefficient 


II 


3 


25 


2.06 


12. s 


2.7s 


30 


1.8 


IS 


3.6 


40 


1-35 


20 


2-3 


so 


I 



solubilitt of chlorine in aqueous solutions op hydrochloric 

Acid and op Potassium Chloride. 

(Goodwin.) 



Coefficient of Solubility in: 




_^ Results at 2] 

Gms. Helper 


[^ (MeIlor,z9oz.) 


**• ' HQ. HCl 


na 


KQ 


Solubility of O. 


(x.046 Sp. Gr.). (z.08 Sp. Gr.). (x. 


i25Sp.Gr.).(3G 


g.perzoocc.) xooocc' (Ostwald/,seep.as7.) 


4.1 6.4 


7-3 


IS 


0. 


2.2799 


S S-I S.2 


6.7 


2 


3 134 


1.6698 


10 4.1 45 


6.1 


2.2 


9.402 


1-5013 


IS 3-5 3-9 


S-5 


1.6 


12.540 


1.5292 


20 3 3.4 


4-7 


1.2 


31 340 


1-8033 


25 2.S 3 


4 


I 


125.360 


2.4473 


30 2 2.4 


• • • 


0.9 


219.380 


3-I312 


40 1.25 1.6 


• • • 


• . • 


313-401 


3.8224 



' Goodwin also gives results for solutions of NaCl, CaCls, MgCls, SrCli, FetCls, 
C0CI2, NiCli, MnCls, CdCls, LiCl, and in mixtures of some of these, but the con- 
centrations of the salt solutions are not stated. 



Solubility op Chlorine in Aqueous Solutions op Sodium Chloride. 

(Kumpf, x88s; Kohn and O'Brien. X898.) 



r. 




Coefficient of Solubility in: 




9.97% NaCL 


x6.ox% NaCl. 


19.66% NaG. 


36.39% NaG. 





2.3 


1-9 


1.7 


o.S 


S 


2 


1.6 


1.4 


0.44 


10 


1.7 


1-3 


1. 15 


0.4 


IS 


1.4 


1.06 


0.95 


0.36 


20 


1.2 


0.9 


0.8 


0.34 


25 


0.94 


0.7s 


0.6s 


0.3 


50 


... 


... 


• . • 


0.2 


80 


* * * . 


... 


• • • 


0.05 



100 cc. of 6.2 per cent CaCls solution dissolve 0.245 gm. Cl at 12^. 
100 cc. of 6.2 per cent MgCls solution dissolve 0.233 8^^*- Cl at 12®. 
100 cc. of 6.2 per cent MnCU solution dissolve 0.200 gm. Cl at 12^ 
For coefficient of solubility see p. 227. 



247 CHLORINE 

Freezing-point data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given for the following 
mixtures containing chlorine. 

Chlorine + Chloroform (Waentig and Mdntoth. 1916.) 

+ Ethyl Alcohol " « 

4- Methyl Alcohol *• 

4- Ethyl Acetate (Waeatag and Mdntoah, 1916; Maass and Mcintosh, 191a.) 

" 4- Methyl Acetate (Waentig and Mclntodi, 19x6.) 

4- Ether 

+ Hydrochloric Add (ICaaas and Mcintosh, 1919.) 

" + Iodine (Stortenbecker. 1888, 1889.) 

" 4* Sulfur (Ru£F and Racher, 1903.) 

" 4- Sulfur Dioxide (Smits and Hoay, 19x0; Van der Goot, 19x3*) 

4- Sulfuryl Chloride (SOiCls) (Van der Goot, 19x3.) 

4- " " -f Sulfur Dioxide 

4* Stannic Chloride (Waentig and Mcintosh, 1916.) 

4* Toluene (Waentig and Mcintosh, 19x6; Maass and Mcintosh, X9X3.) 

4- Nitrosyl Chloride (NOCl) (Boubnoff and (kiye, X9XX.) 

Distribution of Chlorine Between CCU and Gaseous Phase and 

Between CCU and Water. 

(Jakowbin, X899.) 

Results for CCU + Results for dist. between CCI4 and HiO. 

Gaseous Phase. ist Series. 2nd Series. 

Millixnols per Liter. Millimob per Liter. 

MiDunolsQ per Liter. / *^ 



^^^y^^- CCI4. IfaOIayer. ^ ^^ 



Gaseous CCI4 Total • Unhydro- T-yer Total Unhy- Laver 

Phase. Phase. Q. lixed Q. ' Q. diolized a ' 

O.IIO9 8.908 58.21 39.67 803.3 61.73 42.5s 864.2 

0.2666 22.46 38.36 22.97 464.6 42.62 26.36 335.1 

0.5365 44.14 23.08 II. 12 222.5 28.98 15.24 311. 3 

0.8800 75.09 10.10 2.707 52.93 21.70 9.94 202.7 

Data for the effect of HCl upon the distribution between HiO and CCI4 are 
also given. 

CHLORINE DIOXIDE C10i.8H^ =b iHsO. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Bray, 1905-06.) 
*•• ^i^ SolidPhase. f. Gms^C^ SolidPhase. 

— 0.79 Eutec. 26.98 QOtJSBfi-\-lcc 15. 3 87. 04 OOt^njO±xBfi 

27 . 59 CiOtJSHfi±iBfi 10 . 7 tz. pt. 107 .9 " + liquid 00^ 

1 29.48 '* 14 mofe than > 107.9 liquid QOh 
5.7 42.10 " 10.7 116. 7 " 

10 60.05 " X inorethaii> 108.6 ** 

The exact composition of the hydrate could not be determined on account of 
manipulative difficulties. 

Data for the distribution of ClOs between HsO and CCI4 at o^ and 2^** are given, 
also some results showing the effect of HsS04, KClOt and of KCl on this distribu- 
tion. 

CHLORINE MONOXIDE ClsO. 
100 volumes of water at 0° absorb 200 volumes of CliO gas. 

CHLORINE TRIOXIDE CIA. 

Solubility in Water at Approx. 760 mm. Pressure. 

(Brandan, 1869.) 
r. 8.5*. 14*. ai*. 93*. 

Gms. CIA per 100 gms. HsO 4.765 5.012 5-445 5-651 

Garzarolli and Thumbalk, 1881. say that CIA does not exist, and above 
figures are for mixtiues of ClsO and CI. 



CHLOROFORM 248 

CHLOROFORM CHCU. 

Solubility in Water. 

(CfaAocd and Parmentier, 2885; Rex, 1906.) 

^ Gms. CHCIa per Density of ^ Gnu. CHCb jE«r 

* * Liter of SolutMn. SolutaoBS. ' xoo Gms. H1O (Rei). 

o 9.87 X. 00378 

3.3 8.90 

17.4 7.12 X. 00284 

29.4 7.05 X. 00280 

41.6 7.12 1.00284 

54-9 7.75 1.00309 

,^'100 cc. HiO dissolve 0.42 cc. CHCU at 22®; Vol. of sol. == 100.39 cc-» Sp. Gr. = 
1.0002. 
100 cc. CHCU dissolve 0.152 cc. HiO at 22®; Vol. of sol. = 99.62 cc., Sp. Gr. =» 

1. 483 1. (Hers, X898.) 

Solubility op Chloroform in Aqueous Ethyl Alcohol, Methyl 
Alcohol, and Acetone Mixtures at 20°.. 

(Bancroft, 1895.) 






1.062 


xo 


0.895 


20 


0.822 


30 


0.776 



In Ethyl Alcohol. 


In Methyl Alcohol. 


In Acetone. 


PersccCflHiOH. 


Per 5CC. 


CHiOH. 


Pers cc 
ccHiO. 


. (CHi>tC0 


cc. IU>. cc. CHCIs: 


cc. HsO. 


cc CHCU: 


. cc. CHOi: 


XO 0.20 


10 


O.IO 


5 


0.16 


8 0.3 


S 


0.48 


4 


0.22 


6 0.515 


4 


0.8 


3 


0.33 


4 X.X3 


3 


4 


2 


0.58 


2 2.51 


X.49 


7 


I 


0.955 


X ' 4.60 


1.35 


8 


0.79 


1. 12 


0.91 5 


X.I2 


xo 


0.505 


1.60 


0.76 6 






0.30 


250 


0.55 8 






0.21 


3.50 


0.425 10 






0.19 


4 


0.20 20 






0.16 


5 


0.125 30.24 






0.12 


10 



Data for the system chloroform, ethyl ether and water are given by Jfittner, 
1901. 

Experiments by Schachner (1910) show that various fats (olive oil, sheep suet, 
goose fat) in an atmosphere containing 0.55% CHCU vapor, dissolve o.9^h>.98 
per cent CHCU at 38.5 . 

Data for the properties of solutions of CHCU in water, saline solution, serum, 
hemoelobin, etc.,4n their relation to anesthesia are given by Moore and Roaf, 
(1904; and Waller (1904-05). 

Freezing-point lowering data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given for the 
following mixtures of chloroform and other compounds. 

Mixture. Authority. 

Chloroform + Hydrobromic Acid (Mmss and Mcintosh, 1912.) 

" + Hydrochloric Acid (Baume and Borowaki, 19x4.) 

+ Methyl Alcohol 

" -j- Methyl Ether (Baume, 1914, 1909.) 

' p nitrophenyl chloroform + m nitrophenyl chloroform (Holleman, 19x4.) 

CHOLESTKROL C»H«OH.H,0. 

100 gms. H2O dissolve 0.26 gm. cholesterol at 20-25^ (Dehn,x9x7.) 

pyridine " 68.10 gms. 

50% aq. pyridine " i . 10 " " " " ' " 

100 cc. HsO dissolve 0.0006 gm. cholesterol-di^tonide at b. pt. (Mueller, 19x7.) 
100 cc. ether dissolve 0.0007 g^- cholesterol-digitonide at room temp. " 

Freezing-point lowering data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given for mix- 
tures of cholesterol acetate and phytosterol a and /3 by Jaeger, 1907. Data for 
mixtures of cholesterol and oleic acid, cholesterol and palmitic acid and cholesterol 
and stearic acid are given by Partington, 191 1. 



249 CHOLESTEROL 

Solubility of Stearic Acid Ester of Cholesterol in Oils at 37® and 

Vice Versa. (Paehne, 1907.) 
The determinations were made by adding small weighed amounts of the ester 
to the oil at 60® and cooling to 36-37** while stirring continually. The additions 
of the ester were repeated until a clouding just appeared at 36-37*. In the case of 
the solubility of the oils in cholesterol, the composition of the sat. solution was 
estimated by means of the specific gravity and tne melting point. 

^ „ . Gin9.0florAddperioo 

Sdveot. fof ^^r^ c^, ^ Gma. Sat. Solution in 

Sp. Gr. M. pt. 

Olive Oil 37.6 3.3s Olive Oil 25.5 33.8 

Castor Oil 37.6 0.26 Oleic Add 37 40 

Oleic Add 37.5 4. 11 Castor Oil 5 1.85 

Ricinic (Oil) Add 37 0.33 RidnicAdd 20 16 

Pseudo Ricinic Add 36 . 2 0.85 Pseudo Ricinic Add 10 12 

Crotonic (Oil) Acid 36.5 0.87 CrotonicAdd (5) $ 

CHOLnnS PEBCHLORATE and its Nitric Ether. 

100 gms. H,0 dissolve about 290gms. (CH,),N(Cl04)CHjCHj.0Hat i5°.l(Ho£mann 
100 gms. H2O dissolve 0.62'gm. (CH,),N(C104)CH,.CH,.0N0« at 15*. [ hJ£^m 
100 gms. HjO dissolve 0.82 gm. " at 20**. J ign.)* 

CHROMIUM ALUMS. 

Solubility of Chromium Alums in Water at 25**. (Locke. 1901.) 

Per ICO cc. Water. 

Alum. Fonnula. Grams Grams Gram' 

Anhydrous. Hydxated. Mols. 

Potassium Chromium Alum K2Cr2(S04)4.24H20 12.51 24.39 0.0441 
Tellurium Chromium Alum TeaCr2(S04)4.24HiO 10.41 16.38 0.0212 

CHROMIUM CHLORIDES CrCl«.6H20. 

Solubility of the Green and the Vicm^et Modifications in Water at 25*. 

(Olic Jr., 1906.) 

The solubility of hydrated chromium chloride depends upon the inner com- 
position of the solution, that is, the relative amounts of the green and the violet 
modification of the salt present in the saturated solution. These are determined 
bv precipitating with silver nitrate. A freshly prepared solution of the green 
chloride fields only one-third of its chlorine in the cold, hence the composition of 
this modification, according to Werner, is represented by the formula' [Cr(HsO)4Clt] 
C1.2HtO. The violet chloride is considered to have the composition, [Cr(HsO)«]Cl|. 
A determination of the amount of each present involves precipitating one portion of 
the solution at o^ with silver nitrate and another portion (for total CT) at the boiling 
point. Experiments were first made with aqueous solutions of different percentage 
composition of the two modifications. These were agitated at 25^ and analyzed at 
intervals until equilibrium was reached. The time for equilibrium varied from 18 
to 40 days according to the concentrations present. The effect of temperature 
and of the presence oT HCl on the transition of the green chloride was also studied. 

The equilibrium in saturated solutions at 25^ was determined by rubbing the 
hydrated chromium chloride with a little water previously cooled to 0° to a thin 
mush. This was then agitated at 25° and portions removed at successive inter- 
vals of time and analyzed. The results snow the total chloride and per cent 
present as the green modification. 

25 Gms. Green Salt 25 Gms. Violet Salt 25 Gms. Violet Salt + locc. 

+ 10 Gms. HjO. + 10 Gms. HjO. of 35% Sol. of the Green Salt. 



Tfaneof 


Gins.Crai 


Percent 


Time of Gms. CrCh Per cent 


Time of 


Gms.CrCU Pei**cent 


\git»- 


per xoo Gins. 


of Green 


AffiUH per loo Gms. of Green 


Agita- 


per xoo Gms. of Green 


tion. 


Sat Sol. 


Salt. 


tion. Sat. Sol. Salt. 


tion. 


Sat. Sol. Salt. 


ihr. 


58.36 


91-7 


Jhr. 61.99 1.53 


i}hr. 


65.49 15-95 


4hrs. 


63.27 


75-2 


I day 63.88 8.46 


2 days 


70.47 26.81 


I day 


68.50 


62 ..36 


4 days 70.68 30.89 


s :: 


76.38 39-34 


3 da3rs 


68.9s 


57.22 


7 " 72.11 37.28 


8 " 


73.26 34-20 


19 days 


68.58 


57.38 


26 " 70.62 51.54 


12 " 


71.14 58.60 



In a later paper Olie Jr. (1907) gives additional results at 29**, 32** and 35*. 
100 cc. anhydr . hydrazme dissolve 1 3 gms. CrCU at room temp. (Welsh & Broderson/zs.) 



CHROMIUM TRIOXIDE 250 

CHROMIUM TRIOXIDE CrO|. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Btkhner, and Pxini, X9i»-X3; Kzemaiin, Dftimer and Bfrninrh, 19x1; Koppd and Blmncnthal,' X907; 

and Myliua and Funk, 1900.) 

f nS^^ Solid 4. ^^^ Solid f }^'^ Solid 

— 0.9 3.6 loe — 435 491 Ice 50 64.55 CiOb 

— 1.9 7.8 " - 60 53.3 " 65 64.83 

— 3.7 II. 5 « —155 60.5 "+CiOb 82 66 

— 4.8 14. 1 .« — 20 61.7 QOb 90 68.5 « 

— 10.95 24.9 " O 62.24 " 100 67.4 « 

— II. 7 25.2 " + 18 62.45 " 115 68.4 " 

— i8'7S 33-5 " 24.8 62.88 « 122 70.7 - 

— 25.25 39.2 " 40 63.50 I93'I96 100 [dccompodtkm 

Density of solution sat. at 18* « 1*705. 

100 cc. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve i gm. Crd with evolution of gas and 
production of a black precipitate at room temp. (Wdah and Bxodefion, X9X5.) 

CHROMIUM DOUBLE SALTS. 

Solubility in Water. 

(J<k|enaen, 1879, 1884, 1890; Stnive, 1899.) 

Onti. per 
Name of Salt. Fonuila. t*. xooGms. 

H«0. 

Chloiotetraamine Chromium Chlo- 
ride CrCl(NH,)4(0H,)Cli 15 6.3 
Chloiopurpureo Chromium Chloride CrCl(NHt)6Cls 16 0.65 
Luteo Chromium Nitrate Cr(NHs)6(N0i)i ? 2.6 
Chioropurpureo Chromium Nitrate CrCl(NHs)i(NOi)i 17.5 1.4 
Chromic Potassiiun Molybdate 3KsO.CriOk.i2MoQi.2oH^ 17 2.5 

CHROMIUM SULFATES (ousandic). 

SOLUBILITT IN WaTBR. 
S^ Gmi. i^^oo Gms. Solid Phase. Authority. 

Chromous 1 2 . 35 (at o^) CrS04.7H^ (Moiisan. x883.) 

Chromic 120 (at ?^) Cri(S04)i.i8H^ (Etaxd, X877.) 

CHROMIUM THIOCYANATI Cr(CNS),. 

Data for the distribution of Cr(CNS)i between water and ether at 0^-30^ are 
given by Hantzsch and Vagt, 1901. 

CHRTSAROBIN CmHuGt. 

Solubility in Several S(x.vbnts. 
(u. s. p.) 

-, Gms. per 100 Gnu. Solvent at; Gnu. per 100 Gmfc 

Water 0.021 0.046 Chloroform 5.55 

Alcohol 0.324 0.363 (60**) Ether 0.873 

Benzene 4 ... Amyl Alcohol 3.33 

Carbon Disulfide o . 43 
CHRTSINE CuHu. 

Solubility in Tolubnb and in Abs. Alcohol. 

(v. Becchi.) 

100 gms. toluene dissolve 0.24 gm. CisHit at I8^ and 5.39 gms. at 100®. 
100 gms. abs. alcohol dissolve 0.097 S^* CuHu at i6^ and 0.170 gm. at boiling 
point. 



251 



CXNEOLK 



CXNEOLK (Eucalyptole) CioHuO. 

Freezing-point lowering data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) for mixtures of 
cineole and each of the K>llowing compounds are given by Bellucci and Grassi, 
(19 13); phenol, a and /? naphthol, 0, m and p cresol, o, m and p nitrophenol, 
0, m amidophenol, pyrocatechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, guaiacoi, o, m and p 
oxybenzoic acid, methyl salicylate, phenyl salicylate, naphthalene and thymol. 

CINCHONA ALKALOIDS. 

S(H.UBILITY OP ClKCHONINB, QnCHONIDINB, QuININB, AND QuiNIDINE IN 

Several Solvents. (Moiier, 1903; see also Pmnier, 1879.) 



Grams of the Alkaloid per 100 Grams Solution. 



Solvent. 



Cinchonine Cinchonidine 
CisHnNiO. CmHssNbO. 



Ether 

Ether sat with H,0 

HjO sat. with Ether 

Benzene 

Chloroform 

Acetic Ether 

Petroleum Ether 

Carbon Tetra Chloride o .0361 

Water 0.0239 

Glycerine £i5_j®) o . 50 



Quinine 

/ * * 

Hydrate. Anhydride. 



O.IO 

0.123 

0.025 

0.0545 
0.6979 

0.0719 

00335 



0.2II 

0523 
0.0306 

0.099 

9.301 

0.3003 

0.0475 

0.0508 

0.0255 



1. 619 

5 618 

0.0667 

o . 2054 

100 4- 

465 

0.0103 

0.203 

0.574 
0.50 



0.876 

2.794 

0.0847 

1. 700 

100 -f 

2.469 

0.0211 

0.529 

0.0506 



Quinidine 
C»HmN,0,. 

0.776 
1.629 
0.031 

2 -451 
100 -f 
I.761 
0.0241 

0.565 
0.020a 



Solubility of Cinchonine and CiNCHONmiNtf in Several Solvents. 



Solvent. 



Water 



Gms. Alkaloid per xoo 
fo Gms. Solvent. 

Cinchonine. Cinchonidine, 

Old. temp. 0.0043 



« 



Aq. zo% Ammonia 

Aq. 85% CiH»OH+io% Am. 

Aniline 

Pyridine 

50% Aq. Pyridine 

Aq. 8s% CiEUOH (Ao-0.832) 

CaOH ^95%) 

CiHiOH (prob. 92.3 wt. %) 

Abs. CtHsOH 

Abs. CtH^OH 

Benzene 

Acetone 

Chloiofoim 
it 



a 



Ether 



20 

20 
20 
20 
20 
20-25 
20 
20 

25 

19 
25 
25 
25 
17 
25 
50 

25 
32 
25 
19 
25 

20 
20 



0.0I3I 

O.OII3 

0.025 

0.41 

1.6 

1.4 

« • • 

0.86 

0.80 

0.62 

0.874 

0.89 

0.057 

0.091 

0.014 

0.606 

0.565 
0.055 

0.264 

1. 10 

Z.09 

0.785-1. 17 

3.5 



0.021 



Authority. 

(Hatcher, 1903.) 
(Scholtx, 19x3.) 
(Schaefer, 19x0.) 
(Scholts, Z9X3.) 

M 



7 . 78 (Scholta, 19x3; Dehn, 19x7^ 
10 (Dehn, X9X7.) 

(Scholts, 19x3.) 
5 (WhenyandYaiiovaky,x9z8.) 

5 . z (Schaefer, 1913-) 

(Timofeiew, 1894.) 

(Sill, X905.) 
O . Z 27 (Schaefer, X9X3.) 

(Sill, X905.) 

(Oudemans, 1873.) 
Z9 (Schaefer, 19x3.) 

(KOhler, X879.) 

(Sill, 1905.) 

(KOhler, x879.)^ 

(Sill, 1905.) 

(Timofeiew, X894.) 

(Schaefer, X9X3; Sill, 1905.) 

(Scholtz, X9X3.) 



7.39 



Isoamyl Alcohol ' 

Isobutyl Alcohol 

Meth^rl Alcohol 

Pipendine 

Diethyl Amine 20 z.3 

Results for the solubility of cinchonine and cinchonidine in mixtures of ethyl and 
methyl alcohols with benzene and with chloroform are given by Schaefer (191 3). 

It 18 pointed out by Schaefer (191 o), that if the saturated solution is analyzed 
by shalang out with chloroform or ether, variable results, depending on the age 
and methoid of manufacture of the alkaloid, will be obtained. 
^ Except in the case of the results by Sill in the above table, the saturated solu- 
tions were obtain^l by agitating at mtervals, instead of constantly at the given 
temperature. 



dNCHOHA ALKALOIDS 253 

Solubility op Cinchoninb, Cinchonidinb and Cinchotinb Salts in Watbs. 

Gms. per lop Gma. HgO. 
Sah. f. Cincbonine Oncbom- Ciocbodne Authority. 

Sfth. dine Salt. Salt. 
Hydiobromide 2$ 1.7 i-66 ... (Sdnefer. tgio.) 

Bmydiobromide 35 55.5 14 -3 ••• " 

Hydrochloride 25 4.5^ 4.8* s.za* (Scfaaefer. xgio: FontandBflhrinfler. 1881.) 

Bihydrochloride 25 ... 62.5 ... (Schaefer. 1910.) 

Sulfate 25 z . 17^ 1 . 08^ 3 . 28* (Schaefer, 19x0: Font and Bfihrioger. 1881.) 

Sulfate 80 3.1 4.8 ... (U.S. P.) 

Bisulfate 25 66.6 100 ... (Schaefer. 19x0.) 

Perchlorate Z 2 . 3(sohrent -aq. 6% HCIO^ (Hofmann. Roth. Hflbold and MeUler, 1910.) 

Salicylate 25 0.17 0.075 ... (Schaefer, 19x0.) 

Tannate 25 0.091 0.055 ••• " 

Tartrate 25 3 . Z2' ... z . 76* (Schaefer. 1910: Forst and Bdhiinger, 1881.) 

Bitartrate z6 0.99 Z.28 (Forst and Bdhiinger. z88x.) 

Oxalate 20 0.96 ... z.i6 " " 

* 4.16 at lo*. « 4 at IS*. • at lo*. * i.sa at 13*. » i at 15*. • at ij*. » 3 at x6*. • at i6*. 

Solubility op Cinchoninb Sulfate and of Cinchonidinb Sulfate in 

Alcohol and Other Solvents. 

Gma. per xoo Gms. Solvent. 
Solvent f. rc^H-N^V (C»H«N.0V Authority. 



».^^. '^^.^. 



Ethyl Alcohol (92.3 wt. %) 25 9.8 (10) 0.85 (1.4) (Schaefer, 19x3; U. S. P.) 

" " ** 60 ...(19.2) ... (3.1) (U.S. P.) 

Methyl Alcohol 25 83.9 35.9 (Schaefer, 1913; U. S. P.) 

Chloroform 25 0.66 (z. 45) o.z (o.zz) (Schaefer. 19x3; U. S. P.) 

Ether 25 Q.04 0.02 (U.S. P.) 

Glycerol Z5 6.7 

Results for mixtures of alcohol, chloroform and benzene are given by Schaefer, 'l 3. 
Very carefully determined data for the solubility of Cinchonine in ethyl alco- 
hol, methyl alcohol, amyl alcohol and acetone solutions of various concentra- 
tions of a large number of organic acids and of phenols are given by Sill, 1905. 

CINNAMIC ACm C«H|CH:CH.C(X)H. 

100 gms. H2O dissolve 0.0495 gm. C«H»CH iCHCOOH at 25*. (De Jong, 1909.) 
100 gms. HiO dissolve 0.0607 gm. CeH»CH :CHCCX)H at 25*. (Sidgwick. X910.) 
100 cc. 0.5 n sodium cinnamate solution dissolve 0.155 gm. QHiCH :CHCOOH 

at 25^ (Sidgwick. 19x0.) 

100 CC. sat. sol. in petroleum ether (b. pt. 30^-70®) contain 0.095 gm. CeHiCH : 
CH.C(X)H at 26^ 

100 cc. sat. sol. in carbon tetrachloride contain 2.172 gms. CtHiCHiCH.COOH 
at 26^. (De Jong. 1909.) 

100 cc. sat. sol. in 95% formic acid contain 3.76 gms. C«HiCH:CH.COOH at 20^. 

(Aschan. 19x3.) 

Solubility of Cinnamic Acid (Melting point, 133®) in Alcohols. (T!niofeiew.x894) 

Gma. Cinnamic Acid per xoo Gms. Sat. Solution in: 

r.. , • . 

CH/)H. CiHiOH. CHtOH. (CH^,CH.CH|0H. 

— 18 8.1 6.74 4.3 

-12.5 9.3 8 5.5 

o 13 II. 3 8.2 

+ 19.5 22.5 18. 1 13.4 8.6 

Solubility of Cinnamic Acid in Organic Solvents at 25^. CHeizand Rathmann. 19x3.) 

Gms .C|jig 
Gms. C^CH: Solvent. Gms. C»H«CH: Solvent CH:CH- 

Solvent. CHC(^««; u^p. ' rn ' CHC&l ger . ^^^ " ' „^^ COOH 
xoo cc. Sat. Sol. ^**t.J| v^CU xooccSat.Sol.(>iH<-^ C|HCU per xoo cc 

Sat. SoL 
Chloroform 12.09 ^oo cc.+ o cc. Z2.09 zoo cc.+ o cc. 6.04 

Carbontetrachloride z.75 80 "+20 " 9.86 80 "+20 " 5.9Z 
Trichlorethylene 6.04 50 "+50 " 6.6z 50 "+50 ** 5.85 
Tetrachlorethylene 2.55 333 "+66.6" 4.50 33.3 "+66.6" 5.8a 
Tetrachlorethane zi.05 20 " -j- 80 " 3.32 20 "+80 " 5.70 
Pentachlorethane 5.54 o " +100 " 1.75 o " -j-zoo " 5.54 



353 CniNAMIC ACID 

OIHHAMIO AOID C«H5CH:CH.C00H. 

Solubility op Cinnamic Acid in Aqueous Solutions op Sodium 
acbtatb, butyrate, formate, and salicylate at 26.4**. 

(Philip — J Chem. Soc.87f o^a, '05.) 

Calculated from the original results, which are given in terms of 
molecular quantities per liter. 

Gms NaSalt Gms. C«HgCH:CH.COOH per liter in Solutiona of; 



per Liter. 


CHaCOONa. 


CiHrCOONa. 


HCOONa. C«H«.OH.COONa. 





0.56 


0.56 


0.56 0.56 


I 


I SO 


1.30 


092 0.62 


2 


2.12 


1.85 


1. 12 0.70 


3 


2.52 


2.25 


1.27 0.73 


4 


2.85 


2.60 


1.40 0.77 


5 


3 OS 


2.90 


1.47 0.80 


8 


• • • 


• • • 


... O-QO 


z liter of aqueous solution contains 


0.491 gm. C<^,CH:CH.COOH 


at 25^ (Paxil). 






, 





Grams per 


Liter. 


'CaH«CHsNIis. 


C6UfiCH:CHCOOH.' 









0.49 


I 






I 52 


2 






2.20 


3 






2.83 


4 






3-35 
3.80 



Solubility op Cinnamic Acid in Aqueous Solutions op Anilin 

AND OP Para Toluidin at 25®. 

(Loiwenherz — Z. physik. Chem. as* 304, '98.) 

Original results in terms of molecular quantities per liter. 

In Aqueous Anilin. In Aqueous p Toluidin. 

Grams per liter. 
£ANH» QgOsCHzCHCOOHl 

o 0.49 

Z Z.20 

2 Z.65 

3 2.02 

4 2-35 
6 2.92 

Treezin^-pc^t data for mtxtures of cinnamic acid and dimethylpyrone and 
for hydrocinnamic acid and dimethylpyrone are given by Kendall, 1914. 

BromoCINNAMIC ACIDS. 

Solubility op a and op fi Bromocinnamic Acids in Water at 25^ 

(Paul, X894.) 

. . . For xooo cc. Sat. SolutioiL 

Add. 

aCaftCHiCBrCOOH 
/SCeUCBnCHCOOH 

Solubility op a Iso Bromocinnamic Aero in Aqueous Solutions op 
OxANiLic Aero (Melting point =- 120*) at 25^ 

(Noyes, 1890.) 

Normali ty oi Solutions. Grams pjcr Liter. 

C|H«NHCO- C,H»CH-, 

COOH. CBrCOOH. 

o 3.99s 

4. 54 3178 

8.65 2.928 



' Cms. 

3 9325 

0.5255 


MilKmnb. 
17.32 
2-315 



CH.NHCO. 
COOH. 


CH,CH- 
CBtOOOH. 





0.0176 


0.027s 


0.0140 


0.0524 


0.0129 



CINNAMIC ACIDS 



254 



Alio CINNAMIC ACIDS (Unstable Isomers of Cinnamic Acid). 

Solubility of Each of the Three Isomeric Allocinnamic Acids and of 

THE Melts of the Three Isomers in Water. 



Results for: 

Allocinnamic Acid 
of M. pt. 68^ 



(Meyer, 191 1.) 

Allocinnamic Acid Allocinnamic Acid 
of M. pt. 58**. of M. pt. 42^ 

(Natund iffft^nnamii' Add.) (Artifidal laocumaxnic Add.) 



Melted Allocin- 
namic Acid. 



18 

35 
45 
55 



Gms. Add 
per Liter. 

6.88 

8.4s 
II. 14 
14.46 

18.4s 



18 

25 

35 
45 



Gms. Add 
per Liter. 

7.62 

9-37 

12.39 
16.09 



f. 
18 
25 

35 



Gms. Add 
per Liter. 

8-95 
11.03 

14.61 



f. 
18 

25 
35 
45 
55 
65 
75 



Gms. Add 
per Liter 

13 63 

14.44 

16.05 

18. II 

20.55 

23-43 
27.69 



These curves intersect that for the melted acid at the 
melting points of the solid isomers. 

The results show that the three isomers are polymorphic modifications of the 
CIS acid. 

100 gms. ligroln (b. pt. 60-70^) dissolve more than 16 gms. isocinnamic acid. 

(Liebemuum, 1903.) 

100 gms. ligroln (b. pt. 60-70^) dissolve approx. 2 gms. allocinnamic acid. " 
Solubility of a Chlorocinnamic Acid, Etc., in Benzene. 

(Stoermer and Heymann, 19x3.) 











Gms. 








Gms. 


Name of Compound. 


M.pt. 


f. 


Cmpd. per 
100 Gms. 


Name of Compound. 


M.pt. 


AM Cmpd. per 
• • 100 Gms. 


a Chlor- 1 




137 


20 


2.6 


fi Brom- 




13s 


13 1.58 


AUoa " 




III 


21 


II 


AUo /? " 


• 


159. 5 


14 0.86 


a Biom- 
AUoa " 
fi Chlor- 


cin- 
namic 
Add 


131 
120 

142 


20 

18. 

17 


S.17 
S 6.9 

1.94 


cis Dichlor- 
trans " 
cis Dibiom- 


on- 

namic 

Acid 


121 

lOI 

100 


13 6.1 

14 21.2 
14 26.9 


AUo/3 " 




132 


16 


3.17 


trans " 




136 


14 10.6 



Freezing-point Data (Solubility, see footnote, p. i) for Mixtures of Cin- 
namic Acid and Other Compounds, and op Cinnamic Acid Derivatives 
AND Other Compounds. 

Cinnamic Acid -f- Phenylpropionic Acid (Bnmi and Gomi, 1899.) 

p Methoxycinnamic Acid -|- Hydroquinone (de Kodc, 1904.) 

a Monochlorcinnamic Aldehyde + a Monobromdnnamic Aldehyde (KOster, 1891.) 
Cinnamylidine -h Diphenylbutadiene (Pascal, 1914.) 

4- Diphenyldiacetylene " 



II 



CITBIC ACm (CH,)aCOH(COOH)..H,0. 

Solubility of Hydrated and of Anhydrous Citric Acid, Determined 
Separately, in Aqueous Solutions 'of Ethyl Alcohol at 25**. 

(Sddell, 1910.) 

Results for Hydrated Citric Acid. Results for Anhydrous Citric Acid. 






1. 311 


67.5 


20 


1.297 


62.3 


20 


1.286 


66 


40 


1.246 


59 


40 


I 257 


64.3 


60 


1. 190 


54.8 


50 


1.237 


63 -3 


70 


1. 160 


52.2 


60 


1. 216 


62 


80 


1. 120 


48.5 


70 


1. 192 


60. 8* 


90 


1.065 


43-7 


80 


1. 163 


58.1* 


100 


1. 010 


38.3 


90 


1. 125 


54-7* 








100 


1.068 


49.8* 


* Solid phase dehydrated moce oc 


leas completdy. 



Amjd Acetate of *,-o.87so 


0,8917 


,, 


Amy! Alcohol of .(,-0.8170 


0.8774 




Ethyl Acetate of dn— 0.8915 


0.9175 




Ether (abs.) of dB-0.7110 


o.7"8 




Chlorof<mDof da"!. 476 


I -4850 





355 CITBIG ACm 

Scx.UBU.mr of Hvdratbd and of Anbvdsous Citbic Acid, Deterioned 
Separately, in Sbvebal Organic Acids at 35°. (Sddeii. 1910.) 
Results for Hydrated Citric Acid. Results for Anhydrous Citric Add. 

9S0 AmylAcetate 0.S861 4.33 
430 Ether (aba.) 0.7160 1.05 
176 Chloroform 1.48S0 o 
174 Crfl,, CS, 

007 CO, or CiHtCH, ... o 

100 gms. 95% formic add dissolve 12.35 S'""' citric acid at 30°. (Aochu, 1913.) 
lOOgms. (^chiorethylene dissolve o.OosgjD. citricaddatis". CWeiicr&Btiiiiu,'i4J 
'^ trichlorethylene " 0.012 " " " " '' . " 
" methyl alcohol " 197 gtaa. " " " 10°. Crbno^cinr, 1914.) 

" propyl alcohol " 62.8 " " " " . " 

DiSTKiBunON OF Citbic Acid between Water and Ether. (Knunr, 191s.) 
Results at 15°. , Results at 25.5*. 

Hob. Citric Acid per Liter. ^. Mob. Otric Acid pa liut. ^ 

laSfiLtya. InSttKrUyct. ""■ ""' InH,OUyer. In Ether Larct. """*'■ 

0.903 0.0077 ^^7 ^'9^75 0.0063 tI4 

0.460 0.0036 138 0.481 0,0031 155 

0.130 0.0017 1^9 0.341 0.00155 15s 

. 297 . 0033 1 39 0.315 . 0080 158 

COBALT AHIN18. 

Solubility in Water at Ordinary Temperatttre. (Ui De, 1917) 

Cnw. Ikmb- 
Nvne ol iHineride. Fonnuk. eiide per 

HUrSkt-SoL 
Triamine Cobalt Nitrate [(NH,),CoCNOi).] a. 883 

i.a Dinhrotetraamine oobaltitaranitrodi- f- CN0.)i1'_r„ (NOO,"]' ^ 

amine cobaltiate L (NH,)J L (N^jJ ^ 

1.6 Dinitrotetraamine cobaltitetrajijtrodi- 

amine cobaltiate " " 0.39S 

Hcia-Bimne cobaltihexaiutrooob&ltiate [Co(NHi)«]>ii— [Co[NOi)i]ni o.oais 

COBALT DOUBLI 8ALT8. 

Solubility in Water. 

sn — J.pr.Chmn.W iS,»],'78i i!»,4^'7o; Knmnkoa— J. nui. phji. cheia. Gca. 14, A*g, 



Chloro purpureo cobaltic bromide 
Bromo purpureo cobaltic bromide 
Chloro tetra amine cobaltic chloride 
Chloro purpureo cobaltic chloride 
Chloro purpureo cobaltic chloride 
Chloro purpureo cobaltic chloride 
Luteo cobaltic chloride 
Luteo cobaltic chloride 
Roseo cobaltic chloride 
Roseo cobaltic chloride 
Chloro purpureo cobaltic iodide 
Chloro purpureo cobaltic nitrate 
Chloro purpureo cobaltic sulphate 
Nitrato purpureo cobaltic nitrate 



143 


0-467 


16 


0.19 




"■SO 





0.33" 


IS5 


0.41 


466 


1.03 





4.J6 


46.6 


"74 





16. la 


16. a 


a4.87 


19.1 


a.o 


■S 


las 


173 


0.75 


16 


0-36 



COBALT AGITATI 256 

COBALT ACETATI Co(CH,C(X))s. 

100 cc. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve i gm. cobalt acetate with evolution of 
gas at room temp. (Wdsh and Biodenon, 1915.) 

COBALT BROBODE CoBri. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Etaid, X894.) 
t*. 59*. 7S*. 97*. 

Gms. CoBfs per 100 gms. solution 66 7 66.8 68.1 (blue) 

100 gms. methyl acetate (du *- 0.935) dissolve 10.3 gms. CoBri at i8^ 
duoi sat. solution >■ I.013. (Naunuum, z9o9-) 

COBALT CHLORATE Co(C10i)t. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Meuaaeii 1902.) 
Gms. Mob. Gms. Mols. 

(^m, SoKdPhMe. f. Co(a(W, C«(m Solid Phue. 
per zoo per zoo u-ms. per zoo 

M<^. H|0. Solution. Mdls. H|0. 

3.41 loe 18 64.19 14.28 CoCaO^t^H^ 

9.08 Co(CKW«.6H^ 21 64.39 1451 " 

9.20 " 35 67.09 16.10 " 

10.7s " 47 69.66 18.29 " 

12.90 •• 61 76.12 25.39 • 

Density of solution saturated at 18^ » 1.861. 

COBALT PerCHLORATE Co(C104)s.9H,0. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Goldblum and Terlikowaki, z9Z3.) 
Gms. Gms. 



f. 


Co<aa)i 

per zoo Gms. 




Solution. 


— 12 


29.97 


— 21 


53.30 


-19 


S3 61 





57.45 


10. s 


61.83 



r. 


Co(C10^, 

per 100 

Gms.H^. 


Solid Phase. 


f. 


gSl3.^^S^' SolidlW 
Gms. H|0. 


—10.9 


32.67 


loe 





1.564 100 OKPO^rSBfi 


-30.7 


58.16 


« 


7-5 


1.566 101.9 " 


~62.3£utec 


• • • 


Ioe+Co<a04)..9H^ 


18 


1.567 103 -8 •• 


-30.7 


83.2 


Co(a04),.9HdO 


36 


1. 581 113. 4 * 


— ai.3 


90.6 


M 


45 


1.588 115 S 



COBALT CHLORIDE Cu^u. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Etaxd — Compt. rend. 1x3, 699, 'pz; Ann. chim. phys. [7] a» 537, '94.) 

Gms. 
Solid ^o CoOjiper SoUd 

Phase. * * 100 Gms. Phase. 

Solution. 

Coa,.6H,0 (red) 35 38.0 CoCl,.BLO (violet) 
" 40 41.0 " 

SO 470 



t*. 


Oms. 
CoCUper 
zoo Gms. 
Solutioa. 


— 10 


27.0 





295 


+ 10 


315 


20 


33-5 


25 


345 


30 


35-5 



it 



60 47-5 Coa,.ILO (blue) 
80 40. «; ^' 



49.5 
" 100 51.0 " 

Solubility op Cobalt Ammonium Chlorides in Water. 

(Kumakoff — J. russ. phys. chem. Gcs. 34* 629. '93; J. Chcm. Soc. 64, ii. 509, '93.) 
g. Grama per 100 Grama HiO at: 

ST 16.9*. 46!?. 

CoCl,.sNH, 0.232 ... 1. 031 

CoCV5NI^.H,0 16.12 24.87 
CoC^.6NH, 4.26 ... 12.74 



257 



COBALT CHLOBZDS 



Solubility op Cobalt Chloride in Aqueous Hydrochloric 

Acid Solutions at o®. 

(Engd — Ann. cbim. phys. [6] 7> 355« '89O 



imUgram Mob. 
per 10 cc. SoL^ 

KoClt. 



62.4 

58.52 
50.8 

37 25 
12.85 

.4.75 

12 .0 

25 O 



HO. 
O 

3-7 

"•45 
25.2 

55 o 

74. 75 

104 -5 
139.0 



Sp. Gr. of 
Soltttioos. 



I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 



343 
328 
299 
248 
167 

150 
229 

323 



Gxns. per 100 Gms. 
Solutiop. 

CoQi. HO*. 

30.17 0.00 

28.62 0.102 

25 -39 0.321 
19 -43 0738 

7,15 I. 718 

2.68 2.369 

^♦34 3099 
12.27 3-829 



Gms. per xoo cc. 
Sdu rion. 

CoCla. 
40.5 



38.0 
33 o 
24.2 

8.34 
308 

7.79 
16.24 



HQ, 
O 

0.135 
0.417 
0.919 

2.00 
2.72 
3.81 

5 07 



Solubility 09 Cobalt Chloride in Aqueous Alcohol 

AT II. 5^ 
(Bfidtker^Z. phyaik. Chem. aa* 509. '97.) 

10 gms. of CoClt.6HaO were added to 20 cc. of alcohol and in addition 
the amounts of CoCU shown in the second column. The solutions were 
shaken 2 hours, 5 cc. withdrawn, and the amotmt of dissolved CoCls 
determined by evaporation and weighing. 



Vol.% Gutt. CoCU Gi M.pcr5cc.Solqd on 



Akohol 

91 -3 

98.3 
98.3 

99-3 
99-3 
99.3 



Added 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.194 
0.400 



So7 

1-325 
1 .134 
1.068 

I 045 
0.899 

0.829 



Coat. 
1. 168 

1. 214 

1. 181 

1. 199 

1.204 

1.325 



Vol. % Gms. Cods 
Alcdiol. Added. 



99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 



3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



0.612 
0.813 
1.022 
1.240 
1.446 
1.650 



Gmfl. pe rscc.Sol. 
HjO. 



0.764 
0.688 
0.634 

0.553 
0.483 
0.500 



Coda. 

1.459 
1.568 

1.713 
1.831 

1-943 
2.183 



ICO gms. sat. solution in alcohol (0.792 Sp. Gr.) contain 23.66 gms. 

CoQ«» St). Gr. » I.OIO7. OK^nkler — J.pr.Chein.oi«M7,'64^ 



Solubility op Cobalt Chloride in Organic S(x.vbnts. 



Sotvent. 


f. 


' CoOt. C0CI1.2H/). 


Authority. 


Acetcme 





9. II 17.16 




(( 


22.5 


9.28 17.06 




u 


25 


8.62 


(Krug and McEIioy, 1893.) 


u 


18 


2.75 


(Naumanni 1904.) 


Ethyl Acetate 


14 


0.08 




u u 


79 


0.26 


M 


Ether, Abs. 


• . • 


0.021 0.291 


(Bfidtker, 1897.) 


Glycol 


. * • 


io.7(perioog.sol.) 


(de Conmckp 1905.) 


Acetonitrile 


18 


4.08 


(Naunuton and Scfaier, X914O 


Methyl Acetate 


18 


0.369* 


(Namnann, 1909^ 


95% Formic Add 


20.S 


6.2 


(Aichan, 19x3.) 


Anhy. Hydrazine 


±15 

1 


I 

* ^ flat sol. *- a938. 


(Wdih and Bxodenoo, X9XS) 



COBALT CHLOBIDS 258 

Solubility of Cobalt Chloride in Pyridinb. 

(Pearce and Moore, 19x3.) 

*• nE^JrifSi Solid 4. ^'J^& Solid 4. nS??«rS Solid 

—48.2 O C|H»N 34.6 0.749 i^ 74.8 2.037 x.a 

— 50.3 EutCC ... "+ X.6 37.6 0.754 •* 78.2 2.276 " 

—45 0.4185 x.6 44.6 0.950 *' 79.8 2.428 ** 

—30 0.4205 " 47.2 1.020 •« 88 3.284 •• 

— 19.6 0.4208 ** 51 i.iio « 90tr.pt. ... ••+C0CI1 

— 10 0.4310 " 55 1192 " 965 7251 CoCW 

o 0.4307 * 60 1.324 " 98.8 7936 ** 

15tr.pt. ... X.6+X.4 64.2 1.460 " 106 12.540 " 

23 0.569 X.4 68 1.572 " no 14.165 " 

25 0.575 " 70tr.pt... " +x.a 

1.6 = CoCl,.6CiH»N. 1.4 - CoCli.4CiH6N. 1.2 -,CoCli.2C|H*N. 
COBALT CITRATES- solubility in Water. 

(Pickering, 19x5.) 

&ns. per xoo oc. Sat. SoL 
Salt. Formula. t*. ^o^ Salt 

(anhydrous). 

Cobalt atrate (normal) Coi[(COO.CH»)»C(OH)COO],.2H|0 10 0.08 0.267 

Cobalt Hydrogen Citrate CoH[(COO.CHa)jC(OH)COO] 10 0.20 0.906 

Cobalt Potassium Citrate KCo[(COO.CH2)»C(OH)COO].4HiO 10 1.05 5. 11 

Cobalt Potassium Citrate K4Co[(COO.CHi)iC(OH)C(X)li 10 3.04 31 

COBALT FLUORIDE CoF2.4H^. 

100 gms. sat. solution in water contain 2.23 gms. of cobalt fluoride of a variety. 

100 gms. sat. solution in water contain 2.32 gms. of cobalt fluoride of fi variety. 

(C^ostacheacu, x9xo0 

OOBALT lODATB Co(IO,),. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Meuaaer — Ber. 34* 3435, 'ox.) 
Solid Phaae: 

Co(IOi)».aHiO. CoClOth' 



t\ 


Co(IO|) 


94HsO. 




' G. 


M. 





054 


0.028 


18 


0.83 


0.038 


30 


1.03 


0.046 


so 


1.46 


0.065 


60 


1.86 


0.084 


6S 


2.17 


0.098 


75 


• • . 


... 


100 


. • • 


• • . 



G. 


M. 


'g. 


u. 


032 


0.014 


• « • 


■ • • 


0.45 


0.020 


I 03 


0.046 


0.52 


0023 


0.89 


0.040 


0.67 

. . • 


0.030 

« • • 


0.8s 

• • • 


0.030 

• • • 


• . ■ 
0.84 


• • • 

0.038 


■ • • 

0-7S 


... 
0033 


1.02 


0045 


0.69 


0.031 



G a Gms. Co(IOs)t per loo gms. solution. M » Mols. Co(IOa>a 
per too Mols. H2O. 

OOBALT IODIDE Col,. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Etaxd — Compt. rend, xxa* 699. '9X; Aim. chim. phya. [7] a^ SSTt ^M^ 

The accuracy of these results is doubtftd. 





Gms. Coll 






Gms. Cola 




t*. 


perxoo Gmy. 
Solutioiii. 


Solid Phaae. 


f. 


periooGma. 
Solution. 


SoUdPhaM. 


-10 


55 S 


CoI,.H,0 (green) 


25 


<57-5 


CoI,.H,0 (oUve) 





58.0 


« 


30 


70. 


(( 


10 


61.5 


u 


40 


75 


CoI,.H30 (yello? 


15 


63.2 


tt 


50 


79.0 


« 


20 


65.2 


u 


80 


80.0 


a 


«s 


67 


u 


no 


81.0 


M 



259 



COBALT MALATK 



COBALT MALATI Co(C00.CHi.CH0HC00).2Hi0. 

100 cc. sat. solution in water contain 0.14 gm. Co « 0.453 S^* anhydrous salt 



at 10'. 
COBALT MAL0NATI8. 

S(H.UBILITT OF COBALT MaLONATBS IN WaTBR. 

(Lord, 1907.) 



(PidLeringp 1915.) 



Sdt. 

Cobalt Malonate 

** Ammonium Malonate 
" Caesium " 

" Potassium " 



Fonniila. t^. 

CoCHt(COO)s.2HiO 18 

Co(NH4),lCHa(COO),l,.4BM) 18 

CoCsi[CHa(COO)sl,.4HtO 18 

CoK«(CHt(C(X))ili4HiO x8 



Gnu. Aslbiy* 
diousSalt 
periooGms. 
Sat. SoL 

1-353 
10.61 

14.23 
4.36 



per 100 Gms. 
SolutioQ. 



OOBALT HITBATB Co(NO,),. 

Solubility 

(Funk — WiiB. Afah. p. t. 
Gum. Mols. 

CoQfO^i CoCSOuh SoUd Phjue. 
per xoo 

6.40 Co(NQi)i.9HiO 

7-35 
6.98 

7.64 

7 99 

8.26 
9.71 



IN Water. 

RaduusUlt 3* 430, '00.) 

Gms. 
^o Co(NC^ 



* per xoo Gms. 
Sotation. 



Solid FhM 



-26 
-20.5 

— 21 

— 10 

— 4 
O 

+ 18 



39-45 
42.77 

41.55 

43.^ 
44-85 

45.66 
49 73 



Co(NOfe)s^6HiO 



41 

55 
62 

70 

84 

91 



Density of solution satttrated at z8^ 



55 96 
62.88 

61.74 

62.88 

64.89 

68.84 

77.21 

1-575- 



Mob. 

Q>(NQw 

per xoo 

Mols.HsO. 

12.5 Co(NQ0>4SHflO 



16.7 
15.8 
16.7 
18.2 
21.7 

33-3 



Co(NO»)s.sHiO 



SoLUBiLrnr of Cobalt Nitratb in Glycol. 

(de Coninck, X905.) 

100 grams saturated solution contain 80 gms. cobalt nitrate. 

COBALT RUBmiUM NTTBITB RbiCo(NOi)6.HA 

100 gms. H^ dissolve 0.005 Rin. of the salt. (Rosenbbtdt, x886.) 

COBALT OXALATE Co(COO)i. 

100 gms. 95% formic acid dissolve 0.04 gm. Co(COO)t at 19.8^ (Aacfaan, 19x3.) 

COBALT SULTATK CoS04.7H^. 

Solubility in Water. 



f. 

o 

5 
10 

IS 

20 

25 
30 



(Mulder; Tobler, 1855; Koppd, Wetsd, 1905.) 

Gms. C0SO4 per ^ 

xoo G ms. Der xoo ' t*. 

Solution. 



20.3s 
21.90 

23.40 

24.83 
26.58 
28.24 
29.70 



Water. 

25. SS 

28.03 
30.55 

33 05 
36.21 

39-37 
42.26 



Mols.CoSO|. 

per xoo 
Mob.H|0 



Gms.CoS04per 
xoo Gms. 



2 

3 
3 
3 
4 

4 
4 



958 

251 
540 

831 
199 

560 
903 



35 
40 

50 
60 

70 

80 

100 



Solution. 
31-40 
32.81 

35-56 

37.65 
39.66 

41.18 
45.35 



Water. 
45.80 

48.85 

55.2 

60.4 

65.7 
70 

83 . 



Mols.CoSOb 

per 100 
Mols.H^. 

5.31 
5.664 



100 gms. HsO dissolve 37.8 gms. C0SO4 at 25* 



Freezing-point data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) for mixtures of C0SO4 4- 
Li|S04, C0SO4 + KiSOiand C0SO4 + NaiS04'are given by 



(1913)- 



(Wagner, igxa) 
of C0SO4 + 

Calceigni and Marotta 



COBALT SULFATE 



260 



Solubility op Mixtures op CoS04.7H,0 and Na,S04.ioH/) 

IN Water. 



o 

5 
10 

20 

25 

30 

35 
40 

18.5 

20 

25 
30 

35 
40 

18.5 

20 

25 
30 

35 
40 



Gmfl. 
100 Gms. 



ution. 



(Koppd; Wetsd.) 

Gms. per Mob. 

100 Gms. HsO. xoo Mols. 



Co.SO«. 


Na^SO«. 


C0SO4. Na» 


16.56 


7 63 


21.85 10. 


17 


.46 


9 


59 


^3 


94 13- 


17 


90 


II 


73 


25 


.41 16. 


17 


59 


16 


43 


26 


.65 24- 


17 


06 


15 


70 


2$ 


36 ^3' 


15 


94 


14 


93 


^3 


15 21. 


IS 


73 


14 


52 


22 


54 20. 


14 


87 


14. 


22 


20. 


98 20. 


18. 


75 


IS 


61 


28. 


61 23. 


19. 


30 


IS 


10 


29. 


42 23. 


20 


30 


13 


60 


30 


74 20. 


21 


67 


12. 


05 


32 


70 18. 


22 


76 


10. 


43 


34 


06 15. 


24 


OS 


9 


.16 


35 


01 13. 


16 


87 


16. 


97 


25- 


SO 25. 


15 


41 


18. 


12 


23 


18 27. 


10 


63 


23 


26 


i6. 


07 35- 


6. 


01 


28. 


67 


9 


20 43- 


4 


56 


32 


14 


7- 


19 50. 


4 


72 


31 


78 


7 


45 50. 



07 

IS 

67 

91 
32 
61 

8s 

OS 
82 

01 

58 

17 
61 

72 

6S 
26 

17 
74 

79 
10 



SSo. 



C0SO4. 

^•54 
2.77 

2.94 

3 09 

2.95 
2.70 

2.62 

2.46 

3-3^ 
3 41 
3 56 
3-79 

3-95 
4.81 

2-. 96 
2.69 

1.86 
1. 07 

0.835 
0.864 



NaiS04. 
1.27 
1.67 
2. II 

315 
2.97 

2.74 
2.64 

2-53 
3 02 

2.92 

2.61 



30 

98 

74 

25 

45 
4.46 

5 54 
6.44 
6.34 



3 
3 



Solid Phase. 

C0SO4.7HJO + 
NaaS04.ioH^ 



CoNat(S04)s.4H^ 



K 



U 

CoNai(S04)t.4HiO 
+ CoS04.7HiO 

u 
«( 

M 
it 



CoNaflCSOJt^HiO 

+Na^SO4.ioH40 
«« 



CoNat(S04)t.4H«0 
+NaaS04 

M 



Solubility op Cobalt Sulphate in Metkyl and Ethyl Alcohol 

AND IN Glycol. 



Sotveot. 


Gma. 
to. 


per xoo Gms. 
Sdvent. 


K 


OuSCl'VU. 




C0SO4. 


CoS04.7H«C 


. 


Methyl Alcohol (abs.) 


3 •• 


42.8 


(deBniyft— Z. phyaik.Ch. zo^ 784, 'psO 


tl it 
u tt 

(93.5%) 
(50%) 

Ethyl Alcohol (abs.) 


15 ... 
18 I .04 

3 ••• 
3 • • 
3 ••• 


50.9 
54.5 

^3-3 
1.8 

2.5 




•i 

M 
M 
i4 
M 


Glycol 


. .(per 100 gms. 
solution) 3.1 


(deConmck— 
3Sg. '05.) 


' Boll. acad. roy . Bdgique, 



COBALT SX7LFIDK CoS. 

One liter water dissolves 0.00379 gm. CoS at 18^ (electrolytic conductivity 
method, assuming complete dissociation and hydrolysis). (Wdgd, 1906.) 



36l 



COCAIME 



COCAINK CnHaNOi. 



SOLUBILITT IN SEVERAL SOLVENTS. 







Gms. Cn%NOi 
per xoo Gms. 




Sdvent. 


f. 


Autbonty. 






Solvent. 




Water 


20 


0.028 


(ZaUu, 1910.) 


« 


±20 


0.140 


(Baroni and Bariinetti. zQzzO 


l€ 


as 


0.17 


(U. S. PO 


a 


80 


0.38 


« 


3 0ms. H<BOk in Ag. 50% Glycerol 


±20 


8 


(Buoni and BarBnetti, 191ZO 


Alcohol (92.5 Wt %) 


25 


20 


(U. S. P.) 


Ether 


25 


26.3 


i( 


(( 


18-22 


ZI.6 


(Mailer, 19013.) 


Ether sat. with U/) 


z8-22 


34 


u 


Water sat. with Ether 


18-22 


0.254 


M 


Aniline 


20 


76 


(Scfaokz, 191a.) 


Carbon Tetrachloride 


20 


31 -94 


(Gori. 1913.) 


Chloroform 


18-22 


100 -f 


(Mailer, 1909.) 


Benzene 


18-22 


100 


II 


Ethyl Acetate 


18-22 


59 


<• 


Petroleum Ether 


18-22 


2.37 


u 


Pyridine 


20-25 


80+ 


(Dehn, 1917; Scbdts, 19x9.) 


Piperidine 


20 


56 


(Scholtz, 191a.) 


nipthyl^LfniTM 


20 


36 
4. 34* 


u 


SeaeimeOil 


20 


(Zalai, 19x0.) 


Olive Oil 


25 


8.3 


(U. S. P.) 


Oil of Turpentine 


25 


7.1 


u 




• Per 100 cc. 




COCAINK HTDROCHLOBIDS 


CnHa 


NO4.HC!. 





100 gms. HiO dissolve 250 gms. of the salt at 25^ and 1000 gms. at 80^. (U. S. P.) 

100 gms. 92.3% alcohol dissolve 38 gms. salt at 25^ and 71 gms. at 6o^ (U. S. P.) 

100 gms. chloroform dissolve 5.4 gms. salt at 25**. (U. S. P.) 

100 gms. glycerol dissolve 25 gnis. salt at 15^. (B.P.) 

COCAINS PEBCHLORATE C17HS1NO4.HCIO4. 

100 gms. HsO (containing 8% free HCIO4} dissolve 0.26 gm. perchlorate at 6^. 

(Hofmann, Roth, Hdbold and Metzler, 19x0} 

CODEINE Ci8HsiN0|.H,0. 

CODEINE PHOSPHATE Ci8HtiNOs.H,P04.2HiO. 

CODEINE SULFATE (CisHnNOs)i.H,S04.5H,0. 

Solubility of Each Separately in Several Solvents. 

Gms. per zoo Gms. Solvent. 



Sdvent. 



Water 

Alcohol (92.3 Wt %) 
« (I 

Methyl Alcohol 

Chloroform 

Carbon Tetrachloride 

Ether 

Benzene 

Trichlorethylene 

3 Gms. H«B(^ per 100 cc. 

aq. 50% Glycerol ord. t. 



f. 


Codeine. 


C. Phos- 
phate. 


C. ' 
Sulfate. 


Authority. 


25 


0.80-1.7 


44.9 


3-3 


(U. S. P.; Baroni and Barlinetto, 


20 


0.84 


• • • 


• • ■ 


(Zalai. 1910.) [19x1.) 


80 


1.70 


227 


16 


(U. S. P.) 


25 


637 


0.383 


O.I 


(Schaeffer, 1913; U. S. P.) 


60 


108.7 


1.03 


0.27 


(U. S. P.) 


25 


62.8 


• • • 


0.56 


(Schaeffer, X9Z3.) 


25 


133-151 


0.015 


0.007 (Schaeffer, U. S. P.) 


20 


2.94-1.33 


• • • 


• • • 


((jori. 19x3; Beilfltein, SoppL) 


25 


8 


0.075 


• • • • 


(U. S. P.) 


25 


II. 4 


• • • 


Insol. 


(Schaeffer, 19x3.) 


15 


12 


• • • 


• ■ • 


(Wester and Bruins, 19x4.) 



4 ... ... (Baroni and Barlinetto, I9xx0 

100 gms. trichlorethylene dissolve 0.014 gm. codeine hydrochloride at 15^. 

(Wester and Bruins, 19x4.) 

Data for the solubility of codeine and codeine sulfate in mixtures of alcohote, 
benzene and chloroform are given by Schae£Fer (1913). 



COLCHICINI 



26a 



COLCHICINI 



Solveiit. 



Water 
« 

Ether 
« 



C«H,NO.. 

Solubility in Several Sch^vemts. 

(MQller. 1903; U. S. P.) 

Cms. 
CalWiO, 
per 100 Gms. 
Solvent. 

9.6 
45 

13 -7* 



r. 



Solvent. 



sat. with HiO 



18-22 

80 

82 

18-22 

as 

18-22 



0.13 
0.64 
0.18 



Water sat. with Ether 

Benzene 

Benzene 

Chloroform 

Carbon Tetrachloride 

Ethyl Acetate 

Petroleum Ether 



r. 

x8-22 
18-22 

25 
18-22 

18-22 

18-22 

x8-22 



Gm. 

CsHaNOb 

per 100 Gms. 

Solvent 

12.05 
0.94 

LIS 
100+ 
0.12 

1.34 
0.06 



COLCUiClMS SALTS. 

Name. 



Fonmiku 



r. 



Colchicine lodohydrate CttHiiNOt.HI Water 
Iso Colcnidne lodohydrate " " 

Colchicine Silicotungstate l^^SSSJgP'lAil.xroHa'x's 



30 
30 



Gms. Salt 
per Liter 
Sat. Sol. 
0.84 
3.86 
0.083 
0.007 



Anthflrity. 
(Pfiiml, Z911O 

M 

1913^ 



COLUDINS (24.6 Trimethyl Pyridine) C»HtN(CHt)s. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Rothmund, 1898.) 
Gms. CoOidine per 100 Gms. 



r. 



Aq. Layer. Collidine Layer. 

5.7crit. t. 17.20 



10 
20 

30 
40 

60 



7.82 

3 42 
2.51 

1-93 
1.76 



41.66 

54.92 
62.80 

70.03 

80.19 



r. 

80 
100 
120 
140 
160 
180 



Gms. Collidine per 100 Gm. 
Aq. Layer. Collidine Layer. 



1-73 
1.78 

1.82 

2.19 

2.93 
3 67 



86.12 
88.07 
88.98 
89.10 
87.2 



COLUDINI (1.3.5 Trimethyl Pyridine) CiHtN(CHt)s. 

Distribution between Water and Toluene. 

(Hantzach and Vagt, 190Z.) 

G. Mols. Collidine per Liter. 



G. Mols. Collidine per Liter. 



**• H,0 Uycr. 


Toluene 
Layer. 


^ Dist. Coef. 


HiOUyer 


0.003s 


0.0580 


0.0603 


50 0.0017 


10 0.0026 


0.0587 


0.0443 


70 0.0015 


20 0.0022 


0.0588 


0.0374 


90 0.0013 


30 0.0020 


0.0594 


0.0337 




CONGO RED 


[C6H4.N : N.CioH,(NHi)SO,Na],. 



Toluene 
Layer. 

0.0596 
0.0597 
0.0598 



Dist. Coef. 

0.0285 
0.0251 
0.0218 



(Dehn, 19x7.) 



K 



<l 



100 gms. H»0 dissolve 11.6 gms. congo red at 20®-25*. 

100 gms. pyridine dissolve 0.29 gm. congo red at 20-25^. 

100 gms. aq. 50% pyridine dissolve 7.32 gms. congo red at 20-25^ 

CONIINE (aPropyl Piperidine) CsHkN. 

100 gms. H2O dissolve 1.83 gms. coniine at 20^. 

COPPER ACETATE Cu(C,H«0,),H,0. 

100 jnns. glycerol (du » 1.256 » 96%) dissolve 10 gms. copper acetate at 
I5*-l6^ (Osiendowski. 1907O 



(Zalai. Z9Z0.) 



263 COPPER ACSTATI 

SOLUBILITT OF ANHYDROUS COPPBR ACBTATB IN PYRIDINE. 

(Mathews and Benger, 1914.) 
Giiis.Cu(C|H^O^ Gms.Cu(qHa0^s 



r. 


per 100 Gibs 
SaLSoL 


SoUd Phase. 


t*. 


per 100 Gma. 
Sat. Sol. 


SoUdPhaae. 


~ii.6 


0.37 


CuCCAQOmCJHiN 


45-2 


4.17 


Cu(CHA)s.4QH.N 


+ i 


0.6 


i< 


34-8 


3-75 


Cu(CAOk)t.CAN 


13 


1.03 


<( 


SS-7 


4.13 


M 


26.45 


1. 61 


■i 


64 -3 


4.48 


M 


37-4 


2.83 


u 


76.2 


4.83 


M 


41.9 


312 


M 


83 -3 


S-40 


« 


43-3 


3-39 


« 


95-4 


6.31 


M 



Transition point » 44.7^. 

COPPER ^BROMIDE (ous) CuiBr,. 
Solubility op Cuprous Bromide in Aqueous Solutions of Potassium 

Bromide at i8*-20®. 

(Bodlllnder and Storbeck, 1903.) 
Millunols per Liter. Grains per Liter. 

KBr. Total Cu. Total Br. Cu (ic). Cu (ous). KBr. ToUl Cu. Cu (ic). Cu (ous). 

o 0-3157 0.4320 0.2096 0.1061 o 0.0201 0.0133 0.0067 

25 0.II9 ... 0.012 0.107 2.98 0.0076 0.0007 0.0068 
40 0.200 



60 0.310 

80 0.423 

100 0.584 

120 0.693 

500 8.719 



0.013 0.187 4.76 0.0127 0.0007 O.OII9 

0.025 0.285 7.15 0.0197 0.0015 O.O181 

0.012 O.41I 9.53 0.0266 0.0007 0.0261 

0.584 II. 91 0.0371 ... 0.0371 

0.693 14- 29 0.0441 ... 0.0441 

8.719 59.55 0.5540 ... 0.5540 

100 gms. acetonitrile dissolve 3.86 gms. CuiBri at iS**. * (Naumann and Schier, 1914.) 
Freezing-point lowering data for mixture of CuBr + KBr are given by de 
Cesaris, 191 1. 

COPPER BROMIDE (ic) CuBrt. 

100 gms. acetonitrile dissolve 2^.43 gms. CuBri at 18**. (Naumann and Schier, 1914.) 
ICO gms. 95% formic acid dissolve 0.16 gm. CuBri at 2i^ (Aschan, i9z3-) 

COPPER CARBONATE Basic. 

Solubility in Aqueous COi Solutions at 30®. 

(Free, 1908.) 

Aq. 0.5 n NaaCOi and 0.5 n CuSOi were mixed and the precipitate washed and 
suspendc^d in HsO containing COi at a pressure slightly above atmospheric, for 
3 days. The filtered precipitate was kept in water ready for use. In the fresh 
condition or dried, the molecular ratio ot the constituents was found to be iCuO: 
0.51^ COi: 0.61 H2O. For the solubility determinations, about 2 gms. of the 
preapitate were suspended in 600 cc. of HsO and COt passed in to the desired 
concentration. The mixture was shaken frequently for 3 days. The total COi 
in the sat. solution was determined and the free COi calc. by difference, assuming 
that the amount combined to the Cu was in the molecular ratio 2CuO:iCO|. 

Parts per Million. Parts per Million. 



Free C(V Metallic Co. 


FreeCCH- 


Metallic Cu. 


o=puieHiO i-s 


859 


28 


IS7 8-3 


961 


31 


277 13.7 


1158 


33.7 


348 17 


1224 


34.8 


743 25-7 


1268-1549 


35-3-39-7* 



* Saturated with C0| at x + atmosphere. 

Results practically identical with the above were obtained for a NaCl solu- 
tion contaming 100 parts per million. Data for other concentrations of NaCl 
and for other salts are also given. Salts with a common ion depress the solubil- 
ity. Those with no common ion increase it slightly. A recalculation of the 
results of Free is given by Seyler (1908). 



COPPER CABBONATK 



264 



SoUd Phase. 



Solubility of Mixtures of Copper Carbonate and Potassium 

Carbonate in Water at 25**. 

(Wood and Jones, 1907-^.) 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 3.15 gms. CuCOi + 105 nns. KiCOi at 25^ when the 
solid phase in contact with the solution is CuCOi.KsCOi + KiCOi. 

Additional points on the curves were determined but the analytical data are 
not given. The following approximate values were read from the curve for the 
double salt, CuCO|.KsCOi: 

Gms. per 100 Gms. HfO. 
&,C0|. CuCO,'. 

IDS 3. IS K«CQrfCuCQ8.KaCQ| 

100 3 . 20 CuCQ8.K2COi 

90 3 40 

8s 3.60 

The triple point for double salt + CuCQi could not be determined sinoe 
CuCOs is not capable of existing alone and decomposes into COi + Cu(OH)i. 

COPPER CHLORATE (ic) Cu(C10s),.4H,0. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Meusser, 1962.) 






r. 

—12 

-31 
—21 



Gms. 



Mols.- 



CuCClO^t CuCClOOt Solid Phase, 
per 100 Gms. per 100 MotB. 
Sohitions. H«0. 

30.53 3.43 Ice 

54.59 9.39 Cu(aQi),.4Hd0 

57- 12 10.41 

11.02 



Gms. Mols. 

t*. CuCClO^fl Cii(aCW)| Soli 
per zoo Gms. per 100 McMs. ^ 



Solid Phase. 



.< 



Solutioiis 
18 62.17 

45 66.17 
59.6 69.42 

71 76.9 



+ 0.8 58.51 
Density of solution saturated at 18® » 1.695. 

COPPER CHLORIDE (ic) CuCU.2HsO. 

Solubility 'in Water. 

(Reicher and Deventer,' 1890; se6 also Etaid, X894O 



12.84 CttCao^fAO 
15.28 

17-73 

25.57 -^ 



Gms. CuCU 
t*. per zoo Gms. 
Solution. 


f. 


Gm.1. Cudt 

per xoo Gms. 

Solution. 


r. 


Cms. CaCW 

per xooGiitt. 

Solution. 


—40 Eiitec 36.3 


20 


43. S 


50 


46.6s 


41.4 


2S 


44 


60 


47.7 


10 42.4s 


30 


44-55 


80 


49.8 


17 43-o6 


40 


45-6 


100 


51-9 



Density of solution saturated at o® = 1.5 11, at 17.5® = 1.579. 
100 gms. sat. solution in water contain 43.95 gms. CuCli at 30% solid phase* 
CuCli.2HtO. (Sdireiiiemakers, z^ia) 

COPPER CHLORIDE (ous) CuCl. 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 1.52 gms. CuCl at 25^ (Nom, x9xa.) 

Solubility of Cuprous Chloride in Aqueous Solutions op Hydrochloric 

Acid Containing CuClj at 25®. 

(Poma, 1909, 1910.) 

Results for 2 n HCl. 

Mols. per liter. 



Results for i n HCl. 

M ols. per Liter. 
6aO 



Solid 



mSI CuCW+CuCL Phase. 

O 0.0862 CuQ 

0.1 0.2017 •* 
0.2 0.3256 
0.4 0.5707 
0.5 0.6924 



« 

« 



CuCU 
Added. 



0.094 
0.188 
0235 
0.282 



SoUd 
CuOa+CuCL Phwe- 

0.2365 CuQ 
0.3528 " 
0.4766 •• 

0.538s " 
0.6038 - 



Results for 4 n HQ. 

Mols. lyr Liter. ^^ 
AdS. Cua,+Cua. Ph«. 

o 0.7704 Caa 
0.095 0.9044 " 
0.189 1.0370 " 

0.379 1.3040 • 
0.473 1.4380 « 



365 COPPER CHLORIDK 

SoLUBiLiTT OP Cuprous Chloride in Aqueous Solutions op Hydro- 
chloric Acid. 

(Engel — Ilrid.i6\ z7t 37'» '^\ Compt. xend. lax. 529* '95.) 



BliOignm Mob 


.j)er xocc. Sd. 


Sp. Gr. of 
Solutioos. 


Cms. prr xoo cc. Sol. 


Gma. per xoo Gms. Sol. 


iCuaQa. 


HQ. 


Curf3i. 


hq: 


CiiiOa. 


ho: 


ResalUat< 


)•. 












0-47S 


8.97s 


1.05 


0.471 


0.327 


0.448 


0.312 


i-S 


I7-S 


1. 049 


1.486 


0.638 


1. 418 


0.608 


2.9 


26.0 


1.065 


2.872 


0.948 


2.697 


0.932 


45 


34 S 


1.080 


4.457 


1-257 


4.127 


1. 164 


8.2s 


47.8 


1135 


8.172 


1-743 


7.199 


1-535 


T^S'S 


68.S 


1. 261 


15-7 


2.497 


12.46 


1.980 


33 


104.0 


1-345 


32.68 


3.827 


24.30 


2.845 


Reaoksat 


li'-ifi'. 












7-4 


54.4 


1. 19 


7-33 


1.983 


6.159 


Z.666 


10.8 


68.9 


1.27 


10.69 


2.5x1 


8.422 


1.977 


12.8 


75 


1.29 


12.68 


«-734 


9.826 


2. 119 


16 


92.0 


1.38 


15.84 


3-346 


11.48 


2.424 


Solubility op Cupric Chloride 


« • 
IN Aqueous Solutions op Hydro- 






chloric 


Acid AT o^ 








(Engel ~- Ann. cfaim. iihys. [6] 


17. 351. '89.) 






MOSgFam Mob 


. per TO cc. Sol. 
Hd. 


Sp Gr. of 
Solutions. 


Cms. per 


100 cc. SoL 


Gma. per x 
CuOs. 


00 Gms. Sol. 


^uQa. 


duOa. 


Ha: 


hcl^ 


91 -75 





1.49 


61.70 


0.0 


41.41 


0.0 


86.8 


4.5 


1-475 


58.37 


1.64 


39-58 


I. II 


83.2 


7.8 


1.458 


55-95 


2.84 


3837 


1-95 


79-35 


10.5 


1-435 


53-37 


3 83 


37-19 


2.67 


68.4 


20.25 


1.389 


46.01 


7-38 


33'^^ 


5 31 


50.0 


37-5 


1-319 


33-62 


13-67 


25-50 


10.37 


22.8 


70.25 


1. 231 


15-33 


25.61 


12.46 


20.80 


^3-5 


102.5 


1.288 


15-81 


37 36 


12.27 


29.00 


26.7 


128.0 


I 323 


17.96 
29.0 


46.66 
Sat. HCl 


13 57 


35-26 



Copper Chloride, Ammonium Chloride Mixtures m Aqueous 

Solution at 30®. 

(Meerbiug — Z. anofg. Chem. 45* 3, '05O 



Grams per zoo 


Gnuns per xoo 




Gms. Sat. 


Soludon. 


Gms. 


Solid Phase. 


SoldPlUM. 


'cua.. 


NH4a.' 


CuOa. 


NHrfX 







29-5 


• • • 


• • • 


nh^ 


1.9 


28.6 


6.0 


48.3 


NHiQ + Caaa.sNH«CUH,0 


3.6 


25 -9 


37 


34-9 


Coab.sNHda.sH«0 


10.5 


16.5 


21.7 


33 1 


M 


19.9 


9.4 


28.5 


18.4 


« 


29.4 


4.9 


35-1 


IS -3 


M 


41.4 


2.Z 


43.1 


13-3 


« 


43-2 


2.0 


51 -9 


6.6 


GiiCh.sNHdCl.sH^+Caat^H^ 


43-9 





» • . 


• 


CaCls.aHsO 


Additional determinations for the ammonia end of this system at 25^ are 


given by Foote, 1912. 









COPPER CHLOBIDK 266 

COPPIR AMMONIUM CHLORIDE CuCIs.2NH«a.2HA 

Solubility IN Watbs* 

(Heerbuig, 1905.) 



Gm. 

«• CuOf-sNIIia 
* * per 100 Gms. 
Solution. 


Solid Phue. 


r. 


Gms. 

cuafl.3NH«a 

per 100 Gmi. 
Sdution. J 


Solid Phase. 


10.5 3.87 


Ice 


30 


27.70 


Caat.aNH|CLaH^ 


10.8 20.12 


4 


40 


30.47 


M 


II 20.3 


Ioe+Cuat.aNHia.aH^ 


50 


33.24 


« 


ID 20.46 


CttCV^NHiCLaH^ 


60 


36.13 


« 


22.02 
12 24.26 


M 
M 


70 
80 


39.35 
43.36 


M 

• 

1 


20 25.9s 


M 









SoLUBiLiTT OP Cuprous Chloride in Aqubous Solutions op Cupric 

SVLFATB AT ABOUT 20*. 
(Bodliader and Stocbeck, 1902.) 





MilHmobper] 


Liter. 






Grains per liter. 






'CuSO«. 



0.987 

1.975 
2.962 

4.937 


Total Cu. Total CL 
2.880 " 5.312 
3.602 4.908 

4.553 4687 
5.193 4.256 
7.276 4.329 


Cu (ic). 
2.258 

3 145 

4. 131 
4.625 

6.546 


Cu (ous). 

0.622 

0.457 
0.422 

0.509 
0.730 


CuSQi. 



0.158 

0.315 

0.473 
0.788 


Total Cu. Total O. 

0.183*0.188 
0.229 0.174 
0.290 0.166 
0.330 0.151 
0.463 0.154 


Cu (ic). 

0.143 
0.200 

0.263 

0.292 

0.416 


Ctt(ous). 
' 0.040' 
0.029 
0.027 
0.032 
0.046 



Solubility of Cuprous Chloride in Aqueous Solutions op 
Potassium Chloride at about 20^ 





llillimols per 


Liter. 






(kuBS per liter. 




' Ka 


Total (X 


Total a 


Cu Gc). 


Cu (ous).^ ^ KCL 


Total Cu. Total CL 


Ctt (ic). 


Cu (ous). 





2.851 


5.416 


2.222 


0.629 





O.181 


0.193 


O.141 


0.040 


a.S 


; 1.955 


6.015 


1. 421 


0.534 


0.186 


0.124 


0.213 


0.090 


0.034 


5 


Z.522 


7.52s 


1.008 


0.514 


0.373 


0.097 


0.267 


0.069 


0.033 


zo 


1.236 


"735 


0.475 


0.761 


0.746 


0.079 


0.416 


0.030 


0.048 


20 


1.446 


21. 356 


0.324 


1. 122 


1.492 


0.092 


0.7S9 


0.021 


0.071 


50 


2.41X 


notdet. 


0.1088 


2.302 


3-730 


O.IS3 


notdet. 


0.007 


0.146 


100 


4.702 


« 





4.702 


7.460 


0.299 


(f 





0.299 


200 


9.48s 


« 





9.485 


14.920 


0.603 


tt 





0.603 


1000 


97 


u 





97 


74.60 


6.170 


li 





6.170 


2000 


384 


l€ 





384 


149.2 


24.42 


f( 





24.420 



The results in the 3d, 7th, 8th and last line of this table are at I6^ 



Solubility op Copper Chloride in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium 

Chloride. 

(Hunt, 1870.) 
Gms. CuClt per xoo cc. Solution of: 



r. 


Sat. NaCl. 


15% NaQ. 


S% Nad: 


II 


8.9 


3.6 


• • • 


40 


II. 9 


6 


I.I 


90 


16.9 


10.3 


2.6 



267 



COPPER CHLORIDE 



Solubility of Cuprous Chloridb in Aqueous Sch^utions of Fe&rous 

Chloride at 21.5*^ and Vice Versa. 

(Ejcmann and Noas, 191 2.) 

In order to ascertain the composition of the solid phase, the experiment was 
made by mixing together weighed amounts of HiO, CuCl and FeCli and agi« 
tating in a thermostat at constant temperature. A weighed portion of the 
clear saturated solution in each case was analyzed and the composition of the 
solid phase calculated by di£ference. 



Cms. per xoo Cms. H|0. 



Fed.. 


CuCL 





1-53 


6.02 


1-33 


11.62 


1.80 


16.30 


3" 


26.30 


7.12 


2935 


8.06 


33 12 


956 



Solid FhaM. 

CuCl 



Gms. per zoo Gms. H4O. 



Feci,. 


CuCL ' 


OQua r naae. 


43-75 


12.42 


CuCl 


54 


17.04 


(t 


66.40 


21.6 


(( 


73.20 


23.20 


" +FeCl,.4HjO 


71.90 


21.65 


FeCl«.4H|0 


69.30 


II. 9 


it 


65.10 





tt 



Solubility of Cuprous Chloride in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium 

Chloride at 26.5^ and Vice Versa. 

(Kicmaim and Noas, 191a.) 



(See remarks above.) 

Gmt. per xoo Gms. H|0. 



Naa. 


CuQ. 


soaa row 



10.8 


1-55 
3.15 


CuCl 


10.7 

27 
36.48 


7.30 
40.60 

49.10 


(C 



Gms. per xoo Gms. H^. 



Naa. 


CuCL ' 


SdBd Phase. 


44.14 


57.21 


Cua 


55- 10 


44.10 


NaCl 


56.80 


41.70 


(t 


50.90 


18.70 


« 



Solubility of Cuprous Chloride in Aqueous Solutions of Potassium 

Chloride at 22^ and Vice Versa. 

(BrSnsted, 19x2.) 



Gms. per xoo Gms. 
Sat.SoL 


SolM 
Phase. 


Gms. per 
Sat. 


xoo Gms. 
Sol. 


Solid 
Phase. 


Gms. per i 
Sat. 


[ooGms. 
Sol. 


Solid 
Phase. 


KQ. Cua. 


. rcL 


Cua. 


Ka. 


CuCl. 


3.87 O.II5 


CuQ 


21.64 


13-32 


CuQ 


24.04 


4.53 


cua.3Kci 


6.56 0.405 
8.24 0.861 


ff 

w 


23-84 
25-24 


17.23 
21.47 


M 
M 


25-03 
26.28 


3-14 
2.20 


M 


11.33 2.19 


M 


23-87 


15-48 


Cua.aKa 


27.06 


1.60 


M 


15-30 4. So 


» 


23-57 


13-99 


u 


26.68 


I. 21 


Ea 


17.47 7.19 


M 


23.50 


"39 


M 


26.32 


0.58 


ft 


ao.31 10.21 


« 


23.49 


7.35 


M 


25.68 





.« 



COPPKB CHLORIDE 



268 



Solubility of Cupric Chloridb in Aqubous Solutions op Mbrcuuc 

Chloride at 35° and Vice Versa. 

(Schrdnemftken and Thomis, 1912.) 

- ,. . n, Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. 



GnM.'per loo'Gms. Sat. SoL 



HgCW 


CuCl,. 


ouua x-uaac 


HcO,. 


CuC^ 




21.03 


44-47 
33-5 


CuClt.2H|0 


52.54 
52.81 


18.46 
18.06 


37.30 


26.07 


tt 


51 03 


14-73 


44-47 
50.47 
52.44 


23-31 
21.50 

19.40 


It 

" +Hga, 

HgCl, 


49.50 

23.87 
8.51 


5-94 
2.64 





Solid Phase. 

HgCl, 



Solubility op Copper Chloride and Potassium Chloride Doublb 

Salts and Mixtures in Water. 

(Meycrikoffer — Z. phyrik. Chem. s xoa* '90O 



Q per I Gram Solution. 



Mok. per 100 Mob. HaO. 



%: 


'Preaent aa 
CuQs. 


Preaent aa' 
KCL 


CaQs. 


KQ. 


aoaa 
Phaae. 


39-4 


0.120 


0.107 


5-56 


9-93 


Caas.aKa.aHsO + KQ 


49-9 


0.129 


o.ns 


6-39 


II. 4 


M 


60.4 


0.142 


0.125 


7.71 


13.6 


•• 


79.1 


0.168 


0.142 


II. I 


18.8 


M 


90 s 


0.188 


0.154 


14.9 


24.4 


M 


93-7 


0.194 


0.156 


16.2 


26.0 


CuasJsia+Ka 


98.8 


0.197 


0.162 


17-5 


28.7 


It 





0.214 


0.021 


9.84 


1.94 


Cttas.aKa.aHsO + Caas.aHs< 


39-6 


0.232 


0.049 


12.9 


S-44 


M 


50.1 


0.233 


0059 


ni 


6.90 


M 


52.9 


0.241 


0.062 


14.8 


1-^3 


«• 


60.2 


0.246 


0.066 


15.8 


8.49 


CuasXa + Caas.aHsO 


72.6 


0.2SS 


0.063 


16.8 


8-35 


M 


64.2 


• • • 


... 


14.9 


II. 6 


Cttas.aKa.3Hs0 + Cudsxa 


72.5 


* • • 


• • • 


14.8 


15-0 


CaCIsXa 



Solubility of Cupric Chloride in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium 

Chloride at 30° and Vice Versa. 

(Srhrrinrmakera and de Baat, 190S-09.) 



Gma. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. 



Naa. 


CuQ,. 


ooua ruase. 





43-95 


CuCl,.2HaO 


3.10 
4.28 


41.14 
41.06 




6.41 
10.25 
12.02 


39-40 
36.86 

32.38 


it 

" +NaCl 
NaCl 



Gms. per zoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 



NaCl. 


Cud..' 


12.25 


32.40 


13.54 


28.64 


15-40 


23-72 


18.44 


16.98 


20.61 


11.03 


26.47 






Solid Phase. 

NaQ 



26$ 



COOPPER CHLORIDE 



Solubility of Cupmc Chlohi6^ nl Aqueous Alcohol at^ils". 

(BOdtker, 1897.) 

10 gms. of CuClisHsO and the indicated amounts of CuClt were added to 
20 cc. portions of alcohol. The solutions shaken two hours Jand 5 cc. portions 
withdrawn. 



Vol. % Gms. Cud, Cms. pCT sec. Solution. ' Vol. % 

Alcohol. Added. ' H|0. CuC1«. ' Alcohol. 

89.3 o 0.794 1. 137 99-3 

92.3 o 0.648 1.090 99.3 

96.3 o 0.478 1. 116 99.3 

99.3 o 0.369 1.208 99.3 



Gms. CuCl» Gms. per s cc. Solution. 
Added. ^ ^ h^. , CuCl». 
0.223 0.330 1.29s 
0.887 0.247 1-639 
1.540 O.I9I 2.086 
1.957 0.164 2.400 



Solubilitt op Cupric Chloridb in Sbvbral Solvents. 

(Etud — Ann. chim. phys. [7] a* 564, '94; de Bruyn — Z. phyaik. Chem. 10^ 783* '93* de Coniiick -* 
Compt.rend. 13 x* 59, '00; St. von Laszcxynski — Ber. a7f ^aSs, '94.) 



Solvent. 



Grams CuQa per xoo Grams Sat. Solution at: 



XT 



36 
32 
29 



Methyl Alcohol 
Ethyl Alcohol 
Propyl Alcohol 
Iso Propyl Alcohol 
n Butyl Alcohol 
AUyl Alcohol 
Ethyl Formate 
Ethyl Acetate 
Acetone (abs.) 
Acetone (80%) 
Ether 

* (Cuaa.A Aq.) 



if' 

40.5 (deB.) 36.5 
35.0 (deB.) 35.7 

30s 



IS 

23 
10 



40'. 
37 o 

39 o 

30s 
16.0 

16.0 



So** 



S.S6* 8.92t 



IS -3 
23.0 

9.0 8.0 

3-0 2.5 

2.88(18^) ... 

18. 9$ 

o.ii 

t (a3*^ Cuas.^ Aq.) 



30 
16 



o 
S 



3 (72") 
40 (56^) 



0.043 (ii"^) 

t (Cnaa.a Aq.) 

For the solubility of cupric chloride in mixtures of a number of 
organic solvents, see de Coninck. 



Sdvent 



Acetonitrile 
Ethyl Acetate 
Methyl Acetate 



f. 

18 
18 
18 



Gms. 

CuCli per 

xoo Gms. 

Sat. Sol. 

1. 57 
0.4 

0-S5 



Sp. Gr. 
Sat. Sol. 



Authority. 



(Naumann and Schier, i9X4«) 
. 9055 (Naumann, 1904.) 
. 939 (Naumann, X909.) 



Anhydrous Hydrazine Ord. temp. 5 (decomp.) . . . (Welsh and Brodexaon, X9i5<) 
SOLUBILrrY OF Cuprous CHLORmS in AcETONITRILB. (Naumann and Schier, X9X4O 

100 gms. acetonitrile of boiling point 81.6*^ dissolve 13.33 gms. CuCl at i8^. 
Solubility of Cupric Chloride in Pyridine. 

: (Mathews and.Spero, 19x7.) 







Gms. 


• « «• * 


w ^ * 


w 




Gms. 




r. 




CuCUper 
xoo Gms. 


Solid Phase. 




r 




CuCUper 
xoo Gms. 


Solid Phase. 


- 




Sat. Sol. 










Sat. Sol. 




-17-3 




0.140 


CuC1^6QH,N 


45 






0.422 


CuC]|.2QH,N 


— 12. 1 




0195 


M 


53 






0.493 


fi 


— 10 




0.29s 


** (unstable) 


60 






0.565 


" (unstable) 


- 8.9 tr. 


pt. 


0.270 


« +CuCl,.aC|H,N 


62 






0.616 


M « 


+ 2 




0.275 


CuOt-sCsBcN 


58 < 


tr. 


pt. 


... 


" +aCttCl,.3r<HiN 


10 




0.293 


« 


63 






0.543 


SCUCI1.3CAN 


25 




0.348 


« 


75 






0.631 


M 


35 




0.382 


M 


95 




^ 


0.917 


« 



GOPPBB CHLOBIDK 270 

Distribution of Cupric Chloride between aq. HQ and Ether 

When I gm. of copper as chloride is dissolved in 100 cc. of 10% HCl and shaken 
with 100 cc. of ether, 0.05% of the metal enters the ethereal layer. (Mylius, 1911.) 

COPPER Ammonium CHLORIDE CuCIlNH^CI. 

Solubility in Absolute Alcohol at 25*^. (Foote and Waiden, 1911.) 

Gms. per loo Gms. Sat. Sol. ^ ,.,«,. 

OiO;. " NH:a: Sobd phase. 

4.7 not det. NH4CI+ CUCI2.NH4CI 

6.4S " CUCI2.NH4CI 

12.90 " 

34.7 " " +CUCI2.C2H6OH 

COPPER Potassium CHLORIDE CuCls.KCL 

Solubility in Absolute Alcohol and jn Acetone at 25®. (Foote and Waldea, 191 1) 
In Absolute Alcohol. In Acetone. 

Gms. per looGms. Sat. Sol. Cms. per xooGms. Sat. Sol. 

^ » Solid Phase. Solid Pluae. 

. CuCl,. KCl. oonaruMc. CuCl,. KCT aoua rnase. 

1.40 0.28 Kci+cuci,.Ka 0.34 0.38 Ka+cuci,.Ka 

2.15 not. det. cuCi,.Ka 0.48 not det. CuOt-Kci 

5.25 " " 1.50 " 

30.16 " " 2.06 " 

34.45 0.21 " +cua,.CHi0H 2.40 0.27 « +cuci,.c.ao 

33.97 O CuCl«.CHtOH 

Preezing-point data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given for the following 
mixtures of cuprous chloride and other chlorides. 

CuCl -\- CuCli (Sandonnini, 191a (a)). 
** -|- FeCla (Hermann, 191 1.) 

1; + PbCl, 

-{• LiCl (Sandonnini, 19x1, 1914; Koneng, 1914.) 

-{• RbCl (Sandonnini, 1914; Sandonnini and Aureggi, 19x9.) 

4" AgCl (Sandonnini, 19x1, 19x4; Poma and Gabbi, X91X, 19x9.) 

-f- KCl (Sandonnim,i9xi,x9X4; Korreog, 19x4; Sadcur, 19x3; Poma and Gabbi, 191 x, 191 a.) 

-f- NaCl (Sandoimini, x9ix, X9X4; Korreng, 1914; Sackur, 19x3; de Cesari, 19x1.) 

-f- TlCl (Sandonnini, x9xx, X9X4.) 

+ SnCU (Hennann, i9n.) 
" +ZnCl, 

Freezing-point lowering data for mixtures of CuCl + CutO and CuCl + CuiS 
are given by Truthe, 191 2. 

COPPER Potassium CITRATE CuK4[(COOCHO,C(OH)C001t. 

100 cc. sat. solution in HsO contain 43.3 gms. of the salt at 10^. (Pickering, 1915.) 

COPPER CYANIDE (ous) Cu,(CN)s. 

Freezing-point data for Cui(CN), -f- KCN and Cut(CN)2 + NaCN ar« given 
by Truthe (1912). 

COPPER HYDROXIDE (ic) Cu(OH)t. 

Solubility in Aqueous Solutions of Ammonia at i8*. (Dawaon, 1909.) 

Mob. NH« per Gm. Atoms Cu per Mols. NHi per Gm. Atoms Cu per 

Liter. Liter. Liter. ^ Liter. 

0.2 0.00054 3 0.0548 

0.5 0.0033 4 0.0784 

I 0.0109 5 O.IO4I 

1.5 0.0204 6 0.1254 

2 0.0314 8 0.1599 

2.5 0.0442 9.96 0.1787 

Three series of results at 25^, somewhat higher than the above, are given by 

Bonsdorff, 19104. 
Data showing the effect of increasing amounts of (NHOtSOi, Ba(OH)s, NaOH 

and of NasSO« upon the solubility of cupric hydroxide in aqueous ammonia 

solution at i8^ are given by Dawson, 1909 a. 



371 



COPPER lODATI 



COPPER lODATE (ic) Cu(IQ8)sHiO. 

One liter sat. aqueous solution contains 1.36 gms. Cu(IOs)s at 25^, determined 
by measurement of single potential differences against a o.i n calomel electrode. 

(Spcnoer, 19x5.) 

COPPER IODIDE (ic) Cult. 

One liter sat. aqueous solution contains 11.07 gms. Cult at 20^. 

(Fedotieff, 1911-19.) 

COPPER IODIDE (ous) Cuslt. 

Solubility of Cuprous Iodide in Aqueous Solutions of Ammonium 

Bromide and of Potassium Bromide. 

(Kohn, 1909; Kohn, and KleiB, 191 a.) 



Results for Aq. NH4Br at 20''. 

NonoAli^ Gms. Cuilt 
NILBr per xooo cc t*. 

SoL Sat. Sol. 

2 1.9068 19.5 

3 3 6540 24 

4 6.0588 19. s 



Results for Aq. KBr 'Solutions. 

Norattdity Gms. CvA Normali^ Gms. Cutlfl 

t*. of KBr per xooo Gms. 
SoL Sat. SoL 

23 3 3 595 
22 4 7.126 

22 4 6.977 



of KBr 
SoL 

2 
2 

3 



per 1000 oc. 

Sat. SoL 

1.467 

1.558 
3.409 



Solubility of Cuprous Iodide in Aqueous Solutions of Iodine at 20^ 

AND Vice Versa. (Ftdotidr. x9x»-zi.) 



Cms, pear Liter. Solid 

^^ ' L ^Ph*»e. 

0.285 0.5848 CttI 
0.482 1.3053 
0.583 1.9218 
0.678 2.5573 
0.756 3.2042 

0.844 3-9539 
0.898 4.4359 



Gms. per Liter. 



«( 



ti 



ii 



u 



u 



tt 



Cu. 

0.964 
1.032 
1.090 

1. 112 
1.232 
1.040 
0.898 



I. 



Solid 
Phase. 



Gms. per Liter. 



«< 



ti 



II 



5.0854 Cul 

5.6854 
6.2816 

6 . 5301 
7.6529 
6.4440 

5.5941 



" +1 
I at 



.0 



Cu. 
0.748 
0.606 
0.448 
0.300 

0.159 



Solid 
Phue. 



I. 
4.7112 

3.8562 

2.9493 
2.0689 

1 . 2304 •• 

5.4609 Cttl+I 



M 



« 



0^=0.925 

" at 40** =1.658 11.3658 
Iodine determined by thiosulfate titra- 



^ Constant agitation and temperature, 
tion; copper, electrolyticEdly. 

Additional data for the solubilitv of cuprous iodide in aqueous solutions of 
iodine in presence of acids and salts at 25°, are p^iven by Bray and MacKay 
(19 10). These authors state that cuprous iodide is difficultly soluble in water, 
but in the presence of iodine a considerable amount dissolves, owing to the 
formation ofcupric iodide and tri-iodide. 

100 gms. acetonitrile dissolve 3.52 gms. CusIs at 18^. (Naumami and Schier. 19x4.) 
Freezing-point lowering data for mixtures of Cul + Agl are given by Quercigh, '14. 



COPPEB NITItATE (ic) Cu(NO,),. 






Solubility in Water. 


(Fank, 1900.) 


Gms. 


Mols. 


Gms. Mols. 


*. Cu(NOi), 
• periooGms. 


Cu(N0,), s^j pi^ ^ 

per XOO ^~"" Mruaac. m 

Mols. HsO. 


CuCNO), Cii(NO0i Solid Phase, 
per 100 Gms. per 100 *— «*« 


Solution. 


Solution. Mols. H«0. 


-23 36.08 


5.42 Cu(N(\),.9Hi0 20 


55.58 12 Cu(N(\)t.6H^ 


— 20 40.92 


6.65 " 26.4 


63.39 16.7 


-21 39.52 


6 . 27 Cu(N(\)t.6H|0 25 


60.01 14.4 Cu(N(^s.3^0 


45 


7 . 87 " 40 


61.51 15.2 


+10 48.79 


9.15 " 60 


64.17 17.2 


18 53.86 


11.20 . « 80 


67.51 20 




"45 


77.59 33-3 



Density of solution saturated at 18® ■= 1.681. 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 127.4 gms. Cu(NOj)iat 20*^, in sat. sol. =1.688. (Fedotieff, 19x1-12.) 

Data for the solubility of copper nitrate in aq. ammonia solutions are given 
by Stasevich, 1913. 

Data for the solubility of copper nitrate in aq. solutions of copper sulfate 
and of sodium nitrate at 20** are given by Massink, 1916 and 1917. 

100 cc. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve i gm. copper nitrate, with decomposi« 
tion, at room temp. (Welsh and BroderMm, 19x54 



COPPER OXALATE 272 

COPPEB OXALATE (ic) CuC^^iU^. 

One liter HsO dissolves 0.02364 gm. CuCiOi at 25", determined by the con- 
ductivity method. (Schftier, 1905.) 

COPPER OXIDE (ic) CuO. 

Solubility in Aqueous Solutions at 25^. 

(Jaeger, 190X.) 

In Aq. Hydrofluoric Acid. In Aq. HF -h KF. In Aq. HNQ, and CHtCOOH. 

Nomiality Gm. Atoms Normality Gm. Atoms Cy>t»M* Gm. Atoms 

olHF. Cu per Liter. o£ HF. Cu per Liter. aoivent. Cu per Liter. 

0.12 0.0307 0.12 0.0356 inCHjCOOH 0.1677 
0.28 0.1164 0.28 0.06437 i^HNQg 0.4802 

0.57 0.2494 0.57 0.1442 

1.08 0.388 I. II 0.2451 Cu determined electrolytically. 

2.28 0.463 2.17 0.25x7 ^" "'^^^^^^^^^^ '"«^""'y"^-*"y- 

COPPER OXIDE (ous) CuiO. 

Solubility in Aqueous Ammonium Solutions at 25". 

(Donnan and Thomas, 19x1.) 

The cuprous oxide was prepared by adding KOH solution to a mixture of 
equal weights of CuS04.5HsO and sucrose dissolved in water, until nearly all the 
precipitate had redissolved. The solution was kept at 70° until the cuprous 
oxide had separated. Two batches were prepared. The first, No. I, obtained 
from the more dilute solution, was bulky and dark red in color, Cu » 88.62%. 
The second. No. II, was bright red, Cu « 88.59%. I'he solubility determina- 
tions were made with extreme care. A special apparatus was used. By means 
of this, the constituents of the mixtures were introduced into the bottles in an 
atmosphere of hydrogen and every precaution taken to prevent oxidation. The 
bottles were sealed and rotated for 2-4 weeks at constant temperature. In 
case the slightest tinge of blue developed in a bottle (indicating oxidation), it 
was rejected. 

Results for Preparation No. I. Results for Preparation No. 11. 

Cms. per 1000 Gms. Sol. Mols. per xooo Gms. SoL Cms. per 1000 Cms. SoL Mols. per 1000 Cms. SoL 



Cu. 


nh,. 


Cu. 


NH,. ' 


Cu. 


NH,. 


' Cu. 


NH,. 


0.3593 


3 91 


0.00566 


0.23 


0.4229 


7.82 


0.00665 


0.46 


0.6869 


13 -77 


0.01080 


0.81 


0.6678 


8.16 


0.01050 


0.48 


I. 0144 


27.03 


0.01597 


I 59 


0.9890 


22.61 


0.01555 


1.33 


1.0462 


32.64 


0.01645 


1.92 


I. 0494 


28.39 


0.01650 


1.67 


1.3229 


68.68 


0.02081 


4.04 


1.3528 


54.15 


0.02127 


3.19 


X.4882 


74.12 


0.02340 


4.36 


I . 5048 


72.08 


0.02366 


4.24 


I. 6313 


98.52 


0.02565 


556 


1.5963 


78.20 


0.02510 


4.60 


I. 6981 


122.40 


0.02670 


7.20 


1.6555 


102.05 


0.02603 


6 



COPPER SULFATE CuS04.5H,0. 

S(H.UBiLiTY IN Water. 

(Etard. 1894; Patrick and Aubert, 1874; at 15*. Cohen. 1903; at 35** Trevor, 1891.) 

Gms. CuSOi per 100 Gms. ^ Gms. CUSO4 per xoo Gms. 

'" Solution. Water. 

60 28 . 5 40 

80 35 5 55 

100 43 75- 4 

120 44 78.6 

140 44.5 80.2 

160 44 78.6 

180 43 75.4 

Sp. gr. of sat. solution of CuS04.^HsO in HsO at 16^ >- I*I93- (Greenish, igos^ 
100 gms. sat. solution in H|0 contam 20.32 gms. CUSO4 at 30^. (Schretnemakers, 191a) 



• • 


Solution. 


Water. 





".5 


14.3 


10 


14.8 


17.4 


20 


17.2 


20.7 


25 


18.5 


22.7 


30 


20 


25 


40 


22.5 


28.5 


50 


25 


33.3 



273 



COPPER SULFATI 



SOLUBILITT OF COPPRR SULPATB IN AqUBOUS SOLUTIONS OF AmMONIXTM 





Sulfate at 0**. 








(Engd, x886.) 






MiDigram Equiv. per 
xo oc. Solution. 


Sp. Gr. of 
SolutioDa. 


Grams per 
100 oc. Solution. 


(NH.)«S0«. CuSO. 


(NH4),S04. 


CuSO*. 


o 18.52 


1. 144 





14.79 


5.45 20.15 


1. 190 


3.61 


16.09 


7 10.5 


i.io8 


4.63 


8.38 


7.4 9.1 


1.099 


4.90 


7.26 


8.45 6.425 


I. 0815 


5-59 


5.13 


"35 3-7 


1. 071 


7.51 


2.9s 


18.6 I. 178 


1.082 


12.31 


0.94 


31.2 I 


1. 116 


20.65 


0.80 



Solubility of Mixtures of Copper Ammonium Sulfate and Nickel 
Ammonium Sulfate in Water at i3'*-i4*^: 

(Fock, 1897) 

CuS04.(NH4)iS04.6H,0 + NiS04.(NH4)tS04.6H,0. 



Mol. % in 


Solution. 


Mols. per loo 


Mols. H|0. 


Mol. % in Solid Phase. 


CttSalt. 


NiSalt: 


Cu Salt. 


Ni Salt.' 


Cu Salt. 


Ni Salt. ^ 





100 





0.521 





lOO 


33-34 

56.05 

73-89 
79.92 


66.66 

43-95 
26.20 

20.08 


0.1476 
0.2664 
0.4165 

0.4785 


0.295 
0.2089 
0.1449 
0.1202 


10.29 

30.59 
52.23 
78.80 


89.71 
69.41 

47.77 
21.20 


100 





1.0350 





100 






Solubility of Mixtures of Copper Ammonixtm Sulfate and Zinc 
Ammonium Sulfate in Water at 13*^-14®. 

(Fock, 1897.) 

CuS04.(NH4)iS04.6H,0 + ZnS04.(NH4)tS04.6HiO. 



Mol. % in SoluUon. 


Mols. per loc 


t Mols. H|0. 


Mol. % in 


Solid Phase. 


' Co. Salt Zn Salt.' 


Cu Salt. 


Zn Salt. ' 


Cu Salt. 


ZnSalt. ' 


4-97 95.03 


0.0422 


0.8069 


2.39 


97;6i 


10.65 89.35 


0.0666 


0.5638 


4.52 


95 48 


19.24 80.76 


O.I218 


O.5115 


90.3 


90.97 


30.19 69.81 


0.2130 


0.4924 


14.67 


85.33 


44.44 55-56 


0.3216 


0.4022 


22.62 


77.38 


100 


1.035 





100 





SOLUBIUTY OF COPPER SULFATE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF MAGNESIUM 




Sulfate 


AT O". 








(Diacon. 


x866.) 






Gms. per xoo Gms. HfO. 


Solid Phase. 


Gms. per xoo 


• Gms. H|0. 


Solid Phase. 


CnSOi. MgSO*. 




CuSO*. 


MgSO*. ' 




26.37 


MgS04.6H|0 


12.03 


15.67 


CuS04.5H^ 


2.64 25.91 


M 


13.61 


8.64 


M 


4.75 25.30 


M 


14.99 





•1 



9.01 23 . 30 MgSO«.6H^+CuS04.5H/) 



COPPIB SX7LFATE 



274 



Solubility of Copper Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of Copper 

Chloride at 30®. 

(SdiretDemaken, 1910.) 



Gim. per 100 Gms. 
£t.Sol. 


Sntiil Phase. 

CuS04.5HiO 

a 
u 
u 


Gms. per xoo Gms. 
Sat. Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


CuOt. C11SO4. 

20.32 

6.58 13.62 

15.68 8.93 

25.67 4.77 


CuCl.. 
39.48 
42.62 

43.25 

43 95 


CttS04: 
3.21 
2.90 
1. 14 



CUSO4.SH1O 

"+CuCl,.2li 
CuCl«.2HaO 



Data for Equilibrium in Complex Systems Containing Copper Sulfate. 

System. Authority. 

CUSO4 + CuCli -f- (NH4)iS04 -f- NH4CI + HiO (Schxeinemaken. 1910.) 

+ *' + KsS04 + KCl + HsO (Schreinemakena]iddeBaat,x9X4aO 

+ " + Na,S04 + NaCl -f- HjO (Schremcinakera, 1911.) 

+ LisS04 + (NH4)sS04 + HtO (Schreinemaken, 1909.) 



II 
II 



S(x.uBiLiTY OF Copper Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of Lithium 





Sulfate 


; AT 30". 








(Schreinemakers, 1908, 1909.) 






Gms. per 100 Gms. 
Sat. Sol. 


Solid Phase. 

CUSO4.5H2O 

a 


Gms. per 100 Gms. 


c 


Solid Phase. 


Li,S04. CUSO4. 
20.32 

3. 54 17.59 

6.08 •16.10 


LijSO*. CUSO4. 
17.92 11.04 

20.55 10.05 
22.23 6.41 


uS04.5HaO 
" +Li2S04.HiO 
Li,S04.H80 • 


"94 13.55 


a 


23.59 3-39 




u 


15.72 12.14 


n 


25.24 




« 


Solubility of Copper Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions 


of Lithium and 




Other Chlorides at 25^ 








(Herz, 


1910.) 






In Lithium 
Chloride. 


In Potassium 
Chloride. 


In Rubidium 
Chloride. 




In Sodium 
Chloride. 


Gms. per 100 cc. 
Sat. Sol. 


Gms. per loo cc. 
Sat. Sol. 


Gms. per xoo cc. 
Sat. Sol. 




Gms. per loo cc. 
Sat. Sol. 


LiCl. CUSO4. ' 


KCl. CUSO4. 


' RbCl. CUSO4. 


NaCl. CuS04.' 


3.10 20.oi6 


4.19 23.89 


22.34 




2.10 22.41 


5.93 18.78 


8.75 24.92 


13.22 25.02 




7.72 22.76 


12 17.03 


17.50 29.03 






14.79 24.05 



Solubility of .Copper Potassium Sulfate CuKs(S04)s.6HiO in Water at 25'*. 
100 gms. HsO dissolve 11. 14 gms. CuKs(S04)s. (Trevor, 1891.) 

Additional data for the system Copper sulfate + Potassium sulfate + HsO are 
given by Meerburg, 1909. 

Data for the solubility in water of mix-crystals of copper sulfate and man- 
ganese sulfate at 0° and 17**, and of copper sulfate and zinc sulfate at 12% 18^, 
25*1 35% 40** and 45", are given by HoUemann, 1905-06. 



275 



GOPPIB 8UI.FATB 



COPFKR SULFATB, MANGANESE SULFATE, MiXBD CRYSTALS AT 25^. 

(Storteobecker, i9c».) 

O flM. per 100 Gmt. HgO . M ob, per too Mob. HsO. 

foSoT MnSOft. ^ 

TkkUnlc CryiUb with sH^. 



20.2 
19.76 



O 



Cu. 
2.282 



a. 23 



13 65 
II .61 

9-39 
6.47 
3 01 



31 -Sa 

39-41 

46.77 

53-39 
58 -93 



CO 61.83 

Monodimc Qryatab with 7H^. 



9-39 
6.47 
0.0 



46.77 

53-39 
67.o7± 



1-54 
I 31 

1.06 

0-73 
0.34 
0.0 

1.06 

0.73 
0.0 



Ma. 
O 

0.44 



Mol.% Cu 
in Soltttian. 



Mol.% Ca 
in Crj^ds. 



3 76 
4.70 

5-59 
6.37 
7-03 
7-375 

5 58 

6-37 
8±* 



100 

90.5 
83 -5 
741 

57-7 
31 o 

29.0 

26.1 

21.8 

21.2 

20.0 

15 9 

13-45* 
10.27 

5-0 
4.6 

2.31 

0.0 

20.0 

15-9 

13-45 
10.27 

4.6* 

0.0 



100 
99-3 

• • • 

97-3 

95-1 
81.3 

• . • 

70.4 

... 

42.6 

34-4 
22.9 

15.2* 

10. 5 

4 9 

• • • 

2-15 
100. o 

28.2 

23 -5 
20.8 

16.0 

5.8* 

100 



* Indicatea points of labil eqnilibtiiim. 



Copper Sulfate, Zinc Sulfate, Mixed Crystals in Water at i8®. 

(Stoctenbecker, 1897.) 



Mob. per 100 


Mob.QiO. 


Mol. %,Cu 


Mol. %Cu 


Cu. ' 


7.n. ' 




inCiy^ab. 


2.28 





100 


100 


1.83 


2.08 


46.8 


94.9 


1. 41 


3-60 


28.1 




1. 19 


5 01 


19.2 


77-9 


1.86 


3 36 


36.2 


40.4 


1.22 


4.45 


"■5 


29 -5-31 -9 


1. 01 


4.72 


17.6 


24 . 1-28 . 


0.82 


5-03 


14.0 


19.0-22. 


0.51 


5-59 


8.36 


12. 4-14. 9 


0.30 


5 56 


487 


7.02 


0.0 


6.42 


0.0 





1. 19 


5.01 


19. 2 


5.01 


0.51 


5-59 


8.36 


1.97 


0.267 


5-77 


4.42 


i-iS 


0.0 


5-94 


0.0 


0.00 



' Tridfaiic Qryatab with sH^. 



•- MoBodinir Oyatali with 7H«0. 



Rhombic Cryatab with 7H«0. 



GOPFIB SULFATE 



276 



Solubility of Copper Sulfate, Sodium Sulfate Mixtures in Water. 

(Koppel, 1901-oa; Muaol and Maldes, 1901.) 



Solid Phase. 





Gmg. per ] 
Solut 


[00 Cms. 


Mols. per xoo Mob. 


f. 


ion. 




I^. 




'CuSO*. 


NatSOi: 


CUSO4. 


Na,S04. 





13 40 


6.23 


1.88 


0.98 


ID 


14.90 


9.46 


2.23 


1.56 


}S 


15.18 


11.64 


2.34 


2.02 


17.7 


14.34 


13.34 


2.24 


2.34 


23 


14 36 


12.76 


2.23 


2.21 


40.15 


13-73 


12.26 


2.10 


2.10 


17.7 


14.99 


13.48 


2.37 


2.39 


23 


16.41 


"35 


2.57 


1.99 


40. IS 


20.56 


8 


3.25 


1.47 


x8 


13. S3 


13.84 


2.10 


2.41 


20 


11-34 


15-70 


1.76 


2.73 


2S 


6.28 


21.20 


0.98 


3.70 


30 


2.607 


28.38 


0.43 


5.21 


33-9 


1.47s 


32.30 


0.25 


6.18 


37.2 


1-494 


31.96 


0.25 


6.08 


30 


5.38 


22.17 






30.1 


3-69 


25.37 


• ■ • 


* 
• • • 


30 


1. 57 


32.09 


. 


^ 



CoSQi.sEbO'fNatSaii.ioHiO 



M 



CuS0|.NaiSO«3H^ 



CiiSO|J7aflSO«.9H^+CiiSO«.s^O 

u 



n 



CaSO«.Na«SO|.aH|0-VNaiSQ|.zoBdO 

M 



CaS04J^a^4.aH^-f increasing 
amts. of Na^4ZoH/) 



Data for the sYSttem copper sulfate, sodfum sulfate, water, at 20*'_and 35* 
are given by Massink;, 1916, 1917. 



!S(H.UBILITT OF COPPBR SULFATE IN AqUBOUS SOLVTIONS OF SULFURIC 

Acid at o®. (Engd, 1887.) 



Milligiam 


Emnv. 


per 10 Gihs. 


Sp. Gr. of 
Solutions. 


Grams 


per IOC 




H»S04. 




CUSO4. 


feS04. 




CttS04.' 







18.6 


1. 144 







14.85 


4.14 




17.9 


1. 143 


2.03 




14.29 


14.6 




19.6 


1. 158 


7.16 




15.65 


31 




12.4 


1. 170 


15.20 




9.90 


54.2 




8.06 


1. 195 


26.57 




6.43 


56.25 




7.75 


1. 211 


27.57 




6.19 


71.8 




5 


1.224 


35.2 




3.99 



Solubility of Copper Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of Sulfuric Acid 

AT 25®. (BeU and Taber. 1908; Footc, 19x5.) 



Cms. per 
Sat. 


100 Cms. 
Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


4 Gms. per 


100 Gms, 
Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


H,S04. 


CUSO4. ' 


H,SO«. 


CuS04. 







18.47 


CttS04.5HyO 


55.72 


2.13 


CuS04.3H,0+CuSO. fl^ 


II. 14 


12.62 


u 


61.79 


0.95 


CuSO«40 


25.53 


5.92 


M 


77.93 


0.17 


u 


36.77 


3.25 


M 


83.29 


0.15 


m 


42.15 


2.63 


M 


85.46 


0.19 


M 


47.66 


2.59 


M 


85.76 


0.43 


" +CuS04 


49 


2.83 


« +aiS04.3H^ 


86.04 


0.40 


CuSO* 


50.23 


2.70 


CuSO«.3HiO 


92.70 


0.19 


« 


54.78 


2.19 


tt 









277 



COPPBB SULFATE 



Solubility of Copper Sulfate in Methyl and Ethyl Alcohol, etc. 

(de Bruyn, 1892; de Coninck, 1905.) 



Solvent. 

Methyl Alcohol Abs. 



it 
it 



tt 

u 




% 



Abs. 

Ethyl Alcohol Abs. 
Glycol 
Glycerol 
Glycerol 

95% Formic Acid 
Aiiby. Hydrazine 



18 
18 
18 

3 

3 
14.6 

^S'S 
15-16 

18. s 



Gms. per 100 Gma. Solv . SOLUBILITY IN AqUBOUS 



CUSO4. CuSOi.sHtO 
I. 05 15.6 
0.93 
0.40 
13.4 
I.I 
7.6* 

30 
36.3 
0.05 

...f 



Alcohcm- at 15* 

(Schiff, 1861.) 

Wt. % Gms. CuS04.5H^ 
AlcohoL per 100 g. Solvent. 

10 IS -3 

20 3.2 

40 0.25 

(Oasendowski, 1907.) 

(Aschan, 19x3.) 

(Welsh and Brodenon, 19x5.) 



ord. t. 2 

* Per 100 gms. solution. f decomp. 

Data for the solubility of copper sulfate in methyl alcohol are given] by Carrara 
and Minozzi, 1897. 



COPPER SULFIDE (ic) CuS. 

' One liter of water dissolves 0.00033 gm. CuS at 18*, determined by the conduc- 
tivity method. (Weigel, 1906; see also Bnmer and Zawadski, 1909.) 
100 cc. sat aq. sodium sulfide solution (of d = 1.225) dissolve 0.0032 gm. CuS. 

(HoUand. X897.) 

Solubility of Copper Sulfide in Aqueous Sugar Sco^utions. 

(Stolle, 1900.) 



%Sugar 
m Solvent. 

10 

30 

SO 



Gms. CuS per Liter of Aq. Sugar Solution at: 



X7.S*- 45*- 7S". 

0.5672 0.3659 1.134s 

0.8632 0.7220 1.2033 

0.9076 1.0589 1.2809 

COPPER SULFIDE (ous) Cu,S. 

Freezing-point lowering data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) for mixtures of 
CuiS -\- AgtS, CuiS + PbS and CU2S + znS are given by Friedrich, 1907-08. 
Results for CutS + SbsSi are given bv Chikashigi and Yamanchi, 19 16. Data 
for CusS + FeS are given by Shad and Bomemann, 1916. 



COPPER SULFONATES. 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 0.25 gm. copper 2-phenanthrene monosulfonate at 20' 

" " " o!26 " " 10- " 



COPPER TARTRATE 



CuC40eH4.3HiO. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Canton! and Zacboder, 1905.) 



II 



(Sandquist, x9X3.) 



f. 


Gms. 

CuC«ObH4.3HaO 

per xoocc. 

Solution. 


f. 


Gms. 

CuC«0A-3H^ 

per 100 cc. 

Solution. 


r. 


Gms. 

CuC«0^H4.3H^ 

per xoocc 

Solution. 


IS 


0.0197 


40 


0.1420 


6S 


0.1767 

o.i64</ 


20 


0.0420 


45 


0.1708 


70 


2S 


0.0690 


SO 


0.1920 


7S 


0.1566 


30 


0.0890 


55 


0.2124 


80 


0.1440 


3S 


0.1205 


60 


0.1970 


8S 


0.1370 



COPPER THIOCTANATB 



278 



COPPIB THIOCYANATB (ic) Cu(SCN)s. 

Solubility in Aqueous Ammonia Solutions at 25^ and at 40^ 



SatT^l. 

X.0082 
I. 0166 
I. 0213 
1.0171 
1.0151 
I. 0134 
1.0070 
0.9987 
o . 9985 



Results at 25**. 

Gms. per xoo Cms. Sat. Sol. 



NH.. 
0.79 
1.98 
2.50 
4.26 

S-3S 

6-39 
9-93 

21.47 



Cu(SCN),. 

2-45 
4.08 

S" 
5-96 
6.22 

6-59 

7.98 

11.24 

15.22 



(Hom, 1907.) 

Solid Phase. 

Cu(SCN)t.2NH| 

(I 

II 

Ctt(SCN)t.4NHt 
It 

II 

II 

(f 

(I 



, Results at 40^ 

Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. 



NH.. 
0.94 

1.77 

2-57 
3S2 

4. 35 
SSo 

7.58 
13.98 

18.02 



Cu(SCN)». 
2.81 
4.18 

8.76 
11.78 
12.07 
12.99 
16.58 
19.76 



Sdid Phase. 
Cu(SCN)t.2NH| 



fi 



u 



Cu(SCN)t4NHa 



II 



M 



u 



COUMABIN CsHeOs. 

100 gms. water dissolve 0.01 gm. coumaiin at 20^-25°. (Dehn. 19x7.) 

*^ pyridine " 87.7 gms. 

50% aq. pyridine " 60.1 " 
chloroform " 49.4 " " " 25*. (OsiJca. 1903-08.) 

Freezing-point lowering data for mixtures of coumarin and sulfuric acid are 
given by Kendall and Carpenter, 1914. 

GRESOLS CeH4(0H)CH, 0, m and /». 

Solubility of Each Separately in Water. 

(At ao", Vaubel, 1895; Sidgwick, Spurrell and Davies, 19x5.) 

Determinations by synthetic method; melting-point oi ^ 29.9®, of m = 4", 
of p = 33'^^' Triple point for = 87 and 2.5 gms. per 100 gms. sat. sol. at 
8**; triple point for ^ = 86 and 2 gms. per 100 gms. sat. sol. at 8.7**. 



Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Solution. 



Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Solution. 



f. 


Cresol. 


m Cresol. 


p Cresol. 


f. 


Cresol. 


M Cresol. 


^CresoL' 


20 


2-45 


2.18 


1.94 


120 


6.22 


7 


6.58 


40 


308 


2.51 


2.26 


130 


6.70 


8.86 


9 


50 


3.22 


2.72 


2.43 


140 


7.67 


12.3 


iS-9 


60 


3 40 


2.98 


2.69 


143 . 5 crit. t. 


• • • 


• • • 


00 


70 


3-74 


3-35 


3 03 


147 crit. t. 


• • • 


00 




80 


4.22 


3.80 


3.52 


ISO 


II. I 






90 


4.80 


4-43 


4. .16 


160 


237 






100 


S-30 


5-47 


S-io 


162.8 crit. t. 


00 






no 


5.80 


5-96 


SSO 











One liter aqueous i normal solution of the sodium salt of cresol dissolves 
7.57 gms. cresol at 25°, 8.32 gms. at 40**, 9.84 gms. at 60° and 13.62 gms. at 8o* 

(Sidgwick, 19x0.) 

MisciBiLiTY OF Aqueous Alkaline Solutions of tn Cresol with Several 

Organic Compounds Insoluble in Water. 

(Sheuble, 1907.) 

To 5 cc. portions of aq. KOH solution (250 gms. per liter) were added the 

given amounts of the aq. insoluble compound from a buret, and then the tn cresol 

dropwise, until solution occurred. Temp, not stated. 

Composition of Homogeneous Solution. 

/ * . 

cc. Aq. KOH. 

s 
s 
s 
s 
s 

* B the nonnal secondary alcohol, the so-called capryl alcohol, CHi(CH|)«CH(OH)CB^ 





Aq. Insol. Cmpd. 


MCnsoL 


2 CC. 


(i .64 gms.) Octyl Alcohol* 


I.I gms. 


5" 


(4.1 " ) " 


1.8 " 


2 " 


(1.74 " ) Toluene 


4-4 " 


3" 


(2.61 " ) " 


S-i " 


2 " 


(i .36 " ) Heptane 


6.4 " 



279 GRESOL 

Distribution of Cresol between Water and Ether. (Vaubei, 1903.) 

Composition of Solvent. ^°*** lS^J/" ^^ In Ether Uyer. 

200 cc. H2O+ 100 cc. Ether o . 0570 i . 0760 

200 cc. H2O+ 200 cc. Ether o . 0190 i . 1 144 

Freezing-point Lowering Data (Solubility, see footnote, p. i) for Mix- 
tures OF Of m AND p Cresol (each determined separately) and Other 
Compounds. 

Mixture. Authority. 

0, m and p Cresol + Dimethylpyrone (KendaU, 1914.) 

" " + Picric Acid (Kendall, 1916.) 

" " -j- Pyridine (Hatcher and Skirrow, 1917.) 

and p a ^ a (Bramley, 19x6.) 

" " + Sulfuric Acid (Kendall and Carpenter. 1914.) 

£», m.and P " + Urea (Kremann, 1907.) 

Trinitrocresol + Naphthalene (Saposchlnikow and Gelvich, 1903, 1904.) 

CROTONIC ACmS a = CH,CH:CHCOOH, /J =. HCH,C:CHCOOH. 

Freezing-point Lowering Data for Mixtures of Crotonic Acids and of 

Crotonic AaD and Other Compounds. 

Mixture. ^ ^ Authority. 

a Crotonic Acid + P Crotonic Add (MorreU and Hanson, 1904.) 

" " -j- Dimethylpyrone (Kendall, 19x4.) 

" "4- Sulfuric Acid (Kendall and Carpenter, 1914.) 

Chlorocrotonic Acid + Dimethylpyrone (Kendall, 1914.) 

" " + Sulfuric Acid (Kendall and Carpenter, 1914.) 

Methyl CBYPTOPIMES, i4, 5 and C forms, C«H»OtN. 

The solubilities of the three forms in benzene, determined by lowering of the 
freezing-point, are: 5 gms. A form per liter at 5°, 30 gms. B form and no gms. C 
form. (Sidgrrick, 1915.) 

CUMINIG ACm CtH7C«H4.COOH (/» Isopropyl Benzoic Acid). 

Solubility in Water at 25**. (Paul. 1894.) 

1000 cc. sat. solution contain 0.1519 gm. or 0.926 miliimol cuminic acid. 

PseudoGUMIDIME (CH«)t.C«Hs.NHs (5, 5 Amino, i. 2. 4. Trimethyl Benzene). 

Solubility in Water. 

(Lowenherz, 1898.) 
t*. 19.4". 93.7". a8.7*. 

Gms. ^ Cumidine per liter H2O i . 198 . i .330 i .498 

CYANAMIDE CN.NH,. 

Solubility in Water, Determined by Freezing-point Method. 

(Pratokmgo, 19x3.) 

Gms. ' 
Solid Ph«e. f of CongeJirg. ^^,^^ p^. 

Sat. Sol. 
Ice —14.39 40.19 CN.NHi 

— 2.49 56.80 " 

+ 14.50 77.20 

25.6 87.15 

"+CN.NH. 37.90 96.77 

CN'.NHt 42 . 9 100 

Simila data forjZN.NHi -|- urea and^CN.NHj + dicyandiamide are also given. 

DiCTANDIAMIDIME Perchlorate C2H6N4OHCIO4. 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 9.97 gms. of the salt at 1 7° {d sat. sol. »> i . 039) . (Carbon, 19x0.; 



t*of Congealing. 
— 0.62 


Gms. 
CN.NH, per 
xoo Gms. 
Sat. Sol. 

2.58 


- 3.96 

- 7.58 


9.42 
18.40 


— 12.72 

— 16.6 Eutec. 


30.9 
37.8 


-15-6 


38.7s 



tf 
(f 
(I 



M 
M 



CYANOGEN 280 

CTANOOEN (CN)^ 

Solubility in Water and Other Solvents. 

(Berthelot, 1904.) 

The determinations were made over mercury with exclusion of air. The 
mercury was not attacked by the (CN)s. On account of polymerization, the 
solubility increased with time of contact and amount of agitation of the mixture. 

One volume of HsO at 30° dissolves 3.5 vols. (CN)s after 2 hours, and 9.7 vols, 
after 97 hours. 

One volume of abs. alcohol at 20° dissolves 26 vols. (CN)i immediately; 39 
vols, after 4 hours; 89 vols, after 48 hrs. and 223 vols, after ± days. 

One volume glacial acetic acid dissolves 42 vols, of (CN)s immediately and 
50^ vols, after 3 days. 

One volume of chloroform dissolves about 19 vols. (CN)i immediately and 
29-30 vols, with time. 

One volume of benzine finally dissolves 28 vols. (CN)t. 

One volume of rectified turpentine dissolves 9-10 vols, of (CN)i. 

One volume of ether dissolves 5 vok. (CN)i at 20®. (Gay Lusiac.) 

CYCLOHEZANB (Hexamethylene, Hexahydrobenzene) CHs < (CHs.CHt)s > 
CH,. 

Freezing-point data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) for mixtures of cyclo- 
hexane and ethylene bromide are given by Baud (l9i^b). Results for mix- 
tures of cyclohexane and methyl alcohol are given by Lecat (1909). Results 
for mixtures of cyclohexane and piperidine are given by Mascarelli and Con- 
stantino (1909, 191 o). 

CTCLOHIXANOL (CHOlCHOH. 

100 gms. HtO dissolve 5.67 gms. cyclohexanol at 11*^. (de Foroand, 191 3.) 

100 gms. cyclohexanol dissolve 11.27 gms. HtO at II^ " 

Reciprocal Solubility of Cyclohexanol and Water, Determxned by 

THE Freezing-point Method. 

(de Forcnnd, 1912.) 

Gm. (CH0».CHOH Gm. (CH^.CHOH 

i* of Solidification. per xoo Gnu. t* of Solidification. per 100 Gms. 

Mixture. Mixture. 

+22.45 '^^ — S7.4Eutec. 95030 

17.48 99-767 -43-2 93 150 

— 1.40 98.817 —33 91.962 
—34.10 96.868 —18.50 90.980 
—46.80 9S-9IO ~"I4SS 90.36 

— 55-70 95-170 -12.05 S8.73 

Freezing-point data for mixtures of cyclohexanol and phenol are given by 
Mascarelli and Pestalozza, 1908, 1909. 

CYCLOHIXANONE (CHOiiCO. 

Freezing-point data for mixtures of cyclohexanone and phenol are given by 
Schmidlin and Lang, 1910. 

CmSIME (Ulexine) CnHieNjO (m. pt. ISI^^-ISI-S**). 

Solubility in Several Solvents at i$\ 

CV'an de Moer, 1891.) 

Snlvrat Gms. CnHwNjO per 

bolvcnt. j^ Q^ ^^ SoL 

Benzine i . 26 

Petroleum Ether insol. 

Amyl Alcohol o . 303 

Carbon Disulfide insol. 

Ethyl Acetate very soluble 



Solvent 


Gms. CuHx.N/) 
per 100 Gms. Sat. SoL 


Water 


soluble in ail proportions 


Alcohol 


u u tt 


Chloroform 


C( If II 


Ether {d 0.725) 


0.302 


Ether, abs. 


insol. 



28l 



DEXTBIN 



DSZTBIN Ci,H»Oio. 

Solubility in Water. (Lewis, 1914) 

" In the case of dextrin, however, no matter how small an amount of water be 
employed, under no condition does the concentration of the solution remain con- 
stant, while on the other hand the addition of further solvent, never fails to 
dissolve additional dextrin, although the use of no amount of water, however 
large, will dissolve the whole of the sample." 

100 gms. pyridine dissolve 65.44 S™s- dextrin at 20-25°. 

100 gms. aq. 50% pyridine dissolve 102 gms. dextrin at 20-25°. 



(Dehn, 19x7.) 



DIACKTYL TARTARIC ETHER (m. pt. 104°) DIACETTL RACEMIG 

(m. pt. 84°). 



Freezing-point lowering data for each of these compounds in ethylene bromide 
and in p xylene are given by Bruni and Finzi, 1905. 

DIBENZYL CeH8.CH2.CH,.C«Hs. 

Freezing-point lowering data for mixtures of dibenzyl and stilbene are given by 
Garelli and Calzolari, 1899. 

DIDYMIUM Ammonium NITRATE Di(NOs)i.2NH4NQi. 



100 gms. HsO dis 


solve 292 gms. of the salt a 


ti5". 


(Holinbeis. 1907-) 


DIDYMIUM SULFATE Di,(S04)i. 








Solubility in Water. 


(Marignac, 1853.) 




Gmfl. Di,(SO«)« 


Cfins. Di,(S04)i 




t*. per TOO 


SoUd Phase. t*. 


per 100 


SoUdPiiaw. 


Ginft.H^. 




Gias. H«0. 




12 43.1 


DiaCSOOa ? 


34.0 


Dii(S04),.6H»0 


18 25.8 


19 


II. 7 


D^(SO0t.8H^ 


25 20.6 


40 


^.^ 


ii 


38 13 


!! SO 


6.S 


a 


SO II 


100 


1.8 


it 



DIDYMIUM POTASSIUM SUIiFATE KsS04.Dis(S04}i.2HsO. (Marignac.) 
100 gms. H2O dissolve 1.6 grams of the double salt at i8^ 



DIDYMIUM SULFONATES. 

Solubility in Water. (Holmbeig, 1907.) 



Salt. 



F<ffmala. 



f. 



Didymium Benzene Sulfonate Di(C«HftSOs)s.9HsO 

i» Nitro Benzene Sulfonate Di(C6H4(NOi)SO,),.6HiO 



tt 



« 

tt 



tn Chloro 

tn Bromo 

Chloro Nitro " 

a Naphthalene Sulfonate 

i.SNitro " 

1.6 

1.7 " " 



IS 
IS 



Di(C«H4ClSO,),.9H,0 15 

Di(CtaBrSO,),.9HtO 15 
Di(C«H4Cl(NO,)SO,*),.i6H,0 15 

Di(C,oH7SO,),.6H20 15 

Di(CioH6(NO,)SO,),.6H,0 15 

Di(C,oHe(NO*)SQ,),.9H,0 15 

Di(CioH4,(NOi)SO»),.9H^ iS 



Gms. 

Anhydrous 

Salt per 100 

Gm8.H|0. 

S3I 
47.8 
12.7 

14-3 

25. 3 
6.1 

0.52 

0.18 

1.3 



• (S0i:N0i:a - 1.3-6.) 



DIETHYLAMINE see ETHYLAMENE, page 294. 

DIONINE (Ethyl Morphine) Ci»H»NOs. 

100 cc. HfO dissolve 0.2613 gm. Ci0HaNOs at 20^ 

100 cc. oil of sesame dissolve 0.5144 gm. CuHnNOi at 20^ 



(Zalai, 19x0.) 



DIFUINYL 



282 



DIPHSMTL C«Hi.C«Hi. 

100 grams absolute methyl alcohol dissolve 6.57 grains at 19.5^' 

100 grams abs. ethyl alcohol dissolve 9.98 grams at 19.5**. (de Bruyn, 1892.) 

Freezing-point data (Solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given for mixtures of 
diphenyl + naphthalene by Washburn and Read (1915) and by Vignon (1891). 
Results for diphenyl + phenanthrene and for diphenyl + triphenylmethane are 
given by Vignon (1891). 

DIPHINTLAMINS (C«H.)tNH. 

RsaPROCAL SQLUBILITY of DlPHBNYLAlONB AND WaTBR, BT SYNTHETIC 

f Method. 

(Campetti and del GtOMo, 19x3.) ' 

Cms. (C«K),NH 
t*. per 100 Gmi. 
Mixture. 

305crit. t. 47. s 

304 62.52 

299 73.07 

289 82.08 

249 86.73 

Similar data for the systems diphenylamine + ether ^and diphenylamine + 
iaopentane are given by Uimpetti, 1917. 

SoLUBH^mr OF Difhenylaionb in Several Solvents. 



r. 


Gnu. (C|H|)i NH 




Mixture. 


231 


1.48 


264 


3-49 


27s 


5.62 


297 


16.50 


303 


45.16 



f. 


Cms. (C«^tNH 
per xoo Gms. 




Mixture. 


239 


88.28 


229 


90.23 


210 


92.93 


152 


97.19 



SohfenL 

Water 

Methyl Alcohol 
t( it 

Ethyl Alcohol 



u 



il 



Propyl Alcohol 

Pyridine 

Aq. 50% Pyridine 



M Gms. t&HOsNH 

per 100 GiDB. Solvent. 

20-25 0.03 

145 4S-2 

I9-S S7.S 

14. s 39.4 

19.5 56 

14. S 29.4 

20-25 302 

20-25 two layers formed 



Authority. 

(Dehn, 19x7.) 
(Timofeiew, 1894.) 
(de Bruyn, 1892.) 
(Timofeiew, 1894.) 
(de Bntyn, 1892.) 
(Tiniofeiew, 1894.) 
(Defan, 19x7.) 



u 



SOLUBH^ITY OF DiFHBNYLAMINE AND ALSO OF TrIFHENYLAMINE IN CARBON 

Disulfide. (Arctowtki, i895>) 



NH(C:,H|), in CS, 



N(CJIi), in CS,. 



r. 

-88i 
-X17 



Gms. per 100 
Gms. Solution. 



0.87 
0.37 



f. 

-83 
-91 

— 102 

-xi3i 



Gms. per 100 
Gms. Solution. 

1. 91 

1.56 
1.24 

0.98 



SoLUBiLmr OF Diphenylamine in Hexane and in Carbon Disulfide. 

(Etard, 1894.) 



r. 


Gms. NH(CJI.)t 
per xoo Gms. Sol. in: 




Hexane. CS,. ~ 


-60 


1.3 


-so 


2.2 


-40 


... 3.8 


-30 


0.5 7.2 


— 20 


0.8 12.5 


— 10 


1.4 21.6 



f. 

o 

+10 

20 

30 
40 

50 



Gms. NH(C|H0^ 
per 100 Gms. Sol. m: 



Hexane. 
2.6 

3.8 

6.7 
13.8 

47 
94 



CS,. 

33-7 
46.8 

60.9 

76 



II 
II 
II 



283 DIPHBNYLAMINl 

Freezing-point Data for Mixtures op Diphenylaminb and Other 

Compounds. 

Diphenylamine + Acetyldiphenylamine (Boeaeken, 1912.) 

" + Ethylene Bromide (Dahms, 1895.) 

" + Naphthalene (Roloff, 1895; Vignon. 189x0 

+ a Naphthylamine (Vignon, 1891.) 

+ Nitronaphthalene (Battdli and Martinetti, z88s0 

+ a and fi Naphthol Vignon, 1891.) 

" + Paraffin (Pakno and Battdli, z88i30 

" 4- Phenanthrene (Narbuu, 1905.) 

" + Phenol (PhiKp. 1905.) 

" + Resorcinol (Vignon, 1891.) 

" + p Nitrotoluene (Giua, 191s.) 

" + 2.4 Dinitrotoluene " 

" + a Trinitrotoluene " 

" + ^ Toluidine (Vignon, 1891.) 

" + Urethau (Puahin and Grebenadiikov, 19x3^ 

Diphenylmethylamine + Phenol (Bramlor, 19x6.) 
" '\- Chlorophenol 

Hexanitrodiphenylamine + a Trinitrotoluene 



(Giua, 19x5.) 



DIPHENYLAMINE BLUE. 

Scx^UBiLiTY IN Several Solvents at 23^ 

(Szathmaxy de Szachinar, x9xo.) 

Sdvent. Gms. Diphenylamme Blue g^j ^ Gms. Diphenyluibe Blue 

per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. sfw»t«ii.. p^ ^^^ Qa^. Sat. SoL 

Methyl Alcohol 0.385 Acetone o-i77 

Ethyl " 0.230 Aniline 0.395 

Amyl " 0.049 

DIPHENYL SULFIDE (CeHi)sS, etc 

Freezing-point lowering data for mixtures of (CeHi)iS + ((r6Hi)sSe, (CeHi)sS + 
(CJl*),Te, (CA),S + (C«H*),0, (C«H*),Se+ (C.H*),Te, are given by Pascal (1912). 

DYES. 

-Data for the distribution of 12 dyes between water and iaobutyl alcohol at 25% 
are given by Reinders and Lely, Jr. (19 12). 



DYSPROSIUM OXALATE Dys(C,04)i.ioHsO. 

100 cc. aq. 20% methylamine oxalate dissolve 0.276 gm. DyiCCsOOi. 

ethylamine " " 1.787 " 

triethylamine " " 1.432 " 



(Grant and 
James, 
X9X7.) 



EDESTIN and Edestin Salts. 

Solubility in Aq. Salt Sch^utions at 25®. 

(Osborne and Harris, 1905.) 

The determinations were made by shaking an excess of the air-drv preparation 
with 20 cc. of the salt solution, allowing the globulin to settle and determining 
nitrogen in 10 cc. of the clear supernatant solution. The edestin or edestin salt 
was ^culated from the N. The results are given in the form of curves. The 
following figures were read from the curve for the solubility of neutral edestin in 
aq. NaCTl. 

Gms. NaCl per 20 cc. Solvent — * o . 468 o . 585 o . 702 0.818 o . 935 
Gm. Edestin per 20 cc. Sat. Sol.-* 0.25 0.55 0.92 1.25 1.45 

Curves are also given for the solubility of edestin in aqueous solutions of many 
other salts and of the solubility of edestin chloride, bichloride and sulfate in aq. 
sodium chloride solutions. 

100 gms. pyridine dissolve 0.07 gm. edestm at 20-25*^. (Dehn, X9X7.) 

100 gms. aq. 50% pyridine dissdve 9.05 gm. edestin at 20-25^ " 



MLkTEBJH 384 

ILATIBIN CiDH«Ok. 

100 cc. 90% alcohol dissolve 0.09 gm. elaterin at 15-20. (Sqoize and Cainu. 1905.) 



100 cc. chloroform dissolve 4 gms. elaterin at 15-20. 

EMBTZNI and Salts. 

Sqlubility in Water. 

(Cmt and Pyman, 1914.) 
Sdt. Fonn«k. f. ^,5^^.|£ 

Emetine Hydrochloride CttH4o04N3. 2HCI.7H1O 18 13 . i 

" Hydrobromide Ci»H4(04Ns.2HBr.4l]^ 17-18 1.9 

" Nitrate Cs9H4o04N,.2HNQs.3H,0 17-18 3.7 

" Sulfate CnH40O4N1.HtSO4.7HsO 17-18 more than 100 

IRBIUM OXALATE Er,(CsO«),.i4H,0. 

Solubility in Aq. Sulfuric Acm at 25*. 

(Wiith. X9X2.) 



Nonnalityof 
Aq.H«SQft. 


Gms. per xoo 
ErA. 


t Gms. Sat. Sol. 
Er,(CO«),: 


Solid Phase. 


2.16 


0.329 


0.5144 


Er2(Cj04)8.i4H«D 


3" 


0.493 


0.7708 


« 


4.32 


. 7036 


1. 10 


u 


6.17s 


1. 10 


1.72 


« 



II 

M 



ERBIUM Dimethyl PHOSPHATE ErtECCHOsPOJe. 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 1.78 gm. Ers[(CHt)sP04]4 at 25^ (Moisan aadjamea. 19x4.) 

ERBIUM SULFATE Er,(S04)i.8HsO. 

Solubility in Water and Aq.''HiS04 at 25*. 

(Wiith. i9xa.) 

,. Gms. per xoo Gms. ._ ,.^ [Gms. per xoo Gms. 

Nomabty St. .Sol. Solid Phase. ^T^*^ Sat.Sol. f SoHd Phaae. 

'^^^*' ErA. Er,(SO0,.- ^^•^** ErA- Er,(SOJ,. 

Water alone 7. 339 11.94 £ri(S04)i.8H^ 2. 16 3.98 6.473 Ers(S04)i.8H^ 

O.I 7.389 12.02 « 6.17s 0.9352 I. 521 

0.505 6.249 10.164 " 12.6 0.0852 0.1386 

I.I 5.256 8.549 

ERBIUM Bromonitrobenzene SULFONATE Er(CcHtBr.NOs.SQt, 1.4.2)1. i2HsO. 

100 gms. sat. solution in water contain 6.056 gms. anhydrous salt at 25°. 

(Kats ami Jamics, 1913.) 

ERUCIG ACm C8Hi7CH:CH(CH,)iiCOOH. 

SCO^UBILFTY IN AlCOHOLS. 
(Timofeiew, 1894.) 

Gms. Exude Gms. Enidc 

Alcohol. t*. Acid per 100 Alcohol. t*. Add per xoo 

Gms. Sat. Sol. Gms. Sat. SoL 

Methyl Alcohol — 2 2.25 Ethyl Alcohol +21.4 63 . 4 



+18 60.4 Propyl Alcohol — 2 10.2 
21.4 62 " " +18 60 

Ethyl Alcohol - 2 8.24 " " 21.4 63 



ERTTHRITOL (CHsOH.CHOH),. 

100 gms. HjO dissolve 61.5 gms. erythritol at 20-25^ (Dehn, 19x7) 

100 gms. aq. 50% pyridine dissolve 8.47 gms. erythritol at 20-25®. 

too gms. pyridine aissolve 2.50 + gms. erythritol at 20-25. (Dehn,|x9x7; Holty, 1905.) 



385 ETHAMI 

BTHAMI 



L^taR, 


■i v^nc 




SoLUBiLrrY IN Water. 












(Winkler. 190X.) 






f. 


. /9- 


^'. 


tf. f. /5. 


fi^- 


ff- 


o 


0.0987 


00982 


0.0132 40 0.0292 


0.0271 


0.0037 


5 


0.0803 


0.0796 


0.0107 50 0.0246 


0.0216 


0.0029 


lO 


0.0656 


0.0648 


0.0087 60 0.0218 


0.017s 


0.0024 


IS 


0.0550 


0.0541 


0.0073 70 0.0195 


0.0135 


0.0018 


20 


0.0472 


0.0462 


0.0062 80 0.0183 


0.0097 


0.0013 


as 


0.0410 


0.0398 


0.0054 90 0.0176 


0.0054 


0.0007 


30 


00362 


0.0347 


0.0049 1^^ 0.0172 


0.0000 


0.0000 



P = Absorption coefficient, i.e., the volume of gas (reduced to o® 
and 760 mm.) absorbed by i volume of the liquid when the pressure 
of the gas itself without the tension of the liquid amounts to 760 mm. 

P' = Solubility, i.e., the volume of gas (reduced to o° and 760 mm.) 
which is absorbed by one voltime of the liquid when the barometer 
indicates 760 mm. pressure. 

q = the weight 01 gas in grams which is taken up by 100 grams at 
the pure solvent at the indicated temperature and a total pressure 
(that is, the partial |)ressure of the gas plus the vapor pressure of tha 
Uquid at the absorption temperature) of 760 mm. 

Freezing-point data for mixtures of ethane and hydrochloric acid are given by 
Baume and Georgitses, 1912, 1914. 

SoLUBiLmr OF Ethane in Several Alcohols and Other Solvents. 

(McDanid, 1911.) 

(«^. . j^ Ads* ' BiioflCQ c 1 & a* Ads. ouosqi 

Solvent. r. Cocf.A. Coef.B. Solvent. V. Coef . A. Cocf.B. 

Methyl Alcohol (99%) 22.1 0.4436 0.4102 AmylAlcx)hol 22 0.4532 0.4196 

" " 30.2 0.4278 0.3883 " " 30.1 0.4444 04002 

" " 40 0.3938 0.3436 Benzene 22.Z 0.4954 0.4600 

" " 49.8 0.2695 0.2278 ** 35 0.4484 0.3976 

Ethyl Alcohol (99.8%) 22*2 0.4628 0.4282 " 40. z 0.4198 0.3661 

" " So.T 0.4503 0.4051 " 49.9 0.3645 0.3081 

" " 40 0.4323 0.3771 Toluene 25 0.4852 0.4450 

Isopropyl Alcohol 21.5 04620 0.4275 " 30 0.4778 0.4300 

" " 29.9 0.4532 0.4081 " 40.1 0.4675 04080 

" " 40 0.4400 0.3837 " 50.2 0.4545 0.4013 

" " 60.3 0.4244 0.3478 ** 60 0.4502 0.3690 

Abs. coef. A = vol. of ethane absorbed by unit volume of solvent at the temp, stated. 
For definition of Bunsen Coef. B, see fi above, and also carbon dioxide, p. 227. 
Additional data for the solubility of ethane in amyl alcohol are given by (Friedel 
and Gorgeu, 1908). 



BTHYL ACETATE CHiCOOCsHs. 

Solubility of Ethyl Acetate in Water and Vice Versa. 

(Merrunan, 19x3, see also Seidell/'igio.) 
Results for Ethyl Acetate in Water. Results for Water in Ethyl Acetate. 

f. rfj* of Sat. Sol. ^i^^S?^ f. rf/o£Sat.Sol. ,&^vWlJ^^^ 

O I 0034 II. 21 

5 1.0022 10.38 

10 1.0009 9.67 

IS 0.999s 9 OS 

20 0.9979 8.53 

25 0.9962 8.08 

30 0.9943 7.71 

40 0.9901 7.10 



V. 


rfjj of Sat. Sd. 


Gnu. ^Opc 
Gnu. CH,C(S( 





0.9280 


2-34 


10 


0.9164 


3.68 


20 


0.9054 


307 


2S 


0.9002 


3-30 


30 


0.8953 


3S2 


40 


0.8863 


4.08 


SO 


• ■ • 


4.67 


60 


• • • 


5-29 



ETHTL ACETATE 



286 



Solubility in Water and in Aqueous Salt Solutions at 28*. 

(Euler — Z. phyaik. Cbem. 3i» 365, '99; 49» 306, '04.) 





Cone, of Salt 


CH^OOCsHi 


Cone, of Salt 


CHsCOOCA 




Solutioa. 


P« Liter. 


SolutioQ. 


per 


Uter. 


^veat. 


'Nor- Gnu- per' 
maHty. liter. 


Gram 
Mols. 


Grams. 


' Nor- Gms. per 


Cram 
Moh. 


Gram*. 


Water 








0.825 


75.02 NaCl(at 18?) 


i 14.62 


0.76 


67.0 


KNO, 


i 


50.59 


0.77 


67.81 


i 29.25 


0.67 


59- 


ii 


I 


loi . 19 


0.72 


63.40 " 


I 58.5 


0.51 


45.0 


€t 


2 


202.38 


0.625 


55.04 Na2S04 


I 71.08 


0.465 


40.96 


KCl 


} 


18.4 


0.747 


65.79 " (at 18°) 


4 35.54 


0.61 


54.0 


« 


i 


36.8 


0.685 


6533 " 


I 71.08 


0.42 


37.0 


tt 


I 


73.6 


0.575 


50.64 MgSO* 


I 16.30 


0.733 


64.55 


a 


a 


147.2 


0.41 


36. II " 


J 32.6 


0.655 


57.68 


NaQ 


I 


14.62 


0.745 


65.61 " 


I 65.21 


0.505 


44.47 


€t 


i 


29.25 


0.677 


59.62 ZnS04 


i 20.18 


0.733 


64.55 


U 


I 


58.5 


0.545 


47.99 " 


i 40.36 


0.653 


57.50 


« 


2 


117.0 


0.315 


27.74 " 


I 80.73 


0.500 


44.03 



Additional data for the influence of salts upon the solubility of ethyl acetate in 
water are given by Lundin, 191 3. 1 

Solubility of Ethyl Acetate in Aqueous Solutions of Ethyl Alcohol at 25^ 

(Seidell, 19x0.) 



wt. % c«h»oh 

in Solvent. 


d»of Sat. 
Sd. 


ce. CH,COOCaHt Gms. CH,C00CiH» 

per 100 cc. per xoo Cms. 

Solvent. Solvent. 





0.999 


10 


8.6 


s 


0.993 


10.5 


95 


10 


0.986 


12 


10.9 


IS 


0.974 


15 


13-3 


20 


0.960 


27 


19.6 


25 


0.945 


44 


37 


30 


0.931 


70 


66.7 


35 


0.918 


"5 


132.5 


40 


• • • 


00 


00 



Solubility op Ethyl Acetate in Aqueous Ethyl Alcohol, Methyl 
Alcohol, and Acetone Mixtures at 20°. 

(Banaolt — Phys. Rev. 3, laa, 131, '05-^96.) 

In Ethyl Alcohol. In Methyl Alcohol. In Acetone. 



Per X cc. CaHgOH. 


Per X 


cc. CHjOH. 


Per X cc. (CHi)«CO. 


ccHflO.* 


CHgCOdCsHs.t 


CC.H1O. 


CHgCObCA. 


OC. HiO. 


CHsCOOCA. 


XO 


0.25 


10 


1.08 


10 


1. 01 


8 


0.27 


3 


0.68 


5 


0.60 


4 


035 


1-5 


1.69 


2 


0.43 


2 


1.02 


1.29 


2.50 


1-5 


0.47 


X.06 


2.50 


I.O 


4.9 


1.0 


0.63 


0.65 


S-O 


0.98 


7.0 


0.8 


0.74 


0.54 


7.0 


1.0 


8.0 


0.51 


1. 00 


0.44 


10. 


1.03 


10. 


0.25 
0.29 


2.00 
5.00 




* Satuxatedlwitli ethyl acetate. 


t Saturated with water. 





Data for the distribution of ethyl acetate between petroleum and water, ben- 
zene and water, and benzene and a large number of aqueous solutions, at various 
temperatures^ are given by Philip and bramiey, 19 15. 



287 



BTH7L ALCOHOL 



Reciprocal Solubility of Ethyl Alcohol and Water at Low Tem- 
peratures, Determined by the Freezing-point Method. 

(Pictet and Altschul, 1895; Pkkeringp 1893.) 







Gms. 










Gms. ■ 


• 


f.of 


Sp. Gr. CaHiOHper 


Solid 


f.of 


Sp. Gr. 


CAOHper Sdid 


Freeang. 


Sat. Sol. 


100 Gms. 
Sat. Sol. 


Phase. 


Freezing. 


Sat. Sol. 


100 Gms. 
Sat. Sol. 


Phase. 


— I 


0.9962 


2.S 


Ice 


- 23:6 


0.9512 


33-8 


Ice 


— 2 


0.9916 


4.8 


II 


- 28.7 


0.9417 


39 


tt 


- 3 


0.9870 


6.8 


II 


- 33-9 


0.9270 


46.3 


M 


- S 


0.9824 


"•3 


II 


- 41 


0.9047 


56.1 


M 


- 6.1 


0.9793 


138 


II 


- SO 


• • • 


68 


M 


- 8.7 


0.9747 


17s 


II 


- 60 






75 


M 


- 9-4 


0.9732 


18.8 


II 


- 70 


• 1 




80 


«l 


— 10.6 


0.9712 


20.3 


II 


- 80 


• ( 




83. 5 


M 


— 12.2 


0.9689 


22.1 


II 


— 100 


• 1 




895 


II 


-14 


. 9662 


24.2 


II 


— ii8Eutec. . 




93-5 


" +CAOH 


-16 


0.9627 


26.7 


II 


-"S 


• 1 




96 QHiOH 


-18.9 


0.9578 


29.9 


II 


-iio.s 


• 




100 


II 



The result for the eutectic and for the f.-pt. of CsHiOH are by Puschin and 
Glagoleva, I9i4t 1915; the other data for concentrations of CsH«OH above 70% 
were obtained by exterpolation. Additional data for the freezing-point lowering 
are given by Rozsa (191 1). 

Freezing-point lowering data for mixtures of ethyl alcohol and hydrochloric 
acid are given by Maass and Mcintosh, 1913. 

The distribution coefficient of ethyl alcohol between amylalcohol and water 
was found by Fontein (1910) to be 1.13 at 15.5" and 1.2 1 at 28®. 

Misobility of Ethyl Alcohcx. with Mixtures of: 

Benzene and Water at 15®. 

(Bomter, 1910.) (See also, p. 135.) 
Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Benzaldehyde and Water at o^ 




(Bonner, 1910.) 


• 


Composition of HomoKeneous Mixtures. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Sp. Gr. of 


CHiCHO. 


H,0. 


r,H,0H. 


Mixture. 


0.957 


0.043 


0.159 


1.02 


0.898 


0.102 


0.283 


1. 01 


0.800 


0.200 


0.420 


0.99 


0.700 


0.300 


0.550 


0.98 


0.598 


0.402 


0.601 


0.97 


♦0.570 


0.430 


0.610 


• V • 


0.496 


0.504 


0.643 


0.96 


0.394 


0.606 


0.681 


0.9s 


0.298 


0.702 


0.701 


0.9s 


0.200 


0.800 


0.670 


0.9s 


O.IOO 


0.900 


0.610 


0.96 


0.031 


0.969 


0.461 


0.97 



Gms. 
C.H.. 

0.987 

0.937 
^0.900 

0.800 

0.700 

0.600 

0.500 

0.400 

0.300 

0.201 

O.IOO 

0.020 



Gms. 
HtO. 

0.013 
0.063 
O.IOO 
0.200 
0.300 
0.400 
0.500 
0.600 
0.700 
0.799 
0.900 
0.980 



Gms. 
CaH»0H. 

0.170 

0.356 
0.500 

0.860 

0.910 

1.07 

1. 18 

1.22 

I. 21 

113 
0.97 

0.59 



Sp. Gr. of 
Mixture. 

0.86 
0.87 
0.86 
0.86 
0.88 
0.87 
0.87 
0.88 
0.89 
0.89 
0.92 
0.94 



Note. — The determinations were made by gradually adding ethyl alcohol to 
the mixtures^ of the given amounts of water and the other constituent until a 
homogeneous* solution was obtained. The results give the binodal curve for the 
system. The author also determined "tie lines" showing the compositions of 
various pairs of liquids which may exist in equilibrium. As the two layers 
approach each other in composition, the tie line is gradually shortened and finally 
reduced to a point, designate as the "plait point of the binodal curve. This 
point is indicated by a * in the above tables. The mixtures above and below the 
* correspond, according to their Sp. Gr., to the upper and lower layers of the 
system. See also, last table p. 289. 

The distribution coefficient of ethyl alcohol between benzene and water at 2^^ 
was found bv Morgan and Benson (1907) to be 1.16. Additional data for this 
system are also given by Bubanovic, 1913 and by Taylor (1897). 



BTH7L ALCOHOL 



288 



'MisasiLiTY OF Ethyl Alcohol (see Note, p. 287) with Mixtures op: 



Bromobenzene and Water 


ato*. 


Nitrobenzene and Water at 15*. 




(Bonner, 


19x0.) 






(Bonner, 19x0.) 




Coiii|)osition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 




r 

Gms. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Sp. Gr. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Sp. Gr. 


C|H«Br. 


HjO. 


CH»0H. 


Sat. Sol. 


CH,N0i. 


H«0. 


CH,0H. 


Sat. Sol. 


0.99 


O.OIO 


o.iis 


1-34 


0.96s 


0.03s 


0.248 


1.08 


'0.96 


0.040 


0.32 


• « • 


*o.9i 


0.09 


0.49 


• • • 


0.90 


O.IO 


0.65 


1.07 


0.90 


O.IO 


0.53 


1.02 


0.80 


0.20 


I 


0.96 


0.80 


0.20 


0.86 


0.97 


0.70 


0.30 


1. 19 


0.96 


0.70 


0.30 


1.09 


0.94 


0.60 


0.40 


1.30 


0.98 


0-594 


0.406 


1.238 


0.93 


O.SO 


0.50 


I 39 


0-9S 


0.50 , 


O.SO 


I-3I 


0.92 


0.40 


0.60 


I 43 


0.91 


0.40 


0.60 


1-34 


0.92 


0.30 


0.70 


1-43 


0,92 


0.30 


0.70 


1.30 


0.91 


0.20 


0.80 


1.36 


0.93 


0.194 


0.806 


1. 212 


0.92 


O.IO 


0.90 


1. 16 


0-93 


O.IO 


0.90 


0.98 


0.93 


0.024 


0.976 


0.803 


0.92 


0.02 


0.98 


0.601 


0.9s 



MisciBiLiTY OF Ethyl Alcohol (see Note, p. 287) at o* with Mixtures of: 
Benzyl Acetate and Water. (Bonner, 19x0.) Benzyl Alcohol and Water. (Bonner, 19x0.) 



Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Gms. CHs." 


Gms. 


Gms. 


sp. Gr. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


' Gms. 


Sp. Gr. 


CO^.CH|.<^ 


I. H,0. 


CHjOH. 


Sat.Sol. 


QH,CH/)H. 


H/>. 


r,H,0H. 


Sat. Sol. 


0.977 


0.023 


0.120 


I. OS 


0.90 


O.IO 


0.13 


1.03 


0.901 


0.099 


0.317 


1.03 


0.80 


0.20 


0.26 


I 


0.80 


0.200 


0.46 


0.99 


0.70 


0.30 


0.3s 


0.98 


0.70 


0.300 


o.s8 


0.97 


0.60 


0.40 


0.39 


0.98 


♦0.68 


0.32 


0.60 


• • • 


O.SO 


0.50 


0.40 


0.97 


0.60 


0.40 


0.69 


0.9s 


0.40 


0.60 


0.41 


0.97 


o-so 


O.SO 


0.78 


0.94 


*o.38 


0.62 


0.42 


• * • 


0.40 


0.60 


0.8s 


0.94 


0.379 


0.621 


0.417 


0.98 


0.30 


0.70 


0.88 


0.93 


0.30 


0.70 


0.41 


0.97 


0.20 


0.80 


0.88 


0.93 


0.194 


0.806 


0.388 


0.97 


O.IO 


0.90 


0.80 


0.94 


O.IO 


0.90 


0.3s 


0.98 


0.041 


0.959 


0.66s 


0.9s 


0.04 


0.96 


0.139 


0.99 



MisaBiLiTY of Ethyl Alcohol (see Note, p. 287) at 0° with Mixtures of: 



Benzylethyl Ether and Water. 

(Bonner, 1910.) 
ConvxiBition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 

* ^ 

Sp. Gr. 
Sat. Sol. 

0.94 
0.92 
0.92 
0.91 

• • • 

0.91 
0.91 
0.92 
0.92 
0.92 

0.93 
0.94 



Carbon Tetrachloride and Water. 

(Bonner, 1910.) 
Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Gms. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


CfH^CHs.O.CA' H,0. 


CHsOH. 


0.971 


0.029 


0.189 


0.90 


O.IO 


0.37 


0.80 


0.20 


0.54 


0.70 


0.30 


0.67 


♦0.67 


0.33 


0.71 


0.60 


0.40 


0.78 


0.50 


O.SO 


0.87 


0.40 


0.60 


0.93 


0.30 


0.70 


0.96 


0.198 


0.802 


0.952 


O.IO 


0.90 


0.86 


0.08 


0.92 


0.793 



Gms. 
CCI4. 

0.961 
0.928 
"0.92 
0.90 
0.80 
0.70 
0.60 
0.499 
0.40 

0.2s 
O.IO 
0.032 



Gms. 
H,0. 

0.039 

0.072 

0.08 

O.IO 

0.20 

0.30 

0.40 

0.501 

0.60 

0.75 
0.90 

0.968 



Gms. 
CH»0H. 

0.224 

0.347 

0.39 

0.45- 
0.67 

0.82 

0.94 

1.04 

I 

i.ios 

I 

0.745 



Sp. Gr. 
Sat. SoL 

1.36 
1^-23 

• • • 

1.20 

I-I5 
1.07 

I 03 

I 

0.97 

0.95 
0.92 

0.93 



289 



ETH7L ALCOHOL 



Distribution of Ethyl Alcohol at 25^ (Bugarszky, 1910) Between: 



Bromobenzene and 

Water. 
Cms. CtHfcOH per Liter. 
QHftBr Layer. HfO Layer. 
0.72 18.5 

1.36 36 -9 

2.68 68.2 



Carbon Tetrachloride and 
Water. 

Gms. CH>OH per Liter. 
ecu Layer. H«0 Layer.' 
0.45 18.7 

0-93 36.5 

2.55 68.1 



Carbon Disulfide and 
Water. 
Gma. CiH^H per liter. 
CS| Layer. H^ Layer. 
0.27 19. I 

I 87 37. 

10.23 69.3 



MisaBiLiTY OF Ethyl Alcohol (see Note p. 287) at o^ with Mixtures of: 
Chloroform and Water. (Bonner, 1910.) Diethylketone and Water. (Bonner, 1910.) 



Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



(Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Gms. 
CHCna. 

0.907 
0.90 
0.80 
0.70 

OS93 
0.501 

^0.420 

0.404 

0.300 

0.197 

O.IOO 

0.088 



Gms. 
H«0. 

0.093 

O.IO 

0.20 

0.30 

0.407 

0.499 

0.58 

0.596 

0.70 

0.803 

0.90 

0.912 



Gms. 
CAOH. 

0.434 

0.45 
0.60 

0.68 

0.726 

0.729 

0.73 

0.733 
0.70 

0.672 

0.61 

0.608 



Sp. Gr. 
Sat. Sol. 

1. 19 
1. 18 
1. 12 
1.07 
1.04 
1.03 

« • ■ 

1. 01 
0.99 
0.98 
0.98 
0.98 



Gms. Gms. 

CaHi.C0.CsH«. H^. 

0.938 0.062 



0.900 
0.895 
0.800 
0.781 
0.702 
0.600 

0.547 

0.499 
0.458 

0.407 



O.IO 
0.105 

0.20 
0.219 
0.298 
0.400 

0.453 

0.501 

0.542 

0.593 



Gms. 
CAOH. 

0.136 

0.19 

0.201 

0.31 

0.317 
0.356 
0.392 

0.410 
O.4II 

0.415 
0.404 



Sp. (jr. 
Sat. Sol. 

0.85 
0.85 
0.86 
0.87 
0.87 
0.88 
0.89 
0.90 
0.91 
0.92 
0.91 



Additional data for the miscibility of alcohol with chloroform + water mixtures 
are given by Miller and McPherson, 1908. 

MisciBiLiTY OF Ethyl Alcohol with Mixtures "of Ethyl Ether and 

Water at O^. (Corliss, 19x4; Bonner, 19x0; see ilso Krenuum, xgxoa.) 



Composition of the Lower Layer. 


Composition of Upper Layer. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Sp. Gr. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Sp. Gr. 


(C,H,)i0. 


HA 


r,H,0H. 


Sat. Sol. 


(C,H.),0. 


h^. 


CH.0H. 


Sat.SoL 


O.IO 


0.90 


0.163 


0.970 


• • • 


... 


• • • 


• • • 


• . . 


• • • 


• • • 


• « • 


0.9S7 


0.043 


O.151 


0-7S7 


0.16 


0.84 


0.297 


0.9SI 


0.902 


0.098 


0.230 


0.778 


0.178 


0.822 


0.318 


0.94s 


0.87 


0.13 


0.26 


0.788 


0.192 


0.808 


0.332 


0.941 


0.85 


o.iS 


0.275 


0.794 


0.204 


0.796 


0.34 


0-937 


0.825 


0.17s 


0.292 


0.800 


0.227 


0.773 


0.352 


0.932 


0.79 


0.210 


0.313 


o.8n8 


0.250 


0.7s 


0.36 


0.926 


0.7S9 


0.243 


0.33 


0.815 


0.293 


0.707 


0.37 


0.916 


0.70 


0.30 


0.3s 


0.827 


0.33s 


0.665 


0.37s 


0.906 


0.645 


0.3SS 


0.366 


0.839 


0.422 


0.578 


0.38s 


0.886 


0.562 


0.438 


0.385 


0.857 


^0.49 


0.51 


0.385 


0.874 


0.49 


0.51 


0.385 


0.874 



The data for the binodal curve given by Corliss and by Bonner agree closely. 
The Sp. Gr. determinations of Corliss were made on larger amounts of solution 
and appear to be the more accurate. In addition, Corliss gives the specific gravi- 
ties of each layer of a series of liquids in contact with each other, and from these 
and the binodal curve, the above data for the composition of the several conjugate 
layers have been calculated. Data are also given by Corliss for the distribution 
of colloidal arsenious sulfide between the two layers of the system. 

Data for the distribution of ethyl alcohol between ether and water and between 
ether and molten CaClt.6HiO are given by Morgan and Benson (1907). 



STHTL ALCOHOL 



290 



MisaeiLiTT OF Ethyl Alcohol with Mixtures op Ethyl Ethbr and 

Water at 25**. (Hariba, 1911-12.) 
Compomtion of Lower Layer. 



Gms. 


Gms. 


5-77 
6.3 


9423 

8S-7 


7.2 
8 


79.2 
76 


9-7 
13 -3 


70.4 
62.8 


22.1 


50.6 


28.4 
•31 -6 


43-4 
40 



Gnu. CiH^H. 

O 
8 

13 -6 

16 

19.9 

239 

273 
28.2 

28.4 (Plait point) 

The binodal curve was determined in the usual way (see Note, p. 287). A series 
of conjugate liquids was then prepared and the Sp. Gr., refractive index and 
viscosity of eacn layer determined. From specially prepared- curves for variations 
of physical constants with' composition of mixture, the composition of the several 
conjugate liquids was ascertained. The results thus obtained, are given in the 
above table. 

Data for the miscibility of ethyl alcohol with mixtures of water, ethyl ether and 
sulfuric acid at o** and with mixtures of ethyl ether, water and ethylsulfuric 
acid at o^ are given by Kremann, 1910a. 

Miscibility of Ethyl Alcohol (see Note p. 287) at o® with Mixtures of: 



CompodtioD of Upper Layer. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


iCtBUfi. 


H4O. 


CAO.H. 


98.72 


1.28 





945 


2.3 


3-3 


88.5 


3-7 


7.8 


84.4 


4-9 


10.7 


75-1 


8.4 


16. s 


60.8 


iSS 


23-7 


43-8 


28.1 


28.1 


35 -8 


35-6 


28.6 


31.6 


40 


28.4 



Ethyl Acetate and Water. (Bonner. 1910.) 

Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Ethyl Bromide and Water. (Bonner, xgxa) 
Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 

., A ^ 



Gms. 
CHiaXX^iHf. 

0.92 
0.90 

0.799 
0.699 

0.60 

0.50 

♦0.48 

0.40 

0.30 

0.197 

0.102 



Gms. 
H,0. 

0.080 

O.IO 

0.201 

0.301 

0.40 

0.50 

0.52 

0.60 

0.70 

0.803 

0.898 



Gms. 

c,h,oh. 

O.IOO 

0.13 
0.228 

0.265 

0.29 

0.30 

0.30 

0.31 

0.31 

0.282 

0.143 



Sp. Gr. 
Sat. SoL 

0.91 
0.91 

0.93 
0.92 

0.9s 
0.9s 

• ■ ■ 

0.96 
0.96 
0.97 
0.99 



Gms. 
QHftBr. 

0.967 
0.90 
♦0.83 
0.80 
0.70 
0.60 
0.50 
0.40 
0.30 
O.IO 
0.017 



Gms. 

0.033 

O.IO 

0.17 

0.20 

0.30 

0.40 

0.50 

0.60 

0.70 

0.90 

0.983 



Gms. 
QHtOH. 

0.240 

0.37 

0.4s 

0.51 
0.64 

0.7S4 
0.83 

0.89 

0.89 

0.73 
0.182 



Sp. Gr. 
Sat. SoL 

1.23 

IIS 

• ■ • 

1.09 
1.06 

1.03 

I 

0.99 
0.97 

0.97 
0.99 



Miscibility of Ethyl Alcohol (see Note p. 287) at o®, with Mixtures of: 
Ethyl B u tyrate and Water. (Bonner, 19x0.) Ethyl Propionate and Water. (Bonner. xgioO 



Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Gms. 
CiHfCCX^CfHii. 

0.97 
0.90 

0.80 

0.70 

O.S99 

0.494 
♦0.46 

0.40 

0.297 

0.193 

O.IO 



Gms. 

0.030 

O.IO 

0.20 

0.30 

0.401 

0.506 

0.54 
0.60 

0.703 

0.807 

0.90 



Gms. ' 
CH«0H. 

0.166 

0.32 

0.483 

0.567 

0.628 

0.659 

0.67 

0.69 

0.693 

0.684 

0.63 



Sp.Gr. 
Sat. SoL 

0.96 

• • • 

0.88 
0.89 
0.90 
0.91 

■ • • 

0.92 

0.93 
0.94 

0.94 



C>>mposition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 

/ ■ * ■* 

Gms. Gms. Gms. Sp. Gr. 

C,H,C(X)CN,. HjO. QHjOH. Sat. Sol. 

0.977 0.023 0.138 0.90 

0.90 O.IO 0.27 0.90 

0.80 0.20 0.38 0.90 

0.695 0.305 0.453 0.92 

0.60 0.40 0.49 0.91 

0.50 0.50 0.52 0.92 

♦0.46 0.54 0.53 

0.398 0.602 0.532 0.93 

0.30 0.70 0.55 0.94 

0.201 0.799 0.517 0.95 

O.IO 0.90 0.46 0.96 



n^ 



RHYL AljQQiMttL 



MismmjTT OP Ersn. Alcobol (see Noce» p^ 1S7) at o* wtra Klixtvitss or; 



Ethylene Chloride and Water. 


Ethylii 


iene Chlonik and 


Water. 




(BOHMff. 


1910.) 






IBOHM 


lff» tj^toj 






tiOBOfHoM 


B^BMBOMs jfndbncs. 


Gw. Godk 


MVtMMlM 


iitwi«. 




Gw. 


Gw. 


Sp.Gr. 


i^i^ 


^CLc^a 


L HA 


CAOH. 


Stt.SoL 


O^CHCV 


HA 


CAOH. 


$fti.s»a. 


0.971 


0.029 


O.I9I 


I IS 


0.98s 


0.015 


O.22O 


I. to 


0.90 


O.IO 


0.42 


1.08 


0.90 


O.IO 


0.43 


1.03 


^,88 


0.12 


0.46 


% « % 


o.Sos 


0.19s 


O.SvS6 


I.Ot 


0.792 


0.208 


0.670 


1. 01 


0.70 


0.30 


0.(>Q 


o.qS 


0.70 


0.30 


0.80 


0.98 


^).67 


033 


0.72 


% « « 


0.60 


0.40 


93 


0.96 


0.60 


0.40 


0.77 


0.96 


0.50 


0.50 


0.99 


0.9s 


0.50 


0.50 


0.82 


oos 


0.40 


0.60 


1. 01 


0.94 


0.437 


o.S<^3 


0.857 


0.Q4 


0.30 


0.70 


0.99 


0.94 


0.30 


0.70 


0.88 


0.03 


0.20 


0.80 


0.9s 


0.94 


0.20 


0.80 


0.86 


0.03 


0.09s 


0.90s 


0.842 


0.96 


O.IO 


0.90 


0.79 


0.94 


0.02 


0.980 


OSH 


0.97 


0.03 


0.97 


0.576 


0.9s 



MisQBiuTT OF Ethyl Alcohol C 
Heptane and Water. (Bomicr, 1910.) 
CompoaitioD of Homogeneoaa Mixtures. 



Note, p. 287) AT o* WITH Mixtures or: 
Hexane and Water. (Boomt. 1910O 



Gms. 



0.962 

0.90 

0.798 

0.70 

0.60 

0.50 

0.40 

0.30 

0.196 

0.093 



Gms. 

0.038 

O.IO 

0.202 

0.30 

0.40 

0.50 

0.60 

0.70 

0.804 

0.907 



Gms. 
CiHiOH. 

0.704 
1.44 

2-37S 
2.82 

3.06 

3.16 

317 

3 10 

2.96 
2.305 



Sp. Gr.^ 
Sat. Sol. 

0.79 
0.80 
0.82 
0.81 
0.82 
0.83 
0.84 
0.85 
0.87 
0.88 



CompositkMi of Hom«««MOua Mixtum. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


s^ Of. 


Hcxan^.* 


H|0. 


C,H«OH. 


SstSo). 


0.97 


0.03 


0.59 


• » * 


0.90 


O.IO 


X'30 


0.77 


0.80 


0.20 


2.04 


0.79 


0.70 


0.30 


2.45 


0.81 


0.60 


0.40 


2.73 


0.8a 


0.50 


0.50 


2.93 


0.83 


0.40 


0.60 


300 


0.83 


0.20 


0.80 


2.7s 


0.85 


O.IO 


0.90 


2.23 


0.86 


0.014 


0.986 


1.056 


• • • 



Kshlbaum's Heptane and Hexsne "sus Petroleum " were used. 



MisaBHjTY OP Ethyl Alcohol (see 
laoamyl Alcohol and Water. 

(Bonner, 19x0.) • 



Note, p. 287) AT 0* WITH Mixtures or: 
l8obutyl Alcohol and Water. 

(Bonner, 1910.) 





Composition of Homogeneous M istum. 


Gms. (CILV 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Sp. Gr. 


Gms. (CH,)| 
CH.CH/)H 


Gms. 


GmM. 


Hp. (ir. 


. H,0. 


CH,OH. 


Sat. Sol. 


. H,(). 


C|II»()H. 


Sat. Sol. 


0.903 


0.097 


O.I16 


0.84 


0.70 


0.30 


0.13 


0.87 


0.90 


O.IO 


0.12 


0.84 


0.589 


O.4II 


0.177 


0.89 


0.797 


0.203 


0.258 


0.85 


0.502 


0.498 


0.194 


0.90 


0.694 


0.306 


0.396 


0.86 


0.50 


0.50 


0,20 


0.90 


0.602 


0.398 


0.427 


0.88 


0.40 


0.60 


0.20 


0.92 


0.497 


0.503 


0.449 


0.89 


0.387 


0.613 


0.204 


0.92 


0.399 


0.601 


0.4S3 


0.90 


*o.3S 


0.65 


0.21 


• • • 


0.294 


0.706 


0.434 


0.92 


0.304 


0.696 


0.205 


0.94 


*0.27 


0.73 


0.43 


• . * 


0.30 


0.70 


0.21 


0.94 


0.196 


0.804 


0.411 


0.94 


0.20 


0.80 


0.20 


0-9S 


O.IO 


0.900 


0.369 


0.96 


0.132 


0.868 


0.189 


0.96 



ETHTL ALCOHOL 



292 



MisaeiLiTY OF Ethyl Alcohol (see 

Isoamyl Bromide and Water. (Boaner/io, 
Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Note, p. 287) AT O® WITH MlXTURBS OF: 

.) Isobutyl Bromide and Water. (Bomwr, 'la) 
Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Gms. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Sp. Gr. 


Gms. (CH|)r 


CiHuBr. 


H,0. QHiOH. 


Sat. Sol. 


CHCHsBr. 


0-97S 


0.025 ( 


0.251 


1. 10 


0.976 


♦0.96 


0.04 < 


0.36 


• • ■ 


*o-93 


0.90 


O.IO < 


3.68 


1. 01 


0.90 


0.80 


0.20 


1.09 


0.96 


0.80 


0.70 


0.30 


1-37 


0.94 


0.70 


0.60 


0.40 


1-57 


0.93 


0.60 


0.498 


0.502 


1.676 


0.91 


0.501 


0.40 


0.60 


t.7S 


0.91 


0.40 


0.30 


0.70 


1-75 


0.91 


0.30 


0.20 


0,80 


1. 71 


0.91 


0.20 


O.IO 


0.90 


[.46 


0.92 


O.IO 


0.022 


0.978 : 


[.027 


0'93 


0.047 



Gms. 
H«Q. 

0.024 

0.07 

O.IO 

0.20 

0.30 

0.40 

0.499 

0.60 

0.70 

0.80 

0.90 

0-9S3 



Gms. 
CAOH. 

0.200 
0.42 
0.52 
0.83 
I 05 
I. 21 

1.30 

I -35 
1.36 

1.32 

1.20 

0.937 



Sp.Gr. 
Sat.SoL 

1. 18 



1.09 
1. 01 
0.98 
0.96 
0.94 

0-93 

0.93 
0.92 

0.93 
0.94 



Misasn^iTY of Ethyl Alcohol (see 

Isoamyl Ether and .Water. (Bonner, 'xo.) 
Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Note, p. 287) AT' O® WITH MlXTURBS OF! 

Mesitylene and Water. (Bonner, 'zo.) 
O>mposition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Gms. r(CH«)i 




Gms. 


Sp. Gr. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Sp. Ck. 


CH.CH,CHJ,0. H,0. 


CHjOH. 


Sat. Sol. 


CWCCH,),. 


HiO. 


QHaOH. 


Sat.SoL 


0.958 


0.042 


0.368 


0.81 


♦0.97 


0.03 


0.48 


• • ■ 


0.90 


O.IO 


0.70 


0.82 


0.963 


0.037 


0.516 


0.86 


♦0.89 


O.II 


0.74 


• • • 


0.90 


O.IO 


1.09 


0.85 


0.879 


O.I2I 


0.793 


0.82 


0.80 


0.20 


1.66 


0.84 


0.80 


0.20 


1.20 


0.83 


0.70 


0.30 


2.04 


0.85 


0.702 


0.298 


1.573 


0.83 


0.60 


0.40 


2.32 


0.8s 


0.594 


0.406 


1.876 


0.84 


0.50 


0.50 


2.52 


0.85 


0.50 


0.50 


1.98 


0.84 


0.40 


0.60 


2.64 


0.86 


0.40 


0.60 


2.19 


0.85 


0.30 


0.70 


2.68 


0.87 


0.302 


0.698 


2.24 


0.86 


0.199 


0.801 


2.49 


0.87 


0.20 


0.80 


2.14 


0.87 


O.IO 


0.90 


2.28 


0.89 


O.IO 


0.90 


1.87 


0.89 


0.051 


0.949 


1. 615 


0.90 



M1SCIBU.1TY OF Ethyl Alcohol (see 
Methyl Aniline and Water. (Bonner, '10.) 

' ' (imposition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Note, p. 287) AT o® WITH Mixtures of: 
Phenetoi and Water. (Bonner, 'zo.) 

Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Gms. 
CHjNHCA 


Gms. 
H,0. 


Gms. 
CAOH. 


Sp. Gr. 
Sat. Sol. 


Gms. 
C|Hi0C|Hi|. 


Gms. 
Hrf). 


Gms. 
CHjOH. 


Sp. Gr. 
Sat-SoL 


0.959 


0.041 


0.218 


0.96 


0.992 


0.18 


0.157 


0.96 


0.90 


O.IO 


0.37 


0.95 


•0.90 


O.IO 


0.55 


• • . 


0.795 
0.70 


0.205 
0.30 


0.555 
0.68 


0.93 
0.93 


0.897 
0.798 


0.103 
0.202 


0.554 
0.916 


0.93 
0.90 


♦0.66 
0.60 


0.34 
0.40 


0.72 
0.76 


... 
0.93 


0.70 
0.60 


0.30 
0.40 


1. 18 

1-39 


0.90 
0.89 


0.50 
0.40 


0.50 
0.60 


0.84 
0.89 


0.93 
0.93 


0.49s 
0.399 


0.505 
0.601 


1. 518 
1.560 


0.89 
0.89 


0.30 
0.20 


0.70 
0.80 


0.91 
0.87 


0.93 
0.94 


0.30 
0.198 


0.70 
0.802 


1.54 
1.449 


0.90 
0.91 


0.098 
0.041 


0.902 
0.959 


0.734 
0.581 


0.95 
0.96 


O.IO 

0.082 


0.90 
0.918 


1. 21 
1.156 


0.92 
0.93 



293 



BTHTL ALCOHOL 



MisoBiLiTY OP Ethyl Alcohol (see 

Pinene and Water. (Bonner, 19x0.) 
Compostioii d Homogeneous Miztuies. 



Note p. 287) AT o* WITH Mixtures of: 

Propyl Bromide and Water. (Bonner. 19x0.) 
O>mpo8ition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Gms. 
CmHn. 

0.99 
♦0.985 
0.897 

0.79s 
0.70 

0.60 

0.493 

0.393 
0.293 

0.194 
0.094 

0.03s 



Gms. 
H^. 

O.OIO 

o.ois 

0.103 

0.205 

0.30 

0.40 

0.507 

0.607 

0.707 

0.806 

0.906 

0.965 



Gms. 
CiHiOH. 

0.268 

0.47 

I 595 
2.268 

2.67 

2.94 

3 135 
3.126 

3 038 

2.799 

1.639 



Sp. Gr. 
Sat. SoL 

0.87 

• • • 

0.85 
0.84 
0.84 
0.85 
0.85 
0.86 
0.86 
0.87 
0.89 
0.91 



Gms. 

CHs.CHg.CH(|Br* 

0.97s 
•0.92 

0.90 

0.80 

0.70 

0.60 

0.50 

0.40 

0.30 

0.204 

0.096 

0.027 



Gms. 
H^. 

0.025 

0.08 

O.IO 

0.20 

0.30 

0.40 

0.50 

0.60 

0.70 

0.796 

0.904 

0.973 



Gms. 
CAQH. 

0.190 

0.42 

0.50 

0.72 

0.88 

1. 01 

1. 10 

IIS 
1. 14 

1. 12 
1.02 
0.687 



Sp. (jr. 
Sat. SoL 

1.26 



1. 12 
1.06 
1.02 
0.99 
0.98 
0.96 

0.9s 
0.94 

0.94 
0.9s 



MisasiLiTY OF Ethyl Alcohol (see 
Toluene and Water. (Bonner. 1910.) 

Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Note p. 287) AT o® WITH Mixtures of: 
Toluidine and Water. (Bonner. 19x0.) 

Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Gms. 
C|HtCHi* 

0.948 

0.90 

0.80 

0.70 

0.60 

0.50 

0.40 

0.30 
0.20 
O.IO 

0.028 



Gms. 
H«0. 

0.052 

O.IO 

0.20 

0.30 
0.40 
0.50 
0.60 
0.70 
0.80 
p. 90 
0.972 



Cims. 
CiHiOH. 

0.388 

0.61 

0.9s 
.21 

.41 

•53 
•S9 
.56 

.44 

•23 
0.817 



Sp. Gr. 
Sat. Sol. 

0.87 
0.86 
0.86 
0.86 
0.86 
0.87 
0.87 
0.88 
0.89 
0.91 

0.94 



Gms. 
CH,.CJI«.NI^ 

0.9S4 
0.90 

0.80 

0.70 

0.60 

0.50 

0.40 

0.30 

0.20 

0.098 

0.027 



Gms. 
H«Q. 

0.046 

O.IO 

0.20 

0.30 

0.40 

0.50 

0.60 

0.70 

0.80 

0.902 

0.973 



Gms. 
QHfOH. 

0.025 
0.21 
0.32 
0.41 

0.4SS 
0.48 

0.50 

0.50 

0.49 

0.462 

0.262 



Sp. Gr. 
Sat. Sol. 

1. 01 

0.93 

0.97 
0.96 

0.96 

0.96 

0.96 

0.96 

0.96 

0.98 



MisciBiLiTY OF Ethyl Alcohol (see 
Bromotoluene (b. pt. 182-3) and Water. 

(Bonner, x9xo.) 
Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Note p. 287) AT o® with Mixtures of: 
p Nitrotoluene and Water. 

(Bonner. x9xo.) 
Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



Gms. 
BrCfiii.CHt. 

0.98 

0.951 
0.90 

0.80 

0.70 

0.60 

0.50 

0.40 

0.30 

0.20 

O.IO 

0.053 



Gms. 
H,0. 

0.02 

0.049 

O.IO 

0.20 

0.30 

0.40 

0.50 

0.60 

0.70 

0.80 

0.90 

0.967 



Gms. 
CHiOH. 

0.33 
0.522 

0.87 

.28 

•54 

.71 
.81 

.89 

.89 

.78 

•533 
•307 



Sp. Gr. 
Sat. Sol. 



1.09 
1.06 
0.97 

0.94 

0.93 
0.92 

0.91 

0.90 

0.90 

0.91 

0.92 



Gms. 
NO,.CJI«.CH|. 

0.978 

*o.9S 

0.90 

0.80 

0.70 

0.60 

0.506 

0.398 

0.294 

0.20 

O.IO 

0.056 



Gms. 
H,0. 

0.022 

0.05 

O.IO 

0.20 

0.30 

0.40 

0.494 

0.602 

0.706 

0.80 

0.90 

0.944 



Gms. 
CHfOH. 

0.253 
0.50 

0.84 

.29 

•57 

•73 

.782 

.868 
.816 

.63 
•30 
.105 



Sp. Gr. 
Sat. Sof. 

1.08 



0.97 
0.96 

0.92 

0.91 

0.91 

0.91 

0.91 

0.91 

0.92 

0.93 



ETHYL ALCOHOL 



294 



MisaeiUTY of Ethyl Alcohol (see Note p. 287) at o® with Mixtures of: 



Xylene and Water. (Bonner, 1910.) 

Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



m Xylene and Water. (Bonner, 1910.) 
Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 



r" 

Cms. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Sp. Gr. 


r 

Gms. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Sp. Gr. 


C4H4(CH^«. 


HtO. 


C,H/)H. 


Sat. Sol. 


m CaH«(CH«)s. 


H,0. 


CHiOH. 


Sat. Sol. 


0.971 


0.029 


0-3S2 


0.89 


0.967 


0.033 


0.388 


0.88 


*o.96 


0.04 


O.S3 


• • • 


0.90 


O.IO 


0.81 


0.87 


0.90 


O.IO 


0.93 


0.87 


0.80 


0.20 


1.30 


0.85 


0.786 


0.214 


1.32 


0.87 


0.70 


0.30 


1. 61 


0.86 


0.70 


0.30 


1.53 


0.87 


0.60 


0.40 


1.77 


0.86 


0.60 


0.40 


1.72 


0.87 


0.50 


0.50 


1.90 


0.87 


0.50 


0.50 


1.87 


0.87 


0.40 


0.60 


1.98 


0.87 


0.40 


0.60 


1.96 


0.88 


0.30 


0.70 


2.01 


0.88 


0.30 


0.70 


1.94 


0.88 


0.20 


0.80 


1.87 


0.89 


0.20 


0.80 


1. 81 


0.89 


O.IO 


0.90 


1-53 


0.90 


0.031 


0.969 


1. 19 


0-93 


0.023 


0.977 


1. 168 


0.92 


Additional data for the system ethy 
63** and 100** are given by Holt and B 


1 alcohol, m xyl 


ene, water at 0®, 


I9'. 41% 


>ell, 19 1 4. 












p Xylene and 


Water. (Bonner, zgzo.) 






(}ompo8iti< 


>n of Homogeneous Mixtures. 

• V 

Gms. Gms. Sp. Gr. 


Composition of Homogeneous Mixtures. 

A 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Gms. 


Sp. Gr. 


P CH4(CH,),. 


H«0. 


CH,0H. 


Sat. Sol. 


^C»H«(CH,),. 


Hrf). 


CH,0H. 


Sat. Sol. 


0.966 


0.034 


0.306 


0.84 


0.50 


0.50 


1.68 


0.86 


•0.92 


0.08 


O.S7 


• • ■ 


0.40 


0.60 


1.77 


0.86 


0.90 


O.IO 


0.65 


0.8s 


0.292 


0.702 


1-743 


0.87 


0.80 


0.20 


I OS 


0.85 


0.193 


0.807 


1.625 


0.88 


0.70 


0.30 


I -35 


0.85 


O.IOO 


0.90 


1-39 


0.89 


0.60 


0.40 


1.56 


0.8s 


0.015 


0.985 


0.863 

_ "I 1 


0.93 



0.026 at 3** and 0.047 at 30®. (Meyer, 1901; 1909.) 

100 gms. cottonseed oil (0.922 Sp. Gr.) dissolve 22.9 p;ms. ethyl alcohol at 25®. 
100 gms. ethyl alcohol dissolve 1 1 .75 gms. cottonseed oil at 25®. (Wroth and Rcid, '16.) 

Distribution of Ethyl Alcohol between Cottonseed Oil and 

Water at 25®. (Wroth and Reid, 1916.) 
Gms. CaHiOH per 100 cc. _ , 



Oil Layer. 


H,0 Layer. 


Kauo. 


0.2083 


6.147 


29s 


0.2251 


6.738 


29.9 


0.2515 


6.835 


27.1 


0.2783 


6.876 


24.7 


0.3017 


8.682 


28.7 



Data for the reciprocal solubility of ethyl alcohol and turpentine are given by 
V^zes and Mouline, 1904, 1905-06. 

Data for the system ethyl alcohol, water, petroleum are given by Rodt (191 6). 

BTHYLAMINES C>H«.NH>, (CsHOsNH, (CsH5),N. 

Freezing-point data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) for mixtures of ethylamine -|- 
water, diethylamine + water, and triethylamine + water are given by Guthrie, 
188^ and by Pickering, 1893. 

The solubility of ethylamine and of diethylamine in water at 60*^, calculated 

from the vapor pressures determined by an aspiration method, are given by Doyer, 

(1890) as follows: 

*_;-. Vapor Pressure in Ostwald Solubility Bunsen Absorption 

^^™*°*- mm. Hg. Ex. / (sec p. as?.) Coef. (see p. 227) 

C2H5NH2 64.5 321 263 

(CaH6)2NH 233 89 73 

Data for the solubility of triethylamine in water at high pressures are given by 
Kohnstamm and Timmermans, 1913. 



295 



ETHTLAimiiS 



Solubilities op Di Ethtl 
Amine and Water * 

CUttey — Pha. liag. [6] lo^ 398. '05.) 



Distribution op Tri Ethyl Amine 
BETWEEN Water and Amyl 
Alcohol at 25°. 

(Hen and Fischer — Ber. 37, 4751, '04.) 





Gms. NH(CsHa)s 
per 190 Gms. 


Gms. N(CtH8)s 
per 100 cc. 


Minimols N(CsH8)a 
per zo cc. 


f. 


'Aqueous 
Layer. 


Amine 
Layer. 


Aqueous 
Layer. 


Alcoholic 
- Layer. 


Aqueous Alcoholic 
Layer. Layer. 


X48 
146 


21.7 
23.6 
24.8 
26.3 


59 

555 

53 5 
51.0 


0.0885 
0.1683 
0.1866 


2.299 

4-457 
4.922 


0.0875 2.273 
01664 4.408 
0.1846 4.868 


MS 


28.0 


49.0 


0.2502 


6.491 


0.2474 6.41S 


144 


31.0 


45 









143.5 (crit. t.) 37.4 



TriethylAMINE N(CsH.)s. 



Solubility in Water.* 

(Rothmund, 1898.) 



Gms. N(CaHt)i per xoo Gms. 


«.. 


Gms. N(CtH^i per zoo Gtna, 


*• r 

Aq. Layer. 




Amine Layer. 




Aq. Layer. Amine Layer 


18.6 (crit. temp.) 


519 




40 


3.65 96.48 


20 14 . 24 




72 


SO 


2.87 96.4 


25 730 




95 18 


ss 


2.57 0-3 


30 5-^ 




96.60 


60 


2.23 96.3 


35 458 




96 s 


6s 


1.97 96.3 



Solubility of Triethylamine in Water and in Aq. Ethyl Alcohol 

AT Different Temperatures.* 

(Meerbuig, Z903.) 



Water. 


13-33% Alcohol. 
, Gm.N(CA), 


>S.98% Alcohol. 
,' Gm.N(CA)i 


.^8.84% Alcohol. 
Gm. N(CHi)a 


6o.t6% Alcohol. 


Gm.N(C|H«), 


Gm. NCCHi! 


f. 


per 100 
(<ma. SoL 


t*. 


per xoo 
Crms. SoL 


t*. 


per zoo 
Gms. Sol. 




per zoo 
[?ms. Sol. 


t*. per zoo 
Gms. SoL 


69.2 


1.7 


38.3 


8.2 


S4S 


22.8 


73-4 


31.2 


76-77 71.2 


30.8 


5.6 


317 


13 -9 


45 


29.8 


65.4 


33-3 


74-75 75 


23.1 


8.5 


28 


21.6 


33-4 


51. 1 


51.6 


40.6 


72-73 80 


18.7 


25.8 


26.4 


30.6 


314 


63.7 


42.1 


50.6 




18.7 


37-2 


24.9 


40.5 


30-3 


68.5 


40.9 


54.7 




19s 


51.8 


24.2 


49.8 


28.5 


82.2 


34-2 


70.6 




20.5 


68.6 


24.1 


60.7 


3S 


91.8 


33 


77.5 




20.5 


84 


24 


69.7 






34.7 


88 


i 


20.5 


89.7 


235 


76.6 






40.5 


91 -3 




21.2 


92.4 


24 


81.5 












25.8 


95-5 


24.2 


87.4 












26.5 


96.1 


25 


92 













Note. — Results for triethylamine, water and ethyl ether, and for triethyl- 
amine, water and phenol are also given by Meerburg. 

100 gms. abs. methyl alcohol dissolve 57.5 gms. NH(C)flHi)i at 19.5®. 
100 gms. abs. ethyl alcohol dissolve 56 gms. NH(C«Hi)s at 19.5^. 

(de Bruyn, z89a0 

• Determhiadoiis znade by " Synthetic Method/' see Note, p. x6. 



ETHTLAMZim 296 

Distribution op Ethylaminbs Between Water and Toluene. 

(Moore and Winmill, 1912.) 

Results at I8^ Results at 25^ Results at 32.35^. 

a™„* ^SfrfS!!;''- Partition- ^^gJS''' Petition ^Sl£?S''- Partitioa 

(CsH6)NHs 0.0756 26.09 O.IIS9 19.13 0.1287 14.76 

'* 0.0886 26.14 0.0999 19. II 0.2479 14.79 

(CsH6)sNH 0.0484 2.14 0.0483 1.59 0.1200 1.093 

" 0.0503 2.14 0.0416 1.59 0.1104 1.095 

(CiHfi)8N 0.0189 0.131 0.0104 0.099 0.0132 0.069 

" 0.0191 0.131 0.0131 0.099 0.0133 0.069 

Similar data for triethylamine at 25-^ and at other, temperatures are given by 
Hantzsch and Sebaldt, 1899, and by Hantzsch and Vagt, 1901. 

Data for ternary systems composed of triethylamine, water and each of the 
following compounds: naphthalene, cane sugar, KCl, KtCOi, K2SO4 and KSCN, 
are given by Timmermans (1907). 

ITHTL, DiETHTL and TriETHTLAlONE HTDBOCHLOBIDES, etc. , 
Solubility of Each in Water and in Chloroform at 25®. 

^ ' (Peddk and Turner, 19x3.) 

Solubility in Water. Solubility in CHCU. 
Amine Salt. Formula. Gms. Amine Salt Cms. Amine Salt 

per xoo Gms. H|0. per xoo Gms. CHCU. 

Ethylamine Hydrochloride C1H6.NH2.HCI 279.9 0.17 

Diethylamine " (CjH6)2NH.HCl 231.7 29.45 

Hydrobromide (CjUJjNH.HBr 3 11 . 6 46 . 65 

Hydroiodide (QJl6)2NH.HI 377.2 71.56 

Triethylamine Hydrochloride (CiH6)8N.HCl 137 17-37 

Hydrobromide (CjH6)8N.HBr 1 50 . 6 23 . 44 

Hydriodide (CiH6)8N.HI 370 92.2 

ETHTL BBOIODB CsH^Br. 

Solubility in Ether. (Parmentier. 1893.) 

t*. — X3*. o. 12. 22.5. 32. 

Gms. CaHsBrper 100 gms. Ether 632 561 462 302 253 









Solubility of Ethyl Bromide, etc., in Water. 

(Rex, 1906.) 

Grams per xoo Grams H|0 at: 
Dissolved Substance. /•• * 



o**. xo*. 2o*. 3o' 



Ethyl Bromide i . 067 o . 965 o . 914 o . 896 

Ethyl Iodide 0.441 0.414 0.403 0.415 

Ethylene Chloride 0.922 0.885 0.869 0.894 

Ethylidene Chloride 0.656 0.595 ^-SS^ 0.540 

ETHTL BUTYRATE CiHrCOOCiHs. 

SOLUBILCTY IN 'WaTER AND IN AqUEOUS EtHYL AlCOHOL MIXTURES AT 20*. 

100 g. HiO dissolve 0.5 g. ethyl butyrate at 22®. (TVaube, 1884.) 

100 cc. HsO dissolve 0.8 cc. ethyl butyrate at 20^. (Banaoft, 1895O 

100 cc. ethyl butyrate dissolve 0.4 — 0.5 cc. HiO at 20®. 

Per 5 CC. (cc. HjO 10 6 4 2.96 2.10 

Ethyl Alcohol I cc. CsHtCOOCjHs o . 34 o . 96 2 . 47 4 6 

BTHTL CARBAMATE (Urethan) CO(OCsHt)NHt. See also p. 74i. 
Solubility in Several Scm-vents at 25®. (u. s. P. vm.) 

Solvent. Water. Alcohol. Ether. Chloroform. GlyoeroL 

Gms. C»(0C»H6)NH» ) , ,, 

per 100 gms. solvent ! '°°+ *^ '~ 77 33 



297 



ETHTL ETHER 



Rbciprocal Solubility up Ethbr and Water. 

(KlobUe— Z.phyiik.Chein. Ht 6x91 '97; Sdumdce— 7M4. 14. 334. W. St.ToUoczko— /Mrf.ao»407. 

•96.) 



Solubility of Ether in Water. 
Lower Layer — Aqueous. 

, Cms. (C9Hi)iO per 100 Cms. 



Solubility of Water in Ether. 
Upper Layer — Ethereal. 

Cms. HsO per zoo Gms. 



• • *— 


Water. Solation. 


Ether. 


Solution.' 





13.12 II. 6 


1. 01 


I.O 


s 


II 


.4 10.2 , 




06 


I OS 


zo 


9 


5 8.7 




.12 


1. 12 (2.6, S.) 


15 


8 


2 7.6 




.16 


115 


20 


6 


95 6.5 




20 


1.20 (2.65,8.) 


25 


6 


05 5-7 




.26 


1.36 


30 


5 


4 51 




33 


I 32 


*4o 


4 


7 45 




52 


1.50 


*5o 


4 


3 41 




73 


1-7 


*6o 


3 


8 3-7 




83 


1.8 


♦70 


3 


3 32 


2. 


04 


2.0 


*8o 


2. 


9 2.8 


2 


25 


2.3 

• 


•Indie 


atesd 




theticMc 


thod. 


for which see pue lA. 



100 cc. HsO dissolve 8.1 1 cc. ether at 22°; vol. of solution, 107.145 cc., Sp. 
Gr. 0.9853. 
100 cc. ether dissolve 2.93 cc H^ at 22^; vol. of solution, 103.282 cc; Sp. Gr. 

0.7164. (Hen, 1898.) 

More recent determinations of the solubility of ethyl ether in water, agreeing 
closely with the above data, are given by Osaka, 1910. 

Data for the temp.-pressure diagram of ether-water are given by Scheffer, 1912a. 

Solubility op Ethbr in Aqueous Solutions op Hydrochloric 

Acid. 

(SchuDcke — Z. physik. Chem. I4c 334, '94; in 38-5^% HO, Draper — Chem. Newa, 35, 87. '77O 



In 


38Sa % 
cc. Ether 


HQ. In 31.61 %HC1. 


In 30 % HCl. 




cc. Ether Gms. per x 


Gram HsO. 


cc. Ether Gms. per x g. HgO. 


t\ 


per 100 cc 
S(dTent. 


per too cc. __ _ 


(CH1O.O. 


^^" HQ. (CH.)K>. 


-6 


181 


1.49. 0.4632 


I 387 


67.2 0253 0.5637 





I77S 


142 0.4622 


1.308 


58.3 0253 04863 


+6 


17a S 


131. 5 04622 


1.2075 


51. I 0.253 0.4231 


15 


163 


121.7(14°) 0.4632 


I . 1075 


40. 5 0.253 0.3299 


20 


158 


III. 9 (20.8°) 04632 


1.0005 


33^ 0253 0.2688 


26 


»3S 


104.2 0.4622 


0.9360 


27.5 0.253 0.2221 






In 12.58 %HC1. 


In 3.65 % HQ. 


*0 


ccEUwrper Gnu. peri Gram HiO. 


cc. Ether per Gms. per 1 Gram HjO. 


• • 


looec.! 


xdvent. HCl. (CjH«)iO. 


looccSolmit. HCl. (CiIU)K>. 


-6 


26 


.45 0.144 0.3106 


19.23 


0.0308 0.1454 





92 


.19 0.144 0.1748 


... 


... ... 


+6 


X9 


.18 0.144 0.1503 


14-31 


0.0308 0.1070 


«S 


15 


.6x 0.144 01210 


11.83 


00308 0.0868 


ao 


13 


.76 0.144 0.1059 


10. 52 


0.0308 0.0769 


36 


12 


.70 0.144 00970 


9.24 


0.0308 0.0673 



The above data are recalculated and discussed by Jiittner, 1901. 



BTH7L BTBEB 



298 



Data for the solubility of ethyl ether in carbon dioxide at hig^h pressures are 
given by Sander (191 1-12). The determinations were made by using c^uite small 
amounts of ether and observing the pressure at which a drop oT liquid just 
appeared or disappeared in a mixture of known weight per cent composition. 
The results give the "gas curve" for constant temperature and when plotted in 
connection with the " liquid curve" (see COti p. 233), give the complete pressure 
— concentration diagram. 

Freezing-point lowering data for mixtures of ethyl ether and hydrochloric acid 
are given by Maass and Mcintosh (19 13). 

Solubility of Ether in Aqueous Salt, Etc., Solutions at i8^ 



Aci. Sdu- 
tion of: 

Water 

KNO» 

KCl 

LiCl 

NaCl 



Cms. per 

Liter Added 

Salt. 

O 

loi . 19 
73-6 
42.48 

58. S 



(Euler, i904.) 

Gms. (C|Hi)sO 
per xoooc. 



SolvefkL 

7.8 

S-4 
4.7 

4-5 



A5]. Solo- 
tionof: 



Na^SOi 

Maimite 

H4SO4 



ii 



Gms. per 

Liter Added 

Salt. 

59-54 
91.06 

49 
122.5 

245- 



Gins.(C|HO/> 

per xoooc 

Solvmt. 

3-7 
6.7 
6.6 

5 -65 

4. 55 



Solubility of Ethyl 



Solvent. 

Water 

o.s»NaI 

o.5»NaBr 

0.5 n NaCl 

o.swNaF 

o.5»NaiS04 

o.SffNatCrO^ 

o.5»Na«Mo04 

o.s»Na«W04 



Gms. 

(C,H0iO 

per zoo cc. 

Solvent. 

5.8s 

S-70 

4.68 

4.48 

4.15 
4.30 
4.22 

4-39 
4.12 



Solvent. 



Ether in Aq. Salt Solutions at 28**. 

(Thorin, 19x5.) 

Gms. 

(CiHO,0 

per xoocc 

SolvenL 



Solvent. 



.5»NajP04 4.17 

.5f»Na«As04 4.20 

.5f»Hg(CN), 5. 71 

.S»NH4N0» 5.37 

.Sf»FeCIi 5.09 

.5»NasCrs07 4.84 

.SnFcSOi 4.33 

.S»Alj(S04)i 3.9s 



o . 5 n Na Succinate 
o. 5 nNa Citrate 
o. 5 f»Na Acetate 
0.5 nNa Tartrate 
o . 5 n Na Phthalate 
o . 5 n Na Cinnamate 
o.5»NaBenzoate 
o . 5 n Na Salicylate 



Gms. 

(C,H,)iO 

per xoooc. 

Solvent. 

4.68 
4.19 

4. IS 
4.12 

5.88 

6.29 

5-99 
6.44 



o 

0.5 » Am. Oxalate 4. 74 o. 5 »Na Benzene Sulfonate 6.05 



Solubility op £thyl Ether in 0.91 Per Cent (Physiological Normal 

Saline) Aqueous NaCl Solution. 



5 by freezing-point method 


. Ether of 


• 


Gms. (C|IIi)sO 


^ cc. (QHOiO 


f. 


per xooGms. 


(at X5*) per 100 




Aq. Naa. 


cc. Aq. NaCL 





13.08 


18.27 


5 


II. 15 


15.58 


10 


9-45 


13.20 


IS 


8.10 


II. 31 


20 


6.87 


9.60 


25 


S-9<^ 


^33 


30 


5-30 


7.40 



Purified ether prepared from methylated spirit gave slightly higher results. 

SOLVBXUTY OF EtHYL EtHER IN Aq. SULFURIC AciD AT O^ 

(Kitmann, xQxoa.) 
Gms. per xoo Gms. Homogeneous Mixture. Gms. per xoo Gms. Homogeneous Mixture. ' 



(C.H^«0. 


H«0. 


H,S04. 


' (CHOA 


H,0. 


H«S04. 


24.2 


34.5 


41.3 


16. 1 


42.7 


41.2 


24.8 


35-4 


39.8 


6.1 


78 


159 


43.9 


15-7 


40.4 


53-8 


8.5 


37.7 


34 


26.1 


39-9 









Data for the system ethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, water, sulfuric acid at o® are also 
given. 



299 BTHYL 

SoLUBn^mr op Ethbs in Aqueous Ethyl Alcohol and in Aqueous 

Methyl Alcohol Mixtures at 20®. 

(BancioCt, 1895.) 





In Ethyl Alcohol. 






In Methyl Alcohol. 


Per sec 


. C,H»0H. 


Per 5 cc CAOH. 


Per X cc. CHiOH. 
oc H^. cc. (QIIi)s0l 


Per X cc. CH/)H. 


ccHiO.' 


cc.(CA)*0.t 


ccHrf).* ce. 


(CA)Af 


cc. HiO. cc. (C,H»)^ 


SO 


1.30 


4 -45 


7 


ID 


113 


0.83 1.80 


25 


1.70 


4 


7.8 


7 


0.8s 


0.64 3 


10 


2.41 


3.87 


8 


4 


0.60 


0.52 S 


8 


3-3S 


3.10 


10 


2.S 


0.56 


0.44 10 


6 


S-io 


2.08 


IS 


1.8 


0.63 


0-4S IS 


S-2I 


6 


1.77 


17s 


I 


1.23 






* Saturated with ether. 






t Saturated with water. 



(( 

M 
tt 
U 



€€ 
U 



The System Ethyl Ether-Malonic Aqd-Water at 15**. (KlobUe. 1897*) 

Results for Conjugated Liquid Layers Formed Results for the Liouid Layers in 
when Insufficient Malonic Acid to Satu- Contact with Excess of 

rate the Solutions Was Present. Malonic Acid. 

Oaa. per xoo Gms. Lower Gms. per xoo Gms. Upper Gnu. per xoo Gmi. 

W«' , . .^y^' - ^P^- SolidPhMe. 

Malonk t7^ Ethyl Maloiuc n rw Ethyl Malonic n r\ Ethyl. 
Add. **^- Ether. Add. "«^' Ether. Add. "^- Ether. 

o 92.23 7.77 o 1.20 98.80 8 o 92 Malonic Acid 

4.63 87.42 7.94 0.72 1.54 97.74 9.96 0.42 89.61 

11.60 79.92 8.48 2.19 1.99 95.82 19.41 2.79 77.80 

20.45 69.55 9.99 5.01 3.08 91.91 27.22 5.23 67.54 

27.43 60.57 12 9.52 5.19 85.29 35.51 10.73 5375 

33-^3 47-45 18.80 21.89 ^3-4^ 64.91 46.48 20.86 32.66 ** 

34.17 35.81 30.02 30.44 25.37 44.19 51-33 26.30 22.36 

31. II 26.76 42.12 31. II 26.76 42.12 57.37 39.10 3.52 

Data for the system ethyl ether, succinic acid nitrile and water are given 
by Schreinemakers, i8p8. 

Data for the extraction of formic acid from water by ether are given by Dakin, 
Janney and Wakemann, 1913. 

ETHTL rOBlCATE HCOOCHs. 

100 grams water dissolve 10 grams ethyl formate at 22^ (JmaSa^ iSM 

KTHTL METHYL KETONE CHi.CO.CsHs. 

Solubility in^Water. (Rothmund; 1898.) 
By synthetic method, see Note, page 16. 

^ Gms. Ketone per loo Gms. ^ Gms. Ketone per loo Gms. 

Aq. Layer. Ketone Layer. * Aq. Layer. Ketone Layer. 

— 10 34.5 89.7 90 16. 1 84.8 

+10 26.1 90 iio 17.7 80 

30 21.9 89.9 130 21.8 71.9 

SO 17.5 89 140 26 64 

70 16.2 85.7 i5i.8(crit.temp.)44.2 

The accuracy of Rothmund's data is questioned by Marshall (1906) and the 
following new determinations given. 

v. 64.7'. 6s. S*. 73. 6*. 91. o*. IS*. 73. 6*. 

Wt. % Ketone in Mixture 18.15 18.08 18 18.08 88.2 85.05 

Data for the reciprocal solubility of ethyl methyl ketone and water, containing 
1-5% ethyl alcohol, are given by Bruni (1899, 1900). This system is of interest 
particularly on account of having both an upper and a lower critical point. 

Freezing-point data for mixtures of ethylmethyl ketone and water are given by 
Timmermans (191 1) and by Bruni, 1899, 1900. 



ETHTL KBTOm 300 

DiBTHTL KBTONS (Propione) (CtH»),CO. 

S(X.UBILITY IN Water. (ReUummd. 1898.) 

The detetmiiiatioiis were made by Synthetic Method, see p. 16. The 
temperature could not be reached and high accuracy is not ckumed for the results. 

Gm. Dktliyl Ketone Gm. Dietbyi Ketone 

f», per loo Gma. f», per 100 Gnu. 

Aq. Layer. Ketone Layer. Aq. Layer. Ketone Layer. 

20 4.60 ... 100 3.68 93.10 

40 3-43 97-42 120 4.05 90.18 

60 3.08 96.18 140 4.76 87.01 

80 3.20 94.92 160 6.10 83.33 

ETHYL PROPIONATE CtH.COOCsH». 

Solubility in Watbr and in Aqueous Ethyl Alcohol Mecturbs. 

(Pfeiller, 1892; Bancroft, 189s.) 
^ At..,,^^ oc H/) to Cause Sepaxatkm of a Second Phase in 

Sf'wlS^ Ifibctmcs of tbeGtvesi Amounts of Alcohol 

inMiztue. and 3 cc Portions of Ethyl Propionate. 

3 2 32 

6 6.87 

9 12.3s 

12 19.17 

IS 27.12 

18 36.84 

21 50.42 

24 00 

100 grama H|0 dissolve 1.7 grams ethyl propionate at 22^ CTranbe, Z884O 

DiETHTL Diacetyl TA&T&ATE (CHOCOCH,)t(COOCtH«)i. 

Freezinp;-point lowering data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) for mixtures of 
diethyl diacetvl tartrate and each of the following compounds are given by 
Scheuer (19 10); m nitrotoluene, ethylene bromide, phenol and naphthalene. 
Results for diethyl diacetyl tartrate and naphthalene are also given by Palazzo 
and Batelli (1883). 

ETHTL VALERATE QHiCOOQHt. 

ETHYL (Iso) VALERATE (CH,)t.CH.CHaCOOCsHf. 

Solubility op Each in Water and in Aqueous Alcohol Mixtures at 20^ 

(PfeiSer. 1893; Bancreft, 189SO 

TOO CO. water dissolve 0.3 cc. ethyl valerate at 25^. 
100 cc. water dissolve 0.2 cc. ethyl iso valerate at 20**. 
100 cc. ethyl iso valerate dissolve 0.4+ cc. water at 20®. 

Mixtures of Ethyl Alcohol, Mixttires of Ethyl Alcohol, 

Ethyl Valerate and Water. Ethyl Iso Valerate and Water. 

IVr 5 cc. Ethyl Alcohol. 



oc Alcohol.* 


ccHaO.t 


ccAlmhnl.* 


oc.H|0.t 


ccHsO. 


cc. Ethyl 
laoValcxatc. 


3 


1.42 


39 


S3 '^3 






9 


7.18 


45 


63.60 


10 


0.15 


IS 


14-13 


57 


9053 


8 


0.23 


21 


22.40 


72 


131. 


6 


0.46 


27 


31-62 


81 


180.0 


5. 


0.72 


33 


41.63 






4 


1.23 



* oe. Alcohid in mixture. 
cc HfO added to cause 
3 cc. portiook of ethyl valerate. 



t cc HfO added to oiuse the separation of a second phase in nizturcs of the given amomita of alcohol 



301 
^vU' soLUBKurr in Water and in Alcohol. 



r. 




0. 
0.226 


0.0281 


Solubility in AkohoL 


5 


0.191 


0.0237 


f. 


no YdTAkolnL 


10 


0.162 


0.0200 





3S9S 


IS 


0.139 


O.OI7I 


4 


337 S 


20 


0.122 


0.0150 


10 


308.6 


25 


0.108 


0,0131 


IS 


288.9 


30 


0.098 


O.OII8 


20 


«7i.3 



For fi and q see Ethane, p. 285. 

SOLUBILITT OF EtHTLBNB IN AqUBOUS SOLUTIONS OF AlKAU HTIttOZmi% 

Etc., at I5^ (BiUitaer, tSoaO 



Results in terms of the Ostwald Solubility Expression L See p. 237. 

AqoNOi Solution of : /- 



Solubility (u in Aq. Sohitk» of NonnaHty: 



0.1. o>»S' 0.5. a7S< 1,0. 

KOH 0.154 0.144 0.130 0.118 0.1056 

NaOH 0.153 0.144 0.128 0.114 o.ioi 

NH«OH ... 0.157 0.156 0.155 0.154 

}Na«S04 0,1525 0.1425 0.127 0.109 0.093 

In H|0 alone 0.1593 

Solubility op Ethylene in Mbthyl Alcohol and in Acetonb. (Uvi, 19014 
Results in terms of the Ostwald Solubility Expression L See p. 227* 

f*. In Methyl Alcohol. In Acetone. I*. In Methyl Alcohol. In Acetone. 

o 3 3924 40652 30 1.8585 1.8680 
10 2.8831 3-3580 40 I.343* 1.0852 

20 2.3718 2.6278 50 0.8259 0.2772 

25 2.1154 2.2500 60 0.3506 

The formulas from which the above figures were calculated are: ^ 

In Methyl Alcohol, ^ = 3 3924 — 0.05083 / — o.ooooi fl. 

In Acetone, I = 4.0652 — 0.06946/ — 0.000126 ^, 

Solubility of Ethylene in Several Solvents. (McDanJei, ign.) 

Abe. Coef. Bunien c««Ivm«* *• Abe. Coef. Buniw 

A. Coef./I. Solvent. t. ^ ^,^^ 

3.010 2.786 Heptane aa.4 3.463 ^.zoj 

3.655 3-353 " 35 3' 186 a.8a4 

3.482 3.100 ** 39 . 3. no a.7aa 

3.038 3.8141 Acetone ao a. 571 3.390 

a. 826 3.505 " 35 3.308 3.046 

3.586 2.219 Limonene 33 no constant equilibrium 

vol. of ethylene absorbed by unit vol. of solvent at temp, statedt 
For definition of Bunsen Coef. /8, see carbon dioxide, p. 227. 
The Coef. of Abs. fi of ethylene in Russian petroleum is 0. i64at 10* and o. 142 at 20*. 

(Oniewoes and WaUit, i8S7') 

Freezine-point data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) for mixtures of ethylene and 
methyl ether are given by Baume and Germann, 191 1, 1914* 

ETHTLENB BROIODB CtH4Brt. 

F.-PT. Data for Mixtures of Ethylene Bromidb and Other Coiipoundb. 

Ethylene Bromide + Naphthalene (Baud, xgxi ; Dtbme, 1895.) 

+ /? Naphthol (Bnini, iW) 
-f '* + Picric Acid (Bnml, X898.) 

-f Paraldehyde (Pateno tnd AmpoU, 1897.) 

•f Phenol (Dahms, 1895; Pateno and Ampob, 1^97^ 

+ Toluene (Baud, 1913.) 

-f Bromotoluene (Pateno and Ampda, 1897.) 

+ ^ Xylene ** •• 



Solvent. 


r. 


Benzene 


33 


Hezane 


35 

50 

33 


35 
f 45 
Abs. Coef. A 











£A • 
















M 





ETHTLENB CTANIDB 



302 



ETHTLENB CTANIDB C,H4(CN)t. 
Distribution Between Water and Chloroform. (Hantach tnd Vagt, 1901.) 

Gm. Mds. CH<(CN), per Liter. . £j. 

Aq. Layer, Ci. CHCU Layer,' c^. ' c^ 

o 0.0786 0.0464 1.69 

10 0.0787 0.0463 1.70 
20 0.0791 0.0459 1*72 

Additional data for the influence of KOH, KCl and HCl on the above distri- 
bution are also given. 

DiETHTLENE ETHER (CH/)CHs)t. 

Freezing-point data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given for mixtures of 
diethylene ether and water, by Unkovskaja, 19 13. 



} 



Tetraphenyl ETHTLENB (CcHt)sC:C(C«H»)s. 

Freezing-point data for tetraphenyl ethylene -f silicotetraphenyl are given by 
Pascal and Normand (1913). 

BUCAINB CuHuNOt and Salts. 

100 cc. HtO dissolve 0.296 gm. anhydrous fi eucaine at 20^. 

100 cc. oil of sesame dissolve 3.49 gms. anhydrous fi eucaine at 20**. 

100 cc. aniline oil dissolve 66.6 gms. anhydrous fi eucaine at 20°. 

100 cc. HsO dissolve 2.5 gms./9 eucaine hydrochloride at 15-20* 

100 cc. 00% alcohol " 9 " " " 

100 cc. HsO " 25 " " lactate 

100 cc. 90% alcohol " 12.5 

100 cc. CHCU " 20 

EUROPIUM Bromonitrobenzene SULFONATE Eu[C«H,Br(i)N0t(4)S0t(2)]a.- 

loHsO. 
100 gms. sat. solution in water contain 6.31 gms. anhydrous salt at 2^^ 

(Katz and James, 1913.) 

VATS. 

Solubility of the Fatty Acids Obtained from Several Sources in 
Alcohol and in Benzene. (Dubois and Fade. 1885.) 



41 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 



II 
II 



II 
II 
11 



(Zalai. 
19x0.) 

(Squire and 
Caines, 
1905.) 



Crude Fatty 
Add of: 

Mutton 

Beef 

Veal 

Pork 

Butter 

Maigarine 



Gms. Fat per xoo Gms. Abs. Alcohol at: 



o'. 
2.48 

5 

S.63 
10.61 

2.37 



IO-. 

S.02 

6.05 

13.78 
11.23 

24.81 
4.94 



26\ 

67.96 
82.23 

137.10 
118.98 
158.2 
47.06 



Gms. Fats per xoo 
Gma. Benzene at xs^ 

14.70 

15-89 
26.08 

27.30 

69.61 

13.53 



Miscibility OF Fats and 90 Vol. Per Cent Alcohol at 37®. (Vandeveide. 19x1^ 
Mixtures of fats and alcohol in various proportions were shaken twice daily for 
8 days and the volume of each layer, as well as its composition, determined. 

Composition of Mixture- Volume after AgiUtion. Gms. Fat per Gms. Alcohol 
— --I2Z: — * ^— — — . ' ^ — . 100 Gms. per xoo Gma. 

cc. Alcohol ccFat Alcohol Layer Fat Layer. 



cc. Alcohol 

Alcohol + Cocaline 25 

« " 20 

« « 

« u 



15 

10 

5 

Alcohol + Butter Fat 25 
" " 20 

15 
10 

5 

25 
20 

15 
10 

5 



it 
It 



tt 

it 
it 



Alcohol + OUve OU 
(( tt 



tt 
tt 
tt 



u 
tt 
tt 



cc. Fat 

5 
10 

IS 
20 

25 

5 
10 

IS 
20 

25 

5 
10 

15 
20 

25 



25.4 
19.2 

13 

6.7 

I.I 

25.1 

19.2 

13 

7.1 

2 

24.7 
19.2 

13 

7-5 
2.2 



4.6 
10.8 

17 

23.3 
28.9 

4 9 
10.8 

17 
22.9 

28 

5.3 
10.8 

17 
22.5 

27.8 



4 
5 
7 
9 

13 
3 
3 
4 
5 

14 
2 
2 
2 
3 

7 



9 
6 

2 

I 

5 
5 

7 

I 

3 
4 

4 
5 



19.4 
16.2 

13. 5 
12.2 

II. 4 

174 
14. 1 

14. 1 
II. 4 

95 

11. 2 

8.7 
8.7 
8.8 
y.6 



For other data on the solubility of fats see Ewers (1910) and Louise (1911). 



303 nnoRunB 

nUORUnB (Diphenylenemethane) C«H4.CHt.CfH4. 

Freezing-point data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given by Kremann (191 1 J 
for mixtures of fluorene and each of the following compounds: o, m and p dintro- 
benzene, i.3.5» trinitrobenzene, dinitrophenol, dmitrotoluene, trinitrotoluene and 
picric add. 

nUOBESCEIN CsDHuOk. 

100 gms. H2O dissolve 0.005 fi^- fluorescein at 20-25® (Defan. 19x70 

100 gms. pyridine dissolve 13.29 gms. fluorescein at 20-25** '* 

100 gms. aq. 50% pyridine dissolve 37.22 gms. fluorescein at 20-25® " 

rOBMALDEHTDB, SoUd Polymers (CHsO)». 

Solubility of the Six Well-Dbfined Solid Polymers of Formal- 
dehyde IN Water. (Auerbach tnd Banchall, 1908.) 

Name. Formula. m. pt. Gms. per xoo cc. Sat. Solution in Water. 

Parafoimaldehyde (CHsO)n+^HiO 150-160 20-30 gms. at 18® 

a Poljroxymethylene (CHsO)n 163-8 11 gms. at 18-25® 

fi Polyoxymethylene (CHsO)f| 163-8 3.3 gms. at 18®, about 4 at 25® 

7 Polyoxymethylene (CHsO)^ i63~5 less than o.i at 18®. 0.1 gm. at 25® 

i Poljroxymethvlene (CHsO),» 169-70 practically insoluble 

a Triozymethyfene CiHcQi 63-4 17.2 at 18®, 21.x at 25® 

All are insoluble in alcohol and ether except trioxymethylene. 
Solubility of Trioxymethylene in Aq. Sodium Sulfite S(».utions at 15®. 

(Lumite and Sorewetz, 1902.) 

Gms. Na^SOs per 100 cc. H2O 5 10 20 25 28 (sat.) 

Gms. CsHeOs per 100 cc. sat. sol. 22 24 26 27 27 

Data are also given for the solubility of various mixtures of trioxymethylene 
and sodium sulfite in water at 15®. 

The distribution coefficient of formaldehyde between water and ether is 8.5 at 
O® and 9.23 at 20®. (Hantach and Vagt, 190Z.) 

yORMAMTDB HCONHt. 

Solubility in Water, Determined by the Freezing-point Method. 

(Enjciish and Turner, 1915.) 
Gms. Gms. Gms. 

SA ^^^^ Solid rojt HCONH, Solid Ph«e. S^., HCONHi SofidPhM* 

Solidit. per 100 Phase. Soiidif. per 100 ^'*'"" xruamu Solidif. per xoo ^^ 

Gms. H|0. Gms. H|0. Gms. H|0. 

— o o Ice —31.1 116. 4 Ice — 37-6 267 HCONHa 

—2.7 9.93 " —42.5 169 " —29.4 369.8 " 

-5.7 17.87 " -454 187.8 HCONHj.HjO -21.9 540.3 " 

-II 35.45 " -40.4 218.3 " -14. 5 836.8 " 

—23.6 81.93 " —40 241.4 " — 6.4 1780 " 

Similar data are also given for formamide + formic acid and formamide + 
propionic add. 

oandp ChloroFOBMANIUDBS Ci.COI^NH.CHO. 

Freezing-point lowering data for mixtures of and p chloroformanilide are 
given by Rmg and Orton, 191 1. 

rOBMIC ACID HCOOH. 

Solubility in Water, Determined by Freezing-point Method. (Faucon, X910O 



M ^ Gms. HCOOH 


t^ nf 


Gms. HCOOH 


t*'of 


Gna.HCOOK 


SoMif. '^STuSr 


w 01 

Solidif. 


per xoo Gms. 
Mixture. 


Solidif. 


per xoo Gms. 
Mixture. 





-30 


53 


-40 


74.2 


-S ".s 


-35 


57-6 


-30 


79 


-10 23 


-40 


62.5 


— 20 


84.3 


-IS 32 


-45 


66.S 


— 10 


89.4 


—20 39.2 


—49 Eutec. 


70 





95 


-25 46. S 


-45 


71.7 


+8.51 


100 


Similar data for mixtures of 97.4% formic acid and water are given by Kremann, 


1907. 











rasMic AOiD 304 

Distribution op Formic Acm Between Water and Benzene at 13-15^ 

(v. Geoigievics, 19x3.) 

A small separatory funnel was used and the acid in each layer titrated with o.x 
n NaOH, using phenolphthaleine as indicator. 

Gmft. HCXX)H Found per: Gms. HCXX)H Found per: 



% / -^ \ 



25 oc. H|0 Layer. 150 ocC^ Layer. 95 cc B|0 Layer. 150 ccCA Layer. 

1. 016 0.016 2.365 o.o^s 

1. 539 0.031 3.826 0.062 

1.800 0.024 5-874 0.II4 

2. 112 0.031 ^ 7-836 0.138 

The distribution ratio of formic add between water and benzene was found by 
King and Narracott (1^09) to be i to 0.0242 at room temp. 

Freezing-point lowering data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given for mix- 
tures of formic acid and dimethylpyrone by Kendall, 1914. 

rUMABIC ACID COOH.CH:CH.COOH. 

IIALEIC ACID COOH.CH:CH.COOH. (See also p. 398.) 

Solubility in Water. (Vaubd, 1899.) 

100 gms. water dissolve 0.672 gm. fumaric acid at 165^ 

100 gms. water dissolve 50 erams maleic acid at loo^ 

Data for the distribution of fumaric acid between water and ether at 25^ are 
given by Chandler, 1908. 

irBFUBOL QHiOCHO. 

Solubility in Water. (Rothmund, 1898.) 

Determinations by Synthetic Method, for which see p. 16. 

Gms. CJI^OCHO per loo Gms. . . Gms. C4H/)CH0 per 100 Gms. 



» . 


Aq. Layer. 


FuHuzol Layer. 


» . 


Aq. Layer. Furfurol Layer 


40 


8.2 


93-7 


100 


18.9 83.5 


so 


8.6 


93 


1 10 


24 78. s 


60 


9.2 


92 


"5 


28 74.6 


70 


10.8 


90.7 


120 


34.4 68.1 


80 


13 


89 


122.7 


(crit. t.) SI 


90 


iSS 


86.6 







GADOLINIUM CobaltiCTANIDB Gdt(CoC«N.)s.9HiO. 

1000 gms. aq. 10% hydrochloric acid dissolve 1.86 gms. of the salt at 25^. 

Guoes and Wfllaid, 19x6.) 

GADOLINIUM GLTCOLATE Gdt(C,H,0,),.2H,0. 

1000 cc. HtO dissolve 14.147 gms. of the salt at 20^. (Jantach and GrOnknutt, Z9xs-i3-) 

GADOLINIUM Magnesium NTTBATE, etc. 

Solubility of Double Nitrates of Gadolinium and Other Metals in Conc. 
Nitric Acid of tfy - 1.325 (-51.59 Gm. HNOi per 100 cc.) at I6^ jantsch, z9xa.) 

Gms. Hydrcted 
Salt. Formula. Salt per Liter 

SaL SolutKMk. 

Gadolinium Magnesium Nitrate lGd(NO8)6]sMgs.24H«0 352 .3 

" Nickel " " Nia " 400.8 

Cobalt " " Co, " 4Si-4 

" Zinc " " Zm " 472.7 

GADOLINIUM OXALATE Gd,(C,04),.ioH/). 
Solubility in Aqueous Solutions of Sulfuric Aero at 25*. (Wkth, 1913.) 

Solid Phase. 

Gds(CsO4)s.ioHa0 

u 
ii 
a 



Normality of 


Gms. per loo C 


[jms. Sat. Sol. 


Aq.^SOi. 


G<iA. 


Gd,(C04),. 


2.16 


0.1883 


0.3005 


3" 


0.3010 


0.4803 


432 


0.43S9 


0.6956 


6.17s 


0.707 


1. 128 



305 QADOLINIUM OZALATK 

Solubility of Gadolinium Oxalate in Aqueous 20% Solutions of 
Mbthylamine Oxalate, Ethylaminb Oxalate and Triethylamine Oxalate. 

(Grant and James, X9z7«) 
Solvent. ^ ^Too^^^r 

Aq. 20% Methylamine Oxalate 0.069 

" Ethylamine " 0.360 

" Triethylamine " 0.883 

aXDOUNIXTM Dimethyl PHOSPHATE Gds[(CH.),P04]«. 

100 gms. HaO dissolve 23 gms. Gds[(CHs)iP04]6 at 25^ and 6.7 gms. at 95^ 

(Moxxan and James. 1914.) 

aADOUNIXTM SULFATE GdiCSOOi-SHtO. 

Solubility in Water. (Benedicks, 1900.) 

*••/ ^""'^^^^'^ Sdid Phase. 

o 3 . 98 ' Gdi(S04)«.8HiO 

10 3-3 " 

14 2.8 " 

25 2.4 " 

34.4 2.26 " 

Solubility of Gaikx^inium Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of: 
Sodium Sulfate at 25% (Bissell and James, 19x6.) Sulfuric Acid at 25^ (Wirth, z9za.} 

Gms. per lop Gms. HA « .„ p. ^ NonnaUty Gms. per loo Gms. Sat. Sol . 

' Na^,. Gd.(S0^,.' Sohd Phase. ofH,So/ ' QdA - Gd.(SO0,. ^ ^obd Phase, 

o 2.15 Gds(S04)t.8HaO o 1.793 3- 9^1 Gda(SO0t.8H/) 

0.43 2.06 " 0.1 1.98 3-291 " 

0.47 0.76 Gds(S04)s.NatS04.2HsO 0.505 2.365 3.931 " 

1.26 0.17 " I.I 2.29 3.807 " 

3.01 0.07 " 2.16 1.789 2.974 " 

7.46 0.05 " 6.175 0.528 0.8777 " 

27.40 0.05 " 12.6 0.0521 0.0867 ** 

aADOUNIXTM SULFONATES. 

Solubility in Water. ^^^^ 

Salt. Formula. *'&at?!j5S Authority. 

Gm8.H/). 

^tTsSfoS !Gd[C.H.(NO0SO.].7HW „ 43-8 j '^^' 

"^Se^sS^U i G<llCaBr(NQ0SQ.(x^.«)VxoaO ,5 6.3. j ,^;^, 

GALACTOSE CeHitOs. See also Suggars, pages 695-7. 

100 gms. saturated solution in pyridine contain 5.45 gms. QHisOe at 26^, 

density of solution » 1.0065. (Holty, 1905.) 

100 gms. HiO dissolve 68.3 gms. galactose at 20-25^. (Defan, 9x7.) 

100 gms. aq. 50% pyridine dissolve 6.83 gms. galactose at 20-25^ " 

QALUC ACm 3.4.5, (OH)iC6H,COOH.HtO. 

Solubility in Aqueous Ethyl Alcohol at 25®. 

(Seiddl, 19x0.) 

Sat. Sol. solvent. gat. SoL 

1. 15 60 0.957 16 

2 70 0.946 18 

4.2 80 0.933 19.9 

7.5 90 0.919 21.2 

10.6 95 O.9II 21.6 

13.4 100 0.902 22.2 

100 gms. HaO dissolve 0.95 gm. gallic add at 15^. ((keenish and Smith, x9q3.) 

100 gms. HtO dissolve 33. 3 gms. gallic acid at loo^ (U. S. P. vm) 



Wt. Per Cent 




CAOHin 
Solvent. 


dWofSat.S 





1.002 


10 


0.992 


20 


0.983 


30 


0.977 


40 


0.972 


SO 


0.965 



QALUC ACm 306 

Solubility of Gallic Acid in Organic Solvents at 2$\ 

(Seidell, 19x0.) 

• A. /*f «?-♦ Gmi. &Hi(0H)t 

Solvent. Density of Solvent. &4utSn.* C00H.BW) per 100 

Gms. Sat. Sol. 

Acetone Jis = o. 797 o . 941 25 . 99 

Amylalcohol (iso) djo = 0.817 0.834 5.39 

Amylacetate <^ = 0.875 0.878 2.72 

Benzene dn = c.873 0.875 0.022 

Carbon Disulfide (^=1.258 1.262 0.042 

Ether (abs.) d^} = 0.711 0.718 i-37o 

Ethylacetate (^ = 0.892 0.911 3.610 

The amount of gallic acid dissolved by carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and 

toluene was too small for -estimation. 

• 

100 g:ms. glycerol dissolve 8.3 gms. C«Ha(OH)tCOOH.HiO at 25*. (U. S. P. vm.) 
100 gms. 95% formic acid dissolve 0.56 gm. gallic acid at]i9.4^ (Aachan, 19x3.) 

aSBMANIXJM DIOXIDE GeO.. 

100 gms. HiO dissolve 0.405 gm. GeOt at 20^, and 1.07 gms. at loo^ (Winkler, 1887.) 

aSBMANIXJM (Mono) SULFIDE GeS 

GEBMANIXJM (Di) SX7LFIDE GeSt. 

100 gms. HtO dissolve 0.24 gm. GeS 

100 gms. HiO dissolve 0.45 gm. GeSt. C^nUer, 1887.) 

GLASS. 

For data on the solubility of glass in water and other solvents, see: 

(Cowper, x88a; Emmerling, X869; BGhling, 1884; Kreasler and Henhold, X884; Kohliauich, 1891; 
FGister, x89a; Mylius and FOrster, 1889; x89a; Wartha, 1885; Nicolaidot, X9x6.) 

QLOBUUN (Serum). 

Solubility in Aqueous Magnesium Sulfate Sch^utions. 

(Galeotti, X906; Scaffidi, 1907.) 

The precipitated globulin (from oxblood) was not dried, but pressed between 
filter paper, and an excess introduced into each MgS04 solution. After constant 
agitation for 12 hours, the saturated solution was filtered, weighed and evaporated 
to constant weight, the coagulated globulin then washed to disappearance of S0« 
and dried and weighed. 

Results for I0^ Results for 25®. Results for 40®. Results'for 55®. Results for 70*. 

Gms. per i<fo Gms. Gms. per xoo Gms. Gms. per xoo Gms. Gms. per 100 Gms. Gms. per xoo Gms. 
Sat. Sol. Sat.Sol. Sat. Sol. Sat. Sol. Sat. Sol. 

MgS04. Globulin.' MgSO^. Globulus 'MgSOi. Globulin. ^ylgSOi. Globulin.' MgSOi. Globulin.' 

0.06 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.42 0.40 1. 14 0.71 0.34 

0.18 0.34 0.21 0.61 0.31 1.42 0.88 2.14 2.52 0.55 

0.65 1.63 0.63 2.20 0.61 S.39 1.60 3.34 4.74 1. 14 

2. II 3.3s 2.28 5.56 1.92 8.31 S.64 5.06 6.83 1. 17 

4.32 4.42 3.3s 6.07 5.40 8.63 10.81 3.10 9.22 1.76 

13.63 2.60 16 4.03 14.72 3 13-84 2. II 13.29 I 

20.86 0.37 21.30 0.9s 18.47 I-02 1790 0-69 15.38 0.37 

24.18 0.18 25.47 0.03 27.03 o.oi 17.67 0.07 

The coagulation curve and freezing-point curve are also given. 

QLUCOSE d C«Hii06.HtO. See also Sugars, pages 695-7. 

100 gms. HiO ' dissolve 82 gms. glucose at 20-25^ (Defan, 19x7.) 

100 gms. pyridine " 7.62 " " " •• 

100 gms. aq. 50% pyridine " 4917 " " " ** 

100 gms. tnchlor ethylene " 0.006 ** " 15* 

(Wester and Bruins, 19x4.) 
GLUTAMINIC ACID C,H,NH,(COOH),. 

Data for the solubility of glutaminic acid in aq. salt solutions are given by 
WQrgler (1914) and Pfeiffer and WUrgler (1916). 



r. 


Gms. GluUminic Add 
HCl per xoo oc. 
Sat. Sol. 


o 


3^'S 


lO 

20 


34. S 

38 


30 


42. s 


40 


47 


SO 


S2 



307 GLUTAMINIC ACID 

QLUTAMINIG ACID H7DBOCHLOBIDE C.HiNHi(COOH)t.HCL 

Solubility in Water. (Stoiuenberg, 19x9.) 
(The following results were taken from the diagram given by the author.) 

Gms. Glutaminic Add. 
t*. HQ per zoo oc. 

Sat.S6L 

60 S7 

70 62 

80 67.5 

90 74 

icx> 81 

20 1.4 (sol. sat. with HQ) 

GLUTABIC ACm (Pyrotartaric) (CHs),(COOH)s. 

Solubility in Water. (Lamourouz, 1899) 

t*. o'. IS*. ao*. 3S*. so*. 6s'. 

Gms. (CH,),(C00H)2 

I>er ICO cc. solution 42.9 58.7 63.9 79.7 95.7 111.8 

ibo gms. 9s % formic acid dissolve 55.62 p^ms. glutaric acid at 18.6^. (Aaduui, X9X3.) 
Data for the distribution of glutaric acid between water and ether at 25^ are 
given by Chandler, 1908. 

F. pt. data for glutaric acid + sulfuric acid. (Kendall and Carpenter, 19144 

QLYCINE (Glycocoll) CH,.NH,.COOH. 

100 gms. HjO dissolve 51 gms. CHi.NHj.COOH at 20-25®. (Dehn, 19x7.) 

100 gms. pyridine dissolve 0.61 gm. CHj.NHj.COOH at 20-25*. " 

100 gms. aq. 50% pyridine dissolve 0.74 gm. CH1.NH1.COOH at.20-25^ " 

Solubility of GLYaNE in Water and in Aq. Salt Solutions at 20^ 

(Pfdfier and Wttrgler, 191 s, 19x6.) 
Mol8.Salt ^!^??y?^ C.U Mob. Salt ^"^9!^^ 



Salt. 


petUter. 


per xocc 
Sat. Sol. 


Water 


only 


1.962 


BaCls 


o-S 


2.37s 


BaBra 


o-S 


2-954 


SrCU 


o-S 


2.362 


SrBra 


0.49 


2.440 


CaCl, 


057 


4.848 


CaBr, 


.0.51 


4.994 



Salt. 


per 


Liter. 


per locc. 
Sat. Sol. 


LiCl 





.96 


4.188 


UBr 





97 


4-245 


SrCI, 





•25 


2.129 


(( 





•SO 


2.331 


MM 


I 




2. 60s 


a 


2 




3 301 



10 cc. sat. aq. solution contains 1.8 gms. glycine + 2.7 gms. KCl at 20® when 
both are present in the solid phase. (Pfeiffer and Modebki. 19x9.) 

GLYCOUC ACID CH,OH.COOH. 
_ Solubility in Water. (Emidi, 1884.) 

^ t*. 30*. 6o*. 8o*. xoo*. 

Gms. CH20H(C00H) 

per 100 gms. HsO 0.033 0.102 0.235 0.850 

PhenyiaLYCOUC ACID dextro and racemic CH.C«H».OH.COOH. 
Solubility of Dextro and of Racemic Phenyl Glycolic Acm in Chloroform. 

(HoUeinan, 1898.) 

Gms. Detro Add Gms. Racemic 

t*. per 100 Gma. t*. Add per xoo 

CHCU. Gms. CHOs. 

15 0-952 15 0.877 

25 1.328 25 1.07 

35 1-950 35 1.60 

QLYCYRRHTZTC ACID. 

100 gms. sat. solution in HiO contain 0.575 gm.glycyerrhizic acid at 15^ (Capin,'x9.) 

100 gms. sat. solution in HiO contain 0.152 gm. Am. glycyrrhizate at o^ and 

0.225 gm. at 15*. ^ (Capin, 191a.) 

PhenylGLYOXAL Phenyl hydrazone C«H».CO.CH.N.NH.CsH». 
One liter CsHs dissolves 52.6 gms. of the A form at 5^ (Sidgwick, x9xs ) 

One liter CsHs dissolves 2.9 gms. of the B form at 5^. *« 



GOLD 308 

GOLD Au. 

Solubility of Gold in Potassium Cyanide Solutions. (Msdtitriii, 1893^ 
Gold disks were placed in Nessler tubes with aqueous KCN solutions. 

Gma. Au Dissolved in 34 Hours in Nessler Tubes: 
Percent t * \ 

I * ««. Passed m. AgiUtion. 

O.I 0.00195 0.00331 

I 0.00162 0.00418 0.00845 0.0187 

5 0.0032 0.0046 0.01355 0.0472 

20 0.0012 0.00305 O.OII5 0.0314 
50 0.00043 0.00026 0.00505 0.0108 

The following data for more dilute KCN solutions are given by Christy (looi). 

Gold strips 2 X i inch were rotated for 24 hrs. in aq. KCN solutions and the 

loss in weight determined. 

' Per cent Mgs. Au Per cent Mgs. Au Per cent Mgs. Au 

KCN. Dissolved. KCN. Dissolved. KCN. Dissolved. 

o o.oio 0.002 0.44 0.016 74.96 

0.0005 0.043-0.07 0.00325 1.77 0.0325 150.54 

o.ooi o.ia-0.23 0.004 4:^9 0.065 168.12 

0.0016 0.16 0.008 48.43 

Data are also given for 48 hour periods and for solutions containing Ot. 
One liter of cone. HNOs dissolved 0.66 ^m. Auon boiling for two hours. (Dewey, '10.) 
Data for the rate and limit of solubility of Au in cone. HCl solutions of iron 
alum and of cupric chloride are given by McCaughey, 1909. 

GOLD CHLORIDE (Auric) AuCU. 

100 gms. HtO dissolve 68 gms. AuCIs. 

When I gm. of gold as chloride is dissolved in aq. HCl of different strengths and 
the solutions shaken with 100 cc. portions of ether, the following percentages of 
thegold enter the ethereal layer. With 20% HCl, 95%; 10% HCl, 98%; 5% HCl, 
98%; 11% HCl, 84% and 0.18% HCl, 40.3% of the gold. 

Distribution results, indicating considerable variation in the constitution of the 
dissolved substance in the two layers, are also given. (Mylius, 1911.) 

GOLD PHOSPHORUS TRI CHLORIDE (Aureus) AuaPQ,. 

zoo gms. PCla dissolve i gram at 15^, and about 12.5 grams at 120^. 

(Lindet — Compt. rend, zoi, 149a, "Ss.) 

GOLD ALKALI DOXTBLE CBLORIDBS. 

Solubility op Sodium CtOld Chloride, Lithium (jold CHLORiDBt 
Potassium Ctold Chloride, Rubidium (3old Chloride, and 
Caesium Gold Chloride in Water. 

(Roaenbladt — Bcr. X9» »537, '86.) 



t* 




Grams Anhydrous 


Salt per xoo 


Grams Solution. 




• • 


NaAuCU. 


liAuCU. 


KAuCU. 


RbAuCU. 


CaAuCU. 


10 


58 -2 


53-1 


27.7 


4.6 


0.5 


20 


60.2 


57-7 


38.2 


9.0 


08 


30 


64.0 


62.5 


48.7 


13 -4 


1-7 


40 


69.4 


67 -3 


59-2 


17.7 


3-2 


so 


77-5 


72.0 


70.0 


22.2 


S-4 


60 


90.0 


76.4 


80.2 


26.6 


8.2 


70 


• • • 


81.0 


• • • 


31 


12.0 


80 


• • • 


85 -7 


• • • 


35-3 


16.3 


90 


• « • 


• • • 


• • • 


39-7 


21.7 


100 


• • • 


V • • 


• • • 


44-2 


27 5 



100 gms. glycerol (({u ■- 1.256) dissolve 0.21 gm. AuK(CN)i*5HsO at iK-ld^. 

(OssendowBkC 1907 ) 



309 QUAIACOL 

QUAIACOL CJi«(OH)OCH,0. 

GUAIACOL CABBOKATE [C6H4(OCH,}0]sCO. 

Solubility in Water, Alcohol, Etc. (U. s. p. vm.) 



Cfj«Mn* 


t* 


Gms. per 


zoo Gms. Solvent. 


OatVCIMa 


w . 


Guaiacol. 




Water 


25 


1.89 


... 


Alcohol 


as 


. ■ • 


3.0S 


Chloroform 


2S 


... 


66.6 


Ether 


2S 


. . • 


7.69 


Glycerol 


2S 


100 


• a • 



The coefficient of distribution of guaiacol carbonate between olive oil and water 

at 25® is given as -^ «= 3.7 by BoSseken and Waterman, 191 1, 1912. 

Freezing-point lowering data (solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given for mix- 
tures of guaiacol and a naphthylamine by Pushin and Mazarovic, 1914J for mix- 
tures of guaiacol and picric acid by Philip and Smith, 1905; and for mixtures of 
guaiacol and salol by Bellucci, 1912, 1913. 

a Tri PhenylGUANIDINE C«H»N:C(NHC6H0i. 

Solubility in Mixtures of Alcohol and Water at 25^ (Honemanand Antuacii/94) 

GiDS. Gms. 

Vol. % CAN:C(NHCA)s Density Vol. % CAN:C(NHCA)s Density 

Akohol. per xoo Gms. of Solutions. Alcohol. per xoo Gms. . of SduticMis. 

Solvent. Solvent. 



100 


6.23 


0.8021 


80 


1.06 


0.8572 


95 


3-7S 


0.8158 


7S 


0.67 


0.8704 


90 


2.38 


0.8309 


70 


0.48 


0.8828 


^S 


1.58 


0.8433 


. 60 


0.22 


0.9048 



See remarks under a Acetnaphthalide, p. 13. ^ . 

Freezing-point lowering data for mixtures of triphenylguanidine and triphenyl 
methane and for triphenylguanidine and phthalide are given by Lautz, 19 13. 

HEMOGLOBIN. 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 15.16 gms. hemoglobin at 20-25^ (Defan, 19x7.) 

100 gms. pyridine dissolve 0.15 gm. hemoglobin at 20-25^ " 

100 gms. aq. 50% pyridine dissolve 0.77 gms. hemoglobin at 20-25^ ** 

HELIANTHIN (Methyl Orange, Tropaeolin). 

100 cc. HiO dissolve 0.0055 to 0.0225 S^m. helianthin. (Dehn, x9z7a.) 

100 cc. pyridine dissolve 0.^5 gm. helianthin. ** 

100 cc. 50% aq. pyridine dissolve 62.5 ^s, helianthin. " 

Results for other solvents and observations on the state of colored compounds 
in solution are given. 

He. 

SoLUBiLrrv in Water, (von Antropoff. xgog-xo) 



f. 


Coef . of Absoxption. 





0.0134 


10 


O.OIOO 


20 

30 


0.0138 
O.O161 


40 

so 


O.OI9I 
0.0226 



The coef. of absorption adopted for the present results is that of Bunsen aa 
modified by Kuenen. The modification consists in substituting unit of mass in 
place of unit of volume of water, in the formula. 



310 



BKUUM He. 



Solubility in Water. 

(EfltRicher— Z. phyaik. Chem. 31. X84, '99.) 

AbsorpCioo Cocffidoit* 



••J 


Cor.Btnmctie Vol 


.at 


Vol.o( 


JB 


'At Bar. Pressure 


» . — ^.^^^ 


PmraiCa 


Water. 


He. 


»• 


MimisHiO 














Vapor Tensioa. 


Pressure* 





• • • 


• • a 


• • • 


0.000270 


• • • 


0.0150 


OS 


764.0 


73-584 


1.093 


« 
• * • 


0.0149 


0-0149 


5 


758.0 


73 


■578 


1.062 


0.000260 


0.0144 


00146 


10 


758.0 


73 


597 


1.046 


0.00025s 


0.0142 


0.0144 


15 


757-8 


73 


.641 


1.008 


0.000246 


0.0137 


00140 


30 


758 -4 


73 


.707 


0996 


0.000242 


0.0135 


0.0139 


25 


762.3 


73 


793 


0.983 


0.000238 


0.0133 


0.0137 


30 


764.4 


73 


897 


0.985 


0.000238 


0.0133 


0.0138 


35 


764-5 


74 


0167 


0.972 


0.000234 


O.OI3I 


00138 


40 


762.0 


74 


147 


0.957 


0.000232 


0.0129 


0.0139 


45 


761.7 


74- 


294 


0.947 


0.000229 


0.0127 


0.0140 


50 


760.9 


74- 


461 


0920 


0.000223 


0.0124 


0.0140 



For q and also af>sofption coefficient, see Ethane, p. 285. 

HEPTANK n CHi(CHs)fCH.. 

F.-pt. lowering data for mixtures of heptane and phenol are given by (Campett 
and Delgrosso, 1913). 

HEPTOIC ACm CH.(CHt)»COOH. 

100 gms. HiO dissolve 0.241 gm. heptoic acid at 15^ (Lumsdeii, 1905.) 

HKXAMK'itiYiJSNE (Hexahydrobenzene). See Cyclohexane, p. 280. 

EEXAMETHTLSNB TETRAMINE (CH>)«N4. 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 81.32 gms. (CHt)6N4 at 12^ (Ddepine, zSgsO 

100 gms. abs. alcohol dissolve 3.22 gms. (CHt)6N4 at 12^ " 

100 cc. 90% alcohol dissolve 12.5 gms. (CHt)6N4 at 15-20^. (Squire and Calnes, 1905.) 
100 gms. CHCU dissolve 8.09 gms. (CHi)«N4 at 12 . pekpine, 1895.) 



CeHii. 

Solubility in Methyl Alcohol. 

(Rothmund, 1898.) 

Determined by synthetic method, see p. 16. 

Gms. Hexane per 100 Gms. Gms* Hexane per xoo Gms. 

^■"."^^""■^^^■^"^.■•^^"■^.^"^^ 
Alcoholic Hexane 

Layer. Layer. 

43-6 91-2 

52.7 85.5 

42.6 (crit. t.) 68.9 

F.-pt. data for hexane + phenol. (Campetti and Delgroaao, 19x3.) 

HZPPUBIG ACID aH»CO.NH.CHiCOOH. 

Solubility in Several Solvents. 



r. 


Alcoholic 


Hexane 


r. 




Layer. 


Layer. 




10 


26. s 


96.8 


3S 


20 


31.6 


95-9 


40 


30 


38.3 


93-7 


42 



SohrenL 


f. 


Gms. 

r4H,C0.NHCH,C(X>H 

per zoo Gms. Solvent. 


Anthority. 


Water 


20-25 


0.42 


(Defan, 1917.) 


Methyl Alcohol 


22 


9.80 


(Timofeiew, 1894^ 


Ethyl Alcohol 


22 


5.20 


M 


Propyl Alcohol 


23 


2.80 


« 


50% Aqueous Pyridine 


20-25 


88 


(Ddm, Z9Z70 



311 HXPPUBIC ACID 

Solubility of Hippuric Acid at 25** in Aqueous Solutions of: 

Formic Acid. (EeodaU, 19x1.) Sodium Hippurate. (Sid^wick, 19x0.) 



Nonnality Gms. Hippuric 

of Aq. Acid per 

HCOOQ. Liter. 



Normality Gms. Hippuric 

of Aq. Add per 

HCOOH. Liter. 



Normality of Gms. Hippuric 
Aq. Sodium Acid per 

Hippurate. Liter. 






3 67 


5 


4.08 





6.99(?) 


I-2S 


3 -61 


10 


4-77 


I 


i3-97(?) 


2-5 


372 











mPPUBIO ACID CeH,CONH.CH,COOH. 

Solubility in Aq. Potassium Hippurate Solutions at ao*. 

(Hoitsema — Z. phyak. Chem. aTt 3X7t 'gS*) 
Grams per Liter Solutioa. 



002 
008 



X)eiisity Gram Mols. per liter Sol. 

ofSolutioiis. C^gNOs. kCvHsNOs. 

0.0182 O 

0.0163 O.OII 

0.0183 0.071 

022 0.0234 0.254 

114 0.064 1.36 

182 O.I3I 2.21 

192 0.147 2.32 

19s O.IS3 2.40 

201 0.133 2.50 

239 0.084 3.01 

282 0.068 3.57 

282 0.065 3.58 

276 0.031 3.56 

277 O.OII 3.55 

277 0.00 3.56 



CANOs. KCftUsNOs. 



3 276 

2.919 
3.278 
4. 191 
11.47 
23.46 

26.32 

27.40 
23.82 
15.04 

12.18 
11.60 

SS5 
1. 917 



o 

2 

IS 

55 

295 
480 

504 
521 
543 
654 

775 

777 

773 
771 

773 



o 

39 

43 
18 

4 
I 



SoUd 
Phase. 

CbH»NQ» 



I )CiH^C^+ 

^ \ Cgl^NOiXCANOaJbO 

CANOaJLCANO^JiaO 



4 
I 

o 

7 
8 

4 
3 
4 



1 



CANOk.lCCVH^O».^0 
+KCANOa 

' KCANOi 



HOLOCAINX H7DB0CHL0BIDE. 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 2 gms. holocaine hydrochloride at 15-20^ 



(Squire and Calnes, z9qs.| 



HOMATBOPINE H7DB0BR0MIDE Ci6H>iN0s.HBr. 

Solubility in Water, etc. 
(u. s. p. vm.) 

100 gms. water dissolve 17.5 gms. salt at 25^ 

100 gms. alcohol dissolve 3.08 gms. salt at 25°, and 11.5 gms. at 60^. 

100 gms. chloroform dissolve 0.16 gm. salt at 25^ 



HTDBASTINE CuHnNOe. 
CuHuNO^HCl. 

Solubility in Several Solvents. 

(U. S. p. Vni; at i8'-aa*, MQUer, 1903.) 



HYDBASTININE HYDROCHLOBIDB 



Gms. CnHi 



Sdvent. 

Water 

Alcohol 

Benzene 

Ethyl Acetate 

Petroleum Ether 0.073 



flNO^pei 
Solution. 



per zoo Gms. 



Sohrent. 



Gms. per loo Gms. Solution 
at i8'-2a'. 



At i8»-2a». At 8o'. CnHjiN(V^CuHuNO|.Ha. 

0.033 0.025 Ether 0.51 0.078(25"*) 

0.74(25"*) 5.9(60**) Ether+HjO 0.80 

8.89 ... Chloroform 100+ 0.35 (25^) 

405 ... ecu 0.123 



B7DBAZIDE8 an 

H7DRAZIDES. 

Solubility of thb Tautomeric Forms of Htdrazidbs in Benzene at 5^ 
Determined by the freezing-point method. See alao p. 4S7. (Sidgwkkp 19x5.) 

Gms. Compound 
Compound. Fonnula. Dissolved per 

Liter Benzene. 

SS 



• CO V ) A form 

Phthalylphenylhydrazide CjHi ^ ^^ > N.NH.CiHb J ^, 

^ CO ^ ) C form 



Z.I 



/C0\ 



Phthalylphenyhnethylhydraade CA \ p^ / N J^(CHi)CA, A form 124 

H7DRAZINE NH1.NH,. 

Distribution of Hydrazine between Water and Benzene. 

(GeoxgievicB, 19x5.) 
Gmg. NHt.NH| per: Gms. NH.NHt per: 

95 cc. H|0 Layer. 75 oc. C«H« Layer. 35 oc. H^ Layer. 75 cc. C«H« Layer. 

0.4137 0.027 1. 7601 0.0626 

0.6676 0.033s 2.3336 O.IIOI 
1.0862 0.03SS 4-7S 0-137 

HYDRAZINE PerCHLOBATE N,H4(HC10«)i.3HiO. 

Solubility in Water. (Carlson, 1910.) 

X. Sp. Gr. Gms. NsH4(HC104)« 

* * Sat. SoL per zoo cc. Sat. SoL 

18 1.264 41*72 

35 I -391 66-9 

HYDRAZINE MonoNITaATE N>H4.HN0,. 

Solubility in Water. (Sommer, 1914-) 

^ Gms. NtH^HNQi per 100 Gms . Gms. NtH4.HN0i per xoo Gms . 

Sat. Sol. Water. Sat. Sol. Water. 

10 63.63 174-9 40.02 85.86 607.2 

IS 68.47 217.2 4502 88.06 737.6 

20.01 72.70 266.3 50.01 91.18 1034 

25.01 76.61 327.5 55.01 93.58 1458 

30.01 80.09 402.2 60.02 95-51 2127 

35.01 83.06 490.3 

H7DRAZINE SULFATE N,H4.HsS0«. 

100 grams water dissolve 3.055 gms. NsH4.HsS04 at 22^ (Cuitius and Jay, 1889.) 

Phenyl HYDRAZINE and other substituted hydrazines. See page 486. 

HYDBIODIC ACID HI. 

Solubility in Water, Determined • by Freezing-point Method. 

(Pickering, x893a.) 
Gm. HI 
t*. per xoo Gms. Solid Phase. 
Sat. Sol. 

Ico 



— 10 


20.3 


—20 


293 


-30 


3SI 


-40 


39 


-so 


42 


-60 


44-4 


-70 


46.2 


-80 


47-9 



M 
M 

«« 





Gms. HI 


r. 


per xoo Gms. Solid Phase. 




Sat. SoL 


-60 


52.6 HI.4H/> 


-40 


59 


about— 35.5 m. pt. 


64 


-40 


65-5 - 


-49 


66.3 " +HI.3HdO 


—48 m. pt. 


70.3 HI.3Hd0 


-S6 


73.5 "+HI.aH/) 


-52 


74 HI 2H,0 



" +HI.4IW) 

F.-pt. data for HI + HiS (BagSter, 1911}, HI + (CHt)iO. (Maass and Mcintosh, Z9za.) 



313 



H7DR0BB0MIG ACID 



HTDBOBBOMIO ACID HBr. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Rooaeboom— Z. phyrik. Chem. at 454f '88; Rec. trav. cfaim. 4« roj, 'Ss\ 5* S58» "Sd; aee also PIdcerintf 

— PhU. Mag. is] 36» iig. ^JSO 

Gms. mrDisolved at 

Lower Ptcssuks per loo 

Gms. HsO. 

175.0 (10 mm.) 





GmsSBr DianbedUt 760-7650110 j 




t: 


per 100 Gms. 


fi. 




Water. 


Soludoa. 




— a. 


5 255.0 


71 83 


. • . 


-IS 


239.0 


70.50 


■ • • 





221.2 


68.85 


611. 6 


+10 


210.3 


67.76 


581.4 


IS 


204.0 


67.10 


... 


as 


193.0 


65.88 


533 I 


SO 


171 S 


63.16 


468.6 


7S 


150.5 


60.08 


406.7 


100 


130. 


S^'S^ 


344.6 



108.5 (5 mm.) 



• • • 



• • e 



For fi aee ethane, p. 285« 

F.-pt. data for HBr + H,S (Bagster, 1911); HBr + (CHi)A HBr + CHiOH, 
HBr + CtH,OH, HBr + CH,COOC,H« and HBr + CeH,CH,. 

(Maaas and Mcintosh, 19x9.) (Rod and Mclntoah, Z9z60 

H7DROCHLOBIC ACID HCl. 

Solubility in Water by the Freezing-point Method. 

(Composite curve from results of Roloff, 1895; Pickering, i893(a}; Roozeboom, 
1884, 1889 and Rupert, 1909.) 



f. 

— 1.706 

-14.97 
-28.84 

-40 

-60. 

-80 

-86Eutec. 

-50 
-40 

-30 

— 24.9 m. pL 
-27.5 
-23.8 

— 21.2 



Gin8.Ha 

per xoo Gms. 

Sat. Sol. 

1.66 
10.02 

14 SI 
17.40 

21.30 

24.20 

24.8 

30.1 

32.7 

36.5 

40.3 

44 

45.7 

45.9 



SoUd Phase. 
Ice 



r. 



M 



M 



U 



«« 



+Ha.3H|Q 
Ha.3H^ 



«i 



•• +HaaIW) 
HaaH^ 



— 18.4 48.6 

— i7.7m.pt. 50.3 
-18.7 52.85 
-19.4 54.1 
-20.8 55.7 
-21.3 56.5 
-23.2 57.3 

— 23.5Eutec. ... 
-21.5 58.2 

— 20.7 59.1 

— 18.4 61. 1 

— 17.4 62.4 

-15.4 65.4 

-15.35 66.8 



Gms. Ha 

per xoo Gms. Solid Phase. 
Sat. Sol. 

HaaH^ 

M 



" +Hajaio 
Ha.H^ 



At about — 15.35 two liquid layers are formed. Data for these are as follows: 
HCl layer. HiO layer. 

/ * N / ■■ ■ A I — _ ■% 

M^ Gms. ILO Gms. HQ Gms. HD 

Satuxi^on per xoo Gms. t*. per xoo Gms. tf. of Sat. Sd. t*. per xoo j3,ms. i. of Sat. SoL 

'^ Sat. 501. 



Below —50 

" -SO 
Bet. — isando* 
Above 45 



it 
tt 



Sat. Sd. 

0.008 

0.017 

0.077 

0.02Z 

0.052 

O.II 

0.13 



—20 

-15 

— 10 

-s 

o 

+s 

ID 



67.6s 
67.29 
66.71 
66.44 

6S.8S 
65.48 
65.18 



1.279 
1.269 
Z.260 

I.2SS 
1.247 

I.24S 
1.240 



IS 
20 

30 

35 
40 

4S 
SO 



Sat. Sol. 
64.70 
64.19 
63.21 
62.90 
62.27 
61.76 
61.65 



X.231 
Z.228 
Z.229 
Z.227 
Z.218 
X.2I2 
Z.2Z9 



For additional data on this system see Baume and Tykociner, 1914. 



H7DB0GHL0BZG AGID 



314 



HTDBOOHLOBIO ACID HCl. 

Solubility in Water at Dippbrbnt Tbmpbraturbs and 

Prbssurbs. 

(Ddcke; Ronoe and Dittmar — liebig's Ann. i ia« 334* *59; hdam o*. Rooaebooift — Rec. tntT. 

chim. 3» 104,^84.) 





At Different Temperktures and 760 mm. 


Ptbhiik. 


At Different Pressures fnd e* 


»•• 


ocHClper 
loooc.HiO. 


Deoatj. 


Cms. Ha per 
loeg. SoL 


Gma.Haper 
xoo g. HsO. 


Presauret.* 


Gma.Haper 
loog. HiO 





525 a 


t.22S7 


45 IS 


82.31 


60 


61.3 


4 


497 7 


1.3265 


44 36 


79 73 


100 


65-7 


8 


4803 


1.2185 


4383 


78.03 


150 


68.6 


13 


471 -3 


1.2148 


43 28 


76.30 


200 


70.7 


14 


463 4 


1.2074 


42.83 


74.92 


300 


73-8 


18 


4S»-2 


X.2064 


43 34 


73-41 


400 


76 -3 


23 


4350 


I. 2014 


41 54 


71 03 


500 


78.3 


30 


• • • 


■ • 


40.23 


67 -3 


600 


80 -o 


40 


• • • 


• • • 


38.68 


63 -3 


750 


83.4 


so 


• • • 


• • • 


37-34 


59-6 


1000 


85.6 


60 


• • • 


• • • 


35-94 


56.1 


1300 


895 



^ P ffB a s uiM ill mm. Hg minus tenaioa of HaO vapor. 



Solubility in Water at Tbmperaturbs Below o*. 



At a pressure of 760 mm. 



f. 


«• 


r. 


9- 


24 


IOI.2 


-IS 


93.3 


21 


98.3 


— 10 


89.8 


18.3 


96 


- S 


86.8 


18 


95.7 





84.2 



At pressures below and above 760 mm. 

t*. mm. Pressure. 9. 

— 23.8 
-21 334 

-19 580 

— 18 900 
-17.7 1073 



For definition of q, see Ethane, p. 285. 



ror dennition ot q, see fLtnane, p. 205. 

The eutectic is at —86^ and 33 gma. HCl per 100 gma. HgO. 



84.2 
86.8 
92.6 

98.4 
101.4 



Solubility op Hydrochloric Acid Gas in Mbthyl Alcohol, Ethyl 
Alcohol, and in Ether at 760 mm. Pressure. 

CAo BruTA— Rec. tour. chin. xi« tag* *9»l Schuncke — Z. piiyak. Chenu Z4« 3361 'mO 

Grains HCl gas per xoo Grams Solution tn: 



» . 


dHaOH. 


CiBiOH. 


(CiH,)iO. 


— 10 


(4. 6 


• • • 


37. SI (-9a') 


- 5 


• • • 


• • a 


37-0 


. 


s^ 3 


45-4 


35 6 


+ S 


... 


44.2 (6.5") 


33 I 


10 


• • • 


42.7 (II. s°) 


30 3S 


IS 


• . . 


• • • 


37.62 


20 


47.0(18'') 


41.0 


24.9 


«s 


• • • 


40.3 (23. s**) 


22.18 


30 


43 •0(31-7*') 


38.1 (32°) 


19.47 



315 



H7DB0GHL0BIG AGZD 



Solubility op Hydrochlokic Acid Gas in Aq. Sulfumc Acid Solutions. 

(Coppadoro, 1909.) 



i of Sat. 
SoL 



Results at I7^ 

Gms. per xoo Gms. 
Sat. Sol. 

K«S04. 



I 

I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 



211 
220 
220 

260 

305 
3SS 
430 

S4S 
580 

660 

735 
81S 



o 
1.86 

4.7s 
8.04 

12.80 

20.9 

30.8 

44.6 

59-4 
65.4 
73.7 

77. S 

89 



HCl. 
42.7 

39-9 
39-2 

36.9 
33-2 
28.5 
22.6 

IS 
6.26 

3-25 
0.62 

O.II 

0.068 



iof Sat. 
SoL 

1.18s 

I 195 
1. 210 

I.2SS 

1. 255 

1.340 

1.400 
1.520 

I.S7S 
1.650 

I 725 

I -755 
1.770 



Results at 40^ 

Gms. per xoo Gms. 
t. Sol. 



HtSO«. 

3.56 
5.86 

8.90 

16.80 

18.8 

28.6 

44.2 

61. 1 

66.4 

73-2 

79-4 
81.4 

83.5 



HQ. • 

35-6 
34.8 

32.4 
27.6 

25-9 
18.5 

"5 

3-3S 
1. 17 

0.17 

0.081 

0.032 

0.029 



i of Sat. 
SoL 

I.I4S 

1. 150 

1. 160 
1. 180 
1.225 

1.230 

1-313 

1.380 
1. 510 
1.560 

1.700 

1-745 
1. 745 



Results at 70^ 

Gms. Dcr xoo Gms. 
Sat. Sot. 



H|SO«. 
1. 61 

3-38 
4.80 

7-93 
18.9 

20 

36.2 

48 
62.7 
67.6 
80.7 

83 
83-4 



HQ. 

32.7 

3I-I 

30.5 
28.9 

22.8 

22.3 

13-2 

6.99 
1.56 

0.54 
0.05 

0.035 

0.032 



MisciBiLiTT OF Hydrochloric Acid with Mixtures of Watbr and 

Phenol at 12°. 

(SchrememakexB and van der Horn van der Bos, 19x2.) 



Compodtion of the Reciprocally 
Saturated Liquid Pairs. 



Composition of the Solutions in 
Contact with Solid Phenol. 



Water Rich Layer. 
% HO. % Phenol. 


Phenol Rich Layer. 
% HQ. % Phenof. 


% Water. 


K 

%Ha. 


%PhenoL 


7.45 


72 


11.22 





88.78 


3.1 6.6 


0.09 78 


84.5 


10.7 


4.8 


6.6 5-3 


0.2 80.3 


80.38 


15-64 


3-98 


8 5.1 


0.36 82.6 


72.43 


24.37 


3-2 


10.7 4.8 


0.52 84.5 


60.25 


36.25 


35 



Additional data for this system are given by Krug and Cameron, 1900. 

Freezing-point Data (Solubility, see footnote, p. i) for Mixtures of 
Hydrochloric Acid and Other Compounds. 

Hydrochloric Add + Hydrogen Sulfide (Baume and Geoigitaes. 19x2, x9X4) 

4- Mpthvl Alrnhni / (Baume and Borowaki, 1914; Baume and PamlQ, 
-t- JVietnyi Aiconol ( ,g„ ,g,^. ^^^^ and Mcintosh, 19x3.) 

+ Methyl Chloride (Baume and Tykodner, 19x4.) 

+ Methyl Ether (Maass and Mclntoah, 19x3; Baume, X91X, 1914.) 

+ Propionic Acid (Baume and (jeoigitses, 19x2, X9X4.) 

+ Sulfur Dioxide (Baume and Pamfil, x9xxp 19x4) 



41 



it 

II 
II 
II 



H7DBOCTANIC ACID HCN. 

Distribution between Water and Benzene. 

(Hantach and Sebalt, 1899; Hantiwch and Vagt, 1901 .) 

Mol. HCN per Liter: 



r. 

6 
16 

25 



Mol. HCN per Liter; 
B^ Layer (c). CA Layer (<;')• 
0.00625 0.00325 I 



923 



r. 

7 
20 



B,0 Layer (c). C|H| Layer (O* 

0.0574 0.0148 

0.0572 0.0154 



7 



0.00593 0.00363 1.634 
0.00580 0.00375 1.547 

Data for the effect of HCl and of KCl on the distribution are also given. 



3.88 



H7DB0FLU0BIC ACID HF. 

100 grams HiO dissolve iii grams HF at ~35^ 



(Mctawr, Z894O 



BYDBOQIN 



316 



BTDBOOEH H. 



Solubility in Water. 



(Winkkr — Ber. a4t 99i '91; Bohr and Bock — Wied. Ann. 44* 3x8» '9X1 Ttmoi^lew— Z. phydc 

Cbem. 6, 147* '90.) 



r. 



I. 



^. 






0.0214 


^ 


• • • 


• • • 


00214 


0.000193 


s 


0.0203 





.0209 — 


0.0241 


0.0204 


0.000184 


10 


0.0193 





.0204 — 


0.0229 


0.0195 


0.000176 


IS 


0.0185 





.0200 — 


0.0217 


0.0188 


0.000169 


so 


0.0178 





.0196 — 


0.0205 


0.0182 


0.000162 


«S 


0.0171 





.0193 - 


0.0191 


0.017s 


0.000156 


30 


0.0163 








0.0170 


0.000147 


40 


00153 








0.0164 


0.000139 


SO 


0.0141 








0.0161 


0. 000x29 


60 


0.0129 








0.0160 


0. 0001 19 


80 


0.0085 








0.0160 


0.000079 


100 


0.0000 




• 




0.0160 


0.000000 


\ , A mmmn 


Id Solubility 


^ Expression, 


see p. 227. 


Fori9', B, and 


0. see Ethan 



Data for the solubility of hydrogen in water at pressures up to 10 atmospheres 
are given by Cassuto, 1913. 

BOLUBILITY OF HYDROGEN IN AqUBOUS SOLUTIONS OP AciDS AND 

Bases at 25^ 

(Gc£fcken— Z. phyiik. Chem. 49, 968, '04.) 



(jTunEoniT. 
Adds and 



SoluUUty of H (is - OstwaJd Expression) in Sohidoos of: 



per liter. ^^' 

0.0 0.0193 

0.5 0.0186 

i.o 0.0179 

8.0 0.0168 

3.0 0.0159 

4*o • • • 



HNO|. iHaS04. CHgCOOH. CHsQCOOH. KOH. NaOH. 



0.0193 0.0193 0.0193 

0.0188 0.0185 0.0192 

0.0183 0.0177 O.OI9I 

0.0174 0.0163 0.0188 

0.0167 0.0150 0.0186 

0.0160 O.OI4I 0.0186 



0.0193 0.0193 

0.0189 0.0167 

0.0186 0.0142 
0.0180 



0.0193 
0.0165 
0.0139 
0.0097 
0.0072 
0.005s 



The above figures for the conoentratiom of acids and bades were calculated to 
grams per liter, and these values with the corresponding lu values for the solubility 
of hydrogen, plotted on crosa-section paper. From the resulting curves, the follow- 
ing table was read: 



Grams Adds 


SolubiHty i 


3fH(l26-C 


>Btwa]dEzpi 


«a8ion)inSo] 


ludons of: 




per litrr. HQ. 


HNOs. 


iHsSO«. CHsCOOH. 


CHsQCOOH 


:. KOH. 


NaOH. 


0.0193 


00193 


0.0193 


0.0193 


0.0193 


0.0193 


0.0193 


30 0.0185 


0.0189 


o.oi86 


0.0192 


O.OI9I 


0.0172 


0.0165 


40 0.0x79 


0.0186 


0.0180 


O.OI9I 


0.0190 


00153 


0.0140 


60 0.0173 


0.0183 


0.0174 


0.0190 


0.0188 


0.0135 


O.OII7 


80 0.0167 


0.0180 


0.0168 


0.0189 


0.0187 




0.0097 


100 0.0160 


0.0179 


0.0162 


0.0189 


0.0185 




0.0082 


150 


O.OI71 


0.0148 


0.0188 


0.0182 




0.0058 


200 


0.0165 


0.0140 


0.0186 


0.0179 




• • • 


250 


0.0160 


■ • ■ 


00184 


• • • 




• • • 



For Ostwald Solubility Expression /, see p. 227. 

The Solubility of Hydrogen in Conc. HtSOi at 20*. 

(Christo£f, 1906.) 

%H2S04 o 35.82 61.62 95.6 

In 0.0208 0.00954 0.00708 0.01097 



317 



HTDROCm 



Solubility op Hydrogen in Aqueous Solutions op Ammonium 

Nitrate at ao**. 

(Knopp— Z. phyaQc. Chem. 48. 103, Vh*) 



0.00 
I 037 
2.167 

3 378 
4.823 

6.773 
11.550 



Normafity 

(per xooo GmsO 

HiO. 

0.00 

0.1308 

0.2765 

0.4363 
06333 

0.9069 

1.6308 



Mokcnkr 

ConoentiBf* 

tion. 

0.00 

0.002352 

0.004956 

0.007799 

0011280 

0.016447 

0.028525 



Abflorpdan 

Coefficient 

of Hydrofdia 

0.0188 

o. 01872 

0.01845 
0.01823 
0.01773 

o. 01744 
0.01647 



Density 
of SolutioQa. 



1.0027 
1.0072 
I. 0122 
1 .0182 
1 .0262 
1.04652 



80LUBILITY OF Hydrogen in Aqueous Solutions of Barium 

Chloride. 

(Bnim— Z. phyiik. Chem. 33, 735t 'ooO 

Coefficient of Abeoiption of Hydrogen at ! 



GBH.BaClt 
per xoo Gmi. 
Solntiop. 

0.00 

3.29 
3.6 

6.45 
7.00 



5*. 
0.0237 

0.02II 

0.0209 

0.0196 

0.0194 



io». 
0.0221 

0.0198 

0.0197 

00186 

0.0183 



IS**. 
0.0206 

0.9185 

0.0184 

0.0173 

0.0172 



90». 
O.OI9I 

0.0172 
0.0170 
00161 
0.0159 



•5*. 

0.017s 

00157 
0.0156 
0.0147 
0.0146 



Solubility of Hydrogen in Aqueous Solutions of Calcium Chlor« 
IDE, Magnesium Sulphate, and Lithium Chloride at 15^. 

(Gordon — Z. physik. Chem. z8» 14, '95O 

Coefficient of Absorption of hydrogen in water at 15^ - 0.01883. 

In Calcitun In Magnesium In Lithitim 

Stdphate. 



Chloride. 

Gma. G. M. 
CaCls CaOa 

100 g. Sol. iSet. 
3.47 0.321 



Chloride. 



Abeoiption 

Coefficient 

of H. 



Gms. G>M. Aw»wn*<,«— 
MgSO. MgSO, ^5S£5 
per per 

100 g. Sol. Liter. 



Coefficient 
of H. 



6.10 

"33 
17.5a 

a6.34 



0.578 
1. 122 



0.01619 
0.01450 
o. 01 138 



X.1827 0.00839 
2.962 0.00519 



4-97 0-433 0.01501 
10.19 0.936 o. 01 159 
23.76 2.501 0.00499 



Gms. G. M. *i,-j^,j»,^ 

LiCl Lia ^^^ 

ioog!sol. iSSt. ^^' 

3.48 0.835 O.O1619 

7.34 1.800 0.01370 

M.63 3.734 0.0099 



For definition of Coefficient of Absorption, see page 227. 



Solubility of Hydrogen in Aqueous Solutions 
Carbonate, Chloride, and Nitrate at 

(Gordon.) 



In Potassium 
Carbonate. 

Gms. 

K«CQ» 
per 
too g. Sol. 



In Potassitim 
Chloride. 



In 



OP Potassium 
15^ 



Potassium 
Nitrate. 



2.82 

8.83 

16.47 

24.13 
41.81 



G.M. 
K^Oft 

per 
liter. 

0.309 

0.690 

1.376 
2.156 

4.35a 



Abeorption 

Coefficient 

of H. 



Absorption 

Coefficient 

of H. 



0.01628 
O.OI183 
0.00761 
0.00462 
0.00160 



Gms. G. M. 

KQ KCl 

per per 
100 g. Sd. Later. 

3.83 0.526 0.01667 

7.48 1. 051 0.01489 

12.13 1-755 0.01279 

19.21 2.909 0.01012 

22.92 3.554 0.00892 



Gms. 
KNOft 

per 
100 g. Sol. 

4.73 

8.44 

16.59 

21.46 



G. M. «•_ .. 

^^ oS^e 
Dter. *^^- 

0.482 0.01683 

0.879 0.01559 

1.820 O.OI311 

2.430 o.oxx8o 



HYDBOQBf 



318 



Solubility of Hydrogen in Aqueous Solutions of PoTASsixm 

Chloride and Nitrate at 20®. 

(KAopp— Z. plqrrik. Chem. 48, 103, '04.) 



1.089 
2.123 
4.070 

6.375 

7 380 

23. 6X2 



In Potassiiun Chloride. 

Normality 

(per 1000 

g.H,0). 

O.I47S 



Abionytion 
Cocfficie&t. 



0.2907 
0.5687 
0.9127 
1.0683 
a. 1222 



0.01823 

o. 01757 
O.OI66I 

O.OI53I 

0.01472 

O.OI2SS 



of 
Solutiaat. 



I 0052 
I.OI18 
1 .0243 

1 .0394 
1.0460 
1.087s 



In Potassium Nitrate. 

Aburpdoo 



Normality 
p, (per 1000 

C HsO). 

1.224 0.1245 

2.094 O.2II4 

4.010 0.4127 

5.925 06225 

7.742 0.8293 

13-510 1.5436 



0.01835 
O.OI818 
0.01785 
0.01743 
0.01667 
O.OZ436 



of 
Solutiooa. 

1.0059 
1 .0113 
1 .0236 
I 0359 
I 0477 

i.o86j 



Solubility of Hydrogen in Aqueous Sopiuu Carbonate 

Sulphate Solutions at 15^. 

((j«rdoo.) 



AND 



In Sodium Carbonate. 



Ni 
per 100 
Solntioifc. 

«I5 
8.64 

"S3 



CM. 

NagCOi 

per liter. 

0.207 

0.438 

1.2X8 



Abaorption 

ofH. 
0.01639 
0.01385 
0.00839 



In Sodium Sulphate. 

Gma. Naj^4 G. M. Abaorpllaa 

per 100 urns. NaaSQ« CodbataX 

Sdutioo. per Liter. of H. 

4-5^ 0.335 0.01519 

8.42 0.638 0.0154 

16.69 1-364 0.00775 



Solubility op Hydrogen in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium 

Chloride. 

(Bnun; (}ordoa.) 



(}mi.NaCI 
per xoeGma. 
Solutkn 

1-25 

3&> 

4.48 

6.00 

14.78 
23.84 



Coefficient of Abaorptioo of Hydrogen at: 



0.0218 
0.0198 
0.0192 
0.0184 



xo». 

0.0205 

0.0188 

0.0x83 

0.0175 



15'. 

0.0I9I 
0.0176 
0.0I7I 
0.0164 

0.0093 
0.00595 



ao'. 
0.0177 
0.0162 
0.0159 
0.0153 



0.0162 
0.0148 

0.0143 
0.0138 



Solubility of Hydrogen in Aqueous Solutions op Sodium 

Nitrate. 

In Soditmi Nitrate at 20^ 

(Knopp.) 



I.04X 
2.192 

4.405 
6.702 

12.637 



In Soditmi Nitrate at 15^ 

(Gordon.) 



Normalitjr 

(per 1000 

Gms. H«0). 

0.1236 

o . 2634 

05416 
0.8442 

1-7354 



Abaorpdon 
Coefficient 
OfH. 

0.01839 

0.01774 

0.01694 

O.OI518 

0.0130 



Denaitr 

of 
Solutions. 



I 
I 
I 
Z 
I 



0052 

0130 

0282 

O44II 

08667 



Gm8.NaNOt 

per 100 Gma. 

Solution. 

5-57 
II. 16 

19.77 
37.43 



G.M. 

NaNQs 

per Liter. 

0.679 

1-413 
2.656 

5-7" 



Abiorptioii 

CoeffidenI 

OfH. 

0.01603 

0.0137 

0.01052 

0.00578 



319 



HYDROOEN 



Solubility of Hydrogen in Aqueous Solutions of Various Salts at 15^. 

(Stdner. 1894.) 



Salt in Aq. 
Solution. 

LiCl 

KNQi 

iAlClt 

KCl 

NaNOi 

iCaCli 

NaCl 

iMgS04 

iZnS04 

iNaiSO* 

iKtCQi 

iNatCQ, 

Cane Sugar 



Bunien Abaorptfam Coefficient fi (XioO >» Aq. Solution of Normality. 



o. 



1883 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1883 



X. 

574- 

524 

S" 
502 

496 

493 
478 

4SI 
446 

370 
338 
340 
280 



a. 

1325 
1276 

I22I 

I217 

1 201 

"95 

II44 

II20 

III3 

991 

967 

699 



3- 
II2I 

1076 

993 
996 

984 
958 
880 

856 

852 
710 
700 



4- 

949 

• * • 

810 
820 
808 
780 
699 

659 
667 



6. 



667 sso 



667 

63s 

573 

499 
510 



542 
510 



508 372 273 206 158 



731 
Solubility of Hydrogen in Alcohol. (Timofdew, 1890; Bunsen-Heorich 

Coef . of Absorp- 

.8% V, 



r. 



tion in 98.8 yo 
' Alcohol. 



Coef. of Absorp- 
tion in 7% 
Alcohol. 



f. 



189a.) 

iTDtic 

xuiol 



o 0.0676 4 0.0749 I 

6.2 0.0693 18.8 0.0740 s 

.13.4 0.0705 II. 4 

23-7 
Solubility in Aqueous Alcohol Solutions at 20^ and 760 mm. Pressure. 

(Lubanchp 1889.) 



Coef. of Absoi 
in Puxe Alcol 
(Bunaen). 

0.06916 

0.06847 

0.06765 

0.06633 



ion 



Vol. % Absorbed H. 
1-93 

1-43 
1.29 

1. 17 

Solubility of Hydrogen in Aq. Solutions of Chloral Hydrate. 

(MOller, C. Z9xa-Z3.) 

Absorption Coefficient. 

d^ of Aq. i ^ \ 

Solution. 



Wt. % Alcdkd. 

O 

9.09 
16.67 
23.08 



Wt. % Alcohol. 
28.57 

33-33 

so 

66.67 



Vol. % Absorbed H. 
1.04 
1. 17 
2.02 

2.5s 



r. 



Cms. Chloral 
Hydrate per 
100 Cms. Aq. 
Sol. 



19.4 

17.4 
18.7 

16.5 

17 
17.9 

18.3 



iS-5 
28.3 

46.56 
52 

63 
68 

78.4 



1 .0722 

1. 143 
I • 2505 
I . 2870 

I 371 
1.4097 

1-4993 



0.01732 
0.01569 
0.01388 
0.01314 
0.01270 
0.01286 
0.01398 



0.01724 
0,01540 
0.01375 
0.01280 
0.01243 
0.01270 
0.01380 



Solubility of Hydrogen in Chloral Hydrate Solutions at 20^ (Knopp, 1904.) 



Normality (per 
zoooGms. HflO). 

0.310 
0.504 
1.030 
2-530 

3 770 
6 
10.700 



4.91 
7.69 

14.56 
29.50 
38.42 

49-79 
63.90 

For definition of Bunsen Absorption Coef., see p. 227. 



Molecular 
Concentration. 

0.005594 
0.008992 
0.018223 
0.043601 
0.063647 
0.097493 
O.161660 



Absorption 
Coefficient of H. 

0.01839 
0.01802 
O.OI712 
0.01542 
0.01440 
0.01353 
0.01307 



Density 
of Solutions. 

1.0202 
1.0320 
1.0669 
I . 1466 
I . 1982 
1.2724 

1-3743 



HTDBOaXN 



330 



Solubility of Hydrogen in Aqueous Solutions of Glycerol. 

Results at 14^ and 21**. (Henkd, 1905. 191 3.) Results at 25^ (Dnicker and Molet, 1910.) 



14 

u 
ii 
ii 
u 
it 

31 

u 

It 
it 
it 
u 



Wt. % 
Glycerol. 

O 
2.29 

S-32 

8.57 
10.83 

15-31 
O 

2.29 

S.68 

6.46 

10.40 

18.20 



Absorp. Coef. 
(See p. aa?.) 

0.0193 

0.0189 

0.0186 

0.0182 

O.O1815 

0.01765 

0.0184 

O.OI81 

0.0177 

0.0176 

O.QI7I 

0.0160 



Wt. % 
Glycerol. 

O 

4 

los 
22 

49.8 

50.5 
52.6 

67 
80 

88 
95 



^U Sat. Sol. 
I 
I.OIOI 

1.0260 

1.0542 

I. 1290 
I. 1300 

I • 1365 
I. 1752 

I.2II3 

I. 2159 

I . 2307 

I . 2502 



In (Ofltwald 
Expression). 

0.0196 
0.0186 
0.0178 
0.0154 
0.0099 
0.0097 
0.0090 
0.0067 
0.0051 
0.0051 
0.0044 
0.0034 



Additional data for this system are given by MQller, C. 1912-13. 
Solubility of Hydrogen in Aqueous Solutions op Several Compounds. 

(HOfner, 1906-07.) 



Aqueoui Solution of: 

Water alone 

Dextrose (Grape Sugar) 



It 
tt 



Urea 

Acetamide 

Alanine 

Glycocol 



Cone, of 

Solvent Gnu. 

per Liter. 

O 

41.4s 

87.3 

174 
60 

S9 
89 

75 



t. Absorption Coef. fi, 

20.11 O.O181 

20 0.0176 

20.25 0.0166 

20.28 0.0152 

20.17 0.0170 

20.11 0.0180 

20.08 0.0156 

20.16 0.0158 



S(».UBiLrrY OP Hydrogen in Aqueous Solutions of Cane Sugar and 

OF Grape Sugar. (Moiier, c. 19x3-13) 



f. 

iS-2 
II. 6 
12 

12.7 
II. 8 

133 
12.6 



Wt. % 

Cane 
Sugar. 

5 04 

14.7 
20.26 

29.86 

31 -74 
39.65 
42.94 



Sp. Gr. 
Sat. Sol. 



Abs. Coef. 
fin- 



dii 
du 

du 

d\% 



= 1.019 0.0173 

= 1.060 O.OI5I 

= 1.084 0.0146 

= 1.128 0.0126 

= 1.138 O.OII9 

rfw.6=i.i7S 0.0103 

^12.5 =1.195 0.0094 



193 
20.5 

20.5 

21. 1 

21.8 

21.2 



Wt. % 
Grape 
Svigar. 

O 



Sp. Gr. 
Sat. Sol. 



Abs. Coef. 
fin- 



0.0184 
0.0160 

O.OI4S 



12.2 ^10=1.048 
20.7 (^=1.084 
32.56 (^=1.130 0.0125 
45-8 (^=1^.199 0.0102 
59 (^=1.266 0.0078 



Solubility of Hydrogen in Aqueous Sugar Solutions at 15*. (Gordon. 1895-) 

Gnu. Sugar per Gm. Mob. Sugar Absorption 

100 Gms. Solution. per Liter. Coefficient of H. 

16.67 0.520 O.OI561 

30.08 0.993 0.01284 

47.65 1.699 0.00892 

Solubility of Hydrogen at 25** (Findlay and Shen, 1912) in Aq. Solutions of: 

Gelatin. 

Gms. Gdatin 1 
per ioo cc. ** 

1.53 0.0194 

2.69 0.0189 

4.74 0.0185 

5.71 0.0182 



Gms. Dextrin 
perxoooc. 

3 98 
8.58 

8.12 

19.20 



»trin. 






Starch, 




Sp. Gr. 


J.. 


Gms. Starch 
per xoo cc. 


Sp. Gr. 


In- 


1. 012 


0.0194 


2.01 


1. 005 


0.0194 


1. 019 


O.OI91 


3.56 


I. Oil 


0.0189 


1.028 


0.0188 


7.13 


1.024 


O.O181 


1.066 


0.0174 


9.29 


1.032 


0.0182 



321 



HTDBOaXN 



SOLUBILITT OF HYDROGEN IN AqUBOUS PROPIONIC AciD SOLUTIONS. 

(Bnum, X900.) 



Cms. C|H|CXX)H 

per zoo Gms. 

Solution. 






Caeffident of AbsoipCkn of Hydzogen at: 

A 






5*. 


lO*. 


IS*. 


ao*. 


as*. 


2.63 





.02245 


0.0214 


0.0200 


0.0188 


0.0172 


3-37 





.0222 


0.0212 


0.0199 


0.0187 


O.OI7I 


S-27 





.0224 


0.0212 


0.0198 


0.0184 


O.OI7I 


6.50 





.0218 


0.0209 


0.0193 


0.0183 


0.0169 


9.91 





.0213 


0.0203 


O.OI9I 


0.0178 


0.0160 



SOLUBILITT OF HYDROGEN IN RUSSIAN PETROLEUM. 

(Gniewass and Walfiss, 1887.) 

G)effident of absorption (see p. 227) at 30^ « 0.0582, at 10^ *>■ 0.0652. 



Solubility of 
Results in terms of 

SohrtniL 

Water o. 

Aniline o. 

Amyl Alcohol o. 

Nitrobenzene o. 

Carbon Disulfide o. 

Acetic Add o. 

Benzene o. 

Acetone o. 



Hydr 


OGEN IN y 


IVater and in Organic 


S(X.VENTS. 


the Ostwald Expression, see p. 227. 


awt. X90X.) 


Im. 


^. 


Solvent. 


Im. ^ 


0199 


0.0200 


Amy] Acetate 


0.0774 0.0743 


0285 


0.0303 


Xylene 


0.0819 0.0783 


0301 


0.0353 


Ethyl AceUte 


0.0852 0.0788 


0371 


0.03S3 


Toluene 


0.0874 0.0838 


0375 


0.0336 


Ethyl Alcohol (98.8%) 


0.0894 0.0862 


0633 


0.0617 


Methyl Alcohol 


0.0945 0.0902 


0756 


0.0707 


Isobutyl Alcohol 


0.0976 0.0929 


0764 


0.0703 







Solubility of Hydrogen in Ethyl Ether. 

(Christoff, Z9Z3.) 

Results in terms of the Ostwald Solubility Expression / (see p. 227). 

/o"0.iii5, /t « 0.1 150, /io = o.ii95, /li » 0.1259. 

Data tor the solubility of hydrogen in metals are given by Sieverts and co- 
workers* 1909, 1910, 1912. 



HYDBOaKN PIBOZIDK HlQ^ 

Distribution of Hydrogen Peroxhw between Water and Amyl Alcohol 







AT 0" 


AND AT 25^ 








(Calvert, 


1901; 


Joyner, 19x2.) 




Results at 0^ (Calvett, Joyner.) 




Results at 25*". (Cahrert) 


Mob.H, 


^ per Liter. 

-* V 

Alcohol Layer {A). 


W 
A 




Mob. ILf^t per Liter. m 


k^ layer (IF). 


H|0 Layer (IF). 


Alcohol Layer (i4)^. ^ 


0.146 


0.0216 


6.76 




0.094 


0.013 7-<5i 


0.200 


0.030 


6.66 




0.194 


0.028 6.91 


0.407 


0.061 


6.63 




0.297 


0.042 7.08 


0.749 


O.II3 


6.66 




0.670 


0.09s 709 


1.970 


0.293 


6.71 




0.913 


0.130 7.01 



Data are also given for the distribution of hydrogen peroxide between aqueous 
sodium hydroxide solutions and amyl alcohol at o** ana at 25^ 



H7DBOOKN PEROZIDK 



322 



Distribution of Hydrogen Peroxide between Water and Organic Solvents. 

(Walton and Lewis, 1916.) 

DifiFerent amounts of perhydroi (30% HiOt solution) were added to various 
mixtures of water and organic solvents and, after constant agitation for about 
I hour, the HiOt in each layer was determined. 

Ratio, 



Solvent 



Cone. 



•q. 



Solvent. 







Cone. o«s. aolvcat 




Ethyl AceUte 


25 


3.92- 4. II 


Methyl Iodide 


Isobutyl Alcohol 


25 


2.58- 2.63 


m Toluidine 


Amyl Acetate 


25 


13 -13 ■ 2 


Phenol 


Acetophenone 


25 


5.82- 6.06 


Quinoline 


Ether 


25 


8.28- 9. II 


« 


Ether 





5.72- 5.85 


u 


Aniline 


25 


4.08- 4.10 





r. 

25 

25 

25 
o 

25 
40 



Ratio, 
Cone. aq. 



Cone. ofg. lolvau 

Approz. 200 
Approz. 5 

4.35 -5 55 
0.276-0.391 

0.365-0.642 

0.516-0.602 



The following approximate values, determined at room temp., are quoted from 
the dissertation of A. Braun, Univ., Wisconsin, 19 14. 

Ratio, _ Ratio, Ratio, 



Solvent. ^Q°<^- •<»• 



Solvent. 



Cone. 



•q. 



Solvent. 



Cone. 



•q. 



Cone. ogg. tolTcnt Cone. oifi. lolvcBt Cone. otg. atArtat 

Ethyl Acetate } Ethylisovalerianate ^ Isobutyl Alcohol | 

Nitrobenzene ^ Isoamyl Propionate ^ Propyl Formate i 

Acetophenone ^ Chloroform -^ Isobutyl Butyrate ^ 

Amyl Acetate i Benzene ^ Propyl Butyrate ^ 

The distribution ratio of hydrogen peroxide between water and ether at 17.5^ 
varies with concentration from 13.9 to 17.4. (Osipoff and Popoff, 1903.) 



HTDBOaXN 



SELENIDK H,Se 

Solubility in Water. 

(de Forerand and Fonze»-Diacon, 190a.) 



t". 



Vol. HsSe (at o^ and 760 mm.) dissolved 
per I vol. HiO 



3.77 



9.65 
3.45 



13.2 
3.31 



22.5 

2.70 



HTDBOaXN SUUIDK H>S. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Winkler, 1906, 191 a.) 



r. 


Abs. Coef . 0. 


q. 


f. 


Abs. Coef. ^. 


q. t*. Aba-Coeff.^. q. 





4.621 


0.699 


25 


2.257 


0.334 60 


I. 176 0.146 


5 


3.935 


0.593 


30 


2.014 


0.295 70 


1. 010 0.109 


10 


3 362 


0.505 


35 


1. 811 


0.262 80 


0.906 0.076 


15 


2.913 


0.436 


40 


1.642 


0.233 90 


0.835 0.041 


20 


2.554 


0.380 


SO 


1.376 


o.ii^ too 


0.800 


Solubility ] 


[n Water and in Alcohol 


, AT t^ AND 760 MM. PRESSURE. 






(Bunsen and Carina; Fauser, x888.) 








In Water. 






In Alcohol. 


i-. 


I Vol. 


H,0 Absorbs. 




fi. 


g. X Vol. Alcohol Absoibs. 





4.37 Vols. H,S (at o*aiid 760] 


nm.) 


4.686 


.710 17.89 Vols. H9S (at 0* and 760 mm.) 


5 


3.97 


M 




4.063 


.615 14.78 


M 


10 


3.59 


II 




3 520 


.530 11.99 


M 


15 


3.23 


« 




3.056 


.458 9.54 


« 


20 


2.91 


M 




2.672 


.398 7.42 


« 


25 


2.61 


M 




• ■ • 


5.96(24^) 


« 


30 


2.33 


U 




• • • 


i • • • • • 




35 


2.08 


U 




• • • 


i • • • • • 




40 


1.86 


U 




• • • 


» • • • • • 





For fi and q see Ethane, page 285. 

The PT and the Px curves for the system HjS + HtO are given by Scheffer, 1911. 



323 



HYDBOGXN SULFIDB 



S(X.UBILITT OF HyDROGBN SuLFIDB IN AqUBOUS SOLUTIONS OF HyDRIODIC 

Acn> AT 25** AND 760 MM. TOTAL PRESSURE. 

CPoQitzer, 1909.) 



Mob. per Liter. 



Gms. per Liter. 



Mols. per Liter. 



Gms. per Liter. 



IH'J. 

0.20 

1.23 

1.74 
2.18 

2.92 

3-71 



IHI]. 
o 
1. 01 

1. 51 
1.93 

2.64 

3.42 



0.1040 
O.III 

0.II3 
0.125 

0.138 

0.142 



HI. 
O 
129.2 
193.2 
246.9 
337.8 

437.5 



HtS. 

3-54 
3.78 
3.85 
4.26 
4.70 
4.84 



[HI. [HIJ. IHtS]. 

4.71 4.38 0.163 

5.33 5.005 0.165 

6.06 5.695 0.181 

7.33 6.935 0.197 

9.75 9.21 0.267 



' HI. 


H.S. 


560.4 

640.3 
728.6 

887.2 


5. 55 
5.62 

6.17 

6.71 


"79 


9.10 



Data for the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in liquid sulfur are given by Pela- 
bon, 1897. 

Freezing-point lowering data for mixtures of HsS and CHjOH and HtS and 
(CH|)sO are given by Baume and Perrot, 191 1, 1914* 



SOLUBILITT OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE IN AqUBOUS SaLT SOLUTIONS AT 25^ 

(McLauchlan, 1903.) 

I 
Note. — The original results are given in terms of j- which is the iodine titer (Q 

of the HtS dissolved in the salt solution, divided by the titer (A>)» of the HtS dis- 
solved in pure water. These figures were multiplied by 2.61 (see 25** result in 
last table on page 322) and the products recorded in the following table as 
volumes of HtS absorbed by i vol. of aqueous solution. 



Sdutioa. 


Grams Salt 
per Liter. 


/ Vols. HtS 
j^' per X Vol. Sol. 


Solution. Gms^Sdt 


1. Vo]ft.HtS 
S periVoLSoL 


wNHiBr 


98 


I 


2.61 


fiKBr 119 


0.945 


2.47 


wNHiCl 


53.4 


0.96 


2.40 


nKCl 74.5 


0.853 


2.22 


«NH«NO* 


80 


0.99 


2.58 


»KNOi loi 


0.913 


2.38 


in(NH4)tS04 


33 


0.82 


2.14 


JnKtSO* 43.5 


0.78 


2.04 


}n(NH4)tS04 


16.5 


0.91 


2.37 


inKtS04 21.7 


0.89 


2.32 


wNH^CtHiO* 


77.1 


1.09 


2.84 


fiKT 166 


0.98 


2.56 


n (NHt)jCO 


60.1 


1.02 


2.66 


n NaBr 103 


0.93s 


2.44 


i»HCl 


18.22 


0.975 


2.54 


wNaCl 58.5 


0.847 


2.21 


}nH,S04 


24.52 


0.905 


2.36 


} n NaCl 29 . 2 


0.93 


2.42 


nCJWt 


ISO 


0.944 


2.46 


»NaNOi 85 


0.893 


2.32 


3»C4H806 


450 


0.858 


2.24 


inNatS04 355 


0.73 


1.90 


Pure C,H,(OH), 


1000 • 


0.863 


2.26 


inNa2S04 17.8 


0.855 


2.23 



Similar data are also given for the solubility of HtS in aq. CtH«OH solutions 
and in aq. CHsCOOH solutions at 25®. 



HTDBOQUINOL (Hydroquinone) C6H4(OH)t p. 

100 gms. sat. solution in water contain 6.7 gms. hydroquinol at 20^, Sp. Gr. of 
SoL = 1. 012. (Vaubel, 1899.) 

100 gms. 95%Jormic acid dissolve 6.07 gms. hydroquinol at 20.2^ (Aschu, zszj.) 



HTDBOQUINOL 334 

Solubility of Hydroquinol in Sulfur Dioxide in the Critical Vicinitt. 

(Centnenwer and Teletow, 1903.) 

Determinations made by the Synthetic Method, for which see Note, p. 16. 

M Gns. HydroqiUBol ^ Gms. Hydroquinol m Cms. Hydroquinol 

* * per 100 Gnu. SO^ * ' per 100 Gms. SO^ * * per zoo Gms. SO^ 

63 0.89 117. 6 4.46 136.7 10.31 

73S 1-22 123.3 5-66 141.4 13.3 

89.2 2.18 134-2 8.31 145 14.9 

Distribution of Hydroquinol between Water and Ether at 15^. 

(Pinnow, 191 x.) 

Cone* Hydroquinol in: Cone. Hydroquinol in: 



IV> Layer. 


Father Layer. 


H«0 Layer. 


" \ 

Ether Layer. 


0.00502 


O.OIII 


0.0502 


0.127s 


O.OII96 


0.0249 


0.0818 


0.2343 


0.0128 


0.0274 


O.IIO5 


0.3543 


0.0236 


0.0552 


O.1411 


0.5300 


0.04SS 


O.II48 


0.1502 


0.5604 



* The terms in which the oonc. is espressed axe not stated. 

Freezing-point Data (Solubility, see footnote, p. i) are Given for the 

Following Mixtures: 

Hydroquinol and Naphthalene. (Kremann and Janetxky, xgza.) 

" Pyrocatechol. (Jaeger. 1907.) 

" " Resorcinol. 

" " p Toluidine. (Philip and Smith, 1905.) 

Monochlorohydroquinol and Monobromohydroquinol. (KOster, 1891.) 

Diacetylmonochlorohydroquinol and Diacetylmonobromohydroquinol. 

(Kllster, 191X.) 

HTDBOXTLAMINE NH,(OH). 

HYDB0Z7LAMINE HTDBOCHLOBIDE NH2(0H).HC1. 

Solubility of each in Several Solvents. 

(de Bruyn, xSga.) 



Solvent. 


r. 


Gms. NJHUOH 

per xoo (rms. 

Solution. 


f. 


Cms. NH«(0H).HC 

per xoo Gms. 

Solvent. 


Methyl Alcohol (abs.) 


5 


35 


19-75 


16.4 


Ethyl Alcohol (abs.) 


. ^5 


IS 


19-75 


4.43 


Ether (dry) 


(b. pt.) 


1.2 


• • • 


. . • 


Ethyl Acetate 


(b. pt.) 


1.6 


• • • 


• ■ • 



For densities of NHi(OH).HCl solutions, see Schiff and Monsacchi, 1896. 

CO 
PhthalylHTDBOXTLAMINE C«W*0 vtOH/^' 

One liter benzene dissolves 0.33 gm. of the A form of melting point 220^-226^ 

(Sidgwick, 19x5.) 
HTOSCYABONE drHnNO,. 

Solubility in Several Solvents at i8?-22*. 

(MOller. X903.) 

Gms. CnHnNOk Gms. CnC^NOb 

Sdvent. per xoo Gms. Solvent. per xoo (^ms. 

Solution. Solution. 

Water 0.355 Chloroform 100+ 

Ether 2 . 02 Acetic Ether 4 . 903 

Ether sat. with H2O 3 .913 Petroleum Ether 0.098 

Water sat. with Ether 3 . 125 Carbon Tetrachloride 0.059 
Benzene 0.769 



325 HTOSCmS 

HYOSCINS (Scopolamine) HTDROBROMIDE, etc. 

Solubility in Several Solvents at 25". (U. S. P. vm.) 

Grams per loo Grams Solvent. 

t * -^ 

Solvent. Hyofidne Hyoscyamine Hyoficnramine 

Hydrobromide Hydrobromide Sulfate 

CnHnN04HBr.3H,0. Ci7HsN0b.HBr. (Ci7HnNQ^,.H«SQ| 

Water 66.6 very soluble very soluble 
Alcohol 6.2 50 15.6 

Ether ... 0.062 0.04 

Chloroform 0.133 4^ oo43 

Nitro INDAN Carboxylic Acids. 

Freezing-point lowering data for mixtures of / nitroindan-2-carboxylic acid 
and d nitroindan-2-carbozylic acid are given by Mills, Parker and Prowse, 1914. 

CO 
INDiaO (C(H4<^:„>C:),. 

100 gms. 95% formic acid dissolve 0.14 gm. indigo at 19.8^ (Asdum, 1913.) 

INDIITM lODATE In(IO,),. 

100 gms. H2O dissolve 0.067 g™* In(IO|)i at 20^ (Mathers and Schluederbcig, 1908.) 

IsoINOSITOL CeHisO.. 

100 gms. H|0 dissolve 25. 12 gms. CeHisOiat 18** and 43.22 gms. at ioo^(Mtt]]er,i9za.) 

IODIC ^ ACID HIO,. 

Solubility op Iodic Acid in Water. (Groscbuff. 1906.) 

*•• lo^cSi'sit^Sol. Solid Phase. f. .SoiiftarSol. SoUd Phase. 

— 0.3 1.69 Ice 16 71.7 mo* 

— 1. 01 6.81 " 40 73.7 ** 

— 2.38 26.22 « 60 75.9 •• 

— 4.72 51.42 « 80 78.3 

— 6.32 57.61 « 85 78.7 

— 12.25 67.40 " lOI 80.8 

— 14 69 . 10 " +HI0i 1 10 82.1 fflOi+HIA 

— 15 70 (unsuble)lcc 125 82.7 HIA 

— 19 72 " '• 140 83.8 

o 70.3 mo, 160 85-9 

Solubility of Iodic Acid in Nitric Acid. (Groschuff.) 



M 
M 



f. 



Gms. HIOi per xoo Gms. 



IODINE I2 



Aq. 27. y% HNOs 40.88% HNOi 

Solution. Solution. Solution. 

o 74.1 18 9 

20 75.8 21 10 

40 77.7 27 14 

60 80 38 18 

Solubility of Iodine in Water. (Hartley, 1908.) 

M Gms. I per looo Gms. 

•• H,0. 



18 0.2765 

25 0-339S 

35 0.4661 

45 0.6474 ^ 

55 0.9222 

' The above determinations were made with great care. Results for single 
temperatures in good agreement with the above are given by Dietz, 1898: 
Jakowkin, 1895; Noyes and Seidensticker, 1898; Sammet, 1905; Bray and 
Connolly, 1910, 191 1; Herz and Paul, 1914 and Fedotieff, 1911-12. 



lODINX 



326 



Solubility of Iodine in Aqxteous Mercuric Chloridb and in Aqueous 

Cadmium Iodide Solutions at 25**. 

In Aq. Cdli. 

(Van Name and Brown, 1917.) 
Gms. per Liter. 





In Aq. HgCls. 






(Herz and Paul, 19x4.) 


. 


Millimols per 


Liter. 
1.. ' 


Gms. 


per Liter. 


Hg. 


HgCl,. 


I. ^ 





1-34 





0.340 


94.44 


12.94 


25.64 


3.28s 


124.42 


14.60 


33.78 


3.706 


195.42 


18.06 


54.29 


4.583 


334.60 


2$. 43 


90.84 


6.454 



Cdl,. 


L 


3.66 


2.072 


45.78 


9.056 


91.56 


11.386 


183.12 


14.040 



Solubility of Iodine in Very Dilute Aqueous Solutions of Potassium 

Iodide. 

(Determinations made with very great care.) 
Results at o^. 

Cones and Hartman, 19x5.) 



Results at 25". Results at 25**. 

(Bray and MacKay, 19x0.) (Noyes and Seidenstricker, 1898.) 



Normality 




Gms. I per 


Normality 


Millimols If 


Normality 


Millimols I| 


of Aq. 


xoo Gms. 


of Aq. 


per Liter 1 
Sat. Sol. 


of Aq. 
KlSd. 


per Liter 


KISoL 


Sat. SoL 


Sat. Sol. 


KISol. 


Sat. SoL- 


0.000992 


X.0002 


0.0282 





1.333 





1.342 


0.00200 


1.0004 


0.0409 


O.OOI 


1.788 


0.00083 


X.814 


0.00500 


I. 0010 


0.0760 


0.002 


2.266 


0.00166 


2.235 


O.OIOOO 


X.0020 


0.1356 


0.005 


3.728 


0.00664 


4.667 


0.01988 


1.0044 


0.2S33 


O.OIO 


6.185 


0.01329 


8.003 


0.0500 


I. 0109 


0.609 


0.020 


11.13 


0.02657 


4.68 


0.09993 


I. 0219 


1. 199 


0.050 


25.77 


0.05315 


28.03 








O.IOO 


51-35 


0.1063 


55 .28 



Solubility of Iodine in Aqueous Solutions of Potassium Iodide at 

25** and Vice Versa. 

(Parsons and Whittemore, 191 x.) 
(Time of rotation 6 mos. or longer. Duplicate determinations at different lengths of time, were made.) 



Sp. Gr. 
Sat. Sol. 

1.349 


Gms. per 100 Gms. 
Sat. Sol. 


Solid 
Phase. 

Iodine 


Sp. Gr. 
Sat. Sol. 

3.246 


Gms. per 


100 Gms. 
Sol. 


Solid 
Phase. 

KI 


KI 
16.03 


I 

18.49 


KI 
27.92 


I ' 
66.45 


1. 516 


19.70 


26.16 


II 


3.232 


29.71 


62.81 


M 


1.769 


22.88 


36.06 


II 


2.665 


35.80 


49.61 


M 


1. 910 


23.55 


40.52 


II 


2.539 


38.09 


44.58 


M 


2.403 


24.78 


53.60 


II 


2.216 


44.82 


31.01 


M 


2.904 


25 


63.12 


It 


2.066 


49.04 


23.08 


M 


3.082 


25.18 


66.04 


11 


1.888 


54.41 


11.63 


II 


3.316 


26 


68.09 


" +KT 


1.733 


60.39 





M 



Additional data for this system are given by Bruner, 1898; Hamberger, 1906; 
and Lami, 1908. 

Data for the solubility of iodine in aq. 40% ethyl alcohol and aq. 60% ethyl 
alcohol solutions of potassium iodide at 25^, are given bv Parsons and Corliss. 
iQio. The solid phases were identified in each case and it was demonstrated 
that no polyiodides of potassium exist in the solid phase or in solution at 25^ 

An extensive series of determinations of the simultaneous solubility of iodine 
and potassium iodide in nitrobenzene and in other organic solvents, as well as 
in mixtures of nitrobenzene and other solvents are given by Dawson and Gawler, 
1902, and Dawson, 1904. The determinations were made to obtain information 
on the formation of polyiodides in solution. The molecular ratio of dissolved 
Ii/KI was found to be i or more in all cases. (See also p. 537.) 

Freezing-point lowering data, determined by time-coohng curves, for mixtures 
of iodine and potassium iodide are given by Kremann and Schoulz, 1912. Data 
for this system are also given by Olivari (1908}. 



327 



lODINK 



Solubility of Iodine in Aqueous Solutions op Potassium Broiodb 

AND OF Sodium Bromide at 25**. 

(Bell and Buckley, 1912.) 



In Aq. KBr 


Solutions. 


In Aq. NaBr Solutions. 


bnift. KBr 


Gm. Atoms I 


Gnu. NaBr 


Gm. Atoms I 


per Liter. 


per Liter. 


per Liter. 


per Liter. 


60.6 


0.0176 


96.4 


0.0266 


106.9 


0.0278 


187.7 


0.0425 


175-9 


0.0415 


271.8 


0.0538 


229.8 


0.0532 


357-4 


0.0598 


281.9 


0.0628 


422.21 


0.0638 


330 -6 


0.0717 


4991 


0.0648 


377-1 


0.0797 


569.9 


0.0644 


411 


0.0864 


632 


0.0622 


461.7 


0.0948 


679.7 


0.0595 


509-8 


0.1006 


750.5 


0.0551 


567.9 sat. 


0.1094 


756.1 sat, 0.0550 


Solubility < 


OF Iodine in Aqueous Solutions of Acids. 


Aqueou&Add. 


Mols. I per Liter 
Sat.Sol. 


Gms. I per Liter 
Sat. Sol. 


Authority. 


o.ooinHCl 


0.001332 


0.338 


(Bray and MacEay, i 


o.ionHNQj 


0.001340 


0.340 


(Sammet, 1905.) 


o.ionH2S0i 


0.001342 


0.341 


u 



Solubility of Iodine in Aqueous Sodium Iodide Solutions. 

(Gill, 1913-X4.) 

A(}ueous Nal solutions were prepared by dissolving the stated amounts of the 
salt in water and diluting to 100 cc. An excess of iodine was added to each of 
these solutions, the mixtures heated to 60° and shaken for several minutes. 
They were then allowed to cool in a thermostat at 25® for four hours. The 
dissolved iodine in weighed amounts of the saturated solutions was titrated with 
thiosulfate. The densities of the Aq. Nal mixtures and also of the solutions 
after saturation with iodine were determined. 



Gms. Nal 

perxoocc. 

Aq. Solution. 


d»ot 
Aq. Nal 
Solution. 


^ of Aq. Nal 

after Satuiatkm 

withL 


Gms. I Dissdved 

at 2S* per xoo Gnu 

of the Sat. Sol. 


5 
10 

IS 

20 


1.0369 
1.0720 
I. 1072 
I . 1458 


1.0698 

I.I415 
I. 2162 

1.2998 


4.99 
9.96 

14.93 
20.02 



Determinations at other temperatures were made in an apparatus which per- 
mitted constant stirring of the solutioiis at the several temperatures. Results^ 
interpolated from the original, are as follows: 



4« 


Gms. I Dissolved 
Sat. Solution in 


per xoo Gms. 
Aq. Nal of: 


I^. 


10 Gms. per 


so Gms. per 




xoooc. 


xoooc. 


10 


8.9 


17.6 


15 


9-3 


18.3 


20 


9.6 


19 


25 


10 


19.4 



Gms. I Dissolved per too Gms. 
Sat. Solution in Aq. Nal of: 



• . 


10 Gms. per 


so Gms. per' 




zoocc 


100 cc. 


30 


10.3 


20.5 


40 


10.9 


22 


so 


II. 7 


23.4 


60 


12.6 


24.9 



lODINK 



3^8 



Solubility of Iodine in Aqueous Salt Scx^utions at 25*. 

(McLauchlan, 1903.) 



Sdt. 


Cms. aat 


Cms. Dinolved 


Qalf 


Gais.SiUt. 


Gms. Dtaeolved 


per Liter. 


I per Liter. 


.aait. 


per Liter. 


I per liter. 


Na,SO« 


29.77 


0.160 


NHiCl 


53-4 


0.73s . 


K,SO« 


435 


0.238 


NaBr 


103 


329 


(NH4),S04 


33 


0.346 


KBr 


119 


3.801 


NaNO, 


»5 


0.257 


NHiBr 


98 


4.003 


KNOt 


101.3 


0.266 


NH4C*HA 


77.1 


0.440 


NHiNQi 


80 


0-37S 


(NH«),C04 


86.9 


0.980 


NaCl 


585 


OS7S 


HiBQi 


SS'^ 


0.300 


KCl 


73-6 


a. 658 









Solubility op Iodine in Nitrobenzene Solutions Containing Various 
" Iodides at Room Temperature. Solutions Sat. with I in Each Case. 

(Daweon and Goodaon, 1904.) 



Iodide. 


Cms. per Liter. 




Iodide. 


Iodine. 


Potassium Iodide 


12.35 


112. 7 


<( II 


45.56 


295 -7 


M II 


115.8 


698.2 


If II 

• 


155-2 


943.6 


Sodium Iodide 


13.55 


"5 


II II 


57.7 


393 


i« II 


X09.X 


738 


U it 


238 


1251 


Rubidium Iodide 


85-4 


421 


Rubidium Iodide 


217.5 


X060 


Lithium Iodide 


S4.X 


642 



Iodide. 

Caesium Iodide* 
Caesium Iodide 
Ammonium Iodide 
Ammonium Iodide* 
Aniline Hydriodide 
Dimethylaniline Hydriodide 
Tetramethylanunonium Iodide 
Tetramethylammonium Iodide 
Strontium Iodide 
Barium Iodide 
Barium Iodide 



Gins.pa 


Uter. 


Iodide. 


lodineu 


48.2 


213 


223 


858 


69.5 


482 


94.3 


669 


164 


721 


160 


6f6 


49.3 


266 


51.4 


280 


106.5 


,'>99 


42.2 


237 


158.5 


809 



* Sdvent « nitrotoluene instead of nil 



Similar results are also given for solutions containing KI in addition to the 
other iodide, and one series for the simultaneous solubility of KBr and I in nitro- 
benzene. It is considered that the increased solubility is most easily explained 
on the assumption that periodides are formed in solution. 



Solubility of Iodine in Aqueous Ethtl and Normal Proftl Alcohol 

Solutions at 15*. 

(Bniner, 1898.) 



In Aq. Ethyl Alcohol. 



r 

Vol. % 

dHiOH 

in Solvent. 

10 
20 

30 

40 

SO 



Cms. I per 

100 cc. 

Solution. 

o.os 

0.06 
O.IO 
0.26 
0.88 



Vol. % 

qiLOH 

in NMvent. 

60 
70 
80 
90 
100 



Cms. I per 

100 cc 

Solution. 

1. 14 

2.33 
4.20 

7-47 
15-67 



In Aq. (n.) Propyl Alcohol. 



\Jk 



Vol. 
in Solvent. 



10 
20 

30 
40 

SO 



Gms. Iper 

xoocc. 

Solution. 

O.OS 

O.II 

0.40 

0.94 

1.64 



Vol. % 

CHjOH 

insolvent. 

60 

70 
80 

90 
100 



Gms. Iper 

xoooc. 

Solutioii. 

a. 71 
4.10 
6.05 
9.17 

14.93 



3^ 



lODINS 



SOLUBILITT OF lODINB IN AqUBOUS EtBYL AlCOHOL AND IN AqUBOUS ACBHC 

Acid Solutions at 25**. 

(McLauchlan, 1903.) 



In Aq. CtHfOH Solutions. 

Gms. CtH^H Gms. I per 

per zoo Gma. xoo cc Sat. 

Solvent. Sdutkxi. 

o 0.034 

455 0.039 

28.48 0.172 

44.41 0.9SS 

72.51 6.698 

100 24 . 548 



In Aq. CHiCOOH Solutions. 

Gms. Ijper 

100 cc. Sat. 

Solution. 

0.034 
0.076 

0.173 
0.510 

3.162 



Gms. CHt(XX)H 

per 100 Gms. 

Solvent. 

O 
20 

39S 
61. 1 

80.7 

100 



Solubility of Iodinb in Aqubous Glycbrol Solutions at 25^ 

(Hers and Kooch, 1905.) 

Density of glycerine at 25V4** "- 1-2555; unpurities about i.5%. 



Wt.% Glycerine . MiUimcOs I 
m Solvent, per xoo cc. Solution. 



O 
20.44 

31 55 

40.9s 
48.7 

69.2 

100. o 



0.24 

0.27 

0.38 

049 
0.69 

1.07 

2.20 

9.70 



Grama I per 
zoocc.Solutioa. 

0.0304 

o .0342 

0.0482 
0.0621 
0.0875 

53S 
0.278 

1.223 



Density of 
Solutions at a5V4** 



O 

I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 



9979 
0198 

0471 

0750 

099s 
1207 

1765 
2646 



100 gms. glycerol (da "■ 1.256) dissolve 2 gms. iodine at I5**-I6^ 

(Ossendowski, 1907.) ^ ~ 

Solubility of Iodinb in Bbnzbnb, Chloroform, and in Ethbr. 

(Arctowski — Z. anorg. Chem. xx, 376, *9S-*96') 



In Benzene. 


In Chloroform. 


, 


[n Ether. 


^0 Gms. I per 100 
* ' Gms. Soiutioa. 


t«. 


Gms. I per xoo 


*•. 


Gms. I per xoo 


Gms. Solution. < 


Gm^ Solutian. 


4.7 8.08 


-49 


0.188 


-83 


15-39 


6.6 8.63 


-SSi 


0.144 


-90 


14 58 


10.5 9.60 


-60 


0.129 


-108 


IS 09 


13.7 10.44 


-69i 


0.089 






16.3 11.23 


-73i 


0.080 








+ 10 


1.76 per 


100 gms. 


CHCl, 











S(m<ubility of Iodinb in BROiiOFCMtM, Carbon Tbtrachloridb, and in 

Carbon Disulfidb at 25^ 

(Jakowkin, 1895.) 

I liter of saturated solution in CHBri contains 189.55 fif^u. I* 
I liter of saturated solution in CCI4 contains 30.33 gms. I. 
I liter of saturated solution in CSi contains 230 gms. I. 



lODINS 



330 

Solubility of Iodine in Carbon Disulfidb. 

(Arctowiki, Z894.) 



r. 


Gms. I per xoo 
Gms. Solutioo. 


f. 


Gms. I per xoo 
Gms. Solutkm. 


r. 


[Gms. I per xoo 
Gms. Solution. 


— 100 

- 80 


0.32 
0.51 



10 


7.89 
10.51 


30 
36 


19.26 
22.67 


- 63 


1.26 


IS 


12.3s 


40 


25.22 


— 20 


4.14 


20 


14.62 


42 


26.7s 


— 10 


SS2 


2S 


16.92 






Solubility of Iodinb in 


Several Solvents at 


25^ 










Solvent. 


Iodine per Liter of 
Sat Sol. 


Solvent. 

Trichlorethylene 

Tetrachlorethane 

Pentachlorethane 


Iodine per Lher d 
Sat. Sol. 


Mols. 
Chloroform 0.352 
Carbon Tetrachloride 0.237 
Tetrachlorethy lene . 24 1 


Gms. 
44.68 
30.08 

30.59 


' Mols. Gms. ' 
0.312 39.61 

0.244 30.97 
0.272 34.53 



One liter sat. solution of iodine in nitrobenzene contains 50.62 gms. I at 16^-17*. 

(Dawson and Gawler, 1902.) 
100 gms. hexane dissolve 1 .32 ^ms. iodine at 25**. (Hildebcand* Ellefson and Beebe, 19x7.) 
100 gms. sat. solution of iodme in anhydrous lanolin (melting point 46^), con- 
tain 5.50 gms. iodine at 45^. (Klow, 1907.) 



Solubility of Iodine in Mixtures of Chloroform and Ether at 25^ 

(Maiden and Dover, 19x6.) 'j 

Cms. CHCla per xoo Gms. Iodine per xoo Gms. CHC% per xoo Gms. Iodine per 100 Gmi. 

Cms. CHa«+(^H|)A Gms. CHC1,+(C|H|)A Gma. CHC1,+(&H|)A CHC1,+(CA}A 

60 9.83 

70 7S 

80 S-73 

90 431 

100 3.10 

100 cc. of a mixture of CHCU •+• CS| (3:1) dissolve 7.39 gms. iodine (t* ?.) 
The addition of S even up to the point of saturation does not affect the amount 
of iodine held in solution. (Olivari, 1908.) 

Diagrammatic results for mixtures of iodine and each of the following com- 
pounds are given by Olivari, 191 1: CHIs, p C«H4Brt, [CsHilNs, p C«H4(N0i)i» 
(CeH»CO),0 and C«H»COOH. 






3SI 


10 


29.6 


20 


24.8 


30 


20.2 


40 


16.3 


so 


• 12.7 



S(H.UBILITY OF lODINE IN MiXBD SOLVENTS AT l6.6^. 



Solvent. 

Ether 

Carbon Disulfide 

Ether+3.96 gms. H|0 per liter 

4- 7.91 gms. HiO " 

-j-cxcessHiO 

+9.79 gms. CiH»OH " 

-I-I9-6 

+29.4 
+39-2 



ti 
it 
<f 
it 
« 



tt 
tt 



tt 
tt 
tt 



tt 
tt 
tt 



(StrOmholm, 1903.) 

Gms. I 
per Liter 
Sat. Sol. 

206.3 

178. S 

221 



Solvent. 



Ether +20.96 gms. CS| per liter 



Ether-l-41.9 

CSi -1-22.5 

235.7 CSt +45-1 

251.4 Ether+47.63 
219. 1 CSi 4" 50.06 

231.5 Ether-l-80.3 

243.9 Ether-I- 77-85 
254.4 CSf +62.2 



It 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
It 



tt 



CSi 

ether 

ether 

CHCU 

CHCU 

CiHs 

CHiI 

S 



If 
<i 
If 
11 
If 
II 
II 



If 



Gms. I 

per Liter 

Si^.Sol. 

202.3 

217.2 

189.3 
20X.X 

195.2 

172.8 

204.x 

220.2 

18^4 



One liter sat. solution in ether contains 167.3 i^ms. I at o^ (StrAmholm, 1903.) 



aai lODINS 

SOLUBILITT OF lODINB IN MIXTURES OF CHLOROFORM AND EtHTL AlCOHOL, 

Chloroform and Normal Propyl Alcohol, Chloroform and Benzene, 
AND Chloroform and Carbon Disulfide at 15**. 

(Bruner, 1898.) 



% (:H(a, 

Solvent. 




Cms. I Dissolved per 100 oc. of Miztuies of: 




CHCU+C|H»0H. 


CHCU+C^tOH. 


CHCla+CA. 


chcu+cs^ 





15-67 


14.93 


10.40 


17-63 


10 


9-43 


13 16 


9.84 


iS-93 


20 


8.69 


11.20 


8.78 


14.20 


30 


7.80 


8.98 


7-74 


12.16 


40 


7.09 


8.09 


6.96 


10.20 


SO 


6.62 


7.82 


6.20 


9.08 


60 


6.24 


7.09 


534 


7.72 


70 


577 


6.42 


4.89 


6.42 


80 


506 


554 


453 


S.27 


'90 


4.34 


4.52 


4.07 


4.32 


100 


3.62 


3 62 


3 62 


3 62 



SOLUBILITT 07 lODINB IN MIXTURES OF CaRBON TETRACHLORIDE AND BEN- 
ZENE AND IN Mixtures of Carbon Tetrachloride and Carbon Disul- 
fide AT 15". (Bnmer. 1898.) 



Vol. 7 CCL ^™** ^ I*^ ^^'* ^' ^ ^<Ii3ctuxe of: y^i m qqi Cms. I per 100 cc. of Mixture of: 

"^^^*- ' CCI4+CA. CCU+CSi. ' insolvent. 'cCU+CA. ' CCI4+CS,.' 

o 10.40 17.6 60 4.90 S'SS' 

10 9.44 14.44 70 4.09 4.50 

20 8.53 12.33 80 3-41 3.37 

30 7.77 10.34 90 2.74 2.60 

40 6.63 8.60 100 2.06 2.06 

SO S.70 6.83 

In the case of the above determinations the volume change occurring on mixing 
the solvents was neglected. The temperature was not accurately regulated and 
the mixtures not shaken during the saturation. The curves plotted from the 
results are not smooth. 

Distribution of Iodine between Water and Bromoform, Water and Car- 
BON Disulfide, and Water and Carbon Tetrachloride at 2S^ 

aakowkin, 1895) 

The origind results were plotted on cross section paper and tlie foUowin^ table made from the corvei. 
Jakowkm points out that the resuha of Bcrthelot and Jungflebch, xSya, are.inooixect on account of the 

pieiwnos 01 n^r 



Gnu. I per Liter 
of H«0 Layer 
faiEachCMe. 




Cms. I per Liter of-: 




CHBr,Uyer. 


CS| Layer. 


CCIiLajrtr 


o.os 


20 


30 


4 


O.IO 


4S 


60 


8.5 


o.iS 


71 


91 


13 


0.20 


100 


126 


17s 


0.2s 


130 


160 


32 



A theofetical diecusuon of the results of Jakowkin is given by Schakarew (1901). 



lODINB 



33^ 



DisniBunoN of Iodinb bbtwbbn Carbon Disulfide and 

Aq. Potassium Oxalate. 

(DiiracB— Z. phyA. Cbem. s6» '6101 '06; Dewbod and McRae — J. Cbem. Soc. 8x, 1686, 'et^ 



CoBcentntiflO 

of 
Aq. KsCiQft. 

i.o Equiv. 

I .0 
I .0 

1.0 " 
1.2 " 



Gma. I pa 


Liter of 


Aq. Layer. 
2.408 


CSsLayer^ 
10.82 


3SSS 

5.766 
6.861 


16.32 
27.91 
34.01 


3 525 


17.07 



Vol. of Solutkn 

which Contains 

I Mol. I. 

105.3 

71 -37 
43-99 

36.98 
71.97 



Fraction of I 
Uncombined 
in Solution. 

0.00549s 
0.00561 

o 005915 

0.006055 
0.005645 



Distribution op Iodine between Amyl Alcohol and T/ater and 
BETWEEN Amyl Alcohol and Aqueous Potassium Iodide 

Solutions at 25**. 

(Hen and Fischer — Ber. 37, 4753, '04.) 

The original results were plotted on cross-section paper, and the 
following tables made from the curves. 



Mmixnols I per XO cc 
Amyl Alcohol Layer 
in Each Case. 


•/ 

HjO. 


Nki. 

xo 


XO 


XO 


10 




10 


2S 


0.012 


0.13s 


0.160 


0.170 


0.170 




• • • 


30 


0.014 


0.150 


0.185 


0.200 


0.200 




0.160 


4.0 


0.018 


0.180 


0.235 


0.255 


0.270 




0.240 


s 


0.021 


0.210 


0.280 


0.315 


0.340 




0.315 


6 


0.025 


0.230 


0.330 


0.37s 


0.410 




0.390 


7 


0.029 


0.250 


0.37s 


0.430 


0.480 




0.470 


8 


• ■ • 


0.260 


0.420 


0.490 


0.550 




0.555 


9 


• • • 


0.270 


0.450 


0.550 


0.620 


" 


0.640 


10 


• • • 


0.280 


0.470 


0.605 


0.690 




0.720 


12 


■ • • 


. • • 


0.490 


0.700 


0.830 




0.900 


14 


• • • 


• • • 


0.510 


0.790 


0.980 




1.200 


20 


• • • 


• • • 


O.S75 


• • • 


• • • 




• • • 


G1M.I per 100 cc. 




Cms. I pel 


' xoo cc. of HsO and of KI Layers. 






Amyl Alcohol Layer 
inBachOMB. 


HaO. 


Nki. 

xo 


XO 


xo 


XO 


loN 
10 


!n. 


3 


0.014 


0.164 


0.20 


0.21 


0.21 


■ 


• ■ 


4 


^; 016 


0.196 


0.24 


0.26 


0.26 





.31 


6 


W.026 


0.252 


0.34 


0.38 


0.40 





•37 


8 


0-033 


0.297 


0.43 


0.49 


0.54 





•SI 


10 


0.040 


0.328 


0.51 


0.61 


0.67 





.69 


12 




0.341 


0.58 


0.73 


0.81 





.84 


14 




« • • 


0.60 


0.83 


0.95 


I 


.00 


16 




• • • 


0.63 


0.91 


1.09 


I 


• 30 


18 




• • • 


0.64 


• • • 


• • • 


• 


• • 


2S 




• • • 


0.71 


• ■ • 


• • • 


• 


• • 



The original figures for 5N/10 and loN/io KI solutions give prae« 
tically identical curves. 

Results for the distribution of Iodine between N/io KI solutions on 
the one hand, and mixtures in various proportions of CeH«+ CS,, 
CeH,CH,+ CS„ CeHe+CeH.CH,, CeHe +liglit petroleum, CS,+ light 
petroleimi, CS,+CHC1„ CHC1,+ C^H., CCI4+ CS, and CCI4+ CeH.CH, 
on the other hand, are given by Dawson — J. Chem. Soc., 81, 1086, 'oa. 



333 



Distribution of Iodinb between Water and IioasaBLQ Organic Solvenisl 

Results for Water Results for Water Results for Water Results for Wator 

+ Nitrobenzene + Carbon Disul- + Chloroform 
at I8^ fide at I5^ at 25^ 

(DaivBOD, 1908.) (Dawaon, z9oa.) (Eben & Knner, 1910} 

Mob. Iodine per Liter. Cms. lodiae per liter. Mob. Iodine per liter. 



+ Carbontetra- 

chloride at I8^ 

CDawaon, 190S.) 

Mob. Iodine per Liter. 



HdOUyer. CCULayer. &^ Layer. CANOiLayer:ByO Layer. CSiLayer. H|0 Layer. CHCliUyoB.' 



0.00019 0.0333 

0.00050 0.0854 

0.00133 0.2275 

0.00189 0.3328 

Results for Water 

+ Tetrachlor- 

ethylene at 25^. 



0.0452 27.85 
0.0486 30.09 
0.0486 30.31 

Results for Water 
-h Tetrachlor- 
ethane at 25^ 



0.00025 0.0338 

o.ooxao 0.1546 

0.00x84 0.23x8 

0.00259 0-3439 

Results for Water 
+ Pentachlor- 
ethane at 25^ 



0.000416 0.0344 
0.000535 0.0443 



Results for Water 
4- Trichlorethyl- 

ene at 25^ 
(HenftRathmann/ij.) (HeR&Rathmann,/x3.) (Hen^Rathmann,'!^.) (Hen&Rathiiiann,'z3^ 

Mob. Iodine per Liter. Mob. Iodine per Liter. Mob Iodine per litfer. Mob. loctine per Liter. 

' 55 cHa.ca. ' 55 cOi-cci, H^o oHsCU ' 5o CiHCur 

Layer. Layer. Layer. Layer. Layer. Layer. Layer. Layer. 

0.00046 0.0543 0.00088 0.0653 0.00119 o.iiox 0.00092 0.0848 

0.00070 0.0778 0.00127 0.0932 0.00145 0.1247 O.00117 0.X067 

0.00x12 0.1275 0.00172 0.1285 0.00159 0.X479 0.00160 O.X434 

0.00236 0.2672 0.0028X 0.2161 0.00217 0.2103 0.00204 0.1963 

Data for the distribution of iodine between water and mixtures of CS|+CC1« 
at 25^ are given by Herz and Kurzer, 191 o. 

Data for the distribution of iodine between carbon disulfide and aqueous solu- 
tions of each of the following iodides at 25** are given by van Name and Brown. 
191 7. Cadmium iodide, cadmium potassium ioidide, lanthanum iodide, nickel 
iodide, strontium iodide, zinc iodide and 7inc potassium iodide. Results for the 
distribution of iodine between carbon tetrachloride and aq. mercuric potassium 
iodide are also ^ven. 

Results for distribution between CS| and aq. Bali sols, are given by Herz and 
Kurzer, 19 10. 

Data for the distribution of iodine between carbon disulfide and aqueous solu- 
tions of potassium iodide at 15** and at 13.5**, and between carbon disulfide and 
aqueous solutions of hydriodic acid at 13.5^, are given by Dawson, 1901 and 1902. 

Data for the distribution of iodine between carbon tetrachloride and aqueous 
solutions of mercuric bromide and of mercuric chloride at 25** are given by Hers 
and Paul, 1914. 

Distribution of Iodine between Carbon Distxfidb and Aq. 
Ethyl Alcohol at 25"". (Ouka, 1903-08.) 



Gms.aHiL0H Gms. Iodine per Liter: 


c 


Gms. CiHiOH 


Gms. Iodine per Liter: 


per 100 cc. tis, T Ayer Aq. Alcohol 
Aq. AloAoL c. Layer c*. 


?• 


per 100 oc 
Aq. AloohoL 


CS| Layer Aq. Alcohol p* 
e. Layer c'. 


7.6 0.072 


35.86 


0.0020 


19. 1 


0.330 97 0.0034 


7.6 0.2IZ 


107.79 


0.0020 


22.9 


0.II5 23.78 0.0048 


II. 4 0.077 


32.93 


0.0023 


22.9 


0.413 89.61 0.0047 


II. 4 0.280 


133 -22 


0.0021 


26.7 


0.0756 9.8 0.0077 


15-3 007s 


25.61 


0.0029 


26.7 


0495 65.10 0.0076 


iS-3 O.31S 


"534 


0.0027 


30.5 


0.0636 4.90 0.0130 


19. 1 0.045 


13.42 


0.0034 


30.S 


0.546 42.27 o.oiag 


Distribution of Iodine between Ether and Ethylene Glycol. (Landau, 1910^ 


Results at o^ 






Results at 25^ 


Gms. Iodine 


per Liter: 


m 


Gms. Iodine per Liter: 


lAyer (^. 


£^^!" 


V 


^U 


. i^^! *• 


2.139 


1.449 


1.48 


2.208 


1.449 1.52 


7.820 


4.347 


1.80 


4.255 


2.541 1.60 


16.620 


9.486 


1.75 


7.728 


4.347 1.78 


20.564 


11.685 


1.76 


16.200 


9.120 1.78 


31 . 785 


18.135 


1.7s 


30.322 


17.062 1.78 


79.950 


44460 


1.80 


78.19s 


44.4^ 1.76 



lODINB 



334 



Distribution of Iodine BvtwsBs Glycerol and Benzene and between 

Glycerol and Carbon Tbtrachloridb. 

(Landau, 19x0.) 



Results for Glycerol and Benzene. 



f. 

u 
it 
u 
ii 

40* 

« 
ii 
ii 
ii 

so' 

ii 
ii 
ii 
ti 



Gtami Iodine per Liter; 
Glycerol Layer. Beniene Layer. 



(«) 
0.407 

0.676 

1.470 

2.622 

S*28o 

0.4S9 
0.658 

1.584 
3.048 

5564 
0.467 

0.642 
1.463 
2-391 
5-383 



(*) 
1.922 

4.086 

10.212 

20.102 

42.458 
2.168 

3-9" 
11.244 

24.104 

46.960 

2.194 

3.864 
II. 196 
19.872 
46 . 782 



(a)' 
4.72 
6.04 

6.95 
7.67 

8.04 

4.72 

5-94 
7.10 

7.91 

8.44 
4.70 

6.02 

7-65 
8.31 
8.69 



25 

< 
< 

40 



so 



Results for Glycerol and CCU. 

Gma. Iodine per Liter; 
Glycerol Layer. CCI4 Layer! 



(a) 

0.365 
0.684 

1. 416 
5.064 
7.636 
0.322 
0.690 
1.224 
2.832 
6.854 
0.299 
0.570 

1.5" 
2.664 

6.348 



(ft) 

0.56s 
1.224 

2.652 

9.888 

14 . 766 

0.575 
1. 169 

2.772 

6.444 

15.410 

0.653 

1.270 

3-457 
6.468 

16.008 



21 
(«)' 

1.5s 
1.78 

1.87 

1-95 

1-93 
1.79 

1.74 
1.69 

2.26 

2.25 

2.19 

2.23 

2.29 

2.43 
2*52 



Distribution of Iodine between Glycerol and Chloroform. 



Results at 25*". 

(Hen & Kuner, 1910.) 



Results at 30"*. 

(Hantach & Va(t, xgoi.) 



Results at Dif. Temps. 
(Hantach & Vagt, 1901.) 



Mda. Iodine per 1000 
Gms. 



Glycerol 
Layer c. 
0.0244 
0.0397 
0.0500 



CHCU 
Layer c'. 

0.0564 
0.0919 
0.1151 



e 
c' 

0.43 
0.43 
0.43 



Mob. Iodine per Liter; 

Glycerol 
Layer c. 

0.00097 



c 
c' 



CHCU 
Layer c, 

0.00172 0.056 

0.00204 0.00412 0.495 

0.00418 0.00898 0.465 

0.00782 0.0216 0.362 



f. 

O 
20 

40 

SO 



Mob. I per Liter: 



Glsrcerol 
Layer c. 

0.0119 

0.0084 

0.0077 

0.0074 



CHCU 
Layer tf*. 

0.0177 

0.0213 

0.0221 

0.0226 



N -• 



e 
? 



0.675 
0.400 

0.349 
0.330 



Data are also given by the above named investigators for the distribution of 
iodine between aqueous glycerol solutions and chloroform at several temperatures. 

Distribution of Iodine between C^lycercx. and Ethyl Ether. 



(Hantach & Va(t, 1901.) 
Mob. Iodine per Liter: 



f. 

O 

30 
30 



Glycerol Layer 

0.00566 
0.00544 
O.OOIOO 



Ether Layer 

(O. 
0.0270 

0.0272 

0.0051 



c 

0.21 
0.20 
0.20 



FREEnNG-roiNT Data (Solubility, see footnote, p. i)for Mixtures op 

Iodine and Other Elements. 



Iodine and Selenium 
" Sulfur 
" TeUurium 
" Tin 



(Pelllni and Pedrina, 1908.) 

(Olivari, 1908; Smith and Canon* 1908.) 

(Jaeger and Menke, 19x9.) 

(van Klooster, 1919-13; Remden and de Lange, 1919-13.) 



Solubility of Iodine in Arsenic Trichloride. (Sk»n and Maiiet, 1889.) 

f. o*. IS*. 96*. 

Gms. I per loo.gms. AsCU 8.42 11.88 36.89 



335 lODOIOSnOB 

lODOIOSIN (Sodium tetra iodofluorescein) CwHeliOsNas. 

lOO gms. HiO dissolve 90 gms. iodoeosin at 20-25^ (Dehn, 1917O 
100 gms. pyridine dissolve 4.63 gms. iodoeosin at 20-25^ '* 

100 gms. aq. 50% pyridine di^olve 71.6 gms. iodoeosin at 20-35^ "* 

lODOFOBM CHI,, lODOL C4I4NH (Tetraiodopyrrol). 

Solubility in Several Solvents. 

(U. S. p. Vni: Valpins, 2893.) 

Gms. per 100 Gms. SolveaL 



owvcnt. 


• . 


CH,I. 


C«I«NH. 


Water 


25 


0.0106 


0.0204 


Alcohol 


25 


2.14 (1.43 gms. (V.)) 


II. I 


Alcohol 


b. pt. 


(10 gms. (V.)) 


... 


Ether 


25 


19.2 (16.6 gms. (V.)) 


66.6 


Chloroform 


25 


• • • 


0.9s 


Pyridine 


20-25 


173. 1 (Dehn. 1917.) 




Aq. 50% pyridine 


20-25 


22.4 " 




Lanolin (30% HiO) 


46 


5.2 CKkee.1907.) 





ntlDIUM CHLOBIDI IrCU. 

When I gm. iridium as chloride is dissolved in 100 cc. of 10% HCl and shaken 
at 18^ with 100 cc. of ether, 0.02 per cent of the metal enters the ethereal layer. 
When 20% HCl b used 5% of the metal enters the ether. When dissolved in i % 

HCl or in water approximately 0.0 1 per cent of the metal enters the ethereal layer. 

(MyUos, 1911.) 

ntlDIUM Ammonium CHLOBIDI IrCU.2NH4Cl. 

SoLUBiLrrY IN Water. 

(Rimbftch and Kotten, 1907.) 



Gms. ItCU.sNH|C1 per 100 Gms. 

*•. t * \ 

Water. Sat. Sol. 


f. 


Gms. IrCl4.aNH«Q per 100 Gms. 


Water. Sat. Sol. 


14.4 0.699 0.694 


522 


1.608 1*583 


26.8 0.905 0.899 


61.2 


2.130 2.068 


39.4 1.226 I. 124 


693 


2.824 2.746 



IRIDIUM DOUBLE SALTS. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Palmaer — Ber. 23, 3817; 34* aogo, '91.) 
Doable Salt. Formula. 

Irido Pentamine Bromide IrCNHJsBr, 

" " Bromonitrate Ir(NH,),Br(NOJ, 

" « Trichloride Ir(NH,).a, 

" « Chloro Bromide Ir(NH,).ClBr, 

" *' Chloro Iodide Ir(NHj4ClI, 

" " Chloro Nitrate Ir(NH,),a(NO.), 

•* " Chloro Sulphate Ir(NH,),CIS04.2H,0 

•* " Nitrate Ir(NHJ,(NO,), 

'' Aquo Pentamine Bromide Ir(NHi)«(OH^Br, 

" ^' " Chloride Ir(NH,).(OH,)Cl, 

" •' " Nitrate Ir(NH,),(OH,)(NOJ. 

IBOV BBOMIDE (Ferrous) FeBr2.6H,0. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Etard — Am. chim. phys. [7] a, 537, '94.) 

A« Gms. FeBf^ 

per 100 Gms. SoL 

—20 47 O 

O SO. 5 

ao S3S 



t* 


Gms. per too 


• • 


Gms. H^. 


"5 


0.284 


18 


5-5B 


15. X 


6.53 


15 


0.47 


15 


0-95 


15-4 


1.94 


150 


0.74 


16 


0.28 


ord. temp. 


25.0 


Old. temp. 


74.7 


17 


10. 



t». 


Gms. FeBh 
per 100 Gms. SoL 


t». 


Gms.FeBiiL 
per 100 Gms. SoL 


30 


55 


60 


590 


40 


56.2 


80 


61.5 






100 


64.0 



IRON CARBONATE 



336 



IRON CARBONATE (Ferrous) FeCOs. 
Solubility op Ferrous Carbonate in Aqueous Salt Solutions, Both 

WITH AND without THE PRESENCE OF CaRBON DIOXIDE. 

(Ehlert and Hempel, 19x2.) 

(Each mixture was 1000 cc. in volume and was rotated constantly for 24 hours. 
Temp., probably 5-8**.) 





Solubility in 


Presence 


S(M.UBILITY 


in Absence 




OF C0| (a atmospheres pKssure). 
Gnu. Salt per Gms. FeCXH per 


OF 


CO,. 


Aqueous Sdotion oC: 


Cms. Salt per 
1000 Gm. BiO. 


Gms. FeCOk per 




xooo Gms. H^. 


xooo cc. Solveat. 


xooo oc. Solvent.. 


Water alone 





6. 191 


• • • 


• • • 


NaCl 


• • « 


• • • 


3SI-2 


0-350 


MgCb.6HiO 


86.9 


S.«40 


... 




(( 


700 


4SSS 


. • • 




U 


1150 


4-459 


... 




it 


1437 s 


4693 


... 




u 


1725 


5-398 


• * • 




it 


2300 


9.052 


2300 


4.205 


Na»S04.ioH,0 


137-7 


7-943 


137.7 


0.701 


<c 


Sat. at 14** 


9-578 


Sat. at 14^ 


0.934 


MgS0«.7H»0 


105.3 ^ 


6.342 


105.3 ^ 


1.467 


C< 


Sat. at 14^ 


7-392 


Sat. at 14** 


2.933 



IRON BICARBONATE (Ferrous) Fe(HCO,)s. 

SCX.UBILITY OF Ferrous Bicarbonate in Carbonated Water at 30^ 

(Smith, H. J., X9x8.) 

Pure white ferrous carbonate was prepared by heating to 100^ for several 
days in a steel bottle, an aqueous solution of ferrous sulfate, sodium bicarbonate 
and carbon dioxide (introduced at 400 lbs. pressure). The crystalline product 
was similar to the mineral siderite and was probably isomorphous with calcite. 
Fifty to one hundred gram portions were placed in a two- liter steel bottle, coated 
on the inside with a mixture of beeswax and Venice turpentine. Water was added 
and COi introduced through a needle valve from a cylinder of the liquefied gas. 
The pressure was read on a gauge. The bottle was rotated at constant tempera- 
ture for several days or until equilibrium was reached. The portion ot the 
saturated solution for analysis was withdrawn through a brass tuoe attached to 
the valve on the inside of the bottle and packed with cotton to act as a filter. The 
filtered portion was received in a tared evacuated flask, containing a few cc. of 
cone. HfSOi. The COa was determined by absorption and the iron by precipitation, 
resolution, reduction* and titration with permanganate. The results show that 
the decomposition tension of Fe(HCOt)t is greater than 25 atmospheres at 25^. 



Gms. Mob 


1. per Liter. 
Fe(HCQi);. 


Gms. per Liter. 


Gms. Mob 
H,C0,. 


[. per Liter. 
Fe(HCOa),. 


Gms. per Liter. 


HiCQi. 


HsCOft. 


Fe(HCO^i. 


H,CO». 


FeCHCO,),. 


0.1868 


0.00245 


11.58 


0.436 


0.3294 


O.OO3II 


20.43 


0.553 


0.1985 


0.00256 


12.31 


0.4S5 


0.3745 


0.00315 


23.23 


0.560 


0.2168 


0.00262 


13.45 


0.466 


0.4046 


0.00332 


25.09 


0.590 


0.2327 


0.00274 


14-43 


0.487 


0.4750 


0.00348 


29.45 


0.619 


0.2960 


0.00303 


18.3s 


0.539 


0.6600 


0.00402 


40.93 


O.71S 


O.3I16 


0.00304 


19.32 


0.541 


0.7154 


0.00418 


44.36 


0.744 


0.3153 


0.00318 


19. 55 


0.566 


0.7600 


0.00434 


47-13 


0.772 



IRON CHLORIDE (Ferrous) FeCl,.4H,0. 

100 gms. sat. sol. in water contain 17.54 R^^s. Fe 
100 gms. sat. 80I. in water contain 18.59 S^is. Fe » 



39.82 gms. FeCli at 22.8*. 
42.8 gms. FeCli at 43.2^ 

(Boecke, xgxzO 



337 



IRON CHLOBIDI 



ntON OHLOBIDB (Ferrous) FeClt.4H,0. Solubility in Watbr. 

(EtaidO 



Gins. FeCb 
t*. periooGmB. 
Solttdoo. 

lo 39.2 

15 40.0 

25 41 S 

30 42 -2 

40 43.6 

SO 45 •« 



Solid Phase. 
FcCla.41^0 



a 
tt 
ti 
a 
u 



Gms. FeOt 
t*. per xoo Gms. 
Sdutkn. 

60 47.0 

80 50.0 

87 51.3 

90 51-3 

100 51.4 
120 51.8 



Solid Phsse. 

FeCl,.4HaO 



i( 



FeCl,.4^0+FeCL 
FeCl, 



It 



it 



Solubility op Iron Chloride 

(Rooseboom — Z. physik. 

Mob. Ferfae ^^' ^^ P» »<» 
»•. periooMdft. Gam. 

HsO. go SdlntiaD. 

Solid Phase, Fe|Cl«.zsHsO. 

2.75 
2.98 



(Ferric) Fe,Qe in Water. 

Oiem. 10^ 477, '93.) 

Mob. FeaOft Gms.Feaaperioo 
Mob. 



Gms. 
rfjol Solution. 
Solid Phase, FeaC3e.5B^ (col). 



per xoo_ 
HaO. 



-55 

-27 

O 

+ 20 

30 

37 

30 
20 

8 



49-52 
53 60 

74.39 
91.85 

106.8 

150.0 

201.7 

231. 1 

246.7 



413 
5.10 

5-93 

8-33 
11.20 

12.83 
13 -7 

Solid Phase, Fe]Cl6.7HsO. 
20 11.35 2044 

32 13 -55 2440 

30 15.12 272.4 
25 15.54 280.0 

Sdid Phase. FesOe.sHsO. 
12 12.87 231.8 
27 14.85 267.5 



33 

34 

42 

47 

51 
60 

66 
69 
71 

67 
70 

73 
73 

69 
72 



12 

93 
66 

88 

64 
01 

85 
79 
IS 

14 

92 

13 
69 

87 
78 



35 15.64 281.6 73 

SO 17-50 315-2 75 

55 19-15 344-8 77 

55 20.32 365.9 78 

Solid Phase, FesCl«.4HaO. 

SO 19 -9^ 359-3 78 

55 20.32 365.9 78 

60 20.70 372.8 78 

^ 21.53 387.7 79 

73-5 25 o 450-2 81 

70 27.9 502.4 83 

66 29.2 525.9 84 

Solid Phase, FesCI». 

66 29.2 525.9 84 

75 28.92 511 .4 83 

80 29.20 525.9 84 

100 29.75 535-8 84 



79 
9« 
S« 
54 

23 

54 
86 

SO 
8x 

41 
03 

03 
66 

03 
26 



Solubility op Ferric Chloride in Aqueous Solutions of 
Ammonium Chloride at 25®, 35*^, and 45**. 

(Mohr — Z. physik. Chem. 37, 197, '98.) 



Results at 25^. 


Restdts at 35°. 


Resialts at 45^ 




Mob 


• Der 


Mob 


Der 


Mols 


Der 




100 Mob.' HgO. 
Ua4Ci, FeCU. 


xoo Mols. HjO. 
NH«a. Fea,. 


zoo Mob. HsO. 
NH«a. Fea^ 


Solid Phase 
in Each Case. 





10.98 





13-30 


0.0 


33-4 


Feide-isHjO (sJHjO at 45") 


1-57 


10.74 


1. 41 


13 OS 


• « 


1 • 


• • • 


Hydnte-f Doable Salt 


2.48 


9.02 


3.08 


9.28 


4 


08 


958 


DoobbSalt 


5.28 


7-73 


6.98 


7.64 


• t 


1 • 


• • • 


M 


9-59 


6.77 


10.76 


6.70 


13 


09 


6.31 


U 


983 


6.70 


11.60 


6.52 


13 


54 


6.28 


DoaUe Salt + Mixed Ciyttab 


9-65 


6.07 


12.28 


6.08 


13. 


91 


5-49 


MuBed C^yitab 


9-93 


5-23 


"•57 


398 


13 


49 


4.84 


« 


9.92 


3-97 


11.89 


3-38 


13 


.46 


4.99 


« 


10.31 


2.05 


13-23 


1.38 


• 


1 • 


• • • 


« 


13 30 


0.0 


14.79 


0.0 


16 


.28 


0.0 


NHiQ 



IRON CHLOBIDI 



338 



Solubility op 


Pbrric Chloridb in Aqubous Solutions or 






Ammonium Chloridb at ij;^. 








- Z. phyak. Ch. 


lOb 148, VaO 


Mob. per 100 


Mols.H/). 
FeClt. 


Gnzna per 100 Gma.HiO. 


SaUd 


NH«a. 


NH4a. 


FeCW 


Phase. 


0.0 


9 30 


00 


83.88 


Fi^«CU.iaH^ 


Z.09 


957 


3 


24 


86.32 


M 


1.3^ 


9-93 


4 


■03 


91.61 


Feia«.iaHsO + Double Salt 


2.00 


9.27 


S 


.92 


83.64 


DoabbSalt 


2.79 


8.71 


8 


■31 


78.77 


M 


40s 


8.09 


12 


.08 


73.20 


« 


6.41 


7.18 


19 


.12 


64.83 


M 


10.78 


6.21 


32 


.04 


56.00 


« 


7.82 


6.7s 


23 


.21 


60.83 


Mixed Cnritab mntitnhig 7.09% FcOi 


7.62 


S-94 


22. 


63 


53-47 


5^5 - 


7.70 


503 


22. 


90 


45-42 


44 


7.81 


4-34 


23 


23 


39-13 


SA 


8.52 


2.82 


25 


33 


25-43 


- - ,^ « 


10.9s 


0.68 


32- 


55 


6.15 


- • 041 • 


11.88 


0.0 


35- 


30 


0.0 


NHiQ 



Solubility op Pbrric Chloridb in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid 

Solutions at Diffbrbnt Tbmperaturbs. 

(Roozeboom and Schrdnemaker — Z. physik. Chem. 15, 633, '94.) 



Mob 



. per ic 
1^, 



100 Mob. 



Gms. per 100 Gma. 
HgO. 



Ha. 

O 

7.52 
13.37 

z6.8o 

18.45 
20.40 

20.10 

19.95 
19.00 

18.05 
18.05 

19.50 
24.12 

26.00 

26.00 

3460 

37.27 
34.60 

0.0 

2.33 
0.0 

0.0 

2.33 
7.50 

0.0 



FeCls. HCl. 
Results at o^. 

8.25 O 

6.51 15.22 

6.SS 27.06 

8.70 33.99 

10.23 37.34 

15.40 41.28 

16.00 40.67 

17.70 40.37 

22.75 38.45 

23-41 36.53 

23.40 36.53 

25.93 39-55 

30.04 48.81 

32.16 52.60 

32.16 52.60 

38.11 70.01 

36.60 75.41 

38.11 70.01 

Results at a^. 



10.90 
23.72 

24.5 

23. 5 

23.72 

29.75 
31-50 



0.0 

4.715 
0.0 

0.0 

4.715 
15.18 

0.0 



Fea«. 

74- 30^ 

58.62 

57 01 

78.34 
92.10 

138.7 

144. 1 

159.4 
204.8 

210.8 

210.8 

233-5 
270.5 

289.6 

289.6 

343.2 
329.6 

343.2 



Solid 
Phase. 



Mob. per xoo Mob. Gms. per 100 Gma. 

H^. H«0. Solid 



,Fc.Cla 
.xaHaO 



SoT 

0.0 

7.5 
19-5 

19-5 
20.6 

31-34 

33- 00 
34- 65 
40.41 



FeCb- 



^HfO 



FcCI». HQ. 
Results at as** (coo.). 
29.00 0.0 261. 1 
29.75 15.18 267 
35.25 39.46 317 
35.25 39.46 317. 4^ 
35.34 41.68 318.3 
41.58 63.42 374.4 

66.77 

70.11 

81.77 

78.98 

72.33 



Phase. 



■j}'-^ 



o 

13.4 
^*^^i3.4 

FeiCle *7.0 
.aHa O 



98.15 
213 
220 
211. 6 

213 
267 

283.6 



.151 -_^ 42.50 

•6 r?Sao 42.01 

.7 J 



43.00 
44.80 
40.25 
39.03 41.38 

35.74 45.24 

Results at 40®. 

32.4 0.0 

37.45 27.11 

37.45 27.11 

50.80 54.64 

58.0 0.0 

27 50.8 54.64 

42.01 48.64 85.00 

47.52 86.72 

48.64 85.00 



387-3 

403.4 

362.4 

372 

407 



■'-^ 






.and 
4HtO 



%SHjO 
^*^jO 



291.7 

337.3 
337.3 
457.5 
522. 31 
457.5 ^ ^"^ 

438. oj 

438.0) +4Hi0 



Restilts for other temperatures 
are also given in ^e original 
paper. 



339 



IRON CHLOBIDI 



Results for tbb Ststbm Ferric Oxide» Hydrochloric Acid, Water at 25^ 

(CajQfiiQn and Robinson* 1907.) 

(Excess of ferric hydroxide was added to aq. ferric chloride solutions and agi- 
tated for 3 months.) 



Gnu. 



FciOb. 
34.61 
33.27 
32.78 
31.9s 
34.42 
35-22 

34.07 
34.21 

34-44 
33.04 
24.42 



100 Gms. 
.Sol. 

—ficT 



S9.88 
60.23 

5471 
58.20 



Solid Piiaae. 



FeC\.HCLaB^ 



M 



n 



+ Fea« 
FeCli+FeCI|.aB^ 

59 28 

55-71 

55. 47 
51. II 

46.72 
33.40 



M 



U 



U 



+FeCI|.9iB^ 

FeCW.3iH|0+ " 
" +FeCU.6H^ 
FeCW-SB^ 



dud 
Sat.SoL 

1.48s 

1.349 
1. 321 
1.284 

1.242 
1.220 

1. 19s 
1.158 

I. IIS 

1.070 

1.047 



Gms. per 100 Gins. 



SS. 



Sol. 



Solid Phase. 



FeiOb. 
21.84 
16.82 

15.83 
14.62 

12.59 
11.76 

10.56 

8.60 

6.47 

4.04 

2.85 



M 



M 



I* 



HCL 

22.55 FeJOtjeaClSfi 
21.10 

19. S3 
16.61 

15.28 
13.76 

11.24 

8.39 
5.36 
3.66 



Data for the systems FeCU + MgCli + KCl -|- HiO at 22.8* and for FeCIt + 
KCl + NaCl are given by Boeke, 191 1. 

100 gms. abs. acetone dissolve 62.9 gms. FeCU at 18^. (Naumann, 1904.) 

100 gms. anhydrous lanolin (m. pt. about 46®) dissolve 4.17 gms. FeCU at 45^ 

(Kkse, 1907.) 

DiSTRiBonoN OF Ferric Chloride between Water and Ether at I8^ 

(Mylius, 19x1.) 

One-gram portions of iron as chloride were dissolved in 100 oc. of aq. HCl of 
different concentrations and shaken with 100 cc. of ether in each case. The per- 
centage of iron in the ethereal layer was determined after separation of the two 
layers. 



Per cent cone, of Aq. HCl 

Per cent of lion Extracted by Ether 



I 
(0.01) 



5 
o.i 



10 
8 



IS 
92 



20 
99 



Fusion-point curves (solubility, see footnote, p. i) for mixtures of FeCli -f PbClt 
and FeCls + ZnCls are given by Herrmann, 191 1, and for mixtures of FeCU+TlCl 
by Scarpa, 1912. 



SoLUBmrry of the Salt Pair FeCU-NaCl in Water at 21*. 

(ICnzicfasen and Sachsd, 1904-05.) 



Gms. Used. 


Gms. per 100 Gms. 
Solution. 


G. 

per xoo 

FeOa. 


Mols. 
Mo]s.H^. 

NaCL 


Solid Phase. 


FeCla. 


NaCi: 


Feci,. 


Naa. 







3-6 





36.10 





II. 2 


NaCl 


1.8 


3 


24.27 


9.10 


2.69 


2.8 


Mix Crystals 


3.6 


2.5 


25.40 


8.45 


2.81 


2.6 




5.5 


2 


26.40 


5.25 


2.93 


2.54 




7.2 


IS 


38.15 


390 


4-23 


1.22 




9 


I 


45 38 


2.45 


5.03 


0.75 




10.8 


o.S 


46.75 


2. II 


5.18 


0.65 




10.8 





83.39 





9-3 





FeCb 



IRON CHLOBIDI 340 

S(X.UBiLiTY OF THB Salt Pair FeCk-KCl IN Water at 2I^ 

(Hinrichsen and Sachael, 1904-05.) 



I«t«n. fTsMl 


Gnu. per 


100 Gms. 


Gms. Mob. per 100 




\nilaa VMJa 


Solution. 


Mols. 


H,0. 


Solid Phase. 


FeCU. KCL' 


FeO^ 


KCl. 


FeCU. 


KCL' 




35 





34.97 





8.45 


KCl 


13 28 


13 -44 


24.45 


1.49 


5.90 


Mix Crystals 


18 31 


23.18 


16.54 


2.57 


3-99 


ti 


23 18. s 


28.05 


11.69 


3." 


2.82 


n 


38 16 


35-72 


11.68 


3-0 


2.82 


u 


31 IO-5 


36.62 


II. 19 


4.06 


2.70 


Fecu.2Kcl.H20 


36.3 9 


37-35 


13.67 


4.14 


3.30 


« 


46.5 6 


SI. 69 


7.54 


5.73 


1.82 


u 


155 


83.89 





9.3 





FeCU 



Solubility of the Salt Pair FeCU.CsCl in Water at 21^ 

(H. and S.) 



Gmi. 


Vwd. 


Gnu. per xooGms. 
Solution. 


Gms. Mols. per 100 
Mols.H^. 

FeCl,. CsCl. 


Solid PiMse. 


FeCU. 


CsCL 


FeCU- 


CsCl." 





0.6 

1-4 


65 

II. 6 
10.2 




0.45 
2.1 


6s 

SS-iS 

52.38 




o.os 

0.23 


6.95 

5.9 

5.6 


CsCl 
FeCU.3CsCLHiO 


2.2 

2 


8.8 
7.4 


5-24 

7.8 


51.44 
47.70 


0.57 
0.86 


55 
5.1 


FeCU-sCsCl IW) 


3-8 


6 


8.93 


41.15 


0.99 


4.4 


<( 


4.6 

5-4 
6.3 


4.6 
2.8 

1.4 


15.34 

21.6s 
27.96 


25 -25 
14.96 

8.45 


1.70 
2.40 
3.10 


2.7 
1.6 

0.9 


il 
U 


35 
35 


0.2 



48.71 
83.89 


0.94 



5 -40 
9-3 


0.1 



u 

FeCli 



IRON FOBMATE (Ferric) Fet(OH)s(HCOO)7.4HtO. 

Solubility in Water and in Absolute Alcohol. 

(Hampshire and Pratt, 19x3 •) 





Solubility in Water. 


Solubility 


in Aba. AloohoL 




Gms. Salt 




Gms. Salt 


f. 


per xoo Gms. Solid Phase. 


f. 


per xoo Gms. 




H,0. 




ORfifEL 


IS 


S.08 Fei(OH)2(HCOO)7.4HiO 


19 


'4. 59 


20 


5.52 " 


22 


6.25 


25 


6.10 


23 


7.62 


30 


^7 ,< (The sat. solutions are not stable.) 


35 


752 







341 
IRON HTDROXmi (Ferric) Fe(OH)». 



IRON H7DB0ZIDI 



Solubility op Fbrric Hydroxide in Aq. Oxalic Acid SoLUTfON at 25^ 

(Cameron and Robinson, 1909.) 

The solutions.were constantly agitated for 3 months. The solubility is directly 
proportional to the concentration of the oxalic acid and no definite basic ferric 
oxalate is formed. 



da of 
Sat. Sol. 

1.007 
1. 015 
1. 031 



Gms. per loo Gms. Sat. SoL 



FeA. 
0.48 

0.9s 
1.86 



CA. 

0.61 
1.23 

2. 45 



da of 
Sat. Sol. 

1. 040 
1.050 
1.064 



Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. 



FeA. 

2-33 
2.98 

362 



CA. 

310 
3.8s 



ntON NITRATE (Ferric) Fe(N0i),.9HA 

Equilibrium in thb System, Ferric Oxide,. Nitric Acid and Water at 25^ 

(Cameron and Robinson, 1909.) 

Solutions of ferric nitrate of varying concentrations were shaken with freshly 
precipitated ferric hydroxide at const, temp., 25^, for 4 months. The acid branch 
of the curve was studied in a similar manner by starting with ferric nitrate and 
various concentrations of nitric acid. No definite basic nitrates of iron were 
formed. 



da of 

Sat. Sol. 



032 
079 
127 

264 
368 

43S 
498 
1.496 



Gms. 



100 Gms. 
iat. Sol. 



SoUd Phase. 



FeiOs. NA- 
1.78 2.21 FeA-MNAffHiO 

3-99 S-6i 

S-79 9 
7.22 12.31 

9.70 16.60 

12.48 22.70 

14.62 28.13 

15.40 29.52 

15.22 30 . 50 F«A.3NAi8HiO 



fi 



II 



II 



II 



II 



II 



(Hi of 

Sat. Sol. 



I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 



Gms. per 100 Gms. 
Sat. Sol. • 



Solid Phase. 



•4S2 


13. 


•434 


9- 


•417 


7- 


.404 


S- 


.428 


3- 


■450 


4- 


•465 


4- 


.407 


3- 


.419 


3- 



FeA. 

14 

95 

25 
02 

55 
51 
19 
93 
52 



NA. 

33 5 FeA.3NA.x8H,0 

36.3 



M 



403 

47-5 
SS-a 

47 . 2 Fe«(V4NA-iSW>* 
49.6 



M 



M 



M 



* This salt was obtained accidentally and its preparation could not be repeated. 



ntON NTTBATE (Ferrous) Fe(NOi),.6HiO. 









Solubility 


IN Water. 












(Funk, 1900.) 








r. 


Gms. 

Fe(NO^s 

per 100 

Gms. 
Sol. 


Mols. 
Pe(NQ,)s 
per 100 

Mols. 

HiO. 


Solid Phase. 


f. 


Gms. 

Fe(NQi)t 

per 100 

Gms. 

Sol. 


per 100 

Mob 
H.0 


SoUdPhiM. 


27 


3S-66 


5-54 


Fe(N0k)s.9Hi0 


-9 


39-68 


6.57 


r^OJOMB^ 


21.5 

19 


36.10 
36.56 


5-64 
576 


II 

H 




18 


41.53 

45 14 


7.10 
8.23 


M 


15-5 


37.17 


591 


M 


24 
60.5 


46.51 

62.50 


8.70 
16.67 


M 



Density of solution saturated at 18** >■ 1.497. 



IRON OXALATE 342 

mON OXALATE (Ferrous) FeC,04.2HsO. 
Solubility in Water^t 25® Dbterminbd by the Conductivity Method. 

(Sch&ler, 1905.) 

The sat. solution contains 5.38.ior^ gm. mols. C1O4 per liter. 

ntON OLBATE. 

100 gms. glycerol (d - 1.114) dissolve 0.71 gm. iron oleate. (AaMlin. 1873.) 

ntOH OXIDES, HYDROXIDE and SULPHIDE. 

Solubility in Aqueous Sugar Solxttioiis. 

(StcUe — Z. Vcr Zuckerind. so, 340. '00.) 

% Suttr One Liter of Siigir Solutioos DiaaolTei MOIigniDf d: . 
mSS^ F<^(OH)e at: Fe;0> at; Fe»04 at; Mitt 

^«^ X7.4*. 45^ 7?. X7S*. 45*. X7.S". 45*. 75*. i7'f- 4^- 7^. 

10 3.4 3-4 6.1 1.4 2.0 10.3 10.3 12.4 3.8 3.8 5.3 

30 2.3 2.7 3.8 1.4 ... 12.4 10.3 12.4 7.1 9.1 7.3 

SO 2.3 1.9 3.4 0.8 I.I 14.5 10.3 14.5 9-9 19-8 9-1 

ZEOH PHOSPHATE Fe^CPOJ,. 

Thb Action op Water and op Aqueous Salt Solutions upom 

Ferric Phosphate. 

(Lacfaowics — Monatsh. Chem. 13, 357, '9a; Cameron and Hurst — J. Am. Chem. Soc. 26, 9SS, ^0 

The experiments show that the ordinary precipitation methods for 
the production of ferric phosphate give products which do not conform 
to the formula Fe,(P04),. By digestmg such samples with water 
very little is dissolved, but the material is decomposed to an extent 
depending upon the relative amounts of solid and solvent used. The 
amount of PO4, dissolved per gram of Fe,(P04)a varies from about 
0.0026 gram removed by 5 cc. H,0 to 0.0182 gram removed by 800 cc. 
H^ at the ordinary temperature. 

Solubiltty Ferric Pyrophosphate in Aq. Ammonia at o"*. (Pascal. 1909.) 

The solutions containing an excess of salt were agitated violently every half 
hour for seven hours and filtered at 0°. The sat. sol. was analyzed for ammonia 
and for residue obtained by evaporation. 

per^ Gms. ^'j^'^il. Solid Phase. perTi) Gii, X%^£j9?h. ' Solid Phase. 

Sat. Sol. »-'saTsS""- Sat. Sol. ^^^^^ 

0.884 5.606 Fet(PA)i 5.92 14.71 viscous black deposit 

1.59 9-75 " 8.26 13.89 chamois colored lumps 

3-71 14.85 " 10.55 7.40 

4.72 15.94 « 15.96 2.52 

5.93 13.92 viscous black deposit 18.83 O.445 

7.91 14.61 

SoLUBiLmr OF Ferric Phosphate in Aq. Phosphoric Acid Solutions at 25*. 

(Cameron and Bell, 1907.) 

Solid ferric phosphate of unknown composition was constantly agitated with 
aq. phosphoric sicid solutions of concentrations up to 5% for 4 months. Analyses 
of tne sat. solutions and solid phases were made. 



IC 
M 
II 



d»oi 


Gms. per xoo Gi 


ms. Sat. Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


Sat. Sol. 
1.0074 
I. 0162 
1.0244 
I. 0310 
1.0383 


FeA. 
0.0105 

0.0205 

0.0384 

O.061I 

0.0849 


PA. 
0.942 

1.984 

2.838 

3 770 

4.706 


Solid Solution 

(( 
tt 

tt 



M 



tt 



543 nton sDUAti 

IRON SULFATE (Ferrous) FeS04.7HtO. 

SOLUBIUTT OF FlSRROUS SULFATE IN WaTBR. (Fteenckd, 1907^ 

Gms. F^Qi Gms. 

t*. - per too Solid Piiaae. t*. FeSOipwioo Solid PhMlb 

GmsJ^ Gms. I^ 

—0.172 1. 0156 la 4S«l8 44.32 RSOb-yH^ 

—0.566 4.2852 " 50.21 48.60 

— 1.063 8.7054 " 52 50.20 

— 1. 511 12.713 " 54.03 52.07 

— 1. 771 14. 511 " 56 . 56 tr. pt.54 . 58 " +PbSOi-|W) 
— 1.82 Eutec 17.53 Ioe+FeSa,.7H/) 6o,OI 54-95 FeSC^Hrf) 

O IS 65 FeSa,.7H/) 65 55-59 " umubk 

+ 10 20.51 " 70.04 56.08 

15-25 23.86 " 64.8tr,pt. ... FeS0,.4Hd0+FeS0,,H^ 

20.13 26.56 - 68.02 52.31 FeSCHrf) 

25.02 29.60 " 77 45.90 

30.03 32.93 « 80.41 43.58 
35.07 36.87 « 85.02 40,46 
40.05 40.20 « 90.13 37.27 
di9.% of sat. sol. B I.219I (Grtenish and Smith, 1903) 

Solubility of Ferrous Sulfate in Aq. Solutions of Lithium Sulfate at 30*. 

AND Vice Versa. (SchiciiiemAkecs, 1910.) 

Cms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol." «• i- j nt Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sd. .... |>. ^ 

'— = ■ --- • SoLdPh«e. ' FeSO.. ' Li.SO.. ' ^.^dPfcu.. 

FeS04.7EW) 15.39 i6-8o LiiS04.IW) 

" 12.68 18.31 " 

" S-32 ".IS " 

" 3-74 23.1s ;; 

" o 25.1 

" +Li,S04.HiO 

Equilibrium in tsb System FerricIOxide, Sulfuric Acid and Water at 25^ 

(Cameron and Robiaaon, 1907.) 

(Excess of freshly precipitated ferric hydroxide was added to ferric sulfate solu- 
tions of varying concentrations and the mixtures constantly shaken for 4 months.) 

Jn^ ^""Ig'^.^""- SoUd ^"■•gt'/gj.^"" S3lid 

^■^'- FeA. " S0>. - ^*^- FeA. ' SO.. ' ^^• 

1 . 001 o . 07 o . 1 1 Solid Solution 20 . 48 26.18 FeiQs.3S08. loHiO 

I. on 0.62 0.94 " 19-77 28.93 " 

1.045 2.03 2.65 " 10.87 31-35 Fe>B08.4SOgioH20 

1. 131 6.18 7.40 " 0.16 35.96 " 

1. 217 10.03 11.84 " 0.07 41.19 " 

1.440 15.90 20.70 " 1.05 42.43 " 

Solubility of Ferric Sulfate and of Ferrous Sulfate in Aq. 
Solutions of Sulfuric Acid at 25®. (Wirth, xgxa-u.) 

Results for Ferric Sulfate. Results for Ferrous Sulfate. 

.- ,.^ , Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. .. ,. , Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. 

Normahtyof SoK NoriMhtyof Sol. Solid Phase, 

used Add. ' < * » used Acid. . » » i^uu a uw. 

FeA - Fe,(S04)^ uaea /una. j.^ ^ ^^^^ 



FeS0«. 


UiSO,. 


24.87 





24-45 


4 


21.15 


5.58 


18.79 


II. 16 


16.51 


15-81 


16. II 


16.50 



2.25 9.99 25.02 2.25 10 19-03 FeS04.7HsO 

6.685 5.82 14.58 10.2 5.414 10.30 '' 

19.84 0.02 0.05 12.46 3.816 7.26 FeSOi.HiO 

15.15 2. II 4.015 

19.84 0.08 0.1522 






ntON SULFATE 



344 



Equilibrium in thb System Ferric Oxide-Sulfur Trioxide- Water at 25^ 

(Wirth and Bakke, 1914.) 

(The mixtures were shaken for 3-4 weeks.) 



Gms. per 


100 Gms. 




Gms. per 


100 Gms. 




Sat. 


Sol. 


SoUdPhiae. 


Sat. 2 


Sol. 


SoKd Phase. 


FcA. 


SO*. 


FcA. 


SO,. 




• • • 


71 23 


notdet. 


14.49 


31-45 


unstable 


0.24 


56.84 


u 


15-71 


31.88 


M 


353 


« j 


pxob. Fei(S04)a.H^«.9H|0 


20.21 


31-30 


U 


+Fei(S04),.H«SO«.3H40 


9.39 


31 -54 


Fe,(SOJ,.H«SO4.8Hi0+ 


6.6s 


32 IS 


Fei(S04)«.HtSO«.8H<0 


Fe,(S0,),.9H^ 


9-39 


31 54 


" +Fe(SOJ,.H,S04.3H40 


11.06 


29-43 


Fe,(S04),.9H^ 


12 03 


3151 


Fe(S04)«.HtS0«^Tl<0 


13-88 


28.33 


It 


13 27 


31 84 


II 


15-23 


27.92 


M 


13-68 


31 78 


unstabla 


16.07 


27.98 


M 



Results are also given for the two forms of yellow ferric sulfate (a copiapite and 
fi copiapite) also for ferric hydroxide and sulfate solutions. 

It was found that a saturated solution of FeiCSOOt.HiSOi.SHiO in abs. alcohol 
at 25^ contained 8 gms. FeiOi + 17.18 gms. S0| (Ratio, i : 4.235) per 100 gms. sat. 
sol. 

The yellow ferric sulfate Fes(S04)i.9HiO is less soluble in alcohol. After 4 
weeks snaking at 25^, 100 gms. of the sat. solution in abs. alcohol contained 4.497 
fms, FetOi and 6.77^ gms. SOt (Ratio, i : 3.006). Thus the alcoholic solution, 
jUSt as the aqueous, is considerably more acid than the solid phase with which it 
18 in equilibrium. 

100 grams sat. solution in glycol contain 6 gms. FeSOi at ordinary temperature. 

(de Coninck.) 

ICO gms. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve i gm. ferrous sulfate at room temp. 

with decomposition. (Welsh and Broderson, 1915.) 



Solubility of Mixtures op Ferrous Sulphate PeS04.7H,0 and 
Sodium Sulphate Na,S04.ioH20 in Water. 

(Koppd — Z. physik. Chem. 52. 405, '05.) 





s^< 


100 Gms. 


Gms. per 


100 Gms. 




t*. 


lltioD. 


HsO. 


Solid Phase. 




teSQ.. 


N«,S04. 


'FCSO4. 


NasS64. 







14 54 


4-93 


18.06 


6. II 


FeS04.7HsO + NasSQ|.io^O 


IS -5 


17.76 


II 


.32 


25-05 


15-97 


U M 


21.8 


16.37 


IS 


■32 


24 -34 


22.51 


FeNa,(S04),.4BW> 


24.92 


16.21 


IS 


•13 


23.62 


22.04 


M 


35 


16-35 


14 


.98 


23-91 


21.83 


M 


40 


16.37 


IS 


.42 


24.01 


22.62 


« 


18.8 


18.13 


13 


.8 


26.63 


20.28 


FeNas(S04)i4H«0 + FeSO«.7H^ 


23 


19.58 


12 


•S 


28.82 


18.4 


M M 


27 


20.97 


II 


■3 


30 -95 


16.64 


M M 


31 


22.91 


9 


•71 


33-99 


14.41 


M m 


35 


23- 8s 


9 


.26 


35-66 


13-85 


m m 


40 


26.32 


7 


8S 


39 98 


11.92 


M <• 


18.8 


18.23 


14, 


83 


27.23 


22.16 


FeNas(SQ|}94HsO + Na«SQiJoHiO 


23 


13-83 


18. 


04 


20.31 


26.48 


M M 


28 


7.66 


24, 


41 


11.28 


35-94 


M « 


31 


458 


29. 


50 


6.95 


44.75 


U «• 


35 


4.04 


30- 


49 


6.16 


46.58 


FeNaflSQi.4HsO + Na^Sa 


40 


4.10 


30. 


60 


6.27 


46.99 


M w 



345 ntON SULFATE 

ntON Potassium SULFATE (Ferrous) FeSO4.KsSO4.6H1O. 

Solubility in Water. (Tobicr, iSss) 

M Gms. KtFe(S04)| ^ Gms. K«Fe(Sa)i 

per xoo Cms. HtO> per zoo Cms. HfO. 

o 19.6 35 41 

10 24.5 40 45 

14. S 29.1 55 56 

16 30.9 65 57.3 

25 36.5 70 64.2 

IRON SULFIDE (Ferrous) FeS. 

One liter of water, saturated at 18® with precipitated ferrous sulfide, contains 
70.1. 10"* mols. FeS = 0.00616 gm., determined by conductivity method. 

(Weigd, 1906. 1907.) 

Additional data for the solubility in water are given by Bruner and Zawadzki. 

100 gms. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve 9 gms. FeS at room temp, with decom- 
position. (Welsh and Broderson, 1915.) 

Fusion diagrams for mixtures of FeS -|- PbS and for FeS + ZnS are given by 
Friedrich, 1907, 1908. 

ntON SULFONATES. 

Solubility of Iron Phbnanthrenb Sulfonates in Water at 2o^ 

(Sandquist, 191a.) ^^ Anhydrous Salt 

^^* per 100 Gms. I^. 

Iron 2-Phenanthrene Monosulfonate 5HsO 0.044 

" 3- " " 5H,0 0.20 

" 10- " " 6H,0 0.16 

IRON THIOCTANATE (Ferric) Fe(CNS),.3HtO. 

Distribution between Water and Ether. (Hantach and Vagt. 1901.) 
Results at 25^. Results at Several Temperatures. 

Gm. Mols. Fe<CNS)i per liter. ^ Gm. Mols. Fe(CNS)i per Liter. ^ 

y ' "> "/• **• r~ * "N " 

HiO Layer (c). Ether Layer (O- ^ HfO Layer (c). Ether Layer (cO- ^ 

0.0202 0.0108 1.87 o 0.0089 0.0167 0.532 

O.OII9 0.0034 3.51 10 0.0127 0.0128 0.995 
0.0066 0.00093 7.07 20 0.0165 0.0091 1. 814 
0.0035 0.00025 13.95 30 0.0196 0.0059 3.303 

35 0.0207 0.0048 4.32 
Results for the efiect of HNOt upon the distribution at 25*^ are also given. 

ITAGONIC ACm CH,:C(COOH)CH,COOH. 

Data for the distribution of itaconic acid between water and etber at 25* are 
given by Chandler, 1908. 

KERATIN. 

100 gms. HiO dissolve 8.71 ems. keratin at 20-25^ (Dehn, 19x7.) 
100 gms. ac|. 50% pyridine dissolve 16 gms. keratin at 20-25**. ** 

Pyridine mixes with keratin in all proportions at 20-25^. " 

JLKxrTUii Kr. Solubility in Water, (von Antiopoff, 1909-10.) 

(Results in terms of coefficient of absorption as defined bv Bunsen, see p. 227, and 
modified by Kuenen in respect to substituting mass for volume of water involved.) 

t*. Aba. Coef. (First Series). Abe. Coef. (Second Series). 

o 0.1249 0.1166 

10 0.0965 0.0877 

20 0.0788 0.0670 

30 0.0762 0.0597 

40 0.0740 0.0561 

50 0.0823 0.0610 

The cause of the differences between the first and second series of results was 
not ascertained by the author. 



LACTIC ACm 



346 



LACTIC ACm («) CH,CHOHCCX)H. 

Distribution Bbiwbbn Water and Ethbr. 

(Pinnow, 191 s-) 



Results at 15^ 




Results at 27.5^ 




Gm. Mob. Add per Liter: 


1* 


Gm. Mob. Add per Liter: 


<•>. 


faiOUyer(»). 


Ether Layer («). 


HgO Layer (»). Ether Layer («). 


W 


Z.98 


0.215 


9.19 


I -354 0.130 


10.42 


I -351 


0.133 


10.15 


0.3203 0.0278 


11.52 


0.297 


0.0246 


12.08 


0.1855 0.0156 


11.89 


0.1448 


O.OI18 


12.27 






0.0548 


0.0046 


11.88 







F.-pt. data for mixtures of trichlorolactic add and dimethylpyrone aie given by 
Kendall, 1914. 

LACT08I (see sugars, pages 695-7). 

LANTHANUM BBOBCATE La(BiO,),.9HA 

100 gms. H|0 dissolve 28.5 gms. lanthanum bromate at 15^ (Maiignac) 

LANTHANUM CIT&ATE 2(LaC,H<Or).7HsO. 

100 gms. aq. citric solution containing 10 gms. citric add per 100 cc., dissolve 
0.8 gm. La(C«Hi07) at 20^ (HotmSbeis, 19070 

LANTHANUM CobaltiCTANIDI La,(CoC•N«)^9H|0. 

100 gms. aq. 10% HCl {du » 1.05) dissolve 10.41 gms. salt at 25^. 

(James ami Willand, 19x6.) 

LANTHANUM QLTCGLATI La(CHA)i. 
One liter H|0 dissolves 3.328 gms. La(C|H]Oi)i at 20^ Qantsdi ami Gcunkiaut, 1912-13.) 

LANTHANUM lODATE La(IO,)i. 

Scx^UBiLiTY IN Water and in Aq. Salt Solutions at 25^ 

(Harkins and Pearce, 19x6.) 

1000 gms. HiO dissolve 0.6842 gm. La(IOs)i at 25^ dj^ sat. sol. - 0.99825. 

~ Cone, of 
Salt. Salt. MiUi- 
NoonaL 

La(NOk)i 2 

S 
xo 

so 
100 
200.5a 
0.0990 

0.4957 
0.9914 

X.9828 

0.0913 

0.4560 

0.9130 

X.8260 

3.6530 
4.5326 
6.7989 



KlOk 






NalOk 
ti 



It 
it 

€t 
tt 
« 



Gms. 


d«. of 




Cone, of 


Gmt. 


tf.. of 


UdOi), 




Salt. 


Salt,MiIli- 


LidO,), 




per Liter. 


Sat. Sol. 






per Liter. 


Sat. Sol. 


0.559s 0.99732 


NaNOk 


25 


O.869OX 


1.00250 


0.5288 0.99807 


« 


so 


0.99040 


1.00385 


0.5194 0.99859 


i( 


100 


I. 1603 


1.00742 


0.5522 ] 


[.00212 


i( 


200 


1.385 


X. 01 290 


0.6214 ] 


[.00661 


It 


400 


X.636 


X. 0242 2 


0.7431 1 


C 01533 


tt 


800 


2.156 


1.04677 


0.6290 ] 


[.00030 


tt 

MM 


x6oo 


2.859 


X. 09005 


0.5633 1 


[.00027 


(< 


3200 


3.030 


I. 17243 


0.4970 1 
0.3738 3 


[.00030 
[.00031 


La(N(X)..- 
2NH4NO1 


26.34 


0.631 


X.OOXX2 


0.63538 1 


[.00060 


ti 


52.68 


0.674 


1.00355 


0.56466 ] 


[.00059 


ti 


105.36 


0.7S4 


X.OO97I 


0.5083s 3 


[.00065 


tt 


158.04 


0.816 


X. 01608 


0.39938 3 


[.00065 


tt 


196.83 


0.867 


X. 02 183 


0.19736 1 


[.00069 


(t 


393.67 


1.063 


1.04343 


0.13393 5 


[.00083 


tt 


787.3s 


1.364 


X. 08286 


0.09733 1 


[.00130 


tt 


1574.70 


1.923 


X. 16652 



According to Rimbach and Schubert (1909), one liter H^ dissolves 1.681 gms. 
Li(IOs)i at 25^ determined chemically, and 1.871 gms. determined dectrolytically; 
solid phase, 2La(IOi)t.3HiO. 

LANTHANUM MALONATE La,(C|Hi04)s.5HsO. 

100 gms. aq. Am. malonate sol. (10 gms. per 100 cc.) dissolve 0.2 gm. ) Lai(C|Hi04)t 
[. malonic add sol. (20 gms. per loocc.) dissolve 0.6 gm. ) at 20^ 



100 gms. aq. 



(Hohnbetg, X907O 



347 LANTHANUM MOLYBDATl 

LANTHANUM MOLYBDATE La,(Mo04)i. 

One liter H|0 dissolves 0.0179 g™- Lat(Mo04)t at^25** and 0.0332 em. at 85*. 
_ (Hitchcock, 1895. 

LANTHANUM Ammonium NITBATE La(NOi)i.2NH4NOa. 

100 gms. HiO dissolve 181.4 gms. La(NOj)j.2NH4NOj at 15*. (Holinbeig, 1907.) 

LANTHANUMj Double . NITRATES. 
Solubility of Lanthanum Double Nitrates in Conc. HNO«(({ifl » 1.325) 

AT 16**. aaotach. 191a.) 

^ , Gms. Hydnted Salt 

Salt. Fonnala. Diaaolvedper 

Lanthanum Magnesium Nitrate [La(NO|)«]sMgt.24HfO 6^.8 

Nickel " '* Ni, " 80. ^ 

Cobalt " " Co, " — - 






Zinc " " Zn, " 



xoQ.a 
124. z 



Manganese " " Mn, " 193.1 

LANTHANUM NITRATE La(NO.)s. 

Solubility of Lanthanum Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions of Lanthanum 
Oxalate at 25^ and Vice Versa. Games and WhittemoK, 19x3.) 



Gms. per TOO 


Gms. Sat. Sol. 
La(NQi)v' 


Solid Phase. 


Gms. per 100 


Gms. Sat. Sol. 


Solid Phase. 


LttCCfOJ,. 


La,(C,04),. 


U(NOk),. ' 





60.17 


U(NQi), 


not det. 


not det. 


I*i(CA)t.sH|0 


0.67 


59-91 


II 


332 


42.27 


La,(C^«)a.8H^ 


2.10 


59 03 


If 


2.80 


38-50 


M 


2.23 • 


59 03 


" +Lt.(Ci04)^3HiO 


2.51 


35-57 


M 


2.26 


58.22 


La«(C^«)t.5H«0 


2.21 


31.53 


M 


2.34 


55 20 


<i 

• 


2.01 


28.63 


M 


2.47 


52.74 


M 


1.46 


22.15 


M 


2-59 


49.84 


U 


1. 18 


17.99 


M 


2.68 


45-26 


M 


0.50 


9.89 


M 


not det. 


not det. 


JMCfid^sBfi 


0.28 


5.06 


« 



LANTHANUM OXALATE La,(C,04)i.9HsO. 

One liter water dissolves 0.00062 gm. Las(Cs04)i at 25^ determined by electroly- 
tic method. (Rimbach and Schubert, 1909.) 

100 gms. aq. 10.2% HNOt (d = 1.063) dissolve 0.80 gm. LasCCiOOi at I5^ 

(y. Scheele, 1899.) 

100 gms. aq. 19.4% HNOt {d » 1.116) dissolve 2.69 gms. Lai(Cs04)i at I5^ 

(v. Scheek, 1899.) 

Solubility of Lanthanum Oxalate in Aq. Solutions of Sulfuric 

Acid at 25^ (Hauser and Wirth, 1908; Wirth, 1908; Wirth, x9xs.) 



Normal- Gms. oer too Gms. Nonnal- Gms. per 100 Gms. 

ityof Sat. Sol. Solid Phase. ity of Sat. Sol. 

HfSO*. LaA - La,(CO«)^ HiSO«. La^ - La,(C,OJ,. 



o.x 0.0208 0.0346 Lat(C204)t.9HiO 2 0.4417 0.7344 Lat(CiO«)s>9HtO 

0.5 0.0979 0.1629 " 3.09 0.680 1. 1306 " 

I 0.2383 0.3962 " 4.32 0.880 1.4630 " 

1-5 0-319 0.5304 " 5.6 1.092 1. 8155 " 

Solubility of Lanthanum Oxalate in Aq. Solutions of Oxalic Acid. 

AT 25^. (Hauser and Wirtb, 1908.) 
Normality of Aq. Gms. per 100 Gms. Sat. Sd. g^jy pj^^^ 

<>*»^Add. ' l^ Z Lt.(C04),.^ 

o . I unweighable Lat(Ci04)i*9HaO 



i.o 0.00032 0.00053 

3.2 (sat.) 0.00045 0.00075 






Results are also given for the solubility in mixtures of sulfuric and oxalic adds. 
100 cc. aq. 20% triethylamineoxalate dissolve approx. 0.032 gm. Lai(Cs04)t. 

(Grant and James. 19x7.) 



XiANTHANUK PH08FHATI 348 

LANTHANUM Dimethyl PHOSPHATE Lai[(CH«),P04]<.4HsO. 

100 gms. H]0 dissolve 103.7 Sms. Las[(CHi)iP04]« at 2$"*, (Mocgu and Jaiiwi||i9i40 

LANTHANT7K SULFATE U>(S04)».9H>0. 

Solubility in Water. (Muthmaim and Rsils, X898J 



r. 


Gnu. LatCSOJjper xoo Gms. 


^ Gms-LatCSOf). 


per 100 Gms. 


Soludon. Water. 


Solution. 


Water. ' 





2-91 3 


SO 1.47 


I-S 


14 


2.53 2.6 


75 0.9s 


0.96 


30 


1.86 1.9 


100 0.68 


0.69 



Solubility of Lanthanum Sulfate in Aq. Solutions of Ammoniuic 
Sulfate, Potassium Sulfate and Sodium Sulfate. (Bane, 19x0, 19x1.) 



In Aq. (NH4)sS04 at I8^ In Aq. KtSOi at I6.5^ In Aq. NatSOi at 18*. 



Cms, per loo Gms. HjO . 

<NH«)sS04. LaiCSOOi. 

4.01 0.393 



8.73 
18.24 

27.89 
36.11 

47-49 
53.82 

65.29 
73.78 



0.279 
0.253 
0.476* 
0.277* 

0.137 
0.067 

0.0117 

0.0033 



Solid 
Phase. 

1. 1. 2 
(( 

(C 
€i 
« 

2-S 

'J 

u 



Gms. per xoo Gms. H^O. 



K«SO«. 
O 

0.247 
0.496 
0.846 
1.029 
1. 156 



La,(SO,),. 
2.198 
0.727 
0.269 
0.185 
0.054 
0.022 



Solid 
Phase. 

1.0.9 

1. 1.2 

i-S 



Gms. per loo Gms. HjO. 
Na«SO«. Lat<S04)«. 



O 

0.39s 
0.689 

0.774 
1.136 
2.480 
3.802 

5 548 



2.130 

0.997 

0.353 
0.299 

0.129 

0.044 

0.019 

0.016 



* M unstable equilibriiim. 



Solid 
Phase. 

1.0.9 

1. 1. 2 

i( 

a 

U 
tt 



(NHO. 



1.0.9 " Lai(S04)i.9HiO. 1.1.2 = Lat(SO4)i.X|SO4.2Hi0 (where X 
K or Na). 2.5 = 2U,(S04)i.5(NH4)iS04, 1.5 =:.La,(S04)s.5^iS04. 

S(X.UBiLiTY OF Lanthanum Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of Sulfuric 

Acid at 25**. (Wirth. 191a.) 



Normality 
of Aq. 


Gms. per xoo Gms. 
£t. Sol. 


Solid 
Phase. 


Normality 
of Aq. 
H,S04. 


Gms. per 100 Gms. 
Sat. Sol. 


SoOd 
Phase. 


H^4. . 


La,0,= La,(S04),. 


LaA - La,(S04),. 


Water 


1.43 2.483 


UtCSOdt.9B^ 


4.321 


I. II 1.927 


Lat(S04),.9HiO 


0.505 


1.69 2.934 


It 


6.685 


0.531 0.9217 


u 


1. 10 


1.796 3. 118 


M 


9.68 


0.266 0.4617 


« 


2.16 


I. 818 3.156 


U 


12.60 


0.214 0.371 


M 


3-39 


1.42 2.465 


U 


15.15 


0.177 0.307 


« 



Data for the solubility of lanthanum sulfate in aq. HtS04 in presence of solid 
oxalic acid at 25^ are given by Wirth, 1908. 

LANTHANUM SULFONATES. 

Solubility of Each in Water. 



Sulfonate. 

TAiithannm Benzene Siilfonate 
" ffi Nitrobenzene Sulfonate 
" ffi Chlorbenzene Sulfonate 
" ffi Brombenzene " 



Formobu 

LalCASQ,l,.9H/) 
La[CcH4NQ|S0k]|.6H^ 
La[CACI.S0.]..9H«0 
La[ciH|Br.S0k]«.9Hi0 



Gms. 
Anhvdrous 

Suliooatc Authority, 
per 100 
Gms. H^. 

63.1 (Holmbeig, 1907*) 
16 

13. 1 

12.9 ** 



" (6) Chloro (3) Nitrobenzene (i) JSulfo- j UICAC1(NQ,)S0J,.8H|0 24 . $ 
" (i) 



Bromo (4) Nitrobenzene (2) ) nate ) La[QH»BrN0^SOk]|.8HiO $ (Katz ft James, '13.) 

" a Naphthalene Sulfonate La[CioHTSOk]i.6H^ 5 . 2 (Hohnbexg, 1907.) 

" 1.5 Nitronaphchalene Sulfonate LaicMH«(NQi)SOftU-6H^ 0.55 

" 1.6 " " " .9H^ 0.21 



M 



l< 



1.7 



it 



u 



.9fliO X.X 



349 LAHTHANUM TABTRAtl 

LANTHANUM TABTRATE La,(C«H/).),.9HsO. 

One liter HiO dissolves 0.059 gm. Lat(CiOA)t at 2$"* (solid phase LatCCiH^Oi)*- 
3H1O). Determined by electrolytic method. (RimUch ud Sdmbeit, 1909^ 

Solubility of Lanthanum Tartrate in Aq. Tartaric Acid and Ammonium 

Tartrate Sch^utions at 20^. 

(Hohabefg, 1907.) 

In Aq. Tartaric Acid. _ In Aq. Ammonium Tartrate. 

Gms. Tartaric Add per Giiis.La«(Q04Qi)«Der ~ Gma. Am. Tutxate per Gms. Lat<C|HA}s per 
100 cc Solvent. xoo Gms. SaL Sol. zoo oc. Sohreat. zoo Gmk Sat. SoL 

20 0.6 ID 0.2 

40 1.2 20 0.6 

LANTHANUM TUNQSTATE LatOVOi).. 

One liter H^ dissolves 0.0117 gm. LasCWOOi at 27^ and 0.0236 at 65^ 

u (Hitchcock, zSqsO 

LAUBIC ACm CisHttCOGH. 

SOLUBILITT IN AlCOEGLS. 
(Tunofeiew, 1894.) 

Methyl Alcohol o 14.8 Propyl Alcohol o 21.5 

21 58.6 " 21 52. 6 

Ethyl Alcohol o 20.5 Isobutvl Alcohol o 18.4 

" 21 57.3 ^* 21 49.7 

LEAD Pb. 

An extensive investigation of the solubility of lead in the water pasang through 
lead pipes is described by Paul, Ohlmuller, Heise and Auerbach, 1906. ^ The 
solubility is increased by oxygen, COi, sulfates and perhaps other salts; it is de- 
creased by hydrocarbonates. 

SOLUBIHTY OF LeAD IN LiQUID AmMONIA-SODIUM SOLUTIONS AT —33*. 

(Smith, F. H., 1917.) 

Gm. Atoms Sodium Gm. Atoms Pb Gm. Atoms Na Gm. Atoms Pb 

r Gm. per Liter of Liquid Dissolved oer Gm. 

Ammonia. Atom Na. 

0.13 2.17 

0.14 2.12 

0-33 I 83 

0.34 1.73 

LEAD ACETATE Pb(C,HsOt)s.3HA 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 55.04 gms. Pb(CiHsOi)s at 25^ Gackaon, z9z4-) 

Equilibrium in the System Lead Oxide, Acetic Acid, Water at 25^ 

(Sakabe, 19x4-} 
Gms. Der 100 Gms. Sat. Sol. „ ,. . « Gms. per zoo Gms. Sat. Sol. _ ,. . ^. 

' PbO. CH.COOH. - ^^^^^^ ' pbo. ■ CH.COGH. - SobdPhase. 

4.18 21.53 Pb(CiHA)»3H^ ^ -- ^ ^fi (CHA)(HO)Pb+ 

3.80 16.78 « '^^ ' (CiHW,Pb.2(H0)«Pb 

3,16 13.07 " 5.20 5.61 ((^|HA)iPb.a(HO)tPb 

2.64 5.49 « 3.78 4.17 

3-34 5-36 « 2.89 2.51 

438 730 " 1-45 I 03 

5.18 7 . 92 " +(CHA)(HO)Pb 1 . 05 . 54 PbO 

5.59 7.72 (CHA)(HO)Pb 1.07 0.48 

6.51 7.79 " I 0.20 « 

Equilibrium was attained quickly in the acid solutions but 2-3 days were required 
in case of the basic salts. Both sat. solutions and solid phases were analyzed. 



Liter ot Liqwd 
Ammonia. 


Dissolved De 
AtomNi 


0.078 


1-95 


0.093 


2.20 


0.094 


2.03 


O.IIO 


2.24 


0.12 


1.78 



II 



II 



LIAD ACETATE 550 

Equilibrium in thb System Lead Acetate, Lead Oxide, Water at 25^ 

(Jackson, 19x4.) 



. JyOf 


Gms-perioo 


Gms. Sat. Sol. 


Solid 
Phase. 


Sat. Sol. ' 


vms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sd 
PbO. Pb(CaiA)s. 


• Solid 


Sat. Sol. 


PbO. 


Pb(CaiA)«. 


Phase. 


1.326 


— 0.27* 


35-19 


1-3 


2.280 


24.74 


49-21 3 


.1.3+1.24 


1-334 


'+O.IO 


35-60 


(( 


2.048 


23-59 


43.17 


1.2.4 


I 367 


1. 01 


37-14 


(( 


I -951 


22.78 


40.78 


tt 


1.422 


3.38 


38.93 


<( 


X.657 


19.63 


31-40 


tt 

MM 


I 531 


6.01 


41.95 


tt 


1.599 


X8.73 


29.63 


tt 


1.658 


9-47 


44-71 


t( 


1.382 


14.62 


20.96 


tt 


• • • 


14.22 


47-88 


(( 


1.348 


13-41 


19-65 


tt 


1.852 


14.44 


47.92 


it 


1.229 


10.66 


12.99 


tt 


• • • 


15.89 


48.951. 


3+3-1 


•3 I -157 


8.47 


8.64 


tt 

MM 


1.930 


15-90 


48.42 


3-I-3 


1. 119 


7.87 


5-27 


tt 


1.942 


16.25 


48.85 


U 


1. 117 


7.79 


5-25 


tt 


1.956 


16.65 


49.04 


tt 


• • • 


7.17 


4.17 


Pb(OH), 


2.024 


18.83 


48.71 


t< 


1. 100 


6.84 


4-31 


tt 


2. 161 


22.23 


48.52 


(t 


1 095 


6.54 


4-25 


tt 


2.193 


22.94 


48.96 


U 


1. 08s 


5-91 


3-82 


mm 


• • • 


23.28 


49-14 


ii 


I -075 


5.29 


3 40 


tt 

mm 


2.220 


23-53 


49.01 


n 


• • • 


0.20 


O.II 


tt 



* In this case the acidity is expressed in tetxns of PbO. 

i.j=Pb(C,H,0,),.3HA 3.i.3=3Pb(C,Hrf),)i.Pb0.3HA 1.2.4 =.Pb(CHrf),V 
2Pb0.4HiO. 

The above results show the solubility of lead acetate in aqueous solutions 
containing increasing amounts of lead hydroxide. The mixtures were constantly 
agitated for periods varying from 2 to 7 davs. Both the saturated solutions and 
the solid phases were analyzed. The basic lead in a given sample was determined 
by measuring the volume of standard acid neutrali^d by it. The neutral lead 
acetate was determined by precipitation of the lead as sulfate or as oxalate. 

Solubility of Lead Acetate in Aq. Solutions of Potassium Acetate at 25^ 

(Fox, X909.) 
Gms. per xoo Gms. Sat. Sol. 

cScOOK! " (CH,COO).Pk ^^ ^^^ 

o 35.9 (CH,COO)2Pb.3HiO 



13.87 38.05 

15.40 36.90 



tt 
(t 



Solubility of Lead Acetate in Aqueous Solutions of Ethyl Alcohcm^ at 25^. 

(SeideU, xgxo.) 
Wt.% j^ Gms. Wt.% j^ Gms. 

CHjpH ^ (CH,CW.Pb Solid Phase. ^^ Ikt (CJH^.Pb SoUd Ph««. 
"* Q^ per xoo Gms. "^j*-** -^"m*. m ^^- per xoo Gms. »3wuu i^umc. 

Solvent. ^- Sat. Sol. Solvent. ^'- ^at. Sol. 

o 1.343 36. S (CiHA)iPb.3H|0 70 0.9SS 12.4 (CaHjQi)iPb.3HiO 
10 1.27s 32.3 " 80 0.907 9.4 " 

20 1.21$ 28.6 " 81 0.905 9 '* 

30 1. 157 2$ " 8s 0.8SS 4 (CjHjQi)iPb 

40 i.ios 21.9 " 90 0.826 1.6 " 

SO 1.05s 18.7 " 9S 0.806 0.6 ** 

60 1.002 1S.6 " 100 0.790 0.4 " 

100 gms. 95 % formic acid dissolve o.99(?) ™. Pb(CiH|Oj)s at 10.8*. (Aschan. xgxj.) 
100 gms. anhydrous lanolin (m. pt.46*') dissolve i.igm. Pb(CiH/>3^at45®. (Klose/o?.) 
100 gms. glycerol dissolve about 20 gms. Pb(CsHaOt)t at 15^. (Ossendowski. X907.) 

LIAD ARSENATE PbHAs04. 

Two gm. portions of amorphous dilead arsenate were agitated at 32^ with 90 to 
180 cc. portions of 0.0338 normal aqueous ammonia for two days. The saturated 
solutions were found to contain only traces of lead but amounts of AssOi varying 
from 1.956 to 1.429 gms. per liter. (McDonnell and Smith, 1916O 



351 



LEAD BINZOATI 



LKAD BINZOATE Pb(C7HiOs)t.HsO. 

Solubility in Water. 

(PajetU, 1906.) 
f. x8'. 40.6'. 49'. 

Gms. Pb(C7H602)s per 100 gms. sat. sol. o . 149 o . 249 o . 3 10 

LKAD BORATE Pb(BOt)2.HsO. 

100 cc. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve about 2 gms.,Pb(BOs)t at room temp. 

(Webh and Brodexaoii, 1915.) 

LEAD BBOMATE Pb(BrC)i.H,0. 

100 gms. water dissolve 1.32 gms. Pb(BrOi)t at 19.04^. 

(Ri 



ammebbecg, 1841; BOttser, x90)3.) 



LEAD BBOMIDE PbBr,. 

Solubility in Water. 



(Liclity — J. Am. Chem. See. 25, 474, '03.) 



t\ 


Density 

of Solutions, 

H^ at oo. 


Gms. PbBri per xoo 


MflUgnrnMo 
cc. Solutioa. 


b. PfaBr^ per n 


cc. Solutkm. 


Gms. H«0. 


Gms.B/}.' 





1.0043 


0.4SS4 


0.4554 


1.242 


1.242 


IS 


I 0053 


0.7285 


0.7305 


1.987 


1.989 


as 


I. 0061 


0.9701 


0.9744 


2.646 


2.655 


3S 


1.0060 


1. 3124 


1 .3220 


3577 


3 603 


45 


I 0059 


I 7259 


1-7457 


4 705 


4.760 


S5 


1.0046 


2 . 1024 


2.1376 


5-731 


5 Say 


6S 


1.0028 


2.516 


2-574 


6.859 


7.016 


80 


1. 0000 


3-235 


3-343 


8.819 


9-"3 


95 


0.9995 


4.1767 


4 3613 


11.386 


11.890 


zoo 


• • • 


4 550 


4.751 


12.40 


12.94 



Solubility op Lead Bromide in Aqueous Hydrobromic Acid 

AT 10®. 

100 grams H,0 containing 72.0 grams HBr dissolve 55.0 grams 
PbBr, per 100 gms. solvent, and solution has Sp. Gr. 2.06. 

(Ditte — CompC. rend 92, 719. '8x^ 

Solubility of Lead Bromide in Pyridine. 

(Heise, 19x2.) 



t". 


Gms. PbBrt per 
xoo Gms. Pyridine. 


SoUd Phase. 


r. 


Gms. PbBri per 
xoo Gtta, Pyridine 


SoUd Phase. 

9 


-26 




1.02 


PbBr,.3C|H|N 


45 


0.661 


PbBrs.ar4H,N 


— 10 




0.89 


11 


64 


0.800 


11 


- 5 




0.84 


M 


77 


0.969 


« 







0.80 


M 


95 


1-33 


M 


+13 




0.661 


M 


100 


1.44 


M 


19 tr. 


pt. 


• • • 


" H-PhB^iriHiN 


loS 


1.56 


M 


26 




0.58.^ 


PbB4.3C|H,N 


• 







Freezing-point Data (Solubility, see footnote, p. i) are gfven for 
Following Mixtures of Lead Bromide and Other Compounds. 



Lead Bromide + Lead Chloride 

+ Lead Iodide 
" " -j- Lead Fluoride 

+ Lead Oxide 
** ** -|- Mercuric Bromide 

" " + Silver Bromide 



(MSnkemeyer, X906.) 



(i 



(Sandonnini, x9xx.) 
(Sandonnini, X9X4.) 
(Sandonnini, 19x9, 19x4.) 
(Matthes,- X9xx.) 



UAD BBOMIDl 352 

LIAD Dicydohexyl DiBROMIDl (C«Hti),PbBrt. 

LKAD Dicydohexyl DiCHLORIDE (C«Hii),PbClt. 

Solubility of Each in Several Solvents at 22.5^. 

(Gilittner, i9X4') 

Grams per zoo Grams Solvent. 
Solvent. r " ^ "^ 

(C|Hu)iPbBr,. (C,Hu)tPbCV. 

Benzene 0.014 0.016 

Carbon Tetrachloride o . 004 o . 004 

Chloroform 0.078 0.083 

Alcohol + Pyridine (1:1) 2 . 560 2 . 904 

Similar results are also given for lead tetracydohexyl, Pb(C«Hii)4, lead tetra- 
phenyl, Pb(C«Hi)4, and lead diphenyldicydohexyl, Pb(C«Hi)i(C6Hii)2. 



Gms. per xoo Gms. Solvent. 



% 



Solvent. / * 

Pb(C^„)4. Pb(CH,)4. Pb(CH«),(C,Hu)i. 

Alcohol o.oio 0.020 0.324 

Benzene 1.068 1145 2.298 

Carbon Tetrachloride 0.244 0.303 0.845 

Ethyl Acetate o . 030 o . 1 23 0.231 

UAD CAPBOATE, CAPBYLATE, CAPRATE, etc. 

Solubility of Each in Ether and in Petroleum Ether. 

(Neave, X9X3.) i 

Solubility in Ethyl Ether. Solubility in Pet. Ether. 

Gms. Salt per xoo cc. Sat. Sol. Gms. Salt per 100 oc. Sat. SoL 

Lead Salt. Melting point. / ^ \ / ^ s 

At 30*. At B. pt. of Sat. Sol. At 90*. At B. pt. of Sat. SoL 

Pb Caproate 73-74 ... 1364 ... 0.0608 

" Heptylate 90.5-91.5 0.2397 1490 0.020 0.0528 

" Caprylate 83.5^4.5 0.0938 0.546 practically insol. 0.0384 

" Nonylate 94-95 0.1115 0.2404 " 0.0450 

" Caprate 100 0.0290 0.4285 " 0.0170 

" Myristate 107 practically insol. 0.0555 " 0.0210 

" Laiirate 103-104 " 0.0205 " practically insoL 

" Pabnitate 112 " 0.0261 

" Stearate 125 " practically insol. " 0.0170 

The ethyl ether was distilled over sodium. Petroleum ether distilling between 
40^-60*^ was us^. The solutions were stirred constantly at 20^ A definite volume 
of the sat. solution was evaporated to dryness and residue weighed in each case. 

LKAD CARBONATE PbCO,. 

Solubility in Water by Electrical CoNDUcnvrrY Method. 

(Kohlrausch and Rose, 1893; Bdttger, X903.) 

I liter of water dissolves o.ooii —0.0017 gni. PbCOi at 20'. 

Solubility op Lead Carbonate (Neutral) in Aqueous Solutions of 

Carbon Dioxide at 18®. 

(Pleissner, X907.) 
Millimols per Liter. Milligruns per Liter. 



CO,. 


PbCO,. 


CO,. 


PbCQ,. 





0.008 





1.7s 


0.064 


0.029 


2.8 


6 


0.123 


0.034 


54 


7 


0.328 


0.040 


14.4 


8.2 


0.592 


0.048 


26 


9.9 


0.988 


0.053 


435 


10.9 


2.40 


0.076 


106 


15.4 



A determination of the solubility of basic lead carbonate in water gave 1.6 tag, 
Plh(CC^)t(OH)s per liter » 1.3 tag. Pb or 0.006 millimol Pb. 



353 UAD CARBONATE 

Data for equilibrium in the system composed of K2CO1 + PbCOi + KsCr04 
+ PbCrOi at 25** are given by Goldblum and Stoffella, 1910. 

Data for equilibrium by lead carbonate precipitation in aq. solutions of sodium 
salts at 25** are given by Herz, 191 1. 

LEAD CHLORATE Pb(C10s)s.HA 

100 grams HsO dissolve 15 1.3 gms. Pb(C10i)t, or 100 gms. sat. solution con- 
tain 60.2 gms. Pb(C10i)i at 18*". Density of solution, 1.947. (Myllus and Funk, z897-) 

100 gms. H^ dissolve 440 gms. Pb(ClOa)] at i8^ dit => 1.63. (Carlson, 19x0.) 

LEAD CHLORIDE PbCb. 

Solubility in Water. CLkhty; see abo Fonnanek, S887; Bdl» X867; Ditte, x88i0 

Density Gms. PbCla per 100 MilUgram Mols. PbOs per too 

HsO at o^. <^* Solution. Gms. HsO. cc. Solution. Grams HsO. 

o 1.0066 0.6728 0.6728 2.421 2.421 
IS 1.0069 0.9070 0.9090 3-265 3.272 

25 1.0072 1.0786 1.0842 3.882 3903 

35 1.0060 1.3150 1-3244 4-733 4767 

4S 1.0042 1.5498 1-5673 5-579 5-^44 

55 1.0020 I. 8019 1.8263 6.486 6.573 

65 0.9993 2.0810 2.1265 7.490 7-651 

80 0.9947 2. 5420 2.6224 9-150 9-439 

95 0.9894 3-0358 3 1654 10.926 11.394 

100 .. 3.208 3-342 II. 52 12.01 

SOLUBILITT OF LEAD ChLORIDB IN AqUBOUS SOLUTIONS OP ACBTIC AciD 

AT 25*. (Hfll. 1917.) 

Normality Dissolved PbClt. Normality Dissolved PbCU. 

«* Acetic "Gms! Equiv. ' ofAatic ''cms! ' Equiv. ' 

Add. per Liter. per Liter. Aad. per Liter. per liter. 

o 10.77 0.07753 0.465 10.27 0.07392 



Gms. 


Equiv. 


per Liter. 


per Liter. 


10.77 


0.07753 


10.82 


0.07782 


10.85 


0.07717 


10.70 


0.07703 



0.05 10.82 0.07782 0.929 9.45 0.06803 
o.io 10.85 0.07717 1.845 7.90 0.05686 
0.20 10.70 0.07703 3.680 5.26 0.0^788 

SOLUBILITT OF LeAD ChLORIDE IN AqUEOUS AmMONIUM ChLORIDE AT 22^. 

(Br5nsted, 19x1.) 
Gm. Equivalents per Liter. _ ,. . ^, Gm. Equivalents per Liter. „ ..^ «, 
' NH.C1. " PbCW. - SobdPhase. .^^^ ' PbCl,. ^ Sobd Phase. 

O 0.0749 PbO, 0.8 0.0087 NH«a.aPbai 

o.i 0.0325 " I 0.0080 

0.2 0.0194 " 1.5 0.0073 " 

0.4 0.0138 " 2.5 0.0092 

0.5 0.0130 " 4 0.0182 " 

0.52 0.0127 " +NH«a.2pbCIi 6 0.0473 

0.55 0.0123 NH«aaPbCI, 7.29 0.0898 " +NH«a 

0.65 0.0105 " 7.29 o NH«a 

For additional results at 25.2® see von Ende, 1901. 

Solubility of Lead Chloride in Aqueous Solutions of Hydrochloric 

AaD. 



Results at I8^ 


(Pleissner, 1907.) 


Results at 25.2**. (von Ende, 190X.) 


Normality 


Gms. PbOt 


Normality 


Millimols Normality MUUmoIi 


ofHQ. 


per Liter. 


of HCl. 


PbOs per Liter, of HQ. Pbdt per Lit«r. 





9.34 





38.8 1.026 4.41 


O.OOOI 


9.305 


0.0045 


37.35 2.051 5.18 


0.0002 


9.300 


O.O151 


33.75 3.085 7.78 


0.0005 


9.243 


0.0452 


25.46 5 19.38 


0.00102 


9.200 


0.1850 


10.25 75 65.86 


0.0102 


8.504 


0.5142 


5.37 12.05 164.30 



LEAD GHLOBIDl 



354 



Solubility of Lbad Chloride in Aqueous Solutions op Hydro* 

CHLORIC Acid. 

(At 0^, Eogd — Ann. cUm.plm. [6] i% ^59, '89; at a^, Nojres — Z.pbyA, Chem. 0^625, 'pa; at diflo' 
ent tempentnrest Ditte — Compt. rend. 92, 7x8» "Sz; see alio BeU — J. Chem. Sob. ax» 350, '68.) 



Gffli.Ha 


Gms. FbQi per 
literal: 


Gma. HCl 

per 100 
Gms. HsO. 


Gms. PbGs 
o*. «>•. 


per 100 Gms. Solat 
40*. sf- 


ion at: 


L&er. 


o». 


»f: 


8o». 





5-83 


10.79 





8.0 


II. 8 


17.0 


21.0 


31 


OS 


4 S 


9.0 


100 


I. a 


1.4 


3-2 


55 


12.0 


Z.O 


3-6 


7.6 


ISO 


i-S 


2.0 


5-0 


75 


16.0 


a.o 


3.3 


6.0 


aoo 


3 5 


50 


8.2 


"•7 


21-5 


30 


1.6 


S-o 


250 


6.5 


8.0 


13 


l6.3 


28.5 


6 


1.4 


31 


300 


10.7 


"5 


175 


33.0 


35 -o 


XO 


I. a 


1.8 


400 


ai.s 


24.0 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


100 


I. a 
















300 


S-2 
















350 


10.5 
















300 


17s 














' 


400 


40.0 

















Solubility op Lead Chloride in Aqueous Salt Solutions 

AT 25^. 

(Nojea; in HgOs solutions at so^ Fonnanek — Chcm. Centralb. sto* ^7.) 



In Aqueous Solutions of: 

Hd Kd Mga» CaCl» MnCli In CdCI^ 



and ZnQi Gram EauiTalents 
per Liter ot; 

Sir Pbai. 

0.0 00777 

0.05 0.050 

o.io 0035 

0.20 0.02Z 



GramEkimy. 
per Ijtcr. 

CdCla. pEat. 

0.00 0.0777 

0.05 0.0601 

O.IO 0.0481 

0.20 0.03SS 



In HsOs 

Gram Eqiuv. 

per Liter. 

'H«ai. PbQi. 
0.0 0.0777 

O.I 0.0992 



toPWO^ 

Gram Eqmv. 

per liter. 

l*b(NOa)s. Pbc5. 



0.0 
0.2 



0.0777 
0.0832 



The above results were calculated to grams per liter plotted on cross- 
section paper, and the figures in the following table read from the 



curves. 



Gms. Salt 

per 
Liter. 



Grams PbCls per liter in Aqiieoos Solutions of: 






10.79 


I 


8.5 


9 


6.5 


3 


5. a 


4 


4.3 


6 


3« 


8 


as 


10 


a.r 


14 


• • • 


30 


• • • 


40 


• • • 



HQ. KQ. 

10.79 

9.3 
8. a 

7. a 

6.5 
5-3 
4-5 
3-9 

31 

• • . 

a • • 



MgQi. CaQi. MnQi. ZnQs. 
10.79 10.79 zo 



10.79 

7.7 

6.5 

5-7 

5 a 
4.4 



8.7 
7.6 

6.7 
6.0 
4.8 

3-9 
3-3 



1.1 

7-3 

6.3 

50 
4.1 



3 



a,. 


CdCls. 
10.79 


HgOs. Pb(NOk)s 


.79 


10-7900 9Zi(F) 10.79 




10. a 


II. 


9.0 10 .0 




9-7 


II. 4 


10. 10 .85 




2! 


II. 7 


10.3 10.87 




8.6 


la.o 


10.5 10.90 




7-7 


ia.7 


II. zo-95 




7.0 


13-3 


II. 6 11.00 




6.3 


14.0 


la.a IZ.05 


•0 


5-4 


... 


13. a II. 15 




4.7 


... 


14.8 II. ao 




... 


... 


19.0 11.70 



355 



^JIAD CHLoams 



SOLUBILITT OF LRAD ChLORIDB IN AqUEOUS SOLUTIONS OP LeAD NiTRATB AT 25*. 

Results by Harkinsy 191 1. Results by Armstrong and Eyre, 19 13. 



Cms. per Liter Sat. Sol. 
Pb(NO0,. 



O 

8.28 
16.56 
33.12 



PbCl^ 
10.81 

10.67 

10.65 

10.84 

11.57 



dL. of Sat. 
*Sol. 

1.0069 
1.0095 
I. 0139 
I. 0210 



Aq. Pb(NQOi 
Sol., Gms. per 
zooo Gms. afi. 



331 
6.62 



82.80 

Scx^UBiLiTY OP Lead Chloridb in Aqueous Solutions of Potassiuit 

Chloride at 25^^ (von Ende, xgozO 



Cms. PbQs per 

1000 Gms. 

Sat. Sol. 

10.89 
10.96 

10.53 
II. 15 

12.95 



Normality 
ofKCl. 

O 

O.OOI 

0.0025 

0.0049 

0.0099 

0.0200 

0.0599 



Gm. Equiv. Pbdt 
per Liter. 

0.07760 
0.07664 
0.07570 
0.07404 
0.07056 
0.06432 
0.04524 



Nofrmality 
of KG. 

0.0999 
0.5006 
0.7018 
0.9991 
I . 5018 
2.0024 

3 0036 



Gm. Equiv. Pbd 
per liter. 

0.02380 

0.01480 

0.01476 

0.00980 

0.00996 

O.OIII2 . 

0.01948 



Solubility of Lead Chloride in Aqueous Solutions of Potassium 

Chloride at 20^. (Brsnsted, 19x3.) 



Gm. EqoiyaleDts per 
xooo Gms. ScrftttioD. 



Solid Phaae. 



Gm. EquivaleBts per 
zooo Gms. Solution. 



i< 



M 



M 



KQ. PbO,. 

0.195 0.01900 PbOt 

0.299 0.01452 

0.375 0.01324 

0.483 0.01236 

0.510 0.0125 

0.575 0.01068 

0.639 0.00954 

0.930 0.00770 

1.224 0.00736 

1.575 0.00786 

1.884 0.00894 



" +aPbCI^Ka 

aPbOiXa 
u 

u 
u 



KQ. 
2.10 
2.20 
2.29 
2.36 

2.45 

2.66 
2.77 
2.91 
3 05 



StlidPhaae. 
sPbC^Xa 



PbCl,. 
0.01022 
0.01060 
O.OI184 -^ 
. 01300 aPbClfKa+PbClfKCLiH^ 



II 



M 



0.01308 
0.01396 
0.01476 
0.01550 
0.01656 
0.01780 



Pbda-KCLiH^ 



M 



U 



M 



M 



+Ka 



318 

4.57* 0.0280* 

*M Gm. equivalents per xooo Gms. H^. 

^ Data for the solubility of lead chloride in aqueous KCl and aqueous NaCl are 
given by Demassieux, 1914. 

Solubility of Lead Chloride in Aqueous Solutions of Alcohol and of 

MannITOL at 25^ (Kemot and Pomilio, X9XS.) 

Results for Aqueous Ethyl Alcohol. Results for Aqueous Mannitol. 



Gms. per Liter Solution. 



Gms. per Liter Solution. 



CAGE. 


Pbd.: 


(CH«0H)s(CH0H)«. 


Pbdt. 





10 -75 





10.75 


5.75 


10.16 


2.84 


10.42 


II. 51 


9 36 


5.69 


10.67 


23.02 


9.14 


11.38 


10.64 


46.05 


8.25 


22.76 


10.91 


92.10 


7.12 


45 53 


II. 16 


184.20 


4.76 


91.06 


11.29 



SOLUBILITT OF LeAD ChLORIDE IN GLYCEROL. (Presse, 1874.) 

I part glycerol + 7 parts HiO dissolve 0.91 per cent PbClj. 
I part glycerol -j- 3 parts HiO dissolve 1.04 per cent PbClj. 
I part glycerol + i part HjO dissolves 1.32 per cent PbClj. 
Pore glycerol dissolves 2 per cent PbCli. 



LEAD CHLORIDE 



356 



Solubility of Lead Chloride in Aqueous Solutions of Several 

Compounds at 25®. (Annstronc and Eyre, 19x3) 



Aqaeoiis 
Solution ot: 

Water alone 
Glycol 

Acetaldehyde 
it 

Paraldehyde 



Gm5.Cmpd.^™f^ 
___ .,«_x per xooo 



xooo 
ms.HA 

O 

62.04 
II. 01 

33 03 
II. 01 
33 02 



J>er I 
ms. Sat. 
Sol. 

10.89 

10.7s 
10.90 

10.54 
9.82 

10.50 
9.96 



Aqueous 
Solution of: 

Ethyl Alcohol 
Glycerol 
Propyl Alcohol 

Methyl Acetanilide 
Hydrochloric Acid 



Cms. Cmpd. ^^,^ 

ms. Sat. 
Sol. 



cSs.ao. ^ 



II. 51 
23.01 
1501 
60.06 
29.82 
9.12 
18.23 



10.43 
10.98 

10.08 

9-37 
10.25 

4.23 
360 



100 cC anhydrous hydrazine dissolve 3 gms. PbCls at ord. temp, with decom- 
position. (Welsh and Broderson, 1915.) 

Solubility of Lead Chloride in PyrIdine. (Heise, 19x2.) 

Gms. Pbdi 
t*. per zoo Gms. 
Psrridine. 

0.893 
1.07 



t". 



Gms-Pbdi 

per 100 Gms. 

Pyridine. 



— 20 

O 

+ 22 

44 

65 



0.303 
0.364 

0.4S9 
0.559 
0.758 



Solid Phase. 

PbCl,.2C5H6N 

« 



u 
u 



76 

90 

94 
102 



Sdid Phase. 

PbCl,.2C6H6N 

« 



1. 12 
I-3I 






Freezing-point Data (Solubility, see footnote, p. i) are given for 
THE Following Mixtures of Lead Chloride and Other Compounds. 



Lead Chloride + Lead Fluoride 

-j- Lead Iodide 
-j- Lead Oxide 
-j- Lead Sulfide 
-j- Lithium Chloride 



tt 
11 

41 
14 
<l 
If 
14 
If 
If 
If 
II 
If 
ff 



II 
II 
II 
II 
ff 
ff 
ff 
ff 
ff 
ff 
ft 
If 
ff 
ff 



(Sandonnini, 1911.) 
(Monkemeyer, 1906.) 
(Ruer, 1906.) 
(Truthe, 19x9.) 
(Tries, 19x4.) 



+ Magnesium Chloride (Menge, 19x1.) 

+ Manganese Chloride (Sandonnini, x9xx, 1914.) 

+ Potassium Chloride (Tries, 1914; Lorenz and Ruckstuhl, 1906.) 

+ Rubidium Chloride " 

-j- Silver Chloride 

-|- Strontium Chloride 

-j- Sodium Chloride 

-j- Thallium Chloride 

-j- Tin Chloride 



(Matthes, 19x1; Tries, 1914.) 

(Sandonnini, X9xi, 19x4.) 

(Tries, X9X4.) 

(Korrenx, X9X4; Sandonnini, 19x5.) 

(Hermann, x9xx; Sandonnini, x9xx, X9Z4O 

(Herrmann, 19x1.) 



+ Zinc Chloride 

LEAD CHLORIDE (Basic). 

Solubility of Basic Lead Chlorides in Water at 18''. (Pidssner. X907.) 



Onnpound 



Formula. 



Gms. per Liter Sat. Aq. 
Solution. 



Pb 

0.079 

0.021 



PbSalt. 
0.099 

0.025 



i Basic Lead Chloride PbClj.PbO.H2O 
i " " " PbCli.3PbO.H,0 

LEAD FluoroCHLOamE PbFCl. 

Solubility of Lead Fluorochloride in Water and in Aqueous Solutions. 

(Staric, X9XX.) 

Solubility in Aq. Solutions at 25**. 
Gms. PbFCl A^ c^i..*:— Gms. PhFO 



Solubility in Water. 

Gms. PbFCl 
t*. , per xoo Gms. 
H,0. 



Aq. Solution wi». rurv.i Aq. Solution _ 

®*- ^t.Sol. °*- Sat.SoL 



O 
18 

100 



0.02II 
0.0325 
0.0370 
O.IO81 



0.00996 n PbCls 0.0030 0.0535 »HC1 0.0758 

0.0195 n " 0.0008 o.io69n " 0.1006 

0.0392 n " 0.0005 0.0518 n CHiCGOH 0.0512 

0.1055 n " 0.0561 



357 UAD CHBOHUTI 

U&D OHBOMATK PbCtOt. 

SoLUBiLiTV OF Lead Cbroiutb in Watkk. 

„ Mob. pbCiO. Gn».PbCK). Utthod. AaU»rit*. 

'■ per Liter. po Liter. ^ ... 

iS 3.0.10"^ O.OOOIO Solution equilibrium (B«ck uid StigmtlUer, igtoj 

I^-IO"' 0.00004. " " (AuethKh lad Pic±.) 

18 3.2.10"' O.OOOIO Conductivity tKohlnuseh, 190S.) 

aO 2.1. lO"' 0.00007 Radio Indicators (v. Oeven tad Room, rgijj 



Solubility i 


1 Aq. Hd. 




Mmi(™i.Pbpoioo«.s 


It. Sol. at: 


t'S6 


4-96 


S7-. ■ 
7.40 


8.15 


10.06 


IS.40 


13 56 


17-38 


27.30 


22.14 


27.78 


4360 


33-30 


43.60 


68 


46.60 


61.06 


97.20 



lOlubility in 


Aq.HN0.att8 


NomuJityoI 


HilliruuPbpec 


HNO^ 


i«.<cSid.SaL 


O.I 


a. 67 


0.3 


4 


70 


0-3 


6 


46 


0-4 


8 


31 


o-S 


10 


31 


0.6 


13 


39 



Results are also given for the solubility of mixture* of lead chromate and 
lead sulfate in aqueous hydrochlocic acid at 35° and 37*, 

SOLDBILITY OP LEAD ChROMATB IN AqUSOUS PoIASSIUU HYDROXIDE ScS.Un0NS. 
(I^dud ud Le^etre, tlgr.) 
t*. OnmaKOHpariBaw. OmniPbCrGkpef icosc- 

15 2308 I 19 

60 3 -308 1 .63 

80 3 .308 3 -61 

I03 3 .308 3 .85 

LSAD OITRATI Pb(C^,0,)..H,0. 

Solubility in Water and in Alcohol. 

100 gms. H,0 dissolve 0.04301 gm. Pb(C,H,0,),.H,0 at iS", and 
O.0S344 gm. at 35°. 

100 gms. alcohol (93%) dissolve 0.0156 gm. Pb(CJI,0,)^H,0 at 

18°. and 0.0167 gm. at 15°. (PutbelluidHainn— ArcliiT.Plium.Mi. 413. '03J 

LIAO D017BLI CTAHIDKS. 



SOLUBILITT IN WATER. 
(Sdtnlef— Sliber.Akul.WlM. Wien,7C>3(». 'n3 
Ftmiuk. 



Gim. RT too 



DooUeSih. 

Lead Cobalticyanide 

Lead Cobalticyanide 

Lead Potassium Cobalticyanide 

Lead Cobalticyanide Nitrate 

Lead FertJcyatiide Nitrate 

Lead Potassium Ferricyanide 

LEAD rLUOBm FbFi. 

One liter of water dissolves 0.6 gm. PbFi at 9*, 0.64 gm. at 18°, and a68 gm. at 
36.6' (conductivity method). ' (KoUmusch. ijsS.) 

100 cc. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve 6 gms. PbFi at room temp, with decom- 
podtioO. (WeUi ud BrodBim, rgis,) 

Freenng-point data (solubility, see footnote, see p. i) for mixtures of PbFt and 
Pbli are given by Sandonnini (1911); for mixtures of PbF] -j- PbO by Sandoo- 
nini (1914); for mixtures of PbFi + Pbi(POJ, by Amadari (191a), and lor 
PbFi + NaF by Puchin and Baskow (1913). 



LKAD FORMATE 



35« 



LEAD FORMATE Pb(HCOO)>. 

Solubility of Lead Formats in Aqueous Solutions of Barium Formats at 25^ 

(Fock, 1897.) 



Mol. % m SolutioD. 



Gnuns per Liter. 



O 
0.29 

0.74 
^•24 
2.91 

S-92 
100 



Ba(HC0|),. 
100 

99.71 

99.26 

98.76 

97.09 

94.08 

O 



Pb(HC0,)i. 

• • • 

1. 104 
2.803 

5-309 
11.42 

23.11 
28.3s 



Ba(HC0|)s. 
28.54 
28.65 
28.90 

32.24 
29.29 
28.13 



Sp. Gr. of 
Solutions. 



In SoUd Ph ase Mol. % of 
Pb(HCO|)|. 



Z 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 



2204 
2213 
2251 
2529 

2341 

23SS 
0911 



o 
1.72 

S-29 
11.94 

24.81 

56.54 
100 



Ba(HCO|)a. 
100 

98.28 

94.71 
88.06 

75 19 
43 46 
o 



LEAD HYDROXIDE Pb(OH},. 

S(x.uBiLiTY OF Lead Hydroxide in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Hydroxide. 

(Moist Lead Hydroxide used, temperature not given.) 

(Rubenbauer, xQoa.) 



Amount of Ns 


Amt. of Pb 


Mol. DQution 


Gnuns per loo cc. Solution. 


in aocc. 


in 20 cc. 


of NaOH. 


NaOH. Pb(OH)s. 


0.2024 


O.IOI2 


2.27 


1-759 0.590 


0.3196 


0.1736 


1.44 


2.778 I. 010 


0.5866 


0.3532 


0.785 


5.10 2.056 


0.9476 


0.4071 


0.485 


8 235 2.370 


1.7802 


0.5170 


0.258 


15-470 3-010 



LEAD lODATE Pb(IOt)>. 

One liter of water dissolves 0.0134 S^* Pb(IOi)t at 9.2^, 0.019 gm. at 18^ and 

0.023 gm. at 25.8**. (KohlAusch, 1908; BOttger. 1903.) 

One liter HiO dissolves 0.0307 gm. Pb(IO|)i at 25®. (Harkins and Winninghoff, igzz.) 

Solubility of Lead Iodate in Aqueous Salt S(x.utions at 25®. 

(H. and W., 19x1 ) 



Gms. ] 


per Liter. 
PbdO,. 


Gms. per 


liter. 


Gms. per 


Liter. 


KNQ,. 


KIO,. 


PbCIO,),.* 


'Pb(NO,),. 


Pb(IQi),. 


0.202 


0.0318 


O.OII3 


0.0199 


1.656 


0.0052 


I. Oil 


0.0363 


0.0227 


0.0122 


16.561 


0.0045 


5-055 


0.0567 


Pb(N0,),. 




82.805 


0.0078 


20.220 


0.0708 


0.0165 
0.165 


0.0242 
O.OII5 


496.83 


0.0418 


SAD IODIDE Pbl,. 


Solubility 


IN Water. 










(Lichty, 1903.) 






f. 


Density. 


Grams Pbli 


per 100. 


Millimols PbIt per xoo. 


(H,0 at ©•.) 


cc. Solution. 


Grams H<0. 


cc. Solution. 


Grams U|0. 





1.0006 


0.0442 


O.C442 


0.096 


0.096 


15 


0.9998 


0.0613 


0.0613 


0.133 


0.133 


25 


0.9980 


0.0762 


0.0764 


0.165 


0.166 


35 


0.9951 


0.1035 


0.1042 


0.224 


0.226 


45 


0.9915 


0.1440 


0.1453 


0.312 


O.3IS 


55 


0.9872 


0.1726 


0.1755 


0.374 


0.381 


65 


O.Q827 


0.2140 


0'.2i83 


0.464 


0.473 


80 


0.9745 


0.2937 


0.3023 


0.637 


0.656 


95 


9671 


0.3814 


0.3960 


0.828 


0.859 


100 


• . • 


0.420 


0.436 


0.895 


0.927 



Data for the solubility of lead iodide in water by the conductivity method are 
given by B6ttger« 1903; Kohbrausch, 1904-05; Denham, 1917. 



3S9 LKAD lODIDB 

SCLUBILITT OF MiXTUSBS OP LBAD IODIDB AND POTASSIUM lODIDB IN WaTBR. 

(Ditte, 1881; Sdutiiiauken, 1893.) 

Gms. per 1000 Gins. HyO. « kj »i„ m * Gms. per 1000 Gms, ^O. _ .. . ^^ 



• . 


' Pblf 


KL 


^ ouua rt 


m^ 


tr . 


Pbl,. 


KI. " 


wKi rmm 


5 


• • ■ 


163 


Doobfe Sdt+PUt 50 


526.7 


1906 Doobk Sah+KI 


.20 


9 


260 


• 




64 


789.3 


2161 


tt 


2S 


25 


325 


M 




83.5 


i,xo8.6 


2434 


<• 


39 


45 


449 


M 




92 


1,273 


2566 


•• 


67 


255 


751 


M 




137 


2,382 


3278 


M 


80 


731 


1186 


M 




165 


4,187 


4227 


M 


80 


569 9 


976.. 


♦ 




2X8 


10^03 


• • • 


«• 


104. 5 


1411 


1521 


M 




241 


12,803 


7998 


m 


120 


2151 


1812 


•• 




242 


12,749 


• • • 


«• 


137 


2874 


2097 


M 




250 


15,264 


• • • 


m 


17s 


5603 


2947 


M 




157 


5,218 gms. Pb^sKI PbI«.aKLai^O 


189 


• • • 


3339 


•• 




172 


6489 " 


•( 


M 


9 


96.6 


1352 


M 


+KI 


186 


7,903 " 


•• 


M 


13 


114. 3 


1384 


«• 


M 


194 


9,266 " 


«i 


M 


23 


186.3 


1510 


•• 


•« 


201 


11,320 " 


••. 


M 



. Ordinary solubility method used for temperatures below boiling-point of the 
solution and sealed tube (with constriction in middle) method used for tem- 
peratures above boiling point. 

One liter sat. aqueous solution of iodine dissolves 0.002 16 gm. mols. Pbit (0.996 
gms.) at 20^ (Fedotieff, 1911-11-) 

SOLUBILITT OF LBAD IODIDB IN ACBTONB, AnILINB AND AmTL AlCOHOU 

(von LaascvynakL 1894*) 
G«]«»* 4a Gms. PbIt per xoo 

(CH3)iC0 59 0.02 

CatNHi 13 0.50 

CsHsNHa 184 I. ID 

QH7OH 133.5 002 

SoLUBiLnT OF Lbad Iodidb in Ptbidinb. 

(Heise, 19x3.) 

Gms. Pb]^ Gms. Pbl| 

t*. perxooGmt. Solid Phue. t". perxooGms. Solid Plan. 

Pyridine. 

—43 • 5 f -Pt- . . . PbVaCjao^ 

—37 0.166 

—20 0.175 " 

— 9 0.186 

o 0.200 " 

+ 3 0.215 

6tr.pt. 0.225 Pb]^.3CfHiN+Pb]^.9C;BiN 

15 0.208 Pb]^.aCaiiN 

100 gms. 95% formic acid dissolve 0.25 gm. PbIt at I9.8^ (Ajchan, 19x5.) 

100 cc. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve 2 gms. Pbli at room temp, with decom- 
position. (Welsh and Brodenon, 191 5*) 
Freezing-point data for miirtures of lead iodide and silver iodide are giveo 
by Matthes (191 1). 

LKAD MALATE Pb.C4H4Os.3HA 

Solubility in Water and Alcohol. 

(Parthdl and Habner, 1903.) 

100 gms. HiO dissolve 0.0288 gm. PbC4H40i.3HiO at 18"*, and 0.06504 gm. at 

35*. 
100 gms. 95%.alcohol dissolve 0.0048 gm. PbC4H^i.3HtO at iS'^-as^ 

Density of alcohol employed » 0.8092. 



35 


Pyridine. 
0.188 


PbI|.aGAN 


57 
77 


0.190 
0.228 


M 


92 
98 


0.290 
0.340 


M 
M 


105 
108 


0.370 
0.410 


M 
U 


112 


0.445 


M 



LKAD LAU&ATE 



360 



LEAD LAU&ATE, MTRISTATE, PALMITATE and STEARATE. 

SOLUBILITT OF EaCH IN SEVERAL SOLVENTS. 
G^acobson and Holmes, 1916.) 

(See Lithium Laniate, p. 375, for fonnulas and other details. See also p. 363.) 



Solvent. 



t". 



Gms. of Each Salt (Determined Separately) per 100 Gmi. 

Solvent. 



Water 



u 



Abs. Ethyl Al(X)hol 



II 



u 



u 



(( 



(t 



a 



Methyl Alcohol 



u 

u 



u 

« 



Ether 

Ethyl Acetate 



it 



ii 



i( 





Pb Laurate. 


Pb Myri»tAt4<(. 


PbPalmiUte. 


Pb Stearate. 


35 


0.009 


o.oos 


0.005 


0.005 


50 


0.007 


0.006 


0.007 


0.006 


25 


0.009 


0.004 








35 


0.032 


0.004 


O.OOI 


O.OOI 


50 


0.264 


0.052 


0.012 


0.004 


155 


0.061 


• 0.056 


0.051 


0.039 


25 


0.096 


0.078 


0.069 


0.051 


35 


O.II3 


0.082 


0.076 


0.062 


50 


0.280 


O.II9 


0.093 


0.083 


14- 5 


O.OIO 


0.013 


O.OIO 


0.007 


14 


0.017 


O.OIO 


0.009 


0.007 


35-5 


003s 


0.015 


0.009 


0.008 


50 


0.201 


0.077 


0.033 


0.020 


15 


O.OII 


O.OIO 


0.009 


0.008 



Benzene 



LEAD NITRATE Pb(NO,)s. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Mulder; Kremers, 1854; at 15% Michel and Kraft, 1854; at Z7^ Euler, 1904.) 



MM 


Grams Pb(NO,)s per i 


:oo Gms. 


Grams Pb(NQi)t per zoo Gnw. 

Ill _A 


V, 


Water. 


"1 
Solution. 

27-33^^ 


4 . *" 

Water. 


Solution. 





36.5^'> 


38. 8 W 


40 69.4 


75 


41.9 


10 


44.4 


48-3 


316 


50 78.7 


85 


45 


17 


SO 


54 


34.2 


60 88 


95 


47.8 


20 


52.3 


565 


35.2 


80 107.6 


"5 


527 


25 


56.4 


60.6 


36.9 


100 127 


138.8 


571 , 


30 


60.7 


66 


38.8 


17 52.76* 




34 54* 








• Euler. 










(i) Mulder. 


(2) Kremers, (3) Average at M and K. 







Density of saturated solution at 17'' » 1.405. (Euler.) 

100 gms. HsO dissolve 55.8 ems. Pb(NOs)s at 20®. (LeBlanc and Noyes, 1890.) 

100 gms. HjO sat. with Pb(NOi)j + KNOt at 20* dissolve 95.39 gms. Pb(NOt)i. 

+61.05 gms. KNOt. (LeBlanc and Noyes, 1890.) 

100 gms. HiO sat. with Pb(NOi)i + NaNOi at 20** dissolve 38.42 gms. Pb(NOt)i 
+84.59 gms. NaNOi. (Le Blanc and Noyes, 1890.) 

Solubility of Lead Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions of Copper Nitrate 

AT 20*. 

Fedotieff, zgiz-za.) 
. « c ^ o I Gms. per zoo Gms. HtO* 



Gms. per zoo Gms. HsO- 



Cu(NOj),. 


Pb(NO,)»: 


010 ***^ om. o< 





55-11 


1. 419 


7.7 


39-34 


1-354 


1504 


27.80 


1.322 


24.63 


19 05 


1. 321 


33-25 


14.70 


1-343 



Cu(N(V)|. 

37-96 
60.32 

83.11 
100.29 

127.70* 



PbCNO,),, 

13-08 

8.19 

5-37 

3-53^ 

2.33* 



* Solid phase in contact with this solution - Pb(NQ^x + Cu(N()^|.6H^. 



dn of Sat. Sol. 

1.360 

1. 451 
1.546 
1.622 
1.700 



36i 



LEAD NITEATE 



Solubilitt'of Lbad Nitrate in Concentrated Aqueous Solutions of Sodium 
Nitrate and Vice Versa, Determined by Synthetic Method. 

(Isaac, 1908.) 

(The several mixtures were enclosed in sealed tubes and lieated until only- 
one or two very small crystals remained undissolved. The temperature was 
then determined at which the edges of these crystals just showed a change from 
sharp to round or vice versa.) 

Results for Sodium Nitrate as 
Solid Phase. 



Results for Lead Nitrate as 




Solid Phase. 


f of 


Cms. per 100 Cms. Sat. Sol. 


Saturation. 


' NaNOb. PbCNQ,),. 


32 


34.42 19.69 


35S 


34.15 20.33 


39. S 


33-71 21.3s 


44 


33 35 22.19 


49.x 


32.94 23.15 


55 


32.60 23.93 


58 


32.47 24.24 


62 


32.33 24.57 


65 


32.19 24.89 



f of 



Gms. per loo Gma. Sat. SoL 



Saturation. 


NaNOk. 


Pb(NQ,),: 


21 


40.97 


13.62 


26. s 


42.04 


13-38 


31 


43.18 


12.88 


38.8 


44.63 


12.78 


4X 


45." 


12.94 


44.25 


46.03 


X2.45 


51 


47.28 


12.50 


58 


49.03 


ZI.76 


64 


49.92 


IX. 56 



Solubility of Mixed Crystals of Lead Nitratb and_Strontium Nitrate 

in Water at 25*. 

(Fock. 1897.) 



Mol. percex 


It in Solution. 


Gms. per 100 cc. Solution. 


Sp. Gr. of 
Solutions. 


Mol. per oen( 


. in Solid Phase 


Pb(N0i)i. 


Sr(NQi)s: 


Pb(NQ,),. 


Sr(N0,),. 


Pb(NOj),. 


SrCNQ,),. 


100 





46.31 





1.4472 


100 





87.41 


12.39 


50.47 


4.56 


1.4336 


99.05 


0.95 


78.68 


21.32 


53.92 


8.14 


1.4288 


98.11 


1.89 


56.39 


43.61 


45.34 


17.81 


1.4263 


97.02 


2.98 


60.29 


39. 71 


44.48 


X8.74 


X.4245 


96.06 


3-94 


33.70 


36.30 


25.23 


35.03 


1.4468 


83.84 


16.16 


24.58 


75.42 


19.13 


37.54 


1.4867 


32.88 


67.1a 





100 





71.04 


I.5141 





xoo 



Solubility of Lead Nitrate in Ethyl and Methyl Alcohol. 



Solvent. 



Gms. Pb(NQi)i per 100 Gms. Solvent at: 



/ " \ 

Aq. CsHftOH (Sp. Gr. 0.9282) 4 . 96 5.82 8.77 12.8 

Abs. CsHftOH 0.04 (20. 5^) ... 

Abs. CHiOH 1.37 



so- 

14.9 (G) 
... (de B) 

• • • • • ■ 

(Gerardin, 1865; de Bnqm, 1892.) 
100 CC. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve 52 gms. lead nitrate at room temper- 
ature with formation of a yellow precipitate. (Wekh and Brodenon, 19x5.) 



Solubility of Lead Nitrate in Pyridine. 

(Walton and Judd, 191 1.) 



GnM. PbCNOOi 






Gms. Pb(N0a)i 


t". per xoo Gms. 


Solid Phase. 


t". 


per xoo Gms 


SoKd Phase. 


Pyridine. 






Pjrridme. 




-19.4 2.93 


Pb(NQi)s4CiH|N 


45 


22.03 


Pb(N<X)s.4CiH|N 


-14.S 2.14 


(( 


49-97 


29.37 


(1 


— 10 1.90 


(f 


51 tr.pt 


• • • 


" +Pb(NQi),.3CiH,N 


3.54 


M 


59.5a 


36.70 


Pb(N0i),.3r4H,N 


5.4 3-93 


M 


70 


47-29 


M 


8.7 5.39 


M 


80 


6Z.60 


M 


14.72 6.13 


M 


89.93 


90.21 


M 


19.97 6.78 


M 


94 94 


128.06 


« 


24.75 8.56 


M 


96 tr. pt. 


• • • 


** +3Pb(NQi),.aC4H,N 


30.03 10.98 


M 


99 89 


143.36 


3Pb(N0b)s.3CAN 


34.97 13. » 


M 


104.90 


152 


M 


40.Q3 16 94 


M 


109.90 


163.80 


M 



LKAD MITSATK 363 

Solubility of Lead Nitratb-Nitrite, Pb(N0t)t.Pb(N0t)i.2Pb(0H)i.2Hi0, 
IN Aqueous Solutions of Acetic Acid at I3.3^ 

(Chiksotti, 1908.) 



Nonnaliftyof 
Acetic Acid 


Grns. PbO per 100 
cc. Sat. Sol. 


Normality of 
Acetic Add. 


Gms. PbO per 100 cc. 
Sat.SoL 





0.601 


0.25 


S-4SO 


0.05 


I 323 


0.50 


9.690 


O.IO 


2.18s 


0.7s 


1.5. 874 



LKAD OXALATE PbC,0«. 
One liter of water dissolves 0.00x5 §rni. PbC,04 at 18® (conductivity 

method) . (BOttser — Z. phyak. Chem. 46^ 6oa, '03; Kobliaiiacli — Ihid. 5(H 356. 'o4-'o5.) 

LIAD 0ZID18. Solubility in Water. 

(BGtt0er; Ruer — Z. anorg. Chem. 50^ 373, '06.) 
No. DeKiiplion of Oxide. ^^^J pc?Litir. 

1. Yellow Oxide, by boiling Pb hydroxide with 10% NaOH i . 03 X lo""* o. 023 

2. Red Oxide, by Doiliag Pb hydroxide with cone. NaOH 0.56X10"^ 0.012 

3. Yellow Oxide, by heating No. i to 630® 1.05X10"* 0.023 

4. Yellow Oxide, by heating No. 2 to 740® i.ooXio""* 0.022 

5. Yellow Oxide, by heating com. yellow brown oxide to 620** i . 09 X 10"* o. 024 

6. Yellow Brown Oxide commercially pure i.ioXio*"* 0.024 

7. Yellow Brown Oxide, by long rubbiag of No. 5. 1.12X10""* 0.025 

Bottger gives for three samples of lead oxide, 0.0x7, 0.021, and 0.013 
gm. per liter respectively. 

One liter H/) dissolves 0.068 em. PbO at I8^ solid phase PbO and 0.1005 gm. 
PbO at l8^ solid phase PbsOs(OH)i. (PleiBBiier. 1907.) 

Results for the solubility of hydrated lead oxide in water and dilute HtSOi 
solutions are given by Sehnal (1909). The results are considerably higher than 
the above, viz. 0.1385 gm. Pb per 1000 cc. HfO at 20''; with increase of H1SO4 
the solubility decreases rapidly. 

100 cc. anhydrous hydrazine dissolve i gm. lead oxide (red) at room temp. 

(Weuh and Broderson, 191$.) 

Freezing-point lowering data for mixtures of PbO + PbS04 are given by 
Schenck and Rassbach, 1908. Data for mixtures of PbO + SiOs are given by 
Weiller, 191 1, and by Cooper, Shaw and Loomis, 1909. 

LKAD PerOXIDE PbOs. 

The two forms of lead superoxide, (a) amorphous and (5) crystalline, differ 
in their solubilities in sulpnuric acid. One liter of very concentrated HiSO 
dissolves about o.oio mol. PbOi (b) at 22^. One liter of cone. HtSOi contain- 
ing 1720 gms. per liter, dissolves 0.099^ mol. PbOi (a) at 22^ The solid phase 
is slowly converted to PbCSOOs. One Titer of H1SO4 containing 1097 gms. H1SO4 
per liter dissolves 0.004 "lol. PbOi at 22®. The solid phase is converted more 
quickly to Pb(S04)s. In more dilute HtS04 solutions no solubility can be de- 
tected. (Doksakk and FinckE, 1906.) 

LKAD PALMITATE, LKAD STKARATK. See also p. 360. 

100 cc. absolute ether dissolve 0.0138 gm. palmitate and 0.0148 gm. stearate. ' 

(lidoff, 1893^) 

LIAD TetiaPHENYL Pb(C«H«)«. 
Freezing-point daU for Pb(C«Hi)4 + Si(C«Hi)4 are given by Pascal (1912)- 

LKAD PHOSPHATE (Ortho) Pb.(P04)s. 
One liter water dissolves 0.000135 gm. lead phosphate at 20* by conductivity 

method. (B6tt«erp 1903.) 

One liter of 4.97 per cent aqueous acetic add solution dissolves 1.27 gms. 
Pb,(P04)i. (Beftimnd, z8680 



363 LEAD SUCCINATI 

LEAD SUCCINATE PbC«H/)4. 

Solubility in Water and in Alcohol. 

(Paithea and Habnefp 1903.) 
100 gvoB. H]0 dissolve 0.0253 gm. PbC4H404 at 18^, and 0.0285 8^- ^t 25^ 
100 gms. 95% alcohol dissolve 0.00275 gm. PbCiHiOi at 18'', and 0.003 gm. 
at25^ 
Density of alcohol used » 0.8092. 

Solubility of Lead SucaNATs in Water. 

(Cantoni and DioCalevi, 1905.) 
t*. xo*. ax*. 3a*. 39*. 50*. 

Gms. PbC4H404 per loo cc. 
sat. sol. 0.015 0.019 0.024 0.027 0.029 

LEAD SULFATE PbSOi. 

Solubility in Water. 

(Average curve from gravimetric results of Dibbits (1874), Beck and Steg* 
mflller (1910) and Pleissner (1907) and conductivity results of B6ttger (1903) 
and Kohlrausch (1904-05). 



f. 


Gms. PbS04 per LUer. 





0.028 


s 


0;03I 


10 


0035 


IS 


0.038 


18 


0.040 



f. 


Gms. PbS04 per Later. 


20 


0.041 


25 


0.04S 


30 


0.049 


35 


0.052 


40 


0.056 



Results considerably higher than the above are reported bv Sehna! (1909). 
This author finds 0.082 gm. PbSOi per liter at 18^ and claims that the presence 
of HtS04 in the PbSOi reduces the solubility very greatly. His results for the 
solubility in presence of small amounts of HfS04 are: 

Gms. HtS04 per 1000 cc. solu- 
tion o 0.0098 0.0196 0.0980 0.4900 0.9800 

Gms. dissolved PbS04 per 1000 
cc solution at 20^ 0.082 0.051 0.025 0.013 0.006 o 

Sehnal also gives results showing that the solubility in water and dilute HfSOi 
solutions is exactly the same at 100* as at 20^. 
Data for the solubility of PbS04 precipitates are given by deKoniack, 1907. 

S(X.ubility of Lead Sulfate in Aqueous Solutions of Ammonium Acetate 

AND op Sodium Acetate. 

(Npyes and WUtoomb, 1905; Dumungton and Long, 1899; Dibbits, 1874.) 
In Ammonium Acetate. In Sodium Acetate. 

At 25* (N. and W.). At 100' (D . and L.). (D.). 

Uminob per Liter. Obh. per Littr. G.NH«C»HA G.PbSO« Gaa. perioo Gna. H^. 

KH4C.HA.